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Secretary of State 

The N.C.Sena I n 

Office of the Secretary of State in the State Capitol (northwest suite), 
circa 1905. Pictured G to r): Secretary of State J. Bryan Grimes, 
William S. Wilson, Legislative Reference Librarian and Corporations 
Clerk, and Mrs. Mary G. Smith, Clerk and Stenographer. 

Group photograph of the N.C 
on south grounds of Capif ; 1. 


ISM .ȣ! 


Governor's Office (Southwest suiL*r; m uwin- ^^.a^iwi 
circa 1895. This office presently serves as the Governor's 
reception room. Governor EUas Carr pictured. 
Courtesy Elian Carr Papers, ECU Manuscripts 

Photos not otherwise noted courtesy 
Division of Archives and History. 

ision, 1915. 

late, 1874, posed 
est extant Senate 

Thomas Ruffin - served as N.C. Supreme Court 
Judge, 1829-1833 and 1858-1860, Chief Justice, 

The 1910-1911 N.C. Supreme Court. Seated 1-r: WA. Hoke, Piatt D. 
Walker, C. J. Walter Clark, George H. Brown, James S. Manning. 













North Carolina 


North Carolina 


Published by 

Rufus L, Edmisten 

Secretary of State 

Julie W. Snee 




The biennial publication of the North Carolina 
Manualis the outcome of the work of many individuals. 
The editor is grateful for the receipt of the work and 
input of public information officers and public affairs 
personnel throughout the state. 

In addition, the invaluable aid of the Publications 
Division staff, Linda Wise and Beverly Edmonds, and 
State Capitol Historian, Raymond Beck, is deserving 
of particular mention. 

A volume of this size and detail involves ongoing 
editing and revision. It is our hope to provide the 
citizens of North Carolina with an accurate resource 
tool. We welcome, however, constructive comments 
and suggestions from the readers and users of this 

Julie W. Snee 


Five thousand (5,000) copies of the 1991-92 North Carolina Manual were printed at a cost 
to the State of $63,360.00 (estimated), or $12.67 per volume. 

Department of the Secretary of State 
Raleigh, North Carolina 

Dear Fellow North Carolinians: 

It is with great delight that I present to you this 
26th edition of the North Carolina Manual, pub- 
lished by the Secretary of State's Office. Since 
1941, this Department has worked diligently to 
give the people of North Carolina an accurate, 
thorough record of state government activities. 

The Manual is a comprehensive compilation of 
biographical information, historical data, and 
election results that will serve as a reference tool 
for today's reader as well as future users of this 

Our office has worked earnestly throughout the 
past months to make this Manual even better than 
previous editions. We are constantly editing and 
updating each section to ensure factual 
correctness and provide the most accessibility to 

It is my pleasure, therefore, to introduce to you 
this valuable resource: the 1991-92 North Carolina 


Rufus L. Edmisten 
Secretary of State 


This volume of the A^or^/i Caro/ma Manz/a/ is respect- 
fully dedicated to the memory of Senator Samuel J. 
Ervin, Jr. (1896-1985). A staunch defender of individual 
rights and civil liberties, "Senator Sam" employed 
home-spun humor and an acute legal mind in his 
service to this State and to the nation. 

During his tenure with the United States Senate, I 
had the honor and privilege to work with Senator 
Ervin as his counsel. He was one of the Old North 
State's most beloved sons and it is to his memory that I 
dedicate this volume on behalf of the citizens of North 

Rufus L. Edmisten 
Secretary of State 


Senator Samuel J. Ervin, Jr. (1896-1985) 


Table of Contents 

Acknowledgements ii 

Foreword, Rufus L. Edmisten, Secretary of State iii 

Dedication iv 

North Carolina State Government 


The North Carolina Executive Branch 

Introduction 3 

The Council of State 6 

The Office of the Governor 9 

James G. Martin, Governor 15 

Governors (historical list) 16 

The Office of the Lieutenant Governor 27 

James C. Gardner, Lieutenant Governor 29 

Lieutenant Governors (historical list) 30 

The Department of the Secretary of State 31 

Rufus L. Edmisten, Secretary of State 37 

Secretaries of State (historical list) 38 

The Department of the State Auditor 42 

Edward Renfrew, State Auditor 45 

State Auditors (historical list) 47 

The Department of the State Treasurer 48 

Harlan E. Boyles, State Treasurer 55 

Treasurers (historical list) 56 

The Department of Public Instruction 61 

Bob R. Etheridge, Superintendent of Pubhc Instruction 65 

Superintendents of Public Instruction (historical list) 66 

The Department of Justice 67 

Lacy H. Thornburg, Attorney General 75 

Attorney Generals (historical list) 76 

The Department of Agriculture 81 

James A. Graham, Commissioner 93 

Commissioners of Agriculture (historical list) 95 

The Department of Labor 96 

John C. Brooks, Commissioner 103 

Commissioners of Labor (historical list) lOo 

The Department of Insurance 10" 

James E. Long, Commissioner HI 

Commissioners of Insurance (historical list) 112 

The Department of Administration H^ 

James S. Lofton, Secretary H^ 

Secretaries, Administration (historical list) 119 


The Department of Correction 120 

V.L. Bounds, Secretary 126 

Secretaries, Correction (historical Hst) 127 

The Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 128 

Joseph W. Dean, Secretary 137 

Secretaries, Crime Control and Public Safety (historical list) 138 

The Department of Cultural Resources 139 

Patric G. Dorsey, Secretary 147 

Secretaries, Cultural Resources (historical list) 148 

The Department of Economic and Community Development 149 

Estell Carter Lee, Secretary 156 

Secretaries, Economic and Community Development 
(historical list) 157 

The Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources 158 

William W. Cobey, Jr., Secretary 167 

Secretaries, Environment, Health and Natural Resources 
(historical list) 168 

The Department of Human Resources 169 

David T. Flaherty, Secretary 180 

Secretaries, Human Resources (historical list) 182 

The Department of Revenue 183 

Betsy Y. Justus, Secretary 192 

Secretaries, Revenue (historical list) 193 

The Department of Transportation 194 

Thomas J. Harrelson, Secretary 201 

Secretaries, Transportation (historical list) 202 

Office of State Controller 203 

Fred W. Talton, State Controller 205 

State Board of Elections 206 

Alex K. Brock, Executive Secretary-Director 208 

Office of State Personnel 209 

Richard V. Lee, Director 214 


North Carolina Legislative Branch 

An Historical Overview 215 

George R. Hall, Legislative Administrative Officer 220 

The 1991 General Assembly 221 

The 1991 North Carolina Senate 223 

Speakers of the Senate (historical list) 225 

President Pro Tempore of the Senate (historical list) 226 

Henson P. Barnes, President Pro Tempore 229 

Kenneth C. Royall, Jr., Deputy President Pro Tempore 230 

Ted Kaplan, Majority Leader 232 

Robert G. Shaw, Minority Leader 233 

Majority Whips: 

WilHam D. Goldston, Jr 234 

Helen R. Marvin 235 

James F. Richardson 237 

Alexander P. Sands HI 238 

Paul S. Smith, Minority Whip 239 


Senators (biographical sketches) 241 

Sylvia M. Fink, Principal Clerk 289 

Gerda Pleasants, Sergeant-at-Arms 290 

Senate Committee Assignments 291 

The 1991 North Carolina House of Representatives 297 

Speakers of the House of Representatives (historical list) 298 

Daniel T. Blue, Jr., Speaker 305 

Marie W. Colton, Speaker Pro Tempore 307 

Dennis A. Wicker, Majority Leader 308 

Johnathan L. Rhyne, Jr., Minority Leader 309 

Milton F. Fitch, Jr., Majority Whip 310 

Theresa H. Esposito, Minority Whip 311 

Art Pope, Joint Caucus Leader 313 

Representatives (biographical sketches) 314 

Grace A. Collins, Principal Clerk 448 

Larry P. Eagles, Sergeant-at-Arms 449 

House of Representatives Committee Assignments 452 


North Carolina Judicial Branch 

The Court System in North Carolina 459 

The Supreme Court 460 

James G. Exum, Jr., Chief Justice 465 

Associate Justices (biographical sketches) 466 

Administrative Office of the Courts 472 

Franklin E. Freeman, Administrative Officer of the Courts 474 

Office of Administrative Hearings 475 

The Court of Appeals 

Robert A. Hedrick, Chief Judge 479 

Associate Judges (biographical sketches) 480 

The Superior Court Judges 491 

The District Court Judges 493 

District Attorneys 497 

Part II 
United States Government 


United State Executive Branch 

George H.W. Bush, President 50^ 

Presidents of the United States (historical list) 502 

Presidential Cabinet ^^^ 

Presidential Major Appointments 504 


United State Legislative Branch 

The Senate ^^^ 


Jesse Helms (biographical sketch) 50b 

Terry Sanford (biographical sketch) ^^'' 


The House of Representatives 509 



Biographical sketches: 

Walter B. Jones 510 

I.T. Valentine, Jr 511 

H. Martin Lancaster 512 

David E. Price 513 

Stephen L. Neal 514 

John H. Coble 515 

Charles G. Rose, III 516 

W.G. (Bill) Hefner 517 

Alex McMillan 518 

Thomas C. Ballenger 519 

Charles Taylor 520 


The United States Judiciary 

The Supreme Court 523 

Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals 523 

United State District Court in North Carolina 523 

Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals Judges (biographical sketches) 525 

United State District Court Judges (biographical sketches) 527 

Part III 
North CaroHna: Its History and Symbols 

Historical Miscellanea 

An Early History of North Carolina 545 

The State Capitol Building 555 

The State Legislative Building 559 

The Executive Residences of North Carolina 567 

The Mecklenburg Declaration 572 

Our State Symbols 

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina 573 

The State Flag 581 

The State Bird 587 

The State Flower 587 

The State Insect 589 

The State Tree 589 

The State Mammal 589 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 591 

The State Toast 591 

The State Precious Stone 592 

The State Reptile 593 

The State Rock 594 

The State Beverage 595 


The State Historic Boat 596 

The State Dog 597 

Name of State and Nickname 598 

The State Motto and Colors 598 

The State Song 599 

Part IV 


The Constitution of North Carolina 

Our Constitutions: An Historical Perspective 603 

Constitution of North Carolina 619 

Constitutional Issues submitted to the people since 1970 650 

Constitutional Propositions Voted on by the People since 1868 657 


The Constitution of the United States 

The Ratification of the Constitution in North Carolina 659 

North Carolina Signers of the Constitution of the United States 667 

Wilham Blount 667 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr 668 

Hugh Williamson 669 

Constitution of the United States 670 

Amendments to the Constitution of the United States 680 

Higher Education in North Carolina 


The University of North Carolina 

The University of North CaroHna System 691 

CD. Spangler, Jr., President 695 

Appalachian State University 696 

East Carolina University 699 

Elizabeth City State University 702 

Fayetteville State University '706 

North Carolina A & T State University 710 

North Carolina Central University 714 

North Carolina School of the Arts 720 

North Carolina State University 724 

Pembroke State University 730 

University of North Carolina - Asheville 733 

University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill 736 

University of North Carolina - Charlotte 740 

University of North Carolina - Greensboro 743 

University of North Carolina - Wilmington 747 

Western Carolina University '  ' 

Winston-Salem State University ''^'^ 



The Community Colleges 

The Community College System 757 

The Department of Community Colleges 758 

Robert W. Scott, State President 761 

State Presidents, Community College System (historical list) 762 

Presidents, Community and Technical Colleges (current list) 762 

The Community Colleges 

Alamance County Community College 764 

Anson Technical College 764 

Asheville-Buncombe Technical College 765 

Beaufort County Community College 766 

Bladen Technical College 767 

Blue Ridge Technical College 768 

Brunswick Technical College 769 

Caldwell Community College 769 

Cape Fear Technical College 770 

Carteret Technical College 771 

Catawba Valley Technical College 771 

Central Carolina Technical College 771 

Central Piedmont 772 

Cleveland Community College 773 

Coastal Carolina Community College 773 

College of the Albemarle 774 

Craven Community College 774 

Davidson County Community College 775 

Durham Technical Institute 776 

Edgecombe Technical College 776 

Fayetteville Technical Institute 776 

Forsyth Technical College 777 

Gaston College 778 

Guilford Technical College 778 

Halifax Community College 779 

Haywood Technical College 780 

Isothermal Community College 780 

James Sprunt Technical College 781 

Johnston Technical College 781 

Lenoir Community College 782 

Martin Community College 782 

Mayland Technical College 783 

McDowell Technical College 783 

Mitchell Community College 785 

Montgomery Technical College 785 

Nash Technical College 786 

Pamlico Technical College 786 

Piedmont Technical College 787 

Pitt Community College 787 

Randolph Technical College 788 

Richmond Technical College 788 

Roanoke-Chowan Technical College 789 

Robeson Technical College 790 


Rockingham Community College 79I 

Rowan Technical College 79I 

Sampson Technical College 792 

Sandhills Community College 792 

Southeastern Community College 793 

Southwestern Community College 793 

Stanly Technical College 794 

Surry Community College 794 

Tri-County Community College 794 

Vance-Granville Community College 794 

Wake Technical College 795 

Wayne Community College 796 

Western Piedmont Community College 797 

Wilkes Community College 797 

Wilson County Technical Institute 798 


Private Colleges and Universities 

Private Higher Education in North Carolina 799 

Presidents, Private Colleges and Universities 802 

Part VI 
PoHtical Parties 


The Democratic Party 

Plan of Organization 805 

The Executive Council (Primary Officers) 839 

County Chairmen 840 


The Republican Party 

Plan of Organization 843 

Republican Executive Committee (Primary Officers) 865 

Congressional District Committees 865 

County Chairmen 867 

Part VII 
Voters, Voting, and Election Returns 


Voting in North Carolina 

Voter Registration 871 

The Electoral College 873 

Registration Statistics 877 

Primary Election May 8, 1990 877 

General Election, November 6, 1990 879 

Primary Election May 3, 1988 881 


General Election, Novembers, 1988 883 

Primary Election, May 6, 1986 885 

General Election, November 4, 1986 887 

Primary Election, May 8, 1984 889 

General Election, November 6, 1984 891 

Election Districts 

Congressional Districts 893 

Senatorial Districts 894 

Representative Districts 896 


Abstracts of Votes and Election Results 

President of the United States 899 

Democratic Preference Primary Election, March 8, 1988 900 

Republican Preference Primary Election, March 8, 1988 902 

General Election, November 8, 1988 904 

Democratic Preference Primary Election, May 8, 1984 906 

General Election, November 6, 1984 908 

United States Congress 910 

United States Senator 

Democratic Primary Election, May 8, 1990 911 

Republican Primary Election, May 8, 1990 914 

Democratic Primary Election, May 6, 1986 916 

Republican Primary Election, May 6, 1986 918 

General Election, November 4, 1986 920 

Primary Elections, May 8, 1984 922 

General Election, November 6, 1984 924 

United States House of Representatives 

Primary Elections, May 8, 1990 926 

General Elections, 1986-1990 930 

North Carolina State Government 934 


Democratic Primary Election, May 3, 1988 935 

General Election, November 8, 1988 937 

Democratic Primary Election, May 8, 1984 938 

Republican Primary Election, May 8, 1984 940 

Democratic Second Primary Election, June 5, 1984 941 

General Election, November 6, 1984 942 

Lieutenant Governor 

Primary Elections, May 3, 1988 944 

General Election, November 8, 1988 946 

Council of State 

Primary Elections, May 3, 1988 947 

General Elections, Novembers, 1988 952 

Tabulation of Votes, Primary Elections Since 1964 958 

Tabulation of Votes, General Elections Since 1964 965 


Part VIII 
The 1990 Census 


Census and Population Statistics 

Introduction 975 

State Population Statistics 977 

County Population Statistics 978 

Population of Incorporated Places of less than 1,000 980 

Population of Incorporated Places of 1,000-2,499 986 

Population of Incorporated Places of 2,500-9,999 989 

Population of Incorporated Places of 10,000 or more 992 

Part IX 
North Carolina Counties 

County Government 

Historical Perspective 993 


The Counties of North Carolina 

North Carolina Counties Map 1004 

Alamance 1005 

Alexander 1005 

Alleghany 1005 

Anson 1006 

Ashe 1006 

Avery 1007 

Beaufort 1007 

Bertie 1008 

Bladen 1008 

Brunswick 1008 

Buncombe 1009 

Burke 1009 

Cabarrus 1010 

Caldwell 1010 

Camden 1011 

Carteret 1011 

Caswell 1011 

Catawba 1012 

Chatham 1012 

Cherokee 1013 

Chowan 1013 

Clay 1014 

Cleveland 1014 

Columbus 1015 

Craven 1015 

Cumberland 1015 

Currituck 1016 


Dare 1016 

Davidson 1017 

Davie 1017 

Duplin 1017 

Durham 1018 

Edgecombe 1018 

Forsyth 1019 

Frankhn 1019 

Gaston 1020 

Gates 1020 

Graham 1021 

Granville 1021 

Greene 1021 

Guilford 1022 

Hahfax 1022 

Harnett 1023 

Haywood 1023 

Henderson 1024 

Hertford 1024 

Hoke 1025 

Hyde 1025 

Iredell 1026 

Jackson 1026 

Johnston 1027 

Jones 1027 

Lee 1028 

Lenoir 1028 

Lincoln 1028 

Macon 1029 

Madison 1029 

Martin 1029 

McDowell 1030 

Mecklenburg 1030 

Mitchell 1031 

Montgomery 1031 

Moore 1032 

Nash 1033 

New Hanover 1033 

Northampton 1034 

Onslow 1034 

Orange 1035 

Pamlico 1035 

Pasquotank 1035 

Pender 1036 

Perquimans 1036 

Person 1037 

Pitt 1037 

Polk 1038 

Randolph 1038 

Richmond 1039 

Robeson 1039 


Rockingham 1040 

Rowan 1040 

Rutherford 1041 

Sampson 1041 

Scotland 1042 

Stanly 1042 

Stokes 1042 

Surry 1043 

Swain 1044 

Transylvania 1044 

Tyrrell 1045 

Union 1045 

Vance 1046 

Wake 1046 

Warren 1046 

Washington 1047 

Watauga 1047 

Wayne 1048 

Wilkes 1048 

Wilson 1049 

Yadkin 1049 

Yancey 1050 



North Carolina 
State Government 

The Executive Branch 


Under provisions in the Constitution of North Carolina, the three major 
branches of state government— legislative, executive and judicial— are "dis- 
tinct and separate from each other" (Article I, Section 6). This separation of 
powers has been a primary principal of government since our independence. 
In the nearly two hundred years since the forming of the State of North 
Carolina, many changes have occurred in her governmental organization. 
North Carolina's state and local governments have grown from a small, ill- 
funded endeavor of a few hundred "employees" in 1776, to a multi-billion 
dollar enterprise of thousands of public servants and programs. Along with 
this growth has come problems. In 1970 there were over 200 independent 
state agencies making up the executive branch. Recognizing this problem, 
the General Assembly took steps toward reorganizing state government, 
particularly by beginning to define the executive branch. 

State Government Reorganization 

In his October 27, 1967 speech, Governor Dan K. Moore urged the North 
Carolina State Bar to take the lead in sponsoring a study to determine the 
need for revising or rewriting the Constitution of North Carolina. The 
Council of the North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar 
Association joined in appointing a steering committee which selected twenty- 
five persons to constitute the North Carolina State Constitution Study 
Commission. The report of the commission, submitted on December 16, 1968, 
contained a proposed amendment which would require the General Assembly 
to reduce the administrative departments of state government to 25 and 
authorize the Govo^rnor to reorganize the administrative departments subject 
to legislative approval. 

The 1969 General Assembly submitted the proposed constitutional amend- 
ment to a vote of the people and also authorized the Governor to begin a 
study of consolidation of state agencies and to prepare recommendations for 
the General Assembly. Governor Robert W. Scott established the State 
Government Reorganization Study Commission in October of 1969. Later, in 
May 1970, a fifty-member citizen's Committee on State Government Re- 
organization was appointed by the Governor to review the study and make 
specific recommendations. 

The constitutional proposal requiring the reduction of the number of state 
administrative departments to not more than 25 by 1975 was adopted in the 
general election on November 3, 1970, and the Committee on State Govern- 
ment Reorganization submitted its recommendations to the Governor on 
February 4, 1971. 

North Carolina Manual 

The committee recommended implementation of the amendment in two 
phases. Phase I would be the grouping of agencies together in a limited 
number of functional departments. This was accomplished in 1971 through 
legislative action. Phase II began in 1971 and continued into 1973 as 
agencies began to work together. Evaluations of agency and department 
organizations were done and bills prepared that would revise existing 
statutes on the basis of these evaluations and experience. Drafted proposals 
were presented to the 1973 General Assembly and legislative implementation 

With strong support from Governor Scott, the Executive Organization Act 
of 1971 was ratified July 14, 1971. It created 19 principal offices and 
departments consisting of ten offices and departments headed by elected 
officials and nine other departments formed by the grouping of agencies 
along functional lines. The act provided for two types of transfers to ac- 
complish the first phase of reorganization. Under the act, a Type I transfer 
meant the transferring of all or part of an agency, including its statutory 
authority, powers and duties, to a principal department. A Type II transfer 
meant the transferring intact of an existing agency to a principal department 
with the transferring agency retaining its statutory authority and functions, 
which would be performed under the direction and supervision of the head of 
the principal department. 

All offices and departments called for by the Executive Organization Act 
of 1971 were created by executive order of Governor Scott prior to the July 1, 
1972 deadline set by the Act. The principal offices and departments created 
were the following: Office of the Governor, Office of the Lieutenant Governor, 
Department of the Secretary of State, Department of the State Auditor, 
Department of State Treasurer, Department of Public Education (now the 
Department of Public Instruction), Department of Justice, Department of 
Agriculture, Department of Labor, Department of Insurance, Department of 
Administration, Department of Transportation and Highway Safety (now 
the Department of Transportation), Department of Natural and Economic 
Resources (now the Department of Environment, Health, and Natural 
Resources), Department of Human Resources, Department of Social Re- 
habilitation and Control (now the Department of Correction), Department of 
Commerce (now the Department of Economic and Community Development), 
Department of Revenue, Department of Art, Culture and History (now 
Department of Cultural Resources), and Department of Military and 
Veterans' Affairs (which no longer exists). By executive order issued June 
26, 1972, an Executive Cabinet was formed consisting of the heads of these 
departments. Meetings of the Cabinet were very important in solving the 
Phase II problems of reorganization. 

Between 1972 and 1977, some additional alterations were made which 
further implemented reorganization of state government in North Carolina. 
In 1973, the Legislature passed the Executive Organizations Act of 1973 
which affected four of the newly created departments— Cultural Resources, 
Human Resources, Military and Veterans Affairs and Revenue. Broadly 
speaking, the 1973 law vested final administrative and managerial powers 
for the Executive Branch in the hands of the Governor and gave him powers 
to appoint a secretary for each of the departments named. The law also set 

The Executive Branch 

forth the powers of the secretaries, but left intact specifically designed areas 
and decisions already vested in various commissions— these cannot be 
countermanded by either the governor or departmental secretary. 

Specifically, the 1973 act changed the name of the Department of Art, 
Culture and History to the Department of Cultural Resources. Various 
Boards, Commissions, Councils, and Societies which relate to a cultural 
orientation were brought under the umbrella of the Department of Cultural 

Two previously created Departments, Human Resources and Revenue, 
were recreated making some technical changes not found in the original 
law. Specifically, in the Department of Human Resources, a Board of Human 
Resources was created to serve as an Advisory Board to the Secretary on 
any matter which might be referred to it by the Secretary. 

In the 1973 Act, the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs was 
specifically charged with providing National Guard troops trained to Federal 
Standards; being responsible for military and civil preparedness; and as- 
sisting veterans and their families and dependents. A new Veterans' Affairs 
Commission was created to assist the Secretary with veterans services 

Reorganization was to have been completed by the end of 1975. Most of 
the aims were achieved; however, several additional legislative reorganiza- 
tional changes were sought by the Governor. Most of the proposals affected 
four departments — Commerce, Military and Veterans Affairs, Natural and 
Economic Resources, and Transportation. The 1977 General Assembly en- 
acted several laws implementing the new proposals. The old Department of 
Military and Veteran's Affairs has been replaced by a new Department of 
Crime Control and Public Safety. The Veterans Affairs Commission formerly 
in MVA is now under the Department of Administration. All the State 
Highway Patrol, formerly in the Division of Motor Vehicles, Department of 
Transportation, has been transferred by a Type I transfer to the new 
department. A newly created Governor's Crime Commission is also part of 
the new department. 

In reorganizing the old Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, the 
Energy Division and the Energy Policy Council were transferred to the 
Department of Commerce. Also transferred to the Department of Commerce 
were three agencies previously under the Department of Transportation— 
the State Ports Authority, and two commissions on Navigation and Pilotage. 
Other legislative changes were enacted to further reorganize the Department 
of Commerce by transferring to it the Economic Development Division of the 
Department of Natural and Economic Development and to create a new 
council— the Labor Force Development Council— to coordinate the needs of 
Industry with the programs offered in our educational institutions. There 
was some opposition to moving Economic Development from Natural and 
Economic Resources because the setup at that time allowed new prospective 
industry to deal with only one department in finding economic opportunities 
within the state and what environmental requirements and restrictions 
there might be. 

Reorganization is an ongoing process in state government as efforts are 
made to reduce the bureaucracy and avoid confusion and dupHcation. Since 

North Carolina Manual 

that first effort in the early 1970's, department names have been changed, a 
new department created — the Department of Community Colleges — and some 
agencies given autonomous status, as in the case of the Office of the State 

The most recent reorganization occurred in 1989 with major changes 
among and within the Departments of Commerce, Human Resources, and 
Natural Resources and Community Development. The results were the renam- 
ing of two departments and the restructuring of all three. The Department of 
Natural Resources and Economic Development became the Department of 
Environment, Health, and Natural Resources with primary responsibilities 
in the areas of environmental and natural resources management and 
public health protection. The Department of Commerce was renamed the 
Department of Economic and Community Development. This department 
acquired the community development activities of old NRCD and added 
them to the commercial and industrial activity of the old Department of 
Commerce. The Department of Human Resources lost its Division of Health 
Services and several sections from other divisions relating to environmental 
and health management. 


Origin and Composition 

The Council of State is composed of the elected officials enumerated in 
Article HI of the Constitution of North Carolina. Each of these officials are 
executive heads of departments of state government. When acting as one 
body, they advise the Governor on certain important administrative matters 
of state. This body is also charged by statute with other specific duties and 

The Council of State had its origin in the Constitution of 1776. Drafted 
and promulgated by the Fifth Provincial Congress in December, 1776, this 
document was created without submission to the people. Its separate, but 
accompanying declaration of rights, sketched the main outlines of the new 
state government and secured the rights of the citizen from governmental 
influence. While the principle of separation of powers was explicitly affirmed 
and the three familiar branches of government provided for, the true center 
of power lay in the General Assembly. 

Profound distrust of the executive power is evident throughout the Con- 
stitution of 1776. It allowed the Governor only a one-year term with a limit 
of only three terms in any six years. The little power granted to the 
Governor was further limited by requiring, in many instances, the con- 
currence of the Council of State before power could be exercised by the 

Having just declared their independence from the bonds of an English 
king who exercised dictatorial executive authority, the patriots of North 
Carolina were understandably reluctant to establish a strong central execu- 
tive. So, the Council of State was created as one of the checks and balances 
to prevent the Governor from having too much power. The Council of State 
consisted of seven men elected by joint vote of the two houses of the General 
Assembly. They were elected for a one-year term and could not be members 

The Executive Branch 

of either the state Senate or the state House of Commons. If a vacancy 
occurred, it was filled at the next session of the General Assembly. The 
Council was created to "advise the governor in the execution of his office," 
but was independent of the Governor. 

The role of our Council of State today is similar to what is was two 
centuries ago. While no longer a separate and distinct body elected by the 
General Assembly, the functions of advising the Governor and making 
decisions which are important to the operation of government and our state 
have survived. 

Constitutional Basis 

Article III, Section 7, of the Constitution of North Carolina provides for 
the election of the following state officers: Secretary of State, State Auditor, 
State Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Attorney General, 
Commissioner of Labor, Commissioner of Agriculture, and Commissioner of Insurance. 

All of these officers, including the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, are 
elected by the citizens of North Carolina at the same time that votes are cast 
for president and vice president — November of every other even-numbered 
year. They are elected to four-year terms, and except for the Governor and 
Lieutenant Governor who can be elected to only one additional consecutive 
term, there is no limit on the number of times each may be elected. In the 
event of vacancy due to death, resignation or otherwise, the Governor has 
the authority to appoint someone to serve until a successor is elected at the 
next general election for members of the General Assembly. Section 8, 
Article III of the constitution provides that these elected officials shall 
constitute the Council of State. 

Duties and Responsibilities 

The duties and responsibilities of the Council of State, as prescribed in the 
General Statutes of North Carolina are to: 

L advise the Governor on calling a special session of the legislature; 

2. advise the Governor and State Treasurer on investment of as- 
surance fund; 

3. approve transfers from state property fire insurance fund to 
agencies suffering losses; 

4. approve the purchase of insurance for reinsurance; 

5. control internal improvements and require the chief executive of 
public works to report on improvements to the Council and the General 

6. approve the sale, lease, and mortgage of corporate property in 
which the state has an interest; 

7. investigate public works companies; 

8. approve the Governor's determination of competitive positions; 

9. allot contingency & emergency funds for many purposes; 
10. approve survey of state boundaries; 

IL sign bonds in lieu of treasurer; 

12. authorize the treasurer on replacing bonds and notes; 

13. authorize the Treasurer to borrow in emergency and report such 
to the state legislature; 

8 North Carolina Manual 

14. approve the issuance of bonds, set interest rate and approve the 
manner of sale; 

15. request cancellation of highway bonds in sinking fund if 

16. approve borrowing in anticipation of collection of taxes; 

17. approve parking lot rules; 

18. participate in lease, rental, purchase and sale of real property; 

19. approve motor pool rules; 

20. approve general service rules and regulations; 

21. approve property and space allocations; 

22. approve war and civil defense plans; 

23. approve banks and securities for state funds; and 

24. approve all state lands transaction. 


The Council of State meets monthly, at a time agreed upon by the 
members. Currently they meet the first Tuesday of each month. At these 
meetings, debate with the Governor and each other is conducted on the 
many important issues faced by state government. Prior to 1985, Council of 
State meetings were exempted from the State Open Meetings Law by act of 
the General Assembly; however, there was so much uproar over this practice 
that since 1985 the meetings have been open. 

The Council of State is a vital part of the operations of state government 
today as it continues a tradition established over two hundred years ago. 

The Executive Branch 9 


The office of Governor is the oldest governmental office in North Carolina. 
The first Governor was Ralph Lane, who served as Governor of Sir Walter 
Raleigh's first colony on Roanoke Island (1585). The first permanent Governor 
was William Drummond, appointed by William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia 
and one of the Lords Proprietors. During the colonial period Governors were 
appointed by the Lords Proprietors prior to 1729, and the crown after 1730. 
These people served at the pleasure of their appointors, usually until a 
Governor died or resigned, although there were several instances where other 
factors were involved. When a regularly appointed Governor, for whatever 
reason, could no longer perform his functions as chief executive, either the 
president of the council, or the deputy, or Lieutenant Governor, took over until 
a new Governor was appointed and qualified. Following our independence in 
1776, and the adoption of our first state constitution, the Governor was elected 
by the two houses of the General Assembly. He was elected to serve a one-year 
term and could serve no more than three years in any six. 

In 1835, with pressure for a more democratic form of government being felt in 
Raleigh, a constitutional convention was called to amend certain sections of 
the constitution. One of the amendments provided for the popular election of 
the Governor every two years; however, little was done to increase his 
authority in areas other than that of appointments. In 1868 North Carolinians 
adopt their second constitution. The Constitution of 1868 contained many of 
the amendments that had been added to the original 1776 Constitution, but 
also included changes resulting from the Civil War and new attitudes towards 
government. Provisions in this new constitution increased the Governor's term 
of office from two to four years, as well as increased some of his duties and 

Today North Carolina is governed by her third constitution; however, few 
changes dealing with the executive branch, and the Governor in particular, 
were changed when ratified by the people in 1970. Two omissions from the 
Constitution of 1971 which were found in most other state constitutions were 
the right of a Governor to succeed himself and the power of gubernatorial veto 
over legislation passed by the General Assembly. The citizens of North 
Carolina addressed the issue of gubernatorial succession in 1977 and voted to 
allow the Governor and Lieutenant Governor to run for a second consecutive 
term. Following his reelection in 1980, Governor James B. Hunt became the 
first North Carolina Governor since 1866 to be elected to two consecutive terms 
and the first elected to two consecutive four-year terms. 

In recent years there has been a growing concern over gubernatorial veto. 
North Carolina is the only state that does not allow its Governor veto power 
over legislation passed by the General Assembly. During the 1989 session of 
the General Assembly, several bills providing for veto power for the Governor 
were introduced. Although a bill to submit the proposal to a vote of the people 
was not enacted during the 1989 session, the issue is still alive and can be 
considered in future sessions. 

In 1972, the Office of the Governor was created as one of the 19 departments 
in the Executive Branch of state government. Under his immediate jurisdiction 

10 North Carolina Manual 

are such assistants and personnel as he may need to carry out the functions as 
chief executive of the State. The Governor of North Carohna is not only the 
state's chief executive, but also the director of the budget, with responsibilities 
for all phases of budgeting from the initial preparation to final execution; he is 
commander-in-chief of the state military; and he is chairman of the Council of 
State which meets regularly and which he may convene at any time for 
emergencies. He also has the authority to convene the General Assembly into 
extra session should affairs of the State dictate such a move. The Governor is 
directed by the North Carolina Constitution to "take care" that all state laws 
are faithfully executed. He has the power to grant pardons and to commute 
sentences; to issue extradition warrants and requests; to join interstate 
compacts; ^ind to reorganize and consolidate state agencies. The Governor has 
final authority over expenditures of the state, and he is also responsible for the 
administration of all funds and loans from the federal government. At the start 
of each regular session of the General Assembly, the Governor delivers 
legislative and budgetary messages to the legislators. 

The Chief of Staff 

The chief of staff for the Governor oversees and manages the various 
divisions within the Office of the Governor. He monitors policy development 
and duties of the cabinet agencies and serves as the Governor's link to cabinet 
members. He advises the Governor on legislative matters. The chief of staff 
also represents the Governor in matters of state, sometimes serving as 
representative for the Governor at events the Governor cannot attend. 

The Legal Counsel 

The legal counsel is appointed by the Governor and monitors all legal 
issues relating to the Governor and his cabinet. He advises the Governor 
when policy developments involve legal issues and investigates the merits of 
pardon requests, commutations, reprieves, extraditions, rewards and pay- 
ments of legal fees charged by the State. 

The Office of Budget and Management 

The Governor is responsible for the State Budget. He appoints a State 
Budget Officer to assist him in carrying out his fiscal responsibilities. This 
individual directs preparation of the state budget and advises the Governor 
on policy decisions related to the biennial budget. In addition, he advises the 
Governor on legislative issues and the management of state government. He 
also serves as the Governor's liaison to the business efforts in North Carol- 
ina and reports to the Governor on concerns of the business community. 

The Appointments Office 

The Appointments Office is responsible for reviewing applications and 
submitting recommendations to the more than 400 statutory and non- 
statutory bodies to which the Governor makes appointments. The Appoint- 
ments Office also advises the Governor on development of policy by the 
boards and commissions. In addition, the Appointments Office researches 

The Executive Branch n 

qualifications and requirements, maintains records and serves as liaison 
with associations, agencies and interested individuals and groups. 

The Communications Office 

The director of communications serves as the head of the Governor's 
information center — the Communications Office— as well as being the pri- 
mary spokesman for the Governor concerning statements on policy and 
procedure. The director serves as a liaison between the Governor and his 
staff, the working press, and the public, keeping them informed on matters 
of interest and importance which affect the state. The Communications 
Office is also responsible for preparing any speeches, proclamations, letters 
of greeting, and public service announcements issued by the Governor. 

The Office of Citizen Affairs 

The Office of Citizen Affairs is responsible for promoting greater citizen 
awareness of and participation in state and local government programs, 
services, and activities. The Citizen Help Section handles citizen inquiries 
and casework while the Correspondence Unit routes mail to appropriate 
departments throughout state government. The office also promotes volun- 
teerism through citizen referral, recognition ceremonies, and a quarterly 

Legislative Affairs Counsel 

The legislative affairs counsel is responsible for establishing and maintain- 
ing a working relationship with members of the General Assembly on all 
legislative matters but particularly those which are of importance to the 
Governor. He is also responsible for tracking the status of legislation as it 
moves through the General Assembly and reporting to the Governor on its 

The Eastern Office of the Governor 

The Eastern Office of the Governor is primarily responsible for fostering 
congenial governmental-private sector-civic partnership. Representing the 
Governor in these capacities, the Eastern Office serves as a conduit between 
the people of Eastern North Carolina and the Governor's main office in 
Raleigh. The Eastern Office also represents the Governor at civic, business, 
and social events. They investigate inquiries received from citizens of the 
area, staying abreast of the concerns of eastern North CaroUnians. 

The Western Office of the Governor 

The Western Office of the Governor has operated for more than thirteen 
years. Its primary function is to foster a governmental-private sector-civic 
partnership in Western North Carolina. The Western Office serves as a con- 
duit between the people of Western North Carolina in twenty-eight counties 
and the Governor's main office in Raleigh. The Western Office also sche- 
dules use of the Governor's western residence and assists in coordinating the 

12 North Carolina Manual 

Governor's schedule during visits to Western North CaroHna. The office 
represents the Governor at civic, business, and social events and investi- 
gates inquiries received from citizens of the area. By staying abreast of the 
concerns of western North Carolinians, the office serves as the "eyes and 
ears" for the Governor in the western area. 

The North Carolina Washington Office 

The North Carolina Washington Office was established in 1975 by 
Governor James E. Holshouser, Jr. This office serves as a liaison between 
the federal and state government. The office is responsible for researching, 
analyzing, and monitoring vital issues of concern to North Carolina. The 
North Carolina Washington Office accomplishes these goals by attending 
congressional hearings and briefings with federal agencies and alerting the 
appropriate staff contact on the need for, or effect of, various regulations 
and legislative proposals. The location of the office makes it possible to 
immediately obtain any necessary documents or information for state of- 
ficials. In addition to these services, the office responds directly to con- 
stituent requests for information and is proud to serve as a home base for 
the state. 

Boards and Commissions 

Advisory Budget Commission 

Christa McAuliffe Fellowship Program Selection Committee 

Education Commission of the States 

Governor's Council on Minority Executives 

Governor's Minority, Female and Disabled-Owned Businesses Contractors 

Advisory Committee 
Governor's Programs of Excellence in Education Selection Committee 
Governor's Western Residence Board of Directors 
National Football League Blue Ribbon Commission 
N.C. Business Council of Management and Development, Inc. 
N.C. Governor's Commission on Workforce Preparedness 
N.C. 2000 Steering Committee 
Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste 

Southern Regional Education Board 

Southern Regional Education Board Legislative Work Conference Delegates 
Southern States Energy Board 
Governor's Volunteer Advisory Council (Office of Citizen Affairs) 

The Executive Branch 13 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 15 

James Grubbs Martin 


Early Years: Born in Savannah, Georgia, December 11, 1935, to the 
Reverend Arthur M. and Mary (Grubbs) Martin. 

Education: Mt. Zion Institute (PubHc School), Winnsboro, S.C, 1953; 
Davidson College, 1957, B.S. (Chemistry); Princeton University, 1960, Ph.D. 

Professional Background: Governor of North Carolina, 1985-present 
(elected, 1984 — the second Republican Governor elected in this century); 
former associate professor of chemistry, Davidson College, 1960-72; U.S. 
Congress, 1973-84. 

Organizations: Member, Beta Theta Pi, National President, 1975-78; 
Mason, Shriner; Charlotte Symphony (tuba), 1957 and 1961-66. 

Boards: President of NC Association of County Commissioners, 1970-71; 
Founder and First Chairman, Centralina Council of Governments (COG), 
1968-71; Vice President, National Association of Regional Councils, 1969-71. 

Political Activities: Governor of North Carolina, 1985-; Member, US 
House of Representatives, 1973-84 (six terms); member, Board of County 
Commissioners, Mecklenburg County, 1966-72 (Chairman, 1966-68 and 1971); 
Delegate to the National Republican Convention, 1968; member. House 
Interior and Insular Affairs Committee, 1973-74; member. House Ways and 
Means Committee, 1975-84; member, House Budget Committee, 1980-82; 
Chairman, House Republican Search Committee, 1982-83; Chairman, Re- 
publican Task Force on Health Policy, 1975-82; Republican Party. 

Honors: American Chemical Society's Charles Lathrop Parsons Award 
(first to a public official); Omicron Delta Kappa. 

Literary Works: "Stereochemistry of the Diels-Alder Reaction," Chemi- 
cal Reviews, 1961. 

Religious Activities: Presbyterian (Deacon, 1969-71); Choir. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Ann McAulay of Charlotte, June 1, 1957. 
Children: James, Jr., Emily, and Benson. 

16 North Carolina Manual 


Name Qualified Term 

Ralph Lane' [April 9], 1585 1585-1586 

John White^ [April 26], 1587 1587 


Name Qualified Term 

(Samuel Stephens)^ [1622-1664] 

William Drummond^ February 23, 1665 1665-[1667] 

Samuel Stephens ' ,1667 [1667-1670] 

Peter Carteret*^ March 10, 1670 1670-1671 

Peter Carteret^ , 1671 1671-1672 

John Jenkins^ [May _], 1672 1672-1675 

Thomas Eastchurchf* October _ , 1675 1675-1676 

[Speaker-Assembly]'" [Spring, 1676] 1676 

John Jenkins" March _ , 1676 1676-1677 

Thomas Eastchurch'- 

Thomas Miller' ' July _, 1677 1677 

[Rebel Council]'^ December _ , 1677 1677-1679 

Seth Sothel'^ 

John Harvey"^ July _ , 1679 1679 

John Jenkins' ' December _ , 1679 1679-1681 

Henry Wilkinson"* 

Seth Sothel'9 , [1682] [1682]-1689 

John Archdale^" December _ , 1683 1683-1686 

John Gibbs-' November _ , 1689 1689-1690 

Phillip Ludweir-"^ May _ , 1690 1690-1691 

Thomas Jarvis-' July _ , 1690 1690-1694 

Phillip LudwelP^ November _ , 1693 1693-1695 

Thomas Harvey-^ July _ , 1694 1694-1699 

John Archdale-*^ June _ , 1695 1695 

John Archdale-' January _ , 1697 1697 

Henderson Walker^« July _ , 1699 1699-1703 

Robert DanieP^ July _ , 1703 1703-1705 

Thomas Cary«' March 21, 1705 1705-1706 

William Glover^' July 13, 1706 1706-1707 

Thomas Cary^s August _ , 1707 1707 

William Glover" October 28, 1707 1707-1708 

Thomas Cary'^ July 24, 1708 1708-1711 

[WilHam Glover]^5 [1709-1710] 

Edward Hyde^« January 22, 1711 1711-1712 

Edward Hyde" May 9, 1712 1712 

Thomas Pollock^^ September 12, 1712 1712-1714 

*The names indented first are those who served as chief executive, but were 
appointed either deputy or lieutenant governor. Those indented second served while 
president of the council. 

The Executive Branch 17 

Name Qualified Term 

Charles Eden^^ May 28, 1714 1714-1722 

Thomas Pollock^o March 30, 1722 1722 

William Reed^i September 7, 1722 1722-1724 

George Burrington^^ January 15, 1724 1724-1725 

Edward Moseley^a October 31, 1724 1724 

Sir Richard Everard^^ July 17, 1725 1725-1731 


Name Qualified Term 

George Burrington^^^ February 25, 1731 1731-1734 

Nathaniel Rice^^ April 17, 1734 1734 

Gabriel Johnston^s November 2, 1734 1734-1752 

Nathaniel Rice^9 July 17, 1752 1752-1753 

Matthew Rowan^o February 1, 1753 1753-1754 

Arthur Dobbs^i November 1, 1754 1754-1765 

James Haselps October 15, 1763 1763 

William Tryon^^ April 3, 1765 1765 

William Tryon54 December 20, 1765 1765-1771 

James Haselps July 1, 1771 1771 

Josiah Martinis August 12, 1771 1771-1775 

James Hasell" Octobers, 1774 1774 


Name Residence Qualified Term 

Richard Caswelp9 Dobbs December 21, 1776 1776-1777 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 18, 1777 1777-1778 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 20, 1778 1778-1779 

Richard Caswell Dobbs May 4, 1779 1779-1780 

Abner Nash^o Craven April 21, 1780 1780-1781 

Thomas Burke^i Orange June 26, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martinet Guilford October 5, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 22, 1782 1782-1783 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 30, 1783 1783-1784 

Alexander Martin Guilford May 3, 1784 1784-1785 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 12, 1785 1785-1786 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 23, 1786 1786-1787 

Samuel Johnston Chowan December 20, 1787 1787-1788 

Samuel Johnston Chowan November 18, 1788 1788-1789 

Samuel Johnston^^ Chowan November 18, 1789 1789 

Alexander Martin^^ Guilford December 17, 1789 1789-1790 

Alexander Martin Guilford December 9, 1790 1790-1792 

Alexander Martin Guilford January 2, 1792 1792 

Richard Dobbs Spaight .... Craven December 14, 1792 1792-1793 

Richard Dobbs Spaight .... Craven December 26, 1793 1793-1795 

Richard Dobbs Spaight .... Craven January 6, 1795 1795 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover November 19, 1795 ... 1795-1796 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 19, 1796 .... 1796-1797 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 5, 1797 1797-1 798 

William R. Davie6^ Halifax December 7, 1798 1798-1799 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 23, 1799 ... 1799-1800 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 29, 1800 ... 1800-1801 


North Carolina Manual 

Name Residence Qualified 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 28, 1801 

John Baptiste Ashe'''' Halifax 

James Turner''" Warren December 6, 1802 .. 

James Turner Warren December 6, 1803 .. 

James Turner'''^ Warren November 29, 1804 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 10, 1805 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 1, 1806 .. 

Benjamin Williams Moore December 1, 1807 .. 

David Stone Bertie December 12, 1808 

David Stone Bertie December 13, 1809 

Benjamin Smith Brunswick Decembers, 1810 . 

William Hawkins Warren December 9, 1811 . 

William Hawkins Warren Decembers, 1812 . 

William Hawkins Warren December 7, 1813 . 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1814 . 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1815 . 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1816 . 

John Branch Halifax December 6, 1817 . 

John Branch Halifax Decembers, 1818 . 

John Branch Halifax December 7, 1819 . 

Jesse Franklin Surry December 7, 1820 . 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 1821 . 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 1822 . 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 6, 1823 . 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 7, 1824 . 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 6, 1825 . 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 29, 1826 

James Iredell, Jr.'''' Chowan December 8, 1827 . 

John Owen Bladen December 12, 1828 

John Owen Bladen December 10, 1829 

Montford Stokes'" Wilkes December 18, 1830 

Montford Stokes Wilkes December 13, 1831 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 6, 1832 . 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 9, 1833 . 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 10, 1834 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr. ... Craven December 10, 1835 






Name Residence Qualified Term 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 31, 1836 .... 1836-1838 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 29, 1838 .... 1838-1841 

John M. Morehead Guilford January 1, 1841 1841-1842 

John M. Morehead Guilford December 31, 1842 .... 1842-1845 

William A. Graham Orange January 1, 1845 1845-1847 

WilHam A. Graham Orange January 1, 1847 1847-1849 

Charles Manly Wake January 1, 1849 1849-1851 

David S. Reid'2 Rockingham January 1, 1851 1851-1852 

David S. Reid^3 Rockingham December 22, 1852 .... 1852-1854 

Warren Winslow^^ Cumberland December 6, 1854 1854-1855 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1855 1855-1857 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1857 1857-1859 

John W. Ellis Rowan January 1, 1859 1859-1861 

The Executive Branch 19 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

John W. Ellis'^5 Rowan January 1, 1861 1861 

Henry T. Clark^^ Edgecombe July 7, 1861 1861-1862 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe September 8, 1862 .... 1862-1864 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe December 22, 1864 .... 1864-1865 

William W. Holden" Wake May 29, 1865 1865 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 15, 1865 .... 1865-1866 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 22, 1866 .... 1866-1868 


Name Residence Qualified Term 

William W. Holden^^ Wake July 1, 1868 1868-1870 

Tod R. CaldwelPo Burke December 15, 1870 .... 1870-1873 

Tod R. CaldwelPi Burke January 1, 1873 1873-1874 

Curtis H. Brogden Wayne July 14, 1874 1874-1877 

Zebulon B. Vance^s Buncombe January 1, 1877 1877-1879 

Thomas J. Jarvis^a Pitt February 5, 1879 1879-1881 

Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt January 18, 1881 1881-1885 

James L. Robinson84 Macon September 1, 1883 1883 

Alfred M. Scales Rockingham January 21, 1885 1885-1889 

Daniel G. Fowle^^ Wake January 17, 1889 1889-1891 

Thomas M. Holt Alamance April 8, 1891 1891-1893 

Elias Carr Edgecombe January 18, 1893 1893-1897 

Daniel L. Russell Brunswick January 12, 1897 1897-1901 

Charles B. Aycock Wayne January 15, 1901 1901-1905 

Robert B. Glenn Forsyth January 11, 1905 1905-1909 

William W. Kitchin Person January 12, 1909 1909-1913 

Locke Craig Buncombe January 15, 1913 1913-1917 

Thomas W. Bickett Franklin January 11, 1917 1917-1921 

Cameron Morrison Mecklenburg January 12, 1921 1921-1925 

Angus W. McLean Robeson January 14, 1925 1925-1929 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland January 11, 1929 1929-1933 

John C. B. Ehringhaus Pasquotank January 5, 1933 1933-1937 

Clyde R. Hoey Cleveland January 7, 1937 1937-1941 

John Melville Broughton ...Wake January 9, 1941 1941-1945 

Robert Gregg Cherry Gaston January 4, 1945 1945-1949 

William Kerr Scott Alamance January 6, 1949 1949-1953 

William B. Umstead^e Durham January 8, 1953 1953-1954 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham November 7, 1954 1954-1957 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham February 7, 1957 1957-1961 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

Terry Sanford Cumberland January 5, 1961 1961-1965 

Daniel K. Moore Jackson January 8, 1965 1965-1969 

Robert W. Scott Alamance January 3, 1969 1969-1973 

James E. Holshouser, Jr.8' ....Watauga January 5, 1973 1973-1977 

James B. Hunt, Jr Wilson January 8, 1977 1977-1981 

James B. Hunt, Jr.^s Wilson January 10, 1981 1981-1985 

James G. Martin Iredell January 5, 1985 1985-1989 

James G. Martin Iredell January 7, 1989 1989 

20 North Carolina Manual 

Governors of "Virginia" 

'Lane was appointed by Sir Walter Raleigh and left Plymouth, England on April 9, 
1585. His expedition reached the New World in July; however a colony was not 
established until August. 

'-'White was appointed by Sir Walter Raleigh and departed from Portsmouth, England 
on April 26, 1587; however, the expedition made stops at Isle of Wight and Plymouth 
before setting sail for "Virginia" on May 5. They reached the area to be settled on July 22, 
but Governor White wanted to make some preliminary explorations before allowing the 
remainder of his party to go ashore. Three days later the colonists left the ships. Food 
shortages and the absence of other needed supplies forced White to leave for England on 
August 27, 1587. Delayed in England because of war with Spain, White did not return to 
North Carolina until 1590. Leaving England on March 20, he arrived in August, but 
found no evidence of life. On a nearby tree he found the letters C.R.O. and on another 
CROATAN. White never did find his missing colony and the mystery of the "Lost 
Colony" is still unsolved. 

Proprietary Chief Executives 

"•Stephens was appointed "commander of the southern plantations" by the council in 
Virginia. The geographical location of the "southern plantations" is that area in 
northeastern North Carolina where "overflow" settlers from Virginia lived. William S. 
Powell had suggested that Stephens' "presence in Carolina removed any urgency for a 
prompt appointment" of a Governor for Carolina when Berkeley was instructed to do so 
by the Lords Proprietors and explains why Drummond was not appointed until 1664. 

^Drummond was appointed by William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia and one of the 
Lords Proprietors, at the request of the Lords Proprietors in England. He began serving 
prior to the delivery of his commission by Peter Carteret in February, 1665. Since other 
commissions issued to Carteret bear the date December, 3, 1664, it is possible that 
Drummond's commission was also issued on that date. Records show that he was still 
Governor in December, 1666, and that a successor was not appointed until October, 1667. 
He supposedly moved to Virginia sometime during 1667. 

^Stephens was appointed by the Lords Proprietors to replace Drummond and began 
serving prior to the delivery of his commission in April, 1668. He died while still in office 
sometime before March 7, 1670. 

^Carteret had been commissioned Lieutenant Governor by the Lords Proprietors on 
December 3, 1664 and was chosen President by the North Carolina Council upon the 
death of Stephens. He was later appointed Governor by the Lords Proprietors. He left the 
colony for England sometime after May 10, 1672. 

'^See footnote 6. 

**Jenkins was commissioned by Carteret to act as deputy governor when he left the 
colony. The authority of Carteret to make this appointment rested in commissions issued 
by the Lords Proprietors in October, 1670, but expired "at the end of four years" 
according to provisions in the Fundamental Constitutions. Carteret had not returned to 
the colony when his commission to Jenkins officially expired; however, Jenkins 
continued to serve. When the general assembly met, following elections in September, 
1675, opposition had formed against Jenkins and he was imprisoned on charges of 
"several misdemeanors". 

^Eastchurch was elected speaker of the assembly and assumed the role of governor 
following the imprisonment of Jenkins. He seems to have remained in this position until 
the spring of 1676 when he departed the colony for England. 

'"Eastchurch "apparently left someone else as speaker, for the assembly remained in 
session". However, Jenkins was forceably released from prison by friends "at some date 
before late March, 1676." He exercised enough control to hold a court and for a period 
prior to the departure of Eastchurch for England, both he and Jenkins exercised control 
over the province. In October, 1976, Jenkins, backed by an armed force, dissolved the 
assembly and resumed the role of governor. 

"See footnote 10. 

'-Eastchurch was commissioned governor by the Lords Proprietors. Upon his return to 

The Executive Branch 21 

the colony he stopped at Nevis in the West Indies and sought the attention of a wealthy 
lady. Deciding to remain in Nevis for a while, he appointed Thomas Miller deputy 
governor until his return. (Eastchurch never returned to North Carolina — he died in 
Virginia while on his way back to the colony). Because he had not offically qualified as 
governor in Albemarle, Eastchurch had no legal authority to appoint Miller; however, 
when Miller reached Albemarle he was able to secure his position with little initial 
trouble. The policies used by Miller to quiet opposition and his general handling of the 
government soon put him in conflict with the populace. This conflict erupted into a 
political upheaval which became known as "Culpepper's Rebellion." 

I'^See footnote 12. 

'^Tradition is that John Culpepper was elected governor by the Assembly when they 
rebelled against Miller; however, there is no documentary evidence to substantiate the 
claim that he held any post other than that of customs collector. Dr. Lindley Butler 
suggests that it is possible that John Jenkins, the last de jure executive of the colony, 
acted as a de facto government and evidence exists that a "rebel" council meeting was 
held in early 1678 at his home. 

' ^Sothel was appointed governor in 1678, but was captured "by the Turkes and carried 
into Argier . . ." and did not take office. "Afidavitt of John Taylor" and Lords Proprietors 
to the "Governor and Councell of the County of Albemarle in the Province of Carolina". 

"'Harvey's commission instructed him to act as "President of the Council and execute 
the authority of the government until the arrival of Mr. Sothell". Other details are not 
known. He died while still in office. 

•"Jenkins was elected president of the council following the death of Harvey and died 
on December 17, 1681 while still in office. 

' ''Wilkinson was appointed by the Lords Proprietors but never left England — "he was 
arrested and imprisoned in London while preparing to sail". 

'^Sothel, following his purchase of the "Earl of Clarendon's share of Carolina", 
became governor under a provision of the Fundamental Constitution which "provided 
that the eldest proprietor that shall be in Carolina shall be Governor . . . ." The date of 
Sothel's assumption of Governorship is not known. Extant records tell nothing about the 
government of Albemarle in the year following Jenkins' death. It is possible that Sothel 
reached the colony and took office before Jenkins died or soon afterwards; it is possible 
that for a time there was an acting governor, chosen by the council; or there may have 
been a period of chaos. Nothing is known except that Sothel arrived in Albemarle at some 
time prior to March 10, 1682, when he held court at Edward Smithwick's house in 
Chowan Precinct. Sothel actions and policies soon became intolerable to the people of 
Albemarle and at the meeting of the assembly in 1689, thirteen charges of misconduct 
and irregularties were brought against him. He was banished from the colony for 12 
months and was prohibited from ever again holding public office in Albemarle. On 
December 5, 1689, the Lords Proprietors offically suspended Sothel as governor because 
he abused the authority granted him as a proprietor. 

^oArchdale was in the colony by December, 1683, to collect quitrents and remained in 
Albemarle until 1686. While Governor Sothel was absent from the county, Archdale 
served on many occasions as acting governor. 

2iThe Fundamental Constitutions provided that the eldest proprietor livmg m the 
colony would be governor and that if there were none, then the eldest cacique was to act. 
"Gibbs, a relative of the Duke of Albemarle, had been made a cacique of Carohna m 
October, 1682, and had been granted a manor in the southern Carolina colony a few 
months later. Gibbs came to Albemarle at some date before November, 1689, by which 
time he was known as 'governor'. His claim to the governorship seems to have been 
recognized in the colony for a time; an assembly appears to have been held while he was 
governor'. It is probable that Albemarle inhabitants recognized his claim until word 
arrived of Ludwell's appointment, which was made in December, 1689." Even after 
Ludwell arrived in Albemarle Gibbs continued to claim his right to the office. In July, 
1690 both were advised by the Virginia governor to carry their dispute to the proprietors 
in England, which was apparently done. On November 8, 1691 a proclamation was 
issued by the proprietors to the inhabitants of Albemarle reaffirming Sothel s suspension 
and repudiating the claim of Gibbs. They also suspended the Fundamental Constitutions 
which stripped Gibbs of any further legal basis for his actions. (The actions ot the 
Proprietors on November 8, 1691 did in fact suspend the Fundamental Constitutions 

22 North Carolina Manual 

even though formal announcement oftheir suspension was not made until May 11, 1693.) 

^"Ludwell was originally commissioned governor by the Lords Proprietors on December 
5, 1689 following the suspension of Sothel, but his dispute with Gibbs led to the issuance 
of a second commission on November 8, 1691. He served as governor until his 
appointment as governor of all Carolina. 

-y arvis acted as deputy governor while Ludwell was in Virginia and England. He was 
officially appointed deputy governor upon Ludwell's acceptance of the governorship of 
Carolina and served until his death in 1694. 

^''Ludwell served as acting governor, possibly by appointment of Thomas Smith 
governor of Carolina; however, the authority under which he acted is not known. In 
October, 1694 it is apparent that the Proprietors did not know of his position as the 
proprietors refer to him as "our late Governor of North Carolina." He issued a 
proclamation on November 28, 1693 and land grant records indicate that he acted as 
chief executive intermittantly throughout 1694 and as late as May of 1695. Records show 
that he was residing in Virginia by April and had been elected to represent James City 
County in the Virginia Assembly. 

-^Harvey became president of the council upon the death of Jarvis in 1694. He was 
presiding over the council on July 12, 1694 and signed several survey warrants the same 
day. He continued serving until his death on July 3, 1699. 

-''Archdale stopped in North Carolina for a few weeks and acted as chief executive on 
his way to Charleston to assume office as Governor of Carolina. He was in Virginia 
enroute to Charleston on June 11, 12, and 13, 1695 and was in Charleston by August 17, 
1695, the date on which he took the oath of office at Charleston. 

- ' Archdale's authority to act as governor rested with his previous commission which 
was still valid. The problem of gubenatorial succession at this time is due to the death of 
Lord Craven and the confusion over the tenure of Lord Bath. Since no one other than the 
Lord Palatine could commission a new governor, there had been no "regular" governor 
appointed for Carolina. 

-^Walker, as president of the council, assumed the role of chief executive shortly after 
the death of Harvey and relinquished it upon the arrival of Robert Daniel (sometime 
between June 20, 1703 and July 29, 1703). 

-^Daniel was appointed deputy governor of Carolina by Sir Nathaniel Johnson, 
Governor of Carolina, and was acting in this capacity by July 29, 1703. Conflicts with 
minority religious groups, primarily the Quakers, led to his supension in March 1705. 

'"Gary was appointed by Sir Nathaniel Johnson, Governor of Carolina, to replace 
Daniel, and arrived in North Carolina on March 21, 1705. Dissenters were pleased 
initially with the appointment, because Gary was related by marriage to John Archdale, 
the Quaker proprietor; however, this initial feeling soon changed. When he arrived in 
North Carolina, Gary found Anglicans in most places of power and therefore, cast his lot 
with them. Although the law requiring oaths of allegiance was still on the statutes books, 
dissenters had assumed that Gary would not enforce it. However, when the General 
Court met on March 27, the oath act was read and put into execution. At the General 
Assembly meeting in November, 1705, Quaker members were again required to take 
oaths; they refused and were excluded. Then Gary and his allies passed a law which 
voided the election of anyone found guilty of promoting his own candidacy. This loosely 
defined bill gave the majority faction in the lower house the power to exclude any 
undesirable member and was designed to be used against troublesome non-Quakers (who 
had no convictions against oath swearing). 

The dissenters and some disgruntled Anglicans now decided to send an agent to 
England to plead for relief. In October, 1706, their chosen representative, John Porter, 
left Albemarle for London — it is almost certain that Porter was not a Quaker and, in fact, 
may have been an Anglican. Although he did not take the oaths of office with his fellow 
justices at the October-November 1 705 session of the General Court, he had taken them in 
March, 1705. In England, Porter received the support of John Archdale, who persuaded 
the Lords Proprietors to issue orders to Porter, suspending Sir Nathaniel Johnson's 
authority over North Carolina, removing Gary as deputy governor, naming five new 
councillors, and authorizing the council to elect a chief executive. 

Returning to Albemarle in October, 1 707, Porter found William Glover and the council 
presiding over the government because Gary had left for a visit to South Carolina. This 
arrangement appeared satisfactory to Porter, who called the new lords deputies together 

The Executive Branch 23 

and nominated Glover as president of the council. Glover was elected, but the vote was 
illegal since Porter's instructions required that Gary and the former councillors be 
present for the voting. Porter knew exactly what he was doing, however, and later used 
the illegality of the election to force Glover out of office. 

On November 3, 1707, Glover convened the general assembly at John Hecklfield's 
house at Little River. Joining him in the upper house as lords deputies were Porter, 
Foster, Newby, Hawkins, and Thomas Gary, recently returned from South Carolina. 
After requesting that the lower house send its list of members to him, the president 
proposed dissolution of the assembly without further business. Gary objected, but the 
following day Glover and the rest of the council dissolved the General Assembly. 
Although he had been required to convene the assembly in compliance with the biennial 
act which specified that a legislative session be held every two years. Glover apparently 
did not want Gary to use the gathering as a forum. 

At some point between the close of the assembly in November, 1707, and the summer of 
1708, Glover turned on the dissenters. Apparently, he decided to revive the oath of office 
and force the Quaker councillors to take it. Seeing the turn of events, Gary moved to join 
Porter and the dissenters in the hope of regaining the chief executive's office. After 
receiving assurances of toleration from Gary, Porter moved decisively. Late in the 
summer of 1708, he called together both Gary's old councillors and the new ones, as he 
was originally supposed to have done in October, 1707, and announced that Glover's 
election as president had been illegal. Glover, joined by Thomas Pollock, protested 
vigorously and armed violence broke out between the two factions. Soon though, both 
sides agreed to let the General Assembly determine the validity of their rival claims. 
Gary and Glover each issued separate writs of election to every precinct which then 
proceeded to elect two sets of burgesses — one pledged to Gary and one to Glover. Gary 
men predominated in Bath Gounty and Pasquotank and Perquimans precincts; Glover 
men controlled Gurrituck precinct, and Ghowan was almost evenly divided. In the 
critical maneuvering for control of the assembly which met October 1 1 , 1708, Gary forces 
scored an early, ultimately decisive victory. Edward Moseley, an Anglican vestryman, 
was chosen speaker of the house. Despite his religious affiliation, he was a Gary 
supporter. Through Moseley's careful management, Gary delegates were seated from 
every precinct except Currituck. When news of the Gary victory in the lower house 
reached Glover, he departed for Virginia. (There is evidence that Glover continued to act 
in the capacity of president of a council during 1709 and 1710 — land grant records 
indicate several grants throughout each year bear his name and the names of his 
councillors. The general assembly nullified the test oaths, and the council officially 
elected Gary president. 

The Lords Proprietors were slow to intervene in the situation in North Carolina. In 
December, 1 708, they appointed Edward Tynte to be governor of Carolina and instructed 
him to make Edward Hyde deputy governor of North Carolina. Arriving in the colony 
early in 1711, Hyde had no legal claim on the deputy governorship because Tynte had 
died before commissioning him. However, he was warmly received in Albemarle, and his 
position as a distant kinsman of the queen was so impressive that the council elected 
Hyde to the presidency. He called a general assembly for March, 1711, where he 
recommended harsh legislation against dissenters and the arrest of Gary and Porter. 
From his home in Bath, Gary rallied his supporters to resist, and the armed conflict 
known as the Gary Rebellion began. 

^'See footnote 30. 

^'■^See footnote 30. 

^^See footnote 30. 

3''See footnote 30. 

■^^See footnote 30. 

36Edward Hyde served first as president of the council and later as governor by 
commission from the Lords Proprietors. When Gary challenged his authority, armed 
conflict erupted between the two. The event, known as Gary's Rebellion, ended with the 
arrest of Gary - he was later released for lack of evidence. Hyde continued as governor 
until his death on September 8, 1712. 

^■'See fotnote 36. u cu a a 

38Pollock, as president of the council, became governor following the death ol Hyde and 
served in that capacity until the arrival of Charles Eden. 

24 North Carolina Manual 

■^^Eden was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors and served until his death on 
March 22, 1722. 

^"Pollock, as president of the council, became chief executive after Eden's death, and 
served until his own death in September, 1722. 

^'Reed was elected president of the council, to replace Pollock and as such served until 
the arrival of George Burrington. 

^-Burrington was commissioned governor of North Carolina by the Lords Proprietors 
and served until he was removed from office. Why he was removed is not officially 

^■'Moseley, as president of the council, was sworn in as acting governor when 
Burrington left the colony to travel to South Carolina. By November 7, 1724 Burrington 
had returned to North Carolina. 

^^Everard was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors following the removal of 
Burrington, who continued to create problems for Everard after he had taken office. 
Everard remained governor during the period of transition when North Carolina became 
a royal colony. 

Royal Chief Executives 

^"'In 1729, the Lords Proprietors gave up ownership of North Carolina and with it the 
right to appoint governors and other officials. 

^''Burrington was the first governor commissioned by the crown, and the only man to 
be appointed by both the Lords Proprietors and the crown. He qualified before the council 
in 1731. His political enemies succeeded in securing his removal from office in 1734. 

^"Rice served as chief executive while Burrington was out of the colony. 

^'^Johnston was commissioned by the crown and served as governor until his death on 
July 17, 1752. 

^^Rice, as president of the council, became Chief executive following the death of 
Johnston; however, he too was advanced in age and soon died. 

"'"Rowan was elected president following the death of Rice and served as chief 
executive until the arrival of Dobbs. 

^'Dobbs was commissioned by the crown and arrived in North Carolina in late 
October, 1754. He qualified before the chief justice and three members of the council who 
had met him in Bath. He continued serving until his death in March, 1765. 

^-Hassel served as chief executive during the absence of Dobbs from the colony. Dobbs 
had returned by December 19, 1763. 

"''Tryon, who had been commissioned lieutenant governor under Dobbs, served as 
chief executive, first under his commission as lieutenant governor, and then under a new 
commission as governor. He served in this capacity until 1711 when he was appointed 
governor to New York. 

^^See footnote 53. 

^^James Hasell, as president of the council, acted as interim governor until the arrival 
of Josiah Martin. 

'''^Josiah Martin was appointed by the crown and served as the last royal governor of 
North Carolina. The date of his actual relinquishing of authority has been one of 
controversy among historians. Some cite the day he left North Carolina soil in July, 1 775 
as the termination date, others accept July 4, 1776. Martin considered himself to be 
governor throughout the Revolution since his commission had not been rescinded. 

"'"Hasell, as president of the council, acted as temporary governor during the absence of 
Martin who had left the colony for New York for reasons of health. 

Governors Elected by the General Assembly 

^**The Constitution of 1776 provided that the general assembly "elect a governor for one 
year, who shall not be eligible to that office longer than three years, in six successive 

■"'^Caswell was appointed by the Provincial Congress to act "until [the] next General 
Assembly." He was later elected by the general assembly to one regular term and two 
additional terms. 

*'"The House and Senate Journals for 1780 are missing; however, loose papers found in 

The Executive Branch 25 

the North Carohna Archives provided the necessary information. Nash requested that 
his name be withdrawn from nomination in 1781. 

«'0n September 12, 1781, Burke and several other state officials and continental 
officers were captured by the British. Burke was sent to Sullivan's Island near 
Charleston, South Carolina and later transferred to James Island. After several 
attempts, he was able to obtain a parole to return to North Carolina in late January, 1782. 
General Alexander Leslie, who issued the parole, later changed his mind and wrote 
General Nathaniel Greene requesting the immediate return of Burke. Feeling that it was 
more important for him to remain in North CaroHna, Burke refused to comply with the 
request despite urgings from several men of importance who questioned the legality, as 
well as the prudency, of his actions. The adversity which developed, prompted Burke to 
have his name withdrawn from the list of nominees for governor in 1782. He retired from 
public life to his home near Hillsborough where he died the following year. 

f^-Martin, as speaker of the senate, was qualified as acting governor upon receiving 
news of Burke's capture. He served in this capacity until Burke returned to North 
Carolina in late January, 1782. 

•^^On November 26, 1789 Johnston was elected as United States Senator after having 
already qualified as governor. A new election was held on December 5, and Alexander 
Martin was elected to replace him. 

^^See footnote 63. 

•^^Davie served only one term as governor due to his appointment in 1799 by President 
Adams to a special diplomatic mission to France. Crabtree, North Carolina Governors, 

''SAshe died before he could qualify, and Turner was elected to replace him. 

^■'See footnote 66. 

^'^Turner was elected to the United States Senate on November 21 , 1805 to fill a vacancy 
created by the resignation of Montford Stokes. 

•^^Iredell resigned on December 1, 1828 following his election to the United States 
Senate to fill the seat vacated by the resignation of Nathaniel Macon. 

""Stokes was appointed by President Jackson in 1832 as "chairman of the Federal 
Indian Commission to supervise the settlement of southern Indians west of the 

Governors Elected by the People — Two- Year Term 

'''The Constitutional Convention of 1835 approved an amendment to the constitution 
which provided for the popular election of governor. The terms of office for governor was 
lengthened to two years; however, he could only serve two terms in a six-year period. 

''^Manly was defeated for re-election by Reid in 1850. 

"^On November 24, 1854, Reid was elected by the general assembly to complete the 
unexpired term of Willie P. Mangum in the United States Senate. He resigned as 
governor following the resignation of Reid. 

"^Winslow, as speaker of the house, qualified as governor following the resignation of 

^sEllis died on July 7, 1861. 

■'^Clark, as speaker of the senate, became governor following the death of Ellis. 

■'■'Holden was appointed provisional governor on May 9, 1865 by the occupation 
commander. He was defeated by Worth in the popular election of 1865. 

'"The North Carolina Constitution of 1868 extended the term of office for governor 
from two years to four years, but prohibited him from seeking re-election for the following 

Governors Elected by the People — Four- Year Term 

''sThe efforts of the conservatives in keeping blacks away from the polls during the 
election of 1870 resulted in a substantial majority of the seats in the General Assembly 
beingwonbyconservativecandidates. On December 9, 1870, a resolution of impeachment 
against Holden was introduced in the House of Representatives by Frederick N. 
Strudwick of Orange. In all, eight charges were brought against Governor Holden. The 

26 North Carolina Manual 

trial lasted from February 2, 1871 to March 23, 1871, and Holden was found guilty on six 
of the eight charges. He was immediately removed from office. 

*°Caldwell became governor following the removal of Holden from office and was 
elected governor in the general elections of 1872. He died in office July 11, 1874. 

8'See footnote 80. 

"^-Vance was elected governor in 1876. On January 21, 1879 he was elected to the United 
States Senate by the general assembly and resigned as governor effective February 5, 

'^''Jarvis became governor following the resignation of Vance, and was elected 
governor in the general elections of 1880. 

•^^Robinson was sworn in as governor on September 1 , 1 883 to act while Jarvis was out 
of the state. He served from September 1 through September 28. 

«5Fowle died April 7, 1891. 

•^^Umstead died on November 7, 1954. 

*^"Holshouser was the first Republican elected Governor since 1896 when Daniel 
Russell was elected. 

*^'^Hunt became the first governor elected to a four-year term who was then elected to 
another term. A constitutional amendment adopted in 1977 permitted the governor & 
lieutenant governor to run for re-election. 

'^^Martin was elected in 1984 becoming only the second Republican elected in this 
century. He was reelected in 1988. 

The Executive Branch 27 


The origin of the office goes back to 16th century England, when the 
English Crown established the office of the Lord Lieutenant, a county 
official who represented the king in the management of local affairs. 

Although several early American colonial charters referred to a "deputy 
governor," the phrase "Lieutenant Governor" was used for the first time in 
the Massachusetts Charter of 1691. That charter also made it clear that the 
Lieutenant Governor would become governor in the event of a vacancy. The 
office of the Lieutenant Governor in colonial times seems to have been 
established expressly to cope with the problem of gubernatorial absence. 

The concept of the Lieutenant Governor presiding over the upper house of 
the state legislature may have had its roots in the colonial practice of 
making the Lieutenant Governor the chief member of the Governor's 

The North Carolina Constitution of 1776 made no provision for a 
Lieutenant Governor. However, the constitutional convention of 1868, 
brought together to frame a new constitution, provided for an elective office 
of the Lieutenant Governor. 

Between 1868 and 1970, the Lieutenant Governor was a part-time official 
with very limited authority. He served only when the General Assembly was 
in session or in the absence of the Governor. His primary responsibility was 
that of presiding officer of the Senate, and in that capacity, he appointed 
senators to committees, and oversaw legislation as it passed through the 
Senate. Today, the office of Lieutenant Governor is a full-time position and 
is no longer limited to one four-year term — he may be elected to one addi- 
tional, consecutive four-year term. 

In 1989, the Senate Rules Committee stripped the Lieutenant Governor of 
his powers to make appointments to standing committees and to assign bills 
to committees. He retained the authority to make appointments to more than 
40 boards and commissions within the executive branch. He also serves on 
many boards and commissions including the State Board of Education, the 
North CaroHna Internship Council, the Board of Economic Development, 
the State Board of Community Colleges and the North Carolina Capital 
Planning Commission. The Lieutenant Governor is a member of the Council 
of State and serves as chairman of the Governmental Operations Committee, 
which has the authority to scrutinize the expenditure of tax dollars by State 
government agencies. 

Unlike any other state official, the Lieutenant Governor straddles the 
executive and legislative branches, vested with constitutional and statutory 
powers in both branches. Under the constitution he is first in line to succeed 
to the governorship should that office become vacant. 

The Lieutenant Governor has a staff to help him carry out his duties. 
Much of the work of this staff involves responding to citizen inquiries and 
problems, developing policy initiatives, and working with other state 
agencies. While the legislature is in session the Lieutenant Governor is 
served by a legislative counsel who acts as liaison to members of the 
General Assembly. 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 29 

James Carson Gardner 

Lieutenant Governor 

Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, Nash County, April 8, 1933, to 
James Cuthrell Gardner (deceased) and Sue Trenholm. 

Education: Rocky Mount City Schools; North Carolina State University. 

Professional Background: Executive Vice President and Co-Founder, 
Hardee's Food Systems, Inc.; President, Gardner Foods, Inc. 

Organizations: Former member, Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: NC Board of Education; NC Board of Community Colleges; 
Economic Development Board; Chairman, NC Teaching Fellows Commis- 
sion; Capitol Planning Commission; Chairman, NC Drug Cabinet. 

Political Activities: Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina, 1989-; Mem- 
ber, US Congress, 1966; Chairman, NC Republican Party, 1965; Republican 

Military Service: United States Army, Private First Class, 1953-55. 

Literary Works: "A Time to Speak." 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Rocky 

Family: Married, Mary Elizabeth Tyler, October 5, 1957. Children: Beth 
(Gardner) Strandberg, Terry (Gardner) Noble, and Christopher. 

30 North Carolina Manual 


Name Residence Term 

Tod R. Caldwell- Burke 1868-1870 

Curtis H. Brogden' Wayne 1873-1874 

Thomas J. Jarvis^ Pitt 1877-1879 

James L. Robinson^ Macon 1881-1885 

Charles M. Stedman New Hanover 1885-1889 

Thomas M. Holt'^ Alamance 1889-1891 

Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany 1893-1897 

Charles A. Reynolds Forsyth 1897-1901 

Wilfred D. Turner Iredell 1901-1905 

Francis D. Winston Bertie 1905-1909 

William C. Newland Caldwell 1909-1913 

Elijah L. Daughtridge Edgecombe 1913-1917 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland 1917-1921 

William B. Cooper New Hanover 1921-1925 

Jacob E. Long Durham 1925-1929 

Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe 1929-1933 

Alexander H. Graham Orange 1933-1937 

WilkinsP. Horton Chatham 1937-1941 

Reginald L. Harris Person 1941-1945 

Lynton Y. Ballentine Wake 1945-1949 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor Anson 1949-1953 

Luther H. Hodges^ Rockingham 1953-1954 

Luther E. Barnhardt Cabarrus 1957-1961 

Harvey Cloyd Philpott« Davidson 1961-1965 

Robert W. Scott Alamance 1965-1969 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson 1969-1973 

James B. Hunt, Jr Pitt 1973-1977 

James C. Green-' Bladen 1977-1985 

Robert B. Jordan, HI Montgomery 1985-1989 

James C. Gardner'" Nash 1989- 

'The office of lieutenant governor was created by the North Carolina Constitution of 

^Caldwell became governor following the removal of Holden from office in 1870. 

■'Brogden became governor following the death of Caldwell. 

^Jarvis became governor following the resignation of Vance. 

^Robinson resigned from office on October 13, 1884. 

*'HoIt became governor following the death of Fowle. 

"Hodges became governor following the death of Umstead. 

sphilpott died on August 18, 1961. 

^Green was the first lieutenant governor elected to a second term. 
'"Gardner was elected in 1988, becoming the first Republican elected lieutenant 
governor this century. 

The Executive Branch 31 


The office of secretary is the second oldest governmental office in North 
Carolina. Shortly after the Lords Proprietors were granted their charter in 
1663, the first secretary was appointed to maintain the records of the colony. 
The office continued after the purchase of North Carolina from the Lords 
Proprietors by the crown in 1728. After Independence, the office of Secretary 
of State was included in the Constitution of 1776. 

Prior to 1868, the Secretary of State was elected by the General Assembly 
in joint session for a term of one year prior to 1835 and two years following 
constitutional amendments that changed the meetings of the General 
Assembly from annually to biennially. Individuals elected to the office were 
usually reelected on a regular basis. Only seven men held the office during 
its first 92 years and only 21 individuals have held the office since its 
creation in 1776. William Hill who was Secretary of State from 1811 until his 
death in 1857, served a total of 46 years. This record of service seemed an 
unbreakable mark until the election of 1936 when a young politician from 
Hertford County was elected Secretary of State. On December 22, 1982, Thad 
Eure broke the record. In 1989, the "oldest 'rat in the democratic barn" 
retired from office after more than 52 years as North Carolina's "Mr. 

The Secretary of State is a constitutional officer elected to a four-year term 
by the citizens of North Carolina at the same time as other elected executive 
officials. He heads the Department of the Secretary of State which was 
created by the Executive Organization Act of 1971. The Secretary of State is 
a member of the Council of State and is an ex-officio member of the Local 
Government Commission and Capital Planning Commission. He also serves 
on the Information Technology Commission (formerly the Computer Com- 
mission) and is chairman of the Constitutional Amendments Publications 

By statute he receives all ratified bills of the General Assembly as well as 
the original journals of the state Senate and state House of Representatives. 

The Secretary of State is empowered by law to administer oaths to any 
public official of whom an oath is required. He is frequently called upon to 
administer oaths to officers of the Highway Patrol, judges and other elected 

The Secretary of State is required to faithfully perform the duties assigned 
him by the Constitution and laws of North Carolina. The Department of the 
Secretary of State, under the direction of the Secretary of State, is charged 
with maintaining certain records pertaining to state and local government 
actions and the commercial activities of private business. This duty is 
imposed by many widely distributed sections of the General Statutes of 
North Carolina and involves varying degrees of responsibility from review- 
ing of documents for conformity to statutory requirements prior to filing to 
enforcement authority. The Department has responsibility under approxi- 
mately fifty separate statutes which may be divided into categories dealing 
with custodianship of the Constitution and laws of the State, administrative 
commercial law, the elective process, the General Assembly and public 

32 North Carolina Manual 

General Administration Division 

The General Administration Division, under the supervision of the 
Secretary of State and his chief deputy, is responsible for all administrative 
and management functions including budget, personnel, planning and co- 
ordination. In addition, the Division handles miscellaneous statutory duties 
and responsibilities not assigned to one of the other departmental divisions. 
Included among these are the registration of lobbyists, the registration of 
trademarks, and the recording of municipal annexation ordinances. 

Corporations Division 

The Corporations Division is responsible for filing corporation and limited 
partnership documents as required by the laws of North Carolina. The 
various corporation and limited partnership laws are enabling statutes 
under which these organizations are created. The responsibility of the 
Secretary of State is to ensure uniform compliance with such statutes, record 
information required as a public record, prevent duplication of corporate 
names and furnish information to the public. In 1989 a complete rewrite of 
the Corporation Laws of North Carolina was enacted by the General 

The division is responsible for maintaining records on approximately 
150,000 current corporations and limited partnerships. The Information 
Services Group handles more that 700 inquiries daily regarding the records 
and the unit processes more that 50,000 documents each year. 

Notary Public Division 

The function of issuing commissions to notaries public was transferred to 
the Department of the Secretary of State from the Office of the Governor 
under the Executive Organization Act of 1971. The primary purpose of the 
Notary Public Division is to provide a means for establishing the authenticity 
of signatures. This is accomplished through the issuing of commissions to 
notaries public in all of the counties in North Carolina. 

In 1983, the Department of the Secretary of State, in cooperation with the 
Department of Community Colleges, developed and implemented a Notary 
Public Education Program. The purpose of this program is to educate 
notaries about the legal, ethical and technical requirements of performing a 
notarial act. North Carolina is recognized as first in the nation for this 

In order to be a notary in North Carolina, an individual must meet certain 
eligibility requirements as prescribed in G.S. 10. These include: 

(1) satisfactory completion of a course of study approved by the 
Secretary of State consisting of not less than three hours nor more 
than six hours of classroom instruction (practicing attorneys at law 
are exempt); 

(2) applying for appointment on a form provided by the Secretary of 
State and made available by the instructor upon the satisfactory 
completion of the required course work; 

(3) being at least 18 years of age; 

The Executive Branch 33 

(4) purchasing a manual approved by the Secretary of State that 
describes the duties, authority and ethical responsibilities of notaries 

(5) possessing a high school diploma or its equivalent; and 

(6) obtaining a recommendation as to character and fitness from one 
publicly elected official in North Carolina. 

The office of notary public is one of the oldest in history, having existed as 
far back as the days of the Greek and Roman Empires. There are notaries in 
every one of the 50 United States and in most of the countries around the 

Publications Division 

The Publications Division is primarily responsible for the compiling and 
publishing of information which will be useful to the General Assembly, to 
state agencies, and to the people of North Carolina. In addition, it is also 
responsible for maintaining, for public inspection, certain records for which 
the Secretary of State is custodian. The division publishes such useful items 
as the Directory of State and County Officials of North Carolina, the North 
Carolina Manual, and other publications. 

Questions concerning the duties and responsibilities of state agencies, the 
organizational structure of government, and the general inquiries about 
North Carolina have increased, particularly from our school-age citizens. 
Because of this increase, a major emphasis is placed on providing our school 
children with educational materials necessary to help them become more 
informed citizens. Many informational pamphlets and publications are avail- 
able upon request and "school information packets" for both the elementary 
and secondary grade levels are prepared and distributed. 

Within the Publications Division is the Land Grants Section where the 
historical land grants for North Carolina dating from the 1660's are found. 
Also in this section are the original ratified acts of the General Assemblies 
of North Carolina, as well as primary and general election voting results for 
recent elections. Over 1,000 people visit the Land Grants Section each year 
in search of some clue to a family tie or to use election returns and other 
records. In an effort to preserve and protect these valuable records, the 
Publications Division is working with the state Archives to microfilm the 
land grant records and transfer the originals to the state Archives for 
permanent keeping. 

The Securities Division 

The Securities Division is responsible for administering the state's securi- 
ties laws. These "blue sky" laws, as they are known, are provided for in 
Chapters 78A, 78B, 78C, and 78D of the General Statutes. The intent of these 
laws is to protect the investing public by requiring a satisfactory investi- 
gation of both the people who offer securities and of the securities them- 
selves. The laws provide for significant investigatory powers and for due 
process in any administrative, civil or criminal action. The Securities 
Division is the appropriate state agency for addressing investor complaints 

34 North Carolina Manual 

concerning securities brokers, stockbrokers, investment advisors, or com- 
modity dealers, and for inquiring about offerings of particular securities or 
commodities. Although the division cannot represent an investor in a claim 
for monetary damages, the staff can investigate alleged violations and 
suspend or revoke a license, issue stop orders against securities offerings, 
issue cease and desist orders, seek court ordered injunctions, or refer the 
matter to the appropriate district attorney for criminal prosecution. Con- 
viction of willfully violating the "blue sky" laws carries a penalty of a Class 
I felony. 

The Secretary of State, as the state's securities administrator, is a member 
of the North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA). 
Through this organization the division's staff assists in the adoption of 
nationwide, uniform policies on securities. The Division works with other 
state securities agencies, various federal agencies (including the Securities 
and Exchange Commission), and with various industry groups such as the 
National Association of Securities Dealers. 

Uniform Commercial Code Division 

The Uniform Commercial Code Division is required under Article 9 of the 
Code to provide a method of giving notice of security interests in personal 
property to interested third parties. The method adopted is a "notice" filing 
sj'stem. Recorded information in the UCC Division is public record. 

The Secretary of State, as central filing officer, receives and files financing 
statements and related "notice" statements and furnishes information to the 
public regarding such statements. 

It is the responsibility of the secured party to file a statement showing the 
name and address of the debtor, the name and address of the secured party 
and a brief description of the collateral. These documents are indexed by the 
debtor's name. A search of the records on a particular debtor will produce a 
list of all active creditors who have filed statements with this office. 
Interested parties are given information sufficient to contact the creditors 
for further information regarding the lien. 

Financing statements are generally effective for a five year period. Within 
six months prior to their expiration date, the statements may be continued 
for an additional five years. 

The Secretary of State is also central filing officer for federal tax liens 
which are handled in the same manner as UCC filings. 

Large financial transactions are affected daily through information re- 
ceived from the UCC Division. 

The Business License Information Office 

The newest addition to the Department of the Secretary of State is the 
Business License Information Office. Created in 1987 by the General As- 
sembly, this office grew out of the recognition of the business community's 
need for relief from an often confusing licensing system, and the recognition 
that the time and energy of prospective business owners could be better 
spent in other areas. There are hundreds of business related licenses and 
permits issued by the State of North Carolina with hundreds of applications 

The Executive Branch 35 

and related forms to be completed to obtain them. This experience can be 
very frustrating. 
The purpose of the Business License Information Office is: 

(1) to offer new and existing businesses an accessible central informa- 
tion source; 

(2) to assist potential business owners in securing the necessary state 
issued licenses, permits, and/or other authorizations in order to operate 
a business in North Carolina; 

(3) to monitor the license application review process; and 

(4) to act as an advocate for regulatory reform. 

Assistance is available to all businesses regardless of size, type or location. 
There are no fees for the services provided and assistance is available by 
telephoning or by visiting the office. A toll free telephone number has been 
established for the convenience of the users. The number is 1-800-228-8443. 

A directory, the North Carolina State Directory of Business Licenses and 
Permits has been published by the office. This publication contains up-to- 
date information on over 600 state required licenses and permits. 

Land Grants Management Division 

The Land Records Management Division was created by the North Caro- 
lina General Assembly in 1977. The program urges the creation or improve- 
ment of large scale county maps and the improvement of record-keeping 
procedures with an emphasis on computerization when feasible. Land 
Records Management provides technical and financial assistance to local 
governments wishing to modernize and standardize local land records. 
Technical assistance is provided in four major areas: base mapping, cadas- 
tral mapping, parcel identifiers, and automation of land records. 

In 1987 the General Assembly added the responsibility to establish mini- 
mum standards for counties with regard to: (1) uniform indexing of land 
records, (2) uniform recording and indexing for maps, plats, and condo- 
miniums, and (3) security and reproduction of land records. In 1989 the 
General Assembly directed the Land Records Management Division to make 
comparative salary studies periodically for all register of deeds offices and to 
review and approve satellite register of deeds offices. In 1991, the General 
Assembly approved the Land Records Management Division's supervision 
of minimum indexing standards effective July 1, 1993. 

The Land Records Management Division also provides financial 
assistance to local governments on a 50/50 matching basis. The Land 
Records Management Division's grant program has provided $4.9 million 
since 1978 as the catalyst to modernize local records statewide. The Land 
Records Mangement Division has an advisory committee of 12 members 
nominated by professional associations who are appointed by the Governor. 

Boards and Commissions 

Advisory Committee on Land Records 
Capitol Planning Commission 
Information Technology Commission 
Constitution Publication Committee 
Local Government Commission 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 37 

Rufus L. Edmisten 

Secretary of State 

Early Years: Born in Boone, Watauga County, July 12, 1941, to Walter 
F. and Nell (Hollar) Edmisten. 

Education: Appalachian High School, 1959; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1963, B.A. 
with Honors; George Washington University, 1967, J.D. with Honors; Law 
Review, 1966. 

Professional Background: Attorney; (Senior Partner, Edmisten and 
Weaver, 1985-89); Attorney General of North Carolina, 1974-84; Aide to US 
Senator Sam J. Ervin (served as Counsel, Senate Subcommittee on Constitu- 
tional Rights; Chief Counsel and Staff Director, Senate Subcommittee on 
Separation of Powers; Deputy Chief Counsel, Senate Select Committee on 
Presidential Campaign Activities — Watergate Committee), 1963-74. 

Organizations: NC Bar Association; NC State Bar; District of Columbia 
Bar Association; American Bar Association; Phi Delta Phi Legal Fraternity; 
Estey Hall Foundation; Southern Appalachian Historical Association (Presi- 
dent); Established Attorney General's Committee on Local and Historic 
Preservation Law, 1978; Scottish Rite Bodies and York Rite Masonic Bodies 
of Raleigh; Amran Temple, Shriners; Wake County SPCA; Co-Chairman, 
Kids Classic Golf Tournament to benefit Duke University Children's Hos- 
pital; Honorary Chair, Autism Foundation and Society; Secretary, National 
Secretaries of State Association; State Capitol Foundation, Inc. 

Boards: Council of State; NC Capitol Planning Commission; Constitution 
Publications Committee (Chairman); Information Technology Commission 
Local Government Commission; Board of Trustees, Flat Rock Playhouse, the 
State Theatre of North Carolina; National Association of Secretaries of 
State (Washington Oversight Committee; Business, Government and Li- 
censing); and Chr. of NASS Ad Hoc Committee on Securities. 

Political Activities: Secretary of State of North Carolina, 1989-; At- 
torney General, 1974-1984; Democratic nominee for governor, 1984; General 
Advisor, Charter Commission of Democratic National Committee; Deputy 
Chief of Security, Democratic National Convention, 1980 and 1988; Demo- 
cratic Party. 

Honors: Visiting lecturer in Political Science (Constitutional Law), Greens- 
boro College, 1985; Guest Lecturer, North Carolina State University, 1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, Three Forks Baptist Church, Boone, N.C. 

Family: Married, Linda Harris, December, 1983. Children: Martha Moretz 
Edmisten of Washington D.C. 

38 North Carolina Manual 


Name Term 

Richard Cobthrop' 

Peter Carteret-^ 1665-[1672] 

Robert Holden' 1675-1677 

[Thomas Miller]' 1677-[1679] 

Robert Holden^ 1679-[1683] 

Woodrowe'' [1683-1685] 

P>ancis Hartley ' [1685-1692] 

Daniel Akerhursf^ [1692-1700] 

Samuel Swann-' [1700]-1704 

Tobias Knight'" 1704-1708 

George Lumley" 1704 

George Lumley 1708 

Nevil Low'- 

Tobias Knight" 1712-1719 

JohnLovick" 1719-1722 

JohnLovick'^ 1722-1731 

Joseph Anderson'*' 1731 

Nathaniel Rice' ^ 1731-1753 

James Murray''^ 1753-1755 

Henry McCulloch^'' 1755 

Richard Spaight-" 1755-1762 

Thomas Faulkner-' 

Richard Spaight-- 1762 

Benjamin Heron--^ 1762-1769 

John London-^^ 1769-1770 

Robert Palmer-"^ 1770-1771 

Samuel Strudwick-*^ 1772-[1775] 


Name Residence Term 

James Glasgow^« 1777-1798 

William White29 1798-1811 

William HilP" 1811-1857 

Rufus H. Page^i 1857-1862 

John P. H. Russ^^ 1862-1864 

Charles R. Thomas" 1864-1865 

Robert W. Best^^ 1865-1868 

Henry J. Menninger^^ Wake 1868-1873 

WilHam H. Howerton Rowan 1873-1877 

Joseph A. Engelhard^'^ New Hanover 1877-1879 

WilHam L. Saunders- Wake 1879-1891 

Octavius Coke'^^ Wake 1891-1895 

Charles M. Cooke^^ Franklin 1895-1897 

Cyrus Thompson Onslow 1897-1901 

John Bryan Grimes^" Pitt 1901-1923 

William N. Everett^' Richmond 1923-1928 

James A. Hartness^- Richmond 1928-1933 

Stacey W. Wade^^ Carteret 1933-1936 

Charles G. PowelP^ Granville 1936 

Thad A. Eure'^ Hertford 1936-1989 

Rufus L. Edmisten Watauga 1989- 

The Executive Branch 39 

Colonial Secretaries 

•Cobthrop was apparently chosen by the Lords Proprietors, but never sailed to 

-Carteret was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors and arrived in Albemarle on 
February 23, 1665. He was presumably qualified shortly after his arrival. P'ollowing the 
death of Governor Stephens in early 1670, Carteret was chosen his successor, but 
apparently continued serving as secretary. It is possible that he acted in both capacities 
until his departure for England in 1672. 

^Little is known concerning Holden's appointment of dates of service. He was serving 
as secretary on July 26, 1675, where he verified a sworn statement and seems to have 
continued until the arrival of Miller in July, 1677. It is possible that he was appointed 
secretary prior to this date since he had been in the colony since 1671. 

^When Eastchurch appointed Miller to act in his stead until he returned to North 
Carolina, he apparently appointed him secretary as well as deputy governor. On October 
9, 1 677, he attested to the granting of a power of attorney, however this could have been in 
the capacity of acting governor rather than as secretary. 

'^Holden was appointed by the Lords Proprietors and apparently arrived in Albemarle 
in July, 1679. A warrant appointing him Receiver General of North Carolina was issued 
by the Lords Proprietors in February, 1679, and it is possible that a similar warrant was 
issued about the same time for secretary. Records indicate that he was acting as 
secretary on November 6, 1679. Sometime between March, 1681 and July 1682, Holden 
was imprisoned on charges of "gross irregularities in the collection of Customs" — 
another office which he held. Extant records do not indicate what became of him. His 
name does not appear in council records after 1681 and in 1682, John Archdale was 
issued a blank commission to appoint a new receiver-general. It is possible that he was 
released from prison or acquitted of the charges, and continued serving as secretary. 
Some sources indicate he served until 1684; however other references indicate that 
someone else was acting as secretary in 1684 or earlier. 

^Little is known about Woodrowe. The only mention of him in extant records is in a 
letter written by the Lords Proprietors in February, 1684, which leaves the impression 
that he had been serving for some time. It is possible he was appointed as early as 1682. 

'Hartley was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors, but no date of when he qualified 
could be found. According to one source he died in January, 1691/92, probably while still 

"When Akehurst took office is not known; he was apparently acting by June 26, 1693 
when he acknowledged a land grant. It is possible that he was appointed as early as 1692 
and presumably served until his death sometime in late 1699 or early 1700. (His will was 
proved in Virginia in 1700). 

^Swann may have been appointed to replace Akehurst; however, when he took office is 
not known. He was serving by September, 1700 and probably served until Knight took 
over 1704. 

"'Knight was apparently appointed to replace Swann and according to one source was 
in the office in 1 704. The earliest documentary evidence of Knight acting is his certifying 
to a court proceeding on February 20, 1705. There is no evidence that he served during 
this span after 1708; however he was again serving in 1712. 

"Lumley was appointed by Knight to act as Secretary on two occasions, once in 
October, 1704 and again in 1708 during Knight's absence due to an illness. It is not 
known who served between 1708 and 1712 because of the chaotic conditions in 

i2Two commissions were issued to Low by the Lords Proprietors, the first on January 
31, 1711 and a second on June 13, 1711; however, there is no record of him serving. 

•'Knight was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors, and qualified before the 
governor and council. In 1719 he was called before the council to answer charges of 
conspiracy with pirates but was acquitted. He apparently died in late June, 1719 since a 
successor was appointed on June 30, and his will probated on July 7, 1719. 

i^Lovick was appointed by the governor and council following Knight's death. 

'SLovick was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors and qualified lictore the 
Governor and Council. He served until 1731. 

'^Anderson was appointed by Governor Burrington as "acting" secretary until Kicc 

40 North Carolina Manual 

'^Rice was commissioned by the crown and qualified before the governor and council. 
He served until his death on January 28, 1753. 

"^Murray was appointed by the Council upon the death of Rice and served until the 
arrival of McCulloch in 1755. Land grant records indicate that he was acting as late as 
March 31, 1755. 

'^A warrant was issued on June 21,1 754 for McCulloch's appointment as secretary and 
his commission was certified by Dobbs on July 1, while both were still in England. He 
qualified as a council member on March 25, 1755 but does not appear to have acted as 
secretary until April. He continued serving until his death in 1755. 

-"A letter was sent from Governor Dobbs to Spaight on October 2, 1 755 appointing him 
"Secretary of the Crown." (A commission in the Secretary of State's records, however, 
bears the date, October 27, 1755.) He qualified before Dobbs on October 30. 

-'Faulkner's name was proposed to King on March 17 by the Board of Trade and on 
April 1 a commission was ordered prepared. He rented his commission to Samuel 

--Spaight was reappointed by Dobbs and served until his death sometime during July 
or early August, 1672. 

'•^■^Heron was appointed by Dobbs to replace Spaight. On March 6, 1769, Heron was 
granted a leave of absence to return to England where he apparently died. 

--•London was already a deputy secretary under Heron and acted in this capacity until 
news of Heron's death was received. London was appointed by Tryon upon the death of 
Heron and served until he "declined acting any longer. . . ." 

-"■Palmer was appointed by Tryon to replace London. On July 8, 1771 he was granted a 
leave of absence to return to England for reasons of health. 

-*^Strudwick was appointed by Martin after Strudwick had produced "sufficient 
evidence that he had rented the Secretary's Office in this Province of Mr. Faulkner. . ." He 
apparently continued serving until the Revolution. 

Secretaries of State 

^^The Secretary of State was elected by the General Assembly at its annual (biennial, 
after 1835) meeting for a term of one year. The Constitutional Convention of 1835 
extended the term but the power of election remained in the hands of the General 
Assembly until 1868 when a new constitution was adopted. Since 1868, the Secretary of 
State has been elected by the people and serves for a four-year term. He can run for 

^^Glasgow was appointed by the provincial congress to serve until the next meeting of 
the general assembly. He was later elected by the General Assembly to a regular term 
and continued serving until 1798 when he resigned because of his involvement in a land 
scandal. His resignation was received by the General Assembly on November 20. 

-^White was elected to replace Glasgow and served until his death sometime in late 
September, or early November, 1811. 

^oHill died on October 29, 1857. 

^'Page was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council. He 
was later elected by the general assembly to a regular term, but he was defeated for 
reelection in 1862 by Russ. 

^-Russ requested that his name be withdrawn at the end of the first round of balloting 
in 1864. 

33Thomas, who was first elected by the general assembly, took office on January 3, 
1865 and served until the end of the Civil War. He was then appointed secretary in the 
provisional government headed by William W. Holden, but resigned on August 12, 1865. 

^^Best may have been appointed earlier by Holden following the resignation of 
Thomas since his name appears beneath that of Thomas in the Record Book; however, 
only the date 1865 is given. He was later elected by the general assembly and served until 
the new constitution was put into effect in 1868. 

^^Menninger was elected in the general election in April, 1868 but declined to run for 
re-election in 1982. 

36Engelhard died February 15, 1879. 

The Executive Branch 41 

^''Saunders was appointed by Governor Jarvis on February 18, 1879 to replace 
Engelhard. He was elected to a full term in the general elections in 1880 and served 
following subsequent reelections until his death on April 2, 1891. 

38Coke was appointed by Governor Fowle on April 4, 1891 to replace Saunders. He was 
elected to a full term in the general elections in 1892 and served until his death on August 
30, 1895. 

39Cooke was appointed by Governor Carr on September 3, 1895 to replace Coke. He was 
defeated in the general elections in 1896 by Thomas. 

"•oGrimes died January 16, 1923. 

^1 Everett was appointed by Governor Morrison on January 16, 1923 to replace Grimes. 
He was elected in the general elections in 1924 and served until his death February 7, 

^^Hartness was appointed by Governor McLean on February 13, 1928 to replace 
Everett. He was elected in the general elections in 1928, but declined to run in 1932. 

^■^Wade resigned in November, 1936. 

^^Powell was appointed by Governor Ehringhaus on November 17, 1936 to replace 
Wade and resigned in December. 

^^Eure had been elected in the general elections of 1936 and was appointed by Governor 
Ehringhaus on December 21, 1936, to replace Powell. On January 7, 1937, he took office 
for his regular term and subsequent reelections. He served longer than any other state 
official, finally retiring on January 7, 1989. 

"^Edmisten was elected in November, 1988, when Eure declined to run for reelection. 

42 North Carolina Manual 


The Office of State Auditor was created by the Constitution of 1868, 
although an "auditor of pubHc accounts" had existed since 1862 and refer- 
ences to an auditor's duties go back to the colonial constitution of 1669. 

Today, the State Auditor is a constitutional officer elected by the people 
every four years. It is the duty of this office to conduct audits of the financial 
affairs of all state agencies. In addition, the State Auditor may conduct such 
other special audits, reviews, or investigations as may be requested by the 
governor or the legislature, or whenever it is determined that an audit is 
warranted. The State Auditor is responsible for annually auditing and 
rendering an opinion on the State's Comprehensive Annual Financial Report 
(CAFR) and for issuing the Statewide Single Audit Report required by fed- 
eral law. He also conducts performance audits of state agencies and pro- 
grams to determine the economy, efficiency, and effectiveness of operations 
and performs EDP audits to verify the reliability and controls over computer 
applications. Also under the jurisdiction of this office are the quality review 
of public accounting firms' audits of certain non-profit organizations and 
the administration of the Firemen's and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension 

In addition to being the accountability "watchdog" for the state, the State 
Auditor has several other duties assigned to him by virtue of his office. He is 
a member of the Council of State, the Capitol Planning Commission, the 
Local Government Commission, and the Information Technology Commis- 
sion. He also serves as chairman of the Board of Directors for the Firemen's 
and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund. 

The Department of State Auditor is organized into three major functional 
areas: the General Administration Division, the Auditing Division, and the 
Firemen's and Rescue Squad Worker's Pension Fund Division. 

The General Administration Division 

This division, under the direct supervision of the State Auditor, his chief 
deputy and a special assistant, handles all administrative matters including 
personnel, budgeting, purchasing, and the overall planning and coordina- 
tion of all activities for the department. 

The Auditing Division 

The Auditing Division conducts financial audits and reviews of state 
agencies and institutions to determine adherence to generally accepted 
accounting principles and standards, to identify strengths and weaknesses 
of internal control systems, and to test for accuracy in financial reports and 
compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and policies. This work is used 
to support the auditor's opinion on individual reports and the CAFR and 
Single Audit. In addition, the employees of this division conduct perfor- 
mance audits of selected programs administered by state agencies as directed 
by the State Auditor. The purpose of these performance audits is to deter- 

The Executive Branch 43 

mine that programs are being administered as intended and that they are 
accomphshing the desired results in an effective manner. The Auditing Div- 
ision also performs reviews of electronic data processing applications to 
ensure the reliability of computer generated data. 

The Auditor also conducts special investigations related to possible em- 
bezzlements or misuse of state property. These special investigations are 
normally in response to allegations received via the Fraud, Waste and Abuse 
"Hotline" telephone number. Finally, this division is responsible for moni- 
toring state funds provided to certain non-profit organizations. 

The managerial structure of the audit division includes two deputy state 
auditors and eight audit managers who are charged with auditing the major 
functions in state government. Audits are directly supervised by audit 
supervisors based in Raleigh and in branch offices. These supervisors report 
to different audit managers depending on which area of government is being 
audited. Branch offices are located in Asheville, Morganton, Charlotte, 
Greensboro, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, Greenville, and Wilmington. 

Firemen's and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund Division 

The Firemen's and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund operates under 
the provisions of G.S. §58-86. The fund's Board of Trustees is responsible for 
formulating rules and regulations, within the framework of the statutes, for 
the efficient and effective operation of the fund. The State Auditor is 
responsible for day-to-day operation of the fund. 

The fund was created to provide firemen and rescue squad workers with a 
small monthly pension. Membership is open to all firemen and rescue squad 
workers, both paid and volunteer, of a certified fire department or rescue 
squad. Each member pays into the fund $5 per month to help finance the 
pension program. In addition to the member's contribution, the state appro- 
priates over five million dollars annually which, plus the interest the fund 
receives from its investments, finances the program. At age 55 with 20 years 
of service, a fireman or rescue squad worker may retire and receive a 
monthly pension of $100. 

Boards and Commissions 

Capitol Planning Commission 

Council of State 

Education Facilities Finance Agency 

Firemen's and Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund 

Information Technology Commission 

Local Government Commission 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 45 

Edward Renfrew 

State Auditor 

Early Years: Born in Johnston County, September 17, 1940, to Donnie T. 
and Illamae (Lewis) Renfrew. 

Education: Graduated Clayton High School, 1958; Hardbargers Junior 
College of Business, Associate degree in Business Administration with 
Accounting Major; continued education through courses at Atlantic Chris- 
tian College, Duke University and East Carolina University through John- 
ston Technical College. 

Professional Background: State Auditor; State Senator (1974-1980); 
Accountant, Edward Renfrow & Co. 1962-1980. 

Organizations: State Employees Association of North Carolina, advisor. 
National State Auditors Association (Past President, 1985-1986); National 
Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers and Treasurers (President 1990- 
91); Governmental Finance Officers Association; National Intergovernmen- 
tal Audit Forum; Southeastern Intergovernmental Audit Forum (Past Chair- 
man 1987-88); NC Society of Accountants (President, 1972-73; First President, 
Scholarship Fund, 1973-74); National Society of Public Accountants (seminar 
speaker); Phi Theta Phi Fraternity. Member: Raleigh Hosts Lions Club; 
American Legion Post n71; Former Member Smithfield-Selma Chamber of 
Commerce (First Vice President, 1974); Lifetime Honorary Member NC 
Retired Peace Officers Association. 

Boards: NC Council of State; Capitol Planning Commission; Local Govern- 
ment Commission; Information Technology Commission; Past Member 
Board of Directors, NC Wildlife Federation; Member Governmental Account- 
ing Standards Board (GASB) Task Force on Pension Accounting and Report- 
ing (1984- ); Member US General Accounting Office's Auditing Standards 
Advisory Council (1985-88); Chairman of Board of Trustees, Firemen's & 
Rescue Squad Workers' Pension Fund; Past Member: Discrimination Study 
Committee, 1975; Community College Advisory Council, 1977-78; Study Com- 
mittee to Rewrite NC Game Laws, 1977-1979; NC Wildlife Commission, 1977- 
79; Study Commission to Recodify Community College Laws, 1977-79; Com- 
mission on Public School Laws 1977; Governor's Commission on Public 
School Finance, 1978; NC Criminal Justice Education and Training Stand- 
ards Commission, 1978-80. 

Political Activities: State Auditor, 1981- (elected 1980, reelected 1984, 
1988); Served in NC Senate 1975-80; Treasurer, NC Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1973-1974; NC Chairman, Democratic National Telethon, 1972- 
73. Democratic Party. 

Military Service: Served NC National Guard, Specialist 4th Class, 1962- 
66; Honorary member at present. 

Honors: Received Distinguished Service Award, Smithfield Jaycees. 1974; 
Boss of the Year Award, 1975; NC Wildlife Federation's Governor's Award 

46 North Carolina Manual 

for Conservation Legislator of the Year, 1977 and 1979; Community Leader 
of America Award, 1971; Tar Heel of the Week, March 10, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, Smithfield First Baptist Church; Former 
Member Sharon Baptist Church; Chairman, Deacon Board, (two terms); 
Sunday School Teacher; Member, General Board of Baptist State Conven- 
tion, 1970-74; Past Treasurer, Johnston Baptist Association. 

