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Full text of "The North Carolina School for the Deaf at Morganton, 1894-1944 : the education of the deaf in North Carolina, 1845-1945"

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0^^<::sr North Carolina Stat* Library ^^ 

-^ ' -^ -^ Raleigh Doc. 



At M.organton 


The Education of tke Deaf 

North Carolina 


Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 

in 2010 witli funding from 
State Library of Nortli Carolina 




At Alorganton 


jLne Education ol tne Deal 

N ortn Carolina 


Otis A. Betts 


The Priililc on the Front Cover is 

W. D. Cooke 

First Superintendent of the North Carolina 

School for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind 

Raleigh, 1845-1858 

(Drawn by Mrs. Anne Boger Starrctt 

Teacher in The North Carolina 

School for the Deaf) 


Printed bv the 

Classes In Printinp: 

North Carolina School for the Deaf 




''Tin Old Boys and Girls" 

Whose Lives Demonstrate 

The Wisdom of the 

Fojfnders of the School. 






Main Building 

North Carolina School for the Deaf, Morganton, N. C. 

A Tribute 


(Formally aiitJiorizcd by motion of the Board oi Directors) 

This volume is a labor of love! But it is far more 
because it is the result of a life time dream on the part of 
its author. 

Xor is this all, for this narrative tells a complete story, 
never before told, of North Carolina's answer to a funda- 
mental human challenge and to a genuine human need. 

It is the thrilling work of a devoted man who knows the 
facts, who tells well a stirring story in which he has had a 
part during many useful and helpful years. 

We, his fellow Directors of the North Carolina School 
for the Deaf, salute with loving pride, the author, our faith- 
ful colleague: 

O. A. BETTS, Writer, Student and Historian. 


Done in the month of April 1945 


Governor of North Carolina 


Tci the boys and girls who have been educated in the North Carolina 
School for the Deaf, at Morganton, to those who have served the School in 
any capacity whatsoever, and to the citizens of our State as a whole, we 
feel that the time has come to make a permanent record of the leading 
historical events which have taken place within the half-century of its 
existence, 1894-1945. 

In order to acquaint our readers with the early attempts and accom- 
plishments of our predecessors and to coordinate the records covering the 
entire century, our first section is devoted to the essential facts of the 
period from 1845 to 1945. 

The early struggle, the gradual and yet successful progress of the 
School is an open book in this State and a heritage of which the deaf and 
the staff members may justly be proud. The School has had difficulties and 
problems, but neither have diverted its course from its obligation to the 
State, or duty to the class for whose best physical, mental and moral devel- 
opment the School was founded. 

No history of the Morganton School for the Deaf would be complete 
without a biographical sketch of its founder, the late Dr. E. ]^IcKee Good- 
win, whose indefatigable labor, indomitable courage and outstanding ability 
carried the school through many vicissitudes of fortune to the high place 
it now holds in the annals of the education of the deaf. Therefore, we have 
devoted a considerable section of this story of the School to testimonials 
of many of Dr. Goodwin's friends and associates, gleaned from recorded 
documents covering more than fifty years of his labors in behalf of the deaf. 

To the deaf of the State who have passed through the hospitable 
walls of the school to take their places as self-reliant citizens, and to all 
those who come after them, this history will, no doubt, prove a storehouse 
of valuable information and inspire their gratitude for an institution that 
does so much for their welfare and their happiness. 

The data for this history was obtained from the records of the State 
Department of Archives and History, official records and reports of the 
School, transcriptions from the School paper. The Deaj Carolinian, former- 
ly The Kelly Messenger, .\nnual Reports of Gallaudet College, The Volta 
Bureau, The State, a Weekly Survey of Xorth Carolina, and from members 
of the School staff and Board of Directors. Every effort was made not to 
delete any detail of interest or value. 

My thanks are especially due to Dr. Carl E. Rankin, Superintendent, 
and Mrs. Pattie Thomason late. Principal, for their cooperation and 
contributions, and to :Mr. Odie W. Underhill, Vocational Director of the 
School, who collaborated in the editing: to ^Ir. George K. Brown and his 


1894 ~ North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

classes in printing who printed the history; to Mr. John R. Sawyer, a 
member of the faculty of the State School for the Blind for important 
facts concerning the period from 1845 to 1894. Mr. Sawyer is engaged in 
writing a complete history of the education of the Blind in the State as a 
Master's thesis in the department of education of the University of North 
Carolina. Thanks are also due to The Cluiiiottr Observer, The News and 
Observer, The Morgantoii Xews-Hera/d, to Mr. James W. Butler, Secretary 
of the Goldsboro Chamber of Commerce, and to others who aided me in 
the compilation. 

March 20, 1945. Otis A. Betts 


Table of Contents 

Part I 

Foreword '. - 7 

List of Illustrations 10 

Principals and Superintendents of Schools for the Deaf and the Blind, 1S45-1')45 13 
History of the Education cf the Deaf and the Blind in North CaroMna from 

1845 to 18Q4 - .- - - - 15-26 


History of the Education of the Deaf at Morganton. 1804-1044 20-44 

Members of the Board of Directors of the School at Morganton, 1801-1945 45-50 

Statement of Purpose - - _ - ._ 51-52 

Methods cf Instruction — -- - 52-53 

Roster of Principals and Teachers from 1804 to 1945 55-57 

Normal IraininK in North Carolina School and Roster of Normal Students 

from 1801 to 1Q45 . 59-67 

Religious Training. Physical Education, .Art ... -.. 67-60 

X'ocational Instruction and Vocational Teachers from 1894 to 1045 71-77 

Boy and Girl Scouts . .... . ... .... _ _ .. 79-80 

Military Instruction SO 

Kelly Library and Students Organizations 80-81 

The --American Convention of 1005 .. 83 

Bureau of Labor for the Deaf _ 83-84 

Extension Service to the Deaf „ , 85 

Outstanding Personalities of the Early Days of the Morganton School 87-97 

School StaflF, 1944-1945 _.. 90-100 

Our Principal _ _ 101-102 

Splendid Support from Citizens of Morganton .. _ 103 

Institutions E.xerting Great Influence in the Education of the Deaf: 

I. The Volta Bureau 105-107 

II. Gallaudet College .._ _ 107-1 10 


.\ Compilation cf Life Sketches and Tributes to Dr. Edward McK. Goodwin. 

Founder of the School at Morganton and its Superintendent 1892-1037 111-133 
Dr. Goodwin's Successor 134-136 

Roster of Students Registered at the X. C. School for the Deaf, Morganton, 

from 1804 to 1045 _ _.... _ .137-152 

List of Illustrations 

Main Kuildinp; A 

Governor R. Gregg Cherry .. 6 

Edward McKce Goodwin, 1850-10,57; Superintendent, 1SQ2-IQ.57 .. i- 

Original Building in Raleigh, 1S4S , ._ _- 14 

Main Building in Raleigh, 1804 ..._ .,._ __ 18 

Original Heading of the "Deaf Mute Casket" .._ 22 

Dr. Carl E. Rankin, Superintendent, 10.57- _ — 28 

Faculty cf the New School Prior to lOOO 30 

Main Building Before Fireproofing and Renovating _ 34 

Hoey Hall (.^dvanccd Department) -. -— 1. 38 

Primary School ... . - - 42 

Board of Directors, 1945 46-48 

Goodwin Hall (Primary Department Dormitory) — Primary Class in Speech 54 

Boys' Vocational Building — Gymnasium .... .. . 58 

Speech Class Using Hearing Aids — Oral Class in Geography „ ... 62 

Boy Scouts — Class in Swimming .„ _ _ _ „ .... 66 

Vocational Exhibit — Hand Crafts ..- .... 70 

Class in Printing — Home Economics . 74 

Exhibit of Costumes by Classes in Sewing — E-:hibit of Wood-Work 7S 

.'\merican Convention of Instruction of the Deaf, 1005 — Vocational Agriculture .... 82 

The Infirmary— Military Training, 1012-1018 86 

Foitball Team, 1 OOO— Football Team 1040 _ ..... 00 

The Queen of Ma\ and Her Attendants— The Festive May Pole 04 

Folk Dances — A Happy May Day Group _ 98 

Mi-s. Pattie Thomason Tate. Principal ..._ 102 

The Volta Bureau, Washington, D. C. .... 104 

Chapel Hall Gallaudet College, Washington, D. C. 108 

Dr. E. McK. Goodwin _.... _ 112 

Dr. Goodwin in His Office „ 114 

Dr. Goodwin in One of His Characteristic Postures 118 

Last Picture of Dr. Goodwin, .\pril 10.57 _„.. '. 122 

Edward McKee Goodwin, B. A., M. .\.. Lift. D., L. H. D. 132 

Airplane View of the North Carolina School for the Deaf 152 

Part I 


North CaroHna School for the Deaf 

and the BHnd at Raleigh 

1845 ■ 1894 




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Edward INIcKee Goodwin 


Superintendent of the State School for the Deaf 
at Morj-anton, 1892-1937 

History of Administration 

Principals and Superintendents of the Schools and 
Their Terms of Office Since the Establishment 
OF THE First School in 1845 

I. Principal of the School for the White Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, 

W. D. Cooke 1845-1858 

II. Principals of the White and Colored Schools for the Deaf and Dumb 
and the Blind, Raleigh: 

Willie J. Palmer 1858-1869 

John Nichols 1869-1871 

S. F. ToMLiNSON 1871-1873 

John Nichols _ 1873-1877 

Hezekiah a. Gudger 1877-1883 

William J. Young 1883-1894 

III. Principals of the White School for the Blind, and the School for the 
Colored Deaf and Dumb and the Blind. Raleigh: 

William J. Young . _ _ 1894-1896 

Frederick R. Pl.ace June 1896-Sept. 1896 

John E. Ray 1896-1918 

J. T. .\lderman Jan. 1918-.\ug. 1918 

I\'. Superintendent of the White School for the Blind, and the School for 
Colored Deaf and Dumb and the Blind. Raleigh: 

Dr. G. E. Lineberry 1918-1945 

V. Superintendent.'; of the White School for the Deaf, Morganton: 

Dr. E. .McKee Goodwin 1891-1937 

Dr. Carl E. Rankin 1937- 




Original Building in Raleigh 
Erected in 1848 


Establishment of the First School 

Early Provisions for the Education of the Deaf 
AND THE Blind in North Carolina 

Any story of the Morganton School without, at least, a review of the 
inlluences leading up to the earliest provision for the education of the deaf 
and the blind in Xorth Carolina would make an incomplete picture of the 
general scheme for this specialized form of education covering a "century 
of growth" from 1845 to 1945. 

In a recent volume edited by Katherine Crichton Alston Edsell, 
Librarian, State School for the Blind and the Deaf, at Raleigh, in celebra- 
tion of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the State School for the 
Blind and the Deaf, a more comprehensive account of the early efforts of 
this branch of the general educational system is given. 

Quoting from a sketch by R. C. Lawrence in a recent issue of The 
State, we have the following interesting facts: "Here in Carolina, back 
of the education of the deaf and the dumb and the blind, are two colossal 
figures in the life of our state: Archibald DeBow Murphy, father of our 
public school system; John 'SI. ^lorehead, builder of a commonwealth." As 
far back as 1816 Archibald D. ^Murphy included "An Asylum for the Deaf 
and Dumb" as a part of his comprehensive scheme for a public school 
system. Inspired by the work of the famous Galiaudet, there was organized 
a Society for the Institution o! the Deaf and Dumb, with the Governor as 
president. President Joseph Caldwell of the University addressed the Leg- 
islature, pleading for an appropriation for this cause, but nothing resulted 
save the granting of a bare charter for the society. In 1830 there were 273 
deaf mutes, and 372 blind in the State. Governor Morehead included the 
Deaf, Dumb and the Blind in his plans for the handicapped in 1842. 

"These figures enlisted the support of the powerful Raleigh Register, 
and Editor Gales urged state support for such a school, but it was yet more 
than a decade before anything concrete was done. In 1841 John IMotley 
Morehead became Governor, and in 1842 his message to the legislature 
recommended the establishment of schools for the Blind as well as for the 
Deaf and Dumb. The Legislature was deaf to his recommendation. 

W. D. Cooke Stages a Class Demonstration 

"Governor Morehead was never defeated in any purpose once he 
made up his mind to go ahead. Having been in one battle he prepared for 
•another in a different way. In 1843 he had a lengthy correspondence with 
W. D. Cooke, principal for a private School for the Deaf and Dumb at 
Staunton, Virginia, Not waiting for the Legislature to meet, the Governor 
laid this correspondence before the first influential body which came along, 


1894 -—' North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

this chancing to be the Presbyterian Synod, which heartily endorsed his 
suggestion. The Governor was moulding public sentiment. He had yet 
other ammunition in reserve. Having tried a simple message on the leg- 
islature and failed, he resorted to a most resourceful expedient. He had 
\V. D. Cooke to come to Raleigh from Staunton and bring with him a 
number of his pupils, who staged a demonstration before the legislature, 
proving what such pupils could be trained to do." 

