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NORTH a 




UNIVERSITY OF N C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00017483037 



iiOLINA 




Form No. A-369 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINLANA 

C917.05 

N87m 

1989-90 

C.5 



North Carolina 
Manual 

1989-1990 



North Carolina 
Manual 



1989-1990 




Issued by 

Rufus L. Edmisten 

Secretary of State 



Edited by 

John L. Cheney, Jr. 

Editor 



Raleigh 



STATEMENT OF PUBLICATION COST 

Five thousand (5,000) copies of the 1989-90 North Carolina Manual were printed at a cost 
to the State of $58,241.00 (estimated), or $11.65 per volume. 



C,5 



TO THE 

MEMBERS OF THE 1989 GENERAL ASSEMBLY 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



TO THE 

OFFICIALS OF OUR STATE, COUNTIES 
AND MUNICIPALITIES 



AND TO THE 

PEOPLE OF THE OLD NORTH STATE 
AT HOME AND ABROAD 



THIS MANUAL IS RESPECTFULLY 
DEDICATED 



^iSLf^ i iJUijs^ 



Secretary of State 




ytt»»» 



Department of the Secretary of State 

Raleigh, North Carolina 



Dear Fellow North Carolinians: 

It is a special delight for me to introduce to you this 25th edition of the North 
Carolina Manual published by the Secretary of State's office. Since 1941, this 
Department has striven to give the people of North Carolina an accurate, 
thorough record of the state's activities. It is a great honor for me to inherit 
this task from my predecessor, the HonorableThad Eure, as part of my new 
responsibilities. 

This Manual is the most comprehensive compilation of data, photographs and 
tables about North Carolina that is humanly possible. It gives citizens infor- 
mation about everything from our new official State Dog — the Plott Hound 
— to the membership of our General Assembly to the judiciary of United 
States courts in our state. 

Our office has worked hard throughout the past 12 months to make this an 
even better Manual than before. We have edited each section; various portions 
have been streamlined to make them more accessible to researchers; we have 
added a new narrative on the Electoral College. All of this is done with the 
intent of giving you the best Manual ever. 

It is my pleasure to introduce to you this valuable resource: the 
North Carolina Manual for 1989-1990. 



Rufus L. Edmisten 
Secretary of State 



Table of Contents 

Dedication iii 

Foreword, Rufus L. Edmisten, Secretary of State v 



Parti 
North Carolina: Then and Now 

CHAPTER ONE 

The North Carolina Electoral College 

Development of the Electoral College 3 

The Electoral College Today 14 

CHAPTER TWO 
Historical Miscellanea 

An Early History of North Carolina 23 

The State Capitol Building 33 

The Capitol (composed by Edwin Gill) 40 

The Executive Residences of North Carolina 41 

The Mecklenburg Declaration 48 

CHAPTER THREE 
Our State Symbols 

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina 49 

The State Flag 57 

The State Bird, Flower, and Insect 63 

The State Tree and Mammal 65 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 67 

The State Toast 67 

The State Precious Stone 68 

The State Reptile 69 

The State Rock 70 

The State Beverage 71 

The State Historic Boat 72 

The State Dog 73 

Name of State and Nickname 74 

The State Motto and Colors 74 

The State Song 75 

CHAPTER FOUR 

Census and Population Statistics 

Introduction 77 

State Population Statistics 79 

County Population Statistics ^0 



Population of Incorporated Places of 10,000 or more 82 

Population of Incorporated Places of 2,500-9,999 83 

Population of Incorporated Places of 1,000-2,499 85 

Population of Incorporated Places of less than 1,000 89 



Part II 
Constitutional Development of North Carolina 

CHAPTER ONP] 

The Constitution of North Carolina 

Our Constitutions: An Historical Perspective 95 

Constitution of North Carolina Ill 

Constitutional Issues submitted to the people since 1970 143 

Constitutional Propositions Voted on by the People since 1868 150 

CHAPTER TWO 

One Hundred and First Congress of the United States 

The Senate 189 

Officers 189 

Committees 189 

Jesse Helms 190 

Terry Sanford 191 

The House of Representatives 193 

Officers 193 

Committees 193 

Walter B. Jones 194 

I.T. Valentine, Jr 195 

H. Martin Lancaster 196 

David E. Price 197 

Stephen L. Neal 198 

John H. Coble 199 

Charles G. Rose, III 200 

W.G. (Bill) Hefner 201 

Alex McMillan 202 

Thomas C. Ballanger 203 

James McClure Clarke 204 

CHAPTER THREE 

The United States Judiciary 

The Supreme Court 205 

Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals 205 

United States District Court in North Carolina 207 

Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals Judges (biographical sketches) 208 

United States District Court Judges (biographical sketches) 211 



Part IV 
North Carolina State Government 

CHAPTER ONE 

The Legislative Branch 

An Historical Overview 227 

George R. Hall, Legislative Administrative Officer 232 

The 1989 General Assembly 233 

The 1989 North Carolina Senate 

Officers 235 

Senators 235 

Speakers of the Senate (list) 237 

President Pro Tempore of the Senate (list) 238 

Henson P. Barnes, President Pro Tempore 241 

Kenneth C. Royall, Jr., Deputy President Pro Tempore 242 

Ian Theodore Kaplan, Majority Leader 244 

Laurence A. Cobb, Minority Leader 245 

Alexander P. Sands III, Majority Whip 247 

Paul S. Smith, Minority Whip 248 

Robert G. Shaw, Joint Caucus Leader 250 

Senators (biographical sketches) 251 

Sylvia M. Fink, Principal Clerk 298 

Senate Committee Assignments 299 

The 1989 North Carolina House of Representatives 

Officers 303 

Representatives 303 

Speakers of the House of Representatives (list) 306 

Josephus L. Mavretic, Speaker 311 

R.D. Beard, Speaker Pro Tempore 312 

Dennis A. Wicker, Majority Leader 313 

Johnathan L. Rhyne, Jr., Minority Leader 314 

Milton F. Fitch, Jr., Majority Whip 315 

Charles L. Cromer, Minority Whip 316 

Representatives (biographical sketches) 317 

Grace A. Collins, Principal Clerk 445 

House of Representatives Committee Assignments 446 

How a Bill Becomes a Law 451 

CHAPTER TWO 

The Executive Branch 

Organizational Chart of State Government 452 

Introduction 453 

The Council of State 457 

The Office of the Governor 461 

James G. Martin, Governor 467 

Governors (list) 468 

The Office of the Lieutenant Governor 479 

James C. Gardner, Lieutenant Governor 481 

Lieutenant Governors (list) '^"" 



XI 



The Department of the Secretary of State 483 

Rufus L. Edmisten, Secretary of State 489 

Secretaries of State (hst) 490 

The Department of the State Auditor 490 

Edward Renfrow, State Auditor 497 

State Auditors (Hst) 499 

The Department of the State Treasurer 500 

Harlan E. Boyles, State Treasurer 507 

Treasurers (Hst) 508 

The Department of Pubhc Instruction 512 

Bob R. Etheridge, Superintendent of PubHc Instruction 515 

Superintendents of PubHc Instruction (Hst) 516 

The Department of Justice 517 

Lacy H. Thornburg, Attorney General 525 

Attorney Generals (Hst) 526 

The Department of Agriculture 531 

James A. Graham, Commissioner 543 

Commissioners of Agriculture (list) 545 

The Department of Labor 546 

John C. Brooks, Commissioner 553 

Commissioners of Labor (list) 555 

The Department of Insurance 556 

James E. Long, Commissioner 561 

Commissioners of Insurance (list) 562 

The Department of Administration 563 

James S. Lofton, Secretary 568 

Secretaries, Administration (list) 569 

The Department of Correction 570 

Aaron J. Johnson, Secretary 576 

Secretaries, Correction (list) 577 

The Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 578 

Joseph W. Dean, Secretary 587 

Secretaries, Crime Control and Public Safety (list) 588 

The Deparment of Cultural Resources 589 

Patric G. Dorsey, Secretary 597 

Secretaries, Cultural Resources (historical list) 598 

The Department of Economic and Community Development 599 

James T. Broyhill, Secretary 606 

Secretaries, Economic and Community Development (list) 607 

The Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources 608 

William W. Cobey, Jr., Secretary 617 

Secretaries, Environment, Health and Natural Resources (list) 618 

The Department of Human Resources 619 

David T. Flaherty, Secretary 630 

Secretaries, Human Resources (Hst) 632 

The Department of Revenue 633 

Helen A. Powers, Secretary 641 

Secretaries, Revenue (list) 642 

The Department of Transportation 643 

James E. Harrington, Secretary 650 

Secretaries, Transportation (Hst) 651 

xii 



Office of State Controller 653 

Fred W. Talton, State Controller """"'"'^ 654 

State Board of Elections 355 

Alex K. Brock, Executive Secretary-Director 657 

CHAPTER THREE 
The Judicial Branch 

The Court System in North Carolina 659 

Administrative Office of the Courts 643 

Franklin E. Freeman, Administrative Officer of the Courts 666 

Office of Administrative Hearings 667 

The Supreme Court 

James G. Exum, Jr., Chief Justice 671 

Associate Justices (biographical sketches) 672 

The Court ofAppeals 

Robert A. Hedrick, Chief Judge 678 

Associate Judges (biographical sketches) 679 

The Superior Court Judges (list) 690 

The District Court Judges (list) 692 

District Attorneys (list) 695 

PartV 
Higher Education in North Carolina 

CHAPTER ONE 

The University of North Carolina 

The University of North Carolina System 699 

CD. Spangler, Jr., President 703 

Appalachian State University 704 

East Carolina University 708 

Elizabeth City State University 711 

Fayetteville State University 714 

North Carolina A & T State University 718 

North Carolina Central University 722 

North Carolina School of the Arts 727 

North Carolina State University 730 

Pembroke State University 735 

University of North Carolina - Asheville 738 

University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill 742 

University of North Carolina - Charlotte 747 

University of North Carolina - Greensboro 750 

University of North Carolina - Wilmington 754 

Western Carolina University 758 

Winston-Salem State University 761 

CHAPTER TWO 

The Community Colleges 

The Community College System ^^y 

The Department of Community Colleges 766 

Robert W. Scott, State President 769 

xiii 



State Presidents, Community College System (list) 770 

Presidents, Community and Technical Colleges (list) 770 

The Community Colleges 

Anson Technical College 772 

Asheville-Buncombo Technical ('ollege 772 

Beaufort County Community College 773 

Bladen Technical College 774 

Blue Ridge Technical College 775 

Brunswick Technical College 775 

Caldwell Community College 775 

Cape Fear Technical College 776 

Carteret Technical College 776 

Catawba Valley Technical College 777 

Central Carolina Technical College 777 

Central Piedmont Community College 778 

Cleveland Technical College 778 

Coastal Carolina Community College 779 

College of the Albemarle 779 

Craven Community College 780 

Davidson County Community College 780 

Durham Technical Institute 781 

Edgecombe Technical College 781 

Fayetteville Technical Institute 782 

Forsyth Technical College 782 

Gaston College 783 

Guilford Technical College 783 

Halifax Community College 784 

Haywood Technical College 784 

Isothermal Community College 785 

James Sprunt Technical College 785 

Johnston Technical College 786 

Lenoir Community College 786 

Martin Community College 787 

Mayland Technical College 787 

McDowell Technical College 788 

Mitchell Community College 788 

Montgomery Technical College 789 

Nash Technical College 789 

Pamlico Technical College 790 

Piedmont Technical College 790 

Pitt Community College 791 

Randolph Technical College 791 

Richmond Technical College 792 

Roanoke-Chowan Technical College 792 

Robeson Technical College 793 

Rockingham Community College 793 

Rowan Technical College 794 

Sampson Technical College 794 

Sandhills Community College 794 

Southeastern Community College 795 



XIV 



Southwestern Community College 795 

Stanly Technical College 796 

Surry Community College 796 

Technical College of Alamance 797 

Tri-County Community College 797 

Vance-Granville Community College 797 

Wake Technical College 798 

Wayne Community College 798 

Western Piedmont Community College 799 

Wilkes Community College 800 

Wilson County Technical Institute 800 

CHAPTER THREE 

Private Colleges and Universities 

Private Higher Education in North Carolina 801 

Presidents, Private Colleges and Universities 804 



Part VI 
Political Parties 

CHAPTER ONE 

The Democratic Party 

Plan of Organization 807 

The Executive Council (Primary Officers) 841 

County Chairmen 842 

CHAPTER TWO 

The Republican Party 

Plan of Organization 845 

Republican Executive Committee (Primary Officers) 866 

Congressional District Committees 866 

County Chairmen 868 



Part VII 
Voters, Voting, and Election Returns 

CHAPTER ONE 

Voting in North Carolina 

Voter Registration ^'<^ 

Registration Statistics 

Primary Election May 3, 1988 876 

General Election, November 8, 1988 878 

Primary Election, May 6, 1986 880 

General Election, November 4, 1986 882 

Primary Election, May 8, 1984 884 

General Election, November 6, 1984 886 



XV 



Election Districts 

Congressional Districts 888 

Senatorial Districts 889 

Representative Districts 890 

CHAPTER TWO 

Abstracts of Votes and Election Results 

President of the United States 893 

Democratic Preference Primary Election, March 8, 1988 894 

Republican Preference Primary Election, March 8, 1988 896 

General Election, November 8, 1988 898 

Democratic Preference Primary Election, May 8, 1984 900 

General Election, November 6, 1984 902 

United States Congress 902 

United States Senator 

Democratic Primary Election, May 6, 1986 906 

Republican Primary Election, May 6, 1986 908 

General Election, November 4, 1986 910 

Primary Elections, May 8, 1984 912 

General Election, November 6, 1984 914 

United States House of Representatives 

Primary Elections, May 3, 1988 916 

General Elections, 1984-1988 917 

General Elections, 1982 921 

North Carolina State Government 925 

Governor 

Democratic Primary Election, May 3, 1988 926 

General Election, November 8, 1988 928 

Democratic Primary Election, May 8, 1984 929 

Republican Primary Election, May 8, 1984 931 

Democratic Second Primary Election, June 5, 1984 932 

General Election, November 6, 1984 933 

Lieutenant Governor 

Primary Elections, May 3, 1988 935 

General Election, November 8, 1988 937 

Council of State 

Primary Elections, May 3, 1988 938 

General Elections, November 8, 1988 945 

Tabulation of Votes, Primary Elections Since 1964 949 

Tabulation of Votes, General Elections Since 1964 957 



Part VIII 
Our Counties 

CHAPTER ONE 
County Government 

Historical Perspective 967 



xvi 



CHAPTER TWO 

The Counties of North Carolina 

North Carolina Counties (map) 978 

Alamance 979 

Alexander 979 

Alleghany 980 

Anson 980 

Ashe 981 

Avery 981 

Beaufort 981 

Bertie 982 

Bladen 982 

Brunswick 982 

Buncombe 983 

Burke 983 

Cabarrus 984 

Caldwell 984 

Camden 984 

Carteret 985 

Caswell 985 

Catawba 986 

Chatham : 986 

Cherokee 987 

Chowan 987 

Clay 987 

Cleveland 988 

Columbus 988 

Craven 988 

Cumberland 989 

Currituck 989 

Dare 990 

Davidson 990 

Davie 990 

Duplin 991 

Durham 991 

Edgecombe 992 

Forsyth 992 

Franklin 992 

Gaston 993 

Gates 993 

Graham 994 

Granville 994 

Greene 994 

Guilford 995 

Halifax 995 

Harnett ^^^ 

Haywood 996 

Henderson 997 



xvii 



Hertford 997 

Hoke 998 

Hyde 998 

Iredell 999 

Jackson 999 

Johnston 1000 

Jones 1000 

Lee 1000 

Lenoir 1001 

Lincoln 1001 

Macon 1001 

Madison 1002 

Martin 1002 

McDowell 1003 

Mecklenburg 1003 

Mitchell 1003 

Montgomery 1004 

Moore 1005 

Nash 1005 

New Hanover 1006 

Northampton 1006 

Onslow 1007 

Orange 1007 

Pamlico 1008 

Pasquotank 1008 

Pender 1009 

Perquimans 1009 

Person 1010 

Pitt 1010 

Polk 1011 

Randolph 1011 

Richmond 1012 

Robeson 1012 

Rockingham 1013 

Rowan 1013 

Rutherford 1014 

Sampson 1014 

Scotland 1015 

Stanly 1015 

Stokes 1015 

Surry 1016 

Swain 1017 

Transylvania 1017 

Tyrrell 1018 

Union 1018 

Vance 1019 

Wake 1019 

Warren 1019 

Washington 1020 



XVUl 



Watauga 1020 

Wayne 1021 

Wilkes 1021 

Wilson 1022 

Yadkin 1023 

Yancey 1023 



XIX 



PARTI 



North Carolina: 
Then and Now 



CHAPTER ONE 
The North Carolina Electoral College^ 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE 

The Electoral College originated with the Constitutional Convention held 
in Philadelphia during the summer of 1787. One of the most difficult tasks 
facing the delegates to the convention was the question of an executive 
department. The colonial experience of a single powerful executive had 
hardened many against allowing one man to head the country. Delegates 
deliberated for a long time before agreeing on a singular head of the 
executive. Their next problem was to decide how the president would be 
selected. They had to consider checks and balances on the three branches of 
government, the balance of power between the large and small states and 
the role of the citizens in the democracy they were establishing. 

Five basic plans were suggested and debated. One by one they fell as the 
delegates debated the advantages and disadvantages of each. A plan recom- 
mending that the governors of each state choose the president was rejected 
because the large states felt it gave the small states a disproportionate share 
of the vote in the selection process. Another idea called for Congress to select 
the president. This plan was rejected because the delicate system of checks 
and balances might be destroyed through corruption. A proposal to allow 
the state legislatures to select the president was thrown out with little 
debate. A fourth proposal providing for the direct election of the president 
met with resistance from the delegates. These men viewed the average voter 
as uneducated and uninformed; therefore, the voters could not be trusted to 
make an informed decision. The people would be easily deceived by the 
candidates or might just vote for the candidate from their state. It seemed 
that no solution would be found. 

Finally, James Wilson proposed a plan whereby the citizens in each state 
would select a special group of people called electors who would then vote for 
president. If the uninformed citizens selected the wrong person, the electors, 
in their wisdom, could correct the mistake. Although the electoral college 
system was a bit confusing, the founding fathers were confident that (hey 
were leaving the final selection of the president to some of the most educated 
and knowledgeable leaders of their country - the electors. 

The operation of the electoral college is found in Article II of the Constitu 
tion of the United States. Each state was given a number of electors equal to 



'Written by Linda H. Gunter, U.S. Government teacher at Gary HiRli Schodl (Gary. 
N.C.) and Seth B. Hinshaw, 1988 Republican Presidential Elector ior the Sixth 
Congressional District. 



4 North Carolina Manual 

the number of senators and representatives in the United States Congress. 
Tlie state legislatures in each state were given the power to determine how 
its electors would be chosen. Senators, representatives, or other "Persons 
holding an office of trust or prol'it under the United States" could not be 
electors. Electors were to convene in their state to vote for two people. The 
candidate receiving the most votes would become president, while the candi- 
date with the second highest number of votes would become vice-president. 
The electors were allowed to vote for only one candidate from their own 
state. Each state sent their electoral votes to the President of the Senate. 
These votes were totaled with those of the other states to determine the 
winners. 

Elections of 1789 and 1792 

The electoral college as outlined in the United States Constitution worked 
well in the first elections. In February of 1789, George Washington was 
elected President of the United States by a unanimous vote of the 69 electors. 
John Adams received the second highest number of votes, 34, and was 
elected vice-president. The remaining 35 votes were divided among ten men. 

New York could not decide how to select its electors, and Rhode Island and 
North Carolina had not yet ratified the new Constitution; therefor, these 
states did not participate. 

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention meeting in Hillsborough to 
discuss the new document decided in August of 1788 not to ratify the 
Constitution until the adoption of a bill of rights. Finally, on November 21, 
1789, delegates to a second Constitutional Convention in Fayetteville ratified 
the amended version of the Constitution of the United State which included 
the Bill of Rights. 

One of the first items of business for the (North Carolina) General 
Assembly when it met in 1792 was to determine a method for selection of 
presidential electors for the 1792 elections. A district plan dividing the state 
into four electoral districts was adopted. The state legislators from each 
district would meet and select three people to serve as electors for the 
district. The electors from all four districts would meet and cast their votes 
for president and vice president. A $300 fine was threatened by the legislature 
against any elector who failed to attend the meeting of the electoral college. 

In December the twelve electors met in New Bern - the only time the North 
Carolina Electoral College did not meet in Raleigh. President Washington 
was a man characterized as one who "united the wishes of confidence of the 
people""; therefore, there was no question who would receive the votes for 
president. There was, however, a concern over the choice for vice president. 
After much discussion about the two main candidates, Vice-President John 
Adams and Governor George Clinton of New York, each elector gave his 
second vote to Governor Clinton. After the votes from all the states had been 
counted, George Washington had been re-elected to a second term as presi- 
dent. John Adams again received the second highest number of electoral 
votes and was re-elected vice-president. 

The initial district plan adopted by the North Carolina General Assembly 
was intended to be a temporary solution. Later that year, the assembly voted 



The North Carolina Electoral College 5 

to divide the state into twelve electoral districts with the citizens electing on 
person from each district to serve in the electoral college. This plan resulted 
in a split vote in the North Carolina Electoral College in three of the next 
four elections. 

Elections of 1796 and 1800 

The advent of political parties created problems in the Election of 1796. 
Opponents to the direct election of the president had expressed concern that 
political factions might develop and split the country; however, they could 
not have foreseen the origin of political parties or the effect they would have 
on the selection process. George Washington had warned about the possibility 
of political parties in his Farewell Address, but few paid any attention. 

In 1796, the Federalists ran John Adams for president and Thomas 
Pinckney for vice-president. The Anti-Federalists ran Thomas Jefferson and 
Aaron Burr. Even though the parties had stipulated which office each man 
was seeking, the Constitution did not provide for separate ballots for these 
offices. When all the electoral votes were counted, Adams had 71 votes and 
Jefferson 68, thus electing a president and vice-president with drastically 
different political views. 

The problem intensified in 1800. Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr were 
again the Democratic-Republican nominees. The Federalists put forth Presi- 
dent John Adams with Charles C. Pinckney as his running mate. The Alien 
and the Sedition Acts, passed under the Adams administration, and opposed 
by Jefferson, became the primary issue. The Federalists appeared to be on 
their way to victory until the legislatures of New York and Virginia locked 
Adams out of their electoral colleges. When the final votes were counted, 
Jefferson and Burr both had 73, Adams 65 and Pinckney 64. Article II of the 
Constitution of the United States, provides that in the case of a tie, the 
United States House of Representatives was to select the president. The 
Federalist-controlled House tried to keep Jefferson from being elected; how- 
ever, they failed. On February 17, 1801, after 36 ballots, Thomas Jefferson 
was elected President of the United States - only 15 days before the new 
president was to be sworn in. 

Twelfth Amendment 

The Elections of 1796 and 1800 revealed certain flaws in the electoral 
process. When Congress assembled in 1803, the state legislatures of North 
Carolina and four other states asked that action be taken to correct these 
problems. Legislation for an amendment to the Constitution was proposed 
on December 12, 1803. The bill called for separating the presidential and 
vice-presidential balloting at the electoral college meeting. The amendment 
bill was one vote short of the required two-thirds vote in the House of 
Representatives when Speaker Nathaniel Macon of Warren County. North 
Carolina, cast his vote for the bill. The amendment was declared ratified on 
September 25, 1804, in time for the presidential election later that year. 

The Twelfth Amendment directed electors to vote separately for president 
and vice-president. The people and electors would vote for two candidates of 
the same party, eliminating a repeat of the problems arising in 1796 and 



6 North Carolina Manual 

1800. Candidates no longer competed for the position of president, as some 
sought the vice-presidency. 

This amendment also changed the procedure for selecting the president if 
no one received a majority. The United States House of Representatives was 
given the power to select the president from the three candidates receiving 
the most votes. The representatives in Congress from each state would vote 
in caucus. The candidate receiving the majority of votes in each caucus 
would receive the one vote of that State. If there was a tie vote in the state 
caucus, then the state forfeited its vote. One vote more than half would be 
needed to be elected as president. The vice-president was to be selected by 
the United States Senate from the top two candidates. Again, one vote more 
than half was necessary to win election. If the 12th Amendment were used 
today, the people of the District of Columbia would have no voice because 
they do not have voting representation in Congress. 

Early Selection of Electors 

The Constitution of the United States allowed each state legislature to 
develop its own selection process for electors. In early elections, some state 
legislatures reserved that power for themselves, thereby entrusting the office 
of elector to the people whom they knew and trusted. However, as the people 
began to demand more of a voice in selecting their electors, the states 
gradually began to give up that power. The number of electors selected by 
popular vote went from 53 of 138 (38%) in 1800 to 190 of 261 (73%) in 1824. 
Political reforms during the administration of President Andrew Jackson 
further encouraged this concept. By 1836, electors from South Carolina were 
the only ones still chosen by their state legislature. 

North Carolina legislatures selected the electors only in 1792 and 1812; the 
people chose their electors from 1796 to 1808 and then after 1816. The 1815 
Legislature, under the control of the Democratic-Republicans, chose to move 
North Carolina to an "at-large" system. Debates in the general assembly 
centered on the problem that the Federalists carried several districts in the 
years of the district system, even though they did not carry the whole state. 
Under the new system each of the fifteen electoral districts nominated their 
electors. On election day in November the people would elect a slate through 
the statewide vote. The presidential candidate who carried the State would 
receive all of North Carolina's fifteen electoral votes. 

Elections of 1824 and 1828 

The Election of 1924 provided the next test of the electoral process. After 
the caucus, the United States Congress nominated William H. Crawford of 
Georgia for president. The state legislatures then nominated three other 
men: Henry Clay of Kentucky, John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, and 
Andrew Jackson of Tennessee. When the votes were cast, no one had a 
majority of the electoral votes; however, Jackson had received 43% of the 
popular vote while Adams received the second largest number of votes. 
Crawford and Clay were in a close race for third. The election of the 
president went to the United States House of Representatives under the 
provisions of the 12th Amendment. 



The North Carolina Electoral College 7 

The 12th Amendment called for the House to choose someone from among 
the top three candidates. Clay was ehminated from consideration since he 
had the fourth largest number of electoral votes. However, he used his 
influence as the Speaker of the House to convince his western friends to 
support Adams. When the vote was taken, Adams had the support of twelve 
states, one short of a majority with New York as the swing state. Adams 
had the support of 17 of the 34 New York Representatives, one short of a 
majority. It is said that the presidency hinged on the vote of New York 
Representative Stephen Van Rensselaer and that as he bowed his head in 
prayer for guidance from above, he saw a piece of paper on the floor with the 
word "Adams" written on it. Interpreting this to be a sign, he picked up the 
piece of paper, put it in the ballot box, and John Quincy Adams was elected 
the sixth President of the United States. 

Andrew Jackson, claiming he had been cheated, advocated the abolition 
of the electoral college. He resigned his seat in the United States Senate and 
began his campaign for the 1828 Presidential Election. Jackson supporters 
felt the same way and rallied behind their candidate. Jackson won the 1828 
election. 

The People's Ticket in North Carolina was a deviation from the political 
norm and its success in 1824 resulted in half of the electors from 1824 being 
reflected in 1828. Several important men were included among its members. 
In fact, the Electoral Colleges of 1824 and 1828 read Hke a "who's who in 
past, present, future politics in North Carolina." 

Robert Love of Haywood County, who made a record six electoral college 
appearances, served in every meeting of the College between 1808 and 1832, 
except 1812 when the legislature did not select him. Although he was elected 
in 1836 as well, he was unable to serve due to injuries sustained from a 
kicking horse. His son, James R. Love, replaced him. Peter Forney of 
Lincoln County served a total of five terms from 1804 to 1828. Other People's 
Ticket electors were former United States Senator Montfort Stokes; former 
United States representatives John Giles and Josiah Crudup; and future 
governors Edward B. Dudley and John M. Morehead. Among the 1828 
electors were future United States Senator Willie P. Mangum, future governor 
Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., and well-known judge John Hall. 

The Return of the Tw^o Party State 

The election of 1832 brought forth the beginnings of a new political party 
in North Carolina. State Democrats backed Andrew Jackson as their presi- 
dential nominee, but were uncertain about the nomination of Martin Van 
Buren as vice-president. This concern resulted in the nomination of an 
opposition slate known as the "Whig Democratic Ticket." The ticket had 
Andrew Jackson as the presidential nominee with Philip P. Barbour of 
Virginia as the vice-presidential nominee. This ticket was a disaster, receiv- 
ing a very small portion of the vote. 

Opposition to President Jackson grew after the election of 1832. Ant^ 
Jackson sentiment brought about the emergence of the Whig Party m 1835. 
The new party won several victories in the congressional races m North 
Carolina. The Whigs were well organized and became strong enough to force 



8 North Carolina Manual 

the legislature to call a State Constitutional Convention in 1835. Several 
major changes resulted from the convention including the popular election 
of the governor. In the gubernatorial race of 1836, Whig Party nominee 
Edward B. Dudley defeated the incumbent Democrat, Richard Dobbs 
Spaight, Jr. 

When the Whig Party began running candidates, there were some races in 
which there was no acknowledged leader. In these cases the Whigs called 
conventions to nominate a candidate. Included in the offices nominated by 
these conventions were presidential electors. The party called Electoral 
District Conventions for the selection of both electors and national conven- 
tion delegates, giving the people the largest voice ever in North Carolina 
politics. Soon thereafter, the Democratic Party adopted the Whig system of 
nominating the electoral slate. The Whigs lost the presidential election of 
1836 in North Carolina, but won in 1840, 1844, and 1848. Two party politics 
had returned to North Carolina. 

The Election of 1860 and The Formation of the Confederacy 

In 1860, Abraham Lincoln won a majority in the Electoral College with 
180 votes but only received 39% of the popular vote. He won in every 
northern state except New Jersey, southern states were upset that Lincoln 
had won the national election even though he had not been on many 
southern ballots. Lincoln's three opponents - Stephen Douglas of Illinois, 
John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, and John Bell of Tennessee carried only 
the Southern and border states. While these nominees together received 
60.5% of the popular vote, they received only 125 electoral votes. These states 
represented only one-third of the total white male population. Even if these 
opponents had run on one slate, Lincoln would have carried the election. 

Disturbed by the results of the election, the slavery expansion issue, and 
the feeling that the federal government was infringing into the areas of 
"state's rights," most of the southern states seceded from the Union early in 
1861. North Carolina and several other southern states did not secede until 
President Lincoln called for troops to help put down the rebellion. 

The Confederate States of America, as those states that seceded were 
called, wrote their own constitution. They chose to follow the Constitution of 
the United States in electing their president and formed their own electoral 
college. Jefferson Davis was elected President of the Confederate States, 
receiving all of the 138 electoral votes. 

The Election of 1876 

The Election of 1876 once again brought attention to the electoral college. 
Corruption during the administration of President Ulysses S. Grant brought 
forth calls for reform. In response, both political parties ran "reformer" 
candidates. The Democratic nominee was Governor Samuel J. Tilden of New 
York and former Governor Rutherford B. Hayes was the Republican. 

Massive voter fraud prevailed on election day with both parties blaming 
each other. Reconstruction was still in effect in three Southern states which 
meant that the Republicans controlled the government and the election 



The North Carolina Electoral College 9 

machinery. Republicans were counting on large turnout of black voters to 
win the election. When turnouts proved smaller than expected, the Democrats 
were accused of preventing blacks from voting by threatening black voters 
and placing cannons at polling places to intimidate them. Democrats charged 
that Republicans were allowing nonresidents and unregistered citizens to 
vote. 

As the candidates were going to bed that night, news reports indicated 
that Tilden had won with 203 electoral votes to 166 for Hayes. Hayes even 
wrote in his diary that he had been defeated. However, the next morning the 
Hayes campaign realized just how close the election really was and believed 
they still had a chance to win. Tilden won the popular vote with 51% of the 
votes, but the electoral vote was a different matter. Results showed that 
Tilden had 184 and Hayes 164 with 21 undecided votes from Florida, 
Louisiana, South Carolina, and Oregon. Republicans Knew that these 21 
votes could give Hayes the victory so they took action to save the election. 

Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina were still under reconstruction 
governments, giving the Republicans a slight edge. They sent telegrams to 
their leaders in those states telling them to ignore incomplete returns. A 
million dollar bribe was extended by the Democrats for the certification of 
one elector from Louisiana, since Tilden needed only one vote to win in the 
Electoral College. These fraudulent activities resulted in two sets of returns 
being sent to Washington from these three states - one indicating a Demo- 
cratic victory, the other a Republican victory. The problem had to be dealt 
with because the election hung in the balance. Congress could not just 
ignore the disputed states as it had in 1872 with Arkansas. 

Another problem was Oregon. One of the three electors was a postmaster 
and under Article H of the Constitution of the United States was ineligible 
to serve. Democratic Governor L. F. Glover considered that Republican 
elector ineligible and certified the highest Democratic elector. Meanwhile the 
Republican elector in question resigned as postmaster. The Democrat and 
the two Republicans certified by the governor refused to meet together, and 
each party chose additional electors (2 Democrats and 1 Republican) to fill 
the vacancies. Each party claimed Oregon's 3 votes. 

Congress was concerned about settling the dispute in a fair manner. 
However, Senator George F. Edmunds of Vermont feared that if the election 
went to Congress the House of Representatives would select Tilden and the 
Senate would select Hayes. As Democrats called for "Tilden or blood," 
Congress assembled in December of 1876 and found a special compromise to 
solve this constitutional crisis. 

A special Electoral Commission of fifteen members was established. There 
would be five United States Senators (two Democrats and three Republi- 
cans), five United States Representatives (three Democrats and two Republi- 
cans), and five Supreme Court Justices (two Democrats, two Republicans 
and one Independent). The makeup of the commission (seven Democrats, 
seven Republicans and one Independent) appeared to assure impartiality. In 
the event of a tie, the independent, Justice David Davis of Illinois, could 
serve as the deciding vote. An oath was even taken to study the returns and 
make a fair and impartial decision. Just before the commission began its 



10 North Carolina Manual 

investigation, Davis was appointed to the Senate and resigned from the 
United States Supreme Court. All of the remaining justices on the Supreme 
Court were Republicans, so an Independent Republican, Justice Joseph 
Bradley, was chosen. The Republicans now held an 8 to 7 advantage. 

The commission gave all of the disputed electoral votes to Hayes. The one 
vote of Justice Bradley decided an election in which over eight million 
people voted. The result was announced only two days before the Inauguration. 
Hayes then tried to appease the dissatisfied Democrats by making conces- 
sions to them. He agreed to remove the Republican governments in South 
Carolina and Louisiana and to appoint a Southerner to his Cabinet. He 
provided federal aid for new railroads and to help control the floods of the 
Mississippi. These efforts had very little impact on many newspapers of the 
day as they still did not recognize him as the President. 

Later, an investigative body called the Potter Committee was appointed 
by the Democratically controlled United States House to thoroughly investi- 
gate the election. The Potter Committee found that the Republicans had 
indeed won the election. The more they searched for irregularities, the more 
they found fraud in their own Democratic camp. The investigation took the 
most embarrassing turn when coded telegrams from Tilden Headquarters 
revealed key campaigners had discussed bribe money with southern canvass- 
ing boards. 

The election of 1876 showed that the Constitution failed to indicate who 
was to count the electoral vote and how disputes could be resolved. The 
American people for the first time were able to see that it was possible to win 
a majority of the popular votes yet lose the electoral vote. In the 1970's, 
Tilden's descendants sued the federal government for allowing the election 
to be stolen from the "forgotten president." 

Election of 1888 

The year 1888 provided more ammunition for opponents of the electoral 
college. Benjamin Harrison, the Republican nominee, was the grandson of 
former President William Henry Harrison; the Democratic nominee was the 
incumbent, Grover Cleveland. When the votes were counted, Harrison 
received 48% of the popular vote and 233 electoral votes, winning the 
election. Cleveland received 95,096 more popular votes than Harrison, but 
received only 168 electoral votes. Cleveland ran again in 1892 and won, 
becoming the only president to serve two terms not in succession. 

Election of 1896 

In 1896 the nation was split over the question of gold and silver coinage. 
The Republican Party nominated William McKinley of Ohio, who favored 
gold coinage over silver. The Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan 
of Nebraska, who favored silver coinage. Bryan was such a forceful pro- 
ponent of silver that several other parties nominated him as well, including 
the Populists and the Silver Republicans. Unfortunately, there were two 
nominees for vice-president running with Bryan. The Democratic and Silver 
Republican nominee was Arthur Sewall of Maine, while the Populist nominee 



The North Carolina Electoral College 



11 



was Thomas E. Watson of Georgia. When the electoral college met, the 
Bryan electors split over the vice-presidential candidate. Sewall received 149 
of the 176 electors and Watson received 27. That was the last time the 
electoral votes for vice-presidential candidates were divided between two 
different people. 




The Electoral College of North Carolina, 1901 



Defecting Electors, 1948 to 1984 

Since World War II there has been a tendency for one elector in each 
election to cast his vote for someone who did not carry his state. This 
phenomenon of defecting electors has occurred in seven of the last ten 
elections. 

In 1948 Preston Parks of Tennessee was elected on both the Democratic 
and States Rights tickets. He chose to vote for the States Rights nominees 
instead of the Democrats, who had carried Tennessee. Eight years later, W. 
F. Turner of Alabama chose not to vote for the national Democratic nominee, 
Adlai E. Stevenson, voting instead for Walter B. Jones, a local judge. 

In 1960 Henry D. Irwin of Oklahoma tried to use the electoral college to 
stop the national winner of the election from taking office. He was elected as 
a Republican elector and wanted to stop John F. Kennedy from being 
inaugurated. On November 20, 1960, Irwin telegraphed all of the Republican 
electors nationwide: 



12 North Carolina Manual 

I am Oklahoma Republican Elector. The Republican electors 
cannot deny the election of Kennedy. Sufficient conservative 
Democratic electors available to deny labor socialist nominee. 
Would you consider [Harry F.] Byrd President, [Barry M.] Gold- 
water Vice President, or wire any acceptable substitute. All replies 
strict confidence. 

When about 40 responses to Irwin's telegram returned with the refusal to 
support his plan because they were morally bound to vote for Nixon, Irwin 
asked the National Committee to release the Nixon Electors. But only Irwin 
bolted the Nixon ticket. 

Nixon had two other electors to bolt his ticket - Lloyd W. Bailey of North 
Carolina, in 1968 and Roger MacBride of Virginia in 1972. 

Bailey, an ophthalmologist from Rocky Mount, was selected at the Second 
District Republican Convention. "I did not seek this position, but I did not 
decline it. No one else was proposed for Presidential Elector, so I was 
nominated," he later stated. Bailey even forgot that he was a nominee for 
the electoral college. He was selected before Nixon was nominated and did 
not think that Nixon had a chance of carrying the State. 

As a member of the John Birch Society, Bailey supported American Party 
nominee George C. Wallace because he did not like the Republican nominee. 
After the election Bailey became alarmed about the people Nixon was going 
to appoint to office. He had supported and voted for Wallace, even though he 
was a Republican elector. He realized he could not vote for Nixon. This left 
him in an awkward position. Bailey would have resigned, but he felt that an 
obligation to "make a decision based upon loyalty to my country rather than 
to my political party." Bailey consulted with friends and family, including I. 
Beverly Lake Sr. from whom Bailey asked for an opinion about the law and 
the voting of electors. There was no penalty in North Carolina if someone 
voted his own convictions. Dr. Bailey had a strong belief that the electoral 
college envisioned by the writers of the constitution was one of the last 
vestiges of state power still left. He believed it was up to the electors to cast 
their votes for the person they thought best represented the wishes of the 
people. With his convictions firmly in place, Bailey decided to cast his vote 
for Wallace. 

Word leaked out that Bailey was going to vote for Wallace, and a week 
before the electors met the Rocky Mount Evening and Sunday Telegram ran 
a story about it. News media from across the nation were soon clamoring for 
a story. The New York Times ran a story entitled "The Defector Elector." 
Bailey's telephone rang off the hook as local Republicans called to persuade 
him to reconsider. The Rocky Mount police watched his office, which was 
next to the police station. He was shocked by the interest in his vote, and the 
threats on his life. He did not waver under the pressure to change his vote; 
however, he did carry a pistol with him to Raleigh. 

Upon his arrival in Raleigh, Bailey became the focal point for the national 
news media. In an interview, he said he was "a proud member of the John 
Birch Society, the Boy Scouts, the Rotary Club and the Medical Society." 
Another elector characterized Bailey as an "all wet, publicity-hungry, 
radical." Pressure from the other electors to change his vote did not phase 



The North Carolina Electoral College 13 

him. The meeting was delayed an hour and fifteen minutes while a judge 
was sought to swear in the electors. When the nominations were made, the 
electors did not try to stop Bailey's nomination by requiring a second. 
Following the meeting, Bailey was interviewed by a New York radio station 
and for a short time received calls and letters from all over the nation. 

The end was not over for Bailey. In January of 1969, the United States 
Senate Judiciary Committee held hearings on the electoral college, and he 
was called to testify. Bailey was questioned by such leading United States 
Senators as Samuel J. Ervin, Jr., J. Strom Thurmond, and Birch Bayh. 
Bailey read a six page statement to the committee and answered questions. 
Many expressed concern that Bailey's action cancelled part of North Caro- 
lina's voting power in the electoral college and that it set a poor precedent 
for future electors. Senator Muskie of Maine, the Democratic nominee for 
vice-president raised an objection to the counting of his vote on January 6, 
1969. But a resolution to take away Bailey's vote lost in both houses of 
Congress, 33 to 58 against in the Senate and 170 to 228 against in the House 
of Representatives. The vote against the resolution was made because 
Bailey's vote had been properly certified by the State Board of Elections, 
and the Constitution of the United States has no stipulation requiring 
electors to vote in any particular way. The only way to guard against a 
repeat in the future was through legislative action at the state level or 
through a constitutional amendment. 

The North Carolina General Assembly took the necessary action by 
enacting a state law requiring electors to vote for the candidates who carried 
the state in the national election or to resign. An Elector who does not vote 
accordingly is, after being removed from office and replaced, fined $500 and 
charged with a felony in Wake County Superior Court. Twenty-one states 
and the District of Columbia now have similar laws; however, no constitu- 
tional amendment has been passed to deal with this issue. 

In 1976, Mike Pullen of Washington State chose to vote for Ronald Reagan 
instead of Gerald R. Ford. The election of 1984 produced an Illinois elector 
who attempted to vote for Reagan for president and Geraldine Ferraro, the 
Democratic nominee for vice-president. The electors took another ballot and 
the elector voted for George Bush, the party nominee. 



14 North Carolina Manual 



THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE TODAY 

Organization 

Each state is assigned a number of electors equal to the total number of 
senators and representatives each has in the United States Congress. There 
are 538 electors representing the 100 senators and the 435 representatives, 
plus three for the District of Columbia. A total of 270 electoral votes is 
needed to win the election. If no candidate receives a majority, the United 
States House of Representatives selects the president and the United States 
Senate selects the vice-president. 

Selection of Electors 

Today, each state selects its electors on a statewide basis except for Maine, 
which uses a district plan. In 35 states, including North Carolina, electors 
are nominated by party conventions. The state political committees choose 
them in five states, and Arizona has a primary for presidential elector. 
Pennsylvania calls for the national candidates to select 25 people to serve in 
the college, and the other eight states use a combination of these methods. 

In North Carolina, each party selects its thirteen electors in conventions. 
Eleven electors, one chosen at each of the respective Congressional District 
Conventions, are called district electors. Two others, representing the United 
States Senators, are selected statewide at the State Conventions of each 
political party and are called the at-large electors. Each political party 
appearing on the ballot has a slate of thirteen electors. 

Ballots 

Voting methods have undergone many changes in North Carolina. In 
1796 a voter went to the courthouse of any county in which he held land and 
voted. From 1796 to 1808 either voice voting or signing by the voter beneath 
the name of the nominee was used. The sheriff in each county was respon- 
sible for conducting the election. Since there were usually only two candi- 
dates, there were usually no problems unless a sheriff held the election on 
the wrong day, as happened in Montgomery County in 1804 and in Chatham 
County in 1808. In each of these cases, the winning candidate lost the 
district election when that county's returns were thrown out. 

After the legislature returned the election of the electors to the people in 
1816, the ballot was much more complex. Each ballot consisted of the fifteen 
statewide candidates for elector of one party. To cast a vote for a candidate 
for president, a voter had to vote for all fifteen candidates for the electoral 
college of their party. 

Because newspapers had the only printing presses around, they printed 
the paper ballots. Ballots were sold by the papers to the political leaders of 
the counties, who in turn dispersed them to the voters they thought they 



The North Carolina Electoral College 15 

could trust to vote for that slate. Eventually, the newspapers printed ballots 
in their editorial columns. 

When the Republicans gained control of the state in 1868, they recognized 
the need for a better system of voting. Most whites and practically all of the 
newly freed blacks could not read and had trouble with whites who tricked 
them into voting for the state Conservative ticket in the state elections of 
April 1868. As a result, the legislature had the parties to print colored 
ballots. All the voters had to know was that the Republican ticket was green. 

A major problem was that the presidential candidates of the parties did 
not appear on the ballots. In 1920, the Democrats were worried so much 
about women voting for their candidate, James M. Cox, that they nominated 
Albert L. Cox for elector. 

The General Assembly of 1929 passed the Australian ballot. This ballot is 
still in use today and lists the nominees of each party. Before this time 
ballots had only the names of the candidates of the party which printed 
them. A result of this ballot was the disappearance of the Socialist and 
Prohibition Parties, which could not retain "ballot status." An additional 
change occurred in North Carolina in 1936 when the names of the electors 
were removed from the ballots. In their place was the statement "Electors 
pledged to" the national ticket. Today, these words have also been removed 
and only the names of each presidential nominee appear. 

In some states the names of the electors do appear on the ballot. This 
practice makes the voter more aware that he is voting for electors who will 
in turn vote for president, as specified in the Constitution of the United 
States. Ballots in Arizona, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New 
York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, 
and Virginia list the electors. 

The Dual Office Holding Law 

Article Six, Section 9 of the Constitution of North Carolina bars a person 
from holding two offices in the state at one time. This includes both elected 
and appointed offices in federal, state, or local government. There have been 
four instances when an elector did not serve because of this dual office- 
holding prohibition. 

Because of a prohibition in the Constitution of the United States, John M. 
Morehead had to resign his position of postmaster before he could cast his 
electoral vote for Andrew Jackson in the Election of 1824. This event 
occurred prior to the adoption of the 1868 Constitution of North Carolina 
which contained a dual office-holding provision. 

The first case resulting from the North Carolina law occurred in 1872 
when Samuel F. Phillips, a member of the North Carolina House of Repre- 
sentatives, could not serve as an elector because he had just been appointed 
Solicitor General of the United States Treasury. He was replaced with State 
Representative James H. Harris. Other similar situations have occurred. 

In 1940, V. Buren Jurney would not have been allowed to serve as an 
elector because he was a member of the State Industrial Commission with a 



16 North Carolina Manual 

salary of $r),r)()0 a year. However, he was sick when the college convened and 
was replaced anyway. 

In I9(i<S, R. (Curtis Ratcliff could not vote because he was the Clerk of 
Sujx'rior Court in Buncombe County. His wife, Juanita, replaced him. 

And in 1980 ,]. Reid Foovey was barred because of his service in the State 
House. On the day of the meeting, the remaining electors voted to replace 
him with the vote ending in a tie. State Republican Chair Jackson Lee 
withdrew, allowing Catawba County Chair Tom Dlugos to serve. 

There were two years in which electors were allowed to serve in violation 
of the office holding law, 1868 and 1976. Abraham H. Galloway, the first 
black to serve in the electoral college in North Carolina, was a State Senator 
when he served in 1868. State Representative O. Richard Wright and District 
Attorney H. W. Zimmerman were both seated although both already held 
government offices and were not eligible under state law. 

Counting the Vote 

Office of the Federal Register, Washington D. C. 

Long before the November election, the Office of the Federal Register 
makes preparations for the handling of the electoral votes from all 50 states 
and the District of Columbia. The first step is to update the book "The 
Provisions of the Constitution and the United States Code Relating to 
Presidential Elections." The book is used as a guide by all the executives in 
handling the Electoral Vote. This is mailed out in October to each State and 
the District of Columbia so they will know what their responsibilities are in 
relation to the law. 

After the November election, the Office of the Federal Register holds a 
meeting with the Director of the Office of the Federal Register, the 
Parliamentarian of the Senate, the Assistant Secretary of the Senate, 
Assistant Clerk of the House, and the Assistant for Congressional Relations 
in the Vice President's Office. Here the plans are laid and responsibilities 
defined for these officials to assist with the counting of the electoral votes. 

In the November general election, the people go to the polls and cast a vote 
for the candidate of their choice. This election is the first Tuesday after the 
first Monday in November. The Presidential nominee with the most popular 
votes in each state will receive all of the electoral votes of that state. 

Certificate of Ascertainment 

After the November election, the governor of each state and the mayor of 
Washington D. C. must prepare a "Certificate of Ascertainment" for his 
state or city. Each one lists the vote of the winning candidate in that state 
along with the list of electors who will cast the electoral votes of that State. 
All of the other candidates for electors and their vote totals are listed. The 
governor or mayor signs this document and fixes his seal. Each state has a 
different form which it has designed; some are formal with ribbons, others 
simple. An original copy of the Certificate of Ascertainment is delivered to 
each Elector. 



The North Carolina Electoral College 17 

Voting Procedure 

In each state, the party which wins the most popular votes for president 
and vice-president in the November general election receives all of the 
electoral votes of that state. The winning party then sends their set of 
electors to the state capitol to cast their votes. For example, in 1988, George 
Bush carried North Carolina, so the thirteen Republican electors met in the 
state capitol in Raleigh. Electors in North Carolina are paid $44 a day and 
$.17 a mile to travel to Raleigh to perform their duty. 

According to N.C.G.S. 163-210, the electors are to meet at the "Old Hall of 
the House of Representatives in the State Capitol in the city of Raleigh at 
noon on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December after 
their election." Each state is free to select its own meeting place but no one 
can legally deviate from this date. The North Carolina Electoral College 
used to meet in the Old Senate Chamber until 1976 except when the Capitol 
burned in 1831, requiring different meeting places for the 1832 and 1836 
meetings. 

In North Carolina electors are bound to vote for the candidates of their 
party. Failure to attend and vote properly would bring a felony charge in 
Wake County Superior Court and a mandatory fine of $500 along with 
removal from office. The remaining electors would fill all vacancies with 
individuals who would vote properly. 

Certificate of Vote 

When the electors meet in December, they must first select a President and 
Secretary of the Electoral College. The names of the substitute electors are 
sent in with the Certificate of Vote to Washington. Nominations and second- 
ing speeches are made for President of the United States. After the voting 
for President, additional nominations and seconding speeches are made for 
Vice President. In modern times, few major speeches have been given in 
contrast with earlier meetings like those in the late 1800s. After the Electors 
vote separately for President and Vice President, six copies of the Certificate 
of Vote must be signed by each Elector. Minutes of the meeting are compiled 
and signed by the President and Secretary of the College. The votes are then 
sealed and immediately dispatched by a waiting postman to the President of 
the Senate in Washington, D. C. Other copies are mailed to the District 
Court Judge (1), the National Archives (2), and the North Carolina Secretary 
of State (2). This is a check in case the ballots are lost or delayed on their 
way to Washington. 

The office of the Federal Register keeps one copy designated for the 
National Archives in Washington, D. C. This is used by the government to 
count the number of states sending their electoral votes in on time and for 
the press to survey the official vote. The National Archives keeps one official 
copy on file in its vault for historical and research purposes. 

The Mahogany Boxes 

On January 6, the envelopes are removed and placed in two special 
mahogany boxes. These boxes are each required to be 18" long, 10" wide, 




18 North Carolina Manual 

and 8 Vv!' in height. Each box 
is etched in gold on the top 
and on four sides and has a 
Hght brown leather strap. The 
envelopes with the electoral 
votes from Alabama through 
Mississippi go in one box; the 
returns from Missouri through 
Wyoming go in the second 
box. The law formerly called 
for new boxes to be made every 
four years by the Senate car- 
penter. However, the same 

boxes that were used in 1980 and 1984 were used in 1988. No longer will new 

boxes be required to be made for future elections. 

Announcing the Results 

At a special joint session of Congress on January 6, the mahogany boxes 
with the envelopes containing the electoral votes of each state are opened 
and the results are announced. The President of the Senate, the Vice 
President, is in charge and is assisted by four tellers, two from the House 
and two from the Senate. The votes are tabulated and the winner is 
announced. 

Inauguration 

The new President and Vice President take the oath of office on January 
20 according to the 20th Amendment. The Chief Justice swears in the 
President and an Associate Justice swears in the Vice President. 

What Happens When there is No Winner? 

The Twelfth Amendment defines the steps to be followed if no candidate 
receives the required 270 votes. While it is possible to have a tie vote, 269 to 
269, a strong third party candidate could result in no clear winner in the 
November election. 

When no one receives a majority of the electoral votes, the president and 
the vice president are selected by the United States House of Representatives 
and United States Senate. The House chooses the president from the top 3 
candidates. Each member of a state's delegation votes to determine who the 
state will support for President of the United States. The candidate who 
receives the majority of the votes of the delegation gets the vote of that state. 
If there is a tie, the state loses its vote. To win, a candidate must obtain a 
majority of the 50 states, or 26 votes. Under this system the District of 
Columbia would have no vote because they have no voting representation in 
Congress. There is no limit to the number of ballots that could be taken by 
the House. However, if they were unable to decide by the inauguration, the 
20th Amendment provides for the vice president-elect to act as president 
until a President has been selected. If no vice president-elect had been 



The North Carolina Electoral College 19 

chosen then the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives 
would act until either the president-elect or vice president-elect is qualified. 

The vice president would be selected by the United States Senate in a 
similar manner. Each senator would select from the top two vice presidential 
candidates. A majority vote, or 51 of the 100 senators would be necessary to 
win. The District of Columbia would not have a vote again because of its 
lack of representation in the United States Senate. If no winner is determined 
by time of the inauguration, the Succession Act provides for the Speaker of 
the House to serve until a decision is made. The Speaker of the House 
selected on January 3 would serve. 

Weaknesses in the Electoral College System 

Throughout the years, history has pointed out many weaknesses in the 
electoral college system. In the past 200 years over 500 proposals (one as 
early as 1797) have been made to improve it but only one, the 12th Amend- 
ment has passed. 

Many people call the electoral college system undemocratic because it 
violates the principle of one-man-one-vote. The small states have a larger 
voice than their population dictates giving the weight of a electoral vote in 
Alaska more than in California; moreover, if the election is thrown into the 
Congress, each state has an equal vote, regardless of population. 

The "winner-take-all" theory is another area of concern. If a candidate 
carries the state by one vote or one million, he gets all the electoral votes of 
that state. This, in effect, does not even count or reflect the votes cast for the 
minority candidate. The electoral vote does not reflect the popular vote as 
exhibited by the past two elections. In 1984, President Reagan received 98% 
of the electoral votes while obtaining only 58% of the popular votes in the 
race against Walter Mondale, the Democratic candidate. In 1988, Vice 
President George Bush won 79% of the electoral votes but got only 54% of the 
popular votes. 

A third area of concern rests with the electors themselves. In a majority of 
the states, they are not bound to vote for the candidate that carries their 
state. As a result, since 1848, there have been six faithless electors who did 
not vote for their party's nominee. Twenty-one states and the District of 
Columbia have taken action to make sure this will not happen in their 
states. Fifteen states including Alaska, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, 
Maine, Maryland, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma. 
Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wyoming and the District of Columbia 
require their electors to vote according to the popular vote in their state. 
Failure to do so results in fines in some states such as in North Carolina. 
Three other states, California, Tennessee, and Wisconsin require the electors 
to vote for the winner in their state if he is living. Massachusetts and 
Oregon take it seriously enough to require their electors to make a pledge ot 
support for the candidate they represent. South Carolina provides for the 
unbinding of its electors if it deems it necessary. Needless to say, electors 
who are not bound by law would be subject to bribes and corruption if no 
candidate received a majority of the electoral votes. The thought tbat an 



20 North Carolina Manual 

elector could overturn the expressed wishes of the voting citizens of their 
state is a possibility. The selection of the President would hinge on this if the 
vote was close. 

Finally, there is the problem of a nominee being able to win a majority of 
the electoral votes but not get a majority of the popular votes. P^'act became 
reality for Grover Cleveland in 1888 when he lost the presidency because of 
this. Cleveland received 48.7% of the popular votes to 47.9% for Harrison, but 
lost in the electoral college by a vote of 233 to 168. Other minority-vote 
presidents include John (Juincy Adams and Benjamin Harrison. John Quincy 
Adams was selected by vote in the United States House in 1824 over Andrew 
Jackson. Rutherford B. Hayes won in 1876 after a special electoral commis- 
sion decided the election in his favor over Samuel Tilden who had received 
51% of the popular vote. 

While the small states have a disproportionate share of the vote, a few 
large states can also control the election of the President. If a Presidential 
candidate wins in the 11 most populated states he would have 267 electoral 
votes. Therefore, it is possible for a candidate to win in only 12 states and 
become President while being rejected by the voters of the other 38 states 
and the District of Columbia. In fact he would not even have to be on the 
ballot in the other states. 

Death of the Presidential Candidate 

The death of the president-elect after the general election in November, but 
before the meeting of the electors in December is not provided for in the 
Constitution of the United States. The writer of our constitution did not 
anticipate the president and vice president being elected until December 
when the electors voted. 

The political parties fill this gap by setting guidelines in their party rules 
for the filling of this vacancy by their national committees. Under these 
guidelines, political parties have the power to choose a new presidential 
candidate. The electors since they are selected by their own political parties 
would most likely vote for the person nominated. 

Death of a President-Elect and Vice President-Elect 

After the electors cast their votes at the electoral college meeting in 
December and their sealed ballots are sent to the President of the Senate, the 
vote is final. If the president-elect and the vice president-elect receive the 270 
electoral votes necessary to win the election, they can only be replaced in 
accordance with provisions outlined in the 20th Amendment if death should 
occur. 

If the president-elect dies between the meeting of the electoral college in 
December and the Inauguration on January 20, the vice president-elect 
becomes the president-elect. After the Inauguration, the new president 
(formerly the vice president-elect) would then fill the office of Vice president 
according to provisions found in the 25th Amendment. These provisions 
allow the president to nominate a vice president who can take office after 
being confirmed by a majority of the members of the United States Senate. 



The North Carolina Electoral College 21 

Proposed Changes to the Electoral College System 

Any change in the electoral college system would require an amendment 
to the Constitution of the United States. Any proposed amendment must 
pass by a two thirds vote of each house of the United States Congress. Once 
the amendment passes Congress, it must then receive approval by three 
fourths of the states. Proposals for change seem to concentrate on four 
plans: direct election, automatic crediting, proportional crediting, and district 
crediting. 

Under the direct election plan, the president and vice president would be 
elected by popular vote. The plan would totally abolish the electoral college. 
The popular vote received would be totaled up just as it is done in every 
other elective office in the United States. This plan would correct the 
criticism of one-man-one-vote and the inequality in the number of votes per 
state. The chance of a nominee winning the popular vote, but losing the 
electoral voted would be eliminated. 

The automatic plan would automatically give the electoral votes of each 
states to the nominee who carries that state. The position of elector would be 
abolished and with it the possibility of the faithless elector. 

A proportional plan would also abolish the office of elector by automati- 
cally dividing the electoral vote for each state according to the percentage of 
the popular vote received by each presidential nominee. This would eliminate 
the winner-take-all principle. 

Finally, under a district plan, each nominee who carried a congressional 
district within a state would receive the electoral vote for district. In addition, 
the nominee who won the popular vote in a state would received the 
additional two votes allocated each state for their United States Senators. 
This plan would insure widespread support for the nominee in all areas of 
the state and nation; however, the tabulation of the results would certainly 
be more involved on election night. This plan would also help to correct the 
winner-take-all principle. 

The electoral college has been a part of American politics for more than 
two hundred years. Hundreds of changes as to how it operates have been 
proposed, but few have become reality. Opponents criticize and will continue 
to criticize its existence while proponents steadfastly defend the process. The 
electoral college will be around for a while longer. How long depends entirely 
on the politicians and the people. 







St 

o 






CHAPTER TWO 



Historical Miscellanea 



AN EARLY HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The first known European exploration of North CaroHna occurred during 
the summer of 1524. A Florentine navigator named Giovanni da Verrazano, 
in the service of France, explored the coastal area of North Carolina between 
the Cape Fear River area and Kitty Hawk. A report of his findings was sent 
to Francis I, and published in Richard Hakluyt's Divers Voyages touching 
the Discoverie of America. No attempt was made to colonize the area. 

Between 1540 and 1570 several Spanish explorers from the Florida Gulf 
region explored portions of North Carolina, but again no permanent settle- 
ments were established. 

Coastal North Carolina was the scene of the first attempt to colonize 
America by English-speaking people. Two colonies were begun in the 1580's 
under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Walter Raleigh. The first 
colony, established in 1585 under the leadership of Ralph Lane, ended in 
failure. 

A second expedition under the leadership of John White began in the 
spring of 1587 when 110 settlers, including seventeen women and nine 

children, set sail for the new 
world. The White Colony 
arrived near Hatteras in 
June, 1587, and went on to 
Roanoke Island, where they 
found the houses built by 
Ralph Lane's expedition 
still standing. Two signifi- 
H cant events occurred shortly 
;|| after the colonist's arrival- 
two "friendly" Indians were 
baptized and a child was 
born. Virginia Dare, as the 
baby was named, became 
the first child born to 
English-speaking parents in 
the new world. The colonists faced many problems. As supplies ran short 
White was pressured to return to England for provisions. Once in England, 
White was unable to immediately return to Roanoke because of an impending 
attack by the Spanish Armada. When he was finally able to return in 1590, 




24 North Carolina Manual 

he t'ouncl only tlu' remnants of what was once a settlement. There were no 
signs of life, only the word "CROATAN" carved on a nearby tree. Much 
speculation has been made about the fate of the "Lost Colony," but no one 
has successfully explained the disappearance of the colony and its settlers. 

The first permanent English settlers in North Carolina were immigrants 
from the tidewater area of southeastern Virginia. These first of these "over- 
tlow" settlers moved into the Albemarle area of northeast North Carolina 
around 1650. 

In 1663, Charles II granted a charter to eight English gentlemen who had 
helped him regain the throne of England. The charter document contains 
the following description of the territory which the eight Lords Proprietors 
were granted title to: 

All that Territory or tract of ground, situate, lying, and being 
within our Dominions in America, extending from the North end 
of the Island called Luck Island, which lies in the Southern 
Virginia Seas and within six and Thirty degrees of the Northern 
Latitude, and to the West as far as the South Seas; and so 
Southerly as far as the River Saint Mathias, which borders upon 
the Coast of F'lorida, and within one and Thirty degrees of 
Northern Latitude, and West in a direct Line as far as the South 
Seas aforesaid; Together with all and singular Ports, Harbours, 
Bays, Rivers, Isles, and Islets belonging unto the Country afore- 
said; And also, all the Soil, Lands, Fields, Woods, Mountains, 
Farms, Lakes, Rivers, Bays, and Islets situate or being within the 
Bounds or Limits aforesaid; with the Fishing of all sorts of Fish, 
Whales, Sturgeons, and all other Royal Fishes in the Sea, Bays, 
Islets, and Rivers within the premises, and the Fish therein 
taken; 

And moreover, all Veins, Mines, and Quarries, as well discovered 
as not discovered, of Gold, Silver, Gems, and precious Stones, and 
all other, whatsoever be it, of Stones, Metals, or any other thing 
whatsoever found or to be found within the Country, Isles, and 
Limits . . . ." 

The territory was to be called Carolina in honor of Charles the First. In 
1665, a second charter was granted in order to clarify territorial questions 
not answered in the first charter. This charter extended the boundry lines of 
Carolina to include: 

All that Province, Territory, or Tract of ground, situate, lying, 
and being within our Dominions of America aforesaid, extending 
North and Eastward as far as the North end of Carahtuke River 
or Gullet; upon a straight Westerly line to Wyonoake Creek, 
which lies within or about the degrees of thirty six and thirty 
Minutes, Northern latitude, and so West in a direct line as far as 
the South Seas; and South and Westward as far as the degrees of 
twenty nine, inclusive, northern latitude; and so West in a direct 
line as far as the South Seas. 



Historical Miscellanea 



25 




26 North Carolina Manual 

Between 166;5 and 1729, North Carolina was under the control of the Lords 
Proprietors and their descendents who commissioned colonial officials and 
authorized the governor and his council to grant lands in the name of the 
Lords Proprietors. In 1669, John Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions 
as a model for the government of Carolina. Albemarle County was divided 
into local governmental units called precincts. Initially there were three 
precincts— Berkley, Carteret, and Shaftesbury— but as the colony expanded 
to the south and west new precincts were created. By 1729, there were a total 
of eleven precincts— six in Albemarle County and five in Bath County which 
had been created in 1696. Although the Albemarle Region was the first 
permanent settlement in the Carolina Area, another region was developed 
around present-day Charleston, South Carolina. Because of the natural 
harbor and easier access to trade with the West Indies, more attention was 
given to developing the Charleston area than her nothern counterparts. For 
a twenty-year period, 1692-1712, the colonies of North and South Carolina 
existed as one unit of government. Although North Carolina still had her 
own assembly and council, the governor of Carolina resided in Charleston 
and a deputy governor was appointed for North Carolina. 

In 1729, seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interest in North Carolina 
to the Crown and North Carolina became a royal colony. The eighth 
proprietor. Lord Granville, retained economic interest and continued granting 
land in the northern half of North Carolina. All political functions were 
under the supervision of the crown until 1775. 

Colonial government in North Carolina was essentially the same during 
both the proprietory and royal periods, the only major difference being who 
appointed colonial officials. There were two primary units of government: 
the governor and his council, and the colonial assembly made up of persons 
elected by the qualified voters of the county. There were also colonial courts; 
however, unlike today's courts, they were rarely involved in the formulating 
policy. All colonial officials were appointed by either the Lords Proprietors 
prior to 1729, or by the crown afterwards. Members of the colonial assembly 
were elected from the various precincts (counties) and from certain towns 
which had been granted representation. The term "precinct" as a geographi- 
cal unit ceased to exist after 1735. These areas became known as "counties" 
and about the same time "Albemarle County" and "Bath County" ceased to 
exist as governmental units. 

The governor was an appointed official, as were the colonial secretary, 
attorney general, surveyor general, and the receiver general. All officials 
served at the pleasure of the Lords Proprietors or the crown. During the 
proprietory period, the council was comprised of appointed persons who were 
to look after the proprietors' interests in the new world. The council served 
as an advisory group to the governor during the proprietary and royal 
periods, as well as serving as the upper house of the legislature when the 
assembly was in session. When vacancies occurred in colonial offices or on 
the council, the governor was authorized to carry out all mandates of the 
proprietors, and could make a temporary appointment until the vacancy was 
filled by proprietory or royal commission. One member of the council was 



Historical Miscellanea 27 

chosen as president of the group, and many council members were also 
colonial officials. If a governor or deputy governor was unable to carry on as 
chief executive because of illness, death, resignation, or absence from the 
colony, the president of the council became the chief executive and exercised 
all powers of the governor until the governor returned or a new governor 
was commmissioned. 

The colonial assembly was made up of men elected from each precinct and 
town where representation had been granted. Not all counties were entitled 
to the same number of representatives. Many of the older counties had five 
representatives each while those newer ones formed after 1696 were each 
allowed only two. Each town granted representation was allowed one repre- 
sentative. The presiding officer of the colonial assembly was called the 
speaker and was elected from the entire membership of the house. When a 
vacancy occurred, a new election was ordered by the speaker to fill it. On the 
final day of each session, the bills passed by the legislature were signed by 
both the speaker and the president of the council. 

The colonial assembly could not meet arbitrarily, but rather convened 
only when called into session by the governor. Being the only body 
authorized to grant a salary to the governor or to be responsible for spending 
tax monies, the legislature met on a regular basis until just before the 
Revolutionary War. However, there was a constant battle for authority 
between the governor and his council on the one hand and the general 
assembly on the other. Two of the most explosive issues were the power of 
the purse and the electing of the treasurer, both privileges of the assembly. 
Another issue which raised itself was who had the authority to create new 
counties. On more than one occasion elected representatives from counties 
created by the governor and council, without consultation and proper legisla- 
tive action by the lower house, were refused seats until the matter was 
resolved. These conflicts between the executive and legislative bodies were to 
have a profound effect on the organization of state government after 
Independence. 

North CaroHna, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates to the Con- 
tinental Congress to vote for independence. This was the first official action 
by a Colony calUng for independence. The 83 delegates present in Halifax at 
the Fourth Provincial Congress unanimously adopted the Halifax Resolves, 
which read as follows: 

The Select Committee taking into Consideration the usurpations 
and violences attempted and committed by the King and Parlia- 
ment of Britain against America, and the further Measures to be 
taken for frustrating the same, and for the better defence of this 
province reported as follows, to wit, 

"It appears to your Committee that pursuant to the Plan con- 
certed by the British Ministry for subjugating America, the King 
and Parliament of Great Britain have usurped a Power over the 
Persons and Properties of the People unlimited and uncontrouled 
and disregarding their humble Petitions for Peace, Liberty and 



28 



North Carolina Manual 





,."> 










m 


^^^^^BIBS^B^&Sb^^^^^'^^^^^^' * - 




- " ------ 



Joseph Hewes 




North Carolina 

Signers 

of the 

Declaration 

of 

Independence 




William Hooper 



John Penn 



Historical Miscellanea 29 

safety, have made divers Legislative Acts, denouncing War 
Famine and every Species of Calamity daily employed in destroy- 
ing the People and committing the most horrid devastations on 
the Country. That Governors in different Colonies have declared 
Protection to Slaves who should imbrue their Hands in the Blood 
of their Masters. That the Ships belonging to America are declared 
prizes of War and many of them have been violently seized and 
confiscated in consequence of which multitudes of the people 
have been destrlyed or from easy Circumstances reduced to the 
most Lamentable distress. 

And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United 
Colonies and their sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother 
Country on Constitutional Principles, have procured no mitigation 
of the aforesaid Wrongs and usurpations and no hopes remain of 
obtaining redress by those Means alone which have been hitherto 
tried, Your Committee are of Opinion that the house should enter 
into the following Resolve, to wit 

Resolved that the delegates for this Colony in the Continental 
Congress be impowered to concur with the other delegates of the 
other Colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign 
Alliances, resolving to this Colony the Sole, and Exclusive right 
of forming a Constitution and Laws for this Colony, and of 
appointing delegates from time to time (under the direction of a 
general Representation thereof) to meet the delegates of the other 
Colonies for such purposes as shall be herefater pointed out. 

The Halifax Resolves were not only important because they were the first 
official action calling for independence, but also because they were not a 
unilateral recommendation. They were instead recommendations directed to 
all the colonies and their delegates assembled at the Continental Congress 
in Philidelphia. Virginia followed with her own recommendations soon after 
the adoption of the Halifax Resolution and eventually in July 4, the final 
draft of the Declaration of Independence was signed. William Hooper, 
Joseph Hewes, and John Penn were the delegates from North Carolina who 
signed the Declaration of Independence. 

In early December, 1776, delegates to the Fifth Provincial Congress adopted 
the first constitution for North Carolina. On December 21, 1776, Richard 
Caswell became the first governor of North Carolina under the new constitu- 
tion. On November 21, 1789, the state adopted the United States Constitu- 
tion, becoming the twelfth state to enter the Federal Union. In 1788, North 
Carolina had rejected the Constitution because of the lack of necessary 
amendments to ensure freedom of the people. 

A Constitutional convention was held in 1835 and among several changes 
made in the Constitution was the method of electing the governor. After this 
change the governor was elected by the people for a term of two years 
instead of being elected by the legislature for one year. Edward Bishop 
Dudley was the first governor elected by the people. 

In 1868, a second constitution which drastically altered North Carolina 
Government was adopted. For the first time, all major state officers were 



30 



North Carolina Manual 




Led by Mrs. Penelope Barker, wife of Thomas Barker who served as agent for North 
Carolina in London, 51 ladies of Edenton gathered on October 25, 1774, to show their 
support for the colony's opposition to the tea tax. These couragous women wore no 
disguises as had the participants in the Boston Tea Party some ten months earlier, but 
rather openly declared their patriotism by signing an agreement to support whatever the 
men of the colony were doing for the peace and happiness of their country. This action was 
one of the earliest known political efforts by women in America. The above caricature was 
published in the London newspapers along with an account of the event. 



Historical Miscellanea 31 

elected by the people. The governor and other exeutive officers were elected 
to four-year terms; while the justices of the supreme court and judges of the 
superior court were elected to eight-year terms. The members of the general 
assembly continued to be elected for two-year terms. Between 1868 and 1970 
numerous amendments were incorporated into the 1868 constitution, so that 
in 1970, the people voted to adopt a completely new constitution. Since then 
several amendments have be ratified but one in particular is a break from 
the past. In 1977, the people voted to allow the governor and lieutenant 
governor to run for reelection successively for an additional term. 

North Carolina has had two permanent capitals. New Bern and Raleigh, 
and there have been three capitol buildings. Tryon's Palace in New Bern 
was constructed in the period, 1767-1770, and the main building was 
destroyed by fire February 27, 1798. The first capitol in Raleigh was com- 
pleted in 1794 and was destroyed by fire on June 21, 1831. The present 
capitol building was completed in 1840. 

In 1790, North Carolina ceded her western lands which included Washing- 
ton, Davidson, Hawkins, Greene, Sullivan, Sumner, and Tennessee counties, 
to the Federal government. Between 1790 and 1796 the territory was known 
as Tennessee Territory, but in 1796 it became simply Tennessee, the fifteenth 
state in the Union. 



32 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 33 

THE STATE CAPITOL BUILDING 

The North Carohna State Capitol is one of the finest and best preserved 
examples of a major civic building in the Greek Revival style of architecture. 

Prior to 1792, North Carolina legislators met in various towns throughout 
the state, gathering most frequently in Halifax, Hillsborough, and New 
Bern. Meetings were held wherever there was a large empty space, such as 
local plantation houses, court houses, and even churches. However, when 
the City of Raleigh was established as the permanent seat of the Government 
of North Carolina in 1792, a simple, two-story brick State House was built on 
Union Square. The State House was completed in 1796. 

The State House was enlarged between 1820 and 1984 by architect William 
Nichols who added a third floor, eastern and western wings, and a domed 
rotunda at the building's center. The rotunda housed a statue of President 
George Washington by sculptor Antonio Canova's, acquired by the state in 
1821. When the State House burned down on June 21, 1831, the statue was 
damaged beyond repair. 

The General Assembly of 1832-33 ordered that a new Capitol be built as an 
enlarged version of the old State Capital. The new Capitol would be a cross- 
shaped building with a central, domed rotunda. The sum of $50,000 was 
appropriated, and a building commission appointed to initiate the plan. The 
Commissioners for Rebuilding the Capitol first employed William Nichols, 
Jr. to help them prepare plans for the building. In August of 1833, Nichols 
was replaced by distinguished New York architects Ithiel Town and 
Alexander Jackson Davis. Town and Davis greatly improved upon the 
earlier design, and developed a plan which gave the Capitol an appearance 
that has essentially remained the same to the present. 

David Paton (1802-1882), an architect born in Edinburgh, Scotland and 
who had worked for noted English architect John Seoane, was hired in 
September, 1834, to superintend the construction of the Capitol. Paton 
replaced Town and Davis as the Commissioners' architect in early 1835. The 
Capitol was built under Paton's supervision except for the exterior stone 
walls which were largely in place when he arrived in Raleigh. 

Paton made several modifications to the Town and Davis plans for the 
interior. Among the changes were the overhanging gallery at the second 
floor level of the rotunda, the groined masonry vaulting of the first floor 
offices and corridor ceilings, and the interior arrangement of the east and 
west wings. 

After clearing away the rubbish of the old State House, excavations were 
made and a new foundation was laid. The cornerstone was set in place on 
July 4, 1833. After the initial foundation was laid, work progressed slowly 
and the original appropriations were soon exhausted. At the next session of 
the Legislature, an additional appropriation of $75,000 was made in order to 
begin on the stone and finer work. Many skilled artisans were brought over 
from Scotland and other countries to carry out this phase of construction. 

Most of the architectural details, including the columns, mouldings, 
ornamental plasterwork, and ornamental honeysuckle atop the dome, were 



34 North Carolina Manual 

carefully patterned after features of particular Greek temples: the exterior 
columns are Doric in style and are modeled after those of the Parthenon; the 
chamher of the House of Representatives follows the semi-circular plan of a 
Greek theater and its architectural ornamentation is in the Corinthian style 
ot the Tower of the Winds; and the Senate Chamber is decorated in the Ionic 
style of the Erechtheum. The only non-classical parts of the building are two 
large rooms on the third floor which were finished in the Gothic style which 
was just beginning to rise in popularity in American architectural circles. 

The ornamental ironwork, chandeliers, hardware, and marble mantels of 
the Capitol came from Philidelphia, as did the man who executed all of the 
ornamental plasterwork. The desks and chairs in the House and Senate 
Chambers were made by a Raleigh cabinetmaker, William Thompson. 

The Capitol was completed in 1840 at a total cost (including furnishings) 
of $532,682.34, or more than three times the yearly general income of the 
State at that time. 

Architect David Paton gave the following description of the new edifice: 

The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 
140 feet from east to west. The whole height is 97Vl> feet in the 
center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. The stylobate is 
18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes are 5 
feet 2'/^ inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking 
course, is continued around the building 12 feet high. 

The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied 
from the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, 
which was erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An 
octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with 
Grecian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a 
similar ornament to that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, 
commonly called the Lanthorn of Demostheses. 

The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, 
the lower story, consisting often rooms, eight of which are appro- 
priated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and 
Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one 
containing an area of 649 square feet and four closets, the other 
528 square feet — two committee rooms, each containing 200 square 
feet and four closets: also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and 
piazzas, contain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vestibules are 
decorated with columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic 
Temple on the Ilissus, near the Acropolis of Athens. The re- 
mainder is groined with stone and brick, springing from columns 
and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' 
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 
2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from the Senate 
Chamber, two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, 
and the other two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, 
two rooms enter from Representatives' chamber, each containing 
an area of 170 square feet; of two committee rooms, each contain- 



Historical Miscellanea 35 

ing an area of 231 square feet; of four presses and the passages, 
stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square 
feet. 

The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns 
and antae of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and 
the plan of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theatre and 
the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda 
are of the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva, Polias, and Pandrosus, 
in the Acropolis of Athens, near the above named Parthenon. 

The third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the 
Supreme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 
square feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square 
feet; also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 
square feet; of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. 
These lobbies as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is 
proposed to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic style. 

In 1970 the State acquired a duplicate of the original statue of Washington 
by Canova which can be found in the rotunda of the Capitol. In niches 
around the rotunda are busts of three North Carolina governors - John M. 
Morehead, William A. Graham, and Samuel Johnson - and United States 
Senator Matthew W. Ransom. 

Stairways in the east and west wings give access to the second floor, 
where the Senate and House Chambers and related offices are located. 
Rooms in the east and west wings, built as legislative committee rooms, 
have been converted to other uses. On the third floor are the galleries of the 
Senate and House Chambers, and in the east and west wings are the 
original State Supreme Court Chamber and State Library Room, both 
decorated in the Gothic Style. The domed, top-lit vestibules of those two 
rooms are especially noteworthy. 

The Capitol housed all branches of state government until the lates 1880's. 
Today the only official occupants of the Capitol are the Governor and the 
Lieutenant Governor. The Supreme Court moved to its own building in 1888 
and in 1963, the General Assembly moved into the newly constructed 
Legislative Building. This was the first building erected by the State exclu- 
sively for use by the general assembly. 

The Legislative Building 

In 1959,the General Assembly appropriated funds for the construction of a 
new legislative building. The new facility was needed to accommodate a 
growing Legislative Branch and to provide larger quarters for legislators 
and staff. The act creating the building commission was passed on June 12, 
1959. The Commission was made up of seven people - two who had served in 
the State Senate to be appointed by the President of the Senate, two who had 
served in the State House of Representatives to be appointed by the Speaker 
of the House, and three appointed by the Governor. Lieutenant Governor 
Luther E. Earnhardt, President of the Senate, appointed Archie K. Davis 
and Robert F. Morgan. Speaker of the House Addison Hewlett appointed B.I. 



36 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 37 

Satterfield and Thomas J. White. Governor Luther Hodges appointed A.E. 
Finley, Edwin Gill, and Oliver Rowe. White was elected to serve as Chairman 
of the Commission and Morgan was elected Vice-Chairman. In addition to 
the appointed members, Paul A. Johnston, Director of the Department of 
Administration, was elected to serve as Executive Secretary. When Mr. 
Johnston resigned, State Property Officer Frank B. Turner was selected to 
replacement him. 

Edward Durell Stone of New York and John S. Holloway and Ralph B, 
Reeves Jr. of Raleigh were selected by the Commission to serve as archi- 
tectural consultants. 

After a thorough study by the Commission, the site selected for construction 
was a Sy^-acre area one block north of the Capitol. This site, encompassing 
two blocks, is bounded by Jones, Salisbury, Lane and Wilmington Streets. A 
section of Halifax Street between Jones and Lane was closed and made a 
part of the new site. Bids on the new building were received in December, 
1960, and construction in early 196L 

The 1961 General Assembly appropriated an additional one million dollars 
for furnishings and equipment bringing the total appropriation to $5.5 
million, or $1.24 for each citizen of North Carolina based on 1960 census 
figures 

The consulting architects wrote the following description of the new 
building: 

The State Legislative Building, though not an imitation of 
historic classical styles, is classical in character. Rising from a 
340-foot wide podium of North Carolina granite, the building 
proper is 242 feet square. The walls and the comlumns are of 
Vermont marble, the latter forming a colonnade emcompassing 
the building and reaching 24 feet from the podium to the roof of 
the second floor. 

Inset in the south podium floor, at the main entrance, is a 28- 
foot diameter terrazo mosaic of the Great Seal of the State. From 
the first floor main entrance (at Jones Street) the carpeted 22-foot 
wide main stair extends directly to the third floor and the public 
galleries of the Senate and House, the auditorium, the display 
area, and the roof gardens. 

The four garden courts are located at the corners of the building. 
These courts contain tropical plants, and three have pools, 
fountains, and hanging planters. The main floor areas of the 
courts are located on the first floor, and mezzanines overlook the 
courts from the second floor. The skylights which provide natural 
lighting are located within the roof gardens overhead. The courts 
provide access to committee rooms in the first floor, the legislative 
chambers in the second floor, and to members' offices in both 
floors. 

The Senate and House chambers, each 5,180 square feet in 
area, occupy the east and west wings of the second floor. Following 
the traditional relationship of the two chambers in the Capitol, 
the two spaces are divided by the rotunda; and when the main 



38 North Carolina Manual 

brass doors are open, the two presiding offiders face one another. 
Each pair of brass doors weigh 1,500 pounds. 

The five pyramidal roofs covering the Senate and House 
chambers, the auditorium, the main stair, and the rotunda are 
sheathed with copper, as is the Capitol. The pyramidal shape of 
the rooves is visible in the pointed ceilings inside. The stuctura 
ribs form a coffered ceiling; and inside the coffered patterns, 
concentric patterns are outlined in gold. In each chamber, the 
distance from the floor to the peak of the ceiling is 45 feet. 

Chandeliers in the chambers and main stair are 8 feet in 
diameter and weigh 625 pounds each. The 12 foot diameter 
chandelier of the rotunda, like the others, is of brass, but its 
weight is 750 pounds. 

Because of the interior environment, the garden courts and 
rotunda have tropical plants and trees. Outside, however, the 
shrubs and trees are of an indigenous type. Amoung the trees on 
the grounds and on the roof areas are sugar maples, dogwoods, 
crabapples, magnolias, crepe myrtles, and pines. 

Throughout the building, the same color scheme is maintained: 
Walnut, white, gold and red, with green foliage. In general, all 
wood is American walnut, metal is brass or other gold colored 
material, carpets are red, and upholstery is gold or black. 

The enclosed area consists of 206,000 square feet of floor area 
with a volume of 3,210,000 cubic feet. Heating equipment provides 
over 7,000,000 B.T.U. per hour; and the cooling equipment has a 
capacity of 620 tones. For lighting, motors, and other electrical 
equipment, the building has a connected service load of over 
2,000,000 watts. 

In the past decade additional renovations have been completed to create 
more office space and improve on meeting room facilities needed for the 
various committees of the general assembly. In 1982 the Legislative Office 
Building opened and while the first occupants were the Department of the 
Secretary of State on the third floor and the State Auditor on the second, the 
majority of the space is used by the legislature. Nearly half of the members 
of each house moved to new offices in the building as well as several of 
support divisions of Legislative Services. 



The Capitol Today 

The Capitol Building has changed less in appearance than any major 
American civic building of its era. The stonework, the ornamental plaster 
and ironwork, the furniture of the legislative chambers, and all but one of 
the marble mantels that visitor sees today are original, not restorations or 
reprodutions. Yet continuous and heavy use since 1840 has left its marks on 
the building, and to cope with this wear and tear, the Capitol periodically 
undergoes careful rehabiltation through renovation. Work began in 1971 
with the intention of preserving and enhancing the architectural spendor 



Historical Miscellanea 39 

and decorative beauty of the Capitol for future generations. Work done to 
date includes replacing the leaky copper roof, cleaning and sealing the 
exterior stone, and repainting the rotunda in colors similar to those originally 
used. More recently completed phases include repairing plaster-work 
damaged by roof-leaks, replacing obsolete wiring and plumbing, reworking 
the heating and cooling systems in the upper floors to make them less 
conspicious, replacing worn carpets and draperies, and repainting the rest of 
the interior according to the original color scheme. 

As our Nation celebrated its first 200 years in 1976, our State Capitol 
building was enjoying a celebration of its own. Several years of renovation 
work to the old senate and house chambers and the executive offices on the 
first floor were completed and the Capitol was ready to once again received 
occupants. Governor James B. Hunt and some parts of the his office moved 
back in, as did long-time resident Secretary of State Thad Eure. Having first 
served as a member of the State House of Representatives in 1929, then as 
House Principal Clerk for the 1931, 1933, and 1935 sessions of the General 
Assembly and finally as Secretary of State beginning in 1936, Mr. Eure had 
served in the Capitol longer than anyone in its history - 60 years as of his 
retirement in early 1989. The only executive heads of departments occupying 
the Capitol at the present are Governor James G. Martin and Lieutenant 
Governor James C. Gardner, although Secretary of State Rufus L. Edmisten 
does have a ceremonial office on the second floor. 

During late 1988 and early 1989 extensive landscape and grounds renovat- 
ions were done to enhance the beauty of the Capitol and to improve its 
visibility. In an effort to make the nearly renovated Capitol more accessible 
to the people of North Carolina, the building has been opened to the public 
on weekends with guided tours available for all visitors. 



40 North Carolina Manual 

THE CAPITOL' 

I am the Capitol; upon my copper dome, I wear a crown. It if were gilded, it 
would flash a signal to the sun. This crown is more than decoration. It is a 
symbol of sovereignty. 

When the sun is bright and the arch of heaven is clear, the greenish-blue 
of my dome is bold against the sky. But sometimes, when the sun is veiled, 
the grey of my dome appears to blend with infinity. 

Between 1833 and 1840, I was constructed of stone quarried nearby, which 
time has mellowed. These stones were precision cut and, nicely balanced. 
The traffic of human feet has worn some stones, and, occasionally, I have 
been roughly used. The edges of steps have been broken. But I am hale and 
hearty and will, of course, endure. 

The Court, the Legislature and the Auditor have left me for more modern 
homes. It is rumored that others may go. However, I am assured I shall 
become a shrine. Now what is a shrine? No one seems to know, except they 
say it has something to do with memory and Glory. 

I am complimented that many people are concerned about my condition. 
Questions have been raised. Let me assure one and all that I am solid and 
sound of body. My problems are mostly superficial. 

My roof has leaked a bit, and inquiries should be made into the soundness 
of the timbers that undergird it. Also, at appropriate intervals, my electrical 
wiring should be carefully examined. 

In fairness to the past, a sprinkler system was installed beneath my roof 
in 1939, and my exterior was cleaned effectively in 1952. 

But it is well to have the Governor, the Council of State and others 
concerned about my future. It is good to know there are those who care — to 
have a flutter of interest in my behalf. Even the pigeons and squirrels are 
concerned! 

Some time before the year is out, I am informed, we will dedicate, in an 
appropriate ceremony, the receipt from Italy of the figure of Washington 
carved in marble. It is meet and proper in anticipation of this event that I be 
cleaned, refurnished and made in every way presentable. Incidentally, my 
architect told me that in the original plans I was to have this statue. So, in a 
sense, I am unfinished until it is in place. 

There are those who think I should be restored to my former splendor. The 
doctors of history suggest I should be arrayed in the mode of 1840. This, I 
suppose has something to do with my ultimate status as a shrine. 

I favor this restoration. But I doubt that such a project can be completely 
achieved. After all, in recent times, I have become a creature of modern 
conveniences, such as central heating, inside plumbing and electricity— all 
unavailable in 1840. Whatever is done, my comfort should be considered. 
Especially, I would like to have hot, as well as cold running water! 

In my bosom laws were made. Through the decades, I have heard the 
thunders of eloquence. I have been amused at the wit and tall tales of 
statesmen. 

Today my halls are silent. People come and go and look at me, and marvel 
at the stories of the past. They say I am a symbol of all that has been 
achieved within the borders of our State. So be it. I am a symbol. 



^Composed by Edwin Gill, State Treasure of North Carolina, 1959-1977. 



Historical Miscellanea 41 



THE EXECUTIVE RESIDENCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina has not always provided an official home for the governor 
and his family. In 1770 the magnificent Governor's Palace in New Bern 
which came to be known as "Tryon's Palace" was occupied by Royal 
Governor William Tryon. Prior to this the chief executive lived wherever he 
chose at his own expense. Tryon Palace was destined to serve as the formal 
residence of governors for only a short time. Exposure to the threats of 
enemy forces during the American Revolution resulted in its virtual abandon- 
ment and in 1798 a fire destroyed all but the west wing. 

The transient nature of North Carolina's first legislators and the lack of 
no ''fixed" seat of government did not lend to the establishing of an 
executive residence. In 1792, a capital "city" was planned and laid out in the 
"hills of Wake" on Joel Lane's plantation. Raleigh, named in honor of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, became the permanent seat of government. Shortly there- 
after an act was passed by the legislature requiring the governor to reside at 
the permanent seat of government. Samuel Ashe of New Hanover County, 
the first governor to be affected by this edict, expressed his emphatic 
opposition when he wrote ". . . it was never supposed that a Man annually 
elected to the Chief Magistracy would commit such folly as to attempt the 
building of a House at the seat of Government in which he might for a time 
reside." The committee of the general assembly to whom Ashe's letter was 
referred hastened to inform him that the law was enacted before his election 
as governor and could be considered "as a condition under the encumbrance 
of which he accepted the appointment." 

Shortly thereafter, the general assembly took steps to provide a dwelling 
for the chief executive. The State Treasurer was instructed to purchase or 
lease a suitable house. In 1797 the governor was provided with a plain, two- 
story, white frame building and an office on lot 131, the southwest corner of 
Fayetteville and Hargett streets. 

This first official residence of the governor proved helplessly inadequate, 
most probably because of its size. The General Assembly of 1813 appointed a 
committee to remedy the situation. Plans were made for the erection of a 
more suitable dwelling and a site was selected at the foot of Fayetteville 
Street facing the capitol. In 1816, the elaborate brick structure with white 
columned porticoes was completed and Governor William Miller became the 
first occupant of the new "Governor's Palace." 

In traditional ante-bellum fashion, the twenty succeeding governors resided 
in the Palace, as it was officially known, and much of the history of the state 
centered there. General Lafayette was a visitor in 1825. Some sessions of the 
general assembly were held in the Palace following the burning of the 
Capitol in 1831. The last governor to occupy the Palace was Zebulon Baird 
Vance, North Carolina's governor during the Civil War. Union leaders such 
as General Sherman and other federal troops later occupied the dwelling, 
but only injured the pride of the local citizens, not to the building itself. 
However, years of neglect and the structural inadequacy of the house from 
the very beginning made it unattractive to those governors coming into 
office after the war. During Reconstruction and until the present mansion 



42 



North Carolina Manual 



/'V«p(f^: 




Historical Miscellanea 43 

was built, the chief executives resided in Raleigh in rented houses, hotels, or 
in their own homes. From 1871 until 1891 the Yarborough House, a noted 
Raleigh hotel, served as the unofficial residence for several North Carolina 
governors. 

Governor Vance, the last occupant of the Palace, became governor in 1879. 
In that year he presented the report of a commission appointed two years 
earlier by the legislature to investigate the possibilities of providing a 
suitable residence for the governor. The commission had also been charged 
with the task of selling unused State land in and adjacent to the city of 
Raleigh with proceeds from the sales earmarked for the construction of a 
house and outbuildings appropriate for the governor. 

Meanwhile the matter of hiring an architect was investigated and David 
Paton, designer of the Capitol, naturally came to mind. He was an associate 
of Ithiel Town of New York, the architect originally consulted in rebuilding 
the Capitol. By the 1880's, however, Paton was in his middle seventies and 
age and poor health made it necessary for him to decline the invitation to 
visit Raleigh to help select a location and plan the house. 

The decision to build the present governor's mansion was made by the 
general assembly at the perseverance of Governor Thomas Jarvis. Under 
the governor's prompting the legislature approached the problem of providing 
adequate housing for the chief executive. A bill ratified in February 1883, 
authorized construction of a house on Burke Square, provided for major 
furnishings, and required the governor occupy it upon its completion. The 
governor and Council of State were directed to use convict labor and such 
materials as were "manufactured or prepared, either in whole or in part" at 
the penitentiary, when such a procedure seemed feasible. To finance the 
project, the governor was authorized to use money realized from the sale of 
state lands (1877) and was instructed to sell the old Palace and grounds. 
Expenditures were not to exceed the sum realized and an accurate accounting 
was demanded. A record of the money spent by the governor and council 
was to be entered in a journal and the auditor was instructed to check and 
file itemized accounts before issuing warrants for payment. 

Two months after passage of the bill, the Council of State met with 
Governor Jarvis and instructed him to advertise the Palace and grounds for 
immediate sale and to employ an architect to make sketches and specifi- 
cations for the consideration by the Council. Governor Jarvis accordingly 
wrote W.J. Hicks, architect and warden of the prison, suggesting a plan 
which called for construction of the house under exclusive direction of the 
penitentiary authorities and payment of a definite sum to that institution. 
The law provided that the council and the governor might call upon the 
penitentiary for all the labor and materials it could furnish "in whole or in 
part." Jarvis felt there might be some differences of opinion as to the 
meaning of the statement. He reasoned that with construction work then 
being done at the penitentiary, by using the same material and labor in 
building the mansion, a savings would be realized in buying in larger 
quantities. From a practical standpoint Jarvis thought the State would 
profit by having both projects under the same management, and exporioncod 
businessmen advised such a plan might save the State as much as twenty 
thousand dollars. 



44 North Carolina Manual 

Samuel Sloan of Philadelphia and his assistant, Gustavus Adolphus 
Bauer, were chosen as architects. Sloan arrived in Raleigh on April 28, 1883, 
with his designs for the residence. These were declared "very artistic, 
representing an ornate building, in modern style, three stories in height, 
with the ample porches, hallways, and windows which every house built in 
this climate should have." On May 7 came the news that the designs 
submitted by Sloan had been accepted, with some modifications suggested 
by "able builders" of the city. 

Officers at the penitentiary board making a report in 1882-1884 declared 
the building handsome in design, constructed of the best materials by the 
best workers, using pressed brick made at the prison and trimmed with 
North Carolina sandstone which gave "a very happy relief to the external 
appearance." They also expressed satisfaction with the artistry and con- 
venience of the house's interior and wished to enhance it further by using an 
"elaborate North Carolina hard-wood finish." 

In another progress report a year later, Jarvis stated that the stone was 
quarried in Anson County and most of the finishing had been done by 
convicts. He also favored an interior of North Carolina hardwood, including 
the ceiling, wainscotting, and woodwork of the halls and rooms of the first 
floor. 

Dreams of a beautiful mansion for the governor were in danger of being 
lost as 1889 dawned. Money for its construction had run out. The Council of 
State and the governor met to discuss the question of beginning work on the 
house again and pushing it to completion. The decision was made to give the 
governor the authority to sell the property in Raleigh belonging to the fund 
as provided for by recent legislation. The proceeds would go to the work of 
completing the mansion." 

By the end of December, 1890, the house was nearly finished but Governor 
Daniel Fowle did not move in until after the new year. He was particularly 
anxious to occupy the house in view of the earlier attempts to abandon it as 
a residence for the governor. 

Following completion of the dwelling, the Council of State announced that 
the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds would have charge of its 
supervision beginning in December. However, repair and preservation work 
had already begun the previous month with "certain exterior and interior 
painting" of the woodwork. Most of the accounts emphasize the deplorable 
condition of the "completed house." The plumbing was cheap and dirt was 
laid between the floors to deaden sound. The third floor and basement were 
left unfinished. On the lot were stables for "horses driven to the governor's 
Carraige" and other outhouses. A pump provided drinking water for the 
mansion and a little gas engine pumped water from the cisterns in the 
basement to a tank on the top floor. 

The earliest laws providing for the construction of a governor's residence, 
as well as most of the later planning, called for the purchase of furnishings. 
As the cost of construction mounted, only a small portion of money remained 
for furniture; however, some purchases were made before the house was 
furnished. An appropriation of $1500 in 1891 made additional purchases 
possible. Other furnishings were bought by the individual occupants during 
their stay in the mansion. 



Historical Miscellanea 45 

When Governor Fowle moved into the mansion, he brought his own 
furniture to supplement what was already in the mansion. This precedent 
was followed for many years before the house was adequately furnished. 
Governor Fowle filed a list of furnishings in the treasurer's office to avoid 
any confusion in the future as to who owned what. 

Elias Carr was the first governor to live at the mansion for a full term of 
four years (1893-1897). Like his predecessors he soon found the house in need 
of furnishings and repairs. Funds were allocated by the legislature in 
February for necessary furniture and for "completion and repairing the 
mansion." Two years later another appropriation was made for work on the 
grounds. 

As frequently seemed the case with new governors, Governor Bickett's 
residency began with as inspection of the mansion and recommendations in 
keeping with the needs found there. Some time previously the attorney 
general had ruled that the mansion and grounds, as public property, were 
under the care of the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds and directly 
under the supervision of the keeper of the capitol. The superintendent of 
buildings and grounds made a detailed report in addition to the recommenda- 
tions for improving the interior made by Mrs. Bickett and architect James 
A. Salter. The repairs and improvements recommended for the exterior and 
surrounding grounds were extensive, amounting to nearly ten thousand 
dollars. 

Mrs. Bickett wrote a letter to the joirjt committee on public buildings and 
grounds of the legislature and attached estimates given by Salter. Her plea 
received sufficient attention to merit the introduction of a bill for the 
requested repairs and renovations with the provision that these be made up 
to an expenditure of $65,000 out of any funds in the hands of the State 
Treasurer not otherwise appropriated." This optimistic bill, however, failed 
to pass and a substitute law was enacted in March, 1917, allowing $4,000 "to 
renovate, equip, and properly furnish the Governor's Mansion and improve 
the surrounding grounds." The succeeding legislature passed another act, 
allowing an expenditure of $2,000 annually for the years 1919 and 1920. 

As preparations were made for Governor Angus W. McLean's occupation 
of the mansion, previous renovations were considered inadequate by the 
incoming governor and citizens alike. Sentiment for abandoning the house 
was aroused once more. The mansion was so obsolete and so uncomfortable, 
public opinion in Raleigh favored scrapping the building and providing the 
governor with a new house in one of the city's residential sections. Burke 
Square could then be used as a public park. 

Secretary of State W.N. Everett halted the movement. Rather than do 
away with the mansion, he thought it should be repaired and furnished in 
such a way as to provide a comfortable dwelling. With the support of 
Governor McLean, Everett prevailed and is credited with not only saving 
the mansion, but also making it a house in keeping with the dignity of the 
governor and his office. 

McLean's plans for renovating and refurbishing were based on information 
beyond that gained through casual observation and the complaints of his 
predecessors. Sometime earlier the legislature had passed a law requiring 
the State Board of Health to inspect all state institutions for sanitation. The 



46 North Carolina Manual 

mansion which came under this category, was inspected in February, 1925, 
shortly after McLean's inauguration. 

The report from the Board of Health was startling. The mansion had been 
inspected and rated in the same manner that hotels were appraised. It 
received "the very low rating of 71." The report added that the management 
of a hotel receiving such a rating would be subject to indictment, and further 
added that the principal deductions in scoring were for uncleanliness. 

Dr. W.S. Rankin, State Health Officer, after accompanying the sanitary 
engineer on his tour of inspection of the mansion, was so impressed with the 
necessity of making these improvements, he felt it his duty to bring the 
matter before the general assembly. 

Secretary of State Everett had made his own examination and reported 
major repairs were needed for the sake of preservation. He suggested a sum 
not exceeding $50,000 for these repairs and new furnishings. Although this 
action was taken without McLean's knowledge, upon learning of it, he soon 
became active in seeking authority to begin the much-needed repairs. 

When money became available, the architectural firm of Atwood and 
Nash were employed to carry out the renovations. H. Pier-Giavina, a 
"decorative artist" from Wilmington helped in the interior decorating. Renova- 
tions included painting throughout the mansion and modernizing the plumb- 
ing and electrical facilities. 

In working out a scheme of decoration and deciding on furniture, the 
services of Elizabeth Thompson, a local interior decorator, and the experience 
of Mrs. Mclean were employed. The first lady, whose efforts were bent 
toward the simple and substantial, was eminently fitted for the task by her 
own "excellent taste and wide observation." Cloak rooms and servants 
quarters were added to the basement and the previously unfinished third 
floor. 

It was not until McLean's administration, in 1925, that the legislature 
made a specific appropriation for maintaining the governor's mansion. 
Previously, expenditures were made as needed out the general fund. 

The renovation undertaken by Governor McLean was not actually com- 
pleted while he was in residence. This was particularly true of the furnish- 
ings. Governor-elect Gardner felt the home of the governor should preserve a 
uniform appearance regardless of the temporary occupant. He asked the 
Board of Public Buildings and Grounds to confer with the McLeans to 
determine what was needed and to make provisions for these needs before he 
came into office. McLean brought the matter to the attention of the board 
and a "Special Furniture and Equipment Account Available for Incoming 
Governor" was set up for this purpose. 

The Gardners had not been in the mansion long before the legislature 
passed an act authorizing the State Highway Commission to build and 
maintain walkways and drives "within the Mansion Square. . . ." Included 
in this project was a plan for a general landscaping of the mansion grounds. 

For advice in landscaping, Thomas W. Sears, a landscape architect from 
Philadelphia, was contacted. Blueprints were drawn and plans submitted. 
Mrs. Gardner's concern for landscaping the grounds led to further interest in 



Historical Miscellanea 47 

the exterior appearance of the house and at their suggestion the outside 
woodwork was painted brown to blend with the sandstone and brick. 

The master plan drawn by Elizabeth Thompson in 1925, at Governor 
McLean's request, provided a guide for succeeding residents and allowed 
some consistency in furnishings and decoration. Governors of the past few 
decades have witnessed further changes and improvements. 

The question of continuing to use the Mansion as both an official residence 
and as the domicile of the governor and his family during his term of office 
has been raised more than once. The massive structure for all its beauty and 
heritage has been questioned from a practical aspect. The 1971 General 
Assembly created "The Executive Residence Building Commission" to study 
the current needs of the Executive family and to make recommendations 
regarding the future use of the Mansion. The commission was made up of 
seven members, two appointed by Lieutenant Governor Patrick Taylor from 
the membership of the Senate (John Church and J.J. Harrington), two 
appointed by Speaker of the House Phil Godwin from the membership of the 
House (Kenneth Royall and Dwight Quinn), and three appointed by Governor 
Bob Scott (Wayne Corpening, Gladys Bullard, and Charles Bradshaw). An 
advisory committee was also authorized to aid the Residence Commission on 
technical aspects. 

The work of the Commission covered nearly two years of study, including 
periodic meetings and visits to other states to view Mansions and residences 
"which they deemed most appropriate in design and suited to the needs of 
the Governor of North Carolina." Following these visits, and after hearing 
presentations from six architectural firms, recommendations were made to 
the Capitol Building Authority, and the firm of Dodge and Beckwith was 
commissioned to draw up the plans and to make cost estimates for a new 
Executive Residence. The plans were accepted on October 5, 1972, and the 
cost estimate given to the governor and Advisory Budget Commission on 
October 30, for inclusion in the 1973-1975 budget proposals to the general 
assembly. 

Included in the report made to the 1973 General Assembly was an 
addendum containing suggestions, made at the request of the commission, 
from Mr. Carroll Mann, then State Property Officer, regarding the renovation 
of the Mansion and the cost of such an undertaking. Also included in the 
addendum were suggestions by the commission members for "modernizing 
and restoring the Executive Mansion" if it was kept as the Executive 
Residence. As a result of the Study Commission's report, the 1973 General 
Assembly appropriated $575,000 for renovation and alterations of the Execu- 
tive Mansion. Work began during the summer, 1973, and was completed in 
late 1974. The plans for the constructing of a new executive mansion were 
dropped. 

Since these initial renovations in 1973 and 1974, additional renovation 
and modernization work has been done to the Mansion to improve its energy 
efficiency and liveability. 



48 North Carolina Manual 

THE MECKLENBURG DECLARATION OF 20TH MAY, 1775* 

officp:rs 

Abraham Alexander, Chairman 
John McKnitt Alexander 

DELEGATES 

Col. Thomas Polk F^zra Alexander Waightsill Avery 

Ephriam Brevard William Graham Benjamin Patton 

Hezekiah J. Balch John Quary Mathew McClure 

John Phifer Abraham Alexander Neil Morrison 

James Harris John McKnitt Alexander Robert Irwin 

William Kennon Hezekiah Alexander John Henniken 

John Ford Adam Alexander David Reese 

Richard Barry Charles Alexander Richard Harris, Sen. 

Henry Downs Zacheus Wilson, Sen. 

The following resolutions were presented: 

1. Resolved. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in any way 
form or manner contenanced the unchartered and dangerous invasion of our 
rights as claimed by Great Britain is an enemy to this country, to America, 
and to the inherent and inalienable rights of man. 

2. Resolved. That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby 
dissolve the political bonds which have connected us to the nother country 
and herevy absolve ourselves from all allegiance to the British Crown and 
abjure all political connections contract or association with that nation who 
have wantonly trampled on our rights and liberties and inhumanly shed the 
blood of American patriots at Lexington. 

3. Resolved. That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent 
people, are, and of right ought to be a sovereign and self-governing associa- 
tion under the control of no power other than that of our God and the 
General Government of the Congress to the maintenance of which in- 
dependence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual cooperation, our 
lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. 

4. Resolved. That as we now acknowledge the existence and control of no 
law or legal officer, civil or military within this County, we do hereby ordain 
and adopt as a rule of life all, each and every of our former laws — wherein 
nevertheless the Crown of Great Britain never can be considered as holding 
rights, privileges, immunities, or authority therein. 

5. Resolved. That it is further decreed that all, each and every Military 
Officer in this County is hereby reinstated in his former command and 
authority, he acting comformably to these regulations. And that every 
member present of this delegation shall henceforth be a civil officer, viz., a 
justice of the peace, in the character of a "committee man" to issue process, 
hear and determine all matters of controversy according to said adopted 
laws and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, and to use 
every exertion to spread the love of Country and fire of freedom throughout 
America, until a more general and organized government be established in 
this Province. 



*This document is found in Vol. IX, pages 1263-65 of the Colonial Records of North 
Carolina; however, the authenticity of the declaration has become a source of con- 
troversy among historians. The controversy arises because the text of the Resolves 
was recalled from memory by the clerk some twenty years after the Mecklenburg 
meeting. The original notes had been lost in a fire. 



CHAPTER THREE 
Our State Symbols 

THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

A seal for important documents was used before the government was ever 
implemented in North Carolina. During the colonial period North Carolina 
used successively four different seals. Since independence six seals have 
been used. 

