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Full text of "North Carolina manual [serial]"



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THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




NORTH CM 



THK COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIAN A 




UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00016892089 



MOLINA 



^ING-I^ 



FORD 







NORTH CAROLINA 

MANUAL 

1987-1988 




Issued by 

THAD EURE 

Secretary of State 



Edited by 

John L. Cheney, Jr. 

Director, Publications Division 
Raleigh 



STATEMENT OF PUBLICATION COST 

lour thousand (4,000) copies of the 1987-88 North Carolina Manual were printed at a cost to 
the State of $62,280.00 (estimated), or $15.57 per volume. 









TO THE 

1987 MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 

TO THE 
STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND TOWN OFFICIALS 

AND TO THE 

PEOPLE OF THE OLD NORTH STATE 

AT HOME AND ABROAD 

THIS MANUAL IS RESPECTFULLY 
DEDICATED 




Secretary of State 



^9 

1*4 



HI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Dedication by Thad Eure, Secretary of State jjj 

PARTI 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 

Chapter One, North Carolina and the Ratification of the United States Constitution 3 

North Carolina Delegates to the Federal Convention 10 

Delegates to the State Conventions to Ratify the United States Constitution 15 

Chapter Two, Our State 

A Brief History of the State 19 

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina 25 

The North Carolina State Capitol 33 

Description of the Capitol, by Architect David Patton 37 

"The Capitol," by Edwin Gill 38 

The Legislative Building 41 

The Executive Residences of North Carolina 43 

The State Flag 51 

The Mecklenburg Declaration of 20th May, 1775 55 

The Halifax Resolution 56 

The Declaration of Independence 57 

The American Flag, Its Origin 61 

The Proper Display 63 

The Pledge of Allegiance 67 

The State Bird, Flower, and Insect 69 

The State Tree and Mammal 71 

Name and Nicknames of the State 71 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 73 

The State Motto 73 

The State Colors 73 

The State Precious Stone 74 

The State Reptile 75 

The State Rock 76 

The State Beverage 7' 

The State Historical Boat 78 

The State Song 79 

The State Toast 80 

Public Holidays 81 

PART II 

CENSUS 

Population of the State of North Carolina, 20th Census: 1980 ss 

State Population Statistics - Census Statistices and Projections 86 

County Population Statistics N 

Population of Incorporated Places of 10,000 or More N ° 

Population of Incorporated Places of 2,500-9,999 g " 



Population of Incorporated Places of 1,000-2.499 92 

Population ol Incorporated Places o! 1 ess than 1.000 95 



PART III 
CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Chapter One, A Brief History of the Constitutions 

of North Carolina, bj John L. Sanders 105 

Chapter Two, The Con iitution of North Carolina 

Preamble 1 IS 

Article 1. Declaration of Rights I IS 

Article II. Legislature 121 

Article III. Executive 124 

Article IV. Judicial 128 

Article V, Finance 132 

Article VI. Suffrage and Eligibility to Office 138 

Article VII. Local Government I 39 

Article VIII. Corporations 140 

Article IX, Education 140 

Article X. Homesteads and Exemptions 142 

Article XI, Punishments, Corrections, and Charities 143 

Article XII, Military Forces 143 

Article XIII. Conventions, Constitutional Amendments and Revision 144 

Article XIV, Miscellaneous 144 

Chapter Three, Voting Results on Constitutional Issues since 1970 

Introduction 146 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 3. 1970 147 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 14S 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 7. 1972 155 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 156 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 5. 1974 161 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 162 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the Primary Elections held March 23. 1976 164 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 165 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 8, 1977 167 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 169 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 4, 1980 174 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 175 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the Primary Elections held June 29, 19S2 176 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 1 77 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 2, 1982 IS2 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 183 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the Primary Elections held May 8, 1984 185 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 186 

Constitutional Issues Votes on in the General Elections held November 6, 1984 185 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 187 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the Primary Elections Held May 6, 1986 188 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 189 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 4, 1986 188 



VI 



Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitional Amendments 190 

Constitutional Propositions Voted on by the People Since 1868 193 

Chapter Four, The Constitution of the United States 

Preamble 195 

Article I (Legislative) 195 

Article II (Executive) 199 

Article III (Judicial) 201 

Article IV (Rights of Citizens and States) 202 

Article V (Amending the Constitution) 203 

Article VI (Miscellaneous) 203 

Article VII (Ratification of the Constitutions) ?.' 203 

Amendments to the Constitution 205 

The Ten Original Amendments (The Bill of Rights) 205 

Subsequent Amendments 206 



PART IV 
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Chapter One, The Executive Branch 

President of the United States (biographical sketch) 217 

Presidents of the United States 219 

Presidental Cabinet and Major Appointments 221 

Secretary, United States Department of Transportation (biographical sketch) 223 

Chapter Two, The United States Congress 

The Capitol at Washington 225 

The Senate: 

Officers and Standing Committees 227 

Senators from North Carolina (biographical sketches) 229 

The House of Representatives: 

Officers and Standing Committees 233 

Representatives from North Carolina (biographical sketches) 235 

Chapter Three, The United States Judiciary 

The United States Supreme Court 257 

The United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals 257 

The United States District Courts - North Carolina 257 

United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals (biographical sketches) 259 

United States District Court (biographical sketches) 261 



PART V 
NORTH CAROLINA STATE GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, The Legislative Branch 

Historical Introduction 27. 

North Carolina Senate: 

Officers 

Senators 



vn 



Speakers of the Senate ( Historical List) 281 

Presidents I'm I empore of the Senate ( Historical List) 282 

President. Pro I empore of the Senate 285 

Senate Majority Leader 287 

Senate Minority 1 eader 289 

Senators (biographical sketches) 290 

Principal Clerk of the Senate 337 

Occupations of Senators 338 

Senate Committee Assignments 339 

Rules of the Senate 345 

How An Idea Becomes A Law 364 

North Carolina House of Representatives: 

Officers 365 

Representatives 365 

Speakers of the House of Representatives (Historical List) 369 

Speaker of the House of Representatives 375 

Speaker Pro Tempore of the House of Respresentatives 377 

Minority Leader 379 

Representatives - Biographical Sketches 380 

Principal Clerk of the House of Representatives 500 

Occupations 501 

Committee Assignments 503 

Rules of the House of Representatives 520 

Legislative Services Officer 539 

Chapter Two, The Executive Branch 

Introduction 541 

Council of State 544 

Office of the Governor: 

Governor 547 

Organizational Chart 548 

The Office of the Governor 549 

Boards and Commissions within the Office of the Governor 554 

Governors of North Carolina (Historical fist) 557 

Office of the Lieutenant Governor: 

Lieutenant Governor 567 

Organizational Chart 568 

The Office of the Lieutenant Governor 569 

Boards within the Office of the Lieutenant Governor 571 

Lieutenant Governors of North Carolina (Historical List) 572 

Department of the Secretary of State: 

Secretary of State 575 

Organizational Chart 576 

The Department of the Secretary of State 577 

Secretaries of North Carolina (Historical List) 581 

Department of the State Auditor: 

State Auditor 585 

Organizational Chart 586 

The Department of the State Auditor 587 

Boards within the Department of the State Auditor 589 

Auditors of Public Accounts & State Auditors (Historical List) 590 

Department of the State Treasurer: 

State Treasurer 593 

viii 



Organizational Chart 594 

The Department of the State Treasurer 595 

Boards within the Department of the State Treasurer 600 

Treasurers of North Carolina (Historical List) 602 

Department of Public Education: 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 607 

Organizational Chart 608 

The Department of Public Education 609 

Boards within the Department of Public Education 613 

Superintendents of Common Schools and Public Instruction (Historical List) 617 

Department of Justice: 

Attorney General 619 

Organizational Chart 620 

The Department of Justice 621 

Boards within the Department of Justice 627 

Attorney General of North Carolina (Historical List) 628 

Department of Agriculture: 

Commissioner of Agriculture 633 

Organizational Chart 634 

The Department of Agriculture 635 

Boards within the Department of Agriculture 647 

Commissioners of Agriculture (Historical List) 654 

Department of Labor: 

Commissioner of Labor 657 

The Department of Labor 659 

Organizational Chart 660 

Boards within the Department of Labor 664 

Commissioners of Labor (Historical List) 665 

Department of Insurance: 

Commissioner of Insurance 667 

Organizational Chart 668 

The Department of Insurance 669 

Boards within the Department of Insurance 672 

Commissioners of Insurance (Historical List) 674 

Department of Administration: 

Secretary of Administration 677 

Organizational Chart 678 

The Department of Administration 679 

Boards within the Department of Administration 683 

Secretaries, Department of Administration (Historical List) 692 

Department of Commerce: 

Secretary of Commerce °95 

Organizational Chart 696 

The Department of Commerce 69 

Boards within the Department of Commerce 701 

Secretaries, Department of Commerce (Historical List) 71 ° 

Department of Correction: 

7 I ^ 
Secretary of Correction ' '- 

Organizational Chart 

The Department of Corrections ' 

Boards within the Department of Corrections '• 

Secretaries, Department of Correction (Historical List) 7 ' 



IX 



Department of Crime Control and Public Safety: 

Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety 725 

Organizational Chart 726 

1 he Department ol Crime Com ml and Public Saftey 727 

Adjutant General ( Historical I ist) 736 

Boards within the Department ol Crime Control 

and Public Safety 737 

Secretaries, Department ol Crime Control 

and Public Safety (Historical List) 740 

Department of Cultural Resources: 

Secretary ol Cultural Resources 743 

Organizational Chart 744 

The Department of Cultural Resources 745 

Boards within the Department ol Cultural Resources 752 

Secretaries. Department of Cultural Resources (Historical List) 762 

Department of Human Resources: 

Secretary of Human Resources 765 

Organizational Chart 766 

I he Department of Human Resources 767 

Boards within the Department of Human Resources 775 

Secretaries, Department of Human Resources (Historical List) 787 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development: 

Secretary of Natural Resources and Community Development 789 

Organizational Chart 790 

The Department of Natural Resources 

and Community Development 791 

Boards within the Department of Natural Resources 

and Community Development 798 

Secretaries, Department of NRCD (Historical List) 803 

Department of Revenue: 

Secretary of Revenue 805 

Organizational Chart 806 

The Department of Revenue 807 

Secretaries, Department of Revenue ( Historical List) 815 

Department of Transportation: 

Secretary of Transportation 817 

Organizational Chart 818 

The Department of Transportation 819 

Boards within the Department of Transportation 825 

Secretaries, Department of Transportation (Historical List) 827 

Office of the State Controller, State of North Carolina 829 

Organizational Chart 830 

The Office of the State Controller 831 

State Board of Elections 833 

Chapter Three, The Judicial Branch 

Introduction 837 

The Appellate Court Division 843 

North Carolina Supreme Court (biographical sketches) 845 

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of North Carolina (historical list) 858 

North Carolina Court of Appeals (biographical sketches) 861 

Director, Administrative Office of the Courts 885 

Judges of the Superior Court 886 



District Court Judges 888 

District Attorneys of North Carolina 891 

Public Defenders 891 

Office of Administrative Hearings: 

Chief Administrative Law Judge 893 

Organization Chart 894 

The Office of Administative Hearings 895 

Chapter Four, Miscellaneous Boards and Commissions 

Independent Boards 901 

Licensing Boards 912 



PART VI 
HIGHER EDUCATION IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Chapter One, The University of North Carolina System 

Organizational Chart 926 

Historical Development 927 

, Members of the Board of Governors 931 

General Administration 932 

Chancellors of the Constituent Institutions 932 

President, University of North Carolina System 935 

Appalachian State University 937 

East Carolina University 943 

Elizabeth City State University 949 

Fayetteville State University 955 

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University 961 

North Carolina Central University 967 

North Carolina School of the Arts 975 

North Carolina State University 981 

Pembroke State University 989 

University of North Carolina-Asheville 995 

University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 1001 

University of North Carolina-Charlotte '009 

University of North Carolina-Greensboro '015 

University of North Carolina-Wilmington '021 

Western Carolina University '027 

Winston-Salem State University '033 

Chapter Two, Private Higher Education 

Historical Development '"•" 

Presidents of the Colleges and Universities '041 

Chapter Three, The North Carolina Community College System 

Organizational Chart 

The Community College System " 

The State Board of Community Colleges and Technical Institutions I |l4( ' 

Membership I()4 

The Department of Community Colleges '' 

Presidents of the Community Colleges and Technical Institutes I 1 

Past Presidents, North Carolina Community College System (Historical List) 

xi 



President, North Carolina Community College System 1051 

Anson I echnical College 1052 

Asheville-Buncombe I echnical < ollege 1054 

Beau I on Count) ( o mm unity Co I lege 1056 

Bladen lechmeal College 1058 

Blue Ridge leehmeal College 1060 

Brunswick I echnical College 1062 

Caldwell Community College 1064 

( ape 1 ear I echnical College 1066 

Carteret Technical College I06X 

Catawba Valley I echnical College 1070 

Central Carolina Technical College 1072 

Central Piedmont Community College 1074 

Cleveland Technical College 1076 

Coastal Carolina Community College 1078 

College ot the Albemarle 1080 

Craven Community College 1082 

Davidson County Community College 1084 

Durham Technical Institute 1086 

Fdgecombe Technical College 1088 

Fayetteville Technical Institute 1090 

Forsyth Technical College 1092 

Gaston College 1094 

Guilford Technical College 1096 

Halifax Community College 1098 

Haywood Technical College I 100 

Isothermal Community College I 102 

James Sprunt Technical College 1 104 

Johnston Technical College 1 106 

Lenoir Community College 1 108 

Martin Community College I I 10 

Mayland Technical College I I 12 

McDowell Technical College 1 1 14 

Mitchell Community College 1116 

Montgomery Technical college 1118 

Nash Technical College 1 120 

Pamlico Technical College 1 122 

Piedmont Technical College 1 124 

Pitt Community College 1 126 

Randolph Technical College 1 128 

Richmond Technical College 1 130 

Roanoke-Chowan Technical College 1 132 

Robeson Technical College 1 134 

Rockingham Community College 1 136 

Rowan Technical College 1 138 

Sampson Technical College 1 140 

Sandhills Community College 1 142 

Southeastern Community College I 144 

Southwestern Community College 1 147 

Stanly Technical College I 149 

Surry Community College 1151 

Technical College of Alamance I 153 

Tri-County Community College 1 155 



Vance-Granville Community College 1 1 57 

Wake Technical College 1 159 

Wayne Community College 1 162 

Western Piedmont Community College 1 164 

Wilkes Community College 1 166 

Wilson County Technical Institute 1 168 



PART VII 
POLITICAL PARTIES 

Chapter One, The Democratic Party 

Plan of Organization 1 173 

Democratic Party Executive Council 1 199 

Democratic Party County Chairmen 1 199 

Chapter Two, The Republican Party 

Plan of Organization 1203 

State Executive Committee 1223 

Republican Party County Chairmen 1223 



PART VIII 
ELECTION RETURNS AND VOTER REGISTRATION STATISTICS 

Chapter One, Voter Registration Statistics 

Introduction '22 

Voter Registration for Primary Elections, May 6, 1986 1228 

Voter Registration Statistics for General Election, November 4, 1986 1230 

Voter Registration Statistics for the Primary Elections, May 8, 1984 1 232 

Voter Registration Statistics for the General Elections, November 6, 1984 1 234 

Voter Registration Statistics for the Primary Elections, June 29, 1982 1 236 

Voter Registration Statistics for the General Elections, November 2, 1982 1238 

Chapter Two, North Carolina Election Districts 

Congressional Districts 

Apportionment of Senators by Districts I24 

Apportionment of Members of the House of Representatives by Districts 1 245 

Judicial and Prosecutorial Districts '- 47 

Chapter Three, President of the United States 

I "M9 
Introduction * 

The Democratic Presidential Preference Primary, May 8, 1984 ' 

The Democratic Presidential Preference Primary, May 6, 1980 ' 

The Republican Presidential Preference Primary, May 6, 1980 ' 

Votes Cast for President, General Election, November 6, 1984 ' 

Votes Cast for President, General Election, November 4, 1980 ' 

Votes Cast for President, General Election, November 2, 1976 I2 < 

Chapter Four, The United States Congress 

Introduction 

Votes Cast for United States Senator, Democratic Primary, May 6, 1986 1-64 

xiii 



Votes Cast for United Slates Senator, Republican Primary. May 6, 19X6 1266 

Votes Cast tor United States Senator. Primary [-lection. May 8, 1984 1268 

Votes Cast for United States Senator, General Election, November 4, 1986 1270 

Votes Cast for United States Senator. General Election, November 6, 1984 1272 

Votes Cast for United States Senator. General Election, November 4, 1980 1274 

Votes Cast for United States Senator. General Election, November 7, 1978 1276 

Tabulation of Votes for United States Senator in Primary Elections 1277 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, Primary Flection. May 6, 1986 1280 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, Primary Election, May 8, 1984 1283 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, General Election, November 4, 1986 1286 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, General Election, November 6, 1984 1290 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, General Election, November 2, 1982 1294 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress. Cieneral Elections, 1978-1980 1298 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, General Elections, 1972-1976 1302 

Chapter Five, State Officers 

Introduction 1307 

Votes Cast for Governor, Democratic Primary Elections, May 8, 1984 1308 

Votes Cast for Governor, Republican Primary Elections, May 8, 1984 1310 

Votes Cast for Governor, Second Democratic Primary Election, June 5. 1984 1311 

Votes Cast for Governor, General Election, November 6, 1984 1312 

Votes Cast for Governor, Primary Election, May 6, 1980 1314 

Votes Cast for Governor, General Elections Since 1960 1316 

Votes Cast for Uieutenant Governor, Primary Election, May 8, 1984 1320 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, 

Republican 2nd Primary, June 5, 1984 1322 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, Primary Election, May 6. 1980 1323 

Votes Cast for State Officers, Democratic Primary Election. May 8, 1984 1324 

Votes Cast for Commissioner of Labor, 2nd Democratic Primary, June 5, 1984 1326 

Votes Cast for State Officers, General Election. November 6, 1984 1327 

Votes Cast for Fieutenant Governor, General elections, 1976 & 1980 1335 

Tabulation of Votes for State Officers, Primary Elections, since 1964 1337 

Tabulation of Votes for State Officers, General Elections, since 1964 1345 



PART IX 
NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, A Brief History of County Government in North Carolina 1357 

Chapter Two, Brief Histories of the Counties of North Carolina 

Alamance 1369 

Alexander 1369 

Alleghany 1370 

Anson 1370 

Ashe 1370 

Avery 1371 

Beaufort 1371 

Bertie 1371 

Bladen 1371 

Brunswick 1372 

Buncombe 1372 

xiv 



Burke 1372 

Cabarrus 1373 

Caldwell | 373 

Camden 1373 

Carteret 1373 

Caswell 1374 

Catawba 1374 

Chatham 1374 

Cherokee 1374 

Chowan 1 374 

Cleveland 1376 

Columbus 1376 

Craven 1376 

Cumberland 1 377 

Currituck J 377 

Clay 1377 

Dare 1377 

Davidson 1378 

Davie 1378 

Duplin 1378 

Durham 1378 

Edgecombe 1379 

Forsyth 1379 

Franklin 1379 

Gaston 1380 

Gates 1380 

Graham 1380 

Granville 1381 

Greene 1381 

Guilford 1381 

Halifax 1382 

Harnett 1382 

Haywood 1382 

Henderson 1383 

Hertford 1383 

Hoke 1383 

Hyde 1384 

Iredell 1384 

Jackson 1384 

Johnston 1385 

Jones 1385 

Lee 1385 

Lenoir ' " s - s 

Lincoln ' 586 

Macon 1386 

Madison ' " M ' 

Martin ' *87 

McDowell '387 

Mecklenburg ' >8 

Mitchell ' Vss 

Montgomery ' »°9 

Moore ' ; "" 

Nash 1390 

xv 



New Hanover 1390 

Northampton 1391 

Onslow 1391 

Orange 1391 

Pamlico 1392 

Pasquotank 1392 

Pender 1392 

Perquimans 1393 

Person 1393 

Pitt 1393 

Polk 1394 

Randolph 1394 

Richmond 1394 

Roheson 1395 

Rockingham 1395 

Rowan 1395 

Rutherford 1396 

Sampson 1396 

Scotland 1397 

Stanly 1397 

Stokes 1397 

Surry 1398 

Swain 1398 

Transylvania 1399 

Tyrrell 1399 

Union 1399 

Vance 1400 

Wake 1400 

Warren 1400 

Washington 1400 

Watauga 1401 

Wayne 1401 

Wilkes 1402 

Wilson 1402 

Yadkin 1403 

Yancev 1403 



TABLE OF MAPS 

Ogliby Map. 1672 20 

Mouzon Map, 1775 22 

North Carolina Congressional Districts, 1982- 1240 

North Carolina State Senate Districts, 1982- 1242 

North Carolina State House of Representatives, 1982- 1244 

North Carolina Counties 1256 



XVI 



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 

Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 25 

Seal of the Government of Albemale, 1665-1730 26 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1730-1767 26 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 27 

Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 28 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1794-1836 29 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 30 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1893-1971 31 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1971-1983 32 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1983- 32 

The Capitol Building 34 

The Legislative Building 40 

Tryon Palace 44 

The Governor's Executive Mansion 46 

The State Flag 52 

The American Flag 60 

The State Bird, Flower and Insect 68 

The State Tree and Mammal 70 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 72 

The State Precious Stone 74 

The State Reptile 75 

The State Beverage 7 

The State Historical Boat 78 

The State Rock 76 

The White House, Washington, D.C 218 

The United States Capitol Building 224 

The United States Supreme Court Building 256 



xvn 



PARTI 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 



Historical Miscellanea 



Chapter One 

NORTH CAROLINA AND THE RATIFICATION 
OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 

On April 24, 1778, the North Carolina General Assembly ratified the Articles of 
Confederation, the first "constitution" of the new United States. It proved weak and 
ineffective in holding the nation together. A decade later North Carolina was caught 
up in a bitterly divisive contest over a second federal constitution. While the Articles of 
Confederation had been approved in North Carolina with little debate, the Constitu- 
tion engendered a two-year war of words before its ratification at a convention in 
Fayetteville on November 21, 1789. 

In 1777, debate over the nature of the Articles of Confederation in the Continental 
Congress had been lackluster until the arrival of Thomas Burke, a delegate from North 
Carolina. Burke was outraged at what he found contained in the draft of the Articles— 
too much authority to a national government and too little reserved to the states. 

He wrote back to Governor Richard Caswell "[t]hat the more experience I acquire, 
the stronger is my conviction that unlimited power cannot be safely trusted to any 
man, or set of men, on earth." He feared seeing power coalesce around a small number 
of men removed from the close supervision of their electorate. Burke, then, argued 
convincingly for a "constitution" that secured the states' powers against national 
encroachment and that created among the states "a firm league of friendship." 

Not quite a decade later, it was apparent to many that the combination of the states 
in the Continental Congress was not "firm" and was decidedly lacking in "friendship." 
During the summer of 1787, delegates from twelve states including five gentlemen from 
North Carolina assembled in Philadelphia to write a new constitution for the nation. 

George Washington wrote a friend that it was his "wish . . . that the convention may 
adopt no temporizing expedients, but probe the defects of the constitution to the bot- 
tom, and provide a radical cure, whether they are agreed to or not." Others among the 
leaders in the states and among those attending the Philadelphia convention concured 
with Washington. All were concerned that the nation's republican experiment would 
collapse before having a chance to succeed. William Richardson Davie of North Carol- 
ina noted the "repeated and decisive proofs of the total inefficiency of our general 
government." 

Among those assembled in Philadelphia, most agreed with General Washington on 
the nation's need for a "radical cure." From May 25 to September 17, 1787, delegates 
debated the requirements of a "more perfect union," always fearful that the nation was 
teetering on the brink of anarchy and that their efforts would be too little, too late. 

The document that emerged from the Philadelphia convention provided for more 
latitude for national intervention into the affairs of the individual, set limits on whal 
states might do, and expanded the ability of the general government to set and act 
upon a national agenda for the economy. 



Rob Sikorski with the North Carolina Bicentennial Commission for the United States Constitu- 
tion prepared the basic text for this article. 



Nor i ii Carolina M \\i \i 



The history behind the choices made during those tour months in Philadelphia 
reflect the quick pace of development in the new nation in its first decade from the 
Declaration ot Independence on July 4, 1776. to the summer of 1787. It also presented 
the United States with the first opportunity in history lor a people to take the future in 
their own hands and mold it to their own ideas of liberty and freedom. 

NORTH CAROLINA — CREATING A FIRST GOVERNMENT 

for the people o\ North Carolina, the experiment in republican government began 
with the creation of their state constitution in 1776. As all people then realized, it was 
one thing to declare oneself independent and quite another to determine how one 
would employ that independence. 

In November 1776, the citizens of Mecklenburg County issued a series of instruc- 
tions to their delegates to the North Carolina Provincial Congress that would meet in 
Halifax to draft the state's first constitution. They required that their representatives 
endeavor "to establish a free government under the authority of the people of the State 
of North Carolina and that the government be a simple democracy or as near it as 
possible" and that the document contain a bill of rights, a separation of powers provi- 
sion, and a supremacy clause. Most important, the constitution should recognize that 
"[t]he principal supreme power is possessed by the people at large." 

Although the North Carolina constitution as ratified on December 17-18, 1776 did 
not fully accord with the instructions to the Mecklenburg delegation, it did recognize 
that political sovereignty rested ultimately in the people and was prefaced with a decla- 
ration of rights, securing to citizens freedom of the press, assembly and religion among 
other rights. 

The North Carolina constitution contrasted sharply with the Articles of Confedera- 
tion. The latter had no bill of rights, rested sovereignty in the states, and failed to 
establish the apparatus of a government. It lacked both an executive and a judiciary 
(except in the limited area of admiralty law). 

While the state government was often times ineffective and low to respond to the 
needs of the Revolution, with the coming of peace it did provide an adequate frame- 
work for governance. Some might complain — as many did — that the General Assem- 
bly was too quick to issue paper money or place a moratorium on suits for debt, it was 
able, though, to provide leadership and direction for reconstructing the state's econ- 
omy following the end of the Revolution. 

The Continental Congress, in contrast, was hamstrung. It was unable to collect 
funds other than through loans or voluntary payment of requisitions from the states; 
moreover, it was unable to effectively enforce the peace or to make the states abide by 
the terms of the peace treaty with Great Britain. 

CRISIS OF NATIONAL LEADERSHIP-1784-1787 

While the Continental Congress brought the war to a successful end, it could not 
manage the peace. Contrary to the Treaty of Paris signed between the United States 
and Great Britain in 1783, states still refused to honor debts outstanding to English 
merchants and to return land or pay compensation to loyalists whose properties were 
confiscated during the Revolution. 

These failures led to the British maintaining troops on American territory and pre- 
venting U.S. ships from carrying British products. Such international problems were 



Historical Miscellanea 



compounded by the inablity of the Continental Congress to help resolve disputes 
among the states. During the Revolution, Vermont had seceded from New Hampshire 
and New York without approval from either state. Congress was unable to resolve the 
conflict successfully despite repeated pleas from Governor Clinton of New York for 
help. Conflicts over boundaries also developed between Delaware and Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and Virginia, and North Carolina and Virginia. With the partial exception 
of the dispute between Pennsylvania and Delaware, Congress failed to mediate the 
conflicts. 

Among the states there was also a growing concern over competition for interna- 
tional trade, import duties that adversely affected states like North Carolina that did 
not have adequate harbors; and the use of interstate waterways. These issues were 
further compounded by problems faced by states to their west, who were confronted 
by hostile English, Spaniards, and Native Americans as well as settlers anxious to 
expand beyond the recognized limits of the nation. 

For example, in 1785 the Continental Congress negotiated the Treaty of Hopewell 
with the Cherokees. North Carolina, on behalf of its western interests, issued an offi- 
cial protest of the treaty "as containing several stipulations which infringe and violate 
the legislative rights of the State." Such dual interpretation reinforced the confusion of 
settlers as to who held political authority in the western region. 

Earlier, a group of western North Carolina citizens in what today is Tennessee had 
assembled to address their relationship to the state and the Continental Congress. In 
1784, the North Carolina General Assembly had ceded, but later revoked the its 
actions, the western territories of the state to the national government. In anticipation 
of becoming a state, these citizens had, on December 17, 1784, signed and ratified a 
constitution for the new State of Franklin. Although they did so under the impression 
that they were soon to be separated from North Carolina, they continued to assert 
their autonomy even after the state had revoked its secession. The creation of the State 
of Franklin under the leadership of John Sevier, a Revolutionary war hero, repres- 
ented widespread dissatisfaction in the west with the treatment accorded them by the 
eastern dominate General Assembly. They felt themselves ignored, excluded from the 
benefits of state government, yet liable for taxes. 

Although dissatisfaction was widespread in North Carolina and in the other states, 
not everyone felt the need for major revisions of the Articles of Confederation. Manx 
state leaders were witnessing their states' emergence from a post-war economic slump. 
Harbors were filling and farm goods were reaching new price levels. By the eve of the 
Philadelphia convention, many thought that the states were well on the road to politi- 
cal stability and economic prosperity. 

Yet many were concerned that the states exerted too much influence over the 
national economy. A group of strong nationalists, including James Madison of Virgi- 
nia, Alexander Hamilton of New York, and James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris oi 
Pennsylvania, feared that the parochial economic concerns of the states would always 
be permitted to outweigh- the general economic welfare of the nation. They felt greater 
direction must come from a unified and powerful national government. 

The first attempt to remedy some of the ills brought on by too much state influence 
on the national economy was the Mount Vernon Conference in March of 1785. Meet- 
ing at the home of George Washington, delegates from Virginia and Maryland sat 
together to discuss their mutual problems concerning harbor facilities and interstate 
waterways. These representatives resolved to work together to overcome conflicts on 



North Carolina Manual 



fishing rights, navigational safety, piracy, and interstate currency rates. Most impor- 
tant the delegates identified the need for more states to participate in future discussions. 

I he Virginia House of Delegates, when it ratified the Mount Vernon Accord in 
I 786, also called for a second meeting to be held in Annapolis to discuss "such com- 
mercial regulations [as| may be necessary to their common interest and their perman- 
ent harmony." I he call went out to all the states to send delegates to attend this second 
meeting. 

In the end, representatives from only five states were in attendance at Annapolis 
when the meeting convened in September, 1786. Some states like North Carolina had 
appointed delegates. Hugh Williamson of North Carolina apparently arrived in town 
the day the convention adjourned. 

The lack of a quorum at the Annapolis convention resulted in no major headway 
being made to resolve the commercial problems plaguing the new nation. There was 
one significant proposal from the meeting — the delegates agreed to Alexander Hamil- 
ton's proposal to call for yet another meeting, this time in Philadelphia. The conven- 
tion of state representatives was to meet in May, 1787 "to take into consideration the 
situation of the United States, to devise such further provisions as shall appear to them 
necessary to render the constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exist- 
ence of the Union. . . ." 

The Confederation Congress agreed to issue a call for a convention in Philadelphia 
and all the states but Rhode Island appointed delegations to attend. 

NORTH CAROLINA AND THE CONSTITUTION 

Although the meeting was scheduled to begin on May 14, 1787, a quorum of seven 
states was not reached until May 25. 

James Iredell, one of North Carolina's leading lawyers, was concerned for the health 
of the nation and was very much aware of how things had changed locally. He felt that 
if the nationalists were to succeed in strengthening the union they needed to move 
promptly; however, on May 25 he was in New Bern, not Philadelphia. Why this was 
the case is unclear; nonetheless, in less than four months Iredell was to take a com- 
manding role in defending the new Constitution before the people of North Carolina. 
Iredell was ready with a quick pen and clear thinking to promote the need for a 
strenghtened union. 

Four years earlier, Iredell had been the anonymous author of a set of instructions to 
the Chowan County representatives in which he outlined the requirements for a more 
effective state government within the context of a national union. He had then called 
for payment of North Carolina's requisition to the Continental Congress; stringent 
controls over the printing and redemption of the state's paper money; prohibition of 
legislative intrusion into civil suits; better organization of the administration of the 
state; an independent judiciary; and, support of trade, commerce, and manufacturing. 
Many of these same issues faced the delegates from the states as they met in Philadel- 
phia to begin their deliberations. Among those delegates were eventually five from 
North Carolina. 

Back in November 1786, responding to the report from Annapolis, the North Caro- 
lina General Assembly had selected five state leaders to participate in Philadelphia: 
Governor Richard Caswell, William Richardson Davie, Willie Jones, Alexander Mar- 



Historical Miscellanea 



tin, and Richard Dobbs Spaight. Jones declined to attend, some said because it would 
then free him to oppose any changes emanating from Philadelphia. Governor Caswell 
also declined for reasons of health. He then appointed William Blount and Hugh Wil- 
liamson to complete the North Carorlina delegation. 

The first of North Carolina's delegation to reach Philadelphia was Richard Dobbs 
Spaight on May 15. Spaight was also among the youngest and least experienced of the 
delegates. He spoke little in the Convention but returned home an ardent Federalist 
and supporter of the Constitution. He was among the three North Carolina delegates 
who were able to remain at the convention long enough to sign the Constitution on 
September 17. 

William Richardson Davie was the second delegate to arrive in Philadelphia. With 
Hugh Williamson, Davie was the leading spokesman for the state at the convention. 
He was an early advocate of both state and popular representation in the national 
legislature. He sat on the committee that formulated the compromise between the Vir- 
ginia plan that would have conditioned national representation on population and the 
New Jersey plan that would have relied upon the old Confederation formula of one 
state, one vote. This first great compromise of the convention was worked out by the 
committee over the Fourth of July recess. The committee reported out the idea of 
Roger Sherman of Connecticut that representation in the House be based on popula- 
tion, while that of the Senate reflected equal representation among the states. 

Davie was forced to leave the convention early to return to his law practice. 
Throughout the next two years of debate in North Carolina over the Constitution, 
Davie's voice stood out as one of the principal advocates for the Constitution. Only he 
and Spaight of the five at Philadelphia, participated in the first ratification convention 
in North Carolina. 

When the convention opened on May 25, two more North Carolina delegates were 
in attendance: Hugh Williamson and Alexander Martin. Both settled into the Indian 
Queen Inn, where James Madison, George Mason, Alexander Hamilton and other 
leading delegates were lodged. 

William Pierce of Georgia, who wrote brief character sketches of the delegates, 
characterized Williamson as "a worthy man, of some abilities, and fortune" and not to 
be recognized for a stylish way of speaking. Although not among the greats ol the 
convention, Williamson contributed his share to the debates. He participated in the 
committee of the states that recommended the initial number of representatives in the 
House for each state and it was he who proposed a decennial census to determine 
changes in representation. Williamson was also greatly concerned over the powers and 
limitations of the executive branch; he feared a single executive and thought that the 
executive should be ineligible for a second term. On the veto power of the executive, 
Williamson spoke in favor of a limited negative. Both Williamson and Davie expressed 
strong approval of an impeachment process, Williamson believing that impeachment 
was "an essential security for the good behavior of the Executive." 

Near the close of the convention, a series of essays authored by Williamson under 
the pseudonym "Sylvius" was published. Although authored before the convention, 
their contents spoke directly to some of the major concerns about a strong national 
government. He examined in them the need for a strong national government to take 
command of" the economy and foreign affairs as well as expounded upon the ills 
created by a paper money economy. 



Nor in Carolina M \m ai 



Williamson was the second of North Carolina's delegates to sign the Constitution. 

Williamson did not attend the first ratification convention in Hillsborough in July 
1788, hut ratrfei stayed north to attend the Continental Congress and protect the inter- 
ests of the state. He remained there even after the new government was formed in the 
Spring of 1789, without North Carolina's official participation, returning only to take 
part in the Fayettevilie Convention in November, 1789. 

Alexander Martin, the fourth of the state's delegates, was a former governor of 
North Carolina and a general during the American Revolution. Judged a moderate 
and pratical politician, Martin stood midstream between the federalists and antifeder- 
alist camps in North Carolina. 

A fellow delegate of Martin's rather unkindly described his contribution to the con- 
\ ention: "The great exertions of political wisdom in our late Governor, while he sat at 
the helrrt of our State, have so exhausted his fund, that time must be required to enable 
him again to exert his abilities to the advantage of the nation." Needless to say, Martin 
contributed little to the discussions. Like Davie, he was unable to stay to the close of 
the convention. 

The last of North Carolina's delegation to arrive in Philadelphia was William 
Blount, who reached the convention on June 20. He had been involved in representing 
North Carolina's interests in the Continental Congress meeting in New York. Although 
he took no part in the debates at Philadelphia, he was there to sign the document — the 
third of the state's signers. 

Blount was not elected to the convention at Hillsborough but was involved in the 
ratification convention at Fayettevilie, where he may have played a key role in securing 
the necessary votes for the Constitution in 1789. 

The work of North Carolina's delegates and those from the other states received a 
chilly response at home. A long battle began with leading federalists like James Iredell 
of Edenton, and Archibald Maclaine of Wilmington preparing lengthy defenses of the 
Constitution. 

In a series of essays published in January 1788 under the name "Marcus," James 
Iredell sought to refute the criticisms of George Mason. Mason's attack on the Consti- 
tution was especially threatening since he had been at the convention (although he 
refused to sign) and was widely respected for his disinterested attachment to the new 
nation. Mason opposed the Constitution on numerous grounds, but principally for its 
lack of a bill of rights. 

Iredell responded to each point of Mason's attack, examining why the Constitution 
did not need a bill of rights; why it was representative of the people; why the Senate 
could amend money bills; why the country needed a national judiciary; and, why the 
Constitution proposed a single executive without a constitutional council. 

His refutation of Mason was reasoned and measured; not as much can be said con- 
cerning some other defenses of the Constitution. Archibald Maclaine was particularly 
vitriolic. He referred to those who would oppose the Constitution as "petty tyrants." 

The principal confrontation of ideas and interests came naturally, during the con- 
vention that met in Hillsborough from July 21 to August 4, 1788. The convention 
came after ten states had ratified the Constitution and assured the formation of a new 
national government under its auspices. Even this imminent inauguration of a new 
government was not persuasive enough to convince a majority of the Hillsborough 
convention to approve, and the Constitution was rejected by a 184 to 83 vote. 



Historical Miscellanea 



Two issues stood out above all others in the attack on the Constitution: the lack of a 
bill of rights and the placing of too much authority to a distant government. The ideas 
of Thomas Burke remained alive in the state. 

At the convention, Willie Jones of Halifax, Samuel Spencer of Anson, Thomas 
Person of Granville, David Caldwell of Guilford, and William Lenoir of Wilkes helped 
lead the opposition to the Constitution. It would be a mistake, however, to assume 
unity among this opposition. Some like Samuel Spencer were most concerned about 
the loss of authority for the states. As one of the three highest judges in the state, he 
appeared especially concerned with having his authority overshadowed by that of the 
federal courts. 

David Caldwell provides a notable contrast to Spencer. A Presbyterian minister and 
renowned for the school he operated in Guilford county, Caldwell was principally 
concerned about the lack of a fundamental philosophical framework against which to 
judge and operate the Constitution. 

And again, Willie Jones of Halifax seemed concerned, along with many others, 
about the danger of removing power so far away from the people without, in turn, 
safeguarding their interests with a bill of rights. 

With such diversity of opposition, it is no wonder that those federalists favoring the 
Constitution appear to have the better of the arguments, if not the vote. The federalists 
appear to have given more advance consideration to their oposition in the convention 
with James Iredell taking on the role of theorist, Governor Samuel Johnston acting as 
a mediator and accommodator, while Archibald Maclaine and William R. Davie func- 
tioned as the proverbial "loose canons" at the convention. But despite all these gentle- 
men could say, in and out of convention, the Constitution was doomed to defeat from 
the outset. 

Ratification waited another fifteen months, coming only in November 1789 at 
Fayetteville on a vote of 194 to 77. 

Historians know quite a lot about the Hillsborough convention because James Ire- 
dell and Samuel Johnston hired a secretary to record the debates. Nothing like that 
was done for Fayetteville; explanations for acceptance are, in consequence, far more 
conjectural than explanations for rejection at Hillsborough. Congress's sending of a 
bill of rights to the states is one clear candidate while fear of being outside the union is 
another. Also the concern about a central government was apparently diminished with 
Washington elected president. Whatever the reason, the convention took only seven 
days to ratify and report out their vote. Then, one month later, the North Carolina 
General Assembly became the second state to ratify the Bill of Rights. 

The legacy of the debates in North Carolina has been a widespread appreciation of 
the role of popular discussion of critical issues and how these may balance among a 
nation, the states, and the people. 



10 



Nor mi Carolina Mam ai 



NORTH CAROLINA DELEGATES TO THE FEDERAL CONVENTION 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

First Session, May 14 (May 25) 1-June 25, 1787 

Second Session, July 5-26, 1787 

Third Session, August 6-September 17, 1787 




WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE 

William Richardson Davie, known as the 
"father" of the University of North Carolina, 
was born in England on June 20, 1756. He 
came with his family to South Carolina in the 
early 1760's. He grew up in South and North 
Carolina. 

Davie studied in Charlotte and later entered 
Princeton where his studies were interrupted 
for service in the Army. Following his military 
service he returned to Princeton, completing 
his studies and graduating. Once back in North 
Carolina, he studied law with Spruce Mackay 
in Salisbury but stopped to re-enter the Army. 
Davie was a self-sacrificing serviceman. His 
strong belief in the colonial cause led him to 
dispose of part of his estate to provide equip- 
ment to a troop of calvary and two companies 
of mounted infantry. Following General Gates' 
defeat at Camden, he and his soldiers fought a brilliant rear-guard battle at Charlotte, 
harassing Cornwallis until he retreated to South Carolina. He was widely recognized 
for his bravery, quick wits, and even quicker temper. He had a reputation as a skillful 
fighter and an alert and resourceful commander. 

Davie served in the Assemblies of 1784 and 1784-85, 1786, 1787, and 1789 as a 
member of the House of Commons, first representing Halifax County and later the 
Town of Halifax. 

In 1787 Davie attended part of the Federal Convention in Philadelphia but was 
forced to leave early. He served in both state constitutional conventions at Hills- 
borough and Fayetteville where he lobbied for adoption of the Constitution. 

In 1790 Davie was appointed a Judge for the United States District Court in North 
Carolina; however, there is no record that he ever served. In 1791 he returned to the 
General Assembly representing the Town of Halifax. He continued serving until 1798, 
resigning when he was elected governor. He served one term prior to his appointment 
by President John Adams as special envoy to France. 

Davie lobbied to secure funds for the University of North Carolina and was among 
those who selected the site. He helped to chose professors, arrange a course of study, 
and provide regulations for student discipline. Davie was the first person to receive an 
honorary degree from the University. 

After a long and dedicated service, Davie retired to his South Carolina plantation 
"Tivoli," where he died November 5, 1820. 



Historical Miscellanea 



11 




ALEXANDER MARTIN 

Alexander Martin was born in 1740 in New 
Jersey but moved to North Carolina after liv- 
ing in Virginia for a short period. After gra- 
duating from Princeton he studied law, setting 
up a practice in 1772 in Guilford, North 
Carolina. 

After two years of practicing law, Martin 
was elected to represent Guilford County in 
the Colonial Assembly, serving in the Assem- 
blies of 1773 and 1774. In 1775 he became a 
delegate to the Second Provincial Congress 
held in New Bern (April 3-7). Later he attended 
the State Convention in Hillsborough (August 
20— September 10). 

In September Martin was commissioned as 
Lieutenant Colonel of the Second Regiment in 
the Continental Line. He marched north with 
General Francis Nash to join General Washing- 
ton and fought in the battles of Brandywine (September 11, 1775) and Germantown 
(October 4, 1777). He resigned from the Army in November, 1777. 

Martin represented Guilford County in the State Senate from 1778 until 1782, serv- 
ing as Speaker during the 1780 session when Abner Nash resigned. He was re-elected 
to that position in 1781 and 1782. 

He first became governor while Thomas Burke was a prisoner of the British in 
South Carolina and remained in that office until Burke returned to North Carolina in 
January, 1782. On April 22, 1782, following his election by the legislature, he began 
serving his first of three consecutive one-year terms as governor. Seven and a half 
years later, on December 17, 1789, he began serving the second of three consecutive 
one-year terms, an achievement duplicated only by Richard Caswell. 

In 1786 Martin was elected to the Continental Congress meeting in New York City. 
He resigned as delegate on November 27, 1787, returning to North Carolina to serve in 
the General Assembly where he was again elected Speaker of the Senate. 

He attended the Federal Convention in Philadelphia, but left toward the end ol 
August. 

Martin was elected by the legislature on December 1 1, 1792, to serve as one of the 
United States Senators from North Carolina in the Third United States Congress. He 
served one six-year term. 

After representing Rockingham County in the North Carolina Senate in the Assem- 
blies of 1804 and 1805, Martin retired to his home in Crawford (now Danbury). He 
died in 1807 and was buried on his estate. 



12 



North Carolina Manuai 




RICHARD DOBBS SPAIGHT, SR. 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., the first native- 
born governor of North Carolina, was born in 
New Bern on March 25, 1758, to Richard and 
Elizabeth Wilson Spaight. 

He studied abroad, finishing at the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow in Scotland. After returning 
to America, Spaight served briefly as the mil- 
itary aide de camp to General Richard 
Caswell. 

Spaight served in the House of Commons 
as a Town Representative from New Bern in 
the Assemblies of 1779, 1781,1782, and 1783. 
In 1783 his seat was declared vacant following 
his election to the Confederation Congress. 

On December 13, 1783, Spaight took his 
seat at the Congress in Annapolis. He also 
served as a delegate to the 1784 Congress in 
New York City. 
In 1785 Spaight returned to the General Assembly representing Craven County in 
the House of Commons, where he was elected Speaker. He continued his legislative 
service in the assemblies of 1786-87 and 1787. He was elected as one of North Caroli- 
na's representatives to the Federal Convention in Philadelphia, arriving there on May 
15, 1787. He was the first of the North Carolina delegates to arrive and stayed long 
enough to be one of the signers of the constitution. After the Philadelphia meeting he 
returned to North Carolina and attended the state convention in Hillsborough. 

Spaight served in the General Assembly of 1792 as the Town Representative from 
New Bern, but resigned following his election as governor on December 1 1, 1792. He 
was elected to serve as governor for two more terms. He served one more term in the 
General Assembly as a state senator in 1801. 

In 1798 Spaight was elected to the Fifth United States Congress as a member of the 
House of Representatives following the death of Congressman Nathan Bryan on June 

4. He was elected to the 6th Congress but was defeated for reelection to a third term by 
John Stanly. 

The political differences between Spaight and Stanly caused bitter and personal dis- 
cussions. One of these resulted in Stanly challenging Spaight to a duel. On September 

5, 1802, Stanly's fourth discharge mortally wounded Spaight, who died the next day. 
Criminal proceedings against Stanly began, but he applied to the governor and was 
granted pardon. This prompted the law making any participant in a duel ineligible for 
any office of "trust, honor, or profit." 



Historical Miscellanea 



13 







HUGH WILLIAMSON 

Hugh Williamson was born in Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, on December 5, 1735. 
A doctor, natural scientist, preacher, merchant, 
and politician, Williamson was frequently 
called the "Ben Franklin of North Carolina." 

Graduating in the first class from the Col- 
lege of Philadelphia (later the University of 
Pennsylvania), Williamson went to Connecti- 
cut to study theology. After two years he left 
the ministry to be a math professor. While 
teaching, he became interested in medicine, 
which led him to the University of Edinburgh 
and studies in London and Utrect. His poor 
physical condition made him subject to con- 
tracting a fever from his patient which led him 
to forego medicine. 

Because of his scientific interest and reputa- 
tion, he was appointed as a commissioner to 
study the transit of Venus on June 3, 1769, and Mercury on November 9, 1769. Fol- 
lowing the studies, he published "An Essay on Comets", which resulted in the Univer- 
sity of Leyden awarding him an LL.D. degree. 

Williamson was an eyewitness to the Boston Tea Party and was the first to carry the 
news to England. He predicted the colonies' revolt and heard of the Declaration of 
Independence while he was in Holland. 

Upon returning to America, he offered his medical services to Governor Caswell and 
was sent to New Bern to vaccinate troops against smallpox. He crossed British lines to 
treat American prisoners of war and also serviced the British. He was a pioneer in 
advocating the use of innoculation against diseases. 

Williamson was a Town Representative for Edenton in the General Assembly of 
1782. On May 3, his seat was declared vacant following his election to the Continental 
Congress in Philadelphia. Williamson took his seat on July 19, 1782. Along with 
Thomas Jefferson he was one of only two southern delegates who voted in favor of 
excluding slavery from the Western Lands Ordinance of 1784. 

Williamson returned to the House of Commons in 1785 representing Chowan 
County. In 1787 he was appointed by Governor Caswell to replace Willie Jones at the 
Federal Convention in Philadelphia. Williamson arrived in time for its start and 
attended the entire convention; he was one of three North Carolinians to sign the 
Constitution. He also attended the State Convention in Fayetteville where the Consitu- 
tion was eventually ratified by North Carolina. 

The final years of Williamson's political career were spent in Congress. He served in 
the United States House of Representatives as a representative from the Edenton and 
New Bern district from 1789-1793. 

Following his congressional career, Williamson settled permanently in New York 
City. He wrote one of the nation's first ecological histories in his two-volume study oi 
North Carolina's early history, which was published in 1812. He died in 1819. 



14 



Nor in Carolina M \\r\i 




WILLIAM BLOUNT 

William Blount was born on March 26, 
1749, in Bertie County. With his brother, John 
Grey Blount, he became a leading business- 
man alter Independence. His heavy specula- 
tion and activities in western territories created 
enormous problems for him later in life. 

Blount was first elected to the state legisla- 
ture in 1780 as a Town Representative from 
New Bern. He was elected to the Continental 
Congress meeting in Philadelphia in 1782, 
1783, and 1784. He returned to the North 
Carolina legislature in 1783 as a representative 
from Craven County. He continued to serve in 
the House of Commons in the sessions of 1784 
and 1784-85; during the latter he was elected 
Speaker. He was known for his integrity, 
honesty, and sincerity by fellow politicians. 
On March 14, 1787, Blount was elected one 
of the delegates to go to Philadelphia for the Constitutional Convention. He was one 
of the three North Carolinians who signed the Constitution. In 1789 he went to the 
state convention in Fayetteville and voted for ratification of the newly-written 
Constitution. 

Blount returned to the state legislature, serving in the Senate in 1788 and 1789. 
On August 17, 1790 Blount was appointed Governor of the Territories South of the 
Ohio River. He had autocratic authority in the territories: he proclaimed laws, created 
new counties, and appointed civil officials. In 1791 Blount helped arrange the Treaty 
of Holston which resulted in the Cherokee Indians ceding to the United States a large 
portion of land, much of which was already occupied by whites. In 1794 when the 
territories were large enough to call a territorial assembly, a bill was passed establish- 
ing Blount College (a forerunner of the University of Tennessee). 

On July 8, 1797, while serving as one of Tennessee's first two United States Sena- 
tors, Blount was expelled from the Senate for what was known as Blount's Conspiracy. 
There was a rumor that Spain was going to cede New Orleans and Louisiana to 
France. This would deny America's right to the Mississippi River. Blount took charge 
of a plan that was underway to recruit frontiersmen and Indians into fighting with 
Great Britain to take those areas in war. (Great Britain was bound by the treaty of 
peace of 1783 to permit free navigation of the Mississippi River to America and 
France.) President John Adams had a letter fall into his hands that was written by 
Blount concerning this. In July, 1797 President Adams turned the letter over to Con- 
gress; Blount's expulsion followed. On December 17, the House of Representatives 
opened Blount's impeachment trial. This was the first such trial in United States his- 
tory. In 1799 the proceedings were dismissed for lack of jurisdiction. 

The people still had faith in Blount and in 1798 elected him to the Tennessee State 
Senate where he was elected Speaker. Blount died in Tennessee in 1800. 



Historical Miscellanea 



15 



DELEGATES TO THE STATE CONVENTIONS TO 
RATIFY THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 

Hillsborough, July 21 -August 4, 1788 
Fayetteville, November 16-23, 1789 



Delegate County 

Daniel Gould Anson 

Lewis Lanier Anson 

Samuel Spencer Anson 

Thomas Wade Anson 

Frame Wood Anson 

Thomas Alderson Beaufort 

John Gray Blount Beaufort 

James Bonner Beaufort 

Charles Crawford Beaufort 

Nathan Keais Beaufort 

William Cray Bertie 

William J. Dawson Bertie 

John Johnston Bertie 

Andrew Oliver Bertie 

David Turner Bertie 

Thomas Brown Bladen 

Samuel Cain Bladen 

Goodwin Elleston Bladen 

Joseph Gaither Bladen 

Thomas Owen Bladen 

John Cairns Brunswick 

Lewis Dupree Brunswick 

Alexious M. Forster Brunswick 

Jacob Leonard Brunswick 

Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

James Greenlee Burke 

Charles McDowell Burke 

Joseph McDowell Burke 

Joseph McDowell, Jr Burke 

Robert Miller Burke 

Henry Abbott Camden 

Peter Dauge Camden 

Charles Granby Camden 

Isaac Gregory Camden 

Enoch Sawyer Camden 

William Borden Carteret 

Thomas Borden, Jr Carteret 

William Sheppard Carteret 

Willis Styron Carteret 

David Wallace Carteret 

James Boswell Caswell 

Robert Dickens Caswell 

John Graves Caswell 

George Roberts Caswell 

John Womack Caswell 

James Anderson Chatham 

George Lucas Chatham 

Ambrose Ramsey Chatham 

Joseph Stewert Chatham 

William Vestall Chatham 

Nathaniel Allen Chowan 

Edmund Blount Chowan 

Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

Charles Johnston Chowan 



Convention of 1788 

Delegate County 

Michael Payne Chowan 

Joseph Leech Craven 

Abner Neale Craven 

Richard Nixon Craven 

Richard Dobbs Spaight .... Craven 

Benjamin Williams Craven 

Thomas Armstrong ... Cumberland 

George Elliott Cumberland 

William Barry Grove... Cumberland 
Alexander McAllister.. Cumberland 

James Porterfield Cumberland 

Joseph Ferebee Currituck 

William Ferebee Currituck 

John Humphries Currituck 

James Phillips Currituck 

William Dobbins Davidson 

William Donaldson Davidson 

Thomas Evans Davidson 

Thomas Hardiman Davidson 

Robert Weakley Davidson 

Richard Caswell Dobbs 

Winston Caswell Dobbs 

James Glasgow Dobbs 

Nathan Lassiter Dobbs 

Benjamin Sheppard Dobbs 

William Dicks Duplin 

James Gillespie Duplin 

James Kenan Duplin 

Francis Oliver Duplin 

Charles Ward Duplin 

Elisha Battle Edgecombe 

Bythel Bell Edgecombe 

Robert Digges Edgecombe 

William Fort Edgecombe 

Etheldred Gray Edgecombe 

Durham Hall Franklin 

Henry Hill Franklin 

William Lancaster Franklin 

John Norwood Franklin 

Thomas Sherrod Franklin 

William Baker Gates 

James Gregory Gates 

Thomas Hunter Gates 

Joseph Reddick Gates 

Howell Lewis, Jr Granville 

Elijah Mitchell Granville 

Thomas Person Granville 

Joseph Taylor Granville 

Thornton Yancey Granville 

Asabel Rawlings Greene 

James Roddy Greene 

James Wilson Greene 

John Anderson Guilford 

David Caldwell Guilford 



Delegate Count) 

Daniel Gillespie Guilford 

William Gowdy Guilford 

John Hamilton Guilford 

John Branch Halifax 

Egbert Haywood Halifax 

John Jones Halifax 

Willie Jones Halifax 

William Wooten Halifax 

Stokely Donnelson Hawkins 

Thomas King Hawkins 

William Marshall Hawkins 

Lemuel Burkitt Hertford 

Sam Harrell Hertlord 

William Little Hertford 

George Wynns Hertford 

Thomas Wynns Hertford 

John Eborne Hyde 

Caleb Foreman Hyde 

Seth Hovey Hyde 

James Jasper Hyde 

Abraham Jones Hyde 

Joseph Boon Johnston 

William Bridges Johnston 

John Bryan Johnston 

William Farmer Johnston 

Everett Pearce lohnston 

John Hill Bryan Jones 

Nathan Bryan Jones 

Frederick Hargett Jones 

William Randall Jones 

Edward Whitty Jones 

Robert Alexander Lincoln 

James Johnston Lincoln 

William Maclaine Lincoln 

John Moore Lincoln 

John Sloan Lincoln 

Whitmill Hill Martin 

Thomas Hunter Martin 

Willam McKinzie Martin 

Nathan Mayo Martin 

William Slade Martin 

Joseph Douglas Mecklenburg 

Joseph Graham Mecklenburg 

Robert Irwin Mecklenburg 

Caleb Phifer Mecklenburg 

Zachias Wilson Mecklenburg 

Thomas Butler Montgomerj 

William Kindall Monte- 
William Loftin Montgomerj 

James McDonald Montgomerj 

Thomas Ussorj . Montgomerj 

John Carrel M 

John Cox M 

Cornelius Doud N ' 



16 



Nor in Carolina Manual 



Delegate Count\ 

William Martin Moore 

Thomas I win Moore 

John Bonds Nash 

Redman Bunn Nash 

Howell Ellin Nash 

William S. Marnes Nash 

David Pridgen Nash 

lames Bloodworth .. New Hanover 
Timouthy Bloodworth New Hanovei 
John A. Campbell New Hanover 

Thomas Devane New Hanover 

John Huske New Hanover 

John Pugh Williams. New Hanover 

John Benlord Northampton 

Robert Peebles Northampton 

John Peterson Northampton 

Limes Vaughan Northampton 

James Vinson Northampton 

Thomas Johnston Onslow 

Robert W Snead Onslow 

John Spicer. Jr Onslow 

Edward Starkey Onslow 

Daniel Yates Onslow 

Jonathan Lindley Orange 

William McCauley Orange 

Alexander Mebane Orange 

William Mebane Orange 

William Sheppard Orange 

Devotion Davis Pasquotank 

Edward Everegin Pasquotank 

John Lane Pasquotank 

Thomas Reading Pasquotank 

Enoch Relfe Pasquotank 

Thomas Harvey Perquimans 

Samuel Johnston Perquimans 

John Skinner Perquimans 

Joshua Skinner Perquimans 

William Skinner Perquimans 

Sterling Dupree Pitt 

Arthur Forbes Pitt 

Richard Move Pitt 

Delegate County 

James Iredell Edenton 

John Ingram Fayetteville 



Delegate ( 'ount\ 

David Perkins Pitt 

Robert W ilhams Pitt 

William Bowdon Randolph 

I nomas Dougan Randolph 

Jell Henley .. Randolph 

Edmund Waddell Randolph 

Zebedee Wood Randolph 

Benjamin Covington .... Richmond 

John McCallister Richmond 

Charles Robertson Richmond 

Edward Williams Richmond 

Elias Panics Robeson 

Neil Brown Robeson 

John Cade Robeson 

John Regan Robeson 

John Willis Robeson 

William Bethell Rockingham 

Charles Galloway, Rockingham 

James Galloway Rockingham 

John May Rockingham 

Abraham Phillips Rockingham 

George Henry Barringer .... Rowan 

James Brannon Rowan 

Thomas Carson Rowan 

Matthew Locke Rowan 

Griffith Rutherford Rowan 

George Ledbetter Rutherford 

George Moore Rutherford 

William Porter Rutherford 

Richard Singleton Rutherford 

James Whiteside Rutherford 

Richard Clinton Sampson 

David Dodd Sampson 

Hardy Holmes Sampson 

Lewis Holmes Sampson 

Curtis Key Sampson 

John Dunkin Sullivan 

David Looney Sullivan 

Joseph Martin Sullivan 

John Scott Sullivan 

John Sharpe Sullivan 

Town Representatives 

Delegatt County 

William R. Davie Halifax 

Absalom Tatom Hillsborough 

John Sitgreaves New Bern 



Delegate County 

Edward Douglas Sumnei 

Daniel Smith Sumnei 

William Stokes Sumnei 

David Wilson Sumner 

James Winchester Sumnei 

Absolam Bostick Surry 

Matthew Brooks Surry 

James Gains Surry 

Charles McAnnelly Surry 

loseph Winston Surry 

Edmund Blount Tyrrell 

Joshiah Collins Tyrrell 

He/ekiah Spruill Tyrrell 

Simeon Spruill Tyrrell 

rhomas Stuart Tyrrell 

Thomas Hines Wake 

James Hinton Wake 

Nathaniel Jones Wake 

Joel Lane Wake 

Bnttain Sanders Wake 

Thomas Christmas Warren 

Wyot(Wyatt) Hawkins Warren 

John Macon Warren 

Henry Montfort Warren 

James Payne Warren 

Robert Allison Washington 

John Blair Washington 

James Stuart Washington 

John Tipton Washington 

Joseph Tipton Washington 

Andrew Bass Wayne 

James Handley Wayne 

Richard McKinne Wayne 

Burwell Mooring Wayne 

William Taylor Wavne 

Richard Allen Wilkes 

John Brown Wilkes 

James Fletcher Wilkes 

Joseph Herndon Wilkes 

William Lenoir Wilkes 



Delegate Count \ 

John Steele Salisbury- 
Archibald Maclaine ... Wilmington 



Historical Miscellanea 



17 



Delegate County 

Jesse Gilbert Anson 

David Jameson Anson 

Pleasant May Anson 

Samuel Spencer Anson 

Thomas Wade Anson 

Silas W. Arnett Beaufort 

John Gray Blount Beaufort 

William Brown Beaufort 

Alderson Ellison Beaufort 

Richard Grist Beaufort 

William Johnston Dawson .. Bertie 

John Johnston Bertie 

Francis Pugh Bertie 

David Stone Bertie 

David Turner Bertie 

Thomas Brown Bladen 

John Cowan Bladen 

Joseph Gaitier Bladen 

Thomas Owen Bladen 

Duncan Stewart Bladen 

William Gause Brunswick 

John Hall Brunswick 

Dennis Hawkins Brunswick 

William E. Lord Brunswick 

Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

John Carson Burke 

William E. Erwin Burke 

Charles McDowell Burke 

Joseph McDowell Burke 

Joseph McDowell, Jr Burke 

Henry Abbott Camden 

Peter Dauge Camden 

Charles Grandy Camden 

Isaac Gregory Camden 

Enoch Sawyer Camden 

Malachi Bell Carteret 

John Easton Carteret 

John Fulford Carteret 

Wallace Styron Carteret 

John Wallace Carteret 

Robert Bowman Caswell 

Robert Dickens Caswell 

John Graves Caswell 

Robert Payne Caswell 

John Wommack Caswell 

James Anderson Chatham 

Robert Edwards Chatham 

John Ramsay Chatham 

John Thompson Chatham 

William Vestall Chatham 

Edmund Blount Chowan 

Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

Lemuel Creecy Chowan 

Charles Johnson Chowan 

William Righton Chowan 

John Allen Craven 

Joseph Leech Craven 

Richard Nixon Craven 

Thomas Williams Craven 

Robert Adam Cumberland 

William Barry Grove... Cumberland 
John Hay Cumberland 



Convention of 1789 

Delegate Count) 

John Ingram Cumberland 

James Moore Cumberland 

Andrew Duke Currituck 

Samuel Ferebee Currituck 

William Ferebee Currituck 

Spence Hall Currituck 

Thomas P. Williams Currituck 

William Dobbins Davidson 

Robert Ewing Davidson 

Charles Gerrard Davidson 

James C. Montflorence.... Davidson 

Joel Rice Davidson 

Simeon Bright Dobbs 

Richard Caswell Dobbs 

Nathan Lassiter Dobbs 

Benjamin Sheppard Dobbs 

Robert Dickson Duplin 

James Gillespie Duplin 

James Kenan Duplin 

James Pearsall Duplin 

Lavan Watkins Duplin 

Thomas Blount Edgecombe 

William Fort Edgecombe 

Etheldred Gray Edgecombe 

Jeremiah Hilliard Edgecombe 

Etheldred Phillips Edgecombe 

William Christmas Franklin 

Henry Hill Franklin 

Jordan Hill Franklin 

William Lancaster Franklin 

Thomas Sherrod Franklin 

John Baker Gates 

David Rice Gates 

Joseph Riddick Gates 

Peter Bennett Granville 

Elijah Mitchell Granville 

Thomas Person Granville 

Edmund Taylor, Jr Granville 

Thornton Yancey Granville 

John Allison Greene 

George Doherty Greene 

Alexander Outlaw Greene 

John Sevier Greene 

James Wilson Greene 

Richard D. Caldwell Guilford 

Daniel Gillespie Guilford 

William Gowdy Guilford 

John Hamilton Guilford 

John B. Ashe Halifax 

Lunsford Long Halifax 

Marmaduke Norfleet Halifax 

Peter Quails Halifax 

John Whitaker Halifax 

Elijah Chesson Hawkins 

Nathaniel Henderson Hawkins 

John Hunt Hawkins 

James White Hawkins 

Henry Baker Hertford 

Henry Hill Hertford 

Robert Montgomery Hertford 

Hardy Murfree Hertford 

Thomas Wynns Hertford 



Delegate Count) 

John Alderson Hyde 

John Eborne Hyde 

James Jasper Hyde 

Michael Peters Hyde 

James Watson Hyde 

Adam Brevard Iredell 

David Caldwell Iredell 

Musendine Matthews Iredell 

John Nesbitt Iredell 

Adlai Osborn Iredell 

William Bridges Johnston 

Hardy Bryan Johnston 

William Hackney Johnston 

Mathias Handy Johnston 

Samuel Smith Johnston 

John H. Bryan Jones 

Frederick Hargett Jones 

Jacob Johnston Jones 

Edward Whitty Jones 

Robert Alexander Lincoln 

John Caruth Lincoln 

Joseph Dickson Lincoln 

William Maclaine Lincoln 

John Moore Lincoln 

Thomas Hunter Martin 

Nathan Mayo Martin 

John Stewart Martin 

William Williams Martin 

Joseph Douglas Mecklenburg 

Joseph Graham Mecklenbuii; 

Caleb Phifer Mecklenburg 

James Porter Mecklenburg 

Zachias Wilson Mecklenburg 

James Crump Montgomery 

William Johnston Montgomer\ 

David Nesbitt Montgomerj 

James Tindall Montgomery 

James Turner Montgomery 

Cornelius Doud Moore 

Donald Mcintosh Moore 

Neil McLeod Moore 

William Martin Moore 

Thomas Tyson Moore 

John Bonds Nash 

Howell Ellin 

Hardy Griffin 

William S. Marnes Nash 

Wilson Vick Nash 

Timouthy Bloodworth New Hanovei 
John A. Campbell ... New Hanovei 

John Huske New Hanovei 

John G. Schull New Hanovei 

John M. Benford .... Northampton 

Robert Peebles Northampton 

Samuel Peete Northampton 

Halcott B. Pride .. . Northampton 
Samuel larvei Northampton 

George Mitchell Onslow 

Robert W. Sneed Onslow 

John Spieer Onslow 

I dward Ward Onslow 

Daniel Wales Onslow 



North Carolina M \nuai 



.lames Christmas Orange 

Joseph Hodge Orange 

Alexandei Mebanc Orange 

I homas II Pei kins Orange 

n I Strudwick .. Orange 
Thomas Banks Pasquotank 

Devotion l)a\is Pasquotank 

Edward Everegin Pasquotank 

John Swann Pasquotank 

Joseph Harvev Perquimans 

Samuel Johnston ..... Perquimans 

Benjamin Pern Perquimans 

John Skinner Perquimans 

Ashbury Sutton Perquimans 

Shadrick Mien Pitt 

James Armstrong Pitt 

Benjamin Bell Put 

William Blount Pitt 

Samuel Simpson Pitt 

William Bailey Randolph 

Nathan Stedman Randolph 

Reuban Wood Randolph 

Zebedee Wood Randolph 

Darby Harragin Richmond 

Duncan McFarland Richmond 

William Robinson Richmond 

Alexander Watson Richmond 

Edward Williams Richmond 

Sion Alford Robeson 

Elias Barnes Robeson 

Neil Brown Robeson 

John Cade Robeson 

John Willis Robeson 

William Bethel Rockingham 



•tile Count} 

Isaac Clarke Rockingham 

John Dabney ..... Rockingham 

James Gallowav Rockingham 

Abram Phillips Rockingham 

George Henry Barringer .. Rowan 
Maxwell Chambers . Rowan 

Bazil Gaither Rowan 

Matthew I ocke Rowan 

John Stokes Rowan 

James Holland Rutherford 

William Johnson Rutherford 

George I edbetter Rutherford 

Richard lewis Rutherford 

William Poitet Rutherford 

Richard Clinton Sampson 

Hardy Holmes Sampson 

William King Sampson 

James Spillei Sampson 

James Thompson Sampson 

Joseph Martin Sullivan 

William Nash Sullivan 

John Rhea Sullivan 

John Scott Sullivan 

Edward Douglass Sumner 

Samuel Mason Sumner 

John Overton Sumner 

Daniel Smith Sumner 

David Wilson Sumner 

Absalom Bostwick Surry 

Gideon Edwards Surrj 

George Houser Sum 

Edward Lovell Surry 

Joseph Winston Surry 

William Blount Tennessee 



•ale Count) 

John Dew lennessee 

Thomas Johnston . lennessee 

Benjamin Menees ["ennessee 

John Montgomery ["ennessee 

Samuel Chesson I yrrell 

Jeremiah lia/iei I v rrell 

Simeon Spruill Ivnell 

1 homas Stewart I yi rell 

Hugh Williamson Ivnell 

William Hayes Wake 

Thomas Hints Wake 

Henry Lane Wake 

Joel 1 ane Wake 

Brittain Sanders Wake 

Thomas Christmas Warren 

Solomon Green Warren 

Benjamin Hawkins Warren 

Philemon Hawkins Warren 

Wyatt Hawkins Warren 

John Blair Washington 

Landon Carter Washington 

Andrew Greer Washington 

William Houston Washington 

Robert Love Washington 

David Cogdell Wayne 

James Handley Wayne 

Josiah Jernigan Wayne 

Richard McKinnie Wayne 

Burwell Mooring Wayne 

John Brown Wilkes 

William Hall Wilkes 

Joseph Herndon Wilkes 

Benjamin Jones Wilkes 

William Lenoir Wilkes 



Delegate Cumin 

John Mare Edenton 

William R. Davie Halifax 



Town Representatives 

Delegate Count i 

Samuel Benton Hillsborough 

Isaac Guion New Bern 



Delegate County 

John Steel Salisbury 

William H. Hill Wilmington 



Historical Miscellanea 19 

Chapter Two 
OUR STATE 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STATE 

The first known European exploration of North Carolina occurred during the sum- 
mer of 1524. A Florentine navigator named Giovanni da Verrazzano, in the service of 
France, explored the coastal area of North Carolina between the Cape Fear and Kitty 
Hawk. A report of his findings was sent to Francis I, and published in Richard Hak- 
luyt's Divers Voyages touching the Discoverie of America; however, no attempt was made 
to colonize the area. 

Between 1540 and 1570 several Spanish explorers from the Florida Gulf region ex- 
plored portions of North Carolina, but no permanent settlements were established. 

Coastal North Carolina was the scene of the first attempt to colonize America b\ 
English-speaking people. Under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, two colonies were begun in the ISSO's. The first, in 1585 under the leadership 
of Ralph Lane, ended in failure. 

A second expedition under the leadership of John White began in the spring of 1587 
when 110 settlers including seventeen women and nine children set sail for the new 
world. The White colony arrived off Hatteras in June, 1587 and went on to Roanoke 
Island, where they found the houses built by the previous expedition still standing. 
Shortly after the arrival of the colony two significant events occurred the baptism of 
two "friendly" Indians and the birth of Virginia Dare, the first child of English- 
speaking parents born in the new colony. As supplies ran short problems beset the colo- 
nists and White, under pressure from the colonists was forced to return to England for 
provisions. Once in England White was unable to immediately return to Roanoke due 
to an impending attack by the Spanish Armada. When he was able to return in 1 590 he 
found only the remnants of what was once a settlement. There were no signs of life. 
Carved on a nearby tree he found the word "CROATOAN". Many have speculated as 
to the fate of the "Lost Colony"' but none have ever explained it. 

The first permanent English settlers to North Carolina came from the tidewater area 
of Virginia around 1650. These overflow immigrants moved into the Albemarle area of 
northeast North Carolina. 

In 1663 Charles II granted to eight Lords Proprietors a charter for the territory lying 
"within six and thirty degrees of the northern latitude, and to the west as far as the 
south seas, and so southerly as far as the River St. Mattias, which bordereth upon the 
coast of Florida, and within one and thirty degrees of northern latitude, and so west in a 
direct line as far as the south seas aforesaid; . . ." and the colotn w as called Carolina. In 
1665 another charter was granted in order to clarify territorial questions not answered 
in the first charter. This charter extended the limits of Carolina so that the northern line 
was 36 degrees and 30 minutes north latitude, and the southern line was 2 l ) degrees 
north latitude, and both of these lines extended westward to the South Seas 



20 



Nor i ii Carolina Manuai 




t 



Historical Miscellanea 21 



Between 1663 and 1729 North Carolina was under the control of the Lords Proprie- 
tors and their decendents who commissioned colonial officials and authorized the gov- 
ernor and his council to grant lands in the name of the Lords Proprietors. In 1669 John 
Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions as a model for the government of Caro- 
lina. Albemarle County was divided into local governmental units called precincts. Ini- 
tially there were three precincts— Berkeley, Carteret and Shaftesbury— but as the col- 
ony expanded to the south and west new precincts were created. By 1729, there were a 
total of eleven precincts — six in Albemarle County and five in Bath County which had 
been created in 1696. Although the Albemarle Region was the first permanent settle- 
ment in the Carolina Area, another region was developed around present-day Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. Because of the natural harbor and easier access to trade with the 
West Indies, more attention was given to developing the Charleston area than her 
northern counterparts. For a twenty-year period, 1692-1712, the two colonies of North 
and South Carolina existed as one unit of government. Although North Carolina still 
had her own assembly and council, the governor of Carolina resided in Charleston and, 
a deputy governor was appointed by him for the northern colony. On December 7, 1710 
Carolina was divided into two distinct colonies; however, it was not until May, 1712 
that a governor was appointed for North Carolina. 

In 1729 seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interest in North Carolina to the 
Crown and North Carolina became a royal colony. The eighth proprietor Lord Gran- 
ville, retained economic interest and continued granting land in the northern half of 
North Carolina. All political functions were under the supervision of the crown until 
1775. 

Colonial government in North Carolina was essentially the same during both the pro- 
prietary and royal periods. The major difference being who appointed colonial officials. 
Government was conducted by two distinct groups — the governor and his council, on 
the one hand, and the popularly-elected colonial general assembly on the other. There 
were colonial courts, but unlike today, they were rarely involved in the formulation of 
governmental policy. All colonial officials were appointed by either the Lords Proprie- 
tors prior to 1729, or the crown afterwards. Members of the colonial assembly were 
elected from the various precincts and from certain towns which had been granted rep- 
resentation. The term "precinct" as a geological unit ceased to exist after 1735 and these 
areas became known by the term "county" as they are today. About this same time 
"Albemarle County" and "Bath County" ceased to exist as governmental units. 

The governor was an appointed official — as were the colonial secretary, attorney gen- 
eral, surveyor general, and receiver general. All served at the pleasure of either the 
Lords Proprietors or the crown. The council during the proprietary period was com- 
prised of persons appointed as agents by the proprietors to look after their interest in 
the new world. Many council members were also colonial officials. The council during 
both the proprietary and royal periods served as an advisory group to the governor, and 
one of its members was chosen president. The council also served as the upper house ol 
the legislature when the assembly was in session. The governor was authorized to cam 
out all mandates of the proprietors, or crown, and could, when vacancies occurred in 
colonial offices or on the council, make a temporary appointment until the vacancj « .is 
filled by proprietary or royal commission. When a governor, or deputs governor, was 
unable to carry on as chief executive either by illness, death, resignation or absence from 
the colony, the president of the council became the chief executive and exercised all the 



22 



Nor in Carolina Manual 



 





.J; jm w 

- 



- 

1 

; 






 - 



, 











 

:■ • 



I 
l "il 






1 






Historical Miscellanea 23 



powers of the governor until such time as the governor returned, or a new governor 
commissioned. 

The colonial assembly was made up of men elected from each precinct and town 
where representation had been granted. Not all counties were entitled to the same num- 
ber of representatives. Many of the older counties had five representatives each while 
the new ones — those formed after 1696 — were allowed only two each. Each town grant- 
ed representation was allowed one representative. The presiding officer of the colonial 
assembly was called the speaker and was elected from the entire membership of the 
house. When a vacancy occurred a new election was ordered by the speaker to fill it. On 
the final day of each session the bills passed by the legislature were signed by both the 
speaker and the president of the council. 

The colonial assembly could not meet arbitrarily, but rather convened only when 
called into session by the governor. Since the legislature was the only body authorized 
to grant a salary to the governor and was also responsible for spending tax monies, they 
met on a regular basis until just before the Revolutionary War. However, there was a 
constant battle for authority between the governor and his council on the one hand and 
the general assembly on the other. Two of the most explosive issues were the power of 
the purse and the electing of the treasurer, both privileges of the assembly. Another is- 
sue which raised itself was who had the authority to create new counties. On more than 
one occasion elected representatives from counties created by the governor and council, 
without consultation and proper legislative action by the lower house, were refused 
seats until the matter was resolved. These conflicts between the executive and legislative 
bodies were to have a profound effect on the organization of state government after 
Independence. 

North Carolina, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates in the Continental Con- 
gress to vote for independence, and on December 18, 1776, adopted a constitution. 
Richard Caswell became the first governor under this constitution. On November 21, 
1789, the state adopted the United States Constitution, being the twelfth state to enter 
the Federal Union. North Carolina, in 1788, had rejected the Consitution on the 
grounds that certain amendments were vital and necessary to a free people. 

A Constitutional convention was held in 1835 and among several changes made in the 
Constitution was the method of electing the governor. After this change the governor 
was elected by the people for a term of two years instead of being elected by the Legisla- 
ture for a term of one year. Edward Bishop Dudley was the first governor elected by the 
people. 

In 1868 a second constitution was adopted which drastically altered government in 
North Carolina. For the first time all major state officers were elected by the people. 
The governor and other executive officers were elected to four-year terms; while the jus- 
tices of the supreme court and judges of the superior court were elected to eight-year 
terms. The members of the general assembly continued to be elected for two year terms. 
Between 1868 and 1970 numerous amendments were incorporated into the 1868 consti- 
tution, so that in 1970, the people voted to adopt a completely new constitution. Since 
then several amendments have been ratified, but one in particular is a break from the 
past. In 1977 the people voted to allow the governor and lieutenant governor to run tor 
reelection successively for one additional term. 

North Carolina has had two permanent capitals New Bern and Raleigh and there- 
have been three capitol buildings. Tryon's Palace in New Bern was constructed in the 



24 Nor in Carolina Mam \i 



period, 1767-1770, and the main building was destroyed by fire February 27, 1798. The 
first capitol in Raleigh was completed in 1794 and was destroyed by fire on June 21, 
1831. The present capitol was completed in 1840. 

In 1790 North Carolina ceded her western lands, which was composed of Washing- 
ton. Davidson, Hawkins, Greene, Sullivan, Sumner, and Tennessee counties, to the 
Federal government. Between 1 790 and 1 796 the territory was known as Tennessee Ter- 
ritory, but in 1796 it became the fifteenth state in the Union. 

When North Carolina adopted the Federal Constitution on November 21, 1789, she 
was authorized to send two senators and five representatives to the Congress of the 
United States according to the constitutional apportionment. In 1792, when the first 
federal census had been completed and tabulated, it was found that North Carolina was 
entitled to ten representatives. It was then that the General Assembly divided the state 
into ten congressional districts. In 1812, the state had grown and increased in popula- 
tion until it was entitled to thirteen representatives in Congress. Between 1812 and 1865, 
however, the population decreased so much in proportion to the population of other 
states of the Union that North Carolina was entitled to only seven representatives. After 
1865 the population of the state showed a steady increase so that beginning in 1943 
North Carolina was entitled to twelve representatives in Congress. The 1970 census 
showed that the state had more than a half million more people than in 1960, but this in- 
crease was not nearly as much in proportion to that of other states. North Carolina is 
now entitled to only eleven representatives in Congress. 



Historical Miscellanea 



25 



THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The use of a seal for attesting to important documents began before the implementa- 
tion of government in North Carolina. In the colonial period North Carolina used suc- 
cessively four different seals. Since the colony became a state, five distinct seals have 
been used. 

Shortly after they were issued their charter in 1663, the Lords Proprietors thought it 
proper to adopt for their newly acquired domains in America, a seal of which no official 
description has been found, but which is to be seen in the British Public Record Office 
in London. The Seal — pictured below — had two sides. The size of this seal was three 
and three-eights inches in diameter, and it was made by placing together two wax cakes 
with tape between before being impressed. The impression after being made was about 
one-fourth inch thick. This seal was used on all official papers of the Lords Proprietors 
of Carolina, embracing both North Carolina and South Carolina. 





Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 

About 1 665 the Government of Albemarle was organized and it adopted for a seal the 
reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors. Between the coats-of-arms the word 
A-L-BE-M-A-R-L-E was fixed in capitals, beginning with the letter "A" between the 
arms of Clarendon and Albemarle, "L" between Albemarle and Craven, "BE" between 
the Craven arms and those of Lord John Berekeley, et cetera.. 

This was a small seal— one and seven-sixteenths inches in diameter, with one face 
only— and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. It is generally im- 
pressed on red wax, but is occasionally seen impressed on a wafer which is stuck to t he- 
instrument with soft wax. It was first used for the government of the county o\' Albe- 
marle, and then became the seal of the Province of North Carolina, being used until just 
after the purchase by the crown. During the troublous times of the Cary Rebellion the 
Albemarle seal was not used. In 1708 Cary used his family arms on a large seal to his of- 
ficial papers. A fine specimen of this seal showing the Cary arms is preserved in the pa- 
pers of the secretary of state located in the North Carolina Archives. During William 
Glover's presidency (1710) he used his private seal. 



26 



North Carolina Manual 




Seal of Government of Albemarle and Province of North Carolina, 1665-1730 

When North Carolina was purchased by the Crown in 1 729, the old "Albemarle" seal 
was no longer applicable. On February 3, 1729/30, the Board of Trade recommended to 
the king that he order a public seal for the Province of North Carolina. 

On February 21, 1729/30, his Majesty in council was pleased to approve the recom- 
mendations and ordered ". . .that a Publick Seal be prepared and given to the Governor 
of the said Province of North Carolina, And that the said Lords Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations do cause a Draft of such Seal, to be prepared and laid before His 
Majesty at the Board, for his Royall Approbation." 

On March 25, 1730, The Board of Trade laid before his Majesty for his royal appro- 
bation a draft of a proposed seal for the Province of North Carolina. On the 10th day of 
April, 1730, the king approved the recommendations, except that it appears "Georgius 
Secundus" was to be substituted for the original "Geo. IF," and his chief engraver of 
seals was ordered to "engrave a silver Seal according to said draught. ..." A certain 
Rollos, his Majesty's engraver was ordered to prepare a draft of the seal. 





Obverse Reverse 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1730-1767 



Historical Miscellanea 



27 



There was some delay in receiving the new seal, for at a council held at Edenton, 
March 30, 1731, it was "Ordered that the old seal of the Colony be used till the new seal 
arrives." The latter part of April the seal came, and "The Messenger that went to Cape- 
Fear to fetch the Publick Seal of this Province" was paid the sum often pounds for his 
journey. This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax together, between 
which was the ribbon or tape with which the instrument was interlaced and by which the 
seal was appended. It was customary to put a piece of paper on the outside of three 
cakes before they were impressed. The complete seal was four and three-eighths inches 
in diameter and from one-half to five-eighths inches thick and weighed about five and 
one-half ounces. 

At a council held at New Bern, December 14, 1767, Governor Tryon produced to the 
Board a new Great Seal for the province with his Majesty's Royal Warrant bearing date 
at the Court of St. James the 9th day of July, 1767. The old seal was sent to New York 
by Captain [John Abraham] Collet, commander of Fort Johnston, to be returned to his 
Majesty's Council office at Whitehall. Accompanying his Majesty's warrant was a de- 
scription of the new seal. This seal was to be used in sealing all patents and grants of 
lands and all public instruments passed in the king's name for service within the prov- 
ince. It was four inches in diameter, one-half to five-eighths inches thick, and weighed 
four and one-half ounces. 





Obverse Reverse 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 



It appears that sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as commis- 
sions and grants with a small heart-shaped seal about one inch wide and a quarter ol an 
inch thick which was impressed with a crown have been used. Also a seal was occasion- 
ally used about three inches long and two inches wide and half an inch thick, in the 
shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made by putting the wax tar 
enough under the edge of the Great Seal to take the impression of the crown. The royal 
governors also sometimes used their private seals on commissions and grants. 



2S 



North Carolina Manuai 



Lord Granville, on the grants issued by him, used his private seal. The last reference 
found to the colonial seal is in a letter from Governor Martin to the Earl of Hills- 
borough in November, 1771, in which he said "that the Province Seal was broke," but 
that he had had it repaired and that it had been "awkwardly mended but in such man- 
ner as to answer all purposes." 

When the government of the State of North Carolina was organized, the constitution 
adopted at Halifax, December 18, 1776, provided in Section XVII, "That there shall be 
a Seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as occasion 
ma\ require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, and be 
affixed to all grants and commissions." The Constitutional Convention of 1 835 brought 
this section forward unchanged. 

The convention of 1868 adopted a new constitution, and the convention of 1875 
brought the section referring to the seal forward as adopted in 1868. Article III, Section 
16 of the constitution reads: "There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by 
the Governor, and used by him, as occasion may require, and shall be called 'The Great 
Seal of the State of North Carolina' All grants and commissions shall be issued in the 
name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with The Great Seal 
of the State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary of State." 

On December 22. 1776, an ordinance was passed by the Provincial Congress at Hali- 
fax appointing William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and Thomas Burke commissioners to 
procure a Great Seal for the State of North Carolina, but no record of a report being 
made by this commission could be found. The ordinance provided that the governor 
should use his "private seal at arms" until the Great Seal for the state was procured. On 
April 29, 1778, a bill which directed the procurement of a Great Seal for the state and 
which became law on May 2, was introduced in the lower house of the general assembly 





Obverse 



Reverse 



Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 



Historical Miscellanea 



29 



held in New Bern. It provided that "William Tisdale, Esq., be and he is hereby appoint- 
ed to cut and engrave a Seal, under the Direction of his Excellency the Governor, for the 
use of the State; . . . ." On Sunday, November 7, 1 779 the senate concurred in the resolu- 
tion passed by the house of commons allowing William Tisdale, Esq., the sum of one 
hundred and fifty pounds for making the Great Seal of the State. Under this act a seal 
was procured which was used until 1794. The actual size of the seal was three inches in 
diameter and one-fourth inch thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax together 
with paper wafers on the outside and pressing them between the dies, thus forming the 
obverse and reverse sides of the seal. The seal press must have been very large and un- 
wieldy, for Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight in writing to Colonel Abisha Thomas in 
February, 1793 said: "Let the screws by which the impression is to be made be as port- 
able as possible so as it may be adapted to our present itinerant government. The one 
now in use by which the Great Seal is a present made is so large and unwieldy as to be 
carried only in a cart or wagon and of course has become stationary at the Secretary's 
office which makes it very convenient." Governor Spaight in January, 1793 in writing of 
the Tisdale Seal then in use says, "This old seal is not only nearly worn out but in my 
opinion has always been a reproach to the genius of the State." An official description 
of this seal cannot be found, but many of the seals are still in existence in an almost per- 
fect state of preservation. 

In January, 1792 the general assembly in session at New Bern passed an act author- 
izing and requiring the governor to procure for the state a seal, and provided that it 
should "be prepared with only one side, and calculated to make the impression on the 
face of such grant, commission, record or other public acts, . . . ." Governor Alexander 
Martin commissioned Colonel Abisha Thomas, the agent of North Carolina in Phila- 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1794-1836 



30 



North Carolina Manual 



delphia for the settlement of the State's Revolutionary claims against the Federal Gov- 
ernment, to have one made and, at the same time sent him a design therefor. After cor- 
respondence between Governor Martin and Colonel Thomas concerning the seal, in 
which suggestions were made by Dr. Hugh Williamson and Senator Samuel Johnston, 
they concluded that the sketch submitted by Governor Martin would not do and Colo- 
nel Thomas submitted a sketch by an artist. This sketch, with some modification, was fi- 
nally accepted by Governor Spaight, and Colonel Thomas had the seal made accord- 
ingly. The seal was cut some time during the summer of 1793, and Colonel Thomas 
brought it home with him in time for the meeting of the legislature in November, 1793, 
at which session it was "approbated. " The screw to the seal would not work, so in 1795 
the general assembly passed an act authorizing the use of the old seal of 1778 until the 
new one could be put in order. The new seal was two and one half inches in diameter 
and was used until around 1835. 

In the winter of 1834-35 the legislature passed an act authorizing the governor to pro- 
cure a new seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in use since the 
first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, which was not changed until 1839, 
was very similar to its predecessor. It was two and one-fourth inches in diameter. In 
1868 the legislature authorized the governor to procure a Great Seal and required him 
to provide a new seal whenever the old one was lost or so worn or defaced as to render it 
unfit for use. 

In 1883 Colonel S. MCD. Tate introduced a bill in the legislature which became law. 
This act did not provide that a new seal be procured but it described in more detail what 
the seal should be like. In 1893 Jacob Battle introduced a bill which became law. This 
made no change in the seal except to add at the foot of the coat-of-arms of the state as 
part thereof the motto Esse Quam Videri and to provide the words "May 20, 1775," be 
incribed at the top of the coat-of-arms. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 



Historical Miscellanea 



31 



At this time the ship that appeared in the offing in the seals of George II and George 
III and in our seal from 1835-1893 seems to have disappeared, and the designer of the 
seal shows mountains in the background instead of both mountains and the sea as for- 
merly. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1893-1971 

The preceding history illustrates the great variety in seals and the liberty that was 
taken in the design in the official State seal from time to time. The 1971 General As- 
sembly, in an effort to "provide a standard for the Great Seal of the State of North 
Carolina," passed the following Act amending the General Statutes provision relative 
to the State Seal: 



The Governor shall procure for the State a Seal, which shall be called the 
great seal of the State of North Carolina, and shall be two and one-quarter 
inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representation of the figures of 
Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but not more than half- 
fronting each other and otherwise disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, 
standing, her pole with cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, 
sitting down, her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of grain 
in her right hand, and in her left, the small end of her horn, the mouth of 
which is resting at her feet, and the contents of the horn rolling out. 

The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of mountains running 
from left to right to the middle of the seal. A side view of a three-masted ship 
shall be located on the ocean and to the right of Plenty. The date "May 20, 
1775" shall appear within the seal and across the top of the seal and the words 
"esse quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around the perimeter. No other 
words, figures or other embellishments shall appear on the seal. 

It shall be the duty of the Governor to file in the office of the Secretary o( 
State an impression of the great seal, certified to under his hand and attested 
to by the Secretary of State, which impression so certified the Secretary of 
State shall carefully preserve among the records of this Office. 



32 



North Carolina Manual 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 
1971-1984 

The late Jullian R. Allsbrook who served in the North Carolina Senate for many 
years, felt that the adoption date of the Halifax Resolves ought to be commemorated on 
the State seal as it was already on the State flag. This to "serve as a constant reminder of 
the people of this state's committment to liberty."' Legislation adding the date "April 
12, 1776" to the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina was ratified May 2, 1983, 
with an effective date of January 1, 1984. Chapter 257 of the Session Laws of North 
Carolina for 1983 included provisions that would not invalidate any Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina in use or on display. Instead replacement could occur as the 
need arose. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1984— 



Historical Miscellanea 33 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL 

The North Carolina State Capitol is one of the finest and best preserved examples of 
a major civic building in the Greek Revival Style of architecture. 

Prior to 1792, North Carolina legislators met in various towns throughout the 
state — Halifax, Hillsboro, and New Bern were the most frequent locations. Meetings 
were held in local plantation houses, court houses, and even churches — whatever was 
available; however, when the City of Raleigh was established as the permanent seat of 
the Government of North Carolina in 1792, a simple, two-story brick State House was 
built on Union Square. The State House was completed in 1796. 

The State House was enlarged in 1820-24 by the architect William Nichols. A third 
floor and eastern and western wings were added to the building, and a domed rotunda 
was constructed at its center to house Antonio Canova's statue of President George 
Washington, acquired by the State in 1821. When the State House burned down on 
June 21, 1831, the statue of Washington was damaged beyond repair. 

The General Assembly of 1832-33 ordered that a new Capitol (as the present building 
has always been called) be built as an enlarged version of the old State House — that is, a 
cross-shaped building with a central, domed rotunda. The sum of $50,000 was appropri- 
ated, and a commission appointed to initiate the plan. The Commissioners for Rebuild- 
ing the Capitol first employed William Nichols, Jr., to help them prepare plans for the 
building. In August of 1833, Nichols was replaced by the distinguished New York archi- 
tectural firm of Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis. They modified and greatly 
improved the earlier design, giving the Capitol essentially its present appearance and 
plan. David Paton (1802-82), and Edinburgh-born architect who had worked for John 
Seoane, the noted English architect, was hired in September, 1834, to superintend the 
construction of the Capitol. Paton replaced Town and Davis as the Commissioners' ar- 
chitect early in 1835. The Capitol was built under Paton's supervision except for the ex- 
terior stone walls, which were largely in place when he got to Raleigh. Paton made sev- 
eral modifications in the Town and Davis plans for the interior. He is responsible for 
the cantilevered or overhanging gallery at the second floor level of the rotunda, the 
groined masonry vaulting of the first floor office and corridor ceilings, and the interior 
arrangement of the east and west wings. After clearing away the rubbish of the old State 
House, excavations were made and a new foundation laid. On July 4, 1833, the corner 
stone was set in place. Following this, work progressed more slowly, and the orignal ap- 
propriation soon exhausted. At the next session of the Legislature, an additional appro- 
priation of $75,000 was necessary so that work could begin on the stone and finer work. 
Many skilled artisans were brought over from Scotland and other countries to carry out 
this phase of construction. 

Most of the architectural details — columns, mouldings, ornamental plasterwork. and 
the honeysuckle crown atop the dome, for example — were carefully patterned after fea- 
tures of particular ancient Greek temples: The exterior columns are Doric in style and 
modeled after those of the Parthenon, the House of Representatives Chamber follows 
the semicircular plan of a Greek theater and its architectural ornament is in the Corin- 
thian style of the Tower of the Winds, and the Senate Chamber is decorated in the Ionic 
style of the Erechtheum. The only non-classical parts of the building are two large 
rooms on the third floor which were finished in the Gothic Style, then just beginning to 
rise to popularity in America. 



Historical Miscellanea 35 



The ornamental ironwork, chandeliers, hardware, and marble mantels of the Capitol 
came from Philadelphia, as did the man who executed all of the ornamental plaster- 
work. The desks and chairs in the House and Senate Chambers were made by a Raleigh 
Cabinetmaker, William Thompson. 

The Capitol was completed in 1840 at a total cost (including furnishings) of 
$532,682.34, or more than three times the yearly general income of the State at that 
time. 

In plan, the Capitol is a cross-shaped building, centering on a domed rotunda where 
the wings join. It is 160 feet from north to south, 140 feet from east to west (including 
the porticoes), and stands 97 V2 feet from the base of the rotunda to the crown atop the 
dome. The exterior walls are built of gneiss (a form of granite). This stone was quarried 
in southeastern Raleigh and hauled to the site on the horse-drawn Experimental Rail 
Road, the first railway in North Carolina. The interior walls are of stone and brick. The 
massive, original wooden truss system still carries the roof. 

The first floor contains eight offices in the north and south wings and smaller rooms 
in the east and west wings. (These offices originally housed all of the executive branch of 
state government — a total of six full-time officials in 1840.) The rotunda contains a 
duplicate original of Canova's statue of Washington, acquired in 1970. In niches around 
the rotunda are busts of three Governors and a United States Senator. Stairways in the 
east and west wings give access to the second floor, where the Senate and House 
Chambers and related offices are located. Rooms in the east and west wings, built as 
legislative committee rooms, have been converted to other uses. On the third floor arc 
the galleries of the Senate and House Chambers, and in the east and west wings are the 
original State Supreme Court Chamber and State Library Room, both decorated in the 
Gothic Style. The domed, top-lit vestibules of those two rooms are especially note- 
worthy. 

The Capitol housed all of the state government until the 1880's. The Supreme Court 
moved to its own building in 1888. The General Assembly moved to the State Legisla- 
tive Building (the State's first building erected exclusively for legislative use) in 1963. 
Today the only official occupants of the Capitol are some of the personnel of the Gover- 
nor and the Secretary of State. 

The Capitol probably has been less changed in appearance, inside and out. than an) 
major American civic building of its era. The stonework, the ornamental plaster and 
ironwork, the furniture of the legislative chambers, and all but one of the marble man- 
tels that the visitor sees today are original, not restorations or reproductions. Yet con- 
tinuous and heavy use since 1840 has left its marks on the building, and to cope with 
them the Capitol currently is undergoing a careful rehabilitation. This work was begun 
in 1971 and is intended to preserve and enhance the architectural splendor and decora- 
tive beauty of the Capitol for future generations. Work done to date includes replacing 
the leaky copper roof, cleaning and sealing the exterior stone, and repainting the ro- 
tunda in colors similar to those originally used. More recently completed phases include 
repairing plaster-work damaged by roof leaks, replacing obsolete wiring and plumbing, 
reworking the heating and cooling systems in the upper floors to make them less con- 
spicuous, replacing worn carpets and draperies, and repainting the rest of the interior 
according to the original color scheme. 



36 North Carolina Manual 



1976 was an eventful year not only for our nation, but for our State Capitol building 
as well. After several years of work, the old senate and house chambers and the execu- 
tive offices on the first floor were completed. Shortly after being elected to his first term. 
Governor James B. Hunt, Jr. announced his intention of moving some of the Office o\' 
the Governor back into the Capitol. Governor Hunt and Secretary of State Thad Eure 
are working residents in this symbol of government in North Carolina. 

In an effort to make the newly renovated Capitol more accessible to the people of 
North Carolina, the building has been opened to the public on weekends with guided 
tours available for all visitors. 



Historical Miscellanea 37 



Description of the Capitol 

by 
Architect David Paton 

The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 140 feet from east to 
west. The whole height is 97 Vi feet in the center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in 
height. The stylobate is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes are 
5 feet 2'/2 inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking course, is continued 
around the building 12 feet high. 

The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from the Temple of 
Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which was erected in Athens about 500 years 
before Christ. An octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Gre- 
cian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament to that of 
the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, the lower story, consist- 
ing of ten rooms, eight of which are appropriated as offices to the Governor, Secretar\ . 
Treasurer, and Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one contain- 
ing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two committee rooms, 
each containing 200 square feet and four closets: also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, 
and piazzas, contain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with 
columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the Acrop- 
olis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and brick, springing from columns 
and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives 1 chambers, the former 
containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from 
Senate Chamber, two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other 
two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter from Representa- 
tives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square feet; of two committee rooms, 
each containing an area of 23 1 square feet; of four presses and the passages, stairs, lob- 
bies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 

The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and antae of the Octagon 
Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the plan of the hall is of the formation of the 
Greek theatre and the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are of 
the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva, Polias, and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis of Athens, 
near the above named Parthenon. 

Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Supreme Court and Li- 
brary, each containing an area of 693 square feet. Galleries of both houses have an area 
of 1,300 square feet; also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square 
feet; of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These lobbies as well as ro- 
tunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed to finish the court and library in the florid 
Gothic style. 



38 North Carolina Manual 



THE CAPITOL 

by 
Edwin (Jill* 

I am the Capitol; upon my copper dome, I wear a crown. If it were gilded, it would 
Hash a signal to the sun. This crown is more than decoration. It is a symbol of sover- 
eignty. 

When the sun is bright and the arch of heaven is clear, the greenish-blue of my dome 
is bold against the sky. But sometimes, when the sun is veiled, the grey of my dome ap- 
pears to blend with infinity. 

Between 1933 and 1840, I was constructed of stone quarried nearby, which time has 
mellowed. These stones were precision cut and, nicely balanced. The traffic of human 
feet has worn some stones, and, occasionally, I have been roughly used. The edges of 
steps have been broken. But I am hale and hearty and will, of course, endure. 

The Court, the Legislature and the Auditor have left me for more modern homes. It is 
rumored that others may go. However, I am assured I shall become a shrine. Now what 
is a shrine? No one seems to know, except they say it has something to do with memory 
and Glory. 

I am complimented that many people are concerned about my condition. Questions 
have been raised. Let me assure one and all that I am solid and sound of body. My 
problems are mostly superficial. 

My roof has leaked a bit, and inquiries should be made into the soundness of the tim- 
bers that undergird it. Also, at appropriate intervals, my electrical wiring should be 
carefully examined. 

In fairness to the past, a sprinkler system was installed beneath my roof in 1939, and 
my exterior was cleaned effectively in 1952. 

But it is well to have the Governor, the Council of State and others concerned about 
my future. It is good to know there are those who care — to have a flutter of interest in 
my behalf. Even the pigeons and squirrels are concerned! 

Some time before the year is out, I am informed, we will dedicate, in an appropriate 
ceremony, the receipt from Italy of the figure of Washington carved in marble. It is meet 
and proper in anticipation of this event that I be cleaned, refurnished and made in every 
way presentable. Incidentally, my architect told me that in the original plans I was to 
have this statue. So, in a sense, I am unfinished until it is in place. 

There are those who think I should be restored to my former splendor. The doctors of 
history suggest I should be arrayed in the mode of 1840. This, I suppose has something 
to do with my ultimate status as a shrine. 

I favor this restoration. But I doubt that such a project can be completely achieved. 
After all, in recent times, I have become a creature of modern conveniences, such as cen- 
tral heating, inside plumbing and electricity — all unavailable in 1840. Whatever is done, 
my comfort should be considered. Especially, I would like to have hot, as well as cold, 
running water! 



*Mr. Gill was State Treasurer of North Carolina from 1953-1977. The above was ordered spread upon the 
minutes of the Council of State on June 17, 1970. 



Historical Miscellanea 39 



In my bosom laws were made. Through the decades, I have heard the thunders of elo- 
quence. I have been amused at the wit and tall tales of statesmen. 

Today my halls are silent. People come and go and look at me, and marvel at the 
stories of the past. They say I am a symbol of all that has been achieved within the borders 
of our State. So be it. I am a symbol. 



Historical Miscellanea 41 



THE LEGISLATIVE BUILDING 

The need for larger quarters for legislators and their respective staffs, and the growth 
of services provided by the legislative branch of government led the General Assembly 
of 1959 to appropriate funds for the formation of a Building Commission for the con- 
struction of a new building for the Legislature. A statute creating such a commission 
was ratified on June 12, 1959. It was to "consist of two persons who have served in the 
State Senate, appointed by the President of the Senate; two persons who have served in 
the House of Representatives, appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives; and three persons appointed by the Governor." 

Lieutenant Governor Luther E. Barnhardt, President of the Senate, appointed Archie 
K. Davis and Robert F. Morgan, who was elected Vice-chairman of the Commission; 
Speaker of the House Addison Hewlett appointed B. I. Satterfield and Thomas J. 
White, who was elected Chairman of the Commission; and Governor Hodges appoint- 
ed A. E. Finley, Edwin Gill, and Oliver R. Rowe. In addition to these members, Paul A. 
Johnston, Director of the Department of Administration, was elected Executive Secre- 
tary. The Commission elected Frank B.Turner, State Property Officer as Executive 
Secretary upon the resignation of Mr. Johnson. 

The Commission selected Edward Durell Stone of New York with John S. Holloway 
and Ralph B. Reeves, Jr., Associated as the architectural consultants. 

After a thorough study by the Commission, a site for construction was selected — a 
5 Vi acre area one block North of the Capitol. This site, encompassing two blocks, is 
bounded by Jones, Salisbury, Lane and Wilmington Streets. A section of Halifax Street 
between Jones and Lane was closed and made a part of the new site. 

Bids on the new building were received in December, 1960 and constrution began 
early the following year. The 1961 General Assembly appropriated an additional $1 mil- 
lion for furnishings and equipment. This brought the total appropriation to $5'/2 mil- 
lion or $1.24 for each citizen of North Carolina. (This figure based on the 1960 census.) 

One of the consulting architects wrote the following description of the new building: 

The State Legislative Building, though not an imitation of historic classical 
styles, is classical in character. Rising from a 340 foot wide podium of North 
Carolina granite, the building proper is 242 feet square. The walls and the 
columns are of Vermont marble, the latter forming a colonnade encompassing 
the building and reaching 24 feet from the podium to the roof of the second 
floor. 

Inset in the south podium floor, at the main entrance, is a 28 foot diameter 
terrazzo mosaid of the Great Seal of the State. From the first floor main en- 
trance (at Jones Street) the carpeted 22 foot wide main stair extends directly to 
the third floor and the public galleries of the Senate and House, the audi- 
torium, the display area, and the roof gardens. 

The four garden courts are located at the corners of the building. These 
courts contain tropical plants, and three have pools, fountains, and hanging 
planters. The main floor areas of the courts are located in the first floor, and 
messanines overlook the courts from the second floor. The skylights which 
provide natural lighting are located within the roof gardens overhead. The 
courts provide access to committee rooms in the first floor, the legislative 
chambers in the second floor, and to members' offices in both floors. 



42 North Carolina Mani \i 



The Senate and House chambers, each 5,180 square feet in area, occupy the 
east and west wings of the second floor. Following the traditional relationship 
of the two chambers in the Capitol, the two spaces are divided by the rotunda; 
and when the main brass doors are open, the two presiding officers face one 
another. Each pair of brass doors weigh 1,500 pounds. 

The five pyramidal roofs covering the Senate and House chambers, the au- 
ditorium, the main stair, and the rotunda are sheathed with copper, as is the 
Capitol. The pyramidal shape of the roofs is visible in the pointed ceilings in- 
side. The structural ribs form a coffered ceiling; and inside the coffered pat- 
terns, concentric patterns are outlined in gold. In each chamber, the distance 
from the floor to the peak of the ceiling is 45 feet. 

Chandeliers in the chambers and main stair are 8 feet in diameter and weigh 
625 pounds each. The 12 foot diameter chandelier of the rotunda, like the 
others, is of brass, but its weight is 750 pounds. 

Because of the interior environment, the garden courts and rotunda have 
tropical plants and trees. Outside, however, the shrubs and trees are of an in- 
digenous type. Among the trees in the gounds, on the roof areas are sugar 
maples, dogwoods, crabapples, magnolias, crepe myrtles, and pines. 

Throughout the building, the same color scheme is maintained: Walnut, 
white, gold and red, with green foliage. In general, all wood is American wal- 
nut, metal is brass or other gold colored material, carpets are red, and uphol- 
stery is gold or black. 

The enclosed area consists of 206,000 square feet of floor area with a volume 
of 3,210,000 cubic feet. Heating equipment provides over 7,000,000 B.T.U. per 
hour; and the cooling equipment has a capaciy of 620 tones. For lighting, 
motors, and other electircal equipment, the building has a connected service 
load of over 2,000,000 watts. 



Historical Miscellanea 43 



THE EXECUTIVE RESIDENCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina has not always provided an official home for its governors and their 
families. Prior to 1 770, the chief executive lived wherever he chose at his own expense. It 
was not until 1776 that the general assembly authorized the construction of the first 
such residence; in 1770 the magnificent Governor's Palace in New Bern was occupied by 
Royal Governor William Tryon. "Tryon's Palace,'' as the building came to be known, 
was destined to serve as the formal residence of governors for only a short time. It was 
exposed to the threats of enemy forces during the American Revolution, and the palace 
was virtually abandoned. In 1798 a fire destroyed all but the west wing. 

North Carolina's first legislators were traveling men. With no "fixed seat of govern- 
ment," early members of the general assembly traveled from plantation to plantation, 
town to town, until 1792, when a capital "city" was planned and laid out in the "hills of 
Wake" on Joel Lane's plantation. It was named in honor of the Elizabethan patron of 
early colonization, Sir Walter Raleigh. Shortly thereafter an act was passed by the legis- 
lature requiring the governor to reside at the permanent seat of government. Samuel 
Ashe of New Hanover was the first governor to come under this edict. He expressed his 
reaction emphatically: ". . . it was never supposed that a Man annually elected to the 
Chief Magistracy would commit such folly as to attempt the building of a House at the 
seat of Government in which he might for a time reside. 

The committee of the general assembly to whom Ashe's letter was referred hastened 
to inform him that the law was enacted before he was elected governor and could be 
considered "as a condition under the incumbrance of which he accepted the appoint- 
ment." 