Family: Married Rebecca (Becky) Stephenson, December 4, 1960; Chil- 
dren: Candace Elaine and Elizabeth Paige. 

The Executive Branch 47 


Name Residence Qualified 

Samuel F. Phillips^ Orange 1862-1864 

Richard H. Battle'^ Wake 1864-1865 


Name Residence Term 

Henderson, Adams3 1868-1873 

John Reilly Cumberland 1873-1877 

Samuel L. Love Haywood 1877-1881 

William P. Roberts Gates 1881-1889 

George W. Sandlin Lenoir 1889-1893 

Robert M. Furman Buncombe 1893-1897 

Hal W. Ayer Wake 1897-1901 

Benjamin F. Dixon^ Cleveland 1901-1910 

Benjamin F. Dixon, Jr.^ Wake 1910-1911 

William P. Wood^ Randolph 1911-1921 

Baxter Durham Wake 1921-1937 

George Ross Pou^ Johnston 1937-1947 

Henry L Bridges^ Guilford 1947-1981 

Edward Renfrow^ Johnston 1981- 

Auditors of Public Accounts 

iPhillips resigned effective July 10, 1864. 

^Battle was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council to 
replace Phillips. He was later elected by the General Assembly to a regular term, and 
served until the office was abolished in 1865. 

State Auditors 

^Adams was elected in the general elections in April, 1868. 

"Dixon died September 26, 1910. 

^Benjamin F. Dixon, Jr. was appointed by Governor Kitchen on September 30, 1910 to 
replace bis father, Benjamin F. Dixon, Sr. 

eWood was elected in the general elections in 1910 to complete the senior Dixon s 
unexpired term. He was elected to a full term in 1912. 

'Pou died February 9, 1947. , r, u 

sBridges was appointed by Governor Cherry on February 15, 1947 to replace Pou. He 
was elected in the general election in 1948 and served until bis retirement in 1981. 

sRenfrow was elected in 1980 and is still serving following subsequent reelections. 

48 North Carolina Manual 


Beginning in 1669, a Treasurer's Court was responsible for the public 
money of the colony. The office of Treasurer was formally created in 1715 
and appointments to that office were made by the lower house of the Colon- 
ial Assembly. Between 1740 and 1779 there was one Treasurer each for 
Northern and Southern North Carolina. Four additional Treasurers were 
added in 1779 for a total of six, each serving a defined geographical area 
called a district. In 1782 another district with its own Treasurer was created. 
This multiple Treasurer concept continued until 1784 when the General 
Assembly eliminated multiple Treasurers and assigned the duties of the 
office to a single individual elected by joint vote of the two houses of the 
legislature for a two-year term. This setup continued until 1868 when a new 
constitution was adopted. The Constitution of 1868 provided for a Treasurer 
elected by the people for a four-year term. These provisions continued in 
place following the approval by the people of a new constitution in 1970. 

Many of the current duties and functions which are charged to the State 
Treasurer had their beginnings in the Constitution of 1868. This constitution 
served to formalize the more important fiscal and financial aspects of the 
office. Before that time, the functions varied widely from time to time and 
from administration to administration. 

Since 1868, only twelve men have been elected and occupied the office of 
the State Treasurer. The longest tenure by one person was from 1901 to 1929 
by Benjamin R. Lacy of Wake County. The second longest tenure was by the 
late Edwin Gill of Scotland County who served from 1953 until his retire- 
ment in 1977. 

The Treasurers who have occupied the office have earned and maintained 
a nationwide reputation for fiscal integrity and financial responsibility. The 
fact that the State Treasurer is able to operate in an atmosphere of political 
freedom is contributory to the influence of the office throughout the state. 

One interesting incident occurred in 1843, shortly after the election of the 
Treasurer by the General Assembly. A spirited situation developed between 
Governor Morehead and the Treasurer-elect John Hill Wheeler over the 
terms of a fidelity bond which at that time was required of the Treasurer. 
The bond was ultimately presented at the Governor's office; the Governor, 
however, refused to accept the bond as it was written. His action was too 
late, because at that very moment, Wheeler was taking the oath of office as 
Treasurer in another part of the capitol. A strained relationship between 
Governor Morehead and Wheeler was inevitable. The magnitude became 
clear some ten days later when the Treasurer refused to pay the Governor 
$3.00 per diem for his services on a board. Wheeler denied the claim saying 
that "this is part of the governor's regular duties and is included in his 
annual salary of $2,000.00." Wheeler proved to be a very colorful and 
resourceful individual during his tenure of office. 

During the formative years of the office, there were many functions which 
the Treasurer regularly performed. In recent years, many of these have been 
either discontinued or transferred to other State agencies. Modern times 
have brought about substantive changes in the duties of the Treasurer. 

The Executive Branch 49 

The Treasurer is a constitutional officer elected by the people of North 
Carolina. In addition to his traditional duties, he serves as an ex-officio 
member of many state boards and commissions. He is chairman of many of 
j the commissions and boards which affect the state fiscal policy or the 
expenditure of state funds. He is a member of the Council of State, the Local 
Government Commission and the Information Technology Commission 
(formerly the Computer Commission). 

The Treasurer serves as advisor to monetary committees of the General 
Assembly. His primary fiscal duties are to assure that all public funds are 
utilized in conformity with the mandates of the General Assembly, to invest 
surplus funds wisely and prudently, and to satisfy the bonded indebtedness 
of the State. 

The Department of State Treasurer is structured conventionally, with 
three operating divisions and one support division. 

Operations of the Department of State Treasurer 

The operations of the Department are carried out by the four divisions 
under the supervision of the State Treasurer. 

The Retirement Systems Division 

The Retirement Systems Division of the Department of State Treasurer 
administers the four statutory retirement and eight fringe benefit plans, as 
authorized by the General Assembly, which cover the State's public em- 
ployees. The administration of the several retirement systems and benefit 
plans requires a high level of fiduciary responsibility for the employees' 
trust funds entailing the prudent and efficient use of employees' and tax- 
payers' contributions. 

The public purpose of the existence of retirement systems and benefit 
plans is to recruit and retain competent employees for a career in public 
service, and provide a replacement income for retirement, disability, or at 
death for an employee's survivors. More than 475,000 active and retired 
public employees and their dependents owe a large part of their financial 
security to these retirement and fringe benefit plans. 

The retirement systems administered by this Division are the: 

• Teachers' and State Employees' Retirement System 

• Local Governmental Employees' Retirement System 

• Consolidated Judicial Retirement System 

• Legislative Retirement System 

The systems are governed by two Boards of Trustees. The State Treasurer 
is ex-officio Chairman of each board. The board of the Teachers' and State 
Employees' Retirement System is composed of 14 actively working em- 
ployees, retirees and public members. The Local Governmental Employees' 
Retirement System board, while legally separate, is composed of the same 14 
members plus 3 members representing local governments. The Board of 
Trustees of the Teachers' and State Employees' Retirement System is the 
governing board of the Consolidated Judicial and Legislative Retirement 

All retirement systems are joint contributory defined benefit plans with 

50 North Carolina Manual 

contributions made by both employees and employers. Each active member 
contributes six percent (6%) of his compensation for creditable service by 
monthly payroll deduction. The only exception to this member contribution 
rate is the Legislative Retirement System to which each active member con- 
tributes seven percent (7%) of his compensation. Employers make monthly 
contributions based on a percentage rate of the members' compensation for 
the month. Employer contribution rates are actuarially calculated. 

In addition to the retirement systems administered through this Division, 
responsiblity for administration of other programs covers the: 

• Public Employees' Social Security Agency 

• Disability Income Plan 

• Legislative Retirement Fund 

• National Guard Pension Plan 

• Teachers' and State Employees' Benefit Trust 

• Supplemental Retirement Income Plan 

• Registers of Deeds' Supplemental Pension Fund 

• Contributory Death Benefit for Retired Members 

The consistent use of conservative actuarial assumptions and an approved 
actuarial cost method over the years since the establishment of the retire- 
ment systems and benefit plans plus the recognition of all promised benefits 
in the actuarial liabilities, have resulted in retirement systems which can be 
labeled as "actuarially sound." 

The administrative expenses of the Division for the retirement systems are 
paid by receipts from the systems based on the ratio of members in each 
system to the total universe of members of all systems. Receipt support from 
other programs pays for their cost of administration based on a cost-center 

The Investment and Banking Division 

The Investment and Banking Division is organized to carry out two of the 
State Treasurer's primary functions. The first of these is to serve as the 
State's Banker by receiving and disbursing all State monies. The second is 
to serve as the State's Chief Investment Officer by administering the State 
Funds Cash Management and Trust Funds Investment Programs. These 
functions are both constitutional and statutory in origin. 

Serving as the State's Banker 

The General Assembly of North Carolina has provided a centralized sys- 
tem for managing the flow of moneys collected and disbursed by all State 
departments, agencies, institutions, and universities. Rather than each of 
these entities having an account with a commercial bank, they maintain 
accounts with the State Treasurer. The State Treasurer in turn provides each 
entity the same service that a commercial bank would normally provide. 
This system assures that the State is the prime beneficiary of the flow of 
funds through the commercial banking system in the course of conducting 
State business. 

The Executive Branch 51 

Serving as the State's Chief Investment Officer 

The State Treasurer administers the State Funds Cash Management and 
Trust Funds Investment Programs. As such, the Treasurer is directed to 
"estabhsh, maintain, administer, manage and operate" investment pro- 
grams, pursuant to the apphcable statutes, for all funds on deposit. In so 
doing, the Treasurer "shall have full power as a fiduciary" and shall 
manage the investment programs so that the assets "may be readily 
converted into cash as needed." 

There is a special legal provision for holding inviolate the funds of the 
retirement systems (Article 5, Section 6 of the North Carolina Constitution). 
It states that such funds may not be used "for any purpose other than 
retirement system benefits and purposes, administrative expenses and re- 
funds." It further states that such funds "shall not be applied, diverted, 
loaned to or used by the state, any state agency, state officer, public officer 
or public employee." 

State Local Government Finance Division 

The State and Local Government Finance Division was organized to 
provide the State Treasurer with staff assistance in such areas as he 
requests and to provide the staff required by the Local Government Com- 
mission, the North Carolina Solid Waste Management Capital Projects 
Financing Agency and the North Carolina Educational Facilities Finance 
Agency in fulfilling their respective statutory functions. The division is 
organized along functional lines to provide two major groups of services to 
the State and to the local units of government: debt management and fiscal 
management. In addition, the deputy treasurer-division director serves as 
the secretary of the Local Government Commission. 

The Local Government Commission approves the issuance of the indebted- 
ness of all units of local government and assists these units in the area of 
fiscal management. The commission is composed of nine members: the State 
Treasurer, the Secretary of State, the State Auditor, the Secretary of Revenue, 
and five others by appointment (three by the Governor, one by the 
Lieutenant Governor, and one by the Speaker of the North Carolina House 
of Representatives). The State Treasurer serves as chairman and selects the 
secretary of the commission, who heads the administrative staff serving the 

Assistance to State Agencies 

Debt Management. The State Treasurer is responsible for the issuance 
and servicing of all State debts secured by a pledge of the taxing power of 
the State. After approval of a bond issue, the division assists in determining 
the cash needs and most appropriate time for scheduling sales after con- 
sultation with other State agencies; the planning for repayment of the debt 
(maturity schedules); preparing, with the advice and cooperation of bond 
counsel and the assistance of other State agencies, the official statement 
describing the bond issue and other required disclosures about the State; and 
in the actual sale and dehvery of the bonds. The staff of the division 

52 North Carolina Manual 

maintains the State bond records and register of bonds and initiates the 
debt service payments when they become due. In addition, the division is 
responsible for the authorization and issuance of revenue bonds for the 
North CaroHna Medical Care Commission, the North Carolina Housing 
Finance Agency, the North Carolina Municipal Power Agency Number 1, 
the North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency, the North Carolina 
Educational Facilities Finance Agency, the North Carolina Solid Waste 
Management Capital Projects Financing Agency and the North Carolina 
Industrial and Pollution Control Financing Authority. 

Fiscal Management. The staff of the division provides technical assist- 
ance in financial matters within the Department of State Treasurer and to 
other departments of the State as may be required. Projects may also include 
work on the national level if they concern generally accepted accounting 
principles for government. 

Assistance to Local Government 

Assistance is rendered to local governments and public authorities in 
North Carolina on behalf of the Local Government Commission. 

Debt Management. A major function is the approval, sale and delivery 
of all North Carolina local government bonds and notes upon the recommen- 
dation of the staff of the division. Before any unit can incur debt, the 
proposed issue must be approved by the commission. The statutes require 
that, before giving its approval, the commission must make affirmative 
determination in the areas of necessity and expediency, size of the issue, the 
unit's debt management policy, taxes needed to service the debt and the 
ability of the unit to repay. 

In addition, the Local Government Commission must approve all install- 
ment purchase contracts for the construction or repair of fixtures or improve- 
ments on real property and certain other installment contracts. The findings 
of the commission for these transactions are similar to the findings for 
general obligation bonds. 

After approval is granted, the governmental unit and its bond counsel 
assist the staff in gathering and assembling information for an official 
statement, which is mailed to a large group of investment bankers nation- 
wide. The general obligation bonds are awarded through the competitive bid 
process on the basis of lowest total net interest cost to the governmental 

After the sale, the staff delivers and validates the definitive bonds and 
ensures that the moneys are promptly transferred from the buying brokers 
to the government unit. 

Fiscal Management. A second key function is monitoring certain fiscal 
and accounting standards prescribed for the units by The Local Government 
Budget and Fiscal Control Act. In addition, the division furnishes on-site 
assistance to local governments concerning existing financial and accounting 
systems as well as new systems. Also, the Division strives to ensure that the 
local units follow generally accepted accounting principles, systems and 
practices. The division staff counsels the units in treasury and cash manage- 
ment, budget preparation, and investment policies and procedures. Educa- 
tional programs, in the form of seminars or classes, are also provided by the 

The Executive Branch 53 

staff. The monitoring of the units' financial system is accomphshed through 
the examination and analysis of the annual audited financial statements and 
other required reports. Information from these reports is compiled and 
provided to local government officials and outside organizations to enhance 
the management of public funds. The Local Government Budget and Fiscal 
Control Act requires each unit of local government to have its accounts audited 
annually by a certified public accountant or by an accountant certified by the 
commission as qualified to audit local government accounts. A written 
contract must be submitted to the secretary of the commission for his approval 
prior to the commencement of the audit. Continued assistance is also provided 
to the independent auditors through individual assistance and continuing 
professional education. 

The State and Local Finance Division is continuously working in all areas 
concerning improved fiscal management and clarity of reporting in order to 
better serve the State Treasurer, the local units of government, public 
authorities, school administrative units and their independent auditors. 

Administrative Services Division 

The Administrative Services Division provides administrative, technical and 
specialized support to the Department and to three operating divisions. The 
functions which are performed can better be accomplished on a centralized 
basis rather than independently by the various divisions. These include 
various housekeeping functions such as supply and mail operations, personnel, 
forms management, printing, generalized training and budget matters. On a 
selective basis, several of the functions and sub-functions carried on within the 
Department have been placed on the internal computer. Of major significance 
are those programs having a bearing on the various retirement systems and 
the Treasurer's investment processes. Vital functions are performed by the 
word processing center. Approximately 95% of the original and repetitive 
departmental correspondence is accomplished by the center. In addition, 
through the utilization of a photocomposer, camera-ready copies for all 
departmental printing requirements are satisfied internally. Significant cost 
savings have been realized through the use of these closely coordinated 
systems of document production. The division monitors the operation and the 
progress of the Escheat Fund for the State Treasurer. All abandoned and 
unclaimed properties whose owners cannot be located become the property of 
the state and are placed in the fund. Such property may consist of abandoned 
banking accounts, uncashed checks, and contents of safety deposit boxes. As a 
trust activity, escheat monies are invested in high quality securities. The 
return on the investments is used within State-supported institution of higher 
learning to aid needy and worthy students. 

Boards and Commissions 

Board of Trustees of the N.C. Local Governmental Employees' Retirement 

Board of Trustees Teachers' and State Employees' Retirement System 
Local Government Commission 

N.C. Educational FaciHties Finance Agency Board of Directors 
N.C. Solid Waste Management Capital Projects Financing 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 55 

Harlan Edward Boyles 

State Treasurer 

Early Years: Born in Vale, Lincoln County, May 6, 1929, to Curtis E. 
and Kate Schronce Boyles. 

Education: North Brook Schools, Lincoln County, 1935-45; Crossnore 
School, Avery County, 1945-47; University of Georgia, 1947-48; UNC at 
Chapel Hill, 1948-51, B.S. 

Professional Background: Certified Public Accountant. 

Organizations: Municipal Finance Officers Association; NC Association 
of Certified Public Accountants (past president. Triangle Chapter); National 
Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers and Treasurers (Past President, 
Treasurer and Executive Director); Rotary Club of Raleigh (Director, Past 
President); Raleigh Chamber of Commerce (past director); Raleigh Salvation 
Army Advisory Board. 

Boards: Council of State; State Board of Education; Capitol Planning 
Commission; State Computer Commission; Board of Directors, NC Art 
Society; John Motley Morehead Memorial Commission; State Board of Com- 
munity Colleges. Chairman: Local Government Commission; Tax Review 
Board; State Banking Commission; Board of Trustees, Teachers' and State 
Employees' Retirement Systems; Local Governmental Employees' Retirement 
System. Former member: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's 
Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board. 

Political Activities: State Treasurer, 1977- (elected 1976; reelected, 1980, 
1984 and 1988); Democratic Party. 

Religious Activities: Member, Westminister Presbyterian Church; 
Deacon; Elder; Treasurer and Clerk. 

Family: Married Frances (Frankie) Wilder of Johnston County, May 17, 
1952. Children: PhylHs Godwin, Lynn Boyles Butler, and Harlan Edward 
Boyles, Jr. 

56 North Carolina Manual 


Name Term 

Edward Moseley- 1715-1735 

William Smith ' 

William Downing' 1735-1739 

Edward Moseley'- 1735-1749 

William Smith'' 1739-1740 

John Hodgson' 1740-1748 

Thomas Barker^ 1748-1752 

Eleazer Allen-' 1749-1750 

John Starkey'" 1750-1765 

John Haywood" 1752-1754 

Thomas Barker'^ 1754-1764 

Joseph Montford'' 1764-1775 

Samuel Swann'^ 1765-1766 

John Ashe'5 1766-1773 

Richard CaswelP« 1773-1775 

Samuel Johnston'' 1775 

Richard Caswelli^^ 1775 


Name Residence Term 

Samuel Johnston'-' Chowan 1775-1777 

Richard CaswelP" Dobbs 1775-1776 

John Ashe-' New Hanover 1777-1779 

William Skinner-- Perquimans 1777-1784 

Green Hill Franklin 1779-1784 

Richard Cogdell Craven 1779-1782 

Wilham Cathey [Rowan] 1779-1781 

John Ashe New Hanover 1779-1781 

Matthew Jones Chatham 1779-1782 

Timothy Bloodworth Surry 1780-1784 

Robert Lanier New Hanover 1780-1783 

Memucan Hunt^-^ Granville 1782-1784 

John Brown Wilkes 1782-1784 

Benjamin Exum Dobbs 1782-1784 

Joseph Cain [New Hanover] 1783-1784 

Wilham Locke [Rowan] 1784 

Memucan Hunt Granville 1784-1787 

John HaywoodQS Edgecombe 1787-1827 

William Robards Granville 1827-1830 

William S. Mhoon Bertie 1831-1835 

Samuel F. Patterson-'^ Wilkes 1835-1837 

Daniel W. Courts-^ Surry 1837-1839 

Charles L. Hinton Wake 1839-1843 

John H. Wheeler Lincoln 1843-1845 

Charles L Hinton Wake 1845-1851 

Daniel W. Courts Surry 1851-1862 

Jonathan Worth-'' Randolph 1862-1865 

The Executive Branch 57 

Name Residence Term 

William Sloan Anson 1865-1866 

Kemp P. Battlers Wake 1866-1868 

David A. Jenkinses Gaston 1868-1876 

John M. Worth'^o Randolph 1876-1885 

Donald W. Bain^i Wake 1885-1892 

Samuel McD. Tate32 Burke 1892-1895 

William H. Worth Guilford 1895-1901 

Benjamin R. Lacy^^ Wake 1901-1929 

Nathan O'Berry-'^ Wayne 1929-1932 

John P. Stedman35 Wake 1932 

Charles M. Johnson^e Pender 1933-1949 

Brandon P. Hodges^^ Buncombe 1949-1953 

Edwin M. GilP« Scotland 1953-1977 

Harlan E. Boyles^s Wake 1977- 

Colonial Treasurer 

'The right to appoint colonial treasurers was reserved for the lower house. This policy 
along with the extensive control exercised by the Assembly over other financial matters 
was a constant source of friction between the governor and the lower house. 

Treasurers were usually appointed in conjunction with money bills during the early 
years of the office, but later were appointed on bills passed specifically for the purpose of 
appointing treasurers. Treasurers were apparently first appointed by the assembly 
during the Tuscarora War in 1711 when several commissioners were appointed to issue 
paper currency. This practice continued until 1731 when George Burrington, the first 
royal governor, questioned the right of the Assembly and tried to appoint his own 
treasurer. The lower house resisted this infringement upon their rights, and Burrington 
sought support from royal authorities in England. Crown officials were not anxious to 
upset the lower house and hesitated supporting Burrington and those who followed him. 

In 1729 the complexity of financial matters which concerned the treasurer was so great 
that the Assembly created the office of precinct treasurer. Perhaps the most significant 
practice regarding the appointments of these precinct treasurers was the practice of 
submitting a hst of two or three nominees to the governor for final decision. However, the 
practice of "filhng the offices of precinct treasurer seems to have fallen into disuse" by 
1 735 when there apparently were only two treasurers for the entire province — one for the 
northern district and one for the southern. This division continued for the remainder of 
the colonial period. 

^Moseley was appointed as one of the commissioners to issue paper currency in 1711 
and was apparently appointed as public treasurer in 1715. He seems to have continued 
serving until 1735 when the office was divided into two positions with a treasurer 
appointed for the northern district and another appointed for the southern. Moseley was 
appointed treasurer of the southern district and continued in that capacity until his 
death in 1749. 

^Smith was appointed by Governor Burrington and the council, but there is no evi- 
dence that he ever served— probably due to the response of the lower house. 

^Downing was appointed by the legislature as treasurer for the northern district and 
served until his death in 1739. 

^See footnote 2. 

eSmith was appointed on November 21, 1739 by the governor and council to act as 
temporary treasurer, following the death of Downing. 

^Hodgson was apparently appointed by the assembly in August, 1740 to replace 
Downing and served until 1748. 

«Barker was appointed by the assembly in April, 1848 and served until he resigned in 

58 North Carolina Manual 

^ Allen was appointed by the general assembly in November, 1749 to replace Moseley 
and served until his death in 1750. 

'°Starkey was appointed in July, 1750 to replace Eleazer Allen and served until his 
death in 1765. 

' 'Haywood was appointed to replace Barker and served until he apparently resigned in 

'-Barker was appointed in 1754 to replace Haywood and served until he apparently 
resigned in 1764. 

'^Montford was appointed in February, 1764 to replace Barker and served until 1775. 

'^Swann was appointed by Governor Tryon in 1765 to act as a temporary replacement 
for the deceased Starkey. 

'^Ashe was appointed in November 1766 to replace Starkey and served until he was 
replaced by Caswell in 1733. 

"'Caswell was appointed in 1733 to replace Ashe and served until the "end" of royal 
government in 1775. "An Act for appointing Public Treasurers, and directing their Duty 
in office," Chapter V, Laws of North Carohna, Clark, State Records, XXHI, 904-906. 

''Johnston and Caswell were appointed treasurers of the northern and southern 
districts respectively on September 8, 1775 by the provincial congress. Caswell served 
until his election as governor in 1776. Johnston served until 1777 when ill health forced 
him to decline his reelection. 

"^See footnote 17. 

State Treasurer 

'^See footnote 17. 

20See footnote 17. 

-'Ashe was elected to replace Caswell. 

22Skinner was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council to 
replace Johnston. He was later elected by the general assembly to a regular term and 
continued serving until the district system was abandoned in 1784. 

23Hunt was the first singular treasurer elected by the general assembly. In 1786 
charges of misconduct were brought against him by a "Secret Committee of the General 
Assembly." Statements concerning the matter were given before a joint meeting of the 
House and Senate on December 28, and each member was allowed to draw his own 
conclusions. Two days later he was defeated for reelection by John Haywood. 

-^Haywood died on November 18, 1827 while still in office, having served for thirty 
years as State Treasurer. 

-^Patterson was election in 1834 to replace Mhoon and was reelected in 1835, but failed 
to give bond within the prescribed fifteen-day time period which voided his election. He 
was then appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council. He 
declined to run for reelection in 1836. Council Minutes, January 13, 1836, Council Jour- 
nal, 1835-1836, GO 122.1, North Carolina Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, 
hereinafter cited as Council Journal, 1835-1836. 

-^Court's resignation was presented to the council on April 15, 1839. 

-"Worth served until the end of the war. When the provisional government took over, he 
was appointed treasurer by Holden. He resigned on November 15, 1865. State Appoint- 
ments, Treasurer, Record Book Relative to the Provisional Government, 1865, 120. 

-•^Sloan was appointed by Holden to replace Worth and served until the new govern- 
ment took over. State Appointments, Treasurer, Record Book Relative to the Provisional 
Government, 1865, 120. 

-^Battle was elected by the new general assembly and began serving on January 1, 
1866. He continued serving until the new constitution went into effect in 1868. 

-'^Jenkins was elected in the general elections in April, 1868 and served following 
reelection in 1872 until his resignation on November 6, 1876. 

3o\Yorth was appointed by Governor Brogden on November 10, 1876. He had already 
been elected in the general elections in 1876. 

^'Bain died November 16, 1892. 

^^Tate was appointed by Governor Holt on November 19, 1892 to replace Bain. He was 
defeated by Worth in a special election in 1894. 

The Executive Branch 59 

33Lacy died February 21, 1929. 

3''0'Berry was appointed by Governor Gardner on February 23, 1929 to replace Lacy 
and served until his death on January 6, 1932. 

'^Stedman was appointed by Governor Gardner on January 7, 1932 to replace O'Berry 
and resigned effective November 21, 1932. 

36 Johnson was appointed by Governor Gardner on November 7, 1932 — to take office 
November 21; however, he failed to qualify at that time. He had already been elected in 
the general elections in 1932. 

'"Hodges resigned in June, 1953. 

38Gill was appointed by Governor Umstead on June 29, 1953 to replace Hodges. He was 
elected in the general elections in 1954 to complete Hodges' unexpired term. He was 
elected to a full term in 1956 and served until his retirement in 1977. 

39Boyles was elected in November, 1976, when Gill declined to run for reelection. He is 
still serving following subsequent reelections. 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 61 


The Department of Public Instruction is headed by the State Board of 
Education, which is charged with estabHshing overall pohcy for North 
Carolina's system of pubhc schools. The State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, a constitutional officer, is charged with organizing the depart- 
ment and administering the funds provided for its support. Consistent with 
other laws enacted by the General Assembly, the Board adopts rules and 
regulations for the public school system. Board membership includes the 
Lieutenant Governor, the State Treasurer, and eleven gubernatorial ap- 
pointees, who are subject to confirmation by the General Assembly in joint 
session. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction is secretary to the 

The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction was formed in 
December, 1852, although the current title and specific delineation of re- 
sponsibilities were first set forth in the Constitution of 1868. The head of the 
Department originally went by the title "superintendent of common schools," 
but that office was abolished in 1865. Today the superintendent of public 
instruction is elected by the people to a four-year term. He is a member of the 
Council of State. 

State Department of Public Instruction Organization 

The purpose of the Department of Public Instruction is many faceted. The 
department allocates to local education agencies money appropriated by the 
General Assembly or provided by the Federal government for public educa- 
tion, monitors the expenditure of that money, promulgates rules and regula- 
tions, collects statistical data of a general and specific nature on schools, 
expenditures, and student progress, and provides consultant services in both 
fiscal and curriculum areas. 

The Department is organized under the state superintendent into five pro- 
gram areas, each headed by an assistant state superintendent and each 
reporting directly to the state deputy superintendent. The five program areas 
are Program Services, Research and Development Services, Personnel Ser- 
vices, Auxiliary Services, and Financial Services. In addition, divisions 
representing communications, external relations, state Board relations, the 
internal auditor, and the omsbudsman report directly to the state superin- 

The Program Services Area 

The Program Services unit includes the Divisions of Curriculum and 
Instruction Services, the Division of Vocational Education Services, the Div- 
ision of Media and Technology Services, the Division of Exceptional Child- 
ren's Services, and the Division of Student Services. 

The Research and Development Area 

The Research and Development Unit includes the Division of Account- 

62 North Carolina Manual 

ability Services which is charged with administering testing programs, 
assuring accreditation, and with conducting research. Also in this service 
area is the Division of Development Services which is charged with develop- 
ment and demonstration and with grants and assistance. 

The Personnel Services Area 

The Personnel Services unit is composed of the Division of Local Educa- 
tion Agency Personnel Services and the Division of Teacher Education and 
Certification Services. 

The Financial Services Area 

The Financial Services unit is composed of the Divisions of School Busi- 
ness Services, the Division of State Accounting Services, and the Division of 
Fiscal Control Services. 

The Auxiliary Services Area 

The Auxiliary Services unit is composed of the Division of School Services 
which deals with transportation, child nutrition, and student safety services, 
and also the Division of School Facility Services which deals with plant 
operation, school planning and insurance. 

The State Department of Public Instruction's primary purpose — to assure 
that a "general and uniform system of free public schools shall be provided 
throughout the State, wherein equal opportunities shall be provided for all 
students . . ." is alv/ays the overriding goal of employees of the Department. 

Boards and Commissions ' 

Blue Ridge Task Force on Land Planning 

Capital Planning Commission 

Center for the Advancement of Teaching, Board of Trustees 

Chapter 2 Directors 

Cities in Schools 

Commission on the Family 

Commission on Testing 

Computer Commission 

Council for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing 

Council of Chief State School Officers 

Council of State 

Council on Educational Services for Exceptional Children 

Eastern Band of the Cherokee Advisory Council 

Education Commission of the States 

Education Study Commission 

Geographic Information Coordinating Council 

Governor's Crime Commission 

Governor's Executive Cabinet 

Governor's Language Institutes, Advisory Board 

Information Technology Commission 

Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Evaluation Advisory Committee 

The Executive Branch 63 

Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Oversight Committee 

Mathematics/Science Education Network, State Advisory Board 

Mental Health Planning Council 

National Cooperative Education Statistics System 

National Forum on Education Statistics 

N.C. Advisory Council on Telecommunications in State Government 

N.C. Art Society, Board of Directors 

N.C. Board of Public Telecommunications, Board of Commissions 

N.C. Council on Economic Education, Board of Trustees 

N.C. Drug Cabinet 

N.C. Human Service Transportation Council 

N.C. Interagency Coordinating Council 

N.C. Job Training Coordinating Council 

N.C. Rural Center Board 

N.C. Science and Mathematics Alliance 

N.C. Symphony 

Public School Forum, Board of Directors 

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 

School Health Advisory Committee 

SouthEastern Region Vision for Education (SERVE) 

State Apprenticeship Council 

State Refugee Advisory Council 

Teachers and State Employees Retirement System, Board of Trustees 

Testing Directors 

UNC Center for Public TV, Board of Trustees 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 65 

Bob R. Etheridge 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Early Years: Born in Sampson County, August 7, 1941, to John P. and 
Beatrice (Coats) Etheridge. 

Education: Cleveland School, 1947-59; Campbell University, 1965, B.S. 
(Business Administration). 

Professional Background: Businessman; Director, North Carolina 
National Bank, Lillington; Licensed Realtor. 

Organizations: Member, Industrial Management Club (past President); 
Lillington Lions Club (past President); American Legion; Harnett Cystic 
Fibrosis Campaign (past Chairman); Land Use Advisory Council, 1976; 
Harnett Youth Advisory Council (past Chairman); Harnett Sheltered Work- 
shop (past Chairman); Lillington Chamber of Commerce (President, 1977); 
Lillington Rotary Club; Lillington Masonic Lodge. 

Boards: Formerly served on: Harnett Mental Health Board & NC Law 
and Order Commission. Cape Fear District Occoneechee Boy Scout Council 
(Past Chairman). 

Political Activities: N.C. Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1989-; 
N.C. House of Representatives, 1979-1988 (five terms); Harnett County Com- 
missioner, 1973-1976 (Chairman, 1974-76). Served on: Rural Economic Develop- 
ment Center Board of Directors; Fiscal Affairs and Oversight Committee of 
the National Conference of State Legislatures; Fiscal Affairs and Govern- 
ment Operations Committee of the Southern Legislative Conference of the 
Council of State Governments; N.C. Legislative Governmental Operations 
Commission; Advisory Budget Commission; Democratic Party. 

Military Activities: Served, U.S. Army, December, 1965-67. 

Honors: Lillington Jaycees Distinguished Service Award, 1975; Lillington 
Community Service Award, 1976; Outstanding Men of America; Honored 
Distinguished Alumnus Campbell University; Boy Scout District Award of 
Merit, 1980 and 1984; Boy Scout Silver Beaver Award, 1987; honorary 
member. Phi Kappa Phi; honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from Campbell 
University, 1990; honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from Pfeiffer 
College, 1990. 

Religious Activities: Member, Leaflet Presbyterian Church; Sunday 
School Teacher; Sunday School Superintendent; President, Fayetteville 
Presbytery Men, 1975-76; President, Presbyterian Synod Men of N.C, 1977- 
78; Elder, Leaflet Church, 1987. 

Family: Married, Faye Cameron, November 25, 1965. Children: Brian, 
Catherine and David. 

66 North Carolina Manual 

Superintendent of Common Schools 

Name Residence Elected Qualified 

Calvin H. Wiley' Guilford December 13, 1852 1852-1865 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Name Residence Term 

Samuel S. Ashley- New Hanover 1868-1871 

Alexander Mclver ' Guilford 1871-1875 

Kemp P. Battle' Wake 1873 

Stephen D. Pool-^ Craven 1875-1876 

John PooP Pasquotank 1876-1877 

John C. Scarborough Johnston 1877-1885 

Sidney M. Finger Catawba 1885-1893 

John C. Scarborough Hertford 1893-1897 

Charles H. Mebane Catawba 1897-1901 

Thomas F. Toon" Robeson 1901-1902 

James Y. Joyner^^ Guilford 1902-1919 

Eugene C. Brooks^' Durham 1919-1923 

Arch T. Allen'" Alexander 1923-1934 

Clyde A. Erwin' ' Rutherford 1934-1952 

Charles F. CarrolP-' Duplin 1952-1969 

Andrew Craig Phillips' * Guilford 1969-1989 

Bob R. Etheridge" Sampson 1989- 

'Wiley served until the office was abolished in 1865. 

-Ashley was electod in the general elections in April, 1868 and resigned effective 
October!, 1871. 

^Mclver was appointed by Governor Caldwell on September 21, 1871 — to take office 
October 1 — to replace Ashley. 

^Battle, who was appointed by Governor Caldwell on January 14, 1873 to replace Reid, 
took the oaths of office on January 15; however, his right to hold office was challenged by 
Alexander Mclver who was still serving under a previous appointment. The conflict was 
argued before the North Carolina Supreme Court in 1873 at its January term and was 
decided in favor of Mclver. Justice Reade, who gave the opinion of the court, stated that 
since Mclver had been duly appointed and qualified, and that since the officer-elect could 
not qualify, Mclver was entitled to remain in office until the next election. (August, 1874). 

"'Pool resigned effective June 30, 1876. 

''John Pool, who was appointed by Governor Brodgen on June 30, 1876 to replace 
Stephen D. Pool, took office July 1. 

^Toon was elected in the general elections in 1900 and served until his death on 
February 19, 1902. 

'"'Joyner was appointed bj' Governor Aye ock on February 24, 1902 to replace Toon. He 
was elected in a special election in 1902 to complete Toon's unexpired term. He was 
elected to a full term in 1904 and served following subsequent reelections until his 
resignation effective January 1, 1919. 

^Brooks was appointed by Governor Bickett on December 21, 1918 — to take office 
January 1, 1919 — to replace Joyner. He was elected in the general elections in 1920 and 
served until his resignation on June 11, 1923. 

'"Allen was appointed by Governor Morrison on June 11, 1923 to replace Brooks. He 
was elected in the general elections in 1924 and served following subsequent reelections 
until his death on October 20, 1934. 

"Erwin was appointed by Governor Ehringhaus on October 23, 1934 to replace Allen. 
He was elected in the general elections in 1936 and served following subsequent 
reelections until his death on July 19, 1952. 

'-Carroll was appointed by Governor Scott on August 20, 1952 to replace Erwin. He was 
elected in the general elections in 1952 and served following subsequent reelections until 
1969 when he declined to run for reelection. 

' 'Phillips was elected in 1968 and served following subsequent reelections until his 
retirement in 1989. 

'^Etheridge was elected in November, 1988. 

The Executive Branch 67 



The Attorney General of North Carohna heads both the Department of 
Justice and the Office of the Attorney General. The office is one of the oldest 
continuous offices in government having originated during colonial times. 
When the first North Carolina constitution was written in 1776, the Attor- 
ney General was made part of its framework. When the General Assembly 
began reorganizing state government in the early 1970's they created the 
Department of Justice as one of the major departments in the Executive 

The 1971 revision of the state constitution deleted all reference to the 
Department of Justice and the State Bureau of Investigation. Instead, it 
simply states that there shall be an Attorney General whose duties "shall be 
prescribed by law" [Article III, Section 7(2)]. Article III, Section 7(1) of the 
Constitution of North Carolina provides that the Attorney General, along 
with other elected department heads, "shall be elected by the qualified voters 
of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same time and 
places as members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office 
shall be four years and shall commence on the first day of January next 
after their election and continue until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied." Also this revision made the Attorney General a full, voting member of 
the Council of State whereas before he had served only as legal advisor to 
the Council. 

The Attorney General is a constitutional officer elected by the people of 
North Carolina to a four-year term. His powers and duties are set out in the 
General Statutes of North Carolina. The variety of powers and duties held 
by the Attorney General may be seen by examining the Constitution and 
statutory references, as well as by studying the many state and federal court 
cases in which he is involved. The Office of the Attorney General includes 
the North Carolina Department of Justice, the State Bureau of Investiga- 
tion, the Justice Academy, the Criminal Justice Standards Division, and the 
Sheriffs' Standards Division. 

Historical Development 

As far back as the Middle Ages, the English crown conducted its legal 
business through attorneys, sergeants, and solicitors. One Lawrence Del 
Brok is known to have pursued the King's legal business in the courts dur- 
ing the middle of the thirteenth century. At that time, the crown did not act 
through a single attorney at all. Instead, the King appointed numerous legal 
representatives and granted each authority to appear only in particular 
courts, on particular matters, or in the courts of particular geographical 
areas. Gradually, the number of attorneys representing the crown decreased 
as individual attorneys were assigned broader duties. By the latter part of 
the fifteenth century, the title Attorney General was used to designate one 
William Husee. It may have been as late as 1530, however, before the title of 

68 North Carolina Manual 

Attorney General was held by a single attorney. The Attorney General in 
the sixteenth century still shared his role as legal representative of the 
crown with other types of legal agents. It was not until the seventeenth cen- 
tury that the office assumed its modern form and the Attorney General 
became, at least in practice, the preeminent legal representative of the 

Although the early attorneys and other legal representatives of the crown 
occupied much the same position as comparable legal representatives of 
individuals, their development soon diverged from that of private counsel 
because of the peculiar role of the crown in legal proceedings. The king was 
"praerogative" and in theory was always present in his courts. As the king 
could not appear in his own court personally, the function of the Attorney 
General and his predecessors was to protect the king's interests. Conse- 
quently, the king's counsel had superior status to that of attorneys for indi- 
viduals. Unlike an attorney representing a private party, the Attorney 
General or king's attorney was not an officer of the courts and was therefore 
not subject to the usual disciplinary authority of the courts over an attorney. 
As a representative of the crown, the Attorney General was subject only to 
the control of the crown. 

The office of Attorney General was transported from the parent country of 
England to the American colonies. There, the attorneys general of the colo- 
nies in effect served as delegates or representatives of the Attorney General 
of England. Not surprisingly, these colonial attorneys general were viewed 
as possessing the common law powers or then current powers of the Attor- 
ney General in England. During the early colonial period, North Carolina 
was joined with South Carolina to comprise a single colony and shared with 
South Carolina an Attorney General. Certainly, by 1767, North Carolina did 
have an Attorney General who was selected from among the lawyers prac- 
ticing in North Carolina and possessed all the powers, authority, and trusts 
within the colony that the Attorney General and Solicitor General possessed 
in England. Thus, when the American Revolution brought this country into 
being, the office of Attorney General was firmly established in the American 
states as part of the heritage brought over from England and continued in 
the colonial period. 

After the American Revolution, the newly formed states continued to pro- 
vide for Attorney General with virtually the same powers and duties as their 
English and colonial predecessors, except the people, and not a king, became 
sovereign. The office has, in one form or another, been carried forth into the 
modern American states with many of the same duties and powers as 
existed in Attorney General at common law. Indeed, most commentators 
and most decisions dealing with the powers of state Attorney General have 
recognized that the majority of American states continue to vest their Attor- 
ney General with many, if not all, of the powers of the Attorney General of 
England and the American colonies. 

North Carolina is among those states in which the constitution provides 
that the duties of the Attorney General "shall be prescribed by law." As far 
back as 1715 and continuing up to the present time, North Carolina has 
been governed by the common law "or so much of the common law as is not 
destructive of, or repugnant to, or inconsistent with, the freedom and inde- 

The Executive Branch 69 

pendence of this State and the form of government therein estabHshed and 
which has not been otherwise provided for in whole or in part, not abro- 
gated, repealed, or become obsolete." The "common law" as used in North 
Carolina General Statutes 4-1 refers to the common law of England. The 
common law as adopted by statute may also be modified or repealed by sta- 
tute except where the Constitution of North Carolina has incorporated the 
common law into its provision. From these principles, it might be concluded 
that the Attorney General of North Carolina should be vested with all com- 
mon law powers of the Attorney General representing the crown at the time 
of the American Revolution except where specific constitutional or statutory 
provisions dictate otherwise. In 1985, the General Assembly reaffirmed the 
common law powers of the Attorney General. 

The Department of Justice 

The Attorney General is responsible for representing the State of North 
Carolina in all actions in the Appellate Court Division in which the State is 
either interested or a party. When requested by the governor or either House 
of the General Assembly, the Attorney General appears for the state before 
any other court or tribunal in any case or matter, civil or criminal, in which 
the state may be a party or interested. Also, the Attorney General, when 
requested by the governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor. Utilities 
Commission, Banking Commission, insurance commissioner or superin- 
tendent of public instruction prosecutes or defends all suits related to mat- 
ters concerning their departments. The Attorney General represents all state 
institutions whenever requested to do so by the official head of that institu- 

The Attorney General consults with and advises judges, district attorneys, 
magistrates and municipal and county attorneys, whenever they request 
such assistance. Attorney General's opinions are rendered, either formally 
or informally, upon all questions of law submitted by the General Assembly, 
the governor or any other state officer. 

The Attorney General, in the public interest, may intervene in proceedings 
before any courts, regulatory officers, agencies or bodies, either state or fed- 
eral, on behalf of the consuming public of the State. Also, the Attorney 
General has the authority to institute and originate proceedings before these 
courts, officers, agencies or bodies on behalf of the state, its agencies or its 
citizens in any and all matters which are in the public interest. 

Functions of the Office of Attorney General 

The Attorney General's responsibilities lie in two main areas: The Legal 
Services Area and The Law Enforcement Area. 

The Legal Services Area is organized into four divisions: Criminal, Civil, 
Trade and Commerce, and Administrative. The Law Enforcement Area con- 
sists of the State Bureau of Investigation, which also oversees the Division 
of Criminal Information, and the Training and Standards Division, which 
oversees the North Carolina Justice Academy, the Criminal Justice Stand- 
ards Commission, the Sheriffs Education and Training Standards Commis- 
sion, and the Law Enforcement Liaison Section. 

70 North Carolina Manual 

The Legal Services Area 

Criminal Division. 

This Division includes all sections of office dealing with criminal matters. 
Its staff advises and represents state agencies such as Department of Cor- 
rections and Crime Control and Public Safety. The Division is broken down 
into several sections in order to provide specialized support. 

The Special Prosecutions Section prosecutes or assists in the prosecution 
of criminal cases upon request of district attorneys and upon the approval of 
the Attorney General. It also serves as legal advisor to the State Bureau of 

The Corrections Section represents the Department of Corrections by pro- 
viding legal counsel and representation on matters involving prison regula- 
tions, personnel and statutory interpretations. 

The Crime Control Section represents the Highway Patrol and the Depart- 
ment of Crime Control and Public Safety, and also serves as legal advisor to 
victim and justice services. 

The Federal Habeas Section represents North Carolina in appeals of crim- 
inal convictions to the federal courts. 

The Appellate Section supervises and/or prepares criminal briefs in all 
appeals to which the state is a party. 

Civil Division. 

The Division handles civil claims and litigation involving the state, its 
officials and employees. It is also divided into smaller services sections. 

The Property Control Section represents the Department of Administra- 
tion, the State Auditor, the North Carolina Ports Authority, the Railway 
Commission, the Art Museum, the Building Commission and other agencies. 
Its staff advises state agencies on real property, public building construction 
law, and public procurement. 

The Education Section represents the University of North Carolina sys- 
tem, the superintendent of public instruction, and Department of Com- 
munity Colleges in all areas of law except tort claims and revenue. Staff 
members also advise attorneys and administrators in the public schools. 

The Revenue Section provides legal counsel to the Department of Revenue 
and representation in state and federal litigation, as well as providing tax 
counsel to other state agencies. 

The Labor Section acts as legal advisor to the commissioner of labor and 
handles cases arising from enforcement of labor laws and occupational 
safety and health matters. 

The Motor Vehicles Section furnishes legal assistance to the Division of 
Motor Vehicles. 

The Highway Section acts as legal advisor to the secretary of transporta- 
tion and the State Board of Transportation and provides legal representa- 
tion to the Department of Transportation in such matters as condemnation 
litigation, bids for highway construction, and contracts. 

The Executive Branch 71 

Trade and Commerce Division. 

Represents the using and consuming public's interest in maintaining a 
free, fair and competitive marketplace, and protection of the natural environ- 

The Anti-Trust Section protects the public against price fixing, price goug- 
ing, restraint or trade and other anti-competitive practices. 

The Consumer Protection Section protects the public from fraud, deception 
and other unfair deceptive trade practices. 

The Energy and Utilities Section represents the using and consuming pub- 
lic in utility rate hearings where adversarial trials are a substitute for com- 
petition as a means to protect the public's right to high quality utility servi- 
ces at fair and reasonable prices. 

The Environmental Section protects public interest in maintaining an 
environment conducive to public health and safety. 

The Insurance Section represents the using and consuming public in insu- 
rance rate matters to ensure quality utility services at fair costs. 

Special Litigation Section - Handles complex litigation in which the public 
has a vital stake in the outcome. 

Administrative Division. 

Furnishes legal support and services to the departments of state govern- 
ment to assure their fulfilling of constitutional and statutory respon- 

The State Agency Services Sectionis the principal legal advisor to a wide 
variety of state departments, boards and commissions, giving legal repre- 
sentation in state and federal litigation and administrative proceedings. 

The Collections Section primarily assists in the collection of delinquent 
student loan accounts for state universities and community colleges. 

The Elections Section is legal counsel to the State Board of Elections on 
all matters of election law. 

The Human Resources Section represents the Department of Human 
Resources and its major divisions for Htigation and counsel. 

The Real Estate Section represents the Real Estate Commission as legal 
counsel and advises on complaints and inquiries from the real estate indus- 
try and consumers. 

The Tort Claims Section defends the state and its agencies in worker's 
compensation cases involving personal injury and property damage. 

The Law Enforcement Area 

State Bureau of Investigation. 

The State Bureau of Investigation was established to provide a more effec- 
tive administration of the criminal laws of the state, to prevent crime, and to 
ensure the speedy apprehension of criminals. The Bureau assists local law 
enforcement in the identification of criminals, the scientific analysis to the 

72 North Carolina Manual 

evidence of crimes, and the investigation and preparation of evidence to be 
used in court. Whenever requested by the Attorney General, the governor, 
sheriffs, poHce chiefs, district attorneys or jlidges, the State Bureau of Inves- 
tigation lends its assistance. 

The State Bureau of Investigation is divided into three major areas of 
operation: Field Investigations, the Crime Laboratory and the Division of 
Criminal Information. The bureau has also developed and maintained one 
of the best and most complete crime laboratories in the nation. 

The Division of Criminal Information was established in order to devise, 
maintain and operate a system for receiving, correlating, storing and dis- 
seminating, to participating law enforcement agencies, information that will 
help them in the performance of their duties and in the administration of 
justice in North Carolina. Examples of the variety of information stored 
include motor vehicle registrations, driver's licenses, wanted and missing 
persons, stolen property, warrants, stolen vehicles, firearms registration, 
drug trafficking, and parole and probation histories. The Division intro- 
duced the computer to the state's law enforcement community and provides 
an up-to-the-minute computer filing system, information retrieval, and com- 
munications network with qualified law enforcement agencies throughout 
North Carolina. 

The North Carolina Justice Academy. 

The Justice Academy was created in 1973 by an act of the General Assem- 
bly. The Academy provides professional education and training to members 
of the criminal justice system. 

In 1974, the Board of Trustees of the Southwood College and the Sampson 
County Board of Commissioners donated the Southwood Complex to the 
state for its use as a site for the Academy. Salemburg has maintained a 
facility for higher education and training since 1875 when Salem Academy, 
a military school, was established. 

The purpose of the Justice Academy is to develop and conduct training 
courses for local criminal justice agencies and to provide the resources and 
facilities for training courses to various State criminal justice agencies. 

The needs of the local agencies are the first priority in the Academy's 
efforts. Emphasis is directed toward specialized training for the local law 
enforcement officer. However, the Academy has a responsibility to embrace 
every aspect of the criminal justice system by providing programs and work- 
ing with other agencies in the criminal justice system to upgrade the exist- 
ing standards for law enforcement in the State. 

The Sheriffs' Standards Division. 

The Sheriffs' Standards Division administers the programs of the North 
Carolina Sheriffs' Education and Training Standards Commission. It is 
responsible for the establishment and enforcement of minimum employment 
and training standards for sheriffs' deputies and jailers throughout the 
State. The Division also establishes and implements procedures by which 
officers are certified as either deputy sheriffs or jailers. 

The Executive Branch 73 

Criminal Justice Standards Division. 

The Criminal Justice Standards Division administers the programs of the 
Criminal Justice Education and Training Standards Commission. The divi- 
sion administers seven criminal justice officer certification programs encom- 
passing some 20,000 certified officers. Eight other specialty certification 
programs are also administered by the Division, including the Radar Opera- 
tion Certification Program. Also, the Division administers programs of the 
Company and Railroad Police Commission. 

Boards and Commissions 

General Statutes Commission 

N.C. Alarm Systems Licensing Board 

N.C. Criminal Justice Education and Training Standards 

N.C. Sheriffs' Education and Training Standards Commission 

Private Protective Services Board 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 75 

Lacy H. Thornburg 

Attorney General 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, December 20, 
1929, to Jesse Lafayette and Sarah Ann (Zigeler) Thornburg. 

Education: Huntersville High School, 1947; Mars Hill College, 1950, 
A.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1951, B.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1954, 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: Mason; Shriner. 

Boards: Chairman, 4-H Ambassador Steering Committee, 1987-; Board of 
Visitors: Peace College, 1986-, North Carolina Central School of Law, David- 
son College. Roanoke Island Historical Association, 1985-; Co-Chairman, 
Law Enforcement Coordinating Committee, 1985-; Governor's Crime Commis- 
sion, 1985-; Capitol Planning Commission, 1985-; Tryon Palace Commission, 
1985-; chairman, Jackson County Board of Health, 1968-1984. Former mem- 
ber: NC Courts Commission; NC Criminal Code Commission; NC Judicial 

Political Activities: Attorney General, State of North Carolina, 1985- 
(elected, 1984); Superior Court Judge, 1967-1983; Member, NC House of 
Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965-66; Staff member, Congressman David 
Hall, 1959-60; NC Young Democrats Club, 1954; Democratic Party. 

Military Service: Served in US Army 1947-48 (PFC). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Sylva; Sunday 
School Teacher, Superintendent, Deacon. 

Family: Married Dorothy Frances Todd, September 6, 1953. Children: 
Sara (Thornburg) Evans, Lacy Eugene, Jesse Todd, Alan Ziegler. 

76 North Carolina Manual 



Name Term 

George Durant' 1677-1681 

William Wilkison^ 1694 

John Porter, Jr.' 1694-[1695] 

Henderson Walker 1695 

Thomas Abington^ 1696 

Richard Plater^ 1696-[1703] 

Christopher GaleS 1704-1705 

Thomas Snoden' 1705-1708 

Christopher Gale« 1708-[1710] 

Edward Bonwicke^ 1711-1714 

Daniel Richardsonio 1714-1724 

[John Worley]" 

James Stanaway^^ 

[John Montgomery]^ "* 

William Little'^ 1724 

Thomas Boyd^s 1724-1725 

William Little 1725-1731 

JohnConnorie 1731 

John Montgomery!^ 1731-1741 

John Hodgson'*^ 1734 

Joseph Andersoni9 1741-1742 

John Montgomery 1742-1743 

Joseph Anderson^o 1743-1747 

Thomas Child2i 1747-1752 

George Nicholas^^ 1752-1756 

Charles Elliot^^ 1756 

Robert Jones, Jr.-^ 1756-1759 

Thomas Child25 1759-1761 

Robert Jones, Jr.^^ 1761-1766 

Marmaduke Jones27 1766-1767 

Thomas McGuire^s 1767-[1776] 


Name Residence Term 

Waightstill Avery29 Burke 1777-1779 

James Iredell^o Chowan 1779-1782 

Alfred Moore^i Brunswick 1782-1791 

John Haywood, Jr.32 Halifax 1792-1795 

Blake Baker^' Edgecombe 1795-1803 

Henry SeawelP^ Wake 1803-1808 

Oliver Fitts^s Warren 1808-1810 

William Miller^e Warren 1810 

Hutching G. BurtonS^ Warren 1810-1816 

William P. Drew^s Halifax 1816-1824 

James F. Taylor-^s Wake 1825-1828 

Robert H. Jones^o Warren 1828 

Romulus M. Saunders^' Caswell 1828-1834 

John R. J. Daniel Halifax 1835-1841 

The Executive Branch 77 

Name Residence Term 

Hugh McQueen42 Chatham 1841-1842 

Spier Whitaker HaUfax 1842-1846 

Edward Stanleys Beaufort 1846-1848 

Bartholomew F. Moore^^ HaHfax 1848-1851 

WilHam Eaton, Jr.^^ Warren 1851-1852 

Matthew W. Ransom^e Northampton 1853-1855 

Joseph B. Batchelor47 Warren 1855-1856 

WilKam H. Bailey^s Mecklenburg 1857 

William A. Jenkinses Warren 1857-1862 

Sion H. Rogers^o Wake 1863-1868 

William M. Coleman^i 1868-1869 

Lewis P. 01ds52 Wake 1869-1870 

William M. Shipp^^ Lincoln 1870-1873 

Tazewell L. Hargrove Granville 1873-1877 

Thomas S. Kenan Wilson 1877-1885 

Theodore F. Davidson Buncombe 1885-1893 

Frank L Osborne Mecklenburg 1893-1897 

Zebulon V. Walser^^ Davidson 1897-1900 

Robert D. Douglases Guilford 1900-1901 

Robert D. Gilmer Haywood 1901-1909 

Thomas W. Bicket^e Franklin 1909-1917 

James S. Manning Wake 1917-1925 

Dennis G. Brummitt" Granville 1925-1935 

Aaron A. F. Seawelps Lee 1935-1938 

Harry McMullan^s Beaufort 1938-1955 

William B. Rodman, Jr.eo Beaufort 1955-1956 

George B. Patton^i Macon 1956-1958 

Malcom B. Seawelps Robeson 1958-1960 

Wade Bruton63 Montgomery 1960-1969 

Robert Morgan64 Harnett 1969-1974 

James H. Carson,65 Jr Mecklenburg 1974-1975 

Rufus L. Edmisten^e Wake 1975-1985 

Lacy H. Thornburg^^ Jackson 1985- 


'Durant was probably appointed by Jenkins, possibly as early as 1673 or 1674; he was 
serving by 1676. When the conflict between Eastcburch and Jenkins broke out, Durant 
went to England to plead Jenkin's case — he was not very successful since Eastcburch 
was commissioned. Durant did not return to the colony until December, 1677, but 
apparently once again served as attorney general. He was still serving in November, 
1679 and probably continued serving until 1681 or later. 

^Little is known of Wilkinson's service as attorney general except that he was 
suspended from office in 1694 by Governor Harvey for "Misdemeanors." 

^Porter was appointed by Harvey to replace Wilkinson and qualified before the court. 
He probably served until Walker took office in 1695. 

^ Abington served for two indictments during the February, 1696 court. 

spiater was appointed by Governor Harvey and qualified before the court. He was still 
serving in October, 1703. . . /^ 1 

eWhen Gale was appointed is not known. The first record of service is at the General 
Court for July, 1704 and he was still serving in October, 1705. 

^Snoden began serving during the Fall term of the general court for 1705 and was still 
serving in 1708. 

78 North Carolina Manual 

'^Gale was again acting as attorney general by October, 1708. There are not court 
records available for 1709 and 1710 and the records for the First Court in 1711 indicate 
that Bonwicke was attorney general. 

■'Bonwicke was serving by March, 1711 and records from the Receiver General's office 
indicate that he was still serving in June, 1714; however, by October he was no longer in 

'"Richardson was apparently appointed by Governor Eden sometime during the 
summer of 1714. He qualified before the General Court on October 26, 1714 and served 
until 1724 when he was replaced by Little. 

' ' Worley's name appears in Hawks' list of attorney generals with the date, August 2, 
1716, following it. Since there are no records which indicate that he served, it is assumed 
that this is an appointment date. Hawks, History of North Carolina, H, 140. 

'-Instructions issued to Governor Burrington by the Lords Proprietors indicate that 
James Stanaway was appointed attorney general; however, there is no evidence to 
indicate that he served. 

' 'Montgomery is reported to have been appointed attorney general in 1723; however, 
no evidence could be found to indicate that he served at this time. 

'^Little was appointed by Governor Burrington to replace Richardson and qualified 
before the Council. His resignation was announced at a council meeting on November 7, 

'^Boyd was appointed by Governor Burrington to replace Little and qualified before 
the council. He served until Little took over in 1725. 

"'Connor was appointed by Governor Burrington and qualified before the council. He 
served only until Montgomery arrived. 

' 'Montgomery was appointed by the crown and qualified before the council. He was 
suspended by Burrington on September 29, 1734, but was either restored to office by 
Johnston or never left as he is considered the attorney general in November. He 
continued serving until 1741 when he was appointed acting chief justice. 

'"^Hodgson was appointed by Burrington following the suspension of Montgomery and 
apparently qualified before the council. He served only until Governor Johnston took 
office in Novemberr, 1734. 

'■'Anderson was appointed acting attorney general by Governor Johnston when 
Montgomery became chief justice. He served until Montgomery returned to service in 

-"Anderson was appointed permanent attorney general by Governor Johnston when 
Montgomery was commissioned chief justice. He qualified before the council and 
continued serving until Child took office in 1747. 

-'Child was appointed by the crown and qualified on May 16, 1747. He served until he 
returned to England in 1752. 

^-Nicholas was apparently appointed to serve when Child left North Carolina to go to 
England. He was reported ill in October, 1755; there is no evidence that anyone else was 
appointed until 1756. 

-'Elliot was appointed by Governor Dobbs to replace Nicholas, and apparently 
qualified before Dobbs. He only served a few months before he died. 

-••Jones was appointed by Governor Dobbs to replace Elliott and presumably qualified 
before him. He served until Child took over in 1761. Commission to Robert Jones, Jr., 
October 4, 1756, Commissions, 1754-1767, 5, 60. 

'^^Child was commissioned by the crown and apparently qualified before Governor 
Dobbs. He served until he resigned in 1761. 

-"Jones was appointed by the crown and apparently qualified before Governor Dobbs. 
He served until his death on October 2, 1 766. Warrant appointing Robert Jones Attorney 
General of North Carolina, April 14, 1761, CO 324/40, English Records, ER 15-22; 
Commission to Robert Jones, July 25, 1761, Commission Book, 1761-1772, 1; Letter from 
GovernorTryon to Earl of Shelburne, January 12, 1767, Saunders, Co/onm/.ffecorc/s.Vn, 

-"Jones was appointed by Governor Tryon to replace Jones and served until McQuire 
took office in 1767. 

^-McGuire was commissioned by the crown to replace Jones and qualified before the 
council. He presumably served until the Revolution. 

29Avery resigned on May 8, 1779. 

The Executive Branch 79 

30Iredell was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council to 
replace Thomas McQuire who had declined to serve. He was later elected by the general 

"Moore's resignation was presented to the council on April 9, 1791, but no one was 
immediately appointed to fill the vacancy. 

'-Haywood was elected to replace Moore and resigned following his elections as judge 
of the Superior Court of Law and Equity on January 28, 1795. 

^■''Baker was elected to replace Haywood and resigned on November 25, 1803. 

3^Seawell was elected to replace Baker and resigned on November 30, 1808. 

35Fitts was elected to replace Seawell and resigned on July 6, 1810. 

^f^Miller was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Council to 
replace Fitts. 

^^Burton resigned November 21, 1816. 

s'^Drew was elected to replace Burton and resigned in November, 1824. 

39Taylor was elected to replace Drew and died in late June, or early July, 1828. 

"•ojones was appointed by governor with the advice and consent of the council to 
replace Taylor. 

"•'Saunders was elected to replace Taylor. On December 16, 1834 a resolution was 
passed in the House of Commons declaring that the office of Attorney General was 
vacant because Saunders held a commission from the federal government, which was in 
violation of Chapter 6 of the Laws of 1790 — the law prohibited dual office holding by a 
public official except in special cases. Saunders wrote to Alexander Williams, the 
Speaker of the House, the following day requesting that he be given "permission to be 
heard at the bar of the House upon the subject of the Resolution." The request was 
granted. Despite testimony by Saunders on his own behalf, the House voted 68-60 to 
uphold the resolution. On December 31, 1834, Saunders sent in his resignation. 

^-McQueen's resignation was received by the House of Commons on November 25, 

^'Stanley resigned on May 8, 1848. 

"Moore was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council to 
replace Stanley. He was later elected by the general assembly to a regular term and 
resigned in May, or June, 1851. 

^^Eaton was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council to 
replace Moore. 

^''Ransom was elected by the general assembly to replace Moore and resigned on May 
2, 1855. 

^"Batchelor was appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council 
to replace Ransom. He resigned November 26, 1856. Council Minutes, May 25, 1855, 
Council Journal, 1855-1889; Batchelor to Bragg, November 26, 1856, Bragg Letter Book, 
1855-1857, 600. 

^^Bailey was elected by the general assembly to fill the unexpired term of Batchelor. 
Commission dated January 5, 1857, Commission Book, 1841-1877. 

^■^Jenkins was elected to replace Ransom; however, the office was declared vacant on 
December 8, 1862 because Jei^kins had accepted a commission in the Confederate Army. 

5°Rogers was elected to replace Jenkins and served until the Constitution of 1868 went 
into effect. Commission dated January 6, 1866, Commission Book, 1841-1877. 

5'Coleman was elected in the general elections in April, 1868 and served until his 
resignation on May 29, 1869. 

"Olds was appointed by Governor Holden on June 1, 1869 to replace Coleman. At the 
State Republican Party Convention in 1870 he was defeated for nomination by Samuel F. 

5'Shipp was elected in the general elections in 1870 to complete Coleman's unexpired 
term but was defeated for reelection in 1872. 

"Walser was elected in the general elections in 1896. He resigned effective November 
24 following his defeat for reelection by Gilmer in 1900. 

s^Douglas was appointed by Governor Russell on November 24, 1900 to complete 
Walser's term. 

56Bickett was elected in the general elections in 1908 and served following re-election in 
1912 until 1916 when he was elected governor of North Carolina. 

"Brummitt was elected in the general elections in 1924 and served following 

80 North Carolina Manual 

subsequent reelections until his death on February 5, 1935. 

5«Seawell was appointed by Governor Ehringhaus on January 16, 1935 to replace 
Brummitt. He was elected in the general elections in 1936 and served until April, 1938 
when he was appointed to the State Supreme Court. 

s^McMullan was appointed by Governor Hoey on April 30, 1938 to replace Seawell. He 
was elected in the general elections in 1938 to complete Seawell's unexpired term. He was 
elected to a full term in 1940 and served following subsequent reelections until his death 
on June 24, 1955. 

^"Rodman was appointed by Governor Hodges on June 1, 1955 to replace McMullan 
and served until he resigned in August, 1956 when he was appointed to the Supreme 

fiiPatton was appointed by Governor Hodges on August 21, 1956 to replace Rodman. He 
was elected in the general elections in 1956 and served until his resignation effective 
April 15, 1958. 

62Seawell was appointed by Governor Hodges on April 15, 1958 to replace Patton. He 
was elected in the general elections in 1958 to complete Patton's unexpired term and 
served until his resignation effective February 29, 1960. 

63Bruton was appointed by Governor Hodges on February 27, 1960 — to take office 
March 1 — to replace Seawell. He was elected in the general elections in 1960. 

•^^Morgan resigned August 26, 1974, to run for United States Senator. 

65Carson was appointed by Governor Holshouser on August 26 to replace Morgan. 

•^•^Edmisten defeated Carson in a special election to complete Morgan's term held in 
1974. He was elected to a full term in 1976 and served following subsequent reelections 
until 1985. 

•^^Thornburg was elected in the general elections in 1984. 

The Executive Branch 81 


The Civil War devastated the economy of North Carohna. Agriculture, the 
mainstay of the state's slightly more than one million people, was severely 
stricken. The crops that were produced were poor and prices were low. After 
the war a system of farm tenancy developed leading to smaller farms and 
decreased efficiency. 

In an effort to combat these and other problems, farmers joined organi- 
zations such as the Patrons of Husbandry (the Grange) and the Farmers' 
Alliance. While these organizations did give farmers a united voice for 
sounding their grievances, they did not solve many of the existing problems. 
To the majority of farmers, the most feasible solution seemed to be the 
establishment of an agricultural department as part of the state government. 

As early as 1860 Governor John E. Ellis had urged the General Assembly 
to establish a Board of Agriculture, but the request was ignored by legislators 
who were concerned primarily with the oncoming war. 

In 1868 the foundation for the establishment of a Department of Agri- 
culture was laid when North Carolinians approved the state constitution. 
The constitution provided: "There shall be established in the office of the 
Secretary of State a Bureau of Statistics, Agriculture, and Immigration 
under such regulations as the General Assembly may provide." However 
this agency did not provide for the real needs of agriculture, and thus failed 
to receive the favor of farmers who still wanted an independent department. 
The cries of the farmers did not fall on deaf ears and in 1875 at a con- 
stitutional convention a provision was approved which called upon the 
General Assembly to". . . establish a Department of Agriculture, Immigra- 
tion, and Statistics under such regulations as may best promote the agri- 
cultural interests of the state and shall enact laws for the adequate protection 
and encouragement of sheep husbandry." 

In March of 1877, a bill establishing such a department was introduced in 
the General Assembly and passed. 

The original law provided for a seven-member Board of Agriculture to 
supervise the department's activities. The board was to be composed of the 
Governor as ex-officio chairman; the State Geologist; the Master of the State 
Grange; the president of the State Agricultural Society; the president of the 
state university at Chapel Hill, and two agriculturists. One of the board's 
first tasks was to select a Commissioner to act as administrative head of the 

Colonel Leonidas LaFayette Polk of Anson County who had been a 
moving spirit in the establishment of the new department was chosen to 
serve as its first Commissioner. Polk, an outstanding agricultural leader and 
spokesman, was an obvious choice. For a salary of $2,000 a year, Polk was 
charged to carry out the following duties: 

(1) to find a means of improving sheep husbandry and curb high 
mortality rates caused by dogs; 

82 North Carolina Manual 

(2) to seek the causes of diseases among domestic animals, to quaran- 
tine sick stock, and to regulate transportation of all animals; 

(3) to seek to check insect ravages; 

(4) to foster new crops suited to various soils of the state; 

(5) to collect statistics on fences in North Carolina, with the object of 
altering the system in use; 

(6) to work with the United States Fish Commission in the protection 
and propagation offish; 

(7) to send a report to the General Assembly each session; 

(8) to seek cooperation of other states on such matters as obstruction 
offish in interstate waters; and 

(9) to make rules regulating the sale of feeds and fertilizers. 

In addition, the Department of Agriculture was to establish a chemical 
laboratory at the University of North Carolina for testing fertilizers and to 
work with the geological survey in studying and analyzing the state's 
natural resources. 

The young department saw a number of changes in staff organization and 
Board of Agriculture representation. One of the most significant board 
changes occurred in 1883 when members were first chosen from each con- 
gressional district to represent the state's major agricultural interests. The 
last "non-farmer" was removed from the board in 1889, when a board 
member and not the Governor, became chairman. 

In 1899, the legislature provided for election of a Commissioner by the 
people of the state, not by the board. The first commissioner elected was 
Samuel L. Patterson of Caldwell County. Patterson had served earlier by 
board appointment. 

The first official home of the Department of Agriculture was the second 
story of the Briggs Building on Fayetteville Street in downtown Raleigh. 
With the office staff came the entire State Museum and Geological Survey. 
Other department employees were located at the Agricultural Experiment 
Station in Chapel Hill and in other office buildings in Raleigh. 

In 1881 the Board of Agriculture decided to bring all the divisions of the 
department together and bought the National Hotel property for $13,000. 
The hotel was on Edenton Street, the present site of the Agriculture Building. 
The building was later enlarged and remained the home of the department 
until 1923 when the Edenton and Halifax Streets part of the building were 
torn down and the present neo-classic building erected. A five-story annex 
was added to the main building in 1954 to provide new quarters for the 
Natural History Museum and space for laboratories and offices. 

Fertilizer Analysis 

Much deception and fraud were being practiced in the sale of fertilizers at 
the time the department was established. Dr. Albert Ledoux, the Department 
of Agriculture's first chemist, said that of the 108 brands of fertilizer sold in 
North Carolina in 1876, some were "miserable stuff, others down-right 
swindles." He reported that one brand had been found to contain as much as 
60 percent sand. It was natural then that one of the first responsibilities of 

The Executive Branch 83 

the newly created Department of Agriculture would be fertilizer inspection 
and analysis. 

The original law provided that there should be an annual privilege tax of 
$500 for each brand sold. For several years, this tax was the sole source of 
revenue for all the programs of the department. However, the privilege tax 
was later contested and the courts ruled it unconstitutional. In its place, an 
inspection fee was levied by the legislature of 1891, with the stipulation that 
the revenue could be used only to support the fertilizer control program. 

Experiment Station 

The actual analysis of fertilizers was to be carried out by the Experiment 
Station in Chapel Hill. In addition, the Experiment Station was directed to 
conduct experiments on the nutrition and growth of plants, to ascertain 
which fertilizers were best suited to the crops of the state and if other crops 
would be grown on its soils, and to conduct any other investigations the 
department might propose. 

Created in 1877 by the same act that created the Department of Agri- 
culture, the station was the first in the South and the second in the nation. 

The initial movement to set up field testing stations began in 1885 when 
the General Assembly directed the Board of Agriculture to secure prices on 
lands and machinery. The board obtained 35 acres on the north side of 
Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, and the job of clearing land, laying out test 
plots, and constructing buildings began. 

The station was transferred from the NCDA to the newly created North 
Carolina College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts in 1889. The Hatch Act, 
which had provided funds of $15,000 to each state for agricultural research, 
had specified that the money be directed to the land grant college. In 
establishing the A & M College, the General Assembly had provided that the 
college would receive all land-grant benefits. 

While the Department of Agriculture maintained its association with the 
station, it shifted its efforts to establishing test farms in various locations 
across the state. The purpose was to experiment with different crop-fertilizer- 
soil combinations to find the most suitable for certain locations. The first 
two research stations were in Edgecombe and Robeson counties. 

State Museum 

As a result of legislation of 1851, a State Geologist was appointed by the 
Governor to retain samples of the minerals of the State. This collection, 
known as the Cabinet of Minerals, was housed on the third floor of the 
capitol prior to the Civil War. It formed the nucleus of the State Museum. 

After the museum was transferred to the Department of Agriculture, the 
legislature expanded its responsibilities to include the illustration of North 
Carolina's agricultural and other resources and its natural history. 

Much of the department's time and interest in the early days was directed 
toward immigration. The goal was to encourage the settling of good citizens 
in the rural sections of the state and to advertise to the world the advantages 
of the soil, natural resources, and climate of the state. The department staff 

84 North Carolina Manual 

produced a number of creditable exhibits of resources and products of the 
state in Vienna, 1873; Atlanta, 1881; Boston, 1883; New Orleans, 1884; 
Raleigh, 1884; Chicago, 1893; Paris, 1900-1907; Charleston, 1901; St. Louis, 
1904; Boston, 1906; and Jamestown, 1907. Many of these exhibits eventually 
became permanent displays in the State Museum. 


Among the original duties given to the department were "investigations 
relative to the ravages of insects." However, until the late 1880's, depart- 
ment reports declared a "remarkable exemption of the crops of the State" 
from insect pests. 

The situation changed considerably around 1900 when pests, such as the 
San Jose Scale in orchards, began to move in. The San Jose Scale was called 
the "worst enemy of the deciduous fruits." 

The department responded by hiring an entomologist to work in conjunc- 
tion with the already existing Commission for the Control of Crop Pests. A 
program of inspection was begun, including inspection of the state's nur- 
series. Nurseries found to have no pest problems were certified as pest free. 

Another task of the entomologist's office was the establishment of an 
insect collection. The collection documented the specimens found in the state 
and served as a useful tool in identifying pests for the public. 

The office was often successful in prescribing remedies to combat pest 
problems as illustrated in this letter from a North Carolina apple grower: 

I had more matured apples than I have had in one season for the past 
ten years .... All trees sprayed are as green, (or) nearly as green, now 
(October 14, 1901) as they were in summer .... I sprayed one side of a 
large fall apple tree. The side sprayed is green today, while the other 
side has no leaves. To be brief, all trees sprayed are full of leaves, while 
those not sprayed are destitute .... I am very well pleased with my 
spraying, and next year will spray again more thoroughly than I did 
the past spring. 

The honey and bee program began in 1916 with authority from the 
legislature to conduct investigations to promote the improvement of the 
honey bee industry and especially investigations relating to diseases of bees. 

Farmers Institutes 

In 1887, the General Assembly had instructed the Board of Agriculture to 
"cooperate and aid in the formation of Farmers' Institutes in all the counties 
of the State." These institutes were an early attempt at educating the farmer 
in areas such as conserving the nutrients of the soil, diversification of crops, 
and modern methods of dairying. 

To carry out the institutes, the board was to send the Commissioner of 
Agriculture and other agricultural representatives to every county in the 
state at least once every two years. 

In 1906 the first institutes for women were begun, with the purpose of 

The Executive Branch 85 

upgrading farm conditions and farm life. North Carolina was the first 
southern state to offer such a program for women. 

While the institutes that were held proved to be quite effective, the agri- 
cultural leaders who were charged to conduct them found if difficult to meet 
the heavy travel schedule. The most successful organization therefore de- 
veloped from individuals on the local level who banded together to form 
ongoing educational programs. These institutes were the forerunners of the 
Agricultural Extension program in the state. 

North Carolina College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts 

The North Carolina College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts was an 
offspring of the Department of Agriculture. In 1887 the board began seeking 
donations for the establishment of an industrial college and looking for 
sites. A 3 y2-acre plot in the northwest part of Raleigh was purchased for 

Subsequently, R. Stanhope Pullen donated a sixty-acre site near the area, 
and the gift was gratefully accepted. The college opened in 1889 with eighty- 
five students. All the funds for building, equipment, and maintenance were 
furnished by the board. In 1892, the General Assembly separated the college 
from the Department of Agriculture and made it a distinct corporation. 

Veterinary Science 

Even though the original act establishing the Department of Agriculture 
called for animal health protection, it was 1898 before a State Veterinarian 
was appointed. Chosen for the position was Dr. Cooper Curtice of Columbia 
Veterinary College. Dr. Curtice launched an investigation of the cattle tick 
and was able to show that the tick was a carrier of Texas fever. 

Not only was this the first step toward eradication of the fever, but it was 
also the first time that anyone had proven that parasites are capable of 
transmitting diseases in mammals. Curtice's work set the pattern for similar 
investigations into human diseases. 

Another threat to livestock at the time the veterinary program was begun 
was hog cholera, which had first been reported in the state in 1859. By 1877, 
it was killing one out of every nine hogs each year, and many years were to 
pass before control efforts would be successful. 

In the early days, the State Veterinarian was not only concerned with 
animal protection but also with promotion of livestock. The idea was that 
more livestock would improve soil fertility and better livestock would increase 
profit. Eventually this responsibility was given to a separate division in the 

In 1925 the department was charged with the supervision of slaughtering 
and meat packing establishments in the state. This service was not com- 
pulsory at that time, but it did enable any establishment that chose to use it, 
to sell anywhere within the state without further inspection by a city or 

86 North Carolina Manual 

Food Protection 

Under the first elected Commissioner, Samuel L. Patterson, the department 
was given more regulatory duties. One of these was the administration of 
the Pure Food Law, passed by the General Assembly in 1899. The purpose of 
this law was to prevent the adulteration and misbranding of food and drink 
for both humans and animals. 

The food program was placed under the Chemistry Division with B. W. 
Kilgore as State Chemist. In the beginning Dr. Kilgore sought to study 
existing conditions and to educate manufacturers so they could comply with 
the law. In 1900 a survey across the state revealed that over 50 percent of all 
canned vegetables were adulterated with harmful preservatives. With the 
enforcement of the Pure Food Law, however, the percentage of adulteration 
decreased to 17 percent in four years. 

Cattle and stock feeds were also inspected and found to be of a low grade. 
A few even contained poisonous substances. The first analyses showed a 
large amount of worthless material used in the stock feeds as a filler. In 
reference to the success of the stock feed program, Commissioner Patterson 
said, "It has already worked beneficial results, for shameful frauds had been 
practiced upon our brute friends, who had no voice to protest against them." 

Gasoline and Oil Inspection 

The first laws relating to petroleum products were passed in 1903, at 
which time heating oil, "kerosene," was being used primarily for lighting. 
Some of this product contained such large amounts of sulphur that it was 
found to be a health hazard as well as causing deterioration of various 
fabrics and other materials. 

By 1917 the department was also given the responsibility of enforcing the 
Gasoline Law. This law applied to gasoline and other hquids used for 
heating or power purposes. According to an official of the department at 
that time, the law was "enforced with considerable difficulty." At the time 
the program began, many companies were trying to sell low grades for the 
same price as higher grades. 

Seed Testing 

The testing of seeds for germination and purity actually began with the 
early work of the Experiment Station. However, it was 1909 before a seed 
law was passed and a program established for seed analysis. 

To assist in the seed program. Miss 0. L. Tillman, a seed specialist, was 
sent to Raleigh by the United States Department of Agriculture. Every firm 
selling seeds in the state was required to pay a license of $25.00 to defray the 
costs of inspection. The law specified which weed seeds could not be sold in 
seed mixtures. 

Of the first seed samples collected, 70 percent of the dealers were found to 
be handling seeds below state standards. By 1914 the testing service had 
gained respect and farmers were voluntarily sending in their seeds for purity 
and germination tests. 

A guiding force in the operation of the seed laboratory was Miss Suzie D. 

The Executive Branch 87 

Allen who was laboratory supervisor for forty years. During her tenure, the 
seed testing program was removed from the Division of Botany and became 
a separate division. 


The marketing service began in 1913 as the "Division of Cooperative 
Marketing." Its early work involved compiling lists of dealers of farm 
products and finding markets for North Carolina sweet potatoes, butter, and 
apples. A market news service was begun for cotton and cottonseed. 

A few years later the division began putting much time into helping local 
farmers organize into cooperative marketing organizations. 

A very popular project of the Markets Division in the early 1900's was the 
publication of the Farmer's Market Bulletin, later called the Market News. 
This publication included articles on the marketing conditions of certain 
crops as well as agricultural items for sale. 

By 1924 Market News reported that the division had eight branches: 
livestock and poultry; fruits and vegetables; farm crops; statistical reports; 
market news service; rural organization; farm financing through cooperative 
banks; and a state warehouse system. 

Information Office 

The need for communication between the Department of Agriculture and 
the agricultural public it served was evident from the beginning. In 1877, 
Commissioner Polk started a weekly farm paper called The Farmer and 

This paper eventually became independent and was replaced by The 
Bulletin of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. The Biennial 
Report of 1891 referred to the Bulletin as "the mouthpiece of the Board 
which goes to the homes of the people". The first purpose of the Bulletin was 
to inform farmers of fertilizer analyses so they could judge their money 

Soon, however, the Bulletin expanded into all areas of agricultural pro- 
duction, and it became necessary to hire a bulletin superintendent. In 1914 
an information office was set up to coordinate a news service for the 
Department of Agriculture and the State Agricultural and Engineering 
College. This arrangement ended in 1925 when the agricultural extension 
service, which had been a joint program of the department and the college, 
was moved entirely to the college. 

In that same year the Publications Division began to publish the Agri- 
cultural Review, a semi-monthly paper which is still serving farmers and 
agri-business interests today. 

State Warehouse System 

At the beginning of World War I, cotton was difficult to sell and could not 
be used as collateral for borrowing. There were few warehouses to store it in 
until market prices improved. The limited number that did exist were in 
large cities and inaccessible to most farmers. To protect the financial 

88 North Carolina Manual 

interests of cotton growers, the legislature of 1919 passed a law creating a 
state warehouse system. The system established a guarantee fund so that a 
warehouse receipt would be universally accepted as collateral. The Ware- 
house Act was later amended to benefit other commodities including grain 
and sweet potatoes. 

Crop Statistics 

Even though the original title of the department included "statistics," the 
intent was mainly to collect statistics relating to farm fences. Commissioner 
Polk did try sending forms to farmers, asking them to list their taxable 
assets and their crop production, but most forms were never returned and 
the few that came in were incomplete. 

By 1887, it was apparent to Commissioner John Robinson that a statistical 
service was needed. In the Biennial Report he wrote: "The means of acquiring 
statistical information are very inadequate. Such information is one of the 
necessities of the times. There are frequent calls upon this office for such 
statistics, the applicants thinking that we had the information for distribu- 
tion, and they were warranted in expecting to find correct information in 
regard to agricultural products in this office." 

In 1916, Frank Parker, a representative of the Federal Crop Reporting 
Service began statistical work in cooperation with the State Department of 
Agriculture. Three years later he moved his office to the Agriculture Building 
and became the director of the Agricultural Statistics Division. 

The Farm Census was begun on a voluntary basis in 1918 and became law 
in 1921. 

Dairy Products 

Because the wholesomeness of dairy products was of vital importance to 
each citizen of the state, a law was passed in 1921 giving the Department of 
Agriculture authority to inspect dairy products and plants. The Food and Oil 
Division was designated to carry out this law by checking plants for 
sanitation and products for purity. The division was also made responsible 
for checking the butterfat tests used in the purchase of milk and cream from 
producers by creameries and factories. 

Between 1928 and 1930, a separate dairy division was created to assume 
these activities. It was 1947, however, before the division gained the real 
authority it needed to provide stability to the dairy industry and to insure a 
wholesome milk supply for consumers. In that year, the Board of Agriculture 
adopted statewide standards for milk and other dairy products. This was an 
important step in eliminating local trade barriers and making production 
and processing more uniform. 

Weights and Measures Inspection 

The department's involvement with the inspection of weighing and measur- 
ing devices began with the enactment of the Uniform Weights and Measures 
Law in 1927. It was felt at that time that the regulations of weights and 
measures should be directly under an elected official. The 1927 law provided 

The Executive Branch 89 

that the inspection program be funded by fees collected from those inspected, 
but opposition led to an amendment in 1931 that provided for the inspection 
work to be supported by an appropriation from the General Assembly. The 
change made it possible to conduct inspections more than once a year, in 
order to more efficiently eliminate fraudulent practices. 

Among the early responsibilities of this division were the approval of all 
weighing and measuring devices as to type and operation before they could 
be distributed to use; regulation of the sale of ice; regulation of the sale and 
distribution of coal, coke, and charcoal; insuring that all scales were placed 
in plain view of the consumer; and the standardizing of fruit and vegetable 

North Carolina State Fair 

The first State Fair, held in November, 1853, was sponsored by the State 
Agricultural Society. The site was about 10 blocks east of the Capitol in 
Raleigh. In 1873 the fair was moved to a 53-acre lot on Hillsboro Road, near 
the present Raleigh Little Theatre. The Society poured approximately $50,000 
into the development of the grounds. 

In all, the Agricultural Society sponsored the State Fair for 73 years, with 
interruptions during the Civil War and Reconstruction period. Among the 
most famous guests of the fair during the Society's sponsorship were 
Theodore Roosevelt in 1905 and William Jennings Bryan in 1907. 

By 1924, the Society asked for aid from the State and the City of Raleigh. 
A State Fair Board was appointed, and in a few years the fair was moved to 
its present site on the west side of Raleigh. 

In 1930 the State Fair was first placed under the Department's administra- 
tion. For a few years the department leased out the operation commercially, 
but in 1937, Commissioner Kerr Scott decided that the management should 
be directly under the department. Dr. J. S. Dorton was chosen as manager, 
and the fair first began to show profits. 

Soil Testing 

The Department of Agriculture demonstrated an interest in soils from its 
earliest years. Much of the soil work was conducted by the office of the State 
Chemist. This office worked with the United States Bureau of Soils in 
surveying the soils of each county and collecting samples for analysis. In 
addition to chemical analysis, the office set up plot tests on each important 
soil type in the state. These plots demonstrated to the people of the state the 
benefits of various types of fertilizers and crop rotation. 

It was 1938, however, before the General Assembly passed a law establish- 
ing a Soil Testing Division in the department. This division was set up to 
accept soil samples from growers and homeowners across the state for 
analysis and to furnish them with information on their fertilizer needs. 
Much time had to be spent in educating the public on the availability of the 
service. In the first year, 70,000 different tests were made on approximately 
6,500 soil samples. 

90 North Carolina Manual 

Food Distribution 

In 1944, the department began a cooperative effort with the United States 
Department of Agriculture to receive and distribute surplus agricultural 
commodities. Such commodities as evaporated milk, potatoes, beets, eggs, 
and grapefruit juice were sent to public schools for supplementing meals. 
Not only did the schools benefit by being able to serve low cost meals, but 
the program helped hold agricultural prices at or above levels acceptable to 

In a few years, the distribution of the products were expanded to other 
recipients such as camps, child care centers, and charitable institutions. 


In the 1940's pesticides began to appear in larger numbers and in broader 
effectiveness. Added to the agricultural insecticides and fungicides already 
on the market were various weed and grass poisons, defoliating chemicals, 
chemicals to control the premature falling of fruits, and new and more 
powerful insect and rodent poisons. It was obvious that these products 
needed special attention to assure reasonable effectiveness, safety, and 

The General Assembly responded to these needs by passing the Insecticide, 
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1947. Under this law, the Department of 
Agriculture was charged with the registration of all pesticide brands to 
prevent misbranding and adulteration. Examinations were made of pesticide 
labels to insure that the percentage of each active ingredient and total inert 
matter were indicated and that other label statements were acceptable. In 
1953 the department began licensing contractors and pilots for the aerial 
application of pesticides. 

Structural Pest Control 

Public concern for the unethical practices of some structural pest control 
operators in the state led to the enactment of the North Carolina Structural 
Pest Control Law by the 1955 General Assembly. The intention of the law 
was to protect consumers and the pest control industry since the fraudulent 
practices of a few operators could reflect harmfully on the many honest 
operators in business. 

The law created a policy-making board called the Structural Pest Control 
Commission and gave the Department of Agriculture the responsibility for 
the inspection of the work of structural pest control operations. 

In 1967 the law was revised, abolishing the commission and creating a 
Structural Pest Control Division to the department with the responsibility of 
administering the law under the Commissioner of Agriculture. A structural 
pest control committee was set up to make necessary rules and regulations 
and to hold hearings relating to violators of the law. 

The Executive Branch 91 

State Farmers Market 

Prior to 1955, fruit and vegetable dealers were scattered all across Raleigh. 
To improve this situation, a large market facility was established on a 18.5- 
acre site near U. S. 1 in Raleigh. The market, which was at that time 
privately owned, provided room for both individual farmers and wholesalers. 

In 1958, the farmers' portion of the market was taken over by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, State College, and the Department of Conservation and 
Development. In 1961, the NCDA purchased the facility to be run as a state 

Within the first year, the market was operating entirely on its own receipts 
and had paid the first annual installment on the purchase price, as well as 
paying for extensive repairs and some additions. 

The market, located at a central point between the mountains and the 
coast, promised farmers a profitable outlet for their produce and consumers 
fresh produce year around. 

State Farms 

Until 1974 a number of farms were owned and operated by the departments 
of Human Resources and Correction. The legislature then transferred the 
farm lands to the Department of Agriculture for operation until the best use 
of the land could be ascertained. 

The purpose of the farms is twofold: to provide a good supply of food, 
economically produced, for residents of institutions and to provide facilities 
and animals for research conducted by North Carolina State University. 

There are currently five large farms and seven small farms. Most of the 
food produced goes to state mental health centers. 

The Department Today 

The Department of Agriculture has 15 service, regulatory and administra- 
tive divisions whose programs safeguard the health, welfare and economic 
interests of North Carolina citizens. Departmental policy is made by the 
State Board of Agriculture, which adopts regulations under powers conferred 
by the General Assembly. The board has ten members, with the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture serving as ex-officio chairman. New programs are 
constantly being added, and existing programs improved and expanded, to 
better serve the farming community and the citizens of our State. 

Boards and Commissions 

Aquaculture Advisory Board 

Board of Crop Seed Improvement 

N.C. Public Livestock Market Advisory Board 

Pesticide Advisory Committee 

N.C. Grape Growers Council 

Northeastern N.C. Farmers Market Advisory Board 

Southeastern N.C. Farmers Market Commission 

Southeastern N.C. Farmers Market Advisory Board 

Grading Service Advisory Committee 

Tobacco Research Commission 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 93 

James Allen Graham 

Commissioner of Agriculture 

Early Years: Born in Cleveland, Rowan County, April 7, 1921, to James 
Turner and Laura Blanche (Allen) Graham. 

Education: Cleveland High School, 1938; NC State College, 1942, B.S. 
(Agriculture Education). 

Professional Background: Farmer (owner and operator of commercial 
livestock farm in Rowan County); former manager, Dixie Classic Livestock 
Show and Fair; head, Beef Cattle and Sheep Department, NC State Fair, 
1946-1952; teacher, Vocational Agriculture, Iredell County, 1942-1945; superin- 
tendent. Upper Mountain Research Station, 1946-1952; manager, Raleigh 
Farmers Market, 1957-1964. 

Organizations: Member, Phi Kappa Phi Honorary Fraternity; NC 
Grange; Farm Bureau, NC Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers; NC 
Cattlemen's Association; National Association of Producer Market Managers 
(Board of Directors; Past President); NC Soil Conservation Society; NC 
Branch, United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association (Board of Directors, 
secretary, 1959-1964); NC Sheep Breeders Association (Board of Directors, 
1949-1953); National Association of State Departments of Agriculture (Presi- 
dent, 1979; Board of Directors, 1969-70; 1976-1981); President, Southern 
Association of State Departments of Agriculture, 1969; 32nd degree Mason; 
President, Raleigh Kiwanis Club, 1965; WOW (Board of Directors; Executive 
Committee); Raleigh Chamber of Commerce (Board of Directors); President, 
Northwest Association, NC State Alumni Association (Vice President, Wake 
County Association); President, Jefferson Rotary Club, 1951-1952; Executive 
Secretary, Hereford Cattle Breeders Association, 1948-1956 (first full-time 
Secretary, 1954-1956). 

Boards: Council of State Member: Robert Lee Doughton Memorial Com- 
mission; Board of Trustees, A «& T College (1956-1960, 1962-1969); NC Board 
of Farm Organizations and Agriculture Agencies; Director, Agricultural 
Foundations (NCSU); Zoological Garden Study Commission; Governor's 
Council on Occupational Health; Governor's Council for Economic Develop- 
ment; State Committee on Natural. Resources; State Emergency Resources 
Management Planning Committee; Governor's State-City Cooperative Com- 
I mittee; FCX Advisory Committee; Presidential Board of Advisors, Campbell 
' University; Governor's Advisory Committee on Forestry, Seafood and Agri- 
Political Activities: Commissioner of Agriculture, 1964- (appointed Com- 
*> missioner on July 29, 1964, by Governor Sanford to fill term of the late L. Y. 
Ballentine; elected, 1964; reelected 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980,1984 and 1988; 
Democratic Party. 

Honors: State 4-H Alumni Award, 1965; National 4-H Alumni Award, 
1974; NC Yam Commission Distinguished Service Award; NC Citizens 
Association Distinguished Service Award; Man of the Year in NC Agri- 

94 North Carolina Manual 

culture, 1969; National Future Farmers of America Distinguished Service 
Award, 1972; NC Dairy Products Association Distinguished Service Award, 
1981. Honorary member: NC Vocational Agricultural Teachers Association; 
NC Farm Writers Association; State Future Farmers of America: Permanent 
Class President, Class of '42, NCSU; N.C. Quarterhorse Association, Hall of 
Fame; Martin Litwack Award, NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine; N.C. 
Pest Control Association Award; N.C. Food Dealers Association; Division 
TEACCH, UNC School of Medicine; N.C. School Food Service Association, 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Deacon, 1960-1964, 

Family: Married Helen Ida Kirk, October 30, 1942; Children: Alice Kirk 
Graham Underbill and Laura Constance Graham Brooks; seven grand- 

The Executive Branch 95 


Name Residence Term 

Leonidas L. Polk^ Anson 1877-1880 

Montford McGhee^ Caswell 1880-1887 

John Robinson^ Anson 1887-1895 

Samuel L. Patterson^ Caldwell 1895-1897 

James M. Mewborne^ Lenoir 1897 

John R. Smith' Wayne 1897-1899 

Samuel L. Patterson^ Caldwell 1899-1908 

William A. Graham^ Lincoln 1908-1923 

William A. Graham, Lincoln 1923-1937 

William Kerr Scott" Alamance 1937-1948 

David S. Coltranei2 Wake 1948-1949 

Lynton Y. Ballentinei^ Wake 1949-1964 

James A. Graham^^ Rowan 1964- 

'The Department of Agriculture was created by the General Assembly of 1876-77. In 
the bill creating the department, provisions were made for a Board of Agriculture whose 
members were to be appointed by the governor. The Board's membership was then to 
elect a Commissioner of Agriculture, who would serve as head of the department. This 
continued until 1900 when the commissioner was elected by the General Assembly. In the 
General Assembly of 1899, a bill was passed which provided for the electing of the 
Commissioner of Agriculture in the general elections. 

2Polk was chosen by the Board of Agriculture on April 2, 1877 and served until his 
apparent resignation in 1880. 

^McGhee was apparently chosen by the Board of Agriculture to replace Polk and 
served until 1887. 

^Robinson was elected by the Board of Agriculture on April 22, 1887 and served 
following subsequent reelections by the board until 1895. 

^Patterson was elected by the Board of Agriculture on June 13, 1895. 

^Mewborne was elected by the Board on March 23, 1897 — to take office June 15, 1897 
—and served until his resignation effective January 1, 1898. 

^Smith was elected by the board on December 14, 1897 — to take office January 1 , 1899 
— to complete the term of Mewborne. 

^Patterson was elected by the General Assembly on March 6, 1899. He was elected in 
the general elections in 1900 and served following reelection in 1904 until his death on 
> September 14, 1908. 

j ^Graham was appointed by Governor Glenn on September 16, 1908 to replace 
i Patterson. He was elected in the general elections in 1908 and served following 
I subsequent reelections until his death on December 24, 1923. 

loWilHam A. Graham, Jr. was appointed by Governor Morrison on December 26, 1 923 to 
replace his father. He was elected in the general elections in 1924. 

"Scott was elected in the general elections in 1936 and served following subsequent 
reelections until his resignation in February, 1948. 

i^Coltrane was appointed by Governor Cherry on February 14, 1948 to replace Scott. He 
was elected in the general elections in 1948 to complete Scott's unexpired term. 

i^Ballentine was elected in the general elections in 1948 and served following 
subsequent reelections until his death on July 19, 1964. 

I'^Graham was appointed by Governor Sanford on July 30, 1964 to replace Ballentme. 
He was elected in general elections in 1964 and is still serving following subsequent 

96 North Carolina Manual 


The Constitution of North CaroHna provides for the election by the people 
every four years of a Commissioner of Labor, whose term of office runs 
concurrently with that of the governor. The Commissioner is the administra- 
tive head of the Department of Labor and also serves as a member of the 
Council of State. 

The original "Bureau of Labor Statistics"— historical precursor of the 
present Department of Labor — was created by the General Assembly of 
1887, with provision for appointment by the governor of a "Commissioner of 
Labor Statistics" for a two-year term. In 1899 another act was passed 
providing that the Commissioner, beginning with the General Election of 
1900, be elected by the people for a four-year term. For three decades, the 
Department over which this elected Commissioner presided remained a very 
small agency of state government with limited duties and personnel. In 
1925, the Department employed a total of 15 people. 

In a general reorganization of the state's labor administration functions 
in 1931, the General Assembly laid the broad groundwork for the Department 
of Labor's subsequent gradual development into an agency with laws and 
programs affecting a majority of North Carolina citizens. 

Today, the North Carolina Department of Labor is charged by statute 
with the responsibility of promoting the "health, safety and general well- 
being" of the state's more than three million working people. The many laws 
and programs under its jurisdiction affect virtually every person in the state 
in one way or another. The General Statutes provide the Commissioner with 
broad regulatory and enforcement powers with which to carry out the 
Department's duties and responsibilities to the people. 

The principal regulatory, enforcement and promotional programs of the 
Department are carried out by 11 divisions, each headed by a director. These 
include the Apprenticeship and Training Division, the Arbitration, Concilia- 
tion and Mediation Division, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Division, the 
Elevator and Amusement Ride Division, the Mine and Quarry Division, the 
Occupational Safety and Health Division, the Pre-Apprenticeship Division, 
the Private Personnel Service Division, the Research and Statistics Division, 
the Right-to-Know Division, and the Wage and Hour Division. 

Support services are handled by the Budget, Personnel, Publications, and 
Communications Division, and the department library. 

Five statutory boards and one other advisory group assist the Commis- 
sioner with policy development and program planning. These are the Ap- 
prenticeship Council, the Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Rules, the 
Mine Safety and Health Advisory Council, the State Advisory Council on 
Occupational Safety and Health, the Private Personnel Service Advisory 
Council and the Industry Advisory Board. The Occupational Safety and 
Health Review Board is a separate unit independent from the Department of 
Labor which hears appeals of citations and penalties imposed by the OSHA 
Division and whose members are appointed by the Governor. 

The Executive Branch 97 

Apprenticeship and Training 

The Apprenticeship and Training Division promotes and monitors a broad 
range of apprenticeship programs designed to train journeyman-level craft- 
workers to meet the demands of industries for high-skilled workers. In 1991 
about 2,300 citizens were enrolled in these private industry supported pro- 
grams, which are authorized under a 1939 state law enacted "to relate the 
supply of skilled workers to employment demands." Apprenticeship pro- 
grams are established with private employers or under the sponsorship of 
joint labor-management committees. The division encourages high school 
graduates to pursue apprenticeship training as a means to acquire steady, 
fulfilling employment at excellent wages and with career-development 
potential. Apprentices begin at a fixed percentage of journeyman pay and 
receive planned wage increases as they learn new skills. Apprenticeships 
combine structured on-the-job training with related technical training fur- 
nished by the individual employer or at a community college or technical 
institute. The division is the administrator in North Carolina of the National 
Apprenticeship Act of 1937 which created the mechanism to establish uni- 
form standards for quality training under approved apprenticeship agree- 
ments. The division establishes standards, approves apprenticeship pro- 
grams which meet established criteria, is a records depository and issues 
completion certificates to citizens who complete apprenticeship training. 

Pre- Apprenticeship 

In addition to apprenticeship, the Department of Labor promotes 
opportunities for skills training through on-the-job training programs, skills 
upgrading training, classroom work, and Pre-Apprenticeship customized 
training projects. The division was created to develop employment and 
training for economically disadvantaged people and to develop pre-apprentice- 
ship level training in apprenticeable occupations. 

These programs are funded in various counties in North Carolina through 
the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) and other sources. Labor Depart- 
ment representatives meet with employers to design training programs 
tailored to their needs. Employers willing to employ individuals eligible 
under guidelines of JPTA may qualify for financial assistance as well as for 
assistance with program design. In 1991, 905 participants were enrolled in 
all of the supported programs developed by the Pre-Apprenticeship Division. 

Arbitration, Conciliation, and Mediation 

The Arbitration, Conciliation and Mediation Division directs the Depart- 
ment's efforts to resolve conflicts between employees and management in 
the workplace. Created by the General Assembly in 1941, the division has 
sought to effect voluntary, amicable and expeditious settlement of disputes 
between employers and employees which otherwise are likely to result m 
strikes, work slowdowns or lockouts. 

— Mediation: Upon application by both parties, the Commissioner 
of Labor will assign a mediator to assist the parties in their collective 

98 North Carolina Manual 

bargaining process. This effort is voluntary and does not bind the 
parties in any way. 

— Conciliation: When there is an imminent or existing labor dis- 
pute, the Commissioner may assign a conciliator to help adjust and 
settle the differences between the parties. The conciliation effort has no 
binding effect upon the parties. 

— Arbitration: In 1927, North Carolina was one of the first states 
to enact the Uniform Arbitration Act, which establishes a formal 
procedure for voluntary, binding arbitration of questions in controversy 
between two or more parties. In 1945, the General Assembly established 
an arbitration service administered by the Commissioner of Labor, 
who appoints and maintains a voluntary arbitration panel. The panel 
is composed of highly qualified and experienced individuals who have 
agreed to make themselves available to arbitrate controversies and 
grievances relating primarily to wages, hours and other conditions of 
employment. Assignment or selection of an arbitrator is made pursuant 
to provisions of a contract or voluntary agreement between the parties. 
In the event the parties cannot agree on the selection of an arbitrator, 
the N.C. Administrative Code authorizes the Commissioner to appoint 
an arbitrator. 

Boilers and Pressure Vessels 

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Division enforces the Uniform Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Act of North Carolina. The law, which became effective in 
1976, expanded coverage of earlier statutes that had existed since 1935. The 
division regulates the construction, installation, repair, alteration, in- 
spection, use and operation of vessels subject to the law. The division 
conducts periodic inspections of vessels under its jurisdiction and monitors 
inspection reports by certified insurance company inspectors. The division 
maintains records concerning the ownership, location and condition of 
boilers and pressure vessels being operated, and issues operating certificates 
to boiler owners and operators whose equipment is found to be in compliance 
with the act. More than 125,000 boilers and pressure vessels currently are on 
record with the division. 

Elevator and Amusement Rides 

The Elevator and Amusement Ride Division is responsible for the proper 
installation and safe operation of all elevators, escalators, workman's hoists, 
dumbwaiters, moving walks, aerial passenger tramways, amusement rides, 
incline railways and lifting devices for persons with disabilities that operate 
in public establishments (except federal buildings) and private places of 
employment. Nearly 10,000 inspections are conducted annually by this 
division, which first undertook its periodic safety code inspection program in 
1938. It now operates under a law passed by the General Assembly in 1986. 
Any company or persons wanting to erect any equipment under this divi- 
sion's jurisdiction, except amusement rides, must submit prints and applica- 
tions for approval before any installation is begun. Any company or person 
wanting to operate amusement devices is required to submit a location 

The Executive Branch 99 

notice in writing to the division's Raleigh office at least five (5) days prior to 
the intended date of operation. The division will issue an installation permit, 
which must be posted on the job site. All new installations, as well as all 
alterations to existing equipment, are inspected. In addition, division per- 
sonnel conduct regular, periodic inspections of all such operating equipment 
in the state and inspect amusement rides before they operate at each 
location. Employers, institutions such as churches, and private individuals 
who desire technical assistance in selecting and installing safe lifting 
devices for persons with disabilities may acquire help from the division. The 
division also offers architects and builders a service of reviewing plans for 
code compliance on proposed installations of elevators and related equip- 

Migrant Housing 

The 1989 General Assemby enacted into law a new program for the 
registration and inspection of housing provided to migrant agricultural 
workers. Beginning in 1990, everyone who owns migrant housing must notify 
the Department of Labor about the housing 45 days before migrants are to 
arrive, and the Migrant Housing Division of the department will conduct a 
pre-occupancy inspection of the housing. Migrant housing must meet the 
OSHA standards plus specific standards for heat, fire protection, and kitchen 
sanitation. Owners of migrant housing which does not meet the standards are 
subject to fines. 

Mines and Quarries 

The Mine and Quarry Division enforces the 1976 Mine Safety and Health 
Act of North Carolina and conducts a broad program of inspections, educa- 
tion and training, technical assistance and consultations to implement 
provisions of the act. Previous North Carolina laws on the operations and 
inspection of mines and quarries in the state date back to 1897. In 1977 the 
U.S. Congress enacted the federal Mine Safety and Health Act, requiring 
mine and quarry operators to meet specific standards designed to achieve 
safe and healthful working conditions for the industry's employees. The 
Mine and Quarry Division assists operators to comply with the provisions of 
the federal act which require them to train their employees in safe working 
procedures. Some 480 private sector mines, quarries, and sand and gravel pit 
operations employing more than 4,500 citizens are under the division's 
jurisdiction. There also are approximately 300 public sector mines in North 
Carolina, which are operated by the N.C. Department of Transportation. 
These are not under Department of Labor jurisdiction, but personnel from 
public sector mines do participate in training programs conducted by the 
Mine and Quarry Division. 

Occupational Safety and Health 

The Occupational Safety and Health Division administers and enforces 
the 1973 Occupational Safety and Health Act of North Carolina, a broadly 
inclusive law which applies to most private sector employment in the state 
and to all agencies of state and local government. North Carolina currently 

100 North Carolina Manual 

conducts one of 23 state-administered OSHA programs in the nation. The 
Occupational Safety and Health Division conducts about 3,000 inspections a 
year. The division conducts investigations of complaints made by workers, 
investigations of work-related accidents and deaths, general schedule in- 
spections of randomly picked firms, and follow-up inspections of firms 
previously cited for OSHA violations. Worker complaints about unsafe or 
unhealthy working conditions should be made in writing to the Occupational 
Safety and Health Division. 

In addition to enforcing state OSHA safety and health standards, the 
North Carolina program offers free consultative services, education and 
training opportunities, and engineering assistance to the 138,000 private 
businesses and the public employers which are under its jurisdiction. By 
making full use of these non-enforcement services, employers may bring 
their establishments into full comphance with OSHA standards. Employers 
may contact the division's Consultative Services Bureau and receive free 
aid, including technical assistance or on-site visits. The North Carolina 
Occupational Safety and Health standards parallel the federal OSHA stand- 
ards. The North Carolina standards may be more strict than the federal 
standards, but they may not be less strict. Serious violations of OSHA 
standards can result in monetary fines; dates by which the violations must 
be abated accompany the citations. 

Private Personnel and Job Listing Services 

The Private Personnel Service Division licenses and regulates private 
personnel and job listing services operating in North Carolina. This activity 
was conducted pursuant to a 1929 statute until 1979, when a completely new 
act was adopted by the General Assembly. With the new law came additional 
protections for job applicants who use personnel and job listing services 
which charge fees to applicants. The law specifies certain contract require- 
ments between an applicant and a service and authorizes the department to 
inspect licensed services upon receipt of a formal consumer complaint. All 
services charging a fee to applicants must be licensed by the department. 
Currently 187 of the 393 services in the state are under departmental 
jurisdiction. Services which are solely employer-paid need not be licensed by 
the Department. 

Research and Statistics 

The Research and Statistics Division compiles and publishes compre- 
hensive data on occupational injuries and illnesses in North Carolina for 
use in the department's state-administered Occupational Safety and Health 
Program and for use by industry as a reference guide in conducting their 
own safety and health activities. These data provide reliable measures for 
evaluating the incidence, nature and causes of injuries and illnesses in the 
workplace. They are obtained by compiHng and analyzing the annual 
reports provided by some 13,000 cooperating North Carolina employers. The 
division also assembles and publishes monthly data on building activity- 
number of units authorized, dollar-volume and type of construction— in 
North Carolina by 45 cities of more than 10,000 population and by county. 

The Executive Branch 101 

The division provides computer support services required by other divisions 
of the department for data processing. The division also serves as the 
department's research faciHty, developing information upon a variety of 
subjects as needed. 


The Right-to-Know Division administers the North Carolina Right to 
Know Act of 1985. The law requires all North Carolina employers who 
manufacture, process, use, store, or produce hazardous chemicals in amounts 
of at least 55 gallons or 500 pounds to maintain a Hazardous Substance List. 
This list shall include: the chemical name, the approximate quantity of the 
chemical, and the area in which the chemical is stored. This list shall be 
provided to local fire chiefs, and also must be provided to citizens when a 
request is made in writing. Provisions are included in the law to protect 
trade secrets. Complaints about violations of the law's requirements should 
be filed in writing with the North Carolina Commissioner of Labor. 