Shortly after King Charles II issued the Charter of 1663 to the Lords 
Proprietors, a seal was adopted to use in conjunction with their newly 
acquired domains in America. No official description has been found of the 
seal but it can be seen in the British Public Record Office in London. The 
seal had two sides and was three and three-eights inches in diameter. The 
impression was made by bonding two wax cakes together with tape before 
being impressed. The finished impression was about one-fourth inch thick. 
This seal was used on all official papers of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, 
embracing both North Carolina and South Carolina. 





Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 



When the Government of Albemarle was organized in 1665, it adopted for 
a seal the reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors. Between the coats- 
of-arms the word A-L-BE-M-A-R-L-E was fixed in capitols, beginning with 
the letter "A" between the Craven arms and those of Lord John Berekeley. 

The Albemarle seal was small, only one and seven-sixteenths inches in 
diameter and had only one face. The seal was usually impressed on red wax, 
but was occasionally seen imprinted on a wafer stuck to the instrument with 
soft wax. The government for Albemarle County was the first to use the seal; 



50 



North Carolina Manual 




Seal of the Government of Albemarle and Province 
of North Carolina, 1665-1730 



however, as the colony grew it became the seal of the entire Province of 
North Carolina. It continued in use until just after the purchase of North 
Carolina by the crown. During the troublesome times of the Cary Rebellion, 
the Albemarle seal was not used. Instead, Cary used his family arms as a 
seal for official papers. William Glover used his private seal during his' 
presidency as well. 

When North Carolina became a Royal Colony in 1729, the old "Albemarle" 
seal was no longer applicable. On February 3, 1729/30, the Board of Trade 
recommended that the king order a public seal for the Province of North 
Carolina. Later that same month, the king approved the recommendations 
and ordered that a new seal be prepared for the Governor of the of North 
Carolina. On March 25, the Board of Trade presented the king with a draft 
of the proposed seal for his consideration. The king approved proposed new 
seal on April 10 with one minor change - "Georgius Secundus" was to be 
substituted for the original "Geo. II." The chief engraver of seals, Rollos, was 
ordered to "engrave a silver Seal according to said draught . . . ." 





Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1 730- 1 767 



Our State Symbols 



51 



The arrival of the new seal in North Carohna was delayed, so when the 
council met in Edenton on March 30, 1731, the old seal of the Colony was 
ordered to be used till the new seal arrived." The new seal arrived in late 
April and the messenger fetching the seal from Cape Fear was paid ten 
pounds for his journey. The impression of the new seal was made by placing 
two cakes or layers of wax together, and then interlacing ribbon or tape with 
the attached seal between the wax cakes. It was customary to put a piece of 
paper on the outside of three cakes before they were impressed. The complete 
seal was four and three-eighths inches in diameter and from one-half to five- 
eighths inches thick and weighed about five and one-half ounces. 





Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 



At a meeting of the council held in New Bern on December 14, 1767, 
Governor Tryon produced a new Great Seal of the province with his Majesty's 
Royal Warrant bearing date at the Court of St. James the 9th day of July, 
1767. The old seal was returned to his Majesty's Council office at Whitehall 
in England. Accompanying the warrant was a description of the new seal 
with instruction that the seal was to be used in sealing all patents and 
grants of lands and all public instruments passed in the king's name for 
service within the province. It was four inches in diameter, one-half to five- 
eighths thick, and weighed four and one-half ounces. 

Sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used on commissions 
and grants, such as a small heart-shaped seal, or a seal in the shape of an 
ellipse. These impressions were evidently made by putting the wax far 
enough under the edge of the Great Seal to take the impression of the crown. 
The royal governors also used their private seals on commissions and 
grants. 

Lord Granville, who after the sale of the colony by the Lords Proprietors, 
had retained the right to issue land grants. He used his private seal on the 
grants he issued. The last reference found to the colonial seal is in a letter 
from Governor Martin to the Earl of Hillsborough in November, 1771. in 
which he recounts the broken condition of the seal. He states the seal had 



52 



North Carolina Manual 



been repaired and though "awkwardly mended ... [it was] in such manner 
as to answer all purposes." 

Following independence Section XVII of the new constitution adopted at 
Halifax on December 18, 1776, provided "That there shall be a Seal of this 
State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as occasion 
may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of North 
Carolina, and be affixed to all grants and commissions." When a new 
constitution was adopted in 1868, Article III, Section 16 provided for "... a 
seal of the State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him, as 
occasion may require, and shall be called The Great Seal of the State of 
North Carolina.' It also provided for the secretary of state to countersign 
with the governor. When the people of North Carolina ratified the current 
constitution in 1970, Article III, Section 10 contained provisions for "The 
Great Seal of the State of North Carolina." However, the wording which 
authorized the secretary of state to countersign documents was removed. 

On December 22, 1776, the Provincial Congress at Halifax appointed 
William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and Thomas Burke as commissioners to 
procure a seal for the State; however, there is no record that a report was 
ever made by this commission. The Congress provided for the governor to 
use his "private seal at arms" until the Great Seal for the state was 
procured. A bill calling for the procurement of a Great Seal was introduced 
in the lower house of the general assembly on April 28, 1778. The bill became 
law on May 2. The legislation provided that William Tisdale, Esq., be 
appointed to cut and engrave a seal for the STate. On Sunday, November 7, 
1779, the senate granted Tisdale 150 pounds to make the seal. The seal 
procured under this act was used until 1794. The actual size of the seal was 
three inches in diameter and one-fourth inch thick. It was made by putting 
two cakes of wax together with paper wafers on the outside and pressing 
them between the dies, thus forming the obverse and reverse sides of the 
seal. 





The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 



Our State Symbols 



53 



An official description of this seal cannot be found, but many of the seals 
are still in existence in an almost perfect state of preservation. 

In January, 1792, the general assembly authorized a new State seal, 
requiring that it be prepared with only one side. Colonel Abisha Thomas, an 
agent of North Carolina commissioned by Governor Martin, was in 
Philadelphia to settle the State's Revolutionary claims against the Federal 
Government. Martin sent a design to Colonel Thomas for a new seal for the 
State; however, after suggestions by Dr. Hugh Williamson and Senator 
Samuel Johnston, this sketch was disregarded and a new one submitted. 
This new sketch, with some modification, was finally accepted by Governor 
Spaight, and Colonel Thomas had the seal made accordingly. 

The seal press for the old seal must have been very large and unwieldy 
probably due to the two-sided nature and large diameter of the seal. Governor 
Richard Dobbs Spaight in a letter to Colonel Abisha Thomas in February, 
1793, wrote: "Let the screws by which the impression is to be made be as 
portable as possible so as it may be adapted to our present itinerant 
government. The one now in use by which the Great Seal is a present made 
is so large and unwieldy as to be carried only in a cart or wagon and of 
course has become stationary at the Secretary's office which makes it very 
convenient." The seal was cut some time during the summer of 1793, and 
Colonel Thomas brought it home with him in time for the meeting of the 
legislature in November, 1793, at which session it was "approbated." The 
screw to the seal was two and one half inches in diameter and was used 
until around 1835. 

In the winter of 1834-35 the legislature enacted legislation authorizing the 
governor to procure a new seal. The preamble to the act stated that the old 
seal had been used since the first day of March, 1793. A new seal which was 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1794-1836 



54 



North Carolina Manual 



very similar to its predecessor was adopted in 1835 and continued in use 
until 1893. In 1868 the legislature authorized the governor to procure a new 
replacement Seal and required him to do so whenever the old one was lost or 
so worn or defaced that it was unfit for use. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 



In 1883, Colonel S. MCD. Tate introduced a bill that did not provide that a 
new seal be procured but described in more detail what the seal should be 
like. In 1893, Jacob Battle introduced a bill that made no change in the seal 
except to add at the foot of the coat-of-arms of the state as part thereof the 
motto Esse Quam Videri and to provide that the words "May 20, 1775," be 
inscribed at the top of the coat-of-arms. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1893-1971 



Our State Symbols 



55 



By the late 19th and early 20th century, the ship that appeared in the 
background of the early seals had disappeared. The North Carolina Moun- 
tains were the only backdrop on the seal, while formerly both the mountains 
and the ship had been depicted. 

This brief history of the seals of our State illustrates the great variety and 
the liberty that was taken in the design of the official State seal. The 1971 
General Assembly, in an effort to "provide a standard for the Great Seal of 
the State of North Carolina," passed the following Act amending the General 
Statutes provision relative to the State Seal: 

The Governor shall procure of the State a Seal, which shall be 
called the great seal of the State of North Carolina, and shall be 
two and one-quarter inches in diameter, and its design shall be a 
representation of the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward 
each other, but not more than half-fronting each other and other- 
wise disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her 
pole with cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the 
second figure, sitting down, her right arm half extended toward 
Liberty, three heads of grain in her right hand, and in her left, 
the small end of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her 
feet, and the contents of the horn rolling out. 

The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of 
mountains running from left to right to the middle of the seal. A 
side view of a three-masted ship shall be located on the ocean and 
to the right of Plenty. The date "May 20, 1775" shall appear 
within the seal and across the top of the seal and the works "esse 
quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around the perimeter. No 
other words, figures or other embellishments shall appear on the 
seal. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1971-1984 



56 



North Carolina Manual 



It shall be the duty of the Governor to file in the office of the 
Secretary of State an impression of the great seal, certified to 
under his hand and attested to by the Secretary of State, which 
impression so certified the Secretary of State shall carefully 
preserve among the records of this Office. 

The late Jullian R. Allsbrook, who served in the North Carolina Senate for 
many years, felt that the adoption date of the Halifax Resolves ought to be 
commemorated on the State seal as it was already on the State flag. This 
was to "serve as a constant reminder of the people of this state's commitment 
to liberty." Legislation adding the date "April 12, 1776" to the Great Seal of 
the State of North Carolina was ratified May 2, 1983, with an effective date 
of January 1, 1984. Chapter 257 of the Session Laws of North Carolina 
included provisions that would not invalidate any Great Seal of the State of 
North Carolina in use or on display. Instead replacement could occur as the 
need arose. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1984- 



Our State Symbols 57 



THE STATE FLAG 

The flag is an emblem of antiquity and has commanded respect and 
reverence from practically all nations from the earliest times. History traces 
it to divine origin, the early peoples of the earth attributing to it strange, 
mysterious, and supernatural powers. Indeed, our first recorded references to 
the standard and the banner, of which our present flag is but a modified 
form, are from sacred rather than from secular sources. We are told that it 
was around the banner that the prophets of old rallied their armies and 
under which the hosts of Israel were led to was, believing, as they did, that 
the flag carried with it divine favor and protection. 

Since that time all nations and all peoples have had their flags and 
emblems, though the ancient superstition regarding their divine merits and 
supernatural powers has disappeared from among civilizjcd peoples. The flag 
now, the world over, possesses the same meaning and has a uniform 
significance to all nations wherever found. It stands as the symbol of 
strength and unity, representing the national spirit and patriotism of the 
people over whom it floats. In both lord and subject, the ruler and the ruled, 
it commands respect, inspires patriotism, and instills loyalty both in peace 
and war. In this country we have a national flag which stands as the 
emblem of our strength and unity as a nation, a living representation of our 
national spirit and honor. In addition to our national flag, each of the states 
in the Union has a "state flag" which is symbolic of its own individuality 
and domestic ideals. The state also expresses some particular trait, or 
commemorates some historical event of the people over whom it floats. The 
flags of most of the states, however, consist of the coat of arms of that state 
upon a suitably colored field. It is said that the first state flag of North 
Carolina was built on this model but legislative records show that a "state 
flag" was not established or recognized until 1861. The constitutional conven- 
tion of 1861, which passed the ordinance of secession, adopted a state flag. 
On May 20, 1861, the day the secession resolution was adopted. Col. John 0. 
Whitford, a member of the convention from Craven County, introduced an 
ordinance, which was referred to a select committee of seven. The ordinance 
stated, that the flag of this State shall be blue field with a white V thereon, 
and a star, encircling which shall be the words, Sirgit astrum, May 20, 
1775." 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committee to which this 
ordinance was referred. The committee secured the aid and advice of William 
Jarl Browne, an artist of Raleigh. Browne prepared and submitted a model 
to this committee and this model was adopted by the convention of June 22, 
1861. The Browne model, was vastly different from the original design 
proposed by Colonel Whitford. The law as it appears in the ordinance and 
resolutions passed by the convention is as follows: 

AN ORDINANCE IN RELATION TO A STATE FLAG 

Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by 
the authority of the same. That the Flag of North Carolina shall 



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North Carolina Manual 



consist of a red field with a white star in the centre, and with the 
inscription, above the star, in a semi-circuhir form, of "May 20th, 
1775," and below the star, in a semi-circular form, of "May 20th, 
1861." That there shall be two bars of equal width, and the length 
of the field shall be equal to the bar, the width of the field being 
equal to both bars: the first bar shall be blue, and second shall be 
white: and the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its 
width. [Ratified the 22nd day of June, 1861.] 

This state flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to North 
Carolina regiments of state troops during the summer of 1861 and borne by 
them throughout the war. It was the only flag, except the national and 
Confederate colors, used by North Carolina troops during the Civil War. 
This Hag existed until 1885, when the Legislature adopted a new model. 




"The North Carolina State Flag adopted in 1885" 



Our State Symbols 59 

As stated above the Legislature of 1885 adopted a new state flag. The bill, 
which was introduced by General Johnstone Jones on February 5, 1885, 
passed its final reading one month later after little debate. This act reads as 
follows: 

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a 
blue union, containing in the centre thereof a white star with the 
letter N in gilt on the left and the letter C in the gilt on the right 
of said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the 
width of the union. 

SEC. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally 
proportioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be 
white; that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to 
the perpendicular length of the union, and the total length of the 
flag shall be one-third more than its width. 

SEC. 3. That above the star in the centre of the union there 
shall be a gilt scroll in semi-circular form, containing in black 
letters this inscription "May 20th, 1775," and that below the star 
there shall be similar scroll containing in black letters the 
inscription: "April 12th, 1776." 

SEC. 4. That this act shall take effect from and after its 
ratification. In the General Assembly read three times and ratified 
this 9th day of March, A.D. 1885. 

It is interesting to examine the significance of the dates found on the flag. 
The first date, "May 20, 1775," refers to the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, although many speculate the authenticity of this particular 
document. The second date appearing on the state flag of 1861 is that of 
"May 20th, 1861." This date commemorated the secession of the State from 
the Union, but as the cause for secession was defeated this date longer repre- 
sented anything after the Civil War. So when a new flag was adopted in 
1885, this date was replaced with "April 12th, 1776." This date com- 
memorates the Halifax Resolves, a document that places the Old North 
State in the very front rank, both in point of time and in spirit, among those 
that demanded unconditional freedom and absolute independence from any 
foreign power. This document stands out as one of the great landmarks in 
the annals of North Carolina history. 

Since 1885 there has been no change in our state flag. For the most part, it 
has remained unknown and a stranger to the good people of our State. 
However, as we became more intelligent, and therefore, more patriotic and 
public spirited, the emblem of the Old North State assumed a station of 
greater prominence among our people. One hopeful sign of this increased 
interest was the act passed by the Legislature of 1907, requiring the state 
flag to be floated from all state institutions, public buildings, and court- 
houses. In addition to this, many public and private schools, fraternal 
orders, and other organizations now float the state flag. The people of the 



60 North Carolina Manual 

State should become acquainted with the emblem of that government to 
which they owe allegiance and from which they secure protection, and to 
ensure that they would, the legislature enacted the following: 

AN ACT TO PROMOTE LOYALTY AND GREATER FOR 
THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That for the purpose of promoting greater loyalty 
and respect to the state and inasmuch as a special act of the 
Legislature has adopted an emblem of our government known as 
the North Carolina State flag, that it is meet and proper that it 
shall be given greater prominence. 

SEC. 2. That the board of trustees or managers of the several 
state institutions and public buildings shall provide a North 
Carolina flag, of such dimensions and materials as they deem 
best, and the same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of 
each and every such building at all times except during inclement 
weather, and upon the death of any state officer or any prominent 
citizen the flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such 
person shall have taken place. 

SEC. 3. That the Board of County Commissioners of the several 
counties in this state shall likewise authorize the procuring of a 
North Carolina flag, to be displayed either on a staff upon the 
top, or draped behind the judge's stand, in each and every term of 
court held, and on such other public occasions as the Commis- 
sioners may deem proper. 

SEC. 4. That no state flag shall be allowed in or over any 
building here mentioned that does not conform to section five 
thousand three hundred and twenty-one of the Revisal of one 
thousand nine hundred and five. 

SEC. S.That this act shall be in force from and after its 
ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this 9th day of 
March, A.D. 1907. 

Many North Carolinians have questioned the legitmacy of having the 
date of the Mecklenburg Declaration, May 20th, 1776, on the flag. Historians 
have debated its authenticity because the lack of any original documenta- 
tion. The only evidence of the Declaration is a reproduction from memory 
many years later by one of the delegates attending the convention. 
Historians' main argument, other than the non-existence of the original 
document, is that the Mecklenburg Resolves, adopted just eleven days after 
the Mecklenburg Declaration, are comparatively weak in tone, almost to the 
point of being completely opposite. Many historians find it difficult to 
believe that the irreconcilable tone of the Declaration could have been the 
work of the same people who produced the Resolves. Efforts have been made 
to have the date taken off the flag and the seal, but so far these efforts have 



Our State Symbols 61 

proved fruitless. Removal from the seal would be simple enough, for the date 
of the Halifax Resolves could easily be substituted without changing the 
basic intention of the date. The flag would prove to be more difficult, for 
there is no other date of significance which could be easily substituted. 



62 



North Carolina Manual 



:*>•« 




Our State Symbols 63 

THE STATE BIRD 

The Cardinal was selected by popular choice as our State Bird on March 4, 
1943. (Session Laws, 1943 c. 595; G.S. 145-2). 

The Cardinal is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is most 
noticeable during the winter when it is the only "redbird" present. A year- 
round resident of North Carolina, the Cardinal is one of the most common 
birds in our gardens, meadows and woodlands. The male Cardinal is red all 
over, except for the area of its throat and the region around its bill which is 
black; it is about the size of a Catbird only with a longer tail. The head is 
conspicuously crested and the large stout bill is red. The female is much 
duller in color with the red confined mostly to the crest, wings, and tail. This 
difference in coloring is common among many birds. Since it is the female 
that sits on the nest, her coloring must blend more with her natural 
surrounding to protect her eggs and young from preditors. There are no 
seasonal changes in her plumage. 

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual is that the female sings 
as beautifully as the male. The male generally monopolizes the art of song 
in the bird world. 

The nest of the Cardinal is rather an untidy affair built of weed stems, 
grass and similar materials in low shrubs, small trees or bunch of briars, 
generally not over four feet above the ground. The usual number of eggs set 
is three in this State and four further North. Possibly the Cardinal raises an 
extra brood down here to make up the difference, or possibly the population 
is more easily maintained here by the more moderate winters compared to 
the colder North. 

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike small fruits 
and insects. 



THE STATE FLOWER 

The General Assembly of 1941 designated the dogwood as the State 
Flower. (Public Laws, 1941, c. 289; G.S. 145-1) 

The Dogwood is one of the most prevalent trees in our State and can be 
found in all parts of the State from the mountains to the coast. Its blossoms, 
which appear in early spring and continue on into summer, are most often 
found in white, although shades of pink (red) are not uncommon. 

THE STATE INSECT 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the Honey Bee as the official 
State Insect. (Session Laws, 1973, c. 55) 

This industrious creature is responsible for the annual production of more 
than $2 million worth of honey in the state. However, the greatest value of 
Honey Bees is its role in the growing cycle as a major contributor to the 
pollination of North Carolina crops. 



64 



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i«^< 



v \ 



Our State Symbols 65 

THE STATE TREE 

The long leaf pine was officially designated as the State tree by the 
General Assembly of 1963. {Session Laws, 1963, c.41) 

The pine is the most common of the trees found in North Carolina, as well 
as the most important one in the history of our State. During the Colonial 
and early Statehood periods, the pine was a vital part of the ecomony of 
North Carolina. From it came many of the "naval stores" - resin, turpentine, 
and timber - needed by merchants and the navy for their ships. The pine has 
continued to supply North Carolina with many important wood products 
particularly in the building industry. 

THE STATE MAMMAL 

The General Assembly of 1969 designated the Gray Squirrel as the official 
State Mammal. (Session Laws, 1969. c.1207; G.S. 145-5). 

The gray squirrel is a common inhabitant of most areas of North Carolina 
from "the swamps of eastern North Carolina to the upland hardwood forests 
of the piedmont and western counties." He feels more at home in an 
"untouched wilderness" environment, although many squirrels inhabit our 
city parks and suburbs. During the fall and winter months the gray squirrel 
survives on a diet of hardwoods, with acrons providing carbohydrates and 
other nuts protein. In the spring and summer their diet consists of "new 
growth and fruits" supplemented by early corn, peanuts, and insects. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Our State Symbols 67 

THE STATE SHELL 

The General Assembly of 1965 designated the Scotch Bonnet (pronounced 
bonay) as the State Shell. {Session Laws, 1965, c. 681). 

A colorful and beautifully shaped shell, the Scotch Bonnet is abundant in 
North Carolina coastal waters at depths between 500 and 200 feet. The best 
source of live specimens is from offshore commercial fishermen. 

THE STATE SALT WATER FISH 

The General Assembly of 1971 designated the Channel Bass (Red Drum) 
as the official State Salt Water Fish. ( Session Laws, 1971, c.274; G.S. 145-6) 
Channel Bass usually occur in great supply along the Tar Heel coastal 
waters and have been found to weigh up to 75 pounds although most large 
ones average betwen 30 and 40 pounds. 

THE STATE TOAST 

The following toast was officially adopted as the State Toast of North 
Carolina by the General Assembly of 1957 (Session Laws, 1957, c.777). 

Here's to the land of the long leaf pine. 

The summer land where the sun doth shine. 

Where the weak grow strong and the strong grow great, 

Here's to "Down Home," the Old North State! 

Here's to the land of the cotton bloom white, 
Where the scuppernong perfumes the breeze at night, 
Where the soft southern moss and jessamine mate,' 
Neath the murmuring pines of the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where the galax grows. 
Where the rhododendron's rosette glows. 
Where soars Mount Mitchell's summit great. 
In the "Land of the Sky," in the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where maidens are fair. 
Where friends are true and cold hearts rare. 
The near land, the dear land, whatever fate. 
The blest land, the best land, the Old North State! 

*Composed in 1904 by Leonora Martin and Mary Burke Kerr. 



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THE STATE PRECIOUS STONE 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the emerald as the official State 
Precious Stone. {Session Laws, 1973, c. 136). 

A greater variety of minerals, more than 300, have been found in North 
Carolina than in any other state. 

These minerals include some of the most valuable and unique gems in the 
world. The largest Emerald ever found in North Carolina was 1,438 carats 
and was found at Hiddenite, near Statesville. The "Carolina Emerald," now 
owned by Tiffany & Company of New York was also found at Hiddenite in 
1970. When cut to 13.14 carats, the stone was valued at the time at $100,000 
and became the largest and finest cut emerald on this continent. 



Our State Symbols 



69 




THE STATE REPTILE 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated the Eastern Box Turtle as the 
official State Reptile for North Carolina. {Session Laws, 1979, c. 154) 

The turtle is one of nature's most useful creatures. Through its dietary 
habits it serves to assist in the control of harmful and pestiferous insects 
and as a clean-up crew, helping to preserve the purity and beauty of our 
waters. At a superficial glance, the turtle appears to be a mundane and 
uninteresting creature; however, closer examination reveals it to be most 
fascinating, ranging from species well-adapted to modern conditions to 
species which have existed virtually unchanged since prehistoric times. 
Derided by many, the turtle is really a cullinary delight, providing the 
gourmet food enthusiast with numerous tasty dishes from soups to entrees. 

The turtle watches undisturbed as countless generations of faster "hares" 
run by to quick oblivion, and is thus a model of patience for mankind, and a 
symbol of our State's unrelenting pursuit of great and lofty goals. 



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North Carolina Manual 




THE STATE ROCK 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated Granite as the official Rock for 
the State of North Carolina. {Session Laws, 1979, c.906). 

The State of North Carolina has been blessed with an abundant source of 
"the noble rock," granite. Just outside Mount Airy in Surry County is the 
largest open face granite quarry in the world measuring one mile long and 
1,800 feet in width. The granite from this quarry is unblemished, gleaming 
and without interfering seams to mar its splendor. The high quality of this 
granite allows its widespread use as a building material, in both industrial 
and laboratory applications where super smooth surfaces are necessary. 

North Carolina granite has been used for many magnificent edifices of 
government throughout the United States such as the Wright Brothers 
Memorial at Kitty Hawk, the gold depository at Fort Knox, the Arlington 
Memorial Bridge and numerous courthouses throughout the land. Granite is 
a symbol of strength and stedfastness, qualities characteristic of North 
Carolinians. It is fitting and just that the State recognize the contribution of 
granite in providing employment to its citizens and enhancing the beauty of 
its public buildings. 



Our State Symbols 



71 




THE STATE BEVERAGE 

The General Assembly of 1987 adopted milk as the official State Beverage. 
{Session Laws, 1987, c. 347) 

In making milk the official state beverage, North Carolina followed many 
other states including our northern neighbor, Virginia, and Wisconsin, the 
nation's number one dairy state. 

North Carolina ranks 20th among dairy producing states in the nation 
with nearly 1,000 dairy farmers producing 179 million gallons of milk per 
year. The annual income from amounts to around $228 million. North 
Carolinians consume over 143 million gallons of milk every year. 



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THE STATE HISTORIC BOAT 

The General Assembly of 1987 adopted the shad boat the official State 
Historical Boat. {Session Laws, 1987, c. 366). 

The Shad Boat was developed on Roanoke Island and is known for its 
unique crafting and manueverability. The name is derived from that of the 
fish it was used to catch - the shad. 

Traditional small sailing craft were generally ill-suited to the water ways 
and weather conditions along the coast. The shallow draft of the Shad Boat 
plus its speed and easy handling made the boat ideal for the upper sounds 
where the water was shallow and the weather changed rapidly. The boats 
were built using native trees such as cypress, juniper, and white cedar, and 
varied in length between twenty-two and thirty-three feet. Construction was 
so expensive that production of the shad boat ended in the 1930's, although 
they were widely used into the 1950's. The boats were so well constructed 
that some, nearly 100 years old, are still seen around Manteo and Hatteras. 



Our State Symbols 



73 











THE STATE DOG 

The Plott Hound was officially adopted as our State Dog on August 12, 
1989. {Session Laws of North Carolina, 1989 c. 773; G.S. 145-13). 

The Plott Hound breed originated in the mountains of North Carolina 
around 1750 and is the only breed known to have originated in this State. 
Named for Jonathan Plott who developed the breed as a wild boar hound, 
the Plott hound is a legendary hunting dog known as a courageous fighter 
and tenacious tracker. He is also a gentle and extremely loyal companion to 
hunters of North Carolina. The Plott Hound is very quick of foot with 
superior treeing instincts and has always been a favorite of big-game 
hunters. 

The Plott Hound has a beautiful brindle-colored coat and a spine-tingling, 
bugle-like call. It is also only one of four breeds known to be of American 
origin. 



74 North Carolina Manual 

NAME OF STATE AND NICKNAMES 

In 1629, King Charles I of England "erected into a province," all the land 
from Albemarle Sound on the north to the St. John's River on the south, 
which he directed should be called Carolina. The word Carolina is from the 
word Carolus, the Latin form of Charles. 

When Carolina was divided in 1710, the southern part was called South 
Carolina and the northern, or older settlement. North Carolina. From this 
came the nickname the "Old North State." Historians have recorded that 
the principal products during the early history of North Carolina were "tar, 
pitch, and turpentine." It was during one of the fiercest battles of the War 
Between the States, so the story goes, that the column supporting the North 
Carolina troops was driven from the field. After the battle the North 
Carolinians, who had successfully fought it out alone, were greeted from the 
passing derelict regiment with the question: "Any more tar down in the Old 
North State, boys?" Quick as a flash came the answer: "No, not a bit, old 
Jeffs bought it all up." "Is that so; what is he going to do with it?" was 
asked. "He is going to put it on you-uns heels to make you stick better in the 
next fight." Creecy relates that General Lee, upon hearing of the incident, 
said: "God bless the Tar Heel boys," and from that they took the name. 
( — Adapted from Grandfather Tales of North Carolina by R.B. Creecy and 
Histories of North Carolina Regiments, Vol. Ill, by Walter Clark). 



THE STATE MOTTO 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words "Esse 
Quam Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these words with the 
date "20 May, 1775," be placed with our Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of 
the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." Nearly 
every State has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The reason for mottoes 
being in Latin is that the Latin language is far more condensed and terse 
than the English. The three words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six 
English words to express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. It is 
found in Cicero's essay on Friendship (Cicero de Amnicitia, Chapter 26). 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the sovreign State of North 
Carolina had no motto since its declaration of independence. It was one of 
the few states which did not have a motto and the only one of the original 
thirteen without one. 



THE STATE COLORS 

The General Assembly of 1945 declared Red and Blue of shades appearing 
in the North Carolina State Flag and the American Flag as the official State 
Colors. {Session Laws, 1945, c.878). 



Our State Symbols 



75 



THE STATE SONG 

The song known as "The Old North State" was adopted as the official 
song of the State of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1927 
(Public Laws, 1927, c.26; G.S. 149-1). 



THE OLD NORTH STATE 



(Traditional air as tung in 1026) 



WiLLUM GlSTOa 

With spirit 



COLLKCTED AVS 1XB4H0B 

BT Hu. E. E. Rakdolts 



i ' 4 I ml — r* *^ 



^^ 



5^ 



4: 



^?3r2 



i 



1. Car - - li - na! Car - o 

2. Tho' she en - vies not 

3. Then let al! those wlio 



li - nal heav-en's ble$s-in{« at - fend her, 
oth - ers, their mer • it - ed glo - ry, 
love us. love the land that we live in, 



) 4 ^f r- 



'^i-fc 



4y^V T- 






±^r-fc 



S:::::^: 



-r — :.. 



i 



^^s 



While we live we will cher - ish, pro 

Say whose name stands the tore  most, in 

As hap  py a re  gion as 




feet and de -fend her. Tho' the 
lib - er - ty's sto  ry, Tho too 
on this side of heaven. Where 



tr^rst 






^ 



^MBt 



m 






-' — S — .'^JC 






scorn • er Tiay sneer at and wit - lings de - fame her, SiiM our hearts swell with 
true to her - self e er lo crouch to op  pres-sion, Who can yield to just 
plen - ty and peace, love and joy smile be - fore us, Raise a-loud, rais; to- 




■^ • ^ » ,-— * _ -» r-0- 



:fc: 



^d?: 



ztz 



1F=^ 



:f=±g 



Chorus 



T 



mi 



^ 



i^ 



glad 
rule 
geth 



ness when ev • er we name her. 

• more loy - al sub  mis-sion. 

• er the heart thnll - ing chorus. 



Hur • rah I 



Hur - rahl 



the 



'^•^ 



B^ 



:3r: 



3fS 



t — ^ 



m 



^ 



3f^S^^-. 



'm 



nt 



* » *-*— "-r r— 




:rtr: 






Old North Slate for -ev 
» « • .O- 



fr, 



Hur 



rahl 
■^i — 



Hur - rahl the good Old NorlhSta'e 



^- 



76 



North Carolina Manual 



THE SPIRIT OF KITTY HAWK 




CHAPTER FOUR 
Census and Population Statistics 

The first census of North CaroHna was taken in 1790, returning a popula- 
tion of 393,751. Since then the population has shown an increase in every 
census. The population passed 1,000,000 between 1860 and 1870; 2,000,000 
between 1900 and 1910; 3,000,000 between 1920 and 1930; 4,000,000 between 
1940 and 1950; and 5,000,000 between 1960 and 1970. Based on analysis of 
births, deaths and other factors, North Carolina passed 6,000,000 sometime 
in the mid-1980's. 

The 1980 census, the Twentieth Census of the United States, was one of 
the most accurate ever taken. While there have been many challenges to the 
figures released by the Bureau of the Census, most were due to growth rates 
being lower than anticipated by local governmental officials. This can be 
explained in part by the fact the figures released for the 1970 census proved 
higher than they actually were. This situation created a faulty base on 
which to make initial projections during the decade of the seventies. 

The final 1980 census figures showed North Carolina with a population of 
5,880,415. This represented a growth rate of 15.7 percent, or nearly 800,000 
people during the last decade, as opposed to a rate of approximately 12 
percent, or half a million people, during the previous decade of the sixties. 
Almost half (47.7 %) of the 1970-1980 change in population was due to net 
migration. This is in contrast to the previous decade where all the growth 
was due to natural increase (more births than deaths). In fact, natural 
increase during the 1960's was greater than total growth, due to a net out- 
migration of 70,319 persons during the decade. If the same high rate of 
natural increase in the 1960's had continued during the 1970's the state 
would have had more than one quarter of a million more people than was 
reflected in the 1980 census. As it was, a tremendous increase in net 
migration more than offset the decrease in birth rates. The net migration 
increase exhibited during the decade of the seventies has continued into the 
1980's and is due in large part to the rapid commercial and industrial 
growth of North Carolina. 

In North Carolina there were 42 incorporated places with a population of 
10,000 or more in 1980. Four of these reached this plateau for the first time - 
Boone in Watuaga County, Cary in Wake, Havelock in Craven, and 
Laurinburg in Scotland. Of the incorporated places over 10,000, Charlotte 
was the largest with 314,447 people, followed by Greensboro at 155,642 and 
Raleigh with 150,255. Projected figures for July, 1987, indicated that Raleigh 
with an estimated population of 213,879 had passed Greensboro with with 
an estimate of only 184,098 for the number two spot. Much of the large 



78 North Carolina Manual 

growth in population can be attributed to annexations. During the 1970's 
several of the incorporated urban areas annexed military bases which were 
adjacent to them. This in part accounts for the dramatic increases in the 
population of several incorporated places. Havelock is a good example. In 
1970 the census figures showed Havelock with a population of 3,012; the 
1980 figure, which included the Cherry Point Marine Station, increased to 
17,718, a 488% increase. 

According to the 1980 census, 97 of the 100 counties in North Carolina had 
gained in population. This is quite a change from the previous census which 
showed only 62 counties with gains while 38 had declines. Currituck County 
showed the greatest percentage gain with an increase of 91.2%. Dare County 
was a distant second with 59% and Brunswick was third with 47.7%). 

North Carolina has a total area of 52,712 square miles of which 48,798 is 
land area and 3,914 is water. The density of North Carolina increased by 15 
persons per square mile from 1970 to 1980, up from 96.4 to 111.4 inhabitants 
per square mile. Based on projected figures, the 1990 census will show 
another substantial increase. It is estimated that the population in 1990 will 
be around 6,613,400, an increase of 12.5% over 1980. 



Census and Population Statistics 



79 



TABLE 1. STATE POPULATION STATISTICS 



1-A. Components of Population Change. 

Percent Percent 

1960-1970 Change 1970-1980 Change 

Growth 528,256 12.0 790,018 15.5 

Births 1,011,061 22.0 861,157 17.0 

Deaths 412,486 9.0 464,508 9.0 

Natural Increase 598,575 13.0 396,649 8.0 

Net Migration -70,319 -2.0 393,369 7.0 

1-B. Regional Components of Growth. 

Percent Percent 

1960-1970 Change 1970-1980 Change 

Growth: 

Coastal Plain 72,788 4.47 230,888 13.58 

Piedmont 366,352 17.05 410,636 16.33 

Mountains 89,116 11.43 148,494 17.10 

Births: 

Coastal Plain 379,266 23.30 328,207 19.30 

Piedmont 471,843 21.96 397,598 15.81 

Mountains 159,964 20.52 135,368 15.58 

Deaths: 

Coastal Plain 146,280 8.99 157,489 9.26 

Piedmont 192,378 8.95 222,830 8.86 

Mountains 73,838 9.47 84,197 9.69 

Natural Increase: 

Coastal Plain 232,986 14.31 170,718 10.04 

Piedmont 279,465 13.01 174,768 6.95 

Mountains 86,126 11.05 51,171 5.89 

Net Migration: 

Coastal Plain -160,198 -9.84 60,170 3.50 

Piedmont 86,887 4.04 235,868 9.38 

Mountains 2,990 0.38 97,323 11.20 



1-C. Statewide Census Figures. 



Date of Data 

April 1, 1960 
April 1, 1970 
April 1, 1980 
April 1, 1990* 



Population 

4,556,155 
5,084,411 
5,880,415 
6,613,391 



Change from 
Last Census 

494,226 
528,256 
796,004 
732,976 



Change 
in Rates 

3.5 
-5.0 

0.0 
-5.0 

9.0 



Change 
in Kates 

9.11 

-0.72 

5.67 



-4.00 
-6.15 
-4.94 



0.27 

-0.09 

0.22 



-4.27 
-6.06 
-5.16 



13.38 

5.34 

10.82 



Percent 
Change 

12.2 
11.6 
15.7 
12.5 



* Projected Data 



80 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS 



Land Area 
in Square 

County Miles 

Alamance 428 

Alexander 259 

Alleghany 225 

Anson 533 

Ashe 426 

Avery 245 

Beaufort 826 

Bertie 698 

Bladen 883 

Brunswick 856 

Buncombe 657 

Burke 511 

Cabarrus 363 

Caldwell 469 

Camden 239 

Carteret 536 

Caswell 428 

Catawba 394 

Chatham 709 

Cherokee 452 

Chowan 173 

Clay 209 

Cleveland 468 

Columbus 945 

Craven 699 

Cumberland 654 

Currituck 246 

Dare 391 

Davidson 549 

Davie .>. 265 

Duplin 815 

Durham 295 

Edgecombe 510 

Forsyth 419 

Franklin 491 

Gaston 356 

Gates 337 

Graham 292 

Granville 537 

Greene 267 

Guilford 655 

Halifax 734 

Harnett 603 

Haywood 551 

Henderson 378 

Hertford 353 

Hoke 389 

Hyde 613 

Iredell 572 

Jackson 491 



1970 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



1980 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



Percent 

Change 

1970-1980 



Projected 
1990 



96,502 


225.1 


99,319 


232.1 


2.9 


107,061 


19,466 


75.2 


24,999 


96.5 


28.4 


27,897 


98,134 


36.2 


9,587 


42.6 


17.9 


9,787 


23,488 


44.1 


25,649 


48.1 


8.9 


26,424 


19,571 


45.9 


22,325 


52.4 


14.1 


23,737 


1 2,655 


51.7 


14,409 


58.8 


13.9 


15,436 


35,980 


43.6 


40,355 


48.9 


12.2 


43,666 


20,528 


29.4 


1,024 


30.1 


2.4 


21,171 


26,477 


30.0 


30,491 


34.5 


15.1 


30,894 


24,223 


28.3 


35,777 


41.8 


47.7 


54,884 


145,056 


220.8 


160,934 


245.0 


10.9 


175,493 


60,364 


118.1 


72,504 


141.9 


20.1 


77,638 


74,629 


205.6 


85,895 


326.6 


15.1 


96,679 


56,699 


120.9 


67,746 


144.4 


19.5 


71,642 


5,453 


22.8 


5,829 


24.4 


6.9 


6,040 


31,603 


59.0 


41,092 


76.7 


30.0 


54,043 


19,055 


44.5 


20,705 


48.4 


8.7 


23,116 


90,873 


230.6 


105,208 


267.0 


15.8 


119,832 


29,554 


41.7 


33,415 


47.1 


13.1 


37,438 


16,330 


36.1 


18,933 


40.4 


15.9 


21,633 


10,764 


62.2 


12,558 


72.6 


16.7 


13,906 


5,180 


24.8 


6,619 


31.7 


27.8 


7,415 


72,556 


155.0 


83,435 


177.6 


15.0 


87,373 


46,937 


49.7 


51,037 


54.0 


8.7 


53,546 


62,554 


89.5 


71,043 


101.6 


13.6 


83,771 


212,042 


324.2 


247,160 


377.9 


16.6 


261,839 


6,976 


28.4 


11,089 


45.1 


59.0 


14,671 


6,995 


17.9 


13,377 


34.2 


91.2 


22,501 


95,627 


174.2 


113,162 


206.1 


18.3 


127,264 


18,855 


71.2 


24,599 


92.8 


30.5 


28,473 


38,015 


46.6 


40,952 


50.2 


7.7 


41,905 


132,681 


449.8 


152,785 


517.9 


15.2 


175,678 


52,341 


102.6 


55,988 


109.8 


7.0 


60,317 


215,118 


513.4 


243,704 


581.6 


13.3 


272,780 


26,820 


54.6 


30,055 


61.2 


12.1 


37,158 


148,415 


416.9 


162,568 


456.7 


9.5 


176,505 


8,524 


25.3 


8,875 


26.3 


4.1 


9,996 


6,562 


22.5 


7,217 


24.7 


10.0 


7,088 


32,762 


61.0 


34,043 


63.4 


3.9 


39,796 


14,967 


56.1 


16,117 


60.4 


7.7 


16,603 


288,645 


440.6 


317,154 


484.2 


9.9 


339,946 


53,884 


73.4 


55,076 


75.0 


2.3 


57,162 


49,667 


82.4 


59,570 


98.8 


19.9 


67,014 


41,710 


75.7 


46,495 


84.4 


11.5 


48,597 


42,804 


113.2 


58,580 


155.0 


36.9 


71,532 


24,439 


66.7 


23,368 


66.2 


-4.4 


24,051 


16,436 


42.3 


20,383 


52.6 


24.0 


25,309 


5,571 


9.1 


5,873 


9.6 


5.4 


5,771 


72,197 


126.2 


82,538 


144.3 


14.3 


92,667 


21,593 


44.0 


25,811 


52.6 


19.5 


27,227 



Census and Population Statistics 



81 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS (Continued) 



Percent 

Change 

1970-1980 



Land Area 1970 Census 1980 Census 

in Square Total Total 

County Miles Population Density Population Density 

Johnston 797 61,737 77!5 70,599 88^6 iTT 

Jones 467 9,779 20.9 9,705 20 8 -0 8 

Lee 256 30,467 119.0 36,718 143.4 20 5 

Lenoir 400 55,204 138.0 59,819 149.5 8 4 

Lincoln 297 32,682 110.0 42,372 142.7 29.6 

McDowell 436 30,648 70.3 35,135 80.6 14 6 

Macon 513 15,788 30.8 20,178 39.3 27 8 

Madison 450 16,003 35.6 16,827 37.4 5.1 

Martin 455 24,730 54.4 25,948 120.7 4.9 

Mecklenburg 530 354,656 669.2 404,270 762.8 14.0 

Mitchell 215 13,447 62.5 14,428 67.1 7.3 

Montgomery 488 19,267 39.5 22,469 46.0 16.6 

Moore 704 39,048 55.5 50,505 71.7 29.3 

Nash 544 59,122 108.7 67,153 123.4 13.6 

New Hanover 185 82,996 448.6 103,471 559.3 24.7 

Northampton 536 23,099 43.1 22,195 42.1 -2.2 

Onslow 765 103,126 134.8 112,784 147.4 9.4 

Orange 400 57,567 143.9 77,055 192.6 33.9 

Pamlico 338 9,467 28.0 10,398 30.8 9.8 

Pasquotank 228 26,824 117.6 28,462 124.8 6.1 

Pender 871 18,149 20.8 22,262 25.5 22.5 

Perquimans 246 8,351 33.9 9,486 38.6 13.6 

Person 401 25,914 64.6 29,164 72.7 12.5 

Pitt 655 73,900 112.8 90,146 137.6 22.0 

Polk 239 11,735 49.1 12,984 54.3 10.6 

Randolph 798 76,358 95.7 91,728 114.9 20.1 

Richmond 475 39,889 84.0 45,481 95.7 14.0 

Robeson 949 84,842 89.4 101,610 107.0 19.8 

Rockingham 569 72,402 127.2 83,426 146.6 15.2 

Rowan 523 90,035 172.2 99,186 189.6 10.2 

Rutherford 563 47,337 84.1 53,787 95.5 13.6 

Sampson 945 44,954 47.6 49,687 52.6 10.5 

Scotland 319 26,929 84.4 32,273 101.2 19.8 

Stanly 398 42,822 107.6 48,517 121.9 13.3 

Stokes 457 23,782 52.0 33,086 72.4 39.1 

Surry 536 51,415 95.9 59,449 110.9 15.6 

Swain 524 8,835 16.9 10,283 19.6 16.4 

Transylvania 382 19,713 51.6 23,417 61.3 18.8 

Tyrrell 390 3,806 9.8 3,975 10.2 4.4 

Union 639 54,714 85.6 70,436 110.1 28.6 

Vance 249 32,691 131.3 36,748 147.6 12.4 

Wake 858 229,006 266.9 301,429 351.3 31.6 

Warren 424 15,810 37.3 16,232 38.3 2.7 

Washington 343 14,038 40.9 14,801 43.2 5.4 

Watauga 317 23,404 73.8 31,666 99.8 35.3 

Wayne 557 85,408 153.3 97,054 174.2 13.6 

Wilkes 757 49,524 65.4 58,657 77.5 18.4 

Wilson 375 57,486 153.3 63,132 168.4 9.8 

Yadkin 336 24,599 73.2 28,439 84.6 15.6 

Yancey 312 12,629 40.5 14,934 47.9 18.3 



Projected 
1990 



82,509 
10,234 
43,166 
60,535 
49,353 

36,805 
24,283 
17,586 
27,144 
489,877 

14,636 
24,919 
60,197 
74,316 
121,218 

22,265 
130,520 
89,722 
10,990 
31,226 

27,803 
11,198 
31,678 
103,190 
15,097 

103.977 
46,106 

109,332 
86,825 

106,850 

58,396 
51,030 
35,150 
51,263 
37,370 

63.072 
10,808 
26.908 
4.208 
86,169 

40,027 
402,330 
16.683 
ll.HOl 
35,706 

98,568 
62,202 
66.128 

;io.52fi 

16.311 



82 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 3. 



POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES 
OF 10,000 OR MORE 



City or Town 

Albemarle 

Asheboro 

Asheville 

Roone 

Burlington 

Carrboro 

Gary 

Chapel Hill 

Charlotte 

Concord 

Durham 

Eden 

Elizabeth City .. 

Fayetteville 

Garner 

Gastonia 

Goldsboro 

Graham 

Greensboro 

Greenville 

Havelock 

Henderson 

Hickory 

High Point 

Jacksonville 

Kannapolis 

Kinston 

Laurinburg 

Lenoir 

Lexington 

Lumberton 

Mint Hill 

Monroe 

Morganton 

New Bern 

Raleigh 

Reidsville 

Roanoke Rapids 
Rocky Mount .... 
Salisbury 

Sanford 

Shelby 

Southern Pines . 

Statesville 

Tarboro 

Thomasville 

Wilmington 

Wilson 

Winston-Salem , 



April 1 
1970 

County Census 

Stanly 11,126 

Randolph 10,797 

Buncombe 57,820 

Watauga 8,754 

Alamance 35,930 

Orange 5,058 

Wake 7,640 

Durham, Orange 26,199 

Mecklenburg 241,420 

Cabarrus 18,464 

Durham 95,438 

Rockingham 15,871 

Pasquotank, Camden ... 14,381 

Cumberland 53,510 

Wake 4,923 

Gaston 47,322 

Wayne 26,960 

Alamance 8,172 

Guilford 144,076 

Pitt 29,063 

Craven 3,012 

Vance 13,896 

Burke, Catawba 20,569 

Randolph, Guilford 63,229 

Onslow 16,289 

Cabarrss, Rowan — 

Lenoir 23,020 

Scotland 8,859 

Caldwell 14,705 

Davidson 17,205 

Robeson 16,961 

Mecklenburg 2,262 

Union 11,282 

Burke 13,625 

Craven 14,660 

Wake 122,830 

Rockingham 13,636 

Halifax 13,508 

Edgecombe, Nash 34,284 

Rowan 22,515 

Lee 11,716 

Cleveland 16,328 

Moore 5,937 

Iredell 20,007 

Edgecombe 9,425 

Davidson 15,230 

New Hanover 46,169 

Wilson 29,347 

Forsyth 133,683 



April 1 

1980 

Census 



Percent 
Change 



July 
1987 



15,110 


35.8 


15,193 


15,252 


41.3 


16,272 


54,022 


-7.3 


60,429 


10,191 


16.4 


11,418 


37,266 


3.7 


38,798 


7,336 


48.6 


11,375 


21,763 


184.9 


39,094 


32,421 


23.7 


37,688 


314,447 


30.23 


388,995 


16,942 


-8.2 


28,408 


101,149 


6.0 


121,111 


15,672 


-1.3 


15,649 


14,004 


-2.6 


14,529 


59,507 


11.2 


73,043 


10,073 


94.1 


13,538 


47,333 


0.0 


54,606 


31,871 


18.2 


34,722 


8,674 


6.1 


10,055 


155,642 


8.0 


184,098 


35,740 


23.0 


43,130 


17,718 


488.2 


23,417 


13,522 


-2.7 


16,300 


20,757 


0.9 


27,840 


63,479 


0.2 


67,060 


18,237 


8.0 


29,547 


30,303 





32,431 


25,234 


9.6 


27,400 


11,480 


29.6 


12,256 


13,748 


-6.5 


14,621 


15,711 


-8.7 


16,269 


18,340 


8.1 


20,087 


7,915 


— 


12,882 


14,555 


25.0 


16,371 


13,763 


1.0 


14,579 


14,557 


-0.7 


18,871 


150,255 


22.3 


213,879 


12,492 


-8.4 


12,389 


14,702 


8.8 


15,747 


41,526 


20.4 


49,191 


22,677 


0.7 


23,966 


14,773 


26.1 


17,032 


15,310 


-6.2 


15,415 


8,620 


45.2 


10,155 


18,622 


-6.9 


19,755 


8,741 


-8.4 


11,042 


14,144 


-7.1 


17,256 


44,000 


-4.7 


55,458 


34,424 


17.3 


37,750 


131,885 


-1.3 


150,246 



Census and Population Statistics 



83 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 

2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS 



City or Town 



County 



1970 

Census 



Ahoskie Hertford 

Apex Wake 

Archdale Randolph, Guilford 

Beaufort Carteret 

Belmont Gaston 



Benson Johnston 

Bessemer City Gaston 

Black Mountain Buncombe 

Brevard Transylvania 

Canton Haywood 



Cherryville Gaston ... 

Clayton Johnston 

Clinton Sampson 

Conover Catawba 

Dallas Gaston ... 



Davidson Mecklenburg, Iredell 

Dunn Harnett 

Edenton Chowan 

Elizabethtown Bladen 

Elkin Surry, Wilkes 



Elon College Town Alamance 

Enfield Halifax .... 

Erwin Harnett .... 

Fairmont Robeson ... 

Farmville Pitt 



Forest City Rutherford 

Franklin Macon 

Fuquay-Varina Wake 

Gamewell Caldwell 

Gibsonville Guilford, Alamance 

Granite Falls Caldwell 

Hamlet Richmond 

Hendersonville Henderson 

Hillsborough Orange 

Hope Mills Cumberland 



Hudson Caldwell 

Kernersville Forsyth 

Kings Mountain Cleveland, Gaston 

Kings Stokes 

La Grange Lenoir 



Lincolnton Lincoln 

Longview Burke, Catawba 

Louisburg Franklin 

Lowell Gaston 

Madison Rockingham 



Maiden Catawba, Lincoln . 

Marion McDowell 

Maxton Robeson, Scotland 

Mayodan Rockingham 

Mebane Alamance, Orange 



5,105 
2,234 
4,874 
3,368 
5,054 

2,267 
4,991 
3,204 
5,412 
5,158 

5,258 
3,103 
7,157 
3,355 
4,059 

2,931 
8,302 
4,956 
1,418 
2,899 

2,150 
3,272 
2,852 
2,827 
4,424 

7,179 
2,336 
3,576 

2,019 

2,388 
4,627 
6,443 
1,444 
1,866 

2,820 
4,815 
8,465 

2,679 

5,293 
3,360 
2,941 
3,307 
2,018 

2,416 
3,335 
1,885 
2,875 
2,573 



1980 


Percent 


Census 


Change 


4,887 


-4.3 


2,847 


27.4 


5,326 


17.9 


3,826 


13.6 


4,607 


-8.8 


2,792 


23.2 


4,787 


-4.1 


4,083 


27.4 


5,323 


1.5 


4,631 


-10.2 


4,844 


-7.9 


4,091 


31.8 


7,552 


5.5 


4,245 


26.5 


3,340 


-17.7 


3,241 


10.6 


8,962 


7.9 


5,264 


6.2 


3,551 


150.4 


2,858 


-1.4 


2,873 


33.6 


2,995 


-8.5 


2,828 


-0.8 


2,658 


-6.0 


4,707 


6.4 


7,688 


7.1 


2,640 


13.0 


3,110 


-13.0 


2,910 


— 


2,865 


41.9 


2,580 


8.0 


4,720 


2.0 


6,862 


6.5 


3,019 


109.1 


5,412 


190.0 


2,888 


2.4 


6,802 


41.3 


9,080 


7.3 


3,811 


— 


3,147 


17.5 


4,879 


-7.8 


3,587 


6.8 


3,238 


10.1 


2,917 


-11.8 


2,806 


39.0 


2,574 


6.5 


3,684 


10.5 


2,711 


43.8 


2,627 


-8.6 


2,782 


8.1 



84 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS (Continued) 



Cilv or Town 



County 



1970 

Census 



1980 
Census 



Percent 
Change 



Mocksville Davie 

Mooresville Irezdell .. 

Morehcad City Carteret 

Mount Airy Surry 

Mount Holly Gaston .. 



Mount Olive Duplin, Wayne 

Murfreesboro Hertford 

Nashville Nash 

Newton Catawba 

North Wilkesboro Wilkes 



Oxford Granville 

Pembroke Robeson 

Plymouth Washington 

Raeford Hoke 

Red Springs Robeson 



Rockingham Richmond . 

Roxboro Person 

Rutherfordton Rutherford 

Scotland Neck Halifax 

Selma Johnston .. 



Siler City Chatham .. 

Smithfield Johnston .. 

Southport Brunswick 

Spencer Rowan 

Spindale Rutherford 



Spring Lake Cumberland 

Tabor City Columbus .... 

Troy Montgomery 

Valdese Burke 

Wadesboro Anson 



Wake Forest Wake 

Wallace Duplin, Pender 

Warsaw Duplin 

Washington Beaufort 

Waynesville Haywood 



Whiteville Columbus 

Williamston Martin 

Wingate Union 

Woodfin Buncombe 

Wrightsville Beach New Hanover 



2,529 


2,637 


4.3 


8,808 


8,575 


-2.6 


5,233 


4,359 


-16.7 


7,325 


6,862 


-6.3 


5,107 


4,530 


-11.3 


4,914 


4,876 


-0.8 


4,418 


3,007 


-31.0 


1,670 


3,033 


80.0 


7,857 


7,624 


-3.0 


3,357 


3,260 


-2.9 


7,178 


7,603 


5.7 


1,982 


2,698 


36.1 


4,774 


4,571 


-4.3 


3,180 


3,630 


14.2 


3,383 


3,607 


6.6 


5,852 


8,300 


41.8 


5,370 


7,532 


40.3 


3,245 


3,434 


5.8 


2,869 


2,834 


-1.2 


4,356 


4,762 


9.3 


4,689 


4,446 


-5.2 


6,677 


7,288 


9.2 


2,220 


2,824 


27.2 


3,075 


2,938 


-4.5 


3,848 


4,246 


10.3 


3,968 


6,273 


58.1 


2,400 


2,710 


12.9 


2,429 


2,702 


11.2 


3,182 


3,364 


5.7 


3,977 


4,119 


3.6 


3,148 


3,780 


20.1 


2,905 


2,903 


-0.1 


2,701 


2,910 


7.7 


8,961 


8,418 


-6.1 


6,488 


6,765 


4.3 


4,195 


5,565 


32.7 


6,570 


6,159 


-6.3 


2,569 


2,615 
3,260 


1.8 


1,701 


2,910 


71.3 



Census and Population Statistics 85 

TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES 

OF 1,000-2,499 



Belhaven Beaufort ... 

Bethel Pitt 

Beaulaville Duplin 

Biltmore Forest Buncombe 



Bladenboro Bladen 

Blowing Rock Caldwell, Watauga 

Boiling Springs Cleveland 

Boonville Yadkin 

Bryson City Swain 



Burgaw Pender 

Burnsville Yancey 

Cajah Mountain Caldwell 

Carolina Beach New Hanover 

Chadbourn Rowan 



China Grove Rowan 

Coats Harnett 

Cornelius Mecklenburg 

Clyde Haywood 

Cramerton Gaston 



Creedmore , Granville ., 

Dobbins Heights Richmond 

Dobson Surry 

Drexel Burke , 

East Spencer Rowan 



Ellerbe Richmond 

Elm City Wilson 

Fair Bluff Columbus 

Four Oaks Johnston ., 

Franklinton Franklin ... 



Fremont Wayne 

Garysburg Northampton 

Granite Quarry Northampton 

Grifton Lenoir, Pitt ... 

Harrisburg Cabarrus 



Haw River Alamance 

Hazelwood Haywood 

Hertford Perquimans . 

Huntersville Mecklenburg 

Jamestown Guilford 



Jefferson Ashe 

Jonesville Yadkin 

Kenly Johnston, Wilson 

Kill Devil Hills Dare 

Lake Waccamaw Columbus 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Aberdeen Moore 

Andrews Cherokee 

Angier Harnett 

Aulander Bertie 

Banner Elk Avery 



1,592 


1,945 


1,383 


1,621 


1,431 


1,709 


947 


1,214 


754 


1,087 


2,259 


2,430 


1,514 


1,825 


1,156 


1,060 


1,298 


1.499 


783 


1,385 


801 


1,337 


2,284 


2,381 


687 


1,028 


1,290 


1,556 


1,744 


1,738 


1,348 


1,452 


— 


1,884 


1,663 


2,000 


2,213 


1,195 


1,788 


2,081 


1,051 


1,385 


1,296 


1,460 


814 


1,008 


2,142 


1,869 


1,405 


1,641 


— 


1,237 


933 


1,222 


1,431 


1,392 


2,217 


2,150 


913 


1,415 


1,201 


1,561 


1,039 


1,095 


1,057 


1,049 


1,459 


1,394 


1,596 


1,736 


231 


1.434 


1,344 


1,294 


1,860 


2,179 


— 


1,433 





2,117 


2,057 


1,811 


2,023 


1 ,94 1 


1,538 


1,294 


1,297 


2,148 


943 


1,086 


1,659 


1,752 


1,370 


1,433 


357 


1,671 


924 


1.133 



86 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 5. 



POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES 
OF 1,000-2,499 (Continued) 



City or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Landis Rowan 

Liberty Randolph . 

I.illington Harnett 

Locust Stanly 

Long F^each Brunswick 



Lucama Wilson 

Mars Hill Madison 

Marshville Union 

Matthews Mecklenburg 

Mount Gilead Montgomery 

Mount Pleasant Cabarrus 

Murphy Cherokee 

Nags Head Dare 

Newport Carteret 

Norwood Stanly 



Pilot Mountain Surry 

Pinetops Edgecombe .. 

Pineville Mecklenburg 

Pittsboro Chatham 

Princeton Johnston 



Princeville Edgecombe ... 

Ramseur Randolph 

Randleman Randolph 

Ranlo Gaston 

Rich Square Northampton 

Robbins Moore 

Robbinsville Graham 

Robersonville Martin 

Rockwell Rowan 

Roseboro Sampson 



Rose Hill Duplin 

Rowland robeson 

Rural Hall Forsyth 

Rutherford College Burke 

St. Pauls Robeson .... 

Snow Hill Greene 

Sparta Alleghany 

Spring Hope Nash 

Spruce Pine Mitchell .... 

Stallings Union 



Stanley Gaston 

Stoneville Rockingham 

Swansboro Onslow 

Sylva Jackson 

Taylorsville Alexander .... 



2,297 


2,092 


2,167 


1,997 


1,L5.5 


1,948 


— 


1,590 


493 


1,834 


610 


1,070 


1,623 


2,126 


1,405 


2,011 


783 


1,648 


1,286 


1,423 


1,174 


1,210 


2,082 


2,070 


414 


1,020 


1,735 


1,883 


1,896 


1,818 


1,309 


1,090 


1,379 


1,465 


1,948 


1,525 


1,447 


1,332 


1,044 


1.034 


654 


1,508 


1,328 


1,162 


2,312 


2,156 


2,092 


1,774 


1,254 


1,057 


1,059 


1,256 


777 


1,370 


1,910 


1,981 


999 


1,339 


1,235 


1,227 


1,448 


1,508 


1,358 


1,841 


— 


1,336 


— 


1,108 


2,011 


1,639 


1,359 


1,374 


1,304 


1,687 


1,334 


1,254 


2,333 


2,282 


— 


1,826 


2,336 


2,341 


1,030 


1,054 


1,207 


976 


1,561 


1,699 


1,231 


1,103 



Census and Population Statistics 87 

TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES 

OF 1,000-2,499 (Continued) 

1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Trentwoods Craven 

Troutman Iredell 

Tryon Polk 

Walkertown Forsyth 

Walnut Cove Stokes 



Waxhaw Union 

Weaverville Buncombe 

Weldon Halifax 

Wendell Wake 

Whispering Pines Moore 



Wilkesboro Wilkes . 

Windsor Bertie .. 

Winterville Pitt 

Yadkinville Yadkin 

Zebulon Wake ... 



719 


1.177 


797 


1,360 


1,951 


1,796 


— 


1,321 


1,213 


1,147 


1,248 


1,208 


1,280 


1,495 


2,304 


1,844 


1,929 


2,222 


362 


1,160 


2,038 


2,335 


2,199 


2,126 


1,437 


2,052 


2,232 


2,216 


1,839 


2,055 



88 North Carolina Manual 

TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES 

OF LESS THAN 1,000 

1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Alexander Mills Rutherford 

Alamance Alamance 

Alliance Pamlico 

Anson ville Anson 

Arapahoe Pamlico 



Arlington Yadkin 

Ashwville Bertie 

Atkinson Pender 

Aurora Beaufort 

Autryville Sampson 

Ayden Pitt 

Bailey Nash 

Bakersville Mitchell 

Bath Beaufort 

Battleboro Edgecombe, Nash 

Hayboro Pamlico 

Beargrass Martin 

Beech Mountain Avery, Watauga ... 

Beville Brunswick 

Belwood Cleveland 



Black Creek Wilson 

Boiling Spring Lakes Brunswick , 

Bolvia Brunswick , 

Bolton Columbus ., 

Bostic Rutherford 

Bridgeton Craven 

Broadway Lee 

Brookford Catawba .... 

Brunswick Columbus .. 

Bunn Franklin .... 



Calabash Brunswick .... 

Calypso Duplin 

Cameron Moore 

Candor Montgomery 

Cape Carteret Carteret 



Carthage Moore 

Casar Cleveland . 

Cashiers Jackson .... 

Castalia Nash 

Caswell Beach Brunswick 

Catawba Catawba ... 

Centerville Franklin ... 

Cerro Gordo Columbus . 

Chadwick Acres Onslow 

Chocowinity Beaufort ... 



Claremont Catawba 

Clarkton Bladen ... 

Cleveland Rowan ... 

Cofield Hertford 

Colerain Bertie 



988 


643 


— 


320 


577 


616 


694 


794 


474 


467 


711 


872 


247 


227 


325 


298 


620 


698 


213 


228 


3,450 


184 


724 


685 


409 


373 


231 


207 


562 


632 


821 


759 


99 


82 


— 


190 


59 


102 


— 


613 


449 


523 


245 


998 


185 


252 


534 


563 


289 


476 


520 


461 


694 


908 


590 


467 


206 


223 


284 


505 


128 





462 


639 


204 


225 


561 


868 


616 


944 


1,034 


925 


339 


346 


230 


553 


265 


358 


— 


110 


565 


509 


123 


135 


322 


295 


12 


15 


566 


644 


788 


880 


662 


664 


614 


595 


318 


465 


373 


284 



Census and Population Statistics 



89 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES 
OF LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



City or Town 



County 



Columbia Tyrrell 

Columbus Polk 

Como Hertford 

Conetoe Edgecombe ... 

Conway Northampton 



Cover City Craven 

Creswell Washington 

Crossnore Avery 

Danbury Stokes 

Dellview Gaston 



Denton Davidson 

Dillsboro Jackson .. 

Dover Craven .... 

Dortches Nash 

Dublin Bladen .... 



East Arcadia Bladen 

Earl Cleveland 

East Bend Yadkin 

East Laurinburg Scotland .. 

Elk Park Avery 



Ellenboro Rutherford 

Emerald Isle Carteret 

Eureka Wayne 

Everetts martin 

Faison Rowan 



Faith Cleveland 

Fallstone Cleveland 

Falcon Cumberland, Sampson 

Falkland Pitt 

Fountain Pitt 



Foxfire Moore 

Franklinville Randolph 

Garland Sampson 

Gaston Northampton 

Gatesville Gates 



Gibson Scotland 

Glen Alpine Burke 

Godwin Cumberland 

Goldston Chatham 

Greenevers Duplin 



Grimesland Pitt 

Grover Cleveland 

Halifax Halifax .... 

Hamilton Martin 

Harmony Iredell 



Harrells Duplin, Sampson 

Harrellsville Hertford 

Hassell Martin 

Hayesville Clay 

High Shoals Gaston, Lincoln .. 



1970 
Census 



902 
731 
211 
160 
694 

485 
633 
264 
152 



1,017 
215 
585 

283 



485 
487 
503 

465 
122 
263 
198 
598 

506 
301 
357 
130 
434 



794 

656 

1,105 

338 

502 
797 
129 
364 
424 

394 
555 
335 
579 

377 

249 
165 
160 
428 



1980 
Census 



758 
727 
89 
215 
678 

500 
426 
297 
140 

7 

949 
179 
600 
885 
477 

461 
206 
602 
536 
535 

560 
865 
303 
213 
636 

552 
614 
339 
118 
424 

153 
607 
885 
883 
363 

533 
645 
340 
353 
477 

453 
597 
253 
638 
470 

255 
151 
109 
376 
586 



90 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES 
OF LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



CilvorTown 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Highl:m(U Macon 

Hildt'hran Burke 

Hi)l)g()()(l Halifax 

Hoffman Richmond 

Hoidcn F}(>acli F^run.swick 

Holly Ridge Onslow 

Holly Springs Wake 

Hollyville Pamlico .... 

Hookerton Greene 

Hot Springs Madison ... 



Indian Beach Carteret 

Indian Trail Union 

Jackson Northampton 

Jamesville Martin 

Kellford Bertie 



Kenan.sville Duplin 

Kittrell Vance 

Knightdale Wake 

Kure Beach New Hanover 

Lake Lure Rutherford 



Lansing Ashe 

Lasker Northampton 

Lattimore Cleveland 

Laurel Park Henderson .... 

Lawndale Cleveland 



Leggett Edgecombe . 

Lewiston Bertie 

Lilesville Anson 

Linden Cumberland 

LinviJle Averv 



Littleton Halifax 

Love Valley Iredell 

Lumber Bridge Robeson 

Macclesfield Edgecombe 

McAdenville Gaston 



McDonald Robeson .. 

McFarland Anson 

Macon Warren ... 

Maggie Valley Haywood 

Magnolia Duplin .... 



Manteo Dare 

Marshall Madison . 

Mayesville Jones 

Mesic Pamlico .. 

Micro Johnston 



Middleburg Vance 

Middlesex Nash 

Milton Caswell 

Minesott Beach Pamlico 

Montreat Buncombe 



583 


653 


481 


628 


530 


483 


434 


389 


136 


232 


415 


465 


697 


688 


— 


100 


441 


460 


653 


678 





54 


405 


811 


762 


720 


533 


604 


295 


254 


762 


931 


427 


225 


815 


985 


394 


611 


456 


488 


283 


194 


114 


96 


257 


237 


581 


764 


544 


469 


120 


99 


327 


459 


641 


588 


205 


365 


— 


244 


903 


820 


40 


55 


117 


171 


536 


504 


950 


947 


80 


117 


140 


133 


179 


153 


— 


202 


614 


592 


547 


902 


982 


809 


912 


877 


— 


390 


300 


438 


149 


185 


729 


837 


235 


235 


— 


171 


581 


741 



Census and Population Statistics 



91 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES 
OF LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



City or Town 



County 



Morrisville Wake 

Moreven Anson 

Mooresville Cleveland . 

Navassa Brunswick 

Newland Avery 



New London Stanly 

Newton Grove Sampson . 

Norlina Warren .... 

Norman Richmond 

Oakboro Stanly 



Oak City Martin 

Ocean Isle Beach Brunswick 

Old Fort McDowell . 

Oriental Pamlico .... 

Orrum Robeson 



Pantego Beaufort .. 

Parkton Robeson ... 

Parmele Martin 

Patterson Springs Cleveland 

Peachland Anson 



Pikesville Wayne .... 

Pinebluff Moore 

Pine Level Johnston 

Pink Hill Lenoir 

Pine Knoll Shores Carteret .. 



Polkton Anson 

Polkville Cleveland 

Pollocksville Jones 

Powellsville Bertie 

Proctorville Robeson ... 



Raynham Robeson 

Red Oak Nash 

Rennert Robeson 

Rhodhiss Burke, Caldwell 

Richfield Stanly 



Richlands Onslow 

Robbinsville Graham 

Rolesville Wake 

Ronda Wilkes 

Roper Washington 



Rosman Transylvania 

Roxobel Bertie 

Ruth Rutherford 

Salemburg Sampson 

Saluda Polk 



Saratoga Wilson 

Seaboard Northampton .... 

Seagrove Randolph 

Seven Devils Watauga, Avery 

Seven Springs Wayne 



1970 


1980 


Census 


Census 


209 


251 


562 


765 


— 


405 


— 


439 


524 


722 


285 


454 


546 


564 


696 


901 


157 


252 


568 


587 


559 


475 


78 


143 


676 


752 


445 


536 


162 


167 


218 


185 


550 


564 


373 


484 


— 


731 


556 


506 


260 


662 


570 


935 


983 


953 


522 


e%\ 


— 


646 


845 


762 


494 


528 


456 


318 


247 


320 


157 


205 





83 


359 


314 


— 


178 


784 


727 


306 


373 


935 


825 


— 


814 


533 


381 


465 


457 


649 


795 


407 


512 


347 


278 


360 


381 


669 


742 


546 


607 


391 


381 


611 


687 


354 


294 


— 


21 


188 


166 



92 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES 
OF LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



City or Town 

Severn 

Shady Forest 

Shallotte 

Sharpsliurg 

Simpson 

Sims 

Southern Shores . 

Speed 

Spencer Mountain 
Staiey 

Stanfield 

Stantonhurg 

Star 

Stedman 

Stem 

Stonewall 

Stovall 

Sunset Beach 

SurfCity 

Swansboro 

Tarheel 

Teachey 

Topsail Beach 

Trenton 

Turkey 

Vanceboro 

Vandermere 

Vass 

Waco 

Wade 

Wagram 

Watstonburg 

Warrenton 

Washington Park 
Watha 

Webster 

Weddington 

West Jefferson 

Whitakers 

White Lake 

Williamsboro 

Winfall 

Winton 

Woodland 

Woodville 

Yaupon Beach 

Youngsville 



1970 1980 

County Census Census 

Northampton 356 309 

Brunswick — 43 

Brunswick 597 680 

Kdgecomhe, Nash, Wilson 789 997 

Kitt — 407 

Wilson 205 192 

Dare — 520 

Edgecombe 142 95 

Gaston 300 169 

Randolph 239 204 

Stanly 458 463 

Wilson 869 920 

Montgomery 892 816 

Cumberland 505 723 

Granville 242 222 

Pamlico 335 360 

Granville 405 417 

Brunswick 108 304 

Pender 166 421 

Onslow 1,207 976 

Bladen 87 118 

Duplin 219 373 

Pender 108 264 

Jones 539 407 

Sampson 329 417 

Craven 758 833 

Pamlico 379 335 

Moore 885 828 

Cleveland 245 322 

Cumberland 315 474 

Scotland 718 617 

Greene 176 181 

Warren 1,035 908 

Beaufort 517 514 

Pender 181 196 

Jackson 189 200 

Union - 848 

Ashe 889 822 

Edgecombe/Nash 926 924 

Vance — 968 

Vance — 59 

Perquimans 581 634 

Hertford 917 825 

Northampton 744 861 

Bertie 253 212 

Brunswick 334 569 

Frankhn 555 486 



PART II 



Constitutional Development 
of North Carolina 



CHAPTER ONE 
The Constitution of North Carolina 

OUR CONSTITUTIONS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE' 

North Carolina has had three constitutions in her history as a State; the 
Constitution of 1776, the Constitution of 1868, and the Constitution of 1971. 

Constitution of 1776 

Drafted and promulgated by the Fifth Provincial Congress in December, 
1776, without submission to the people, the Constitution of 1776 and its 
separate but accompanying Declaration of Rights sketched the main outlines 
of the new state government and secured the rights of the citizen from 
governmental interference. While the principle of separation of powers was 
explicitly affirmed and the familiar three branches of government were 
provided for, the true center of power lay in the General Assembly. That 
body not only exercised full legislative power; it also chose all the state 
executive and judicial officers, the former for short terms and the judges for 
life. 

Profound distrust of the executive power is evident throughout the docu- 
ment. The Governor was chosen by the legislature for a one-year term and 
was eligible for only three terms in six years. The little power granted him 
was hedged about in many instances by requiring for its exercise the 
concurrence of a seven-member Council of State chosen by the legislature. 

Judicial offices were established, but the court system itself was left to 
legislative design. No system of local government was prescribed by the 
Constitution, although the offices of justice of the peace, sheriff, coroner, 
and constable were created. 

The system of legislative representation was based on units of local 
government. The voters of each county elected one Senator and two members 
of the House of Commons, while six (later seven) towns each elected one 
member of the House. It was distinctly a property owner's government, for 
only landowners could vote for Senators until 1857, and progressive property 
qualifications were required of members of the House, Senators, and the 
Governor until 1868. Legislators were the only state officers who were 
elected by the people until 1836. 



'Written by John L. Sanders, Director of the Institute of Government, University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 



96 North Carolina Manual 

The Convention of 1835 

Dissatisfaction with tlie legislative representation system, which gave no 
direct recognition to population, resulted in the Convention of 1835. Exten- 
sive constitutional amendments adopted by that Convention were ratified 
by vote of the people, 26,771 to 21,606 on November 9, 1835. The Amendments 
of 1835 fixed the membership of the Senate and House at their present 
levels, 50 and 120. The House apportionment formula then devised gave one 
seat to each county and distributed the remainder of the seats — nearly half 
of them at that time — according to a mathematical formula favoring the 
more populous counties. From 1836 until 1868, Senators were elected from 
districts laid out according to the amount of taxes paid to the State from the 
respective counties, thus effecting senatorial representation in proportion to 
property values. 

The Amendments of 1835 also made the Governor popularly elective for a 
two-year term, greatly strengthening that office; relaxed the religious 
qualifications for office holding; abolished free Negro suffrage; equalized the 
capitation tax on slaves and free white males; prohibited the General 
Assembly from granting divorces, legitimating persons, or changing per- 
sonal names by private act; specified procedures for the impeachment of 
state officers and the removal of judges for disability; made legislative 
sessions biennial instead of annual; and provided methods of amending the 
Constitution. Following the precedent established in amending the United 
States Constitution, the 1835 amendments were appended to the Constitution 
of 1776, not incorporated in it as is the modern practice. 

The Convention of 1861-62 

The Convention of 1861-62, called by act of the General Assembly, took the 
State out of The Union and into the Confederacy and adopted a dozen 
constitutional amendments. These were promulgated bj'^ the Convention 
without the necessity of voter approval, a procedure that was permitted by 
the Constitution until 1971. 

The Convention of 1865-66 

The Convention of 1865-66, called by the Provisional Governor on orders 
of the President, nullified secession and abolished slavery, with voter 
approval, in 1865. It also drafted a revised Constitution in 1866. That 
document was largely a restatement of the Constitution of 1776 and the 1835 
amendments, plus several new features. It was rejected by a vote of 21,770 to 
19,880 on August 2, 1866. 

Constitution of 1868 

The Convention of 1868 

The Convention of 1868, called upon the initiative of Congress but with a 
popular vote of approval, wrote a new Constitution which the people ratified 
in April of 1868 by a vote of 93,086 to 74,016. Drafted and put through the 
Convention by a combination of native Republicans and a few Carpet- 
baggers, the Constitution was highly unpopular with the more conservative 
elements of the State. For its time it was a progressive and democratic 



The Constitution of North Carolina 97 

instrument of government. In this respect it differed markedly from the 
proposed Constitution of 1866. The Constitution of 1868 was an amalgam of 
provisions copied or adapted from the Declaration of Rights of 1776, the 
Constitution of 1776 and its amendments, the proposed Constitution of 1866, 
and the constitutions of other states, together with some new and original 
provisions. Although often amended, a majority of the provisions of that 
document remained intact until 1971, and the Constitution of 1971 brought 
forward much of the 1868 language with little or no change. 

The Constitution of 1868 incorporated the 1776 Declaration of Rights into 
the Constitution as Article I and added several important guarantees. To the 
people was given the power to elect all significant state executive officers, all 
judges, and all county officials, as well as legislators. All property qualifica- 
tions for voting and office holding were abolished. The plan of representation 
in the Senate was changed from a property to a popular basis, and the 1835 
House apportionment plan was retained. Annual legislative sessions were 
restored. 

The executive branch of government was strengthened by popular election 
for four-year terms of office and the Governor's powers were increased 
significantly. 

A simple and uniform court system was established with the jurisdiction 
of each court fixed in the Constitution. The distinctions between actions at 
law and suits in equity were abolished. 

For the first time, detailed constitutional provision was made for a system 
of taxation, and the powers of the General Assembly to levy taxes and to 
borrow money were limited. Homestead and personal property exemptions 
were granted. Free public schools were called for and the maintenance of 
penal and charitable institutions by the State was commanded. A uniform 
scheme of county and township government was prescribed. 

The declared objective of the Conservative Party (under whose banner the 
older native political leaders grouped themselves) was to repeal the Constitu- 
tion of 1868 at the earliest opportunity. When the Conservative Party gained 
control of the General Assembly in 1870, a proposal to call a convention of 
the people to revise the constitution was submitted by the General Assembly 
to the voters and rejected in 1871 by a vote of 95,252 to 86,007. 

The General Assembly thereupon resorted to the legislative initiative for 
amending the Constitution. That procedure then called for legislative ap- 
proval of each proposed amendment at two successive sessions, followed by 
a vote of the people on the amendment. The 1871-72 legislative session 
adopted an act calling for about three dozen amendments to the Constitution 
which had the general purpose of restoring to the General Assembly the 
bulk of the power over local government, the courts, and the pul)lic' schools 
and the University that had been taken from it by the Constitution of 1868. 
The 1872-73 session of the General Assembly approved for the second time 
and submitted to the people only eight of those amendments, all of which 
were approved by the voters in 1873 by wide margins. These amendments 
restored biennial sessions of the General Assembly, transferred control of 
the University of North Carolina from the State Board of Education to the 
General Assembly, abolished various new state offices, altered the doutilc 



98 North Carolina Manual 

otiict'-lioldiiig prohibition, and rcpualt'd the prohibition against repudiation 
of the state debt. 



The Convention of 1875 

In 1875, the Cieneral Asseml)ly called a convention of the people to 
consider constitutional revision. No confirmation of that action by popular 
referendum was had, and none was then constitutionally required. The 
Convention of 1875 (the most recent in the State's history) sat for five weeks 
in the fall of that year. It was a limited convention, certain actions — for 
example, the reinstatement of property qualifications for office-holding or 
voting — being forbidden to it. 

The Convention of 1875 adopted and the voters on November 7, 1876, 
approved by a vote of 120,159 to 106,554 a set of 30 amendments affecting 36 
sections of the Constitution. These amendments (which took effect on 
January 1, 1877) prohibited secret political societies, moved the legislative 
convening date from November of even numbered years to January of odd- 
numbered years, fixed in the Constitution for the first time the rate of 
legislative compensation, called for legislation establishing a State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, abandoned the simplicity and uniformity of the 1868 
court system by giving the General Assembly power to determine the 
jurisdiction of all courts below the Supreme Court and to establish such 
courts inferior to the Supreme Court as it might see fit, reduced the Supreme 
Court from five to three members, required Superior Court judges to rotate 
among all judicial districts of the State, disqualified for voting persons 
guilty of certain crimes, established a one-year residency requirement for 
voting, required non-discriminatory racial segregation in the public schools, 
gave the General Assembly full power to revise or abolish the form and 
powers of county and township governments, and simplified the procedure 
for constitutional amendment by providing that the General Assembly 
might by act adopted by three-fifths of each house at one legislative session 
submit an amendment to the voters of the State (thus eliminating the former 
requirement of enactment by two successive sessions of the General As- 
sembly). The principal effect of the amendments of 1873 and 1875 was to 
restore in considerable measure the former power of the General Assembly, 
particularly as to the courts and local government. 

The amendments framed by the Convention of 1875 seem to have satisfied 
most of the need for constitutional change for a generation, for only four 
amendments were submitted by the General Assembly to the voters through- 
out the remainder of the nineteenth century. Three of them were ratified; one 
failed. 

In 1900 the suffrage article was revised to add the literacy test and poll tax 
requirement for voting (the latter provision was repealed in 1920). A slate of 
ten amendments prepared by a constitutional commission and proposed by 
the General Assembly in 1913 was rejected by the voters in 1914. With the 
passage of time and amendments, the attitude towards the Constitution of 
1868 had changed from resentment to a reverence so great that until the 
second third of the twentieth century, amendments were very difficult to 
obtain. Between 1900 and 1933, the voters ratified 15 and rejected 20 



The Constitution of North Carolina 99 

amendments. During the first third of this century, nevertheless, amend- 
ments were adopted lengthening the school term from four to six months, 
prohibiting legislative charters to private corporations, authorizing special 
Superior Court judges, further limiting the General Assembly's powers to 
levy taxes and incur debt, and abolishing the poll tax requirement for voting 
and reducing the residence qualification for voters. Amendments designed to 
restrict the legislature's power to enact local, private and special legislation 
were made partly ineffective by judicial interpretation. 

The Proposed Constitution of 1933 

A significant effort at general revision of the Constitution was made in 
1931-33. A Constitutional Commission created by the General Assembly of 
1931 drafted and the General Assembly of 1933 approved a revised Constitu- 
tion. Blocked by a technicality raised in an advisory opinion of the State 
Supreme Court, the proposed Constitution of 1933 never reached the voters 
for approval. It would have granted the Governor the veto power; given to a 
Judicial Council composed of all the judges of the Supreme and Superior 
Courts power to make all rules of practice and procedure in the courts 
inferior to the Supreme Court; required that the creation of inferior courts by 
general laws only; removed most of the limitations on the taxing powers of 
the General Assembly; required the General Assembly to provide for the 
organization and powers of local governments by general law only; 
established an appointive State Board of Education with general supervision 
over the public school system; and set forth an enlightened policy of state 
responsibility for the maintenance of educational, charitable, and refor- 
matory institutions and programs. 

Several provisions of the proposed Constitution of 1933 were later incor- 
porated into the Constitution by individual amendments, and to a limited 
extent it served as a model for the work of the 1957-59 Constitutional 
Commission. 

Between the mid-1930's and the late 1950's, greater receptiveness to constitu- 
tional change resulted in amendments authorizing the classification of 
property for taxation; strengthening the limitations upon public debt; 
authorizing the General Assembly to enlarge the Supreme Court, divide the 
State into judicial divisions, increase the number of Superior Court judges, 
and create a Department of Justice under the Attorney General; enlarging 
the Council of State by three members; creating a new, appointive State 
Board of Education with general supervision of the schools; permitting 
women to serve as jurors; transferring the Governor's power to assign judges 
to the Chief Justice and his parole power to a Board of Paroles; permitting 
the waiver of indictment in non-capital cases; raising the compensation of 
the General Assembly and authorizing legislative expense allowances; iii 
creasing the general purpose property tax levy limitation and the maximum 
income tax rate; and authorizing the closing of public schools on a local 
option basis and the payment of educational expense grants in certain 
cases. 

The increased legislative and public willingness to accept constitutional 
change between 1934 and 1960 resulted in 32 constitutional amendments 
being ratified by the voters while only six were rejected. 



100 North Carolina Manual 

The Constitutional Commission of 1957-58 

At th(> rctiufst of Governor Luther H. Hodges, the General Assembly of 
1957 authorized the Governor to appoint a fifteen-member Constitutional 
Commission to study the need for changes in the Constitution and to make 
recommendations to the Governor and the 1959 General Assembly. 

That Commission recommended rewriting the whole Constitution and 
submitting it to the voters for approval or disapproval as a unit, the changes 
suggested being too numerous to be effected by individual amendments. The 
proposed Constitution drafted by the Commission represented in large part 
a careful job of editorial pruning, rearrangement, clarification, and moderni- 
zation, but it also included several significant substantive changes. The 
Senate would have been increased from 50 to 60 members and the initiative 
(but not the sole authority) for decennial redistricting of the Senate would 
have been shifted from the General Assembly to an ex-officio committee of 
three legislative officers. Decennial reapportionment of the House of 
Representatives would have been made a duty of the Speaker of the House, 
rather than of the General Assembly as a whole. Problems of succession to 
constitutional State executive offices and of determination of issues of 
officers' disability would have been either resolved in the Constitution or 
their resolution assigned to the General Assembly. The authority to classify 
property for taxation and to exempt property from taxation would have been 
required to be exercised only by the General Assembly and only on a 
uniform, statewide basis. The requirement that the public schools constitute 
a "general and uniform system" would have been eliminated, and the 
constitutional authority of the State Board of Education reduced. Fairly 
extensive changes were recommended in the judicial article of the Constitu- 
tion, including the establishment of a General Court of Justice with an 
Appellate Division, a Superior Court Division, and a Local Trial Court 
Division. A uniform system of District Courts and Trial Commissioners 
would have replaced the existing multitude of inferior courts and justices of 
the peace, the creation of an intermediate Court of Appeals would have been 
provided for, and uniformity of jurisdiction of the courts within each division 
would have been required. Otherwise, the General Assembly would have 
retained essentially its then-existing power over the courts, their jurisdiction, 
and their procedures. 

The General Assembly of 1959 also had before it a recommendation for a 
constitutional amendment with respect to the court system that had 
originated with a Court Study Committee of the North Carolina Bar 
Association. In general, the recommendations of that Committee called for 
more fundamental changes in the courts than those of the Constitutional 
Commission. The principal difference between the two sets of recommenda- 
tions lay in the extent of the proposed authority of the General Assembly 
over the courts. The Constitutional Commission generally favored legisla- 
tive authority over the courts and proposed only moderate curtailment of it; 
the Court Study Committee accepted more literally the concept of an in- 
dependent judiciary and its proposals would have minimized the authority 
of the General Assembly over the courts of the State, though structurally, its 
system would have been much like that of the Constitutional Commission. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 101 

The proposed Constitution received extended attention from the General 
Assembly of 1959. The Senate modified and passed the bill to submit the 
proposed Constitution to the voters, but it failed to pass the House, due 
chiefly to the inability of the supporters of the two divergent approaches to 
court revision to reach agreement. 

As had bee , true of the proposed Constitution of 1933, the proposed 
Constitution of 1959, though not adopted as a whole, subsequently provided 
the material for several amendment proposals that were submitted in- 
dividually to the voters and approved by them during the next decade. 

In the General Assembly of 1961, the proponents of court reform were 
successful in obtaining enactment of a constitutional amendment, approved 
by the voters in 1962, creating a unified and uniform General Court of 
Justice for the State. Other amendments submitted by the same session and 
approved by the voters provided for the automatic decennial reapportionment 
of the State House of Representatives, clarified the provisions for succession 
to elective State executive offices and disability determination, authorized a 
reduction in the residence period for voters for President, allowed increases 
in the compensation of elected state executive officers during their terms, 
and required that the power of the General Assembly to classify and exempt 
property for taxation be exercised by it alone and only on uniform, statewide 
basis. 

The session of 1963 submitted two amendments: One to enlarge the rights 
of married women to deal with their own property was approved by the 
voters; one to enlarge the Senate from fifty to seventy members and allocate 
one Representative to each county was rejected by the voters. The General 
Assembly of 1965 submitted and the voters approved an amendment 
authorizing the legislative creation of a Court of Appeals. 

The 1967 General Assembly proposed and the voters approved amendments 
authorizing the General Assembly to fix its own compensation and revising 
the legislative apportionment scheme to conform to the judicially-established 
requirement of representation in proportion to population in both houses. 

Constitution of 1971 

From 1869 through 1968, there were submitted to the voters of North 
Carolina a total of 97 propositions for amending the Constitution of the 
State. All but one of these proposals originated in the General Assembly. Of 
those 97 amendment proposals, 69 were ratified by the voters and 28 were 
rejected by them. The changing attitude of the voters toward constitutional 
amendments is well illustrated by the fact that from 1869 to 1933, 21 of the 
48 amendment propositions were rejected by the voters, a failure rate of 
three out of seven. Between 1933 and 1968, only seven of 49 proposed 
amendments were rejected by the voters, a failure rate of one out of seven. 

After the amendments of the early 1960's, the pressure for constitutional 
change seemed at the time to have abated. Yet while an increasingly 
frequently used amendment process had relieved many of the pressures that 
otherwise would have strengthened the case for constitutional reform, it had 
not kept the Constitution current in all respects. Constitutional amendments 



102 North Carolina Manual 

usually were drafted in response to particular problems experienced or 
anticipated and generally they were limited in scope so as to achieve the 
essential goal, while arousing minimum unnecessary opposition. Thus 
amendments sometimes were not as comprehensive as they should have 
been to avoid inconsistency in result. Obsolete and invalid provisions had 
been allowed to remain in the Constitution to mislead the unwary reader. 
Moreover, in the absence of a comprehensive reappraisal, there had been no 
recent occasion to reconsider constitutional provisions that might be 
obsolescent but might not have proved so frustrating or unpopular in their 
effect as to provoke curative amendments. 

The Constitutional Study Commission of 1967 

It was perhaps for these reasons that when Governor Dan K. Moore 
recommended to the North Carolina State Bar in the fall of 1967 that it take 
the lead in making a study of the need for revision of the State Constitution, 
the response was prompt and affirmative. The North Carolina State Bar and 
the North Carolina Bar Association joined to create the North Carolina 
State Constitution Study Commission as a joint agency of the two organiza- 
tions. The 25 members of that commission (fifteen attorneys and ten laymen) 
were chosen by a steering committee representative of the sponsoring 
organizations. The Chairman of the Commission was former state Chief 
Justice Emery B. Denny. 

The State Constitution Study Commission worked throughout most of 
1968. It became clear early in the course of its proceedings that the amend- 
ments the Commission wished to propose were too numerous to be submitted 
to the voters as independent propositions. On the other hand, the Commission 
did not wish to embody all of its proposed changes in a single document, to 
be approved or disapproved by the voters on a single vote. The compromise 
procedure developed by the Commission and approved by the General 
Assembly was a blend of the two approaches. The Commission combined in 
a revised text of the Constitution all of the extensive editorial changes that 
it thought should be made in the Constitution, together with such sub- 
stantive changes as the Commission deemed not to be controversial or 
fundamental in nature. These were embodied in the document that came to 
be known as the Constitution of 1971. Those proposals for change that were 
deemed to be sufficiently fundamental or potentially controversial in 
character as to justify it, the Commission set out as independent amendment 
propositions, to be considered by the General Assembly and by the voters of 
the State on their independent merits. Thus the opposition to the latter 
proposals would not be cumulated. The separate proposals framed by the 
Commission were ten in number, including one extensive revision of the 
finance article of the Constitution which was largely the work of the Local 
Government Study Commission, a legislatively-established group then at 
work on the revision of constitutional and statutory provisions with respect 
to local government. The amendments were so drafted that any number or 
combination of them might be ratified by the voters and yet produce a 
consistent result. 

The General Assembly of 1969, to which the recommendations of the State 
Constitution Study Commission were submitted, received a total of 28 pro- 



The Constitution of North Carolina 103 

posals for constitutional amendments. Constitutional revision was an active 
subject of interest throughout the session. The proposed Constitution of 
1971, in the course of seven roll-call votes (four in the House and three in the 
Senate), received only one negative vote. The independent amendments 
fared variously; ultimately six were approved by the General Assembly and 
submitted to the voters. These were the executive reorganization amendment, 
the finance amendment, an amendment to the income tax provision of the 
Constitution, a reassignment of the benefits of the escheats, authorization 
for calling extra legislative sessions on the petition of members of the 
General Assembly, and abolition of the literacy test for voting. All but the 
last two of these amendments had been recommended by the State Constitu- 
tion Study Commission. At the election held on November 3, 1970, the 
proposed Constitution of 1971 was approved by a vote of 393,759 to 251,132. 
Five of the six separate amendments were approved by the voters; the 
literacy test repeal was rejected. 

The Constitution of 1971 took effect under its own terms on July 1, 1971 
(hence its designation as the "Constitution of 1971"). So did the executive 
reorganization amendment, the income tax amendment, the escheats amend- 
ment, and the amendment with respect to extra legislative sessions, all of 
which amended the Constitution of 1971 at the instant it took effect. The 
finance amendment, which made extensive revisions in the Constitution of 
1971 with respect to debt and local taxation, took effect on July 1, 1973. The 
two-year delay in its effective date was occasioned by the necessity to 
conform state statutes with respect to local government finance to the terms 
of the amendment. 

The Constitution of 1971, the State Constitution Study Commission stated 
in its report recommending its adoption, 

effects a general editorial revision of the constitution .... The 
deletions, reorganizations, and improvements in the clarity and 
consistency of language will be found in the proposed constitu- 
tion. Some of the changes are substantive, but none is calculated 
to impair any present right of the individual citizen or to bring 
about any fundamental change in the power of state and local 
government or the distribution of that power. 

In the new Constitution, the old fourteen-article organization of the Con- 
stitution was retained, but the contents of several articles — notably Articles 
I, II, III, V, IX, and X — were rearranged in more logical sequence. Sections 
were shifted from one article to another to make a more logical subjec-t- 
matter arrangement. Clearly obsolete and constitutionally invalid matter 
was omitted, as were provisions essentially legislative in character. Uni- 
formity of expression was sought where uniformity of meaning was im- 
portant. Directness and currency of language were also sought, togetbcM- 
with standardization in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and other 
essentially editorial matters. Greater brevity of the Constitution as a whole 
was a by-product of the revision, though not itself a primary objective. 

The Declaration of Rights (Article I), which dates from 177(i with some 
1868 additions, was retained with a few additions. The organization of the 



104 North Carolina Manual 

article was improved and the frequently used subjunctive mood was replaced 
by the imperative in order to make clear that the provisions of that article 
are commands and not mere admonitions. (For example, "All elections 
ought to be free" became "All elections shall be free.") To the article were 
added a guarantee of freedom of speech, a guarantee of equal protection of 
the laws, and a prohibition against exclusion from jury service or other 
discrimination by the State on the basis of race or religion. Since all of the 
rights newly expressed in the Constitution of 1971 were already guaranteed 
by the United States Constitution, their inclusion simply constituted an 
explicit recognition by the State of their importance. 

In the course of reorganizing and abbreviating Article III (the Executive), 
the Governor's role as chief executive was brought into clear focus. The 
scattered statements of the Governor's duties were collected in one section, 
to which was added a brief statement of his budget powers, formerly merely 
statutory in origin. No change was made in the Governor's eligiblity or term, 
or in the list of state executives previously elected by the people. To the 
Council of State (formerly seven elected executives with the Governor as 
presiding officer) were added the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and 
Attorney General as ex-officio members. 

Having been entirely rewritten in 1962, the judicial article (Article IV) was 
the subject of little editorial alteration and of no substantive change. 

The editorial amendments to Article V, dealing with finance and taxation, 
were extensive. Provisions concerning finance were transferred to it from 
four other articles. The former finance provisions were expanded in some 
instances to make clearer the meaning of excessively condensed provisions. 
The only substantive change of note gave a wife who is the primary wage- 
earner in the family the same constitutionally guaranteed income tax 
exemption now granted a husband who is the chief wage-earner; she already 
had that benefit under statute. 

The revision of Article VI (voting and elections) added out-of-state and 
federal felonies to felonies committed against the State of North Carolina as 
grounds for denial of voting and office-holding rights in this State. The 
General Assembly was directed to enact general laws governing voter 
registration. 

The provision that has been interpreted to mean that only voters can hold 
office was modified to limit its application to popularly elective offices only; 
thus it is left to the legislature to determine whether one must be a voter in 
order to hold an appointive office. 

The Constitution of 1971 prohibits the concurrent holding of two or more 
elective state offices or of a federal office and an elective state office. It 
expressly prohibits the concurrent holding of any two or more appointive 
offices or places of trust or profit, or of any combination of elective and 
appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except as the General Assembly 
may allow by general law. 

The power to provide for local government remains in the legislature, 
confining the constitutional provisions on the subject to a general description 



The Constitution of North Carolina 105 

of the General Assembly's plenary authority over local government, a 
declaration that any unit formed by the merger of a city and a county should 
be deemed both a city and a county for constitutional purposes, and a 
section retaining the sheriff as an elective county officer. 

The education article (Article IX) was rearranged to improve upon the 
former hodge-podge treatment of public schools and higher education, 
obsolete provisions (especially those pertaining to racial matters) were elimi- 
nated, and other changes were made to reflect current practice in the 
administration and financing of schools. 

The constitutionally-mandated school term was extended from six months 
(set in 1918) to a minimum of nine months (where it was fixed by statute 
many years earlier). The possibly restrictive age limits on tuition-free public 
schooling were removed. Units of local government to which the General 
Assembly assigns a share of responsibility for financing public education 
were authorized to finance from local revenues education programs, including 
both public schools and technical institutes and community colleges, without 
a popular vote of approval. It was made mandatory (it was formerly permis- 
sive) that the General Assembly require school attendance. 

The Superintendent of Public instruction was eliminated as a voting 
member of the State Board of Education but retained as the Board's 
secretary. He was replaced with an additional at-large appointee. A potential 
conflict of authority between the Superintendent and the Board (both of 
which previously had constitutional authority to administer the public 
schools) was eliminated by making the Superintendent the chief administra- 
tive officer of the Board, which is to supervise and administer the schools. 

The provisions with respect to the state and county school funds were 
retained with only minor editorial modifications. Fines, penalties, and for- 
feitures continue to be earmarked for the county school fund. 

The former provisions dealing with The University of North Carolina 
were broadened into a statement of the General Assembly's duty to maintain 
a system of higher education. 

The General Assembly was authorized by the changes made in Article X 
(Homesteads and Exemptions) to set the amounts of the personal property 
exemption and the homestead exemption (constitutionally fixed at $500 and 
$1,000 respectively since 1868) at what it considers to be reasonable levels, 
with the constitutional figures being treated as minimums. The provision 
protecting the rights of married women to deal with their own property was 
left untouched. The protection given life insurance taken out for the benefit 
of the wife and children of the insured was broadened. 

The provisions prescribing the permissible punishments for crime and 
limiting the crimes punishable by death (Article XI) were left essentially 
intact. 

The procedures for constitutional revision (Article XIII) were made more 
explicit. 

The five constitutional amendments ratified at the same time as the 
Constitution of 1971 deserve particular mention. 



lOfi North Carolina Manual 

The Constitutional Amendments of 1970-71 

Wy the end of the HXiO's, North Carohna state government consisted of 
over 200 state administrative agencies. The State Constitution Study Commis- 
sion concluded on the advice of witnesses who had tried it that no governor 
could effectively oversee an administrative apparatus of such disjointed 
complexity. The Commission's solution was an amendment, patterned after 
the Model State Constitution and the constitutions of a few other states, 
requiring the General Assembly to reduce the number of administrative 
departments to not more than 25 by 1975, and to give the Governor authority 
to effect agency reorganizations and consolidations, subject to disapproval 
by action of either house of the legislature if the changes affected existing 
statutes. 

The second separate constitutional amendment ratified in 1970 supple- 
mented the existing authority of the Governor to call extra sessions of the 
General Assembly with the advice of the Council of State. The amendment 
provides that on written request of three-fifths of all the members of each 
house, the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives shall convene an extra session of the General Assembly. Thus the 
legislative branch is now able to convene itself, notwithstanding the contrary 
wishes of the Governor. 

The most significant of the separate amendments and in some ways the 
most important of the constitutional changes ratified in 1970 was the 
finance amendment. The changes it effected are especially important in the 
financing of local government. The amendment became effective on July 1, 
1973. Its principal provisions are as follows: 

(1) All forms of capitation or poll tax were prohibited. 

(2) The General Assembly was authorized to enact laws empowering 
counties, cities, and towns to establish special taxing districts 
less extensive in area than the entire county or city in order to 
finance the provision within those special districts of a higher 
level of govermental service than is available in the unit at large, 
either by supplementing existing services or providing services 
not otherwise available. That provision eliminated the previous 
necessity of creating a new, independent governmental unit to 
accomplish the same result. 

(3) For a century, the Constitution required that the levying of taxes 
and the borrowing of money by local government be approved by 
a vote of the people of the unit, unless the money were to be used 
for a "necessary expense." The court, not the General Assembly, 
was the final arbiter of what was a "necessary expense," and the 
State Supreme Court took a rather restrictive view of the embrace 
of that concept. The determination of what types of public 
expenditures should require voter approval and what types should 
be made by a governing board on its own authority was found by 
the General Assembly to be a legislative and not a judicial 
matter. In that conviction, the finance amendment provided that 
the General Assembly, acting on a uniform, statewide basis, 
should make the final determination of whether voter approval 



The Constitution of North Carolina 107 

must be had for the levy of property taxes or the borrowing of 
money to finance particular activities of local government. 

(4) To facilitate governmental and private cooperative endeavors, 
the state and local governmental units were authorized by the 
amendment to enter into contracts with and appropriate money 
to private entities "for the accomplishment of public purposes 
only." 

(5) The various forms of public financial obligations were more 
precisely defined than in the previous constitution, with the 
general effect of requiring voter approval only for the issuance of 
general obligation bonds and notes or for governmental 
guarantees of the debts of private persons or organizations. The 
General Assembly was directed to regulate by general law (per- 
mitting classified but not local acts) the contracting of debt by 
local governments. 

(6) The amendments retained the existing limitation that the state 
and local governments may not, without voter approval, borrow 
more than the equivalent of two-thirds of the amount by which 
the unit's indebtedness was reduced during the last fiscal period, 
except for purposes listed in the Constitution. This list was 
lengthened to include "emergencies immediately threatening 
public health or safety." 

(7) No change was made in the provisions with respect to the classifi- 
cation and exemption of property for purposes of property taxation. 
The limitation of 20<P on the $100 valuation previously imposed 
on the general county property tax was omitted. 

The fourth independent amendment also dealt with taxation. It struck out 
a schedule of specified minimum exemptions from the constitutional provi- 
sion on the state income tax, leaving those exemptions to be fixed by the 
General Assembly. This change enabled the legislature to provide for the 
filing of joint tax returns by husbands and wives and to adopt a "piggy- 
back" state income tax to be computed on the same basis as the federal 
income tax, thus relieving the taxpayer of two sets of computations. The 
amendment retains the maximum tax rate at ten per cent. 

The final amendment ratified in 1970 assigned the benefits of property 
escheating to the State for want of an heir or other lawful claimant to a 
special fund, to be available to help needy North Carolina students attend! iij,^ 
public institutions of higher education in the State. Property escheating 
prior to July 1, 1971, continues to be held by The University of North 
Carolina. 

The one amendment defeated by the voters in 1970 would have repealed 
the state constitutional requirement that in order to register as a voter, one 
must be able to read and write the English language. That requirement was 
already ineffective by virtue of federal legislation and therefore the failure of 
repeal had no practical effect. 

The General Assembly of 1971 submitted to the voters five state constitu- 
tional amendments, all of which were ratified by the voters on November 7, 
1972. Those amendments set the constitutionally-specified voting age at 18 



108 North Carolina Manual 

years, required the General Assembly to set maximum age limits for service 
as justices and judges of the state courts, authorized the General Assembly 
to prescribe procedures for the censure and removal of state judges and 
justices, added to the Constitution a statement of policy with regard to the 
conservation and the protection of natural resources, and limited the 
authority of the General Assembly to incorporate cities and towns within 
close proximity to existing municipalities. 

The General Assembly at its 1973 session submitted and the voters in 1974 
approved an amendment changing the title of the Solicitor to that of District 
Attorney. The 1974 legislative session submitted an amendment authorizing 
the issuance by state or county governments of revenue bonds to finance 
industrial facilities, which the voters rejected. 

In 1975, the General Assembly submitted two amendments authorizing 
legislation to permit the issuance of revenue bonds (1) by state and local 
governments to finance health care facilities and (2) by counties to finance 
industrial facilities. Both received voter approval on March 23, 1976. 

The constitutional amendments of 1835 had permitted the voters to elect a 
Governor for two successive two-year terms. The Constitution of 1868 
extended the Governor's term to four years but prohibited the Governor and 
Lieutenant Governor from serving successive four-year terms of the same 
office. The 1971 Constitution retained this limitation. An amendment to 
empower the voters to elect both the Governor and Lieutenant Governor to 
two successive terms of the same office was submitted by the 1977 General 
Assembly and ratified by the voters on November 8, 1977. Four other 
amendments were approved by the voters at the same time. They required 
that the State operate on a balanced budget at all times, extended to 
widowers (as well as to widows) the benefit of the homestead exemption, 
allowed a woman (as well as a man) to insure her life for the benefit of her 
spouse or children free from all claims of the insured's creditors or of her (or 
his) estate, and authorized municipalities owning or operating electric power 
facilities to do so jointly with other public or private power organizations 
and to issue electric system revenue bonds to finance such facilities. 

Only one amendment was proposed by the General Assembly of 1979. 
Approved by the voters in 1980, it required that all justices and judges of the 
State courts be licensed lawyers as a condition of election or appointment to 
the bench. 

The 1981 session of the General Assembly sent five amendments to the 
voters for decision on June 29, 1982. The two ratified amendments ratified 
by the voters authorized the General Assembly (1) to provide for the recall of 
retired State Supreme Court Justices and Court of Appeals Judges to 
temporary duty on either court and (2) to empower the Supreme Court to 
review direct appeals from the Utilities Commission. The voters rejected 
amendments (1) extending the terms of all members of the General Assembly 
from two to four years; (2) authorizing the General Assembly to empower 
public agencies to develop new and existing seaports and airports, and to 
finance and refinance seaport, airport, and related commercial and industrial 
facilities for public and private parties; and (3) authorizing the General 
Assembly to empower a State agency to issue bonds to finance facilities for 
private institutions of higher education. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 109 

At its 1982 session, the General Assembly submitted two amendments. On 
November 2, 1982, the electorate ratified an amendment shifting the begin- 
ning of legislative terms from the date of election to January 1 next after the 
election, and rejected an amendment permitting the issuance of tax-incre- 
ment bonds without voter approval. 

On May 8, 1984, the voters ratified an amendment submitted by the 
General Assembly of 1983 to authorize the General Assembly to create an 
agency to issue revenue bonds to finance agricultural facilities. And on 
November 6, 1984, the voters approved an amendment requiring that the 
Attorney General and all District Attorneys be licensed lawyers as a condi- 
tion of election or appointment. 

An amendment to shift the elections for state legislative, executive, and 
judicial officers and for county officers from even-numbered to odd-numbered 
years (beginning in 1989 for legislators and 1993 for Governors and other 
state executives) was submitted by the General Assembly of 1985 to the 
voters, who rejected it on May 6, 1986. An amendment to revert to the pre- 
1977 constitutional policy that barred the Governor and Lieutenant Governor 
from election to two successive terms of the same office was proposed by the 
1985 legislative session for a popular vote on November 4, 1986, but in the 
meantime the 1986 adjourned session repealed the act proposing the amend- 
ment. 

In mid-1986, the General Assembly at its adjourned session voted to send 
to the voters three constitutional amendments, all three of which were 
approved on November 4, 1986. They (1) authorized legislation enabling 
state and local governments to develop seaports and airports and to partici- 
pate jointly with other public agencies and with private parties and issue 
revenue bonds for that purpose; (2) authorized the State to issue tax-exempt 
revenue bonds to finance or refinance private college facilities; and (3) 
provided that when a vacancy occurs among the eight elected state executive 
officers (not including the Governor and Lieutenant Governor) or the elected 
judges and justices more than 60 days (was 30 days) before a general 
election, the vacancy must be filled at that election. 