The General Assembly Acts Favorably, Chapter 37, 

Acts of 1844 
This satisfied those who doubted and the General Assembly in Chap- 
ter 37, .'Xcts of 1844, enacted that: "Provision shall be made for the 
education and maintenance of the poor and destitute Deaf and Dumb and 
the Blind," appropriating $5,000 annually for five years from the State 
Literary Fund, which had been created in 1836 for this purpose. The act 
gave this Literary Fund broad authority either to employ teachers and 
open schools in this State, or to send the pupils to institutions in other states, 
and required counties from which such pupils came to provide $75.00 
annually for each destitute deaf and dumb or blind person who should be 
chosen by the Literary Board for education. 

The First Permanent School for the Deaf In America 
At Hartford, Connecticut 

This first real step was the culmination of quite an early movement 
to provide such a school. Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet of Hartford, Conn., 
was the pioneer in the United States in this very important matter, the 
education of the deaf. In 181 7 his attention was attracted to a deaf daughter 
of Dr. Cogswell of Hartford and he went to Europe to get first hand in- 
formation as to the best methods of teaching. He did not find it in England 
but in Paris, in the "Royal Institution for the Deaf," which showed him 
special courtesies and from which he secured a graduate pupil of great 
ability. The latter, Laurent Clerc, came with Mr. Gallaudet to Hartford, 
where the first school for the persons then called deaf-mutes (now simply 
the deaf) in the United States was established in 1818. The North Carolina 
School, opened May 1, 1845, in rented quarters, and was the ninth in the 
United States to be provided, in the order of foundation. 

The North Carolina Society Memorializes Congress 
For a Gift of Public Bonds 

In 1828 the North Carolina Society for securing an ''.Asylum for the 
Deaf and Dumb" had been organized at Raleigh, and was given a charter 
by the (ieneral Assembly. It chose as its president Governor James Iredell. 
It sent its charter, together with a "Memorial," that year to Nathaniel 


184 5 — Educatiox of the Deaf in Xorth Carolina ~ 1943 

Macon, one of the I'nited States Senators from this State, praying him to 
lay them before Congress. In this document it was set out that in the 
United States there was one deaf ])erson to every 2000 population, and 
that on this basis there were 400 in North Carolina. Congress was asked 
to make a gift of the Public Lands, so that the allotment could be sold 
and the proceeds applied to this purpose. This request was not granted. 

Copy of a Bill, (S. 68), from the Committee on Public Lands, re- 
ported in the Senate of the United States, 20th Congress, 1st Session. Janu- 
ary 21, 1828. by Senator Barton, which was passed to a second reading — 

1 . Be it enacted b.v the Senate and House of Representatives 

2. of the United States of .■\merica, in Congress assembled. That 
i. there be granted to "Xorth Carolina Institution for the 

4. Instruction of Deaf and Dumb," one township of land, excepting 

5. Section numbered sixteen for the use of schools therein, to be 

6. located, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, 

7. in one of the Territories, on lands to which the Indian title 

8. shall have been extinguished, and the sale of which is author- 
's, ized by law, and conformably to the lines of the public surveys 

10. and the said institution shall sell the said lands within five 

11. years from the passage of this act, and forever apply the pro- - - 

12. ceeds thereof to the education of indigent deaf and dumb per- 
1.?. sons. 14 (Passed third reading in Senate. 15) 

A similar bill was presented in the House of Representatives and 
passed the second reading. The bill failed of passage (House) the next 
session, nor did it ever pass. 

January 30, 1845, W. D. Cooke Employed To Establish 
A School for the Deaf and Dumb 

In the records of the State Literary Board, Jan. 28, 1845, is the entry: 
"At a meeting, present Gov. William A. Graham, ^Messrs. Charles Manly 
and David Stone, ]\Ir. \^'. D. Cooke, a teacher of deaf-mutes, lately of 
Staunton, \'a.. appeared and held a conference as to the terms of establish- 
ing a school for the teaching of the deaf and dumb in this State." Jan. 30, 
the minutes say: "^Nlr. Cooke having attended at a previous meeting of the 
board and produced testimonials of his moral character as well as of his 
competency as an instructor of the deaf and dumb, it is resolved that he be 
employed by this board to establish and keep open a school for the educa- 
tion of the deaf and dumb of this State in or near the city of Raleigh, at 
the rate of ,S160 per annum for each pupil, this amount being understood 
to be in full compensation for books, board, lodging, and clothing and 
comfortable accommodation and every other expense of the pupils who 
may be sent to said .school. It being imderstood that he may receive any 
other pupils who may be sent besides the beneficiaries of the State. The 
board, however, is to retain the right of visitation of said school at all times 













, — 1 
















1 — 1 






















1845 — Education of the Dfaf in North Carolina ~ 1945 

and to prescribe, from time to time, regulations for the same, and also to 
discontinue or change the instruction in said school when it shall think 

"Resolved, further, that to enable INIr. Cooke to make due prepara- 
tions for opening the said school as early as practicable the board will 
advance to him Ji 1,500. 00, upon his entering into bond for double that 
amount to the State, conditional, to account for and return the same if 
he shall not earn an equal amount in the service of the board in his ca- 
pacity as teacher aforesaid. 

"Resolved, further, that the president of the board ascertain by cor- 
respondence whether a teacher can be procured, to open a school here, and 
also upon what terms blind pupils will be received from this State at institu- 
tions already established for their instruction in other states. Jan. 31, 1845, 
]Mr. Cooke attended a meeting of the board and expressed his approbation 
of the resolutions of the previous day and his consent to become the 
teacher of a school for deaf-mutes of this State, upon the terms set forth 
and tendered his bond with ^Nlrs. Frances Deveraux security." 

First School for the Deaf and Dumb Opens M.^xy 1, 1845, 
In Rented Quarters 

"February 5, 1845, the Literary Board issued the following notice to 
the public: "In accordance with an act of the last General Assembly the 
board has made provision for putting in operation a school for the education 
of the deaf and dumb, at or near Raleigh, to commence ^lay 1st next. The 
expense for each pupil will be SI 60 per annum, including books and sta- 
tionery (and for poor pupils clothing and physician's bills, if necessary.) as 
well as boarding and instruction. .As the chief object of the law is to provide 
for the poor and destitute and as the aid of the county courts is required in 
making such provision, the board most earnestly requests each chairman of 
County Courts and the Solicitors to bring the legislative act to the notice 
of justices of their County at the first term hereafter, and to discover by 
inquiry then made what number of white deaf and dumb persons there 
are under thirty and over seven, whose parents are unable to pay for their 
education, also whether the court will levy by taxation the amount allow- 
ed by law for their education, and communicate the same to this board. 
The amount for the deaf and dumb will allow of the instruction of 35 
beneficiaries each year, provided the county courts will raise for each one 
sent from their counties the amount contemplated by law, $75.00. The 
board proposes at the commencement to receive five beneficiaries from 
each judicial district. If a greater numl)er shall apply the selection in cases 
of equal capacity will be made by lot. The board has opened a corres- 
pondence with approved institutions for the blind in other states, to enable 
it to determine whether the appropriation for their benefit can be better 


1894 — North Carolina School for the Deaf ~~ 1044 

expended in opening a school for them within this State, or by sending 
them abroad. In the meantime it is hoped that every county will make 
returns to the board of the number, sex and age of the destitute blind 
persons within its limits, in the manner already indicated." 

"Governor Graham wrote February 15, 1845, to Governor Briggs 
of Massachusetts, asking whether a teacher from the Perkins Institution 
for the Blind, at Boston, could be procured to open a school in North 
Carolina for their instruction, at what salary, for say 15 to 25 pupils: 
or at what rate per pupil would he furnish his own buildings and take 
charge of such a school for the public, provided a given number were 
guaranteed. Governor Briggs wrote him fully and so did Thomas H. Gal- 
laudet, from Hartford, the latter saying, "To start such an institution 
right requires much care. The mingling of the blind and deaf mutes to- 
gether in the same institution (if indeed this is thought of) is, I think, 
most unwise. The decided and universal testimony of teachers in Europe 
and in the United States is against the expediency of such a course. It 
is not productive of any good." Apri 17, the board agreed on opening 
the school May 1, 1845, with the following deaf persons as pupils: Jane 
Wisman of Davidson; John H. Walker, Louise J. Walker, Cyrus H. Boren, 
Guilford; Jane O'Neal, Hyde. .A. building was rented on Hillsboro street, 
two blocks west of the Capitol; four teachers were employed. May 2nd, 
the board held a conference with Mr. Cooke as to his willinsness to 
undertake the boarding of the blind, and declined to undertake it. There- 
upon Messrs. Manly and Stone of the board were appointed to ascertain 
on what terms blind pupils could be boarded in Raleigh. Governor Graham 
wrote May 2nd; "We have the prospect of an excellent school." May 5, 
Manly and Stone reported that as they could not guarantee any definite 
number of the blind, they could not engage anyone to board them. May 
5, Governor Graham issued a circular, expressing regret that so few county 
courts had complied with the legislative act as to the deaf and dumb .-id 
the request of the Literary Board. He added: "It has been ascertained 
that a school for the blind can also be established here, upon terms more 
economical than those of institutions out of the State, and such an one 
will be opened as soon as a sufficient number of pupils shall offer to justify 
the undertaking." He then called on the counties to send to the board 
lists of the number of the deaf and dumb and blind between eight and 
thirty years, as soon as practicable. 

"May 24th, the board asked Dr. S. G. Howe of Boston to engage 
a male teacher for the lilind, at ,S500 and board annually, and also to 
purchase the necessary school apparatus, including a piano. The board 
.said in this letter: "In the event the necessary arrangements can lie made 
by that time, the school will be opened on the 1st of August." Prof. Howe 
of Boston said he would be glad to come here and put the proposed school 


1845 — Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — ^ 1945 

for tin- blind in (i|U'iatiiiii and the Literary Board warmly thanked him 
for this offer August 20th, 1845. September 1st, the board wrote Dr. Howe 
countermanding the order for school apparatus and saying that Rev. Mr. 
Edwards would not undertake the superintendence of the school for the 
blind, as he could not obtain a house and make the needful arrangements. 
The letter said the only blind pupils offered w^re from Guilford and that 
the board after advertising in newspapers for pupils, having heard of only 
six blind children in the State, deemed it ine.xpedient to establish a school 
[or the blind in Xorth Carolina at that time." 

General Assembly 1846-'47 (Chapter 48), Provides For 
Erection of Buildings — First Board Approves 

".\t the session of the General .\ssembly in lS46-'47, an act (Chapter 
4S) provided for the erection at Raleigh of good and suitable buildings for a 
school for the deaf and blind and for their education and maintenance, 
the building not to cost over SI 0,000: the annual appropriation for main- 
tenance to be $10,000. The Assembly had made an error in the amount 
it intended, by limiting the cost of the building to $10,000, when it meant 
$15,000, blit Principal Cooke gave his personal bond for the $5,000, so 
the work had gone on. The .Assembly of 1848 thanked him for this gener- 
ous advance, made the payment of the $5,000 and added $2,500 for equip- 
ment. The Assembly also appointed directors of the institution, these 
being Perrin Busbee, L. B. Saunders, W. W. Holden, Dr. Charles E. 
Johnson, Thomas J. Lemay, and James F. Jordan." 

\^0CATi0NAL Instruction Established In 1850 
The building thus provided for was located on Caswell Square, owned 
by the State, one of the original five squares set apart when the city was 
first laid out, two blocks north west of the Capitol. The name of the school 
was the "North Carolina Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the 
Blind." The contract for its erection was let by the Literary Board to Cosby 
& Son. Principal Cooke was given a salary of $1200 and in addition an 
allowance of $145 for each pupil, to cover board and room: clothing for 
pupils whose parents were unable to furnish it; medical attendance, etc. 
The board bought from Cooke, in 1850, a printing-press, type, etc., tools 
for wood-working shop and shoe shop, all for $791. and agreed w-ith him 
that he was to carry on these mechanical departments at his own expense 
and receive the profits. 

The First Session Begins in January, 1849. in the 
New State Institution 

Some applications for the admission of the blind came in. In 184Q it 
was found that while there had been appropriated since 1840 the sum of 
$5,000 annually for five years, there had been saved of this total ten 


1S4.S — Edupation of the Deaf ix Xorth Carolina ~ 194S 

iliousand dollars, so that only .^iS.OOO had to come direct from the State 
tresaury. On April 14, lcS4S, the corner-stone of the main building was laid 
by the Grand Master of Masons, William F. Collins, after which address 
were made by Rev. Samuel S. Bryant, of Xew Bern, and Dr. Harvey P. 
Peet, of the Xew York School for the Deaf. The contractor did the building 
work largely with negro labor. The brick were made on the premises. The 
directors had a vast amount of trouble with the quality of the work, and 
yet the demand was so great that the imcompleted structure was occupied. 
Governor Charles ^lanly and Mr. George Little inspeted it, Sept. 24, 1848. 
The General .\s.sembly then gave permission for its occupancy and the 
contractor requested it. Thus the first session in the new building opened 
in January, 1849. 

There were in Xovember, 1850, I'lfty-four pupils, all deaf; the oldest 
a woman aged 35; 29 were males. Some had been there since its opening. 
May 1, 1845, in rented quarters on Hillsboro Street. The teaching of trades 
was found to be of great importance and the chief mechanical branch was 
printing, which is particularly adapted to the deaf. 