Wages and Hours 

The Wage and Hour Division administers and enforces the 1979 North 
Carolina Wage and Hour Act, which consolidated four previously separate 
state laws covering minimum wage, maximum hours, wage payment and 
child labor. Minimum wage, overtime and youth employment provisions 
generally apply to all North Carolina businesses which are not subject to the 
U.S. Fair Labor Standards Act. Wage payment provisions, which include 
the payment of promised vacation, sick pay, or other benefits, cover all 
employees in North Carolina except those employed in federal, state, and 
i local government. Since 1986, the state minimum wage has been $3.35 an 
} hour. An employee must work for more than 45 hours in any work week to 
qualify for overtime under state laws. Youth employment certificates are 
required for workers aged 14 through 17. This age group is prohibited from 
being employed in certain hazardous occupations. There are daily and 
weekly hours restrictions, break requirements, and additional work limita- 
tions for 14-and 15-year-old workers. Youth aged 12 and 13 may be employed 
for newspaper delivery only, for which a youth employment certificate is not 
required. Employment for youth under age 12 is not permitted. Full and 
partial exemptions from the youth employment requirements under the act 
are granted for certain occupations, such as those in agriculture and domes- 
tic work. The division investigates worker complaints and collects back 
wages due employees. 

Boards and Commissions 

Safety and Health Review Board 
Private Personnel Service Advisory Council 
Mine and Quarry Advisory Council 

State Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health 
Apprenticeship Council 
! North Carolina Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Rules 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 103 

John Charles Brooks 

Commissioner of Labor 

Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt County, January 10, 1937, to 
Frederick P. and Octavia H. (Broome) Brooks. 

Education: Graduated Greenville High School, 1955; UNC— Chapel Hill, 
1959, A.B. (Political Science); University of Chicago School of Law, 1962, J.D.; 
Fifth Government Executives Institute, UNC— Chapel Hill (Board of Directors, 
chairperson), 1980; Program for Senior Managers in Government, 
John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1984. 

Professional Background: Commissioner of Labor, 1977- (Dean of U.S. 
Governmental Labor Officials, July 1, 1989); Attorney; Law clerk to Chief 
Justice William H. Bobbitt, N.C. Supreme Court, Raleigh, N.C. (September, 
1962 — September 1963); Special assistant on race relations to Governor 
Terry Sanford and administrator of the N.C. Mayors' Cooperating Com- 
mittee, Raleigh, N.C. (September, 1963— February, 1965); Staff legal counsel, 
N.C. Fund, a private, non-profit, anti-poverty program financed primarily by 
The Ford Foundation, Durham, N.C. (February, 1965— November, 1965); 
Executive director, Maryland Constitutional Convention Commission, Balti- 
more, Md. (November, 1965 — September, 1967); Chief of Staff, Constitutional 
Convention of Maryland, Annapolis, Md. (September, 1967 — June, 1968); 
Administrative officer and director of legislative research of the 1969 Session 
of the N.C. General Assembly, Raleigh, N.C. Also served simultaneously as 
enrolling clerk, editor of publications, and director of computer services 
(September, 1968— January, 1970); Executive assistant to the president, the 
Sixth Illinois Constitutional Convention, Springfield, 111. (January, 1970— 
December, 1970). 

Organizations: Member: N.C. State Bar; N.C. Bar Association; American 
Bar Association (Committees on Agency Rulemaking, Section of Administra- 
tive Law; Occupational Safety and Health Law, Section of Labor and 
Employment Law; State Labor Law, Section of Labor and Employment Law, 
public co-chairman, 1985-1991; Access to Civil Justice, International Human 
Right and Problems of American Indians, 1989-, Section of Individual Rights 
and Responsibilities; Judicial Compensation, Lawyers' Conference, Judicial 
Administration Division; International Institutions, Section of International 
Law and Practice); (Section of Urban, State and Local Government Law); 
American Judicature Society; American Society of International Law (life 
member); Phi Delta Phi Legal Fraternity. Member: American National 
Standards Institute, Inc., Government Member Council; International Associa- 
tion of Governmental Labor Officials (Executive Committee, 1977-1979), 
National Association of Governmental Labor Officials (Host, 1982 and 1991 
National Conventions; Board of Directors, 1978-1980, 1984-1991; Vice Presi- 
dent, 1985-1986; President, 1986-1987; Secretary-Treasurer, 1988- ); National 
Apprenticeship Program (Board of Directors, 1980-1991; Vice President, 1982- 
1983; President, 1983-1984; Secretary, 1984-1986); National Occupational 
Safety and Health State Plan Association (Chairperson, 1980; Executive 
Committee, 1981); Committee on Constitutional Integrity; UNC— Chapel Hill 
Alumni Association (life member); Wake County Chapter of N.C. Symphony 
Society; Wake County Meals on Wheels, Inc., 1977-1980; ReEntry Board of 
Directors, 1979-1986. 

104 North Carolina Manual 

Boards and Commissions: Currently member: N.C. Council of State; N.C. 
Emergency Response Commission; N.C. Farmworker Council; N.C. Fire 
Commission; N.C. State Commission of Indian Affairs; N.C. Indian Cultural 
Center, Inc. (Board of Directors, 1986-; Treasurer, 1986-1989); N.C. Information 
Technology Commission; N.C. Planning Commission; N.C. Radiation Pro- 
tection Commission; Governor's Advisory Council on Aging; Governor's 
Advocacy Council for Persons with Disabilities; Governor's Management 
Council; Standing Committee on Job Training Coordination and Economic 
Development. Currently chairman: N.C. Apprenticeship Council; N.C. Board 
of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Rules; N.C. Department of Labor Industry Ad- 
visory Board; N.C. Mine Safety and Health Advisory Council. Previously 
member: N.C. State Government Computer Commission, 1983-1989; N.C. 
Interim Balanced Growth Board, 1977-1978; N.C. Corrections Planning Com- 
mittee, 1977-1984; Governor's Committee on Workforce Preparedness, 1990- 
1991; Governor's Council on Employment of the Handicapped, 1977-1979; N.C. 
Employment and Training Council, 1977-1983; Committee on Inaugural 
Ceremonies, 1980, 1984, 1988; N.C. Job Training Coordinating Council, 1983- 
1985; State Manpower Services Council, 1977; N.C. Governor's Oversight 
Committee for Official Labor Market Information, 1982-1983; City of Raleigh 
Charter Revision Commission, 1975-1977. 

Political Activities: Commissioner of Labor, 1977- (Elected 1976; reelected 
1980, 1984, and 1988); Delegate, Mini-Democratic Convention, 1978 (Memphis, 
Tenn.); Democratic Statewide Elected Officials Convention, 1982 (Philadelphia, 
Penn.); N.C. State Democratic Party Executive Committee; Platform Com- 
mittee, 1986. 

Honors: Morehead Scholarship, University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill. Mangum Medal, UNC— Chapel Hill; Pi Sigma Alpha (Honorary Fraternity 
in Political Science). 

Literary Works: Co-author, North Carolina and the Negro, 1964; 
"Modernizing Commercial Law for a Commercially Growing State," Bar 
Notes, N.C. Bar Association, February, 1965; Editor, Report of the Constitu- 
tional Convention Commission on Constitutional Convention Enabling Act, 
(Maryland), January, 1967; Editor, Interim Report of the Constitutional 
Convention Commission, (Maryland), May. 1967; Editor, Report of the Con- 
situtional Convention Commission, (Maryland), August, 1967; Editor, Consti- 
tutional Revision Study Documents, June, 1968; Editor, Session Laws of North 
Carolina, 1969; Author, The Authority, Credibility, Integrity, Independence 
and Development of Student Government at the University of N.C. at Chapel 
Hill, October, 1971. 

Religious Activities: Member, Edenton Street United Methodist Church; 
Member, Administrative Board, 1975-1978, 1985-1989; Chairperson for Health 
and Welfare Workarea, 1985-1989; Delegate, N.C. Annual Conference, Fayette- 
ville, N.C. 1976-1979; Delegate, Jurisdictional Conference, 1976; Advisor on 
international affairs to the Board of Church and Society, N.C. Conference, 
1972-1976; Member, Task Force on the Bishops' Call for Peace and the Self- 
Development of Peoples, N.C. Conference, 1972-1977; Member, Commissison 
on the Status and Role of Women, N.C. Conference, 1976-1984, 1985-1991. 

Family: Married Nancy Jane Carroll, October 22, 1977. Children: Charles 
Philip and Lewis Carroll. 

The Executive Branch 105 


Name Residence Term 

Wesley N. Jones^ Wake 1887-1889 

John C. Scarborough'^ Hertford 1889-1892 

WilHam I. Harris^ 1982-1893 

Benjamin R. Lacy^ Wake 1893-1897 

James Y. Hamrick^ Cleveland 1897-1899 

Benjamin R. Lacy^ Wake 1899-1901 

Henry B. Varner^ Davidson 1901-1909 

Mitchell L. Shipman Henderson 1909-1925 

Franklin D. Grist Caldwell 1925-1933 

Arthur L. Fletcher^ Ashe 1933-1938 

Forest H. Shuford^o Guilford 1938-1954 

Frank Crane" Union 1954-1973 

William C. CreeP^ Wake 1973-1975 

Thomas A. Nye, Jr.i^ Rowan 1975-1977 

John C. Brooksi4 Wake 1977- 

^The General Assembly of 1887 created the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In the act 
establishing this agency, provision was made for the appointment of a commissioner, by 
the governor, to a two-year term. In 1899 another act was passed by the General 
Assembly which provided that the commissioner would be elected by the General 
Assembly during that session, and that future commissioners would be elected in the 
general elections — beginning in 1900 — for a four-year term. 

-Jones was appointed by Governor Scales on March 5, 1887 for a two year term. 

'Scarborough was appointed by Governor Fowle on February. 15, 1889 for a two-year 
term. He was apparently reappointed in 1891 and resigned in December, 1892. 

■^Harris was appointed by Governor Holt on December 20, 1892 to replace Scarborough. 

^Lacy was appointed by Governor Carr on March 2, 1893 for a two-year term. He was 
reappointed on March 13, 1895. 

''Hamrick was appointed by Governor Russell on March 8, 1897 for a two-year term. 

''Lacy was elected by the General Assembly on March 6, 1899. 

*Varner was elected in the general elections in 1900. 

"Fletcher was elected in the general elections in 1932. He resigned effective September 
12, 1938. 

i^Shuford was appointed by Governor Hoey on September 12, 1938 to replace Fletcher. 
He was elected in the general elections in 1938 and served following subsequent re- 
elections until his death on May 19, 1954. 
"Crane was appointed by Governor Umstead on June 3, 1954 to replace Shuford. He 
was elected in the general elections in 1954. 
i2Creel died August 25, 1975. 

i^Nye was appointed by Governor Holshouser to fill the unexpired term of Creel. 
i^Brooks was elected in 1976 and is still serving following subsequent reelections. 

106 North Carolina Manual 


Before March 6, 1899, the Hcensing and supervision of insurance companies 
doing business in North CaroHna was delegated to the Secretary of State. 
The 1899 General Assembly established the Department of Insurance and 
gave it the responsibility of admitting, licensing, and generally regulating 
insurance companies. 

The first Commissioner of Insurance was to be elected by the General 
Assembly and subsequently appointed by the Governor, by and with the 
consent of the state Senate. This would occur in January of 1901, and the 
appointed Commissioner would serve four-year terms. In 1907, however, the 
General Assembly authorized a referendum to amend the constitution of 
North Carolina to provide that the office of Commissioner of Insurance 
would be a constitutional office and that the Commissioner would be elected 
by the people every four years. 

The Commissioner and Department of Insurance regulate the various 
kinds of insurance sold in this state and the companies and agents that sell 
it. All authority to regulate the business of insurance is delegated to the 
Commissioner by the General Assembly. 

Specifically, the Commissioner and Department oversee the formation and 
operation of insurance companies; enforce the minimum financial standards 
for licensing and continued operations of insurers; regulate the premium 
rates insurers charge, the language in their insurance policies, and their risk 
classification systems; require periodic financial disclosures by insurers and 
agents; provide for audits of insurers in order to monitor their solvency; 
license and regulate agents, brokers, and claims adjusters; prescribe and 
define what kind of insurance may be sold in this state; provide information 
to insurance consumers about their rights and responsibilities under their 
policies; and prohibit unfair and deceptive trade practices by or among 
persons in the business of insurance. 

The Commissioner and Department also license and regulate bail bonds- 
men, motor clubs, premium finance companies, and collection agencies. 
Other responsibilities include providing staff support to the North Carolina 
State Building Code Council, the Manufactured Housing Board, the State 
Fire Commission, the Public Officers' and Employees' Liability Insurance 
Commission, the Arson Awareness Council, and the (Building) Code Of- 
ficials Qualifications Board. 

Other important functions of the Commissioner and Department that 
affect many citizens of the State are the training of firemen and rescue 
squad workers and the certification of fire departments for fire insurance 
rating purposes. 

The Department encompasses the following entities: 

Administration Division 

This division works hand-in-hand with the Commissioner in research, 
policy-making decisions, and the setting of goals and priorities for the 

The Executive Branch i07 

Department of Insurance as well as administering budget and personnel for 
the department. 

Public Services Group 

The Agents Services Division regulates and revises licenses for every 
agent, adjuster, broker and appraiser doing business in North Carolina as 
well as nonresident brokers and nonresident life agents, reviews all applica- 
tions for examinations, oversees agents' and adjusters' examinations, and 
maintains a file on each licensed individual and each company's agents and 

The Consumer Services Division was established to help North Carolina 
consumers by helping them get answers to their insurance questions and by 
working to solve their insurance problems. The division strives to acquaint 
consumers with alternatives and courses of actions they may pursue to solve 
their particular insurance problem. 

Company Services Group 

The responsibilities of the Financial Evaluation Division are to monitor 
the solvency of all insurance companies under the supervision of the Commis- 
sioner of Insurance; to review and recommend for admission out-of-state, 
domestic, and surplus lines companies seeking to transact business in the 
state; to examine and audit domestic and foreign insurance organizations 
licensed in North Carolina; and to assure the financial solvency and em- 
ployee stability of self-insured workers' compensation groups in the state. 

The Actuarial Services Division assists in the review of rate, form, and 
statistical filings. In addition, this division provides actuarial studies in 
financial evaluation work and is involved in special projects and studies. 

The Information Systems Division has the responsibility for all depart- 
mental data processing, word processing, office automation, data communi- 
cations, and voice communications. 

Technical Services Group 

The Fire and Casualty Division reviews homeowners, farmers, automobile, 
workers' compensation and other personal, commercial property or casualty 
insurance policies, rates and rules. 

The primary responsibihty of the Life, Accident and Health Division is the 
review of rate, rule and policy form filings made by life and health insurance 

The Market Conduct Section conducts field examinations of the market 
practices of domestic and foreign insurers and their representatives. 

Regulatory Services Group 

The Special Services Division is responsible for licensing and regulating 
insurance premium finance companies, professional bail bondsmen and 
runners, collection agencies and motor clubs, and investigating all com- 
plaints involving these entities. 

The Investigations Division is responsible for investigating violations of 

108 North Carolina Manual 

North Carolina's insurance laws. Requests for investigations come from 
within the department, from consumers, law enforcement agencies, local, 
state and federal agencies, and insurance companies. 

Safety Services Group 

The Engineering Division has primary responsibility for administering 
the state building code. The division also serves as staff to the North 
Carolina Building Code Council and the North Carolina Code Officials 
Qualifications Board. The division is divided into seven sections: code 
consultation, electrical, mechanical, modular, inspector certification, accessi- 
bility and code council. 

The Building Code Administration provides code interpretations to city 
and county inspection officials, architects, engineers, contractors, material 
suppliers and manufacturers, other state agencies, attorneys and the general 
public, administers certification of code officials, reviews building plans and 
inspects electrical systems in new or renovated state-owned buildings. 

The Manufactured Housing Division works to assure that construction 
standards for manufactured homes are maintained and that warranty obliga- 
tions under state law are met. The division monitors handling of consumer 
complaints by manufacturers; licenses the makers of manufactured homes, 
dealers, and set-up contractors; and acts as staff for the North Carolina 
Manufactured Housing Board. 

The State Property Fire Insurance Fund division is primarily responsible 
for the operation and maintenance of the State Property Fire Insurance 
Fund. The division collects premiums from those state agencies responsible 
for payment, investigates claims, adjusts losses and pays losses with the 
approval of the Council of State. 

The Risk Management Division assists local government with property 
and casualty insurance programs, provides staff, administration, and re- 
search services to the Public Officers and Employees' Liability Insurance 
Commission, and is charged with making available a plan of professional 
liability coverages for law enforcement officers, public officials and em- 
ployees of any political subdivision of the state. 

The Fire and Rescue Services Division administers the Firemen's Relief 
Fund, develops and carries out training for fire departments and rescue 
squads, and works to improve fire and rescue protection in the state in 
association with the North Carolina Firemen's Association and North Caro- 
lina Association of Rescue Squads. 

Seniors' Health Insurance Information Program 

The SHIIP program is designed to train older adult volunteers to counsel 
other older adults in the areas of Medicare regulations, Medicare supplement 
insurance, long-term care insurance and claims procedures. The volunteers 
go through an extensive training course designed to teach them Medicare 
and private insurance benefits and options, as well as claims procedures and 
counseling/advocacy skills. 

The Executive Branch 109 

Boards and Commissions 

N.C. Building Code Council 

N.C. Code Officials Qualification Board 

N.C. Manufactured Housing Board 

N.C. Medical Database Commission 

N.C. Rate Bureau 

N.C. Reinsurance Facility Board of Directors 

N.C. State Fire and Rescue Commission 

N.C. Public Officers and Employees Liability Insurance Commission 

N.C. Self-Insurance Guaranty Association 

N.C. Arson Awareness Council 


North Carolina Manual 

The Executive Branch 111 

James Eugene Long 

Commissioner of Insurance 

Early Years: Born in Burlington, Alamance County, March 19, 1940, to 
George Attmore and Helen (Brooks) Long. 

Education: Burlington City Schools; Walter M. Williams High School, 
1958; North Carolina State University, 1958-62; University of North Carolina- 
Chapel Hill, 1963, A.B.; University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill School of 
Law, 1966, J.D. 

Political Activities: Insurance Commissioner, State Fire Marshal 1985- 
present, elected 1984. Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1972- 
1973, 1975; represented Alamance County (as did his father and grand- 

National Activities: President, National Association of Insurance 
Commissioners (1990-91). Chair, Coordination Subcommittee, Internal 
Administration. Member, Executive Committee, Financial Services and In- 
surance Regulation, Market Conduct/Exam Oversight Task Force, Blanks 
Task Force, Data Systems Management Task Force, Potentially Troubled 
Companies Working Group, Special Insurance Issues Committee, Inter- 
national Insurance Relations Task Force, NAIC/JIR Joint Committee, Depart- 
jment Accreditation Committee. Vice President, NAIC (1989-90). Chair, 
JNAIC Executive Committee, Agent Database Comittee. Vice-chair, Special 
(Insurance Issues, Internal Administration, Zone Coordination Subcom- 
Imittee, International Insurance Relations Task Force, NAIC/NAAG Joint 
jCommittee. Member, Financial Services and Insurance Regulation, Accident 
land Health, Blanks Task Force, Casualty Actuarial Task Force, Examina- 
jtion Oversight Task Force, Life and Health Actuarial Task Force, 
NAIC/JIR Joint Committee. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, NC Arson Awareness Council, 
1985-present. Chairman, NC Manufactured Housing Board, 1985-present. 
Member, NC Council of State, Firemen's Relief Fund, Firemen's Pension 
Fund Board, Law Enforcement Officers Retirement Board, NC Fire Commis- 
sion, Capital Planning Commission. Chairman, NC Property Tax Commis- 
sion, 1981-84. 

Professional Background: Attorney. Counsel to Speaker of NC House 
of Representatives, 1980-84. Partner, Long & Long, 1976-84. Chief Deputy 
Commissioner of Insurance, 1975-76. Partner, Long, Ridge, & Long, 1967-75. 
Associate, Long, Ridge, Harris & Walker, 1966-67. Co-authored Douglas 
Legal Forms, a four-volume reference series. 

Organizations: NC State Bar, 1966-present. Burlington-Alamance 
Chamber of Commerce, 1968-74. Secretary and Director, NC Special Olym- 
pics, 1967-75 (helped start NC Special Olympics movement.) 

Personal: Married, Mary Margaret O'Connell. Two children, James E. 
Long, Jr. and Rebecca (Long) McNeal; two grandchildren. Member, Church 
of the Good Shepherd (Episcopal), Raleigh. 

112 North Carolina Manual 


Name Residence Term 

James R. Young- Vance 1899-1921 

Stacey W. Wade' Carteret 1921-1927 

Daniel C. Boney^ Surry 1927-1942 

William P. Hodges^ Martin 1942-1949 

Waldo C. Cheek'^ Moore 1949-1953 

Charles F. Gold' Rutherford 1953-1962 

Edwin S. Lanier« Orange 1962-1973 

John R. Ingram-' Randolph 1973-1985 

James E. Long'" Alamance 1985- 

'The General Assembly of 1899 created the Department of Insurance with provisions 
that the first commissioner would be elected by the current general assembly with future 
commissioners appointed by the governor for a four-year term. {Public Laws, 1899, 
Chapter 54.) Then in 1907, the General Assembly passed a bill which provided for the 
election of the commissioner in the general elections, beginning in 1908. (Public Laws, 
Chapter 868). 

'Young was elected by the General Assembly on March 6, 1899. He was appointed by 
Governor Aycock in 1901 and served following reappointment in 1905 until 1908 when he 
was elected in the general elections. 

*Wade was elected in the general elections in 1920 and served following reelection in 
1924 until his resignation on November 15, 1927. 

^Boney was appointed by Governor McLean on November 15, 1927, to replace Wade. 
He was elected in the general elections in 1928 and served following subsequent 
reelections until his death on September 7, 1942. 

"'Hodges was appointed by Governor Broughton on September 10, 1942, to replace 
Boney. He was elected in the general elections in 1944 and served following reelection in 
1948 until his resignation in June, 1949. 

'^Cheek was appointed by Governor Scott on June 14, 1949, to replace Hodges. He was 
elected in the general elections in 1950 to complete Hodges' unexpired term. He was 
elect-^d to a full term in 1952 and served until his resignation effective October 15, 1953. 

"Gold was appointed by Governor Umstead on November 16, 1953, to replace Cheek. 
He was elected in the general elections in 1954 to complete Cheek's unexpired term. He 
was elected to a full term in 1956 and served following reelection in 1960 until his death on 
June 28, 1962. 

"Lanier was appointed by Governor Sanford on July 5, 1962 to replace Gold. Lanier 
was elected in the general elections in 1962 to complete Gold's unexpired term. He was 
elected to a full term in 1964 and served until he declined to run for reelection in 1972. 

''Ingram was elected in 1972 and served until 1984 when he ran for another office. 
'"Long was elected in 1984 and was reelected in 1988. 

The Executive Branch 113 


The Department of Administration was created in 1957 to serve as the staff 

I agency for the Governor and to provide services for other state government 

• agencies. Often referred to as the "state's business manager," the Department 

of Administration also serves various segments of North CaroHna's population 

: that have traditionally been underrepresented. 

j The Department of Administration was recreated and reestablished by the 

' Executive Organization Act of 1971, which was an attempt to bring more 

, efficient and effective management to state government. Prior to its enactment, 

over 300 agencies reported directly to the Governor. Some of this reorganization 

1 has been reversed recently as several agencies lobbied successfully to move out 

of the department and to report, once again, directly to the Governor. 

Because of its unique role as manager of the state's internal operations, the 

' Department of Administration works to ensure that the taxpayers' dollars are 

used wisely and that good management is pervasive, making the department a 

model for all of state government. A number of efforts are underway to improve 

management and increase productivity in the department and throughout 

state government. Some efforts include the Government Executive Institute for 

top-level management, which trains executive-level managers in skills and 

knowledge needed to perform their unique duties, and the State Employee 

Suggestion System, which awards employees a percentage of money saved 

through their suggestions. 

The department also administers the Outer Continental Shelf Program and 
the three North Carolina Aquariums through its Office of Marine Affairs and 
assists veterans and their dependents through its Division of Veterans Affairs. 
As the "state's business manager," the department handles such diverse 
areas as state construction, energy management, motor vehicle coordination 
and maintenance, purchase of goods and services used throughout state 
government, the state courier system, federal and state surplus property, state 
printing office. State Capitol Police, landscaping and maintenance of state- 
owned grounds in the State Government Complex, and the acquisition and 
I disposition of all real state property. 

There are several programs that serve special populations within the State of 
North Carolina: the Governor's Advocacy Council for Persons with Dis- 
abilities, the N.C. Human Relations Council, the N.C. Commission of Indian 
Affairs and the Youth Advocacy and Involvement Office. These programs, 
each having a citizen council appointed by the Governor as well as the state 
staff, advocate for the disabled, Afro-Americans, Indians, and children and 
youth within and outside of state government. 

Office of the Secretary 

The department is headed by the Secretary of Administration, an appointee 
of the Governor. 

114 North Carolina Manual 

Office of Administrative Analysis 

The Office of Administrative Analysis provides cost-free consulting services 
to state agencies to help make improvements in organization, methods, 
equipment use, staffing levels, cost reduction and procedures. OAA also helps 
agencies determine the needs for copiers and other office automation. This 
office administers the Employee Suggestion System. 

Office of Fiscal Management 

The Office of Fiscal Management accounts for all fiscal activity of the 
department in conformity with requirements of the Office of State Budget and 
Management, the Department of State Auditor and federal funding agencies. 
It files timely financial reports, invoices user agencies for central services and 
recommends and administers fiscal policy within the department. 

DOA Personnel 

DOA Personnel is responsible for recruitment, hiring, grievance and appeal 
procedures, classification of positions to ensure equitable compensation for all 
employees, monitoring the departmental affirmative action plan and im- 
plementation of the State Personnel System within the department. It also has 
the responsibility for the administration of the Employee Assistance Program 
and other state and department employee benefits. 

Personnel is responsible for the training, management and organizational 
development of employees and divisions within the department. It is also 
responsible for developing ways of improving productivity and the quahty of 
work life of the department's employees. 

Public Information Office 

The Public Information Office provides technical, artistic and journalistic 
resources for the entire department and, on occasion, for the Office of the 
Governor. The duties include preparation of news releases, the editing of and 
supervision over production of official publications, the design and production 
of visual aids, and the counsel and advice on ways communication with the 
people of this state can be enhanced. 

Division of Veterans Affairs 

The Division of Veterans Affairs assists veterans, their dependents and the 
dependents of deceased veterans in obtaining and maintaining those rights 
and benefits to which they are entitled by law. 

Government Operations 

Auxiliary Services Division 

Courier Service. A receipt-supported operation. Courier Service provides 
courier mail and inter-office mail to local state government offices and 89 
counties in North Carolina. 

Federal Surplus Property. Federal Surplus Property acquires and distri- 
butes available federal surplus property needed by the eligible recipients in the 
state and funds costs for operations through receipts from sales. 

Motor Fleet Management. Motor Fleet Management is responsible for 

The Executive Branch 115 

approximately 4,000 vehicles owned by state government. Aside from the 
purchase and maintenance of state vehicles, this office enforces state regula- 
tions relating to their use. 

Physical Plant. Physical Plant oversees the maintenance of public build- 
ings, provides necessary and adequate cleaning services, elevator operation 
service and other operational maintenance services for state buildings. It is 
also responsible for landscaping and maintenance of state-owned grounds in 
the State Government Complex and in outlying areas. 

State Capital Police. This law enforcement agency, with police powers 
throughout the city of Raleigh, provides security and property protection 
functions for state government facilities within the Capital City. This agency 
is also responsible for enforcement of regulations in state-operated parking 

State Government Printing Office. A receipt-supported operation, the 
State Government Printing Office provides typesetting and printing services 
throughout state government. 

State Surplus Property. State Surplus Property is responsible for the sale 
of all supplies, materials and equipment owned by the state and considered to 
be surplus, obsolete or unused. 

State Construction Office 

State Construction is responsible for the administration of planning, design 
and construction of all state facilities, including the university and community 
college systems. It also provides the architectural and engineering services 
necessary to carry out the capital improvement program for all state institu- 
tions and agencies. 

State Property Office 

State Property is responsible for state government's acquisition and disposi- 
tion of all interest in real property whether by purchase, sale, exercise of power 
of eminent domain, lease or rental. This office also prepares and keeps current 
a computerized inventory of all land and buildings owned or leased by the state 
or any state agency. 

Division of Purchase and Contract 

Purchase and Contract serves as the central purchasing activity for state 
government and certain other entities. Contracts are established for the 
purchase, lease and lease-purchase of the goods and services required by all 
state agencies, institutions, public school districts, community colleges and the 
university system, totaling $750 million annually. In addition, local govern- 
ments, nonprofit corporations operating charitable hospitals, local nonprofit 
community sheltered workshops, volunteer nonprofit fire departments and 
lifesaving and rescue squads who elect to participate may use the services of 
Purchase and Contract. 


Governor's Advocacy Council for Persons with Disabilities 

The Governor's Advocacy Council for Persons with Disabilities pursues 
appropriate remedies, including legal ones, on behalf of disabled citizens who 

116 North Carolina Manual 

feel they have been discriminated against. The council also offers technical 
assistance regarding disability issues, promotes employment opportunities for 
disabled persons, and reviews policies and legislation relating to these 

North Carolina Human Relations Council. 

The Human Relations Council provides services and programs aimed at 
improving relationships among all citizens of this state, while seeking to 
ensure equal opportunities in the areas of employment, public housing 
accommodation, recreation, education, justice and governmental services. The 
council also enforces the North Carolina Fair Housing Law. 

North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs 

The Commission of Indian Affairs is responsible for bringing local, state and 
federal resources into focus for the implementation or continuation of meaning- 
ful programs for the Indian citizens of North Carolina. The commission is also 
charged with assisting Indian communities in social and economic develop- 
ment and the promotion of unity among all Indians of this state. 

Youth Advocacy and Involvement Office 

The Youth Advocacy and Involvement Office (YAIO) seeks to tap the 
productivity of the youth of North Carolina through their participation in 
community services and the development of youth leadership capabilities. The 
office provides case advocacy to individuals in need of services for children and 
youth. YAIO also researches the needs of children and youth in this state and 
makes recommendations to the Governor, the General Assembly and other 
policy-making groups. 

504 Steering Committee 

The 504 Steering Committee, appointed by the Governor, oversees the state's 
compliance with Section 504 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Federal 
funding requirements have been established for the accessibility of state 
government facilities and programs. 

Office of Marine Affairs 

The Office of Marine Affairs advocates and promotes public awareness, 
appreciation and wise utilization of the natural and cultural resources of 
coastal North Carolina. The three North Carolina Aquariums provide educa- 
tional opportunities to over one million people annually; the Marine Science 
Council recommends state ocean policies and encourages marine research; and 
the Outer Continental Shelf Resources Recovery Program ensures stewardship 
while providing state participation in regional and federal resource utilization 

The Executive Branch 117 

Boards and Commissions 

Board of Public Telecommunications Commissioners 

Bd. of Trustees of the N.C. Public Employee Deferred Compensation 

Governor's Advocacy Council for Persons with Disabilities 

Governor's Advocacy Council on Children and Youth 

Governor's Inter- Agency Advisory Team on Alcohol and Other Drugs 

Governor's Jobs for Veterans Committee 

Local Government Advocacy Council 

N.C. Advisory Council on Telecommunications in Education 

N.C. Alcoholism Research Authority 

N.C. Board of Science and Technology 

N.C. Council on the Eastern Band of the Cherokee 

N.C. Council on Ocean Affairs 

N.C. Council for Women 

N.C. Courts Commission 

N.C. Energy Development Authority 

N.C. Farmworkers' Council 

N.C. Fund for Children and Families Commission 

N.C. Human Relations Commission 

N.C. Internship Council 

N.C. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority 

N.C. Martin Luther King Jr. Holiday Commission 

N.C. State Indian Housing Authority 

Persian Gulf War Memorial Commission 

Public Radio Advisory Committee 

State Building Commission 

State Goals and Policy Board 

State Youth Advisory Council 

Task Force on Racial, Religious and Ethnic Violence and Intimidation 

Veteran's Affairs Commission 


North Carolina Manual 

James Shepherd Lofton 

Secretary of Administration 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg, March 22, 1943, to 
Helen Carter and Thomas Stark 

Education: Oak Hill Academy, 
1961; Lees-McRae College. 

Professional Background: 

Secretary of the N.C. Department of 
Administration, 1987-; Executive As- 
sistant to Governor James G. Martin, 
1985-87; Administrative Assistant to 
U.S. Congressman James G. Martin, 
1973-85; Marketing Officer, First 
Union National Bank (1969-73); Civic 
Affairs Manager, Charlotte Chamber 
of Commerce, 1966-69; Buyer, Belk Brothers Company, Charlotte, 1963-66. 

Organizations: Phalanx Lodge No. 31 A.F. and A.M.; Scottish Rite of Free 
Masonry 32nd Degree KCCH and Oasis Temple, Charlotte; Raleigh Rotary 
Club; Shepherd's Table Soup Kitchen; NC Children's Museum, Raleigh; 
Member, Greater Raleigh Chamber of Commerce Board of Directors; Member, 
Downtown Raleigh Development Corporation Board of Directors. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, N.C. Public Employees Deferred 
Compensation Plan; Secretary, Information Technology Commission; Secre- 
tary, N.C. Board of Science and Technology; Ex Officio Member, N.C. 
Commission on Indian Affairs; Ex Officio Member, Internship Council; Ex 
Officio Member, Board of Public Telecommunications; Member, Governor's 
N.C. Drug Cabinet; Member, N.C. Fund for Children and Families Commis- 
sion; Member, Governor's Working Group on Off-Shore Drilling; Member, 
Governor's Blue Ribbon Commission on Coastal Initiatives; Member, N.C. 
Capital Planning Commission; Member, N.C. Advisory Council on the Eastern 
Band of the Cherokees; Chairman, N.C. Advisory Council on Telecommuni- 
cations in Education. 

Political Activities: Member, Republican Party. 

Family: Married, Sarah Clarinda Knight. Children: Sarah Clarinda, Mary 
Melissa, James Shepherd, Jr. 

The Executive Branch 119 


Name Residence Term 

Paul A. Johnston! Orange 1957-1960 

David S. Coltrane^ Wake 1960-1961 

Hugh Cannon Wake 1961-1965 

Edward L. Rankin, Jr.3 Wake 1965-1967 

Wayne A. Corpening^ Forsyth 1967-1969 

WilHam L. Turner Wake 1969-1973 

WilHam L. Bondurant^ Forsyth 1973-1974 

Bruce A. Lentz^ Wake 1974-1977 

Joseph W. Grimsley Wake 1977-1979 

Jane S. Patterson (acting)' Wake 1979-1980 

Joseph W. Grimsleys Wake 1980-1981 

Jane S. Patterson^ Wake 1981-1985 

Grace J. Rohrerio Orange 1985-1987 

James S. Lofton" Wake 1987- 

'Johnston was appointed by Governor Hodges and served until his resignation 
effective August 31, 1960. 

"Coltrane was appointed by Governor Hodges to replace Johnston. He was reappointed 
by Governor Sanford on January 6, 1961 and served until November, 1961 when he was 
appointed chairman of the Advisory Budget Commission. 

^Rankin was appointed by Governor Moore to replace Coltrane and served until his 
resignation effective September 30, 1967. 

^Corpening was appointed by Governor Moore to replace Rankin and served until the 
end of the Moore Administration. Press Release, September 14, 1967, Moore Papers, 
Appointments, 1965-1968. 

■'Bondurant was appointed on January 5, 1973, by Governor Holshouser to replace 
Turner and resigned effective June 21, 1974. 

''Lentz was appointed by Governor Holshouser to replace Bondurant. Copy of 
Commission to Lentz, July 1, 1974, Division of Publications, Department of the Secretary 
of State, Raleigh. 

"Patterson served as acting departmental secretary when Grimsley took a leave of 
absence to serve as campaign manager of Governor Hunt. 

^Grimsley resigned effective August 1, 1981, following his appointment as secretary for 
the Department of Natural Resources and Community Development. 

^Patterson was appointed by Governor Hunt to replace Grimsley. 
loRohrer was appointed by Governor Martin. 
"Lofton was appointed by Governor Martin. 

120 North Carolina Manual 


The Department of Correction is responsible for the care, custody, and 
supervision of all individuals sentenced after the conviction of a felony or 
serious misdemeanor in North Carolina. Sentences may vary from proba- 
tionary terms served in the community to active prison sentences served in one 
of the eighty-plus prison facilities. The General Statutes direct the Department 
to provide adequate custodial care, educational opportunities, and medical and 
psychological treatment services to all incarcerated persons while at the same 
time providing community-based supervision and some needed social services 
to clients on probation or after parole. 

The Department was established in 1972 by authority of the Executive 
Reorganization Act of 1971 as the Department of Social Rehabilitation and 
Control. The Act provided for the joining of the Parole Commission, the 
Advisory Board of Corrections, and the Department made up of the Divisions 
of Prisons, Adult Probation and Parole and Youth Development. The Secretary 
of the Department is appointed by the Governor and serves at his pleasure. The 
Secretary is responsible for the supervision and administration of all Depart- 
ment functions except that the Parole Commission has the sole authority to 
release incarcerated offenders prior to the expiration of their sentence. 

In July, 1974, the Department was renamed the Department of Correction, 
the Parole Commission was expanded from three to five members, and further 
consolidation of responsibilities and functions occurred. In 1975, the Division 
of Youth Development was transferred administratively to the Department of 
Human Resources, leaving the Department of Correction its current administra- 
tive configuration. 

The history of corrections in North Carolina must reflect the continued 
development and refining of the prison, probation and parole segments of the 

The Division of Prisons was organized in the late 1860's-early 1870's with the 
opening of a large prison farm in Wake County and the construction of Central 
Prison in Raleigh. This reorganization was a result of the "Reconstruction" 
constitution of North Carolina which was accepted by the United States 
Congress in 1868. In 1899, Caledonia Prison Farm was purchased from Halifax 
County. This arrangement continued until 1933 when the General Assembly 
transferred supervision of the three state prisons and the various county 
prisons to the supervision of the State Highway and Public Works Commission. 
This merger of the highway and prison systems was motivated by the steadily 
worsening economic and social conditions caused by the Depression. Under 
this arrangement, prisons were supported by appropriations from the Highway 
Fund while prisoners were extensively employed on road work. 

The Division of Prisons remained under total administrative control of the 
Highway and Public Works Commission until 1955 when the Director of 
Prisons was granted the ability to set divisional rules, regulations and policies 
to include the hiring, promotion, and dismissal of employees. At the same time, 
the General Assembly formed the Prison Reorganization Commission to study 
the relationship between prisons and the highway system. The Commission 

The Executive Branch 121 

recommended that a separate prison department be formed and legislation 
was enacted forming the Prison Department in 1957. 

Also in 1957, landmark legislation was enacted authorizing a statewide 
system of Work Release. North Carolina thus became the first state prison 
system to allow inmates to work at private employment during the day, 
returning to confinement in the evening. Today, North Carolina has the 
nation's largest Work Release population with approximately 1500 individuals 

The Prison Department remained a separate entity under the Prison 
Commission until the Department of Social Rehabilitation and Control was 
formed in 1972. 

Probation first began in the United States in 1878 in Massachusetts. In 1919 
North Carolina enacted its first probation laws but limited probation to first 
offender female prostitutes and certain juveniles under the supervision of 
female officers. In 1937, legislation was enacted forming the Probation 
Commission to supervise a statewide network of male and female offenders 
reporting to Probation Officers. In 1972, the Commission was disbanded when 
the Division of Adult Probation and Parole was formed within the newly 
created Department. At first. Probation Officers retained a strictly probation 
supervision caseload, but by mid-1974, separate supervision of probation and 
parole clients ended. Currently each Probation/Parole Officer supervises both 
categories of offenders on a geographic basis. 

Parole began as a system of pardons and commutations granted by the 
Governor in the original Constitution of North Carolina in 1776. This system 
was maintained in the Reconstruction Constitution of 1868. In 1919, the 
General Assembly established an Advisory Board of Paroles which made 
recommendations to the Governor. This Board was reduced to the Commis- 
sioner of Pardons in 1925, the Officer of Executive Counsel in 1929, and the 
Commissioner of Paroles in 1935. It was this 1935 legislation that created the 
position of Parole Officers under the supervision of the Commissioner. 

The 1953 session of the General Assembly abolished the Office of Commis- 
sioner and established the Board of Paroles consisting of three members. At 
the same time a constitutional amendment granted the Board full authority to 
grant, revoke or terminate paroles. The amendment was approved in the 1954 
general election. 

The 1974 General Assembly enlarged the Board members to five full-time 
members and transferred administration and supervision of Parole Officers to 
the Division of Adult Probation and Parole. Shortly thereafter, the functioning 
of the field-based Parole Officers merged with that of the Probation Officer. 
Currently, each officer supervises both parolees and probationers. 

Pre-Release and Aftercare Centers (PRAC) were formed in 1974. These 
Centers work with those inmates who previously had been denied regular 
parole and who are within one year of release. The PRAC program allows these 
individuals to attend highly structured Community Readiness Training 
sessions, develop adequate job and home plans, and participate in various 
counseling sessions. Ninety day re-entry paroles are granted with continued 
opportunities for counseling up to one year following successful termination of 

The General Statutes establishing the Department of Correction direct the 

122 North Carolina Manual 

Secretary to provide for the general safety of North CaroHna's citizens by 
operating and maintaining prisons, supervising probationers and parolees, 
and providing certain rehabilitative and educational programs to individuals 
supervised by the Department. The Department is divided into three major 
administrative sections: the Office of the Secretary, the Divisions of Prisons, 
and the Adult Probation and Parole Division. 

Office of the Secretary 

The Secretary of the Department of Correction is appointed by the Governor 
and serves at his pleasure. The secretary and his immediate administrative 
staff are responsible for the major planning, fiscal, personnel and records 
keeping functions of the department. 


The planning functions include policy development, federal grant develop- 
ment and administration, liaison with the General Assembly, commissions 
and councils of government, and other state agencies. 

Federal Grants. 

The Federal Grants Section provides for the budgeting and management of 
the many federal grants administered by the Department. This section works 
directly with grant staff to insure administration, evaluation and continuity 
for each grant, as well as providing fiscal administration and accounting 

Fiscal Operations 

The Fiscal Section includes budget development and administration, regular 
and grant accounting, work release and Inmate Trust Fund accounting, and 
internal auditing procedures. 


The Personnel section is responsible for normal personnel functions including 
payroll, maintenance of employee records, and other matters associated with 
personnel management. It also includes the development of staff positions, the 
posting of position vacancies, and the actual hiring of new staff. 

Staff Development and Training. This section administers and provides 
basic training and certification for all new staff, advanced training in 
particular skill areas, and in-service training where needed for recertification 
or continuing education. 

Management Information and Research. The orderly maintenance of 
inmate records including conviction data, sentence information and individual 
inmate/probationer/parolee data is the responsibility of the Management 
Information and Research Section. The section through its computerized 
Management Information and Data Retrieval System provides all individual 
and group statistics necessary for planning and for inmate record manage- 

The Executive Branch 123 

Inmate Grievance Commission 

The Inmate Grievance Commission advises the Secretary concerning the 
varied and many complaints and grievances filed by inmates. The finding of 
the Commission may be affirmed in whole or in part, modified or rejected by the 
Secretary as necessary. 

Parole Commission 

Also, the secretary is an ex-officio member of the Parole Commission. The 
Commission is charged by the State Constitution and General Statutes with 
the responsibility for deciding which inmates may be released from prison at 
some date prior to the expiration of their sentence to the supervision of the 
Division of Adult Probation and Parole. The Commission also advises the 
Governor concerning potential commutations and/or pardons. 

Division of Prisons 

The Division of Prisons is charged with the direct care and supervision of 
inmates. Currently, the division operates more than 80 prison institutions and 
units, smaller treatment facilities for women, and has other institutions under 

The Division receives felons and misdemeanants sentenced by the Court to a 
period of active incarceration. Sentences range from a minimum of six months 
for certain misdemeanors to life imprisonment for serious crimes such as 
murder or arson. Classification within the system depends upon the seriousness 
of the crime, the willingness of the inmate to obey rules and regulations, and 
the perceived potential for escape. 

Maximum custody male prisoners have demonstrated through their 
behavior that they are a clear and present danger to society and other inmates. 
Privileges are limited and security precautions are strict and very controlled. 

Close custody inmates need extra security but do not need the more 
stringent security of maximum custody. Basic education, counseling and work 
programs are available to inmates in close custody. 

Medium custody units have all programs and activities operating within 
the unit under the supervision of armed personnel, except for certain work 
assignments. Programs available to inmates include academic and vocational 
education, drug and alcohol abuse treatment, psychological and other counsel- 
ing programs, and varied work assignments. 

Minimum custody units provide a wide variety of programs for inmates 
ranging from on-site academic and vocational schools to off-site work or study 
release. Minimum custody inmates are misdemeanants and those selected 
felons that have either little time remaining on their sentence or who have been 
determined not to present a high security or escape risk. These units do not 
have manned gun towers or other security devices. Several of the Advancemon t 
Centers do not have fences. Inmates are allowed to work in the community for 
the prevailing wage. They help their families by sending money home, pay 
taxes and otherwise lessen the financial burden of incarceration. 

Programs at Minimum Custody Units. Study release inmates attend 
classes on the campus of selected universities, colleges, or community/ 
technical colleges. Minimum custody inmates are also allowed to participate in 
the Community Volunteer and Home Leave programs. Screened and selected 

124 North Carolina Manual 

volunteers are allowed to sponsor inmates for 3-hour passes to attend approved 
community programs such as religious meetings, Alcoholics Anonymous and 
drug treatment sessions. The Home Leave program allows specially screened 
and approved inmates to visit their families for periods of time up to 48 hours. 
The purpose of this program is to allow inmates prior to release to rebuild 
family ties and to plan for the future. Normally this program is limited to 
Work/Study Release inmates who are within one year of release or parole 

The Division of Prisons also operates several specialized programs within 
the various institutions. An extension program for mentally retarded youth 
between the ages of 18-20 is operated at Cameron Morrison Youth Center. 
Using funds from the Council on Developmental Disabilities, this program 
provides case management, pre- and post- release services, and direct counsel- 
ing to this specialized population. 

Another program offered at the various youth offender prisons is a wide 
range of special education services for those youth defined as exceptional. 
Significant advances have been made in the provision of educational services 
for emotionally disturbed, mentally retarded, medically handicapped, deaf 
and those youthful inmates with specific learning disabilities. This education 
program making use of state and federal resources is one of the few prison 
programs in the country attempting to provide full and appropriate educational 
services to incarcerated youth. 

A wide range of vocational education programs are offered to the adult 
prisoners. Using a combination of resources, including various CETA pro- 
grams, the Department of Correction, in conjunction with the Department of 
Community Colleges, offers welding, carpentry, brick masonry, auto 
mechanics, and other programs designed to permit incarcerated individuals to 
gain and hold steady employment after release. 

Division of Adult Probation and Parole 

The Division of Adult Probation and Parole is responsible for the community 
supervision of over 60,000 parolees and probationers. Most of these individuals 
have been sentenced by the court to probated sentences and are supervised by 
Divisional Officers who offer counseling and job development services. Pre- 
trial and pre-sentenced services are also offered at the request of the court when 
further information is needed prior to sentence disposition. 

The Division is also responsible for supervising those individuals released 
from prison by the Parole Commission. Divisional Officers are responsible for 
supplying information to the Commission regarding home and job placements, 
specialized programming if needed, and any other community oriented 
services that a potential parolee may need and from which he or she might 

The Division of Adult Probation and Parole also offers a range of specialized 
programs to selected groups of offenders. The Pre-Release and Aftercare 
Program offers intensive community orientation training to those prisoners 
who are within one year of release and who, for some reason, cannot be placed 
on regular parole. These centers also provide long-term supervision and 
intensive counseling services to the program graduates upon release under 
specialized parole conditions. 

The Executive Branch 125 

The Division offers intense Community Readiness Training (CRT) services 
o those inmates who have graduated from speciaHzed vocational programs 
offered at various prison units. CRT is designed to prepare inmates for reentry 
nto society after a period of incarceration. Classes teach inmates how to 
orepare for job interviews, how to open savings and checking accounts, how to 
)udget their salaries, and how to benefit from community resources such as the 
;ocal community colleges. Finally, a joint program offered by the Division of 
ir'risons, the Division of Adult Probation and Parole, and the Parole Commis- 
sion, allows inmate participation in program and release planning. 

The Mutual Agreement Parole Program involves a binding contractual 
ligreement between the inmate, the two Divisions and the Parole Commission, 
rhe agreement oriented about a specified release date, allows the inmate to 
participate in long-range vocational training knowing that he/she will be 
released on a given date. The inmate agrees to participate in the training, 
igrees to an infraction/escape free record and agrees to participate in any 
)ther Parole Commission-suggested rehabilitative program such as alcohol 
ibuse treatment. In return, the Division of Prisons agrees to offer the necessary 
/^ocational training and specialized programming and the Parole Commission 
agrees to release the inmate on the requested date. This contractual period, 
)ften 12 to 18 months, allows all parties to make specific plans while allowing 
he inmate to learn a solid, marketable vocation tied to a specific release date. 
'Mease planning is made more specific, allowing the Parole Commission and 
Division of Adult Probation and Parole to offer more specialized pre-release 
programming to the selected MAP program participants. 

Boards and Commissions 

;3oard of Correction 

Grrievance Resolution Board 

Parole Commission 

Substance Abuse Advisory Council 

'\dvisory Committee on Religious Ministry in Prisons 

11 j 


North Carolina Manual 

V. Lee Bounds 

Secretary of Correction 

Early Years: Born in Salisbury, 
Maryland, October 13, 1918. 

Education: University of Virginia 
Law School, 1949, LLB. (law). 

Profession: University of North 
Carolina, Assistant Director and Pro- 
fessor of Public Law and Government, 
Institute of Government, 1952-65. 
North Carolina Prison Department, 
Director of Prisons; 1965-67. North 
Carolina Department of Correction, 
Commissioners of Correction; 1967- 
73. University of Nevada, National 
College of the State Judiciary, 1973. 
University of North Carolina, Kenan 
Professor of Public Law and Adminis- 
tration; 1973-1986. Secretary, North Carolina Department of Correction; 

Professional Affiliations: Chairman of the North Carolina Commission 
to Study and Recommend Legislation on Criminal Laws Relating to Public 
Mortality; 1966-1967. Member, U.S. Department of Justice Advisory Committee 
on Corrections; 1967-68. President, Association of State Correctional Adminis- 
trators; 1968-69. Member, U.S. Advisory Committee on Naval Corrections; 
1970-71. Member of the Board of Directors, American Correctional Association; 
1966-73. Member, Governor's Committee on Law and Order; 1967-73. Member, 
North Carolina Drug Authority; 1971-73. Member of the Advisory Committee, 
Federal Correctional Institution, Butner, North Carolina, 1973-79. 

Military: U.S. Navy; 1936-1952 (with periods of inactive duty in the U.S. 
Navy Reserve.) Retired Commander, U.S. Navy Reserve. 

Family: Married Marjorie Sorrell Upchurch. Children: Bobbi Lee Embree 
and Michael F. Bounds. 

The Executive Branch 127 


iName Residence Term 

George W. Randall'^ Wake 1972 

Ralph D. Edwardss Wake 1972-1973 

David L. Jones^ Cumberland 1973-1977 

Amos E. Reedss Wake 1977-1981 

James C. Woodard^ Johnston 1981-1985 

Aaron J. Johnson^ Cumberland 1985-1992 

V. LeeBoundsS 1992- 

'The Executive Organization Act of 1971 created the "Department of Social Rehabilita- 
tion and Control" with provision for a "Secretary" appointed by the governor. In 1974 the 
'name was changed to the Department of Correction. 

-'Randall was appointed by Governor Scott and served until his death on December 4, 

^Edwards was appointed by Governor Scott to replace Randall. 

^ Jones was appointed on January 5, 1973, by Governor Holshouser to replace Edwards. 

^Reed was appointed on January 17, 1977, by Governor Hunt to replace Jones. 

^Woodard was appointed January 12, 1981, to replace Reed. 

yohnson was appointed on January 7, 1985 by Governor Martin to replace Woodard. 

^Bounds was appointed on March 2, 1992 by Governor Martin to replace Johnson. 

128 North Carolina Manual 


The 1977 General Assembly passed legislation to restructure and rename the 
Department of Military and Veterans Affairs as the Department of Crime 
Control and Public Safety. 

The department was created April 1, 1977, by transferring law enforcement 
and public safety agencies from the Department of Military and Veterans 
Affairs, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Commerce and 
the Department of Natural Resources and Community Development. 

The duties of the department are to provide law enforcement and emergency 
services to protect against crime and against natural and manmade disasters, | 
to serve as the state's chief coordinating agency to control crime and protect ! 
the public, to assist local law enforcement and public safety agencies and to ! 
work for a more effective and efficient criminal justice system. In addition, the 
department coordinates state response to any emergency when that emergency I 
requires the response of more than one sub-unit of state government. In 1980, I 
the department was given the authority to direct the allocation of any or all 
available state resources from any state agency to respond to an emergency. 

The department is made up of the Office of the Secretary; two commissions, | 
the Governor's Crime Commission, the Governor's Advisory Commission on 
Military Affairs; and nine divisions: Alcohol Law Enforcement, Butner Public 
Safety, Civil Air Patrol, Crime Prevention, Emergency Management, Gover- 
nor's Crime Commission, N.C. National Guard, State Highway Patrol and 
Victim and Justice Services. j 

Alcohol Law Enforcement Division i 

As a result of legislation in 1977, the Enforcement Division of the State 
Board of Alcoholic Beverage Control was transferred from the Department of 
Commerce to the newly formed Department of Crime Control and Public 
Safety. The primary responsibility of the Alcohol Law Enforcement Division is 
to enforce the Alcoholic Beverage Control laws of the state. 

Agents provide licensed outlets with the latest information on ABC laws and 
regulations, inspect premises and examine books and records. They prepare i 
criminal and regulatory cases, present evidence in court and administrailive f 
hearings, conduct permit applicant investigations, execute ABC Commission 
orders, and conduct undercover investigations. Agents are sworn peace : 
officers and have the authority to arrest and take other investigatory and 
enforcement actions for any criminal offense. ' 

Public education is also an important part of the job of an Alcoholic Law 
Enforcement agent. Agents routinely conduct seminars regarding the irrespon-  
sible service of alcohol, present classes to youth groups and civic organizations, 
and teach ABC laws at local and state law enforcement schools. 

New agents are trained during a 20-week ALE Basic School which was , 
designed and certified specifically for ALE agents. This training includes 
physical conditioning and defensive tactics, instruction in constitutional and 
criminal laws, court procedures, search and seizure, criminal investigation, 
alcoholic beverage control laws, firearms and vehicle operations. 


The Executive Branch 129 

The division is commanded by a director, headquarters' staff, field super- 
visors and their assistants. For administrative purposes, the field organization 
is divided into twelve districts, each with a headquarters' office readily 
'accessible to the public. 

Butner Public Safety Division 

The Butner Public Safety Division traces its roots back to the Camp Butner 
Fire Department set up in 1942 when Camp Butner was established as a U.S. 
Army Training Camp. In 1947, John Umstead, brother of Governor William B. 
Umstead, led a move in the General Assembly to build a new facility for the 
mentally ill, and Camp Butner was purchased from the government for $1 as 
jthe site for this complex. 

The Camp Butner Fire Department became part of the John Umstead 

I Hospital in the Department of Human Resources. The staff consisted of 18 

imen. As the Butner complex and the community grew, the staff was trained as 

firefighters and policemen; and the department became known as the Public 

i Safety Department. The department was transferred to the Department of 

Crime Control and Public Safety in 1981, and its name was changed to the 

Butner Public Safety Division. 

Butner Public Safety Officers provide police and fire protection for the state 
hospitals at Butner; other state facilities there, including the 4,600-acre 
[National Guard Training Range; the Butner Federal Correctional Facility and 
[the residential, business and industrial community of Butner. In keeping with 
the growth and development of the town of Butner, facilities for the Butner 
iPublic Safety Division were expanded. On January 29, 1985, the new 15,000- 
iisquare-foot Butner Public Safety Division building was dedicated by Governor 
; Martin. 

' The division is commanded by a public safety director, chief of fire services 
'and chief of police services. The four platoons are commanded by captains, 
jwith master fire officers and master police officers as support staff. Including 
•the investigative, support, communications and logistics sections, Butner's 
jtotal force is 44. 

The duties of these officers are unique. One hour, they may be called on to 
fight a raging fire; and the next hour, these same officers may be called on to 
'capture a bank robber. 

Civil Air Patrol Division 

The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) was established nationally on December 1, 1941 
as an auxiliary of the United States Army Air Corps. It was a part of the Civil 
Defense structure and shortly thereafter became involved in the war effort. In 
1948, Congress made the Civil Air Patrol an official auxiliary of the United 
States Air Force. 

The North Carolina Wing of the Civil Patrol became a state agency in 1953, 
and it was transferred to the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs in 
1971. In 1977, it was transferred from the Department of Military and Veterans 
Affairs to the newly formed Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. 

There are 39 squadrons in the North Carohna Wing. Although the Wing is 

130 North Carolina Manual 

partially funded by the state, the department has no operational control over it. 
Many members operate their own airplanes and fly at their own expense; 
however, membership dues, donations, grants, estates, state funds and Air 
Force reimbursements account for a large portion of the Wing's budget. 

The Civil Air Patrol fulfills three primary functions: emergency services, 
aerospace education and training, and a cadet training program. 

Emergency Services 

Emergency Services is a function with which the Civil Air Patrol is most 
involved. It entails air search and rescue and local disaster relief. The Civil Air 
Patrol is an integral part of state disaster relief. The Civil Air Patrol is an 
integral part of state disaster emergency preparedness plans, providing fixed, 
mobile or airborne communications during emergencies. 

Aerospace Education and Training 

Aerospace Education and Training is designed to inform the public about 
aerospace activities. The CAP supports aerospace education workshops for 
teachers at colleges and universities throughout the United States. These 
programs prepare teachers to teach aerospace education courses in their 
schools or to use the information to enrich traditional classroom subjects. 
Scholarships are awarded to deserving cadets and senior members for study in 
engineering, the humanities, education, science and other fields related to 

Cadet Training Program 

The Cadet Training Program provides young people, ages 13 through 18, 
with opportunities for leadership and education. The program teaches the 
cadets aviation, search and rescue, individual and group discipline and 
personal development, giving them the opportunity to serve themselves and 
their communities, state, nation and all humanity to the fullest extent of their 

Crime Prevention Division 

In 1979, the Crime Prevention Division was created to motivate citizens in 
every home and community to join actively in the fight against crime. Staff 
and funding were drawn from the Governor's Crime Commission Division and 
from other divisions of the department. It was an exciting attempt to deal with 
one of the oldest problems of society. 

The Crime Prevention Division's mission is to assist local law enforcement 
agencies and other groups to get citizens involved in crime prevention 
activities. These activities are designed to reduce not only the incidence of 
crime, but also the fear of crime. Staff members keep track of changing crime 
trends and stay abreast of the latest state and national crime prevention 

Crime Prevention programs promoted or coordinated by the division include: 
Think Smart, Youth Awards Programs, Athletes Against Crime, Public 
Housing, Community Watch, Ham Watch, Crime Stoppers, Crimes Against 

The Executive Branch 131 

Business, Crimes Against Older Adults, Crimes Against Women, Domestic 
Violence, Crimes Against Children and Child Safety. The division provides 
technical assistance and develops crime prevention awareness materials free 
of charge to citizens, local law enforcement agencies and other groups. 

Emergency Management Division 

The evolution of emergency management in North Carolina began with the 

creation of the Emergency Management Act of 1977. Prior to that, the division 

' went through two transitions: from Civil Defense to Civil Preparedness. Both 

Civil Defense and Civil Preparedness focused primarily on war-related 

disasters, but also supported local law enforcement and fire departments in the 

i event of a major catastrophe. With the increased exposure of people and 

f property to extremely high-risk situations due to our technological advance- 

\ ment, the need for a central coordinating agency to preserve and protect the 

 citizens of North Carolina from all types of disasters, natural and manmade, 

soon became apparent. 

The State Civil Defense Agency was transferred to the Department of 

Military and Veterans Affairs in 1971, and transferred again in 1977 to the 

newly formed Department of Crime Control and Public Safety where it was 

named the Division of Emergency Management. Under the direction of the 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety, Emergency Management 

; coordinates response and relief activities in the event of a major emergency or 

I disaster using a four-phase approach to emergency situations: preparedness, 

' response, recovery, and mitigation. 

The division's major emergency response functions are carried out by the 
: State Emergency Response Team (SERT). The SERT is composed of top-level 
; management representatives from each state agency involved in response 
I activities. During an emergency, the Secretary of Crime Control and Public 
j Safety is the Governor's authorized representative to call and direct any state 
' agency to respond to the emergency. The SERT directs on-site response 
, activities when two or more state agencies are involved and will, upon request, 
j direct the total response including local, state, federal and private resources. 
' By providing support to local governments through response efforts, planning 
j and training, the Division of Emergency Management carries out its theme of 
cooperation, coordination, and unity. 

Governor's Crime Commission 

The Governor's Crime Commission embodies the former Law and Order 
Committee created in 1968 in the Department of Natural and Economic 
Resources. The Law and Order Committee was transferred to the newly formed 
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety in 1977. The Governor's Crime 
Commission serves by statute as the chief advisory board to the Governor and 
the Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety on crime and justice issues 
and policies. 

The 40-member commission has representatives from all parts of the 
criminal justice system, local government, the legislature and other citizens. 
The commission is supported by a state staff in the Governor's Crime 

132 North Carolina Manual 

Commission Division. The commission has been a unique forum for criminal 
justice in North CaroHna. Throughout its history, the Governor's Crime 
Commission has served in a leadership role in criminal justice planning, issue 
analysis, program development and coordination. The Crime Commission has 
been a force behind many successful statewide programs such as driving while 
impaired legislation, community service restitution, crime prevention and 
community watch, rape victim assistance, victim compensation and sen- 
tencing reform. 

The commission currently oversees four federal grant programs for the state. 
These programs include the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 
Program, the Justice Assistance Program, the Victim of Crime Act Program 
and the Drug Enforcement Program. The programs bring approximately $7.5 
million in federal monies to North Carolina for criminal justice improvement 

Governor's Crime Commission Division 

The Governor's Crime Commission Division serves as staff to the 40-member 
Governor's Crime Commission. The staff is responsible for researching the 
issues under review by the commission and writing the resulting reports to the [ 
Governor. The staff also administers four federal grant programs for the state. [ 

Highway Patrol Division P 

In 1929, the General Assembly of North Carolina created the State Highway j 
Patrol. Chapter 218 of the Public Laws of 1929 provides: "That the State 
Highway Commission of North Carolina is hereby authorized and directed to | 
create under its control and supervision a division of the State Highway Patrol, | 
consisting of one Captain with headquarters in the State Highway Building at ' 
Raleigh, and one Lieutenant and three patrolmen in each of the nine State 
Highway Division Districts of the State." The Highway Patrol was given \ 
statutory responsibility to patrol the highways of the state, enforce the motor 
vehicle laws and assist the motoring public. w 

The commission appointed a captain as commanding officer of the State i: 
Highway Patrol and nine lieutenants. These ten men were sent to Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, to attend a two-week training school for state police. The 
captain and the nine lieutenants returned to North Carolina and made plans - 
for recruiting the 27 patrolmen, three for each of the nine highway districts in i 
the state. 

The year 1929 was the first time in North Carolina history that all members 
of a law enforcement unit were required to go through a training school to study 
the laws they would be called on to enforce. Of the original 400 applicants who 
applied for admission, only 67 were ordered to report to Camp Glenn, an 
abandoned army encampment near Morehead City. The school ran for six 
weeks, and the names of the 27 men with the highest records were posted on the 
bulletin board as the first State Highway Patrolmen. Others who had come 
through the training course with credit were put on a reserve list to be called 
into service as openings occurred. The Chairman of the State Highway 
Commission came to Camp Glenn, inspected the men of the Patrol, liked what 
he saw, and told them something they never forgot, "On your shoulders rests 
the responsibility for the success or failure of the State Highway Patrol." 

The Executive Branch 133 

On July 1, 1929, 37 members of the Patrol took the oaths of office in the hall of 
the House of Representatives in the Capitol, and the example of these men is an 
inspiring legacy to the men and women of the State Highway Patrol today. 
From this original authorized strength of 37, the State Highway Patrol's 
membership has increased, reflecting growth in population, interstate and 
state highways, and registered vehicles and licensed drivers; however, there is 
still a shortage in what is really needed to combat the growing problems facing 
the patrol. 

Throughout its long history, the State Highway Patrol has had many homes. 
In 1933, the State Highway Patrol was transferred from the State Highway 
Commission to the State Revenue Department. On July 1, 1941, the General 
Assembly created the Department of Motor Vehicles, and the State Highway 
Patrol was transferred from the State Revenue Department to the Department 
of Motor Vehicles. The Patrol was transferred from the Department of Motor 
Vehicles in 1973 to the Department of Transportation. Then, in 1977, the Patrol 
was transferred from the Department of Transportation to the newly formed 
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. 

As the primary traffic law enforcement agency in North Carolina, the chief 
responsibility of the State Highway Patrol is safeguarding life and property on 
the state's highways. The duties and responsibilities of the Patrol are governed 
by the General Statutes and consist of regularly patrolling the highways and 
enforcing all laws and regulations pertaining to travel and use of vehicles upon 
the highways. 

Additional duties may be assigned by the Governor and the Secretary of 
Crime Control and Public Safety, such as providing manpower and support for 
civil disturbances, nuclear accidents, chemical spills and natural disasters. 
The Patrol also handles security for the Governor and his family. 

The year 1977 also brought a change in location and facilities for the Patrol's 
i training schools. Camp Glenn was the site for training the first class of 
* Highway Patrol recruits, but there was not a permanent training site until 
! 1946, when classes were held at the Institute of Government at the University 
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. However, when the Patrol outgrew that site, 
several locations throughout the state were considered as possible training 
sites, and the Governor Morehead School for the Blind located at 3318 Garner 
Road in Raleigh was selected. Today, the training center is a modern facility 
that provides the perfect atmosphere for training. The Patrol is very proud of 
this facility and its training program which is essential to a modern law 
enforcement agency. 

In the fall of 1982, the Highway Patrol State Auxiliary, an organization of 
Patrol wives and widows, decided to place a monument at the training center in 
memory of the troopers killed in the line of duty, and after a fund-raising 
campaign to pay for its construction, on May 18, 1986, Governor James G. 
Martin accepted the memorial on behalf of the state during dedication 
ceremonies. The moving inscription on the monument was written by Latish 
Williams, an employee of the Patrol Headquarters staff, and it reflects the 
dedication and devotion to duty of all the men and women of the State 
Highway Patrol. 

"In memory of those who lost their lives in the line of duty, we hope you 
see their faces and hearts in this stone of beauty. In dedication and honor 

134 North Carolina Manual 

to those who die through the years, we stand before this memorial and 
hold back the tears. Over the years, we lost brave troopers who were our 
comrades and friends. We dedicate this monument in their honor 
knowing that when one dies, life begins. 

Governor's Advisory Commission on Military Affairs 

Executive Order Number 11 created the Governor's Advisory Commission 
on Military Affairs on June 28, 1985. Members are appointed by the Governor 
and consist of commanders of the five major military installations in North 
Carolina, state and local government officials and citizens who have an 
interest in or relationship to the military community. The commission meets 
regularly at the call of the Chairman or the Secretary of the Department of 
Crime Control and Public Safety. Department employees serve as staff to the 
commission and provide administrative support, draft legislation and coordi- 
nate meetings. 

The commission provides a forum for the discussion of issues concerning 
major military installations in the state and active and retired military 
personnel and their families. The commission collects and studies information 
related to supporting and strengthening the military presence in the state. 
Commission members recommend and review proposed military affairs 
legislation, and advise the Governor on measures and activities that would 
support and enhance defense installations and military families within the 

The commission promotes the involvement of the state's industries in the 
state military procurement system, and encourages potential employers to 
recruit soon-to-retire soldiers whose military skills would be useful in the 
private sector. Another mission of the commission is to enhance the state's 
attractiveness as a home for retiring service personnel by proving an easy 
channel of communication between the military and state government. The 
commission has provided the unforeseen benefit of serving as the only meeting 
ground for the commanders of the major military installations in the state to 
discuss ideas and problems. 

National Guard Division 

Since the Colonial era of this nation's history, there have been citizen- 
soldiers who worked at their trades, jobs, farms, professions and other 
livelihoods, who were also members of organized militia units. When needed, 
these citizen-soldiers assisted in the defense of life, property and their 
community. The North Carolina National Guard has its roots in this tradition. 

The National Guard today is the organized militia of the state, and the 
Governor is the commander-in-chief. The National Guard is also a part of the 
Armed Forces' reserve force structure with the President as commander-in- 
chief, which gives the Guard a federal as well as a state mission. 

As the State Militia, the Guard has a long history of proud service to the 
people of the state. On numerous occasions, the Guard has provided assistance 
to state and local authorities when natural disasters such as hurricanes, 

The Executive Branch 135 

floods, fires and tornadoes occurred and for civil disturbances and other law 

enforcement needs requiring additional trained and capable manpower to 

, supplement state and local resources. As a part of the reserve forces of the 

United States Armed Forces, the Guard has been called or ordered to active 

federal service to defend the nation. Early militia and modern Guard units 

have responded to this need since the Revolutionary War. -' 

j In 1806, following the War for American Independence, under the authority 

' of the Militia Acts of 1792 and 1795 passed by Congress, the Legislature passed 

a law establishing the Adjutant General's Department. The militia then began 

to become better organized and trained. 

I For many years the State Guard, as it was then know, had no federal 

recognition; and at the time of the Spanish-American War in 1898, it was 

discovered that the President of the United States had no authority to order the 

Guard into federal service. Under the Acts of Congress of June 3, 1916, a 

definite place in the National Defense was created for the Guard; and the State 

\ Guard became the National Guard. 

Since this change in the federal laws, the National Guard has become an 
integral part of the country's first line of defense. With the backing of the 
federal government and laws passed by the respective states based upon the 
National Defense Acts, the National Guard has continuously, through its 
training, developed a high standard of efficiency. Today it is recognized as an 
I important part of the Army of the United States. 

,| In 1947, the Army Air Corps was designated the United States Air Force and 
' became a separate component of the armed services. At the same time, the 
National Guard of the United States was divided into the Army National 
Guard and the Air National Guard, 
i The Department of Defense continues to expand the role of the Guard in the 
; national defense plan and to develop a "One Army" concept of active and 
' reserve forces. Today the North Carolina Army and Air Guard consists of more 
: than 14,000 soldiers and airmen. It is a modern, well-trained force which 
' continues to distinguish itself in peacetime and to fulfill both its federal and 
j state missions. 

Guard troops are equipped with some of the most modern military equipment: 
\ the Ml Abrams Tank, the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle, the M60-A3 
I Main Battle Tank, the AH 60 Black Hawk Helicopter and the AH 64A Apache 
Attack Helicopter. 

The North Carolina Army National Guard continues the tradition begun in 
Colonial times. Many units today have lineages going back 100 years or more. 
Not only is the Guard an important source of pride and community involve- 
ment, but it stands ready to protect and serve its citizens. 

Victim and Justice Services Division 

j The Victim and Justice Services Division formerly was a section of the 

'Governor's Crime Commission Division. The community services alternative 

punishment programs for persons sentenced under the Safe Roads Act became 

the responsibility of the Department of Crime Control and Public Safety in 

j 1983, and the department saw the need to create a new division to administer 

these programs. This new division was called the Victim and Justice Services 

136 North Carolina Manual 

Division. Staff and funding for the division were drawn from the Governor's 
Crime Commission Division and other divisions of the department. 

Through field offices located in each of the state's 34 judicial districts, the 
Community Service Work Program places and supervises convicted offenders 
who have been ordered by the court to make restitution in the form of free labor 
to charitable organizations and government agencies. 

During its first three years of operation, the Community Service Work 
Program admitted 91,631 clients who gave the state of North Carolina 
2,645,745 hours of free labor with an estimated monetary value of $8,863,245. 
Not only does the state benefit from this free labor by offenders, it had collected 
more than $4,225,904 in fees which go to the General Fund for schools and 
other vital services. The combined total of services and money to the state 
exceeds $15 million. 

In addition to being an efficient and cost-effective punishment alternative, 
other programs have evolved from the Community Service Work Program. 
These programs are administered in whole or in part by the division: Deferred 
Prosecution, Community Service Parole and Community Penalties. 

The division also operates programs that provide direct services to victims 
and to justice system agencies, such as the North Carolina Center for Missing 
Persons. The Center, formerly the North Carolina Center for Missing Children 
and Child Victimization, was established in 1984 as the state clearinghouse for 
information about missing persons. Trained staff members provide technical 
assistance and training to citizens, law enforcement officials, school personnel 
and human services professionals. The Center's staff gives assistance and 
support to both the families of missing persons and to the law enforcement 
officials investigating missing person cases. Staff members also participate in 
emergency operations and searches for persons who are missing and en- 

The Rape Victim Assistance Program provides financial assistance to 
victims of sex offenses by reimbursing the cost of emergency medical 
treatment and evidence collection. This program has served more than 3,500 
victims since its inception in 1981. 

Division staff members also conduct workshops for law enforcement officers 
on managing occupational stress, using the services of a licensed psychologist 
to counsel police officers. 

Boards and Commissions 

Governor's Advisory Commission on Military Affairs 

Governor's Crime Commission 

Military Aides-de-Camp 

N.C. Crime Victims Compensation Commission 

N.C. Emergency Response Commission 

The Executive Branch 


Joseph Wayne Dean 

Secretary of Crime Control and 
Public Safety 

Early Years: Born in Nashville, 
Tennessee, October 19, 1944, to Joseph 
Mavon and Anne Bell (Stinson) Dean. 

Education: Hamlet High School, 
1962; The Citadel, 1966, B.A.; School 
of Law, Wake Forest University, 1969, 

Professional Background : 

Attorney (Firm of Dean and Dean, 
1977-85); Assistant to U.S. Attorney, 

Organizations: Association of 
Citadel Men; NC Bar Association, NC 
State Bar; NC Academy of Trial 
Lawyers; International Association of Chiefs of Police; NC Association of 
Chiefs of Police. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Drug Cabinet; Governor's Crime Commis- 
sion; Eastern District Law Enforcement Coordinating Committee; the NC 
Fund for Children and Families Commission; NC Victims Compensation 
Commission; the Governor's Advisory Commission on Military Affairs; the 
State Emergency Response Commission; NC Board of Public Telecommuni- 
;cations Commissioners. 

i Military Service: Served, US Army, 1969-71; (Captain); Bronze Star with 
<V; Vietnam Cross of Gallantry; Combat Infantry Badge. 
I Political Activities: Secretary, Department of Crime Control and Public 
Safety, 1985-; Legal Counsel, Wake County Republican Party. 
1 Honors: Assistant US Attorney Award, 1974; Special Commendation for 
]US Attorney General, 1976; Who's Who in American Law (all editions); Babock 
Scholar, School of Law, Wake Forest Univeristy; Crime Prevention Officers of 
NC President's Award; NC Criminal Justice Association Outstanding Crimi- 
nal Justice Professional Background Award; NC Emergency Management 
Association's James F. Buffaloe Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Episcopal Church, Raleigh. 

Family: Married, Christine Witcover of Fayetteville, May 22, 1977. Chil- 
jdren: Joseph Jefferson and Katherine Briggs. 

138 North Carolina Manual 




Name Residence Term 

J. Phillip Carlton- Wake 1977-1978  

Herbert L. Hyde^ Buncombe 1979 ; 

Burley B. Mitchell Wake 1979-1982 

Heman R. Clark^ Cumberland 1982-1985 . 

Joseph W. Dean6 Wake 1985- [ 

'The General Assembly of 1977 abolished the Department of Military and Veterans' 
Affairs and created the Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. 

^Carlton was appointed on April 1, 1977, by Governor Hunt. He resigned effective 
January 1, 1979, following his appointment to the N.C. Court of Appeals. 

'Hyde was appointed on January 2, 1979, by Governor Hunt to replace Carlton. 

^Mitchell was appointed on August 21, 1979, to replace Hyde. He resigned in early 1982 
following his appointment to the N.C. Supreme Court. 

"'Clark was appointed in February 2, 1982, by Governor Hunt to replace Mitchell. 

^Dean was appointed January 7, 1985 by Governor Martin. 

The Executive Branch 139 


The North CaroUna Department of Cultural Resources was the first cabinet- 
' level cultural affairs department to be established in any of the United States. 

The department was created under the State Government Reorganization Act 
' of 1971 as the Department of Art, Culture and History. The name was changed 
I a few years later. 

" The purpose of the department is to enhance the cultural life of the citizens of 
, North Carolina and to provide access to excellence in the arts, historical 

resources and libraries. The department interprets "culture" as an inclusive 

term for the many ways people have of understanding their history, values and 
 natural creativity. The functions of the Department of Cultural Resources are 
, all concerned with the exploration and interpretation of our culture and ways 
I in which its products can be made increasingly available to the public. The 
' department assists in the preservation, protection and continuation of our 

heritage for future generations through an emphasis on the richness of our 

traditions and our history. 
The department has three divisions: Archives and History, the Arts Council 

and the State Library. In addition, the Office of the Secretary administers a 
' number of special programs. There are also numerous boards and commissions 

with responsibilities associated with the department. The North Carolina 

Symphony and the North Carolina Museum of Art are semi-autonomous 

agencies of the department. 

Division of Archives and History 

The Department (now Division) of Archives and History was created in 1903 
)to chart our state's history and preserve its records and historic places for 
'posterity. From its inception it has been in the forefront of state historical 
, activity. Within the division are many diverse sections: the Museum of History, 
Archives and Records, Historical Publications, Historic Sites, Archaeology 
and Historic Preservation, and the Tryon Palace. 

Museum of History 

j While the culture of North Carolina is found in every community, the state 
administers a number of museums and sites so that visitors might enjoy a 
concentration of art or history in one visit to any of them. These museums and 
sites are not just for those who are knowledgeable about history or who have a 
particular, or professional interest in the many forms of art. Instead they have 
been designed to excite the interest of any child or adult and to stimulate the 

jjhistorical and creative perspective in us all. 

1 The North Carolina Museum of History, since its founding in 1902, has been 
the state agency most involved in the collection and preservation of objects 
significant to the history of North Carolina. The museum collection, currently 

Ijcontaining over 350,000 items, reflects the political, economic, and social 
history of our state. The comprehensive collection is used by the central 
museum and its two branches, twenty-three State Historic Sites, the Executive 

140 North Carolina Manual 

Mansion, and the Capitol. The museum also loans items from its collection to 
other nonstate historical museums throughout the state which meets standards 
of security and interpretive usage as established by the museum. 

The collection is particularly strong in the areas of North Carolina currency 
and gold coins, dolls. Civil War uniforms, flags, North Carolina silver, and 
North Carolina crafts. The museum holds one of the outstanding collections of 
Confederate uniforms in the nation in addition to a collection of costumes (over 
6,000) ranging from 1775-1980. Its collection of historic flags (350) range from 
the Revolutionary War (the Guilford Battle flag) to flags from the Vietnamese 
War. The museum has the largest known collection of Bechtler gold coins (154). 
The Bechtlers operated a private mint in North Carolina from 1831 to 1846 
during the North Carolina gold rush. The Museum of History's collections are 
used in an average of twelve special exhibitions annually which are visited by 
over 170,000 school children and adults. 

The Museum of History has mounted several important and critically 
acclaimed exhibitions in the past years. Enriching and complementing the 
exhibition program are lectures, movies, touch talks, demonstrations, and a 
186-chapter Tar Heel Junior Historian Program in the schools. 

The North Carolina Museum of History has an expanded mission to reach 
out to citizens throughout the state. In the 1940's, the museum began three 
extension services still active today: the Tar Heel Junior Historian Association 
which promotes the study of state and local history in the public schools; the 
Mobile Museum of History, today a tractor-trailer unit which travels the state 
with a variety of exhibitions; and an extensive series of slide programs on 
various aspects of North Carolina history which can be borrowed by schools 
and clubs without charge. 

In 1982, the museum in conjunction with its support group, the North 
Carolina Museum of History Associates, began offering a variety of educa- 
tional programs in communities throughout the state. These programs, 
together with the interest generated all over North Carolina by the Associates, 
have greatly enhanced the appeal of the museum, thereby creating a greater 
demand for North Carolina Museum of History services. 

Given the very great need for a new museum facility, the Museum of History 
engaged in a campaign to build a new building across from the State Capitol. 
The $28 million building is scheduled to be open to the public in 1993. 

Archives and Records 

An important form of written history is to be found in public records and 
documents. The Archives and Records section of Cultural Resources is 
responsible for administering the North Carolina State Archives and for 
conducting records management programs for state and local governments. 
As the state archival agency, it arranges, describes, preserves and makes 
available for use the permanently valuable public records of the state and of 
counties and municipalities. It also preserves other records of permanent 
historical interest including private manuscripts, maps and photographs. 

The Archives and Records Section maintains over 35,000 cubic feet of records 
(more than 100 million pieces of paper), 800,000 photographs, and 30,000 reels 
of microfilm. The State Archives is nationally known and serves as a model for 
the nation and other states. If we know our history by what we leave behind, 

The Executive Branch 141 

then the state Archives is indispensable in this knowledge. A courthouse may 
be torn down, a church may burn, and records of great value may perish with 
them. Often those records already have been preserved by the Archives. 
Anyone interested in family genealogy will come to know its programs. 

Historical Publications 

The Historical Publications Section is responsible for the publication of 
documentary volumes, periodicals, pamphlets, leaflets, maps and other 
materials on North Carolina history. The section publishes a volume of 
addresses and public papers of each North Carolina governor at the close of his 
administration. Among ongoing projects is the publication of North Carolina 
Troops, 1861-1865, a comprehensive Civil War roster. 

The North Carolina Historical Review, published quarterly, is one of the 
most respected publications of its kind in the United States. 

Historic Sites 

Deeply involved with the state's heritage, the Division of Archeology and 
Historical Preservation seeks to preserve properties, artifacts and archaeologi- 
cal sites important to our state. Through its archaeological program, the 
Division identifies hundreds of historic and pre-historic sites each year, from 
Indian encampments to industrial sites and from gold mines to sunken sea- 
faring crafts. 

You can pan for gold, examine a Confederate ironclad or visit Blackbeard's 
hometown as you relive three centuries of North Carolina and American 
history at the historic sites administered by the Department of Cultural 
Resources. The Department's Historic Sites section conducts its program to 
plan, preserve, develop, interpret, operate and maintain this statewide section. 
A typical site contains one or more restored or reconstructed structures as well 
as a modern visitor center including exhibits, artifacts and an audiovisual 

Beautiful and historic Tryon Palace, the colonial capitol of North Carolina, 
has been reconstructed after its destruction in a 1798 fire to provide an 
exceptional experience for the visitor. Regular tours are conducted by costumed 
hostesses. An annual symposium on the decorative arts is a nationwide 
attraction each spring. There is an admission charge. 

The North Carolina State Capitol on Raleigh's Capitol Square is one of the 
nation's finest and best preserved civic buildings of the Greek Revival style. 
With its original furnishings, the Capitol is still used for ceremonies and 
contains offices for the Governor, Lieutenant Governor and an office used by 
the Secretary of State for swearing in public officials. 

The Capitol Area Visitor Center is invaluable to visitors looking for the 
many cultural attractions and other points of interest near the Capitol in 
Raleigh. The Center is at 301 North Blount Street. 

Archeology and Historical Preservation 

There are a number of efforts underway to examine different elements of 
North Carolina heritage. The Archaeology and Historic Preservation section 

142 North Carolina Manual 

of the Department of Cultural Resources conducts a continuing statewide 
survey of historic, architectural and archaeological resources. Some of these 
-properties such as certain homes, office buildings and neighborhoods, for 
example, are nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, where 
there are now more than 600 North Carolina entries. 

A cooperative venture of the Department of Cultural Resources and the 
Stagville Center Corporation, Stagville Preservation Center is America's first 
state-owned center for the teaching and development of historic preservation 
and its related technology. Located on the historically rich Stagville Plantation 
in the northern part of Durham County, Stagville is a living laboratory for 
research into techniques that will aid efforts in historic preservation. 

Through its Historic Preservation Program the division surveys and tries to 
protect these unique and valuable historic properties throughout the state by 
nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Some properties are 
selected for restoration by the state and are open to the public as historical, 
educational and recreational attractions. They range from the elaborate and 
lavish restoration of Tryon Palace in New Bern to the simplicity of the 
mountain-surrounded birthplace of Governor Zebulon Vance at Weaverville. 

Division of the State Library 

The Division of the State Library is the official agency of state government 
charged by law with providing the state's library program, coordinating 
library planning for total library services and serving the information needs of 
the state. It is made up of the State Library Committee, the Interstate Library 
Compact, the Public Librarian Certification Commission, and the following 
sections: Information Services, Public Library Development, Special Services, 
and Technical Services. 

From the Special Services Section come services that benefit a whole 
segment of the population richly deserving of assistance. Here assistance is 
provided to the visually and physically handicapped who are sent, free of 
charge, large-print books; talking books, including cassettes and records; and 
braille books. Selections fitting individual tastes are made by carefully 
studying the information and biographical sketches sent in by patrons. 

The State Library operates the North Carolina Information Network, a 
state-of-the-art high-tech computer network which ties in all major academic, 
public and state libraries to major national and international databases. Other 
state agencies also use this important informational resource. 

Any individual can borrow films free through the State Library. Enrichment 
films including comedy, art, travel, features and problems such as drug abuse 
are available. Local libraries can provide details. 

The State Library has a Public Library Development Section that provides 
consultant service to librarians, trustees, public officials and interested 
citizens throughout the state. 

State agencies can request assistance in setting up and maintaining 
departmental libraries. The State Library has staff for these purposes, and the 
State Library's broad collection of books, periodicals, newspapers, documents, 
etc., provide reference services and bibliographies to all state agencies, as well 
as providing library service to the State Legislature while it is in session. 

The Executive Branch 143 

The Special Services Section offers free public library service to those unable 
to hold or read ordinary printed library materials because of physical or visual 
impairment. Special library materials are provided through the Library of 
Congress for the Blind and the Physically Handicapped, and the United States 
Postal Service provides free mailing privileges for materials. The materials 
include books and magazines for all ages, and of all kinds, recorded on long 
playing records, on magnetic or cassette tape, in large type or braille. Many 
thousands of titles are available, along with the equipment for using them. 

Both the State Library and the Division of Archives and History of the 
Department of Cultural Resources provide genealogical services that attract 
hundreds of people from all over the country. The Library has secondary 
sources such as books, family and county histories, newspapers and census 
records. Archives and History has primary sources - the original documents. 

A Technical Services Section in the Library is responsible for the acquisition 
and preparation of books, documents and related materials which comprise the 
material resources of the Library. The Technical Services Section also operates 
a Processing Center for libraries in the state, making it possible for local 
libraries to get books easily and at less expense, all ready to go on the shelves 
when delivered. 

Division of the Arts Council 

The purpose of the North Carolina Arts Council is to represent and support 
the highest quality in the arts, to assist in the further development of the 
individual art forms, to foster a broader understanding of the role of the arts in 
the total society and to provide opportunities for every North Carolinian to 
participate in the creative process. The council works primarily with the 450 
arts organizations in North Carolina through a variety of programs and grant 
categories. The council also is involved with many individual artists through 
its fellowship and residency programs. 

The North Carolina Arts Council was established in 1964 by executive order 
and made a statutory agency in 1967. It is recognized nationally for its 
aggressive and innovative leadership in arts programming. The division is 
divided into several sections including the Community Section, the Folklife 
Section, the Music/Dance Section, the Theatre Arts Section, and the Visual/ 
Literary Arts Section. 

The division encourages, promotes and provides assistance for the cultural 
enrichment of all North Carolinians by supporting the development of the arts 
at the community level with cash grants and special programs with money 
from Legislative appropriation and the National Endowment for the Arts. 

The Council helps bring artists into schools and communities. Community 
arts festivals are encouraged. Poets, artists, craftsmen and dance and theatre 
companies are brought to the small towns and the largest urban areas of the 

North Carolina Theatre Arts was established by the 1973 General Assembly 
to foster and encourage the development of theatre in the state. Theatre Arts 
works to upgrade the quality of professional theatre in the state by strengthen- 
ing existing and developing companies through funding and consultation and 
developing new statewide professional theatre programs to give more employ- 
ment to professional theatre artists from both within and outside the state. 

144 North Carolina Manual 

North Carolina was the first state to establish a separate agency to promote 
and assist professional theatre. Theatre Arts is now a section of the Division of 
the Arts Council. 

Since the opening of Paul Green's outdoor drama, The Lost Colony, in 
Manteo in 1937, North Carolina has established an outstanding national 
reputation in the creation and presentation of this unique form of theatre. 
North Carolina is also the home of more than half a dozen indoor resident 
professional companies, which present both summer and winter seasons. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art 

One of the nation's top-ranked art museums, the North Carolina Museum of 
Art boasts the finest collection in the southeast extending over western and 
ancient art and primitive cultures. The new Art Museum opened its doors in 
Raleigh in April, 1983, and by the end of 1984 some 350,000 people had viewed 
its collections, particularly those items from the Renaissance and Baroque 
periods. Special exhibits and showings add to its prestige. 

Along with its extensive educational programs, a special feature of the 
Museum is the Mary Duke Biddle Gallery for the Blind, noted internationally 
for its original approach to the exploration of art through "touch". 

The North Carolina Symphony 

When the 1943 General Assembly passed the "Horn-Tootin' Bill," North 
Carolina became one of the first states to support its own orchestra. The North 
Carolina Symphony now stands as one of only 31 major orchestras in the 
country, presenting the finest in classical and symphonic music. 

The North Carolina Symphony has long been known through its concerts 
before hundreds of thousands of school children each year. In the last ten 
years, however, the orchestra has become one of the best ensembles in the 
nation, playing not only in North Carolina, but at Carnegie Hall and the 
Kennedy Center. Under its noted conductor, Gerhardt Zimmerman, and now 
with a 37-week season, a tow-track series of concerts, and an enlarged 
operating budget, the Symphony compares favorably with the nation's other 
major orchestras. 

Though its performances in Washington, Chicago and New York City have 
earned it unanimous praise from critics and audiences, the North Carolina 
Symphony has all the feel of a community orchestra, for it is in the state's cities 
and towns that it performs, traveling about 22,000 miles and presenting some 
375 educational and adult concerts in more than 125 communities each season. 

Of particular pride to the orchestra is its educational program, in which more 
than 200,000 school children each year enjoy performances given especially for 

North Carolinians for years have shown justifiable pride in the range and 
depth of arts opportunities offered throughout the state, and they have 
contributed generously with time, money and other support. The result is an 
arts environment that steadily becomes more exciting. Many of the state's 
cities have shown exceptional energy in this area, and local symphonies, art 
galleries, theatres and other arts enterprises are to be found wherever you look. 

The Executive Branch 145 

Special Programs 

The development of the arts and humanities in North Carolina has brought 
about new demands on government and the citizen, on private groups, schools 
and businesses. Accordingly, there are a number of special programs conducted 
within the Department of Cultural Resources and other state government 
agencies to meet these changing requirements. 

The Cultural Advisory Council, for example, is comprised of a group of 
citizens appointed by the Secretary of the Department to act as advisors in 
policy matters pertaining to the arts, libraries and historical resources in the 

The Governor's Business Council on the Arts and Humanities seeks to 
enhance business support of cultural affairs. It is the first such state-level effort 
in the nation. 

A special emphasis in the Department of Cultural Resources is given to arts 
in the schools. The priority is addressed by the Office of the Secretary and by 
agencies in the Department. The Arts Council's Artists-in-School program, for 
example, provides residences in public schools for artists who have shown 
excellence in their work and the ability to communicate skills to young people. 
The Folklife Office has a similar program. Folk Arts in North Carolina 
Schools. The Museum of Art and Museum of History are very much involved 
with students, providing special tours and in-school programs. 

The Department also conducts programs designed to provide cultural 
opportunities and outlets to specific population groups such as minority 
artists, handicapped people and residents of correctional facilities. 

The culture of North Carolina is an organic extension of its people, 
something shared by all who live here. The availability of richness in cultural 
activities should not be withheld from any citizen is a fact basic to the work of 
the Department of Cultural Resources. 

Other Department activities have included such things as the America's 
400th Anniversary Committee, created to plan, conduct, and direct observances 
of the commemoration of the landing of Sir Walter Raleigh's colonists on 
Roanoke Island, and the support of exciting ventures like "Operation Raleigh", 
a program to involve 4,000 young people from all over the world in service 
projects around the globe. 

146 North Carolina Manual 

Board and Commissions 

Bd. of Trustees of the N.C. Museum of Art 

Composer-Laureate for the State of N.C. 

Edenton Historical Commission 

Executive Mansion Fine Arts Committee 

Governor's Business Council on the Arts and Humanities 

Historic Bath Commission 

Historic Hillsborough Commission 

Historic Murfreesboro Commission 

John Motley Morehead Memorial Commission 

Museum of History Associates Board of Directors 

N.C. Art Society, Incorporated, Board of Directors 

N.C. Arts Council Board 

N.C. Historical Commission 

N.C. Symphony Society, Incorporated, Board of Trustees 

Public Librarian Certification Commission 

Roanoke Island Historical Commission 

Roanoke Voyages and Elizabeth II Commission 

State Historical Records Advisory Board 

State Library Commission 

The Vagabond School of the Drama, Incorporated Board of Trustees 

Tryon Palace Commission 

USS N.C. Battleship Commission 

N.C. Highway Historical Marker Commission 

LSCA Advisory Council 

I J 

The Executive Branch 


Patric Griffee Dorsey 

Secretary of Cultural Resources 

Early Years: Born in El Reno, 
Oklahoma, August 30, 1924 to 
Charles Galileo and Mary Sue 
(Sowers) Griffee (both deceased). 

Education: Penn Hall School, 
937; Wayne State University, 1943- 
46; University of Southern California, 
1953-55; University of Maryland, 

Professional Background: 

Owner and Manager: Whitford Gal- 
leries, Mulberry Boutique, Mulberry 

Organizations: Art Advisory 
II - Committee, Craven County Com- 

I munity College; New Bern Historic Preservation Foundation. Design thai 
(IBEC) Bangkok, Thailand, 1964-69; Royal Thai Art Society; Craven County 
NC Symphony Association (former President — two terms). 

Political Activities: Secretary, Department of Cultural Resources, 1985-; 
Chairman, 1985 Gubernatorial Inaugural Committee, 1984-85; Chairman, 
GOP 1st Congressional District, 1983-85 (Vice Chairman, 1981-83); Republican 
National Platform Committee, 1980; Chairman, Reagan for President Com- 
mittee, Craven County, 1976; Delegate, Republican National Convention, 
1976-80; Campaign Manager, Craven County, Helms for Senate, 1978; GOP 
Candidate, NC House of Representatives, 1980; GOP Candidate, NC Secretary 
of State, 1984; 1981-1986 Member of National Advisory Council on Adult 
Education. Served as Vice-Chairman; Originator and founder of "Motheread", 
a successful literacy program designed to teach women in prison to read to 
their children. "Motheread" has been recognized nationally and has been 
implemented in other states. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Church of Christ Scientist, New Bern; 
Board of Directors, 1976-85; Literature Distribution Chairman; Lecture Chair- 

Family: Married, Commander P.C. Dorsey of New Bern, August 31, 1951. 
Children: Sam Brian Dorsey, Jonathan Boyce Jones, Robert Bruce Jones. 

^The Executive Organization act, of 1971 created the "Department of Art, Culture and 
History," with provisions for a "Secretary" appointed by the governor. The Organization 
Act of 1973 changed the name to the "Department of Cultural Resources." 

-Ragan was appointed by Governor Scott. 

'Rohrer was appointed on January 5, 1973, by Governor Holshouser to replace Ragan. 

^Hodgkins was appointed on January 10, 1977, by Governor Hunt to replace Rohrer. 

'^Dorsey was appointed January 7, 1985, by Governor Martin to replace Hodgkins. 

148 North Carolina Manual 


Name Residence Term ' 

Samuel T. Ragan- Moore 1972-1973 

Grace J. Rohrer' Forsyth 1973-1977 

Sara W. Hodgkins' Moore 1977-1985 

Patric G. Dorsey'' Craven 1985- 

The Executive Branch 149 


The Department of Commerce was established as a part of the State 
Government Reorganization Act of 1971. At that time, the department 
consisted almost entirely of regulatory agencies and the Employment Security 

The 1989 General Assembly passed legislation (HB 381) changing the name 
of the department from the Department of Commerce to the Department of 
Economic and Community Development. This legislation also created a new 
division — the Division of Housing — with provisions for an Assistant Secretary 
for Community Development and Housing. Another piece of legislation, HB 
480, created two additional divisions by transferring the Division of Com- 
munity Assistance and the Division of Employment and Training, previously 
assigned to the Department of Natural Resources and Community Develop- 
, ment, to the Department. 

' The Department of Economic and Community Development serves North 

1 Carolina and its citizens by assisting in all areas of our state's economic and 

community development. The scope includes industry recruitment, business 

! retention and expansion of existing industries, foreign reverse investment and 

enhancing import and export opportunities. With the addition of the two new 

divisions, the department is in a position to serve the state by adding 

': community development and planning, as well as recruitment and training, to 

I the functions previously indicated. All of the functions are carried out through 

the many divisions and agencies within the department which can be grouped 

under the following categories: the Office of the Secretary, The Deputy 

: Secretary, the Assistant Secretary for Economic Development, the Assistant 

Secretary for Community Development and Housing, the Employment Securi- 

f ties Commission, and Regulatory Agencies. 

j Administrative operations of the department are handled by the Deputy 

Secretary of Economic and Community Development and include such 

; traditional functions as fiscal and personnel management, information 

I services (publications, etc.) and legislative liaison work. Also under the 

' jurisdiction of the deputy secretary is the Science and Technology Research 

I Center. The Center provides businesses in our state with a broad array of 

research and information services including computer aided literature searches 

i and document location services. As one of only seven research centers of its 

kind in the country, the Center receives a portion of its funding from the 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

The Department also has several agencies that are related through budget 
pass through only. The Biotechnology Center of North Carolina and Micro- 
electronics Center of North Carolina are two science and research focused 
agencies associated with the Department. In addition, the North Carolina 
Industrial Commission receives financing through the Department's budget. 
The Rural Economic Development Center, which focuses on the continued 
economic development of rural communities, is also funded through the 

150 North Carolina Manual 

Office of the Secretary 

The Department of Economic and Community Development is headed by a 
Secretary who is appointed by the Governor and serves at his pleasure. Within 
the Office of the Secretary is the Existing Industries Division, Public Affairs, 
improvements and an Agricultural Advisor to the Governor who specializes in 
response in Agribusiness. 

Existing Industries Division 

One of the primary concerns of the department is the retention and 
expansion of our traditional industries. The Existing Industries Division is 
headed by an assistant secretary. The division works with businesses through 
existing industry visits, improvements in response services to troubled com- 
panies, exploration of early warning forecasting opportunities for plant 
layoffs, and continued assistance to companies on environmental matters. 

Public Affairs 

Public Affairs is the communications arm of the department and keeps the 
media and public informed about changes and happenings in the many areas 
of interest of the department. 

Assistant Secretary for Community Development and Housing 

Division of Community Assistance 

The Division of Community Assistance provides aid to North Carolina's 
counties and municipalities in the areas of community development, land use, 
public management and economic development planning. The division works 
to accomplish goals through the administration of the federally financed 
Community Development Block Grant program, the Main Street program and 
through direct technical assistance to local governments. 

Division of Employment and Training 

The Division of Employment and Training is charged with the task of 
administering the Job Training Partnership Act, a federally funded program. 
The division supports the Private Industry Councils and oversees all programs 
being operated at the local level by the Service Delivery Areas. The division is 
the designated Dislocated Worker Unit and administers the dislocated worker 
program for the state. 

Energy Division 

The Energy Division is a national leader in many areas of energy manage- 
ment and conservation. The division engages in emergency planning in the 
event of an energy crisis, administers a weatherization grant program which is 
federally funded, and provides technical assistance for industrial, commercial 
and agriculture needs. In addition, the Energy Division manages numerous 
energy conservation programs including one for schools and hospitals, as well 
as the formation of energy policies for the state. 

The Executive Branch 151 

Assistant Secretary for Economical Development 

Business/Industry Development Division 

The Business/Industry Development Division is North Carolina's lead 
division for business and industrial recruitment. Its staff works closely with 
other public and private development organizations to attract new industries 
to the state. The Division operates a statewide office in Raleigh and eight 
regional field offices. This division also oversees the Business and Industry 
Retention Program to encourage the growth and expansion of North Carolina's 
existing businesses and companies. 

Commerce Finance Center 

The Finance Center administers a variety of economic development related 
financing programs including Industrial Revenue Bonds, the state Industrial 
Renovation Fund and a Basic Building Fund. Another program is the Job 
Creation Tax Credit, designed to assist in the creation of jobs in the state's 
designated economically distressed counties. 

Film Division 

The Film Office was established in 1980 to encourage and assist motion 
picture and television production activity throughout the state. The office 
operates as a specialized unit of economic development under the direction of 
the Secretary. Primary targets of the office's recruitment program are major 
Hollywood studio productions, television commercials, and independent 
theatrical and television films. 

International Trade Division 

As its name implies, the department's International Trade Division is 
primarily responsible for North Carolina's foreign trade and industrial 
recruitment activities. With representatives in Tokyo, Japan and Dusseldorf, 
West Germany, the division helps foreign firms interested in establishing new 
business operations in North Carolina, and assists Tar Heel firms in marketing 
products and services overseas. 

Small Business Development Division 

While the Business/Industry Development Division works with existing 
firms, the Small Business Development Division acts to encourage the growth 
and development of new businesses and smaller firms that are already 
operational. Under the direction of an assistant secretary, the division 
operates a clearinghouse for small business information and referrals, and 
serves as an advocate for small business concerns in government policy 
making. The division has an Office of Minority Business Development which 
helps minority-owned firms and certifies firms for the state's purchasing 
program to assist minority-, women-, and disabled-owned enterprises. 

Division of Travel and Tourism 

The Division of Travel and Tourism operates as a chamber of commerce for 
the entire state. Travel is one of the largest and most important industries in 
our state. From convention and visitors bureaus, to welcome centers, to 
providing information about North Carolina to interested travelers all across 

152 North Carolina Manual 

the nation, the division promotes North CaroHna as a vacation destination. 
The purpose of the division is to increase travel expenditures in North 
Carohna, create additional employment and personal income for those 
employed by the Travel Industry, and to strengthen the overall economy of the 
state. This is achieved by conducting the state travel advertising campaign, 
servicing travel inquiries, and producing a public relations program on behalf 
of the state. 

State Ports Authority 

North Carolina operates state ports at Wilmington and Morehead City and 
leases operation of a small harbor at Southport as well as the Charlotte 
Intermodal Terminal in Charlotte. Ships from most of the world bring or pick 
up goods at the Morehead City and Wilmington Ports. Under the direction of 
the Secretary and The State Ports Authority Board, the State Ports Authority 
promotes the use of North Carolina's ports, oversees construction of facilities 
at the ports, and operates ports services, such as cranes to unload the goods off 
the ship. 

Technological Development Authority 

The Technological Development Authority provides direct seed capital 
financing for North Carolina small businesses developing new or improved 
products and processes. The authority also provides direct grants to nonprofit 
community-based organizations establishing small business 'incubator' facili- 
ties designed to house and support new small businesses in their earliest stages 
of development. 

Employment Security Commission 

The Employment Security Commission administers the North Carolina 
Employment Service, North Carolina's unemployment insurance program, 
and prepares labor market information. 

The Employment Service Division 

Employment Service provides job placement services to all members of the 
public, including interviewing, counseling, testing, job development, and 
referral. Specialized services are available to the handicapped, the aged, youth, 
veterans, and to migrant and seasonal farm workers. The Employment Service 
is also involved in the administration of such federal programs as Work 
Incentive (WIN), Veterans Employment Service (VES), and the Job Training 
Partnership Act (JTPA). 

The Unemployment Insurance Program 

The Unemployment Insurance Program provides benefits to workers un- 
employed through no fault of their own. The ESC determines entitlement to 
benefits and makes payments to eligible claimants. The agency also ad- 
ministers federal unemployment insurance programs such as Federal Supple- 
mental Benefits (FSB); Special Unemployment Assistance (SUA); Unemploy- 
ment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE), and others. 

The Executive Branch 153 

The Labor Market Information Division 

The Labor Market Information Division of ESC compiles figures on 
unemployment and employment in wages, projected occupational needs, and 
other data. This information is used by federal and state officials, planners, 
and prospective employers for a variety of purposes. 

Regulatory Agencies 

The regulatory agencies use their authority independently of the Department 
of Economic and Community Development, including holding hearings and 
engaging in rule making; however, the Department does provide administrative 
services for the regulatory agencies. 

Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission 

The ABC Commission is responsible for controlling all aspects of the sale 
and distribution of alcoholic beverages in North Carolina. The State's system 
is unique among the 50 states because of more than 150 separate county and 
municipal ABC Boards which are responsible for the sale of alcoholic 
beverages in the counties or cities of the State. In each case a vote of the people 
was required to establish the system. 

Banking Commission 

The Banking Commission regulates and supervises the activities of the 
banks and their branches chartered under the laws of North Carolina. The 
Commission is responsible for the safe conduct of business; the maintenance of 
public confidence; and the protection of the banks' depositors, debtors, 
creditors, and shareholders. The staff of the Office of Commissioner of Banks 
conducts examinations of all state-chartered banks and consumer finance 
licensees; processes applications for new banks, applications for branches of 
existing banks, and all applications for licenses. In addition, the Office of 
Commissioner of Banks supervises the state's bank holding companies. Sale 
of Checks Act licensees, and pre-need burial trust fund licensees. 

Burial Commission 

The Burial Commission supervises and audits the nearly 300 North Carolina 
mutual burial associations, which have approximately one-half million mem- 
bers. A mutual burial association is a nonprofit corporation that pays a limited 
amount toward burial expenses. 

Cemetery Commission 

The Cemetery Commission regulates and supervises the activities of ceme- 
teries, cemetery management organizations, cemetery sales organizations, 
cemetery brokers, and individual pre-need cemetery sales people licensed 
under the laws of North Carolina. Its principal function is to conduct 
examinations of all licensed cemeteries. It also authorizes the establishment of 
and licenses cemeteries, cemetery sales organizations, cemetery management 
organizations, cemetery brokers, and pre-need salespeople. 

154 North Carolina Manual 

Credit Union Commission 

The Credit Union Commission supervises and regulates the operations of 
over 200 state chartered credit unions, which serve over 500,000 members. Its 
staff conducts annual examinations of all credit unions to insure proper 
bookkeeping and compliance with the law. 

Industrial Commission 

The Industrial Commission administers the Workers' Compensation Act; 
the State Tort Claims Act; and the Law Enforcement Officers', Firemens' and 
Rescue Squad Workers' Death Benefit Act. Additionally, the Commission has 
been charged with the responsibility for administering the Childhood Vaccine- 
Related Injury Compensation Program, effective October 1, 1986. 

Milk Commission 

The Milk Commission was formed in 1953 and has the primary responsibility 
of assuring that an adequate supply of wholesome milk is available to the 
state's citizens. To accomplish this, the Commission has been given the 
authority to regulate the production, marketing, and distribution of milk. The 
Commission establishes the minimum prices milk producers are paid for raw 

Rural Electrification Authority 

The Rural Electrification Authority supervises the electric membership 
corporations and telephone membership corporations in the state to see that 
they apply their rules and regulations on a non-discriminatory basis to 
individual North Carolinians. It also acts as an ombudsman for member 
complaints and as the liaison between the membership corporations and the 
United States Rural Electrification Administration for federal loans. All loan 
applications must first have the approval of the North Carolina Rural 
Electrification Authority Board before they can be considered by the federal 
Rural Electrification Administration. 

Savings and Loan Commission 

The Savings and Loan Commission regulates and supervises savings and 
loan associations chartered under the laws of North Carolina. Its principal 
functions are to supervise and to examine all state-chartered savings and loan 
associations and to process applications for new charters, branches, mergers, 
and acquisitions. 

Utilities Commission 

The Utilities Commission regulates rates of various utilities. It also investi- 
gates customer complaints regarding utility operations and services. The 
seven member Commission has jurisdiction over public electric, telephone, 
natural gas, water and sewer companies, passenger carriers, freight carriers, 
and railroads. 

Utilities Commission Public Staff 

The Utilities Commission Public Staff was created by the 1977 General 
Assembly. The Public Staff represents customers in rate cases and other 

The Executive Branch 155 

utilities matters. This independent staff appears before the Commission as an 
advocate of the using and consuming public. 

Boards and Commissions 

Cape Fear Navigation and Pilotage Commission 

Community Development Council 

Credit Union Commission 

Economic Development Board 

Employment Security Commission Advisory Council 

Energy Policy Council 

Governor's Advisory Committee on Agricultural Parks 

Governor's Advisory Council on International Trade 

Governor's Task Force on the Farm Economy in N.C. 