Despite the remonstrance to Ashe, the general assembly took steps to provide a 
dwelling for the chief executive. The State Treasurer was instructed to purchase or lease 
a suitable house and, in 1797, a plain, two-story frame building, painted white, and an 
office for the governor were provided on lot 131, the southwest corner of Fayetteville 
and Hargett streets. 

This house proved helplessly inadequate. To remedy this situation, the general assem- 
bly, in 1813, appointed a committee to provide better facilities, and plans were made for 
the erection of a more suitable dwelling. A site was selected at the foot of Fayetteville 
Street facing the capitol. In 1816 the elaborate brick structure with white columned 
porticoes was completed and Governor William Miller became the first occupant of the 
"Governor's Palace." 

In traditional ante-bellum fashion, the twenty succeeding governors resided in the 
Palace, as it was officially termed, and much of the history of the state centered there. 
General Lafayette was a visitor in 1825. Some sessions of the general assembly were 
held in the Palace following the burning of the Capitol in 1831. The last governor to oc- 
cupy the Palace was Zebulon Baird Vance. Sherman and later federal occupants of the 
governor's palace, while they may have injured the pride of local citizens, did no serious 
damage to the building. But years of neglect and the structural inadequacy of the house 
from the very beginning made it unattractive to those governors coming into office in 
the years following the war. During the Reconstruction days, and until the present man- 
sion was built, the chief executives resided in Raleigh living in rented houses, hotels 
or— during two administrations — in their own homes. From 1871 to 1891 the 
Yarborough House, a noted Raleigh hotel, served as the unofficial residence for several 
North Carolina governors. 



Historical Miscellanea 45 



Governor Vance, the last occupant of the Palace, was again in office in 1879. In that 
year he presented the report of a commission appointed two years previously by the 
legislature to investigate the possibiliites of providing a suitable residence for the gover- 
nor. The commission was also charged with the task of selling unused State land in and 
adjacent to the city of Raleigh. Proceeds from these sales were earmarked for the con- 
struction of a house and outbuildings suitable for the governor. 

Meanwhile the matter of hiring an architect was investigated and David Paton natur- 
ally came to mind. Paton had established his reputation in North Carolina as the archi- 
tect of the State Capitol. He was an associate of Ithiel Town of New York, the architect 
originally consulted in rebuilding the Capitol. By the 1880's, however, Paton was in his 
middle seventies and age and poor health made it necessary for him to decline the invi- 
tation to visit Raleigh to help select a location and plan a house for the governor. 

The decision to build the present governor's mansion was made by the general assem- 
bly at the perseverance of Governor Thomas Jarvis. Under the governor's prompting 
the legislature approached the problem of providing adequate housing for the chief 
executive. A bill ratified in February, 1883, authorized construction of a house on 
Burke Square, provided for major furnishings, and required (upon its completion) the 
governor to occupy it. The governor and Council of State were directed to use convict 
labor and such materials as were "manufactured or prepared, either in whole or in 
part," at the penitentiary, when such a procedure seemed feasible. To finance the proj- 
ect, the governor was authorized to use money realized from the sale of State lands 
(1877) and was instructed to sell the old Palace and grounds. Expenditures were not to 
exceed the sum realized and an accurate accounting was demanded; a record of the 
money spent by the governor and council was to be entered on a journal and the auditor 
was instructed to check and file itemized accounts before issuing warrants for payment. 

Two months after passage of the bill, the Council of State met with the governor. 
Jarvis was then instructed to advertise the Palace and grounds for immediate sale and to 
employ an architect to make sketches and specifications for the Council's consideration. 
Governor Jarvis accordingly wrote W. J. Hicks, architect and warden of the prison, sug- 
gesting a plan which called for construction of the house under exclusive direction of the 
penitentiary authorities and payment of a definite sum to that institution. The law pro- 
vided that the council and the governor might call on the penitentiary for all the labor 
and material it could furnish "in whole or in part." Jarvis felt there might be some dif- 
ferences of opinion as to the meaning of the statement. He reasoned that with construc- 
tion work then being done at the penitentiary, by using the same material and labor in 
building the mansion, a saving could be realized in buying in larger quantities. From a 
practical standpoint Jarvis thought the State would profit by having both projects under 
the same management, and experienced businessmen advised such a plan might save the 
State as much as twenty thousand dollars. 

Samuel Sloan of Philadelphia and his assistant, Gustavus Adolphus Bauer, were 
chosen as architects. Sloan arrived in Raleigh on April 28, 1883, with his designs for the 
residence. These were declared "very artistic, representing an ornate bulding, in modern 
style, three stories in height, with the ample porches, hallways, and windows which 
every house built in this climate should have." On May 7 came the news that the designs 
submitted by Sloan had been accepted, with some modifications suggested b) "able 
builders" of the city. 



Historical Miscellanea 47 



Officers at the penitentiary board making a report (1882-1884) declared the building 
handsome in design, constructed of the best material by the best workers, using pressed 
brick made at the prison and trimmed with North Carolina sandstone which, they felt, 
gave "a very happy relief to the external appearance." They also expressed satisfaction 
with the artistry and convenience of the house's interior and wished to enhance it 
further by using an "elaborate North Carolina hard-wood finish." 

In another progress report, a year later, Jarvis gave the additional information that 
the stone was quarried in Anson County and most of the work in finishing it had been 
done by the convicts. He also favored an interior of North Carolina hardwood, includ- 
ing the ceiling, wainscotting, and woodwork of the halls and rooms of the first floor. 

Dreams of a beautiful mansion for the governor were in danger of being lost as 1889 
dawned. Money for its construction had run out. A meeting of the Council of State and 
the governor was called to discuss the question of beginning work on the house again 
and pushing it to completion. As a result of their discussion, the governor was given au- 
thority "to cause the sale of the property in Raleigh belonging to the fund, the sale of 
which was provided for by the recent legislature, and to appropriate the proceeds to the 
work of completing the mansion." 

By the end of December, 1890, the house was nearly finished but Governor Daniel 
Fowle did not move in until after the new year. He was particularly anxious to occupy 
the house in view of the earlier attempts to abandon it as a residence for the governor. 

As soon as the mansion was reported "erected," the Council of State announced the 
Board of Public Buildings and Grounds would have charge of its supervision. The 
board was to take over in December. But in November, before it was occupied, repair 
and preservation work had already begun with "certain exterior and interior painting" 
of the woodwork. Most of the accounts emphasize the deplorable condition of the 
"completed house. The plumbing was cheap and dirt was laid between the floor to 
deaden sound. 

The third floor and basement were left unfinished. On the lot were stables for "horses 
driven to the governor's carriage" and other outhouses. A pump provided drinking 
water for the mansion and a little gas engine pumped water from the two cisterns in the 
basement to a tank on the top floor. 

The earliest laws providing for the construction of a governor's residence, as well as 
most of the later planning, called for the purchase of furnishings. As the cost of con- 
struction mounted, only a small portion of money remained for furniture. Some pur- 
chases were made, however, before the house was furnished and an appropriation of 
$1500 in 1891 made further purchases possible. Other furnishings were bought by the 
individual occupants during their stay in the mansion. 

On moving in, Governor Fowle brought his own furniture to make up the deficit in 
the mansion, setting a precedent followed for many years before the house was ade- 
quately furnished. He filed a list of furnishings in the treasurer's office to avoid any con- 
fusion in the future as to who owned what. 

Elias Carr was the first governor to live at the mansion for a full term (1893-1897) of 
four years. Like his predecessors he soon found the house in need of furnishings and re- 
pairs. Funds were allocated by the legislature in February for necessary furniture and 
for "completion and repairing the mansion." Two years later another appropriation 
was made for work on the grounds. Some time previously the attorney general had 



48 North Carolina Manual 



ruled that the mansion and grounds, as public property, were under the care of the 
Board of Public Buildings and Grounds and directly under the supervision of the keeper 
oi' the capitol. 

As frequently seemed the case with new governors, Governor Bickett's residency be- 
gan with an inspection of the mansion and recommendations in keeping with the needs 
found there. The superintendent of buildings and grounds made a detailed report in ad- 
dition to the recommendations for improving the interior made by Architect James A. 
Salter and Mrs. Bickett. The repairs and improvements recommended for the exterior 
and surrounding grounds were extensive, amounting to nearly ten thousand dollars. 

Shortly after Governor Daniel Russell came into office in 1897, the legislature ap- 
pointed a committee to examine the mansion and see whether it needed any alterations. 
The committee reported that repairs were needed and a resolution was promptly intro- 
duced to provide the necessary money. 

Mrs. Bickett wrote a letter to the joint committee on public buildings and grounds of 
the legislature and attached estimates given by Salter. Her plea received sufficient atten- 
tion to merit the introduction of a bill for the requested repairs and renovations with the 
provision that these be made up to an expenditure of $65,000 out of any funds in the 
hands of the State Treasurer not otherwise appropriated." This optimistic bill, however, 
failed to pass and a substitute law was enacted in March, 1917, allowing $4,000 "to ren- 
ovate, equip, and properly furnish the Governor's Mansion and improve the surround- 
ing grounds." The succeeding legislature passed another act, allowing an expenditure of 
$2,000 annually for the years 1919 and 1920. 

As preparations were made for Governor Angus W. McLean's residence in the man- 
sion, previous renovations were considered inadequate by the incoming governor and 
citizens alike. Sentiment for abandoning the house was aroused once more; it was so ob- 
solete and so uncomfortable, public opinion in Raleigh favored scrapping the building 
and providing the governor with a new house in one of the city's residential sections. 
Burke Square could then be used as a public partk. 

Secretary of State W. N. Everett halted the movement. Rather than do away with the 
mansion, he thought it should be repaired and furnished in such a way as to provide a 
comfortable dwelling. Thus, he and Governor McLean must be credited not only with 
saving the mansion but also making it, for the first time, a house in keeping with the dig- 
nity of the governor and his office. 

McLean's plans for renovating and refurnishing were based on information beyond 
that gained through casual observation and the complaints of his predecessors. Some- 
time earlier the legislature had passed a law requiring the State Board of Health to in- 
spect all state institutions for sanitation, and the mansion, coming under this category, 
was inspected in February, 1925, shortly after McLean's inauguration. 

The report from the Board of Health was startling. Inspection was made and ratings 
given on the basis used in inspecting hotels: the mansion received "the very low rating of 
71." The report added that the management of a hotel receiving such a rating would be 
subject to indictment. A further charge was made that the principal deductions in scor- 
ing were for uncleanliness. 

Dr. W. S. Rankin, State Health Officer, after accompanying the sanitary engineer on 
his tour of inspection of the mansion, was so impressed with the necessity of making 
these improvements, he felt it his duty to bring the matter before the general assembly. 



Historical Miscellanea 49 



Secretary of State Everett had made his own examination and reported major repairs 
were needed for the sake of preservation. He suggested a sum not exceeding $50,000 for 
these repairs and new furnishings. Although this action was taken without McLean's 
knowledge, upon learning of it, he soon became active in seeking authority to begin the 
much-needed repairs. 

When money became available a firm of architects, Atwood and Nash, were em- 
ployed to carry out the renovations. H. Pier-Giavina, a "decorative artist" of Wilming- 
ton helped in the interior decorating. Renovation included painting throughout and 
modernizing of plumbing and electrical facilities. 

In working out a scheme of decoration and deciding on furniture purchases, the serv- 
ices of Elizabeth Thompson, local interior decorator, and the experience of Mrs. 
McLean were employed. The first lady, whose efforts were bent toward the simple and 
substantial, was eminently fitted for the task by her own "excellent taste and wide ob- 
servation." Cloak rooms and servants quarters were added to the basement and the pre- 
viously unfinished third floor. 

It was not until McLean's administration, in 1925, that the legislature made a specific 
appropriation for maintaining the governor's mansion. Previously, expenditures were 
made, as needed, out of the general fund. 

The renovation undertaken by Governor McLean was not actually completed while 
he was in residence. This was particularly true of the furnishings. Governor-elect Gard- 
ner felt the home of the governor should preserve a uniform appearance regardless of 
the temporary occupant. He asked the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds to 
confer with the McLeans to determine what was needed and to make provisions for 
these needs before he came into office. McLean brought the matter to the attention of 
the board and a "Special Furniture and Equipment Account Available for Incoming 
Governor" was set up for this purpose. 

The Gardners had not been in the mansion long before the legislature passed an act 
authorizing the State Highway Commission to build and maintain walkways and drives 
"within the Mansion Square. . .". Included in this project was a plan for a general 
landscaping of the mansion grounds. 

For advice in landscaping, Thomas W. Sears, landscape architect of Philadelphia, 
was contacted. Blueprints were drawn and plans submitted. Mrs. Gardner's concern for 
landscaping the gounds led to further interest in the exterior appearance of the house 
and at their suggestion the outside woodwork was painted brown to blend with the 
sandstone and brick. 

The master plan drawn by Elizabeth Thompson in 1925, at Governor McLean's re- 
quest, provided a guide for succeeding residents and allowed some consistency in fur- 
nishings and decoration. Governors of the past few decades— Ehringhaus, Hoey, 
Broughton, Cherry, Scott, Umstead, Hodges, Sanford, Moore, and Scott -have wit- 
nessed further changes and improvements. 

The feasibility of continuing to use the Mansion as both an official residence and as 
the domicile of the governor and his family during his term of office has come to the 
forefront in recent years. The massive structure for all its beauty and heritage has been 
questioned from a practical aspect. The 1971 General Assembly created "The Executive 
Residence Building Commission" to study the current needs of the Executive family 
and to make recommendations regarding the future use of the Mansion. The commis- 



50 North Carolina Manual 



sion was composed of seven members, two appointed by Lieutenant Governor Pat 
Taylor Mr. John Church and Mr. J. J. Harrington from the membership of the Sen- 
ate, two appointed by Speaker of the House Phil Godwin — Mr. Kenneth Royall and 
Mr. Dwight Quinn from the membership of the House, and three appointed by Gov- 
ernor Bob Scott Mr. Wayne Corpening, Mrs. Gladys Bullard, and Mr. Charles Brad- 
shaw. An advisor) committee was also authorized to aid the Residence Commission on 
technical aspects. 

The work of the Commission covered nearly two years of study, including periodic 
meetings as well as visits to other states to view Mansions and residences "which they 
deemed most appropriate in design and suited to the needs of the Governor of North 
Carolina." Following these visits, and after hearing presentations from six architectural 
firms, recommendations were made to the Capital Building Authority, and the firm of 
Dodge and Beckwith was commissioned to draw up the plans and to make cost esti- 
mates for a new Executive Residence. The plans were accepted on October 5, 1972 and 
the cost estimate given to the governor and Advisory Budget Commission on October 
30, for inclusion in the 1973-1975 budget proposals to the general assembly. 

Included in the report made to the 1973 General Assembly was an Addendum con- 
taining suggestions, made at the request of the commission, from Mr. Carroll Mann. 
then State Property Officer, regarding the renovation of the Mansion and the cost of 
such an undertaking. Also included in the Addendum were suggestions by the commis- 
sion members for "modernizing and restoring the Executive Mansion," if it was kept as 
the Executive Residence. As a result of the Study Commission's report, the 1973 Gener- 
al Assembly appropriated $575,000 for renovation and alterations of the Executive 
Mansion. Work began during the summer, 1973, and was completed in late 1974. The 
plans for the constructing of a new executive mansion have been dropped. 

Since these initial renovations in 1973 and 1974, additional renovation and moderni- 
zation work has been done to the Mansion to improve its energy efficiency and live- 
ability. 



Historical Miscellanea 51 



THE STATE FLAG 

The flag is an emblem of antiquity and has commanded respect and reverence from 
practically all nations from the earliest times. History traces it to divine origin, the earl) 
peoples of the earth attributing to it strange, mysterious, and supernatural powers. In- 
deed, our first recorded references to the standard and the banner, of which our present 
flag is but a modified form, are from sacred rather than from secular sources. We are 
told that it was around the banner that the prophets of old rallied their armies and 
under which the hosts of Israel were led to war, believing, as they did, that it carried 
with it divine favor and protection. 

Since that time all nations and all peoples have had their flags and emblems, though 
the ancient superstition regarding their divine merits and supernatural powers has dis- 
appeared from among civilized peoples. The flag now, the world over, posseses the same 
meaning and has a uniform significance to all nations wherever found. It stands as the 
symbol of strength and unity, representing the national spirit and patriotism of the peo- 
ple over whom it floats. In both lord and subject, the ruler and the ruled, it commands 
respect, inspires patriotism, and instills loyalty both in peace and war. 

In this country we have a national flag which stands as the emblem of our strength 
and unity as a nation, a living representation of our national spirit and honor. In addi- 
tion to our national flag, each of the states in the Union has a "state flag" symbolic of 
its own individuality and domestic ideals, which is expressive of some particular trait, or 
commemorative of some historical event, of the people over whom it floats. The flags of 
most of the states, however, consist of the coat of arms of that state upon a suitably 
colored field. It is said that the first state flag of North Carolina was built on this model, 
but so far as we can learn from the records the first legislation on this subject of estab- 
lishing and recognizing a "state flag" was in the year 1861. 

The constitutional convention of 1861, which passed the ordinance of secession, 
adopted what is termed a state flag. On May 20, 1861, the day the secession resolution 
was adopted, Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the convention from Craven Counn . 
introduced the following ordinance, which was referred to a select committee of seven. 

Be it ordained. That the flag of this State shall be blue field with a white V thereon, 
and a star, incircling which shall be the words "Surgit astrum. May 20th, 1775." 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committee to which this ordinance was 
referred. The committee secured the aid and advice of William Jarl Browne, an artist of 
Raleigh. Browne prepared and submitted a model to this committee. And this model 
was adopted by the convention of June 22, 1861. It will be observed that the Browne 
model, to be hereafter explained, was vastly different from the one originally proposed 
by Colonel Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears in the ordinance and resolu- 
tions passed by the convention: 



AN ORDINANCE IN RELATION TO A STATE FLAG 

Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by the authority of the same, 
That the Flag of North Carolina shall consist of a red field with a white star in the cen- 
tre, and with the inscription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of "May 20th, 
1775," and below the star, in a semicircular form, of "May 20th, 1861." That there shall 
be two bars of equal width, and the length of the field shall be equal to the bar. the \sidth 



52 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 53 



of the field being equal to both bars: the first bar shall be blue, and second shall be 
white; and the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. [Ratijied the 22nd 
day of June, 1861.] 

This state flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to North Carolina regi- 
ments of state troops during the summer of that year and was borne by them through- 
out the war, being the only flag, except the national and Confederate colors, used by the 
North Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 1885, when the Leg- 
islature adopted a new model. 

As stated above the Legislature of 1885 adopted a new state flag. The bill, which was 
introduced by General Johnstone Jones on February 5, 1885, passed its final reading 
one month later after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue union, contain- 
ing in the centre thereof a white star with the letter N. in gilt on the left and the letter C. 
in gilt on the right of said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

SEC. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally proportioned bars; the up- 
per bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; that the length of the bars horizontally shall 
be equal to the perpendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall be 
one-third more than its width. 

SEC. 3. That above the star in the centre of the union there shall be a gilt scroll in 
semi-circular form, containing in black letters this inscription "May 20th, 1775," and 
that below the star there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscrip- 
tion: "April 12th, 1776." 

SEC. 4. That this act shall take effect from and after its ratification. 
In the General Asembly read three times and ratified this 9th day of March, A.D. 1885. 

Perhaps, it may be of interest to make a passing reference to the significance of the 
dates found on each flag. The first date, "May 20th, 1775," refers to the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence, the authenticity of which we shall not here stop either to 
doubt or to defend. The second date appearing on the state flag of 1861 is that of "May 
20th, 1861." This date commemorated the secession of the State from the Union; but as 
the cause of secession was defeated this date no longer represented anything after the 
Civil War. So when a new flag was adopted in 1885, this date was removed, and an- 
other, "April 12th, 1776," took its place. This date commemorates the Halifax 
Resolves — a document that places the Old North State in the very front rank, both in 
point of time and in spirit, among those that demanded unconditional freedom and ab- 
solute independence from any foreign poer. This document stands out as one of the 
great landmarks in the annals of North Carolina history. 

Since 1885 there has been no change in our state flag. For the most part, it has re- 
mained unknown and a stranger to the good people of our State. However, as we be- 
came more intelligent, and therefore, more patriotic and public spirited, the emblem ol 
the Old North State assumed a station of greater prominence among our people. One 
hopeful sign of this increased interest was the act passed by the Legislature of 1907. re- 
quiring the state flag to be floated from all state institutions, public buildings, and 
courthouses. In addition to this, many public and private schools, fraternal orders, and 



54 North Caroj ina Manuai 



other organizations now float the state Hag. The people of the State should become 
acquainted with the emblem of that government to which they owe allegiance and from 
which they secure protection. 

AN ACT TO PROMOTE LOYALTY AND GREATER RESPECT 
FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That for the purpose of promoting greater loyalty and respect to the 
state and inasmuch as a special act of the Legislature has adopted an emblem of our gov- 
ernment known as the North Carolina State Hag, that it is meet and proper that it shall 
be given greater prominence. 

SEC. 2. That the board of trustees or managers of the several state insitutions and 
public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, of such dimensions and materials 
as they may deem best, and the same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each 
and every such building at all times except during inclement weather, and upon the 
death of any state officer or any prominent citizen the flag shall be put at half-mast until 
the burial of such person shall have taken place. 

SEC. 3. That the Board of County Commissioners of the several counties in this state 
shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Carolina flag, to be displayed either on 
a staff upon the top, or draped behind thejudge's stand, in each and every courthouse in 
the state, and that the state flag shall be displayed at each and every term of court held, 
and on such other public occasions as the Commissioners may deem proper. 

SEC. 4. That no state flag shall be allowed in or over any building here mentioned 
that does not conform to section five thousand three hundred and twenty-one of the 
Revisal of one thousand nine hundred and five. 

SEC. 5. That this act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 9th day of March, 
A.D. 1907. 

The "first Hag of 1861 had the date "May 20, 1861" as well as that of May 20, 1775. 
The date of May 20, 1861 represented the date North Carolina seceded from the union; 
however, since the secession cause no longer existed after 1865, the date "April 12, 
1776" was substituted in 1885. This date is known to most North Carolinians as the 
date of the Halifax Resolves, a document which was one of the first calls by the colonies 
for unconditional independence from Great Britain. The latter date. May 20, 1775, is 
the date of the alledged signing of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. His- 
torians have for many years debated the authenticity of the document since no original 
document exists. The only documentation is a reproduction from memory many years 
later by one of the delegates attending the convention. The main argument of historians 
against the authenticity of the document — other than its non-existence in original docu- 
mentation — is that the Mecklenburg Resolves adopted just eleven days after the al- 
ledged adoption of the Declaration are comparatively weak in tone, almost to the point 
of complete opposites. It is difficult for historians to believe that the irreconcilable tone 
of the Declaration could have been the work of the same people who produced the re- 
solves. Efforts have been made to have the date taken off both the flag and the seal, but 
as yet, these have proved fruitless. Removal from the seal would be simple enough, for 
the date of the Halifax Resolves could be substituted easily without changing the basic 
intention of the date. The flag is another matter, for there is no other date of signifi- 
cance which could be easily substituted. 



Historical Miscellanea 



55 



THE MECKLENBURG DECLARATION OF 20TH MAY, 1775* 

OFFICERS 

Abraham Alexander, Chairman 
John McKnitt Alexander, Clerk 



Col. Thomas Polk 
Ephriam Brevard 
Hezekiah J. Balch 
John Phifer 
James Harris 
William Kennon 
John Ford 
Richard Barry 
Henry Downs 



DELEGATES 

Ezra Alexander 
William Graham 
John Quary 
Abraham Alexander 
John McKnitt Alexander 
Hezekiah Alexander 
Adam Alexander 
Charles Alexander 
Zacheus Wilson, Sen. 



Waightsill Avery 
Benjamin Patton 
Mathew McClure 
Neil Morrison 
Robert Irwin 
John Flenniken 
David Reese 
Richard Harris, Sen. 



The following resolutions were presented: 

1. Resolved. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in any way form or 
manner contenanced the unchartered and dangerous invasion of our rights as claimed 
by Great Britain is an enemy to this country, to America, and to the inherent and in- 
alienable rights of man. 

2. Resolved. That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby dissolve the 
political bonds which have connected us to the mother country and hereby absolve our- 
selves from all allegiance to the British Crown and abjure all political connections con- 
tract or association with that nation who have wantonly trampled on our rights and lib- 
erties and inhumanly shed the blood of American patriots at Lexington. 

3. Resolved. That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent people, are. 
and of right ought to be a sovereign and self-governing association under the control of 
no power other than that of our God and the General Government of the Congress to 
the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual 
cooperation, our lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. 

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and control of no law or legal 
officer, civil or military within this County, we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of 
life all, each and every of our former laws — wherein nevertheless the Crown of Great 
Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, immunities, or authority 
therein. 

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every Military Officer in this 
County is hereby reinstated in his former command and authority, he acting conform- 
ably to these regulations. And that every member present of this delegation shall hence- 
forth be a civil officer, viz., a justice of the peace, in the character of a "committee man" 
to issue process, hear and determine all matters of controversy according to said adopt- 
ed laws and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, and to use ever) exer- 
tion to spread the love of Country and fire of freedom throughout America, until a 
more general and organized government be established in this Province. 

*This document is found in Vol. IX, pages 1263-65 of the Colonial Records nl North Carolina: however, the 
authenticity of the declaration has become a source of controversy among historians. The contro\ cr-<\ ,tn->i> be- 
cause the text of the Resolves was recalled from memory by the clerk some t\vent> sears alter the Mecklenburg 
meeting. The original notes had been lost in a fire. 



56 Nor in Carolina Manual 



THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION* 

"The Select Committee taking into Consideration the usurpations and violences at- 
tempted and committed by the King and Parliament o\' Britain against America, and the 
further Measures to be taken for frustrating the same, and for the better defence of this 
province reported as follows, to wit, 

"It appears to your Committee that pursuant to the Plan concerted by the British 
Ministr) for subjugating America, the King and Parliament of Great Britain have 
usurped a Power over the Persons and Properties of the People unlimited and uncon- 
trouled; and disregarding their humble Petitions for Peace, Liberty and safety, have 
made divers Legislative Acts, denouncing War Famine and every Species o\' Calamity 
against the Continent in General. That British Fleets and Armies have been and still are 
daily employed in destroying the People and committing the most horrid devastations 
on the Country. That Governors in different Colonies have declared Protection to 
Slaves who should imbrue their Hands in the Blood of their Masters. That the Ships be- 
longing to America are declared prizes of War and many of them have been violently 
seized and confiscated in consequence of which multitudes of the people have been de- 
stroyed or from easy Circumstances reduced to the most Lamentable distress. 

"And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United Colonies and their 
sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother Country on Constitutional Principles, have 
procured no mitigation of the aforesaid Wrongs and usurpations and no hopes remain 
of obtaining redress by those Means alone which have been hitherto tried, Your Com- 
mittee are of Opinion that the house should enter into the following Resolve, to wit 

"Resolved that the delegates for this Colony in the Continental Congress be im- 
powered to concur with the delegates of the other Colonies in declaring Independency, 
and forming foreign Alliances, resolving to this Colony the Sole, and Exclusive right of 
forming a Constitution and Laws for this Colony, and of appointing delegates from 
time to time (under the direction of a general Representation thereof) to meet the dele- 
gates of the other Colonies for such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out." 



*The Halifax Resolves were unanimously adopted on April 12, 1776 by the 83 delegates present at the Fourth 
Provincial Congress assembled in Halifax. This was the first official action calling for independence taken by a 
stale. It is important not only for this reason, but also because it was not a unilateral recommendation, but rather 
one directed to all the colonies and their delegates assembled at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Vir- 
ginia followed soon after and on July 4 the final draft of the Declaration of Independence was signed. 



Historical Miscellanea 57 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 

(Unanimously Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia) 

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve 
the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the 
powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of 
Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that 
they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are 
endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights; that among these are Life, 
Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That, to secure these rights, Governments are in- 
stituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; That, 
whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of 
the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its founda- 
tions on such principles, and organizing its powers in such forms, as to them shall seem 
most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that 
Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; 
and, accordingly, all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, 
while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they 
are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariabk 
the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their 
right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for 
their future security. Such has been the patient sufference of these Colonies, and such is 
now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. 
The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and 
usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over 
these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public 
good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, 
unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and, when so sus- 
pended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, 
unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature— a 
right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at placed unusual, uncomfortable and dis- 
tant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them 
into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firm- 
ness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; 
whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People 
at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the dan- 
gers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States for that purpose ob- 
structing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage 



58 North Carolina Mam ai 



their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his assent to laws for es- 
tablishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and 
the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to har- 
ass our people, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of 
Our Legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of, and superior to, the Civil 
power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitu- 
tion, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Leg- 
islation. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they 
should commit on the inhabitants of these States: 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas, to be tried for pretended offenses; 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, estab- 
lishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it 
at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these 
Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fun- 
damentally, the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power 
to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging 
War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the 
lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the 
works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty 
and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the 
Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens, taken captive on the high Seas, to bear Arms 
against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to 
fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on 
the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of war- 
fare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most hum- 
ble terms; Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, 
whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free people. 



Historical Miscellanea 



59 



Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them 
from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdic- 
tion over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settle- 
ment here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have con- 
jured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation, which in- 
evitably interrupt our connections with correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, 
which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind- 
Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. 

We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General 
Congress Assembled; appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of 
our intentions, do, in the Name and by authority of the good People of these Colonics, 
solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be 
free and independent States; that they are Absolved from All Allegiance to the British 
Crown, and that all political connections between them and the State of Great Britain 
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, the\ 
have full power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, 
and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for 
the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Provi- 
dence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred 
Honor. 



Button Gwinnett 

Lyman Hall 

Geo[rge] Walton 

W[illia]m Hooper 

Joseph Hewes 

John Penn 

Tho[ma]s Stone 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton 

James Wilson 

Geo[rge] Ross 

Caesar Rodney 

Geofrge] Reed 

Tho. M. Kean 

W[illia]m Floyd 

Phil [lip] Livingston 

Fran[ci]s Lewis 

Lewis Morris 

Rich[ar]d Stockton 

J[onatha]n Witherspoon 

Fras. Hopkinson 

John Hart 

Abra Clark 

George Wythe 

Richard Henry Lee 

Th[omas] Jefferson 

Benja[min] Harrison 

Tho[ma]s Nelson, Jr. 

Francis Lightfoot Lee 



John Hancock 

Edward Rutledge 
Thomas Heyward, Junr. 
Thomas Lynch, Junr. 
Arthur Middleton 
Samuel Chase 
W[illia] Paca 
Carter Braxton 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Benjamin Rush 
Benja[min] Franklin 
John Morton 
Geo[rge] Clymer 
Ja[me]s Smith 
Geo[rge] Taylor 
Josiah Bartlett 
W[illia]m Hippie 
Sam[ue]l Adams 
John Adams 
Rob[er]t Treat Payne 
Eldridge Gerry 
Step[hen] Hopkins 
William Ellery 
Roger Sherman 
Samuel Huntington 
W[illia]m Williams 
Oliver Woolcott 
Matthew Thornton 



60 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 6) 



THE AMERICAN FLAG 

A flag is more than just a piece of brightly colored cloth fluttering in the breeze. It is a 
symbol that represents a cause, an idea, or a purpose. Every country in the world has a 
flag — a national symbol with a special meaning. A symbol that can stir people to joy 
and sadness, to courage and sacrifice. A flag's gentle ripple as it is caught by a soft 
breeze, or its violent twisting when caught by a sudden gust of wind is a sight to behold. 
Even the most depressed of people feel their spirits lifted when their eyes fall upon the 
flag of their country. Hearts beat with a sense of pride and feelings are transformed into 
happiness and gratitude. 

Origins of the American Flag 

In 1775, the Philadelphia Troop of Light Horse Harry Lee carried a standard with 
thirteen alternating blue and silver stripes in the upper left-hand corner. At Cambridge 
on January 2, 1776, Washington, without authorization of the Continental Congress 
raised a flag consisting of thirteen alternate white and red stripes with the crosses of St. 
George and St. Andrew in a blue field on the upper left-hand corner. It was called the 
"Union Flag," "Grand Union Flag," and the "Continental Flag," and was employed 
until displaced by the Stars and Stripes adopted by the Continental Congress. 

Historians are unsure of who designed the first flag. Francis Hopkinson, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, claims to have been the designer of the 
Stars and Stripes. A native of Philadelphia, born September 21, 1737, Hopkinson was a 
graduate of the University of Pennsylvania. He was a lawyer and later served as a judge 
in both New Jersey and Philadelphia. He is also credited with designing the first Great 
Seal of the United States. He died in Philadelphia May 9, 1791. 

The traditional story that Betsy Ross, as early as June 1776, made a stars and stripes 
flag from a pencil sketch supplied by Washington, but changed the points of the stars 
from six to five, is repudiated by most historians. Noted historian Theodore D. Gottlieb 
states that while Betsy Ross did make flags, she did not make the first stars and stripes 
flag. He writes: 

The Department of State, the War and Navy departments, the Historical Sites Com- 
mission of Philadelphia and other official bodies repudiate the legend. The book and 
pamphlet material available is overwhelmingly against the legend. 

The story arose for the first time on March 14, 1870, when William J. Canby read a 
paper before the Pennsylvania Historical Society in which he states that in 1836. when 
his grandmother, Betsy Ross, was 84 years old and he was 1 1, she told him the story. He 
apparently thought little of it because nothing was done until 1857, when at the sugges- 
tion of his Aunt Clarissa, oldest daughter of Betsy, he wrote out the notes as he remem- 
bered the conversation. 

Nothing further was done until 1870 when he wrote his paper. The Historical Societj 
of Pennsylvania thought so little of the paper it neither catalogued nor kept a copj of it. 
Even George Canby, younger brother of William, disputed several points in the paper 

The legend grew to strength from 1888 to 1893 when promotors secured an option on 
the so-called Flag House. 

Modern historical researchers are giving much thought to Francis Hopkinson ol New 
Jersey as the possible designer and the Fillmore or Bennington Hag as the first flag. 



62 North Carolina Manual 



Modern historical researchers are giving much thought to Francis Hopkinson of New 
Jersey as the possible designer and the Fillmore or Bennington flag as the first flag. 

Half a dozen localities claim to have been the place where the Stars and Stripes was 
first used. Within New York State such contention has been for Fort Ann on July 8, 
Fort Stanwix on August 3, Bennington on August 13, and Saratoga on September 19, 
1777. The flag with thirteen stripes and thirteen stars, authorized on June 14, 1777, con- 
tinued to be used as the national emblem until Congress passed the following act, which 
President Washington signed: 

"That from and after May 1, 1795, the flag of the United States he fifteen stripes, al- 
ternate red and white; and that the union be fifteen stars, white in a blue field." 

This action was necessitated by the admission of the States of Vermont and Kentucky 
to the Union. 

The flag of 1795 had the stars arranged in three rows of five each instead of in a circle, 
and served for 23 years. 

With the admission of more new states, however, it became apparent that the 1795 
would have to be further modified; hence in 1818 a law was passed by Congress provid- 
ing: 

"That from and after the fourth day of July next, the flag of the United States be 
thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the union have twenty stars, 
white in a blue field. 

"That on the admission of every new state into the Union, one star be added to the 
union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect on the Fourth of July next suc- 
ceeding such admission." 

Since 1818 additional stars have been added until today they are 50 on the flag. No 
law has been passed to designate how the stars shall be arranged. At one time they 
formed a design of a larger star. Now they form five rows of six stars each and four rows 
of five stars each. 

Each flag's colors and designs have specific meanings. Our Flag, "Old Glory"' as it is 
often referred to and which parallels the origin of our country stands for the hard work 
and sacrifice of millions of Americans. Its seven red and six white stripes represent the 
thirteen original colonies. Its white stars on a blue field represent the union of the states. 
The flag makers left no records to tell us why they chose red, white and blue for the 
colors of the Flag. In 1 782, the colors of the Flag were made part of the newly designed 
Great Seal of the United States, and the Department of State said the colors have these 
meanings: 

RED — hardiness and courage 

WHITE the symbol of purity and innocence 

BLUE — vigilance, perseverance and justice 

There is a legend that George Washington said: 

"We take the stars and blue union from 
Heaven, the red from our mother country, 
separating it by white stripes, thus 
showing we have separated from her, and 
the white stripes shall go down to 
posterity representing liberty." 

The "Stars and Stripes," proportions and shape was first made official by President 

William Howard Taft in 1912, although he withdrew his order six months later. Presi- 



Historical Miscellanea 53 



dent Woodrow Wilson, in 1916, put the order back into effect and it remains in effect 
today. The horizontal length is 1 9/10 times its vertical width. The union is as wide, 
vertically, as seven of the thirteen stripes. The horizontal length of the union is 76/100 
the vertical width of the Flag. 

The Proper Display 

SEC. 1. That the following codification of existing rules and customs pertaining to 
the display and use of the flag of the United States of America be, and is hereby, estab- 
lished for the use of such civilians or civilian groups or organizations as may not be re- 
quired to conform with regulations promulgated by one or more executive departments 
of the Government of the United States. The flag of the United States for the purpose of 
this chapter shall be defined according to title 4, United States Code, Chapter 1 , section 
1 and section 2 and Executive Order 10834 issued pursuant thereto. 

SEC. 2(a) It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on 
buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic effect is 
desired, the flag may be displayed twenty-four hours a day if properly illuminated dur- 
ing the hours of darkness. 

(b) The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously. 

(c) The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, 
except when an all weather flag is displayed. 

(d) The flag should be displayed on all days, especially on New Year's Day, 
January 1; Inauguration Day, January 20; Lincoln's Birthday, February 12; Washing- 
ton's Birthday, third Monday in February; Easter Sunday (variable); Mother's Day, 
second Sunday in May; Armed Forces Day, third Saturday in May; Memorial Day 
(half-staff until noon), the last Monday in May; Flag Day, June 14; Independence Day, 
July 4; Labor Day, first Monday in September; Constitution Day, September 17; Col- 
umbus Day, second Monday in October; Navy Day, October 27; Veterans Day, No- 
vember 11; Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November; Christmas Day, Decem- 
ber 25; and such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the United States: 
The birthdays of States (date of admission); and on State holidays. 

(e) The flag should be displayed daily on or near the main administration 
building of every public institution. 

(f) The flag should be displayed in or near every polling place on election 
days. 

(g) The flag should be displayed during school days in or near every school- 
house. 

SEC. 3 That the flag, when carried in a procession with another flag or flags, should 
be either on the marching right; that is, the flag's own right, or, if there is a line of other 
flags, in front of the center of that line. 

(a) The flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a stall. 
or as provided in subsection (i). 

(b) The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a vehi- 
cle or of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motor car. the stall 
should be fixed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the right fender. 

* Public Law 94-344 (94th Congress, S.J. Resolution 49, July 7, 1976.) 



64 North Carolina Manual 



(c) No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, 
to the right of the flag of the United States of America, except during church services 
conducted by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be flown above the 
flag during church services for the personnel of the Navy. 

(d) The flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with an- 
other Hag against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, and its staff should 
be in front of the staff of the other flag. 

(e) The flag of the United States of America should be at the center and at the 
highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or pennants of 
societies are grouped and displayed from staffs. 

(0 When flags of states, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are flown 
on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should always be at the 
peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag of the United States should 
be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or pennant may be placed above the flag 
of the United States or to the United States Flag's right. 

(g) When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown 
from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately equal size. 
International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of another 
nation in time of peace. 

(h) When the flag of the United States is displayed from a staff projecting 
horizontally or at an angle from the window sill, balcony, or front of a building, the 
union of the flag should be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at half staff. 
When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending from a house to a 
pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should be hoisted out, union first, from the 
building. 

(i) When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union 
should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When dis- 
played in a window, the flag should be displayed in the same way, with the union or blue 
field to the left of the observer in the street. 

(j) When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be sus- 
pended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in a 
north and south street. 

(k) When used on a speaker's platform, the flag, if displayed flat should be 
displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church or 
public auditorium, the flag of the United States of America should hold the position of 
superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the 
clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the audience. Any other flag so displayed 
should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker or to the right of the audience. 

(1) The flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling a 
statue or monument, but it should never be used as the covering for the statue or monu- 
ment. 

(m) The flag, when flown at half-staff, should be first hoisted to the peak for 
an instant and then lowered to the half-staff position. The flag should be again raised to 
the peak before it is lowered for the day. On Memorial Day the flag should be displayed 
at half-staff until noon only, then raised to the top of the staff. By order of the Presi- 
dent, the flag shall be flown at half-staff upon the death of principal figures of the 



Historical Miscellanea 55 



United States Government and the Governor of a State, territory, or possession, as a 
mark of respect to their memory. In the event of the death of other officials or foreign 
dignitaries, the flag is to be displayed at half-staff according to Presidential instructions 
or orders, or in accordance with recognized customs or practices not inconsistent with 
law. In the event of the death of a present or former official of the government of any 
State, territory, or possession of the United States, the Governor of that State, territory . 
or possession may proclaim that the National flag shall be flown at half-staff. The flag 
shall be flown at half-staff thirty days from the death of the President or a former Presi- 
dent; ten days from the day of death of the Vice president, the Chief Justice or a retired 
Chief Justice of the United States, or the Speaker of the House of Representatives; from 
the day of death until interment of an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a Secre- 
tary of an executive or military department, a former Vice President, or the Governor of 
a State, territory, or possession; and on the day of death and the following day for a 
Member of Congress. As used in this subsection — 

(1) the term 'half-staff means the position of the flag when it is one-half 
the distance between the top and bottom of the staff; 

(2) the term 'executive or military department' means any agency listed 
under sections 101 and 102 of title 5, United States Code; and 

(3) the term 'Member of Congress' means a Senator, a Representati\ e, a 
Delegate, or the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. 

(n) When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the 
union is at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered into the 
grave or allowed to touch the ground. 

(o) When the flag is suspended across a corridor or lobby in a building with 
only one main entrance, it should be suspended vertically with the union of the flag to 
the observer's left upon entering. If the building has more than one main entrance, the 
flag should be suspended vertically near the center of the corridor or lobby with the 
union to the north, when entrances are to the east and west or to the east when en- 
trances are to the north and south. If there are entrances in more than two directions, 
the union should be to the east. 

SEC. 4 That no disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of Ameri- 
ca; the flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors. State flags, 
and organization or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor. 

(a) The flag should never be displayed with the union down, except as a signal 
of dire distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property. 

(b) The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the 
floor, water, or merchandise. 

(c) The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and 
free. 

(d) The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery. It 
should never be festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but always allowed to tall free. 
Bunting of blue, white, and red, always arranged with the blue above, the white in the 
middle, and red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping the trout 
of the platform, and for decoration in general. 

(e) The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a 
manner as to permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way. 



66 North Carolina Manual 



(0 The Hag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling, 
(g) The Hag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor at- 
tached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any 
nature. 

(h) The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, carry- 
ing or delivering anything. 

(i) The Hag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner 
whatsoever. It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handkerchiefs 
and the like, printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that 
is designed for temporary use and discard. Advertising signs should not be fastened to a 
staff or halyard from which the flag is flown. 

(j) No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform. 
However, a flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel, firemen, 
policemen, and members of patriotic organizations. The flag represents a living country 
and is itself considered a living thing. Therefore, the lapel flag pin being a replica, 
should be worn on the left lapel near the heart. 

(k) The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem 
for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning. 

SEC. 5 During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the flag is pass- 
ing in a parade or in review, all persons present except those in uniform should face the 
flag and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present in uniform 
should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should remove their head- 
dress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. 
Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the flag in a moving column should be 
rendered at the moment the flag passes. 

SEC. 6 During rendition of the national anthem when the flag is displayed, all pres- 
ent except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the flag with the right hand 
over the heart. Men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand 
and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform 
should render the military salute at the first note of the anthem and retain this position 
until the last note. When the flag is not displayed, those present should face toward the 
music and act in the same manner they would if the flag were displayed there. 

SEC. 7 The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, 'I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the 
United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under 
God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all', should be rendered by standing at at- 
tention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men 
should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the 
hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag and 
render the military salute. 

SEC. 8 Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the flag of the United States 
of America, set forth herein, may be altered, modified, or repealed, or additional rules 
with respect thereto may be prescribed, by the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed 
Forces of the United States, whenever he deems it to be appropriate or desirable; and 
any such alteration or additional rule shall be set forth in a proclamation. 



Historical Miscellanea 67 



The Pledge 

The Pledge to the Flag, according to a report of the Historical Committee of the 
United States Flag Association (May 18, 1939), was written by Francis Bellamy (August 
1892), a member of the editorial staff of The Youth's Companion, in Boston, Massachu- 
setts. It was first repeated at the exercises in connection with the celebration of Colum- 
bus Day (October 12, 1892, Old Style). The idea of this national celebration on Colum- 
bus Day was largely that of James B. Upham, one of the junior proprietors of The 
Youth's Companion. 

Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the designer of 
the Stars and Stripes — not Betsy Ross of Philadelphia, who made flags. He also de- 
signed the first Great Seal of the United States, a number of coins and several items of 
paper currency in the early days of the Republic. 

Hopkinson, born in Philadelphia (September 21, 1737), and a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, was the first native American composer of a secular song, "My 
Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." He was a lawyer and later a judge in New Jersey 
and then in Pennsylvania. He died in Philadelphia (May 9, 1791). His portrait, painted 
by himself, hangs in the rooms of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia. He 
played the organ and harpsichord. 

"I pledge allegiance to the flag 

of the United States of America, 

And to the Republic for which it stands. 

One Nation under God, indivisible, 

With liberty and justice for all." 



Historical Miscellanea 69 



THE STATE BIRD 

By popular choice the Cardinal was selected for adoption as our State Bird as ol 
March 4, 1943. {Session Laws, 1943 c. 595; G. S. 145-2.) 

This bird is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is most conspicuous in 
winter and is the only "redbird" present at that season. It is an all year round resident 
and one of the commonest birds in our gardens and thickets. It is about the size o\' a 
Catbird with a longer tail, red all over, except that the throat and region around the bill 
is black; the head is conspicuously crested and the large stout bill is red; the female is 
much duller — the red being mostly confined to the crest, wings and tail. There are no 
seasonal changes in the plumage. 

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual among birds the female is said to 
sing as well as the male, which latter sex usually has a monopoly of that art in the 
feathered throngs. 

The nest is rather an untidy affiar built of weed stems, grass and similar materials in a 
low shrub, small tree or bunch of briars, usually not over four feet above the ground. 
The usual number of eggs to a set is three in this State, usually four further North. Pos- 
sibly the Cardinal raises an extra brood down here to make up the difference, or pos- 
sibly he can keep up his normal population more easily here through not having to face 
inclement winters of the colder North. A conspicuous bird faces more hazards. 

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike small fruits and insects. 

THE STATE FLOWER 

The General Assembly of 1941 designated the dogwood as the State flower. {Public 
Laws, 1941, c. 289; G.S. 145-1.) 

The Dogwood is one of the most prevalent trees in our State and can be found in all 
parts of the State from the mountains to the coast. Its blossoms which appear in early 
spring and continue on into summer, are most often found in white, although shades of 
pink are not uncommon. 

THE STATE INSECT 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the Honey Bee as the official State Insect. 
{Session Laws, 1973, c. 55) 

This industrious creature is responsible for the production of more than $2 million 
worth of honey in the state each year. However, its greatest value results from the pol- 
lination of North Carolina crops which is estimated to be worth nearly $50 million an- 
nually. 



Historical Miscellanea 71 



THE STATE TREE 

The pine was officially designated as the State tree by the General Assembly of 1963. 
(Session Laws, 1963, c. 41). 

This choice was not unexpected as the pine is the most common of the trees found in 
North Carolina, as well as the most important one in the history of our State. During 
the Colonial and early Statehood periods, the pine was a vital part of the economy of 
North Carolina. From it came many of the "naval stores" — resin, turpentine, and tim- 
ber — which was needed by merchants and the navy for their ships. It has continued to 
provide North Carolina with a supply of products. 



THE STATE MAMMAL 

The General Assembly of 1969 designated the Gray Squirrel as the official State 
Mammal. (Session Laws, 1969 c. 1207; G. S. 145-5.) 

The gray squirrel is a common inhabitant of most areas of North Carolina from "the 
swamps of eastern North Carolina to the upland hardwood forests of the piedmont and 
western counties. " He feels more at home in an "untouched wilderness" environment, 
although a large portion of their population inhabit our city parks and suburbs. During 
the fall and winter months the gray squirrel survives on a diet of hardwoods, with 
acorns providing carbohydrates and other nuts protein. In the spring and summer their 
diet consists of "new growth and fruits" supplemented by early corn, peanuts and in- 
sects. 

NAME OF STATE AND NICKNAMES 

In 1629 King Charles the First of England "erected into a province," all the land 
from Albemarle Sound on the north to the St. John's River on the south, which he di- 
rected should be called Carolina. The word Carolina is from the word Carolus, the 
Latin form of Charles. 

When Carolina was divided in 1710, the southern part was called South Carolina and 
the northern or older settlement was called North Carolina, or the "Old North State." 
Historians had recorded the fact that the principal products of this State were "tar. 
pitch and turpentine." It was during one of the fiercest battles of the War Between the 
States, so the story goes, that the column supporting the North Carolina troops was 
driven from the field. After the battle the North Carolinians, who had successfully 
fought it out alone, were greeted from the passing derelict regiment with the question: 
"Any more tar down in the Old North State, boys?" Quick as a flash came the answer: 
"No; not a bit; old Jeffs bought it all up." "Is that so; what is he going to do with it?" 
was asked. "He is going to put it on you-uns heels to make you stick better in the next 
fight." Creecy relates that General Lee, hearing of the incident, said: "God bless the Tar 
Heel boys," and from that they took the name. (—Adapted from Grandfather Tales oj 
North Carolina by R. B. Creecy and Histories of North Carolina Regiments, Vol. Ill, b) 
Walter Clark). 









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ppwpmvw 




Historical Miscellanea 73 



THE STATE SHELL 

The General Assembly of 1965 designated the Scotch Bonnet (pronounced bonav) as 
the State Shell. (Session Laws, 1965, c. 681.) 

A colorful and beautifully shaped shell, the Scotch Bonnet is abundant in North 
Carolina coastal waters between 500 and 200 feet deep. The best source of live speci- 
mens is from offshore commercial fisherman. 



THE STATE SALT WATER FISH 

The General Assembly of 1971 designated the Channel Bass (Red Drum) as the offi- 
cial State Salt Water Fish. (Session Laws, 1971, c. 274; G. S. 145-6) 

Channel Bass usually occur in great supply along the Tar Heel coastal waters and 
have been found to weigh up to 75 pounds although most large ones average between 30 
and 40 pounds. 



THE STATE MOTTO 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words "Esse Quam Videri" 
as the State's motto and directed that these words with the date "20 May, 1775," should 
be placed with our Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." Nearly every State 
has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The reason for their mottoes being in Latin is 
that the Latin tongue is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three 
words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words to express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. It is found in 
Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Amnicitia, Chap. 26) 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the soverign State of North Carolina had 
no motto since its declaration of independence. It was one of the very few states which 
did not have a motto and the only one of the original thirteen without one. (Rev., s 
5320; 1893, c. 145; G. S. 144-2.) 

THE STATE COLORS 

The General Assembly of 1945 declared Red and Blue of shades appearing in the 
North Carolina State Flag and the American Flag as the official State Colors. (Session 
Laws, 1945, c. 878.) 



74 



North Carolina Manual 




THE STATE PRECIOUS STONE 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the emerald as the official State precious 
stone. (Session Laws, 1973, c. 136.) 

A greater variety of minerals, more than 300, have been found in North Carolina 
than any other state. 

These include some of the most valuable and unique gems in the world. The largest 
Emerald in North Carolina is a 1,438-carat specimen found at Hiddenite, near States- 
ville. Also, the "Carolina Emerald," now owned by Tiffany & Company of New York 
was found at Hiddenite in 1970. When cut to 13.14 carats, the stone was valued at 
$100,000 and became the largest and finest cut emerald on this continent. 



Historical Miscellanea 



75 




THE STATE REPTILE 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated the turtle— specifically the Eastern Box 
Turtle — as the official State Reptile for the State of North Carolina. (Session Laws. 
1979, c. 154) 

The turtle is one of nature's most useful creatures. Through its dietary habits it serves 
to assist in the control of harmful and pestiferous insects and as a clean-up crew, helping 
to preserve the purity and beauty of our waters. At a superficial glance, the turtle ap- 
pears to be a mundane and uninteresting creature; however, closer examination reveals 
that it to be a most fascinating creature, ranging from species well adapted to modern 
conditions to species which have existed virtually unchanged since prehistoric times. 
Derided by many, the turtle is really a cullinary delight, providing the gourmet food 
enthusiast with numerous tasty dishes from soups to entries. 

The turtle watches undisturbed as countless generations of faster "hares" run b> to 
quick oblivion, and is thus a model of patience for mankind, and a symbol of our State's 
unrelenting pursuit of great and lofty goals. 



76 



North Carolina Manual 




THE STATE ROCK 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated Granite as the official Rock for the State 
of North Carolina. (Session Laws, 1979, C. 906) 

The State of North Carolina has been blessed with an abundant source of "the noble 
rock" granite. Just outside Mount Airy in Surry County is the largest open face granite 
quarry in the world measuring one mile long and 1,800 feet in width. The granite from 
this quarry is unblemished, gleaming and without interfering seams to mar its splendor 
and the high quality of this granite allows its widespread use as a building material, in 
both industrial applications and in laboratory applications where super smooth surfaces 
are a prerequisite. 

North Carolina granite has been used for many magnificent edifices of government 
throughout the United States such as the Wright Brothers Memorial at Kitty Hawk, the 
gold depository at Fort Knox, the Arlington Memorial Bridge and numerous court- 
houses throughout the land. Granite is a symbol of strength and steadfastness, qualities 
characteristic of North Carolinians. It is fitting and just that the State of North Caro- 
lina recognize the contribution of granite in providing employment to its citizens and 
enhancing the beauty of its public buildings. 



Historical Miscellanea 



77 




THE STATE BEVERAGE 

In June 1987, North Carolina followed many other states including Wisconsin, our 
nation's number one dairy state, and neighboring Virginia in making milk the official 
state beverage. 

North Carolina ranks 20th among dairy producing states in the nation with nearly 
1,000 dairy farmers producing 179 million gallons of milk per year. The income from 
their efforts amounts to 228 million dollars annually. North Carolinians consume ovei 
143 million gallons of milk every year. 

Dairy farmers have an average investment of $4800 per cow. Known as "Nature's 
most perfect food," milk is the best source of calcium, and the primary ingredient in 
making ice cream and cheeses, as well as other dairy delights. In making milk i he- 
official state beverage. Senate Bill 396 gives a summation of why milk is important to 
North Carolinians: "Whereas, the delectable, pearly, passion of the palate contibutes 
to the betterment of life, health, and enjoyment of all of the citizens o! oui greal 
State." 



78 



North Carolina Manual 




THE STATE HISTORICAL BOAT 

The shad boat, adopted as North Carolina's state historical boat in June, 1987, was 
developed on Roanoke Island. Known for its unique crafting and maneuverability, the 
name is derived from that of the fish it was used to catch-the shad. 

Traditional small sailing craft were generally ill-suited to the water ways and 
weather conditions along the coast. Its shallow draft, speed, and easy handling made 
the shad boat ideal for the upper sounds where the water was shallow and the weather 
changed rapidly. The boats were built using native trees such as cypress, juniper, and 
white cedar, andvaried in length between twenty-two and thirty-three feet. Construc- 
tion was so expensive that production of the shad boat ended in the 1930's, although 
they were widely used into the 1 950V The boats were so well constructed that some, 
nearly 100 years old, are still seen around Manteo and Hatteras. 



Historical Miscellanea 



79 



THE STATE SONG 

The song known as "The Old North State" was adopted as the official song of the 
State of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1927. (Public Laws, 1927, c. 26; ( r, 
S. 149-1). 



THE OLD NORTH STATE 



{Traditional air as sung in 1926) 



Wnjji-M Gahtoh 
With spirit 



COLLXCTED AND UIUOK 

bt Mjuj. E. E. Ramdolte 



m ^sm 



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1 



1. Car - o • li - na! Car - o - li - nal 

2. Tho' she en - vies not oth - ers, 

3. Then let all those who love us, 



heav-en'j bless-inji at - tend her, 
their mer - it - ed glo - ry, 
love the land that we live in, 






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While we live we will cher - ish, pro tect and de -fend her, Tho' the 

Say whose name stands the fore - most, in lib - er • ty's sto • ry, Tho too 

As hap • py a re gion as on this side of heaven, Where 



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scorn - cr -nay "sneer at and wit - lings de - fame her, Still our hearts swell with 
true to her - self e er to crouch to op -pres-sion, Who can yield to just 
plen - ty and peace, love and joy smile be - fore us, Raise a-loud, rais; to- 




"J llTl - "XT 



Chorus 



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glad - ness when ev • er we name her. 

rule • more loy - a! sub-mis-sion. Hur 

geth - er the heart thrill - ing chorus. 



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35 



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rah I 



Hur - rah! 



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* — * — *-*— V 1~ 



Old North State for -ev 





Hur - rahl the good Old North State 

1) 



SO Nor in Carolina Manuai 



THE STATE TOAST* 

Officially adopted as the toast of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1957. 
(Session Laws, 1957. c. 777.) 

Here's to the land of the long leaf pine. 

The summer land where the sun doth shine, 

Where the weak grow strong and the strong grow great. 

Here's to "Down Home," the Old North State! 

Here's to the land of the cotton bloom white, 
Where the scuppernong perfumes the breeze at night, 
Where the soft southern moss and jessamine mate, 
'Neath the murmuring pines of the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where the galax grows. 
Where the rhododendron's rosette glows, 
Where soars Mount Mitchell's summit great. 
In the "Land of the Sky," in the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where maidens are fair, 
Where friends are true and cold hearts rare, 
The near land, the dear land whatever fate. 
The blest land, the best land, the Old North State! 



* Composed in 1904 by Leonora Martin and Mary Burke Kerr. 



Historical Miscellanea 



Dates of Public Holidays 

(a) The following are declared to be legal public holidays: 

(1) New Year's Day, January 1. 

(2) Robert E. Lee's Birthday, January 19. 

(2a) Martin Luther King, Jr., the third Monday in January. 

(3) Washington's Birthday, the third Monday in February. 
(3a) Greek Independence Day, March 25. 

(4) Anniversary of signing of Halifax Resolves, April 12. 

(5) Confederate Memorial Day, May 10. 

(6) Anniversary of Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, May 20. 

(7) Memorial Day, the last Monday in May. 

(8) Easter Monday. 

(9) Independence Day, July 4. 

(10) Labor Day, the first Monday in September. 

(11) Columbus Day, the second Monday in October. 
(1 la) Yom Kippur. 

(12) Veterans Day, November 11. 

(13) Tuesday after the first Monday in November in years in which a general elec- 
tion is to be held. 

(14) Thanksgiving Day, the fourth Thursday in November. 

(15) Christmas Day, December 25. 

Provided that Easter Monday and Memorial Day, the last Monday in May, shall be a 
holiday for all State and national banks only. 

(b) Whenever any public holiday shall fall upon Sunday, the Monday following shall 
be a public holiday. (1881, c. 294; Code, s. 3784; 1891, c. 58; 1899, c. 410; 1901, c. 25; 
Rev., s. 2838; 1907, c. 996; 1909, c. 888; 1919, c. 287; C.S., s. 2959; 1935, c. 212; 1959. c. 
1011; 1969, c. 521; 1973, c. 53; 1979, c. 84; 1981, c. 135.) 



PART II 

CENSUS 



Census 85 



POPULATION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Twentieth Census of the United States — 1980 

The 1980 Census, the Twentieth Census of the United States, was one of the most 
accurate ever taken. There have been numerous challenges to the figures released by 
the Bureau of the Census; however, most of these challenges are the result of growth 
rates being lower than anticipated by local governmental officials. The lower figures 
are due to the figures of the 1970 Census which were found to be higher in many cases 
than they actually were. This created a faulty base on which to make initial projections 
during the decade of the seventies. 

In North Carolina there were 42 incorporated places of 10,000 or more in 1980. 
Three of these reached this size since 1970 -- Boone, Havelock, and Laurinburg. Of 
the incorporated places over 10,000, Charlotte is the largest with 314,447 people, fol- 
lowed by Greensboro with 155,642 and Raleigh with 149,771. Winston-Salem, the 
third largest in 1970, experienced a drop from 132,913 in 1970 to 131,885 in 1980. 
During the 1970's several of the incorporated urban areas annexed military bases 
which were adjacent to them. This in part accounts for the dramatic increases in the 
population of certain incorporated areas. 

According to the final figures of the 1980 Census, 97 of the counties gained in popu- 
lation. This is quite a change from the previous census which showed only 62 counties 
with gains while 38 had declines. Currituck County showed the greatest percentage 
gain with an increase of 91.2%. Dare County was a distant second with a 59.0' 
increase. Brunswick County was third at 47.7%. 

The first census of North Carolina was taken in 1790, returning a population of 
393,751. The population has shown an increase in every census since that time. The 
population passed 1,000,000 between 1860 and 1870; 2,000,000 between 1900 and 1910; 
3,000,000 between 1920 and 1930; 4,000,000 between 1940 and 1950; and 5,000.000 
between 1960 and 1970. The recent census reveals that the present population of North 
Carolina is 5,874,429. This represents a growth rate of 15.5%, or more than three 
quarters of a million people, during the last decade as opposed to a rate of approxi- 
mately 12%, or half a million people, during the 1960 , s. Almost half (47.7 r () of the 
1970-1980 change in population was due to net migration. This is in contrast to the 
previous decade where all the growth was due to natural increase (or an excess of 
births over deaths). In fact, natural increase during the 1960's was greater than total 
growth, due to a net out-migration of 70,319 persons during that decade. If the same 
high rate of natural increase in the 1960's had continued during the 1970's the state 
would have had around 271,000 more residents than reflected in the 1980 figure. As it 
was, a tremendous increase in net migration much more than offset the decrease in 
birth rates. 

North Carolina has a total area of 52,712 square miles of which 48,798 is land area 
and 3,914 is water. Based on the population figures of 1980, North Carolina lias a 
density of 1 1 1.4 inhabitants per square mile -- - an increase of 15 oyer the 1970 density 
figure of 96.4 inhabitants. 

The tables that follow give various population figures based on tabulations made 
during the 1980 census and corrections of initial reporting errors and any changes that 
have occurred since April 1, 1980. 



86 



Noki ii Carolina M \nuai 



TABLE 1. STATE POPULATION STATISTICS — 

CENSUS STATISTICS & PROJECTIONS 



1-A. Components of Population Change. 

Percent 

19601970 Change 19701980 

Growth 528,256 12.0 790.018 

Births 1,011,061 22.0 861,157 

Deaths 412.486 9.0 464,508 

Natural Increase 598,575 13.0 396.649 

Net Migration 70.319 2.0 393.369 

1-B. Regional Components of Growth. 

Percent 

19601970 Change 1970-1980 
Growth: 

Coastal Plain 72,788 4.47 230,888 

Piedmont 366,352 17.05 410.636 

Mountains 89.116 11.43 148.494 

Births: 

Coastal Plain 379.266 23.30 328.207 

Piedmont 471,843 21.96 397,598 

Mountains 159.964 20.52 135.368 

Deaths: 

Coastal Plain 146,280 8.99 157.489 

Piedmont 192,378 8.95 222,830 

Mountains 73,838 9.47 84.197 

Natural Increase: 

Coastal Plain 232.9X6 14.31 170,718 

Piedmont 279,465 13.01 174,768 

Mountains 86,126 11.05 51.171 

Net Migration: 

Coastal Plain 160,198 9.84 60,170 

Piedmont 86,887 4.04 235.868 

Mountains 2.990 0.38 97.323 

1-C. Statewide Census Figures. 



Dale ol Data 
April I. I960 .... 
April I, 1970 .... 
April I, 1980 .... 
Jul> I, 19X5* 
April I, 1990* .. 



Population 
4,556.155 
5.084,411 
5,874.429 
6,241,000 
6.601,000 



Change Irom 
Last Census 

494.226 
528,256 
790,018 

787,227 



Percent 
Change 




Change 
in Rates 


15.5 




3.5 


17.0 




5.0 


9.0 




0.0 


8 




5.0 


7.0 




9.0 


Percent 
Change 




Change 
in Rates 


13.58 




9.11 


16.33 




0.72 


17.10 




5.67 


19.30 




4.00 


15.81 




6.15 


15.58 




4.94 


9.26 




0.27 


8.86 




0.09 


9.69 




0.22 


10.04 




4.27 


6.95 




-6.06 


5.89 




5.16 


3.50 




13.38 


9.38 




5.34 


11.20 


Percen 
Change 

12.2 

11.6 
15.5 


10.82 

[ 

i 



13.5 



Projected l>atu 



Census 



87 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 1980 CENSUS 



County 



Land Area 

in Square 

Miles 



Alamance 428 

Alexander 259 

Alleghany 225 

Anson 533 

Ashe 426 

Avery 245 

Beaufort 826 

Bertie 698 

Bladen 883 

Brunswick 856 

Buncombe 657 

Burke 511 

Cabarrus 363 

Caldwell 469 

Camden 239 

Carteret 536 

Caswell 428 

Catawba 394 

Chatham 709 

Cherokee 452 

Chowan 173 

Clay 209 

Cleveland 468 

Columbus 945 

Craven 699 

Cumberland 654 

Currituck 246 

Dare 391 

Davidson 549 

Davie 265 

Duplin 815 

Durham 295 

Edgecombe 510 

Forsyth 419 

Franklin 491 

Gaston 356 

Gates 337 

Graham 292 

Granville 537 

Greene 267 

Guilford 655 

Halifax 734 

Harnett 603 

Haywood 551 

Henderson 378 

Hertford 353 

Hoke 389 

Hyde 613 

Iredell 572 

Jackson 491 



1970 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



1980 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



Percent 

Change 

1970 1980 



96,502 


225.1 


99.319 


232.1 


2.9 


19,466 


75.2 


24,999 


96.5 


28.4 


8,134 


36.2 


9.587 


42.6 


17.9 


23,488 


44.1 


25,649 


48.1 


8.9 


19,571 


45.9 


22,325 


52.4 


14.1 


12,655 


51.7 


14,409 


58.8 


13.9 


35,980 


43.6 


40,355 


48.9 


12.2 


20,528 


29.4 


21,024 


30.1 


2.4 


26,477 


30.0 


30,491 


34.5 


15.1 


24,223 


28.3 


35,777 


41.8 


47.7 


145,056 


220.8 


160,934 


245.0 


10.9 


60,364 


118.1 


72.504 


141.9 


20.1 


74,629 


205.6 


85.895 


326.6 


15.1 


56,699 


120.9 


67,746 


144.4 


19.5 


5,453 


22.8 


5,829 


24.4 


6.9 


31,603 


59.0 


4 1 .092 


76.7 


30.0 


19,055 


44.5 


20,705 


48.4 


8.7 


90,873 


230.6 


105,208 


267.0 


15.8 


29,554 


41.7 


33,415 


47.1 


13.1 


16,330 


36.1 


18,933 


40.4 


15.9 


10,764 


62.2 


12,558 


72.6 


16.7 


5,180 


24.8 


6,619 


31.7 


27.8 


72,556 


155.0 


83,435 


177.6 


15.0 


46,937 


49.7 


5 1 ,037 


54.0 


8.7 


62,554 


89.5 


7 1 ,043 


101.6 


13.6 


212,042 


324.2 


247,160 


377.9 


16.6 


6,976 


28.4 


11,089 


45.1 


59.0 


6,995 


17.9 


13,377 


34.2 


yi : 


95.627 


174.2 


113,162 


206.1 


18 3 


18,855 


71.2 


24,599 


92.8 


30.5 


38,015 


46.6 


40,952 


50.2 


7.7 


132,681 


449.8 


152,785 


517.9 


15.2 


52,341 


102.6 


55,988 


109.8 


7.0 


215,118 


513.4 


243,704 


581.6 


13.3 


26,820 


54.6 


30,055 


61.2 


12.1 


148,415 


416.9 


162.568 


456.7 


9.5 


8,524 


25.3 


8.875 


26.3 


4.1 


6,562 


22.5 


7.217 


24.7 


10.0 


32,762 


61.0 


34.043 


63.4 


3.9 


14,967 


56.1 


16,117 


60.4 


7.7 


288,645 


440.6 


317,154 


484.2 


9.9 


53,884 


73.4 


55,076 


75.0 


2.3 


49,667 


82.4 


59.570 


98.8 


19 9 


41,710 


75.7 


46,495 


844 


11.5 


42,804 


113.2 


58.580 


155.0 


36.4 


24,439 


66.7 


23.368 


66.2 


44 


16,436 


42.3 


20,383 


52.6 


24 


5,571 


9.1 


5,873 


9.6 


S4 


72,197 


126.2 


82.538 


144 J 


14 ) 


21,593 


44.0 


25.811 


52.6 


19.5 



88 



Nor i ii C \kolin a Manual 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 
1980 CENSUS (Continued) 



County 



Land Area 

in Square 

Miles 



1970 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



1980 Census 


Percent 


Total 




Change 


Population 


Density 


19701980 


70,599 


88.6 


14.4 


9,705 


20.8 


0.8 


36.718 


143.4 


20.5 


59,819 


149.5 


8.4 


42.372 


142.7 


29.6 


35.135 


80.6 


14.6 


20.178 


39.3 


27.8 


16,827 


374 


5.1 


25,948 


120.7 


4 9 


404.270 


762.8 


14 1) 


14.428 


67.1 


7.3 


22.469 


46.0 


16.6 


50,505 


71.7 


29.3 


67.153 


123.4 


13.6 


103,471 


559.3 


24.7 


22,195 


42.1 


2 2 


112.784 


147.4 


9 4 


77.055 


192.6 


33.9 


10,398 


30 8 


9.8 


28.462 


124.8 


6 1 


22.262 


25.5 


22.5 


9,486 


38.6 


13.6 


29,164 


72.7 


12.5 


90,146 


137.6 


22.0 


12.984 


54.3 


10.6 


91,728 


1 [4 9 


20.1 


45.481 


95.7 


14.0 


101.610 


107.0 


19.8 


83.426 


146.6 


15.2 


99.186 


189.6 


10.2 


53,787 


95.5 


13.6 


49.687 


52.6 


10.5 


32.273 


101.2 


19.8 


48.517 


121.9 


13.3 


33,086 


72.4 


39.1 


59.449 


110.9 


15.6 


10,283 


19.6 


16.4 


23.417 


61.3 


18.8 


3.975 


10.2 


4.4 


70,436 


110. 1 


28.6 


36.748 


147.6 


12.4 


301.429 


351.3 


31.6 


16.232 


38.3 


2.7 


14.801 


43.2 


5.4 


3 1 .666 


99.8 


35.3 


97.054 


174.2 


13.6 


58.657 


77.5 


18.4 


63.132 


168.4 


9.8 


28.439 


84.6 


15.6 


14,934 


47.9 


18.3 



Johnston 797 

Jones 467 

Ice 256 

I enoir 400 

Lincoln 297 

McDowell 436 

Macon 513 

Madison 450 

Martin 455 

Mecklenburg 530 

Mitchell 215 

Montgomery 488 

Moore 704 

Nash 544 

New Hanover 185 

Northampton 536 

Onslow 765 

Orange 400 

Pamlico 338 

Pasquotank 228 

Pender 871 

Perquimans 246 

Person 401 

Pitt 655 

Polk 239 

Randolph 798 

Richmond 475 

Robeson 949 

Rockingham 569 

Rowan 523 

Rutherford 563 

Sampson 945 

Scotland 319 

Stanly 398 

Stokes 457 

Surry 536 

Swain 524 

Transylvania 382 

Tyrrell 390 

Union 639 

Vance 249 

Wake 858 

Warren 424 

Washington 343 

Watauga 317 

Wayne 557 

Wilkes 757 

Wilson 375 

Yadkin 336 

Yancey 312 



61.737 


77.5 


9.779 


20,9 


50,467 


119.0 


55.204 


138.0 


32.682 


1 10.0 


30.648 


70.3 


15,788 


30.8 


16.003 


35.6 


24.730 


54.4 


354.656 


669.2 


13.447 


62.5 


19.267 


39.5 


39,048 


55.5 


59.122 


108.7 


82.996 


448.6 


23,099 


43.1 


103.126 


134.8 


57,567 


143.9 


9.467 


28.0 


26.824 


117.6 


18.149 


20.8 


8,351 


33.9 


25.914 


64.6 


73.900 


1 12.8 


11.735 


49.1 


76.358 


95.7 


39.889 


84 o 


84,842 


89.4 


72.402 


127.2 


90,035 


172.2 


47,337 


84.1 


44,954 


47.6 


26,929 


84.4 


42.N22 


107.6 


23.782 


52.0 


51.415 


95.9 


8,835 


16.9 


19.713 


51.6 


3.806 


9.8 


54.714 


85.6 


32,691 


131.3 


229,006 


266.9 


15.810 


37.3 


14.038 


40.9 


23.404 


73.8 


85.408 


153.3 


49.524 


65.4 


57.486 


153.3 


24,599 


73.2 


12,629 


40.5 



Census 



89 



TABLE 3. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
10,000 OR MORE 



City or Town 



County 



Albemarle Stanly 

Asheboro Randolph 

Asheville Buncombe 

Boone Watauga .. 

Burlington Alamance 



Cary Wake 

Chapel Hill Durham, Orange 

Charlotte Mecklenburg 

Concord Cabarrus 

Durham Durham 



Eden Rockingham 

Elizabeth City Pasquotank, Camden 

Fayetteville Cumberland 

Gastonia Gaston 

Goldsboro Wayne 



1970 
Census 



11,126 
10,797 
57,820 
8,754 
35,930 

7,640 

26,199 

241,420 

18,464 

95,438 

15,871 
14,381 
53,510 
47,322 
26,960 



1980 
Census 



15,110 
15,252 
54,022 
10,191 
37,266 

21,763 
32,421 

314,447 
16.942 

100,538 

15.672 
14,004 
59,507 
47,333 
31,871 



Percent 
Change 



41.3 

7.3 
16.4 

3.7 

1 84 9 

23.7 

30.2 

8.2 

5.7 

1.3 

2.6 

11.2 

0.0 

18 : 



Greensboro Guilford 

Greenville Pitt 

Havelock Craven 

Henderson Vance 

Hickory Burke, Catawba 



High Point Randolph. Guilford 

Jacksonville Onslow 

Kannapolis Cabarrus, Rowan ••■ 

Kinston Lenoir 

Laurinburg Scotland 



144,076 

29,063 

3.012 

13,896 

20,569 

63,229 
16,289 

23,020 
8,859 



155,642 
35,740 
17.718 
13.522 
20,757 

63.4 7 '> 
IS. 237 
30,303 
25.234 
11,480 



8.0 

23ii 

2.7 
0.9 

0.2 

9.6 
296 



Lenoir Caldwell . 

Lexington Davidson 

Lumberton Robeson . 

Monroe Union 

Morganton Burke 



New Bern Craven 

Raleigh Wake 

Reidsville Rockingham 

Roanoke Rapids Halifax 

Rocky Mount Edgecombe. Nash. 

Salisbury Rowan 

Sanford Lee 

Shelby Cleveland 

Statesville Iredell 

Thomasville Davidson 



14,705 
17,205 
16,961 

11.282 
13,625 

14,660 
122,830 
13.636 
13,508 
34,284 

22,515 
11,716 
16,328 
20.007 
15,230 



13,748 
15.711 
18,340 
14,555 
13,763 

14,557 
150,255 

12.4^2 
14.702 
41.526 

14.773 
15.310 
18.622 
14.144 



 

8 l 

25.0 

1.0 

(i 7 
22 3 

S4 

8 s 
204 

n 7 

:o i 

6.9 

7.1 



Wilmington New Hanover 

Wilson Wilson 

Winston-Salem Forsyth 



46.169 

29,347 

133,683 



44.110(1 

34.424 

1 51,885 



4 ' 

I ' ! 

I i 



90 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 4. 



City or Town 



POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Percent 
Change 



Ahoskie Hertford 

Apex Wake 

Archdale Randolph, Guilford 

Beaufort Carteret 

Belmont Gaston 



Benson lohnston 

Bessemei Cits Gaston 

Black Mountain Buncombe ... 

Brevard Transylvania 

Canton Haywood 



Carrboro Orange ... 

Cherryville Gaston ... 

Clayton lohnston 

Clinton Sampson 

Conover Catawba 



hall. is Gaston 

Davidson Mecklenburg, Iredell 

Dunn Harnett 

Edenton Chowan 

Eli/abethtown Bladen 



Elkm Surry. Wilkes 

Elon College Town Alamance 

Enfield Halifax 

Erwin Harnett 

Fairmont Robeson 



Farmville Pitt 

Forest Cit) Ruthertord 

Franklin Macon 

Fuquay-Varina Wake 

Ga mew el I Caldwell 



Garner Wake 

Gibsonville Guiltord, Alamance 

Graham Alamance 

Granite Falls Caldwell 

Hamlet Richmond 



Hendersonville Henderson .. 

Hillsborough Orange 

Hope Mills Cumberland 

Hudson Caldwell 

Kernersville Forsvth 



Kings Mountain Cleveland, Gaston 

Kings Stokes 

La Grange Lenoir 

Lincolnton Lincoln 

Longview Burke, Catawba ... 

Louisburg Franklin 



5,105 


4,887 


4.3 


2.234 


2.S47 


27.4 


4.K74 


5.326 


17.9 


3,368 


3,826 


13.6 


5,054 


4.607 


8.8 


2,267 


2.792 


23.2 


4.441 


4.787 


4.1 


3,204 


4. ON 3 


27.4 


5.412 


5.323 


1.5 


5,158 


4.631 


10.2 


5,058 


7.517 


48.6 


5.258 


4.S44 


7.9 


3,103 


4.091 


31.8 


7.157 


7.552 


5.5 


3.355 


4.245 


26.5 


4,059 


3.340 


17.7 


2.931 


3.241 


10.6 


8,302 


X.962 


7.9 


4.95h 


5.264 


6.2 


1,418 


3,551 


150.4 


2,899 


2.858 


-1.4 


2.150 


2,873 


33.6 


3.272 


2. 99S 


8.5 


2.852 


2.828 


0.8 


2.N27 


2,658 


6.0 


4.424 


4.707 


6.4 


7.179 


7,688 


7.1 


2.336 


2.640 


13.0 


3,576 


3,110 


13.0 




2,910 




4.923 


9.556 


94.1 


2,019 


2,865 


41.9 


8.172 


8,674 


6.1 


2,388 


2,580 


8.0 


4.627 


4.720 


2 


6.443 


6.862 


6.5 


1.444 


3,019 


109.1 


1.866 


5,412 


190.0 


2.820 


2,888 


2.4 


4,815 


6,802 


41.3 


S.465 


9.0S0 






3. SI 1 




2,679 


3,147 


17.5 


5.293 


4,879 


7.8 


3.360 


3,587 


6.8 


2.941 


3,238 


10.1 



Census 



91 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS (Continued) 



City or Town 



County 



Lowell Gaston 

Madison Rockingham 

Maiden Catawba, Lincoln . 

Marion McDowell 

Maxton Robeson, Scotland 

Mayodan Rockingham 

Mebane Alamance, Orange 

Mint Hill Mecklenburg 

Mocksville Davie 

Mooresville Iredell 



Morehead City Carteret 

Mount Airy Surry 

Mount Holly Gaston 

Mount Olive Duplin, Wayne 

Murfreesboro Hertford 



Nashville Nash 

Newton Catawba 

North Wilkesboro Wilkes 

Oxford Granville 

Pembroke Robeson 

Plymouth Washington 

Raeford Hoke 

Red Springs Robeson 

Rockingham Richmond ... 

Roxboro Person 



Rutherfordton Rutherford 

Scotland Neck Halifax 

Selma Johnston ... 

Siler City Chatham ... 

Smithfield Johnston ... 



Southern Pines Moore 

Southport Brunswick .... 

Spencer Rowan 

Spindale Rutherford .. 

Spring Lake Cumberland . 

Tabor City Columbus .... 

Tarboro Edgecombe .. 

Troy Montgomery 

Valdese Burke 

Wadesboro Anson 



Wake Forest Wake 

Wallace Duplin, Pender 

Warsaw Duplin 

Washington Beaufort 

Waynesville Haywood 



Whiteville Columbus 

Williamston Martin 

Wingate Union 

Woodfin Buncombe 

Wrightsville Beach New Hanover 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Percent 
Change 



3,307 


2,917 


11.8 


2,018 


2,806 


39.0 


2.416 


2,574 


6.5 


3,335 


3.684 


10.5 


1,885 


2,711 


4 J 8 


2,875 


2,627 




2,573 


2,782 
7 915 


8.1 


2,529 


2.637 


4.3 


8,808 


8,575 


2.6 


5.233 


4.359 


16.7 


7,325 


6,862 


6.3 


5,107 


4,530 


11.3 


4,914 


4,876 


0.8 


4,418 


3,007 


31.0 


1,670 


3,033 


80.0 


7,857 


7,624 


3.0 


3,357 


3.260 


2.9 


7,178 


7,603 


5.7 


1,982 


2,698 


36.1 


4,774 


4,571 


4 ] 


3,180 


3,630 


14.2 


3,383 


3.607 


6.6 


5,852 


8,300 


41.8 


5,370 


7,532 


40.3 


3,245 


3,434 




2,869 


2,834 


1 2 


4,356 


4,762 


9.3 


4,689 


4,446 


5.2 


6,677 


7,288 


9.2 


5,937 


8,620 


4^ 2 


2,220 


2,824 




3,075 


2,938 


4.5 


3,848 


4,246 


10.3 


3,968 


6,273 




2,400 


2.710 


12.9 


9,425 


8,741 


8 4 


2,429 


2,702 


11 2 


3.1X2 


3.364 


5.7 


3,977 


4.119 


3.6 


3,148 


3,780 


20.1 


2,905 


2.903 


0.1 


2,701 


2.910 


7.7 


8,961 


8,418 


6 1 


6,488 


6,765 


4 J 


4.195 


5,565 




6.570 


6. 1 59 


6 | 


2,569 


2.615 


l 8 




3.26(1 
2,910 




1,701 


71.3 



92 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 



City or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Aberdeen Moore .... 

And row s Cherokee 

Angiei Harnett .. 

Aulander Bertie 

Banner Elk \\ci\ 



Belhaven Beaufort .., 

Bethel Pitt 

Beaulaville Duplin 

Biltmore Forest Buncombe 



Bladenboro Bladen 

Blowing Rock Caldwell. Watauga 

Boiling Springs Cleveland 

Boonville Yadkin 

Bryson City Swain 



Burgaw Pender 

Burnsville Yancey 

Cajah Mountain Caldwell 

Carolina Beach New Hanover 

Chadbourn Rowan 



China Grove Rowan 

Coats Harnett 

Cornelius Mecklenburg 

Clyde Haywood 

Cramerton Gaston 



Creedmore Granville . 

Dobbins Heights Richmond 

Dobson Surry 

Drexel Burke 

East Spencer Rowan .... 



E 1 le r be Richmond 

1:1m City Wilson 

Fair Bluff Columbus 

Four Oaks Johnston . 

J ranklmton Franklin . 



Fremont Wayne 

Garysburg Northampton 

Granite Quarry Northampton 

Grifton Lenoir, Pitt .. 

Harnsburg Cabarrus 



Haw River Alamance 

Hazelwood Haywood 

Hertford Perquimans .. 

Huntersville Mecklenburg 

Jamestown Guilford 



1.542 


1.945 


1,383 


1.621 


1,431 


1,709 


947 


1,214 


754 


1,087 


2,259 


2,430 


1.514 


1,825 


1 , 1 56 


1 ,060 


1,298 


1.499 


7X3 


1,385 


SOI 


1.337 


2,284 


2,381 


687 


1,028 


1,290 


1,556 


1.744 


1.738 


1 ,348 


1,452 




1,884 


1 .663 


2,000 


2.213 


1,195 


1,788 


2,081 


1 ,05 1 


1,385 


1.296 


1.460 


814 


1 .008 


2.142 


1,869 


1 .405 


1,641 




1.237 


933 


1.222 


1 .43 1 


1 .392 


2,217 


2,150 


913 


1 .4 1 5 


1,201 


1.561 


1.039 


1 .095 


1,057 


1,049 


1.459 


1 .394 


1.596 


1.736 


231 


1 .434 


1 ,344 


1,294 


1,860 


2,179 




1,433 




2,117 


2.057 


1,81 J 


2,023 


1,941 


1,538 


1.294 


1.297 


2,148 



Census 93 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 (Continued) 



Jefferson Ashe 

Jonesville Yadkin 

Kenly Johnston, Wilson 

Kill Devil Hills Dare 

Lake Waccamaw Columbus 



Landis Rowan 

Liberty Randolph 

Lillington Harnett 

Locust Stanly 

Long Beach Brunswick .... 

Lucama Wilson 

Mars Hill Madison 

Marshville Union 

Matthews Mecklenburg 

Mount Gilead Montgomery 

Mount Pleasant Cabarrus 

Murphy Cherokee 

Nags Head Dare 

Newport Carteret 

Norwood Stanly 



Pilot Mountain Surry 

Pinetops Edgecombe ... 

Pineville Mecklenburg 

Pittsboro Chatham 

Princeton Johnston 



Princeville Edgecombe .... 

Ramseur Randolph 

Randleman Randolph 

Ranlo Gaston 

Rich Square Northampton 

Robbins Moore 

Robbinsville Graham 

Robersonville Martin 

Rockwell Rowan 

Roseboro Sampson 



Rose Hill Duplin ... 

Rowland robeson . 

Rural Hall Forsyth . 

Rutherford College Burke .... 

St. Pauis Robeson 



Snow Hill Greene 

Sparta Alleghany 

Spring Hope Nash 

Spruce Pine Mitchell ... 

Stallings Union 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 



943 


1,086 


1,659 


1,752 


1,370 


1.433 


357 


1.671 


924 


1.133 


2,297 


2,092 


2,167 


1,997 


1,155 


1.948 


— 


1,590 


493 


1,834 


610 


1.070 


1,623 


2,126 


1,405 


2,011 


783 


1,648 


1,286 


1 .423 


1,174 


1.210 


2,082 


2,070 


414 


1,020 


1,735 


1,883 


1,896 


1,818 


1,309 


1,090 


1,379 


1,465 


1,948 


1,525 


1,447 


1,332 


1 .044 


1.034 


654 


1.508 


1,328 


1,162 


2,312 


2,156 


2.092 


1,774 


1,254 


1.057 


1.059 


1,256 


777 


1,370 


1,910 


1,981 


999 


1.339 


1,235 


1,227 


1.448 


1,508 


1,358 


1,841 




1.336 




1.108 


2,011 


1 ,639 


1.359 


1.374 


1 ,304 


1,687 


1.334 


1,254 


2.333 






1.826 



94 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Stanlej Gaston 

Stoneville Rockingham 

Swansboro Onslow 

Sylva lackson 

raylorsville Alexander 



rrentwoods Craven 

Troutman Iredell 

rryon Polk 

Walkertown Forsyth .... 

Walnut Cove Stokes 

Waxhau Union 

Weaverville Buncombe 

Weldon Halifax 

Wendell Wake 

Whispering Pines Moore 



Wilkesboro Wilkes 

Windsor Bertie . 

Winterville Pitt 

Yadkinville Yadkin 

Zebulon Wake .. 



2,336 


2.341 


1.030 


1 .054 


1.207 


976 


1,561 


1.699 


1,231 


1.103 


719 


1.177 


797 


1 .360 


1 ,95 1 


1.796 




1.321 


1,213 


1.147 


1,248 


1.208 


1 .280 


1.495 


2,304 


1.844 


1.929 


2.222 


362 


1.160 


2.038 


2,335 


2.199 


2.126 


1.437 


2,052 


2.232 


2,216 


1.839 


2.055 



Census 



95 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 



Cily or Town 



County 



1970 

Census 



1980 
Census 



Alexander Mills Rutherford 

Alamance Alamance .. 

Alliance Pamlico 

Ansonville Anson 

Arapahoe Pamlico 



Arlington Yadkin 

Ashwville Bertie 

Atkinson Pender 

Aurora Beaufort 

Autryville Sampson 

Ayden Pitt 

Bailey Nash 

Bakersville Mitchell 

Bath Beaufort 

Battleboro Edgecombe, Nash 

Hayboro Pamlico 

Beargrass Martin 

Beech Mountain Avery, Watauga .. 

Beville Brunswick 

Belwood Cleveland 



Black Creek Wilson 

Boiling Spring Lakes Brunswick . 

Bolvia Brunswick . 

Bolton Columbus .. 

Bostic Rutherford 



Bridgeton Craven .... 

Broadway Lee 

Brookford Catawba .. 

Brunswick Columbus 

Bunn Franklin .. 



Calabash Brunswick .... 

Calypso Duplin 

Cameron Moore 

Candor Montgomery 

Cape Carteret Carteret 



Carthage Moore 

Casar Cleveland 

Cashiers Jackson ... 

Castalia Nash 

Caswell Beach Brunswick 



Catawba Catawba .. 

Centerville Franklin .. 

Cerro Gordo Columbus 

Chadwick Acres Onslow .... 

Chocowinity Beaufort .. 



9XK 


643 




J20 


577 


616 


694 


794 


474 


467 


711 


872 


247 


227 


325 


298 


620 


698 


213 


228 


3,450 


184 


724 


685 


409 


373 


231 


207 


562 


632 


821 


759 


99 


82 


— 


190 


59 


102 




613 


449 


523 


245 


998 


185 


252 


534 


563 


289 


476 


520 


461 


694 


908 


590 


467 


206 


223 


284 


505 


128 




462 


639 


204 


225 


561 


868 


616 


944 


1,034 


925 


339 


346 


230 


553 


265 


$58 




no 


565 


509 


123 


135 


322 


295 


12 


15 


566 


644 



96 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Claremont Catawba 

Clark ton Bladen 

Cleveland Rowan 

Cofield Hertford 

Colerain Bertie 



Columbia Tyrrell 

Columbus Polk 

Como Hertford 

Conetoe Edgecombe ... 

Conway Northampton 

Cover City Craven 

Creswell Washington .. 

Crossnore Avery 

Danbury Stokes 

Dellview Gaston 



Denton Davidson 

Dillsboro Jackson .. 

Dover Craven ... 

Dortches Nash 

Dublin Bladen .... 



East Arcadia Bladen .... 

Earl Cleveland 

East Bend Yadkin ... 

East Laurinburg Scotland . 

Elk Park Avery 



Ellenboro Rutherford 

Emerald Isle Carteret 

Eureka Wayne 

Everetts martin 

Faison Rowan 



Faith Cleveland 

Fallstone Cleveland 

Falcon Cumberland. Sampson 

Falkland Pitt 

Fountain Pitt 



Foxfire Moore 

Franklinville Randolph 

Garland Sampson 

Gaston Northampton 

Gatesville Gates 



Gibson Scotland 

Glen Alpine Burke 

Godwin Cumberland 

Goldston Chatham .... 

Greeaevers Duplin 



788 


880 


662 


664 


614 


595 


318 


465 


373 


284 


902 


758 


731 


727 


21 1 


89 


160 


215 


694 


678 


48? 


500 


633 


426 


264 


297 


152 


140 




7 


1,017 


949 


215 


179 


585 


600 




885 


283 


477 




461 




206 


485 


602 


487 


536 


503 


535 


465 


560 


122 


865 


263 


303 


198 


213 


598 


636 


506 


552 


3d! 


614 


357 


339 


130 


118 


434 


424 




153 


794 


607 


656 


885 


1,105 


883 


338 


363 


502 


533 


797 


645 


129 


340 


364 


353 


424 


477 



Census 



97 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



Cily or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Grimesland Pitt 

Grover Cleveland 

Halifax Halifax ... 

Hamilton Martin 

Harmony Iredell 



Harrells Duplin, Sampson 

Harrellsville Hertford 

Hassell Martin 

Hayesville Clay 

High Shoals Gaston, Lincoln .. 

Highlands Macon 

Hildebran Burke 

Hobgood Halifax 

Hoffman Richmond 

Holden Beach Brunswick 



Holly Ridge Onslow 

Holly Springs Wake 

Hollyville Pamlico 

Hookerton Greene 

Hot Springs Madison 

Indian Beach Carteret 

Indian Trail Union 

Jackson Northampton 

Jamesville Martin 

Kellford Bertie 



Kenansville Duplin 

Kittrell Vance 

Knightdale Wake 

Kure Beach New Hanover 

Lake Lure Rutherford .... 



Lansing Ashe 

Lasker Northampton 

Lattimore Cleveland 

Laurel Park Henderson 

Lawndale Cleveland 



Leggett Edgecombe . 

Lewiston Bertie 

Lilesville Anson 

Linden Cumberland 

Linville Avery 



Littleton Halifax 

Love Valley Iredell 

Lumber Bridge Robeson .... 

Macclesfield Edgecombe 

McAdenville Gaston 



394 


453 


555 


597 


335 


253 


579 


638 


377 


470 


249 


255 


165 


151 


160 


109 


428 


376 




586 


5X3 


653 


481 


62S 


530 


483 


434 


389 


136 


232 


415 


465 


697 


688 




100 


441 


460 


653 


678 




54 


405 


811 


762 


720 


533 


604 


295 


254 


762 


931 


427 


225 


815 


985 


394 


611 


456 


4SS 


283 


194 


114 


96 


257 


237 


581 


764 


544 


469 


120 


99 


327 


459 


641 


sss 


205 


165 




244 


903 


820 


40 


55 


117 


171 


536 


504 


950 


947 



98 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

McDonald Robeson 

McFarland \nson 

Macon Warren 

Maggie Valley Haywood 

Magnolia Duplin 



Manteo Dare 

Marshall Madison 

Mayesville (ones 

Mesic Pamlico - 

Micro Johnston 



Middleburg Vance 

Middlesex Nash 

Milton Caswell 

Minesott Beach Pamlico 

Montreal Buncombe 

Morrisville Wake 

Moreven Anson 

Mooresville Cleveland . 

Navassa Brunswick 

Newland Avery 



New I ondon Stanly 

Newton Grove Sampson . 

Norlina Warren .... 

Norman Richmond 

Oakboro Stanly 



Oak City Martin 

Ocean Isle Beach Brunswick 

Old Fort McDowell 

Oriental Pamlico ... 

Orrum Robeson .. 



Pantego Beautort . 

Parkton Robeson . 

Parmele Martin .... 

Patterson Springs Cleveland 

Peachland Anson 



Pikesville Wayne ... 

Pineblutt Moore ... 

Pine Level Johnston 

Pink Hill Lenoir ... 

Pine Knoll Shores Carteret . 



Polkton -\nson 

Polkville Cleveland 

Pollocksville lones 

Powellsville Bertie 

Proctorville Robeson . 



80 


1 1: 


140 


1 33 


179 


153 




202 


614 


592 


547 


902 


982 


809 


912 


877 




390 


300 


438 


149 


185 


729 


837 


235 


235 




171 


581 


"41 


209 


251 


562 


765 




405 




439 


524 


722 


285 


454 


546 


564 


696 


901 


157 


252 


568 


587 


559 


475 


78 


143 


676 


752 


445 


536 


162 


167 


218 


185 


550 


564 


373 


484 




731 


556 


506 


26(1 


662 


570 


935 


983 


953 


522 


644 




646 


845 


762 


494 


528 


456 


318 


247 


32(1 


157 


205 



Census 



99 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



City or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



Raynham Robeson 

Red Oak Nash 

Rennert Robeson 

Rhodhiss Burke, Caldwel 

Richfield Stanly 



Richlands Onslow 

Robbinsville Graham 

Rolesville Wake 

Ronda Wilkes 

Roper Washington 

Rosman Transylvania 

Roxobel Bertie 

Ruth Rutherford . 

Salemburg Sampson .... 

Saluda Polk 



Saratoga Wilson 

Seaboard Northampton .... 

Seagrove Randolph 

Seven Devils Watauga, Avery 

Seven Springs Wayne 



Severn Northampton 

Shady Forest Brunswick 

Shallotte Brunswick 

Sharpsburg Edgecombe. Nash, Wilson 

Simpson Ritt 



Sims Wilson 

Southern Shores Dare 

Speed Edgecombe 

Spencer Mountain Gaston 

Staley Randolph .. 



Stanfield Stanly 

Stantonburg Wilson 

Star Montgomery 

Stedman Cumberland 

Stem Granville 



Stonewall Pamlico ... 

Stovall Granville . 

Sunset Beach Brunswick 

Surf City Pender 

Swansboro Onslow 



Tarheel Bladen ... 

Teachey Duplin ... 

Topsail Beach Pender ... 

Trenton Jones 

Turkey Sampson 



1980 
Census 





83 


359 


314 




178 


784 


727 


306 


373 


935 


825 




814 


533 


381 


465 


457 


649 


795 


407 


512 


347 


278 


360 


381 


669 


742 


546 


607 


391 


381 


611 


687 


354 


294 




21 


188 


166 


356 


309 




43 


597 


680 


789 


997 




407 


205 


192 




520 


142 


95 


300 


169 


239 


2(14 


458 


463 


869 


920 


892 


816 


505 


723 


242 


222 


335 


360 


405 


417 


108 


304 


166 


421 


,207 


976 


87 


118 


219 


>7J 


108 


264 


539 


407 


329 


417 



100 Census 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Vanceboro Craven 

Vandermcre Pamlico 

VasN Moore 

Waco Cleveland 

Wade Cumberland 



Wagram Scotland 

Watstonburg Greene ... 

Warrenton Warren .. 

Washington Park Beaufort 

Watha Pender ... 



Webster Jackson 

Weddington Union 

West Jefferson Ashe 

Whitakers Edgecombe/ Nash 

White Lake Vance 



Williamsboro Vance 

Winfall Perquimans ... 

Winton Hertford 

Woodland Northampton 

Woodville Bertie 



Yaupon Beach Brunswick 

Youngsville Franklin ... 



758 


833 


379 


335 


885 


828 


245 


322 


315 


474 


718 


617 


176 


1X1 


,035 


908 


517 


514 


181 


196 


189 


200 


— 


848 


889 


822 


926 


924 


232 


968 





59 


581 


634 


917 


825 


744 


861 


253 


212 


334 


569 


555 


486 



PART III 

CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

OF NORTH CAROLINA 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 105 

Chapter One 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 
CONSTITUTIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



by 

John L. Sanders* 

North Carolina has had three constitutions in her history as a State: the Constitution of 
1776. the Constitution of 1868, and the Constitution of 1971. 

Constitution of 1776 

Drafted and promulgated by the Fifth Provincial Congress in December, 1 776, without 
submission to the people, the Constitution of 1776 and its separate but accompanying 
Declaration of Rights sketched the main outlines of the new state government and secured 
the rights of the citizen from governmental interference. While the principle of separation 
of powers was explicitly affirmed and the familiar three branches of government were 
provided for, the true center of power lay in the General Assembly. That body not onl\ 
exercised full legislative power; it also chose all the state executive and judicial officers, t he 
former for short terms and the judges for life. 

Profound distrust of the executive power is evident throughout the document. The 
Governor was chosen by the legislature for a one-year term and was eligible for only three 
terms in six years. The little power granted him was hedged about in many instances b\ 
requiring for its exercise the concurrence of a seven-member Council of State chosen b\ 
the legislature. 

Judicial offices were established, but the court system itself was left to legislative desiun 
No system of local government was prescribed by the Constitution, although the offices ol 
justice of the peace, sheriff, coroner, and constable were created. 

The system of legislative representation was based on units of local government. The 
voters of each county elected one Senator and two members of the House of Commons, 
while six (later seven) towns each elected one member of the House. It was distinctly a 
property owner's government, for only landowners could vote for Senators until IS>^ 
and progressive property qualifications were required of members of the House. Senators. 
and the Governor until 1868. Legislators were the only state officers who were elected h\ 
the people until 1836. 

Dissatisfaction with the legislative representation system, which gave no direct recogni- 
tion to population, resulted in the Convention of 1835. Extensive constitutional amend- 
ments adopted by that Convention were ratified by vote of the people, 26,77 1 to 2 1 .606 on 
November 9, 1835. The Amendments of 1835 fixed the membership ol the Senate and 
House at their present levels, 50 and 120. The House apportionment formula then devised 
gave one seat to each county and distributed the remainder of the scats nearlj hall ol 



* Director of the Institute of Government of The University of North Carolina at Chapel Mill 



106 North Carolina Manual 



them at that time according to a mathematical formula favoring the more populous 
co 1 1 11 lies. From 1836 until 1868, Senators were elected from districts laid out according to 
the amount oi taxes paid to the State from the respective counties, thus effecting 
senatorial representation in proportion to property values. 

The Amendments ol 1835 also made the Governor popularly elective for a two-year 
term, greatly strengthening that office; relaxed the religious qualifications for office 
holding; abolished free Negro suffrage; equalized the capitation tax on slaves and free 
white males; prohibited the General Assembly from granting divorces, legitimating 
persons, or changing personal names by private act; specified procedures for the 
impeachment of state officers and the removal of judges for disability; made legislative 
sessions biennial instead of annual; and provided methods of amending the Constitution. 
Follow ing the precedent established in amending the United States Constitution, the 1835 
amendments were appended to the Constitution of 1776, not incorporated in it as is the 
modern practice. 

The Convention of 1861-62, called by act of the General Assembly, took the State out of 
The Union and into the Confederacy and adopted a dozen constitutional amendments. 
These were promulgated by the Convention without the necessity of voter approval, a 
procedure that was permitted by the Constitution until 1971. 

The Convention o\' 1865-66, called by the Provisional Governor on orders of the 
President, nullified secession and abolished slavery, with voter approval, in 1865. It also 
drafted a revised Constitution in 1866. That document was largely a restatement of the 
Constitution of I 776 and the 1 835 amendments, plus several new features. It was rejected 
by a vote of 21,770 to 19,880 on August 2. 1866. 

Constitution of 1868 

The Convention of 1868, called upon the initiative of Congress but with a popular vote 
of approval, wrote a new Constitution which the people ratified in April of 1 868 by a vote 
of 93,086 to 74.016. Drafted and put through the Convention by a combination of native 
Republicans and a few Carpetbaggers, the Constitution was highly unpopular with the 
more conservative elements of the State. For its time it was a progressive and democratic 
instrument of government. In this respect it differed markedly from the proposed Consti- 
tution of 1 866. The Constitution of 1 868 was an amalgam of provisions copied or adapted 
from the Declaration of Rights of 1 776, the Constitution of 1 776 and its amendments, the 
proposed Constitution of 1866, and the constitutions of other states, together with some 
new and original provisions. Although often amended, a majority of the provisions of that 
document remained intact until 1971, and the Constitution of 1971 brought forward much 
of the 1868 language with little or no change. 

The Constitution of 1 868 incorporated the 1 776 Declaration of Rights into the Consti- 
tution as Article I and added several important guarantees. To the people was given the 
power to elect all significant state executive officers, all judges, and all county officials, as 
well as legislators. All property qualifications for voting and office holding were abol- 
ished. The plan of representation in the Senate was changed from a property to a popular 
basis, and the 1835 House apportionment plan was retained. Annual legislative sessions 
were restored. 

The executive branch of government was strengthened by popular election for four- 
year terms of office and the Governor's powers were increased significantly. 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 107 



A simple and uniform court sytem was established with the jurisdiction of each court 
fixed in the Constitution. The distinctions between actions at law and suits in equity w ere 
abolished. 

For the first time, detailed constitutional provision was made for a system of taxation, 
and the powers of the General Assembly to levy taxes and to borrow money were limited. 
Homestead and personal property exemptions were granted. Free public schools were 
called for and the maintenance of penal and charitable institutions by the State was 
commanded. A uniform scheme of county and township government was prescribed. 

The declared objective of the Conservative Party (under whose banner the older native 
political leaders grouped themselves) was to repeal the Constitution of 1 868 at the earliest 
opportunity. When the Conservative Party gained control of the General Assembh in 
1 870, a proposal to call a convention of the people to revise the constitution was submitted 
by the General Assembly to the voters and rejected in 1871 by a vote of 95,252 to 86,007. 

The General Assembly thereupon resorted to the legislative initiative for amending the 
Constitution. That procedure then called for legislative approval of each proposed 
amendment at two successive sessions, followed by a vote of the people on the amend- 
ment. The 1871-72 legislative session adopted an act calling for about three dozen 
amendments to the Constitution which had the general purpose of restoring to the 
General Assembly the bulk of the power over local government, the courts, and the public 
schools and the University that had been taken from it by the Constitution of 1868. The 
1 872-73 session of the General Assembly approved for the second time and submitted to 
the people only eight of those amendments, all of which were approved by the voters in 
1873 by wide margins. These amendments restored biennial sessions of the General 
Assembly, transferred control of the University of North Carolina from the State Board 
of Education to the General Assembly, abolished various new state offices, altered the 
double office-holding prohibition, and repealed the prohibition against repudiation of the 
state debt. 

In 1875, the General Assembly called a convention of the people to consider constitu- 
tional revision. No confirmation of that action by popular referendum was had, and none 
was then constitutionally required. The Convention of 1 875 (the most recent in the State's 
history) sat for five weeks in the fall of that year. It was a limited convention, certain 
actions — for example, the reinstatement of property qualifications for office- holding oi 
voting — being forbidden to it. 

The Convention of 1875 adopted and the voters on November 7, 1876, approved by a 
vote of 120,159 to 106,554 a set of 30 amendments affecting 36 sections of the Constitu- 
tion. These amendments (which took effect on January 1, 1877) prohibited secret political 
societies, moved the legislative convening date from November of even numbered years to 
January of odd-numbered years, fixed in the Constitution for the first time the rate oi 
legislative compensation, called for legislation establishing a State Department ot Agri- 
culture, abandoned the simplicity and uniformity of the 1868 court system by giving the 
General Assembly power to determine the jurisdiction of all courts below the Supreme 
Court and to establish such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as it might see tit. 
reduced the Supreme Court from five to three members, required Superior (Hint judges 
to rotate among all judicial districts of the State, disqualified lor voting persons guilt) ot 
certain crimes, established a one-year residency requirement for voting, required non 
discriminatory racial segregation in the public schools, gave the General Assembl) lull 



1 08 North Carolina Manual 



pou er to re\ ise or abolish the form and powers of county and township governments, and 
simplified the procedure for constitutional amendment by providing that the General 
Assembly might by act adopted by three-fifths of each house at one legislative session 
submit an amendment to the voters of the State (thus eliminating the former requirement 
of enactment by two successive sessions of the General Assembly). The principal effect of 
the amendments of 1873 and 1875 was to restore in considerable measure the former 
power of the General Assembly, particularly as to the courts and local government. 

The amendments framed by the Convention of 1875 seem to have satisfied most of the 
need for constitutional change for a generation, for only four amendments were submitted 
by the General Assembly to the voters throughout the remainder of the nineteenth 
century. Three of them were ratified; one failed. 

In 1900 the suffrage article was revised to add the literacy test and poll tax requirement 
for voting (the latter provision was repealed in 1920). A slate of ten amendments prepared 
by a constitutional commision and proposed by the General Assembly in 1913 was 
rejected by the voters in 1914. With the passage of time and amendments, the attitude 
towards the Constitution of 1868 had changed from resentment to a reverence so great 
that until the second third of the twentieth century, amendments were very difficult to 
obtain. Between 1900 and 1933, the voters ratified 15 and rejected 20 amendments. During 
the first third of this century, nevertheless, amendments were adopted lengthening the 
school term from four to six months, prohibiting legislative charters to private corpora- 
tions, authorizing special Superior Court judges, further limiting the General Assembly's 
powers to levy taxes and incur debt, and abolishing the poll tax requirement for voting 
and reducing the residence qualification for voters. Amendments designed to restrict the 
legislature's power to enact local, private and special legislation were made partly ineffec- 
tive by judicial interpretation. 

A significant effort at general revision of the Constitution was made in 1931-33. A 
Constitutional Commission created by the General Assembly of 1931 drafted and the 
General Assembly of 1933 approved a revised Constitution. Blocked by a technicality 
raised in an advisory opinion of the State Supreme Court, the proposed Constitution of 
1933 never reached the voters for approval. It would have granted the Governor the veto 
power; given to a Judicial Council composed of all the judges of the Supreme and 
Superior Courts power to make all rules of practice and procedure in the courts inferior to 
the Supreme Court; required that the creation of inferior courts by general laws only; 
removed most of the limitations on the taxing powers of the General Assembly; required 
the General Assembly to provide for the organization and powers of local governments by 
general law only; established an appointive State Board of Education with general 
supervision over the public school system; and set forth an enlightened policy of state 
responsibility for the maintenance of educational, charitable, and reformatory institu- 
tions and programs. 