Provision Made To Receive Blind Students In 
September 1851 

The building, when thus first occupied, was of brick. It had a center 
and enlarged wings and at its southern end a home for the principal was 
built. A brick workshop was built, in the rear. The square was graded. At 
the beginning of the seventh session, in 1851, arrangements were made with 
Principal Cooke to open the Blind Department, on the same basis and 
terms on which he had taken charge of the deaf. Teachers for the blind 
were also chosen. John Kelly of Orange County by his will gave S6,000 to 
the institution for use of the poor pupils. 

For the blind there was at first very little literature; one copy of 
the Bible, several of the Xew Testament, and of the Psalms. By 1854 there 
were 12 blind pupils. At first some of the directors of the board did not 
think the act of the General .\ssembly requiring the blind to be taught 
should apply to this institution, but the Assembly said it did so apply. In 
1851 a new Governor came in, David S. Reid, and with him a new Board 
of Directors, with E. P. Guion as chairman, and this put into effect the 
legislative will. Shoemaking and broommaking were iiitroduced. 

The deaf published a newspaper. The Deaf Mute Casket, and 
this had a wide circulation. They also prepared books with "embossed'' 
type, for use by the blind. The girls did the sewing for all. A charge was 
made as to salaries, etc., the principal being paid a fixed salary, the 
directors taking over all the financial matters. When this board of directors 
came in. it found the institution languishing, a general discontent among 
the pupils and also among the people of the State. The change to the new 
form of management ended all this. The board asked for S10,000 annual 
appropriation. (25) 

1894 ^~ North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

"At the end of the 18lh session, in 1858, there were 39 deaf pupils 
and 13 blind. Water had been put in the buildings, pumped by a "ram" 
from a spring in a vacant square in front of the institution; coal was used 
instead of wood to heat the hot air furnaces; gas was installed for lighting, 
replacing candles. A chapel was Ijuilt in 1859. 

Principal Cooke had introduced a new feature in 1855, and made 
extraordinary exertions to make the institution known to the public, by 
visiting various places, including Greensboro. Warrenton and \\'ilmington, 
at conventions, with parties of his pupils, giving exhibitions of the modes 
of instruction, the people attending in large numbers and showing intense 
appreciation. In Way 1856, a large party of pupils visited piedmont towns. 
The General Assembly visited the school yearly, for it then met annually. 

The school was overcrowded; its buildings sadly out of repair. 
Principal Cooke found that the ijhnd and the deaf are widely different, and 
yet one building sheltered them all, with no school rooms for the blind; 
so that the two could not mingle without confusion. He declared there 
must be enlargement and separate buildings and that there was no sort 
of provision against fire. He reported that North Carolina had more deaf 
in proportion to population than any other state save Connecticut, yet 
had only 39 in school; fewer than in any other state except Texas. In 
September 1858, Cooke resigned and Willie J. Pa'mer became principal. 

In 1862 the number of deaf was 42; blind 2. John Nichols, a very 
able printer, was put in charge of that department. "A number of the male 
pupils made cartridges of paper for the army rifles, using paper from a 
mill near Raleigh, and powder from the state powder-mill still nearer; 
and also moulded bullets which were fixed in the paper cartridge cases, 
into which powder was then placed. Over a million cartridges were thus 
made. The idea of having this work done originated in the mind of Gov. 
John W. Ellis, who died in July, 1862. 

Progress of the School During the War — 1861-1865 

"A good deal of the public printing and binding was done by the deaf 
during the war (1861-1865.) In 1864 the General ^Assembly gave the 
institution :fl50,000. In 1865 there were 84 pupils. The strain of the 
terrible war was great, but the institution pulled through. Raleigh was 
surrendered to Gen. Sherman April 13, 1865, and the Federal authorities 
lent the kindest aid to the Hospital for the Insane and the Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind. To the latter, which at that date 
had 85 pupils, (the largest number up to that time). General John M. 
Schofield issued food and other supplies up to the close of the school, June 
30th. These were furnished to teachers and pupils and included supplies 


1S45 — Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 

lor any sick. The teachers left at the end of the term but 13 of the deaf 
hoys who were doing the printini; remained until the end of the year and 
lived on "Uncle Sam's rations." The publication of the Deaf-Mute Casket 
went on and the printery turned out the Book of Psalms for the Blind. 
rhe school re-opened January 1, 1866. and 41 deaf and 21 blind were 
present; 9 of them paying pupils. Provisional Governor Holden advanced 
$4,000 and the General .\ssemby appropriated ^20.000." 

Agitation for a School for Deaf and Dumb and Blind 
Negro Children, 1867 

In October, 1867, Principal Palmer wrote Gen. Nelson A. Miles 
I'. S. .\., that the board of directors had received .several applications for 
the admission of negro deaf and dumb children, but there was no room. He 
added that there were in North Carolina not less than 190 deaf and 95 
blind negroes; of these 19 deaf and 31 blind being under 21 years of age; 
this report having been made to Gen. ^Miles; but, as all the counties did not 
report, the figures were under the true number. He told Gen. ^Nliles that, 
if he would provide quarters for them, the directors would furnish compe- 
tent teachers and supervise the institution. He said $3,000 would buy and 
■ urnish a suitable building on a square adjoining the white school and 
that the General could have rations issued for the pupils. Gen. INIiles 
approved the plan, but it failed to materialize. 

Miss Dorothea L\-nde Dix, the "founder of the Hospital for the 
Insane at Raleigh." presented, in 1867, an organ to the institution for the 
Deaf and Dumb and the Blind; \V. W. Corcoran of Washington, D. C, 
founder of the Corcoran .Art Gallery, aiding in this gift. July 1, 1868. there 
were 83 deaf and 34 blind in the school. 

The First School for the Colored Deaf and Dumb and 
Blind In America Opened January 7. 1869 

The report for the year ending July 1, 1869, by the principal, 
showed 154 pupils; 28 negroes, and said: "North Carolina has taken the 
initative in providing institutions for negro deaf and dumb and blind." 
The -American Missionary Association provided a convenient and well 
arranged building for the colored department in the southern section of 
the city of Raleigh and there the school work began January 7, 1869. 
with 28 pupils and competent teachers. This school, the nrst institution 
for the negro deaf and blind in the country, operated on a site, on South 
Bloodworth Street. In 1873 new brick buildings were provided by an 
appropriation of the General Assembly in the amount of $15,000. In 1929 
an appropriation of $250,000 was allowed by the General .Assembly for 
a new plant for this department. Two hundred and thirty-four acres, 


1894 ~ North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

located uii hifihway route 70, five miles southeast of Raleigh, were pur- 
chased, and additional appropriations were made by the legislature for 
the development of this department which now has a system of brick 
buildings well planned for the purpose for which they were created and 
a total of 346 acres in farm and playgrounds. 

In 1872 a north wing of the main building of the white school 
on Caswell square was built. The design of the main building was Norman, 
with a central octagon tower and battlements along the whole front, but 
later the roof was removed, another story added and the design changed. 
The school, as it stood in 1890, can be seen in the main building of the 
Catholic Orphanage, Raleigh, as it is a duplicate in design. .\ large dormi- 
tory for boys, with an auditorium on the upper floor was later added along 
with other improvements to this plant. 

In 1869, Principal Palmer was succeeded by John Nichols, and 
afterwards came S. F. Tomlinson, Nichols again, H. A. Gudger, W. J. 
Young, Fred R. Place (four months), John E. Ray (who served 1896- 
1918) and the present incumbent Dr. G. E. Lineberry from .-Vugust 1918. 

The New School for the Blind Was First Occupied 
In September 1923 

A great forward step was taken in 1913, when the General Assembly 
bought 75 acres, adjoining Pullen Park for a new site for the school for 
the white blind. It failed to appropriate money for buildings, but in 
1917 an appropriation of $150,000 was made. World War I caused much 
delay, and the splendid plant on the cottage system, was not occupied 
until September, 1923. 

The land for the present white school for the blind cost $34,600, 
For the construction of the buildings, besides the $150,000 in 1917, there 
was appropriated a like sum in 1919, $250,000 in 1921, $326,000 in 1923 
and $50,000 in 1925; a total appro.^iimating $1,000,000; the result being 
one of the finest plants for the blind in the United States. 

In July 1918, the Board of Directors elected Dr. G. E. Lineberry, 
a native of Chatham county, a graduate of Wake Forest College, and 
from 1914 to 1918 president of Chowan College, to head the School 
with the title of "Superintendent." 

The courses of study in both the academic and vocational depart- 
ments are thorough in every respect, with the result that ninety-s.^ven 
per cent of the students graduating from the School between 1920 and 
1944 are self-supporting. 

There are now twenty-seven teachers at the White Department 
and twenty-six at the Colored Department, all of them accredited. The 
White Department has 155 students, and the Colored Department has 
112 deaf and 97 blind students. 


Part II 


North Carolina School for he Deaf 

at Morganton 

1894 - 1944 

Superintendent 193 7- 

History of the Education of the Deaf 
At Morganton, 1894-1944 

Law Creating the School at Morganton 
In 1891 the General Assembly passed a law creating the North 
Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb: (Chapter 89, Public Laws of 
North Carolina, Revisal of 1915, Vol. 2, Section 4202, XIX— "Deaf and 
Dumb" — "Incorporated.") "There shall be maintained a school for the 
white deaf and dumb children of the state which shall be a corporation 
imder the corporate name of The North Carolina School for the Deaf and 
Dumb, to be located upon the grounds donated for that jnirpose near the 
town of Morganton." 

"Such school shall be under the control and management of a board 
of directors consisting of seven members, who shall be appointed by the 
Governor and hold their office for the term of six years; said board shall be 
divided into three classes, the first shall be elected in one thousand and nine 
hundred and nine, the second class in 1907. the third in 1905, and each class 
shall thereafter be elected every six years. If any vacancy shall occur by 
death, removal or other cause the same shall be filled for the unexpired 
term by appointment of the Governor. Said directors shall hold their office 
until their successors shall be elected and qualified, but not more than two 
of them shall be from the same county." 

Chapter 306, Section II, Public Laws of 1925, amending Section 
five thousand, eight hundred and eight-nine of the Consolidated Statutes — 
"Directors; terms; vacancies": 

"The North Carolina School for the Deaf, at Morganton, shall be 
under the control and management of a board of trustees consisting of 
seven (7) members. The terms of the said trustees shall be for four years, 
from the date of the appointment. The Governor shall transmit to the 
Senate at the next session of the General Assembly the names of his ap- 
pointees for confirmation." 

Selecting the Site 

This very interesting procedure in the history of the school is well 
worth recording in detail, so we quote from the pen of Prof. M. H. Holt, a 
member of the first Board of Directors, who edited a brief sketch of the 
school for the Kelly Messenger, in November 1896, as follows: "My 
strong personal interest, the interest I had felt as a disinterested spectator 
and observer, if any patriot can be called disinterested, was intensified when 
I was informed iiy one of my Guilford county friends, a member of the 
Legislature of 1891 , that 1 had been elected as one of the Board of Directors 
of the North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb which had been 
established by that body and located at Morganton. The bill had been 
passed and an appropriation of :};20,000 made to materialize the project 













IS4S — Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 

My colleagues on the Board were N. B. Broughton, M. L. Reed, B. F. 
Aycock, Col. S. McD. Tate, R. A. Grier and J. J. Long. Our first meeting 
for organization was held in April 1891. We met at the Hunt House in 
Morganton. now in ashes, and then adjourned to the Western Hospital on 
invitation of Dr. P. L. Murphy. There we elected Hon. iVL L. Reed, of 
Biltmore as president, and I believe that North Carolina, even to future 
generations, will pay us the compliment of having acted with exceeding 
wisdom in so doing 

"We were shown Vine Hill, down in the field below Mr. Haynes' house 
(now the residence of the Superintendent), as the location selected in haste 
by a committee of legislators sent here to see what Morganton offered in 
addition to a ,'?5,000 gift, to secure the school. When we got on it, we found 
the site unsuitable in many ways. We found 100 acres of land. We needed 
more. We found too little room on the top of that hill for a great State 
Institution. We found no shade. We found we had to look up to see the 
top of Spa Hill, to see the Western Hospital, to see ^Morganton. We ex- 
amined other sites — the grove between the tannery and the Depot and field 
adjoining, commanding sites east of town. From all these this splendid 
wooded summit (Spa Hill) loomed up as the most beautiful in all the 
landscape, and from every hill top we would say to Col. Tate, "why can we 
not get that site?" Each time he would say: 'That cannot be had. A land 
company is going to put a hotel there and improve the springs property 
at the foot.' When we got back to the hospital, we looked out at the window 
and over here beckoning to us through the bright April sunlight, were the 
white oaks that crowned this hill. Haunting their beautiful tops, green with 
the bursting buds of the new season, saying 'come here, come here.' One 
of the Directors turned around and said, 'Gentleman, we build not for a dav 
nor for a year, but for a century, aye for the coming centuries?' Keats well 
said: 'A thing of beauty is a joy forever;' coming ages will rise to caM us 
blessed if we build wisely. What will that site cost us? We sent for the 
stockholders. We stated facts. We called for figures. We made an agree- 
ment and secured this property, just without the corporate limits of the 
town and known as the Ravencroft College property. The tract of land 
consisted of two hundred acres, divided into two lots of one hundred acres 
each. The first lot cost .'?6,500 — five thousand of the amount was contrib- 
uted by the corpation of Morganton, and the balance ($l,S00i was 
cut of the appropriation. The title of the second lot was donated by the 
town of Morganton." 