Morehead City Navigation and Pilotage Commission 

N.C. Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission 

N.C. Cemetery Commission 

N.C. Hazardous Waste Management Commission 

N.C. Housing Coordinating and Policy Council 

N.C. Job Training Council 

N.C. Mutual Burial Association Commission 

N.C. National Park, Parkway, and Forests Development Council 

N.C. Rural Electrification Authority 

N.C. Savings Institutions Commission 

N.C. Seafood Industrial Park Authority 

N.C. Sports Development Commission 

Advisory Board on Travel & Tourism 

Rural Private Industry Council 

State Banking Commission 


North Carolina Manual 

Estell Carter Lee 

Secretary of Economic and 
Community Development 

Early Years: Born in Loris, Horry 
County, S.C, August 10, 1935, to 
Wilber W. and Dela Caines Carter. 

Education: Loris High School, 
1953; Wilmington College, UNC- 
Wilmington, A. A., Business Adminis- 
tration, 1953-55. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent and Chairman, Seacor, Inc. and 
The Lee Company; Seacor, Inc., 
holding/management company; 
Almont Shipping Company, 1969-90, 
President in 1980. 

Organizations: Chairman in 1983, 
Stevedoring firm and terminal owner/member, operator, present, National 
Association of Stevedores, Brunswick/New Hanover Port, Waterway & Beach 
Commission; Wilmington Propeller Club, Past trustee; ILA Pension and 
Welfare Trust; ILA Bus Drivers Pension and Welfare Trust; Treasurer, NC 
Shipping Association; Past Director, NC World Trade Association, Cape Fear 
Charter; NC Marine Research & Development Cresent; Director (present), 
Cape Fear Memorial Hospital; Member, Executive Committee, Wilmington 
Executive's Club; Greater Wilmington, Chamber of Commerce; Cape Fear 
Area United Way; Past Director, UNC-Wilmington Alumni Association, NC 
Educational, Historical & Scientific Foundation; Wilmington Industrial 
Development, Inc.; YMCA; Past Treasurer, American Business Women's 
Association Associate General; Past Chairman, Cape Fear United Way Com- 
bined Capital Campaign; Present Director, CP&L; The Wachovia Corporation; 
Past Member, NC Board of Transportation (NC Transportation Task Force); 
NC Highway Study Commission; NC Economic Development Board; Past 
Director, Wachovia Bank and Trust Company; NC Citizens for Business and 
Industry Trustee; Past, NC Teachers & State Employees Comprehensive 
Major Medical Board. 

Political Activities: Vice Chairman, New Hanover Republican Party. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church of Wilmington. 

Family: Children: Rhonda A. Lee Ottaway and Glenn A. Lee. 

The Executive Branch 157 




Name Residence Term 

George Irving Aldridge^ Wake 1972-1973 

Tenney I. Deane, Jr.3 Wake 1973-1974 

WinfieldS. Harvey^ Wake 1973-1976 

Donald R. Beason^ Wake 1976-1977 

Duncan M. Fairclothe Wake 1977-1985 

Howard Haworth^ Guilford 1985-1987 

Claude E. Pope^ Wake 1987-1989 

James T. BroyhilP Caldwell 1989-1990 

Estell C. Lee'o New Hanover 1990- 

^The Executive Organization Act of 1971 created the "Department of Commerce," with 
provisions for a "Secretary" appointed by the Governor. The Department of Commerce 
was reorganized and renamed by legislative action of the 1989 General Assembly. 

^Aldridge was appointed by Governor Scott. 

^Dgane was appointed on January 5, 1973, by Governor Holshouser to replace 
Aldridge. He resigned in November, 1973. 

^Harvey was appointed on December 3, 1973, by Governor Holshouser to replace 

^Beason was appointed on July 1, 1976, by Governor Holshouser to replace Harvey. 

^Faircloth was appointed on January 10, 1977, to replace Beason. 

''Haworth was appointed January 5, 1985, to replace Faircloth. 

^Pope was appointed by Governor Martin to replace Haworth. 

^Broyhill was appointed by Governor Martin to replace Pope. 
^''Lee was appointed by Governor Martin April 1, 1990 to replace Broyhill. 

158 North Carolina Manual 


The Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources has a long 
and diverse history. When North Carolina began enforcing game laws in 1738, 
acting years before statehood became a fact, the process began to form what we 
know today as the Department of Environment, Health, and Natural 

Two hundred and thirty years later when the state's character was shifting 
from rural to urban, community development programs emerged to set the 
stage for eventual inclusion into the department's field of responsibility. The 
need for a geological survey with public funds prompted the earliest state 
governmental activity in the natural resources area. A professor at the 
University of North Carolina was paid the handsome sum of $250 per year on a 
four-year grant from the Legislature to survey the state's geology and mineral 

By 1850 the state had embarked on an ambitious earth sciences program to 
include not only physical sciences but also agricultural and silvicultural 
functions, as well. In 1891, the North Carolina Geological Survey was formed, ' 
later expanded, and in 1905 renamed the N. C. Geological and Economic 
Survey — the forerunner organization to the Department of Environment 
Health, and Natural Resources. < 

State direction on environmental matters picked up speed as the 20th 
Century dawned. As early as 1899, the State Board of Health was given some ' 
statutory powers over water pollution affecting sources of domestic water 
supply. The power to control the pollution of our waters has remained constant 
since. I 

The state employed its first graduate forester in June of 1909, leading to the , 
creation of the North Carolina Forest Service (known today as the Division of 
Forest Resources) in 1915 with a single purpose — to prevent and control 

1915 also was the year the system of state parks was born, when Governor 
Locke Craig moved the Legislature to save Mount Mitchell before loggers could 
emasculate it. The legislators created Mount Mitchell State Park in response. 
That same year, federal and state laws were passed to protect watersheds and 
streams. And the Legislature established the North Carolina Fisheries 
Commission Board, charging it with the stewardship and management of the 
state's fishery resources. With that creation came the power to regulate j 
fisheries, enforce laws and regulations, operate hatcheries, and carry out 
shellfish rehabilitation activities. , 

By 1925 the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey moved another 
step in its eventual progression to the present-day organization. It became the 
Department of Conservation and Development, consolidating and encompass- 
ing many natural resource functions. The focus was on geology, but manyl 
other associated natural resource functions also grew. Although the Depression ' 
slowed business at all levels, the public programs, such as the Civilian 
Conservation Corps (CCC), were a boon to the natural resource programs of the i 

The Executive Branch 159 

state. More than 76,000 CCC workers fanned out across the state, constructing 
fire towers, bridges, erosion control dams, buildings, planting trees and 
fighting forest fires. Many of the facilities in our state parks built by the CCC 
are still in use today. 

,i The Division of Forest Resources established its nursery seedling program in 
il924, adding its management branch in 1937 and creating a State Parks 
Program as a branch operation in 1935. A full-time Superintendent of State 
Parks was hired and the stage was set for parks to develop into Division status 
by 1948. 

All across the spectrum of state government, growth was evident in the first 
three decades of the 1900's. Interest declined in geology and mineral resources 
which had begun the organizational push in the first place. Geological and 
mineralogical investigations at both federal and state levels were poorly 
supported financially. From 1926-1940, the Division of Mineral Resources was 
literally a one-man show, operated by the State Geologist. 
! The war years (1938-1945) provided new impetus for that segment of the 
;environment. The need for minerals to meet wartime shortages gave new 
lifeblood to geological and mineral resources in North Carolina. 

An ambitious cooperative effort was undertaken by the state and the U.S. 
Geological Survey in 1941, beginning with a ground water resources study. 
That effort continued through 1959, when the Department of Water Resources 
iwas formed. 1941 had also witnessed a far-ranging study by the state of 
geology and mineral resources in the western regions of North Carolina in 
cooperation with the Tennessee Valley Authority. 

' A long legislative struggle that lasted three full sessions of the General 
Assembly brought the state's first comprehensive, modern water pollution 
(control law in 1951. The cornerstone of North Carolina's early 19th Century 
ieffort to affect our environmental lifestyle— water and geology— were coming 
'into focus at the same time. 

: The 1951 State Stream Sanitation Act (renamed in 1967 as the Water and Air 
Resources Act) became the bedrock for today's complex and inclusive efforts to 
[affect our water resources and an important part of the legal basis for today's 
water pollution control program. It established a pollution abatement and 
icontrol program based on classifications and water quality standards applied 
'to the surface waters of the state. 

By 1959, the General Assembly had created the Department and Board of 
Water Resources, moving the State Stream Sanitation Committee and its 
programs into the new Department. By 1967, it had become the Department of 
Water and Air Resources, remaining active in water pollution control and 
(adding a new air pollution control program. 

1 The Division of Forest Resources expanded its comprehensive services 
■during the 1950-1970's, as did many of the state agencies concerned with the 
growing complexity of environmental issues. The nation's first Forest Insect 
and Disease Control Program was set up within the Division in 1950, the Tree 
Improvement Program began in 1963, the Forestation Program was added in 
1969, and the first Educational State Forest became operational in 1976. 
I For the first half of this century, our state parks grew simply by the 
generosity of public spirited citizens. Appropriations for operations were 
minimal until the State Parks Program was established within the N.C. Forest 

160 North Carolina Manual 

Service in 1935. The parks were busy sites for military camps in the 1940's, but 
isolated leisure spots for most of the years. 

The growth in attendance, and a corresponding need for more appropriations 
to serve that growth, surfaced in the early 1960's and continues today. The 1963 
State Natural Areas act guaranteed that future generations will have pockets 
of unspoiled nature to enjoy. The 1965 Federal Land and Water Conservation 
Fund required the state to have a viable plan for park growth. 

The General Assembly pumped new financial life into the state park system 
with major appropriations in the 1970's for land acquisition and operations. By 
the mid-1980's, park visitation was surpassing six million a year, facilities 
were being taxed to the limit, and a new era of parks expansion and 
improvements was beginning. 

In the 1960's, the need to protect fragile resources was evident on several 
fronts. The Division of Geodetic Survey began in 1959, the Dam Safety Act was 
passed by the General Assembly in 1967, and North Carolina became the first 
state to gain federal approval of its Coastal Management Program with the 
1974 passing of the Coastal Area Management Act. By the early 1970's, the 
state's involvement in natural resource and community lifestyle protection 
bore little resemblance to the limited structure of state organizations of the late 
1800's. ; 

The Executive Organization Act of 1971 placed most of the environmental 
functions under the Department of Natural and Economic Resources. That Act 
transferred 18 different agencies, boards and commissions to the department, 
including the functions of the old Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment. As some of the titles changed and some of the duties of old agencies were 
combined or shifted, the stage was set for the 1977 Executive Order which 
created the Department of Natural Resources and Community Development. 
That brought together not only the growing community development pro- 
grams, but pulled the always popular North Carolina Zoological Park (created 
in 1969 and expanded continuously since) and the Wildlife Resources Com- 
mission under the Natural Resources and Community Development umbrella. 

During the mid-1980's however, a growing need developed to combine the 
interrelated natural resources, environmental and public health regulatory 
agencies into a single department. With the support of the Administration, the 
General Assembly passed legislation in 1989 to combine elements of the 
Department of Human Resources and the Department of Natural Resources 
and Community Development into a single Department of Environment, 
Health, and Natural Resources. 

Three of the old NRCD divisions (Community Assistance, Economic Op- 
portunity, and Employment and Training) transferred to other departments. 
The remaining divisions were combined with the Health Services Division 
from the Department of Human Resources to form the new agency. 

Office of the Secretary 

Perhaps no other state agency equals the complexity of responsibilities nor 
deals more directly with the public than does the Department of Environment, 
Health, and Natural Resources. Its day-to-day operations touch the lives of 
North Carolinians constantly, from the quality of water coming out of a faucet 
to how many campsites are available at a state park. 

The Executive Branch 161 

The Department's work is carried out by nearly 3,600 employees, many of 
whom work "in the field." Personnel from such divisions as Forest Resources, 
Wildlife Resources, Parks and Recreation, and Marine Fisheries, must be 
stationed at specific sites in order to serve the public and protect our State's 
natural resources. 

Policy and administrative responsibility for the far-flung operations of the 
Department rests with a Secretary, appointed by the Governor. Working with 
the Secretary to oversee the Department's divisions and offices are two deputy 
secretaries — a Deputy Secretary for Environment and Natural Resources and 
a Deputy Secretary for Health and Administration — and four assistant 
secretaries, each one heading up one of four broad service areas. These service 
areas are Environmental Protection, Natural Resources, Health, and Ad- 
ministration. Also within the Office of the Secretary is the Governor's Waste 
Management Board and the Personnel Division. 

: Governor's Waste Management Board. The Governor's Waste Manage- 
ment Board plans and oversees the safe and effective management of 
hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes in North Carolina. 
I Personnel Division. The Personnel Division is responsible for all per- 
'sonnel management functions within the department including compliance 
with all state and federal laws and regulations and promoting a quality 
jWorkforce of permanent and temporary employees. 

Deputy Secretary for Environment and Natural Resources 

Office of Public Affairs 

Public Affairs provides graphic art, publication, photographic and writing/ 
editing services for the department and its divisions, and informs the public 
;about the programs of the department and the services available. 

Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study 

The Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study was created to evaluate the water 
iquality of the sounds, their living resources, and to develop strategies for 
managing and improving the environmental quality of the sounds. 
Pollution Prevention Pays Program 

Pollution Prevention Pays program promotes effective means of reducing, 
preventing, recycling and eliminating wastes prior to their becoming 

sRegional Offices 

, Seven strategically located regional offices serve as home base for staff 
members from several other divisions, such as Environmental Management, 
Land Resources, Water Resources, and Coastal Management. The regional 
office concept allows the Department to deliver its program services to citizens 
in a comprehensive and coordinated manner at the community level. Regional 
.offices are in Asheville, Fayetteville, Mooresville, Raleigh, Washington, 
(Wilmington, and Winston-Salem. 

162 North Carolina Manual 

Deputy Secretary for Health and Administration 

Office of Chief Medical Examiner 

The Medical Examiner System is a statewide public service organization 
providing health benefits to the state's citizens. The problems addressed by the | 
Medical Examiner System is death, whether by criminal act or default, by [ 
suicide, while an inmate of any penal institution, or under any suspicious, i 
unusual or unnatural circumstances, and without medical attendance. 

Office of the Chief Nurse 

The Office of the Chief Nurse coordinates public health nursing services with 
Local Health Departments and the statewide public health nursing programs I 
to ensure safe, legal practices by qualified public health nurses. 

Office of Health Education 

Health Education provides department-wide services in developing health 
education strategies for environmental, community, and personal health 
programs. This unit has graphic art and media specialist capabilities. 

Office of Legislative Affairs 

Legislative Affairs is the department's liaison with the North Carolina 
General Assembly. Part of its role is to monitor proposed legislation and the 
work of the legislative study and research committees and commissions to 
ensure adequate representation of the department's interest. 

Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection 

Coastal Management Division 

Coastal Management is responsible for carrying out the provisions of the 
N.C. Coastal Area Management Act. It processes major development permits,' 
reviews all dredge and fill permit applications, and determines consistency of 
state and federal grants and projects which are part of the N.C. Coastal 
Management Program. ' 

Environmental Management Division 

Environmental Management is responsible for the comprehensive planning 
and management of the state's air, surface water and groundwater resources. 
The division issues permits to control sources of pollution, monitors permitted 
facility compliance, evaluates environmental quality, and pursues enforcement 
actions for violations of environmental regulations. 

Land Resources Division I 

Land Resources is responsible for protecting and conserving the state's land, 
minerals and related resources. Its programs relate to sedimentation pollution 
control, mine land reclamation, dam safety, land records management, 
geodetic survey, and mineral resources conservation and development. 


The Executive Branch 163 

Marine Fisheries Division 

Marine Fisheries establishes and enforces rules governing coastal fisheries. 
It conducts scientific research as a basis for regulatory and development 
decisions and conducts programs to improve the cultivation, harvesting and 
jmarketing of shellfish and finfish. 

! ...."- 

Radiation Protection Division 

j Radiation Protection administers a statewide radiation surveillance and 
control program. Their goal is to assess and control radiation hazards to the 
public, workers, and the environment through licensing, regulating, registering 
and monitoring radiation facilities. 

Solid Waste Management Division 

1 Solid Waste Management administers programs to regulate and manage 
hazardous and solid waste disposal to protect the public health. Programs 
consists of Hazardous Waste, Solid Waste, and the Superfund. 


Water Resources Division 

Water Resources conducts programs for river basin management, water 

supply, water conservation, navigation, stream clearance, flood control, beach 

protection, aquatic weed control, hydroelectric power and recreational uses of 


Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources 

Forest Resources Division 

Forest Resources is the lead agency in managing, protecting and developing 
the forest resources of the state. The division carries out programs of forest 
;management, assistance to private landowners, reforestation, forest fire 

-prevention and suppression, and insect and disease control. 


iParks and Recreation Division 

' Parks and Recreation administers a statewide system of park and recreation 
resources. It manages state parks, state natural areas, state recreation areas, 
state trails, state lakes, and natural and scenic rivers. 

^oil and Water Conservation 

I Soil and Water Conservation administers a statewide program for conserva- 
tion of the state's soil and water resources. It serves as staff for the state's Soil 
and Water Conservation Commission and assists the 94 local soil and water 
|j:onservation districts and their state association. 

oological Park Division 

, The North Carolina Zoo displays representative species of animal and plant 
(life from the various land and sea masses of the world. It provides educational 
i^nd research opportunities. The Zoo maintains a program for the conservation, 
preservation and propagation of endangered and threatened plant and animal 

164 North Carolina Manual 

Assistant Secretary for State Health (State Health Director) 

Adult Health Services Division 

Adult Health Services' responsibility is to decrease premature morbidity and | 
mortality among adult North Carolinians by fostering health promotion and| 
disease prevention activities. A few of the programs include Kidney Disease! 
and Cancer Treatment, Migrant Health, and environmental, community and; 
personal health strategies. 

Dental Health Services Division 

Dental Health provides preventive dental and educational services to the, 
citizens of N.C. It stresses that primary care should be provided by private; 
providers. When such care is not available, the office assists local communities] 
to initiate programs to provide dental services. Program activities range from 
school water fluoridation to preventive dental health for children. 

Environmental Health Division 

Environmental Health (Pubhc Water Supply, Pest Management, Environ-; 
mental Community Health) is responsible for the protection of the public 
health through the control of environmental hazards which cause human' 
illnesses and disease or which may have a cumulative adverse effect on humanj 
health. Its programs include the protection of the public water supplies,, 
wastewater management, and shellfish sanitation. 

Epidemiology Division 

Epidemiology deals with the incidences, distributions and control of disease; 
in a population. It monitors environmental and other factors that affect the 
public health and develops measures to reduce or eliminate these factors. 
Program examples include communicable disease control, tuberculosis control 
and occupational health. j 

Laboratory Services Divisions 

Laboratory Services provides testing services and is the primary laboratory 
support for local health departments. Its tests include Clinical Chemistry, 
Hematology, Cancer Cytology, Environmental Microbiology and Chemistry. 

Maternal and Child Care Division 

Maternal and Child Care is responsible for assuring, promoting and 

protecting the health of families. The emphasis is on women of child-bearing' 

age, on children and on youth. Program examples include Family Planning, 

Maternal and Child Care, and Developmental Disabilities. 

Assistant Secretary for Administration 

Computer Systems Division 

Computer Systems supports the department's mainframe computer applica- 
tions, manages the communication network, serves as the liaison to the State 
Information Processing Services for mainframe application development, and 
provides end-user support for personal computers and mainframe end-user 

The Executive Branch 165 

Fiscal Management Division 

Fiscal Management administers the department's budget policy and pro- 
vides support and services to the divisions in travel, invoice processing, budget 
management, capital projects, payroll and timesheet reporting. 


General Services Division 

General Services is responsible for the department's procurement policy. It 
provides support services to the divisions on purchases and contracts, real 
oroperty matters and other administrative services. 


bffice of the General Counsel 

The Office of the General Counsel provides legal opinions and advice to 
divisions in the department, negotiates settlement agreements, reviews and 
(evaluates the legal aspects of department activities and programs, conducts all 
oersonnel case appeals, and administers enforcement actions taken by the 

planning and Assessment Division 

' Planning and Assessment supports the department with issue development, 
ong-range planning and policy coordination through information gathering 
md research. 

Statistics and Information Services Division 

Statistics and Information Services is the state's focal point for developing 
ind maintaining statewide health and environmental statistics. Data on 
liirths, deaths, fetal deaths and hospital resources are available through 
nnual publications, special research and statistical reports. It also houses the 
'•tate's geographic information system which maintains a database of natural 
Ind cultural resource information. 

Wildlife Resources Commission 

j The Wildlife Resources Commission is a semi-autonomous agency that 
jianages and protects all wildlife in the state, conducting restoration programs 
'jr endangered species of wildlife and restocking game fish in state waters. It is 
ipsponsible for boating safety and boat registration, construction of boat access 
peas on lakes and rivers, and hunter safety programs. The Commission 
pnducts an extensive environmental education program for the state's school- 
jge population. A cadre of wildlife officers patrols the state's waters, and the 
ommission issues permits to hunt and fish in the state's water and land areas. 

166 North Carolina Manual 

Boards and Commissions 

Appalachian National Scenic Trails 

Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission 

Coastal Resources Commission 

De Soto Trail Commission 

Enviornmental Management Commission 

Forestry Advisory Council 

Governor's Blue Ribbon Commission on Coastal Initiatives 

Governor's Commission on Reduction of Infant Mortality 

Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health 

Governor's Task Force on Health Objectives for the Year 2000 

Governor's Task Force on Health Objectives for the Year 2000 

Governor's Task Force on Injury Prevention 

Governor's Waste Management Board 

N.C. Child Fatality Task Force 

N.C. Council on Sickle Cell Syndrome 

N.C. Marine Fisheries Commission 

N.C. Mining Commission 

N.C. Parks and Recreation Council 

N.C. Radiation Protection Commission 

N.C. Zoological Park Council 

Recreation and Natural Heritage Trust Fund Board of Trustees 

Sedimentation Control Commission 

Soil and Water Conservation Commission 

State Board of Sanitarian Examiners 

State Commission for Health Services 

Water Treatment Facility Operators Board of Certification 

The Executive Branch 


William W. Cobey, Jr. 

Secretary of Environment, 
Health, and Natural Resources 

Early Years: Born in Washing- 
ton, D.C., May 13, 1939, to Wilham 
Wilfred and Mary Gray (Munroe) 

Education: Northwestern High 
School, 1954-57; Severn School, 1957- 
58; Emory University, B.A. (Chemis- 
try), 1962; University of Pennsylvania, 
MBA (Marketing), 1964. University 
of Pittsburgh, M.Ed. (Health and 
Physical Education), 1968. 

Professional Background: 

Management Consultant, 1982-84; 

Athletic Director, UNC, 1976-80; As- 

' sistant Athletic Director, UNC, 1971- 

76; Assistant Business Manager, UNC, 1969-71; Academic Counselor, UNC, 

1967-68; Salesman, Dow Chemical Co., 1965-66; Administrative Assistant, 

I Suburban Trust Co., 1964-65. : 

Organizations: Former member: Chapel Advisory Board, Home Savings 
and Loan Association; 1981 State Finance Chairman, Fellowship of Christian 
Atheletes; Chairman, Chapel Hill District Sustaining Membership Enroll- 
;ment. Boy Scouts of America, 1979; Taxpayers Education Coalition, 1980-82. 

" Boards and Commissions: Member: Board of Directors, NC Association 
'for the Emotionally Troubled, Inc.; NC Job Training Coordinating Council; 
Advisory Commission for Museum of Natural History; Blue Ribbon Commis- 
Ision of Coastal Initiatives; Former board member: United Fund of Chapel 
Hill-Carrboro (Assistant Campaign Chairman, 1971); Chapel Hill - Carrboro 
YMCA (President, 1975, 1976, 1981); Former board member Chapel Hill 
Chapter of AFS. 

Political Activities: Secretary, NC Department of Environment, Health 
and Natural Resources, 1989-; Secretary, NRCD, 1989; Deputy Secretary, NC 
Department of Transportation, 1987-89; US House of Representatives, 1985-87, 
4th District; Chairman, NC Republican Party (Resolutions Committee, 1981). 

Military Service: Served, US Army, (Private E-1), Summer, 1957 (medical 

Awards and Honors: "Distinguished Service Award," Chapel Hill 
[Carrboro Jaycees, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, Chapel Hill Bible Church; Member, Board 
of Deacons, 1988-. 

Family: Married, Nancy Lee Sullivan, February 20, 1965. Children: 
iCatherine, William. 

168 North Carolina Manual 




Name Residence Term 

Roy G. Sowers- Lee 1971 

Charles W. Bradshaw, Jr. * Wake 1971-1973 

James E. Harrington^ Avery 1973-1976 

George W. Little^ Wake 1976-1977 

Howard N. Lee« Orange 1977-1981 

Joseph W. Grimsley' Wake 1981-1983 

James A. Summer'^ Rowan 1984-1985 

S. Thomas Rhodes-' New Hanover 1985-1988 

WilHam W. Cobey, Jr.'" Rowan 1989- 1 

'The Executive Organization Act, passed by the 1971 General Assembly, created the! 
"Departmr it of Natural and Economic Resources" with provisions for a "Secretary" 
appointed v the governor. The 1977 General Assembly took further steps in government 
reorganizai m. The former Department of Natural and Economic Resources became the i 
Department of Natural Resources and Community Development. NRCD was reorganized 
and renamed by legislative action in the 1989 General Assembly. 

-Sowers was appointed by Governor Scott and served until his resignation effective 
November 30, 1971. ! 

'Bradshaw was appointed by Governor Scott and served until his resignation in 1973. 

■•Harrington was appointed on January 5, 1973, by Governor Holshouser to replace 
Bradshaw. He resigned effective February 29, 1976. I 

"'Little was appointed on March 1, 1976, by Governor Holshouser to replace Harrington. '< 

•'Lee was appointed on January 10, 1977, by Governor Hunt to replace Little. He 
resigned effective July 31, 1981. 

"Grimsley was appointed on August 1, 1981, to replace Lee. He resigned effective. 
December 31, 1983. ! 

■"Summers was appointed on January 1 , 1984, by Governor Hunt. He resigned effective 
January 5, 1985. 

^Rhodes was appointed January 7, 1985, by Governor Martin to replace Grimsley. 
'°Cobey was appointed by Governor Martin in January, 1989. 

The Executive Branch 169 


The Department of Human Resources helps individuals, families and 
communities in their efforts to achieve adequate levels of health, social and 
economic well-being. The services of the Department are provided by over 500 
programs, many of which are delivered on a local level by various county- 
operated agencies. Closely related programs are organized within divisions at 
/the state level. The functions of the divisions are described in the next section. 

One of the goals of the department working through its divisions is to offer 

prevention services and early intervention programs to reduce cost in both 

human suffering and dollars and cents. At the same time, the Department is 

dedicated to providing appropriate quality care for individuals in need of 

j assistance. 

Office of the Secretary 

The chief executive officer of the Department is the Secretary of Human 
Resources, who is appointed by the Governor. The Secretary is supported by 
the Deputy Secretary of Human Resources, the Assistant Secretary for 
Administration and Liaison Services, and the Assistant Secretary for Budget 
and Management. The division directors in the Department also provide direct 
support to the Secretary. 

f Staff of the Office of the Secretary provide support and assistance to the 
division and to the Secretary in several important areas including intergovern- 
mental relations, personnel, fiscal management, volunteer services, public 
(information, program analysis, legal and citizens referral. 

Office of Volunteer Development Services 

1 The Office of Volunteer Development Services is organized to promote 
jvolunteerism through effective Volunteer Program Management. The office 
jprovides technical assistance, consultation, and training to human resources 
jagencies throughout the state, while developing policy for volunteer program 
management within the Department of Human Resources. These services are 
provided to any Department of Human Resources agency requesting them. 
Statistical data on volunteer involvement is collected from programs in each 
iDivision by this office. Information and assistance for statewide recognition is 
also provided by this office. All matters relating to volunteerism are referred to 

ilthis office. 


Office of Information and Referral 

The Office of Information and Referral provides information and referral to 
1^11 citizens and agencies in North Carolina through the statewide toll-free 
telephone service known as CARE-LINE. As a central location for cataloging 
[human service program information and information on non-profit agencies 
and support groups available throughout the state, this office supplies 
information and makes referrals as deemed appropriate by the Information 

170 North Carolina Manual 

and Referral Specialists. The program serves as the departmental ombudsman 
by responding to requests for services. Information and Referral also acts as 
the departmental contact for the Governor's Office of Citizen Affairs, members 
of the North Carolina Legislature, members of the Washington delegation, and 
the general public. Technical assistance and consultation are provided to 
agencies and organizations interested in developing or enhancing Information 
and Referral operations. Agency staff and the citizens of the state are kept 
informed of CARE-LINE services through an educational, outreach com- 
ponent. Statistical information on calls and ombudsman cases are provided to 
DHR division staff to assist with program evaluation and agency planning. 

Office of Boards and Commissions 

Responsible for keeping track of Departmental board and commission 
vacancies and obtaining recommendations. 

Office of Governmental Liaison Services 

The Office of Governmental Liaison Services is a state office in the 
Secretary's office. This office is responsible for monitoring the day-to-day 
operations between the Department and relevant governmental bodies at the 
interstate levels. Moreover, this office keeps abreast of positions taken by key 
organizations including, but not limited to, the National Governors' Associa- 
tion and the North Carolina Association of County Commissioners in order to 
support the Secretary in the analysis of human resource policy formulation. 

In addition to other assignments given by the Secretary, the director of 
Office of Governmental Liaison Services is responsible for review of federal 
legislation and grants; for the coordination of transportation planning within 
the Department; for monitoring long-term care policy information; and for 
coordinating with provider associations that have an interest in the programs 
administered by the Department. 

Office of Public Affairs 

The Office of Public Affairs is the Department's public link with the citizens 
of North Carolina providing information through mass media and printed 
material on available services and general information. It also edits documents 
for public dissemination. 

Division of Budget and Analysis \ 

The Division of Budget and Analysis is a staff division in the Secretary's 
Office. The Division Director is responsible to the Secretary. The Division 
addresses the needs of the Department for in-depth and on-going monitoring 
and analysis of program operations and budget utilization. The Division 
manages the development and operation of the Department's budget and 
provides Departmental services in the area of purchasing and contracts, 
property management and control, and management of special reports and 
responsible for aiding in the development of department legislative policy and 
keeping track of all legislative action which affects the department. ' 

The Executive Branch 171 

Office of the Controller 

The Office of the Controller is a staff office in the Secretary's Office. The 
Management. The Controller is responsible to the Secretary. The Controller's 
Office was established to improve accountability and increase credibility of 
Departmental accounting operations. This office manages all accounting and 
financial reporting functions in the Department, including payroll, cash 
receipts, cash disbursements, accounts receivable, accounts payable, fixed 
assets accounting, cost allocation and reimbursement, cash management, 
; accounting systems development, internal accounting controls and resolution 
of financial audits. The Controller is the Department's liaison with the Office 
of the State Controller and Office of the State Auditor. 

^ Division of Economic Opportunity 

Office for Family Centered Services 

; The Office for Family Centered Services provides policy coordination and 
'liaison, on behalf of the Secretary, on matters affecting families and children 
within the Department and with outside agencies and the community. The 
Office promotes and supports the coordination of activities and resources 
[across Divisions to accomplish the Department's objectives to strengthen and 
expand family-centered services in the child welfare, mental health and 
juvenile correction systems. In particular, the Office is responsible for 
developing and implementing the statewide Family Preservation Services 
Progam mandated by the 1991 General Assembly, and for supporting the work 
df the Advisory Committee on Family-Centered Services. 

.Council on Developmental Disabilities 

1 The Council is a planning body which works to ensure that the state of North 
Carolina responds to the needs of individuals with developmental disabilities 
severe, chronic mental or physical impairments which begin at an early age 
|md substantially limit major life activities). The purpose of the council is to 
promote prevention of developmental disabilities; to identify the special needs 
)f people with developmental disabilities; and to help meet those needs through 
nteragency coordination, legislative action, public awareness, and advocacy. 

^orth Carolina Parent to Parent Office 

I The North Carolina Parent-to-Parent Office is working to reduce adolescent 
jubstance abuse in our state by stimulating local communities to implement 
iind conduct a substance abuse prevention program for parents. This program 
is the National Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education to Parent-to- 
parent Program. 

Parent-to-Parent is a video-based workshop for parents of preteens and 
ieens. Its goal is to train the participants in the skills and abilities necessary to 

et their children through the adolescent years without drug and alcohol use. 

n the event that their child does develop an alcohol or drug program, the 

articipant is presented with a framework for recognizing the program and 

ealing with it effectively. 

172 North Carolina Manual 

The goal of the North Carohna Parent-to-Parent Program is to create a 
statewide network of volunteers to conduct this training. By using trained local 
facilitators, Parent-to-Parent can be tailored to each community's specific 

Office of Rural Health and Resource Development 

The Office of Rural Health and Resource Development works with local and 
state leaders to design and implement strategies for improving health care 
access for rural residents. The Office provides technical and financial 
assistance to underserved rural communities in developing and maintaining 
primary health care centers. In addition, the Office provides physician 
recruitment assistance to rural communities and technical assistance to small 
rural hospitals. 

Divisions of the Department of Human Resources 

Division of Personnel Management Services 

The Division of Personnel Management Services provides personnel manage- 
ment services to the approximately 38,200 state, local and contractual 
employees under the jurisdiction of the Department. This includes providing 
administrative support on personnel matters to the Department's state 
agencies and local mental health, health services and social services agencies. 
These services include position management, salary and pay administration, 
organization and management development, employee benefits, personnel 
policy administration, employee relations, affirmative action, occupational 
safety and health, staff development and training, performance management, 
and general consultation on all personnel related matters. 

Division of Aging 

The Division of Aging funds programs for older adults in North Carolina 
with federal and state grants, and advocates for the special needs of all older 
North Carolinians. The principal officers of the Division are the Assistant 
Secretary for Aging and the Director who are appointed by the Secretary of 
Human Resources. It includes a central office staff which administers its 
programs through 18 area agencies on aging who provide grants to each 
county for service. The major thrust of the Division is to assist older adults in 
maintaining their independence and to have lifestyle choices. 

Division of Services for the Blind 

The Division's objectives are to prevent blindness, restore vision and to' 
provide services which compensate for the loss of vision. The principal officer 
of the Division is the Director, who is appointed by the Secretary of the 
Department of Human Resources. 

The Division's Medical/Eye Care Program provides examinations, glasses, 
surgery and/or treatment to eligible individuals throughout the State. For 
those whose vision cannot be restored, independent living services are 
provided so they may continue to live in their home or community. These 
services include orientation and mobility, braille, typing, homemaking and 
personal adjustment instruction. 

The Executive Branch 173 

Those blind and visually impaired individuals who desire employment are 
provided Vocational Rehabilitation services which include skills that enable a 
person to enter the job market. These skills include instruction in operating 
concession stands and making products in the home. When a person cannot 
work and needs care, financial assistance is available to meet rest home costs. 

The Division operates the N.C. Rehabilitation Center for the Blind which 
provides adjustment services to help compensate for the loss of vision. The 
Division also operates a comprehensive Evaluation Unit for prevocational and 
vocational evaluations. 

The Governor Morehead School in Raleigh is a residential/day school 
program for the visually impaired. The academic program is designed for 
legally blind students who cannot receive appropriate instruction in their 
home communities. The Governor Morehead School also functions as a 
statewide resource center to public school programs and the community. The 
school offers evaluation and diagnostic services, in-service training, and 
general consultation and works in conjunction with local education agencies to 
ensure appropriate educational placement of children. 

Division of Services for the Deaf and the Hard of Hearing 

The Division of Services for the Deaf and the Hard of Hearing is responsible 
for the operation of six regional resource centers for the deaf and hard of 
hearing strategically located in Asheville, Charlotte, Morganton, Wilson, 
Raleigh, and Wilmington. The Division is also responsible for the operation of 
three residential/day school programs for the deaf located in Morganton, 
Greensboro, and Wilson. 

The Regional Resource Centers provide individual and group counseling, 
contact services, information and referral services, technical assistance to 
other agencies and organizations, orientation to deafness training, advocacy 
for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing and those who are deaf with one or 
more other handicaps, and for interpreter services to access local services. The 
Centers also promote public awareness of the needs of, and resources and 
training opportunities available to persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. 

The residential/day school programs for the deaf provide preschool through 
high school education for students up to 21 years of age. Each of the schools 
also operates preschool satellite programs which serve deaf and hard of 
hearing children under five years of age in a network of community based 
classes throughout the state. Additionally, the schools for the deaf have 
developed special services for multi-handicapped students. These students 
have one or more disabilities in addition to their hearing loss. 

The N.C. Schools for the Deaf also function as regional resource centers to 

public school programs and the community. The schools offer evaluation and 

i diagnostic services, in-service training, and general consultation. All three 

schools work in accord with local education agencies to ensure appropriate 

educational placement of deaf and hard of hearing children. 

The Division participates in an early detection of deafness system through 
its BEGINNINGS for Parents of Hearing Impaired Children Program, inter- 
mediate parents training in the preschool program, and a continuum of 
services after school straight into the community services program. 

174 North Carolina Manual 

The Division is responsible for the management of the Telecommunications 
Devices for the Deaf (TDD) special equipment distribution program to eligible 
hearing and speech impaired persons ages 7 and over. Such equipment 
includes TDD communication units which allow deaf and speech disabled 
persons to communicate over the telephone with others who have similar units, 
telephone ring signal units, and special telephone amplifiers for hard of 
hearing persons. 

The Division also conducts an interpreter assessment program to evaluate 
the competencies of such interpreters and to certify them according to such 
competencies so they may serve as interpreters for persons who are deaf and 
heard of hearing covering a wide range of situations. 

The Division provides staff and administrative support to the N.C. Council 
for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing which has responsbility in reviewing 
existing state and local programs for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing 
and to make recommendations to the Department of Human Resources and the 
Division for improvements of such programs or the need for new programs or 

The principal officer of the Division is the Director, who is appointed by the 
Secretary of the Department of Human Resources. 

Division of Facility Services 

The Division of Facility Services is composed of six major sections: licensure, 
certification, construction, certificate of need, emergency medical services, 
state medical facilities planning and child day care. 

The Licensure Section program licenses health and social service facilities, 
including hospitals, nursing homes, home health agencies, and various types 
of group homes, the latter of which are licensed in cooperation with local 
departments of social services. The Division of Facility Services is also 
responsible for the licensure of agencies soliciting charitable contributions, for 
the semiannual inspection of local confinement facilities and registration of 
bingo games. 

The Construction Section is responsible for reviewing plans of and inspecting 
health and social services facilities, assuring that they are safe and functional. 

The Certificate of Need Section reviews proposals under the certificate of 
need statute submitted by certains types of health care facilities for any capital 
expenditure currently in excess of $2,000,000 or for any new institutional 
health service with an annual operating cost of $1 ,000,000. This review has an 
expressed intent to control costs to ensure that only needed facilities and/or 
health care services are offered. Without an approved certificate of need, new 
construction, renovation, establishment of a new health service, or purchase of 
equipment cannot take place. 

The Emergency Medical Services Section has established and maintains 
programs for the improvement and upgrading of pre-hospital emergency 
medical care throughout the state. 

The State Medical Facilities Planning Section provides staff to the State 
Health Planning Coordinating Council and developing the State Medical 
Facilities Plan which is produced annually. 

The Certification Section certifies various health care facilities and services 
for reimbursement for the Medicare and Medicaid programs. This is done, in 
part, through various contacts from the federal government. 

The Executive Branch 175 

The Child Day Care Services Section is responsible for the licensing, and 
training of personnel who work in child day care programs and plans 
throughout the state. This includes the operation of a special unit which 
investigates allegations of child abuse and neglect involving child day care 
facilities. The section also provides day care funding allocation. 

The Division provides staff and administrative support to the Medical Care 
Commission which has responsibility for promulgating rules for the licensure 
of hospitals, nursing homes, ambulatory surgical facilities, and other health 
care facilities and to the Child Day Care Commission which has rulemaking 
authority for the regulation of child day care programs and plans. Under the 
Health Care Facilities Finance Act, effective in 1976, the Medical Care 
Commission approves the issuance of tax-exempt revenue bonds for 
construction of or an equipment acquisition by health care facilities. This Act 
provides a financing vehicle whereby a facility may undertake capital 
financing at a relatively low cost, and ultimately, hold down the cost of medical 
care to its patients. 

Division of Medical Assistance 

The Division of Medical Assistance is responsible for managing the state's 
Medicaid program. This includes policy development, eligibility requirements, 
provider enrollment, fraud and abuse, quality control, claims processing and 
utilization review. The claims processing function is performed under contract 
by a fiscal agent secured via competitive bid process. Counties perform the 
eligibility determination functions under state supervision. 

To qualify, a citizen must meet financial need requirements and must also 
meet categorical conditions. Categorical conditions include residence in the 
state. United States citizenship or residence under provisions of immigration 
laws, and sufficient membership in one of the state's coverage groups. The 
groups covered include low income Medicare enrollees, persons age 65 and 
above, persons who are disabled or blind, dependent children under age 21, 
children in foster care or adoptive placements, caretaker relatives of children 
under age 18 and pregnant women. 

Low Income Medicare enrollees are entitled to Medicaid payment for their 
Medicare premiums, deductibles and coinsurance charges. A pregnant woman 
may receive prenatal care services and other Medicaid services needed for 
conditions that may complicate her pregnancy. Other Medicaid eligibles are 
entitled to all Medicaid services covered by the program including physician 
services, eye care, dental, home health, inpatient hospital as well as outpatient, 
nursing home and prescriptions. 

Federal, State and County governments share in the costs of this program. 
In the 1991 Fiscal Year, approximately 633,000 Medicaid recipients received 
medical services at a cost of $1.9 billion. 

Division of Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities and 
Substance Abuse Services 

This Division provides services for the mentally ill, the developmentally 
disabled, the alcoholic and the drug abuser. Programs are under the supervision 
of the Director of the Division, who is appointed by the Secretary of Human 

176 North Carolina Manual 

The organization includes a central office staff and 15 residential facilities. 
Residential care and treatment are offered at four regional psychiatric 
hospitals, five centers for developmentally disabled, three alcoholic rehabilita- 
tion centers, a special care facility, and two reeducation programs for 
emotionally disturbed children and adolescents. 

A major thrust of this Division's programs is community services. There are 
41 area mental health, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse 
programs serving all 100 counties in the state and offering a wide variety of 
services — out-patient treatment, day programs, emergency care, partial hos- 
pitalization, local inpatient services, and consultation and education. Ad- 
ditional group homes for the developmentally disabled and emotionally 
disturbed continue to be developed. Sheltered workshops provide training 
opportunities and day activity programs, and halfway houses help to serve 
people in their home communities. These programs are operated by local area 
boards, a group of citizens appointed by county commissioners and charged 
with planning and operating services to meet local needs. 

The Commission for Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities and 
Substance Abuse Services, consisting of 25 members, 21 appointed by the 
Governor and 4 by the Legislature, has the power and duty to adopt rules and 
regulations to be followed in the conduct of Division programs. Also the 
Commission reviews Division plans and advises the Secretary of Human 

Its programs are administered through a network of unit, sub-unit, and 
facility offices throughout the State. 

Division of Social Services 

The Division of Social Services works to promote and deliver services to 
children to help them become productive citizens, to enhance community 
alternatives to institutional care so the elderly may remain in their homes as 
long as possible, and to provide public assistance to eligible persons who need 
help with obtaining shelter, food, energy and personal needs. 

North Carolina has a state-supervised/county-administered social services 
system. The Division supervises the administration of public assistance 
programs including Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Food Stamps, 
Low Income Energy Assistance, State-County Special Assistance, and Foster 
Care and Adoption Assistance payments. The Division also administers social 
services programs. These include the provision of in-home services, protective 
services for adults and children, adoptions, foster care, and many other 
supportive services. 

The major priority for services to children is the prevention of problems. 
Emphasis is on strengthening protection for children vulnerable to de- 
pendency, neglect and abuse with continuing emphasis on permanency 
planning for foster children to ensure permanent homes for them. In addition, 
emphasis is placed on the provision of family-centered services to reduce 
out-of-home placement for children and enable families to remain intact. For 
adults, the priority is in-home aid, homemaker, home-delivered or congregate 
meals, and adult day care. There is increasing demand for protective services 
for the frail elderly and other disabled adults. 

The Division also serves North Carolina in other ways. The Child Support 

The Executive Branch 177 

Enforcement program collects money from absent parents for support of their 
minor children. The federal Job Corps Recruitment Program offers deprived 
young people between the ages of 16 and 21 the opportunity to receive skills 
training, basic education and counseling. The Job Opportunities and Basic 
Skills Training (JOBS) Program, created by the Family Support Act of 1988, 
enables AFDC recipients to obtain the education and training needed to find 
and retain employment. Finally, through an agreement with the Social 
Security Administration, Disability Determination Services makes medical 
decisions on disability applicants for Social Security Disability and Supple- 
mental Security Income. 

Division of Vocational Rehabilitation Services 

The Division has responsibility for vocational rehabilitation of individuals 
who have a substantial physical, emotional, or mental handicap that prevents 
them from becoming employed. There must be a reasonable expectation that 
the vocational rehabilitation services may benefit the individual in terms of 

An individual may refer himself to Vocational Rehabilitation, or may be 
referred by doctors, schools, or other agencies or individuals. 

For those eligible. Vocational Rehabilitation provides a comprehensive 
program of diagnosis, medical treatment, restoration, prosthetic and hearing 
aid appliances, counseling, training at colleges, technical schools and sheltered 
workshops, and job placement. The Division also has a staff of specially 
trained rehabilitation engineers to deal with accessibility, job and home 
modification, and transportation problems. Practically any goods and services 
necessary to render a handicapped person employable can be provided. The 
division also administers an independent living rehabilitation program for 
severely handicapped individuals who cannot necessarily achieve a vocational 
goal, but who need services in order to live independently. 

Division of Youth Services 

The Division of Youth Services is responsible for operating the state's five 
training schools for delinquent children (ages 10-17), and five state-owned 
detention centers; for providing funding and technical assistance to com- 
munity-based programs; for developing a one-on-one volunteer program; and 
for managing the therapeutic camping program including the Eckerd 
Wilderness Camp. The principal officer of the division is the director, who is 
appointed by the Secretary of the Department of Human Resources. 

The emphasis of the division is prevention, treatment and education. Com- 
munity-based alternative programs serve as options to training schools for 
children ages 10-17 who are in trouble with the law, or in danger of getting into 
trouble. These options include specialized foster care, emergency shelter care, 
group homes, counseling, volunteer and recreational therapeutic counseling. 

The division's One-on-One Volunteer Program is designed to provide an 
opportunity for each youth (ages 10-17) who comes to the attention of the courts 
to have a caring adult volunteer with whom he or she can develop and 
maintain a meaningful relationship. 

The four Eckerd Wilderness Camps provide treatment for children ages 10-15 
who have behavioral problems, and/or who are in conflict with the law. This 

178 North Carolina Manual 

program serves children who cannot function in a normal community, school 
or family setting. 

The division's five training schools serve children ages 10-17. Four of the 
schools are regional centers and accept youths found to be delinquent by the 
courts. They include Dobbs School in Kinston, Stonewall Jackson School in 
Concord, the Juvenile Evaluation Center in Swannanoa, and Samarkand 
Manor in Eagle Springs. The fifth school, C.A. Dillon in Butner, is the most 
secure campus. 

The Juvenile Evaluation Center, Samarkand Manor, and C.A. Dillon are 
co-educational while the other training schools work with males. 

Division of Economic Opportunity 

The Division of Economic Opportunity is responsible for administering the 
federally-funded Commuity Services Block Grant Program for North Carolina. 
The Office provides training and technical assistance to Community Action 
Agencies in developing and administering projects which address the causes 
and conditions of poverty. The Office has also assumed the responsibility of 
administering several additional programs — the state-funded Community 
Action Partnership Program, the Emergency Community Services Homeless 
Grant Program, and the Emergency Shelter Grants Program. Additionally, 
the Office adminsters the Head Start Wrap Around Program, the Head Start 
Bond Fund Program and provides state funding for five Head Start Parent 
Child Centers across North Carolina. A statewide Food Stamp Outreach 
Program and a Supplemental Elderly and Handicap Program are also 
operated within the Office. The Office of Economic Opportunity acts as an 
advocate for low-income families at the state level by mobilizing and coordi- 
nating local, state, and federal resources in order to help alleviate poverty. 

Boards and Commissions 

Governor's Advisory Council on Aging 

Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Children & Youth 

Women's Committee on Alcohol and Drug Abuse 

Alternative Health Programs 

Commission for the Blind 

Butner Planning Commission 

C. A. Dillon Advisory Committee 

Child Day Care Commission 

Child Care Resources and Referral Advisory Council 

Consumer Advocacy Advisory Committee 

Council for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing 

Developmental Disabilities Council 

Dobbs School Advisory Council 

Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council 

Advisory Committee on Family Centered Services 

Governor Morehead School Board of Directors 

State Health Coordinating Council 

Holocaust Council 

Home and Community Care Advisory Committee 

The Executive Branch 179 

Human Rights Committees State Psychiatric Hospitals, State Develop- 
mentally Disabled Centers, State Alcohol and Drug Awareness Treatment 
Centers, and Governor Morehead School 

Independent Living Rehabilitation Advisory Committee 

Governor's Interagency Advisory Team 

Interagency Coordinating Council 

Jail Standards Task Force 

JEC Advisory Council 

Medical Care Advisory Committee 

Medical Care Commission 

Commission for Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities, and Substance 
Abuse Services 

Mental Health Planning Council 

Penalty Review Committee 

Pitt County Nursing Home Community Advisory Committee 

Professional Advisory Committee 

Advisory Committee on Rehabilitation Centers for the Physically Disabled 

State Refugee Program Advisory Council 

Samarkand Advisory Committee 

Governor's Volunteer Advisory Council 


North Carolina Manual 

David Thomas Flaherty 

Secretary of Human Resources 

Early Years: Born in Boston, 
Massachusetts on December 9, 1928 
to Thomas and Mabel Flaherty. 

Education: Boston University, 
June 1955, B.S. (Business Administra- 

Professional Background: Secre- 
tary, Department of Human Re- 

Organizations: Former member, 
NC State Educational Foundation; 
Boston University Alumni Council; 
Lenoir Optimist Club, Former Chair- 
man; Trustee for Fort Defiance; Lenoir 
Beautification Committee; Legislative 
Committee for NC Cystic Fibrosis Research Foundation. Former President, 
Lenoir High School Band Boosters; Lenoir Youth Activities. Former Com- 
mander, Post 60 of the Disabled American Veterans; Founder and First 
President of the Bunny Maynard Midget Football League; Recipient of the 
Silver Beaver Award, Boy Scouts of America. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, 1987 State Employees Combined 
Campaign. Member of the following: Governor's Advocacy Council for Persons 
with Disabilities; NC Center for Public TV; Cities in School Board; Coastal 
Initiative Commission; Cooperative Planning Consortium of Special Ed; 
Governor's Crime Commission; Criminal Justice Standards Division; Council 
on Developmental Disabilities; Disability Review Commission; Domiciliary 
Home Advisory Council; Education, Human Resources and Human Rights; 
Farm Workers Council; Genetic Engineering Review Board; Governor's Com- 
mission on Workforce Preparedness; Head Injury Task Force; Health Insurance 
Trust Commission; Commission on Indian Affairs; Institute of Medicine, 
Board of Directors; Interagency Advisory Team on Drug and Alcohol Abuse; 
Interagency Comprehensive Preschool Planning Committee; Interagency 
Coordinating Council; NC Job Training Council; Joint Conference Committee 
of the NC Medical Society; Medical Database Commission; Make a Wish 
Foundation; National Technical Advisory Panel of the Early Education and 
Care Leadership Development Project; North Carolina Drug Cabinet; Respite 
Care Services; Southern Growth Policies Board; State Participatory Planning 
Commission for Adult Literacy Education; Board of Advisors, NC School of 
Public Health; Criminal Justice Standards Division; Committee on Home and 
Administrators; Mental Health Planning Committee and NC Fund for Children 
and Families Commission. 

Political Activities: Secretary, Department of Human Resources, 1987-; 
Chairman, Employment Security Commission, 1985-87; Chairman, NC 

The Executive Branch 181 

Republican Party, 1981-83; Republican Candidate for Governor, 1976; Secretary, 
Department of Human Resources, 1973-76; State Senator, 1968, re-elected 1970; 
Republican National Committee member; Member, Site Committee and Vice 
Chairman for Housing, 1984 Republican National Convention; Caldwell 
County Precinct Chairman; Co-chairman, Broyhill for Congress Committee; 
Chairman, Caldwell County Republican Party; Chairman, NC Federation of 
Young Republicans; Outstanding Young Republican, 1964. 

Military Service: United States Army, 1949-52. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church, Raleigh, N.C. 

Family: Married to the former Nancy Hamill of Boston. Children: David, 
Jr., Debbie, Steve, Jon, Bobby. Grandchildren: Ashley, Hannah, Alexandra. 


North Carolina Manual 


Name Residence 

Lenox D. Baker^' Durham 

David T. Flaherty^ Wake 

Phillip J. Kirk, Jr."* Rowan 

Sarah T. Morrow'' Guilford 

Lucy H. Bode*^ Wake 

Phillip J. Kirk, Jr." Rowan 

Paul Kayye'^ Wake 

David T. Flaherty^ Wake 










'The Executive Organization Act of 1971 created the "Department of Human 
Resources" with provisions for a "Secretary" appointed by the governor. 

-Baker was appointed by Governor Scott. 

'Flaherty was appointed on January 5, 1973, by Governor Holshouser to replace Raker. 
He resigned in April, 1976. 

^Kirk was appointed on April 6, 1976, by Governor Holshouser to replace Flaherty. 

^Morrow was appointed on January 10, 1977, by Governor Hunt to replace Kirk. 

''Bode was appointed effective January 1, 1985 and served until Kirk was appointed. 

^Kirk was appointed January 7, 1985, by Governor Martin. He resigned effective 
March 2, 1987 to become Chief of Staff to the Governor. 

'^Kayye served as interim secretary between March 2 and April 8, 1987. 

'^Flaherty was appointed April 8, 1987 to replace Kirk. 

The Executive Branch 183 


Considerable public dissatisfaction with the tax structure of North Carolina 
over a period of years and recommendations for substantial changes or 
reforms by at least two study groups culminated in a constitutional amendment 
in 1920 authorizing the enactment of a net income tax and providing for the 
elimination of the property tax as a source of state revenue. The General 

, Assembly enacted a comprehensive net income tax in 1921, which was 
effective for the 1921 income year. 
Prior to the enactment of the income tax, the administration of the state tax 

, laws was dispersed among several state agencies. The state general property 
tax was administered by county officials, subject to the supervision of the Tax 

I Commission. The Tax Commission also assessed the tangible property of 

i railroads and public service companies and the "corporate excess" of all 
corporations with the values certified to counties for local taxes and to the State 
Auditor for state taxes. The State Auditor billed each corporation for the 
property tax due the State based on these values and for the franchise tax due. 
The taxes due from corporations were paid directly to the State Treasurer. If 
payments were not made by the due date, the Treasurer notified the Auditor, 
who was responsible for taking the necessary legal steps to enforce payment. 

I The inheritance tax was administered by clerks of Superior Court under the 

' supervision of the Tax Commission. Fees for automobile licenses were collected 
by the Secretary of State. 

The experience of other states had demonstrated that an income tax such as 
that enacted in 1921 could not be effectively enforced without centralized 

( administration. In recognition of this, the new law was assigned to the Tax 

 Commission for administration. 

The principal function of members of the Tax Commission was to serve as 

j the Corporation Commission, which regulated public utilities. Because of the 
bifurcation of the Commission's responsibilities, the General Assembly in the 

I closing days of the 1921 Session created the Department of Revenue, headed by 

I a Commissioner of Revenue, to assume the responsibility of State revenue 
administration, enforcement and collection. The new Department had the 
distinction of being the first such department in the United States. The 
inheritance tax unit and the franchise and corporation tax assessment units 
were transferred from the Tax Commission, and the Department became 
responsible for administering the new income tax. 

The Department of Revenue was organized in May 1921, with only sixteen 
persons on the payroll. An income tax unit was organized in October. The 
average number of employees for the 1921-22 fiscal year was only thirty. The 
cost of operation was $87,125 and collections amounted to $3,120,064 from 
income and inheritance taxes. 

In 1923 the assessment and collection of the franchise tax were transferred 
from the State Auditor and the Treasurer to the Department of Revenue, and 
collection of Schedule B license taxes became the responsibility of the 
Department. Previously, the license taxes had been collected by the county 
sheriffs or tax collectors. A license tax division and a field forces division were 

184 North Carolina Manual 

Two acts of the General Assembly in 1925 further expanded the Department. 
The Motor Vehicle Bureau of the Department of State, which administered 
automobile license taxes, the gasoline tax, and the bus and truck franchise tax, 
was transferred to the Department of Revenue. In addition, the collection of 
taxes on insurance companies was transferred to the Department, although 
the tax liability was determined by the Commissioner of Insurance. 

The Motor Vehicle Bureau was placed under a deputy commissioner and 
remained separate from the rest of the Department of Revenue. The Bureau 
was composed of the registration unit, the theft unit, the gasoline tax unit, and 
branch offices. The division of accounts, the supplies office, and the cashier's 
office served both the Motor Vehicle Bureau and the revenue units. The cost of 
operating the Bureau was paid from the Highway Fund and the remainder of 
the Department of Revenue was financed from the General Fund. 

No further changes of any significance were made until 1933 when a general 
sales tax and a beverage tax were enacted. A new unit was created to 
administer the sales tax and the administration of the beverage tax was placed 
in the license tax unit. The Highway Patrol was transferred from the Highway 
Department to the Revenue Department and assigned to the Motor Vehicle 
Bureau. The gasoline and oil inspection unit of the Department of Agriculture 
was moved to the Department of Revenue. 

In 1935 the Highway Patrol was expanded, a driver's license law was 
enacted, and the Motor Vehicle Bureau was divided into two divisions-a 
Division of Highway Safety (including the Highway Patrol, the Driver's 
License Unit, and a Radio Unit) and the Motor Vehicle Bureau. Each division 
had a director who reported directly to the Commissioner of Revenue. 

The General Assembly enacted the intangible personal property tax in 1937 
pursuant to a constitutional amendment adopted in 1 936, permitting classifica- 
tion of property by the General Assembly, with different classes of property 
being treated differently. Intangible property was the only classification made 
initially. Such property was to be taxed exclusively by the State. Half of the 
proceeds were to be distributed to counties, cities, and towns. (The local share 
has been increased over the years until, at present, over 93 percent is 
distributed to local governments.) A gift tax was also enacted to complement 
the inheritance tax. The intangibles tax was placed in the franchise tax unit 
and later a separate intangibles tax division was created. 

Prior to 1939 a new revenue act was adopted each biennium. A permanent act 
was enacted in 1939, requiring no action by subsequent sessions of the General 
Assembly unless the existing act was amended. The 1939 act, as amended, 
remained in effect until 1989 when major changes were made by the General 
Assembly. As enacted, the permanent Revenue Act of 1939 included a use tax to 
complement the sales tax. 

During the 1930's the Department of Revenue grew rapidly because of the 
acquisition of new units, notably the Highway Patrol, and the increase in the 
number of tax returns handled. 

The Highway Safety Division was engaged in law enforcement and its 
activities were unrelated to the collection of revenue. As the size of this activity 
increased, it became apparent that these diverse functions should be housed in 
separate agencies. In 1941, on the recommendation of the Governor, a 
Department of Motor Vehicles was established. The new department received 

The Executive Branch 185 

the Division of Highway Safety and all of the activities and agencies of the 
Motor Vehicles Bureau except the gasoline tax unit. The Department of 
Revenue and the Department of Motor Vehicles continued to share certain 
services. The Accounting Division of the Department of Revenue served both 
departments as did the supply and service unit of the Department of Motor 
Vehicles, which handled purchasing, mailing, and mimeographing. Although 
the gasoline tax unit was part of the Department of Revenue, its operating 
costs were charged to the Department of Motor Vehicles which was financed 
out of the Highway Fund. 

Another act of the 1941 General Assembly authorized the separation of a 
statistical and research unit from the Department of Revenue and the 
establishment of the Department of Tax Research. The Governor did not act 
on this authority for more than a year, establishing the Department of Tax 
Research on July 1, 1942. After this separation, the Department of Revenue 
was reduced in size from almost 800 permanent employees to an average of 312 
in the 1942-43 fiscal year. 

No significant changes were made in the responsibilities or organization of 
the Department for several years after the changes were enacted in 1941. Tax 
rates, deductions and exemptions were altered, but these changes did not 
materially affect the operations of the Department. The only new taxes enacted 
were an excise tax on banks adopted in 1957 as part of a package of changes in 
the Revenue Act recommended by a Tax Study Commission, and a cigarette 
tax and soft drink excise tax enacted in 1969 as revenue measures. A local 
option sales and use tax was also enacted with the tax being administered by 
the Department of Revenue. The cigarette and soft drink taxes were assigned to 
the Privilege and Beverage Tax Division. The local sales tax was assigned to 

i the Sales and Use Tax Division to be administered in conjunction with the 

; State sales tax as a "piggyback" tax; and the bank excise tax was placed in the 

; Corporate Income and Franchise Tax Division. 

j Office space has been a problem of the Department for most of its history. 
When first organized, the Department occupied the Senate Chamber of the 

i Capitol, using the chamber proper, the Senate clerk's office, and some small 

I committee rooms on the third floor. The Department had to move when the 
General Assembly met in 1923 and again during the special session of 1924. 
The Department moved to the Agriculture Building before the 1925 legislative 
session. A new building, known as the Revenue Building, was authorized by 
the General Assembly during the 1924 Special Session, and was occupied in 

!l926. Space problems continued, however, as various other State agencies 
moved into the building, and as numbers of tax schedules, duties, returns and 
employees continued to increase. Two annexes were occupied in 1948 and a 
third in 1969. Short-term space is frequently rented to accommodate large 

inumbers of temporary employees during major tax filing periods, and in 1985, 
the Brown-Rogers Building adjacent to the Revenue Building was acquired to 
house the Property Tax Division, and a number of other offices of the 


« Facing critical space problems and the need for substantial modernization, 
the legislature gave initial approval to construct a new building in 1986. 

(Construction of the new building at the corner of Polk and Wilmington Streets 
in Raleigh began in February 1990. In March 1992, the anticipated occupancy 

jdate for the building was December 1992. 


186 North Carolina Manual 

In 1947 a small data processing unit was set up in the Sales and Use Tax 
Division. The unit used punch cards to provide a mailing list of registered 
merchants, to check the monthly returns for delinquency, to address letters for 
all delinquent accounts, and to compile statistical data from monthly returns. 
In 1949 a larger unit was added to the Income Tax Division. It provided mailing 
lists of individual income taxpayers from which forms were mailed to 
taxpayers the following year, provided a register used to locate returns which 
were then put in "stack" files which did not require hand alphabetizing, and 
aided enforcement of individual income tax collections by matching amounts 
of income reported by employers against amounts shown on tax returns. This 
device proved very effective in discovering cases of failure to file returns and 
instances of understated income. However, for several years the psychological 
impact was probably of greater importance than the actual performance of the 
data processing unit in improving taxpayer compliance. In 1958 the two data 
processing units were consolidated into a single unit and established as a new 
division— the Division of Planning and Processing. 

In 1960, the Division began processing individual income tax refunds on 
automated equipment. Additional changes were implemented in 1970 with the 
introduction of disk storage and in 1972, twenty data entry terminals were 
added, introducing online systems to the division. Online inquiry systems were 
implemented for the Individual Income Sales and Use, Intangibles and 
License and Excise Tax Divisions between 1973 and 1980. An optical character 
reader was acquired in 1977 to scan hand coded auditor adjustment sheets for 
input to tax files. The first remote terminal was installed in a Revenue Field 
Office in 1984, with micro-computers coming into use at about the same time. 
By 1991, all field offices in the state had remote terminals for accessing central 
computer files of the Department and communicating via electronic mail. In 
1985, an automated withholding and individual income tax accounts receivable 
system was implemented, followed in 1986 by a remittance processing unit 
which collects data from tax remittances and transfers it to the Revenue 
computer center for processing. During 1986, the Motor Fuels, Corporate 
Income and Franchise, and Inheritance Tax Divisions began using online 
inquiry in their operation, and the Planning and Processing Division was 
reorganized and renamed the Management Information Services Division. In 
1991, the Department began conversion of its existing computer systems with 
future plans to move to an integrated tax accounting system in support of 
Department needs. 

Changes continue to be made in the Department's internal organization. In 
1953, separate divisions were created to administer corporate and individual 
income taxes. A few years later the Franchise and Intangibles Tax Division 
was divided, with the franchise tax function being assigned to the Corporate 
Income and Franchise Tax Division, and with the intangibles tax function 
remaining in the Intangibles Tax Division. This Division also provided staff to 
the State Board of Assessment until 1967, when the Board was assigned a staff 
independent of the Department of Revenue. 

Following a Constitutional amendment, legislation was enacted in 1971 to 
reorganize State government. In that year, the Department of Tax Research 
became a division of the Department of Revenue, the staff of the State Board of 
Assessment was returned to the Department as the Ad Valorem Tax Division, 

The Executive Branch 187 

and the Commissioner of Revenue became the Secretary of Revenue. In 1986, 
the Intangibles Tax Division and the Ad Valorem Tax Division were merged 
and denominated the Property Tax Division, with separate Intangibles and Ad 
Valorem Tax Sections. 

The Secretary is appointed by the Governor, and serves ex officio as a 
member of the Tax Review Board in matters pertaining to corporate allocation 
formulas only, and as a member of the Local Government Commission. 

The principal duty of the Department of Revenue is to collect revenue for the 
State's General and Highway Funds. The Department also collects and 
distributes the intangibles tax and local sales and use tax on behalf of local 
governments. It accounts for all these funds and seeks uniformity in the 
administration of tax laws and regulations. The Department's activities are 
divided into two broad areas: Tax Schedules and Administrative Services. The 
former is divided into six divisions: Corporate Income and Franchise Tax, 
Individual Income, Inheritance & Gift Tax, License and Excise Tax, Motor 
Fuels Tax, Property Tax and Sales and Use Tax. The latter is divided into five 
divisions: Accounting, Field Services, General Services, Management Informa- 
tion Services and Tax Research. 


In July 1991, the Inheritance & Gift Tax Division was merged with the 
Individual Income Tax division as the first phase of a functional reorganization 
of the Department. The new division is Individual Income, Inheritance & Gift 

By reorganizing the Department along functional lines, like functions will be 
placed together. Goals include eliminating duplicity of functions and 
enhancing productivity by giving employees a flexible organization with a 
minimum of disruption in a modern, well-equipped work-place. Reorganization 
will tailor the Department to three major functions: Tax Policy & Planning, 
Tax Compliance and Operations. 

Tax Schedule Area 

Corporate Income and Franchise Tax Division 

The Corporate Income and Franchise Tax Division administers the corporate 

income and franchise tax schedules, gross earnings tax on freight car line 

companies and forestry products tax. The division makes assessments or 

refunds of taxes as the result of examinations. It initiates action to effect 

collection of delinquent accounts and disseminates information to taxpayers 

I and field forces regarding the interpretation of statutes that relate to the 

,' corporate income and franchise tax schedules. The division also conducts 

conferences with taxpayers on controversial matters which have not reached 

' the level of the Secretary; and representatives of the division appear in 

i hearings before the Secretary, before the Tax Review Board and in court. 

Individual Income, Inheritance & Gift Tax Division 

The Individual Income, Inheritance & Gift Tax Division administers the 
individual income tax, including income tax withheld by employers and 
estimated income tax paid by individuals on income not subject to withholding 

188 North Carolina Manual 

at the source. The Division issues refunds for overpayments of tax and 
assessments for tax shown due on returns received without payment. 

Assessments are also issued for additional tax resulting from compliance 
examinations of returns by auditors. The Division provides assistance to 
personnel of the Field Services Division in assessment and collection of 
delinquent tax from individuals and employers. The Division also publishes 
Individual Income Tax Bulletins, compilations of the Division's interpretation 
of income tax statutes and administrative policies. 

Since Inheritance & Gift Tax merged with Individual Income Tax, this new 
Division processes reports of qualification from Clerks of Superior Court, 
notifies qualified personal representatives of duties in inheritance tax matters, 
and processes inventories of estates. It also examines inheritance and gift tax 
returns for accuracy, audits returns by field investigation, makes appraisals, 
examines corresponding federal returns to ensure consistent estate calculation 
and assesses any unpaid tax. 

It examines reports by Clerks of Superior Court to determine compliance 
with the law by qualified estate representatives, advise taxpayers and revenue 
officers on legal interpretations and liability, assists in filing returns; issues 
waivers required for transfer of intangible properties of estates; concludes tax 
cases and files releases with Clerks of Superior Court to be recorded as official 

Division personnel conduct conferences with taxpayers, accountants, and 
attorneys on disputed tax issues and representatives of the division appear in 
hearings before the Secretary of Revenue or her designee, before the Tax 
Review Board, and in court. 

License and Excise Tax Division 

The License and Excise Tax Division administers the Privilege License, 
Beer, Wine, Liquor, Cigarette and Soft Drink Tax Schedules. It advises 
taxpayers, attorneys, accountants, and field forces on interpretation of the 
laws, issues legal documents necessary to effect collection, and receives, 
audits, and processes excise tax reports and applications for licenses. It 
conducts conferences with taxpayers on protested assessments and con- 
troversial matters and representatives of the division appear in hearings 
before the Secretary, the Tax Review Board, and in court. 

Motor Fuels Tax Division 

The Motor Fuels Tax Division collects motor fuels taxes and inspection fees, 
audits tax reports and taxpayer records, and examines and approves applica- 
tions for refunds. The Division issues licenses to distributors of motor fuels 
(gasoline and special fuels) and to users and sellers of special fuels and receives 
and approves bonds to cover motor fuels tax liability. It also issues registration 
cards and identification markers to motor carriers. It conducts conferences on 
protested assessments and other controversial matters, and representatives of 
the division appear in hearings before the Secretary, the Tax Review Board 
and in court. 

The Executive Branch 189 

Property Tax Division 

j The Property Tax Division is composed of the Ad Valorem Tax Section and 
'the Intangibles Tax Section. The duties and responsibilities of these two 
jsections are as follows: 


Ad Valorem Tax Section. 

I The Ad Valorem Tax Section exercises general and specific supervision over 
the valuation and taxation of real and tangible personal property by counties 
^and municipalities, and furnishes advice and technical assistance to local 
taxing authorities. It appraises and values the property of public service 
companies; determines the value to be apportioned to North Carolina; and then 
allocates this value to the counties and municipalities of the State. The Ad 
Valorem Tax Section also serves as staff to the Property Tax Commission in 
jinvestigating appeals and in scheduling and arranging hearings before the 

Intangibles Tax Section. 

The Intangibles Tax Section administers the intangible tax schedule. It 
receives and audits intangible tax returns and makes assessments or refunds 
bf taxes as a result of audits in the office or in the field. Taxpayers are advised 
bn interpretation of the law and are assisted in the filing of returns. The office 
:onducts conferences with taxpayers on protests of assessments and con- 
?:roversial matters; handles the distribution of intangible taxes to counties, 
■:ities and towns and representatives of the division appear in hearings before 
,he Secretary, the Tax Review Board, and in court. 

Sales and Use Tax Division 

: The Sales and Use Tax Division administers the State and local sales and 
:ise tax laws. It establishes and maintains records on consumers, retail and 
wholesale merchants, and issues notices to taxpayers on reports not filed. It 
|iudits monthly sales and use tax reports, reviews field audit reports for 
liccuracy, and issues appropriate assessments from these reports. This division 
,ilso conducts conferences on protested assessments and recommends adjust- 
jnents where justified. Representatives of the division appear in hearings 
Defore the Secretary, the Tax Review Board, and in court. 

Administrative Services Area 

\ccounting Division 

j The Accounting Division is responsible for cash management for the 
i)epartment of Revenue and in that capacity receives and distributes incoming 
jtiail; deposits all remittances; itemizes each tax payment; proves total receipts 
ii^ith returns; and accurately accounts for funds received. The Division also 
prresponds with taxpayers on improperly drawn and undesignated re- 
pittances; oversees collection of returned checks; maintains records of receipts 
pndered to the department; and performs all budgetary controls for the 
epartment including time and pay records. 

field Services Division 
The Field Services Division maintains 66 revenue offices and 14 audit offices 
roughout the State, one unit which audits taxpayers located outside North 

190 North Carolina Manual 

Carolina and a unit which investigates criminal violation. The Division also 
maintains a regional audit office in California. The Division helps insure 
taxpayer compliance with North Carolina revenue laws by collecting 
delinquent taxes, obtaining delinquent returns, examining taxpayers' records! 
for accuracy and assisting taxpayers by disseminating information and' 
preparing returns. 

General Services Division 

The General Services Division orders, receives, maintains and accounts for 
the inventory of all supplies, equipment and printing, and furnishes the same 
to the Division and field offices throughout the State. It also handles all 
outgoing mail. 

Management Information Services Division i 

The Management Information Services Division is the focal point within the! 
Department of Revenue for information management, data processing, office 
automation, and end user computing. The Division applies project manage-' 
ment and software engineering principles when developing systems, is veryj 
sensitive to security issues, and applies quality controls to projects and- 
processes. The Division provides the Department with a central computer' 
service, central systems design and maintenance, data entry support, network 
support services, technical support for remittance processing, office automa-i 
tion administration, micro-computer support, and information center services. 

Services provided to various divisions include: data entry and/or audit 
verification; preparation of refund checks, licenses, statistical reports, distribu- 
tion reports for returning certain taxes to local governments, and delinquent 
payment notices; and maintenance of online inquiry systems. Over 2.1 million 
refund checks are written, 6.3 million documents entered through data entry-j 
services, and 5.5 million addresses are processed for mailing tax forms to North' 
Carolina taxpayers annually. 

Public Affairs Office 

The Department's Office of Public Affairs was established in December 1990 
to develop, implement and facilitate public awareness programs regarding 
state tax issues. Public Affairs coordinates inquiries from the public and news 
media about tax matters and works to develop positive relationships with 
members of the media, business groups, citizens' groups and other interested 
parties. The Public Affairs Office is responsible for development and implemen- 
tation of on-going education programs for taxpayers and professional pre-' 
parers to help ensure clarity and simplicity of state tax issues. It is part of thei 
Office of the Secretary of Revenue. 1 

Tax Research Division \ 

The Tax Research Division compiles statistical data on State and local 
taxation and publishes a biennial statistical report. The Division estimates the! 
revenue effect of proposed changes in the revenue laws and revenues from new' 
sources. Upon request, members of the General Assembly and the general 
public are provided with tax information, and industrial prospects arej 
provided with tax brochures, hypothetical tax bills, and conferences to explairij 

The Executive Branch 191 

tax laws. Technical assistance and special studies from compiled data are 
made available for study commissions. 

Boards and Commissions 

Property Tax Commission 
Fax Advisory Board 
Fax Review Board 



North Carolina Manual 




Betsy Y. Justus 


Early Years: Born in Aulander,; 
Bertie County, December 28, 1946, tO| 
Robert L. and Deborah Parker' 

Education: Bertie High School; 
East Carolina University, Major 
Biology/Math. i 

Professional Background: Secre 
, tary of Dept. of Revenue, 1990-; N.C. 

Employment Security Commission, ^ 
* * Chair, 1987-90; Administrative Serv-j 

ices Director, 1985-1987. 

Organizations: President, Greaterl 
Hickory United Way; Board member, 
United Way of Wake County; Member- 
ship and Finance Director, Catawba County Chamber of Commerce; Presi- 
dent, Catawba County American Business Women's Association; Interstate' 
Conference of Employment Security Agencies; State Job Training Coordi- 
nating Council; Farm Workers Council; Governor's Literacy Commission; 
Governor's Workforce Preparedness Commission; Economic Future Study 
Commission; Agency for Public Telecommunications Board of Commis- 

Honors: Outstanding Young Women of America; 1982 Woman of the 
Year, Hickory Business and Professional Women's Club; 1981 Woman of the 
Year, Catawba County ABWA. 

Religious Activities: Member, Cary First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Edward Dale Justus of Hendersonville. Children: Brad. 


The Executive Branch 193 


Name Residence Term 

Alston D. Watts2 Iredell 1921-1923 

Rufus A. Doughton^ Alleghany 1923-1929 

Allen J. Maxwell^ Wake 1929-1942 

Edwin M. GilP Wake 1942-1949 

Eugene G. Shaw^ Guilford 1949-1957 

James S. Currie' Wake 1957-1961 

William A. Johnson^ Harnett 1961-1964 

Lewis Sneed High^ Cumberland 1964-1965 

[vie L. Claytoni" Wake 1965-1971 

jilmer Andrew Jones, Jr.^i Wake 1972-1973 

Mark H. Coble^^ Guilford 1973-1977 

Mark G. Lynch' ' Wake 1977-1985 

Helen Ann Powersi^ Madison 1985-1990 

Betsy Y. Justus'^ Bertie 1990- 

1 'The Department of Revenue was created by the 1921 General Assembly with 
irovision for the first "Commissioner of Revenue, to be appointed by the governor, by 
nd with the advice and consent of the Senate" for a four year term, and the succeeding 
ne to be "nominated and elected" in 1924 "in the manner provided for. . . other state 
fficers." In 1929 the provision for electing a commissioner was repealed and a provision 
/hich called for appointment of the commissioner by the governor substituted. The 
ilxecutive Organization Act of 1971 established the Department of Revenue as one of the 
jineteen major departments. In 1973 the title "Commissioner" was changed to "Secre- 

"Watts was appointed by Governor Morrison and served until his resignation on 
January 29, 1923. 

' 'Doughton was appointed by Governor Morrison to replace Watts. He was elected in 
;ie general elections in 1924 and served following reelection in 1928 until March, 1929. 
j ^Maxwell was appointed by Governor Gardner to replace Doughton and served 
allowing subsequent reappointments until June, 1942. 

1 ^Gill was appointed by Governor Broughton to replace Maxwell and served following 
'is reappointment until his resignation effective July 1, 1949. 

. ''Shaw was appointed by Governor Scott to replace Gill and served following his 
^appointment until his resignation in August, 1957. 

j ^Currie was appointed by Governor Hodges to replace Shaw and served until his 
^signation in January, 1961. 

i ^Johnson was appointed by Governor Sanford to replace Currie and served until April, 
)64, when he was appointed to the Superior Court. 

^High was appointed by Governor Sanford to replace Johnson and served until his 
i^signation in January, 1965. 

j '"Clayton was appointed by Governor Moore to serve as acting commissioner. He was 
Iter appointed commissioner and served following reappointment by Governor Scott on 

aly 21, 1969 until his resignation effective December 31, 1971. 

'"Jones was appointed by Governor Scott to replace Clayton and continued serving 

Jitil Coble took office. 

I'^Coble was appointed on June 8, 1973, by Governor Holshouser to replace Jones. 

j|''^Lynch was appointed on January 10, 1977, to replace Coble. 

'"Powers was appointed January 7, 1985, by Governor Martin to replace Lynch. 

'^Justus was appointed May 1, 1990 by Governor Martin to replace Powers. 

194 North Carolina Manual 


The North CaroHna Department of Transportation exists to provide a 
system to transport people and goods effectively, efficiently and safely, and i 
render the highest level of service to the public. 

The State Highway Commission and the Department of Motor Vehicles were 
combined to form the North Carolina Department of Transportation and 
Highway Safety by the Executive Organization Act of 1971. The act also 
created the North Carolina Board of Transportation. In 1979, the term I 
"Highway Safety" was dropped from the department's name when the 
Highway Patrol was transferred to the newly created Department of Crime 
Control and Public Safety. 

The Department of Transportation is headed by a secretary appointed by the ' 
governor. Legislation passed in 1973 designates the secretary as an ex officio 
member of the Board of Transportation, which he chairs. i 

All transportation responsibilities, including aviation, mass transit and rail, 
as well as highways and motor vehicles, are the responsibility of the ' 
department. The Board of Transportatino, the chief policy-making body of the 
department, awards all highway contracts and sets transportation priorities. | 
The department staff executes the initiatives of the board and is responsible for 
day-to-day operations. 

Division of Highways 

The Division of Highways administers the state road construction and 
maintenance programs and policies established by the Board of Transporta- 
tion. North Carolina's highway program uses available resources to construct, ( 
maintain and operate an efficient, economical and safe transportation net- 
work. This division is responsible for the upkeep of one of the largest state- 
maintained highway systems in the country. The division utilizes both state 
and federal funds in its road building program and has a long history of 
service to North Carolina. 

The History of "The Good Roads State" j 

As the 20th century approached, the need for better roads became increas-i 
ingly apparent to most North Carolinians. Railroads simply could not provide 
the internal trade and travel connections required by an ambitious people in an ' 
expanding economy. 

The beginning of the "Good Roads" movement in the state was hesitant, but 
it gave a foundation to a transportation revolution that would serve North 
Carolina's interest and bring many benefits to citizens who supported thei 
system through their taxes. [ 

Modern roadbuilding in the state may have begun in 1879 with the General; 
Assembly's passage of the Mecklenburg Road Law. The statute was intended 
as a general state law, but as worded, applied only to Mecklenburg County. It allowed , 
the county to build roads with financing from a property tax, and required fourj 
days labor of all males between the ages of 18 and 45. | 

The Executive Branch 195 

The author of the legislation, Captain S.B. Alexander, saw his bill repealed, 
then reenacted in 1883, as growing numbers of people acknowledged the need 
for better roads. By 1895, most of the state's progressive counties had 
; established tax-based road building plans. 

I As the new century neared, interest in better roads spread from the 
mountains to the coast. A Good Roads Conference in 1893 attracted more than 
100 business and government leaders from throughout the state. They 
organized the North Carolina road Improvement Association and promoted 
meetings the following year in Chapel Hill, Raleigh and Charlotte. 

Before 1900, most decisions concerning transportation were dictated by 
immediate needs, with little thought given to long-range goals. The planning 
that went into those decisions was local or, at best, regional. The concept of a 
statewide system existed only in the minds of a few visionary people, and well 
into the new century, state policy was limited to assisting counties in meeting 
{transportation needs. 

I Fortunately, there were emerging leaders who could look beyond county 
boundaries, practical people who had the conviction, determination and know- 
how to match their vision. These leaders knew that good transportation had a 
place among the state's top priorities and labored to make North Carolina's 
highway system one of the best in the country. 

[ In 1913, Governor Locke Craig took office. He led the call for good roads in 
the state and established the State Highway Commission in 1915. Because of 
his efforts. Governor Craig would be the first chief executive to be called "The 
Good Roads Governor." 

Many other individuals labored for better roads during this crucial period. 
Three, whose names would rank high on any "honor roll" of North Carolina 
transportation pioneers were Dr. J. A. Holmes, Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt and 
Harriet Morehead Berry. Each was associated with the North Carolina 
Economic and Geological Survey — described as the "cutting edge" of the 
j-oads movement in the state. And each headed the North Carolina Good Roads 
Association during the two critical decades in which that Association led the 
J5truggle for better roads across the state. 

j Holmes was a driving force behind the good roads movement long before the 
levelopment of organized efforts to promote the cause. He was a prime mover 
in establishing the Good Roads Association and served as its first executive 

j Pratt succeeded Holmes as head of both the Geological Survey and the Good 
Roads Association. He preached road building at reasonable cost and urged 
'counties to borrow money for that purpose. His advice was followed. A total of 
i)84.5 million was borrowed from the issuance of bonds by counties and road 
listricts stopped in 1927. Yet, Pratt's most important contribution to North 
Parolina may have been bringing Harriet M. "Hattie" Berry of Chapel Hill 
nto the association of good roads advocates. 

Miss Berry quickly became an uncompromising force in the campaign. She 
lushed for establishment of a State Highway Commission and, in 1915, helped 
|raft legislation designed to establish and maintain a statewide highway 
ystem. The bill was defeated, but Hattie Berry was not. She mounted a 
fampaign that carried into 89 counties and, in 1919, when the bill was 
eintroduced. Miss Berry appeared before the legislature to answer any 


196 North Carolina Manual 

lingering questions. When the final vote came, the decision was not whether to j 
build roads, but what kind of roads to build. The foundation has been laid. The i 
"Good Roads State" would now become a reality. j 

This pivotal point in the state's transportation history came with the I 
decision to accept debt as a means of getting better highways. It began slowly 
at the county level in New Hanover, Mecklenburg and Guilford counties and 
spread across the state. I 

The time of building roads with the money at hand and a day of labor from 
each able-bodied man faded. In its place rose a sophisticated enterprise of i 
structured funding and complex engineering. For the first time, planning i 
started to become part of the highway building and maintenance programs. 

The road fever raged through the mid-1920's. Following passage of the i> 
Highway Act of 1921, almost 6,000 miles of highway were built in a four-year ' 
period. This building was a product of aggressive leadership of Governor 
Cameron Morrison and other transportation advocates and public approval of i 
a $50 million bond issue. ' 

During the Depression years of the early 1930's, however, highway con- 
struction stopped; moreover, some state leaders began looking to the Highway ' 
Fund as a possible funding source to meet other public service needs, a i 
potentially devastating course for the highway system. It was at this critical 
time that the state, under the leadership of Governor O. Max Gardner, assumed 
responsibility for all county roads and an allocation of $16 million was made ' 
for maintenance. 

By 1933, the Depression had carried the state into a dark period. The gloomy j 
economy coupled with the assumption by the state of financial responsibility j 
for the public schools prompted use of highway funds for non-highway  

As the economy began to recover, the General Assembly, recognized the 
damage caused to the roads system by years of neglect and allocated $3 million 
in emergency funds for bridge repair in 1935. Later in the session, more 
comprehensive action was taken to restore the financial stability of the road 

For the next five years. North Carolina measured up fully to its growing 
reputation as the "Good Roads State." Stretches of a new highway were' 
constructed throughout the state as revenues continued to rise. 

The outbreak of World War II again brought a halt to construction. But, in a 
sense, the highway program in North Carolina benefitted from the mora-' 
torium. The state, led by Governors J. Melville Broughton and Gregg Cherry, 
used funds produced by the accelerated wartime economy to pay off highway! 
debts. When Cherry left office, all debts had either been eliminated or money 
had been set aside to meet obligations. I 

Despite the interruption of the war years. North Carolina's road building' 
progress from 1937 to 1950 was dramatic. Road mileage during the period rose 
from 58,000 to 64,000. | 

It was generally conceded, however, that one important area of transpor- 
tation had been neglected — secondary roads. In the state that was leading the 
nation in school bus operations, and ranked second in the number of small,| 
family farms, there was little cause for pride in the condition of school bus, 
routes and farm-to-market roads. I 

The Executive Branch 197 

In his campaign for governor in 1948, Kerr Scott rebuked his primary 

Dpponent, Charles Johnson, for advocating a $100 miUion secondary roads 

bond issue. After defeating Johnson, Scott reassessed the situation and again 

concluded that his opponent had been wrong in suggesting a $100 million bond 

ssue — Governor Scott requested $200 million. 

Despite strong opposition from urban leaders, the bond issue was approved. 
iVork began immediately to pave thousands of miles of rural roads that 
jreviously had been impassable in bad weather. By the end of the Scott 
Administration, promised construction was 94 percent complete. 
jj Neither the proposal to borrow money for road building nor the people's 
■;upport of the proposal was surprising. Borrowing money to improve roads 
ind paying the debt with road-use taxes had become a tradition in North 

j During the 1920's the state had passed four bond issues totalling $16.8 
nillion and the Scott bond issue added $200 million to that total. In Governor 
Dan Moore's administration, the voters approved a $300 million issue. In 1977, 
1 second $300 million bond issue was proposed by Governor Jim Hunt and 
ipproved by the voters. 

The structure of the state transportation programs have been altered through 
the years to make the program more credible and responsive to the state's 
leeds. In 1971, as noted above, the General Assembly combined the State 
.rlighway Commission and the Department of Motor Vehicles to form the 
Department of Transportation and Public Safety. 

The reorganization encouraged the new department to adopt a more modern 
Planning system. In 1973, Governor Jim Holshouser proposed the "Seven-Year 
Fransportatioii Plan," which later became the Transportation Improvement 
;^rogram. The TIP is a planned and programmed schedule of the state's major 
oighway construction that balances projected construction costs against 
linticipated revenues. The TIP is updated annually to add new projects and 
adjust priorities. 

I The Board of Transportation makes final decisions on new projects and 
oriorities each year after local officials and interested citizens express views 
(ind make recommendations on their future highway needs. This approach to 
the state's transportation needs have been expanded to include aviation and 
jublic transportation projects. 

\ Other changes also improved reliability and responsiveness. Under 
jrovernor Bob Scott, the Board of Transportation expanded to 24 members and 
luring the Holshouser Administration, the department moved to formulaic 
,'unding for some transportation improvements. 

jl In 1986, the General Assembly passed Governor Jim Martin's "Roads to the 
Puture" program. The legislation was designed to produce $240 million a year 
.n additional revenues by Fiscal Year 1991-1992. These funds were to be used to 
polster or improve the maintenance and safety on the state's highways. An 
additional $30 million was set aside to begin a program of state-funded 
l^onstruction. Governor Martin also directed the department to improve the 
•eliability of the Transportation Improvement Program by more closely 
natching the program to anticipated revenues. 

In 1978, poor highway construction prospects caused the Martin Adminis- 
ration and the General Assembly to take a hard look at the transportation 

198 North Carolina Manual 

needs of North Carolina. After much debate, the legislature approved a large 
and ambitious public works program — the Highway Trust Fund. The law calls 
for major construction to meet a wide variety of the state's needs. It provides for 
the completion of a 3,600-mile "Intrastate" system of four-lane roads across the 
state. When this system is built, nearly all North Carolinians will live within 10 
miles of a four-lane highway. The trust fund program will also improve 113 
miles of interstate highways, help pave all the remaining dirt roads in the 
state, build loops and connector roads near seven major cities, and provide 
additional money to local governments for city street improvements. Funding 
for the program is provided by gasoline and other highway use taxes. 

At the beginning of the century. North Carolina was a state of relatively few, 
and incredibly poor roads. Only 5,000 miles of state roads existed in 1921. From 
that inauspicious beginning, the highway network has grown to the present 
77,058 miles, the largest state-maintained system in the nation. Significantly, 
construction and maintenance of the system, from the beginning, has been 
supported exclusively by highway user tax revenues. North Carolina boasts 
12,031 miles of primary highways (US-NC-Interstate), 59,385 miles of 
secondary road and 5,641 miles of urban highways (state routes in cities). 

The most severe problem confronting transportation officials in North 
Carolina today is meeting the highway safety and maintenance demands with 
a Highway Fund that is not able to keep pace with need resulting from 
increased travel and traffic. 

The Division of Motor Vehicles 

The Division of Motor Vehicles has more direct contact with citizens than 
any other state agency. The division serves more than 1.5 million drivers and 
registers more than six million vehicles each year. 

The General Assembly created the State Department of Motor Vehicles in 
1941 to consolidate services previously provided by the Secretary of State and 
the Department of Revenue. When state government was reorganized in 1971, 
the Department of Motor Vehicles became a division under the control of what 
is now the Department of Transportation. 

The Division of Motor Vehicles is comprised of six major sections which are 
expanding rapidly to better serve the needs of North Carolinians. 

The 1980's and early 1990's brought some major changes to the Driver 
License Section. Many offices were automated to promote a quick exchange of 
information and services. The DMV also established a commercial drivers 
license program, creating new testing and licensing standards for truckers. 
Seven "express" drivers license offices were opened around the state to provide 
more efficient service. 

The Vehicle Registration Section has computerized its branch offices, 
allowing agents to update license plates on a central computer, produce 
receipts by computer for collection and keep track of plates surrendered by 
non-insured vehicle owners. 

The Enforcement Section has installed a computer system that enables the 
DMV to keep statewide vehicles theft reports. The Enforcement Section is 
leading the country in a national research project to make commercial vehicle 
operations faster, safer and more efficient. 

The Executive Branch 199 

The School Bus and Traffic Safety Section was recognized as the nation's 
' most outstanding state agency teaching defensive driving in 1991. The section 

trains school bus drivers and supplements a passenger safety training 

program for young students. 
j The strong emphasis on safety in the Division of Motor Vehicles' operations 

help make North Carolina's roadways among the safest in the nation. As the 

number of vehicles and drivers in the state continues to grow, the division 
, strives to serve the public in a courteous, efficient and professional manner. 

The Division of Aviation 


'; The state that gave birth to modern aviation has kept pace with advance- 

j ments in that important field through the Division of Aviation. North Carolina 

! claims more than 14,600 licensed pilots and 6,372 non-military aircraft. 

State government aviation functions first began in 1965 under the direction 
of the Department of Conservation and Development. During the reorgani- 
zation of 1973, responsibility for aviation was transferred to the Department of 
Transportation. The NCDOT's Division of Aviation was formally established 

i one year later. 

j The Division of Aviation provides technical assistance and funding to help 
develop and improve air transportation service and safety throughout the 
The Division now works with 75 publicly owned airports and estimates a 

\ need for at least 10 additional airports to provide adequate statewide coverage 
through the year 2000. An integral part of the aviation program is the 
Aeronautics Council, appointed by the Governor with one representative from 

' each Congressional District, which serves as North Carolina's aviation policy 

 and review board. 


The Division of Public Transportation and Rail 

In North Carolina, where the population is widely disbursed and the 
i majority of people live in small cities and rural communities, public transpor- 
itation is increasingly important. To meet this need, the Division of Public 

Transportation and Rail is taking full advantage of available federal matching 

funds for urban projects, and has, at the direction of the Governor, undertaken 
ito improve the coordination and the effectiveness of county-wide human services 
[transportation in the state. The division is heavily involved in the promotion of 

carpooling and vanpooling and is working to establish regional alternatives to 

public transportation priorities in the Piedmont. 
The division is also exploring the future uses of passenger rail systems in the 

state. The division develops and maintains a statewide rail plan, administers a 
i state and federal Railroad Revitalization Program designed to preserve service 
'on light-density branch lines, protects rail corridors from abandonment and 

provides intercity rail service in cooperation with Amtrak. 
The Public Transportation Division was established in 1975 and it assumed 

responsibility for railroad activities in 1990. 

200 North Carolina Manual 

The Division of Ferries 

One of the oldest services provided by the Department of Transportation is 
the operation of ferries at seven strategic locations along the coast. Given 
division status on July 1, 1974, the operation involves 15 vehicle/passenger 
ferries, one hydraulic dredge and supporting tugs and work boats. Maintenance 
of the fleet is conducted at the marine repair facility at Manns Harbor. 

Bicycle Program 

One of the fastest growing modes of travel in the state and nation is the 
bicycle. Recognizing this fact, the 1974 General Assembly established the 
State Bicycle and Bikeway Program and placed that program in the Depart- 
ment of Transportation. Since that time, the North Carolina Bicycle Program 
has become the leader in the nation in setting up bike programs and mapping 
bike trails. 

The program is designed to ensure the safety of the increasing number of cyclists 
on the state's highways and provide technical assistance for bikeway develop- 
ment across the state. The majority of the state's communities with populations 
over 2,000 have become participants in this program and interest is increasing. 

Beautification Program 

The department's Beautification Program encourages North Carolina citi- 
zens to take an active part in reducing litter along the roadways and in their 
communities. Since the Adopt- A-Highway Program began in 1988, more than 
15,000 miles of state-maintained roads have been adopted by 7,000 volunteeni 
groups. Many groups are now recycling the litter they pick up to further help 
our environment. Each year the department solicits volunteer support for anij 
additional spring and fall cleanup campaign. 

Boards and Commissions 

North Carolina Aeronautics Council 

North Carolina Bicycle Committee 

North Carolina Board of Transportation 

Governor's Highway Beautification Council 

Governor's Highway Safety Commission 

Governor's Rail Passenger Task Force 

North Carolina Air Cargo Airport Authority Board of Directors 

The Executive Branch 


Thomas J. Harrelson 

Secretary of Transportation 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, 
North Carolina, February 1, 1941, to 
Dan and Elizabeth (Loughlin) Harrel- 

Education: University of Rome, 
Italy, Institute Dante Alighieri - 
Economics, History and Language; 
UNC-CH, A.B. Economics; Wharton 
Graduate Diversion, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA-M.A. 
Business Administration. 

Professional Background: Mar- 
keting Trainee, Chevron Oil A.G., 
1966-68; Financial Analyst, Chevron 
Oil Europe, New York, NY, 1967-68; 
I Junior Partner, Harrelson Super- 

market, 1968-76; President and Owner, Harrelson Enterprises, Inc., Southport, 
NC, 1976-87; NC Director and Vice-Chairman, Security Savings and Loan 
Association, Southport. 

Boards and Commissions: Southern Growth Policies Board, 1972-76; NC 
Environmental Management Commission, Chairman, 1985-86; Cardinal 
Health Systems Agency. 

I Political Activities: Inaugural Committee, Gov. Holshouser, 1972; NC 
House of Representatives, 1970-72, 1972-74; Brunswick County Republican 
iChairman, 1970-74; 7th District Republican Chairman, 1979-82; Brunswick 
County Chairman, Jim Martin for Governor; Congressional Candidate, 7th 
Congr. District of NC, 1986; American Association of State Highway and 
iTransportation Officials (AASHTO); Southeastern Association of State High- 
way and Transportation Officials (SASHTO); Deputy Secretary of North 
Carolina Department of Transportation; 1987-89; Secretary, North Carolina 
Department of Transportation, 1989 to present; North Carolina Partners for 

I Religious Activities: Member, St. Philips Episcopal Church - Former 
Vestryman and Senior Warden. 

Family: Married to Julie Ann Scarboro Harrelson. 


202 North Carolina Manual 


Name Residence Term 

Fred M. Mills, Jr.2 Anson 1971-1973 

Bruce A. Lentz' Wake 1973-1974 

Troy A. Doby^ 1974-1975 

Jacob F. Alexander, Jr.^ Rowan 1975-1976 

G. Perry Greene, Sr.^ Watauga 1976-1977 

Thomas W. Bradshaw, Jr.^ Wake 1977-1981 

William R. Roberson, Jr.« Beaufort 1981-1985 

James E. Harrington^ Wake 1985-1989 

Thomas J. Harrelson^" Brunswick 1989- 

^The Executive Organization Act of 1971 created the "Department of Transportation 
and Highway Safety" with provision for a "Secretary" appointed by the governor. In \ 
1977 "Highway Safety" was dropped. j 

-Mills was appointed by Governor Scott. j 

■'Lentz was appointed on January 5, 1973, by Governor Holshouser to replace Mills. He j 
resigned June 30, 1974, following his appointment as Secretary of Administration. 

^Doby was appointed on July 1, 1974, by Governor Holshouser to replace Lentz. He i 
resigned April 25, 1975. 

'Alexander was appointed on April 25, 1975, by Governor Holshouser to replace Doby. | 
He resigned effective April 20, 1976. j 

''Greene was appointed on April 20, 1976, by Governor Holshouser to replace i 

^Bradshaw was appointed on January 10, 1977, by Governor Hunt to replace Greene.l 
He resigned effective June 30, 1981. 

"'Roberson was appointed July 1, 1981, to replace Bradshaw. ' 

"Harrington was appointed January 7, 1985, by Governor Martin to replace Roberson. 

'"Harrelson was appointed by Governor Martin on December 15, 1989 to replace: 
Harrington. ' 

The Executive Branch 203 


In 1986, the Office of the State Controller (OSC) was created by the 
General Assembly. The agency's head, the State Controller, is appointed by 
the governor and confirmed by the General Assembly for a seven-year term. 
The State Controller is the chief financial officer of the state and is 
responsible for the executive management of the State Accounting System 
(SAS). In this capacity, as specified in G.S. 143B-426, the State Controller 
prescribes policies and procedures which support the SAS and are incor- 
porated into the system to accomplish financial reporting and management 
for the state's financial entity, which includes more than 80 agencies. 
' Four major divisions comprise the OSC — Financial Systems, State 
, Accounting System, Agency Accounting Services and State Information 
Processing Services (SIPS). 

Financial Systems Division 

' The Financial Systems Division has the responsibility of providing 
accounting systems development, maintenance, as well as production and 
documentation support for the SAS and related sub-systems. An ongoing 
project is the implementation of a new SAS. This new system incorporates 
Dun & Bradstreet Software's MARS-G package and will provide state 
agency managers with on-line access to up-to-date information which will 
aid in the financial decision-making process. 


! State Accounting System Division 

I The State Accounting System Division is responsible for the operations of 
, the SAS (currently both the older version and the new system's package as it 
'is implemented) and related sub-systems. The division's mission is to 
. maintain timely, reliable, accurate records, — complete accounting informa- 
i tion on North Carolina state government for central and agency manage- 
' ment purposes. As part of its efforts, this division publishes the North 
Carolina Comprehensive Annual Financial Report — an approximately 200- 
page report on the state's financial condition and results of operations for 
I the past year. 

Agency Accounting Services Division 

Agency Accounting Services has the responsibility of administering 

statewide cash management policies and statewide appropriation/allotment 

i control. In addition, the division operates a central payroll system and 

^provides agency accounting and disbursing services for selected agencies. A 

new, statewide Dependent Care Program is also administered through this 

tOSC division for all state employees (excluding teachers). 

204 North Carolina Manual 

State Information Processing Services 

The mission of the State Information Processing Services (SIPS) division 
is to provide information systems services, planning, coordination and 
consultation to state government agencies in the productive use of informa- 
tion through data processing, telecommunications and electronic office 
automation. Long-range planning through an Information Resource Manage- 
ment section is also part of SIPS' responsibilities. The division operates 
through four sections — State Computer Center, State Telecommunications 
Services, State Systems Development and Client Support Services. 

State Computer Center 

This SIPS section provides large mainframe computing services through 
the use of an IBM 3090-Model J processor and has more than 22,000 state 
agency terminals attached. Through the use of this processor, robotics and 
other technological advances, the Center provides office automation services, 
efficient, cost-effective services. 

State Telecommunications Services 

This section operates the state telephone network and provides tele- 
communications planning and service. In addition, through the use of Local 
Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs), the X.25 network and 
other resources, this section is taking the national lead in establishing 
standards for the sharing of information among local networks. 

State Systems Development 

This SIPS section provides programming, consultation and total systems 
development to client agencies. With proper planning and implementation, 
coordinated systems can provide state agencies with thoughtful, automated 
solutions to day-to-day problems and special projects. 

Client Support Services 

This section provides end-user support, through consultation, a personal 
computer products demonstration center, varied computer training courses 
(including interactive video and user-paced courses) and 

The Executive Branch 


Fred Wesley Talton 


Early Years: Born in Clayton, 
Johnston County, March 18, 1927, to 
the late John Thomas and Ruth 
(Barnes) Talton. 

Education: Johnston County 
Schools (Clayton); Oak Ridge MiH- 
tary Institute, 1944; University of 
North Carohna at Chapel Hill, 1950, 
B.S. (Commerce). 

Professional Background: State 
Controller, 1988- ; Certified Public Ac- 
countant; W. M. Russ & Company, 
1950-1951; Sears, Roebuck & Com- 
pany, 1952; Williams, Urquhart & 
Ficklin, 1953-1965; Peat, Marwick, 
Mitchell & Company, 1965-1987 (Part- 

Organizations: National Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers and 
Treasurers (Board Member); American Institute of Public Accountants; N.C. 
Association of Certified Public Accountants; Triangle Area Chapter of Certi- 
fied Public Accountants; United Way of Wake County (Member, Board of 
Directors; Vice President, Administration; Chairman, Fund Distribution 
Committee, Chairman, Community Resources Council); N.C. Advisory Council 
on Telecommunications In Education (Gubernatorial Appointment). 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity Baptist Church, Raleigh; Member, 
Board of Deacons, Trinity Baptist and Forest Hills Baptist Church (both in 

Family: Married Margaret Baucom of Raleigh, August 22, 1954. Children: 
Josh; David B.; Fred W., Jr.; and Ann Talton Rudd. 

4 •■' 

206 North Carolina Manual 


The framework of North CaroUna's election laws was constructed in 1901; 
the statute governing primary elections dates from 1916. North Carolina's 
version of the Australian Ballot was enacted in 1929; the Corrupt Practices Act 
was adopted in 1931. In 1933 there was substantial revision of our state's 
elections laws, but since 1933 there have been no significant or general 
revisions or recodification. 

The 1965 General Assembly authorized a seven member commission to study 
and analyze the state's election procedures and mandated that the commission 
prepare and draft legislation necessary to recodify the chapter of the General 
Statutes dealing with elections laws in the interest of clarity and simplification. 
The changes recommended by the 1965 commission were adopted, almost 
without alteration by the 1967 General Assembly. 

After the 1967 recodification, the State moved on to a much bolder revision 
-the enactment, also in 1967, of North Carolina's 'uniform loose leaf registration 
system' which replaced the old unmanageable bound book system. Along with 
these new sophistications came the important audit trail to ensure the voters 
that elections were virtually free from fraud. 

In 1969 the General Assembly enacted a requirement that all 100 counties in 
North Carolina adopt 'full time' registration offices. This accomplishment 
provided, for the first time, that all counties operate an office for the specific 
purpose of proper administration of the elections laws as well as the registration 
of voters. Under this new system individuals would be able to register only on 
three successive Saturdays every other year. 

In 1971 a significant change was implemented when North Carolina put into 
effect what is generally called the 'Uniform Municipal Election Code'. Simply 
put, this act guaranteed for the first time that a person need only register one 
time at one place to qualify to vote in any election in which he was eligible to 
vote. Previously it was necessary that a citizen be registered on as many as five 
different sets of books. 

The State Board of Elections was declared an independent agency by the 
General Assembly in 1974. The North Carolina State Board of Election is said 
to be one of the most authoritative boards of its kind in the country. As an 
independent state agency, it does not come under the jurisdiction of any other 
department headed by an elected official. 

All members on the State Board of Elections are appointed by the Governor 
for a term of four years. Law prescribes that not more than three of the board's 
five members be from the same political party; therefore, making it the only 
agency where a bipartisan membership is mandated by law. 

The State Board appoints all 100 county boards of elections which are 
comprised of three members; both major political parties must be represented. 
Each county board has a supervisor of elections who serves as the administra- 
tive head of the board of elections and oversees the election process in each 
county. The supervisor is selected by nomination to the State Board's executive 
officer who must approve both the hiring and dismissal of each supervisor. 

It is the duty of the State Board of Elections to conduct annual training 

The Executive Branch 207 

sessions for members and supervisors of county boards of elections to prepare 
them to conduct training sessions within their respective counties for precinct 

The State Board supervises all elections conducted in any county, special 
district or municipality located in the state. There are 100 counties, more than 
500 municipalities and approximately 1200 special districts in North Carolina. 
Supervision of all elections includes the requirement for the State Board to 
promulgate rules and regulations, setting forth the procedures for processing 
protests and complaints resulting either before or after an election. A protest 
must first be filed with the county board of elections of the county in which the 
protest originates after which a public hearing is conducted and a decision 
rendered. Any party to the original complaint may appeal a decision rendered 
by a county board of elections to the State Board of Elections for review or 
further proceedings. 

i In addition to its jurisdiction over all types of elections conducted throughout 
the state, the Board of Elections also administers the Campaign Reporting Act. 
Enacted into law and effective 1 July 1974, this law limits contributions and 
expenditures to and by political candidates, political parties and political 
action committees. 

I The Campaign Reporting Division of the State Board of Elections is 
responsible for receiving registration applications from political action com- 
ittees, political parties, candidates and all others involved in making con- 
tributions to or making expenditures on behalf of political parties and 

Periodic reports as prescribed by statute must be filed with the Campaign 
Reporting Division after which they must be audited. Late filers are assessed a 
■daily penalty. After five days, if the report is still delinquent, the Campaign 
■Office submits all relevant material to the appropriate District Attorney who is 
'required to prosecute the violator. 

' Boards and Commissions 

N.C. State Board of Elections 

208 North Carolina Manual 

Alex K. Brock 


Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, December 26, 1923, 
to the late Judge Walter E. and Elizabeth (Ashcraft) Brock. 

Education: Attended Raleigh Public Schools; The Citadel; University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Hartford School of Insurance and the American 
University, Paris. 

Political Activities: Executive Secretary-Director, State Board of Elec- 
tions, 1965- (Appointed in 1965 by Governor Dan K. Moore and has served 
continuously since). 

Military Service: U.S. Army (Sgt. Major), European Theatre of Operations, 
World War II, 75th Infantry Division. 

Religious Activities: Member, Saint Timothy's Episcopal Church, Raleigh; 
Senior Warden; Vice-President, Hale Episcopal High School. 

Family: Married Doris Poole Greene. Children: Kenan Ashcraft and Walter 

The Executive Branch 209 


North Carolina State government did not have a systematic or uniform 
personnel system prior to 1925. There was no equality or consistency in the 
administration of personnel policies. The Legislature appropriated money in 
a lump sum to the agencies, and the agency heads allocated it for operating 
expenses and salaries. Each agency set pay rates for its workers until 1907 
when the Legislature elected to take over this responsiblity, including acting 
on pay increases for individual employees. In 1921 the Legislature turned 
this function over to the Governor and the Council of State, resulting in the 
establishment of a "Salary Standardization Board." 

In 1925 the Legislature established a five-member Salary and Wage 
Commission. This Commission found that in addition to inequitable 
salaries, there was a lack of uniformity in office hours, leave, holidays, and 
job entrance requirements. They set classifications for all positions, grouped 
positions with similar duties together, and established minimum and 
maximum salary ranges. Salaries were to be determined by the agency head. 
The Executive Budget Act was also passed about this time which allocated 
money to agencies for specific purposes. 