Several provisions of the proposed Constitution of 1933 were later incorporated into 
the Constitution by individual amendments, and to a limited extent it served as a model 
for the work of the 1957-59 Constitutional Commission. 

Between the mid-1930"s and the late 1950's, greater receptiveness to constitutional 
change resulted in amendments authorizing the classification of property for taxation; 
strengthening the limitations upon public debt; authorizing the General Assembly to 
enlarge the Supreme Court, divide the State into judicial divisions, increase the number of 
Superior Court judges, and create a Department of Justice under the Attorney General; 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 109 



enlarging the Council of State by three members; creating a new, appointive State Board 
of Education with general supervision of the schools; permitting women to serve as jurors; 
transferring the Governor's power to assign judges to the Chief Justice and his parole 
power to a Board of Paroles; permitting the waiver of indictment in non-capital cases; 
raising the compensation of the General Assembly and authorizing legislative expense 
allowances; increasing the general purpose property tax levy limitation and the maximum 
income tax rate; and authorizing the closing of public schools on a local option basis and 
the payment of educational expense grants in certain cases. 

The increased legislative and public willingness to accept constitutional change between 
1934 and 1960 resulted in 32 constitutional amendments being ratified by the voters while 
only six were rejected. 

At the request of Governor Luther H. Hodges, the General Assembly of 1957 autho- 
rized the Governor to appoint a fifteen-member Constitutional Commission to study the 
need for changes in the Constitution and to make recommendations to the Governor and 
the 1959 General Assembly. 

That Commission recommended rewriting the whole Constitution and submitting it to 
the voters for approval or disapproval as a unit, the changes suggested being too numer- 
ous to be effected by individual amendments. The proposed Constitution drafted by the 
Commission represented in large part a careful job of editorial pruning, rearrangement, 
clarification, and modernization, but it also included several significant substantive 
changes. The Senate would have been increased from 50 to 60 members and the initiative 
(but not the sole authority) for decennial redistricting of the Senate would have been 
shifted from the General Assembly to an ex-officio committee of three legislative officers. 
Decennial reapportionment of the House of Representatives would have been made a 
duty of the Speaker of the House, rather than of the General Assembly as a whole. 
Problems of succession to constitutional State executive offices and of determination ol 
issues of officers' disability would have been either resolved in the Constitution or then 
resolution assigned to the General Assembly. The authority to classify property for 
taxation and to exempt property from taxation would have been required to be exercised 
only by the General Assembly and only on a uniform, statewide basis. The requirement 
that the public schools constitute a "general and uniform system" would have been 
eliminated, and the constitutional authority of the State Board of Education reduced. 
Fairly extensive changes were recommended in the judicial article of the Constitution, 
including the establishment of a General Court of Justice with an Appellate Division, a 
Superior Court Division, and a Local Trial Court Division. A uniform system of I Mstrict 
Courts and Trial Commissioners would have replaced the existing multitude o\ inferior 
courts and justices of the peace, the creation of an intermediate Court of Appeals would 
have been provided for, and uniformity of jurisdiction of the courts within each division 
would have been required. Otherwise, the General Assembly would have retained essen- 
tially its then-existing power over the courts, their jurisdiction, and their procedures 

The General Assembly of 1 959 also had before it a recommendation for a constitutional 
amendment with respect to the court system that had originated with a Court Studj 
Committee of the North Carolina Bar Association. In general, the recommendations ol 
that Committee called for more fundamental changes in the courts than those ol Un- 
constitutional Commission. The principal difference between the two sets ol recommen- 
dations lay in the extent of the proposed authority of the General Assembly over the 
courts. The Constitutional Commission generally favored legislative authority over the 



I 10 North Carolina Manual 



courts and proposed only moderate curtailment of it; the Court Study Committee 
accepted more literally the concept of an independent judiciary and its proposals would 
have minimized the authority of the General Assembly over the courts ot the State, 
though structurally, its system would have been much like that of the Constitutional 
Commission. 

The proposed Constitution received extended attention from the General Assembly of 
1959. I he Senate modified and passed the bill to submit the proposed Constitution to the 
voters, but it tailed to pass the House, due chiefly to the inability of the supporters of the 
two divergent approaches to court revision to reach agreement. 

As had been true of the proposed Constitution of 1933, the proposed Constitution of 
1959. though not adopted as a whole, subsequently provided the material for several 
amendment proposals that were submitted individually to the voters and approved by 
them during the next decade. 

In the General Assembly of 1961, the proponents of court reform were successful in 
obtaining enactment of a constitutional amendment, approved by the voters in 1962, 
creating a unified and uniform General Court of Justice for the State. Other amendments 
submitted by the same session and approved by the voters provided for the automatic 
decennial reapportionment of the State House of Representatives, clarified the provisions 
for succession to elective State executive offices and disability determination, authorized 
a reduction in the residence period for voters for President, allowed increases in the 
compensation of elected state executive officers during their terms, and required that the 
power of the General Assembly to classify and exempt property for taxation be exercised 
by it alone and only on uniform, statewide basis. 

The session of 1963 submitted two amendments: One to enlarge the rights of married 
women to deal with their own property was approved by the voters; one to enlarge the 
Senate from fifty to seventy members and allocate one Representative to each county was 
rejected by the voters. The General Assembly of 1965 submitted and the voters approved 
an amendment authorizing the legislative creation of a Court of Appeals. 

The 1967 General Assembly proposed and the voters approved amendments authoriz- 
ing the General Assembly to fix its own compensation and revising the legislative 
apportionment scheme to conform to the judicially-established requirement of represen- 
tation in proportion to population in both houses. 

Constitution of 1971 

From 1869 through 1968. there were submitted to the voters of North Carolina a total 
of 97 propositions for amending the Constitution of the State. All but one of these 
proposals originated in the General Assembly. Of those 97 amendment proposals, 69 were 
ratified by the voters and 28 were rejected by them. The changing attitude of the voters 
toward constitutional amendments is well illustrated by the fact that from 1869 to 1933, 21 
of the 48 amendment propositions were rejected by the voters, a failure rate of three out of 
seven. Between 1933 and 1968, only seven of 49 proposed amendments were rejected by 
the voters, a failure rate of one out of seven. 

After the amendments of the early 1960's, the pressure for constitutional change seemed 
at the time to have abated. Yet while an increasingly frequently used amendment process 
had relieved many of the pressures that otherwise would have strengthened the case for 
constitutional reform, it had not kept the Constitution current in all respects. Constitu- 
tional amendments usually were drafted in response to particular problems experienced 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Caroi ina 111 



or anticipated and generally they were limited in scope so as to achieve the essential goal, 
while arousing minimum unnecessary opposition. Thus amendments sometimes were not 
as comprehensive as they should have been to avoid inconsistency in result. ( >bsolete and 
invalid provisions had been allowed to remain in the Constitution to mislead the unwarj 
reader. Moreover, in the absence of a comprehensive reappraisal, there had been no recent 
occasion to reconsider constitutional provisions that might be obsolescent but might not 
have proved so frustrating or unpopular in their effect as to provoke curative 
amendments. 

It was perhaps for these reasons that when Governor Dan K. Moore recommended to 
the North Carolina State Bar in the fall of 1967 that it take the lead in making a studv ot 
the need for revision of the State Constitution, the response was prompt and affirmative. 
The North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar Association joined to create the 
North Carolina State Constitution Study Commission as a joint agency of the two 
organizations. The 25 members of that commission (fifteen attorneys and ten laymen) 
were chosen by a steering committee representative of the sponsoring organizations. The 
Chairman of the Commission was former state Chief Justice Emery B. Denny. 

The State Constitution Study Commission worked throughout most of 1968. It became 
clear early in the course of its proceedings that the amendments the Commission wished to 
propose were too numerous to be submitted to the voters as independent propositions. On 
the other hand, the Commission did not wish to embody all of its proposed changes in a 
single document, to be approved or disapproved by the voters on a single vote. The 
compromise procedure developed by the Commission and approved by the General 
Assembly was a blend of the two approaches. The Commission combined in a revised text 
of the Constitution all of the extensive editorial changes that it thought should be made in 
the Constitution, together with such substantive changes as the Commission deemed not 
to be controversial or fundamental in nature. These were embodied in the document that 
came to be known as the Constitution of 1971. Those proposals for change that were 
deemed to be sufficiently fundamental or potentially controversial in character as to 
justify it, the Commission set out as independent amendment propositions, to be consi- 
dered by the General Assembly and by the voters of the State on their independent mei its 
Thus the opposition to the latter proposals would not be cumulated. The separate 
proposals framed by the Commission were ten in number, including one extensive 
revision of the finance article of the Constitution which was largelv the work of the Local 
Government Study Commission, a legislatively-established group then at work on the 
revision of constitutional and statutory provisions with respect to local government. I he 
amendments were so drafted that any number or combination of them might be ratified bj 
the voters and yet produce a consistent result. 

The General Assembly of 1969, to which the recommendations ot the State Constitu- 
tion Study Commission were submitted, received a total of 28 proposals for constitutional 
amendments. Constitutional revision was an active subject oi interest throughout the 
session. The proposed Constitution of 1971, in the course of seven roll-call votes (four in 
the House and three in the Senate), received only one negative vote. The independent 
amendments fared variously; ultimately six were approved by the General Assembl) and 
submitted to the voters. These were the executive reorganization amendment, the finance 
amendment, an amendment to the income tax provision ol the Constitution, a reassign 
ment of the benefits of the escheats, authorization for calling extra legislative sessions on 
the petition of members of the General Assembly, and abolition ol the literacj test foi 



112 North Carolina Mam \i 



voting. All but the last two oi these amendments had been recommended by the State 
Constitution Study Commission. At the election held on November 3, 1970, the proposed 
Constitution ol l c )7 I was approved by a voteoi 393.759 to 251, 1 32. Five of the six separate 
amendments were approved by the voters; the literacy test repeal was rejected. 

The Constitution o\ 1971 took effect under its own terms on July I, 1971 (hence its 
designation as the "Constitution of 1971"). So did the executive reorganization amend- 
ment, the income tax amendment, the escheats amendment, and the amendment with 
respect to extra legislative sessions, all of which amended the Constitution of 1971 at the 
instant it took effect. The finance amendment, which made extensive revisions in the 
Constitution of 1971 with respect to debt and local taxation, took effect on July 1, 1973. 
The two-year delay in its effective date was occasioned by the necessity to conform state 
statutes with respect to local government finance to the terms of the amendment. 

The Constitution of 1971, the State Constitution Study Commission stated in its report 
recommending its adoption. 

effects a general editorial re\ ision of the constitution . . 1 he deletions, reorganizations, and improvements in the claritj and 
consistency ol language will be found in the proposed constitution Some of the changes are substantive, but mine is calculated to 
impair an\ present right ol the individual citizen 01 to bring about any fundamental change in the powei ol state and local 
government or the distribution ol that power 

In the new Constitution, the old fourteen-article organization of the Constitution was 
retained, but the contents of several articles- -notably Articles I, II, III, V, IX. and 
X — were rearranged in more logical sequence. Sections were shifted from one article to 
another to make a more logical subject-matter arrangement. Clearly obsolete and consti- 
tutionally invalid matter was omitted, as were provisions essentially legislative in charac- 
ter. Uniformity of expression was sought where uniformity of meaning was important. 
Directness and currency of language were also sought, together with standardization in 
spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and other essentially editorial matters. Greater 
brevity of the Constitution as a whole was a by-product of the revision, though not itself a 
primary objective. 

The Declaration of Rights (Article I), which dates from 1776 with some 1868 additions, 
was retained with a few additions. The organization of the article was improved and the 
frequently used subjunctive mood was replaced by the imperative in order to make clear 
that the provisions of that article are commands and not mere admonitions. (For exam- 
ple. "All elections ought to be free" became "All elections shall be free.") To the article 
were added a guarantee of freedom of speech, a guarantee of equal protection of the laws, 
and a prohibition against exclusion from jury service or other discrimination by the State 
on the basis of race or religion. Since all of the rights newly expressed in the Constitution 
of 197 1 were already guaranteed by the United States Constitution, their inclusion simply 
constituted an explicit recognition by the State of their importance. 

In the course of reorganizing and abbreviating Article III (the Executive), the Gover- 
nor's role as chief executive was brought into clear focus. The scattered statements of the 
Governor's duties were collected in one section, to which was added a brief statement of 
his budget powers, formerly merely statutory in origin. No change was made in the 
Governor's eligibility or term, or in the list of state executives previously elected by the 
people. To the Council of State (formerly seven elected executives with the Governor as 
presiding officer) were added the Governor, Fieutenant Governor, and Attorney General 
as ex-officio members. 

Having been entirely rewritten in 1962, the judicial article (Article IV) was the subject of 
little editorial alteration and of no substantive change. 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Caroi.in \ 113 



The editorial amendments to Article V, dealing with finance and taxation, were 
extensive. Provisions concerning finance were transferred to it from four other articles. 
The former finance provisions were expanded in some Instances to make clearer the 
meaning of excessively condensed provisions. The only substantive change of note gave a 
wife who is the primary wage-earner in the family the same constitutionally guaranteed 
income tax exemption now granted a husband who is the chief wage-earner: she already 
had that benefit under statute. 

The revision of Article VI (voting and elections) added out-of-state and federal felonies 
to felonies committed against the State of North Carolina as grounds for denial of voting 
and office-holding rights in this State. The General Assembly was directed to enact 
general laws governing voter registration. 

The provision that has been intepreted to mean that only voters can hold office was 
modified to limit its application to popularly elective offices only; thus it is left to the 
legislature to determine whether one must be a voter in order to hold an appointive office. 

The Constitution of 1971 prohibits the concurrent holding of two or more elective state 
offices or of a federal office and an elective state office. It expressly prohibits the 
concurrent holding of any two or more appointive offices or places of trust or profit, or of 
any combination of elective and appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except as 
the General Assembly may allow by general law. 

The power to provide for local government remains in the legislature, confining the 
constitutional provisions on the subject to a general description of the General AssembK *s 
plenary authority over local government, a declaration that any unit formed by the merger 
of a city and a county should be deemed both a city and a county for constitutional 
purposes, and a section retaining the sheriff as an elective county officer. 

The education article (Article IX) was rearranged to improve upon the former hodge- 
podge treatment of public schools and higher education, obsolete provisions (especialU 
those pertaining to racial matters) were eliminated, and other changes were made to 
reflect current practice in the administration and financing of schools. 

The constitutionally-mandated school term was extended from six months (set in 1 9 1 S ) 
to a minimum of nine months (where it was fixed by statute many years earlier). I he 
possibly restrictive age limits on tuition-free public schooling were removed. Units ot local 
government to which the General Assembly assigns a share of responsibility for financing 
public education were authorized to finance from local revenues education programs. 
including both public schools and technical institutes and community colleges, w ithout a 
popular vote of approval. It was made mandatory (it was formerly permissne) that the 
General Assembly require school attendance. 

The Superintendent of Public instruction was eliminated as a voting member oi t In- 
state Board of Education but retained as the Board's secretary. He was replaced \\ ith an 
additional at-large appointee. A potential conflict of authority between the Superintend- 
ent and the Board (both of which previously had constitutional authoritj to administei 
the public schools) was eliminated by making the Superintendent the chiel administrative 
officer of the Board, which is to supervise and administer the schools 

The provisions with respect to the state and county school funds were retained withonlj 
minor editorial modifications. Fines, penalties, and forfeitures continue to be eai mai ked 
for the county school fund. 

The former provisions dealing with The University of North Carolina were broadened 
into a statement ofthe General Assembly's duty to maintain a system ol highei education 



1 14 Nor i ii C uiolina Manual 



The General Assembly was authorized by the changes made in Article X (Homesteads 
and Exemptions) to set the amounts of the personal property exemption and the homes- 
tead exemption (constitutionally fixed at $500 and $1 .000 respectively since 1868) at what 
it considers to be reasonable levels, with the constitutional figures being treated as 
minimums. The provision protecting the rights of married women to deal with their own 
property was left untouched. The protection given life insurance taken out for the benefit 
ol the wife and children ol the insured was broadened. 

The provisions prescribing the permissible punishments for crime and limiting the 
crimes punishable by death (Article XI) were left essentially intact. 

I he procedures for constitutional revision (Article XIII) were made more explicit. 

The five constitutional amendments ratified at the same time as the Constitution of 
1971 deserve particular mention. 

By the end of the 1960's, North Carolina state government consisted of over 200 state 
administrative agencies. The State Constitution Study Commission concluded on the 
advice ol' witnesses who had tried it that no governor could effectively oversee an 
administrative apparatus of such disjointed complexity. The Commission's solution was 
an amendment, patterned after the Model State Constitution and the constitutions of a 
few other states, requiring the General Assembly to reduce the number of administrative 
departments to not more than 25 by 1975, and to give the Governor authority to effect 
agency reorganizations and consolidations, subject to disapproval by action of either 
house of the legislature if the changes affected existing statutes. 

The second separate constitutional amendment ratified in 1970 supplemented the 
existing authority of the Governor to call extra sessions of the General Assembly with the 
advice of the Council of State. The amendment provides that on written request of 
three-fifths of all the members of each house, the President of the Senate and the Speaker 
of the House of Representatives shall convene an extra session of the General Assembly. 
Thus the legislative branch is now able to convene itself, notwithstanding the contrary 
wishes of the Governor. 

The most significant of the separate amendments and in some ways the most important 
of the constitutional changes ratified in 1970 was the finance amendment. The changes it 
effected are especially important in the financing of local government. The amendment 
became effective on July 1, 1973. Its principal provisions are as follows: 

( 1 ) All forms of capitation or poll tax were prohibited. 

(2) The General Assembly was authorized to enact laws empowering counties, cities, 
and towns to establish special taxing districts less extensive in area than the entire 
county or city in order to finance the provision within those special districts of a 
higher level of govermental service than is available in the unit at large, either by 
supplementing existing services or providing services not otherwise available. That 
provision eliminated the previous necessity of creating a new, independent govern- 
mental unit to accomplish the same result. 

(3) For a century, the Constitution required that the levying of taxes and the borrowing 
of money by local government be approved by a vote of the people of the unit, 
unless the money were to be used for a "necessary expense." The court, not the 
General Assembly, was the final arbiter of what was a "necessary expense," and the 
State Supreme Court took a rather restrictive view of the embrace of that concept. 
The determination of what types of public expenditures should require voter 
approval and what types should be made by a governing board on its own authority 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolin \ lis 



was found by the General Assembly to be a legislative and not ajudicial matter. In 
that conviction, the finance amendment provided that the General Assembly, 
acting on a uniform, statewide basis, should make the final determination ol 
whether voter approval must be had for the levy of property taxes or the borrow ing 
of money to finance particular activities of local government. 

(4) To facilitate governmental and private cooperative endeavors, the state and local 
governmental units were authorized by the amendment to enter into contracts with 
and appropriate money to private entities "for the accomplishment of public- 
purposes only." 

(5) The various forms of public financial obligations were more precisely defined than 
in the previous constitution, with the general effect of requiring voter appro\ aJ only 
for the issuance of general obligation bonds and notes or for governmental guaran- 
tees of the debts of private persons or organizations. The General Assembly was 
directed to regulate by general law (permitting classified but not local acts) the 
contracting of debt by local governments. 

(6) The amendments retained the existing limitation that the state and local govern- 
ments may not, without voter approval, borrow more than the equivalent of 
two-thirds of the amount by which the unit's indebtedness was reduced during the 
last fiscal period, except for purposes listed in the Constitution. This list was 
lengthened to include "emergencies immediately threatening public health or 
safety." 

(7) No change was made in the provisions with respect to the classification and 
exemption of property for purposes of property taxation. The limitation of 20c on 
the $100 valuation previously imposed on the general county property tax was 
omitted. 

The fourth independent amendment also dealt with taxation. It struck out a schedule o\ 
specified minimum exemptions from the constitutional provision on the state income tax, 
leaving those exemptions to be fixed by the General Assembly. This change enabled the 
legislature to provide for the filing of joint tax returns by husbands and wives and to adopt 
a "piggy-back" state income tax to be computed as a percentage of the federal income tax, 
thus relieving the taxpayer of two sets of computations. The amendment retains the 
maximum tax rate at ten per cent. 

The final amendment ratified in 1970 assigned the benefits of property escheating to the 
State for want of an heir or other lawful claimant to a special fund, to be available to help 
needy North Carolina students attending public institutions of higher education in the 
State. Property escheating prior to July 1, 1971, continues to be held by The l'niversit\ ol 
North Carolina. 

The one amendment defeated by the voters in 1970 would have repealed the state 
constitutional requirement that in order to register as a voter, one must be able to read and 
write the English language. That requirement was already ineffective by virtue ol federal 
legislation and therefore the failure of repeal had no practical effect. 

The General Assembly of 1971 submitted to the voters five state constitutional amend- 
ments, all of which were ratified by the voters on November 7, 1972. Those amendments 
set the constitutionally-specified voting age at 18 years, required the General \ssembl) to 
set maximum age limits for service as justices and judges ol the st ate con its. authorized t he- 
General Assembly to prescribe procedures for the censure and remo\ al ol statejudges and 
justices, added to the Constitution a statement of policy with repaid to the conservation 



16 North Carolina Manual 



and the protection of natural resources, and limited the authority ol the General Assembly 
to incorporate cities and towns within close proximity to existing municipalities. 

The General Assembly at its 1973 session submitted and the voters in 1 974 approved an 
amendment changing the title of the Solicitor to that of District Attorney. The 1974 
legislative session submitted an amendment authorizing the issuance by state or county 
governments of revenue bonds to finance industrial facilities, which the voters rejected. 

In 1975, the General Assembly submitted two amendments authorizing legislation to 
permit the issuance of revenue bonds ( 1 ) by state and local governments to finance health 
care facilities and (2) by counties to finance industrial facilities. Both received voter 
approval on March 23, 1976. 

The constitutional amendments of 1835 had permitted the voters to elect a Governor 
for two successive two-year terms. The Constitution of 1868 extended the Governor's 
term to four years but prohibited the Governor and Lieutenant Governor from serving 
successive four-year terms of the same office. The 1 97 1 Constitution retained this limita- 
tion. An amendment to empower the voters to elect both the Governor and Lieutenant 
Governor to two successive terms of the same office was submitted by the 1977 General 
Assembly and ratified by the voters on November 8, 1977. Four other amendments were 
approved by the voters at the same time. They required that the State operate on a 
balanced budget at all times, extended to widowers (as well as to widows) the benefit of the 
homestead exemption, allowed a woman (as well as a man) to insure her life for the benefit 
of her spouse or children free from all claims of the insured's creditors or of her (or his) 
estate, and authorized municipalities owning or operating electric power facilities to do so 
jointly with other public or private power organizations and to issue electric system 
revenue bonds to finance such facilities. 

Only one amendment was proposed by the General Assembly of 1 979. Approved by the 
voters in 1980, it required that all justices and judges of the State courts be licensed lawyers 
as a condition of election or appointment to the bench. 

The 1981 session of the General Assembly sent five amendments to the voters for 
decision on June 29, 1982. The two ratified amendments ratified by the voters authorized 
the General Assembly (1) to provide for the recall of retired State Supreme Court Justices 
and Court of Appeals Judges to temporary duty on either court and (2) to empower the 
Supreme Court to review direct appeals from the Utilities Commission. The voters 
rejected amendments (1) extending the terms of all members of the General Assembly 
from two to four years; (2) authorizing the General Assembly to empower public agencies 
to develop new and existing seaports and airports, and to finance and refinance seaport, 
airport, and related commercial and industrial facilities for public and private parties; and 
( 3 ) authorizing the General Assembly to empower a State agency to issue bonds to finance 
facilities for private institutions of higher education. 

At its 1 982 session, the General Assembly submitted two amendments. On November 2, 
1982. the electorate ratified an amendment shifting the beginning of legislative terms from 
the date of election to January 1 next after the election, and rejected an amendment 
permitting the issuance of tax-increment bonds without voter approval. 

On May 8, 1984, the voters ratified an amendment submitted by the General Assembly 
of 1983 to authorize the General Assembly to create an agency to issue revenue bonds to 
finance agricultural facilities. And on November 6, 1984, the voters approved an amend- 
ment requiring that the Attorney General and all District Attorneys be licensed lawyers as 
a condition of election or appointment. 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 117 



An amendment to shift the elections for state legislative, executive, and judicial officers 
and for county officers from even-numbered to odd-numbered years (beginning in 1 989 
for legislators and 1993 for Governors and other state executives) was submitted by the 
General Assembly of 1985 to the voters, who rejected it on May 6, 1986. An amendment to 
revert to the pre- 1977 constitutional policy that barred the Governor and Lieutenant 
Governor from election to two successive terms of the same office was proposed by the 

1985 legislative session for a popular vote on November 4, 1986, but in the meantime the 

1986 adjourned session repealed the act proposing the amendment. 

In mid- 1986, the General Assembly at its adjourned session voted to send to the voters 
three constitutional amendments, all three of which were approved on November 4, 1 986. 
They ( 1 ) authorized legislation enabling state and local governments to develop seaports 
and airports and to participate jointly with other public agencies and with private parties 
and issue revenue bonds to that end; (2) authorized the State to issue tax-exempt revenue 
bonds to finance or refinance private college facilities; and (3) provided that when a 
vacancy occurs among the eight elected state executive officers (not including the Gover- 
nor and Lieutenant Governor) or the elected judges and justices more than 60 days (was 30 
days) before a general election, the vacancy must be filled at that election. 

Conclusion 

The people of North Carolina have treated their constitution with conservatism and 
respect. The fact that we have adopted only three constitutions in two centuries of 
existence as a state is the chief evidence of that attitude. (Some states have adopted as 
many as five or ten constitutions in a like period.) The relative fewness of amendments, 
even in recent years, is another point of contrast to many states. It reflects the fact that 
North Carolina has been less disposed than have many states to write into its state 
constitution detailed provisions with respect to transitory matters better left to legislation. 
The Constitution has allowed the General Assembly wide latitude for decision on public 
affairs, and legislators have been willing to accept responsibility for and act on matters 
within their authority instead of passing the responsibility for difficult decisions on to t he 
voters in the form of constitutional amendments. 

Constitutional draftsmen have not been so convinced of their own exclusive hold on 
wisdom or so doubtful of the reliability of later generations of legislators that thej ton ml it 
necessary to write into the Constitution the large amount of regulatory detail often found 
in state constitutions. Delegates to constitutional conventions and members ol the 
General Assembly have acted consistently with the advice of the late John J. Parker. ( hiet 
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (1 925-58). who 
observed: 

The purpose of a state constitution is two-fold: (1) to protect the nghts ol the individual from 
encroachment by the State; and (2) to provide a framework of government lor the State and its 
subdivisions. It is not the function of a constitution to deal with temporary conditions, but to la> down 
general principles of government which must be observed amid changing conditions. It follows, then, thai 
aconstitution should not contain elaborate legislative provisions, but should la) dov, n bi ieflj and deal I) 
fundamental principles upon which government shall proceed, leaving it to the people's representatives u> 
apply these principles through legislation to conditions as the) arise. 



I 18 North Carolina Manual 

Chapter Two 

CONSTITUTION 

of 

NORTH CAROLINA 



PREAMBLE 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God. the Sovereign 
Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the American Union and the existence of our 
civil, political and religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him for 
the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do, for the more certain security 
thereof and for the better government of this State, ordain and establish this Constitution. 

ARTICLE 1 

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS 

That the great, general, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be 
recognized and established, and that the relations of this State to the Union and govern- 
ment of the United States and those of the people of this State to the rest of the American 
people may be defined and affirmed, we do declare that: 

Section 1. The equality and rights of persons. We hold it to be self-evident that all 
persons are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable 
rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the fruits of their own labor, and 
the pursuit of happiness. 

Sec. 2. Sovereignty of the people. All political power is vested in and derived from the 
people; all government of right originates from the people, is founded upon their will only, 
and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Sec. 3. Internal government of the State. The people of this State have the inherent, 
sole, and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof, and of 
altering or abolishing their Constitution and form of government whenever it may be 
necessary to their safety and happiness; but every such right shall be exercised in pursu- 
ance of law and consistently with the Constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 4. Secession prohibited. This State shall ever remain a member of the American 
Union; the people thereof are part of the American nation; there is no right on the part of 
this State to secede; and all attempts, from whatever source or upon whatever pretext, to 
dissolve this Union or to sever this Nation, shall be resisted with the whole power of the 
State. 

Sec. 5. Allegiance to the United States. Every citizen of this State owes paramount 
allegiance to the Constitution and government of the United States, and no law or 
ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof can have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. Separation of powers. The legislative, executive, and supreme judicial powers oi 
the State government shall be forever separate and distinct from each other. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 1 19 



Sec. 7. Suspending laws. All power of suspending laws or the execution of laws by an\ 
authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to then 
rights and shall not be exercised. 

Sec. 8. Representation and taxation. The people of this State shall not be taxed or made 
subject to the payment of any impost or duty without the consent of themselves or then 
representatives in the General Assembly, freely given. 

Sec. 9. Frequent elections. For redress or grievances and for amending and strengthen- 
ing the laws, elections shall be often held. 

Sec. 10. Free elections. All elections shall be free. 

Sec. 1 1. Property qualifications. As political rights and privileges are not dependent 
upon or modified by property, no property qualification shall affect the right to vote or 
hold office. 

Sec. 1 2. Right of assembly and petition. The people have a right to assemble together to 
consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the 
General Assembly for redress of grievances; but secret politial societies are dangerous to 
the liberties of a free people and shall not be tolerated. 

Sec. 13. Religious liberty. All persons have a natural and inalienable right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, and no human authority 
shall, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience. 

Sec. 14. Freedom of speech and press. Freedom of speech and of the press are two of the 
great bulwarks of liberty and therefore shall never be restrained, but every person shall be 
held responsible for their abuse. 

Sec. 15. Education. The people have a right to the privilege of education, and it is the 
duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 16. Ex post facto laws. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the 
existence of such laws and by them only declared criminal, are oppressive, unjust, and 
incompatible with liberty, and therefore no ex post facto law shall be enacted. No law 
taxing retrospectively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done shall be enacted. 

Sec. 17. Slavery and involuntary servitude. Slavery is forever prohibited, [nvoluntarj 
servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the parties have been adjudged guilty, 
is forever prohibited. 

Sec. 18. Courts shall be open. All courts shall be open; every person for an injurj done 
him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation shall have remedy by due course oi law ; and 
right and justice shall be administered without favor, denial, or delay. 

Sec. 19. Law of the land; equal protection of the laws; No person shall be taken. 
imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, oi 
in any manner deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the law of the land. No 
person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws; nor shall any person be subjected 
to discrimination by the State because of race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 20. General warrants. General warrants, whereby an officer or other person ma\ be 
commanded to search suspected places without evidence of the act committed, orto seize 
any person or persons not named, whose offense is not partieularh described and 
supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and shall not be granted. 



120 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 21. Inquiry into restraints on liberty. Every person restrained of his liberty is 
entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the restraint it 
unlawful, and that remedv, shall not be denied or delayed. The privilege of the writ of 

habeas corpus shall not be suspended. 

Sec. 22. Modes of prosecution. Except in misdemeanor cases initiated in the District 
Court Division, no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge but by indictment, 
presentment, or impeachment. But any person, when represented by counsel, may, under 
such regulations as the General Assembly shall prescribe, waive indictment in non-capital 
cases. 

Sec. 23. Rights of accused. In all criminal prosecutions, every person charged with 
crime has the right to be informed of the accusation and to confront the accusers and 
witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel for defense, and not be compelled to 
give self-incriminating evidence, or to pay costs, jail tees, or necessary witness fees of the 
defense, unless found guilty. 

Sec. 24. Right of jury trial in criminal cases. No person shall be convicted of any crime 
but by the unanimous verdict of a jury in open court. The General Assembly may, 
however, provide for other means of trial for misdemeanors, with the right of appeal for 
trial de novo. 

Sec. 25. Right of jury trial in civil cases. In all controversies at law respecting property, 
the ancient mode of trial byjury is one of the best securities of the rights of the people, and 
shall remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 26. Jury service. No person shall be excluded from jury service on account of sex, 
race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 27. Bail, fines, and punishments. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 28. Imprisonment for debt. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, 
except in cases of fraud. 

Sec. 29. Treason against the State. Treason against the State shall consist only of 
levying war against it or adhering to its enemies by giving them aid and comfort. No 
person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same 
overt act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of treason or attainder shall work 
corruption of blood or forfeiture. 

Sec. 30. Militia and the right to bear arms. A well regulated militia being necessary to 
the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be 
infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they shall not 
be maintained, and the military shall be kept under strict subordination to, and governed 
by, the civil power. Nothing herein shall justify the practice of carrying concealed 
weapons, or prevent the General Assembly from enacting penal statutes against that 
practice. 

Sec. 31. Quartering of soldiers. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner prescribed by 
law. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 1 2 1 



Sec. 32. Exclusive emoluments. No person or set of persons is entitled to exclusive or 
separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration of public 
services. 

Sec. 33. Hereditary emoluments and honors. No hereditary emoluments, privileges, or 
honors shall be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 34. Perpetuities and monopolies. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the 
genius of a free state and shall not be allowed. 

Sec. 35. Recurrence to fundamental principals. A frequent recurrence to fundamental 
principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 36. Other rights of the people. The enumeration of rights in this Article shall not be 
construed to impair or deny others retained by the people. 

ARTICLE II 

LEGISLATIVE 

Section 1. Legislative power. The legislative power of the State shall be vested in the 
General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representati\es. 

Sec. 2. Number of Senators. The Senate shall be composed of 50 Senators, biennially 
chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 3. Senate districts; apportionment of Senators. The Senators shall be elected from 
districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session convening after the return of 
every decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, shall revise the Senate 
districts and the apportionment of Senators among those districts, subject to the follow - 
ing requirements: 

( 1 ) Each Senator shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, 
the number of inhabitants that each Senator represents being determined for this purpose 
by dividing the population of the district that he represents by the number of Senators 
apportioned to that district: 

(2) Each senate district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district; 

(4) When established, the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators shall 
remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census of population taken h\ 
order of Congress. 

Sec. 4. Number of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall be composed <>i 
120 Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 5. Representative districts; apportionment of Representatives. The Representa- 
tives shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session 
convening after the return of ever decennial census of population taken by order ol 
Congress, shall revise the representative districts and the apportionment of Representa- 
tives among those districts, subject to the following requirements 

(I) Each Representative shall represent, as nearly as may be. an equal number ol 
inhabitants, the number of inhabitants that each Representative represents being detei 



22 Nor m Carolina Manual 



mined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district that he represents b\ the 
number o\ Representatives apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each representative district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No count} shall be divided in the formation of a representative district; 

(4) When established, the representative districts and the apportionment of Representa- 
ti\es shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census of population 
taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 6. Qualifications for Senator. Each Senator, at the time of his election, shall be not 
less than 25 years of age, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and shall have resided in the 
State as a citizen for two years and in the district for which he is chosen for one year 
immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 7. Qualifications for Representative. Each Representative, at the time of his 
election, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and shall have resided in the district for 
which he is chosen lor one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. S. Elections. The election for members of the General Assembly shall be held for 
the respective districts in 1972 and every two years thereafter, at the places and on the day 
prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Term of office. The term of office of Senators and Representatives shall 
commence on the first day of January next after their election. 

Sec. 10. Vacancies. Every vacancy occurring in the membership of the General Assem- 
bly by reason of death, resignation, or other cause shall be filled in the manner prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 1 1. Sessions. 

( 1 ) Regular Sessions. The General Assembly shall meet in regular session in 1973 and 
e\ ery two years thereafter on the day prescribed by law. Neither house shall proceed upon 
public business unless a majority of all of its members are actually present. 

( 2 1 Extra sessions on legislative call. The President of the Senate and the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives shall convene the General Assembly in extra session by their 
joint proclamation upon receipt by the President of the Senate of written requests therefor 
signed by three-fifths of all the members of the Senate and upon receipt by the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives of written requests therefor signed by three-fifths of all the 
members of the House of Representatives. 

Sec. 12. Oath of members. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking his 
seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of the 
United States and the Constitution of the State of North Carolina, and will faithfully 
discharge his duty as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives. 

Sec. 13. President of the Senate. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President of the 
Senate and shall preside over the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is 
equally divided. 

Sec. 14. Other officers of the Senate. 

(I ) President Pro Tempore - succession to presidency. The Senate shall elect from its 
membership a President Pro Tempore, who shall become President of the Senate upon 



The Constitution of North Caroli n \ 123 



the failure of the Lieutenant Governor-elect to qualify, or upon succession b\ the 
Lieutenant Governor to the office of Governor, or upon the death, resignation, or 
removal from office of the President of the Senate, and who shall serve until the expiration 
of this term of office as Senator. 

(2) President Pro Tempore - temporary succession. During the physical or mental 
incapacity of the President of the Senate to perform the duties of his office, or during the 
absence of the President of the Senate, the President Pro Tempore shall preside over the 
Senate. 

(3) Other Officers. The Senate shall elect its other officers. 

Sec. 15. Officers of the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall 
elect its Speakers and other officers. 

Sec. 16. Compensation and allowances. The members and officers of the General 
Assembly shall receive for their services the compensation and allowances prescribed by 
law. An increase in the compensation or allowances of members shall become effective at 
the beginning of the next regular session of the General Assembly following the session at 
which it was enacted. 

Sec. 17. Journals. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which shall be 
printed and made public immediately after the adjournment of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 18. Protests. Any member of either house may dissent from and protest against any 
act or resolve which he may think injurious to the public or to any individual, and have the 
reasons of his dissent entered on the journal. 

Sec. 1 9. Record votes. Upon motion made in either house and seconded by one fifth of 
the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question shall be taken and entered 
upon the journal. 

Sec. 20. Powers of the General Assembly. Each house shall be judge of the qualifica- 
tions and elections of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment from day to 
day, and shall prepare bills to be enacted into laws. The two houses may jointly adjourn to 
any future day or other place. Either house may, of its own motion, adjourn for a period 
not in excess of three days. 

Sec. 21. Style of the acts. The style of the acts shall be: "The General Assembly of North 
Carolina enacts:". 

Sec. 22. Action on hills. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall be read 
three times in each house before they become laws, and shall be signed by the presiding 
officer of both houses. 

Sec. 23. Revenue bills. No laws shall be enacted to raise money on the credit of the State, 
or to pledge the faith of the State directly or indirectly for the payment of any debt. 01 to 
impose any tax upon the people of the State, or to allow the counties, cities. 01 tow ns todo 
so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have been read three several times in each house oi 
the General Assembly and passed three several readings, which readings shall have been 
on three different days, and shall have been agreed to by each house respectively, and 
unless the yeas and nays on the second and third readings o( the bill shall have been 
entered on the journal. 

Sec. 24. Limitations on local, private, and special legislation. 



124 North Carolina Mam \i 



(1) Prohibited subjects. The General Assembly shall not enact any local, private, or 
special act or resolution: 

(a) Relating to health, sanitation, and the abatement of nuisances; 

(b) Changing the names of cities, towns, and townships; 

(c) Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, or discontinuing of 
highways, streets, or alleys; 

(d) Relating to terries or bridges; 

(e) Relating to non-navigable streams; 

(f) Relating to cemeteries; 

(g) Relating to pay of jurors; 

(h) Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or establishing or changing 

the lines of school districts; 
(i) Remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally paid into 

the public treasury; 
(j) Regulating labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; 

(k) Extending the time for the levy or collection of taxes or otherwise relieving any 
collector of taxes from the due performance of his official duties or his sureties 
from liability; 
(1) Giving effect to informal wills and deeds; 
(m) Granting a divorce or securing alimony in any individual case; 
(n) Altering the name of any person, or legitimating any person not born in lawful 
wedlock, or restoring to the rights of citizenship any person convicted of a felony. 

(2) Repeals. Nor shall the General Assembly enact any such local, private, or special act 
by partial repeal of a general law; but the General Assembly may at any time repeal local, 
private, or special laws enacted by it. 

(3) Prohibited aets void. Any local, private, or special act or resolution enacted in 
violation of the provisions of this Section shall be void. 

(4) General laws. The General Assembly may enact general laws regulating the matters 
set out in this Section. 

ARTICLE III 

EXECUTIVE 

Section I. Executive power. The executive power of the State shall be vested in the 
Governor. 

Sec. 2. Governor and Lieutenant Governor; election, term, and qualifications. 

( 1 ) Election and term. The Governor and Lieuteant Governor shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same time and 
places as members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office shall be four 
years and shall commence on the first day of January next after their election and continue 
until their successors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Qualifications. No person shall be eligible for election to the office of Governor or 
Lieutenant Governor unless, at the time of his election, he shall have attained the age of 30 
years and shall have been a citizen of the United States for five years and a resident of this 
State for two years immediately preceding his election. No person elected to the office of 



The Constitution of North Carolina 125 



Governor or Lieutenant Governor shall be eligible for election to more than two consecu- 
tive terms of the same office. 

Sec. 3. Succession to office of Governor. 

(1) Succession as Governor. The Lieutenant Governor-elect shall become Governwi 
upon the failure of the Governor-elect to qualify. The Lieutenant Governor shall become 
Governor upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of the Governor. I he 
further order of succession to the office of Governor shall be prescribed by law. \ 
successor shall serve for the remainder of the term of the Governor whom he succeeds and 
until a new Governor is elected and qualified. 

(2) Succession as Acting Governor. During the absence of the Governor from the State, 
or during the physical or mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the duties of his 
office, the Lieutenant Govenor shall be Acting Governor. The further order of succession 
as Acting Governor shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Physical incapacity. The Governor may, by a written statement filed with the 
Attorney General, declare that he is physically incapable of performing the duties of his 
office, and may thereafter in the same manner declare that he is physically capable of 
performing the duties of his office. 

(4) Mental incapacity. The mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the duties ol 
his office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted by a vote of two-thirds of all 
of the members of each house of the General Assembly. Thereafter, the mental capacitj ol 
the Governor to perform the duties of his office shall be determined only by joint 
resolution adopted by a vote of a majority of all the members of each house of the General 
Assembly. In all cases, the General Assembly shall give the Governor such notice as it ma\ 
deem proper and shall allow him an opportunity to be heard before a joint session of the 
General Assembly before it takes final action. When the General Assembly is not in 
session, the Council of State, a majority of its members concurring, may convene it in 
extra session for the purpose of proceeding under this paragraph. 

Sec. 4. Oath of office for Governor. The Govenor, before entering upon the duties ol his 
office, shall, before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an oath or affirmation thai he 
will support the Constitution and laws of the United States and of the State of Noith 
Carolina, and that he will faithfully perform the duties pertaining to the office ol 
Governor. 

Sec. 5. Duties of Governor. 

(1) Residence. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government oi this Slate 

(2) Information to General Assembly. The Governor shall from time to tune give the 
General Assembly information of the affairs of the State and recommend to then 
consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

(3) Budget. The Governor shall prepare and recommend to the General Assembly a 
comprehensive budget of the anticipated revenue and proposed expenditures ol the State 
for the ensuring fiscal period. The budget as enacted by the General Assemblj shall be 
administered by the Governor. 

The total expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered by the budget shall not 
exceed the total of receipts during that fiscal period and the surplus remaining in the State 



126 Nor i ii Carolina Manual 



Treasury at the beginning of the period. To insure that the State does not incur a deficit for 
an\ fiscal period, the Governor shall continually survey the collection of the revenue and 
shall effect the necessar\ economies in State expenditures, after first making adequate 
provision for the prompt payment oi the principal of and interest on bonds and notes oi 
the State according to their terms, whenever he determines that receipts during the fiscal 
period, when added to any surplus remaining in the State Treasury at the beginning of the 
period, will not be sufficient to meet budgeted expenditures. This section shall not be 
construed to impair the power of the State to issue its bonds and notes within the 
limitations imposed in Article V of this Constitution, nor to impair the obligation of 
bonds and notes of the State now outstanding or issued hereafter. 

(4) Execution of laws. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. 

(5) Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the military 
forces of the State except when they shall be called into the service of the United States. 

(6) Clemency. The Governor may grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, after 
conviction, for all offenses (except in cases of impeachment), upon such conditons as he 
may think proper, subject to regulations prescribed by law relative to the manner of 
applying for pardons. The terms reprieves, commutations, and pardons shall not include 
paroles. 

(7) Extra sessions. The Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, by and with the 
advice of the Council of State, convene the General Assembly in extra session by its 
proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus convened. 

(8) Appointments. The Governor shall nominate and by and with the advice and 
consent of a majority of the Senators appoint all officers whose appointments are not 
otherwise provided for. 

(9) Information. The Governor may at any time require information in writing from the 
head of any administrative department or agency upon any subject relating to the duties of 
his office. 

(10) Administrative reorganization. The General Assembly shall prescribe the func- 
tions, powers, and duties of the administrative departments and agencies of the State and 
may alter them from time to time, but the Govenor may make such changes in the 
allocation of offices and agencies and in the allocation of those functions, powers, and 
duties as he considers necessary for efficient administration. If those changes affect 
existing law, they shall be set forth in executive orders, which shall be submitted to the 
General Assembly not later than the sixtieth calendar day of its session, and shall become 
effective and shall have the force of law upon adjournment sine die of the session, unless 
specifically disapproved by resolution of either house of the General Assembly or specifi- 
cally modified by joint resolution of both houses of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. Duties of the Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President 
of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is equally divided. He shall perform 
such additional duties as the General Assembly or the Governor may assign to him. He 
shall receive the compensation and allowances prescribed by law. 

Sec. 7. Other elective officers. 

( 1 ) Officers. A Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, an Attornev General, a Commissioner of Agriculture, a Commissioner of 



The Constitution of North Carolin \ 127 



Labor, and a Commissioner of Insurance shall be elected by the qualified voters of the 
State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same lime and places as members ol 
the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office shall be four years and shall 
commence on the first day of January next after their election and continue until their 
successors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Duties. Their respective duties shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Vacancies. If the office of any of these officers is vacated by death, resignation, or 
otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another to serve until his 
successor is elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be filled by election at the I i rsl 
election for members of the General Assembly that occurs more than 60 days alter the 
vacancy has taken place, and the person chosen shall hold the office for the remainder of 
the unexpired term fixed in this Section. When a vacancy occurs in the office of any of the 
officers named in this Section and the term expires on the first day of Janaury succeeding 
the next election for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint to fill 
the vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. 

(4) Interim officers. Upon the occurrence of a vacancy in the office of any one of these 
officers for any of the causes stated in the preceding paragraph, the Governor may appoint 
an interim officer to perform the duties of that office until a person is appointed or elected 
pursuant to this Section to fill the vacancy and is qualified. 

(5) Acting officers. During the physical or mental incapacity of any one of these officers 
to perform the duties of his office, as determined pursuant to this Section, the duties of his 
office shall be performed by an acting officer who shall be appointed by the Governor. 

(6) Determination of incapacity. The General Assembly shall by law prescribe with 
respect to those officers, other than the Governor, whose offices are created by this 
Article, procedures for determining the physical or mental incapacity of any officer to 
perform the duties of his office, and for determining whether an officer who has been 
temporarily incapacitated has sufficiently recovered his physical or mental capacity to 
perform the duties of his office. Removal of those officers from office for any other cause 
shall be by impeachment. 

(7) Special Qualifications for Attorney General. Only persons duly authorized to 
practice law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for appointment or election as 
Attorney General. 

Sec. 8. Council of State. The Council of State shall consist of the officers w hose offices 
are established by this Article. 

Sec. 9. Compensation and allowances. The officers whose offices are established by this 
Article shall at stated periods receive the compensation and allowances prescribed b\ law . 
which shall not be diminished during the time for which they have been chosen 

Sec. 10. Seal of State. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kepi b\ the 
Governor and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be called" I he Great Seal ol 
the State of North Carolina." All grants or commissions shall be issued in ( he name and bj 
the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with "The Greal Seal ol the Stale ol 
North Carolina," and signed by the Governor. 

Sec. 11. Administrative departments. Not later than July I. 1975. all administrative 
departments, agencies, and offices of the State and their respective functions, powers, and 



12S North Carolina Manual 



duties shall be allocated by law among and within not more than 25 principal administra- 
tive departments so as to group them as far as practicable according to major purposes 
Regulatory, quasi-judicial, and temporary agencies may, but need not, be allocated within 
a principal department. 

ARTICLE IV 

JUDICIAL 

Section I. Judicial power. The judicial power of the State shall, except as provided in 
Section 3 of this Article, be \ested in a Court for the Trial of Impeachments and in a 
General Court o\ Justice. The General Assembly shall have no power to deprive the 
judicial department of any power or jurisdiction that rightfully pertains to it as a 
coordinate department of the government, nor shall it establish or authorize any courts 
other than as permitted by this Article. 

Sec. 2. General Court of Justice. The General Court of Justice shall constitute a unified 
judicial system for purposes of jurisdiction, operation, and administration, and shall 
consist of an Appellate Division, a Superior Court Division, and a District Court 
Division. 

Sec. 3. Judicial powers of administrative agencies. The General Assembly may vest in 
administrative agencies established pursuant to law such judicial powers as may be 
reasonably necessary as an incident to the accomplishment of the purposes for which the 
agencies were created. Appeals from administrative agencies shall be to the General Court 
oi Justice. 

Sec. 4. Court for the Trial of Impeachments. The House of Representatives solely shall 
have the power of impeaching. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be the 
Senate. When the Governor or Lieutenant Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice shall 
preside over the Court. A majority of the members shall be necessary to a quorum, and no 
person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators present. 
Judgment upon conviction shall not extend beyond removal from and disqualification to 
hold office in this State, but the party shall be liable to indictment and punishment 
according to law. 

Sec. 5. Appellate division. The Appellate Division of the General Court of Justice shall 
consist of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. 

Sec. 6. Supreme Court. 

(1) Membership. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and six Associate 
Justices, but the General Assembly may increase the number of Associate Justices to not 
more than eight. In the event the Chief Justice is unable, on account of absence or 
temporary incapacity, to perform any of the duties placed upon him, the senior Associate 
Justice available may discharge those duties. 

(2) Sessions of the Supreme Court. The sessions of the Supreme Court shall be held in 
the City of Raleigh unless otherwise provided by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 7. Court of Appeals. The structure, organization, and composition of the Court of 
Appeals shall be determined by the General Assembly. The Court shall have not less than 
five members, and may be authorized to sit in divisions, or other than en banc. Sessions ot 
the Court shall be held at such times and places as the General Assembly may prescribe. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 129 



Sec. 8. Retirement of Justices and Judges. The General Assembly shall provided b) 
general law for the retirement of Justices and Judges of the General Court o! Justice, and 
may provide for the temporary recall of any retired Justice or Judge to sen e on the court 
from which he was retired. The General Assembly shall also prescribe maximum age 
limits service as a Justice or Judge. 

Sec. 9. Superior Courts. 

( 1 ) Superior Court districts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide t he- 
State into a convenient number of Superior Court judicial districts and shall pun ide foi 
the election of one or more Superior Court Judges for each district. Each regular Superioi 
Court Judge shall reside in the district for which he is elected. The General AssembK ma) 
provide by general law for the selection or appointment of special or emergency Superioi 
Court Judges not selected for a particular judicial district. 

(2) Open at all times; sessions for trial of cases. The Superior Court shall be open at all 
times for the transaction of all business except the trial of issues of fact requiring a jui \ . 
Regular trial sessions of the Superior Court shall be held at times fixed pursuant to a 
calendar of courts promulgated by the Supreme Court. At least two sessions for the trial 
of jury cases shall be held annually in each county. 

(3) Clerks. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be elected for a term ol 
four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time and places as members of the 
General Assembly are elected. If the office of Clerk of the Superior Court becomes vacant 
otherwise than by the expiration of the term, or if the people fail to elect, the senior regular 
resident Judge of the Superior Court serving the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy 
until an election can be regularly held. 

Sec. 10. District Courts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the 
State into a convenient number of local court districts and shall precribe where t he- 
District Courts shall sit, but a District Court must sit in at least one place in each county. 
District judges shall be elected for each district for a term of four years, in a mannei 
prescribed by law. When more than one District Judge is authorized and elected lor a 
district, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall designate one of the judges as Chiel 
District Judge. Every District Judge shall reside in the district for which he [selected Foi 
each county, the senior regular resident Judge of the Superior Court serving the count) 
shall appoint for a term of two years, from nominations submitted by the Clerk ol the 
Superior Court of the county, one or more Magistrates who shall be officers oft he Districl 
Court. The number of District Judges and Magistrates shall, from time to time, be 
determined by the General Assembly. Vacancies in the office of District Judge shall be 
filled for the unexpired term in a manner prescribed by law. Vacancies in the office ol 
Magistrate shall be filled for the unexpired term in the manner provided for original 
appointment to the office. 

Sec. II. Assignment of Judges. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, acting in 
accordance with rules of the Supreme Court, shall make assignments ol Judges »>l the 
Superior Court and may transfer District Judges from one district to another for tempoi 
ary or specialized duty. The principle of rotating Superior Court Judges among the 
various districts of a division is a salutary one and shall be observed, lot this purpose the 
General Assembly may divide the State into a number of judicial divisions. Subject to t he- 
general supervision of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, assignment ol District 
Judges within each local court district shall be made by the Chief District Judge. 



M) North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 12. Jurisdiction of the General Court of Justice. 

( 1 1 Supreme (dun. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review upon appeal 
an\ decision ol the courts below . upon an\ matter of law or legal inference. The jurisdic- 
tion of the Supreme Court over "issues of fact" and "questions of fact" shall be the same 
exercised by it prior to the adoption ol this Article, and the Court may issue any remedial 
writs necessary to give it general superv ision and control over the proceedings ol the other 
courts. I he Supreme Court also lias jurisdiction to review, when authorized by law, direct 
appeals from a final order or decision of the North Carolina Utilities Commission. 

(2) Conn of Appeals. The Court of Appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as the 
Genera] Assembly may prescribe. 

(?) Superior Court. Except as otherwise provided by the General Assembly, the 
Superior Court shall have original general jurisdiction throughout the State. The Clerks 
of the Superior Court shall have such jurisdiction and powers as the General Assembly 
shall prescribe by general law uniformly applicable in every county of the State. 

(4) District Courts; Magistrates. The General Assembly shall, by general law uniformly 
applicable in every local court district of the State, prescribe the jurisdiction and powers of 
the District Courts and Magistrates. 

(5) Waiver. The General Assembly may by general law provide that the jurisdictional 
limits may be waived in civil cases. 

(6) Appeals. The General Assembly shall by general law provide a proper system of 
appeals. Appeals from Magistrates shall be heard de novo, with the right of trial byjury as 
defined in this Constitution and the laws ot this State. 

Sec. 13. Forms of action; rules of procedure. 

(1) Forms of Action. There shall be in this State but one form of action for the 
enforcement or protection of private rights or the redress or private w rongs. which shall be 
denominated a civil action, and in which there shall be a right to have issues of fact tried 
before a jury. Every action prosecuted by the people of the State as a party against a 
person charged with a public offense, for the punishment thereof, shall be termed a 
criminal action. 

(2) Rules of procedure. The Supreme Court shall have exclusive authority to make rules 
of procedure and practice for the Appellate Division. The General Assembly may make 
rules of procedure and practice for the Superior Court and District Court Divisions, and 
the General Assembly may delegate this authority to the Supreme Court. No rule of 
procedure or practice shall abridge substantive rights or abrogate or limit the right of trial 
byjury. If the General Assembly should delegate to the Supreme Court the rule-making 
power, the General Assembly may, nevertheless, alter, amend, or repeal any rule of 
procedure or practice adopted by the Supreme Court for the Superior Court or District 
Court Divisions. 

Sec. 14. Waiver of jury trial. In all issues of fact joined in any court, the parties in an\ 
civil case may waive the right to have the issues determined by a jury, in which case the 
finding of the judge upon the facts shall have the force and effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 15. Administration. The General Assembly shall provide for an administrative 
office of the courts to carry out the provisions of this Article. 



The Constitution of North Carolin \ 13] 



Sec. 16. Terms of office and election of Justices of the Supreme Court, Judges oj the 
Court of Appeals, and Judges of the Superior Court. Justices of the Supreme Court, 
Judges of the Court of Appeals, and regular Judges of the Superior Court shall he elected 
by the qualified voters and shall hold office for terms of eight years and until their 
successors are elected and qualified. Justices of the Supreme Court and Judges ol the 
Court of Appeals shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State. Regular Judges ol 
the Superior Court may be elected by the qualified voters of the State or by the voters ol 
their respective districts, as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 17. Removal of Judges, Magistrates and Clerks. 

( 1 ) Removal of Judges by the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge of the General 
Court of Justice may be removed from office for mental or physical incapacity by joint 
resolution of two-thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. Any 
Justice or Judge against whom the General Assembly may be about to proceed shall 
receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at 
least 20 days before the day on which either house of the General Assembly shall act 
thereon. Removal from office by the General Assembly for any other cause shall be h\ 
impeachment. 

(2) Additional method of removal of Judges. The General Assembly shall prescribe a 
procedure, in addition to impeachment and address set forth in this Section, for the 
removal of a Justice or Judge of the General Court of Justice for mental or physical 
incapacity interfering with the performance of his duties which is, or is likely to become, 
permanent, and for the censure and removal of a Justice or Judge of the General Court of 
Justice for willful misconduct in office, willful and persistent failure to perform his duties, 
habitual intemperance, conviction of a crime involving moral turpitude, or conduct 
prejudicial to the administration of justice that brings the judicial office into disrepute. 

(3) Removal of Magistrates. The General Assembly shall provide by general law for the 
removal of Magistrates for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity. 

(4) Removal of Clerks. Any Clerk of the Superior Court may be removed from office 
for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity by the senior regular resident Superior 
Court Judge serving the county. Any Clerk against whom proceedings are instituted shall 
receive written notice of the charges against him at least ten days before the hearing upon 
the charges. Any Clerk so removed from office shall be entitled to an appeal as provided 
by law. 

Sec. 18. District Attorney and Prosecutorial Districts. 

( 1 ) District Attorneys. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, di\ ide the Stale 
into a convenient number of prosecutorial districts, for each of which a District Attorney 
shall be chosen for a term of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time 
and places as members ofthe General Assembly are elected. Only persons duly to practice 
law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for election or appointment as a District 
Attorney. The District Attorney shall advise the officers of justice in his district, be 
responsible for the prosecution on behalf of the State of all criminal actions in the 
Superior Courts of his district, perform such duties related to appeals therefrom as the 
Attorney General may require, and perform such other duties as the General Assembly 
may prescribe. 



132 Nor i ii Carolina Manual 



(2) Prosecution in District Court Division. Criminal actions in the District Court 
Division shall be prosecuted in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe by 
general law uniformly applicable in ever} local court district of the State. 

Sec. I 1 ). I acancies. Unless otherwise provided in this Article, all vacancies occurring in 
the offices pi o\ ided tor by this Article shall be filled by appointment of the Governor, and 
the appointees shall hold their places until the next election lor members of the General 
Assembly that is held more than 60 days alter the vacancy occurs, when elections shall be 
held to till the offices. When the unexpired term of any of the offices named in this Article 
of the Constitution in which a vacanc) has occurred, and in which it is herein provided 
that the Governor shall till the vacancy, expires on the first day of January succeeding the 
next election for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint to fill that 
\ acancy for the unexpired term of the office. If any person elected or appointed to any of 
these oil ices shall fail to qualify, the office shall be appointed to, held, and filled as 
provided in ease of vacancies occurring therein. All incumbents of these offices shall hold 
until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 20. Revenues and expenses of the judicial department. The General Assembly shall 
provide for the establishment of a schedule of court fees and costs which shall be uniform 
throughout the State within each division of the General Court of Justice. The operating 
expenses of the judicial department, other than compensation to process servers and other 
locally paid non-judicial officers, shall be paid from State funds. 

Sec. 21. Fees, salaries, and emoluments. The General Assembly shall prescribe and 
regulate the fees, salaries, and emoluments of all officers provided for in this Article, but 
the salaries of Judges shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. In no case 
shall the compensation of any Judge or Magistrate be dependent upon his decision or 
upon the collection of costs. 

Sec. 22. Qualification of Justices and Judges. Only persons duly authorized to practice 
law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for election or appointment as a Justice of 
the Supreme Court, Judge of the Court of Appeals. Judge of the Superior Court, or Judge 
of District Court. This section shall not apply to persons elected to or serving in such 
capacities on or before January 1. 1981. 

ARTICLE V 

FINANCE 

Section I. No capitation tax to be levied. No poll or capitation tax shall be levied by the 
General Assembly or by any county, city or town, or other taxing unit. 

Sec. 2. State and local taxation. 

( 1 ) Power of taxation. The power of taxation shall be exercised in a just and equitable 
manner, for public purposes only, and shall never be surrendered, suspended, or con- 
tracted away. 

(2) Classification. Only the General Assembly shall have the power to classify property 
for taxation, which power shall be exercised only on a State-wide basis and shall not be 
delegated. No class of property shall be taxed except by uniform rule, and every classifica- 
tion shall be made by general law uniformly applicable in every county, city and town, and 
other unit of local government. 



The Constitution of North Carolina ] 33 



(3) Exemptions. Property belonging to the State, counties, and municipal corporations 
shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly may exempt cemeteries and 
property held for educational, scientific, literary, cultural, charitable, or religious pur- 
poses, and, to a value not exceeding $300, any personal property. The General Assembly 
may exempt from taxation not exceeding $ 1 ,000 in value of property held and used as t he 
place of residence of the owner. Every exemption shall be on a State-wide basis and shall 
be made by general law uniformly applicable in every county, city and town, and other 
unit of local government. No taxing authority other than the General Assembly ma\ grant 
exemptions, and the General Assembly shall not delegate the powers accorded to it bv this 
subsection. 

(4) Special tax areas. Subject to the limitations imposed by Section 4, the General 
Assembly may enact general laws authorizing the governing body of any county, city or 
town to define territorial areas and to levy taxes within those areas, in addition to those 
levied throughout the county, city, or town, in order to finance, provide, or maintain 
services, facilities, and functions in addition to or to a greater extent than those financed, 
provided, or maintained for the entire county, city, or town. 

(5) Purposes of property tax. The General Assembly shall not authorize any county, 
city or town, special district, or other unit of local government to levy taxes or property . 
except for purposes authorized by general law uniformly applicable throughout the State, 
unless the tax is approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote 
thereon. 

(6) Income tax. The rate of tax on incomes shall not in any case exceed ten per cent, and 
there shall be allowed personal exemptions and deductions so that only net incomes are 
taxed. 

(7) Contracts. The General Assembly may enact laws whereby the State. an\ county, 
city or town, and any other public corporation may contract with and appropriate monej 
to any person, association, or corporation for the accomplishment of public purposes 
only. 

Sec. 3. Limitations upon the increase of State debt. 

(I) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to contract debts secured by a pledge of the faith and credit of the State, unless 
approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the State who vote thereon, except for 
the following purposes: 

(a) To fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforeseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent ol such taxes. 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections, or to repel invasions; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, as con- 
clusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for any other lawful purpose, to the extent of two-thirds ol the amount In which 
the State's outstanding indebtedness shall have been reduced during the nexl 
preceding biennium. 



134 Nor hi Carolina Manual 



(2) Gift or loan of credit regulated. I he General Assembly shall have no power to give or 
lend the credit ol the State in aid oi any person, association, or corporation, except a 
corporation in w hich the State has a controlling interest, unless the subject is submitted to 
a direct vote ol the people ol the State, and is approved by a majorit) ol the qualified 
voters who vote thereon. 

( }) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when the State 
borrows money. A pledge oi the faith and credit within the meaning of this Section is a 
pledge ol the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs 
when the Slate exchanges its obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an 
individual, association or private corporation. 

(4) Certain debts barred. The General Assembly shall never assume or pay any debt or 
obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States. Neither shall the General Assembly assume or pay any debt or bond 
incurred or issued by authority of the Convention of 1 868, the special session of the 
General Assembly o\ 1 868. or the General Assemblies of 1868-69 and 1869-70, unless the 
subject is submitted to the people of the State and is approved by a majority of all the 
qualified voters at a referendum held for that sole purpose. 

(5) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section shall 
be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evidence of 
indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 4. Limitations upon the increase of local government debt. 

( 1 ) Regulation of borrowing and debt. The General Assembly shall enact general laws 
relating to the borrowing of money secured by a pledge of the faith and credit and the 
contracting of other debts by counties, cities and towns, special districts, and other units, 
authorities, and agencies of local government. 

(2) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to authorize any county, city or town, special district, or other unit of local 
government to contract debts secured by a pledge of its faith and credit unless approved by 
a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon, except for the following 
purposes: 

(a) to fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or salety. as con- 
clusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for purposes authorized by general laws uniformly applicable throughout the 
State, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which the unit's outstanding 
indebtedness shall have been reduced during the next preceding fiscal year. 

(\) (Hft or loan of credit regulated. No county, city or town, special district, or other 
unit of local government shall give or lend its credit in aid of any person, association, or 



The Constitution of North Carolina 1 35 



corporation, except for public purposes as authorized by general law, and unless 
approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote threon. 

(4) Certain debts barred. No county, city or town, or other unit of local government 
shall assume or pay any debt or the interest thereon contracted directly or indirect l\ in aid 
or support of rebellion or insurrection against the United States. 

(5) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when a county, 
city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local government 
borrows money. A pledge of faith and credit within the meaning of this Section is a pledge 
of the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs when a 
county, city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local go\ em- 
inent exchanges its obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an indh idual, 
association, or private corporation. 

(6) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section shall 
be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evidence of 
indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 5. Acts leving taxes to state objects. Every act of the General Assembly le\ v ing a 
tax shall state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall be applied to no 
other purpose. 

Sec. 6. Inviolability of sinking funds and retirement funds. 

( 1 ) Sinking funds. The General Assembly shall not use or authorize to be used any part 
of the amount of any sinking fund for any purpose other than the retirement of the bonds 
for which the sinking fund has been created, except that these funds may be invested as 
authorized by law. 

(2) Retirement funds. Neither the General Assembly nor any public officer, employee, 
or agency shall use or authorize to be used any part of the funds of the Teachers' and Slate 
Employees' Retirement System or the Local Governmental Employees 1 Retirement Sj s- 
tem for any purpose other than retirement system benefits and purposes, administrative 
expenses, and refunds; except that retirement system funds maybe invested as authorized 
by law, subject to the investment limitation that the funds of the Teachers' and Slate 
Employees' Retirement System and the Local Governmental Employees' Retirement 
System shall not be applied, diverted, loaned to, or used by the State. anv State agencj . 
State officer, public officer, or public employee. 

Sec. 7. Drawing public money. 

(1) State treasury. No money shall be drawn from the State Treasurj but m conse- 
quence of appropriations made by law, and an accurate account of the recipts and 
expenditures of State funds shall be published annually. 

(2) Local treasury. No money shall be drawn from the treasurj ol anj countj . citj oi 
town, or other unit of local government except by authority ol law 

Sec. 8. Health care facilities. Notwithstanding any other provisions ol this Constitu- 
tion, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize the State, counties, cities 
or towns, and other State and local governmental entities to issue revenue bonds to 
finance or refinance for any such governmental entity or any nonprofit private corpora- 
tion, regardless of any church or religious relationship, the cost o\ acquiring, const i ucting, 



136 North Caroi ina M am m 



and financing health care facility projects to be operated to serve and benefit the public; 
pro\ ided, no cost incurred earlier than two years prior to the effective date ol this section 
shall be refinanced. Such bonds shall be payable from the revenues, gross or net. of any 
such projects and any other health care facilities of any such governmental entitv or 
nonprofit private corporation pledged therefor; shall not be secured by a pledge of the full 
faith and credit, or deemed to create an indebtedness requiring voter approval of any 
governmental entity; and may be secured by an agreement which may provide lor the 
conveyance ol title oi. with or without consideration, any such project or facilities to the 
gov ernmental entity or nonprofit private corporation. The power of eminent domain shall 
not be used pursuant hereto for nonprofit private corporations. 

Sec. 9. Capital projects for industry. Notwithstanding any other provision of this 
Constitution, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize counties to 
create authorities to issue revenue bonds to finance, but not refinance, the cost of capital 
projects consisting o\ industrial, manufacturing and pollution control facilities for indus- 
try and pollution control facilities for public utilties, and to refund such bonds. 

In no event shall such revenue bonds be secured by or payable from any public moneys 
whatsoever, but such revenue bonds shall be secured by and payable only from revenues 
or property derived from private parties. All such capital projects and all transactions 
therefor shall be subject to taxation to the extent such projects and transactions would be 
subject to taxation if no public body were involved therewith; provided, however, that the 
General Assembly may provide that the interest on such revenue bonds shall be exempt 
from income taxes within the State. 

The power of eminent domain shall not be exercised to provide any property for any 
such capital project. 

Sec. 10. Joint ownership of generation and transmission facilities. In addition to other 
powers conferred upon them by law. municipalities owning or operating facilities for the 
generation, transmission or distribution of electric power and energy and joint agencies 
formed by such municipalities tor the purpose of owning or operating facilities for the 
generation and transmission of electric power and energy (each, respectively, "a unit of 
municipal government ") may jointly or severally own, operate and maintain works, plants 
and facilities, within or without the State, for the generation and transmission of electric 
power and energy, or both, with any person, firm, association or corporation, public or 
private, engaged in the generation, transmission or distribution of electric power and 
energy for resale (each, respectively, "a co-owner") within this State or any state contigu- 
ous to this State, and may enter into and carry out agreements with respect to such jointly 
owned facilities. For the purpose of financing its share ol' the cost of any such jointly 
owned electric generation or transmission facilities, a unit of municipal government may 
issue its revenue bonds in the manner prescribed by the General Assembly, payable as to 
both principal and interest solely from and secured by a lien and charge on all or any part 
of the revenue derived, or to be derived, by such unit of municipal government from the 
ownership and operation of its electric facilities; provided, however, that no unit of 
municipal government shall be liable, either jointly or severally, for any acts, omissions or 
obligations of any co-owner, nor shall any money or property of any unit o\' municipal 
gov ernment be credited or otherwise applied to the account of any co-owner or be charged 
with any debt, lien or mortgage as a result of any debt or obligation of any co-owner. 

Sec. 1 I. Capital projects for agriculture. Notwithstanding any other provision of the 
Constitution of the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize the creation of 



The Constitution of North Carolina 137 



an agency to issue revenue bonds to finance the cost of capital projects consisting of 
agricultural facilities, and to refund such bonds. 

In no event shall such revenue bonds be secured by or payable from any public monej s 
whatsoever, but such revenue bonds shall be secured by and payable only from revenues 
or property derived from private parties. All such capital projects and all transactions 
therefor shall be subject to taxation if no public body were involved therewith; provided, 
however, that the General Assembly may provide that the interest on such revenue bonds 
shall be exempt from income taxes within the State. 

The power of eminent domain shall not be exercised to provide any propern for anv 
such capital project. 

Sec. 12. Higher Education Facilities. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this 
Constitution, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize the State or an) 
State entity to issue revenue bonds to finance and refinance the cost of acquiring, 
constructing, and financing higher education facilities to be operated to serve and benefit 
the public for any nonprofit private corporation, regardless of any church or religious 
relationship provided no cost incurred earlier than five years prior to the effective date of 
this section shall be refinanced. Such bonds shall be payable from any revenues or assets 
of any such nonprofit private corporation pledged therefor, shall not be secured by a 
pledge of the full faith and credit of the State or such State entity or deemed to create an 
indebtedness requiring voter approval of the State or such entity, and, where the title to 
such facilities is vested in the State or any State entity, may be secured by an agreement 
which may provide for the conveyance of title to, with or without consideration, such 
facilities to the nonprofit private corporation. The power of eminent domain shall not be 
used pursuant hereto. 

Section 13. Seaport and airport facilities. (1). Notwithstanding any other provision of 
this Constitution, the General Assembly may enact general laws to grant to the State, 
counties, municipalities, and other State and local governmental entities all powers useful 
in connection with the development of new and existing seaports and airports, and to 
authorize such public bodies. 

(a) to acquire, construct, own, own jointly with public and private parties, lease as 
lessee, mortgage, sell, lease as lessor or otherwise dispose of lands and facilities and 
improvements, including undivided interests therein; 

(b) to finance and refinance for public and private parties seaport and airport facilities 
and improvements which relate to, develop or further waterborne or airborne 
commerce and cargo and passenger traffic, including commercial, industrial, 
manufacturing, processing, mining, transportation, distribution, storage, marine, 
aviation and environmental facilities and improvements; and 

(c) to secure any such financing or refinancing by all or an) port ion o! then re\ enues, 
income or assets or other available monies associated with an) ol their seaport oi 
airport facilities and with the facilities and improvements to be financed oi 
refinanced, and by foreclosable liens on all or any part of then properties asso- 
ciated with any of their seaport or airport facilities and with the facilities and 
improvements to be financed or refinanced, but in no e\ cut to create a debl secured 
by a pledge of the faith and credit of the State or any other public bod) in the 
State." 



138 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE VI 

SUFFRAGE AND ELIGIBILITY TO OFFICE 

Section I . Who may vole. Every person born in the United States and every person who 
has been naturalized, IN years of age. and possessing the qualifications set out in this 
Article, shall be entitled to \ ote at any election by the people of the State, except as herein 
otherwise provided. 

See. 2. Qualifications of voter. 

( I ) Residence period for Slate elections. Any person who has resided in the State of 
North Carolina for one year and in the precinct, ward, or other election district for 30days 
next preceding an election, and possesses the other qualifications set out in this Article, 
shall be entitled to vote at any election held in this State. Removal from one precinct, 
ward, or other election district to another in this State shall not operate to deprive any 
person of the right to vote in the precinct, ward, or other election district from which that 
person has removed until 30 days after the removal. 

(2) Residence period for presidential elections. The General Assembly may reduce the 
time ol residence tor persons voting in presidential elections. A person made eligible by 
reason of a reduction in time of residence shall possess the other qualifications set out in 
this Article, shall only be entitled to vote for President and Vice President of the United 
States or for electors for President and Vice President, and shall not thereby become 
eligible to hold office in this State. 

(3) Disqualification offelon. No person adjudged guilty of a felony against this State or 
the United States, or adjudged guilty of a felony in another state that also would be a 
felony if it had been committed in this State, shall be permitted to vote unless that person 
shall be first restored to the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Registration. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time legally registered 
as a voter as herein prescribed and in the manner provided by law. The General Assembly 
shall enact general laws governing the registration of voters. 

Sec. 4. Qualifiation for registration. Every person presenting himself for registration 
shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the English language. 

Sec. 5. Elections by people and General Assembly. All elections by the people shall be 
by ballot, and all elections by the General Assembly shall be viva voce. A contested 
elect ion for any office established by Article III of this Constitution shall be determined by 
joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 6. Eligibility to elective office. Every qualified voter in North Carolina who is 21 
years of age. except as in this Constitution disqualified, shall be eligible for election by the 
people to office. 

See. 7. Oath. Before entering upon the duties of an office, a person elected or appointed 
to the office shall take and subscribe the following oath: 

"1 do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and maintain the 

Constitution and laws ol the United States, and the Constitution and laws of North 
Carolina not inconsistent therewith, and that 1 will faithfully discharge the duties of my 
office as so help me God." 



The Constitution of North Carolina 1 39 

Sec. 8. Disqualifications of office. The following persons shall be disqualified for office: 

First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God. 

Second, with respect to any office that is filled by election by the people, any person w ho 
is not qualified to vote in an election for that office. 

Third, any person who has been adjuged guilty of treason or any other felony against 
this State or the United States, or any person who had been adjudged guilty of afelonj in 
another state that also would be a felony if it had been committed in this State, or am 
person who has been adjuged guilty of corruption or malpractice in any office, or am 
person who has been removed by impeachment from any office, and who has not been 
restored to the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Dual office holding. 

( 1 ) Prohibitions. It is salutary that the responsibilities of self-government be widely 
shared among the citizens of the State and that the potential abuse of authority inherent in 
the holding of multiple offices by an individual be avoided. Therefore, no person who 
holds any office or place of trust or profit under the United States or any department 
thereof, or under any other state or government, shall be eligible to hold any office in this 
State that is filled by election by the people. No person shall hold concurrently any two 
offices in this State that are filled by election of the people. No person shall hold 
concurrently any two or more appointive offices or places or trust or profit, or any 
combination of elective and appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except as the 
General Assembly shall provide by general law. 

(2) Exceptions. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit any officer of the 
military forces of the State or of the United States not on active duty for an extensn e 
period of time, any notary public, or any delegate to a Convention of the People from 
holding concurrently another office or place of trust or profit under this State or the 
United States or any department thereof. 

Sec. 10. Continuation in office. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers in 
this State, whether appointed or elected, shall hold their positions until other appoint- 
ments are made or, if the offices are elective, until their successors are chosen and 
qualified. 

ARTICLE VII 
LOCAL GOVERNMENT 

Section 1. General Assembly to provide for local government. 1 he General Assemblj 
shall provide for the organization and government and the fixing of boundaries ol 
counties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions, and, except as otherwise 
prohibited by this Constitution, may give such powers and duties to counties, cities and 
towns, and other governmental subdivisions as it may deem advisable. 

The General Assembly shall not incorporate as a city or town, nor shall it authorize to 
be incorporated as a city or town, any territory lying within one mile ol the corporate 
limits of any other city or town having a population of 5.000 or more according to the 
most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within 
three miles of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population ol 10,000 
or more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken bj order ol 



140 North Carolina Mam ai. 



Congress, or lying within tour miles of the corporate limits of any other city or town 
ha\ ing a population o{ 25.000 or more according to the most recent decennial census of 
population taken by order of Congress, or lying within five miles of the corporate limits ot 
an\ other city or town having a population of 50, 000 or more according to the most recent 
decennial census of population taken by order of Congress. Notwithstanding the forego- 
ing limitations, the General Assembly may incorporate a city or town by an act adopted bv 
vote of three-fifths of all the members of each house. 

Sec. 2. Sheriffs. In each county a Sheriff shall be elected by the qualified voters thereof 
at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected and shall hold 
his office for a period of four years, subject to removal for cause as provided by law. 

Sec. 3. Merged or consolidated counties. Any unit of local government formed by the 
merger or consolidation of a county or counties and the cities and towns therein shall be 
deemed both a county and a city for the purposes of this Constitution, and may exercise 
any authority conferred by law on counties, or on cities and towns, or both, as the General 
Assembly may provide. 

ARTICLE VIII 

CORPORATIONS 

Section I. Corporate charters. No corporation shall be created, nor shall its charter be 
extended, altered, or amended by special act, except corporations for charitable, educa- 
tional, penal, or reformatory purposes that are to be and remain under the patronage and 
control of the State; but the General Assembly shall provide by general laws for the 
chartering, organization, and powers of all corporations, and for the amending, extend- 
ing, and forfeiture of all charters, except those above permitted by special act. All such 
general acts may be altered from time to time or repealed. The General Assembly may at 
any time by special act repeal the charter of any corporation. 

Sec. 2. Corporations defined. The term "corporation" as used in this Section shall be 
construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having any of the powers 
and privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. All corpora- 
tions shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts, in like cases as 
natural persons. 

ARTICLE IX 

EDUCATION 

Section I. Education encouraged. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools, libraries, and the means of 
education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec. 2. Uniform system of schools. 

( 1 ) General and uniform system; term. The General Assembly shall provide by taxation 
and otherwise for a general and uniform system of free public schools, which shall be 
maintained at least nine months in every year, and wherein equal opportunities shall be 
provided for all students. 

(2) Local responsibility. The General Assembly may assign to units of local government 
such responsibility for the financial support of the free public schools as it may deem 



The Constitution of North Carolina |4| 



appropriate. The governing boards of units of local government with financial responsi- 
bility for public education may use local revenues to add to or supplement an> public 
school or post-secondary school program. 

Sec. 3. School attendance. The General Assembly shall provide that every child ol 
appropriate age and of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend the public 
schools, unless educated by other means. 

Sec. 4. State Board of Education. 

( 1 ) Board. The State Board of Education shall consist of the Lieutenant Governor, the 
Treasurer, and eleven members appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation b\ 
the General Assembly in joint session. The General Assembly shall divide the Slate into 
eight educational districts. Of the appointive members of the Board, one shall be 
appointed from each of the eight educational districts and three shall be appointed from 
the State at large. Appointments shall be for overlapping terms of eight years. Appoint- 
ments to fill vacancies shall be made by the Governor for the unexpired terms and shall 
not be subject to confirmation. 

(2) Superintendent of Public Instruction. The Superintendent of Public Instruction 
shall be the secretary and chief administrative officer of the State Board of Education. 

Sec. 5. Powers and duties of Board. The State Board of Education shall supervise and 
administer the free public school system and the educational funds provided for its 
support, except the funds mentioned in Section 7 of this Article, and shall make all needed 
rules and regulations in relation thereto, subject to laws enacted by the General Assemblj . 

Sec. 6. State school fund. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be 
granted by the United States to this State, and not otherwise appropriated by this State or 
the United States; all moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging to the State fi w 
purposes of public education; the net proceeds of all sales of the swamp lands belonging to 
the State; and all other grants, gifts, and devises that have been or hereafter may be made 
to the State; and not otherwise appropriated by the State or by the terms of the grant, gift, 
or devise, shall be paid into the State Treasury and, together with so much of the revenue 
of the State as may be set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated and used 
exclusively for establishing and maintaining a uniform system of free public schools. 

Sec. 7. County school fund. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging to 
a county school fund, and the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures and of all tines 
collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws of the State, shall belong 
to and remain in the several counties, and shall be faithfully appropriated and used 
exclusively for maintaining free public schools. 

Sec. 8. Higher education. The General Assembly shall maintain a public system ol 
higher education, comprising The University of North Carolina and such other institu- 
tions of higher education as the General Assembly may deem wise. The General Assembly 
shall provide for the selection of trustees of The University of North Carolina and ol the 
other institutions of higher education, in whom shall be vested all the privileges, rights, 
franchises, and endowments heretofore granted to or conferred upon the trustees ol these 
institutions. The General Assembly may enact laws necessary and expedient for the 
maintenance and management of The University of North Carolina and the other public 
institutions of higher education. 



142 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 9. Benefits of public institutions of higher education. I he Generaly Assembly shall 
pro\ ide that the benefits of The University of North Carolina and other public institutions 
of higher education, as as far as practicable, be extended to the people of the State free o\ 
expense. 

Sec. 10. Escheats. 

( 1 ) Escheats prior to July 1 . 1971. All property that prior to July 1 . 1971 . accrued to the 
State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of the estates of deceased 
persons shall be appropriated to the use of The University of North Carolina. 

(2) Escheats after June 30, 1971. All property that, alter June 30, 1971, shall accrue to 
the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the estates of 
deceased persons shall be used to aid worthy and needy students who are residents of this 
State and are enrolled in public institutions of higher education in this State. The method, 
amount, and type of distribution shall be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE X 

HOMESTEADS AND EXEMPTIONS 

Section 1. Personal property exemptions. The personal property of any resident of this 
State, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than $500, to be selected by the 
resident, is exempted from sale under execution or other final process of any court, issued 
for the collection of any debt. 

Sec. 2. Homestead exemptions. 

( 1 ) Exemption from sale; exceptions. Every homestead and the dwellings and buildings 
used therewith, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than $1,000, to be 
selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in a city 
or town with the dwellings and buildings used thereon, and to the same value, owned and 
occupied by a resident of the State, shall be exempt from sale under execution or other 
final process obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes, or 
for payment of obligations contracted for its purchase. 

(2) Exemption for benefit of children. The homestead, after the death of the owner 
thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority of the owner's 
children, or any of them. 

(3) Exemption for benefit of surviving spouse. If the owner of a homestead dies, leaving 
a surviving spouse but no minor children, the homestead shall be exempt from the debts ot 
the owner, and the rents and profits thereof shall insure to the benefit of the surviving 
spouse until he or she remarries, unless the surviving spouse is the owner of a separate 
homestead. 

(4) Conveyance of homestead. Nothing contained in this Article shall operate to 
prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing of it by deed, but no deed made by a 
married owner of a homestead shall be valid without the signature and acknowledgement 
of his or her spouse. 

Sec. 3. Mechanics' and laborers' liens. The General Assembly shall provide by proper 
legislation for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on the subject-matter of 
their labor. The provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Article shall not be so construed as to 



The Constitution of North Carolina 143 



prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claiming the 
exemption of a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises. 

Sec. 4. Property of married women secured to them. The real and personal property oi 

any female in this State acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to 
which she may, after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall be and remain the 
sole and separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for an\ debts, 
obligations, or engagements of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed and 
conveyed by her, subject to such regulations and limitations as the General Assembls mas 
prescribe. Every married woman may exercise powers of attorney conferred upon bv her 
husband, including the power to execute and acknowledge deeds to properts owned bs 
herself and her husband or by her husband. 

Sec. 5. Insurance. A person may insure his or her own life for the sole use and benefit of 
his or her spouse or children or both, and upon his or her death the proceeds from the 
insurance shall be paid to or for the benefit of the spouse or children or both, or to a 
guardian, free from all claims of the representatives or creditors of the insured or his or her 
estate. Any insurance policy which insures the life of a person for the sole use and benefit 
of that person's spouse or children or both shall not be subject to the claims of creditors oi 
the insured during his or her lifetime, whether or not the policy reserves to the insured 
during his or her lifetime any or all rights provided for by the policy and whether or not the 
policy proceeds are payable to the estate of the insured in the event the beneficiary or 
beneficiaries predecease the insured. 

ARTICLE XI 

PUNISHMENTS, CORRECTIONS, AND CHARITIES 

Section 1. Punishments. The following punishments only shall be known to the lasss ol 
this State: death, imprisonment, fines, removal from office, and disqualification to hold 
and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State. 

Sec. 2. Death punishment. The object of punishments being not only to satisfy justice. 
but also to reform the offender and thus prevent crime, murder, arson, burglary, and rape 
and these only, may be punishable with death, if the General Assembly shall so enact. 

Sec. 3. Charitable and correctional institutions and agencies. Such charitable, benevo- 
lent, penal, and correctional institutions and agencies as the needs for humanity and the 
public good may require shall be established and operated by the Stale under such 
organization and in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 4. Welfare policy; board of public welfare. Beneficient provision for the poor, the 
unfortunate, and the orphan is one of the first duties of a civilized and a Christian state 
Therefore the General Assembly shall provide for and define the duties oi a board oi 
public welfare. 

ARTICLE XII 
MILITARY FORCES 

Section 1. Governor is Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in 
Chief of the military forces of the State and may call out those I ones to execute the lass, 
suppress riots and insurrections, and repel invasion. 



144 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE XIII 

( ONVENTIONS; CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT AND REVISION 

Section I . ( onvention oj the People. No Convention of the People of this State shall 
ever be called unless by the concurrence ol two-thirds of all the members oi each house oi 
the General Assembly, and unless the proposition "Convention or No Convention" is first 
submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the time and in the manner prescribed by 
the General Assembly. If a majority of the votescast upon the proposition are in favor of a 
Convention, it shall assemble on the day prescribed by the General Assembly. The 
General Assembly shall, in the act of submitting the convention proposition, propose 
limitations upon the authority of the Convention; and if a majority of the votes cast upon 
the proposition are in ta\ or ol a Convention, those limitations shall become binding upon 
the Convention. Delegates to the Convention shall be elected by the qualified voters at the 
time and in the manner prescribed in the act of submission. The Convention shall consist 
ot a number of delegates equal to the membership of the House of Representatives ot the 
General Assembly that submits the convention proposition and the delegates shall be 
apportioned as is the House of Representatives. A Convention shall adopt no ordinance 
not necessary to the purpose for which the Convention has been called. 

Sec. 2. Power to revise or amend constitution reserved to people. The people of this 
State reserve the power to amend this Constitution and to adopt a new or revised 
Constitution. This power may be exercised by either of the methods set out hereinafter in 
this Article, but in no other way. 

Sec. 3. Revision or amendment by Convention of the People. A Convention o\ the 
People of this State may be called pursuant to Section 1 of this Article to propose a new or 
re\ lsed Constitution or to propose amendments to this Constitution. Every new or revised 
Constitution and every constitutional amendment adopted by a Convention shall be 
submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the time and in the manner prescribed by 
the Convention. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor of ratification of the 
new or revised Constitution or the constitutional amendment or amendments, it or they 
shall become effective January first next after ratification by the qualified voters unless a 
different effective date is prescribed by the Convention. 

Sec. 4. Revision or amendment by legislative initiation. A proposal of a new or revised 
Constitution or an amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be initiated by 
the General Assembly, but only if three-fifths of all the members of each house shall adopt 
an act submitting the proposal to the qualified voters of the State for their ratification or 
rejection. The proposal shall be submitted at the time and in the manner prescribed by the 
General Assembly. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor of the proposed new 
or revised Constitution or constitutional amendment or amendments, it or they shall 
become effective January first next after ratification by the voters unless a different 
ettectivedate is prescribed in the act submitting the proposal or proposals to the qualified 
voters. 

ARTICLE XIV 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Section I. Seat of government. The permanent seat of government of this State shall be 
at the Citv of Raleigh. 



The Constitution of North Carolin \ 145 



Sec. 2. State boundaries. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and remain as 
they now are. 

Sec. 3. General laws defined. Whenever the General Assembly is directed or authorized 
by this Constitution to enact general laws, or general laws uniformly applicable through- 
out the State, or general laws uniformly applicable in every county, citj and town, and 
other unit of local government, or in every local court district, no special or local act shall 
be enacted concerning the subject matter directed or authorized to be accomplished h\ 
general or uniformly applicable laws, and every amendment or repeal of any law relating 
to such subject matter shall also be general and uniform in its effect throughout the State. 
General laws may be enacted for classes defined by population or other criteria. General 
laws uniformly applicable throughout the State shall be made applicable without classifi- 
cation or exception in every unit of local government of like kind, such as every count) , oi 
every city and town, but need not be made applicable in every unit of local government in 
the State. General laws uniformly applicable in every county. cit> and town, and other 
unit of local government, or in every local court district, shall be made applicable without 
classification or exception in every unit of local government, or in every local court 
district, as the case may be. The General Assembly may at any time repeal any special, 
local, or private act. 

Sec. 4. Continuity of laws; protection of officeholders. The laws of North Carolina not 
in conflict with this Constitution shall continue in force until lawfully altered. Except as 
otherwise specifically provided, the adoption of this Constitution shall not have the effeel 
of vacating any office or term of office now filled or held by virtue of any election oi 
appointment made under the prior Constitution of North Carolina and the laws of the 
State enacted pursuant thereto." 

Sec. 5. Conservation of natural resources. It shall be the policy of this State to conserve 
and protect its lands and waters for the benefit of all its citizenry, and to this end it shall he 
a proper function of the State of North Carolina and its political subdivisions to acquire 
and preserve park, recreational, and scenic areas, to control and limit the pollution oi our 
air and water, to control excessive noise, and in every other appropriate way to presen e as 
a part of the common heritage of this State its forests, wetlands, estuaries, beaches. 
historical sites, openlands, and places of beauty. 

To accomplish the aforementioned public purposes, the State and its counties, cities 
and towns, and other units of local government may acquire by purchase or gift properties 
or interests in properties which shall, upon their special dedication to and acceptance h\ 
resolution adopted by a vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the General 
Assembly for those public purposes, constitute part of the "State Nature and Historic 
Preserve", and which shall not be used for other purposes except as authorized bj law 
enacted by a vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the General Assemblj 
The General Assembly shall prescribe by general law the conditions and procedures undei 
which such properties or interests therein shall be dedicated for the aforementioned public 
purposes. 



146 Nor in Carolina Manual 



Chapter Three 



VOTING RESULTS ON CONSTITUTIONAL 
ISSUES SINCE 1970 



INTRODUCTION 

Provisions for amending and revising the Constitution are found in Article XIII of 
the Constitution o\' North Carolina. The two methods outlined in this article are: ( 1 ) by 
convention o\' the people and (2) by legislative initiation. In both instances all con- 
stitutional issues proposed must be submitted for approval by the qualified voters of the 
State. 

The convention method for amending the constitution has not been used during this 
century. The last convention called to amend a constitution of North Carolina was held 
in 1875. The preferred method since that time has been by legislative initiation. Section 
4 of Article XIII states: 

A proposal of a new or revised Constitution or an amendment or amendments to this 
Constitution may be initiated by the General Assembly, but only if three-fifths of all the 
members of each house shall adopt an act submitting the proposal to the qualified voters 
of the State for their ratification or rejection. The proposal shall be submitted at the time 
and in the manner prescribed by the General Assembly. 
North Carolina is currently under its third Constitution. The present one became ef- 
fective on July 1, 1971, having been adopted on November 3, 1970, by the voters of 
North Carolina. The Constitution of 1971 was the result of recommendations made by 
the State Constitutional Study Commission to the General Assembly of 1969. From 
these recommendations came seven proposals regarding changes to the Constitution 
—one being the adoption of a new constitution. 

Since 1970 other constitutional issues have been presented to the voters of our State. 
The county by county tabulations of those issues are found in this chapter. In order to 
present the material in a uniform format, a description of the ballot issues as they were 
presented to the voters is given on a separate page preceeding the actual tabulation of 
votes. A number has been assigned each ballot issue for each election date on which the 
issue or issues were presented. In the tabulations each number identifies a particular 
ballot issue described on the previous page. The votes "FOR" or "AGAINST" each is- 
sue are given by county. The counties are listed in alphabetical order and a statewide 
total appears at the end of each issue. 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 147 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 3, 1970 

Ballot Tabulations ol Votes 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue (Citation) For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment for the revision and amend- 
ment of the Constitution of North Carolina. 393,759 251,1 32 
(Chapter 1258, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

2 Constitutional amendment to require the General 
Assembly to reduce number of state administrative 
departments to 25 and to authorize the Governor to 
reorganize administrative departments, subject to legis- 
lative approval. 400,892 248,759 
(Chapter 932, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

3 Constitutional amendment permitting 3/ 5 of the mem- 
bers of the General Assembly to convene extra sessions 

of the General Assembly. 332,981 285,587 

(Chapter 1270, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

4 Constitutional amendment revising those portions of 
the present or proposed state constitution concerning 

state and local finance. 323,131 281,087 

(Chapter 1200, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

5 Constitutional amendment authorizing General Assem- 
bly to fix personal exemptions for income tax purposes. 336,660 282,697 
(Chapter 872, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

6 Constitutional amendment providing that after June 
30, 1971, the escheats shall be used to aid North Carol- 
ina residents enrolled in any public institution of higher 

education in this state. 362,097 248.451 

(Chapter 827, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

7 Constitutional amendment abolishing literacy require- 
ment for voting. 279,132 355,347 
(Chapter 1004, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 



148 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 3, 1970 





1 


2 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


■\ lama nee 


6,948 

2.772 

g22 

2,054 

2.445 

984 
2,359 

605 
1,211 
2,163 

10.006 

6.920 

7,231 

6,683 

328 

4.286 
1.104 
10.097 
2,062 
2,501 

728 

793 

6.294 

1,999 

2.829 

6.604 

439 

597 

1 1 .064 

2,070 

2,674 
8,429 
2,061 
18,022 
1,194 

13.457 

392 

1.424 

878 

751 

22.095 
1,228 
2,583 
5,008 
4,120 

882 

926 

406 

7,306 

2,839 


4,076 
2,698 

843 

934 

1.375 

430 
1,092 

432 
1,070 
2,333 

4.903 
5.432 

5.257 
4.500 

227 

1.578 
1.112 
7,156 
2,048 
1 ,430 

235 

433 

3,833 

1,714 

1.770 

3.720 

318 

249 

8.336 

1,728 

2.299 
4.411 
1.409 
9.185 
2,211 

6,856 

181 
681 
929 
843 

9.891 
1.724 
3.293 
3.117 
2.9(0 

372 

513 

273 

4,034 

1.472 


7,532 
3,143 
1,027 
2,006 
2,843 

1,014 
2,417 
672 
1.218 
2.009 

9,520 
6.283 
6.960 
6.935 
286 

4.643 
1.181 
9.211 
2.149 

2,273 

670 

729 

6.362 

1.989 

3.047 

6.9 1 3 

391 

587 

12.290 

2.319 

2.785 
9.479 
2.046 
19,109 
1.193 

12,698 

335 

1,081 

867 

773 

22.219 
1,283 

2,779 
4.463 

3.733 

790 
891 

454 
8,360 
2.683 


3,758 




2.516 


Mk'uhany 


724 


Anson 


906 


\she 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 


I.I 'S 
369 

1.073 
368 


Bladen 


957 


Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 


2.333 

5.872 
5.907 
5.594 
4.271 


Camden 


221 


Carteret 


1.414 




975 


Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 


8,801 

1.984 
1,354 

261 


Clay 

Columbus 


406 
3.649 
1.602 
1,701 




3.553 
342 




242 




7.572 




1.424 




2,119 




4,247 




1,391 
8,087 
2.075 




7,635 




224 
1,113 




943 




810 




9,738 
1,702 




2.896 




3,432 

3,511 


Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 


358 

567 

220 

3,271 

1.433 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



149 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 
CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAI 
ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 3, 1970 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



3,120 
908 
1 ,030 
4,176 
4,815 

1,989 
1,121 
2,048 
2,951 

30,682 

1.016 
2,202 
3,995 

2,365 

5,374 

1,706 
3,473 
6,139 
697 
1,206 

1,169 

498 

1,457 

6,216 

945 

4,857 
1,654 
6,533 
5,028 
9,479 

4,925 
4,489 
1,232 
5,009 

2,748 

5,782 
1,199 
3,429 
282 
4,398 

1,214 

17,202 

1.016 

1 ,043 

2,978 

2,549 
4,023 

3,673 
2,011 

1,875 



Against 



393,759 



4,057 

862 

978 

4,395 

3,326 

1.270 

365 

857 

2,817 

8,999 

516 
1.919 
3.139 
2,629 

3,468 

526 
2,150 
2,350 

561 

722 

966 

268 

1,108 

2,812 

369 

4,078 

864 

4,199 

3,509 

7,221 

3,583 
3,866 
639 
4.528 
2,529 

3,372 
593 

2,202 
159 

1,788 

1,626 

10,844 

1,442 

653 

1,181 

4.168 
2.541 
3.290 
2.121 
889 



For 



251.132 



3.024 
858 
1,116 
3,908 
4,676 

1.895 
1.089 
2.272 
2,864 
32,820 

1.102 
2,308 

4,257 
2.320 
5.379 

802 

3.573 

5,581 

883 

1,117 

1,1 17 

456 
1 .399 
6.626 

982 

5,882 
1,748 
6.062 
5,164 
9.675 

5.069 
4,578 
1,300 
5.164 
2,890 
5,954 

992 
3.252 

299 
4,764 

1,172 

I 7,635 

1,048 

I. II I 

2.9 1 : 

3.154 
4,274 
3,623 

I 860 



400, S9) 



Against 



3.894 

1.084 

4,586 
3,641 

1.255 
408 

761 

2.790 
N.949 

507 

I. SO I 

2,768 

2.645 
3.309 

841 

2.964 
514 
818 

875 

284 
934 

2,557 

412 

3.44S 
819 

1,929 

-.(I'M 

3.362 
J.504 
|,59f 

4,650 
2,227 

1,293 

2.100 

14' 

1.552 

1 .594 

1,325 

60 2 

1,321 

J.83I 
2,311 
1,352 

1,873 
816 






50 



Nor m Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 - Continued 





3 


4 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 




6,042 
2,230 
671 
1,581 
1,986 

716 
2,031 

537 
1,010 
1,858 

10,053 

5.217 

5,420 

4,952 

264 

3,907 
953 
8.0X5 
1,769 
2,111 

636 

672 

4,810 

1,727 
2,514 

5,846 

386 

550 

9,966 

1,499 

2,237 

8.294 

1.835 

16.450 

967 

10.516 

314 

1.250 

808 

652 

18,948 
1.207 
2.299 
4.327 
3,833 

747 

800 

335 

5,343 

2,682 


4.625 
3,145 
916 
1,218 
1,383 

558 
1,230 

421 
1.137 
2.304 

5,085 
6,503 
6,784 
5.710 
228 

1.755 
1,112 
8,797 
2,183 
1,514 

290 

449 

4,950 

1,801 

I.N44 

4,316 

340 

247 

9,128 

1,866 

2,382 
4,714 
1.423 
9.627 
2.198 

8.940 
188 
663 
930 
882 

1 1 ,648 
1,724 
3.301 
3,343 
3.089 

331 

583 

272 

5,471 

1,387 


6,070 
2,375 
688 
1,612 
1 .944 

738 
1 ,905 

515 
1 .039 
1.866 

9,308 

5,627 
5,431 

4.845 
232 

3,836 
944 
7,946 
1,741 
2,169 

622 
680 

4,773 
1,728 
2,275 

5,116 

356 

489 

9.847 

1.685 

2.274 

7.601 

1.736 

14.497 

945 

9,870 

320 

1.308 

748 
652 

19,201 
1,092 
2.235 
4,139 
3,481 

682 

600 

312 

5.636 

2.68 3 


4.480 


Alexander 


2 922 


W legha ny 


880 


Anson 


1.078 


Ashe 

\\ci \ 


1 ,349 
498 


Beaufort 

Bei tie 


1,272 
422 


Bladen 


1 ,059 


Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 


2.197 

5.185 
6.005 
6.538 


Caldwell 


5,561 


Camden 


230 


Carteret 


1,708 


Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 


1.008 
8,552 
2,039 
1 ,302 

288 

419 

4,581 

1,713 

1.940 


Cumberland 

Currituck .. 


5.016 
345 


Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 


285 
8.454 
1,766 

2,240 


Durham 


4,882 


Fdgecombe 


1.448 


Forsyth 


10.799 


Franklin 


2.103 


Gaston 


9.138 


Gates 


163 


Graham 

Granville 

Greene 


690 
931 
853 


Guillord 

Halifax 


10,823 
1,794 


Harnett 


3.208 


Haywood 

Henderson 


3,322 

3,272 


Hertford 

Hoke 


400 
790 


Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 


2s ? 
4,797 
1 .354 







Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



151 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 
CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAI 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 
NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 - Continued 



County 



Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir .... 
Lincoln .. 



Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery . 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank ... 

Pender 

Perquimans ... 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 



Randolph .... 
Richmond .... 

Robeson 

Rockingham 
Rowan 



Rutherford 
Sampson ... 
Scotland ... 

Stanly 

Stokes 



Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 



Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 
Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



For 



Aqainsl 



Totals 



2,397 

772 

943 

3.744 

3,646 

1,706 
1.016 
1,831 

2,349 
25.215 

776 
1,765 
3,466 
2,032 
5,072 

632 
3,104 
5,473 

580 
I. Ill 

1,027 

442 

1,170 

5,297 

854 

4,110 
1,426 
5,480 
4.101 
7,784 

3,921 
3,590 
1,046 
3,837 
2,328 

5,139 

996 

3,048 

242 
3,283 

1.070 

15.344 

846 

905 

2,195 

2,434 
3.169 
2,927 
1.652 
1.796 

332,981 



4,016 
845 
1,056 
4,464 
4,194 

1.413 

397 

982 

3,097 

14,619 

626 

2,171 
3,333 
2,636 
3.460 

891 

2,334 

2.758 

620 

710 

947 

294 

1,143 

3,296 

486 



4,516 
956 

4,374 

3,748 
8.631 

4.367 
3,989 
722 
5,114 
2,485 

3,484 
672 

2,283 
163 

2,627 

1 ,6 1 8 

12,243 

1 .409 

709 

1 ,65 I 

4.268 
3.007 
3.766 
2,194 

818 

285,587 



For 



2,249 

770 

898 

3,582 

3,690 

1,722 
1,009 
1,561 

2,299 
23,855 

750 
1,768 
3.378 
1 .9 1 5 

4.386 

565 
3.049 
5,357 

659 
1.006 

982 

423 
1.199 
4.921 

824 

4,237 
1.344 
5,506 
4.110 
7,697 

3,884 

3.621 
1,123 
4.132 
2,304 

4,953 
1,034 
(,073 

220 
; )99 

936 

14.761 

801 

878 
2,382 

2.106 

1,701 

I ■"■ 

323,131 



Against 



3,959 

812 

1,081 

4,473 

4.005 

1.278 

376 

1.110 

2,932 

15.121 

561 
2,040 
3,115 

2.696 
3,942 

928 

2.235 

2,545 

557 

781 

286 

910 

3.330 
489 

4.206 

971 

4.142 

3,423 

4 106 

662 
4,859 

3.555 
573 

2.223 
154 

 

I 1,199 

I . <84 
4.4^S 

2,792 
t.924 
2,150 

281.087 



152 



North Carolina Manuai 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 — Continued 





5 


6 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


6.061 

2,354 

692 

1,708 

2.099 

818 

2.0 13 
533 
1,127 
1.820 
9,561 
5,772 
6,270 
5,110 
282 

3,760 
1.039 
8,372 
1.796 

2,084 

659 

689 

5.124 

1,730 

2.473 

5.745 

374 

525 

9.419 

1.626 

2.249 
8,121 
1.857 
14.1 19 
1,109 

10,223 

330 

1,289 

790 

671 

19,558 

1.188 
2.428 
3.994 
3.556 

776 

835 

335 

6.315 

2.603 


4,767 
3,003 

937 

1.092 
1,268 

501 

1.247 

433 

1,025 

2.39X 

5,578 
5,985 

5.913 

5,553 

206 

1 .892 
1.037 
8,396 
2,104 
1.436 

268 

448 

4.436 

1.805 

1 .95 1 

4,419 

341 

275 

9,753 

1.918 

2.256 
4.865 
1.409 
1 1.792 
2.072 

9.304 
167 
706 
938 

837 

1 1 . 1 66 
1.710 
3.141 
3,646 
3.492 

387 

577 

264 

4.603 

1.471 


6.614 
2.631 

782 
1.775 
2.182 

867 
2.218 

584 
1.227 
2.030 
10.164 
6.477 
6.722 
6.023 

284 

4.068 
1.042 

9.565 
1.805 

2.273 

702 

750 

5.546 

1.839 

2.754 

6.225 

406 

566 

10,190 

1.852 

2.486 
7.811 
2.134 
15.105 
1,135 

12.229 

311 

1.404 

826 

768 

19.955 
1.400 
2.593 
4.624 
4.025 

787 

860 

344 

6.331 

2,760 


4,058 


\lexandei 


2.648 


Alleghanj 


786 


Anson 


958 


Ashe 


1.14" 


Avery 

Beaut ort 


391 
1 035 


Bertie 


381 


Bladen 


9">T 


Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 


2.078 
4.668 
5.107 
5.279 


Caldwell 


4.490 


Camden 


197 


Carteret 


1 .48 1 


Caswell 

Catawba 


994 
7.124 


Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 


1.992 
1.274 

209 


Cla> 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 


370 
3,941 
1.656 
1.655 


Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 


3,792 
295 
205 

8.511 


Davie 


1 .650 


Duplin 


2.072 


Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsvth 

Eranklin . 


4,839 

1.178 

10.363 

1.968 


Gaston 


6.793 


Gates 


175 


Graham 

Granville 

Greene 


615 

872 

'Ml 


Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 


10.285 
1.518 
3.030 


Ha v wood 

Henderson 


2.828 

2.837 


Hertford 

Hoke 


359 
516 


Hyde 

Iredell 


246 

4.252 


Jackson 


1.259 







Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



153 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 
CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 
NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 - Continued 



County 



Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir .... 
Lincoln .. 



Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery . 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank ... 