Neither the General Assembly of 1987-88 nor the General Assembly of 
1989 submitted a constitutional amendment to the voters. 

Conclusion 

The people of North Carolina have treated their constitution with con- 
servatism and respect. The fact that we have adopted only three constitutions 
in two centuries of existence as a state is the chief evidence of that attitude. 
(Some states have adopted as many as five or ten constitutions in a like 
period.) The relative fewness of amendments, even in recent years, is another 
point of contrast to many states. It reflects the fact that North CaroHna has 
been less disposed than have many states to write into its state constitution 
detailed provisions with respect to transitory matters better left to legis- 
lation. The Constitution has allowed the General Assembly wide latitude for 
decision on public affairs, and legislators have been wilhng to accept 
responsibility for and act on matters within their authority instead of 
passing the responsibility for difficult decisions on to the voters in the form 
of constitutional amendments. 



110 North Carolina Manual 

Constitutional draftsmen have not been so convinced of their own exclusive 
iioUi on wisdom or so doubtful of the reliability of later generations of 
legislators that they found it necessary to write into the Constitution the 
large amount of regulatory detail often found in state constitutions. Delegates 
to constitutional conventions and members of the General Assembly have 
acted consistently with the advice of the late John J. Parker, Chief Judge of 
the United States Court of Appeals for the P'ourth Circuit (1925-58), who 
observed: 

The purpose of a state constitution is two-fold: (1) to protect the 
rights of the individual from encroachment by the State; and (2) 
to provide a framework of government for the State and its 
subdivisions. It is not the function of a constitution to deal with 
temporary conditions, but to lay down general principles of govern- 
ment which must be observed amid changing conditions. It 
follows, then, that a constitution should not contain elaborate 
legislative provisions, but should lay down briefly and clearly 
fundamental principles upon which government shall proceed, 
leaving it to the people's representatives to apply these principles 
through legislation to conditions as they arise. 



The Constitution of North Carolina m 



CONSTITUTION OF NORTH CAROLINA 

PREAMBLE 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, 
the Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the American Union 
and the existence of our civil, political and religious liberties, and acknowledg- 
ing our dependence upon Him for the continuance of those blessings to us 
and our posterity, do, for the more certain security thereof and for the better 
government of this State, ordain and establish this Constitution. 

ARTICLE 1 

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS 

That the great, general, and essential principles of liberty and free govern- 
ment may be recognized and established, and that the relations of this State 
to the Union and government of the United States and those of the people of 
this State to the rest of the American people may be defined and affirmed, 
we do declare that: 

Section 1. The equality and rights of persons. We hold it to be self-evident 
that all persons are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator 
with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoy- 
ment of the fruits of their own labor, and the pursuit of happiness. 

Sec. 2. Sovereignty of the people. All political power is vested in and 
derived from the people; all government of right originates from the people, 
is founded upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good of the 
whole. 

Sec. 3. Internal government of the State. The people of this State have the 
inherent, sole, and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and 
police thereof, and of altering or abolishing their Constitution and form of 
government whenever it may be necessary to their safety and happiness; but 
every such right shall be exercised in pursuance of law and consistently 
with the Constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 4. Secession prohibited. This State shall ever remain a member of the 
American Union; the people thereof are part of the American nation; there is 
no right on the part of this State to secede; and all attempts, from wbatev(>r 
source or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve this Union or to sever tbis 
Nation, shall be resisted with the whole power of the State. 

Sec. 5. Allegiance to the United States. Every citizen of this State owes 
paramount allegiance to the Constitution and government of the United 
States, and no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion 
thereof can have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. Separation of powers. The legislative, executive, and supreme 
judicial powers of the State government shall be forever separate and 
distinct from each other. 



112 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 7. Suspending laws. All power of suspending laws or the execution of 
laws by any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the 
people, is injurious to their rights and shall not be exercised. 

Sec. 8. Representation and taxation. The people of this State shall not be 
taxed or made subject to the payment of any impost or duty without the 
consent of themselves or their representatives in the General Assembly, 
freely given. 

Sec. 9. Frequent elections. For redress or grievances and for amending and 
strengthening the laws, elections shall be often held. 

Sec. 10. Free elections. All elections shall be free. 

Sec. 11. Property qualifications. As political rights and privileges are not 
dependent upon or modified by property, no property qualification shall 
affect the right to vote or hold office. 

Sec. 12. Right of assembly and petition. The people have a right to 
assemble together to consult for their common good, to instruct their 
representatives, and to apply to the General Assembly for redress of 
grievances; but secret politial societies are dangerous to the liberties of a free 
people and shall not be tolerated. 

Sec. 13. Religious liberty. All persons have a natural and inalienable right 
to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, 
and no human authority shall, in any case whatever, control or interfere 
with the rights of conscience. 

Sec. 14. Freedom of speech and press. Freedom of speech and of the press 
are two of the great bulwarks of liberty and therefore shall never be 
restrained, but every person shall be held responsible for their abuse. 

Sec. 15. Education. The people have a right to the privilege of education, 
and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 16. Ex post facto laws. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed 
before the existence of such laws and by them only declared criminal, are 
oppressive, unjust, and incompatible with liberty, and therefore no ex post 
facto law shall be enacted. No law taxing retrospectively sales, purchases, or 
other acts previously done shall be enacted. 

Sec. 17. Slavery and involuntary servitude. Slavery is forever prohibited. 
Involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the parties 
have been adjudged guilty, is forever prohibited. 

Sec. 18. Courts shall be open. All courts shall be open; every person for an 
injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation shall have remedy 
by due course of law; and right and justice shall be administered without 
favor, denial, or delay. 

Sec. 19. Law of the land; equal protection of the laws. No person shall be 
taken, imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or 
outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner deprived of his life, liberty, or 
property, but by the law of the land. No person shall be denied the equal 
protection of the laws; nor shall any person be subjected to discrimination 
by the State because of race, color, religion, or national origin. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 1 13 

Sec. 20. General warrants. General warrants, whereby an officer or other 
person may be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of 
the act committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose 
offense is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are 
dangerous to liberty and shall not be granted. 

Sec. 21. Inquiry into restraints on liberty. Every person restrained of his 
liberty is entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to 
remove the restraint if unlawful, and that remedy shall not be denied or 
delayed. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended. 

Sec. 22. Modes of prosecution. Except in misdemeanor cases initiated in 
the District Court Division, no person shall be put to answer any criminal 
charge but by indictment, presentment, or impeachment. But any person, 
when represented by counsel, may, under such regulations as the General 
Assembly shall prescribe, waive indictment in non-capital cases. 

Sec. 23. Rights of accused. In all criminal prosecutions, every person 
charged with crime has the right to be informed of the accusation and to 
confront the accusers and witnesses with other testimony, and to have 
counsel for defense, and not be compelled to give self-incriminating evidence, 
or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the defense, unless 
found guilty. 

Sec. 24. Right of jury trial in criminal cases. No person shall be convicted 
of any crime but by the unanimous verdict of a jury in open court. The 
General Assembly may, however, provide for other means of trial for 
misdemeanors, with the right of appeal for trial de novo. 

Sec. 25. Right of jury trial in civil cases. In all controversies at law 
respecting property, the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best 
securities of the rights of the people, and shall remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 26. Jury service. No person shall be excluded from jury service on 
account of sex, race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 27. Bail, fines, and punishments. Excessive bail shall not be required, 
nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 28. Imprisonment for debt. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in 
this State, except in cases of fraud. 

Sec. 29. Treason against the State. Treason against the State shall consist 
only of levying war against it or adhering to its enemies by giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony 
of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. No 
conviction of treason or attainder shall work corruption of blood or 
forfeiture. 

Sec. 30. Militia and the right to bear arms. A well regulated militia bcinfx 
necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and 
bear arms shall not be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace 
are dangerous to liberty, they shall not be maintained, and the military 
shall be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by. the civil power. 
Nothing herein shall justify the practice of carrying concealed weapons, or 
prevent the General Assembly from enacting penal statutes against that 
practice. 



1 14 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 31. Quartering of soldiers. No soldier shall in time of peace be 
quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war 
hut in a manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 82. Exclusive emoluments. No person or set of persons is entitled to 
exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in 
consideration of public services. 

Sec. 33. Hereditary emoluments and honors. No hereditary emoluments, 
privileges, or honors shall be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 34. Perpetuities and monopolies. Perpetuities and monopolies are 
contrary to the genius of a free state and shall not be allowed. 

Sec. 35. Recurrence to fundamental principals. A frequent recurrence to 
fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of 
liberty. 

Sec. 36. Other rights of the people. The enumeration of rights in this 
Article shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the 
people. 

ARTICLE II 

LEGISLATIVE 

Section 1. Legislative power. The legislative power of the State shall be 
vested in the General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and a 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. Number of Senators. The Senate shall be composed of 50 Senators, 
biennially chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 3. Senate districts: apportionment of Senators. The Senators shall be 
elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session 
convening after the return of every decennial census of population taken by 
order of Congress, shall revise the senate districts and the apportionment of 
Senators among those districts, subject to the following requirements: 

(1) Each Senator shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of 
inhabitants, the number of inhabitants that each Senator represents being 
determined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district that he 
represents by the number of Senators apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each senate district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district; 

(4) When established, the senate districts and the apportionment of 
Senators shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census 
of population taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 4. Number of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall be 
composed of 120 Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 5. Representative districts; apportionment of Representatives. The 
Representatives shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the 
first regular session convening after the return of ever decennial census of 



The Constitution of North Carolina 115 

population taken by order of Congress, shall revise the representative 
districts and the apportionment of Representatives among those districts, 
subject to the following requirements: 

(1) Each Representative shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal 
number of inhabitants, the number of inhabitants that each Representative 
represents being determined for this purpose by dividing the population of 
the district that he represents by the number of Representatives apportioned 
to that district; 

(2) Each representative district shall at all times consist of contiguous 
territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a representative district; 

(4) When established, the representative districts and the apportionment 
of Representatives shall remain unaltered until the return of another 
decennial census of population taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 6. Qualifications for Senator. Each Senator, at the time of his election, 
shall be not less than 25 years of age, shall be a qualified voter of the State, 
and shall have resided in the State as a citizen for two years and in the 
district for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his 
election. 

Sec. 7. Qualifications for Representative. Each Representative, at the time 
of his election, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and shall have resided 
in the district for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his 
election. 

Sec. 8. Elections. The election for members of the General Assembly shall 
be held for the respective districts in 1972 and every two years thereafter, at 
the places and on the day prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Term of office. The term of office of Senators and Representatives 
shall commence on the first day of January next after their election. 

Sec. 10. Vacancies. Every vacancy occurring in the membership of the 
General Assembly by reason of death, resignation, or other cause shall be 
filled in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 11. Sessions. 

(1) Regular Sessions. The General Assembly shall meet in regular session 
in 1973 and every two years thereafter on the day prescribed by law. Neither 
house shall proceed upon public business unless a majority of all of its 
members are actually present. 

(2) Extra sessions on legislative call. The President of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives shall convene the General Assembly 
in extra session by their joint proclamation upon receipt by the President of 
the Senate of written requests therefor signed by three-fifths of all the 
members of the Senate and upon receipt by the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives of written requests therefor signed by three-fifths of all the 
members of the House of Representatives. 



116 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 12. Oath of members. Each member of the General Assembly, before 
taking his seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the 
Constitution and laws of the United States and the Constitution of the State 
of North Carolina, and will faithfully discharge his duty as a member of the 
Senate or House of Representatives. 

Sec. 13. President of the Senate. The Lieutenant Governor shall be Presi- 
dent of the Senate and shall preside over the Senate, but shall have no vote 
unless the Senate is equally divided. 

Sec. 14. Other officers of the Senate. 

(1) President Pro Tempore - succession to presidency. The Senate shall 
elect from its membership a President Pro Tempore, who shall become 
President of the Senate upon the failure of the Lieutenant Governor-elect to 
qualify, or upon succession by the Lieutenant Governor to the office of 
Governor, or upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of the 
President of the Senate, and who shall serve until the expiration of this term 
of office as Senator. 

(2) President Pro Tempore - temporary succession. During the physical or 
mental incapacity of the President of the Senate to perform the duties of his 
office, or during the absence of the President of the Senate, the President Pro 
Tempore shall preside over the Senate. 

(3) Other Officers. The Senate shall elect its other officers. 

Sec. 15. Officers of the House of Representatives. The House of Repre- 
sentatives shall elect its Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 16. Compensation and allowances. The members and officers of the 
General Assembly shall receive for their services the compensation and 
allowances prescribed by law. An increase in the compensation or allowances 
of members shall become effective at the beginning of the next regular 
session of the General Assembly following the session at which it was 
enacted. 

Sec. 17. Journals. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, 
which shall be printed and made public immediately after the adjournment 
of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 18. Protests. Any member of either house may dissent from and 
protest against any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the public 
or to any individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered on the 
journal. 

Sec. 19. Record votes. Upon motion made in either house and seconded by 
one fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question shall 
be taken and entered upon the journal. 

Sec. 20. Powers of the General Assembly. Each house shall be judge of the 
qualifications and elections of its own members, shall sit upon its own 
adjournment from day to day, and shall prepare bills to be enacted into 
laws. The two houses may jointly adjourn to any future day or other place. 
Either house may, of its own motion, adjourn for a period not in excess of 
three days. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 1 17 

Sec. 21. Style of the acts. The style of the acts shall be: "The General 
Assembly of North Carolina enacts:". 

Sec. 22. Action on bills. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature 
shall be read three times in each house before they become laws, and shall 
be signed by the presiding officer of both houses. 

Sec. 23. Revenue bills. No laws shall be enacted to raise money on the 
credit of the State, or to pledge the faith of the State directly or indirectly for 
the payment of any debt, or to impose any tax upon the people of the State, 
or to allow the counties, cities, or towns to do so, unless the bill for the 
purpose shall have been read three several times in each house of the 
General Assembly and passed three several readings, which readings shall 
have been on three different days, and shall have been agreed to by each 
house respectively, and unless the yeas and nays on the second and third 
readings of the bill shall have been entered on the journal. 

Sec. 24. Limitations on local, private, and special legislation. 

(1) Prohibited subjects. The General Assembly shall not enact any local, 
private, or special act or resolution: 

(a) Relating to health, sanitation, and the abatement of nuisances; 

(b) Changing the names of cities, towns, and townships; 

(c) Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, or dis- 
continuing of highways, streets, or alleys; 

(d) Relating to ferries or bridges; 

(e) Relating to non-navigable streams; 

(f) Relating to cemeteries; 

(g) Relating to pay of jurors; 

(h) Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or establishing 

or changing the lines of school districts; 
(i) Remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally 

paid into the public treasury; 
(j) Regulating labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; 
(k) Extending the time for the levy or collection of taxes or otherwise 

relieving any collector of taxes from the due performance of his 

official duties or his sureties from liability; 
(1) Giving effect to informal wills and deeds; 
(m) Granting a divorce or securing alimony in any individual case; 
(n) Altering the name of any person, or legitimating any person not born 

in lawful wedlock, or restoring to the rights of citizenship any person 

convicted of a felony. 

(2) Repeals. Nor shall the General Assembly enact any such local, private, 
or special act by partial repeal of a general law; but the General Assembly 
may at any time repeal local, private, or special laws enacted by it. 

(3) Prohibited acts void. Any local, private, or special act or resolution 
enacted in violation of the provisions of this Section shall be void. 

(4) General laws. The General Assembly may enact general laws regulat- 
ing the matters set out in this Section. 



118 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE III 

EXECUTIVE 

Section 1. Executive power. The executive power of the State shall be 
vested in the Governor. 

Sec. 2. Governor and Lieutenant Governor: election, term, and qualifi- 
cations. 

(1) Election and term. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be 
elected by the qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years 
thereafter, at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly 
are elected. Their term of office shall be four years and shall commence on 
the first day of January next after their election and continue until their 
successors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Qualifications. No person shall be eligible for election to the office of 
Governor or Lieutenant Governor unless, at the time of his election, he shall 
have attained the age of 30 years and shall have been a citizen of the United 
States for five years and a resident of this State for two years immediately 
preceding his election. No person elected to the office of Governor or 
Lieutenant Governor shall be eligible for election to more than two consecu- 
tive terms of the same office. 

Sec. 3. Succession to office of Governor. 

(1) Succession as Governor. The Lieutenant Governor-elect shall become 
Governor upon the failure of the Governor-elect to qualify. The Lieutenant 
Governor shall become Governor upon the death, resignation, or removal 
from office of the Governor. The further order of succession to the office of 
Governor shall be prescribed by law. A successor shall serve for the re- 
mainder of the term of the Governor whom he succeeds and until a new 
Governor is elected and qualified. 

(2) Succession as Acting Governor. During the absence of the Governor 
from the State, or during the physical or mental incapacity of the Governor 
to perform the duties of his office, the Lieutenant Govenor shall be Acting 
Governor. The further order of succession as Acting Governor shall be 
prescribed by law. 

(3) Physical incapacity. The Governor may, by a written statement filed 
with the Attorney General, declare that he is physically incapable of perform- 
ing the duties of his office, and may thereafter in the same manner declare 
that he is physically capable of performing the duties of his office. 

(4) Mental incapacity. The mental incapacity of the Governor to perform 
the duties of his office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted 
by a vote of two-thirds of all of the members of each house of the General 
Assembly. Thereafter, the mental capacity of the Governor to perform the 
duties of his office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted by a 
vote of a majority of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. 
In all cases, the General Assembly shall give the Governor such notice as it 
may deem proper and shall allow him an opportunity to be heard before a 
joint session of the General Assembly before it takes final action. When the 



The Constitution of North Carolina 119 

General Assembly is not in session, the Council of State, a majority of its 
members concurring, may convene it in extra session for the purpose of 
proceeding under this paragraph. 

(5) Impeachment. Removal of the Governor from office for any other cause 
shall be by impeachment. 

Sec. 4. Oath of of f ice for Governor. The Governor, before entering upon the 
duties of his office, shall, before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an 
oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of the 
United States and of the State of North Carolina, and that he will faithfully 
perform the duties pertaining to the office of Governor. 

Sec. 5. Duties of Governor. 

(1) Residence. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government of this 
State. 

(2) Information to General Assembly. The Governor shall from time to 
time give the General Assembly information of the affairs of the State and 
recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

(3) Budget. The Governor shall prepare and recommend to the General 
Assembly a comprehensive budget of the anticipated revenue and proposed 
expenditures of the State for the ensuring fiscal period. The budget as 
enacted by the General Assembly shall be administered by the Governor. 

The total expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered by the 
budget shall not exceed the total of receipts during that fiscal period and the 
surplus remaining in the State Treasury at the beginning of the period. To 
insure that the State does not incur a deficit for any fiscal period, the 
Governor shall continually survey the collection of the revenue and shall 
effect the necessary economies in State expenditures, after first making 
adequate provision for the prompt payment of the principal of and interest 
on bonds and notes of the State according to their terms, whenever he 
determines that receipts during the fiscal period, when added to any surplus 
remaining in the State Treasury at the beginning of the period, will not be 
sufficient to meet budgeted expenditures. This section shall not be construed 
to impair the power of the State to issue its bonds and notes within the 
limitations imposed in Article V of this Constitution, nor to impair the 
obligation of bonds and notes of the State now outstanding or issued 
hereafter. 

(4) Execution of laws. The Governor shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed. 

(5) Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of 
the military forces of the State except when they shall be called into the 
service of the United States. 

(6) Clemency. The Governor may grant reprieves, commutations, and 
pardons, after conviction, for all offenses (except in cases of inipeachmcnt), 
upon such conditons as he may think proper, subject to regulations prescrilx'd 
by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. The terms reprieves, 
commutations, and pardons shall not include paroles. 



120 North Carolina Manual 

(7) Extra sessions. The Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, by 
and with the advice of the Council of State, convene the General Assembly 
in extra session by its proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes 
for which they are thus convened. 

(8) Appointments. The Governor shall nominate and by and with the 
advice and consent of a majority of the Senators appoint all officers whose 
appointments are not otherwise provided for. 

(9) Information. The Governor may at any time require information in 
writing from the head of any administrative department or agency upon any 
subject relating to the duties of his office. 

(10) Administrative reorganization. The General Assembly shall prescribe 
the functions, powers, and duties of the administrative departments and 
agencies of the State and may alter them from time to time, but the 
Governor may make such changes in the allocation of offices and agencies 
and in the allocation of those functions, powers, and duties as he considers 
necessary for efficient administration. If those changes affect existing law, 
they shall be set forth in executive orders, which shall be submitted to the 
General Assembly not later than the sixtieth calendar day of its session, and 
shall become effective and shall have the force of law upon adjournment 
sine die of the session, unless specifically disapproved by resolution of either 
house of the General Assembly or specifically modified by joint resolution of 
both houses of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. Duties of the Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor shall 
be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is 
equally divided. He shall perform such additional duties as the General 
Assembly or the Governor may assign to him. He shall receive the compensa- 
tion and allowances prescribed by law. 

Sec. 7. Other elective officers. 

(1) Officers. A Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, an Attorney General, a Commissioner of Agriculture, a 
Commissioner of Labor, and a Commissioner of Insurance shall be elected 
by the qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, 
at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are 
elected. Their term of office shall be four years and shall commence on the 
first day of January next after their election and continue until their 
successors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Duties. Their respective duties shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Vacancies. If the office of any of these officers is vacated by death, 
resignation, or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint 
another to serve until his successor is elected and qualified. Every such 
vacancy shall be filled by election at the first election for members of the 
General Assembly that occurs more than 60 days after the vacancy has 
taken place, and the person chosen shall hold the office for the remainder of 
the unexpired term fixed in this Section. When a vacancy occurs in the office 



The Constitution of North Carolina 121 

of any of the officers named in this Section and the term expires on the first 
day of Janaury succeeding the next election for members of the General 
Assembly, the Governor shall appoint to fill the vacancy for the unexpired 
term of the office. 

(4) Interim officers. Upon the occurrence of a vacancy in the office of any 
one of these officers for any of the causes stated in the preceding paragraph, 
the Governor may appoint an interim officer to perform the duties of that 
office until a person is appointed or elected pursuant to this Section to fill 
the vacancy and is qualified. 

(5) Acting officers. During the physical or mental incapacity of any one of 
these officers to perform the duties of his office, as determined pursuant to 
this Section, the duties of his office shall be performed by an acting officer 
who shall be appointed by the Governor. 

(6) Determination of incapacity. The General Assembly shall by law 
prescribe with respect to those officers, other than the Governor, whose 
offices are created by this Article, procedures for determining the physical or 
mental incapacity of any officer to perform the duties of his office, and for 
determining whether an officer who has been temporarily incapacitated has 
sufficiently recovered his physical or mental capacity to perform the duties 
of his office. Removal of those officers from office for any other cause shall 
be by impeachment. 

(7) Special Qualifications for Attorney General. Only persons duly 
authorized to practice law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for 
appointment or election as Attorney General. 

Sec. 8. Council of State. The Council of State shall consist of the officers 
whose offices are established by this Article. 

Sec. 9. Compensation and allowances. The officers whose offices are 
established by this Article shall at stated periods receive the compensation 
and allowances prescribed by law, which shall not be diminished during the 
time for which they have been chosen. 

Sec. 10. Seal of State. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be 
kept by the Governor and used by him as occasion may require, and shall he 
called "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina." All grants and 
commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority of the State of 
North Carolina, sealed with "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina." 
and signed by the Governor. 

Sec. 11. Administrative departments. Not later than July 1, HlTf), all 
administrative departments, agencies, and offices of the State and their 
respective functions, powers, and duties shall be allocated by law among 
and within not more than 25 principal administrative departments so as to 
group them as far as practicable according to major purposes. Regulatory, 
quasi-judicial, and temporary agencies may, but need not, he allocated 
within a principal department. 



122 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE IV 

JUDICIAL 

Section I. Judicial power. The judicial power of the State shall, except as 
provided in Section 3 of this Article, be vested in a Court for the Trial of 
Impeachments and in a General Court of Justice. The General Assembly 
shall have no power to deprive the judicial department of any power or 
jurisdiction that rightfully pertains to it as a coordinate department of the 
government, nor shall it establish or authorize any courts other than as 
permitted by this Article. 

Sec. 2. General Court of Justice. The General Court of Justice shall 
constitute a unified judicial system for purposes of jurisdiction, operation, 
and administration, and shall consist of an Appellate Division, a Superior 
Court Division, and a District Court Division. 

Sec. 3. Judicial powers of administrative agencies. The General Assembly 
may vest in administrative agencies established pursuant to law such 
judicial powers as may be reasonably necessary as an incident to the 
accomplishment of the purposes for which the agencies were created. Appeals 
from administrative agencies shall be to the General Court of Justice. 

Sec. 4. Court for the Trial of Impeachments. The House of Representatives 
solely shall have the power of impeaching. The Court for the Trial of 
Impeachments shall be the Senate. When the Governor or Lieutenant 
Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice shall preside over the Court. A 
majority of the members shall be necessary to a quorum, and no person 
shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. Judgment upon conviction shall not extend beyond removal from 
and disqualification to hold office in this State, but the party shall be liable 
to indictment and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 5. Appellate division. The Appellate Division of the General Court of 
Justice shall consist of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. 

Sec. 6. Supreme Court. 

(1) Membership. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and 
six Associate Justices, but the General Assembly may increase the number 
of Associate Justices to not more than eight. In the event the Chief Justice is 
unable, on account of absence or temporary incapacity, to perform any of 
the duties placed upon him, the senior Associate Justice available may 
discharge those duties. 

(2) Sessions of the Supreme Court. The sessions of the Supreme Court shall 
be held in the City of Raleigh unless otherwise provided by the General 
Assembly. 

Sec. 7. Court of Appeals. The structure, organization, and composition of 
the Court of Appeals shall be determined by the General Assembly. The 
Court shall have not less than five members, and may be authorized to sit in 
divisions, or other than en banc. Sessions of the Court shall be held at such 
times and places as the General Assembly may prescribe. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 123 

Sec. 8. Retirement of Justices and Judges. The General Assembly shall 
provide by general law for the retirement of Justices and Judges of the 
General Court of Justice, and may provide for the temporary recall of any 
retired Justice or Judge to serve on the court from which he was retired. The 
General Assembly shall also prescribe maximum age limits for service as a 
Justice or Judge. 

Sec. 9. Superior Courts. 

(1) Superior Court districts. The General Assembly shall, from time to 
time, divide the State into a convenient number of Superior Court judicial 
districts and shall provide for the election of one or more Superior Court 
Judges for each district. Each regular Superior Court Judge shall reside in 
the district for which he is elected. The General Assembly may provide by 
general law for the selection or appointment of special or emergency Superior 
Court Judges not selected for a particular judicial district. 

(2) Open at all times; sessions for trial of cases. The Superior Court shall 
be open at all times for the transaction of all business except the trial of 
issues of fact requiring a jury. Regular trial sessions of the Superior Court 
shall be held at times fixed pursuant to a calendar of courts promulgated by 
the Supreme Court. At least two sessions for the trial of jury cases shall be 
held annually in each county. 

(3) Clerks. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be elected 
for a term of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time and 
places as members of the General Assembly are elected. If the office of Clerk 
of the Superior Court becomes vacant otherwise than by the expiration of 
the term, or if the people fail to elect, the senior regular resident Judge of the 
Superior Court serving the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy until an 
election can be regularly held. 

Sec. 10. District Courts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, 
divide the State into a convenient number of local court districts and shall 
prescribe where the District Courts shall sit, but a District Court must sit in 
at least one place in each county. District judges shall be elected for each 
district for a term of four years, in a manner prescribed by law. When more 
than one District Judge is authorized and elected for a district, the Cliief 
Justice of the Supreme Court shall designate one of the judges as Chief 
District Judge. Every District Judge shall reside in the district for whicli he 
is elected. For each county, the senior regular resident Judge of the Superior 
Court serving the county shall appoint for a term of two years, from 
nominations submitted by the Clerk of the Superior Court of the county, one 
or more Magistrates who shall be officers of the District Court. 'I'he number 
of District Judges and Magistrates shall, from time to time, be determined 
by the General Assembly. Vacancies in the office of District Judge shall l)e 
filled for the unexpired term in a manner prescribed by law. Vacancies in 
the office of Magistrate shall be filled for the unexpired term in the manner 
provided for original appointment to the office. 



124 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 1 1. Assignment of Judges. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
acting in accordance with rules of the Supreme Court, shall make assign- 
ments of Judges of the Superior Court and may transfer District Judges 
from one district to another for temporary or specialized duty. The principle 
of rotating Superior Court Judges among the various districts of a division 
is a salutary one and shall be observed. For this purpose the General 
Assembly may divide the State into a number of judicial divisions. Subject 
to the general supervision of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
assignment of District Judges within each local court district shall be made 
by the Chief District Judge. 

Sec. 12. Jurisdiction of the General Court of Justice. 

(1) Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review 
upon appeal any decision of the courts below, upon any matter of law or 
legal inference. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court over "issues of fact" 
and "questions of fact" shall be the same exercised by it prior to the 
adoption of this Article, and the Court may issue any remedial writs 
necessary to give it general supervision and control over the proceedings of 
the other courts. The Supreme Court also has jurisdiction to review, when 
authorized by law, direct appeals from a final order or decision of the North 
Carolina Utilities Commission. 

(2) Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals shall have such appellate 
jurisdiction as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(3) Superior Court. Except as otherwise provided by the General Assembly, 
the Superior Court shall have original general jurisdiction throughout the 
State. The Clerks of the Superior Court shall have such jurisdiction and 
powers as the General Assembly shall prescribe by general law uniformly 
applicable in every county of the State. 

(4) District Courts; Magistrates. The General Assembly shall, by general 
law uniformly applicable in every local court district of the State, prescribe 
the jurisdiction and powers of the District Courts and Magistrates. 

(5) Waiver. The General Assembly may by general law provide that the 
jurisdictional limits may be waived in civil cases. 

(6) Appeals. The General Assembly shall by general law provide a proper 
system of appeals. Appeals from Magistrates shall be heard de novo, with 
the right of trial by jury as defined in this Constitution and the laws of this 
State. 

Sec. 13. Forms of action; rules of procedure. 

(1) Forms of Action. There shall be in this State but one form of action for 
the enforcement or protection of private rights or the redress or private 
wrongs, which shall be denominated a civil action, and in which there shall 
be a right to have issues of fact tried before a jury. Every action prosecuted 
by the people of the State as a party against a person charged with a public 
offense, for the punishment thereof, shall be termed a criminal action. 

(2) Rules of procedure. The Supreme Court shall have exclusive authority 
to make rules of procedure and practice for the Appellate Division. The 



The Constitution of North Carolina 125 

General Assembly may make rules of procedure and practice for the Superior 
Court and District Court Divisions, and the General Assembly may delegate 
this authority to the Supreme Court. No rule of procedure or practice shall 
abridge substantive rights or abrogate or limit the right of trial by jury. If 
the General Assembly should delegate to the Supreme Court the rule-making 
power, the General Assembly may, nevertheless, alter, amend, or repeal any 
rule of procedure or practice adopted by the Supreme Court for the Superior 
Court or District Court Divisions. 

Sec. 14. Waiver of jury trial. In all issues of fact joined in any court, the 
parties in any civil case may waive the right to have the issues determined 
by a jury, in which case the finding of the judge upon the facts shall have 
the force and effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 15. Administration. The General Assembly shall provide for an 
administrative office of the courts to carry out the provisions of this Article. 

Sec. 16. Terms of office and election of Justices of the Supreme Court, 
Judges of the Court of Appeals, and Judges of the Superior Court. Justices of 
the Supreme Court, Judges of the Court of Appeals, and regular Judges of 
the Superior Court shall be elected by the qualified voters and shall hold 
office for terms of eight years and until their successors are elected and 
qualified. Justices of the Supreme Court and Judges of the Court of Appeals 
shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State. Regular Judges of the 
Superior Court may be elected by the qualified voters of the State or by the 
voters of their respective districts, as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 17. Removal of Judges, Magistrates and Clerks. 

(1) Removal of Judges by the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge of 
the General Court of Justice may be removed from office for mental or 
physical incapacity by joint resolution of two-thirds of all the members of 
each house of the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge against whom 
the General Assembly may be about to proceed shall receive notice thereof, 
accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at least 20 
days before the day on which either house of the General Assembly shall act 
thereon. Removal from office by the General Assembly for any other cause 
shall be by impeachment. 

(2) Additional method of removal of Judges. The General Assembly shall 
prescribe a procedure, in addition to impeachment and address set forth in 
this Section, for the removal of a Justice or Judge of the General Court of 
Justice for mental or physical incapacity interfering with the performance of 
his duties which is, or is likely to become, permanent, and for the censure 
and removal of a Justice or Judge of the General Court of Justice for willful 
misconduct in office, willful and persistent failure to perform his duties, 
habitual intemperance, conviction of a crime involving moral turpitude, or 
conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice that brings the judicial 
office into disrepute. 

(3) Removal of Magistrates. The General Assembly shall provide by 
general law for the removal of Magistrates for misconduct or mental or 
physical incapacity. 



126 North Carolina Manual 

(4) Removal of Clerks. Any Clerk of the Superior Court may be removed 
from office for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity by the senior 
regular resident Superior Court Judge serving the county. Any Clerk against 
whom proceedings are instituted shall receive written notice of the charges 
against him at least ten days before the hearing upon the charges. Any 
Clerk so removed from office shall be entitled to an appeal as provided by 
law. 

Sec. 18. District Attorney and Prosecutorial Districts. 

(1) District Attorneys. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, 
divide the State into a convenient number of prosecutorial districts, for each 
of which a District Attorney shall be chosen for a term of four years by the 
qualified voters thereof, at the same time and places as members of the 
General Assembly are elected. Only persons duly to practice law in the 
courts of this State shall be eligible for election or appointment as a District 
Attorney. The District Attorney shall advise the officers of justice in his 
district, be responsible for the prosecution on behalf of the State of all 
criminal actions in the Superior Courts of his district, perform such duties 
related to appeals therefrom as the Attorney General may require, and 
perform such other duties as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(2) Prosecution in District Court Division. Criminal actions in the District 
Court Division shall be prosecuted in such manner as the General Assembly 
may prescribe by general law uniformly applicable in every local court 
district of the State. 

Sec. 19. Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in this Article, all vacancies 
occurring in the offices provided for by this Article shall be filled by 
appointment of the Governor, and the appointees shall hold their places 
until the next election for members of the General Assembly that is held 
more than 60 days after the vacancy occurs, when elections shall be held to 
fill the offices. When the unexpired term of any of the offices named in this 
Article of the Constitution in which a vacancy has occurred, and in which it 
is herein provided that the Governor shall fill the vacancy, expires on the 
first day of January succeeding the next election for members of the General 
Assembly, the Governor shall appoint to fill that vacancy for the unexpired 
term of the office. If any person elected or appointed to any of these offices 
shall fail to qualify, the office shall be appointed to, held, and filled as 
provided in case of vacancies occurring therein. All incumbents of these 
offices shall hold until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 20. Revenues and expenses of the judicial department. The General 
Assembly shall provide for the establishment of a schedule of court fees and 
costs which shall be uniform throughout the State within each division of 
the General Court of Justice. The operating expenses of the judicial depart- 
ment, other than compensation to process servers and other locally paid 
non-judicial officers, shall be paid from State funds. 

Sec. 21. Fees, salaries, and emoluments. The General Assembly shall 
prescribe and regulate the fees, salaries, and emoluments of all officers 
provided for in this Article, but the salaries of Judges shall not be diminished 



The Constitution of North Carolina 127 

during their continuance in office. In no case shall the compensation of any 
Judge or Magistrate be dependent upon his decision or upon the collection of 
costs. 

Sec. 22. Qualification of Justices and Judges. Only persons duly authorized 
to practice law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for election or 
appointment as a Justice of the Supreme Court, Judge of the Court of 
Appeals, Judge of the Superior Court, or Judge of District Court. This 
section shall not apply to persons elected to or serving in such capacities on 
or before January 1, 1981. 

ARTICLE V 

FINANCE 

Section 1. No capitation tax to be levied. No poll or capitation tax shall be 
levied by the General Assembly or by any county, city or town, or other 
taxing unit. 

Sec. 2. State and local taxation. 

(1) Power of taxation. The power of taxation shall be exercised in a just 
and equitable manner, for public purposes only, and shall never be sur- 
rendered, suspended, or contracted away. 

(2) Classification. Only the General Assembly shall have the power to 
classify property for taxation, which power shall be exercised only on a 
State-wide basis and shall not be delegated. No class of property shall be 
taxed except by uniform rule, and every classification shall be made by 
general law uniformly applicable in every county, city and town, and other 
unit of local government. 

(3) Exemptions. Property belonging to the State, counties, and municipal 
corporations shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly may 
exempt cemeteries and property held for educational, scientific, literary, 
cultural, charitable, or religious purposes, and, to a value not exceeding 
$300, any personal property. The General Assembly may exempt from 
taxation not exceeding $1,000 in value of property held and used as the place 
of residence of the owner. Every exemption shall be on a State-wide basis 
and shall be made by general law uniformly applicable in every county, city 
and town, and other unit of local government. No taxing authority other 
than the General Assembly may grant exemptions, and the Gonoral 
Assembly shall not delegate the powers accorded to it by this subsection. 

(4) Special tax areas. Subject to the limitations imposed by Section -4. the 
General Assembly may enact general laws authorizing the governing body 
of any county, city or town to define territorial areas and to levy taxes 
within those areas, in addition to those levied throughout the county, city, or 
town, in order to finance, provide, or maintain services, facilities, and 
functions in addition to or to a greater extent than those financed, provided, 
or maintained for the entire county, city, or town. 

(5) Purposes of property tax. The General Assembly shall not authorize 
any county, city or town, special district, or other unit of local government to 



128 North Carolina Manual 

levy taxes or property, except for purposes authorized by general law uni- 
formly applicable throughout the State, unless the tax is approved by a 
majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon. 

(6) Income tax. The rate of tax on incomes shall not in any case exceed ten 
per cent, and there shall be allowed personal exemptions and deductions so 
that only net incomes are taxed. 

(7) Contracts. The General Assembly may enact laws whereby the State, 
any county, city or town, and any other public corporation may contract 
with and appropriate money to any person, association, or corporation for 
the accomplishment of public purposes only. 

Sec. 3. Limitations upon the increase of State debt. 

(1) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly 
shall have no power to contract debts secured by a pledge of the faith and 
credit of the State, unless approved by a majority of the qualified voters of 
the State who vote thereon, except for the following purposes: 

(a) To fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforeseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable 
within the current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent 
of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections, or to repel invasions; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or 
safety, as conclusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for any other lawful purpose, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount 
by which the State's outstanding indebtedness shall have been reduced 
during the next preceding biennium. 

(2) Gift or loan of credit regulated. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to give or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person, association, 
or corporation, except a corporation in which the State has a controlling 
interest, unless the subject is submitted to a direct vote of the people of the 
State, and is approved by a majority of the qualified voters who vote 
thereon. 

(3) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when 
the State borrows money. A pledge of the faith and credit within the 
meaning of this Section is a pledge of the taxing power. A loan of credit 
within the meaning of this Section occurs when the State exchanges its 
obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an individual, 
association or private corporation. 

(4) Certain debts barred. The General Assembly shall never assume or pay 
any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or 
rebellion against the United States. Neither shall the General Assembly 
assume or pay any debt or bond incurred or issued by authority of the 
Convention of 1868, the special session of the General Assembly of 1868, or 



The Constitution of North Carolina 129 

the General Assemblies of 1868-69 and 1869-70, unless the subject is sub- 
mitted to the people of the State and is approved by a majority of all the 
qualified voters at a referendum held for that sole purpose. 

(5) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this 
Section shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any 
bond, note, or other evidence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for 
issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 4. Limitations upon the increase of local government debt. 

(1) Regulation of borrowing and debt. The General Assembly shall enact 
general laws relating to the borrowing of money secured by a pledge of the 
faith and credit and the contracting of other debts by counties, cities and 
towns, special districts, and other units, authorities, and agencies of local 
government. 

(2) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly 
shall have no power to authorize any county, city or town, special district, or 
other unit of local government to contract debts secured by a pledge of its 
faith and credit unless approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the 
unit who vote thereon, except for the following purposes: 

(a) to fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable 
within the current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent 
of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or 
safety, as conclusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for purposes authorized by general laws uniformly applicable through- 
out the State, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which the 
unit's outstanding indebtedness shall have been reduced during the 
next preceding fiscal year. 

(3) Gift or loan of credit regulated. No county, city or town, special district, 
or other unit of local government shall give or lend its credit in aid of any 
person, association, or corporation, except for public purposes as authorized 
by general law, and unless approved by a majority of the qualified voters of 
the unit who vote threon. 

(4) Certain debts barred. No county, city or town, or other unit of local 
government shall assume or pay any debt or the interest thereon contracted 
directly or indirectly in aid or support of rebellion or insurrection afrainst the 
United States. 

(5) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section whin 
a county, city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of 
local government borrows money. A pledge of faith and credit withni the 
meaning of this Section is a pledge of the taxing power. A loan of crciht 



130 North Carolina Manual 

within the meaning of this Section occurs when a county, city or town, 
special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local government 
exchanges its obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an 
individual, association, or private corporation. 

(6) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this 
Section shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any 
bond, note, or other evidence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for 
issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 5. Acts levying taxes to state objects. Every act of the General 
Assembly levying a tax shall state the special object to which it is to be 
applied, and it shall be applied to no other purpose. 

Sec. 6. Inviolability of sinking funds and retirement funds. 

(1) Sinking funds. The General Assembly shall not use or authorize to be 
used any part of the amount of any sinking fund for any purpose other than 
the retirement of the bonds for which the sinking fund has been created, 
except that these funds may be invested as authorized by law. 

(2) Retirement funds. Neither the General Assembly nor any public officer, 
employee, or agency shall use or authorize to be used any part of the funds 
of the Teachers' and State Employees' Retirement System or the Local 
Governmental Employees' Retirement System for any purpose other than 
retirement system benefits and purposes, administrative expenses, and 
refunds; except that retirement system funds may be invested as authorized 
by law, subject to the investment limitation that the funds of the Teachers' 
and State Employees' Retirement System and the Local Governmental 
Employees' Retirement System shall not be applied, diverted, loaned to, or 
used by the State, any State agency. State officer, public officer, or public 
employee. 

Sec. 7. Drawing public money. 

(1) State treasury. No money shall be drawn from the State Treasury but 
in consequence of appropriations made by law, and an accurate account of 
the receipts and expenditures of State funds shall be published annually. 

(2) Local treasury. No money shall be drawn from the treasury of any 
county, city or town, or other unit of local government except by authority of 
law. 

Sec. 8. Health care facilities. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this 
Constitution, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize the 
State, counties, cities or towns, and other State and local governmental 
entities to issue revenue bonds to finance or refinance for any such govern- 
mental entity or any nonprofit private corporation, regardless of any church 
or religious relationship, the cost of acquiring, constructing, and financing 
health care facility projects to be operated to serve and benefit the public; 
provided, no cost incurred earlier than two years prior to the effective date of 
this section shall be refinanced. Such bonds shall be payable from the 
revenues, gross or net, of any such projects and any other health care 
facilities of any such governmental entity or nonprofit private corporation 



The Constitution of North Carolina 131 

pledged therefore; shall not be secured by a pledge of the full faith and 
credit, or deemed to create an indebtedness requiring voter approval of any 
governmental entity; and may be secured by an agreement which may 
provide for the conveyance of title of, with or without consideration, any 
such project or facilities to the governmental entity or nonprofit private 
corporation. The power of eminent domain shall not be used pursuant hereto 
for nonprofit private corporations. 

Sec. 9. Capital projects for industry. Notwithstanding any other provision 
of this Constitution, the General Assembly may enact general laws to 
authorize counties to create authorities to issue revenue bonds to finance, 
but not refinance, the cost of capital projects consisting of industrial, manu- 
facturing and pollution control facilities for industry and pollution control 
facilities for public utilties, and to refund such bonds. 

In no event shall such revenue bonds be secured by or payable from any 
public moneys whatsoever, but such revenue bonds shall be secured by and 
payable only from revenues or property derived from private parties. All 
such capital projects and all transactions therefor shall be subject to taxation 
to the extent such projects and transactions would be subject to taxation if 
no public body were involved therewith; provided, however, that the General 
Assembly may provide that the interest on such revenue bonds shall be 
exempt from income taxes within the State. 

The power of eminent domain shall not be exercised to provide any 
property for any such capital project. 

Sec. 10. Joint ownership of generation and transmission facilities. In 
addition to other powers conferred upon them by law, municipalities owning 
or operating facilities for the generation, transmission or distribution of 
electric power and energy and joint agencies formed by such municipalities 
for the purpose of owning or operating facilities for the generation and 
transmission of electric power and energy (each, respectively, "a unit of 
municipal government") may jointly or severally own, operate and maintain 
works, plants and facilities, within or without the State, for the generation 
and transmission of electric power and energy, or both, with any person, 
firm, association or corporation, public or private, engaged in the generation, 
transmission or distribution of electric power and energy for resale (each, 
respectively, "a co-owner") within this State or any state contiguous to this 
State, and may enter into and carry out agreements with respect to such 
jointly owned facilities. For the purpose of financing its share of the cost of 
any such jointly owned electric generation or transmission facilities, a unit 
of municipal government may issue its revenue bonds in the manner pre- 
scribed by the General Assembly, payable as to both principal and interest 
solely from and secured by a lien and charge on all or any part of the 
revenue derived, or to be derived, by such unit of municipal government 
from the ownership and operation of its electric facilities; provided, however, 
that no unit of municipal government shall be liable, either jointly or 
severally, for any acts, omissions or obligations of any co-owner, nor shall 
any money or property of any unit of municipal government be credited or 
otherwise applied to the account of any co-owner or be charged with any 
debt, lien or mortgage as a result of any debt or obligation of any co-owner. 



132 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 1 1. Capital projects fur agriculture. Notwithstanding any other provi- 
sion of the Constitution of the General Assembly may enact general laws to 
authorize the creation of an agency to issue revenue bonds to finance the 
cost of capital projects consisting of agricultural facilities, and to refund 
such bonds. 

In no event shall such revenue bonds be secured by or payable from any 
public moneys whatsoever, but such revenue bonds shall be secured by and 
payable only from revenues or property derived from private parties. All 
such capital projects and all transactions therefor shall be subject to taxation 
if no public body were involved therewith; provided, however, that the 
General Assembly may provide that the interest on such revenue bonds 
shall be exempt from income taxes within the State. 

The power of eminent domain shall not be exercised to provide any 
property for any such capital project. 

Sec. 12. Higher Education Facilities. Notwithstanding any other provisions 
of this Constitution, the General Assembly may enact general laws to 
authorize the State or any State entity to issue revenue bonds to finance and 
refinance the cost of acquiring, constructing, and financing higher education 
facilities to be operated to serve and benefit the public for any nonprofit 
private corporation, regardless of any church or religious relationship pro- 
vided no cost incurred earlier than five years prior to the effective date of 
this section shall be refinanced. Such bonds shall be payable from any 
revenues or assets of any such nonprofit private corporation pledged there- 
for, shall not be secured by a pledge of the full faith and credit of the State or 
such State entity or deemed to create an indebtedness requiring voter 
approval of the State or such entity, and, where the title to such facilities is 
vested in the State or any State entity, may be secured by an agreement 
which may provide for the conveyance of title to, with or without considera- 
tion, such facilities to the nonprofit private corporation. The power of 
eminent domain shall not be used pursuant hereto. 

Section 13. Seaport and airport facilities. (1). Notwithstanding any other 
provision of this Constitution, the General Assembly may enact general 
laws to grant to the State, counties, municipalities, and other State and local 
governmental entities all powers useful in connection with the development 
of new and existing seaports and airports, and to authorize such public 
bodies. 

(a) to acquire, construct, own, own jointly with public and private parties, 
lease as lessee, mortgage, sell, lease as lessor or otherwise dispose of 
lands and facilities and improvements, including undivided interests 
therein; 

(b) to finance and refinance for public and private parties seaport and 
airport facilities and improvements which relate to, develop or further 
waterborne or airborne commerce and cargo and passenger traffic, 
including commercial, industrial, manufacturing, processing, mining, 
transportation, distribution, storage, marine, aviation and environ- 
mental facilities and improvements; and 



The Constitution of North Carolina 133 

(c) to secure any such financing or refinancing by all or any portion of 
their revenues, income or assets or other available monies associated 
with any of their seaport or airport facilities and with the facilities 
and improvements to be financed or refinanced, and by foreclosable 
liens on all or any part of their properties associated with any of their 
seaport or airport facilities and with the facilities and improvements 
to be financed or refinanced, but in no event to create a debt secured 
by a pledge of the faith and credit of the State or any other public 
body in the State." 

ARTICLE VI 

SUFFRAGE AND ELIGIBILITY TO OFFICE 

Section 1. Who may vote. Every person born in the United States and 
every person who has been naturalized, 18 years of age, and possessing the 
qualifications set out in this Article, shall be entitled to vote at any election 
by the people of the State, except as herein otherwise provided. 

Sec. 2. Qualifications of voter. 

(1) Residence period for State elections. Any person who has resided in the 
State of North Carolina for one year and in the precinct, ward, or other 
election district for 30 days next preceding an election, and possesses the 
other qualifications set out in this Article, shall be entitled to vote at any 
election held in this State. Removal from one precinct, ward, or other 
election district to another in this State shall not operate to deprive any 
person of the right to vote in the precinct, ward, or other election district 
from which that person has removed until 30 days after the removal. 

(2) Residence period for presidential elections. The General Assembly may 
reduce the time of residence for persons voting in presidential elections. A 
person made eligible by reason of a reduction in time of residence shall 
possess the other qualifications set out in this Article, shall only be entitled 
to vote for President and Vice President of the United States or for electors 
for President and Vice President, and shall not thereby become eligible to 
hold office in this State. 

(3) Disqualification of felon. No person adjudged guilty of a felony against 
this State or the United States, or adjudged guilty of a felony in another 
state that also would be a felony if it had been committed in this State, shall 
be permitted to vote unless that person shall be first restored to the rijxhts of 
citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Registration. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time 
legally registered as a voter as herein prescribed and in the manner provided 
by law. The General Assembly shall enact general laws governing the 
registration of voters. 

Sec. 4. Qualifiation for registration. Every person presenting himself for 
registration shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in 
the English language. 



134 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 5. Elections by people and General Assembly. All elections by the 
people shall be by ballot, and all elections by the General Assembly shall be 
viva voce. A contested election for any office established by Article III of 
this Constitution shall be determined by joint ballot of both houses of the 
General Assembly in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 6. Eligibility to elective office. Every qualified voter in North Carolina 
who is 21 years of age, except as in this Constitution disqualified, shall be 
eligible for election by the people to office. 

Sec. 7. Oath. Before entering upon the duties of an office, a person elected 
or appointed to the office shall take and subscribe the following oath: 

"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and 

maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitu- 
tion and laws of North Carolina not inconsistent therewith, and that I will 

faithfully discharge the duties of my office as , so help me 

God." 

Sec. 8. Disqualifications of office. The following persons shall be dis- 
qualified for office: 

First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God. 

Second, with respect to any office that is filled by election by the people, 
any person who is not qualified to vote in an election for that office. 

Third, any person who has been adjuged guilty of treason or any other 
felony against this State or the United States, or any person who had been 
adjudged guilty of a felony in another state that also would be a felony if it 
had been committed in this State, or any person who has been adjuged 
guilty of corruption or malpractice in any office, or any person who has been 
removed by impeachment from any office, and who has not been restored to 
the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Dual office holding. 

(1) Prohibitions. It is salutary that the responsibilities of self-government 
be widely shared among the citizens of the State and that the potential 
abuse of authority inherent in the holding of multiple offices by an in- 
dividual be avoided. Therefore, no person who holds any office or place of 
trust or profit under the United States or any department thereof, or under 
any other state or government, shall be eligible to hold any office in this 
State that is filled by election by the people. No person shall hold concur- 
rently any two offices in this State that are filled by election of the people. 
No person shall hold concurrently any two or more appointive offices or 
places of trust or profit, or any combination of elective and appointive 
offices or places of trust or profit, except as the General Assembly shall 
provide by general law. 

(2) Exceptions. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit any officer 
of the military forces of the State or of the United States not on active duty 
for an extensive period of time, any notary public, or any delegate to a 
Convention of the People from holding concurrently another office or place 



The Constitution of North Carolina 135 

of trust or profit under this State or the United States or any department 
thereof. 

Sec. 10. Continuation in office. In the absence of any contrary provision, 
all officers in this State, whether appointed or elected, shall hold their 
positions until other appointments are made or, if the offices are elective, 
until their successors are chosen and qualified. 

ARTICLE VII 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT 

Section 1 . General Assembly to provide for local government. The General 
Assembly shall provide for the organization and government and the fixing 
of boundaries of counties, cities and towns, and other governmental sub- 
divisions, and, except as otherwise prohibited by this Constitution, may give 
such powers and duties to counties, cities and towns, and other governmental 
subdivisions as it may deem advisable. 

The General Assembly shall not incorporate as a city or town, nor shall it 
authorize to be incorporated as a city or town, any territory lying within one 
mile of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 
5,000 or more according to the most recent decennial census of population 
taken by order of Congress, or lying within three miles of the corporate 
limits of any other city or town having a population of 10,000 or more 
according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by order 
of Congress, or lying within four miles of the corporate limits of any other 
city or town having a population of 25,000 or more according to the most 
recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying 
within five miles of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a 
population of 50,000 or more according to the most recent decennial census 
of population taken by order of Congress. Notwithstanding the foregoing 
limitations, the General Assembly may incorporate a city or town by an act 
adopted by vote of three-fifths of all the members of each house. 

Sec. 2. Sheriffs. In each county a Sheriff shall be elected by the qualified 
voters thereof at the same time and places as members of the General 
Assembly are elected and shall hold his office for a period of four years, 
subject to removal for cause as provided by law. 

Sec. 3. Merged or consolidated counties. Any unit of local government 
formed by the merger or consolidation of a county or counties and the cities 
and towns therein shall be deemed both a county and a city for the purposes 
of this Constitution, and may exercise any authority conferred by law on 
counties, or on cities and towns, or both, as the General Assembly may 
provide. 

ARTICLE VIII 
CORPORATIONS 

Section 1. Corporate charters. No corporation shall be created, nor shall 
its charter be extended, altered, or amended by special act, except corpora- 
tions for charitable, educational, penal, or reformatory purposes that are to 



136 North Carolina Manual 

be and remain under the patronage and control of the State; but the General 
Assembly shall provide by general laws for the chartering, organization, 
and powers of all corporations, and for the amending, extending, and 
forfeiture of all charters, except those above permitted by special act. All 
such general acts may be altered from time to time or repealed. The General 
Assembly may at any time by special act repeal the charter of any 
corporation. 

Sec. 2. Corporations defined. The term "corporation" as used in this 
Section shall be construed to include all associations and joint-stock com- 
panies having any of the powers and privileges of corporations not possessed 
by individuals or partnerships. All corporations shall have the right to sue 
and shall be subject to be sued in all courts, in like cases as natural persons. 

ARTICLE IX 

EDUCATION 

Section 1. Education encouraged. Religion, morality, and knowledge being 
necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools, 
libraries, and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec. 2. Uniform system of schools. 

(1) General and uniform system; term. The General Assembly shall provide 
by taxation and otherwise for a general and uniform system of free public 
schools, which shall be maintained at least nine months in every year, and 
wherein equal opportunities shall be provided for all students. 

(2) Local responsibility. The General Assembly may assign to units of 
local government such responsibility for the financial support of the free 
public schools as it may deem appropriate. The governing boards of units of 
local government with financial responsibility for public education may use 
local revenues to add to or supplement any public school or post-secondary 
school program. 

Sec. 3. School attendance. The General Assembly shall provide that every 
child of appropriate age and of sufficient mental and physical ability shall 
attend the public schools, unless educated by other means. 

Sec. 4. State Board of Education. 

(1) Board. The State Board of Education shall consist of the Lieutenant 
Governor, the Treasurer, and eleven members appointed by the Governor, 
subject to confirmation by the General Assembly in joint session. The 
General Assembly shall divide the State into eight educational districts. Of 
the appointive members of the Board, one shall be appointed from each of 
the eight educational districts and three shall be appointed from the State at 
large. Appointments shall be for overlapping terms of eight years. Appoint- 
ments to fill vacancies shall be made by the Governor for the unexpired 
terms and shall not be subject to confirmation. 

(2) Superintendent of Public Instruction. The Superintendent of Public 
Instruction shall be the secretary and chief administrative officer of the 
State Board of Education. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 137 

Sec. 5. Powers and duties of Board. The State Board of Education shall 
supervise and administer the free pubHc school system and the educational 
funds provided for its support, except the funds mentioned in Section 7 of 
this Article, and shall make all needed rules and regulations in relation 
thereto, subject to laws enacted by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. State school fund. The proceeds of all lands that have been or 
hereafter may be granted by the United States to this State, and not 
otherwise appropriated by this State or the United States; all moneys, 
stocks, bonds, and other property belonging to the State for purposes of 
public education; the net proceeds of all sales of the swamp lands belonging 
to the State; and all other grants, gifts, and devises that have been or 
hereafter may be made to the State; and not otherwise appropriated by the 
State or by the terms of the grant, gift, or devise, shall be paid into the State 
Treasury and, together with so much of the revenue of the State as may be 
set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated and used ex- 
clusively for establishing and maintaining a uniform system of free public 
schools. 

Sec. 7. County school fund. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property 
belonging to a county school fund, and the clear proceeds of all penalties 
and forfeitures and of all fines collected in the several counties for any 
breach of the penal laws of the State, shall belong to and remain in the 
several counties, and shall be faithfully appropriated and used exclusively 
for maintaining free public schools. 

Sec. 8. Higher education. The General Assembly shall maintain a public 
system of higher education, comprising The University of North Carolina 
and such other institutions of higher education as the General Assembly 
may deem wise. The General Assembly shall provide for the selection of 
trustees of The University of North Carolina and of the other institutions of 
higher education, in whom shall be vested all the privileges, rights, 
franchises, and endowments heretofore granted to or conferred upon the 
trustees of these institutions. The General Assembly may enact laws 
necessary and expedient for the maintenance and management of The 
University of North Carolina and the other public institutions of higher 
education. 

Sec. 9. Benefits of public institutions of higher education. The Genornl 
Assembly shall provide that the benefits of The University of North Carolina 
and other public institutions of higher education, as far as practicable, be 
extended to the people of the State free of expense. 

Sec. 10. Escheats. 

(1) Escheats prior to July 1, 1971. All property that prior to .July I. \SM\. 
accrued to the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive 
shares of the estates of deceased persons shall be appropriated to (he use of 
The University of North Carolina. 

(2) Escheats after June 30, 1971. All property that, after June .U), \\)1\, 
shall accrue to the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends or distributive 
shares of the estates of deceased persons shall be used to aid worthy and 



138 North Carolina Manual 

needy students who are residents of this State and are enrolled in public 
institutions of higher education in this State. The method, amount, and type 
of distribution shall be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE X 

homp:steads and exemptions 

Section 1. Personal property exemptions. The personal property of any 
resident of this State, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less 
than $500, to be selected by the resident, is exempted from sale under 
execution or other final process of any court, issued for the collection of any 
debt. 

Sec. 2. Homestead exemptions. 

(1) Exemption from sale; exceptions. Every homestead and the dwellings 
and buildings used therewith, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but 
not less than $1,000, to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at 
the option of the owner, any lot in a city or town with the dwellings and 
buildings used thereon, and to the same value, owned and occupied by a 
resident of the State, shall be exempt from sale under execution or other 
final process obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from 
sale for taxes, or for payment of obligations contracted for its purchase. 

(2) Exemption for benefit of children. The homestead, after the death of 
the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the 
minority of the owner's children, or any of them. 

(3) Exemption for benefit of surviving spouse. If the owner of a homestead 
dies, leaving a surviving spouse but no minor children, the homestead shall 
be exempt from the debts of the owner, and the rents and profits thereof 
shall insure to the benefit of the surviving spouse until he or she remarries, 
unless the surviving spouse is the owner of a separate homestead. 

(4) Conveyance of homestead. Nothing contained in this Article shall 
operate to prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing of it by deed, 
but no deed made by a married owner of a homestead shall be valid without 
the signature and acknowledgement of his or her spouse. 

Sec. 3. Mechanics' and laborers' liens. The General Assembly shall provide 
by proper legislation for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien 
on the subject-matter of their labor. The provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of 
this Article shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work 
done and performed for the person claiming the exemption of a mechanic's 
lien for work done on the premises. 

Sec. 4. Property of married women secured to them. The real and personal 
property of any female in this State acquired before marriage, and all 
property, real and personal, to which she may, after marriage, become in 
any manner entitled, shall be and remain the sole and separate estate and 
property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations, or 
engagements of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed and 



The Constitution of North Carolina 139 

conveyed by her, subject to such regulations and hmitations as the General 
Assembly may prescribe. Every married woman may exercise powers of 
attorney conferred upon by her husband, including the power to execute and 
acknowledge deeds to property owned by herself and her husband or by her 
husband. 

Sec. 5. Insurance. A person may insure his or her own life for the sole use 
and benefit of his or her spouse or children or both, and upon his or her 
death the proceeds from the insurance shall be paid to or for the benefit of 
the spouse or children or both, or to a guardian, free from all claims of the 
representatives or creditors of the insured or his or her estate. Any insurance 
policy which insures the life of a person for the sole use and benefit of that 
person's spouse or children or both shall not be subject to the claims of 
creditors of the insured during his or her lifetime, whether or not the policy 
reserves to the insured during his or her lifetime any or all rights provided 
for by the policy and whether or not the policy proceeds are payable to the 
estate of the insured in the event the beneficiary or beneficiaries predecease 
the insured. 

ARTICLE XI 
PUNISHMENTS, CORRECTIONS, AND CHARITIES 

Section 1. Punishments. The following punishments only shall be known 
to the laws of this State: death, imprisonment, fines, removal from office, 
and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit 
under this State. 

Sec. 2. Death punishment. The object of punishments being not only to 
satisfy justice, but also to reform the offender and thus prevent crime, 
murder, arson, burglary, and rape, and these only, may be punishable with 
death, if the General Assembly shall so enact. 

Sec. 3. Charitable and correctional institutions and agencies. Such charit- 
able, benevolent, penal, and correctional institutions and agencies as the 
needs for humanity and the public good may require shall be established 
and operated by the State under such organization and in such manner as 
the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 4. Welfare policy; board of public welfare. Beneficient provision tor 
the poor, the unfortunate, and the orphan is one of the first duties of a 
civilized and a Christian state. Therefore the General Assembly shall provide 
for and define the duties of a board of public welfare. 

ARTICLE XII 

MILITARY FORCES 

Section 1. Governor is Commander in Chief The (^.ovornor shall he 

Commander in Chief of the military forces of the State and may call out 

those forces to execute the law, suppress riots and insurrections, and rrpd 

invasion. 



140 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE XIII 

CONVENTIONS; CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT AND REVISION 

Section I. Convention of the People. No Convention of the People of this 
State shall ever be called unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the 
members of each house of the General Assembly, and unless the proposition 
"Convention or No Convention" is first submitted to the qualified voters of 
the State at the time and in the manner prescribed by the General Assembly. 
If a majority of the votes cast upon the proposition are in favor of a 
Convention, it shall assemble on the day prescribed by the General As- 
sembly. The General Assembly shall, in the act of submitting the convention 
proposition, propose limitations upon the authority of the Convention; and if 
a majority of the votes cast upon the proposition are in favor of a Conven- 
tion, those limitations shall become binding upon the Convention. Delegates 
to the Convention shall be elected by the qualified voters at the time and in 
the manner prescribed in the act of submission. The Convention shall 
consist of a number of delegates equal to the membership of the House of 
Representatives of the General Assembly that submits the convention pro- 
position and the delegates shall be apportioned as is the House of Representa- 
tives. A Convention shall adopt no ordinance not necessary to the purpose 
for which the Convention has been called. 

Sec. 2. Power to revise or amend Constitution reserved to people. The 
people of this State reserve the power to amend this Constitution and to 
adopt a new or revised Constitution. This power may be exercised by either 
of the methods set out hereinafter in this Article, but in no other way. 

Sec. 3. Revision or amendment by Convention of the People. A Convention 
of the People of this State may be called pursuant to Section 1 of this Article 
to propose a new or revised Constitution or to propose amendments to this 
Constitution. Every new or revised Constitution and every constitutional 
amendment adopted by a Convention shall be submitted to the qualified 
voters of the State at the time and in the manner prescribed by the Conven- 
tion. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor of ratification of the 
new or revised Constitution or the constitutional amendment or amendments, 
it or they shall become effective January first next after ratification by the 
qualified voters unless a different effective date is prescribed by the 
Convention. 

Sec. 4. Revision or amendment by legislative initiation. A proposal of a 
new or revised Constitution or an amendment or amendments to this 
Constitution may be initiated by the General Assembly, but only if three- 
fifths of all the members of each house shall adopt an act submitting the 
proposal to the qualified voters of the State for their ratification or rejection. 
The proposal shall be submitted at the time and in the manner prescribed by 
the General Assembly. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor of 
the proposed new or revised Constitution or constitutional amendment or 
amendments, it or they shall become effective January first next after 
ratification by the voters unless a different effective date is prescribed in the 
act submitting the proposal or proposals to the qualified voters. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 1 4 ] 

ARTICLE XIV 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Section 1. Seat of government. The permanent seat of government of this 
State shall be at the City of Raleigh. 

Sec. 2. State boundaries. The hmits and boundaries of the State shall be 
and remain as they now are. 

Sec. 3. General laws defined. Whenever the General Assembly is directed 
or authorized by this Constitution to enact general laws, or general laws 
uniformly applicable throughout the State, or general laws uniformly applic- 
able in every county, city and town, and other unit of local government, or in 
every local court district, no special or local act shall be enacted concerning 
the subject matter directed or authorized to be accomplished by general or 
uniformly applicable laws, and every amendment or repeal of any law 
relating to such subject matter shall also be general and uniform in its effect 
throughout the State. General laws may be enacted for classes defined by 
population or other criteria. General laws uniformly applicable throughout 
the State shall be made applicable without classification or exception in 
every unit of local government of like kind, such as every county, or every 
city and town, but need not be made applicable in every unit of local 
government in the State. General laws uniformly applicable in every county, 
city and town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court 
district, shall be made applicable without classification or exception in every 
unit of local government, or in every local court district, as the case may be. 
The General Assembly may at any time repeal any special, local, or private 
act. 

Sec. 4. Continuity of laws; protection of office holders. The laws of North 
Carolina not in conflict with this Constitution shall continue in force until 
lawfully altered. Except as otherwise specifically provided, the adoption of 
this Constitution shall not have the effect of vacating any office or term of 
office now filled or held by virtue of any election or appointment made under 
the prior Constitution of North Carolina and the laws of the State enacted 
pursuant thereto." 

Sec. 5. Conservation of natural resources. It shall be the policy of this 
State to conserve and protect its lands and waters for the benefit of all its 
citizenry, and to this end it shall be a proper function of the State of North 
Carolina and its political subdivisions to acquire and preserve park, re- 
creational, and scenic areas, to control and limit the pollution of our air and 
water, to control excessive noise, and in every other appropriate way to 
preserve as a part of the common heritage of this State its forests, wetlands, 
estuaries, beaches, historical sites, openlands, and places of beauty. 

To accomplish the aforementioned public purposes, the State and it.s 
counties, cities and towns, and other units of local government may acquire 
by purchase or gift properties or interests in properties which shall, upon 
their special dedication to and acceptance by resolution adopted by a vote of 
three-fifths of the members of each house of the General Assembly for tbose 



142 North Carolina Manual 

public purposes, constitute part of the "State Nature and Historic Preserve," 
and which shall not be used for other purposes except as authorized by law 
enacted by a vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the General 
Assembly. The General Assembly shall prescribe by general law the condi- 
tions and procedures under which such properties or interests therein shall 
be dedicated for the aforementioned public purposes. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 143 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES SUBMITTED TO 
THE PEOPLE SINCE 1970 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 3, 1970 

Ballot Tabulations of Volt* 

Number Description of ConstitutionallssuelCitationI For Afiitut 

1 Constitutional amendment for the revision and 

amendment of the Constitution of North Carolina. 393,759 251.132 

(Chapter 1258, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

2 Constitutional amendment to require the General 
Assembly to reduce number of state administrative 
departments to 25 and to authorize the Governor to 
reorganize administrative departments, subject to legis- 
lative approval. 400,892 248,759 
(Chapter 932, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

3 Constitutional amendment permitting 3/5 of the mem- 
bers of the General Assembly to convene extra sessions 

ofthe General Assembly. 332,981 285,587 

(Chapter 1270, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

4 Constitutional amendment revising those portions of 
the present or proposed state constitution concerning 

state and local finance. 323,131 281,087 

(Chapter 1200, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

5 Constitutional amendment authorizing General Assem- 
bly to fix personal exemptions for income tax purposes. 336,660 282,697 
(Chapter 872, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

6 Constitutional amendment providing that after June 
30, 1971, the escheats shall be used to aid North Caro- 
lina residents enrolled in any public institution of 

higher education in this state. 362,097 248,451 

(Chapter 827, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

7 Constitutional amendment abolishing literacy require- 
ment for voting. 279,132 355.34/ 
(Chapter 1004, Session Laws of North Carolina. 1969) 



144 North Carolina Manual 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 7, 1972 

Ballot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description ofConstitutional Issue (Citation) For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment reducing the voting age 
to 18 years and providing that only persons 21 years of 

age or older shall be eligible for elective office. 762,651 425,708 

(Chapter 201, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

2 Constitutional amendment to require the General 
Assembly to prescribe maximum age limits for service 

as a Justice or a Judge. 81 1,440 304,489 

(Chapter 451, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

3 Constitutional amendment authorizing the General 
Assembly to prescribe procedures for the censure and 
removal of Justices and Judges of the General Court of 

Justice. 807,960 272,470 

(Chapter 560, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

4 Constitutional amendment to conserve and protect 

North Carolina's natural resources. 976,581 146,895 

(Chapter 630, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

5 Constitutional amendment limiting incorporation of 

cities and towns. 694,921 374,184 

(Chapter 857, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 5, 1974 

Ballot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description ofConstitutional Issue (Citation) For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment changing the title of the 
constitutional office of "solicitor" to "District Attor- 
ney". 474,199 249,452 
(Chapter 394, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1973) 

2 Constitutional amendment to create jobs and employ- 
ment opportunities and to protect the environment by 
authorizing the issuance of revenue bonds to finance 
industrial and pollution control facilities among others 
for industry and the ratification, validation, confirma- 
tion, and approval of Chapter 633 of the 1971 Session 
Laws as amended by Chapter 476 of the 1973 Session 

Laws of the General Assembly. 317,285 376,269 

(Chapter 1222, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1973) 
Regular Session, 1974) 



The Constitution of North Carolina 145 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTION HELD MARCH 23, 1976 

Ballot TabulalloniiofVotc* 

Number Description ofConstitutional Issue (Citation) For AgiinK 

1 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the state, 
counties, cities or towns, and other state and local 
governmental entities to issue revenue bonds to finance 

or refinance health care facihties. 382,093 3 1 1 ,300 

(Chapter 641, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1975) 

2 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize counties 
to create authorities to issue revenue bonds to finance, 
but not to refinance, the cost of capital projects consist- 
ing of industrial, manufacturing and pollution control 
facilities for industry and pollution control facilities 

for public utilities. 373,033 304,938 

(Chapter 826, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1975) 



146 North Carolina Manual 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 8, 1977 

Ballot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue (Citation) For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment extending to a married 
man (as a married woman now has) the right to receive 
the homestead exemption, so that the homestead ex- 
emption is available to the surviving spouse of the 
owner of a homestead, if the owner dies leaving no 
minor children and the surviving spouse does not own 

a separate homestead. 517,366 59,714 

(Chapter 80, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

2 Constitutional amendment allowing every person the 
right to insure his or her life for the benefit of his or 
her spouse or children or both, free from all claims of 
the representatives or creditors of the insured or his or 

her estate. 513,526 57,835 

(Chapter 115, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

3 Constitutional amendment empowering the qualified 
voters of the State to elect the Governor and Lieutenant 
Governor to a second successive term of the same 

office. 307,754 278,013 

(Chapter 363, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

4 Constitutional amendment to permit municipalities 
owning or operating electric generation, transmission 
or distribution facilities and joint agencies composed 
of such municipalities to own, operate and maintain 
generation and transmission facilities with any person, 
firm, association or corporation, public or private, 
engaged in the generation, transmission or distribution 
of electric power and energy for resale (each, respective- 
ly, "a co-owner") within this State or any state con- 
tiguous to this State, and to issue electric revenue 
bonds to finance the cost of the ownership share of 
such municipalities or joint agencies, such bonds to be 
secured by and payable only from the electric revenues 
of such municipalities or joint agencies and providing 
that no money or property of such municipalities or 
joint agencies shall be credited or applied to the account 

of any such co-owner. 349,935 180,624 

(Chapter 528, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

5 Constitutional amendment requiring that the total 
expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered 
by the State budget shall not exceed the total of 
revenues raised during that fiscal period and any sur- 
plus remaining the State Treasury at the beginning of 
the period, and requiring the Governor to effect the 
necessary economies in State expenditures whenever 

he determines that a deficit is threatened. 443,453 104,935 

(Chapter 690 Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 



The Constitution of North Carolina 147 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUE VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 4, 1980 



Ballot 
Number Description of Constitutional Issue (Citation) 



Tabulations of Vot«a 
For Against 



Constitutional amendment requiring Justices and 
Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, 
Superior Court and District Court to be duly authorized 
to practice law prior to election or appointment. 888,634 352,7 1 4 

(Chapter 638, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1979) 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTION HELD JUNE 29, 1982 



.P^""' Tabulations of Vote* 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue (Citation) For Againit 

1 Constitutional amendment making the term of mem- 
bers of the General Assembly four years, beginning 
with members elected in 1982; and conforming amend- 
ments concerning the election of other officers and the 

filling of vacancies. 163,058 522,181 

(Chapter 504, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

2 Constitutional amendment authorizing General Assem- 
bly to provide for temporary recall of retired Supreme 
Court Justices or Court of Appeals Judges to serve 

temporarily on either appellate court. 356,895 295,638 

(Chapter 513, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

3 Constitutional amendment giving the Supreme Court 
authority to review, when authorized by law, direct 

appeals from the N.C. Utihties Commission. 392,886 253,629 

(Chapter 803, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

4 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to grant to appropriate public bodies addi- 
tional powers to develop new and existing seaports 
and airports, including powers to finance and refinance 
for public and private parties seaport and airport and 
related commercial, industrial, manufacturing, process- 
ing, mining, transportation, distribution, storage, 
marine, aviation and environmental facilities and im- 
provements. 292,031 342,567 
(Chapter 808, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

5 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the State, 
or any state entity to issue revenue bonds to finance or 
refinance the cost of acquiring, constructing and financ- 
ing higher education facilities for any nonprofit private 
corporation, regardless of any church or religious re- 
lationship, such bonds to be payable from any revenues 
or assets of any such nonprofit private corporation 

pledged therefor. 303,292 338.650 

(Chapter 887, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 



148 North Carolina Manual 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 2, 1982 

Ballol Tabulations of Votes 

Numbfr Description of Constitutional Issue iCitationI For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment to provide that terms of 
legislators begin on January 1st following their elec- 
tion. 690,218 276,432 
(Chapter 1241, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981, 

1982 Session) 

2 Constitutional amendment to permit the issuance of 

tax increment bonds without voter approval. 182,147 810,565 

(Chapter 1247, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981, 
1982 Session) 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUE VOTED ON IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTION HELD MAY 8, 1984 

Ballot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description of Constitutionallssue (Citation) For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the crea- 
tion of an agency to issue revenue bonds to finance the 
cost of capital projects consisting of agricultural facili- 
ties, and to refund such bonds, such bonds to be secured 
by and payable only from revenues or property derived 
from private parties and in no event to be secured by or 
payable from any public moneys whatsoever. 420,405 360,009 

(Chapter 765, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1983) 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUE VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 6, 1984 

Ballot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue (Citation) For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment requiring Attorney 
General and District Attorneys to be duly authorized to 
practice law prior to election or appointment. 1,159,460 357,791 

(Chapter 298, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1983) 



The Constitution of North Carolina 149 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUE VOTED ON IN 
THE PRIMARY ELECTION HELD MAY 6, 1986 



BaUot Tabulations of Volt. 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue (Citalion) For Afainit 

1 Constitutional amendment providing for election of 

state and county officers in odd-numbered years. 230,159 547,076 

(Chapter 768, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1985) 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN 
THE GENERAL ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 4, 1986 

Ballot Tabulations of Votfi 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue (Citation) For Againit 

1 Constitutional Amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the State, 
or any State entity to issue revenue bonds to finance or 
refinance the cost of acquiring, constructing and financ- 
ing higher education facilities for any nonprofit private 
corporation, regardless of any church or religious rela- 
tionship, such bonds to be payable from any revenues 
or assets of any such nonprofit private corporation 

pledged therefor. 675,587 448,845 

(Chapter 814, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1986) 

2 Constitutional Amendment providing that an election 
shall be held to fill the remainder of the unexpired 
term if the vacancy occurs more than 60 days before 
the next election, rather than 30 days as is presently 

provided. 740,241 365,959 

(Chapter 920, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1986) 

3 Constitutional Amendment to assist in the develop- 
ment of new and existing seaports and airports without 
creating a debt secured by the faith and credit of the 
State or any other public body by permitting the 
General Assembly to grant to the State and other 
public bodies additional powers to develop new and 
existing seaports and airports, including powers to 
finance and refinance for public and private parties 
seaport and airport related commercial, industrial, 
manufacturing, processing, mining, transportation, dis- 
tribution, storage, marine, aviation and environmental 

facilities and improvements. 688,911 391,908 

(Chapter 933, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1986) 



150 North Carolina Manual 

CONSTITUTIONAL PROPOSITIONS 
VOTED ON BY THE PEOPLE SINCE 1868 



Year 






of Vote 


Ratified 


Rejected 


1868 


1 





1873 


8 





1876 


1 





1880 


2 





1888 


1 





1892 





1 


1900 


1 





1914 





10 


1916 


4 





1918 


2 





1920 


2 





1922 





1 


1924 


3 


1 


1926 


1 





1928 


1 


2 


1930 





3 


1932 


1 


3 


1936 


5 





1938 


2 





1942 


2 





1944 


5 





1946 


1 


1 


1948 


1 


3 


1950 


5 





1952 


3 





1954 


4 


1 


1956 


4 





1958 





1 


1962 


6 





1964 


1 


1 


1966 


1 





1968 


2 





1970 


6 


1 


1972 


5 





1974 


1 


1 


1976 


2 





1977 


5 





1980 


1 





1982 


3 


4 


1984 


2 





1986 


3 


1 


Totals — 


98 


35 



In the above table, each issue on which the people have voted is as one whether it involves only 
a single section (as was often the case), a whole article (as in the case of the 1900 suffrage 
amendment and the 1962 court amendment, or a revision of the entire Constitution (as in 1868 and 
1970). 



CHAPTER TWO 
The Constitution of the United States 



THE RATIFICATION OF THE 
CONSTITUTION IN NORTH CAROLINA 

On April 24, 1778, the North Carohna General Assembly ratified the 
Articles of Confederation, the first "constitution" of the new United States. 
It proved weak and ineffective in holding the nation together. A decade later 
North Carolina was caught up in a bitterly divisive contest over a second 
federal constitution. While the Articles of Confederation had been approved 
in North Carolina with little debate, the Constitution engendered a two-year 
war of words before its ratification at a convention in Fayetteville on 
November 21, 1789. 

In 1777, debate over the nature of the Articles of Confederation in tlu- 
Continental Congress had been lackluster until the arrival of Thomas 
Burke, a delegate from North Carolina. Burke was outraged at what he 
found contained in the draft of the Articles— too much authority to a 
national government and too little reserved to the states. 

He wrote back to Governor Richard Caswell "[t]hat the more experience I 
acquire, the stronger is my conviction that unlimited power cannot be safely 
trusted to any man, or set of men, on earth." He feared seeing power coalesce 
around a small number of men removed from the close supervision of their 
electorate. Burke, then, argued convincingly for a "constitution" that secured 
the states' powers against national encroachment and that created among 
the states "a firm league of friendship." 

Not quite a decade later, it was apparent to many that the combination of 
the states in the Continental Congress was not "firm" and was decidedly 
lacking in "friendship." During the summer of 1787, delegates from twelve 
states including five gentlemen from North Carolina assembled in 
Philadelphia to write a new constitution for the nation. 

George Washington wrote a friend that it was his "wish . . . that (he 
convention may adopt no temporizing expedients, but probe the defects of 
the constitution to the bottom, and provide a radical cure, whether they are 
agreed to or not." Others among the leaders in the states and anions' those 
attending the Philadelphia convention concurred with Washington. ,\ll were 
concerned that the nation's republican experiment would collapse before 



Rob Sikorski formerly with the North CaroHna Bicentennial Conimis.^ioii for the 
United States Constitution prepared the basic text for this article. 



152 North Carolina Manual 

having a chance to succeed. WiUiam Richardson Davie of North CaroHna 
noted the "repeated and decisive proofs of the total inefficiency of our 
general government." 

Among those assembled in Philadelphia, most agreed with General 
Washington on the nation's need for a "radical cure." From May 25 to 
September 17, 1787, delegates debated the requirements of a "more perfect 
union," always fearful that the nation was teetering on the brink of anarchy 
and that their efforts would be too little, too late. 

The document that emerged from the Philadelphia convention provided 
for more latitude for national intervention into the affairs of the individual, 
set limits on what states might do, and expanded the ability of the general 
government to set and act upon a national agenda for the economy. 

The history behind the choices made during those four months in 
Philadelphia reflect the quick pace of development in the new nation in its 
first decade from the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, to the 
summer of 1787. It also presented the United States with the first opportunity 
in history for a people to take the future in their own hands and mold it to 
their own ideas of liberty and freedom. 

North Carolina— Creating a First Government 

For the people of North Carolina, the experiment in republican government 
began with the creation of their state constitution in 1776. As all people then 
realized, it was one thing to declare oneself independent and quite another to 
determine how one would employ that independence. 

In November 1776, the citizens of Mecklenburg County issued a series of 
instructions to their delegates to the North Carolina Provincial Congress 
that would meet in Halifax to draft the state's first constitution. They 
required that their representatives endeavor "to establish a free government 
under the authority of the people of the State of North Carolina and that the 
government be a simple democracy or as near it as possible" and that the 
document contain a bill of rights, a separation of powers provision, and a 
supremacy clause. Most important, the constitution should recognize that 
"[t]he principal supreme power is possessed by the people at large." 

Although the North Carolina constitution as ratified on December 17-18, 
1776 did not fully accord with the instructions to the Mecklenburg delega- 
tion, it did recognize that political sovereignty rested ultimately in the 
people and was prefaced with a declaration of rights, securing to citizens 
freedom of the press, assembly and religion among other rights. 

The North Carolina constitution contrasted sharply with the Articles of 
Confederation. The latter had no bill of rights, rested sovereignty in the 
states, and failed to establish the apparatus of a government. It lacked both 
an executive and a judiciary (except in the limited area of admiralty law). 

While the state government was often times ineffective and low to respond 
to the needs of the Revolution, with the coming of peace it did provide an 
adequate framework for governance. Some might complain — as many did — 
that the General Assembly was too quick to issue paper money or place a 
moratorium on suits for debt, it was able, though, to provide leadership and 
direction for reconstructing the state's economy following the end of the 
Revolution. 



The Constitution of the United States 153 

The Continental Congress, in contrast, was hamstrung. It was unable to 
collect funds other than through loans or voluntary payment of requisitions 
from the states; moreover, it was unable to effectively enforce the peace or to 
make the states abide by the terms of the peace treaty with Great Britain. 

Crisis of National Leadership— 1784-1787 

While the Continental Congress brought the war to a successful end, it could 
not manage the peace. Contrary to the Treaty of Paris signed between the 
United States and Great Britain in 1783, states still refused to, honor debts 
outstanding to English merchants and to return land or pay compensation 
to loyalists whose properties were confiscated during the Revolution. 

These failures led to the British maintaining troops on American territory 
and preventing U.S. ships from carrying British products. Such international 
problems were compounded by the inablity of the Continental Congress to 
help resolve disputes among the states. During the Revolution, Vermont had 
seceded from New Hampshire and New York without approval from either 
state. Congress was unable to resolve the conflict successfully despite 
repeated pleas from Governor Clinton of New York for help. Conflicts over 
boundaries also developed between Delaware and Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and Virginia, and North Carolina and Virginia. With the partial exception 
of the dispute between Pennsylvania and Delaware, Congress failed to 
mediate the conflicts. 

Among the states there was also a growing concern over competition for 
international trade, import duties that adversely affected states like North 
Carolina that did not have adequate harbors, and the use of interstate 
waterways. These issues were further compounded by problems faced by 
states to their west, who were confronted by hostile English, Spaniards, and 
Native Americans as well as settlers anxious to expand beyond the 
recognized limits of the nation. 

For example, in 1785 the Continental Congress negotiated the Treaty of 
Hopewell with the Cherokees. North Carolina, on behalf of its western 
interests, issued an official protest of the treaty "as containing several 
stipulations which infringe and violate the legislative rights of the State." 
Such dual interpretation reinforced the confusion of settlers as to who held 
political authority in the western region. 

Earlier, a group of western North Carolina citizens in what today is 
Tennessee had assembled to address their relationship to the state and the 
Continental Congress. In 1784, the North Carolina General Assembly had 
ceded, but later revoked the its actions, the western territories of the state to 
the national government. In anticipation of becoming a state, these citizens 
had, on December 17, 1784, signed and ratified a constitution for the new 
State of Franklin. Although they did so under the impression that they were 
soon to be separated from North Carolina, they continued to assert their 
autonomy even after the state had revoked its secession. The creation of the 
State of Franklin under the leadership of John Sevier, a Revolutionary war 
hero, represented widespread dissatisfaction in the west with the treatment 
accorded them by the eastern dominate General Assembly. They felt 
themselves ignored, excluded from the benefits of state government, yet 
liable for taxes. 



154 North Carolina Manual 

Although dissatisfaction was widespread in North CaroHna and in the 
other states, not everyone felt the need for major revisions of the Articles of 
Confederation. Many state leaders were witnessing their states' emergence 
from a post-war economic slump. Harbors were filling and farm goods were 
reaching new price levels. By the eve of the Philadelphia convention, many 
thought that the states were well on the road to political stability and 
economic prosperity. 

Yet many were concerned that the states exerted too much influence over 
the national economy. A group of strong nationalists, including James 
Madison of Virginia, Alexander Hamilton of New York, and James Wilson 
and Gouverneur Morris of Pennsylvania, feared that the parochial economic 
concerns of the states would always be permitted to outweigh the general 
economic welfare of the nation. They felt greater direction must come from a 
unified and powerful national government. 

The first attempt to remedy some of the ills brought on by too much state 
influence on the national economy was the Mount Vernon Conference in 
March of 1785. Meeting at the home of George Washington, delegates from 
Virginia and Maryland sat together to discuss their mutual problems concern- 
ing harbor facilities and interstate waterways. These representatives resolved 
to work together to overcome conflicts on fishing rights, navigational safety, 
piracy, and interstate currency rates. Most important the delegates identified 
the need for more states to participate in future discussions. 

The Virginia House of Delegates, when it ratified the Mount Vernon 
Accord in 1786, also called for a second meeting to be held in Annapolis to 
discuss "such commercial regulations [as] may be necessary to their common 
interest and their permanent harmony." The call went out to all the states to 
send delegates to attend this second meeting. 

In the end, representatives from only five states were in attendance at 
Annapolis when the meeting convened in September, 1786. Some states like 
North Carolina had appointed delegates. Hugh Williamson of North Carolina 
apparently arrived in town the day the convention adjourned. 

The lack of a quorum at the Annapolis convention resulted in no major 
headway being made to resolve the commercial problems plaguing the new 
nation. There was one significant proposal from the meeting — the delegates 
agreed to Alexander Hamilton's proposal to call for yet another meeting, 
this time in Philadelphia. The convention of state representatives was to 
meet in May, 1787 "to take into consideration the situation of the United 
States, to devise such further provisions as shall appear to them necessary 
to render the constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the 
existence of the Union. . . ." 

The Confederation Congress agreed to issue a call for a convention in 
Philadelphia and all the states but Rhode Island appointed delegations to 
attend. 

North Carolina and The Constitution 

Although the meeting was scheduled to begin on May 14, 1787, a quorum of 
seven states was not reached until May 25. 



The Constitution of the United States 155 

James Iredell, one of North Carolina's leading lawyers, was concerned for 
the health of the nation and was very much aware of how things had 
changed locally. He felt that if the nationalists were to succeed in strengthen- 
ing the union they needed to move promptly; however, on May 25 he was in 
New Bern, not Philadelphia. Why this was the case is unclear; nonetheless, 
in less than four months Iredell was to take a commanding role in defending 
the new Constitution before the people of North Carolina. Iredell was ready 
with a quick pen and clear thinking to promote the need for a strenghtcned 
union. 

Four years earlier, Iredell had been the anonymous author of a set of 
instructions to the Chowan County representatives in which he outlined the 
requirements for a more effective state government within the context of a 
national union. He had then called for payment of North Carolina's requisi- 
tion to the Continental Congress; stringent controls over the printing and 
redemption of the state's paper money; prohibition of legislative intrusion 
into civil suits; better organization of the administration of the state; an 
independent judiciary; and, support of trade, commerce, and manufacturing. 
Many of these same issues faced the delegates from the states as they met in 
Philadelphia to begin their deliberations. Among those delegates were 
eventually five from North Carolina. 

Back in November 1786, responding to the report from Annapolis, the 
North Carolina General Assembly had selected five state leaders to partici- 
pate in Philadelphia: Governor Richard Caswell, William Richardson Davie, 
Willie Jones, Alexander Martin, and Richard Dobbs Spaight. Jones declined 
to attend, some said because it would then free him to oppose any changes 
emanating from Philadelphia. Governor Caswell also declined for reasons of 
health. He then appointed William Blount and Hugh Williamson to complete 
the North Carorlina delegation. 

The first of North Carolina's delegation to reach Philadelphia was Richard 
Dobbs Spaight on May 15. Spaight was also among the youngest and least 
experienced of the delegates. He spoke little in the Convention but returned 
home an ardent Federalist and supporter of the Constitution. He was among 
the three North Carolina delegates who were able to remain at the convention 
long enough to sign the Constitution on September 17. 

William Richardson Davie was the second delegate to arrive in 
Philadelphia. With Hugh Williamson, Davie was the leading spokesman for 
the state at the convention. He was an early advocate of both state and 
popular representation in the national legislature. He sat on the committee 
that formulated the compromise between the Virginia plan that would have 
conditioned national representation on population and the New Jersey plan 
that would have relied upon the old Confederation formula of one state, one 
vote. This first great compromise of the convention was worked out by the 
committee over the Fourth of July recess. The committee reported out the 
idea of Roger Sherman of Connecticut that representation in the House he 
based on population, while that of the Senate reflected equal represrntati..n 
among the states. 

Davie was forced to leave the convention early to return to his law 
practice. Throughout the next two years of debate in North ("arohna over 



156 North Carolina Manual 

the Constitution, Davie's voice stood out as one of the principal advocates 
for the Constitution. Only he and Spaight of the five at Philadelphia, 
participated in the first ratification convention in North Carolina. 

When the convention opened on May 25, two more North Carolina 
delegates were in attendance: Hugh Williamson and Alexander Martin. Both 
settled into the Indian Queen Inn, where James Madison, George Mason, 
Alexander Hamilton and other leading delegates were lodged. 

William Pierce of Georgia, who wrote brief character sketches of the 
delegates, characterized Williamson as "a worthy man, of some abilities, 
and fortune" and not to be recognized for a stylish way of speaking. 
Although not among the greats of the convention, Williamson contributed 
his share to the debates. He participated in the committee of the states that 
recommended the initial number of representatives in the House for each 
state and it was he who proposed a decennial census to determine changes 
in representation. Williamson was also greatly concerned over the powers 
and limitations of the executive branch; he feared a single executive and 
thought that the executive should be ineligible for a second term. On the 
veto power of the executive, Williamson spoke in favor of a limited negative. 
Both Williamson and Davie expressed strong approval of an impeachment 
process, Williamson believing that impeachment was "an essential security 
for the good behavior of the Executive." 

Near the close of the convention, a series of essays authored by Williamson 
under the pseudonym "Sylvius" was published. Although authored before 
the convention, their contents spoke directly to some of the major concerns 
about a strong national government. He examined in them the need for a 
strong national government to take command of the economy and foreign 
affairs as well as expounded upon the ills created by a paper money 
economy. 

Williamson was the second of North Carolina's delegates to sign the 
Constitution. 

Williamson did not attend the first ratification convention in Hillsborough 
in July 1788, but rather stayed north to attend the Continental Congress 
and protect the interests of the state. He remained there even after the new 
government was formed in the Spring of 1789, without North Carolina's 
official participation, returning only to take part in the Fayetteville Conven- 
tion in November, 1789. 

Alexander Martin, the fourth of the state's delegates, was a former 
governor of North Carolina and a general during the American Revolution. 
Judged a moderate and pratical politician, Martin stood midstream between 
the federalists and antifederalist camps in North Carolina. 

A fellow delegate of Martin's rather unkindly described his contribution to 
the convention: "The great exertions of political wisdom in our late 
Governor, while he sat at the helm of our State, have so exhausted his fund, 
that time must be required to enable him again to exert his abilities to the 
advantage of the nation." Needless to say, Martin contributed little to the 
discussions. Like Davie, he was unable to stay to the close of the convention. 

The last of North Carolina's delegation to arrive in Philadelphia was 
William Blount, who reached the convention on June 20. He had been 



The Constitution of the United States 157 

involved in representing North Carolina's interests in the Continental 
Congress meeting in New York. Although he took no part in the debates at 
Philadelphia, he was there to sign the document— the third of the state's 
signers. 

Blount was not elected to the convention at Hillsborough but was involved 
in the ratification convention at Fayetteville, where he may have played a 
key role in securing the necessary votes for the Constitution in 1789. 

The work of North Carolina's delegates and those from the other states 
received a chilly response at home. A long battle began with leading 
federaHsts like James Iredell of Edenton, and Archibald Maclaine of 
Wilmington preparing lengthy defenses of the Constitution. 

In a series of essays pubHshed in January 1788 under the name "Marcus," 
James Iredell sought to refute the criticisms of George Mason. Mason's 
attack on the Constitution was especially threatening since he had been at 
the convention (although he refused to sign) and was widely respected for 
his disinterested attachment to the new nation. Mason opposed the Constitu- 
tion on numerous grounds, but principally for its lack of a bill of rights. 

Iredell responded to each point of Mason's attack, examining why the 
Constitution did not need a bill of rights; why it was representative of the 
people; why the Senate could amend money bills; why the country needed a 
national judiciary; and, why the Constitution proposed a single executive 
without a constitutional council. 

His refutation of Mason was reasoned and measured; not as much can be 
said concerning some other defenses of the Constitution. Archibald Maclaine 
was particularly vitriolic. He referred to those who would oppose the Constitu- 
tion as "petty tyrants." 

The principal confrontation of ideas and interests came naturally, during 
the convention that met in Hillsborough from July 21 to August 4, 1788. The 
convention came after ten states had ratified the Constitution and assured 
the formation of a new national government under its auspices. Even this 
imminent inauguration of a new government was not persuasive enough to 
convince a majority of the Hillsborough convention to approve, and the 
Constitution was rejected by a 184 to 83 vote. 

Two issues stood out above all others in the attack on the Constitution: the 
lack of a bill of rights and the placing of too much authority to a distant 
government. The ideas of Thomas Burke remained alive in the state. 

At the convention, Willie Jones of Halifax, Samuel Spencer of Anson, 
Thomas Person of Granville, David Caldwell of Guilford, and William 
Lenoir of Wilkes helped lead the opposition to the Constitution. It would be a 
mistake, however, to assume unity among this opposition. Some like Samuel 
Spencer were most concerned about the loss of authority for the states. As 
one of the three highest judges in the state, he appeared especially concerned 
with having his authority overshadowed by that of the federal courts. 

David Caldwell provides a notable contrast to Spencer. A Presbyterian 
minister and renowned for the school he operated in Guilford county. 
Caldwell was principally concerned about the lack of a fundamental 
philosophical framework against which to judge and operate the Constitu 
tion. 



158 North Carolina Manual 

And again, Willie Jones of Halifax seemed concerned, along with many 
others, about the danger of removing power so far away from the people 
without, in turn, safeguarding their interests with a bill of rights. 

With such diversity of opposition, it is no wonder that those federalists 
favoring the Constitution appear to have the better of the arguments, if not 
the vote. The federalists appear to have given more advanced consideration 
to their oposition in the convention with James Iredell taking on the role of 
theorist, Governor Samuel Johnston acting as a mediator and accom- 
modator, while Archibald Maclaine and William R. Davie functioned as the 
proverbial "loose canons" at the convention. But despite all these gentlemen 
could say, in and out of convention, the Constitution was doomed to defeat 
from the outset. 

Ratification waited another fifteen months, coming only in November 
1789 at Fayetteville on a vote of 194 to 77. 

Historians know quite a lot about the Hillsborough convention because 
James Iredell and Samuel Johnston hired a secretary to record the debates. 
Nothing like that was done for Fayetteville; explanations for acceptance are, 
in consequence, far more conjectural than explanations for rejection at 
Hillsborough. Congress's sending of a bill of rights to the states is one clear 
candidate while fear of being outside the union is another. Also the concern 
about a central government was apparently diminished with Washington 
elected president. Whatever the reason, the convention took only seven days 
to ratify and report out their vote. Then, one month later, the North Carolina 
General Assembly became the second state to ratify the Bill of Rights. 

The legacy of the debates in North Carolina has been a widespread 
appreciation of the role of popular discussion of critical issues and how these 
may balance among a nation, the states, and the people. 



The Constitution of the United States 



159 



NORTH CAROLINA SIGNERS OF THE CONSTITUTION 

OF THE UNITED STATES 

WILLIAM BLOUNT 




William Blount was born on March 26, 1749, 
in Bertie County. With his brother, John Grey 
Blount, he became a leading businessman after 
Independence. His heavy speculation and 
activities in western territories created 
enormous problems for him later in life. 

Blount was first elected to the General 
Assembly in 1780 as a Town Representative 
from New Bern. He was elected to the Con- 
tinental Congress meeting in Philadelphia in 

1782, 1783, and 1784. He returned to the legis- 
lature representing Craven County and in 

1783, 1784, and 1784-85; during the latter 
session was elected Speaker. 

On March 14, 1787, Blount was elected one of the delegates to go to 
Philadelphia for the Constitutional Convention. In 1789 he went to the state 
convention in Fayetteville and voted for ratification of the newly-written 
Constitution. Blount returned to the state legislature, serving in the Senate 
in 1788 and 1789. 

On August 17, 1790, Blount was appointed Governor of the Territories 
South of the Ohio River. He had autocratic authority in the territories. In 
1791 Blount helped arrange the Treaty of Holston which resulted in the 
Cherokee Indians ceding to the United States a large portion of land, much 
of which was already occupied by whites. In 1794 when the territories were 
large enough to call a territorial assembly, a bill was passed establishing 
Blount College (a forerunner of the University of Tennessee). 

On July 8, 1797, while serving as one of Tennessee's first two United 
States Senators, Blount was expelled from the Senate for what was known 
as Blount's Conspiracy. There was a rumor that Spain was going to cede 
New Orleans and Louisiana to France. This would deny America's right to 
the Mississippi River. Blount took charge of a plan that was underway to 
recruit frontiersmen and Indians into fighting with Great Britain to take 
those areas in war. (Great Britain was bound by the treaty of peace of 1 783 
to permit free navigation of the Mississippi River to America and France.) 
President John Adams had a letter fall into his hands that was written by 
Blount concerning this. In July, 1797 President Adams turned the letter over 
to Congress; Blount's expulsion followed. On December 17. the House of 
Representatives opened Blount's impeachment trial. This was the first such 
trial in United States history. In 1799 the proceedings were dismissed for 
lack of jurisdiction. 

The people still had faith in Blount, electing him to the Tennessee State 
Senate in 1798; he was elected Speaker. He died in Tennessee in 1800. 



160 



North Carolina Manual 



RICHARD DOBBS SPAIGHT, SR. 




Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., the first native- 
born governor of North Carohna, was born in 
New Bern on March 25, 1758, to Richard and 
Elizabeth Wilson Spaight. 

He studied abroad, finishing at the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow in Scotland. After returning to 
America, Spaight served briefly as the military 
aide de camp to General Richard Caswell. 

Spaight served in the House of Commons as 
a Town Representative from New Bern in the 
Assemblies of 1779, 1781,1782, and 1783. In 
1783 his seat was declared vacant following 
his election to the Confederation Congress. 
On December 13, 1783, Spaight took his seat at the Congress in Annapolis. 
He also served as a delegate to the 1784 Congress in New York City. 

In 1785 Spaight returned to the General Assembly representing Craven 
County in the House of Commons, where he was elected Speaker. He 
continued his legislative service in the assemblies of 1786-87 and 1787. He 
was elected as one of North Carolina's representatives to the Federal Conven- 
tion in Philadelphia, arriving there on May 15, 1787. He was the first of the 
North Carolina delegates to arrive and stayed long enough to be one of the 
signers of the constitution. After the Philadelphia meeting he returned to 
North Carolina and attended the state convention in Hillsborough. 

Spaight served in the General Assembly of 1792 as the Town Representa- 
tive from New Bern, but resigned following his election as governor on 
December 11, 1792. He was elected to serve as governor for two more terms. 
He served one more term in the General Assembly as a state senator in 1801. 
In 1798 Spaight was elected to the Fifth United States Congress as a 
member of the House of Representatives following the death of Congressman 
Nathan Bryan on June 4. He was elected to the 6th Congress but was 
defeated for reelection to a third term by John Stanly. 

The political differences between Spaight and Stanly caused bitter and 
personal discussions. One of these resulted in Stanly challenging Spaight to 
a duel. On September 5, 1802, Stanly's fourth discharge mortally wounded 
Spaight, who died the next day. Criminal proceedings against Stanly began, 
but he applied to the governor and was granted pardon. This prompted the 
law making any participant in a duel ineligible for any office of "trust, 
honor, or profit." 




The Constitution of the United States 1 f, \ 

HUGH WILLIAMSON 

Hugh Williamson was born in Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, on December 5, 1735. 
A doctor, natural scientist, preacher, merchant, 
and politician, Williamson was frc(iuently 
called the "Ben Franklin of North Carolina." 

Graduating in the first class from the College 
of Philadelphia (later the University of 
Pennsylvania), Williamson went to Connecti- 
cut to study theology. After two years he left 
the ministry to be a math professor. While 
teaching, he became interested in medicine, 
which led him to the University of Edinburgh 
and studies in London and Utrect. His poor 
physical condition made him subject to contracting a fever from his patient 
which led him to forego medicine. 

His scientific interests and reputation, resulted in his appointment as a 
commissioner to study the transit of Venus (June 3, 1769), and Mercury 
(November 9, 1769). Afterwards, he published 'An Essay on Comets", for 
which the University of Leyden awarded him an LL.D. degree. 

Williamson was an eyewitness to the Boston Tea Party and was the first 
to carry the news to England. He predicted the colonies' revolt and heard of 
the Declaration of Independence while he was in Holland. 

Upon returning to America, he offered his medical services to Governor 
Caswell and was sent to New Bern to vaccinate troops against smallpox. He 
crossed British lines to treat American prisoners of war and as well as the 
British. He was a pioneer advocate in innoculation against diseases. 

Williamson was a Town Representative for Edenton in the General 
Assembly of 1782. On May 3, his seat was declared vacant following his 
election to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Williamson took his 
seat on July 19, 1782. Along with Thomas Jefferson he was one of only two 
southern delegates who voted in favor of excluding slavery from the Western 
Lands Ordinance of 1784. 

Williamson returned to the House of Commons in 1785 representing 
Chowan County. In 1787 he was appointed by Governor Caswell to rei)hu(' 
Willie Jones at the Federal Convention in Philadelphia. Williamson arrived 
in time for its start and attended the entire convention. He also attended the 
State Convention in Fayetteville where the Consitution was eventually 
ratified by North Carolina. 

The final years of Williamson's political career were spent in Congns,--. lie 
served in the United States House of Representatives as a representative 
from the Edenton and New Bern district from 1789-1793. 

Williamson retired to New York City. He wrote one of the nation's first 
ecological histories in his two-volume study of North ('arolina's early 
history, published in 1812. He died in 1819. 



162 North Carolina Manual 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 



Preamble 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common 
defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to 
ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the 
United States of America. 

ARTICLE I 

Section 1 — All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a 
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House 
of Representatives. 

Sect. 2-1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members 
chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors 
in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, 
and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of the State in which he 
shall be chosen. 

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several 
States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective 
numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free 
persons, including those bound to service for a term of years and excluding 
Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration 
shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of 
the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such 
manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not 
exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one 
Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New 
Hampshire shall be entitled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations, 1; Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; 
Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; Maryland, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; 
South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.* 

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State the 
Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 
vacancies. 

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 



*See Article XIV, Amendments. 



The Constitution of the United States 163 

Sec. 3-1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; 
and each Senator shall have one vote.i 

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The 
seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of 
the second year; of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year; and 
of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be 
chosen every second year, and if vacancies happen by resignation, or 
otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive 
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.* 

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall have not attained to the age of 
thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who 
shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be 
chosen. 

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro 
tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the 
office of the President of the United States. 

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and 
no person shall be convicted without the occurrence of two-thirds of the 
members present. 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall 
nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punish- 
ment, according to law. 

Sec. 4-L The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators 
and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the IvCgislature 
thereof, but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such 
regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law 
appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5-L Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a 
quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day. 
and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such 
manner and under such penalties as each House may provide. 

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its 
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of (wo thirds. 
expel a member. 



"See Article XVII, Amendments. 



164 North Carolina Manual 

3. Each House shall keep) a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time punish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require 
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any 
question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the 
journal. 

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6-1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation 
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of 
the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach 
of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session 
of their respective Houses, and in going to and and returning from the same; 
and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in 
any other place. 

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States which shall have been created, or the emoluents whereof shall have 
been increased during such time; and no persons holding any office under 
the United States shall be a member of either House during his continuance 
in office. 

Sec. 7-1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as 
on other bills. 

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the 
United States; if he approves, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, 
with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who 
shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider 
it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass 
the bill, it shall be sent together with the objectives, to the other House, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that 
House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses 
shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting 
for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House 
respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten 
days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same 
shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by 
their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate 
and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of 
adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and 
before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being 
disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and 
House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed 
in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have the power: 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 



The Constitution of the United States 165 

States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throuKhuut the 
United States. 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
States, and with the Indian tribes; 

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on ihi- 
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix 
the standards of weights and measures; 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States; 

7. To establish post offices and postroads; 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for 
limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective 
writings and discoveries; 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and offenses against the law of nations; 

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water; 

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use 
shall be for a longer term than two years; 

13. To provide and maintain a navy; 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces; 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions; 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and 
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the State respectively the appointment of the 
officers and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline 
prescribed by Congress; 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such 
district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may be cession of particular 
States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of Government ol" 
the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by 
the consent of the Legislature of the State, in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful 
buildings;— and 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying' 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the Government of the United States, or any department or 
officer thereof. 

Sec. 9-1. The migration or importation of such persons as any ol the 
States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not he proliihifcd hy 
the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eiglit, but a 
tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars 
for each person. 



166 North Carolina Manual 

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require 
it. 

3. No bill of attainer or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to 
the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.* 

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue 
to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or 
from, one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the 
receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to 
time. 

8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person 
holding any office or profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of 
the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind 
whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10-1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; 
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make 
anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill 
of attainer; ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, 
or grant any title of nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or 
duties on imports or exports except what may be absolutely necessary for 
executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imports, 
laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury 
of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and 
control of the Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of 
tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage 
in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not 
admit delay. 

ARTICLE II 

Section 1-1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the 
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four 
years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be 
elected as follows: 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may 
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and 
Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no 
Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under 
the United States shall be appointed an elector. 



*See Article XVI, Amendments. 