Personnel Department Formed 

A 1931 law abolished the Salary and Wage Commission, and established a 
Department of Personnel within the Governor's Office to be responsible for 
classification, compensation and personnel policies, but in 1933 these duties 
were transferred to the Budget Bureau and the Department of Personnel was 
abolished. From 1933 to 1949, with no staff to deal exclusively with 
personnel problems, a great disparity developed between agencies concerning 

In 1938 a Supervisor of Merit Examinations was appointed to prepare a 
classification plan and administer examinations for the N. C. Unemploy- 
ment Compensation Commission as required by the Social Security Act of 
1935. This Act was amended in 1939 to include Merit System coverage for 
other state agencies subsidized by Federal funds, and a Merit System 
Council was formed to administer the Federal regulations and policies 
regarding competitive examinations, job standards and pay. 

State Personnel Act Passed 

The State Personnel Act was passed in 1949 (General Statutes, Chapter 
126) establishing a State Personnel Department with a personnel council 
and a director to exercise the personnel functions previously delegated to the 
Assistant Director of Budget. This law also required that each agency 
designate a personnel officer. 

, From 1939 until 1965 the Merit System Council and the State Personnel 
Department operated independently. In 1965 the Legislature passed a new 
State Personnel Act which consolidated the two agencies and appointed a 
seven-member State Personnel Board. 

Between 1965 and 1975 a number of revisions and additions were made to 
the Act. The Legislature significantly revised the Act in February, 1976 to 
provide for a seven-member Commission, rather than a Board. This 

210 North Carolina Manual 

Commission was given the authority to issue binding corrective orders in 
employee grievance appeals procedures. 


The Office of State Personnel's purpose as an agency of state government is i 
to serve the interests of state employees, to manage the programs established 
by the Governor, the Legislature and the State Personnel Commission, and to 
provide specific services to the general public. 

To assist in this effort, OSP seeks the advice of a Personnel Advisory i 
Committee made up of seven agency personnel officers. Also, another group, j 
the "Personnel Roundtable," made up of all agency and university personnel I 
officers meets periodically to review and discuss new or revised policies. 
Additionally, special committees are established to study specific subjects and | 
make recommendations concerning subject areas. A public hearing is provided ! 
before the Personnel Commission for further input and discussion prior to final 
adoption by the Commission. I 

The Office of State Personnel exercises its powers under the State Personnel j 
Act (General Statute 126). OSP is the administrative arm of the State 
Personnel Commission. 

The seven-member State Personnel Commission appointed by the Governor I 
is responsible for establishing policies and procedures governing personnel 
programs and employment practices for approximately 70,000 employees : 
covered by the State Personnel Act and 16,000 local government employees in 
Federal grant-in-aid programs that are subject to the Federal Standards for a 
Merit System of Personnel Administration. 

OSP's Organization 

The State Personnel Director provides the administrative leadership for the 
Office of State Personnel and its staff of personnel professionals. The Director j 
consults with the Governor, elected and appointed department heads and « 
university chancellors on personnel policies and participates in Cabinet and 
Executive Cabinet meetings. He also meets with and advises Legislative 
members, professional groups and employee groups on personnel matters in 
order to promote and coordinate a system of sound personnel management i 
practices. He also serves in national professional organizations as the ' 
representative of North Carolina State Government. Under the direction of the 
State Personnel Director, a staff of approximately 130, including a Deputy | 
Director and seven division managers, carry out the services and programs of 
the Office of State Personnel. j 

The Deputy Director's major responsibilties are for the administrative and ' 
managerial functions involved in the planning, budgeting, and execution of all 
program components of the State Personnel System through interaction with 
the Division managers and professional staff in agencies and universities. 

The State Personnel Director and senior staff members develop new policies 
or revise existing policies and procedures based on acceptable principles of 
personnel administration and by applying the best methods as it involves , 
government and industry. I 

The Executive Branch 211 

THE DIRECTORS' STAFF provides training on the policies, guidelines, 
procedures, and programs of the Personnel System for Legislators, managers, 
supervisors and agency personnel staff. Another responsibility is to monitor 
personnel problems within State government, Federal laws and policies 
affecting personnel administration, and ratified bills of the N. C. General 
Assembly, and to manage the Credentials Verification and Performance 
Management Programs. 

Requirements Program and its State Government Workmen's Compensation 
Program, provides staff services for the development, implementation, and 
monitoring of agency participation in programs improving workplace safety 
pind health. One objective is to eliminate exposure to unsafe conditions and 
|ansafe work practices. Other objectives are to assure that agencies provide 
restoration of employees' earning capacity and return employees to productive 
employment in a consistent, cost effective manner when injuries or illnesses do 
occur on the job. 

\DMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION provides basic policy and 
i^uidance to agencies in the administration of day-by-day transactions affect- 
ng the status of employees; provides a means for generating various manage- 
nent reports through the Personnel Management Information System; and 
brovides for systematic administration and budget control internal to the 
Office of State Personnel. 

State government make maximum use of all its human resources; create a bias 
Tee environment; assist State government to develop a personnel system 
Vhich provides each employee indiviudal opportunities; and to create a work 
"orce that reflects North Carolina's citizenry, using affirmative action and 
specialized program services as a catalyst for change. Specialized programs 
jind services offered include the: Model Cooperative Education Program, 
|\ffirmative Action Skills Bank, Positive Emphasis Program and the EEO 



joals are to provide every State agency with the capacity to train middle 
managers and supervisors to competently manage the performance of their 
Employees and to plan, develop and to implement a professional skills program 
Itvhich addresses employee development needs common to all State government 
lepartments and universities. Among its programs and services are the: Public 
Vlanager Program, Professional Skills and Supervisory Skills Training Pro- 
grams, Educational Assistance/Tuition Refund, and Media Services As- 

Employee services division provides staff services in the research 
md development of programs and policies which apply modern management 
i;oncepts and practices in the area of employee-employer relationships that will 

212 North Carolina Manual 

contribute to job satisfaction and effective productivity and will recognize the 
dignity and value of the individual. 

This division processes, reviews and coordinates employee appeals between 
the agency involved, the Office of Administration Hearings and the State 
Personnel Commission. Counseling and assistance is provided to employees 
wishing to file a complaint or an appeal. This division also provides staff 
support and services to the Commission. 

Programs and services of this division include the: Governor's Awards for 
Excellence, Service Awards, Wage and Hour Law Administration, Pre- 
Retirement Employee's Planning Program (PREPARE), Employee Assistance 
Program, and Employee/Management publications. 

WORKFORCE RESOURCES DIVISION administers policies guiding 
recruitment and selection for State positions, provides assistance to agencies 
in particular areas of recruitment needs and carries out recruitment goals 
advantageous to State government as a whole. The division provides an 
agency-type temporary employee service to state government offices trade- 
marked "Temporary Solutions." 

Other programs and services offered are: Careers in Government, Campus 
Recruitment, Counseling and Career Support Services, and Work Options. 

POSITION MANAGEMENT DIVISION has the primary responsibility of 
establishing and maintaining the State's Position Classification and Pay Plan 
for approximately 79,000 positions subject to the State Personnel Act and 140 
Local Government jurisdictions. 

The objectives of this program are to ensure equitable and competitive 
classification and pay relationships for positions, based upon the type and 
level of work and labor market demands; also, to provide an effective 
operational response to management for the organization and job needs of the 
State's programs and services to the public. These objectives are carried out 
according to statutory and policy provisions, within the framework of the pay 
structure established by the General Assembly and available financial 

The Executive Branch 



Richard V. Lee 


Harold H. Webb 


Al Boyles 


Claude Caldwell 


John L. Allen 


Walter E. Fuller 


Edwin S. Lanier 


John W. McDevitt 


Henry Hilton 


February 1985 - 
January 1977 - January 1985 
September 1974 - December 1976 
August 1965 - August 1974 
January 1964 - July 1965 
July 1962 - December 1963 
January 1962 - June 1962 
November 1950 - December 1961 
June 1949 - October 1950 


Mr. Garland S. Edwards, Chairman 


Ms. Angela Massengill 

Raleigh, NC 


Mr. Hal Scott 

.Graham, NC 


Ms. Vivian Fuse 

'Fayetteville, NC 

Mr. F. Douglas Biddy 

Durham, NC 

Mr. Robert M. Frazer 

Charlotte, NC 

Mr. Jeffrey P. Hunt 

Brevard, NC 



North Carolina Manual 

Richard V. Lee 


Early Years: Born in Charleston, 
W.Va., March 7, 1924, to Pattie Keeney 
Lee and the late Ivan Richard Lee. 

Education: Charleston, W. Va. 
public schools. 

Professional Background: State 
Personnel Director since 1985; Vice 
President, Jones Group, Inc., 
Charlotte, 1983; Vice President, In- 
dustrial Relations J. A. Jones Con- 
struction Co., Charlotte 1956-1983; 
General Manager, Whitman Corp. At- 
lanta, Georgia, 1953-56; Employment 
Manager, E. I. DuPont, SRP Atomic 
Energy Project 195U-53; Pust-war projects with J. A. Jones in Pacific Islands 
and Hanford, Wash. Atomic Energy Project. Professional Musician. 

Organizations: American Arbitration Association; Professional Member 
and past National Director, American Society of Safety Engineers; American 
Compensation Association; National Association of State Personnel Execu- 
tives; North Carolina Society, Sons of the American Revolution; Scottish Rite 
Mason, Shriner, Royal Order of Jesters, Past President, Red Fez Club, Past 
Captain Oasis Temple Marching Band. 

Boards and Commissions: North Carolina Chapter, International Per- 
sonnel Management Association; State Personnel System Study Commission; 
Committee on Governor's Conferences on Library and Information Services; 
Governor's Committee on Data Processing and Information Systems. 

Honors: Recipient of the 1987 Award for Excellence presented by the 
International Personnel Management Association to the Office of State 
Personnel "in recognition of its exemplary contributions to the efficiency and 
effectiveness of government personnel operations." 

Political Activities: Republican Party 

Military Service: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army. Service in Alaska and 
with Third Army in European Theatre. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Lutheran Church, Charlotte. 

Family: Married Jeanette Nordman of Charlotte, February 12, 1972. 
Children: Janet Elizabeth (Batchelor), Dorothy Candice, Kristin Suzanne. 
Children by previous marriage: Richard V., Jr., David Everist, Thomas 
Edmund, and Marian Carroll (Wilson). 

The Legislative Branch 215 

The Legislative Branch 


The Colonial Experience 

The General Assembly is the oldest governmental body in North Carolina. 
According to tradition, a "legislative assembly of free holders"met for the 
: first time around 1666; however, there is no proof that this assembly actu- 
ally met. Provisions for a representative assembly in Proprietary North 
Carolina can be traced to the Concessions and Agreements adopted in 1665 
and did not exist prior to this document. The Concessions and Agreement 
I called for an unicameral body composed of the governor, his council, and 
"twelve men . . . chosen annually" to sit as a legislature. This system of 
representation prevailed until 1670 when Albemarle County was divided 
into three smaller units called "precincts." Berkeley Precinct, Carteret Pre- 
cinct and Shaftsbury Precinct were apparently each allowed five repre- 
sentatives. Around 1682, four new precincts were created from the original 
> three as the population grew and moved westward. The number of repre- 
sentatives for new precincts was usually two, although some were granted 
: more. Beginning with the Assembly of 1723, several of the larger, more 
; important towns were allowed to elect their own representatives. Edenton 
! was the first town granted this privilege, followed by Bath, New Bern, Wil- 
' mington, Brunswick, Halifax, Campbellton (now Fayetteville), Salisbury, 
Hillsborough, and Tarborough. Around 1735 Albemarle and Bath Counties 
I ceased to exist and the geographical units known as "precincts" became 
i counties. 

} The unicameral form of the legislature continued until around 1697 when 
1 a bicameral form was adopted. The "upper house" was composed of the gov- 
ernor, or chief executive at the time, and his council. The "lower house," or 
. House of Burgesses, was made up of representatives elected from the various 
precincts. The lower house could adopt its own rules of procedure and elect 
its own speaker and other officers; however, it could meet only when called 
\ into session by the governor and only at a location designated by him. 
Because the lower house held "the power of the purse" and was responsible 
for paying the salary of the governor, regular meetings of the legislature 
were held at least once during a biennium, and usually more often. Through- 
out the colonial period, this control over the finances was a source of 
j controversy between the governor and the lower house. The House of 
i. Burgesses used this power effectively to increase its influence and prestige. 

Early Statehood 

When our first state constitution was adopted in 1776, the power struggle 
between the governor and his council on the one hand, and the Colonial 

216 North Carolina Manual 

Assembly on the other, had a profound effect on the structure of the new 
government. The legislature became the primary organ of government with 
control over all other areas of government. Its most important power was its 
authority to elect all officials in the executive and judicial branches. A joint 
ballot of the members of the state Senate and the state House of Commons 
was held to elect the various officials. On many occasions substantial 
amounts of time were used for these elections when a majority of votes was 
not received by one candidate. The first break from this procedure came in 
1835 when a constitutional amendment changed the method for electing the 
governor. Instead of being elected by the legislature for a one-year term, the 
governor was to be elected by the people for a two-year term. It would, 
however, be another thirty-three years before the remaining executive and 
judicial officials would be elected by the people. Provisions for this were 
incorporated into the Constitution of 1868. 

The Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature with mem- 
bers of both houses elected by the people. The Senate had one representative 
from each county, while the House of Commons had two representatives 
from each county and one from each of the towns given representative 
status in the constitution. This format continued until 1835 when several 
changes to the legislative branch were approved by the people. Membership 
in the Senate was set at 50 with senators elected from districts. The state 
was divided into districts with the number of senators based on the popula- 
tion of the individual districts. Membership of the House of Commons was 
set at 120 with representation based on the population of the county. The 
more populous counties had more representatives; however, each county was 
entitled to at least one representative. Provisions were made to adjust 
representation in both houses. These adjustments would be based on the 
federal census taken every ten years. The responsibility for adjusting dis- 
tricts and representation was given to the General Assembly. 

In 1868, a new constitution was adopted and several changes were made 
regarding the legislative branch. The bicameral structure was retained, but 
the name of the lower house was changed from the "House of Commons" to 
the "House of Representatives." Also the unfair "property qualification" 
provision for holding office was eliminated. For the first time since the 
Colonial Period, the office of lieutenant governor appeared. The lieutenant 
governor, elected by the people, would serve as president of the Senate, as 
well as being the next in line should something happen to the governor. 
Provisions were also made for the electing of a president pro tempore. The 
president pro tem, elected from among the members of the Senate by his ' 
peers, would take over in the absence of the president of the Senate. 

In 1966, the House of Representatives adopted a district representation 
similar to that of the Senate. Although the number of representatives stayed 
at 120, every county was no longer guaranteed a representative. Instead, the 
requirement to maintain a balance among districts in the constituent- 
representative ratio resulted in counties with lower populations losing their 
resident representative. The district format has left nearly one-third of the 
counties with no resident legislator. 

The Legislative Branch 217 

Meeting Places of the Legislature 

Prior to the establishment of Raleigh in 1792 as the permanent capital of 
'North Carolina, the seat of government was moved from town to town with 
each new General Assembly. This was also true during the colonial period. 
Halifax, Hillsborough, Fayetteville, New Bern, Smithfield, and Tarborough 
all shared the distinction of serving as the seat of government between 1776 
and 1794. The Assembly of 1794-95 was the first legislature to meet in 

, The buildings used as meeting places for the colonial and general 
assemblies varied as much as the location. If the structure was big enough 
to hold the legislators, it could be used. Courthouses, schools, and even local 
residences served as "legislative buildings." Tryon Palace in New Bern was 
the State's first capitol building. It was completed in 1771, but was aban- 
doned during the Revolutionary War because of its exposure to enemy 
attack. When Raleigh was established as the capital, provisions were made 
;for the construction of a simple, two-story brick state house. This structure 
was completed in 1796 and served as the home for the General Assembly 
until it was destroyed by fire in 1831. A new capitol building was authorized 
to be built and was completed in 1840. The first session to convene in the 
'Capitol was on November 16, 1840. Construction began on the current 
legislative building in early 1961 and on February 6, 1963, the first session 
was convened. 

The Legislative Branch Today 

The organizational structure established in the Constitution of 1868 re- 
mained basically unchanged with the adoption of the state's third constitu- 
!tion in 1971. As one of the three branches of government found in the 
constitution, the legislative branch is equal with, but independent of, the 
executive and judicial branches. It is composed of the General Assembly and 
lits administrative support units. 

I The Constitution of North Carolina gives the General Assembly the 
jlegislative, or lawmaking, power for the state. According to the state's 
iSupreme Court, this means that the legislature has ". . . the authority to 
make or enact laws; to establish rules and regulations governing the conduct 
of the people, their rights, duties and procedures; and to prescribe the 
iconsequences of certain activities." These mandates give the General 
Assembly the power to make new laws and amend or repeal existing laws on 
a broad range of issues that have statewide as well as local impact. The 
legislature also defines criminal law, which declares certain acts illegal. 

i . . 

piection of Legislators 

Legislators in both the Senate and House of Representatives are elected 
pvery two years in the even numbered years from districts established by 
law. Qualifications for election differ slightly for each house. For election to 
either house, a person must reside in the district he wants to represent for at 
j'east one year prior to the election and be a registered voter of the state. To 
'aualify for the Senate, a person must also be at least 25 years old on the date 

218 North Carolina Manual 

of the election and a resident of the state for two years immediately pre- 
ceding the election. To qualify for election to the House of Representatives, a 
person must be at least 21 years old on the date of the election in addition to 
the previously stated qualifications. 

A constitutional amendment approved by the voters in 1982 set January 1, 
following the November general election, as the date legislators officially 
take office. Prior to this amendment, legislators took office immediately 
following their election in November. 

The Organization of the General Assembly 

Two equal houses, the Senate with its 50 members and the House of 1 
Representatives with its 120 members, make up the General Assembly of I 
North Carolina. Each house elects a principal clerk, a reading clerk and a 
sergeant-at-arms as well as its own officers. The President of the Senate 
(lieutenant governor) presides over the Senate. A president pro tempore is 
elected by the senators from among their membership. In the House of 
Representatives, the speaker is elected by the representatives from among I 
their membership. Other officers in each respective house are elected either : 
by the membership as a whole or by the members from each party. 

Much of the legislative work of the General Assembly is accomplished 
through standing committees. Shortly after the start of the legislative 
session, standing committees are formed and members of each house are 
appointed to those in their respective houses. Beginning with the 1989 
session, the president pro tem will appoint senate committees, a duty tra- 
ditionally given the President of the Senate. The speaker appoints House 
committees. These officers attempt to make committee assignments which 
match the interest and expertise of legislators. There are 34 standing com- 
mittees in the Senate and 22 in the House for the current session. The House 
also has 33 subcommittees. |; 

Administrative authority for the General Assembly is vested in the Legisla- 
tive Services Commission. The president pro tempore of the Senate and the 
speaker of the House are ex officio chairmen of the Legislative Services 
Commission and each appoints six members from his respective house to 
serve on the Commission. The Commission employs a Legislative Administra- | 
five Officer who serves as chief staff officer for the Commission. In addition 
to an Administrative Division, there are four other support divisions, each , 
under a director appointed by the Legislative Services Commission. These ! 
are the Legislative Automated Systems Division, the Legislative Bill 
Drafting Division, the Fiscal Research Division and the General Research j 

The Administrative Division is headed by the Legislative Administrative ; 
Officer. Its primary role is to provide logistical support to the General ' 
Assembly in a variety of areas including budget preparation and administra- 
tion, building maintenance, equipment and supplies, mailing operations, j 
printing (including printed bills), and a host of other services. 

The Automated Systems Division is responsible for designing, developing, 
and maintaining a number of computer applications for use by the staff of 
the General Assembly. Bill typing, legal document retrieval, bill status 
reporting, fiscal information systems, office automation and electronic pub 

The Legislative Branch 219 

lishing are all functions of the division. Policies governing the operation of 
the Division and access to the Legislative Computer Center are set by a 

I Legislative Services Commission's subcommittee. 

I The Bill Drafting Division is responsible for assisting legislators in the 

j preparation of bills for introduction. Staff attorneys draft the bills and make 
sure they are entered into the computer, printed, and that the proper number 
of copies are delivered to the introducing legislator. There are numerous 
guidelines which must be followed to insure confidentiality. 

jl The Fiscal Research Division serves as the research and watchdog arm for 

the General Assembly on fiscal and compliance matters regarding state 

government. The statutory duties include various responsibilities in the 

areas of fiscal analysis, operational reviews and reporting. 

The General Research Division has as its primary function the respon- 

i sibility of obtaining information and making legal and nonfiscal analyses 

I of subjects affecting and affected by state law and government when re- 
quested to do so by a legislator or standing committee of the General 
Assembly. To a lesser extent, they also answer questions from other North 

I Carolina and sister state agencies and private citizens. 


North Carolina Manual 

George Rubin Hall, Jr. 

Legislative Services Officer 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh, NC 
April 14, 1939, to George Rubin, Sr. (de- 
ceased) and Ludie Jane (Conner) Hall. 

Education: Hugh Morson High School 
1953-55; Needham Broughton High 
School, 1955-57; Campbell College, 1964, 
B.S.; Post-graduate work NC State Uni- 
versity in Public Personnel Administra- 
tion; Government Executives Institute, 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1982. 

Professional Background: Legisla- 
tive Services Officer, 1979-; 14 years, NC | 
Division of Vocational Rehabilitation; former Administrative Officer with i 
NC General Assembly; Licensed Building Contractor; Licensed Real Estate j 

Organizations: National Rehabilitation Association; NC Rehabilitation 

Association. I 

Boards: Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations, Southern Legislative \ 

Conference; Legislative Organization and Management Committee, National i 

Conference of State Legislators; former member. Wake County School Board 

Advisory Council; Manpower Area Planning Council, Region J, 1972-73. 

Military Service: Served, NC Army National Guard, Staff Sgt., 1959-60, \ 
(active), 1960-65, (reserves). ^ 

Religious Activities: Member, Longview Baptist Church, Raleigh, NC. 

Family: Married, Carolyn Marie Young of Raleigh, June 26, 1960. 
Children: George Rubin, III, W. Gregory, and Carolyn Elizabeth. 

The Legislative Branch 221 


bonveriing of the Session 

s The 1991 General Assembly, the State's 139th, was convened in the 
J*espective chambers of the Senate and House of Representatives in the 
Legislative Building in Raleigh at Noon on January 11, by Lieutenant 
jovernor James C. Gardner, in the Senate and Principal Clerk of the House, 
jrace Collins. Lt. Governor Gardner, a Republican, is the first member of 
lis party to be elected as lieutenant governor in this century. The convening 
)f the House by the principal clerk marked the first time since 1941 that the 
secretary of State was not afforded that role. 

I Prior to 1957, the General Assembly convened in January at a time fixed 
hy the Constitution of North Carolina. From 1957 through 1967, sessions 
honvened in February at a time fixed by the Constitution. The 1969 General 
\ssembly was the first to convene on a date fixed by law after elimination of 
he constitutionally fixed date (Chapter 1181, Session Laws of North Caro- 
lina, 1967 Session). This act set the "First Wednesday after the second 
\londay in January after the election" as the convening date. The 1991 
Greneral Assembly convened on Wednesday, January 30, 1991, as directed by 
law and did not adjourn until Tuesday, July 16, 1991, 167 days later. 

Women in the General Assembly 

, The first woman to serve in the General Assembly was Lillian Exum 
plement of Buncombe County who serve in the 1921 House of Representa- 
tives. More than seventy-five different women have served in the General 
l^ssembly since that time. There are twenty-five women in the 1991 General 
\ssembly — five in the Senate and twenty in the House of Representatives. 
This is a new record, breaking the old record of 24 shared by several 

Senator Lura S. Tally, a Democrat from Cumberland County, and Repre- 
jentative Jo Graham Foster, a Democrat from Mecklenburg County, are in 
heir tenth terms in the General Assembly, breaking the record for service 
j)reviously held by former Representative Nancy W. Chase of Wayne County 
ivho served eight terms -all in the House. Senator Tally has served five terms 
!p the House and five in the Senate; Representative Foster has served all of 

!^er terms in the House. 


.ilinorities in the General Assembly 

j During Reconstruction after the Civil War, and particularly after the 
adoption of the Constitution of 1868, minorities were elected to the General 
Assembly. Fifteen blacks were elected to the House of Representatives and 
jiwo to the Senate in 1868. Under the leadership of Representative Parker D. 
ilobbins of Hertford County and Senators A. H. Galloway of New Hanover 
j/ounty and John A. Hyman of Warren County, the 1868 General Assembly 
[pproved the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 
yhich guaranteed citizenship for blacks. As conservative democrats re- 
gained power following reconstruction, black representation in the General 
'Assembly disappeared. 

The first black to serve in the General Assembly during this century was 
jlenry E. Frye from Guilford County who served in the House of Representa- 

222 North Carolina Manual 

tives in 1969. Nineteen blacks have been elected to serve in the 1991 j 
legislature - five in the Senate and fourteen in the House of Representatives, i 
This is a new record breaking the old record of sixteen for the 1987-88 : 
Session. Mr. Frye also holds the record for most terms served with seven -six j 
in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate. 

Miscellaneous Facts and Figures 

The oldest member of the 1991 Senate is R. L. Martin (11/8/18), a Demo- 
crat from Pitt County. The youngest member of the 1991 Senate is John I 
Carter (6/5/56), a Republican from Lincoln County. 

The oldest member of the 1991 House of Representatives is Gordon H. j 
Greenwood (7/3/09), a Democrat from Buncombe County. The youngest 
member of the 1991 House of Representatives is Wayne Kahl (5/31/63), a | 
Democrat from Iredell County. j 

The Senator with the longest tenure is James D. Speed, a Democrat from I 
Franklin County, serving his fourteenth term - six in the House and eight in j 
the Senate. The Representative with the longest tenure is Liston B. Ramsey, j 
a Democrat from Madison County, serving his fifteenth term - all in the I 
House. The all-time record for service is held by former state Representative 
Dwight Quinn, a Democrat from Cabarrus County, who served all of his ! 
eighteen terms in the House. 

Salaries of Legislators ' 

The base salary of a member of the 1991 General Assembly is $12,504.00 
per year with a monthly expense allowance of $522.00. Officers of the 
respective houses get higher base salaries and expense allowances. The| 
Speaker of the House has a base salary of $35,100.00 per year and a monthly 
expense allowance of $1,320.00. The President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 
receives $35,100.00 and $1,320.00 respectively; the Senate Deputy Prol 
Tempore receives $19,776.00 and $780.00, respectively; the Speaker Pro 
Tempore of the House receives $19,776.00 and $780.00 respectively; and the| 
Majority and Minority Leaders of each house receive $15,396.00 and $622.00| 
respectively. During the legislative session and when they are carrying out' 
the state's business, all legislators receive a subsistence allowance of $81.00, 
a day and a travel allowance of $.25 per mile. ' 


The Legislative Branch 223 



'resident (Lieutenant Governor) James C. Gardner 

'resident Pro Tempore Henson P. Barnes 

)eputy President Pro Tempore Kenneth C. Royall, Jr. 

/lajority Leader Ted Kaplan 

Minority Leader Robert G. Shaw 

Majority Whips WiUiam D. Goldston, Jr. 

Helen R. Marvin 

James F. Richardson 

Alexander P. Sands III 

linority Whip Paul S. Smith 

'rincipal Clerk Sylvia M. Fink 

.eading Clerk LeRoy Clark, Jr. 

jergeant-at-Arms Gerda Pleasants 

I Senators 

fame District County Address 

Jlran, Austin M. (R) 26th Catawba Hickory 

•allance, Frank W., Jr 2nd Warren Warrenton 

'■arnes, Henson P 8th Wayne Goldsboro 

asnight, Marc 1st Dare Manteo 

lackmon, John Gerald (R) 35th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

lock, Frank 4th New Hanover Wilmington 

Iryan, Howard (R) 39th Iredell Statesville 

arpenter, Robert (R) 42nd Macon Franklin 

Jarter, John (R) 25th Lincoln Lincolnton 

jochrane, Betsy L. (R) 38th Davie Advance 

;onder, J. Richard 17th Richmond Rockingham 

!ooper, Roy A. Ill 10th Nash Rocky Mount 

Janiel, George B 21st Caswell Yanceyville 

laughtry, N. Leo (R) 11th Johnston Smithfield 

zzell, James E., Jr.' 10th Nash Rocky Mount 

orrester, James (R) 39th Gaston Stanly 

ddston, W.D., Jr 12th Rockingham Eden 

jartsell, Fletcher, Jr. (R) 22nd Cabarrus Concord 

unt, Ralph A 13th Durham Durham 

'yde, Herbert Lee 28th Buncombe Asheville 

phnson, Joseph E 14th Wake Raleigh 

faplan, Ted 20th Forsyth Lewisville 

'incaid, Donald R. (R) 27th Caldwell Lenoir 

ee, Howard N 16th Orange Chapel Hill 

Jartin, R.L 6th Pitt Bethel 

lartin, William, N 31st Guilford Greensboro 

[arvin, Helen Rhyne 25th Gaston Gastonia 

[urphy, Wendell H 5th Duplin Rose Hill 

dom, T.L 34th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

amell, David 30th Robeson Parkton 

■erdue, Beverly 3rd Craven New Bern 

iexico, Clark 29th Henderson Hendersonville 

lyler, Aaron W 17th Union Monroe 

bllard, B. Tommy (R) 4th Onslow Jacksonville 

aynor, JoeB 24th Cumberland Fayetteville 

ichardson, James F 33rd Mecklenburg Charlotte 

pyall, Kenneth C, Jr 13th Durham Durham 

l ands, A.P ., III 12th Rockingham Reidsville 

iZzell died on the first day of the 1991 session. He was replaced by James Forrester. 

224 North Carolina Manual 

Name District County Address i 

Seymour, Mary 32nd Guilford Greensboro 

Shaw, Robert G. (R) 19th Guilford Greensboro ; 

Sherron, J.K 14th Wake Raleigh 

Simpson, Daniel R. (R) 27th Burke Morganton 

Smith, Paul S. (R) 23rd Rowan Salisbury! 

Soles, R.C., Jr 18th Columbus Tabor City | 

Speed, James D 11th Franklin LouisburgI 

Staton, William W 15th Lee Sanford 

Tally, Lura S 24th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Walker, Russell G 16th Randolph Asheboroj 

Ward, Marvin M 20th Forsyth Winston-Salem. 

Warren, Ed N 9th Pitt Greenville | 

Winner, Dennis J 28th Buncombe Ashevillei 


The Legislative Branch 225 

Speakers of the Senate 

ssembly Senator County 

1777 Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

1778 WhitmelHill Martin 

I Allen Jones Northampton 

|779 Allen Jones Northampton 

j Abner Nash Jones 

1780 Abner Nash Jones 

Alexander Martin Guilford 

1781 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1782 Alexander Martin Guilford 

j Richard Caswell Dobbs 

i783 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

784 (April) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

784 (October) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

785 Alexander Martin Guilford 

786-87 James Coor Craven 

787 Alexander Martin Guilford 

788 Alexander Martin Guilford 

789 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

Charles Johnston Chowan 

790 William Lenoir Wilkes 

791-92 William Lenoir Wilkes 

792-93 William Lenoir Wilkes 

793-94 William Lenoir Wilkes 

794-95 William Lenoir Wilkes 

795 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

,796 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

797 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

798 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

;799 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

!800 Joseph Riddick Gates 

.801 Joseph Riddick Gates 

802 Joseph Riddick Gates 

l803 Joseph Riddick Gates 

'804 Joseph Riddick Gates 

805 Alexander Martin Guilford 

j806 Joseph Riddick Gates 

|807 Joseph Riddick Gates 

808 Joseph Riddick Gates 

809 Joseph Riddick Gates 

810 Joseph Riddick Gates 

811 Joseph Riddick Gates 

812 George Outlaw Bertie 

'813 George Outlaw Bertie 

814 George Outlaw Bertie 

,315 John Branch Halifax 

P16 John Branch Halifax 

|pi7 John Branch Halifax 

j Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

818 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

'819 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

820 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

$21 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

822 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

823-24 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

•824-25 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

'^25-26 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

226 North Carolina Manual 

Assembly Senator County j 

1826-27 Bartlett Yancey Caswell! 

1827-28 Bartlett Yancey Caswellj 

1828-29 Jesse Speight Greenei 

1829-30 Bedford Brown Caswell J 

David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1830-31 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1831-32 David F. Caldwell Rowanl 

1832-33 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1833-34 William D. Mosely Lenoir^ 

1834-35 William D. Mosely Lenoir! 

1835 William D. Mosely Lenoir; 

1836-37 Hugh Waddell Orange] 

1838-39 Andrew Joyner Halifax) 

1840-41 Andrew Joyner Halifax j 

1842-43 Lewis D. Wilson Edgecombej 

1844-45 Burgess S. Gaither Burke- 

1846-47 Andrew Joyner Halifax! 

1848-49 Calvin Graves Caswell' 

1850-51 Weldon N. Edwards Warren 

1852 Weldon N. Edwards Warren| 

1854-55 Warren Winslow Cumberland i 

1856-57 Wilham W. Avery Burkei 

1858-59 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1860-61 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1862-64 Giles Mebane Alamance! 

1864-65 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1865-66 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1866-67 Matthias E. Manly Craven 

Joseph H. Wilson Mecklenburg 

Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate* 

Assembly Senator County 

1870-72 Edward J. Warren Beaufort 

1872-74 James T. Morehead Guilford 


1876-77 James L. Robinson Macon; 

1879-80 WilUam A. Graham Lincoln; 

1881 WiUiamT. Dorch Buncombej 

1883 ■) 

1885 E. T. Boykin Sampson 


1889 [Edwin W. Kerr] Sampson^ 

1891 Wilham D. Turner Iredelli 

1893 JohnL. King Guilford 

1895 E. L. Franck, Jr Onslow 

1897 1 

1899-1900 R.L.Smith Stanly 

F. A. Whitaker Wake 

1901 Henry A. London Chatham: 

1903 Henry A. London Chatham^ 

*With the adoption of a new constitution in 1868, the office of "Speaker of the Senate" ceased to exist. A provisioi^ 
in the constitution created the office of "lieutenant governor" whose duties and functions were similar to thosi 
previously carried out by the speaker. The lieutenant governor presides over the senate and is called "Th; 
President of the Senate" when serving in this capacity. The senators also elected one of their own to serve ai 
"President Pro Tempore" during periods when the lieutenant can not preside. 

The Legislative Branch 227 


i Assembly Senator County 

1 1905 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1907-1908 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

, 1909 Whitehead Klutz Rowan 

1911 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1913 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1915 Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland 

1917 Fordyce C. Harding Pitt 

1919-20 Lindsey C. Warren Washington 

1921 WiUiam L. Long Halifax 

1923-24 William L. Long Halifax 

1925 William S. H. Burgwyn Northampton 

1927 WiUiam L. Long Halifax 

1929 Thomas L. Johnson Robeson 

1931 Rivers D. Johnson Duplin 

1933 William G. Clark Edgecombe 

1935 PaulD. Grady Johnston 

1937-38 Andrew H. Johnston Buncombe 

James A. Bell Mecklenburg 

:1939 Whitman E. Smith Stanly 

1941 John D. Larkins, Jr Jones 

1943 John H. Price Rockingham 

1945 Archie C. Gay Northampton 

1947 Joseph L. Blythe Mecklenburg 

1949 James C. Pittman Lee 

1951 Rufus G. Rankin Gaston 

1953 Edwin Pate Scotland 

1955-56 Paul E.Jones Pitt 

,1957 Claude Currie Durham 

i959 Robert F. Morgan Cleveland 

1961 WilHamL. Crew Halifax 

1963 Ralph H.Scott Alamance 

'1965-66 Robert B. Morgan Harnett 

,967 Herman A. Moore Mecklenburg 

■.969 Neill H. McGeachy Cumberland 

|971 Frank N. Patterson, Jr Stanly 

' Gordon P. Allen Person 

1.973-74 Gordon P. Allen Person 

[975-76 John T.Henley Cumberland 

977-78 JohnT. Henley Cumberland 

979-80 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

981-82 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

983-84 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

!985-86 J.J.Harrington Bertie 

'987-88 J.J.Harrington Bertie 

i989-90 Henson P. Barnes Wayne 

1990-91 Henson P. Barnes Wayne 


North Carolina Manual 

The Legislative Branch 229 

Henson P. Barnes 


(Democrat - Wayne County) 
Eighth Senatorial District - Greene and Wayne Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Bladen County, November 18, 1934, to Reverend 
Lalon L. and Mable (Cumbee) Barnes. 

Education: Garland High School, 1953; Wilmington College, 1958, A.A.; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1959, A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill School of Law, 1961, J.D. 

Professional Background: Partner in firm of Barnes, Braswell, 
Haithcock & Warren, P. A.; American Bar Association; North Carolina Bar 
Association; North Carolina Academy of Trial Lawyers; Wayne County Bar 

Organizations: Wayne County, N.C., and American Bar Associations; 
American Trial Lawyers Association; Masonic Order; Shrine; Elks; American 
Legion; Moose Lodge; Civitan Club; National Trustee, Woodmen of the 

Boards: Energy Policy Council; Courts Commission; Board of Governors, 
N.C. Bar Association; Board of Directors, N.C. Blueberry Association; Board 
of Directors, N.C. Grape Growers Association. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, since 1977-; N.C. House of 
Representatives, 1975-76; Chairman, Wayne County Democratic Party; 
former President, Wayne County Young Democrats. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-56; Paratrooper. 

Honors: US Great American Family of the Year Award, presented by 
Nancy Reagan at the White House, 1985; National Environmental Award, 
Take Pride in America," presented by President Reagan at the White 
House, 1987; Outstanding Legislator Award for Contribution to Trails, NC 
Trails Association, 1987; Outstanding Legislator, NC Handicapped Associa- 
tion, 1985-86; Outstanding Legislator, NC Parks Association, 1985-86; Out- 
standing Legislator, Academy of Trial Lawyers, 1981-82; Legislative Award 
jf Excellence, Crime Commission, 1983-84; Woodmen of the World, Man of 
;he Year, 1985; Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters, William Carter College, 
L979; Robert H. Futrell Good Environment Award, 1975; Outstanding Jaycee 
^'resident (Southeast Region), 1964; Outstanding Young Man, Goldsboro, 
L963; Legislator of the Year Award, for service and dedication to education 
md the cause of counselors, N.C. School Counselor Association, 1990. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Goldsboro; Deacon; 
5unday School Teacher; Budget and Finance Board. 

Family: Married, Kitty Allen Barnes, August 17, 1961. Children: Mrs. 
3avid C. (Rebecca) Richards and Ms. Amy Barnes. 

Ex-Officio — All Standing Committees. 


North Carolina Manual 

Kenneth C. Royall, Jr. 


(Democrat - Durham County) 

Thirteenth Senatorial District - Durham, 
Granville, Orange (part) and Person 

Early Years: Born in Warsaw, 
Duplin County, September 2, 1918, to 
Kenneth Claiborne and Margaret 
Pierce (Best) Royall, Sr. 

Education: Goldsboro High 
School, 1932-34; Episcopal High 
School, 1936; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1940, 
A.B.; UVA, School of Law, 1940-41; 
Wake Forest University School of 
Law, 1941-42. 

Professional Background: Furniture retailer (owner, Style Craft In- 

Organizations: Director, American Red Cross; Director, YMCA; Director, 
NC Merchant's Association, 1975-76; Rotary Club; Elks Club; Delta Kappa i 
Epsilon; Director, Training for Hearing Impaired Children, 1971-76; Vice- 
President, NC Committee for Prevention of Blindness, 1973-76; Durham ;, 
Chamber of Commerce, 1962-72 (Director and Vice President, 1972); ' 

Boards: Board of Directors, Keep North Carolina Beautiful, 1985-91; i 
Chairman, Council of state Governments, 1981-82; Chairman, Southern ij 
Leadership Conference, 1979-80; Legislative Building Commission, 1971-72; ' 
Board of Higher Education, 1971-72; Executive Residence Building Commis- 
sion, 1972; Chairman, Mental Health Study Commission, 1972-83; Govern- 
mental Operations System, 1974-90; Director, Eckerd Wilderness Educa- 
tional System of NC, 1978-81; Durham Advisory Board, Duke Hospital,. 
1975-89; director. Triangle Service Center, Inc., 1974-89; Executive Com-| 
mittee, NCSL, 1976-78, 1980-81, 1984-; NCSL Legislative Leaders, 1985-86. | 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-present, (10 terms); Senate I 
Majority Leader, 1973-74, 1977-86; Legislative Services Commission, 1973-; ! 
NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971; Chairman, Advisory Budgeti 
Commission, 1981-91. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1942-45 (Major); Platoon 
Leader, South Pacific, World War II; Bronze Star with Combat V. 

Honors: Certificate of Appreciation and Recognition, NC Psychologyij 
Association, 1983; Honorary L.L.D, NCCU, 1982; Honorary L.L.D., Duke' 
University, 1985; Legislator of the Year, NCSEA, 1980; Outstanding State 
Legislator, NCSGEA, 1980, and Assembly of Government Employees, 1980; 
Most Influential Member of NC Senate, 1979-88; Distinguished Service 

The Legislative Branch 231 

Award for Outstanding Legislative Service, NC Mental Health Center Asso- 
ciation, 1978; Civic Honor Award, Durham Chamber of Commerce, 1977; 
Valand Award (outstanding service to mental health), 1976; Distinguished 
i Service Award, NC Public Health Association, 1975; Certificate of Commenda- 
tion, National Association of Mental Health, 1974; Distinguished Service 
Medal, UNC Alumni, 1985; NC Citizens for Industry, Distinguished Service 
Award, 1989; Distinguished Legislator Award, DSLLA, 1988. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Phillip's Episcopal Church, Durham; 
Senior Warden, 1964; Junior Warden, 1959; Vestry, three terms. 

Family: Married, Julia Bryan Zollicoffer, February 10, 1945. Children: 
) Kenneth C, HI, Jere Zollicoffer and Julia Bryan. 



Chairman: Appropriations, Ways & Means. 

Vice Chairman: Finance, Higher Education 

Member: Human Resources; Pensions and Retirement; Public Utilities; 
Rules and Operation of the Senate; State Government. 


North Carolina Manual 

Ian Theodore Kaplan 


(Democrat - Forsyth County) 

Twentieth Senatorial District - Forsyth 
County (Part). 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, 
Guilford County, December 26, 1946, 
to Leon and Renee (Myers) Kaplan. 

Education: Riverside Military 
Academy, 1962-64; R.J. Reynolds 
High School, 1965; Guilford College. 

Professional Background: Lewis- 
ville Trading Co. 

Political Activities: Member, NC 
Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989- ; NC 
House of Representatives, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1969-71; Reserves, 1968-69 (E-3). 

Religious Activities: Member, Temple Emanuel, Winston-Salem. 

Family: Married, Vivian Deanna Frazier, February 20, 1988. Children: 
Sarah Elizabeth. 


Vice Chairman: Rules and Operations of the Senate; Ways and Means; 
Legislative Redistricting Subcommittee. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Constitution; Election Laws; 
Finance; Redistricting, Transportation. 


The Legislative Branch 


Robert G. Shaw 


(Republican - Guilford County) 

Nineteenth Senatorial District - Forsyth 
(part) and Guilford (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Erwin, 
Harnett County, November 22, 1924, 
to R.G.B. and Annie (Byrd) Shaw. 

Education: Campbell College; 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Professional Background: 


Boards: Chairman, NC Council on 
Community and Economic Develop- 
ment, 1975-77; Member, Natural and 
Economic Resources Board, 1975-77; 
Member, NC Advisory Budget Com- 
jlmittee; Member, Joint Legislative Committee on Governmental Operations. 

I Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989- ; NC 
'Republican Party Chairman, 1975-77; Republican National Committee, 1975- 
'11; County Commissioner, Guilford County, 1968-76, (former Chairman). 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1943-46. 

j Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church, Greensboro. 

j Family: Married, Linda Owens of High Point, 1981. Children: Ann (Shaw) 
iHewett and Barbara (Shaw) Twining. Grandsons: Robert C. Hewett; John 
IChristopher Hewett, James V. Twining, Jr., John Robert Twining, Michael 
(Twining, Steven S. Twining. , 


I Ranking Minority Member: Environment and Natural Resources; Local 
Government; Travek & Tourism. 

Vice-Chairman: Banks & Thrift Institutions; Redistricting. 

L Member: Agriculture/Marine Resources & Wildlife; Finance; Higher Educa- 
on; Ways & Means. 


North Carolina Manual 

William D. Goldston, Jr. 


(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

Twenty-fourth Senatorial District — 
Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham, Stokes, 
Surry and Watauga Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, December 26, 
1925, to William D. and Rose (Hin- 
son) Goldston. 

Education: Leaksville Public 
Schools; Oak Ridge Military Insti- 
tute, 1942-44; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1945; 
High Point College, 1947, B.S.; (Busi- 
ness); UNC-Chapel Hill, 1966-67 (Exe- 
cutive Program). 

Profession: Retired business exe- 
cutive, 1984; President, Goldston, 
Inc., 1952-83; Marshall Field & Co., 1948-52; Goldston Transfer, 1947-48); 
Vice President, Standard Holding Co. (Director). 

Organizations: American Trucking Association (Former Director); NC 
Motor Carriers Association (President, 1972-73); Eden Chamber of Com- 
merce; Masonic Order; Shrine; UNC Chancellor's Club. Former member: 
Jaycees; Rotary (President); Tri City Chamber of Commerce (Chairman, 
New Industry Committee), Director, Texfi Industries, Inc. 

Boards: Rockingham Community College Foundation; UNC Educational 
Foundation; Local Board, NCNB; former Chairman, Leaksville School 
Board, 1961-1969 (Chairman, 1967). 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1944-45; pilot training. Served, 
NC National Guard, 1947-50; (2nd Lieutenant). I 

Honors: Citizen of the Year, 1984 (Eden Chamber of Commerce), NC Boss 
of the Year, 1971; Boss of the Year, Eden Jaycees, 1970; Eden Man of the 
Year, 1967. i 

Religious Activities: Member, Leaksville Methodist Church, Eden; 
Administrative Board; Chairman, Foundation Committee. 

Family: Married, Beverly M. Burton, August 25, 1946. Children: William 
D., III. 


Chairman: Transportation 

Viee-Chairman: Finance 

Member: Alcohol Beverage Control; Higher Education; Human Resources; ^ 
Insurance; Manufacturing and Labor; Public Utilities; State Personnel andj 
State Government; Ways and Means. 

The Legislative Branch 


Helen Rhyne Marvin 


(Democrat - Gaston County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District - 
Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
Rutherford Counties. 

Early Years: Born Gastonia, 
Gaston County, November 30, 1917, 
to Dane S. and Tessie (Hastings) 

Education: Gastonia High School, 
1934; Furman University, 1938, B.A. 
Magna Cum Laude (History, Political 
Science); LSU, 1939, M.A. (Govern- 
ment); Post Graduate Studies, 
Winthrop College; UNC-Chapel Hill; 
UNC-Charlotte; University of 
Colorado; University of Vermont; 
University of Oslo. 

Professional Background: Realtor (President, Marvin Rhyne Realty 
,I!ompany); Former College Instructor, Gaston College; former public school 

I Organizations: Southern and N.C. Political Science Association, Former 
president; Rho Chapter Delta Kappa Gamma; Altrusa Club of Gastonia; 
i^.C. Retired School Personnel Associations. 

Boards: Director, Gaston County Mental Health Association; Gaston 
]!ounty Family Service; Gaston County Children's Council; Gaston County 
i!!!ouncil for Exceptional Children; N.C. Equity, Flatrock Playhouse, Vaga- 
)ond Players; N.C. Child Support Council. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
i983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-91 ; NCSL Committee on Children, Youth and 
i''amilies;Gaston County Democratic Women (Former President); N.C. Unity 
^arty Committee, 1980; Vice Chairman, N.C. Democratic Party Platform 
pmmittee, 1984; Delegate National Democratic Convention, 1972, 1984; 
|)emocratic Legislative Policy Committee. 

I Honors: Valedictorian, College Graduating Class, Outstanding Educator, 
*aston College, 1975; Woman of the Year, Gastonia Evening Civitan Club, 
i978; Valand Award (outstanding legislator in mental health), 1980 & 1988; 
.C. Council Community, MH/MR/SA Program Award 1985; Ham Stevens 
ward for services to Public Health in NC, 1987; Ellen Winston Award for 
ocial Services Legislation, 1988; NC Distinguished Women Award, 1988; 
iaston County Democratic Women Distinguished Service Award, 1989. 
JCAE Friend of Education Award, 1989; N.C. Assoc. Director of Dev. 
isability Center Outstanding Service Award, 1990; NC Association for 
fducation of Young Children Award, 1990; Alliance for Mentally 111 Legis- 

236 North Carolina Manual 

lator of the Year Award, 1990; NCAE Excellence in Equity Award, 1991; 
Gaston Co. Democratic Women Distinguished Service Award, 1989. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Gastonia; 
Former Sunday School Teacher; Deacon; Elder. 

Family: Married, Ned I. Marvin, November 21, 1941. Children: Kathryn, 
Richard and David, Five grandchildren. 


Chairman: Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety. 

Vice Chairman: Constitution. 

Member: Agriculture, Marine Resources, and Wildlife; Appropriations; 
Base Budget, Education; Human Resources; Judiciary II; Pensions and 
Retirement; Redistricting (Subcommittee on Congressional Redistricting); 
Rules and Operations of the Senate. 

The Legislative Branch 

James Franklin Richardson 


(Democrat-Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-third Senatorial District- 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, May 20, 1926, 
to Sam and Addie (Pickens) Richard- 

Education: Second Ward High 
School, 1943; Johnson C. Smith Uni- 
versity, 1949, B.S. 

Professional Background: Re- 
tired (former postmaster). 

Organizations: Masons; NAACP; 
Omega Psi Phi; Sigma Pi Phi. 

Boards: Director, WTVI Public Television; Director, Charlotte Mint 
luseum; former Director, Charlotte Housing Authority; former Chairman, 
JC Social Services Commission and Mecklenburg Social Services Depart- 

: Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1987-88, 1989-90; 1991-92; 
'I.e. House of Representatives, 1985-86. 

; Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1944-46 (Aviation Metal Smith 1st 


I Religious Activities: Member, Memorial Presbyterian church, Charlotte; 
Jder, Social Action Committee. 

Family: Married,, Mary E. Nixon of Columbia, South Carolina, April 16, 
964. Children: Gregory and James Franklin, Jr. 


, Chairman: Appropriations-Human Resources. 

* Vice Chairman: State Personnel and State Government. 

Member: Appropriations, Base Budget, Education, Human Resources, 
udiciary II, Local Government and Regional Affairs, Manufacturing and 
Jabor, Transportation, Redistricting. 


North Carolina Manual 

Alexander P. Sands, III 


(Democrat-Rockingham County) 

Twenty-Fourth Senatorial District- 
Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham, Stokes, 
Surry, and Watauga. 

Early Years: Born in Reidsvilh 
Rockingham County, October 2t 
1945, to A. Paul and Kathryi 
(Jenkins) Sands, Jr. 

Education: Reidsville Senior Hig 
School, 1963; Duke University, AE 
Political Science, 1967; University c 
North Carolina School of Law, Jl 
(with honors) 1971. 

Professional Background: Atto] 
ney, Partner, Bethea and Sands; NC Bar Association; NC Academy of Tri^ 
Lawyers, Rockingham County Bar Association, (president, 1984-85); Associt^ 
tion of Trial Lawyers of America. j 

Organizations: Reidsville Rotary Club, President, 1983; Rockinghar 
County Farm Bureau; Reidsville Jaycees, President, 1974-75. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1987-88, 1989-90, Majoritj 
Whip 1989-90, Chairman, Senate Democratic Legislative Campaign ConI 
mittee 1989-90. 

Military: Served, NC National Guard, (sp.5), 1968-74. , 

Religious Activities: Member Woodmont United Methodist Churcl 
Administrative Board; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Virginia Lee Coffield, of High Point, August 15, 197f 
Children: Andy and Anna. 


Chairman: Judiciary II 

Vice Chairman: Election Laws 

Member: Agriculture, Marine Resources and Wildlife, Finance, Locsj 
Government and Regional Affairs, Redistricting, Legislative Redistrictirj 
Subcommittee, State Personnel and State Government. 

The Legislative Branch 


Paul Sanders Smith 


(Republican-Rowan County) 

Twenty-Third Senatorial District- 
Davidson, Davie and Rowan Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Salisbury, 
Rowan County, March 16, 1927, to 
Karl F. and Mary (Sanders) Smith. 

Education: Boyden High School, 
1948; Catawba College, 1948-49; PMA 
Management Institute, UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1966-70; Legislative Leaders, Ad- 
vanced Management Program, 
Boston University. 

Professional Background: Exe- 
cutive Vice President, Marketing and 
Operations, Holding Brothers, Inc. 

i Organizations: Salisbury Sales and Marketing Executives (President, 
;975-76); Salisbury-Rowan Merchants Association (President, 1975); Lexing- 
on Retail Merchants Association; Rowan Oil Dealers Association (President, 
966-67); NC Merchants Association, Advisory Board, 1982-present; Boy 
iCouts of America (Scoutmaster; Advisory Board, Central N.C. Council, 
'983-present); Coach (Little League Baseball and YMCA Basketball); Salis- 
ury Chamber of Commerce (President, 1976); Lexington Chamber of Com- 
|ierce; Salisbury Rotary (Director, 1970-71;); Salvation Army Advisory 
I'Oard, 1979-present; Davidson County Art Guild; Catawba College Alumni 
Issociation; Friends of the Library Association for Retarded Citizens; North 
jjtate Football Officials Association; Tri-County Mental Health Board; 
Jnited Way (Budget Chairman, 1976); N.C. Transportation Museum Board 
385-; Ex. Committee Yadkin - Pee Dee River Basin. 

'Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-88; 
,^89-90; Senate Minority Whip, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Southern Regional 
Iducation Board 1986-; Rowan County Republican Party, Chairman, 1983- 
1; GOP Presidential Elector, 8th District, 1984; Chairman, Rules and Resolu- 
|)ns, GOP 8th District, 1984; State Executive Committee 1981-84; Chairman, 
jowan County Board of Commissioners, 1978-79; Advisory Budget Commis- 
|on; Inaugural Committee 1988; Energy Committee of Southern Legislative 
Uference; ALEC; Public School Forum of N.C. National COIL; NCSL. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy, 1943-45 (Seaman 1st Class). 

I Honors: Friend of the Library, 1983; Oil Industry Award, N.C. Oil 
>bbers; Order of the Arrow; Scouter's Key; Man of the Year, 1976; Citizen of 
e Year, 1975; Boss of the Year, 1971; Friend of the Boy; 1965; MLK 
umanitarian Award, 1989; NFIB Guardian 1988. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Lutheran Church, Salisbury; 

240 North Carolina Manual 

Church Council; Pulpit Committee; Men of the Church; Vice President, J. L 
Fisher Bible Class; Chairman, Education Committee; Lutheran Services 

Family: Married, Alda Olivia Clark of Salisbury, September 4, 1950' 
Children: Paula, Charles, and Amy. 


Chairman: New Licensing Boards 

Vice Chairman: Finance; Education. 

Ranking Minority Member: Finance; Public Utilities; Transportation 
Human Resources. 

Member: Highway Oversight; Low-level Radioactive Waste; Redistricting 
Congressional Redistricting; Utility Review Board; Insurance; Manufac 
turing and Labor 

The Legislative Branch 


Austin Murphy Allran 

(Republican - Catawba County) 

Twenty-sixth Senatorial District -Alexander, 
Catawba, Iredell and Yadkin Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Hickory, 
Catawba County, December 13, 1951, to 
Albert M. and Mary Ethel (Houser) 

Education: Hickory High School, 
1970; Duke University, 1974, B.A.; South- 
ern Methodist University, School of Law, 
1978, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: N.C. State Bar; 
atawba County Bar Association; Catawba County Chamber of Commerce; 
ickory Museum of Art; Catawba County Historical Association; Duke 
niversity Alumni Association; Hickory Landmarks Society; Friends of the 
hapel, Duke University; Special Friend of Hickory Choral Society; Chief 
!rustee of the A.M. Allran Charitable Trust. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-; Mem- 
j3r, N.C. House, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; Legislative Assistant, Governor 
ames Holshouser, 1974; Congressional Intern on the Washington staff of 
longressman James T. Broyhill, 1973; Member, Catawba County Young 
epublican Club; Catawba County Republican Men's Forum. 

j Religious Activities: Life long member, Corinth Reformed United Church 
!" Christ, Hickory, where activities include: Chairman of Archives and 
;istory Committee; Member of Consistory (2nd term); Supply teacher for 
iewpoints Sunday School Class; Former Chairman of Spiritual Council; 
prmer member of Board of Business Management; Former member of 
toard of Christian Education; Usher; Greeter; Communion Server. 

! Family: Married, Judy Mosbach, September 27, 1980. Children: Elizabeth 
jiustin Allran and Catherine Houser Allran. Great-Grandson of John Edney 
ioover of Lincoln County, Member of N.C. House, Session of 1915; Great- 
'eat Grandson of Coatsworth Wilson of Lincoln County, Member of N.C. 
jouse, 1897. 


Ranking Minority Member: Judiciary II, Manufacturing and Labor, 

Member: Economic Development, Environment, Finance, Local Govern- 
ent and Regional Affairs, State Government and State Personnel, Transpor- 
tion. Ethics. 



North Carolina Manual 

Frank W. Ballance, Jr. 

(Democrat - Warren County) 

Second Senatorial District - Warren (Part), 
Bertie (Part), Edgecombe (Part), Gates (Part), 
Halifax (Part), Hertford, Martin (Part), and 
Northhampton Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Windsor, Bertie 
County, February 15, 1942, to Frank 
Winston and Alice (Eason) Ballance. 

Education: W.S. Etheridge High 
School, 1959; North Carolina Central Uni- 
versity, 1963; North Carolina Central 
Law School, 1965. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
Frank W. Ballance, Jr. & Associates PA 1990-; (Ballance and Reaves, 1985- 
89; Frank W. Ballance, Jr., 1979-1984; Clayton and Ballance, 1966-1979): 
Librarian and Professor, South Carolina State College School of Law.; 

Organizations: Chairman, Warren County Chapter NAACP 1988; N.C; 
State Bar, 1965-; N.C. Association of Trial Lawyers; N.C. Association oi 
Black Lawyers. 

Boards: Board of Trustees, Elizabeth City State University; Board o 
Trustees, North Carolina Central University. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. Senate, 1989- ; Member, N. C. Hous( 
of Representatives 1983-84, 1985-86; Vice-Chairman, Warren County Politica 
Action Council; Chairman, 2nd Congressional District Black Caucus. 

Military Service: North Carolina National Guard, 1968; Reservesj 

1968-71. \ 

Religious Activities: Member, Greenwood Baptist Church, Warrenton 
Board of Deacons. I 

Family: Married, Bernadine Smallwood, 1969. Children: Garey Malcolir! 
Angela Denise, and Valerie Michelle. 


Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control 

Vice-Chairman: Judiciary II 

Member: Agriculture, Marine Resources, and Wildlife; Appropriation; 
Appropriations on Justice and Public Safety; Banks and Thrift Institution: 
Base Budget; Constitution; Insurance; Manufacturing and Labor; Redistric 
ing-Congressional Redistricting Subcommittee 

The Legislative Branch 243 

Marc Basnight 

(Democrat - Dare County) 

First Senatorial District - Beaufort (part) 
Bertie (part) Camden, Chowan, Currituck, 
Dare, Gates (part), Hyde, Pasquotank, 
Perquimans, Tyrrell, and Washington 

Early Years: Born in Manteo, Dare 
County, May 13, 1947, to St. Clair and 
Cora Mae (Daniels) Basnight. 

Education: Manteo High School, 1966 

Professional Background: Con- 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. 
Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church, 
i Family: Married Sandy Tillett, March 23, 1968. Children: Vick and 


Chairman: Senate Committee on Appropriations 

i Vice Chairman: Transportation 

, Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Constition; Environment and 
{Natural Resources; Pensions and Retirement; Redistricting Committee; Legis- 
lative Redistricting Subcommittee; Transportation; Travel and Tourism and 
Cultural Resources; Ways and Means. 



North Carolina Manual 

John Gerald Blackmon 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-fifth Representative District — 
Mecklenburg County 

Early Years: Born in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County, December 23, 1928, to 
William George and Mabel Petty Black- 

Education: York High School, 1946; 
University of South Carolina, B.S., 
Mechanical Engineering, 1954. 

Professional Background: Manage- 
ment, J. G. Blackmon and Associates; 
President, Blackmon Service, Authorized 
Parts, Carolina Products, Inc. 

Organizations: American Society of Heating, Air Conditioning, and 
Refrigeration Engineers; Director, Boy Scouts (Handicapped); Executive 
Board, Regional Transportation Metrolina Region; Chairman, Regional 
Transportation Authority; UNCC Board of Visitors; Board of Directors, 

Boards and Commissions: United Carolina Bank Board; Principal 
Advisory Board, Liebert Corporation. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Senate, 1991-present; Mecklen- 
burg County Board of Commissioners; Mecklenburg County Board of Health. 

Military Service: U. S. Navy, U. S. Air Force, 1st Lieutenant, 1946-49;. 
Reserves, 1952-56. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Episcopal Church; Vestry-| 
Men's Club; Sunday School Teacher; Chairman, Every Member Canvass.| 
Board of Directors, Kanuga Episcopal Conference Center. { 

Family: Married, Irene Herty of New York, June 9, 1952. Children: Johrj 
G. Jr., Richard H., Ann Bass and William S. 


Ranking Minority Member: Election Laws. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations; Appropriations — 
Justice and Public Safety; Base Budget; Economic Development; Judiciary I 
Public Utilities; Ways and Means. 

The Legislative Branch 


Franklin Lee Block 

(Democrat-New Hanover County) 

Seventh Senatorial District-New Hanover and 
Pender (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New 
Hanover County, November 24, 1936, to 
Charles M. and Hannah (Soloman) 

Education: Admiral Farragut 
Academy, 1954; The Citadel, BS 1959; 
Wake Forest University, JD, 1976. 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
US Magistrate (part-time), 1977-86; Ameri- 
can Bar Association; NC Bar Associa- 
tion; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Organizations: Cape Fear Area United Way (Vice-President of Planning), 
^82; Campaign Chairman, 1983; President, 1985. 

\ Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-. 

: Military Service: Served, Army, (Captain, 1959-61); Reserves, 1966. 

' Religious Activities: B'nai Israel Synagogue Church; President, 1977-78. 

' Family: Married, Wendy H. Barshay, of Summerville, June 14, 1959. 
jhildren: Steven, Amy and Ellen. 


Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary II; General Government Subcommittee Ap- 

: Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; Educa- 
jon; Judiciary II; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Base Budget; Economic 
levelopment; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Travel and Tourism and 
ultural Resources. 


North Carolina Manual 

HoAvard Franklin Bryan 

(Republican-Iredell County) 

Twenty-sixth Senatorial District: Alexander, 
Catawba, Iredell, and Yadkin Counties 

1 ff Early Years: Born in Bladenboro, 

^^ ~ ' Bladen County, December 13, 1942, to 

Allen B. and Anna Belle (Hester) Bryan. 

Education: Pantego High School, 1961 
(Valedictorian, Senior Class President); 
Mount Olive College, 1963, A.A.; David- 
son College, 1966, B.A.; Lee Institute of 
Real Estate, 1972. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent, Piedmont Realty of Statesville; 
Bryan Construction Company. 

Organizations: Greater Statesville Chamber of Commerce, 1980; National 
Federation of Independent Businessmen, 1982; Heart Fund City Chairman, 
1969; Statesville Rotary Club, 1970-72; Iredell County Civic Center Authority 
Chairman, 1974-75; Former Jaycee, 1966-71. 

Boards: President, Mount Olive College Alumni Association, 1968-69; 
North Carolina Manpower Services Council, 1974-75. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1987-88, 1989- (appointed 
March 11, 1987, by Gov. James G. Martin to replace William Redman); 
Statesville City Council, 1985-87 (Mayor Pro Tem, 1985-87); Iredell County 
Republican Party (Chairman, 1973-75; Vice Chairman, 1975-77; Executive 
Committee, 1977-87;) Ninth District Republican Party Chairman, 1985-87; 
Republican Party State Committee, 1985-87; Iredell County Campaign 
Manager for Ninth District Congressman J. Alex McMillan, 1984-86. 

Military Service: U.S. Army Reserves, 1969-1973 (2nd Lieutenant); N.C. 
National Guard, 1966-1969 (2nd Lieutenant). 

Honors: Named in Outstanding Young Men of America and Personalities 
of the South. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Statesville; Deacon, 
1985; Building Feasibility Study Committee, 1985; Building Committee 
Chairman, 1985; Business Management Committee, 1985-86; Usher, 1980; 
Sunday School Teacher, 1974. 1 

Family: Married, Mary Wooten of Statonsburg, April 19, 1969. Children:' 
Cindy, Kathy, and Andy. , 


Ranking Minority Member: Rules. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Justice and Public Safety; 
Base Budget; Education; Environment and Natural Resources; Local Govern- 
ment; Pensions and Retirement; Redistricting. 

The Legislative Branch 


Robert C. Carpenter 

(Republican - Macon County) 

29th Senatorial District - Cherokee, Clay, 
Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, 
Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania 

Early Years: Born in Franklin, Macon 
County, June 18, 1924, to Edgar J. (de- 
ceased) and Eula D. (deceased) Car- 

Education: Franklin High School, 
1942; Western Carolina University; UNC- 
Chapel Hill Pre-flight School; Purdue Uni- 
versity, LUTC; University of Virginia 
School of Consumer Banking. 

i Professional Background: Retired, Vice President and City Executive, 
I'irst Union National Bank, Franklin. 

Organizations: Director, Franklin Rotary Club (President, 1959); Ameri- 
an Legion Post 108; Franklin AARP; Frankhn Investment Club; St-Micheals 
;!ouncil of Knights of Columbus; Former member: Asheville Optimist Club, 
1962-71; President, 1965); Optimist International (Zone Governor, 1966; 
''resident); Rotary District 767, (District Secretary /Treasurer, 1975); Franklin 
jaycees (President, 1960-61); Angel Community Hospital (Vice Chairman); 
•peration Heartbeat, (Chairman); Group 10, NC Bankers Association (Chair- 
:ian, 1965); Group 6, N.C. Bankers Association, (Chairman, 1974); NABAC, 
j^'resident, 1967). 

Boards: Member: Macon County Economic Development Commission; 
loard of Trustees, Southwestern Community College; Chairman, Franklin 
first Union Board of Directors. Former member: Macon County Board of 
|ounty Commissioners, (1978-82); N.C. Association of Community College 
'rustees (Past President); Developmental Disabilities Board; Governor 
lartin's Literacy Commission, (1987-88). 

' Military Activities: Served, U.S. Navy, Aviation Cadet, 1943-45. 

'! Religious Activities: Member, Saint Francis Catholic Church, Franklin; 
ilucharist Minister; Parish Council, 1982-86. 

Family: Married, T. Helen Edwards, January 18, 1986. Children: 
ilizabeth, Jane, Christine, Robert D. Dale, Thomas, and Edgar. 


Member: Finance; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Environment and 
fatural Resources; Judiciary II; Public Utilities; Transportation; Veteran 
nd Military Affairs; Law Enforcement and Senior Citizens; Pensions and 


North Carolina Manual 

John DeLaney Carter 

(Republican — Lincoln County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Lincoln 

Early Years: Born in St. Charles, 
Missouri, June 5, 1956, to Billy Braxton 
and Shirley Mae (Wilegus) Carter. 

Education: Owen High School, 1970- 
73; Crest High School, 1973-74; Appala- 
chian State Univeristy, 1974-79, B.S.; 

Professional Background: Producer/ 
Writer, John Carter Productions. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. 
Senate 1991-present. 

Boards and Commissions: Lincoln County Schools Health Occupation 
Services Advisory Board; PTA, Chairman, Ways and Means; June 1990- 
present; Boy Scouts Advisor. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist, Lincolnton; Deacon, 1989- 
present; Sunday School Teacher, Promotions Chairman. 

Family: Married, Cynthia Gail Payseur of Lincolnton, October 4, 1980. 
Children: Candice Yvonne and Jerry Braxton. 


Ranking Minority Member: Appropriations on Education. 1 

Member: Appropriations; Bank and Thrift Institutions; Base Budgetj 
Education; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Travel, Tourism, and Cultura]| 
Resources; Ways and Means. 

The Legislative Branch 


Betsy Lane Cochrane 

(Republican - Davie County) 

Twenty-Third Senatorial District -Davidson, 
Davie and Rowan Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Asheboro, 
Randolph County, to William Jennings 
and Brodus Inez (Campell) Lane. 

Education: Asheboro Grammar 
Schools and High School; Meredith 
College, B.A. cum laude (Elementary 

Professional Background: Teacher 
and housewife. 

Organizations: Kappa Nu Sigma; 
/ice President, Mocksville Women's Club; Director, Neighborhood Property 
)wners Association; N. C. Symphony; N. C. Museum Association; N. C. 
vluseum of Art; ALEC; NCSL; Federation of Republican Women; Meredith 
yollege Alumnae Association. 

! Boards: Piedmont Health Systems Agency; N. C. Advisory Council on 
feacher Education; Republican Education Commission for the 80's; Retail 
'/lerchants Advisory Board; Public School Forum of N. C; N. C. Parks and 
{ecreation Commission; Governor's Programs of Excellence in Education; 
pommission on the Future of the South; Yadkin-PeeDee River Basin Com- 
nittee, 1981-present; Davie County Hospital Trustee; Southern Regional 
Education Board; Legislative Services Commission; Economic Futures Commis- 
]ion United Way of N.C., Gov's Task Force on Aging. 

i Political Activities: Member, N. C. Senate 1989-; House of Representa- 
dves, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; Vice Chariman, Davie County Re- 
•ublican Party; Executive Committee, N. C. Republican Party; House Minority 
leader, 1985-89; N. C. Delegate, GOP National Convention 1976, 1988; GOP 
'■Jational Platform Committee 1988; N. C. Republican Credentials Committee, 
979; N. C. Republican Rules and Resolutions, 1981. 

Honors: N. C. Jaycees, Women's Outstanding Woman in Government, 
,985; Outstanding Freshman Representative (GOP), 1981; "Who's Who for 
jVmerican Women"; "Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities"; 
earbook editor, college and high school; One often Outstanding Legislators in 
elation, 1987; Distinguished Women in North Carolina Nominee, 1987, 1989; 
li^eredith College Founder's Day Speaker, 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, Knollwood Baptist Church; President, 
fVomen's WMU; Nominating Committee; Sunday School Teacher, 1960-77. 

Family: Married, Joe Kenneth Cochrane. Children: Lisa and Craig. 

Committee Assignments 
Ranking Minority Member: Constitution, Economic Development, 

250 North Carolina Manual 

Higher Education. Vice Chairman of Higher Education. 

Chairman: Commission on Aging; Legislative Ethics. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Environment and Natural Re- 
sources; Higher Education; Human Resources; Public Utilities; Constitution, 
Economic Development, Travel and Tourism, Redistricting. Advisory Budget 

The Legislative Branch 


James Richard Conder 

(Democrat — Richmond County) 

Seventeenth Senatorial District — Anson, 
Montgomery, Richmond, Scotland, Stanly 
and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Hamlet, Rich- 
mond County, July 20, 1930, to Parks 
Holms and Ona Lee (Crow) Conder. 

Education: Hamlet High School, 1949; 
ECU, 1958, B.S. (Business); LSU, 
Graduate School of Banking, 1968; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, NC Bankers Association 

Professional Background: Vice 
! President, First Union National Bank. 

Organizations: Hamlet Rotary Club (President, 1963); Rockingham 
lotary Club (President, 1970). 

Boards: Former chairman, Richmond County Industrial Development 
pommission, 1970-82. 

; Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; Commissioner, Richmond 

County, 1962-84 (Chairman, 1964-1984); President, National Association of 

Counties, 1981-82; President, NC Association of County Commissioners, 


j Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1951-55; Reserves, 1955-59. 

I Honors: Outstanding Alumnus, ECU, 1982; "Tar Heel of the Week," The 
Vews and Observer, 1982; NC Distinguished Citizens Award, 1982; President 
jHeagan's Private Sector Initiative, 1981-82. 

ij Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Rockingham; 
:^lder, 1965-1974, 1983-. 

! Family: Married, Barbara Ann Speight, June 16, 1956. Children: Rebecca 
ijVnne, Mary Elizabeth and James Richard, Jr. 



Vice Chairman: Appropriations on Education; Pensions and Retirement. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Education; Base Budget; 
li^eonomic Development; Education; Higher Education; Local Government; 
)tate Personnel and State Government; Ways and Means. 


North Carolina Manual 

Roy Asberry Cooper, III 

(Democrat - Nash County) 

Seventy-Second Representative District - 
Edgecombe (part) and Nash (part). 

Early Years: Born in Nashville, Nash 
County, June 13, 1957, to Roy A. and 
Beverly Cooper, Jr. 

Education: Northern Nash Sr. High 
School, 1973-75; UNC Chapel Hill, 1979 
(Batchelor of Arts); UNC Chapel Hill, 
1982 (Juris Doctor). 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
N.C. Bar Association; N.C. Academy of 
Trial Lawyers. 

Organizations: Rocky Mount Jaycees; Chamber of Commerce; Tar River 
Chorus and Orchestra Society, Board of Directors; United Way, Board of 
Directors; American Heart Association, Board of Directors; Red Cross. 

Boards: Former, State Goals and Policy Board, 1979-84; State Interim 
Balanced Growth Board, 1979-84; Commission on the Future of N.C. (N.C. 
2000), 1981-84; N. C. Courts Commission, 1988-present. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1991-92, Member, N.C. House 
of Representatives, 1987-88, 1989-; N.C. College Democrats (President-UNC 
Chapel Hill Club), 1978; N.C. Young Democrats (2nd District Chairman), 
1980; Democratic Party (Precinct Officer, Delegate to County, District and 
State Conventions); Member, N.C. Senate, 1991-92, N.C. House of Representa- 
tives etc. 

Honors: Morehead Scholar; UNC Order of Golden Fleece, Grail, and Old^ 
Well; Order of the Long Leaf Pine State Honor Society; Freedom Guard 
Award (N.C. Jaycees); Distinguished Service Award (Rocky Mount Jaycees). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 1983-i 
86; Youth Group Advisor, Various Committees. 


Chairman: Economic Development 

Member: Constitution, Education, Election Laws, Environment & Natural 
Resources, Finance, Human Resources, Judiciary II, Manufacturing and 

The Legislative Branch 


George Berkley Daniel 

(Democrat - Caswell County) 

Twenty-First Senatorial District -Alamance 
and Caswell Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake 
County, April 1, 1951, to George C. and 
Florence Anne (Taylor) Daniel. 

Education: Bartlett Yancey High 
School, 1969; North Carolina State Uni- 
versity, B.S., 1973; Wake Forest Univer- 
sity (School of Law), J.D., 1976. 

Professional Background: Attorney 

Organizations: N.C. State Bar; 
Caswell County Bar Association; 17-A 
Judicial District Bar Association; N.C. 
Academy of Trial Lawyers; N.C. Bar Association; American Bar Association; 
American Academy of Trial Lawyers; Charter Board Member of Big 
,Brothers/Big Sisters (Chairman, 1983); Caswell County Chamber of Com- 
jmerce; Dan River Rugby Club; Caswell County Lions Club (President, 1980). 

I Boards: Caswell County Lions Club, President, 1980; Caswell County 
•Industrial Facilities and Pollution Control Financing Authority, (Chairman, 
1977-present); Caswell County Industrial Development Team. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1987-88, 1989- ; Member Demo- 
jcratic party of Caswell County; Henry B. Toll Fellow, class of 1987; and 
Fellow of the NC Institute of Politics, class of 1989. 

\ Religious Activities: Member, New Hope Methodist Church; Member of 
;;the Board of Trustees. 

j Family: Married, Cynthia Gail Long, of Prospect Hill, June 27, 1981. 
iChildren: Jacob and Taylor. 


Chairman: Finance Committee. 

Vice Chairman: Ways and Means. 

Member: Judiciary II; Redistricting; Rules; Constitution; Environment 
and Natural Resources; Pensions and Retirement. 


North Carolina Manual 

Namon Leo Daughtry 

Republican - Johnston County 

15th Senatorial District - Johnston and 
Sampson Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Newton Grove, 
Sampson County, December 3, 1940, to 
Namon Lutrell and Annie Catholeen 
(Thornton) Daughtry. 

Education: Hobbton High School, 
1958; Wake Forest University, B.A., 1962; 
Wake Forest University School of Law, 
L.L.B., 1965. 

Professional Background: Attorney, 
(Daughtry, Woodard, and Lawrence); 
Partner, (Johnston County Hams); Owner/Operator, (Farmers Tobacco Ware- 
house, Smithfield). 

Organizations: Johnston County Bar Association; Past President, 11th 
Judicial Bar Association; N.C. State Bar; N.C. Bar Association; N.C. 
Acadamy of Trial Lawyers; President, Eastern Belt Warehouse Association. 

Boards: Board of Directors, Florence Crittenton; Smithfield-Selma 
Chamber of Commerce; Board of Directors, Bright Belt Warehouse Associa- 
tion; Board of Directors, Triangle Bank and Trust Company, Government 
Agricultural Advisory Committee; Federal Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory 
Committee; World Trade Center. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. Senate, 1989- ; Past President, 
Johnston County Republican Party; Board of Directors, 3rd Congressional 

Military Activities: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 1966-70. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Smithfield; 
Vestry, 1985-88. 


Ranking Minority Leader: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Ways and 

Member: Agriculture; Education; Finance; Judiciary I; Pensions and 
Retirement; Redistricting; State Personnel and State Government; Congres- 
sional Redistricting Subcommittee. 

The Legislative Branch 


James Summers Forrester 

(Republican - Gaston County) 

Twenty-Fifth Senatorial District - Gaston 

Early Years: Born in Aberdeen, 
Scotland County, January 8, 1937, to 
James S. and Nancy McLennan For- 

Education: New Hanover High, 1954; 
Wake Forest University, B.S. Science, 
1958; Bowman Gray School of Medicine 
of WFU, M.D., 1962; UNC, Chapel Hill, 
M.P.H., 1976. 

Professional Background: Physician, 

' Family Practice; President, Gaston 

County Medical Society; Board of Trustees, Gaston Memorial Hospital; Past 
BOD, NC Heart Association, Board Certified in Family Practice and Preven- 
tive Medicine; Medical Director of Brian Center and Greenfield Manor, 

Organizations: Gaston County Medical Society; N.C. Medical Society; 

Aerospace Medical Association (A. Fellow); American college and Preventive 

Medicine (fellow); AM A Southern Medical Association; American Medical 

j Directors Association; Lion Club; Team physician. East Gaston High School; 

Medical Consultant, Gaston County Health Department. 

j Boards and Commissions: Past Vice Chairman, Gaston-Lincoln Mental 
I Health; Past President, Gaston County Heart Association; BOD (past) 
Childrens Council, Gaston County; BOD, United Arts Council; BOD, Gaston 
, County Museum of Art and History. 

i Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1991-present; County Commis- 
fsioner, Gaston County, 1982-90; Chairman, Board of Commissioners, 1989-90. 

1 Military Service: N.C. Air National Guard, HQ NCANE, Brig General, 
; (ASS. AG for Air); USAF Command Flight Surgeon of the Year, 1976; 
Former Commander of 145 TAC clinic and state air Surgeon; Chief Surgeon, 
j Participated in air evacuation in Vietnam; Air war college graduate. 

'Awards and Honors: Jefferson Award for Public Service, 1988. 

Other Activities: Participated in Foreign Medical Missions in Belize and 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Stanley; Member, 
Christian Medical and Dental Society. 

Family: Married, Mary Frances All of Wilmington, March 12, 1960. 

256 North Carolina Manual 

Children: Lorri Wynn Maxwell, Gloria Ann Lucioni, Mary Paige Forrester 
and James S. Forrester, Jr. 


Ranking Minority Member: Appropriations on Human Resources. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Higher Education; Human Re- 
sources; State Personnel and State Government; Veteran and Military 
Affairs; Law Enforcement; Senior Citizens; Ways and Means. 

The Legislative Branch 


Fletcher Lee Hartsell, Jr. 

(Republican - Cabarrus County) 

Twenty-Second Senatorial District - Cabarrus 

Early Years: Born in Corcord, Cabar- 
rus County, February 15, 1947, to Fletcher 
L. and Doris Wright Hartsell. 

Education: Concord High School, 
1965; Davidson College, A.B., Political 
Science, 1969; UNC, Chapel Hill, J.D., 


Professional Background: Attorney; 
Cabarrus County Schools Attorney, 1979- 
present; Cabarrus County Attorney, 1985- 

Organizations: 19-A Judicial District Bar Association, Cabarrus & 
Rowan Counties, Secretary-Treasurer, 1983-84, 1987-present, President, 1985- 
86; American & N.C. Bar Association; N.C. State Bar; N.C. Academy of 
Trial Lawyers Cabarrus County Bar Association, President, 1986-87; N.C. 
Council of School Attorneys, Regional Director; National Association of 
Social Security claimant's Representatives; President, Kan-La-Con Com- 
munity Concert Association, 1980-85; Chairman, Board of Trustees, Cabarrus 
jAcademy, 1986-87; Volunteer, Cabarrus Winter Night Shelter; Concord 
Rotary Club; Help Line of Cabarrus County Advisory Board. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1991-present. 

Military Service: U.S. Army, Reserve Commission, 1st Lieutenant/ 
Captain, 1972; Honor Graduate — Officer Basic Course, U.S. Army Infantry 
^School (lOBC 5-72). 

Other Activities: Cabarrus Baptist Association; Baptist Men's Director 
and Parliamentarian Baptist State Convention of N.C; Regional Baptist 
Men's Director and Assistant Parliamentarian; Southern Baptist Conven- 
,tion; Overseas Missions Volunteer (Guatemale 1985 & 1986, Bermuda, 1987); 
jSecretary National Fellowship of Baptist Lawyers, 1989. 

j Religious Activities: Member, McGill Avenue Baptist Church; Diaconate 
'(Chairman 1979-80, 1987-88); Sunday School Teacher; Church Training 
Director; Brotherhood Director. 

1 Family: Married, Tana (Honeycutt) Hartsell of Kannapolis, May 21, 1972. 
Children: Fletcher Lee Hartsell, III, Whitney Paige Hartsell and Alice Tyson 


Ranking Minority Member: Appropriations on General Government. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Constitution; Education; Election 
Laws; Judiciary II; Rules and Operation of the Senate. 


North Carolina Manual 

Ralph Alexander Hunt 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Thirteenth Senatorial District - Durham, 
Granville, Orange (part), and Person 

Early Years: Born in Oxford, Gran- 
ville County, to Johnnie and Amanda 
(Harris) Hunt. 

Education: Mary Potter High School, 
1950; Orange Street Elementary School, 
1945; Johnson C. Smith University, 1956, 
B.A.; NCCU, 1964, M.A. 

Professional Background: Inde- 
pendent retail merchant (convenience 

Organizations: Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989- ; Mayor 
Pro Tem, City of Durham, 1981-1984; Durham City Council, 1973-1984. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1953-55 (Corporal) 

Religious Activities: Member, White Rock Baptist Church; Trustee. 

Family: Married, Elvira Rebecca Cooke, June 17, 1961. Children: Ralph 
A., Jr., Reginald C, and Regina C. 


Chairman: Small Business 

Vice Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Human Resources; Base 
Budget; Education; Election Laws; Pensions and Retirement; Rules and 
Operations of the Senate; State Government; State Personnel. 

The Legislative Branch 


Herbert L. Hyde 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

Twenty-Eighth Senatorial District - 
Buncombe County 

Early Years: Born in Swain County, 
December 12, 1925, to Ervin M. and Alice 
M. Hyde. 

Education: Public Schools of Swain 
County; Western Carolina University, 
B.A., 1951; New York University School 
of Law, J.D., 1954; Root-Tilden Scholar. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations; Member, Buncombe 
County, North Carolina and American 

Bar Associations; Member, American Judicature Society; Member, Bar of 

:he Supreme Court of the United States. 

■Boards and Commissions: Former Secretary, Buncombe County Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee; Former Treasurer, N.C. Democratic Executive 
;3ommittee; Former Chairman N.C. Task Force on Telecommunications; 
tl^ormer Member and Chairman, N.C. Commission for the Blind; Former 
iVIember, Executive Committee, Citizens Committee for Better Schools; 
i^ormer Chairman, Opportunity Corporation of Buncombe-Madison Coun- 
lies; past President, Candler Lions Club; Past President, Alumni Association, 
A^estern Carolina University; Former Member, N.C. Courts Commission; 
Former Member, Board of Trustees, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Institute; 
iVlember, N.C. Senate 1964-66; Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1972- 
/6; Former Secretary, N.C. Department of Crime Control and Public Safety; 
^rmer Chairman, N.C. Center for Public Television; Former Chairman, 
3uncombe County Democratic Executive Committee; Present Chairman, 
|lth District Democratic Executive Committee; Present Member, N.C. 
Senate; Present Chairman, Democratic Party of North Carolina. 

if*otlical Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1991-present 

»Iilitary Service: Petty officer, U.S. Navy, World War H, South Pacific. 


Chairman: Constitution. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary I. 

Member: Agriculture, Marine Resources and Wildlife; Finance; Insurance; 
jlanufacturing and Labor; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Travel, 
'ourism, and Cultural Resources; Veteran and Military Affairs, Law Enforce- 
lent, and Senior Citizens. 


North Carolina Manual 

Joseph Edward Johnson 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District — Harnett, 
Lee, and Wake (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake 
County, October 17, 1941, to Ira Edward 
and Grace (Ivey) Johnson. 

Education: Raleigh Public Schools, 
1946-59; NCSU, 1959-61; Wake Forest 
University, 1964, B.A.; Wake Forest Uni- 
versity, School of Law, 1966, J.D. 

Professional Background: attorney 
(LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby & MacRae). 

Organizations: Wake County, NC and 
American Bar Associations; Alpha Kappa Psi; Phi Delta Phi. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987- . 
88, 1989-90; NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1967-69 (1st Lt.); Military Police* 
Corps; Army Commendation Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Edenton Street United Methodist Church, ') 

Family: Married, Jane Francum, January 31, 1964. Children: Jane 
Elizabeth, Kathryn Ivey and Susan Briles. 


Chairman: Legislative Redistricting. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations, Base Budget. | 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions, Constitition, Insurance, Judiciary ' 
I, Manufacturing and Labor, Public Utilities, State Personnel and State ^ 
Government. * 

The Legislative Branch 


Donald R. Kincaid 

(Republican — Caldwell County) 

Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Avery, 
Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, and Wilkes 

Early Years; Born in Caldwell Coun- 
ty, June 2, 1936, to Hugh T. and Myrtle 
(McCall) Kincaid. 

Education: Gamewell High School, 
1954; Appalachian State Teachers College, 
1959, B.S. 

Professional Background: School 
teacher; owner, Kincaid Insurance 
Agency; Boone Insurance Agency, 
Boone, N.C. 

Organizations: Lenoir Lions Club (Lion Tamer, former Secretary); Lenoir 
Rotary Club; NC Cattlemen's Association; Carolina Association of Mutual 
Insurance Agents; Caldwell County Chamber of Commerce. Former member: 
;NCAE, Gamewell Ruritan Club. 

! Boards: Legislative Advisory Board, CAPIA; Board of Trustees, Gardner- 
;Webb College; Director, Carolina Association of Professional Insurance 
Agents. Former member: NC Board of Agriculture. 

1 Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 
,80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Senate Minority Leader, 1977-78, 
J1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1989-90; NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, nine years (5-E). 

Religious Activities: Member, Lower Creek Baptist Church, Lenoir. 

I Family: Married, Syretha Weatherford, June 30, 1956; four children. 


Ranking Minority Member: Appropriations; Agriculture, Marine Re- 
Sources, and Wildlife; Appropriations-Natural and Economic Resources; 
Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

' Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Base Budget. 

Member: Higher Education; Human Resources; Insurance; Manufacturing 
and Labor; Redistricting-Legislative Redistricting Subcommittee; Rules and 
Operations of the Senate. 


North Carolina Manual 

Ho\vard Lee 

(Democrat - Orange County) 

(Sixteenth Senatorial District) i 

Education: Fort Valley State College, ^ 
Georgia, B.A., Sociology, 1959; UNC,] 
Chapel Hill, MSW, Social Work, 1966. j 

Professional Background: Presi-! 
dent, Lee Enterprises, Inc., 1985-present;! 
School of Social Work, University of N.C., j 
Chapel Hill, 1981-85; Lecturer, School of; 
Social Work, October, 1981 through 
August 1985; Development Officer, Na-i 
tional Child Welfare Leadership Center, 
January, 1983 through January, 1984; 
Administrative Assistant to the Dean, School of Social Work, January 1982' 
through January, 1983; Secretary, N.C. Department of Natural Resources 
and Community Development, 1977-81; Duke University, Durham, 1966-75; 
Mayor of Chapel Hill, 1969-75; President, Custom Molders, Inc.; President 
(Founder), The John H. Wheeler Foundation, Inc., 1978-85; President 
(Founder), La Spa Productions, 1981-84. 

Organizations: President, Eastern N.C. Charter, National Association of 
Social Workers, 1967-69; First Vice President, National Conference on Social 
Welfare, N.Y., 1973-74; Chairman, Round Up Campaign, Occoneecheel 
Council of N.C, Boy Scouts of America, 1977-79; Member, Appalachian 
National Science Trail Advisory Council, 1979-81; Grand Boule, Sigma Pi 
Alpha Fraternity, Alpha Tau Boule, 1984; State Crusade Chairman, N.C.j 
Division, The American Cancer Society, 1985-87. i 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors and Second Vice Presi-i 
dent. National Association of Social Workers, 1969-76; Board of Directors; 
and Executive Committee, Southern Regional Council, Atlanta, GA, 1970-74; 
Board of Directors, Day Care and Child Development Council of America, i 
Washington, D.C., 1970-74; Board of Directors, N.C. Heart Association, 1971- 
75; Board of Directors, N.C. Advancement School, 1971-75; Board of Trustees, 
Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, 1972-76; Board of Visitors, School 
of Forestry, Duke University, 1978-88; Board of Trustees, National 
Recreation and Park Association, N.Y., 1980-82; Board of Visitors, NCCU, 
School of Law (charter member), 1980-; Board of Directors, Chapel Hill' 
Carrboro, Public School Foundation, President, (1985-87); Board of Visitors, 
School of Public Health, UNC, Chapel Hill, 1985-; Board of Visitors, School 
of Social Work, UNC, Chapel Hill, 1987-. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate; First Chairman, N.C. State! 
Democratic Party, 1976-77; N.C. Democratic National Committeeman, 1972i 
76; Second Vice-Chairman, N.C. Democratic Party, 1970-72. 

Publications: Lee, H.N. "North Carolina's Domestic Energy Sources.; 
FOREM,; The quarterly magazine of the School of Forestry and Environ! 

The Legislative Branch 263 

mental Studies; Duke University, Volume 2, Number 2 1980; Lee, H.N. 
"Managing The Small City." In Urban Governance and Minorities, edited 
by Herring H. Bryce, New York, Praeger Publishers, 1976; Lee, H.N. "Politi- 
cal Trends In The South." In The Law Review NCCU, Law School Press, 
1971; Lee, H.N. "School Work and Political Activism." In The Social Welfare 
Forum, New York, Columbia University Press, 1971; Lee H.N. "The Southern 
Political Revolution." In The Black Politician: His Struggle For Power, 
edited by Mervyn M. Dymally, Belmont, CA, Duxbury Press, 1970. 

Military Service: U.S. Army, August, 1959 through June, 1961. 
Psychiatric Social Worker with Mental Health Clinic (Fort Hood, Texas) and 
later company clerk (Camp Casey, Lorea). Two years active reserve and 
honorably discharged in 1963. 

! Honors and A\vards: Initial induction. Who's Who in the South, 1979; 
Initial Induction, Who's Who in Politics, 1979; Inducted into the Order of 
The Golden Fleece, UNC, Chapel Hill, 1976; Initial Induction, Who's Who in 
Black America, 1975; Initial Induction, Who's Who In America, 1972; 
National Urban League Equal Opportunity Award, 1970. 

l Religious Activities: Olin T. Binkley Memorial Baptist, Chapel Hill. 
Serves as deacon and church school teacher. 

Family: Married Lillian Lee, 3 children, 3 grandchildren. 


Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs. 

Vice Chairman: Environment and Natural Resources. 

j Member: Economic Development; Election Laws; Finance; Higher Educa- 
tion; Judiciary I; Travel, Tourism, and Cultural Resources; 
Veteran and Military Affairs Law Enforcement; Senior Citizens; Ways and 


North Carolina Manual 

Robert Lafayette Martin 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

Sixth Senatorial District — Edgecombe (part), 
Martin (part), Pitt (part), and Wilson (part) 

Early Years: Born in Bethel, Pitt 
County, November 8, 1918, to John 
Wesley and Lena (Sessums) Martin. 

Education: Oxford Orphanage High 
School; School of Electricity, Oxford 

Professional Background: President, 
Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Associa- 
tion; farmer. 

Organizations: Shriner; 32nd Degree Mason. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 89-90; Com- 
missioner, Pitt County, 1956-1984; Mayor, Town of Bethel, 1951-1956; Com- 
missioner, Town of Bethel, 1941. 

Religious Activities: Member, Bethel Missionary Baptist Church; Chair- 
man, Board of Deacons; Superintendent, Sunday School; Sunday School 

Family: Married, Sue Cooper, June 29, 1940. Children: Lynda and Bobbe 

Chairman: Appropriations on Natural & Economic Resources. 
Vice Chairman: Banks & Thrift Institutions. 

Member: Agriculture, Marine Resources and Wildlife; Base Budget; 
Environment & Natural Resources; Public Utilities; Redistricting; State 
Personnel and State Government; Transportation; Ways and Means. 

The Legislative Branch 


William Nelson Martin 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

Thirty-first Senatorial District — Guilford 
County (part). 

Early Years: Born in Eden, Rock- 
ingham County, May 25, 1945, to Thomas 
William and Carolyn (Henderson) 

Education: Douglas High School 
(Eden), 1962; N.C. A & T State Univer- 
sity, 1966, B.S. (Economics); George 
Washington University, School of Law, 
1973, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

j Organizations: One Step Further, Inc., 1982- (Co-founder and first 
■President; Board of Directors); National Black Child Development Institute, 
11979-1981; Phi Beta Sigma, 1965- (former President and Vice President of 
graduate chapter based in Greensboro); Congress of Racial Equality, 1967- 
'(1973 (Chairman, Bridgeport, CT Chapter, 1968-69; Special Assistant to 
iNortheastern Regional Director, 1969-1973); Charlotte Hawkins Brown 
.Historical Foundation, 1983- (Co-founder; Board of Directors); N.C. Public 
School Policy Forum, 1986- (Board of Directors; Chairman, Subcommittee on 
Early Childhood Education, 1987-88). 

Boards: N.C. At-Risk Children and Youth Task Force (Chairman, 1988- 
|89); Interstate Migrant Education Council (represented N.C), 1989; UNC 
ICenter for Public Television Program Advisory Committee, 1988- ; N.C. 
Historic Sites Advisory Committee, 1985-86; City of Greensboro Housing 
Commission, 1979-1982; Social Concerns Committee of the Council of 
Churches of Greater Bridgeport, Connecticutt (former Co-Chairman; active 
imember, 1967-1969). 

j Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 
jl989-90, 1991-; National Conference of State Legislatures, N.C. representative 
to the Education Committee, 1989-; Southern Legislative Conference, N.C. 
representative to the Education Committee 1989-; Chairman, North Carolina 
Democratic Party Platform Committee, 1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, Providence Baptist Church, Greensboro. 

Family: Married, Patricia Yancey; Children: Thomas William and William 
Nelson, Jr. 


Chairman: Appropriations - General Government. 

Vice-Chairman: Judiciary I. 

Member: Economic Development; Redistricting-Legislative Redistricting 


North Carolina Manual 

Wendell Holmes Murphy 

(Democrat - Duplin County) 

Fifth Senatorial District - Duplin, Jones, 
Lenoir, and Pender Counties. 

. I 

Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, 
September 23, 1938, to Holmes and Lois 
(King) Murphy. 

Education: Rose Hill High School, 
1957; NC State University, B.S. (Agri- 
cultural Education), 1960. 

Professional Background: Farming 
and agri-business interests (President 
and CEO, Murphy Farms, Inc.); Former 

Organizations: Former Vice-President and Director, NC Pork Producers 

Boards: NC General Assembly Advisory Budget Commission; NCSU 
Alumni Association; NCSU Student Aid Association; NCSU Athletics 
Council; Research Triangle World Trade Corporation; NC Retail Merchants 
Association; NC Veterinary Medical Foundation, Inc.; NC Community 
Colleges Foundation; Mount Olive College Board of Trustees; New East 
Bancorp; Governor's Advisory Board on Prisons and Punishment; Depart- 
ment of Agriculture Aquaculture Advisory Board; Human Resources Com- 
mittee, Southern Legislative Conference 1991; Human Services Committee, 
NCSL State Federal Assembly, 1991-92; NC Demoratic Finance Committee; 
Florence Crittenton Services, Board of Directors. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-88; 
Tenth District, Duplin and Jones counties; NC Senate, 1989 to present; Fifth 
District, Duplin, Jones, Lenoir, and Pender counties. 

Honors: Ranked first among Senate freshmen by the North Carolina 
Center for Public Policy Research, Inc., 1990; Order of the Long Leaf Pine, 
1988; Tar Heel of the Week, News and Observer, 1987; NC Outstanding Pork 
Producer, 1980; Pork Ail-American, 1975. 

Religious Activities: Member, Rose Hill Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Linda Godwin, June, 1979. Two children: Wendell H., 
Jr., Wendy Deanne. Two step-children: Cindy Hairr and Wesley Hairr. 


Chairman: Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture, Marine Resources, and Wildlife; Appropria- 
tions; Base Budget; Transportation. 

Member: Appropriations on Human Resources; Banks and Thrift Institu- 
tions; Education; Environment and Natural Resources; Higher Education; 
Public Utilities. 

The Legislative Branch 


Thomas LaFontine Odom, Sr. 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-fourth Senatorial District - 
Mecklenburg County (part). 

Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, 
Nash County, April 18, 1938. 

Education: West Mecklenburg High 
School, 1956; attended Charlotte College, 
1957; UNC-Chapel Hill, B.A., 1960; 
School of Law, UNC-CH, LL.D., 1962. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(Senior Partner in law firm of Weinstein 
& Sturges, P. A.; member of firm since 
1964); Assistant City Attorney, Charlotte, 
, 1963-64); Research Assistant, N.C. Supreme Court, 1962-63). 

Organizations: American and North Carolina Bar Associations; N.C. 
State Bar; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Steele Creek Masonic Lodge 
(past Secretary); Red Fez Shrine Club (past member, Board of Directors); 

; West Charlotte Rotary Club; Greater Charlotte Chamber of Commerce; 

I Former Scout Leader; Little League Baseball Coach. 

) Boards: Board of Commissioners, Carolina Medical Center 1987- ; Board 
of Directors, Salvation Army Adult Rehabilitation Center, 1984- ; Board of 
I Visitors, UNC-Charlotte; Former member, Mecklenburg County Parks and 
J Recreation Commission, 1975-1980 (Past Chairman). 

j Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1989- ; Mecklenburg Board of 
'County Commissioners, 1980-1986 (Chairman, 1982-84; Vice-Chairman, 

I Honors: American Red Cross Certificate of Merit; Presidential Citation; 
National Association of County Commissioners National Award of Merit, 
,1986; Mecklenburg County Environmental Award, 1980; West Mecklenburg 
iHigh School Hall of Fame. 

I Religious Activities: Member, Pleasant Hill Presbyterian Church (former 
lElder and Deacon); Sunday School Teacher; Past President, Synod Men of 
North Carolina; Past President, Mecklenburg, Presbytery Men; Commis- 
sioner to Presbyterian Church General Assembly, 1975 and 1988. 

Family: Married Jane Lowe of Charlotte; Children: Tommy, David, Amy, 


Chairman: Insurance 

Vice Chairman: Constitution, Local Government and Regional Affairs. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations; Appropriations - 
Justice and Public Safety; Base Budget; Environment and Natural Re- 
jSources; Judiciary I; Manufacturing and Labor; Redistricting; Redistricting- 
Congressional; Transportation. 


North Carolina Manual 

David Russell Parnell 

(Democrat-Robeson County) 

Thirtieth Senatorial District-Hoke and 
Robeson Counties 

Early Years: Born in Parkton, 
Robeson Couty, November 16, 1925, to 
John Quincy and Clelia (Britt) Parnell. 

Education: Parkton Public Schools, 
1931-41; Oak Ridge Military Institute, 
1941-44; Wake Forest University, 1949, 

Professional Background: Mer- 
chant; Farmer. 

Organizations: N.C. Merchants Association, Director; N.C. Oil Jobbers 
Association; Director, N.C. Plant Food Association; N.C. State Humanities 
Foundation 1975-1981. 

Boards: Robeson County Industrial Development Commission, 1963-1985;, 
Trustee, Meredith College, 1977-; N.C. State Highway Commission, 1969-72; 
Board of Directors, First Union National Bank, 1957-present. 

Political Activies: Member, N.C. Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; 
N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78; 1979-80, 1981-82; Mayor,' 
Town of Parkton, 1964-69. 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, 1945-46 (Corporal) 

Religious Activies: Member, Parkton Baptist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher, 1950-; Board of Deacons, 1952-present; Treasurer, 1959-72. 

Family: Married, Barbara Johnson Parnell, June 11, 1948. Children:| 
David R. Parnell, Jr., Anne P. Constable. Two grandchildren. 


Chairman: Manufacturing Labor Committee. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations Justice & Public Safety. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Election Laws; Insurance; Public' 
Utilities; Transportation; Veteran Affairs. 


The Legislative Branch 


Beverly Moore Perdue 

(Democrat-Craven County) 
Lenoir, and Pamilico Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Grundy, Vir- 
ginia, January 14, 1947, to Alfred P. and 
Irene E. (Morefield) Moore. 

Education: Grundy High School, 1965, 
University of Kentucky, 1969, (B.S. in 
History); University of Florida, M.Ed. Com- 
munity College Administration, 1974; 
University of Florida, 1976 (PhD in 
Administration); Fellow; University of 
Florida Center of Gerontology Geriatrics 

J Professional Background: Former Director, Geriatric Services, Craven 
/ounty Hospital; Consultant, Robert W. Johnson Foundation; Neue River 
'ouncil of Governments; Director of Human Services; Gerontology Society; 
lational Council on Aging; American Hospital Association. 

'■ Organizations: Chamber of Commerce; Committee of 100; Historical 
.ociety; Arts Council; A. B.C. Board, Chairman. 

Boards: Member, N.C.N.B. Board; Member, N.C. United Way Board. 

j Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
588-89, 1989-90; Member, N.C. Senate 1991-; Craven County Democratic 
jarty. Precinct Chairman, Treasurer, First Vice-President; N.C. Democratic 
'arty. Executive Committee & Executive Council. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Episcopal Church. 

jFamily: Married, Gary R. Perdue, Sr. of Louisville, KY, 1970. Children: 
arrett and Emmett. 


Chairman: Higher Education. 

ice Chairman: Veteran's Affairs, Law Enforcement, Senior Citizens. 

Member: Agriculture, Marine Resources, and Wildlife; Appropriations - 
ise and Expansion; Appropriations - General Government; Education; 
Ijanufacturing and Labor; Legislative Congressional Redistricting; Travel 
d Tourism and Cultural Resources. 


North Carolina Manual 

James Clark Plexico 

(Democrat - Henderson County) 

Twenty-ninth Senatorial District - Henderson 

Early Years: Born in Dalton, Georgia! 
to Rev. J. Clyde and Miriam Clarl 
Plexico, on December 27, 1948. 

Education: Valdese High School 
1967; University of the South, TN, B.A. 
Political Science, 1971; University o: 
Southern California, M.A., Internationa 
Relations, 1986, with Distinction. 

Professional Background: Realtor 
Beverly-Hanks & Associates; Formei 
Managing Director and Owner, International Real Estate companies; Formei 

Organizations: Past member. Royal Insitute of International Affain 
Institute of Directors; Board of Realtors; Chairman, International Relatiom^ 
Committee, Kiwanis Club. j 

Boards: Board of Directors, Mainstay; Elder, Trinity Presbyteriar! 
Church; Past Secretary, Church Council; Screening Committee, N.C. Teach 
ing Fellows Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1991-present; Delegate, Victorj 
1988 Campaign, Henderson County; Past Member, Democrats Abroad. 

Military Service: Army, Advanced ROTC; Marksmanship Award aj 
basic training. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity Presbyterian Church; Elder; Pas- 
Secretary, Church Council; Inter-Religious Committee for Peace to the Middlt 
East; Sunday School Teacher; Presbyterian Middle East newtwork. 

Family: Married, Deborah Palmer of Stow-on-the-World, Gloucestershire 
England, August 1, 1981. Children: Hattie, Molly and James John Jack. 


Vice Chairman: Environment and Natural Resources; Human Resources 

Member: Economic Development; Finance; Local Government anc 
Regional Affairs; Manufacturing and Labor; Redistricting; Legislative Re 
districting; Travel, Tourism, and Cultural Resources; Veteran and Militarjj 
Affairs, Law Enforcement, and Senior Citizens. | 

The Legislative Branch 


Aaron W. Plyler 

(Democrat-Union County) 

Seventeenth Senatorial District-Anson, 
Montgomery, Richmond, Scotland, Stanly, 
and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Union County, 
October 1, 1926, to Isom F. and Ida 
(Foard) Plyler. 

Education: Attended Benton Heights 
School; Florida Military Academy. 

Professional Background: Independ- 
ent Businessman (President — Owner 
Plyler Grading and Paving, Inc.; Presi- 
dent, Hill Top Enterprises); Farming and 
I real estate interests. 

Organizations: Member/Past President, Wingate College Patron Club; 
yIember/Past President Monroe-Union County Chamber of Commerce; 
/lember. North Carolina Restaurant Association; North Carolina Citizens 
\ssociation; Associated General Contractors of America; National Federation 
ndependent Business; Rolling Hills Country Club. 

Boards: Member, General Board of Directors, United Carolina Bank; 
ioard of Directors, North Carolina Restaurant Association; Hill Top Enter- 
irises; Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basin; Mecklenburg-Union County United 
|/ay; Board of Advisors, University of North Carolina-Charlotte. 

I Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 
989-; N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82; Pre- 
jlnct Chairman 10 years; Past Chairman, Union County Democratic Party. 

1 Honors: 1970, Monroe-Union County Leadership Award; 1971, Union 
jounty "Man of the Year" Award; 1971, Wingate College Patron Club 
iward; 1973, Union County Leadership Award; 1980 Andrew Jackson 

I Religious Activities: Member, Benton Heights Presbyterian Church 
luling Elder); Past Chairman, board of Deacons. 

i Family: Married, Dorothy Moser Plyler, May 22, 1948; Children: Barbara 
fyler Faulk; Dianne Plyler Hough; Aaron W. Plyler, Jr.; Alan Plyler; and 
jlton Plyler. 


Chairman: Base Budget. 

Vice Chairman: Rules & Operations of Senate. 

Member: Appropriations, Pensions and Retirement, Redistricting-Legisla- 
ye Redistricting, Transportation, Ways and Means, Highway Trust Fund 


North Carolina Manual 

Benny Tommy Pollard 

(Republican - Onslow County) 

Fourth Senatorial District -Onslow County. 

Early Years: Born in Jacksonville, 
Onslow County, to Leslie and Hazel 
Rawls Pollard, February 19, 1941. 

Education: Jacksonville High, 1960. 

Professional Backgroud: Self employ- 
ed, Pollard Enterprises, Inc. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. 
Senate, 1991-present. 

Organizations: Jacksonville Chamber; 
Past Jaycee. 

Boards and Commissions: Past member, N.C. Board of Transportation; 
State Tourism Council; State Energy Council. 

Awards and Honors: President of SAT; Jaycee Man of the Year; Robert 
Franch Award; Mr. N.C. 24 Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pineland, Onslow County. 

Family: Married Brenda Vaughan of Lowell, Massachusetts, November 14,| 
1976. Children: Thomas and Leslie. 


Ranking Minority Member: Insurance. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations on Human Resources; Base 
Budget; Constitution; Election Laws' Pensions and Retirement; Transporta- 
tion; Veteran and Military Affairs, Law Enforcement, and Senior Citizens. 


The Legislative Branch 


Joseph Bryant Raynor, Jr. 

(Democrat-Cumberland County) 

Twelth Senatorial District: Cumberland (part) 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, 
Cumberland County, January 26, 1923, 
to Joseph Bryant and Beatrice (Owen) 
Raynor, Sr. 

Education: HGraduated, Seventy-First 
High School, 1940; Electronic and 
Engineering School, 1944; Certified 
Hypnosis Investigator; Law Enforcement 
Institute of Hypnosis. 

Professional Background: Owner, 
Raynor Supply Company. 

)rganizations: Member, Seventy-First Ruritan Club; Member, Cumber- 
liid County Young Democrats Club; Member, Cumberland County Mental 
lalth Association; Member and Past President, Carousel Club; Member, 
Qtnberland County Wildlife Association; Member, Knights of Pythias; 
Number, Loyal Order of the Moose, Member, Legion of the Moose; Member, 
Acient Mystic Order of Bagment of Bagdad; Vice President, TIHE (The 
S dy of Human Ecology); Member, United Brotherhood of Magicians; 
Njmber, Society of Investigative and Forensic Hypnosis; Former Member, 
Fi/etteville Exchange Club; Fayetteville Optimist Club; Grand Counselor, 
Ulited Commercial Travelers of America; Former President, Cumberland 
Cjmty Chapter of the N.C. Society for Crippled Children and Adults. 