Appointment of Advisory Superintendent 

"The other wise thing we did at this meeting, in April, 1891, was to 
place at the helm of this great undertaking the man fitted by nature, spe- 
cial training and experience for Advisory Superintendent, Prof. E. ]^IcKee 
Goodwin. This position carried no salary with it. and for three years the 


1894 ~ North Carolina School for the Deaf "" 1944 

Advisory Superintendent spent niucli time in getting tlie plans and building 
tlie new school. Later, in April 1894, he was elected Superintendent, North 
Carolina is indeljted to E. McKee Goodwin for an untold amount of 
work, of plans suggested, of money saved, of energy directed wisely, 
and only the Board of Directors know how much. It is to Prof. Good- 
win that we owe the fact that we builded better than we knew. 

"It was determined at that tirst meeting to send a committee to 
visit institutions at Washington, Philadelphia and New York. Mr. 
Broughton, Mr. Aycock, Prof. Goodwin and myself were appointed. We 
left the 24th of June, '91, taking in all these places, and attending at 
Lake , George the National .Association of oral teachers of the Deaf. We 
visited Gallaudet College at Washington, the Pennsylvania School at 
Mt. Airy, New York Institution on the Hudson at Washington Heights, 
and some special schools in New York City. The main thing with us 
were bricks and mortar, ventilation, heating, lighting, water supply, work 
shops, printing office, sewing rooms; in a word the material finishing? 
and furnishings of a great school for our North Carolina deaf. 

"We are grateful for the universal courtesy of all those engaged in 
this great work. They vied with each other in giving us all the informa- 
tion possible and Dr. Crouter of the Pennsylvania School even going 
beyond this and giving us substantial help.'' 

Final Action of the Building Committee 

In September, 1891, the Building Committee held a meeting and 
made a written report of their work as committee of investigation. The 
plan submitted by A. S. Bauer, .Architect, of Raleigh, after the model 
of the Philadelphia Institution, was adopted from many others as being 
the best and most economical and in accordance with the institutions of 
like nature. The plans of this original "Main Building" specified that 
it was to be three stories in height and basement with a central tower in 
front. It was to consist of a ira-n central building 165 feet in depth and 
two wings of 110 feet in depth. The entire front was 256 feet long. The 
contracts for excavation were let and completed May 1, 1892. 

Laying the First Brick 
The first brick in the building was laid by two deaf children, 
pupils who had begun their school ciiurse at the "Caswell Square" Schonl 
for the Deaf and the Blind at Raleigh, in 1888 and 1890, Maggie Le Grand 
(Mrs. Hugh G. Miller), of Charlotte, and Robert C. Miller, of Shelby. The 
latter graduated from this school in the Class of 1898, and from Gallaudet 
College, Washington, D. C, in 1903, with the degree of B L. From 1904 
to 1926 he served as teacher in this School and was appointed a memi)er 
of its Board of Directors, by Governor Hoey, in 1931, serving on the Board 


1845 — Education of the Deaf in Xorth Carolina — 1945 

until 1940, when he moved his residence to X'iruinia. The basement and 
nearly the first story were finished with the first appropriation of $20,000. 
The General Assembly of 1893 was urged to make an additional apprf)- 
priation of ;?80,000 ($40,000 per annum for the biennial period) to com- 
plete this building. The Legislature granted an appropriation of $70,000 
;.nly. Owing to the slow process of securing appropriations, it took three 
years to build the "IXlain Building." The Legislature of 1893 under the 
administration of (jovernor Thomas ^I. Holt, granted an appropriation 
of only $35,000 annually for maintenance. 

School Opens for the First Session 
On October 2nd, 1894, the first session of the school opened and 
it was early seen in the many difficulties which were overcome by Prof. 
Goodwin, that the Board had made no mistake in selecting him superin- 
tendent. The enrollment at the beginning of this first year was 104 pupils, 
with eight teachers in the "literary" department, classified as follows: 
Manual department — five; oral department — two; art department — one. 
The first staff of teachers to greet Dr. Goodwin on that memorable second 
day of October, 1894, was David R. Tillinghast, Zacharias W. Haynes, 
Mrs. Laura A. Winston, John C. Miller, and O. .\. Betts, of the ^Manual De- 
partment, all of whom had been associated with Superintendent Goodwin, 
when he was teaching in the School for the Deaf and the Blind at Raleigh; 
Miss Anna C. Allen, Chief Instructor, and Miss Eugenia T. Welsh, of 
the Oral Department: Miss Sudie C. Faison, Teacher of Art. In addition 
to the regular paid staff, there were two Xormal Training Students, ^liss 
Xannie McKay Fleming and ]Miss Stella B. Hamner who constituted the 
first normal class and who devoted much of their time in regular class 
work. Members of the \'ocational. Accounting, and Domestic staff were: 
teacher of sewing and needle work. Miss Mary Xash: steward and treas- 
urer, Capt. George L. Phifer: matron, Mrs. Mary B. ^Malone; assistant 
matron, Mrs. Corinna S. Jackson; engineer. Walter J. ^Matthews; expert 
carpenter, Thos. P. McKoy. 

First Official Report 

The first official report made to the Legislature of 1895 was but an 
earnest of the unbounded interest and devotion that seemed to permeate 
the entire school from the superintendent dowTi through the student body 
themselves. The key-note that seemed to grip the .spirit of every one 
was appropriately sounded by Superintendent Goodwin in his statement 
in this early report setting forth the "Design of the School" which said. 
"the School was created and established jar the sole purpose of educatin? 
the ivhite dcaj youth of our State." That simple but purposeful goal has 
ever been the guiding star that has led this school throughout this first 
half-century to a place among the leading schools for the deaf in America. 















1845 — Education of the Deaf in North Carolina ~ 1945 

Every official report emanating from the Superintendent's office conveyed 
in no uncertain terms the purpose of the School. So, after ten years of 
growth, one finds the same sentiment enunciated as follows: "We have 
endeavored to keep in view the primary object for which the school was 
created — the education of the deaf children of our State; and by educa- 
tion we do not mean education only in the general acceptation of the word, 
but education that mai<es the best citizenship and the happiest homes." 

Distinguished V^isitors 

The rapid deve'opment, both in methods of teaching and in physical 
equipment, soon gave the school a high rating in the profession of special 
education and brought to our class rooms educators of distinction from 
other schools for the deaf, as well as the heads of our own State depart- 
ments. On October 31, 1895, the school was honored by a visit from Dr. 
Edward ;\I. Gallaudet. President of Gallaudet College for the Deaf at 
Washington, D. C, who, after visiting the classes, addressed the teachers 
and pupils assembled. .At a later date Dr .\Iexander Graham Bell was 
an interested visitor to this new institution of the South. He was ac- 
companied by Dr. Frank W. Booth, then secretary of the Volta Bureau. 

Rapid Growth of the School 

In his second biennial report, covering the period, December 1, 
1894 to December 1. 1896, the Superintendent reported an enrollment 
of 204 pupils, an increase of 100 pupils for the two years. During the 
second session, 1895-96, 62 new pupils were admitted, one of the largest 
classes of beginners ever entered any school for the deaf in .America, thus 
proving the great need for the new school at Morganton, 

One of the most pressing needs stressed in this report was that for 
a new "School House" suited for class work. The rooms which were then 
being used in the .Main Building were only intended for a temporary 
arrangement. Therefore, the Directors respectfully asked the General 
Assembly of 1897, through Governor Elias Ca'rr, for an appropriation of 
twenty thou.'^and dollars (S20.000), to be used in erecting and equipping 
a school building, which from the beginning had been a part of the plan 
in providing necessary buildings. This request was granted and steps 
were taken immediately to have the architect, W. H. Sloan of Morganton, 
prepare the plans and specifications. The wood work for this building was 
done by the wood working department of the school which had been the 
first building completed of the architect's general plan. .At a meeting of 
the Executive Committee of the Directors, on ^Nlarch 3, 1898, the plans 
were approved and work was to have begun at once, September 15, 1398, 
being the date set for the completion of the building, but, owing to the 
very unfavorable season for building, work was suspended for several 
months, extending the date of completion to September, 1899. 


1894 — XoRTH Carolina School for the Deaf ~— 1944 

The corner stone o' the new school buildhig was laid by the Grand 
Lodge of Masons of North Carolina, on ]\Iay 31st, 1898. It was a general 
holiday, not only for our school, but for the town of Morganton and com- 
munity. There were more than a thousand people on Spa Hill that day. 
Among the distinguished guests present were Dr. Edward M. Gallaudet. 
President of Gallaudet College of Washington, D. C, Justice Walter Clark 
of the Supreme Court Bench of the state. Grand Master Walter E. Moore 
of Webster and Dr. T. H. Thornwell, South Carolina. Ten Masonic Lodges 
were represented and the Morganton Lodge of Knights of Pythias, the 
Junior Order of Ignited American Mechanics, and the Junior Reserves were 
in the procession, led by the ^lorganton Cornet Band. The corner stone of 
Georgia Marble had inscribed upon it the name of Grand blaster Walter 
E. ]\Ioore, and simply the date of 1898. 

The entertainment given by the pupils o' the school on Monday 
night following the laying of the corner stone was largely attended. Higher 
praise could not be accorded either to it or to the school and its teachers 
and managers than the words of Dr. Gallaudet quoted both in the Char- 
lotte Observer and the News and Observer: "that a more meritorious ex- 
hibition of the methods and results of teaching the deaf he had never wit- 
nessed either in Europe or America." Dr. Thornwell bore substantially the 
same testimony. 

New School Building Opened 
The new School Building had been completed and furnished ready 
for the opening of school on September 14th, 1899. If every legislator and 
and every tax payer in the State of North Carolina could have viewed the 
happy faces of the deaf children and their teachers and caught the inspira- 
tion, which words fail to express, on that glorious September morning, as 
they marched forth to their new class rooms for the first time, and that 
impression could have been transmitted down through the years, those 
responsible for providing funds to maintain this wonderful School could 
ever hereafter rest upon their oars. A dream originating in the heart of 
the founder of this school several years prior to this day had come true. 

While not elaborate in architecture, the building was well arranged, 
convenient and substantial: a brick structure, slate roof, wings two story, 
and center three story. There were twenty regular class rooms, with a supply 
closet for each, necessary lavatories and water closets, and a large assembly 
room in the center of the first tloor. The rooms were furnished with the 
best slate black-boards. The entire third floor of the center portion contained 
sky lights in addition to the dormer windows on three sides, making it an 
ideal studio for the classes in art. 


1845 ~ Kdhcation of the Dkaf in Xorth Carolina — 1945 

Additions to Main Building; Fire Exits, New Boiler, 
Fire-Pump and Reservoir 

An approiiiiation of $7,000 was granted by the Legislature of 1901 
lor erecting additions to the two wings of the INIain Building, which in- 
creased the dormitory capacity for fifty more pupils, and furnished other 
exits in case of fire. These additions together with the installation of a 
70-horse power boiler, a Knowles fire-pump and the construction of a 
reservoir cost approximately $10,000. 

Goodwin Hall — The Primary School 

Due to the increased attendance, stimulated by the operation of the 
compulsory law put upon the statute books regarding deaf children, an 
urgent appeal was made to the State Legislature of 1907 to provide another 
building to accommodate the increased number of classes, and an appro- 
priation of $40,000 was asked for this purpose. In response to this request 
the sum of $24,000 was appropriated. With that money, by the utmost 
economy and personal supervision of Superintendent Goodwin, a splendidly 
built, well-located Primary Building was erected. However, there was no 
available funds to equip and furnish this building until the Legislature 
of 1911 allowed an appropriation of $4,000 for this purpose. In September 
of that year the door to this new building for the primary pupils was first 

Out of compliment to E. ^NIcKee Goodwin, who had given his energy 
and wisdom to the development of the Xorth Carolina School for the 
Deaf, the Directors, at their meeting in ?klay, 1911, gave the name Good- 
win Hall to this new building, a complete "little institution" in itsell 
with a capacity to accommodate 100 children. 

^^'ith this separate building, the younger pupils, seven to twelve 
years of age, were segregated from the older ones that they might have a 
better showing in their early training in speech-reading, thus forming the 
speech habit. 