The Constitution of the United States 167 

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for 
two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same 
state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted 
for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and 
certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate 
shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives open all 
the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the 
greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a 
majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be mcjre 
than one who have such majority; and have an equal number of votes, then 
the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them 
for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest 
on the Hst the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation 
from each State having one vote; a quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of 
a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the 
States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the 
President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors 
shall be the Vice-President. But if there shall remain two or more who have 
equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.* 

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the 
day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to 
the office of President, neither shall any person be eligible to that office who 
shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen 
years a resident within the United States. 

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, 
the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law 
provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the 
President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as 
President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be 
removed, or a President shall be elected. 

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensa- 
tion which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for 
which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period 
any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the 
following oath or affirmation: 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute (be office 
President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, 
protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 



*This clause is superseded by Article XII, Amendments. 



168 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 2-1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and 
Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when 
called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive depart- 
ments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and 
he shall have the power to grant reprieves, and pardons for offenses against 
the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he 
shall nominate and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall 
appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the 
Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appoint- 
ments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established 
by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior 
officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or 
in the heads of departments. 

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen 
during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire 
at the end of their next session. 

Section 3 — He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of 
the State of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures 
as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary 
occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagree- 
ment between them with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn 
them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors 
and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully 
executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. 

Sec. 4 — The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United 
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, 
treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

ARTICLE III 

Section 1 — The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one 
Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time 
to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior 
courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated 
times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished 
during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2-1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, 
arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties 
made, or which shall be made, under their authority; — to all cases affecting 
ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admirality 
and maritime jurisdiction; — to controversies to which the United States 
shall be a party; — to controversies between two or more States; — between 
citizens of the same State, claiming lands under grants of different States, 
and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or 
subjects. 



The Constitution of the United States 169 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, 
and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme 
Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such 
exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, 
and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have 
been committed; but when not committed within any State the trial shall be 
at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3-1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying 
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and 
comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture 
except during the life of the person attained. 

ARTICLE IV 

Section 1 — Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public 
acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress 
may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and 
proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2-1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and 
immunities of citizens in the several States. 

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who 
shall flee from justice and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the 
Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be 
removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. 

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, 
be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered upon claim 
of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3-1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but 
no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdication of any other 
State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, on 
parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the State con 
cerned, as well as of the Congress. 

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the 
United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to 
prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular State. 

Sec.4— The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a 
republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against 
invasion, and, on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when 
the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. 



170 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE V 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, 
shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the 
Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for 
proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents 
and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures 
of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths 
thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the 
Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year 
one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first 
and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no 
State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the 
Senate. 

ARTICLE VI 

L All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption 
of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this 
Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the 
Constitution or laws of any State the contrary notwithstanding. 

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members 
of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both 
of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or 
affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be 
required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United 
States. 

ARTICLE VII 

The ratification of the Convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the 
establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. 

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the 
Seventeenth Day of September, in the Year of Our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of 
America the Twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our 
names.* 



*The Constitution was declared in effect on the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 



The Constitution of the United States 



171 



GEO[RGE] WASHINGTON, 
President and deputy from Virginia 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 
John Langdon 
Nicholas Gilman 

MASSACHUSETTS 
Nathaniel Gorham 
Rufus King, 

CONNECTICUT 
W[illiai]m Sam[ue]l Johnson 
Roger Sherman 
Geo[rge] Clymer 
Jared Ingersoll 
Gouv. Morris 

DELAWARE 
Geo[rge] Read 
John Dickinson 
Jaco[b] Broom 
Gunning Bedford, Jr. 
Richard Bassett 

MARYLAND 
James McHenry 
Dan[iel] Carroll 
Dan[iel] of St. Thos. Jenifer 



VIRGINIA 
John Blair 



NEW YORK 
Alexander Hamilton 

NEW JERSEY 
Wilfliam] Livingston 
David Brearley 
W[illialm Patterson 
Jona[than] Dayton 

PENNSYLVANIA 
B[enjamin] Franklin 
Rob[erJt Morris 
Tho[ma]s Fitzsimmons 
James Wilson 
Thomas Mifflin 
Ja[me]s Madison, Jr. 

NORTH CAROLINA 
W[illia]m Blount 
Hu[gh] Williamson 
Rich[ar]d Dobbs Spaight 

SOUTH CAROLINA 
J[ames] Rutledge 
Charles Pinckney 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 
Pierce Butler 



William 



GEORGIA 
William Few 
Abr[aham] Baldwin 

ATTEST: 
Jackson, Secretary 



172 North Carolina Manual 



amp:ndments to the constitution 
of the united states 

the ten original amendments* 

The following amendments to the Constitution, Article I to X, inclusive, 
were proposed at the First Session of the First Congress, begun and held at 
the City of New York, on Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and were adopted by 
the necessary number of States. The original proposal of the ten amendments 
was preceded by this preamble and resolution: 

"The conventions of a number of the States having, at the time 
of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to 
prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further 
declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added, and as extend- 
ing the ground of public confidence in the Government will best 
insure the beneficient ends of its institution: 

"RESOLVED, By the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds 
of both Houses concurring that the following articles be proposed 
to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the 
Constitution of the United States; all or any of which articles, 
when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid 
to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, 
namely"; 

ARTICLE I 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of 
the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition 
the Government for a redress of grievances. 

ARTICLE II 

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the 
right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

ARTICLE III 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the 
consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by 

law. 



*These amendments known as The Bill of Rights, were declared in force December 
15, 1791. North Carolina ratified those ten amendments on December 22, 1789 (Ch. 19, 
Laws of 1789). 



The Constitution of the United States 173 

ARTICLE IV 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and 
effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, 
and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or 
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the 
persons or things to be seized. 

ARTICLE V 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases 
arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service 
in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same 
offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in 
any criminal case to be a witness against him, nor be deprived of life, 
liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be 
taken for public use, without just compensation. 

ARTICLE VI 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy, 
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the 
crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously 
ascertained by law, and be informed of the nature and cause of the accusa- 
tion; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory 
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of 
counsel for his defense. 

ARTICLE VII 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved and no fact tried 
by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States 
than according to the rules of the common law. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel 
and unusual punishments inflicted. 

ARTICLE IX 

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed 
to deny or disparge others retained by the people. 

ARTICLE X 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the 
people. 



174 North Carolina Manual 

SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS 

ARTICLE XI 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to 
any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the 
United States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any 
foreign State. 

(Proposed to the Legislatures of the several States by the Third Congress on the 5th 
of March, 1794, and declared to have been ratified by Executive Proclamation, 
January 8, 1798. It was ratified by North Carolina on F'ebruary 7, 1795. 

ARTICLE XII 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for 
President and Vice President, one of whom at least shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their 
ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the persons 
voted for as Vice President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons 
voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of 
the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and 
transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed 
to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certifi- 
cates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest 
number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a 
majority of the whole number of electors appointed; if no person have such 
majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding 
three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives 
shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the 
President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each 
State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member 
or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States 
shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not 
choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, 
before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall 
act as President, as in the case of the death or any constitutional if such 
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no 
person have a majority, from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate 
shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of 
two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole 
number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally 
ineligibility to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice 
President of the United States. 

[Proposed by the Eighth Congress on the 12 of December, 1803, declared ratified by 
the Secretary of State, September 25, 1804. It was ratified by North Carolina on 
December 21, 1803. It was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Delaware, 
Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.] 



The Constitution of the United States 175 

ARTICLE XIII 

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for 
crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within 
the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 
lation. 

[Proposed by the Thirty-eighth Congress on the 1st of February, 1865, declared 
ratified by the Secretary of State, December 18, 1865. It was ratified by North 
Carolina on December 4, 1865 (Resolution, Public Laws of 1865. It was rejected by 
Delaware and Kentucky; was conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi; and 
Texas took no action.] 

ARTICLE XIV 

1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the 
jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State 
wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall 
abridge the privileges of immunities or citizens of the United States; nor 
shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due 
process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal 
protection of the laws. 

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according 
to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each 
State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any 
election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the 
United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial of- 
ficers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any 
of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation 
in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be 
reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear 
to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector 
of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under 
the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an 
oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a 
member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any 
State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged 
in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the 
enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, 
remove such disability. 

4. The vaHdity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law 
including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services 
in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. Rut neith(M- 
the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt<)r obligation 
incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any 
claim for the loss of emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obliga- 
tions, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 



176 North Carolina Manual 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the 
provisions of this article. 

I'llu' Reconstruction Amendment, by the Thirty-ninth Congress on the 16th day of 
June, lS(i6, was dechired ratified by the Secretary of State, July 28, 1868. The 
amendment got the support of 23 Northern States; it was rejected by Delaware, 
Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern States. California took no action. Later it was 
ratified by the 10 Southern States. North Carolina ratified it on July 4, 1868 (Resolution 
2, Public Laws of 1868).] 

ARTICLE XV 

1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied 
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or 
previous condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 

(Proposed by the Fortieth Congress the 27th of February, 1869, and was declared 
ratified by the Secretary of State, March 30, 1870. It was not acted on by Tennessee; it 
was rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland and Oregon; ratified by 
the remaining 30 States. North Carolina ratified it on March 5, 1869 (Public Laws of 
1868-69). New York rescinded its ratification January 5, 1870. New Jersey rejected it in 
1870, but ratified it in 1871.)] 

ARTICLE XVI 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from 
whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, 
and without regard to any census or enumeration. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-first Congress, July 12, 1909, and declared ratified February 
25, 1913. The income tax amendment was ratified by all the States, except Connecticut, 
Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, and Virginia. North Carolina ratified it 
on February 11, 1911 (Resolution 11, Public Laws of 1911.)] 

ARTICLE XVII 

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from 
each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator 
shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications 
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures. 

2. When vacancies happen in the presentation of any State in the Senate, 
the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such 
vacancies; Provided, That the Legislature of any State may empower the 
Executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the 
vacancies by election as the Legislature may direct. 

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or 
term of any Senator chosen before it become valid as part of the Constitu- 
tion. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-second Congress on the 16th day of May, 1912, and declared 
ratified May 31, 1913. Adopted by all the States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, 
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, 
Utah and Virginia. North Carolina ratified it on January 25, 1913 (Resolution 10, 
Public Laws of 1913).] 



The Constitution of the United States 177 

ARTICLE XVIII 

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, 
or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into^ 
or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to 
the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to 
enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States as 
provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the 
submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress, December 18, 1917, and ratified by 36 States; 
was declared in effect on January 16, 1920. It was ratified by North Carolina on 
January 16, 1919 (Resolution 8, Public Laws of 1919).] 

ARTICLE XIX 

1. The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. 

2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce the 
provisions of this article. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress. On August 26, 1920, it was proclaimed in 
effect, having been ratified by three-quarters of the States. It was ratified by North 
CaroHna on May 6, 1971 (Ch. 327, Session Las of 1971). The Tennessee House," August 
31st, rescinded its ratification, 47 to 24.] 

ARTICLE XX 

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 
20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon 
on the 3rd day of January of the years in which such terms would have 
ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors 
shall then begin. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by 
law appoint a different day. 

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the 
President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become Presi 
dent. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the 
beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, 
then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall 
have been qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case 
wherein neither President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have quali- 
fied, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one 
who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly, until a 
President or Vice President shall have qualified. 

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the 
persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President 
whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and tor the 



178 North Carolina Manual 

case of the death of any of the persons for whom the Senate may choose a 
Vice President when the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. 

5. Section 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following 
the ratification of this article. 

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the 
several States within seven years from the date of its submission. 

[Proposed by the 72nd Congress, F'irst Session. On F'ebruary 6, 1933, it was pro- 
claimed in effect, having been ratified by thirty-nine states. It was ratified by North 
Carolina on January 5, 1933 (Resolution 4, Public Laws of 1933).] 

ARTICLE XXI 

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United 
States is hereby repealed. 

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or posses- 
sion of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, 
in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. 

3. This article shall be inoperate unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by convention in the several States, as 
provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the 
submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 

[Proposed by the 72nd Congress, Second Session. Proclaimed in effect on December 
5, 1933, having been ratified by thirty-six States. North Carolina did not ratify this 
Amendment. By proclamation of the same date, the President proclaimed that the 
eighteenth amendment to the Constitution was repealed on December 5, 1933.) 

ARTICLE XXII 

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, 
and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for 
more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected 
President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But 
this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President 
when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any 
person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President 
during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding 
the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such 
term. 

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the 
several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the 
States by the congress. 

[Proposed by the 80th Congress in 1947 and became effective on Feb. 26, 1951, 
having been ratified by thirty-six states. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 
28, 1951 (Ch. 136, Session Laws of 1951).] 



The Constitution of the United States 179 

ARTICLE XXIII 

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States 
shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: 

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole 
number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District 
would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least 
populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, 
but they shall be considered, for the purpose of the election of President and 
Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in 
the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of 
amendment. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 

[Proposed by the 86th Congress in June of 1960 and ratified by tht- .J.Mh .Slate. 
March 29, 1961 and proclaimed a part of the Constitution, April 3, 1961. North 
Carolina did not ratify it.] 

ARTICLE XXIV 

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or 
other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or 
Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall md be 
denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to 
pay any poll tax or other tax. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 

[Proposed by the 87th Congress, August 27, 1962 and ratified by the .'iSth State. 
January 23, 1964. It was not ratified by North Carolina.] 

ARTICLE XXV 

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his deatli ur 
resignation, the Vice President shall become President. 

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, ihr 
President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon 
confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress. 

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the 
Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declara- 
tion that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and 
until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers 
and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President. 

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal 
officers of the executive departments or of such other body as ( "oo^mcs.s may 
by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the .Senate and tlic 
Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the 
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice 
President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as 
Acting President. 



180 North Carolina Manual 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written 
declaration that no inabiHty exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of 
his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal 
officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may 
by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written 
declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties 
of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within 
forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within 
twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress 
is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to 
assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is 
unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President 
shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the 
President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. 

[Submitted to the Legislatures of the fifty States July 6, 1965. Ratified by the 38th 
State (Nevada) February 10, 1967. It was ratified by North Carolina on March 22, 
1967 (Ch. 77, Session Laws of 1967).] 

ARTICLE XXVI 

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age 
or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any 
State on account of age. 

2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

[Proposed to the States by Congress on March 23, 1971 and ratification completed 
June 30, 1971. It was ratified by North Carolina on July 1, 1971 (Ch. 725, Session 
Laws of 1971).] 



PART III 



Our National Government 



CHAPTER ONE 

The United States Executive Branch 

George Herbert Walker Bush 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 
(Republican) 

Early Years: Born in Milton, Massachusetts, on June 12, 1924. His 
father was the late Prescott Bush, a former United States Senator from Con- 
necticutt (1952-1962). 

Education: Phillips Academy (Andover, Mass.), 1942; Yale University, 
B.A. (Economics; Phi Beta Kappa), 1948. 

Professional Background: Co-founder, Zapata Petroleum Company 
(President, 1954), 1953; Co-founder, Zapata Offshore Company (1954) - a 
pioneer in experimental offshore drilling equipment (Today much of the 
energy drilled for around the world is produced from rigs pioneered by this 
company). 

Political Activities: President of the United States, 1989- (Elected 
November, 1988); Vice President of the United States, 1981-1989; Director, 
Central Intelligence Agency, 1976; Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office, People's 
Republic of China, 1974-1975; Chairman, Republican National Committee, 
1973-1974; U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, 1971-1973; U.S. House of 
Representatives (7th District, Texas), 1967-1971. 

Military Service: U.S. Navy (naval aviation cadet and carrier pilot), 
1942-1945 (awarded 3 air medals and the Distinguished Flying Cross). 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Martins Episcopal Church (Houston, 
Texas); former vestryman; Serves on board of the Episcopal Church 
Foundation. 

Family: Married Barbara Pierce of Rye, New York. Children: George, Jeb, 
Neil, Marvin and Dorothy. 



184 



North Carolina Manual 




'f>' 




»•"•.« 




The United States Executive Branch 185 

PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

1. George Washington (F) Va 1732 1789 

2. John Adams (F) Mass 1735 1797 

3. Thomas Jefferson (D-R) Va 1743 1801 

4. James Madison (D-R) Va 1751 1809 

5. James Monroe (D-R) Va 1758 1817 

6. John Quincy Adams (N-R) Mass 1767 1825 

7. Andrew Jackson (D) N. C 1767 1829 

8. Martin Van Buren (WHIG) N. Y 1782 1837 

9. Wilham H. Harrisonp (A) Va 1773 1841 

10. John Tyler (W) Va 1790 1841 

11. James Knox Polk (D) N. C 1795 1845 

12. Zachary TaylorQ (WHIG) Va 1784 1849 

13. Millard Fillmore (WHIG) N. Y 1800 1850 

14. Franklin Pierce (D) N. H 1804 1853 

15. James Buchanan (D) Pa 1791 1857 

16. Abraham LincolnR (R) Ky 1809 1861 

17. Andrew Johnsons (-) N. C 1808 1865 

18. Ulysses S. Grant (R) Ohio 1822 1869 

19. Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Ohio 1822 1877 

20. James A. GarfieldT (R) Ohio 1831 1881 

21. Chester A. Arthur (R) Vt 1830 1881 

22. Grover Clevelandu (D) N.J 1837 1885 

23. Benjamin Harrison (R) Ohio 1833 1889 

24. Grover Clevelandv (D) N. J 1837 1893 

25. William McKinleyw (R) Ohio 1843 1897 

26. Theodore Roosevelt (R) N. Y 1858 1901 

27. William H. Taft (R) Ohio 1857 1909 

28. Woodrow Wilson (D) Va 1856 1913 

29. Warren G. Hardingx (R) Ohio 1865 1921 

30. Calvin Coolidge (R) Vt 1872 1923 

31. Herbert C. Hoover (R) Iowa 1874 1929 

32. Franklin D. RooseveltPY (D) N. Y 1882 1933 



'Harrison died on April 4, 1841. 

^Taylor died on July 9, 1850. 

''Lincoln was shot April 14, 1865, and died the following day. 

■•Andrew Johnson— a Democrat, nominated vice president by Republicans and elected with 
Lincoln on National Union ticket. 

''Garfield was shot July 2, 1881, and died September 19. 

"According to a ruling of the State Dept., Grover Cleveland is counted twice, as the 22nd and the 
24th President, because his two terms were not consecutive. Only 39 individuals have been 
President. 

"See footnote 6. 

"McKinley was shot September 6, 1901, and died September 14. 

•'Harding died on August 2, 1923. 

'"Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. 



186 North Carolina Manual 

No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

33. Harry S. Truman (D) Missouri 1884 1945 

34. Dwightl). P]isenhower(R) Texas 1890 1953 

35. John F. Kennedypp (D) Massachusetts ... 1917 1961 

36. Lyndon R. Johnson (I)) Texas 1908 1963 

37. Richard M. Nixoni'Q (R) Cahfornia 1913 1969 

38. Gerald R. Ford (R) Michigan 1913 1974 

39. James Earl Carter (D) Georgia 1924 1977 

40. Ronald Wilson Reagan (R) Illinois 1911 1981 

41. George H.W. Bush (R) Texas 1924 1989 



"Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963. 

'-Nixon resifjned August 9, 1974 following several months of pressure over the "Watergate" 
coverup and related issue.s. 

PRESIDENTIAL CABINET 

Vice President J. Danforth Quayle 

Secretary of Agriculture Clayton K. Yeutter 

Secretary of Commerce Robert A. Mosbacher 

Secretary of Defense Richard B. Cheney 

Secretary of Education Lauros F. Cavazos 

Secretary of Energy Adm. James Watkins 

Secretary of Health and Human Services Louis Sullivan 

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Jack F. Kemp 

Secretary of the Interior Manual Lujan, Jr. 

Secretary of Labor* Elizabeth H. Dole 

Secretary of State James A. Baker, III 

Secretary of Transportation Samuel K. Skinner 

Secretary of the Treasury Nicholas Brady 

Attorney General Richard L. Thornburg 

Ambassador to the United Nations Thomas Rickering 

MAJOR APPOINTMENTS 

White House Chief of Staff John H. Sununu 

White House Counsel C Boyden Gray 

National Security Adviser Frank Carlucci 

Press Secretary M. Marlin Fitzwater 

Director, Central Intelligence Agency William H. Webster 

Director, Office of National Drug Control Policy William J. Bennett 

Chairman, Council on Wage and Price Stability Alfred E. Kahn 

Chairman, Federal Reserve Board Paul A. Volcker 

Chairman, Securities and Exchange Co. Commission .... Richard C. Breeden 

Director, Office of Management and Budget Richard G. Darman 

Postmaster General Preston Pisch 



*Native of North Carolina 



The United States Executive Branch 



187 




Elizabeth Hanford Dole 

SECRETARY 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 

Early Years: Born in Salisbury, 
Rowan County, North Carolina, on 
July 29, 1937, to John Van and Mary 
(Cathey) Hanford. 

Education: Duke University, B.A. 
(Political Science); Harvard Univer- 
sity, M.S. (Education and Govern- 
ment); Harvard University School of 
Law, J.D. 

Professional Background: Secre- 
tary, Department of Labor, 1989-; 
Secretary, Department of Transporta- 
tion, 1983-1989; Assistant to the Presi- 
dent for Public Liaison, 1981-1983; 
Federal Trade Commission, 1973- 
1979; Deputy Director, Office of Consumer Affairs, 1971-1973; Executive 
Director, Presidents Committee on Consumer Interests, 1969-1971; Staff 
Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Boards: Duke University (Board of Trustees); Duke University Business 
School (Board of Advisors); John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard 
University (Overseers Committee); National Council of the Aging (former 
Director); Wolf Trap Foundation for the Performing Arts (Director); Washing- 
ton Opera Board (Director); American Council on Young Political Leaders 
(Board of Directors). 

Political Activities: Republican, Member of President's Cabinet (Secre- 
tary of Labor, 1989-; Secretary of Transportation, 1983-1989); Chairman, 
Voters for Reagan-Bush, 1980; National Advisory Council of the National 
Federation of Republican Women. 

Honors: "Faces of the Future," TIME MAGAZINE, 1974; Arthur S. 
Fleming Award for Outstanding Government Service, 1972; Phi Beta Kappa 
and President of the Student Body, Duke University. 

Family: Married Robert J. Dole of Kansas, December 6, 1975. 



CHAPTER TWO 

One Hundred and First Congress of 
The United States 



THE SENATE 

President of the Senate 

J. Danforth Quayle (Indiana) 

President Pro-Tempore of the Senate 

Robert C. Byrd (West Virginia) 

Secretary of the Senate 

Jo Ann Coe 

Majority Leader Minority Leader 

George Mitchell (Maine) Robert Dole (Kansas) 

Majority Whip Minority Whip 

Alan Cranston (California) Alan K. Simpson (Wyoming) 

SENATORS FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

Jesse Helms Terry Sanford 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

Agriculture, Nutrition & Forestry Finance 

Appropriations Foreign Relations 

Armed Services Government Affairs 

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Judiciary 

Budget Labor and Human Resources 

Commerce, Science & Transportation Rules and Administration 

Energy and Natural Resources Small Business 

Environment & Public Works Veteran's Affairs 

SELECT COMMITTEES 

Aging Ethics Indian Affairs Intelligence 

JOINT COMMITTEES 

Economy Library Printing Taxation 



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North Carolina Manual 




JESSE HELMS 

UNITED STATES SENATOR 

p]arly Years: Born in Monroe, 
Union County, October 18, 1921, to 
Jesse A. and Ethel Mae Helms. 

Education: Monroe High School; 
Wingate College; Wake Forest Uni- 
versity. 

Professional Background: For- 
mer Executive Vice President, Vice- 
Chairman of the Board, and As- 
sistant Chief Executive Officer, Capi- 
tol Broadcasting Company. 

Organizations: Raleigh Rotary 
Club (former President and Vice Pre- 
sident); Raleigh Exchange Club (for- 
mer President); United Fund of 

Raleigh (former Director); Raleigh Chamber of Commerce (former Director); 

Young Americans for Freedom (State Advisor); Mason, Raleigh Lodge No. 

500; Grand Lodge of NC (Grand Orator, 196(o). 

Boards: Former Trustee: Campbell LIniversity, Wingate College, Meredith 
College, John F. Kennedy College, Douglas MacArthur Freedom Academy, 
Deleware Law School, and Camp Willow Run; NC Tobacco Council. 

Political Activities: U.S. Senator, 1973- (elected 1972; reelected 1978 and 
1984); Raleigh City Council, 1957-1961; Administrative Assistant to United 
States Senators Willis Smith and Alton Lennon; Director of radio-television 
campaign for Richard B. Russell of Georgia (Democratic candidate for 
President, 1952). 

Honors: Honorary degrees. Grove City College and Bob Jones University; 
Honorary Director, NC Cerebral Palsy Hospital; Freedom Foundation Award 
(best television editorial); Taxpayer's Best Friend Award, National Tax- 
payer's Union, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984; Watchdog of the Treasury Award, 
Christian Action Council, 1983; Most Admired Conservative in Congress, 
Conservative Digest, 1980, 1981; NC Public Service Award, 1980; National 
Man of the Year in Politics, Christian Voice, 1980; Legislator of the Year, 
Christians for a Better American. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hayes Barton Baptist Church, Raleigh. 

Family: Married Dorothy Jane Coble, October 31, 1942. Children: Jane 
Helms Knox, Nancy Helms Stuart, and Charles Helms. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry 

Committee on Foreign Affiars (Minority Leader) 

Committee on Rules and Administration 

Select Committee on Ethics 



The United States Congress 



191 




TERRY SANFORD 

UNITED STATES SENATOR 

Early Years: Born in Laurinburg, 
Scotland County, August 20, 1917, to 
Cecil and Elizabeth (Martin) San- 
ford. 

Education: Presbyterian Junior 
College; UNC-CH, A.B., 1939; School 
of Law, UNC-CH, J.D., 1946. 

Professional Background: Pres- 
ident Emeritus, Duke University, 
1985; President, Duke University 
1969-85; Attorney, 1965-86; Special 
Agent, Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion, 1941-42. 

Organizations: The Conference 
Board, 1983; Board of N.C. Outward 
Bound, 1981; Center for National Policy (Chairman, 1981-82); American 
Council of Young Political Leaders, 1976-1986 (former Chairman); Council 
on Foreign Relations; Board of National Municipal League; Southern 
Regional Education Board, 1961-1965; Southern Growth Policies Board 
(Founder, 1971); Appalachian Community Service Network, 1980-1986 (for- 
mer Chairman); Americans for Clean Air and Water, 1983-1986; National 
Urban League (Director), 1972-1975. 

Boards: Public Governor, American Stock Exchange, 1977-1983; Director, 
Cadmus Communications Corporation, 1979-1986; Fuqua Industries, 1982- 
1986; ITT Corporation, 1976-1986; Prudential-Bache Mutual Funds, 1983- 
1986; Golden Corral Corporation 1984-1986; Trustee, Methodist College; Board 
of Advisors, School of Public Health, UNC-CH; Board of National 
Humanities Center; Carnegie Commission on Educational Television, 1965- 
1967; Trustee, National Council on Crime and Delinquency, 1969-1986. 

Political Activities: U.S Senator, 1986- (elected to fill the unexpired term 
of Senator John East on November 4, 1986; elected to a full term on same 
date); Governor of N.C, 1961-1965; N.C. State Senator, 1953-1955; Chairman, 
Democratic Charter Commission, 1972-1974; President, N.C. Young Demo- 
cratic Clubs, 1949-50. 

Political Achievements: While governor created the Community College 
and Technical Institute System, Governor's School, Learning Institute of 
N.C, N.C. School of the Arts, "The North Carolina Fund", N.C Good 
Neighbor Council, Atomic Energy Safety Commission; and established the 
first State Arts Council and Commission on the Status of Women. 

Military Service: U.S. Army, First Lieutenant, Parachute Infantry, 
1942-1946 (awarded: F^ive Battle Stars; The Bronze Star; The Purple Heart; 
The Combat Infantryman Badge; The Presidential Unit Citation); N.C. 
National Guard, 1948-60. 



192 North Carolina Manual 

Honors: Distinguished Elagle Scout; Boy Scouts Silver Beaver Award; 
Golden Key Award, 1967; Torch of Liherty Award, 1967; N.C. Award, 1970; 
The Brotherhood Award 1972; National Education Association Friend of 
Education Award, 1975; Elected to National Academy of Public Administra- 
tion, 1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity Avenue United Methodist Church. 

Familiy: Married Margaret Rose Knight of Hopkinsville, July, 1942. 
Children: Terry Jr. and Betsee. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 

(Subcommittee on International Finance and Monetary Policy) 

(Subcommittee on Securities) 

Committee on Budget 

Committee on Foreign Affairs 

(Subcommittee on International Economic Policy on Trade, Oceans, 

and Environment) 

(Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics, and International Operations) 

(Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere Affairs) 

Select Committee on Ethics 



The United States Congress 



193 



THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Speaker of the House 

Thomas S. Foley (Washington) 

Clerk of the House 

Donn Anderson 



Majority Leader 

Richard Gephardt (Missouri) 

Majority Whip 

William H. Gray, III (Pennsylvania) 



Minority Leader 

Robert H. Michel (Illinois) 

Minority Whip 

Newt Gingirch (Georgia) 



REPRESENTATIVES FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

Walter B. Jones (First District) 

I. T. Valentine, Jr. (Second District) 

H. Martin Lancaster (Third District) 

David E. Price (Fourth District) 

Stephen L. Neal (Fifth District) 

J. Howard Coble (Sixth District) 

Charles G. Rose (Seventh District) 

W. G. Hefner (Eighth District) 

J. Alex McMillan (Nineth District) 

T. Cass Ballenger (Tenth District) 

James M. Clarke (Eleventh District) 

STANDING COMMITTEES 



Agriculture 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 

Budget 

District of Columbia 

Education and Labor 

Energy and Commerce 

Foreign Affairs 

Government Operations 

House Administration 



Interior and Insular Affairs 

Judiciary 

Merchant Marine and Fisheries 

Post Office and Civil Service — 

Franking Commission 
Public Works and Transportation 
Rules 

Science Space's Technology 
Small Business 
Standards of Official Conduct 
Veterans' Affairs 
Ways and Means 



SELECT COMMITTEES 



Ethics 
Hunger 



Economic 



Intelligence 
Aging 



Narcotics Abuse and Control 
Children, Youth & Families 



JOINT COMMITTEES 

Library Printing 



Taxation 



194 



North Carolina Manual 




Walter Beaman Jones 

(Democrat - First Congressional 
District) 

(Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, 
Carteret, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, 
Gates, Greene, Hertford, Hyde, Lenoir, 
Martin, Northampton, PamUco, 
Pasquotank, Perquimans, Pitt, Tyrrell, 
and Washington.) 

Early Years: Bom in Fayetteville, 
Cumberland County, August 19, 1913, 
to Walter G. and Fannie M. (Ander- 
son) Jones. 

Education: Elise Academy, 1926- 
1930; N.C. State College, B.S. (Educa- 
tion), 1934. 

Professional Background: Of 

fice equipment dealer. 

Organizations: Masonic Lodge; Scottish Rite; Rotary Club (President, 
1949); Loyal Order of the Moose; Junior Order, Elks Lodge. 
Boards: Director, Farmville Savings & Loan Association. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1966- (elected in a 
special election in 1966 to fill the unexpired term of Herbert C. Bonner who 
had died; elected to a full term in November, 1966; reelected in subsequent 
elections; N.C. Senate, 1965-66; N.C. House of Representatives, 1955-1959; 
Mayor, Town of Farmville, 1949-1953; Judge, Farmville Recorders Court, 
1949-1953; Town Commissioner, 1947-1949 (Mayor Pro Tem). 

Religious Activities: Baptist Church (Deacon since 1945). 
Family: Married Elizabeth Fischer, November 7, 1984. Children: Dot Dee 
Jones Moye and Walter B. Jones, Jr. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries 

Committee on Agriculture 
(Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Peanuts and Tobacco) 



The United States Congress 



195 




Itimous T. Valentine, Jr. 

(Democrat - Second Congressional 
District) 

(Counties: Durham, p]dgecombe, 
Granville, Halifax, Johnston (part), 
Nash, Person, Vance, Warren, and 
Wilson.) 

Early Years: Born in Nashville, 
Nash County, March 15, 1926, to 
Itimous T. and Hazel Valentine. 

Education: The Citadel, A.B. (Poli- 
tical Science), 1948; School of Law, 
UNC-CH, J.D., 1967. 

Professional Background: Attor- 
ney (Senior member, Valentine, 
Adams & Lamar). 

Organizations: Nash-Edgecombe 
(former President), Seventh Judicial, NC and American Bar Associations; 
NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Morning Star Lodge No. 85 A.F. & A.M. 
(former Master); Nashville Lions Club (former President); Nashville Jaycees 
(former President); Nashville Chamber of Commerce (former President). 

Boards: NC Courts Commission; former Trustee, Nash General Hospital. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1983- (elected 
November, 1982; reelected in subsequent elections; N.C. House of Representa- 
tives, 1955-1960; Chairman, N.C. Democratic Executive Committee, 1966- 
1968; Legislative Counsel to Governor Dan K. Moore, 1967; Legal Advison to 
Governor Dan K. Moore, 1965. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army Air Corps, 1944-1946. 

Religious Activities: Member, Nashville Baptist Church; former Chair- 
man, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married Elizabeth Salyer Carr of Rocky Mount. Children: Stephen 
M., Mark L., Philip C. and Anna E. Valentine. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Public Works and Transportation 

(Subcommittee on Aviation and Surface Transportation) 

(Subcommittee on Water Resources) 

Committee on Science and Technology 

(Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agricultural Research and Environment) 

(Subcommittee on Transporation, Aviation, and Materials, Chairman) 



196 



North Carolina Manual 




H. Martin Lancaster 



(Democrat 
District) 



Third Congressional 



IC'ounties: Bladen, Duplin, Harnett, 
Johnston (part), Jones, Lee, Moore (part), 
Onslow, Pender, Sampson, and Wayne.] 

Early Years: Born in Patetown, 
Wayne County, March 24, 1943, to 
Harold W. and Eva Madena (Pate) 
Lancaster. 

Education: Pikeville High School, 
1958-1961; UNC-CH, A.B., 1965; 
School of Law, UNC-CH, J.D., 1967. 

Professional Background: Attor- 
ney 

L'W/fk I^K 9 Organizations: Wayne County, 

''m. ^m m gth judicial District, NC Bar Associa- 

tion (Board of Governors, 1984), and American Bar Associations; Mason; 
Shriner; Elk; Goldsboro Kiwania; NC Society for Historic Preservation. 

Boards: Advisory Board, Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, 1984; Chair- 
man, NC Arts Council, 1977-1981; Chairman, Wayne County Public Library, 
1979-80; Chairman, Wayne County Chapter, American Red Cross, 1978-79; 
Chairman, Goldsboro-Wayne County Bicentennial Commission, 1975-76; 
President, Goldsboro Community Arts Council, 1973-74; President, Wayne 
Community Concert Association, 1972-73. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1987- (elected 
November 4, 1986; reelected 1988); N.C. House of Representatives, 1979-1986. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1967-1970 (Lieutenant); Air Force 
Reserves, 1971-1982 (Major); Naval Reserves, 1982-(Commander). 

Honors: Valand Award, NC Mental Health Association, 1985; NC Crime 
and Justice Award, Governor's Crime Commission, 1984; Outstanding Legis- 
lator Award, NC Association of School Counselors, 1983; Outstanding Legis- 
lator Award, NC Academy of Trial Lawyers, 1981; Distinguished Service 
Award, Goldsboro Jaycees, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Elder, 1980-; 
Deacon, 1972-1975. 

Family: Married Alice Matheny, May 31, 1975. Children: Ashley 
Elizabeth and Mary Martin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Agriculture 

(Subcommittee on Tobacco and Peanuts) 

Committee on Armed Services 

(Subcommittee on Military Personnel) 

Committee on Small Business 

(Subcommittee on Procurement, Tourism and Rural Development) 



The United States Congress 



197 




David Eugene Price 

(Democrat - Fourth Congressional 
District) 

(Counties: Chatham, Franklin, Orange, 
Randolph and Wake) 

Early Years: Born in Johnson 
City, Washington County, on August 
17, 1940, to Albert and Elna (Harrell) 
Price. 

Educational Background: Uni- 
coi County High School (Erwin, 
Tennessee); Mars Hill College; UNC- 
CH, BA, 1961; Yale University, B.D., 
1964, Ph.D., 1969. 

Professional Background: Pro- 
fessor of Political Science and Public 
Policy, Duke University, 1973-1986; 
Assistant Professor of Political 
Science and American Studies, Yale University, 1969-1973; American Politi- 
cal Science Association; Society for Values in Higher Education. 

Organizations: Chapel Hill Kiwanis Club. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1987- (elected 
November 4, 1986; reelected 1988); Chairman, N.C. Democratic Party, 1983- 
84; Executive Director, N.C. Democratic Party, 1979-80; Commission on 
Presidential Nomination, Democratic National Committee; Staff Director, 
1981-82; Legislative Aide to Senator E. L. Bartlett (D-Alaska), 1963-1967; 
Member, Democratic National Committee, 1983-1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, Binkley Memorial Baptist Church 
(Moderator; Sunday School Teacher). 

Family: Married Lisa Beth Kan wit of Fairfax, Virginia, July 27, 1968. 
Children: Karen and Michael. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs 
(Subcommittee on Financial Institutions Supervision, Regulation, 

and Insurance) 

(Subcommittee on Housing and Community Development) 

(Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage) 

Committee on Science, Space and Technicology 

(Subcommittee on Natural Resources, 

Agriculture Research and Environment) 

(Subcommittee on Science Research and Technology) 



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North Carolina Manual 




Stephen Lybrook Neal 

(Democrat - Fifth Congressional 
District) 

(Counties: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, 
Forsyth, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry, and 
Wilkes.) 

Early Years: Born in Winston- 
Salem, Forsyth County, November 7, 
1934, to Charles Herbert and Mary 
Martha (Lybrook) Neal. 

Education: University of Cali- 
fornia at Santa Barbara; University 
of Hawaii, A.B. (Psychology), 1959. 

Professional Background: For- 
mer mortgage banker and newspaper 
publisher (President and publisher, 
Community Press, Inc). 

Boards: Trustee, Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation; Board of Advisors, 
Babcock Graduate School of Management; President, Sunbelt Research 
Coalition; National Board of Advisors, Straight, Inc.; Washington Policy 
Council, International Management Development Institute. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1975- (elected 
November, 1974; reelected in subsequent elections); Chairman, Congressional 
Sunbelt Council; Congressional Rural Caucus; Congressional Textile Caucus; 
Export Task Force; Agriculture Exports Task Force; Democratic Trade Task 
Force; Conservative Democratic Forum; Travel and Tourism Caucus; Con- 
gressional Advisory Committee of the Tax Limitation Committee; Military 
Reform Caucus; Congress for Peace through Law; United Democrats of 
Congress; Congressional Alcohol Fuels Caucus; Congressional Clearinghouse 
on the Future; Democratic Study Group. 

Religious Activities: Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married Rachel Landis Miller, June 6, 1963. Children: Mary 
Piper and Stephen L. Neal, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs 

(Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy, Chairman) 

(Subcommittee on Housing and Community Development) 

(Subcommittee on Financial Institution Supervision, Regulation, 

and Insurance) 

Committee on Government Operations 

(Subcommittee on Legislation and National Security) 



The United States Congress 



199 




John Howard Coble 

(Republican - Sixth Congressional 
District) 

(Counties: Alamance, Davidson, and 
Guilford.) 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, 
Guilford County, March 18, 1931, to 
Joe Howard and Johnnie E. (Holt) 
Coble. 

Education: Alamance High School, 
1949; Appalachian State University, 
A.B. (History), 1958; School of Law, 
UNC-CH,J.D., 1962. 

Professional Background: Attor 
ney (Firm of Turner, Enochs & Spar- 
row, 1979-1983). 

Organizations: Greensboro, N.C., 
N.C. State Bar Associations; American Legion; Lions Club; Veterans of 
Foreign Wars of the U.S. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1985- (Elected 
November, 1984; reelected in 1986 and 1988); Secretary, N.C. Department of 
Revenue, 1973-1979; Assistant U.S. Attorney, U.S. Middle District, 1969-1973. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Coast Guard 
Reserves, 1952- (Commanding Officer, Wilmington Unit). 

Religious Activities: Member, Alamance Presbyterian Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on the Judiciary 

(Subcommittee on the Courts, Civil Liberities, Property, 

and Administration of Justice) 

(Subcommittee on Criminal Justice) 

Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries 

(Subcommittee on the Coast Guard) 

(Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife) 



200 



North Carolina Manual 




Charles G. Rose III 

(Democrat - Seventh Congressional 
District) 

(Counties: Brunswick, ('olumbus, New 
Hanover, and Robeson). 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, 
Cumberland County, August 10, 1939, 
to Charles G. and P>ances (Duck- 
worth) Rose. 

Education: Fayetteville High 
School, 1957; Davidson College, B.A., 
1969; School of Law, UNC-CH, LL.B., 
1964. 

Professional Background: Attor- 
ney. 

Organizations: Cumberland Coun- 
ty and N.C. State Bar Associations. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1973- (Elected in 
November, 1972; reelected in subsequent elections); Chief District Court 
Prosecutor, 12th Judicial District, 1967-1970. 

Literary Works: Editor, Davidson College Yearbook. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville 
(former Sunday School Teacher). 

Family: Married Joan Teague, September 25, 1982. Children: Charles G. 
Rose, IV and Sara Louse Rose. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Agriculture 

(Subcommittee on Tobacco and Peanuts, Chairman) 

(Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy and Poultry) 

(Subcommittee on Cotton, Rice and Sugar) 

(Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreigh Agriculture) 

Committee on House Administration 

(Subcommittee on Elections) 

(Subcommittee on Office Systems, Chairman) 

Speaker's Advisory Committee on Broadcasting, Chairman 



The United States Congress 



201 




W. G. (Bill) Hefner 

(Democrat - Eighth Congressional 
District) 

[Counties: Anson, Cabarrus, Davie, 
Hoke, Montgomery, Moore (part), 
Richmond, Rowan, Scotland, Stanly, 
Union, and Yadkin (part)] 

Early Years: Born in Elora, 
Tennessee, April 1, 1930. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent, WRKB Radio (Kannapolis); 
Harvesters Quartet; Television Per- 
former. 

Political Activities: U.S. House 
of Representatives, 1975-(Elected 
November, 1974; reelected in sub- 
sequent elections); Congressional Tex- 
tile Caucus; Conservative Demo- 
cratic Forum; Deputy Majority Whip; Sunbelt Caucus; Democratic Study 
Group; Congressional Maritime Caucus; Clearinghouse of the Future. 

Religious Activities: Member, North Kannapolis Baptist Church. 

Family: Married Nancy Hill of Gadsden, Alabama. Children: Stacy and 
Shelly Hefner. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Appropriations 

(Subcommittee on Defense) 

(Subcommittee on Military Construction, Chairman) 



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Alex McMillan 

(Republican - Ninth Congressional 
District) 

[Counties: Iredell, Lincoln, Mecklenburg, 
and Yadkin (part).] 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, May 9, 1932, 
to J. Alex E. and Mildred Elizabeth 
(Shepherd) McMillan. 

Education: Woodberry Forest 
School, 1950; UNC-CH, B.A. (His- 
tory), 1954; University of Virginia, 
M.B.A., 1958. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent and Chief Executive Officer, 
Ruddick Corporation (Vice President 
for Finance and Treasurer, 1968- 
1983); Officer and Liaison, Harris-Teeter Super Markets, Inc.; R.S. Dickson 
& Company (Secretary and Vice President, 1963-1970); Sales and control, 
Carolina Paper Board Corporation, 1958-1960. 

Organizations: Charlotte City Club (Director), 1981-1984; Greater Char- 
lotte Chamber of Commerce (Director), 1980-1982. 

Boards: Union Theological Seminary (Trustee), 1978-1986; UNC Center 
for Public Broadcasting, 1986- ; Woodberry Forest School (Trustee), 1978- 
1985; Darden School of Business, University of Virginia (President, Alumni 
Board, 1979-1981; Trustee, 1977 -); Board of Visitors, Davidson College, 1983- 
84; Spirit Square Board, 1975-1984 (First President); United Community 
Services Board, 1973-1984; Inroads, Inc. (Director), 1982-83; WTVI Public 
Television, 1978-1983 (First Chairman); Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of 
Education (Committee Vice Chairman), 1978-79; Charlotte-Mecklenburg Arts 
and Science Council (Director), 1974-1979; Mecklenburg County Board of 
Social Services (Director; Chairman, 1975-1977), 1974-1977; Charlotte Speech 
and Hearing Center (Director), 1974-1977. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1985- (Elected 
November, 1984; reelected 1986 and 1988); Board of County Commissioners, 
Mecklenburg County, 1972-1974. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, 1954-1956 (Counter-intelligence). 

Religious Activities: Member, Myers Park Presbyterian Church, Char- 
lotte (Elder); Mecklenburg Presbyterian Task Force on Hunger, 1975-76. 

Family: Married Caroline Houston of Greenville, SC, November 21, 1959. 
Children Elizabeth H. and John A. McMillan IV. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Energy and Commerce 

(Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazzardous Materials) 

(Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations) 



The United States Congress 



203 




Thomas Cass Ballenger 

(Republican - Tenth Congressional 
District) 

[Counties: Avery (part), Burke, Caldwell, 
Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, and 
Watauga.] 

Early Years: Born in Hickory, 
Catawba County, December 6, 1926, 
to Richard E. and Dorothy (Collins) 
Ballenger. 

Education: Episcopal High School, 
1944; UNC-CH, 1944-45; Amherst 
College, B.A., 1948. 

Professional Background: Foun- 
der and Chairman of the Board, 
Plastic Packaging, Inc. 

Organizations: Community 
Ridge Day Care Center (Co-founder); N.C. School of the Arts (Sustaining 
Member); N.C. Symphony; N.C. Arts Society; Hickory Rotary Club (Past 
President); Greater Hickory United Fund (Past Chairman). 

Boards: Lenoir Rhyne College Board of Development; Salvation Army; 
Florence Critton Home; Greater Hickory Chamber of Commerce. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1987- (Elected 
November, 1986; reelected in 1988); N.C. State Senate, 1977-1986 (Former 
Minority Leader); N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76; Catawba County 
Board of Commissioners, 1966-1974 (Chairman, 1970-1974); Catawba County 
Republican Party (Past Chairman); Jim Martin for Governor Steering Com- 
mittee; N.C. Reagan-Bush Campaign (Western Co-Chairman, 1984); N.C. 
Legislative Forum (Co-Founder and Former Chairman). 

Military Service: Airman Cadet, U.S. Navy Air Corps, 1944-45. 

Honors: N.C. County Commissioner of the Year, 1973; Most Effective 
Republican Legislator, 1981; 100 % Rating by N.C. Conservative Union. 

Religious Activities: Episcopal Church of the Ascension (Past Senior 
Warden; Lay Reader). 

Family: Married Donna Davis, June 14, 1952. Children: Cindy, Missy, 
and Dorothy Ballenger. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Education and Labor 

(Subcommittee on Labor-Management Relations) 

(Subcommittee on Health and Safety) 

(Subcommittee on Select Education) 

Committee on Public Works and Transportation 

(Subcommittee on Aviation) 

(Subcommittee on Economic Development) 

(Subcommittee on Water Resources) 



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James McClure Clarke 

(Democrat - Eleventh Congressional 
District) 

(Counties: Avery (part), Buncombe, 
Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, 
Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, 
Madison, Mitchell, Polk, Rutherford, 
Swain, Transylvania, and Yancey.] 

Early Years: Born in Manchester, 
Vermont, June 12, 1917, to Dumont 
and Annie Dixon (McClure) Clarke. 

Education: Biltmore High School, 
1931; Asheville School, 1932-35; 
Princeton University, AB, 1939. 

Professional Background: Farm 
ers Federation Cooperative, 1939-42, 
1945-59; Asheville Citizen Times, 
1961-69; Warren Wilson College, 

1971-82; James G. K. McClure Educational and Development Fund, Trustee 

and Secretary, 1956-present. 

Organizations: Asheville Civitan Club (former president); Warren Wilson 
College (Trustee); Memorial Mission Hospital (Trustee); Thoms Rehabilitation 
Hospital (Trustee); Fairview Volunteer Fire Dept. (Trustee). 

Boards: Southeastern Council of Foundations (Former Member); N.C. His- 
toric Sites Advisory Commission (Former Member and Former Chairman); 
Governor's Crime Commission, 1978-1980. 

Political Activities: U.S. House of Representatives, 1983-85, 1987- (Elected 
in November, 1982; reelected in 1986 and 1988); N.C. Senate, 1981-82; N.C. House 
of Representatives, 1977-1980. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy (Lt. SG), 1942-1945 (Awarded the Pacific Ribbon). 

Religious Activities: Member, Warren Wilson Presbyterian Church (For- 
mer Elder). 

Family: Married Elspeth McClure of Fairview, February 17, 1945. Children: 
Susie, James, Annie, Dumont, Mark, Ambrose (deceased), William and Douglas. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs 
(Subcommittee on National Parks and Public Land) 

(Subcommitte on Energy and the Environment) 

(Subcommittee on Insular and International Affairs) 

Committee on Foreign Affairs Committee 

(Subcommittee on Arms Control) 

(Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs) 

Select Committee on Aging 

(Subcommittee on Human Services) 

(Task Force on Rural Elderly) 



CHAPTER THREE 
The United States Judiciary 

THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist Arizona 

Associate Justice William J. Brennan, Jr New Jersey 

Associate Justice Bryon R. White Colorado 

Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall New York 

Associate Justice Harry A. Blackmun Minnesota 

Associate Justice John P. Stevens, III New Jersey 

Associate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor Arizona 

Associate Justice Antonio Scalia District of Columbia 

Associate Justice Anthony M. Kennedy California 



FOURTH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT, 
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS 

(The Fourth Circuit is composed of Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Virginia and West Virginia. Court sits at Richmond, Virginia the first full week 
of each month, October through June.) 

Circuit Justice William H. Rehnquist Arizona 

Chief Judge Harrison L. Winter Maryland 

Circuit Judge Donald S. Russell South Carolina 

Circuit Judge H. Emory Widener, Jr Virginia 

Circuit Judge Kenneth K. Hall Virginia 

Circuit Judge James Dickson Phillips, Jr North Carolina 

Circuit Judge Francis D. Murnaghan, Jr Maryland 

Circuit Judge James M. Sprouse West Virginia 

Circuit Judge Sam J. Ervin, HI North Carolina 

Circuit Judge Robert F. Chapman South Carolina 

Circuit Judge J. Harvie Wilkinson Virginia 

Circuit Judge William W. Wilkins, Jr South Carolina 



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The United States Judiciary 207 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Eastern District 

(Federal Building, Raleigh) 

Chief Judge W. Earl Britt Fayetteville 

Senior Judge Franklin T. Dupree, Jr Raleigh 

Senior Judge John D. Larkins, Jr Trenton 

Judge Terrence W. Boyle Elizabeth City 

Judge James C. Fox Wilmington 

Judge Malcolm J. Howard Greenville 

Clerk J. Rich Leonard Raleigh 

U.S. Attorney Margaret Person Currin Raleigh 



Middle District 

(U.S. Post Office and Courthouse, Greensboro) 

Chief Judge Hiram H. Ward Winston-Salem 

Senior Judge Eugene A. Gordon Greensboro 

Judge Richard C. Erwin Winston-Salem 

Judge Frank W. Bullock, Jr Greensboro 

Judge Carlton Tilley, Jr Durham 

Clerk Joseph P. Creekmore Greensboro 

U.S. Attorney Robert H. Edmunds, Jr Greensboro 



Western District 

(Charles R. Jonas Federal Building, Charlotte) 

Chief Judge Robert D. Potter Charlotte 

Senior Judge Woodrow W. Jones Asheville 

Judge James B. McMillan Charlotte 

Judge Richard L Voorhees Asheville 

Clerk Thomas J. McGraw Charlotte 

U.S. Attorney Thomas J. Ashcraft Charlotte 



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UNITED STATES FOURTH CRICUIT 
COURT OF APPEALS 



James Dickson Phillips, Jr. 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Scotland County, 
September 23, 1922, to James Dickson 
(deceased) and Helen (Shepherd) Phillips. 

Education: Davidson College, 1943, 
B.S., cum laude; UNC-Chapel Hill, School 
of Law, 1945-48, J.D. with honors. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit. 

Organizations: NC Bar Association; 
Director, NC Nature Conservancy; Kappa 
Sigma. 

Political Activities: Member, Demo- 
cratic Party. 

Military Services: Served, US Army, 1944-46 (1st Lieutenant); parachute 
infantry. 

Honors: John J. Parker Memorial Award; Thomas Jefferson Award; Dis- 
tinguished Alumni Professor Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church; former Elder and 
Deacon. Member, University Presbyterian Church, Chapel Hill, 1970-76 
(Chairman, 1971-74). Permanent Judicial Commission, Presbyterian 
Churches in the US. 

Family: Married, Jean Duff Nanalee, July 16, 1960. Children: Evelyn 
(Phillips) Perry, James Dickson, HI, Elizabeth Duff and Ida Willis. 




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209 



Samuel James Ervin, III 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Morganton, 
Burke County, March 2, 1926, to Samuel 
James and Margaret Bruce (Bell) Ervin, 
Jr. 

Education: Morganton Public Schools; 
Morganton High School, 1943; Davidson 
College, 1948, B.S.; Harvard Law School, 
1951, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit; Judge, 
N.C. Superior Court, 25th District, 1967- 
80; legal practice, 1952-67; Solicitor, 
Burke County Criminal Court, 1954-56. 

Organizations: Burke County Bar Association; N.C. Bar Association; 
Mason. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1965-67. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1944-46, 1951-52 (Colonel); infantry; 
Judge Advocate General's Corps. Served, NC Army National Guard, 1955-59. 

Honors: Young Man of the Year and Distinguished Service Award, 
Morganton Chamber of Commerce, 1954. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Elder; Deacon; 
Sunday School teacher; advisor, Senior High Youth. 

Family: Married, Elizabeth Crawford, October 25, 1952. Children: Samuel 
James, IV, Elizabeth Fore, Robert Crawford and Margaret Bell. 




The United States Judiciary 211 

THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTS 
North Carolina, Eastern District 

W. Earl Britt 

CHIEF JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in McDonald, 
Robeson County, December 7, 1932, to 
Dudley H. and Martha Mae (Hall) Britt. 

Education: Rowland High School, 
1950; Campbell College, 1950-52; Wake 
Forest University, 1956, B.S.; Wake 
Forest University, School of Law, 1958, 
LL.B. 

Organizations: N.C. Bar Association; 
American Bar Associations. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court, Eastern District. 

Political Activities: Member, Democratic Party. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-55 (Corporal). 

Honors: "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and Observer, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, McDonald Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Judith Moore, April 17, 1976. Children: Clifford Paul, 
Mark Earl and Elizabeth Carol. 




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North Carolina Manual 




James Carroll Fox 

JUDGK 

Early Years: Born in Atchinson, 
Kansas, November 6, 1928, to Jared Cope- 
land and Ethel (Carroll) Fox. 

Education: Woodberry Forest School, 
1946; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1950, B.S. (Busi- 
ness Administration); UNC-Chapel Hill, 
School of Law, 1957, LL.B. with honors. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court, Eastern District, 
1982-; New Hanover County Attorney, 
1967-81; attorney [partner, firm of Murchi- 
son. Fox & Newton, 1960- (associate, 
1958-59)]. 

Organizations: N.C., Bar Association; American Bar Association; N.C. 
Academy of Trial Lawyers; N.C. State Bar; Wilmington Civitan; legal 
advisor, NC Jazz Fetival, Inc.; Director, New Hanover Workshop; Director, 
First Union Bank, 1974- (Chairman, 1982-83). 

Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1951-59 (corporal); honor- 
able discharge. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. James Episcopal Church, Wilmington; 
Senior Warden, 1979-82; Vestryman, 1974-75. 

Family: Married, Katharine deRosset Rhett of Wilmington, December 30, 
1950. Children: James C, Jr., Jane Haskell (Fox) Brown and Ruth Rhett 
(F'ox) Jordan. 



The United States Judiciary 



213 




Malcolm Jones Howard 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Kinston, Lenoir 
County, June, 24, 1939, to Clayton and 
Thelma Lee (Jones) Howard. 

Education: Deep Run School; The 
Citadel (Charleston, S.C); U.S. Military 
Academy (West Point, N.Y.), B.S., 1962; 
School of Law, Wake Forest University, 
J.D., 1970. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court (Eastern District, 
North Carolina), 1988- ; Attorney (Senior 
Partner, Howard, Browning, Sams, and 
Poole, 1975-1988); Counsel, Executive Office of the President (White House, 
Washington, D.C.), 1974; Assistant U.S. Attorney (Raleigh, N. C), 1973-74.. 

Organizations: Rotary Club of Greenville; East Carolina Vocational 
Center (Director). 

Boards: Board of Visitors, Wake Forest Univiersity School of Law, 1988- . 

Political Activities: Judge, U.S. District Court, Eastern District of North 
Carolina (appointed by President Reagan in 1988); Member, Republican 
Party; Chairman, 1st District Republican Party (3 terms), 1974-1980; 
Delegate, Republican National Convention, 1976 & 1980; Candidate, U.S. 
Congress, 1st District, 1972. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army (Lt. Col), 1962-1972; Reserves, 
1972-1982; Silver Star, Bronze Star of Valor (2), Meretorious Service Medal, 
Purple Heart, Air Medal (2), Combat Infantryman's Badge, Parachute 
Badge. 

Religious Activities: Member, Memorial Baptist Church, Greenville; 
Sunday School Teacher, Deacon; Director, N.C. Baptist Foundation. 

Family: Married Eloise K. McGinty of Marshallton, Iowa, November 24, 
1964. Children: Shannon Lea and Joshua Brian. 



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North Carolina Manual 




John Davis Larkins, Jr. 

SENIOR JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Morristown, 
Tennessee, June 8, 1909, to Charles H. 
and Mamie (Dorset!) Larkins; foster son 
of John Davis and Emma Cooper 
Larkins. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 
1929, B.A.; Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1929-30. 

Professional Background: Senior 
U.S. District Judge, Eastern District. 

Organizations: N.C., American Bar 
Association; Federal Bar Association. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C, Senate, 1936-1944, 1949-1954; Chair- 
man and Secretary, State Democratic Executive Committee, 1952, 1954, 
1956, 1958; National Committeeman, 1958, 1960. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1945 (Private). 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, American Cancer Society; Dis- 
tinguished Alumni Award, Wake Forest University. 

Religious Activities: Baptist; former Chairman, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Pauline A. Murrell, March 13, 1930. Children: Emma 
Sue (Larkins) Loften and Paulene (Larkins) Bearden. 



The United States Judiciary 



215 




Franklin T. Dupree, Jr. 

SENIOR JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Angier, Harnett 
County, October 18, 1913, to Franklin T. 
and Elizabeth Mason (Wells) Dupree. 

Education: Angier High School, 1925- 
28; Campbell College High School, 1928- 
29; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1933, A.B.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1936, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court, 1970-. 

Organizations: Wake County, Bar 
Association; N.C. and American Bar 
Association; American Judicature 
Society; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 

Political Activities: Member, Republican Party. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Navy, 1943-46 (Lieutenant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Hayes Barton Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Rosalyn Dupree, December 30, 1939. Children: Elizabeth 
(Dupree) Dement and Nancy (Dupree) Miller. 



The United States Judiciary 



217 



North Carolina, Middle District 




Hiram Hamilton Ward 

CHIEF JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Thomasville, 
Davidson County, April 29, 1923, to O. L. 
Ward and Margaret A. (Lowdermilk) 
Ward. 

Education: Denton High School; Wake 
Forest University; Wake Forest Univer- 
sity, School of Law, 1950, J.D. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court, Middle District, 
1972-. 

Organizations: American Bar Associa- 
tion; N.C. Bar Association; American 
Judicature Society; Mason; Phi Alpha Delta; Trustee, Wingate College. 

Political Activities: Member, Democratic Party; N.C. State Board of 
Elections, 1964-72; Chairman, Federal Land Condemnation Commission, 
1964-65. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Air Force, 1940-45 (Lieutenant Colonel); 
pilot; Civil Air Patrol. 

Religious Activities: Member Baptist Church; Deacon, Sunday School 
teacher. Liberty Baptist Association. 

Family: Married, Evelyn McDaniel, June 1, 1947. Children: William M. 
and James Randolph. 




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North Carolina Manual 



Richard Cannon Er^vin 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Marion, August 
23, 1923, to John Adams and Flora (Can- 
non) Ervvin. 

Education: McDowell County Public 
Schools; Johnson C. Smith University, 
1947, B.A.; Howard University, School of 
Law, 1951, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court, Middle District; 
Attorney (firm of Erwin and Beatty). 

Organizations: Forsyth County (for- 
mer President); N.C. State Bar Associa- 
tion; Bar of the U.S. Supreme Court; Kappa Alpha Psi. 

Political Activities: Judge, N.C. Court of Appeals, 1977-80; member, 
N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-77. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1945-46 (1st Sergeant). 

Honors: Silver Cup, Citizens Coalition of Forsyth County, 1974. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Paul's United Methodist Church; 
National Methodist Layman. 

Family: Married, Demerice Whitley, August 25, 1946. Children: Arelia 
Whitley and Richard Cannon, Jr. 




The United States Judiciary 219 

Frank William Bullock, Jr. 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Oxford, Gran- 
ville County, November 3, 1938, to Frank 
William and Wilma (Long) Bullock. 

Education: Oxford High School, 1957; 
Duke University; Univeristy of North 
Carolina - Chapel Hill, BS (Business 
Administration), 1961; School of Law, 
UNC-CH, LL.B., 1963. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court (Middle District, 
North Carolina), 1982- ; Attorney (Private 
practice, 1973-1982; 1964-1968;) Assistant 

Director, N. C. Administrative Office of the Courts, 1968-1973; Law clerk to 

Federal judge, 1963-64. 

Organizations: Greensboro Bar Association; N.C. Bar Association; 
American Bar Association; N.C. State Bar. 

Political Activities: Judge, U.S. District Court, Middle District of North 
Carolina (appointed by President Reagan in 1982). 

Literary Works: Numerous articles in law reviews and legal publications. 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married Frances D. Haywood of Raleigh, May 5, 1984. Children: 
Frank William, III. 



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North Carolina Manual 



Eugene Andrew Gordon 

SENIOR JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Brown Sum- 
mitt, July 10, 1917, to Charles Robert 
and Carrie (Scott) Gordon. 

Education: Elon College, 1939, A.B.; 
Duke University, School of Law, 1941, 
LL.B. 

Professional Background: Chief 
Judge, U.S. District Court, Middle Dis- 
trict, 1964-. 

Organizations: N.C. Bar Association; 
American Bar Association; Federal Bar 
A.ssociation; American Judicature 
Society; Phi Delta Phi. 

Political Activities: Member, Democratic Party. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1942-46 (Captain); field artillery. 

Religious Activities: Member, Starmount Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Virginia Stoner, January 1, 1943. Children: Eugene 
Andrew and Rosemary Ann. 




The United States Judiciary 



221 



North Carolina, Western District 




Robert D. Potter 

CHIEF JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Wilmington, 
April 4, 1924. 

Education: New Hanover High School, 
1938-40; Duke University, 1940-43, 1947, 
A.B. (Chemistry); Duke University, 1947- 
50, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Chief 
Judge, U.S. District Court, Western Dis- 
trict, 1984-; Judge, U.S. District Court, 
Western District, 1981-84; Privatelegal 
practice, 1951-81. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 
1945-46 (2nd Lieutenant); infantry. 

Family: Married, Kathleen Neilson, February 13, 1954. Children: Robert 
D., Jr., Mary Louise and Catherine Ann. 



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North Carolina Manual 




James Bryan McMillan 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Goldsboro, 
December 19, 1916, to Robert Hunter and 
Sarah (Outlaw) McMillan. 

Education: Lumberton Public Schools; 
Presbyterian Junior College (now St. 
Andrews), 1932-34, A.A.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1937, M.A.; Harvard Law School, 
1940, J.D. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court, Western District. 

Organizations: Mecklenburg County 
Bar Association; (President, 1957-58), 
N.C., American Bar Association; N.C. State Bar; American Judicature 
Society; Omicron Delta Kappa; Order of the Golden Fleece. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1942-45. 

Literary Works: Author of numerous case opinions and orders. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Ruling Elder, 
1963-71, 1975-; former Treasurer and Deacon. 

Family: Married, Margaret Blair Miles, February 27, 1944. Children: 
James Bryan, Jr. and Marjorie Miles (McMillan) Rodell. 



The United States Judiciary 



223 




Richard Lesley Voorhees 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Syracuse, 
Onandoga County, New York, June 5, 
1941, to Henry Austin and Catherine 
Adeline (Fait) Voorhees. 

Education: R.J. Reynolds High School 
(Winston-Salem), 1959; Davidson College, 
A.B. (French), 1963; School of Law, UNC- 
Chapel Hill, J.D., 1968. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court (Western District, 
North Carolina), 1988- ; Attorney [Sole 
practitioner, 1980-1988; Firm of Garland 
and Alala, 1968-1979 (Partner, 1972-1979)]. 

Organizations: Gaston County Bar Association (President, 1984-86), 
1968-1988; N.C. State Bar; N.C. Bar Association; N.C. Academy of Trial 
Lawyers; American Bar Association; Gaston County Chamber of Commerce 
(Board of Directors, 1985-1988); Gaston County Homebuilders Assn. (Board 
of Directors, 1984-1988); Gaston Skills, Inc. (Director and General Counsel, 
1980-1988). 

Boards: Gaston County Board of Elections (Member, 1972-1974; Chair- 
man, 1985-86). 

Political Activities: Member, Republican Party; Chairman, Gaston 
County Republican Party and Member, N.C. State Republican Executive 
Committee, 1979-1983; Alternate Delegate, Republican National Convention, 
1976; Candidate, N.C. House of Representatives, 44th District, 1986 (withdrew 
following nomination for U.S. judgeship). 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army (1st Lieutenant), 1963-1965; 
Reserves (Captain), 1965-1969. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Gastonia 
(Deacon, 1972-1975; Elder, 1983-1986); Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married Barbara Holway Humphries, of Hollan Patent, N.Y., 
1968. Children: Martha Northrop and Steven Coerte. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Woodro^v Wilson Jones 

SENIOR JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Rutherford 
County, January 26, 1914, to Bernard B. 
and Karl Jane (Nanney) Jones. 

Education: Rutherford County PubHc 
Schools, 1920-32; Mars Hill College, 1934, 
A.S.; Wake Forest University, School of 
Law, 1937, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, 
U.S. District Court, Western District, 
1967-. 

Organizations: Rutherford County 
(President, 1946), N.C. Bar Association; 
American Bar Association; Trustee, Gardner-Webb College; Rutherfordton 
Chamber of Commerce (former Director); former President, Rutherfordton 
Kiwanis Club. 

Political Activities: N.C. Democratic Executive Committee, 1938-60; mem- 
ber, N.C. House of Representatives, 1947-49; Solicitor, Recorder's Court, 
Rutherford County, 1941-43. 

Honors: Outstanding Service Citation, Gardner-Webb College, 1965; Out- 
standing Service Award, Rutherfordton Lions Club, 1950. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Rutherfordton; 
teacher; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Rachel Phelps, November 22, 1936. Children: W. Wilson, 
Jr. and Michael A. 



PART IV 



North Carolina 
State Government 



CHAPTER ONE 
The Legislative Branch 

AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 
The Colonial Experience 

The General Assembly is the oldest governmental body in North Carolina. 
According to tradition, a "legislative assembly of free holders"met for the 
first time around 1666; however, there is no proof that this assembly 
actually met. Provisions for a representative assembly in Proprietary North 
Carolina can be traced to the Concessions and Agreements adopted in 1665 
and did not exist prior to this document. The Concessions and Agreement 
called for an unicameral body composed of the governor, his council, and 
"twelve men . . . chosen annually" to sit as a legislature. This system of 
representation prevailed until 1670 when Albemarle County was divided 
into three smaller units called "precincts." Berkeley Precinct, Carteret 
Precinct and Shaftsbury Precinct were apparently each allowed five repre- 
sentatives. Around 1682, four new precincts were created from the original 
three as the population grew and moved westward. The number of repre- 
sentatives for new precincts was usually two, although some were granted 
more. Beginning with the Assembly of 1723, several of the larger, more 
important towns were allowed to elect their own representatives. Edenton 
was the first town granted this privilege, followed by Bath, New Bern, 
Wilmington, Brunswick, Halifax, Campbellton (now Fayetteville), Salisbury, 
Hillsborough, and Tarborough. Around 1735 Albemarle and Bath Counties 
ceased to exist and the geographical units known as "precincts" became 
counties. 

The unicameral form of the legislature continued until around 1697 when 
a bicameral form was adopted. The "upper house" was composed of the 
governor, or chief executive at the time, and his council. The "lower house," 
or House of Burgesses, was made up of representatives elected from the 
various precincts. The lower house could adopt its own rules of procedure 
and elect its own speaker and other officers; however, it could meet only 
when called into session by the governor and only at a location designated 
by him. Because the lower house held "the power of the purse" and was 
responsible for paying the salary of the governor, regular meetings of the 
legislature were held at least once during a biennium, and usually more 
often. Throughout the colonial period, this control over the finances was a 
source of controversy between the governor and the lower house. The House 
of Burgesses used this power effectively to increase its influence and prestige. 



228 North Carolina Manual 

Early Statehood 

When our first state constitution was adopted in 1776, the power struggle 
between the governor and his council on the one hand, and the Colonial 
Assembly on the other, had a profound effect on the structure of the new 
government. The legislature became the primary organ of government with 
control over all other areas of government. Its most important power was its 
authority to elect all officials in the executive and judicial branches. A joint 
ballot of the members of the state Senate and the state House of Commons 
was held to elect the various officials. On many occasions substantial 
amounts of time were used for these elections when a majority of votes was 
not received by one candidate. The first break from this procedure came in 
1835 when a constitutional amendment changed the method for electing the 
governor. Instead of being elected by the legislature for a one-year term, the 
governor was to be elected by the people for a two-year term. It would, 
however, be another thirty-three years before the remaining executive and 
judicial officials would be elected by the people. Provisions for this were 
incorporated into the Constitution of 1868. 

The Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature with mem- 
bers of both houses elected by the people. The Senate had one representative 
from each county, while the House of Commons had two representatives 
from each county and one from each of the towns given representative 
status in the constitution. This format continued until 1835 when several 
changes to the legislative branch were approved by the people. Membership 
in the Senate was set at 50 with senators elected from districts. The state 
was divided into districts with the number of senators based on the popula- 
tion of the individual districts. Membership of the House of Commons was 
set at 120 with representation based on the population of the county. The 
more populous counties had more representatives; however, each county was 
entitled to at least one representative. Provisions were made to adjust 
representation in both houses. These adjustments would be based on the 
federal census taken every ten years. The responsibility for adjusting districts 
and representation was given to the General Assembly. 

In 1868, a new constitution was adopted and several changes were made 
regarding the legislative branch. The bicameral structure was retained, but 
the name of the lower house was changed from the "House of Commons" to 
the "House of Representatives." Also the unfair "property qualification" 
provision for holding office was eliminated. For the first time since the 
Colonial Period, the office of lieutenant governor appeared. The lieutenant 
governor, elected by the people, would serve as president of the Senate, as 
well as being the next in line should something happen to the governor. 
Provisions were also made for the electing of a president pro tempore. The 
president pro tern, elected from among the members of the Senate by his 
peers, would take over in the absence of the president of the Senate. 

In 1966, the House of Representatives adopted a district representation 
similar to that of the Senate. Although the number of representatives stayed 
at 120, every county was no longer guaranteed a representative. Instead, the 
requirement to maintain a balance among districts in the constituent- 
representative ratio, resulted in counties with lower populations losing their 



The Legislative Branch 229 

resident representative. The district format has left nearly one-third of the 
counties with no resident legislator. 

Meeting Places of the Legislature 

Prior to the establishment of Raleigh in 1792 as the permanent capital of 
North Carolina, the seat of government was moved from town to town with 
each new General Assembly. This was also true during the colonial period. 
Halifax, Hillsborough, Fayetteville, New Bern, Smithfield, and Tarborough 
all shared the distinction of serving as the seat of government between 1776 
and 1794. The Assembly of 1794-95 was the first legislature to meet in 
Raleigh. 

The buildings used as meeting places for the colonial and general 
assemblies varied as much as the location. If the structure was big enough 
to hold the legislators, it could be used. Courthouses, schools, and even local 
residences served as "legislative buildings." Tryon Palace in New Bern, was 
the State's first capitol building. It was completed in 1771, but was aban- 
doned during the Revolutionary War because of its exposure to enemy 
attack. When Raleigh was established as the capital, provisions were made 
for the construction of a simple, two-story brick state house. This structure 
was completed in 1796 and served as the home for the General Assembly 
until it was destroyed by fire in 1831. A new capitol building was authorized 
to be built and was completed in 1840. The first session to convene in the 
Capitol was on November 16, 1840. Construction began on the current 
legislative building in early 1961 and on February 6, 1963, the first session 
was convened. 

The Legislative Branch Today 

The organizational structure established in the Constitution of 1868 
remained basically unchanged with the adoption of the state's third constitu- 
tion in 1971. As one of the three branches of government found in the 
constitution, the legislative branch is equal with, but independent of, the 
executive and judicial branches. It is composed of the General Assembly and 
its administrative support units. 

The Constitution of North Carolina gives the General Assembly the 
legislative, or lawmaking, power for the state. According to the state's 
Supreme Court, this means that the legislature has ". . . the authority to 
make or enact laws; to establish rules and regulations governing the conduct 
of the people, their rights, duties and procedures; and to prescribe the 
consequences of certain activities." These mandates give the General 
Assembly the power to make new laws and amend or repeal existing laws on 
a broad range of issues that have statewide as well as local impact. The 
legislature also defines criminal law, which declares certain acts illegal. 

Election of Legislators 

Legislators in both the Senate and House of Representatives are elected 
every two years in the even numbered years from districts established by 
law. Qualifications for election differ slightly for each house. For election to 
either house, a person must reside in the district he wants to represent for at 



230 North Carolina Manual 

least one year prior to the election and be a registered voter of the state. To 
qualify for the Senate, a person must also be at least 25 years old on the date 
of the election and a resident of the state for two years immediately preceding 
the election. To qualify for election to the House of Representatives, a person 
must be at least 21 years old on the date of the election in addition to the 
previously stated qualifications. 

A constitutional amendment approved by the voters in 1982 set January 1, 
following the November general elections as the date legislators officially 
take office. Prior to this amendment, legislators took office immediately 
following their election in November. 

Legislative Sessions 

Under the Constitution of North Carolina, the General Assembly is re- 
quired to meet in regular session in every odd year. It normally convenes on 
the first Wednesday after the second Monday in January; however, this date 
may be changed by joint resolution of the two houses. Prior to 1973 the 
General Assembly met only once during a biennium. The legislature may 
also meet at other times when called into session by the presiding officers of 
each house if three-fifths of the membership of each house request a special 
session. In emergency, or extraordinary situations, the governor, with the 
advice and consent of the Council of State, may call extra legislative 
sessions. 

Since the economic crisis of 1973-74, the General Assembly has met in 
both odd and even years. The first session is open to all legislative business. 
The second is usually limited to budgetary matters and provides an op- 
portunity to review the adopted budget in light of economic changes, the 
needs of the state, and other factors. Any other legislative action is limited 
to items agreed upon by the two houses in the previous session. 

The Organization of the General Assembly 

Two equal houses, the Senate with its 50 members and the House of 
Representatives with its 120 members, make up the General Assembly of 
North Carolina. Each house elects a principal clerk, a reading clerk and a 
sergeant-at-arms as well as its own officers. The President of the Senate 
(lieutenant governor) presides over the Senate. A president pro tempore is 
elected by the senators from among their membership. In the House of 
Representatives, the speaker is elected by the representatives from among 
their membership. Other officers in each respective house are elected either 
by the membership as a whole or by the members from each party. 

Much of the legislative work of the General Assembly is accomplished 
through standing committees. Shortly after the start of the legislative 
session, standing committees are formed and members of each house ap- 
pointed to those in their respective houses. Beginning with the 1989 session, 
the president pro tem will appoint senate committees, a duty traditionally 
given the President of the Senate. The speaker appoints House committees. 
These officers attempt to make committee assignments which match the 
interest and expertise of legislators. There are 34 standing committees in the 
Senate and 13 in the House for the current session. The House also has 50 
subcommittees. 



The Legislative Branch 231 

Administrative authority for the General Assembly is vested in the Legisla- 
tive Services Commission. The president pro tempore of the Senate and the 
speaker of the House are ex officio chairmen of the Legislative Services 
Commission and each appoints six members from his respective house to 
serve on the Commission. The Commission employs a Legislative Administra- 
tive Officer who serves as chief staff officer for the Commission. In addition 
to an Administrative Division, there are four other support divisions, each 
under a director appointed by the Legislative Services Commission. These 
are the Legislative Automated Systems Division, the Legislative Bill Drafting 
Division, the Fiscal Research Division and the General Research Division. 

The Administrative Division is headed by the Legislative Administrative 
Officer. Its primary role is to provide logistical support to the General 
Assembly in a variety of areas including budget preparation and administra- 
tion, building maintenance, equipment and supplies, mailing operations, 
printing (including printed bills), and a host of other services. 

The Automated Systems Division is responsible for designing, developing, 
and maintaining a number of computer applications for use by the staff of 
the General Assembly. Bill typing, legal document retrieval, bill status 
reporting, fiscal information systems, office automation and electronic pub- 
lishing are all functions of the division. Policies governing the operation of 
the Division and access to the Legislative Computer Center are set by a 
Legislative Services Commission's subcommittee. 

The Bill Drafting Division is responsible for assisting legislators in the 
preparation of bills for introduction. Staff attorneys draft the bills and make 
sure they are entered into the computer, printed, and that the proper number 
of copies are delivered to the introducing legislator. There are numerous 
guidelines which must be followed to insure confidentiality. 

The Fiscal Research Division serves as the research and watchdog arm for 
the General Assembly on fiscal and compliance matters regarding state 
government. The statutory duties include various responsibilities in the 
areas of fiscal analysis, operational reviews and reporting. 

The General Research Division has as its primary function the respon- 
sibility of obtaining information and making legal and nonfiscal analyses 
of subjects affecting and affected by state law and government when 
requested to do so by a legislator or standing committee of the General 
Assembly. To a lesser extent, they also answer questions from other North 
Carolina and sister state agencies and private citizens. 



232 



North Carolina Manual 




George Rubin Hall, Jr. 

Legislative Services Officer 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh, NC 
April 14, 1939, to George Rubin, Sr. (de- 
ceased) and Ludie Jane (Conner) Hall. 

Education: Hugh Morson High School 
1953-55; Needham Broughton High 
School, 1955-57; Campbell College, 1964, 
B.S.; Post-graduate work NC State Uni- 
versity in Public Personnel Administra- 
tion; Government Executives Institute, 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1982. 

Professional Background: Legisla- 
tive Services Officer, 1979-; 14 years, NC 
Division of Vocational Rehabilitation; former Administrative Officer with 
NC General Assembly; Licensed Building Contractor; Licensed Real Estate 
Broker. 

Organizations: National Rehabilitation Association; NC Rehabilitation 
Association. 

Boards: Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations, Southern Legislative 
Conference; Legislative Organization and Management Committee, National 
Conference of State Legislators; former member. Wake County School Board 
Advisory Council; Manpower Area Planning Council, Region J, 1972-73. 

Military Service: Served, NC Army National Guard, Staff Sgt., 1959-60, 
(active), 1960-65, (reserves). 

Religious Activities: Member, Longview Baptist Church, Raleigh, NC. 

Family: Married, Carolyn Marie Young of Raleigh, June 26, 1960. 
Children: George Rubin, HI, W. Gregory, and Carolyn Elizabeth. 



The Legislative Branch 233 



THE 1989 GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

Convening of the Session 

The 1989 General Assembly, the State's 138th, was convened in the 
respective chambers of the Senate and House of Representatives in the 
Legislative Building in Raleigh at Noon on January 11, by Lieutenant 
Governor James C. Gardner, in the Senate and Principal Clerk of the House, 
Grace Collins. Lt. Governor Gardner, a Republican, is the first member of 
his party to be elected in this century. The convening of the House by the 
principal clerk marked the first time since 1941 that the Secretary of State 
was not afforded that role. 

Prior to 1957, the General Assembly convened in January at a time fixed 
by the Constitution of North Carolina. From 1957 through 1967, sessions 
convened in February at a time fixed by the Constitution. The 1969 General 
Assembly was the first to convene on a date fixed by law after elimination of 
the constitutionally fixed date (Chapter 1181, Session Laws of North Caro- 
lina, 1967 Session). This act set the "First Wednesday after the second 
Monday in January after the election" as the convening date. The 1989 
General Assembly convened on Wednesday, January 11, 1989, as directed by 
law and did not adjourn until Saturday, August 12, 1989, 215 days later. 
This was the longest session ever held, exceedng the previous record of 191 
days set by the 1971 General Assembly. 

Women in the General Assembly 

The first woman to serve in the General Assembly was Lillian Exum 
Clement of Buncombe County who serve in the 1921 House of Representa- 
tives. Including this session, a total of seventy-five different women have 
served in the General Assembly since that time. There are twenty-five 
women in the 1989 General Assembly — four in the Senate and twenty-one in 
the House of Representatives. This is a new record, breaking the old record 
of 24 shared by several sessions. 

Senator Lura S. Tally, a Democrat from Cumberland County, and Repre- 
sentative Jo Graham Foster, a Democrat from Mecklenburg County, are in 
their ninth terms, breaking the record for service previously held by former 
Representative Nancy W. Chase of Wayne County who served eight terms - 
all in the House. Senator Tally has served five terms in the House and four 
in the Senate; Representative Foster has served all of her terms in the 
House. 

Minorities in the General Assembly 

During Reconstruction after the Civil War, and particularly after the 
adoption of the Constitution of 1868, minorities were elected to the General 
Assembly. Fifteen blacks were elected to the House of Representatives and 
two to the Senate in 1868. Under the leadership of Representative Parker D. 
Robbins of Hertford County and Senators A. H. Galloway of New Hanover 
County and John A. Hyman of Warren County, the 1868 General Assembly 



234 North Carolina Manual 

approved the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 
which guaranteed citizenship for hlacks. As conservative democrats regained 
power following reconstruction, black representation in the General Assembly 
disappeared. 

The first black to serve in the General Assembly during this century was 
Henry E. Frye from Guilford County who served in the House of Representa- 
tives in 1969. Seventeen blacks have been elected to serve in the 1989 
legislature - four in the Senate and thirteen in the House of Representatives. 
This is a new record breaking the old record of sixteen for the 1987-88 
Session. Mr. Frye also holds the record for most terms served with seven - 
six in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate. 

Miscellaneous Facts and Figures 

The oldest member of the 1989 Senate is R. L. Martin (11/8/18), a Democrat 
from Pitt County. The youngest member of the 1989 Senate is Richard E. 
Chalk, Jr. (7/3/52), a Republican from Guilford County. 

The oldest member of the 1989 House of Representatives is Gordon H. 
Greenwood (6/3/09), a Democrat from Buncombe County. The youngest 
member of the 1989 House of Representatives is David G. Balmer (4/11/62), 
a Republican from Mecklenburg County. 

The Senator with the longest tenure is James D. Speed, a Democrat from 
Franklin County, serving his thirteenth term - six in the House and seven in 
the Senate. The Representative with the longest tenure is Liston B. Ramsey, 
a Democrat from Madison County, serving his fourteenth term - all in the 
House. The all-time record for service is held by former state Representative 
Dwight Quinn, a Democrat from Cabarrus County, who served all of his 
eighteen terms in the House. 

Thirty of the 100 counties in North Carolina have no resident member in 
the General Assembly. Thirty-two counties have representation in the House 
of Representatives only; five counties, in the Senate only. Thirty-three 
counties have representation in both the House and the Senate. Mecklenburg 
has the largest representation with eleven — eight in the House and three in 
the Senate. 

Salaries of Legislators 

The base salary of a member of the 1989 General Assembly is $11,124.00 
per year with a monthly expense allowance of $465.00. Officers of the 
respective houses get higher base salaries and expense allowances. The 
Speaker of the House has a base salary of $31,224.00 per year and a monthly 
expense allowance of $1,175. The President Pro Tempore of the Senate 
receives $19,104.00 and $833.00 respectively; the Speaker Pro Tempore of the 
House receives $17,592.00 and $694.00 respectively; and the Majority and 
Minority Leaders of each house receive $16,080.00 and $554 respectively. 
During the legislative session and when they are carrying out the state's 
business, all legislators receive a subsistence allowance of $81.00 a day and 
a travel allowance of $.25 per mile. 



The Legislative Branch 235 



1989 NORTH CAROLINA SENATE 

Officers 

President (Lieutenant Governor) James C. Gardner 

President Pro Tempore Henson P. Barnes 

Deputy President Pro Tempore Kenneth C. Royall, Jr. 

Majority Leader Ted Kaplan 

Minority Leader Laurence A. Cobb 

Majority Whip A.P. Sands, III 

Minority Whip Paul S. Smith 

Joint Caucus Leader Robert G. Shaw 

Principal Clerk Sylvia M. Fink 

Reading Clerk LeRoy Clark, Jr. 

Sergeant-at-Arms Gerda Pleasants 

Senators 

Name District County Address 

Allran, Austin M. (R) 26th Catawba Hickory 

Ballance, Frank W., Jr 2nd Warren Warrenton 

Barker, Bill 3rd PamHco Oriental 

Barnes, Henson P 8th Wayne Goldsboro 

Basnight, Marc 1st Dare Manteo 

Block, Frank 7th New Hanover Wilmington 

Bryan, Howard (R) 26th Iredell Statesville 

Carpenter, Robert (R) 29th Macon Franklin 

Chalk, Richard (R) 32nd Guilford High Point 

Cobb, Laurence A.' (R) 35th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Cochrane, Betsy L. (R) 23rd Davie Advance 

Conder, J. Richard 17th Richmond Rockingham 

Daniel, George B 21st Caswell Semora 

Daughtry, N. Leo (R) 15th Johnston Smithfield 

Ezzell, James E., Jr 10th Nash Rocky Mount 

Goldston, W.D., Jr 24th Rockingham Eden 

Guy, A.D 4th Onslow Jacksonville 

Hardin, C.W. (R) 29th Haywood Canton 

Harris, J. Ollie 25th Cleveland Kings Mountain 

Hunt, Ralph A 13th Durham Durham 

Hunt, Wanda H 16th Moore Pinehurst 

Johnson, James C, Jr 22nd Cabarrus Concord 

Johnson, Joseph E 14th Wake Raleigh 

Kaplan, Ted 20th Forsyth Lewisville 

Kincaid, Donald R. (R) 27th Caldwell Lenoir 

Martin, R.L 6th Pitt Bethel 

Martin, WilHam, N 31st Guilford Greensboro 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne 25th Gaston Gastonia 

Murphy, Wendell H 5th Duplin Rose Hill 

Odom, T.L 34th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Parnell, David 30th Robeson Parkton 

Plyler, Aaron W 17th Union Monroe 

Rauch, Marshall A 25th Gaston Gastonia 

Raynor, Joe B 12th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Richardson, James F 33rd Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr 13th Durham Durham 

Sands, A.P., III 24th Rockingham Reidsville 



236 North Carolina Manual 

Name District County Address 

Shaw, Robert G. (R) 19th Guilford Greensboro 

Sherron, J.K 14th Wake Raleigh 

Simpson, Daniel R. (R) 27th Burke Morganton 

Smith, Paul S. (R) 23rd Rowan Salisbury 

Soles, R.C., Jr 18th Columbus Tabor City 

Speed, James D 11th Franklin Louisburg 

Staton, William W 14th Lee Sanford 

Swain, Robert S 28th Buncombe Asheville 

Taft, Thomas F 9th Pitt Greenville 

Tally, Lura S 12th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Walker, Russell G 16th Randolph Asheboro 

Ward, Marvin M 20th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Wilson, Constance K.-' 35th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Winner, Dennis J 28th Buncombe Asheville 



'Cobb resigned effective August 14, 1989, to assume a position on the Utilities 

Commission. 

-Wilson was appointed by Governor James G. Martin on September 1, 1989, to replace 

Cobb. 



The Legislative Branch 237 

Speakers of the Senate 

Assembly Senator County 

1777 Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

1778 WhitmelHill Martin 

Allen Jones Northampton 

1779 Allen Jones Northampton 

Abner Nash Jones 

1780 Abner Nash Jones 

Alexander Martin Guilford 

1781 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1782 Alexander Martin Guilford 

Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1783 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (April) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (October) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1785 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1786-87 James Coor Craven 

1787 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1788 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1789 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

Charles Johnston Chowan 

1790 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1791-92 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1792-93 Wilham Lenoir Wilkes 

1793-94 Wilham Lenoir Wilkes 

1794-95 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1795 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1796 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1797 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1798 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1799 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1800 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1801 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1802 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1803 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1804 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1805 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1806 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1807 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1808 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1809 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1810 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1811 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1812 George Outlaw Bertie 

1813 George Outlaw Bertie 

1814 George Outlaw Bertie 

1815 John Branch Halifax 

1816 John Branch Halifax 

1817 John Branch Halifax 

Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1818 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1819 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1820 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1821 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1822 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 



238 North Carolina Manual 

Assembly Senator County 

1823-24 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1824-25 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1825-26 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1826-27 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1827-28 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1828-29 Jesse Speight Greene 

1829-30 Bedford Brown Caswell 

David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1830-31 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1831-32 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1832-33 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1833-34 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1834-35 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1835 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1836-37 Hugh Waddell Orange 

1838-39 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1840-41 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1842-43 Lewis D. Wilson Edgecombe 

1844-45 Burgess S. Gaither Burke 

1846-47 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1848-49 Calvin Graves Caswell 

1850-51 Weldon N. Edwards Warren 

1852 Weldon N. Edwards Warren 

1854-55 Warren Winslow Cumberland 

1856-57 WilUam W. Avery Burke 

1858-59 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1860-61 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1862-64 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1864-65 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1865-66 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1866-67 Matthias E. Manly Craven 

Joseph H. Wilson Mecklenburg 



Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate* 

Assembly Senator County 

1870-72 Edward J. Warren Beaufort 

1872-74 James T. Morehead Guilford 

1874-75 

1876-77 .....James L. Robinson Macon 

1879-80 Wilham A. Graham Lincoln 

1881 William T. Dorch Buncombe 

1883 

1885 E. T. Boykin Sampson 

1887 



*With the adoption of a new constitution in 1868, the office of "Speai<er of the Senate" ceased to exist. A provision 
in the constitution created the office of "lieutenant governor" whose duties and functions were similar to those 
previously carried out by the speaker. The lieutenant governor presides over the senate and is called "The 
President of the Senate" when serving in this capacity. The senators also elected one of their own to serve as 
"President Pro Tempore" during periods when the lieutenant can not preside. 



The Legislative Branch 239 

Assembly Senator County 

1889 [Edwin W. Kerr] Sampson 

1891 William D. Turner Iredell 

1893 John L.King Guilford 

1895 E. L. Franck, Jr Onslow 

1897 

1899-1900 R.L. Smith Stanly 

F. A. Whitaker Wake 

1901 Henry A. London Chatham 

1903 Henry A. London Chatham 

1905 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1907-1908 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1909 Whitehead Klutz Rowan 

1911 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1913 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1915 Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland 

1917 Fordyce C. Harding Pitt 

1919-20 Lindsey C. Warren Washington 

1921 Wilham L.Long Halifax 

1923-24 Wilham L.Long Halifax 

1925 William S. H. Burgwyn Northampton 

1927 William L. Long Halifax 

1929 Thomas L. Johnson Robeson 

1931 Rivers D. Johnson Duplin 

1933 William G. Clark Edgecombe 

1935 Paul D. Grady Johnston 

1937-38 Andrew H. Johnston Buncombe 

James A. Bell Mecklenburg 

1939 Whitman E. Smith Stanly 

1941 John D. Larkins, Jr Jones 

1943 John H. Price Rockingham 

1945 Archie C. Gay Northampton 

1947 Joseph L. Blythe Mecklenburg 

1949 James C. Pittman Lee 

1951 Rufus G. Rankin Gaston 

1953 Edwin Pate Scotland 

1955-56 Paul E.Jones Pitt 

1957 Claude Currie Durham 

1959 Robert F. Morgan Cleveland 

1961 William L. Crew Halifax 

1963 Ralph H. Scott Alamance 

1965-66 Robert B. Morgan Harnett 

1967 Herman A. Moore Mecklenburg 

1969 Neill H. McGeachy Cumberland 

1971 Frank N. Patterson, Jr Stanly 

Gordon P. Allen Person 

1973-74 Gordon P. Allen Person 

1975-76 John T.Henley Cumberland 

1977-78 John T.Henley Cumberland 

1979-80 W. Craig La wing Mecklenburg 

1981-82 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

1983-84 ...W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

1985-86 J.J.Harrington Bertie 

1987-88 J. J. Harrington Bertie 

1989-90 Hanson P. Barnes Wayne 



240 



North Carolina Manual 




^-^W' 




The Legislative Branch 241 



Henson P. Barnes 

PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE 

(Democrat - Wayne County) 
Eighth Senatorial District - Greene and Wayne Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Bladen County, November 18, 1934, to Reverend 
Lalon L. and Mable (Cumbee) Barnes. 

Education: Garland High School, 1953; Wilmington College, 1958, A.A.; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1959, A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill School of Law, 1961, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney; Farm owner. 

Organizations: Wayne County, N.C., and American Bar Associations; 
American Trial Lawyers Association; Masonic Order; Shrine; Elks; American 
Legion; Moose Lodge; Civitan Club; National Trustee, Woodmen of the 
World. 

Boards: Energy Policy Council; Courts Commission; Board of Governors, 
N.C. Bar Association; Board of Directors, N.C. Blueberry Association; Board 
of Directors, N.C. Grape Growers Association. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, since 1977-; N.C. House of 
Representatives, 1975-76; Chairman, Wayne County Democratic Party; 
former President, Wayne County Young Democrats. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-56; Paratrooper. 

Honors: US Great American Family of the Year Award, presented by 
Nancy Reagan at the White House, 1985; National Environmental Award, 
"Take Pride in America," presented by President Reagan at the White 
House, 1987; Outstanding Legislator Award for Contribution to Trails, NC 
Trails Association, 1987; Outstanding Legislator, NC Handicapped Associa- 
tion, 1985-86; Outstanding Legislator, NC Parks Association, 1985-86; Out- 
standing Legislator, Academy of Trial Lawyers, 1981-82; Legislative Award 
of Excellence, Crime Commission, 1983-84; Woodmen of the World, Man of 
the Year, 1985; Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters, William Carter College, 
1979; Robert H. Futrell Good Environment Award, 1975; Outstanding Jaycee 
President (Southeast Region), 1964; Outstanding Young Man, Goldsboro, 
1963. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Goldsboro; Deacon; 
Sunday School Teacher; Budget and Finance Board. 

Family: Married, Kitty Allen Barnes, August 17, 1961. Children: Mrs. 
David C. (Rebecca) Richards and Ms. Amy Barnes. 



242 



North Carolina Manual 



^e^^^f^'- 




Kenneth C. Royall, Jr. 

DEPUTY PRESIDENT 
PRO TEMPORE 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Thirteenth Senatorial District - Durham, 
Granville, Orange (part) and Person 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Warsaw, 
Duplin County, September 2, 1918, to 
Kenneth Claiborne and Margaret 
Pierce (Best) Royall, Sr. 

Education: Goldsboro High 
School, 1932-34; Episcopal High 
School, 1936; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1940, 
A.B.; UVA, School of Law, 1940-41; 
Wake Forest University School of 
Law, 1941-42. 

Professional Background: Furniture retailer (owner, Style Craft In- 
teriors) 

Organizations: Director, American Red Cross; Director, YMCA; Director, 
NC Merchant's Association, 1975-76; Rotary Club; Elks Club; Delta Kappa 
Epsilon; Director, Training for Hearing Impaired Children, 1971-76; Vice- 
President, NC Committee for Prevention of Blindness, 1973-76; Durham 
Chamber of Commerce, 1962-72 (Director and Vice President, 1972); 

Boards: Board of Directors, Keep North Carolina Beautiful, 1985-90; 
Chairman, Council of state Governments, 1981-82; Chairman, Southern 
Leadership Conference, 1977-83; Legislative Building Commission, 1971-72; 
Board of Higher Education, 1971-72; Executive Residence Building Commis- 
sion, 1972; Chairman, Mental Health Study Commission, 1972-83; Govern- 
mental Operations System, 1974-90; Director, Eckerd Wilderness Educational 
System of NC, 1978-81; Durham Advisory Board, Duke Hospital, 1975-89; 
director, Triangle Service Center, Inc., 1974-89; Executive Committee, NCSL, 
1976-78, 1980-81, 1984-; NCSL Legislative Leaders, 1985-86. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-present, (9 terms); Senate 
Majority Leader, 1973-74, 1977-86; Legislative Services Commission, 1973-; 
NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971; Chairman, Advisory Budget 
Commission, 1981-. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1942-45 (Major); Platoon 
Leader, South Pacific, World War II; Bronze Star with Combat V. 

Honors: Certificate of Appreciation and Recognition, NC Psychology 
Association, 1983; Honorary L.L.D, NCCU, 1982; Honorary L.L.D., Duke 
University, 1985; Legislator of the Year, NCSEA, 1980; Outstanding State 
Legislator, NCSGEA, 1980, and Assembly of Government Employees, 1980; 



The Legislative Branch 243 

Most Influential Member of NC Senate, 1979-88; Distinguished Service 
Award for Outstanding Legislative Service, NC Mental Health Center 
Association, 1978; Civic Honor Award, Durham Chamber of Commerce, 
1977; Valand Award (outstanding service to mental health), 1976; Dis- 
tinguished Service Award, NC Public Health Association, 1975; Certificate 
of Commendation, National Association of Mental Health, 1974; Dis- 
tinguished Service Medal, UNC Alumni, 1985; NC Citizens for Industry, 
Distinguished Service Award, 1989; Distinguished Legislator Award, DSLLA, 
1988. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Philhp's Episcopal Church, Durham; 
Senior Warden, 1964; Junior Warden, 1959; Vestry, three terms. 

Family: Married, Julia Bryan Zollicoffer, February 10, 1945. Children: 
Kenneth C, III, Jere Zollicoffer and Julia Bryan. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGMNENTS: 

Chairman: Appropriations 

Vice Chairman: Higher Education 

Member: Finance; Human Resources; Pensions and Retirement; Public 
Utilities; Rules and Operation of the Senate; State Government; Ways and 
Means. 



244 



North Carolina Manual 




Ian Theodore Kaplan 

MAJORITY LEADER 

(Democrat - F'orsyth County) 

Twentieth Senatorial District - P'orsyth 
County (Part). 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, 
Guilford County, December 26, 1946, 
to Leon and Renee (Myers) Kaplan. 

Education: Riverside Military 
Academy, 1962-64; R.J. Reynolds 
High School, 1965; Guilford College. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent, Kaplan Press. 

Political Activities: Member, NC 

Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989- ; NC 
House of Representatives, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1969-71; Reserves, 1968-69 (E-3). 

Religious Activities: Member, Temple Emanuel, Winston-Salem. 

Family: Married, Vivian Deanna Frazier, February 20, 1988. Children: 
Sarah Elizabeth. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Rules and Operations of the Senate 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on General Government; Banks 
and Thrift Institutions; Base Budget; Constitution; Election Laws; Finance; 
Transportation; Ways and Means. 



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245 




Laurence Arthur Cobb 

MINORITY LEADER 

(Republican - Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-fifth Senatorial District - 
Mecklenburg County. 

Early Years: Born in Teaneck, 
New Jersey, May 20, 1933, to 
Gardiner and Georgette (Robedee) 
Cobb. 

Education: Freeport High School, 
1951; Rutgers University, 1951-52; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1955 (Business 
Administration, Banking); Washburn 
University, School of Law, 1955-57; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 
1958, J.D. with honors. 

Professional Background: Attor- 
ney (partner in firm of Waggoner, Hamrick, Hasty, Monteith, Kratt, Cobb 
and McDonnell). 

Organizations: Mecklenburg County, N.C. State, N.C. and American Bar 
Associations (Former Chairman, Public Relations Committee, N.C. Bar); 
Commercial Law League of America (member , fellow) N.C. Association of 
Trial Lawyers; Former President and Director, Lawyers of N.C, Inc; Di- 
rector, Alpha Sigma of Chi Psi, Inc.; Charlotte Chamber of Commerce; N.C. 
Citizens for Business and Industry; Former Director, N.C. Chapter American 
Cancer Society; Mecklenburg Chapter, American Cancer Society, Former 
Vice President, Director, Executive Board, Former Crusade Chairman; 
Kidney Foundation of Mecklenburg County (first President, former Director); 
N.C. Epilepsy Association, Former Director; UNC Law School Association, 
Former Director. 

Boards: Board of Governors, University of N.C, 1977-85; Auditorium- 
Coliseum-Civic Center Authority, City of Charlotte, 1983-88; Former Member, 
Charlotte Review Commission; Committee of 100, Charlotte; UNC-Charlotte 
Athletic Foundation, Former President and Director; Former Chairman, 
Governors's Highway Safety Commission; Chairman, Governor's Crime 
Commission; Citizens Criminal Justice Commission; Advisory Budget 
Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate 1985-present, Senate Minority 
Leader; N.C House of Representatives, 1971-72, 1973-74, 1975-76, former 
House Minority Leader; NC Chairman, Bush for President, 1980 and 1988; 
Chairman, Republican Victory '88, 1988; . 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Air Force, 1959-62; Reserves, 1962-present, 
(Colonel), Judge Advocate General Corps. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Episcopal Church. 



246 North Carolina Manual 

Family: Married, Edna Faye Pugh of Asheboro, January 30, 1960. 
Children: Laura and Glenn. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Ranking Minority Member: Appropriations on Justice and Public 
Safety; Higher Education; Judiciary II; Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

Vice Chairman: Higher Education 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Public Utilities; State Govern- 
ment, Ways and Means. 



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247 




Alexander P. Sands, III 

MAJORITY WHIP 

(Democrat-Rockingham County) 

Twenty-Fourth Senatorial District- 
Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham, Stokes, 
Surry, and Watauga. 

Early Years: Born in Reidsville, 
Rockingham County, October 26, 
1945, to A. Paul and Kathryn 
(Jenkins) Sands, Jr. 

Education: Reidsville Senior High 
School, 1963; Duke University, AB, 
Political Science, 1967; University of 
North Carolina School of Law, JD 
(with honors) 1971. 

Professional Background: Attor- 
ney, Partner, Bethea and Sands; NC Bar Association; NC Academy of Trial 
Lawyers, Rockingham County Bar Association, (president, 1984-85); Associa- 
tion of Trial Lawyers of America. 

Organizations: Reidsville Rotary Club, President, 1983; Rockingham 
County Farm Bureau; Reidsville Jaycees, President, 1974-75. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1987-88, 1989-, Majority Whip 
1989-, Chairman, Senate Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee 1989-. 

Military: Served, NC National Guard, (sp.5), 1968-74. 

Religious Activities: Member Woodmont United Methodist Church; 
Administrative Board; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Virginia Lee Coffield, of High Point, August 15, 1970. 
Children: Andy and Anna. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs 

Vice Chairman: Children and Youth, Judiciary II 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety; Base 
Budget; Manufacturing and Labor; Marine Resources and Wildlife; Small 
Business; State Personnel 



248 



North Carolina Manual 




Paul Sanders Smith 

MINORITY WHIP 

(Republican-Rowan County) 

Twenty-Third Senatorial District- 
Davidson, Davie and Rowan Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Salisbury, 
Rowan County, March 16, 1927, to 
Karl F. and Mary (Sanders) Smith. 

Education: Boyden High School, 
1948; Catawba College, 1948-49; 
Management Institute, UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1966-70. 

Professional Background: Exe 

cutive Vice President, Marketing and 
Operations, Holding Brothers, Inc. 

>'^i^saii^i^^^« Organizations: Salisbury Sales 
and Marketing Executives (President, 1975-76); Salisbury-Rowan Merchants 
Association (President, 1975); Lexington Retail Merchants Association; 
Rowan Oil Dealers Association (President, 1966-67); NC Merchants Associa- 
tion, Advisory Board, 1982-present; Boy Scouts of America (Scoutmaster; 
Advisory Board, Central N.C. Council, 1983-present); Coach (Little League 
Baseball and YMCA Basketball); Salisbury Chamber of Commerce (Presi- 
dent, 1976); Lexington Chamber of Commerce; Salisbury Rotary (Director, 
1970-71;); Salvation Army Advisory Board, 1979-present; Davidson County 
Art Guild; Catawba College Alumni Association; Friends of the Library 
Association for Retarded Citizens; North State Football Officials Associa- 
tion; Tri-County Mental Health Board; LInited Way (Budget Chairman, 
1976). 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-88; 
1989-90; Senate Minority Whip, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Southern Regional 
Education Board 1986-; Rowan County Republican Party, Chairman, 1983- 
84; GOP Presidential Elector, 8th District, 1984; Chairman, Rules and 
Resolutions, GOP 8th District, 1984; State Executive Committee 1981-84; 
Chairman, Rowan County Board of Commissioners, 1978-79; Advisory 
Budget Commission; Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council; Energy 
Comittee of Southern Legislative Conference; Utilities Review Board Joint 
Select Committee on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy, 1943-45 (Seaman 1st Class). 

Honors: Friend of the Library, 1983; Oil Industry Award, N.C. Oil 
Jobbers; Order of the Arrow; Scouter's Key; Man of the Year, 1976; Citizen of 
the Year, 1975; Boss of the Year, 1971; PYiend of the Boy, 1965. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Lutheran Church, Salisbury; 
Church Council; Pulpit Committee; Men of the Church; Vice President, J. L. 
Fisher Bible Class; Chairman, Education Committee. 



The Legislative Branch 249 

Family: Married, Alda Olivia Clark of Salisbury, September 4, 1950. 
Children: Paula, Charles, and Amy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Finance (Ranking Minority Member); Human Resources. 

Member: Public Utilities (Ranking Minority Member); Transportation 
(Ranking Minority Member); Higher Education (Ranking Minority Member); 
Insurance, Manufacturing and Labor 



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North Carolina Manual 




Robert G. Shaw^ 

JOINT CAUCUS LEADER 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

Nineteenth Senatorial District - Forsyth 
(part) and Guilford (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Erwin, 
Harnett County, November 22, 1924, 
to R.G.B. and Annie (Byrd) Shaw. 

Education: Campbell College; 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Professional Background: 

Restauranteur. 

Boards: Chairman, NC Council on 
Community and Economic Develop- 
ment, 1975-77; Member, Natural and 
Economic Resources Board, 1975-77; 
Member, NC Advisory Budget Com- 
mittee; Member, Joint Legislative Committee on Governmental Operations. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989- ; NC 
Republican Party Chairman, 1975-77; Republican National Committee, 1975- 
77; County Commissioner, Guilford County, 1968-76, (former Chairman). 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1943-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church, Greensboro. 

Family: Married, Linda Owens of High Point, 1981. Children: Ann (Shaw) 
Hewett and Barbara (Shaw) Twining. Grandsons: Robert C. Hewett; John 
Christopher Hewett, James V. Twining, Jr., John Robert Twining. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Ranking Minority Member: Local Government and Regional Affairs 
(Vice Chairman); Environment and Natural Resources; Small Business; 
Ways and Means. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Finance; Marine Resources and 
Wildlife; Transportation. 



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251 




Austin Murphy Allran 

(Republican - Catawba County) 

Twenty-sixth Senatorial District -Alexander, 
Catawba, Iredell and Yadkin Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Hickory, 
Catawba County, December 13, 1951, to 
Albert M. and Mary Ethel (Houser) 
Allran. 

Education: Hickory High School, 
1970; Duke University, 1974, B.A.; South- 
ern Methodist University, School of Law, 
1978, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: N.C. State Bar; 
Catawba County Bar Association; Catawba County Chamber of Commerce; 
Hickory Museum of Art; Catawba County Historical Association; Duke 
University Alumni Association; Hickory Landmarks Society. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate 1987-88, 1989- ; Member, N.C. 
Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; Legislative Assistant, Governor 
James Holshouser, 1974; Congressional Intern on the Washington staff of 
Congressman James T. Broyhill, 1973; Member, Catawba County Young 
Republican Club; Catawba County Republican Men's Forum. 