Jloards: Board of Directors, Cumberland County Cancer Society; Chair- 
mn. Governor's Advisory Commission of Military Affairs; Former Member, 
L islative Ethics Committee; Criminal Standards and Judicial Committee; 
Mital Retardation Study Commission; Mental Health Study commission; 
Bipd of Directors, Miss United Teenager; Legislative Serices Commission 
ail Commission on Exceptional Children; Study Commission on 
A'jholism; Commission on Migrant Workers, Governor's Crime Commission 

jolitical Activities: N.C. Senate, 1972, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1989-; 
Nj. House Representative, 1965-66, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1987-88. 

eligious Activities: Member, Methodist Church 

iamily: Married Mildred Home, January 15, 1944. 


'pairman: Veterans Affairs, Law Enforcement and Senior Citizens. 

ice Chairman: Human Resources, ABC, Insurance. 

Ijember: Finance, Judiciary I, Transportation, State Personnel & State 
Gc Brnment, Travel & Tourism. 


North Carolina Manual 

Mary Powell Seymour j 

(Democrat-Guilford County) 

Thirty-Second Senatorial District-Guilford 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wak| 

County, April 12, 1922, to Robert C. an;] 

Annie Rebecca (Seymour) Powell (bof 


Education: Graduated, Needham I 
Broughton High School, 1939; Peae 
College, 1941; Course Study, Harvard Un 
versity, Cambridge, Mass., 1946-47; Pilcj 
Nursery School Study Program. Unive; 
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michiga 
1949-50; Leadership Development Trair 

ing, center for Creative Leadership, 1978; GTCC, Basic Computer Scienci 


Professional Background: Legal Assistant; Licensed Real Estate Broker 

Organizations: Member, Womens Professional Forum O. Henry Womans 
Club; Greensboro Council of Garden Clubs, INC.; Greensboro Lege 
Auxiliary; Honorary Member, Business and Professional Women; Hay( 
Taylor YMCA; Chamber of Commerce, Community Development Council. . 

Boards: Tarheel Trail Girl Scout Council Inc.; Board of Visitors, Peac' 
College; Board of Directors, Hayes Taylor YMCA; NC Arts Council, 1981-8: 
Parks and Recreation Council, 1979-85; NC Law Related Education Con 
mittee, 1980-84; State Transportation Advisory Council, 1981-83; Board (j 
Directors, National Conference in Insurance Legislators, 1980-83; Chairmai 
Guilford County Legislative Delegation, 1982-84. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, served, NC House of Represent 
fives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; YDC; Democratic Women; Legisl 
five Services Commission, 1981-83; Mayor Pro Tempore, City of Greensbor 
1973-75; Greensboro City Council (elected four terms), 1967-75. 

Honors: Received, 1970 Eleanor Roosevelt Award; Woman of the Year, Cii 
Beautification; 1971, Bryant Citienship Award, District 7, NC FWC; Char 
her of Commerce Dolley Madison Award; 1972, Quota Club Woman of Yea 
Distinguished Alumna, Peace College; 1974; Distinguished Service Awar 
YWCA: 1975, "Who's Who in Government", 1976-77, Bowker, "Women 
Public Office"; NC Bar Association Legislative Recognition 1980; Distinguis 
ed Service Award, NC Public Health Association, 1982; "Good Sam" Awa:| 
for Legislation Affecting the Hearing Imparled, 1982; Community Servi| 
Award, Bennett College; NC Recreation and Parks Legislative Award, 198^1 

Religious Activities: Member, College Park Baptist Church Sunday Teac 
er (ten years). 

The Legislative Branch 275 


i^'amily: Married, Hubert E. Seymour, Jr., February 3, 1945. Children: 
ijubert and Robert. 


Chairman: Public Utilities 

Member: Finance, Election Laws, Insurance, Local Government, Travel 
I Tourism & Cultural Resources, Alcoholic Beverage Control, Banks & 
I'hrift, Pensions & Retirement, and Economic Development. 

I I 

^ i 


North Carolina Manual 

Jim Kemp Sherron, Jr. 

(Democrat-Wake County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District-Harnett, Lee, 
and Wake (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Fuquay Varina 
Wake County, September 26, 1931, to Jir; 
K. and Maggie (Grady) Sherron, Sr. 

Education: Fuquay Springs Hig- 
School, graduated, 1950; North Carolinj 
State University, BS, 1959. 

Professional Background: Coir, 
mercial Investment Real Estate, Owner! 
Partner; Capital Equity Corporatior 
President, 1985-present; Registere| 
Broker-Dealer, NASD. i 

Organizations: Mason, Millbrook Lodge, NO. 97; Shriner, Amra 
Temple; Exchange Club, life member; Exchange Club, New Hope/Wilder 
Grove, President, 1977-78; Wilders Grove Youth Center, 1976; Little Leagu 
Football Coach, 1965-75; Raleigh Board of Realtors; NC Association cl 
Realtors; National Association of Security Dealers; Real Estate Securitie 
and Syndication Institute. 

Boards: Board of Directors of Learning Together, 1984-present; NC Stat 
Humanities Foundation, 1986; Raleigh Planning Commission, 1977-8 
Fayetteville Street Mall Authority, 1979; Capital Planning Commissioi 
1989. S 

Politicial Activities: Member, NC Senate 1987-88, 1989-; Capital Plai 
ning Commission, 1989-; Young Democrats of NC, 1955-1971, Wake Count 
Young Democrats, (President, 1962-club was voted outstanding Young Dem( 
cratic Club of America); Precinct Chairman, (sixteen years). County an 
District Executive Committee; Deputy Secretary of Administration, 1981-8'| 
Director of Purchasing and Contract, 1981; Director of State Propert; 

Military: Served US Navy, AM-3, 1951-55; Korean Service Ribbon; Goo 
Conduct Ribbon. 

Honors: Gertrude Carrawan Award for Historical Preservation, 198 
Wake County Democrat of the Year, 1982; Outstanding Young Democrat d^ 

N.C., 1962; 

Religious Activities: Member, Millbrook Baptist Church. i 

Family: Married, Carolyn Honeycutt, of Salemburg, January 19, 195i 
Children: Jim and Kathy. 

The Legislative Branch 277 


Chairman: State Personnel and State Government. 

Vice Chairman: Public Utilities. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Economic Development, Environ- 
lent and Natural Resources, Finance, Judiciary II, Local Government and 
'egional Affairs, Pensions and Retirement, Ways and Means. 


North Carolina Manual 

Daniel Reid Simpson 

(Republican — Burke County) 

Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Avery 
Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, and Wilkes 

Early Years: Born in Morganto 
Burke County, February 20, 1927, 
James Reid and Ethel Margaret (Newto 

Education: Glen Alpine Public School 
1932-43; University of Mississipp 
Auburn University; Lenoir Rhyne C( 
lege; Wake Forest University, 1949, B.J 
Wake Forest University, School of La' 
1951, LL.B. i 

Professional Background: Attorney (President and senior member I 
firm of Simpson, Aycock, Beyer, and Simpson, P. A.); former Attorney: Tov 
of Glen Alpine, Burke County and Burke County Schools; Former Crimin; 
Court Judge. 

Organizations: Burke County, NC, NC State, and American Bar Associl 
tions; Catawba Valley Lodge No. 217 (former Grand Master) Free ai 
Accepted Masons. Former member: Lions Club; Junior Chamber of Coi 
merce; Sigma Chi; Phi Delta Phi. I 

Boards: Director: First Union National Bank Morganton; Environment 
Oversight Commission; Highway Trust Fund Oversight Committee. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90; ^ 
House of Representatives, 1957, 1961, 1963; Chairman, Joint Caucus; form 
Chairman, Burke County Republican Executive Committee; former Preside, 
and Vice President, Burke County Young Republicans Club; former Mayl' 
and Councilman, Town of Glen Alpine; former Vice-Chairman, NC Youi 
Republicans. j 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945-46 (T/5); South Pacific theate 

Honors: Who's Who in American Law. 

Religious Activities; First Baptist Church, Morganton. 

Family: Married, Mary Alice Leonard of Glen Alpine, September 16, 19<' 
Children: Mary Alma (Simpson) Beyer, James Reid, II and Ethel Baiji 
(Simpson) Todd. 


Ranking Minority Member: Base Budget, Judiciary I. I 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Education; Agriculture, Mari^ 
Resources and Wildlife; Education; Manufacturing and Labor; Rules ajl 
Operation of the Senate; State Personnel and State Government. 

The Legislative Branch 


Robert Charles Soles, Jr. 

(Democrat — Columbus County) 

Eighteenth Senatorial District — Bladen, 
Brunswick, Columbus, and Cumberland (part) 
Counties — One Senator. 

Early Years: Born in Tabor City, 
December 17, 1934, to Robert C. and 
Myrtle (Norris) Soles. 

Education: Tabor City High School; 
Wake Forest University, 1956, B.S.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1959, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: American and NC Bar 
Associations; American Trial Lawyers 
Association; NC Association of County Attorneys; Phi Alpha Delta; Rotary 
/lub (former President). 

Boards: President, Southeastern Community College Foundation; South- 

rn Growth Policies Board; Trustee, UNC-Wilmington; Former Trustee of the 

onsolidated University of NC Medical Malpractice Study Commission; 

brmer Member Gov's Crime Commission. 
! Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-Present (8 terms); NC 

jlouse of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76. 
Military Service: Served, US Army Reserve, 1957-67 (Captain). 
Religious Activities: Member, Tabor City Baptist Church. 


I Chairman: Judiciary I. 

Vice Chairman: Finance. 

I Member: Agriculture; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Finance; Insurance; 
lublic Utilities; Rules and Operations of the Senate; Ways and Means; 


North Carolina Manual 

James Davis Speed 

(Democrat-Franklin County) 

Eleventh Senatorial District-Franklin, Vanc( 
and Wake (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Bom in Louisburg, Fran) 
lin County, January 30, 1915, to Henr 
Plummer and Addie (Jeffreys) Speed. i 

Education: Gold Sand High Schoo 


Professional Background: Farme 
Tobacco Warehouseman. 

Organizations: Farm Bureau (Pas 
President); Agri-Business Council; Maso 
(Past Master) Shriner. 

Boards: N.C. Tobacco Foundation Board of Directors; N.C. State Unive 
sity Veterinary School Foundation Board; N.C. Local Government Advocac 
Council; Former Member, N.C. Board of Agriculture; Franklin Memoria 
Hospital, Board of Directors, former Chairman; former member, N.C. Stall 
Farm Bureau Board; former Chairman, Franklin County Democratic Part; 
Franklin County Board of Health, former member. 

Honors: Outstanding Service Award by N.C. Association of Rescr 
Squads, 1971; District Tree Farmer of the Year, 1974; Conservation Farm(t 
of the Year, 1975; Cited by N.C. State University for Outstanding Service 1 
the Tobacco Industry, 1982; Louisburg-Franklin County Chamber of Con 
merce Achievement Award, 1980; Louisburg College Medallion Award, 198cj 

Political Activities: N.C. Senate, 1977-Present (8 terms). Member, N.( 
House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971 Session' 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Martha Matthews, November 29, 1947. Childrei 
Claudia, Tommy and James. 


Chairman: Agriculture, Marine Resources, and Wildlife. 

Vice Chairman: Pensions and Retirement 

Member: Appropriations, Appropriations on General Government, Bast 
Budget, Human Resources, Redistricting-Congressonal Redistricting Sul| 
committee. Transportation, Veteran and Military Affairs, Law Enforcemen 
and Senior Citizens. 

The Legislative Branch 

William Wayne Staton 

(Democrat — Lee County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District — Harnett, 
Lee, and Wake (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Olive Branch, 
Union County, October 11, 1917, to Oscar 
M. and Mae (Young) Staton. 

Education: Mt. Ulla High School; 
Wake Forest University, 1938, B.S.; 
WFU, School of Law, 1941, LL.B. and 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(senior member in firm of Staton, Perkin- 
son, West Doster and Dost); Former 

/Attorney: Sanford Board of Education, 1956-72; Central Carolina Tech. 

College, 1960-72; Town of Carrboro, 1971-72. 

Organizations: Eleventh Judicial District Bar Association (President); 
American Bar Association; BPO Elks; Royal Order of Moose; Veterans of 
foreign Wars; American Legion; Disabled American Veterans; Woodmen of 
;he World. Former member: Sanford Chamber of Commerce (President); 
Jnited Fund of Lee County (President); Sanford Cotillion Club (President); 
uee District Boy Scouts (Chairman); Occoneechee Council, BSA (Vice Presi- 
dent); Cape Fear Basin Development Association (President, 1948-1950); 
j5anford Executive Club (President). 

I Boards: Director, Mid-South Bank & Trust Company, 1974-; Golden Corral 
corporation, 1974-; Investors Management Corporation, 1974-85. Former 
aember, NC Commission for Improved Courts. 

' Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; NC House of Representatives, 1967; Demo- 
ratic National Committee, 1960-1964; NC Democratic Executive Committee, 
p51-1952, 1960-1964; President, Young Democrats of NC, 1951-1952; Lee 
I'ounty Democratic Executive Committee, 1948-1949. 

[Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-1946; Reserves, 1948-68 
pdonel); Judge Advocate Corps; Battle Stars (3) European Theatre; Purple 
feart. Battle of the Bulge; Bronze Star Ordennes Campaign of 1945. 

Honors: NC Legion of Merit; Sanford Community Service Award, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Sanford Board of 
eacons; Chairman, Board of Trustees; teacher, Men's Bible Class, 27 years. 

jFamily: Married, Ellen Boone of Jackson, June 28, 1947. Children: William 
ayne, Jr. and Allyn Moore. 

282 North Carolina Manual 


Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Vice Chairman: Congressional Redistricting, Economic Development. 

Member: Environment and Natural Resources, Finance, Higher Educa-j 
tion, Judiciary I, Public Utilities, Redistricting Committee, Rules, State: 

The Legislative Branch 


Lura Self Tally 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

Twelfth Senatorial District — Cumberland 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Statesville, 
December 9, 1921, to R.O. and Sara 
Sherrill (Cowles) Self. 

Education: Raleigh Public Schools and 
Needham Broughton High School, 1938; 
Peace College; Duke University, A.B., 
1942; NCSU School of Education, 1970 

Professional Background: Teacher 
and guidance counselor, Fayetteville City 
Schools; teacher. Adult Education, Fayetteville Technical Institute. 

Organizations: NEA; NC Association of Educators; NC Personnel and 
■ruidance Association; American Association of University Women; Business 
ind Professional Women's Club; NC Federation of Women's Clubs; NC 
society for Preservation of Antiquities (former President); Fayetteville 
Vomen's Club (former President); President, Cumberland County Mental 
lealth Association; Coordinator of Volunteers, Cumberland County Mental 
lealth Center; Kappa Delta. 

Boards: Fayetteville Recreation Commission; NCSU Foundation Board; 
I'ayetteville Technical Community College Board, 1983; Juvenile Code 
tevision Commission, 1977-79; Mental Health Study Commission, 1986-87. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; 1989- 
0; 1991-92. NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 

Honors: Business and Professional Woman of the Year, Fayetteville, 
978, Distinguished Alumni N.C. State, 1988. Doctor of Humanities, 
lethodist College, Fayetteville 1989. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hay Street Methodist Church, Fayette- 

I Family: Children: Robert Taylor and John Cowles. Five grandsons. 


IChairman: Environment and Natural Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations on Natural and Economic Resources 

Member: Agriculture, Marine Resources and Wildlife; Appropriations; 
ase Budget; Economic Development; Education; Higher Education; Human 
jbsources; Judiciary I; Ways and Means. 


North Carolina Manual 

Russell Grady Walker 

(Democrat - Randolph County) i 

Sixteenth Senatorial District - Chatham, I 

Moore, Orange, and Randolph Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Conetoe, Augusti 
26, 1918, to Ashley and Alleen (Bryant)i 

Education: High Point High School; 
US Army Air Corps Pilot Training 

Professional Background: Retired 
Chain Super Market Operator; Formei 
President, Food Line Super Markets, Inc. 

Organizations: Member, Masonic 
Order, Balfour Lodge (Asheboro); Asheboro Kiwanis Club (Past President| 
Asheboro Club; Past Lt. Gov. Carolinas District); North Carolina Food| 
Dealers Association (Past President). | 

Boards: Mental Health Study Commission; Commission on Environ| 
mental Review (Co-Chairman); Social Services Study Commission (Co-Chair' 
man); Asheboro Airport Authority (Chairman); Human Resources Appropria, 
tions Committee (Vice-Chairman); Chairman Senate Congressional RedistrictI 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Chairman, NC Democratic Partyf 
1979-1983; Asheboro City Council, 1961-1965 (2 terms); Member, Democratic 
National Committee. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1941-46 (Pilot); US Ai. 
Force Reserve, 1947-55 (Captain). J 

Honors: Air Medal, 1945. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Asheboro. 

Family: Married, Ruth Brunt Walker, July 13, 1941; Children: Russell G.. 
Jr., Mrs. Susan Walker Smith, and Stephen Allen. ! 


Chairman: Congressional Redistricting. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Committee on Human Resources 
Economic and Development, Human Resources. j 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Education; Election Laws; Envirorj 
ment and Natural Resources; Redistricting; Rules and Operation; Ways an 

The Legislative Branch 


Marvin Martin Ward 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 

Twentieth Senatorial District - Forsyth 
County (part). 

Early Years: Born in Morrison, 
Virginia, Febuary 10, 1914, to Charles 
Tilden and Nora Belle (Martin) Ward. 

Education: East Bend High School, 
1930; Appalachian State University, 
1934, B.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1940, M.A. 

Professional Background: Retired 
educator (former Superintendent of Win- 
ston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools). 

Organizations: American Association 
f School Administrators; NC Division of Superintendents; Mid-Urban 
luperintendents (former President and Director); life member, PTA; life 
lember. National Education Association; Lions Club; Ardmore Community 
ylub (former President); Winston-Salem Automobile Club (Director); Win- 
■ton-Salem Chamber of Commerce. 

; Boards: Government Operations Committee; Mental Health Study Com- 
aission; Public School Forum of North Carolina; Education Commission of 
he States-Steering Committee; National Conference of State Legislators 
/ice Chairman, Education Committee); Redistricting Task Force); Southern 
legislative Conference (Education Committee) 

j Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985- 
3, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-. 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Winston-Salem Lions Club, 1976; 
aland Award, 1982 (for outstanding service in the field of mental health); 
utstanding Support of Public Education Award, North Carolina Association 
j' Educators, 1985; Legislative Award, North Carolina School Psychology 
association, 1985; Outstanding Service Award, North Carolina Mental 
ealth Association, 1986; Distinguished Alumni Award, Appalachain State 
jniversity, 1986; Bell Award, Forsyth County Mental Health Association, 
i)87; For Outstanding Leadership and Contributions to Education Award, 
'Dutheastern Council of Elementary School Principals, 1988-89; Leadership 
liward — Outstanding Senator for Mental Health Services in North Carolina, 
Ijorth Carolina Council of Mental Health, Mental Retardation, and Sub- 
'ance Abuse Programs, 1989; "The Educator" Award, Winston-Salem 
lapter of A. Philip Randolph Institute, 1989; Outstanding Legislator 
iward, North Carolina Alliance for the Mentally 111, 1989. 

JReligious Activities: Member, Methodist Cetenary Church, Winston- 
ilem; Administrative Board; Budget and Finance Committee; Sunday 

286 North Carolina Manual 

School teacher; Chairman, Staff Parish Committee, 1974-77; Sunday School 
Superintendant, 1958-61. 

Family: Married, Mary June Darden, August 23, 1941. Children: EHzabeth 
(Ward) Cone and Marvin Thomas. 


Chairman: Appropriations on Education. 

Vice-Chairman: Education. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Higher Education; Human 
Resources; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Transportation; Ways and 

The Legislative Branch 


Ed Nelson Warren 

(Democrat - Beaufort, Martin, Pitt 

Ninth Senatorial District. 

Early Years: Born in Stokes, Pitt 
County, November 29, 1926, to Elmer 
Edward and Daisy (Cox) Warren. 

Education: Campbell University, 
A.A.; Atlantic Christian College, A.B.; 
East Carolina University, M.A.; Duke 
University, doctoral program. 

Professional Background: Investor, 
Farmer, Real Estate. 

Organizations: Greenville Rotary 
Club (Paul Harris Fellow), Trustee Salvation Army, Pitt County Heart 
Association (Former Chairman), Board of Directors Greenville Chamber of 
Commerce, United Fund Board, Greenville Golf and Country Club. (Former 

; President). 

; Boards: Former Chairman Board of Trustees, Pitt County Memorial 
Hospital; Former Chairman, Pitt County Health Board; Pitt County Airport 
Authority; Board of Directors, BB&T Bank; Past President, United Fund. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1981-1990 
(5 terms); Former Chairman, Pitt County Board of County Commissioners. 
NC Senate 1991-present. 
i Military Service: United States Air Force. 


J Honors: Pitt County Citizen of the Year Award, 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church; Former Deacon; 
Finance Committee. 

' Family: Married, Joan Braswell. 


Chairman: Travel, Tourism & Cultural Resources. 

Vice-Chairman: Education. 

Member: Appropriations, Banks and Thrift Institutions, Base Budget- 
Appropriations, Education-Appropriations, Higher Education, Public 
] Utilities, State Personnel & State Government, Agriculture & Marine Re- 
sources, Ethics. 


North Carolina Manual 

Dennis Jay Winner 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Twenty-eighth Senatorial District — 
Buncombe, McDowell, Madison, and Yancey 
Counties — Two Senators. 

Early Years: Born in Canton, Bun- 
combe County, March 29, 1942, to Harry 
and Julienne (Marder) Winner. 

Education: Lee H. Edwards High 
School, 1960; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1963, 
A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 
1966, J.D. with honors. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
Dennis J. Winner, P. A. 

Boards: Board of Directors: Asheville Chamber Music Association; UNC 
Law Alumni Association, 1982-; UNC Board of Visitors, 1976-; Asheville Art 
Museum. Former member: NC Judicial Council, 1973-74; NC Courts Commis- 
sion, President, Buncombe County Bar Association, 1982. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; 
Superior Court Judge, 1972-1975; District Court Judge, 1970-1972; President, 
Buncombe County Young Democrats Club, 1968. 

Military Service: Served, NC Air National Guard, 1966-1972 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Congregation Beth Ha Tephila, Asheville. 

Chairman: Rules and Operation of the Senate. 
Vice Chairman: Redistricting Committee. 

Member: Constitution; Education; Environment and Natural Resources; 
Finance; Judiciary II; Marine Resources and Wildlife; Ways and Means. 

The Legislative Branch 


Sylvia Morris Fink 


Early Years: Born in Charlotte, August 8, 
1936, to Warren Reid (deceased) and Effie 
(Howard) Morris. 

Education: Mount Holly High School, 1954; 
Pfeiffer College, 1955-56. 

Profession: Principal Clerk, NC Senate, 1976- 
(first woman); Senate staff, 1967, 1973-76; Deputy 
Clerk, NC Court of Appeals, 1967-68; formerly 
employed by Duke Power Company, Cannon Mills 
Company and Charlotte Chamber of Commerce. 

Organizations: American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries; 
Wake Democratic Women. 

Political Activities: Elected Principal Clerk, NC Senate, 1976 to present, 
Journal Clerk, NC Senate, 1975-76; Assistant Journal Clerk, NC Senate, 
1973-74; Committee Clerk, NC Senate, 1967. > . , > 

Religious Activities: Member, Benson Memorial United Methodist 
Church; life member (two churches) Women's Society of Christian Service 
(former President and Vice President). Former MYF counselor, Sunday 
School teacher, organist, choir member. 

Family: Child: Paige Elizabeth. 


North Carolina Manual 

Gerda Charlotte Pleasants 


Early Years: Born in Schallen, Germany, 
November 16, 1923 to Richard Breuhammer and 
Charlotte Luise Happke. 

Education: Lyceum — Wehlau, Germany, 
1939; Womans College/Loinigsberg, B.A. 
Languages/Education, 1942; University/ Koenigs- 
berg, graduate work, 1942. 

Professional Background: Sergeant-at-Arms 
for the North Carolina Senate; Assistant Ser- 
geant-at-Arms, 1967-1980. 

Organizations: Member of the National Legislative Services and Security 
Association; Chairman of Region 4, 1990, 1991; Member, Executive Board. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Cary, 


Family: Married Sheriff Robert Pleasants, deceased, March, 1962, 
Children: Charlott Oberbauer, Ida Patricia, and Robert Alf. 

The Legislative Branch 291 

Committee Assignments 1991 


Speed, Chairman 

Murphy and Parnell, Vice-Chairmen; Kincaid, Ranking Minority Member; 
Ballance, Daughtry, Hyde, Martin of Pitt, Marvin, Perdue, Sands, Shaw, 
Simpson, Soles, Tally, and Warren. 


I Ballance, Chairman 

1 Raynor, Vice Chairman; Daughtry, Ranking Minority Member; Blackmon, 
Goldston, Odom, and Seymour. 


Basnight, Chairman 

Royall, Johnson, Murphy, and Kincaid, Vice Chairmen (Kincaid — Ranking 
Minority Member); Ballance, Blackmon, Block, Bryan, Carter, Cochrane, 
Conder, Forrester, Hartsell, Hunt, Martin of Pitt, Martin of Guilford, Marvin, 
Odom, Parnell, Perdue, Plyler, Pollard, Richardson, Simpson, Speed, Tally, 
Walker, Ward, and Warren. 


I Ward, Chairman 


' Conder, Vice Chairman; Carter, Ranking Minority Member; Hunt, Simpson, 

and Warren. 


I Martin of Guilford, Chairman 

I Block, Vice Chairman; Hartsell, Ranking Minority Member; Perdue and 
I Speed. 


Richardson, Chairman 

Walker, Vice Chairman; Forrester, Ranking Minority Member; Pollard and 


Marvin, Chairman 

Parnell, Vice Chairman; Bryan, Ranking Minority Member; Ballance, Black- 
mon, and Odom. 

292 North Carolina Manual 


Martin of Pitt, Chairman 

Tally, Vice Chairman; Kincaid, Ranking Minority Member; Cochrane and 


Staton, Chairman 

Martin of Pitt and Shaw, Vice Chairmen; Kincaid, Ranking Minority Member; 
Ballance, Block, Carpenter, Carter, Johnson, Kaplan, Murphy, Seymour, 
Sherron, Soles, Warren, and Winner. 


Plyler, Chairman 

Royall, Johnson, Kincaid, and Murphy, Vice Chairmen; Simpson, Ranking 
Minority Member; Ballance, Basnight, Blackmon, Block, Bryan, Carter, Coch- 
rane, Conder, Forrester, Hartsell, Hunt, Martin of Pitt, Martin of Guilford, 
Marvin, Odom, Parnell, Perdue, Pollard, Richardson, Speed, Tally, Walker, 
Ward, and Warren. 


Hyde Chairman 

Odom, and Marvin, Vice Chairmen; Cochrane, Ranking Minority Member; 
Ballance, Basnight, Cooper, Daniel, Hartsell, Johnson, Kaplan, Martin of 
Guilford, Pollard, Soles, and Winner. 


Cooper, Chairman 

Simpson, Staton, and Walker, Vice Chairmen; Cochrane, Ranking Minority 
Member; Allran, Blackmon, Block, Conder, Hunt, Lee, Martin of Guilford, 
Plexico, Seymour, Sherron, and Tally. 


Conder, Chairman 

Ward, Warren, and Smith, Vice Chairmen; Bryan, Ranking Minority 
Member; Block, Carter, Cooper, Daughtry, Hartsell, Hunt, Martin of Guil- 
ford, Marvin, Murphy, Perdue, Richardson, Simpson, Tally, and Walker. 


Hunt, Chairman 

Sands, Vice Chairman; Blackmon, Ranking Minority Member; Cooper, 
Hartsell, Kaplan, Lee, Parnell, Pollard, Seymour, and Walker. 

The Legislative Branch 293 


Tally, Chairman 

Lee, and Plexico, Vice Chairmen; Shaw, Ranking Minority Member; Allran, 
Basnight, Bryan, Carpenter, Cochrane, Cooper, Daniel, Martin of Pitt, 
Murphy, Odom, Sherron, Staton, Walker, and Winner. 


Daniel, Chairman 

Goldston, Soles, Royall, and Smith, Vice Chairmen (Smith, Ranking Minor- 
ity Member); Allran, Carpenter, Cooper, Daughtry, Hyde, Kaplan. Lee, Plex- 
ico, Raynor, Sands, Seymour, Shaw, Sherron, Staton, and Winner. 


Perdue, Chairman 

Royall and Cochrane, Vice Chairmen; (Cochrane, Ranking Minority 
Member); Conder, Forrester, Goldston, Kincaid, Lee, Martin of Guilford, 
Murphy, Shaw, Staton, Tally, Ward, Warren, and Winner. 


Murphy, Chairman 

Walker and Plexico, Vice Chairmen; Smith, Ranking Minority Member; 
Cochrane, Cooper, Forrester, Goldston, Kincaid, Martin of Guilford, Marvin, 
Raynor, Richardson, Royall, Speed, Tally, and Ward. 


Odom, Chairman 

Seymour and Raynor, Vice Chairmen; Pollard, Ranking Minority Member; 
Ballance, Goldston, Hyde, Johnson, Kincaid, Parnell, Smith, and Soles. 


Soles, Chairman 

Hyde, and Martin of Guilford, Vice Chairmen; Simpson, Ranking Minority 
Member; Blackmon, Daughtry, Johnson, Lee, Odom, Raynor, Staton, and 


Sands, Chairman 

Ballance and Block, Vice Chairmen; Allran, Ranking Minority Member; 
Carpenter, Cooper, Daniel, Hartsell, Marvin, Richardson, Sherron, and 


Lee, Chairman 

Odom, Vice Chairman; Shaw, Ranking Minority Member; Allran, Bryan, 
Conder, Hunt, Plexico, Richardson, Sands, Seymour, and Sherron. 

294 North Carolina Manual 


Parnell, Chairman 

Hunt, Vice Chairman; Allran, Ranking Minority Member; Ballance, Cooper, 
Goldston, Hyde, Johnson, Kincaid, Martin of Guilford, Odom, Perdue, Plex- 
ico, Richardson, Sands, Simpson, and Smith. 


Block, Chairman 

Conder and Speed, Vice Chairmen; Carpenter, Ranking Minority Member; 
Basnight, Bryan, Daniel, Daughtry, Hunt, Marvin, Plyler, Pollard, Royall, 
Seymour, Sherron, and Winner. 


Seymour, Chairman 

Sherron, Vice Chairman; Smith, Ranking Minority Member; Blackmon, 
Carpenter, Cochrane, Goldston, Hunt, Johnson, Martin of Pitt, Murphy, 
Parnell, Royall, Soles, Staton, and Warren. 


Winner, Chairman 

Allran, Ranking Minority Member; Ballance, Basnight, Bryan, Cochrane, 
Daniel, Daughtry, Johnson, Kaplan, Kincaid, Martin of Guilford, Martin of 
Pitt, Marvin, Odom, Perdue, Plexico, Plyler, Richardson, Sands, Shaw, 
Smith, Soles, Speed, Staton, and Walker. 


Walker, Chairman 

Staton and Daughtry, Vice Chairmen; Allran, Ballance, Bryan, Martin of 
Pitt, Marvin, Odom, Perdue, Smith, Soles, and Speed. 


Johnson, Chairman 

Kaplan, Martin of Guilford, and Shaw, Vice Chairmen; Basnight, Cochrane, 
Daniel, Kincaid, Plexico, Plyler, Richardson, and Sands. 


Winner, Chairman 

Kaplan and Plyler, Vice Chairmen; Bryan, Ranking Minority Member; 
Block, Carter, Daniel, Hartsell, Hunt, Hyde, Kincaid, Marvin, Royall, 
Simpson, Soles, Staton, Walker, and Ward. 

The Legislative Branch 295 


Sherron, Chairman 

Richardson, Vice Chairman; Simpson, Ranking Minority Member; Allran, 
Conder, Daughtry, Forrester, Goldston, Hunt, Johnson, Martin of Pitt, 
Raynor, Royall, Sands, Staton, and Warren. 


Goldston, Chairman 

Basnight and Murphy, Vice Chairmen; Smith, Ranking Minority Member; 
Allran, Carpenter, Kaplan, Martin of Pitt, Odom, Parnell, Plyler, Pollard, 
Raynor, Richardson, Speed, and Ward. 


Warren, Chairman 

Seymour, Vice Chairman; Shaw, Ranking Minority Member; Basnight, 
Block, Carter, Cochrane, Hyde, Lee, Perdue, Plexico, and Raynor. 



Raynor, Chairman 

Perdue, Vice Chairman; Carpenter, Ranking Minority Member; Forrester, 
Hyde, Lee, Parnell, Plexico, Pollard, and Speed. 


Royall, Chairman 

Kaplan and Daniel, Vice Chairmen; Daughtry, Ranking Minority Member; 
Basnight, Blackmon, Carter, Conder, Forrester, Goldston, Lee, Martin of 
Pitt, Plyler, Shaw, Sherron, Soles, Tally, Walker, and Ward. 


296 North Carolina Manual 

The Legislative Branch 297 


j|l Officers 

Speaker Daniel Terry Blue, Jr. 

Speaker Pro Tempore Marie Watters Colton 

Majority Leader Dennis A. Wicker 

Minority Leader Johnathan L. Rhyne, Jr. 

.Majority Whip Milton F. Fitch, Jr. 

Minority Whip Theresa Harlow Esposito 

Joint Caucus Leader Art Pope 

Principal Clerk Grace A. Collins 

Reading Clerk Sam J. Burrow, Jr. 

,Sergeant-at-Arms Larry P. Eagles 


Name Dist. County Address 

Abernethy, J. Vernon (R) 93rd Gaston Belmont 

Albertson, Charles W 10th Duplin Beulaville 

Anderson, Gerald L 3rd Craven New Bern 

Balmer, David G. (R) 55th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Barbee, Bobby H., Sr., (R) 82nd Stanly Locust 

Barnes, Anne C 24th Orange Chapel Hill 

Barnhill, Howard C 60th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Beall, Charles M 52nd Haywood Clyde 

Beard, R. Donald 18th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Black, James B 36th Mecklenburg Matthews 

Blue, Daniel T., Jr 21st Wake Raleigh 

Bowen, Edward C 12th Sampson Harrells 

•Bowie, Joanne W. (R) 29th Guilford Greensboro 

Bowman, J. Fred 25th Alamance BurHngton 

Brawley, C. Robert, Jr. (R) 43rd Iredell Mooresville 

Brown, John W. (R) 41st Wilkes Elkin 

iBrubaker, Harold J. (R) 38th Randolph Asheboro 

Buchanan, Charles F. (R) 46th Mitchell Green Mountain 

hapin, Howard B 2nd Beaufort Washington 

hurch, John T 22nd Vance Henderson 

Colton, Marie W 51st Buncombe Asheville 

[Crawford, James W., Jr 22nd Granville Oxford 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr 51st Buncombe Asheville 

Creech, Billy J. (R) 20th Johnston Wilson's Mills 

Gulp, Arlie F. (R) 30th Randolph Ramseur 

Cunningham, W. Pete 59th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Dawkins, Donald M 32nd Richmond Rockingham 

Decker, Michael P. (R) 73rd Forsyth Walkertown 

OeVane, Daniel H 16th Hoke Raeford 

Dial, Adolph Lorenz 85th Robeson Pembroke 

Diamont, David H 40th Surry Pilot Mountain 

Oickson, W.W. (R) 76th Gaston Gastonia 

pockham, Jerry C. (R) 94th Davidson Denton 

Easterhng, Ruth M 58th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Esposito, Theresa H. (R) 88th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Bthridge, W. Bruce 4th Carteret Beaufort 

fitch, Milton F., Jr 70th Wilson Wilson 


298 North Carolina Manual 

Name Dist. County Address | 

Flaherty, David T., Jr. (R) 46th Caldwell Lenoir i 

Fletcher, Ray C 47th Burke Morganton i 

Foster, Jo Graham 56th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Fussell, Aaron E 65th Wake Raleigh 

Gamble, John Reeves, Jr 44th Lincoln Lincolnton j 

Gardner, Charlotte A. (R) 35th Rowan Salisbury ! 

Gist, Herman C 26th Guilford Greensboro 

Gottovi, Karen Eckberg 13th New Hanover Wilmington 

Grady, Robert (R) 80th Onslow Jacksonville I 

Gray, Lyons (R) 39th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Green, James P., Sr 78th Vance Henderson 

Greenwood, Gordon H 51st Buncombe Black Mountain ' 

Grimmer, Harry C. (R) 57th Mecklenburg Charlotte 

Hackney, Joe 24th Orange Chapel Hill 

Hardaway, Thomas C 7th Halifax Enfield ! 

Hasty, John Calvin 87th Robeson Maxton , 

Hege, Joe H., Jr. (R) 37th Davidson Lexington 

Hensley, Robert J., Jr 64th Wake Raleigh 

Hightower, Foyle 33rd Anson Wadesboro 

Holmes, George M. (R) 41st Yadkin Hamptonville 

Holt, Bertha M 25th Alamance Burlington 

Howard, Julia C. (R) 74th Davie Mocksville 

Huffman, Doris R. (R) 45th Catawba Newton 

Hunt, Jack 48th Cleveland Lattimorei 

Hunt, Judy Frances 40th Watauga Blowing Rock 

Hunt, R. Samuel, HI 25th Alamance Burlington 

Hunter, Howard J., Jr 5th Northampton Conway, 

Hunter, Robert Carl 49th McDowell Marion 

Hurley, John W 18th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Isenhower, W. Stine (R) 45th Catawba Conover 

James, Vernon G 1st Pasquotank Elizabeth City 

Jarrell, Mary Long 89th Guilford High Point 

Jeffus, Margaret Moore 89th Guilford Greensboro 

Jeralds, Luther R 17th Cumberland Fayetteville 

Jones, Walter B., Jr 8th Pitt Farmville 

Jordan, Larry Mack 62nd Wake Apex 

Justus, Larry T. (R) 50th Henderson Hendersonville 

Kahl, John Wayne 42nd Iredell Union Grove 

Kennedy, Annie Brown 66th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Kerr, John Hosea, HI 11th Wayne Goldsboro 

Kimsey, Marty E. (R) 53rd Macon Franklin 

Lewis, William W. (R) 72nd Wilson Wilson. 

Ligon, Bradford V. (R) 83rd Rowan Salisbury: 

Lilley, Daniel T 77th Lenoir Kinston 

Lineberry, Albert, Sr., 89th Guilford Greensboro^ 

Loflin, H. Clayton (R) 34th Union Monroe' 

Luebke, Paul 23rd Durham Durham 

Lutz, Edith L 48th Cleveland Lawndale' 

McAllister, Mary E 17th Cumberland Fayetteville 

McGee, Edward L 72nd Nash Rocky Mount 

McLaughhn, John B. 54th Mecklenburg Newell 

McLawhorn, Charles 9th Pitt Winterville 

Mavretic, Josephus L 71st Edgecombe Tarboro 

Mercer, Leo 14th Columbus Chadbourn 

Michaux, Henry M., Jr 23rd Durham DurhamI 

Miller, George W., Jr 23rd Durham Durham 

Morgan, Richard T. (R) 31st Moore Pinehurst 

Nesbitt, Martin L 51st Buncombe Asheville 

Nye, Edd 96th Bladen Elizabethtown' 

The Legislative Branch 299 

,Name Dist. County Address 

Oldham, Warren Claude 67th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Payne, Harry E., Jr 13th New Hanover Wilmington 

Pope, J. Arthur (R) 61st Wake Raleigh 

Privette, Coy C. (R) 90th Cabarrus Kannapolis 

Ramsey, Listen B 52nd Madison Marshall 

Redwine, E. David 14th Brunswick Shallotte 

Rhodes, Frank E. (R) 84th Forsyth Winston-Salem 

Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. (R) 44th Lincoln Lincolnton 

Robinson, George S. (R) 91st Caldwell Lenoir 

Rogers, Richard Eugene 6th Martin Williamston 

Russell, Carolyn B. (R) 77th Wayne Goldsboro 

Smith, Ronald L 4th Carteret Atlantic Beach 

Stamey, Margaret 63rd Wake Raleigh 

Stewart, Clarence P 19th Harnett Lillington 

Fallent, Timothy N. (R) 81st Cabarrus Concord 

Thompson, Raymond M 86th Chowan Edenton 

A^ainwright, William L 79th Craven Havelock 

A^arner, Edward Alexander 75th Cumberland Hope Mills 

A^icker, Dennis A 19th Lee Sanford 

A^ilmoth, Wade Franklin 40th Watauga Boone 

A^ilson, Peggy (R) 73rd Rockingham Madison 

A^ithrow, WilUam H 48th Rutherford Ellenboro 

A^ood, Stephen W. (R) 27th Guilford High Point 

A^oodard, Barney Paul 95th Johnston Princeton 

300 North Carolina Manual 

Speakers of the House of Burgesses 
Lower House of the Colonial Assembly 

Assembly Representative County ' 

1666 George Catchmaid Albemarle 

1672 Valentine Bird [Pasquotank] 

1673 (Valentine Bird] [Pasquotank] 

1675 Thomas Eastchurch 

1677 Thomas Cullen [Chowan] 

1679 George Durant [Currituck] 

1689 John Nixon [Chowan] 

1697/98 John Porter [Bath] 

[1703] William Wilkison [Chowan] 

1707 Thomas Boyd j 

1708 Edward Mosely [Chowan] 

1709 Richard Sanderson [Currituck] j 

1711 William Swann [Currituck] 

1711/12 Thomas Snoden [Perquimans] 

1715/16 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1720 [Edward Moseley] [Chowan] 

1722 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1723 Edward Moseley [Chowan] i 

1725-26 Maurice Moore [Perquimans] 

John Baptista Ashe Beaufort ' 

1727 [John Baptista Ashe] [Beaufort] 

1729 Thomas Swann [Pasquotank] 

1731 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1733 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1734 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1735 William Downing Tyrrell 

1736-37 William Downing Tyrrell 

1738-39 William Downing Tyrrell 

1739/40-1740 John Hodgson Chowan 

1741 John Hodgson Chowan 

1742/43-1744 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1744-45 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746/47-1752 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1753-54 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1754-60 John Campbell Bertie 

Samuel Swann Onslow 

1760 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1761 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1762 Samuel Swann Onslow 

John Ashe New Hanover 

1764-65 John Ashe New Hanover 

1766-68 John Harvey Perquimans 

1769 John Harvey Perquimans 

1770-71 Richard Caswell Craven 

1773 John Harvey Perquimans 

1773-74 John Harvey Perquimans 

1775 John Harvey Perquimans 

The Legislative Branch 301 

House of Commons 

Assembly Representative County 

[111 Abner Nash Craven 

778 John Williams Granville 

Thomas Benbury Chowan 

779 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1780 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1781 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1782 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1783 Edward Starkey Onslow 

1784 (April) Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1784 (October) William Blount Craven 

1785 Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven 

1786-87 John B.Ashe Halifax 

1787 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1788 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1789 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

!1790 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1791-92 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1792-93 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1793-94 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1794-95 Timothy Bloodworth New Hanover 

1795 John Leigh Edgecombe 

•1796 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1797 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1798 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

3.799 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

"800 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

801 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

.802 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

]803 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

804 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

•805 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

'806 John Moore Lincoln 

.'807 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

j808 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

' William Gaston Craven 

809 Thomas Davis Cumberland 

810 William Hawkins Granville 

.'811 William Hawkins Granville 

|812 William Miller Warren 

813 William Miller Warren 

'814 William Miller Warren 

815 John Craig Orange 

|816 Thomas Ruffins Orange 

\ James Iredell Chowan 

5817 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

818 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

'819 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

'820 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

821 James Mebane Orange 

'822 John D. Jones New Hanover 

'823-24 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

824-25 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

825-26 John Stanly Craven 

1826-27 John Stanly Craven 

J827-28 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

302 North Carolina Manual 

Assembly Representative County 

1828-29 Thomas Settle Rockingham j 

1829-30 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1830-31 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1831-32 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1832-33 Louis D. Henry Cumberland 

1833-34 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1834-35 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1835 William D. Haywood, Jr Wake^ 

1836-37 WilUam H. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1838-39 WilUam A. Graham Orange 

1840-41 William A. Graham Orange 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville, 

1842-43 Clavin Graves Caswell 

1844-45 Edward Stanly Beauford 

1846-47 Edward Stanly Beauford, 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1848-49 Robert B. Gilliam Granville' 

1850-51 James C. Dobbs Cumberland 

1852 John Baxter Henderson 

1854-55 Samuel P. Hill Caswell' 

1856-57 Jesse G. Shepherd Cumberland 

1858-59 Thomas Settle, Jr Rockingham. 

1860-61 WilUam T. Dortch Wayne! 

Nathan N. Fleming Rowar 

1862-64 Robert B. Gilliam Granville^ 

Richard S. Donnell Beauforl 

Marmaduke S. Robbins Randolph 

1864-65 Richard S. Donnel Beauforll 

1865-66 Samuel F. Phillips Orang( 

1866-67 Rufus Y. McAden Alamance. 

House of Representatives 

Assembly Representative Countj 

1868 Joseph W. Holden Wak 

1869-70 Joseph W. Holden Wak 

1870 Thomas J. Jarvis Tyrrel 

1872 James L. Robinson Macoi 

1874-75 James L. Robinson Macoi 

1876-77 Charles Price Davij 

1879 John M. Moring Chathan, 

1881 Charles M. Cooke Franklii 

1883 George M. Rose Cumberlan( 

1885 Thomas M. Holt Alamanc 

1887 John R.Webster Rockinghar 

1889 Augustus Leazar Iredeli 

1891 Rufus A. Doughton Alleghan. 

1893 Lee S. Overman Rowai 

1895 Zeb V. Walser Davidso:' 

1897 A.F. Hileman Cabarru 

1899-1900 Henry G. Connor Wilso^ 

1901 Walter E. Moore Jackso' 

1903 S. M. Gattis Orangi 

1905 Owen H. Guion Cravej 

1907 E. J. Justice Guilfor 

1909 A.W.Graham Granvill 

The Legislative Branch 303 

Assembly Representative County 

1911 W. C. Dowd Mecklenburg 

1913 George Connor Wilson 

1915 Emmett R. Wooten Lenoir 

J1917 Walter Murphy Rowan 

11919 Dennis G. Brummitt Granville 

U921 Harry P. Grier Iredell 

il923-24 John G. Dawson Lenoir 

1925 Edgar W. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1927 Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe 

1929 A.H.Graham Orange 

1931 Willis Smith Wake 

1933 R.L. Harris Person 

1935-36 Robert Johnson Pender 

1937 R. Gregg Cherry Gaston 

1939 D.L.Ward Craven 

11941 0. M. Mull Cleveland 

1943 John Kerr, Jr Warren 

1945 Oscar L. Richardson Union 

;1947 Thomas J. Pearsall Nash 

1949 Kerr Craig Ramsay Rowan 

'1951 W. Frank Taylor Wayne 

1953 Eugene T. Bost, Jr Cabarrus 

1955-56 Larry L Moore, Jr Wilson 

1957 James K. Doughton Alleghany 

1959 Addison Hewlett New Hanover 

1961 Joseph M. Hunt, Jr Guilford 

1963 H. Clifton Blue Moore 

1965-66 H. Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson 

1967 David M.Britt Robeson 

1969 Earl W. Vaughn Rockingham 

1971 Philip P. Godwin Gates 

1973-74 James E. Ramsey Person 

1975-76 James C. Green Bladen 

;i977-78 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

■1979-80 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

'1981-82 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1983-84 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

[1985-86 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1987-88 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

;l989-90 Josephus L. Mavretic Edgecombe 

il991- Daniel T. Blue, Jr Wake 


North Carolina Manual 

The Legislative Branch 305 

Daniel Terry Blue, Jr. 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

Twenty-First Representative District - Wake County. 

Early Years: Born in Lumberton, Robeson County, April 18, 1949, to 
Daniel Terry and Allene (Morris) Blue, Sr. 

Education: Oak Ridge High School, 1966; NCCU, 1970, B.S. (Mathe- 
matics); Duke University, School of Law, 1973, J.D.; certificate. National 
Institute for Trial Advocacy, 1977. 

Professional Background: Attorney (managing partner, firm of Thigpen, 
Blue, Stephens & Fellers, 1976-; associate, firm of Sanford, Adams, 
McCullough & Beard, 1973-76); faculty, National Institute for Trial Advocacy, 

Organizations: American, NC and Wake County (former member. Execu- 
tive Committee) Bar Associations; American Associations of Trial Lawyers; 
Board of Governors, NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; NC Association of 
Black Lawyers; Duke Law Alumni Council; Raleigh-Wake Citizens Associa- 
tion; Kiwanis; Alpha Phi Alpha; former President, Triangle Chapter, Ameri- 
can Red Cross. 

Boards: East Raleigh Citizens Advisory Council; Director, East Central 
Community Legal Services,(past President); Wake County Council on Aging; 
Director, NC Center for Public Policy Research; NC Courts Commission; NC 
Criminal Code Commission; Board of Visitors, Duke University Law School; 
Director, NCNB Community Development Corporation; Z Smith Reynolds 
Foundation (Advisory Board). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90; Wake YDC; NC Democratic Black Leader- 
ship Caucus; Chairman, NC Legislative Black Caucus, 1984-; former mem- 
3er, State Democratic Executive Committee; former Committeeman, Raleigh 
Precinct 39; former Chairman, Raleigh Precinct 28; permanent Chairman, 
Wake County Democratic Convention, 1979; Chairman, Wake County Demo- 
cratic Campaign, 1978; active in Democratic politics on all levels; elected 
iouse Speaker January, 1991. 

Honors: Humanitarian Award, Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, 1977; Man 
)f the Year Award, Boyer Consistory, Prince Hall Masons, 1980; distinguish- 
ed Public Service Award, Shaw University, 1981; Man of the Year Award, 
)mega Psi Phi Fraternity, 1981; Citizen of the Year Award, Kappa Alpha 
^si Fraternity, 1981; Third Annual Heritage Award, Shaw University, 1981; 
)utstanding Legislator Award, North Carolina Association of Trial Lawyers, 
985; Outstanding Legislator Award, Lawyers; Outstanding Community 
service Award, 1985, North Carolina Black Lawyers Association; Outstand- 
ng State Representative Community Mental Health, Mental Retardation 
md Substance Abuse Programs, 1985; Distinguished Service Award, Phi 

306 North Carolina Manual 

Beta Sigma Fraternity, 1985; Marjorie Lee Brown Distinguished Alumni | 
Lecturer, North Carolina Central University Department of Mathematics,! 
1986; Special Recognition Award, North Carolina Association for Home! 
Care, 1986; Outstanding Service Award, North Carolina Society for Autistici 
Adults & Children, 1986; Kelly Alexander, Sr., Humanitarian Award, NCj 
Conference of Branches of NAACP, 1986; Appreciation Award, NC Alliance! 
for the Mentally 111, 1986; Outstanding Public Service Award, Vance County^ 
Black Caucus, 1987; Outstanding Service Award, Garner Road YMCA, 1987;, 
Annual Achievement Award, North Carolina A. Philip Randolph Institute,! 
1987; Recognition Award, Martin Street Baptist Church, 1987; Recognition 
Award, Martin Luther King Celebration Committee, 1987; Man of the Yeari 
Award, Mid Atlantic Region Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, 1987; Outstanding 
Political Accomplishments Award, Eastern Regional Conference, Zeta Phij 
Beta Sorority, 1991; Public Life Award, N.C. Council of Churches, 1991; 
Outstanding Leadership Award, Club 15, 1991; Truth and Service Award, 
N.C.C.U., 1991; Distinguished Service Award, N.C. A & T State University. 
1991; Outstanding Community Leader Award, Triangle Morehouse Club, 
1991; Adult Achiever of the Year, Garner Road YMCA, 1991; Proclamation & 
Friend of the City, City of Lumberton, 1991; "Friend of the Working People" 
Award, N.C. AFL-CIO, 1991; Martin Luther King, Jr. Service Award, General 
Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, Inc., 1991; Outstanding Service 
Award, Davie St. Presbyterian Church, 1991; Outstanding Support Award, 
Fayetteville Business and Professional League, 1991. 

Religious Activities: Member, Davie St. Presbyterian Church, Elder. 

Family: Married, Edna Earle Smith, January 26, 1972. ChildreniDaniel 
Terry, III, Kanika and Dhamian. 

The Legislative Branch 


Marie Waiters Colton 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

Fifty-first Representative District - 
Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, October 20, 
1922, to John Piper and Sarah 
Thomas Watters. 

Education: Chapel High School, 
1939; St. Mary's Junior College; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1943, B.A. (Spanish); 
Mars Hill College and UNC-Asheville, 
post graduate studies. 

Professional Background: Legis- 

' Organizations: Business and Professional Women; League of Women 
Voters; American Association of University Women; Sir Walter Cabinet; 
I!hildren's Welfare League. 

Boards: Director, Vagabond School of Drama; Board of Directors, Brevard 
Music Center; Board of Advisors, NC Historic Preservation Foundation; The 
'^C Institute of Medicine; Director, General Alumni Association UNC-Chapel 
iill, the NC World Trade Association, and Western NC Tomorrow. 

; Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-90; 1991-92. 

I Religious Activities: Trinity Episcopal Church; Former Vestry Woman. 

I Family: Married, Henry E. Colton. Children: Elizabeth, Marie (Colton) 
il^elzer; Sarah (Colton) Villeminot; Walter Colton; 7 grandchildren. 


Chairman: Ethics. 

I Vice Chairman: Rules, Appointments & Calendar. 

ji Member: Environment (Subcommittee on Water, Air & Soil); Finance 
(Subcommittee on Ways & Means); Human Resources (Subcommittee on 
children. Youth & Families); Transportation (Subcommittee on Public 



North Carolina Manual 

Dennis Alvin Wicker 

(Democrat - Lee County) 

Nineteenth Representative District - 
Harnett and Lee Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Sanford, Lee 
County, June 14, 1952, to J. Shelton 
and Clarice (Burns) Wicker. 

Education: UNC-Chapel Hill, 1974, 
B.A.; Wake Forest University, 1978, 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Love 
and Wicker, P. A.). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and 
American Bar Associations; Academy i 
of Trial Lawyers; Rotary Club. | 

Political Activities: Member, NC 
House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; 1989 (Majority' 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Luke Methodist Church, Sanford; 
Administrative Board. 

Family: Married Alisa O'Quinn of Mamers, North Carolina on November, 
1982. Children: Quinn Edward and Jackson Dennis (Twins). 


Vice Chairman: Ethics; Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means);- 
Judiciary I. 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Housing); Courts, Justice, Consti-' 
tutional Amendments and Referenda; Rules, Appointments and Calendar. 

The Legislative Branch 


Johnathan L. Rhyne, Jr. 

(Republican - Lincoln County) 

Forty-fourth Representative District -Gaston 
and Lincoln Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, June 6, 1955, to 
Johnathan L. and Marian Lavinia 
(Stowe) Rhyne, Sr. 

Education: Lincolnton High School, 
1973; Davidson College, 1977, B.A. 
(Sociology); Campbell University School 
ofLaw, 1981, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(partner, firm of Jonas, Jonas and Rhyne); Rancher (partner, Canyon Creek 
Ranch); Textiles (Belmont Hosiery Corp., Rhyne Mills, Inc.). 

I Organizations: Lincoln County, NC, NC State and American Bar Associa- 
tions; Secretary-Treasurer, Judicial District 27B, 1984. 

I Boards: N.C. Courts Commission 1985-, (Chairman, 1986-); Joint Legisla- 
tive Commission on Governmental Operations, 1989-90; Advisory Budget 
Commission, 1980-1990. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-; Minority Leader 1989-1992; Lincoln County Republi- 
can Party (Secretary, 1984). 

\ Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Lincolnton; 
JBoard of Deacons, 1971-73, 1982-84 (Chairman, 1984). Elder (1985-) 

I Family: Married, Martha Jayne Cameron of Dunn, August 2, 1980. Child: 
ameron Stowe Rhyne. 


Vice-Chairman: Judiciary I. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Education); Ethics; Rules, 
Appointments, and the Calendar; Environment (Subcommittee on Solid 


North Carolina Manual 

Milton F. Fitch, Jr. 

(Democrat- Wilson County) 

Seventieth Representative District- 
Edgecombe (part), Nash (part), and 
Wilson (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Wilson, 
Wilson County, October 20, 1946, to 
Milton Frederick and Cora (Whitted) 

Education: C.H. Darden High 
School, 1964; NC Central University, 
1968, B.S.; NC Central University, 
School of Law, 1972, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attor- 

Political Activities: Member, NC 
House of Representatives, 1985-86, 1987-88 and 1989-90, 1991-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Jackson Chapel Baptist Church, Wilson. 


Co-Chairman: Congressional Redistricting; Legislative & Local Redis- 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Ways & Means); Courts, Justice, 
Constitutional Amendments and Referenda; Judiciary I, Public Employees. 

The Legislative Branch 


Theresa Harlow Esposito 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

Thirty-ninth Representative District - 
Forsyth (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Washing- 
ton, DC, November 17, 1930, to H. 
Richard and Marie Theresa (Burke) 
Harlow (both deceased). 

Education: Saint Cecelia's 
Academy, 1948; National Institute of 
Practical Nursing, 1957, G.P.N. ; 
Prince George Community College 
and Salem College, additional 

Professional Background: 

Former federal government em- 
j ployee. 

I Organizations: Officers' Wives Club (U. S. Air Force); Winston-Salem 
Tennis, Inc.; N. C. Tennis Association; U. S. Tennis Association; N. C. 
.Museum Association; Amos Cottage (Bowman Gray School of Medicine). 

\ Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-; Delegate, Republican National Convention, 1988; 
(Delegate at Large, Republican National Convention, 1984; National Federa- 
lion of Republican Women's Club, Chairman, Public Relations; N. C. Federa- 
tion of Republican Women's Club; Forsyth County Republican Women's 
Club Chairman, Recruitment Chairman; (President, 1982-83); Marion Martin 
j-lepublican Women's Club (D. C); American Legislative Exchange Council 
'V-C/N.C); National Order of Women Legislators; National Conference of 
3tate Legislators; Southern Republican Exchange Council; National Republi- 
;an Legislators Association. 

j Boards: Council on Developmental Disabilities (Chairman); Interagency 
Coordinating Council; Small Business Technology Center Advisory Board; 
.National Commission on Children; Council on Status of Women (Domestic 
i/iolence/Sexual Assault Advisory Board); Americans for Sound Aids/HIV 
i-*olicy Advisory Board; Commission on Reduction of Infant Mortality; N. C. 
Health Coordinating Council (SHCC). 

Honors: 1990 Legislative Award — (Outstanding Contribution to the 
lealth and Welfare of Children) — North Carolina Chapter of the American 
;\cademy of Pediatrics and North Carolina Pediatric Association; Various 
Outstanding performance awards as a Federal Government Employee. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Leo's Catholic Church, Winston Salem; 
idember. Parish Council. 

Family: Married, Brigadier General Alfred L. Esposito, U.S.A.F. (Ret.) 

312 North Carolina Manual 

Children: Sharon Esposito, Carolyn Stephens and Carol Anne Seals; five 


Chairman: Appropriation (Subcommittee on Human Resources); Judi- 
ciary I; Public Employees; Human Resources (Subcommittee — Health and 
Mental Health); Local Government II. 

The Legislative Branch 


James Arthur Pope 


(Republican - Wake County) 

Sixty-First Representative District -Wake 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, 
Cumberland County, May 5, 1956, to 
John W. and Joyce (Wilkins) Pope. 

Education: Asheville School, 1974; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, BA "with honors", 
1978; Duke University School of Law, 
JD, 1981. 

Professional Background: Retailer, 
senior VP, Variety Wholesalers, Inc.; Attorney. 

f Organizations: Member, NC State Bar; Member, NC Bar Association; 
klember. Wake County Bar Association; Member, American Bar Association. 

Boards: Member, State Goals and Policy Board, 1985-1989; Member, 
5oard of Directors, Institute of Humane Studies at George Mason University, 
987-; Member, Educational Foundation, UNC-Chapel Hill; Member, The 
Chancellor's Club, UNC-Chapel Hill; Former Special Counsel to the 
jovernor, State Boards, Commissions and Agencies, 1985; North Carolina 
/apital Planning Commission. 

\ Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
;ieneral Counsel to NC Republican Party, 1987; Republican Chairman, NC 
louse District 61, 1986-89; Wake County Republican Executive Committee, 
985-89; State Co Chairman, Jack Kemp for President, 1988; Steering Com- 
littee, Rhoda Billings for NC Supreme Court, 1986; State Director of Organi- 
iation for Jim Martin for Governor, 1984. 

il Religious Activities: Member, White Memorial Presbyterian Church, 

! Family: Married Alexandra M. Hightower, September 29, 1984. Children: 
oyce Laurene and Earle James Arthur. 


Vice Chairman: Judiciary II. 

, Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Education); Courts, Justice, 
jOnstitutional Amendments and Referenda; Economic Expansion; Educa- 
ion (Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary and Secondary Education). 


North Carolina Manual 

Jack Vernon Abernethy 

(Republican - Gaston County) 

Forty-fourth Representative District -Gaston 
and Lincoln Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg County, February 25, 1945, 
to Jack V. and Vilanta (Jackson) 

Education: Graduated Belmont High 
School, 1963; Western Carolina Univer- 
sity, B.S., 1974 (Business Administration, 
Accounting Concentration); Certified 
Public Accountant, 1984. 

Professional Background: Certified 
Public Accountant 

Organizations: NC Association of CPA'S, 1984-; National Association of 
Accounting, 1974- (Administrative VP, Gaston Chapter, 1984-85). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-90, 91-. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy, E-4, 1968-71; Reserves, 1971-73; Honorable 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Marcia Tarpley, of Mount Holly, June 23, 1973. 


Chairman: Infrastructure (Subcommittee on Railways, Airports & Water- 

Vice-Chairman: Infrastructure; Airports, Railways and Waterways; 
Labor Relations and Employment. 

Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil); Com-^ 
merce (Subcommittee on Business, Labor & Employment); Finance (Subcom- 
mittee on Revenue Laws). Local and Regional Government II; State Parks, | 
Facilities, and Property; State Revenue. j 

The Legislative Branch 


Charles W. Albertson 

(Democrat - Duplin County) 

Tenth Representative District - Duplin and 
Jones Counties 

Early Years: Born in Beulaville, 
Duplin County, January 4, 1932, to James 
Edward and Mary Elizabeth (Norris) 

Education: Beulaville Elementary and 
High School, 1938-1950; attended James 
Sprunt Community College. 

Professional Background: Farmer; 
Retired PPQ officer of USDA; Profes- 
sional musician; Songwriter and 

I Organizations: Beulaville Investors Club; North Carolina Farm Bureau; 
iCo-coordinator Yokefellow Prison Ministry, 1978-80; Chairman, Duplin 
County Red Cross Fund Drive, 1980; Duplin Rural Development Panel (Food 
'and Agriculture Council), 1980-87; Duplin County Fair Committee, 1982. 

; Boards: James Sprunt Community College, Board of Trustees, 1977-, 
Chairman of Board 1986-; James Sprunt Community College Foundation, 
Board of Directors, 1980-; Duplin County Agriculture-Business Council, 1980- 
(President, 1981); Duplin County Arts Council Board of Directors, 1977-79; 
Chairman, James Sprunt Community College Foundation; 1983-86. 

I Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1989-. 

\ Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1951-52. 

Honors: Two Certificates of Esteem from US Defense Department for 
jentertaining troops in 26 countries; Duplin County Board of Commissioners 
proclaimed Charlie Albertson Day, May 25, 1975; Long Leaf Pine Award; 
Award for writing song for USDA APHIS. 

1 Literary Works/Publications: Has written and published several 
^ongs; Wrote promotional song for NCDA, "Goodness Grows in North 

Religious Activities: Member, Beulaville Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 
1972-77; Elder, 1978-83, 1984-86, 1988-; Sunday school teacher; Choir member; 
Former President, Wilmington Presbyterian Men's Council; Former Vice- 
President, NC Synod Men's Council. 

^ Family: Married, Elma, "Grace" Sholar, February 15, 1953. Children: 
Handy Lee and Pamela (Albertson) Darnell. 


Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandry, 
Iphairman; Appropriations — Subcommittee on Transportation; Economic 

316 North Carolina Manual 

Expansion — Subcommittee on Small Business, Vice Chairman; Education 
— Subcommittee on Community Colleges; Legislative and Local Redistrict- 
ing; State Government — Subcommittee on Military, Veterans and Indian 

The Legislative Branch 


Gerald L. Anderson 

(Democrat - Craven County) 

Third Representative District - Craven, 
Lenoir, and Pamlico Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Craven County, 
June 29, 1939, to Noah L. and Hazel 
(Rowe) Anderson. 

Education: New Bern High School, 
1958; Deaver Realty Institute., 1974; 
Realtors Institute, Chapel Hill. 

Professional Background: Business- 
man (Forestry, logging and real estate 

Boards: Director, Craven County Com- 
mittee of 100; New Bern-Craven County 
hamber of Commerce; New Bern Board of Realtors; North Carolina 
Jational Bank Board; North Carolina Forestry Association; Board of 
rustees. Mount Olive College. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1980-Present 
1 Terms); Commissioner, Craven County, 1978-80. 

Religious Activities: Member, Tabernacle Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Marie Stilley, January 25, 1959. Children: Teresa, Tina, 
srry, Lisa and Josh. 


Member: Appropriations (Co-Chairman, Subcommittee on Justice and 
ublic Safety); Agriculture (Forestry, Horticulture, & Wildlife); Commerce 
insurance); Public Utilities; State Government (State Parks, Facilities & 


North Carolina Manual 

David Gregory Balmer 

(Republican - Mecklenbury County) 

Fifty-Fifth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg County. 

Early Years: Born in Charlotte 
Mecklenburg County, April 11, 1962, to 
John Morrison and Diane (Foster] 
Balmer. ! 

Education: The Hill School, 198l| 
(Pottstown, PA); UNC-Chapel Hill, 19841 
BA; Wake Forest Law School, 1988, JD. 

Professional Background: Attorney 

Organizations: Member, Americar 
Cancer Society; Former member, Delti 
Upsilon Fraternity, (Vice President, 1982-83). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; N' 
Federation of College Republications, (State Vice Chairman, 1984); Student! 
for Jim Martin for Congress, (Statewide Director, 9th District, 1982); Studentil 
for Jim Martin for Governor, (Statewide Chairman, 1984); Assistant Pres: 
Secretary, Governor Jim Martin, 1985. . 

Religious Activities: Member, Calvary Church, Charlotte. 

Family: Married, Mary Kay Smith, July 30, 1988. 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Education; Economic Ex 
pansion — Subcommittee on Small Business; Judiciary H; Public Utilities 
Science and Technology, Vice Chairman. 

The Legislative Branch 


Bobby Harold Barbee, Sr. 

(Republican - Stanly County) 

Thirty-Fourth Representative District - 
Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Locust, Stanly 
County, November 24, 1927, to Relus W. 
and Joy (Hartsell) Barbee. 

Education: Locust Elementary; Stan- 
field High School, Graduated 1945. 

Professional Background: Barbee 
Insurance and Associates, Owner. 

Organizations: West Stanly Colt 
Club, President, 1982-1985; West Stanly 
High School Advisory Board Member, 
986-87; Stanly County Community Schools Advisory Board Member, 1986- 
|7; Former Member, Locust Elementary P.T.A., President, 1964-66, 1984-85. 
joard of Directors, Stanly Memorial Hospital Foundation. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
989-90; 1991-; Stanly County Republican Men's Club. 

Military: Served, Army Air Force, 1945-47; Basic Training, Sharp Shooter. 

Religious Activities: Member, Carolina Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 
985-present; Music Director for Congregation; Missionary Trips (Africa, 
idonesia and Martinique). 

. Family: Married, Jacqueline Pethel, of Kannapolis, August 12, 1962. 
children: Tammy, Michelle, Crystal, Julie and Bobby, Jr.. 


'Vice Chairman: Transportation, Highways. 

j Member: Appropriations, Transportation; Commerce, Insurance; Local 
id Regional Government II; Pensions and Retirement; Rules, Appoint- 
lents and Calendar. 


North Carolina Manual 

Anne C. Barnes 

(Democrat - Orange County) 

Twenty-fourth Representative District - 
Chatham (part) and Orange Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Gaston County, 
March 29, 1932, to George Hoyle Craig 
and Jessie Tarlton. 

Education: Mount Holly High School, 

Professional Background: Legisla- 
tor, homemaker, and former ballet in-i| 

Organizations: Women's Forum of 
N.C.; N.C. Equity, Inc.; Member, Orange 
County Council on Aging, 1978-80; Chair, Orange County Agricultural Task 
Force; Chair, N.C. Child Support Council. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Special Committee on Prisons; 
Juvenile Law Study Comission; N.C. Child Support Enforcement Council;' 
Orange County Board of Social Services, 1978-81; Chapel Hill Charter 
Commission, 1973-74; Chapel Hill Recreation and Parks Commission, 1969- 
72, (Chairman, 1970-82); Southern Legislative Conference Committee, mem- 
ber since 1983; Orange County Commissioner, elected 1978, Chair, Board oi 
Commissions, 1980-81; Board of Directors, N.C. Institute of Political Leader- 
ship; Board of Directors, N.C. Conference for Social Service; Board of 
Directors, N.C. Rental Merchants Association; Board of Directors, Public 
School Forum of N.C; Member, N.C. Mental Health Study Commission; 
Study Commission on Homeless Persons; State Personnel System Study 
Commission; Southern Legislative Conference; Justice, Public Safety, Con- 
sumer Affairs, Vice Chair; Joint Legislative Education Oversight Com 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1981 
present; Orange County Democratic Party (Executive Committee, 1969-76 
Chairman, 1974-76, Vice Chairman, 1972-74; Delegate to County, Distrid 
and State Conventions, 1969-82; Carter-Mondale campaign staff, 1980; Execu 
tive Comittee, N.C. Democratic Party, 1974-78; Delegate, National Conven 
tion, 1974. 

Honors and Awards: Orange County "Distinguished Democrat", 1976 
President's Award, 1989; Legislative Award, 1989, N.C. Sentencing Alterna 
tives Associations; Legislator of the Year, 1989, N.C. Parks and Recreatior 
Society; 1990 Legislative Award, N.C. Association of School Office Personnel 
1990 Special Award, N.C. University/College Telecommunications; 199(' 
Legislator of the Year, N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; 1990 Gwyneth B 
Davis Award, N.C. Women. 

The Legislative Branch 321 

Religious Activities: Deacon, 1977-80; Church School Teacher; Youth 

1 Family: Married Billy E. Barnes, July 19, 1952. Children: Billy Jr., and 


! Chairman: Education; Appropriations; Congressional Redistricting; 
tourts/Justice; Judiciary; Rules. 


North Carolina Manual 

Howard Clinton Barnhill | 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Sixtieth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. j 

Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt 
County, February 7, 1916, to Lonnie C; 
and Josephine (Staton) Barnhill. ! 

Education: Epps High School, 1934; 
NC A&T State University, 1938, B.S.;! 
NC Central University, 1948, M.S (Public 
Health); UNC- Chapel Hill, School of^ 
Public Health, graduate studies. | 

Professional Background: Retired' 
educator (former Clinical Professor,; 
School of Public Health, UNC-Chapel Hill); public health educator,j 
Mecklenburg County Health Department; Director, Health Education Centers 
Program, School of Public Health, UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Organizations: Charlotte-Mecklenburg Community Relations Committee,! 
1983-; Charlotte Club, 1983-; Marketing Task Force, Charlotte Drug Education 
Center, 1984-; Charlotte Medical Society, 1957-; Dimensions for Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg Committee, 1973-74; Citizens Advisory Committee on Urban 
Renewal and Community Improvement, Charlotte, 1965-72. 

Boards: Member, Charlotte Area Fund, Inc., 1984-; Charlotte-Mecklenburg 
School Health Advisory Council, 1984-; Mecklenburg County Health and 
Hospital Council Board, 1973-76; Board of Governors, UNC System o1 
Higher Education, 1972-73; Trustee, NC A&T State University, 1969-72; 
Trustee, Florence Crittenton Services, 1965-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86. 
1987-88, 1989-; Governor's Task Force on Organization for the Delivery oj 
Primary Health Services, 1969-70. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1942-46 (Staff Sergeant): 
American Theatre Service Medal; Pacific Service Medal; Good Conduct 
Medal; World War II Victory Medal. 

Honors: Laurel Wreath, Kappa Alpha Psi; Distinguished Service tc 
Higher Education, NC A&T State University, 1980; Merit Award, 1976 and 
Twenty-five Years Service Award, 1977, NC Public Health Association 
Excellence Award, 1973 and Twelve Years Service Award, 1965, NC A&l 
State University Alumni Association; Religious and Civic Service Award 
St. Paul's Baptist Church, 1965; Outstanding Service in the Field of Health 
Education, Scorpian Club, 1965; Meritorious Community Service Award 
Opportunity Foundation, Inc., 1965. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist-West Church, Charlotte' 
Sunday School Teacher, 1972-; Board of Directors, 1967-76. 

The Legislative Branch 323 

Family: Married, Lois Clay of Roxboro, March 27, 1948. Children: Howard 
p., Jr. and Angela C. 


Member: Appropriations, Human Resources; Economic Expansion, Small 
Business; Education, University Education and Affairs, Vice Chairman; 
Human Resources, Health and Mental Health, Chairman; Public Employees; 

ongressional Redistricting. 


North Carolina Manual 


Charles Millwee Beall 

(Democrat - Haywood County) 

Fifty-second Representative District -Graham 
(part), Haywood, Jackson, Madison and 
Swain Counties. 

^v^L Early Years: Born in Asheville, Bun- 

W ^^ "^^ combe County, October 24, 1920, to 

W ^Hk " "^ ,/ Charles M. and Nina P. (Morgan) Beall. 

t ^% ^ Education: Bethel High School, 1936; 

Brevard College, 1937-38; Haywood Com- 
munity College. 

— - Professional Background: Inven- ; 

.. tory controller, Champion Paper. 


Organizations: Pigeon River Lodge i 

No. 386, Mason (Past Master); Asheville Consistory Scottish Rite, 32nd 

Degree; Vaner-Rhinehart Post, American Legion; Canton Chapter, York Rite , 

Masons (past High Priest). 

Boards: Commission on the Future of N.C., 1982; Commission on Manu- 
factured Housing, 1982; Revenue Laws Committee, 1981; Judicial Nominating 
Committee, 1981; Committee for a Comprehensive Study of the Property Tax 
System in N.C., 1983-85; Member of the Legislative Research Commission's 
Study Committee on the Insurance Laws and Regulation of Insurance 
Industry, 1983; Local Government Advocacy Council 1983-86; Emergency 
Medical Services Advisory Council, 1985-88; Liaison from Uth Congressional 
District to Southern Legislative Conference of the Council of State Govern- 
ments 1985; House Co-Chairman of the Legislative Research Commission's 
study on Itinerant Merchants 1985; House Co-Chairman of the Legislative 
Research Commission's study on Outdoor Advertising, 1985; Special Com-, 
mittee to Study the Department of Transportation 1985-87; House Co-chair- 1 
man of the Legislative Research Commission's study on Uniform System of 
Voting Machines, 1986; Cafeteria-Style Benefits Study Commission, 1985; 
Member of the Legislative Research Commission's study on Veterans Ceme- 
teries, 1986; North Carolina Farmworker Council 1986-87; Subcommittee of 
the House of Representatives to determine agricultural needs of the farmers 
of NC 1986; House Subcommittee to study Utilities Commission Staff, 1986; 
Committee on Employee Hospital and Medical Benefits, 1987; Alternate 
Representative of the North Carolina House of Representatives to the State- 
Federal Assembly Committee on Commerce, Labor & Regulation of the 
National Conference of State Legislatures, 1987; Rural Economic Develop- 
ment Center, Inc.'s Board of Directors, 1987; Joint Select Committee on 
Economic Growth, 1987; Chairman, Haywood County Board of Elections, 
eight years; Co Chairman, Property Tax Appraisal Study Commission, 1987; 
NC Advisory Council, Eastern Band of the Cherokee, 1988. : 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-present 
(six terms); Chairman, Haywood County Democratic Executive Committee, ^ 

The Legislative Branch 325 

ix years; delegate, National Democratic Convention, 1980; Chairman, 
^ance-Aycock Banquet, 1980; Board of Alderman, Town of Canton, two 

Military Service: Served, USAAF (Corporal); Air Transport Command; 
Vorld War II; Good Conduct Medal; American Theater Operations Medal. 

Honors: NC State AFL-CIO "A Friend of the Working People" Award, 


Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church; Sunday 
chool Teacher; Chairman, Administrative Board, 1978-88; former Finance 
!hairman; former Lay Leader and Treasurer, 1988-. 

Family: Married, Margaret Jewell Rhinehart, January 19, 1954. Children: 
.nna K., Cynthia H. (Beall) Hyatt and Margaret F. (Beall) Pollock. 


Member: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture & Wildlife Subcommittee, 
Ihairman; State Government, Military, Veterans & Indian Affairs Subcom- 
littee, Vice-Chairman; Economic Expansion, Labor Relations & Employ- 
lent Subcommittee; Finance, Local & Regional Government Revenue Sub- 
,Dmmittee; Public Utilities. 


North Carolina Manual 

Rayford Donald Beard 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

Eighteenth Representative iJistrict - 
Cumborhind (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Beard, Cumber- 
land County, March 24, 1923, to William 
A. and Lola (Maxwell) Beard. 

Education: Central High School, 1942; 
Advanced Business and Insurance 

Professional Bacliground: Insurance 


Organizations: Lions Club; Masonic 
Order; Shriner; Scottish Rite; Past 
member and officer of Insurance Professional Associations; Past President 
of National Conference of Insurance Legislators. , 

Boards: Southern Baptist Annuity Advisory Council; Cancer Society i 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-Present; 
(8 Terms); Speaker Pro Tem, 1989-90. I 

Religious Activities: Member, Snyder Memorial Baptist Church; Sunday 
School Teacher; Deacon 1950-; former Chairman, Deacon, Church Moderator,! i 

Family: Married, Katherine Smith, July 30, 1944. Children: Linda B. Kay, 
Kathy B. Allen and Don, Jr. Grandchildren: Dave Kay, Jennifer Kay,, 
Brooke Allen, Lynn Allen. 


Chairman: Insurance. 

Member: Appropriations; Human Resources; Mental Health; Judiciary II;f 
Local Government I. 

The Legislative Branch 


James Boyce Black 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-sixth Representative District — 
Mecklenburg County 

Early Years: Born in Matthews, 
Mecklenburg County, March 25, 1935, to 
Boyce and James Margaret Query Black. 

Education: East Mecklenburg, 1953; 
Lenoir-Rhyne College, A.B., Business 
Administration, 1959; Southern College 
of Optometry, Doctor of Optometry, 1962. 

Profesional Background: Producer/ 
Writer, John Carter Productions. 

Occupation: Optometrist, Dr. James 
,;. Black & Associates; Served as President, N. C. State Optometric Society. 

Organizations: Board Member, Mental Health Association of North 
Carolina; Board Member, Crostdale Community Association; Optimist Club. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
resent; Member N.C. House of Representatives, 1981-82; 1983-84; Matthews 
'own Council, 1988. 

Military: USNR, USS Massey, Petty Officer, 3rd Class, 1955-56; Reserves 

Religious Activities: Member, Matthews United Methodist Church; 
iidministrative Board Member, 1985-87; President Methodist Nom., 1987. 
• Family: Married Betty Clodfelter Black of Matthews, May 13, 1955. 
Ihildren: James Boyce Black, Jr. and Deborah Ann Black. 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Education; Vice Chairman, 
'ommerce — Subcommittee on Financial Institutions; Chairman, Education 
ubcommittee on Community Colleges; Vice Chairman, Judiciary II; Legisla- 
ive and Local Redistricting; Local and Regional Government I. 

328 North Carolina Manual 

Edward C. Bo>ven 

Democrat-Sampson County) 

Twelfth Representative District-Bladen, 
Sampson and Pender (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Sampson Coun- 
ty, June 15, 1923, to Allie Deen Bowen 
and Sadie Florence Peterson. 

Education: Graduated Franklin High 
School, 1940. 

Professional Background: Legis- 

Boards: Sampson County Planning 
Development Board, 1978-80; Franklin 
High School Board, fl950-54; Union High 
School Board, 1968-72. 

Political Activities: Served, NC House of Representatives, 1982 (ap- 
pointed September 22, 1982 to replace Ron Taylor), 1983-84, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served in Merchant Marines, 1944-46. 

Family: Married, Lola M. Owen, November 25, 1948; Children: Kathryn 
Bowen Thutt; John Graham Bowen; Lola Elizabeth Bowen; and William 
Lloyd Bowen, Robert Carroll Bowen. j 


Member: Basic Resources (Subcommittee on Wildlife, Natural and Scenic 
Areas); Finance (Subcommittee on Revenue Laws); Government (Subcom- 
mittee on Local Government I); Public Employees (Subcommittee on Per- 
sonnel Polices). 

The Legislative Branch 


Joanne Walker Bowie 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

Twenty-Seventh Representative District - 
Guilford County 

Early Years: Born in Terre Haute, 
Indiana, June 18, to Phillip and lona 
(Brown) Walker. 

Education: West Virginia University, 
B.A. (Journalism & English); West 
Virginia University, M.S. (Communica- 
tion-Visual Aides). 

Professional Background: Public 

Relations Specialist; Extension News 
Editor, West Virginia University; Com- 

nunications Specialist, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Former School 


Organizations: Guilford County Medical Auxiliary, (1972-1984) (Presi- 
ent, 1982); Greensboro Chamber of Commerce (Board of Directors, 1986); 
Mother's March, March of Dimes (Chairman of Local March, 1974-75); 
ireensboro Symphony Guild; Greensboro Preservation Society. 

Boards: State Board of Community Colleges, 1985-88; National League of 
Municipalities Administration Commission (1984-88); Guilford County Con- 
tention and Visitors Board (1984-88); Trustee, Guilford Technical and Com- 
lunity College, (1978-1985); Appointed by the Governor to the Rail Pas- 
■enger Service Task Force Committee (1991); and appointed by the Speaker 
If the House to the Joint Highway Oversight Committee (1991); Appointed 
p High Point College Committee on the Future (1988); State League of 
lunicipalities Finance and Inter-Government Regulations Committee; Ap- 
jointed to National Finance and Inter-Governmental Regulatory Committee, 
-eague of Municipalities; Appointed to American Legislative Exchange 
I'ransportation Committee. 

I Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989-90, 91- 
2; Greensboro City Council, 1977-1988; Guilford County Republican Women's 
'lub; Charter Member Greater Greensboro Republican Women's Club; After 
louse Republican Women's Club; Guilford County Republican Executive 

Religious Activities: Member, Saint Paul the Apostle Catholic Church, 

Family: Children: Michelle Elizabeth (Bowie) Gray and Amy Jo. 


Vice Chairman: Public Transportation and Human Resources (Children, 
outh and Families). 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
n Highway Fund); Appropriations (Transportation); Commerce (Housing); 
ludiciary I. 


North Carolina Manual 

James Fred Bowman 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

Twenty-fifth Representative District - 
Alamance, Rockingham, and Stokes (part) 

Early Years: Born in Kimesville, N.C. 
February 13, 1927, to William Daniel and 
Nannie (Neese) Bowman. 

Education: Nathaniel Green High 
School, 1944; Elon College, 1951, A.B. 
(Business, Math, Physics); Duke Univer- 
sity, M.S.E.E. (Engineering); UNC-Greens- 
boro, 1975, M.S. (Business Management). 

Professional Background: N.C. li- 
censed professional engineer and land surveyor; engineer, AT&T Tech- 
nologies (formerly Western Electric Company), 1946; retired farm manager, 
1944-46. I 

Organizations: Burlington-Graham Engineers Club (President, 1981; Vice 
President, 1981-82); Alamance Executive Club (President and Vice President, 
1981-82); N.C. Educational Foundation for Commerce and Industry (Presi- 
dent, 1974-76); Alamance Art Council; Private College Committee; Director, 
Burlington Civitan Club, 1979, 1983, 1989; President and Vice President, 
Burlington City Schools PTA, 1975-76; Director, N.C. Society of Engineers, 
1970-74. j 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-90; Democratic State Executive Committee, 1972-1984; 
Alamance County Democratic Party (Chairman, 1978-82, Treasurer, 1975- 
77); Supervisor, Alamance Conservation Soil and Water, 1982-84; County 
Chairman, Candidates Campaigns for President, Governor and Attorney. 

Honors: Valedictorian, Nathaniel Green High School, 1944; Statue of 
Liberty Award from Constituents Alamance, Rockingham, and Stokes, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, Beverly Hills United Church of Christ, 
Burlington; Deacon Board of Christian Education; Finance Chairman, Build- 
ing Committee, 1966-85; Adult Sunday School Teacher, 1955-present; Sunday^ 
School Superintendent. ? 

Family: Married, Dr. Betty Lynch of Elon College, June 30, 1946. 
Children: J. Thomas, Zebulon, Nan, and Freda. 1 


Co-Chairman: Appropriations-Gen. Gov. Subcommittee. 

Vice Chairman: Labor Relations & Employment. j 

Member: Human Resources (Subcommittee on Aging); Education (Sub 
committee on Preschool, Elementary & Secondary Education); Transporta 
tion (Subcommittee - Highways). 

The Legislative Branch 


Clyde Robert Brawley, Jr. 

(Republican - Iredell County) 

Forty-third Representative District - 
Alexander (part), Catawba (part), and Iredell 
(part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Mooresville, 
Iredell County, April 10, 1944, to Clyde 
R. and Sarah (Goodnight) Brawley. 

Education: Mooresville Senior High, 
1959-62; NC State University, 1968, B.S. 
(Engineering Operations). 

Professional Background: Insurance 

Organizations: National Association 
' of Life Underwriters; Rotary Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army National Guard, 1967-91 Retired 


Religious Activities: Member, Triplett Methodist Church; President, 
len's Club; Sunday School Teacher. 

; Family: Married, Mary Kipka, March 31, 1972. Children: Woody, Shelly, 
dward, Sarah and Susan. 



I Vice Chairman: Finance, State Revenue; Commerce, Insurance. 
Member: Agriculture, Aquaculture & Marine Fisheries; Pensions & Retire- 
iient; Rules, Appointments, & Calendar; Joint Legislative Commission on 
governmental Operations; Redistricting. 


North Carolina Manual 

•■ » ■'^ \ 

John Walter Brown 

(Republican - Wilkes County) 

Forty-first Representative District - Alexander 
(part), Wilkes, and Yadkin Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Traphill, Wilkes 
County, September 12, 1918, to James 
Walter and Nora Blackburn Brown. 

Education: Virginia Trade School, 
1940; Appalachian State University,! 

Professional Background: Farmer 
(beefcattle, poultry and tobacco). 

Organizations: NC Cattlemen's As- 
sociation; Woodmen of the World; Farm 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-i 
74, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46 (Private); Engineer Corps; 
World War II. 

Religious Activities: Member, Charity United Methodist Church; Chair- 
man, Official Board; Trustee; Church School Superintendent; Teacher, Young 
Adult Class; Church Lay Speaker. 

Family: Married, Ruth Hanks, September 14, 1941. Children: Betty Ruth 
Brown and Johnsie Charles (Brown) Brown. 


Vice-Chairman: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Forestry, Horticulture 
and Wildlife. 

Member: Congressional Redistricting; Environment — Subcommittee on 
Water, Air and Soil; Finance — Subcommittee on State Revenue; State 
Government — Subcommittee on Military, Veterans and Indian Affairs. 

The Legislative Branch 


Harold James Brubaker 

(Republican - Randolph County) 

Thirty-eighth Representative District - 
Randolph (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Mount Joy, 
Pennsylvania, November 11, 1946, to 
Paul N. and Verna Mae (Miller) Bru- 

Education: Pennsylvania State Uni- 
versity, 1969, B.S. (Agricultural Eco- 
nomics); NC State University, 1971, 
Masters (Economics). 

Professional Background: President, 
Brubaker & Associates, Inc. (real estate 
appraisals, and consultant). 

I Organizations: Randolph County Farm Bureau; Grange; NC Holstein 
Association; 4-H Club leader (former President, NC Development Fund); Di- 
.rector, Salvation Army; former Director: Westside Volunteer Fire Depart- 
ment, Randolph Technical College Foundation, National Conference on 
Citizenship; former Vice President, National FFA. 

1 Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 
'1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-; House Minority Leader, 
1981-82, 1983-84; Joint Caucus Leader, Republican Members of the NC 
'General Assembly, 1979-80; Executive and Central Committees, NC Republi- 
;can Party (former Assistant Secretary); Executive Committee, Randolph 
County Republican Party; Executive Committee, National Association for 
Republican Legislators; former Executive Committee member, 4th District 
{Republican Party; Co-Chairman, NC Reagan-Bush Committee, 1980; dele- 
Igate at large. National Republican Convention, 1980; Chairman, Randolph 
(County Young Republicans, 1971; State Chairman, American Legislative Ex- 
{change Council, 1982-1989. Member of National Board of Directors of the 
American Legislative Exchange Council, 1988-Present. 

" Honors: Outstanding Young Men in NC, 1981; Outstanding 4-H Alumni 
of NC, 1981; Distinguished Service Award, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Lutheran Church; Congrega- 
ition Chairman; Past Vice Chairman, Deacon Board. 

Family: Married, Geraldine Baldwin, November, 1972. Children: Jonathon 
'issley and Justin Andrew. 


• Vice Chairman: Financial Institutions; Legislative Redistricting. 

Member: Agriculture (Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandry); 
Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget on Justice 
and Public Safety); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Health and Mental 
jjHealth); New Licensing Boards. 


North Carolina Manual 

Charles Franklin Buchanan 

(Republican - Mitchell County) 

Forty-sixth Representative District - 
Alexander (part), Avery, Burke (part), 
Caldwell, Mitchell and Watauga (part) 

Early Years: Born in Poplar, Mitchell 
County, October 5, 1936, to Robert and 
Hattie Mae (Garland) Buchanan. 

Education; Poplar School, 1942-49; 
North Side School, 1949-51; GED - High 
School US Air Force. 

Organizations: Bakersville Lions Club 
(President, 1983); Spruce Pine Mountaineer 
Shrine Club; Scottish Rite and York Rite, Asheville; OASIS Temple, Char- 
lotte; Master of Bakersville Masonic Lodge n357. 

Boards: Former Director: Northwestern Housing Authority; Mitchell 
County Finance Committee; Region D Council of Governments; WAMY 
Community Action; Mitchell County EDC; Region D SBA; NC Labor Train- 
ing Action; Mitchell County Social Services; NC Council on Aging; Personnel 
Committee, Mitchell County; Mitchell County Transportation Authority 
(former Chairman); Association of Social Services; Tennessee Valley 
Authority, 1978-82; NC Association of County Commissioners, 1978-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86; 
1987-88, 1989-; former Commissioner, Mitchell County (Chairman, two 
years); White House Conference on Aging, 1981. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1958-62; Reserves, 1962-64 


Religious Activities: Member, Poplar Free Will Baptsit Church. 


Vice Chairman: Subcommittee on Military, Veterans & Indian Affairs. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on State Revenue); Agriculture (Sub- 
committee on Crops & Animal Husbandry); Local Govt. II; State Govern- 
ment, (Subcommittee on Military, Veterans, & Indian Affairs); Transporta- 
tion (Subcommittee on Highways); Congressional Redistricting. 

The Legislative Branch 


Howard B. Chapin 

(Democrat - Beaufort County) 

Second Representative District - Beaufort, 
Hyde and Washington (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Ahoskie, Hert- 
ford County, December 9, 1921, to Henry 
B. and Lavenia (Howard) Chapin (both 

Education: PubHc Schools of Weldon 
and Aurora; Grainger High School in 
Kinston; Atlantic Christian College, 
1947, A.B.; Civic Institute of Govern- 
ment, UNC-Chapel Hill; ECU, additional 
studies in political science. 

Profession: Retired educator. 

Organizations: Member, Belhaven Lions Club (past president); Washing- 
ton Kiwanis Club (past president) VFW; Belhaven Chamber-Washington 

Boards: Former member, Washington Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 
■1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991- 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Force, 1943-45 (Sergeant); 8th Air 

i Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church, Washington. 

j Family: Married, Mary Alice Beasley, January 29, 1948. Children: J. 
iMichael and Kenneth E. (deceased). Grandchildren — Tonia and Mikki. 


Chairman: Agriculture, Aquaculture and Marine Fisheries 
I Member: Appropriations - Education, Economic Expansion - Travel, 
Tourism and Economic Development; Public Employees; State Government 
•State Parks, Facilities and Property. 


North Carolina Manual 

John Trammell Church 

(Democrat - Vance County) 

Twenty-second Representative District - 
Caswell, Granville, Halifax (part). Person, 
Vance and Warren. 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake 
County, September 22, 1917, to Charles 
R. and Lela (Johnson) Church. 

Education: Boyden High School, 1935; 
Catawba College, 1936-37; UNC-Chapel; 
Hill, 1942, B.S. (Pharmacy). 

Professional Background: Chairman 
Emeritus of the Board, Roses Stores, Inc. 

Organizations: Executive Committee, 
Director and past President; N.C. Merchants Association; Director, N.C. 
Citizens Association; N.C. Agri-Business Council; Director, National Retail 
Merchants Association; UNC-Chapel Hill Business Foundation; Association 
of General Merchandise Concerns (Secretary, Past President); Henderson- 
Vance Chamber of Commerce; Henderson-Vance United Fund (former 
Trustee and Executive Committee, Carolina's United), Past President; 
Rotary, Past President; Henderson Country Club, Past President; Mason; 
Shriner; Elk; American Legion; Newcomers Society of N.C; Vanwarco and 
North District Occoneechee Council, BSA; Kappa Alpha; Chi Beta Phi; 
Tarheel Lung Association; National Society to Prevent Blindness, President. 

Boards: Former Director, People's Bank (former Chairman, Advisory 
Board); Advisory Boards, SE Regional Council, BSA and Salvation Army, 
Trustee; Louisburg College (Vice Chairman) and Vance-Granville Community 
College (Secretary, Vice President); Board of Visitors, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
Former Secretary, N.C. Ports Authority and N.C. Railroads; Committees, 
State Revenue Sharing, Morehead Scholarship Selection, NC-VA Water 
Management, Chairman, Commissions; Kerr Lake, UNC Utilities Study 
(Chairman), Executive Residence Building, N.C. Tax Study, N.C. Legislative 
Services, N.C. Research, State Art Museum Building, N.C. Agency for 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1967-69, 
1977-78. 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84; 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; N.C. Senate, 1971; 
delegate. National Democratic Convention, 1972, Democratic National Com- 
mittee, 1972; Chairman, N.C. Democratic Executive Committee, 1972; Chair- 
man, Democratic Executive Committee, Vance County, 1966, 1976. Henderson 
City Council, 1966-67. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Marine Corp Reserves, 1942-45 (Captain); 
naval aviator, combat veteran. Awarded 3 Distinguished, Flying Crosses, 10 j 
Air Medals; Asiatic-Pacific Theater, 2 Bronze Stars; Phillipine Liberation, 1 
Bronze Star. 

The Legislative Branch 337 

Honors: Man of the Year, Henderson-Vance Chamber of Commerce; 
Businessman in the News, N.C. Citizens Association; "Tar Heel of the 
Week," The News and Observer; Silver Beaver and Distinguished Citizen 
jAwards, BSA; Distinguished Alumnus, Catawba County, 1973. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Hender- 
son; Chairman of the Board (former President); Trustee; former Chairman, 
Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Emma Thomas Rose of Henderson, December 31, 1943 
'(d. 1989). Children: John and Elizabeth. Married Marion Lee Johnson of 
Raleigh, 1990. 


\ Chairman: Subcommittee on Highways. 

Vice Chairman: Committee on Transportation. 

1 Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Transportation) Environment 
(Subcommittee on Hazardous Waste), Judiciary HI, Agriculture (Sub- 
committee on Forestry, Horticulture, and Wildlife). 


North Carolina Manual 

James W. Crawford, Jr. 

(Democrat - Granville County) 

Twenty-second Representative District - 
Caswell, Granville, Halifax (part), Person, 
Vance and Warren (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Bom in Durham, Durham 
County, October 4, 1937, to James Walker 
and Julia Brent (Hicks) Crawford. 

Education: Public Schools of Oxford, 
Oxford High School, 1956; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1960, B.S. (Industrial Relations). 

Professional Background: Retail 
Merchant; Developer; Cost Accountant 
Harriet Henderson Cotton Mills; John- 
son's; Guys and Dolls; The Fabric Shop; Crawford Properties; A & P True 
Value, Inc.; Coble Blvd. Investments, Home Credit Corporation. 

Boards: Roanoke Island Historical Association; Granville Medical Center 
Foundation; Vance-Granville Community College Foundation; UNC Board 
of Visitors; Saint Andrews Presbyterian College Board of Visitors; Oxford 
Zoning Board of Adjustment. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-92; Oxford City Council, 1964-68. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Navy, 1960-62 (Lieutenant j.g.). 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Jaycees; Carroll V. Singleton 
Award; Valand Award; NC Psychological Association's Appreciation and 
Recognition Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Oxford Methodist Church; Chairman, 
Board of Trustees, 1980; Sunday School Teacher; Pastoral Parish Relations 
Committee, Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Harriet C. Cannon, February 11, 1961. Children: James, 
Julia, and Harriet. 

i : 

I ( 


Chairman: Environment (Subcommittee on Water, Air & Soil). 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Justice & Public Safety), j 
Human Resources (Subcommittee on Health & Mental Health), State Government 
(Subcommittee on State Parks, Facilities, and Property), Transportation 
(Subcommittee on Airports, Railways and Waterways). 

The Legislative Branch 


Narvel J. Crawford, Jr. 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

Fifty-First Representative District -Buncombe 

Early Years: Born in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County, November 9, 1929, to 
Narvel J. and Tymah (Phillips) 

Education: Lee Edwards High School, 
1946-48; Duke University, A. B., 1952; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1959-60, graduate 
studies in history. 

Professional Background: Property 

» Organizations: V.F.W. Post 789; Asheville Civitan Club; Legislative 
Task Force, Industrial Relations and Economic Development Committees, 
Asheville Chamber of Commerce; Director, American Lung Association of 
NC (western region); Director, NC Hemophilia Foundation; Director, Epilepsy 
A.ssociation of NC; Director, American Foundation for the Deaf; Director, 
Meals on Wheels. 

Boards: Director, NC State Theater at Flat Rock; Director, Thomas 
Rehabilitation Hospital; Director, Buncombe County Social Services, State 
Parks Study Commission (co-chairman), 1984-1991. 

I Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Democratic State Executive Committee, 
:hird term; Secretary, Buncombe County Executive Committee, 1978-79; 
Chairman, Asheville Precinct No. 3, 1972-78; President, Democratic Forum 
pf Buncombe County, 1972-78; campaign manager, Asheville City Council, 
1977; representative, Eleventh Congressional District, State Democratic Plat- 
form Committee, 1976. 

i Military Service: Served, US Army, 1954-1956, (Counter Intelligence 

I Honors: Phi Beta Kappa; Distinguished Service Award, Western North 
Carolina Alzheimer Organization; 1990 Legislator of the Year, North Caro- 
lina Pediatric Society. 

I Religious Activities: Member, All Souls Episcopal Church, Asheville; 
Chalice Administrator; Director, National Council, American Church Union. 


Co-Chairman: Appropriations, General Government 

Vice Chairman: State Government, State Parks, Facilities and Property. 

Member: Congressional Redistricting; Economic Expansion, Small Busi- 
less; Human Resources, Aging; Base Budget and Expansion Budget. 


North Carolina Manual 

Billy James Creech 

(Republican - Johnston County) 

Twentieth Representative District -Johnston 

Early Years: Born in Smithfield, 
Johnston County, March 25, 1943, to 
Worley Nevelle and Geraldine (Godwin) 

Education: Wilson's Mills High 
School, 1962; Mount Ohve College. 

Professional Background: Owner - 
operator, Specialty Lumber Company. 

Organizations: Southeastern Lumber- 
man's Manufacturing Association; Mem- 
ber, Ducks Umlimited; Member, Keep Johnston County Beautiful, Inc. 

Boards: Community Resource Council, Johnston County Prison Unit; 
Farmers Home Administration (Chairman, 1985-86). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
Member, Johnston County GOP; Former precinct registrar. 

Military Service: US Army Reserve 

Religious Activities: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Wilson's 

Family: Married, Donna Arrants of New Ellenton, SC, 1977. 

Member: Agriculture (Subcommittee on Forestry, Horticulture and 
Wildlife); Appropriations (Subcommittee on Transportation); Courts, Justice, 
Constitutional Amendments and Referenda; Environment (Subcommittee on 
Hazardous Waste); Transportation (Subcommittee on Highways). 

The Legislative Branch 


Arlie Franklin Gulp, Jr. 

(Republican - Randolph County) 

Thirtieth Representative District -Randolph 

Early Years: Born in Badin, Stanly 
County, April 9, 1926, to Arlie Franklin 
and Mary Eula (Smith) Culp, Sr. 

Education: Badin Public Schools, 
1932-42; Catawba College, 1950, AB; 
A&T State University, 1976, BS. 

Professional Background: District 
Conservationist, Soil Conservation Ser- 
vice USDA, 1961-1986; Public Health 
Sanitarian, Randolph County, 1951-61; 
teacher, 1950-51. 

Organizations: Member, Soil and Water Conservation Society; Randle- 
nan Rotary Club (President, 1964-65); Life member, Asheboro Jaycees (VP, 
1954); Member, Randolph Livestock Improvement Association; Member, Randolph 
I!ounty Forest Resources Association. 

1 Boards: Board of Supervisors, Randolph County Soil & Water Conservation 
Oistrict 1987-, Secretary - Treasurer); Chairman, North Central Piedmont 
Jlesource Conservation & Development Council, 1987-; Member, Randolph 
bounty Planning Board. 

' Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Member, 
:ilandolph County Republican Party, 1951-. 

I Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1944-46, Seaman First Class; Good 
Ponduct Medal. 

i Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Asheboro Jaycees, 1959. 

I Religious Activities: Member, Jordan Memorial United Methodist Church; 
i^hief Usher, 1987-; Member, Men's Sunday School Class; Member, Administra- 
ive Board. 

Family: Married, Daisy Mae Farlow, June 22, 1950. 


Vice Chairman: Environment Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil. 

Member: Agriculture (Subcommittee on Forestry, Horticulture and Wild- 
ife); Appropriations (Subcommittee on Environment, Health and Natural 
jlesources); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Aging), Public Employees. 


North Carolina Manual 

William Cunningham 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty-Ninth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Monroe, Union 
County, November 11, 1929, to John 
Wallace and Johnnie Mae (Patterson) 

Education: Winchester Avenue High 
School; Coyne Electronic Institute, 1950, 
A.E. Certificate; Johnson C. Smith Uni- 
versity, 1950-52; Business Law Florida 
Extension, Charleston A.F.B. 

Professional Background: President 
and Co-Owner, Hatchett and Cunningham Associates, 1973-84; Professional 
and Technical Recruiting Firm; Owner, Affordable Used Cars, 1984-present, 
1984-87, 1987-present; HKL Inc. CEO. 

Organizations: Life Member, NAACP (NAACP Legal Defense Fund); 
Charlotte Business League (Board of Directors), Former President, 1979; 
Member, VFW; American Legion Post 212; United Negro College Fund; 
Compassion International; Johnson C. Smith Alumni (100 Club), 1979-85. 

Boards: Charlotte Chamber of Commerce, Board of Directors, 1980-82. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-; Member, State Black Leadership Caucus; Member, Charlotte, Mecklen- 
burg Black Caucus. 

Military: Served, U.S. Navy, Radioman, 1st Class, Retired, 1972; Good 
Conduct Medal, ETO (American Defense), Outstanding Sailor of the Month, 
Leadership Certificates. 

Religious Activities: Member, Parkwood CME Church; Present Chair- 
man, Trustee Board, 1973-present; Vice Chairman, Development Fund Board 
Christian Education, 1980-present. 


Chairman: Commerce (Housing). | 

Vice Chairman: State Government (Military Veterans and Indian Af-i 

Member: Finance (Ways & Means); Human Resources (Aging); Judiciary' 
III, Local & Legislative Redistricting. 

The Legislative Branch 


Donald Martin Da>vkins 

(Democrat - Richmond County) 

Thirty-second Representative District - 
Richmond and Scotland (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Rockingham, 
Richmond County, June 28, 1938, to 
Eugene Dennis and Myrtle Eunice 
(Blake) Dawkins. 

Education: Rockingham High School, 
1956; NCSU, 1960, B.S. (Mechanical and 
Aeronautical Engineering); University of 
Southern California, 1970, Masters (Man- 
agement); St. Mary's University, School 
ofLaw, 1973, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney; lay pastor. 

I Organizations: Richmond County, NC, NC State, American, Texas and 
Florida Bar Associations; American Trial Lawyers Association; NC Academy 
pf Trial Lawyers. 

\ Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
1987-88, 1989-90, 1991- . 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1960-71 (Major); helicopter pilot; 
Signal Corps; Distinguished Flying Crosses (2); Meritorious Service Medal; 
Bronze Star for Achievement; Bronze Star for Valour; Army Commendation 
Medal; Air Medals (17); Air Medal with "V"; various campaign medals. 

< Religious Activities: Member, Tabernacle United Methodist Church, 
Hamlet; Pastor, 1978-; Sunday School Teacher. 

1 Family: Married, Patricia Ellen Settle of Rockingham, September 11, 



I Chairman: Judiciary II. 

" Vice Chairman: Environment (Subcommittee on Hazardous Waste); 
jCransportation (Subcommittee on Airports, Railways, and Waterways). 

i Member: Congressional Redistricting; Courts, Justice, Constitutional 
Amendments and Referenda; Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means); 
tlules. Appointments and Calendar. 


North Carolina Manual 

Michael Decker 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

Twenty-ninth Representative District - 
F'orsyth (part) and Guilford (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Red Bud, 
Illinois, December 18, 1944, to Harvey 
and Margaret (Parvin) Decker. 

Education: Piedmont Bible College, 
1969-74; Winston-Salem State University, 
1976, B.S. (Education). Attended NCSU. 

Professional Background: Teacher 
(Gospel Light Christian School, 1976- 
1986). GuilfoKi Co. PubHc School (1987-Present). 

Organizations: Little League Base- 
ball (Board of Director, 1981-84, Secretary, 1982-83, coach, 1979-81). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86; 
1987-88, 1989-; Forsyth County Republican Party (Vice Chairman, 1981-83); 
Chairman, Belews Creek Precinct, 1979-84. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1962-68 (E-5); submarine service; 
National Defense, Good Conduct Medals. 

Religious Activities: Member, Gospel Light Baptist Church, Walker- 
town; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Marlene Allen of Creston, June 4, 1966. Children: 
Michael, Jr., Mark, and Michelle. 


Chairman: Education Subcommitte on Private Schools. 

Vice-Chairman: Education; Appropriations Subcommittee on Base and 
Expansion Budget on General Government. 

Member: Government (Subcommittee on ABC); Judiciary (Subcommittee 
on Law Enforcement and Public Safety). 

The Legislative Branch 


Daniel HoAvard DeVane 

(Democrat - Hoke County) 

Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, 
Robeson and Scotland (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Elizabethtown, 
Bladen County, June 4, 1945, to Junie 
Franklin and Duel (Strickland) DeVane. 

Education: White Oak High School, 
1964; Missouri Auction School, 1975. 

Professional Background: Real 
estate executive and auctioneer (owner, 
DeVane Realty & Auction); owner, 
DeVane's Men's Clothing, 1972-82; 
Raeford Department Store, 1969-72; 
Fayetteville Police Department, 1966-69. 

Organizations: Former member: Raeford Kiwanis Club; Hoke County 
Rescue Squad (Commander, 1972-75); Hillcrest Volunteer Fire Department; 
Taycees; member, Raeford Fire Department. 

i Boards: Trustee, Flora Macdonald Academy (Chairman, 1981-82). 


 Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
!985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90; Council of Government, Region N, 1976-82 (Chair- 
nan, 1980); Hoke County Commissioner, 1976-82. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, 1965 (6 months); Reserves, 
) 1/2 years. 

I Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Alice Smith, July 6, 1968. Children: Daniel Howard, II. 


Chairman: Environment. 

Member: Agriculture (Subcommittee on Forestry, Horticulture & Wildlife); 
\ppropriations (Subcommittee on Environment, Health & Natural Re- 
;ources; Legislative and Local Redistricting; Pensions and Retirement; 
^ublic Utilities. 


North Carolina Manual 

Adolph Lorenz Dial 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 

Sixteenth Representative District — 
Robeson County 

Early Years: Born in Maxton, Robe- 
son County, December 12, 1922, to Noah 
H. and Mary Ellen Moore Dial. 

Education: Prospect High, 1939; Pem- 
broke State for Indians, A.B., History, 
1943; Boston University, Ed.M. and 
C.A.G.S., 1953-58; Greensboro College, 
Doctor of Humane Letters, 1984; Pem- 
broke State University, Doctor of 
Humane Letters, 1988. 

Professional Background: Professor, Pembroke State University; Business- 
man; Adolph Dial Enterprises. 

Organizations: NC Association Educators; American Association Univer- 
sity Professors; American Political Science Association; Org. of American I 
Historians; National Cong, of American Indians; Kiwanis; Heart Associa- j 
tion; Congressional Committee for Indian Policy Review; United Way; Center | 
for Community Action; Lumbee Regional Development Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Founder — Board Chairperson, Outdoor 
Drama, Strike at the Wind, 1976; Board of Directors —Vice Chairperson and 
Charter Member, Lumbee Bank, 1971-86; Pembroke Town Council, 1950's; i 
Wesley Pines Advisory Board; Founder — Chairperson of the Board, Robeson 
County Church and Community Center. | 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
present; Native American Political Action Committee; Robeson County ji 
Minority Caucus, (NAP AC). j 

Military: Army, 635 AAA (AW-Battalion), Staff Sgt., 1943-45, European j 
(ETO); Six Battle Stars; Good Conduct Medal. j 

A^vards and Honors: Jefferson Award, 1983; Adolph Dial Amphitheater, ! 
1988; Various Community Service Awards. 