Superintendent's Residence 

\\"hen the Xorth Carolina School for the Deaf was located at J\Ior- 
ganton, there was one brick building located on the property. That was 
:■ building originally constructed for a proposed seminary for girls, con- 
ceived, and begun by the Episcopal Church. According to the Biennial 
Report of the school year for 1901-03 this building had been remodeled 
to be used as the Superintendent's home, so constructed and arranged 
that it may. if necessar\-. be used for a school building. The original 
plans drawn up by the school architect, w'ere much more elaborate than 
the completed building. .According to tradition, the interior woodwork of 










1845 — Education ok the Dkaf in North Carolina — 194S 

unusually line design and finish, was done in the school shop. One mantel, 
that is in the sitting room, is said to have been the work largely of one boy. 
The house was originally heated by fireplaces: later on a heating unit 
was placed in the basement. Later still, the building connected with the 
central heating system of the plant. 

From the outside, the building is of unusually fine design, in keeping 
with Southern home architecture. The fine oak trees that surround it add 
much to its dignity and beauty. 

The Infirmary 
For several years provision had been made for taking care of the sick 
in rooms segregated for that purpose in the ^Nlain Building. There were 
times, however, especially in cases of contagion, when this arrangement 
caused great anxiety, thus affording convincing evidence of the need of a 
separate hospital to prevent an epidemic and to provide more comfortable 
ynd safe quarters for all patients. With these facts clearly presented to the 
Legislature, an appropriation of SI 5,000 was made in 1917, and C. C. 
Hook, architect of Charlotte, was awarded the contract to prepare plans 
and specifications for a building two stories high and absolutely fireproof. 
This building, which is heated by low pressure steam, has a capacity for 
thirty-six beds and other necessary rooms for the complete and successful 
operation of such a hospital, including an operating room and a room 
for dental work. Owing to the difficulty of securing building material during 
World War I, the hospital was not ready to receive patients until the 
late spring of 1918. 

The Gymn.asium 
Recommendations were made to the Legislature of 1921 for an 
appropriation of $10,000, together with permission to use a surplus of 
$23,000 of a former bond issue, for the purpose of building a gymnasium. 
These requests were not granted until the session of the Legislature of 1923, 
and the gymnasium was completed and partially equipped by June 1924. 
It consisted of a swimming pool built in accord with most inodern features, 
and a bowling alley with double "runways" and the gymnasium proper 
on the second floor. 

Primary School Building 
To the Legislature of 1927, the need of a recitation building for 
the Primary Department of at least twenty class rooms was stressed. It was 
estimated the building could be erected and equipped for $50,000. This 
amount was granted and the new building was constructed and ready for 
occupancy by the opening of School in September, 1930. The crowded 
condition of the "^.chool was greatly relieved by this new fire-proof recita- 
tion building, having twenty class rooms with accommodations for 200 
children. /^gs 

1894 ~ North Carolina S chool for the Deaf — 1944 
The Trades Building 

In his biennial report, dated September 24, 1926, SuperinlLncient 
Goodwin tells ol his request of the Legislature of 1927 lor an appropriation 
of :i;80,000 for a new industrial b\iildinp; properly equipped for four de- 
paruiientp. The actual cost ol the building, not including the equipment 
was a little over the $30,000 appropriated. The building, which was erect- 
ed by the Brown Harry Company, of Gastonia, was formally opened on 
April 27, 1928. It is 98 feet long, 44 feet wide and three stories high, 
located just west of the gymnasium facing south. The first or ground floor 
was originally used for technical instruction of wood-work. The piinting 
department occupied the entire second floor. The thi;d floor was occupied 
by the tailor shop and the shoe repairing shop, each occupying half of 
the space the entire length of the building. The east side contains the 
stairways and a lavatory on each floor. The building is fireproof through- 
out, splendidly heated and well lighted both artificially and by day light. 
Several changes have been made in the arrangement of some of the depart- 
ments of this building since 1928, but the printing department which has 
modernized its equipment in recent years, still occupies the entire second 
floor. The third floor is occupied by the handicraft classes. 


When the first buildings were constructed, it was thought sufficient 
fire protection to use brick for main walls, and to construct floors, stairways, 
and the like of wood. .\s time passed, and as fire prevention regulations 
became more restrictive in the state, the Board and the Administration of 
the School became more and more sharply aware of the need for adequate 
fire protection. In 1937 the matter was brought to the attention of Governor 
Clyde R. Hoey. Apprised of the risk to the lives of the deaf children 
from fire. Governor Hoey set aside funds from the State's Emergency Fund 
and ordered work to be begun at once on fire-proofing the two dormitory 
buildings. In the meantime a fire w-hich started in the high school build- 
ing completely destroyed it. When the remodeling job was completed, the 
school possessed two dormitory buildings, two twenty-four classroom build- 
ings, a, hospital, and a boys' vocational building, all fireproofed and so re- 
modeled as to greatly improve facilities lor work, the total cost of which was 
$344,876.21, frdiii 1938 to .1942, an expenditure that has already proven 
its worth, and one which protects deaf children from the hazards of fire — 
an outlay which the State may look upon with pride. 

The only buildings not now fire-proof are the superintendent's home, 
the building housing the power plant, and the girls' vocational classes, and 
the dairy barn. The administration has already submitted plans and esti- 
mates for this work. 


1845 -~ Education of the Deaf in Xorth Carolina — 1945 

Water Supply Systkm 

The systeii) of sujiplying water to the School was originally instalk'fl 
by a .series of Driven Tube Wells wiiich was adequate for several years, al- 
ihounh this method of obtaining water entailed great expense, .\fter this 
system had been in use fifttsn years, it was found to be inadequate, and 
for the protection of the State's property, as w?ll as for the health of the 
School, another source of supply became imperative. Consequently the 
Directors requested from the Legislature of 1909 an appropriation of 
520,000 to put in a gravity plant, bringing the water from the South 
Mountains, a distance of five and a half miles. The Legislature of 1911 
granted this appropriation with which 500 acres for a water shed were 
purchased and the system installed with a six inch pipe line which, if need- 
ed, could deliver to the buildings of the School 350,000 gallons of water 
daily. In more recent times the storage dam on the shed has been con- 
siderably enlarged in an effort to secure an adequate reserve supply of water. 
Still larger water reserve provisions are contemplated in the near future. 

The C.4MPUS 

^lost certainly must go to those who selected the site for the School, 
the credit for acquiring one of the most beautiful natural campuses to be 
found any\vhere in the state. The steeply rolling character of the terrain 
is itself a thing of beauty, .\dded to this are superb views of mountains in 
two directions. The great care given over the years to its tine stand of trees, 
and to adding trees from time to time, has so enhanced the original site 
as to make of it one of the most pleasing school campuses to be found any- 
where. In 1940, through the generosity of .\lumni, a stone gateway entrance 
at the South entrance to the campus was constructed. When modern concrete 
roadways are built, these, too. will add to the beauty nature so generously 

The F.arm 

When it was finally decided to separate the education of the blind 
and the deaf, and when ^Morganton was selected as the location for the 
School for the Deaf, there seems to have been in the minds of both the new 
board of directors and the ".Acting Superintendent"' that part of the support 
for the new school should come from a farm. How much support was ex- 
pected from this source is not clear from the record, but from the beginning 
a considerable farm operation was conducted as an integral part of the 
undertaking. Examination of the biennial reports and the auditor's reports 
over the years indicated continuous expansion of this phase of work of the 
school, w-ith steady increase in the amount of support from this source. The 





1S45 — Kducation of the Dkak in North Carolina — 1945 

last auditor's report shows a total of $29,572.46 worth of farm produce 
consumed, and $2,540.57 sold, or $90.00 per year, per child, realized from 
farm operation. 

In the beginning, of course, there was no farm machinery except 
the very simplest sort, wagons, horse drawn plows, and hand tools. The 
farm is now equipped with such farm machinery as trucks for almost all 
hauling, tractors for heavy plowing, seeding and harvesting. 

At first the farm had a small herd of grade cows, and hogs of the type 
found on the farms in the neighborhood. In the school year of 1943-44, 
the farm had a dairy herd of fifty purebred Holstein milk animals, a herd 
of twenty-five beef animals, and a drove of si.xty Berkshire hogs, and a flock 
of six hundred Xewhampshire Red chickens. 

.\t the outset it was necessary for people helping on the farm, and for 
all the people helping with the year around maintenance, to live in their 
own, or rented houses, in the community: there were no houses at the 
.school, not even for the Superintendent. Since that time twelve staff 
houses have been built. Incidentally, it may be stated here that in the 
beginning most of the teachers lived at the INIain Building, in rooms ad- 
jacent to dormitories, and, when the fire-proofing was done in 1938-39, 
apartments to house eighteen to twenty-four teaching staff were provided. 

One cannot leave this discussion of the farm operations of the school 
without at least a brief examination of the meaning of this phase of the 
school work in terms of training boys and girls in agricultural pursuits. It 
is not clear from the records just how prominent this idea was in the minds 
of those who acquired land for farming when the new school site was select- 
ed. That such training was in their minds is evidenced by the fact that from 
the beginning both boys, and girls helped with farm work as a regular 
part of their school experience. Up to about 1935 the idea underlying this 
part of the school program seems to have been that of giving the boys and 
girls an opportunity to acquire some general knowledge of farming through 
helping with farm work. In 1935 the Board of Directors began to move 
in the direction of more specific training in agriculture for those boys and 
girls who might be expected to return to farm homes upon completion of 
their periods of schooling. Subsequently these phases of agriculture were 
selected for this purpose: Dairying, poultry raising, and gardening. In 
1940 a teacher of Agriculture, Mr. Glenn R. Hawkins, was employed, and 
this more specific type of agricultural training was begun. Under this pro- 
gram it is hoped that eventually all boys and girls will learn something, 
both from books, and from actual participation in caring for farm animals, 
and about growing food on a farm. 


1894 — - North Carolina School for the Deaf ' — 1944 
Compulsory Attendance Law 

No single act of the fdiinder of this school is more expressive of his 
whole hearted interest in giving the deaf children of North Carolina a 
square deal through every legitimate channel possible than his advocacy, 
as recorded in the Third Biennial Report of the school, and submitted to 
the General Assembly of 1899, for a compulsory law compelling the attend- 
ance of deaf children upon some school a certain number of years between 
certain ages. With a persistency inspired by a faith in the justice of a 
righteous cause, no opportunity was allowed to pass without a due presenta- 
tion of this need. Every report of the school from 1899 to 1906 requested 
the General Assembly to pass such a law. After eight years of untiring 
effnrt, the General Assembly of 1907 gave due heed to this request and 
passed a law requiring every deaf child in the State to attend school at 
least five years. The moral effect of this law has been good. It will be 
interesting to compare the attendance of 104 pupils at the opening of 
school in 1894 with that of 525 pupils in 1907, a growth in attendance of 
219 pupils in twelve years. 

Advocacy of a School for the Feeble Minded 

The history of the North Carolina School for the Deaf is so inex- 
tricably woven into the fabric of universal education, especially as it might 
apply to the field of the handicapped child, that reference to the advocacy, 
by Superintendent Goodwin, as early as 1898, for a school for the "feeble 
minded and idiotic children" of the State, should be included. We quote 
from the Fourth Biennial Report (1897-1898) of this school, which says: 
"Our State has responded most nobly to the cry of humanity for the care 
of her unfortunates — the insane, the blind, and the deaf and dumb. But 
there is a large number of children who are not eligible to either of these 

"The State owes as much to this class as to either of the classes already 
provided for. We have had to refuse admission, under the law, to many 
of these children, though deaf and dumb, yet either idiotic or imbecile. 

"]Many of these children could be treated, and their suffering amelio- 
rated, indeed many of them could be trained, and to some extent educated. 

"I respectfully recommend that your honorable Board lay the needs 
of this class of our children before the Governor, and urge the General 
.Assembly to create and establish an institution for such children." 

The Caswell Training School, near Kinston, N. C, was established 
in 1913. 