Pender 

Perquimans ... 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham .. 
Rowan 

Rutherford .... 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 



Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 



Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 
Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



For 



Totals 



2,449 
751 
1,027 
3,544 
3,881 

1,649 
1,013 
1,775 
2,393 
27,662 

791 
1,798 
3,346 
2,064 
4,293 

628 
2,897 
5,443 

635 
1,088 

1,009 

444 

1,292 

5,152 

839 

4,246 
1,379 
5,434 
4,090 
8,073 

4,057 
3,685 
1,071 
4,252 
2,149 

4,809 
996 

2,871 

248 

3,572 

1,128 

15,863 

888 

863 

2,657 

2,483 
3,363 
3,301 
1,597 
1,741 



Against 



3,975 
853 
1,001 
4,707 
3,950 

1,488 

402 

960 

3,048 

12,397 

587 
2,125 
3,321 
2,631 
4,251 

912 

2,546 

2,698 

615 

742 

984 
291 
989 
3,370 
480 

4,499 
1,048 
4,377 
3,789 
8,266 

4,115 
3,897 
738 
4,881 
2,619 

3,873 
654 

2,522 
159 

2,319 

1,554 

11,788 

1,339 

726 

1,415 

4,220 
2,823 
3,432 
2.262 
863 



For 



2,494 
837 
1,037 
4,000 
4,314 

1,909 
1,061 
1,880 
2,898 
28,475 

856 
1,920 
3,626 
2,401 
5,048 

1,596 
3,296 
4,913 
779 
1,134 

1,079 
451 
1,244 
5,441 
905 
4,407 
1,510 
5,882 
4,219 
8,806 

4,556 
3,918 
1,138 
4,482 
2,345 

5,276 
1,085 
3,224 
255 
3,846 

1,135 

16,678 
1,059 
1,024 

2,557 

2,674 
3. 461 
3,421 

1,736 
1.758 



Against 



3.813 

743 

959 

4.187 

3,395 

1,159 

331 

827 

2,417 

11,201 

475 
1,957 
2.995 
2,281 
3.459 

518 

2.086 

3,190 

469 

674 

865 

272 

887 
2.949 

420 
4.091 

873 
3,794 
3.400 
7.220 

3,512 
3,518 
648 
4.527 
2,331 

3.223 
514 

2,151 
129 

1,853 

1,499 

10,743 

1 ,289 

1.339 

4,025 
2,505 
J.240 

2.018 

837 



154 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 — Continued 







/ 




7 




County 


For 


Against 


County 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


4.810 

2,361 

665 

1,302 

2,660 

854 

1 ,4 1 3 

411 

856 

1 ,605 

7.866 
5.607 
4.744 
5,243 

177 

3,043 
834 
7,759 
1.511 
2.063 

483 

724 

4,191 

1,456 

1,804 

4,097 

244 

405 

7,953 

1 ,505 

1 ,800 

6,073 

1 .350 

11,409 

822 

9,508 

241 

1,249 

579 
470 

15,978 

949 

1,840 

3,950 

3,265 

599 

682 

209 

4.338 

2,431 


6. 1 50 
2.824 
1,003 
1 ,565 

1.296 

570 

1,973 

681 

1,343 

2,734 

7,510 
6.362 
7.559 
5,665 
317 

2.800 
1,290 
9.291 
2.461 
1,525 

457 

473 

5.470 

2.095 

2,762 

6,096 

496 

444 

1 1.096 

1,964 

2 922 
7.058 
1 ,956 
15.433 
2.231 

10.214 

280 

655 
1,151 

1,058 

15,758 
2.016 
3.761 
3.857 
3,856 

655 

729 

439 

6.845 

1 .638 


Johnston 


1 .956 

628 

727 

2.519 

3,879 

1.519 
1 ,065 
1.394 
2.581 
18,861 

837 
1,694 
2,678 
1 .4 1 3 
3,606 

1,429 

2,176 

4.470 

486 

832 

795 
331 

1,050 
3.326 
886 
3.728 
1.072 
4.450 
3.421 
6,190 

3,742 
3,123 
821 
3.465 
2.173 

4,436 
1,049 

2.774 

180 

2.694 

830 

12,569 

932 

671 

2,758 

1.658 
3,397 
2.009 
1,535 
1,839 


4,626 


Alexander 


Jones 


966 


Alleghanv 


Lee 


1.341 




1 enoir 


5,894 


Ashe 


1 incoln 

Macon 


3.978 


Aver) 


1.656 


Beaufort 


Madison 


422 


Bertie 


Martin 


1.460 


Bladen 


McDowell .. 


2 995 


Brunswick 


Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


22.523 
657 


Burke 


Montgomery 

Moore 


2.331 




4.201 


Caldwell 


Nash 

New Hanover 


3,426 




5,544 


Carteret 


Northampton 


957 


Caswell 


Onslow 


1 Ul 


Catawba 


Orange 

Pamlico 


3,840 


Chatham 


783 


Cherokee 


Pasquotank 


1,087 


Chowan 


Pender 


1,219 


Cla\ 

Cleveland 


Perquimans 


412 


Person 


1.277 


Columbus 


Pitt 


5.424 


Craven 


Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


536 


Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 


5.307 
1 ,43 1 
5,445 




Rockmaham 


4.681 


Davie 


Rowan 


10,357 


Duplin 


Rutherford 

Sampson 


4,504 




4.560 


Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 


Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 


1 .034 
5.730 
2,742 


Gaston 


4,305 


(iates 


689 


Graham 


Trans) Ivania 


2.713 




I % roll 


261 


Greene 


Union 


3.398 


Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett . 


Vance 

Wake 

Warren 


1.893 

16.315 

1 ,605 




Washington 


990 


Henderson 


Watauga 

Wayne 


1.528 


Hertford 


5.199 


Hoke- 


Wilkes . 


2,916 


Hyde 

Iredell .. 


Wilson 


4,797 


Yadkin 


2.382 




Yancey 


863 








Totals .. 




279.132 


355.340 







Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 155 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 7, 1972 

Ballot Tabulations ol Voles 

Number Description ol Constitutional Issue (Citation) For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment reducing the voting age to 
18 years and providing that only persons 21 years of 

age or older shall be eligible for elective office. 762,651 425,708 

(Chapter 201, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

2 Constitutional amendment to require the General 
Assembly to prescribe maximum age limits for service 

as a Justice or a Judge. 8 1 1 ,440 304,489 

(Chapter 451, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

3 Constitutional amendment authorizing the General 
Assembly to prescribe procedures for the censure and 
removal of Justices and Judges of the General Court of 

Justice. 807,960 272,470 

(Chapter 560, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

4 Constitutional amendment to conserve and protect 

North Carolina's natural resources. 976,581 146,895 

(Chapter 630, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

5 Constitutional amendment limiting incorporation of 

cities and towns. 694,921 374,184 

(Chapter 857, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 



156 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER AD. 1972 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



14 
4 
1 
3 

4 

2 
5 

1 

4 
4 

15 
II 
13 

4 

7 

3 

17 

5 

3 

I. 
1, 

10 

5. 

5. 

21 
1, 

1 

IS 

4 



,818 
,008 

,588 
,538 
000 

161 

,593 

,413 

.080 

4 

,891 
770 
824 
,736 
897 
,137 
010 
578 
438 
379 

721 
257 
752 
485 
861 

659 
394 
556 
946 

244 



5,650 
15,593 

7,248 
31,264 

4,479 

21,319 
1,373 
1,346 
4,952 
2,308 

41,630 
7,991 
7,645 
8,299 
7,584 

1,882 

2,301 

891 

13,405 

4.223 



7,724 
2,935 
1,023 
1,845 
2,108 

932 

2,899 

568 

1,83 

2,372 

7,841 
6,896 
7,793 
5,829 

474 

3,137 

1.253 

10,917 

2,858 
1,304 

803 

387 

5,702 

2,489 

3,007 

10,242 
626 
599 

10,523 
1,926 

3,113 
15,734 

3,208 
16,549 

2,425 

11,596 

619 

719 

2,466 

960 

26,453 
3,991 
4,749 
4,216 
3,402 

562 

855 

443 

7,086 

2,330 



6,353 
4,110 
1 ,320 
3,600 

3,384 

2,172 
5,886 
1.454 
3,974 
4,413 

18,972 

11,855 

15,155 

9,930 

925 

7,568 

2,794 

19,510 

5,091 

3,009 

1,882 
1,162 
11,719 
5,256 
6,354 

22,192 
1,446 
1,619 

19,501 
3,927 

5,981 

17,472 
7,614 

31,401 
4,565 

22,719 
1,426 
1,285 
5,037 
2,418 

45,444 
8,508 
7,373 
8,818 
8,402 

1,913 
1,811 

874 
14,468 

4,357 



5,274 
2,491 
996 
1,142 
2,024 

779 
1,727 

348 
1,492 
1,929 

4,174 
5,293 
5,559 
4,689 

238 
2,089 

974 
7,497 
2,600 
1,180 

438 

291 

3,927 

2,025 

2,021 

8,008 

379 

321 

8,276 

1.644 

2,066 
12,714 

1,987 
14,684 

1,620 

8,699 
279 
636 

1 ,663 
652 

19,339 
2,650 
3,836 
2,984 
2,153 

1,412 

1.117 

256 

5,103 

1,677 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



157 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1972 — Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



7,040 
1,744 
2,761 
9,073 
7,046 

3,479 
1,085 
2,310 
4,756 
44,515 

2,549 

3,382 

7,716 

10,381 

13,289 

2,210 
7,956 

12,522 
1,588 
2,982 

2,696 
1,286 
4,569 
11,083 
1,724 

11,034 
4,242 
12,035 
11,145 
17,071 

7,823 
7,766 
2,653 
9.388 
5,370 
5,758 
1,383 
4,939 
671 
8,362 

5,489 
38,882 
2.483 
2,381 
4.289 

6,723 
8,190 
9.505 
4,216 
2,181 



Against 



762,651 



4,230 
684 
1,262 
4.485 
4,181 

1,450 

648 

1,138 

2,769 

27,217 

1,279 

2,086 
4,152 
5,382 
7,683 

836 

3,685 

10,307 

758 
1,375 
1,401 

482 
2,428 
6,441 

961 

5,604 
3,161 
5.476 
6,234 
9,052 

4,642 
4,048 
1,287 
5.641 
2,660 

2,612 

448 
2,264 

253 
4,461 

3,187 
24,487 
1 .340 
1 ,434 
2,947 

3,088 
4,673 
5.134 
2,499 
1,455 



For 



425,708 



7.068 
1,712 
2,986 
10,013 
7,268 

3,487 
1,041 
2,213 
5,007 
57,017 

2,499 

3,448 

8,087 

11,309 

13,651 

2,227 
8.413 

14.320 
1,594 
3.355 
2.697 
1,314 
4,421 

12,472 
1,943 

11,020 
4,629 
11,365 
11,161 
18,179 

8,124 

7.354 
2,872 
9,783 
4,752 

5,746 
1.417 
4,982 
633 
9,178 
5,341 
45,190 
2,375 
2,645 
4,594 

7,249 
7.939 
10.532 
3,920 
2,115 



8 1 1 .440 



Against 



3.236 
512 
925 

2.782 
3,358 

1,012 

521 

680 

2,097 

13.770 

908 
1 .636 
2,935 
3,267 
6,087 

560 

2,683 

6,583 

495 

804 

978 

301 

1,736 

3.984 

727 

4,426 
2,092 
4.148 
4.719 
6.807 

3,755 

3.121 

837 

4.238 

2.447 

2,211 

299 

1 ,808 

178 
2.844 

2.550 

15,483 

967 

803 

2,231 
4,327 

5,115 
2,079 

743 
304.489 



158 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1972 — Continued 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



16,033 
4,079 
1,294 
3,405 
3,341 

2,118 
6,139 

1 .434 
3,956 
4,245 

18.811 
12,461 
15,720 
10,182 
911 

7,787 
2,679 
19,569 
4,925 
2,934 

1,849 
1,118 
11,879 
4,934 
6,378 

23,470 
1,424 
1,570 

19,097 
3,958 
5.735 

17,128 
7,529 

32,680 
4,394 

23,438 
1 ,393 
1,228 
5,008 
2,431 

43,852 
8.509 
7,610 
8,770 
7.849 

1,921 

1,979 

863 

14,638 

4,360 



4,622 
2,400 
918 
1,052 
1,815 

655 
1.419 

282 
1,268 
1,810 

3,643 

4,578 

4,847 

4,060 

203 

1,616 

860 

6,406 

2.477 
1,105 

361 

263 
3,233 
1,995 
1,709 

6,227 
309 
261 
7,754 
1.400 
1.757 

12.380 
1,866 

12,275 
1,424 

6,748 
236 
628 

1,468 
541 

19,236 

2,287 
3,478 
2,614 
2,163 

335 

970 

191 

4,372 

1,469 



19,998 
4,579 
1,485 
4,190 
4,367 

2,559 

7,163 

1,717 

4,761 

5.399 

21,617 

14,653 

17,101 

12,420 

972 

9,009 
3,376 
22.405 
6,436 
3,590 

2,198 
1 ,342 
12,896 
6,235 
7,516 

27,825 
1,652 
1,732 

24,751 
4,841 
7,024 

23,340 
8,920 

41,337 
5,496 

27,380 
1,691 
1,400 
6,058 
2.811 

59,598 
9,978 
9,275 

10,384 
9.067 

2,270 

2,746 

823 

16,994 

5,194 



1,887 

1,978 

638 

546 

1,225 

373 
784 

i n 

701 
1,051 

1,861 
2,994 
3,486 

2,452 
229 

839 

390 

4,269 

1,232 

824 

140 

156 

2,344 

1,088 

989 

2,885 
213 
273 

3.498 
786 

1,090 

6,183 
708 

5,319 
749 

4,026 

83 

530 

668 

278 

6,197 
1,060 
2,091 
1,401 
1,130 

I 15 
268 
144 
2,688 
951 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



159 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1972 - Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



7,043 
1,670 
3,072 
10,228 
7,126 
3,413 
1,001 
2,492 
4,734 
56,997 



2 

3 

8 

II 

13 

2, 

s. 

15. 
I. 
3, 



,393 
,301 
,131 
,057 
,807 

196 

776 
278 
580 

322 



2,507 
1,274 
4,139 
12,634 
1,905 

10,595 
4,557 
11,383 
10,803 
18,573 

8,114 

7,055 
2,965 
9,445 
4,502 

5,651 

1,395 

5,007 

595 

8,998 

5,168 
43,038 
2,278 
2,610 
4,612 

7,290 
7,636 
10,694 
3,937 
1,698 



807,960 



Against 



2,903 
470 
739 

2,166 

3,037 
937 
508 
604 

1,738 
12,456 

812 
1,600 
2,475 
2,910 
5,250 

458 

2,074 

5,684 

421 

706 

839 

276 

1,488 

3,296 

735 

4,226 
1,884 
3,622 
4,478 
5,512 

3,300 
2,832 
592 
3,880 
2,219 

2,169 
265 

1.573 
146 

2,267 

2,422 

15,879 

908 

592 

1,839 

1,983 
4,179 
2,582 
1,855 
689 



272,470 



For 



8,569 
1,984 
3,468 

11,419 
8,376 
4,074 
1,261 
2,879 
5,851 

60,369 

3,013 

3,841 

9,980 

13,403 

16,969 

2,474 
10,362 
20.516 

1,880 

3,879 

3,302 
1,513 
5,256 
15,130 
2,115 

13,927 
5,546 
13,726 
14.149 
21,854 

10,040 

8,438 

3,437 

11.379 

6,187 



976.581 



Against 



1.780 
237 
439 

1,325 

2,038 
497 
332 
362 

1,135 
10,341 

463 

1,225 
1,221 
1.181 

2.995 

238 

958 

1.099 

263 

321 

394 

131 

743 

1,722 

492 

1,882 
1.182 
1,720 
1 .937 
3.229 

1.832 

1.920 

224 

2.587 

1.141 



6,916 


1.176 


1,512 


255 


5.978 


999 


727 


72 


10,827 


1.268 


6.737 


1,154 


53,510 


7.444 


2,892 


444 


3.015 


344 


5.541 


1.538 


8.377 


1.197 


9.277 


2.916 


12.620 


I.I 10 


5.234 


1.057 


2.151 


358 



146.895 



160 



North Carolina Mamai 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1972 - Continued 







5 




5 


County 


For 


Against 


County 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


14.109 
3,331 

1,147 
2,910 
3.009 

2,027 
5,131 
1.144 
1 ,344 

3,744 

15,370 

10,569 

10,755 

8,702 

813 

6,738 
2 252 
16,304 
4.433 
2.609 

1.649 

938 
9.395 
4,370 
5,396 

18,893 
1,198 
1,294 

17,537 
3,240 

5,241 
15.443 

6,375 
3 1 .669 

3,887 

18,499 
1.229 
1,133 
4,445 
2,071 

45,942 
6,990 
6,731 
7,635 
7,137 

1,695 

2.121 

730 

1 1 ,0 1 5 

3,721 


6.675 
3.059 
950 
1.575 
2.134 

1,028 

2.147 

595 

1.866 

2,400 

7.007 
6.410 
9.449 
5,684 
231 

2.720 
1.264 
9.947 

2.876 
1 ,434 

564 

429 

5,846 

2,599 

2,779 

10,182 

547 

553 

9.635 

2.031 

2.470 
13,253 

2,611 
13.688 

1,901 

11.626 

400 

695 

1,834 

844 

16,390 
3.702 
4,389 
3,690 
3,083 

517 

800 

320 

7,268 

2,103 


Johnston 


6,017 
1,446 

2,474 
8,281 
5,756 

2,92s 

958 

2,109 

3.837 

44,394 

2,096 
2,886 
6.926 
9.540 
12,133 

1,828 
7,130 
14.536 
1.280 
2.864 

2 272 
1,101 

3,756 

10,703 

1.805 

9,555 
3.788 
9.853 
9.831 

14.577 

7,001 
6,224 
2,412 
7,634 
4,092 

5.394 
1,211 

4.734 

517 

7,149 

4.604 
37,786 
1,979 
2,187 
4,027 

6,194 
6.905 
8,804 
3.543 
1,705 


3 615 


Alexander 


Jones 


657 


Alleghanv 

Anson 


1 ee 


1 224 


Lenoir 


3 891 


Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 


Lincoln 

Macon 


4,314 
1 342 


Madison 


537 


Bertie 


Martin 


931 


Bladen 


McDowell 


2 884 


Brunswiek 

Buncombe 


Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


24,328 
1,127 


Burke 

Cabarrus 


Montgomery 

Moore .. 


1,910 

3 565 


Caldwell 

Camden 


Nash 

New Hanover 


4,298 

6 859 


Carteret 


Northampton . 


684 


Caswell 


Onslow .. 


3 627 


Catawba 

Chatham 


Orange 

Pamlico .. 


5,763 
71 3 


Cherokee 


Pasquotank 


1 184 


Chowan 


Pender 


1 163 


Clay 


Perquimans 


471 


Cleveland 


Person 


1,871 


Columbus 


Pitt 


4.874 


Craven 


Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


831 


Cumberland 

Currituck .. 


5,179 
2 615 


Dare 


5,062 


Davidson 


Rockingham 


5,341 


Davie 


Rowan 


9 196 


Duplin 


Rutherford 

Sampson 


4 236 


Durham 


3,479 


Edgecombe 


Scotland 


1,083 


Forsyth 

Franklin 


Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swam 


5,494 
2 591 


Gaston 


2 5()5 


Gates 


454 


Graham 


Transylvania 


2.151 


Granville 

Greene 


Ivrell 

Union 


216 
4,176 


Guilford 


Vance 


2.971 


Halifax 

Harnett 


Wake 

Warren .. 


18.812 
1,151 


Haywood 


Washington 


1.142 


Henderson 


Watauga 

Wayne 


2 297 


Hertford 


2,948 


Hoke 


Wilkes 


4,913 


Hyde 


Wilson 


4,137 


Iredell 


Yadkin 


2,246 


Jackson 


Yancey 


654 


Totals 




694,921 


174 184 







Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 16] 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 5, 1974 

Billot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment changing the title of the 
constitutional office of "solicitor" to "District Attor- 
ney". 474,199 249,452 
(Chapter 394, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1973) 

2 Constitutional amendment to create jobs and employ- 
ment opportunities and to protect the environment by 
authorizing the issuance of revenue bonds to finance 
industrial and pollution control facilities among others 
for industry and the ratification, validation, confirma- 
tion, and approval of Chapter 633 of the 1971 Session 
Laws as amended by Chapter 476 of the 1973 Session 

Laws of the General Assembly. 3 1 7,285 376,269 

(Chapter 1222, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1973 
Regular Session, 1974) 



162 



Nor in Carolina Mastm 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 5th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER 5, l%14 





1 


2 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


7,106 


2,889 


3,873 


6,020 


Alexander 


3,540 


3.291 


2,842 


3.326 


Alleghany 


790 


1 054 


91 1 


954 


Anson 


2,043 
3,113 


932 
2,635 


1 ,830 
2.440 


1 069 


Ashe 


2.730 


Avery 


1,178 


871 


1.048 


854 


Beaufort 


3,024 


1,650 


1,985 


2,341 


Bertie 


465 


157 


359 


322 


Bladen 


2,091 


1,082 


1.509 


1 ,430 


Brunswick 


3.809 


2,267 


2.797 


2.512 


Buncombe 


10,183 


4,453 


5,113 


10,350 


Burke 


8,683 


5,928 


7,171 


6,703 


Cabarrus 


9,899 


6,023 


6,641 


7,682 


Caldwell 


8,137 
407 

4.205 
1,701 


5,082 
198 

1.932 
1,144 


6,741 
293 

2,874 
1 ,430 


6,185 


Camden 


226 


Carteret 


2 876 


Caswell 


1.271 


Catawba 


12,^02 


7,115 


9,812 


9,536 


Chatham 


3.228 


2,621 


2.343 


3,033 


Cherokee 


2,521 


2517 


2.073 


2,504 


Chowan 


604 
1,499 


164 
580 


462 
1,328 


292 


Clay 


504 


Cleveland 


6,363 


3,612 


4,712 


4,839 


Columbus 


2,853 


1.757 


2,177 


1,937 


Craven 


2.745 
1 1 ,093 


1,459 
3,930 


1,452 
8,012 


2,899 


Cumberland 


7,055 


Currituck 


760 


458 


491 


610 


Dare 


1,235 


399 


894 


576 


Davidson 


12.841 


9,405 


9,452 


12,274 


Davie 


2,718 
2.542 


2,091 

1,731 


1,988 
2,002 


2,536 


Duplin 


1 ,993 


Durham 


6,974 


2,189 


2,885 


6,245 


Edgecombe 


3,296 


1,456 


2,327 


1,987 


Forsyth 


20,075 


8,278 


10.353 


16,109 


Franklin 


1,976 

14,793 
695 


1,662 

7,460 
221 


1,381 

10.875 
543 


2.018 


Gaston 


10,957 


Gates 


282 


Graham 


1,115 


782 


890 


747 


Granville 


2.033 


1,314 


1,472 


1.644 


Greene 


1.229 

27.731 
3,240 


682 

10,317 
1 ,703 


967 

14,018 
2,603 


773 


Guilford 


24,008 


Halifax 


1,977 


Harnett 


4,374 
5,012 


3,647 
3,317 


2.874 
3,563 


4.439 


Haywood 


4,261 


Henderson 


5,086 
733 


2,672 
171 


3,251 

479 


4.569 


Hertford 


431 


Hoke 


1,516 
490 


688 
260 


1,122 
390 


1,016 


Hyde 


368 


Iredell 


8,952 


5,887 


6,377 


7,876 


Jackson 


2,140 


1,518 


1.722 


1,909 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



163 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 5th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER 5. 1974 — Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



3,728 

910 

1,365 

4,493 

6,328 

3,019 

1,466 

979 

3,998 

30,958 

1,627 
2,544 
5,323 
4,268 
8,716 

963 

4,878 
8,141 

922 
2,039 
1,844 

565 
1,330 
6,843 
1,134 

6,197 
1,721 
6,968 
6,381 
11,317 

6,631 
5,305 
1,057 
6,997 
4,487 

2.588 
1,101 
2,428 
292 
5,099 

2,770 
22,175 
1,468 
1,195 
3,694 

2,884 
6,866 
4,666 
3,510 

2,283 



474,199 



Against 



2,640 

602 

470 

3,202 

4,732 

1,725 

576 

365 

2,542 

6,739 

1,028 
2,220 
3,056 
2,435 
4,454 

316 
2,222 
2,410 

508 

770 

803 
260 
577 
2,751 
464 

4,279 

760 

3,131 

4,272 
7,594 

3.953 

4,322 

402 

4,577 

3,599 

1,089 
844 

1 ,483 
147 

2,363 

1 ,938 

7,101 

873 

636 

2.328 

1.086 
5,376 
2,012 
2,583 
1,185 



249,452 



For 



2,163 

738 

667 

3,073 

5,056 

2,679 

1,287 

660 

3,008 

18,102 

1,392 
1,879 
3,858 

2.827 
4,181 

783 
3,775 
4,673 

608 
1,381 
1,508 

421 

959 
4.294 

466 

4,281 
985 
5,514 
4,465 
7,041 

5,342 
4,147 

689 
5,496 
3,900 
1,847 

731 
1 ,736 

228 
3,721 
1,854 
9,226 
1,242 

788 
3,225 

2.220 
5.152 
3,121 

2.730 
2,019 



317,285 



Against 



3,778 

554 

1,110 

4,395 

5,347 

1,863 

720 

680 

2,909 

18,885 

1,162 
2,398 
4,161 
3,566 
9,109 

477 
2,944 
5,999 

661 
1 .3 1 1 
1,073 

346 
1,046 
4,626 
1,128 

5,871 
1.498 
3,555 
5,511 
10,879 

4.616 
4.245 
760 
5.255 
3,584 

1,773 
1.221 
2.200 
176 
3.433 

2,436 

20,942 

866 

768 

2.564 

1.862 
5.SS4 
3.184 
2,808 

1 .095 



576.269 



164 North Carolina Manual 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTIONS HELD MARCH 23, 1976 

Ballot Tabulations of Voles 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue For Against 



Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the state, 
counties, cities or towns, and other state and local 
governmental entities to issue revenue bonds to finance 
or refinance health care facilities. 382,093 311,300 

(Chapter 641. Session Laws of North Carolina, 1975) 

Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize counties to 
create authorities to issue revenue bonds to finance, but 
not to refinance, the cost of capital projects consisting 
of industrial, manufacturing and pollution control facil- 
ities for industry and pollution control facilities for 
public utilities. 373,033 304,938 

(Chapter 826, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1975) 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



165 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINS'I 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE SPECIA1 

ELECTION HELD ON MARCH 23, 1976 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



5,637 
1,335 
700 
2,101 
1,845 

1,652 

2,380 

592 

2,061 

2,349 

12,609 

5,247 

5,112 

3,898 

403 

2,463 
1,123 
7,519 
2,436 
1,615 

545 

598 

4,361 

2,895 

2,934 

12,700 
437 
786 

6,365 
1,403 

2,552 
11,741 

3,435 
13,805 

1,536 

8,811 

695 

626 

2,269 

1,150 



21,492 
3,349 
2,814 
3,879 

4,788 

903 
1,212 

424 
6,102 
2,449 



Against 



5,829 
2,072 
721 
1,191 
1,650 

1,592 
2,513 
510 
1,351 
2,602 

6,875 
5,202 
5,498 
4,339 
326 

3,231 
1,338 
7,439 
2,342 

722 

282 

345 

4,458 

2,719 

2,483 

7,219 

562 

637 

7,473 

1,820 

2,625 
6,683 
2,773 
12,925 
2,433 

7,715 
344 
456 

1,803 
900 

15,762 
2,894 
4,291 
4,020 
2,415 

557 

838 

498 

4,889 

1.495 



For 



5,395 
1,428 
719 
2,012 
1 ,935 

1,600 
2,467 
630 
2,025 
2,193 

12,651 

5,239 

5,025 

4,198 

386 

2.310 
1,106 
7,536 
2,353 
1,619 

521 

592 

4.320 

2,864 

2,774 

11,164 

419 

751 

6,377 

1 ,398 

2.505 
1 1 .347 

3.299 
13,273 

1,520 

8,855 
658 
567 

2,270 

1 . 1 86 

19,786 
3,299 

2.862 
3.961 
4.840 

833 
I .OK') 

380 
6,293 
2,439 



Against 



5.547 
1,979 
702 
1. 191 
1,486 

1,576 
2,409 
453 
1,247 
2,556 

6,946 
5.096 
5,478 
3,987 
330 

3,295 

1,274 
7,199 

2,327 
633 

271 

344 

4.395 

2.695 

2.460 

8.131 

572 

634 

7,401 

1,752 

2,582 

6.429 

2,693 

13.309 
2.424 

7,447 

Us 

4:4 

1.741 

843 

16,372 

4,238 

3.727 

2.272 

586 
863 
507 

4.6'4 

1.515 



166 



Nor in Carolina Mam \i 



ABSTRACT OK VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE SPECIAL 

ELECTION HELD ON MARCH 23, 1976 - Continued 





1 


2 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 


3,223 
796 
1,724 
3,892 
3,229 

2,016 

906 

1,204 

2,047 

31,946 

996 

1,281 
4,002 

4,475 
6,185 

1,413 

3,645 

9,726 

891 

1,545 

1,708 
660 
1,250 
5,669 
1,180 

4,161 

3,227 
5.519 
5,184 
6,766 

3,235 
2.479 
1 ,358 
4,070 
1,794 

2,934 
734 

1,973 
407 

3,945 

1,896 
26,153 
1,485 
1 ,203 
2,473 

4.713 
3,827 
3,997 
1,736 
1,082 


3,728 
1,015 
1,547 
4,249 
2,963 

1,567 

575 

952 

1.933 

16.400 

1,175 
1,938 
3.491 
4,090 
5,006 

957 
3,171 
4,664 

776 
1 ,230 

1,204 
402 

975 
4,646 

627 

5,305 
2,391 
4,196 
4,097 
7,348 

3,780 
3,715 
987 
3,573 
2,514 

2,277 
398 

1,497 
192 

3,221 

2,322 

14,841 

936 

818 

1.989 

2.954 
4.622 
3.113 
2,364 
912 


?,062 
856 
1,677 
4,174 
3,362 

1,880 

928 

1,102 

2,052 

31,335 

958 

1 ,348 
3,956 
4.306 
6,380 

1,248 
4.067 
9,054 
831 
1,487 

1 ,743 
644 
1,197 
5,647 
1,096 

4,065 
3,274 
5.269 
5.069 
7,007 

3.235 
2,507 
1.370 
3,934 

1.727 

2,768 
715 

2,026 
354 

3,906 

1,938 

23,870 

1,455 

995 

2,455 

5,046 
3,802 
3,859 
1,705 
1 ,023 


3,627 

912 

1,561 

3,942 

2,793 

1,660 
504 


Martin 


843 


McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


1,866 
16,264 

1.140 


Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 


1,831 
3,465 
4,035 
4,587 


Northampton 


886 


Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 


2,720 

5,048 

764 

1,163 


Pender 


1,143 


Perquimans 


373 


Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 


932 

4,493 

671 

4,991 
2,219 
4,128 
3,983 


Rowan 


7,007 


Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 


3,756 
3,564 
927 
3.393 
2.512 

2,168 
339 


Transylvania 


1,350 


Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 


213 
3,108 

2.218 


Wake 

Warren 


14,818 

855 


Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 


683 
2,041 

2,484 
4.611 


Wilson 

Yadkin 


3,035 
2,312 


Yancey 


910 


Totals 


382,093 


3 1 1 ,300 


373,033 


304,938 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 167 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 8, 1977 

Ballot Tabulations ol Votes 

Number Description ol Constitutional Issue For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment extending to a married 
man (as a married woman now has) the right to receive 
the homestead exemption, so that the homestead ex- 
emption is available to the surviving spouse of the 
owner of a homestead, if the owner dies leaving no 
minor children and the surviving spouse does not own a 

separate homestead. 517,366 59,714 

(Chapter 80, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

2 Constitutional amendment allowing every person the 
right to insure his or her life for the benefit of his or her 
spouse or children or both, free from all claims of the 
representatives or creditors of the insured or his or her 

estate. 513.526 57,835 

(Chapter 115, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

3 Constitutional amendment empowering the qualified 
voters of the State to elect the Governor and Lieutenant 
Governor to a second successive term of the same 

office. 307,754 278,013 

(Chapter 363, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

4 Constitutional amendment to permit municipalities 
owning or operating electric generation, transmission or 
distribution facilities and joint agencies composed of 
such municipalities to own, operate and maintain gen- 
eration and transmission facilities with any person, 
firm, association or corporation, public or private, 
engaged in the generation, transmission or distribution 
of electric power and energy for resale (each, respec- 
tively, "a co-owner") within this State or any state con- 
tiguous to this State, and to issue electric revenue bonds 
to finance the cost of the ownership share of such 
municipalities or joint agencies, such bonds to be secured 
by and payable only from the electric revenues of such 
municipalities or joint agencies and providing that no 
money or property of such municipalities or joint agen- 
cies shall be credited or applied to the account of any 

such co-owner. 349,935 180,624 

(Chapter 528, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 



68 North Carolina Manual 



Constitutional amendment requiring that the total 
expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered 
by the State budget shall not exceed the total of 
revenues raised during that fiscal period and any sur- 
plus remaining the State Treasury at the beginning of 
the period, and requiring the Governor to effect the 
necessary economies in State expenditures whenever he 
determines that a deficit is threatened. 443,453 104,935 

(Chapter 690 Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



169 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 
THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENE 
ELECTION HELD ON NOVEMBER 8, 1977 



RAL 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



8,727 
2,087 
863 
1,948 
1,789 

1,151 
3,534 
1,478 
2,474 
4,614 

12,667 

5,286 

6,186 

4,301 

628 

4,616 
1,283 
9,200 
3,431 
1,094 

1,277 
408 
5,873 
4,249 
4,839 



14 



9 

2 

3 
15 

4 

27 

2 



,435 
858 
561 
702 
106 

826 
641 
716 
141 
820 



12,181 
755 
544 

2,923 
1.116 

25,468 
6,23 I 
4,548 

3,571 
3,809 

1,413 
1,395 
638 
7,292 
2,707 



885 
595 
159 
140 
389 

268 
407 
181 
380 

677 

1,732 

743 

619 

509 

80 

548 
251 
869 
471 
134 

124 
Ml 
694 
674 
641 

1,163 
129 

115 

1 ,432 

312 

580 
1,481 

419 
2,198 

506 

1,139 

67 

115 

414 

120 

1.518 

SOX 
786 
460 
257 

145 
142 
52 
515 
917 



For 


Against 


8,680 


910 


1,978 


674 


805 


201 


1,925 


I4X 


1,736 


377 


1,106 


275 


3,564 


Us 


1,429 


167 


2,431 


343 


4,656 


565 


12,498 


1,709 


5,228 


752 


6.153 


600 


4,190 


531 


545 


74 


4,660 


500 


1,238 


285 


9.016 


895 


3,291 


533 


1,071 


173 


1,279 


114 


391 


97 


5,787 


6-: 


4,220 


669 


4,994 


587 


14,534 


930 



843 
1,532 
9.666 
2.048 

1.S4? 

15,483 

4. 7M 

26.930 

2,831 

12, ik: 

755 
542 

1.124 

25,307 

6.210 
4,502 

3.741 

1,380 
1.396 
626 
7.126 
2,688 



135 

lis 

1,437 

529 

527 

1,609 

$37 

2,017 

466 

1,074 

64 
106 

108 

'14 

J09 

131 
136 

54 

919 



70 



Nokiii Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 8th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1977 — Continued 





1 


2 


County 


hir 


Against 


For 


Against 


li illusion 


5,727 
886 
3,228 
4.155 
4.05(1 

2,038 
1,020 

2.154 
1 ,805 

46.354 

926 
2,189 

5.902 
5.115 
8,830 

1.972 
4,655 
10.950 
1.419 
1,863 

3,036 
1.421 
1,270 
8,691 

1,359 

6.713 
2,513 
11.282 
6,928 
X.946 

5.44.X 
3.723 
1 .2 1 3 
4.590 
1,587 

3.2X1 
589 

2,315 

37 1 

7.13K 

3.330 
37.628 
1.729 
1.6K5 
2.294 

5,268 
7.695 
5,640 
2.130 
91(1 


917 
I7X 
528 
399 
532 

220 
168 

302 

217 

4.1 15 

225 
377 
706 
577 
837 

256 
471 
575 
126 
215 

518 
170 
200 
704 
266 

940 

387 

1.334 

1,152 

1.006 

931 
890 

235 
740 
467 

511 
106 

242 

41 

1,0X7 

3XX 

2.968 

215 

171 

372 

779 
1.7X0 
523 
427 
152 


5.675 
904 
3.188 
4.162 
3.900 

2.005 

943 

2.147 

1.7X1 

46.5X4 

933 
2,168 

5.X 19 
5.014 
8.829 

1.840 
4.692 
10.737 
1.395 
1,846 

3.078 
1.440 
1.296 
8.609 
1.397 

6.543 

2.621 

11.226 

6.735 
8.878 

5,279 
3.729 
1.254 
4. 468 
1.539 

3.234 

595 

2,309 

355 

7,093 

3.302 

37.335 

1,714 

I.6XX 

2.2X6 

5.318 

7.6XX 

5.595 

2,054 

912 


902 


lories 


153 


1 ee 


557 


1 e noil 


377 


1 incoln 


570 

22X 


Madison 


1X3 


Martin 


272 


McDowell 


210 


Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Mooie 


3.647 

193 
391 

723 


Nash 

\t« Hanover 


632 

775 


Northampton .. 


240 


Onslow 


406 


Orange 

Pamlico 


672 
133 


Pasquotank 

Pender 


174 
432 


Perquimans 


144 


Person 


178 


Pitt 


674 


Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


223 

1.013 
315 

1.099 




1.119 


Rowan 


968 


Ruthertord 

Sampson 


978 
832 


Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 


210 
859 
490 


Surr\ 


495 


Swam 


104 


1 ranss Kama 


2^2 


I well 


36 


Union 


1.016 


Vance 


373 


Wake 


2.991 


W arren 


203 


Washington 


147 


Watauga 

Wavne 


34X 

707 


Wilkes 


1 ,6 1 5 


Wilson 


476 


Yadkin 


469 


Yancey 


140 






Totals 


517.366 


59.714 


513,526 


57.835 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



171 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 8th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1977 - Continued 



Alamance 
Alexander 
Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 



Avery 

Beaufort .. 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus ... 
Caldwell ... 
Camden .... 



Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee .... 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland .... 
Columbus ... 
Craven 

Cumberland 
Currituck .... 

Dare 

Davidson .... 
Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe . 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson ... 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



County 



3 


4 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


5,094 


4,705 


5,481 


3.441 


879 


1,812 


1,142 


I . J94 


478 


574 


536 


181 


1,294 


822 


1,361 


545 


1,214 


78 


1,252 


728 


613 


809 


622 


601 


2,300 


1,689 


2.624 


1.022 


1,053 


640 


1,172 


»28 


1,474 


1,373 


1,781 


93X 


3,180 


2,078 


3,216 


1,745 


7,556 


7,212 


8,337 


4,817 


2,646 


3,458 


3,746 


2.026 


3,542 


3,326 


4.428 


2.012 


2,534 


2,342 


2.657 


1,712 


391 


334 


449 


180 


2,453 


2,549 


3.057 


1.775 


684 


860 


700 


729 


5,488 


4,706 


5.998 


3.330 


1,720 


2,232 


2.053 


1,492 


695 


588 


767 


405 


904 


519 


1,084 


268 


242 


267 


266 


192 


3,335 


3,290 


3,999 


2,038 


2,741 


2,232 


2,905 


1 .640 


3,247 


2,404 


3.859 


1 .566 


9,400 


6,183 


11.278 


3.546 


513 


470 


546 


357 


1,119 


548 


1,111 


J67 


5,467 


5,781 


6,509 


4.252 


1,156 


1,258 


1.285 


941 


2,132 


2,327 


2.574 


1 .4.s 1 


10,084 


7,447 


11,078 


4,812 


2,950 


2,262 


3.695 


1,110 


16,868 


13,389 


16.425 


8.60^ 


1,540 


1,820 


1,869 


I.I Ml 


7,558 


5,948 


7,778 


4,3* 


448 


337 


545 


199 


390 


293 


371 


224 


1,563 


1,807 


1,854 




622 


624 


s<r, 




14.213 


13,482 


15.164 


10.002 


3,127 


3,948 


4.5 'N 


2.042 


2,333 


3,063 


3. DOS 


1,953 


2.041 


2.024 


2.469 


1,312 


2,267 


1.803 


2,616 


1.2(H) 


945 


619 


'if.: 


410 


937 


595 


999 


44' 


408 


286 


423 


189 


2,941 


4,952 


5.326 


2,039 


1,914 


1.746 


1,953 


1,509 



172 



Nor i ii Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 8th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1977 — Continued 





3 


4 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Johnston 


3,117 
578 
1,477 
2,113 
2,549 

1,203 

6X1 

1,421 

1.147 

29,706 

522 
1,2X5 
3,149 
2,468 
5,142 

1,298 

2,807 

7,261 

907 

1,286 

1,796 
1.023 
687 
5,108 
1 .049 

3,164 

1,543 
8.007 
3,369 

5,557 

3,167 
2,209 
1,101 

2.649 
791 

1 .88 1 
434 

1,576 
250 

4.516 

1,820 
20.441 
1 ,063 
1.162 
1,496 

3,160 
4,252 
4,004 
1 ,03 1 

598 


3.731 
482 
2.494 
2,395 
2.183 

1,046 
534 

1,037 

891 

21.783 

635 
1.283 
3,568 
3.344 
4.735 

866 
2,359 
4.400 

651 

828 

1.728 
572 
842 

4.318 
589 

4,676 
1,316 
4,457 
4.704 
4,570 

3,232 
2,463 
397 
2.751 
1.292 

2.004 
275 
984 
155 

3,634 

1 .938 

21.336 

935 

690 

1.159 

3.109 
5.408 
2.335 
1.598 
490 


3,943 

602 
2.115 
2.991 
2.962 

1,470 

806 

1 ,490 

1,301 

33,518 

634 
1,368 
3,561 
3.706 
5.440 

1.442 
3,192 
7,143 
967 
1,537 

1.773 
1.003 
811 
6.733 
1.053 

4.074 
1.700 
7.912 
3.597 
6,089 

3,276 
2,427 
1,129 
3.147 
855 

2.359 
455 

1.539 
244 

4,162 

2,213 
25,354 
1.102 
1.219 
1 ,603 

3.812 
4.885 
4.503 
1,293 
716 


2 1 39 


Jones 


174 


I ee 


1 308 


1 enoii 


1 262 


1 incoln 


1 167 


Macon 


614 


Madison 


108 


Martin 

McDowell 


642 
S58 


Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


12,518 
416 


Montgomer) 

Moore 


948 

2 47S 


Nash 

New Hanover 


1.617 

1 117 


Northampton 


S()9 


Onslow 


1 686 


Ora nge 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 


3.278 
399 
412 


Pender 


1.481 


Perquimans 


419 


Person 


515 


Pitt 


2 019 


Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


486 

2.993 

968 

1 116 


Rockingham 


1.508 


Rowan 


1 276 


Rutherlord 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanl) 

Stokes 


2.584 
1,840 

302 
1,894 

984 


Surry . 


1.182 


Swam 


203 


I ransvlvama 


851 


Tyrell 


99 


Union 


3.282 


Vance 


1,199 


Wake 

Warren 


11.174 
640 


Washington 


477 


Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 


837 

1.8 15 
4,109 


Wilson 


1,286 


Yadkin 


1.046 


Yancey 


290 






Totals 


307,754 


278,013 


349.935 


180,624 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



173 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERM 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 8th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1977 - Continued 







5 




5 


County 


For 


Against 


County 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


7.713 
1,609 
694 
1,692 
1,493 

841 
3.097 
1,271 
2.179 
4,047 

10,550 

4,605 

5,453 

3.634 

589 

3,812 

871 

7,928 

2,847 

963 

1,146 

338 
5,150 
3,617 
4,548 

12.811 

686 

1,315 

8,210 

1,723 

3,208 
13,162 

4,216 
23,474 

2,381 

10,602 

652 

472 

2,453 

986 

22,320 
5,380 
3,845 
3,077 
3,528 

1,188 
1,216 

542 

6,506 
2,322 


1,585 
996 
280 
289 
462 

458 
691 
253 
591 
1,041 

2.740 

1 ,323 

1.142 

901 

150 

1,067 
609 

1.606 
863 
250 

198 

138 

1.128 

1,072 

9" 

2,180 
247 
237 

2,621 

574 

1.06S 
3,040 

708 
4,302 

791 

2,025 
126 
155 

702 
217 

3,644 

1 .394 

1.273 

79S 

469 

236 

278 

1 17 

1,064 

1.207 


Johnston 


4.876 

752 

2.735 

3,669 

3,582 

1.771 

NS4 

1.756 

1,601 

41,135 

1,818 

5.076 

4.536 
7.721 

1.692 
4.021 
7,885 
1.198 

1 .636 

2.462 
1,170 
1,100 

7.650 

5,5! 

2.197 
9.- J 
5.405 
7,671 

4.496 

3.167 

950 

1,894 

1.200 

2,819 

541 

034 

J09 

19 

2.941 

32.1 17 

1.478 

1 ,464 

 

4 ' 

6 189 

5.142 
1 ,694 


1.349 


Alexander 


Jones 


Alleghany 


Lee 


727 


Anson 


Lenoir 


699 


Ashe 


Lincoln 


Avery 


Macon 


393 


Beaufort 


Madison 




Bertie 


Martin 


414 


Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 


McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


6,162 

'12 


Burke 

Cabarrus 


Montgomery 

Moore 


1 270 


Caldwell 


Nash 

New Hanover 


947 


Camden 




Carteret 


Northampton 




Caswell 


Onslow . 




Catawba 


Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 


 


Chatham 




Cherokee 


346 


Chowan 


Pender 

Perquimans 


905 


Clay 

Cleveland 




Person 




Columbus 


Pitt 


1.291 


Craven 


Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


}04 


Cumberland 

Currituck 


1,674 
534 


Dare 


2,056 


Davidson 

Davie 


Rockingham 

Rowan 


1,894 


Duplin 


Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 


1.600 


Durham 


1.255 


Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 


492 




761 




Swam 


140 


Graham .. 


1 ransylvania 


440 




luell 






1 III. Ml 


 








Halifax 

Harnett 


Wake 




Haywood 

Henderson 


Washington 
Watauga 

Wayne 




Hertford 


1,074 


Hoke 


Wilkes 




Hyde 

Iredell 


Wilson 








Jackson 


Yancej 




Totals 




44' 


935 



74 North Carolina Mam \i 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 4, 1980 

Billot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment requiring Justices and 

Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Super- 
ior Court and District Court to be duly authorized to 
practice law prior to election or appointment. 888,634 352,714 

(Chapter 638, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1979) 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



175 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THF 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GFNFRAI 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 4th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1980 







1 




1 




County 


For 


Against 


County 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


11,141 

6.417 
2,594 
4,839 
5,628 

3,139 
8,676 
1,314 
2,629 
6,176 

22,566 
13,909 
12,464 
13,113 
1.386 

7,229 
3,866 
22,441 
8,649 
3,426 

845 

2,089 

1 1 ,943 

7,243 

5,562 

30,834 
2,549 
3.923 

21,197 

6,283 

7,428 
15,046 

7.234 
43,477 

5.690 

15,968 

2.342 

2,238 

6,337 

64 

49.410 
10.003 
3,385 
12,667 
12,005 

2,200 
3,269 
1,422 
15,575 
4,037 


5,097 
3,671 
993 
1.807 
2.433 

1 ,305 

3.378 

563 

1.444 

3,873 

4.361 
9.268 
6,510 
7.182 
476 

2.705 
1,266 
1 1,992 
3,513 
1 ,389 

219 

847 

4,776 

4,691 

2,908 

10,523 

886 

1,158 

9,282 

2,712 

4,495 

3,893 

2,186 

12,929 

2.573 

5.536 
627 
699 

2,052 
24 

16.601 
3.673 
1.552 

1.644 
3.758 

878 
1.105 

460 
6.369 

961 


Johnston 


8,717 
2.16s 
2.940 

9.712 

10.407 

6,321 

1 .425 

2,067 

4,790 

45.692 

3,921 

4.554 

12.912 
11.913 
12.214 

2.238 
8,573 

20.354 
2.227 
2,426 

4.704 
1.795 
1,473 

17.321 

11.541 
5,948 

14.635 
14.031 
14.292 

S.I S-s 
10,950 

1.651 
7,356 
5,797 

6,086 
1,394 
5,2( 
965 

12.5^0 

5,023 

44.0 \s 
J,845 

) SMI 

4,595 
4,825 

5,895 

016 

5,016 


4 481 


Alexander 


Jones .. 


1 242 


Alleghany 

Anson 


Lee 

Lenoir 


7 (144 


Ashe 


Lincoln 




Avery 

Beaufort .. 


Macon 




Madison 


. 


Bertie 


Martin 




Bladen .. 


McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


1,417 


Brunswick 


14,787 
1,433 


Burke 


Montgomers 


2,538 




Moore 


4. Mil 


Caldwell .... 


Nash 

New Hano\cr 


4.1 • 


Camden 


5,033 




Northampton 


697 




Onslow 


3.120 


Catawba 


Orange 

Pamlico 


6.541 
1 . 1 68 




Pasquotank 


850 




Pender 


2,180 


Clay 


Perquimans 




Person 


! 




Pitt 


7,060 


Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 


Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


454 
4.622 

6.450 




Rockingham 


5.361 




Rowan 




Duplin .. 


Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Slokes 


»,I71 


Durham 

Edgecombe 

Eorsyth .. 


4,360 
733 

4,180 




2,932 


Gaston 


Surry 


2,746 


Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 






1,319 


1 \ roll 




Vance 


1 ,96 ) 


Wake 


14.077 




1,021 


Haywood 




1,094 




2. ins 


Hertlord 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 






Wilkes 






1,944 






Jackson 








i ,,i ik 


888.634 


352.714 



176 Nor i ii Carolina Manual 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTIONS HELD JUNE 29, 1982 

Ballot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description ol Constitutional Issue (Citation) For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment making the term of mem- 
bers of the General Assembly four years, beginning 
with members elected in 1982; and conforming amend- 
ments concerning the election of other officers and the 

filling of vacancies. 163,058 522,181 

(Chapter 504, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

2 Constitutional amendment authorizing General Assem- 
bly to provide for temporary recall of retired Supreme 
Court Justices or Court of Appeals Judges to serve 

temporarily on either appellate court. 356,895 295,638 

(Chapter 513, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

3 Constitutional amendment giving the Supreme Court 
authority to review, when authorized by law, direct 

appeals from the N.C. Utilities Commission. 392,886 253,629 

(Chapter 803, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

4 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to grant to appropriate public bodies addi- 
tional powers to develop new and existing seaports and 
airports, including powers to finance and refinance for 
public and private parties seaport and airport and 
related commercial, industrial, manufacturing, process- 
ing, mining, transportation, distribution, storage, 
marine, aviation and environmental facilities and im- 
provements. 292,031 342,567 
(Chapter 808, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

5 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the State, 
or any state entity to issue revenue bonds to finance or 
refinance the cost of acquiring, constructing and financ- 
ing higher education facilities for any nonprofit private 
corporation, regardless of any church or religious rela- 
tionship, such bonds to be payable from any revenues 
or assets of any such nonprofit private corporation 

pledged therefor. 303,292 338,650 

(Chapter 887, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Sin< i 1970 



177 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE FIRST 

ELECTION HELD ON JUNE 29, 1982 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



1,472 

468 

636 

1,431 

1,320 

922 

1,184 

547 

643 

2,114 

1,595 
1,099 
1,715 
1,995 
746 

1,303 

1,724 

907 

905 

659 

342 

621 

4,307 

2,353 

1,244 

6,355 
1,268 
1,426 
1,796 
1,156 

1,988 
4,436 
3,613 
5,000 
1,245 

3,900 
1,035 
365 
2,680 
1,255 

4,895 
2,576 
1,613 
1,519 
389 

390 

1,477 
493 
821 
528 



9,443 
2,108 
1,561 
2,659 
3,253 

1,849 
5,015 
1,519 

2,398 
5,327 

12,954 

4,862 

7,610 

6,177 

738 

3,852 
3,176 
4,813 
3,925 
1,397 

891 

1,057 
9,420 
7,607 
5,011 

15,028 
1,173 
1,736 

7,435 
3,067 

5,243 
19,945 

6,569 
16,954 

3,901 

8,139 
1,141 
1,214 
4,765 
2,533 

27,021 
7,901 
5,269 
7,113 
3,207 

2,464 
2,916 
1,129 
4,452 
2,003 



For 


Against 


5,215 


5,086 


1,053 


1,351 


943 


1.041 


1,965 


1,923 


2,114 


2,087 


1,213 

1 4SS 


1,423 



1,036 
1,197 
3,533 

4,561 
3,039 
4,407 
3,397 
788 

2,853 
1,926 
3,181 
2,226 
668 

693 

640 
7.203 
3,906 
3,272 

12,554 
1,394 
1,953 
4,737 
1,945 

3,684 
10,906 

5,872 
13,619 

2,569 

6,822 
1,062 
641 
3,789 
1.905 

21.220 
5.316 

3.575 
2.966 
1,834 

1,178 
1 .943 

822 
3,200 

734 



824 
1,703 
3,547 

9,649 
2,883 
4,525 
4,448 
610 

2,115 

2,675 
2,298 
2,173 
1,297 

490 

933 

5,931 

5,636 

2,722 

8,136 
1,003 
1.181 

4,237 
2.063 

3.334 

12,874 

3,778 

7,246 

2.2M 

4,855 
1,013 

1.708 

9.310 
4,936 

I.6S8 

1,389 

2,258 

671 

1,480 



78 



Nor i ii Carolina M \nuai 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE PRIMARY 

ELECTION HELD ON Jl NE 29, 1982 — Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

I ee 

I enoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



1.022 

654 

606 

1,892 

1,521 

862 

417 

344 

1 ,366 

4,890 

939 
1,190 

1.659 
2.491 
2.961 

809 
2,349 
2,769 

841 
1,112 

1.217 
741 
681 

2.645 

272 

843 
1,798 
7,327 
3.607 
1,309 

2.229 
2.573 
675 
1,415 
1 .645 

848 
298 
39 1 
339 
2,046 

1 ,603 

4,872 

1 ,695 

793 

807 

1,194 

1 ,234 

1,366 

703 

727 



4,455 
1.587 
4,389 
5,496 
3.614 

2.364 
1,590 

1.452 
3,415 

15,757 

2,580 
3,013 

6,772 
8.705 
8.317 

2,519 
6,239 
9,790 
1,993 
1,556 

2,559 
1.197 
2,010 
8,257 
1,776 

6,687 
4.765 
1 1 ,432 
8,664 
6.447 

6.102 
5,106 
1,649 

4,852 
4.171 

3.581 
1 .080 
1,784 
531 
5.261 

3.836 
32.816 
3,193 
2.071 
3.211 

7,559 
4,847 
4,670 
3,005 
2,519 



2,907 

889 

2.460 
3.483 
2,454 

1.365 

844 

926 

2,145 

12,344 

1 ,304 
1,813 
5,010 
6,290 
7,066 

2.026 
4.466 

7,922 
1.266 
1,573 

1,926 

966 

1.444 

5.637 

943 

3,497 
3,273 
10.351 
6,216 
4.098 

4,257 
4,076 
1,321 
2,940 
2,467 

2.308 
341 
901 
449 

4.397 

2.963 
23.876 
2,162 
1.359 
1.972 

4.633 
2,764 
3.344 
1,524 
1,213 



2.233 
1.245 
2.141 
3.485 
2.440 

1 .690 

975 

715 

2,461 

6,955 

2,082 
2.111 
3.029 

4,236 
3,785 

1.033 

3.851 

4.349 

1.365 

963 

1,686 
852 
919 

4,917 
999 

3,420 
2.922 
7,704 
5,475 
3,372 

3,852 
3.231 
894 
3.066 
3,074 

1,665 
959 

1,224 
348 

2.620 

2,257 
1 1 ,300 

2,423 
1.578 
1.815 

3,490 
3,006 
2,186 
1.979 
1,890 



163,058 



522,181 



356.895 



295.638 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



179 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THF FIRST 

ELECTION HELD ON JUNE 29, 1982 - Continued 



Alamance 
Alexander 
Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 



Avery 

Beaufort .. 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 



Buncombe . 

Burke 

Cabarrus .... 
Caldwell .... 
Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee .... 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland .... 
Columbus ... 
Craven 

Cumberland 
Currituck .... 

Dare 

Davidson .... 
Davie 



Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Eranklin .... 



Gaston ... 

Gates 

Graham . 
Granville 
Greene ... 



Guilford .... 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood .. 
Henderson 

Hertford ... 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson .... 



County 



For 



5,610 

1,126 

918 

2,244 
2,338 

1 ,39 1 



3,946 


1,189 


1 ,438 


3,928 


4,622 


2,786 


4,772 


4,568 


1,039 


3.070 


2,483 


3,477 


2.797 


794 


715 


722 


8,369 


4,771 


3,513 


14,291 


1,629 


2,148 


5,147 


2,263 


4,049 


10,939 


6,909 


14,878 


2,982 



Against 



7,424 
1,292 
827 
4,460 
2,230 

22,075 
6,176 
4,151 
3,607 
1,182 

1,311 

2,886 

981 

2,460 

885 



4,553 

1.361 

910 

1 ,603 
1.812 

1,215 

1,968 

629 

1 .407 

3,123 

9,437 
3,065 
4.024 

3,245 
454 

1,835 
2,076 
1,994 
1.590 

1,168 

463 

834 

4,756 

4,682 

2,448 

6.169 

762 

873 

3,835 

1,733 

2,807 
12,114 
2,698 
6,022 
1,843 

4.089 

806 

851 

2,176 

1,328 

8,124 
4.014 
2,368 
4,624 

2.307 

1,210 

1.444 

537 

2,611 

1,337 



609 
513 

5,586 
3.329 
2,612 
10,671 
1.236 
1,824 
3.626 
1.676 

3.103 
I 1 .934 

5.198 
I 1. 895 

1.933 

5.220 
993 
591 

3,022 

14,680 
4,474 

2.777 
2.411 
1,374 

99( 

I "us 
773 

581 



For 


Against 


4.806 


5.262 


782 


1,684 


718 




1.659 


2.141 


1,606 


2,482 


824 


1.700 


2.961 


: •- 


933 


846 


1,018 




3,089 


4.004 


3,388 


10,392 


1.741 


4,041 


2,778 


5.567 


2,620 


5.131 


710 


620 


2,488 


2.378 


1,701 


2.769 


2,557 


2,871 


1.739 


2.516 


605 


1 . »4 I 



545 

1.004 
7 .26" 

5,672 
J.263 
9,659 

1.104 

1,167 
5,128 

2.294 

10,957 

4.20' 
8,01 ; 

994 

1,895 

14. 759 

5,675 
1,696 
5,690 
2.131 

1.482 

■iw 

I. (-2 I 



180 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 
ONSTITl TIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTION HELD ON JINE 29, 1982 - Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

I enoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

I ransylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Nance 

W ake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

lotals 



lor 



Against 



Fur 



Against 



3,177 
1,143 
2.651 

4.154 
2,761 

1,619 

782 

1,001 

2,282 

13.871 

1.507 
2.121 
5,353 
6.780 
7.616 

2,144 
4.904 
8,063 
1.475 
1,698 

2.353 
1,183 

1,539 
6,340 

725 

3.791 
3,778 
1 1,541 
6,920 
4,581 

4,323 
4,697 
1 ,4 1 5 
3,429 

2,888 

2.29* 
461 
878 
541 

4.456 

3.301 
25,520 
2,762 
1.472 
2,090 

4,920 
3,024 
3.603 
1.777 
1 .370 



392.886 



1.936 
966 
1.896 
2.821 
2,102 

1.444 

930 

607 

2.364 

5,025 

1.912 
1,810 
2,640 
3.636 
3.189 

900 
3.407 
3.766 
1,140 

803 

1,266 

637 

793 

4,1 14 

1.192 

3.107 
2.397 
6,311 
4,236 

2,885 

3,787 
2.436 
774 
2,552 
2.653 

1 .660 
847 

1.238 
241 

2.430 

1.920 
9.527 
1,770 
1.245 
1.688 

3.140 
2,747 
1 .865 
1.756 
1.787 



253.629 



2.140 
835 
1.999 
3.054 
1.996 

917 

520 

854 

1,316 

12.455 

969 
1.587 
3.974 
4,868 
6.300 

1.797 
3.692 
5.301 
1,152 

1,388 

1.723 

88(i 

1,161 

4.678 
624 

2.735 
2.721 
8.49 5 
4,636 

3.325 

2.799 
3.562 
1.175 
2,440 
2.115 

1.989 
385 
661 

392 
3.234 

2.432 
19.09" 
1,856 
1.167 
1.473 

3,672 
2,196 
2.674 
1,228 
1.002 



292.031 



2.918 
1.248 
2.452 
3.771 
2.794 

2.054 
1.290 
650 
3.112 
6.480 

2.280 
2.248 
3,984 
5.401 
4.183 

1.163 
4.431 
6.255 
1.454 
1 .065 

1.821 
890 
1.122 
5.497 
1.256 

4.012 
3.380 
9.274 
6.700 
3.939 

5,058 

3.433 

969 

3.419 

3,312 

1 ,956 
895 

1.461 
143 

3.575 

2.599 
15.044 
2.575 
1.551 
2.261 

4.142 
3.363 
2.676 
2.230 

2.083 



342.567 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



is 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE I IRST 

ELECTION HELD ON JUNE 29, 1982 - Continued 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland .., 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



5.317 

949 

853 

1,793 

1,854 

1,129 
2,930 
1.555 
1,045 
2,918 

4,091 
2,004 
3.133 
3,495 

677 

2,431 
1,921 

2,855 

1,817 

651 

591 
593 

5,793 
3,257 
2,464 

10,109 
1,199 
1,650 
3,932 
1,805 

3.197 
13.173 

4,995 
1 2,204 

2,013 

5,489 

956 

620 

3,204 

1,816 

14,715 
4,365 
3,256 

3,285 
1 .408 

1.061 
1,755 

788 
3,034 

552 



Against 



4,984 
1,548 
1.109 
2,039 
2,266 

1,478 
2,951 
865 
1,824 
4,134 

10,054 

3,817 

5,293 

4,364 

653 

2,399 

2.625 
2,643 
2,483 
1 ,320 

593 

944 

7,201 

5,672 

3,464 

10,364 
1 ,139 
1,341 

4.852 
2,144 

3,682 
9,383 
4,552 
8.448 
2,643 

6,068 

1,062 

963 

3,432 

1 ,753 

15,172 
5,795 
3,364 

4,824 
2,119 

1,475 

2,329 

724 

2,094 

1,678 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell .... 
Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank .. 

Pender 

Perquimans .. 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham . 
Rowan 

Rutherford .... 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania - 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington . 
Watauga 

Was ne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

I otals 



For 



2.203 
821 
2.095 
2,975 
2,212 

1.092 
536 
886 

1. 55 1 
11,716 

1,071 
2.062 
3,970 
5,003 
5,708 

1,862 
3.321 
5,290 
1,064 
1 ,323 

1,632 

850 

1,154 

4,657 

704 

2,857 
2,807 
8,729 
5.384 
3,783 

3,207 
3,403 
1,082 
2,849 

2,479 

2.131 
369 
807 
409 

3,727 



309 

527 
864 

555 
544 

832 

817 
J99 

125 



103,292 



Against 



1.279 
2,353 
1,931 

2.(04 

1.897 

1,275 

706 

7.851 

2.194 
1.943 
4,084 

5.367 

4092 

4,826 

6.542 
1.55s 
1,143 

1 .93 1 

923 

1,175 

1,238 
3,905 

6,087 

3.624 

4,678 

1,118 
5,052 

3.139 

1,681 
916 

1,299 
180 

3,284 

2,774 

2,603 
1,209 

2.214 

4,121 
2 69 
1,978 






82 Nor in Carolina Manual 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 2, 1982 

Billot Tabulations ol Votes 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment to provide that terms of 

legislators begin on January 1st following their election. 690,218 276,432 
(Chapter 1241, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981, 
1982 Session) 

2 Constitutional amendment to permit the issuance of 

tax increment bonds without voter approval. 182,147 810,565 

(Chapter 1247, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981, 
1982 Session) 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



183 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENFRAI 

ELECTION HELD ON NOVEMBER 2, 1982 



Alamance 
Alexander 
Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort .. 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 



Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus .. 
Caldwell .. 
Camden ... 



Carteret .. 
Caswell ... 
Catawba . 
Chatham .. 
Cherokee . 

Chowan ... 

Clay 

Cleveland . 
Columbus 
Craven 



Cumberland 
Currituck .... 

Dare 

Davidson .... 
Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe . 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson ... 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



County 



1 


2 


For 


Against 


For 


Againsl 


10.280 


3.754 


1,907 


12.147 


5.879 


2.937 


1,830 


'50 


2,268 


1,363 


584 


-.057 


3,250 


994 


84! 


010 


493 


162 


77 




2,282 


1,121 


441) 


2,872 


5,436 


2,387 


1.174 


6,405 


802 


229 


153 


 


2,076 


1,228 


762 


2,81 


6,500 


3.312 


1,295 


 • 


14.213 


14,274 


5,743 


23,< 


10,680 


5.714 


2.157 


14 


9.691 


3.121 


1,458 


II. "24 


9.250 


3,962 


1,352 


12.100 


679 


199 


183 


643 


5,958 


2,585 


1.166 


7.199 


2,680 


1,263 


778 


079 


16,272 


4.122 


2,736 


17. > 


5.202 


3,187 


1.236 


6.724 


2,147 


1,823 


442 


3,549 


473 


135 


96 


503 


2,022 


1.357 


501 


2.754 


9,892 


1,885 




9.555 


4,379 


2,115 


1,000 


5.546 


4,069 


1.588 


694 


5.001 


21,968 


7,245 


5,665 


25,800 


1,890 


499 


$78 


1,963 


2,099 


596 


405 


2.25" 


16,688 


4.943 


2,826 


IS. 426 


4,587 


2,212 


969 


134 


5.456 


2,583 


1.162 


6,565 


12.840 


10.164 


2.996 


20.45" 


7,106 


2.059 


I 595 




26,255 


11.614 


8,771 


29,817 


3,983 


1,752 


796 


4.631 


18,008 


3.688 


2,719 


19,300 


1,978 


531 


530 




1 ,547 


1,162 


40? 


2.204 


4,097 


1 .805 


919 


4,690 


1,887 


805 


419 


Mils 


4 1 ,93 1 


8,938 


9,916 


41,845 


6,557 


2.462 


1 .664 


556 


7,461 


3.014 


1.554 


)|9 


7,714 


$,333 


1,350 


9.1 


9.143 


4,053 


. 


11,1 


1,191 


398 






2.803 


1,009 


619 




779 


375 


176 


■ins 


12,022 


2,66 ! 


1.864 


1 $.198 


1,817 


1.624 


933 





184 



Nor i ii Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES (AST FOR AND 
CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN TH 
ELECTION HEED ON NOVEMBER 2, 1982 



AGAINST 
E GENERAL 

— Continued 





1 


2 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Johnston 


8.978 
1 ,4d 1 
2,244 
6.9 1 2 

X.874 

4,858 
1,566 
1,263 

3.783 
50.335 

1,884 

3.7(15 
10.231 
10.203 
10.400 

1.441 
6,500 

13,612 
1,448 
1,289 

3.762 
1,182 
1,131 
8,473 
1.285 

9.600 

6.729 

10,405 

1 1.366 

13.019 

9.1 17 
10,583 

1.014 
5,421 
5.095 

3.753 
468 

4.641 
476 

7,496 

3.206 
30.421 
2.965 
2.228 
4.651 

3.799 
6.608 
4.963 
4.173 
2.531 


3,039 
748 

940 

3,080 

3.636 

2.271 
924 
499 

2,688 

9.720 

1.370 
2.1 18 
2.701 
3.257 
7,401 

550 

1,708 

3.629 

686 

529 

1.953 

342 

453 

4.215 

1 ,254 

5.229 
1 .995 
4.678 
3.004 
2.968 

2,851 
4,593 
648 
2.054 
3.134 

1.933 

469 

2.205 
153 

1.747 

1,556 
15.163 
1.109 
1.194 
1.871 

5.133 
2,717 
1.600 
2.239 
2,135 


1.573 

388 

415 

1 .235 

2.234 

820 

357 

297 

6,X0 

13.677 

402 

883 

1.961 

1,823 

3.161 

410 
796 
30.891 
376 
350 

SI6 
299 
204 

1,802 

474 

1.831 
1.224 
2.483 
2.067 
2.316 

1,280 

2.675 

293 

992 

1.264 

1.091 
215 
975 
334 

1 .38 1 

713 

7.214 

890 

506 
967 

792 
1 .243 
1.140 

987 
1.273 


10 195 


Jones 


1 .695 


Lee 


2.750 


1 enoir 


X 478 


1 incoln 

Macon 


9,997 
6 221 


Madison 


2 161 


Martin 


1.428 


McDowell 


5 782 


Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


46.564 

2.851 


Montgomery 


4.512 


Moore 


II 210 


Nash 

New Hanover 


1 1.592 
15,165 


Northampton 


1.542 


Onslow 


7,554 


Orange 

Pamlico 


14,088 

1,633 


Pasquotank 


1,432 


Pender 


4.599 


Perquimans 


1 155 


Person 


1 176 


Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


10,485 
2.066 

12.96N 

7.366 

12.195 


Rockingham 


12.168 


Rowan 


13,740 


Rutherford 

Sampson 


10.704 
1 1,518 


Scotland 

Stank 

Stokes 

Suir\ 

Swain 


1 .43 1 
6,556 
6.696 

4.562 

717 


1 rans\ Kama 


5.966 


Ivrell 


435 


1 nion 


7.920 


\ ance 


4.059 


Wake 

W arren 


38.570 
2.971 


Washington 


2,711 


Watauga 

Wayne 


5,541 
8,201 


Wilkes 


8.229 


Wilson 


5,311 


Yadkin 


5.121 


Yancey 


3.824 


lotals 


690,218 


276.432 


182.167 


8 10.565 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 1X5 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTIONS HELD MAY 8, 1984 



Ballot Tabulation* ol Volet 

Number Description ol Constitutional Iss ue For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 

Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the crea- 
tion of an agency to issue revenue bonds to finance the 
cost of capital projects consisting of agricultural facili- 
ties, and to refund such bonds, such bonds to be 
secured by and payable only from revenues or property 
derived from private parties and in no event to be 
secured by or payable from any public moneys what- 
soever. 420,405 360,009 
(Chapter 765, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1983) 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 6, 1984 

Ballot Tabulations ol Vole* 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue For Against 



Constitutional amendment requiring Attorney Gen- 
eral and District Attorneys to be duly authorized to 
practice law prior to election or appointment. 1,159,460 357,791 

(Chapter 298, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1983) 



86 



Nor in Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT IN THE PRIMARY 

ELECTION HELD ON MAY 8, 1984 







1 




1 


County 


For 


Against 


County 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


2.992 
1,396 
1.134 
3.361 
1,735 

1.5.13 
4,178 
1,804 

1.275 
3.329 

7,157 
5.566 
6.033 
3,810 

870 

3. OS 2 
3.500 
8,239 

5.427 
708 

332 

528 

6.831 

4.183 

1,830 

14.120 
1,284 
1,464 
5,818 
2,396 

4,207 
8,094 
8.806 
14.821 
3,701 

9,351 
1,744 
651 
4,603 
2,698 

21,010 
6.573 
5.793 
4,680 
5,415 

1,371 

2.250 

822 

8,945 

1 ,386 


4,716 

1,686 

975 

2.787 
1.574 

1,875 

4,122 

503 

1,210 

4,878 

4,105 
6,303 
4.741 
4,476 
780 

2,814 
2.297 
6.868 
5,069 

742 

184 

411 

6,987 

3,813 

2.254 

15.048 
1.260 
1,343 
4.832 
2.437 

3,818 
3,330 
5,638 
8,418 
3,262 

9,514 
I.I 1 1 
605 
3.406 
1,569 

17.163 
6.343 
4.701 
3,204 
3,627 

776 
1,622 

718 
6,331 

668 


Johnston 


7,044 
1.354 
1,232 
6.008 
3.907 

2.500 

882 

1.167 

1.609 

24.604 

1,507 
2,187 
4,647 
8,406 

2.787 

2.029 
4,426 
9.328 
1.262 
1 ,503 

2,219 
1,344 

959 
9,470 

740 

3.211 
3,884 
9,265 
6,687 
5,617 

2,851 
5,101 
2.021 
2.519 
2.360 

1.259 

263 

1.981 

586 
5.584 

3.637 
17.067 
2,875 
2,292 
2,478 

2,478 
2.727 
2.812 
2.583 
2.310 


5,046 


Alexander 


Jones 


1 496 


Alleghan) 

Anson 


1 ee 


783 


I enoir 


6.574 


Ashe 


Lincoln 


4.180 


\ \ C I \ 


Macon .... 


1 798 


Beaufort 


Madison 


301 


Bertie 


Martin 


549 


Bladen 


McDowell 


1.225 


Brunswick 

Buncombe 


Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


24,636 
1,439 


Burke 


Montgomery 


2,166 


Cabarrus 


Moore 


4.429 


Caldwell 

Camden 


Nash 

New Hanover .. 


6,876 
5.198 


Carteret 


Northampton 


1.066 


Cas wel 1 


Onslow 


s 393 


Catawba 


Orange 

Pamlico 


8.371 


Chatham . 


1.783 


Cherokee 


Pasquotank 


1.095 


Chowan 


Pender 

Perquimans 


3.000 


Clay 


798 


Cle\eland 


Person 


490 


Columbus 


Pitt 


7.812 


Craven 


Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


476 


Cumberland 

Currituck 


2,397 
3.511 


Dare 


9.126 


1 )a\ idson 


Rockingham 


5,751 


Da\ ie 


Rowan 


3,882 


Duplin 


Ruthertord 

Sampson 


2.910 


Durham 


4.272 


Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 


Scotland 


1,926 


Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 


2,794 
2.480 


Gaston 


682 


(iates 


97 


Graham .. 


1 ransvlvama 


1.489 


Granville 


Tyrell 


458 


Greene 


Union 


4,778 


Ciuiltord 


Vance . 


2,894 


Halifax 


Wake .. 


10,578 


Harnett . 


Warren . 


2,017 


Haywood 


Washington 


1.642 


Henderson 


Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 


1,997 


Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell .. 


1,767 
2,419 
1,949 


Yadkin 


2,206 


Jackson 


Yancey 


1 .893 










Totals 


420,405 


360,009 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



187 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINS I 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE GENFRAI 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 6th DAY OF NOVEMBER, 1984 







1 




1 


County 


For 


Against 


County 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


14.320 

7,525 
2.815 
5.758 
6,832 

3,666 

10,670 

1,543 

2,777 
10,861 

29,389 
18,925 
15,773 
1 1 ,438 
1.604 

8,896 

5,175 

20,367 

10.656 

3,232 

1,091 
2,301 

14,495 

7,574 
5.874 

40.762 
3,056 
4,040 

21,875 
7.439 

8,814 
21,766 
14,475 
56,533 

7,159 

33,303 
2,751 
2,376 
6,186 
3,904 

61,568 
12,873 
12,721 
13,476 
19.865 

2,217 
4,082 
1,456 
22,256 
1,037 


9,873 

3,518 

990 

2,614 

2,248 

1,463 
3,460 
538 
1,065 
3.994 

5,473 
8,329 
4.944 
3,981 
496 

2,270 
2,297 
5,439 
3,940 
1 ,565 

254 

852 

5,002 

2,499 

2,507 

10,524 

953 

1,171 

6,674 

2,639 

4.277 
4,591 
4,071 
10,848 
2,636 

11,274 

715 

936 

1,772 

1,605 

13,097 
4.404 
4,306 
4,023 
4,782 

580 

1,297 

583 

7,994 
2,807 


Johnston 

Jones 


16.616 

2.391 

3,5 1 8 

13,612 

1 1 .900 

7,064 

2.215 
1.726 
6.653 

77.188 

2.094 

5.586 

12.760 

18,196 

15.367 

2.603 

11.851 

26.648 

3,017 

3.126 

6,468 
2,441 
2,3 1 5 
23,645 
2.396 

13.481 
9.462 
20. 380 
19,300 
15,983 

9,471 
7.943 
1,596 

7,019 

9.354 

0.079 
1,053 
7,452 
1,082 

16.020 

5.279 

61,211 

),992 

4.40' 
(-.097 

6,990 
10 480 
8,954 

7. 54') 

4.' 13 


5.086 

1.342 

801 

7,101 

2 J46 


Alexander 


Alleghany 

Anson 


Lee 


Ashe 

Avery 


Lincoln 

Macon 


Beaufort 


Madison 


66X 


Bertie 


Martin 


161 


Bladen 


McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


23,236 
592 


Brunswick 

Buncombe 


Burke 


Montgomery 

Moore 


2 567 


Cabarrus 




Caldwell 


Nash 

New Hanover 


5 210 


Camden 


3 897 


Carteret 


Northampton 


648 


Caswell 


Onslow 


3 302 


Catawba 

Chatham 


Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 


6.509 
1 289 


Cherokee 


(On 


Chowan 


Pender 

Perquimans 


2 220 


Clay 

Cleveland 


642 


Person 


716 


Columbus 


Pitt 


6 277 


Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 


Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 


1,829 


Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 


6.318 

4.^:s 


Duplin 


Rutherford 

Sampson 


3 222 


Durham 


VI 144 


Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 


Scotland 


42^ 


Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 


1,166 

3.563 


Gaston 






564 




Transylvania 


• 


Granville 

Greene 


ryrell 

Union 


28 1 
6,515 


Guilford 


Vance 

Wake 


1,538 
I |,l 13 


Harnett 


Warren 


1,200 


Havwood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 


Washington 

Wayne 

Wilkes 


1,038 
1,566 

3,947 


Hyde 

Iredell 






Yadkin 


; 99g 


Jackson 


Yancey 






lotals 


1.159.560 


157.791 



88 



Nor in Carolina Manual 



Ballot 
Number 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN 
THE PRIMARY ELECTIONS HELD MAY 6, 1986 



Tabulations ol Votes 



Description ot Constitutional Issue 



Ffjr 



Against 



Constitutional amendment providing for election of 
state and county officers in odd-numbered years. 230.159 547,076 

(Chapter 768, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1985) 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN 
THE GENERAL ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 4, 1986 



Ballot 
Number 



Description of Constitulional Issue (Citation) 



Tabulations ol Votes 
For Against 



Constitutional Amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the State, 
or any State entity to issue revenue bonds to finance or 
refinance the cost of acquiring, constructing and financ- 
ing higher education facilities for any nonprofit private 
corporation, regardless of any church or religious rela- 
tionship, such bonds to be payable from any revenues 
or assets of any such nonprofit private corporation 
pledged therefor. 
(Chapter 814, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1986) 

Constitutional Amendment providing that an elec- 
tion shall be held to fill the remainder of the unexpired 
term if the vacancy occurs more than 60 days before the 
next election, rather than 30 days as is presently pro- 
vided. 
(Chapter 920, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1986) 

Constitutional Amendment to assist in the develop- 
ment of new and existing seaports and airports without 
creating a debt secured by the faith and credit of the 
State or any other public body by permitting the 
General Assembly to grant to the State and other pub- 
lic bodies additional powers to develop new and exist- 
ing seaports and airports, including powers to finance 
and refinance for public and private parties seaport and 
airport related commercial, industrial, manufacturing, 
processing, mining, transportation, distribution, stor- 
age, marine, aviation and environmental facilities and 
improvements. 
(Chapter 933, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1986) 



675.587 448,845 



740.241 



365.959 



688,911 391.908 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



189 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST Till 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT IN THE PRIMARY 

ELECTION HELD ON TUESDAY, MAY 6, 1986 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland .. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe .... 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Totals 



For 



2,056 
881 
653 

2,057 
974 

1,192 
2.646 
1,224 
973 
1.554 

5,990 
2,821 
2,945 
1,313 

731 

2,888 
2,148 
3,342 

2,274 
768 

585 

934 

2,742 

2,642 

1,536 

6,697 
1 ,430 

1,595 

2.897 

872 

2.466 
4.650 
3,038 

7.966 
1.9X5 

5.699 
1,280 
823 
2,192 
1,368 

11,1 10 

2.536 
2.441 
3,641 
2,259 

1.146 
1.325 
498 
2,690 
1,457 



Against 



8,466 
3,175 
2,088 
3,039 
3,082 

2,746 
4,729 
1,168 
2,694 
4,017 

14,239 

5,490 

6,064 

6,489 

867 

5,100 
3,550 
9,856 
4,319 
2.808 

1 . 1 90 
1 .475 
7.066 
6,607 
4,041 

12,621 
1,762 
1,805 
8.499 
3,433 

5.4S7 
15.774 

4,338 
18,773 

4,506 

12,691 
1 ,498 
1 .965 
4,085 

2.373 

22.996 
6.5^2 
5.159 
6,714 
5,239 

2,033 

1 .626 

787 

10.238 

3.511 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell ..... 
Mecklenburg . 

Mitchell 

Montgomery . 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank ... 

Pender 

Perquimans ... 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham . 
Rowan 

Rutherford .... 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stank 

Stokes 

Surr) 

Swain 

I ransylvania . 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington .. 
Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

v\ ilson 

Yadkin 

Nances 



Fix 



2.421 
1.109 
1,252 
4. MS 
1 ,9 56 

1,733 

855 
481 

I I I 
5.641 

895 

1.524 
I 916 
3,170 

2.1)24 

913 
$,083 

4.840 

918 

1.524 

967 

723 

4,298 

520 

1,968 
1,969 

5.173 
3,002 

4.205 

2,649 

2.301 
1.201 

04 

I. no'- 
1.012 

I. 'Ms 

884 

1,223 

4.( 

I . $88 
893 



230,159 



Against 



6.755 

L424 
2.254 
1.524 

- 

3,272 

5,463 

8,107 

2,476 

5,793 

10,473 

I..S25 

4,075 

7.773 

') "44 
6,003 

2,951 

1,559 






190 



Nor in Carolina M \\i \i 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THF 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 4th DAY OF NOVEMBER, 1986 





Amendment No. 1 


Amendment No. 2 


Amendment No. 3 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


9.997 
4.170 
903 
2,787 
3,569 

1,589 
5,315 
1,008 
1,387 
5,208 

15,016 

8,403 

8.339 
8,068 

546 

6,304 
2,881 
12.705 
5,629 
1,829 

903 

1 ,654 

10.003 

3,990 

4,321 

14.853 
1,059 
1,979 

12.887 
3.882 

2.354 

22,973 

6.813 

32,752 
4.748 

18.516 
1 ,430 
1.283 
3,390 
1,978 

44.815 
4.948 
6,234 
7.1 16 
9,900 

1,569 

2.465 

825 

11.603 

2,112 


8,020 
4,610 
745 
2,062 
3,441 

1 .443 

4,669 

588 

1.170 
4,502 

7,892 
6,427 
6, 1 85 
7,991 
453 

3,966 

2.282 
7,433 
3,835 
2.425 

433 
1.449 
7,012 
4,266 
4,033 

14.218 

953 

1,717 

8.739 

3.136 

1.961 
8,497 
3,847 
15.307 
3,263 

12.744 

873 

1,255 

2,683 

1,429 

21.974 
6.725 
4.389 

5,388 
7,332 

1,112 

1,263 

782 
7,924 
2,286 


10,061 

4.487 

982 

2,918 

3.610 

1.744 
5,608 
1,113 
1,639 

6.229 

16,596 

9.220 

9.146 

9.152 

667 

7,088 
2.967 
13,068 
5.916 
2,166 

966 

1,821 

10,809 

4.630 

4.914 

19.393 
1.345 
2,674 

14,235 
4,053 

3,253 

23,369 
6,961 

38,716 
4,666 

20,776 
1,557 
1,351 
3.750 
2.116 

47.909 
5,925 
6,530 
8.321 

12.130 

1 ,699 

2.455 

908 

12,525 

2,742 


7.640 
4.088 
640 
1 .673 
3,01 1 

1.267 
3,853 
464 
1.006 
3,323 

6.567 
5.439 
5,845 
6.735 
310 

3.099 
1,898 
7,043 
3.221 
2.081 

345 
1,215 

5.672 
3.421 
3.383 

9.686 

669 

1,199 

7.142 

2.782 

1,946 

7,598 

3.060 

12,790 

2.773 

10.100 

633 

1,213 

2.146 
1.174 

17.654 
4.818 
3,563 
3.809 
4.810 

868 
1.024 

614 
6,889 
1.539 


11,692 

1.9X7 
780 

2.725 
3.097 

1 ,43 1 

5.714 
1.060 
1.516 

5.898 

15.704 

8.386 

7,808 

7.948 

590 

6,688 
2.725 
12,054 
5.436 
1,776 

984 
1,555 
9.807 
4,350 
4,801 

1,187 

2.617 

12.163 

3.933 

2,980 
21,093 

6.771 

36.940 

4.351 

17.034 
1,423 
1.237 
3,331 
1,979 

41,824 
5,1 10 

6,195 

7,058 

10.306 

1.595 

2.370 

864 

11.271 

2.309 


5.386 


Alexander .. 


4.191 


Allegham 


843 


Anson 


1.747 


Ashe 


3.426 


Aver\ 


1.464 


Beaufort 


3,545 


Bertie 


434 


Bladen 


957 


Hi unswick 

Buncombe . 


3.704 
7,015 


Burke 

Cabarrus 


6.025 
6,958 


Caldwell ... 

Camden 


7,582 
378 


Carteret 


3,147 


Caswell 

Catawba 


1,988 

7,514 


Chatham 


3,487 


Cherokee 


2.347 


Chowan 


380 


Clav 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 


1,370 
6,470 
3,496 

3.3SX 


Cumberland 

Currituck 


732 


Dare 

Da\ tdson 


1.228 
8,734 


Da\ ie 


2.719 


Duplin 


1.930 


Durham .. 


8.342 


Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 


3.166 

13.382 
3.026 


Gaston 


13,210 


dates 


670 


Graham 


1 , 1 68 


Granville 

Greene 


2.369 

1.207 


Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 


17,208 
5,680 
4,021 


Haywood 

Henderson 


5,030 
6,417 


Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell .... 


923 
1,050 

633 
7,768 


Jackson 


1,975 







Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



19 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THF 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE C.ENER \f 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 4th DAY OF NOVEMBFR 1986 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery . 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank .. 

Pender 

Perquimans .. 
Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham . 
Rowan 

Rutherford ... 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania .. 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington ... 
Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



Amendment No. 1 



For 



9.526 
1,076 
2,469 
6,271 

5,785 

3,687 
1,616 
1 .396 
3.361 
50,053 

1.469 
2,886 
9,144 
8,764 
11,552 

1,230 
5,426 
14,148 
1 ,493 
1 ,765 

2,816 

949 

1,566 

11.871 

1,931 

8,480 
5,176 
9,384 
7,470 
12,753 

6,182 
3,438 
1,676 
4,705 
5,398 

3,845 
730 

4,470 
500 

9,207 

3,710 
43.646 
2,588 
2,036 
4,310 

6.554 
5,697 
5,274 
4,I0(> 
2,994 

675,587 



Against 



6,324 
1,265 

1 .4 1 3 
5,363 
4,292 

3,657 

1,090 

627 

3,582 

33.545 

1,424 
2,295 
6,519 
5,524 
6,234 

1,095 
5,142 
8,557 
1,415 

1,155 

2,672 
790 
710 

7,575 
945 

5.272 
3.296 
6,387 
5,071 
6,586 

6,098 
2,784 
758 
3,636 
4,733 

1.790 
778 

3,572 
302 

5,675 

2,943 

16,623 

1,468 

1,046 

5. SON 

3,581 
3,842 
2,188 
3,706 
2,563 

M8 845 



Amendment No. 2 



For 



Hi 



23 
1,142 
2,573 
6,800 

6,07(1 



4,3 1 7 
1 ,550 
1,424 
4,341 
56,699 

1,709 

3,027 

9,247 

9,449 

12,840 

1.367 
6,618 
16.294 
1,592 
1,883 

3,264 
1,169 
1.498 
13.236 
1.975 

8,414 
5,415 
9.855 
8.196 
13,585 

7,500 
4,378 
1,625 
5,237 
5,566 

3,687 
894 

5,307 
492 

9,900 

4,005 
44,644 

2,491 
2,072 
4,975 

MM 
5.922 
5,101 

4.347 

),086 



Against 



740,241 



5,226 
1,046 
1.247 
4,390 
5,882 

2,897 

1.072 

548 

2.640 

23.097 

1,173 
2.032 
6,868 

4.40f> 
5,121 

840 
3,686 
6,094 

1,171 
971 

2,109 
521 
689 

5.499 
874 

5.230 

2.595 
4,788 
3.9K4 
5,525 

4,653 
2,718 
744 
),895 
4,165 

580 

2.4>o 

4.2S4 

2,247 

15.103 

1.244 

3,175 

>,560 
2,195 
J.355 



Amendment No. 3 



365.959 



Fo> 



1 ,082 
2,447 

5.375 

3.422 
1,389 

1.412 

3,521 

55,674 

1,423 
2,751 

9.610 

9.006 

13,715 

1.213 
6,245 
15,260 
1,604 
1,933 

3.239 
1.050 
1 ,48 1 
13,307 
1.522 

8,174 
5,090 

9.229 
7,151 

5,737 
4.092 
I 570 
4,840 

3,551 

4. Mil 

9,162 
1,798 

44.4^4 
.Mill. 

1,963 

'.,4'4 
5,41 1 
5,059 

2,783 



Against 



688.91 1 



1.040 
1.244 

4.4IH 

3>59 

1. os: 

527 

3.131 

25.694 

1.325 
2,260 

 
4,579 

955 

3,748 

6.540 
1.169 

Ms 

1 ,999 
616 

1.193 

4.N26 

5. '44 
5,008 
6,304 

5,686 

(.9| 

J.831 

4.s|o 

1,706 

( ,» ) 

J.35I 

:.^.i 

13.613 
1.327 

3,192 






Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 193 



NORTH CAROLINA 

CONSTITUTIONAL PROPOSITIONS 

VOTED ON BY THE PEOPLE SINCE 1868 



Year 






of Vote 


Ratified 


Rejected 


1868 


1 





1873 


x 


o 


1876 


1 





1880 


2 





1888 


1 


(1 


1892 





1 


1900 


1 





1914 





10 


1916 


4 





1918 


2 





1920 


2 





1922 





1 


1924 


3 


1 


1926 


1 





1928 


1 


2 


1930 





3 


1932 


1 


3 


1936 


5 





1938 


2 





1942 


2 





1944 


5 


(i 


1946 


1 


1 


1948 


1 


3 


1950 


5 





1952 


3 





1954 


4 


1 


1956 


4 





1958 





1 


1962 


6 





1964 


1 


1 


1966 


1 





1968 


2 





1970 


6 


1 


1972 


5 





1974 


1 


1 


1976 


2 





1977 


5 





1980 


1 





1982 


3 


4 


1984 


2 





1986 


3 


1 


Totals - 


98 


35 



In the above table, each issue on which the people have \oted is as one whethei it involves onl) a single section (as 
was often the case), a whole article (as in the case ol the 1900 suffrage amendment .mil the l962courl amendment, 01 

a revision of the entire Constitution (as in 1868 and 1970). 



Voting Results on Constitutional Ism is Since 1970 |9> 

Chapter Four 

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 



Preamble 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish 
justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the gen- 
eral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

ARTICLE I 

Section 1 — All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the 
United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2 — 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen ever) 
second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall ha\ e 
the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legis- 
lature. 

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of 
twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not. 
when elected, be an inhabitant of the State in which he shall be chosen. 

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several Stales 
which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which 
shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those 
bound to service for a term of years and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all 
other persons. The actual enumejation shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term ol leu 
years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall 
not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Repre- 
sentative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall 
be entitled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. I. 
Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, I: Maryland, 
6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia. 3.* 

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State the Executive \\1 
thority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and 
shall have the sole power of impeachment. 



*See Article XIV, Amendments 



196 North Carolina Mam m 



Sec. 3 I. The Senate of the United States shall he composed of two Senators from 
each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have 
one vote.t 

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they 
shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the 
first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class at the 
expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so 
that one-third may be chosen every second year, and if vacancies happen by resignation, 
or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof 
may make temporary appointments until tne next meeting o\' the Legislature, which 
shall then fill such vacancies. + 

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years. 
and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be 
an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall 
have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in 
the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of the President o\' 
the United States. 

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for 
that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United 
States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without 
the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from 
office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under 
the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to in- 
dictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 

Sec. 4 — 1 . The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Repre- 
sentatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, but the Congress 
may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choos- 
ing Senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be 
on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5 — 1 . Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications 
of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; 
but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel 
the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each 
House may provide. 

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for 
disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. 



+See Article XVII, Amendments. 



The Constitution of the United States 197 



3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish 
the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the seas 
and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire oi' one-fifth 
of those present, be entered on the journal. 

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the 
other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the 
two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6 — 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their 
services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. 
They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged 
from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in go- 
ing to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House the) 
shall not be questioned in any other place. 

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be 
appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have 
been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; 
and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of cither 
House during his continuance in office. 

Sec. 7 — 1 . All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; 
but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. 

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate 
shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States: if he 
approves, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House 
in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal. 
and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall 
agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objectives, to the other House. b\ 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it 
shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined 
by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be 
entered on thejournal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the 
President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him. 
the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress b\ their 
adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House 
of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be pre- 
sented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall 
be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed bj two-thirds ol the 
Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed 
in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power: 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the del-its and pro ide 
for the common defense and general welfare of the United States: but all duties, imposts 
and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; 



198 North Carolina Manual 

2. To borrow money on the credit oi' the United States; 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and 
with the Indian tribes; 

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of 
bankruptcies throughout the United States: 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the stand- 
ards of weights and measures; 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of 
the United States; 

7. To establish postoffices and postroads; 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, 
to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and of- 
fenses against the law of nations; 

1 1 . To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning 
captures on land and water; 

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be 
for a longer term than two years; 

13. To provide and maintain a navy; 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress 
insurrections, and repel invasions; 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing 
such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to 
the State respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the 
militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

1 7. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not ex- 
ceeding ten miles square) as may be cession of particular States and the acceptance of 
Congress, become the seat of Government of the United States, and to exercise like au- 
thority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State, in which 
the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other 
needful buildings; — and 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution 
the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Govern- 
ment of the United States, or any department or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now ex- 
isting shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the 
year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such 
importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 



The Constitution of the United States 1 99 



2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in 
cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 

3. No bill of attainer or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or 
enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.* 

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the 
ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one Suite 
be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations 
made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all 
public money shall be published from time to time. 

8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding 
any office or profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, ac- 
cept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, 
prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10 — 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant let- 
ters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold 
and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainer; ex post facto law . 
or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on 
imports or exports except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection 
laws; and the net produce of all duties and imports, laid by any State on imports or ex- 
ports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall he 
subject to the revision and control of the Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep 
troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with an- 
other State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in 
such imminent danger as will not admit delay. 

ARTICLE II 

Section 1—1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the I (nited States 
of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together w it h the 
Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows: 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof ma) direct, a 
number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to 
which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative or 
person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall he appointed an 
elector. 



*See Article XVI, Amendments. 



200 North Carolina Manual 



3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two per- 
sons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. 
And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for 
each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of 
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number 
oi~ votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an 
equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by 
ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five 
highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each 
State having one vote; a quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or mem- 
bers from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a 
choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest 
number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there shall remain two 
or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice 
President.* 

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on 
which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United 
States. 

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the 
time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; 
neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation or 
inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on 
the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, 
resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer 
shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be 
removed, or a President shall be elected. 

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which 
shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been 
elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the 
United States, or any of them. 

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or 
affirmation: 

"I do solemly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of 
the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the 
Constitution of the United States." 



"This clause is superseded by Article XII, Amendments. 



The Constitution of the United Siahs 201 



Sec. 2—1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the 
United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service 
of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in 
each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties o\' their re- 
spective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves, and pardons for offenses 
against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make 
treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate and. 
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other 
public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the 
United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which 
shall be established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such 
inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in 
the heads of departments. 

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the 
recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next 
session. 

Sec. 3 — He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the State ol 
the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge nec- 
essary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or 
either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time o( ad- 
journment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfulh ex- 
ecuted, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. 

Sec. 4 — The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall 
be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, briber), or 
other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

ARTICLE III 

Section 1 — The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme 
Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and es- 
tablish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices dur- 
ing good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation 
which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2—1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under 
this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under their authority;— to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers 
and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to 
which the United States shall be a party;— to controversies between two or more 
States;— between citizens of the same State, claiming lands under grants o( different 
States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or sub- 
jects. 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those 
in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction In 



202 North Carolina Manual 



all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdic- 
tion, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the 
Congress shall make. 

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such 
trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but 
when not committed within any State the trial shall be at such place or places as the 
Congress may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3 — 1 . Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against 
them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be 
convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or 
on confession in open court. 

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no at- 
tainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of 
the person attained. 

ARTICLE IV 

Section 1 —Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, 
and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general laws 
prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and 
the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2 — 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities 
of citizens in the several States. 

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee 
from justice and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the Executive authority 
of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having juris- 
diction of the crime. 

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping 
into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from 
such service or labor, but shall be delivered upon claim of the party to whom such serv- 
ice or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3 — 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new 
State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State 
be formed by the junction of two or more States, on parts of States, without the consent 
of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regu- 
lations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and 
nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the 
United States or of any particular State. 

Sec. 4 — The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican 
form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and, on applica- 
tion of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), 
against domestic violence. 



The Constitution of the United States 203 



ARTICLE V 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall pro- 
pose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two- 
thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in 
either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when 
ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in 
three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by 
the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one 
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses 
in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be 
deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

ARTICLE VI 

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as 
under the Confederation. 

2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pur- 
suance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the 
United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall 
be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not- 
withstanding. 

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the sev- 
eral State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States 
and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Consti- 
tution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or pub- 
lic trust under the United States. 

ARTICLE VII 

The ratification of the Convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the establish- 
ment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. 

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth 
Day of September, in the Year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In witness 
whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.* 



*The Constitution was declared in effect on the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 



204 



North Carolina M am m 



GEO[RGE] WASHINGTON, 

President and deputy from Virginia 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

John Langdon 
Nicholas Gilman 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Nathaniel Gorham 
Rufus King, 

CONNECTICUT 

W[illiai]m Sam[ue]l Johnson 
Roger Sherman 
Geofrge] Clymer 
Jared Ingersoll 
Gouv. Morris 

DELAWARE 

Geo[rge] Read 
John Dickinson 
Jacofb] Broom 
Gunning Bedford, Jr. 
Richard Bassett 

MARYLAND 

James McHenry 
Dan[ie]l Carroll 
Danfiel] of St. Thos. Jenifer 

VIRGINIA 

John Blair 



NEWYORK 

Alexander Hamilton 

NEW JERSEY 

Wilfliam] Livingston 
David Brearley 
W[illia]m Patterson 
Jonathan] Dayton 

PENNSYLVANIA 

B[enjamin] Franklin 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Thofma]s Fitzsimmons 
James Wilson 
Thomas Mifflin 
Ja[me]s Madison, Jr. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

W[illia]m Blount 
Hu[gh] Williamson 
Rich[ar]d Dobbs Spaight 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Jfames] Rutledge 

Charles Pinckney 

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 

Pierce Butler 

GEORGIA 

William Few 
Abrjaham] Baldwin 



Will 



ATTEST: 

iam Jackson, Secretary 



The Constitution of the United States 205 



AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION 
OF THE UNITED STATES 

THE TEN ORIGINAL AMENDMENTS* 

The following amendments to the Constitution, Article I to X, inclusive, were pro- 
posed at the First Session of the First Congress, begun and held at the City of New 
York, on Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and were adopted by the necessary number of 
States. The original proposal of the ten amendments was preceded by this preamble and 
resolution: 

"The conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of their 
adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruc- 
tion or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses 
should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the Gov- 
ernment will best insure the beneficient ends of its institution: 

"RESOLVED, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses con- 
curring that the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the sev- 
eral States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States; all or any 
of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be 
valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, namely"; 

ARTICLE I 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting 
the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right 
of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of 
grievances. 



ARTICLE II 

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the 
people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 



ARTICLE III 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of 
the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 



ARTICLE IV 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall 
issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly de- 
scribing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



"These amendments known as The Bill of Rights, were declared in force December 15, 1791. North Carolina 
ratified these ten amendments on December 22, 1789 (Ch. 19, Laws of 1789). 



206 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE V 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless 
on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or na- 
val forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or 
limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against him, nor be de- 
prived o\' life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property 
be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

ARTICLE VI 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy, and public 
trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been 
committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and be in- 
formed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses 
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

ARTICLE VII 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, 
the right of tiral by jury shall be preserved and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise 
re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the com- 
mon law. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unu- 
sual punishments inflicted. 

ARTICLE IX 

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny 
or disparage others retained by the people. 

ARTICLE X 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by 
it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 

SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS 

ARTICLE XI 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in 
law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States, by citizens of 
another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State. 

(Proposed to the Legislatures of the several States by the Third Congress on the 5th of March. 1794. and de- 
clared to have been ratified by Executive Proclamation, January 8, 1798. It was ratified by North Carolina on 
February 7, 1795.) 



The Constitution of the United States 207 



ARTICLE XII 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and 
Vice President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with 
themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in dis- 
tinct ballots the persons voted for as Vice President; and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of 
the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, 
sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of 
the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of 
Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number 
be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such 
majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the 
list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immedi- 
ately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by 
States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose 
shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of 
all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall 
not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in 
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person hav- 
ing the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall be the Vice President, if such 
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have 
a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the 
Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole num- 
ber of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of 
Vice President of the United States. 

[Proposed by the Eighth Congress on the 12 of December, 1803, declared ratified by the Secretary of State. 
September 25, 1804. It was ratified by North Carolina on December 21, 1803. It was ratified by all the States ex- 
cept Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.] 

ARTICLE XIII 

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or 
any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the Thirty-eighth Congress on the 1st of February, 1865, declared ratified by the Secretary of 
State, December 18, 1865. It was ratified by North Carolina on December 4, 1865 (Resolution. Public Laws ,>t 
1865. It was rejected by Delaware and Kentucky; was conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi; and 
Texas took no action.] 

ARTICLE XIV 

1 . All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State 



208 North Carolina Manual 



shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges of immunities of citi- 
zens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or prop- 
erty, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal 
protection o( the laws. 

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their 
respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding In- 
dians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the 
executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is 
denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebel- 
lion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the propor- 
tion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citi- 
zens twenty-one years of age in such State. 

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of Presi- 
dent and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or 
under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as 
an officer of the United Sttaes, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, 
shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort 
to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, re- 
move such disability. 

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law including 
debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insur- 
rection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all 
such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions 
of this article. 

[The Reconstruction Amendment, by the Thirty-ninth Congress on the 16th day of June. 1X66. was declared 
ratified by the Secretary of State. July 28, 1X68. The amendment got the support of 23 Northern States; it was re- 
jected by Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern States. California took no action. Later it was rati- 
fied by the 10 Southern States. North Carolina ratified it on July 4. 1X68 (Resolution 2. Public Laws of 1868).] 

ARTICLE XV 

1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous 
condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the Fortieth Congress the 27th of February, 1869, and was declared ratified by the Secretar) ol 
State. March 30, 1870. It was not acted on by Tennessee; it was rejected by California, Delaware. Kentucky. 
Maryland and Oregon; ratified by the remaining 30 States. North Carolina ratified it on March 5. 1869 (Public 
1 aws of IX6X-69). New York rescinded its ratification January 5. 1870. New Jersey rejected it in 1870. but ratified 
it in 1X71.)] 



The Constitution of the United States 209 



ARTICLE XVI 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever 
source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to 
any census or enumeration. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-first Congress, July 12, 1909, and declared ratified February 25, 1913. The income tax 
amendment was ratified by all the States, except Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, and 
Virginia. North Carolina ratified it on February 11, 1911 (Resolution 11, Public Laws of 1911).] 

ARTICLE XVII 

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each 
State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. 
The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
numerous branch of the State Legislatures. 

2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the execu- 
tive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies; Provided, 
That the Legislature of any State may empower the Executive thereof to make tempor- 
ary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by elections as the Legislature may 
direct. 

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any 
Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-second Congress on the 16th day of May, 1912, and declared ratified May 31, 1913. 
Adopted by all the States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missis- 
sippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia. North Carolina ratified it on January 25. 1913 (Resolu- 
tion 10, Public Laws of 191 3).] 

ARTICLE XVIII 

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or trans- 
portation of intoxicating liquours within, the importation thereof into, or the exporta- 
tion thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof 
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States as provided in the Constitu- 
tion, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Con- 
gress. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress, December 18, 1917, and ratified by 36 States; was declared in effect on 
January 16, 1920. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 16, 1919 (Resolution 8, Public Laws oj I919\.\ 

ARTICLE XIX 

1 . The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by 
the United States or by any State on account of sex. 

2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce the provisions o\' 
this article. 



210 North Carolina Mam \i 



[Proposed b\ the Sixty-fifth Congress. On August 26, 1920, it was proclaimed in effect, having been ratified h\ 
three-quarters o( the States. It was ratified b) North Carolina on \1a\ 6, 1471 (Ch. 327, Session Laws oj 1971). 
The Tennessee House. August 31st, rescinded its ratification, 47 to 24. j 

ARTICLE XX 

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th da\ o\' 
January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of Jamj- 
ar) of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been rati- 
fied; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be- 
gin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President 
elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall 
not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the Presi- 
dent elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President 
until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case 
wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declar- 
ing who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be se- 
lected, and such person shall act accordingly, until a President or Vice President shall 
have qualified. 

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons 
from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of 
choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the per- 
sons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President when the right of choice shall 
have devolved upon them. 

5. Section 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratifica- 
tion of this article. 

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission. 

[Proposed b> the 72nd Congress, First Session. On February 6, 1933. it was proclaimed in effect, having been 
ratified by thirty-nine states. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 5, 1933 (Resolution 4, Puhln Laws oj 
1935).] 

ARTICLE XXI 

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is 
hereby repealed. 

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the 
United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws 
thereof, is hereby prohibited. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by convention in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, 
within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 



The Constitution of the United States 21 1 



(Proposed by the 72nd Congress, Second Session. Proclaimed in effect on December 5, 1933, having been rati- 
fied by thirty-six States. North Carolina did not ratify this Amendment. By proclamation of the same date, the 
President proclaimed that the eighteenth amendment to the Constitution was repealed on December 5, 1933.) 



ARTICLE XXII 

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no 
person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two 
years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the 
office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person 
holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall 
not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as Presi- 
dent, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the of- 
fice of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. 

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission to the States by the congress. 

[Proposed by the 80th Congress in 1947 and became effective on Feb. 26, 1951, having been ratified by thirty- 
six states. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 28, 1951 (Ch. 136, Session laws of I95l).\ 



ARTICLE XXIII 

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall ap- 
point in such manner as the Congress may direct: 

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of 
Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it 
were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addi- 
tion to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purpose of 
the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and 
they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article 
of amendment. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the 86th Congress in June of 1960 and ratified by the 38th State, March 29, 1961 and proclaimed 
a part of the Constitution, April 3, 1961. North Carolina did not ratify it.] 



ARTICLE XXIV 

1 . The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election 
for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Sena- 
tor or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States 
or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the 87th Congress, August 27, 1962 and ratified by the 38th State, January 23, 1964. It was not 
ratified by North Carolina] 



212 North Carolina Mwiai. 



ARTICLE XXV 

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, 
the Vice President shall become President. 

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall 
nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote 
of both Houses of Congress. 

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to 
discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written 
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice Pres- 
ident as Acting President. 

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the 
executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit 
to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and 
duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties 
of the office as Acting President. 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate 
and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no in- 
ability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice Presi- 
dent and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of 
such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the Presi- 
dent pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their 
written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours 
for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt 
of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days 
after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses 
that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice 
President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the Presi- 
dent shall resume the powers and duties of his office. 

[Submitted to the Legislatures of the fifty States July 6, 1965. Ratified by the 38th State (Nevada) February 10. 
1967. It was ratified by North Carolina on March 22, 1967 (Ch. 77, Session Laws of 1967).] 



ARTICLE XXVI 

1 . The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to 
vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of age. 

2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legisla- 
tion. 

[Proposed to the States by Congress on March 23, 1971 and ratification completed June 30, 1971. It was rati- 
fied by North Carolina on July 1, 1971 (Ch. 72?, Session Laws of 1971).} 



PART IV 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 

UNITED STATES 



216 



Nor ni Carolina Mam \i 




The Executive Branch 217 

Chapter One 
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



RONALD WILSON REAGAN 
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Early Years: Born in Tampico, Illinois, on February 6, 1911, to John Edward and 
Nelle Wilson Reagan. 

Education: Graduated Dixon (Illinois) High School, 1932; Eureka College (Illi- 
nois)1932, B.A. (Economics and Sociology). 

Professional Background: Rancher; spokesman for conservation cause (radio broad- 
casts and syndicated news column), 1975-1980; motion picture actor (50 feature- 
length films), 1937-1966; television series host and sometimes actor ("General Elec- 
tric Theater" and "Death Valley Days"), 1962-1966; sportscaster (WOC in 
Davenport, Iowa; WHO in DesMoines, Iowa), 1932-1937. 

Organizations: Member, Screen Actors Guild (President, 1947-1952 and 1959); Tau 
Kappa Epsilon; Friars Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Presidential Commission Investigating the CIA, 
1974-1975; Committee on the Present Danger (Board of Directors),1977-1978; 
founded Citizens for the Republic. 

Political Activities: President of the United States of America, 1981 -(Elected 1980; 
re-elected, 1984); Governor of California 1967-1975; Chairman, Republican Gover- 
nors Association, 1969; active campaigner for Republican candidates and spokes- 
man for conservative political views. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Reserves, Captain (1942-1945). 