Religious Activities: Member, Prospect United Methodist Church; Chr. 
Administrative Board, 1970's and 1980's; Chr. Commission on Finance; Chr. | 
Board of Trustees; Conference, Board of Trustees of N. C. Conference; | 
General Board Archives & History; Building Committee; Chair, Pastor t 
Parish Relations; Chair, American Indian Committee of General Church 
(New York). I 

Family: Married Harriet Caligan of Wadesboro, December 15, 1990. 
Children: Mary Doris Dial Caple. ( 


Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Crops and Husbandry; Appro- 
priations — Subcommittee on Education; Environment — Subcommittee on | 
Water, Air and Soil; Legislative and Local Redistricting; Public Employees. . 

The Legislative Branch 


David Hunter Diamont 

(Democrat - Surry County) 

Fortieth Representative District -Alleghany, 
Ashe, Stokes (part), Surry and Watauga (part) 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, 
Guilford County, February 9, 1946, to 
David Elijah and Hyacinth Cleo (Hunter) 
Diamont (both deceased). 

Education: East Surry High School, 
1961-63; Frank L. Ashley High School, 
1963-64; Wake Forest University, 1968, 
B.A.; Appalachian State University, 
1972, M.A. 

I Professional Background: History teacher and head varsity football 
coach, East Surry High School, 1977- (varsity coaching record: 77 wins and 
51 losses; state play offs, 1979-81, 1982-83, 1985-86, 1988-); history teacher 
and assistant football coach. Mount Airy Senior High School, 1968-1977. 

Organizations: N.C. Coaches Association; Lambda Chi Alpha; Sierra 
Club; Surry County Historical Society; Deacon Club, Wake Forest Univer- 
I'sity; former member, Pilot Mountain Jaycees. 

Boards: Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health, 1979-80; 
Director, Pilot Mountain Foundation, Inc.; N.C. High Coaches Association. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-pre- 
ent (8 terms). 

Honors: Assistant coach, East-West All Star Football Game, 1985; Coach 
of the Year, Northwest 3-A Conference, 1979, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Pilot 
VIountain; Lay Leader. 

j Family: Married, Debby Severs of Greensboro. Children: Ashley, Davey, 
% Hunter. 


Chairman: Appropriations. 

Member: Education (Subcommittee on Elementary & Secondary Educa- 


North Carolina Manual 

Walter Watt Dickson 

(Republican — Gaston County) 

Forty-fourth Representative District —Gaston 

Early Years: Born in Rock Hill, S. C, 
July 11, 1927, to Brice Templeton and 
Louise Flowers Dickson. 

Education: Gastonia Public Schools; 
Bachelor of Science, N. C. State Uni- 
versity; Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, 
University of Georgia. 

Professional Background: Member, 
Board of Trustees, N. C. State Uni- 
versity; President, N. C. Veterinary Medi 
cal Association; President, Piedmont Veterinary Medical Association; Presi- 
dent, Greater Charlotte Veterinary Medical Association; Member, N. C. 
Health Services Commission; Member, N. C. Board of Veterinary Examiners; 
Member, Political Action Committee of the American Veterinary Medical 
Association; Selected as the N. C. Veterinarian of the Year, 1989, by the 
N. C. Veterinary Medical Association. 

Organizations: Member, Salvation Army Boy's Club Advisory Com- 
mittee; Vice Chairman, Original Board of Directors for Covenant Village; 
Vice Co-Chair, Gastonia Citizens Advisory Committee on Transportation; 
Member, Board of Directors Schiele Museum; Member, Junior Chamber of 
Commerce; Member, Board of Directors, Gastonia Kiwanis Club; President 
and Treasurer, Dickson Animal Clinic, P. A.; Presently serving as Chairman, 
Carrie E. and Lena V. Glenn Foundation; Chairman, Board of Directors ofj 
First American Savings Bank, FSB, Greensboro; Member, Gaston County! 
Chamber of Commerce; Member, State Advisory Council for the Caringi 
Program for Children; Chairman, Veterinary Foundation, University of 
N. C. College of Veterinary Medicine. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
present; Vice Chairman, AVMA Political Action Committee. ' 

Military: U. S. Navy, 1944-46; Overseas aboard the USS ATA-188 in the 

Religious Activities: Elder, First Presbyterian. 

Family: Married Ruth Day Michael, August 19, 1950. Children: Ruthi 
Templeton (Dalton), Amy Atkins (House); Lillian Louise, Walter Michael 
and David Watt. j 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Justice and Public Safety 
Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and Referenda; Vice Chairman 
Economic Expansion — Subcommittee on Small Business; Education — 
Subcommittee on Community Colleges; Transportation — Subcommittee or 
Public Transportation. 

The Legislative Branch 


Jerry Charles Dockham 

(Republican — Davidson County) 

Thirty-seventh Representative District — 
Davidson County 

Early Years: Born in Denton, David- 
son County March 22, 1950, to Elwood C. 
and Opal M. Coggin Dockham. 

Education: Denton High School, 1968; 
Wake Forest University, B.S., Business, 

Professional Background: In- 
surance Agent, Nationv^de Insurance Com- 

Organizations: Thomasville Association of Life Underwriters; National 
id North Carolina Association of Life Underwriters; L.U.T.C. — Fellow, 
191; Denton Lions Club; Chairman, Denton Elementary Advisory Council, 
J83-present; Trustee of Davidson County Community College, 1987-present; 
■ember. Board of Directors of Central Carolina Bank & Trust Co., 1989- 

Boards and Commissions: Former Member, Board of Directors, Hospice 
'Davidson County, 1983-88; Member, Davidson County Board of Equaliza- 
•m and Review; Former Member, Davidson County Parks and Recreation 
ales Committee. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
;iesent (Appointed, May of 1990 to fill unexpired term, re-elected in 
.bvember of 1990); Former Chairman, Davidson County Republican Party, 
'87-90; Fellow of the North Carolina Institute of Politics, 1989; Member, 6th 
jstrict Executive Committee, 1984-86; Republican Judge of the Denton 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church. 

'Family: Married, Martha Louise Skeen of Denton, August 15, 1971. 
hildren: Andy and Matthew. 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Environment, Health and 
Iktural Resources; Commerce — Subcommittee on Insurance; Education — 
Ubcommittee on Community Colleges; Judiciary II; Public Utilities. 


North Carolina Manual 

Ruth M. Easterling 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty-eighth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Gaffney, Sout 
Carolina, December 26, 1910, to Benjami 
Harrison and Lillie Mae (Crawley) Moss 

Education: Centralized High Schoo 
1929; Limestone College, 1932 (Englisl 
Math, History); Queens College, po{ 
graduate studies in Business Law, Pe 
sonnel and Business Administration. 

Professional Background: Executi\ 
Assistant to the President, Radiate 
Specialty Co., 1947-85. 

Organizations: Legislative Committee, International Business and Profei 
sional Women, 1981-1985, Women's Equity Action League; Women Execi 
tives of Charlotte; Women's Forum of NC; Business and Professional 
Women (national President, 1970-71); League of Women Voters; America 
Association of University Women; Trustee, Wildacres Retreat. 

Boards: Joint Legislative Commission on Governmental Operations 199; 
92; Human Resources Committees of the Southern Legislative Conferencl 
1991, Chair, Mecklenburg Delegation; National Business and Profession^ 
Women's Foundation, 1978-1981 (President 1970-71), Legislative Servic( 
Commission, 1987-88. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-7i 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-92 ; NC Womenj 
Political Caucus (NC President, 1974); Charlotte City Council, 1972-73; Goi 
ernor's Commission on the Status of Women, 1964. Chairman, Women 
Legislative Caucus, 1987-91. 

Honors: Personalities of the South; Certificate of Achievement, NC A 
sociation of Women Attorneys, 1982; Outstanding Career Woman, NC Feder;( 
tion of Business and Professional Women, 1980; Charlotte's Outstandin 
Career Woman, 1971; Woman of the Year, WBT Radio, 1964; Dolly Awar, 
Council for Children, 1989; Women's Equality Day Award, 1989. 1 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Charlotte; Associaj 
Superintendent: Training; Sunday School Intermediate Department; Librarji 
Financial Planning and Personnel Committees. President, Baptist Busine;, 
Women, First Baptist Church and Mecklenburg Baptist Associations. 


Co-Chair: Appropriations Committee, Appropriations Subcommittee ( 
Base and Expansion Budget on Human Resources. 

Member: Economic Expansion (Subcomittee on Labor Relations & Emplo 
ment); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Families, Children & Youtl 
Judiciary I; Local and Regional Government II. 

The Legislative Branch 


Wilbur Bruce Ethridge 

(Democrat - Carteret County) 

Fourth Representative District - Carteret and 
Onslow Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, 
Nash County, April 17, 1938, to Wilbur 
Henry and Virginia (Sellers) Ethridge. 

Education: Rocky Mount High School, 
1956; NCSU; Fayetteville Technical 

Professional Background: Owner/ 
Operator, Beaufort Inn. 

Political Activities: Member, NC 
))use of Representatives, 1978-Present (8 Terms). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Deacon; Finance 


Family: Married, Katie Tyner, August 9, 1958. Children: Kitty Dare and 
,;ark Bruce. 


Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee Environment, Health, & 
l.itural Resources. 

yice-Chairman: Environment (Subcommittee-Water, Air & Soil) 

:\Iember: Human Resources (Subcommittee-Aging); Legislative & Local 
^districting; Rules, Appointments & the Calendar; Transportation (Sub- 


North Carolina Manual 

David T. Flaherty, Jr. 

(Republican - Caldwell County) 

Forty-Sixth Representative District -Caldwell 

Early Years: Born in Boston, Mas 
sachusetts, June 17, 1953, to David 
Thomas and Nancy Ann (Hamill] 

Education: Culver Military Academy 
1967-71; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1974, BS; UNC 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1978, JD. 

Professional Background: Attorney 

Organizations: Member, Americar 
Bar Association; Member, Association o 
Trial Lawyers of America; Member, NC Bar Association; Member, NCJ 
Academy of Trial Lawyers; Member, Caldwell County Bar Association^ 
Member, 25th Judicial District Bar (Executive Committee, 1988); Forme:' 
member, Jaycees, Jaybird, 1979. i 

Boards: Former member, Caldwell County Council on Alcoholism, 1980 
Member, North Carolina Courts Commission (1989-); Member, Juvenile Jus, 
tice Planning Committee of the Governor's Crime Commission. ' 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989-; Repub 
lican Nominee for 25th Judicial District Court Judge (1982); Member 
Caldwell County Republican Party (Executive Committee, 1986, 1988); Memj 
her. Young Republicans; Member, NCGOP. 

Honors: Who's Who in American Law; Who's Who in South and Southi 
west; Outstanding Young Men in American. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Lenoir. 

Family: Married Lynn (Hoyle), October 2, 1986. Children: Alexandr;; 


Vice Chairman: Congressional Redistricting; Courts, Justice, Constiti 
tional Amendments and Referenda. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Justice and Public Safety] 
Environment (Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil); Judiciary III; Sciencj 
and Technology. 

The Legislative Branch 


Ray Charles Fletcher 

(Democrat - Burke County) 

Forty-Seventh Representative District -Burke 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Forest City, 
Rutherford County, May 4, 1931, to Troy 
L. and Geneva (Beddingfield) Fletcher, 

Education; Drexel High School; UNC- 
Chapel Hill. 

Professional Background: Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, Fletcher Pontiac, Inc. 

Organizations: President, Rotary 
Club; Burke County Chamber of Com- 
erce; former President, Valdese Merchants Association; former President, 
bvelady United Fund; former President, Valdese Jaycees; former Chairman, 
aldese Parks and Recreation. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
185-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Mayor, Town of Valdese; Burke County Democratic 
irty; Former President and Chairman, Burke County Young Democrats 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1951-54. 

Honors: Rotarian of the Year, 1965; Young Man of the Year, Valdese 
(.'lycees, 1961. 

Religious Activities: Member, Waldensian Presbyterian Church, former 



Family: Married, Mary Beth Goodman, November 29, 1980. Children: 
liiye Lynn, Randy, Ruthie and Christy Traylor. 


Chairman: Commerce Subcommittee on Financial Institutions. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on State Revenues); Public Employees; 
Ihics; Pensions & Retirement. 


North Carolina Manual 

Jo Graham Foster 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty-Sixth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born May 22, 1915, to 
Reverend Joseph Alexander and Queen! 
(McDonald) Graham. 

Education: McBee High School, 1927- 
28; Spring Hill Central High School, 
1928-31; Columbia College, 1935. | 

Professional Background: Retired! 
(former Administrative Assistant to thej 
Superintendent, Charlotte-Mecklenburg 

Organizations: National Education Association; NC Association of Educa 
tors (former President); PACE: PENC; Charlotte-Mecklenburg Educa- 
tors; National Association, Secondary School Principals; Delta Kappa 
Gamma; Gamma Sigma; Sigma Tau Delta; International Platform Associa' 

Boards: Education Commission of the States; Board of Visitors, Johnsor 
C. Smith University; Board of Visitors, Boys Town; Board of Relatives 
Mental Health Board and Total Care Board, E.C.O. Board; National Com 
mittee for Citizenship and Social Studies, State-Federal Assembly. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74 
1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-1984, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Prescien 

Honors: Who's Who of American Platform; Legislator Psychologis 
Award; Outstanding Educator, Elementary School Principals; World Gideoi 
Bible, 1979; National Legislator of the Year, American School Counselors 
1979; nominee. Salute to Working Women, 1968; Psychiatric Award, 1986 
School Social Worker Award, 1986, B.P.N.; Woman of the Year, 1986; Schoo 
Social Worker, 1988-; State Career Woman of the Year (B.P.W.); Certificate o 
Appreciation for Meritorious Service to Public Schools in N.C. in 1986, Apri 
16, 1987; Columbia College Alumnae Association Career Achievemenj 
Award, June 8, 1985; First Honorary Member, Charlotte Women's Traffi' 
Club, May 10, 1984; Outstanding Contribution to Drivers Traffic Safety ii 
N.C. (1984); The Council for Exceptional Children 1985-1986; Recognition c 
Your Continuing Support to Arthritis Patient Services, January 10, 198^ 
Services rendered to Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System 1946-198( 
Recognition and Sincere appreciation for your Effort, Care & Consideratio 
to all N.C, Teaching Assistants, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Teacher Assistant 
Association, August 29, 1985; Outstanding Contribution to Education, StatI 
of N.C, 1983; Classroom Teachers Association Certficate of Appreciation-fc 
Consistent and Devoted service to the Youth of Charlotte Mecklenburi 
Interest in the Welfare of the Teaching Profession and Loyalty to tV 

The Legislative Branch 355 

Classroom Teachers Association, September 19, 1980. Certificate of Merit 
proclaimed throughout the World is awarded to Jo Graham Foster for 
Distinguished Service in School Administration and is the subject of notice 
in volume LX — Dictionary of International Biography. (November 14, 1971). 
The Autism Society of North Carolina hereby presents this Certificate of 
Appreciation to Rep. Jo Graham Foster in recognition of your contribution 
and support of Autistic persons and their families. (October 29, 1988). Jo 
Graham Foster 1991 with sincere appreciation for Outstanding Servcie as 
Board Member 1988-1991 of the North Carolina Senior Citizens Association 
presented April 29, 1991. 

Religious Activities: Member, Dilworth Methodist Church, Charlotte; 
Board of Stewards; Adult Sunday School Teacher; Lay Speaker. 

Family: Married, James Benjamin Foster, June 4, 1937. Children: Mary 
Jo (Foster) McClure. 


Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Agriculture and Marine 
Fisheries; Appropriations — Subcommittee on General Government; Eco- 
nomic Expansion — Subcommittee on Travel, Tourism and Economic 
Development, Chairman; Ethics; Human Resources — Subcommittee on 
State Boards and Commissions. 


North Carolina Manual 

Aaron Eleazar Fussell 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

Sixty-fifth Representative District - Wake 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, Duplin 1 
County, July 5, 1923, to C.T. and Myral 
Blake (Cavenaugh) Fussell. 

Education: Rose Hill High School ^ 
1940; Atlantic Christian College, 1946, i 
A.B., cum laude; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1952, 
M.Ed.; Duke University and NCSU, post 
graduate studies. 

Professional Background: Retired 
educator (Superintendent, Wake County 
Public Schools, 35 years). j 

Organizations: Educational Chamber; Educational Fraternity; Mason; 
Scottish Rite; North Raleigh Lions Club, 30 years (former President); variousi 
civil and political organizations. I 

Boards: Chairman, Capital Area Visitor Services Committee; Local 
Government Advocacy Council. j 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80. 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86; 1987-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-45, 5 major campaign decora 

Honors: Author, "Teacher Evaluation Legal Residence." 

Religious Activities: Member, Millbrook United Methodist Church; Paslj 
Chairman of the Board; Past President, Men's Club; Lay Leader; teacher^l 

Family: Married, Polly Batts, August 14, 1949; four children. 


Co-Chairman: Appropriations Subcommittee on Education. 

Vice Chairman: Education Subcommittee on Pre-school, Elementary amj 
Secondary Education; Public Employees. 

Member: Environment Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil; Agricultunl 
Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandry. 

The Legislative Branch 


John Reeves Gamble, Jr., M.D. 

(Democrat — Lincoln County) 

Forty-fourth Representative District — 
Lincoln County) 

Early Years: Born in Lincolnton, 
Lincoln County, March 26, 1922, to John 
Reeves and Hope Licile Seibert Gambel, 
Sr., M.D. 

Education: Lincolnton High School, 
1939; The Citadel; Emory University, 
A.B., Biology, 1943; University of Md. 
School of Medicine, M.D., 1946. 

Professional Background: Physician 
(Surgeon), Private Practice; Post 
graduate Training Internship; Charlotte Memorial Hospital Surgical 
^sidencies; Mercy Hospital, Charlotte; Jefferson Hospital, Roanoke, VA. 

! Organizations: N. C. Medical Society, Phi Chi Medical Frat.; Pres./Ad- 
iinistrator, Reeves Gamble Hospital, Inc., 1946-1979; Past Pres., Lincoln 
ounty Medical Society; Former Chief, Staff Lincoln Co. Hospital; N. C. 
edical Society Legislative Committee, 1971-1973; Past Bd. Member, N. C. 
jOspital Association; Past Chief of Surgery, Lincoln County Hospital; 
btary; Catawba-Lincoln-Alexander Health Board, 1966-1970; Cleveland- 
aston-Lincoln Health Planning Council, Founders Group; AHEC Nursing 
:udy Committee, 1978. 

Boards and Commissions: Present Member, Local Board First Citizens 
ank, Past Director, N. C. Hereford Association; National Polled Hereford 
issociation; N. C. Cattleman's Association; Childwatch Board N.C. Depart- 
jent of Justice Study Commission for Drug Testing of Law Enforcement 


[Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
lesent N. C. House, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80; Chairman, Lincoln 
Sunty Board of Commissioners, 1966-70; N. C. Local Government Commis- 
on 1968-73; Chairman, House Finance Commission, 1979-80; Chairman, 
•bnstitutional Amend., 1977-78; N. C. Legislative Research Commission, 
i'75-81; N. C. Advisory Budget Commission, 1979-81; Vice Chairman, House 
pmmittee on Public Health, 1975, 1977, 1979; Chairman, LRC Human 
■^sources Study, 1977 & 1979; Member, N. C. Medical School Study Commis- 
■pn; N. C. Democrat Executive Committee, 1981-85; Delegate, National 
lemocratic Convention, 1976; Central Piedmont COG Founders Group; 
'aairman. Constitution & Bylaws, Legislative & Nominating Committees, 

Military: Army, Major, 1954-56, Far East (Korea & Japan), Commanding 
'fficer & Chief Surgeon, 48th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital. 
^wards and Honors: Eagle Scout; Lincoln County Man of the Year, 
78; Democratic Party Outstanding Democrat, 1977. 


358 North Carolina Manual 

Religious Activities: Member, Emmanuel Church; Member of Church of 
Councils, three terms, latest 1990-91. 

Other Activities: N. C. Synod of LCA Committee on Biomedical Ethics. 

Family: Married, Betty Rhodes of Lincolnton, March 3, 1945. Children: i 
John Reeves Gamble, III, Elizabeth Rhodes Gamble and Mary Caroline ! 
Gamble. j 


Member: Commerce — Subcommittee on Insurance; Education — Sub- 1 
committee on Pre-School, Elementary and Secondary Education; Chairman, I 
Finance — Subcommittee on Local and Regional Government Revenue; 
Human Resources — Subcommittee on Aging; Transportation — Subcom- 
mittee on Airports, Railways and Waterways. 

The Legislative Branch 


Charlotte A. Gardner 

(Republican - Rowan County) 

(Thirty-fifth Representative District -Rowan 

Early Years: Bom in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, November 14, 1931, to Marcel and 
Charlotte (Knapp) Ancher. 

Education: St. Anne's, 1943; St. 
Anthony's, 1945; Rockwell High School, 
1949; Catawba College, 1952, A.B., Cum 

Professional Background: Former 
high school teacher. 

Organizations: Leader, Boy Scouts 
id Girl Scouts of America; NC Right to Life; Rowan County Humane 
Dciety; MADD (Director, 1984-85; Vice President, 1982-84); Trustee, Vice- 
resident, Rowan Advocates for Mentally 111; Board of Directors, Pregnancy 
ounseling Center; Chairman, Salisbury-Rowan Mayors' Council for Persons 
ith Disabilities; Board of Directors, Families in Action for Drug Free 
outh; Choral Society, 1974. 

Boards: Director, Community Life Council, 1980-81; Community Resource 
ouncil for Piedmont Correctional Center; Southern Regional Education 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
187-88, 1989-; NC Republican Women (District Representative, 1983-84); 
ilisbury-Rowan Republican Women (Vice-president, 1982-84); Central Com- 
ittee. Rowan Republican Party (Vice Chairman, 1981-83); Women's Task 
prce, 8th District, 1983-84; NC Republican Women - Legislative & Research 
'lairman 1990-91. 

IReligious Activities: Member, Sacred Heart Catholic Church, Salisbury; 
jiurch choir; President, Sacred Heart PTA; Treasurer, Church Women 
nited, 1982-84; Grand Regant CathoHc Daughters, 1975. 

Family: Married, Lester Gardner of Bellwood, Pennsylvania June 7, 1952. 
lildren: Jeanne Dianne, Terrence Lee, Leslie Eugenia, Timothy Andrew, 
'lomas Alan and Ted Alexander. 


Chairman: Public Employees Subcommittee on Personnel Policies. 

Vice Chairman: Education Subcommittee on Community Colleges; Public 
uployees; Judiciary II; University Education & Affairs. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Base and Expansion Budget 
ii Natural and Economic Resources); Human Resources (Subcommittee on 
iental Health, Exceptional & Gifted People); Education; Appropriations — 
uman Resources; Public Employees; Congressional Redistricting; Health & 
.ental Health; Human Resources. 


North Carolina Manual 

Herman Colridge Gist 

(Democrat - Guilford County) 

Twenty-sixth Representative District - 
Guilford (part) and Randolph (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Spartanburg, 
South Carolina, December 12, 1923, to 
Arthur and Louie (Casey) Gist. 

Education: Highland Grade School, 
1929-36; Carver High School, 1936-40; NC 
A&T State University, 1964, B.S. 

Professional Background: Coffee, 
herbs and tea distributor. 

Organizations: Chairman, Political 
Awareness; Greensboro Citizens Forum, 1979-; Omega Psi Phi, 1942-. 

Boards: Alcoholic Beverage Control Board, 1980-; Co-Chairman. Guilford 
Delegation, 1987-88. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-6; 88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army (Corporal); Quartermaster Corps; 
Good Conduct Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Matthews Church. 

Family: Married, Grace Grant, November, 1968; three children. 


Chairman: Local and Regional Government 1. 

Vice-Chairman: State Government — Subcommittee on State Boardsj 
and Commissions. 

Member: Appropriations Base Budget and Expansion Budget; Appropria-i 
tions — Subcommittee on General Government; Education — Subcommittee! 
on University Education and Affairs; Transportation — Subcommittee on 
Public Transportation. 

The Legislative Branch 


Karen Elizabeth Eckberg Gottovi 

(Democrat — New Hanover) 

Thirteenth Representative District — New 
Hanover County 

Early Years: Born in Rochester, NY, 
February 2, 1941, to Richard A. and Vivian 
Chall Eckberg. 

Education: Brighton High School, 
Rochester, NY, 1958, regents Diploma; 
Wells College, Aurora, NY, B.A., EngHsh, 
1962; University of North Carolina, 
Master of Science in Library Science, 

Professional Background: Political 
I Consultant, Independent Opinion Re- 

iarch-Communications, Secretary/Treasurer, 1985-90; High School English 
3acher, 1962-66; Reference Librarian, 1973-75; County Commissioner, 


Organizations: American Association of Political Consultants; Cape 
3ar Ad Federation; Women's Forum of North Carolina; President, Elected 
Dmen of NACO (National Association of County Commissioners), 1982; 
■'esident. League of Women Voters, 1972-74; Junior League of Wilmington; 
•esident, Bradley Creek PTA, 1975; Southern Bell Consumer Affairs Coun- 
ij; Wilmington Excellence, (a strategic planning program); Democratic 
ational Committeewoman, 1980-88; N. C. Democratic Party Executive 
I'uncil; Currently serving: New Hanover County Public Library Advisory 
.;)ard; New Hanover Agricultural Extension Arboretum Foundation Board; 
Upe Fear United Way; Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation Advisory Panel. 

lOther Activities: Wells College Board of Trustees, 1986-present. 

Boards and Commissions: N. C. Coastal Resources Commission, 1980- 
)|; Human Relations Commission (Wilmington); Board of Social Services; 
I'ipe Fear Council of Governments Executive Committee. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
jesent; New Hanover County Commissioners, 1976-84. 
Awards and Honors: Phi Beta Kappa, 1962; Susan B. Anthony Feminist 
(the year, 1985; YWCA, Women of Achievement, 1986. 

Religious Activities: Member, Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of 
'ilmington; President, 1984-86; Board of Directors —Thomas Jefferson 
1 strict. 

Family: Married, Daniel Gottovi of Albion, NY, June 23, 1962. Children: 
Ijiniel R. Gottovi, Peter A. Gottovi and Nancy P. Pettce (foster daughter). 


Wember: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Environment, Health and 

362 North Carolina Manual 

Natural Resources; Vice Chairman, Congressional Redistricting; Educa- 
tion — Subcommittee on University Education and Affairs; Environment — 
Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil; Human Resources — Subcommittee 
on Health and Mental Health; Local and Regional Government I. 

The Legislative Branch 


Robert Grady 

(Republican - Onslow County) 

Fourth Representative District - Carteret and 
Onslow Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Jacksonville, 
Onslow County, April 30, 1950, to William 
R. and Minnie (Hurst) Grady. 

Education: Jacksonville Senior High, 
1968; University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, 1972. 

Professional Background: Business- 

Boards: North Carolina Zoological 
Park, Board of Directors, 1984-86; Onslow 
bunty Arts Council Board of Directors, 1983-86; Onslow County Council on 
ging. Board of Directors, 1984-86. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
)89-90, 1991-; Jacksonville City Council, 1981-87; Mayor Pro-tem, City of 
icksonville, 1983-86. 

Religious Activities: Member, Southern Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Neta Lucas of Benson, November 27, 1973. 



'ice Chairman: Agriculture — Aquaculture and Marine Fisheries. 

ember: Appropriations — Justice and Public Safety; Economic Expansion 
' Small Business; Education — Community College; Pensions and Retire- 
ent; State Government — Military, Veterans and Indian Affairs 


North Carolina Manual 

Lyons Gray 

(Republican — Forsyth County) 

Thirty-ninth Representative District — 
Forsyth County 

Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem 
Forsyth County, October 28, 1942, t 
Bowman and Elizabeth P. Christiai 
Gray, Jr. i i 

Education: Wooster School, Danbur}'^ 
CT, 1961; University of North Carolina i 

Professional Background: Business J 
man; President, Salem Systems, Inc 

Organizations: Director, Southern National Bank; Vice Chairmar 
Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Utilities Commission; Director, Winstoi 
Salem, Chamber of Commerce; Bowman Gray School of Medicine; Board ( 
Visitors Winston-Salem State University Foundation; Vice Chairman, N' 
State University Veterinary Foundation; Yadkin/PeeDee River Basin Con 
mittee; American Red Cross, Forsyth County Chapter; AIDS Task Fore 
Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Nature Science Center. 

Boards and Commissions: Joint Legislative Education Oversight Con 
mittee; Social Services Study Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 199 

Military: U. S. Coast Guard, E-6, 1964-65, U.S.; Theater, U.S., 1965-70. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Paul's Episcopal Church. 

Family: Married, Constance Eraser of Winston-Salem, May 29, 197 
Children: Charlotte Dandridge Gray and Margaret Eraser Gray. 


Member: Vice Chairman, State Government — Subcommittee on Sta 
Boards and Commissions; Appropriations — Subcommittee on Gener 
Government; Commerce — Subcommittee on Housing; Education — Su 
committee on University Education and Affairs; Ethics; Transportation 
Subcommittee on Highways. 

The Legislative Branch 


James Preston Green 

(Democrat — Vance County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District — 
Vance County) 

Early Years: Born in Henderson, 
Vance County, May 11, 1925 to William 
and Annie Henderson Green. 

Education: Henderson Institute, 1944; 
Johnson C. Smith University, B.S., 
Biology and Chemistry, 1948; Meharry 
Medical College, M.D., 1955. 

Professional Background: Physician 
and President, Beckford Avenue Medical 
Center; Family Medicine Practitioner. 
Organizations: President, Associated Rest and Nursing Home, Inc., 
'1972-present; President, Green Pharmaceutical, Inc.; American Medical 
Association; N. C. Medical Society National Medical Association; American 
Ipublic Health Association; Vance County Voters League; NAACP (life 
lember); Omega Psi Phi Fraternity (life member); Human Relations Council; 
[C Senior Citizens Federation (member Board of Governors); Sigma Pi Phi 
''raternity; Beta Kappa Psi Honorary Fraternity. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Chairman, Governor's Sickle Cell 
Council (10 years); Governor's Commission on Fluoridation. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
present; City Council of Henderson, (8 years); Former Chairman, Second 
'Congressional District, Democratic Party. 

I Military: U. S. Army, Landstuhl General Army Hospital, Germany, 
Captain, 1957-59, European. 

' Religious Activities: Member, Cotton Memorial Church, Henderson; 
Member, Board of Elders (6 years). 

I Family: Married, Carolyn M. Smith of New Bern, December 15, 1956. 
Children; James P. Green, Jr., Isaac H. Green and Carolyn Annette Greene. 


Chairman: Human Resources — Subcommittee on Aging. 

Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandry; 
Appropriations — Subcommittee on Justice and Public Safety; Commerce 
—Subcommittee on Housing; Education — Subcommittee on Community 
Colleges; Legislative and Local Redistricting. 


North Carolina Manual 

Gordon Hicks Greenwood 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

Fifty-first Representative District -Buncombe, 
Henderson (part) and Transylvania Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Black Mountain, 
Buncombe County, July 3, 1909, to James 
Hicks and Louella (Ray) Greenwood. 

Education: University of Illinois, 
1941, B.S. (Journalism); University of 
London, 1945. 

Professional Background: College 
administrator and former professor 
(Assistant to the President, Montreat- 
Anderson College; Director of Admis- 
sions, Montreat- Anderson College, 1973-76; Assistant Professor of Jour- 
nalism, Boston University, 1951-52; manager, New England Press Associa- 

Organizations: Black Mountain Lodge No. 663, A.F.&A.M., Asheville 
Chapter No. 25; Black Mountain Lions Club; Chamber of Commerce; V.F.W.; 
American Legion; D.A.V.; Sons of the American Revolution; Sons of Con- 
federate Veterans; Western NC Development Association (original 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1959, 1961, 
1963, 1965-66, 1967, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; 
Town Board, Black Mountain, 1973-76; Commissioner, Buncombe County, 


Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-45; (European Theater of 

Honors: Outstanding Alumnus, UNC-Asheville, 1981; NC Commissioner 
of the Year, 1971. 

Religious Activities: Member, Black Mountain United Methodist 
Church; Official Board. 

Family: Married, Garnet Elizabeth Carder, March 8, 1941, Children: G. 
Gordon and Ricky Eugene. 


Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources — Subcommittee on Health and 
Mental Health. 

Member: Appropriations, Subcommittee on Human Resources; State 
Government, Subcommittee on Military, Veterans and Indian Affairs; Trans- 
portation, Subcommittee on Highways. 

The Legislative Branch 


Harry Clinton Grimmer 

(Republican - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty-Seventh Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Pitt County, 
December 6,1935, to Harry Albert (de- 
ceased) and Bercha (Gilbert) Grimmer. 

Education: Penderlea School, 1945-54; 
N.C. State University, 1960, BSIE, with 
Honors (voted one of the top ten outstand- 
ing engineering students); six months 
post-graduate technical school; heating 
and air conditioning, The Trane Com- 

! Professional Background: Meteorologist; Plant Industrial Engineer; 
Manufacturer's Representative, Sales Manager and Executive Vice Presi- 
dent and Owner, Harry Grimmer and Company, INC.; President, Home 
Builders Association of Charlotte, 1983; Board of Directors, Executive Com- 
mittee N.C. Home Builders Association, 1982-84; Vice President, Region VI, 
N.C. Home Builders Association, 1982; Co-Chairman NCHBA, Legislative 
Committee, 1985-86; Vice President Home Owner's Warranty Program, 1983. 

Organizations: South Mecklenburg Interim District Plan Committee, 

,1986; United Way Strategic Planning Committee, 1986; Five Years Leader- 
ship, YMCA Indian Guides; Boy Scout Counselor, 1981-82; Coach, Little 
League Basketball; Housing Cost Task Force, Mecklenburg County and 

iState Level; Mayoral Appointments; Capital Improvement Program, 1982; 

^Citizens Advisory Committee-County, 1983; "Everyone Step Forward" Bond 
Referendum Committee; Char/Mecklenburg Residential Ordinance, Re-zon- 

jing Review Committee; United Way; Community Resource Board, 1985-86. 

'. Boards: United Carolina Bank Advisory Board, 1982-89; Board of Di- 
irectors, Greater Providence Area Home Owners Association, 1983-84, Vice 
[President, 1985-86; Chairman, United Way, Christmas Bureau, 1985; Alloca- 
Ition and Review Board, 1984; Chairman, Mecklenburg County Zoning Board 
lof Adjustment, 1980-82; President of Lansdowne P.T.A., 1974. 

j Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1989-90, 1991-92. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Navy, Meteorologist, 1954-56. 

Honors: Phi Kappa Phi, Honorary Fraternity, 1959; Broyhill Fund 
Scholarship, 1959; Charlotte Home Builder of the Year, 1981; N.C. "Home 
Builder of the Year", 1983; Life time Director, National Association Home 
^Builders, 1989, "Guardian of Small Business Award", NFIB, 1991. 

368 North Carolina Manual 

Religious Activities: Member, Calvary Church, Building Program Fund 
Raising Committee; Calvary Church, 51 Committee. 

Family: Married, Ehse Rackley, of Willard, September 7, 1957. Children: 
Janet and Craig. 


Vice Chairman: Environment — Subcommittee on Solid Waste 

Member: Judiciary III; Transportation — Subcommittee on Public Trans- 
portation; Legislative and Local Redistricting. 

The Legislative Branch 


Joe Hackney 

(Democrat - Orange County) 

Twenty-fourth Representative District - 
Chatham (part) and Orange Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Siler City, 
Chatham County, September 23, 1945, to 
Herbert Harold and Ida LilHan (Dorsett) 

Education: Silk Hope High School, 
1963; N.C. State University, 1963-64; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1964-67, A.B. with 
Honors (Political Science); UNC-Chapel 
Hill, School of Law, 1970, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(partner, firm of Epting & Hackney); Assistant District Attorney, 15th 
District, 1971-74; research assistant, J. Frank Huskins, Associate Justice, 
N.C. Supreme Court, 1970-71. 

Organizations: Orange County (former President), N.C. and American 
Bar Associations; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Committee on Legis- 
lation and Law Reform, N.C. Bar; former President, 15th District Bar; 
former President, Orange-Chatham Legal Services; Conservation Council of 
N.C; Sierra Club; N.C. Nature Conservancy; Appalachian Trail Conference; 
'N.C. Cattlemen's Association. 

Boards: Joint Orange-Chatham Community Action, Inc., former member; 
Conservation Foundation of N.C, former member; Served, Citizens Commis- 
sion on Alternatives to Incarceration; Governor's Crime Commission, former 
iHtiember; Southern Legislative Conference, Environmental Quality Com- 
■ntiittee. Chairman; Southern States Energy Board. 

' Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1981-pre- 
(Sent (5 terms). 

1 Honors: American Planning Association, NC Chapter, Legislative 
'\ward, 1989; Sierra Club, NC Chapter, Outstanding Service Award, 1988; 
NC Consumers Council, Consumer Advocate of the Year, 1987; Governor's 
Conservation Award as Legislator of the Year, N.C. Wildlife Federation, 
1985; Triangle J. Council of Governments Award of Excellence for Service to 
)he Environment, 1985; N.C. Bar Association, Family Law Section, Apprecia- 
ion Plaque, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hickory Mountain Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Betsy Strandberg, September 15, 1979. Children: Daniel 
^nd Will. 

370 North Carolina Manual 


Co-Chairman: Finance. 

Vice-Chairman: Legislative and Local Redistricting; Rules, Calendar, 
and Operations of the House. 

Member: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and Referenda; 
Environment; Judiciary III; Joint Legislative Committee on Governmental 

The Legislative Branch 


Thomas C. Harda\vay 

(Democrat - Halifax County) 

Seventh Representative District - Halifax 
(part), Martin (part), Warren (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Bom in Durham, Durham 
County, March 12, 1957, to Dr. Ernie and 
Attorney Claudette (Cofield) Hardaway, 

Education: Hillside High School, 
1975; Howard University, 1979 (Bachelor 
Business Administration); N.C. Central 
University, School of Law, 1982, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(partner, Hardaway and Hardaway); Co- 
field Funeral Home, Inc. Director; Cofield Mutual Burial Association, 
President; Cofield Realty and Company, Director; N.C. Bar; N.C. Bar Associa- 
ion; Halifax County Bar; Sixth Judicial Bar; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
Association of Trial Lawyers of America; N.C. Association of Black Lawyers 
is admitted to practice before the Eastern District of the U.S. District 

! Organizations: N.A.A.C.P.; Second Congressional District Black Leader- 
ship Caucus. 

I Boards: Director, Halifax County Economic Development Commission; 
VIember, Enfield Medical Advisory Board; Member, Halifax Community 
pollege, Small Business Advisory Board. 

il Political Activities: N.C. House Representatives, 1987-88, 1989-; Former, 
•i^ice Chairman, Halifax County Democrat Party; Former, Precinct Chairman 
flnfield. No. 2; Co-Chairman Eastern Legislative Delegation; NC Legislative 
iJlack Caucus. 


Honors: Outstanding Young Man of America, 1984, 
Religious Activities: Member, New Bethel Baptist Church. 


Chairman: Commerce Committee. 

Member: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and Referenda; 
udiciary I; Rules, Appointments and Calendars; Congressional Redistrict- 
g; Finance (Subcommittee on State Revenue). 


North Carolina Manual 

John Calvin Hasty 

(Democrat - Robeson County) 

Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, 
Robeson and Scotland (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Maxton, Robe- 
son County, March 9, 1930, to William 
Howard and Flora (Belle) Currie Hasty. 

Education: Maxton Public Schools; 
Maxton High School, 1948; Presbyterian 
Junior College, 1950, A.S.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1953, B.S. 

Professional Background: Insurance 
and real estate agent; President, Future 
Agency of Laurinburg, Inc. 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents Association; NC Associa- 
tion of Premium Finance Companies (Secretary, 1981-82; Director, 1978-82); 
Mormax Club (President, 1971); Director, Cape Fear Area Council, Boy 
Scouts of America, 1967-(President, 1973-75); Laurinburg-Scotland Area 
Chamber of Commerce (Director, 1976); former President, Maxton Historical 
Society; former President, Maxton Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Laurinburg-Maxton Airport Commission (Chairman, 1980-82); 
Trustee and Executive Committee, Scotland Memorial Hospital; local Di- 
rector, Southern National Bank; Maxton Planning Commission; Maxton 
Zoning Board. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-; Mayor and City Council, Town of Maxton. ; 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-55 (Sergeant); 101st Airborne ' 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Paul's United Methodist Church; 
Chairman, Administrative Board, 1976-77; Chairman, Building Committee, 
1972; Chairman, Finance; national conference delegate. j 

Family: Married, Betty Anne Upchurch, October 22, 1955. Children: John 
Calvin, Jr., Flora Anne (Hasty) McCook and Elizabeth Upchurch. 


Chairman: Economic Expansion — Labor Relations & Employment Sub-' 
committee. Small Business Subcommittee, Travel Tourism & Economic 
Development Subcommittee. I 

Member: Appropriations — Transportation Subcommittee; Congressional! 
Redistricting; Local & Regional Government II; State Government — Military, 
Veterans & Indian Affairs Subcommittee. i 

The Legislative Branch 


Joe H. Hege, Jr. 

(Republican - Davidson County) 

Thirty-seventh Representative District - 
Davidson, Davie and Iredell (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Lexington, 
Davidson County, January 28, 1926, to 
Joe H. and Ellen J. (Billiard) Hege, Sr. 

Education: Pilot High School, 1943; 
Institute of Government, UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1969, Certificate of Police Admini- 
stration; Oklahoma University, 1975. 

Professional Background: Realtor- 
Broker, National Realty, Inc.; Assistant 
Director, Services for the Blind, State of 
'^.C, 1973-77; Vice-President, Siceloff Mfg. Co., Inc., 1953-68; Veterans Serv- 
ice Officer, Davidson County, 1948-50. 

I Organizations: Lexington Board of Realtors; Amvets; Veterans of Foreign 
A^ars; Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association; Kiwanis; Lions International; 
!\merican Legion. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 
,971, 1973-74, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-; Minority Whip, 1969, 
;.971; Secretary, Joint House-Senate GOP Caucus, 1973; State Republican 
Executive Committee; Treasurer, 5th District Republican Executive Com- 
nittee, 1979-80; Sheriff, Davidson County, 1969-70. 

j Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1944-46 (Sergeant); European 
Jheater; European-African-Middle East ServiceMedal with Two Bronze Stars; 
jJood Conduct Medal; World War II Victory Medal; Army Occupation Medal. 

Honors: Republican of the Year, Davidson County, 1984. 

\ Religious Activities: Member, Pilgrim Reformed United Church of 
thrist, Lexington; Audit Committee (former President, Treasurer, Chair- 
pan); Elder; Deacon of Consistory; Chairman, Cemetery Committee; Sunday 
ichool Teacher. 

Family: Married, Jane Owen of Davidson County, November 27, 1948. 
/hildren: Joe, Karen and Edwin. 


Member: Appropriations — Education Subcommittee; Commerce — 
financial Institutions Subcommittee; Education — University Education & 
iffairs Subcommittee; Ethics; Legislative & Local Redistricting; Local & 
Regional Government I. 


North Carolina Manual 

Robert Jonathan Hensley, Jr. 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Sixty-fourth Representative District — Wake 

Early Years: Born in Marion, 
McDowell County, June 23, 1947, to 
Robert J. and Lelia Wise Hensley, Sr. 

Education: Cherryville High School, 
1965, UNC, Charlotte, B.A., History, 
1969; NCSU, graduate work for M.A., 
1973; NCCU, Public Administration, 
J.D., 1976. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: NC Bar Association; 
NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Wake County Academy of Criminal Trial 
Lawyers; Garner Optimist Club; Garner Citizens Against Drug Abuse-Legal 
Counsel; Garner Habitat for Humanity; White Plain's Children's Center — 
Board of Directors; Yates Mill Restoration Project — Board of Directors; 
Back-a-Child/Garner Road YMCA; Rex Home Health Care — Board of 
Directors; Swift Creek PTA — Legislative Committee Chair. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
present; Wake County Young Democrats, Past President; NC Young Demo- 
crats, Past Vice President, General Counsel; Wake County Democratic Men's 
Club, Board Member; Wake County Democratic Women, Young Democrats, 
Senior Democrats, Associate Member. 

Awards and Honors: J. Albert House/Gordon Gray Award — North 
Carolina's Most Outstanding Young Democrat, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church; Education 

Family: Married, Patricia F. Grainger of Raleigh, August 18, 1979. Chil- 
dren: Robert J. Hensley, III, Christopher Morgan Hensley and Charles 
Preston Hensley. 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Education; Human Re- 
sources — Subcommittee on Children, Youth and Families; Judiciary III; 
Legislative and Local Redistricting; Rules, Appointments and Calendar; 
Science and Technology. 

The Legislative Branch 


Foyle Robert Highto^ver, Jr. 

(Democrat — Anson County) 

Thirty-third Representative District — Anson 

Early Years: Born in Wadesboro, 
Anson County, January 21, 1941, to Foyle 
and Mildred Brigman Hightower. 

Education: Wadesboro High, 1959; 
UNC, Chapel Hill, 1962; Elon College, 
1965; Wingate College, BGS, History, 


Professional Background: Vice 
President, Hightower Ice and Fuel Com- 
pany, Inc. 

j Organizations: Anson Chamber of Commerce, Board of Directors; Anson 
Blood Mobile, Past Chairman; Wadesboro Civitan Club, Past President; 
Jaycees; United Way, Past Professional Chairman; Look Alive; Masons; 
Shriners; Jaycees; Anson County Historical Society; Scouts (Eagle), Demolay 
Master Counselor, 1958-59. 

! Boards and Commissions: N. C. Wildlife Resources Commission, 1981- 
82; Legislative Services Commission, 1981-89. 

I Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1971-1989, 
1991 -present; Served as chairman on Corrections, Wildlife Resources, In- 
surance Licensing Boards and State Government; Vice Chairman, Agri- 
culture and Finance. 

i Military Services: Army, Corporal, 1963; Reserves, 1963-69. 

Awards and Honors: Anson County Young Man of the Year, 1965; 
jEagle Scout, 1955; Junior Citizenship Award, 1958. 

Religious Activities: Member, Wadesboro-First Presbyterian Church; 
Deacon, Chairman of Board; Elder; President, Men of the Church. 

I Family: Married, Pauline McElveen Hightower of Lake City, S.C, July 
2, 1975. Children: Victoria Joan Hightower and Caroline Ruth Hightower. 


Chairman: Environment — Subcommittee on Hazardous Waste. 

Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Aquaculture and Marine 
Fisheries; Finance — Subcommittee on Ways and Means; Public Utilities; 
ptate Government — Subcommittee on State Boards and Commissions. 


North Carolina Manual 

George Milton Holmes 

(Republican - Yadkin County) 

Forty-First Representative District - 
Alexander (part), Wilkes and Yadkin 

Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, 
Surry County, June 20, 1929, to John 
William and Thelma Elizabeth (Dobie) 

Education; Mount Airy High School, 
1944; Western High School, 1945-48; 
Appalachian State University, 1954; 
Travelers Multiple Line Insurance 
School, 1959. 

Professional Background: Real Estate Broker. 

Organizations: Yadkin Lodge 162, F. & A. M.; Winston-Salem Con- 
sistory, Scottish Rite of Free Masonru' Shriner; Oasis Temple. 

Boards: Governor's Crime Study Commission, 1976; Fire and Casualty 
Rate Study Commission, 1976; Board of Directors, First Union National 
Bank, Yadkinville. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 
1979-80,1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90; 1991-; Minority Whip, 
1981-82; Advisory Budget Commission; 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1990-91, 
Vice Chairman, 1991-92. Minority Party Joint Caucus Leader, 1983-84; 
Yadkin County Republican Executive Committee; Eighth District Republican 
Executive Committee; State Republican Executive Committee, 1975-76, 1979- 
80, 1981-82, 1983-84; State Republican Central Committee, 1983-84; Joint 
Legislative Commission on Governmental Operations, 1989-90, 1991-92. 

Religious Activities: Member, Flat Rock Baptist Church; Deacon, 1956- 
70; Trustee, 1970-; Superintendent, 1968-72; Former Secretary and Sunday 
School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Barbara Ann Ireland, June 30, 1956. Children:Jennifer 
(Holmes) Crawley. 


Vice Chairman: Local & Regional Government II; State Government — 
Subcommittee State Parks, Facilities & Property. 

Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee General Government; Com- 
merce — Subcommittee Financial Institutions; Legislative and Local Re- 

The Legislative Branch 


Bertha Merrill Holt 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

Twenty-fifth Representative District - 
Alamance, Rockingham and Stokes (part) 

Early Years: Born in Eufaula, Ala- 
bama, August 16, 1916, to William H. 
and Bertha H. (Moore) Merrill. 

Education: Eufaula High School; 
Agnes Scott College, 1938, G.A., B.A., 
Psychology and History; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, School of Law, 1939-40; University 
of Alabama, School of Law, 1941, LL.B: 
George Washington University, 1942, 
graduate studies. 

, Professional Background: Legislator and Attorney; former attorney, 
[U.S. Treasury and Department of the Interior. 

Organizations: N.C. Bar Association; Pi Beta Phi; English Speaking 
jUnion; Les Amis du Vin; N.C. Historical Society; N.C. Women's Forum; Cub 
Scout Den Mother; Century Book Club; Down to Earth Garden Club; 
American Association of University Women; N.C. Women's Political Caucus; 
Task Force Community Based Alternative for State Offenders (Alamance 
County); Volunteer for Schools; LRC Open Meetings Study Committee, 1979- 
'81; Chairman, LRC Computer Literacy Committee, 1981-83; Joint Com- 
; mission on School Salary Schedules, 1985-88; Joint Commission on Social 
; Services, 1987-88; Chairman, Pest Control Study Commission (Sponsor of 
"Legislation), 1987-88; Committees on Appropriations-Justice and Public 
'Safety, State Personnel Politics, and Alcoholic Beverage Control, 1989; Past 
.Chairman, Computer Literacy Study Committee; Past Chairman, Inmate 
'Substance Abuse Study Committee; Past Member, N.C. Council on Status of 
j Women, 1977-80; Chairman, State Federal Affairs Committee, Southern 
I Legislative Conference (3 years); Member, Intergovern Mental Affairs Com- 
mittee, Council of State Governments. 

Boards and Commissions: Girl Scout Board; Alamance County Social 
I Services Board, Chairman; Advisory Board, N.C. School of Public Health; 
Board Member, State Conference on Social Work; Board member, LIFE- 
guardianship Council, ARC/NC; Advisory Board Salvation Army (Alam- 
ance County); Advisory Board, School Health (Burlington City); Board of 
Directors, Snow Camp Historical Society; Board of Directors, N.C. Con- 
ference of Social Service; Board of Directors, State Epilepsy Association; 
Past member. Archaeology Advisory Board of N.C, 1979-84; Past Member, 
I N.C. Board of Science and Technology; Past Board Member, N.C. HOSPICE 
' and State Council for Social Legislation (Study Chairman), 1979-87; Joint 
. Commission Governmental Operations; Board of Directors, Alumni Associa- 
tion; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1979-80. 

378 North Carolina Manual 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1975- 
present (8 terms); former President, Alamance County Democratic Women 
(Chairman, Headquarters Committee), 1962-64; Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee, 1964-75; Vice Chairman, Alamance County Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1964-66; Century Book Club; AAUW Women's Political Caucus; 
Chairman, Select Committee on Governmental Ethics, 1979-81; Legislative 
Ethics Committee, 1980-81; Chairman, Legislative Ethics Committee, 1981; 
Chairman, Constitutional Amendments, 1981-82 and 1983-84; Chairman 
Appropriations (E) Justice and Public Safety, 1985-86 and 1987-88; Member, 
Joint Commission Governmental Operations (first woman to serve), 1982-88. 

Honors and Awards: Outstanding Alumna Award Agnes Scott College, 
1978; Legislative Award, Nurses Association, 1979; Family Care, N.C. Facili- 
ties Association Award, 1982; Hospice of N.C. Award, 1984; Legislative 
Award, N.C. Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 
1984; N.C. Association of Non-Profit Homes for Aging, 1985; Distinguished 
Service in Promoting School Health Education, N.C. Society for Public 
Health Education, 1986; Faith Active to Public Life Award by N.C. Council 
of Churches, 1987; State Delta Kappa Gamma, Honorary Member, 1987; 
Distinguished Service Award, Association for Retarded Citizens, N.C, Inc, 
1987; One of five Distinguished Alumna Centennial Speakers Agnes Scott 
College, Decatur, GA, 1988; Distinguished Women's Award in Government, 
N.C. Council on the Status of Women, 1991; Listed in Who's Who, American 
Women and Who's Who in America; Published "Ethic in a Citizen Legisla- 
ture", Insight, 1980; Reprinted in Focus, 1981; Center for Public Policy 
Research. I 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church of Holy Comforter, 
Burlington, N.C; Past President of Episcopal Church Women of Church of 
the Holy Comforter; First Woman on Church Vestry; First Woman to be 
Senior Warden of Vestry of Church of Holy Comforter; Taught High School 
Sunday School class for 15 years; Diocesan Council of N.C Episcopal 
Diocese, 1973-74; Chairman, Parish Grant Committee of N.C. Diocese, 1973- 
80; Chairman, Department of Finance and Budget; Chairman, N.C. 
Episcopal Diocese; First Woman on Bishop's Standing Committee, 1975-77; 
Diocesan Council, 1985-87; Chairman, Budget Committee, N.C. Diocese, 
1987; Member, Christian Social Ministries Committee, 1987-88; Alternate 
Delegate to Episcopal General Convention, Episcopal Diocesan Convention 
Delegate, Episcopal Diocesan Convention many times Past President, 
Burlington Council of Church Women. j 

Family: Married W. Clary Holt (attorney), March 14, 1942. Children: ' 
Harriet, William and Winfield. 

Co-Chairman: Sub-Committee on Transportation. 

Member: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and Referenda; 
Sub-Committee on Labor Relations and Employment, Sub-Committee on 
Community Colleges, Judiciary I. 

The Legislative Branch 


Julia Craven Howard 

(Republican - Davie County) 

Thirty-Seventh Representative District -Davie 

Early Years: Born Salisbury, Rowan 
County, August 20, 1944, to Allan Leary 
and Ruth Elizabeth (Snider) Craven. 

Education: Davie High School, 1962; 
American Institute of Real Estate Ap- 
praisors, RM; NC Association of Realtors, 

Professional Background: Realtor/ 
Appraiser; President, Howard Realty & 
Insurance Agency, Inc.; Vice President, 
Davie Builders, Inc. 

Organizations: Sertoma Club; Realtors Association; Davie County Board 
(President, 1972, State Director, 1973-85); AIREA-Southeastern Regional/ 
Review Appraiser. 

: Boards: Davie County Hospital Board of Trustees, (Former chairman, 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Com- 
missioner, Town of Mocksville, 1981-88. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Mocks- 
yille; council of Ministries (Chairman, 1979-81); Youth Council, 1974-84; 
Sunday School Teacher. 

I Family: Married, Abe Nail Howard, Jr., August 26, 1962. Children: Amedia 
IPaige and Abe Nail, III. 


Vice Chairman: Commerce — Housing. 

Member: Agriculture — Aquaculture and Marine Fisheries; Finance — 
.Ways and Means; State Government — State Parks, Facilities and Property; 
^Transportation — Airports, Railways and Waterways 


North Carolina Manual 

Doris Rogers Huffman 

(Republican - Catawba County) 

Forty-fifth Representative District -Burke 
(part) and Catawba (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Burke County, 
August 3, to Bradus K. and Myrtle (Deal) 

Education: Hickory City Schools, 
1953; Catawba Valley Technical College, 
1973 (Accounting and Tax). 

Professional Background: Home- 

Organizations: Hickory-Catawba 
Valley Home Builders Association; 
charter member, HBA Auxiliary (membership award, 1979); Red Cross j 
Blood Mobile; Salvation Army; Board, Project "Happen"-Western Carolina . 
Center; Women in Government Roundtable. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, ' 
1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-92; Catawba County Republican Women's Club; Exe- ^ 
cutive Committee, N.C. GOP; Catawba County Republican Party (Secretary, j 
1980, Vice Chairman, 1981, Chairman 1982); N.C. Delegate-Southern Republi- i 
can Exchange, 1986-87; N.C. Legislative Women's Caucus; 1991-92 N.C. j 
Sentencing and Policy Commission; State Law Enforcement Personnel 
Study; Governor's Advisory Budget Commission, Purchase and Contract 
Board of Awards. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Newton; Leader, 
Bible Drill Team; Church Constitution Commission. 

Family: Married, L. Wiburn Huffman of Hickory, Children: Sandra. 


Vice-Chairman: Committee on Economic Expansion, Subcommittee on 
Travel, Tourism and Economic Development; Judiciary III. 

Member: Appropriations, Subcommittee on Education Rules, Appoint- 
ments and Calendar, State Government, Subcommittee on State Parks, j 
Facilities and Property; Legislative and Local Redistricting. 

The Legislative Branch 


John Jackson Hunt 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

Forty-eighth Representative District — 
Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Lattimore, 
Cleveland County, November 27, 1922, to 
Robert Lee and Alma (Harrill) Hunt. 

Education: Lattimore High School, 
1939; Wake Forest University, 1943, B.S.; 
Emory University, 1946, D.D.S. 

Professional Background: Dentist, 
Bldg. materials supplier and farmer. 

Organizations: ADA: NCDS; Isother- 
mal Dental Society; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Research Committee; National 
(inference on State Legislative; Governmental Operations; Legislative 
Jrvices Commission; Capital Planning Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 
175-76, 1979-80, 1981-82, Chairman, Rules Committee; 1983-84, Chairman, 
lies Committee; 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989; 1991, Chairman, Rules, Appoint- 
rints and Calendar; Speaker Pro Tem, 1985-86 and 1987-88; Alderman, City 
cLattimore, 1958-64. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-48, 1950-52 (Major). 

honors: Honorary member, NC National Guard; USS NC Battleship 
^ard, AMVETS. 

jleligious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

j^amily: Married, Ruby Cowder, June 22, 1946. Children: Judy Hunt, 
Fliny (Hunt) Corn, Libby (Hunt) Sarazen, Sally Hunt and Cindy (Hunt) 


«!Ihairnian: Rules, Appointments and Calendar. 

lember: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Transportation; Courts, 
J'.tice, Constitutional Amendments and Referenda; Legislative and Local 
Riistricting; State Govenrment — Subcommittee on State Boards and 


North Carolina Manual 

Judy Frances Hunt 

(Democrat — Watauga County) 

Fortieth Representative District — Alleghanj 
Ashe, Stokes (part), Surry and Watauga (part! 

Early Years: Born in Shelby, Clevd 
land County, May 16, 1949, to Joh;' 
Jackson and Ruby (Cowder) Hunt. 

Education: Shelby High School, 196^ 
67; Meredith College, 1971, B.A.; Appt 
lachian State University, 1976. M.A. 

Professional Background: Ret 

Estate Broker. 

Organizations: Past Member, Blowin 
Rock Planning Board, 1980-86. 

Political Activities: NC House of Representatives, 1987-88, 1989, 19Cj 
and 1991; Watauga County Commissioner. » 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. ! 


Family: Married, William Hansel Kohler, of Blowing Rock, July 10, 197- 
Children: Jackie. ' 


Chairman: Public Utilities. 

Vice Chairman: Economic Expansion — Subcommittee on Trav( 
Tourism and Economic Development. 

Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Forestry, Horticulture and Wil 
life; Education — Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary and Seconda 
Education; Finance — Subcomittee on Ways and Means; Legislative ai 
Local Redistricting. 

The Legislative Branch 383 

Rector Samuel Hunt, III 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

Twenty-Fifth Representative District - 
Alamance, Rockingham, and Stokes (part) 

Early Years: Born in Burlington, 
Alamance County, September 1, 1941, to 
Rector S. and Mildred Rachel (Wester) 
Hunt, Jr. 

Education: Williams High School, 
1955-59; East Carolina University, 
Graduated 1965, A.B. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent, Hunt Electric Supply Company. 

Organizations: Past Director, Alamance Chamber of Commerce. 

^Political Activities: N.C. House of Representatives 1985-86, 1987-88, 
'89-90, 1991-. 

Military: Served, U.S. Army, First Lieutenant, 1966-69; Served, Reserves, 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian United Church of Christ. 

Family: Married, Vicky Silek, of Front Royal. Children; Sam. 


Co-Chairman: Congressional Redistricting; Local and Legislative Re- 
stricting; Joint Legislative Highway Oversight. 

Vice Chairman: Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means); Judiciary 

Member: Commerce (Subcommittee on Insurance); Transportation (Sub- 
cinmittee on Highways). 


North Carolina Manual 

Howard J. Hunter, Jr. 

(Democrat - Hertford County) 

Fifth Representative District - Hertford 

Early Years: Born in Washington, D( 
on December 16, 1946, to Howard am 
Madge (Watford) Hunter, Sr. 

Education: C. S. Brown High Schoo 
1964; North Carolina Central Universitj 
1971, MS. 

Professional Background: Vice Pre 
sident, Hunters Funeral Home, Inc. 

Organizations: Life member, Aholk 
Alumni Chapter, Kappa Alpha Ps! 
Former Scoutmaster. i 

Boards: Hertford County Commissioner, 1978-1988. i 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; Her] 
ford County Commissioner. ! 

Awards & Honors: Outstanding Young Men of America; Personalities (I 
the South; Order of the Long Leaf Pine; Distinguished Service, Murfreesbor 
Jaycees; Outstanding Citizen in NC in Human Relations. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Murfreesbon 

Family: Married, Vivian Flythe, December 31, 1986. ChildreniHoward, I] 
and Chyla Toye. 


Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget, Subcommittee on Natur; 
Economic and Envirnonmental Health Resources 

Vice-Chairman: Transportation Subcommittee on Highways; Commerc 
Subcommittee on Housing; Human Resources, Subcommittee on Health | 
Mental Health; Congressional Redistricting Committee. 

The Legislative Branch 


Robert Carl Hunter 

(Democrat - McDowell County) 

Forty-Ninth Representative District - 
McDowell and Yancy Counties. 

Early Years: Born in McDowell 
County, January 14, 1944, to L. Penn 
and Lucy (Turner) Hunter. 

Education: Glenwood School; Marion 
City Schools; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1966, 
B.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 
1969, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney; 
former Assistant District Attorney, 29th 
Judicial District. 

Organizations: Member, McDowell County Bar Association, past Presi- 
ent; N. C. Bar Association; American Bar Association; 29th Judicial District 
,ar, past President; N. C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Marion Rotary Club, 
ast President; Former member, past president and past secretary, Marion 
aycees; Alumnus of Sigma Phi Epsilon Social Fraternity; Alumnus of Delta 
heta Phi Legal Fraternity; Member, University of North Carolina Board of 
iisitors; former Assistant District Attorney; former Director, McDowell 
ounty United Fund; former Director, McDowell County Chamber of Com- 
lerce; past President, N. C. County Attorney's Association; Director, UNC 
aw Alumni Association. 

• Boards: Member, Board of Directors, McDowell Committee of 100; Board 
:' Directors, McDowell Arts & Crafts Association; McDowell County Citizen 
■■the Year - 1984; Marion Civitan's Citizen of the Year, 1988-89, Chairman, 
puthern Legislative Conference; Southern Legislative Conference Executive 
jommittee; Chairman, Organizational Planning and Coordinating Com- 
ittee of the Council of State Governments; former Member, North Carolina 
dvisory Council on the Eastern Band of the Cherokee; Former Member, 
jorth Carolina Judicial Council; Former Member, North Carolina Courts 
bmmission; Co-Chairman, 1987-89 Legislative Highway Study Commis- 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
183-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989, 1991; Former Member N.C. State Democrat 
<ecutive Committee. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Marion; Trustee. 

iFamily: Married, Nancy Hinson, August 22, 1970. ChildreniMegan, Allen 
td Claire Alise. 


jChairman: Judiciary HI. 

Member: Commerce — Subcommittee on Financial Institutions; Courts, 
■fstice, Constititional Amendments and Referenda; Finance — Subcom- 
Ittee on State Revenues; Rules, Appointments and Calendar 


North Carolina Manual 

John William Hurley 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

Eighteenth Representative District - 
Cumberland County 

Early Years: Born in Murfreesboro. 
Hertford County, June 22, 1933, to John 
Bascom and Daisy (Fuqua) Hurley. ; 

Education: Littleton High School, 
1951; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1951-52; Louis 
^^^^mm burg College, 1952-53; UNC-Chapel Hill 

^^^K^^^ 1953-55; American College, 1976 (CLL 

^^^^^V fll Designation). 

^^^Hf A Professional Background: Owner 

Olde Fayetteville Financial Service. 

Organizations: Fayetteville Association of Life Underwriters (President 
1963); MDRT; CLU Society; Kiwanis Club; Life member, Jaycees. j 

Boards: Board of Directors, International Association of Financial Plan 
ners (Fayetteville Chapter); Board of Trustees, Highsmith-Rainey Memoria' 
Hospital, 1988; Co-chairman, Fayetteville Bicentennial Celebration, 1989. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1989- I 
Mayor, City of Fayetteville, 1981-1987; Member, Fayetteville City Council 
1977-1981; Member, State Study Commission on the Cape Fear River Basin 
Member, North Carolina League of Municipalities; Chairman, Communit; 
and Economic Development Committee, 1984-86. 

Honors: Realtors Cup Award, 1985; E. J. Wells Cup, 1978; Life membei 
Jaycees, 1970-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Haymount United Methodist Church 
Trustee, 1979-80; Chairman, Council of Ministries, 1977-80; Lay Leadei 
Fayetteville District of the United Methodist Church, 1976-77; Membe 
Pastor-Parish Relations Committee. 

Family: Married Sandra Gail Huggins, May 15, 1970. Children:Charle, 
Mark, John Bradley and Todd H. ( 


Chairman: Transportation — Subcommittee on Public Transportation. ( 

Member: Ethics; Finance — Subcommittee on Local and Regional GovenI 
ment Revenues; Judiciary I; Local and Regional Government II; Pension 
and Retirement. 

The Legislative Branch 


Walter Stine Isenhower 

(Republican - Catawba County) 

Forty-Fifth Representative District - Burke 
(part) and Catawba (part) Counties. 

Early Years; Born in Conover, 
Catawba County, April 10, 1927, to John 
Abel and Susie (Jordan) Isenhower. 

Education: Newton-Conover High 
School, 1941-44; Fishburne Military 
School, 1944-46; Lenoir Rhyne College, 
1950, B.S. 

Professional Background: Presi- 
dent, Owen United Insurance Agency, 
INC. (until merger with Cline Southern 
Ins. Agency in 1985); Sales Executive, Owen-United; President, Carolina's 
\ssociation of Professional Insurance Agents; Member, Board of Directors 
»f Professional Insurance Agents of America; Member, Catawba Valley 
insurance Agency Association. 

' Organizations: Conover Lions Club, Past President; Catawba County 
chamber of Commerce, Past President, 1984; Former Member, Conover 
/olunteer Fire Department; Catawba Science Center; Eastern Catawba 
pounty Chamber of Commerce; Y.M.C.A. Board of Directors; Troop Commit- 
»ee Boy Scouts; American Red Cross Local Board. 


: Boards: Catawba County Industrial Development Board; Western Pied- 
lont Council of Government Regional Board; Old Stone Savings and Loan, 
Local Board; First Citizens Bank, Local Board; Former Member, First 
'•ederal Savings and Loan, now Old Stone; Northwestern Bank, now First 

Political Activities: N.C. House Representative, 1986 (Appointed De- 
cember 26, 1986, by Governor Martin to replace Allran), 1987-88, 1989-; 
Chairman, Catawba County Board of Commissioners, 1966-70; Former, N.C. 
fighway Commissioner, 1972; N.C. Insurance Advisory Board; President, 
foung Republicans of Catawba County, 1953. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, Corporal, 1950-52. 

Religious Activities: Member, Concordia Lutheran Church; Secretary of 
fongregation; Chairman, Board of Elders, 1981; Stewardship Board; Mem- 
ler, Lutheran Television Board; Member, Board of Laymen's League; Former 
jhairman. International Lutheran Hour Committee. 

Family: Married, Carolyn Vaughn, of Murray, June 23, 1951. Children: 
'harles and Ann. 


1 Vice-Chairman: Human Resources — Subcommittee on Health and 
lental Health; Local and Regional Government I. 

Member: Commerce — Subcommittee on Insurance; Ethics; Finance — 
' jjubcommittee on Local and Regional Government Revenues. 

388 North Carolina Manual 

Vernon Grant James | 

(Democrat - Pasquotank County) 

First Representative District - Camden, j 

Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates (part), i 
Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell and 

Washington (part) Counties. , 

Early Years: Born in Pasquotank' 
County, July 11, 1910, to John Calvin' 
and Fannie (Coppersmith) James (both! 
deceased). 4 

Education: Graduated, Weeksvillej 
High School, 1930; North Carolina Statej 
University, 1930-31. 

Professional Background: (Retired)j 
Farmer and Produce Supply Business (President and Manager Jamesl 
Brothers, Inc.). | 

Organizations: Member, N.C. and National Fresh Fruits and Vegetable 
Growers Association; Secretary and Treasurer, State 4-H Club Council 1930,j 
Delegate, International Member, State 4-H Honor Club, 1931; President 
National Potato Council, 1966; Member, National Potato Steering Committee| 
since 1966; Potato Advisory Committee (appointed by U.S. Secretary oi 
Agriculture, Orville Freeman, 1961-68, re-appointed by Earl Butz 1968-71): 
Chairman National Potato Board 1977-78; Served, Board of Directors 
Elizabeth City Chamber of Commerce; Member, Masonic Lodge 317 and 
Sudan Temple Shriners. 

Boards: Chairman, Board of Education for Weeksville High School, 1943 
44; Member, Board of Trustees, Greater University of N.C, 1947-55; Member 
Elizabeth City Airport Commission, 1963; Founder and Co-Chairman, Stud> 
Commission for Promotion of Agriculture, Seafood and Forestry, 1983-84 
1985-86; Member, COA Board of Trustees since 1960; Chairman, Southerr 
States Legislative Division of Agriculture and Rural Development 1983-1984 
Member, Study Commission on Local Government Financing; Memberj 
North Carolina Commission on the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitutionj 
Member, Thirteen Member House Special Fact-Finding Committee or 
Agriculture. ; 

Political Activities: Served, N.C. House of Representatives, 1945-1947! 
1973-present (12 terms). 

Honors: "Tarheel of the Week", December, 1965; Recipient of Commissior 
of Agriculture's Award for Promotion of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, 1971' 
Governors Award from N.C. Wildlife Federation for air conservation, 1981' 
Recipient of Award for Outstanding Contributions to the N.C.Soybear 
Association, 1983; Recipient of N.C. Farm Bureau Federation Award fo:j 
Distinguished Service to Agriculture, 1983; Award from N.C. Association o' 
County Commissioners for Distinguished Service to County Governmen 
and North Carolina Citizens, 1984; Southern Legislative Conference Awarcj 

The Legislative Branch 389 

\)Y Service to Agriculture and Rural Development to North Carolina and 
hroughout the South, 1984; Award from N.C. School Boards Association for 
.lervice to Public Education in N.C, 1984; Governor's Award from N.C. Agri- 
Jusiness Council for Distinguished Service to Agri-business 1985; 4-H Club 
)utstanding Alumni Award, 1985; N.C. Association of County Agricultural 
Lgents Award 1985; "State Friend of Extension" Award from the National 
lonorary Extension Fraternity, Epsilon Sigma Phi, 1985; Recipient of Col- 
;ge of the Albemarle 25th Anniversary Award, 1985; N.C. School Boards 
association "True Friend of Public Education" Award, 1986; N.C. Association 
f County Commissioners Distinguished Service Award, 1987. 

Religious Activities: Member, Salem Baptist Church; Former, Sunday 
chool Teacher. 

Family: Married Thelma L. James, April 1, 1978. Children: John (de- 
based) and Vernon (deceased) 


'i Chairman: Agriculture Committee. 

Member: Appropriations Subcommittee on Environment, Health, and 
Jatural Resourcees; Commerce Subcommittee on Housing; Local and 
egional Government H; Public Utilities. 


North Carolina Manual 

Mary Long Jarrell 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

Twenty-eighth Representative District — 
Deep River Township, Friendship Township, 
High Point Township, Jamestown Precincts 1 
and 3, and South Sumner Precinct of Guilford 

Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, 
Forsyth County, February 16, 1929, to 
David Allison and Jennie Mae (Fife) 

Education: Graduated, Fairfax Hall, 
Waynesboro, Va., 1947; Queens College, 
Charlotte, NC, 1951, A.B. in English- 
Education; attended, University of North 
Carolina-Chapel Hill, (English and Education; Educational courses toward) 
Masters). j 

Professional Background: Former Public School Teacher. | 

Boards: Guilford County Historic Properties Commission (former mem- 
ber); Co-chairman, Directions Task Force on Drug Abuse. 

Organizations: President, YWCA Community Concert; High Point His- 
torical Society; High Point Junior League. j 

Political Activities: NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1987-88, 
1991-92; High Point City Council, 1977-81 (Mayor Pro Tem, 1977-79) 

Religious Activities: Member, High Point Friends; Presiding Clerk; 
President, United Friends Women. 

Family: Married, Harold Thomas Jarrell, June 16, 1956; Children: Jennie 
(Jarrell) Hayman and Harold Thomas Jarrell. 


Chairman: Transportation — Subcommittee on Airports, Railways and 

Vice Chairman: Local and Regional Government L 

Member: Economic Expansion — Subcommittee on Small Business; Educa 
tion — Subcommittee on Community Colleges; Finance — Subcommittee on, 
Local and Regional Government Revenue. 

The Legislative Branch 


Margaret Moore Jeffus 

(Democrat - Guilford County) 
Twenty-Seventh Representative District 

Early Years: Born in Roanoke, Roa- 
noke, VA, October 22, 1934, to Edward 
Shelly Green and Alyne B. Bowles. Step- 
Father, Clarence H. Moore. 

Education: Attended Greensboro 
Senior High School, 1952; Guilford Col- 
lege, B.A., Education, 1965; UNC-G, 
M.Ed., Education, 1970. 

Professional Background: Teacher, 
Jackson Middle School. 

Organizations: Social Committee 

i/hairman, Association of Childhood Education (ACEI), 1968-70; Member, 

Joard Member and Grade Mother, P.T.A.; Cub Scout Den Mother and 

vamping Committee Chairman; Past Member, Greensboro Little Theatre; 

I'ast Member, Greensboro Civic Ballet; Member, Friends of the Young 

irtists Opera Theatre; Member, UNC-G Musical Arts Guild; Member, Beta 

igma Phi-XI Alpha Rho Chapter; Member, Beta Sigma Phi-Perceptor 

>hapter; Member, Old Greensboro Preservation Society; Member, Elk's 

.adies Auxiliary; Member, Rebekah's Ladies Division of Odd Fellows; 

•Inited Way District Captain, 1983-84; Coordinator of the 1986 and 1987 

Inited Way Campaigns for the Greensboro Public Schools; Member, United 

/ay Allocations Panel, 1986-present; Cancer Society Volunteer, 1990-; Mem- 

;er. Phi Delta Kappa Triad Chapter; International Reading Association, 

irreensboro Chapter, Building Representative, 13 years; Delegate to National 

ducation Association (NEA) Convention, 13 years; Delegate to N.C. Associa- 

on of Educators Convention (NCAE), 23 years; Member, N.C. Association 

|f Educators Convention (NCAE), 23 years; Member, N.C. Association of 

ducators (NCAE), 24 years; Served on the NCAE State, NCAE District and 

CAE Local; Member, Association of Classroom Teachers; ACT, Local and 


Boards and Commissions: Joint Historic Properties Commission, 1987- 

|L; Professional Review Committee, 1986-1989; Member, Board of Directors, 

joung Artists Opera Theatre; Euterpe Club, Board of Directors, 14 years, 

jice President, 1989-90; Member, Education Committee, Greensboro 

hamber of Commerce; Altrusa Club of Greensboro, Board of Directors, 4 

jjars; N.C. 2000 Committee, Chairman of the Education Section (K-12), 

luilford County, 1981-82; Member, Greensboro One Task Force Bond Com- 

ittee, 1985; Member, Guilford County Joint Historic Properties Commis- 

on, 1987-93; Member, Greensboro VISIONS Education Committee, 1987-88; 

ember. Committee to revise Personnel Handbook, 1971-72; Member, Com- 

ittee to write Teacher & Administrator Evaluation Forms, 1972-73; Chair- 

an. School Based Committee for Southern Association Evaluation, 1971- 

392 North Carolina Manual 

73; Section Chairman and Committee Member for Southern Association i 
Evaluation, 1973-75; Faculty Sponsor, National Junior Teacher Centers,! 
1978-79; Member, Task Force to Study Principal Rotation in Greensboro,' 
1980-81; Member, Task Force to Study Principal Evaluation, 1981-82; Depart-j 
ment Chairman/Contact Person, Jackson Junior High, 1977-82; Member,! 
School Based Leadership Team, 1980-83 and 1986-87; Faculty Representative; 
to the P.T.A. Board, 1976-77, 1977-78, 1978-79, 1982-83, 1989-90 and 1990-91;; 
Member and Reader of Materials Selection Committee, 1981-83 and 1986-87;! 
Member, Curriculum Study Committee for Middle Schools, 1984-85; Member,' 
Textbook Selection Committee, 1984-85 and 1989-90; Member, Substance' 
Abuse Prevention Program (SAPP) Team, 1984-85, 1985-86, 1987-88 andi 
1988-90; Member, Professional Review Committee, DPI, 1986-89; Facilitator! 
for ETT, TPAS and M/stt; Workshops, 1988-89, 1989-90 and 1990-91. 

Political Activities: N.C. House of Representatives; State Executiv( 
Committee, 1983-present; Delegate National Convention, 1984; Precinct 
Chair, 1980-90; Guilford County Precinct Organizer, 1982 Election; Governoi 
James B. Hunt's Educational Key, 1980; Guilford County Educational Chair! 
1984; Active in various campaigns including a member of the origina: 
cabinet for the 6th Congressional District, 1982; Member, Democratic State 
Executive Committee, 1983-85, 1985-87, 1987-89 and 1989-91; Chairman 
Guilford County Mondale Delegate Committee, 1984; Co-Chair, Ticket Salef 
for Fund Raisers, 1983 and 1984; Delegate to the Democratic Nationa 
Convention, San Francisco, 1984; Delegate to County, District, and Stat(j 
Conventions; Chairman of Nominating Committee, 1985, 1986 and 1989 
Member, Statewide Task Force "Democrats Forward", 1985; Chair, Outstand 
ing Democrat Committee, 1989; Member, Democratic Difference Committee- 
1986; Issues Coordinator, 1986; Member and Local Facilitator of N.C 
Citizens Assembly, 1987-88; Candidate for N.C. General Assembly, 1988 am 

Honors and Awards. Jaycees Young Education Award, 1970; Greensbon 
Teacher of the Year, 1972-73; School Nominee for the Ben L. Smith Award 
1975; Beta Sigma Phi Girl of the Year, 1976-77; Beta Sigma Phi Outstanding 
Women of the Year, 1981-82. 

Religious Activities: Member, Starmont Presbyterian Church; CircL 
Chair and Vice Chair; Chair-Nominating Committee and Member; Sunda; 
School teacher; Choir Member. 

Family: Married, Charles Oliver Jeffus (deceased) of Fort Worth, Texas 
January 31, 1954. Children: Edward Dane Jeffus and Holly Ann Jeffus. \ 

Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Human Resources; Ecc 
nomic Expansion — Subcommittee on Travel, Tourism and Economic D( 
velopment; Education — Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary an 
Secondary Education; Judiciary II; Public Employees. 

The Legislative Branch 


Luther Reginald Jeralds 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

Seventeenth Representative District — 
Cumberland (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Orrum, Robeson 
County, August 20, 1938, to Winnie B. 
and Amy Lee (McMillan) Jeralds. 

Education: Newbold Elementary 
School, 1943-51; St. Emma Military 
Academy, 1952-54; E. E. Smith Senior 
High School, 1955-56; NC State College, 
1961, B.S. (Accounting). 

Professional Background: Realtor 
and small businessman. 

iOrganizations: Fayetteville Business and Professional League; NC 
Bsociation of Minority Businesses; Knights of Columbus. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
?85-86, 1987-88, 1989-Advisory Budget Commission; 1991-92. 

Recognitions/Awards: 1988— Distinguished Leadership and Public 
lirvice Award, NC A&T University; 1987-Inducted into NCCU Athletic Hall 
((Fame; 1987— Service Award, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority; 1986— NAACP 
umanitarian Award; 1985 — Chancellor's Certificate of Merit, Fayetteville 
late University; 1984 — Citizen of the Year, Omega Psi Phi. 

Religious Affiliation: Member, St. Ann's Catholic Church. 

[Family: Married, Jo Ann Fuller, May 7, 1958. Children: Adonis, Dominic 
ijid Minikki. 


Chairman: Human Resources. 

Vice-Chairman: Legislative and Local Redistricting. 

jMember: Appropriations, Human Resources, Base and Expansion Budget; 
(iidiciary III; Commerce — Subcommittee, Insurance; State Government — 
ijibcommittee, Military, Veterans, and Indian Affairs. 


North Carolina Manual 

Walter B. Jones, Jr. 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

Ninth Representative District — Greene and 
Pitt (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Farmville, Pit 
County, North Carolina, February 10 
1943, to Walter B. and Doris (Long; 

Education: Farmville Public Schools 
Hargrave Military Academy; North Care 
Una State University; Atlantic Christiar 
College, 1967, A.B. (History). 

Professional Background: Self-em 
ployed businesman. 

Boards: Advisory Council, Rural Education Institute, ECU; Director, Piti 
County Mental Health Association; Foundation Board, Eastern Carolini; 
Vocational Center; Eastern Carolina Health Education Center Developmen! 
Corporation (Education-for-Health Center). 

Organizations: Governors Advocacy Council on Youth and Children. 
North Carolina Council for Hearing Impaired; Consumer and Advocacji 
Advisory Committee for the Blind; North Carolina Library Committee. s 

Awards: Member, National Council on Government Ethics Law; 
(COGEL); recipient. Common Cause Award of Appreciation for efforts oi 
public financing of campaigns and elections in North Carolina. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-92. 

Family: Married, Joe Anne Whitehurst, June 26, 1966. Children 
Daughter, Ashley. 


Chairman: Human Resources (Subcommittee on Children, Youth anc 

Vice-Chairman: Commerce (Subcommittee on Housing). 

Member: Appropriations Committee; Justice and Public Safety Subconaf 
mittee; Ethics Committee; Local Government I Committee. i 

The Legislative Branch 


Larry Mack Jordan 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Sixty-second Representative District — Wake 

Early Years: Born in Apex, May 19, 
1945, to Guthrie T. and Dorothy WilHams 

Education: Apex Senior High School, 
1963; Louisburg College, 1963-65; East 
Carolina University, 1965-67. 

Professional Background: Petroleum 
Marketer, L. G. Jordan Oil Company, 
Inc., President; Mayor of Apex, 1980-89; 
Commissioner, Apex (8 years). 

Organizations: President, Petroleum Marketers Association, 1985; Apex 
hited Methodist Church, Finance Chairman, Past Lay Leader; Apex Lions 
(ub, Past President; Apex Jaycees, Past President. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1991- 

Family: Married, Candace Daniels of Statesville, June 17, 1967. Children: 
^ny and Karen. 


Member: Agriculture — Committee on Crops and Animal Husbandry; 
lonomic Expansion — Subcommittee on Small Business; Finance — Sub- 
Cimmittee on Ways and Means; Judiciary III; Local and Regional Govern- 
lent I. 


North Carolina Manual 

Larry T. Justus 

(Republican - Henderson County) 

Fiftieth Representative District -Henderson 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Hendersonville 
Henderson County, April 30, 1932, t(| 
Brownlow and Helen (Stepp) Justus (de 

Education: Dana High School, 1950i 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1954; U.S. Air Forcej 
(Navigation Flight School, Squadron Ol! 
ficers School, Defense Preparedness Staf : 
College, Nuclear and Chemical Warfar 
School, Hazardous Waste and Spiij 

Professional Background: Retired Businessman; Real Estate Broker 
retired Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. A.F.R.; Formerly, owner and operatoi' 
Justus Sand and Stone (1957-78); apple orchardist; U.S. Census technical 
officer. \ 

Organizations: American Legion; VFW; AARP; WNC Retired Officer 
Association; Former Director, N.C. Apple Festival Beauty Pageant; Pres] 
dent, WNC Waste Water Treatment Association, Cub Scouts. 

Boards: Vagabond School of Drama Board of Directors; National Boan 
Member, Alliance for the Handicapped; Henderson County Emergency Pn 
paredness Board; Felony Alternative Sentencing Program 29th Judicie 
District; Former Chairman, Council on Developmental Disabilities 
Henderson County Board of Elections; Henderson County Energy Counci 
Governor's Committee on Better Roads; National Task Force for Youth a 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-8( 
1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-; Delegate, Repubhcan National Convention, 198( 
Chairman, Henderson County Republican Party, (three terms); Chairmar 
Eleventh Congressional District; State Executive Committee; Former, Stat 
Central Committee; Chairman, North Blue Ridge Precinct; Former, Financ 
Officer 11th Congressional District; Former, Campaign Manager for Count; 
Congressional Campaign, City Campaign, GOP Gubernatorial Campaigr 
Member, Henderson County Board of Elections, 3 terms. 

Military Service: U.S. Air Force 1954-1982 (Lieutenant Colonel); Nav 
gator; Squadron Commander; Executive Officer; Disaster Preparedness 
ficer; Information Officer; Protocol Officer; Awards and Decorations; (Con 
mendation Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, Presidential Unit Citation, Combe 
Readiness Ribbon, National Defense, Vietnam Service Ribbon, Reserve, ani 
Expert Marksman Medals). 

Religious Activities: Member, Refuge Baptist Church. 

The Legislative Branch 397 

Family: Married, Carolyn King of Brevard. Children: Scott, Chris, Ron 
and Seth. 


Vice-Chairman: Congressional Redistricting. 

Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Human Resources; Courts, 
'Justice, Constitutional Amendments & Referenda; Ethics; Judiciary I; Legisla- 
Itive & Local Redistricting. 


North Carolina Manual 

John Wayne Kahl 

(Democrat — Iredell County) 

Forty-second Representative District —Iredell 

Early Years: Born in North Wilkes- 
boro, Wilkes County, May 31, 1963, to 
Albert C. J. (Deceased) and Faye Nichol- 
son Kahl. 

Education: North Iredell High, 1982; 
Mitchell Community College, A.S., Crimi- 
nal Justice, 1984. 

Professional Background: Realtor, 
Century 21; Owner and Operator, Wayne 
Kahl's Tours. 

Organizations: Member, Iredell County Board of Realtors; Grassy Knob 
Masonic Lodge #471, Senior Warden; Scottish Rite of Freemasonry S.J., 
Valley of Charlotte, NC 32; New Hope-Iredell Ruritan Club, Past President, 
1984, 1988 and 1989; Union Grove Recreation Club, President, 1989-90; 
Wilkes-Iredell Volunteer Fire Dept. Fund Raising Committee; Iredell County 
Youth Services, Member, 1989-90; New Hope Boy Scouts Troop 618, Asst. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
present; New Hope Democrat Precinct, Secretary. 

Awards and Honors: Ruritan of the Year Award, 1985 and 1988. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mt. Pisgah Baptist Church; Sunday 
School Teacher, 1984 and 1989; Co-Sunday School Supt., 1983; Bible School 
Director, 1981-84. 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Environment, Health and 
Natural Resources; Environment — Subcommittee on Hazardous Waste; 
Local and Regional Government II; State Government — Subcommittee on 
State Parks, Facilities and Property; Transportation — Subcommittee on 
Airports, Railways and Waterways. 

The Legislative Branch 


Annie Brown Kennedy 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 

Sixty-sixth Representative District - Forsyth 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Atlanta, 
Georgia, October 13, 1924, to Mancy 
(deceased) and Mary Louise (Sheats) 

Education: David T. Howard Ele- 
mentary and Junior High Schools, 1930- 
38; Booker T. Washington High School, 
1983-41; Spelman College, 1945, A.B. 
(Economics); Howard University School 
of Law, 1951, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney (firm of Kennedy, Kennedy, 
Kennedy & Kennedy). 

Organizations: Forsyth County (former President), NC and National 
Bar Associations; Forsyth County Association of Women Attorneys; NC 
Academy of Trial Lawyers; NC Association of Black Attorneys; Altrusa 
Club of Winston-Salem (President, 1979-80); YWCA (former Director); 
NAACP; Women's Forum of NC; former member, League of Women Voters; 
United Way of Forsyth County, 1972-77, 1979-83. 

Boards: County Morehead Scholarship Selection Committee; Clinical 
Research Practices Committee, Bowman Gray School of Medicine; National 
Council of Negro Women; Director, Winston-Salem State University Founda- 
tion, Inc.; Board of Visitors, UNC-Chapel Hill; local Director, Southern 
National Bank; Advisory Board, Amercian Federal Savings & Loan Associa- 
jtion of Greensboro; NC Criminal Code Commission; Former member, 
'Winston-Salem Bicentennial Commission; former Director; Winston-Salem 
jHousing Foundation, Legal Aid Society of Forsyth County and Forsyth 
jTuberculosis Association; Member, NC General Statues Commissions; NC 
(Human Relations Council; County and District Morehead Scholarship 
(Selection Committee. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 
i]1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; Joint Legislative Ethics Committee; Demo- 
cratic Women of Forsyth County, 1964-(President, 1970-71); NC Executive 
iCommittee; delegate. Democratic National Convention, 1984 & 1988 (alter- 
|nate delegate, 1972); Presidential and Vice Presidential Democratic Elector, 
jl976; NC Commission on the Status of Women, 1964; NC General Statutes 

Honors: Distinguished Leadership Award by N.C. A&T State University, 
^988; Winston-Salem Chronicle Newspaper Woman of the Year, 1989; 
Distinguished Service Award by the Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Emanci- 
Ipation Association, 1990; Pioneer African-American Female Attorney Award, 
NC Association of Black Lawyers, 1990; Distinguished Alumni Leadership, 

400 North Carolina Manual 

National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, 1984; 
Outstanding Business Woman of the Year, Iota Phi Phi, 1981; Citizen of the 
Year, Omega Psi Phi, 1979. Distinguished Citizen Award, Sophisticated 
Gents; Pioneer Black Legislative Award, Coalition for Progressive Legisla- 
tion, 1985; The Larry Shaw Award for Outstanding Service, N.C. Association 
of Minority Business, 1985; The Kelly M. Alexander Award for Outstanding, 
Loyal and Dedicated Service, National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People, 1986; Outstanding Achievement Award, N.C. Asosciation of 
Women Attorneys. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Board of Trustees, 

Family: Married, Harold L. Kennedy, Jr., December 23, 1950. Children: 
Harold L., HI, Harvey L. and Michael D. 


Chairman: Economic Expansion — Subcommittee on Labor Relations 
and Employment; Judiciary L 

Vice Chairman: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and 

Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Human Resources; Ethics; 
Legislative and Local Redistricting. 

The Legislative Branch 


John Hosea Kerr, III 

(Democrat - Wayne County) 

Eleventh Representative District - Wayne 

Early Years: Born in Richmond, 
Virginia, February 28, 1936, to John H. 
and Mary Hinton (Duke) Kerr, Jr. 

Education: John Graham High School, 
1954; University of North Carolina, A.B., 
1958; University of North Carolina, J.D. 
with Honors, 1961. 

Professional Background: Attorney, 
Partner in Warren, Kerr, Walston and 
Hollowell; N.C. Bar Association; N.C. 

State Bar; Wayne County Bar Association; Eighth Judicial Bar Association, 

iPast President; Lawyers of N.C, Inc., Past President. 

Organizations: Goldsboro Rotary Club; Wayne County Chamber of Com- 
merce; Goldsboro Jaycees, 1962-71, Vice President; Wayne County Public 
Library Trustees, 1966-78, Chairman; Wayne County Chapter American Red 
Cross, Chairman. 

Boards: Southern National Bank of N.C; Goldsboro Advisory Board, 
illhairman, 1979-80; Wayne County Boys Club; Morehead Foundation, 
District II Committee; Wayne County Community Building Trustees, Past 
Chairman; N.C. National Bank; Goldsboro Advisory Board, Past Chairman. 

j Political Activities: N.C. House Representative; Wayne County Demo- 
'^ratic Executive Committee, Chairman, 1980-85, Precinct Chairman; Wayne 
County Young Democrats, Past President. 

j Military: Served, N.C. National Guard, Sergeant, 1954-62. 

, Honors: Goldsboro Charter Chapter American Business Women; Boss of 
jhe Year, 1978; Jaycee Key Man Award; Phi Beta Kappa; Order of Coif; 
jlecipient of Bob Futrelle Good Government Award, Wayne County. 1989. 

Religious Activities: Member, Madison Avenue Baptist Church; Past 
Member, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Sandra Edgerton Kerr of Goldsboro, December 21, 1960. 
hildren: John and James. 



Chairman: Finance — Subcommittee on State Revenues. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary III; Public Utilities. 

Member: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and Referenda; 
Environment — Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil. 

402 North Carolina Manual 

Marty E. Kimsey 

(Republican - Macon County) 

Fifty-Third Representative District - Macon 

Early Years: Born in Franklin, Macon 
County, September 9, 1958, to Harold 
Martin and Caroline (Reece) Kimsey. 

Education: Franklin High School,; 
1976; Hiawassee Junior college; South; 
Western Technical College; Western Caro- 
lina University. 

Professional Background: Real 
Estate Owner - Kimsey & Company 

Organizations: Member, Franklin Board of Realtors (Vice President, 
1984, President, 1985); Member, Franklin Chamber of Commerce, (Director,! 
1985); Member, NC Association of Realtors, (State Director, 1985-1986);, 
Member, Franklin Jaycees (Director, Secretary, 1984-85); Franklin Optimists 

Boards: Member, Macon County Economic Development Commission,| 
1986-1989; Former member, Macon County Board of Elections, 1985-86. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- ; 
Former member, Macon County Republican Mens Club, 1984-. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Franklin. 

Family: Married, Jane Cansler, May 22, 1982. Children: Sarah, and 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Transportation; Environ- 
ment — Subcommittee on Solid Waste; Human Resources — Subcommittee 
on Aging; Public Employees. , 

The Legislative Branch 


William Widmire Le>vis 

(Republican — Wilson County) 

Seventy-first Representative District —Wilson 

Early Years: Born in Fremont, 
Wayne County, July 31, 1929, to Lionel 
Widmire and Eulah Davis Lewis. 

Education: Eureka School, 1948; 
Atlantic Christian College, B.S., History 
& P.E., 1959; East Carolina University, 
M.A., Adm., 1962. 

Professional Background: Teacher 
and Principal, Wayne County and Wilson 
County Schools. 

Organizations: President, Wilson County Principals Association, 1974; 
CASA-AASA-NCAE; Rural Fireman; Ruritan, Gideon. 

I Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 

Military Services: Army, 7 Army, SPC II, 1954-56, European. 

Religious Activities: Member, Daniels Chapel; Board of Deacons; Sunday 
chool Teacher; Superintendent, Mt. Nelson Eureka and Daniels Chapel. 

i Family: Married, Sarah Tart of Goldsboro, October 4, 1952. Children: 
/illiam Clay and James Tart. 


Member: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and Referenda; 
ducation — Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary and Secondary 
ducation; Finance — Subcommittee on Local and Regional Government 
evenue; Public Employees; Transportation — Subcommittee on Airports, 
ailways and Waterways. 


North Carolina Manual 

Bradford Verdize Ligon 

(Republican - Rowan County) 

Thirty-fifth Representative District - Rowan 

Early Years: Born in Buffalo, South 
Carolina, January 17, 1922, to William 
H. Ligon and Lola (Collins) Ligon. 

Education: Union High School, 1940; 
Medical University of South Carolina, 
College of Pharmacy, 1950, B.S. (Phar- 

Professional Background: Pharma- 
cist, (Retired). 

Organizations: NC Pharmacy Associa- 
tion; Piedmont Pharmacy Association; Andrew Jackson Masonic Lodge; 
American Legion, Harold B. Jarrett Post; Veterans of Foreign Wars. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-; Rowan County Commissioner, 1979-80. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corp, 1942-45 (Corporal). 

Religious Activities: Member, New Hope Baptist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher, Adult Class; former Deacon. 

Family: Married, Jemelle Huckabee, January 20, 1945. Children: Bradford 
Gene and Michael Dennis. 


Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Forestry, Horticulture and Wild- 
life; Finance — Subcommittee on State Revenue; Human Resources — Sub-( 
committee on Health and Mental Health; Pensions and Retirement. 

The Legislative Branch 


Daniel T. Lilley 

(Democrat - Lenoir County) 

Third Representative District - Craven, Lenoir 
and Pamlico Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Martin County, 
August 15, 1920, to Alfred Tom and Ethel 
Grace (Gurkin) Lilley (both 

Education: Farm Life High 
School; Spartan School of Aero- 
nautics; School of Flight (airline main- 
tenance course); College of Life Under- 
writers, 1967, C.L.U. 

Professional Background: Life 
isurance salesman (Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company) (Retired). 

f Organizations: Lenoir County Life Underwriters Association; Kinston 
'^otary Club; Paul Harris Fellow; Former President, Kinston Junior Chamber 
f Commerce; Member, Lenoir County Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: Greene Lamp, Inc.; Fiscal Affairs and Oversight standing com- 
littee of the Assembly on the Legislature. Member, State Aeronautics 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1969- (12 
■rms); Commissioner, Lenoir County, 1964-68. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Air Force, 6 years (Colonel); World War II; 
.S. Air Force Reserve; Meritorious Service Award, 1980. 

1 Honors: National Quality Award, National Association of Life Under- 
jriters, 1985; Governor's Award (Conservation Legislator of the Year), N.C. 
rildlife Federation, 1975; Citizen of the Year, Kinston Chamber of Com- 
merce; 1963; Distinguished Service Award, Kinston Junior Chamber of 
lommerce, 1954. 

I Religious Activities: Member, Northwest Christian Church, Kinston; 

Family: Married, Jean Hites of McPherson, Kansas, July 7, 1944. Chil- 
}fen: Eileen and Dan, Jr. 


Chairman: Finance Subcommittee on Ways and Means. 

[Member: Agriculture Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandry; 
ransportation Subcommittee on Airports, Railways and Waterways; State 
pvernment Subcommittee on Military, Veterans and Indian Affairs; Local 
'lid Regional Government II. 


Albert S. Lineberry, Sr. 

(Democrat - Guilford County) 

Twenty-seventh Representative District - 
Guilford (part) County , 

Early Years: Born in Memphis,! 
Tennessee, April 13, 1918. j 

Education: Cumberland Universityj 
Army Air School; Gupton-Jones College; 
of Mortuary Law and Science; National 
Foundation School of Management! 
Evanston, Illinois; Associate member! 
Thanatology Department, Columbia Uniil 
versify; Certified Member of the CoUegfi 
of Funeral Service Practice; Member! 
Board of Center Association, Center for Creative Leadership. 

Professional Background: Chairman of the Board, Hanes-Lineberrj 
Funeral Service; Chairman of Board, Gaines Corporation; Member of tht 
Board, First Home Federal Bank of North Carolina; Partner, J.A.S.Ej 
Properties; Board Member, Boren Clay Products Company (served for eI 
number of years); Board Member, First Union National Bank, Greensborc' 
(served for a number of years); Board Member, United Family Life Insurance 
Company, Atlanta (served for a number of years); International Board o; 
Directors, The Logwe Group & U.S.A. & Canada (Present). I 

Organizations: Wake Forest Deacon's Club; Greensboro Sport Council 
A.M.F.M. PP Turner Lodge 746; Eastern Star; White Shrine; Shrine Oasis 
Temple; Scottish Rite Bodies (32nd, KCCH Degrees); Greensboro Countrji 
Club; Roaring Gap Country Club; Director, Greensboro City Club; Memberi 
Rhododendron Royal Brigade of Guards (Asheville); Life Member, YMCA 
President, Greensboro Symphony Orchestra; North Carolina Congress o 
Parents and Teachers; Chamber of Commerce (Past President); Boy Scout"! 
of America National Advisory Board; Executive Committee of General 
Greene Council (past President); International of NSM; National Chairman 
Association of Baptist for Scouting, (6 years); Member, Rules and Regula, 
tions on Liquor By the Drink in North Carolina, Governor's Commission, 
Member 1986, Seniors Challenge Masters Cup, National Golf Tournamentj 
Executive Committee, Southern Legislative Conference Committee of Ecc| 
nomic Development, Trade, and Commerce; Chairman, U.S. Naturalizatioii 
Committee; Greensboro. Board of Directors, American Cancer Society 
Member, Board of Directors, Blandwood Historical Association; Presidenlj 
Greensboro Kiwanis Club; Lieutenant Governor, Kiwanis Internationalj 
Local Chapter, served as President, National Conference of Christians am 
Jews; President, National Selected Morticians International; Chairmars 
N.C. for Guilford County, Operation 2000, Government Committee; Membei' 
N.C. Economic Development Board; Member, Board of Directors, Unite' 
Community Service of Greensboro; United Way of Greater Greensboro. 

The Legislative Branch 407 

Boards: Board of Visitors of Wake Forest University; Board of Visitors of 
}uilford College; Trustee, Greensboro College; Director, Greater Greensboro 
foundation; Past Chairman, Greensboro City School Systems; Trustee, 
Vingate College; Past Chairman, Greensboro War Memorial Foundation; 
'resident, C.I.B. Consumer Information Bureau, Evanston, IL.; Member, 
Economic Development Commission of the Dept. of Commerce; Member, 
Joard of NC Rural Economics Development Corp. Center Inc. 

' Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
987-88, 1989-. 

' Military Service: Served, U.S. Army Air Corps World War II, Air Pilot. 

i Honors: Greensboro Business Leader Hall of Fame, 1984; Lineberry- 
\dams Award Southeast Seminary, 1982; Uncle Joe Cannon Award & 
)istinguished Citizens Award, Greensboro Chamber of Commerce; Silver 
leaver and Silver Antelope Awards, Boy Scouts of America; Outstanding 
/itizen Award from Greensboro Inter Club Council; Boss of the Year, Dolly 
ladison Chapter, American Business Women, 1974; Outstanding Citizen, 
National Conference of Christians and Jews, 1972; Book of Golden Deed 
iward. Exchange Club, 1969; Man of the Year, Asheville, 1949; Honorary 
)egree, Guilford Technical Community College. 33° Scottish Rite Bodies. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Chairman of the 
ioard of Deacons; Departmental Superintendent, Finance Committee; Chair- 
lan and Charter Member, Developmental Council, Southeastern Seminary; 
I'resident's Cabinet, Pan-American Union of Baptist Men; Vice President, 
outhern Baptist North Carolina Convention; Director, Bill Glass Evange- 
stic Association. 

; Family: Married Helen Howerton. Five Children. 



' Chairman: Economic Expansion — Subcommittee on Small Business. 

j Vice-Chairman: Ethics. 

Member: Finance — Subcommittee on Way and Means; Local and 
i-egional Government II; Public Utilities; Transportation — Subcommittee 
jti Highways. 


408 North Carolina Manual 

The Legislative Branch 


H. Clayton Loflin 

(Republican - Union County) 

Thirty-Fourth Representative District -Union, 
Stanly and Cabarrus Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Thomasville, 
Davidson County, September 23, 1943, to 
John Ray and Gertrude (Carr) Loflin. 

Education: Thomasville High School, 
1962; Attended High Point and Guilford 
Colleges, 1962-64; School of Mortgage 
Banking, Northwestern University, 1964- 

Professional Background: Owner 
and Manager, Feed Ingredient Broker- 
age. C of C Concord, Cabarrus. 

Organizations: Monroe/Union County Chamber of Commerce; Chamber 
of Commerce, Concord/Cabarrus; Duck Unlimited; Former member. Rotary 
Club, Jaycees and United Way; Former coach, T-Ball, Little League Baseball, 
Football, Babe Ruth Baseball and Senior High Church Basketball; Carolina's 
Feed Industry Association, (President, 1974-1986); NC Home Builders Associa- 
tion; Wildlife Federation, A.L.E.C. 

Boards: Advisory Council, NC State University Agricultural Institute; 
Board of Directors, NC Poultry Federation. Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basin 

; Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989-1991; 
'Chairman, Union County Jim Martin Committee, 1984-; Chairman, Union 
iCounty Republican Party (2 terms). 

j Awards & Honors: Spoke Award, 1965 (US Junior Chamber of Com- 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Monroe; 
'Former Sunday school teacher and activities coach. 

j Family: Married, Peggy McNeal, April 6, 1963. Children:Mark Clayton 
'land Bradley Carr. 


Vice-Chairman: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Crops and Animal 

Member: Environment — Subcommittee on Solid Waste; Finance — 
jSubcommittee on Ways and Means; Legislative and Local Redistricting; 
^Transportation — Subcommittee on Airports, Railways, and Waterways. 


North Carolina Manual 

Paul Luebke 

(Democrat - Durham County) 
Twenty-third Representative District - 
Durham County 

Early Years: Born in Chicago, II., 
Cook County, January 18, 1946 to i 
Paul T. and Eunice (Elbert) Luebke. | 

Education: German Embassy 
School, Ankara, Turkey, 1959-62; 
Valparaiso University, B.A., 1966; 
Columbia University, Ph.D., 1975. 

Professional Background: Associate 
Professor of Sociology, UNC-G, 1982- 
present; Visiting Scholar, Department 
of Sociology, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1986-87; Assistant Professor of Sociology, 
UNC-Greensboro, 1976-82; Visiting Scholar, Department of Sociology, UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1979-80; Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology, UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1975-76; Instructor and Assistant Professor of Sociology, Tougaloo 
College, Tougaloo, Mississippi, 1971-75. 

Boards: Member, Board of Editors, Perspectives on the American South: 
An Annual Review of Society, Politics and Culture; Member, Board of 
Editors, Research in Political Sociology; Member, Board of Editors, Election 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1991- ; 
Democratic State Executive Committee, 1985 - . 

Religion: Lutheran 

Family: Children: Son, Theo. 


Member: Subcommittee on University Education and Affairs; 

Subcommittee on Solid Waste; Subcommittee on State Revenue; 

Subcommittee on Health and Mental Health, Science and 

Technology; Subcommittee on Public Transportation. 

The Legislative Branch 



Edith Ledford Lutz 

(Democrat - Cleveland County) 

Forty-eighth Representative District - 
Cleveland, Polk, and Rutherford Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Lawndale, 
Cleveland County, October 20, 1914, to 
Thomas Curtis and Annie (Hoyle) Led- 

Education: Belwood High School. 

Professional Background: Farmer 
and fruit grower. 

Organizations: Director, Cleveland 
County Farm Bureau; Director, Upper 
Cleveland County Chamber of Com- 

nerce; NC Apple Growers' Association; Sheltered Workshops of Rutherford 

bounty; American Association of Business Women. 

Boards: Southern Legislative Conference; Mental Health Study Commis- 
■ion; Agriculture, Forestry and Seafood Awareness Study Commission; Fact 
'""inding Agriculture Study Commission; Adoption Study Commission; 
^roperty Tax Study Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1976, 1977- 
8, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Honors: Who's Who of American Women; "Farm Woman of the Year," 
Southwestern District; Times "Woman of the Year". 

; Religious Activities: Member, Kadish Methodist Church; Sunday School 
feacher; Treasurer, Women's Organization; counselor, Youth Fellowship. 

Family: Married, M. Everett Lutz, October 25, 1933. Children: E.Jacob. 


I Chairman: Local and Regional Government H. 

' Vice Chairman: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Forestry, Horticulture 
,nd Wildlife. 

Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on General Government; 
luman Resources — Subcommittee on Health and Mental Health; Pensions 
nd Retirement. 


North Carolina Manual 

Mary E. McAllister 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

Seventeenth Representative District — 
Cumberland County 

Early Years: Born in Johns Station, 
Robeson County, April 20, 1937, to 
Alexander and Mary (Benton)j 

McLaurin. ! 


Education: E. E. Smith Senior High j 
School, Fayetteville, N.C., 1954; Fayette- 
ville State University, 1958, (B.S. in Ele-j 
mentary Education); East Carolina Uni-i 
versity, (M.S. Education Administration j 
and Supervision); New York University, j 
N.Y./Wayne State University, MI, 20 SH, Early Childhood Education. 

Professional Background: Administrator, Operation Sickle Cell, Inc., ' 
Fayetteville, N.C., 1975-; Educator, Fayetteville City Schools, Cumberland! 
County Schools, Harnett County Schools and Warren County Schools ofj 
North Carolina and Detroit Public Schools, Michigan. 

Organizations: Member, National Institute of Health; National Associa- 
tion of Black County Officials, Southern Regional Director; Chairman, NC 
State Governor's Council on Sickle Cell Syndrome; National Fayetteville 
State Alumni Association; National Fayetteville State Alumni Association, 
Fayetteville Chapter; N.A.A.C.P.; Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. 

Boards, Committees: Board member, Cumberland County Commis- 
sioners, 1980-88; County liaison — Social Services Board, Board of Health 
and Economic Development Board; Chairman, Primary Care/Prevention i 
and Mental Health Subcommtitee (NACO); Chairman, Mount Sinai Homes, 
Inc.; National Advisory Council for the Chronically Mentally 111 Project; 
National Association for Sickle Cell Disease, Inc.; City/County Liaison 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1991-92;j 
twice elected to Cumberland County Commissioners. 