Members of the Board of Directors of the 
Morganton School 1891 - 1945 

{Arraiij^cd Chrotiolosically) 

Name County Period of Appoinhnrnt 

M. U. Reed ._ Buncombe 1801-1002 

Samuel McD. Tate _...Burke 1801-1802 

N. B. Broughton Wake 1S01-1Q04 

M. H. Holt Guilford - 1891-1012 

J. J. Long ....._ _ Columbus 1801-1802 

R. A. Grier Mecklenburg ... 18Q1-1SQ8 

B. F. Aycock Wayne ., _.. 1801-1802 

Dr. P. L. Murphy Burke 1801-1803 

Capt. V. V. Richardson Columbus 1803-1001 

A. C. Miller .Cleveland 1803-1804 


Samuel Huffman Burke 1804-1900 

A. J. Dula McDowell 1895-1900 

Dr. H. C. Herring Cabarrus -...- _ 1897-1001 

L. A. Britol Burke _. 1807-1901 

Dr. M. F. Morphew __ .Marion _ 1901-1905 

Isaac Roberts Davie 1901-1903 

Jacob C. Seagle _ Caldwell 1902-1906 

Frank Thompson Onslow 1903-1904 

W. C. Dowd Mecklenburg 1904-1906 

J. G. Neal McDowell 1905-1908 

W. G. Lewis Iredell _ 1905-1008 

Dr. I. P. Jeter Burke 1905-1916 

Archibald Johnson Iredell 1906-1909 


W. R. Whitson Buncombe .._ 1907-1924 

A. L, James Columbus _ 1907-1912 

J. L. Scott, Jr. Alamance 1907-1922 

Dr. J. H. Mock _..Davidson iqo9-1914 

W. W. Neal _ McDowell 1913-1945 

Dr. J. O. Atkinson — ...Alamance .. 1915-1920 

Mrs. I. P. Jeter _ Burke . __ 1917-1929 

J. F. Barrett Buncombe . 1921-1033 

Dr. James Morrell Edgecombe 1921-1932 

Dr. Howard E. Rondthaler Forsyth _ ... 1923- 

A. \. Shuford, Jr. ..Catawba 1925-1933 

W. C. Dowd, Jr _. __ Mecklenburg 1927-1933 

Mrs. R. B. Boger _ Burke 1927-1933 

B. B. Blackwelder _ _ Catawba 1929-1933 

W. M. Shuford Cabarrus. 1931- 

F. H. Coffey _ ....Caldwell _ 1937.1944 

H. L. Wilson Burke 1937- 

Dt. Fred L. Motley Mecklenburg 1937- 

Robert C. Miller .... Buncombe 1Q37-1040 

O. .\. Belts Wayne 1940- 

L. A. Dysart ...Caldwell 1040- 

W. L. Morris r. _ McDowell 1945- 


Board of Directors 

W. W. Xeal 
President, 1913-1945 


President, 1945- 


O. A. Betts 


H. L. Wilson 

Board of Directors 

From the very beginnini; of the education of the deaf in North 
Carolina, its control, management and policy making were vested in a 
Board of Directors, appointed by the Governor. Elsewhere in this history 
there appears a complete list of these Directors. All of them were out- 
standing citi;;ens of the commonwealth: many of them served for long 
periods of time; many of them rendered distinguished service to the 
School. It is not the purpose of this section to speak of the services of all 
of these men, but to limit it to the present members of the Board, with 
one exception, to be noted later. 

'SIr. \V. W., Marion, Xorth Carolina 
yir. Xeal, a business man of Marion, Xorth Carolina, was first 
appointed to the Board in 1913 by Governor Locke Craig and has served 
continuously since. He has for the past twenty years served continuously 
as its president. During this long period of time, he has given unstintingly 
cf his time and energy to the affairs of the School. Over the years he has 
seen hundreds of bo\-s and girls grow to fine manhood and womanhood 
under his guiding hand. His popularity with the deaf throughout the 
state is the very highest tribute to his unselfish service in their behalf. 

Dr. How.ard E. Rondth.\ler, Winston-Salem, X. C, 
Dr, Rondthaler, President of Salem Col', is himself a distin- 
guished educator. He has served as a membei of the Board since 1924. 
His peculiar service to the School has been his capacity to judge its work 
from the standpoint of a trair.ed educator. Certainly, too, his patience, 
understanding, fair-mindedness and his delightful sense of humor have 
contributed toward the building of a better school. 

Mr, \V, M, Shuford, Concord, Xorth Carolina 
^Ir, Shuford's connection with the School has been long and inti- 
mate. He began as instructor in Printing in 1909; held the title of Secre- 
tary for a long time, and from 1918 to 1927 was Steward (Business 
Manager) of the Institution. He left the School in 1927 to become Super- 
intendent of the Junior Order Home at Lexington, Xorth Carolina, Shortly 
after that, in 1931, he was appointed to the Board, and has served con- 
tinuously since. He. too, has seen many boys and girls grow up in the 
School and go out to take their places in society: he knows them and 
loves them: they seek his counsel and trust his judgment. 

Dr, Freu E. Motley, Charlotte, Xorth Carolina 

Dr. Motley first became interested in the School through his ac- 
quaintance with Dr. Goodwin, an acquaintance which grew into a close 


Board of Directors 

W. M. Shuford 

F. E. Motley 

L. A. DvbAKi 

W. L. ^Morris 

1845 — Education of the Dkaf in North Carolina — 1945 

life-long friendship. An otoKigist he rendered outstanding service to the 
School long before he joined the Board. He was appointed to the Board 
in 1937 and has served continuously since. His position as a distinguished 
specialist in the field of medicine most closely related to deafness has 
enabled him to render invaluable service as a member of the Board. Three 
years ago he was selected by the Board as consulting otologist. Since 
then he has spent some time each year at the School in an otological 
check-up of all pupils. 

Because of his long friendship with Dr. Goodwin, Dr. Motley con- 
ceived the idea of the E. IMcK. Goodwin Scholarship Memorial Fund, 
now ,~f75S.OO, and this has already been of material assistance to a number 
of boys and girls desiring higher or collegiate education. 

Mr. H. L. Wilson, Morganton, North Carolina 
Mr. Wilson, a merchant, located in the same town as the School, 
was appointed to the Board in 1937 and has served continuously since. 
In 1934 he was elected its secretary, and continues to hold that position. 
He is also a member of the Executive Committee. Mr. \\'ilson grew up in 
Morganton, and as a boy played with the deaf boys. He, therefore, has 
the advantage of being acquainted with their traits. Morever, he is 
thoroughly acquainted with the community of Morganton and its people. 
This latter factor has enabled him to render much valuable service to the 
School. As a wise counselor, too, he has gained the respect of all who 
have sought his help in matters connected with the School. 

]\Ir. O. a. Betts, Goldsboro, North Carolina 
If the present Board members were placed in the order of their 
longest connection with the School, instead of the length of their service 
as members of the Board, Mr. Betts' name would head the list. In fact, 
Mr. Betts' connection with the education of the deaf in North Carolina 
reaches back to the days when the work with the deaf and blind was 
conducted jointly in the institution in Raleigh. He was a member of Dr. 
Goodwin's first staff of teachers in Morganton, as was Miss Sudie C. 
Faison, the lady whom he later married. He left the School and North Caro- 
lina to become eventually superintendent of the Central New York School 
for the Deaf at Rome, New York. Upon his retirement from Rome, he 
moved back to his wife's old home, Goldsboro, and in 1940 was appointed 
a member of the Board, and has served continuously since. He is X'ice- 
President of the Board. His long service as an educator of the deaf, his 
knowledge of this School, and his wide acquaintance with the deaf in 
North Carcjlina, have enabled him to render the very finest service to the 
School. He has been able to help many deaf [jeople with personal problems 
of every sort He, too, is trusted and loved by deaf people everywhere. 


1894 ~ XoRTH Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

Mr. L. a. Dysart, Lenoir, North Carolina 
Mr. Dysart. a banker of Lenoir, North Carolina, took the place of 
Mr. F. H. Coffey on the Board at the time of Mr. Coffey's untimely death 
three years ago. Mr. Coffey had rendered to the School unique service 
as Chairman of the Building Committee during the period of fire-proofing, 
1938-40. Himself, a furniture manufacturer and a builder of wide experi- 
ence, he was able to handle a most difficult undertaking for the School. 
Mr. Dysart succeeds Mr. Coffey not only as a Board member, but is also 
a member of the Building Committee charged with handling a considerable 
proposed program of Permanent Improvement. His interest in deaf chil- 
dren, like ;Mr. Coffey's, is deep and genuine. 

Mr. \V. L. Morris, Marion, North Carolina 
'Mr. W. L. Morris, of JNIarion, N. C, was appointed to the Board 
of Directors of the North Carolina School for the Deaf by Governor R. 
Gregg Cherry, and .sworn in on April 21, 1945. He took the place of Mr. 
^^'. W. Neal who retired, on .April 1, 1945, after a long period of meritorious 
service to the School. 

Mr. Morris is a native of McDowell County, and attended David- 
son College. Upon leaving Davidson, he was employed by the Clinchfield 
Manufacturing Company, and has risen to the Presidency of the firm. 
His wide and long business experience well qualifies Mr. Morris for splen- 
did service to the School. 

Stewards of the School 1894-1945 
In the business or accounting department of the School, Dr. Goodwin 
was fortunate throughout his administration in his selection of capable 
men to fill the office of Steward, now operating under the State title of 
Budget Officer, or Business Manager. Then, as now with Dr. Rankin, his 
successor, and as the roster of names indicates, they were men of ouslanding 
ability in their chosen office, capable of relieving the Superintendent of 
much of the burden of accounting and general business management. 

GeorRe L. Phifer, Steward ISOl-lQO? 

J. R. Clodfelter, Steward ..- .- 1907-1917 

W-. M. Shufcrd. Steward .. .- 1917-1926 

A. C. Rhodes, Steward - _ 1926-1930 

Mrs. A. S. Barron, Budget O.ffice -- 19.50-1944 

W. K. Keeter, Business Manager _ - 1944- 


The School of Today 

Statement of Purpose 

In all Biennial Reports to the Legislature, there is usually an item 
giving information of a general nature concerning the purpose of the 
School. We give herewith the one prepared by Superintendent Rankin 
for his report for 1940-1942— 

The Xorth Carolina School for the Deaf is a free public school 
operated for the benefit of those children who are handicapped by deafness. 
The children are admitted to the school under the provisions of State 
Law. It is the aim of the School to attain the following objectives: 

1. To seek in every way to help each deaf child become a well-rounded indi- 
vidual who fits into .'\merican community life ; a person alert to life about 
him. informed about local, national and world affairs, capable of independent 
thinkins and action with regard to these, socially adjusted in home and com- 
munity, reverent toward those things held sacred by us as a people, loyal 
to our national ideals. 

2. To so equip each child vocationally that he or she may be as nearly as 
possible self-sustaining. 

3. To develop in each child, as far as possible, a strong healthy body, intelligent 
attitudes toward health and wholesome health habits. 

A. To secure for each child, as far as possible, a formal education through 
twelve grades on the same level as other public schools in the State. 

5. To develop in each child full capacity in speech-reading. 

6. To develop in each child, as far as possible, capacity to use normal speech. 

The School is a school for the dcaj. It is not a hospital where 
children are treated with the hope of restoring hearing. Xor is it a school 
for feeble-minded: the school cannot admit children who are of such low 
grade intelligence as to be uneducable. 

If children are physical I3' strong and well developed, they should 
enter school as early as possible: especially is this to their advantage in 
the development of speech and ability to read the lips. \\'e have a compulso- 
ry attendance law in Xorth Carolina — X. C. Consolidated Statutes, Chap- 
ter 95, Article 49. which requires that the parents of every deaf child of 
school age place it in this school. The framers of this legislation imder- 
stood that the education of a deaf child is a special undertaking, requiring 
specially trained teachers and a special type of equipment. The Adminis- 
tration of the School wishes to take this opportunity to express the hope 
that all school officers and teachers, all physicians and ministers of the 
Gospel, and all other leaders in all communities report promptly to the 
County Departments of Public Welfare, or to the School, the presence of 
deaf children not in attendance at this School. The Administration also 
wishes to here e.xpress sincere appreciation of the cooperation of the Xorth 
Carolina Department of Public Welfare in getting deaf children into 
school, and to express the hope that this fine spirit of cooperation will 
be continued. 


1894 — North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

The North Carolina School for the Deaf is a free public school. 
The only fee charged is a flat fee of $5.00 for incidental expenses. It is, of 
course, necessary for parents to pay bus or railroad fare to and from the 
School and to clothe children properly. It is of greatest importance that 
children have warm clothing. Experience with the problem of clothing has 
led us to prepare a suggested list of clothing, which may be had upon request. 

If parents of deaf children are in indigent circumstances and not able 
to pay travel expenses to and from the School, or to clothe their children 
properly, they may apply to the County Department of Public Welfare 
for aid. If parents are unable to carry these expenses and will so state on 
oath before a Magistrate, the Court may order the County Department 
of Public Welfare to assume the expenses. Parents should in all cases notify 
the Superintendent when unable to undertake the expense of sending 
their children to this school. 

Methods of Instruction 

"In the education of the deaf, two methods are recognized, the oral 
or German method, founded by Samuel Heinicke, and the manual or 
French method, founded by Abbe de I'Apee. For more than a century 
these methods have been on trial in the Old World, each method accom- 
plishing much. A large majority of the schools of Europe use the German, 
or Oral method. In former years, in fact till 1867, the manual or sign 
method was exclusively used in the United States. Since that period, at 
which time the first oral school in this country was established, there has 
been a great many changes in methods; in fact, if one takes into considera- 
tion the fact that there was necessarily a lack of competent and experienced 
oral teachers, the growth and development of the oral method in American 
schools is remarkable. Fully eighty-five per cent of the pupils under 
instruction in the American schools at the present time are being taught 
speech and speech-reading which is included in the oral method. 

"Every child that enters the North Carolina School is given a fair 

opportunity to learn speech, and speech-reading; and he is kept in this 

department unless after thorough trial it is found that through mental 

or physical imperfections, or advanced age, he cannot be taught success- 

uliy by the oral method. 

"Not only does the School try to make scholars of those intrusted 
to its care, but to give them much instruction along industrial lines as 
will fit them to earn an independent living for themselves and families. 
(A more comprehensive report of this instruction may be found under the 
caption — "Vocational Training'). 

We quote the above from a statement made in 1897 by Prof. .M. H. 
Holt, a member of the Board of Directors. 