Religious Activities: Life long member, Corinth Reformed United Church 
of Christ, Hickory. 

Family: Married, Judy Mosbach, September 27, 1980. Children: Elizabeth 
Austin Allran and Catherine Houser Allran. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Children and Youth; Finance; Judiciary III; Local 
Government and Regional Affairs; Manufacturing and Labor; State Per- 
sonnel; Small Business; Joint Senate and House Committee on Legislative 
Ethics. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Frank W. Ballance, Jr. 

(Democrat - Warren County) 

Second Senatorial District - Warren (Part), 
Bertie (Part), Edgecombe (Part), Gates (Part), 
Halifax (Part), Hertford, Martin (Part), and 
Northhampton Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Windsor, Bertie 
County, February 15, 1942, to Frank 
Winston and Alice (Eason) Ballance. 

Education: W.S. Etheridge High 
School, 1959; North Carolina Central Uni- 
versity, 1963; North Carolina Central 
Law School, 1965. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(Ballance and Reaves, 1985-; Frank W. Ballance, Jr., 1979-1984; Clayton and 
Ballance, 1966-1979); Librarian and Professor, South Carolina State College 
School of Law, 1965-66. 

Organizations: Chairman, Warren County Chapter NAACP 1988; N.C. 
State Bar, 1965-; N.C. Association of Trial Lawyers; N.C. Association of 
Black Lawyers. 

Boards: Board of Trustees, Elizabeth City State University; Board of 
Trustees, North Carolina Central University. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. Senate, 1989- ; Member, N. C. House 
of Representatives 1983-84, 1985-86; Vice-Chairman, Warren County Political 
Action Council; Chairman, 2nd Congressional District Black Caucus. 

Military Service: North Carolina National Guard, 1968; Reserves, 
1968-71. 

Religious Activities: Member, Greenwood Baptist Church, Warrenton; 
Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Bernadine Smallwood, 1969. Children: Garey Malcolm, 
Angela Denise, and Valerie Michelle. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control 

Vice-chairman: Election Laws 

Member: Agriculture, Appropriations, Appropriations of Justice and 
Public Safety, Base Budget, Constitution, Judiciary I, Manufacturing and 
Labor. 



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253 




William H. Barker 

(Democrat-Pamlico County) 

Third Senatorial District-Carteret, Craven, 
and Pamlico Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Oriental, 
Pamlico County, April 6, 1944, to Gradon 
L. and Evelyn Neal (Beacham) Barker, 
Sr. 

Education: Pamlico County High 
School, 1958-62; UNC Chapel Hill, 1968, 
BA; UNC Chapel Hill Law School, 1969, 
JD. 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
Farmer; Self-Employed; Craven County 
Bar Association. 

Organizations: Oriental Rotary Club; Masonic Order; Scottish Rite; NC 
Wildlife Foundation; NRA, life member; Craven County Commission of 100. 

Boards: Trustee, Craven County College, 1982 to present. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate 1987-88, 1989-; Pamlico Demo- 
crat Party, Chairman, 1985-86; Delagate to National Convention, 1982. 

Military Service: Served, Navy, SN-2; Reserves, 1962-68. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church, Oriental. 

Family: Married, Jorja L. Davenport, of Oriental, September 1, 1964. 
Children: Mary, Jorja and Virginia. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Marine Resources & Wildlife 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations on Natural & Economic Resources 

Member: Judiciary III, Appropriations; Base Budget; Constitution; En- 
vironment & Natural-Resources; Finance; Human Resources; Local Govern- 
ment and Regional Affairs; Public Utilities 



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North Carolina Manual 




Marc Basnight 

(Democrat - Dare County) 

First Senatorial District - Beaufort (part) 
Bertie (part) Camden, Chowan, Currituck, 
Dare, Gates (part), Hyde, Pasquotank, 
Perquimans, Tyrrell, and Washington 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Manteo, Dare 
County, May 13, 1947, to St. Clair and 
Cora Mae (Daniels) Basnight. 

Education: Manteo High School, 1966 

Professional Background: Con- 
struction 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. 
Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

Family: Married Sandy Tillett, March 23, 1968. Children: Vick and 
CaroHne. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Base Budget 

Vice Chairman: Transportation 

Member: Agriculture, Appropriations; Education; Environment and 
Natural Resources; Finance; Local government and Regional Affairs; Marine 
Resources and Wildlife; Pensions and Retirement; Ways and Means. 



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255 




Franklin Lee Block 

(Democrat-New Hanover County) 

Seventh Senatorial District-New Hanover and 
Pender (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Bom in Wilmington, New 
Hanover County, November 24, 1936, to 
Charles M. and Hannah (Soloman) 
Block. 

Education: Admiral Farragut 
Academy, 1954; The Citadel, BS 1959; 
Wake Forest University, JD, 1976. 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
US Magistrate (part-time), 1977-86; Ameri- 
can Bar Association; NC Bar Associa- 
tion; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Organizations: Cape Fear Area United Way (Vice-President of Planning), 
1982; Campaign Chairman, 1983; President, 1985. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, Army, (Captain, 1959-61); Reserves, 1966. 

Religious Activities: B'nai Israel Synagogue Church; President, 1977-78. 

Family: Married, Wendy H. Barshay, of Summerville, June 14, 1959. 
Children: Steven, Amy and Ellen. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 

Vice Chairman: Manufacturing and Labor. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; Educa- 
tion; Judiciary III; Marine Resources and Wildlife; Veterans Affairs, Law 
Enforcement, and Senior Citizens. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Howard Franklin Bryan 

(Republican-Iredell County) 

Twenty-sixth Senatorial District: Alexander, 
Catawba, Iredell, and Yadkin Counties 

Early Years: Born in Bladenboro, 
Bladen County, December 13, 1942, to 
Allen B. and Anna Belle (Hester) Bryan. 

Education: Pantego High School, 1961 
(Valedictorian, Senior Class President); 
Mount Olive College, 1963, A.A.; David- 
son College, 1966, B.A.; Lee Institute of 
Real Estate, 1972. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent, Piedmont Realty of Statesville; 
Bryan Construction Company. 

Organizations: Greater Statesville Chamber of Commerce, 1980; National 
Federation of Independent Businessmen, 1982; Heart Fund City Chairman, 
1969; Statesville Rotary Club, 1970-72; Iredell County Civic Center Authority 
Chairman, 1974-75; Former Jaycee, 1966-71. 

Boards: President, Mount Olive College Alumni Association, 1968-69; 
North Carolina Manpower Services Council, 1974-75. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1987-88, 1989- (appointed 
March 11, 1987, by Gov. James G. Martin to replace William Redman); 
Statesville City Council, 1985-87 (Mayor Pro Tern, 1985-87); Iredell County 
Republican Party (Chairman, 1973-75; Vice Chairman, 1975-77; Executive 
Committee, 1977-87;) Ninth District Republican Party Chairman, 1985-87; 
Republican Party State Committee, 1985-87; Iredell County Campaign 
Manager for Ninth District Congressman J. Alex McMillan, 1984-86. 

Military Service: U.S. Army Reserves, 1969-1973 (2nd Lieutenant); N.C. 
National Guard, 1966-1969 (2nd Lieutenant). 

Honors: Named in Outstanding Young Men of America and Personalities 
of the South. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Statesville; Deacon, 
1985; Building Feasibility Study Committee, 1985; Building Committee 
Chairman, 1985; Business Management Committee, 1985-86; LIsher, 1980; 
Sunday School Teacher, 1974, 

Family: Married, Mary Wooten of Statonsburg, April 19, 1969. Children: 
Cindy, Kathy, and Andy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Pensions and Retirement; Election Laws; 
Local Government II; Transportation; Human Resources; Appropriations. 



The Legislative Branch 



257 



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Robert C. Carpenter 

(Republican - Macon County) 

29th Senatorial District - Cherokee, Clay, 
Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, 
Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Franklin, Macon 
County, June 18, 1924, to Edgar J. (de- 
ceased) and Eula D. (deceased) Car- 
penter. 

Education: Franklin High School, 
1942; Western Carolina University; UNC- 
Chapel Hill Pre-flight School; Purdue Uni- 
versity, LUTC; University of Virginia 
School of Consumer Banking. 

Professional Background: Retired, Vice President and City Executive, 
First Union National Bank, Franklin. 

Organizations: Director, Franklin Rotary Club (President, 1959); Ameri- 
can Legion Post 108; Franklin AARP; Franklin Investment Club; St-Micheals 
Council of Knights of Columbus; Former member: Asheville Optimist Club, 
(1962-71; President, 1965); Optimist International (Zone Governor, 1966; 
President); Rotary District 767, (District Secretary /Treasurer, 1975); Franklin 
Jaycees (President, 1960-61); Angel Community Hospital (Vice Chairman); 
Operation Heartbeat, (Chairman); Group 10, NC Bankers Association (Chair- 
man, 1965); Group 6, N.C. Bankers Association, (Chairman, 1974); NABAC, 
(President, 1967). 

Boards: Member: Macon County Economic Development Commission; 
Board of Trustees, Southwestern Community College; Chairman, Franklin 
First Union Board of Directors. Former member: Macon County Board of 
County Commissioners, (1978-82); N.C. Association of Community College 
Trustees (Past President); Developmental Disabilities Board; Governor 
Martin's Literacy Commission, (1987-88). 

Military Activities: Served, U.S. Navy, Aviation Cadet, 1943-45. 

Religious Activities: Member, Saint Francis Catholic Church, Franklin; 
Eucharist Minister; Parish Council, 1982-86. 

Family: Married, T. Helen Edwards, January 18, 1986. Children: Elizabeth, 
Jane, Christine, Robert D. Dale, Thomas, and Edgar. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations; Appropriations on 
Human Resources; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Base Budget; Finance; 
Pensions and Retirement; Transportation; Veteran Affairs, Law Enforce- 
ment, and Senior Citizens. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Richard Eugene Chalk, Jr. 

(Republican-Guilford County) 

Thirty-second Senatorial District-Guilford 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Columbia, South 
Carolina, July 3, 1952, to Richard E. and 
Louise (Craps) Chalk, Sr. 

Education: Airport High School, 1970, 
The Citadel, 1974, B.A. (Political Science); 
New Orleans Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary, 1979, M.C.M. (Church Music). 

Professional Background: Owner, 
Specialty Wood Products. 

Organizations: Boy Scouts of America; High Point Chamber of Com- 
merce; Kiwanis Club of High Point. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1989-; N.C. House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1985-86, 1987-88. 

Honors: Eagle Scout; Outstanding Young Men of America; Vigil member. 
Order of the Arrow. 

Religious Activities: Member, Community Bible Church, High Point. 

Family: Married, Maelda Miranda of New Orleans, Louisiana, December 
22, 1979. Children: Cristina, Richard and Mollie. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Ranking Minority Member: Appropriations/Education; Education; 
Insurance; 

Member: Appropriations; Constitition; Election Laws; Judiciary III; 
Pensions & Retirement; Ways & Means 



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259 




Betsy Lane Cochrane 

(Republican - Davie County) 

Twenty-Third Senatorial District -Davidson, 
Davie and Rowan Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Asheboro, 
Randolph County, to William Jennings 
and Brodus Inez (Campell) Lane. 

Education: Asheboro Grammar 
Schools and High School; Meredith 
College, B.A. with honors (Elementary 
Education). 

Professional Background: Teacher 
and housewife. 

Organizations: Kappa Nu Sigma; 
Vice President, Mocksville Women's Club; Director, Neighborhood Property 
Owners Association; N. C. Symphony; N. C. Museum Association; N. C. 
Museum of Art; ALEC; NCSL; Federation of Republican Women. 

Boards: Piedmont Health Systems Agency; N. C. Advisory Council on 
Teacher Education; Republican Education Commission for the 80's; Retail 
Merchants Advisory Board; Public School Forum of N. C; N. C. Parks and 
Recreation Commission; Governor's Programs of Excellence in Education; 
Commission on the Future of the South; Yadkin-PeeDee River Basin Com- 
mittee, 1981-present; Davie County Hospital Trustee; Southern Regional 
Education Board; Legislative Services Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. Senate 1989-; House of Representa- 
tives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; Vice Chariman, Davie County Re- 
publican Party; Executive Committee, N. C. Republican Republican Party; 
N. C. delegate, National Convention, 1976; House Minority Leader, 1985-89; 
N. C. Delegate, GOP National Convention 1976, 1988; GOP National Platform 
Committee 1988; N. C. Republican Credentials Committee, 1979; N. C. 
Republican Rules and Resolutions, 1981. 

Honors: N. C. Jaycees, Women's Outstanding Woman in Government, 
1985; Outstanding Freshman Representative (GOP), 1981; "Who's Who for 
American Women"; "Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities"; 
yearbook editor, college and high school; One of ten Outstanding Legislators 
in Nation, 1987; Distinguished Women in North Carolina Nominee, 1987, 
1989; Meredith College Founder's Day Speaker, 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, Knollwood Baptist Church; President, 
Women's WMU; Nominating Committee; Sunday School Teacher, 1960-77. 

Family: Married, Joe Kenneth Cochrane. Children: Lisa and Craig. 

Committee Assignments 

Ranking Minority Member: Appropriations on Human Resources; 
Constitution. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Environment 
and Natural Resources; Higher Education; Human Resources; Public 
Utilities; Rules and Operation of Senate; Ways and Means. 



260 



North Carolina Manual 




James Richard Conder 

(Democrat — Richmond County) 

Seventeenth Senatorial District — Anson, 
Montgomery, Richmond, Scotland, Stanly 
and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Hamlet, Rich- 
mond County, July 20, 1930, to Parks 
Holms and Ona Lee (Crow) Conder. 

Education: Hamlet High School, 1949; 
ECU, 1958, B.S. (Business); LSU, 
Graduate School of Banking, 1968; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, NC Bankers Association 
School. 

Professional Background: Vice 
President, First Union National Bank. 

Organizations: Hamlet Rotary Club (President, 1963); Rockingham 
Rotary Club (President, 1970). 

Boards: Former chairman, Richmond County Industrial Development 
Commission, 1970-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; Commissioner, Richmond 
County, 1962-84 (Chairman, 1964-1984); President, National Association of 
Counties, 1981-82; President, NC Association of County Commissioners, 
1972-1973. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1951-55; Reserves, 1955-59. 

Honors: Outstanding Alumnus, ECU, 1982; "Tar Heel of the Week," The 
News and Observer, 1982; NC Distinguished Citizens Award, 1982; President 
Reagan's Private Sector Initiative, 1981-82. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Rockingham; 
Elder, 1965-1974, 1983-. 

Family: Married, Barbara Ann Speight, June 16, 1956. Children: Rebecca 
Anne, Mary Elizabeth and James Richard, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairnian:Education 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations on Education 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Education; Base Budget; 
Children and Youth; Higher Education; Local Government; Pensions and 
Retirement. 



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George Berkley Daniel 

(Democrat - Caswell County) 

Twenty-First Senatorial District -Alamance 
and Caswell Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake 
County, April 1, 1951, to George C. and 
Florence Anne (Taylor) Daniel. 

Education: Bartlett Yancey High 
School, 1969; North Carolina State Uni- 
versity, B.S., 1973; Wake Forest Univer- 
sity (School of Law), J.D., 1976. 

Professional Background: Attorney 

Organizations: N.C. State Bar; 
Caswell County Bar Association; 17-A 
Judicial District Bar Association; N.C. 
Academy of Trial Lawyers; N.C. Bar Association; American Bar Association; 
American Academy of Trial Lawyers; Charter Board Member of Big 
Brothers/Big Sisters (Chairman, 1983); Caswell County Chamber of Com- 
merce; Dan River Rugby Club; Caswell County Lions Club (President, 1980). 

Boards: Caswell County Lions Club, President, 1980; Caswell County 
Industrial Facilities and Pollution Control Financing Authority, (Chairman, 
1977-present); Caswell County Industrial Development Team. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1987-88, 1989- ; Member Demo- 
cratic party of Caswell County; Henry B. Toll Fellow, class of 1987; and 
Fellow of the NC Institute of Politics, class of 1989. 

Religious Activities: Member, New Hope Methodist Church; Member of 
the Board of Trustees. 



Family: Married, Cynthia Gail Long, of Prospect Hill, June 27, 
Children: Jacob and Taylor. 



1981. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Manufacturing and Labor. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Base Budget; Judiciary I. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control Committee; Appropriations on 
Education; Constitution; Finance; Insurance; Rules and Operation of the 
Senate and Small Business. 



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Naition Leo Daughtry 

Republican - Johnston County 

15th Senatorial District- Johnston and 
Sampson Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Newton Grove, 
Sampson County, December 3, 1940, to 
Namon Lutrell and Annie Catholeen 
(Thornton) Daughtry. 

Education: Hobbton High School, 
1958; Wake Forest University, B.A., 1962; 
Wake Forest University School of Law, 
L.L.B., 1965. 

Professional Background: Attorney, 
(Daughtry, Woodard, and Lawrence); 
Partner, (Johnston County Hams); Owner/Operator, (Farmers Tobacco Ware- 
house, Smithfield). 

Organizations: Johnston County Bar Association; Past President, 11th 
Judicial Bar Association; N.C. State Bar; N.C. Bar Association; N.C. 
Acadamy of Trial Lawyers; President, Eastern Belt Warehouse Association. 

Boards: Board of Directors, Florence Crittenton; Smithfield-Selma 
Chamber of Commerce; Board of Directors, Johnston County Social Services; 
Board of Directors, Bright Belt Warehouse Association; Board of Directors, 
Triangle Bank and Trust Company, Government Agricultural Advisory 
Committee; Federal Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee; N.C. Re- 
assurance Facility. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. Senate, 1989- ; Past President, 
Johnston County Republican Party; Board of Directors, 3rd Congressional 
District. 

Military Activities: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 1966-70. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Smithfield; 
Vestry, 1985-88. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Ranking Minority Leader: Alcoholic Beverage Control 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations on Natural and 
Economic Resources; Base Budget; Education; Environment and Natural 
Resources; Finance; Judiciary II; State Government. 



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James Earl Ezzell, Jr. 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

Tenth Senatorial District — Edgecombe 
(part), Halifax (part), Nash, Warren (part) 
and Wilson (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, 
Edgecombe County, September 6, 1936, 
to James Earl and Edith (Batchelor) 
Ezzell, Sr. 

Education: Rocky Mount Senior High 
School, 1956; Wake Forest University, 
1960, B.A.: Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1963, LL.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: NC Bar Association; Masonic Order; Shrine. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; NC House of Representa- 
tives, 1977-78, 1979-80; District Court Judge, 1980-83; SoHcitor, Recorders 
Court, 1964-68. 

Religious Activities: Member, Englewood Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Patsy Wall, February 5, 1966. Children: Mark, James E., 
Ill and Stanton. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Constitution 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations - Human Resources, Banks and 
Thrift Institutions; Base Budget, Insurance; Judiciary I, Rules and Opera- 
tions of the Senate 



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William D. Goldston, Jr. 

(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

Twenty-fourth Senatorial District — 
Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry 
and Watauga Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, December 26, 1925, 
to William D. and Rose (Hinson) 
Goldston. 

Education: Leaksville Public Schools; 
Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1942-44; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1945; High Point 
College, 1947, B.S.; (Business); UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1966-67 (Executive Pro- 
gram). 

Profession: Retired business executive, 1984; President, Goldston, Inc., 
1952-83; Marshall Field & Co., 1948-52; Goldston Transfer, 1947-48); Vice 
President, Standard Holding Co. (Director). 

Organizations: American Trucking Association (Former Director); NC 
Motor Carriers Association (President, 1972-73); Eden Chamber of Com- 
merce; Masonic Order; Shrine; UNC Chancellor's Club. Former member: 
Jaycees; Rotary (President); Tri City Chamber of Commerce (Chairman, 
New Industry Committee). 

Boards: Rockingham Community College Foundation; UNC Educational 
Foundation; Local Board, NCNB; former Chairman, Leaksville School 
Board, 1961-1969 (Chairman, 1967). 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1944-45; pilot training. Served, 
NC National Guard, 1947-50; (2nd Lieutenant). 

Honors: Citizen of the Year, 1984 (Eden Chamber of Commerce), NC Boss 
of the Year, 1971; Boss of the Year, Eden Jaycees, 1970; Eden Man of the 
Year, 1967. 

Religious Activities: Member, Leaksville Methodist Church, Eden; 
Administrative Board; Chairman, Foundation Committee. 

Family: Married, Beverly M. Burton, August 25, 1946. Children: William 
D., III. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcohol Beverage Control; Appropriations; Appropriations on 
Natural and Economic Resources; Base Budget; Higher Education; Manu- 
facturing and Labor; Ways and Means; Base Budget; Commerce; Higher 
Education; Judiciary IV; Transportation. 



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Alexander Duke Guy 

(Democrat-Onslow County) 

Fourth Senatorial District-Onslow County 

Early Years: Born in Calypso, Duplin 
County, November 20, 1918, to Alexander 
Buck and Elizabeth (Faust) Guy. 

Education: Graduated, Calypso High 
School, 1935; N.C. State College, NYA 
Program 1936; Institute of Government, 
University of NC-Chapel Hill, 1958-59. 

Professional Background: Insur- 
ance; Real Estate Investments. 

Organizations: Member, Independent 

Insurance Agents of N.C, Inc.; N.C. 
Association of Realtors; Professional Producers Council; Member, Loyal 
Order of the Moose; Jacksonville Toast Masters (Charter Member, 1955); 
Founder, Jacksonville Municipal Court, 1958; Founder, First Biracial Com- 
mittee, City of Jacksonville, 1963; Past President, Jacksonville Rotary Club, 
1962-63; Charter President, Onslow County Chapter American Cancer 
Society, 1958; Past Campaign Chairman, American Red Cross Society, 1956. 

Boards: National Association for Real Estate Boards; Jacksonville Board 
of Realtors; Onslow Memorial Hospital Authority, 1977-79; Board of Di- 
rectors, N.C. League of Municipalities, 1962-65; Board of Directors, Home 
Federal Savings & Loan Association; Governor's, Mayor's Co-Operating 
Committee, 1964; Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commissions; Committee 
on Commerce, Labor, Regulation of National Conference of State Legisla- 
tures State-Federal Assembly; Member, Board of Directors, NC Retail 
Merchants Association. 

Political Activities: Served in the N.C. Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88; 
in the N.C. House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981-82; Jacksonville City 
Council, six years (Mayor, two years; Mayor Pro Tern, two years); Onslow 
County Board of County Commissioners, 1969-70. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity United Methodist Church; Board 
of Trustees, 1976-81; Administrative Board, 1968-78; Chairman, Fund Raising 
Campaign-Christian Higher Education, 1959; Staff Parish Relations Com- 
mittee, currently serving. 

Family: Married, Margaret Holmes, January 31, 1975; Children: 
Alexander Duke Guy, II; Bundage Humphrey Guy and Douglas Bryan Guy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Public Utilities 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations on General Government 

Member: Appropriations; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Base Budget; 
Human Resources; Joint Legislative Utility Review; Manufacturing and 
Labor; Transportation; Veterans Affairs, Law Enforcement, and Senior 
Citizens. 



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Charles W. Hardin 

(Republican - Haywood County) 

Twenty-ninth Senatorial District - Cherokee, 
Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, 
Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain and 
Transylvania Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Canton, Hay- 
wood County, June 25, 1926 to Charles 
and Mable (Myers) Hardin. 

Education: Canton High School, 1947; 
attended Western Carolina University. 

Professional Background: Retired 
(formerly with Champion International - 
Communications). 

Organizations: Canton Civitan Club (Vice President); former member, 
Varner Rhinehart American Legion Post 61 (Commander). 

Boards: Board of Trustees, Haywood Community College, 1986- ; N.C. 
League of Municipalities Risk Management, 1986- ; Board of Directors, N.C. 
League of Municipalities, 1983-1985. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1989-; District Representative 
for Congressman Bill Hendon, 1985-1986; Mayor, Town of Canton; Alder- 
man, Town of Canton. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Navy (Seaman 1st Class on U.S.S. 
Houston), 1943-1946; Presidential Citation. 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church, 
Canton; Lay Leader and Sunday School teacher; member, Gideons Inter- 
national. 

Family: Married Mary Frances Howell of Canton, May 17, 1952. Chil- 
dren: Charles and Rebecca. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations on General Govern- 
ment; Base Budget; Constitution; Education; Marine Resources and Wildlife; 
Pensions and Retirement; State Personnel. 



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267 




J. Ollie Harris 

(Democrat-Cleveland County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District-Cleveland, 
Gaston, Lincoln, and Rutherford Counties. 



Early Years: Born in Anderson, South 
Carolina, September 2, 1913, to J. Frank 
and Jessie (Hambright) Harris. 

Education: Shelby High School, 1931, 
Gupton-Jones College of Embalming, 
1935. 

Professional Background: Funeral 
Director and embalmer (President and 
Treasurer, Harris Funeral Home, Inc.). 

Organizations: NC Funeral Directors Association (former President); 
National Funeral Directors Association; National Selected Morticians; for- 
mer President, NC Coroners Association; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards: N.C. Funeral Directors and Embalming Board, (former presi- 
dent); Legislative Service Commission, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90; Legislative 
Research Commission, 1985-86; former Trustee, Gardner-Webb College; NC 
Mental Health Study Commission, 1977-1990. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1971-72, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 
80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Coroner, Cleveland County , 
1946-70. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-46, 65th Field Hospital; 
European theatre; Bronze Star. 

Honors: Award of Appreciation and Recognition, NC Psychological 
Association, 1985; Better Life Award, NC Health Care Facilities, 1979; 
Valand Award, NC Mental Health Association, 1979; Legislator of the Year, 
NC Health Department Association, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Abbie Jane Wall, May 4, 1934. Children: John Jr. and 
Becky (Harris) Hambright. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources 

Vice Chairman: Manufacturing and Labor 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Human Resources; Banking; 
Base Budget; Finance; Judiciary I; Rules and Operations of the Senate; 
State Government; Ways and Means 



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Ralph Alexander Hunt 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Thirteenth Senatorial District - Durham, 
Granville, Orange (part), and Person 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Oxford, Gran- 
ville County, to Johnnie and Amanda 
(Harris) Hunt. 

Education: Mary Potter High School, 
1950; Orange Street Elementary School, 
1945; Johnson C. Smith University, 1956, 
B.A.; NCCU, 1964, M.A. 

Professional Background: Inde- 
pendent retail merchant (convenience 
stores) 

Organizations: Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989- ; Mayor 
Pro Tern, City of Durham, 1981-1984; Durham City Council, 1973-1984. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1953-55 (Corporal) 

Religious Activities: Member, White Rock Baptist Church; Trustee. 

Family: Married, Elvira Rebecca Cooke, June 17, 1961. Children: Ralph 
A., Jr., Reginald C, and Regina C. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Small Business 

Vice Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Human Resources; Base 
Budget; Education; Election Laws; Pensions and Retirement; Rules and 
Operations of the Senate; State Government; State Personnel. 



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269 




Wanda H. Hunt 

(Democrat — Moore County) 

Sixteenth Senatorial District — Chatham, 

f. ^^^^B Moore, Orange (part), and Randolph Counties. 

*^ l^'^W^^F Early Years: Born in Bakersville, 

mm Mitchell County, March 22, 1944, to 

Farrall and Jane (Ledford) Holder. 

Education: Southwest High School; 
Appalachian State University. 

^ \ ^^^^^^^ Professional Background: Legis- 

^^^^B V ^^^^^^H lator; Former account executive. Resorts 

^^^^^ ^^^^^^^1 of Pinehurst, Inc.; former state govern- 

^^L^ "" ^^^^^^^^^k ment and public school employee; former 

— „_i.-i„ .^h^^^^^^^H corporate secretary, private industry 

(small computer business). 

Organizations: SGEA; NC School Board Association; NC Social Services 
Board Association (former chairman); Women in State Government; NC 
Status of Women; NC Heart Fund Association; certified judge, "Junior 
Miss" and "Miss" Pageants; former President, Cystic Fibrosis; former Vice 
President, Southern Pines Jaycettes; former Chairman, Moore County Bi- 
centennial Ball; former Education Chairman, Southern Pines Junior 
Women's Club; former Chairman, Moore County Heart Fund Ball. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-; 
Legislative Organization & Management Committee, National Conference 
of State Legislatives, 1989; Pensions Committee, National Conference of 
State Legislators, 1985; NC General Assembly Women's Caucus; Legislative 
Committee, Travel Council of NC, Inc.; Southern Legislative Conference; 
State Legislators' Network, Women's Network; Precinct Chairman, Moore 
County Democratic Women; Moore County Democratic Executive Committee; 
YDC, Appalachian State University; NC Assembly on Women and the 
Economy; American Council of Young Political Leaders (former delegate) 
delegate, Miami Conference on the Carribean; Moore County Board of 
Education, 1976-1983. 

Honors: Volunteer Service Award, National Cystic Fibrosis; Certificate of 
Appreciation and Founders Award, Heart Fund; Golden Mountaineer Award, 
Appalachian State University; Distinguished Service Award, Moore County 
Board of Education; Social Services Award, 1978-81. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pinehurst Community Church; Youth 
Coordinator. 

Family: Children: Donna Lynn. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Personnel 

Vice Chairman: Veterans Affairs; Law Enforcement and Senior Citizens. 
Member: Education; Finance; Judiciary III; Appropriations-Natural and 
Economic Resources; Ways and Means, Local Government, Base Budget. 



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North Carolina Manual 




James Calvin Johnson, Jr. 

(Republican — Cabarrus County) 

Twenty-second Senatorial District — Cabarrus 
and Mecl<lenburg (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, 
Guilford County, June 5, 1935, to James 
Calvin and Juanita (Hill) Johnson, Sr. 

Education: Spartanburg High School, 
1954; Spartanburg Junior College, 1956; 
East Tennessee State University, 1958, 
B.S.; Wake Forest University, School of 
Law, 1962; LL.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
owner, Fort Johnson Military Museum, 
Inc. 

Organizations: Cabarrus County and NC State Bar Associations; NC 
Academy of Trial Lawyers; American Judicature Society; NC Juvenile Court 
Judges Association (former President); Concord Jaycees (former NC Vice 
President and National Regional Director); Phi Delta Phi. Chairman of 
Cabarrus Citizens for Philip Morris. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90; NC 
House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971; Attorney, Cabarrus County, 
1966-70; Judge; Domestic Relations and Juvenile Court, 1963-66; Attorney, 
US District Court, NC, 1962-63. 

Military Service: Active Reserves. U.S. National Guard, 51st Division, 
South Carolina, 1953-56; 30th Armor Division, Tennessee, 1956-58; 30th 
Infantry Division, North Carolina, 1956-62. 

Honors: Who^s Who in American Politics, 1967-68; Outstanding Per- 
sonalities of the South, 1967; Outstanding Young Men of America, 1967; one 
of three Outstanding Young Men of NC, 1966. 

Literary Works: Editor, The Guardian, 1964-65 (selected as the most 
outstanding publication of its kind in the US by the National Council of 
Juvenile Court Judges). 

Religious Activities: Member, Central Methodist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Children: James Calvin, III, Kay Lynn and Jen Cherise. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-General Government; Banks and Thrift Institu- 
tions; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Constitution; Environment; Judi- 
ciary I; Rules; Veterans Affairs, Law. 



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271 




Joseph Edward Johnson 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District — Harnett, 
Lee, and Wake (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake 
County, October 17, 1941, to Ira Edward 
and Grace (Ivey) Johnson. 

Education: Raleigh Public Schools, 
1946-59; NCSU, 1959-61; Wake Forest 
University, 1964, B.A.; Wake Forest Uni- 
versity, School of Law, 1966, J.D. 

Professional Background: attorney 
(LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby & MacRae). 

Organizations: Wake County, NC and 
American Bar Associations; Alpha Kappa Psi; Phi Delta Phi. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987- 
88, 1989-90; NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1967-69 (1st Lt.); Military Police 
Corps; Army Commendation Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Edenton Street United Methodist Church, 
Raleigh. 

Family: Married, Jane Francum, January 31, 1964. Children: Jane 
Elizabeth, Kathryn Ivey and Susan Briles. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary III. 

Vice Chairman: Insurance. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Base Budget; Manufacturing and 
Labor; Public Utilities; Rules and Operations of the Senate; State Govern- 
ment; State Personnel 



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North Carolina Manual 




Donald R. Kincaid 

(Republican — Caldwell County) 

Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Avery, 
Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, and Wilkes 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Caldwell Coun- 
ty, June 2, 1936, to Hugh T. and Myrtle 
(McCall) Kincaid. 

Education: Gamewell High School, 
1954; Appalachian State Teachers College, 
1959, B.S. 

Professional Background: School 
teacher; owner, Kincaid Insurance 
Agency. 

Organizations: Lenoir Lions Club (Lion Tamer, former Secretary); Lenoir 
Rotary Club; NC Cattlemen's Association; Carolina Association of Mutual 
Insurance Agents; Caldwell County Chamber of Commerce. Former member: 
NCAE, Gamewell Ruritan Club. 

Boards: Legislative Advisory Board, CAPIA; Board of Trustees, Gardner- 
Webb College; Director, Carolina Association of Professional Insurance 
Agents. Former member: NC Board of Agriculture. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 
80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Senate Minority Leader, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84; NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, nine years (5-E). 

Religious Activities: Member, Lower Creek Baptist Church, Lenoir. 

Family: Married, Syretha Weatherford, June 30, 1956; four children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Base Budget.. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Natural and Economic Re- 
sources; Base Budget; Human Resources; Insurance; Manufacturing and 
Labor; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Banks and Thrift Institutions; 
Marine Resources and Wildlife; Ways and Means; Advisory Budget Com- 
mission. 



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273 




Robert Lafayette Martin 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

Sixth Senatorial District — Edgecombe (part), 
Martin (part), Pitt (part), and Wilson (part) 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Bethel, Pitt 
County, November 8, 1918, to John 
Wesley and Lena (Sessums) Martin. 

Education: Oxford Orphanage High 
School; School of Electricity, Oxford 
Orphanage. 

Professional Background: President, 
Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Associa- 
tion; farmer. 

Organizations: Shriner; 32nd Degree Mason. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 89-90; Com- 
missioner, Pitt County, 1956-1984; Mayor, Town of Bethel, 1951-1956; Com- 
missioner, Town of Bethel, 1941. 

Religious Activities: Member, Bethel Missionary Baptist Church; Chair- 
man, Board of Deacons; Superintendent, Sunday School; Sunday School 
teacher. 

Family: Married, Sue Cooper, June 29, 1940. Children: Lynda and Bobbe 
Sue. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations on Natural & Economic Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Banks & Thrift Institutions. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Base Budget; Environment & 
Natural Resources; Marine Resources & Wildlife; Public Utilities; State 
Government; Ways & Means. 



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North Carolina Manual 




William Nelson Martin 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

Thirty-first Senatorial District — Guilford 
County (part). 

Early Years: Born in Eden, Rock- 
ingham County, May 25, 1945, to Thomas 
William and Carolyn (Henderson) 
Martin. 

Education: Douglas High School 
(Eden), 1962; N.C. A & T State Univer- 
sity, 1966, B.S. (Economics); George 
Washington University, School of Law, 
1973, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: One Step Further, Inc., 1982- (Co-founder and first 
President; Board of Directors); National Black Child Development Institute, 
1979-1981; Phi Beta Sigma, 1965- (former President and Vice President of 
graduate chapter based in Greensboro); Congress of Racial Equality, 1967- 
1973 (Chairman, Bridgeport, CT Chapter, 1968-69; Special Assistant to 
Northeastern Regional Director, 1969-1973); Charlotte Hawkins Brown 
Historical Foundation, 1983- (Co-founder; Board of Directors); N.C. Public 
School Policy Forum, 1986- (Board of Directors; Chairman, Subcommittee on 
Early Childhood Education, 1987-88). 

Boards: N.C. At-Risk Children and Youth Task Force (Chairman, 1988- 
89); Interstate Migrant Education Council (represented N.C), 1989; UNC 
Center for Public Television Program Advisory Committee, 1988- ; N.C. 
Historic Sites Advisory Committee, 1985-86; City of Greensboro Housing 
Commission, 1979-1982; Social Concerns Committee of the Council of 
Churches of Greater Bridgeport, Connecticutt (former Co-Chairman; active 
member, 1967-1969). 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 
1989- ; National Conference of State Legislatures, N.C. representative to the 
Education Committee, 1989-90; Southern Legislative Conference, N.C. 
representative to the Education Committee; Chairman, North Carolina 
Democratic Party Platform Committee, 1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, Providence Baptist Church, Greensboro. 

Family: Married, Patricia Yancey; Children: Thomas William and William 
Nelson, Jr. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations - General Government. 

Vice-Chairman: Ways and Means. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Constitution; 
Education; Higher Education; Human Resources; Judiciary II; Manufactur- 
ing and Labor; Special Committe on Prisons. 



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275 




Helen Rhyne Marvin 

(Democrat - Gaston County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District -Cleveland, 
Gaston, Lincoln, and Rutherford Counties. 

Early Years: Born Gastonia, Gaston 
County, November 30, 1917, to Dane S. 
and Tessie (Hastings) Rhyne. 

Education: Gastonia High School, 
1934; Furman University, 1938, B.A. 
Magna Cum Laude (History, Political 
Science); LSI), 1939, M.A. (Government); 
Post Graduate Studies, Winthrop College; 
UNC-Chapel Hill; UNC-Charlotte; Univer- 
sity of Colorado; University of Vermont; 
University of Oslo. 

Professional Background: Realtor (President, Marvin Rhyne Realty 
Company); Former College Instructor, Gaston College. 

Organizations: Southern and N.C. Political Science Association, Former 
President; Rho Chapter Delta Kappa Gamma; Altrusa Club of Gastonia; 
N.C. Retired School Personnel Associations. 

Boards: Director, Gaston County Mental Health Association; Gaston 
County Family Service; Gaston County Children's Council; Gaston County 
Council for Exceptional Children; N.C. Equity ,Trustee, INC.;Flatrock Play- 
house, Vagabond Players; Trustee, N.C. Child Support Council; Trustee, NC 
Child Advocacy Institute. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989- ; NCSL Committee on Children, Youth and 
Families;Gaston County Democratic Women (Former President); N.C. Unity 
Party Committee, 1980; Vice Chairman, N.C. Democratic Party Platform 
Committee, 1984; Delegate National Democratic Convention, 1972, 1984; 
Democratic Legislative Policy Committee. 

Honors: Valedictorian, College Graduating Class, Outstanding Educator, 
Gaston College, 1975; Woman of the Year, Gastonia Evening Civitan Club, 
1978; Valand Award (outstanding legislator in mental health), 1980; N.C. 
Council Community, MH/MR/SA Program Award 1985; Ham Stevens Award 
for services to Public Health in NC, 1987; Ellen Winston Award for Social 
Services Legislation, 1988; NC Distinguished Women Award, 1988; NCAE 
Friend of Education Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Gastonia; 
Former Sunday School Teacher; Deacon; Elder. 

Family: Married, Ned I. Marvin, November 21, 1941. Children: Kathryn, 
Richard and David. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety Committee. 



276 North Carolina Manual 

Vice Chairman: Pensioiis and Retirement Committee; Commission on 
Exceptional Children. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Education; 
Human Resources; Judiciary III; Agriculture; Constitution; Special Com- 
mittee on Prisons; MIH Study Commission; CR and Youth Study Commis- 
sion; . 



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Wendell Holmes Murphy 

(Democrat - Duplin County) 

Fifth Senatorial District - Duplin, Jones, 
Lenoir, and Pender Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, 
September 23, 1938, to Holmes and Lois 
(King) Murphy. 

Education: Rose Hill High School, 
1956; NC State University, B.S. (Agri- 
cultural Education), 1960. 

Professional Background: Farming 
and agri-business interests (President 
and CEO, Murphy Farms, Inc.); Former 
teacher. 

Organizations: Former Vice-President and Director, NC Pork Producers 
Association. 

Boards: NC General Assembly Advisory Budget Commission; NCSU 
Alumni Association; NCSU Student Aid Association; Research Triangle 
World Trade Association; NC Retail Merchants Association; NC Veterinary 
Medical Foundation, Inc.; NC Community Colleges Foundation; New East 
Bancorp. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1989- ; Member, NC House of 
Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88. 

Honors: Order of Long Leaf Pine, 1988; Tar Heel of the Week, News and 
Observer, 1987; NC Outstanding Pork Producer, 1980; Pork Ail-American, 
1975. 

Religious Activities: Member, Rose Hill Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Linda Godwin, June, 1979. Two children: Wendell H., 
Jr., Wendy Deanne. Two step-children: Cindy Hairr and Wesley Hairr. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Higher Education. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture, Appropriations, and Base Budget. 

Member: Appropriations on Education; Banks and Thrift Institutions; 
Election Laws; Environment and Natural Resources; Public Utilities; 
Transportation. 



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Thomas LaFontine Odom 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-fourth Senatorial District - 
Mecltlenburg County (part). 

Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, 
Nash County, April 18, 1938. 

Education: West Mecklenburg High 
School, 1956; attended Charlotte College, 
1957; UNC-Chapel Hill, B.A., 1960; 
School of Law, UNC-CH, LL.D., 1962. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(Senior Partner in law firm of Weinstein 
& Sturges, P. A.; member of firm since 
1964); Assistant City Attorney, Charlotte, 
1963-64); Research Assistant, N.C. Supreme Court, 1962-63). 

Organizations: American and North Carolina Associations; N.C. State 
Bar; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Steele Creek Masonic Lodge (past 
Secretary); Red Fez Shrine Club (past member. Board of Directors); West 
Charlotte Rotary Club; Greater Charlotte Chamber of Commerce; Former 
Scout Leader; Little League Baseball Coach. 

Boards: Board of Commissioners, Charlotte Memorial Hospital and 
Medical Center, 1987- ; Board of Directors, Salvation Army Adult Rehabilita- 
tion Center, 1984- ; Board of Visitors, UNC-Charlotte; Former member, 
Mecklenburg County Parks and Recreation Commission, 1975-1980 (Past 
Chairman). 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1989- ; Mecklenburg Board of 
County Commissioners, 1980-1986 (Chairman, 1982-84; Vice-Chairman, 
1980-82). 

Honors: American Red Cross Certificate of Merit; Presidential Citation; 
National Association of County Commissioners National Award of Merit, 
1986; Mecklenburg County Environmental Award, 1980; West Mecklenburg 
High School Hall of Fame. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pleasant Hill Presbyterian Church (former 
Elder and Deacon); Sunday School Teacher; Past President, Synod of North 
Carolina; Past President, Mecklenburg, Presbytery Men; Commissioner to 
Presbyterian Church General Assembly, 1975 and 1988. 

Family: Married Jane Lowe of Charlotte; Children: Tommy, David, Amy, 
Matt. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs; Transporta- 
tion. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations; Appropriations on 
Justice and Public Safety; Base Budget; Education; Environment and 
Natural Resources; Judiciary I; Marine Resources and Wildlife; State 
Personnel. 



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David Russell Parnell 

(Democrat-Robeson County) 

Thirtieth Senatorial District-Hoke and 
Robeson Counties 

Early Years: Born in Parkton, 
Robeson Couty, November 16, 1925, to 
John Quincy and Clelia (Britt) Parnell. 

Education: Parkton Public Schools, 
1931-41; Oak Ridge Military Institute, 
1941-44; Wake Forest University, 1949, 
B.S. 

Professional Background: Mer- 
chant; Farmer. 

Organizations: N.C. Merchants Association, Director; N.C. Oil Jobbers 
Association; Director, N.C. Plant Food Association; N.C. State Humanities 
Foundation 1975-1981. 

Boards: Robeson County Industrial Development Commission, 1963-1985; 
Trustee, Meredith College, 1977-; N.C. State Highway Commission, 1969-72; 
Board of Directors, First Union National Bank, 1957-present. 

Political Activies: Member, N.C. Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; 
N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78; 1979-80, 1981-82; Mayor, 
Town of Parkton, 1964-69. 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, 1945-46 (Corporal) 

Religious Activies: Member, Parkton Baptist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher, 1950-; Board of Deacons, 1952-present; Treasurer, 1959-72. 

Family: Married, Barbara Johnson, June 11, 1948. Children: David, Anne 
and Timothy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Insurance. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations-Justice & 
Public Safety. 

Member: Manufacturing and Labor; Agriculture, Judiciary I, Finance, 
Public Utilities, Transportation, Veteran Affairs, Law Enforcement & Senior 
Citizens. 



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Aaron W. Plyler 

(Democrat-Union County) 

Seventeenth Senatorial District-Anson, 
Montgomery, Richmond, Scotland, Stanly, 
and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Union County, 
October 1, 1926, to Isom F. and Ida 
(Foard) Plyler. 

Education: Attended Benton Heights 
School; Florida Military Academy. 

Professional Background: Independ- 
ent Businessman (President — Owner 
Plyler Grading and Paving, Inc.; Presi- 
dent, Hill Top Enterprises); Farming and 
real estate interests. 

Organizations: Member/Past President, Wingate College Patron Club; 
Member/Past President Monroe-Union County Chamber of Commerce; 
Member, North Carolina Restaurant Association; North Carolina Citizens 
Association; Associated General Contractors of America; National Federation 
Independent Business; Rolling Hills Country Club. 

Boards: Member, General Board of Directors, United Carolina Bank; 
Board of Directors, North Carolina Restaurant Association; Hill Top Enter- 
prises; Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basin; Mecklenburg-Union County United 
Way; Board of Advisors, University of North Carolina-Charlotte. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 
1989-; N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82; Pre- 
cinct Chairman 10 years; Past Chairman, Union County Democratic Party. 

Honors: 1970, Monroe-Union County Leadership Award; 1971, Union 
County "Man of the Year" Award; 1971, Wingate College Patron Club 
Award; 1973, Union County Leadership Award; 1980 Andrew Jackson 
Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benton Heights Presbyterian Church 
(Ruling Elder); Past Chairman, board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Moser Plyler, May 22, 1948; Children: Barbara 
Plyler Faulk; Dianne Plyler Hough; Aaron W. Plyler, Jr.; Alan Plyler; and 
Alton Plyler. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Ways & Means. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Base Budget; ABC. 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Pensions & Retirement; Rules and Opera- 
tions of Senate; Small Business; Transportation; Government Operations. 



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281 




Joseph Bryant Raynor, Jr. 

(Democrat-Cumberland County) 

Twelth Senatorial District: Cumberland (part) 
County 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, 
Cumberland County, January 26, 1923, 
to Joseph Bryant and Beatrice (Owen) 
Raynor, Sr. 

Education: HGraduated, Seventy-First 
High School, 1940; Electronic and 
Engineering School, 1944; Certified 
Hypnosis Investigator; Law Enforcement 
Institute of Hypnosis. 

Professional Background: Owner, 
Raynor Supply Company. 

Organizations: Member, Seventy-First Ruritan Club; Member, Cumber- 
land County Young Democrats Club; Member, Cumberland County Mental 
Health Association; Member and Past t*resident, Carousel Club; Member, 
Cumberland County Wildlife Association; Member, Knights of Pythias; 
Member, Loyal Order of the Moose, Member, Legion of the Moose; Member, 
Ancient Mystic Order of Bagment of Bagdad; Vice President, TIHE (The 
Study of Human Ecology); Member, United Brotherhood of Magicians; 
Member, Society of Investigative and Forensic Hypnosis; Former Member, 
Fayetteville Exchange Club; Fayetteville Optimist Club; Grand Counselor, 
United Commercial Travelers of America; Former President, Cumberland 
County Chapter of the N.C. Society for Crippled Children and Adults. 

Boards: Board of Directors, Cumberland County Cancer Society; Chair- 
man, Governor's Advisory Commission of Military Affairs; Former Member, 
Legislative Ethics Committee; Criminal Standards and Judicial Committee; 
Mental Retardation Study Commission; Mental Health Study commission; 
Board of Directors, Miss United Teenager; Legislative Serices Commission 
and Commission on Exceptional Children; Study Commission on 
Alcoholism; Commission on Migrant Workers. 

Political Activities: N.C. Senate, 1972, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1989-; 
N.C. House Representative, 1965-66, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1987-88. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church 

Family: Married Mildred Home, January 15, 1944. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Veterans Affairs, Law Enforcement and Senior Citizens. 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources. 

Member: Agriculture, Finance, Insurance, Judiciary II, Rules and Opera- 
tions of the Senate, Transportation. 



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Marshall Arthur Rauch 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Cleveland, 
Gaston, Lincoln, and Rutherford Counties — 
Three Senators. 

Early Years: Born in New York, New 
York, February 2, 1923, to Nathan A. 
and Tillie P. (Wohl) Rauch. 

Education: Woodmere High School, 
1950; Duke University. 

Profession: Corporate executive 
(Chairman and President, Rauch In- 
dustries, Inc.; Director and Treasurer, 
E.P. Press, Inc.; Director, Magic, Ltd.; 

Director and President, P.D.R. Trucking, Inc.; Director and Pres. S.L. Rauch, 

Inc. 

Organizations: Director, Holy Angels Nursery, 1960-73; Director, 
Gastonia YMCA, 1959-62, 1967-72 (Vice President, 1970; President, 1971); 
Salvation Army Boys Club, 1963-71; Gastonia Boys Club, 1947-71 (Senior 
Advisor, 1943-63; Director, 1964-71); Gastonia Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Former Commission member: Wildlife Tax Study (Chairman, 
1979-80); Legislative Services, 1977-1980; Governmental Evaluation (Vice 
Chairman, 1977-80); Legislative Tax Study (Chairman, 1977-1980); Sports 
Facility, 1977-80; Governmental Incentive (Vice Chairman, 1977-79); In- 
tangibles Tax Study, 1978. Trustee, NC Land Conservance, 1978-80; Board 
of Advisors, Gardner-Webb College, 1969-77; Trustee, UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1969-73; NC Citizens for Dental Health, 1968-73; Advisory Committee, NC 
Vocational Textile School, 1970-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1967-Present (11 terms); 
Advisory Budget Commission, 1973-74, 1977-80; Gastonia City Council, 1953- 
54, 1961-65 (Mayor Pro Tem, 1952-1954, 1961-1963). 

Military Service: Served, US Army, World War II, Combat Infantry 
Award. 

Honors: Who's Who in World Jewry; Who's Who in the South and 
Southwest; Who's Who in Israel; Who's Who in American Politics; Leading 
Men in the United States; The National Register of Prominent Americans 
Human Services Award, NC Association of Jewish Men and State of NC 
Man of the Year, (Gastonia Red Shield Club, 1970; NC Health Department 
Gaston County Omega Psi Phi, 1966; Gastonia Junior Women's Club, 1964 
Gastonia Junior Chamber of Commerce, 1957); National Council of 
Christians and Jews Award, 1969; National Recreation Association Citation, 
1965; 1986 Award, Multiple Sclerosis Hope Award. 

Religious Activities: President, Temple Emanuel, Gastonia (Former 
President and Sunday School Teacher) and Temple Israel, Charlotte. Chair- 



The Legislative Branch 283 

man, Gaston Jewish Welfare Fund; Vice President, NC Association of 
Jewish Men; President, Frank Goldberg Lodge, B'Nai B'Rith; Governor, NC 
Jewish Home Board; Cabinet member, NC United Jewish Appeal, Chairman 
Lubavitch of N.C. 

Family: Married, Jeanne Girard, May 18, 1946. Children: John, Ingrid, 
Marc, Peter and Stephanie. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance. 

Vice Chairman: Ways and Means. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Constitution; Higher Education; 
Manufacturing and Labor; Pensions and Retirement; Public Utilities; Rules 
and Operations of the Senate. 



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James Franklin Richardson 

(Democrat-Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-third Senatorial District-Mecklenburg 
(part) County. 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, May 20, 1926, to 
Sam and Addie (Pickens) Richardson. 

Education; Second Ward High School, 
1943; Johnson C. Smith University, 1949, 
B.S. 

Professional Background: Retired 
(former postmaster). 

Organizations: Masons; NAACP; 
Omega Psi Phi Sigma Pi Phi. 

Boards: Director, WTVI Public Television; Director, Charlotte Mint 
Museum; former Director, Charlotte Housing Authority; former Chairman, 
NC Social Services Commission and Mecklenburg Social Services Depart- 
ment. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1987-88, 1989-90; N.C. House 
of Representatives, 1985-86. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1944-46 (Aviation Metal Smith 1st 
Class). 

Religious Activities: Member, Memorial Presbyterian church, Charlotte; 
Elder, Social Action Committee. 

Family: Married,, Mary E. Nixon of Columbia, South Caorlina, April 16, 
1964. Children: Gregory and James Franklin, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Children & Youth. 

Vice Chairman: Base Budget. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Human Resources; Children 
and Youth; Education; Human Resources; Local Government H; Manufactur- 
ing and Labor; Insurance, State Government (Veteran Affairs, Law Enforce- 
ment, and Senior Citizens); Governmental Operations. 



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285 




Jim Kemp Sherron, Jr. 

(Democrat-Wake County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District-Harnett, Lee, 
and Wake (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Fuquay Varina, 
Wake County, September 26, 1931, to Jim 
K. and Maggie (Grady) Sherron, Sr. 

Education: Fuquay Springs High 
School, graduated, 1950; North Carolina 
State University, BS, 1959. 

Professional Background: Com- 
mercial Investment Real Estate, Owner/ 
Partner; Capital Equity Corporation, 
President, 1985-present; Registered 
Broker-Dealer, NASD. 

Organizations: Mason, Millbrook Lodge, NO. 97; Shriner, Amran 
Temple; Exchange Club, life member; Exchange Club, New Hope/Wilders 
Grove, President, 1977-78; Wilders Grove Youth Center, 1976; Little League 
Football Coach, 1965-75; Raleigh Board of Realtors; NC Association of 
Realtors; National Association of Security Dealers; Real Estate Securities 
and Syndication Institute. 

Boards: Board of Directors of Learning Together, 1984-present; NC State 
Humanities Foundation, 1986; Raleigh Planning Commission, 1977-81; 
Fayetteville Street Mall Authority, 1979; Capital Planning Commission, 
1989. 

Politicial Activities: Member, NC Senate 1987-88, 1989-; Capital Plan- 
ning Commission, 1989-; Young Democrats of NC, 1955-1971, Wake County 
Young Democrats, (President, 1962-club was voted outstanding Young Demo- 
cratic Club of America); Precinct Chairman, (sixteen years), County and 
District Executive Committee; Deputy Secretary of Administration, 1981-84; 
Director of Purchasing and Contract, 1981; Director of State Property, 
1977-81. 

Military: Served US Navy, AM-3, 1951-55; Korean Service Ribbon; Good 
Conduct Ribbon. 

Honors: Gertrude Carrawan Award for Historical Preservation, 1982; 
Wake County Democrat of the Year, 1982; Outstanding Young Democrat of 
N.C., 1962; 

Religious Activities: Member, Millbrook Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Carolyn Honeycutt, of Salemburg, January 19, 1958. 
Children: Jim and Annie. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: State Government. 



286 North Carolina Manual 

Vice Chairman: Public Utilities. 

Member: Agriculture, Banks and Thrift Institutions, Environment and 
Natural Resources, Finance, Judiciary III, Local Government and Regional 
Affairs, Marine Resources and Wildlife, Pensions and Retirement, State 
Personnel. 



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287 




Daniel Reid Simpson 

(Republican — Burke County) 

Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Avery, 
Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, and Wilkes 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Morganton, 
Burke County, February 20, 1927, to 
James Reid and Ethel Margaret (Newton) 
Simpson. 

Education: Glen Alpine Public Schools, 
1932-43; University of Mississippi; 
Auburn University; Lenoir Rhyne Col- 
lege; Wake Forest University, 1949, B.S.; 
Wake Forest University, School of Law, 
1951, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney (President and senior member in 
firm of Simpson, Aycock, Beyer, and Simpson, P. A.); former Attorney: Town 
of Glen Alpine, Burke County and Burke County Schools; Former Criminal 
Court Judge. 

Organizations: Burke County, NC, NC State, and American Bar Associa- 
tions; Catawba Valley Lodge No. 217 (former Grand Master) Free and 
Accepted Masons. Former member: Lions Club; Junior Chamber of Com- 
merce; Sigma Chi; Phi Delta Phi. 

Boards: Director: Western Steer — Mom 'n' Pops, Inc.; SouthEastern 
Forest Fire Protection Compact Committee. N.C. Courts Commission; 
Environmental Oversight Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90; NC 
House of Representatives, 1957, 1961, 1963; Chairman, Joint Caucus; former 
Chairman, Burke County Republican Executive Committee; former President 
and Vice President, Burke County Young Republicans Club; former Mayor 
and Councilman, Town of Glen Alpine; former Vice-Chairman, NC Young 
Republicans. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945-46 (T/5); South Pacific theater. 

Honors: Who's Who in American Law. 

Religious Activities; First Baptist Church, Morganton. 

Family: Married, Mary Alice Leonard of Glen Alpine, September 16, 1951. 
Children: Mary Alma (Simpson) Beyer, James Reid, II and Ethel Barie 
(Simpson) Todd. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Education; Base Budget; (Rank- 
ing Minority Member); Education; Judiciary I; Manufacturing & Labor; 
Rules and Operation of the Senate; State Government, (Ranking Minority 
Member); State Personnel, (Ranking Minority Member); Finance. 



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Robert Charles Soles, Jr. 

(Democrat — Columbus County) 

Eighteenth Senatorial District — Bladen, 
Brunswick, Columbus, and Cumberland (part) 
Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Tabor City, 
December 17, 1934, to Robert C. and 
Myrtle (Norris) Soles. 

Education: Tabor City High School; 
Wake Forest University, 1956, B.S.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1959, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: American and NC Bar 
Associations; American Trial Lawyers 
Association; NC Association of County Attorneys; Phi Alpha Delta; Rotary 
Club (former President). 

Boards: President, Southeastern Community College Foundation; 
Southern Growth Policies Board; Trustee, UNC-Wilmington; former Trustee, 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-Present (7 terms); NC 
House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1957-67 (Captain). 

Religious Activities: Member, Tabor City Baptist Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary II. 

Vice Chairman: Constitution. 

Member: Agriculture; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Finance; Insurance; 
Public Utilities; Rules and Operations of the Senate; Ways and Means. 



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289 




James Davis Speed 

(Democrat-Franklin County) 

Eleventh Senatorial District-Franklin, Vance 
and Wake (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Bom in Louisburg, Frank- 
lin County, January 30, 1915, to Henry 
Plummer and Addie (Jeffreys) Speed. 

Education: Gold Sand High School; 

NCSU. 

Professional Background: Farmer; 
Tobacco Warehouseman. 

Organizations: Farm Bureau (Past 
President); Agri-Business Council; Mason 
(Past Master) Shriner. 

Boards: N.C. Tobacco Foundation Board of Directors; N.C. State Univer- 
sity Veterinary School Foundation Board; N.C. Local Government Advocacy 
Council; Former Member, N.C. Board of Agriculture; Franklin Memorial 
Hospital, Board of Directors, former Chairman; former member, N.C. State 
Farm Bureau Board; former Chairman, Franklin County Democratic Party; 
Franklin County Board of Health, former member. 

Honors: Outstanding Service Award by N.C. Association of Rescue 
Squads, 1971; District Tree Farmer of the Year, 1974; Conservation Farmer 
of the Year, 1975; Cited by N.C. State University for Outstanding Service to 
the Tobacco Industry, 1982; Louisburg-Franklin County Chamber of Com- 
merce Achievement Award, 1980; Louisburg College Medallion Award, 1983. 

Political Activities: N.C. Senate, 1977-Present (7 terms). Member, N.C. 
House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971 Sessions; 
Member. 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Martha Matthews, November 29, 1947. Children: 
Claudia, Tommy and James. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Agriculture 

Vice Chairman: Insurance 

Member: Appropriations on General Government; Base Budget; Finance; 
Children and Youth; Human Resources; Pensions and Retirement; Small 
Business; Transportation. 



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North Carolina Manual 




William Wayne Staton 

(Democrat — Lee County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District — Harnett, 
Lee, and Wake (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Olive Branch, 
Union County, October 11, 1917, to Oscar 
M. and Mae (Young) Staton. 

Education: Mt. Ulla High School; 
Wake Forest University, 1938, B.S.; 
WFU, School of Law, 1941, LL.B. and 
J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(senior member in firm of Staton, Perkin- 
son. West Doster and Dost); Former 

Attorney: Sanford Board of Education, 1956-72; Central Carolina Tech. 

College, 1960-72; Town of Carrboro, 1971-72. 

Organizations: Eleventh Judicial District Bar Association (President); 
American Bar Association; BPO Elks; Royal Order of Moose; Veterans of 
Foreign Wars; American Legion; Disabled American Veterans; Woodmen of 
the World. Former member: Sanford Chamber of Commerce (President); 
United Fund of Lee County (President); Sanford Cotillion Club (President); 
Lee District Boy Scouts (Chairman); Occoneechee Council, BSA (Vice Presi- 
dent); Cape Fear Basin Development Association (President, 1948-1950); 
Sanford Executive Club (President). 

Boards: Director, Mid-South Bank & Trust Company, 1974-; Golden Corral 
Corporation, 1974-; Investors Management Corporation, 1974-85. Former 
member, NC Commission for Improved Courts. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; NC House of Representatives, 1967; Demo- 
cratic National Committee, 1960-1964; NC Democratic Executive Committee, 
1951-1952, 1960-1964; President, Young Democrats of NC, 1951-1952; Lee 
County Democratic Executive Committee, 1948-1949. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-1946; Reserves, 1948-68 
(Colonel); Judge Advocate Corps; Battle Stars (3) European Theatre; Purple 
Heart, Battle of the Bulge; Bronze Star Ordennes Campaign of 1945. 

Honors: NC Legion of Merit; Sanford Community Service Award, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Sanford Board of 
Deacons; Chairman, Board of Trustees; teacher. Men's Bible Class, 27 years. 

Family: Married, Ellen Boone of Jackson, June 28, 1947. Children: William 
Wayne, Jr. and Allyn Moore. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Vice Chairman: Finance. 

Member: Higher Education; Judiciary II; Rules and Operations of the 
Senate; State Personnel; Transportation. 



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291 







Robert Stringfield Swain 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Twenty-eighth Senatorial District — 
Buncombe, McDowell, Madison, and Yancey 
Counties — Two Senators. 

Early Years: Born in Asheville, July 
25, 1921, to John Edward and Mozelle 
Brewster (Stringfield) Swain. 

Education: Lee H. Edwards High 
School, 1939; Mars Hill College (Wake 
Forest-Meredith summer school), 1939; 
UNC-Chapel Hill 1939-40; Biltmore Col- 
lege, 1940; University of New Mexico, 
1941-42; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of 
Law, 1946-49, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: Buncombe County and NC Bar Associations; NC Trial 
Lawyers Association; Moose International; Phi Alpha Delta; York Rite 
Mason; Shrine. 

Boards: Chairman, Criminal Justice Commission of SLC; Governor's 
Crime Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-Present (7 terms); Solici- 
tor, 19th District, Buncombe and Madison Counties, 1955-67. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1943-1946 (1st Lieutenant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Board of Stewards; 
Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Children: Jennifer Ellen, Barbara Giffen, Patricia Ann, Robert 
Edward and Katherine Anne. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary I. 

Vice Chairman: State Government. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Education; Base Budget; 
Election Laws; Local Government and Regional Affairs; Small Business; 
Veterans Affiars, Law Enforcement, and Senior Citizens. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Thomas Fleming Taft 

(Democrat - Pitt County) 

Ninth Senatorial District — Beaufort (part), 
Martin (part), and Pitt (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt 
County, December 29, 1945, to Edmund 
Hoover and Helen Irene (Fleming) Taft, 
Jr. 

Education: J. H. Rose High School, 
1964; Duke University, 1968, A.B.; Unl- 
dersidadibero-Americana, Mexico City, 
summer, 1965; UNC-Chapel Hill, School 
of Law, J.D.; Hague Academy of Inter- 
national Law, 1970; City of London, 1970, 
Certificate of International Law. 

Professional Background: Attorney (managing partner, firm of Taft, 
Taft, and Haigler); President, Eastern Millwork and Supply Company; 
President, Hardware Suppliers of America, Inc.; President, Mercer Glass 
Company; Inc.; President, Lake Placid Development Company, Inc.; Presi- 
dent, University Medical Park, Inc. 

Organizations: Pitt County, NC and American Bar Associations; NC 
Academy of Trial Lawyers; American Trial Lawyers Association; NC Home 
Builders Association; Ptt-Greenville Chamber of Commerce; NC Citizens for 
Business and Industry; University City Kiwanis Club; Master Mason; Pitt 
County Farm Bureau. 

Boards: ECU Medical Foundation; NC State Ports Authority (Chairman, 
1977-85); Southern Growth Policies Board, 1978-79. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989; Legal 
Counsel to James B. Hunt, Lt. Governor, 1972-1974. 

Honors: Jaycee Distinguished Service Award; President's Cup, Pitt County 
United Way; Outstanding Young Men of America; Eagle Scout. 

Military Service: Served, LIS Army Reserves, 1968-74 (Specialist 4th 
Class), Field Artillery and Forward Area Air Defense. 

Religious Activities: Member, Jarvis Memorial United Methodist Church; 
Official Board 1980-83 (Co-Chairman, 1981), Finance Committee 1989-1990. 

Family: Married, Kathy Arnold, January 30, 1982. Children: Jessica, 
Paige, Thomas and Jonathan. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Election Laws. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; State Personnel. 

Member: Appropriations, Appropriations on Education, Base Budget, Edu- 
cation, Environmental and Natural Resources, Finance, Higher Education, 
Insurance, Judiciary, III. 



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293 




Lura Self Tally 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

Twelfth Senatorial District — Cumberland 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Statesville, 
December 9, 1921, to R.O. and Sara 
Sherrill (Cowles) Self. 

Education: Raleigh Public Schools and 
Needham Broughton High School, 1938; 
Peace College; Duke University, A.B., 
1942; NCSU School of Education, 1970 
M.A. 

Professional Background: Teacher 
and guidance counselor, Fayetteville City 
Schools; teacher. Adult Education, Fayetteville Technical Institute. 

Organizations: NEA; NC Association of Educators; NC Personnel and 
Guidance Association; American Association of University Women; Business 
and Professional Women's Club; NC Federation of Women's Clubs; NC 
Society for Preservation of Antiquities (former President); Fayetteville 
Women's Club (former President); President, Cumberland County Mental 
Health Association; Coordinator of Volunteers, Cumberland County Mental 
Health Center; Kappa Delta. 

Boards: Fayetteville Recreation Commission; NCSU Foundation Board; 
Fayetteville Technical Community College Board, 1983; Juvenile Code 
Revision Commission, 1977-79; Mental Health Study Commission, 1986-87. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; 1989-; 
NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82. 

Honors: Business and Professional Woman of the Year, Fayetteville, 
1978, Distinguished Alumni N.C. State, 1988. Doctor of Humanities, 
Methodist College, Fayetteville 1989. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hay Street Methodist Church, Fayette- 
ville. 

Family: Children: Robert Taylor and John Cowles. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Environment and Natural Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Marine Resources and Wildlife. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Natural and Economic Re- 
sources; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Education; Higher Education; 
Judiciary II. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Russell Grady Walker 

(Democrat - Randolph County) 

Sixteenth Senatorial District - Chatham, 
Moore, Orange, and Randolph Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Conetoe, August 
26, 1918, to Ashley and Alleen (Bryant) 
Walker. 

Education: High Point High School; 
US Army Air Corps Pilot Training 
School. 

Professional Background: Retired 
Chain Super Market Operator; Former 
President, Food Line Super Markets, Inc. 

Organizations: Member, Masonic 
Order, Balfour Lodge (Asheboro); Asheboro Kiwanis Club (Past President, 
Asheboro Club; Past Lt. Gov. Carolinas District); North Carolina Food 
Dealers Association (Past President). 

Boards: Commission on Children with Special Needs; Mental Health 
Study Commission; Commission on Environmental Agency Consolidation 
(Co-Chairman); Social Services Study Commission (Co-Chairman); Asheboro 
Airport Authority (Chairman); Human Resources Appropriations Committee 
(Chairman). 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Chairman, NC Democratic Party, 
1979-1983; Asheboro City Council, 1961-1965 (2 terms). 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1941-46 (Pilot); US Air 
Force Reserve, 1947-55 (Captain). 

Honors: Air Medal, 1945. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Asheboro. 

Family: Married, Ruth Brunt Walker, July 13, 1941; Children: Russell G., 
Jr., Mrs. Susan Walker Smith, and Stephen Allen. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations on Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources. 

Member: Appropriations; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Base Budget; 
Election Laws; Environment and Natural Resources; Finance; Higher 
Education; Ways and Means. 



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295 




Marvin Martin Ward 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 

Twentieth Senatorial District - Forsyth 
County (part). 

Early Years: Born in Morrison, 
Virginia, Febuary 10, 1914, to Charles 
Tilden and Nora Belle (Martin) Ward. 

Education: East Bend High School, 
1930; Appalachian State University, 
1934, B.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1940, M.A. 

Professional Background: Retired 
educator (former Superintendent of Win- 
ston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools). 

Organizations: American Association 
of School Administrators; NC Division of Superintendents; Mid-Urban 
Superintendents (former President and Director); life member, PTA; life 
member, National Education Association; Lions Club; Ardmore Community 
Club (former President); Winston-Salem Automobile Club (Director); Win- 
ston-Salem Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Government Operations Committee; Mental Health Study Com- 
mission; Public School Forum of North Carolina; Education Commission of 
the States-Steering Committee; National Conference of State Legislators 
(Vice Chairman, Education Committee); Redistricting Task Force); Southern 
Legislative Conference (Education Committee) 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985- 
86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Winston-Salem Lions Club, 1976; 
Valand Award, 1982 (for outstanding service in the field of mental health); 
Outstanding Support of Public Education Award, North Carolina Association 
of Educators, 1985; Legislative Award, North Carolina School Psychology 
Association, 1985; Outstanding Service Award, North Carolina Mental 
Health Association, 1986; Distinguished Alumni Award, Appalachain State 
University, 1986; Bell Award, Forsyth County Mental Health Association, 
1987; For Outstanding Leadership and Contributions to Education Award, 
Southeastern Council of Elementary School Principals, 1988-89; Leadership 
Award — Outstanding Senator for Mental Health Services in North Carolina, 
North Carolina Council of Mental Health, Mental Retardation, and Sub- 
stance Abuse Programs, 1989; "The Educator" Award, Winston-Salem 
Chapter of A. Philip Randolph Institute, 1989; Outstanding Legislator 
Award, North Carohna Alliance for the Mentally 111, 1989. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Cetenary Church, Winston- 
Salem; Administrative Board; Budget and Finance Committee; Sunday 
School teacher; Chairman, Staff Parish Committee, 1974-77; Sunday School 
Superintendant, 1958-61. 



296 North Carolina Manual 

Family: Married, Mary June Darden, August 23, 1941. Children: Elizabeth 
(Ward) Cone and Marvin Thomas. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations on Education. 

Vice-Chairman: Education. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Finance; 
Human Resources; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Transportation; Ways 
and Means. 



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297 




Dennis Jay Winner 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Twenty-eighth Senatorial District — 
Buncombe, McDowell, Madison, and Yancey 
Counties — Two Senators. 

Early Years: Born in Canton, Bun- 
combe County, March 29, 1942, to Harry 
and Julienne (Marder) Winner. 

Education: Lee H. Edwards High 
School, 1960; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1963, 
A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 
1966, J.D. with honors. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(firm of Erwin and Winner, P.A.). 

Boards: Board of Directors: Asheville Chamber Music Association; UNC 
Law Alumni Association, 1982-; UNC Board of Visitors, 1976-; Asheville Art 
Museum. Former member: NC Judicial Council, 1973-74; NC Courts Commis- 
sion, President, Buncombe County Bar Association, 1982. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; 
Superior Court Judge, 1972-1975; District Court Judge, 1970-1972; President, 
Buncombe County Young Democrats Club, 1968. 

Military Service: Served, NC Air National Guard, 1966-1972 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Congregation Beth Ha Tephila, Asheville. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

Vice Chairman: Environment and Natural Resources. 

Member: Constitution; Education; Finance; Judiciary II; Marine Resources 
and Wildlife; Ways and Means. 



298 



North Carolina Manual 




Sylvia Morris Fink 

PRINCIPAL CLERK 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, August 8, 
1936, to Warren Reid (deceased) and Effie 
(Howard) Morris. 

Education: Mount Holly High School, 1954; 
Pfeiffer College, 1955-56. 

Profession: Principal Clerk, NC Senate, 1976- 
(first woman); Senate staff, 1967, 1973-76; Deputy 
Clerk, NC Court of Appeals, 1967-68; formerly 
employed by Duke Power Company, Cannon Mills 
Company and Charlotte Chamber of Commerce. 

Organizations: American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries 
Executive Committee, Wake Democratic Women. 

Political Activities: Elected Principal Clerk, NC Senate, 1976 to present, 
Journal Clerk, NC Senate, 1975-76; Assistant Journal Clerk, NC Senate, 
1973-74; Committee Clerk, NC Senate, 1967. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benson Memorial United Methodist 
Church; life member, Women's Society of Christian Service (former President 
and Vice President). Former MYF counselor, Sunday School teacher, organist, 
choir member. 

Family: Children: Paige Elizabeth. 



The Legislative Branch 299 



Senate Committee Assignments 

AGRICULTURE COMMITTEE 

Speed (Chairman); Murphy and Taft (Vice Chairmen): Bryan (Ranking 
Minority Member); Allran, Ballance, Basnight, Daughtry, Hardin, Martin of 
Pitt, Marvin, Parnell, Plyler, Raynor, Sherron, and Soles. 

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL COMMITTEE 

Ballance (Chairman); Plyler (Vice Chairman); Daughtry (Ranking Minority 
Member); Carpenter, Daniel, Goldston, and Odom. 

APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE 

Royall (Chairman); Daniel, Murphy, Parnell, Plyer (Vice Chairmen); Kincaid 
(Vice Chairman, and Ranking Minority Member); Ballance, Barker, 
Bansight, Block, Bryan, Carpenter, Chalk, Cobb, Cochrance, Conder, 
Daughtry, Ezzell, Goldston, Guy, Hardin, Harris, Hunt of Durham, Hunt of 
Moore, Johnson of Cabarrus, Johnson of Wake, Kaplan, Martin of Pitt, 
Martin of Guilford, Marvin, Odom, Richardson, Sands, Simpson, Speed, 
Swain, Taft, Tally, Walker, and Ward. 

APPROPRIATIONS-EDUCATION COMMITTEE 

Ward (Chairman); Conder (Vice Chairman); Chalk (Ranking Minority 
Member); Daniel, Murphy, Simpson, Swain, and Taft. 

APPROPRIATIONS-GENERAL GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE 

Martin of Guilford (Chairman); Guy (Vice Chairman); Johnson of Cabarrus 
(Ranking Minority Member); Block, Hardin, Kaplan, and Speed. 

APPROPRIATIONS-HUMAN RESOURCES COMMITTEE 

Walker (Chairman); Richardson (Vice Chairman); Cochrane (Ranking 
Minority Member); Carpenter, Ezzell, Harris, and Hunt of Durham. 

APPROPRIATIONS-JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY COMMITTEE 

Marvin (Chairman); Parnell (Vice Chairman); Cobb (Ranking Minority 
Member); Ballance, Bryan, Odom, and Sands. 

APPROPRIATIONS-NATURAL AND 
ECONOMIC RESOURCES COMMITTEE 

Martin of Pitt (Chairman); Barker (Vice Chairman); Kincaid (Ranking 
Minority Member); Daughtry, Goldston, Hunt of Moore, Johnson of Wake, 
and Tally. 



300 North Carolina Manual 

BANKS AND THRIFT INSTITUTIONS COMMITTEE 

Staton (Chairman); Martin of Pitt (Vice Chairman); Kincaid (Ranking 
Minority Member); Carpenter, Ezzell, Guy, Harris, Johnson of Cabarrus, 
Johnson of Wake, Kaplan, Murphy, Rauch, Shaw, Sherron, Soles, and 
Walker. 

BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE: 

Basnight (Chairman); Daniel, Kincaid, Murphy, Parnell, Plyler (Vice Chair- 
men); Simpson (Ranking Minority Member); Ballance, Barker, Block, Bryan, 
Carpenter, Chalk, Cobb, Cochrane, Conder, Daughtry, Ezzell, Goldston, 
Guy, Hardin, Harris, Hunt of Durham, Hunt of Moore, Johnson of Cabarrus, 
Johnson of Wake, Kaplan, Martin of Pitt, Martin of Guilford, Marvin, 
Odom, Richardson, Sands, Speed, Swain, Taft, Tally, Walker, and Ward. 

CHILDREN AND YOUTH COMMITTEE 

Richardson (Chairman); Sands (Vice Chairman); Allran (Ranking Minority 
Member); Cochrane, Conder, Johnson of Cabarrus, Martin of Guilford, 
Marvin, Speed, Tally, and Ward. 

CONSTITUTION COMMITTEE 

Ezzell (Chairman); Soles (Vice Chairman); Cochrane (Ranking Minority 
Member); Ballance, Barker, Chalk, Daniel, Hardin, Johnson of Cabarrus, 
Kaplan, Martin of Guilford, Marvin, Rauch, and Winner. 

EDUCATION COMMITTEE 

Conder (Chairman); Ward (Vice Chairman); Chalk (Ranking Minority 
Member); Basnight, Block, Daughtry, Hardin, Hunt of Durham, Hunt of 
Moore, Martin of Guilford, Marvin, Odom, Richardson, Simpson, Taft, Tally, 
and Winner. 

ELECTION LAWS COMMITTEE 

Taft (Chairman); Ballance (Vice Chairman); Bryan (Ranking Minority 
Member); Chalk, Hunt of Durham, Kaplan, Murphy, Swain, and Walker. 

ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES COMMITTEE 

Tally (Chairman); Winner (Vice Chairman); Shaw (Ranking Minority 
Member); Barker, Basnight, Cochrane, Daughtry, Hunt of Moore, Johnson 
of Cabarrus, Martin of Pitt, Murphy, Odom, Sherron, Taft, and Walker. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

Rauch (Chairman); Goldston, Staton (Vice Chairman); Smith (Vice Chairman 
and Ranking Minority Member); Allran, Barker, Basight, Bryan, Carpenter, 
Daniel, Daughtry, Harris, Hunt of Moore, Kaplan, Parnell, Plyler, Raynor, 
Royall, Shaw, Sherron, Simpson, Soles, Speed, Taft, Walker, Ward, and 
Winner. 



The Legislative Branch 301 

HIGH EDUCATION COMMITTEE 

Murphy (Chairman); Royall (Vice Chairman); Cobb (Vice Chairman and 
Ranking Minority Member); Cochrane, Conder, Goldston, Martin of Guilford, 
Rauch, Smith, Staton, Taft, Tally, and Walker. 

HUMAN RESOURCES COMMITTEE 

Harris (Chairman); Ezzell, Raynor, Walker (Vice Chairmen); Smith (Ranking 
Minority Member); Barker, Bryan, Cochrane, Guy, Kincaid, Martin of 
Guilford, Marvin, Richardson, Royall, Speed, and Ward. 

INSURANCE COMMITTEE 

Parnell (Chairman); Johnson of Wake, Speed (Vice Chairmen); Chalk (Rank- 
ing Minority Member) Daniel, Ezzell, Kincaid, Raynor, Richardson, Smith, 
Soles, and Taft. 

JUDICIARY I COMMITTEE 

Swain (Chairman); Daniel (Vice Chairman); Johnson of Cabarrus (Ranking 
Minority Member); Ballance, Ezzell, Harris, Odom, Parnell, and Simpson. 

JUDICIARY II COMMITTEE 

Soles (Chairman); Sands (Vice Chairman); Cobb (Ranking Minority 
Member); Daughtry, Martin of Guilford, Raynor, Staton, Tally, and Winner. 

JUDICIARY III COMMITTEE 

Johnson of Wake (Chairman); Barker (Vice Chairman); Allran (Ranking 
Minority Member); Block, Chalk, Hunt of Moore, Marvin, Sherron, and Taft. 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND REGIONAL AFFAIRS COMMITTEE 

Sands (Chairman); Hunt of Durham, Odom (Vice Chairmen); Shaw (Vice 
Chairman and Ranking Minority Member); Allran, Barker, Basnight, Bryan, 
Conder, Hunt of Moore, Sherron, and Swain. 

MANUFACTURING AND LABOR COMMITTEE 

Daniel (Chairman); Block, Harris (Vice Chairmen); Allran (Ranking Minority 
Member); Ballance, Goldston, Guy, Johnson of Wake, Kincaid, Martin of 
Guilford, Parnell, Rauch, Richardson, Sands, Simpson, and Smith. 

MARINE RESOURCES AND WILDLIFE COMMITTEE 

Barker (Chairman); Tally (Vice Chairman); Kincaid (Ranking Minority 
Member); Basnight, Block, Hardin, Martin of Pit, Odom, Sands, Shaw, 
Sharron, and Winner. 

PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT COMMITTEE 

Block (Chairman); Marvin (Vice Chairman); Bryan (Ranking Minority 
Member); Barnes, Basnight, Carpenter, Chalk, Conder, Hardin, Hunt of 
Durham, Plyler, Rauch, Royall, Sherron, and Speed. 



302 North Carolina Manual 

PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMITTEE 

Guy (Chairman); Sherron (Vice Chairman); Smith (Ranking Minority 
Member); Barker, Cobb, Cochrane, Johnson of Wake, Martin of Pitt, Murphy, 
Parnell, Rauch, Raoyall, and Soles. 

RULES AND OPERATION OF THE SENATE COMMITTEE 

Winner (Chairman); Kaphin (Vice Chairman); Cobb (Ranking Minority 
Member), Cochrane, Daniel, Ezzell, Harris, Hunt of Durham, Johnson of 
Cabarrus, Johnson of Wake, Kincaid, Marvin, Plyler, Rauch, Raynor, Royall, 
Simpson, Soles, Staton, and Ward. 

SMALL BUSINESS COMMITTEE 

Hunt of Durham (Chairman); Goldson (Vice Chairman); Shaw (Ranking 
Minority Member); Allran, Daniel, Plyler, Sands, Speed, and Swain. 

STATE GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE 

Sherron (Chairman); Swain (Vice Chairman); Simpson (Ranking Minority 
Member), Cobb, Daughtry, Harris, Hunt of Durham, Johnson of Wake, 
Martin of Pitt, Richardson, and Royall. 

STATE PERSONNEL COMMITTEE 

Hunt of Moore (Chairman); Taft (Vice Chairman); Simpson (Ranking 
Minority Member); Allran, Hardin, Hunt of Durham, Johnson of Wake, 
Odom, Sands, Sherron, and Staton. 

TRANSPORTATION COMMITTEE 

Goldston (Chairman), Basnight, Odom (Vice Chairmen); Smith (Ranking 
Minority Member); Bryan, Carpenter, Guy, Kaplan, Murphy, Parnell, Plyler, 
Raynor, Shaw, Speed, Staton, and Ward. 

VETERAN AFFAIRS, LAW ENFORCEMENT, 
AND SENIOR CIZITENS COMMITTEE 

Raynor (Chairman); Hunt of Moore (Vice Chairman); Johnson of Cabarrus 
(Ranking Minority Member); Block, Carpenter, Guy, Parnell, Richardson, 
and Swain. 

WAYS AND MEANS COMMITTEE 

Plyler (Chairman); Martin of Guilford, Rauch (Vice Chairmen); Shaw (Rank- 
ing Minority Member); Basnight, Clark, Cobb, Cochrane, Goldston, Harris, 
Hunt of Moore. Kaplan, Kincaid, Martin of Pitt, Marvin, Royall, Sols, 
Walker Ward, and Winner. 



The Legislative Branch 303 



1989 NORTH CAROLINA HOUSE 
OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Officers 

Speaker Josephus L. Mavretic 

Speaker Pro Tempore R.D. Beard 

Majority Leader Dennis A. Wicker 

Minority Leader Johnathan L. Rhyne, Jr. 

Majority Whip Milton F. Fitch, Jr. 

Minority Whip Charles L. Cromer 

Principal Clerk Grace A. Collins 

Reading Clerk Sam J. Burrow, Jr. 

Sergeant-at-Arms Larry P. Eagles 

Representatives 

Name Dist. County Address 

Abernethy, J. Vernon, Jr. (R) 44th Gaston Belmont 

Albertson, Charles W 10th Duphn Beulaville 

Anderson, Gerald L 3rd Craven New Bern 

Arnold, Steve (R) 28th Guilford High Point 

Balmer, David G. (R) 55th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Barbee, Bobby H., Sr., (R) 34th Stanly Locust 

Barnes, Anne C 24th Orange Chapel Hill 

Barnhill, Howard C 60th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Beall, Charles M 52nd Haywood Clyde 

Beard, R.D 18th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Blue, Daniel T., Jr 21st Wake Raleigh 

Bowen, Edward C 12th Sampson Harrells 

Bowie, Joanne W. (R) 27th Guilford Greensboro 

Bowman, J. Fred 25th Alamance Burlington 

Brawley, C. Robert, Jr. (R) 43rd Iredell Mooresville 

Brown, John Walter (R) 41st Wilkes Elkin 

Brubaker, Harold J. (R) 38th Randolph Asheboro 

Buchanan, Charles F. (R) 46th Mitchell Green Mountain 

Burke, Logan 67th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Chapin, Howard B 2nd Beaufort Washington 

Church, John T 22nd Vance Henderson 

Colton, Marie W 51st Buncombe Asheville 

Cooper, Roy A., HI 72nd Nash Rocky Mount 

Craven, James M. (R) 31st Moore Pinebluff 

Crawford, James W., Jr 22nd Granville Oxford 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr 51st Buncombe Asheville 

Creech, Billy J. (R) 20th Johnston Wilson's Mills 

Cromer, Charles L. (R) 37th Davidson Thomasville 

Gulp, Arlie F., Jr. (R) 30th Randolph Ramseur 

Cunningham, W. Pete 59th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Dawkins, Donald M 32nd Richmond Rockingham 

Decker, Michael P. (R) 29th Forsyth Walkertown 

DeVane, Daniel H 16th Hoke Raeford 

Diamont, David H 40th Surry Pilot Mountain 

Dickson, W.W.i(R) 44th Gaston Gastonia 

Diggs, Lawrence E. (R) 36th Mecklenburg Charlotte 



304 North Carolina Manual 

Name Dist. County Address 

Duncan, Ann Q. (R) 39th Forsyth Pfafftown 

Easterling, Ruth M 58th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Edwards, C.R 17th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Esposito, Theresa H. (R) 39th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Etheridge, Larry E. (R) 71st Wilson Wilson 

Ethridge, Bruce 4th Carteret Beaufort 

Fitch, Milton F., Jr 70th Wilson Wilson 

Flaherty, David T., Jr. (R) 46th Caldwell Lenoir 

Fletcher, Ray C 47th Burke Valdese 

Foster, Jo Graham 56th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Fussell, Aaron E 65th Wake Raleigh 

Gardner, Charlotte A. (R) 35th Rowan Salisbury 

Gibson, Pryor A., Ill 33rd Anson Wadesboro 

Gist, Herman C 26th Guilford Greensboro 

Grady, Robert (R) 4th Onslow Jacksonville 

Greenwood, Gordon H 51st Buncombe Black Mountain 

Grimmer, Harry C. (R) 57th Mecklenburg Matthews 

Hackney, Joe 24th Orange Chapel Hill 

Hall, Alex M 13th New Hanover Wilmington 

Hardaway, Thomas C 7th Halifax Enfield 

Hasty, John C 16th Robeson Maxton 

Hege, Joe H., Jr. (R) 37th Davidson Lexington 

Holmes, George M. (R) 41st Yadkin Hamptonville 

Holt, Bertha M 25th Alamance Burlington 

Howard, JuHa C. (R) 37th Davie Mocksville 

Huffman, Doris R. (R) 45th Catawba Newton 

Hunt, John J 48th Cleveland Lattimore 

Hunt, Judy F 40th Watauga Blowing Rock 

Hunt, R. Samuel, HI 25th Alamance Burlington 

Hunter, Howard J., Jr 5th Hertford Murfreesboro 

Hunter, Robert C 49th McDowell Marion 

Hurley, John W 18th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Isenhower, W. Stine (R) 45th Catawba Conover 

James, Vernon G 1st Pasquotank Elizabeth City 

Jeralds, Luther R 17th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Jones, Walter B., Jr 9th Pitt Farmville 

Justus, Larry T. (R) 50th Henderson Hendersonville 

Kennedy, Annie B 66th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Kerr, John H., HI 11th Wayne Goldsboro 

Kimsey, Marty E. (R) 53rd Macon Franklin 

Lail, Doris L. (R) 44th Lincoln Lincolnton 

Ligon, Bradford V. (R) 35th Rowan Salisbury 

Lilley, Daniel T 3rd Lenoir Kinston 

Lineberry, Albert Sr., 27th Guilford Greensboro 

Locks, Sidney A 16th Robeson Lumberton 

Loflin, H. Clayton (R) 34th Union Monroe 

Lutz, Edith L 48th Cleveland Lawndale 

Mavretic, Josephus L 8th Edgecombe Crisp 

McLaughlin, John B 54th Mecklenburg Newell 

Mercer, Leo 15th Columbus Chadbourn 

Michaux, Henry M., Jr 23rd Durham Durham 

Miller, George W., Jr 23rd Durham Durham 

Mills, W.D 4th Onslow Maysville 

Nesbitt, Martin L 51st Buncombe Asheville 

Nye, Edd 12th Bladen Elizabethtown 



The Legislative Branch 305 

Name Dist. County Address 

Payne, Harry E., Jr 13th New Hanover Wilmington 

Perdue, Beverly M 3rd Craven New Bern 

Pope, James A. (R) 61st Wake Raleigh 

Privette, Coy C. (R) 34th Cabarrus Kannapolis 

Ramsey, Liston B 52nd Madison Marshall 

Red wine, E. David 14th Brunswick Shallotte 

Rhodes, Frank E. (R) 39th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. (R) 44th Lincoln Lincolnton 

Robinson, George S. (R) 46th Caldwell Lenoir 

Rogers, Richard E 6th Martin Williamston 

Sizemore, Frank J., HI (R) 27th Guilford Greensboro 

Stam, Paul B., Jr. (R) 62nd Wake Apex 

Stamey, Peggy 63rd Wake Raleigh 

Stewart, Clarence P 19th Harnett Lillington 

Tallent, Timothy N. (R) 34th Cabarrus Concord 

Tart, John L 11th Wayne Goldsboro 

Thompson, Raymond M 1st Chowan Edenton 

Thompson, Sharon A 23rd Durham Durham 

Walker, Lois S. (R) 42nd Iredell Statesville 

Warner, Alex 18th Cumberland Hope Mills 

Warren, Edward N 9th Pitt Greenville 

Watkins, Wilham T.2 22nd Granville Oxford 

Weatherly, John H. (R) 48th Cleveland Kings Mountain 

Wicker, Dennis A 19th Lee Sanford 

Wilson, Peggy Ann (R) 25th Rockingham Madison 

Wilson, William E. (R) 40th Watauga Boone 

Windley, Walter H., nP(R) 44th Gaston Gastonia 

Wiser, Betty H 64th Wake Raleigh 

Wood, Steve W. (R) 28th Guilford High Point 

Woodard, Barney Paul 20th Johnston Princeton 



'Dickson was appointed by Governor Martin on January 6, 1989, to replace Walter H. Windley. 
'^Watkins died August 26, 1989. 

'Windley was sworn in as a member of the 1989 General Assembly on January 2, 1989. He 
resigned later that same day. 



806 North Carolina Manual 

Speakers of the House of Representatives 
Lower House of the Colonial Assembly 

Assembly Representative County 

1666 George Catchmaid Albemarle 

1672 Valentine Bird [Pasquotank] 

1673 [Valentine Bird] [Pasquotank] 

1675 Thomas Eastchurch 

1677 Thomas Cullen [Chowan] 

1679 George Durant [Currituck] 

1689 John Nixon [Chowan] 

1697/98 John Porter [Bath] 

[1703] William Wilkison [Chowan] 

1707 Thomas Boyd 

1708 Edward Mosely [Chowan] 

1709 Richard Sanderson [Currituck] 

1711 William Swann [Currituck] 

1711/12 Thomas Snoden [Perquimans] 

1715/16 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1720 [Edward Moseley] [Chowan] 

1722 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1723 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1725-26 Maurice Moore [Perquimans] 

John Baptista Ashe Beaufort 

1727 [John Baptista Ashe] [Beaufort] 

1729 Thomas Swann [Pasquotank] 

1731 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1733 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1734 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1735 William Downing Tyrrell 

1736-37 William Downing Tyrrell 

1738-39 William Downing Tyrrell 

1739/40-1740 John Hodgson Chowan 

1741 John Hodgson Chowan 

1742/43-1744 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1744-45 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746/47-1752 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1753-54 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1754-60 John Campbell Bertie 

Samuel Swann Onslow 

1760 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1761 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1762 Samuel Swann Onslow 

John Ashe New Hanover 

1764-65 John Ashe New Hanover 

1766-68 John Harvey Perquimans 

1769 John Harvey Perquimans 

1770-71 Richard Caswell Craven 

1773 John Harvey Perquimans 

1773-74 John Harvey Perquimans 

1775 John Harvey Perquimans 



The Legislative Branch 307 

House of Commons 

Assembly Representative County 

1777 Abner Nash Craven 

1778 John Williams Granville 

Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1779 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1780 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1781 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1782 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1783 Edward Starkey Onslow 

1784 (April) Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1784 (October) William Blount Craven 

1785 Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven 

1786-87 John B.Ashe Halifax 

1787 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1788 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1789 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1790 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1791-92 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1792-93 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1793-94 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1794-95 Timothy Bloodworth New Hanover 

1795 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1796 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1797 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1798 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1799 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1800 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1801 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1802 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1803 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1804 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1805 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1806 John Moore Lincoln 

1807 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

1808 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

William Gaston Craven 

1809 Thomas Davis Cumberland 

1810 William Hawkins Granville 

1811 William Hawkins Granville 

1812 WilHam Miller Warren 

1813 William Miller Warren 

1814 William Miller Warren 

1815 John Craig Orange 

1816 Thomas Ruffins Orange 

James Iredell Chowan 

1817 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1818 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1819 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1820 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1821 James Mebane Orange 

1822 John D. Jones New Hanover 

1823-24 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1824-25 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1825-26 John Stanly Craven 

1826-27 John Stanly Craven 

1827-28 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 



308 North Carolina Manual 

Assembly Representative County 

1828-29 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1829-30 WiUiam J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1830-31 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1831-32 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1832-33 Louis D. Henry Cumberland 

1833-34 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1834-35 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1835 William D. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1836-37 William H. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1838-39 William A. Graham Orange 

1840-41 William A. Graham Orange 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1842-43 Clavin Graves Caswell 

1844-45 Edward Stanly Beauford 

1846-47 Edward Stanly Beauford 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1848-49 Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1850-51 James C. Dobbs Cumberland 

1852 John Baxter Henderson 

1854-55 Samuel P. Hill Caswell 

1856-57 Jesse G. Shepherd Cumberland 

1858-59 Thomas Settle, Jr Rockingham 

1860-61 William T. Dortch Wayne 

Nathan N. Fleming Rowan 

1862-64 Robert B. GilUam Granville 

Richard S. Donnell Beaufort 

Marmaduke S. Robbins Randolph 

1864-65 Richard S. Donnel Beaufort 

1865-66 Samuel F. Phillips Orange 

1866-67 Rufus Y. McAden Alamance 



House of Representatives* 

Assembly Representative County 

1868 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1869-70 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1870 Thomas J. Jarvis Tyrrell 

1872 James L. Robinson Macon 

1874-75 James L. Robinson Macon 

1876-77 Charles Price Davie 

1879 John M. Moring Chatham 

1881 Charles M. Cooke Franklin 

1883 George M. Rose Cumberland 

1885 Thomas M. Holt Alamance 

1887 John R. Webster Rockingham 

1889 Augustus Leazar Iredell 

1891 Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany 

1893 Lee S. Overman Rowan 

1895 ZebV. Walser Davidson 

1897 A.F. Hileman Cabarrus 

1899-1900 Henry G. Connor Wilson 

1901 Walter E. Moore Jackson 

1903 S. M. Gattis Orange 



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Assembly Representative County 

1905 OwenH. Guion Craven 

1907 E. J. Justice Guilford 

1909 A.W.Graham Granville 

1911 W. C. Dowd Mecklenburg 

1913 George Connor Wilson 

1915 Emmett R. Wooten Lenoir 

1917 Walter Murphy Rowan 

1919 Dennis G. Brummitt Granville 

1921 Harry P. Grier Iredell 

1923-24 John G. Dawson Lenoir 

1925 Edgar W. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1927 Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe 

1929 A. H. Graham Orange 

1931 Willis Smith Wake 

1933 R. L. Harris Person 

1935-36 Robert Johnson Pender 

1937 R. Gregg Cherry Gaston 

1939 D.L.Ward Craven 

1941 0. M. Mull Cleveland 

1943 John Kerr, Jr Warren 

1945 Oscar L. Richardson Union 

1947 Thomas J. Pearsall Nash 

1949 Kerr Craig Ramsay Rowan 

1951 W. Frank Taylor Wayne 

1953 Eugene T. Bost, Jr Cabarrus 

1955-56 Larry L Moore, Jr Wilson 

1957 James K. Doughton Alleghany 

1959 Addison Hewlett New Hanover 

1961 Joseph M. Hunt, Jr Guilford 

1963 H. Clifton Blue Moore 

1965-66 H. Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson 

1967 David M.Britt Robeson 

1969 Earl W. Vaughn Rockingham 

1971 Philip P. Godwin Gates 

1973-74 James E. Ramsey Person 

1975-76 James C.Green Bladen 

1977-78 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

1979-80 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

1981-82 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1983-84 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1985-86 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1987-88 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1989-90 Josephus L. Mavretic Edgecombe 



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The Legislative Branch 311 



Josephus Lyman Mavretic 

SPEAKER 
(Democrat - Edgecombe County) 

Eighth Representative District - Edgecombe (part) and Nash (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Powells Point, Currituck County, July 29, 1934, to 
Joseph M. (deceased) and Virginia (Bateman) Mavretic. 

Education: New Bern High School; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1956, A.B. 
(English); George Washington University, 1972, M.S. (Political Science, 
International Affairs); Naval War College, distinguished graduate, 1972. 

Professional Background: Retired military officer. 

Organizations: Rotary Club of Tarboro; Retired Officers Association; 
American Legion Post 58; Marine Corps Aviation Association; Director, 
Edgecombe County chapter, American Red Cross; Phi Gamma Delta; Loyal 
Order of the Moose; Scouting Coordinator, Cub Scout Pack 96; Director, 
American Cancer Society (NC division); Director, Edgecombe County 
Historic Preservation Fund; Director, NC Museum of History Associates. 

Boards: Director, NC Council on Alcoholism; Steering Committee, NC 
Educational Policy Seminars; former Chairman, Laurel Bay School Board; 
former Director, First Carolina Bank. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1980 (ap- 
pointed to fill vacancy created by resignation of James Ezzell), 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989 (elected Speaker January 11, 1989.) 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1956-77 (Lieutenant Colonel); 
300 combat missions in Vietnam; 3000 flight hours in fighter aircraft; 
Bronze Star with Combat "V". 

Religious Activities: Member, St. James United Methodist Church; 
(President, Methodist Men's Club, 1981; Administrative Board, 1981; Finance 
Committee, 1980.) 

Family: Married, Laura Kranifeld, of Greenville, Tennessee, June, 1988. 
Child: Michael. 



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Rayford Donald Beard 

SPEAKER PRO TEMPORE 
(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

Eighteenth Representative District - 
Cumberland (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Beard, Cum- 
berland County, March 24, 1923, to 
William A. and Lola (Maxwell) 
Beard. 

Education: Central High School, 
1942; Advanced Business and In- 
surance Studies. 

Professional Background: In- 
surance (Retired). 

Organizations: Lions Club; 
Masonic Order; Shriner; Scottish 
Rite; Past member and officer of 

Insurance Professional Associations; Past President of National Conference 

of Insurance Legislators. 

Boards: Governmental Operations Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-Present 
(8 Terms); Speaker Pro Tem, 1989-90. 

Religious Activities: Member, Snyder Memorial Baptist Church; Sunday 
School Teacher; Deacon 1950-; former Chairman, Deacon, Church Moderator, 
1960. 

Family: Married, Katherine Smith, July 30, 1944. Children: Linda B. Kay, 
Kathy B. Allen and Don, Jr. Grandchildren: Dave Kay, Jennifer Kay, 
Brooke Allen, Lynn Allen. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Ethics. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base Budget and Expansion 
Budget on Capital Outlay and Special Programs); Commerce (Subcommittee 
on Insurance). 



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313 




Dennis Alvin Wicker 

MAJORITY LEADER 
(Democrat - Lee County) 

Nineteenth Representative District - 
Harnett and Lee Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Sanford, Lee 
County, June 14, 1952, to J. Shelton 
and Clarice (Burns) Wicker. 

Education: UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1974, B.A.; Wake Forest University, 
1978, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Love 
and Wicker, P.A.). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and 
American Bar Associations; Academy 
of Trial Lawyers; Rotary Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC 
House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; 1989 (Majority 
Leader). 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Luke Methodist Church, Sanford; 
Administrative Board. 

Family: Married Alisa O'Quinn of Mamers, North Carolina on November, 
1982. Children: Quinn Edward and Jackson Dennis (Twins). 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Infrastructure Subcommittee on Solid Waste. 

Vice Chairman: Infrastructure. 

Member: Ethics; Finance (Subcommittee on Way and Means); Judiciary 
(Subcommittee on Law and Public Safety). 



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Johnathan L. Rhyne, Jr. 

MINORITY LEADER 
(Republican - Lincoln County) 

Forty-fourth Representative District - 
Gaston and Lincoln Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, June 6, 1955, 
to Johnathan L. and Marian Lavinia 
(Stowe) Rhyne, Sr. 

Education: Lincolnton High 
School, 1973; Davidson College, 1977, 
B.A. (Sociology); Campbell University 
SchoolofLaw, 1981, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attor- 
ney (partner, firm of Jonas, Jonas 
and Rhyne). 

Organizations: Lincoln County, 
NC, NC State and American Bar Associations; Secretary-Treasurer, Judicial 
District 27B, 1984. 

Boards: N.C. Courts Commission 1985-, (Chairman, 1986-); Joint Legisla- 
tive Commission on Governmental Operations. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-; Minority Leader 1989; Lincoln County Republican Party 
(Secretary, 1984). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Lincolnton; 
Board of Deacons, 1971-73, 1982-84 (Chairman, 1984). Elder (1985-) 

Family: Married, Martha Jayne Cameron of Dunn, August 2, 1980. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Rules, Appointments, and the Calendar.. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Natural and Economic Resources); Finance (Subcommittee on Revenue 

Laws.) 



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315 




Milton F. Fitch, Jr. 

MAJORITY WHIP 
(Democrat-Wilson County) 

Seventieth Representative District- 
Edgecombe (part), Nash (part), and 
Wilson (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Wilson, 
Wilson County, October 20, 1946, to 
Milton Frederick and Cora (Whitted) 
Fitch. 

Education: C.H. Darden High 
School, 1964; NC Central University, 
1968, B.S.; NC Central University, 
SchoolofLaw, 1972, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attor- 
ney. 
Political Activities: Member, NC 
House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-88 and 1989-. 
Religious Activities: Member, Jackson Chapel Baptist Church, Wilson. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Public Employees. 

Member: Ethics; Finance (Subcommittee on Ways & Means); Human Re- 
sources, (Subcommittee on Housing & Social Services); Pensions & Retire- 
ment; Rules, Appointments and the Calendar. 



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^^^ 




Charles Lemuel Cromer 

MINORITY WHIP 
(Republican - Davidson County) 

Thirty-seventh District - Davidson, Davie 
and Iredell (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in High Point, 
Guilford County, January 27, 1939, 
to Charles Norman and Wilma 
(Duggins) Cromer. 

Education: High Point High 
School, 1957; Sandhills Community 
College, 1972, A. A. with honors; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1972, B.A. with 
honors; Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1975, J.D., cum 
laude. 

Professional Background: Attor- 
ney, 1977-; law teacher, Davidson Com- 
munity College, 1975-82; associate, firm of Morgan, Post Herring & Morgan, 
1975-77; insurance adjustor, 1967-71. 

Organizations: NC and 22nd Judicial Bar Associations; Director and 
charter member. Parent to Parent; Director, Association for Retarded Citizens; 
Director, High Point Rescue Squad; Director, High Point Kindergarten for 
the Handicapped; Thomasville Rotary; Legislative Study Commissions: 
Medical Malpractice and Liability; Adolescent Pregnancy and Prematurity 
Prevention; Children With Special Needs. Statewide Family Planning Coun- 
cil; Adolescent Pregnancy and Prematurity Prevention Advisory Board; 
State Task Force on Services. 

Political Acitivities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-. (Republican Whip); RepubHcan National Convention, 1988. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1962-65 (Sp-4). 

Honors: American Jurisprudence awards and Law Review invitation, 
School of Law , Wake Forest University; 1985 Legislator of the Year (High 
Point, Assoc, for Retarded Citizens). 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, High 
Point; Chairman, Estate Committee; Finance Committee; class president, 
1980. 

Family: Married, Sheila Sue Whitlow of High Point. Children: Tonja 
Dawn and Ashley Nicole. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts & Administrative Hearings 

Vice-Chairman: Judiciary 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Human Resources); Finance 
(Subcommittee on State Revenue); Human Resources (Subcommitte on Health 
& Disease Prevention); Rules, Appointments and the Calendar. 



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317 



Jack Vernon Abernethy 

(Republican - Gaston County) 

Forty-fourth Representative District -Gaston 
and Lincoln Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, February 25, 1945, 
to Jack V. and Vilanta (Jackson) 
Abernethy. 

Education: Graduated Belmont High 
School, 1963; Western Carolina Univer- 
sity, B.S., 1974 (Business Administration, 
Accounting Concentration); Certified 
Public Accountant, 1984. 

Professional Background: Certified 
Public Accountant 

Organizations: NC Association of CPA'S, 1984-; National Association of 
Accounting, 1974- (Administrative VP, Gaston Chapter, 1984-85). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy, E-4, 1968-71; Reserves, 1971-73; Honorable 
Discharge. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Marcia Tarpley, of Mount Holly, June 23, 1973. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Railways, Airports & Water- 
ways). 

Vice Chairman: Infrastructure. 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil); Com- 
merce (Subcommittee on Business, Labor & Employment); Finance (Subcom- 
mittee on Revenue Laws). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Charles W. Albertson 

(Democrat - Duplin County) 

Tenth Representative District - Duplin and 
Jones Counties 

Early Years: Born in Beulaville, 
Duplin County, January 4, 1932, to James 
Edward and Mary Elizabeth (Norris) 
^^^^^^ Albertson. 

f ^^\ ^I^^^^H Education: Beulaville Elementary and 
^H ^^^^^^^^ High School, 1938-1950; attended James 
^H fl^^^^^^l Sprunt Community College. 

^H ^fe^^^^^H Professional Background: Farmer; 
^m ^K^^^m Retired PPQ officer of USDA; Profes- 
^^" ^^^^^^^^* sional musician; Songwriter and 

publisher. 

Organizations: Beulaville Investors Club; North Carolina Farm Bureau; 
Co-coordinator Yokefellow Prison Ministry, 1978-80; Chairman, Duplin 
County Red Cross Fund Drive, 1980; Duplin Rural Development Panel (Food 
and Agriculture Council), 1980-87; Duplin County Fair Committee, 1982. 

Boards: James Sprunt Community College, Board of Trustees, 1977-, 
Chairman of Board 1986-; James Sprunt Community College Foundation, 
Board of Directors, 1980-; Duplin County Agriculture-Business Council, 1980- 
(President, 1981); Duplin County Arts Council Board of Directors, 1977-79; 
Chairman, James Sprunt Community College Foundation; 1983-86. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1951-52. 

Honors: Two Certificates of Esteem from US Defense Department for 
entertaining troops in 26 countries; Duplin County Board of Commissioners 
proclaimed Charlie Albertson Day, May 25, 1975; Long Leaf Pine Award; 
Award for writing song for USDA APHIS. 

Literary Works/Publications: Has written and published several 
songs; Wrote promotional song for NCDA, "Goodness Grows in North 
Carolina." 

Religious Activities: Member, Beulaville Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 
1972-77; Elder, 1978-83, 1984-86, 1988-; Sunday school teacher; Choir member; 
Former President, Wilmington Presbyterian Men's Council; Former Vice- 
President, NC Synod Men's Council. 