Honors and Aw^ards: Human Relations Award, City of Fayetteville; The, 
Fannie Black Award, Business and Professional Women's Club, Fayetteville,! 
NC; N.A.F.E.O. Award for Outstanding Fayetteville State University 
Alumni; Citizen of the Year, 1983, Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Fayetteville,! 
NC; Achievement Award, Mount Sinai Baptist Church, Fayetteville, NC; 
Dept/McALLISTER HUMAN RELATIONS AWARD presented annually tcj 
deserving citizens by Human Relations Department, Fayetteville, NC. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mount Sinai Baptist Church, Fayetteville 
NC — pianist and church organist. 

Family: Married, Freddie D. McAlhster, December 23, 1961. 
Shanda Lavie and Delvin Shadel. 


The Legislative Branch 413 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Transportation: Commerce 
,- Subcommittee on Financial Institutions; Education — Subcommittee on 
re-School, Elementary and Secondary Education; Human Resources — 
ibcommittee on Children, Youth, and Families; Local and Regional Govern- 
'ent I; Rules, Appointments, and Calendar. 


North Carolina Manual 

Edward Lew^is McGee 

(Democrat — Edgecombe and Nash 

Seventy-second Representative District — 
Edgecombe & Nash County 

Early Years: Born in Raleigh 
September 7, 1922, to Laucy and Esthe 
Yates McGee. 

Education: Hamlet High, 1941; UNC 
Chapel Hill, B.A., Physical Education 


Professional Background: Publi 
Affairs, Carolina Telephone and Teh 
graph Company. 

Organizations: Public Relations Society of America; Armed Forces Coir! 
munications Electronics Association; Lions Club; Kiwanis; AARP, Chapte 
President; American Lung Association; NC Wesleyan College for a Daj 
(fundraising); Cancer Drive; Clean-Clean Team (Keep America Beautifulj 

Boards and Commissions: Nash General Hospital Board of Commi^j 
sioners. Vice Chairman; Area L. AHEC; East Carolina Boy Scouts cj i 
America, Executive Council | 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 199!' 

Military Services: Army, 503rd, Sgt., 1942-45, Pacific. 

Awards and Honors: Purple Heart Award; Silver Beaver, 1-87; Boss ( 
the Year, 1990; Volunteer of the Year, Nash County, 1984; Volunteer of th| 
Year, Edgecombe County, 1990. I 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian; Deacon, 1980-82. 

Family: Married, Josephine Griffin of Bailey, June 23, 1951. Childrei 
Michael, Patrick and David. 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Justice and Public Safetv- 
Environment — Subcommittee on Solid Waste; Ethics; Judiciary III; Tranj 
portation — Subcommittee on Highways. 

The Legislative Branch 


John Bell McLaughlin 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

Fifty-fourth Representative District - 
Mecklenburg (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Mecklenburg 
County, September 1, 1925, to John and 
Maude (Utley) McLaughlin. 

Education: Newell Public Schools. 

Professional Background: Retired 
(former postmaster, farmer, merchant and 

Organizations: American Legion Post 
287; Newell - UNC-Charlotte Lions Club. 

Boards: Former member, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, (10 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
187-88, 1989-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1950-52 (Corporal). 

Religious Activities: Member, Back Creek Associate Reformed Presby- 
t'ian Church; Elder. 

E^amily: Married, Margaret Alexander of Mecklenburg County, June 20, 
154. Three children. 


Co-Chairman: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Transportation. 

/ice-Chairman: Local and Regional Government II; Transportation — 
^jbcommittee on Public Transportation. 

Hember: Commerce — Subcommittee on Insurance; Congressional Re- 
djtricting; Judiciary II. 


North Carolina Manual 

Charles L. McLawhorn 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

Ninth Representative District — Pitt County 

Early Years: Born in Winterville, Pitt 
County, North Carolina, July 13, 1927, to 
R.H. and Janie (Tyson) McLawhorn. 

Education: Ayden High School 
Ayden, North Carolina, 1944; Oak Ridge 
Military School, 1944; North Carolina 
State University. 

Professional Background: Formei 
self-employed businessman. 

Organizations: The Pitt-Greenvill' 
Airport Authority; American Dairy Association-Treasurer; East Caroline! 
Producers Association-President; South Pitt Development Corporation; Pitlj 
County Farm Bureau; East Carolina University Pirate Club; The Jaycees 
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP); The American Legion. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, State Board of Agriculture Stabili; 
zation and Conservation Committee; Farm Bureau Dairy Service Com 
mittee; President and board member — North Carolina Dairy Foundation! 
North Carolina Milk Commission; Pitt County Development Commission 
Pitt County Board of Health; Board of Visitors, Diabetes Center, ECl! 
School of Medicine; Greene County Committee of 100; Coastal Plains Develop' 
ment Commission; Pamlico-Tar River F'oundation — Member, Board of Di 
rectors of: First National Bank in Ayden, Planters National Bank of Ayden! 
East Carolina Vocational Center, Pitt-Greenville Chamber of Commerce 
Ayden Chamber of Commerce and Grifton Chamber of Commerce. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1991-92| 
two-term Pitt County Commissioner; member. North Carolina Association o] 
County Commissioners and the National Association of County Commis'* 
sioners; Pitt County Young Democrats (President); Pitt County Democrati 
Party (Treasurer) and State Democratic Executive Committee. 

Military: US Navy (WWII). 

Religious Activities: Member, Bethany Free Will Baptist Churcli 
(Sunday School Superintendent). 

Family: Married, Brownie Dail, November 28, 1946. Children: Charles' 
Jr., Leon Dail and Stephen. 


Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandr} 
Environment — Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil; Finance — Sull 
committee on Local and Regional Government Revenue; Human Resource 
— Subcommittee on Children, Youth, and Families; Public Employees. 

The Legislative Branch 


Josephus Lyman Mavretic 

(Democrat - Edgecombe County) 

Eighth Representative District - Edgecombe 
(part) and Nash (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Powells Point, 
Currituck County, July 29, 1934, to 
Joseph M. (deceased) and Virginia 
(Bateman) Mavretic. 

Education: New Bern High School; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1956, A.B. (English); 
George Washington University, 1972, 
M.S. (Political Science, International Af- 
fairs); Naval War College, distinguished 
graduate, 1972. 

i^rofessional Background: Retired military officer. 

Organizations: Rotary Club of Tarboro; Retired Officers Association; 
Aierican Legion Post 58; Marine Corps Aviation Association; Director, 
E^ecombe County chapter, American Red Cross; Phi Gamma Delta; Loyal 
Oler of the Moose; Scouting Coordinator, Cub Scout Pack 96; Director, 
Aerican Cancer Society (NC division); Director, Edgecombe County His- 
tc c Preservation Fund; Director, NC Museum of History Associates. 

boards: Director, NC Council on Alcoholism; Steering Committee, NC 
Eicational Policy Seminars; former Chairman, Laurel Bay School Board; 
foner Director, First Carolina Bank. 

;olitieal Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1980 (ap- 
p()ited to fill vacancy created by resignation of James Ezzell), 1981-82, 
lS,3-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989 (elected Speaker January 11, 1989.) 

plitary Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1956-77 (Lieutenant Colonel); 
3C' combat missions in Vietnam; 3000 flight hours in fighter aircraft; 
Bitnze Star with Combat "V". 

ieligious Activities: Member, St. James United Methodist Church; 
(P'sident, Methodist Men's Club, 1981; Administrative Board, 1981; Finance 
Camittee, 1980.) 

amily: Married, Laura Kranifeld, of Greenville, Tennessee, June, 1988. 
did: Michael. 


airman: State Government. 

ice-Chairman: Environment — Subcommittee on Solid Waste. 

lember: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Aquaculture and Marine Fish- 
eri); Finance — Subcommittee on State Revenue; Public Utilities. 

418 North Carolina Manual 

Leo Mercer 

(Democrat - Columbus County) 

Fifteenth Representative District -Columbus 

Early Years: Born in Chadbourn 

Columbus County, March 20, 1926, tc 

Bailey and Lottie (Hinson) Mercer. 

Education: Chadbourn High School 

1943 I 

Professional Background: Retiree 
Postmaster; Mercer - Worthingtor 
Funeral Home; President, Mercer - Worth 
ington Mutual Burial Association 

Organizations: Member, Columbus County Committee of 100; N( 
Chapter of National Association of Postmasters in the US (President, 1975) 
Former Master, Chadbourn Masonic Lodge 607; 32 Degree Scotish Rit 
Mason; PTA (Former President); Chadbourn Civitan Club, (Former Presideni 
and Secretary); Chadbourn Merchants Association (Former President). 

Boards: Member, Southeastern Economic Development Commissionj 
Former member, Chadbourn School Board; Former member, Westsid 
School Board; Columbus County Board of Education (Chairman, 1986-87; j 
terms). ' 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- i 
Mayor, Chadbourn, (5 terms); Columbus County School Board. ! 

Honors: NC Postmaster of the year, 1978. 

Military Service: Served, Navy, 1943. 

Religious Activities: Member, Chadbourn Baptist Church; Former supei 
intendent, Sunday School; served, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Helen Irene Bullard, April 25, 1943. Children:Kennet, 
Leo, Kipling Sherrill, and Gwendolyn (Mercer) Houser. I 


Chairman: State Government — Subcommittee on Military, Veteran.' 
and Indian Affairs. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Crops and AnimJ 

Member: Ethics; Finance, State Revenue; Pensions and Retirement; Trari; 
portation, Airports, Railways and Waterways. 

The Legislative Branch 


Henry M. Michaux, Jr. 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Twenty-third Representative District - 
Durham (part) County. 

Early Years: Bom in Durham, Durham 
County, September 4, 1930, to Henry 
McKinley and Isadore (Coates) Michaux, 

Education: Palmer Memorial Insti- 
tute, 1948; NC Central University, 1952, 
B.S.; NC Central University, School of 
Law, 1964, J.D.; Rutgers University and 
NC Central University, graduate 

Professional Background: Attorney and business executive (Executive 
\ce President and Director: Union Insurance and Realty Company; Glenview 
lemorial Park, Inc.; Washington Terrace Apartments, Inc.; Terrace 
Jsurance and Realty Company). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and National Bar Associations; NC As- 
sciation of Black Lawyers; George H. White Bar Association; National 
iisociation of Real Estate Brokers (General Counsel, 1966-77). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 
175-76, 1977, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. Speaker, Democratic Convention, 1984; 
liited States Attorney, Middle District of N.C., 1977-1981, Delegate, Demo- 
(itic Convention, 1976; District Solicitor, 1969. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1952-54; Reserves, 1954-60 (Ser- 

flonors: Honorary Doctor of Law, NC Central University and Durham 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Joseph's AME Church, Durham; 
kRward Board. 

Family: Children: Jocelyn (Winston) Simeon. 


Chairman: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and Referenda. 

vice-Chairman: Congressional Redistricting; Rules, Appointments and 


flember: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Education); Economic Ex- 
pnsion (Subcommittee on Labor Relations and Employment); Education, 
(iiibcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary and Secondary Education); Judi- 
c'ry 11. 


North Carolina Manual 

George W. Miller, Jr. 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Sixty-ninth Representative District - Durham 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Spencer, Rowan 
County, May 14, 1930, to George W. anc 
Blanche M. (Iddings) Miller. 

Education: Spencer Elementary anc 
High School, 1936-48; UNC-Chapel Hill 
B.S. (Business Administration); UNC 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1954-57 

Professional Background: Attorne; 
(firm of Haywood, Denny & Miller). 

Organizations: Durham County, NC and American Bar Associations 
International Association of Insurance Counsels; Phi Alpha Delta; Sertom; 

Boards: Board of Visitors, NC Central University School of Law; Utilit; 
Review Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 197c- 
74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; 1989-; N( 
Young Democrats Club (President, 1964-65). 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1951-53 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Duke Memorial Methodist Church 
Durham; former Chairman, Duke Memorial Week Day School Committecij 
former member. Official Board. 

Family: Married, Eula Hux, June 21, 1958. Children: Elizabeth Anrj 
Blanche Rose and George, III. 


Co-Chairman: Finance. 

Member: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and Referend; 
Education (Subcommittee on University Education and Affairs); Environ 
ment (Subcommittee on Solid Waste); Judiciary II. 

The Legislative Branch 


Richard Timothy Morgan 

(Republican - Moore County) 

Thirty-first Representative District - Moore 

Early Years: Born in Southern Pines, 
Moore County, July 12, 1952, to 
Alexander (Deceased) and Mary 
Katherine Crain Morgan. 

Education: Pinecrest High School, 
1970; Sandhills Community College, 
A.A., Liberal Arts, 1972; UNC, Chapel 
Hill, B.A., Pohtical Science, 1974. 

Professional Background: Owner, 
Ichard T. Morgan & Associates; General Agent, Chubb Insurance Group; 
ipgistered Representative, District Manager, Chubb Securities Corporation; 
imtheastern Insurance Institute Certification, UNC, Greensboro School of 
^^siness and Economics; Licensed by the NC Dept. of Insurance for Life, 
.pcident & Health, and Property & Casualty Insurance; Licensed by the 
jational Association of Securities Dealers (NASD); Licensed by the N.C. 
^^1 Estate Licensing Board as a Real Estate Broker; Business Insurance 
fortification; Personal Insurance Certification; Diploma in Life Insurance 

Organizations: Life Underwriter Training Council (LUIC); Professional 
^jsurance Agents Association; Carolinas Association of Professional In- 
ijrance Agents; Independent Insurance Agents Association of America; 
!;dependent Insurance Agents Association of America; Independent In- 
f'rance Agents Association of NC; National Association of Life Under- 
'jiters; Sandhills Association of Life Underwriters; Sandhills Area Chamber 
(j Commerce; Chairman, Moore County Capital Drive for Boy Scouts of 
jjnerica; Chairman, Kiwanis Club of the Sandhills Charity Committee; 
<|iairman. Red Overton Kiwanis Charity Horse Show; Chairman, United 
^ay; Chairman, Cystic Fibrosis Radiothon; Lt. Governor, Circle K. Club; 
tonorary Member, Sandhills Circle K. Club; Board of Directors, Kiwanis 
Cub of the Sandhills; Board of Directors, Southern Pines Jaycees; Member, 
1 wanis Club of the Sandhills; Member, Southern Pines Jaycees; Member, 
l^ndhills Arts Council; Member, North Carolina Art Museum; Member, 
Inehurst Country Club; Member, Pinecrest High School Patriot Club; 
lember North Carolina Mental Health Association; Member, Drug-Free 
bore County, Inc.; Member, Miss Moore County Pageant Association. 

'Boards and Commissions: Chairman, First Moore County Drug Task 
Ijrce; Member, Moore County Drug Task Force; Chairman, Moore County 
Isurance Review Committee; Member, North Carolina Council on Status of 
^jbmen; Member, North Carolina Council on Juvenile Justice and De- 
Ij.quency Prevention. 


422 North Carolina Manual 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991 
present; Republican Nominee, NC Insurance Commissioner, 1984; Republi 
can Nominee, NC House of Representatives, 1976, 1980, 1990; Chairman 
Moore County Young Republicans; Chairman, Pinehurst Precinct, Moord 
County Republican Party; Chairman, Blake for Congress Campaign, 1984 j 
National Advisory Committee, Helms for Senate; Sustaining Member, Com 
mittee of 250, NC Republican Party; Sustaining Member, Committee of 500 i 
Republican National Committee; Field Advance, Reagan/Bush Campaigrj 
Committee and President Ford Campaign Committee. 

Awards and Honors: Outstanding Young Men in North Carolina, 1991;: 
Distinguished Service Award, 1991; Outstanding Young Men in America' 
1976, 1977, 1979, 1980 and 1981 editions; Personalities of the South, 1977; 
Community Leaders and Noteworthy Americans, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, Community Presbyterian Church of Pine 

Family: Married, Cynthia Sue Richardson of Carthage, May 28, 1988. 


Member: Economic Expansion (Subcomittee on Travel, Tourism, an(; 
Economic Development); Finance (Subcommittee on Local and Regional 
Government Revenue); Judiciary III; Science and Technology; State Goverr, 
ment (Subcommittee on State Boards and Commissions). ( 

The Legislative Branch 


Martin L. Nesbitt, Jr. 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

Fifty-First Representative District - 
Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County, September 25, 1946, to 
Marion L. and Mary (Cordell) Nesbitt, 

Education: Reynolds High School, 
1964; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970, B.A.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1973, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: Buncombe County 
ir Association; NC State Bar Associations; N.C. Academy of Trial 

Boards: House Small Business Committee, Chairman, 1983-84; House 
ksurance Committee, Chairman, 1985-86; House Appropriations Subcom- 
Ettee on Education Chairman, 1987-88; American Cancer Society, Bun- 
■mbe County Unit, Director, 1983; Buncombe Alternatives, Director, 1984- 
|i; Mediation Center, Director, 1985-86; Buncombe County Board of Educa- 
;m. Attorney, 1977-79; N. C. 2,000 Commissions, Member, 1981; Alternatives 
r Asheville Commissions, Member, 1985-86; UNC-CH Board of Visitors, 
ass of '91; Member, N.C. Nurses Assn. Consumer Advisory Council '90-'91. 

■Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 
appointed to fill unexpired term created by the death of Mary C. Nesbitt), 
"81-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-92; Member Southern Legis- 
Ijtive Conference 1987-88; National Legislative Conference, Member, 1987- 
(I; Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee, Chairman, 1989-92; Presi- 
(jnt, Democratic Men's Club of Buncombe County, 1991. 

iReligious Activities: Member, St. Luke's Episcopal Church. 

Family: Married, Deanne Seller, September 28, 1979. Children: William 
lartin and Chad Sellers. 


'o-Chairman: Appropriations; Joint Select State Health Insurance Com- 

'^ice-Chairman: Legislative and Local Redistricting. 

[ember: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments & Referenda; Judi- 
<yry II; Science and Technology; Joint Legislative Commission on Govern- 
i|mtal Operations. 


North Carolina Manual 

Edd Nye 

(Democrat - Bladen County) 

Twelfth Representative District - Bladen, 
Pender (part) and Sampson Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Gulf, Chatham! 
County, to Joseph Burke and Vera (John- 
son) Nye. 

Education: Clarkton High School;i 
Southeastern Community College: 


Profession: Insurance executive. 

Organizations: Elizabethtowr 

Chamber of Commerce; Bladen Masonit 

Lodge; former member, Jaycees and 

Lions Club. I 

Boards: Former Trustee, Bladen Technical College. 1 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78J 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-; NC Senate, 1975-76. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force. j 

Religious Activities: Member, Elizabethtown Baptist Church; Board ol 
Deacons. Former member: Bladen Baptist Association (Moderator) and NC 
Baptist State Convention. 

Family: Married, Peggy McKee of Clarkton. Children: Shannon, Edwarc* 
and Allison. I 


Member: Economic Expansion (Subcommittee on Travel, Tourism anc 
Economic Development); Education (Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elemenij 
tary and Secondary Education); Pensions & Retirement; Public Employees 
State Government (Subcommittee on State Boards and Commissions). 

The Legislative Branch 


Warren Claude Oldham 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

Sixty-seventh Representative District — 
Forsyth County 

Early Years: Born in Indianapolis, 

Marion County, March 10, 1926, to 

Philander and Minta Ann Smith 

Education: Crispus Attucks, Indian- 
apolis, IN, 1944; Bluefield State College, 
B.S., Secondary Ed., 1951; West VA Uni- 
versity, Morgantown, WV, 1958. 

Professional Background: Retired 
Educator, Winston-Salem State Univer- 
" sity; Registrar, 1977-89; Teacher; Coach; 

dministrator, Winston-Salem F/C schools, 1951-68; Administrator, WSSU, 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 
•esent; NAACP; Winston Lake YMCA; American Legion Post 220; Kappa 
Ipha Psi Fraternity. 

Military Service: U. S. Navy, 5 1/C, 1944-1946, Pacific. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Metropolitan Missionary Baptist; 
^airman. Trustee Board, Chairman, Building Committee. 

.Family: Married, Gladys Dandridge of Maybuery, West VA, July 28, 1951. 
'lildren: Donna and Leslie. 


Member: Appropriations — Subcommittee on Education; Commerce — 
l:ibcommittee on Insurance; Congressional Redistricting; Human Resources 
Subcommittee on Aging; Public Employees. 


North Carolina Manual 

Harry Eugene Payne, Jr. 

(Democrat - New Hanover County) 

Thirteenth Representative District - New 
Hanover (part) County. 

Early Years: Bom in Wilmington, New 
Hanover County, September 11, 1952, to 
Harry Eugene and Margaret (Tucker) 

Education: New Hanover High School, 
1967-70; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970-74, A.B. 
(Political Science, Psychology); Wake 
Forest University, School of Law, 1974- 

Professional Background: Attorney 
(private practice). 

Organizations: New Hanover County, NC, NC State and American Bar 
Associations; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grace United Methodist Church. ' 


Co-Chairman: Appropriations — Subcomittee on Education 

Vice Chairman: Education — Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elementarya 
and Secondary Education. 

Member: Courts, Justice, Constitutional Amendments and Referenda;] 
Environment — Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil; Judiciary H; Legisla| 
tive and Local Redistricting; Rules, Appointments and Calendar. 

The Legislative Branch 


Coy Clarence Privette 

(Republican - Cabarrus County) 

Thirty-fourth Representative District - 
Cabarrus, Stanly and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Statesville, 
Iredell County, January 31, 1933, to 
Clarence and Carrie (Harmon) Privette. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 
1955, B.A.; Southeastern Baptist 
Theological Seminary, 1958, M.Div.; 
School of Pastoral Care, Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine; Walter Reed Army 
Medical Center, clinical pastoral studies; 
US Army Command and Staff College. 

Professional Background: Executive Director, Christian Action League 
(,NC, Inc. 

Associations: Kannapolis Chamber of Commerce. Stanly Co. CC; Union- 
lonroe C.C. Concord-Cabarrus Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards: American Council on Alcoholic Problems, Inc.; Board of 
linisters, Gardner-Webb College; Committee of Ministers, Campbell Univer- 
5 y; National Leadership Team, National Consultation on Pornography; 
'ustee, Wingate College, 1963-66, 1973-76, 1977-81. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
}87-88, 1989-90, 1991-. 

iMilitary Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1953-1990. (Colonel) — 
1; tired. 

Honors: Alumnus of the Year, Men's Residence Council, Wake Forest 
lliiversity, 1977; Man of the Year, NC Baptist Men, 1974; Kannapolis 
1/ung Man of the Year, 1966; Student Body President, Wake Forest Univer- 
sy, 1954-55; Omnicron Delta Kappa; Legislative Award — MADD — 1990. 

Literary Works: Editor, Tomorrow, a monthly journal concerning moral 
Ed ethical issues. 

!leligious Activities: Member, North Kannapolis Baptist Church, 
Knnapolis, pastor, 1962-76. Christian Life Commission, Southern Baptist 
(nvention; Baptist State Convention (President, 1975-77; First Vice Presi- 
dit, 1973-75); Moderator, Cabarrus Baptist Association, 1968; President, 
Annapolis Ministerial Association, 1965. 

^amily: Married, Betty Frances Shoaf of Kannapolis, June 21, 1958. 
Cildren: Denise Elaine, Lori Elizabeth, Amy Lynn and Melanie Ann. 


ice-Chairman: Human Resources — Subcommittee on Aging. 

Member: Congressional Redistricting; Environment (Subcommittee on 
Izardous Waste); Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means); Judiciary 
II Local and Regional Government I; Environmental Review Commission. 


North Carolina Manual 


Listen Bryan Ramsey 

(Democrat - Madison County) 

Fifty-second Representative District - Grahan 
(part), Haywood, Jackson, Madison and 
Swain Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Marshal] 
Madison County, February 26, 1919, t 
John Morgan and Delia Lee (Bryan 

Education: Mars Hill College, 1938. 

Professional Background: Retiree 

Organizations: Elk; Mason; America^ 
Legion (former Commander); Veterans o 
Foreign Wars. 

Boards: Co-Chairman, Governmental Operations Commission, 1981-1988i 
member 1973-1976; Co-Chairman, Joint Committee on Separation of Powers^ 
1982; Advisory Budget Commission, 1973-1980; Blue Ribbon Study CommisI 
sion on Transportation, 1979-80. Co-Chairman Legislative Services Commis: 
sion 1981-1988, Member 1971-76; Co-Chairman Legislative Research Commis! 
sion 1981-88, Member 1975-76. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1961, 19631 
1967-Present (15 Terms); Speaker of the House, 1981-1988 (4 Terms); 1987-88" 
Executive Committee, Southern Legislative Conference, 1981-1988, Chair 
man, 11th Congressional District Democratic Executive Committee, 1972 
1974, 1976, 1980; delegate, Democratic National Convention, 1968; County 
Chairman, Democratic Executive Committee, 1958-60, 1962; Board of Alder 
man, Town of Marshall, 1949-61. Executive Committee, NCSL 1981-1988i 
NCSL Legislative Leaders 1981-88. 

Military Service: Served, Army Air Corps, World War II. 

Honors: NC Public Service Award, 1985; Friend of Education, NCAE| 
1985; honorary member, NC AFL-CIO, 1985; first annual Roy A. Taylo' 
Service Award, 1978. Distinguished Service Award for Outstanding Alumn^ 
-Mars Hill College 1979; Received Honorary Doctors Degrees Mars Hil' 
College May 1988; Liston B. Ramsey Regional Activity Center, Westeri 
Carolina University, April 1987; Certificate of Commendation, VFW 1989. i 

Religious Activities: Baptist. 

Family: Married, Florence McDevitt. Children: Martha (Ramsey) Geouge.j 


Chairman: Public Employees. 

Vice-Chairman: Public Utilities. 

Member: Commerce — Financial Institutions; Courts, Justice, Constitu 
tional Amendments; Finance — Ways & Means, Legislative Redistricting| 
Rules, Appointments & Calendar. i 

The Legislative Branch 


Edward David Redwine 

(Democrat - Brunswick County) 

Fourteenth Representative District - 
Brunswick, New Hanover (part) and Pender 
(part) Counties. 

Early Years: Bom in Wilmington, New 
Hanover County, September 12, 1947, to 
Edward Henry and Doris (Frink) Red- 

Education: Shallottee High School, 
1965; ECU, 1972, A.B. (Political Science, 

Professional Background: Vice Presi- 
dent and partner, Coastal Insurance and 
Realty, Inc. 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents of NC; Carolina Associa- 
■t!)n of Professional Insurance Agents; South Brunswick Chamber of Com- 
I'erce (President and Director, 1976-82); Shallotte Lions Club; Board of 
Jvisors, Cape Fear Council, BSA; Mason, 1976; Shrine Sudane Temple, 


Boards: NC Student Legislative Advisory Council; Board of Advisors, 
Upe Fear Substance Abuse; Vice Chairman, Brunswick County Parks and 
];creation; NC Battleship Memorial Commission, 1982-83; Trustee, 
lunswick Technical College, 1982. 

'Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
]<87-88, 1989-; E]xecutive Board, 7th Congressional District; Brunswick 
('/unty Democratic Party (Chairman, 1979-82; Treasurer, 1976; Young Demo- 
cats of Brunswick County (President, 1978). 

Honors: Young Agent of the Year, 1984; Mr. Chairman Award, IIANC, 
182; Who's Who in American Politics, 1982; Outstanding Young Man of the 
^|ar, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, Shallotte Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Margaret Penelope Taylor of Monroe, September 23, 
172. Children: Erin Elizabeth and Amanda Fletcher, David Austin. 


Ilo-Chairman: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Justice and Public 


vice Chairman: Congressional Redistricting; Public Employees. 

tlember: Environment (Subcommittee on Solid Waste); Judiciary II; Pub- 

li Utilities. 


North Carolina Manual 

Frank Edwin Rhodes 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

Thirty-ninth Representative District -Forsyth, 
(part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Worcester, 
Massachusetts, August 2, 1914, to Frank 
and Alberta (Stoddard) Rhodes. 

Education; Columbia University (Ad- 
vertising and Management); Rutgers Uni- 
versity (Sales Management). 

Professional Background: Retired 
real estate executive (former President, 
Frank E. Rhodes, Inc.). 

Organizations: Winston-Salem Board 
of Realtors; NC Association of Realtors; National Association of Realtors; ! 
Winston-Salem Kiwanis Club; Salem Masonic Lodge 289; Oasis Shrine ^ 
Temple; Winston-Salem Shrine; Winston-Salem Sertoma Club; Winston- 
Salem Elks Lodge 449. j 

Boards: Forsyth Zoning Board of Adjustment, 1969-75 (Chairman,;' 

1972-75). I 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82,. 
1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-1990, 1991-1992. j 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-45; OCS; Infantry; Expert 
Infantryman; Expert Sharpshooter; Good Conduct Medal. 

Honors: Realtor of the Year, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary United Methodist Church, 
Winston-Salem; Administrative Board. 

Family: Married, Fernande Gagne of Quebec City, Canada, July 1, 1960. 
Children: Ruthann, Frank, III, Tina and Nelson. 


Vice-Chairman: Legislative and Local Redistricting; Local and Regional, 
Government Revenue; Hazardous Waste; Community Colleges. f 

Member: Finance; Highways; Education; Environment; Transportation; 
State Government; State Boards and Commissions. 

The Legislative Branch 


George Sidney Robinson 

(Republican — Caldwell County) 

F'orty-sixth Representative District — 
Alexander (part) Avery, Burke (part) 
Caldwell, Mitchell and Watauga (part) 

Early Years: Born in Lenoir, Caldwell 
County, November 15, 1945, to Charles 
. ^\  M. and Lorraine M. Robinson. 

^^ ^ * Education: Oak Ridge Military Insti- 

^^^ ^;»»». ^^te^ ^^^^' ^^^ Ridge, NC, 1963-64; University 

^^^ ^-^B^^^ ^^ Tennessee, 1964-68, 1972-73; New 

l^^^^^k Jlr^^^^^^^ Mexico University. 

HB^^^^ jmIIIII^^^^^^^* Professional Background: Presi- 
ent, Robinson Lumber Company, Inc.; Deputy Assistant Secretary, NC 
department of Transportation, 1986-88. 

, Organizations: Appalachian Lumberman's Club; Caldwell County 
hamber of Commerce; Lenoir Rotary Club, American Heart Association; 
'C Center for Crime and Punishment; Morganton/Lenoir Airport Authority; 
enoir Housing Authority; REPAY (Victim Restitution Program — NC 25th 
udicial District); Lenoir Little League (Past President); Parent Teacher 
Association of West Lenoir; Boy Scouts of America (Past District Com- 

Boards, Commissions, Councils: North Carolina National Bank; NC 
oard of World Trade Association; NC Board of Economic Development; 
'adkin-Pee Dee River Basin Committee. 

(Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1981-82, 
|)83-84, 1985-86, 1989-90, 1991-92; Past Minority Whip. 

JMilitary: US Air Force, 1968-1972 (Sergeant); Good Conduct Medal for 

templary Service. 
Vwards and Honors: Boy Scouts of America God and Country Award; 
agle Scout; Scout of the Year, 1979. 

jReligious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church of Lenoir. 
:Family: Married, Ann Peterson, April 14, 1974. Children: Son, Rick. 


'^ice Chairman: Rules, Appointments and the Calendar. 

Member: Economic Expansion — Subcommittee on Labor Relations and 
Inployment; Finance — Subcommittee on Ways and Means; Judiciary I; 
legislative and Local Redistricting; Public Utilities. 


North Carolina Manual 

Richard Eugene Rogers 

(Democrat - Martin County) 

Sixth Representative District - Bertie (part), 
Hertford (part), Martin (part), and Pitt (part) 

Early Years: Born in Williamston 
Martin County, December 12, 1929, tc 
Javan and Effie (Green) Rogers (botl: 

Education: Bear Grass High School 
1943-45; Williamston High School, 1945 
46; Oak Ridge Military Institution, 1946i 
47; UNC, Chapel Hill, 1955, B.S., Masters^ 
Education, 1957. 

Professional Background: Superintendent, Martin, County Schools 
1965-85 (retired); Farming; Insurance; Real Estate; N.C. Association o 
School Administrations; Martin County Chamber of Commerce. ; 

Organizations: President, Williamston Kiwanis Club, 1982; Local Districi 
Committee, BSA, 1965-85; St. Pauls Jaycees, 1959-63 (President, 1962). 

Boards: District Committee, Boy Scouts of America, 1986; Board o^ 
Directors, EastCarolina Vocational Center, 1980-85; Board of Directors, N.C 
High School Athletic Association, 1981-84; Board of Health, Martin Wash 
ington, Tyrrell District, 1965-84; Board of Directors, N.C. Superintendent 
Division, NCAE, 1975-78; NC State Capital Planning Commission; Board o, 
Visitors, Chowan College, 1991-1993. ' 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Coast Guard, 1950-53; Honorable Dis 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award; Boss of the Year Award; Supei 
intendent Contributing Most to Athletics, Region 1. 

Religious Activities: Member, Memorial Baptist Church; Board o 
Deacons, 1966-70, 1972-76, 1978-82. 

Family: Married, Jean Carole Griffin, of Williamston, August 18, 195f 
Children: Jeanette, Laura and Richard. 


Chairman: Education (Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary an^ 
Secondary Education). 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Education) 

Member: Agriculture (Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandryj 
Legislative and Local Redistricting; Pensions and Retirement; State Goverri 
ment (Subcommittee on State Boards and Commissions). 

The Legislative Branch 


Carolyn Barnes Russell 

(Republican - Wayne County) 

Eleventh Representative District - Wayne 

Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt 
County, North Carolina, June 19, 1944, 
to O.D. and Naomi Grey (Jones) Barnes. 

Education: Winterville High School, 
Winterville, North Carolina, 1962; East 
Carolina University, A.B. Sociology- 
Psychology, 1965; M.A. Clinical Psy- 
chology, 1967. 

Professional Background: Per- 
sonnel Manager; Psychologist at Sun- 
I land Training Center. 

' Boards: Mental Health Association in Wayne County, Wayside Fellowship 
lome, North Carolina State Medical Auxiliary, Wayne County Red Cross, 
Methodist Home for Children, Goldsboro Arts Council, Wayne County Day 
)chool, Wayne County Boys Club, Wayne County Social Services. 

f Organizations: Cystic Fibrosis Campaign, Wayne County Medical 
Auxiliary, Parents Without Partners, Wayne Correctional Community Re- 
ource Council — Goldsboro District Advisory Committee and JPTA Com- 
littee, Goldsboro High School. 

' Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1991-92. 

\ Awards: Governor's Individual Leadership Award, 1981; McPheeter's 
jiward for Outstanding Contributions to Mental Health-recipient; Outstand- 
jig Professional Achievement Award by Federally Employed Women- 

' Religious Activities: Member, St. Paul United Methodist Church; Reno- 
jation Drive Chairman — 1981; Author, Centennial Celebration Drama; 
linance Board, 1982-86; Council on Ministries Chairman, 1982-88; Junior 
'MYF Counselor, 1984; Sunday School Teacher, 1978-present. 

j Family: Married, Douglas M. Russell, June 24, 1967. Children: Susannah 
Irey, Douglas McCabe and Meredith Leigh. 


Member: Agriculture (Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandry); 
ppropriations (Subcommittee on Environment, Health and Natural Re- 
l^urces; Economic Expansion (Subcommittee on Travel, Tourism and Eco- 
bmic Development); Congressional Redistricting; Human Resources (Sub- 
|mmittee on Children, Youth and Families; State Government (Subcom- 
ittee on State Boards and Commissions). 


North Carolina Manual 



Ronald Lynwood Smith 

(Democrat - Carteret County) 

Fourth Representative District - Carteret 

Early Years: Born in Morehead City, 
Carteret County, July 7, 1940, to Charlie 
and Regenia Salter Smith. 

Education: Morehead City, 1958; NC 
Institute of Government; Chicago School 
of Appraisal. 

Professional Background: Semi Re- 
tired Real Estate, Clam Rock, Inc. 

Organizations: Masonic Lodge and 
Shrine Elks, Moose; American Legion 
AAPP; NC Historical Society. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1991- 

Military Service: Army, 824, Heavy Boat, Specialist, 1963-69. 

Religious Activities: Member, Bogue Banks Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Betty Jackson of Atlantic Beach, November 17, 1978. 
Children: Jenny, Amy, Jeffrey and Rachel. 


Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Aquaculture and Marine Fish-* 
eries;- Commerce - Subcommittee on Financial Institutions; Finance - Sub- 
committee on State Revenues; Public Utilities; State Government - Subcom- 
mittee on State Parks, Facilities and Property. I 

The Legislative Branch 


Margaret Ann Stamey 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

Sixty-Third Representative District -Wake 

Early Years: Born in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County, March 17, 1932, to Chester 
Franklin and Sudie (Aiken) Mcintosh. 

Education: Plonk School of Creative 
Arts, 1948-51; Brevard College, 1951; 
Fridan School of Data Systems, 1959-60; 
University of Maryland, 1958. 

Professional Background: Legis- 

Organizations: National Association 
f Women Business Owners; Cary Women's Club; NC Kidney Foundation; 
ary Chamber of Commerce; Women's Forum of NC; National Order of 
^omen Legislators. 

Boards: Member, South Atlantic Fishery Council, Chairman, 1980; Mem- 
3r, Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission; Charter member, NC 
hild Advocacy Council; NC Capitol Planning Commission, Governors 
ouncil on Physical Fitness; Governmental Operations Committee of the 
C General Assembly; NC Human Relations Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 
.)85-86, 1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-92; National Association of Women Legis- 
jtors; Charter member. Democratic Women of Wake County, YDC, 1977-79; 
-ake County Democratic Party (Chairman, 1977; Vice Chairman, 1972-76); 
ational Committeewomen, YDC, 1968; former Committeewoman, National 
,emocratic Committee. 

Honors: 1990 Women of the Year in Government Award — YWCA; Cita- 
■pn. Wake County SPCA, 1984; Thad Eure Award, 1978; NC Democratic 
larty Appreciation Award, 1977; Citation, Kidney Foundation, 1977; Jim 
unt Campaign Award, 1976; Outstanding Young Democrat; NC Young 
smocrats Club, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, White Plains Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, James H. Stamey, January 3, 1953. Children: Dianna 
36 Stamey-Fulmer, James Franklin Stamey, Susan Alice Stamey-Steinhoff 
id Melissa Jane Stamey-Lennon. 


iChairman: Transportation. 

Vice Chairman: Finance (Subcommittee on State Revenues); Local and 
Jgional Government II; Rules, Appointments and Calendar. 

Member: Congressional Redistricting; Legislative and Local Redistrict- 
5|g; State Government — Subcommittee on State Parks, Facilities and 


North Carolina Manual 

Clarence Poe Stewart 

(Democrat - Harnett County) 

Nineteenth Representative District - Harnett 

Early Years: Born in Broadway, 
Harnett County, May 4, 1922, to William 
M. & Lizzie Jane (Wicker) Stewart. 

Education: Boone Trail High School, 
1940; NC State University, 1955, BS. 

Professional Background: Farmer; 
Teacher, 1955-61; County Executive Di- 
rector, Harnett County ASCS, 1961-77; 
State Director, ASCS, 1977-81; Public In- 
formation Officer, Harnett County 
Schools, 1981-1987. 

Organizations: Ruritan, 1947-, (Served Charter Vice President, President 
and District Governor); Mason (Shriner); VFW, American Legion. 

Boards: Charter Chairman, Golden Leaf Boy Scout District; Charter 
Chairman, Harnett County Crime Stoppers, 1986, member Board of Di- 
rectors, Harnett County Crime Stoppers; Director, Harnett County Industrial 
Facility and Pollution Control Financial Authority; Member, Harnett County 
Planning Board, 1961-68. I 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives 1989- . 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1941-43 (Sergeant, tank commander); 
Silver Star Medal. 

Honors: Recognized for outstanding administration of farm programs by 
US Secretary of Agriculture, Freeman; Merit Award from Governor Hunt for 
outstanding leadership in education. 

Religious Activities: Member, Spring Hill Methodist Church; Chairman, 
Administrative Board; Sunday School teacher; served. Parsonage and church 
building committees; chairman, finance committee. i 

Family: Married, Elsie Stewart, December 4, 1946. Children: Randall and 


Chairman: State Government (Subcommittee on State Boards and Com 
missions). j 

Member: Agriculture — Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandry' 
Finance — Subcommittee on Local and Regional Government Revenue)^ 
Public Employees; Science and Technology; 

The Legislative Branch 


Timothy Norton Tallent 

(Republican - Cabarrus County) 

Thirty-fourth Representative District - 
Cabarrus, Stanly and Union Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Concord, Cabar- 
rus County, November 9, 1949, to Johnny 
and Margaret (Weaver) Tallent. 

Education: Concord High School; Uni- 
versity of South Carolina. 

Profession: Owner, Tallent Properties 
& Investments. Owner, Zion Music Ser- 
vices, Inc. 

Organizations: Fellowship of 
Christian Athletes; Gideons (former 

'resident); President, Christian Businessmen. 


'i Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-86, 
987-88, 1989-. 

! Honors: Outstanding Lay Person of Cabarrus County. 

f Religious Activities: Member, Concord Bible Church, Concord. 

\ Family: Married, Dianne Cox of Concord, August 3, 1974. Children: 
\ngela, Andrew. 


I Vice Chairman: Ethics; Public Utilities. 

; Member: Finance — Subcommittee on Ways and Means; Economic 
'Ixpansion — Subcommittee on Small Business; Science and Technology; 

438 North Carolina Manual 

The Legislative Branch 


^^ ^ Raymond M. Thompson, Sr. 

(Democrat - Chowan County) 

First Representative District - Camden, 
Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates (part), 
Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell, and 
Washington (part) Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Weeksville, 
Pasquotank County, September 17, 1925, 
to Wallace L. and Minnie (Markham) 
Thompson, Sr. 

Education: Elizabeth City High 
School, 1939-43; North Carolina State Uni- 
versity, 1950 (B.S. in Agricultural 

I Professional Background: Taught Vocational Agriculture, 1950-51; As- 
dstant County Agent, 1951-54; County Agent, 1954-70; County Extension 
Chairman, 1970-81; Consultant with Peoples Bank, 1981-83; Manager, Chowan 
storage, 1983. 

I Organizations: County Agents Association; Epsilon Sigma Phi; Hertford 
iLions Club; Edenton Lions Club; American Legion Post (40); V.F.W.; Un- 
inimity Lodge No. 7 (Masonic Order); Ruritan, 1954-70. 

'. Boards: Peoples Bank Board, 1975; Chowan Hospital Board, 1977-82; 
Chowan Planning Board, 1970-81; Chairman, Finance Committee, 1980-82. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 

: Military: Served, United States Coast Guard, Signalman, third class, 


I Religious Activities: Member, Edenton United Methodist Church; Sunday 
'jchool Teacher, 1972-83. 

I Family: Married, Carolyn Pemberton Thompson of Raleigh, June 9, 1949. 
Children: Raymond, Gayle, and Sharon. 


Chairman: Environment — Subcommittee on Solid Waste. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture - Subcommittee on Aquaculture and Marine 
fisheries; Local and Regional Government I. 

. Member: Finance - Subcommittee on Local and Regional Government 
Revenue; Public Utilities; State Government - Subcommittee on State Boards 
Ind Commissions. 


North Carolina Manual 

William L. Wain\vright 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

Third Representative District — Craven 

Early Years: Born in Somerville, TN, 
October 19, 1947, to James and Daisy 

Education: Manassas High, 1965; 
Memphis State, B.S., Business, 1960. 

Professional Background: Pastor, 
Piney Grove AMEZ Church. 

Organizations: Craven County 
NAACP; Craven County Voters League; 
Havelock/Cherry Point Ministerial Asso- 
ciation; New Bern/Craven County Ministerial Alliance; Board of Directors, 
United Senior Services; Chairman, Policy Council, Carteret Community 
Action, INC; Head Start Program. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Council of Churches; House of Delegates; 
Craven County Board of Aging. 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1991- 

Awards and Honors: Outstanding Member, Board of Directors, Carteret 
Community Action, INC; Head Start Program. 

Religious Activities: Member, Piney Grove AMEZ Church; Pastor, 1985- 

present; Brotherhood Pension and Ministerial Relief Board, 1988-present. 



Member: Agriculture - Subcommittee on Forestry, Horticulture and Wild- 
life; Economic Expansion - Subcommittee on Travel, Tourism and Economic 
Development; Education - Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary and 
Secondary Education; Finance - Subcommittee on Ways and Means; Human 
Resources - Subcommittee on Health and Mental Health; Legislative andi 
Local Redistricting. 

The Legislative Branch 441 

Edward A. Warner, Jr. 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

Eighteenth Representative District 
Cumberland (part) County. 

^fc*"^ ^^^ '- M^ Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, 

Mf^^ ^"^^^ W CumberlandCounty, November 11, 1942, 

1 f I , to Edward A. and Mae Pearl (Green) 

Warner, Sr. 

Education: Campbell College, 1965, 
A.B. English; East Carolina University, 
1973, M.A.ed. 

Professional Background: Country- 
side Furniture Company, Inc. Board of 
Directors, President. 1980-present — 

'ayetteville State Univ. — Education Professor & Supervisor of Student 


Organizations: Lebanon Lodge, No. 391, A.F. and AM; Phi Delta Kappa; 
ope Mills Optimist Club. 

Boards: Cumberland County Board of Education. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives 1987- 
esent; Cumberland County Board of Education. 

Honors: Jaycees Man of the Year, 1987; Fayetteville State University 
•;hool of Education Award; Assistant Principal of the Year, 1977; North 
arolina Congress of Parents and Teachers, Honorary Life Membership 

■Religious Activities: Member, Southview Baptist Church; Usher. 

Family: Married, Jacquelyn Fredda Smith, of Anderson, S.C. on October 
|, 1979. Children: Blekley, Teddy and Molly. 


Chairman: Education Subcommittee on The University of North Caro- 

•Vice Chairman: Education; Science & Technology. 

Member: Appropriations (Subcommittee on Education); Congressional 
Idistricting; Environment; Pensions & Retirement. 


North Carolina Manual 

Wade Franklin Wilmoth 

(Democrat — Watauga County) 

Fortieth Representative District — Watauga 

Early Years: Born in Dobson, Surry 
County, November 14, 1934, to Jennings 
and Lillie Mae Campbell Wilmoth. 

Education: Dobson High School, 1953; 
Appalachian State University, B.S.,| 

Professional Background: Realtor,! 
Wade Wilmoth Realthy; Director, Firstj 
Union National Bank, 1972-present; Statel 
Director of the NC Realtors Associations,] 
1986. I 

Organizations: Appalachian State University Chancellors Committee,' 
1983-86; Honorary Director, Boone Area Chamber of Commerce, Hound Ears' 
Club; Former President, Boone Jaycees, 1970-71; United Way, 1969; Wataugaj 
County Heart Association, 1982-84; Chairman, Northwest NC Development 
Association. j 

Political Activities: Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1987-88, 
1991-present; Boone City Council (1 term); Mayor of Boone (2 terms); Three 
key achievements made in Boone: City Management form of Government,' 
Seven Million Dollar Water Referendum passed. Sewer Capacity Plant was 
added to double the former capacity. f 

Military Service: U. S. Army, Engineers, PFC, 1958-59, West Germany; 
Good Conduct Medal; Marksman. 

Awards and Honors: Young Man of the Year, 1969; Realtor of the Year 
1986; Outstanding Community Development Award, 1984. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church of Boone. 

Family: Married, Gloria Sue Watts of Lenoir, November 5, 1960. Children: 
Greg and April. 


Chairman: State Government (Subcommittee on State Parks, Facilities 
and Property) [ 

Vice Chairman: Commerce (Subcommittee on Insurance); Educatior 
(Subcommittee on Community Colleges) 

Member: Finance - Subcommittee on State Revenues; Transportation j 
Subcommittee on Highways. 

The Legislative Branch 


Peggy Ann Wilson 

(Republican — Rockingham County) 

Twenty-fifth Representative District — 
Rockingham County 

Early Years: Born in Anamosa, Iowa, 
September 8, 1945, to Marvin L. and Buirl 
(Gill) Thomsen. 

Education: Kirkwood Community Col- 
lege (Cedar Rapids, Iowa), Associate De- 
gree in Science and in Nursing. 

Professional Background: Charge 
Nurse, Med/Surge Floor, Kirksville, MO, 
(3-1/2 yrs); Surgical Scrub Nurse, Kirks- 
ville, MO, (3-1/2 yrs); Regional Manager, 
lodern Income Life Insurance Co., (2 yrs); Self-employed, Skin & Health 
are Business (3 yrs); School Nurse, Western Rockingham City Schools (6 

Organizations: President, Pilot International, 1982-83; Member, NC 

jurses Association, 1985-; Member, Rotary International, 1987-; Member, 

fC Rockingham County Community Task Force on Substance Abuse Pre- 

sntion; Member, NC Chapter of the National Committee for the Prevention 

Child Abuse; Member, 4-H Club, 1954-1961; Member, Children's Special 

ealth Services Task Force with the North Carolina Medical Society. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Board of Directors for NC Coali- 
on on Adolescent Pregnancy; Chairman, Issues Committee on the Gov- 
I-nor's Advocacy Council on Children and Youth; Vice Chairman, Commis- 
on on Children with Special Needs; Member, Study Commission on Nurs- 
ig; Member, Surface Water Study Commission; LRC on Public Employees 
jay Care/Medical/Dental Benefits; Governor's Task Force on Injury Preven- 
on; Governor's Appointee to the Southern Regional Education Board; 
joard member, Rockingham Co. Department of Social Services. 

I Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1989-90, 
)91-92; Executive member, Rockingham County Republican Party; Past 
resident, Rockingham County Federation of Republican Women. 

jiHonors: Woman of the Year, 1986 (Rockingham County Republican 
lomen): "Tribute to the Women". 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Madison; 
ast Vice Chairman, UMW; Church administrative officer, 1982-87; Choir 
ember, 1976-; Sunday School Teacher, 1977-; Certified Lay Speaker. 

JFamily: Married, Larry "Woody" Wilson, July 14, 1973. Children: Thomas 
ad, Gina (Wilson) Beckley, Christine Renee'. 

444 North Carolina Manual 


Vice Chairman: Public Employees. 

Member: Finance (Subcommittee on Local and Regional Governmen 
Revenue); Education (Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary and Second 
ary Education); Human Resources (Subcommittee on Children, Youth am 
Families); Agriculture (Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandry). 


The Legislative Branch 



William Harrill Withrow 

Democrat — Rutherford County) 

Forty-eighth Representative District — 
Rutherford County) 

Early Years: Born in Hollis, Ruther- 
ford County, April 22, 1917, to H. Grady 
and Cora (Martin) Withrow. 

Education: HolHs High School, Hollis, 
North Carolina, 1935; Wake Forest Col- 
lege, 1935-37; US Naval Academy, 1937- 
41, B.S. (Electrical Eng.); UNC-CH Grad- 
uate school, 1967-69 Ph.D. (ABD). 

Professional Background: Professor, 
Gardner-Webb College, 1969-83 (Political 
Science and Geography). 

Organizations: Center for Defense Information, Wash. D.C. Council of 
Mitary Advisors, 1985 to present; Speakers Bureau, Union of Concerned 
S entists-1987 to present; Rutherford Co. Chapter - AARP, President-1986; 
Ftherford Co. Airport Authority; Rutherford Co. Historical Society-Presi- 
dit, 1975-76; Rotary Clubs Guayaquil Ecuador; Christchurch New Zealand, 
Selby NC and Boiling Springs, NC (President-1979); Rutherford Co. Solid 
Viste Energy and Environmental Panel; Board of Advisors, NC Center for 
Fice Education, Chapel Hill Board of Directors-NC Society for a Sane 
^ clear Policy. 

•Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1991-92; 
FXherford Co. Democratic Party Executive Committee Chairman-1990-91; 
Ftherford County Democratic Club. 

lilitary: US Navy, 1937-66 (achieved rank of Commander). 

Lwards and Honors: Withrow Glacier — Antarctic, 1966, so named in 
n.Dgnition of his outstanding performance of duty in support of scientific 
njBarch in Antarctica. 

'eligious Activities: Member, Hopewell United Methodist Church- 
R,herford County; Sunday School Teacher, 1987-89. 

■amily: Married, Dororthy Flack, June 3, 1942. Children: William Jr., 
Diielle and David. 


lember: Environment - Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil; Finance - 
Si (Committee on State Revenue; Human Resources - Subcommittee on 
Cidren, Youth and Families; Science and Technology; Transportation - 
Svcommittee on Public Transportation. 


North Carolina Manual 

Stephen Wray Wood 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

Twenty-eighth Representative District - 
Guilford (part) County. 

Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem 
Forsyth County, October 6, 1948, to Docli 
Wesley Richard Thomas Edmund ancj 
Annie (Harris) Wood. ' 

^ Education: North Forsyth Higj-; 

'^k|^^^^1^^^^ School, 1966; John Wesley College, Th.B. 

i ^^il^ ^^Bi ^^^^' ^^^^^y College, B.A., 1973; UNC 

m Jftik- ^^^^^1 Greensboro, M.A., 1980; Luther Rice Semi 

m -^j- ^^^H ^^^^^ D.Min., 1982; M.Div., Houstor 

B^ ^^ l^^BHB Graduate School of Theology, Princetoi 
Seminary, UNC-Greensboro and Earlham School of Religion, Appalachiai; 
State University, additional studies. 

Professional Background: Pastor; Singer, songwriter and recordinji 
artist; former Professor and Assistant Academic Dean, John Wesley Collegej 
Veterans Services Officer, N.C. Division of Veterans Affairs, 1987-1989 
Accredited Veterans Services Officer, 1987-. 

Organizations: American Historical Association; Society of Americail 
Church History; Southern Historical Assocaition; High Point Jaycees (Chap 
lain, 1982); American Legislative Exchange Council, American Legion! 

Boards: Steering Committee, Friends Center, Guilford College; Trusted 
John Wesley College; Director and President, Triad Christian Counselin| 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-8ti 
1989-1991; Vice Chairman, Guilford County Republican Party, 1983-1985. 

Military Service: Served, US Army (E-3), Captain, North Carolina Stat 
Defense Militia, 55 Battalion. 

Literary Works: Composer and recording artist: Albums include 'Xoi;| 
and Devotion, Travelin Troubadour, "Titus Overture"; Contributor to thi 
Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. 

Religious Activities: Member, NC Friends; Pastor, NC Yearly Meetin| 
of Friends, 1980-present. 

Family: Married, Starr Smith, June 18, 1978. Children: Allyson Wray an! 
Joshua Fleming Harris. 


Vice Chairman: Education (Subcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary 
Secondary Education); Finance (Subcommittee on Ways and Means); Pei 
sions & Retirement. ( 

Member: Legislative and Local Redistricting; Rules, Appointments 
Calendar; State Government (Subcommittee on Military, Veterans & India 
Affairs). j 

The Legislative Branch 


Barney Paul Woodard 

(Democrat - Johnston County) 

Twentieth Representative District - Franklin 
and Johnston Counties. 

Early Years: Born in Princeton, 
November 23, 1914, to John Richard and 
EHzabeth (Wall) Woodard. 

Education: Princeton High School; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1938, Pharmacy de- 

I^^^^L Professional Background: Phar- 

'^^^^l ^1 WM macist; (owner, Woodard Pharmacy). 

^^^^■hJ^sA Organizations: National Association 

, of Retail Druggists; Princeton Lions Club 

(irmer President); Johnston County Shrine Club; Johnston County Mental 
/;sociation; Johnston County Drug Club; Keep Johnston County Beautiful; 
Ip Pharmaceutical Association, 1978; Fund Chairman, Mental Helath Asso- 
(Uion, 1971-72; Chairman, Princeton School Advisory Committee, 1969-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1973- 
', 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88, 1989-. 

Honors: Bowl of Hygea Award for outstanding Community Service in 
larmacy, 1978. 1988 Pharmacist of the year of the North Carolina Phar- 
raceutical Association. 

Ileligious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church; Trustee, Ad- 
rnistrative Board; teacher, 1969-71. 

'.i^amily: Married, Annie Louise Sugg, September 6, 1941. Children: Barney 
lul, Jr., Dianne Louise (Woodard) Taylor, Michael/Sugg, and Joy 
( joodard) McLeod. 


phairman: Science & Technology. 

nember: Judiciary I; Human Resources - Subcommittee on Health and 
^ ntal Health; Appropriations - Subcommittee on Justice and Public Safety; 
Bles, Appointments and Calendar. 


North Carolina Manual 

Grace Averette Collins 


Early Years: Born in Fuquay-Varina, Wak( 
County, to Alonzo Deams and Minnie Le( 
(Helms) Averette. 

Education: Fuquay-Varina High School, 1949 
Kings Business College, 1951; additional studies 
Raleigh School of Commerce and Hardbarge* 
Business College. 

Profession: Principal Clerk, NC House o| 
Representatives, 1974-; General Assembly stafi 

Organizations: Executive Committee, National Conference of Stat 
Legislators; Executive Nominating Committte, NCSL; Legislative Manage 
ment Committee, NCSL Assembly on the Legislature; Chairman, all standinj 
committees, American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries (Pres: 
dent, 1981-82; Vice President, 1980-81; Secretary-Treasurer, 1979-80). 


Political Activities: Principal Clerk, NC House of Representatives, 197'^] 
1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1987-88; 1989-; Chairmar 
Middle Creek-Fuquay Precinct, 1971-73; First Vice Chairman, Middle Creel 
Fuquay Precinct, 1969-71. 

Honors: Who's Who in State Government, 1976; Outstanding Leadershi 
Award, American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries, 1975 an 

Religious Activities: Member, Fuquay-Varina Methodist Church; Boar 
of Mission; Chancel Choir; former Sunday School teacher. 

Family: Married, John Nolan Collins, October 4, 1952. Children: John N 
Jr., Joseph A., James D. and Laurie E. 

The Legislative Branch 


Larry P. Eagles 

(Democrat — N. C. House Sgt.-at-Arms) 

Early Years: Born in Fountain, Pitt 
County, December 18, 1909, to Fitzhugh 
Lee and Kippie Yelverton Eagles. 

Education: Mars Hill, 1927; Wake 
Forest University, B.A., History & Govern- 
ment, 1932. 

Professional Background: Insur- 
ance, State Life and Health Insurance 
Company; President, 1937-1971, State 
Life and Health Insurance Company. 

Organizations: Member, Executive Com- 
m|tee N. C. Life Insurance Association; Member, N. C. Insurance Advisory 
Bird, 1964-1970; Member and Past President, Tarboro Rotary Club, 1947- 
H2; Chairman, Tarboro Zoning Board of Adjustment; Former Member, 
L'al Order of Moose; American Legion, Veteran of Foreign Wars; Original 
Mnber, Edgecombe Mental Hospital Association; Chairman, United Way. 

I'olitical Activities: N. C. Sgt-At-Arms; Reading Clerk, N. C. Senate, 
{[5; Member, N. C. House of Representatives, 1971, 1973, 1975; Member, 
Bird of Governor's of Council of State Governments; Chairman, N. C. 
[r?rstate Corporation Commission, 1971-1976; Member, Executive Com- 
tntee Southern Region Council of Governments. 

[ilitary: Army, 32 Infantry Division, Master Sergeant, 1942-45, South 

wards and Honors: Marksman Rifle Cal. 30; Asiatic-Pacific Service 
Ribon; Good Conduct Medal; Meritorious Service Unit Plaque. 

feligious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Former teacher, 
Mi's Bible Class, 15 years. 
jamily: Children: Rebecca Eagles, Brenda Eagles Tobin, Barbara Anne 



North Carolina Manual 


Samuel Jackson Burrow, Jr 

(Democrat — N. C. House Reading 

Early Years: Born in Warrentor! 
Warren County, February 25, 1918, ti 
Samuel Jackson and Cora Loma; 
Burrow. | 

Education: Asheboro High Schoo' 
1936; Wake Forest College, 1936-37. 

Professional Background: Ir 

surance Representative, Equitable Li' 
Assurance Society. 

Political Activities: N. C. House Rea 
ing Clerk; House of Representative 
1959; N. C. Senate, 1961; Delegate to Democratic National Convention, 195fj 

Military: Army Air Corps, Eighth Air Force, Sergeant, 1942-45, Eur 

pean. I 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist. ' 

Family: Married Lynda Edwards, Suffolk, Virginia, August 28, 197 
Children: Jane Cole Hayworth, Samuel Jackson Burrow, III, William Hendtj 
son Burrow. ! 

The Legislative Branch 451 

James William McGinnis 

Chaplain, N. C. House of 

Early Years: Born in Randleman, 
Randolph County, April 20, 1921, to 
Robert Ashe and Mamie Diana Warlick 

Education: Boyden School, 1938; 
Guilford College, A.B., Sociology, 1942; 
Hartford School of Religious Education, 
M.A., Christian Education, 1944; Duke 
Divinity School, M.Div., Religion, 1945; 
C & GS Command Course, Army, 
Auditor, CA, 1972; Air Force War College 

I Course, Graduate, 1974; Completed all 

curses offered by the Army Chaplain Schools, 1951-75. 

Professional Background: Clergyman; Moderator, Granville Presbytery, 
134; Summer Camp Director for Youth. 

Organizations: Greensboro Jaycees, Honorary Member, 1951; Lions Club, 
liltwister, 1957; Rotary Club, Secretary, 1965; Liaison Person between the 
rb Division of Aging and the NC Inter-Faith Coalition on Aging; Liaison 
l;ween the VA Hospitals and the Division of Aging; Volunteer in establish- 
i> the GLENAIRE Retirement Community in Gary over a period of several 

Political Activities: Chaplain, N. C. House of Representatives. 

inilitary Service: U. S. Army, NG & USAR, LTC, State Chaplain, 1951- 
i Reserves, NC ARNG & USAR; Good Conduct and National Defense 

' Religious Activities: Pastorates, Takoma Park Presbyterian Church, 
ljt5-46; Williamston Pres. Church, 1946; Kirkwood Pres. Church & Royal 
Cjks Pres. Churches, 1946-47; Guilford Park Pres. Church, 1947-52; First 
F'is. Church, 1952-55; Trinity Pres. Church, 1955-58; Gary Pres. Church, 

f'amily: Married, Margaret Faye Maness of Biscoe, April 2, 1948. Chil- 
n: James W. Jr., Nancy Lynn and Amy Rose. 

452 North Carolina Manual 

House of Representatives ' 

Committee Assignments 1991 


James, Chairman 

Subcommittee on Aquaculture and Marine Fisheries: Chapin, Chairmail 
Thompson and Grady, Vice Chairmen; Brawley, Foster, Hightower, Howard 

Mavretic, and Smith. j 

Subcommittee on Crops and Animal Husbandry: Albertson, Chairmai 
Mercer and Loflin, Vice Chairmen; Brubaker, Buchanan, Dial, Fussell, Greeii 
Jordan, Lilley, McLawhorn, Rogers, Russell, Stewart, and Wilson. 

Subcommittee on Forestry, Horticulture and Wildlife: Beall, Chairma 
Lutz and Brown, Vice Chairmen; Anderson, Bowen, Church, Creech, Cul 
DeVane, Judy Hunt, Ligon, and Wainwright. 


Nesbitt and Diamont, Co-Chairmen 

Subcommittee on General Government: Bowman and N.J. Crawforf 
Co-Chairmen; Beard, Decker, Foster, Gist, Gray, Holmes, and Lutz. I 

Subcommittee on Human Resources: Easterling and Nye, Co-Chairmei! 
Barnhill, Esposito, Gardner, Greenwood, Jeffus, Jeralds, Justus, and Kenned! 

Subcommittee on Justice and Public Safety: Anderson and Redwin 
Co-Chairmen; Barnes, Brubaker, J.W. Crawford, Dickson, Flaherty, Grad 
Green, Jones, McGee and Woodard. 

Subcommittee on Environment, Health, and Natural Resource 

Ethridge and Hunter, Co-Chairmen; Culp, DeVane, Dockham, Gottovi, Jame' 
Kahl, and Russell. 

Subcommittee on Education: Fussell and Payne, Co-Chairmen; Balmfl 
Black, Chapin, Dial, Hege, Hensley, Huffman, Michaux, Oldham, PoFi 
Rhyne, Rogers, and Warner. 

Subcommittee on Transportation: McLaughlin and Holt, Co-Chairmej 
Albertson, Barbee, Bowie, Church, Creech, Hasty, Jack Hunt, Kimsey, aij 


Hardaway, Chairman 

Subcommittee on Financial Institutions: Fletcher, Chairman; Black aij 
Brubaker, Vice Chairmen; Hege, Holmes, R. Hunter, McAllister, Ramsey, an 

Subcommittee on Housing: Cunningham, Chairman; Jones and Howai| 
Vice Chairmen; Bowie, Gray, Green, H. Hunter, James, and Wicker. 

The Legislative Branch 453 

iibcommittee on Insurance: Beard, Chairman, Wilmoth and Brawley, 
' ce Chairmen; Anderson, Barbee, Dockham, Gamble, Sam Hunt, Isenhower, 
.raids, McLaughlin, and Oldham. 

(jngressional Redistricting: Bowen, Fitch and Hunt, Co-Chairmen; 
()ttovi, Michaux, Redwine, Flaherty, and Justice, Vice Chairmen; Barnes, 
lirnhill, Brown, Buchanan, N. J. Crawford, Dawkins, Decker, Diamont, 
(irdner, Hardaway, Hasty, H. Hunter, Jones, McLaughlin, Oldham, Privette, 
l^ssell, Stamey, Warner and Wilson. 


j Michaux, Chairman 

Frnes, Kennedy, and Flaherty, Vice Chairmen; Creech, Dawkins, Decker, 
Ickson, Fitch, Hackney, Hardaway, Holt, Jack Hunt, Justus, Kerr, Lewis, 
Mler, Nesbitt, Payne, Pope, Ramsey, and Wicker. 


Hasty, Chairman 

Sbcommittee on Labor Relations and Employment: Kennedy, Chair- 
mn; Bowman and Abernethy, Vice Chairmen; Beall, Easterling, Holt, 
]\jjchaux, Pope, and Robinson. 

Sbcommittee on Small Business: Lineberry, Chairman; Albertson and 
L:kson, Vice Chairmen; Balmer, Barnhill, N.J. Crawford, Grady, Jarrell, 
J;;dan, and Tallent. 

Sbcommittee on Travel, Tourism and Economic Development: Foster, 
Cairman; Judy Hunt and Huffman, Vice Chairmen; Chapin, Jeffus, Morgan, 
N,e, Russell, and Wainwright. 


Barnes, Chairman 

Sbcommittee on Community Colleges: Black, Chairman; Wilmoth and 
Rpdes, Vice Chairmen; Albertson, Dickson, Dockham, Grady, Green, Holt, 
ajl Jarrell. 

Sbcommittee on Pre-School, Elementary and Secondary Education: 

R?ers, Chairman; Fussell, Payne and Wood, Vice Chairmen; Bowman, 
D':ker, Gamble, Judy Hunt, Jeffus, Lewis, McAllister, Michaux, Nye, Pope, 
Winwright, and Wilson. 

S ^committee on University Education and Affairs: Warner, Chairman; 
Brnhill and Gardner, Vice Chairmen; Gist, Gottovi, Gray, Hege, Luebke, and 



DeVane, Chairman 

committee on Hazardous Waste: Hightower, Chairman; Dawkins and 

Rpdes, Vice Chairmen; Church, Creech, Hackney, Kahl, and Privette. 


454 North Carolina Manual 

Subcommittee on Solid Waste: Thompson, Chairman; Mavretic anc 
Grimmer, Vice Chairmen; Bowen, Diamont, Kimsey, Loflin, Luebke, McGec 
Miller, Redwine, and Rhyne. 

Subcommittee on Water, Air and Soil: J. W. Crawford, Chairman 
Ethridge and Culp, Vice Chairmen; Brown, Colton, Decker, Dial, Flaherty 
Fussell, Gottovi, Kerr, McLawhorn, Payne, Warner, and Withrow. 


Colton, Chairman i 


Lineberry, Wicker, and Tallent, Vice Chairmen; Diamont, Fletcher, Fosteri 
Gray, Hege, Hurley, Isenhower, Jones, Justus, Kennedy, McGee, Mercer, an(: 
Rhyne. j 


Hackney and Miller, Co-Chairmen. 

Subcommittee on Local and Regional Government Revenue: Gamble 
Chairman; Bowen and Rhodes, Vice Chairmen; Beall, Hurley, Isenhowei 
Jarrell, Lewis, McLawhorn, Morgan, Stewart, Thompson, and Wilson. | 

Subcommittee on State Revenue: Kerr, Chairman: Stamey and Brawleji 
Vice Chairmen; Abernethy, Brown, Buchanan, Fletcher, Grimmer, Hardaway 
R. Hunter, Ligon, Leubke, Mavretic, Mercer, Smith, Wilmoth, and Withrow. | 

Subcommittee on Ways and Means: Lilley, Chairman; Hunt, Wicker, an 
Wood, Vice Chairmen; Colton, Cunningham, Dawkins, Fitch, Hightowei 
Howard, Judy Hunt, Jordan, Lineberry, Loflin, Privette, Ramsey, Robinsor 
Tallent, and Wainwright. 


Jeralds, Chairman 

Subcommittee on Aging: Green, Chairman; Foster and Privette, Vic 

Chairmen; Bowman, N.J. Crawford, Culp, Cunningham, Ethridge, Gambl( 

Kimsey, and Oldham. 

Subcommittee on Children, Youth and Families: Jones, Chairman 

Easterling and Bowie, Vice Chairmen; Colton, Hensley, McAllistef 

McLawhorn, Russell, Wilson and Withrow. | 

Subcommittee on Health and Mental Health: Barnhill, Chairmaii 
Greenwood and Isenhower, Vice Chairmen; Beard, Brubaker, J.W. Crawfor(| 
Esposito, Gardner, Gottovi, H. Hunter, Ligon, Luebke, Lutz, Wainwrigh 
and Woodard. 


Kennedy, Chairman 

Barnes, and Wicker, Vice Chairmen; Bowie, Easterling, Esposito, Fitcl; 
Hardaway, Holt, Hurley, Justus, Rhyne, Robinson, and Woodard. 

The Legislative Branch 455 


Dawkins, Chairman 

rack, Gardner, and Rhyne, Vice Chairmen; Balmer, Beard, Diamont, 
I)ckham, Jeffus, McLaughHn, Michaux, Miller, Nesbitt, Payne, Pope, and 


Robert Hunter, Chairman 

lint, Kerr, and Huffman, Vice Chairmen; Church, Cunningham, Flaherty, 
(jimmer. Hackney, Hensley, Jeralds, Jordan, McGee, Morgan, and Privette. 


Bowen, Fitch and Hunt, Co-Chairmen 

lickney, Jeralds, Nesbitt, Brubaker, and Rhodes, Vice Chairmen; Albertson, 
lack, Brawley, Cunningham, DeVane, Dial, Ethridge, Gist, Green, 
Cimmer, Hege, Hensley, Holmes, Huffman, Jack Hunt, Judy Hunt, Justus, 
Pnnedy Loflin, Payne, Ramsey, Robinson, Rogers, Stamey, Wainwright, 
ad Wood. 


Gist, Chairman 

Jrrell, Thompson, and Isenhower, Vice Chairmen; Beard, Black, Decker, 
Cttovi, Hege, Jones, Jordan, McAllister, and Privette. 



I Lutz, Chairman 

]\i:Laughlin, Stamey, and Holmes, Vice Chairmen; Abernethy, Barbee, 
Echanan, Easterling, Esposito, Hasty, Hurley, James, Kahl, Lilley, and 


Greenwood, Chairman 

Ne and Wood, Vice Chairmen; Barbee, Brawley, DeVane, Fletcher, Grady, 
rley, Ligon, Lutz, Mercer, Rogers, and Warner. 


Ramsey, Chairman 

Fksell, Redwine and Wilson, Vice Chairmen; Barnhill, Chapin, Gulp, Dial, 
Ebosito, Fitch, Fletcher, Gardner, Jeffus, Kimsey, Lewis, McLawhorn, Nye, 
Clham, and Stewart. 


I Judy Hunt, Chairman 

Kfr, Ramsey, and Tallent, Vice Chairmen; Anderson, Balmer, Beall, 
EVane, Dockham, Hightower, Holmes, James, Lineberry, Mavretic, 
Rtnsey, Redwine, Robinson, Smith and Thompson. 


456 North Carolina Manual 


Jack Hunt, Chairman 

Colton, Hackney, Michaux, Stamey, and Robinson, Vice Chairmen; Barbet 
Barnes, Brawley, Dawkins, Ethridge, Hardaway, Hensley, Huffman, I! 
Hunter, McAlHster, Payne, Ramsey, Rhyne, Tallent, Wicker, Woodard an' 
Wood. j 


Woodard, Chairman { 

Warner and Balmer, Vice Chairmen; Flaherty, Hensley, Luebke, Morgar 

Nesbitt, Stewart, Tallent, and Withrow. I 



Mavretic, Chairman { 

Subcommittee on State Boards and Commissions: Stewart, Chairman 
Gist and Gray, Vice Chairmen; Foster, Hightower, Jack Hunt, Morgan, Ny! 
Rhodes, Rogers, Russell, and Thompson. j 

Subcommittee on Miltary, Veterans and Indian Affairs: Mercer, Chail 
man; Beall, Cunningham, and Buchanan, Vice Chairmen; Albertson, Browij 
Grady, Greenwood, Hasty, Jeralds, Lilley, and Wood. 

Subcommittee on State Parks, Facilities and Property: Wilmoth, Chai 
man; N.J. Crawford and Holmes, Vice Chairmen; Abernethy, Andersoi 
Chapin, J.W. Crawford, Howard, Huffman, Kahl, Smith, and Stamey. i 


Stamey, Chairman 

Subcommittee on Airports, Railways, and Waterways: Jarrell, Chai 
man; Dawkins and Abernethy, Vice Chairmen; J.W. Crawford, Gambl 
Howard, Kahl, Lewis, Lilley, Loflin and Mercer. | 

Subcommittee on Highways: Church, Chairman; Hunter and Barbe 
Vice Chairmen; Bowen, Bowman, Buchanan, Creech, Ethridge, Gray, Greei 
wood, Sam Hunt, Lineberry, McGee, Rhodes, and Wilmoth. j 

Subcommittee on Public Transportation: Hurley, Chairmai 
McLaughlin and Bowie, Vice Chairmen; Colton, Dickson, Gist, Grimme 
Luebke, and Withrow. 

The Legislative Branch 457 

458 North Carolina Manual 

The Judicial Branch 459 

The Judicial Branch 


The court system of North Carolina has historically had many levels, 
tatewide, there was the Supreme Court and the Superior Court. At the local 
Ifvel were hundreds of Recorder's Courts, Domestic Relations Courts, Mayor's 
lourts. County Courts and Justice of the Peace Courts created by the General 
ssembly and individually tailored for the towns and counties. Some of these 
iiurts were in session nearly full time, others only an hour or two a week. Some 
lere presided over by a full-time judge, although most were not. Some courts 
ad judges who were lawyers, but many had judges who were layman and 
i)ent most of their time at other pursuits. The salaries for judges varied 
spending on the court and the cost of court varied from court to court, 
,)metimes differing even within the same county. 

j As early as 1955, certain citizens recognized that something should be done 
I bring uniformity to the court system in North Carolina . At the suggestion of 
overnor Luther Hodges and Chief Justice M.V. Barnhill, the North Carolina 
ar Association sponsored an in-depth study which ultimately resulted in the 
structuring of the court system. Any changes, however, required amending 
rticle IV of the State Constitution. In November of 1962 the citizens of North 
iarolina approved an amendment which authorized making the changes; 
i)wever, there was not enough time between the passage of the amendment 
lid the convening of the 1963 General Assembly to prepare legislation to 
'iplement the changes. The General Assembly of 1963 created a Courts 
pmmission and charged it with the responsibility of preparing the new 
Ijislation. The Courts Commission began its study soon after the adjournment 
tjthe session. Legislation was introduced in the 1965 General Assembly to 
ijtablish a new court system. This legislation created an Administrative 
I'ffice of the Courts and established the framework for the District Court 

[The 1965 General Assembly also recommended that Article IV of the 
<|»nstitution be further amended to allow for the creation of an intermediate 
<'urt of appeals. This court would relieve some of the pressure of the Supreme 
•iurt by sharing the appellate caseload. The people of North Carolina 
( erwhelmingly approved this recommendation in November, 1965, and the 
B7 General Assembly enacted the necessary legislation establishing the 
]|)rth Carolina Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals became operational on 
<!;tober 1, 1967. 

ifhese constitutional changes and the implementing legislation created a 
1 ilti-level court system. At the lower level is the District Court and above it is 
t^ Superior Court. These two courts make up what is known as the trial 
oision. Above the District and Superior Courts is a two-level Appellate 

460 North Carolina Manual 

Division consisting of the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court. Th) 
Administrative Office of the Courts, which began its operations on July ]i 
1965, was to assist with the administrative functions of the system at all levels! 

The Supreme Court of North Carolina i 

As the highest court in our state, the Supreme Court has functioned as a:' 
appellate court since 1805, although prior to 1819 the members also acted a| 
trial judges, holding terms in the different counties. The Supreme Court doe: 
not hear witnesses, nor does it have juries, as it does not pass on questions a 
fact. The Supreme Court is not a trial court, but rather hears oral arguments o:i 
questions of law only. Such arguments presented are based upon records an 
briefs of cases previously tried by the Superior Courts, District Courts, an. 
certain administrative agencies and commissions. 

During the late 1950's and early 1960's, the Supreme Court of North Carolin 
had been one of the busiest in the country. Faced with an increasing number a 
cases dealing with its customary judicial business and a number of pogf 
conviction appeals based on constitutional issues resulting from recent Unite 
States Supreme Court decisions, the court was becoming overburdened. Thi 
situation led the 1965 General Assembly to submit a proposed constitutionj, 
amendment authorizing the creation of an intermediate court of appeals. Th 
court would relieve the pressure on the Supreme Court by sharing the appellalj 
case load. The people overwhelmingly approved this recommendation in tl" 
November 1965 election, and the 1967 General Assembly enacted the necessai 
legislation establishing the North Carolina Court of Appeals. 

The new appellate plan provided that all cases, except capital and Irj 
imprisonment cases, would be appealed to the Court of Appeals. The Supreirj 
Court could also "certify" certain cases for hearing, bypassing the Court (j 
Appeals; however, this procedure would occur only in a minority of instance| 
After the case had been heard and decided by the Court of Appeals, tl! 
Supreme Court would again have the opportunity to hear it for the san 
reasons. Moreover, if the case as decided by the Court of Appeals involved 
constitutional issue or was a Utilities Commission general rate-making case (' 
was decided by a split Court of Appeals, the Supreme Court would have to grai 
this case a second appellate hearing. Thus, the Supreme Court remained tl 
court entrusted with the final decision on all important questions of law. 

Since 1937 the Court has consisted of the Chief Justice and six Associa 
Justices. Originally, the court had only three members (1818-1868; 1875-188^, 
however, there were times when there were five members (1868-1875; 188j 
1937). The Chief Justice and the associate justices are elected by the peopll 
each for eight-year terms. If a vacancy occurs during a term, the Governor fil^ 
the vacancy until the next general election. 

All sessions of the Court are held in the Justice Building in Raleigh. The 
are two terms each year — the Spring Term which begins in February, and tl 
Fall Term which begins in late August. Each term continues until the cas 
docketed have been determined or continued. All cases appealed from tl 
various court districts of the state are heard in each half-year term. The Chi| 
Justice presides. In his absence the senior ranking Justice presides. Tl 
Justices are seated, to the right or left of the Chief Justice, according to th( 
seniority in years of service on the Court. 

The Judicial Branch 461 

Officials of the Supreme Court are the Clerk, the Librarian, and the Reporter. 
Each is appointed by the Court, the Clerk for a term of eight years and the 
others to serve at the Court's pleasure. 


The North Carolina Court of Appeals 

The constitutional amendment adopted in 1965 establishing the Court of 
\ppeals and the legislation implementing it, provided for a total of nine judges, 
lected for terms of eight years, the same as for members of the Supreme Court, 
n 1977, the General Assembly created three additional seats on the court, 
•ringing the total number of judges to twelve. The court sits in panels of three 
ludges, thus allowing arguments in separate cases to be heard at the same time, 
f^he Chief Justice of the Supreme Court designates one of the judges of the 
I'ourt of Appeals as Chief Judge. Member judges are assigned by the Chief 
judge to sit in panels in such a fashion that each will sit, as nearly as possible, 
fn equal number of times with every other member. The Court sits primarily in 
taleigh, but as need is demonstrated and facilities become available, it may be 
authorized by the Supreme Court to sit in other places throughout the state, 
iihe Court of Appeals appoints a clerk to serve at its pleasure. The Appellate 
division Reporter prepares an official "report" of opinions of the Court of 
Lppeals just as he does for the Supreme Court. 


The Superior Court 

The Superior Court is the trial court of general jurisdiction in North 
farolina. The constitution provides that there shall be a term of Superior Court 
ji each county at least twice a year. A schedule of the terms of courts for the 
larious counties is established by the Supreme Court with the aid of the 
administrative Office of the Courts. Some counties have only two one-week 
|rms per year. In the larger counties several terms of court are in almost 
bntinuous session except for holidays. The counties are grouped into judicial 
Istricts. A regular judge elected for an eight-year term resides in each district, 
dditional resident judges are provided in the larger districts. The judicial 
stricts are grouped into four judicial divisions. Each resident judge presides 
r a period of six months in each court of each district within his division, thus 
tating throughout all the districts in the division. 

Some districts have more courts scheduled than the regular presiding judge 
n hold. Furthermore, there is a provision for the calling of special terms by 
e Chief Justice. Special judges are provided primarily to take care of such 
uations. These judges are appointed by the Governor for a four-year term 
d serve in any county within the state upon assignment by the Chief Justice. 
North Carolina is divided into prosecutorial districts with a district attorney 
3cted for each district. Elected for a four-year term, he represents the state in 
1 criminal cases tried within his district. 

Each county furnishes and maintains a courthouse with a courtroom and 
ated facilities. A Clerk of Superior Court is elected to a four-year term in each 
unty. The clerk has custody of the records in all cases, including District 
)urt cases. The clerk also serves as ex-officio judge of probate, and has other 
merous quasi-judicial, ministerial, and administrative duties. 
The Sheriff of each county, or one of his deputies, performs the duties of 

462 North Carolina Manual 

bailiff. He opens and closes courts, carries out directions of the judge in 
maintaining order, takes care of jurors when they are deliberating on a case ! 
and otherwise assists the judge. A court reporter is required to record the 
proceedings in most of the cases tried in the Superior Court. Jurors are drawn ! 
for each term of court. Since January 1, 1968, North Carolina has had a new I 
jury selection law which is intended to eliminate many of the inequities of the ; 
old system. The new system required an independent three-man jury commis- 1 
sion to select names at random from the tax rolls, the voter registration books, j 
and any other sources deemed reliable. Each name is given a number, and the 
Clerk of Superior Court draws a number of prospective jurors at random from a 
box. The numbers are matched with the names which are held by the Register ' 
of Deeds, and the resulting list of names is summoned by the Sheriff. No 
occupation or class of person is excused from jury service. In fact, the law j 
specifically declares that jury service is an obligation of citizenship to be ' 
discharged by all qualified citizens. Excuses from jury service can be granted 
only by a trial judge. 

The District Court i 

The Judicial Department Act of 1965 provided for the establishment of ai 
uniform system of District Courts in three phases throughout the State: In; 
December of 1966, the District Court was activated in 22 counties; in December 
of 1968, the District Court was established in an additional 61 counties; and in 
December of 1970, in the remaining 17 counties. As the District Court was 
established in a judicial district, all courts inferior to the Superior Court were 
abolished, all cases pending in the abolished court were transferred to the 
dockets of the District Court for trial, and all records of the abolished court were 
transferred to the office of the Clerk of Superior Court, who is required to 
maintain a system of consolidated records of both the Superior Court and the 
District Court. Upon the establishment of a District Court in a county, the 
county was relieved of all expenses incident to the operation of the courts 
except the expense for providing adequate physical facilities. 

The District Court has exclusive original jurisdiction of misdemeanors, and 
concurrent jurisdiction of civil cases where the amount in controversy is $5,000 
or less, and of domestic relations cases regardless of the amount in controversy. 
Jury trial is provided, upon demand, in civil cases regardless of the amount in 
controversy. Jury trial is provided, upon demand, in civil cases. An appeal in a 
civil case is to the Court of Appeals on questions of law only. No jury is 
authorized in criminal cases. Upon appeal in criminal cases, trial de novo will 
be had in the Superior Court, where a jury is available. 

District Court judges are elected for four-year terms. In multi-judge districts' 
the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court designates one of the judges as Chiei 
District Court Judge. District Court judges serve full time. I 

The Judicial Branch 463 


With the establishment of the District Court in the counties, the office of 
iustice of the peace was abolished. Under the new system, magistrates replaced 
he old justices of the peace. Magistrates are appointed by the Senior Resident 
superior Court Judge, upon recommendation of the Clerk of Superior Court, to 
erve a term of two years. Magistrates operate with less authority and 
liscretion than old justices of the peace, and with much more supervision. They 
let in certain minor civil and criminal matters. They are on a salary and can 
'ccept guilty pleas only, and then only for the most petty offenses. The law 
ives the Chief District Judge general supervisory authority over the 


North Carolina Manual 

The Judicial Branch 465 


James Gooden Exum, Jr. 


Early Years: Born September 14, 1935, to James G. and Mary Wall (Bost) 
Exum. Grew up in Snow Hill, N.C. 

Education: Snow Hill High School, 1953; University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, 1957, A.B. (English); New York University School of Law, 1960, 
LL.B; National Judicial College, 1969; Senior Appellate Judges Seminar, New 
York University School of Law and Institute of Judicial Administration, 1976. 

Professional Background: Chief Justice, N.C. Supreme Court, 1986- ; 
Associate Justice, N.C. Supreme Court, 1975-1986 (elected 1974, reelected 1982); 
kesident Superior Court Judge, 18th Judicial District, 1967-1974 (appointed, 
iJuly 1, 1967, by Governor Dan K. Moore to a newly created judgeship; elected, 
1968); law clerk. Associate Justice Emery B. Denny, N.C. Supreme Court, 
L960-61; practicing attorney (firm of Smith, Moore, Smith, Schell and Hunter, 
jrreensboro, N.C), 1961-1967; visiting lecturer. University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill School of Law, 1978-1985. 

Organizations: Conference of Chief Justices 1986- (member. Board of 
Directors, 1990-; chairman. Committee on Resolutions; liaison, Commission on 
Jniform Laws); Judicial Conference of the United States (member. Advisory 
]!ommittee on Criminal Rules 1988-90); American Bar Association (chairman, 
Kd Hoc Committee on Death Penalty Costs 1983-); chairman. Standing 
^^ommittee on Criminal Justice Standards, 1990-; Member, Criminal Justice 
section Council, 1981-1985); N.C. Bar Association (Vice Chairman, Task Force 
)n Alternatives to Litigation, 1984-1986); member. Central Selection Com- 
nittee, Morehead Scholarship Foundation, 1975-1988; President, General 
Uumni Association, UNC-CH, 1987-88; Mason; Shriner; Sigma Nu; Phi Delta 
*hi; Watauga Club; Milburnie Fishing Club; Capitol City Club; Wake County 
^hittlin' Club. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1967. 

Military Service: U.S. Army Reserves, 1961-1967 (Captain); U.S. Army 
nformation School, 1961 (honor graduate). 

Honors: Valedictorian, 1953; Distinguished Service Award, Psi chapter, 
ligma Nu Fraternity, 1974; Distinguished Service Award, Greensboro Jaycees, 
968; Root Tilden Scholar, 1957-1960; Benjamin F. Butler Memorial Award, 
960; Morehead Scholar, 1953-1957; Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award, 1957; 
*hi Eta Sigma, 1954; President, Phi Beta Kappa, 1956. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Church, Raleigh; Former Senior 
i^arden, Vestryman, and Sunday School Teacher, Holy Trinity Church, 
freensboro and Christ Church, Raleigh; Member and Chalice Bearer, Christ 
Church, Raleigh; Former Parliamentarian, Episcopal Diocese of North Caro- 

Family: Married Judith Jamison, June 29, 1963. Children: James Gooden, 
teven Jamison, and Mary March (Exum) Williams. 


North Carolina Manual 

Louis B. Meyer, Jr. 


Early Years: Born in Marion, 
McDowell County, July 15, 1933, to 
Louis B. and Beulah V. (Smith) Meyer, 

Education: Enfield Public Schools; 
Wake Forest University, 1955, B.A.; 
Wake Forest University School of 
Law, 1960, J.D. 

Professional Background: As- 
sociate Justice, N.C. Supreme Court, 
1981 -(appointed January, 1981; elected, 
November, 1982; re-elected, 1986); for- 
mer attorney (private practice, 18 
years); former special agent, FBI; 
former Adjunct Professor of Business 
Law, Atlantic Christian College; law clerk, N.C. Supreme Court, 1960. i 

Organizations: Wilson County Bar Association (former President); 7th 
Judicial Bar Association (former President); N.C. Bar Association (former Vice j 
President); Masons. \ 

Boards : Board of Trustees, Wake Forest University; Board of Visitors, 
Wake Forest University School of Law. i 

Military Service: U.S. Army, 1955-1957 (1st Lieutenant). I 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Wilson; Sunday 
School Teacher; Deacon and Former Trustee. | 

Family: Married Evelyn Spradlin, December 29, 1956. Children: Louis B., 
Ill; Patricia Shannon Cave; and Adam Burden. „ 

The Judicial Branch 


Burley B. Mitchell, Jr. 


Early Years: Born December 15, 
1940, to Burley Bayard and Dorothy 
Ford (Champion) Mitchell, Sr. 

Education: Raleigh Public 
Schools; N.C. State University, 1966, 
B.A. cum laude; University of North 
Carolina-Chapel Hill School of Law, 
1969, J.D.; Senior Appellate Judges 
Seminar, New York University School 
of Law and Institute of Judicial 
Administration, 1984 and 1988. 

Professional Background: As- 
sociate Justice, N.C. Supreme Court, 
1982- (appointed, 1982; elected 1982; 
re-elected, 1984); Secretary, N.C. 
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety, 1979-1982; Judge, N.C. Court 
t»f Appeals, 1977-1979; District Attorney, Tenth Judicial District, 1972-1977; 
i^ssistant Attorney General of N.C, 1969-1972; admitted to practice before the 
j|J.S. Supreme Court, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, and all State 
!.nd Federal Courts in N.C. 

Organizations: Institute of Judicial Administration; American Bar Asso- 
ciation; N.C. Bar Association (Vice President, 1986-87); Wake County Bar 
association; Delta Theta Phi; International Mensa Society; Raleigh Kiwanis 
/lub; State Government Employees Combined United Fund Campaign; 
prmer chairman. Triangle March of Dimes Drive. 

Boards: Chairman, Governor's Advisory Board on Prisons and Punish- 
jient, 1989-92; Governor's Crime Commission, 1977 ; N.C. Courts Commission, 
J983- ; N.C. News Media Administration of Justice Council, 1976. 

I Military Service: U.S. Navy (7th Fleet, Asia), 1958-1962. 
Honors: Outstanding Young Man of the Year, City of Raleigh, 1975; 

reedom Guard Award for Community, Religious, and Governmental 

etivities, N.C. Jaycees, 1974-75; N.C. National Guard Citizenship Award, 

382; Who's Who in America, 1984. Outstanding Alumnus, N.C. State 

niversity, 1990. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hayes-Barton United Methodist Church, 
-aleigh; President, United Methodist Men, 1984; Sunday School Teacher, 


I Family: Married Mary Lou Willet, August 3, 1962. Children: David Bayard 
ad Catherine Morris. 


North Carolina Manual 

I. Beverly Lake, Jr. 


Early Years: Born in Raleigh, 
Wake County, 1934, to Mr. and Mrs. I. 
Beverly Lake, Sr. 

Education: Wake Forest Grammar 
and High Schools; Mars Hill College, 
1951; Wake Forest University, 1955, 
B.S.; Wake Forest University School 
of Law, 1960, J.D. 

Professional Background: Asso- 
ciate Justice, N.C. Supreme Court, 
1992-; Judge, Superior Court, 1985- 
1990; Governor's Legislative Liaison 
and Chief Lobbyist, 1985 Session; Pri- 
vate Practice, 1976-1985; Deputy At- 
torney General (1974-76), Assistant 
Attorney General (1969-1974), N.C. Dept. of Justice; Private Practice, 1960-69. i 

Organizations: Member, N.C. Bar; N.C. Bar Association; Wake Co. Bar 
Association; Association of Interstate Commerce Commission Practitioners; 
N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Republican Party (Delegate to National 
Convention, 1980; State Finance Chairman, 1982; Central Committee Member, 
1982; Executive Committee Member, 1980-82); National Conference of State 
Legislatures (1977-1980); Legislative Research Commission (1978-79); State 
Capitol Planning Commission (1977-1980); N.C. Medical Cost Containment 
Commission (1979-1980); N.C. General Statutes Commission (1979-1981); i 
Raleigh Chamber of Commerce (1977-1983); National Advisory Board, Monitor 
Research and Recovery Foundation (1975-79). 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1976-1980 (two terms); Nominee 
of the Republican Party for Governor of North Carohna, 1979-1980; N.C. 
Eastern Chairman, Reagan-Bush Campaign, 1984). 

Military Service: U.S. Army, Intelligence Staff Officer, Active Duty, 1956- ij 
58; Member, Staff and Faculty, Raleigh U.S. Army Reserve School, 1960-68; j 
Member, American Legion; AMVETS, Navy League. 

Honors: Ranked one of ten most effective N.C. Senators, Public Policy 
Research Institute, 1979-80; N.C. Consumer Council Commendation, 1976; 


Commendation for Meritorious Service, U.S. Army, 1958, 1964; Scabbard and , 
Blade, 1955; Eagle Scout, 1948. ' 

Religious Activities: Ridge Road Baptist Church. 

Family: Married to former Susan Deichmann Smith. Children: Lynn 
Elizabeth, Guy, Laura Ann, and Lee. 

The Judicial Branch 


Henry E. Frye 


Early Years: Born in Ellerbe, Rich- 
mond County, August 1, 1932, to 
Walter A. and Pearl (Motley) Frye 
(both deceased). 

Education: Mineral Springs 
School; North Carolina A & T State 
University, 1953, B.S.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill School of Law, 1959, J.D. with 

Professional Background: As- 
sociate Justice, N.C. Supreme Court, 
1983- (appointed, February, 1983 to 
replace J. Phil Carlton; elected, 1984); 
practicing attorney, 1959-1963, 1967- 
1983; former professor, N.C. Central 

.niversity Law School, 1965-1967; Assistant U.S. Attorney, Middle District of 

jorth CaroHna, 1963-1965. 

i Organizations: Greensboro Bar Association; N.C. Bar Association; Ameri- 
^n Bar Association; National Bar Association; Kappa Alpha Psi; American 
[idicature Society. 

.Boards: Board of Directors, N.C. Mutual Life Insurance Company, 1973- 
,)83; Board of Directors, Greensboro National Bank, 1971-1983 (President, 



jPolitical Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1981-82; member, N.C. House of 
bpresentatives, 1969-1980. 

jMilitary Service: U.S. Air Force, 1953-1955 (Captain) 

iHonors: Alumni Excellence Award, North Carolina A & T State University, 
72; Doctor of Laws, Shaw University, 1971, N.C. A & T State University, 
83; Charles D. Mclver Medal, UNC - Greensboro, 1986; Distinguished 

lumnus Award, UNC - Chapel Hill, 1986; Greensboro Business Leaders Hall 

(Fame, Jr. Achievement of Central N.C, 1991. 

'Religious Activities: Member, Providence Baptist Church, Greensboro; 
ifeacon; former Sunday School Teacher. 

ramily: Married Edith Shirley Taylor, August 25, 1956. Children: Henry 
tie and Harlan Elbert. 


North Carolina Manual 

John Webb 


Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, 
Nash County, September 18, 1926, to 
William Devin and Ella (Johnson) 

Education: Charles L. Coon High 
School, 1944; UNC - Chapel Hill; 
Columbia University School of Law, 
1952, LL.B. 

Professional Background: As- 
sociate Justice, N.C. Supreme Court, 
1987- (elected 1986, reelected 1990); 
Judge, N.C. Court of Appeals, 1977- 
1986 (appointed December 2, 1977 by 
Governor Hunt as one of three new 
judges; elected, 1978; re-elected 1984); 
Judge, Superior Court, 1971-1977. 

Organizations: N.C. Bar Association; Phi Delta Phi; Phi Beta Kappa. 

Military Service: U.S. Navy, 1944-1946 (Third Class Petty Officer). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher, 1955-1979; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Carolyn Harris, September 13, 1958. Children: Caroline 
(Webb) Smart and William Devin. 

The Judicial Branch 


Willis Padgett Whichard 


Early Years: Born in Durham, 
Durham county, May 24, 1940, to WilHs 
Guilford (deceased) and Beulah 
(Padgett) Whichard. 

Education: Durham City Schools; 
UNO - Chapel Hill, 1962, A.B.; UNC 
-Chapel Hill School of Law, 1965, J.D.; 
University of Virginia, LL.M., 1984. 

Professional Background: As- 
sociate Justice, N.C. Supreme Court, 
(elected 1986); Judge, N.C. Court of 
Appeals, 1980-1986; practicing attor- 
ney, 1966-1980; Law Clerk, WilHam H. 
Bobbitt, former Chief Justice, N.C. 
Supreme Court, 1965-66. 

Organizations: American Bar Association; N.C. Bar Association; Durham 
i!ounty Bar Association; Phi Beta Kappa; Phi Alpha Delta; Phi Delta Phi; 
)rder of the Coif; Kiwanis Club of Tobaccoland, 1974-1985; UNC Law Alumni 
association (President, 1978-79); Director, Durham County Chapter, American 
:,ed Cross, 1971-1979; Director, Transition of Youth, Inc., 1971-1978; Southern 
.rrowth Policies Board, 1971-1980 (Vice Chairman, 1975-1978); Director, 
Durham YMCA, 1973-1977; Durham Jaycees, 1966-1975; Chapter Chairman, 
National Foundation, March of Dimes, 1969-1974. 

{Boards: Senior Citizens Coordinating Council, 1972-1975; Governor's 
'dvisory Committee on Youth Development, 1972-73. 

j Political Activities: Member, N.C. House of Representatives, 1970-1974; 
'lember, N.C. Senate, 1974-1980; Legislative Research Commission, 1971-1973, 

Military Service: U.S. Army National Guard, 1966-1972; life member, 
ational Guard Association. 

Honors: Outstanding Appellate Judge, N.C. Acadamy of Trial Lawyers, 
)83; Outstanding Youth Service, N.C. Juvenile Correctional Association, 
)75; Outstanding Legislator, N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers, 1975; Young 
i^an of the Year, Durham, 1971. 

Family: Married, Leona Irene Paschal, June 4, 1961. Children: Jennifer 
iane and Ida Gilbert. 

472 North Carolina Manual 


Prior to the reforming and reorganizing of the court system in North j 
Carolina in the early 1960s, there was no unified court system, centralized i 
administration, statewide financing or many other structural and opera-  
tional characteristics uniform statewide. The decisions made by the various I 
Bar Association study committees and subsequently by the people, and the I 
implementing legislation recommended by the Courts Commission, charted 
new ground in court systems and established a model which to this day is i 
being followed in other states. ' 

A key element in this process was the concept that the court system would I 
operate more efficiently and fairly, across the state, with centralized ad- 
ministration and management. Thus, the constitutitional amendment and ' 
implementing legislation called for establishment of an Administrative \ 
Office of the Courts to accomplish this purpose. The statutes provide for a j 
Director and an Assistant Director, both appointed by the Chief Justice, to j 
serve at his pleasure. Therefore, the judges are substantially relieved of the 
conduct of the business affairs of the Judiciary so that they can concentrate ' 
their efforts on the disposition of cases. j 

Some specific statutory duties are outlined below, but the functions of the 
Administrative Office of the Courts can be grouped into several major 
headings including fiscal management, personnel direction, information 
services, juvenile services, guardian ad litem services, trial court manage- 
ment services, research and planning, and administrative services. | 

Operating costs of The Judicial Brnach are paid from state appropria- 
tions. Consequently, the Administrative Office of the Courts is responsible 
for preparing the budget, as well as managing appropriations, for the 
Judicial Branch. In addition to managing the budget and expenditures, the 
Fiscal Services Division (controller's office) also has estabhshed and super- 
vises the method of accounting for the hundreds of millions of dollars which 
flow annually through the offices of the Clerk of Superior Court. All equip- 
ment and supplies used in the court system are centrally purchased and 
distributed. Forms are designed, printed, and provided to the various clerk's 
offices. The payroll and travel expenses for Judicial Branch personnel are 
handled in this division and the Personnel Services Division. I 

As a separate branch of government, the Judiciary is not subject to the 
State Personnel Office which serves the Executive Branch of government. 
Instead, they administer their own personnel system. Thus, the responsibility 
of classifying jobs and administering the personnel system of the Judicial 
Branch is vested in the Administrative Office of the Courts. [ 

The Administrative Office of the Courts has designed and implemented a 
record keeping system and a statistical reporting system by which it main- 
tains a case by case inventory of the more than 2.4 million cases which flow 
through the system each year. In the specific area of juvenile justice, the 
Office is responsible for administration of the juvenile intake, probation and 
aftercare services on a statewide basis. To perform this service, there are 
more than 300 professional court counselors. 

The Judicial Branch 473 

The Administrative Office of the Courts also provides extensive services in 
reas related to trial court management, including programs for case calen- 
^r supervision, jury utilization management and other services designed to 
'lake the work of the trial courts more efficient. 

The Assistant Director of the Administrative Office of the Courts is the 
iministrative assistant to the Chief Justice. The Assistant Director's respon- 
fbilities include assisting the Chief Justice and the Supreme Court in 
feparing the schedules of superior courts and assigning superior court 
dges to the various court sessions. The Director and Assistant Director 
lare primary responsibilities to coordinate the programs that provide 
mnsel for indigent defendants. A continuing and overriding responsibility 
I the Office is to study the operation of the court system and make 
^commendations for improvements. In addition to the work of its Research 
id Planning Division, this function involves coordination with various 
'^encies such as the Courts Commission, the Governor's Crime Commission, 
|ie Sentencing Policy and Advisory Commission and other agencies and 

'Although the operations of the Administrative Office of the Courts are 
merally outlined above, a specific statutory listing of duties include the 

(1) collecting and compiling statistical data on the judicial and finan- 
i cial operations of the courts 

j (2) determining the state of the dockets and evaluating the practice and 
procedures of the courts, and making recommendations for the efficient 
I administration of justice 

(3) prescribing uniform administrative and business methods and 
I systems to be used in the offices of the Clerks of Superior Court 

(4) preparing budget estimates of State appropriations necessary for 
i the operation of the Judicial Department 

I (5) investigating and making recommendations concerning the securing 
j of adequate physical accommodations 

(6) procuring and distributing such equipment, forms and supplies as 
I are to be acquired with State funds 

(7) making recommendations for the improvement of the operation of 
the Judicial Department 

(8) preparing an annual report on the work of the Judicial Department 

(9) assisting the Chief Justice in performing his duties relating to the 
! transfer of the District Court Judges for temporary or specialized duty 

(10) performing such additional duties and exercising such additional 
powers as may be prescribed by statute or assigned by the Chief Judges. 



North Carolina Manual 

Franklin E. Freeman, Jr. 


Early Years: Born in Dobson, Surry 
County, May 5, 1945, to Franklin E. and 
Clara E. (Smith) Freeman. 

Education: Graduated, Surry Central 
High School, Dobson, 1963; University 
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1967, ' 
B.A.; UNC-CH School of Law, 1970, J.D. \ 

Professional Background: Ad- : 

ministrative Officer of the Courts, | 
1981; District Attorney, 17th Judicial j 
District, 1979-81; Assistant Director,! 
Administrative Office of the Courts and i 
Administrative Assistant to Chief Justices William Bobbitt and Susie Sharp, ' 
1973-78; Executive Secretary to the Judicial District, 1971-73; Assistant Dis- ' 
trict Attorney, 17th Judicial District, 1971-1973; Research Assistant, As-j 
sociate Justice Dan K. Moore, 1970-71. j 

Organizations: Surry County and Rockingham County Bar Associations; 
17th District Bar; North Carolina State Bar; North Carolina Bar Association; 
Delta Upsilon Fraternity; 10th District Bar; Conference of State Court' 
Administrators (COSCA), COSCA Board of Directors, 1987-90. 

Honors: Service awards from Conference of Superior Court Judges, Con- 
ference of District Court Judges, N.C. Clerks of Superior Court Association, 
and N.C. Magistrates Association; "TarHeel of the Week," News and 
Observer (Raleigh, N.C); Order of the Golden Fleece; President, Student Bar 
Association, UNC Law School, 1969-70. j 

Literary Works: "The Indigent Defendant Program, A Review of Sub- 
Chapter 9 of Chapter 7A of the General Statutes," The North Carolina Bar 
Quarterly, Volume 24, 1977, Number 4; "The Role of the Administrative 
Office of the Courts," The North Carolina State Bar Quarterly, Vol. 36, 
No. 1, Winter 1989; "An Assessment: The AOC Looks at Indigent Repre- 
sentation," Bar Notes, February/March, 1989; North Carolina Courts: A 
Perspective on the Past, Present and Future, April 21, 1990. i 

Religious Activities: Member, Main Street United Methodist Church, 
Reidsville; Chairman, Administrative Board, 1981; Chairman, Every Member! 
Canvas, 1980; Sunday School Teacher, 1972-81. I 

Family: Married, Katherine Lynn Lloyd, August 1978. Children: Margaret 
Elizabeth, Nancy Lorrin, Katherine Ann, Franklin Edward, III, Alexander 
Lloyd and Mary Clare. 

The Judicial Branch 475 


During the 1985 Session of the General Assembly, House Bill 52, ratified as 
jhapter 746, rewrote the State Administrative Procedure Act (APA). This act is 
low codified as Chapter 150B of the General Statutes. Enacted in 1974, the 

dministrative Procedure Act (then Chapter 150 A) was intended to safeguard 
ttizens' interests by establishing for most state administrative agencies 
hiform procedures for: 

; (1) adopting, centrally filing, and publishing their rules; 

(2) hearing and deciding contested cases before those agencies; and 

(3) judicially reviewing agency decisions. 

The Administrative Procedure Act is not the source of agencies' rule- 
making and decision-making powers; rather, it restricts and regularizes 
the exercise of powers granted by the numerous statutes that create those 
I agencies and define their functions or direct them to carry out specified 

The action of the General Assembly in 1985 reflected the legislative opinion 
lat state administrative agencies too often had exceeded the powers given 
iiem by the General Assembly by adopting rules not authorized by statute and 
f imposing through their rules criminal penalties not legislatively authorized, 
he action also demonstrated that merging in a single administrative agency 
;ie roles of investigator, prosecutor, and judge of a contested case (as Chapter 
!)0A had done) is fundamentally unjust. Thus the General Assembly sought to 
irtail agency powers substantially and placed the exercise of those powers 
yhich are, in fact, a delegation of legislative authority) under closer scrutiny 
'<! rewriting the Administrative Procedures Act significantly. 
.The Director is appointed to a four-year term by the Chief Justice and serves 
|; Chief Administrative Law Judge. The Director appoints the Administrative 
w Judges who may be removed only for j ust cause under the State Personnel 

Organization and Administration 

The Office of Administrative Hearings is an independent agency equivalent 
a principal department of state government, as provided for by the 
nstitution of North Carolina. As it is independent of all other agencies the 

pice must carry out all of the administrative functions of any governmental 
ency, including personnel, budget, payroll, purchase and contract, and 

mputer systems operation, as well as its operating missions. The administra- 
n and operations of the Office are performed by seven sections. 

e Administrative Staff 

he Administrative Staff performs ministerial activities involved in 
rsonnel, purchasing, payroll, budget, and public relations. 

476 North Carolina Manual 

The Agency Legal Staff 

The Agency Legal Staff provides counsel or renders opinions to OAH staff 
and outside agencies on questions of law within the purview of OAH. 

The Adjudicative Staff j 

The Adjudicative Staff consists of the Chief Administrative Law Judge, who 
is also the Director of the Agency, and eight Administrative Law Judges! 
responsible for conducting hearings on various grievable issues covered by 
administrative law. 

The Hearings Staff 

The Hearings Staff administers the contested case hearing provisions, the 
processing of cases and the collection, coding and tabulation of data related to! 

The Rules Publications Staff j 

The Rules Publications Staff performs administrative and technical workirj 
the compilation, production and publication of the North Carolina Registeij 
and the North Carolina Administrative Code (NCAC). 

The Mediations Staff 

The Mediations Staff conducts investigations and seeks resolutions oJ, 
discrimination cases deferred by the Equal Employment Opportunity Com' 

The Administrative Rules Revievv^ Staff 

The Administrative Rules Review Staff provides professional and administra 
tive support to the Administrative Rules Review Commission. 

In addition to the above administrative sections, there is a Deputy Directo| 
and an Assistant Director. The Deputy Director is responsible to the Directo' 
for all functions of the agency except adjudications. The Assistant Director ii 
responsible for the operation of the Hearings Section, the Rules Section, and al* 
computer systems. 

Hearings | 

One of the duties assigned to the Office of Administrative Hearings is tj 
provide a source of independent hearing officers to preside in administrativjj 
cases and to thereby prevent the commingling of legislative, executive, an 
judicial functions in the administrative process. It is given the judicial powe 
necessary to carry out these functions. j 

By creating a group of independent administrative law judges to serve a 
hearing officers. North Carolina was the tenth state to adopt what is known a> 
a "central panel system." Its predecessors were California, Colorado, Florida 
Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Washing 
ton. Wisconsin subsequently became the eleventh state to create a centrfl 

When a dispute with a state agency involving a person's rights, duties, (i 
privileges, including a license or a monetary penalty, cannot be resolve 
informally, then the person (natural person, partnership, agency or other bod 
politic, corporation or association) may file a "contested case." There ai 
twenty-five primary state departments and thirty-eight occupational licensini 
boards. Except for a few agencies that are exempted from the Administrat