1845 — Kducation of the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 

The foUowinf; (|iiolatiiins fii)m llie more recent reports of the Principal 
indicate the type of instruction that is in use today: 

"In our Academic subjects at the upper school, we are emphasizino; 
language usage, getting away from so much formal "language drill. ' We 
are making an out and out drive on "training pupils to think" and we are 
convinced that this can be done b\- relating the work more directly to the 
child's own interests and experiences. We have found from the results of the 
standardized achievement tests which have been given our pupils for the 
last few years that they are weak in "paragraph meaning" and in reasoning 
ability. Greater emphasis is being laid on our social studies and on "the 
language of arithmetic." This department, under the direction of ]SIrs. 
Frances E. Davis, has been greatly improved in the way of more individu- 
alized teaching, in better grading and in the teaching of Reading. 

"By lowering the age of admittance to our school we have been hav- 
ing children come to us on an average of a year and a half younger than 
in former years. This is agreat advantage in establishing first speech pat- 
terns and in adjusting the child to the real pre-school program which we 
are working at in the Primary School. Under the supervision of Mrs. Julia 
Coburn, a modified nursery program is being worked out with these younger 
children. Their instruction is being better adapted to their social growth 
and more in accord with their age and interests. The work in Sileni Reading 
in the Lower School and the use of the "whole word" and the "whole sen- 
tence meaning" as a means of laying the foundation for speech and lip read- 
ing are giving us a good deal of confidence that we are "on the right track." 
We have an increasing number of "exceptional children" which come to us 
year after year and we are getting better results from them by giving them 
handicraft, gardening, more rhythmic games and exercises, and having 
them taught by a combination of speech, manual spelling and natural signs. 
We are going on the assumption that the method is not so important as 
the child. These children must be taught some language, a trade by which 
they can make their own way and how to live with other people. By this 
varied and elastic program we are doing more for these slow pupils than 
we used to do when every child had to fit into one method. 

"Our accomplishments in the Primary and in the Upper schools may 
be summarized as follows: 

1. Better classificatirn as a result of the Standard .■\chievcnient Tests jiiven 
twice a \ear 

2. Better Program in .Acoustic Training. Hearing tests are made twice a year. 
We have 5 hearing aid classes, and will add another group hearing aid 
this year. 

.5. A more natural approach to the teaching of speech and language, getting 
away from so much formal drill and the grammatical method is now 
being practiced. 

4. Wider use of state adopted text bocks and school readers and greater 
emphasis on reading. 

5. Better correlated work between .Academic and \ocational departments. 


Goodwin Hall Dormitory 

Primary Class in Speech 

lcS45 — Education of the Dkaf in North Carolina 


Roster of Teachers 1894 ■ 1945 

Principals or Educational Department 
Mr, Tunis V. Archer Miss Pattio \V. Thomason 

Miss Fayeta Peck Miss Enfield Joiner 

Mrs. Patlie Thomason Tate 

Assistant Principal Advanced Oral Department 
Miss Annie McD. Ervin 

Chief Instructors Oral Department 
Miss Anna C. Allen Miss Eugenia T. Welsh 

Mrs. .\nna C. Hurd Miss N. Louise Upham 

Supervising Teacher Primary Dep.wtment 
Mrs. Laura .■\. Winston 

Supervising Te.achers Prim.wy Dep.artment 

Miss Fannie E. Thompson Miss Grace E. Landers 

Miss Sarah E. Lewis Mrs. Julia Ervin Coburn 

Mrs. Josephine Clodfelter. Miss Patlie V\'. Thomason 

Head Teacher Or.-\l Department 
Miss Annie McD. Ervin 

Assistant Prlnxip.\ls .\dv.\nced Dep.wtment 
Miss Annie McD. Ervin Mrs. Frances Embry Davis 

Te.acher of the Academic Department 

Irene Bowman 
Blanche Bowman 
Penelcpe Brothers 
Grace T. Brown 
Jessie Brown 
Mary Brown 
Gladys Brunner 
Margaret Bruner 
Mary Buckley 
Lydia Burbank 
Harriett Bunter 

Li rrai 

grd Alpha 


Miss Sarah .\bernathy 


Miss Sophia .\lcorn 


Mrs. Iva .■\lexander 


Mrs. J. W. Alexander 


Mr. J. W. Alexander 


Miss Dorothy Allen 


Miss Marion Atwood 


Miss Elizabeth Avery 


Miss Mina Averv 


Mrs. Margaret Andrews 



Miss Jessie Ball 


Miss Majorie Banks 


Mr. Otis A. Betts 


Miss Martha C. Bell 


Miss Frances K. Bell 


Mrs. Charlie Billings 


Mrs. Ruth Birck 


Mrs. Eva Pate Bird 


Mrs. Susan Sloan Boger 


Mrs. Sarah McConnell Boger 


Miss Joy Bowers 


Miss Alice Bowman 


PauUne B. Camp 
Lula Carpenter 
Maud Carter 
Beatrice Chapman 
Bashie Chastian Crutchfield 
Elizabeth Clark 
Charlotte Conley 
Julia E. Coburn 
Louise Coffee 
Opal Coftman 
Josephine Conn Clodfelter 



North Carolina School for the Deaf 


Miss Mamie Cool 
Miss Lucile Cooper 
Mrs. OlRa F. Crabtree 
Miss Louise A. Curtiss 

Miss Barbara Daughtery 
Miss Daisy B. Davis 
Mrs. Marie B. Davis 
Mrs. Frances E. Davis 
Miss Virginia DeBerry 
Miss Blanche VanDeveer 
Mr. Louis R. Divine 
Miss Emma Dobbins 
Miss Rochie Dttuchty 
Miss Emily Dovvdell 
Miss Flora Lee Dula 
Miss Mary M. Dunlap 
Miss Annie E. Dunn 

Miss Charlie Elmore 
Miss Mary Elmore 
Miss Jean Ervin 
Miss Elva Evans 

Mrs Alice Falls 
Miss Bessie Finn 

Mr. Ray Gallimore 

Miss Mary J. Gartrell 

Miss Mary P. Gartrell 

Mrs. Catherine S. Giles 

Mrs. Cordelia Giles 

Miss Lillian Glover 

Miss Anna Goldsborough 

Miss Marjorie Gordon 

Miss Lee Griffin 

Miss Olivia B. Grimes 

Miss Elizabeth Hairfield 

Miss Ethel Hampton 

Miss Augusta Hand 

Mrs. Bleeckcr Malone Harbison 

Miss Catherine Harding 

Miss Hermine Haupt 

Mr. G. R. Hawkins 

Mr. John W. Haynes, Jr. 

Miss Carrie A. Haynes 

Miss Mabel L. Haynes 

Mr. Zacharias W. Haynes 

Miss Charlotte Heilhecker 

Mrs. Ethel Hendricks 

Miss Glennice Hicks 

Miss Elizabeth Higgins 

Miss Frances Hobbie 

Mr. C. J. Holt 

Mr. H. McP. Hofsteater 
Mrs. OUie M. Hofsteater 
Miss Marcella Holtzclavv 
Mrs. Mozelle Kibler Horton 
Miss Ona Howell 
Miss Mary Hudson 
Mr. Edwin G. Hurd 

Mrs. Nannie Fleming Jeter 
Miss Nan Jeter 
Miss Irma Johnson 
Miss E. Ogwen Jones 
Miss Olive Jones 
Mrs. Orpah P. Jones 

Miss Elizabeth B. Kellogg 
Mrs. Lydia B. Kennedy 
Mr. Fred Kent 
Miss Edra Keplar 
Miss Burkett Kibler 
Miss Mozelle Kibler 
Miss Sibelle DeF. King 
Miss Verna King 
Miss Sarah Kinward 
Miss Mae Kirsksey 
Miss Maud Knight 
Mrs. Addie C. Knox 
Miss Esther Krallman 

Mrs. Norma LaFevers 

Miss Addie Landers 

Mrs. Martha Campbell Larscn 

Miss Annie Leslie 

Mrs. Betty Kno.x Long 

Miss Ola W. Lowry 

Miss Kate B. Ludwig 

Miss Edith Lutz 

Miss Margie Lynn 

Miss Mary McCain 
Miss Nettie McDaniel 
Miss Helen McLean 
Miss Mary MacNorman 

Miss Mary C. Mauzy 
Mrs. Nellie Menzies 
Mr. John C. Miller 
Miss Mabel Miller 
Miss Edna Miller 
Mr. Robert C. Miller 
Mrs. Edna Bryan Miller 
Miss Mildred Miller 
Miss Helen Trafford Moore 
Miss Minnie E. Morris 


1845 ~ Kducation of the Deaf in North Carolina 


Miss Louise Morrou 
Miss Lillian Mueller 
Mr. Ed«ard F. Mumford 
Miss K. Whitley Murphy 
Mr. J. W. Murphy 

Miss Ermine Neal 
Miss Roberta Neal 
Miss Carrie G. Nimocks 
Miss Susan H. Norris 

Miss Nannie C. Orr 
Miss Francina Oussler 

Miss Elizabeth Palmer 
Miss Abbie Palmer 
Miss Livingston Patton 
Miss Lucille Pearson 
Miss Mary Pearson 
Miss Marion Peterson 

Miss Constance Quackenbos 

Miss Mary Francis Ragin 
Miss Theresa Ralshouse 
Miss ,\da Rankin 
Miss Linnie Rankin 
Miss Ora Ray 
Miss Hester Reed 
Miss Ella Renard 
Miss Beulah Renn 
Miss E. Ethel Richards 
Miss Pearl Ridgewav 
Miss K. Thomas Riggs 
Miss Margaret H. Roberts 
Mrs. Irene B. Ross 
Miss Stella \'. Rupley 

Miss M. Kay Sallie 
Miss Kathleen B. Scott 
Miss Cleda Shiflet 
Mrs. Bettie Bird Shuford 
Miss Mattie Simms 
Miss Emma Sitton 
Miss Fannie C. Smith 
Miss Gertrude Sorrells 
Miss Mary Spainhour 
Miss \"irginia Spainhour 
Miss Willie C. Spainhour 

Mi>. Hazeline Campbell Sparks 

Miss Bruce Sparks 

Miss Elsie Spicer 

Miss Florence B. Spruitt 

Mrs. Herbert Spencer 

Mrs. Anne B. Starrett 

Miss Martha C. Stauffer 

Miss Jessie Stevens 

Miss Carrie Stinson 

Mrs. Edith M. Study 

Miss Grace E. Taft 
Miss Dorothy Tanner 
Miss Charlie Taylor 
Miss Katherine Taylor 
Miss M. Elizabeth Taylor 
Mrs. Katherine W. Thomason 
Miss Ruth Thomp.^on 
Miss Troy Thweatt 
Mr. David R. Tillinghast 
Miss Robbie Tillinghast 
Miss Laura Tillswurth 
Miss Evelyn Timberlake 
Mrs. Marjorie Miller Triebert 
Mrs. Mary B. Tuttle 

Mr. Odie W. Underbill 
Mrs. Rose M. Underbill 

Miss Mary \'ance 

Miss Sarah Wakefield 
Miss Lillian Wakefield 
Mrs. Tucker Jeter Walker 
Mrs. Elizabeth Walker 
Miss Dorothy Wall 
■Irs. Jessie Ervin Warbcr 
Miss Nellie M. Warren 
Miss Josephine Washington 
Mrs. Helen W. Watkins 
Miss Elizabeth Watkins 
Miss Helen Watrous 
Miss Sue White 
Miss Juanita Whitworth 
Miss Gertrude Wildt 
Miss Edna Wingman 

Miss Daisy Young 

Miss Ethel Van Zant 


Boys' Vocational Building 

Gymnasium and Swimming Pool 

1845 — KnucATioN of the Dkaf in Xorth Cakolina ~ 1945 

History of Normal Training 

In May 1930, on Ihc Fortieth Anniversary of the founding of the 
Xorth Carolina School for the Deaf, Dr. Goodwin wrote the following 
sketch of the normal traning work; 

"It has been our purpose and custom since our School first opened 
in 1894 to train teachers for special work with the deaf. We have empha- 
sized from time to time the necessity of better trained teachers and even 
have endeavored to raise the standard in teacher training." As was so 
wisely expressed by Dr. Goodwin in his last write-up of this work, the 
North Carolina School has continued to train teachers and under Dr. 
Rankin's leadership the program is going forward. 

The real beginning of the Normal Training work at the North 
Carolina School for the Deaf was made when the service of Professor E. 
McKee Goodwin was secured as Superintendent. The first report of the 
Board of Directors had to say of him — "Prof. E. McK. Goodwin is an 
expert teacher of many years experience, a man of eminent character 
and culture." Recognizing his own need of special training and for first- 
hand experience in teaching deaf children before he could properly direct 
the educational program of the School, Professor Goodwin went to the Iowa 
School for the Deaf to equip himself for his work. He received his training 
"in service training" we call it now — and taught two years in this school. 
His ability as a "good teacher of the Deaf" was soon recognized, and he 
came back to North Carolina to undertake the responsibilities as Superin- 
tendent with good training received from this well established mid-western 
School. This teaching experience in one of the best schools of that day was 
one of the foundation stones in the work of training teachers in the North 
Carolina School. 