Family: Married, Elma, "Grace" Sholar, February 15, 1953. Children: 
Randy Lee and Pamela (Albertson) Darnell. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Agriculture, Forestry and 
Horticulture); Finance (Subcommittee on State Revenue); Human Resources 
(Subcommittee on Aging, Medicaid & Facility Services). 



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319 




Gerald L. Anderson 

(Democrat - Craven County) 

Third Representative District - Craven, 
Lenoir, and Pamlico Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Craven County, 
June 29, 1939, to Noah L. and Hazel 
(Rowe) Anderson. 

Education: New Bern High School, 
1958; Deaver Realty Institute, 1974; 
Realtors Institute, Chapel Hill. 

Profession: Businessman (Forestry, 
logging and real estate interests). 

Boards: Director, Craven County Com- 
mittee of 100; New Bern-Craven County 
Chamber of Commerce; New Bern Board of Realtors; North Carolina 
National Bank Board; Board of Trustees, Mount Olive College. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1980-Present 
(6 Terms); Commissioner, Craven County, 1978-80. 

Religious Activities: Member, Tabernacle Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Marie Stilley, January 25, 1959. Children: Teresa, Tina, 
Jerry, Lisa and Josh. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Justice and Public Safety); 
Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Marine Fisheries); Government (Subcom- 
mittee on Local Government I).. 



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Stephen George Arnold 

Republican - Guilford County 

Twenty-Eighth Representative District - 
Guilford County 

Early Years: Born in Chicago, Illinois, 
July 12, 1961, to Dr. Gordon and Rosalie 
(Fowler) Arnold. 

Education: Andrews High School, 
1979; Capernwray Bible School, 1980 
(England); UNC-Greensboro, 1984, B. A. 

Professional Background: Land- 
scape contractor; Land Developer; Owner, 
Arnold Landscaping. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. 
House of Representatives, 1989-; City of High Point City Council 1985-1988. 

Honors: Eagle Scout. 

Religious Activities: Member, Westover Presbyterian Church, Greens- 
boro. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairnian:Public Employees Subcommittee on Benefits. 

Member:Education (Subcommittee on Educational Activities of State 
Agencies); Finance (Subcommittee on Local Revenues); Government (Sub- 
committee on Local Government H). 



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321 



David Gregory Balmer 

(Republican - Mecklenbury County) 

Fifty-F'ifth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg County. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, April U, 1962, to 
John Morrison and Diane (Foster) 
Balmer. 

Education: The Hill School, 1981 
(Pottstown, PA); UNC-Chapel Hill, 1984, 
BA; Wake Forest Law School, 1988, JD. 

Professional Background: Attorney 

Organizations: Member, American 
Cancer Society; Former member. Delta 
Upsilon Fraternity, (Vice President, 1982-83). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; NC 
Federation of College Republications, (State Vice Chairman, 1984); Students 
for Jim Martin for Congress, (Statewide Director, 9th District, 1982); Students 
for Jim Martin for Governor, (Statewide Chairman, 1984); Assistant Press 
Secretary, Governor Jim Martin, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, Calvary Church, Charlotte. 

Family: Married, Mary Kay Smith, July 30, 1988. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary Subcommittee on Law Enforcement & Public 
Safety. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Highway Fund); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Utilities). 



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Bobby Harold Barbee, Sr. 

(Republican - Stanly County) 

Thirty-F'ourth Representative District - 
Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Locust, Stanly 
County, November 24, 1927, to Relus W. 
and Joy (Hartsell) Barbee. 

Education: Locust Elementary; Stan- 
field High School, Graduated 1945. 

Professional Background: Barbee 
Insurance and Associates, Owner. 

Organizations: West Stanly Colt 
Club, President, 1982-1985; West Stanly 
High School Advisory Board Member, 
1986-87; Stanly County Community Schools Advisory Board Member, 1986- 
87; Former Member, Locust Elementary P.T.A., President, 1964-66, 1984-85. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-; Stanly County Republican Men's Club. 

Military: Served, Army Air Force, 1945-47; Basic Training, Sharp Shooter. 

Religious Activities: Member, Carolina Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 
1985-present; Music Director for Congregation; Missionary Trips (Africa, 
Indonesia and Martinique). 

Family: Married, Jacqueline Pethel, of Kannapolis, August 12, 1962. 
Children: Tammy, Michelle, Crystal, Julie and Bobby, Jr.. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Highway Fund); Government (Subcommittee on State Govern- 
ment & Properties). 

Member: Public Employees (Subcommittee on Benefits); Rules, Appoint- 
ments and the Calendar. 



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323 




Anne Craig Barnes 

(Democrat - Orange County) 

(Twenty-fourth Representative District - 
Chatham (part) and Orange Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Gaston County, 
March 29, 1932, to George Hoyle Craig 
and Jessie Tarlton. 

Education: Mount Holly High School, 
1950. 

Professional Background: Legis- 
lator, homemaker, former ballet in- 
structor. 

Organizations: NC Merchants 
Association (Board of Directors); 
Women's Forum of NC; NC Equity Inc. 

Boards: Chairman, Special Committee on Prisons; Juvenile Law Study 
Commission; NC Child Support Enforcement Council; Orange County Board 
of Social Services, 1978-81; National Association of Counties, 1978-81; Orange 
County Council on Aging, 1978-80; Chapel Hill Charter Commission, 1973- 
74; Chapel Hill Recreation and Parks Commission, 1969-72 (Chairman, 1970- 
82); Southern Legislative Conference Committee member since 1983. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981 -present 
(Five terms); Orange County Democratic Party (Executive Committee, 1969- 
76; Chairman 1974-76; Vice Chairman, 1972-74); delegate to county, district 
and state conventions, 1969-82; Commissioner, Orange County 1978-81; 
Carter-Mondale campaign staff, 1980; Executive Committee, NC Democratic 
Party, 1974-78; delegate, National Convention, 1974. 

Honors: Orange County "Distinguished Democrat", 1976; 1989 President's 
Award, NC Child Support Council, 1989; Leadership Award, NC Alternative 
Sentencing Award. 

Religious Activities: Deacon, 1977-80. 

Family: Married, Billy Ebert Barnes, July 19, 1952. Children: Billy, Jr. 
and Betsy. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Judiciary Subcommittee on Corrections. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Justice and Public Safety); Education (Subcommittee on The University 
of North Carolina); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Mental Health, 
Exceptional and Gifted People). 



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Howard Clinton Barnhill 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Sixtieth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt 
County, February 7, 1916, to Lonnie C. 
and Josephine (Staton) Barnhill. 

Education: Epps High School, 1934; 
NC A&T State University, 1938, B.S.; 
NC Central University, 1948, M.S (Public 
Health); UNC- Chapel Hill, School of 
Public Health, graduate studies. 

Professional Background: Retired 
educator (former Clinical Professor, 
School of Public Health, UNC-Chapel Hill); public health educator, 
Mecklenburg County Health Department; Director, Health Education Centers 
Program, School of Public Health, UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Organizations: Charlotte-Mecklenburg Community Relations Committee, 
1983-; Charlotte Club, 1983-; Marketing Task Force, Charlotte Drug Education 
Center, 1984-; Charlotte Medical Society, 1957-; Dimensions for Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg Committee, 1973-74; Citizens Advisory Committee on Urban 
Renewal and Community Improvement, Charlotte, 1965-72. 

Boards: Member, Charlotte Area Fund, Inc., 1984-; Charlotte-Mecklenburg 
School Health Advisory Council, 1984-; Mecklenburg County Health and 
Hospital Council Board, 1973-76; Board of Governors, UNC System of 
Higher Education, 1972-73; Trustee, NC A&T State University, 1969-72; 
Trustee, Florence Crittenton Services, 1965-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-; Governor's Task Force on Organization for the Delivery of 
Primary Health Services, 1969-70. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1942-46 (Staff Sergeant); 
American Theatre Service Medal; Pacific Service Medal; Good Conduct 
Medal; World War II Victory Medal. 

Honors: Laurel Wreath, Kappa Alpha Psi; Distinguished Service to 
Higher Education, NC A&T State University, 1980; Merit Award, 1976 and 
Twenty -five Years Service Award, 1977, NC Public Health Association; 
Excellence Award, 1973 and Twelve Years Service Award, 1965, NC A&T 
State University Alumni Association; Religious and Civic Service Award, 
St. Paul's Baptist Church, 1965; Outstanding Service in the Field of Health 
Education, Scorpian Club, 1965; Meritorious Community Service Award, 
Opportunity Foundation, Inc., 1965. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist-West Church, Charlotte; 
Sunday School Teacher, 1972-; Board of Directors, 1967-76. 



The Legislative Branch 325 

Family: Married, Lois Clay of Roxboro, March 27, 1948. Children: Howard 
C, Jr. and Angela C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Public Employees Subcommittee on Benefits. 

Vice-Chairman: Public Employees. 

Member: Appropriations, (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on General Government); Education (Subcommittee on Elementary and 
Secondary); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Housing and Social 
Services); New Licensing Board. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Charles Millwee Beall 

(Democrat - Haywood County) 

Fifty-second Representative District -Graham 
(part), Haywood, Jackson, Madison and 
Swain Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Asheville, 
Buncombe County, October 20, 1920, to 
Charles M. and Nina P. (Morgan) Beall. 

Education: Bethel High School, 1936; 
Brevard College, 1937-38; Haywood Com- 
munity College. 

Professional Background: Inven- 
tory controller. Champion Paper. 

Organizations: Pigeon River Lodge 
No. 386, Mason (Past Master); Asheville Consistory Scottish Rite, 32nd 
Degree; Vaner-Rhinehart Post, American Legion; Canton Chapter, York Rite 
Masons (past High Priest). 

Boards: Commission on the Future of N.C., 1982; Commission on Manu- 
factured Housing, 1982; Revenue Laws Committee, 1981; Judicial Nominating 
Committee, 1981; Committee for a Comprehensive Study of the Property Tax 
System in N.C., 1983-85; Member of the Legislative Research Commission's 
Study Committee on the Insurance Laws and Regulation of Insurance 
Industry, 1983; Local Government Advocacy Council 1983-86; Emergency 
Medical Services Advisory Council, 1985-88; Liaison from 11th Congressional 
District to Southern Legislative Conference of the Council of State Govern- 
ments 1985; House Co-Chairman of the Legislative Research Commission's 
study on Itinerant Merchants 1985; House Co-Chairman of the Legislative 
Research Commission's study on Outdoor Advertising, 1985; Special Com- 
mittee to Study the Department of Transportation 1985-87; House Co-chair- 
man of the Legislative Research Commission's study on Uniform System of 
Voting Machines, 1986; Cafeteria-Style Benefits Study Commission, 1985; 
Member of the Legislative Research Commission's study on Veterans 
Cemeteries, 1986; North Carolina Farmworker Council 1986-87; Subcom- 
mittee of the House of Representatives to determine agricultural needs of the 
farmers of NC 1986; House Subcommittee to study Utilities Commission 
Staff, 1986; Committee on Employee Hospital and Medical Benefits, 1987; 
Alternate Representative of the North Carolina House of Representatives to 
the State-Federal Assembly Committee on Commerce, Labor & Regulation of 
the National Conference of State Legislatures, 1987; Rural Economic Develop- 
ment Center, Inc.'s Board of Directors, 1987; Joint Select Committee on 
Economic Growth, 1987; Chairman, Haywood County Board of Elections, 
eight years; Co Chairman, Property Tax Appraisal Study Commission, 1987; 
NC Advisory Council, Eastern Band of the Cherokee, 1988. 



The Legislative Branch 327 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-present 
(five terms); Chairman, Haywood County Democratic Executive Committee, 
six years; delegate. National Democratic Convention, 1980; Chairman, 
Vance-Aycock Banquet, 1980; Board of Alderman, Town of Canton, two 
terms. 

Military Service: Served, USAAF (Corporal); Air Transport Command; 
World War II; Good Conduct Medal; American Theater Operations Medal. 

Honors: NC State AFL-CIO "A Friend of the Working People" Award, 
1989. 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church; Sunday 
School Teacher; Chairman, Administrative Board, 1978-88; former Finance 
Chairman; former Lay Leader and Treasurer, 1988-. 

Family: Married, Margaret Jewell Rhinehart, January 19, 1954. Children: 
Anna K., Cynthia H. (Beall) Hyatt and Margaret F. (Beall) Pollock. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on General Government); Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Water, Air and 
Soil); Government (Subcommittee on Local Government II). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Daniel Terry Blue, Jr. 

(Democrat - Wake County 

Twenty-First Representative District -Wake 
County. 

Early Years: Born in Lumberton, 
Robeson County, April 18, 1949, to Daniel 
Terry and Allene (Morris) Blue, Sr. 

Education: Oak Ridge High School, 
1966; NCCU, 1970, B.S. (Mathematics); 
Duke University, School of Law, 1973, 
J.D.; certificate. National Institute for 
Trial Advocacy, 1977. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(managing partner, firm of Thigpen, 
Blue, Stephens & Fellers, 1976-; associate, firm of Sanford, Adams, 
McCullough & Beard, 1973-76); faculty. National Institute for Trial Advocacy, 
1983. 

Organizations: American, NC and Wake County (former member. Execu- 
tive Committee) Bar Associations; American Associations of Trial Lawyers; 
Board of Governors, NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; NC Association of 
Black Lawyers; Duke Law Alumni Council; Raleigh-Wake Citizens Associa- 
tion; Kiwanis; Alpha Phi Alpha; former President, Triangle Chapter, Ameri- 
can Red Cross. 

Boards: East Raleigh Citizens Advisory Council; Director, East Central 
Community Legal Services, (past President); Wake County Council on Aging; 
Director, NC Center for Public Policy Research; NC Courts Commission; NC 
Criminal Code Commission; Board of Visitors, Duke University Law School; 
Director, NCNB Community Development Corporation; Z Smith Reynolds 
Foundation (Advisory Board). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Wake YDC; NC Democratic Black Leader- 
ship Caucus; Chairman, NC Legislative Black Caucus, 1984-; former mem- 
ber, State Democratic Executive Committee; former Committeeman, Raleigh 
Precinct 39; former Chairman, Raleigh Precinct 28; permanent Chairman, 
Wake County Democratic Convention, 1979; Chairman, Wake County Demo- 
cratic Campaign, 1978; active in Democratic politics on all levels; NC 
campaign coordinator for Mondale-Farrero, 1984; Chairman, NC Jackson 
campaign, 1988; NC Co-Chairman, Dukakis-Bensen, 1988. 

Honors: Humanitarian Award, Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, 1977; Man 
of the Year Award, Boyer Consistory, Prince Hall Masons, 1980; distinguish- 
ed Public Service Award, Shaw University, 1981; Man of the Year Award, 
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, 1981; Citizen of the Year Award, Kappa Alpha 
Psi Fraternity, 1981; Third Annual Heritage Award, Shaw University, 1981; 
Outstanding Legislator Award, North Carolina Association of Trial 



The Legislative Branch 329 

Lawyers, 1985; Outstanding Legislator Award, Lawyers; Outstanding Com- 
munity Service Award, 1985, North Carolina Black Lawyers Association; 
Outstanding State Representative Community Mental Health, Mental Re- 
tardation and Substance Abuse Programs, 1985; Distinguished Service 
Award, Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, 1985; Marjorie Lee Brown Distinguished 
Alumni Lecturer, North Carolina Central University Department of Mathe- 
matics, 1986; Special Recognition Award, North Carolina Association for 
Home Care, 1986; Outstanding Service Award, North Carolina Society for 
Autistic Adults & Children, 1986; Kelly Alexander, Sr., Humanitarian 
Award, NC Conference of Branches of NAACP, 1986; Appreciation Award, 
NC Alliance for the Mentally 111, 1986; Outstanding Public Service Award, 
Vance County Black Caucus, 1987; Outstanding Service Award, Garner 
Road YMCA, 1987; Annual Achievement Award, North CaroHna A. Philip 
Randolph Institute, 1987; Recognition Award, Martin Street Baptist Church, 
1987; Recognition Award, Martin Luther King Celebration Committee, 1987; 
Man of the Year Award, Mid Atlantic Region Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, 
1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, Davie St. Presbyterian Church, Elder. 

Family: Married, Edna Earle Smith, January 26, 1972. Children:Daniel 
Terry, III, Kanika and Dhamian. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary Subcommittee on Law Enforcement & Public Safety. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Education); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Highways); Rules, Appoint- 
ments and the Calendar. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Edward C. Bowmen 

Democrat-Sampson County) 

Twelfth Representative District-Bladen, 
Sampson and Pender (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Sampson Coun- 
ty, June 15, 1923, to Allie Deen Bowen 
and Sadie Florence Peterson. 

Education: Graduated Franklin High 
School, 1940. 

Professional Background: Legis- 
lator. 

Boards: Sampson County Planning 
Development Board, 1978-80; Franklin 
High School Board, fl950-54; Union High 
School Board, 1968-72. 

Political Activities: Served, NC House of Representatives, 1982 (ap- 
pointed September 22, 1982 to replace Ron Taylor), 1983-84, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served in Merchant Marines, 1944-46. 

Family: Married, Lola M. Owen, November 25, 1948; Children: Kathryn 
Bowen Thutt; John Graham Bowen; Lola Elizabeth Bowen; and William 
Lloyd Bowen. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Wildlife, Natural and Scenic 
Areas); Finance (Subcommittee on Revenue Laws); Government (Subcom- 
mittee on Local Government I); Public Employees (Subcommittee on Per- 
sonnel Polices). 



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331 




Joanne Walker Bowie 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

Twenty-Seventh Representative District - 
Guilford County 

Early Years: Born in Terre Haute, 
Indiana, June 18, to Phillip and lona 
(Brown) Walker. 

Education: West Virginia University, 
B.A. (Journalism & English); West 
Virginia University. M.S. (Communica- 
tion-Visual Aides). 

Professional Background: Public 

Relations Specialist; Extension News 
Editor, West Virginia University; Com- 
munications Specialist, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Former School 
Teacher. 

Organizations: Former member, Guilford County Medical Auxiliary, 
(President, 1982); Greensboro Chamber of Commerce (Board of Directors, 
1986); Mother's March, March of Dimes (Chairman of Local March, 1974-75). 

Boards: Former member. State Board of Community Colleges, 1985; 
Former member. National League of Municipalities Administration Commis- 
sion; Former member, Guilford County Convention and Visitors Board; 
Former Trustee, Guilford Technical and Community College, 1978-1985. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989-; Former 
member, Greensboro City Council, 1977-1988; Member, Guilford County 
Republican Women's Club. 

Religious Activities: Member, Saint Paul the Apostle Catholic Church, 
Greensboro. 

Family: Children: Michelle Elizabeth (Bowie) Gray and Amy Jo. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Government Subcommittee on Local Government II. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Highway Fund); Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Cultural Resources 
and Parks); Commerce (Subcommittee on Tourism). 



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North Carolina Manual 




James Fred Bo\vman 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

Twenty-fifth Representative District - 
Alamance, Rockingham, and Stokes (part) 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Kimesville, N.C. 
February 13, 1927, to William Daniel and 
Nannie (Neese) Bowman. 

Education: Nathaniel Green High 
School, 1944; Elon College, 1951, A.B. 
(Business, Math, Physics); Duke Univer- 
sity, M.S.E.E. (Engineering); UNC-Greens- 
boro, 1975, M.S. (Business Management). 

Professional Background: N.C. li- 
censed professional engineer and land surveyor; engineer, AT&T Tech- 
nologies (formerly Western Electric Company), 1946; retired farm manager, 
1944-46. 

Organizations: Burlington-Graham Engineers Club (President, 1981; Vice 
President, 1981-82); Alamance Executive Club (President and Vice President, 
1981-82); N.C. Educational Foundation for Commerce and Industry (Presi- 
dent, 1974-76); Alamance Art Council; Private College Committee; Director, 
Burlington Civitan Club, 1979, 1983, 1989; President and Vice President, 
Burlington City Schools PTA, 1975-76; Director, N.C. Society of Engineers, 
1970-74. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-90; Democratic State Executive Committee, 1972-1984; 
Alamance County Democratic Party (Chairman, 1978-82, Treasurer, 1975- 
77); Supervisor, Alamance Conservation Soil and Water, 1982-84; County 
Chairman, Candidates Campaigns for President, Governor and Attorney. 

Honors: Valedictorian, Nathaniel Green High School, 1944; Statue of 
Liberty Award from Constituents Alamance, Rockingham, and Stokes, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, Beverly Hills United Church of Christ, 
Burlington; Deacon Board of Christian Education; Finance Chairman, Build- 
ing Committee, 1966-85; Adult Sunday School Teacher, 1955-present; Sunday 
School Superintendent. 

Family: Married, Dr. Betty Lynch of Elon College, June 30, 1946. 
Children: J. Thomas, Zebulon, Nan, and Freda. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education Subcommittee on Community Colleges. 

Vice Chairman: Education. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Justice and Public Safety); Commerce (Subcommittee on Business, Labor 
& Employment); Ethics; Human Resources (Subcommittee on Aging, Medi- 
caid and Facility Services). 



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333 




Clyde Robert Brawley, Jr. 

(Republican - Iredell County) 

Forty-third Representative District - 
Alexander (part), Catawba (part), and Iredell 
(part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Mooresville, 
Iredell County, April 10, 1944, to Clyde 
R. and Sarah (Goodnight) Brawley. 

Education: Mooresville Senior High, 
1959-62; NC State University, 1968, B.S. 
(Engineering Operations). 

Professional Background: Insurance 
agent. 

Organizations: National Association 
of Life Underwriters; Rotary Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army National Guard, 1967-(Major). 

Religious Activities: Member, Triplett Methodist Church; President, 
Men's Club; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Mary Kipka, March 31, 1972. Children: Woody, Shelly, 
Edward, Sarah and Susan. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance Subcommittee on Revenue Laws. 

Vice-Chairman: Finance; Commerce Subcommittee on Insurance. 

Member: Human Resources (Subcommittee on Families, Children and 
Youth). 



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North Carolina Manual 




John Walter Brown 

(Republican - Wilkes County) 

Forty-first Representative District - Alexander 
(part), Wilkes, and Yadkin Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Traphill, Wilkes 
County, September 12, 1918, to James 
Walter and Nora Blackburn Brown. 

Education: Virginia Trade School, 
1940; Appalachian State University, 
1937. 

Professional Background: Farmer 
(beefcattle, poultry and tobacco). 

Organizations: NC Cattlemen's As- 
sociation; Woodmen of the World; Farm 
Bureau. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973- 
74, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46 (Private); Engineer Corps; 
World War II. 

Religious Activities: Member, Charity United Methodist Church; Chair- 
man, Official Board; Trustee; Church School Superintendent; Teacher, Young 
Adult Class; Church Lay Speaker. 

Family: Married, Ruth Hanks, September 14, 1941. Children: Betty Ruth 
Brown and Johnsie Charles (Brown) Brown. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Basic Resources Subcommittee on Agriculture, Forestry and 
Horticulture. 

Vice-Chairman: Basic Resources. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Revenue Laws); Infrastructure (Sub- 
committee on Highways). 



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335 




Harold James Brubaker 

(Republican - Randolph County) 

Thirty-eighth Representative District - 
Randolph (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Mount Joy, 
Pennsylvania, November 11, 1946, to 
Paul N. and Verna Mae (Miller) Bru- 
baker. 

Education: Pennsylvania State Uni- 
versity, 1969, B.S. (Agricultural Eco- 
nomics); NC State University, 1971, 
Masters (Economics). 

Professional Background: President, 
Brubaker & Associates, Inc. (real estate 
appraisals, and consultant). 

Organizations: Randolph County Farm Bureau; Grange; NC Holstein 
Association; 4-H Club leader (former President, NC Development Fund); Di- 
rector, Salvation Army; former Director: Westside Volunteer Fire Depart- 
ment, Randolph Technical College Foundation, National Conference on 
Citizenship; former Vice President, National FFA. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-; House Minority Leader, 
1981-82, 1983-84; Joint Caucus Leader, Republican Members of the NC 
General Assembly, 1979-80; Executive and Central Committees, NC Republi- 
can Party (former Assistant Secretary); Executive Committee, Randolph 
County Republican Party; Executive Committee, National Association for 
Republican Legislators; former Executive Committee member, 4th District 
Republican Party; Co-Chairman, NC Reagan-Bush Committee, 1980; delegate 
at large. National Republican Convention, 1980; Chairman, Randolph Coun- 
ty Young Republicans, 1971; State Chairman, American Legislative Ex- 
change Council, 1982-1989. Member of National Board of Directors of the 
American Legislative Exchange Council, 1988-Present. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Men in NC, 1981; Outstanding 4-H Alumni 
of NC, 1981; Distinguished Service Award, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Lutheran Church; Congregation 
Chairman; Past Vice Chairman, Deacon Board. 

Family: Married, Geraldine Baldwin, November, 1972. Children: Jonathon 
Nissley and Justin Andrew. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commerce Subcommittee on Banks and Thrift Instititions. 

Vice Chairman: Commerce. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Justice and Public Safety) Education, (Subcommittee on Community 
Colleges); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Health and Disease 
Prevention). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Charles Franklin Buchanan 

(Republican - Mitchell County) 

Forty-sixth Representative District - 
Alexander (part), Avery, Burke (part), 
Caldwell, Mitchell and Watauga (part) 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Poplar, Mitchell 
County, October 5, 1936, to Robert and 
Hattie Mae (Garland) Buchanan. 

Education: Poplar School, 1942-49; 
North Side School, 1949-51; GED - High 
School US Air Force. 

Organizations: Bakersville Lions Club 
(President, 1983); Spruce Pine Mountaineer 
Shrine Club; Scottish Rite and York Rite, Asheville; OASIS Temple, Char- 
lotte; Master of Bakersville Masonic Lodge n357. 

Boards: Former Director: Northwestern Housing Authority; Mitchell 
County Finance Committee; Region D Council of Governments; WAMY 
Community Action; Mitchell County EDC; Region D SBA; NC Labor Train- 
ing Action; Mitchell County Social Services; NC Council on Aging; Personnel 
Committee, Mitchell County; Mitchell County Transportation Authority 
(former Chairman); Association of Social Services; Tennessee Valley 
Authority, 1978-82; NC Association of County Commissioners, 1978-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86; 
1987-88, 1989-; former Commissioner, Mitchell County (Chairman, two 
years); White House Conference on Aging, 1981. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1958-62; Reserves, 1962-64 
(A/lc). 

Religious Activities: Member, Poplar Free Will Baptsit Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Pensions and Retirement 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Highways); Government (Subcom- 
mittee on Local Government I); Public Employees (Subcommittee on Bene- 
fits). 




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Logan Burke 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 

Sixty-Seventh Representative District - 
Forsyth (part) 

Early Years: Born in Winton, Hert- 
ford, October 26, 1933, to Selma and 
Lillian E. (Weaver) Burke. 

Education: C. S. Brown High School, 
1953; Winston Salem State University, 
1960, B.S; N.C. A&T State University, 
1964, M.S; Elizabeth City State Univer- 
sity, 1953-54. 

Professional Background: Teacher, 
Principal, Winston Salem, Forsyth 
Schools; Division of Youth Services; Special Assistant for Institutional Ser- 
vices; Present Instructor, Recourse Specialist, Winston Salem State Univer- 
sity; Local, State and National Educational Association; N.C. Juvenile 
Association; Secretary of N.C. Correctional Association, 1982. 

Organizations: Member, NAACP; Omega Psi Phi Fraternity; Former, 
State Democratic Executive Committee; Precinct Committee. 

Boards: Board of Directors of Experiment in Self-Reliance; Former 
Member, President, Board of Directors of Experiment in Self Reliance; 
Winston Salem Human Relations Council; Region IV Citizens Council; N.C. 
Juvenile Association. 

Political Activities: N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 1989; Con- 
ducted Three Winning Elections as Campaign Manager for Vivian H. Burke 

(wife). 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, Sp-4, 1954-57. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grace Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Vivian M. Harris, of Charlotte, August 29, 1954. 
Children: Logan. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education (Subcommittee on Educational Activities of State 
Agencies). 

Vice Chairman: Education. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Local Revenues); Human Resources 
(Subcommittee on Families, Children & Youth). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Howard B. Chapin 

(Democrat - Beaufort County) 

Second Representative District - Beaufort, 
Hyde and Washington (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Ahoskie, Hert- 
ford County, December 9, 1921, to Henry 
B. and Lavenia (Howard) Chapin (both 
deceased). 

Education: PubHc Schools of Weldon 
and Aurora; Kinston High School; 
Atlantic Christian College, 1947, A.B.; 
Civic Institute of Government, UNC- 
Chapel Hill; ECU, additional studies in 
political science. 

Profession: Retired educator. 

Organizations: Member, Belhaven Lions Club (past president); Washing- 
ton Kiwanis Club (past president) VFW; Belhaven Chamber-Washington 
Chamber. 

Boards: Former member, Washington Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Force, 1943-45 (Sergeant); 8th Air 
Force. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church, Washington. 

Family: Married, Mary Alice Beasley, January 29, 1948. Children: J. 
Michael and Kenneth E. Grandchildren — Tonia and Mikki. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Public Employees Subcommittee on Salaries. 

Vice Chairman: Base Resources Subcommittee on Marine Fisheries; 
Public Employees. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Education). 



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339 




John Trammell Church 

(Democrat - Vance County) 

Twenty-second Representative District - 
Caswell, Granville, Halifax (part), Person, 
Vance and Warren. 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake 
County, September 22, 1917, to Charles 
R. and Lela (Johnson) Church. 

Education: Boyden High School, 1935; 
Catawba College, 1936-37; UNC-Chapel; 
Hill, 1942, B.S. (Pharmacy). 

Professional Background: Chairman 
Emeritus of the Board, Roses Stores, Inc. 

Organizations: Executive Committee, 
Director and past President; N.C. Merchants Association; Director, N.C. 
Citizens Association; N.C. Agri-Business Council; Director, National Retail 
Merchants Association; UNC-Chapel Hill Business Foundation; Association 
of General Merchandise Concerns (Secretary, Past President); Henderson- 
Vance Chamber of Commerce; Henderson-Vance United Fund (former 
Trustee and Executive Committee, Carolina's United), Past President; 
Rotary, Past President; Henderson Country Club, Past President; Mason; 
Shriner; Elk; American Legion; Newcomers Society of N.C; Vanwarco and 
North District Occoneechee Council, BSA; Kappa Alpha; Chi Beta Phi; 
Tarheel Lung Association; National Society to Prevent Blindness, President. 

Boards: Former Director, People's Bank (former Chairman, Advisory 
Board); Advisory Boards, SE Regional Council, BSA and Salvation Army, 
Trustee; Louisburg College (Vice Chairman) and Vance-Granville Community 
College (Secretary, Vice President); Board of Visitors, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
Former Secretary, N.C. Ports Authority and N.C. Railroads; Committees, 
State Revenue Sharing, Morehead Scholarship Selection, NC-VA Water 
Management, Chairman, Commissions; Kerr Lake, UNC Utilities Study 
(Chairman), Executive Residence Building, N.C. Tax Study, N.C. Legislative 
Services, N.C. Research, State Art Museum Building, N.C. Agency for 
Telecommunications. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1967-69, 
1977-78. 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84; 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; N.C. Senate, 1971; 
delegate. National Democratic Convention, 1972, Democratic National Com- 
mittee, 1972; Chairman, N.C. Democratic Executive Committee, 1972; Chair- 
man, Democratic Executive Committee, Vance County, 1966, 1976. Henderson 
City Council, 1966-67. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Marine Corp Reserves, 1942-45 (Captain); 
naval aviator, combat veteran. Awarded 3 Distinguished, Flying Crosses, 10 
Air Medals; Asiatic-Pacific Theater, 2 Bronze Stars; Phillipine Liberation, 1 
Bronze Star. 



340 North Carolina Manual 

Honors: Man of the Year, Henderson-Vance Chamber of Commerce; 
Businessman in the News, N.C. Citizens Association; "Tar Heel of the 
Week," The News and Observer; Silver Beaver and Distinguished Citizen 
Awards, BSA; Distinguished Alumnus, Catawba County, 1973. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Hender- 
son; Chairman of the Board (former President); Trustee; former Chairman, 
Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Emma Thomas Rose of Henderson, December 31, 1943. 
Children: John and Elizabeth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Infrastructure Subcommittee on Highways. 

Vice Chairman: Commerce Subcommittee on Business, Labor & Employ- 
ment; Infrastructure. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Highway Fund). 



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341 




Marie Waiters Colton 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

Fifty-first Representative District -Buncombe, 
Henderson (part) and Transylvania Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, October 20, 1922, 
to John Piper and Sarah Thomas 
Watters. 

Education: Chapel High School, 1939; 
St. Mary's Junior College; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1943, B.A. (Spanish); Mars Hill 
College and UNC-Asheville, post 
graduate studies. 

Professional Background: Legis- 
lator. 

Organizations: Business and Professional Women; League of Women 
Voters; American Association of University Women; Sir Walter Cabinet; 
Children's Welfare League. 

Boards: Director, Vagabond School of Drama; Board of Directors, Brevard 
Music Center; Board of Advisors, NC Historic Preservation Foundation; The 
NC Institute of Medicine; Director, General Alumni Association UNC-Chapel 
Hill. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-. 

Religious Activities: Trinity Episcopal Church; Former Vestry Woman. 

Family: Married, Henry E. Colton. Children: Elizabeth, Marie (Colton) 
Pelzer; Sarah (Colton) Villeminot; Walter Colton; 7 grandchildren. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources Subcommittee on Health and Disease 
Prevention. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Natural and Economic Resources); Basic Resources (Subcommittee on 
Wildlife, Natural and Scenic Areas); Commerce (Subcommittee on Tourism). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Roy Asberry Cooper, III 

(Democrat - Nash County) 

Seventy-Second Representative District - 
Edgecombe (part) and Nash (part). 

Early Years: Born in Nashville, Nash 
County, June 13, 1957, to Roy A. and 
Beverly Cooper, Jr. 

Education: Northern Nash Sr. High 
School, 1973-75; UNC Chapel Hill, 1979 
(Batchelor of Arts); UNC Chapel Hill, 
1982 (Juris Doctor). 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
N.C. Bar Association; N.C. Academy of 
Trial Lawyers. 

Organizations: Rocky Mount Jaycees; Chamber of Commerce; Tar River 
Chorus and Orchestra Society, Board of Directors; United Way, Board of 
Directors; American Heart Association, Board of Directors; Red Cross. 

Boards: Former, State Goals and Policy Board, 1979-84; State Interim 
Balanced Growth Board, 1979-84; Commission on the Future of N.C. (N.C. 
2000), 1981-84; N. C. Courts Commission, 1988-present. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-; N.C. College Democrats (President-UNC Chapel Hill Club), 1978; N.C. 
Young Democrats (2nd District Chairman), 1980; Democratic Party (Precinct 
Officer, Delegate to County, District and State Conventions). 

Honors: Morehead Scholar; UNC Order of Golden Fleece, Grail, and Old 
Well; Order of the Long Leaf Pine State Honor Society; Freedom Guard 
Award (N.C. Jaycees); Distinguished Service Award (Rocky Mount Jaycees). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 1983- 
86; Youth Group Advisor, Various Committees. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Highways); Rules, Appointments 
and the Calendar. 



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343 



James M. Craven 

(Republican - Moore County) 

Thirty-first Representative District - Moore 
County. 

Early Years: Born in Pine Bluff, 
Moore County, July 17, 1930. 

Education: Ellerbe High School, 1948. 

Professional Background: Chairman 
of the Board, New South Industries, (a 
division of Erico Corporation). 

Organizations: Roman Eagle Lodge 
No. 550; Aberdeen A&A; Scottish Rite; 
Moore County Shrine Club. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. 
House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Commissioner, 
Moore County, 1980-82; former Chairman, Moore County Republican Party. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1948-69 (M/Sergeant); Airborn 
Infantry. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pine Bluff Methodist Church; Administra- 
tive Board. 

Family: Married, Kathleen Freeman of Eagle Springs, September 8, 1950. 
Children: Richard, Donna, Steve and Jennifer. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Education (Subcommittee on Private Schools); Finance (Subcom- 
mittee on State Revenue); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Solid Waste); 
Judiciary (Subcommittee on Corrections). 



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North Carolina Manual 




James W. Craw^ford, Jr. 

(Democrat - Granville County) 

Twenty-second Representative District - 
Caswell, Granville, Halifax (part), Person, 
Vance and Warren (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Bom in Durham, Durham 
County, October 4, 1937, to James Walker 
and Julia Brent (Hicks) Crawford. 

Education: Public Schools of Oxford, 
Oxford High School, 1956; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1960, B.S. (Industrial Relations). 

Professional Background: Retail 
Merchant; Developer; Cost Accountant 
Harriet Henderson Cotton Mills; John- 
son's; Guys and Dolls; The Fabric Shop; Crawford Properties; A & P True 
Value, Inc.; Coble Blvd. Investments. 

Boards: Roanoke Island Historical Association; Granville Medical Center 
Foundation; Vance-Granville Community College Foundation; UNC Board 
of Visitors; Saint Andrews Presbyterian College Trustees. Oxford Zoning 
Board of Adjustment. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Oxford City Council, 1964-68. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Navy, 1960-62 (Lieutenant j.g.). 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Jaycees; Carroll V. Singleton 
Award; Valand Award; NC Psychological Association's Appreciation and 
Recognition Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Oxford Methodist Church; Chairman, 
Board of Trustees, 1980; Sunday School Teacher; Pastoral Parish Relations 
Committee. 

Family: Married, Harriet C. Cannon, February 11, 1961. Children: James, 
Julia, and Harriet. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Education. 

Member: Education (Subcommittee on Private Schools); Human Resources 
(Subcommittee on Mental Health, Exceptional & Gifted People); Rules, 
Appointments and the Calendar. 



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345 




Narvel J. Crawford, Jr. 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

Fifty-First Representative District -Buncombe 
County. 

Early Years: Born in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County, November 9, 1929, to 
Narvel J. and Tymah (Phillips) 
Crawford. 

Education: Lee Edwards High School, 
1946-48; Duke University, A. B., 1952; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1959-60, graduate 
studies in history. 

Professional Background: Property 
Management. 

Organizations: V.F.W. Post 789; Asheville Civitan Club; Legislative 
Task Force, Industrial Relations and Economic Development Committees, 
Asheville Chamber of Commerce; Director, American Lung Association of 
NC (western region); Director, NC Hemophilia Foundation; Director, Epilepsy 
Association of NC; Director, American Foundation for the Deaf; Director, 
Meals on Wheels. 

Boards: Director, NC State Theater at Flat Rock; Director, Thomas 
Rehabilitation Hospital; Director, Buncombe County Social Services, State 
Parks Study Commission (co-chairman). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Democratic State Executive Committee, 
third term; Secretary, Buncombe County Executive Committee, 1978-79; 
Chairman, Asheville Precinct No. 3, 1972-78; President, Democratic Forum 
of Buncombe County, 1972-78; campaign manager, Asheville City Council, 
1977; representative. Eleventh Congressional District, State Democratic Plat- 
form Committee, 1976. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1954-1956, (Counter Intelligence 
Corps). 

Honors: Phi Beta Kappa; Distinguished Service Award, Western North 
Carolina Alzheimer Organization. 

Religious Activities: Member, All Souls Episcopal Church, Asheville; 
Chalice Administrator; Director, National Council, American Church Union. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Basic Resources Subcommittee on Cultural Resources and 
Parks. 

Vice Chairman: Basic Resources. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on General Government); Judiciary (Subcommittee on Election Laws & 
Constitutional Amendments). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Billy James Creech 

(Republican - Johnston County) 

Twentieth Representative District -Johnston 
County 

Early Years: Born in Smithfield, 
Johnston County, March 25, 1943, to 
Worley Nevelle and Geraldine (Godwin) 
Creech. 

Education: Wilson's Mills High 
School, 1962; Mount Olive College. 

Professional Background: Owner - 
operator. Specialty Lumber Company. 

Organizations: Southeastern Lumber- 
man's Manufacturing Association; Mem- 
ber, Ducks Umlimited; Member, Keep Johnston County Beautiful, Inc. 

Boards: Community Resource Council, Johnston County Prison Unit; 
Farmers Home Administration (Chairman, 1985-86). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
Member, Johnston County GOP; Former precinct registrar. 

Military Service: US Army Reserve 

Religious Activities: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Wilson's 
Mills. 

Family: Married, Donna Arrants of New Ellenton, SC, 1977. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Infrastructure Subcommittee on Highways. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Highway Fund); Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Marine Fisheries); 
Judiciary (Subcommittee on Courts and Administrative Hearings). 



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347 





r ^ f 





Arlie Franklin Gulp, Jr. 

(Republican - Randolph County) 
Thirtieth Representative District -Randolph 
W*1^! V -^^ _ /" County 

|^^_^/T jUf W^M Early Years: Born in Badin, Stanley 
^ — ^ ^^™ County, April 9, 1926, to Arlie Franklin 
and Mary Eula (Smith) Culp, Sr. 

Education: Badin Public Schools, 
1932-42; Catawba College, 1950, AB; 
A&T State University, 1976, BS. 

Professional Background: District 
Conservationist, Soil Conservation Ser- 
vice USDA, 1961-1986; Public Health 
Sanitarian, Randolph County, 1951-61; 
teacher, 1950-51. 

Organizations: Member, Soil and Water Conservation Society; Randle- 
man Rotary Club (President, 1964-65); Life member, Asheboro Jaycees (VP, 
1954); Member, Randolph Livestock Improvement Association; Member, 
Randolph County Forest Resources Association. 

Boards: Board of Supervisors, Randolph County Soil & Water Conserva- 
tion District 1987-, Secretary - Treasurer); Chairman, North Central Pied- 
mont Resource Conservation & Development Council, 1987-; Member, 
Randolph County Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
Member, Randolph County Republican Party, L951-. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1944-46, Seaman First Class; Good 
Conduct Medal. 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Asheboro Jaycees, 1959. 

Religious Activities: Member, Jordan Memorial United Methodist 
Church; Chief Usher, 1987-; Member, Men's Sunday School Class; Member, 
Administrative Board. 

Family: Married, Daisy Mae Farlow, June 22, 1950. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Basic Resources Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on General Government); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Water & Waste- 
water); Public Employees (Subcommittee on Salaries). 



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North Carolina Manual 




William Cunningham 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty-Ninth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Monroe, Union 
County, November 11, 1929, to John 
Wallace and Johnnie Mae (Patterson) 
Cunningham. 

Education: Winchester Avenue High 
School; Coyne Electronic Institute, 1950, 
A.E. Certificate; Johnson C. Smith Uni- 
versity, 1950-52; Business Law Florida 
Extension, Charleston A.F.B. 

Professional Background: President 
and Co-Owner, Hatchett and Cunningham Associates, 1973-84; Professional 
and Technical Recruiting Firm; Owner, Affordable Used Cars, 1984-present, 
1984-87, 1987-present; HKL Inc. CEO. 

Organizations: Life Member, NAACP (NAACP Legal Defense Fund) 
Charlotte Business League (Board of Directors), Former President, 1979 
Member, VFW; American Legion Post 212; United Negro College Fund 
Compassion International; Johnson C. Smith Alumni (100 Club), 1979-85. 

Boards: Charlotte Chamber of Commerce, Board of Directors, 1980-82. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-; Member, State Black Leadership Caucus; Member, Charlotte, Mecklen- 
burg Black Caucus. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy, Radioman, 1st Class, Retired, 1972; Good 
Conduct Medal, ETO (American Defense), Outstanding Sailor of the Month, 
Leadership Certificates. 

Religious Activities: Member, Parkwood CME Church; Present Chair- 
man, Trustee Board, 1973-present; Vice Chairman, Development Fund Board 
Christian Education, 1980-present. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Finance (Subcommittee on Revenue Laws). 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Authorities, Boards & Commis- 
sions); Government (Subcommittee on Military, Veterans & Indian Affairs). 



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349 




Donald Martin Dawkins 

(Democrat - Richmond County) 

Thirty-second Representative District - 
Richmond and Scotland (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Rockingham, 
Richmond County, June 28, 1938, to 
Eugene Dennis and Myrtle Eunice 
(Blake) Dawkins. 

Education: Rockingham High School, 
1956; NCSU, 1960, B.S. (Mechanical and 
Aeronautical Engineering); University of 
Southern California, 1970, Masters (Man- 
agement); St. Mary's University, School 
of Law, 1973, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney; lay pastor. 

Organizations: Richmond County, NC, NC State, American, Texas and 
Florida Bar Associations; American Trial Lawyers Association; NC Academy 
of Trial Lawyers. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1960-71 (Major); helicopter pilot; 
Signal Corps; Distinguished Flying Crosses (2); Meritorious Service Medal; 
Bronze Star for Achievement; Bronze Star for Valour; Army Commendation 
Medal; Air Medals (17); Air Medal with "V"; various campaign medals. 

Religious Acitivities: Member, Tabernacle United Methodist Church, 
Hamlet; lay pastor, 1978-; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Patricia Ellen Settle of Rockingham, September 11, 
1960. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Government. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Ways & Means); Judiciary, (Subcom- 
mittee on Courts and Administrative Hearings); Rules, Appointments and 
the Calendar. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Michael Decker 

; (Republican - Forsyth County) 

i Twenty-ninth Representative District - 

i Forsyth (part) and Guilford (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Red Bud, 

Illinois, December 18, 1944, to Harvey 
and Margaret (Parvin) Decker. 

Education: Piedmont Bible College, 
1969-74; Winston-Salem State University, 
1976, B.S. (Education). Attended NCSU. 

Professional Background: Teacher 

(Gospel Light Christian School, 1976- 

; 1986). Guilford Co. PubUc School (1987-Present). 

Organizations: Little League Base- 
ball (Board of Director, 1981-84, Secretary, 1982-83, coach, 1979-81). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86; 
1987-88, 1989-; Forsyth County Republican Party (Vice Chairman, 1981-83); 
Chairman, Belews Creek Precinct, 1979-84. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1962-68 (E-5); submarine services; 
National Defense, Good Conduct Medals. 

Religious Activities: Member, Gospel Light Baptist Church, Walker- 
town; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Marlene Allen of Creston, June 4, 1966. Children: 
Michael, Jr., Mark,and Michelle. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education Subcommitte on Private Schools. 

Vice-Chairman: Education; Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and 
Expansion Budget on General Government. 

Member: Government (Subcommittee on ABC); Judiciary (Subcommittee 
on Law enforcement and Public Safety). 



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351 




Daniel Howard DeVane 

(Democrat - Hoke County) 

Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, 
Robeson and Scotland (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Elizabethtown, 
Bladen County, June 4, 1945, to Junie 
Franklin and Duel (Strickland) DeVane. 

Education: White Oak High School, 
1964; Missouri Auction School, 1975. 

Professional Background: Real 
estate executive and auctioneer (owner, 
DeVane Realty & Auction); owner, 
DeVane's Men's Clothing, 1972-82; 
Raeford Department Store, 1969-72; 
Fayetteville Police Department, 1966-69. 

Organizations: Former member: Raeford Kiwanis Club; Hoke County 
Rescue Squad (Commander, 1972-75); Hillcrest Volunteer Fire Department; 
Jaycees; member, Raeford Fire Department. 

Boards: Trustee, Flora Macdonald Academy (Chairman, 1981-82). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90; Council of Government, Region N, 1976-82 (Chair- 
man, 1980); Hoke County Commissioner, 1976-82. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, 1965 (6 months); Reserves, 
5 1/2 years. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Deacon. 
Family: Married, Alice Smith, July 6, 1968. Children: Daniel Howard, II. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Basic Resources. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budgets 
on Natural and Economic Resources); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Solid 
Waste). 



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North Carolina Manual 




David Hunter Diamont 

(Democrat - Surry County) 

Fortieth Representative District -Alleghany, 
Ashe, Stokes (part), Surry and Watauga (part) 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, 
Guilford County, February 9, 1946, to 
David Elijah and Hyacinth Cleo (Hunter) 
Diamont (both deceased). 

Education: East Surry High School, 
1961-63; Frank L. Ashley High School, 
1963-64; Wake Forest University, 1968, 
B.A.; Appalachian State University, 
1972, M.A. 

Professional Background: History teacher and head varsity football 
coach. East Surry High School, 1977- (varsity coaching record: 77 wins and 
51 losses; state play offs, 1979-81, 1982-83, 1985-86, 1988-); history teacher 
and assistant football coach. Mount Airy Senior High School, 1968-1977. 

Organizations: N.C. Coaches Association; Lambda Chi Alpha; Sierra 
Club; Surry County Historical Society; Deacon Club, Wake Forest Univer- 
sity; former member. Pilot Mountain Jaycees. 

Boards: Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health, 1979-80; 
Director, Pilot Mountain Foundation, Inc.; N.C. High Coaches Association. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-pre- 
sent (8 terms). 

Honors: Assistant coach, East-West All Star Football Game, 1985; Coach 
of the Year, Northwest 3- A Conference, 1979, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Pilot 
Mountain; Lay Leader. 

Family: Married, Debby Severs of Greensboro. Children: Ashley. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations. 

Member: Education (Subcommittee on Elementary & Secondary Educa- 
tion). 



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353 




Walter W. Dickson 

(Republican - Gaston County) 

Forty-Fourth Representative District - Gaston 
County 

Early Years: Born in Rock Hill, S.C., 
July 11, 1927, to Brice T. and Louise 
(Flowers) Dickson. 

Education: Gastonia Public School; 1 
and V'l years Erskine College; UNC- 
Chapel Hill; Bachelor of Science in 
Animal Industry from NC State Univer- 
sity; Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from 
U of Georgia. 
Professional Background: Practiced 
Veterinary Medicine in Gastonia, 1954 until retiring in 1988. 

Organizations: Past President, Piedmont Veterinary Medical Associa- 
tion; Past President, Greater Charlotte Veterinary Medical Association; Past 
President, North Carolina Veterinary Medical Association; Member, The NC 
State College of Veterinary Medicine Foundation; member. The American 
Veterinary Medical Association (PAC); Past President, Gaston Country 
Club; Past Member, Gastonia Kiwanis Club, Board of Directors; Vice Chair- 
man, Lena and Carie Glenn Foundation; Former Member, Junior Chamber 
of Commerce; Member, Gaston County Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Member, Board of Trustees of NC State University, 1972-1976; 
Member, NC Health Services Commission; Member, NC Board of Veterinary 
Examiners; Chairman, Board of Directors of First American Savings Bank, 
Greensboro; Former Member, Salvation Army Boys Club Advisory Board; 
Co Founder, Covenant Village Retirement Community; Vice Co Chairman, 
Gastonia Citizens Transportation Advisory Committee; Former Member, 
Board of Directors of the Schiele Museum. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1989-; Past 
Chairman, Tenth District of NC Republican Party; Past Chairman, Gaston 
County for Senator Broyhill; Past Co Chairman, Gaston County for Congress- 
man Ballenger. 

Military Service: US Navy, 1944-1946; Tours of Duty, Bainbridge, MD; 
Great Lakes Naval Training Station; Radio Technician School of Herzl Jr. 
College, Chicago; Fort Pierce Florida in Naval Scouts and Raiders Training; 
Nine Months as Electrician Aboard the USS ATA 188 in the Pacific. 

Family: Married Ruth (Michael) of Gastonia, August 19, 1950. Children: 
Ruth (Dickson) Dalton, Walter Michael, Amy (Dickson) House, David Watt 
and Lillian Louise. 



354 North Carolina Manual 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Education (Subcommittee on The University of North 
Carolina). 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Capital Outlay and Special Programs); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on 
Highways; Public Employees (Subcommittee on Salaries). 



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355 




Lawrence Edward Diggs 

(Republican - Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-Six Representative District - 
Mecklenburg County 

Early Years: Born in Midland, 
Cabarrus County, November 26, 1947, to 
Millard Thomas and Evelyn Clara 
(Morgan) Diggs. 

Education: Harding High School, 
1965; Central Piedmont Community 
College. 

Professional Background: Part 
Owner, Innovative Printing and Design, 
Inc. 

Organizations: Former member, Boy Scouts SME Program; Former 
director, Minthill Matthews Rotary Club; Vice President, Matthews Chamber 
of Commerce 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- . 

Military Service: Served, US Airforce, E-4, 1965-68; Vietnam Veteran. 

Literary Works/Publications: Editor, Matthews Chamber of Commerce 
Bi-Annual Publication; Editor, Matthews Chamber Newsletter. 

Religious Activities: Member, Minthill Baptist Church; Usher. 

Family: Married, Carol Moreland Miller, August 31, 1973. Children: 
Allison Lynn, Jeffrey Todd and Bradley Christopher. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Education Subcommittee on Educational Activities of 
State Agencies. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Local Revenues); Infrastructure (Sub- 
committee on Railways, Airports & Waterways); Judiciary (Subcommittee 
on Law Enforcement & Public Safety). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Ann Quarterman Duncan 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

Thirty-Ninth Representative District -Forsyth 
His ^^^^B (part) County 

fM \, ^ ^ ^ Early Years: Born in Waycross, 

/% .-^' aMm Georgia, April 15, 1938, to John H. (de- 

ceased) and Jessie Elizabeth (Smith) 
Quarterman. 

Education: Waycross High School, 
1956; University of Georgia, 1956-59; 
Jacksonville University, B.S. (education); 
UNC-Greensboro, MPA (Masters Degree 
in Public Administration and Public 
Affairs). 

Professional Background: Former, School Teacher; Social Worker. 

Organizations: Forsyth County Social Services Board; Winston-Salem 
Arts Council Advisory Committee on Public Affairs; Family Violence 
Advisory Committee; Small Business & Technology Advisory Board; N.C. 
Agricultural Advisory Committee; Experiment in Self-Reliance; Yadkin Pee- 
Dee River Basin Advisory Committee; Cricket's Nest Advisory Committee; 
N.C. Coalition on Adolescent Pregnancy. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-88, 
1989-; Forsyth County Republican Women's Club; National Federation of 
Republican Women. 

Honors: Educator of the Year; Elks Leadership Award; Senior Superla- 
tive; 1989 Planned Parenthood Perry Clark Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary Methodist Church; Circle; 
Active Youth Fellowship. 

Family: Children: Stephanie. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Human Resources. 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Insurance); Infrastructure (Subcom- 
mittee on Water and Wastewater). 



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357 




Ruth M. Easterling 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty-eighth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Gaffney, South 
Carolina, December 26, 1910, to Benjamin 
Harrison and Lillie Mae (Crawley) Moss. 

Education: Centralized High School, 
1929; Limestone College, 1932 (EngUsh, 
Math, History); Queens College, post 
graduate studies in Business Law, Per- 
sonnel and Business Administration. 

Professional Background: Executive 
Assistant to the President, Radiator 
Specialty Co., 1947-85. 

Organizations: Legislative Committee, International Business and Profes- 
sional Women, 1981-; Women's Equity Action League; Women Executives of 
Charlotte; Women's Forum of NC; Professional Secretaries International 
(Chairman, PubHc and World Affairs, 1975-76); Business and Professional 
Women's Club (national President, 1970-71); League of Women Voters; 
American Association of University Women; Trustee, Wildacres Retreat. 

Boards: Governors Advocacy Council for Persons with Disability; 
Advisory Council on OSHA; Legislative Study Committee on Physicians' 
Assistants; Research and Education Committee, National Business and 
Professional Women's Foundation, 1978-1981. Legislative Services Commis- 
sion, 1987-88. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-; NC Women's Political 
Caucus (NC President, 1974); Charlotte City Council, 1972-73; Governor's 
Commission on the Status of Women, 1964. Chairman, Women's Legislative 
Caucus, 1989-. 

Honors: Personalities of the South; Certificate of Achievement, NC As- 
sociation of Women Attorneys, 1982; Outstanding Career Woman, NC 
Federation of Business and Professional Women, 1980; Charlotte's Outstand- 
ing Career Woman, 1971; Woman of the Year, WBT Radio, 1964. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Charlotte; Associate 
Superintendent: Training; Sunday School Intermediate Department; Library, 
Financial Planning and Personnel Committees. President, Baptist Business 
Women, First Baptist Church and Mecklenburg Baptist Associations. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on General Government. 

Member: Commerce (Subcomittee on Business, Labor & Employment); 
Human Resources (Subcommittee on Families, Children & Youth). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Chancy Rudolph Edwards 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

Seventeenth Representative District- 
Cumberland (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Nash County, 
February 28, 1925, to B.H. and Lucy 
(Kearney) Edwards (both deceased). 

Education: Nash County Training 
Schools; Shaw University, 1946, B.A.; 
Shaw University Divinity School, 1949, 
M.Div.; Union Theological Seminary and 
Southeastern Theological Seminary, addi- 
tional studies. 

Professional Background: Pastor 
(First Baptist Church, Fayetteville, 1953-; 
Spring Garden Baptist Church, Washington, 1948-53). 

Organizations: Chairman, Cumberland County Community Action 
Program; Chairman, QIC Organization. 

Boards: State Board of Education; Trustee, Shaw University; Chairman, 
Fayetteville City Board of Education; National Sunday School Board; 
Mayor's Council for Human Relations. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Precinct Chairman; delegate, National Democratic 
Convention. 

Honors: Distinguished Public Service Award, Shaw University, 1982; 
Distinguished Citizens Award, Occoneechee Council, BSA, 1980; Human 
Relations Award, Cumberland County, 1971; Award of Honor, City of 
Fayetteville, 1967. 

Religious Activities: Pastor, First Baptist Church, Fayetteville, 1953-. 
President, General Baptist State Convention of NC, Inc.; President, Lott 
Carey Baptist Foreign Mission Convention; Executive Committee, Baptist 
World Alliance; National Sunday School Board. 

Family: Married, Luella Dickens, August 30, 1947. Child: Jewyl Anita 
(Edwards) Dunn. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budgets 
on Capital Outlay and Special Programs). 



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359 




Theresa Harlow Esposito 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

Thirty-ninth Representative District -Forsyth 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Washington, 
DC, November 17, 1930, to H. Richard 
and Marie Theresa (Burke) Harlow (both 
deceased). 

Education: Saint Cecelia's Academy, 
1948; National Institute of Practical Nurs- 
ing, 1957, G.P.N.; Prince George Com- 
munity College and Salem College, addi- 
tional studies. 

Professional Background: Retired 
federal government employee; Corporate Executive (Secretary, American 
Council, Inc.); former. Federal Government Employee. 

Organizations: Officers' Wives Club; Winston-Salem Tennis, Inc.; N.C. 
Tennis Association; N.C. Museum Association; Winston-Salem Symphony; 
N.C. School of the Arts Associates; Sir Walter Cabinet. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-; Delegate, RepubHcan National Convention, 1988; Delegate at 
Large, Republican National Convention, 1984; National Federation of 
Republican Women; N.C. Federation of Republican Women; Forsyth County 
Republican Women's Club (President, 1982-83); Marion Martin Republican 
Women's Club (D.C.); American Legislative Exchange Council (V-C/N.C); 
National Order of Women Legislators; National Conferation of State Legis- 
lators; Southern Republican Exchange; National Republican Legislators 
Association. 

Boards: State Health Coordinating Commission; Small Business Tech- 
nology Centers; National Commission on Children; Council on Status of 
Women (Domestic Violence/Sexual Assault). 

Honors: Various outstanding performance awards as a Federal Govern- 
ment Employee. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Leo's Catholic Church, Winston Salem; 
Member, Parish Council. 

Family: Married, Brigadier General Alfred L. Esposito, November 18, 
1972. Children: Sharon, Carolyn, and Carol Ann. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources Subcommittee on Health & Disease Preven- 
tion. 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Natural and Economic Resources); Government Operations; Judiciary 
(Subcommittee on Civil & Criminal Justice); Rules, Appointments and the 
Calendar. 



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North Carolina Manual 



Larry Eugene Etheridge 

(Republican - Wilson County) 

Seventy-First Representative District -Nash 
(part) and Wilson (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Wilson, Wilson 
County, May 9, 1959, to Andrew J. and 
Evelyn (Bunch) Etheridge, Jr. 

Education: Ralph L. Fike High 
School, 1977; Wilson County Technical 
Institute, 1980. 

Professional Background: Partner, 
C&E Enterprises; Owner, Branigan's Re- 
staurants; President, Vebco Builders, Inc. 

Organizations: Wilson Jaycees; 
Moose Lodge; CFRG (Citizens for Responsible Government); NRA (National 
Rifle Association; ARC (Association for Retarded Citizens; HBA (Home 
Builders Association). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Five Points Missionary Baptist Church, 
Wilson; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Beverly Vick of Wilson, June 29, 1985. Children:Hillary 
Lynn. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Human Resources. 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Marine Fisheries); Commerce 
(Subcommittee on Authorities, Boards & Commissions); Human Resources 
(Subcommittee on Aging, Medicaid & Facility Services). 



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361 




Wilbur Bruce Ethridge 

(Democrat - Carteret County) 

Fourth Representative District - Carteret and 
Onslow Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, 
Nash County, April 17, 1938, to Wilbur 
Henry and Virginia (Sellers) Ethridge. 

Education: Rocky Mount High School, 
1956; NCSU; Fayetteville Technical 
Institute. 

Professional Background: Owner/ 
Operator, Beaufort Inn; Engineer, Caro- 
lina Telephone & Telegraph Company. 

Organizations: NCSU Alumni; 
Jacksonville Rotary Club; NC Society of Engineers. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1978-Present 
(7 Terms). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; former Deacon; 
Sunday School Teacher; staff committee. 

Family: Married, Katie Tyner, August 9, 1958. Children: Kitty Dare and 
Mark Bruce. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Natural and Economic Resources. 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil); Com- 
merce (Subcommittee on Tourism); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Water 
and Wastewater). 



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North Carolina Manual 




David T. Flaherty, Jr. 

(Republican - Caldwell County) 

Forty-Sixth Representative District -Caldwell 
County 

Early Years: Born in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, June 17, 1953, to David 
Thomas and Nancy Ann (Hamill) 
Flaherty. 

Education: Culver Military Academy, 
1967-71; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1974, BS; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1978, JD. 

Professional Background: Attorney 

Organizations: Member, American 
Bar Association; Member, Association of 
Trial Lawyers of America; Member, NC Bar Association; Member, Caldwell 
County Bar Association; Member, 25th Judicial District Bar (Executive 
Committee, 1988); Former member, Jaycees, Jaybird, 1979. 

Boards: Former member, Caldwell County Council on Alcoholism, 1980. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
Republican Nominee for 25th Judicial District Court Judge (1982); Member, 
Caldwell County Republican Party (Executive Committee, 1986, 1988); 
Member, Young Republicans; Member, NCGOP. 

Honors: Who's Who in American Law; Who's Who in South and South- 
west; Outstanding Young Men in American. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Lenoir. 

Family: Married Lynn (Hoyle), October 2, 1986. Children: Alexandra 
Lynn. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources Subcommittee on Aging, Medicaid 
and Facility Services. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base Expansion Budget on 
Capital Outlay and Special Programs); Basic Resources (Subcommittee on 
Water Air and Soil); Human Resources; Judiciary (Subcommittee on Courts 
& Administrative Hearings). 



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363 




Ray Charles Fletcher 

(Democrat - Burke County) 

Forty-Seventh Representative District -Burke 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Forest City, 
Rutherford County, May 4, 1931, to Troy 
L. and Geneva (Beddingfield) Fletcher, 
Sr. 

Education: Drexel High School; UNC- 
Chapel Hill. 

Professional Background: Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, Fletcher Pontiac, Inc. 

Organizations: President, Rotary 
Club; Burke County Chamber of Com- 
merce; former President, Valdese Merchants Association; former President, 
Lovelady United Fund; former President, Valdese Jaycees; former Chairman, 
Valdese Parks and Recreation. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Mayor, Town of Valdese; Burke County Democratic 
Party; Former President and Chairman, Burke County Young Democrats 
Club. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1951-54. 

Honors: Rotarian of the Year, 1965; Young Man of the Year, Valdese 
Jaycees, 1961. 

Religious Activities: Member, Walkensian Presbyterian Church, former 
Deacon. 

Family: Married, Mary Beth Goodman, November 29, 1980. Children: 
Raye Lynn, Randy, Ruthie and Christie (Fletcher) Traylor. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Basic Resources Subcommittee on Water, Air & Soil. 

Vice Chairman: Basic Resources. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Revenue Laws); Government (Sub- 
committee on Local Government I); Public Employees (Subcommittee on 
Benefits). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Jo Graham Foster 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty-Sixth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 



Early Years: Born May 22, 1915, to 
Reverend Joseph Alexander and Queen 
(McDonald) Graham. 

Education: McBee High School, 1927- 
28; Spring Hill Central High School, 
1928-31; Columbia College, 1935. 

Professional Background: Retired 
(former Administrative Assistant to the 
Superintendent, Charlotte-Mecklenburg 
Schools). 

Organizations: National Education Association; NC Association of 
Educators (former President); PACE: PENC; Charlotte-Mecklenburg Educa- 
tors; National Association, Secondary School Principals; Delta Kappa 
Gamma; Gamma Sigma; Sigma Tau Delta; International Platform Associa- 
tion. 

Boards: Education Commission of the States; Board of Visitors, Johnson 
C. Smith University; Board of Visitors, Boys Town; Board of Relatives, 
Mental Health Board and Total Care Board, E.C.O. Board; National Com- 
mittee for Citizenship and Social Studies, State-Federal Assembly. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 
1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-1984, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Prescient 
Committee. 

Honors: Who's Who of American Platform; Legislator Psychologist 
Award; Outstanding Educator, Elementary School Principals; World Gideon 
Bible, 1979; National Legislator of the Year, American School Counselors, 
1979; nominee. Salute to Working Women, 1968; Psychiatric Award, 1986; 
School Social Worker Award, 1986, B.P.N.; Woman of the Year, 1986; School 
Social Worker, 1988-; State Career Woman of the Year (B.P.W.); Certificate of 
Appreciation for Meritorious Service to Public Schools in N.C. in 1986, April 
16, 1987; Columbia College Alumnae Association Career Achievement 
Award, June 8, 1985; First Honorary Member, Charlotte Women's Traffic 
Club, May 10, 1984; Outstanding Contribution to Drivers Traffic Safety in 
N.C. (1984); The Council for Exceptional Children 1985-1986; Recognition of 
Your Continuing Support to Arthritis Patient Services, January 10, 1988; 
Services rendered to Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System 1946-1980; 
Recognition and Sincere appreciation for your Effort, Care & Consideration 
to all N.C, Teaching Assistants, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Teacher Assistants 
Association, August 29, 1985; Outstanding Contribution to Education, State 
of N.C, 1983; Classroom Teachers Association Certficate of Appreciation- 
for Consistent and Devoted service to the Youth of Charlotte Mecklenburg; 



The Legislative Branch 365 

Interest in the Welfare of the Teaching Profession and Loyalty to the 
Classroom Teachers Association, September 19, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Dilworth Methodist Church, Charlotte; 
Board of Stewards; Adult Sunday School Teacher; Lay Speaker. 

Family: Married, James Benjamin Foster, June 4, 1937. Children: Mary 
Jo (Foster) McClure. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Government Subcommittee on State Government and Pro- 
perties. 

Vice Chairman: Government. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Highway Fund); Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Cultural Resources 
and Parks); Ethics; Rules, Appointments and the Calendar. 



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Aaron Eleazar Fussell 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

Sixty-fifth Representative District - Wake 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Bom in Rose Hill, Duplin 
County, July 5, 1923, to C.T. and Myra 
Blake (Cavenaugh) Fussell. 

Education: Rose Hill High School 
1940; Atlantic Christian College, 1946, 
A.B., cum laude; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1952, 
M.Ed.; Duke University and NCSU, post 
graduate studies. 

Professional Background: Retired 
educator (Superintendent, Wake County 
Public Schools, 35 years). 

Organizations: Educational Chamber; Educational Fraternity; Mason; 
Scottish Rite; North Raleigh Lions Club, 30 years (former President); various 
civil and political organizations. 

Boards: Chairman, Capital Area Visitor Services Committee; Local 
Government Advocacy Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-45, 5 major campaign decora- 
tions. 

Honors: Author, "Teacher Evaluation Legal Residence." 

Religious Activities: Member, Millbrook United Methodist Church; Past 
Chairman of the Board; Past President, Men's Club; Lay Leader; teacher; 
Trustee. 

Family: Married, Polly Batts, August 14, 1949; four children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Education Subcommittee on Elementary and Secondary 
Education; Government Subcommittee on Local Government I. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on State Revenue.) 



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367 




Charlotte A. Gardner 

(Republican - Rowan County) 

(Thirty-fifth Representative District -Rowan 
County) 

Early Years: Born in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, November 14, 1931, to Marcel and 
Charlotte (Knapp) Ancher. 

Education: St. Anne's, 1943; St. 
Anthony's, 1945; Rockwell High School, 
1949; Catawba College, 1952, A.B., Cum 
Laude. 

Professional Background: Former 
high school teacher. 

Organizations: Leader, Boy Scouts 
and Girl Scouts of America; NC Right to Life; Rowan County Humane 
Society; MADD (Director, 1984-85; Vice President, 1982-84); Trustee, Vice- 
president, Rowan Advocates for Mentally 111; Board of Directors, Pregnancy 
Counseling Center; Chairman, Salisbury-Rowan Mayors' Council for Persons 
with Disabilities; Board of Directors, Families in Action for Drug Free 
Youth; Choral Society, 1974. 

Boards: Director, Community Life Council, 1980-81; Community Resource 
Council for Piedmont Correctional Center. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-; NC Republican Women (District Representative, 1983-84); 
Salisbury-Rowan Republican Women (Vice-president, 1982-84); Central Com- 
mittee, Rowan Republican Party (Vice Chairman, 1981-83); Women's Task 
Force, 8th District, 1983-84. 

Religious Activities: Member, Sacred Heart Catholic Church, Salisbury; 
Church choir; President, Sacred Heart PTA; Treasurer, Church Women 
United, 1982-84; Grand Regnant Catholic Daughter, 1975. 

Family: Married, Lester Gardner of Bellwood, Pennsylvania June 7, 1952. 
Children: Jeanne Dianne, Terrence Lee, Leslie Eugenia, Timothy Andrew, 
Thomas Alan and Ted Alexander. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Public Employees Subcommittee on Personnel Policies. 

Vice Chairman: Education Subcommittee on Community Colleges; Public 
Employees. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Natural and Economic Resources);Human Resources (Subcommittee on 
Mental Health, Exceptional & Gifted People). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Pryor Allan Gibson, III 

(Democrat - Anson County) 

Thirty-Third Representative District -Anson 
County 

Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, 
Forsyth County, October 12, 1957, to 
Pryor A. (deceased) and Mary Janette 
(Pharr) Gibson, II. 

Education: Anson County Public 
Schools, 1975; UNC-Wilmington, 1978, 
BA; UNC-Charlotte; University of Okla- 
homa-Norman. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent, Pee-Dee Company, General Con- 
tractors; Director, Wadesboro Main Street, Downtown Development Pro- 
gram; President, 5-Star Limited; Project Manager/Personnel Director, Myrick 
Construction. 

Organizations: NC General Contractor; Member, Southern Industrial 
Development Council; President, Friend of Town Creek; Ansonville Lions 
Club (Former President, secretary, treasurer, vice chairman, Deputy District 
Governor); Committee Chair, Wadesboro Rotary Club. 

Boards: Board of Directors, Cape Fear Museum; Former Vice Chairman, 
Anson County Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Eighth 
District treasurer; Ansonville precinct chair (6 years); Anson County Party 
Chairman. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Man of America 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commerce Subcommittee on Tourism. 

Vice Chairman: Commerce. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Highways); Infrastructure (Subcom- 
mittee on Utilities); Rules, Appointments and the Calender. 



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369 




Herman Colridge Gist 

(Democrat - Guilford County) 

Twenty-sixth Representative District - 
Guilford (part) and Randolph (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Spartanburg, 
South Carolina, December 12, 1923, to 
Arthur and Louie (Casey) Gist. 

Education: Highland Grade School, 
1929-36; Carver High School, 1936-40; NC 
A&T State University, 1964, B.S. 
(Biology). 

Professional Background: Coffee, 
herbs and tea distributor. 

Organizations: Chairman, Political 
Awareness; Greensboro Citizens Forum, 1979-; Omega Psi Phi, 1942-. 

Boards: Alcoholic Beverage Control Board, 1980-; Co-Chairman. Guilford 
Delegation, 1987-88. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-6; 88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army (Corporal); Quartermaster Corps; 
Good Conduct Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Matthews Church. 

Family: Married, Grace Grant, November, 1968; three children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommitte on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Capital Outlay and Special Programs); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on 
Railroads, Airports And Waterways); Public Employees (Subcommittee on 
Benefits). 



370 



North Carolina Manual 



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Robert Grady 

(Republican - Onslow County) 

F'ourth Representative District - Carteret and 
Onslow Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Jacksonville, 
Onslow County, April 30, 1950, to William 
R. and Minnie (Hurst) Grady. 

Education: Jacksonville Senior High, 
1968; University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, 1972. 

Professional Background: Business- 
man. 

Boards: North Carolina Zoological 
Park, Board of Directors, 1984-86; Onslow 
County Arts Council Board of Directors, 1983-86; Onslow County Council on 
Aging, Board of Directors, 1984-86. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-; Jacksonville City Council, 1981-87; Mayor Pro-tern, City of Jack- 
sonville, 1983-86. 

Religious Activities: Member, Southern Baptist Church. 
Family: Married, Neta Lucas of Benson, November 27, 1973. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Basic Resources Subcommittee on Marine Fisheries 

Vice Chairman: Basic Resources 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Justice & Public Safety); Commerce (Subcommittee on Tourism); Infra- 
structure (Subcommittee on Solid Waste). 



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371 




Gordon Hicks Green^vood 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

Fifty-first Representative District -Buncombe, 
Henderson (part) and Transylvania Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Black Mountain, 
Buncombe County, July 3, 1909, to James 
Hicks and Louella (Ray) Greenwood. 

Education: University of Illinois, 
1941, B.S. (Journalism); University of 
London, 1945. 

Professional Background: College 
administrator and former professor 
(Assistant to the President, Montreat- 
Anderson College; Director of Admis- 
sions, Montreat-Anderson College, 1973-76; Assistant Professor of Jour- 
nalism, Boston University, 1951-52; manager. New England Press Associa- 
tion). 

Organizations: Black Mountain Lodge No. 663, A.F.&A.M., Asheville 
Chapter No. 25; Black Mountain Lions Club; Chamber of Commerce; V.F.W.; 
American Legion; D.A.V.; Sons of the American Revolution; Sons of Con- 
federate Veterans; Western NC Development Association (original 
organizer). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1959, 1961, 
1963, 1965-66, 1967, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; 
Town Board, Black Mountain, 1973-76; Commissioner, Buncombe County, 
1968-72. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-45; (European Theater of 
Operations). 

Honors: Outstanding Alumnus, UNC-Asheville, 1981; NC Commissioner 
of the Year, 1971. 

Religious Activities: Member, Black Mountain United Methodist 
Church; Official Board. 

Family: Married, Garnet EHzabeth Carder, March 8, 1941, Children: G. 
Gordon and Ricky Eugene. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Viee-Chairman: Education Subcommittee on Private Schools. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Highway Fund); Government (Subcommittee on Local Government II). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Harry Clinton Grimmer 

(Republican - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty Si'vonth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Pitt County, 
December 6,1935, to Harry Albert (de- 
ceased) and Bercha (Gilbert) Grimmer. 

Education: Penderlea School, 1945-54; 
N.C. State University, 1960, BSIE, with 
Honors (voted one of the top ten outstand- 
ing engineering students); six months 
post-graduate technical school; heating 
and air conditioning, The Trane Com- 
pany. 

Professional Background: Meteorologist; Plant Industrial Engineer; 
Manufacturer's Representative, Sales Manager and Executive Vice Presi- 
dent and Owner, Harry Grimmer and Company, INC.; President, Home 
Builders Association of Charlotte, 1983; Board of Directors, F^xecutive Com- 
mittee N.C. Home Builders Association, 1982-84; Vice President, Region VI, 
N.C. Home Builders Association, 1982; Co-Chairman NCHBA, Legislative 
Committee, 1985-86; Vice President Home Owner's Warranty Program, 1983. 

Organizations: South Mecklenburg Interim District Plan Committee, 
1986; United Way Strategic Planning Committee, 1986; F'ive Years Leader- 
ship, YMCA Indian Guides; Boy Scout Counselor, 1981-82; Coach, Little 
League Basketball; Housing Cost Task Force, Mecklenburg County and 
State Level; Mayoral Appointments; Capital Improvement Program, 1982; 
Citizens Advisory Committee-Country, 1983; "F]veryone Step Forward" Bond 
Referendum Committee; Char/Mecklenburg Residential Ordinance, Re-zon- 
ing Review Committee; United Way; Community Resource Board, 1985-86. 

Boards: United Carolina Bank Advisory Board, 1982-89; Board of Di- 
rectors, Greater Providence Area Home Owners Association, 1983-84, Vice 
President, 1985-86; Chairman, United Way, Christmas Bureau, 1985; Alloca- 
tion and Review Board, 1984; Chairman, Mecklenburg County Zoning Board 
of Adjustment, 1980-82; President of Lansdowne P.T.A., 1974. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Navy, Meteorologist, 1954-56. 

Honors: Phi Kappa Phi, Honorary Fraternity, 1959; Broyhill Fund 
Scholarship, 1959; Charlotte Home Builder of the Year, 1981; N.C. "Home 
Builder of the Year", 1983; Life time Director, National Association Home 
Builders, 1989. 

Religious Activities: Member, Calvary ('hurch, Building Program Fund 
Raising Committee; Calvary Church, 51 Committee. 



The Legislative Branch 373 

Family: Married, Elise Rackley, of Willard, September 7, 1957. Children: 
Janet and Craig. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Finance Subcommittee on Highways; Infrastructure 
Subcommittee on Solid Waste 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Business, Labor & Employment); 
Education (Subcommittee on The University of North Carolina); Ethics. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Joe Hackney 

(Democrat - Orange County) 

Twenty-fourth Representative District - 
Chatham (part) and Orange Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Siler City, 
Chatham County, September 23, 1945, to 
Herbert Harold and Ida LilHan (Dorsett) 
Hackney. 

Education: Silk Hope High School, 
1963; N.C. State University, 1963-64; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1964-67, A.B. with 
Honors (Political Science); UNC-Chapel 
Hill, School of Law, 1970, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(partner, firm of Epting & Hackney); Assistant District Attorney, 15th 
District, 1971-74; research assistant, J. Frank Huskins, Associate Justice, 
N.C. Supreme Court, 1970-71. 

Organizations: Orange County (former President), N.C. and American 
Bar Associations; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Committee on Legis- 
lation and Law Reform, N.C. Bar; former President, 15th District Bar; 
former President, Orange-Chatham Legal Services; Conservation Council of 
N.C; Sierra Club; N.C. Nature Conservancy; Appalachian Trail Conference; 
N.C. Cattlemen's Association. 

Boards: Joint Orange-Chatham Community Action, Inc., former member; 
Conservation Foundation of N.C; Served, Citizens Commission on Alterna- 
tives to Incarceration; Governor's Crime Commission, former member; 
Southern Legislative Conference, Environmental Quality Committee, Chair- 
man; Southern Legislative Conference Ad Hoc Committee on Hazardous 
Wastes, Chairman; Natural Resources Committee; Southern States Energy 
Board. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1981-pre- 
sent (4 terms). 

Honors: American Planning Association, NC Chapter, Legislative 
Award, 1989; Sierra Club, NC Chapter, Outstanding Service Award, 1988; 
NC Consumers Council, Consumer Advocate of the Year, 1987; Governor's 
Conservation Award as Legislator of the Year, N.C. Wildlife F'ederation, 
1985; Triangle J. Council of Governments Award of Excellence for Service to 
the Environment, 1985; N.C. Bar Association, Family Law Section, Apprecia- 
tion Plaque, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hickory Mountain Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Betsy Strandberg, September 15, 1979. Children: Daniel 
and Will. 



The Legislative Branch 375 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary Subcommittee on Civil & Criminal Justice. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary. 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil); Finance 
(Subcommittee on State Revenue); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Solid 
Waste). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Alexander Morton Hall 

(Democrat-New Hanover County) 

Thirteenth Representative District-New 
Hanover (part) County. 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New 
' Hanover County, July 20, 1948, to James 

M. and Edith (Morton) Hall, Jr. 

^ Education: New Hanover High School, 

W 1967; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1971, B.A. 

. • J (Zoology); South Texas College of Law, 

M ^^ i«-»BH^ 19^'^' ^•^- ^^^^ honors. 

^^^^^M |Hr JHHH Professional Background: Attorney. 

^^^^^H ^^ ^^^^1 Organizations: NC State Bar, N.C. 

Bar Association, NC Academy of Trial 
Lawyers; President, 5th District Judicial Bar; Transportation Committee, 
Wilmington Chamber of Commerce, 1981-; Wilmington Industrial Develop- 
ment, Inc.; Trustee, Wilmington Kiwanis Club, 1978-82; NC Jaycees, 1969-73. 

Boards: Mayor's Transportation Task Force; Trustee, Brigade Boys Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-; Precinct Chairman, New Hanover County Democratic Party, 
(1980). 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Andrews Covenant Presbyterian 
Church, Wilmington; Deacon, 1980-. 

Family: Married, Maria Clontz of Wilmington, August 15, 1971. Children: 
Sarah Elizabeth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance. 

Member: Judiciary (Subcommittee on Law Enforcement & Public Safety). 



The Legislative Branch 



377 




Thomas C. Hardaway 

(Democrat - Halifax County) 

Seventh Representative District - Halifax 
(part), Martin (part), Warren (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Bom in Durham, Durham 
County, March 12, 1957, to Dr. Ernie and 
Attorney Claudette (Cofield) Hardaway, 
II. 

Education: Hillside High School, 
1975; Howard University, 1979 (Bachelor 
Business Administration); N.C. Central 
University, School of Law, 1982, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(partner, Hardaway and Hardaway); Co- 
field Funeral Home, Inc. Director; Cofield Mutual Burial Association, 
President; Cofield Realty and Company, Director; N.C. Bar; N.C. Bar Associa- 
tion; Halifax County Bar; Sixth Judicial Bar; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
Association of Trial Lawyers of America; N.C. Association of Black Lawyers 
(is admitted to practice before the Eastern District of the U.S. District 
Court). 

Organizations: N.A.A.C.P.; Second Congressional District Black Leader- 
ship Caucus. 

Boards: Director, Halifax County Economic Development Commission; 
Member, Enfield Medical Advisory Board; Member, Halifax Community 
College, Small Business Advisory Board. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representatives, 1987-88, 1989-; Former, 
Vice Chairman, Halifax County Democrat Party; Former, Precinct Chairman 
Enfield, No. 2. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Man of America, 1984, 

Religious Activities: Member, New Bethel Baptist Church. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance Subcommittee on Highways. 

Vice Chairman: Finance. 

Member: Education (Subcommittee on Community Colleges); Government 
(Subcommittee on ABC); Judiciary (Subcommittee on Law Enforcement & 
Public Safety). 



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North Carolina Manual 




John Calvin Hasty 

(Democrat - Robeson County) 

Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, 
Robeson and Scotland (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Maxton, Robe- 
son County, March 9, 1930, to William 
Howard and Flora (Belle) Currie Hasty. 

Education: Maxton Public Schools; 
Maxton High School, 1948; Presbyterian 
Junior College, 1950, A.S.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1953, B.S. 

Professional Background: Insurance 
and real estate agent (President, Pace- 
Henderson Finance Co., Inc.; President, 
Future Agency of Laurinburg, Inc.; Hasty Realty Inc. Vice-Pres.). 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents Association; NC Associa- 
tion of Premium Finance Companies (Secretary, 1981-82; Director, 1978-82); 
Mormax Club (President, 1971); Director, Cape Fear Area Council, Boy 
Scouts of America, 1967-(President, 1973-75); Laurinburg-Scotland Area 
Chamber of Commerce (Director, 1976); former President, Maxton Historical 
Society; former President, Maxton Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Laurinburg-Maxton Airport Commission (Chairman, 1980-82); 
Trustee and Executive Committee, Scotland Memorial Hospital; local Di- 
rector, Southern National Bank; Maxton Planning Commission; Maxton 
Zoning Board. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Mayor and City Council, Town of Maxton. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-55 (Sergeant); 101st Airborne 
Division. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Paul's United Methodist Church; 
Chairman, Administrative Board, 1976-77; Chairman, Building Committee, 
1972; Chairman, Finance; national conference delegate. 

Family: Married, Betty Anne Upchurch, October 22, 1955. Children: John 
Calvin, Jr., Flora Anne (Hasty) McCook and Elizabeth Upchurch. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commerce. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on State Revenue); Infrastructure (Sub- 
committee on Public Utilities). 



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379 




Joe H. Hege, Jr. 

(Republican - Davidson County) 

Thirty-seventh Representative District - 
Davidson, Davie and Iredell (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Lexington, 
Davidson County, January 28, 1926, to 
Joe H. and Ellen J. (Hilliard) Hege, Sr. 

Education: Pilot High School, 1943; 
Institute of Government, UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1969, Certificate of Police Admini- 
stration; Oklahoma University, 1975. 

Professional Background: Realtor- 
Broker, National Realty, Inc.; Assistant 
Director, Services for the Blind, State of 
N.C., 1973-77; Vice-President, Siceloff Mfg. Co., Inc., 1953-68; Veterans Serv- 
ice Officer, Davidson County, 1948-50. 

Organizations: Lexington Board of Realtors; Amvets; Veterans of Foreign 
Wars; Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association; Kiwanis; Lions International; 
American Legion. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 
1971, 1973-74, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Minority Whip, 1969, 1971; 
Secretary, Joint House-Senate GOP Caucus, 1973; State Republican Execu- 
tive Committee; Treasurer, 5th District Republican Executive Committee, 
1979-80; Sheriff, Davidson County, 1969-70. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1944-46 (Sergeant); European 
theater; European-African-Middle East ServiceMedal with Two Bronze Stars; 
Good Conduct Medal; World War II Victory Medal; Army Occupation Medal. 

Honors: Republican of the Year, Davidson County, 1984. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pilgrim Reformed United Church of 
Christ, Lexington; Audit Committee (former President, Treasurer, Chair- 
man); Elder; Deacon of Consistory; Chairman, Cemetery Committee; Sunday 
Teacher. 

Family: Married, Jane Owen of Davidson County, November 27, 1948. 
Children: Joe, Karen and Edwin. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Government Subcommittee on Local Government I. 

Vice Chairman: Government. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Education); Commerce (Subcommittee on Banks & Thrift); Education 
(Subcommittee on Elementary & Secondary Education). 



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North Carolina Manual 




George Milton Holmes 

(Republican - Yadkin County) 

Forty-First Representative District - 
Alexander (part), Wilkes and Yadkin 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, 
Surry County, June 20 1929, to John 
William and Thelma Elizabeth (Dobie) 
Holmes. 

Education: Mount Airy High School, 
1944; Western High School, 1945-48; 
Appalachian State University, 1954; 
Travelers Multiple Line Insurance 
School, 1959. 

Professional Background: Real Estate Broker. 

Organizations: Yadkin Lodge 162, F'. & A. M.; Winston-Salem Con- 
sistory, Scottish Rite of Free Masonru' Shriner; Oasis Temple. 

Boards: Governor's Crime Study Commission, 1976; Fire and Casualty 
Rate Study Commission, 1976; Board of Directors, First Union National 
Bank, Yadkinville. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 
1979-80,1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Minority Whip, 1981-82; 
Advisory Budget Commission; 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Minority Party Joint 
Caucus Leader, 1983-84; Yadkin County Republican Executive Committee; 
Eighth District Republican Executive Committee; State Republican Executive 
Committee, 1975-76, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84; State Republican Central 
Committee, 1983-84; Joint Legislative Commission on Governmental Opera- 
tions, 1989-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Flat Rock Baptist Church; Deacon, 1956- 
70; Trustee, 1970-; Superintendent, 1968-72; F'ormer Secretary and Sunday 
School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Barbara Ann Ireland, June 30, 1956. Children: Jennifer 
(Holmes) Crawley. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Capital Outlay and Special Programs. 

Vice Chairman: Infrastructure Subcommittee on Utilities. 

Member: C'ommerce (Subcommittee on Banks & Thrifts); Rules, Appoint- 
ments and the Calendar. 




The Legislative Branch 381 

Bertha Merrill Holt 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

Twenty-fifth Representative District - 
Alamance, Rockingham and Stokes (part) 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Eufaula, 
Alabama, August 16, 1916, to William H. 
and Bertha H. (Moore) Merrill. 

Education: Eufaula High School; 
Agnes Scott College, 1938, B.A.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1939-40; Uni- 
versity of Alabama, School of Law, 1941, 
LL.B; George Washington University, 
1942, graduate studies. 

Professional Background: Legislator and attorney; former attorney, 
U.S. Treasury and Dep^irtment of the Interior. 

Organizations: N.C. Bar Association; Pi Beta Phi; English Speaking 
Union; Les Amis du Vin; N.C. Historical Society; N.C. Women's Forum. 

Boards: Former, Board of Directors of Hospice; Joint Commission on 
Governmental Operations; Advisory Committee, Archaeology, 1979-84; Board 
of Directors, Alunmi Association, UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law 1978-80; 
Board of Directors, State Council on Social Legislation, 1978-86, Alamance 
County; Social Services Board, Chairman; Joint Commission School Salary 
Schedules. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-pre- 
sent (8 terms); former President, Alamance County Democratic Women 
(Chairman, Headquarters Committee, 1962,64; Democratic Executive commit- 
tee, 1964-75; Vice Chairman, Alamance County Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee, 1964-66; Century Book Club; AAUW Women's Political Caucus. 

Honors: Outstanding Alumna (1978) and Community Service Award, 
Agnes Scott College; "Who's Who of American Women"; Legislative Award- 
Nurses Association, 1979; Legislative Award; Family Care N.C. Facilities 
Association, 1982; Hospice of North Carolina, 1984; Legislative Award, N.C. 
Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 1984; Legisla- 
tive Award, N.C. Association of Non-Profit Homes for Aging, 1985; F'aith 
Active in Public Life Award, N.C. Council of Churches, 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church of Holy Comforter, 
Burlington; teacher. High School Sunday School Class; Diocesan Council, 
1971-73, 1984-86; Chairman, Diocese Grant Committee, 1974-80, Member, 
1974-79; Standing Committee of Diocese, 1974-77; Senior Warden, Vestry, 
1974; Chairman, Finance Committee, Diocese of N.C. 1973-; former President, 
Episcopal Church Women; Elected 1st alternate, General Convention-Epis- 
copal Church, 1987-. 



382 North Carolina Manual 

Family: Married, Winfield Clary Holt, March 14, 1942. Children: Harriet, 
William and Winfield. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Justice and Public Safety); Government (Subcommittee on ABC); Public 
Employees (Subcommittee on Personnel Policies). 



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383 




Julia Craven Howard 

(Republican - Davie County) 

Thirty-Seventh Representative District -Davie 
County 

Early Years: Born Salisbury, Rowan 
County, August 20, 1944, to Allan Leary 
and Ruth Elizabeth (Snider) Craven. 

Education: Davie High School, 1962; 
American Institute of Real Estate Ap- 
praisors, RM; NC Association of Realtors, 
GRI. 

Professional Background: Realtor/ 
Appraiser; President, Howard Realty & 
Insurance Agency, Inc.; Vice President, 
Davie Builders, Inc. 

Organizations: Sertoma Club; Realtors Association; Davie County Board 
(President, 1972, State Director, 1973-85); AIREA-Southeastern Regional/ 
Review Appraiser. 

Boards: Davie County Hospital Board of Trustees, (Former chairman, 

1978-85). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Com- 
missioner, Town of Mocksville, 1981-88. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Mocks- 
ville; council of Ministries (Chairman, 1979-81); Youth Council, 1974-84; 
Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Abe Nail Howard, Jr., August 26, 1962. Children: Amedia 
Paige and Abe Nail, III. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources Subcommittee on Housing Social 
Services. 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Wildlife, Natural and Scenic 
Areas); Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means); Public Employees 
(Subcommittee on Personnel Policies). 



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Doris Rogers Huffman 

(Republican - Catawba County) 

Forty-fifth Representative District -Burke 
(part) and Catawba (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Burke County, 
August 3, to Bradus K. and Myrtle (Deal) 
Rogers. 

Education: Hickory City Schools, 
1953; Catawba Valley Technical College, 
1973 (Accounting and Tax). 

Professional Background: Home 

maker. 

Organizations: Hickory-Catawba 
Valley Home Builders Association; 
charter member, HBA Auxiliary (membership award, 1979); Red Cross 
Blood Mobile; Salvation Army; Board, Project "Happen"-Western Carolina 
Center. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-; Catawba County Republican Women's Club; Executive Com- 
mittee, N.C. GOP; Catawba County Republican Party (Secretary, 1980, Vice 
Chairman, 1981, Chairman 1982); N.C. Delegate-Southern Republican Ex- 
change, 1986-87. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Newton; Leader, 
Bible Drill Team; Church Constitution Commission. 

Family: Married, L. Wiburn Huffman of Hickory, Children: Sandra. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Justice and Public Safety. 

Member: Government (Subcommittee on Military, Veterans & Indian 
Affairs); Judiciary (Subcommittee on Corrections; Rules, Appointments and 
the Calendar). 



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385 




John Jackson Hunt 

(Democratic - Cleveland County) 

Forty-eighth Representative District - 
Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Lattimore, 
Cleveland County, November 27, 1922, to 
Robert Lee and Alma (Harrill) Hunt. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 
1943, B.S.; Emory Universtiy, 1946, 
D.D.S. 

Professional Background: Dentist, 
merchant and farmer. 

Organization: ADA; NCDS; Isother- 
mal Dental Society; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards: Legislative Research Committee; National Conference of State 
Legislative; Governmental Operations; Legislative Services Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 
1975-76, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Speaker Pro Tem, 
1985-86 and 1987-88, Alderman, City of Lattimore, 1958-64. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-48, 1950-52 (Major). 

Honors: Honorary member, NC National Guard; USS NC Battleship 
Award, AMVETS. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Ruby Cowder, June 22, 1946. Children: Judy Hunt, 
Penny (Hunt) Corn, Libby (Hunt) Sarazen, Sally Hunt and Cindy (Hunt) 
Martin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Justice and Public Safety. 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Tourism); Human Resurces (Subcom- 
mittee on Families, Children & Youth). 



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Judy Frances Hunt 

(Democrat - Watauga County) 

Fortieth Representative District -Alleghany, 
Ashe, Stokes (part), Surry, and Watauga 
(part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Shelby, Cleve- 
land County, May 16, 1949, to John Jack- 
son and Ruby (Crowder) Hunt. 

Education: Shelby High School, 1964- 
67; Meredith College, 1971, B.A.; 
Appalachian State University, 1976, 
M.A. 

Professional Background: Real 
Estate Broker. 

Organizations: Past Member, Blowing Rock Planning Board, 1980-86. 
Political Activities: N.C. House Representatives, 1987-88, 1989-; Watauga 
County Commissioner. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, William Hansel Kohler, of Blowing Rock, July 10, 1978. 
Children: Jackie. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commerce Subcommitte on Authorities, Boards and Commis- 
sions. 

Vice Chairman: Commerce; Human Resources Subcommittee on Mental 
Health, Exceptional & Gifted People. 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Cultural Resources and 
Parks); Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means). 



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387 




Rector Samuel Hunt, III 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

Twenty-Fifth Representative District - 
Alamance, Rockingham, and Stokes (part) 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Burlington, 
Alamance County, September 1, 1941, to 
Rector S. and Mildred Rachel (Wester) 
Hunt, Jr. 

Education: Williams High School, 
1955-59; East Carolina University, 
Graduated 1965, A.B. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent, Hunt Electric Supply Company; 
Member, National Association of Electrical Distributors; National Executive 
Committee of Affiliated Independent Distributors. 

Organizations: Past Director, Alamance Chamber of Commerce. 

Political Activities: N.C. House of Representatives 1985-86 (appointed 
November 7, 1985, to replace Tim McDowell), 1987-88, 1989- . 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, First Lieutenant, 1966-69; Served, Reserves, 
1970. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Christian United Church of Christ. 
Family: Married, Vicky Silek, of Front Royal. Children; Sam. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Infrastructure. 
Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Highways). 



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Howard J. Hunter, Jr. 

(Democrat - Hertford County) 

Fifth Representative District - Hertford 
County 

Early Years: Born in Washington, DC 
on December 16, 1946, to Howard and 
Madge (Watford) Hunter, Sr. 

Education: C. S. Brown High School, 
1964; North Carohna Central University, 

1971, MS. 

Professional Background: Vice Pre- 
sident, Hunters Funeral Home, Inc. 

Organizations: Life member, Aholkie 
Alumni Chapter, Kappa Alpha Psi; 
Former Scoutmaster. 

Boards: Hertford County Commissioner, 1978-1988. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Hert- 
ford County Commissioner. 

Awards & Honors: Outstanding Young Men of America; Personalities of 
the South; Order of the Long Leaf Pine; Distinguished Service, Murfreesboro 
Jaycees; Outstanding Citizen in NC in Human Relations. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Murfreesboro; 
Trustee. 

Family: Married, Vivian Flythe, December 31, 1986. ChildreniHoward, HI 
and Chyla Toye. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Justice and Public Safety); Education (Subcommittee on Educational 
Activities of State Agencies); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Housing 
& Social Services); Pensions and Retirement; Public Employees (Subcommit- 
tee on Salaries). 



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389 




Robert Carl Hunter 

(Democrat - McDowell County) 

Forty-Ninth Representative District - 
McDowell and Yancy Counties. 

Early Years: Born in McDowell 
County, January 14, 1944, to L. Penn 
and Lucy (Turner) Hunter. 

Education: Glenwood School; Marion 
City Schools; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1966, 
B.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 
1969, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
former Assistant District Attorney, 29th 
Judicial District. 

Organizations: Member, McDowell County Bar Association, past Presi- 
dent; N. C. Bar Association; American Bar Association; 29th Judicial District 
Bar, past President; N. C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Marion Rotary Club, 
past President; Marion Jaycees, past Secretary; Alumnus of Sigma Phi 
Epsilon Social Fraternity; Alumnus of Delta Theta Phi Legal Fraternity; 
Member, University of North Carolina Board of Visitors; former Assistant 
District Attorney; former Director, McDowell County United Fund; former 
Director, McDowell County Chamber of Commerce; past President, N. C. 
County Attorney's Association; Director, UNC Law Alumni Association. 

Boards: Member, Board of Directors, McDowell Committee of 100; Board 
of Directors, McDowell Arts & Crafts Association; McDowell County Citizen 
of the Year - 1984; Chairman-Elect, Southern Legislative Conference; 
Southern Legislative Conference Executive Committee; Chairman, Organiza- 
tional Planning and Coordinating Committee of the Council of State Govern- 
ments; former Member, North Carolina Advisory Council on the Eastern 
Band of the Cherokee; Former Member, North Carolina Judicial Council; 
Former Member, North Carolina Courts Commission; Co-Chairman, Legisla- 
tive Highway Study Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; N. C. State Democrat Executive Committee. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Marion; Trustee. 

Family: Married, Nancy Hinson, August 22, 1970. Children. Megan, Allen 
and Claire Alise. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Banks & Thrift); Finance (Subcom- 
mittee on Highways); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Railways, Airports & 
Waterways). 



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North Carolina Manual 




John William Hurley 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

Eighteenth Representative District - 
Cumberland County 

Early Years: Bom in Murfreesboro, 

Hertford County, June 22, 1933, to John 

Bascom and Daisy (Fuqua) Hurley. 

^^^^^■jjjpr- Education: Littleton High School, 

^^^^ K 1951; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1951-52; Louis- 

^^Hf W y burg College, 1952-53; UNC-Chapel Hill, 

^Km} m I 1953-55; American College, 1976 (CLU 

^^HV MR I Designation). 

^^^^B ^Kt -.^mm^ I Professional Background: Owner, 

^^K^m ^^ ^^^K / Olde Fayetteville Financial Service. 

Organizations: Fayetteville Association of Life Underwriters (President, 
1963); MDRT; CLU Society; Kiwanis Club; Life member, Jaycees. 

Boards: Board of Directors, International Association of Financial Plan- 
ners (Fayetteville Chapter); Board of Trustees, Highsmith-Rainey Memorial 
Hospital, 1988; Co-chairman, Fayetteville Bicentennial Celebration, 1989. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1989- ; 
Mayor, City of Fayetteville, 1981-1987; Member, Fayetteville City Council, 
1977-1981; Member, State Study Commission on the Cape Fear River Basin; 
Member, North Carolina League of Municipalities; Chairman, Community 
and Economic Development Committee, 1984-86. 

Honors: Realtors Cup Award, 1985; E. J. Wells Cup, 1978; Life member, 
Jaycees, 1970-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Haymount United Methodist Church; 
Trustee, 1979-80; Chairman, Council of Ministries, 1977-80; Lay Leader, 
Fayetteville District of the United Methodist Church, 1976-77; Member 
Pastor-Parish Relations Committee. 

Family: Married Sandra Gail Huggins, May 15, 1970. Children:Charles 
Mark, John Bradley and Todd H. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Government Subcommittee on Military, Veterans & Indian 
Affairs. 

Vice Chairman: Government. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on General Government); Judiciary (Subcommittee on Corrections); Pensions 
& Retirement. 



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391 




Walter Stine Isenhower 

(Republican - Catawba County) 

Forty-Fifth Representative District - Burke 
(part) and Catawba (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Conover, 
Catawba County, April 10, 1927, to John 
Abel and Susie (Jordan) Isenhower. 

Education: Newton-Conover High 
School, 1941-44; Fishburne Military 
School, 1944-46; Lenoir Rhyne College, 
1950, B.S. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent, Owen United Insurance Agency, 
INC. (until merger with Cline Southern 
Ins. Agency in 1985); Sales Executive, Owen-United; President, Carolina's 
Association of Professional Insurance Agents; Member, Board of Directors 
of Professional Insurance Agents of America; Member, Catawba Valley 
Insurance Agency Association. 

Organizations: Conover Lions Club, Past President; Catawba County 
Chamber of Commerce, Past President, 1984; Former Member, Conover 
Volunteer Fire Department; Catawba Science Center; Eastern Catawba 
County Chamber of Commerce; Y.M.C.A. Board of Directors; Troop Commit- 
tee Boy Scouts; American Red Cross Local Board. 

Boards: Catawba County Industrial Development Board; Western Pied- 
mont Council of Government Regional Board; Old Stone Savings and Loan, 
Local Board; First Citizens Bank, Local Board; Former Member, First 
Federal Savings and Loan, now Old Stone; Northwestern Bank, now First 
Citizens. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative, 1986 (Appointed De- 
cember 26, 1986, by Governor Martin to replace Allran), 1987-88, 1989-; 
Chairman, Catawba County Board of Commissioners, 1966-70; Former, N.C. 
Highway Commissioner, 1972; N.C. Insurance Advisory Board; President, 
Young Republicans of Catawba County, 1953. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, Corporal, 1950-52. 

Religious Activities: Member, Concordia Lutheran Church; Secretary of 
Congregation; Chairman, Board of Elders, 1981; Stewardship Board; Mem- 
ber, Lutheran Television Board; Member, Board of Laymen's League; Former 
Chairman, International Lutheran Hour Committee. 

Family: Married, Carolyn Vaughn, of Murray, June 23, 1951. Children: 
Charles and Ann. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources Subcommittee on Mental Health, Ex- 
ceptional & Gifted People. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Natural and Economic Resources; Human Resources. 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Insurance). 



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Vernon Grant James 

(Democrat - Pasquotank County) 

First Representative District - Camden, 
Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates (part), 
Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell and 
Washington (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Pasquotank 
County, July 11, 1910, to John Calvin 
and Fannie (Coppersmith) James (both 
deceased). 

Education: Graduated, Weeksville 
High School, 1930; North Carolina State 
University, 1930-31. 

Professional Background: (Retired) 
Farmer and Produce Supply Business (President and Manager James 
Brothers, Inc.). 

Organizations: Member, N.C. and National Fresh Fruits and Vegetable 
Growers Association; Secretary and Treasurer, State 4-H Club Council 1930, 
Delegate, International Member, State 4-H Honor Club, 1931; President 
National Potato Council, 1966; Member, National Potato Steering Committee 
since 1966; Potato Advisory Committee (appointed by U.S. Secretary of 
Agriculture, Orville Freeman, 1961-68, re-appointed by Earl Butz 1968-71); 
Chairman National Potato Board 1977-78; Served, Board of Directors, 
Elizabeth City Chamber of Commerce; Member, Masonic Lodge 317 and 
Sudan Temple Shriners. 

Boards: Chairman, Board of Education for Weeksville High School, 1943- 
44; Member, Board of Trustees, Greater University of N.C, 1947-55; Member, 
Ehzabeth City Airport Commission, 1963; Founder and Co-Chairman, Study 
Commission for Promotion of Agriculture, Seafood and Forestry, 1983-84, 
1985-86; Member, COA Board of Trustees since 1960; Chairman, Southern 
States Legislative Division of Agriculture and Rural Development 1983-1984; 
Member, Study Commission on Local Government Financing; Member, 
North Carolina Commission on the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution; 
Member, Thirteen Member House Special Fact-Finding Committee on 
Agriculture. 

Political Activities: Served, N.C. House of Representatives, 1945-1947, 
1973-present (11 terms). 

Honors: "Tarheel of the Week", December, 1965; Recipient of Commission 
of Agriculture's Award for Promotion of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, 1971; 
Governors Award from N.C. Wildlife Federation for air conservation, 1981; 
Recipient of Award for Outstanding Contributions to the N.C. Soybean 
Association, 1983; Recipient of N.C. Farm Bureau Federation Award for 
Distinguished Service to Agriculture, 1983; Award from N.C. Association of 
County Commissioners for Distinguished Service to County Government 



The Legislative Branch 393 

and North Carolina Citizens, 1984; Southern Legislative Conference Award 
for Service to Agriculture and Rural Development to North Carolina and 
throughout the South, 1984; Award from N.C. School Boards Association for 
Service to Public Education in N.C, 1984; Governor's Award from N.C. Agri- 
business Council for Distinguished Service to Agri-business 1985; 4-H Club 
Outstanding Alumni Award, 1985; N.C. Association of County Agricultural 
Agents Award 1985; "State Friend of Extension" Award from the National 
Honorary Extension Fraternity, Epsilon Sigma Phi, 1985; Recipient of Col- 
lege of the Albemarle 25th Anniversary Award, 1985; N.C. School Boards 
Association "True Friend of Public Education" Award, 1986; N.C. Association 
of County Commissioners Distinguished Service Award, 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, Salem Baptist Church; Former, Sunday 
School Teacher. 

Family: Married Thelma L. James, April 1, 1978. Children: John (de- 
ceased) and Vernon (deceased) 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Basic Resources Subcommittee on Agriculture, Forestry 
and Horticulture. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Natural and Economic Resources); Human Resources (Subcommittee on 
Mental Health, Exceptional & Gifted People). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Luther Reginald Jeralds 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

Seventeenth Representative District 
-Cumberland (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Orrum, Robeson 
County, August 20, 1938, to Winnie B. 
and Amy Lee (McMillan) Jeralds. 

Education: Newbold Elementary 
School, 1943-51; St. Emma Military 
Academy, 1952-54; E.E. Smith Senior 
High School, 1955-56; NC State College, 
1961, B.S. (Accounting). 

Professional Background: Realtor 
and small businessman. 

Organizations: Fayetteville Business and Professional League; NC 
Association of Minority Businesses; Knights of Columbus. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88; 1989-; Advisory Budget Commission. 

Religious Activities:: Member, St. Ann's Catholic Church. 

Family: Married, Jo Ann Fuller, May 7, 1958. Children: Adonis, Dominic 
and Minikki. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources Subcommittee on Families. 

Vice-Chairman: Human Resources; Public Employees Subcommittee on 
Personnel Policies. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Human Resources); Education (Subcommittee on Elementary and 
Secondary Education). 



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395 




Walter B. Jones, Jr. 

(Democrat - Pitt County) 

Ninth Representative District - Greene and 
Pitt (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Farmville, Pitt 
County, February 10, 1943, to Walter B. 
and Doris (Long) Jones. 

Education: Farmville Public Schools; 
Hargrave Military Academy; NCSU; 
Atlantic Christian College, 1967, A.B. 
(History). 

Professional Background: Business 
Consultant. 