Literary Works: Author, Creative Society (New York, 1968); Where's the Rest of Me? 
(New York, 1965). 

Honors: National Humanitarian Award, National Conference of Christians and Jews; 
City of Hope "Touch of Life" Award for Humanitarian Service; Horatio Alger 
Award; American Newspaper Guild Award; Freedoms Foundation Awards; Dis- 
tinguished American Award, National Football Foundation Hall of Fame; Ameri- 
can Patriots Hall of Fame; and Medal of Valor of the State of Israel. 

Religious Activities: Attends Hollywood Beverly Christian Church (California). 

Family: Married Nancy Davis, March 4, 1952; Children: Patricia and Ronald; Mau- 
reen (by previous marriage to Jane Wyman); and Michael (adopted.) 



2IS 



Nor i ii Caroj in a Mam \i 








The Executive Branch 219 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

1. George Washington (F) Va 1732 1789 

2. John Adams (F) Mass 1735 1797 

3. Thomas Jefferson (D-R) Va 1743 1801 

4. James Madison (D-R) Va 1751 1809 

5. James Monroe (D-R) Va 1758 1817 

6. John Quincy Adams (N-R) Mass 1767 1825 

7. Andrew Jackson (D) N. C 1767 1829 

8. Martin Van Buren (WHIG) N. Y 1782 1837 

9. William H. Harrison 1 (A) Va 1773 1841 

10. John Tyler (W) Va 1790 1841 

11. James Knox Polk (D) N. C 1795 1845 

12. Zachary Taylor^WHIG) Va 1784 1849 

13. Millard Fillmore (WHIG) N. Y 1800 1850 

14. Franklin Pierce (D) N. H 1804 1853 

15. James Buchanan (D) Pa 1791 1857 

16. Abraham Lincoln^ (R) Ky 1809 1861 

17. Andrew Johnson 4 (-) N. C 1808 1865 

18. Ulysses S. Grant (R) Ohio 1822 1869 

19. Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Ohio 1822 1877 

20. James A. Garfield 5 (R) Ohio 1831 1881 

21. Chester A. Arthur (R) Vt 1830 1881 

22. Grover Cleveland 6 (D) N.J 1837 1885 

23. Benjamin Harrison (R) Ohio 1833 1889 

24. Grover Cleveland 7 (D) N.J 1837 1893 

25. William McKinley 8 (R) Ohio 1843 1897 

26. Theodore Roosevelt (R) N. Y 1858 1901 

27. William H. Taft(R) Ohio 1857 1909 

28. Woodrow Wilson (D) Va 1856 1913 

29. Warren G. Harding 9 (R) Ohio 1865 1921 

30. Calvin Coolidge (R) Vt 1872 1923 

31. Herbert C. Hoover (R) Iowa 1874 1929 

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt 10 (D) N. Y 1882 1933 



■Harrison died on April 4. 1841. 

2 Taylor died on July 9, 1850. 

'Lincoln was shot April 14, 1865, and died the following day. 

••Andrew Johnson- a Democrat, nominated vice president by Republicans anil elected with Lincoln on 
National Union ticket. 

'Garfield was shot July 2, 1881, and died September 19. 

^According to a ruling of the State Dept., Grover Cleveland is counted twice, as the 22nd and the 24th 
President, because his two terms were not consecutive. Only 39 individuals have been President 

7 See footnote 6. 

"McKinley was shot September 6, 1901, and died September 14. 

'Harding died on August 2, 1923. 

'"Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. 



220 North Carolina Mam \i 



No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

33. Harry S. Truman (D) Missouri 18X4 1945 

34. Dwight I). Eisenhower (R) Texas 1890 1953 

35. John F. Kennedy" (D) Massachusetts... 1917 1961 

36. Lyndon B. Johnson (D) Texas 1908 1963 

37. Richard M. Nixon 12 (R) California 1913 1969 

38. Gerald R. Ford(R) Michigan 1913 1974 

39. James Earl Carter (I)) Georgia 1924 1977 

40. Ronald Wilson Reagan (R) Illinois 1911 1981 



"Kennedy was assassinated on November 22. 1963. 

l2 Nixon resigned August 9, 1974 following several months of pressure over the "Watergate" coverup and 
related issues 



The Executive Branch 221 



PRESIDENTIAL CABINET 

Vice President George Bush 

Secretary of Agriculture Richard Lyng 

Secretary of Commerce Malcolm Balridge 

Secretary of Defense Casper W. Weinberger 

Secretary of Education William J. Bennett 

Secretary of Energy John S. Harrington 

Secretary of Health and Human Services Otis R. Bowen 

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Samuel R. Pierce, Jr. 

Secretary of the Interior Donald Hodel 

Secretary of Labor William E. Brock, III 

Secretary of State George P. Schultz 

Secretary of Transportation* Elizabeth Hanford Dole 

Secretary of the Treasury James A. Baker, III 

Attorney General Edwin Meese 

Ambassador to the United Nations A. Vernon Walters 



MAJOR APPOINTMENTS 

White House Chief of Staff Howard H. Baker, Jr. 

National Security Adviser Frank Carlucci 

Press Secretary Marilyn Fitzwater 

Director, Central Intelligence Agency William Webster 

Chairman, Council on Wage and Price Stability Alfred E. Kahn 

Chairman, Federal Reserve Board Paul A. Volcker 

Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Wm. J. Crowe, Jr. 

Director, Office of Management and Budget James C. Miller, III 

Postmaster General Preston Pisch 



*Native of North Carolina 



222 



North Carolina Mamai. 




The Executive Branch 223 

ELIZABETH HANFORD DOLE 

Secretary, United States Department of Transportation 

Early Years: Born in Salisbury, Rowan County, NC, July 29, 1937, to John Van and 
Mary (Cathey) Hanford. 

Education: Duke University, B.A. (Political Science); Harvard University, M.S. (Edu- 
cation and Government); Harvard University School of Law, J.D. 

Professional Background: Secretary, US Department of Transportation; former As- 
sistant to the President for Public Liaison, 1981-83; Federal Trade Commission, 
1973-1979 (temporary leave of absence, 1976); Deputy Director, Office of Consu- 
mer Affairs, 1971-73; Executive Director, President's Committee on Consumer 
Interests, 1969-71; former Staff Assistant to Assistant Secretary of Health, Educa- 
tion and Welfare. 

Boards & Commissions: Board of Trustees, Duke University; Board of Advisors, Duke 
University Business School; Overseers Committee, John F. Kennedy School of 
Government, Harvard University; Director, National Council of the Aging; Direc- 
tor, Wolf Trap Foundation for the Performing Arts; Director, Washington Opera 
Board; Board of Directors, American Council on Young Political Leaders. 

Political Activities: Secretary, US Department of Transportation, 1983- (nominated by 
President Reagan, January 25, 1983; confirmed by the US Senate, February 1, 
1983; sworn in, February 7, 1983); Chairman, Voters for Reagan-Bush, 1980; 
Reagan-Bush Truth Squad, 1980; Director, Human Services Group for the Office 
of Executive Branch Management, Office of the President-elect; National Advisory 
Council of the National Federation of Republican Women. 

Honors: "Faces of the Future," TIME MAGAZINE, 1974; Arthur S. Fleming Award 
for Outstanding Government Service, 1972; Phi Beta Kappa, Duke University; 
President, Duke University Student Body. 

Family: Married Robert J. Dole, Senior US Senator from Kansas, December 6, 1975. 



224 



North Carolina Mam ai 




The United States Congress 225 

Chapter Two 
THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS 



THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON 



The Capitol building in Washington, D. C, is situated on a plateau 88 feet above 
the level of the Potomac River and covers an area of 153, 1 12 square feet, or approxi- 
mately three and one-half acres. Its length, from north to south, is 751 feet, four 
inches; its width, including approaches, is 350 feet; and its location is described as 
being in latitude 38°53 , 20.4" N. and longitude 70°00'35.7" W. from Greenwich. Its 
height above the base line on the east front to the top of the Statue of Freedom is 287 
feet, five and one-half inches. The dome is built of iron, and the aggregate weight of 
material used in its construction is 8,909,200 pounds. 

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is of bronze and weighs 14,985 
pounds. It was modeled by Thomas Crawford, father of Francis Marion Crawford, the 
novelist, in Rome, and the plaster model shipped to this country. It was cast in bronze 
at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg Road, near Washington. The cost of 
the casting and the expenses in connection were $20,796.82, and the sculptor was paid 
$3,000 for the plaster model. It was erected and placed in its present position 
December 2, 1863. 

The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at one time a part of Cern Abby 
Manor, and at an early date was occupied by a subtribe of the Algonquin Indians 
known as the Powhatans, whose council house was then located at the foot of the hill. 
By subsequent purchase of ground at the North of the Capitol and at the west of the 
new House Office building the area of the grounds has been increased to 139'/2 acres. 

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from the floor to the top 
of the canopy is 180 feet, 3 inches. 

The Senate Chamber is 1 13 feet, 3 inches, in length by 80 feet, 3 inches, in width and 
36 feet in height. The galleries will accommodate 682 persons. 

The Representatives' Hall is 139 feet in length by 93 feet in width and 36 feet in 
height. 

The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the Supreme Court, was, until 1859, 
occupied as the Senate Chamber. Previous to that time the court occupied the room 
immediately beneath, now used as a law library. 

The Capitol has a floor area of 14 acres, and 430 rooms are devoted to office, 
committee, and storage purposes. There are 14,518 square feet of skylights, 679 win- 
dows, and 550 doorways. 

The dome receives light through 108 windows, and from the architect's office to the 
dome there are 365 steps, one for each day of the year. 

The southeast cornerstone of the original building was laid September 18, 1793, by 
President Washington, with Masonic ceremonies. It is constructed of sandstone from 



226 North Carolina Manuai 



quarries on Aquia Crock, Va. The original designs were prepared by Dr. William 
Thornton, and the work was done under the direction of Stephen H. Hallet, James 
Hoban, George Hadfield, and B. H. Latrobe, architects. 

I lie north wing was finished in 1800 and the south wing in 1811. A wooden pas- 
sageway connected them. On August 24, 1814, the interior of both wings was des- 
troyed bv tire, set by the British. The damage to the building was immediately 
repaired. 

In 1818 the central portion of the building was commenced under the architectural 
superintendence of Charles Bullfinch. The original building was finally completed in 
1827. Its cost, including the grading of the grounds, alterations, and repairs, up to 
1827. was $2,433,844.13. 

The cornerstone of the extensions was laid on the Fourth of July, 1 85 I , by President 
Fillmore, Daniel Webster officiating as orator. The work was prosecuted under the 
architectual direction of Thomas U. Walter until 1865, when he resigned, and it was 
completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The material used in the walls is 
white marble from the quarries of Lee, Massachusetts, and that in the columns from 
the quarries from Cockeysville, Maryland. The House extension was first occupied for 
legislative purposes December 16, 1857, and the Senate January 4, 1859. 

The House office building was begun in 1905 and occupied on January 10, 1908; 
later a story on top was added. The Senate office building was started in 1906 and 
occupied on March 5, 1909. The House building cost, with site, $4,860,155; the Senate 
structure, $5,019,251. 

Among the paintings in the Capitol are: 

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Bur- 
goyne. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Va., George Washington Resigning 
His Commission as Commander in Chief of the Army, all by John Trumbull. 

Baptism of Pocahontas, by John G. Chapman; Landing of Columbus, by John 
Vanderlyn; Discovery of the Mississippi River by DeSoto, by William H. Powell; 
Embarkation of the Pilgrims, by Robert W. Weir. 

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, by Emanuel 
Leutze; First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation, by Francis Bicknell 
Carpenter. 

In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William H. Powell; Battle of Chapultepec, 
by James Walker. 



The United States Congress 



227 



NINETY-NINTH CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES 

THE SENATE 

President of the Senate 

George Bush (Texas) 

President Pro-Tempore of the Senate 

John C. Stennis (South Carolina) 

Secretary of the Senate 

Jo Ann Coe 



Majority Leader 

Robert C. Byrd (West Virginia) 

Majority Whip 

Alan Cranston (California) 



Minority Leader 

Robert Dole (Kansas) 

Minority Whip 

Alan K. Simpson (Wyoming) 



SENATORS FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

Jesse Helms 
Terry Sanford 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



Agriculture, Nutrition & Forestry 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs 

Budget 

Commerce, Science & Transportation 

Energy and Natural Resources 

Environment & Public Works 



Finance 

Foreign Relations 

Government Affairs 

Judiciary 

Labor and Human Resources 

Rules and Administration 

Small Business 

Veteran's Affairs 



Ethics 



SELECT COMMITTEES 

Indian Affairs 



Intelligence 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

Aging 



Economy 



JOINT COMMITTEES 

Library Printing 



Taxation 



228 



North C \rolina \1 \nu \i 






The United States Congress 229 

JESSE HELMS 

(Republican) 



Early Years: Born in Monroe, Union County, October 18, 1921, to Jesse A. and Ethel 
Mae Helms. 

Education: Monroe High School; Wingate College; Wake Forest University. 

Professional Background: Former Executive Vice President, Vice Chairman of the 
Board and Assistant Chief Executive Officer, Capitol Broadcasting Company, 
Raleigh; editorialist, WRAL television, 80 radio stations in NC and 200 newspapers 
nationwide; former editor. The Raleigh Times. 

Organizations: President and Vice President, Raleigh Rotary Club; President, Raleigh 
Exchange Club; former Trustee, Campbell College, Wingate College, Meredith Col- 
lege Trustee, John F. Kennedy College, Douglas MacArthur Freedom Academy, 
Delaware Law School and Camp Willow Run; NC Tobacco Council; Director, 
United Fund of Raleigh; State Advisor, Young Americans for Freedom; Director, 
Raleigh Chamber of Commerce; Mason, Raleigh Lodge No. 500; Grand Orator, 
Grand Lodge of NC, 1966. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to the US Senate, November, 1972, 
1978, 1984- now serving his 3rd term); Raleigh City Council, 1957-1961; Adminis- 
trative Assistant, US Senator Willis Smith; Administrative Assistant, US Senator 
Alton Lennon; director, radio-television campaign, Richard B. Russell of Georgia, 
Democratic presidential candidate, 1952. 

Honors: Honorary degrees. Grove City College and Bob Jones University; Honorary 
Director, NC Cerebral Palsy Hospital; Freedom Foundation Award (best television 
editorial); Taxpayers' Best Friend Award, National Taxpayer's Union, 1981, 1982, 
1983, 1984; Watchdog of the Treasury Award, National Associated Businessmen, 
1973-84; Outstanding Senator Award, Christian Action Council, 1983; Most Ad- 
mired Conservative in Congress, Conservative Digest, 1980, 1981; NC Public Ser- 
vice Award, 1980; National Man of the Year in Politics, Christian Voice, 1980; 
Legislator of the Year, Christians for a Better America, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hayes Barton Baptist Church, Raleigh. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Jane Coble, October 31, 1942. Children: Jane (Helms) 
Knox, Nancy (Helms) Stuart and Charles. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Minority Leader: Foreign Relations Committee. 
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee. 

Rules Committee. 

Ethics Committee. 



230 



Nor i ii (' \koi in \ M am \i 







The United States Congress 231 

TERRY SANFORD 

(Democrat) 



Early Years: Born in Laurinburg, Scotland County, August 20, 1917, to Cecil and 
Elizabeth (Martin) Sanford. 

Education: Presbyterian Junior College; University of N.C., A.B., 1939; University of 
N.C., J.D., 1946. 

Professional Background: President Emeritus, Duke University, 1985; U.S. Senator, 
1986; President, Duke University 1969-85; Attorney, 1965-86; Public Governor, 
American Stock Exchange, 1977-83; Director, Cadmus Communications Corpora- 
tion, 1979-86; Fuqua Industries, 1982-86; ITT Corporation, 1976-86; Prudential- 
Bache Mutual Funds, 1983-86; Golden Coral Corporation 1984-86. 

Organizations: The Conference Board, 1983; Board of N.C. Outward Bound, 1981; 
Chairman, Center for National Policy, 1981-82; Chairman, American Council of 
Young Political Leaders, 1976-86; Member, Council on Foreign Relations; Member, 
Board of National Municipal League; Former Member, Southern Regional Education 
Board, 1961-65; Founder, Southern Growth Policies Board, 1971; Chairman Appal- 
achian Community Service Network, 1980-86; Former Member, Americans for Clean 
Air and Water, 1983-86; Director, National Urban League, 1972-75. 

Boards: Trustee, Methodist College; Board of Advisors, University of N.C. School of 
Public Health; Member, Board of National Humanities Center; Former Member, 
Carnegie Commission on Educational Television, 1965-67; Trustee, National Council 
on Crime and Delinquency, 1969-86. 

Political Activities: U.S. Senator 1986 (elected to fill the unexpired term of Senator John 
East; elected to a full term on same date); Governor of N.C, 1961-65; N.C. State 
Senator, 1953-55; Chairman, Democratic Charter Commission, 1972-74; President 
N.C. Young Democratic Clubs, 1949-50; Member-Secretary-Treasurer, N.C. State 
Ports Authority, 1950-53. 16Political Achievements: As Governor, created Commun- 
ity College and Technical Institue System; created Governor's School; the Learning 
Institute of N.C; the N.C. School of the Arts; "The North Carolina Fund"; Estab- 
lished the first State Arts Council: Comprehensive Public School Improvement; 
created the Atomic Energy Safety Commission; led in reforming the N.C. Court 
System; created the N.C. Good Neighbor Council; established first Commission on the 
Status of Women. 

Military Service: U.S. Army, First Lieutenant, Parachute Infantry, 1942-46; N.C. 
National Guard, 1948-60; Special Agent, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1941-42; 
Active Duty, 1942-46; Reserves, 1948-60; Five Battle Stars; The Bronze Star; The 
Purple Heart; The Combat Infantryman Badge; The Presidential Unit Citation. 

Honors: Distinguished Eagle Scout; Boy Scouts Silver Beaver Award; Golden Key 
Award, 1967; Torch of Liberty Award, 1967; N.C. Award, 1970; The Brotherhood 
Award 1972; National Education Association Friend of Education Award, 1975; N.C. 
Citizens Association, 1979; Council of State School Officers, 1 98 1 ; Elected to National 
Academy of Public Administration, 1986. 



232 Nor hi Carolina Manuai 

Religious Activities:Member, limit) Avenue United Methodist Church. 
Familiy: Married Margaret Rose Knight, of Hopkinsville, July 1942. Children: Terry Jr. 
and Betsee. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Banking Committee 

Budget Committee 

Foreign Relations Committee 

Ethics Committee 



The United States Congress 



233 



THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Speaker of the House 

Jim Wright, (Texas) 

Clerk of the House 

Donn Anderson 



Majority Leader 

Thomas S. Foley (Washington) 

Majority Whip 

Tony Coehlo (California) 



Minority Leader 

Robert H. Michel (Illinois) 

Majority Whip 

Trent Lott (Mississippi) 



REPRESENTATIVES FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

Walter B. Jones (First District) 

1. T. Valentine, Jr. (Second District) 

H. Martin Lancaster (Third District) 

David E. Price (Fourth District) 

Stephen L. Neal (Fifth District) 

J. Howard Coble (Sixth District) 

Charles G. Rose (Seventh District) 

W. G. Hefner (Eighth District) 

J. Alex McMillan (Nineth District) 

T. Cass Ballenger (Tenth District) 

James M. Clarke (Eleventh District) 

STANDING COMMITTEES 



Agriculture 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 

Budget 

District of Columbia 

Education and Labor 

Energy and Commerce 

Foreign Affairs 

Government Operations 

House Administration 



Interior and Insular Affairs 

Judiciary 

Merchant Marine and Fisheries 

Post Office and Civil Service 

Public Works and Transportation 

Rules 

Science and Technology 

Small Business 

Standards of Official Conduct 

Veterans' Affairs 

Ways and Means 



SELECT COMMITTEES 



Aging 



Intelligence Narcotics Abuse and Control 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES 



Economy 



Aging 

JOINT COMMITTEES 

Library Printing 



Taxation 



234 



North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 235 

WALTER BEAMAN JONES 

(Democrat -- First Congressional District) 

(Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Carteret, Chowan, Craven, Currituck, Dare, 
Gates, Greene, Hertford, Hyde, Lenoir, Martin, Northampton, Pamlico, 
Pasquotank, Perquimans, Pitt, Tyrrell, and Washington Counties) 



Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, Cumberland County, August 19, 1913, to Walter G. 

and Fannie M. (Anderson) Jones. 
Education: Elise Academy, 1926-1930; NC State College, 1934, B.S. (Education). 
Professional Background: Office equipment dealer. 

Organizations: Masonic Lodge; Scottish Rite; Rotary Club (President, 1949); Loyal 
Order of Moose; Junior Order; Elks Lodge. 

Boards & Commissions: Director, Farmville Savings & Loan Association. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
1966 in a special election to finish the unexpired term of Herbert C. Bonner, who 
had died; elected to full term, November, 1966; reelected in each subsequent general 
election — now serving his 10th term); member, NC Senate, 1965-66; member, NC 
House of Representatives, 1955-1959; Mayor, Town of Farmville 1949-53; Judge, 
Farmville Recorder's Court, 1949-53; Commissioner, Town of Farmville, 1947-49 
(Mayor Pro Tern, 1947-49). 

Religious Activities: Baptist; Deacon, 1945-. 

Family: Married, Elizabeth Fischer, November 7, 1984. Children: Dot Dee (Jones) 
Moye and Walter B., II. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman, Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee. 

Agriculture Committee. 
(Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Peanuts and Tobacco.) 



236 



NOkiii Carolina Manual 











The United States Congress 237 

ITIMOUS THADDEUS VALENTINE, JR. 

(Democrat -- Second Congressional District) 

(Caswell, Durham, Edgecombe, Granville, Halifax, Johnston (part), 
Nash, Person, Vance, Warren, and Wilson Counties) 



Early Years: Born in Nashville, Nash County, March 15, 1926, to Itimous T. and 
Hazel Valentine. 

Education: The Citadel, 1948, A.B. (Political Science); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of 
Law, 1952, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney (senior member, firm of Valentine, Adams & 
Lamar). 

Organizations: Nash-Edgecombe, Seventh Judicial, NC and American Bar Associa- 
tions (former President, Nash-Edgecombe Bar); NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
former Master, Morning Star Lodge No. 85, A.F.&A.M.; former President: Nash- 
ville Lions Club, Nashville Jaycees and Nashville Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Courts Commission; former Trustee, Nash General 
Hospital. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1982; reelected, 1984 and 1986 now serving his 3rd term); member, NC 
House of Representatives, 1955-56, 1957, 1959; Chairman, NC Democratic Execu- 
tive Committee, 1966-68; Legislative Counsel, Governor Dan K. Moore, 1967; 
Legal Advisor, Governor Dan K. Moore, 1965. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1944-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Nashville Baptist Church; former Chairman, Board of 
Deacons. 

Family: Married, Elizabeth Salyer Carr of Rocky Mount. Children: Stephen M., Mark 
L., Philip C and Anna E. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Public Works and Transportation Committee. 

(Subcommittee on Aviation.) 

(Subcommittee on Water Resources.) 

Science and Technology Committee. 

(Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture, Research and Environment.) 

(Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology.) 

(Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production.) 



238 



North Carolina Manual 





The United States Congress 239 

H. MARTIN LANCASTER 

(Democrat-Third Congressional District) 

(Bladen, Duplin, Harnett, Johnston (part), Jones, Lee, Moore (part), Onslow, 
Pender, Sampson, and Wayne Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Patetown, Wayne County, March 24, 1943, to Harold W. and Eva 
Madena (Pate) Lancaster. 

Education: Pikeville High School, 1948-61; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1965, A.B.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, Law School, 1967, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney 

Organizations: Wayne County, 8th Judicial District, NC and American Bar Associations; 
Mason; Shriner; Elk; Goldsboro Kiwania; NC Society for Historic Preservation. 

Boards: Advisory Board, Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, 1984; Board of Governors, NC 
Bar Association, 1984; Chairman, NC Arts Council, 1977-81; Chairman, Wayne 
County Public Library, 1979-80; Chairman, Wayne County Chapter, American Red 
Cross, 1978-79; Chairman, Goldsboro-Wayne County Bicentennial Commission, 
1975-76; President, Goldsboro Community Arts Council, 1973-74; President, Wayne 
Community Concert Association, 1972-73. 

Political Activities: Member, U.S. House of Representatives, 1987- (Elected November 4, 
1986); N.C. House of Representatives, 1979-1986 (4 terms). 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1967-1970 (Lieutenant); Air Force Reserves, 1971- 
1982 (Major); Naval Reserves, 1982-(Commander). 

Honors: Valand Award, NC Mental Health Association, 1985; NC Crime and Justice 
Award, Governor's Crime Commission, 1984; Outstanding Legislator Award, NC 
Association of School Counselors, 1983; Outstanding Legislator Award, NC Academy 
of Trial Lawyers, 1981; Distinguished Service Award, Goldsboro Jaycees, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Elder, 1980-; Deacon, 1972-75. 

Family: Married, Alice Matheny, May 31, 1975. Children: Ashley Elizabeth and Mary 
Martin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Small Business 

Public Works and Transportation Committee 

(Subcommittee on Surface Transportation) 

(Subcommittee on Public Buildings Grounds and Investigations) 

(Subcommittee on Oversight) 



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The United States Congress 241 

DAVID EUGENE PRICE 

(Democrat-Fourth Congressional District) 
(Chatham, Franklin, Orange, Randolph and Wake Counties) 



Early Years: Born in Johnson City, Washington County, on August 17, 1940, to Albert 
and Elna (Harrell) Price. 

Educational Background: Unicoi County High School; Mars Hill College; UNC at 
Chapel Hill, BA, 1961; Yale University, BD, 1964, PhD, 1969. 

Professional Background: Professor of Political Science and Public Policy, Duke Univer- 
sity, 1973-86; Assistant Professor of Political Science and American Studies, Yale 
University, 1969-73; American Political Science Association; Society for Values in 
Higher Education. 

Organizations: Chapel Hill Kiwanis Club. 

Political Activities: U.S. Representative; N.C. Democrat Party, Chairman, 1983- 
84;Executive Director, 1979-80; Commission on Presidental Nomination, Democratic 
National Committee; Staff Director, 1981-82; Legislative Aide, Senator E. L. Bartlett, 
D. -Alaska, 1963-67; Democratic National Committee, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, Binkley Memorial Baptist; Moderator; Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Married, Lisa Beth Kanwit of Fairfax, July 27, 1968. Children: Karen and 
Michael. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs Committee. 

Science, Space and Technicology Committee. 

Small Business Committee. 



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The United States Congress 243 

STEPHEN LYBROOK NEAL 

(Democrat-Fifth Congressional District) 

(Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Forsyth, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry and Wilkes 
Counties) 



Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, November 7, 1934, to Charles 
Herbert and Mary Martha (Lybrook) Neal. 

Education: University of California at Santa Barbara; University of Hawaii, 1959, 
A.B. (Pscyhology). 

Professional Background: Former mortgage banker and newspaper publisher (Presi- 
dent and publisher. Community Press, Inc.) 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation; Board of Advi- 
sors, Babcock Graduate School of Management; President, Sunbelt Research Coa- 
lition; National Board of Advisors, Straight, Inc.; Washington Policy Council, 
International Management Development Institute. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to the US House of Representa- 
tives, November, 1974; reelected in each subsequent general election — now serving 
his 6th term); Chairman, Congressional Sunbelt Council; Congressional Rural 
Caucus; Congressional Textile Caucus; Export Task Force; Agricultural Exports 
Task Force; Democratic Trade Task Force; Conservative Democratic Forum; 
Travel and Tourism Caucus; Congressional Advisory Committee of the Tax Lim- 
itation Committee; Military Reform Caucus; Environmental and Energy Study 
Conference; Congressional Arts Caucus; Congress for Peace through Law; United 
Democrats of Congress; Congressional Alcohol Fuels Caucus; Congressional Clear- 
inghouse on the Future; Democratic Study Group. 

Significant Achievements: Authored successful bills and amendments to: prevent the 
damming of the New River; create Solar Energy Bank; avail Urban Development 
Action grants to "pockets of poverty", including Winston-Salem and other 5th Dis- 
trict cities; save the furniture industry $19.5 billion in meeting flammability stand- 
ards; postpone the building of 21 MX missiles, 1984-85. As a fiscal conservative, 
introduced bills to freeze federal spending and require a balanced budget. 

Religious Activities: Presbyterian. 

Family: Married, Rachel Landis Miller, June 6, 1963. Children: Mary Piper and Ste- 
phen L., Jr. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs Committee. 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on International Finance. 

Trade and Monetary Policy.) 

(Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy.) 

(Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage.) 

(Subcommittee on Government Information, Justice and Agriculture.) 

(Subcommittee on Legislation and National Security.) 



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The United States Congress 245 

JOHN HOWARD COBLE 

(Republican -- Sixth Congressional District) 
(Alamance, Davidson, and Guilford Counties) 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, March 18, 1931, to Joe Howard 
and Johnnie E. (Holt) Coble. 

Education: Alamance High School, 1949; Appalachian State University, 1950; Guil- 
ford College, 1958, A.B. (History); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1962, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney (member, firm of Turner, Enochs & Sparrow, 

1979-83). 
Organizations: Greensboro, NC and NC State Bar Associations; American Legion; 
Lions Club; Veterans of Foreign Wars of the US. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1984); member, NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84; Secretary, NC Department of Revenue, 1973-76; Assistant US Attorney, 
US Middle District, 1969-73. 

Military Service: Served, US Coast Guard and US Coast Guard Reserves, 1952-; 
Commanding Officer, Wilmington unit. 

Religious Activities: Member, Alamance Presbyterian Church. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Judiciary Committee. 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries. 



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The United States Congress 247 

CHARLES GRANDISON ROSE, III 

(Democrat -- Seventh Congressional District) 
(Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, New Hanover and Robeson Counties) 



Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, August 10, 1939, to Charles G. and Frances (Duck- 
worth) Rose. 

Education: Fayetteville High School, 1957; Davidson College, 1969, B.A.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1964, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: Cumberland County and NC State Bar Associations. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1972; reelected in each subsequent general election - now serving his 
8th term); Chief District Court Prosecutor, 12th Judicial District, 1967-70. 

Literary Works: Editor, Davidson College Yearbook. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville; Sunday School 
teacher. 

Family: Married Joan Teague, September 25, 1982. Children: Charles G., IV and Sara 
Louise. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Agriculture Committee. 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on Tobacco and Peanuts.) 

(Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy and Poultry.) 

(Subcommittee on Cotton, Rice and Sugar.) 

(Subcommittee on Wheat, Soybeans and Feed Grains.) 

House Administration Committee. 

(Subcommittee on Elections.) 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on Office Systems.) 

Chairman, Speaker's Advisory Committee on Broadcasting. 



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The United States Congress 249 

W.G. (BILL) HEFNER 

(Democrat-Eighth Congressional District) 

[Anson, Cabarrus, Davie, Hoke, Montgomery, Moore (part), Richmond, 
Rowan, Scotland, Stanly, Union and Yadkin (part) Counties] 

Early Years: Born in Elora, Tennessee, April 1, 1930. 

Professional Background: President, WRKB Radio, Kannapolis; Harvesters Quartet; 
television performer. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1974; reelected in each subsequent general election-now serving his 7th 
term); Congressional Texile Caucus; Conservative Democratic Forum; Deputy 
Majority Whip; Sunbelt Caucus; Democratic Study Group; Congressional Maritime 
Caucus; Clearinghouse of the Future. 

Religious Activities: Member, North Kannapolis Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Nancy Hill of Gadsden, Alabama. Children: Stacy and Shelly. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Appropriations Committee. 

(Subcommittee on Defense.) 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on Military Construction.) 



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t 




The United States Congress 25 i 

ALEX MCMILLAN 

(Republican -- Ninth Congressional District) 
[Iredell, Lincoln, Mecklenburg and Yadkin (part) Counties] 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, May 9, 1932, to J. Alex (deceased) and Mildred Eliza- 
beth (Shepherd) McMillan. 

Education: Woodberry Forest School, 1950; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1954, B.A. (History): 
UVA, 1958, M.B.A. 

Professional Background: President and Chief Executive Officer, Ruddick Corpora- 
tion Officer and Liason, Harris-Teeter Super Markets, Inc.; Secretary, Vice Presi- 
dent, Vice President for Finance and Treasurer, Ruddick Corporation, 1968-83; 
Secretary and Vice President, R.S. Dickson & Company, 1963-70; sales, family 
business in Charlotte; sales and control, Carolina Paper Board Corporation, 
1958-60. 

Organizations: Director, Charlotte City Club, 1981-84; Trustee, Union Theological 
Seminary, 1978-86; Member, University of North Carolina Center for Public 
Broadcasting 1986-, Trustee, Woodberry Forest School, 1978-85; Alumni Board 
(President, 1979-81) and Trustee, Darden School of Business, UVA, 1977-; Board 
of Visitors, Davidson College, 1983-84; Spirit Square Board, 1975-84 (first presi- 
dent); United Community Service Board, 1973-84; Director, Inroads, Inc., 1982-83; 
WTVI Public Television, 1978-83 (first Chairman, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public 
Broadcasting Authority); Director, Greater Charlotte Chamber of Commerce, 
1980-82; Committee Vice Chairman, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 
1978-79; Director, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Arts and Science Council, 1974-79; 
Director, Mecklenburg County Board of Social Services, 1974-77 (Chairman, 1975- 
77); Director, Charlotte Speech and Hearing Center, 1974-77. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1984); Commissioner, Mecklenburg County, 1972-74. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1954-56; Counter-intelligence Corps. 

Religious Activities: Member, Myers Park Presbyterian Church, Charlotte; Elder. 
Mecklenburg Presbyterian Task Force on Hunger, 1975-76. 

Family: Married, Caroline Houston of Greenville, South Carolina, November 21, 
1959. Children: Elizabeth H. and John A., IV. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs Committee. 

Small Business Committee. 

Joint Economic Committee. 

Task Force on Trade and Competitiveness. 



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The United States Congress 253 

THOMAS CASS BALLENGER 

(Republican-Tenth Congressional District) 

[Avery (Part), Burke, Caldwell, Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, and Watauga 
Counties] 

Early Years: Born in Hickory, Catawba County, December 6, 1926, to Richard E.and 
Dorothy (Collins) Ballenger. 

Education: Episcopal High School, 1944; University of N.C. at Chapel Hill, 1944-45; 
Amherst College, 1948, Bachelor of Arts. 

Professional Background: Founder and Chairman of the Board, Plastic Packaging, Inc. 

Organizations: Community Ridge Day Care Center, co-founder; N.C. School of the Arts, 
Sustaining Member; N.C. Symphony, Patron; N.C. Arts Society, Patron; Former 
Member Hickory Rotary Club, Past President; Greater Hickory United Fund, Past 
Chairman. 

Boards: Lenoir Rhyne College Board of Development; Salvation Army, Board of Direc- 
tors; Florence Critton Home, Board of Directors; Greater Hickory Chamber of 
Commerce, Director. 

Political Activities: Member, U.S. House of Representatives; N.C. Senate, 1976-86; N.C. 
House of Representatives, 1974-76; Catawba County Board of Commissioners, 1966- 
74 (Chairman, 1970-74); Advisory Budget Commission; White House Advisory 
Committee; Catawba County Republican Party (Past Chairman); N.C. Republican 
Party, State Executive Committee; Jim Martin for Governor Steering Committee; 
Finance Committee; N.C. Reagan-Bush, 1984, Western Co-Chairman; Former, N.C 
Senate Minority Leader; Former, N.C. GOP Joint Legislative Caucus Leader, N.C. 
Legislative Forum, Co-Founder and Former Chairman. 

Military Service: Airman Cadet, U.S. Navy Air Corps, 1944-45. 

Honors: N.C. County Commissioner of the Year, 1973; Most Effective Republican 
Legislator, 198 1 ; Honorary Volunteer Fireman, Guatemala City 100 % Rating by N.C. 
Conservative Union. 

Religious Activities: Episcopal Church of the Ascension; Past Senior Warden; Lay 
Reader. 

Family: Married Donna Davis, June 14, 1952. Children: Cindy, Missy, and Dorothy. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Education & Labor Committee 

Committee on Labor-Management Relations 

Committee on Health & Safety 

Public Works & TransportationCommittee 

Committee on Aviation 
(Subcommittee on Economic Development) 



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The United States Congress 255 

JAMES MCCLURE CLARKE 

(Democrat-Eleventh Congressional District) 

[Avery (Part), Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, 
Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Madison, Mitchell, Polk, Rutherfor, Swain, 
Transylvania, and Yancey Counties] 



Early Years: Born in Manchester, Vermont, June 12, 1917, to Dumont and Annie Dixon 
(McClure) Clarke. 

Education: Biltmore High School, 1931; Asheville School, 1932-35; Princeton University, 
AB, 1939. 

Professional Background: Farmers Federation Cooperative, 1939-42,1945-59; Asheville 
Citizen Times, 1961-69; Warren Wilson College, 1971-82; James G. K. McClure 
Educational and Development Fund, Trustee and Secretary, 1956-present. 

Organizations: Asheville Civitan Club, member and former president; Trustee, Warren 
Wilson College; Former Member, Memorial Mission Hospital, Trustee; Thorns 
Rehabilitation Hospital, Trustee; Fairview Volunteer Fire Department, Trustee. 

Boards: Former Member, Southeastern Council of Foundations, Trustee; Former 
Member and Former Chairman, N.C. Historic Sites Advisory Commission; Gover- 
nor's Crime Commission, 1978-80. 

Political Activities: Member, U.S. Congress 1983-85, 1987; Member, N.C. House of 
Representatives, 1977-80; Member, N.C. Senate, 1981-82. 

Military: Lieutenant, Senior Grade, 1942-45; Pacific Ribbon. 

Religious Activities: Member, Warren Wilson Presbyterian Church; Former Elder. 

Family: Married, Elspeth McClure of Fairview, February 17, 1945. Children: Susie, 
James, Annie, Dumont, Mark, Ambrose (deceased), William and Douglas. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs 

(Subcommittee on Parks & Public Land) 

(Subcommitte on Energy & Environment) 

(Subcommittee on International & Insular Affairs) 

Foreign Affairs Committee 

(Subcommittee on Arms Control) 

(Subcommittee on Africia) 

Committee on Aging 



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North Carolina Mam ai. 




The Judicial System 257 

Chapter Three 
THE UNITED STATES JUDICIARY 



THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Warren E. Burger Chief Justice Minnesota 

William H. Rehnquist Associate Justice Arizona 

Byron R. White Associate Justice Colorado 

Thurgood Marshall Associate Justice New York 

William J. Brennan, Jr Associate Justice New Jersey 

Harry A. Blackmun Associate Justice Minnesota 

Sandra Day O'Connor Associate Justice Arizona 

John P. Stevens Associate Justice - 

Vacancy 

UNITED STATES FOURTH CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS 

James Dickson Phillips, Jr Judge Chapel Hill 

Sam J. Ervin, III Judge Morganton 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 

Eastern District for North Carolina 

W. Earl Britt Chief Judge Fayetteville 

James C. Fox Judge Wilmington 

John D. Larkins, Jr Senior Judge Trenton 

Franklin T. Dupree, Jr Senior Judge Raleigh 

Samuel T. Currin U.S. Attorney Raleigh 

J. Rich Leonard Court Clerk Raleigh 

Middle District for North Carolina 

Hiram H. Ward Chief Judge Denton 

Richard C. Erwin Judge Winston-Salem 

Frank W. Bullock, Jr Judge Durham 

Eugene A. Gordon Senior Judge Burlington 

Kenneth W. McAllister U.S. Attorney Greensboro 

J. P. Creekmore Court Clerk Greensboro 

Western District for North Carolina 

Robert D. Potter Chief Judge Charlotte 

James B. McMillan Judge Charlotte 

David B. Sentelle Judge Asheville 

Woodrow W. Jones Senior Judge Asheville 

Charles R. Brewer U.S. Attorney Asheville 

Thomas J. McGraw Court Clerk Charlotte 



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The Judicial System 259 



UNITED STATES FOURTH CIRCUIT 
COURT OF APPEALS 

JAMES DICKSON PHILLIPS, JR. 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Scotland County, September 23, 1922, to James Dickson 
(deceased) and Helen (Shepherd) Phillips. 

Education: Davidson College, 1943, B.S., cum laude; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of 
Law, 1945-48, J.D. with honors. 

Professional Background: Judge, US Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit. 

Organizations: NC Bar Association; Director, NC Nature Conservancy; Kappa Sigma. 

Political Activities: Member, Democratic Party. 

Military Services: Served, US Army, 1944-46 (1st Lieutenant); parachute infantry. 

Honors: John J. Parkker Memorial Award; Thomas Jefferson Award; Distinguished 
Alumni Professor Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church; former Elder and Deacon. Mem- 
ber, University Presbyterian Church, Chapel Hill, 1970-76 (Chairman, 1971-74). 
Permanent Judicial Commission, Presbyterian Churches in the US. 

Family: Married, Jean Duff Nanalee, July 16, 1960. Children: Evelyn (Phillips) Perry, 
James Dickson, 111, Elizabeth Duff and Ida Willis. 



SAMUEL JAMES ERVIN, III 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Morganton, Burke County, March 2, 1926, to Samuel James and 
Margaret Bruce (Bell) Ervin, Jr. 

Education: Morganton Public Schools; Morganton High School, 1943; Davidson Col- 
lege, 1948, B.S.; Harvard Lau School, 1951, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, US Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit; Judge, NC Super- 
ior Court, 25th District, 1967-80; legal practice, 1952-67; Solicitor, Burke County 
Criminal Court, 1954-56. 

Organizations: Burke County and NC Bar Associations; Mason. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1965-67. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46, 1951-52 (Colonel); infanty; Judge Advo- 
cate General's Corps. Served, NC Army National Guard, 1955-59. 

Honors: Young Man oj the Year and Distinguished Service Award, Morganton 
Chamber of Commerce, 1954. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Elder; Deacon; Sunday 

School teacher; advisor, Senior High Youth. 
Family: Married, Elizabeth Crawford, October 25, 1952. Children: Samuel James, IV, 

Elizabeth Fore, Robert Crawford and Margaret Bell. 



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North Carolina Mantai. 





The Judicial System 261 

W. EARL BRITT 

CHIEF JUDGE -EASTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in McDonald, Robeson County, December 7, 1932, to Dudley H. 
and Martha Mae (Hall) Britt. 

Education: Rowland High School, 1950; Campbell College, 1950-52; Wake Forest 
University, 1956, B.S.; Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1958, LL.B. 

Organizations: NC and American Bar Associations. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Eastern District. 

Political Activities: Member, Republican Party. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-55 (Corporal). 

Honors: "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and Observer, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, McDonald Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Judith Moore, April 17, 1976. Children: Clifford Paul, Mark Earl 
and Elizabeth Carol. 



JAMES CARROLL FOX 

JUDGE - EASTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Atchison, Kansas, November 6, 1928, to Jared Copeland and 
Ethel (Carroll) Fox. 

Education: Woodberry Forest School, 1946; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1950, B.S. (Business 
Administration); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1957, LL.B. with honors. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Eastern District, 1982-; New 
Hanover County Attorney, 1967-81; partner, firm of Murchison, Fox & Newton, 
1960- (associate, 1958-59). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and American Bar Associations; NC Academy of Trial 
Lawyers; Wilmington Civitan; legal advisor, NC Jazz Fetival, Inc.; Director, New 
Hanover Workshop; Director, First Union Bank, 1974- (Chairman, 1982-83). 

Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1951-59 (Corporal); honorable discharge. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. James Episcopal Church. Wilmington; Senior Warde, 
1979-82; Vestryman, 1974-75. 

Family: Married, Katharine deRosset Rhett of Wilmington, December 30, 1950. 
Children: James C, Jr., Jane Haskell (Fox) Brown and Ruth Rhett (Fox) Jordan. 



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North Carolina Manual 




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The Judicial System 263 

JOHN DAVIS LARKINS, JR. 

SENIOR JUDGE - EASTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Morristown, Tennessee, June 8, 1909 to Charles H. and Mamie 
(Dorsett) Larkins; foster son of John Davis and Emma Cooper Larkins. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 1929, B.A.; Wake Forest University, School of 
Law, 1929-30. 

Professional Background: Senior US District Judge, Eastern District. 

Organizations: NC, American and Federal Bar Associations. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1941; President Pro 
Tern, 1943, 1949, 1951, 1953; Chairman and Secretary, State Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1952, 1954, 1956, 1958; National Committeeman, 1958, 1960. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945 (Private). 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, American Cancer Society; Distinguished 
Alumni Award, Wake Forest University. 

Religious Activities: Baptist; former Chairman, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Pauline A. Murrell, March 13, 1930. Children: Emma Sue (Larkins) 
Loften and Paulene (Larkins) Bearden. 



FRANKLIN TAYLOR DUPREE, JR. 

SENIOR JUDGE - EASTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Angier, Harnett County, October 18, 1913, to Franklin T. and 

Elizabeth Mason (Wells) Dupree. 
Education: Angier High School, 1925-28; Campbell College High School, 1928-29; 

UNC-Chapel Hill, 1933, A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1936, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, 1970-. 

Organizations: Wake County, NC and American Bar Association; American Judica- 
ture Society; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 

Political Activities: Member, Republican Party. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1943-46 (Lieutenant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Hayes Barton Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Rosalyn Dupree, December 30, 1939. Children: Elizabeth (Dupree) 
Dement and Nancy (Dupree) Miller. 



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The Judicial System 265 

HIRAM HAMILTON WARD 

CHIEF JUDGE- MIDDLE DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born irt Thomasville, Davidson County, April 29, 1923, to O. L. Ward 
and Margaret A. (Lowdermilk) Ward. 

Education: Denton High School; Wake Forest University; Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1950, J. D. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Middle District, 1972-. 

Organizations: American and NC Bar Associations; American Judicature Society; 
Mason; Phi Alpha Delta; Trustee, Wingate College. 

Political Activities: Member, Democratic Party; NC State Board of Elections, 1964-72; 
Chairman, Federal Land Condemnation Commission, 1964-65. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1940-45 (Lieutenant Colonel); pilot; Civil Air 
Patrol. 

Religious Activities: Member Baptist Church; Deacon, Sunday School teacher. Liberty 
Baptist Association. 

Family: Married, Evelyn McDaniel, June 1, 1947. Children: William M. and James 
Randolph. 



RICHARD CANNON ERWIN 
JUDGE - MIDDLE DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Marion, August 23, 1923, to John Adams and Flora (Cannon) 
Erwin. 

Education: McDowell County Public Schools; Johnson C. Smith University, 1947, 

B.A.; Howard University, School of Law, 1951, LL.B. 
Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Middle District; attorney, firm of 

Erwin and Beaty. 

Organizations: Forsyth County (former President) and NC State Bar Associations; Bar 

of the US Supreme Court; Kappa Alpha Psi. 
Political Activities: Judge, NC Court of Appeals, 1977-80; member, NC House of 

Representatives, 1975-77. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945-46 (1st Sergeant). 

Honors: Silver Cup, Citizens Coalition of Forsyth County, 1974. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Paul's United Methodist Church; National Metho- 
dist Layman. 

Family: Married, Demerice Whitley, August 25, 1946. Children: Arelia Whitley and 
Richard Cannon, Jr. 



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Nor hi Carolina Maniwi. 




The Judicial System 267 

EUGENE ANDREW GORDON 

SENIOR JUDGE - MIDDLE DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Brown Summitt, July 10, 1917, to Charles Robert and Carrie 
(Scott) Gordon. 

Education: Elon College, 1939, A.B.; Duke University, School of Law, 1941, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Chief Judge, US District Court, Middle District, 1964-. 

Organizations: NC, American and Federal Bar Associations; American Judicature 
Society; Phi Delta Phi. 

Political Activities: Member, Democratic Party. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-46 (Captain); field artillery. 

Religious Activities: Member. Starmount Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Virginia Stoner, January 1, 1943. Children: Eugene Andrew and 
Rosemary Ann. 



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The Judicial System 269 

ROBERT D. POTTER 

CHIEF JUDGE - WESTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Wilmington, April 4, 1924. 

Education: New Hanover High School, 1938-40; Duke University, 1940-43, 1947, A.B. 
(Chemistry); Duke University, 1947-50, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Chief Judge, US District Court, Western District, 1984-; 
Judge, US District Court, Western District, 1981-84; legal practice, 1951-81. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945-46 (2nd Lieutenant); infantry. 

Family: Married, Kathleen Neilson, February 13, 1954. Children: Robert D., Jr., Mary 
Louise and Catherine Ann. 



JAMES BRYAN McMILLAN 

JUDGE WESTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Goldsboro, December 19, 1916, to Robert Hunter and Sarah 
(Outlaw) McMillan. 

Education: Lumberton Public Schools; Presbyterian Junior College (now St. Andrews), 
1932-34, A.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1937, M.A.; Harvard Law School, 1940, J.D. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Western District. 

Organizations: Mecklenburg County (President, 1957-58), NC, NC State and Ameri- 
can Bar Associations; American Judicature Society; Omicron Delta Kappa; Order 
of the Golden Fleece. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1942-45. 

Literary Works: Author of numerous case opinions and orders. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Ruling Elder, 1963-71, 1975-; 

former Treasurer and Deacon. 
Family: Married, Margaret Blair Miles, February 27, 1944. Children: James Bryan, Jr. 

and Marjorie Miles (McMillan) Rodell. 



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North Carolina Manual 



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The Judicial System 271 

DAVID B. SENTELLE 

JUDGE — WESTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Haywood County, February 12, 1943. 

Education: Buncombe County, Enka High School, 1961; University of North Caro- 
lina, B.A. Political Science, 1965; University of North Carolina Law School, J.D. 
with honors, 1968. 

Professional Background: Attorney, 1968-70; Assistant U.S. Attorney, 1970-74; N.C. 
District Judge, 1974-77; Private Practice, 1977-85; U.S. District Court Judge, West- 
ern District of N.C, 1985-present. 

Organizations: Member, Excelsior Masonic Lodge #261; Scottish Rite Masonic Bodies; 
member. Oasis Temple of the Shrines; past member, past chairman, UNC Young 
Americans for Freedom; Southern Lions Club. 

Boards: Counsel to the Board of Directors, Lions Charities, Inc.; counsel to the Board 
of Directors, U.S. Open Jumping Championship; Board of Directors, Open House 
Drug Counseling Center; Chairman, Board of Advisers, Charlotte Treatment Facil- 
ity for Women; Board of Directors, United Christian Prison Ministries; Centralina 
Council of Governments-Criminal Justice Commission; Mayor's Commission on 
Criminal Justice. 

Political Activities: Mecklenburg County Republicans Men's Club; Mecklenburg 
County Republican Party (Recruitment Chairman, 1978-79; Chairman, 1979-80) 
Chairman, N.C. Republican Convention, 1979-80; Alternate, National Republican 
Convention, 1984; District Chairman, Citizens for America, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church of Asheville; Adult Sunday School 
Teacher; past Mission Action Chairman, 1975; Adult Sunday School Teacher, 
1971-75. 

Family: Married, Jane Oldham Sentelle. Children: Sharon, Reagan and Rebecca. 



WOODROW WILSON JONES 

SENIOR JUDGE WESTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Rutherford County, January 26, 1914, to Bernard B. and Karl 
Jane (Nanney) Jones. 

Education: Rutherford County Public Schools, 1920-32; Mars Hill College, 1934, 
A.S.; Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1937, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Western District, 1967-. 

Organizations: Rutherford County (President, 1946), NC and American Bar Associa- 
tions; Trustee, Gardner-Webb College; Rutherfordton Chamber of Commerce 
(former Director); former President, Rutherfordton Kiwanis Club. 

Political Activities: NC Democratic Executive Committee, 1938-60; member, NC 
House of Representatives, 1947-49; Solicitor, Recorder's Court, Rutherford County. 
1941-43. 

Honors: Outstanding Service Citation, Gardner-Webb College, 1965; Outstanding 
Service Award, Rutherfordton Lions Club, 1950. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Rutherfordton; teacher; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Rachel Phelps, November 22, 1936. Children: W. Wilson, Jr. and 
Michael A. 



PART V 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE 

GOVERNMENT 



274 



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I I 



The Legislative Branch 275 

Chapter One 

THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



The general assembly is the oldest governmental body in North Carolina. According 
to tradition a "legislative assembly of free holders" met sometime in 1666; however, 
there is no extant proof that such a meeting took place. Actual provisions for a repre- 
sentative assembly did not exist prior to the adoption of the Concessions and Agree- 
ments of 1665. Then an unicameral body composed of the governor, his council, and 
"twelve men . . . chosen annually" sat as a legislature. This system of representation pre- 
vailed until 1670 when Albemarle County was divided in three "precincts" - Berkely, 
Carteret and Shaftsbury. At that time each precinct was apparently allowed five repre- 
sentatives. Around 1682, four new precincts were created from the original three as 
population and western expansion increased. The number of representatives allowed 
new precincts was usually two, although some had more. Beginning with the Assembly 
of 1723, some of the larger, more important towns were allowed representatives. Eden- 
ton was the first, followed by Bath, New Bern, Wilmington, Brunswick, Halifax, 
Cambellton (now Fayetteville), Salisbury, Hillsborough and Tarborough (now Tar- 
boro). By the middle of the eighteenth century, the term "precinct" had been replaced 
by "county" in reference to the geographical subdivisions. 

The unicameral form of the legislature continued until around 1697 when a bicameral 
form was adopted. The "upper house" was composed of the governor, or chief execu- 
tive at the time, and his council; the elected "precinct" representative sat as the "lower 
house" or "House of Burgesses." The lower house could adopt its own rules of pro- 
cedure and elect its own speaker and other officers; however, it could meet only when 
the governor called it into session and only at a location designated by him. This did not 
prove a disadvantage since the lower house had "the power of the purse." As a result, 
the governor usually called them into session at least once during a biennium, and 
usually more often, in order that he might be paid his salary. Throughout the colonial 
period, this "power of the purse" was a source of constant controversy between the 
governor and the lower house, and the house used it effectively to increase its influence 
and prestige. 

In 1776, when our first State Constitution was adopted, the effects of the executive- 
legislative conflicts of the colonial period were reflected in its provisions. The legislature 
was the primary organ of state government with control over all phases of government. 
Its most important power was its power to elect all officials in the executive and judicial 
branches. This was done by joint ballot of the members of the two houses. This con- 



276 North Carolina Manual 



tinned until 1X35 when the governor became a popularly elected official; however, it was 
not until 1868 that the remaining executive officials and the judiciarj were popularly 
elected. 

The Constitution ol' 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature, both elected by the 
people. The senate was composed o\' one representative from each county, and the 
house o\~ commons was composed of two representatives from each county, one from 
each town listed in the Constitution. This arrangement continued until 1835 when 
several amendments were adopted affecting the general assembly. The membership of 
the senate was set at fifty and the state was divided into districts with representation 
based on the population of the district. The membership of the house of commons was 
set at 120 with representation based on the population of the county in accordance with 
provisions set forth in the amendment; however, each county was entitled to at least one 
representative. Provisions were made so that future representation would be based on 
the federal census taken every ten years. 

In 1868, a new constitution was adopted which changed the name of the "house of 
commons" to the "house of representatives" and eliminated the previously unfair 
"property qualifications" for holding office. Also the current organizational structure 
with the lieutenant governor as president of the senate and provisions for the election of 
a president pro tempore came into existance. 

In 1966, the house of representatives adopted a district setup similar to that used by 
the senate. Today, the general assembly is the legislative branch of state government. It 
is equal with, but independent of, the executive and judicial branches. The legislative 
body is composed of two chambers, the senate and the house of representatives, which 
convene in odd-year biennial sessions on the first Wednesday after the second Monday 
in January. (By parliamentary means, the general assembly may divide the biennal ses- 
sion into annual segments.) (The senate has fifty members and the house has 120 mem- 
bers, all of whom are elected biennially from districts containing approximately equal 
populations.) However, one of the distinct disadvantages of the district system, par- 
ticularly as it relates to the house of representatives, is that an increasingly large number 
of counties are without a "resident" legislator. 

In 1982, a constitutional amendment was approved by the voters of North Carolina 
setting January 1, following the November general election as the date legislator, offi- 
cially took office. 

As the legislative branch of government, the general assembly has three major func- 
tions: to enact general and local laws governing the affairs of the state, to provide and 
allocate funds for operating the government by enacting tax and appropriation laws, 
and to conduct investigations into such operations of the state as it deems necessary for 
regulation and funding. The main work of the general assembly is the enactment of sub- 
stantive legislation. 

Much of the legislative work of the general assembly is done in committees composed 
of members of the respective houses. Senate committees are appointed by the lieutenant 
governor, who serves as presiding officer of the senate (president of the senate); house 
committees are appointed by the speaker of the house, who is elected from among the 
membership of the house of representatives. 

Administrative authority for the general assembly is vested in the Legislative Serv- 
ices Commission. The president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker of the 



The Judicial System 277 



house are ex officio chairmen of the Legislative Services Commission; each appoints 
six members from his respective house to serve on the commission. The Legislative 
Services Commission employs a legislative services officer as chief staff officer, a di- 
rector of fiscal research to deal with money matters, and a director of research to 
handle all other informational needs. The Legislative Research Commission is 
separated from the Legislative Services Commission, and its authority is limited to re- 
search projects. Again, the president pro tempore and the speaker are ex ojjicio chair- 
men of the Legislative Research Commission; each appoints five members to sit on 
this commission. 

The staff and elective officers of the general assembly assist the membership in ac- 
complishing legislative tasks. The Legislative Services Commission is responsible for 
general and fiscal research, disbursing supplies and materials, production and storage 
of legislative documents, personnel management, supervision and maintenance of the 
legislative building, contracting for services, and payment of accounts. The commis- 
sion employs a staff, directed by the legislative services officer, to carry out these func- 
tions. The Legislative Research Commission produces extensive study documents and 
drafts legislation for consideration by the general assembly. Special study commissions 
are set up to investigate difficult or technical subjects for later reports to the legisla- 
ture. In addition, standing committees of the general assembly have been authorized 
to meet during interim periods to carry on committee business and to conduct related 
studies. The Legislative Services Commission provides, or arranges, for staff assistance 
to the Legislative Research Commission and standing committees and coordinates 
staff work with the special commissions. 



278 



North Carolina Manuai , 






PRESIDE/^ 




The Legislative Branch 279 

1987 NORTH CAROLINA SENATE 

Officers 

President Robert B. Jordan, III 

President Pro Tern J. J. Harrington 

Majority Leader Anthony E. Rand 

Minority Leader Laurence A. Cobb 

Principal Clerk Sylvia M. Fink 

Reading Clerk LeRoy Clark, Jr. 

Sergeant-at-Arms Gerda Pleasants 

Senators 

Name County Dist. Address Seat 

Allran, Austin M. (R) Catawba 26th Hickory 41 

Barker, William H Pamlico 3rd Oriental 34 

Barnes, Henson P Wayne 8th Goldsboro 4 

Basnight, Marc Dare 1st Manteo 28 

Block, Franklin L New Hanover 7th Wrightsville Beach 15 

Bryan, Howard 1 (R) Iredell 26th Statesville 42 

Cobb, Laurence A. (R) Mecklenburg 35th Charlotte 38 

Conder, J. Richard Richmond 17th Rockingham 1 1 

Daniel, George B Caswell 21st Yanceyville 33 

Ezzell, James E., Jr Nash 10th Rocky Mount 45 

Goldston, William D., Jr Rockingham 24th Eden 31 

Guy, Alexander D Onslow 4th Jacksonville 26 

Hardison, Harold W Lenoir 5th Deep Run 8 

Harrington, J. J Bertie 2nd Lewiston-Woodville 25 

Harris, J. Ollie Cleveland 25th Kings Mountain 2 

Hipps, Charles W Haywood 29th Waynesville 13 

Hunt, Ralph A Durham 1 3th Durham 30 

Hunt, Wanda H Moore 1 6th Pinehurst 17 

Johnson, James C, Jr. (R) Cabarrus 22nd Concord 36 

Johnson, Joseph E Wake 14th Raleigh 16 

Kaplan, Ian Theodore Forsyth 20th Lewisville 22 

Kincaid, Donald R. (R) Caldwell 27th Lenoir 39 

Martin, Robert L Pitt 6th Bethel 29 

Martin, William N Guilford 31st Greensboro 10 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne Gaston 25th Gastonia 23 

McDuffie, James D. (R) Mecklenburg 34th Charlotte 37 

Parnell, David R Robeson 30th Parkton 27 

Plyler, Aaron W Union 17th Monroe 21 

Rand, Anthony E Cumberland 12th Fayetteville 

Rauch, Marshall A Gaston 25th Gastonia I 

Redman, Wm. W., Jr. : (R) Iredell 26th Statesville 42 

Richardson, James F Mecklenburg 33rd Charlotte 14 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr Durham 13th Durham 46 

Sands, Alexander P., Ill Rockingham 24th Reidsville 19 

Seymour, Mary P Guilford 32nd Greensboro 18 

Shaw, Robert G. (R) Guilford 19th Greensboro 43 

Sherron, Jim Kemp Wake I4th Raleigh 48 

Simpson, Daniel R. (R) Burke 27th Morganton 40 

Smith, Paul S. (R) Rowan 23rd Salisbury 44 

Soles, Robert C, Jr Columbus 18th Tabor City 5 

Somers, Robert Vance (R) Rowan 23rd Salisbury 35 

Speed, James D Franklin 1 1th Louisburg 9 

Staton, William W Lee 14th Sanford 20 



280 North Carolina Mam ai 



Swam. Robert S Buncombe 28th Asheville 24 

raft, I homas 1 Pitt 9th Greenville 47 

I ally. I uia S Cumberland 12th Fayetteville 49 

1 homas. Royce Phelps Henderson 29th Hendersonville 32 

Walker. Russell (i Randolph 16th Asheboro 6 

Waul. Marvin M Forsyth 20th Winston-Salem 50 

Wai i en. Robert 1) lohnston 15th Benson 3 

Winner. Dennis .1 Buncombe 28th Asheville 12 



'Bryan was appointed March I I, 1987, by Governor Martin to replace Redman. 
-'Redman resigned March 11, 1987, following confirmation of his appointment to the N.C. 
Utilities Commission. 



The Legislative Branch 281 



SPEAKERS OF THE SENATE 

Assembly Senator Residence 

1777 Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

1778 Whitmel Hill Martin 

Allen Jones Northampton 

1779 Allen Jones Northampton 

Abner Nash Jones 

1780 Abner Nash Jones 

Alexander Martin Guilford 

1781 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1782 Alexander Martin Guilford 

Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1783 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (April) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (October) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1785 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1786-87 James Coor Craven 

1787 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1788 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1789 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

Charles Johnston Chowan 

1790 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1791-92 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1792-93 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1793-94 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1794-95 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1795 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1796 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1797 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1798 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1799 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1800 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1801 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1802 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1803 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1804 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1805 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1806 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1807 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1808 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1809 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1810 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1811 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1812 George Outlaw Bertie 

1813 George Outlaw Bertie 

1814 George Outlaw Bertie 

1815 John Branch Halifax 

1816 John Branch Halifax 

1817 John Branch Halifax 

Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1818 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1819 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1820 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1821 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1822 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 



!82 North Carolina Mam \i 



Assembly Senator Residence 

1823-24 Bartlett Yance> Caswell 

1824-25 Bartlett Yancej Caswell 

1825-26 Bartlett Yance) Caswell 

I S26-27 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

Is:~:n Bartlett Yancej Caswell 

1828-29 lesse Speight Greene 

1829-30 Bedford Broun Caswell 

David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1830-31 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1831-32 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1832-33 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1833-34 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1834-35 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1835 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1836-37 Hugh Waddell Orange 

1 S3S-39 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1840-41 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1842-43 Lewis D. Wilson Edgecombe 

1844-45 Burgess S. Gaither Burke 

1846-47 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1848-49 Calvin Graves Caswell 

1850-51 Weldon N. Edwards Warren 

1852 Weldon N. Edwards Warren 

1854-55 Warren Winslow Cumberland 

1856-57 William W. Avery Burke 

1858-59 Henry T. Clark.." Edgecombe 

1860-61 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1862-64 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1864-65 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1865-66 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1866-67 Matthias E. Manly Craven 

Joseph H. Wilson Mecklenburg 



PRESIDENTS PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE* 

Assembly Senator Residence 

1870-72 Edward J. Warren Beaufort 

1872-74 James T. Morehead Guilford 

1874-75 

1876-77 James L. Robinson Macon 

1879-80 William A. Graham Lincoln 

1881 William T. Dorch Buncombe 

1883 

1885 E. T. Bovkin Sampson 

1887 ; 



•With the adoption of a new constitution in IX6X. the office ol "Speaker ol the Senate" ceased to exist A provision in the 
constitution created the office of "lieutenant governor" whose duties and functions were similar to those previouslj carried out b\ 
the speaker. The lieutenant governor presides over the senate and is called "the President ol the Senate" when serving in this 
capacity. The senators also elected one of their own to serve as "President Pro Tempore" during periods when the lieutenant can 
not preside 



The Legislative Branch 283 



Assembly Senator Residence 

1889 [Edwin W. Kerr] Sampson 

1891 William D. Turner Iredell 

1893 John L. King Guilford 

1895 E. L. Franck, Jr Onslow 

1897 . 

1899-1900 R. L. Smith Stanly 

F. A. Whitaker Wake 

1901 Henry A. London Chatham 

1903 Henry A. London Chatham 

1905 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1907-1908 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1909 Whitehead Klutz Rowan 

1911 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1913 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1915 Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland 

1917 Fordyce C. Harding Pitt 

1919-20 Lindsey C. Warren Washington 

1921 William L. Long Halifax 

1923-24 William L. Long Halifax 

1925 William S. H. Burgwyn Northampton 

1927 William L. Long Halifax 

1929 Thomas L. Johnson Robeson 

1931 Rivers D. Johnson Duplin 

1933 William G. Clark Edgecombe 

1935 Paul D. Grady Johnston 

1937-38 Andrew H. Johnston Buncombe 

James A. Bell Mecklenburg 

1939 Whitman E. Smith Stanly 

1941 John D. Larkins, Jr Jones 

1943 John H. Price Rockingham 

1945 Archie C. Gay Northampton 

1947 Joseph L. Blythe Mecklenburg 

1949 James C. Pittman Lee 

1951 Rufus G. Rankin Gaston 

1953 Edwin Pate Scotland 

1955-56 Paul E. Jones Pitt 

1957 Claude Currie Durham 

1959 Robert F. Morgan Cleveland 

1961 William L. Crew Halifax 

1963 Ralph H. Scott Alamance 

1965-66 Robert B. Morgan Harnett 

1967 Herman A. Moore Mecklenburg 

1969 Neill H. McGeachy Cumberland 

1971 Frank N. Patterson, Jr Stanly 

Gordon P. Allen Person 

1973-74 Gordon P. Allen Person 

1975-76 John T. Henley Cumberland 

1977-78 JohnT. Henley Cumberland 

1979-80 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

1981-82 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

1983-84 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

1985-86 J.J. Harrington Bertie 

1987-88 J.J. Harrington Bertie 



?S4 



Nor in Carolina Mam \i 










The Legislative Branch 285 

JOSEPH JULIAN HARRINGTON 

PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE 

(Democrat — Bertie County) 

Second Senatorial District — Bertie (part), Edgecombe (part). Gates (part), Halifax (part), Hert- 
ford, Martin (part). Northampton, and Warren (part) Counties — One Senator. 

Early Years: Born in Lewiston, Bertie County, February 18, 1919, to Julian Picott and 
Ethel Mae (Barnes) Harrington. 

Education: Lewiston-Woodville High School. 
Profession: Retired. 

Organizations: Farm Bureau; David Lodge No. 39; 32nd Degree Scottish Rite; 
Shriner, Sudan Temple. 

Boards & Commissions: Trustee, Chowan College; Director, School of Veterinary 
Medicine, NCSU; former Trustee, Elizabeth City State University. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1963-Present (13 Terms); President ProTem, 
1985-86, 1987-; Executive Committee, Southern Legislative Conference; Legislative 
Organization and Management Committee, National Conference of State Legis- 
latures. 

Military Service: Served, World War 11, 1942-45 (Technical Sergeant). 

Honors: "Tarheel of the Week", The News and Observer, Honorary Attorney, State of 
NC and NC Senate. 

Religious Activities: Member, Lewiston Baptist Church; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Dianne P. Harrington. Children: Robert E., Julian Picott, II and 

Victoria. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

Vice Chairman: Transportation. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Human Resources; Base Budget; 

Finance; Human Resources; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife; 

Pensions and Retirement; Ways and Means; University Board of Governors. 



286 



N ok i ii Carolina Manual 




The Legislative Branch 287 

ANTHONY EDEN RAND 

SENATE MAJORITY LEADER 

(Democrat -- Cumberland County) 
Twelfth Senatorial District — Cumberland County (part) — Two Senators. 

Early Years: Born in Garner, Wake County, September 1, 1939, to Walter and Geneva 
(Yeargan) Rand, Jr. 

Education: Garner High School, 1957; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1961; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
School of Law, 1964. 

Profession: Attorney (partner in firm of Rose, Rand, Ray, Winfrey & Gregory, P.A.) 
Organizations: NC, Cumberland County, DC and American Bar Associations; Ameri- 
can Judicature Society; Association of Trial Lawyers of America; NC Academy of 
Trial Lawyers; Fayetteville Home Builders Association (Director, 1974-80); Associ- 
ation of the US Army; Fayetteville Area Chamber of Commerce; Kiwanis Club; 
Board of Directors, Public School Forum of NC, Inc.; Board of Directors, General 
Alumni Association of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Board of 
Visitors of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Board of Directors, 
Fayetteville Alternatives Sentencing Center. 

Commissions: Cumberland County Auditorium Commission (Chairman, 1983-84; Vice 
Chairman, 1982; Secretary, 1980-81); ABLE Program, Compensatory Education 
Board; Special Activities Committee, Fort Bragg; Governmental Operations Com- 
mission; NC Courts Commission; Fayetteville Family Life Center board; Medical 
Cost Containment Commission, 1982-85; Co-Chairman, Housing Trust Fund Study 
Commission; Co-Chairman, Indigent Health Care Study Commission; Co- 
Chairman, Commission on Salary Schedules for Public School Employees; NC 
Commission on Jobs and Economic Growth. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987- (Senate 
Majority Leader, 1987); Joint Committee on Hospital and Medical Benefits for 
Teachers and State Employees, 1985; Committee on Law and Justice, National 
Conference of State Legislatures, State-Federal Assembly; Executive Committee, 
NC State Democratic Party, 1975-1981; Chairman, Cumberland County Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee, 1977-1981; Legislative Services Commission, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Episcopal Church, Fayetteville; Lay Reader. 

Family: Married, Karen L. Skarda of Chicago, Illinois, May 30, 1981. Children: 
Ripley Eagles and Craven McLean. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Base Budget. 

Vice Chairman: Economic Growth; Judiciary IV. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations; Commerce; Finance; 
Insurance; Rules and Operations of the Senate; Ways and Means. 



2SS 



North Carolina Mamai 




The Legislative Branch 289 

LAURENCE ARTHUR COBB 

SENATE MINORITY LEADER 

(Republican-Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-fifth Senatorial District-Mecklenburg County. 



Early Years: Born in Teaneck, New Jersey, May 20, 1933, to Gardiner and Georgette 
(Robedee) Cobb. 

Education: Freeport High School, 1951; Rutgers University, 1951-52; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1955 (Business Administration, Banking); Washburn University, School of Law, 
1955-57; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1958, J.D. with honors. 

Profession: Attorney (partner in firm of Waggoner, Hamrick, Hasty, Monteith, Kratt, 
Cobb and McDonnell). 

Organizations: Mecklenburg County, N.C. State, N.C. and American Bar Associations 
(Chairman, Public Relations Committee, N.C. Bar); Commercial Law League of 
America (member , fellow) N.C. Association of Trial Lawyers; President and Director, 
Lawyers of N.C, Inc; Director, Alpha Sigma of Chi Psi, Inc.; Charlotte Chamber of 
Commerce; N.C. Citizens for Business and Industry; Former Director, N.C. Chapter 
American Cancer Society; Mecklenburg Chapter, American Cancer Society, Former 
Vice President, Director, Executive Board, Former Crusade Chairman; Kidney 
Foundation of Mecklenburg County (first President, former Director); N.C. Epilepsy 
Association, Former Director; UNC Law School Association, Former Director. 

Boards: Board of Governors, University of N.C, 1977-85; Auditorium-Coliseum-Civic 
Center Authority, City of Charlotte; Former Member, Charlotte Review Commission; 
Committee of 100, Charlotte; UNC-Charlotte Athletic Foundation, Former President 
and Director; Former Chairman, Governors 's Highway Safety Commission; Chair- 
man, Governor's Crime Commission; Citizens Criminal Justice Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate 1985-present, Senate Minority Leader; N.C. 
House of Representatives, 1971-72, 1973-74, 1975-76, former House Minority Leader. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Air Force, 1959-62; Reserves, 1962-present, (Colonel), 

Judge Advocate General Corps. 
Religious Activities: Member, Christ Episcopal Church. 
Family: Married, Edna Faye Pugh of Asheboro, January 30, 1960. Children: Laura and 

Glenn. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chariman: Higher Education 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety; Base Budget; 
Commerce; Election Laws; Juciciary II; State Government. 



290 North Carolina Manual 







AUSTIN Ml RPHY ALERAN 

( Republican-Catawba County) 

I wenty-sixth Senatorial District-Alexander, Catawba, Iredell and Yadkin 
Counties. 



ul 



Early Years: Born in Hickory, Catawba County, December 13, 1951, to Albeit M. and 
Mary Ethel (Houser) Allran. 

Education: Hickory High School, 1970; Duke University. 1974, B.A.; Southern Metho- 
dist University, School of Law, 1978. J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: N.C. State Bar; Catawba County Bar Association; Catawba County 
Chamber of Commerce; Hickory Museum of Art; Catawba County Historic. Associa- 
tion; Duke University Alumni Association; Hickory Landmarks Society. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate 1986; Member, N.C. Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86; Joint Legislative Ethics Committee, 1985-86; Legislative Assistant, 
Governor James Holshouser, 1974; Congressional Intern, Congressman James T. 
Broyhill, 1973; Catawba County, Young Republican Club; Catawba County Men's 
Forum; Appointed, December 30, 1986 by Govenor Martin to replace Cass Ballenger. 

Religious Activities: Member, Corinth Reformed United Church of Christ. Hickory. 

Family: Married, Judy Mosbach, September 27, 1980. Children: Elizabeth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Children and Youth; Finance; Judiciary III; 
Local Government I; Manufacturing and Labor; State Personnel. 



The Legislative Branch 



291 




WILLIAM H. BARKER 

(Democrat-Pamlico County) 

Third Senatorial District-Carteret, Craven, and Pamlico Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Oriental, Pamlico County, April 6, 1944, to Gradon L. and Evelyn 
Neal (Beacham) Barker, Sr. 

Education: Pamlico Countv High School, 1958-62; UNC Chapel Hill, 1968, BA; UNC 
Chapel Hill Law School, 1969, JD. 

Professional Background: Attorney; Farmer; Self-Employed; Craven County Bar 
Association. 

Organizations: Oriental Rotary Club; Masonic Order; Scottish Rite; NC Wildlife Foun- 
dation; NRA, life member; Craven County Commission of 100. 

Boards: Trustee, Craven County College, 1982 to present. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House Senate; Pamlico Democrat Party, chairman, 
1985-86; Delagate to National Convention, 1982. 

Military Service: Served, Navy, SN-2; Reserves, 1962-68. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church, Oriental. 

Family: Married, Jorja L. Davenport, of Oriental, September 1, 1964. Children: Mary, 
Jorja and Virginia. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage; Appropriations; Appropriations-Mutual and Eco- 
nomic Resources; Base Budget; Commerce; Enviromnent; Judiciary II; Pen- 
sions and Retirement; Transportation. 



292 North Carolina Mam \i 




Senator 



HENSON PERRYMOORE BARNES 

(Democrat Wayne County) 

Eighth Senatorial District Greene and Wayne Counties One 



-r Jp 



I 



Early Years: Born in Bladen County, November IS, 1934, to Reverend Lalon L. and 
Mable (Cumbee) Barnes. 

Education: Garland High School. 1953; Wilmington College, 1958, A. A.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1959, A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law. 1961, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney; farm owner. 

Organizations: Wayne County, NC and American Bar Associations; American Trial 

Lawyers Association; Masonic Order; Shrine; Elks; American Legion; Moose 

Lodge; Civitan Club; Woodmen of World. 

Boards & Commissions: Energy Policy Council; Courts Commission; Criminal Code 
Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate. 1977-78, 1979-80. 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 
1987-; NC House of Representatives, 1975-76; Chairman, Wayne County Demo- 
cratic Party; former President, Wayne County Young Democrats. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-56; Paratrooper. 

Honors: Outstanding American Family, 1985; Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters, 

William Carter College, 1979; Robert H. Futrelle Good Government Award, 1975; 

Outstanding Young Man, Goldsboro, 1963. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Goldsboro; Deacon; Sunday 

School Teacher; Budget and Finance Board. 

Family: Married, Kitty Allen Barnes, August 27, 1961. Children: Rebecca and Amy. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary I. 

Yice Chairman: Children and Youth. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations — Natural and Economic 
Resources; Base Budget; Constitution; Rules and Operations of the Senate; 
Senior Citizens; State Personnel; Transportation; University Board of Gov- 
ernors. 



The Legislative Branch 



293 




MARC BASNIGHT 

(Democrat -- Dare County) 

First Senatorial District Beaufort (part), Bertie (part) Camden, 

Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates (part), Hyde, Pasquotank, Perquimans, 
Tyrrell, and Washington Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Manteo, Dare County, May 13, 1947, to St. Clair and Cora Ma^ 
(Daniels) Basnight. 

Education: Manteo High School, 1966. 

Profession: Construction. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1985-86, 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

Family: Married Sandy Tillett, March 23, 1968. Children: Vick and Caroline. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations — Natural and Economic Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Local Government II. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations, Base Budget; Education; Human Re- 
sources; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife; Pensions and Retire- 
ment; Transportation. 



294 North Carolina Mam ai 



' ^ <^ f 



FRANKLIN LEE BLOCK 

(Democrat-New Hanover County) 
Seventh Senatorial District-New Hanover and Pender (part) Counties. 



1 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County, November 24, 1936, to Charles 
M. and Hannah (Soloman) Block. 

Education: Admiral Farragut Academy, 1954; The Citadel. BS 1959; Wake Forest 
University, JD, 1976. 

Professional Background: Attorney; US Magistrate (part-time), 1977-86; American Bar 
Association; NC Bar Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Organizations: Cape Fear Area United Way (Vice-President of Planning), 1982; Cam- 
paign Chairman, 1983; President, 1985. 

Political Activities: Member. NC Senate 

Military Service: Served. Army, (Captain, 1959-61); Reserves. 1966. 

Religious Activities: B'nai Israel Synagogue Church; President. 1977-78. 

Family: Married, Wendy H. Barshay, of Summerville, June 14, 1959. Children: Steven, 
Amy and Ellen.- 16 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Manufacturing and Labor. 

Member: Agriculture, Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; Base 
Budget; Commerce; Judiciary IV; Natural and Economic Resources and Wild- 
life; Veterans Affairs and Senior Citizens. 



The Legislative Branch 295 



_ HOWARD FRANKLIN BRYAN 

^^^^^^ (Republican-Iredell County) 

f<523l "XL W Twenty-sixth Senatorial District: Alexander, Catawba, Iredell, and Yadkin 

I Counties 



*;.* 



Early Years: Born in Bladenboro, Bladen County, December 13, 1942, to Allen B. and 
Anna Belle (Hester) Bryan. 

Education: Pantego High School, 1961 (Valedictorian, Senior Class President); Mount 
Olive College, 1963, A. A.; Davidson College, 1966, B.A.; Lee Institute of Real Estate, 

1972. 

Professional Background: President, Piedmont Realty of Statesville; Bryan Construction 
Company. 

Organizations: Greater Statesville Chamber of Commerce, 1980; National Federation of 
Independent Businessmen, 1982; Heart Fund City Chairman, 1969; Statesville Rotary 
Club, 1970-72; Iredell County Civic Center Authority Chairman, 1974-75; Former 
Jaycee, 1966-71. 

Boards: President, Mount Olive College Alumni Association, 1968-69; North Carolina 
Manpower Services Council, 1974-75. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1987 (appointed March 11, 1987, by Gov. 
James G. Martin to replace William Redman); Statesville City Council, 1985-87 
(Mayor Pro Tern, 1985-87); Iredell County Republican Party Chairman, 1973-75; Vice 
Chairman, 1975-77; Executive Committee, 1977-87; Ninth District Republican Party 
Chairman, 1985-87; Republican Party State Committee, 1985-87; Iredell County 
Campaign Manager for Ninth District Congressman J. Alex McMillan, 1984-86. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army Reserves, 1966-69 (2nd Lieutenant); N.C. National 

Guard, 1969-73.(2nd Lieutenant). 
Honors: Named in Outstanding Young Men of America and Personalities of the South. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Statesville; Deacon, 1985; Building 

Feasibility Study Committee, 1985; Building Committee Chairman, 1985; Business 

Management Committee, 1985-86; Usher, 1980; Sunday School Teacher, 1974. 
Family: Married, Mary Wooten of Statonsburg, April 19, 1969. Children: Cindy, Kathy, 

and Andy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Pensions and Retirement; Election Laws; Local 
Government II; Transportation; Human Resources. 



296 North Carolina Manual 




JAMES RICHARD CONDER 

(Democrat - Richmond County) 

Seventeenth Senatorial District Anson. Montgomery, Richmond, 

Scotland, Stanly and Union Counties I wo Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Hamlet, Richmond County, July 20, 1930. to Parks Holms and 
Ona Lee (Crow) Conder. 

Education: Hamlet High School, 1949; ECU, 1958, B.S. (Business); LSU, Graduate 
School of Banking, 1968; UNC-Chapel Hill, NC Bankers Association School. 

Profession: Vice President, First Union National Bank. 

Organizations: Hamlet Rotary Cluh (President, 1963); Rockingham Rotary Club 
(President, 1970). 

Boards & Commissions: Former chairman, Richmond County Industrial Development 
Commission, 1970-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; Commissioner, Richmond County, 
1962-84 (Chairman, 1964-1984); President, National Association of Counties, 1981- 
82; President, NC Association of County Commissioners, 1972-1973. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1951-55; Reserves, 1955-59. 

Honors: Outstanding Alumnus, ECU, 1982; "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and 
Observer, 1982; NC Distinguished Citizens Award, 1982; President Reagan's Pri- 
vate Sector Initiative, 1981-82. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Rockingham; Elder, 1965- 
1974, 1983-. 

Family: Married, Barbara Ann Speight. June 16, 1956. Children: Rebecca Anne, Mary 
Elizabeth and James Richard, Jr. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Children and Youth; Board of Community Colleges. 

Vice Chairman: State Government. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations - Education; Base Budget; Economic 
Growth; Education; Higher Education; Local Government II Rules and 
Operation of the Senate; State Personnel; Veterans Affairs and Senior 
Citizens. 



The Legislative Branch 



297 




GEORGE BERKLEY DANIEL 

(Democrat-Caswell County) 

Twenty-First Senatorial District-Alamance and Caswell Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, April 1, 1951, to George C. and Florence 
Anne (Taylor) Daniel. 

Education: Bartlett Yancey High School, 1969; North Carolina State University, B.S., 
1973; Wake Forest University (School of Law), J.D.. 1976. 

Professional Background: Attorney 

Organizations: N.C. State Bar; Caswell County Bar Association; 17-A Judicial District 
Bar Association; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; American Bar Association; Ameri- 
can Academy of Trial Lawyers; Charter Board Member of Big Brothers/ Big Sisters 
(Chairman, 1983); Caswell County Chamber of Commerce; Dan River Rugby Club; 
Caswell County Lions Club (President, 1980). 

Boards: Caswell County Lions Club, President, 1980; Caswell County Industrial Facili- 
ties and Pollution Control Financing Authority; Caswell County Industrial Develop- 
ment Team (Chairman, 1977 to present). 

Political Activities: Member of N.C. Senate; Member Democratic party of Caswell 
County. 

Religious Activities: Member, New Hope Methodist Church; Member of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Family: Married, Cynthia Gail Long, of Prospect Hill, June 27, 1981. Children: Jacob. 
SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Constitution Committee 
Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control Committee 



298 



North Carolina Manual 




JAMES EARL EZZELL, JR. 

(Democrat Nash County) 

Icnth Senatorial District Edgecombe (part), Halifax (part). Nash. 

Warren (part) and Wilson (part) Counties One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount. Edgecombe County, September 6, 1936, to James 
Earl and Edith (Batchelor) Ezzell, Sr. 

Education: Rocky Mount Senior High School, 1956; Wake Forest University, 1960, 

B.A.: Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1963, LL.D. 
Profession: Attorney. 
Organizations: NC Bar Association; Masonic Order; Shrine. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; NC House of Representatives, 1977- 

78, 1979-80; District Court Judge, 1980-83; Solicitor, Recorders Court, 1964-68. 
Religious Activities: Member. Englewood Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Patsy Wall, February 5, 1966. Children: Mark, James E., Ill and 
Stanton. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Local Government 1. 

Vice Chairman: Election Laws. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations-Human Resources; Base 
Budget; Human Resources; Judiciary 1; State Government. 



Aril 



The Legislative Branch 299 

WILLIAM DAVID GOLDSTON, JR. 

(Democrat - - Rockingham County) 

Twenty-fourth Senatorial District - Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham. 
Stokes, Surry and Watauga Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, December 26, 1925, to William 
D. and Rose (Hinson) Goldston. 

Education: Leaksville Public Schools; Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1942-44; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1945; High Point College, 1947, B.S.; (Business); UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1966-67 (Executive Program).. 

Profession: Retired business executive, 1984; President, Goldston, Inc., 1952-83; Mar- 
shall Field & Co., 1948-52; Goldston Transfer, 1947-48). 

Organizations: American Trucking Association (Former Director); NC Motor Carriers 
Association (President, 1972-73); Eden Chamber of Commerce; Masonic Order; 
Shrine; UNC Chancellor's Club. Former member: Jaycees; Rotary (President); Tri 
City Chamber of Commerce (Chairman, New Industry Committee). 

Boards & Commissions: Rockingham Community College Foundation; Morehead 
Scholarship Selection Committee; UNC Educational Foundation; Board of Vis- 
itors, High Point College; Local Board, NCNB; former Chairman, Leaksville 
School Board, 1961-1969 (Chairman, 1967). 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86; 1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1944-45; pilot training. Served, NC National 
Guard, 1947-50; (2nd Lieutenant). 

Honors: Citizen of the Year, 1984 (Eden Chamber of Commerce), NC Boss of the 
Year, 1971; Boss of the Year, Eden Jaycees, 1970; Eden Man of the Year, 1967. 

Religious Activities: Member, Leaksville Methodist Church, Eden; Administrative 
Board; Chairman, Foundation Committee. 

Family: Married, Beverly M. Burton, August 25, 1946. Children: William D., III. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Manufacturing and Labor. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations— Education; Base Budget; Commerce; 
Higher Education; Judiciary IV; Transportation. 



300 North Carolina Mani \i 



ALEXANDER DUKE GUY 

( Democrat-Onslow County) 

Fourth Senatorial District-Onslow County 




Early Years: Born in Calypso, Duplin County, November 20, 19 IX. to Alexander Buck 

and F.li/abeth (Faust) Guy. 
Education: Graduated, Calypso High School, 1935; N.C. State College. NYA Program 

1936; Institute of Government, University of NC-Chapel Hill, 1958-59. 

Professional Background: Insurance; Real Estate Investments. 

Organizations: Member, Independent Insurance Agents of N.C, Inc.; N.C. Association 
of Realtors; Professional Producers Council; Member, Loyal Order of the Moose; 
Jacksonville Loast Masters (Charter Member, 1955); Founder, Jacksonville Munici- 
pal Court, 1958; Founder, First Biracial Committee, City of Jacksonville. 1963; Past 
President, Jacksonville Rotary Club, 1962-63; Charter President, Onslow County 
Chapter American Cancer Society, 1958; Past Campaign Chairman, American Red 
Cross Society, 1956. 

Boards: National Association for Real Estate Boards; Jacksonville Board of Realtors; 
Onslow Memorial Hospital Authority, 1977-79; Board of Directors, N.C. League of 
Municipalities, 1962-65; Board of Directors, Home Federal Savings & Loan Associa- 
tion; Governor's, Mayor's Co-Operating Committee, 1964; Atlantic States Marine 
Fisheries Commissions; National Conference of State Legislatures Committee on 
Energy; Southern States Energy Board, Member; Member, NC Energy Policy Coun- 
cil; Member, Board of Directors, NC Retail Merchants Association. 

Political Activities: Served in the N.C. Senate, 1983, 1985-87; in the N.C. House of 
Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981-82; Jacksonville City Council, six years (Mayor, 
two years; Mayor Pro Lem, two years); Onslow County Board of County Commis- 
sioners, 1969-70. 

Religious Activities: Member, Lrinity United Methodist Church; Board of Lrustees, 
1976-81; Administrative Board, 1968-78; Chairman, Fund Raising Campaign- 
Christian Higher Education, 1959; Staff Parish Relations Committee, currently 
serving. 

Family: Married, Margaret Holmes, January 31, 1975; Children: Alexander Duke Guy, 
II; Bundage Humphrey Guy and Douglas Bryan Guy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Government 

Vice-Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife 
Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Natural and Economic Resources; 
Appropriation on Human Resources; Base Budget Committee; Commerce 
Finance; Manufacturing and labor; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Vete- 
rans Affairs and 9enior Citizens; Ways and Means. 




The Legislative Branch 301 

HAROLD WOODROW HARDISON 

(Democrat - - Lenoir County) 

Fifth Senatorial District - Duplin, Jones, Lenoir and Pender (part) 
Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Deep Run. Lenoir County, September 8, 1923. to Rutha and 
Annie (Stroud) Hardison. 

Education: Deep Run High School; Atlantic Christian College. 

Profession: President, Eastern United Tires, Inc. 

Organizations: Charter member. Deep Run Ruritan Club; former Master. Pleasant 
Hill Masonic Lodge No. 304; Shriner; Sudan Temple (former Lt. Commander. 
Legion of Honor); former Chairman. Lenoir County United fund; honorary 
member, Kenansville Jaycees. 

Boards & Commissions: Selective Service Board No. 55, Lenoir County; Neuse River 
Economic Development Commission; Kinston-Lenoir County Industrial and Agri- 
cultural Development Commission; Chairman, Deep Run School Board; Chair- 
man, South Lenoir School Board; Board of Directors and Executive Board, Mount 
Olive College; Director, NCNB, Kinston; Director, First Financial Savings & Loan, 
Kinston; former and first Presidnet, Deep Run Water Corporation. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-Present (8 terms), NC House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1971. 

Military Service: Served. US Air Force, 1942-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Deep Run Free Will Baptist Church; Sunday school 
teacher; former Chairman, Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Arlene Humphrey, June 14, 1944. Children: Pamela (Hardison) 
Braxton. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commerce. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Base Budget. 

Member: ABC; Finance; Human Resources; Insurance; Judiciary II; Rules and 
Operation of the Senate; State Government; Ways and Means. 



302 



\dk i ii Carolina Mam vi 



•fern 



m  




J. OLLE HARRIS 

( Democrat-Cleveland County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District-Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and Ruther- 
loid Counties-Three Senators. 






Earlj Years: Born in Anderson, South Carolina, September 2. 1913, to J. Frank and 
Jessie (Hambright) Harris. 

Education: Shelby High School. 1931, Gupton-Jones College of Embalming, 1935. 

Profession: Funeral Director and embalmer (President and Treasurer, Harris Funeral 
Home, Inc.). 

Organizations: NC Funeral Directors Association (former President); National Funeral 
Directors Association; National Selected Morticians; former President, NC coroners 
Association; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards: N.C. Funeral Directors and Embalming Board, (former president); Legislative 
Service Commission, 1985-86; Legislative Research Commission, 1985-86; former 
"Trustee. Gardner-Webb College; NC Mental Health Study Commission, 1977-86. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1971-72. 1975-76. 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86. 1 987-; Coroner, Cleveland County . 1946-70. 

Military Service: Served. US Army, 1943-46, 65th Field Hospital; European theatre; 

Bron/e Star. 
Honors: Award of Appreciation and Recognition, NC Psychological Association, 1985; 

Better Life Award, NC Health Care Facilities, 1979; Valand Award, NC Mental 

Health Association, 1979; Legislator of the Year. NC Health Department Association, 

1979. 

Religious Activities: Member. Baptist Church; Board member. Baptist State Convention. 

Family: Married. Abbie .lane Wall. May 4. 1934. Children: John Jr. and Becky (Harris) 

Hambright. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations on Human Resources 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget ; Children and Youth ; Commerce ; Envir- 
onment ; Finance; Judiciry 11; Manufacturing and Labor; Rules and Operation 
of the Senate; State Government; Ways and Means. 




The Legislative Branch 303 

CHARLES WILLIAM HIPPS 

(Democrat- Haywood County) 

Twenty-ninth Senatorial District-Cherokee, Clay. Graham, Haywood, 
Henderson, Jackson. Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania Counties. 



M 



Early Years: Born in Waynesville, Haywood County, October 18, 1943, to John Gudger 
and Hazel (Rinehart) Hipps. 

Education: Waynesville High School, 1961; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1965, A.B. (Political 
Science); Emory University, School of Law, 1966; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 
1968. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: Former President, Haywood County Bar Association, 30th Judicial Dis- 
trict; former President, Waynesville Merchants Association; Waynesville Rotarv 
Club. 

Boards: Trustee Emeritus, Western University, 1980-82; Lake Juneluske Assembly, 
Trustee. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1983-84, 1985-present; Past Chairman, Hay- 
wood County Democratic Party; Mayor Pro Tern, Waynesville, 1979-82; Assistant 
District Attorney, 1970-73. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church of Waynesville. 

Family: Married, Jane Bates of Charlotte, June 1, 1968. Children: Elizabeth, Will and 
John. 

COMMITTE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Constitution Committee. 
Vice Chairman: Children and Youth Committee. 
Vice Chairman: Judiciary I Committee. 

Member: Economic Growth; Education; Environment; Finance; Higher Educa- 
tion; State Personnel. 



304 North Carolina Manual 




RALPH ALEXANDER HUNT 

( Democrat Durham County) 

rhirteenth Senatorial District Durham. Granville, Orange (part), and 
Person Counties I wo Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Oxford, Granville County, April 10. 1932. to Johnnie and 

Amanda (Harris) Hunt. 
Education: Mary Potter High School. 1950; Orange Street Elementary School, 1945; 

Johnson C. Smith University. 1956. B.A.; NCCU, 1964, M. A. 
Profession: Independent retail merchant (convenience stores). 
Organizations: Kappa Alpha Psi. 
Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 19S5-S6; 1987-; Mayor Pro Tern, City of 

Durham. 1981-84; Durham City Council, 1973-74. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-55 (Corporal). 
Religious Activities: Member, White Rock Baptist Church; Trustee. 
Family: Married, Elvira Rebecca Cooke, June 17, 1961. Children: Ralph A., Jr., 

Reginald C. and Regina C. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Pension and Retirement. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; Base Budget; 
Education; Election Laws; Higher Education; Local Government Manufac- 
turing and Labor. 




The Legislative Branch 305 

WANDA H. HUNT 

(Democrat - Moore County) 

Sixteenth Senatorial District -- Chatham, Moore, Orange (part), and 
Randolph Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Bakersville, Mitchell County, March 22, 1944, to Farrall and 
Jane (Ledford) Holder. 

Education: Southwest High School; Appalachian State University. 

Profession: Legislator; Former account executive. Resorts of Pinehurst, Inc.; former 
state government and public school employee; former corporate secretary, private 
industry (small computer business). 

Organizations: NC State Government Employees Association; NC School Board 
Association; NC Social Services Board Association (former chairman); Women in 
State Government; NC Status of Women; NC Heart Fund Association; certified 
judge, "Junior Miss" and "Miss" Pageants; former President, Cystic Fibrosis; 
former Vice President, Southern Pines Jaycettes; former Chairman, Moore County 
Bicentennial Ball; former Education Chairman, Southern Pines Junior Women's 
Club; former Chairman, Moore County Heart Fund Ball. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987; Pensions Committee, 
National Conference of State Legislators, 1985; NC General Assembly Women's 
Caucus; Legislative Committee, Travel Council of NC, Inc.; Southern Legislative 
Conference; State Legislators' Network, Women's Network; Precinct Chairman, 
Moore County Democratic Women; Moore County Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee; YDC, Appalachian State University; NC Assembly on Women and the 
Economy; American Council of Young Political Leaders (former delegate. El Sal- 
vador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama); delegate, various state, district, local con- 
ventions; delegate, Miami Conference on the Carribean; Moore County Board of 
Education, 1976-83. 

Honors: Volunteer Service Award, National Cystic Fibrosis; Certificate of Apprecia- 
tion and Founders Award, Heart Fund; Golden Mountaineer Award, Appalachian 
State University; Distinguished Service Award, Moore County Board of Education; 
Social Services Award, 1978-81. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pinehurst Community Church; Youth Coordinator. 

Family: Children: Donna Lynn. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Local Government II. 

Vice Chairman: Board of Community College; Veterans Affairs and Senior 
Citizens. 

Member: Education; Finance; Human Resources; Judiciary II; Appropriations- 
Natural and Economic Resources; Rules and Operations of the Senate Ways 
and Means. 



306 Nori 11 C" \Koi in \ M \\i \i 



JAMES CALVIN JOHNSON, JR. 

(Republican Cabarrus County) 

Fwenty-second Sena to rial District Cabarrus and Mecklenburg (part) 
— ^ Counties One Senator. 

V A 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, June 5, 1935. to James Calvin and 
Juanita (Hill) Johnson. St. 

Education: Spartanburg High School. 1954; Spartanburg Junior College. 1956; East 
Tennessee State University, 1958, B.S.; Wake Forest University, School of Law. 
1962; LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney; owner. Fort Johnson Military Museum. Inc. 

Organizations: Cabarrus County and NC State Bar Associations; NC Academy ot 
Trial Lawyers; American Judicature Society; NC Juvenile Court Judges Associa- 
tion (former President); Concord Jaycees (former NC Vice President and National 
Regional Director); Phi Delta Phi. Chairman of Cabarrus Citizens for Philip 
Morns. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1 987-; NC House of Representa- 
tives. 1967, 1969, 1971; Attorney. Cabarrus County, 1966-70; Judge; Domestic 
Relations and Juvenile Court, 1963-66; Attorney, US District Court, NC, 1962-63. 

Military Service: Active Reserves. U.S. National Guard, 51st Division, South Carol- 
ina, 1953-56; 30th Armor Division, Tennessee, 1956-58; 30th Infantry Division. 
North Carolina. 1956-62. 

Honors: Who's Who in American Politics, 1967-68; Outstanding Personalities of the 
South, 1967; Outstanding Young Men of America, 1967; one of three Outstanding 
Young Men of NC, 1966. 

Literary Works: Editor, The Guardian. 1964-65 (selected as the most outstanding pub- 
lication of its kind in the US by the National Council of Juvenile Court Judges). 

Religious Activities: Member, Central Methodist Church; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Angie Morgan of Landis. Children: James Calvin, III, Kay Lynn 
and Jen Cherise. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; Base Budget; 
Children and Youth; Constitution; Environment; Judiciary I; Local Govern- 
ment II; Veterans Affairs and Senior Citizens; Transportation. 



The Legislative Branch 



307 




JOSEPH EDWARD JOHNSON 

(Democrat - - Wake County) 

Harnett, Lee, and Wake (part) 



Fourteenth Senatorial District 
Counties - Three Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, October 17, 1941. to Ira Edward and 

Grace (Ivey) Johnson. 
Education: Raleigh Public Schools, 1946-59; NCSU, 1959-61; Wake Forest University. 

1964, B.A.; Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1966, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: Wake County, NC and American Bar Associations; Alpha Kappa Psi; 

Phi Delta Phi. 
Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; NC House 

of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1967-69 (1st Lt.); Military Police Corps; Army 

Commendation Medal. 
Religious Activities: Member, Edenton Street United Methodist Church, Raleigh; 

Administrative Board; Assistant Superintendent, Sunday School; Sunday School 

teacher. 
Family: Married, Jane Francum, January 31. 1964. Children: Jane Elizabeth, Kathryn 

Ivey and Susan Briles. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary 11. 

Vice Chairman: Insurance; State Government. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety; Base Bud- 
get; Commerce; Election Laws; State Personnel. 



308 North Carolina Manual 




IAN THEODORE KAPEAN 

(Democrat Forsyth County) 
wentieth Senatorial District Forsyth Counts (part) fwo Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro. Guilford County, December 26, 1946. to Leon and 
Renee ( Myers) Kaplan. 

Education: Riverside Military Academy, 1962-1964; R. J. Reynolds High School, 

1965: Guilford College. 
Profession: President, Kaplan Press. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate. 1985-86, 1987-; NC House of Representa- 
tives. 1977-78. 1979-80. 1981-82. 

Military Service: Served. US Navy. 1969-1971; Reserves. 1968-69 (E-3). 

Religious Activities: Member, Temple Emanuel, Winston-Salem. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Election Laws. 
Vice Chairman: ABC. 

Member: Commerce; Constitution; Economic Growth; Environment; Finance; 
Judiciary IV. 



Si 



The Legislative Branch 309 

DONALD R. KINCAID 

(Republican -- Caldwell County) 

Twenty-seventh Senatorial District - Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, 
and Wilkes Counties — Two Senators. 



& 



M 



Early Years: Born in Caldwell County, June 2, 1936, to Hugh T. and Myrtle (McCall) 

Kincaid. 
Education: Gamewell High School, 1954; Appalachian State Teachers College, 1959, 

B.S.; Clevenger's Business College, 1955. 

Profession: School teacher; owner, Kincaid Insurance Agency. 

Organizations: Lenoir Lions Club (Lion Tamer, former Secretary); Lenoir Rotary 
Club; NC Cattlemen's Association; Carolina Association of Mutual Insurance 
Agents; Caldwell County Chamber of Commerce. Former member: NCAE, Game- 
well Ruritan Club. 

Boards & Commissions: Legislative Advisory Board, CAPIA: Board of Trustees, 

Gardner-Webb College; Director, Carolina Association of Professional Insurance 

Agents. Former member: NC Board of Agriculture. 
Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 

1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; Senate Minority Leader, 1977-78. 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983- 

84; NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, nine years (5-E). 
Religious Activities: Member, Lower Creek Baptist Church, Lenoir. 
Family: Married, Syretha Weatherford, June 30, 1956; four children. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Insurance. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Natural and Economic Resources; 
Base Budget; Commerce; Human Resources; Insurance; Manufacturing and 
Labor; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife; Rules and Operation 
of the Senate; Board of Community Colleges. 



310 



North Carolina M \m\i 



ROBERT LAFAYETTE MARTIN 

(Democrat Pitt County) 

Sixth Senatorial District Edgecombe (part). Martin (part). Pitt (part), 
and Wilson (part) Counties One Senator. 




Early Years: Born in Bethel. Pitt County, November 8, 1918, to John Wesley and Lena 
(Sessums) Martin. 

Education: Oxford Orphanage High School; School of Electricity, Oxford Orphanage. 

Profession: President. Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Association; farmer. 

Organizations: Shriner; 32nd Degree Mason. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate. I9S5-86, 1987-; Commissioner. Pitt County, 
1956-1984; Mayor, Town of Bethel, 1951-1956; Commissioner, Town of Bethel. 
1941. 

Religious Activities: Member, Bethel Missionary Baptist Church; Chairman, Board of 
Deacons; Superintendent, Sunday School; Sunday School teacher. 

Family: Married. Sue Cooper, .lune 29, 1940. Children: Lynda and Bobbie Sue. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Manufacturing and Labor. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations - Natural and Economic Resources. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Base Budget; Education; Higher Educa- 
tion; Local Government I; State Government; State Personnel. 




The Legislative Branch 311 

WILLIAM NELSON MARTIN 

(Democrat -- Guilford County) 

Thirty-first Senatorial District Guilford County (part) One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Eden, Rockingham County, May 25, 1945, to Thomas William 
and Carolyn (Henderson) Martin. 

Education: Douglas High School, 1962; NC A&T State University, 1966, B.S. (Eco- 
nomics); George Washington University, School of Law, 1973, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: NC and DC Bar Associations; One Step Further, Inc., 1982 (co- 
founder and first President); National Black Child Development Institute, 1976- 
(Chairman, Public Policy Committee; Board member, 1979-82); Phi Beta Sigma 
(President, local chapter, 1978-80; Vice President, local chapter, 1976-78). Former 
member: Social Concerns Committee (Co-Chairman); Council of Churches; Greens- 
boro Citizens Forum, 1979-84; Congress of Racial Equality (special assistant. 
Northwestern Regional Director, 1969-73). 

Boards and Commissions: Director and co-founder, Charlotte Hawkins Brown His- 
torical Foundation; Guilford County Finance Study Commission, 1982-; Greens- 
boro Housing Commission, 1979-; Director, Triad Sickle Cell Anemia Foundation. 
1978-; Public School Policy Forum of N.C, 1986-. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; delegate, Guilford 
County, 1981 White House Conference on Children; NC Task Force 1980 White 
House Conference on Families; Chairman, 1986 NC Democratic Party Platform 
Committee. 

Religious Activities: Member, Providence Baptist Church, Greensboro. 

Family: Married, Patricia Yancey; Children: Thomas William and William Nelson, Jr. 
(twins). 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Higher Education. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Appropriations-Education, Base Budget; 
Human Resources. 

Member: Children and Youth; Economic Growth; Education; Environment: 
Judiciary I; UNC Board of Governors. 



312 Nor i ii Carolina Manual 

HELEN RHYNE MARVIN 

(Democrat-Gaston County) 

Twenty- Huh Senatorial District-Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
Riiihcrtord Counties. 




Early Years: Born (iastonia. Gaston County, November 30, 1917. to Dane S. and Tessie 
( Hastings) Rhvne. 

Education: Gastonia High School, 1934; Furman University, 1938, B.A. Magna Cum 
Laude (History, Political Science); LSU, 1939, M.A. (Government); Post Graduate 
Studies, Winthrop College; UNC-Chapel Hill; UNC-Charlotte; University of Colo- 
rado; University of Vermont; University of Oslo. 

Professional Background: Realtor (President, Marvin Rhyne Realty Company); Former 
College Instructor, Gaston College. 

Organizations: Southern and N.C. Political Science Association, Former President; Rho 
Chapter Delta Kappa Gamma; Altrusa Club of Gastonia; N.C. Retired School Per- 
sonnel Associations. 

Boards: Director. Gaston County Mental Health Association; Gaston County Family 
Counselng Service; Gaston County Children's Council; Gaston County Council for 
Exceptional Children; Pioneer Girl Scout Institute; N.C. Equity, Trustee, INC.; Trus- 
tee, Sacred Heart College; Trustee, Flatrock Playhouse, Vagabond Players; Trustee, 
N.C. Child Support Council. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1977-Present; NCSL Committee on Arts, 
Tourism and Historical Preservation; NCSL Task Force on Children. Youth and 
Families;Gaston County Democratic Women (Former President); Gaston County 
Democratic Executive Committee; N.C. Unity Party Committee, 1 980; Vice Chair- 
man. N.C. Democratic Party Platform Committee. 1984; Delegate National Demo- 
cratic Convention, 1972. 1984. 

Honors: Valedictorian, College Graduating Class, Outstanding Educator, Gaston Col- 
lege, 1975; Woman of the Year, Gastonia Evening Civitan Club. 1978; Valand Award 
(outstanding legislator in mental health), 1980; N.C. Council Community, 
MH MR SA Program Award 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church. Gastonia; Former Sunday 
School Teacher. 

Family: Married. Ned 1. Marvin, November 21. 1941. Children: Kathryn, Richard and 
David. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety Committee. 

Vice Chairman: Pensions and Retirement Committee. 

.Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Education; Human 
Resources; Judiciary IV; Local Government I; Transportation; Board of Com- 
munity Colleges. 



The Legislative Branch 



313 




JAMES DOYLE McDUFFIE 

(Republican Mecklenburg County) 

Mecklenburg County (part) 



Thirty-fourth Senatorial District 
Senator. 



One 



Early Years: Born in Kannapolis, Cabarrus County, November 17, 1929, to James 

Dewey and Viola (Cress) McDuffie. 
Education: Cannon High School, 1946; Pfeiffer Junior College, 1948, A. A.; Catawba 

College, 1950, B.A.; University of Denver, 1955, M.A. 
Profession: General agent and broker. State Farm Insurance Company; Merit Agent; 

Millionaire Agent. 

Organizations: Life Underwriters Association; American Legion; Honor President, 
East Mecklenburg Optimist Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-; 
Charlotte City Council, 1972-1974. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pritchard Baptist Church, Charlotte. 
Family: Married, M. Darlene Sears, April 10, 1953. Children: David, Mark, Tricia and 
John. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Education; Finance; Local Government 1; Pensions and 
Retirement; Transportation. 



314 North Caroi ina Manual 



\ 



DAVID RUSSELL PARNELE 

(Democrat-Robeson County) 



fhirtieth Senatorial Distnct-Hukc and Robeson Counties 



- 
0*. h 



Early Years: Born in Parkton, Robeson County, November 16, 1925, to John Quincy and 
Clelia (Britt) Parnell. 

Education: Parkton Public Schools, 1931-41; Oak Ridge Military Institute. 1941-44; 
Wake Forest University, 1949. B.S. 

Professional Background: Merchant; Farmer. 

Organizations: N.C. Merchants Association. Director; N.C. Oil Jobbers Association; 
Director, N.C. Plant Food Association; N.C. State Humanities Foundation, 1975-79. 

Boards: Robeson County Industrial Development Commission, 1963-1985; Trustee. 
Meredith College. 1977-; N.C. State Highway Commission. 1969-72; Board of Direc- 
tors, First Union National Bank, 1957-present. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C Senate. 1983-84, 1985-86. 1987; N.C. House of Repre- 
sentatives. 1975-76, 1977-78; 1979-80, 1981-82; Mayor. Town of Parkton. 1964-69. 
Military: Served, U.S. Army, 1945-46 (Corporal) 

Religious Activities: Member, Parkton Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher, I950-; 

Board of Deacons, 1952-present; Treasurer. 1950-72. 
Family: Married. Barbara Johnson, June I I. 1948. Children: David. Anne and Timothy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chariman: Insurance Committee. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Committee. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety Committee. 

Vice Chairman: Base Budget Committee. 

Member: Commerce; Judiciary IV; Manufacturing and Labor; Rules and Opera- 
tion of the Senate; State Government; State Personnel; Board of Community 
Colleges. 



The Legislative Branch 315 

AARON W. PLYLER 

(Democrat-Union County) 

Seventh Senatorial District-Anson, Montgomery, Richmond. Scotland, 
Stanly, and Union Counties. 



!>■ 



Early Years: Born in Union County, October 1, 1926, to Isom F. and Ida (Foard) 
Plyler. 

Education: Attended Benton Heights School; Florida Military Academy. 

Occupation: Independent Businessman (PresidentnOwner Plyler Grading and Paving, 
Inc.; President, Hill Top Enterprises); Farming and real estate interests. 

Organizations: Member/ Past President, Wingate College Patron Club; Member Past 
President Monroe-Union County Chamber of Commerce; Member, North Carolina 
Restaurant Association; North Carolina Citizens Association; Associated General 
Contractors of America; National Federation Independent Business; Rolling Hills 
Country Club. 

Boards: Member, General Board of Directors, United Carolina Bank; Board of Direc- 
tors, North Carolina Restaurant Association; Hill Top Enterprises; Yadkin-Pee 
Dee River Basin; Mecklenburg-Union County United Way; Board of Advisors, 
University of North Carolina-Charlotte. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, and 1987-; N.C. House of 
Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981-82; Precinct Chairman 10 
years; Past Chairman. Union county Democratic Party. 

Honors: 1970, Monroe-Union County Leadership Award; 1971, Union County "Man 
of the Year" Award; 1971, Wingate College Patron Club Award; 1973, Union 
County Leadership Award; 1980 Andrew Jackson Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benton Heights Presbyterian Church (Ruling Elder); 
Past Chairman, board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Moser Plyler, May 22, 1948; Children: Barbara Plyler 
Faulk; Dianne Plyler Hough; Aaron W. Plyler, Jr.; Alan Plyler; and Alton Plyler. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Committee 

Vice Chairman: Ways and Means 

Member: Agriculture; Base Budget; Commerce; Election Laws; Finance; Manufactur- 
ing and Labor; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Pensions and Retirement; Uni- 
versity Board of Governors. 



316 North Carolina Manual 




MARSHALL ARTHUR RAICH 

(Democrat Gaston County) 

rwenty-fifth Senatorial District Cleveland. Gaston, Lincoln, and 

Rutherford Counties Ihree Senators. 



Early Years: Born in New York, New York, February 2, 1923, to 
Nathan A. and Tillie P. (Wohl) Ranch. 

Education: Woodmere High School, 1950; Duke University. 

Profession: Corporate executive (Chairman and President, Rauch Industries, Inc.; 
Director and Treasurer, P.P. Press, Inc.; Director, Magic, Ltd.; Director and Presi- 
dent, P.D.R. Trucking, Inc.; Director and Pies. S.L. Rauch, Inc. 

Organizations: Director, Holy Angels Nursery, 1960-73; Director, Gastonia YMCA, 
1959-62, 1967-72 (Vice President, 1970; President, 1971); Salvation Army Boys 
Club. 1963-71; Gastonia Boys Club. 1947-71 (Senior Advisor, 1943-63; Director, 
1964-71 ); Gastonia Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Commission member; Wildlife Tax Study (Chair- 
man, 1979-80); Legislative Services, 1977-1980; Governmental Evaluation (Vice 
Chairman, 1977-80)"; Legislative Tax Study (Chairman, 1977-1980); Sports Facility, 
1977-80; Governmental Incentive (Vice Chairman, 1977-79); Intangibles Tax Study, 
1978. Trustee. NC Land Conservance, 1978-80; Board of Advisors, Gardner-Webb 
College, 1969-77; Trustee, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1969-73; NC Citizens for Dental 
Health, 1968-73; Advisory Committee. NC Vocational Textile School. 1970-71. 

Political Activities: Member. NC Senate, 1967-Present (11 terms); Advisory Budget 
Commission, 1973-74. 1977-80; Gastonia City Council, 1953-54, 1961-65 (Mayor 
Pro Tern, 1952-1954. 1961-1963). 

Military Service: Served. US Army, World War II, Combat Infantry Award. 

Honors: Who's Who in World Jewry; Who's Who in the South and Southwest: Who's 
Who in Israel: Who's Who in American Polities: Leading Men in the United States: 
The National Register of Prominent Americans: Human Services Award, NC Asso- 
ciation of Jewish Men and State of NC; Man of the Year, (Gastonia Red Shield 
Club. 1970; NC Health Department; Gaston County Omega Psi Phi, 1966; Gasto- 
nia Junior Women's Club, 1964; Gastonia Junior Chamber of Commerce, 1957); 
National Council of Christians and Jews Award, 1969; National Recreation Associ- 
ation Citation, 1965; 1986 Award, Multiple Sclerosis Hope Award. 

Religious Activities: President, Temple Emanuel, Gastonia (Former President and 
Sunday School Teacher) and Temple Israel, Charlotte. Chairman, Gaston Jewish 
Welfare Fund; Vice President, NC Association of Jewish Men; President, Frank 
Goldberg Lodge, B'Nai B'Rith; Governor, NC Jewish Home Board; Cabinet 
member, NC United Jewish Appeal, Chairman Lubavitch of N.C. 

Family: Married. Jeanne Girard, May 18, 1946. Children: John, Ingrid, Marc, Peter 
and Stephanie. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance. 

Co-Chairman: Ways and Means. 

Member: Commerce; Constitution; Election Laws; Higher Education; Manufac- 
turing and Labor; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Pensions and Retire- 
ment. 




The Legislative Branch 317 

JAMES FRANKLIN RICHARDSON 

(Democrat-Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-third Senatorial District-Mecklenburg (part) County) 



dfrt 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, May 20, 1926, to Sam and 

Addie (Pickens) Richardson. 
Education: Isabella Wyche elementary School, 1937; Second Ward High School, 1943; 

Johnson C. Smith University, 1949, B.S. 
Profession: Retired (former postmaster). 
Organizations: Masons; NAACP; Omega Psi Phi. 
Boards: Director, WTVI Public Television; Director, Charlotte Mint Museum; former 

Director, Charlotte Housing Authority; former Chairman, NC Social Services 

Commission and Mecklenburg Social Services Department. 
Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1987-; N.C. House of Representatives, 

1985-86. 
Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1944-46 (Aviation Metal Smith 1st Class). 
Religious Activities: Member, Memorial Presbyterian church, Charlotte; Deacon, 

Social Action Committee. 
Family: Married,, Mary E. Nixon of Columbia, South Caorlina, April 16, 1964. Child- 
ren: Gregory and James Franklin, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Veterans Affairs and Senior Citizens. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Human Resources; Base Budget; Child- 
ren and Youth; Education; Human Resources; Local Government II; Manufactur- 
ing and Labor; University Board of Governors; Board of Community Colleges. 



318 North Carolina Manual 




KENNETH CLAIBORNE ROYALL, JR. 

(Democrat Durham County) 

Thirteenth Senatorial District Durham, Granville, Orange (part) and 
Person Counties 1 wo Senators. 



IKarly Years: Born in Warsaw, Duplin County, September 2. 19 IX, 
to Kenneth Claiborne and Margaret Pierce (Best) Royall, Sr. 

Education: Goldsboro High School, 1932-34; Episcopal High School, 1936; UNC- 
Chapel Hill. 1940, A.B.; UVA, School of Law, 1940-41; Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1941-42. 

Profession: Furniture retailer (owner. Style Craft Interiors). 

Organizations: Director, American Red Cross; Director. YMCA; Director, NC Mer- 
chant's Association, 1975-76; Rotary Club; Elks Club; Delta Kappa Epsilon; Direc- 
tor. Training for Hearing Impaired Children, 1971-76; Vice President, NC Commit- 
tee for the Prevention of Blindness, 1973-76; Durham Chamber of Commerce, 
1962-72 (Director and Vice President, 1972). 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Council of State Governments, 1981-82; Chair- 
man, Southern Leadership Conference, 1977-83; Legislative Building Commission, 
1971-72; Board of Higher Education, 1971-72; Executive Residence Building Com- 
mission, 1972; Chairman, Mental Health Study Commission, 1972-83; Governmen- 
tal Operations Study Commission, 1974-1984; Director, Eckerd Wilderness Educa- 
tional System of NC, 1978-1981; Durham Advisory Board, Duke Hospital, 
1975-1983; Director, Triangle Service Center, Inc., 1974-83; Executive Committee, 
NCSL, 1976-78, 1980-81, 1 984-; NCSL Legislative Leaders, 1985-86; 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-Present (8 terms); Senate Majority 
Leader, 1973-74; 1977-78; Legislative Services Commission, 1 973-; NC House of 
Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971; Chairman. Advisory Budget Commission, 1981-. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1942-45 (Major); Platoon Leader, South 
Pacific, World War II; Bronze Star with Combat V. 

Honors: Certificate of Appreciation and Recognition, NC Psychology Association, 
1983; Honorary LL.D., NCCU, 1982; Legislator of the Year. NCSEA, 1980; Out- 
standing State Legislator, NCSGEA, 1980 and Assembly of Governmental Em- 
ployees, 1980; Most Influential Member of NC Senate, 1*979-80. 1981-82; Distin- 
guished Service Award for Outstanding Legislative Service, NC Mental Health 
Center Association, 1978; Civic Honor Award. Durham Chamber of Commerce, 
1977; Valand Award (outstanding service to mental health), 1976; Distinguished 
Service Award, NC Public Health Association, 1975; Certificate of Commendation. 
National Association of Mental Health. 1974; Distinguished Service Medal, UNC 
Alumni, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Phillip's Episcopal Church, Durham; Senior Warden, 
1964; Junior Warden, 1959, Vestry, three terms. 

Family: Married, Julia Bryan Zollicoffer, February 10, 1945. Children: Kenneth C, 
III. Jere Zollicoffer and Julia Bryan. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Ways and Means; University Board of Governors. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Base Budget; Economic Growth Rules and 

Operations of the Senate. 
Member: Commerce; Finance; Higher Education; Human Resources; Judiciary 

IV; Pensions and Retirement; State Government. 




The Legislative Branch 319 

ALEXANDER PAUL SANDS III 

(Democrat-Rockingham County) 

Twenty-Fourth Senatorial District-Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham, Stokes. 
Surry, and Watauga. 



Early Years: Born in Reidsville, Rockingham County, October 26, 1945, to A. Paul 

and Kathryn (Jenkins) Sands, Jr. 
Education: Reidsville Senior High School, 1963; Duke University, AB, Political 

Science, 1967; University of North Carolina School of Law, JD (with honors) 1971. 

Professional Background: Attorney, Partner, Bethea and Sands; NC Bar Association; 
NC Academy of Trial Lawyers, Rockingham County Bar Association, (president, 
1984-85); Association of Trial Lawyers of America. 

Organizations: Reidsville Rotary Club, President, 1983; Rockingham County Farm 
Bureau; Reidsville Jaycees, President. 1974-75. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate. 

Military: Served, NC National Guard, (sp.5), 1968-74. 

Religious Activities: Member Woodmont United Methodist Church; Administrative 

Board; Sunday School Teacher. 
Family: Married, Virginia Lee Coffield, of High Point, August 15, 1970. Children: 

Andy and Anna. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary III Committee 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government ; Base Budget; 
Local Government II; Manufacturing and Labor; State Personnel; Transpor- 
tation; Veterans affairs and Senior Citizens. 



320 North C \roi ina Mam \i 



e 



MARY POWELL SEYMOUR 

(Democrat-Guilford County) 

Thirty-Second Senatorial District-Guilford (part) County. 






* 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, April 12, 1922, to Robert C. and Annie 
Rebecca (Seymour) Powell (both deceased). 

Education: Graduated, Needham B. Broughton High School, 1939; Peace College, 1941; 
Course Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1946-47; Pilot Nursery School 
Study Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 1949-50; Leadership 
Development Training, Center for Creative Leadership, 1 978; GTCC, Basic Computer 
Science, 1983. 

Professional Background: Legal Assistant; Licensed Real Estate Broker. 

Organizations: Member, Womens Professional Forum; O. Henry Womans's Club; 
Greensboro Council of Garden Clubs, INC.; Greensboro Legal Auxiliary; Honorary 
Member, Business and Professional Women; Hayes Taylor YMCA; Chamber of 
Commerce, Community Development Council. 

Boards: Tarheel Trail Girl Scout Council Inc.; Board of Visitors, Peace College; Board of 
Directors, Hayes Taylor YMCA; NC Arts Council, 1 98 1 -83; NC Parks and Recreation 
Council, 1 979-85; NC Law Related Education Committee, 1 980-84; State Transporta- 
tion Advisory Council, 1 98 1 -83; Board of Directors, National Conference in Insurance 
Legislators, 1980-83; Chairman, Guilford County Legislative Delegation, 1982-84. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, served, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; YDC; Democratic Women; Legislative Services Commis- 
sion, 1981-83; Mayor Pro Tempore, City of Greensboro, 1973-75; Greensboro City 
Council (elected four terms), 1967-75. 

Honors: Received, 1970 Eleanor Roosevelt Award; Woman of the Year, City Beautifica- 
tion; 1971, Bryant Citizenship Award, District 7, NC FWC; Chamber of Commerce 
Dolley Madison Award; 1972, Quota Club Woman of Year; Distinguished Alumna, 
Peace College; 1974, Distinguished Service Award, YWCA; 1975, "Who's Who in 
Government"; 1976-77, Bowker, "Women in Public Office"; NC Bar Association 
Legislative Recognition, 1980; Distinguished Service Award, NC Public Health Asso- 
ciation, 1982; "Good Sam" Award for Legislation Affecting the Hearing Impaired, 
1982; Community Service Award, Bennett College; NC Recreation and Parks Legisla- 
tive Award, 1984. 

Religious Activities: Member, College Park Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher (ten 
years). 

Family: Married. Hubert E. Seymour, Jr., February 3, 1945. Children: Hubert and 
Robert. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; Base Budget; 
Commerce; Economic Growth; Election; Insurance; Judiciary I; State Govern- 
ment. 



The Legislative Branch 



321 




ROBERT G. SHAW 

(Republican -- Guilford County) 

Nineteenth Senatorial District Forsyth (part) and Guilford (part) 

Counties — One Senator. 



/ 



Early Years: Born in Erwin, Harnett County, November 22, 1924, to R.G.B. and 

Annie (Byrd) Shaw. 
Education: Campbell College; UNC-Chapel Hill. 
Profession: Restaurateur. 

Boards & Commissions: Chairman, NC Council on Community and Economic 
Development, 1975-77; Member, Natural and Economic Resources Board, 1975-77. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-; NC Republican Party 
Chairman, 1975-77; Republican National Committee, 1975-77; County Commis- 
sioner, Guilford County, 1968-76 (former Chairman). 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1943-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church, Greensboro; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Linda Owens of High Point, 1981. Children: Ann (Shaw) Hewett 
and Barbara (Shaw) Twining. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Children and Youth; Commerce; Local Govern- 
ment I, Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 



m 



Nor i ii Carolina Manual 






i 



JIM KEMP SHERRON, JR. 

( Democrat-Wake County) 
•ourteenth Senatorial District-Harnett, I ee. and Wake (part) Counties. 



Earlj Years: Born in Fuquay Varina, Wake County, September 26. 1931, to Jim K. 
and Maggie (Grady) Sherron, Sr. 

Education: Fuquay Springs High School, graduated. 1950; North Carolina State Uni- 
versity, BS, 1^59; Registered Broker-Dealer, NASD. 

Professional Background: Commercial Investment Real Estate, Owner Partner; Capi- 
tal Equity Corporation. President, 1985-present; Deputy Secretary of Administra- 
tion, 1981-84; Director ol Purchasing and Contract, 1981; Director of State Prop- 
erty, 1977-81; Raleigh Board of Realtors; NC Association of Realtors; National 
Association of Security Dealers; Real Estate Securities and Syndication Institute. 

Organizations: Mason, Millbrook Lodge. NO. 97; Shriner, Amran Temple; Exchange 
Club, life member; Exchange Club, New Hope Wilders drove. President. 1977-78; 
Wilders Grove Youth Center. 1976; Little League Football Coach. 1965-75. 

Boards: Board of Directors of Learning Together, 1984 present; NC State Humanities 
Foundation, 1986; Raleigh Planning Commission. 1977-81; Fayetteville Street Mall 
Authority, 1979. 

Politicial Activities: Member. NC Senate; Young Democrats oi NC, 1955-71. 1986; 
Wake Count\ Democratic Women, 1986; Wake County Young Democrats. Presi- 
dent. 1962 (club was voted outstanding Young Democratic Club of America); Out- 
standing Young Democrat of North Carolina, 1962; Wake County Democrat of the 
Year. 1982; Precinct Chairman, (sixteen years). County and District Executive 
Committee. 

Military: Served US Navy, AM-3, 1951-55; Korean Service Ribbon; Good Conduct 
Ribbon. 

Honors: Gertrude Carrawan Award for Historical Preservation, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, Millbrook Baptist Church. 

Family: Married. Carolyn Honeycutt, of Salemburg, January 19. 1958. Children: Jim 
and Annie. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Judiciary, III; Local Government I; Natural and Economic 

Resources and Wildlife; Pensions and Retirement; Transportation; Veterans 
Affairs and Senior Citizens, Agriculture. 



The Legislative Branch 



323 




DANIEL REID SIMPSON 

(Republican -- Burke County) 

Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Avery. Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, 
and Wilkes Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Morganton, Burke County, February 20, 1927, to James Reid 
and Ethel Margaret (Newton) Simpson. 

Education: Glen Alpine Public Schools, 1932-43; University of Mississippi; Auburn 

University; Lenoir Rhyne College; Wake Forest University, 1949, B.S.; Wake 

Forest University, School of Law, 1951, LL.B. 
Profession: Attorney (President and senior member in firm of Simpson, Aycock, 

Beyer, and Simpson, P. A.); former Attorney: Town of Glen Alpine, Burke County 

and Burke County Schools; Former Criminal Court Judge. 

Organizations: Burke County, NC, NC State, and American Bar Associations; Ca- 
tawba Valley Lodge No. 217 (former Grand Master); Free and Accepted Masons. 
Former member: Lions Club; Junior Chamber of Commerce; Sigma Chi; Phi Delta 
Phi. 

Boards & Commissions: Director: Western Steer Mom 'n' Pops, Inc.; SouthEastern 
Forest Fire Protection Compact Committee. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987; NC House of Representatives. 
1957, 1961, 1963; Chairman, Joint Caucus; former Chairman, Burke County 
Republican Executive Committee; former President and Vice President, Burke 
County Young Republicans Club; former Mayor and Councilman, Town of Glen 
Alpine; former Vice-Chairman, NC Young Republicans. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945-46 (T/5); South Pacific theater. 

Honors: Who's Who in American Law. 

Religious Activities; First Baptist Church, Morganton. 

Family: Married, Mary Alice Leonard of Glen Alpine, September 16, 1951. Children: 
Mary Alma (Simpson) Beyer, James Reid, II and Ethel Barie (Simpson) Todd. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations - - Education; Base Budget; Educa- 
tion; Judiciary IV; Local Government II: Natural and Economic Resources 
and Wildlife; State Personnel; State Government. 



324 \( »k l ii (' \koi i\ \ \1 \\r\i 




PAUL SANDERS SMITH 

( Republican-Rowan County) 
I wcnt\- 1 hird Senatorial District-Davidson, Davie and Rowan Counties. 



r\. JIH 



Early Years: Born in Salisbury, Rowan County, March 16, 1927, to Karl F. and Mar\ 
(Sanders) Smith. 

Education: Boyden High School. 1948: Catawba College. 1948-49; Management Insti- 
tute. UNC-Chapel Hill, 1966-70. 

Professional Background: Executive Vice President. Marketing and Operations. Holding 
Brothers. Inc. 

Organizations: Salisbury Sales and Marketing Executives (president. 1975-76); Salisburx- 
Rowan Merchants Association (President-1975); Lexington Retail Merchants Asso- 
ciation: Row an Oil Dealers Association ( President. 1 966-76); NC Merchants Associa- 
tion. Advisor) Board. 1982-present; Boy Scouts of America (Scoutmaster: Advisory 
Board. Central N.C. Council, 1983-present); Coach (Little League Baseball and 
\ MC \ Basketball); Salisbury Chamber of Commerce (President. 1976); Lexington 
Chamber of Commerce; Salisbury Rotary (Director, 1970-71;): Salvation Army Advi- 
sory Board. 1979-present; Davidson County Art Guild: Catawba College Alumni 
Association; Friends of the Library Association for Retarded Citizens; Former 
Member, N.C. Oil Jobbers Governmental Affairs Board: North State Football Offi- 
cials Association; Tri-County Mental Health Board: United Way (Budget Chair- 
man. 1976); Board Member. NC Merchants Association. 

Political Activities: Member. N.C. Sentate, 1981-82. 1985-86. 1987-; Rowan County 
Republican Party. Chairman. 1983-84; GOP Presidential Elector. 8th District. 1984; 
Chairman. Rules and Resolutions. GOP 8th District. 1984; State Executive Commit- 
tee 1981-84; Chairman, Rowan County Board of Commissioners. 1978-79: Minority 
Whip. 1985; Member and Executive Commissoner of Southern Regional Educational 
Board. 

Military: Served. U.S. Navy, 1943-45 (Seaman 1st Class). 

Honors: Friend of the Library. 1983; Oil Industry Award, N.C. Oil Jobbers; Order of the 
Arrow; Scouter's Kev; Man of the Year. 1976; Citizen of the Year. 1975; Boss of the 
Year. 1971; Friend of the Boy. 1965. 

Religious Activities: Member. St. John's Lutheran Church. Salisbury; Church Council: 
Pulpit Committee: Men of the Church; Vice President. J. L. Fisher Bible Class; 
Chairman. Education Committee. 

Family: Married. Alda Olivia Clark of Salisbury, September 4. 1950. Children: Paula. 
Charles, and Amy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Commerce Committee. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations: Appropriations Human 
Resources: Base Budget: Economic Growth; Finance; Higher Education; 
Human Resources; Insurance; Manufacturing and Labor; Rules and Operation 
of the House: State Government; Ways and Means: University Board o\ 
Governors. 




The Legislative Branch 325 

ROBERT CHARLES SOLES, JR. 

(Democrat -- Columbus County) 

Eighteenth Senatorial District Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, and 
Cumberland (part) Counties — One Senator. 



mh 



Early Years: Born in Tabor City, December 17, 1934, to Robert C. and Myrtle 

(Norris) Soles. 
Education: Tabor City High School; Wake Forest University, 1956, B.S.; UNC-Chapel 

Hill, School of Law, 1959, J. D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: American and NC Bar Associations; American Trial Lawyers Associa- 
tion; NC Association of County Attorneys; Phi Alpha Delta; Rotary Club (former 
President). 

Boards and Commissions: President, Southeastern Community College Foundation; 
Southern Growth Policies Board; Trustee, UNC-Wilmington; former Trustee, 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-Present (6 terms); NC House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1957-67 (Captain). 

Religious Activities: Member, Tabor City Baptist Church. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary IV. 
Vice Chairman: Commerce. 

Member: Constitution; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Agriculture; Finance; 
Insurance. 



326 



Nor i ii Caroi ina Manual 




ROBERT VANCE SOMERS 

( Republican-Rowan County) 
wenty-third Senatorial District-Davidson, Davie, and Rowan Counties. 



m\ 



Early Years: Born in Statesville, Iredell County, November 2 1 , 1937. to Walter Vanee and 
Ethel (Owens) Somers. 

Education: East Tennessee State University, I960. B.S.; DNC-Chapel Hill, School of 
Law, 1963. J.I). 

Professional Background: Attorney 

Organizations: N.C. Association of Trial Lawyers; N.C. Bar Association. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1973-74, 1977-78, 1985-86, 1987-; Prosecutor, 
Rowan County, 1964. 1967-68; Judge, Randolph County Court, 1965-66; Republican 
Candidate. U.S. Senate, 1968; Prosecuting Attorney, Randolph County, 1964. 

Religious Activities: Member, Cleveland Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Denise Lingelbach of Asheville, December 8, 1984. Children: Jordan 
and Allison. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Higher Education; Judiciary III; Natural and Economic 
Resources and Wildlife; Transportation; Veterans Affairs and Senior Citi/ens. 




The Legislative Branch 327 

JAMES DAVIS SPEED 

(Democrat-Franklin County) 

Eleventh Senatorial District-Franklin, Vance and Wake (part) Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Louisburg, Franklin County, January 30, 1915, to Henry Plummer 
and Addie (Jeffreys) Speed. 

Education: Gold Sand High School; NCSU. 

Profession: Farmer; Tobacco Warehouseman. 

Organizations: Farm Bureau (Past President); Agri-Business Council; Mason (Past Mas- 
ter) Shriner. 

Boards: N.C. Tobacco Foundation Board of Directors; N.C. State University Veterinary 
School Foundation Board; N.C. Local Government Advocacy Council; Former 
Member, N.C. Board of Agriculture; Franklin Memorial Hospital, Board of Direc- 
tors, former Chairman; former member, N.C. State Farm Bureau Board; former 
Chairman, Franklin County Democratic Party; Franklin County Board of Health, 
former member. 

Honors: Outstanding Service Award by N.C. Association of Rescue Squads, 1971; 
District Tree Farmer of the Year, 1974; onservation Farmer of the Year, 1975; Cited by 
N.C. State University for Outstanding Service to the Tobacco Industry, 1982; 
Louisburg-Franklin County Chamber of Commerce Achievement Award, 1980; 
Louisburg College Medallion Award, 1983. 

Political Activities: N.C. Senate, 1977-Present (6 terms). Member, N.C. House of 
Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971 Sessions; Member. 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Martha Matthews, November 29, 1947. Children: Claudia, Tommy and 
James. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Agriculture Committee 

Vice Chairman: Veterans Affairs and Senior Citizens Committee 

Member: Appropriations on Natural and Economic Resources; Children and 
Youth; Education; Finance; Pensions and Retirement; Transportation. 



328 North Carolina M am m 



f 



<• s*** "*** 



WILLIAM WAYNE STATON 

(Democrat Ice County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District Harnett, lee. and Wake (part) Counties 
I hree Senators. 




Early Years: Born in Olive Branch, Union County, October II. 1917, to Oscar M. and 
Mae (Young) Staton. 

Education: Mt. Ulla High School; Wake Forest University, 1938. B.S.; Wake Forest 
University, School of Law. 1941, LI..B. and J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (senior member in firm of Staton, Perkinson, West Doster and 
Dost); Former Attorney: Sanford Board of Education, 1956-1972; Central Carolina 
Technical College, 1960-1972; Town of Carrboro, 1971-1972. 

Organizations: Eleventh Judicial District Bar Association (President); American Bar 
Association; BPO Elks; Royal Order of Moose; Veterans of Foreign Wars; Ameri- 
can Legion; Disabled American Veterans; Woodmen of the World. Former mem- 
ber: Sanford Chamber of Commerce (President); United Fund of Lee County (Presi- 
dent); Sanford Cotillion Club (President); Lee District Boy Scouts (Chairman); 
Occoneechee Council, BSA (Vice President); Cape Fear Basin Development Asso- 
ciation (President, 1948-1950); Sanford Executive Club (President). 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors: Mid-South Bank & Trust Company. 
1974-; Golden Corral Corporation,, 1 974-; Investors Management Corporation. 
1974-85. Former member, NC Commission for Improved Courts. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1969, 1971. 1973-74, 1975-76, 1983-84, 1985- 
86, 1987-; NC House of Representatives, 1967; Democratic National Committee, 
1960-1964; NC Democratic Executive Committee, 1951-1952, 1960-1964; President, 
Young Democrats of NC, 1951-1952; Lee County Democratic Executive Commit- 
tee, 1948-1949. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-1946. Reserves, 1948-68 (Colonel); Judge 
Advocate Corps; Battle Stars (3) European Theatre; Purple Heart, Battle of the 
Bulge; Bronze Star Metal for Valor, Ordennes Campaign of 1945. 

Honors: NC Legion of Merit; Sanford Community Service Award, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Sanford Board of Deacons; 

Chairman, Board of Trustees; teacher. Men's Bible Class, 27 years. 
Family: Married, Ellen Boone of Jackson, June 28, 1947. Children: William Wayne, 

Jr. and Allyn Moore. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Economic Growth. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary II. 

Member: Commerce; Higher Education; Insurance; Education; Finance; State 
Personnel; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 329 

ROBERT STRINGFIELD SWAIN 

(Democrat Buncombe County) 

Twenty-eighth Senatorial District Buncombe, McDowell. Madison, 
and Yancey Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, July 25, 1921, to John Edward and Mozelle Brewster 
(Stringfield) Swain. 

Education: Lee H. Edwards High School, 1939; Mars Hill College (Wake Forest- 
Meredith summer school), 1939; UNC-Chapel Hill 1939-40; Biltmore College, 1940; 
University of New Mexico, 1941-42; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law. 1946-49, 
LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: Buncombe County and NC Bar Associations; NC Trial Lawyers Asso- 
ciation; Moose International; Phi Alpha Delta; York Rite Mason; Shrine. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Criminal Justice Commission of SLC; Gover- 
nor's Crime Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-Present (6 terms) ; Solicitor, 19th Dis- 
trict. Buncombe and Madison Counties, 1955-67. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1943-1946 (1st Lieutenant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Board of Stewards; Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Children: Jennifer Ellen, Barbara Giffen, Patricia Ann, Robert Edward and 
Katherine Anne. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary III. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Election Laws; Pensions and Retire- 
ment; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Senior Citizens; Ways and Means. 



330 North Carolina Manual 




\ 



THOMAS FLEMING TAFT 

(Democrat - Pitt County) 



Ninth Senatorial District Beaufort (part), Martin (part), and I'itt 

I f~ ^ Wf (part) Counties One Senator. 

- 4 



JK- 



h 



Early Years: Burn in Greenville, Pitt County, December 29. 1945. to Edmund Hoover 
and Helen Irene (Fleming) Taft, Jr. 

Education:.!. H. Rose High School, 1964; Duke University. 1968. A.B.; Unidersidadi- 
bero-Americana, Mexico City, summer, 1965; UNC-Chapel Hill. School of Law, 
J.D.; Hague Academy of International Law, 1970; City of London, 1970, Certifi- 
cate of International Law. 

Profession: Attorney (managing partner, firm of Taft, Taft, and Haigler); President, 
Eastern Lumber and Supply Company; President. Hardware Suppliers of America, 
Inc.; President, Mercer Glass Company; President, Bowser Construction Company, 
Inc.; President, Lake Placid Development Company, Inc.; President, University 
Medical Park, Inc. 

Organizations: Pitt County, NC and American Bar Associations; NC Academy of 
Trial Lawyers; American Trial Lawyers Association; NC Home Builders Associa- 
tion; Pitt-Greenville Chamber of Commerce; NC Citizens for Business and Indus- 
try; University City Kiwanis Club; Master Mason; Pitt County Farm Bureau. 

Boards and Commissions: ECU Medical Foundation; NC State Ports Authority 
(Chairman, 1977-85); Southern Growth Policies Board, 1978-79. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1 987-; legal counsel to James B. 
Hunt, Ft. Governor, 1972-74. 

Honors: Jaycee Distinguished Service Award; President's Cup. Pitt County United 
Way; Outstanding Young Men of America; Eagle Scouts, BSA, I960. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1968-74 (Specialist 4th Class). Field 

Artillery and Forward Air Defense. 
Religious Activities: Member, Jarvis Memorial United Methodist Church; Official 

Board 1980-83 (Co-Chairman, 1981); Stewardship Campaign. 

Family: Married, Kathy Arnold, January 30, 1982. Children: Jessica, Paige, Thomas 
and Jonathan. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Personnel. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Environment. 

Member: Judiciary II; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Appropriations; 
Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety; Base Budget; Education; Insu- 
rance; State Government. 



The Legislative Branch 



331 




LIRA SELF TALLY 

(Democrat -- Cumberland County) 

Twelfth Senatorial District Cumberland (part) Count} 

Senators. 



I wo 






Early Years: Born in Statesville, December 9, 1921, to R.O. and Sara Sherrill (Cowles) 

Self. 
Education: Raleigh Public Schools and Needham Broughton High School, 1938; 

Peace College; Duke University, A.B., 1942; NCSU School of Education, 1970 

M.A. 
Profession: Teacher and guidance counselor, Fayetteville City Schools; teacher. Adult 

Education, Fayetteville Technical Institute. 

Organizations: NEA; NC Association of Educators; NC Personnel and Guidance 
Association; American Association of University Women; Business and Profes- 
sional Women's Club; NC Federation of Women's Clubs; NC Society for Preserva- 
tion of Antiquities (former President); Fayetteville Women's Club (former Presi- 
dent); President, Cumberland County Mental Health Association; Coordinator of 
Volunteers, Cumberland County Mental Health Center; Kappa Delta. 

Boards and Commissions: Fayetteville Recreation Commission; NCSU Foundation 
Board; Fayetteville Technical Institute Board, 1983; Juvenile Code Revision Com- 
mission, 1977-79; Mental Health Study Commission, 1986-87. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; NC House of 
Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82. 

Honors: Business and Professional Woman of the Year, Fayetteville, 1978. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hay Street Methodist Church, Fayetteville. 

Family: Children: Robert Taylor and John Cowles. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 

Vice Chairman: Higher Education. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Education; Base Budget; Children 
and Youth; Education; Judiciary I; Environment; Human Resources; Natural 
and Economic Resources and Wildlife; University Board of Governors. 



332 North Carolina Manual 




ROYCE PHELPS THOMAS 

(Democrat Henderson County) 

rwenty-ninth Senatorial District Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, 
Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Polk. Swain, and ["ransylvania Counties 
Two Senators. 



Earl) Years: Born in Avon Park, Florida, January 3, 1932, to J.R. and Eunice M. 
( Phelps) Thomas. 

Education: Blue Ridge School for Boys, 1946-48; Duke University. 1948-51; US Army 
Advanced Infantry Officers School, 1957-58. 

Profession: Fruit and vegetable distributor. 
Organizations: BPO F.Iks Lodge No.# 1616; Lions Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate. 1979-Present (5 terms); Chairman. 1 1th Con- 
gressional District, Democratic Party of NC. 1980-81, 1982-83. 

Military Service: Served. US Army, 1951-60 (Captain); Infantrv; Hall of Fame, 
Infantry OCS 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Hendersonville; Deacon, 
1979-81. 

Family: Married, Margaret C. Stonecipher, May 19, 1951. Children: James Royce, 
Mary Cecille (Thomas) Vierira and Richard Latt. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations on General Government. 

Member: Commerce; Environment; Ways and Means; Appropriations; Base 
Budget; Human Resources; Finance; Manufacturing and Labor; Natural and 
Economic Resources and Wildlife. 




The Legislative Branch 333 

RUSSELL GRADY WALKER 

(Democrat Randolph County) 

Sixteenth Senatorial District - Chatham, Moore, Orange (part), and 
Randolph Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Conetoe, Edgecombe County, August 26, 1918, to Ashley and 
Alleen (Bryant) Walker. 

Education: High Point High School; US Army Air Corps Pilot Training School. 
Profession: Retired chain supermarket operator (former President, Food Line Super 
Markets, Inc.) 

Organizations: Masonic Order, Balfour Lodge; Asheboro Kiwanis Club (former Presi- 
dent; former Lt. Governor, Carolinas District); former President, NC Food Dealers 
Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member (Former Chairman), Commission on Children 
with Special Needs; ex-officio member. Mental Health Study Commission; Ashe- 
boro Airport Authority (former Chairman); Co-Chairman, Legislative Research 
Commission on Waste Disposal, Planning and Management; NC Energy Policy 
Council, 1975-78; Member, Governmental Operations Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1975 to present (7 terms); Chairman, NC 

Democratic Party, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-; Asheboro City Council, 1961-65. 
Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1941-46; Reserves, 1947-55 (Captain). 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Asheboro; Deacon, 1968-1971. 

Family: Married, Ruth Brunt, July 13, 1941. Children: Russell G., Jr., Susan (Walker) 
Smith and Stephen Allen. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources; University Board of Governors. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Economic Growth; 
Environment; Finance; Judiciary III; Local Government II; Rules and Opera- 
tion of the Senate; State Government; University Board of Governors; Ways 
and Means. 



334 North Carolina Mwi \i 



Ir^* 



> 






} 



MARVIN MARTIN WARD 

(Democrat- Forsyth County) 
I wentieth Senatorial District-Forsyth County (part). 



£ 




Early Years: Bom in Morrison, Virinia, Herniary 10, 1914, to Charles Tilden and Nora 
Belle (Martin) Ward. 

Education: East Bend High School, 1930; Appalachian State University, 1934, B.A.; 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 1940, M.A.. 

Professional Background: Retired educator (former Superintendent of Winston- 
Salem Forsyth County Schools). 

Organizations: American Association of School Administrators; NC Division of Super- 
intendents; Mid-URBAN Superintendents (former President and Director); life 
member, PI A; life member. National Education Association; Lions Club; Ardmore 
Community Club (former President); Winston-Salem Automobile Club, Director; 
Winston-Salem Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Education Commission of the States; Governors Council on Education; Forsyth 
County Mental Health Association, Board Member, Mental Health Study Commis- 
sion; Task Force on Child Mental Health Services, Chairman; Public School Forum 
of North Carolina, Board Member; Task Force on the Preparation of Teachers; 
Governmental Operations Study Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1979 to present (five terms). 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, 1976, Winston-Salem Lions Club; Valand Award, 
1982. for outstanding service in the field of mental health; Outstanding Support of 
Public Education Award, 1 985, North Carolina Association of Educators; Legislative 
Award, 1985, North Carolina School Psychology Association; Outstanding Service 
Award. 1986. North Carolina Mental Health Association; Distinguished Alumni 
Award, 1986, Appalachain State University; Bell Award, 1987, Forsyth County Men- 
tal Health Association. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Cetenary Church, Winston-Salem; Administra- 
tive Board; Budget and Finance Committee; Sunday School teacher; Chairman. Stall 
Parish Committee. 1974-77; Sunday School Superintendant, 1958-61. 

Family: Married, Mary June Darden, August 23, 1941. Children; Elizabeth (Ward) Cone 
and Marvin Thomas. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations on Education. 

Vice-Chairman: Education. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Finance; Human 
Resources; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife; Rules and Opera- 
tion of the Senate; Transportation; Ways and Means; Board of Community 
Colleges. 




The Legislative Branch 335 

ROBERT DAVIS WARREN 

(Democrat Johnston County) 

Fifteenth Senatorial District — Johnston and Sampson Counties — One 
Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, July 22, 1928, to Opheus and Neta (Jackson) 
Warren. 

Education: NCSU, 1950, B.S.; NCSU, 1968, M.Ed.; graduate studies, ECU. 

Profession: Retired educator, realtor, auctioneer. 

Organization: Masonic Order; Scottish Rite Shrine, Sudan Temple; NC Farm Bureau; 
Johnston County Arts Society; NC Wildlife Federation; Mental Health Association 
of Johnston County; Coats Hunting & Fishing Club; Benson Area Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Benson Recreation Commission; Council on Developmental 
Disabilities; Capital City Planning Commission, Johnston Co. Retired School Per- 
sonnel; Wolfpack Club; NCSU Alumni Association; Quail Unlimited; Keep John- 
ston Co. Beautiful. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; Sampson 
County Democratic Men's Club; Governor's Advisory Committee on Vocational 
Education, 1969-73. Johnson Co. Democratic Men's Club: Johnson Co. Demo- 
cratic Women; NC Democratic Party. 

Honors: Boss of the Year, Johnston County, Honorary Farmer Degree, FFA (chapter 
and state); Outstanding Mason, Relief Lodge No. 431, 1981; Citizen of The Year, 
Benson, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benson Baptist Church; Deacon, 1950-; Sunday School 
Superintendent; Sunday School Teacher, Married Couples' Class, 1966. 

Family: Married, Ann Sparks, January 20, 1951; Children: Robert Davis, Jr. and Gary 
Burrell. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations; Base Budget. 

Member: Environment; Transportation, Ways and Means; Finance; Judiciary 1; 
Rules and Operation of the Senate. 



336 



North Carolina Manual 




DENNIS JAY WINNER 

(Democrat Buncombe County) 

rwenty-eighth Senatorial District Buncombe. McDowell, Madison, 
and Yancev Counties Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Canton. Buncombe County, March 29, 1942, to Harry and 
Julienne (Marder) Winner. 

Education: Lee H. Edwards High School, 1960; UNC-Chapel Hill. 1963, A.B.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1966, J.D. with honors. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Erwin and Winner, P. A.). 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors: Asheville Chamber Music Association; 
UNC Law Alumni Association, 1982-; UNC Board of Visitors, 1976-; Asheville Art 
Museum. Former member: NC Judicial Council, 1973-74; NC Courts Commission. 
President, Buncombe County Bar Association, 1982. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, I987-; Superior Court 
Judge. 1972-75; District Court Judge, 1970-72; President, Buncombe County Young 
Democrats Club. 1968. 

Military Service: Served, NC Air National Guard, 1966-1972 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Congregation Beth Ha Tephila, Asheville. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Environment. 

Vice Chairman: Education. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Education; Base Budget; Constitu- 
tion; Finance; Judiciary IV; Rules and Operation of the Senate; State 
Government; University Board of Directors; Ways and Means. 



The Legislative Branch 



337 




SYLVIA MORRIS FINK 

Principal Clerk 
North Carolina Senate 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, August 8, 1936, to Warren Reid (deceased) and Effie 
(Howard) Morris. 

Education: Mount Holly High School, 1954; Pfeiffer College, 1955-56. 

Profession: Principal Clerk, NC Senate, 1976- (first woman); Senate staff, 1967, 1973- 
76; Deputy Clerk, NC Court of Appeals, 1967-68; formerly employed by Duke 
Power Company, Cannon Mills Company and Charlotte Chamber of Commerce. 

Organizations: American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries Executive 
Committee, Wake Democratic Women; Pfeiffer College. 

Political Activities: Principal Clerk, NC Senate, 1976 to present. Journal Clerk, NC 
Senate, 1975-76; Assistant Journal Clerk, NC Senate, 1973-74; Committee Clerk. 
NC Senate, 1967. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benson Memorial United Methodist Church; life mem- 
ber. Women's Society of Christian Service (former President and Vice President). 
Former MYF counselor, Sunday School teacher, organist, choir member. 

Family: Children: Paige Elizabeth. 



338 



Nor i li (' \roi INA M \\i \i 



0( CITATIONS 



Account Executive 

Wanda II. Hunt 

Attorney 

Allran, Austin M. 
Marker, William H. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Block, Franklin L. 
Cobb. Laurence A. 
Daniel, George B. 
Ezzell, .lames E., Jr. 
Hipps, Charles W. 
Johnson, James C, Jr. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Martin, William N. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Sands, Alexander P. Ill 
Simpson. Daniel R. 
Soles. Robert C, Jr. 
Somers, Robert V. 
Staton, William W. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Tatt, Thomas F. 
Winner, Dennis J. 

Auctioneer 

Warren, Robert D. 

Banker 

Conder, J. Richard 

Corporate Executive 

Ballenger, T. Cass 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Taft, Thomas F. 
Thomas, R.P. 



OF SENATORS 

Farmer 

Barker, William H. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Martin. R I . 
Parnell. David R. 
Speed, James D. 

Funeral Home Owner 

Harris, Ollie 

Insurance Executive 

Guy, A. D. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Martin. R. L. 
McDuffie, James D. 

Legal Assistant 

Seymour, Mary P. 

Merchant 

Hunt, Ralph A. 
Parnell, David R. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Publisher 

Kaplan, Jed 

Retired 

Richardson, James F. 
Goldston. W. D.. Jr.. 
Harrington. J. J. 
Walker, Russell G. 

Real Estate Executive 

Bryan, Howard 
Guy, A. D. 
Marvin. Helen Rhvne 
Plyler. Aaron W. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Sherron, J. K. 



Contractor 

Basnight, Marc 
Bryan, Howard 

Educator 

Kincaid, Donald R. 

Marvin, Helen Rhvne (retired) 

Tally, Lura S. 

Ward, Marvin (retired) 

Warren, Robert D. (retired) 



Restaurateur 

Shaw, Robert G. 

Tobacco Warehouseman 

Speed, James D. 



The Legislative Branch 



339 



1987 SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL 

Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 
Vice Chairman: Kaplan. Ian T. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Goldston, William D.. 
Smith, Paul S. 



Jr. 



Barker. William H. 
Hardison. Harold W. 



Daniel, George B. 
Rand, Anthonv E. 



Barnes. Henson P. 
Ezzell. James E., Jr. 
Parnell, David R. 
Soles, Robert C, Jr. 



Barker, William H. 
Block, Franklin L. 
Daniel, George B. 
Guy, Alexander D. 
Hunt, Ralph A. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Sands, Alexander P.. Ill 
Smith, Paul S. 
Taft, Thomas F. 
Ward, Marvin M. 



AGRICULTURE 

Chairman: Speed, James D. 

Vice Chairman: Taft, Thomas F. 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 



Basnight, Marc 
Martin, Robert L. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Bryan, Howard F. 



Block, Franklin L. 
McDuffie, James D. 
Shaw, Robert G. 
Sherron, Jim Kemp 



APPROPRIATIONS 

Chairman: Plyler, Aaron W. 

Vice Chairman: Hardison. Harold W. 

Vice Chairman: Martin, William N. 

Vice Chairman: Parnell, David R. 

Vice Chairman: Royall, Kenneth 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 



Barnes. Henson P. 
Cobb, Laurence A. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Hunt, Wanda H. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Thomas. Royce Phelps 
Winner, Dennis J. 



Basnight. Marc 
Conder, J. Richard 
Goldston, William D.. Jr. 
Harris, J. Ollie 
Johnson, James C, Jr. 
Martin, Robert L. 
Richardson, James F. 
Simpson, Daniel R. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Walker. Russell G. 



Conder, J. Richard 
Winner, Dennis J. 



APPROPRIATIONS — EDUCATION 

Chairman: Ward, Marvin M. 
Vice Chairman: Martin, William N. 



Simpson, Daniel R. 



Tally, Eura S. 



APPROPRIATIONS - GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Thomas, Royce P. 
Vice Chairman: Goldston, William D., Jr. 



Block, Eranklin L. 
Sands, Alexander P., Ill 



Hunt, Ralph A. 
Seymour, Mary P. 



Johnson. James C, Jr. 



APPROPRIATIONS — HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 
Vice Chairman: Harris. J. Ollie 



Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Smith, Paul S. 



Harrington, J. J. 
Guy. Alexander D. 



Richardson, James I 



340 Nor mi Caroi ina Manual 



APPROPRIATIONS — JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Marvin, Helen R. 
Vice Chairman: Parnell, David R. 

Cobb. Laurence A Daniel, George B. Johnson, Joseph E. 

Swam. Robert S. latt, Thomas F. 

APPROPRIATIONS — NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Basnight, Mare 
Vice Chairman: Martin. Robert L. 

Barker, William H. Barnes. Henson P. Speed, .lames I) 

Hunt, Wanda H. Kincaid, Donald R. 

BASE BUDGET 

Chairman: Rand. Anthony F. 

Vice Chairman: Hardison. Harold W. 

Vice Chairman: Martin, William N. 

Vice Chairman: Parnell, David R. 

Vice Chairman: Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Warren. Robert D. 

All members of the Appropriations Committee are also members of the Base Budget Committee. 

CHILDREN AND YOUTH 

Chairman: Condor. J. Richard 
Vice Chairman: Hipps. Charles W. 
Vice Chairman: Barnes. Henson P. 

Allran. Austin M. Harris, J. Ollie Johnson, James C, Jr. 

Martin. William N. Marvin, Helen R. Richardson, James F. 

Shaw. Robert G. Speed. James D. I ally. Lura S. 

Walker. Russell G. Ward, Marvin M. 

COMMERCE 

Chairman: Hardison, Harold W. 

Vice Chairman, Smith, Paul S. 

Vice Chairman: Soles. Robert C. Jr. 

Barker, William H. Block, Franklin L. Cobb, Laurence A. 

Goldston, William IX. Jr. Guy, Alexander D. Harris, J. Ollie 

Johnson, Joseph F. Kaplan. Ian T. Kincaid, Donald R. 

Parnell. David R. Plyler, Aaron W. Rand. Anthony E. 

Ranch, Marshall A. Royall. Kenneth C. Jr. Seymour, Mary P. 

Shaw. Robert G. Staton, William W. Thomas, Royce P. 

CONSTITUTION 

Chairman: Hipps. Charles W. 
Vice Chairman: Daniel, George B. 

Barnes. Henson P. Johnson, James C Jr. Kaplan. Ian T. 

Ranch. Marshall A. Soles. Robert C. Jr. Winner, Dennis J. 

ECONOMIC GROWTH 

Chairman: Staton, William W. 

Vice Chairman: Rand. Anthony F. 

Vice Chairman: Royall. Kenneth C Jr. 

Conder. J. Richard Goldston. William D., Jr. Hipps, Charles W 

Kaplan, Ian T. Martin, William N. Seymour, Mary P. 

Smith. Paul S. Walker, Russell G. 



The Legislative Branch 



341 



Basnight, Marc 
Hunt, Ralph A. 
Martin, Robert L. 
Richardson, James F. 
Staton, William W. 



Cobb, Laurence A. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Bryan. Howard F. 



Barker, William H. 
Johnson, James C, Jr. 
Tally, Lura S. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Guy, Alexander D. 
Harris, J. Ollie 
Kaplan, Ian T. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Sherron, Jim Kemp 
Somers, Robert V. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Winner, Dennis J. 



EDUCATION 

Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 
Vice Chairman: Ward, Marvin M. 
Vice Chairman: Winner, Dennis J. 



Conder, J. Richard 
Hunt, Wanda H. 
Marvin, Helen R. 
Simpson, Daniel R. 
Taft. Thomas F. 



Hipps, Charles W. 
Martin, William N. 
McDuffie, James D. 
Speed, James D. 
Tally, Lura S. 



ELECTION LAWS 

Chairman: Kaplan, Ian T. 
Vice Chairman: Ezzell, James E., Jr. 



Daniel, George B. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Seymour, Mary P. 



Hunt, Ralph A. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Swain, Robert S. 



ENVIRONMENT 

Chairman: Winner, Dennis J. 
Vice Chairman: Taft, Thomas F. 



Harris, J. Ollie 
Kaplan, Ian T. 
Thomas, Royce Phelps 

FINANCE 

Chairman: Rauch. 
Vice Chairman: Thomas, 

Bryan, Howard F. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Hipps, Charles W. 
McDuffie, James D. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Speed, James D. 
Ward, Marvin M. 



Hipps, Charles W. 

Martin, William N. 
Walker. Russell G. 



Goldston, William D. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Hunt. Wanda H. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Shaw, Robert G. 
Soles, Robert C, Jr. 
Staton, William W. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Jr. 



Conder, J. Richard 
Hunt, Ralph A. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Staton, William W. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 

Chairman: Martin, William N. 

Vice Chairman: Cobb, Laurence A. 

Vice Chairman: Tally, Lura S. 



Goldston, William D., Jr. 
Martin, Robert L. 
Smith, Paul S. 



Hipps, Charles W. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Somers, Robert V. 



Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Hunt, Wanda H. 
Richardson, James F. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Basnight, Marc 



HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Harris, J. Ollie 
Vice Chairman: Martin, William N. 
Vice Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Kincaid. Donald R. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Thomas, Royce Phelps 
Bryan, Howard F. 



Harrington. J. J. 
Marvin, Helen R. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Ward, Marvin M. 



342 North Carolina Manual 



INSURANCE 

Chairman: Parnell, David R 
Vice Chairman: Johnson, Joseph F. 
Vice Chairman: Kincaid, Donald R. 

Hardison, Harold W. Rand. Anthom I Seymour, Mary P. 

Smith. Paul S. Soles, Robert C., Jr. Staton. William W. 

I alt. I homas F. 

JUDICIARY I 

( hairman: Raines. Henson P. 
Vice Chairman: Hipps. Charles W. 

I //ell. James I .. Jr. Johnson. James C. Jr. Martin, William N. 

Seymour, Mary P. Tally. Lura S. Warren, Robert D. 

JUDICIARY II 

Chairman: Johnson, Joseph E. 
Vice Chairman: Staton. William W. 

Barker, William H. Cobb, Laurence A. Goldston, William D., Jr. 

Hardison. Harold W. Hunt. Wanda H. I'att. Thomas F. 

JUDICIARY III 

Chairman: Swain, Robert S. 
Vice Chairman: Sands, Alexander P.. Ill 

Allran. Austin M. Daniel. George B. Harris, J. Ollie 

Sherron, Jim Kemp Somers. Robert V. Walker, Russell G. 

JUDICIARY IV 

Chairman: Soles, Robert C, Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Rand, Anthony F. 

Block, Franklin 1 . Kaplan, Ian T. Marvin. Helen Rhyne 

Parnell. David R. Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. Simpson, Daniel R. 

Winner. Dennis J. 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND REGIONAL AFFAIRS I 

Chairman: Ezzell, James F., Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Hunt, Ralph A. 

Allran, Austin M. Daniel, Cieorge B. Martin, Robert F. 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne McDuffie, James D. Shaw. Robert G. 

Sherron, Jim Kemp 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND REGIONAL AFFAIRS II 

Chairman: Hunt. Wanda H. 
Vice Chairman: Basnight. Marc 

Conder, J. Richard Johnson, James C, Jr. Bryan. Howard F. 

Richardson. James F Sands. Alexander P.. Ill Simpson. Daniel R. 

Swam. Robert S. Walker. Russell G. 



The Legislative Branch 



343 



Allran, Austin M. 
Guy, Alexander D. 
Kincaid. Donald R. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Smith, Paul S. 



MANUFACTURING AND LABOR 

Chairman: Martin, Robert L. 
Vice Chairman: Block, Franklin L. 



Daniel, George B. 
Harris. J. Ollie 
Parnell, David R. 
Richardson, James F. 
Thomas, Royce Phelps 



Goldston, William D., Jr. 
Hunt, Ralph A. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Sands, Alexander P.. Ill 



NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES AND WILDLIFE 

Chairman: Tally, Lura S. 
Vice Chairman: Barker, William H. 
Vice Chairman: Guy, Alexander D. 



Basnight, Marc 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Simpson. Daniel R. 
Ward, Marvin M. 



Block, Franklin L. 
Shaw, Robert G. 
Somers. Robert V. 



Harrington, J. J. 
Sherron, Jim Kemp 
Thomas, Royce Phelps 



Barker, William H. 
McDulfie, James D. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 



PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT 

Chairman: Hunt, Ralph A. 

Vice Chairman: Marvin, Helen Rhyne 

Vice Chairman: Swain, Robert S. 



Basnight. Marc 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Sherron, Jim Kemp 



Harrington, J. J. 
Bryan, Howard F. 
Speed, James D. 



RULES AND OPERATION OF THE SENATE 

Chairman: Harrington, J. J. 
Vice Chairman: Rovall, Kenneth C, Jr. 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Kincaid. Donald R. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Soles, Robert C, Jr. 
Ward, Marvin M. 



Conder, J. Richard 
Harris, J. Ollie 
Parnell, David R. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Taft, Thomas F. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Guy, Alexander D. 
Hunt, Wanda H. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Walker, Russell (i. 
Winner, Dennis J. 



Cobb, Laurence A. 
Harris, J. Ollie 
Royall, Kenneth C. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Walker, Russell G. 



Jr. 



STATE GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Guy. Alexander D. 
Vice Chairman: Conder, J, Richard 
Vice Chairman: Johnson, Joseph E. 



Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Martin, Robert L. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Swain. Robert S. 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Parnell. David R. 
Simpson, Daniel R. 
I alt, Thomas F. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Daniel, George B. 
Martin, Robert L. 
Simpson, Daniel R. 



STATE PERSONNEL 

Chairman: Taft, Thomas F. 
Vice Chairman: Sherron, Jim Kemp 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Hipps, Charles W. 
Parnell, David R. 
Staton, William W. 



Conder, J. Richard 
Johnson, Joseph 1 
Sands, Alexander P. 



Ill 



344 



Nor i ii Carolina M \\r \i 



Barker. William H. 
Bryan, Howard 1 
McDuffie, James D. 
Somers, Robei i \ 
Ward, Marvin M. 



TRANSPORTATION 

Chairman: Goldston, William I).. ,lr 
Vice Chairman: Harrington, J. J. 



Barnes. Henson P. 
Hunt, Ralph A. 
Sands. Alexander P., Ill 
Speed, .lames I). 
Warren, Robert D. 



Basnight, Mare 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Sherron, Jim Kemp 
Staton, William W. 



Barnes. Henson P. 
Guy, Alexander D. 
Sherron. Jim Kemp 



VETERANS AFFAIRS AND SENIOR CITIZENS 

Chairman: Richardson, James F. 
Vice Chairman: Hunt, Wanda H. 
Vice Chairman: Speed, James D. 

Conder. J. Richard 
Jr. Sands. Alexander P., Ill 

Swain, Robert S. 



Goldston, William D.. Jr. 
Harris. J. Ollie 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Walker. Russeil G. 
Winner. Dennis J. 



Block, Franklin L 
Johnson. James C 
Somers, Robert V 



WAYS AND MEANS 

Chairman: Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Plyler, Aaron W. 

Vice Chairman: Rauch, Marshall A. 



Guy, Alexander D. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Smith. Paul S. 
Ward. Marvin M. 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Hunt. Wanda H. 
Thomas, Royce Phelps 
Warren. Robert I). 



Harrington. J. J. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Tally, Lura S 



Kincaid, Donald R. 
Rand. Anthony E. 



UNIVERSITY BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Chairman: Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Walker, Russel 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Richardson. James F. 
Winner. Dennis J. 



G 

Martin. William N. 
Smith. Paul S. 



BOARD OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES 

Chairman: Conder, J. Richard 
Vice Chairman: Hunt, Wanda H. 



Marvin. Helen Rhyne 
Richardson, James 1 



Parnell. David R. 
Ward, Marvin M. 



The Legislative Branch 345 

PERMANENT RULES OF THE 1985 SENATE 
GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

I. Order of Business, Rules 

II. Conduct of Debate, Rules 

III. Motions, Rules 

IV. Voting, Rules 

V. Committees, Rules 
VI. Handling Bills, Rules 
VII. Legisltaive Officers and Employees, 

Rules 
VIII. General Rules, Rules 

I. Order of Business 

RULE 1. Rules controlling the Senate of North Carolina and its Committees. - The 
following rules shall govern and control all actions and procedures of the Senate and its 
committees. 

RULE 2. Convening hour. The President shall take the Chair at the hour fixed by 
the Senate upon adjournment on the preceding legislative day, and shall call the mem- 
bers to order. In case the Senate adjourned on the preceding legislative day without hav- 
ing fixed the hour of reconvening, the Senate shall reconvene on the next legislative day 
at 1:30 p.m. 

RULE 3. Opening the session. - The President shall, upon order being obtained, 
have the sessions of the Senate opened with prayer. 

RULE 4. Convening in absence of President. --In the absence of the President, the 
President Pro Tempore shall reconvene the Senate and preside, and during such time 
shall be vested with all powers of the President except that of casting a vote in case of tie 
when he has already voted on the question as a Senator. In the event of the absence of 
the President and President Pro Tempore at any time fixed for the reconvening of the 
Senate, the Principal Clerk of the Senate, or in his absence also, some member of the 
Senate Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, shall call the Senate to order 
and designate some member to act as President. 

RULE 5. Quorum. — (a) A quorum consists of a majority of all the qualified mem- 
bers of the Senate. 

(b) When a lesser number than a quorum convene, the Senators present may send the 
doorkeeper or any person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators 
present determine. 

RULE 6. Approval of Journal. - After the prayer, and upon appearance of a quo- 
rum, the President shall cause the Journal of the preceding day to be read and approved, 
unless the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate or some 
member of the Senate by motion sustained by a majority of the members present, has 
the reading thereof dispensed with and the same approved as written. 

RULE 7. Order of Business. After approval of the journal, the order of business 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of standing committees. 



346 Nor in Caroi.in-x M\ni \i 



(2) Reports of select committees. 

(3) Introduction of bills, petitions, and resolutions. 

(4) Messages from the House of Representatives. 

(5) Unfinished business of preceding day. 

(6) Special orders. 

(7) General Orders: 

(a) Local bills in numerical order. Senate bills first 
(i) Third reading roll call and electronic- 
voting system votes 
(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(iii) Second reading viva voce 
(iv) Third reading viva voce 
(h) Public bills in numerical order. Senate bills first 
(i) Third reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(iii) Second reading viva voce 
(iv) Third reading viva voce 

II. Conduct of Debate 
RULE 8. President to maintain order. - - The President shall have general direction of 
the Hall of the Senate and shall be authorized to take such action as is necessary to 
maintain order, and in case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the galleries or 
lobbies, he shall have the power to order those areas cleared. 

RULE 9. Substitution for President. - The President shall have the right to call on 
any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but substitution shall not extend be- 
yond one day. 

RULE 10. Points of order. — (a) The President shall preserve order and decorum and 
proceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopted. He shall decide 
all questions of order, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any member, on which ap- 
peal no member shall speak more than once unless by leave of the Senate. A two-thirds 
vote of the membership of the Senate is necessary to sustain any appeal from the ruling 
of the Chair. 

(b) In the event the Senate Rules do not provide for, or cover any point of order 
raised by any Senator, the rules of the United States House of Representatives shall 
govern. 

(c) When a Senator is called to order he shall take his seat until the President de- 
termines whether he was in order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not pro- 
ceed without the permission of the Senate; and every question of order shall be decided 
by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any Senator; and if a Senator is 
called to order for words spoken, the words excepted to shall be immediately taken 
down in writing, that the President or Senate may be better able to judge the matter. 



The Legislative Branch 347 



RULE 1 1. Debating and voting by Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor, 
as President of the Senate, being a Constitutional Officer shall not have the right to de- 
bate any question or to address the Senate upon any proposition unless by permission 
of the majority of members present, and shall have the right to vote only when there is a 
tie vote upon any question or election. 

RULE 12. Obtaining recognition. — (a) When any Senator is about to speak in debate 
or deliver any matter to the Senate, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address 
the President. No member shall speak further until recognized by the President, and 
when two or more members rise at the same time, the President shall name the member 
to speak. 

(b) A Senator who has the floor may yield the floor to another Senator only for the 
purpose of allowing another Senator to state a question. Only the Chair may award the 
floor to any Senator for the purposes of allowing that Senator to engage in general de- 
bate. 

(c) A senator who has obtained the floor may be interrupted only for the following 
reasons: 

1. a request that the member speaking yield for a question, 

2. a point of order, or 

3. a parliamentary inquiry. 

RULE 13. Recognition for extending courtesies. - - (a) Courtesies of the floor and 
galleries shall be extended only by the President on his own motion or upon the written 
request of a member of the Senate to former members of the General Assembly or to 
distinguished visitors. 

(b) Members may designate Honorary Pages by a statement delivered to the Principal 
Clerk who will have a certificate issued therefor. 

(c) The President may upon written request at intervals between various orders of 
business extend courtesies to schools or other special large groups visiting in the gal- 
leries while they are present, and the President shall, at such times as he deems ap- 
propriate, express to those visitors in the galleries the pleasure of the Senate for their 
presence. 

RULE 14. Limitations on individual debate. — (a) No Senator shall speak on the same 
day more than twice on the main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first 
speech and fifteen minutes for the second speech. No senator shall speak on the same 
day more than once on an amendment or a motion to reconsider, commit, appeal or 
postpone, and then no longer than ten minutes. 

(b) By permission of the President any member of the Senate may address the Senate 
from the well of the senate for the purpose of explaining a bill or of giving an invoca- 
tion. 

RULE 15. Priority of business. -- All questions relating to priority of business shall 
be decided without debate. 

RULE 16. Reading of papers. - When the reading of a paper, other than a petition, is 
called for, and any Senator objects to the reading, the question shall be determined by 
the Senate without debate. 



348 North Carolina M\nl\i 



Rll I 17. (ieneral decorum. (a) Male Senators and male visitors shall uncover 
their heads upon entering the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session and shall 
continue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber, unless one's religion re- 
quires his head to be covered. 

(b) No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Senator shall be in order 
upon the floor of the Senate unless preceded by a motion or resolution o\ censure. 

(c) When the President is putting a question, or a division by counting is in progress, 
no Senator shall walk out of or across the Chamber, nor when a Senator is speaking, 
pass between him and the President. 

(d) When a motion to adjourn or for recess is affirmatively determined, no member 
or officer shall leave his place until adjournment or recess is declared by the President. 

(e) Smoking shall not be allowed in the galleries of the Senate during sessions. 

(f) No remark soliciting the donation of funds for the support of any person or or- 
ganization shall be in order upon the floor of the Senate, unless the remark has some 
relevance to a bill or resolution before the body. No article of any kind soliciting busi- 
ness or donations may be placed by any person anywhere in the Senate Chamber or in 
any Senate office. 

(g) Food or beverage shall not be permitted in the Senate Chamber, either on the 
floor or in the galleries; however, after the Senate has remained in session for a period of 
two hours, food and beverage shall be allowed upon the floor of the Senate. 

(h) Reading of newspapers, magazines, periodicals or books shall not be acceptable 
while the Senate is in session. 

III. Motions 

RULE 18. Motions generally. — All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by 
the President or a Senator, delivered at the table, and read by the President or Reading 
Clerk before the same are debated; but any motion may be withdrawn by the introducer 
at any time before decision or amendment. No motion relating to a bill shall be in order 
which does not identify the bill by its number and short title. Except as otherwise speci- 
ficially provided in these rules, no second is required. 

RULE 19. Morions; order of precedence. - - When a question is before the Senate no 
motion shall be received except those herein specified, which motions shall have prece- 
dence as follows: 

(1) To adjourn. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

RULE 20. Motions requiring a second. - The motions to adjourn, to lay on the table, 
and to call for the previous question, shall be seconded and decided without debate, 
and the motion to adjourn shall always be in order when made by a Senator entitled to 
the floor. 



The Legislative Branch 349 



RULE 21. Motions to postpone to certain day and to commit. The respective 
motions to postpone to a certain day, or to commit to a standing or select committee, 
shall preclude debate on the main question. 

RULE 22. (Reserved for future use) 

RULE 23. Motion for previous question. - The previous question shall be as follows: 
"Shall the main question be now put?" and until it is decided shall preclude all amend- 
ments and debate. If this question is decided in the affirmative, the "main question" 
shall be on the passage of the bill, resolution, or other matter under consideration; but 
when amendments are pending, the question shall be taken upon such amendments in 
their inverse order, without further debate or amendment: Provided, that no one shall 
move the previous question except the chairman of the committee submitting the report 
on the bill or other matter under consideration, or the member introducing the bill or 
other matter under consideration or the member in charge of the measure, who shall be 
designated by the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the Senate at the 
time the bill or other matter under consideration is reported to the Senate or taken up 
for consideration. 

RULE 24. Motion to reconsider. -- When a question has been once put and decided, 
any Senator who voted in the majority may move to reconsideration thereof; but no 
motion for the reconsideration of any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, 
message, report, amendment, or motion upon which the vote was taken has gone out of 
the possession of the Senate; nor shall any motion for reconsideration be in order unless 
made on the same day or in the next following legislative day on which the vote pro- 
posed to be reconsidered took place, unless the motion is made by the Committee on 
Rules and Operation of the Senate for verbal or grammatical errors in the bills, when 
the motion may be made at any time: Provided, that when the next legislative day has by 
motion of the Senate, been restricted as to matters which may be considered, a motion 
to reconsider shall be in order on the next succeeding day upon which regular business is 
conducted. No question shall be reconsidered more than once. 

IV. Voting 

RULE 25. Use of electronic voting system. (a) Votes on the following questions 
shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded 
on the Journal: 

( 1 ) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that the ayes 
and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 26(b) has been sus- 
tained. 

(3) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Constitution 
of North Carolina. 

(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system, 
and a copy of the machine print-out of the votes shall be filed in the Legislative Librarj 
where it shall be open to public inspection: 

( 1 ) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered after sec- 
ond reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after second reading, and 
all conference reports on public bills. 



350 North Carolina M am m 



(2) An) other question upon direction o\' the (hair or upon motion of any Senator 
supported b\ one-fifth o\' the Senators present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall fix and announce the 
time, not to exceed one minute, w hich shall be allowed for voting on the question before 
the Senate. The system shall be set to lock automatically and to record the vote when 
that time has expired. Once the system has locked and recorded a vote, the vote shall be 
printed b\ the system. 

(d) The voting station at each Senator's desk in the Chamber shall be used onl\ b\ 
the Senator to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall any other 
person vote at a Senator's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of a Senator 
either to request that another vote at the requesting Senator's station, or to vote at an- 
other Senator's station. The Chair shall enforce this rule without exception. 

(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall state the question and 
shall then state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; all opposed vote 

'no': seconds will be allowed for voting on this question; the Clerk will unlock the 

machine." After the machine locks and records the vote, the Chair shall announce the 
vote and declare the result. 

(0 One copy of the machine print-out of the vote record shall be filed in the office of 
the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall be filed in the Legislative Library where it shall 
be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Chair ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative before 
a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he shall announce 
that fact to the Senate and any partial electronic system voting record shall be voided. 
In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or the Rules of the Senate require a 
call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the roll of the Senate, and the ayes and noes 
shall be taken manually and shall be recorded on the Journal. All other votes shall be 
taken by voice vote as prescribed in Senate Rule 26(a). If, after a vote is taken on the 
electronic system, it is discovered that a malfunction caused an error in the electronic 
system print-out, the Chair shall direct the Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to 
verify and correct the print-out record and so advise the Senate. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the elec- 
tronic system (the identification codes having no relation to the order of precedence of 
motions), the motions are coded as follows: 

1. To lay on the table. 

2. For the previous question. 

3. To postpone indefinitely. 

4. To postpone to a day certain. 

5. To refer to a committee. 

6. To reconsider. 

7. To adopt. 

8. To concur. 

9. To take from the table. 
10. Miscellaneous. 

RULE 26. I 'oice voles; call Jar ayes and noes. - (a) When the electronic voting system 
is not used, all votes on which a call of the roll of the Senate is not required shall be 
taken by voice vote. The question shall be put as follows: "Those in favor say 'aye'," 



The Legislative Branch 351 



and, after the affirmative vote is expressed, "Opposed 'no'"; after which the Chair shall 
announce the result. If a division on any vote is desired, it must be called for im- 
mediately before the result of the voting is announced on any question, and upon such 
call, the Chair shall require the members to stand and be counted for and against the 
proposition under consideration. 

(b) The ayes and the noes may be called for on any question before the vote is taken. 
If a Senator desires the ayes and noes recorded on the Journal on a question, he shall 
address the Chair and obtain recognition and say, "Upon that question I call for the 
ayes and noes." Whereupon the Chair shall say, "Is the call sustained?" If one-fifth of 
the Senators present then stand, the vote shall be taken on the electronic voting sytem if 
it is operative, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded on the Journal. If the electronic 
voting system is inoperative, the roll of the Senate shall be called and the ayes and noes 
taken manually and recorded on the Journal. If fewer than one-fifth of the Senators 
present stand to sustain the call, the Chair shall announce, "an insufficient number up" 
and a vote by electronic voting or by voice, whichever is appropriate under the Rules of 
the Senate, shall be taken. 

RULE 27. Pairs. - If a Senator is paired with another Senator on a question, the 
Senator shall announce the pair as follows: "Mr. President, I desire to announce a pair. 
If Senator _ were present, he would vote _; I would vote (the oppo- 

site)." The Senator shall send forward at that time a written statement of the pair on a 
form provided by the Principal Clerk and neither member of the pair shall vote on the 
question. A pair shall be announced before the vote is taken viva voce, or if the electronic 
voting system is used, before the machine is unlocked. The Clerk shall record the pair 
on the Journal when the Constitution or Rules of the Senate require a call of the roll 
and shall record on the electronic system print-out all pairs announced. 

RULE 28. Dividing question. — If any question contains several distinct propositions, 
it shall be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator, provided each subdivi- 
sion, if left to itself, forms a substantive proposition. 

RULE 29. Duty to vote; excuses. -- (a) Every Senator who is within the bar of the 
Senate when the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon unless he is excused 
by the Senate. The bar of the Senate shall include the entire Senate Chamber. 

(b) Any Senator may request to be excused from voting, either immediately before or 
after the vote has been called for and before a viva voce vote result has been announced 
or before the electronic voting system has been unlocked. The Senator may make a brief 
statement of the reasons for making such request, and shall send forward to the Princi- 
pal Clerk, on a form provided by the Clerk, a concise statement of the reason for the re- 
quest, and the Clerk shall include this statement in the Journal. The question on grant- 
ing of the request shall be taken without debate. 

RULE 30. Explanation of vote. — Any Senator may explain his vote on any bill pend- 
ing by obtaining permission of the President after the final vote is taken: Provided, that 
not more than three minutes shall be consumed in such explanation. 

RULE 30.1. Questions of personal privilege. - Upon recognition by the President for 
that purpose, any Senator may speak to a question of personal privilege for a time not 
exceeding three minutes. Personal privilege may not be used to explain a vote or debate 
a bill. The President shall determine if the question raised is one of privilege and shall, 
without the point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 



352 North Carolina Manuai 



V. Committees 

RULE 31. Appointment oj Committees. (a) The President o\' the Senate, unless he 
has by law disqualified himself from that offiee. shall have the exclusive right and au- 
thority to appoint all Committees, regular or select, and to appoint Committee Chair- 
men and Vice-Chairmen, but he may delegate said authority in any instance, as he may 
choose. Upon the recommendation o\' the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
Senate, the Senate may authorize, by majority vote of the Senators present and voting, a 
change in the number of standing committees. 

(b) The President of the Senate shall appoint all standing committees at the begin- 
ning of the session. 

RULE 32. List of Standing Committees. - The standing committees shall be: 

Alcoholic Beverage Control 

Agriculture 

Appropriations 

Appropriations Committee on Education 

Appropriations Committee on General Government 

Appropriations Committee on Human Resources 

Appropriations Committee on Justice and Public Safety 

Appropriations Committee on Natural 
and Economic Resources 
Base Budget 
Children and Youth 
Commerce 

Constitution; Economic Growth 
Education 
Election Laws 
Environment 
Finance 

Higher Education 
Human Resources 
Insurance 
Judiciary 1 
Judiciary II 
Judiciary 111 
Judiciary IV 

Local Government and Regional Affairs I, Local Government & Regional Affairs II 
Manufacturing and Labor 
Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife 
Pensions and Retirement 
Rules and Operation of the Senate 
State Government 
State Personnel 
Transportation 

Veteran Affairs and Senior Citizens 
Ways and Means 

RULE 33. Notiee of committee meetings. -- (a) Public notice of all committee meet- 
ings shall be given in the Senate. The required notice may be waived as to any meeting 



The Legislative Branch 353 



by the attendance at that meeting of all of the members of the committee, or by personal 
waiver. 

(b) The chairman of the committee shall notify or cause to be notified the sponsor of 
each bill which is set for hearing or consideration before the committee as to the date, 
time and place of that meeting. 

RULE 34. Membership of committees; quorum. - - Membership on standing com- 
mittees shall consist of not more than 22 or less than 5 Senators, including the Chair- 
man and/or co-chairmen and vice-chairman who shall be designated by the President; 
provided, the committee membership on the Appropriations Committee, Base Budget 
Committee, Finance Committee, State Government Committee and Ways and Means 
Committee shall not be limited as to membership but shall be left to the discretion of the 
President. No Senator shall hold membership on more than 12 standing committees 
with the exception of the President's coordinator of committees, unless the Rules and 
Operation of the Senate Committee provides otherwise. A quorum of the Appropria- 
tions, Base Budget, Finance, State Government or Ways and Means Committees shall 
consist of a majority of the committee. A quorum of any other committee shall consist 
of either the chairman and five members or a majority of the committee, whichever is 
fewer. 

RULE 35. Roll Call Vote in Committee. - - No roll call vote may be taken in any 
committee. 

RULE 36. Committee meetings. - - No committee or subcommittee shall hold a 
secret meeting, and all meetings of committees and subcommittees shall be open to the 
public: Provided, that any committee or subcommittee has the inherent right to hold an 
executive session when it determines that it is absolutely necessary to have such a ses- 
sion in order to prevent personal embarrassment, or when it is in the best interest of the 
State; and in no event shall final action be taken by any committee or subcommittee ex- 
cept in open session. 

RULE 36.1. Committee minutes to Legislative Library. The chairman of a com- 
mittee shall insure that written minutes are compiled for each of the committee's meet- 
ings. The minutes shall indicate the number of members present and the actions taken 
by the committee at the meeting. Not later than 20 days after the adjournment of each 
session of the General Assembly, the chairman, except the chairman of the Appropria- 
tions, Finance, or Ways and Means Committee, shall deliver the minutes to the Legisla- 
tive Library. The President Pro Tempore of the Senate may grant a reasonable ex- 
tension of time for filing said minutes upon application of the committee chairman. 

RULE 37. (Reserved for interim operations rule.) 

VI. Handling Bills 

RULE 38. Application of rules. -- With the exception of speaking from the well of 
the Senate, all provisions of these rules applying to bills shall apply also to resolutions, 
memorials and petitions. 

RULE 39. Form and copies of bills. — (a) Unless variation is authorized by the Com- 
mittee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, bills submitted for introduction shall be in 
a computer-typed form prepared by the Legislative Services Office. When a bill which is 
introduced is not in the prescribed form, the Principal Clerk shall cause the bill to be re- 
typed in the prescribed form, and the retyped copy shall become the official copy o\' the 



354 Nor hi Carolina Manual 



hill for all purposes. The original hill shall then he returned to the introducer of the hill 
and shall not become a part of the records or documents of the Senate. 

(h) Whenever a hill is introduced, 20 copies shall he suhmitted to the Principal Clerk. 
Any hill suhmitted without the required number of copies shall be immediately returned 
to the introducer. 

RULE 39. 1 . Public and local hills; availability of copies oj bills. A public bill is a bill 
affecting 15 or more counties. A local bill is one affecting fewer than 15 counties. No 
public bill and, upon objection by a member, no local bill may be considered unless 
copies of the bill have been made available to the entire membership o\ the Senate. 

RULE 40. Introduction of bills. - (a) Every bill filed for introduction shall contain on 
the outside cover the title of the document and the name of the Senator or Senators pre- 
senting it. Bills shall be delivered by the primary sponsor of the document or with the 
prescribed authorization form signed by the primary sponsor to the office of the Senate 
Principal Clerk who shall receive them during regular session according to the following 
schedule: 

Monday until 8:30 o'clock P.M.; 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday until 4:00 o'clock 
P.M.: 

Friday until 3:00 o'clock P.M. 
All bills shall be numbered by the Office of the Principal Clerk when filed and shall be 
considered introduced when presented to the Senate on the next following legislative 
day for the first reading and reference to committee. 

(b) Filing of bills during the interim shall be under the direction o\ the Rules and 
Operation of the Senate Committee as approved by the Senate. 

(c) All memorializing celebration, commendation, and commemoration resolutions, 
except those honoring the memory of deceased persons, shall be excluded from intro- 
duction in the Senate. 

RULE 41. Deadlines on filing for introduction of bills and resolutions. -- All bills 
prepared to be introduced by departments, agencies or institutions of the State must be 
introduced in the Senate not later than April 15 of the session. All local bills must be 
introduced not later than April 15 of the session. All resolutions, except those honor- 
ing the memory of deceased persons, must be introduced not later than April 15 of the 
session. A two-thirds (2/3) vote of the membership of the Senate shall be required to 
file for introduction any bill or resolution after May 15 of the session. This rule shall 
not apply to a bill or resolution proposing adjournment or a budget, proposing or 
ratifying a constitutional amendment, or calling for a constitutional convention. 

RULE 41.1. Relationship between Ways and Means Committee and other committees 
dealing with money matters; relationship between these other committees dealing with 
money matters. The Committee on Ways and Means shall have responsibility for 
final consideration of bills dealing with money matters before the bills are considered on 
the floor of the Senate. All bills referred by the President to the Committee on Appro- 
priations, the Committee on Finance, and the Committee on Economy shall be referred 
by the chairman of the respective committee to the Committee on Ways and Means for 
consideration before the bills go to the floor of the Senate, except that bills referred to 
the Appropriations or Finance Committees may be reported directly back to the floor 



The Legislative Branch 355 



with the agreement of the Chairmen of the Ways and Means, Appropriations, and Fi- 
nance Committees. Bills referred to the Committee on Appropriations by the President 
may be referred by the Chairman of the Committee on Appropriations to the Appropri- 
ations Committee on Human Resources, Appropriations Committee on Education, 
Appropriations Committee on General Government, Appropriations Committee on 
Justice and Public Safety, Appropriations Committee on Natural and Economic Re- 
sources and Wildlife, or the Committee on Base Budget for a report back to the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations. 

RULE 42. References of appropriations and finance bills. — All bills introduced in the 
Senate providing for appropriations from the State, or any subdivision thereof, shall, 
before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the Committee on Appropriations, 
and bills referred to other committees carrying any such provisions shall be reported to 
the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Appropriations Committee before proper 
action may be taken by the Senate. All bills introduced in the Senate providing for bond 
issues, levying taxes, or in any manner affecting the taxing power of the State or any 
subdivision thereof, shall, before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the 
Committee on Finance, and bills referred to other committees carrying any such pro- 
visions shall be reported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Finance Com- 
mittee before proper action may be taken by the Senate. 

RULE 42.1. Fiscal notes. — (a) The Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Appropria- 
tions Committee, of the Finance Committee or of the Rules Committee, or of the Ways 
and Means Committee, upon the floor of the Senate, may request that a fiscal analysis 
be made of a bill, resolution or an amendment to a bill or resolution which is in the pos- 
session of the Senate and that a fiscal note be attached to the measure, when in the opin- 
ion of that Chairman or Vice-Chairman the fiscal effects of that measure are not ap- 
parent from the language of the measure. 

(b) The fiscal note shall be filed and attached to the bill or amendment within two leg- 
islative days of the request. If it is impossible to prepare a fiscal note within two legisla- 
tive days, the Director of Fiscal Research shall, in writing, so advise the Presiding Of- 
ficer, the Principal Clerk, and the member introducing or proposing the measure and 
shall indicate the time when the fiscal note will be ready. 

(c) The fiscal note shall be prepared by the Fiscal Research Division on a form ap- 
proved by the Rules Committee as to content and form and signed by the staff member 

RULE 42. References of appropriations and finance bills. — All bills introduced in the 
Senate providing for appropriations from the State, or any subdivision thereof, shall, 
before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the Committee on Appropriations, 
and bills referred to other committees carrying any such provisions shall be reported to 
the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Appropriations Committee before proper 
action may be taken by the Senate. All bills introduced in the Senate providing for bond 
issues, levying taxes, or in any manner affecting the taxing power of the State or any 
subdivision thereof, shall, before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the 
Committee on Finance, and bills referred to other committees carrying any such pro- 
visions shall be reported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Finance Com- 
mittee before proper action may be taken by the Senate. 

RULE 42.1. Fiscal notes. — (a) The chairman or co-chairman or vice-chairman of the 
Appropriations Committee, of the Finance Committee or of the Rules Committee, or o\ 



356 North Carolina Manual 



the Ways and Means Committee, upon the floor of the Senate, ma) request that a fiscal 
analysis be made of a bill, resolution or an amendment to a bill or resolution which is in 
the possession of the Senate and that a fiscal note be attached to the measure, when in 
the opinion o\' that Chairman or Vice-Chairman the fiscal effects of that measure are 
not apparent from the language o\' the measure. 

(b) The fiscal note shall be filed and attached to the bill or amendment within two 
legislative days of the request. If it is impossible to prepare a fiscal note within two legis- 
lative days, the Director oi' Fiscal Research shall, in writing, so advise the Presiding Of- 
ficer, the Principal Clerk, and the member introducing or proposing the measure and 
shall indicate the time when the fiscal note will be ready. 

(c) The fiscal note shall be prepared by the Fiscal Research Division on a form ap- 
proved by the Rules Committee as to content and form and signed by the staff member 
or members preparing it. If no estimate in dollars is possible, the fiscal note shall indi- 
cate the reasons that no estimate is provided. The fiscal note shall not comment on the 
merit but may identify technical problems. The Fiscal Research Division shall make the 
fiscal note available to the membership of the Senate. 

(d) A sponsor of a bill or amendment may deliver a copy of his bill or amendment to 
the Fiscal Research Division for the preparation of a fiscal note. Prior to the filing of 
the bill or proposing of the amendment, the Fiscal Research Division, except to the 
sponsor, shall keep in confidence the identity of the sponsor. The sponsor shall attach 
the fiscal note to the bill when he files the bill or to the amendment when he moves its 
adoption. 

(e) The sponsor of a bill or amendment to which a fiscal note is attached who objects 
to the estimates and information provided may reduce to writing his objections. These 
objections shall be appended to the fiscal note attached to the bill or amendment and to 
the copies of the fiscal note available to the membership. 

(f) Subsection (a) of this rule shall not apply to the current operations appropriations 
bill or the capital improvements appropriations bill. This rule shall not apply to a bill or 
amendment requiring an actuarial note under these rules. 

RULE 42.2. Actuarial notes. - (a) Every bill or resolution proposing any change in 
the law relative to any State-administered retirement or pension system shall have at- 
tached to it at the time of its consideration by any committee a brief explanatory state- 
ment or note which shall include a reliable estimate of the financial and actuarial effect 
of the proposed change to that retirement or pension system. The actuarial note shall be 
attached to the jacket of each proposed bill or resolution which is reported favorably by 
any committee, shall be separate therefrom, and shall be clearly designated as an 
actuarial note. 

(b) The sponsor of the bill or resolution shall present a copy of the measure, with his 
request for an actuarial note, to the Fiscal Research Division which shall prepare the 
actuarial note as promptly as possible but not later than two weeks after the request is 
made. Actuarial notes shall be prepared in the order of receipt of request and shall be 
transmitted to the sponsor of the measure. The actuarial note of the Fiscal Research 
Division shall be prepared and signed by an actuary. 

(c) The sponsor of the bill or resolution shall also present a copy of the measure to 
the chief administrative officer of the retirement or pension system affected by the 
measure. The chief administrative officer shall have an actuarial note prepared by the 



The Legislative Branch 357 



system's actuary on the measure and shall transmit the note to the sponsor of the 
measure not later than two weeks after the request is received. The actuarial note shall 
be attached to the jacket of the measure. 

(d) The note shall be factual and shall, if possible, provide a reliable estimate of both 
the immediate effect and, if determinable, the long range fiscal and actuarial effect of 
the measure. If, after careful investigation, it is determined that no dollar estimate is 
possible, the note shall contain a statement to that effect, setting forth the reasons why 
no dollar estimate can be given. No comment or opinion shall be included in the 
actuarial note with regard to the merits of the measure for which the note is prepared. 
Technical and mechanical defects in the measure may be noted. 

(e) When any committee reports a measure to which an actuarial note is attached at 
the time of committee consideration, with any amendment of such nature as would sub- 
stantially affect the cost to or the revenues of any retirement or pension system, the 
chairman of the committee reporting the measure shall obtain from the Fiscal Research 
Division an actuarial note of the fiscal and actuarial effect of the proposed amendment. 
The actuarial note shall be attached to the jacket of the measure. An amendment to any 
bill or resolution shall not be in order if the amendment affects the costs to or the reve- 
nues of a State-administered retirement or pension system, unless the amendment is ac- 
companied by an actuarial note, prepared by the Fiscal Research Division, as to the 
actuarial effect of the amendment. 

(0 The Fiscal Research Division shall make all relevant actuarial notes available to 
the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 42.3 Assessment reports. — Every legislative proposal introduced in the Senate 
proposing the establishment of an occupational or professional licensing board or a 
study for the need to establish such a board shall have attached to the jacket of the 
original bill at the time of its consideration on second or third readings by the Senate or 
by any committee of the Senate prior to a favorable report, an assessment report from 
the Legislative Committee on New Occupational and Professional Licensing Boards, 
pursuant to Article 18 of Chapter 120 of the General Statutes. The assessment report 
shall not constitute any part of the expression of legislative intent proposed by the for- 
mation of a licensing board. Upon receipt of the request the Legislative Committe on 
New Occupational and Professional Licensing Boards shall prepare and return the as- 
sessment report as soon as possible but not later than 60 days, reserving the right to ex- 
tend this time to 90 days. A supplementary report shall be prepared and submitted to 
the requesting Senator not later than 30 days after the receipt of the request. 

RULE 42.4. Content of Appropriations Bills. — (a) No provision changing existing 
law shall be contained in any of the following bills. 

(1) the Current Operations Appropriations Bill; 

(2) the Capital Improvement Appropriations Bill; 

(3) any bill generally revising appropriations for the second fiscal year of a 
biennium. 

(b) No amendment to any bill listed in subsection (a) of this rule shall be in order it 
the language is prohibited by that subsection. 

(c) Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b) of this section, any of the bills listed in 
subsection (a) of this section or an amendment to such bill may change existing law it 
the change: 



358 North Carolina Mwiai 



( 1 ) alters expenditures or salaries; 

(2) changes the scope or character ot a program which must be reduced, increased, 
or changed because oi an increase or decrease ot funds appropriated for the program 
or because oi changes in federal law or regulation; or 

(3) modifies any function of State government which necessitates a transfer of funds 
from one department to another; provided, that for a provision to be in order under 
this subsection, it must be recommended to the General Assembly in a written report 
adopted by the Appropriations Committee before or at the same time the bill is 
reported, or it such provision is contained in a floor amendment, the sponsor of the 
amendment must present to the Principal Clerk at or before the time the amendment is 
offered an explanation o\ the amendment for distribution to each member of the 
Senate. 

RULE 43. First reading; reference to committee. -- All bills filed, upon presentation 
to the Senate, shall be read in regular order of business by their number and title which 
shall constitute the first reading of the bill and unless otherwise disposed of, the Presi- 
dent or Presiding Officer shall announce the referral of the document. The title and re- 
ferral shall be entered on the Journal. 

RULE 44. Bills to receive three readings. - - Every bill shall receive three readings 
previous to being passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be the 
first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion is made by some Senator, 
the President shall refer the bill to an appropriate committee. No bill shall be amended 
upon the floor of the Senate until it has been twice read. Senate simple resolutions shall 
not require three readings. 

RULE 44. 1 Vote required on public bills or resolutions filed after May 15. -- No public 
bill or resolution filed in either house, after May 15, shall pass either its second or third 
readings unless voted on affirmatively by two-thirds (2/3) of the membership of the 
Senate. This sub-section shall not apply to a bill or resolution proposing adjournment, 
an emergency appropriation, continuance and/or expansion of the State budget, or 
changes in State revenues; proposing or ratifying a constitutional amendment; or calling 
for a constitutional convention. 

RULE 45. Reports of committees. - Every Senator presenting a report of a com- 
mittee shall endorse the report with the name of the committee and, in case of a 
minority report, with the names of the members making the report. The report o\' the 
committee shall show that a majority of the committee were present and voted. Every 
report of the committee upon a bill or resolution shall stand upon the general orders 
with the bill or resolution. No committee shall report a bill or resolution without preju- 
dice. 

RULE 45.1. Action on amendment before re-referral. - If any committee recom- 
mends adoption of an amendment or committee substitute of a bill which, under the 
rules of the Senate must be referred to the Committee on Appropriations or Committee 
on Finance, the amendment or committee substitute shall be considered and, if 
adopted, the amendment or substitute engrossed before the bill is re-referred. 

RULE 46. Unfavorable report by committee. --- (a) All bills reported unfavorably by 
the committee to which they were referred, and having no minority report, shall lie 
upon the table, but may be taken from the table, and placed upon the calendar by a two- 
thirds vote of the membership of the Senate. 



The Legislative Branch 359 



(b) When a bill is reported by a committee with an unfavorable report, but accom- 
panied by a minority report, signed by at least three members of the committee who 
were present and who voted on the bill when the bill was considered in committee, then 
the minority report shall be placed on the calendar and considered the following day, 
and the question before the Senate shall be "The adoption of the Minority Report". If 
the minority report is adopted by a majority vote, the bill shall be placed upon the 
calendar; if the minority report is not adopted, the bill shall lie upon the table. 

RULE 47. Recall of bill from committee. When a bill has been introduced and re- 
ferred to a committee, if after 10 days the committee has failed to report thereon, then 
the author of the bill may, after three days' public notice given in the Senate and de- 
livered in writing to the chairman of the committee, on motion supported by a vote of 
two-thirds of the membership of the Senate, recall the bill from the committee to the 
floor of the Senate for consideration and such action thereon as a majority of the Sena- 
tors present may direct. This rule shall not be temporarily suspended without one day's 
notice on the motion given in the Senate and delivered in writing to the chairman of the 
committee and to sustain that motion two-thirds of the membership of the Senate shall 
be required. 

RULE 48. Calendar; order to be followed. - - The President and the Principal Clerk of 
the Senate shall see that all bills are acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they 
stand upon the calendar, unless otherwise ordered as hereinafter provided. The publish- 
ed calendar shall include all bills reported favorably from committees, or reported with 
a minority report attached, or placed on the calendar on motion: Provided, that the pub- 
lished local calendar may carry the number of each bill, the county or counties referred 
to, and an abbreviated statement of the title of the bill. 

RULE 49. Considering bills out of regular order. — Except as provided in Rule 50, any 
bill or other matter may be taken up out of order upon order of the President or upon 
motion sustained by a majority of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 50. Third reading requirements. - - No bill on its third reading shall be acted 
upon out of the regular order in which it stands on the calendar, and no bill shall be act- 
ed upon on its third reading the same day on which it passed its second reading, unless 
so ordered by two-thirds of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 51. Special orders. — Any bill or other matter may be made a special order for 
a particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators voting, and if action 
on the bill is not completed on that day, it shall be returned to its place on the calendar, 
unless it is made a special order for another day; and when a special order is under con- 
sideration it shall take precedence over any special order or subsequent order for the 
day, but such subsequent order may be taken up immediately after the previous special 
order has been disposed of. 

RULE 52. Procedure when necessary number of Senators not present. If, on taking 
the question on a bill, it appears that a constitutional quorum is not present, or if the 
bill requires a vote of a certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it appears 
that such number is not present, the bill shall be again read and the question taken 
thereon; if the bill fails a second time for the want of the necessary number being present 
and voting, the bill shall not be finally lost, but shall be returned to the calendar in its 
proper order. 



360 Nor i ii Caroi ina Mam \i 



RULE 53. Effect oj defeated bill. (a) After a bill has been tabled, has failed to pass 
on an\ of its readings, or has been placed on the unfavorable calendar, the contents of 
such bill or the principal provisions o\' its subject matter shall not be embodied in any 
other measure. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, such 
measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote 
of two-thirds of the qualified membership of the Senate: Provided, no local bill shall be 
held by the Chair as embodying the provisions, or being identical with any statewide 
measure which has been laid upon the table or failed to pass any of its readings. 

(b) When a bill has been postponed indefinitely by the Senate, the bill shall lie upon 
the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bership of the Senate. 

RULE 54. Taking hill from table. - No bill which has been laid upon the table shall 
be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

RULE 54.1. Bill title. The title of each bill shall adequately and fairly reflect its 
subject matter. 

RULE 55. Amending titles of bills. -- When a bill is materially modified or the scope 
of its application extended or decreased, or if the county, or counties, to which it applies 
is changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the Senator introducing the bill or by 
the committee having it in charge, or by the Principal Clerk, so as to indicate the full 
purport of the bill as amended and the county or counties to which it applies. 

RULE 56. Corrections of typographical errors in bills. - The Enrolling Clerk is au- 
thorized to make corrections of typographical errors in the text of bills at any time prior 
to ratification. Before the correction is made, the Enrolling Clerk shall have the approv- 
al of the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 57. Conference committees. -- Whenever the Senate declines or refuses to con- 
cur in amendments put by the House to a bill originating in the Senate, or refuses to 
adopt a substitute adopted by the House for a bill originating in the Senate, a confer- 
ence committee shall be appointed upon motion and the bill under consideration shall 
thereupon go to and be considered by the joint conferees on the part of the Senate and 
House. In considering matters in difference between the Senate and House committed 
to the conferees, only such matters as are in difference between the two houses shall be 
considered by the conferees, and the conference report shall deal only with such mat- 
ters. The conference report shall not be amended. Except as herein set out, the rules of 
the United States House of Representatives shall govern the appointment, conduct, and 
reports of the conferees. 

RULE 57. 1 . Amendments and committee substitutes adopted by the House to bills origi- 
nating in the Senate. -- (a) Whenever the House has adopted an amendment or a com- 
mittee substitute for a bill originating in the Senate, and has returned the bill to the Sen- 
ate for concurrence in that amendment or committee substitute, the Senate may not 
concur in that amendment or committee substitute until the next legislative day follow- 
ing the day on which the Senate receives that measure. 

(b) The Presiding Officer may, and upon motion supported by a majority of the Sen- 
ate present and voting, shall refer the bill to an appropriate committee for consideration 
of the amendment or committee substitute. 



The Legislative Branch 361 



(c) The Presiding Officer shall, in placing the bill on the calendar, rule whether the 
amendment or committee substitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 
23, of the State's Constitution. If the measure was referred to committee, the committee 
shall: 

(i.) report the bill with the recommendation either that the Senate concur or that 

the Senate do not concur: and 
(ii.) advise the presiding officer as to whether or not the amendment or commit- 
tee substitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 23, of the 
State's Constitution. 

(d) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is not a material amendment, 
the question before the Senate shall be concurrence. 

(e) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is a material amendment, the 
receiving of that bill on messages shall constitute first reading and the question before 
the house shall be concurrence on second reading. If the motion is passed, the question 
then shall be concurrence on third reading on the next legislative day. 

(f) No committee substitute adopted by the House to a bill originating in the Senate 
may be amended by the Senate. 

RULE 58. Certification of passage of bills. --The Principal Clerk shall certify the pas- 
sage of bills by the Senate, with the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed 
by vote of three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote may be required 
by the Constitution or laws of the State. 

RULE 59. Transmittal of bills to House. - - No bill shall be sent from the Senate on 
the day of its passage except on the last day of the session, unless otherwise ordered by a 
vote of two-thirds of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 59.1. Engrossment. - Bills and resolutions, except those making appropria- 
tions, which originate in the Senate and which are amended shall be engrossed before 
being sent to the House. 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees 

RULE 60. Pages. - - The President of the Senate shall appoint pages. The President, 
or such person as he may designate, shall supervise the pages and assign to them their 
duties. Each page shall be at least 14 years of age. 

RULE 61. Sergeants-at-Arms. (a) There shall be 14 positions of Assistant 

Sergeants-at-Arms to be appointed by the Sergeant-at-Arms who are to work under his 
supervision and to be assigned such duties and powers as he shall direct. 

(b) The Sergeant-at-Arms shall be responsible for the safety of the members and em- 
ployees of the Senate while in the Senate Chamber, or any place in which the Senate or 
its committees are in session. 

(c) The Sergeant-at-Arms shall serve all warrants and subpoenas issued by orders of 
the Senate and signed by the President of the Senate, and said warrants and subpoenas 
shall be returnable to the Principal Clerk of the Senate. 

RULE 62. Principal Clerk's staff. -- The Principal Clerk of the Senate shall employ 
all necessary employees and clerks required to carry out the duties of his office. The 
Principal Clerk shall have supervision and control, and shall assign such duties and 
powers as he shall direct to his employees and clerks. 



362 North Carolina Mam ai 



RULE 63. Committee Clerks and Secretaries. (a) Each committee shall have a 
clerk. The clerk to a committee shall serve as secretary to the chairman o\' that com- 
mittee. 

(b) Each member shall be assigned a secretary, unless he has a committee clerk to 
serve as his secretary. 

(c) The selection of said clerk and/or secretary shall be the prerogative of the indi- 
vidual member. Such clerks and secretaries shall file initial applications for employment 
with the Supervisor of Clerks and shall receive compensation as prescribed by the Legis- 
lative Services Commission. The employment period of clerks and secretaries shall 
comply with the period as established by the Legislative Services Commission unless 
employment for an extended period is approved by the President Pro Tempore. The 
clerks and secretaries shall adhere to such uniform regulations and other conditions of 
employment (including retention) under the direction of the Supervisor of Clerks as the 
Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate shall adopt. 

(d) The Supervisor of Clerks and any assistants shall be appointed by the President o^ 
the Senate. 

RULE 64. Senate Journal. The Principal Clerk shall prepare and be responsible for 
the Journal. The Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate shall examine the 
Journal to determine if the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly re- 
corded. 

RULE 65. Deputy President Pro Tempore. - The Senate shall elect a Deputy Presi- 
dent Pro Tempore. 

VIII. General Rules 

RULE 66. President to sign papers. — All acts, addresses and resolutions, and all war- 
rants and subpoenas issued by order of the Senate shall be signed by the President or by 
the President Pro Tempore presiding in his absence. 

RULE 67. Admission to the floor of the Senate. -- No person except members of the 
Senate, members of the House of Representatives, staff of the General Assembly: 
Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and Superior Courts; the Governor 
and members of the Council of State; former members of the General Assembly; and 
persons particularly invited and extended the privileges of the floor by the President 
shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate during its session. No registered lobbyist 
shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate or Senate Chamber while the Senate is in ses- 
sion. 

RULE 68. Privileges of the floor. -- Any group or individual other than members of 
the Senate who desires to make remarks upon the floor of the Senate will first obtain ap- 
proval of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 69. News media. The President is authorized to assign area and equipment 
on the floor of the Senate for the use of the representatives of news media; and the Presi- 
dent shall provide regulations for the operation of the representatives of the news media 
on the floor of the Senate. 

RULE 70. Absence without leave. -- No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart 
the service of the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer for the time 
he is absent without leave. 



The Legislative Branch 363 



RULE 71 . Placing material on Senators' desks. — Any person other than a member of 
the Senate desiring to place articles of any kind on or about desks in the Senate 
Chamber or in the offices of the members of the Senate shall make written application 
to, and obtain written approval from the Principal Clerk. 

RULE 72. Assignment of seats; offices. — (a) The President Pro Tempore of the Sen- 
ate shall assign seats in the Senate Chamber to the members elected. In making such as- 
signments, each member elected to the immediate preceding session of the Senate shall 
be entitled to the seat occupied by him or to his selection of any other seat vacated. The 
President Pro Tempore, when assigning seats, shall give preferential consideration to 
the respective members according to the length of service which each member has 
rendered in the Senate. No incumbent appointed to fill an unexpired term in the im- 
mediate preceding session shall retain the seat if requested by a Senator elected to said 
Session. 

(b) Not later than two days after initial committee assignments become final, the 
President Pro Tempore of the Senate is authorized to make assignments of committee 
rooms and offices to designated committees, chairmen, and members of the Senate. The 
office adjacent to any committee room assigned to a principal committee by the Presi- 
dent Pro Tempore shall be automatically assigned to the chairman of the principal com- 
mittee. In making such assignments of individual offices, the President Pro Tempore 
shall give preferential consideration to the respective members according to the length 
of service which each member has rendered in the Senate. 

RULE 73. Administrative rules and regulations involving Senate employees. -- All ad- 
ministrative rules, regulations and orders involving all individuals employed to perform 
duties for the Senate, other than those appointed by the Principal Clerk and the 
Sergeant-at-Arms, shall be first approved by the Committee on Rules and Operation of 
the Senate. 

RULE 74. Notice of public hearings. - Notice shall be given not less than five 
calendar days prior to public hearings. Such notices shall be issued as information for 
the press and the information shall be posted in the places designated by the Principal 
Clerk. 

RULE 75. Public hearings, filing of written statements. -- Persons desiring to appear 
and be heard at a public hearing are encouraged to file with the chairman of the com- 
mittee a brief or a written statement of the remarks to be made at least 24 hours before 
the time of the hearing. 

RULE 76. Voting in joint sessions. - - When any Senate Committee sits jointly with 
the House Committee, the Senate Committee reserves the right to vote separately from 
the House Committee. 

RULE 77. Alterations, suspension or rescission oj rules. - (a) These rules may not be 
permanently rescinded or altered except by Senate simple resolution passed by a two- 
thirds vote of the membership of the Senate. The introducer of the resolution must, on 
the floor of the Senate, give notice of his intent to introduce the resolution on the legis- 
lative day preceding its introduction. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the Senate, upon two-thirds (2/3) vote oi 
the membership of the Senate, may temporarily suspend any of these rules. 



364 



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The Legislative Branch 365 

1987 NORTH CAROLINA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Officers 

Speaker Liston B. Ramses 

Speaker Pro Tem John J. Hunt 

Minority Leader Betsy L. Cochrane 

Principal Clerk Grace A. Collins 

Reading Clerk Sam J. Burrow, Jr. 