Boards: Mid-East Commission; Farm- 
ville Housing Authority; Advisory Council, Rural Education Institute, ECU; 
Director, Pitt County Mental Health Association; Foundation Board, Eastern 
Carolina Vocational Center; Eastern Carolina Health Education Center 
Development Corporation (Edcuation-for-Health Center); Director, Pitt Coun- 
ty Family Violence Program (member, Task Force on Family Violence). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 
Family: Married, Joe Anne Whitehurst, June 26, 1966. Child: Ashley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary Subcommittee on Election Laws and Constitutional 
Amendments. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Capital Outlay and Special Projects); Rules, Appointments and the 
Calendar. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Larry T. Justus 

(Republican - Henderson County) 

Fiftieth Representative District -Henderson 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Hendersonville, 
Henderson County, April 30, 1932, to 
Brownlow and Helen (Stepp) Justus (de- 
ceased). 

Education: Dana High School, 1950; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1954; U.S. Air Force, 
(Navigation Might School, Squadron Of- 
ficers School, Defense Preparedness Staff 
College, Nuclear and Chemical Warfare 
School, Hazardous Waste and Spill 
School). 

Professional Background: Retired Businessman; Real Estate Broker; 
retired Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. A.P'.R.; Formerly, owner and operator, 
Justus Sand and Stone (1957-78); apple orchardist; U.S. Census technical 
officer. 

Organizations: American Legion; VFW; AARP; WNC Retired Officers 
Association; Henderson County String Parents; NRA; Former Director, N.C. 
Apple Festival Beauty Pageant; President, WNC Waste Water Treatment 
Association, Cub Scouts. 

Boards: Chairman, Council on Developmental Disabilities, Vagabond 
School of Drama Board of Directors; National Board Member, ALLiance for 
the Handicapped; Henderson County Emergency Preparedness Board; Felony 
Alternative Sentencing Program 29th Judicial District; Former, Henderson 
County Board of Elections; Henderson County Energy Council; Governor's 
Committee on Better Roads; National Task Force for Youth at Risk. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-; Delegate, Republican National Convention, 1980; Chairman, 
Henderson County Republican Party, (three terms); Chairman, Eleventh 
Congressional District; State Executive Committee; Former, State Central 
Committee; Chairman, North Blue Ridge Precinct; P'ormer, Finance Officer 
nth Congressional District; Former, Campaign Manager for County Congres- 
sional Campaign, City Campaign, GOP Gubernatorial Campaign; Member, 
Henderson County Board of Elections, 3 terms. 

Military Service: U.S. Air Force 1954-1982 (Lieutenant Colonel); Navi- 
gator; Squadron Commander; Executive Officer; Disaster Preparedness Of- 
ficer; Information Officer; Protocol Officer; Awards and Decorations; (Com- 
mendation Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, Presidential Unit Citation, Combat 
Readiness Ribbon, National Defense, Vietnam Service Ribbon, Reserve, and 
Expert Marksman Medals). 



The Legislative Branch 397 

Religious Activities: Member, Refuge Baptist Church. 
Family: Married, Carolyn King of Brevard. Children: Scott, Chris, Ron 
and Seth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Justice and Public Safety. 

Member: Government (Subcommittee on Military, Veterans & Indian 
Affairs); Judiciary (Subcommittee on Election Laws & Constitutional Amend- 
ments). 



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Annie Brown Kennedy 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 

Sixty-sixth Representative District - Forsyth 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Atlanta, 
Georgia, October 13, 1924, to Mancy 
(deceased) and Mary Louise (Sheats) 
Brown. 

Education: David T. Howard Ele- 
mentary and Junior High Schools, 1930- 
38; Booker T. Washington High School, 
1983-41; Spelman College, 1945, A.B. 
(Economics); Howard University School 
of Law, 1951, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney (firm of Kennedy, Kennedy, 
Kennedy & Kennedy). 

Organizations: Forsyth County (former President), NC and National 
Bar Associations; Forsyth County Association of Women Attorneys; NC 
Academy of Trial Lawyers; NC Association of Black Attorneys; Altrusa 
Club of Winston-Salem (President, 1979-80); YWCA (former Director); 
NAACP; Women's Forum of NC; former member. League of Women Voters; 
United Way of Forsyth County, 1972-77, 1979-83. 

Boards: County Morehead Scholarship Selection Committee; Clinical 
Research Practices Committee, Bowman Gray School of Medicine; National 
Council of Negro Women; Director, Winston-Salem State University Founda- 
tion, Inc.; Board of Visitors, UNC-Chapel Hill; local Director, Southern 
National Bank; Advisory Board, Amercian Federal Savings & Loan Associa- 
tion of Greensboro; NC Criminal Code Commission; Former member, Winston- 
Salem Bicentennial Commission; former Director; Winston-Salem Housing 
Foundation, Legal Aid Society of Forsyth County and Forsyth Tuberculosis 
Association; Member, NC General Statues Commissions; NC Human Relea- 
tions Council; County and District Morehead Scholarship Selection 
Committee. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Joint Legislative Ethics Committee; Demo- 
cratic Women of Forsyth County, 1964-(President, 1970-71); NC Executive 
Committee; delegate. Democratic National Convention, 1984 & 1988 (alter- 
nate delegate, 1972); Presidential and Vice Presidential Democratic Elector, 
1976; NC Commission on the Status of Women, 1964. 

Honors: Distinguished Alumni Leadership, National Association for 
Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, 1984; Outstanding Business Woman 
of the Year, Iota Phi Phi, 1981; Citizen of the Year, Omega Psi Phi, 1979. 
Distinguished Citizen Award, Sophisticated Gents; Pioneer Black Legislative 
Award, Coalition for Progressive Legislation, 1985; The Larry Shaw Award 



The Legislative Branch 399 

for Outstanding Service, N.C. Association of Minority Business, 1985; The 
Kelly M. Alexander Award for Outstanding, Loyal and Dedicated Service, 
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1986; Outstand- 
ing Achievement Award, N.C. Asosciation of Women Attorneys. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Board of Trustees, 
1974-. 

Family: Married, Harold L. Kennedy, Jr., December 23, 1950. Children: 
Harold L., Ill, Harvey L. and Michael D. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary (Subcommittee on Courts and Administrative 
Hearings). 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base Budget and Expansion 
Budget on Human Resources); Education (Subcommittee on The University 
of North Carolina); Government (Subcommittee on State Government and 
Properties). 



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North Carolina Manual 




John Hosea Kerr, III 

(Democrat - Wayne County) 

Eleventh Representative District - Wayne 
County 

Early Years: Born in Richmond, 
Virginia, February 28, 1936, to John H. 
and Mary Hinton (Duke) Kerr, Jr. 

Education: John Graham High School, 
1954; University of North Carohna, A.B., 
1958; University of North Carolina, J.D. 
with Honors, 1961. 

Professional Background: Attorney, 
Partner in Warren, Kerr, Walston and 
Hollowell; N.C. Bar Association; N.C. 

State Bar; Wayne County Bar Association; Eighth Judicial Bar Association, 

Past President; Lawyers of N.C, Inc., Past President. 

Organizations: Goldsboro Rotary Club; Wayne County Chamber of Com- 
merce; Goldsboro Jaycees, 1962-71, Vice President; Wayne County Public 
Library Trustees, 1966-78, Chairman; Wayne County Chapter American Red 
Cross, Chairman. 

Boards: Southern National Bank of N.C; Goldsboro Advisory Board, 
Chairman, 1979-80; Wayne County Boys Club; Morehead Foundation, 
District II Committee; Wayne County Community Building Trustees, Past 
Chairman; N.C National Bank; Goldsboro Advisory Board, Past Chairman. 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative; Wayne County Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee, Chairman, 1980-85, Precinct Chairman; Wayne 
County Young Democrats, Past President. 

Military: Served, N.C. National Guard, Sergeant, 1954-62. 

Honors: Goldsboro Charter Chapter American Business Women; Boss of 
the Year, 1978; Jaycee Key Man Award; Phi Beta Kappa; Order of Coif; 
Recipient of Bob Futrelle Good Government Award, Wayne County. 1989. 

Religious Activities: Member, Madison Avenue Baptist Church; Past 
Member, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Sandra Edgerton Kerr of Goldsboro, December 21, 1960. 
Children: John and James. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Infrastructure Subcommittee on Utilities. 

Vice Chairman: Finance Subcommittee on Local Revenues; Infrastruc- 
ture. 

Member: Judiciary (Subcommittee on Election Laws & Constitutional 
Amendments). 



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401 




Marty E. Kimsey 

(Republican - Macon County) 

Fifty-Third Representative District - Macon 
County) 

Early Years: Born in Franklin, Macon 
County, September 9, 1958, to Harold 
Martin and Caroline (Reece) Kimsey. 

Education: Franklin High School, 
1976; Hiawassee Junior college; South 
Western Technical College; Western Caro- 
lina University. 

Professional Background: Real 
Estate Owner - Kimsey & Company 
Realtors. 

Organizations: Member, Franklin Board of Realtors (Vice President, 
1984, President, 1985); Member, Franklin Chamber of Commerce, (Director, 
1985); Member, NC Association of Realtors, (State Director, 1985-1986); 
Member, Franklin Jaycees (Director, Secretary, 1984-85); Franklin Optimists 
Club. 

Boards: Member, Macon County Economic Development Commission, 
1986-1989; Former member, Macon County Board of Elections, 1985-86. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
Former member, Macon County Republican Mens Club, 1984-. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Franklin. 

Family: Married, Jane Cansler, May 22, 1982. Children: Sarah, and 
Reece. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Commerce Subcommittee on Tourism 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Cultural Resources and 
Parks); Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means); Human Resources 
(Subcommittee on Housing and Social Services). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Doris Leonhardt Lail 

(Republican - Lincoln County) 

Forty-F'ourth Representative District -Lincoln 
County 

Early Years: Born in Lincoln County, 
May 7, 1937, to Mr. Stowe and Annie 
(Taylor) Leonhardt. 

Education: North Brook High School, 
1955; Howard Business School. 

rM^_«^K> Professional Background: Secretary/ 

CB^f^jE''' Treasurer, Jim Lail and Associates, Inc.; 

Jm^^ ^^'^^Ser, Cato Stores. 

^■Br Organizations: Member, Work and 

Garden Club, 1985-88; Member, Home 
Makers Extension (President of Local Club, 1981-83); County Council Home- 
makers Ext. Club, (Vice President, 1988); Former member, Lincoln County 
Agriculture Extension Service Advisory Board, 1985-88; NC Museum of 
History, 1988; Former member, Pilot-Club, 1986-87; Former area chairman. 
Community Concerts, 1985-87; Member, Work & Gras Garden Club. 

Boards: Lincoln County Domestic and Nursing Home Advisory Board, 
1987-88; Member, State Board Tarheel Prison ministries, 1988. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Lincoln 
County Republican Women's Club, (President, 1985-87). 

Honors: Outstanding Homemaker, Lincoln County, 1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Lincoln- 
ton. 

Family: Married, Jim Lail, 1956. Children:Robin (Lail) Goins and Kristen. 



Vice Chairman: 

and Parks. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Basic Resources Subcommittee on Cultural Resources 



Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on General Government); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Aging, Medi- 
caid & Facility Services); Rules, Appointments and the Calendar. 



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403 



f-^" 



Bradford Verdize Ligon 

(Republican - Rowan County) 

Rowan 



Thirty-fifth Representative District 
County. 

Early Years: Born in Buffalo, South 
Carolina, January 17, 1922, to William 
H. Ligon and Lola (Collins) Ligon. 

Education: Union High School, 1940; 
Medical University of South Carolina, 
College of Pharmacy, 1950, B.S. (Phar- 
macy). 

Professional Background: Pharma- 
cist, (Retired). 

Organizations: NC Pharmacy Associa- 
tion; Piedmont Pharmacy Association; Andrew Jackson Masonic Lodge; 
American Legion, Harold B. Jarrett Post; Veterans of Foreign Wars. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; Rowan County Commissioner, 1979-80. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corp, 1942-45 (Corporal). 

Religious Activities: Member, New Hope Baptist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher, Adult Class; former Deacon. 

Family: Married, Jemelle Huckabee, January 20, 1945. Children: Bradford 
Gene and Michael Dennis. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water and Wastewater. 

Vice Chairman: Infrastructure; Finance Subcommittee on State Revenues; 
Basic Resources Subcommittee on Wildlife, Natural and Scenic Areas. 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Authorities, Board and Commis- 
sions); Pensions and Retirement. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Daniel T. Lilley 

(Democrat - Lenoir County) 

Third Representative District - Craven, Lenoir 
and Pamlico Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Martin Coun- 
ty, August 15, 1920, to Alfred Tom and 
Ethel Grace (Gurkin) Lilley (both 
deceased). 

Education: Farm Life High 
School; Spartan School of Aero- 
nautics; School of Flight (airline main- 
tenance course); College of Life Under- 
writers, 1967, C.L.U. 

Professional Background: Life 
insurance salesman (Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company). 

Organizations: Lenoir County Life Underwriters Association; Kinston 
Rotary Club; Paul Harris Fellow; Former President, Kinston Junior Chamber 
of Commerce; Member, Lenoir County Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Greene Lamp, Inc.; Fiscal Affairs and Oversight standing com- 
mittee of the Assembly on the Legislature. Member, State Aeronautics 
Council. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1969- (11 
terms); Commissioner, Lenoir County, 1964-68. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Air Force, 6 years (Colonel); World War II; 
LI.S. Air Force Reserve; Meritorious Service Award, 1980. 

Honors: National Quality Award, National Association of Life Under- 
writers, 1985; Governor's Award (Conservation Legislator of the Year), N.C. 
Wildlife Federation, 1975; Citizen of the Year, Kinston Chamber of Com- 
merce; 1963; Distinguished Service Award, Kinston Junior Chamber of 
Commerce, 1954. 

Religious Activities: Member, Northwest Christian Church, Kinston; 
Elder. 

Family: Married, Jean Hites of McPherson, Kansas, July 7, 1944. Chil- 
dren: Eileen and Dan, Jr. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance Subcommittee on State Revenues. 

Vice Chairman: Finance; Infrastructure Subcommittee on Railways, 
Airports & Waterways. 

Memiber: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Marine Fisheries); Rules, 
Appointments and the Calendar. 



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405 




Albert S. Lineberry, Sr. 

(Democrat - Guilford County) 

Twenty-seventh Representative District - 
Guilford (part) County 

Early Years: Born in Memphis, 
Tennessee, April 13, 1918. 

Education: Cumberland University 
Army Air School; Gupton-Jones College 
of Mortuary Law and Science; National 
Foundation School of Management, 
Evanston, Illinois; Associate member, 
Thanatology Department, Columbia Uni- 
versity; Certified Member of the College 
of Funeral Service Practice; Member, 
Board of Center Association, Center for Creative Leadership. 

Professional Background: Chairman of the Board, Hanes-Lineberry 
Funeral Service; President, Westminster Gardens; President, Gaines Corpora- 
tion; Member of the Board, First Home Federal Bank of North Carolina; 
Partner, J.A.S.E. Properties; Board Member, Boren Clay Products Company 
(served for a number of years); Board Member, First Union National Bank, 
Greensboro (served for a number of years); Board Member, United Family 
Life Insurance Company, Atlanta (served for a number of years). 

Organizations: Wake Forest Deacon's Club; Greensboro Sport Council; 
A.M.F.M. PP Turner Lodge 746; Eastern Star; White Shrine; Shrine Oasis 
Temple; Scottish Rite Bodies (32nd, KCCH Degrees); Greensboro Country 
Club; Roaring Gap Country Club; Director, Greensboro City Club; Member, 
Rhododendron Royal Brigade of Guards (Asheville); Life Member, YMCA; 
President, Greensboro Symphony Orchestra; North Carolina Congress of 
Parents and Teachers; Chamber of Commerce (Past President); Boy Scouts 
of America National Advisory Board; Executive Committee of General 
Greene Council (past President); International of NSM; National Chairman, 
Association of Baptist for Scouting, (6 years); Member, Rules and Regulations 
on Liquor By the Drink in North Carolina, Governor's Commission; Member 
1986, Seniors Challenge Masters Cup, National Golf Tournament; Executive 
Committee, Southern Legislative Conference Committee of Economic Develop- 
ment, Trade, and Commerce; Chairman, U.S. Naturalization Committee; 
Greensboro. Board of Directors, American Cancer Society; Member, Board of 
Directors, Blandwood Historical Association; President, Greensboro Kiwanis 
Club; Lieutenant Governor, Kiwanis International; Local Chapter, served as 
President, National Conference of Christians and Jews; President, National 
Selected Morticians International; Chairman, N.C. for Guilford County, 
Operation 2000, Government Committee; Member, N.C. Economic Develop- 
ment Board; Member, Board of Directors, United Community Service of 
Greensboro; United Way of Greater Greensboro. 



406 North Carolina Manual 

Boards: Board of Visitors of Wake Forest University; Board of Visitors of 
Guilford College; Trustee, Greensboro College; Director, Greater Greensboro 
Foundation; Past Chairman, Greensboro City School Systems; Trustee, 
Wingate College; Past Chairman, Greensboro War Memorial Foundation; 
President, C.I.B. Consumer Information Bureau, Evanston, IL.; Member, 
Economic Development Commission of the Dept. of Commerce; Member, 
Board of NC Rural Economics Development Corp. Center Inc. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-. 
Military Service: Served, U.S. Army Air Corps World War II, Air Pilot. 

Honors: Greensboro Business Leader Hall of Fame, 1984; Lineberry- 
Adams Award Southeast Seminary, 1982; Uncle Joe Cannon Award & 
Distinguished Citizens Award, Greensboro Chamber of Commerce; Silver 
Beaver and Silver Antelope Awards, Boy Scouts of America; Outstanding 
Citizen Award from Greensboro Inter Club Council; Boss of the Year, Dolly 
Madison Chapter, American Business Women, 1974; Outstanding Citizen, 
National Conference of Christians and Jews, 1972; Book of Golden Deed 
Award, Exchange Club, 1969; Man of the Year, Asheville, 1949; Honorary 
Degree, Guilford Technical Community College. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Chairman of the 
Board of Deacons; Departmental Superintendent, Finance Committee; Chair- 
man and Charter Member, Developmental Council, Southeastern Seminary; 
President's Cabinet, Pan-American Union of Baptist Men; Vice President, 
Southern Baptist North Carolina Convention; Director, Bill Glass 
Evangelistic Association. 

Family: Married Helen Howerton. Five Children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Business, Labor & Employment); 
Finance (Subcommittee on Local Revenues); Infrastructure (Subcommittee 
on Water & Wastewater). 



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407 




Sidney Alvin Locks 

(Democrat - Robeson County) 

Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, 
Robeson and Scotland (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Lafayette, 
Louisiana, February 5, 1949, to Sidney 
A. and Gloria Jean (Harris) Locks. 

Education: J.C. Clark High School 
(Opelousas, Louisiana); Wiley College, 
1972, B.A.; Morehouse School of Religion, 
1975, Master of Divinity. 

Professional Background: Minister; 
day care administrator. 

Organizations: Operation Sickle Cell, 
Robeson Democratic Party; Alpha Phi Alpha; Golden Leaf Lodge #124; Car- 
penters Consistory 164; NAACP of Robeson County; former Chairman, 
Alpha Phi Omega; Robeson County Church and Community Center; Ouda 
Temple #147. 

Boards: Mental Health Study Commission. NC Energy Policy Council; 
former Chairman, Lumberton Human Relations Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Lumberton Board of Education. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Men of America, 1981. Mental Health Assn. 
Valand Award 1988. 

Religious Activities: Minister, Sandy Grove Baptist Church; Progressive 
National Baptist Convention, Inc. 

Family: Married, Carol Ann Freeman, June 2, 1973. Children: Sidney 
Alvin Edward, Frederick Douglas Maynard; Odetta Tandawi Carol; James 
Weldon Attucks. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources Subcommittee on Aging, Medicaid and 
Facility Services. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Human Resources. 

Member: Public Employees Subcommittee on Benefits. 



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North Carolina Manual 




'fr'^^V 




H. Clayton Loflin 

(Republican - Union County) 

Thirty-Fourth Representative District -Union, 
Stanly and Cabarrus Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Thomasville, 
Davidson County, September 23, 1943, to 
John Ray and Gertrude (Carr) Loflin. 

Education: Thomasville High School, 
1962; Attended High Point and Guilford 
Colleges, 1962-64; School of Mortgage 
Banking, Northwestern University, 1964- 
1967. 

Professional Background: Owner 
and Manager, Feed Ingredient Broker- 
age. 

Organizations: Monroe/Union County Chamber of Commerce; Duck Un- 
limited; Former member. Rotary Club, Jaycees and United Way; Former 
coach, T-Ball, Little League Baseball, Football, Babe Ruth Baseball and 
Senior High Church Basketball; Carolina's Feed Industry Association, 
(President, 1974-1986); Former member, NC Home Builders Association. 
Wildlife Federation. A.L.E.C. 

Boards: Advisory Council, NC State University Agricultural Institute; 
Board of Directors, NC Poultry Federation. Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basin 
Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Chair- 
man, Union County Jim Martin Committee, 1984-; Chairman, Union County 
Republican Party (2 terms). 

Awards & Honors: Spoke Award, 1965 (US Junior Chamber of Com- 
merce). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Monroe; 
Former Sunday school teacher and activities coach. 

Family: Married, Peggy McNeal, April 6, 1963. Children:Mark Clayton 
and Bradley Carr. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Agriculture, Forestry and 
Horticulture); Commerce (Subcommittee on Banks & Thrift); Finance (Sub- 
committee on Local Revenues); Government (Subcommittee on Local Govern- 
ment I). 



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409 



Edith Ledford Lutz 

(Democrat - Cleveland County) 

Forty-eighth Representative District - 
Cleveland, Polk, and Rutherford Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Lawndale, 
Cleveland County, October 20, 1914, to 
Thomas Curtis and Annie (Hoyle) Led- 
ford. 

Education: Belwood High School. 

Professional Background: Farmer 
and fruit grower. 

Organizations: Director, Cleveland 
County Farm Bureau; Director, Upper 
Cleveland County Chamber of Com- 
merce; NC Apple Growers' Association; Sheltered Workshops of Rutherford 
County; American Association of Business Women. 

Boards: Southern Legislative Conference; Mental Health Study Commis- 
sion; Agriculture, Forestry and Seafood Awareness Study Commission; Fact 
Finding Agriculture Study Commission; Adoption Study Commission; 
Property Tax Study Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1976, 1977- 
78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Honors: Who's Who of American Women; "Farm Woman of the Year," 
Southwestern District. 

Religious Activities: Member, Kadish Methodist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher; Treasurer, Women's Organization; counselor. Youth Fellowship. 

Family: Married, M. Everett Lutz, October 25, 1933. Children: E.Jacob. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Government Subcommittee on Local Government 11. 

Vice Chairman: Government. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Human Resources); Commerce (Subcommittee on Insurance); Basic Re- 
sources (Subcommittee on Agriculture, Forestry and Horticulture). 



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North Carolina Manual 




John Bell McLaughlin 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty-fourth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Mecklenburg 
County, September 1, 1925, to John and 
Maude (Utley) McLaughlin. 

Education: Newell Public Schools. 

Professional Background: Retired 
(former postmaster, farmer, merchant and 
businessman). 

Organizations: American Legion Post 
287; Newell - UNC-Charlotte Lions Club. 

Boards: Former member, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, (10 
years). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1950-52 (Corporal). 

Religious Activities: Member, Back Creek Associate Reformed Presby- 
terian Church; Elder. 

Family: Married, Margaret Alexander of Mecklenburg County, June 20, 
1954. Three children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Base and Expansion Budget Subcommittee 
on Highway Fund. 

Member: Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Highways); Education, (Sub- 
committee on Private Schools). 



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411 




Leo Mercer 

(Democrat - Columbus County) 

Fifteenth Representative District -Columbus 
County 

Early Years: Born in Chadbourn, 
Columbus County, March 20, 1926, to 
Bailey and Lottie (Hinson) Mercer. 

Education: Chadbourn High School, 
1943 

Professional Background: Retired 
Postmaster; Mercer - Worthington 
Funeral Home; President, Mercer - Worth- 
ington Mutual Burial Association; 
Farmer. 

Organizations: Member, Columbus County Committee of 100; NC 
Chapter of National Association of Postmasters in the US (President, 1975); 
Former Master, Chadbourn Masonic Lodge 607; 32 Degree Scotish Rite 
Mason; PTA (Former President); Chadbourn Civitan Club, (Former President 
and Secretary); Chadbourn Merchants Association (Former President). 

Boards: Member, Southeastern Economic Development Commission; 
Former member, Chadbourn School Board; Former member, Westside School 
Board; Columbus County Board of Education (Chairman, 1986-87; 2 terms). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
Mayor, Chadbourn, (5 terms); Columbus County School Board. 

Honors: NC Postmaster of the year, 1978. 

Military Service: Served, Navy, 1943. 

Religious Activities: Member, Chadbourn Baptist Church; Former 
superintendent, Sunday School; served. Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Helen Irene Bullard, April 25, 1943. Children:Kenneth 
Leo, Kipling Sherrill, and Gwendolyn (Mercer) Houser. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Capital Outlay and Special Programs); Basic Resources (Subcommittee 
on Agriculture, Forestry and Horticulture); Commerce (Subcommittee on 
Insurance); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Railways, Airports & Water- 
ways). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Henry M. Michaux, Jr. 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Twenty-third Representative District - 
Durham (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham 
County, September 4, 1930, to Henry 
McKinley and Isadore (Coates) Michaux, 
Sr. 

Education: Palmer Memorial Insti- 
tute, 1948; NC Central University, 1952, 
B.S.; NC Central University, School of 
Law, 1964, J.D.; Rutgers University and 
NC Central University, graduate 
studies. 

Professional Background: Attorney and business executive (Executive 
Vice President and Director: Union Insurance and Realty Company; Glenview 
Memorial Park, Inc.; Washington Terrace Apartments, Inc.; Terrace 
Insurance and Realty Company). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and National Bar Associations; NC As- 
sociation of Black Lawyers; George H. White Bar Association; National 
Association of Real Estate Brokers (General Counsel, 1966-77). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 
1975-76, 1977, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. Speaker, Democratic Convention, 1984; 
United States Attorney, Middle District of N.C., 1977-1981, Delegate, Demo- 
cratic Convention, 1976; District Solicitor, 1969. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1952-54; Reserves, 1954-60 (Ser- 
geant). 

Honors: Honorary Doctor of Law, NC Central University and Durham 
College. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Joseph's AME Church, Durham; 
Steward Board. 

Family: Children: Jocelyn (Winston) Simeon. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriation Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budgets on General Government. 

Vice-Chairman: Government Subcommittee on Alcoholic Beverage 
Control. 

Member: Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts and Administrative Hearings. 



The Legislative Branch 



413 




George W. Miller, Jr. 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Sixty-ninth Representative District - Durham 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Bom in Spencer, Rowan 
County, May 14, 1930, to George W. and 
Blanche M. (Iddings) Miller. 

Education: Spencer Elementary and 
High School, 1936-48; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
B.S. (Business Administration); UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1954-57, 
LL.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(firm of Haywood, Denny & Miller). 

Organizations: Durham County, NC and American Bar Associations; 
International Association of Insurance Counsels; Phi Alpha Delta; Sertoma 
Club. 

Boards: Board of Visitors, NC Central University School of Law; Utility 
Review Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973- 
74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; 1989-; NC 
Young Democrats Club (President, 1964-65). 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1951-53 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Duke Memorial Methodist Church, 
Durham; former Chairman, Duke Memorial Week Day School Committee; 
former member. Official Board. 

Family: Married, Eula Hux, June 21, 1958. Children: EHzabeth Ann, 
Blanche Rose and George, III. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance Subcommittee on Ways & Means. 

Vice Chairman: Finance Committee. 

Member: Education (Subcommittee on Educational Activities of State 
Agencies); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Highways); Judiciary (Sub- 
comittee on Courts & Administrative Hearings). 



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North Carolina Manual 




William Donald Mills 

(Democrat - Onslow County) 

Fourth Representative District - Onslow 
County 

Early Years: Born in Maysville, Jones 
County, on October 8, 1932, to Leo & 
Mildred (Jones) Mills. 

Education: White Oak High School; 
attended East Carolina University. 

Professional Background: President, 
Seashore Investments; store owner. 

Organizations: Jacksonville Break- 
fast Rotary (President); Carolina's 
Association of Professional Insurance 
Agents (President, 1985-86; Board of Directors, 1977-86); Jacksonville Cham- 
ber of Commerce (President, 1970); NC Merchants Association; Seaside 
Lodge n429; Sudan Temple; Loyal Order of Moose; Jacksonville Board of 
Realtors; Eastern Star; White Oak PTA (past President); White Oak Com- 
munity Service Association (past President). 

Boards: NC Ports Authority, 1981-82; NC University Board of Governors, 
1977-78; NC Advisory Budget Commission, 1975-76; Coastal Carolina Com- 
munity College, (Trustee, 1964-77; State President, 1975-76). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1965-66, 
1967, 1989-; NC Senate, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1979-80, 1981-82; Onslow 
County Commissioner, 1959-1964. 

Military Service: Served, US Army (Corporal, 1951-52); Reserves, 1953. 

Religious Activities: Member, Belgrade United Methodist Church, 
Belgrade; President, Methodist Men; Superintendent, Sunday School; Mem- 
ber, Board of Trustees; Chairman, Pastoral Committee. 

Family: Married, Donniere Morton of Jacksonville, January 25, 1951. 
Children: William D., Jr., Robert and Kathy (Mills) Daugherty. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commerce Subcommittee on Insurance. 

Vice Chairman: Commerce; Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water and 
Wastewater. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Highways). 



The Legislative Branch 



415 




Martin L. Nesbitt, Jr. 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

Fifty-First Representative District - 
Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County, September 25, 1946, to 
Marion L. and Mary (Cordell) Nesbitt, 
Sr. 

Education: Reynolds High School, 
1964; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970, B.A.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1973, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: Buncombe County 
Bar Association; NC State Bar Associations; N.C. Academy of Trial 
Lawyers. 

Boards: House Small Business Committee, Chairman, 1983-84; House 
Insurance Committee, Chairman, 1985-86; House Appropriations Subcom- 
mittee on Education Chairman, 1987-88; American Cancer Society, Bun- 
combe County Unit, Director, 1983; Buncombe Alternatives, Director, 1984- 
86; Mediation Center, Director, 1985-86; Buncombe County Board of Educa- 
tion, Attorney, 1977-79; N. C. 2,000 Commissions, Member, 1981; Alternatives 
for Asheville Commissions, Member, 1985-86. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 
(appointed to fill unexpired term created by the death of Mary C. Nesbitt), 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Member Southern Legislative Con- 
ference 1987-88; National Legislative Conference, Member, 1987-88; Director, 
Buncombe County Democratic Men's Club, 1983-; Democratic Legislative 
Campaign Committee, Chairman, 1989-90. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Luke's Episcopal Church. 

Family: Married, Deanne Seller, September 28, 1979. Children: William 
Martin and Chad Sellers. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Education); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Health & Disease Pre- 
vention); Judiciary (Subcommittee on Civil & Criminal Justice); Rules, 
Appointments and the Calendar. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Edd Nye 

(Democrat - Bladen County) 

Twelfth Representative District - Bladen, 
Pender (part) and Sampson Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Gulf, Chatham 
County, to Joseph Burke and Vera (John- 
son) Nye. 

Education: Clarkton High School; 
Southeastern Community College; 

NCSU. 

Profession: Insurance executive. 

Organizations: Elizabethtown 
Chamber of Commerce; Bladen Masonic 
Lodge; former member, Jaycees and 
Lions Club. 

Boards: Former Trustee, Bladen Technical College. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; NC Senate, 1975-76. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1952-56. 

Religious Activities: Member, Elizabethtown Baptist Church; Board of 
Deacons. Former member: Bladen Baptist Association (Moderator) and NC 
Baptist State Convention. 

Family: Married, Peggy McKee of Clarkton. Children: Shannon, Edward 
and Allison. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budgets 
on Human Resoures); Government (Subcommittee on State Government and 
Properties); Public Employees (Subcommittee on Salaries); Education (Sub- 
committee on Private Schools). 



The Legislative Branch 417 

Harry Eugene Payne, Jr. 

(Democrat - New Hanover County) 

Thirteenth Representative District - New 
Hanover (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New 
Hanover County, September 11, 1952, to 
Harry Eugene and Margaret (Tucker) 
Payne. 

Education: New Hanover High School, 
1967-70; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970-74, A.B. 
(Political Science, Psychology); Wake 
Forest University, School of Law, 1974- 
77, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(private practice). 

Organizations: New Hanover County, NC, NC State and American Bar 
Associations; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grace United Methodist Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Rules, Appointments and the Calendar. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budgets 
on Natural and Economic Resources); Judiciary (Subcommittee on Civil and 
Criminal Justice). 




418 



North Carolina Manual 




Beverly Moore Perdue 

(Democrat - Craven County) 

Third Representative District - Craven, 
Lenoir, and Pamilico Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Grundy, 
Virginia, January 14, 1947, to Alfred P. 
and Irene E. (Morefield) Moore. 

Education: Grundy High School, 1965, 
University of Kentucky, 1969, (B.S. in 
History); University of Florida, M.Ed. 
Community College Administration, 
1974; University of Florida, 1976 (PhD in 
Administration); Fellow: University of 
Florida Center of Gerontology Geriatrics 
Specialist. 

Professional Background: Former Director, Geriatric Services, Craven 
County Hospital; Consultant, Robert W. Johnson Foundation; Neuse River 
Council of Governments; Director of Human Services; Gerontology Society; 
National Council on Aging; American Hospital Association. 

Organizations: Chamber of Commerce; Committee of 100; Historical 
Society; Arts Council; A. B.C. Board, Chairman, 1983-86; Chairman, United 
Way, 1985. 

Boards: Member, N.C.N.B. Board; Member, United Way Board; Craven 
County Home Health Hospice Board; Council on Women; Social Services 
Board, Chairman, 1979-85. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-; Craven County Democratic Party, Precinct Chairman, Treasurer, 
First Vice-President; N.C. Democratic Party, Executive Committee & Execu- 
tive Council. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Episcopal Church; Bible School, 
Co Principal, 1981; Sunday School, Teacher; Bible School, Teacher. 

Family: Married, Gary R. Perdue, Sr. of Louisville, KY, 1970. Children: 
Garrett and Emmett. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Highway Fund); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Aging, Medicaid & 
Facility Services); Judiciary (Subcommittee on Election Laws & Constitu- 
tional Amendments). 



The Legislative Branch 



419 




James Arthur Pope 

(Republican - Wake County) 

Sixty-First Representative District -Wake 
County 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, 
Cumberland County, May 5, 1956, to John 
W. and Joyce (Wilkins) Pope. 

Education: Asheville School, 1974; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, BA "with honors", 
1978; Duke University School of Law, 
JD, 1981. 

Professional Background: Retailer, 
Senior VP, Variety Wholesalers, Inc.; 
Attorney. 

Organizations: Member, NC State Bar; Member, NC Bar Association; 
Member, Wake County Bar Association; Member, American Bar Association. 

Boards: Member, State Goals and Policy Board, 1985-1989; Member, 
Board of Directors, Institute of Humane Studies at George Mason University, 
1987-; Member, Educational Foundation, UNC-Chapel Hill; Member, The 
Chancellor's Club, UNC-Chapel Hill; Former Special Counsel to the 
Governor, State Boards, Commissions and Agencies, 1985. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
General Counsel to NC Republican Party, 1987; Republican Chairman, NC 
House District 61, 1986-89; Wake County Republican Executive Committee, 
1985-89; State Co Chairman, Jack Kemp for President, 1988; Steering Com- 
mittee, Rhoda Billings for NC Supreme Court, 1986; State Director of Organi- 
zation for Jim Martin for Governor, 1984. 

Religious Activities: Member, White Memorial Presbyterian Church, 
Raleigh. 

Family: Married Alexandra M. Hightower, September 29, 1984. Children: 
Joyce Laurene and Earle James Arthur. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary Subcommittee on Election Laws & Constitu- 
tional Amendments. 

Member: Education (Subcommittee on Elementary & Secondary Educa- 
tion); Finance (Subcommittee on Highways); Government (Subcommittee on 
State Government and Properties). 



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North Carolina Manual 



»*c-„^H 




Coy Clarence Privette 

(Republican - Cabarrus County) 

Thirty-fourth Representative District - 
Cabarrus, Stanly and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Statesville, 
Iredell County, January 31, 1933, to 
Clarence and Carrie (Harmon) Privette. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 
1955, B.A.; Southeastern Baptist 
Theological Seminary, 1958, M.Div.; 
School of Pastoral Care, Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine; Walter Reed Army 
Medical Center, clinical pastoral studies; 
US Army Command and Staff College. 

Professional Background: Executive Director, Christian Action League 
ofNC, Inc. 

Associations: Kannapolis Chamber of Commerce. Stanly Co. CC; Union- 
Monroe C.C. Concord-Cabarrus Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: American Council on Alcoholic Problems, Inc.; Board of 
Ministers, Gardner-Webb College; Committee of Ministers, Campbell Univer- 
sity; National Leadership Team, National Consultation on Pornography; 
Trustee, Wingate College, 1963-66, 1973-76, 1977-81. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1953-. (Colonel). 

Honors: Alumnus of the Year, Men's Residence Council, Wake Forest 
University, 1977; Man of the Year, NC Baptist Men, 1974; Kannapohs 
Young Man of the Year, 1966; Student Body President, Wake Forest Univer- 
sity, 1954-55; Omnicron Delta Kappa. 

Literary Works: Editor, Tomorrow, a monthly journal concerning moral 
and ethical issues. 

Religious Activities: Member, North Kannapolis Baptist Church, 
Kannapolis, pastor, 1962-76. Christian Life Commission, Southern Baptist 
Convention; Baptist State Convention (President, 1975-77; First Vice Presi- 
dent, 1973-75); Moderator, Cabarrus Baptist Association, 1968; President, 
Kannapolis Ministerial Association, 1965. 

Family: Married, Betty Frances Shoaf of Kannapolis, June 21, 1958. 
Children: Denise Elaine, Lori Elizabeth, Amy Lynn and Melanie Ann. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Government Subcommittee on ABC. 

Vice Chairman: Government. 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Wildlife, Natural and Scenic 
Areas); Finance (Subcommittee on Highways); Judiciary (Subcommittee on 
Civil and Criminal Justice). 



The Legislative Branch 




Listen Bryan Ramsey 

(Democrat - Madison County) 

Fifty-second Representative District - Graham 
(part), Haywood, Jackson, Madison and 
Swain Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Marshall, 
Madison County, February 26, 1919, to 
John Morgan and Delia Lee (Bryan) 
Ramsey. 

Education: Mars Hill College, 1938. 

Professional Background: Retired 
merchant. 

Organizations: Elk; Mason; American 
Legion (former Commander); Veterans of 
Foreign Wars. 

Boards: Co-Chairman, Governmental Operations Commission, 1981-1988, 
member 1973-1976; Co-Chairman, Joint Committee on Separation of Powers, 
1982; Advisory Budget Commission, 1973-1980; Blue Ribbon Study Commis- 
sion on Transportation, 1979-80. Co-Chairman Legislative Services Commis- 
sion 1981-1988, Member 1971-76; Co-Chairman Legislative Research Commis- 
sion 1981-88, Member 1975-76. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 
1967-Present (14 Terms); Speaker of the House, 1981-1988 (4 Terms); 1987-88; 
Executive Committee, Southern Legislative Conference, 1981-1988, Chair- 
man, 11th Congressional District Democratic Executive Committee, 1972, 
1974, 1976, 1980; delegate. Democratic National Convention, 1968; County 
Chairman, Democratic Executive Committee, 1958-60, 1962; Board of Alder- 
man, Town of Marshall, 1949-61. Executive Committee, NCSL 1981-1988; 
NCSL Legislative Leaders 1981-88. 

Military Service: Served, Army Air Corps, World War II. 

Honors: NC Pubhc Service Award, 1985; Friend of Education, NCAE, 
1985; honorary member, NC AFL-CIO, 1985; first annual Roy A. Taylor 
Service Award, 1978. Distinguished Service Award for Outstanding Alumni 
-Mars Hill College 1979; Received Honorary Doctors Degrees Mars Hill 
College May 1988; Liston B. Ramsey Regional Activity Center, Western 
Carolina University, April 1987; 

Religious Activities: Baptist. 

Family: Married, Florence McDevitt. Children: Martha (Ramsey) Geouge. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNEMTNS 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budgets on Capital Outlay and Special Programs. 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Authorities, Boards and Commis- 
sions); Government (Subcommittee on ABC); Pensions and Retirement. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Edward David Redwine 

(Democrat - Brunswick County) 

F'ourteenth Representative District - 
Brunswick, New Hanover (part) and Pender 
(part) Counties. 

Early Years: Bom in Wilmington, New 
Hanover County, September 12, 1947, to 
Edward Henry and Doris (F'rink) Red- 
wine. 

Education: Shallottee High School, 
1965; ECU, 1972, A.B. (Political Science, 
History). 

Professional Background: Vice Presi- 
dent and partner, Coastal Insurance and 
Realty, Inc. 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents of NC; Carolina Associa- 
tion of Professional Insurance Agents; South Brunswick Chamber of Com- 
merce (President and Director, 1976-82); Shallotte Lions Club; Board of 
Advisors, Cape Fear Council, BSA; Mason, 1976; Shrine Sudane Temple, 
1976. 

Boards: NC Student Legislative Advisory Council; Board of Advisors, 
Cape Fear Substance Abuse; Vice Chairman, Brunswick County Parks and 
Recreation; NC Battleship Memorial Commission, 1982-83; Trustee, 
Brunswick Technical College, 1982. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-; Executive Board, 7th Congressional District; Brunswick 
County Democratic Party (Chairman, 1979-82; Treasurer, 1976; Young Demo- 
crats of Brunswick County (President, 1978). 

Honors: Young Agent of the Year, 1984; Mr. Chairman Award, IIANC, 
1982; Who's Who in American Politics, 1982; Outstanding Young Man of the 
Year, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, Shallotte Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Margaret Penelope Taylor of Monroe, September 23, 
1972. Children: Erin Elizabeth and Amanda Fletcher, David Austin. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budgets on Natural & Economic Resources; Pensions and Retirement. 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Marine F'isheries); Infrastruc- 
ture (Subcommittee on Waster and Wastewater); Judiciary (Subcommittee on 
Corrections). 



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423 




Frank Edwin Rhodes 

(Republican - P\)rsyth County) 

Thirty-ninth Representative District - 
Forsyth, (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Worcester, 
Massachusetts, August 2, 1914, to Frank 
and Alberta (Stoddard) Rbodes. 

Education: Columbia University (Ad- 
vertising and Management); Rutgers Uni- 
versity (Sales Management). 

Professional Background: Retired 
real estate executive (former President, 
Frank E. Rhodes, Inc.). 

Organizations: Winston-Salem Board 
of Realtors; NC Association of Realtors; National Association of Realtors; 
Winston-Salem Kiwanis Club; Salem Masonic Lodge 289; Oasis Shrine 
Temple; Winston-Salem Shrine. 

Boards: Forsyth Zoning Board of Adjustment, 1969-75 (Chairman, 
1972-75). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-45; OCS; Infantry; Expert 
Infantryman; F]xpert Sharpshooter; Good Conduct Medal. 

Honors: Realtor of the Year, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary United Methodist Church, 
Winston-Salem; Administrative Board. 

F'amily: Married, Fernande Gagne of Quebec City, Canada, 'July I, 1960. 
Children: Ruthann, Frank, III, I'ina and Nelson. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance Subcommittee on Local Government Revenues. 

Vice-Chairman: Finance 

Member: Government (Subcommittee on Local Government 11); Educa- 
tion (Subcommittee on Educational Activities of State Agencies). 



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North Carolina Manual 



George S. Robinson 

(Kopuhlican - (yuldwell County) 

Forty Sixth Kepn'scntativc District - 
Alexander (part) Avery, Burke (part) 
(Caldwell, Mitchell and Watauj^^a (part) 
('ounties. 

Early Years: Born in Lenoir, Cald- 
well County, November 15, 1945, to 
Charles M. and Lorraine M. Robinson. 

Education: Oak Ridge Military In- 
stitute, 196.'5-64; University of Tennessee, 

1964-HH, 1972-7;5. 

Professional Background: Lumber 
Executive (President: Robinson Lumber 
Company, Inc.; Southeastern Lumber 
Company; Robinson Frugie Lumber Company). 

Organizations: Lenoir Rotary Club; Alpha Tau Omega; President, Lenoir 
Little League; District Commissioner, BSA. 

Boards: Lenoir Housing Authority. 

Political Activities: Member, NC' House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
198:5-84, 1985-86, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Air P'orce, 1968-72 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Lenoir. 

Family: Married, Ann P. Robinson, April 14, 1974. Child:Ricky. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commerce Subcommittee on Business, Labor and Employ- 
ment. 

Vice Chairman: Commerce. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means); Infrastructure 
(Subcommittee on Utilities, Pensions and Retirement); Rules, Appointments 
and the Calendar. 



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425 




Richard Eugene Rogers 

(Democrat - Martin County) 

Sixth Representative District - Bertie (part), 
Hertford (part), Martin (part), and Pitt (part) 
Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Williamston, 
Martin County, December 12, 1929, to 
Javan and Effie (Green) Rogers (both 
deceased). 

Education: Bear Grass High School, 
1943-45; WilHamston High School, 1945- 
46; Oak Ridge Military Institution, 1946- 
47; UNC, Chapel Hill, 1955, B.S., Masters 
Education, 1957. 

Professional Background: Superintendent, Martin, County Schools, 
1965-85 (retired); Farming; Insurance; Real Estate; N.C. Association of 
School Administrations; Martin County Chamber of Commerce. 

Organizations: President, Williamston Kiwanis Club, 1982; Local District 
Committee, BSA, 1965-85; St. Pauls Jaycees, 1959-63 (President, 1962). 

Boards: District Committee, Boy Scouts of America, 1986; Board of 
Directors, EastCarolina Vocational Center, 1980-85; Board of Directors, N.C. 
High School Athletic Association, 1981-84; Board of Health, Martin Wash- 
ington, Tyrrell District, 1965-84; Board of Directors, N.C. Superintendents 
Division, NCAE, 1975-78; NC State Capital Planning Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Coast Guard, 1950-53; Honorable Dis- 
charge. 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award; Boss of the Year Award; Super- 
intendent Contributing Most to Athletics, Region 1. 

Religious Activities: Member, Memorial Baptist Church; Board of 
Deacons, 1966-70, 1972-76, 1978-82. 

Family: Married, Jean Carole Griffin, of Williamston, August 18, 1956. 
Children: Jeanette, Laura and Richard. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Commerce Subcommittee on Banks & Thrift. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means); Government (Sub- 
committee on State Government & Properties). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Frank J. Sizemore, III 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

Twenty-Seventh Representative District 
Guilford (part) County. 



Early Years: Born in High Point, 
Guilford County, July 25, 1946, to Frank 
Julian and Jane (Cameron) Sizemore, Jr. 

Education: Ferndale Junior High 
School, 1958-61; Central High School, 
1964; Duke University, 1968, B.A.; Duke 
University, 1971, J.D.; Managing Editor, 
Duke Law Journal. 

Professional Background: Counsel. 

Organizations: Greensboro, NC, DC 
and American Bar Associations; Christian Legal Society. 

Boards: Governor's Commission on the Family; Special Committee on 
Prisons; National Commission on the Future of High Point College. 

Political Activities: Member of the NC House of Representatives, 1985- 
86, 1987-88, 1989-; Chairman, Guilford County Legislative Delegation. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian, Greensboro. 

Family: Married, Laura C. Frazier of Greensboro, May 26, 1979. Children: 
Sara Frazier, Anna Laura, Frank Julian IV and Jane Cameron. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary Subcommittee on Corrections. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Education; Judiciary. 

Member: Ethics; Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Railways, Airports & 
Waterways). 



The Legislative Branch 



427 




Paul Bowman Stam, Jr. 

(Republican - Wake County) 

Sixty-Second Representative District -Wake 
County 

Early Years: Born in Princeton, New 
Jersey, September 5, 1950, to Paul Bow- 
man and Jane Duncan (Levring) Stam. 

Education: Eastern Christian High 
School, 1968; Michigan State University, 
1972, BS; UNC-Chapel Hill School of 
Law, 1975, JD. 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
Holleman, Stam & Reed. 

Organizations: Member, NC Bar 
Association; Member, Wake County Bar Association; Member, NC State 
Bar; Member, NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Member, Christian Legal 
Society of North Carolina (Executive Committee, 1987-89); Member, Wake 
County Right to Life (Chairman, 1980-83; Vice Chairman, 1983-88); Member, 
Christian Action League of North Carolina, (Trustee, 1982-89). 

Boards: Member, Board of Trustees, Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary; Former messenger, Raleigh Baptist Association, Chairman of 
Constitution Committee, 1982-84. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Co 
Chairman, Cobey for Congress, 1984 and 1986. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corp, corporal, 1968-70; Reserves, 
1970-74. 

Religious Activities: Member, Apex Baptist Church, Apex; Chairman of 
Deacons, 1981-82, 1987-88; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Electa (Mills), May 19, 1973. Children: 
Nathaniel Edward and Jana Ariel. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Co-Chair: House Select Committee on Reproductive Issues 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary Subcommittee on Civil & Criminal Justice. 
Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 

on Human Resources); Education (Subcommittee on Private Schools); Human 

Resources (Subcommittee on Housing & Social Services). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Margaret Ann Stamey 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

Sixty-Third Representative District -Wake 
County 

Early Years: Born in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County, March 17, 1932, to Chester 
Frankhn and Sudie (Aiken) Mcintosh. 

Education: Plonk School of Creative 
Arts, 1948-51; Brevard College, 1951; 
Fridan School of Data Systems, 1959-60; 
University of Maryland, 1958. 

Professional Background: Legis- 
lator. 

Organizations: National Association 
of Women Business Owners; Cary Women's Club; NC Kidney Foundation; 
Cary Chamber of Commerce; Women's Forum of NC; National Order of 
Women Legislators. 

Boards: Member, South Atlantic Fishery Council, Chairman, 1980; 
Member, Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission; Charter member, 
NC Child Advocacy Council; NC Capitol Planning Commission, Governors 
Council on Physical Fitness; Governmental Operations Committee of the 
NC General Assembly; NC Human Relations Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; National Association of Women Legislators; Charter 
member, Democratic Women of Wake County, YDC, 1977-79; Wake County 
Democratic Party (Chairman, 1977; Vice Chairman, 1972-76); National Com- 
mitteewomen, YDC, 1968; former Committeewoman, National Democratic 
Committee. 

Honors: Citation, Wake County SPCA, 1984; Thad Eure Award, 1978; NC 
Democratic Party Appreciation Award, 1977; Citation, Kidney Foundation, 
1977; Jim Hunt Campaign Award, 1976; Outstanding Young Democrat; NC 
Young Democrats Club, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, White Plains Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, James H. Stamey, January 3, 1953. Children: Dianna 
Dee Stamey-Fulmer, James Franklin Stamey, Susan Alice Stamey-Steinhoff 
and Melissa Jane Stamey-Lennon. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Cultural Resources and 
Parks); Finance (Subcommittee on Revenue Laws); Government (Subcommit- 
tee on Local Government II); Public Employees (Subcommittee on Salaries). 



The Legislative Branch 



429 




Clarence Poe Stewart 

(Democrat - Harnett County) 

Nineteenth Representative District - Harnett 
County 

Early Years: Born in Broadway, 
Harnett County, May 4, 1922, to William 
M. & Lizzie Jane (Wicker) Stewart. 

Education: Boone Trail High School, 
1940; NC State University, 1955, BS. 

Professional Background: Farmer; 
Teacher, 1955-61; County Executive Di- 
rector, Harnett County ASCS, 1961-77; 
State Director, ASCS, 1977-81; Public 
Information Officer, Harnett County 
Schools, 1981-1987. 

Organizations: Ruritan, 1947-, (Served Charter Vice President, President 
and District Governor); Mason (Shriner); VFW American Legion. 

Boards: Charter Chairman, Golden Leaf Boy Scout District; Charter 
Chairman, Harnett County Crime Stoppers, 1986, member Board of Di- 
rectors, Harnett County Crime Stoppers; Director, Harnett County Industrial 
Facility and Pollution Control Financial Authority; Member, Harnett County 
Planning Board, 1961-68. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
Former director, NCASCS. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1941-43 (Sergeant, tank commander); 
Silver Star Medal. 

Honors: Recognized for outstanding administration of farm programs by 
US Secretary of Agriculture, Freeman; Merit Award from Governor Hunt for 
outstanding leadership in education. 

Religious Activities: Member, Spring Hill Methodist Church; Chairman, 
Administrative Board; Sunday School teacher; served. Parsonage and church 
building committees; chairman, finance committee. 

Family: Married, Elsie Stewart, December 4, 1946. Children: Randall and 
David. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Wildlife, Natural and Scenic 
Areas); Commerce (Subcommittee on Authorities, Boards & Commissions); 
Finance (Subcommittee on Local Revenues); Government (Subcommittee on 
Military, Veterans & Indian Affairs). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Timothy Norton Tallent 

(Republican - Cabarrus County) 

Thirty-fourth Representative District - 
Cabarrus, Stanly and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Concord, Cabar- 
rus County, November 9, 1949, to Johnny 
and Margaret (Weaver) Tallent. 

Education: Concord High School; Uni- 
versity of South Carolina. 

Profession: Owner, Tallent Properties 
& Investments. Owner, Zion Music Ser- 
vices, Inc. 

Organizations: Fellowship of 
Christian Athletes; Gideons (former 
President); President, Christian Businessmen. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-. 

Honors: Outstanding Lay Person of Cabarrus County. 

Religious Activities: Member, Concord Bible Church, Concord. 

Family: Married, Dianne Cox of Concord, August 3, 1974. Children: 
Angela, Andrew. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Commerce Subcommittee on Authorities, Board & 
Commissions; Ethics. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on State Revenue); Human Resources 
(Subcommittee on Families, Children & Youth). 



The Legislative Branch 




John L. Tart 

(Democrat - Wayne County) 

Eleventh Representative District - Wayne 
County 

Early Years: Born in Grantham, 
Wayne County, October 30, 1927, to 
Lisker and Minnie Mae (Denning) Tart. 

Education: Grantham High School, 
1944; N.C. State, 1950, B.S., Agriculture 
Education; N.C. State, 1956, M.S., Agri- 
culture Education; N.C. State, 1969, 
Ed.D. 

Professional Background: Teacher, 
Wayne County Schools; Teacher, Mount 
Olive College; President, Johnson Community College; Farmer. 

Organizations: Mill Creek Masonic Lodge; Farm Bureau; Grange; Wayne 
County Industrial Commission; Former President, Wayne County Unit, 
American Cancer Society; Former, Master Masonic Lodge; Former President, 
N.C. Pork Producer Association; Former, Secretary-Treasurer N.C. Hamp- 
shire Breeders Association. 

Boards: Former, N.C. State Board of Education; Former, Local Govern- 
ment Commission; Director, First Citizens Bank. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House Representative 1987-88, 1989- ; 
Wayne County President, Y.D.C. 

Religious Activities: Member, Selah Christian Church; Elder; Sunday 
School Teacher; Lay Speaker. 

Family: Married, Marjorie Stevens, from Grantham, December 18, 1948. 
Children: John, Denny, and Dianne. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Education. 

Member: Education (Subcommittee on Community Colleges); Government 
(Subcommittee on Military, Veterans & Indian Affairs). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Raymond M. Thompson, Sr. 

(Democrat - Chowan County) 

First Representative District - Camden, 
Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates (part), 
Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell, and 
Washington (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Weeksville, 
Pasquotank County, September 17, 1925, 
to Wallace L. and Minnie (Markham) 
Thompson, Sr. 

Education: Elizabeth City High 
School, 1939-43; North Carolina State Uni- 
versity, 1950 (B.S. in Agricultural 
Education). 

Professional Background: Taught Vocational Agriculture, 1950-51; As- 
sistant County Agent, 1951-54; County Agent, 1954-70; County Extension 
Chairman, 1970-81; Consultant with Peoples Bank, 1981-83; Manager, Chowan 
Storage, 1983. 

Organizations: County Agents Association; Epsilon Sigma Phi; Hertford 
Lions Club; Edenton Lions Club; American Legion Post (40); V.F.W.; Un- 
animity Lodge No. 7 (Masonic Order); Ruritan, 1954-70. 

Boards: Peoples Bank Board, 1975; Chowan Hospital Board, 1977-82; 
Chowan Planning Board, 1970-81; Chairman, Finance Committee, 1980-82. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-. 

Military: Served, United States Coast Guard, Signalman, third class, 
1943-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Edenton United Methodist Church; Sunday 
School Teacher, 1972-83. 

Family: Married, Carolyn Pemberton Thompson of Raleigh, June 9, 1949. 
Children: Raymond, Gayle, and Sharon. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Basic Resources Subcommittee on Wildlife, Natural and Scenic 
Areas. 

Vice Chairman: Basic Resources. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Local Revenues); Human Resources 
(Subcommittee on Health & Disease Prevention); Public Employees (Subcom- 
mittee on Personnel Policies). 



The Legislative Branch 



433 



Sharon A. Thompson 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Twenty-Third Representative District - 
Durham (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in New Bedford, 
Massachusetts, on May 31, 1948, to 
Russell E. and Elma (Andreasen) 
Thompson. 

Education: Michigan State University, 
1970, B.S. (in retailing); Antioch School 
ofLaw, 1976, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Board 
of Governors; N.C. Association of Women 
Attorneys, Governing Board and President-Elect; N.C. Bar Association Mem- 
ber, Family Law and Real Property Sections. 

Organizations: Former member, Hayti Development Corporation, Board 
of Directors, Former Member, Durham Dispute Settlement Center Board of 
Directors; Women's Forum of N.C, 1987 to date. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-; Democratic State Executive Committee, 1985-1989. 

Honors: Recipient of M.S. Foundation Grant, 1979; Who's Who in Ameri- 
can Law, 4th Ed.; Citation for Architectural Conservation of Office Building 
from Historic Preservation Society of Durham, 1983; Annual Award from 
N.C. Association of Women Attorneys, 1987. 




COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources Subcommittee on Housing & Social Ser- 
vices. 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources; Rules, Appointments and the 
Calendar. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on State Revenue); Judiciary (Subcom- 
mittee on Civil & Criminal Justice). 



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North Carolina Manual 




Lois Simmons Walker 

(Republican - Iredell County) 

F'orty-second Representative District - Iredell 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, 
Surry County, August 8, 1930, to John 
Alexander (deceased) and Flossie (Burge) 
Simmons. 

Education: Pilot Mountain High 
School, 1947; Appalachian State Univer- 
sity, 1951, B.S.; Duke University, 
graduate studies, 1956; Appalachian 
State Univeristy, 1978, M.A. 

Professional Background: Teacher, 
athletic director and counselor, Statesville Senior High School. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-. 

Organizations: NCAE; NAE; American Association of Physical Educa- 
tion, Health and Recreation; NC Personnel and Guidance Association; NC 
School Counselors Association; Statesville Tennis Team, 1978-84; Sir Walnut 
Cabinet; Statesville Woman's Club. 

Boards: President and Life Member, Junior Service League; former 
Secretary and Vice President, Statesville Recreation Commission, 1958-72, 
Board Member Iredell Sports and Fitness Center. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Associate Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, Statesville; President, Sunday School; Vice President, choir. 

Family: Married, William L. Walker, PhD. of Statesville, June 28, 1951. 
Children: Bo and Enid; Grandchildren: Alex and Tracy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education Subcommittee on Elementary and Secondary 
Education. 

Vice Chairman: Education 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
for Education); Government: (Subcommittee on Alcoholic Beverage Control). 



The Legislative Branch 



435 




Ed>vard A. Warner, Jr. 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

Eighteenth Representative District - 
Cumberland (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, 
Cumberland County, November 11, 1942, 
to Edward A. and Mae Pearl (Green) 
Warner, Sr. 

Education: Campbell College, 1965, 
A.B. English; East Carolina University, 
1973, M.A.ed. 

Professional Background: Country- 
side Furniture Company, Inc. Board of 
Directors, President. 

Organizations: Lebanon Lodge, No. 391, A.F. and AM; Phi Delta Kappa; 
Hope Mills Optimist Club. 

Boards: Cumberland County Board of Education. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives 1987-88, 
1989- ; Cumberland County Board of Education. 

Honors: Jaycees Man of the Year, 1987; Fayetteville State University 
School of Education Award; Assistant Principal of the Year, 1977; North 
Carolina Congress of Parents and Teachers, Honorary Life Membership 
Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Faymont Baptist Church; Usher. 

Family: Married, Jacquelyn Fredda Smith, of Anderson, S.C. on October 
13, 1979. Children: Blekley, Teddy and Molly. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education Subcommittee on The University of North Caro- 
lina. 

Vice Chairman: Education. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Education); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Solid Waste); Rules, Appoint- 
ments and the Calendar. 



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North Carolina Manual 




Ed Nelson Warren 

(Democrat - Pitt County) 

Ninth Representative District - Greene and 
Pitt (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Stokes, Pitt 
County, November 29, 1926, to Elmer 
Edward and Daisy (Cox) Warren. 

Education: Campbell University, 
A. A.; Atlantic Christian College, A.B.; 
East Carolina University, M.A.; Duke 
University, doctoral program. 

Professional Background: Investor, 
Farmer, Real Estate. 

Organizations: Greenville Rotary 
Club (Paul Harris Fellow), Trustee Salvation Army, Pitt County Heart 
Association (Former Chairman), Board of Directors Greenville Chamber of 
Commerce, United Fund Board, Greenville Golf and Country Club. (Former 
President). 

Boards: Former Chairman Board of Trustees, Pitt County Memorial 
Hospital, Former Chairman, Pitt County Health Board; Pitt County Airport 
Authority; Board of Directors, BB&T Bank. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1981- 
present (5 terms); Former Chairman, Pitt County Board of County Commis- 
sioners. 

Military Service: United States Air Force. 

Honors: Pitt County Citizen of the Year Award, 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church; Former Deacon; 
Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Joan Braswell. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Banks & Thrift); Education (Subcom- 
mittee on The University of North Carolina); Finance (Subcommittee on 
Local Revenues); Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Utilities). 



The Legislative Branch 



437 




William Thomas Watkins 

(Democrat - Granville County) 

Twenty-second Representative District - 
Caswell, Granville, Halifax (part), Person, 
Vance and Warren Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Granville Coun- 
ty, July 1, 1921, to John Stradley and 
Belle (Norwood) Watkins. 

Education: Oak Hill High School, 
1927-39; Mars Hill Junior College, 1942; 
Wake Forest College, 1939-41, 1946-48, 
1949, B.S.; Wake Forest Law School, 
1949-52, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 
(Attorney, Granville County, 1955-1968). 

Organizations: : Granville County, 9th Judicial District and NC Bar 
Associations; Pi Kappa Alpha. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 
1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-46 (Staff Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Oxford Baptist Church, Oxford; former 
Sunday School teacher. 

Family: Married, Louie Marie Best, November 18, 1944. Children: Alma 
Marie (Watkins) Brown and Annabell (Watkins) Barker. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Education (Educational Activities of State Agencies); Judiciary 
(Subcommittee on Corrections); Finance (Subcommittee on Revenue Laws). 



438 



North Carolina Manual 






John Hugh Weatherly 

(Republican - Cleveland County) 

Forty-Eighth Representative District - 
Cleveland, Rutherford, and Polk Counties. 



Early Years: Born in McColl South 
Carolina, April 5, 1924, to Rufus & Rosa 
(Riley) Weatherly. 

Education: McColl High School, 1942; 
University of Georgia, 1950, BS. 

Professional Background: Indus- 
trial Forestry, 35 yrs. 

Organizations: N.C. Forestry As- 
sociation (President, 1969); Society of 
American Foresters, 1950- (Chairman, NC 
Division, 1975); Former Member, Rotary Club, 1958-1983; Former member, 
Newton - Conover Club (President, 1973); Former member. United Fund 
(President Newton Conover, 1968); Former member, YMCA - Catawba County 
(Secretary, Board of Directors, 1970); Former adult leader. Boy Scouts (Silver 
Beaver, Woodbadge). 

Boards: Vice Chairman, NC Board of Registration for Foresters, 1987-; 
Former trustee, Catawba County Community College, 1970-71; Former 
member. Forestry Council, NC Department of Natural and Economic Re- 
sources, 1974-76. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives 1989- ; 
Former member, Catawba County Board of Commissioners, 1970-74 (Vice 
Chairman, 1974); Member, County Executive Committee, Republican Party, 
1958-: Former member. District & State Executive Committees, 1977-88. 

Military Service: Served, US Marines; Major; Fighter Pilot; 1942-1945; 
1951-53. 

Honors: Distinguished flying cross with gold star; air medal with eight 
gold stars. 

Religious Activities: Member, Shelby Presbyterian Church, Elder 
(ordained for life); church school teacher. 

Family: Married, Georgia Willette Hipp, of Richburg, South Carolina, 
April 27, 1946. Children:Keith, Karl and Kim. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Public Employees Subcommittee on Salaries. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on General Government); Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Agriculture, 
Forestry and Horticulture); Government (Subcommittee on State Government 
& Properties). 



The Legislative Branch 



439 




Peggy Ann Wilson 

(Republican - Rockingham County) 

Twenty-Fifth Representative District - 
Rockingham County 

Early Years: Born in Anamosa, Iowa, 
September 9, 1945, to Marvin L. and Buirl 
(Gill) Thomsen. 

Education: Kirkwood Community Col- 
lege (Cedar Rapids, Iowa), associate de- 
grees in science & nursing. 

Professional Background: Owner/ 
Manager, SASCO Body Toning and Prod- 
uct Center, 1982-; School Nurse, 1984-; 
Operating/Surgical Nurse, 1978-82; 
Regional Manager Insurance Company, 1975-78. 

Organizations: President, Pilot International, 1982-83; Member, NC 
Nurses Association; 1985-; Member, American Nurses Association, 1985-; 
Member, Rotary International, 1987-; Member, NC Rockingham County 
Community Task Force on Substance Abuse Prevention; Member, NC 
Chapter of the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse; 4-H 
Club. 

Boards: Member, Board of Rockingham County Social Services, 1986-. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Presi- 
dent, Rockingham County Republican Women, 1986-87; Member, Rockingham 
County Republican Executive Committee. 

Honors: Woman of the Year, 1986 (Rockingham County Republican 
Women); "Tribute to Women". 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Madison; 
Vice Chairman, United Methodist Women, 1986-87; Church administrative 
officer, 1982-87; Choir, I976-; Sunday school teacher, 1977. 

Family: Married, Larry "Woody" Wilson, July 14, 1973. Children:Thomas 
Tad, Gina (Wilson) Beckley, Christine Renee'. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources Subcommittee on Families, Children 
& Youth. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Expansion Budget on Educa- 
tion); F]ducation (Subcommittee on The University of North Carolina); 
Human Resources; Public Employees (Subcommittee on Personnel Policies). 



440 



North Carolina Manual 




William Eugene Wilson 

(Republican - Watauga County) 

Fortieth Representative District -Watauga 
County 

Early Years: Born in Banner Elk, 
Avery County to Calvin Ray and Myrtle 
Ray (Barlow) Wilson. 

Professional Background: Restaurant 
Entrepreneur; President, Daniel Boone 
Restaurant; President, Watauga Food Ser- 
vices; President, W.K.P., Inc., Food Ser- 
vices; Vice President, Lenoir Food Sys- 
tems; Vice President, Quenset Food 
Services. 

Organizations: Boone Rotary Club, 1974-; Optimist Club; P.T.A., (past 
President); Boy Scouts and Cub Scouts Leader; Social Services. 

Boards: NC Restaurant Association Board; Watauga County Board of 
Commissioners, Chairman; Chairman, New River Mental Health and Sub- 
stance Abuse; Former member, Boone Chamber of Commerce; Former NC 
Board member of Association of County Commissioners; Former member. 
Local Prison Board; Former member. Board of Directors, Local Health 
Department; Caldwell Community College Board of Directors. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1986, 1989- ; 
Member, National Republican Party. 

Honors: Boss of the Year; "Lifetime Career Achievement Award", NC 
Council of Mental Health. 

Religious Activities: Greenway Baptist Church, Boone; Deacon; 
Teacher. 

Family: Married, Gretta Little, August 13, 1950. Children: Tim, Keva, 
Travis, and Odenia. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budget on Capital Outlay and Special Programs. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations. 

Member: Human Resources (Subcommittee on Mental Health, Exceptional 
and Gifted People); Pensions and Retirement. 



The Legislative Branch 



441 




Walter H. Windley, III 

(Republican - Gaston Conty) 

Forty-fourth Representative District -Gaston 
and Lincoln Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Columbia, South 
Carolina, December 15, 1955, to Walter 
Harold and Betty Lou (Elmore) Windley, 
Jr. 

Education: Ashbrook High School, 
1974; Appalachian State University, 
1978, B.S. (Business Administration, 
Economics); Appalachian State Univer- 
sity, 1979, M.B.A. 

Professional Background: Vice 
President, W.J. Barlowe Tank Services, Inc. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989 (Resigned on January 2, 1989). 

Family: Married, Debra Lynn Ramsey of Morganton, June 2, 1979. 
Children: Walter Harold, IV; Amanda Michelle, and William Davenport. 



442 



North Carolina Manual 




Retirement Planning Associates, 
Council on Aging, Inc., 1975-81; 



Betty Hutchinson Wiser 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

^^^^^ -m^^^^^^^^^^ Sixty-fourth Representative District -Wake 

^^^^Khl4v j^K- ^P^^H^^^^H (part) County. 

^^^H^^\i|^, j^^Mj^^^^B Early Years: Born in Shelby, Ohio, 
^^^^^^. -jLr ^Bp^^^l May 12, 1931, to Roscoe David and Mary 
^^^B^^^ I ik Jfw^ mm Louise (Stine) Hutchinson. 
^^V^ i V ^(iirJk Education: College of Wooster, 1949- 

l"*"! / \U^^ ^^' ^^^° ^^^^® University, 1954, B.S., 

1958, M.S. (Home Economics) NCSU, 
1961, M.S. (Sociology); Andrus Gerontology 
Center, University of Southern California; 
NCSU, 1982, Ed.D. (Adult Education). 

Professional Background: President, 
Inc.; Executive Director, Wake County 
Director and founder. Retired Senior 
Volunteer Program of Raleigh-Wake County, 1973-74; Director, Volunteer 
Training and Volunteer Services projects, 1970-75, N.C. State University, 
1961-69; former high school and nursery school teacher; home economist. 
International Voluntary Services, Iraq, 1955-57. 

Organizations: League of Women Voters of N.C, former State President; 
National Association of Women Business Owners; American Business 
Women Association; American Association of University Women; Older 
Women's League; N.C. Adult Education Association; N.C. Association of 
Aging; Zonta Club of Raleigh (former President); Delta Kappa Gamma 
International (former President); Phi Kappa Phi; NC Senior Citizens Associa- 
tion (2nd Vice President). 

Boards: Director, N.C. Center for Public Policy Research; N.C. Council on 
the Status of Women, 1977-81; N.C. Conference for Social Services, Director, 
1980-83; N.C. Council of Women's Organizations, President, 1977-79; Con- 
venor, Women's Forum of N.C; North Carolina Family Life Council, 1986; 
Capitol Planning Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86; 
1987-88, 1989-; Democratic Women of Wake County; Wake County Unity 
Campaign Committee, 1982; Chairman, Wake County Precinct n2, 1982-84. 

Religious Activities: Member, Unitarian Church, Raleigh; former 
Secretary and Program Chairman on Board. 

Family: Married, Edward H. Wiser of Raleigh, December 21, 1957. 
Children: Carla and Conrad. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
on Human Resources); Pensions & Retirement; Rules, Appointments and the 
Calendar; Joint Legislature Commision on Governmental Operations. 



The Legislative Branch 



443 




Stephen Wray Wood 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

Twenty-eighth Representative District - 
Guilford (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, 
Forsyth County, October 6, 1948, to Dock 
Wesley Richard Thomas Edmund and 
Annie (Harris) Wood. 

Education: North Forsyth High 
School, 1966; John Wesley College, Th.B., 
1970; Asbury College, B.A., 1973; UNC- 
Greensboro, M.A., 1980; Luther Rice 
Seminary, D.Min., 1982; Princeton Semi- 
nary, UNC-Greensboro and Earlham 
School of Religion, Appalachian State University, additional studies. 

Professional Background: Pastor; Gospel Singer, songwriter and record- 
ing artist; President, Remnant Associates, Real Estate Consultants and 
Management, 1977- ; former Professor and Assistant Academic Dean, John 
Wesley College; Veterans Services Officer, N.C. Division of Veterans Affairs, 
1987-1989. 

Organizations: American Historical Association; Society of American 
Church History; Southern Historical Assocaition; High Point Jaycees 
(Chaplain, 1982); American Legislative Exchange Council, American Legion. 

Boards: Steering Committee, Friends Center, Guilford College; Trustee, 
John Wesley College; Director and President, Triad Christian Counseling 
Center. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1989-; Vice Chairman, Guilford County Republican Party, 1983-1985. 

Military Service: Served, US Army (E-3). 

Literary Works: Composer and recording artist: Albums include "Love 
and Devotion, Travelin Troubadour, Titus Overture"; Contributor to the 
Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. 

Religious Activities: Member, NC Friends; Pastor, Friends Union-Pilot 
Mountain P>iends, 1984-; Associate Pastor, Glenwood Friends, 1979-1981; 
Battle Forest Friends, Greensboro, 1986- ;Pastor, Deep River Friends, 1981- 
1984; Pastor, NC Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1980. 

Family: Married, Starr Smith, June 18, 1978. Children: Allyson Wray and 
Joshua Fleming Harris. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman:Finance Subcommittee on Ways and Means; Government 
Subcommittee on Military, Veterans and Indian Affairs. 

Member:Education (Subcommittee on Community Colleges); Judiciary 
(Subcommittee in Election Laws and Constitutional Amendments); Govern- 
ment; Finance. 



444 



North Carolina Manual 





Barney Paul Woodard 

(Democrat - Johnston County) 

Twentieth Representative District - Franklin 
and Johnston Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Princeton, 
November 23, 1914, to John Richard and 
EHzabeth (Wall) Woodard. 

Education: Princeton High School; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1938, Pharmacy 
degree. 

Professional Background: Phar- 
macist; (owner, Woodard Pharmacy). 

Organizations: National Association 
of Retail Druggists; Princeton Lions Club 
(former President); Johnston County Shrine Club; Johnston County Mental 
Health Association; Johnston County Drug Club; Keep Johnston County 
Beautiful; NC Pharmaceutical Association, 1978; Fund Chairman, Mental 
Helath Association, 1971-72; Chairman, Princeton School Advisory Com- 
mittee, 1969-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1973- 
74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Honors: Bowl of Hygea Award for outstanding Community Service in 
Pharmacy, 1978. 1988 Pharmacist of the year of the North Carolina Phar- 
maceutical Association. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church; Trustee, 
Administrative Board; teacher, 1969-71. 

Family: Married, Annie Louise Sugg, September 6, 1941. Children: Barney 
Paul, Jr., Dianne Louise (Woodard) Taylor, Michael/Sugg, and Joy (Woodard) 
McLeod. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and Expansion 
Budgets on Highway Funds. 

Member: Education (Subcommittee on Community Colleges); Human 
Resources (Subcommittee on Health and Disease Prevention). 



The Legislative Branch 



445 



Grace Averette Collins 

PRINCIPAL CLERK 

Early Years: Born in Fuquay-Varina, Wake 
-J County, to Alonzo Beams and Minnie Lee 

-j2L (Helms) Averette. 

^^^ Education: Fuquay-Varina High School, 1949; 

^H Kings Business College, 1951; additional studies, 

^ ^K Raleigh School of Commerce and Hardbarger 

^k l^k Business College. 

^^ ^i Profession: Principal Clerk, NC House of 

Representatives, 1974-; General Assembly staff, 
1969-73. 

Organizations: Executive Committee, National Conference of State 
Legislators; Executive Nominating Committte, NCSL; Legislative Manage- 
ment Committee, NCSL Assembly on the Legislature; Chairman, all standing 
committees, American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries (Presi- 
dent, 1981-82; Vice President, 1980-81; Secretary-Treasurer, 1979-80). 

Political Activities: Principal Clerk, NC House of Representatives, 1974, 
1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; 1989-; Chairman, 
Middle Creek-Fuquay Precinct, 1971-73; First Vice Chairman, Middle Creek- 
Fuquay Precinct, 1969-71. 

Honors: Who's Who in State Government, 1976; Outstanding Leadership 
Award, American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries, 1975 and 
1976. 

Religious Activities: Member, Fuquay-Varina Methodist Church; Board 
of Mission; Chancel Choir; former Sunday School teacher. 

Family: Married, John Nolan Collins, October 4, 1952. Children: John N., 
Jr., Joseph A., James D. and Laurie E. 



446 North Carolina Manual 



House of Representatives Committee Assignments 

APPROPRIATIONS 

Diamont, Chairman 

Base and Expansion Budget on Capital Outlay and Special Programs 
Subcommittee 

Holmes and W. Wilson, Co-Chairmen; Ramsey, Vice Chairman; Beard 
Dickson, Edwards, Flaherty, Gist, Jones, and Mercer. 

Base and Expansion Budget on Education Subcommittee 

J. W. Crawford and Tart, Co-Chairmen; Sizemore, Vice-Chairman; Blue, 
Chapin, Hege, Nesbitt, Walker, Warner, and P. Wilson 

Base and Expansion Budget on General Government Subcommittee 

Easterling and Michaux, Co-Chairmen; Decker, Vice-Chairman; Barnhill, 
Beall, N.J. Crawford, Culp, Hurley, Lail, and Weatherly. 

Base and Expansion Budget on Highway Fund Subcommittee 

McLaughlin and Woodard, Co-Chairmen; Barbee, Vice-Chairman; Balmer, 
Bowie, Church, Creech, Foster, Greenwood, and Perdue. 

Base and Expansion Budget on Human Resources Subcommittee 

L. p]theridge and Redwine, Co-Chairmen; Isenhower, Vice-Chairman; Colton, 
DeVane, Esposito, Gardner, James, Payne, and Rhyne. 

BASIC RESOURCES 

DeVane, Chairman; 

Fletcher, Brown, Grady, R. Thompson, 

and N.J. Crawford, Vice-Chairmen. 

Water, Air and Soil Subcommittee 

Fletcher, Chairman; Culp, Vice-Chairman; Abernethy, Beall, B. Ethridge, 
Flaherty, and Hackney. 

Agriculture, Forestry and Horticulture Subcommittee 

Brown, Chairman; James, Vice-Chairman; Albertson, Loflin, Lutz, Mercer, 
and Weatherly. 

Marine Fisheries Subcommittee 

Grady, Chairman; Chapin, Vice-Chairman; Anderson, Creech, L. Etheridge, 
Lilley, and Redwine. 

Wildlife, Natural and Scenic Areas Subcommittee 

R. Thompson, Chairman; Ligon, Vice-Chairman; Bowen, Colton, Privette, 
Howard, and Steward. 

Cultural Resources and Parks Subcommittee 

N.J. Crawford, Chairman; Lail, Vice-Chairman; Bowie, Foster, Judy Hunt, 
Kimsey, and Stamey. 



The Legislative Branch 447 

COMMERCE 

Hasty, Chairman 

Robinson, Brubaker, Mills, Gibson, 

and Judy Hunt, Vice-Chairman 

Business, Labor and Employment Subcommittee 

Robinson, Chairman; Church, Vice-Chairman, Abernethy, Bowman, Easter- 
ling, Grimmer, and Lineberry. 

Banks and Thrift Subcommittee 

Brubaker, Chairman; Rogers, Vice-Chairman; Hege, Holmes, R. Hunter, 
Loflin, and Warren. 

Insurance Subcommittee 

Mills, Chairman; Brawley, Vice-Chairman; Beard, Duncan, Isenhower, Lutz, 
and Mercer. 

Tourism Subcommittee 

Gibson, Chairman; Kimsey, Vice-Chairman; Bowie, Colton, B. Ethridge, 
Grady, and Jack Hunt. 

Authorities, Board and Commissions Subcommittee 

Judy Hunt, Chairman; Tallent, Vice-Chairman; Cunningham, L. Etheridge, 
Ligon, Ramsey, and Stewart. 

EDUCATION 

Edwards, Chairman; 
Walker, Bowman, Warner, Decker, and Burke, Vice-Chairmen 

Elementary and Secondary Education Subcommittee 

Walker, Chairman; Fussell, Vice-Chairman; Barnhill, Diamont, Hege, Jeralds, 
and Pope. 

Community Colleges Subcommittee 

Bowman, Chairman; Gardner, Vice-Chairman; Brubaker, Hardaway, Tart, 
Wood, and Woodard. 

The University of North Carolina Subcommittee 

Warner, Chairman; Dickson, Vice-Chairman; Barnes, Kennedy, Grimmer, 
Warren, and P. Wilson 

Private Schools Subcommittee 

Decker, Chairman; Greenwood, Vice-Chairman; Craven, J.W. Crawford, 
McLaughlin, Nye, and Stam. 

Educational Activities of State Agencies Subcommittee 

Burke, Chairman; Diggs, Vice-Chairman; Arnold, H. Hunter, Miller, Rhodes, 
and Watkins. 

ETHICS 

Beard, Chairman; 

Tallent, Vice-Chairman; 

Bowman, Grimmer, Fitch, Foster, Sizemore, and Wicker. 



448 North Carolina Manual 

FINANCE: 

Hall, Chairman; 
Brawley, Miller, Hardaway, Lilley, and Rhodes, Vice-Chairmen. 

Ways and Means Subcommittee 

Miller, Chairman; Wood, Vice-Chairman; Dawkins, Fitch, Judy Hunt, 
Howard, Kimsey, Robinson, Rogers, and Wicker. 

Highways Subcommittee 

Hardaway, Chairman; Grimmer, Vice-Chairman; Buchanan, Cooper, 
Gibson, R. Hunter, S. Hunt, Mills, Pope, and Privette. 

State Revenue Subcommittee 

Lilley, Chairman; Ligon, Vice-Chairman; Albertson, Craven, Cromer, 
Fussell, Hackney, Hasty, Tallent, and S. Thompson. 

Local Revenues Subcommittee 

Rhodes, Chairman; Kerr, Vice-Chairman; Arnold, Burke, Diggs, Lineberry, 
Loflin, Stewart, R. Thompson, and Warren. 

Revenue Laws Subcommittee 

Brawley, Chairman; Cunningham, Vice-Chairman; Abernethy, Bowen, 
Brown, Fletcher, Rhyne, Stamey, and Watkins. 

GOVERNMENT 

Dawkins, Chairman; 
Hege, Lutz, Foster, Privette and Hurley, Vice-Chairmen 

Local Government I Subcommittee 

Hege, Chairman; Fussell, Vice-Chairman; Anderson, Bowen, Buchanan, 
Fletcher, and Loflin. 

Local Government II Subcommittee 

Lutz, Chairman; Bowie, Vice-Chairman; Arnold, Beall, Greenwood, Rhodes, 
and Stamey. 

State Government and Properties Subcommittee 

Foster, Chairman; Barbee, Vice-Chairman; Kennedy, Nye, Pope, Rogers, 
and Weatherly. 

ABC Subcommittee 

Privette, Chairman; Michaux, Vice-Chairman; Hardaway, Decker, Holt, 
Ramsey, and Walker. 

Military, Veterans and Indian Affairs Subcommittee 

Hurley, Chairman; Wood, Vice-Chairman; Cunningham, Huffman, Justus, 
Stewart, and Tart. 



The Legislative Branch 449 

HUMAN RESOURCES 

Wiser, Chairman; 

Esposito, S. Thompson, Jeralds, Locks, 

and Isenhower, Vice-Chairmen. 

Health and Disease Prevention Subcommittee 

Esposito, Chairman; Colton, Vice-Chairman; Brubaker, Cromer, Nesbitt, R. 
Thompson, and Woodard. 

Housing and Social Services Subcommittee 

S. Thompson, Chairman; Howard, Vice-Chairman; Barnhill, Fitch, H. 
Hunter, Kimsey, and Stam. 

Families, Children and Youth Subcommittee 

Jeralds, Chairman; P. Wilson, Vice-Chairman; Brawley, Burke, Easterling, 
Jack Hunt, and Tallen. 

Aging, Medicaid and Facility Services Subcommittee 

Locks, Chairman; Flaherty, Vice-Chairman; Albertson, Bowman, L. 
Etheridge, Lail, and Perdue. 

Mental Health, Exceptional and Gifted People Subcommittee 

Isenhower, Chairman; Judy Hunt, Vice-Chairman; Barnes, J.W. Crawford, 
Gardner, James, and W. Wilson. 

INFRASTRUCTURE 

S. Hunt, Chairman; 
Church, Ligon, Abernethy, Kerr and Wicker, Vice-Chairmen. 

Highw^ays Subcommittee 

Church, Chairman;, Creech, Vice-Chairman; Blue, Brown, Dickson, Mc- 
Laughlin, and Miller. 

Rail>vays, Airports and Waterways Subcommittee 

Abernethy, Chairman; Lilley, Vice-Chairman; Diggs, Gist, R. Hunter, 
Mercer, and Sizemore. 

Utilities Subcommittee 

Kerr, Chairman; Holmes, Vice-Chairman; Balmer, Gibson, Hasty, Robinson, 
and Warren. 

Solid Waste Subcommittee 

Wicker, Chairman; Grimmer, Vice-Chairman; Craven, DeVane, Grady, Hack- 
ney, and Warner. 

Water and Wastewater Subcommittee 

Ligon, Chairman; Mills, Vice-Chairman; Culp, Duncan, B. Ethridge, Line- 
berry, and Redwine. 



450 North Carolina Manual 

JUDICIARY 

Cooper, Chairman; 
Blue, Cromer, Hackney, Jones, and Sizemore, Vice-Chairmen. 

Civil and Criminal Justice Subcommittee 

Hackney, Chairman; Stam, Vice-Chairman; S. Thompson, Payne, Nesbit 
Privette, and Esposito. 

Election Laws and Constitutional Amendments Subcommittee 

Jones, Chairman; Pope, Vice-Chairman, Decker, Diggs, Hall, Hardaway, 
and Wicker. 

Courts and Administrative Hearings Subcommittee 

Cromer, Chairman; Kennedy, Vice-Chairman; Creech, Dawkins, Flaherty, 
Michaux, and Miller. 

Corrections Subcommittee 

Sizemore, Chairman; Barnes, Vice-Chairman; Craven, Huffman, Hurley, 
Redwine, and Watkins. 

PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT 

Colton, Chairman; 

Buchanan, Vice-Chairman; 

Redwine, Fitch, H. Hunter, Hurley, Ligon, 

Robinson, W. Wilson, Wiser, and Ramsey. 

PUBLIC EMPLOYEES 

Fitch, Chairman; Gardner, Chapin, and Barnhill, Vice-Chairmen. 

Personnel Policies Subcommittee 

Gardner, Chairman; Jeralds, Vice-Chairman; Bowen, Holt, Howard, R. 
Thompson, and P. Wilson. 

Salaries Subcommittee 

Chapin, Chairman; Weatherly, Vice-Chairman; Gulp, Dickson, H. Hunter, 
Nye, and Stamey. 

Benefits Subcommittee 

Barnhill, Chairman; Arnold, Vice-Chairman; Barbee, Buchanan, Fletcher, 
Gist, and Locks. 

RULES, APPOINTMENTS AND THE CALENDAR 

Payne, Chairman; 

Rhyne, and S. Thompson, Vice-Chairmen; 

Barbee, Blue, Cooper, J.W. Crawford, Cromer, Dawkins, 

Esposito, Fitch, Foster, Gibson, Holmes, Huffman, Jones, 

Lail, Lilley, Nesbitt, Robinson, Warner, and Wiser. 



The Legislative Branch 



451 




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CHAPTER TWO 
The Executive Branch 

INTRODUCTION 

Under provisions in the Constitution of North CaroHna, the three major 
branches of state government— legislative, executive and judicial— are "dis- 
tinct and separate from each other" (Article I, Section 6). This separation of 
powers has been a primary principal of government since our independence. 
In the nearly two hundred years since the forming of the State of North 
Carolina, many changes have occurred in her governmental organization. 
North Carolina's state and local governments have grown from a small, ill- 
funded endeavor of a few hundred "employees" in 1776, to a multi-billion 
dollar enterprise of thousands of public servants and programs. Along with 
this growth has come problems. In 1970 there were over 200 independent 
state agencies making up the executive branch. Recognizing this problem, 
the General Assembly took steps toward reorganizing state government, 
particularly by beginning to define the executive branch. 

State Government Reorganization 

In his October 27, 1967 speech, Governor Dan K. Moore urged the North 
Carolina State Bar to take the lead in sponsoring a study to determine the 
need for revising or rewriting the Constitution of North Carolina. The 
Council of the North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar 
Association joined in appointing a steering committee which selected twenty- 
five persons to constitute the North Carolina State Constitution Study 
Commission. The report of the commission, submitted on December 16, 1968, 
contained a proposed amendment which would require the General Assembly 
to reduce the administrative departments of state government to 25 and 
authorize the Governor to reorganize the administrative departments subject 
to legislative approval. 

The 1969 General Assembly submitted the proposed constitutional amend- 
ment to a vote of the people and also authorized the Governor to begin a 
study of consolidation of state agencies and to prepare recommendations for 
the General Assembly. Governor Robert W. Scott established the State 
Government Reorganization Study Commission in October of 1969. Later, in 
May 1970, a fifty-member citizen's Committee on State Government Re- 
organization was appointed by the Governor to review the study and make 
specific recommendations. 

The constitutional proposal requiring the reduction of the number of state 
administrative departments to not more than 25 by 1975 was adopted in the 



454 North Carolina Manual 

general election on November 3, 1970, and the Committee on State Govern- 
ment Reorganization submitted its recommendations to the Governor on 
February 4, 1971. 

The committee recommended implementation of the amendment in two 
phases. Phase I would be the grouping of agencies together in a limited 
number of functional departments. This was accomplished in 1971 through 
legislative action. Phase II began in 1971 and continued into 1973 as 
agencies began to work together. Evaluations of agency and department 
organizations were done and bills prepared that would revise existing 
statutes on the basis of these evaluations and experience. Drafted proposals 
were presented to the 1973 General Assembly and legislative implementation 
began. 

With strong support from Governor Scott, the Executive Organization Act 
of 1971 was ratified July 14, 1971. It created 19 principal offices and 
departments consisting of ten offices and departments headed by elected 
officials and nine other departments formed by the grouping of agencies 
along functional lines. The act provided for two types of transfers to ac- 
complish the first phase of reorganization. Under the act, a Type I transfer 
meant the transferring of all or part of an agency, including its statutory 
authority, powers and duties, to a principal department. A Type II transfer 
meant the transferring intact of an existing agency to a principal department 
with the transferring agency retaining its statutory authority and functions, 
which would be performed under the direction and supervision of the head of 
the principal department. 

All offices and departments called for by the Executive Organization Act 
of 1971 were created by executive order of Governor Scott prior to the July 1, 
1972, deadline set by the Act. The principal offices and departments created 
were the following: Office of the Governor, Office of the Lieutenant Governor, 
Department of the Secretary of State, Department of the State Auditor, 
Department of State Treasurer, Department of Public Education (now the 
Department of Public Instruction), Department of Justice, Department of 
Agriculture, Department of Labor, Department of Insurance, Department of 
Administration, Department of Transportation and Highway Safety (now 
the Department of Transportation), Department of Natural and Economic 
Resources (now the Department of Environment, Health, and Natural 
Resources), Department of Human Resources, Department of Social Re- 
habilitation and Control (now the Department of Correction), Department of 
Commerce (now the Department of Economic and Community Development), 
Department of Revenue, Department of Art, Culture and History (now 
Department of Cultural Resources), and Department of Military and Veterans' 
Affairs (which no longer exists). By executive order issued June 26, 1972, an 
Executive Cabinet was formed consisting of the heads of these departments. 
Meetings of the Cabinet were very important in solving the Phase II 
problems of reorganization. 

Between 1972 and 1977, some additional alterations were made which 
further implemented reorganization of state government in North Carolina. 
In 1973, the Legislature passed the Executive Organizations Act of 1973 
which affected four of the newly created departments — Cultural Resources, 
Human Resources, Military and Veterans Affairs and Revenue. Broadly 



The Executive Branch ' 455 

speaking, the 1973 law vested final administrative and managerial powers 
for the Executive Branch in the hands of the Governor and gave him powers 
to appoint a secretary for each of the departments named. The law also set 
forth the powers of the secretaries, but left intact specifically designed areas 
and decisions already vested in various commissions — these cannot be 
countermanded by either the governor or departmental secretary. 

Specifically, the 1973 act changed the name of the Department of Art, 
Culture and History to the Department of Cultural Resources. Various 
Boards, Commissions, Councils, and Societies which relate to a cultural 
orientation were brought under the umbrella of the Department of Cultural 
Resources. 

Two previously created Departments, Human Resources and Revenue, 
were recreated making some technical changes not found in the original 
law. Specifically, in the Department of Human Resources, a Board of Human 
Resources was created to serve as an Advisory Board to the Secretary on 
any matter which might be referred to it by the Secretary. 

In the 1973 Act, the Department of Military and Veterans was specifically 
charged with providing National Guard troops trained to Federal Standards; 
being responsible for military and civil preparedness; and assisting veterans 
and their families and dependents. A new Veterans' Affairs Commission 
was created to assist the Secretary with veterans services programs. 

Reorganization was to have been completed by the end of 1975. Most of 
the aims were achieved; however, several additional legislative reorganiza- 
tional changes were sought by the Governor. Most of the proposals affected 
four departments— Commerce, Military and Veterans Affairs, Natural and 
Economic Resources, and Transportation. The 1977 General Assembly 
enacted several laws implementing the new proposals. The old Department 
of Military and Veteran's Affairs has been replaced by a new Department of 
Crime Control and Public Safety. The Veterans Affairs Commission formerly 
in MVA is now under the Department of Administration. All the State 
Highway Patrol, formerly in the Division of Motor Vehicles, Department of 
Transportation, has been transferred by a Type I transfer to the new 
department. A newly created Governor's Crime Commission is also part of 
the new department. 

In reorganizing the old Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, the 
Energy Division and the Energy Policy Council were transferred to the 
Department of Commerce. Also transferred to the Department of Commerce 
were three agencies previously under the Department of Transportation— 
the State Ports Authority, and two commissions on Navigation and Pilotage. 
Other legislative changes were enacted to further reorganize the Department 
of Commerce by transferring to it the Economic Development Division of the 
Department of Natural and Economic Development and to create a new 
council— the Labor Force Development Council— to coordinate the needs of 
Industry with the programs offered in our educational institutions. There 
was some opposition to moving Economic Development from Natural and 
Economic Resources because the setup at that time allowed new prospective 
industry to deal with only one department in finding economic opportunities 
within the state and what environmental requirements and restrictions 
there might be. 



456 North Carolina Manual 

Reorganization is an ongoing happening in state government as efforts 
are made to reduce the bureaucracy and avoid confusion and duphcation. 
Since that first effort in the early 1970's, department names have been 
changed, a new department created — the Department of Community 
Colleges — and some agencies given autonomous status, as in the case of the 
Office of the State Controller. 

The most recent reorganization occurred in 1989 with major changes 
among and within the Departments of Commerce, Human Resources, and 
Natural Resources and Community Development. The results were the renam- 
ing of two departments and the restructuring of all three. The Department of 
Natural Resources and Economic Development became the Department of 
Environment, Health, and Natural Resources with primary responsibilities 
in the areas of environmental and natural resources management and 
public health protection. The Department of Commerce was renamed the 
Department of Economic and Community Development. This department 
acquired the community development activities of old NRCD and added 
them to the commercial and industrial activity of the old Department of 
Commerce. The Department of Human Resources lost its Division of Health 
Services and several sections from other divisions relating to environmental 
and health management. 



The Executive Branch 457 



THE COUNCIL OF STATE 

Origin and Composition 

The Council of State is composed of the elected officials enumerated in 
Article III of the Constitution of North Carolina. Each of these officials are 
executive heads of departments of state government. When acting as one 
body, they advise the Governor on certain important administrative matters 
of state. This body is also charged by statute with other specific duties and 
responsibilities. 

The Council of State had its origin in the Constitution of 1776. Drafted 
and promulgated by the Fifth Provincial Congress in December, 1776, this 
document was created without submission to the people. Its separate, but 
accompanying declaration of rights, sketched the main outlines of the new 
state government and secured the rights of the citizen from governmental 
influence. While the principle of separation of powers was explicitly affirmed 
and the three familiar branches of government provided for, the true center 
of power lay in the General Assembly. 

Profound distrust of the executive power is evident throughout the Con- 
stitution of 1776 as evidences by allowing the Governor only a one year term 
with a limit of only three terms in any six years. The little power granted to 
the Governor was further limited by requiring, in many instances, the 
concurrence of the Council of State before power could be exercised by the 
Governor. 

Having just declared their independence from the bonds of an English 
king who exercised dictatorial executive authority, the patriots of North 
Carolina were understandably reluctant to establish a strong central execu- 
tive. So, the Council of State was created as one of the checks and balances 
to prevent the Governor from having too much power. The Council of State 
consisted of seven men elected by joint vote of the two houses of the General 
Assembly. They were elected for a one year term and could not be members 
of either the state Senate or the state House of Commons. If a vacancy 
occurred, it was filled at the next session of the General Assembly. The 
Council was created to "advise the governor in the execution of his office," 
but was independent of the Governor. 

The role of our Council of State today is similar to what is was two 
centuries ago. While no longer a separate and distinct body elected by the 
General Assembly, the functions of advising the Governor and making 
decisions which are important to the operation of government and our state 
have survived. The importance of this body is evident by its inclusion in the 
Constitution of 1868 and in our current constitution adopted in 1970. 

Constitutional Basis 

Article III, Section 7, of the Constitution of North Carolina provides for 
the election of the following state officers other than the Governor and 



458 North Carolina Manual 

Lieutenant Governor: the Secretary of State, State Auditor, State Treasurer, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, Attorney General, Commissioner of 
Labor, the Commissioner of Agriculture, and the Commissioner of Insurance. 
All of these officers, including the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, are 
elected by the citizens of North Carolina at the same time that votes are cast 
for president and vice president — November of every other even numbered 
year. They are elected to four-year terms, and except for the Governor and 
Lieutenant Governor who can be elected to only one additional consecutive 
term, there is no limit on the number of times each may be elected. In the 
event of vacancy due to death, resignation or otherwise, the Governor has 
the authority to appoint someone to serve until a successor is elected at the 
next general election for members of the General Assembly. Section 8, 
Article III of the constitution provides that these elected officials shall 
constitute the Council of State. 

Duties and Responsibilities 

The duties and responsibilities of the Council of State, as prescribed in the 
General Statutes of North Carolina are to: 

L advise the Governor on calling a special session of the legislature; 

2. advise the Governor and State Treasurer on investment of 
assurance fund; 

3. approve transfers from state property fire insurance fund to 
agencies suffering losses; 

4. approve the purchase of insurance for reinsurance; 

5. control internal improvements and require the chief executive of 
public works to report on improvements to the council and the General 
Assembly; 

6. approve the sale, lease, and mortgage of corporate property in 
which the state has an interest; 

7. investigate public works companies; 

8. approve the Governor's determination of competitive positions; 

9. allot contingency & emergency funds for many purposes; 

10. approve survey of state boundaries; 

11. sign bonds in lieu of treasurer; 

12. authorize the treasurer on replacing bonds and notes; 

13. authorize the Treasurer to borrow in emergency and report such 
to the state legislature; 

14. approve the issuance of bonds, set interest rate and approve the 
manner of sale; 

15. request cancellation of highway bonds in sinking fund if 
necessary; 

16. approve borrowing in anticipation of collection of taxes; 

17. approve the issuance of bonds; 

18. approve parking lot rules; 

19. participate in lease, rental, purchase and sale of real property; 

20. approve motor pool rules; 

21. approve general service rules and regulations; 



The Executive Branch 459 

22. approve property and space allocations; 

23. approve war and civil defense plans; 

24. approve banks and securities for state funds; and 

25. approve all state lands transaction. 

Meetings 

The Council of State meets monthly, at a time agreed upon by the 
members. Currently they meet the first Tuesday of each month. At these 
meetings, debate with the Governor and each other is conducted on the 
many important issues faced by state government. Prior to 1985, Council of 
State meetings were exempted from the State Open Meetings Law by act of 
the General Assembly; however, there was so much uproar over this practice 
that since 1985 the meetings have been open. 

The Council of State is a vital part of the operations of state government 
today as it continues a tradition established over two hundred years ago. 



The Executive Branch 461 



THE OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

The office of Governor is the oldest governmental office in North Carolina. 
The first Governor was Ralph Lane, who served as Governor of Sir Walter 
Raleigh's first colony on Roanoke Island (1585). The first permanent Governor 
was William Drummond, appointed by William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia 
and one of the Lords Proprietors, at the request of his colleagues. During the 
colonial period Governors were appointed by the Lords Proprietors prior to 
1729, and the crown after 1730. These people served at the pleasure of their 
appointors, usually until a Governor died or resigned, although there were 
several instances where other factors were involved. When a regularly 
appointed Governor, for whatever reason, could no longer perform his 
functions as chief executive, either the president of the council, or the deputy, or 
Lieutenant Governor, took over until a new Governor was appointed and 
qualified. Following our independence in 1776, and the adoption of our first 
state constitution, the Governor was elected by the two houses of the General 
Assembly. He was elected to serve a one-year term and could serve no more 
than three years in any six. 

In 1835 with clamors for a more democratic form of government being felt in 
Raleigh, a constitutional convention was called to amend certain sections of 
the constitution. One of the amendments provided for the popular election of 
the Governor every two years; however, little was done to increase his 
authority in areas other than that of appointments. In 1868 North Carolinians 
adopt their second constitution. The Constitution of 1868 contained many of 
the amendments that had been added to the originally 1776 Constitution, but 
also included changes resulting from the Civil War and new attitudes towards 
government. Provisions in this new constitution increased the Governor's term 
of office from two to four years and some of his duties and powers. 

Today North Carolina is governed by her third constitution; however, few 
changes dealing with the executive branch, and the Governor in particular, 
were changed when ratified by the people in 1970. Two omissions from the 
Constitution of 1971 which were found in most other state constitutions were 
the right of a Governor to succeed himself and the power of gubernatorial veto 
over legislation passed by the General Assembly. The citizens of North 
Carolina addressed the issue of gubernatorial succession in 1977 and voted to 
allow the Governor and lieutenant Governor to run for a second consecutive 
term. Following his reelection in 1980, Governor James B. Hunt became the 
first North Carolina Governor since 1866 to be elected to two consecutive terms 
and the first elected to two consecutive four-year terms. 

In recent years there has been a growing concern over gubernatorial veto. 
North Carolina is the only state that does not allow its Governor veto power 
over legislation passed by the General Assembly. During the 1989 session of 
the General Assembly, several bills providing for veto power for the Governor 
were introduced. Although a bill to submit the proposal to a vote of the people 
was not enacted during the 1989 session, the issue is still alive and can be 
considered in the short session in 1990. 



462 North Carolina Manual 

In 1972, the Office of the Governor was created as one of the 19 departments 
in the Executive Branch of state government. Under his immediate jurisdiction 
are such assistants and personnel as he may need to carry out the functions as 
chief executive of the State. The Governor of North CaroHna is not only the 
state's chief executive, but also the director of the budget, with responsibilities 
for all phases of budgeting from the initial preparation to final execution; he is 
commander-in-chief of the state military; and he is chairman of the Council of 
State which meets regularly and which he may convene at any time for 
emergencies. He also has the authority to convene the general assembly into 
extra session should affairs of the State dictate such a move. The Governor is 
directed by the North Carolina Constitution to "take care" that all state laws 
are faithfully executed. He has the power to grant pardons and to commute 
sentences; to issue extradition warrants and requests; to join interstate 
compacts; and to reorganize and consolidate state agencies. The Governor has 
final authority over expenditures of the state, and he is also responsible for the 
administration of all funds and loans from the federal government. At the start 
of each regular session of the General Assembly, the Governor delivers 
legislative and budgetary messages to the legislators. To help him carry out his 
administrative duties and run his office the Governor has several assistants. 

The Chief of Staff 

The chief of staff for the Governor oversees and manages the various 
divisions within the Office of the Governor. He monitors policy development 
and duties of the cabinet agencies and serves as the Governor's link to cabinet 
members. He advises the Governor on legislative matters. The chief of staff 
also represents the Governor in matters of state, sometimes serving as 
representative for the Governor at events the Governor cannot attend. 

The Legal Counsel 

The legal counsel is appointed by the Governor and monitors all legal 
issues relating to the Governor and his cabinet. He advises the Governor 
when policy developments involve legal issues and investigates the merits of 
pardon requests, commutations, reprieves, extraditions, rewards and pay- 
ments of legal fees charged the State. 

The Office of Budget and Management 

The Governor is responsible for the State Budget. He appoints a State 
Budget Office to assist him in carrying out his fiscal responsibilities. This 
individual directs preparation of the state budget and advises the Governor 
on policy decisions related to the biennial budget. In addition, he advises the 
Governor on legislative issues and the management of state government. He 
also serves as the Governor's liaison to the business efforts in North 
Carolina and reports to the Governor on concerns of the business com- 
munity. 

The Appointments Office 

The Appointments Office is responsible for reviewing applications and 
submitting recommendations to the more than 400 statutory and non- 



The Executive Branch 463 

statutory bodies to which the Governor makes appointments. The Appoint- 
ments Office also advises the Governor on development of policy by the 
boards and commissions. In addition, the Appointments Office researches 
qualifications and requirements, maintains records and provides liaison 
with associations, agencies and interested individuals and groups. 

The Communications Office 

The director of communications serves as the head of the Governor's 
information center — the Communications Office — as well as being the pri- 
mary spokesman for the Governor concerning statements on policy and 
procedure. The director serves as a liaison between the Governor and his 
staff, the working press, and the public, keeping them informed on matters 
of interest and importance which affect the state. The Communications 
Office is also responsible for preparing any speeches, proclamations, letters 
of greeting, and public service announcements issued by the Governor. 



The Office of Citizen Affairs 

The Office of Citizen Affairs is responsible for promoting greater citizen 
awareness of and participation in state and local government programs, 
services, and activities. The Citizen Help Section handles citizen inquiries 
and casework while the Correspondence Unit routes mail to appropriate 
departments throughout state government. The office also promotes 
volunteerism through citizen referral, recognition ceremonies, and a quarterly 
newsletter. 

Legislative Affairs Counsel 

The legislative affairs counsel is responsible for establishing and maintain- 
ing a working relationship with members of the General Assembly on all 
legislative matters but particularly those which are important to the 
Governor. He is also responsible for tracking and reporting to the Governor 
the status of legislation as it moves through the General Assembly. 

The Eastern Office of the Governor 

The Eastern Office of the Governor is primarily responsible for fostering 
congenial governmental-private sector-civic partnership. Representing the 
Governor in these capacities, the Eastern Office serves as a conduit between 
the people of Eastern North Carolina and the Governor's main office in 
Raleigh. The Eastern Office also represents the Governor at civic, business, 
and social events. They also investigate inquiries received from citizens of 
the area, staying abreast of the concerns of eastern North Carolinians and 
generally serving as the Governor's liaison in the eastern area. 

The Western Office of the Governor 

The Western Office of the Governor has operated for more than thirteen 
years. Its primary function is to foster a governmental-private sector-civic 
partnership in Western North Carolina. The Western Office serves as a 



4(S4 North Carolina Manual 

coiuluit hctwccii the pt'opic ol' Western North Carolina in twenty-eight 
counties and the (lovernor's main ofTiee in Raleigh. The Western Oft'iee also 
schedules use of the Covernor's western residence and assists in coordinating 
the (iovernors schedule during visits to Western North Carolina. The office 
represents the Covernor at civic, husiness, and social events and investigates 
iiuiuiries received from citizens ol' the area, l^y staying ahreast of the 
concerns of western North C'arolinians, the office serves as the "eyes and 
ears' for the Covernor in the western area. 

Tho North Carolina Washington Office 

The North Carolina Washington Office was established in 1975 by 
Governor James E. Holshouser, Jr. This office serves as a liaison between 
the federal and state government. The office is responsible for researching, 
analyzing, and monitoring vital issues of concern to North Carolina. The 
North Carolina Washington Office accomplishes these goals by attending 
congressional hearings and briefings with federal agencies and alerting the 
appropriate staff contact on the need for, or effect of, various regulations 
and legislative proposals. The location of the office makes it possible to 
immediately obtain any necessary documents or information for state 
officials. In addition to these services, the office responds directly to con- 
stituent requests for information and is proud to serve as a home base for 
the state. 