Sergeant-at-Arms Larry P. Eagles 

Representatives 

Name County Dist. Address Seat 

Abernathy, J. Vernon (R) Gaston 44th Gastonia 96 

Alexander, William G Cabarrus 34th Kannapolis 84 

Anderson, Gerald L Craven 3rd Bridgeton 19 

Barbee, Bobby H., Sr. (R) Stanly 34th Locust 110 

Barnes, Anne C Orange 24th Chapel Hill 70 

Barnhill, Howard C Mecklenburg 60th Charlotte 55 

Beall, Charles M Haywood 52nd Clyde 18 

Beard, Rayford Donald Cumberland 18th Fayetteville 30 

Blue, Daniel T., Jr Wake 21st Raleigh 80 

Bowen, Edward C Sampson 12th Harrells 37 

Bowman, J. Fred Alamance 25th Burlington 53 

Boyd, William T. (R) Randolph 30th Asheboro 1 14 

Brannan, George W Johnston 20th Smithfield 8 

Brawley, C. Robert(R) Iredell 43rd Mooresville 100 

Brown, Brewster W Hertford 5th Winton 67 

Brown, John Walter(R) Wilkes 41st Elkin HI 

Brubaker, Harold J. (R) Randolph 38th Asheboro 117 

Buchanan, Charles F. (R) Mitchell 46th Green Mountain 89 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr Gaston 44th Belmont 1 

Burke, Logan Forsyth 67th Winston-Salem 58 

Chalk, Richard E. (R) Guilford 28th High Point 98 

Chapin, Howard B Beaufort 2nd Washington 50 

Church, John T Vance 22nd Henderson 9 

Cochrane, Betsy L. (R) Davie 37th Advance 104 

Colton, Marie W Buncombe 51st Asheville 51 

Cooper, Roy A., HI Nash 72nd Rocky Mount 47 

Craven, James M. (R) Moore 31st Pinebluff 86 

Crawford, James W., Jr Granville 22nd Oxford 26 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr Buncombe 51st Asheville 63 

Cromer, Charles L. (R) Davidson 37th Thomasville 106 

Cunningham, W. Pete Mecklenburg 59th Charlotte 56 

Dawkins, Donald M Richmond 32nd Rockingham 17 

Decker, Michael (R) Forsyth 29th Walkertown 99 

Devane, Daniel H Hoke 16th Raeford 28 

Diamont, David H Surry 40th Pilot Mountain 42 

Duncan, Ann Q. (R) Forsyth 39th Pfafftown 92 

Easterling, Ruth M Mecklenburg 58th Charlotte 5 

Edwards, C. R Cumberland 17th Fayetteville 29 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr Macon 53rd Franklin 61 

Esposito, Theresa H. (R) Forsyth 39th Winston-Salem 1 18 

Etheridge, Bobby R Harnett 19th Lillington 35 

Etheridge, Larry E. (R) Wilson 71st Wilson 32 

Ethridge, W. Bruce Onslow 4th Swansboro 34 

Fitch, Milton F., Jr Wilson 70th Wilson 31 

Fletcher, Ray C Burke 47th Valdese 33 



366 



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SPEAKER 



CLERKS 



The Legislative Branch 367 



Foster, Jo Graham Mecklenburg 56th Charlotte 6 

Freeman, William M Wake 62nd Fuquay-Varina 82 

Fussell, Aaron E Wake 65th Raleigh 10 

Gardner, Charlotte A. (R) Rowan 35th Salisbury 103 

Gist, Herman C Guilford 26th Greensboro 74 

Grady, Robert (R) Onslow 4th Jacksonville 97 

Greenwood, Gordon H Buncombe 51st Black Mountain 64 

Grimmer, Harry C. (R) Mecklenburg 57th Matthews 87 

Hackney, Joe Orange 24th Chapel Hill 69 

Hall. Alexander M New Hanover 13th Wilmington 73 

Hardaway, Thomas C Halifax 7th Enfield 45 

Hasty, John C Robeson 1 6th Maxton 15 

Hege, Joe H., Jr. (R) Davidson 37th Lexington 105 

Hightower, Foyle, Jr Anson 33rd Wadesboro 46 

Holmes, George M. (R) Yadkin 41st Hamptonville 1 19 

Holroyd, Casper Wake 61st Raleigh 81 

Holt, Bertha M Alamance 25th Burlington 66 

Huffman, Doris R. (R) Catawba 45th Newton 1 15 

Hughes. James F. (R) Avery 46th Linville 1 13 

Hunt, John J Cleveland 48th Lettimore 23 

Hunt, Judy F Watauga 40th Blowing Rock 76 

Hunt, R. Samuel, III Alamance 25th Burlington 54 

Hunter, Robert C McDowell 49th Marion 62 

lsenhower, W. Stine (R) Catawba 45th Conover 101 

James, Vernon G Pasquotank 1st Elizabeth City 24 

Jarrell, Mary Guilford 28th High Point 75 

Jeralds, Luther R Cumberland 17th Fayetteville 41 

Jones, Walter B., Jr Pitt 9th Farmville 3 

Justus, Larry T. (R) Henderson 50th Hendersonville 108 

Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. (R) Guilford 27th Greensboro 109 

Kennedy, Annie Brown Forsyth 66th Winston-Salem 21 

Kerr, John H., Ill Wayne 1 1th Goldsboro 72 

Ligon, Bradford V. (R) Rowan 35th Salisbury 102 

Lilley, Daniel T Lenoir 3rd Kinston 2 

Lineberry, Albert S., Sr Guilford 27th Greensboro 38 

Locks, Sidney A Robeson 16th Lumberton 16 

Lutz, Edith Ledford Cleveland 48th Lawndale 12 

Mavretic, Josephus L Edgecombe 8th Tarboro 49 

McAlister, Robert I Rockingham 25th Ruffin 65 

McLaughlin, John B Mecklenburg 54th Newell 27 

Michaux, Henry M., Jr Durham 23rd Durham 57 

Miller, George W., Jr Durham 69th Durham 43 

Mothershead, C. Ivan (R) Mecklenburg 55th Charlotte 88 

Murphy, Wendell H Duplin 10th Rose Hill 60 

Nesbitt, Martin L Buncombe 51st Asheville 52 

Nye, Edd Bladen 1 2th Elizabethtown 14 

Owens, Charles D Rutherford 48th Forest City I I 

Payne, Harry E., Jr New Hanover 13th Wilmington 85 

Perdue, Beverly M Craven 3rd New Bern 20 

Privette, Coy C. (R) Cabarrus 34th Kannapolis 112 

Ramsey, Liston B Madison 52nd Marshall 

Raynor, Joseph B., Jr Cumberland 18th Fayetteville 40 

Redwine, E. David Brunswick 14th Shallotte 13 

Rhodes, Frank E. (R) Forsyth 39th Winston-Salem 95 

Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. (R) Lincoln 44th Lincolnton 91 

Rogers, Richard Eugene Martin 6th Williamston 68 

Sizemore, Frank J., Ill ( R) Guilford 27th Greensboro 1 16 

Stamey, Margaret Wake 63rd Raleigh 79 



36S North Carolina Manual 



Starnes, Edgar Vance ( R) Caldwell 46th Granite Falls 107 

lallent. Timothy N. (R) Cabarrus 34th Concord 90 

I ait. John 1 Wayne 1 1th Goldsboro 71 

I hompson, Raymond M.. Sr Chowan 1st Edenton 36 

1 hompson, Sharon A Durham 68th Durham 44 

Tyndall, J. Paul Onslow 4th Jacksonville 59 

Walker. Lois S (R) Iredell 42nd Statesville 93 

Warner. E. Alexander, ,lr Cumberland 18th Hope Mills 39 

Warren, Edward N Pitt 9th Greenville 4 

Warren, Raymond ( R) Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 78 

Watkins, William T Granville 22nd Oxford 48 

Wicker, Dennis A Lee 19th Sanford 22 

Wilmoth. Wade F Watauga 40th Boone 77 

Windley, Walter H. (R) Gaston 44th Gastonia 94 

Wiser, Bets} H Wake 64th Raleigh 83 

Woodard, Barney Paul lohnston 20th Princeton 

Wright, Richard Columbus 15th Tabor City 25 



The Legislative Branch 369 

SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
Lower House of the Colonial Assembly 

Assembly Representative Residence 

1666 George Catchmaid Albemarle 

1672 Valentine Bird [Pasquotank] 

1673 [Valentine Bird] [Pasquotank] 

1675 Thomas Eastchurch 

1677 Thomas Cullen [Chowan] 

1679 George Durant [Currituck] 

1689 John Nixon [Chowan] 

1697/98 John Porter [Bath] 

[1703] William Wilkison [Chowan] 

1707 Thomas Boyd 

1708 Edward Mosely [Chowan] 

1709 Richard Sanderson [Currituck] 

1711 William Swann [Currituck] 

1711/ 12 Thomas Snoden [Perquimans] 

1715/ 16 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1720 [Edward Moseley] [Chowan] 

1722 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1723 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1725-26 Maurice Moore [Perquimans] 

John Baptista Ashe Beaufort 

1727 [John Baptista Ashe] [Beaufort] 

1729 Thomas Swann [Pasquotank] 

1731 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1733 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1734 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1735 William Downing Tyrrell 

1736-37 William Downing Tyrrell 

1738-39 William Downing Tyrrell 

1739/40-1740 John Hodgson Chowan 

1741 John Hodgson Chowan 

1742/43-1744 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1744-45 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746/47-1752 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1753-54 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1754-60 John Campbell Bertie 

Samuel Swann Onslow 

1760 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1761 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1762 Samuel Swann Onslow 

John Ashe New Hanover 

1764-65 John Ashe New Hanover 

1766-68 John Harvey Perquimans 

1769 John Harvey Perquimans 

1770-71 Richard Caswell Craven 

1773 John Harvey Perquimans 

1773-74 John Harvey Perquimans 

1775 John Harvey Perquimans 



370 North Carolina Manual 

House of Commons 

Assembly Representative Residence 

1777 \ brier Nash Craven 

1778 (ohn Williams Granville 

1 nomas Ben bury Chowan 

1779 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

I 780 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1 781 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1 7S2 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1783 Edward Star key Onslow 

I 784 (April) Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1784 (October) William Blount Craven 

1785 Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven 

1786-87 lohn B. Ashe Halifax 

1787 John Si tg reaves Craven 

1788 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1789 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1790 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1791-92 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1792-93 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1793-94 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1794-95 Timothy Blood worth New Hanover 

1795 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1796 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1797 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1798 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1799 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1800 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1801 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1802 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1803 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1804 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1805 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1806 John Moore Lincoln 

1807 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

1808 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

William Gaston Craven 

1809 Thomas Da\ is Cumberland 

1810 William Hawkins Granville 

1811 William Hawkins Granville 

IS 12 William Miller Warren 

1813 William Miller Warren 

1814 William Miller Warren 

1815 John Craig Orange 

1816 Thomas Ruff ins Orange 

James Iredell Chowan 

181 7 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1818 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1819 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1820 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1821 James Mebane Orange 

1822 John D. Jones New Hanover 

1823-24 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1824-25 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1825-26 John Stanlv Craven 

1826-27 John Stanlv Craven 

1827-28 James Iredell. Jr Chowan 



The Legislative Branch 371 



1828-29 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1829-30 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1830-31 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1831-32 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1832-33 Louis D. Henry Cumberland 

1833-34 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1834-35 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1835 William D. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1836-37 William H. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1838-39 William A. Graham Orange 

1840-41 William A. Graham Orange 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1842-43 Clavin Graves Caswell 

1844-45 Edward Stanly Beauford 

1846-47 Edward Stanly Beauford 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1848-49 Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1850-51 James C. Dobbs Cumberland 

1852 John Baxter Henderson 

1854-55 Samuel P. Hill Caswell 

1856-57 Jesse G. Shepherd Cumberland 

1858-59 Thomas Settle, Jr Rockingham 

1860-61 William T. Dortch Wayne 

Nathan N. Fleming Rowan 

1862-64 Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

Richard S. Donnell Beaufort 

Marmaduke S. Robbins Randolph 

1864-65 Richard S. Donnel Beaufort 

1865-66 Samuel F. Phillips Orange 

1866-67 Rufus Y. McAden Alamance 



House of Representatives* 

Assembly Representative Residence 

1868 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1869-70 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1870 Thomas J. Jarvis Tyrrell 

1872 James L. Robinson Macon 

1874-75 James L. Robinson Macon 

1876-77 Charles Price Davie 

1879 John M. Moring Chatham 

1881 Charles M. Cooke Franklin 

1883 George M. Rose Cumberland 

1885 Thomas M. Holt Alamance 

1887 John R. Webster Rockingham 

1889 Augustus Leazar Iredell 

1891 Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany 

1893 Lee S. Overman Rowan 

1895 Zeb V. Walser Davidson 

1897 A. F. Hileman Cabarrus 

1899-1900 Henry G. Connor Wilson 



*With the adoption of a new State Constitution in 1868. the name "House of Commons" was 
changed to "House of Representatives." 



372 North Carolina Manual 



1901 Walter I Moore Jackson 

1903 S. M. (iattis Orange 

1905 Owen H. Guion Craven 

1907 E. J. Justice Guilford 

1909 V W. Graham Granville 

191 1 W. C. Dowel Mecklenburg 

1913 George Connor Wilson 

1915 Fmmett R Wooten Lenoir 

191 7 Walter Murphy Rowan 

1919 Dennis G. Brummitt Granville 

1921 Harry P. Grier Iredell 

1923-24 John G. Dawson Lenoir 

1925 Edgar W. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1927 Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe 

1929 A. H. Graham ^Orange 

1931 Willis Smith Wake 

1933 R. I. Harris Person 

1935-36 Robert Johnson Pender 

1937 R. Gregg Cherry Gaston 

1939 D. L. Ward Craven 

1941 0. M. Mull Cleveland 

1943 lohn Kerr, Jr Warren 

1945 Oscar L. Richardson Union 

1947 Thomas J. Pearsall Nash 

1949 Kerr Craig Ramsay Rowan 

1951 W. Frank Taylor.' Wayne 

1953 Eugene T. Bost, Jr Cabarrus 

1955-56 Larry I. Moore, Jr Wilson 

1957 lames K. Doughton Alleghany 

1959 Addison Hewlett New Hanover 

1961 loseph M. Hunt, Jr Guilford 

1963 H. Clifton Blue Moore 

1965-66 H. Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson 

1967 David M. Britt Robeson 

1969 Earl W. Vaughn Rockingham 

1971 Philip P. Godwin Gates 

1973-74 James E. Ramsey Person 

1975-76 James C. Green Bladen 

1977-78 Carl J. Stewart. Jr Gaston 

1979-80 Carl J. Stewart. Jr Gaston 

1981-82 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1983-84 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1985-86 liston B. Ramsev Madison 

1987-88 Liston B. Ramsev Madison 



374 



Nor i ii Carolina Manual 




The Legislative Branch 375 

LISTON BRYAN RAMSEY 
SPEAKER 

(Democrat - Madison County) 

(Fifty-second Representative District - Graham (part), Haywood, Jack- 
son, Madison and Swain Counties - Two Representatives.) 

Early Years: Born in Marshall, Madison County, February 26, 1919, to John Morgan 
and Delia Lee (Bryan) Ramsey. 

Education: Mars Hill College, 1938. 

Profession: Retired merchant. 

Organizations: Elk; Mason; American Legion (former Commander); Veterans of For- 
eign Wars. 

Boards and Commissions: Co-Chairman, Governmental Operations Commission, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985- (member, 1973-74, 1975-76); Co-Chairman, Legislative Ser- 
vices Commission, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Co-Chairman, 
Legislative Research Commission, 1975-76, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Co-Chairman, 
Joint Committee on Separation of Powers, 1982; Advisory Budget Commission, 
1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80,; Blue Ribbon Study Commission on Transpor- 
tation, 1979-80. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1967-Present 
(13 Terms); Speaker of the House, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; Executive 
Committee, Southern Legislative Conference, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; 
Chairman, 11th Congressional District Democratic Executive Committee, 1972, 
1974, 1976, 1980; delegate, Democratic National Convention, 1968; County Chair- 
man, Democratic Executive Committee, 1958-60, 1962; Board of Alderman, Town 
of Marshall, 1949-61. 

Military Service: Served, Army Air Corps, World War II. 

Honors: NC Public Service Award, 1985; Friend of Education, NCAE, 1985; honorary 
member, NC AFL-CIO, 1985; first annual Roy A. Taylor Service Award, 1978. 

Religious Activities: Baptist. 

Family: Married, Florence McDevitt. Children: Martha (Ramsey) Geouge. 



376 



North Carolina Manual 




The Legislative Branch 377 

JOHN JACKSON "JACK" HUNT 
SPEAKER PRO TEM 

(Democratic - Cleveland County) 

(Forty-eighth Representative District - Cleveland. Polk and Rutherford 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 

Early Years: Born in Lattimore, Cleveland County, November 27, 1922, to Robert Lee 
and Alma (Harrill) Hunt. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 1943, B.S.; Emory Universtiy, 1946, D.D.S. 

Profession: Dentist, merchant and farmer. 

Organization: ADA; NCDS; Isothermal Dental Society; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Research Committee; National Conference of 
State Legislative; Governmental Operations; Legislative Services Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; Speaker Pro Tern, NC House of Representatives, 
Alderman, City of Lattimore, 1958-64. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-48, 1950-52 (Major). 

Honors: Honorary member, NC National Guard; USS NC Battleship Award, AMVETS. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Ruby Cowder, June 22, 1946. Children: Judy Hunt, Penny (Hunt) 
Corn, Libby (Hunt) Sarazen, Sally Hunt and Cindy (Hunt) Martin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget on Justice and Public Safety; 
Energy; Rules and Operation of the House; Law Enforcement. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Con- 
stitutional Amendments; Judiciary IV; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Small 
Business; Transportation; Water and Air Resources. 



378 



North Carolina Mam ai 





The Legislative Branch 379 

BETSY LANE COCHRANE 

MINORITY LEADER 

(Republican-Davie County) 

Thirty-seventh Representative District-Davidson, Davie and Iredell Coun- 
ties. 

Early Years: Born in Asheboro, Randolph County, to William Jennings and Brodus 
Inez (Campell) Lane. 

Education: Asheboro Grammar Schools and High School; Meredith College, B.A. 
with honors (Elementary Education). 

Professional Background: Teacher and housewife. 

Organizations: Kappa Nu Sigma; Vice President, Mocksville Women's Club; Director, 
Neighborhood Property Owners Association; N.C. Symphony; N.C. Museum As- 
sociation; N.C. Museum of Art. 

Boards: Piedmont Health Systems Agency; N.C, Advisory Council on Teacher Educa- 
tion; Republican Education Commission for the 80's; Retail Merchants Advisory 
Board; Public School Forum of N.C; N.C. Parks and Recreation Commission; 
Governor's Programs of Excellence in Education; Commission on the Future of the 
South. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1981-present (4 terms)- 
;Minority Leader, 1985-; Vice Chairman, Davie County Republican Party; Execu- 
tive Committee, N.C. Republican Party; N.C. delegate, National Convention, 1976. 

Honors: Outstanding Women in Government, N.C. Jaycees, 1985; Outstanding Fresh- 
man Representative (GOP), 1981; "Who's Who for American Women"; "Who's 
Who in American Colleges and Universities"; yearbook editor, college and high 
school. 

Religious Activities: Member, Knollwood Baptist Church; President, Women's WMU; 
Nominating Committee; Sunday School Teacher, 1960-77. 

Family: Married, Joe Kenneth Cochrane. Children: Lisa and Craig. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget-Natural 
and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget-Natural and Economic Resources; Banks and Thrift Institu- 
tions; Children and Youth; Public Utilities; Rules and Operation of the House: 
Judicicary 1; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



380 North Carolina Manual 




JACK VKRNON ABERNETHY 

( Republican-Gaston County) 
Fortv-Fourth Representative District-Gaston and Lincoln Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, February 25. 1945. to .lack V. 
and Vilanta (Jackson) Abernethy. 

Education: Central School. 1951-59; Belmont High School, 1960-63; Western Carolina 
University, 1974 (Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Accounting Con- 
centration); Certified Public Accountant, 1984. 

Professional Background: NC Association of CPA'S, 1984-present; National Associa- 
tion of Accounting, 1974-present Administrative VP, Gaston Chapter, 1984-85. 

Political Activities: NC House of Representatives. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy, F-4. 1968-71; Reserves. 1971-73; Honorable Discharge. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church. 
Family: Married. Marcia Tarpley. of Mount Holly, June 23. 1973. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget-Natural 
and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget-Natural and Economic Resources; Cultural Resources; 
Economic Growth; Manufacturers and Labor; Pensions and Retirement; 
Judiciary III; University Board of Governors Nominating; Water and Air 
Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 381 

WILLIAM GEORGE ALEXANDER 

(Democrat-Cabarrus County) 

Thirty-Fourth Representative District-Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union 
Counties. 



4<fc 



Early Years: Born in Concord, Cabarrus County, November 16, 1951, to Hugh Q. and 

Myrtle (White) Alexander. 

Education: Mclver Elementary School; George Mason Elementary School, Jefferson 
Junior High School, T.C. Williams High School, Graduated 1969; Davidson Col- 
lege, 1973, (B.A. in English); Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1976, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney; N.C. Bar member; N.C Bar Association member, 
Cabarrus County Bar Association member; 19-A Judicial District Bar Association 
member; N.C Association of Trial Lawyers. 

Organizations: Concord Chamber of Commerce; Kannapolis Chamber of Commerce, 
Ambassador; Board of Directors, Cabarrus County Red Cross; Sigma Phi Epsilon 
NCE Alumni Board; N.C. Air National Guard, Staff Judge Advocate (SJA/HQN- 
CANG); Kannapolis Rotary Club, Past Treasurer; District Governor, Sigma Phi 
Epsilon Fraternity; Board of Electors, Kannapolis YMCA. 

Boards: Cabarrus County Airport Commission, Vice-President; Former, Cabarrus 
County Elections Board. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative; Cabarrus County Young Democrats; 
Stanly County Young Democrats, Former Vice-Chairman; Cabarrus County 
Democratic Party. 

Military: Served, U.S. Air Force Reserve, Major, 1977 ADT-Five Months; N.C. 
National Guard, 1973 to present; Air Force Commendation Medal, 1986. 

Honors: Jaycee of the Year, 1980-81; N.C. Heart Association Founders Award, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, All Saints Episcopal Church; Drug and Alcohol Com- 
mittee; Canvas Committee; former member. First Presbyterian Church; Deacon; 
President, Men of Church; Choir member, Sunday School teacher. 

Family: Married, Shelia Ann Hunsucker, of Kannapolis, January 23, 1982. Children: 
William. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Corrections; Cultural Resources; Education; Manufacturers 
and Labor; Small Business; Finance; Insurance; Judiciary III. 



382 North Carolina Manual 




GERALD L. ANDERSON 

(Democrat - Craven County) 

( I hud Representative District - Craven, Lenoir, and Pamlico Counties 
- Three Representatives ) 



Early Years: Born in Craven County, June 29, 1939, to Noah L. and Ha/el (Rowe) 
Anderson. 

Education: New Bern High School, 1958; Deaver Realty Institute, 1974; Realtors Insti- 
tute, Chapel Hill. 

Profession: Businessman (Forestry, logging and real estate interests). 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Craven County Committee of 100; Director, Kin- 
ston Board of Realtors; New Bern-Craven County Chamber of Commerce; New 
Bern Board of Realtors. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1980-Present (5 Terms); 
Commissioner, Craven County, 1978-80. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pleasant Acres Free Will Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Marie Stilley, January 25, 1959. Children: Teresa, Tina. Jerry, Lisa 
and Josh. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety. 

Vice-Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations, Base Budget; Appropriations, Ex- 
pansion Budget; Natural and Economic Resources. 

Member: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Insurance; Marine Fisheries; Public Utilities; Rules and Operation of 
the House; State Government; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 383 

BOBBY HAROLD BARBEE,SR. 

(Republican-Stanly County) 

Thirty-Fourth Representative District-Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union Coun- 
t ties. 



i 

41 m 



Early Years: Born in Locust. Stanly County, November 24, 1927, to Relus W. and Joy 

(Hartsell) Barbee. 
Education: Locust Elementary; Stanfield High School, Graduated 1945. 
Professional Background: Barbee Insurance and Associates, Owner. 

Organizations: West Stanly Colt Club, President, 1982-present;West Stanly High 
School Advisory Board Member, 1986-87; Stanly County Community Schools 
Advisory Board Member, 1986-87; Former Member, Locust Elementary P.T.A., 
President, 1964-66, 1984-85. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives; Stanly County Republican 

Mens Club. 
Military: Served, Army Air Force, 1945-47; Basic Training, Sharp Shooter. 

Religious Activities: Member, Carolina Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 1985-present; 

Music Director for Congregation; Missionary Trips (Africa, Indonesia and 

Martinique). 
Family: Married, Jacqueline Pethel, of Kannapolis, August 12, 1962. Children: 

Tammy, Michelle, Crystal, Julie and Bobby. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging, Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget- 
Justice and Public Safety.; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget-Justice and Public Safety; Education; Local Govern- 
ment II; Small Business; Highway Safety; Agriculture. 



384 North Carolina Manual 




ANNE CRAIG BARNES 

(Democrat-Orange County) 

(Twenty-fourth Reprsentative District-Chatham (part) and Orange 
Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Gaston County, March 29, 1932, to George Hoyle Craig and 
Jessie Tarlton. 

Education: Mounty Holly High School, 1950. 

Professional Background: Legislator, homemaker, former ballet instructor. 

Organizations: NC Merchants Association (Board of Directors); Women's Forum of 
NC: former member. Chapel Hill Service League. 

Boards: Chairman, Special Committee on Prisons; Mental Health Study Commission; 
Juvenile Law Study Commission; NC Child Support Enforcement Council; Orange 
County Board of Social Services, 1978-81; National Association of Counties, 1978- 
81; Orange County Council on Aging, 1978-80; Chapel Hill Charter Commission, 
1973-74; Chapel Hill Recreation and Parks Commission, 1969-72 (Chairman, 1970- 
82); Southern Legislative Conference Committee member since 1983. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-present (four terms); 
Orange County Democratic Party (Executive Committee, 1969-76; Chairman 1974- 
76; Vice Chairman. 1972-74); delegate to county, district and state conventions, 
1969-82; Commissioner, Orange County 1978-81; Carter-Mondale campaign staff, 
1980; Executive Committee, NC Democratic Party, 1974-78; delegate. National 
Convention, 1974. 

Honors: Orange County "Distinguished Democrat", 1976. 

Religious Activities: Sunday School Teacher; youth advisor; recreation leader; Dea- 
con. 1977-80. 

Family: Married, Billy Ebert Barnes, July 19, 1952. Children: Billy, Jr. and Betsy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Corrections. 

Viee-Chairman: Manufacturers and Labor. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriation-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget 
Committee on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Mental Health; Rules and Opera- 
tion of the House; Health; Judiciary II. 




The Legislative Branch 385 

HOWARD CLINTON BARNHILL 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

(Sixtieth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt County, February 7, 1916, 
to Lonnie C. and Josephine (Staton) Barnhill. 

Education: Epps High School, 1934; NC A&T State University, 1938, B.S.; NC Cen- 
tral University, 1948, M.S (Public Health); UNC- Chapel Hill, School of Public 
Health, graduate studies. 

Profession: Retired educator (former Clinical Professor, School of Public Health, 
UNC-Chapel Hill); public health educator, Mecklenburg County Health Depart- 
ment; Director, Health Education Centers Program, School of Public Health, 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Organizations: Charlotte-Mecklenburg Community Relations Committee, 1983-; Char- 
lotte Club, 1983-; Marketing Task Force, Charlotte Drug Education Center, 1984-; 
Charlotte Medical Society, 1957-; Dimensions for Charlotte-Mecklenburg Commit- 
tee, 1973-74; Citizens Advisory Committee on Urban Renewal and Community 
Improvement, Charlotte, 1965-72. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Charlotte Area Fund, Inc., 1984-; Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg School Health Advisory Council, 1984-; Mecklenburg County Health 
and Hospital Council Board, 1973-76; Board of Governors, UNC System of Higher 
Education, 1972-73; Trustee, NC A&T State University, 1969-72; Trustee, Florence 
Crittenton Services, 1965-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-; Gover- 
nor's Task Force on Organization for the Delivery of Primary Health Services, 
1969-70. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1942-46 (Staff Sergeant); American theatre 
Service Medal; Pacific Service Medal; Good Conduct Medal; World War II Victory 
Medal. 

Honors: Laurel Wreath, Kappa Alpha Psi; Distinguished Service to Higher Education, 
NC A&T State University, 1980; Merit Award, 1976 and Twenty -five Years Service 
Award, 1977, NC Public Health Association; Excellence Award, 1973 and Twelve 
Years Service Award, 1965, NC A&T State University Alumni Association; Re- 
ligious and Civic Service Award, St. Paul's Baptist Church, 1965; Outstanding Ser- 
vice in the Field of Health Education, Scorpian Club, 1965; Meritorious Commun- 
ity Service Award, Opportunity Foundation, Inc., 1965. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist-West Church, Charlotte; Sunday School 
Teacher, 1972-; Board of Directors, 1967-76. 

Family: Married, Lois Clay of Roxboro, March 27, 1948. Children: Howard C, Jr. 
and Angela C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Kxpansion Bud- 
get; Education; Health; Mental Health; Economic Growth. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment; Constitutional Amendments, Human Resources. 



3X6 Nor i ii Carolina M am m 



"»im 




CHARLES MIEEWEE BEAEE 

( Democrat- Haywood County) 

Fifty-second Representative District-Graham (part). Haywood, Jackson. 
Madison and Swam Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County. October 24, i 920. to Charles M. 
and Nina P. (Morgan) Beall. 

Education: Bethel High School, 1936; Brevard College, 1937-38. 

Professional Background: Inventory controller. Champion Paper. 

Organizations: Pigeon River Lodge No. 386, Mason (Past Master); Asheville Consis- 
tory Scottish Rite, 32nd Degree; Vaner-Rhinehart Post, American Legion; Canton 
Chapter, York Rite Masons (past High Priest). 

Boards: Commission on the Future of N.C., 1982; Commission on Manufactured 
Housing, I982; Revenue Laws Committee, 198I; Judicial Nominating Committee, 
198I; Committee for a Comprehensive Study o\ the Property Tax System in N.C., 
1983-85; Member of the Legislative Research Commission's Study Committee on 
the Insurance Laws and Regulation of Insurance Industry, 1983; Local Government 
Advocacy Council 1983-86; Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council, 1985- 
88; Liaison from 1 1th Congressional District to Southern Legislative Confernece of 
the Council of State Governments 1985; House Co-Chairman of the Legislative 
Research Commission's study on Itinerant Merchants 1985; House Co-Chairman of 
the Legislative Research Commission's study on Outdoor Advertising, 1985; Special 
Committee to Study the Department of Transportation 1985-87; House Co-chairman 
of the Legislative Research Commission's study on Uniform 
System of Voting Machines, 1986; Cafeteria-Style Benefits Study Commission, 
1985; Member of the Legislative Research Commission's study on Veterans Ceme- 
teries, 1986; North Carolina Farmworker Council 1986-87; Subcommittee of the 
House of Representatives to determine agricultural needs of the farmers of NC 
1986; House Subcommittee to study Utilities Commission Staff. 1986; Committee 
on Employee Hospital and Medical Benefits, 1987; Alternate Represenative of the 
North Carolina House of Representatives to the State-Federal Assembly Commit- 
tee on Commerce, Labor & Regulation of the National Conference of State Legis- 
latures, 1987; Rural Economic Development Center, Inc.'s Board of Directors, 
1987; Joint Select Committee on Economic Growth, 1987; Chairman, Haywood 
County Board of Elections, eight years. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-present (four terms); 
Chairman, Haywood County Democratic Executive Committee, six years; dele- 
gate. National Democratic Convention, 1980; Chairman, Vance-Aycock Banquet. 
1980; Board of Alderman, Town of Canton, two terms. 

Military Service: Served. USAAF (Corporal); Air Transport Command; World War 
II; Ciood Conduct Medal; American Theatre Operations Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher; Chairman, Administrative Board, 1978-present; former Finance Chair- 
man and Treasurer. 



The Legislative Branch 387 



Family: Married, Margaret Jewell Rhinehart, January 19, 1954. Children: Anna K. 
(Beall) Cathey, Cynthia H. (Beall) Hyatt and Margaret F. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Election Laws. 

Vice Chairman: Manufacturers & Labor; State Government. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget 
Committee on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Com- 
mittee on General Government; Constitutional Amendments; Economic Growth; 
Rules and Operation of the House; Transportation; Water and Air Resources. 



388 Nor i ii Carolina Manuai 




RAYFORD DONALD BEARD 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

1 1 ighteenth Representative District - Cumberland (part) Counts - Ihrec 
Representatives. ) 



A J 



Early Years: Born in Beard, Cumberland County, March 24. 1923, to William A. and 

Lola ( Maxwell) Beard. 
Education: Central High School, 1942; various insurance courses. 
Profession: Insurance. Retired. 

Organizations: Professional Insurance Agents Association; NC Independent Agents 
Association; NC Association of Premium Service Companies; Lions Club; Masonic 
Order; Shriner; Scottish Rite. 

Boards and Commissions: Mental Health Study Commission; New Occupational and 
Professional Licensing Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-Present (7 Terms). 

Religious Activities: Member, Snyder Memorial Baptist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher; Deacon 1950-; former Chairman, Deacon, Church Moderator, 1960. 

Family: Married, Katherine Smith, July 30, 1944. Children: Linda B. Kay, Kathy B. 
Allen and Don, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Governmental Ethics; Insurance. 

Yice Chairman: Mental Health; Corrections. 

Member: Alcohol Beverage Control; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Banks and Thrift 
Institutions; Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety. 




The Legislative Branch 389 

DANIEL TERRY BLUE, JR. 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

(Twenty-first Representative District - Wake County - One Represen- 
tative.) 



Early Years: Born in Lumberton, Robeson County, April 18. 1949, to Daniel Terry 

and Allene (Morris) Blue, Sr. 

Education: Oak Ridge High School, 1956-66; NCCU, 1970, B.S. (Mathematics); Duke 
University, School of Law, 1973, J.D.; certificate, National Institute for Trial 
Advocacy, 1977. 

Profession: Attorney (managing partner, firm of Thigpen, Blue, Stephens & Fellers, 
1976-; associate, firm of Sanford, Adams, McCullough & Beard, 1973-76); faculty. 
National Institute for Trial Advocacy, 1983. 

Organizations: American, NC and Wake County (former member, Executive Com- 
mittee) Bar Associations; American Associations of Trial Lawyers; Board of 
Governors, NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; NC Association of Black Lawyers; 
Duke Law Alumni Council; Raleigh-Wake Citizens Association; Kiwanis; Alpha 
Phi Alpha; former President, Triangle Chapter, American Red Cross. 

Boards and Commissions: East Raleigh Citizens Advisory Council; Director, East 
Central Community Legal Services; Wake County Council on Aging; Director, NC 
Center for Public Policy Research; NC Courts Commission; NC Criminal Code 
Commission (Chairman, Study Committee); Board of Visitors, Duke University 
Law School. 

Political Activities: Member. NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 
1987-; Wake YDC; NC Democratic Black Leadership Caucus; Chairman, NC 
Legislative Black Caucus; former member, State Democratic Executive Committee; 
former Committeeman, Raleigh Precinct 39; former Chairman, Raleigh Precinct 
28; permanent Chairman, Wake County Democratic Convention, 1979; Chairman, 
Wake County Democratic Campaign, 1978; active in Democratic politics on all 
levels. 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Garner Road YMCA, 1984; "Powers That Will 
Be," Carolina Life Style Magzine, 1983; Third Annual Heritage Award and 
Distinguished Service Award, Shaw University, 1981; Citizen of the Year, Kappa 
Alpha Psi, 1981; Man of the Year, Omega Psi Phi, 1981; Man of Year Award. 
Prince Hall Masons, 1980; Humanitarian Award, Sigma Gamma Rho, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, Davie St. Presbyterian Church; Board of Trustees 
Family: Married, Edna Earle Smith, January 26. 1972. Children: Daniel Terry. Ill, 
Kanika and Dhamian. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary II. 

Vice Chairman: Election Laws; Rules and Operations of the House. 
Member: Constitutional Amendments; Courts and Administration of Justice; 
Education; Finance; Insurance; Manufacturers and Labor; Mental Health. 



390 North Carolina Manual 




EDWARD C. BOWEN 

Democrat-Sampson County) 

I welfth Representative District-Bladen and Sampson County; and Bur- 
eau. Caswell, Columbia, Holly Canetuck, Grady, Long Creek, Rock} 

Point, and Union Townships ol Pender Counts. 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, June 15, 1923, to Allie Deen Bowen and Sadie 
Florence Peterson. 

Education: Graduated Franklin High School, 1940. 

Occupation: Legislator. 

Boards: Sampson County Planning Development Board, 1978-80; Franklin High 
School Board, fl950-54; Union High School Board, 1968-72. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1982 (appointed Sep- 
tember 22, 1982 to replace Ron Taylor), 1983-84, and 1987-. 

Military Service: Served in Merchant Marines, 1944-46. 

Family: Married, Lola M. Owen, November 25. 1948; Children: Kathryn Bowen 
Thutt; John Graham Bowen; Lola Elizabeth Bowen; and William Lloyd Bowen. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Highway Safety; State Properties. 

Member: Aging, Appropriations; Appropriations Expansion Budget Commit- 
tee; Base Appropriations Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and 
Economic Resources; Education; Public Utilities; Transportation; Wildlife 
Resources. 



The Legislative Branch 



391 




JAMES FRED BOWMAN 

(Democrat- Alamance County) 

Twenty-fifth Representative District-Alamance, Rockingham, and Stokes 
(part) Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Kimesville, N.C. February 13, 1927, to William Daniel and Nan- 
nie (Neese) Bowman. Education: Nathanael Green High School, 1944; Elon College, 
1951, A.B. (Business, Math, Physics); Duke University, M.S.E.E. (Engineering); 
UNC-Greensboro, 1975, M.S. (Business Management). 

Professional Background: N.C. licensed professional engineer and land surveyor; engi- 
neer, AT&T Technologies (formerly Western Electric Company), 1946; retired farm 
manager, 1944-46. 

Organizations: Burlington-Graham Engineers Club (President, 1981; Vice President, 
1981-82); Alamance Executive Club (President and Vice President, 1981-82); N.C. 
Educational Foundation for Commerce and Industry (President, 1974-76); Alam- 
ance Art Council; Private College Committee; Director, Burlington Civitan Club, 
1979, 1983; President and Vice President, Burlington City Schools PTA, 1975-76; 
Director, N.C. Society of Engineers, 1970-74. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-87; Democratic 
State Executive Committee, 1972-1984; Alamance County Democratic Party (Chair- 
man, 1978-82, Treasurer, 1975-77); Supervisor, Alamance Conservation Soil and 
Water, 1982-84; County Chairman, Candidates Campaigns for President, Governor 
and Attorney. 

Honors: Valedictorian, Nathanael Green High School, 1944; Statue of Liberty Award 
from Constituents Alamance, Rockingham, and Stokes, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, Beverly Hills United Church of Christ, Burlington; Dea- 
con Board of Christian Education; Finance Chairman, Building Committee, 1966- 
85; Adult Sunday School Teacher, 1955-present; Sunday School Superintendent. 

Family: Married, Dr. Betty Lynch of Elon College, June 30, 1946. Children: J. Tho- 
mas, Zebulon, Nan, and Freda. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Corporations. 

Vice Chairman: Education. 

Vice Chairman: Employment Security. 

Vice Chairman: State Properties. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Manufacturers and labor; Smal 

ness; Finance. 



Busi- 



392 Nor i ii Carolina M \m \i 



t 




WILLIAM THOMAS BOYD 

(Republican - Randolph County) 

( 1 h i it iet h Representative District - Chatham (part) and Randolph (part) 
Counties - One Representative.) 



1 



Early Years: Born in Asheboro, Randolph County, November 14, 1941, to Fred L. and 
Mary ( H ins haw) Boyd. 

Education: Grays Chapel High School, 1961; Attended Appalachian State College. 

Profession: President: Piedmont Construction of Asheboro, Inc.; Boyd Realty and 
Builders, Inc.; Integrity Group, Inc.; Joshua Corporation. 

Organizations: Asheboro-Randolph Home Builders Association (President, 1969-70); 
Asheboro-Randolph Realtors (President, 1972); NC Home Builders Assocation 
(President, 1976); Asheboro Kiwanis Club; Director, YMCA; Director, Randolph 
Mental Health; Director. Asheboro-Randolph Chamber of Commerce; Director, 
Randolph County Hospital. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-; former 
Commissioner, Randolph County (Chairman, 1982); Chairman, Randolph County 
Bill Cobey Campaign, 1982; Co-Chairman, 4th District Bill Cobev Campaign, 1984, 
1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Assembly of God, Asheboro; certified Lay Speaker: 
Laywitness Coordinator; Full Gospel Businessmen Fellowship International. Dis- 
trict Lay Leader. United Methodist Church, 1976-81. 

Family: Married, Shirley Carter of Asheboro, June 9, 1983. Children: Angela E. and 
William T., Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Judiciary III; Law Enforcement; Water and Air Resources; 
Education; Housing; Human Resources; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 393 

GEORGE WYATT BRANNAN 

(Democrat - Johnston County) 

(Twentieth Representative District - Franklin and Johnston Counties 
Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Erwin, Harnett County, March 3, 1932, to Wade Melbry and 
Hannah (Hollomon) Brannan. 

Education: Dunn High School; NC State University, 1954, B.S. (Mechanical En- 
gineering). 

Profession: Nurseryman. 

Organizations: Chairman, Horticulture Advisory Committee, NC Community Colleges; 
former President, NC Association of Nurserymen and NC Association of Landscape 
Contractors; charter member, Smithfield Jaycees; former Chairman, Johnston 
County Airport Authority. 

Boards and Commissions: Energy Policy Council; Governor's Advisory Committee on 
Agriculture, Forestry and Seafood. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 
1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1955-57; Reserves, 1957-65 (Captain). 

Family: Married, Mary Jane Warrick, June 27, 1954. Children: Beth (Brannan) Mayer 
and George Wyatt, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Health. 
Vice Chairman: Education; Finance. 

Member: Election Laws; Local Government I; Law Enforcement; Constitutional 
Amendments; Water and Air Resources. 



394 Nok i ii Carolina Manim 




CLYDE ROBERT BRAWEEY, JR. 

(Republican - Iredell County) 

(Forty-third Representative District - Alexander (part), Catawba (part), 
and Iredell (part) Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Mooresville, Iredell County. April 10. 1944. to Clyde R. and 
Sarah (Goodnight) Brawley. 

Education: Mooresville Senior High, 1959-62; NC State University. 1968, B.S. (Engi- 
neering Operations). 

Profession: Insurance agent. 

Organizations: National Association of Life Underwriters; Rotary Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 
1987. 

Military Service: Served, US Army National Guard, 1967-( Major). 
Religious Activities: Member, Triplett Methodist Church; President. Men's Club; 
Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Mary Kipka, March 31, 1972. Children: Woody, Shelly, Edward, 
Sarah and Susan. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Insurance; Mental Health; State Properties; 
Corporations; Manufacturers and Labor; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 395 

BREWSTER WARREN BROWN 

(Democrat-Hertford County) 

Fifth Representative District-Bertie (part), Gates (part), Hertford 
(part), and Northampton. 



Early Years: Born in Syracuse, New York State, September 10, 1947, to Dr. Albert W. 
and Marge (Higley) Brown. 

Education: Roosevelt High School, (Ypsilanti, Mich.), 1961-65; S.U.N.Y. State Uni- 
versity College at Brockport, 1971, B.S.; S.U.N.Y. State University College at 
Brockport, 1974 (M.S. in Ed. Administration); North Carolina State University, 
1977-79 (Doctorial Studies). 

Professional Background: Dean of Continuing Education, Roanoke Chowan Techni- 
cal College; President, Winton Wood Company; President, Potecasi Land and 
Lumber Company; North Carolina Council on Resource Development; N.C. Adult 
Education Association; N.C. Association for Community Educators. 

Organizations: Ahoskie Rotary Club; Winton Fire Department; Troop 166, Ahoskie 
Boy Scouts of America; Winton Rescue Squad. 1978-83; Chowan Area Develop- 
ment Association, (Board of Directors, 1983-85); Hertford County Forestry Associ- 
ation, 1978-83; North Durham Rotary Club, 1976-77. 

Boards: Region Q Private Industry Council. 

Political Activities: N.C. House of Representatives; Hertford County Young Demo- 
crats, 1979-82. 

Military: Served, N.C. National Guard. 1971-72; Reserves, 1971-77. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Thomas Episcopal Church; Vestry, 1983-86; Junior 

Warden, 1986. 
Family: Married, Elizabeth Mary Paterson, of Edenton, June 19, 1971. Children: Seth 

and Nathan. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget- 
General Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget-General Government; Commissions and Schools for the 
Blind and Deaf; Corrections; Economic Growth; Local Government 1; Men- 
tal Health; Wildlife Resources. 



396 Nor in Carolina Manual 




JOHN WALTER BROWN 

(Republican - Wilkes County) 

(Forty-first Representative District - Alexander (part), Wilkes, and Yad- 
kin Counties - Two Representatives.) 



m 

Early Years: Born in Traphill, Wilkes County, September 12, 1918, to James Walter 

and Nora Blackburn Brown. 
Education: Virginia Trade School, 1940; Appalachian State University, 1937. 
Profession: Farmer (beefcattle, poultry and tobacco). 
Organizations: NC Cattlemen's Association; Woodmen of the World; Farm Bureau. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971. 1973-74, 1979-80, 

1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46 (Private); Engineer Corps; World War II. 
Religious Activities: Member, Charity United Methodist Church; Chairman, Official 

Board; Trustee; Church School Superintendent; Teacher, Young Adult Class; 

Church Lay Speaker. 
Family: Married, Ruth Hanks, September 14, 1941. Children: Betty Ruth (Brown) 

Morenstein and Johnsie Charles (Brown) Brown. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Finance; Military and Veteran's Affairs; State 

Government; Wildlife Resources; Water and Air Resources. 
Vice-Chairman: Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 397 



HAROLD JAMES BRUBAKER 

(Republican - Randolph County) 

(Thirty-eighth Representative District - Randolph (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Mount Joy, Pennsylvania, November 11, 1946, to Paul N. and 
Verna Mae (Miller) Brubaker. 

Education: Pennsylvania State University, 1969, B.S. (Agricultural Economics); NC 
State University, 1971, Masters (Economics). 

Profession: President, Harold J. Brubaker & Associates (real estate appraisals, eco- 
nomic feasibility studies, investment anaylsis). 

Organizations: Randolph County Farm Bureau; Grange; NC Holstein Association; 
4-H Club leader (former President, NC Development Fund); Director, Salvation 
Army; former Director, Westside Volunteer Fire Department; former Director, 
Randolph Technical College Foundation; former Director, National Conference on 
Citizenship; former Vice President, National FFA. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-; House of Minority Leader, 1981-82, 1983-84; Joint Caucus 
Leader, Republican Members of the NC General Assembly, 1979-80; Executive and 
Central Committees, NC Republican Party (former Assistant Secretary); Executive 
Committee, Randolph County Republican Party; Executive Committee, National 
Association for Republican Legislators; former Executive Committee member, 4th 
District Republican Party; Co-Chairman, NC Reagan-Bush Committee, 1980; 
delegate at large, National Republican Convention, 1980; Chairman, Randolph 
County Young Republicans, 1971. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Men in NC, 1981; Outstanding 4-H Alumni of NC, 1981; 
Distinguished Service Award, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Lutheran Church; Congregation Chairman; 
Vice Chairman, Deacon Board. 

Family: Married, Geraldine Baldwin, November, 1972. Children: Jonathon Nisslej 
and Justin Andrew. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appro- 
priations-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Banks 
and Thrift Institutions; Economic Growth; Employment Security; Health; 
Housing; Manufacturers and Labor; Rules and Operations of the House; 
University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



398 North Carolina Manual 




CHARLES FRANKLIN BUCHANAN 

(Republican - Mitchell County) 

(Forty-sixth Representative District - Alexander (part), Avery, Burke 
(part). Caldwell. Mitchell and Watauga (part) Counties- Three Representa- 
tives.) 



Early Years: Born in Poplar, Mitchell County, October 5, 1936, to Robert and Hattie 
Mae (Garland) Buchanan. 

Education: Poplar School, 1942-49; North Side School. 1949-51; US Air Force High 
School. 

Organizations: Bakersville Lions Club (President, 1983); Spruce Pine Mountaineer 
Shrine Club; Scottish Rite and York Rite, Asheville; OASIS Temple, Charlotte; 
Master of Bakersville Masonic Lodge #357. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Director: Northwestern Housing Authority; 
Mitchell County Finance Committee; Region D Council of Governments; WAMY 
Community Action; Mitchell County EDC; Region D SBA; NC Labor Training 
Action; Mitchell County Social Services; NC Council on Aging; Personnel Com- 
mittee. Mitchell County; Mitchell County Transportation Authority (former Chair- 
man); Association of Social Services; Tennessee Valley Authority, 1978-82; NC 
Association of County Commissioners, 1978-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86; 1987-; former 
Commissioner, Mitchell County (Chairman, two years); White House Conference 
on Aging, 1980. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1958-62; Reserves, 1962-64 (A lc). 

Religious Activities: Member, Poplar Free Will Baptsit Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Finance; Local Government I; State Personnel; 

Housing; Manufacturers and Labor; Natural and Economic Resources. 
Vice Chairman: Military and Veterans Affairs. 




The Legislative Branch 399 

DAVID WEBSTER BUMGARDNER, JR. 

(Democrat - Gaston County) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District - Gaston and Lincoln Counties - 
Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Belmont, Gaston County, November 2, 1921, to David Webster 
and Winnifred (Ballard) Bumgardner. 

Education: Belmont Public Schools, 1927-38; Belmont Abbey College, 1938-40; Gupton- 
Jones College of Mortuary Science, 1942. 

Profession: Mortician (President, McLean-Bumgardner, Inc.). 

Organizations: NC Funeral Directors Association; National Funeral Directors Associa- 
tion; Mason, Belmont Lodge No. 627; Gastonia York Rite Masonic Order; Shriner, 
Oasis Temple. Former President: Belmont Kiwanis Club, Belmont United Fund, 
Inc., Belmont Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Belmont Savings & Loan; Director, Lakeside 
Cable TV, Inc.; Planning and Zoning Board of Belmont (Original Board); Board of 
Lransportation, 1977-82; Governmental Evaluation Commission, 1977-81; NC Com- 
mission for the Study of Local and Ad Valorum Tax Structure, 1970. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 
1975-76, 1977-78. 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-45; Reserves, 1949-55; European-African 
theatre; NC National Guard, 1955-1974 (Lieutenant Colonel). 

Honors: Community Service Award, American Legion, 1983; Man of the Year, Bel- 
mont Chamber of Commerce , 1967; Distinguished Service Award, Gupton-Jones 
College of Mortuary Science, 1954. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Belmont. Former: Deacon, Parlia- 
mentarian, Sunday School Superintendant, Finance Committee Chairman, Build- 
ing Committee member. 

Family: Married, Sara Margaret Jones, August 14, 1948. Children: Sharon (Bum- 
gardner) Hill and Sandra (Bumgardner) Branch. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Public Utilities 

Vice Chairman: Highway Safety; Transportation; Finance. 

Member: Aging; Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Law 
Enforcement; Natural and Economic Resources; State Government. 



400 North Carolina Manual 



JUTi 



LOCiAN BURKK 

( Democrat-Forsyth County) 
Sixty-Seventh Representative District-Forsyth (part) 



Par 4 

Early Years: Born in Winton, Hertford, October 26, 1933, to Selma and Lillian E. 
(Weaver) Burke. 

Education: C. S. Brown High School, 1953; Winston Salem State University, I960. 
B.S; N.C. A&T State University, 1964, M.S; Elizabeth City State University, 
1953-54. 

Professional Background: Teacher, Principal, Winston Salem, Forsyth Schools; Divi- 
sion of Youth Services; Special Assistant for Institutional Services; Present Instruc- 
tor, Recourse Specialist, Winston Salem State University; Local, State and National 
Educational Association; N.C. Juvenile Association; Secretary of N.C Correctional 
Association, 1982. 

Organizations: Member, NAACP; Omega Psi Phi Fraternity; Former, State Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee; Precinct Committee. 

Boards: Board of Directors of Experiment in Self-Reliance; Former Member, Presi- 
dent, Board of Directors of Experiment in Self Reliance; Winston Salem Human 
Relations Council; Region IV Citizens Council; N.C Juvenile Association. 

Political Activities: N.C. House of Representatives. 

Political Achievements: Conducted Three Winning Elections as Campaign Manager 
for Vivian H. Burke (wife). 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, Sp-4, 1954-57. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grace Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Vivian M. Harris, of Charlotte, August 29, 1954. Children: Logan. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget- 
Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Ex- 
pansion-Human Resources; Education; Public Utilities; Health; Higher Edu- 
cation; Human Resources; State Government; University Board of Governors 
Nominating. 




The Legislative Branch 401 

RICHARD EUGENE CHALK, JR. 

(Republican-Guilford County) 
Twenty-eighth Representative District-Guilford (part) County. 



d. 



Early Years: Born in Columbia, South Carolina, July 3, 1952, to Richard E. and 
Louise (Craps) Chalk, Sr. 

Education: Airport High School, 1970, The Citadel, 1974, B.A. (Political Science); 

New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, 1979, M.C.M. (Church Music). 
Professional Background: Owner, Specialty Wood Products. 

Organizations: Boy Scouts of America; High Point Chamber of Commerce; Kiwanis 
Club of High Point. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Honors: Eagle Scout; Outstanding Young Men of America; Vigil member. Order of 
the Arrow. 

Religious Activities: Member, Community Bible Church, High Point. 

Family: Married, Maelda Miranda of New Orleans, Louisiana, December 22, 1979. 
Children: Cristina, Richard and Mollie. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget-Education; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget-Educa- 
tion; Corporations; Cultural Resources; Education; Local Government I; Rules 
and Operation of the House; Small Business; Judiciary III. 



402 North Carolina Manual 




HOWARD B. CHAPIN 

(Democrat - Beaufort County) 

(Second Representative District - Beaufort, Hyde and Washington (part) 
Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Ahoskie, Hertford County, December 9, 1921, to Henry B. and 
Lavenia (Howard) Chapin (both deceased). 

Education: Public Schools oi Weldon and Aurora; Kinston High School; Atlantic 
Christian College, 1947, A.B.; Civic Institute of Government, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
ECU, additional studies in political science. 

Profession: Retired educator. 

Organizations: Member, Belhaven Lions Club (past president); Washington Kiwanis 
Club (past president) VFW; Belhaven Chamber- Washington Chamber. 

Boards and Commissions: Former member, Washington Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
198 1-S2. 1983-84, 1985-86. 1987-88. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Force, 1943-45 (Sergeant); 8th Air Force. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church, Washington. 
Family: Married, Mary Alice Beasley, January 29, 1948. Children; J.Michael and 
Kenneth E. Grandchildren Tonia and Mikki. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Marine Fisheries. 

Vice Chairman: Corrections; Education. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropri- 
ations-Expansion Budget; Higher Education; Natural and Economic Re- 
sources; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education; Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Commissions and Schools 
for the Blind and Deaf; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 403 

JOHN TRAMMELL CHURCH 

(Democrat-Vance County) 

Twenty-second Representative District-Caswell, Granville, Halifax (part). 
Person, Vance and Warren. 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, September 22 
1917, to Charles R. and Lela (Johnson) Church. 

Education: Boyden High School, 1935; Catawba College, 1936-37; UNC-Chapel; Hill. 
1942, B.S. (Pharmacy). 

Professional Background: Chairman Emeritus of the Board, Roses Stores, Inc. 

Organizations: Executive Committee, Director and past President; N.C. Merchants 
Association; N.C. Citizens Association; N.C. Agri-Business Council; Director, 
National Retail Merchants Associaton; UNC-Chapel Hill Business Foundation; 
Association of General Merchandise Concerns (Secretary); Henderson-Vance 
Chamber of Commerce; Henderson- 1 Vance United Fund (former Trustee and 
Executive Committee, Carolinas United); Rotary; Henderson Country Club; 
Mason; Shriner; Elk; American Legion; Newcomers Society of N.C; Vanwarco and 
North District Occoneechee Council, BSA; Kappa Alpha; Chi Beta Phi; Tarheel 
Lung Association; National Society to Prevent Blindness, President. 

Boards: Director, People's Bank (former Chairman, Advisory Board); Advisory 
Boards, SE Regional Council, BSA and Salvation Army, Trustee; Louisburg Col- 
lege (Chairman) and Vance-Granville Community College (Secretary); Board of 
Visitors, UNC-Chapel Hill; Director, N.C. Ports Authority and N.C. Railroads; 
Committees, State Revenue Sharing, Morehead Scholarship Selection, NC-VA 
Water Management, Commissions; Kerr Lake, UNC Utiltites Study (Chairman), 
Executive Residence Building, N.C. Tax Study, N.C. Legislative Services, N.C. 
Research, State Art Museum Building, N.C. Agency for Telecommunications. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1967-69, 1977-78. 1979- 
80, 1981-82, 1983-84; 1985-86, 1987-; N.C. Senate, 1971; delegate. National Demo- 
cratic Convention, 1972, Democratic National Committee, 1972; Chairmnan, N.C. 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1972; Chairman, Deomcratic Executive Com- 
mittee, Vance County, 1966, 1976. Henderson City Coucil, 1966-67. 

Military: Served, U.S. Marine Corp Reserves, 1942-45 (Captain); naval aviator, com- 
bat veteran. South Pacific, Awarded 3 Distinguishes, Flying Crosses. 10 Air 
Medals. 

Honors: Man of the Year, Henderson-Vance Chamber of Commerce; Businessman in 
the News, N.C. Citizens Association; "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and 
Observer; Silver Beaver and Distinguished Citizen Awards, BSA; Distinguished 
Alumnus, Catawba County, 1973. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Henderson; Chairman 
of the Board (former President); Trustee; former Chairman, Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Emma Thomas Rose of Henderson, December 31. 1943. Children: 
John and Elizabeth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Transportation. 
Vice Chairman: Finance. 

Member: Corporations; Higher Education; Local Government II; Public Utili- 
ties; Rules and Operation of the House; Highway Safety; Judiciary I; University 
Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



404 Nor i ii Carolina Manual 

MARIE (WAITERS) COLTON 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

(Fifty-first Representative District - Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
I ransylvania Counties - Hour Representatives.) 




Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, October 20, 1922. to John Piper 

and Sarah Thomas Watters. 
Education: Chapel High School. 1939; St. Mary's Junior College; UNC-Chapel Hill, 

1943, B.A. (Spanish); Mars Hill College and UNC-Asheville, post graduate studies. 

Profession: Legislator. 

Organizations: Business and Professional Women; League of Women Voters; American 

Association of University Women; Sir Walter Cabinet; Children's Welfare League. 
Boards and Commissions: Director, Vagabond School of Drama; Board of Directors. 

Brevard Music Center; NC Public Radio Advisory Committee; Board of Visitors, 

UNC-Chapel Hill; Board of Advisors, NC Historic Preservation Foundation; The 

NC Institute of Medicine. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 

1985-86; 1987-. 
Family: Married, Henry E. Colton. Children: Elizabeth, Marie (Colton) Pelzer; Sarah 

(Colton) Villeminot; Walter Colton; 7 grandchildren. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Cultural Resources; Wildlife Resources. 

Member: Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources; Children and Youth; Water and Air Resources; Highway 
Safety; Judiciary IV; Local Government II. 



The Legislative Branch 



405 




ROY ASBERRY COOPER III 

(Democrat-Nash County) 

Seventy-Second Representative District-Edgecombe (part) and Nash 
(part). 



Early Years: Born in Nashville, Nash County, June 13, 1957, to Roy A. and Beverly 
Cooper, Jr. 

Education: Northern Nash Sr. High School, 1973-75; UNC Chapel Hill, 1979 (Batche- 
lor of Arts); UNC Chapel Hill, 1982 (Juris Doctor); Morehead Scholar. 

Professional Background: Attorney; N.C. Bar Association; N.C. Academy of Trial 
Lawyers. 

Organizations: Rocky Mount Jaycees, Legal Counsel, 1983; Rotary Club, Chamber of 
Commerce; Tar River Choral and Orchestral Society, Board of Directors, 1986- 
present. 

Boards: Former, State Goals and Policy Board. 1979-84; State Interim Balanced 
Growth Board, 1979-84; Commission on the Future of N.C. (N.C. 2000), 1981-84. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives; N.C. College Democrats 
(President-UNC Chapel Hill Club). 1978; N.C. Young Democrats (2nd District 
Chairman), 1980; Democratic Party (Precinct Officer, Delegate to County District 
and State Conventions). 

Honors: Morehead Scholar; UNC order of Golden Fleece, Grail, Old Well,; Order of 
the Long Leaf Pine State Honor Society; Freedom Guard Award (N.C. Jaycees). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 1983-86; Youth 
Group Advisor, Various Committees. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget-General 
Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget-General Government; Commissions and Schools for the Blind and 
Deaf; Courts and Administration of Justice; Education; Election Laws; 
Housing; Insurance; Judiciary II; Water and Air Resources. 



406 North Carolina M am \i 




JAMES M. CRAVEN 

( Republican-Moore County) 
Thirty-first Representative District-Moore County. 



A 



Early Years: Born in Pine Bluff, Moore County, July 17, 1930. 

Education: Ellerbe High School, 1948. 

Professional Background: Chairman of the Board, New South Industries, (a division 

of Erico Corporation). 
Organizations: Roman Eagle Lodge No. 550; Aberdeen A&A; Scottish Rite; Moore 

County Shrine Club. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987; Commis- 
sioner, Moore County, 1980-82; former Chairman, Moore County Republican 
Party. 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, 1948-69 (M/Sergeant); Airborn Infantry. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pine Bluff Methodist Church; Administrative Board. 

Family: Married, Kathleen Freeman of Eagle Springs, September 8, 1950. Children: 
Richard, Donna, Steve and Jennifer. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Constitutional Amendments; Corrections; 
Education; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Pensions and Retirement; Finance; 
Wildlife Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 407 

JAMES WALKER CRAWFORD, JR. 

(Democrat-Granville County) 

Twenty-second Representative District-Caswell, Granville, Halifax (part). 
Person, Vance and Warren Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County, October 4, 1937, to James Walker 
and Julia Brent (Hicks) Crawford. 

Education: Public Schools of Oxford, Oxford High School, 1956; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1960, B.S. (Industrial Relations). 

Professional Background: Retail Merchant; Developer; The Fabric Shop; Crawford 
Properties; A & P; True Value; Coble Boulev Island Historical Association; Gran- 
ville Medical Center Foundation; Parks and Recreation Study Commission and 
State Council; Vance-Granville Community College Foundation. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; 
Oxford City Council, 1964-68. 

Professional Background: Retail Merchant; Developer; The Fabric Shop; Crawford 
Properties; A & P; True Value; Coble Boulevent; Oxford City Council, 1964-68. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy, 1960-62 (Lieutenant J.G.). 
Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Jaycees; Carroll V. Singleton Award. 
Religious Activities: Member, Oxford Methodist Church; Chairman, Board of Trus- 
tees, 1980; Sunday School Teacher; Pastoral Parish Relations Committee. 

Family: Married, Harriet C. Cannon, February 11 1961. Children: James, Julia, and 
Harriet. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Chairman: Mental Health. 

Chairman: University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Vice Chairman: Public Utilities. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget-Human 
Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Bud- 
get-Human Resources; Education; Local Government I; Higher Education; 
Judiciary III; State Government. 



408 North Carolina Manuai 




NARVEL JAMKS CRAWFORD, JR. 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

(Fifty-first Representative District - Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, November 9, 1929, to Narvel J. 
and Tymah (Phillips) Crawford. 

Education: Lee Edwards High School. 1946-48; Duke University, A.B., 1952; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1959-60, graduate studies in history. 

Profession: Property Management. 

Organizations: V.F.W. Post 789; Asheville Civitan Club; Legislative Task Force, 

Industrial Relations and Economic Development Committees, Asheville Chamber 

of Commerce; director, American Lung Association of NC (western region); 

Director, NC Hemophilia Foundation; Director, Epilepsy Association of NC; 

Director. American Foundation for the Deaf. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, NC State Theater at Flat Rock; Director, Thomas 
Rehabilitation Hospital; Director, Buncombe County Social Services, State Parks 
Study Commission (co-chairman). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 
1987-; Democratic State Executive Committee, third term; Secretary, Buncombe 
County Executive Committee, 1978-79; Chairman, Asheville Precinct No. 3, 1972- 
78; President, Democratic Forum of Buncombe County, 1972-78; campaign man- 
ager, Asheville City Council, 1977; representative. Eleventh Congressional District, 
State Democratic Platform Committee, 1976. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Vice Chairman: Constitutional Amendments; State Properties. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations-Base Budget Committee on General Government; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Commissions 
and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Election Laws; Governmental Ethics; 
Rules and Operation of the House. 




The Legislative Branch 409 

CHARLES LEMUEL CROMER 

(Republican - Davidson County) 

(Thirty-seventh District - Davidson, Davie and Iredell (part) Counties 
-Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in High Point, Guilford County, January 27, 1939, to Charles Nor- 
man and Wilma (Duggins) Cromer. 

Education: High Point High School, 1957; Sandhills Community College, 1972, A. A. 
with honors; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1972, B.A. with honors; Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1975, J.D., cum laude. 

Profession: Attorney, 1977-; law teacher, Davidson Community College, 1975-82; 
associate, firm of Morgan, Post Herring & Morgan, 1975-77; insurance adjustor, 
1967-71. 

Organizations: NC and 22nd Judicial Bar Associations; Director and charter member. 
Parent to Parent; Director, Association for Retarded Citizens; Director, High Point 
Rescue Squad; Director, High Point Kindergarten for the Handicapped; Thomas- 
ville Rotary; Legislative Study Commissions: Medical Malpractice and Liability; 
Adolescent Pregnancy and Prematurity Prevention; Children With Special Needs. 
State Health Coordinating Council (Chair, ICF-MR and Rehabilitation); Statewide 
Family Planning Council; Adolescent Pregnancy and Prematurity Prevention Advi- 
sory Board; State Task Force on Services. 

Political Acitivities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1962-65 (Sp-4). 

Honors: American Jurisprudence awards and Law Review invitation. School of Law , 

Wake Forest University; 1985 Legislator of the Year (High Point, Assoc, for 

Retarded Citizens). 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, High Point; Chairman, 
Estate Committee; Finance Committee; class president, 1980. 

Family: Married, Sheila Sue Whitlow of High Point. Children: Tonja Dawn and Ash- 
ley Nicole. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Health; Human Re- 
sources; Judiciary IV; Local Government 1; Mental Health; Children and 
Youth; Election Laws; Transportation. 



410 North Carolina Mantm 




WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM 

(Democrat-Mecklenburg County) 
Fifty-Ninth Representative District-Mecklenburg (part) 



Early Years: Burn in Monroe, Union County, No\ ember II, 1929, to John Wallace 
and Johnnie Mae (Patterson) Cunningham. 

Education: Winchester Avenue High School; Coyne Electronic Institute, 1950, A.E. 
Certificate; Johnson C. Smith University, 1950-52; Business Law Florida Exten- 
sion. Charleston A.F.B. 

Professional Background: President and Co-Owner, Hatchett and Cunningham Asso- 
ciates, 1973-84; Professional and Technical Recruiting Firm; Owner, Affordable 
Used Cars, 1984-present. 

Organizations: Life Member, NAACP (NAACP legal Defense Fund); Charlotte Busi- 
ness League (Board of Directors), Former President. 1979; Member. VFW; Ameri- 
can Legion Post 212; United Negro College Fund; Compassion International; 
Johnson C. Smith Alumni ( 100 Club), 1979-85. 

Boards: Charlotte Chamber of Commerce, Board of Directors, 1980-82. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives; Member, State Black 
Leadership Caucus; Member, Charlotte, Mecklenburg Black Caucus. 

Military: Served. U.S. Navy, Radioman, 1st Class, Retired. 1972; Good Conduct 
Medal, ETO (American Defense), Outstanding Sailor of the Month, Leadership 
Certificates. 

Religious Activities: Member, Parkwood CME Church; Present Chairman. Trustee 
Board, 1973-present; Vice Chairman, Development Fund Board Christian Educa- 
tion, 1980-present. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Corrections; Mental Health; Military and Veterans Affairs; 
Finance; Human Resources; Housing; Insurance. 




The Legislative Branch 41 1 

DONALD MARTIN DAWKINS 

(Democrat - Richmond County) 

(Thirty-second Representative District - Richmond and Scotland (part) 
Counties - One Representative.) 






Early Years: Born in Rockingham, Richmond County, June 28, 1938, to Eugene 
Dennis and Myrtle Eunice (Blake) Dawkins. 

Education: Rockingham High School, 1956; NCSU, 1960, B.S. (Mechanical and 
Aeronautical Engineering); University of Southern California, 1970, Masters (Man- 
agement); St. Mary's University, School of Law, 1973, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney; lay pastor. 

Organizations: Richmond County, NC, NC State, American, Texas and Florida Bar 
Associations; American Trial Lawyers Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1960-71 (Major); helicopter pilot; Signal Corps; 
Distinguished Flying Crosses (2); Meritorious Service Medal; Bronze Star for 
Achievement; Bronze Star for Valour; Army Commendation Medal; Air Medals 
( 17); Air Medal with "V"; various campaign medals. 

Religious Acitivities: Member, Tabernacle United Methodist Church, Hamlet; lay pas- 
tor, 1978-; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Patricia Ellen Settle of Rockingham, September 1 1, 1960. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Properties. 

Vice Chairman: Courts and Administration of Justice; Judiciary 1. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion; Appropria- 
tions-Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget 
for Natural and Economic Resources; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Corpora- 
tions Election Laws; Higher Education; Insurance; Water and Air Resources. 



412 Nor i 11 Carolina Manual 



MICHAEL DECKER 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

(Twenty-ninth Representative District - Forsyth (part) and Guilford 
(part) Counties - One Representative.) 





Early Years: Born in Red Bud, Illinois, December 18, 1944, to Harvey and Margaret 

( Parvin) Decker. 
Education: Piedmont Bible College, 1969-74; Winston-Salem State University, 1976, 

B.S. (Education). 

Profession: Teacher (Gospel Light Christian School. 1976-). 

Organizations: Little League Baseball (Director, 1981-84, Secretary, 1982-83, coach, 
1979-81). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86; 1987-; Forsyth 
County Republican Party (Vice Chairman, 1981-83); Chairman. Belews Creek 
Precinct, 1979-84. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1962-68 (E-5); submarine services. 
Religious Activities: Member, Gospel Light Baptist Church, Walkertown; Sunday 
School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Marlene Allen of Creston, June 4, 1966. Children: Michael. Jr., 
Mark and Michelle. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget on Justice and Public Safety; Employment Security; 
Highway Safety; Human Resources; Law Enforcement State Government; 
and Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 413 

DANIEL HOWARD DEVANE 

(Democrat - Hoke County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, Robeson and Scotland (part) 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Elizabethtown, Bladen County, June 4, 1945, to Junie Franklin 

and Duel (Strickland) DeVane. 
Education: White Oak High School, 1964; Missouri Auction School, 1975. 

Profession: Real estate executive and auctioneer (owner, DeVane Realty & Auction); 
owner, DeVane's Men's Clothing, 1972-82; Raeford Department Store, 1969-72; 
Fayetteville Police Department, 1966-69. 

Organizations: Former member: Raeford Kiwanis Club; Hoke County Rescue Squad 
(Commander, 1972-75); Hillcrest Volunteer Fire Department; Jaycees; member, 
Raeford Fire Department. 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, Flora Macdonald Academy (Chairman, 1981-82). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; 
Council of Government, Region N, 1976-82 (Chairman, 1980); Hoke County 
Commissioner, 1976-82. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, 1965 (6 months); Reserves, 5 1/2 years. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Alice Smith, July 6, 1968. Children: Daniel Howard, II. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Water and Air Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Health; Judiciary. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Law 
Enforcement; Pensions and Retirement; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion Budget 
Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Employment Security; Wildlife 
Resources. 



414 Nor i ii Carolina Manual 




DAVID HUNTER DIAMONT 

(Democrat-Surry County) 

Fortieth Representative District-Alleghany, Ashe. Stokes (part). Sum 
and Watauga (part) Counties 



Early Years: Bom in Greensboro, Guilford County, February 9, 1946, to David Elijah 
and Hyacinth Cleo (Hunter) Diamont (both deceased). 

Education: East Surry High School, 1961-63; Frank L. Ashley High School, 1963-64; 

Wake Forest University, 1968, B.A.; Appalachian State University, 1972, M.A. 
Professional Background: History teacher and head varsity football coach. East Surry 

High School, 1977- (varsity coaching record: 68 wins and 40 losses; state play offs, 

1979-81, 1982-83, 1985-86); history teacher and assistant football coach. Mount 

Airy Senior High School, 1968-77. 

Organizations: NEA; NCAE; N.C. Coaches Association; Lambda Chi Alpha; National 
Historical Society; Sierra Club; Surry County Historical Society; Deacon Club, 
Wake Forest University; former member, Pilot Mountain Jaycees. 

Boards: Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health, 1979-80; Director, Pilot 
Mountain Foundation, Inc.; N.C. High Coaches Association, Board of Directors. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives. 1975-present (7 terms). 

Honors: Assistant coach, East-West All Star Football Game, 1985; Coach of the Year, 
Northwest 3-A Conference, 1979, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Pilot Mountain; Lay 
Leader. 

Family: Married, Debby Severs of Greensboro. Children: Ashley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Vice Chairman: Education. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget-Human 
Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Bud- 
get-Human Resources; Rules and Operation of the House; Higher Education; 
State Properties; Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 415 

ANN QUARTERMAN DUNCAN 

(Republican-Forsyth County) 

Thirty-Ninth Representative District-Forsyth (part) County 



Early Years: Born in Waycross, Georgia, April 15, 1938, to John H. (deceased) and 
Jessie Elizabeth (Smith) Quarterman. 

Education: Waycross High School, 1956; University of Georgia, 1956-59; Jacksonville 
University, B.S. (education); UNC-Greensboro, MPA (Masters Degree in Public 
Administration and Public Affairs). 

Professional Background: Former, School Teacher; Social Worker. 

Organizations: National Teachers Association; Florida Education Association; Amos 
Cottage Guild; Navy Officers' Wives Club (treasurer, 1974-75); Public Affairs, 
Advisory Council. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-88; Forsyth County 
Republican Women's Club; National Federation of Republican Women. 

Honors: Educator of the Year; Elks Leadership Award; Senior Superlative; State Ten- 
nis Champion (three years). 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary Methodist Church; Circle; Active Youth 
Fellowship. 

Family: Married, Donald Eric Duncan, of Oil City, Pennsylvania, June 24, 1972. 
Children: Stephanie. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Water and Air Resources 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations Base Budget-Human Resources; 
Appropriatons Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget-Human 
Resources; Courts and Administration of Justice; Education; Marine Fisher- 
ies; Pensions and Retirement; Higher Education; Insurance. 



416 North Carolina Mam ai 

RUTH M. EASTERLINC 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 



> 




(Fifty-eighth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) Count} -One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Gaffney, South Carolina, December 26, 1910, to Benjamin 
Harrison and l.illie Mae (Crawley) Moss. 

Education: Centralized High School, 1929; Limestone College, 1932 (English, Math, 
History); Queens College, post graduate studies in Business Law, Personnel Adminis- 
tration, Business Administration. 

Profession: Executive Assistant to the President, Radiator Specialty Co., 1947-85. 

Organizations: Legislative Committee, International and Professional Women, 198 1-; 
Women's Equity Action League; Women Executives of Charlotte; Women's Forum 
of NC; Professional Secretaries International (Chairman, Public and World Affairs, 
1975-76); Business and Professional Women's Club (national President. 1970-71); 
League of Women Voters; American Association of University Women; Trustee, 
Wildacres Retreat. 

Boards and Commissions: Governors Advocacy Council for Persons with Disability; 
Advisory Council on OSHA; Legislative Study Committee on Physicians' As- 
sistants; Research and Education Committee, National Business and Professional 
Women's Foundation, 1978-1981. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-; House Chairman, Study Committee on the Economic, 
Social and Legal Problems and Needs of Women; NC Women's Political Caucus 
(NC President, 1974); Charlotte City Council, 1972-73; Governor's Commission on 
the Status of Women, 1964. 

Honors: Personalities of the South; Certificate of Achievement, NC Association of 
Women Attorneys, 1982; Outstanding Career Woman, NC Federation of Business 
and Professional Women, 1980; Charlotte's Outstanding Career Woman, 1971; 
Woman of the Year, WBT Radio, 1964. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Charlotte;Associate Superin- 
tendent of Training; Associate Superintendent, Sunday School Intermediate Depart- 
ment; Library, Financial Planning and Personnel Committees. President, Baptist 
Business Women, First Baptist Church and Mecklenburg Baptist Associations. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Children and Youth. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget-Human Resources; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget-Human Resources; Local Government II. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Cul- 
tural Resources; Governmental Ethics; Energy ; Judiciary III; Manufacturers 
and Labor; Small Business. 




The Legislative Branch 417 

CHANCY RUDOLPH EDWARDS 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

(Seventeenth Representative District - Cumberland (part) County - Two 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Nash County, February 28, 1925, to B.H. and Lucy (Kearney) 
Edwards (both deceased). 

Education: Nash County Training Schools; Shaw University, 1946, B.A.; Shaw Uni- 
versity Divinity School, 1949, M.Div.; Union Theological Seminary and South- 
eastern Theological Seminary, additional studies. 

Profession: Pastor (First Baptist Church, Fayetteville, 1953-; Spring Garden Baptist 
Church, Washington, 1948-53). 

Organizations: Chairman, Cumberland County Community Action Program; Chair- 
man, OIC Organization. 

Boards and Commissions: State Board of Education; Trustee, Shaw University; 
Chairman, Fayetteville City Board of Education; National Sunday School Board; 
Mayor's Council for Human Relations. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; 
Precinct Chairman; delegate. National Democratic Convention. 

Honors: Distinguished Public Service Award, Shaw University, 1982; Distinguished 
Citizens Award, Occoneechee Council, BSA, 1980; Human Relations Award, 
Cumberland County, 1971; Award of Honor, City of Fayetteville, 1967. 

Religious Activities: Pastor, First Baptist Church, Fayetteville, 1953-. President, Gen- 
eral Baptist State Convention of NC, Inc.; President, Lott Carey Baptist Foreign 
Mission Convention; Executive Committee, Baptist World Alliance; National Sun- 
day School Board. 

Family: Married, Luella Dickens, August 30, 1947. Child: Jewyl Anita (Edwards) 
Dunn. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Aging. 

Vice Chairman: Higher Education. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget on Educa- 
tion; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget 
Committee on Education; Corrections; Education; Housing; Human Re- 
sources; Children and Youth; Local Government I. 



4IS 



North Carolina Manual 




JEFF HAILEN ENLOE, JR. 

(Democrat - Macon County) 

(Fifty-third Representative District - Cherokee. Clay, Graham (part) and 
Macon Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Franklin, Macon County, September 2, 1914, to Jeff H. and 
Jessie (Hester) Enloe, Sr. 

Education: Franklin Public Schools; Franklin High School, 1932; NC State College, 
1938, B.S. (Agriculture Education). 

Profession: Retired government employee (US Department of Agriculture, 34 years). 

Boards and Commissions: State Health Coordinating Council. 

Political Activities : Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76. 1977-78. 1979- 
80, 1981-82. 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; Advisory Budget Committee. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy. 1943-46 (Petty Officer, 2nd Class). 
Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

Family: Married. Ruth Drummond. July 20. 1946. Children: William A., Jeff H.. 111. 
James R. and Gregory M. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Employment Security. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Health. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Election Laws; Mili- 
tary and Veterans' Affairs; State Personnel; Transportation; Constitutional 
Amendments; Natural and Economic Resources. 



The Legislative Branch 



419 




THERESA HARLOW ESPOSITO 

(REPUBLICAN-FORSYTH COUNTY) 

Thirty-ninth Representative District-Forsyth (part) County. 



Early Years: Born in Washington, DC, November 17, 1930, to H. Richard and Marie 
Theresa (Burke) Harlow (both deceased). 

Education: Saint Cecelia's Academy, 1948; National Institute of Practical Nursing, 
1957, G.P.N.; Prince George Community College and Salem College, additional 
studies. 

Professional Background: Retired federal government employee; Corporate Executive 
(Secretary, American Council, Inc.); former, Federal Government Employee. 

Organizations: SECCA; Friends of SECCA; Officers' Wives Club; Winston-Salem 
Tennis, Inc.; N.C. Tennis Association; N.C. Museum Association; Winston-Salem 
Symphony; N.C. School of the Arts Associates; Sir Walter Cabinet. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-; Alternate 
Delegate at Large, Republican National Convention, 1984; National Federation of 
Republican Women; N.C. Federation of Republican Women; Forsyth County 
Republican Women's Club (President, 1982-83); Marion Martin Republican 
Women's Club (D.C.); Legislative Exchange (V-C/N.C); National Order of Women 
Legislators; Southern Republican Exchange. 

Boards: Governor's Highway Safety Commission; Respect Life Commission, N.C. 

Honors: Various outstanding performance awards as a federal government employee. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Leo's Catholic Church, Winston Salem; Member, 

Parish Council. 
Family: Married, Brigadier General Alfred L. Esposito, November 18, 1972. Children: 

Sharon, Carolyn, and Carol Ann. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations Base Budget-Natural and 
Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget-Natural and Economic 
Resources; Constitutional Amendments; Cultural Resources; Judiciary IV; Law 
Enforcement; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Health. 



420 Nor i h Carolina Manual 




BOBBY R. ETHERIDGE 

( Democrat-Harriett County) 
Nineteenth Representative District-Harnett and Lee Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, August 7, 1941. to John P. and Beatrice 
(Coats) Etheridgc. 

Education: Cleveland School. 1947-59; Campbell University. 1965. B.S. (Business 
Administration); NCSU, 1967, additional studies in economics. 

Professional Background: Owner, Fay ton Supply Company; President. WLLN Radio 
Station; Director, North Carolina National Bank, Lillington; licensed Realtor; 
President, Angier Hardware and Home Center. 

Organizations: Member, Industrial Management Club (past President); Lillington 
Lions Club (past President); American Legion; Harnett Cystic Fibrosis Campaign 
(past Chairman); Land Use Advisory Council, 1976; Harnett Youth Advisory 
Council (past Chairman); Harnett Sheltered Workshop (Chairman, 1978); Lilling- 
ton Chamber of Commerce (President. 1977); Lillington Rotary Club; Lillington 
Masonic Lodge. 

Boards: Harnett Mental Health Board, 1975-76; N.C. Law and Order Commission. 
1982-84; Chairman, Cape Fear District Occoneechee Boy Council. 1983. 

Political Activities: Served. N.C. House of Representatives, 1979-present (5 terms); 
Harnett County Commissioner. 1973-76 (Chairman 1974-76); Chairman. N.C. 
House of Representatives Special Fact-Finding Subcommittee on Agriculture; 
Member, Joint Select Committee on Economic Growth; Rural Economic Devel- 
opment Center Board of Directors; Fiscal Affairs and Oversight Committee of the 
National Conference of State Legislatures; Fiscal Affairs and Government Opera- 
tions Committee of the Southern Legislative Conference of the Council of State 
Governments; N.C. Legislativee Governmental Operations Commission; Advisory 
Budget Commission. 

Military: Served. U.S. Army, December 1965-67. 

Honors: Received Lillington Jaycees Distinguished Service Award, 1975; Lillington 
Community Service Award. 1976; Listed in Outstanding Men of America; Honored 
Distinguished Alumnus Campbell University; Boy Scout District Award of Merit, 
1980. and 1984; Boy Scout Silver Beaver Award. 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, Leaflet Presbyterian Church; Sunday School Teacher; 
Sunday School Superintendent; President, Fayetteville Presbytery Men, 1975-76; 
President, Presbyterian Synod Men of N.C. 1977-78; Elder. Leaflet Church. 1987. 

Family: Married. Lave Cameron, November 25. 1965. Children: Brian, Catherine, and 
David. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget. 
Yice Chairman: Economic Growth. 
Vice Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 

Member: Appropriations Expansion Budget; Constitutional Amendments; Edu- 
cation; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Public Utilities; Rules and Operation of 
the House; Small Business; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 421 

LARRY EUGENE ETHERIDGE 

(Republican - Wilson County) 

(Seventy-first Representative District - Nash (part) and Wilson (part) 
Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Wilson. Wilson County, May 9, 1959, to Andrew J. and Evelyn 
(Bunch) Etheridge, Jr. 

Education: Ralph L. Fike High School, 1977; Wilson County Technical Institute, 
1980. 

Profession: Partner: Subs and Spuds, C&E Enterprises, Inc., owner, Branigan's; 
Manager, Eckerd Drugs, 1982-83. 

Organizations: Wilson County Chamber of Commerce; Wilson Jaycees; Moose Lodge. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86; (youngest mem- 
ber in the 1985 General Assembly), 1987-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Five Points Missionary Baptist Church, High Point. 

Family: Married, Beverly Vick of Wilson, June 29, 1985. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Bank and Thrift Institu- 
tions; Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Insurance; Natural 
and Economic Resources; Small business; State Government; State Proper- 
ties. 



422 Nor in Carolina M \\r\i 




WILBl R BRUCE ETHRIDGE 

(Democrat - Carteret County) 

(r-ourth Representative District - Carteret and Onslow Counties - Three 
Representatives.) 



A <aH 



Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount. Nash County, April 17, 193X, to Wilbur Henry 
and Virginia (Sellers) Ethridge. 

Education: Rocky Mount High School, 1956; NCSU; Fayetteville Technical Institute. 
Profession: Owner Operator, Beaufort Inn; Engineer, Carolina Telephone & Tele- 
graph Company. 
Organizations: NCSU Alumni; Jacksonville Rotary Club; NC Society of Engineers. 
Political Activities: Member. NC House of Representatives, 1978-Present (6 Terms). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; former Deacon; Sunday School 

Teacher; staff committee. 
Family: Married, Katie Tyner, August 9, 1958. Children: Kitty Dare and Mark Bruce. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Education; Human Resources; Marine Fisheries; Governmental 
Ethics; Rules and Operations of the House. 



The Legislative Branch 



423 




MILTON FREDERICK FITCH, JR. 

(Democrat-Wilson County) 

Seventieth Representative District-Edgecombe (part), Nash (part), and 
Wilson (part) Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Wilson, Wilson county, October 20, 1946, to Milton Frederick 

and Cora (Whitted) Fitch. 
Education: C.H. Darden High School, 1964; NC Central University, 1968, B.S.; NC 

Central University, School of Law, 1972, J.D. 
Profession: Attorney. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86 and 1987-. 
Religious Activities: Member, Jackson Chapel Baptist Church, Wilson. 
Family: Married, Judy K. Bradley, October 20, 1979. Child: Melonie Ann. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Courts and Administration of Justice; Housing. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Education; Manufacturers and Labor; election 
Laws; Finance; Highway Safety; Insurance; Judiciary II. 



424 North Carolina Manual 




RAY CHARLKS FLETCHER 

(Democrat - Burke County) 

(Forty-seventh Representative District - Burke (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Forest City, Rutherford County, May 4, 1931, to Troy F. and 
Geneva (Beddingfield) Fletcher, Sr. 

Education: Drexel High School; UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Profession: Secretary-Treasurer, City Motor Company of Valdese, Inc. 

Organizations: President. Rotary Club; Burke County Chamber of Commerce; Val- 
dese Merchants Association (former President); Fovelady United Fund (former 
President); Valdese Jaycees (former President); former Chairman, Valdese Parks 
and Recreation. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman of the Board, NC School for Deaf. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-; 
Mayor, Town of Valdese; Burke County Demoeratic Party; former President and 
Chairman, Burke County Young Democrats Club. 

Military Service: Served. US Navy, 1951-54. 

Honors: Rotarian of the Year. 1965; Young Man of the Year, Valdese Jaycees, 1961. 
Religious Acdtivities: Member, Waldensian Presbyterian Chureh; former Deacon. 
Family: Married, Mary Beth Goodman, November 29, 1980. Children: Rave Fynn, 
Randy, Ruthie. and Christie (Fletcher) Taylor. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Vice Chairman: Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Human 

Resources. 

Member: Election Faws; Finance; Focal Government I; Mental Health; Small 
Business; Transportation; Water And Air Resources; Appropriations-Base 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget, Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget Com- 
mittee on Human Resources; Highway Safety; State Government; State 
Personnel. 




The Legislative Branch 425 

JO GRAHAM FOSTER 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

(Fifty-sixth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born May 22, 1915, to Reverend Joseph Alexander and Queen (McDo- 
nald) Graham. 

Education: McBee High School, 1927-28; Spring Hill Central High School, 1928-31; 
Columbia College, 1935. 

Profession: Retired (former Administrative Assistant to the Superintendent, Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg Schools.) 

Organizations: National Education Association; NC Association of Educators (former 
President); PACE; PENC; Charlotte-Mecklenburg Educators; National Associa- 
tion, Secondary School Principals; Delta Kappa Gamma; Gamma Sigma; Sigma 
Tau Delta; International Platform Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Education Commission of the States; Board of Visitors, 
Johnson C. Smith University; Board of Visitors, Boys Town; Board of Relatives, 
Mental Health Board and Total Care Board, Bethlehem Center; E.C.O. Board; 
National Committee for Citizenship and Social Studies, State-Federal Assembly. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-; Precint Committee. 

Honors: Who's Who of American Platform; Legislator Psychologist Award; Outstand- 
ing Educator, Elementary School Principals; World Gideon Bible, 1979; National 
Legislator of the Year, American School Counselors, 1979; Legislator of the Year, 
NC School Counselors, 1979; nominee, Salute to Working Women, 1968. Psychiat- 
ric Award 1986. School Social Worker Award, 1986, B.P.N. Woman of the Year 
1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, Dilworth Methodist Church, Charlotte; Board of Ste- 
wards; Adult Sunday School Teacher; Lay Speaker; Committee on Education and 
various other committees. 

Family: Married, James Benjamin Foster, June 4, 1937. Children: Mary Jo (Foster) 
McClure. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Governmental Ethics. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education; Appro- 
priations Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Military and Veterans' 
Affairs. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Pensions 
and Retirements; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee; 
Aging; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Higher Education; Highway 
Safety. 



426 Nor in Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM MOSES FREEMAN 

(Democrat- Wake County) 
Sixty-Second Representative District-Wake (part) Count) 



Early Years: Born in Nashville. Nash County, January 8, 1926, to Fred D. and 

Roberta Jane (Yarborough) Freeman. 
Freeman. 

Education: Castalia Elementary, 1933-40; Nash Central High School, 1940-44; Dele- 
ware State College, 1949, B.S. (Agriculture); Shaw University, 1958, M. Div. (Reli- 
gion); N.C Central University, 1960. M.A.C (Guidance and Counseling); Univer- 
sity of N.C, 1965 (Adv. Certification in Education Administration); Luther Rice 
Seminary. 1977, D. Min. (Doctor of Ministry in Pastoral Counseling). 

Professional Background: Voc. Agriculture Teacher; Counselor. Principal; Assistant 
Superintendent of Schools (Wake County); Retired in Education. 1983; Ordained 
Minister, Methodist (A.M.E. Zion), Presiding (Dist. Supt.). Elder (28 years). - 
160rganizations: Chamber of Commerce; Town Commissioner, Mayor, Pro-tem, 
1980-86; American Legion. 

Boards: Former, Wake County Schools Advisory Council, Chairman, 1983-86. 

Political Activities: N.C. House of Representatives; Town Commissioner; N.C. Mayor. 
Pro-tem. 

Achievements of Political Career: First and only black elected to the Fuquay Varina 
Town Council. 

Military: Served, U.S. Marines, Sgt., E-5; Reserves, 1952-64; First Black in the South 
to serve in the Reserves; Outstanding Marine Instructor in the Sixth District. 

Honors: Selected one o( the top ten graduates by Deleware State, 1940-49; Introduced 
into the Athletic Hall of Fame for Boxing, Football, and Wrestling, by Deleware 
State, 1985; Towns "Outstanding Citizen", 1973; Human Relations Award for Dis- 
trict II. 1975. 

Editor: Edited and Founded Wake County NCAE first newsletter, "The Teachers Pet", 
won state-wide award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Kyles Temple A.M.E. Zion Church; Serving as presid- 
ing Elder over the Fayetteville District, presiding over twenty-four churches. 

Family: Married, Arletha Greene (deceased), of Angier, November 1957. Children: 
William, Robin and Robert. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations-Base Budget; 
Appropriations Base Budget-Justice and Public Safety; Appropriatons Expan- 
sion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget-Justice and Public Safety; 
Corrections; Pensions and Retirement; Higher Education; Highway Safety; 
Housing; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 427 

AARON ELEAZAR FUSSELL 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

(Sixty-fifth Representative District - Wake (part) County - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, Duplin County, July 5, 1923, to C.T. and Myra Blake 
(Cavenaugh) Fussell. 

Education: Rose Hill High School 1940; Atlantic Christian College, 1946, A.B., cum 
laude; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1952, M.Ed.; Duke University and NCSU, post graduate 
studies. 

Profession: Retired educator (Superintendent, Wake County Public Schools, 35 years). 

Organizations: Educational Chamber; Educational Fraternity; Mason; Scottish Rite; 

North Raleigh Lions Club, 30 years (former President); various civil and political 

organizations. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Capital Area Visitor Services Committee; Local 
Government Advocacy Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 
1985-86; 1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-45, 5 major campaign decorations. 

Honors: Author, "Teacher Evaluation Legal Residence." 

Religious Activities: Member, Millbrook United Methodist Church; Past Chairman of 

the Board; President, Men's Club; Lay Leader; teacher; Trustee. 
Family: Married, Polly Batts, August 14, 1949; four children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education. 

Vice Chairman: Aging; Highway Safety. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget 
Committee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Commissions and Schools for 
the Blind and Deaf; Higher Edcation; Rules and Operation of the House; 
State Personnel. 



428 Nor i ii Carolina Mam \i 





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CHARLOTTE AN( HER GARDNER 

( Republican-Rowan County) 
(Thirty-fifth Representative District-Rowan County) 



Early Years: Bom in Baltimore, Maryland, November 14, 1931, to Marcel and Char- 
lotte (Knapp) Aneher. 

Education: St. Anne's, 1943; St. Anthony's, 1945; Rockwell High School, 1949; 
Catawba College, 1952. A.B.. Cum Laude. 

Professional Background: Former high school teacher. 

Organizations: Leader, Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts of America; NC Right to Life; 
Rowan County Humane Society; MADD (Director. 1984-85; Vice President, 1982- 
84); Trustee, Vice-president, Rowan Advocates for Mentally 111; Board of Directors, 
Prenancy Counseling Center; Chairman. Salisbury-Rowan Mayors' Council for 
Persons with Disabilities; Board of Directors, Families in Action for Drug Free 
Youth; Choral Society. 1974. 

Boards: Director. Community Lite Council, 1980-81; Community Resource Council 
for Piedmont Correctional Center. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985 to present (two 
terms); NC Republican Women (District Representative, 1983-84); Salisbury-Rowan 
Republican Women (Vice-president, 1982-84); Central Committee, Rowan Repub- 
lican Party (Vice Chairman. 1981-83); Women's Task Force. 8th District. 1983-84. 

Religious Activities: Member, Sacred Heart Catholic Church. Salisbury; Church choir; 

President, Sacred Heart PTA; Treasurer. Church Women United. 1982-84; Grand 

Regeant Catholic Daughter. 1975. 
Family: Married. Lester Gardner of Bellwood, Pennsylvania June 7. 1952. Children; 

Jeanne Dianne, Terrence Lee, Leslie Eugenia, Timothy Andrew, Thomas Alan and 

Ted Alexander. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Corrections; Economic Growth; Education; Local Government II; 
Mental Health; Finance; Higher Education; Highway Safety. 




The Legislative Branch 429 

HERMAN COLRIDGE GIST 

(Democrat - Guilford County) 

(Twenty-sixth Representative District - Guilford (part) and Randolph 
(part) Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Spartanburg, South Carolina, December 12, 1923, to Arthur and 
Louie (Casey) Gist. 

Education: Highland Grade School, 1929-36; Carver High School, 1936-40; NC A&T 
State University, 1964, B.S. (Biology). 

Profession: Coffee, herbs and tea distributor. 

Organizations: Chairman, Political Awareness; Greensboro Citizens Forum, 1979-; 
Omega Psi Phi, 1942-. 

Boards and Commissions: Alcoholic Beverage Control Board, 1980-; Co-Chairman. 
Guilford Delegation, 19X7-88. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-6; 1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army (Corporal); Quartermaster Corps; Good Conduct 
Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Matthews Church. 

Family: Married, Grace Grant, November, 1968; three children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Highway Safety. 

Vice Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Small Business. 

Member: Appropriations Expansion Budget, Appropriation Base Budget, Ap- 
propriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety, Banks 
and Thrift Institutions; Election Laws; Higher Education; State Government; 
University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



430 North Carolina Manuai 




ROBERT (;RADY 

( Republican-Onslow County) 

Fourth Representative District-Carteret and Onslow Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Jacksonville, Onslow County, April 30, 1950, to William R. and 
Minnie (Hurst) Grady. 

Education: Jacksonvile Senior High, 1968; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 
1972. 

Professional Background: Businessman. 

Boards: North Carolina Zoological Park, Board of Directors, 1984-86; Onslow County 
Arts Council Board of Directors, 1983-86; Onslow County Council on Aging, 
Board of Directors, 1984-86. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives; Jacksonville City Coun- 
cil, 1981-87; Mayor Pro-tern, City of Jacksonville, 1983-86. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Neta Lucas of Benson, November 27. 1973. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Marine Fisheries; Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources', Pensions and Retirement; Rules and Operation of the 
House; Finance; State Government; University Board of Governors Nominat- 
ing Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 431 

GORDON HICKS GREENWOOD 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

(Fifthy-first Representative District - Buncombe. Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Black Mountain, Buncombe County, July 3, 1909, to James 
Hicks and Louella (Ray) Greenwood. 

Education: University of Illinois, 1941, B.S. (Journalism); University of London, 1945. 

Profession: College administrator and former professor (Assistant to the President, 
Montreat- Anderson College; Director of Admissions, Montreat-Anderson College, 
1973-76; Assistant Professor of Journalism, Boston University, 1951-52; manager. 
New England Press Association). 

Organizations: Black Mountain Lodge No. 663, A.F.&A.M., Asheville Chapter No. 
25; Black Mountain Lions Club; Chamber of Commerce; V.F.W.; American 
Legion; D.A.V.; Sons of the American Revolution; Sons of Confederate Veterans; 
Western NC Development Association (original organizer). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 
1967, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; Town Board, Black 
Mountain, 1973-76; Commissioner, Buncombe County, 1968-72. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-45; (European Teacher of Operations). 

Honors: Outstanding Alumnus, UNC-Asheville, 1981; NC Commissioner of the Year, 
1971. 

Religious Activities: Member, Black Mountain United Methodist Church; Official 
Board. 

Family: Married, Garnet Elizabeth Carder, March 8, 1941, Children: G. Gordon and 
Ricky Eugene. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Higher Education. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education; Appro- 
priations Expansion. Budget Committee on Education; Mental Health, 
Transportation. 

Member: Military and Veterans' Affairs; State Properties; Aging; Appropria- 
tions Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Highway Safety; State 
Personnel. 



432 North Carolina Manual 



HARRY (LINTON GRIMMER 

( Republican-Mecklenburg County) 
1 ifty-Seventh Representative District-Mecklenburg (part) County. 







t 




Early Years: Born in Pitt County, December 6. 1935, to Harry Albert (deceased) and 
Bercha (Gilbert) Grimmer. 

Education: Penderlea School. 1945-54; N.C. State University, I960, BS1E, with 
Honors (voted one of the top ten outstanding engineering students); six months 
post-graduate technical school; heating and air conditioning, The Trane Company. 

Professional Background: Meterologist; Plant Industrial Engineer; Manufacturer's 
Representative, Sales Manager and Executive Vice President and Owner, Harry 
Grimmer and Company, INC.; President, Home Builders Association of Charlotte, 
1983; Board of Directors, Executive Committee N.C. Home Builders Association, 
1982-84; Vice President, Region VI, N.C. Home Builders Association, 1982; Co- 
Chairman NCHBA, Legislative Committee, 1985-86; Vice President Home Owner's 
Warranty Program, 1983. 

Organizations: South Mecklenburg Interim District Plan Committee, 1986; United 
Way Strategic Planning Committee, 1986; Former Member, Years Leadership, 
YMCA Indian Guides; Boy Scout Counselor, 1981-82; Coach, Little League Bas- 
ketball; Housing Cost Task Force, Mecklenburg County and State Level; Mayoral 
Appointments; Capital Improvement Program, 1982; Citizens Advisory Committee- 
Country, 1983; "Everyone Step Forward" Bond Referendum Committee; Char - 
Mecklenburg Residental Ordinance, Rezoning Review Committee; United Way; 
Community Resource Board, 1985-86. 

Boards: United Carolina Bank Advisory Board, 1982-86; Board of Directors, Greater 
Providence Area Home Owners Association, 1983-84, Vice President, 1985-86; 
Former Member, United Way, Chairman of Christmas Bureau, 1985; Allocation 
and Review Board, 1984; Chairman, Mecklenburg County Zoning Board of Adjust- 
ment, 1980-82; President of Lansdowne P.T.A.. 1974. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy, Meteorologist. 1954-56. 

Honors: Phi Kappa Phi, Honorary Fraternity. 1959; Broyhill Fund Scholarship, 1959; 
Charlotte "Home Builder of the Year", 1981; N.C. "Home Builder of the Year". 
1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, Calvary Church. Building Program Fund Raising 
Committee; Calvary Church, 51 Committee. 

Family: Married, Elise Rackley, of Willard, September 7, 1957. Children; Janet and 
Craig. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Courts and Administration of Justice; Education; Local Government 
I: Natural Economic Resources; Small Business; Finance; Health; Housing. 




The Legislative Branch 433 

JOE HACKNEY 

(Democrat-Orange County) 

Twenty-fourth Representative District-Chatham (part) and Orange Coun- 
ties. 



Early Years: Born in Siler City, Chatham County, September 23, 1945, to Herbert 
Harold and Ida Lillian (Dorsett) Hackney. 

Education: Silk Hope High School, 1963; N.C. State University, 1963-64; UNC 
Chapel Hill, 1964-67, A.B. with Honors (Political Science); UNC-Chapel Hill, 
School of Law, 1970, J. D. 

Professional Background: Attorney (partner, firm of Epting & Hackney); Assistant 
District Attorney, 15th District, 1971-74; research assistant, J. Frank Huskins, 
Associate Justice, N.C. Supreme Court, 1970-71. 

Organizations: Orange County (former President), N.C. and American Bar Associa- 
tions; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Committee on Legislation and Law Reform, 
N.C. Bar; former President, 15th District Bar; former President, Orange-Chatham 
Legal Services; Conservation Council of N.C; Sierra Club; N.C. Nature Conser- 
vancy; Appalachian Trail Conference; N.C. Cattlemen's Association. 

Boards: Joint Orange-Chatham Community Action, Inc.; Conservation Foundation of 
N.C; Served, Citizens Commission on Alternatives to Incarceration; Governor's 
Crime Commission; Southern Legislative Conference; Natural Resources Commit- 
tee; Southern States Energy Board. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1981-present (4 terms). 

Honors: Governor's Conservation Award as Legislator of the Year, N.C. Wildlife Fed- 
eration, 1985; Triangle J. Council of Governments Award of Excellence for Service 
to the Environment, 1985; N.C. Bar Association, Family Law Section, Apprecia- 
tion Plaque, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hickory Mountain Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Betsy Strandberg, September 15, 1979. Children: Daniel. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance. 

Vice-Chairman: Rules and Operation of the House. 

Member: Constitutional Amendments; Corrections; Courts and Administration 
of Justice; Manufacturers and Labor; Natural and Economic Resources; Judi- 
ciary III; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



434 North Carolina Manlm 




ALEXANDER MORTON HALL 

(Democrat-New Hanover County) 

Thirteenth Representative District-New Hanover (part) County-Two 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Bern in Wilmington, New Hanover County, July 20, 1948, to James M. 
and Edith (Morton) Hall. Jr. 

Education: New Hanover High School, 1967; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1971, B.A. (Zoology); 
South Texas College of Law, 1977, J.D. with honors. 

Profession: Attorney, owner. Hall's Drug Store, Inc. 

Organizations: NC and NC State Bar Associations; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
President, 5th District Judicial Bar; Transportation Committee, Wilmington Cham- 
ber of Commerce, 1981-; Wilmington Industrial Development, Inc.; Trustee, Wil- 
mington Kiwanis Club, 1978-82; NC Jaycees, 1969-73. 

Boards: New Hanover Transportation Efficiency council; Mayor's Transportation 
Task Eorce. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives. 1985-86, 1987-; Precinct 
Chairman, New Hanover County Democratic Party. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Andrews Covenant Presbyterian Church, Wilming- 
ton; Deacon, 1980-. 

Family: Married, Maria Clontz of Wilmington, August 15, 1971. Children: Sarah 
Elizabeth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Small Business. 
Vice Chairman: Aging; Judiciary II. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Corpora- 
tions; Courts and Administration of Justice; Finance; Highway Safety. 




The Legislative Branch 435 

THOMAS C. HARDAWAY 

(Democrat-Halifax County) 

Seventh Representative District-Halifax (part), Martin (part), Warren 
(part) Counties. 



Al 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County, March 12, 1957, to Dr. Ernie and 
Attorney Claudette (Cofield) Hardaway, II. 

Education: Hillside High School, 1975; Howard University, 1979 (Bachelor Business 
Administration); N.C. Central University, School of Law, 1982, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney (partner, Hardaway and Hardaway); Cofield Fun- 
eral Home, Inc. Director; Cofield Mutual Burial Association, President; Cofield 
Realty and Company, Director; N.C. Bar; N.C. Bar Association; Halifax County 
Bar; Sixth Judicial Bar; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Association of Trial Law- 
yers of America; N.C. Association of Black Lawyers (is admitted to practice bore 
the Eastern District of the U.S. District Court). 

Organizations: N.A.A.C.P.; Second Congressional District Black Leadership Caucus. 

Boards: Director, Halifax County Economic Development Commissions; Member, 
Enfield Medical Advisory Board; Member, Halifax Community College, Small 
Business Advisory Board. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative; Former, Vice Chairman, Halifax 
County Democrat Party; Former, Precint Chairman Enfield, No. 2. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Man of America, 1984, 

Religious Activities: Member, New Bethel Baptist Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Courts and Administration of Justice; 
Education; Public Utilities; Employment Security; Finance; Housing; Judi- 
ciary II; Wildlife Resources. 



436 North Carolina Mam \i 




JOHN CALVIN HASTY 

(Democrat - Robeson County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke. Robeson and Scotland (part) 
Counties- I hree Representatives.) 






Early Years: Born in Maxton, Robeson County, March 9, 1930. to William Howard 

and Flora (Belle) Currie Hasty. 
Education: Maxton Public Schools; Maxton High School, 1948; Presbyterian Junior 

College, 1950, A.S.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1953, B.S. 
Profession: Insurance and real estate agent (President, Hasty Insurance Agency, Inc.; 

President, Pace-Henderson Finance Co., Inc.; President, Future Agency of Laurin- 

burg. Inc.; partner. Hasty Realty). 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents Association; NC Association of Pre- 
mium Finance Companies (Secretary. 1981-82; Director, 1978-82); Mormax Club 
(President, 1971); Director, Cape Fear Area Council, Boy Scouts of America, 1967- 
(President, 1973-75); Faurinburg-Scotland Area Chamber of Commerce (Director, 
1976); former President, Maxton Historical Society; former President, Maxton 
Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Faurinburg-Maxton Airport Commission (Chairman, 1980- 
82); Trustee and Executive Committee, Scotland Memorial Hospital; local Direc- 
tor, Southern National Bank; Maxton Planning Commission; Maxton Zoning 
Board. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives. 1983-84, 1985-86, I987-; 
Mayor and City Council, Town of Maxton. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-55 (Sergeant); 101st Airborne Division. 

Religious Activities: Member. St. Paul's United Methodist Church; Chairman, Admin- 
istrative Board, 1976-77; Chairman, Building Committee. 1972; Chairman, Finance; 
national conference delegate. 

Family: Married, Betty Anne Upchurch, October 22, 1955. Children: John Calvin, Jr., 
Flora Anne (Hasty) McCook and Elizabeth Upchurch. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Corporations. 

Vice Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions; State Government. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Insur- 
ance; Judiciary III; Public Utilities; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget 
Committee on Natural and Economic Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 437 

JOEH. HEGE, JR. 

(Republican-Davidson County) 

Thirty-seventh Representative District-Davidson, Davie and Iredell (part) 
Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Lexington, Davidson County, January 28, 1926, to Joe H. and 
Ellen J. (Hilliard) Hege, Sr. 

Education: Pilot High School, 1943; Institute of Government, UNC-Chapel Hill. 1969; 
Certificate of Police Administration, Oklahoma University, 1975. 

Profession: Realtor-Broker, National Realty, Inc.; Assistant Director, Services for the 
Blind, State of N.C, 1973-77; Vice-President, Siceloff Mfg. Co., Inc.. 1953-68; 
Veterans Service Officer, Davidson County, 1948-50. 

Organizations: Lexington Board of Realtors; Amvets; Veterans of Foreign Wars; Air- 
craft Owners and Pilots Association; Kiwanis; Lions International; American 
Legion. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971. 1973- 
74, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-; Minority Whip, 1969, 1971; Secretary, Joint House- 
Senate GOP Caucus, 1973; State Republican Executive Committee; Treasurer, 5th 
District Republican Executive Committee, 1979-80; Sheriff, Davidson County, 
1969-70. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1944-46 (Sergeant); European theatre; European- 
African-Middle East ServiceMedal with Two Bronze Stars; Good Conduct Medal; 
World War II Victory Medal; Army Occupation Medal. 

Honors: Republican of the Year, Davidson County, 1984. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pilgrim Reformed United Church of Christ, Lexington; 
Audit Committee (former President, Treasurer, Chairman); Elder; Deacon of Con- 
sistory; Chairman, Cemetary Committee; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Jane Owen of Davidson County, November 27, 1948. Children: Joe, 
Karen and Edwin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget-Education; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget-Educa- 
tion; Economic Growth; Public Utilities; Rules and Operation of the House; 
Election Laws; Judiciary II; State Government; University Board of Gover- 
nors Nominating Committee. 



438 North Carolina Manual 



FOYLE ROBERT HIGH TOWER, JR. 

(Democrat - Anson County) 

(Thirty-third Representative District - Anson and Montgomery Counties 
- One Representative.) 




Early Years: Born in Wadesboro, Anson County, January 21, 1941, to Foyle Robert 
and Mildred (Brigman) Hightower, Si. 

Education: Wadesboro Public Schools; Wadesboro High School, 1959; Elon College; 
UNC-Chapel Hill; Wingate College, B.G.S 

Profession: Corporate executive (Vice President. Hightower Ice & Fuel Company, 
Inc.). 