Boards and Commissions 

Governors Advisory Council on Agriculture, F'orestry, and the Seafood 

Industry (Executive Order 5 (March 29, 1977)) 

Governor's Task Force on Domestic Violence (Executive Order .55) 

North Carolina F^arm worker Council (G.S. 148B-426.30) 

State Goals and Policy Board (G.S. 148B-371) 

Governor's Advisory Commission on Military Affairs (Executive Order 1 1) 

Interstate Cooperation Council (G.S. 14HB-379) 

Local Government Advocacy Council (G.S. 143-506.14) 

Council on the Status of Women (G.S. 143B-393) 



466 



North Carolina Manual 




The Executive Branch 467 



James Grubbs Martin 

Governor 

Early Years: Born in Savannah, Georgia, December 11, 1935, to the 
Reverend Arthur M. and Mary (Grubbs) Martin. 

Education: Mt. Zion Institute (Public School), Winnsboro, S.C., 1953; 
Davidson College, 1957, B.S. (Chemistry); Princeton University, 1960, Ph.D. 
(Chemistry). 

Professional Background: Governor of North CaroHna, 1985-present 
(elected, 1984— the second RepubHcan Governor elected in this century); 
former associate professor of chemistry, Davidson College, 1960-72; U.S. 
Congress, 1973-84. 

Organizations: Member, Beta Theta Pi, National President, 1975-78; 
Mason, Shriner; Charlotte Symphony (tuba), 1957 and 1962-66. 

Boards: President of NC Association of County Commissioners, 1970-71; 
Founder and First Chairman, Centralina Council of Governments (COG), 
1968-71; Vice President, National Association of Regional Councils, 1969-71. 

Political Activities: Governor of North Carolina, 1985-; Member, US 
House of Representatives, 1973-84 (six terms); member. Board of County 
Commissioners, Mecklenburg County, 1966-72 (Chairman, 1966-68 and 1971); 
Delegate to the National Republican Convention, 1968; member. House 
Interior and Insular Affairs Committee, 1973-74; member. House Ways and 
Means Committee, 1975-84; member, House Budget Committee, 1980-82; 
Chairman, House Republican Search Committee, 1982-83; Chairman, Re- 
publican Task Force on Health Policy, 1975-82; Republican Party. 

Honors: American Chemical Society's Charles Lathrop Parsons Award 
(first to a public official); Omicron Delta Kappa. 

Literary Works: "Stereochemistry of the Diels-Alder Reaction," Chemi- 
cal Reviews, 1961. 
Religious Activities: Presbyterian (Deacon, 1969-71); Choir. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Ann McAulay of Charlotte, June 1, 1957. 
Children: James, Jr., Emily, and Benson. 



468 North Carolina Manual 

GOVERNORS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

GOVERNORS OF "VIRGINIA" 

Name Qualified Term 

Ralph Lane' [April 9], 1585 1585-1586 

John White-^ [April 26], 1587 1587 

PROPRIETARY CHIEF EXECUTIVES* 

Name Qualified Term 

(Samuel Stephens)^ [1622-1664] 

William Drummond^ February 23, 1665 1665-[1667] 

Samuel Stephens^ , 1667 [1667-1670] 

Peter Carteret^ March 10, 1670 1670-1671 

Peter Carteret" , 1671 1671-1672 

John Jenkins*^ [May _], 1672 1672-1675 

Thomas Eastchurch9 October _, 1675 1675-1676 

[Speaker-Assembly]io [Spring, 1676] 1676 

John Jenkins'i March _ , 1676 1676-1677 

Thomas Eastchurch'^ 

Thomas Miller^^ July _ , 1677 1677 

[Rebel Council]!^ December _ , 1677 1677-1679 

Seth Sothel's 

John Harvey'^ July _ , 1679 1679 

John Jenkins'^ December _ , 1679 1679-1681 

Henry Wilkinson'*^ 

Seth Sothel'9 , [1682] [1682]-1689 

John Archdale-o December _ , 1683 1683-1686 

John Gibbs^i November _ , 1689 1689-1690 

Phillip LudwelP^ May _ , 1690 1690-1691 

Thomas Jarvis'^^ July _ , 1690 1690-1694 

Phillip Ludwell24 November _, 1693 1693-1695 

Thomas Harvey25 July _ , 1694 1694-1699 

John Archdale^e j^^e _ , 1695 1695 

John Archdale" January _ , 1697 1697 

Henderson Walker^s July _ , 1699 1699-1703 

Robert Danieps July _ , 1703 1703-1705 

Thomas Cary^^o March 21, 1705 1705-1706 

William Glover'i July 13, 1706 1706-1707 

Thomas Cary32 August _ , 1707 1707 

William Glover^^ October 28, 1707 1707-1708 

Thomas Cary^4 July 24, 1708 1708-1711 

[William Glover]35 [1709-1710] 

Edward Hyde36 January 22, 1711 1711-1712 

Edward Hyde" May 9, 1712 1712 

Thomas Pollock^s September 12, 1712 1712-1714 



*The names indented first are those who served as chief executive, but were 
appointed either deputy or lieutenant governor. Those indented second served while 
president of the council. 



The Executive Branch 469 

Name Qualified Term 

Charles Eden^^ May 28, 1714 1714-1722 

Thomas Pollock^o March 30, 1722 1722 

WilHamReed^i September 7, 1722 1722-1724 

George Burrington^s January 15, 1724 1724-1725 

Edward Moseley^^ October 31, 1724 1724 

Sir Richard Everard^" July 17, 1725 1725-1731 



ROYAL CHIEF EXECUTIVES^s 

Name Qualified Term 

George Burrington^^ February 25, 1731 1731-1734 

Nathaniel Rice^^ April 17, 1734 1734 

Gabriel Johnston^s November 2, 1734 1734-1752 

Nathaniel Rice^s July 17, 1752 1752-1753 

Matthew Rowan^o February 1, 1753 1753-1754 

Arthur Dobbs^i November 1, 1754 1754-1765 

James Haselpa October 15, 1763 1763 

William Tryon53 April 3, 1765 1765 

William Tryon54 December 20, 1765 1765-1771 

James Haselps July 1, 1771 1771 

Josiah Martinis August 12, 1771 1771-1775 

James Hasell" Octobers, 1774 1774 



ELECTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY^s 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

Richard Caswell^^ Dobbs December 21, 1776 1776-1777 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 18, 1777 1777-1778 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 20, 1778 1778-1779 

Richard Caswell Dobbs May 4, 1779 1779-1780 

Abner Nash^o Craven April 21, 1780 1780-1781 

Thomas Burke^i Orange June 26, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martin62 Guilford October 5, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 22, 1782 1782-1783 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 30, 1783 1783-1784 

Alexander Martin Guilford May 3, 1784 1784-1785 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 12, 1785 1785-1786 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 23, 1786 1786-1787 

Samuel Johnston Chowan December 20, 1787 1787-1788 

Samuel Johnston Chowan November 18, 1788 1788-1789 

Samuel Johnston^a Chowan November 18, 1789 1789 

Alexander MartinS" Guilford December 17, 1789 1789-1790 

Alexander Martin Guilford December 9, 1790 1790-1792 

Alexander Martin Guilford January 2, 1792 1792 

Richard Dobbs Spaight .... Craven December 14, 1792 1792-1793 

Richard Dobbs Spaight .... Craven December 26, 1793 1793-1795 

Richard Dobbs Spaight .... Craven January 6, 1795 1795 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover November 19, 1795 ... 1795-1796 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 19, 1796 .... 1796-1797 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 5, 1797 1797-1798 

William R. Daviess Halifax December 7, 1798 1798-1799 



470 



North Carolina Manual 



Name Residence Qualifled Term 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 23, 1799 ... 1799-1800 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 29, 1800 ... 1800-1801 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 28, 1801 ... 1801-1802 

John Baptiste Ashe'^^ Halifax 



James Turner*^ ' Warren Decembers, 1802 1802-1803 

James Turner Warren Decembers, 1803 1803-1804 

James Turner^" Warren November 29, 1804 ... 1804-1805 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 10, 1805 .... 1805-1806 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 1, 1806 1806-1807 

Benjamin Williams Moore December 1, 1807 1807-1808 

David Stone Bertie December 12, 1808 .... 1808-1809 

David Stone Bertie December 13, 1809 .... 1809-1810 

Benjamin Smith Brunswick December 5, 1810 1810-1811 

William Hawkins Warren December 9, 1811 1811-1812 

WilHam Hawkins Warren December 8, 1812 1812-1813 

WilHam Hawkins Warren December 7, 1813 1813-1814 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1814 1814-1815 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1815 1815-1816 

WilHam Miller Warren December 7, 1816 1816-1817 

John Branch Halifax December 6, 1817 1817-1818 

John Branch Halifax December 5, 1818 1818-1819 

John Branch Halifax December 7, 1819 1819-1820 

Jesse Franklin Surry December 7, 1820 1820-1821 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 1821 1821-1822 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 1822 1822-1823 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 6, 1823 1823-1824 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 7, 1824 1824-1825 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 6, 1825 1825-1826 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 29, 1826 .... 1826-1827 

James Iredell, Jr.*^9 Chowan December 8, 1827 1827-1828 

John Owen Bladen December 12, 1828 .... 1828-1829 

John Owen Bladen December 10, 1829 .... 1829-1830 

Montford Stokes^" Wilkes December 18, 1830 .... 1830-1831 

Montford Stokes Wilkes December 13, 1831 .... 1831-1832 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 6, 1832 1832-1833 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 9, 1833 1833-1834 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 10, 1834 .... 1834-1835 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr. ... Craven December 10, 1835 .... 1835-1836 



ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE^i - TWO-YEAR TERM 



Name 


Residence 


Qualified 


Term 


Edward B. Dudley 


New Hanover .. 


... December 31, 1836 


... 1836-1838 


Edward B. Dudley 


New Hanover .. 


... December 29, 1838 


... 1838-1841 


John M. Morehead 


Guilford 


... January 1, 1841 .... 


... 1841-1842 


John M. Morehead 


Guilford 


... December 31, 1842 


... 1842-1845 


William A. Graham 


Orange 


... January 1, 1845 .... 


... 1845-1847 


William A. Graham 


Orange 


...January 1, 1847 .... 


... 1847-1849 


Charles Manly 


Wake 


...January 1, 1849 .... 


... 1849-1851 


David S. Reid'^ 


Rockingham ... 


... January 1, 1851 .... 


... 1851-1852 


David S. Reid' ' 


Rockingham ... 


... December 22, 1852 


... 1852-1854 


Warren Winslow"^ 


Cumberland .... 


... December 6, 1854 .. 


... 1854-1855 



The Executive Branch 471 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1855 1855-1857 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1857 1857-1859 

John W. ElHs Rowan January 1, 1859 1859-1861 

John W. ElHs^s Rowan January 1, 1861 1861 

Henry T. Clark^^ Edgecombe July 7, 1861 1861-1862 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe September 8, 1862 .... 1862-1864 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe December 22, 1864 .... 1864-1865 

WilHam W. Holden" Wake May 29, 1865 1865 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 15, 1865 .... 1865-1866 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 22, 1866 .... 1866-1868 



ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE - FOUR- YEAR TERM^^ 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

William W. Holden^^ Wake July 1, 1868 1868-1870 

Tod R. Caldweliso Burke December 15, 1870 .... 1870-1873 

Tod R. Caldwelpi Burke January 1, 1873 1873-1874 

Curtis H. Brogden Wayne July 14, 1874 1874-1877 

Zebulon B. Vance^^ Buncombe January 1, 1877 1877-1879 

Thomas J. JarvisS^ Pitt February 5, 1879 1879-1881 

Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt January 18, 1881 1881-1885 

James L. Robinson^^ Macon September 1, 1883 1883 

Alfred M. Scales Rockingham January 21, 1885 1885-1889 

Daniel G. Fowle^^ Wake January 17, 1889 1889-1891 

Thomas M. Holt Alamance April 8, 1891 1891-1893 

Elias Carr Edgecombe January 18, 1893 1893-1897 

Daniel L. Russell Brunswick January 12, 1897 1897-1901 

Charles B. Aycock Wayne January 15, 1901 1901-1905 

Robert B. Glenn Forsyth January 11, 1905 1905-1909 

William W. Kitchin Person January 12, 1909 1909-1913 

Locke Craig Buncombe January 15, 1913 1913-1917 

Thomas W. Bickett Franklin January 11, 1917 1917-1921 

Cameron Morrison Mecklenburg January 12, 1921 1921-1925 

Angus W. McLean Robeson January 14, 1925 1925-1929 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland January 11, 1929 1929-1933 

John C. B. Ehringhaus Pasquotank January 5, 1933 1933-1937 

Clyde R. Hoey Cleveland January 7, 1937 1937-1941 

John Melville Broughton ...Wake January 9, 1941 1941-1945 

Robert Gregg Cherry Gaston January 4, 1945 1945-1949 

William Kerr Scott Alamance January 6, 1949 1949-1953 

William B. Umstead^e Durham January 8, 1953 1953-1954 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham November 7, 1954 1954-1957 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham February 7, 1957 1957-1961 

Terry Sanford Cumberland January 5, 1961 1961-1965 

Daniel K. Moore Jackson January 8, 1965 1965-1969 

Robert W. Scott Alamance January 3, 1969 1969-1973 

James E. Holshouser, Jr.^^ .... Watauga January 5, 1973 1973-1977 

James B. Hunt, Jr Wilson January 8, 1977 1977-1981 

James B. Hunt, Jr.^s Wilson January 10, 1981 1981-1985 

James G. Martin Iredell January 5, 1985 1985-1989 

James G. Martin Iredell January 7, 1989 1989 



472 North Carolina Manual 



Governors of "Virginia" 

'Lane was appointed by Sir Walter Raleigh and left Plymouth, England on April 9, 
1585. His expedition reached the New World in July; however a colony was not 
established until August. 

-White was appointed by Sir Walter Raleigh and departed from Portsmouth, England 
on April 26, 1587; however, the expedition made stops at Isle of Wight and Plymouth 
before setting sail for "Virginia" on May 5. They reached the area to be settled on July 22, 
but Governor White wanted to make some preliminary explorations before allowing the 
remainder of his party to go ashore. Three days later the colonists left the ships. Food 
shortages and the absence of other needed supplies forced White to leave for England on 
August 27, 1587. Delayed in England because of war with Spain, White did not return to 
North Carolina until 1590. Leaving England on March 20, he arrived in August, but 
found no evidence of life. On a nearby tree he found the letters C.R.O. and on another 
CROATAN. White never did find his missing colony and the mystery of the "Lost 
Colony" is still unsolved. 

Proprietory Chief Executives 

""Stephens was appointed "commander of the southern plantations" by the council in 
Virginia. The geographical location of the "southern plantations" is that area in 
northeastern North Carolina where "overflow" settlers from Virginia lived. William S. 
Powell suggests that his "presence in Carolina removed any urgency for a prompt 
appointment" of a Governor for Carolina when Berkeley was instructed to do so by the 
Lords Proprietors and explains why Drummond was not appointed until 1664. 

■•Drummond was appointed by William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia and one of the 
Lords Proprietors, at the request of the Lords Proprietors in England. He began serving 
prior to the delivery of his commission by Peter Carteret in February, 1665. Since other 
commissions issued to Carteret bear the date December, 3, 1664, it is possible that 
Drummond's commission was also issued on that date. Records show that he was still 
Governor in December, 1666, and that a successor was not appointed until October, 1667. 
He supposedly moved to Virginia sometime during 1667. 

'Stephens was appointed by the Lords Proprietors to replace Drummond and began 
servingpriorto the delivery of his commission in April, 1668. He died while still in office 
sometime before March 7, 1670. 

"Carteret had been commissioned Lieutenant Governor by the Lords Proprietors on 
December 3, 1664 and was chosen President by the North Carolina Council upon the 
death of Stephens. He was later appointed Governor by the Lords Proprietors. He left the 
colony for England sometime after May 10, 1672. 

"See footnote 6. 

"Jenkins was commissioned by Carteret to act as deputy governor when he left the 
colony. The authority of Carteret to make this appointment rested in commissions issued 
by the Lords Proprietors in October, 1670, but which expired "at the end of four years" 
according to provisions in the Fundamental Constitutions, Carteret had not returned to 
the colony when his commission to Jenkins officially expired; however, Jenkins 
continued to serve. When the general assembly met, following elections in September, 
1675, opposition had formed against Jenkins and he was imprisoned on charges of 
"several misdemeanors". 

''Eastchurch was elected speaker of the assembly and assumed the role of governor 
following the imprisonment of Jenkins. He seems to have remained in this position until 
the spring of 1676 when the departed the colony for England. 

'"Eastchurch "apparently left someone else as speaker, for the assembly remained in 
session". However, Jenkins was forceably released from prison by friends "at some date 
before late March, 1676." He exercised enough control to hold a court and for a period 
prior to the departure of Eastchurch for England, both he and Jenkins exercised control 
over the province. In October, 1976, Jenkins, backed by an armed force, dissolved the 
assembly and resumed the role of governor. 

"See footnote 10. 



The Executive Branch 473 

^ ^Eastchurch was commissioned governor by the Lords Proprietors. Upon his return to 
the colony he stopped at Nevis in the West Indies and sought the attention of a wealthy 
lady. Deciding to remain in Nevis for a while, he appointed Thomas Miller deputy 
governor until his return. (Eastchurch never returned to North Carolina — he died in 
Virginia while on his way back to the colony). Because he had not offically qualified as 
governor in Albemarle, Eastchurch had no legal authority to appoint Miller; however, 
when Miller reached Albemarle he was able to secure his position with little initial 
trouble. The policies used by Miller to quiet opposition and his general handling of the 
government soon put him in conflict with the populace. This conflict erupted into ]a 
political upheaval which became known as "Culpeper's Rebellion." 

i^See footnote 12. 

1 ^Tradition is that John Culpepper was elected governor by the Assembly when they 
rebelled against Miller; however, there is no documentary evidence to substantiate the 
claim that he held any post other than that of customs collector. Dr. Lindley Butler 
suggests that it is possible that John Jenkins, the last de jure executive of the colony, 
acted as de facto government and evidence exists that a "rebel" council meeting was held 
in early 1678 at his home. 

i^Sothel was appointed governor in 1678, but was captured "by the Turkes and carried 
into Argier ..." and did not take office. "Afidavitt of John Taylor" and Lords Proprietors 
to the "Governor and Councell of the County of Albemarle in the Province of Carolina". 

"'Harvey's commission instructed him to act as "President of the Council and execute 
the authority of the government until the arrival of Mr. Sothell". Other details are not 
known. He died whie still in office. 

'Jenkins was elected president of the council following the death of Harvey and died 
on December 17, 1681 while still in office. 

'^Wilkinson was appointed by the Lords Proprietors but never left England — "he was 
arrested and imprisoned in London while preparing to sail". 

^^Sothel, following his purchase of the "Earl of Clarendon's share of Carolina", 
became governor under a provision of the Fundamental Constitution which "provided 
that the eldest proprietor that shall be in Carolina shall be Governor . . . ." The date of 
Sothel's assumption of Governorship is not known. Extant records tell nothing about the 
government of Albemarle in the year following Jenkins' death. It is possible that Sothel 
reached the colony and took office before Jenkins died or soon afterwards; it is possible 
that for a time there was an acting governor, chosen by the council; or there may have 
been a period of chaos. Nothing is known except that Sothel arrived in Albemarle at some 
time prior to March 10, 1682, when he held court at Edward Smithwick's house in 
Chowan Precinct. Sothel actions and policies soon became intolerable to the people of 
Albemarle and at the meeting of the assembly in 1689, thirteen charges of misconduct 
and irregularties were brought against him. He was banished from the colony for 12 
months and was prohibited from ever again holding public office in Albemarle. On 
December 5, 1689, the Lords Proprietors offically suspended Sothel as governor because 
he abused the authority granted him as a proprietor. 

2°Archdale was in the colony by December, 1683, to collect quitrents and remained in 
Albemarle until 1686. While Governor Sothel was absent from the county, Archdale 
served on many occasions as acting governor. 

^'The Fundamental Constitutions provided that the eldest proprietor living in the 
colony would be governor and that if there were none, then the eldest cacique was to act. 
"Gibbs, a relative of the Duke of Albemarle, had been made a cacique of Carolina in 
October, 1682, and had been granted a manor in the southern Carolina colony a few 
months later. Gibbs came to Albemarle at some date before November, 1689, by which 
time he was known as 'governor'. His claim to the governorship seems to have been 
recognized in the colony for a time; an assembly appears to have been held while he was 
governor'. It is probable that Albemarle inhabitants recognized his claim until word 
arrived of Ludwell's appointment, which was made in December, 1689." Even after 
Ludwell arrived in Albemarle Gibbs continued to claim his right to the office. In July, 
1690 both were advised by the Virginia governor to carry their dispute to the proprietors 
in England, which was apparently done. On November 8, 1691 a proclamation was 
issued by the proprietors to the inhalDitants of Albemarle reaffirming Sothel's suspension 
and repudiating the claim of Gibbs. They also suspended the Fundamental Constitutions 



474 North Carolina Manual 

which stripped Gibbs of any further legal basis for his actions. (The actions of the 
Proprietors on November 8, 1691 did in fact suspend the Fundamental Constitutions 
even though formal announcement of their suspension was not made until May 11, 1693.) 

--^Ludwell was originally commissioned governor by the Lords Proprietors on December 
5, 1689 following the suspension of Sothel, but his dispute with Gibbs led to the issuance 
of a second commission on November 8, 1691. He served as governor until his 
appointment as governor of all Carolina. 

^^Jarvis acted as deputy governor while Ludwell was in Virginia and England. He was 
officially appointed deputy governor upon Ludwell's acceptance of the governorship of 
Carolina and served until his death in 1694. 

^^Ludwell served as acting governor, possibly by appointment of Thomas Smith 
governor of Carolina; however, the authority under which he acted is not known. In 
October, 1694 it is apparent that the Proprietors did not know of his position as the 
proprietors refer to him as "our late Governor of North Carolina." He issued a 
proclamation on November 28, 1693 and land grant records indicate that he acted as 
chief executive intermittantly throughout 1694 and as late as May of 1695. Records show 
that he was residing in Virginia by April and had been elected to represent James City 
County in the Virginia Assembly. 

'^Harvey became president of the council upon the death of Jarvis in 1694. He was 
presiding over the council on July 12, 1694 and signed several survey warrants the same 
day. He continued serving until his death on July 3, 1699. 

'-'•^Archdale stopped in North Carolina a few weeks and acted as chief executive on his 
way to Charleston to assume office as Governor of Carolina. He was in Virginia enroute 
to Charleston on June 11, 12, and 13, 1695and was in Charleston by August 17, 1695, the 
date on which he took the oath of office at Charleston. 

^■'Archdale's authority to act as governor rested with his previous commission which 
was still valid. The problem of gubenatorial succession at this time is due to the death of 
Lord Craven and the confusion over the tenure of Lord Bath. Since no one other than the 
Lord Palatine could commission a new governor, there had been no "regular" governor 
appointed for Carolina. 

-'^Walker, as president of the council, assumed the role of chief executive shortly after 
the death of Harvey and relinquished it upon the arrival of Robert Daniel (sometime 
between June 20, 1703 and July 29, 1703). 

^^Daniel was appointed deputy governor of Carolina by Sir Nathaniel Johnson, 
Governor of Carolina, and was acting in this capacity by July 29, 1703. Conflicts with 
minority religious groups, primarily the Quakers, led to his supension in March 1705. 

'"Cary was appointed by Sir Nathaniel Johnson, Governor of Carolina, to replace 
Daniel, and arrived in North Carolina on March 21, 1705. Dissenters were pleased 
initially with the appointment, because Cary was related by marriage to John Archdale, 
the Quaker proprietor; however, this initial feeling soon changed. When he arrived in 
North Carolina, Cary found Anglicans in most places of power and therefore, cast his lot 
with them. Although the law requiring oaths of allegiance was still on the statutes books, 
dissenters had assumed that Cary would not enforce it. However, when the General 
Court met on March 27, the oath act was read and put into execution. At the General 
Assembly meeting in November, 1705, Quaker members were again required to take 
oaths; they refused and were excluded. Then Cary and his allies passed a law which 
voided the election of anyone found guilty of promoting his own candidacy. This loosely 
defined bill gave the majority faction in the lower house the power to exclude any 
undesirable member and was designed to be used against troublesome non-Quakers (who 
had no convictions against oath swearing). 

The dissenters and some disgruntled Anglicans now decided to send an agent to 
England to plead for relief. In October, 1706, their chosen representative, John Porter, 
left Albemarle for London — it is almost certain that Porter was not a Quaker and, in fact, 
may have been an Anglican. Although he did not take the oaths of office with his fellow 
justices at the October-November 1 705 session of the General Court, he had taken them in 
March, 1705. In England, Porter received the support of John Archdale, who persuaded 
the Lords Proprietors to issue orders to Porter, suspending Sir Nathaniel Johnson's 
authority over North Carolina, removing Cary as deputy governor, naming five new 
councillors, and authorizing the council to elect a chief executive. 



The Executive Branch 475 

Returning to Albemarle in October, 1 707, Porter found William Glover and the council 
presiding over the government because Gary had left for a visit to South Garolina. This 
arrangement appeared satisfactory to Porter, who called the new lords deputies together 
and nominated Glover as president of the council. Glover was elected, but the vote was 
illegal since Porter's instructions required that Gary and the former councillors be 
present for the voting. Porter knew exactly what he was doing, however, and later used 
the illegality of the election to force Glover out of office. 

On November 3, 1707, Glover convened the general assembly at John Hecklfield's 
house at Little River. Joining him in the upper house as lords deputies were Porter, 
Foster, Newby, Hawkins, and Thomas Gary, recently returned from South Garolina. 
After requesting that the lower house send its list of members to him, the president 
proposed dissolution of the assembly without further business. Gary objected, but the 
following day Glover and the rest of the council dissolved the General Assembly. 
Although he had been required to convene the assembly in compliance with the biennial 
act which specified that a legislative session be held every two years, Glover apparently 
did not want Gary to use the gathering a a forum. 

At some point between the close of the assembly in November, 1707, and the summer of 
1708, Glover turned on the dissenters. Apparently, he decided to revive the oath of office 
and force the Quaker councillors to take it. Seeing the turn of events, Gary moved to join 
Porter and the dissenters in the hope of regaining the chief executive's office. After 
receiving assurances of toleration from Gary, Porter moved decisively. Late in the 
summer of 1708, he called together both Gary's old councillors and the new ones, as he 
was originally supposed to have done in October, 1707, and announced that Glover's 
election as president had been illegal. Glover, joined by Thomas Pollock, protested 
vigorously and armed violence broke out between the two factions. Soon though, both 
sides agreed to let the General Assembly determine the validity of their rival claims. 
Gary and Glover each issued separate writs of election to every precinct which then 
proceeded to elect two sets of burgesses — one pledged to Gary and one to Glover. Gary 
men predominated in Bath Gounty and Pasquotank and Perquimans precincts; Glover 
men controlled Gurrituck precinct, and Ghowan was almost evenly divided. In the 
critical maneuvering for control of the assembly which met October 11,1 708, Gary forces 
scored an early, ultimately decisive victory. Edward Moseley, an Anglican vestryman, 
was chosen speaker of the house. Despite his religious affiliation, he was a Gary 
supporter. Through Moseley's careful management, Gary delegates were seated from 
every precinct except Gurrituck. When news of the Gary victory in the lower house 
reached Glover, he departed for Virginia. (There is evidence that Glover continued to act 
in the capacity of president of a council during 1709 and 1710 — land grant records 
indicate several grants throughout each year bear his name and the names of his 
councillors. The general assembly nullified the test oaths, and the council officially 
elected Gary presdient. 

The Lords Proprietors were slow to intervene in the situation in North Garolina. In 
December, 1 708, they appointed Edward Tynte to be governor of Garolina and instructed 
him to make Edward Hyde deputy governor of North Carolina. Arriving in the colony 
early in 1711, Hyde had no legal claim on the deputy governorship because Tynte had 
died before commissioning him. However, he was warmly received in Albemarle, and his 
position as a distant kinsman of the queen was so impressive that the council elected 
Hyde to the presidency. He called a general assembly for March, 1711, where he 
recommended harsh legislation against dissenters and the arrest of Gary and Porter. 
From his home in Bath, Gary rallied his supporters to resist, and the armed conflict 
known as the Gary Rebellion began. 

■^^See footnote 30. 

^^See footnote 30. 

33See footnote 30. 

s-iSee footnote 30. 

^^See footnote 30. 

^^Edward Hyde served first as president of the council and later as governor by 
commission from the Lords Proprietors. When Gary challenged his authority, armed 
conflict erupted between the two. The event, known as Gary's Rebellion, ended with the 
arrest of Gary — he was later released for lack of evidence. Hyde continued as governor 
until his death on September 8, 1712. 



476 North Carolina Manual 

^"See fotnote 36. 

''^Pollock, as president of the council, became governor following the death of Hyde and 
served in that capacity until the arrival of Charles Eden. 

'^^Eden was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors and served until his death on 
March 22, 1722. 

^"Pollock, as presdient of the council, became chief executive after Eden's death, and 
served until his own derath in Septebmer, 1722. 

^'Reed ws elected president of the council, to replace Pollock and as such served until 
the arrival of George Burrington. 

^-Burrington was commissioned governor of North Carolina by the Lords Proprietors 
and served until he was removed from office. Why he was removed is not officially 
known. 

^■'Moseley, as president of the council, was sworn in as acting governor when 
Burrington left the colony to travel to South Carolina. By November 7, 1724 Burrington 
had returned to North Carolina. 

"•^Everard was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors following the removal of 
Burrinton, who continued to create problems for Everard after he had taken office. 
Everard remained governor during the period of transition when North Carolina became 
a royal colony. 

Royal Chief Executives 

■^^In 1 729, the Lords Proprietors gave up ownership of North Carolina and with it the 
right to appoint governors and other officials. 

^''Burrington was the first governor commissioned by the crown, and the only man to 
be appointed by both the Lords Proprietors and the crown. He qualified before the council 
in 1731. His political enemies succeeded in securing his removal from office in 1734. 

^''Rice served as chief executive while Burrington was out of the colony. 

■•^Johnston was commissioned by the crown and served as governor until his death on 
July 17, 1752. 

^^Rice, as presdient of the council, became Chief executive following the death of 
Johnston; however, he too was advanced in age and soon died. 

^''Rowan was elected president following the death of Rice and served as chief 
executive until the arrival of Dobbs. 

5'Dobbs was commissioned by the crown and arrived in North Carolina in late 
October, 1754. He qualified before the chief justice and three members of the council who 
had met him in Bath. He continued serving until his death in March, 1765. 

^-Hassel served as chief executive during the absence of Dobbs from the colony. Dobbs 
had returned by December 19, 1763. 

^■^Tryon, who had been commissioned lieutenant governor under Dobbs, served as 
chief exectutive, first under his commission as lieutenant governor, and then under a 
new commission as governor. He served in this capacity until 1711 when he was 
appointed governor to New York. 

^^See footnote 53. 

55 James Hasell, as president of the council, acted as interim governor until the arrival 
of Josiah Martin. 

56Josiah Martin was appointed by the crown and served as the last royal governor of 
North Carolina. The date of his actual relinguishing of authority has been one of 
controversy among historian. Some cite the day he left North Carolina soil in July, 1775 
as the termination date, others accept July 4, 1776. Martin considered himself to be 
governor throughout the Revolution since his commission had not been rescinded. 

^''Hasell, as president of the council, acted as temporary governor during the absence of 
Martin who had left the colony for New York for reasons of health. 

Governors Elected by the General Assembly 

58The Constitution of 1776 provided that the general assembly "elect a governor for one 
year, who shall not be eligible to that office longer than three years, in six successive 
years." 

^^Caswell was appointed by the Provincial Congress to act "until [the] next General 
Assembly." He was later elected by the general assembly to regular term and to two 
additional terms. 



The Executive Branch 477 

^°The House and Senate Journals for 1780 are missing; however, loose papers found in 
the North Carolina Archives provided the necessary information. Nash requested that 
his name be withdrawn from nomiation in 1781. 

•''On September 12, 1781, Burke and several other state officials and continental 
officers were captured by the British. Burke was sent to Sullivan's Island near 
Charleston, South Carolina and later transferred to James Island. After several 
attempts, he was able to obtain a parole to return to North Carolina in late January, 1782. 
General Alexander Leslie who issued the parole, later changed his mind and wrote 
General Nathaniel Greene requesting the immediate return of Burke. Feeling that it was 
more important for him to remain in North Carolina, Burke refused to comply with the 
request despite urgings from several men of importance who questioned the legality, as 
well as the prudency of his actions. The adversity which developed, prompted Burke to 
have his name withdrawn from the list of nominees for governor in 1 782. He retired from 
public life to his home near Hillsborough where he died the following year. 

•'^Martin, as speaker of the senate, was qualified as acting governor upon receiving 
news of Burke's capture. He served in this capacity until Burke returned to North 
Carolina in late January, 1782. 

''''On November 26, 1789 Johnston was elected as United States Senator after having 
already qualified as governor. A new election was held on December 5, and Alexander 
Martin was elected to replace him. 

''^See footnote 63. 

''SDavie served only one term as governor due to his appointment in 1799 by President 
Adams to a special diplomatic mission to France. Crabtree, North Carolina Governors, 
57. 

^^Ashe died before he could qualify, and Turner was elected to replace him. 

^"See footnote 66. 

^^Turner was elected to the United States Senate on November 21, 1805 to fill a vacancy 
created by the resignation of Montford Stokes. 

^^Iredell resigned on December 1, 1828 following his election to the United States 
Senate to fill the seat vacated by the resignation of Nathaniel Macon. 

"°Stokes was appointed by President Jackson in 1832 as "chairman of the Federal 
Indian Comission to supervise the settlement of southern Indians west of the 
Mississippi." 

Governors Elected by the People — Two- Year Term 

"'The Constitutional Convention of 1835 approved an amendment to the constitution 
which provided for the popular election of governor. The Terms of office for governor was 
lengthen to two years; however, he could only serve two terms in a six year period. 

''■^Manly was defeated for re-election by Reid in 1850. 

''''On November 24, 1854, Reid was elected by the general assembly to complete the 
unexpired term of Willie P. Mangum in the United States Senate. He resigned as 
governor following the resignation of Reid. 

"^Winslow, as speaker of the house, qualified as governor following the resignation of 
Reid. 

'•'Ellis died on July 7, 1861. 

''^Clark, as speaker of the senate, became governor following the death of Ellis. 

"'Holden was appointed provisional governor on May 9, 1865 by the occupation 
commander. He was defeated by Worth in the popular election of 1865. 

"•^The North Carolina Constitution of 1868 was extended the term of office for governor 
from two years to four years, but prohibited him from seeking re-election for the following 
term. 

Governors Elected by the People — Four- Year Term 

''^The efforts of the conservatives in keeping blacks away from the polls during the 
election of 1870 resulted in a substantial majority of the seats in the general assembly 
being won by conservative candidates. On December 9, 1870, a resolution of impeachment 
against Holden was introduced in the House of Representatives by Frederick N. 
Strudwick of Orange. In all, eight charges were brought against Governor Holden. The 
trial lasted from February 2, 1871 to March 23, 1871, and Holden was found guilty on six 
of the eight charges. He was immediately removed from office. 



478 North Carolina Manual 

^^''Caldwell became governor following the removal of Holden from office and was 
elected governor in the general elections of 1872. He died in office July 11, 1874. 

«iSee footnote 80. 

"^^Vance was elected governor in 1876. On January 21, 1879 he was elected to the United 
States Senate by the general assembly and resigned as governor effective February 5, 
1879. 

**'Jarvis became governor following the resignation of Vance, and was elected 
governor in the general elections of 1880. 

**^Robinson was sworn in as governor on September 1 , 1883 to act while Jarvis was out 
of the state. He served from September 1 through September 28. 

sspowle died April 7, 1891. 

^^Umstead died on November 7, 1854. 

^"Holshouser was the first Republican, elected Governor since 1896 when Daniel 
Russell was elected. 

'''^Hunt became the first governor elected to a four year term to be elected to another 
term. A constitutional amendment adopted in 1977 permitted the governor & lieutenant 
governor to run for re-election. 

''^Martin was elected in 1984 becoming only the second Republican elected in this 
century. He was relected in 1988. 



The Executive Branch 479 



THE OFFICE OF THE LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR 

The origin of the office goes back to 16th century England, when the 
Enghsh Crown estabhshed the office of the Lord Lieutenant, a county 
official who represented the king in the management of local affairs. 

Although several early American colonial charters referred to a "deputy 
governor," the phrase "Lieutenant Governor" was used for the first time in 
the Massachusetts Charter of 169L That charter also made it clear that the 
Lieutenant Governor would become governor in the event of a vacancy. The 
office of the Lieutenant Governor in colonial times seems to have been 
established expressly to cope with the problem of gubernatorial absence. 

The concept of the Lieutenant Governor presiding over the upper house of 
the state legislature may have had its roots in the colonial practice of 
making the Lieutenant Governor the chief member of the Governor's 
council. 

The North Carolina Constitution of 1776 made no provision for a 
Lieutenant Governor. However, the constitutional convention of 1868, 
brought together to frame a new constitution provided for an elective office 
of the Lieutenant Governor. 

Between 1868 and 1970, the Lieutenant Governor was a parttime official 
with very limited authority. He served only when the General Assembly was 
in session or in the absence of the Governor. His primary responsibility was 
that of presiding officer of the Senate, and in that capacity, he appointed 
senators to committees, and oversaw legislation as it passed through the 
Senate. Today, the office of Lieutenant Governor is a full time position and 
is no longer limited to one four-year term — he may be elected to one addi- 
tional, consecutive four-year term. 

In 1989, the Senate Rules Committee stripped the Lieutenant Governor of 
his powers to make appointments to standing committees and to assign bills 
to committees. He retained the authority to make appointments to more than 
40 boards and commissions within the executive branch. He also serves on 
many boards and commissions including the State Board of Education, the 
North Carolina Internship Council, the Board of Economic Development, 
the State Board of Community Colleges and the North Carolina Capital 
Planning Commission. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the Council 
of State and serves as chairman of the Governmental Operations Committee, 
which has the authority to scrutinize the expenditure of tax dollars by State 
government agencies. 

Unlike any other state official, the Lieutenant Governor straddles the 
executive and legislative branches, vested with constitutional and statutory 
powers in both branches. Under the constitution he is first in line to succeed 
to the governorship should that office become vacant. 

The Lieutenant Governor has a staff to help him carry out his duties. 
Much of the work of this staff involves responding to citizen inquiries and 
problems, developing policy initiatives, and working with other state 
agencies. While the legislature is in session the Lieutenant Governor is 
served by a legislative counsel who acts as liaison to members of the 
General Assembly. 



480 



North Carolina Manual 




The Executive Branch 481 



James Carson Gardner 

Lieutenant Governor 

Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, Nash County, April 8, 1933, to 
James Cuthrell Gardner (deceased) and Sue Trenholm. 

Education: Rocky Mount City Schools; North Carolina State University. 

Professional Background: Executive Vice President and Co-Founder, 
Hardee's Food Systems, Inc.; President, Gardner Foods, Inc. 

Organizations: Former member, Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: NC Board of Education; NC Board of Community Colleges; 
Chairman, Bi-Centennial Commission; member. Economic Development 
Board; Chairman, NC Teaching Fellows Commission; member, Capitol 
Planning Commission; Chairman, NC Drug Cabinet. 

Political Activities: Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina, 1989-; 
Member, US Congress, 1966; Chairman, NC Republican Party, 1965; Republi- 
can Party. 

Military Service: United States Army, Private First Class, 1953-55. 

Literary Works: "A Time to Speak." 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Rocky 
Mount. 

Family: Married, Mary Elizabeth Tyler, October 5, 1957. Children: Beth 
(Gardner) Strandberg, Terry (Gardner) Noble, and Christopher. 



482 North Carolina Manual 

LIEUTENANT GOVERNORS OF NORTH CAROLINA^ 

Name Residence Term 

Tod R. Caldwell'^ Burke 1868-1870 

Curtis H. Brogden' Wayne 1873-1874 

Thomas J. Jarvis^ Pitt 1877-1879 

James L. Robinson^ Macon 1881-1885 

Charles M. Stedman New Hanover 1885-1889 

Thomas M. Holt« Alamance 1889-1891 

Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany 1893-1897 

Charles A. Reynolds Forsyth 1897-1901 

Wilfred D. Turner Iredell 1901-1905 

Francis D. Winston Bertie 1905-1909 

Wilham C. Newland Caldwell 1909-1913 

Elijah L. Daughtridge Edgecombe 1913-1917 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland 1917-1921 

William B. Cooper New Hanover 1921-1925 

Jacob E. Long Durham 1925-1929 

Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe 1929-1933 

Alexander H. Graham Orange 1933-1937 

Wilkins P. Horton Chatham 1937-1941 

Reginald L. Harris Person 1941-1945 

Lynton Y. Ballentine Wake 1945-1949 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor Anson 1949-1953 

Luther H. Hodges" Rockingham 1953-1954 

Luther E. Barnhardt Cabarrus 1957-1961 

Harvey Clovd Philpott^ Davidson 1961 

Robert W. Scott Alamance 1965-1969 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson 1969-1973 

James B. Hunt, Jr Pitt 1973-1977 

James C. Green^ Bladen 1977-1985 

Robert B. Jordan, HI Montgomery 1985-1989 

James C. Gardner^" Nash 1989- 



'The office of lieutenant governor was created by the North Carolina Constitution of 
1868. 

^Caldwell became governor following the removal of Holden from office in 1870. 

^Brogden became governor following the death of Caldwell. 

••Jarvis became governor following the resignation of Vance. 

^Robinson resigned from office on October 13, 1884. 

''Holt became governor following the death of Fowle. 

^Hodges became governor following the death of Umstead. 

sPhilpott died on August 18, 1961. 

^Green was the first lieutenant governor elected to a second term. 

'"Gardner was elected in 1988, becoming the first Republican elected lieutenant 
governor this century. 



The Executive Branch 483 



THE DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

The office of secretary is the second oldest governmental office in North 
Carolina. Shortly after the Lords Proprietors were granted their charter in 
1663, the first secretary was appointed to maintain the records of the colony. 
The office continued after the purchase of North Carolina from the Lords 
Proprietors by the crown in 1728. After independence the office of Secretary 
of State was included in the Constitution of 1776. 

Prior to 1868, the Secretary of State was elected by the General Assembly 
in joint session for a term of one year prior to 1835 and two years following 
constitutional amendments that changed the meetings of the General 
Assembly from annually to biennially. Individuals elected to the office were 
usually reelected on a regular basis. Only seven men held the office during 
its first 92 years and only 21 individuals have held the office since its 
creation in 1776. William Hill who was Secretary of State from 1811 until his 
death in 1857, served a total of 46 years. This record of service seemed an 
unbreakable mark until the election of 1936 when a young politician from 
Hertford County was elected Secretary of State. On December 22, 1982, Thad 
Eure broke the record. In 1989, the "oldest 'rat in the democratic barn" 
retired from office after more than 52 years as North Carolina's "Mr. 
Secretary." 

The Secretary of State is a constitutional officer elected to a four-year term 
by the citizens of North Carolina at the same time as other elected executive 
officials. He heads the Department of the Secretary of State which was 
created by the Executive Organization Act of 1971. The Secretary of State is 
a member of the Council of State and is an ex-officio member of the Local 
Government Commission and Capital Planning Commission. He also serves 
on the Information Technology Commission (formerly the Computer Com- 
mission) and is chairman of the Constitutional Amendments Publications 
Committee. 

By statute he receives all ratified bills of the General Assembly as well as 
the original journals of the state Senate and state House of Representatives. 

The Secretary of State is empowered by law to administer oaths to any 
public official of whom an oath is required. He is frequently called upon to 
administer oaths to officers of the Highway Patrol, judges and other elected 
officials. 

The Secretary of State is required to faithfully perform the duties assigned 
him by the Constitution and laws of North Carolina. The Department of the 
Secretary of State, under the direction of the Secretary of State, is charged 
with maintaining certain records pertaining to state and local government 
actions and the commercial activities of private business. This duty is 
imposed by many widely distributed sections of the General Statutes of 
North Carolina and involves varying degrees of responsibility from reviewing 
of documents for conformity to statutory requirements prior to filing to 
enforcement authority. The Department has responsibility under approxi- 
mately fifty separate statutes which may be divided into categories dealing 



484 North Carolina Manual 

with custodianship of the Constitution and laws of the State, administrative 
comniercial hiw, the elective process, the General Assembly and public 
information. 

General Administration Division 

The General Administration Division, under the supervision of the 
Secretary of State and his chief deputy, is responsible for all administrative 
and management functions including budget, personnel, planning and co- 
ordination. In addition, the Division handles miscellaneous statutory duties 
and responsibilities not assigned to one of the other departmental divisions. 
Included among these are the registration of lobbyists, the registration of 
trademarks, and the recording of municipal annexation ordinances. 

Corporations Division 

The Corporations Division is responsible for filing corporation and limited 
partnership documents as required by the laws of North Carolina. The 
various corporation and limited partnership laws are enabling statutes 
under which these organizations are created. The responsibility of the 
Secretary of State is to ensure uniform compliance with such statutes, record 
information required as a public record, prevent duplication of corporate 
names and furnish information to the public. In 1989 a complete rewrite of 
the Corporation Laws of North Carolina was enacted by the General 
Assembly. 

The division is responsible for maintaining records on approximately 
150, ()()() current corporations and limited partnerships. The Information 
Services Group handles more that 700 inquiries daily regarding the records 
and the unit processes more that 50,000 documents each year. 

Notary Public Division 

The function of issuing commissions to notaries public was transferred to 
the Department of the Secretary of State from the Office of the Governor 
under the Executive Organization Act of 1971. The primary purpose of the 
Notary Public Division is to provide a means for establishing the authenticity 
of signatures. This is accomplished through the issuing of commissions to 
notaries public in all of the counties in North Carolina. 

In 1983, the Department of the Secretary of State, in cooperation with the 
Department of Community Colleges, developed and implemented a Notary 
Public Education Program. The purpose of this program is to educate 
notaries about the legal, ethical and technical requirements of performing a 
notarial act. North Carolina is recognized as first in the nation for this 
program. 

In order to be a notary in North Carolina, an individual must meet certain 
eligibility requirements as prescribed in G.S. 10. These include: 

(1) satisfactory completion of a course of study approved by the 
Secretary of State consisting of not less than three hours nor more 

than six hours of classroom instruction (practicing attorneys at law 
are exempt); 



The Executive Branch 485 

(2) applying for appointment on a form provided by the Secretary of 
State and made available by the instructor upon the satisfactory 
completion of the required course work; 

(3) being at least 18 years of age; 

(4) purchasing a manual approved by the Secretary of State that 
describes the duties, authority and ethical responsibilities of notaries 
public; 

(5) possessing a high school diploma or its equivalent; and 

(6) obtaining a recommendation as to character and fitness from one 
publicly elected official in North Carolina. 

The office of notary public is one of the oldest in history, having existed as 
far back as the days of the Greek and Roman Empires. There are notaries in 
every one of the 50 United States and in most of the countries around the 
world. 

Publications Division 

The Publications Division is primarily responsible for the compiling and 
publishing of information which will be useful to the General Assembly, to 
state agencies, and to the people of North Carolina. In addition, it is also 
responsible for maintaining for public inspection, certain records for which 
the Secretary of State is custodian. The division publishes such useful items 
as the Directory of State and County Officials of North Carolina, the North 
Carolina Manual, and other smaller publications. 

Questions concerning the duties and responsibilities of state agencies, the 
organizational structure of government, and the general inquiries about 
North Carolina have increased, particularly from our school-age citizens. 
Because of this a major emphasis is placed on providing our school children 
with educational materials necessary to help them become more informed 
citizens. Many informational pamphlets and publications are available 
upon request and "school information packets" for both the elementary and 
secondary grade levels are prepared and distributed. 

Within the Publications Division is the Land Grants Section where the 
historical land grants for North Carolina dating from the 1660's are found. 
Also in this section are the original ratified acts of the General Assemblies 
of North Carolina, as well as primary and general election voting results for 
recent elections. Over 1,000 people visit the Land Grants Section each year 
in search of some clue to a family tie or to use election returns and other 
records. In an effort to preserve and protect these valuable records, the 
Publications Division is working with the state Archives to microfilm the 
land grant records and transfer them to the state Archives for permanent 
keeping. 

The Securities Division 

The Securities Division is responsible for administering the state's 
securities laws. These "blue sky" laws, as they are known, are provided for 
in Chapters 78A, 78B, 78C, and 78D of the General Statutes. The intent of 
these laws is to protect the investing public by requiring a satisfactory 



486 North Carolina Manual 

investigation of both the people who offer securities and of the securities 
themselves. The laws provide for significant investigatory powers and for 
due process in any administrative, civil or criminal action. The Securities 
Division is the appropriate state agency for addressing investor complaints 
concerning securities brokers, stockbrokers, investment advisors, or com- 
modity dealers, and for inquiring about offerings of particular securities or 
commodities. Although the division cannot represent an investor in a claim 
for monetary damages, the staff can investigate alleged violations and 
suspend or revoke a license, issue stop orders against securities offerings, 
issue cease and desist orders, seek court ordered injunctions, or refer the 
matter to the appropriate district attorney for criminal prosecution. Con- 
viction of willfully violating the "blue sky" laws carries a penalty of a Class 
I felony. 

The Secretary of State, as the state's securities administrator, is a member 
of the North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA). 
Through this organization the division's staff assists in the adoption of 
nationwide, uniform policies on securities. The Division works with other 
state securities agencies, various federal agencies (including the Securities 
and Exchange Commission), and with various industry groups such as the 
National Association of Securities Dealers. 

Uniform Commercial Code Division 

The Uniform Commercial Code Division is required under Article 9 of the 
Code to provide a method of giving notice of security interests in personal 
property to interested third parties. The method adopted is a "notice" filing 
system. Recorded information in the UCC Division is public record. 

The Secretary of State, as central filing officer, receives and files financing 
statements and related "notice" statements and furnishes information to the 
public regarding such statements. 

It is the responsibility of the secured party to file a statement showing the 
name and address of the debtor, the name and address of the secured party 
and a brief description of the collateral. These documents are indexed by the 
debtor's name. A search of the records on a particular debtor will produce a 
list of all active creditors who have filed statements with this office. 
Interested parties are given information sufficient to contact the creditors 
for further information regarding the lien. 

Financing statements are generally effective for a five year period. Within 
six months prior to their expiration date, the statements may be continued 
for an additional five years. 

The Secretary of State is also central filing officer for federal tax liens 
which are handled in the same manner as UCC filings. 

Large financial transactions are affected daily through information 
received from the UCC Division. 

The Business License Information Office 

The newest addition to the Department of the Secretary of State is the 
Business License Information Office. Created in 1987 by the General 



The Executive Branch 487 

Assembly, this office grew out of the recognition of the business community's 
need for reHef from an often confusing Hcensing system, and the recognition 
that the time and energy of prospective business owners could be better 
spent in other areas. There are hundreds of business related licenses and 
permits issued by the State of North Carolina with hundreds of applications 
and related forms to be completed to obtain them. This experience can be 
very frustrating. 
The purpose of the Business License Information Office is: 

(1) to offer new and existing businesses an accessible central informa- 
tion source; 

(2) to assist potential business owners to secure the necessary state 
issued licenses, permits, and/or other authorizations in order to operate 
a business in North Carolina; 

(3) to monitor the license application review process; and 

(4) to act as an advocate for regulatory reform. 

Assistance is available to all businesses regardless of size, type or location. 
There are no fees for the services provided and assistance is available by 
telephoning or by visiting the office. A toll free telephone number has been 
established for the convenience of the users. The number is 1-800-228-8443. 

A directory, the North Carolina State Directory of Business Licenses and 
Permits has been published by the office. This publication contains up-to- 
date information on over 600 state required licenses and permits. 



488 



North Carolina Manual 




The Executive Branch 489 



Rufus L. Edmisten 

Secretary of State 

Early Years: Born in Boone, Watauga County, July 12, 1941, to Walter 
F. and Nell (Hollar) Edmisten. 

Education: Appalachian High School, 1959; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1963, B.A. 
with Honors; George Washington University, 1967, J.D. with Honors; Law 
Review, 1966. 

Professional Background: Attorney; (Senior Partner, Edmisten and 
Weaver, 1985-89); Attorney General of North Carolina, 1974-84; Aide to US 
Senator Sam J. Ervin (served as Counsel, Senate Subcommittee on Constitu- 
tional Rights; Chief Counsel and Staff Director, Senate Subcommittee on 
Separation of Powers; Deputy Chief Counsel, Senate Select Committee on 
Presidential Campaign Activities — Watergate Committee), 1963-74. 

Organizations: NC Bar Association; NC State Bar; District of Columbia 
Bar Association; American Bar Association; Phi Delta Phi Legal Fraternity; 
Estey Hall Foundation; Southern Appalachian Historical Association (Presi- 
dent); Established Attorney General's Committee on Local and Historic 
Preservation Law, 1978; Scottish Rite Bodies and York Rite Masonic Bodies 
of Raleigh; Amran Temple, Shriners; Wake County SPCA; Co-Chairman, 
South Square Motors Golf Tournament to benefit Duke University Medical 
Center.. 

Boards: Council of State; NC Capitol Planning Commission; Constitution 
Publications Committee (Chairman); Information Technology Commission 
Local Government Commission; Board of Trustees, Flat Rock Playhouse, the 
State Theatre of North Carolina; Lees-McRae College Board of Advisors; 
National Association of Secretaries of State (Washington Oversight Com- 
mittee; Business, Government and Licensing); Honorary Committee Chair- 
man, Arthritis Foundation Annual Gala. 

Political Activities: Secretary of State of North Carolina, 1989-; Attorney 
General, 1974-1984; General Advisor, Charter Commission of Democratic 
National Committee; Deputy Chief of Security, Democratic National Conven- 
tion, 1980 and 1988; Democratic Party. 

Honors: Visiting lecturer in Political Science (Constitutional Law), Greens- 
boro College, 1985; Guest Lecturer, North Carolina State University, 1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, Three Forks Baptist Church, Boone, N.C. 

Family: Married, Linda Harris, December, 1983. Children: Martha Moretz 
Edmisten of Washington D.C. 



490 North Carolina Manual 

SECRETARIES OF NORTH CAROLINA 
COLONIAL SECRETARIES 

Name Term 

Richard Cobthrop^ 



Peter Carteret2 1665-[1672] 

Robert Holden' 1675-1677 

[Thomas Miller]^ 1677-[1679] 

Robert Holdens 1679-[1683] 

Woodrowe^ [1683-1685] 

Francis Hartley^ [1685-1692] 

Daniel Akerhurst« [1692-1700] 

Samuel Swanns [1700]-1704 

Tobias Knight^o 1704-1708 

George Lumley^i 1704 

George Lumley 1708 

Nevil Lowi2 

Tobias Knighti3 1712-1719 

JohnLovicki^ 1719-1722 

JohnLovickis 1722-1731 

Joseph Anderson!^ 1731 

Nathaniel Ricei^ 1731-1753 

James Murray 18 1753-1755 

Henry McCullochi9 1755 

Richard Spaight^o 1755-1762 

Thomas Faulkner^^ 

Richard Spaight22 1762 

Benjamin Heron23 1762-1769 

JohnLondon^^ 1769-1770 

Robert Palmer25 1770-1771 

Samuel Strudwick26 1772-[1775] 

SECRETARIES OF STATE^? 

Name Residence Term 

James Glasgow28 1777-1798 

WilHam White29 1798-1811 

William Hilpo 1811-1857 

Rufus H. Page^i 1857-1862 

John P. H. Russ^2 1862-1864 

Charles R. Thomas^^ 1864-1865 

Robert W. Best^^ 1865-1868 

Henry J. MenningerS^ Wake 1868-1873 

William H. Howerton Rowan 1873-1877 

Joseph A. Engelhard^e New Hanover 1877-1879 

William L. Saunders^^ Wake 1879-1891 

Octavius Coke38 Wake 1891-1895 

Charles M. Cooke^^ Franklin 1895-1897 

Cyrus Thompson Onslow 1897-1901 

John Bryan Grimes^o Pitt 1901-1923 

William N. Everett^i Richmond 1923-1928 

James A. Hartness^^ Richmond 1928-1933 

Stacey W. Wade^^ Carteret 1933-1936 

Charles G. Powell^^ Granville 1936 

Thad A. Eure^^ Hertford 1936-1989 

Rufus L. Edmisten Watauga 1989- 



The Executive Branch 491 



Colonial Secretaries 

'Cobthrop was apparently chosen by the Lords Proprietors, but never sailed to 
Albemarle. 

-Carteret was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors and arrived in Albemarle on 
February 23, 1665. He was presumably qualified shortly after his arrival. Following the 
death of Governor Stephens in early 1670, Carteret was chosen his successor, but 
apparently continued serving as secretary. It is possible that he acted in both capactities 
until his departure for England in 1672. 

'Little is known concerning Holden's appointment of dates of service. He was serving 
as secretary on July 26, 1675, where he verified a sworn statement and seems to have 
continued until the arrival of Miller in July, 1677. It is possible that he was appointed 
secretary prior to this date since he had been in the colony since 1671. 

^When Eastchurch appointed Miller to act in his stead until he returned to North 
Carolina, he apparently appointed him secretary as well as deputy governor. On October 
9, 1677, he attested to the granting of a power of attorney, however this could have been in 
the capacity of acting governor rather than as secretary. 

''Holden was appointed by the Lords Proprietors and apparently arrived in Albemarle 
in July, 1679. A warrant appointing him Receiver General of North Carolina was issued 
by the Lords Proprietors in February, 1679, and it is possible that a similar warrant was 
issued about the same time for secretary. Records indicate that he was acting as 
secretary on November 6, 1679. Sometime between March, 1681 and July 1682, Holden 
was imprisoned on charges of "gross irregularities in the collection of Customs" — 
another office which he held. Extant records do not indicate what became of him. His 
name does not appear in council records after 1681 and in 1682, John Archdale was 
issued a blank commission to appoint a new receiver-general. It is possible that he was 
released from prison or acquited of the charges, and continued serving as secretary. 
Some sources indicate he served until 1684; however other references indicate that 
someone else was acting as secretary in 1684 or earlier. 

^Little is known about Woodrowe. The only mention of him in extant records is in a 
letter written by the Lords Proprietors in February, 1684, which leaves the impression 
that he had been serving for some time. It is possible he was appointed as early as 1682. 

^Hartley was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors, but no date of when he qualified 
could be found. According to one source he died in January, 1691/92, probably while still 
secretary. 

'^When Akehurst took office is not known; he was apparently acting by June 26, 1693 
when he acknowledged a land grant. It is possible that he was appointed as early as 1692 
and presumably served until his death sometime in late 1699 or early 1700. (His will was 
proved in Virginia in 1700). 

■'Swann may have been appointed to replace Akehurst; however, when he took office is 
not known. He was serving by September, 1700 and probably served until Knight took 
over 1704. 

' "Knight was apparently appointed to replace Swann and according to one source was 
in the office in 1704. The earliest documentary evidence of Knight acting in his certifying 
to a court proceeding on February 20, 1705. There is no evidence that he served during 
this span after 1708; however he was again serving in 1712. 

"Lumley was appointed by Knight to act as Secretary on two occasions, once in 
October, 1704 and again in 1708 during Knight's absence due to an illness. It is not 
known who served between 1708 and 1712 because of the chaotic conditions in 
government. 

'•^Two commissions were issued to Low by the Lords Proprietors, the first on January 
31, 1711 and a second on June 13, 1711; however, there is no record of him serving. 

'■'Knight was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors, and qualified before the 
governor and council. In 1719 he was called before the council to answer charges of 
conspiracy with pirates but was acquitted. He apparently died in late June, 1719 since a 
successor was appointed on June 30, and his will probated on July 7, 1719. 

'^Lovick was appointed by the governor and council following Knight's death. 

^^Lovick was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors and qualified before the 
Governor and Council. He served until 1731. 

'"Anderson was appointed by Governor Burrington as "acting" secretary until Rice 
arrived. 



492 North Carolina Manual 

' 'Rice was commissioned by the crown and qualified before the governor and council. 
He served until his death on January 28, 1753. 

'^Murray was appointed by the Council upon the death of Rice and served until the 
arrival of McC'ulloch in 175.'"). Land grant records indicate that he was acting as late as 
March ;U, 1755. 

' "A warrant was issued on June 21,1 754 for McCulloch's appointment as secretary and 
his commission was certified by Dobbs on July 1, while both were still in England. He 
qualified as a council member on March 25, 1755 but does not appear to have acted as 
secretary until April. He continued serving until his death in 1755. 

^"A letter was sent from Governor Dobbs to Spaight on October 2, 1 755 appointing him 
"Secretary of the Crown." (A commission in the Secretary of State's records, however, 
bears the date, October 27, 1755.) He qualified before Dobbs on October 30. 

-'F'aulkner's name was proposed to King on March 17 by the Board of Trade and on 
April 1 a commission was ordered prepared. He rented his commission to Samuel 
Strudwick. 

--Spaight was reappointed by Dobbs and served until his death sometime during July 
or early August, 1672. 

- 'Heron was appointed by Dobbs to replace Spaight. On March 6, 1769, Heron was 
granted a leave of absence to return to England where he apparently died. 

^^London was already a deputy secretary under Heron and acted in this capacity until 
news of Heron's death was received. London was appointed by Tryon upon the death of 
Heron and served until he "declined acting any longer. . . ." 

'-''Palmer was appointed by Tryon to replace London. On July 8, 1771 he was granted a 
leave of absence to return to England for reasons of health. 

-''Strudwick was appointed by Martin after Strudwick had produced "sufficient 
evidence that he had rented the Secretary's Office in this Province of Mr. Faulkner. . ." He 
apparently continued serving until the Revolution. 

Secretaries of State 

-'The Secretary of State was elected by the General Assembly at its annual (biennial, 
after 1835) meeting for a term of one year. The Constitutional Convention of 1835 
extended the term but the power of election remained in the hands of the General 
Assembly until 1868 when a new constitution was adopted. Since 1868, the Secretary of 
State has been elected by the people and serves for a four year term. He can run for 
re-election. 

-^Glasgow was appointed by the provincial congress to serve until the next meeting of 
the general assembly. He was later elected by the General Assembly to a regular term 
and continued serving until 1798 when he resigned because of his involvement in a land 
scandel. His resignation was received by the General Assembly on November 20. 

-■'White was elected to replace Glasgow and served until his death sometime in late 
September, or early November, 1811. 

"'Hill died on October 29, 1857. 

"Page was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council. He 
was later elected by the general assembly to a regular term, but he was defeated for 
re-election in 1862 by Russ. 

'-Russ requested that his name be withdrawn at the end of the first round of balloting 
in 1864. 

"Thomas, who was first elected by the general assembly, took office on January 3, 
1865 and served until the end of the Civil War. He was then appointed secretary in the 
provisional government headed by William W. Holden, but resigned on August 12, 1865. 

"Best may have been appointed earlier by Holden following the resignation of 
Thomas since his name appears beneath that of Thomas in the Record Book; however, 
only the date 1865 is given. He was later elected by the general assembly and served until 
the new consitution was put into effect in 1868. 

' 'Menninger was elected in the general election in April, 1868 but declined to run for 
re-election in 1982. 

"•Engelhard died February 15, 1879. 



The Executive Branch 493 

^^Saunders was appointed by Governor Jarvis on February 18, 1879 to replace 
Engelhard. He was elected to a full term in the general elections in 1880 and served 
following subsequent re-elections until his death on April 2, 1891. 

^^Coke was appointed by Governor Fowle on April 4, 1891 to replace Saunders. He was 
elected to a full term in the general elections in 1892 and served until his death on August 
30, 1895. 

''^Cooke was appointed by Governor Carr on September 3, 1895 to replace Coke. He was 
defeated in the general elections in 1896 by Thomas. 

^"Grimes died January 16, 1923. 

^ ' Everett was appointed by Governor Morrison on January 16, 1923 to replace Grimes. 
He was elected in the general elections in 1924 and served until his death February 7, 
1928. 

^■^Hartness was appointed by Governor McLean on February 13, 1928 to replace 
Everett. He was elected in the general elections in 1928, but declined to run in 1932. 

"•^Wade resigned in November, 1936. 

^^Powell was appointed by Governor Ehringhaus on November 17, 1936 to replace 
Wade and resigned in December. 

^^Eure had been elected in the general elections of 1936 and was appointed by Governor 
Ehringhaus on December 21, 1936, to replace Powell. On January 7, 1937, he took office 
for his regular term and subsequent re-elections. He served longer than any other state 
official. Served following subsequent re-elections until his retirement effective January 
7, 1989. 

^^Edmisten was elected in November, 1988, when Eure declined to run for reelection. 



494 North Carolina Manual 



DEPARTMENT OF THE STATE AUDITOR 

The Office of State Auditor was created by the Constitution of 1868, 
although an "auditor of pubHc accounts" had existed since 1862. 

Today, the State Auditor is a constitutional officer elected by the people 
every four years. It is the duty of this office to conduct audits of the financial 
affairs of all state agencies and he may conduct such other special audits as 
may be requested by the governor, legislature, or when he feels an audit is 
warranted. The State Auditor is responsible for annually auditing the Com- 
prehensive Annual Financial Report and rendering an opinion on such. He 
also conducts operational audits of state agencies and programs to determine 
their economy, efficiency and effectiveness. Also under his jurisdiction is the 
administration of the Firemen's and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund. 

In addition to being the financial watchdog for the state, the State Auditor 
has several other duties assigned to him by virtue of his office. He is a 
member of the Council of State, the Capitol Planning Commission, the Local 
Government Commission, and is vice chairman of the Information Tech- 
nology Commission (formerly the Computer Commission). He also serves as 
chairman of the Firemen's and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund. 

The Department of State Auditor is divided into several divisions: the 
General Administration Division, the Auditing Division, and the Firemen's 
and Rescue Squad Worker's Pension Fund Division. The State Auditor is 
responsible to the Joint Legislative Commission on Governmental Opera- 
tions, the General Assembly and the people of North Carolina for the 
efficient and faithful exercise of his responsibilities. 

The General Administration Division 

This division, under the direct supervision of the State Auditor, his chief 
deputy and special assistant, handles all administrative matters including 
personnel, budget, overall planning, and the coordination of activities for all 
functions assigned to the State Auditor by statute or under any reorganiza- 
tion of state government. 

The Auditing Division 

The Auditing Division conducts financial audits of each state agency to 
determine compliance with good accounting principles, strengths and weak- 
nesses of internal control, accuracy in financial reports and compliance by 
agencies with state laws, regulations and policies. In addition to the annual 
audit, the employees of this division conduct operational audits of selected 
programs administered by state agencies as directed by the State Auditor. 
The purpose of these operational audits is to determine that programs are 
being administered as intended and that they are accomplishing the desired 
results in an effective manner. The Auditor may also conduct special in- 
vestigations upon written requests from the Governor, the General Assembly, 
or whenever he deems such an examination is necessary. These special 



The Executive Branch 495 

investigations are normally related to embezzlements or misuse of state 
property. In addition, the State Auditor's Office has established a "Hot 
Line" telephone number enabling state employees to register complaints 
concerning the fraud, waste, and abuse of state resources. The federal 
government now requires that audits of agencies receiving federal funds be 
reviewed under the "single audit" concept. Accordingly, the Auditor must 
coordinate the financial and compliance examination of federal contracts 
and grants received by state agencies. Upon the completion of each audit or 
investigation, the auditor reports his findings and recommendations to the 
General Assembly, the Governor, and the department head. The managerial 
structure of the audit division includes a deputy, director of audits and five 
audit managers who report to the director. These managers are charged with 
auditing the major functions in state government. Audits are directly super- 
vised by audit supervisors based in Raleigh and in branch offices. These 
supervisors report to different audit managers depending on which area of 
government is being audited. Branch offices are located in Asheville, 
Morganton, Charlotte, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville and 
Greenville. 

Firemen's and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund Division 

The Firemen's and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund operates under 
the provisions of G.S. 118-33-49. The fund has a board of trustees which is 
responsible for formulating rules and regulations within the framework of 
the statutes, for the efficient and effective operation of the fund. The State 
Auditor is responsible for day to day operation of the fund. 

The fund was created to provide firemen and rescue squad workers with a 
small monthly pension. Membership is open to all firemen and rescue squad 
workers, both paid and volunteer, of a certified fire department or rescue 
squad. Each member pays into the fund $5.00 per month to help finance the 
pension program. In addition to the member's contribution, the state appro- 
priates approximately over $4,000,000 annually. This, plus the interest the 
fund receives from its investments, finances the program. 

At age 55 with 20 years service a fireman or rescue squad worker may 
retire and receive a monthly pension of $100.00. 

Boards and Commissions 

Firemen's and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund (G.S. 118-34) 



496 



North Carolina Manual 




The Executive Branch 497 



Edward Renfrew^ 

State Auditor 

Early Years: Born in Johnston County, September 17, 1940, to Donnie T. 
and Illamae (Lewis) Renfrow. 

Education: Graduated Clayton High School, 1958; Hardbargers Junior 
College of Business, Associate degree in Business Administration with 
Accounting Major; continued education through courses at Atlantic Christian 
College, Duke University and East Carolina University through Johnston 
Technical College. 

Professional Background: State Auditor; State Senator (1974-1980); 
Accountant, Edward Renfrow & Co. 1962-1980. 

Organizations: State Employees Association of North Carolina, advisor. 
National State Auditors Association (Past President, 1985-1986); National 
Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers and Treasurers (1st Vice 
President 1989-90); Governmental Finance Officers Association; National 
Intergovernmental Audit Forum; Southeastern Intergovernmental Audit 
Forum (Past Chairman 1987-88); NC Society of Accountants (President, 
1972-73; First President, Scholarship Fund, 1973-74); National Society of 
Public Accountants (seminar speaker); Phi Theta Phi Fraternity. Member: 
Raleigh Hosts Lions Club; American Legion Post n71; Former Member 
Smithfield-Selma Chamber of Commerce (First Vice President, 1974); Life- 
time Honorary Member NC Retired Peace Officers Association. 

Boards: NC Council of State; Capitol Planning Commission; Local Govern- 
ment Commission;Vice Chairman, State Computer Commission; Past 
Member Board of Directors, NC Wildlife Federation; Member Governmental 
Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Task Force on Pension Accounting 
and Reporting (1984- ); Member US General Accounting Office's Auditing 
Standards Advisory Council (1985-88); Chairman of Board of Trustees, Fire- 
men's & Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund; Past Member: Discrimination 
Study Committee, 1975; Community College Advisory Council, 1977-78; Study 
Committee to Rewrite NC Game Laws, 1977-1979; NC Wildlife Commission, 
1977-79; Study Commission to Recodify Community College Laws, 1977-79; 
Commission on Public School Laws 1977; Governor's Commission on Public 
School Finance, 1978; NC Criminal Justice Education and Training 
Standards Commission, 1978-80. 

Political Activities: State Auditor, 1981- (elected 1980, reelected 1984, 
1988); Served in NC Senate 1975-80; Treasurer, NC Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1973-1974; NC Chairman, Democratic National Telethon, 1972- 
73. Democratic Party. 

Military Service: Served NC National Guard, Specialist 4th Class, 1962- 
66; Honorary member at present. 

Honors: Received Distinguished Service Award, Smithfield Jaycees, 1974; 
Boss of the Year Award, 1975; NC Wildlife Federation's Governor's Award 



498 North Carolina Manual 

for Conservation Legislator of the Year, 1977 and 1979; Community Leader 
of America Award, 1971; Tar Heel of the Week, March 10, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, Smithfield First Baptist Church; Former 
Member Sharon Baptist Church; Chairman, Deacon Board, (two terms); 
Sunday School Teacher; Member, General Board of Baptist State Conven- 
tion, 1970-74; Past Treasurer, Johnston Baptist Association. 

Family: Married Rebecca (Becky) Stephenson, December 4, 1960; Chil- 
dren: Candace Elaine and Elizabeth Paige. 



The Executive Branch 



499 



AUDITORS OF PUBLIC ACCOUNTS 



Name Residence 

Samuel F. Phillips^ Orange ... 

Richard H. Battle2 Wake 



Qualified 

1862-1864 
1864-1865 



Name 

Henderson, Adams^ 



STATE AUDITORS 



Residence 



John Reilly Cumberland 

Samuel L. Love Haywood 

William P. Roberts Gates 

George W. Sandlin Lenoir 

Robert M. Furman Buncombe 

Hal W. Ayer Wake 

Benjamin F. Dixon"" Cleveland 

Benjamin F. Dixon, Jr.^ Wake 1910-1911 

William P. Wood^ Randolph 1911-1921 

Baxter Durham Wake 1921-1937 

George Ross Pou^ Johnston 1937-1947 

Henry L. Bridges^ Guilford 1947-1981 

Edward Renfrow^ Johnston 1981- 



Term 

1868-1873 
1873-1877 
1877-1881 
1881-1889 
1889-1893 
1893-1897 
1897-1901 
1901-1910 



Auditors of Public Accounts 

^Phillips resigned effective July 10, 1864. 

^Battle was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council to 
replace Phillips. He was later elected by the General Assembly to a regular term, and 
served until the oftice was abolished in 1865. 



State Auditors 

^Adams was elected in the general elections in April, 1868. 

^Dixon died September 26, 1910. 

^Benjamin F. Dixon, Jr. was appointed by Governor Kitchen on September 30, 1910 to 
replace his father, Benjamin F. Dixon, Sr. 

•'Wood was elected in the general elections in 1910 to complete the senior Dixon's 
unexpired term. He was elected to a full term in 1912. 

^Pou died February 9, 1947. 

^Bridges was appointed by Governor Cherry on February 15, 1947 to replace Pou. He 
was elected in the general election in 1948 and served until his retirement in 1981. 

^Renfrew was elected in 1980 and is still serving following subsequent reelections. 



500 North Carolina Manual 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE TREASURER 

Beginning in 1669, a Treasurer's Court was responsible for the public 
money of the colony. The office of Treasurer was formally created in 1715 
and appointments to that office were made by the lower house of the 
Colonial Assembly. Between 1740 and 1779 there was one Treasurer each for 
Northern and Southern North Carolina. Four additional Treasurers were 
added in 1779 for a total of six, each serving a defined geographical area 
called a district. In 1782 another district with its own Treasurer was created. 
This multiple Treasurer concept continued until 1784 when the General 
Assembly eliminated multiple Treasurers and assigned the duties of the 
office to a single individual elected by joint vote of the two houses of the 
legislature for a two-year term. This setup continued until 1868 when a new 
constitution was adopted. The Constitution of 1868 provided for a Treasurer 
elected by the people for a four-year term. These provisions continued in 
place following the approval by the people of a new constitution in 1970. 

Many of the current duties and functions which are charged to the State 
Treasurer had their beginnings in the Constitution of 1868. This constitution 
served to formalize the more important fiscal and financial aspects of the 
office. Before that time, the functions varied widely from time to time and 
from administration to administration. 

Since 1868, only twelve men have been elected and occupied the office of 
the State Treasurer. The longest tenure by one person from 1901 to 1929 by 
Benjamin R. Lacy of Wake County. The second longest tenure was by the 
late Edwin Gill of Scotland County who served from 1953 until his retirement 
in 1977. 

The men who have occupied the office have earned and maintained a 
nationwide reputation for fiscal integrity and financial responsibility. The 
fact that the State Treasurer is able to operate in an atmosphere of political 
freedom is contributory to the influence of the office throughout the state. 

One interesting incident occurred in 1843, shortly after the election of the 
Treasurer by the General Assembly. A spirited situation developed between 
Governor Morehead and the Treasurer-elect John Hill Wheeler over the 
terms of a fidelity bond which at that time was required of the Treasurer. 
The bond was ultimately presented at the Governor's office; the Governor, 
however, refused to accept the bond as it was written. His action was too 
late, because at that very moment, Wheeler was taking the oath of office as 
Treasurer in another part of the capitol. A strained relationship between 
Governor Morehead and Wheeler was inevitable. The magnitude became 
clear some ten days later when the Treasurer refused to pay the Governor 
$3.00 per diem for his services on a board. Wheeler denied the claim saying 
that "this is part of the governor's regular duties and is included in his 
annual salary of $2,000.00." Wheeler proved to be a very colorful and 
resourceful individual during his tenure of office. 

During the formative years of the office, there were many functions which 
the Treasurer regularly performed. In recent years, many of these have been 



The Executive Branch 501 

either discontinued or transferred to other State agencies. Modern times 
have brought about substantive changes in the duties of the Treasurer, the 
majority of which are currently along conventional functional lines. 

The Treasurer is a constitutional officer elected by the people of North 
Carolina. In addition to his traditional duties, he serves as an ex-officio 
member of many state boards and commissions. He is chairman of many of 
the commissions and boards which affect the state fiscal policy or the 
expenditure of state funds. He is a member of the Council of State, the Local 
Government Commission and the Information Technology Commission 
(formerly the Computer Commission). 

The Treasurer serves as advisor to monetary committees of the General 
Assembly. His primary fiscal duties are to assure that all public funds are 
utilized in conformity with the mandates of the General Assembly, to invest 
surplus funds wisely and prudently, and to satisfy the bonded indebtedness 
of the State. 

The Department of State Treasurer is organized along conventional lines 
with three operating divisions and one support division. 

Operations of the Department of State Treasurer 

The operations of the Department are carried out by the four divisions 
under the supervision of the State Treasurer. 

The Retirement and Health Benefits Division 

A reorganization of State government in 1971 established the present 
duties of the State Treasurer. One of the more important changes was the 
shifting of the administration of the state authorized retirement systems to 
the Department of State Treasurer. Since that time a number of public 
employee retirement systems have been blended into the total system. 

The Treasurer is chairman of the Board of the Teachers' and State 
Employees' Retirement System and the several other retirement systems 
which operate under its jurisdiction. More than 400,000 active and retired 
public employees, their beneficiaries, and dependents owe a large part of 
their security to this well developed and well run system. 

The primary purpose of each retirement system is to provide payments of 
salary for past services which have been rendered. Each State employee 
contributes 6% of his salary during his years of work and the State makes a 
significant contribution. Beginning July 1, 1982, the employee's contributions 
became tax-sheltered, meaning they were subtracted from an employees 
gross pay prior to calculating the tax owed. The amount received at retire- 
ment is based on a formula which takes into consideration the annual 
salary and the years of State service of each employee. Essentially the 
program is designed to guarantee freedom from want during old age or 
disability. The program is an incentive for good employees to make a career 
of public service. Long service is the best means of guaranteeing an adequate 
retirement income. All systems have been declared actuarial sound. 

The Retirement Division oversees the collection of all social security 
payments for the state and all of its political subdivisions. This fulfills an 



502 North Carolina Manual 

agreement between the state and the social security agency which was 
consumated on July 16, 1951. Social security payments are collected from 
the employees of over 1200 state and local units of government. The funds 
are remitted to the social security agency on a monthly basis. 

Another important function of the Retirement Division is the administra- 
tion of the salary continuation plan. This is a program to provide each 
disabled employee an income of up to 60% of his salary during the duration 
of his disability. The program was initiated in 1972 by the General Assembly 
to meet the special needs of the State employees. 

The Investment and Banking Division 

The Investment and Banking Division is organized to carry out three of 
the State Treasurer's primary functions. The first of these is acting as the 
State's banker in receiving and disbursing all state monies. The second is 
administering the state's cash management program and serving as the 
custodian of and investment officer for various state trust funds. The third is 
arranging for the prompt payment of the principal and interest on the 
state's general obligation debt as it matures. These functions are both 
constitutional and statutory in origin. 

Investment of Monies. In order to mobilize daily statewide receipts, the 
Accounting Section of the Division of Investment and Banking daily drafts 
into the central clearing accounts in Raleigh all monies deposited throughout 
the state. The funds at each depository location have little impact of their 
own, but all of them added together and invested form the basis of an 
important source of non-tax revenue. The total averages more than 
$1,661,000,000 every working day. The Investment Management Section 
computes daily this "idle cash" which is available for investment. This 
figure is determined by using the ending balance on the previous day, plus 
or minus the net difference between the certified deposits and the disbursing 
warrants for the current day. The funds remaining, if any, are the Treasurer's 
cash balances and they are invested in highly liquid, short-term securities as 
are permitted by law. Because all funds are ultimately subject to disburse- 
ment upon presentation of valid warrants, the primary consideration in 
making such investments is liquidity and safety; the second is income. 
While there is a constant flow of funds in and out, there is a core of deposits 
that is not subject to immediate withdrawal. Thus, a reasonable amount can 
be placed in certificate of deposits and savings certificates issued by North 
Carolina banks and savings and loan associations. While these investments 
are not highly liquid, they must by law produce a rate of return equal to 
United States government or agency securities of comparable maturity. In 
addition, this type of investment keeps the funds working in and for the 
State and its people. 

The Trust Fund Investment Program. All retirement systems are a 
part of the state trust funds. Among others in the trust funds are the 
Employee Disability Fund, the Public School Fire Insurance Fund, the 
Escheat Fund, and the State Property Fire Insurance Fund. The objective of 
all trust funds is to earn the highest yield consistent with safety of the 
principal. These investments are usually long term, but are constantly 



The Executive Branch 503 

reviewed so that opportunities to improve the quaHty of the investments are 
not ignored or passed up. There is a special legal provision for holding 
inviolate the funds of the retirement systems. It is Article 5, Section 6 of the 
North Carolina Constitution. It states that such funds may not be used "for 
any purpose other than retirement system benefits and purposes, administra- 
tive expenses and refunds". It further states that such funds "shall not be 
applied, diverted, loaned to or used by the state, any state agency, state 
officer, public officer or public employee". 

Investment Pooling Program.. The 1979 General Assembly ratified 
"an act to consolidate and recodify those portions of the General Statutes 
concerning the State Treasurer's investment programs." Some fourteen 
separate laws were combined. In addition, new United States government 
and agency obligations became eligible, and the pooling of funds under the 
investment management program was authorized. At the direction of the 
State Treasurer, the Investment Management Division has established four 
investment funds: 

(1) the Short-Term Fixed Income Investment Fund, 

(2) the Long-Term Fixed Income Investment Fund, 

(3) the Equity Investment Fund, and 

(4) the Liquid Asset Fund. 

State Local Government Finance Division 

The State and Local Government Finance Division was organized to 
provide the State Treasurer with staff assistance in such areas as he 
requests and to provide the staff required by the Local Government Commis- 
sion to fulfill its statutory functions. The division is organized along 
functional lines to provide two major groups of services to the State and to 
the local units of governments: Debt Management and Fiscal Management. 
In addition, the deputy Treasurer-division director serves as the secretary of 
the Local Government Commission. 

The Local Government Commission approves the issuance of the indebted- 
ness of all units of local governments and assists these units in the area of 
fiscal management. The commission is composed of nine members: the State 
Treasurer, the secretary of state, the state auditor, the secretary of revenue, 
and five others by appointment (three by the governor, one by the lieutenant 
governor, and one by the speaker of the state House of Representatives). The 
State Treasurer serves as chairman and selects the secretary of the commis- 
sion, who heads the administrative staff serving the commission. 

Assistance to State Agencies 

Debt Management. The State Treasurer is responsible for the issuance 
and servicing of all state debts secured by a pledge of the taxing power of 
the state. After approval of a bond issue, the division assists in determining 
the cash needs and most appropriate time for scheduling sales after consulta- 
tion with other state agencies; the planning for repayment of the debt 
(maturity schedules); preparing, with the advice and cooperation of bond 
counsel and the assistance of other state agencies, the official statement 



504 North Carolina Manual 

describing the bond issue and other required disclosures about the state; and 
in the actual sale and delivery of the bonds. The staff of the division 
maintains the state bond records and register of bonds and initiates the debt 
service payments when they become due. In addition, the division is 
responsible for she issuance of revenue bonds for the North Carolina Medical 
Care Commission, the North Carolina Housing Finance Agency, and North 
Carolina's two power agencies. 

Fiscal Management. The staff of the division provides technical as- 
sistance in financial matters within the Department of State Treasurer and 
to other departments of the state as may be required. A project may also 
include work on the national level if it concerns generally accepted account- 
ing principles for government. 

Assistance to Local Governments 

Assistance is rendered to local governments and public authorities in 
North Carolina on behalf of the Local Government Commission. 

Debt Management. A major function is the approval, sale and delivery 
of all North Carolina local government bonds and notes upon the recom- 
mendation of the staff of the division. Before any unit can incur debt, the 
proposed issue must be approved by the commission. The statutes require 
that, before giving its approval, the commission must make affirmative 
determination in the areas of necessity and expediency, size of the issue, the 
unit's debt management policy, taxes needed to service the debt and the 
ability of the unit to repay. 

Fiscal Management A second key function is monitoring certain fiscal 
and accounting standards prescribed for the units by the Local Government 
Budget and Fiscal Control Act. In addition, the division furnishes, upon 
request, on-site assistance to local governments concerning existing financial 
and accounting systems as well as aid in establishing new systems. Also, 
the Division strives to ensure that the local units follow generally accepted 
accounting principles, systems and practices. The division staff counsels the 
units in treasury and cash management, budget preparation, and investment 
policies and procedures. Educational programs, in the form of seminars or 
classes, are also provided by the staff. The monitoring of the units' financial 
system is accomplished through the examination and analysis of the annual 
audited financial statements and other required reports. The Local Govern- 
ment Budget and Fiscal Control Act requires each unit of local government 
to have its accounts audited annually by a certified public accountant or by 
an accountant certified by the commission as qualified to audit local govern- 
ment accounts. A written contract must be submitted to the secretary of the 
commission for his approval prior to the commencement of the audit. 
Continued assistance is also provided to the independent auditors through 
individual assistance and continuing professional education. 

The State and Local Finance Division is continuously working in all areas 
concerning improved fiscal management and clarity of reporting in order to 
better serve the State Treasurer, the local units of governments, public 
authorities, school administrative units and their independent auditors. 



The Executive Branch 505 

Administrative Services Division 

The Administrative Services Division provides administrative, technical 
and speciaHzed support to the Department and to three operating divisions. 
The functions which are performed can better be accompHshed on a 
centraHzed basis rather than independently by the various divisions. These 
include various housekeeping functions such as supply and mail operations, 
personnel, forms management, printing, generalized training and budget 
matters. On a selective basis, several of the functions and sub-functions 
carried on within the Department have been placed on the internal computer. 
Of major significance are those programs having a bearing on the various 
retirement systems and the Treasurer's investment processes. Vital functions 
are performed by the word processing center. Approximately 95% of the 
original and repetitive departmental correspondence is accomplished by the 
center. In addition, through the utilization of a photocomposer, camera- 
ready copies for all departmental printing requirements are satisfied 
internally. Significant cost savings have been realized through the use of 
these closely coordinated systems of document production. The division 
monitors the operation and the progress of the Escheat Fund for the State 
Treasurer. All abandoned and unclaimed properties whose owners cannot be 
located become the property of the state and is placed in the fund. Such 
property may consist of abandoned banking accounts, uncashed checks, and 
contents of safety deposit boxes. As a trust activity, escheat monies are 
invested in high quality securities. The return on the investments is used 
within the State supported institution of higher learning to aid needy and 
worthy students. 

Boards and Commissions 

Law Enforcement Officers Benefit and Retirement Fund (G.S. 143-166B) 

Local Government Commission (G.S. 159-3) 

Local Government Employees Retirement System, Board of Trustees (G.S. 

128-21 through 128-38) 

Tax Review Board (G.S. 105-269.2) 

Teachers and State Employees Retirement System, Board of Trustees 



506 



North Carolina Manual 




The Executive Branch 507 



Harlan Edward Boyles 

State Treasurer 

Early Years: Born in Vale, Lincoln County, May 6, 1929, to Curtis E. 
and Kate Schronce Boyles. 

Education: North Brook Schools, Lincoln County, 1935-45; Crossnore 
School, Avery County 1945-47; University of Georgia, 1947-48; UNC at 
Chapel Hill, 1948-51, B.S. 

Professional Background: Certified Public Accountant. 

Organizations: Municipal Finance Officers Association; NC Association 
of Certified Public Accountants (past president. Triangle Chapter); National 
Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers and Treasurers (President, 
Treasurer and Executive Director); Rotary Club of Raleigh (Director, Presi- 
dent); Raleigh Chamber of Commerce (past director); Raleigh Salvation 
Army Advisory Board. 

Boards: Council of State; State Board of Education; Capitol Planning 
Commission; State Computer Commission; Board of Directors, NC Art 
Society; John Motley Morehead Memorial Commission; State Board of Com- 
munity Colleges. Chairman: Local Government Commission; Tax Review 
Board; State Banking Commission; Board of Trustees, Teachers' and State 
Employees' Retirement Systems. Member: Board of Trustees, Local Govern- 
mental Employees' Retirement System; Board of Commissioners, Law En- 
forcement Officers' Benefit and Retirement Fund. Former member: U.S. 
Securities and Exchange Commission's Municipal Securities Rulemaking 
Board. 

Political Activities: State Treasurer, 1977- (elected 1976; reelected, 1980, 
1984 and 1988); Democratic Party. 

Religious Activities: Member, Westminister Presbyterian Church; 
Deacon; Elder; Treasurer and Clerk. 

Family: Married Frances (Frankie) Wilder of Johnston County, May 17, 
1952. Children: Phyllis Godwin, Lynn Boyles Butler, and Harlan Edward 
Boyles, Jr. 



508 North Carolina Manual 

TREASURERS OF NORTH CAROLINA 
COLONIAL TREASURER! 

Name Term 

Edward Moseley- 1715-1735 

William Smith ' 

William Downing^ 1735-1739 

Edward Moseley"^ 1735-1749 

William Smith'' 1739-1740 

John Hodgson' 1740-1748 

Thomas Barker" 1748-1752 

Eleazer Allen^* 1749-1750 

John Starkeyi" 1750-1765 

John Haywood" 1752-1754 

Thomas Barker! 2 1754-1764 

Joseph Montfordi^ 1764-1775 

Samuel Swann'4 1765-1766 

John Ashe'-' 1766-1773 

Richard Caswelpe 1773-1775 

Samuel Johnston^^ 1775 

Richard Caswelp8 I775 

STATE TREASURER 

Name Residence Term 

Samuel Johnstoni^ Chowan 1775-1777 

Richard Caswelpo Dobbs 1775-1776 

John Ashe-' New Hanover 1777-1779 

William Skinner^s Perquimans 1777-1784 

Green Hill Franklin 1779-1784 

Richard Cogdell Craven 1779-1782 

William Cathey [Rowan] 1779-1781 

John Ashe New Hanover 1779-1781 

Matthew Jones Chatham 1779-1782 

Timothy Bloodworth Surry 1780-1784 

Robert Lanier New Hanover 1780-1783 

Memucan Hunt--^ Granville 1782-1784 

John Brown Wilkes 1782-1784 

Benjamin Exum Dobbs 1782-1784 

Joseph Cain [New Hanover] 1783-1784 

WilHam Locke [Rowan] 1784 

Memucan Hunt Granville 1784-1787 

John HaywoodQS Edgecombe 1787-1827 

WilHam Robards Granville 1827-1830 

William S. Mhoon Bertie 1831-1835 

Samuel F. Patterson25 Wilkes 1835-1837 

Daniel W. Courts^e Surry 1837-1839 

Charles L. Hinton Wake 1839-1843 

John H. Wheeler Lincoln 1843-1845 

Charles L Hinton Wake 1845-1851 

Daniel W. Courts Surry 1851-1862 

Jonathan Worth" Randolph 1862-1865 



The Executive Branch 509 

Name Residence Term 

William Sloan Anson 1865-1866 

Kemp P. Battlers Wake 1866-1868 

David A. Jenkinses Gaston 1868-1876 

John M. Worth^o Randolph 1876-1885 

Donald W. Bain^i Wake 1885-1892 

Samuel McD. Tate'^'^ Burke 1892-1895 

William H. Worth Guilford 1895-1901 

Benjamin R. Lacy^^ Wake 1901-1929 

Nathan O'BerryS" Wayne 1929-1932 

John P. Stedman35 Wake 1932 

Charles M. Johnson36 Pender 1933-1949 

Brandon P. Hodges^^ Buncombe 1949-1953 

Edwin M. GilP^ Scotland 1953-1977 

Harlan E. Boyles^^ Wake 1977- 



Colonial Treasurer 

^The right to appoint colonial treasurers was reserved for the lower house. This policy 
along with the extensive control exercised by the Assembly over other financial matters 
was a constant source of friction between the governor and the lower house. 

Treasurers were usually appointed in conjunction with money bills during the early 
years of the office, but later were appointed on bills passed specifically for the purpose of 
appointing treasurers. Treasurers were apparently first appointed by the assembly 
during the Tuscarora War in 1711 when several commissioners were appointed to issue 
paper currency. This practice continued until 1731 when George Burrington, the first 
royal governor, questioned the right of the Assembly and tried to appoint his own 
treasurer. The lower house resisted this infringement upon their rights, and Burrington 
sought supported from royal authorities in England. Crown officials were not anxious to 
upset the lower house and hesitated supporting Burrington and those who followed him. 

In 1 729 the complexity of financial matters which concerned the treasurer was so great 
that the Assembly created the office of precinct treasurer. Perhaps the most significant 
practice regarding the appointments of these precinct treasurers was the practice of 
submitting a list of two or three nominees to the governor for final decision. However, the 
practice of "filling the offices of precinct treasurer seems to have fallen into disuse" by 
1735 when there apparently are only two treasurers for the entire province — one for the 
northern district and one for the southern. This division continued for the remainder of 
the colonial period. 

^Moseley was appointed as one of the commissioners to issue paper currency in 1711 
and was apparently appointed as public treasurer in 1715. He seems to have continued 
serving until 1735 when the office was divided into two positions with a treasurer 
appointed for the northern district and another appointed for the southern. Moseley was 
appointed treasurer of the southern district and continued in that capacity until his 
death in 1749. 

^Smith was appointed by Governor Burrington and the council, but there is no 
evidence that he ever served — probably due to th response of the lower house. 

^Downing was appointed by the legislature as treasurer for the northern district and 
served until his death in 1739. 

^See footnote 2. 

''Smith was appointed on November 21, 1739 by the governor and council to act as 
temporary treasurer, following the death of Downing. 

^Hodgson was apparently appointed by the assembly in August, 1740 to replace 
Downing and served until 1748. 



510 North Carolina Manual 

**Barker was appointed by the assembly in April, 1848 and served until he resigned in 
1752. 

■'Allen was appointed by the general assembly in November, 1749 to replace Moseley 
and served until his death in 1750. 

'"Starkey was appointed in July, 1750 to replace Eleazer Allen and served until his 
death in 1765. 

' ' Haywood was appointed to replace Barker and served until he apparently resigned in 
1754. 

'-Barker was appointed in 1754 to replace Haywood and served until he apparently 
resigned in 1764. 

' 'Montford was appointed in February, 1764 to replace Barker and served until 1775. 

'^Swann was appointed by Governor Tryon in 1765 to act as a temporary replacement 
for the deceased Starkey. 

'"'Ashe was appointed in November 1766 to replace Starkey and served until he was 
replaced by Caswell in 1733. 

'''Caswell was appointed in 1733 to replace Ashe and served until the "end" of royal 
government in 1775. "An Act for appointing Public Treasurers, and directing their Duty 
in office," Chapter V, Laws of North Carolina, Clark, State Records, XXHI, 904-906. 

'"Johnston and Caswell were appointed treasurers of the northern and southern 
districts respectively on September 8, 1775 by the provincial congress. Caswell served 
until his election as governor in 1776. Johnston served until 1777 when ill health forced 
him to decline his re-election. 

'*^See footnote 17. 

State Treasurer 

'^See footnote 17. 

2"See footnote 17. 

2'Ashe was elected to replace Caswell. 

'•^-'Skinner was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council to 
replace Johnston. He was later elected by the general assembly to a regular term and 
continued serving until the district system was abandoned in 1784. 

'-'Hunt was the first singular treasurer elected by the general assembly. In 1786 
charges of misconduct were brought against him by a "Secret Committee of the General 
Assembly." Statements concerning the matter were given before a joint meeting of the 
House and Senate on December 28, and each member was allowed to draw his own 
conclusions. Two days later he was defeated for re-election by John Haywood. 

2^Haywood died on November 18, 1827 while still in office, having served for thirty 
years as State Treasurer. 

-"■Patterson was election in 1834 to replace Mhoon and was re-elected in 1835, but failed 
to give bond within the prescribed fifteen day time period which voided his election. He 
was then appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council. He 
declined to run for re-election in 1836. Council Minutes, January 13, 1836, Council 
Journal, 1835-1836, GO 122.1, North Carolina Department of Archives and History, 
Raleigh, hereinafter cited as Council Journal, 1835-1836. 

-''Court's resignation was presented to the council on April 15, 1839. 

-''Worth served until the end of the war. When the provisional government took over, he 
was appointed treasurer by Holden. He resigned on November 15, 1865. State Appoint- 
ments, Treasurer, Record Book Relative to the Provisional Government, 1865, 120. 

-"^Sloan was appointed by Holden to replace Worth and served until the new 
government took over. State Appointments, Treasurer, Record Book Relative to the 
Provisional Government, 1865, 120. 

-■'Battle was elected by the new general assembly and began serving on January 1, 
1866. He continued serving until the new constitution went into effect in 1868. 

-^Jenkins was elected in the general elections in April, 1868 and served following 
re-election in 1872 until his resignation on November 6, 1876. 

^"Worth was appointed by Governor Brogden on November 10, 1876. He had already 
been elected in the general elections in 1876. 



The Executive Branch 511 

3iBain died November 16, 1892. 

^^Tate was appointed by Governor Holt on November 19, 1892 to replace Bain. He was 
defeated by Worth in a special election in 1894. 

3^Lacy died February 21, 1929. 

3^0'Berry was appointed by Governor Gardner on February 23, 1929 to replace Lacy 
and served until his death on January 6, 1932. 

^'^Stedman was appointed by Governor Gardner on January 7, 1932 to replace O'Berry 
and resigned effective November 21, 1932. 

^''Johnson was appointed by Governor Gardner on November 7, 1932 — to take office 
November 21; however, he failed to qualify at that time. He had already been elected in 
the general elections in 1932. 

^''Hodges resigned in June, 1953. 

^^Gill was appointed by Governor Umstead on June 29, 1953 to replace Hodges. He was 
elected in the general elections in 1954 to complete Hodges' unexpired term. He was 
elected to a full term in 1956 and served until his retirement in 1977. 

^^^Boyles was elected in November, 1976, when Gill declined to run for reelection. He is 
still serving following subsequent reelections. 



512 North Carolina Manual 



DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

The Department of Public Instruction is headed by the State Board of 
Education, which is charged with estabHshing overall policy for North 
Carolina's system of public schools. The State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, a constitutional officer, is charged with organizing the depart- 
ment and administering the funds provided for its support. Consistent with 
other laws enacted by the General Assembly, the Board adopts rules and 
regulations for the public school system. Board membership includes the 
Lieutenant Governor, the State Treasurer, and eleven gubernatorial ap- 
pointees, who are subject to confirmation by the General Assembly in joint 
session. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction is secretary to the 
Board. 

The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction was formed in 
December, 1852, although the current title and specific delineation of re- 
sponsibilities were first set forth in the Constitution of 1868. The head of the 
Department originally went by the title "superintendent of common schools," 
but that office was abolished in 1865. Today the superintendent of public 
instruction is elected by the people to a four-year term. He is a member of the 
Council of State. 



State Department of Public Instruction Organization 

The purpose of the Department of Public Instruction is many faceted. The 
department allocates to local education agencies money appropriated by the 
General Assembly or provided by the Federal government for public educa- 
tion, monitors the expenditure of that money, promulgates rules and regula- 
tions, collects statistical data of a general and specific nature on schools, 
expenditures, and student progress, and provides consultant services in both 
fiscal and curriculum areas. The State Board of Education and the State 
Department of Public Instruction are literally involved in every area of 
public education in North Carolina. 

The Department is organized under the state superintendent into five 
program areas, each headed by an assistant state superintendent and each 
reporting directly to the state deputy superintendent. The five program areas 
are Program Services, Research and Development Services, Personnel Ser- 
vices, Auxiliary Services, and Financial Services. In addition, divisions 
representing communications, external relations, state Board relations, the 
internal auditor, and the omsbudsman report directly to the state 
superintendent. 

The Program Services Area 

The Program Services unit includes the Divisions of Curriculum and 
Instruction Services, the Division of Vocational Education Services, the 
Division of Media and Technology Services, the Division of Exceptional 
Children's Services, and the Division of Student Services. 



I 



I 



The Executive Branch 513 

The Research and Development Area 

The Research and Development Unit includes the Division of Account- 
ability Services which is charged with administering testing programs, 
assuring accreditation, and with conducting research. Also in this service 
area is the Division of Development Services which is charged with develop- 
ment and demonstration and with grants and assistance. 

The Personnel Services Area 

The Personnel Services unit is composed of the Division of Local Education 
Agency Personnel Services and the Division of Teacher Education and 
Certification Services. 

The Financial Services Area 

The Financial Services unit is composed of the Divisions of School Busi- 
ness Services, the Division of State Accounting Services, and the Division of 
Fiscal Control Services. 

The Auxiliary Services Area 

The Auxiliary Services unit is composed of the Division of School Services 
which deals with transportation, child nutrition, and student safety services, 
and also the Division of School Facility Services which deals with plant 
operation, school planning and insurance. 

The State Department of Public Instruction's primary purpose — to assure 
that a "general and uniform system of free public schools shall be provided 
throughout the State, wherein equal opportunities shall be provided for all 
students . . ." is always the overriding goal of employees of the Department. 

Boards and Commissions within the Department 

State Board of Education (G.S. 155C-12, 115C-10 to 115C-13, and 115C-408 

to 115C-416; Article IX, Section 4, North Carolina Constitution) 

Annual Testing Commission (G.S. 115C-191 and 115C-192) 

Competency Testing Commission (G.S. 115C-176 and 115C-177) 

Education Council (G.S. 115C-105) 

Exceptional Children's Educational Services (G.S. 115C-121) 

State School Health Advisory Committee (G.S. 115C-81(e) (6)) 

State Textbook Commission (G.S. 115C-87) 



514 



North Carolina Manual 




The Executive Branch 515 



Bob R. Etheridge 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Early Years: Born in Sampson County, August 7, 1941, to John P. and 
Beatrice (Coats) Etheridge. 

Education: Cleveland School, 1947-59; Campbell University, 1965, B.S. 
(Business Administration). 

Professional Background: Owner, Layton Supply Company; Director, 
North Carolina National Bank, Lillington; Licensed Realtor. 

Organizations: Member, Industrial Management Club (past President); 
Lillington Lions Club (past President); American Legion; Harnett Cystic 
Fibrosis Campaign (past Chairman); Land Use Advisory Council, 1976; 
Harnett Youth Advisory Council (past Chairman); Harnett Sheltered Work- 
shop (past Chairman); Lillington Chamber of Commerce (President, 1977); 
Lillington Rotary Club; Lillington Masonic Lodge. 

Boards: Formerly served on: Harnett Mental Health Board, NC Law and 
Order Commission, Cape Fear District Occoneechee Boy Scout Council 
(Chairman). 

Political Activities: N.C. Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1989-; 
N.C. House of Representatives, 1979-1988 (five terms); Harnett County 
Commissioner, 1973-1976 (Chairman, 1974-76). Served on: Rural Economic 
Development Center Board of Directors; Fiscal Affairs and Oversight Com- 
mittee of the National Conference of State Legislatures; Fiscal Affairs and 
Government Operations Committee of the Southern Legislative Conference 
of the Council of State Governments; N.C. Legislative Governmental Opera- 
tions Commission; Advisory Budget Commission; Democratic Party. 

Military Activities: Served, U.S. Army, December, 1965-67. 

Honors: Lillington Jaycees Distinguished Service Award, 1975; Lillington 
Community Service Award, 1976; Outstanding Men of America; Honored 
Distinguished Alumnus Campbell University; Boy Scout District Award of 
Merit, 1980 and 1984; Boy Scout Silver Beaver Award, 1987; honorary 
member. Phi Kappa Phi. 

Religious Activities: Member, Leaflet Presbyterian Church; Sunday 
School Teacher; Sunday School Superintendent; President, Fayetteville 
Presbytery Men, 1975-76; President, Presbyterian Synod Men of N.C, 1977- 
78; Elder, Leaflet Church, 1987. 

Family: Married, Faye Cameron, November 25, 1965. Children: Brian, 
Catherine and David. 



516 North Carolina Manual 

Superintendent of Common Schools 

Name Residence Elected Qualified 

Calvin H. Wiley' Guilford December 13, 1852 1852-1865 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Name Residence Term 

Samuel S. Ashley^ New Hanover 1868-1871 

Alexander Mclver^ Guilford 1871-1875 

Kemp P. Battle^ Wake 1873 

Stephen D. PooP Craven 1875-1876 

John PooP Pasquotank 1876-1877 

John C. Scarborough Johnston 1877-1885 

Sidney M. Finger Catawba 1855-1893 

John C. Scarborough Hertford 1893-1897 

Charles H. Mebane Catawba 1897-1901 

Thomas F. Toon^ Robeson 1901-1902 

James Y. Joyner^ Guilford 1902-1919 

Eugene C. Brooks^ Durham 1919-1923 

Arch T. Allenio Alexander 1923-1934 

Clyde A. Erwin" Rutherford 1934-1952 

Charles F. CarrolP^ Duplin 1952-1969 

Andrew Craig Phillips'^ Guilford 1969-1989 

Bob R. Etheridge" Sampson 1989- 

'Wiley served until the office was abolished in 1865. 

-Ashley was elected in the general elections in April, 1868 and resigned effective 
October 1, 1871. 

'Mclver was appointed by Governor Caldwell on September 21, 1871 — to take office 
October 1 — to replace Ashley. 

^Battle, who was appointed by Governor Caldwell on January 14, 1873 to replace Reid, 
took the oaths of office on January 15; however, his right to hold office was challenged by 
Alexander Mclver who was still serving under a previous appointment. The conflict was 
argued before the North Carolina Supreme Court in 1873 at its January term and was 
decided in favor of Mclver. Justice Reade, who gave the opinion of the court, stated that 
since Mclver had been duly appointed and qualified, and that since the officer-elect could 
not qualify, Mclver was entitled to remain in office until the next election. (August, 1874). 

■^Pool resigned effective June 30, 1876. 

•'John Pool, who was appointed by Governor Brodgen on June 30, 1876 to replace 
Stephen D. Pool, took office July 1. 

"Toon was elected in the general elections in 1900 and served until his death on 
February 19, 1902. 

yoyner was appointed by Governor Aycock on February 24, 1902 to replace Toon. He 
was elected in a special election in 1902 to complete Toon's unexpired term. He was 
elected to a full term in 1904 and served following subsequent re-elections until his 
resignation effective January 1, 1919. 

''Brooks was appointed by Governor Bickett on December 21, 1918 — to take office 
January 1, 1919 — to replace Joyner. He was elected in the general elections in 1920 and 
served until bis resignation on June 11, 1923. 

'"Allen was appointed by Governor Morrison on June 11, 1923 to replace Brooks. He 
was elected in the general elections in 1 924 and served following subsequent re-elections 
until his death on October 20, 1934. 

"Erwin was appointed by Governor Ehringhaus on October 23, 1934 to replace Allen. 
He was elected in the general elections in 1936 and served following subsequent re- 
elections until his death on July 19, 1952. 

'^Carroll was appointed by Governor Scott on August 20, 1952 to replace Erwin. He was 
elected in the general elections in 1952 and served following subsequent reelections until 
1969 when be declined to run for reelection. 

'"'PhiUips was elected in 1968 and served following subsequent reelections until his 
retirement in 1989. 

^''Etheridge was elected in November, 1988. 



The Executive Branch 517 



THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 



THE OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL 

The Attorney General of North CaroHna heads both the Department of 
Justice and the Office of the Attorney General. The office is one of the oldest 
continuous office in government having originated during colonial times. 
When the first North Carolina constitution was written in 1776, the Attorney 
General was made part of its framework. When the General Assembly began 
reorganizing state government in the early 1970's they created the Depart- 
ment of Justice as one of the major departments in the Executive Branch. 

The 1971 revision of the state constitution deleted all reference to the 
Department of Justice and the State Bureau of Investigation. Instead, it 
simply states that there shall be an Attorney General whose duties "shall be 
prescribed by law" [Article III, Section 7(2)). Article III, Section 7(1)] of the 
Constitution of North Carolina provides that the Attorney General, along 
with other elected department heads, "shall be elected by the qualified voters 
of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same time and 
places as members of the Genera