Organizations: Kilwinning Lodge No. 64, Wadesboro Ancient, Free and Accepted 
Masons; 32nd Degree Mason; Shriner; Woodmen of the World; Jaycees; Wades- 
boro Civitan Club (former Director); former Chairman, Anson Blood Program; 
American Red Cross; Merit Badge Committee and Board of Review, Boy Scouts of 
America; former Area Chairman, Cancer Drive; Master Counselor, Wadesboro 
Order of DeMolay. 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Services Commission; former member, NC 
Wildlife Resources Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80. 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1963-69 (Corporal). 

Honors: Man of the Year, Anson County, 1975. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Wadesboro; Sunday School 

teacher; Chairman, Board of Deacons, 1981; Men of the Church (President, 1973, 

1977, 1978; Secretary-Treasurer, 1971). 

Family: Married, Pauline McElveen of Lake City, South Carolina. Children: Victoria 
Joan and Caroline Ruth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Government. 

Vice Chairman: Election Laws; Finance. 

Member: Agriculture; Constitutional Amendments; Education; Election Laws; 
Insurance; Water and Air Resources; Wildlife Resources. 



./ 



The Legislative Branch 439 



GEORGE MILTON HOLMES 

(Republican - Yadkin County) 

(Forty-first Representative District - Alexander (part), Wilkes and Yad- 
"^ kin Counties - Two Representatives.) 



I 



Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, Surry County, June 20, 1929, to John William and 
Thelma Elizabeth (Dobie) Holmes. 

Education: Mount Airy High School, 1944; Western High School, 1945-48; Appalach- 
ian State University, 1954; Travelers Multiple Line Insurance School, 1959. 

Profession: Insurance executive (President, W.N. Ireland Insurance Agency, Inc.). 

Organizations: NC Association of Independent Insurance Agents; National Associa- 
tion of Life Underwriters; Yadkin Lodge 162, F.&A.M.; Winston-Salem Consis- 
tory, Scottish Rite of Free Masonry; Shriner; Oasis Temple. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor's Crime Study Commission, 1976; Fire and Casu- 
alty Rate Study Commission, 1976; Board of Directors, Carolina Epilepsy Research 
Foundation; Board of Directors, Northwestern Bank, Yadkinville. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; Minority Whip, 1981-82; Advisory Budget Commission; 
Minority Party Joint Caucus Leader, 1983-84; Yadkin County Republican Execu- 
tive Committee; Eighth District Republican Executive Committee; State Republi- 
can Executive Committee, 1975-76, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84; State Republican 
Central Committee, 1983-84. 

Religious Activities: Member, Flat Rock Baptist Church; Deacon, 1956-70; Trustee, 
1970-; Superintendent, 1968-72; Former Secretary and Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Barbara Ann Ireland, June 30, 1956. Children: Jennifer (Holmes) 
Crawley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Public Utilities. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Banks and Thrift 
Institutions; Courts and Administration of Justice; Higher Education; Insu- 
rance; Judiciary IV; Manufacturers and Labor. 



440 



North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM CASPER HOLROYD, JR. 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

(Sixty-first Representative District - Wake (part) County - One Repre- 
sentative. ) 



Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, South Carolina, September 16, 1927, to William 
Casper and Lucile (Dacus) Holroyd. 

Education: Greenwood High School, 1944; Duke University, 1948, A.B. (Economics). 

Profession: Salesman, Holroyd Insurance Agency, 1954; production planning, Burling- 
ton Industries, 1948-54. 

Organizations: Million Dollar Roundtable (life member); Raleigh Association of Life 
Underwriters (former Preseident); Chartered Life Underwriters (CLU); Raleigh 
Lions Club; Raleigh Swim Association (former President); former Director, Wake 
Up for Children and Wake County Women's Center. 

Boards and Commissions: Advisory Board. Methodist Home for Children; Advisory 
Board, Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center; Advisory Board, Duke Medical Cen- 
ter; NC Secondary Committee, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools; 
Selection Committee, Governor's (Public) School Programs of Excellence. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80. 1985- 
86, 1987-; Wake County Democratic Men; Wake County Democratic Senior Citi- 
zens; Wake County YDC; Raleigh Board of Education, 12 years (Chairman, 7 
years). 

Religious Activities: Member, Hayes Barton United Methodist Church, Raleigh; 
Board of Stewards; Vice President, Men's Fellowship; lead teacher. Youth Depart- 
ment, 1951-. 

Family: Married, Dr. Mary Mayesky of Detroit, Michigan, November 25, 1981. Child- 
ren: Ann (Holroyd) Youngblood, Jane (Holroyd) Holding, Kaye (Holroyd) Mul- 
keen and Claire M. Holroyd 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Cultural Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Children and Youth; Water and Air Resources. 

Member: Finance; Education; Highway Safety; Judiciary III; Pensions & Retire- 
ment. 






The Legislative Branch 441 

BERTHA MERRILL HOLT 

(Democrat-Alamance County) 

Twenty-fifth Representative District-Alamance, Rockingham and Stokes 
(part) Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Eufaula, Alabama, August 16. 1916, to 
William H. and Bertha H. (Moore) Merrill. 

Education: Eufaula High School; Agnes Scott College, 1938, B.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill. 
School of Law, 1939-40; University of Alabama, School of Law, 1941, LL.B; 
George Washington University, 1942, graduate studies. 

Professional Background: Legislator and attorney; former attorney, U.S. Treasury and 
Department of the Interior. 

Organizations: N.C. Bar Association; Pi Beta Phi; English Speaking Union; Les Amis 
du Vin; N.C. Historical Society; N.C. Women's Forum. 

Boards: Former, Board of Directors of Hospice; Joint Commission on Governmental 
Operations; Advisory Committee. Archaeology, 1979-84; Board of Directors, 
Alunmi Association, UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law 1978-80; Board of Direc- 
tors, State Council on Social Legislation, 1978-86, Alamance County; Social Servi- 
ces Board, Chairman; Joint Commission School Salary Schedules. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-present (7 terms); 
former President, Alamance County Democratic Women (Chairman, Headquarters 
Committee, 1962,64; Democratic Executive committee, 1964-75; Vice Chairman, 
Alamance County Democratic Executive Committee, 1964-66; Century Book Club; 
AAUW Women's Political Caucus. 

Honors: Outstanding Alumna (1978) and Community Service Award, Agnes Scott 
College; "Who's Who of American Women"; Legislative Award-Nurses Associa- 
tion, 1979; Legislative Award; Family Care N.C. Facilities Association, 1982; Hos- 
pice of North Carolina, 1984; Legislative Award, N.C. Alliance for Health, Physical 
Education, Recreation and Dance, 1984; Legislative Award, N.C. Association of 
Non-Profit Homes for Aging, 1985; Faith Active in Public Life Award, N.C. Coun- 
cil of Churches, 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church of Holy Comforter, Burlington; 
teacher, High School Sunday School Class; Diocesan Council, 1971-73, 1984-86; 
Chairman, Diocese Grant Committee, 1974-80, Member, 1974-79; Standing Com- 
mittee of Diocese, 1974-77; Senior Warden, Vestry, 1974; Chairman, Finance 
Committee, Diocese of N.C. 1973-; former President, Episcopal Church Women; 
Elected 1st alternate. General Convention-Episcopal Church, 1987-. 

Family: Married, Winfield Clary Holt, March 14, 1942. Children: Harriet, William 
and Winfield. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget-Justice and Public Safety. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget. 

Vice Chariman: Appropriations Expansion Budget. 

Vice Chairman: Constitutional Amendments. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary III. 

Member: Aging; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations Base Budget- 
Justice and Public Safety; Children and Youth; Education; Mental Health; 
Natural and Economic Resources. 



442 North Carolina Manual 




DORIS ROGERS HUFFMAN 

( Republican-Catawba County) 

Forty-fifth Representative District-Burke (pan) and Catawba (part) 
Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Burke County, August 3, 1935, to Bradus K. and Myrtle (Deal) 

Rogers. 
Education: Hickory City Schools, 1953; Catawba Valley Technical College, 1973 

(Accounting and Tax). 

Professional Background: Homemaker. 

Organizations: Hickory-Catawba Valley Home Builders Association; charter member, 
HBA Auxiliary (membership award, 1979); Red Cross Blood Mobile; Salvation 
Army; Board, Project "Happen"- Western Carolina Center. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-; Catawba 
County Republican Women's Club; Executive Committee, N.C. GOP; Catawba 
County Republican Party (Secretary, 1980, Vice Chairman, 1981, Chairman 1982); 
N.C. Delegate-Southern Republican Exchange, 1986-87. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Newton; Community Chairman, 
Long-Range Planning; Leader, Bible Drill Team. 

Family: Married, L. Wiburn Huffman of Hickory, January 3, 1953. Children: Sandra. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget-General 
Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget-General Government; Corporations; Corrections; Economic Growth; 
Local Government I; Natural and Economic Resources; Election Laws; Judi- 
ciary II; State Properties. 




The Legislative Branch 443 

JAMES FRANK HUGHES 

(Republican - Avery County) 

(Forty-sixth Representative District - Alexander (part), Avery, Burke 
(pan), Caldwell, Mitchell and Watauga (part) Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Linville, Avery County, June 20, 1925, to Columbus Henry and 
Bertha (Boone) Hughes. 

Education: Newland Elementary and Newland High School, 1930-42. 

Profession: Owner and operator, Pixie Motor Inn. 

Organizations: Linville Masonic Lodge #489; Oasis Shrine Temple; Newland Moose 
Lodge #489; life member, Pat Ray Post VFW; National Rifle Association; High- 
land Shrine Club; Optimist Club of Avery County. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1957, 1981-82, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-; NC Senate, 1973-74. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Linville Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Marietta Pittman, March 25, 1947. Children: Kaye (Hughes) Greene, 
Sharon (Hughes) Peters and James F., Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Insurance; Judiciary I; Pensions and Retirement; Public Util- 
ities; Transportation; Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; State 
Government. 



444 North Carolina Manual 

^» JUDY FRANCES HINT 

^ (Democrat-Watauga County) 

^1 Fortieth Reprensentative District-Alleghany, Ashe. Stokes (part), Surry, 

and Watauga (part) Counties. 




Early Years: Born in Shelby. Cleveland County, May 16, 1949. to John Jackson and 
Ruby (Crowder) Hunt. 

Education: Shelby High School, 1964-67; Meredith College, 1971, B.A.; Appalachian 
State University, 1976, M.A. 

Professional Background: Real Estate Broker. 

Organizations: Past Member. Blowing Rock Planning Board, 1980-86. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative; Watauga County Commissioner. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, William Hansel Kohler, of Blowing Rock, July 10. 1978. Children; 
Jackie. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Children and Youth; Economic Growth; Mental Healt; Finance; 
Higher Education; Highway Safety; Transportation; Water and Air Re- 
sources. 




The Legislative Branch 445 

RECTOR SAMUEL HUNT, III 

(Democrat- Alamance County) 

Twenty-Fifth Representative District-Alamance, Rockingham, and 
Stokes (part) Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Burlington .Alamance County, September 1, 1941, to Rector S. 
and Mildred Rachel (Wester) Hunt, Jr. 

Education: Williams High School, 1955-59; East Carolina University, Graduated 1965, 
A.B. 

Professional Background: President, Hunt Electric Supply Company; Vice President, 
Regent Lighting Corporation; Member, National Association of Electricial Distrib- 
utors; National Executive Committee of Affiliated Independent Distributors. 

Organizations: Past Director, Alamance Chamber of Commerce. 

Political Activities: N.C. House of Representatives. 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, First Lieutenant, 1966-69; Served, Reserves, 1970. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian United Church of Christ. 

Family: Married, Vicky Silek, of Front Royal. Children; Sam. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Small Business 

Vice Chairman: Insurance 

Member: Courts and Administration of Justice; Economic Growth; Judiciary 
IV; Public Utilities; Election Laws; Finance; State Government; Local 
Government II. 



446 



North Carolina Manual 




ROBERT CARL HUNTER 

(Democrat - McDowell County) 

(Forty-ninth Representative District - McDowell and Yanc\ Counties- 
One Representative.) 



N 



ft 



Early Years: Born in Marion, McDowell County, January 14, 1944, to L. Penn and 
Lucy (Turner) Hunter. 

Education: Glenwood School; Marion City Schools; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1966, B.A.; 
UNC-Chapel Hill. School of Law, 1969. J.D. 

Profession: Attorney; former Assistant District Attorney, 29th Judicial District. 

Organizations: McDowell County (former President), NC, American and 29th Judicial 
District (former President) Bar Associations; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
Marion Rotary Club (former President); Marion Jaycees (former Secretary); Sigma 
Phi Epsilon; Delta Theta Phi; former Director, McDowell County United Fund; 
former Director, McDowell County Chamber of Commerce; former President, NC 
County Attorneys Association; former Director, UNC Law Alumni Association. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Courts Commission; Executive Committee, Southern 
Legislative Conference; NC Advisory Council on the Eastern Band of the Chero- 
kee; Former Chairman, Criminal Justice Committee. Southern Legislative Confer- 
ence of the Council of State Governments; former member, NC Judicial Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 
1987-; N.C. State Democrat Executive Committee. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Marion; Trustee. 

Family: Married, Nancy Hinson, August 22, 1970. Children: Megan Allen and Claire 
Alise. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Judiciary IV; State Personnel. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on General Government; 
Corporations; Election Laws; Pensions and Retirement; Rules and Operation 
of the House; Transportation; Constitutional Amendments; Courts and 
Administration of Justice. 



The Legislative Branch 447 

WALTER STINE ISENHOWER 

(Republican-Catawba County) 

Forty-Fifth Representative District-Burke (part) and Catawba (part) 
Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Conover, Catawba County, April 10, 1927, to John Abel and 
Susie (Jordan) Isenhower. 

Education: Newton-Conover High School, 1941-44; Fishburne Military School, 1944- 
46; Lenoir Rhyne College, 1950, B.S. 

Profesional Background: President, Owen United Insurance Agency, INC. (until 
merger with Cline Southern Ins. Agency in 1985); Sales Executive, Owen-United; 
President, Carolinas Association of Professional Insurance Agents; Member, Board 
of Directors of Professional Insurance Agents of America; Member, Catawba Val- 
ley Insurance Agency Association. 

Organizations: Conover Lions Club, Past President; Catawba County Chamber of 
Commerce, Past President, 1984; Former Member, Conover Volunteer Fire Depart- 
ment; Catawba Science Center; Eastern Catawba County Chamber of Commerce; 
Y.M.C.A. Board of Directors; Troop Committee Boy Scouts; American Red Cross 
Local Board. 

Boards: Catawba County Industrial Development Board; Western Piedmont Council 
of Government Regional Board; Old Stone Savings and Loan, Local Board; First 
Citizens Bank, Local Board; Former Member, First Federal Savings and Loan, 
now Old Stone; Northwestern Bank, now First Citizens. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative, 1986 (Appointed December 26, 1986, 
by Governor Martin to replace Allran), 1987—; Chairman, Catawba County Board 
of Commissioners, 1966-70; Former, N.C. Highway Commissioner, 1972; N.C. 
Insurance Advisory Board; President, Young Republicans of Catawba County, 
1953. 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, Corporal, 1950-52. 

Religious Activities: Member, Concordia Lutheran Church; Secretary of Congrega- 
tion; Chairman, Board of Elders, 1981; Stewardship Board; Member, Lutheran 
Television Board; Member, Board of Laymen's League; Former Chairman, Interna- 
tional Lutheran Hour Committee. 

Family: Married, Carolyn Vaughn, of Murray, June 23, 1951. Children: Charles and 
Ann. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropria- 
tions Base Budget-Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget-Justice and Public Safety; Correc- 
tions, Cultural Resources; Education; Law Enforcement; Local Government 
II; Insurance. 



448 North Carolina Manual 

VERNON GRANT JAMES 

(Democrat-Pasquotank County) 

Fust Representative District-Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, dates 
(part), Pasquotank, Perquimans. Tyrell and Washington (part) Coun- 
ties. 



A 




Early Years: Born in Pasquotank County, July 1 I, 1910, to John Calvin and Fannie 
(Coppersmith) James (both deceased). 

Education: Graduated, Weeksville High School, 1930; North Carolina State Univer- 
sity, 1930-31. 

Professional Background: (Retired) Farmer and Produce Supply Business (President 
and Manager James Brothers, Inc.). 

Organizations: Member, N.C. and National Fresh Fruits and Vegetable Growers 
Association; Secretary and Treasurer, State 4-H Club Council 1930, Delegate, 
International Member, State 4-H Honor Club, 1931; President National Potato 
Council, 1956-; Member, National Potato Steering Committee since 1966; Potato 
Advisory Committee (appointed by U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, Orville Freeman, 
1961-68, reappointed by Earl Butz 1968-71); Chairman National Potato Board 
1977-78; Served, Board of Directors, Elizabeth City Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Chairman, Board of Education for Weeksville High School, 1943-44; Member, 
Board of Trustees, Greater University of N.C, 1947-55; Member, Elizabeth City 
Airport Commission, 1963; Founder and Co-Chairman, Study Commission for 
Promotion of Agriculture, Seafood and Forestry, 1983-84, 1985-86; Member, COA 
Board of Trustees since 1960; Chairman, Southern States Legislative Division of 
Agriculture and Rural Development 1983-1984; Member, Study Commission on 
Local Government Financing; Member, North Carolina Commission on the Bicen- 
tennial of the U.S. Constitution; Member, Thirteen Member House Special Fact- 
Finding Committee on Agriculture. 

Political Activities: Served, N.C. House of Representatives, 1945-1947, 1973-present 
(10 terms). 

Honors: "Tarheel of the Week", December, 1965; Recipient of Commission of Agricul- 
ture's Award for Promotion of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, 1971; Governors 
Award from N.C. Wildlife Federation for air conservation. 1981; Recipient of 
Award for Outstanding Contributions to the N.C. Soybean Association, 1983; 
Recipient of N.C. Farm Bureau Federation Award for Distinguished Service to 
Agriculture. 1983; Award from N.C. Association of County Commissioners for 
Distinguished Service to County Government and North Carolina Citizens, 1984; 
Southern Legislative Conference Award for Service to Agriculture and Rural 
Development to North Carolina and throughout the South, 1984; Award from N.C. 
School Boards Association for Service to Public Education in N.C, 1984; Gover- 
nor's Award from N.C. Agribusiness Council for Distinguished Service to Agribus- 
iness 1985; 4-H Club Outstanding Alumni Award, 1985; N.C. Association of 
County Agricultural Agents Award 1985; "State Friend of Extension" Award from 
the National Honorary Extension Fraternity, Epsilon Sigma Phi, 1985; Recipient of 
College of the Albemarle 25th Anniversary Award, 1985; N.C. School Boards 
Association "True Friend of Public Education" Award, 1986; N.C. Association of 
County Commissioners Distinguished Service Award, 1987. 



The Legislative Branch 449 



Religious Activities: Member, Salem Baptist Church; Former, Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married Thelma L. James, April 1, 1978. Children: John (deceased) and Ver- 
non (deceased) 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Agriculture. 

Vice Chairman: Constitutional Amendments. 

Vice Chairman: Public Utilities. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget-Natural 
and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget-Natural and Economic Resources; Economic Growth; 
Marine Fisheries; Natural and Economic Resources; Small Business; Trans- 
portation. 



450 Nor in Carolina Manual 



MARY LONG JARRELL 

(Democrat-Guilford County) 




rwenty-eighth Representative District-Deep River Township, Friendship 
township, High Point township. Jamestown Precincts I and 3, and 
South Sumner Precinct of Guilford County. 



Early Years: Bom in Winston-Salem, forsyth County, February 16. 1929, to David 
Allison and Jennie Mae (Fife) Long. 

Education: Graduated, Fairfax Hall, 1947; Queens College. 1951 A.B.; attended. Uni- 
versity of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, (English and Education; Educational courses 
toward Masters). 

Professional Background: Public School Teacher. 

Boards: Board of Trustees, Maryfield; Guilford County Historical Properties Com- 
mission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983-84 and 1 987-; High 
Point City Council, 1977-81 (Mayor Pro Tern. 1977-79). 

Religious Activities: Member, High Point Friends; Presiding Clerk; Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Married. Harold Thomas Jarrell. June 16. 1956; Children: Jennie W. and 
Harold Thomas. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Yice Chairman: Education; Eocal Government II; Cultural Resources. 
Member: Natural and Economic Resources; Small Business; Finance; Health; Insu- 
rance; Judiciary I. 




The Legislative Branch 451 

LUTHER REGINALD JERALDS 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

(Seventeenth Representative District - Cumberland (part) County - Two 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Orrum, Robeson County. August 20, 1938, to Winnie B. and 
Amy Lee (McMillan) Jeralds. 

Education: Newbold Elementary School, 1943-51; St. Emma Military Academy, 1952- 
54; E.E. Smith Senior High School, 1955-56; NC State College, 1961, B.S. 
(Accounting). 

Profession: Realtor and small businessman. 

Organizations: Fayetteville Business and Professional League; NC Association of 
Minority Businesses; Knights of Columbus. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; 
Advisory Budget Commission. 

Religious Activities:: Member, St. Ann's Catholic Church. 

Family: Married, Jo Ann Fuller, May 7, 1958. Children: Adonis, Dominic and 
Minikki. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Military and Veterans' Affairs. 

Vice Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions, Constitutional Amendments. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on 
Human Resources; Children and Youth; Courts and Administration of Jus- 
tice; Health; Judiciary II; Rules and Operation of the House. 



452 Nor i li Carolina Manuai 




WALTER BEAMAN JONES, JR. 

(Democrat - Pitt County) 

(Ninth Representative District - Greene and Pitt (part) Counties - luo 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Farmville, Pitt County, February 10, 1943, to Walter B. and 
Doris ( long) Jones. 

Education: Farmville Public Schools; Hargrave Military Academy; NCSU; Atlantic 
Christian College. 1967. A.B. (History). 

Profession: Business consultant. 

Organizations: Farmville Chamber of Commerce; Farmville Rotary Club; Pitt-Green- 
ville Chamber of Commerce; Director. 1985 Flue-Cured Tobacco Festival, Inc. 

Boards and Commissions: Mid-East Commission; Farmville Housing Authority; Advi- 
sory Council, Rural Education Institute, ECU: Director. Pitt County Mental 
Health Association; Foundation Board, Eastern Carolina Vocational Center; East- 
ern Carolina Health Education Center Development Corporation (Education-for- 
Health Center); Director, Pitt County Family Violence Program (member. Task 
Force on Family Violence). 

Political Activities: Member. NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Family: Married. Joe Anne Whitehurst, June 26, 1966. Children: Ashley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deal. 

Vice Chairman: Children and Youth; Election Laws; Human Resources. 

Member: Education; Finance; Governmental Ethics; Local Government II; 
Small Business; State Personnel. 




The Legislative Branch 453 

LARRY T. JUSTUS 

(Republican-Henderson County) 

Fiftieth Representative District-Henderson (part) County. 



Early Years: Born in Hendersonville, Henderson County, April 30,1932, to Brownlow 
and Helen (Stepp) Justus (deceased). 

Education: Dana High School, 1950; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1954; U.S. Air Force, (Navi- 
gation Flight School, Squadron Officers School, Defense Preparedness Staff Col- 
lege, Nuclear and Chemical Warfare School, Hazardous Waste and Spill School). 

Professional Background: Real estate broker; retired Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air 
Force; Formerly, owner and operator, Justus Sand and Stone (1957-78); apple 
orchardist; owner, outdoor advertising company; U.S. Census technical officer. 

Organizations: American Legion; VFW; AARP; WNC Retired Officers Association; 
Henderson County String Parents; NRA; Former Director, N.C Apple Festival 
Beauty Pageant; President, WNC Waste Water Treatment Association, Cub Scouts. 

Boards: Chairman, Council on Developmental Disabilities, Vagabond School of 
Drama Board of Directors; Former, Henderson County Board of Elections; Hender- 
son County Energy Council; Governor's Committee on Better Roads. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-. Delegate, 
Republican National Convention, 1980; Chairman, Henderson County Republican 
Party, (three times); Chairman, Eleventh Congressional District; State Executive 
Committee; Former, State Central Committe; Chairman, North Blue Ridge Pre- 
cinct; Former, Finance Officer 11th Congressional District; Former, Campaign 
Manager for County Congressional Campaign, City Campaign, GOP Gubenatorial 
Campaign. 

Military: U.S. Air Force 1954-1982 (Lieutenant Colonel); Navigator; Squadron Com- 
mander; Executive Officer; Disaster Preparedness Officer; Information Officer; 
Protocol Officer; Awards and Decorations;(Commendation Medal with Oak Leaf 
Cluster, Presidential Unit Citation, Combat Readiness Ribbon, National Defense, 
Vietnam Service Ribbon, Reserve, and Expert Marksman Medals). 

Religious Activities: Member, Refuge Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Carolyn King of Brevard. Children: Scott, Chris, Ron and Seth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget- 
Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget-Justice and Public Safety; Constitutional Amendments; 
Military and Veterans' Affairs; Election Laws; Human Resources; Insurance; 
State Personnel; Transportation. 



454 North Carolina Manuai 







MARGARET POLLARD KEESEE-FORRESTER 

( Republican-Guilford County) 
fwenty-seventh Representative District-Guilford (part) County. 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County. January 6, 1945, to Charles Rog- 
ers and Margaret Lena (Kersey) Keesee. 

Education: Guilford College, 1967, B.A. in Elementary Education; Radford, 1967, 
graduate studies in Early Childhood Education. 

Professional Background: Former classroom teacher (14 years); account executive. 
Keesee & Associates. 

Organizations: Greensboro Branch, American Association of University Women, 1973; 
Women's Professional Forum; Mental Health Association of Greensboro Board of 
Directors & Co-Chair of Legislative Affairs Committee; Women's Forum of N.C; 
League of Women Voters. 

Boards: Director and Treasurer, Sue Lynn Residential Services, Inc., 1983-; N.C. Men- 
tal Health Study Commission, 1 9K5-S7; Child Protection, Child Video Testimony 
Studv Commission, 1985-87; N.C. State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commis- 
sion on Civil Rights, 1974-84; State Day Care Studv Commission. 1981. 1983; 
Board Member of N.C. Equity, Inc.. 1987. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1973-75. 1979-81, 1981- 
83; 1983-85, 1985-87, 1987-; Joint Legislative Ethics Committee, 1985-87; Greens- 
boro Evening Republican Women's Club; Vice-Chariman, Guilford County GOP 
Executive Committee, 1971-72; Guilford County Substance Abuse Coalition, 1986; 
Guilford County Bond Referendum Task Force, 1986; Member, Steering Commit- 
tee; Vice Chairman, Public Awareness; Guilford County School Merger Task 
Force, 1986-87. 

Honors: Certificate of Recognition from The Association for Retarded Citizens of 
Greensboro, May of 1985, for services to mentally retarded citizens; Teacher of the 
Year. David Jones School, Greensboro, 1976, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ United Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Charles R. Forrester. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Children and Youth. 

Member: Education; Local Government II; Mental Health; Election Laws; 
Finance; Governmental Ethics; Highway Safety; Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 455 

ANNIE BROWN KENNEDY 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 
(Sixty-sixth Representative District - Forsyth (part) County - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Atlanta, Georgia, October 13, 1924, to Mancy (deceased) and 
Mary Louise (Sheats) Brown. 

Education: David T. Howard Elementary and Junior High Schools, 1930-38; Booker 
T. Washington High School, 1983-41; Spelman College, 1945, A.B. (Economics); 
Howard University School of Law, 1951, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Kennedy, Kennedy, Kennedy & Kennedy). 

Organizations: Forsyth County (former Secretary), NC and National Bar Associations; 
Forsyth County Association of Women Attorneys; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
NC Association of Black Attorneys; Altrusa Club of Winston-Salem (President, 
1979-80); YWCA (former Director); NAACP; Women's Forum of NC; former 
member, League of Women Voters; United Way of Forsyth County, 1972-77, 
1979-83. 

Boards and Commissions: County Morehead Scholarship Selection Committee; Clini- 
cal Research Practices Committee, Bowman Gray School of Medicine; National 
Council of Negro Women; Director, Winston-Salem State University Foundation, 
Inc.; Board of Visitors, UNC-Chapel Hill; local Director, Southern National Bank; 
Advisory Board, Amercian Federal Savings & Loan Association of Greensboro; 
NC Criminal Code Commission. Former member, Winston-Salem Bicentennial 
Commission; former Director: Winston-Salem Housing Foundation, Legal Aid 
Society of Forsyth County and Forsyth Tuberculosis Association. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1983-84, 1985-86, 
1987-; Joint Legislative Ethics Committee; Democratic Women of Forsyth County, 
1964-( President, 1970-71); NC Executive Committee; delegate. Democratic National 
Convention, 1984 (alternate delegate, 1972); presidential and vice presidential 
Democratic elector, 1976; NC Commission on the Status of Women, 1964. 

Honors: Distinguished Alumni Leadership, National Association for Equal Opportun- 
ity in Higher Education, 1984; Outstanding Business Woman of the Year, Iota Phi 
Phi, 1981; Citizen of the Year, Omega Psi Phi, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Board of Trustees, 1974-. 

Family: Married, Harold L. Kennedy, Jr., December 23, 1950. Children: Harold L., 
Ill, Harvey L. and Michael D. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Manufacturers and Labor. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget-Human Resources; Appropriations 

Expansion Budget-Human Resources; University Board of Governors 

Nominating. 
Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 

Courts and Administration of Justice; Judiciary I; Local Government II, 

Water and Air Resources. 



456 North Carolina Manual 






JOHN HOSEA KERR, III 

(Democrat- Wayne County) 



T A 

Eleventh Representative District-Wayne ( ount\ 



• 




-k 



Early Years: Born in Richmond, Virginia. February 28, 1936, to John H. and Mary 
Hinton (Duke) Kerr, Jr. 

Education: John Graham High School, 1954; University of North Carolina, A. B., 1958; 
University of North Carolina, J.D. with Honors, 1961. 

Professional Background: Attorney, Partner in Warren, Kerr, Walston and Hollowell; 
N.C. Bar Association; N.C. State Bar; Wayne County Bar Association; Eighth 
Judicial Bar Association, Past President; Lawyers of N.C, Inc., Past President. 

Organizations: Goldsboro Rotary Club; Wayne County Chamber of Commerce; 
Goldsboro Jaycees, 1962-71, Vice President; Wayne County Public Library Trus- 
tees, 1966-78, Chairman; Wayne County Chapter American Red Cross, Chairman. 

Boards: Southern National Bank of N.C; Goldsboro Advisory Board, Chairman, 
1979-80; Wayne County Boys Club; Morehead Foundation, District II Committee; 
Wayne County Community Buildng Trustees, Past Chairman; N.C. National Bank; 
Goldsboro Advisory Board, Past Chairman. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives; Wayne County Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee, Chairman, 1980-85, Precinct Chairman; Wayne County 
Chapter American Red Cross, Chairman. 

Boards: Southern National Bank of N.C; Goldsboro Advisory Board, Chairman, 
1979-80; Wayne County Boys Club; Morehead Foundation, District II Committee; 
Wayne County Community Building trustees. Past Chairman; N.C. National Bank; 
Goldsboro Advisory Board, Past Chairman. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative; Wayne County Democratic Executive 
Committee, Chairman, 1980-85, Precinct Chairman; Wayne County Young Demo- 
crats, Past President. 

Military: Served, N.C. National Guard, Sargeant, 1954-62. 

Honors: Goldsboro Charter Chapter American Business Women; Boss of the Year, 
1978; Jaycee Key Man Award; Phi Beta Kappa; Order of Coif. 

Religious Activities: Member, Madison Avenue Baptist Church; Past Member. Board 
o\' Deacons. 

Family: Married, Sandra Edgerton Kerr of Goldsboro, December 21, 1960. Children; 
John and James. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Constitutional 
Amendments; Corrections; Courts and Administration of Justice; Finance; 
Human Resources; Judiciary III; Agriculture; Alcoholic Beverage Control. 



The Legislative Branch 



457 




BRADFORD VERDIZE LIGON 

(Republican - Rowan County) 
(Thirty-fifth Representative District - Rowan County - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Buffalo, South Carolina, January 17, 1922, to William H. Ligon 

and Lola (Collins) Ligon. 
Education: Union High School, 1940; Medical University of South Carolina, College 

of Pharmacy, 1950, B.S. (Pharmacy). 
Profession: Pharmacist, (Manager, Kroger Sav-on). 
Organizations: NC Pharmacy Association; Piedmont Pharmacy Association; Andrew 

Jackson Masonic Lodge; American Legion, Harold B. Jarrett Post; Veterans of 

Foreign Wars. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 

1987-; Rowan County Commissioner, 1979-80. 
Military Service: Served, US Marine Corp, 1942-45 (Corporal). 
Religious Activities: Member, New Hope Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher, 

Adult Class; former Deacon. 
Family: Married, Jemelle Huckabee, January 20, 1945. Children: Bradford Gene and 

Michael Dennis. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Com- 
mittee General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropri- 
ations-Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Employment 
Security; Health; Human Resources; Mental Health; Pensions and Retire- 
ment; Water and Air Resources. 



458 North Carolina Manual 




DANIEL T. LILLEY 

(Democrat-Lenoir County) 
I hird Representative District-Craven, I enoir and Pamlico Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Martin County, August 15, 1920, to Alfred Tom and Ethel Grace 
(Gurkin) l.illey (both deceased). 

Education: Farm Life High School; Spartan School of Aeronautics; School of Flight 
(airline maintenance course); College of Life Underwriters, 1967, C.L.U. 

Professional Background: Life insurance salesman (Penn Mutual Fife Insurance 
Company). 

Organizations: Fenoir County Fife Underwriters Association; Kinston Rotary Club; 
Former President, Kinston Junior Chamber of Commerce; Member, Fenoir County 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Southern Growth Policies Board; Greene Lamp, Inc.; Member, State Govern- 
ment Issues and Organizations Committee, Assembly on the Legislature; Chairman, 
State Aeronautics Council. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1969- (ten terms); Com- 
missioner, Lenoir County, 1964-68. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Air Force. 6 years (Colonel); World War II: U.S. Air 
Force Reserve; Meritorious Service Award, 1980. 

Honors: National Quality Award. National Association of Life Underwriters, 1985; 
Governor's Award (Conservation Legislator of the Year), N.C. Wildlife Federation, 
1975; Citizen of the Year, Kinston Chamber of Commerce; 1963; Distinguished 
Service Award, Kinston Junior Chamber of Commerce, 1954. 

Religious Activities: Member, Northwest Christian Church, Kinston; Elder. 

Family: Married, Jean Hites of McPherson, Kansas, Julv 7, 1944. Children: Eileen and 
Dan, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Rules and Operation of the House. 

Vice Chairman: Local Government I. 

Vice Chairman: Finance. 

Member: Agriculture; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Economic Growth; Military 
and Veterans' Affairs; Wildlife Resources. 



f*\ 



The Legislative Branch 459 

ALBERT S. LINEBERRY, SR. 

(Democrat-Guilford County) 

Twenty-seventh Representative District-Guilford (part) County 



A 



Early Years: Born in Memphis, Tennessee, April 13, 1918. 

Education: Cumberland University Army Air School; Gupton-Jones College of Mor- 
tuary Law and Science; National Foundation School of Management, Evanston, 
Illinois; Associate member, Thanatology Department, Columbia University; Certi- 
fied Member of the College of Funeral Service Practice; Member, Board of Center 
Association, Center for Creative Leadership. 

Professional Background: Chairman of the Board, Hanes-Lineberry Funeral Service; 
President, Westminster Gardens; President, Gaines Corporation; Member of the 
Board, First Home Federal Bank of North Carolina; Partner, J.A.S.E. Properties; 
Board Member, Boren Clay Products Company (served for a number of years); 
Board Member, Firest Union National Bank, Greensboro (served for a number of 
years); Board Member, United Family Life Insurance Company, Atlanta (served 
for a number of years). 

Organizations: Wake Forest Deacon's Club; Greensboro Sport Council; A.M.F.M. PP 
Turner Lodge 746; Eastern Star; White Shrine; Shrine Oasis Temple; Scottish Rite 
Bodies (32nd, KCCH Degrees); Greensboro Country Club; Roaring Gap Country 
Club; Director, Greensboro City Club; Member, Rhododendron Royal Brigade of 
Guards (Asheville); Life Member, YMCA;President, Greensboro Symphony 
Orchestra; North Carolina Congress of Parents and Teachers; Chamber of Com- 
merce (Past President); Boy Scouts of America National Advisory Board; Execu- 
tive Committee of General Greene Council (past President); International of NSM; 
National Chairman, Association of Baptist for Scouting, (6 years); Member, Rules 
and Regulations on Liquor By the Drink in North Carolina, Governor's Commis- 
sion; Member 1986, Seniors Challenge Masters Cup, National Golf Tournment; 
Executive Committee, Southern Legislative Conference Committee of Economic 
Development, Trade, and Commerce; Chairman, U.S. Naturalization Committee, 
Greensboro. Boards: Board of Visitors of Wake Forest University; Board of Visitors 
of Guilford College; Trustee, Greensboro College; Director, Greater Greensboro 
Foundation; Past Chairman, Greensboro City School Systems; Trustee, Wingate 
College; Past Chairman, Greensboro War Memorial Foundation; President, C.I.B. 
Consumer Information Bureau, Evanston, IL.; Member, Board of Directors, Amer- 
ican Cancer Society; Member, Board of Directors, Blandwood Historical Associa- 
tion; President, Greensboro Kiwanis Club; Lieutenant Governor, Kiwanis Interna- 
tional; Local Chapter, served as President, National Conference of Christians and 
Jews; President, National Selected Morticians International; Chairman, N.C. for 
Guilford County, Operation 2000, Government Committee; Member, N.C Eco- 
nomic Development Board; Member, Board of Directors, United Community Ser- 
vice of Greensboro; United Way of Greater Greensboro, 1977, Chairman, President 
(2 terms), Member, Board of Directors and Executive Committee. Political Activi- 
ties: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86 and I987-. 

Military: Served, U.S. Army Air Corps World War II, Air Pilot. 



460 Nor in Carolina Manual 



Honors: Greensboro Business leader Hall oi Fame. 19X4; Lineberry-Adams Award 
Southeast Seminary, 1982; Uncle Joe Cannon Award & Distinguished Citizens 
Award. Greensboro Chamber of Commerce; Silver Beaver and Silver Antelope 
Awards. Box Scouts o\ America; Outstanding Citizen Award from Greensboro 
Inter Club Conned; Boss of the Year, Holly Madison Chapter. American Business 
Women, 1974; Outstanding Citizen, National Conference of Christians and .lews. 
1972; Book ol (.olden Deed Award. 1 xhange Club. 1969; Man of the Year, Ashe- 
ville, 1949. 

Religious Activities: Member. First Baptist Church; Chairman of the Board of Dea- 
cons; Departmental Superintendent. Finance Committee; Chairman and Charter 
Member. Developmental Council. Southeastern Seminary; President's Cabinet. 
Pan-American Union of Baptist Men; Vice President, Southern Baptist North 
Carolina Convention; Director. Bill Glass Evangelistic Association. 

Family: Married Helen Howerton. Five Children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Economic Growth. 
Vice Chairman: Law Enforcement. 
Vice Chairman: Public Utilities. 

Member: Education; Focal Government II; Employment Security; Finance; 
Insurance; Small Business; Banks and Thrift Ins 




The Legislative Branch 461 

SIDNEY ALVIN LOCKS 

(Democrat - Robeson County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, Robeson and Scotland (part) 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Lafayette, Louisiana, February 5, 1949, to Sidney A. and Gloria 
Jean (Harris) Locks. 

Education: J.C. Clark High School (Opelousas, Louisiana); Wiley College, 1972, B.A.; 
Morehouse School of Religion, 1975, Master of Divinity. 

Profession: Minister; day care administrator. 

Organizations: Operation Sickle Cell, Robeson Democratic Party; Alpha Phi Alpha; 
Golden Leaf Lodge #124; Carpenters Consistory 164; NAACP of Robeson County; 
former Chairman, Alpha Phi Omega; Robeson County Church and Community 
Center. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Four County Community Action; NC Energy Pol- 
icy Council; former Chairman, Lumberton Human Relations Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; 
Lumberton Board of Education. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Men of America, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Minister, Sandy Grove Baptist Church; Progressive National Bap- 
tist Convention, Inc. 

Family: Married, Carol Ann Freeman, June 2, 1973. Children: Sidney Alvin Edward, 
Frederick Douglas Maynard and Odetta Tandawi Carol. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget-Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Aging; Appropriation-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget; Mental Health. 

Member: Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget 
Committee on Human Resources; Governmental Ethics; Highway Safety; 
Human Resources; University Board of Governors Nominating. 



462 North Carolina Manual 






EDITH LEDFORD LUTZ 

(Democrat - Cleveland County) 



( ifm .^<^~ (Forty-eighth Representative District - Cleveland. Polk, and Rutherford 

a Counties- fhree Representatives.) 






Early Years: Bom in Lawndale, Cleveland County, October 20, 1914, to Thomas Cur- 
tis and Annie (Hoyle) Led ford. 
Education: Belwood High School. 
Occupation: Farmer and fruit grower. 

Organizations: Director, Cleveland County Farm Bureau; Director, Upper Cleveland 
County Chamber of Commerce; NC Apple Growers' Association; Sheltered Work- 
shops of Rutherford County; American Association of Business Women. 

Boards and Commissions: Southern Legislative Conference; Mental Health Study 
Commission; Agriculture, Forestry and Seafood Awareness Study Commission; 
Fact Finding Agriculture Study Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1976, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Honors: Who's Who of American Women; "Farm Woman of the Year," Southwestern 
District. 

Religious Activities: Member, Radish Methodist Church; Sunday School Teacher; 
Treasurer, Women's Organization; counselor. Youth Fellowship. 

Family: Married, M. Everett Lutz, October 25, 1933. Children: E.Jacob. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Focal Government II. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Mental Health. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Children and Youth; Human Resources; 
Insurance; State Personnel; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on 
Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Human 
Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget. 




The Legislative Branch 463 

JOSEPHUS LYMAN MAVRETIC 

(Democrat - Edgecombe County) 

(Eighth Representative District - Edgecombe (part) and Nash (part) 
Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Powells Point, Currituck County, July 29, 1934, to Joseph M. 
(deceased) and Virginia (Bateman) Mavretic. 

Education: New Bern High School; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1956, A.B. (English); George 
Washington University, 1972, M.S. (Political Science, International Affairs); Naval 
War College, distinguished graduate, 1972. 

Profession: Retired military officer. 

Organizations: Rotary Club of Tarboro; Retired Officers Association; American 
Legion Post 58; Marine Corps Aviation Association; Director, Edgecombe County 
chapter, American Red Cross; Phi Gamma Delta; Loyal Order of the Moose; coor- 
dinator, Cub Scout Pack 96; Director, American Cancer Society (NC division); 
Director, Edgecombe County Historic Preservation Fund; Director, NC Museum 
of History Associates. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, NC Council on Alcoholism; Steering Committee, 
NC Educational Policy Seminars; former Chairman, Laurel Bay School Board; 
former Director, First Carolina Bank. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1980 (appointed to fill 
vacancy created by resignation of James Ezzell), 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1956-77 (Lieutenant Colonel); 300 combat 
missions in Vietnam; 3000 flight hours in fighter aircraft; Bronze Star with Combat 
"V". 

Religious Activities: Member, St. James United Methodist Church; President, Metho- 
dist Men's Club, 1981; Administrative Board, 1981; Finance Committee, 1980. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 
Vice Chairman: Finance; Public Utilities. 

Member: Agriculture; Constitutional Amendments; Education; Natural and 
Economic Resources; Transportation; Water and Air Resources. 



464 Nor in Carolina Manual 




ROBERT EEE McAEISI ER 

(Democrat - Rockingham County) 

(Twenty-fifth Representative District - Alamance, Rockingham and 
Stokes (part) Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Earl) Years: Born in Reidsville, Rockingham County, February 6, 1923, to James 
Dennj and Maggie Elizabeth (Meador) McAlister. 

Education: Ruffin High Sehool, 1942. 

Profession: Farming and agri-business interests. 

Organizations: NC Farm Bureau (member. Tobacco Committee); Rockingham County 
Development Association; Vice Chairman, Rockingham County Farm Bureau 
(member. Tobacco and Legislative Committee); Director, Northern Piedmont Area 
Development Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, NC Agriculture Foundation, NCSU; Director, 
NC Tobacco Foundation, NCSU; Rockingham County Draft Board; Chairman, 
Advisory Board, Rockingham County Extension; NC Agri-Business Council; Chair- 
man, Advisory Board, Rockingham County FCX Service. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78 (appointed to fill 
vacancy created by resignation of Conrad R. Duncan, Jr.), 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983- 
84, 1985-86, 1987-; Secondary Roads Council, 7th Division, 1977; District Execu- 
tive Committee, NC House, 1975. 

Military Service: Served. US Army, 1943-47, 1950-51 (Sergeant First Class); Anti- 
Aircraft Artillery. 

Honors: Progressive Community Leadership Award, Northern Piedmont Area Devel- 
opment Association; Contributions Award, NC Irrigation Society; Leadership 
Award, NC Agriculture Foundation, NCSU, Rockingham County Distinguished 
Service Award, 1986, from Rockingham County Arts Council. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mt. Carmel United Methodist Church; Trustee, 1970- 
74; Administrative Board, 1967-76; Finance Secretary, 1969-75. 

Family: Married, Doris Elizabeth Cox, February 1, 1944. Children: Dennis Lee and 
Sidney Robert. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Local Government I. 

Vice Chairman: Water and Air Resources; Finance. 

Member: Agriculture; Election Laws; Health; Military and Veterans' Affairs; 
Transportation; Constitutional Amendments; Rules and Operation of the 
House. 




The Legislative Branch 465 

JOHN BELL MCLAUGHLIN 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

(Fifty-fourth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County- One 
Representative.) 



9k:. , f 1 



Early Years: Born in Mecklenburg County, September 1, 1925, to John and Maude 
(Utley) McLaughlin. 

Education: Newell Public Schools. 

Profession: Retired (former postmaster, farmer, merchant and businessman). 

Organizations: American Legion Post 287; Newell - UNC-Charlotte Lions Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Former member, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Educa- 
tion, ( 10 years). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1950-52 (Corporal). 

Religious Activities: Member, Back Creek Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church; 
Elder. 

Family: Married, Margaret Alexander of Mecklenburg County, June 20, 1954. Three 
children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural 
and Economic Resources; Education; Election Laws. 

Member: Higher Education; Insurance; Local Government II; Mental Health; 
State Government; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget. 



466 Nokih Carolina Manual 







HKNRY MCKINLEY MICHAUX, JR. 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District - Durham (part) Count} - One 
Representative.) 



b 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County. September 4, 1930. to Henry McKin- 

ley and Isadore (Coats) Michaux, Sr. 
Education: Palmer Memorial Institute. 194S; NC Central University, 1952, B.S.; NC 

Central University, School of Law, 1964, J.D.; Rutgers University and NC Central 

University, graduate studies. 
Profession: Attorney and business executive (Executive Vice President and Director: 

Union Insurance and Realty Company; Glenview Memorial Park, Inc.; Washington 

Terrace Apartments. Inc.; Terrace Insurance and Realty Company). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and National Bar Associations; NC Association of Black 
lawyers; George H. White Bar Association; National Association of Real Estate 
Brokers (General Counsel, 1966-77). 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, NC Central University; Chairman. Public Affairs 
Committee, National Association of Real Estate Brokers. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977, 
1985-86, 1987-; speaker, Democratic Convention, 1984; Chief Assistant District 
Attorney, 14th Judicial District, 1977-81; delegate. Democratic Convention, 1976; 
District Solicitor, 1969. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1952-54; Reserves. 1954-60 (Sergeant). 

Honors: Honorary Doctor of Law, NC Central University and Durham College. 

Religious Activities: Member. St. Joseph's AME Church, Durham; Steward Board. 

Family: Children: Jocelyn (Michaux) Winston. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Courts and Administration of Justice. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary I. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget Committee on Education; Election Laws; Higher Education; Alco- 
holic Beverage Control; Constitutional Amendments; Corrections; Employ- 
ment Security; State Properties. 




The Legislative Branch 467 

GEORGE W. MILLER, JR. 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

(Sixty-ninth Representative District - Durham (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Spencer, Rowan County, May 14, 1930, to George W. and 
Blanche M. (Iddings) Miller. 

Education: Spencer Elementary and High School, 1936-48; UNC-Chapel Hill, B.S. 
(Business Administration); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1954-57, LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Haywood, Denny & Miller). 

Organizations: Durham County, NC and American Bar Associations; International 
Association of Insurance Counsels; Phi Alpha Delta; Sertoma Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Visitors, NC Central University School of Law; 
Utility Review Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; NC Young Democrats Club 
(President, 1964-65). 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1951-53 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Duke Memorial Methodist Church, Durham; former 
Chairman, Duke Memorial Week Day School Committee; former member. Official 
Board. 

Family: Married, Eula Hu.x, June 21, 1958. Children: Elizabeth Ann, Blanche Rose 
and George, III. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance. 

Vice Chairman: Governmental Ethics; Judiciary III; Public Utilities. 

Member: Corporations; Courts and Administration of Justice; Rules and Opera- 
tion of the House; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



468 North Carolina Mam \i 




(HARMS IVAN MOTHERSHEAI), III 

(Republican - Mecklenburg County) 

(Fifty-fifth Representative District - Mecklenburg (pan) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Bern in Norfolk. Virginia, June 24, 1948, to Charles Ivan and Johnnie 
(Lybrook) Mothershead, Jr. 

Education: Page Senior High School, 1966; NC State University, 1970, B.A. (Econom- 
ics); NC State University, 1972, M.A. (Economics). 

Profession: President: University Marketing, Inc.; UMI Publications. Inc.; Total 
Sports Publications. 

Organizations: NC Citizens for Business and Industry; ACC Sportswriter Association; 
US Basketball Writers Association; Bureau of Independent Publishers and Distributors. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1 987-; Executive 
Board, Mecklenburg Republican Party, 1980-83; Chairman, Special Events Board, 
Mecklenburg Republican Party, 1980-83. 

Literary Works: Editor: ACC Basketball Handbook. 1974-; NCSU National Cham- 
pionship, 1983; ESPN Sports Almanac, 1983; UNC National Championship, 1982. 
ACC Basketball Trivia Trip. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Episcopal Church. Charlotte. 

Family: Married. Dorothy lull of Charlotte, October 8, 1983. Children: Charles Ivan, 
IV. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Finance; 
Insurance; Judiciary IV, Manufacturers and Labor; Public Utilities; Small 
Business. 




The Legislative Branch 469 

WENDELL HOLMES MURPHY 

(Democrat - Duplin County) 

(Tenth Representative District - Duplin and Jones Counties - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, September 23, 1938, to Holmes and Lois (King) 
Murphy. 

Education: Rose Hill High School, 1956; NC State University, B.S. (Agricultural Edu- 
cation), 1960. 

Profession: Farming and agri-business interests (President, Murphy Farms, Inc.). 

Organizations: Former Vice-President and Director, NC Pork Producers Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, First Union National Bank; Director, NC State 
University Student Aid Association; Director, NCSU Alumni Association; Direc- 
tor, NC Biotechnology Center; Director, Rural Economic; Development Center, 
Inc. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House ot Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987. 

Honors: NC Outstanding Pork Producer, 1980; Pork All American, 1975. 

Religious Activities: Member, Rose Hill Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Linda Godwin, June, 1979. Children: Wendell H., Jr., Wendy 
Deanne, Cindy Hairr and Wesley Hairr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Government. 

Vice Chairman: Corrections; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget; Employment Security. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Natural and 
Economic Resources; Election Laws; Higher Education; Insurance; Univer- 
sity Board of Governors Nominating Committee; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on General Government; Banks and Thrift Institutions; 
Economic Growth. 



470 North Carolina Manual 




MARTIN L. NKSBITT, JR. 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

(Fifty-first Representative District - Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, September 25, 1946, to Martin L. 
and Mary (Cordell) Nesbitt, Sr. 

Education: Reynolds High School, 1964; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970. B.A.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill. School of Law, 1973. . I. D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: Buncombe County and NC State Bar Associations. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Capital Planning Commission; Joint Legislative Com- 
mission on Governmental Operations; former member, NC 2000 Commission; 
Director, The Mediation Center; Director, Buncombe Alternatives. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives. 1979-80, (appointed to fill 
unexpired term created by the death of Mary C. Nesbitt), 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985- 
86, 1 987-; State Federal Assembly Committee on Government Operations and 
Regulations, National Conference of State Legislatures; Director, Buncombe County 
Democratic Men's Club. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Luke's Episcopal Church. 

Family: Married, Deanne Sellers, September 28. 1979. Children: William Martin and 
Chad Sellers. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget-Education. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Insurance; Judiciary IV. 

Member: Appropriations Base Budget-Education; Constitution Amendments; 
Courts and Administration of Justice; Health; Natural and Economic 
Resources; Pensions and Retirement; Rules and Operation of the House; 
Small Business; Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 471 

EDD NYE 

(Democrat - Bladen County) 

(Twelfth Representative District - Bladen, Pender (part) and Sampson 
Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Gulf, Chatham County, to Joseph Burke and Vera (Johnson) 

Nye. 
Education: Clarkton High School; Southeastern Community College; NCSU. 
Profession: Insurance executive. 
Organizations: Elizabethtown Chamber of Commerce; Bladen Masonic Lodge; former 

member, Jaycees and Lions Club. 
Boards and Commissions: Former Trustee, Bladen Technical College. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 

1985-86, 1987-; NC Senate, 1975-76. 
Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1952-56. 
Religious Activities: Member, Elizabethtown Baptist Church; Board of Deacons. 

Former member: Bladen Baptist Association (Moderator) and NC Baptist State 

Convention. 
Family: Married, Peggy McKee of Clarkton, January 9, 1955. Children: Shannon, 

Edward and Allison. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Pensions and Retirement; Wildlife Resources; Appropriations 
Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; Appro- 
priations-Expansion Budget; Courts and Administration of Justice; Educa- 
tion; Public Utilities; Transportation; Constitutional Amendments; Election 
Laws; Rules and Operation of the House. 



472 



North Carolina M anuai 




CHARLES DONALD OWENS 

(Democrat - Rutherford County) 

(Forty-eighth Representative District - Cleveland, Polk, and Rutherford 
Counties- fhree Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Forest City, Rutherford County, June 6, 1925, to Charles Fee 
and Fssie (Green) Owens. 

Education: Appalachian State University, 1949, B.S. 

Profession: Business executive (real estate, land development and auctions). 

Organizations: Kiwanis Club (former President) 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, Appalachian State University, 1979-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; 
Mavor and City Council, Town of Forest City; Chairman, County Democrats, 
1972-76. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1943-45 (PFC). 

Religious Activities: Member. First United Methodist Church; Director, Building 
Fund; lay leader; Methodist Church, International Development. 

Family: Married. Fdna Ogle, May 20, 1950. Child: Charles D., Jr. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Focal Government 1; Water and Air Resources; Finance. 
Member: Education; Human Resources; Natural and Economic Resources; 
State Properties; Governmental Ethics; Law Enforcement; State Government. 




The Legislative Branch 473 

HARRY EUGENE PAYNE, JR. 

(Democrat - New Hanover County) 

(Thirteenth Representative District - New Hanover (part) County - Two 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County, September 11, 1952, to 
Harry Eugene and Margaret (Tucker) Payne. 

Education: New Hanover High School, 1967-70; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970-74, A.B. 
(Political Science, Psychology); Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1974-77, 
J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (private practice). 

Organizations: New Hanover County, NC, NC State and American Bar Associations; 
NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Boards and Commissions: Offender Aid and Restoration Child Advocacy Commis- 
sion. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 
1987-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grace United Methodist Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Constitutional Amendments. 

Vice Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Insurance. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Judiciary III; Manufacturers and Labor; Pensions and Retire- 
ment; State Government; State Properties. 



474 Nor i ii (' sroi in a \1 \\r \i 




BEVERLY MOORE PERDUE 

( I )emocrat-Craven County) 
Third Representative District-Craven, 1 enoir, and Pamilico Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Grundy, Virginia, January 14, 1947, to Alfred P. and Irene I 
(Morefield) Moore. 

Education: Grundy High School, 1965, University oi Kentucky. 1969, (B.S. in His- 
tory); University of Florida, M.Ed. Community College Administration, 1974; Uni- 
versity of Florida, 1976 (PhD in Administration); Fellow: University of Florida 
Center of Gerontology Geriatrics Specialist. 

Professional Background: Former Director, Geriatric Services, Craven County Hospi- 
tal; Consultant. Robert W. Johnson Foundation; Neuse River Council of Govern- 
ments; Director of Human Services; Gerontology Society; National Council on 
Aging; American Hospital Association. 

Organizations: Chamber of Commerce; Committee of 100; Historical Society; Arts 
Council; A. B.C. Board, Chairman, 1983-86; Chairman, United Way, 1985. 

Boards: Member, N.C.N.B. Board; Member, United Way Board; Craven County 
Home Health Hospice Board; Council on Women; Social Services Board, Chair- 
man, 1979-85. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives; Craven County Demo- 
cratic Party, Precinct Chairman, Treasurer, First Vice-President; N.C. Democratic 
Party. Executive Committee. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Episcopal Church; Bible School, Co Principal, 
1981; Sunday School, Teacher; Bible School, Teacher. 

Family: Married, Gary R. Perdue, Sr., from Louisville. K.Y. 1970. Children: Garrett 
and Emmett. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging, Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee ; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Judi- 
ciary IV; Military and Veterans' Affairs, Natural and Economic Resources, 
Pensions and Retirement; Health; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 475 

COY CLARENCE PRIVETTE 

(Republican - Cabarrus County) 

(Thirty-fourth Representative District - Cabarrus, Stanly and Union 
Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Statesville, Iredell County, January 31, 1933, to Clarence and 
Carrie (Harmon) Privette. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 1955, B.A.; Southeastern Baptist Theological 
Seminary, 1958, M.Div.; School of Pastoral Care, Bowman Gray School of Medi- 
cine; Walter Reed Army Medical Center, clinical pastoral studies; US Army Com- 
mand and Staff College. 

Profession: Executive Director, Christian Action League of NC, Inc. 

Associations: Kannapolis Chamber of Commerce. Stanly Co. CC; Union-Monroe 
C.C. 

Boards and Commissions: American Council on Alcoholic Problems, Inc.; Board of 

Ministers, Gardner-Webb College; Committee of Ministers, Campbell University; 

National Leadership Team, National Consultation on Poronography; Trustee, 

Wingate College, 1963-66, 1973-76, 1977-81. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1953-. Holds Rank of Colonel. 

Honors: Alumnus of the Year, Men's Residence Council, Wake Forest University, 
1977; Man of the Year, NC Baptist Men, 1974; Kannapolis Young Man of the 
Year, 1966; Student Body President, Wake Forest University, 1954-55; Omnicron 
Delta Kappa. 

Literary Works: Editor, Tomorrow, a monthly journal concerning moral and ethical 
issues. 

Religious Activities: Member, North Kannapolis Baptist Church, Kannapolis, pastor, 
1962-76. Christian Life Commission, Southern Baptist Convention; Baptist State 
Convention (President, 1975-77; First Vice President, 1973-75); Moderator, Cabar- 
rus Baptist Association, 1968; President, Kannapolis Ministerial Association, 1965. 

Family: Married, Betty Frances Shoaf of Kannapolis, June 21, 1958. Children: Denise 
Elaine, Lori Elizabeth, Amy Lynn and Melanie Ann. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alocoholic Beverage Control; Finance; Human Resources; Judiciary I; 
Military and Veterans 1 Affairs; Health; Highway Safety; Law Enforcement; 
Mental Health. 



476 North Carolina Manual 




JOSEPH BRYANT RAYNOR, JR. 

( Democrat-Cumberland County) 
Eighteenth Representative District: Cumberland (part) County 



Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, Cumberland County, January 26, 1923, to Joseph 
Bryant and Beatrice (Owen) Raynor, Sr. 

Education: Haymont Grade School, 1929-32; Seventy-First Elementary School, 1933- 
36; Graduated. Seventy-First High School, 1940; Electronic and Engineering 
School, 1944; Certified Hypnosis Investigator; Law Enforcement Institute of 
Hypnosis. 

Professional Background: Owner. Raynor Supply Company. 

Organizations: Member, Seventy-First Ruritan Club; Member, Cumberland County 
Young Democrats Club; Member, Cumberland County Mental Health Association; 
Member and Past President, Carousel Club; Member. Cumberland County Wildlife 
Association; Member, Knights of Pythias; Member, Loyal Order of the Moose, 
Member, Legion of the Moose; Member, Ancient Mystic Order of Bagment of 
Bagdad; Vice President. TIHE (The Study of Human Ecology); Member, United 
Brotherhood of Magicians; Member, Society of Investigative and Forensic Hypno- 
sis; Former Member, Fayetteville Exchange Club; Fayetteville Optimist Club; 
Grand Counselor, United Commercial Travelers of America; Former President, 
Cumberland County Chapter of the N.C. Society for Crippled Children and Adults. 

Boards: Board of Directors, Cumberland County Cancer Society; Chairman, Gover- 
nor's Advisory Commission of Military Affairs; Former Member, Legislative Ethics 
Committee; Criminal Standards and Judicial Committee; Mental Retardation 
Study Commission; Mental Health Study commission; Board of Directors, Miss 
United Teenager; Legislative Serices Commission and Commission on Exceptional 
Children; Study Commission on Alcoholism; Commission on Migrant Workers. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative; served 1965-66, 1967, 1969, 1971, 
1987-, N.C. Senate, 1972, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Law Enforcement. Vice Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control. 

Vice Chairman: Health. 

Member: Aging; Finance; Judiciary II; Manufacturers and Labor; Mental 
Health; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Rules and Operation of the House. 




The Legislative Branch 477 

EDWARD DAVID REDWINE 

(Democrat - Brunswick County) 

(Fourteenth Representative District - Brunswick, New Hanover (part) 
and Pender (part) Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County, September 12, 1947, to 
Edward Henry and Doris (Frink) Redwine. 

Education: Shallottee High School, 1965; ECU, 1972, A.B. (Political Science, His- 
tory). 

Profession: Vice President and partner. Coastal Insurance and Realty, Inc. 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents of NC; Carolina Association of Profes- 
sional Insurance Agents; South Brunswick Chamber of Commerce (President and 
Director, 1976-82); Shallotte Lions Club; Board of Advisors, Cape Fear Council, 
BSA; Mason, 1976; Shrine Sudane Temple, 1976. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Student Legislative Advisory Council; Board of Advi- 
sors, Cape Fear Substance Abuse; Vice Chairman, Brunswick County Parks and 
Recreation; NC Battleship Memorial Commission, 1982-83; Trustee, Brunswick 
Technical College, 1982. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-; Executive 
Board, 7th Congressional District; Brunswick County Democratic Party (Chair- 
man, 1979-82; Treasurer, 1976; Young Democrats of Brunswick County (President, 
1978). 

Honors: Young Agent of the Year, 1984; Mr. Chairman Award, IIANC, 1982; Who's 
Who in American Politics. 1982; Outstanding Young Man of the Year, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, Shallotte Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Margaret Penelope Taylor of Monroe, September 23, 1972. Child- 
ren: Erin Elizabeth and Amanda Fletcher, David Austin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and 
Economic Resources; Marine Fisheries; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Natural and Economic Resources. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Public Utilities; Insurance; Judiciary 
III; Manufacturers and Labor. 



478 North Carolina Mam \i 




FRANK EDWIN RHODES 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

(Thirty-ninth Representative District - Forsyth, (part) County - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Worcester, Massachusetts, August 2, 1914, to Frank and Alberta 
(Stoddard) Rhodes. 

Education: Columbia University (Advertising and Management); Rutgers University 
(Sales Management). 

Profession: Retired real estate executive (former President, Frank E. Rhodes, Inc.). 

Organizations: Winston-Salem Board of Realtors; NC Association of Realtors; 
National Association of Realtors; Winston-Salem Kiwanis Cluh; Salem Masonic 
Lodge 289; Oasis Shrine Temple; Winston-Salem Shrine. 

Boards and Commissions: Forsyth Zoning Board of Adjustment, 1969-75 (Chairman, 
1972-75). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-45; OCS; Infantry; Expert Infantryman; 

Expert Sharpshooter; Good Conduct Medal. 
Honors: Realtor of the Year, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary United Methodist Church. Winston-Salem; 
Administrative Board. 

Family: Married, Fernande Gagne of Quebec City, Canada, July I. 1960. Children: 
Ruthann, Frank, III, Tina and Nelson. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Corrections; Education; Higher Education; Mental Health; Natural 
and Economic Resources; Aging; Finance; Judiciary III. 



The Legislative Branch 479 

JOHNATHAN LABAN RHYNE, JR. 

(Republican - Lincoln County) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District - Gaston and Lincoln Counties - 
Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, June 6, 1955, to Johnathan L. 
and Marian Lavinia (Stowe) Rhyne, Sr. 

Education: Lincolnton High School, 1973; Davidson College, 1977, B.A. (Sociology); 
Campbell University, School of Law, 1981, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (partner, firm of Jonas, Jonas and Rhyne); Secretary, Lincoln 

Bank of NC 
Organizations: Lincoln County, NC, NC State and American Bar Associations; 

Secretary-Treasurer, Judicial District 27B, 1984; Director, Lincoln Apple Festival 

Committee. 

Boards and Commissions: N.C. Courts Commission (1985-), Chairman (1986-); Former 
Director, Lincoln Arts Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-; Lincoln 
County Republican Party (Secretary, 1984). 

Honors: I. Beverly Lake Constitutional Law Scholar, Campbell University. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Lincolnton; Board of Dea- 
cons, 1971-73, 1982-84 (Chairman, 1984). Elder (1985-) 

Family: Married, Martha Jane Cameron of Dunn, August 2, 1980. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Courts and Administration of Justice; Finance; Governmental Ethics; 
Higher Education; Judiciary I; Constitutional Amendments; Small Business; 
Wildlife Resources. 



480 North Carolina Manuai 




RICHARD EUGENE ROGERS 

(Democrat-Martin County) 

Sixth Representative District-Bertie (part), Hertford (part), Martin 
(part), and I'itt (part) Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Williamston, Martin County, December 12, 1929, to Javan and 
Elfie (Green) Rogers (both deceased). 

Education: Bear Grass High School, 1943-45; Williamston High School, 1945-46; Oak 
Ridge Military Institution, 1946-47; UNC. Chapel Hill. 1955, B.S., Masters Educa- 
tion. 1957. 

Professional Background: Superintendent Matron, County Schools, 1965-85 (retired); 

Farming; Insurance; Real Estate; N.C. Association of School Administrations; 

Martin County Chamber of Commerce. 
Organizations: President, Williamston Kiwanis Club, 1982; Local District Committee, 

BSA. 1965-85; St. Pauls Jaycees, 1959-63 (President, 1962). 

Boards: District Committee, Boy Scouts of America, 1986; Board of Directors, East- 
Carolina Vocational Center, 1980-85; Board of Directors, W.C. High School 
Athletic Association, 1981-84; Board of Health, Martin Washington, Tyrrell Dis- 
trict, 1965-84; Board of Directors. N.C. Superintendents Division, NCAE, 1975-78. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives. 

Military: Served, U.S. Coast Guard, 1950-53; Honorable Discharge. 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award; Boss of the Year Award; Superintendent Con- 
tributing Most to Athletics, Region I. 

Religious Activities: Member, Memorial Baptist Church; Board of Deacons, 1966-70, 

1972-76, 1978-82, 1984-present. 
Family: Married, Jean Carole Griffin, of Williamston, August 18, 1956. Children: 

Jeanette, Laura and Richard. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget- 
Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget-Education; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Cultural Resources; Higher 
Education; Housing; Insurance; University Board of Governors Nominating 
Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 481 

FRANK JULIAN SIZEMORE, III 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

(Twenty-seventh Representative District - Guilford (part) County - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in High Point, Guilford County, July 25, 1946, to Frank Julian and 
Jane (Cameron) Sizemore, Jr. 

Education: Ferndale Junior High School, 1958-61; Central High School, 1964; Duke 
University, 1968, B.A.; Duke University, 1971, J. D. 

Profession: Attorney (partner, firm of Smith, Helms, Mullin, and Moore). 

Organizations: Greensboro, NC, DC and American Bar Associations (Litigation Sec- 
tion, Enviromental Law Subsection, Forum Committee on Health Law, and Natu- 
ral Resources Section of American Bar Association); Association of Trial Lawyers 
of America; Christian Legal Society; Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Council of Community Development. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-; Special 
Assistant, Assistant Administrator for Enforcement and General Counsel, US 
Enviromental Protection Agency. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Greensboro; Board of Dea- 
cons, 1984-85. 

Family: Married, Laura C. Frazier of Greensboro, May 26, 1979. Children: Sara Fraz- 
ier, Anna Laura and Frank Julian IV. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget Committee on Education; Education; Higher Education; Constitu- 
tional Amendments; Courts and Administration of Justice; Governmental 
Ethics; Judiciary I; Law Enforcement; University Board of Governors Nomi- 
nating Committee. 



4S2 Nor in Carolina Manual 




MARGARET "PEGGY" ANN STAMEY 

( I >emocrat - Wake County) 
(Sixty-third Representative District - Wake (part) County - One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, March 17, 1932, to Chester Frank- 
lin and Sudie (Aiken) Mcintosh. 

Education: Plonk School of Creative Arts, 1 948-5 1 ; Brevard College, 1951-53; Univer- 
sity of Maryland, 1958-59 (Political Science); Fridan School of Data Systems, 1959- 
60; Brevard College 1951-53. 

Profession: Legislator; Fishery consultant (South Atlantic Fishery Management Coun- 
cil; Chairman, 1980). 

Organizations: Triangle International Trade Association; Triangle Kidney Foundation; 
NC Museum of History Associates; Cary Chamber of Commerce; Women in State 
Government. Cary Woman's Club, N.C. Kidney Foundation, N.C Museum of His- 
tory Associates, Cary Chamber of Commerce, Women in State Government. 

Boards and Commissions: National Coalition for Conservation of Marine Resources, 
1979-; US Advisor, International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic 
Tuna, 1980-; Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission; charter member, NC 
Child Advocacy Council; Chairman, SAF, 1980. Capital Planning Commission 
Gov's Council on Physical Fitness, Governmental Operations Committee of the 
N.C. General Assembly. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86. 1987-; 
National Association of Women Legislators; Women's Forum; Chairman, Demo- 
cratic Women of Wake County, YDC, 1977-79; Wake County Democratic Party 
(Chairman, 1977; Vice Chairman, 1972-76); national committeewomen, YDC, 1968; 
former committeewoman. National Democratic Committee. 

Honors: Citation. Wake County SPCA, 1984; Thad Eure Award, 1978; NC Demo- 
cratic Party Appreciation Award, 1977; Citation, Kidney Foundation, 1977; Jim 
Hunt Campaign Award, 1976; Outstanding Young Democrat, NC Young Demo- 
crats Club, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, White Plains Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, James H. Stamey, January 3, 1953. Children: Dianna Dee Stamey- 
Fulmer, James Franklin, Susan Alice and Melissa Jane (Stamey) Lennon. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Personnel. 

Vice Chairman: Marine Fisheries; Corporations. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Education; Finance; Judiciary III; Rules 
and Operation of the House; State Properties; Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 483 

EDGAR VANCE STARNES 

(Republican-Caldwell County) 

Forty-Sixth Representative District-Alexander (part), Avery Burke (part). 
Caldwell, Mitchell, and Watauga (part) Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Hickory, Catawba County, September 3, 1956, to Ray Coolidge 
and Sarah (Capshaw) Starnes. 

Education: Granite Falls Public Schools, Graduated, 1974; Carson-Newman College, 
1978 (B.A. in History, Minors in Spanish and Religion), Graduated Cum Laude. 

Professional Background: Dairy Farmer; Caldwell County Farm Bureau; Coble Dairy 
Young Cooperators, Board of DirectorsBoards: Former Member, Agricultural Sta- 
bilization and Conservation Service (ASCS) State Committee, 1981-84 (appointed 
by Secretary of Agriculture, John R. Block-was youngest person in the agency's 
history to serve in this capacity). 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives; Caldwell County Young 
Republican, Chairman, 1979-81; Young Republican State Board of Directors 
Archives Chairman, 1980; Tenth District Director, 1981; Caldwell County Republi- 
can Executive Committee, 1979-present. 

Religious Activities: Member, Poovey's Grove Baptist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher; Deacon; Chairman, 1983-86; Missions Committee; Pulpit Committee; 
Baptist Lay Witnessing Foundation. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Commissions and Schools 
for the Blind and Deaf; Manufacturers and Labor; Public Utilities; Rules and 
Operation of the House; Finance; Transportation. 



4N4 North Carolina Mam ai 




TIMOTHY NORTON TAEEENT 

(Republican - Cabarrus County) 

(Thirty-fourth Representative District - Cabarrus, Stanly and Union 
Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Concord. Cabarrus County, November 9, 1949, to Johnny and 
Margaret (Weaver) Tallent. 

Education: Concord High School; University of South Carolina. 
Profession: Secretary, Zion Music Service. Inc. 

Organizations: Fellowship of Christian Athletes; Gideons (former President); Presi- 
dent, Christian Businessmen. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-. 
Honors: Outstanding Lay Person of Cabarrus County. 
Religious Activities: Member, Concord Bible Church, Concord. 
Family: Married, Dianne Cox of Concord, August 3, 1974. Children: Angela. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Children and Youth; Corporations; 
Finance; Highway Safety; Public Utilities; Rules and Operations of the 
House; and State Properties. 




The Legislative Branch 485 

JOHN L. TART 

(Democrat-Wayne County) 

Eleventh Representative District-Wayne County 



Early Years: Born in Grantham, Wayne County, October 30, 1927, to Lisker and Min- 
nie Mae (Denning) Tart. 

Education: Grantham High School, 1944; N.C State, 1950, B.S., Agriculture Educa- 
tion; N.C. State, 1956, M.S., Agriculture Education; N.C. State, 1969, Ed.D. 

Professional Background: Teacher, Wayne County Schools; Teacher, Mount Olive 
College; President, Johnson Technical College; Farmer. 

Organizations: Mill Creek Masonic Lodge; Farm Bureau; Grange; Wayne County 
Industrial Commission; Former President, Wayne County Unit, American Cancer 
Society; Former, Master Masonic Lodge; Former President, N.C. Pork Producer 
Association; Former, Secretary-Treasurer N.C. Hampshire Breeders Association. 

Boards: Former, N.C. State Board of Education; Former, Local Government Com- 
mission. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative; Wayne County President, Y.D.C 

Religious Activities: Member, Selah Christian Church; Elder; Sunday School Teacher; 
Lay Speaker. 

Family: Married, Marjorie Stevens, from Grantham, December 18, 1948. Children; 
John, Denny, and Dianne. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Corrections; 
Law Enforcement; Military and Veterans' Affairs, Higher Education; High- 
way Safety; Human Resources; University Board of Governors Nominating 
Committee. 



486 North Carolina Manual 




RAYMOND MARKHAM THOMPSON, SR. 

( Democrat-Chowan County) 

First Representative District-Camden, Chowan. Currituck. Dare, 
dates (part), Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell, and Washington (part) 
Counties. 



Early Years: Bom in Weeksville, Pasquotank County, September 17, 1925, to Wallace 

L. and Minnie (Markham) Thompson, Sr. 
Education: Elizabeth City High School, 1939-43; North Carolina State University, 

1950 (B.S. in Agricultural Education). 
Professional Background: Taught Vocational Agriculture, 1950-51; Assistant County 

Agent, 1951-54; County Agent, 1954-70; County Extension Chairman, 1970-81; 

Consultant with Peoples Bank, 1981-83; Manager, Chowan Storage, 1983. 
Organizations: County Agents Association; Epsilon Sigma Phi; Hertford Lions Club; 

Edenton Lions Club; American Legion Post (40); V.F.W.; Unanimity Lodge No. 7 

(Masonic Order); Ruritan. 1954-70. 
Boards: Peoples Bank Board, 1975; Chowan Hospital Board. 1977-82; Chowan Plan- 
ning Board. 1970; Chairman, Finance Committee. 1980-82. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C House of Representatives. 

Military: Served, United States Coast Guard, Signalman, third class, 1943-46. 

Religious Activities: Member. Edenton United Methodist Church; Sunday School 

Teacher. 1972-83. 
Family: Married, Carolyn Pemberton Thompson of Raleigh, June 9, 1949. Children: 

Raymond, Gayle, and Sharon. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Cultural Resources; Law Enforcement: Marine 
Fisheries; Natural and Economic Resources; Finance; Health; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 487 

SHARON A. THOMPSON 

(Democrat-Durham County) 
Sixty-Eighth Representative District-Durham (part) County. 



Early Years: Born in New Bedford, Massuchsets, on May 31, 1948, to Russell E. and 
Elma (Andreasen) Thompson. 

Education: Michigan State University, 1970, B.S. (in retailing); Antioch School of 
Law, 1976, J. D. 

Professional Background: Attorney; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Board of Gov- 
ernors; N.C. Association of Women Attorneys, Governing Board and President- 
Elect; N.C. Bar Association Member, Family Law and Real Property Sections. 

Organizations: Hayti Development Corporation, Board of Directors, Treasurer, 1984- 
present; Former Member, Durham Dispute Settlement Center, Board of Directors, 
1983-84. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives; Democratic State Execu- 
tive Committee, 1985-86. 

Honors: Recipient of M.S. Foundation Grant, 1979; Who's Who in American Law, 
4th Ed.; Received Citation for Architectural Conservation for Rehabilitation of 
Office Building from Historic Preservation Society of Durham, 1983. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Manufacturers and Labor; Rules and 
Operation of the House; Employment Security; Finance; Housing; Judiciary 
II; and Water and Air Resources. 



488 Nokiii Carolina Manual 



\ 






JAMES PAIL TYNDAEE 

( I )emocrat-Onslow County) 
Fourth Representative District-Carteret and Onslow Counties. 



4k-k 



Early Years: Born in Arapahoe, Pamlico County. March 28, 1914, to James A. and 

Fannie P. Tyndall. 
Education: Arapahoe High School, 1929; Washington Collegiate Institute, 1930; 

Rutherford Junior College, 1932; Atlantic Christian College, 1936, A.B.; ECU, 

1958, M.A. 
Professional Background: Retired educator (former teacher, coach, principal, assistant 

superintendent, superintendent and Board of Education member, total 46 years). 

Organizations: NCAE; NEA; AASA; life member, N.C. Division of Principals; life 
member, N.C. Division of Superintendents; Kiwanis Club, 1962-72. 

Boards: Legislative Committee, State School Boards Association; State Chairman, 

Legislative Committee, N.C. Retired School Personnel; Board of Directors, N.C. 

Retired Government Employees; Onslow County Board of Health, 1963-72; Onslow 

County Hospital Board, 1957-72. 
Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; 

Onslow County Board of Education, three terms; Federal Lobbyist for Military 

Impacted School Systems in N.C. ( 10 years). 

Honors: Community Man Award, Jacksonville Jaycees, 1971; Today's Outstanding 
N.C. Citizen, WNCT-TV, 1969; American Educator Award, Freedom Foundation 
of Valley Forge, 1969. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity United Methodist; Sunday School teacher, 8 
years. 

Family: Married, Eunice Wilson. June 23, 1979; four children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Wildlife Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Military and Veteran's Affairs. 

Vice Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 

Member: Constitutional Amendments; Education; Marine Fisheries; Mental 
Health; Public Utilities; Finance. 




The Legislative Branch 489 

LOIS SIMMONS WALKER 

(Republican - Iredell County) 

(Forty-second Representative District - Iredell (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, Surry County, August 8, 1930, to John Alexander 
and Flossie (Burge) Simmons. 

Education: Pilot Mountain High School, 1947; Appalachian State University, 1951, 
B.S.; Duke University, graduate studies, 1956; Appalachian State Univeristy, 1978, 
MA. 

Profession: Teacher, athletic director and counselor, Statesville Senior High School. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Organizations: NCAE; NAE; American Association of Physical Education, Health 
and Recreation; NC Personnel and Guidance Association; NC School Counselors 
Association; Statesville Tennis Team, 1978-84; Sir Walnut Cabinet; Statesville 
Woman's Club. 

Boards and Commissions: County Chairman, Western Statesville Recreation Commis- 
sion, 1958-72; former Secretary and Vice President, Statesville Recreation Commission. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, States- 
ville; President, Sunday School; Vice President, choir. 

Family: Married, William L. Walker, PhD. of Statesville, June 28, 1951. Children: Bo 
and Enid; Grandchildren: Alex and Tracy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources, Education; Election Laws; Governmental Ethics; Marine Fisher- 
ies; State Personnel; Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Rules 
and Operation of the House; Wildlife Resources. 



490 North Carolina Manual 











KtV Vo^l Cvx 1 




1 v* 




> 





EDWARD ALEXANDER WARNER, JR. 

(Democrat-Cumberland County) 
Eighteenth Representative District-Cumberland (part) County. 



Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, Cumberland County, November II, 1942, to 
Edward A. and Mae Pearl (Green) Warner, Sr. Education: Campbell College, 1965. 
A.B. English; East Carolina University, 1973, M.A.ed. 

Professional Background: Countryside Furnityre Company, Inc. Board of Directors, 
President. 

Organizations: Lebanon Lodge, No. 391, A.E. and AM; Phi Delta Kappa. 

Boards: Cumberland County Board of Education. 

Political Activities: N.C, House of Representatives; Cumberland County Board of 
Education. 

Honors: Jaycees Man of the Year, 1987; Eayetteville State Univerity School of Educa- 
tion Award; Assistant Principal of the Year, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, Faymont Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Jacquelyn Fredda Smith, of Anderson, on October 13, 1979. Child- 
ren: Edward and Molly, Alexa. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Eucation; Law Enforcement; Mental Health; Military and Veterans' 
Affairs; Finance; Higher Education; Highway Safety; Human Resources; 
Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 49 i 

EDWARD NELSON WARREN 

(Democrat-Pitt County) 

Ninth Representative District-Greene and Pitt (part) Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Stokes, Pitt County, November 29, 1926, to Elmer Edward and 
Daisy (Cox) Warren. 

Education: Campbell University, A. A.; Atlantic Christian College, A.B.; East Carolina 
University, M.A.; Duke University, doctoral program. 

Professional Background: Investor, Farmer, Real Estate. 

Organizations: Greenville Rotary Club (Paul Harris Fellow), Trustee Salvation Army, 
Pitt County Heart Association (Former Chairman), Board of Directors Greenville 
Chamber of Commerce, United Fund Board, Greenville Golf and Country Club. 
(Former President). 

Boards: Former Chairman Board of Trustees, Pitt County Memorial Hospital, Former 
Chairman, Pitt County Health Board, Pitt County Airport Authority. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1981 -present (4 terms). 
Former Chairman, Pitt County Board of County Commissioners. 

Military Service: United States Air Force. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church; Former Deacon; Finance Com- 
mittee. 

Family: Married, Joan Braswell. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget-Education. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget. 

Vice Chairman: Election Laws. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations Expansion Budget-Education; Banks And 

Thrift Institutions; Constitutional Amendments; Corrections; Pensions and 

Retirement; Public Utilities; Higher Education. 



492 Nor i ii Carolina Mam \i 




RAYMOND ALLAN WARREN 

(Republican - Mecklenburg County) 

( rhiry-sixth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County - One 
Representative ) 



Early Years: Born June 7. 1957, to Charles Allen and Edith Ann (Thomas) Warren 

(now Edith A. Brotherton). 
Education: Independence High School, 1975; UNC-Wilmington, 1979, B.A., cum 

laude (History); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law. 1983, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney, real estate broker, writer. 

Organizations: Mecklenburg County and NC Bar; charter member and former Direc- 
tor, Mint Hill Civitan Club; Member, Mint Hill Business Association. Former 
member: Christian Legal Society; Unversity Theatre, UNC-Wilmington; UNC- 
Wilmington College Republicans (President, 1975-79). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-; (House 
Minority Whip, 1987). 

Honors: Who's Who Among University and College Students, 1977-79; Big Man on 

Campus, Alpha Phi Omega. 1979. 
Literary Works: Co-founder and editor. The Carolina Fret- Press, UNC-Chapel Hill, 

1982-83; columnist, Seahawk, UNC-Wilmington, 1975-79. 

Religious Activities: Member. St. John Neuman Catholic Church. Charlotte. 
Family: Single. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Government; Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Constitutional 
Amendments; Courts and Administration of Justice; Election Laws; Judi- 
ciary II; Local Government II; Natural and Economic Resources; State 
Personnel. 




The Legislative Branch 493 

WILLIAM THOMAS WATKINS 

(Democrat - Granville County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District - Caswell, Granville, Halifax 
(part). Person, Vance and Warren Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Granville County, July 1, 1921, to John Stradley and Belle (Nor- 
wood) Watkins. 

Education: Oak Hill High School, 1927-39; Mars Hill Junior College, 1942; Wake 
Forest College, 1939-41, 1946-48, 1949, B.S.; Wake Forest Law School, 1949-52, 
LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney. (Attorney, Granville County, 1955-68). 

Organizations: : Granville County, 9th Judicial District and NC Bar Associations; Pi 
Kappa Alpha. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-46 (Staff Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Oxford Baptist Church, Oxford; former Sunday School 
teacher. 

Family: Married, Louie Marie Best, November 18, 1944. Children: Alma Marie (Wat- 
kins) Brown and Annabell (Watkins) Barker. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Expansion Budget. 

Vice Chairman: Election Laws. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Constitutional Amendments; Courts and 

Administration of Justice; Judiciary TV; Rules and Operation of the House; 

Law Enforcement; State Personnel; Transportation. 



494 North Carolina Manual 




DENNIS AEVIN WICKER 

(Democrat - Lee County) 

(Nineteenth Representative District - Harnett and Lee Counties - Two 
Representatives.) 






1 



Early Years: Born in Sanford, Lee County, June 14, 1952, to J. Shelton and Clarice 
(Burns) Wicker. 

Education: UNC-Chapel Hill, 1974. B.A.; Wake Forest University, 1978, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Love and Wicker, PA.). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and Ameriean Bar Associations; Academy of Trail Law- 
yers; Rotory Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 
1987-. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Luke Methodist Church, Sanford; Administrative 
Board. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary IV. 

Vice Chairman: Courts and Administration of Justice. Government Ethics. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Constitutional Amendments; Finance; 
Insurance; Small Business; State Personnel. 




The Legislative Branch 495 

WADE FRANKLIN WILMOTH 

(Democrat-Watauga County) 

Fortieth Representative District-Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes (part), Surry, 
and Watuaga (part) Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Dobson, Surry County, November 14, 1934, to Jennings and 

Lillie Mae (Campbell) Wilmoth. 
Education: Dobson High School, 1953; Appalachian State University, 1956, B.S. 

Professional Background: Owner, Wade Wilmoth Realty; Realtor; Director of First 
Union National Bank, 1972 to present; State Director of the N.C Realtors Associa- 
tions, 1986. 

Organizations: Appalachian State University, Chancellors Committee, 1983-86; 
Honorary Director, Boone Area Chamber of Commerce; Hound Ears Club; 
Former President, Boone Jaycees, 1970-71; United Way, 1969; Watauga County 
Heart Association, 1982-84; Chairman of the Board of Northwest N.C. Develop- 
ment Association. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative; Boone City Council (1 term); Mayor 
of Boone (2 terms). 

Political Career Achievements: Three key achievements made in Boone: City Man- 
agement form of government; seven million dollar Water Referendum passed; sewer 
capacity plant was added to double the former capacity. 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, PFC, 1958-59; Good Conduct Medal, Marksman. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Gloria Sue Watts, of Lenoir, November 5, 1960. Children: Greg and 
April. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Local Government I; Natural and Economic Resources; Rules and 
Operation of the House; Small Business; Election Laws; Finance; Higher 
Eduction; State Properties; Transportation. 



496 



Nor i ii Carolina Manual 




WALTER HAROLD WINDLEY, III 

(Republican - Gaston Conty) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District - Gaston and Lincoln Counties 
Foui Representatives.) 



AYk 



Early Years: Burn in Columbia, South Carolina, December 15, 1955, to Walter Harold 
and Bett\ Lou (Elmore) Windley, Jr. 

Education: Ashbrook High School, 1974; Appalachian State University, 1978, B.S. 
(Business Administration, Economics); Appalachian State University. 1979, M.B.A. 
Profession: Vice President, W.J. Barlowe Tank Services, Inc. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, I987-. 

Family: Married. Debra Lynn Ramsey of Morganton, June 2, 1979. Children: Walter 
Harold. IV, Amanda Michelle and William Davenport. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Constitutional Amendments; Finance; Judiciary II; Courts and Ad- 
ministration of Justice; Election Laws; Governmental Ethics; Highway Safety; 
Judiciary II; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 497 

BETTY HUTCHINSON WISER 

(Democrat-Wake County) 

Sixty-fourth Representative District-Wake (part) County. 



Early Years: Born in Shelby, Ohio, May 12, 1931, to Roscoe David and Mary Louise 
(Stine) Hutchinson. 

Education: College of Wooster, 1949-50; Ohio State University, 1954, B.S., 1958, M.S. 
(Home Economics) NCSU, 1961, M.S. (Sociology); Andrus Gerontology Center, 
University of Southern California; NCSU, 1982, Ed,D. (Adult Education). 

Profession: President, Retirement Planning Associates, Inc.; Executive Director, Wake 
County Council on Aging, Inc., 1975-81; Director and founder. Retired Senior 
Volunteer Program of Raleigh-Wake County, 1973-74; Director, Volunteer Train- 
ing and Volunteer Services projects, 1970-75, N.C. State University, 1961-69; 
former high school and nursery school teacher; home economist, International 
Voluntary Services, Iraq, 1955-57. 

Organizations: League of Women Voters of N.C, former State President; National 
Association of Women Business Owners; American Business Women Association; 
American Association of University Women; Older Women's League; N.C. Adult 
Education Association; N.C. Association of Aging; Zonta Club of Raleigh (former 
President); Delta Kappa Gamma International (former President); Phi Kappa Phi. 

Boards: Director, N.C. Center for Public Policy Research; N.C. Council on the Status 
of Women, 1977-81; N.C. Conference for Social Services, Director, 1980-83; N.C. 
Council of Women's Organizations, President, 1977-79; Convenor, Women's Forum 
of N.C; North Carolina Family Life Council, 1986. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-; 

Democratic Women of Wake County; Wake County unity Campaign Committee, 

1982; Chairman, Wake County Precinct #2, 1982-84. 

Religious Activities: Member, Unitarian Church, Raleigh; former Secretary and Pro- 
gram Chairman on Board. 

Family: Married, Edward H. Wiser of Raleigh, December 21, 1957. Children: Carla 
and Conrad. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 

Member: Cultural Resources; Local Government I; Employment Security; 
Finance; Judiciary III; State Government; State Personnel. 



498 North Carolina Manual 




BARNEY PAUL WOODARD 

(Democrat - Johnston County) 

(Twentieth Representative District - Franklin and Johnston Counties 
I wo Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Princeton, November 23, 1914, to John Riehard and Elizabeth 
(wall) Woodard. 

Education: Princeton High School; UNC Chapel Hill, 1938, Pharmacy degree. 

Profession: Pharmacist; (owner, Woodard Pharmacy). 

Organizations: National Association of Retail Druggists; Princeton Lions Club (former 
President); Johnston County Shrine Club; Johnston County Mental Health Associ- 
ation; Johnston County Drug Club; keep Johnston County Beautiful; NC Pharma- 
ceutical Association, 1978; Fund Chairman, Mental Helath Association, 1971-72; 
Chairman, Princeton School Advisory Committee, 1969-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-. 

Honors: Bowl of Hygea Award for outstanding Community Service in Pharmacy, 
1978. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church; Trustee, Administrative 
Board; teacher, 1969-71. 

Family: Married, Annie Louise Sugg, September 6, 1941. Children: Barney Paul, Jr., 
Dianne Louise (Woodard) Taylor, Michael /Sugg and Joy (woodard) McLeod. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources. 

Yice Chairman: State Personnel; Highway Safety. 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Ex- 
pansion Budget; Health; Judiciary II; State Government; Appropriations 
Base Budget Committee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget 
Committee on Education. 




The Legislative Branch 499 

RICHARD WRIGHT 

(Democrat-Columbus County) 
Fifteenth Representative District-Columbus County. 



Early Years: Born in Loris, South Carolina, October 8, 1944, to Ottis R. and Olive 
(Battle) Wright. 

Education: Tabor City High School, 1963; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1967, A.B. (Political 
Science); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1971, J. D. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of McGougan, Wright and Worley); farmer; rental proper- 
ties owner. 

Organizations: Columbus County, 13th Judicial District and N.C. Bar Associations; 
Columbus County Farm Bureau; Director, Columbus County Mental Health Asso- 
ciation; Southeastern Oratorio Society; Columbus County Young Farmers Associa- 
tion; President, Columbus County UNC Alumni Association; Civitan Club; Samp- 
son and Columbus Historical Societies; S.C. Genealogy Society; Columbus Cotil- 
lion. 

Boards: Columbus Committee of 100; Board of Vistors, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1983-; 
Columbus County Arts Council; Director, STRIKE AT THE WIND, 1979-87, 
Trustee, N.C. Art Museum, 1980-82; N.C. Commission on Criminal Justice Train- 
ing and Education Standards, 1979-82; N.C. Criminal Justice Education and Train- 
ing Systems Council, 1977-79; State Archaeology Commission, 1975-77; former 
President, Columbus County Morehead Scholarship Selection Committee. Direc- 
tor, Columbus County Economic Development Commission; Tabor City Commis- 
sion of 100. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives; 1975-present (6 terms); 
State Democratic Executive Committee, 1977, presidential elector, 1976. 

Honors: Phi Beta Kappa; Order of the Old Well; Society of Janus. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Council on Ministries and Adminis- 
trative Board; youth coordinator and UMYF counselor, Chairman Church Finance. 

Family: Married, Jenny McKinnon. Children: Elizabeth and Sarah. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Courts and Administration of Justice. 
Vice Chairman: Rules and Operation of the House. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Constitutional Amendments; Economic 
Growth; Militarv and Veterans' Affairs; Finance. 



soo 



Nor i ii Carolina Manual 




**~ 







GRACE AVERETTE COLLINS 

Principal Clerk 

North Carolina House of Representatives 

Early Years: Born in Fuquay-Varina, Wake County, to Alonzo Deams and Minnie 
Lee (Helms) Averette. 

Education: Fuquay-Varina High School, 1949; Kings Business College, 1951; addi- 
tional studies, Raleigh School of Commerce and Hardbarger Business College. 

Profession: Principal Clerk, NC House of Representatives, 1974-; General Assembly 
staff, 1969-73. 

Organizations: Executive Committee, National Conference of State Legislators; Exec- 
utive Nominating Committte, NCSL; Legislative Management Committee, NCSL 
Assembly on the Legislature; Chairman, all standing committees, American Society 
of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries (President, 1981-82; Vice President, 1980-81; 
Secretary-Treasurer. 1979-80). 
Political Activities: Principal Clerk, NC House of Representatives, 1974, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86. 1987-; Chairman, Middle Creek- 
Fuquay Precinct, 1971-73; First Vice Chairman. Middle Creek-Fuquav Precinct, 
1969-71. 
Honors: Who's Who in State Government, 1976; Outstanding Leadership Award, 

American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries, 1975 and 1976. 
Religious Activities: Member, Fuquay-Varina Methodist Church; Board of Mission; 

Chancel Choir; former Sunday School teacher. 
Family: Married, John Nolan Collins, October 4, 1952. Children: John N., Jr., Joseph 

A., James D. and Laurie E. 
(Note: Presumably McDowell will be appointed to fill vacancies on the same commit- 
tees on which Jordan served; however, this decision lies with the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor.) 



The Legislative Branch 



501 



OCCUPATIONS LIST 
1987 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



Agri-Business 

Brown, John W. (livestock) 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
James, Vernon G. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Starnes, Edgar V. (dairyman) 
Warren, Edward N. (warehouse) 

Attorney 

Alexander, William G. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Cooper, Roy A., Ill 
Cromer, Charles M. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 
Hackney, Joe 
Hall, A. M. 
Hardaway, Thomas C. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Kerr, John H., Ill 
Michaux, H. M., Jr. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Nesbitt, Martin L., Jr. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Rhyne, Johnathan L. 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 
Thompson, Sharon A. 
Warren, Raymond A. 
Watkins, William T. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 
Wright, Richard 

Auctioneer 

DeVane, Daniel H. 

Small Business 

Anderson, Gerald L. (forestry) 
Brannan, George W. (nurseryman) 
Etheridge, Bobby R. (radio-TV station) 
Gist, Herman C. (food products) 
Grady, Robert 
Hall, A. M. (durg store) 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Locks, Sidney A. (day care) 
Raynor, Joseph B., Jr. (automotive 
supplies) 



Thompson, Raymond M., Sr. 
Windley, W. H., Ill (tank services) 
Wiser, Betty H. (retirement planning) 
Woodard, Barney Paul (pharmacy) 

Consultant 

Jones, Walter B., Jr. (business) 

Corporate Executive 

Beall, Charles M. 

Boyd, William T. (contractor) 

Brubaker, Harold J. (investments) 

Chalk, Richard E. (wood products) 

Craven, James M. 

Crawford, James W., Jr. (investments) 

Cunningham, W. Pete 

Easterling, Ruth M. 

Etheridge, Larry E. 

Fletcher, Ray C. (automotive) 

Grimmer, Harry C. 

Hightower, Foyle R. (fuel dealerships) 

Huffman, Doris R. (building supplies) 

Hughes, James F. (motel/hotel) 

Hunt, R. Samuel, III 

Lineberry, Albert S., Sr. 

Mothershead, C. Ivan (publisher) 

Tallent, Timothy N. 

Warner, E. Alexander, Jr. (furniture) 

Dentist 

Hunt, John J. 

Educator 

Brown, Brewster (college administration) 

Burke, Logan 

Cochrane, Betsy L. 

Decker, Michael 

Diamont, David Hunter (coach) 

Duncan, Ann Q. 

Gardner, Charlotte A. (former) 

Greenwood, Gordon H. (college 

administration) 
Jarrell, Mary 

Keesee-Forrester, Margaret (former) 
Lineberry, Albert S. 
Tart, John L. 
Walker, Lois S. (guidance) 
Wiser, Betty H. (former) 



502 



North Carolina Mwiai 



Engineer 

Bow man. J. Fred 

Ethridge, W. Bruce (power company) 

Executive Director, Non Profit 
Organization 

Privette, Coy C. 

Farmer 

Brown, John W. 
Etheridge, Bobbv R. 
Hall, Marshall 



Hunt, John J., Jr. 
James, Vernon G. 
Lutz, Edith L. 
McAlister, Robert F. 
McFaughlin, John B. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
1 art, John F. 
Warren, Edward N. 
Wright, Richard 

Funeral Business 

Bumgardner, David W. 



The Legislative Branch 



503 



1987 HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 



AGING 

Chairman: Edwards, C. R 

Vice Chairman: Fussell, Aaron E. 

Vice Chairman: Hall, Alexander M. 

Vice Chairman: Locks, Sidney A. 

Vice Chairman: Wiser, Betsy H. 



Alexander, William G. 
Bowen, Edward C. 
Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Hunt, Judy F. 
Raynor, Joseph B., Jr. 
Woodard, Barney P. 



Barbee, Bobby H., Sr. 
Brown, John Walter 
Burke, Logan 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
Buchanan, Charles F. 
Cunningham, W. Pete 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Perdue, Beverly M. 
Thompson, Raymond M., Sr. 



AGRICULTURE 

Chairman: James, Vernon G. 
Vice Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 

Vice Chairman: Barnes, Anne C. 

Vice Chairman: Brubaker, Harold J. 

Vice Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Lutz, Edith L. 



Barbee, Bobby H., Sr. 
Brown, Brewster W. 
Freeman, William M. 
Justus, Larry T. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Redwine, E. David 
Tart, John L. 
Woodard, Barney P. 



Beall, Charles M. 
Brown, John Walter 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Kerr, John H., Ill 
Mavretic, Joseph L. 
Rogers, Richard E. 
Thompson, Raymond M. 



Sr. 



Brawley, C. Robert 
Buchanan, Charles F. 
Hightower, Foyle, Jr. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Starnes, Edgar V. 
Warren, Edward N. 



ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL 

Chairman: Redwine, E. David 

Vice Chairman: Gist, Herman C. 

Vice Chairman: Raynor, Joseph B., Jr., 



Beard, Rayford D. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Hardaway, Thomas C. 
Kerr, John H., Ill 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Freeman, William M. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Privette, Coy C. 



Craven, James M. 
Hall, Alexander M. 
Isenhower, W. Stine 
Michaux, Henrv M., Jr. 



504 



North Carolina Manual 



APPROPRIATIONS-BASK BUDGKT 

Chairman: Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Vice Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 

Vice Chairman: Ethridge, W. Bruce 

Vice Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 

Vice Chairman: Murphy, Wendell H. 

Vice Chairman: Nye. 1 dd 

Vice Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 

Vice Chairman: Locks, Sidney A. 

Vice Chairman: Nesbitt, Martin L. 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Edward N. 



Abernethv. J. Vernon 
Bin ri hill. Howard C. 
Bow en. Edward C. 
Burke, Logan 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Craw I ord. Narvel J., Jr. 
Decker, Michael 
Duncan. Ann Q. 
Enloe, Jeff H., Jr., 
Foster. Jo Graham 
(iist. Herman C. 
Hege, Joe H. Jr. 
Hunt. Jack 
James, Vernon G. 
Kennedy, Annie B. 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Perdue, Beverly M. 
Sizemore, Frank J.. Ill 
Warren, Raymond 



Barbee, Bobby H., St. 
Beall. Charles M. 
Brown. Brewster W. 
Chalk. Richard E. 
Cooper, Roy A., Ill 
Cromer, Charles L. 
DeVane, Daniel H. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Freeman, William M. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Holmes, George M. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Michaux, Henry M., Jr. 
Redwine, E. David 
Tart, John L. 
Watkins, William T. 



Barnes, Anne C. 
Beard, Rayford Donald 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Diamont, David H. 
Edwards, C.R. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Hasty, John C. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
Isenhower, W. Stine 
Justus, Larry I . 
Lutz, Edith L. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Rogers, Richard E. 
Walker. Lois S. 
Woodard. Barney P 



APPROPRIATIONS BASK BUDGKT COMMITTKK 
ON KDUCATION 

Chairman: Warren, Edward N. 

Vice Chairman: Foster, Joe Graham 

Vice Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 



Barnes, Anne C. 
Edwards. C.R. 
Michaux. Henry M .. Jr. 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 



Chalk, Richard E. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Tart, John L. 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Rogers, Richard E. 
Woodard, Barney P. 



The Legislative Branch 



505 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Murphy, Wendell H. 
Vice Chairman: Barnhill, Howard C. 



Beall. Charles M. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
Warren, Raymond 



Brown, Brewster W. 
Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 
Hunter. Robert C 



Cooper, Roy A., Ill 
Holmes, George M. 
Ligon, Bradford D. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Locks, Sidney A. 
Vice Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 
Vice Chairman: Kennedy, Annie B. 



Burke, Logan 
Diamont, David H. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 

Nye, Edd 



Crawford, James W, 
Duncan, Ann Q. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Perdue, Beverly M. 



Jr. Cromer, Charles L. 

Etheridge, Larry E. 
Lut7, Edith L. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET-COMMITTEE 
ON JUSTICE & PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 
Vice Chairman: Hunt, Jack 



Barbee, Bobby H., Sr. 
Decker, Michael 
Gist. Herman C. 
Justus, Larry T. 



Beard, Rayford D. 
Devane, Daniel H. 
Holt, Bertha M. 



Brubaker, Harold J. 
Freeman, William M. 
Isenhower, W. Stine 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET-NATURAL 
AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice Chairman: McLaughlin. John B. 

Vice Chairman: Redwine, E. David 



Abernethy, J. Vernon 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Hasty, John C. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Bowen, Edward C. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
James, Vernon G. 



Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Ethridge, W. Bruce 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 



506 



North Caroi ina Manual 



APPROPRIATIONS KXPANSION BUDGET 

Chairman: Watkins, William I. 

Vice Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 

Vice Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce W. 

Vice Chairman: Hunter. Robert C. 

Vice Chairman: Murphy, Wendell H. 

Vice Chairman: Nye. Edd 

Vice Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice Chairman: Holt. Bertha M. 

Vice Chairman: Lucks, Sidney A. 

Vice Chairman: Nesbitt, Martin L. 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Edward N. 



Abernethy, J. Vernon 
Barnhill. Howard C. 
Bow en, Edward C. 
Burke, Logan 
Cochrane. Betsy L. 
Crawford, Narvel ,L, Jr. 
Decker, Michael 
Duncan, Ann Q. 
Enloe. Jeff H.. Jr. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Freeman, William M. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Holmes. George M. 
Isenhower, W. Stine 
Justus, Larry T. 
Lut/. Edith L. 
Pay ne, Harry E., Jr. 
Rogers, Richard E. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Barbee. Bobby H. Sr 
Beall, Charles M. 
Brown, Brewster W. 
Chalk, Richard E. 
Cooper, Roy A., Ill 
Cromer, Charles L. 
Devane, Daniel H. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Espostio, Theresa H. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Hasty, John C. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
James. Vernon G. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Perdue, Beverly M. 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 
Warren. Ravmond 



Barnes, Ann C. 
Beard. Rayford, D. 
Brubaker. Harold J. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Daw kins. Donald M. 
Diamont. David H. 
Edwards, C.R. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Foster, Jo G. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Hunt. Jack 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Michaux, Henry M., Jr. 
Redwine, E. David 
Tart, John L. 
Woodard. Barnev 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMISSION 

ON EDUCATION 

Chairman: Nesbitt, Martin L. 

Vice Chairman: Foster, Jo Graham 

Vice Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 



Barnes. Anne C. 
Edwards, C.R. 
Michaux. Henry M. 
Tart. John L. 



Jr. 



Chalk, Richard E. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Rogers, Richard E. 
Warren, Edward N. 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Si/emore, Frank J., Ill 
Woodard, Barney P. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET C OMMITTEE 
ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 
Vice Chairman: Barnhill, Howard C. 



Beall, Charles M. 
Crawford, Narvel J. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
Warren, Raymond 



Jr. 



Brown, Brewster W. 
Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 



Cooper, Roy A., Ill 
Holmes, George M. 
Murphy. Wendell H. 



The Legislative Branch 



507 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Nye, Edd 
Vice Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 
Vice Chairman: Kennedy, Annie B. 



Burke. Logan 
Diamont, David H. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Lutz, Edith L. 



Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Duncan. Ann Q. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Perdue, Beverly M. 



Cromer, Charles L. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Locks, Sidney A. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET-JUSTICE 
AND PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 
Vice Chairman: Hunt, Jack 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Freeman, William M. 
Justus, Larry T. 



Barbee, Bobby H., Sr. 
Decker, Michael 
Gist, Herman C. 



Beard, Rayford D. 
Devane, Daniel H. 
Isenhower, W. Stine 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET-NATURAL 
AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Ethridge, W. Bruce 

Vice Chairman: McLaughlin, John B. 

Vice Chairman: Redwine, E. David 



Abernethy, J. Vernon 
Colton, Marie W. 
Hasty, John C. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Bowen, Edward C. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
James, Vernon G. 



Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Esposito, Theresa. H. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 



Beard, Rayford D. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Grady, Robert 
Holmes, George M. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Stamey, Margaret 
Thompson, Sharon A. 
Wright, Richard 



BANKS AND THRIFT INSTITUTIONS 

Chairman: Fletcher, Ray C. 

Vice Chairman: Diamont, David H. 

Vice Chairman: Hasty, John C. 

Vice Chairman: Hege, Joe H., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Jeralds, Luther R. 

Vice Chairman: Payne, Harry E., Jr. 



Bowman, J. Fred 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Lineberry, Albert S., Sr. 
Redwine, E. David 
Starnes, Edgar V. 
Warren, Edward N. 



Brannan, George W. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Foster, Jo G. 
Hall, Alexander M. 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 
Rogers, Richard E. 
Tallent, Timothy N. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



508 



Nok i ii Carolina Manual 



CHILDREN AND YOUTH 

Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 

Vice Chairman: Holroyd, Caspei 

Vice Chairman: Jones, Walter B.. Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 



C "niton. Mai ie \\ . 
I dwards, C.R. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 



Cochrane, Betsj I 

Holt. Bertha M _ . 
Liit/. Edith I . 



Cromer, Charles I 
Hunt. Judj F. 
Tallent, Timoth\ V 



COMMISSIONS AND SCHOOLS FOR THE BLIND AND DEAF 

Chairman: Jones. Walter B.. Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Fletcher, Rav C. 



Biow ii. Brewster W. 
Cooper. Ro\ A., Ill 
Fussell, Aaron 1 . 
Starnes. Fduai V. 



Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 
Crawford, Narvel J.. Jr. 
Hughes, James F. 
Walker. Lois S. 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Etheridge, Lam 1 

Ken. John H.