The second step in Professor Goodwin's preparation for teacher 
training work was his attendance, as a delegate for North Carolina, at 
the first summer meeting of the Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf, at Lake George, New York, on July 1, 1891. Here 
he met Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. Dr. A. L. E. Crouter, Miss Caroline 
Yale, Dr. Westervelt and other distinguished educators of the Deaf. He 
learned from them what was being done for Deaf children thru Oral educa- 
tion and backed by his Board of Directors — several of them also attended 
this Lake George meeting — he became an Oral enthusiast and started to 
train teachers for this work. 

Normal Training in the North Carolina 
School for the Deaf 

The training of teachers of the Deaf was started in North Carolina 
iiin 1893, in the school for the Deaf in Raleigh. Miss Anna C. Allen of the 
.Pennsylvania School was the first normal instructor. Miss Eugenia T. Welsh 
w\'is the tirst normal student. The following year, when the school was 



1894 ~ North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

I'pened at RIorganton there were two Xoniial Students, Miss Nannie 
Fleming of Raleigh and Miss Stella Hanmer of New York. They were 
assigned Oral Classes under Miss Allen's supervision and thus the training 
of speech teachers was started at this school. These three Normal Training 
teachers together with JNIiss Allen taught twenty-five pupils by the Oral 
method with very encouraging results. The following is from Miss Allen's 
report in December 1, 1894: 

"Is it too much to hope that the time is not far distant when every 
child coming to the North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb shall 
have such powers of speech and hearing as he may possess, developed to 
the utmost under the instruction of earnest, competent teachers?" 

In the ne.xt biennial report (1896), Miss Allen reported an increase 
in the Oral classes from twenty-five to sixty pupils. Five teachers and 
one normal student instructed these pupils in six classes. Mrs. Anna C. 
Hurd, a brilliant young Primary teacher, from the Pennsylvania School 
came to North Carolina this year, 1895, and had a class of ten "totalh- 
deaf " little children. And it is of interest to read from Dr. Goodwin's report 
in 1S96: "Rlrs. Hurd gave an exemplification of methods at the Con- 
vention of American Instructors in Columbus, Ohio in July 1 895 and 
demonstrated with a pupil, Minnie Hartsell, from this class. We had 
cause to feel proud of the work of our school. The Convention received 
the work cordially." 

In 1897 Mrs. Hurd took charge of the Oral Department and organ- 
ized the training of teachers on a very sound basis. She continued to 
demonstrate her methods of speech and language teaching at Conventions 
of Instructors and her reputation as a professional leader became well 
established. She remained in North Carolina until 1906 when she and Mr. 
Hurd went to the Rhode Island School where he became superintendent 
and she, principal. Dr. Goodwin was often heard to remark that "Mrs. 
Hurd put my school on the map." 

Following Mrs. Hurd's resignation as head of the Oral Department 
and chief Normal Instructor, came Miss Louise Upham, a specialist in 
Primary work from Clarke School. Her work kept up to the high standard 
set by Mrs. Hurd, and brought into the school many valuable helps to 
better speech and language teaching. 

In 1912 Miss Fayetta Peck of the New York and Scranton schools 
came in as Principal and Normal Instructor. She remained for six years 
and did excellent work. Dr. Goodwin i)ften spoke thus of her work, "Miss 
Peck was an unusually good organizer and introduced many good things 
into my school. " 

One of the high spots in the Normal training history in this school 
was the coming of Rliss Enfield Joiner to the school in 1917. Miss Joiner, 
a graduate of the Clarke School training class and a native of Talladega, 


1845 ~ Education of the Deaf in Xorth Carolina — 1945 

Alalxima, had held several headships when she came to Xorth Carolina 
as Principal. Through her writinss in the professional magazines and her 
frequent appearances on th? programs at Conventions. ]\Iiss Joiner was 
recognized as an authority on the education of deaf children, .\fter one 
year of successful \york in the school she was "drafted into the service of 
her country" (1918) and went to Washington to take over the work the 
Government was planning for the deafened soldiers. The place vacated by 
Miss Joiner was filled by Miss Pattie Thomason of the Rhode Island and 
Newark schools. She had also taught in the Mt. .\iry School and in the 
New York School. Her work in \"oice Development and Rhythm was rec- 
ognized as a valuable contribution to the problem of securing better 
speech with deaf children. She remained as Principal for four years, 
when she resigned to be married. ^liss Joiner returned to Xorth Carolina 
in 1923 as Principal and carried through a period of Xormal Training from 
1923 to 1938 which was the most extensive teacher training work done 
in the Xorth Carolina School. ?kIost of the teachers in the school today 
were trained by Miss Joiner. 

In the spring of 1938 ^liss Joiner resigned and IMrs. Pattie Thoma- 
son Tate took her place. The Training of teachers continues under 
Mrs. Tate s direction. One or two important changes that have been 
made in the Xormal Training Course since Mrs. Tate's return to the 
School should be noted: 

(1) A plan has been worked cut with the University of Xorth Carolina where- 
by a Normal Student may secure a Master's desree in a period of approxi- 
mately two years by taking the regular training course at the Xorth 
Carolina School for the Deaf and certain required courses at the University. 
Most of these courses may taken at the University during the summer 
period, allowing the student tc spend the greater part of the school year at 
the Xorth Carolina Schcol for the Deaf in observation and practice teaching. 
This .secures for the student an increase in her certification rating and con- 
sequent increase in salary. 

(2) Second, a young teacher may also enter the regular training class without 
undertaking the work for the Master's degree. In that case she enters as 
a regular teacher on the state salary scale, and takes a Xormal Training 
Course conducted entirely at Moraanton and covering two years. Under 
this arrangement, the teacher meets with certain members of the faculty 
fcr lecture hours over the two years and spends a portion of time in other 
grades than the one she is teaching in for observation and practice teaching. 

(.0 .A third, and perhaps, most important change in the Xormal Training work 
has been the introduction of training for all Xormal Teachers in .\uricular 
work. This consists of a study of the C(-nstruction and operation of the 
electric hearing aid; study of audicmetric testing; the reading of audio- 
grams; and cbscrvation and practice teaching with group hearinc aids. 

These changes in the Xormal Training work at the Xorth Carolina 
I School for the Deaf are. of course, in line with the best thought and prac- 
' tices in Xormal Training work throughout the country. To Mrs. Tate 
■should go the credit for these advances. 


Speech Class Using Hearing Aids 

Oral Class in Geography 

1845 ~ Edlcation of the Deak in North Carolina — 


The following is tlic roster of normal students who received training 
at this school since 1894: 

Session formal Sliideiils In Charge of Training 

1S0.1-Q4— Miss Eugenia T. Welsh .- MLss Anna C. Allen 
I804-y5 — Miss Nannie Fleming Miss Anna C. Allen 

Miss Helen Mocre 
1805-96 — Miss Carrie R. Stinson ....Miss Anna C. .-Mien 

Miss Evelyn Simms 

Miss Frances Burr Way 

Miss Flora Lee Dula 
1806-97 — Miss Hesta Reed Mrs. .Anna C. Hurd 

Miss -Annie McD. Ervin 

1897-9S — Miss Carrie Nimmocks Mrs. .Anna C. Hurd 

1808-09— Miss Elizabeth Avery -. .Mrs. Anna C. Hurd 

1000-01— Miss Mabel Haynes . .. Mrs. .Anna C. Hurd 

1007-OS — Miss Carrie Haynes — Miss Louise Upnam 

loii-i.?— Miss Bruce Parks .....Miss Fayetta Peck 

Miss Lucile Pearson 
1Q13-14— Miss Jcs. Washington Miss Fayetta Peck 

Miss Lydia Babcock 

Miss Pearl Tro.eden 

Miss Irene Bowman 

Miss Lillian Miller 

1014-15— Miss Kathryn Taylor Miss Fayetta Peck 

Miss .Annie Cobb 

ML-s Sara Wakefield 
Miss Grace Holloway 
1915-16— Miss Lillian Wakefield Miss Fayetta Peck 

Miss Penelope Brothers 

Mis Belle Ccrpening 

Miss Mary Bowman 
19l6-:7 — Miss Marie Pearson Miss Fayetta Peck 

Miss Minnie .Abernathy 

Miss Mabel Davis 

Miss Mary New 

Miss Lillian Roberts 
1017-lS — Miss Elizabeth .Anderson Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Lee Griffen 

Miss Lettie Walker McKinney 

Miss Julia McNairy 
10 13- 19— Miss Marie Ballard Miss Pattie Thomason 

Miss Elizabeth Walton 

Miss Rachael Hill 

Miss Annie Catherine Matheny 
1020-21- Miss Kate L. Wood Miss Pattie Thomason 

Miss Frances Embry 

Miss -Annie V. Craig 

Miss Maude Knight 

Miss Katherine Cowles 
1021-22- Miss Margie Lynn Mrs. Frank P. Tate 

Miss Virginia DeBerry (formerly Pattie Thomason) 

Miss Edith Barnett 

Miss Evelyn Timbcrlake 

Miss Stella B. Hammer 


1894 — North Carolina School for the Deaf ^-~- 1944 

Session Normal Students In Cluirgr of Training 

1022-23— MLss Nellie Hilton _ .Mrs. Frank P. Tate 

Miss Alma Weaver 
Miss Louise Ross 
Miss Katherine Walton 

1923-24— Miss Cleta Shiflet ._ _ _ _...Miss Enl'ield Joiner 

Miss Christine Wilkes. A. B. 
Miss Katherine McMillan,A. B. 
Miss Mary E. Taylor 
Miss Louis R. Divine 

1024-25 — Miss Marjorie Gordon Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Dorothy Allen 
Miss Mary Vance 
Mrs. Addie C. Knox 
Miss .\nnie Leslie 
Miss Katherine Cowles 
(Repeated Training) 

1Q2O-30 — Miss Frances Hobbie Miss Enfu-ld Joiner 

Miss Troy Thweatt 
Miss Hope Divine 
Miss Mozelle Kibler 
Miss .Anne Clarke 
Miss Dorothy Wall 

1926-27 — Mrs. Ray Pearce .Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Rosalie Kidwell 
Mr. Fred Kent 
Miss Dorothy Tanner 
Miss Mildred Davis 

1027-33 — Miss Nan Jeter, .\. B Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Mabel Miller 
Miss Jessie Stevens 
Miss Louise Coffey 
Miss Livingston Patton 

1028-20— Mrs. Mae Kirkscy Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Tucker Jeter 

Miss .Ada Rankin 

Miss Mary Frances Ragin 

Miss Beatrice Sparks, A. B. 

1920-30— MLss Frances Hobbie Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Mary Buckley 

Miss Elizabeth Hairfield 

Miss Mary McCain 

Miss Margaret Thompson 

Mrs. Tudor Jones 

Miss Burkett Kibler 

Mr. John W. Haynes, Jr. 

1930-31— Miss Mary .\. Brown Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Naomi Nortz. .\. B. 
Miss Jean Ervin. A B. 
Miss Juanita Wilworth 
Miss Emily Dowdell, A. B. 
Miss Cordelia Harper, A. B. 
Miss Joy Bowers 

1031-J2 — Miss Joy Bowers Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Marv A. Brown 


1845 ~ Education of the Dkaf in North Carolina 


Session Sormal Students 

Miss Jean Ervin, V. A. 
Miss Emily Dowdell. B. A. 
Miss Cordelia Harper, E A, 
Miss Naomi Nortz, B. S. 

1932-33 — Mrs. Iva Alexander _.. 

Miss Kate Newland Boser, B. A. 

Miss Martha Campbell, B. A. 

Miss Charlotte Heilhecker 

Miss Helen Mae McLean 

Miss Ermine Xeal 
1033-34 — Miss Margaret Abernathy _. 

Miss Sarah Abernathy, A. B. 

Miss Anne Boger 

Miss Hazeline Campbell, B. .\. 

Miss Bleecl<er Malone 

Miss Sarah Hubbard McConnell 

Miss Mary Elizabeth Taylor 

Miss Eugenia Stubbins, B. S. 
1034-35 — Miss Catherine Harding, B. S. _ 

Miss Lula Belle Highsmith. 




Miss Marguetite Stonrr, 

Miss Sue Ciritfin Webb, 

Miss Edna Milk-, R. A. 

Miss Roberta Xcal 

Miss Alice Krnt, li. A. 

Miss Mathilda Kyser 
1035-36 — Miss Mina Avprv, B. A. .. . 

Miss Catherine Sims, R. S. 

Miss Dorothy Poag, B. A. 

Miss Elizabeth Xewland, B. 

Miss Nevelyn Wall 
1036-37— Miss Marcella Holtzcuw, 3. A 

Miss Barbara Dougherty. B. . 

Mr. Fred L. Sparks, Jr.' B. E. 

Miss Sue White. B. A. 
1037-38— Miss Olga Frisard. B. A. 

Miss Katherine Newland 

Mrs. Margaret Robinson 

Miss Susan E. Sloan, B. .\. 

Miss \'irginia Spainhour, B. .\ 
1938-30— Miss Alice Andrews, A. B 

Miss Margaret -Andrews. B. S. 

Miss Camille Rogers, A. B. 

Mrs. Alice Street Falls, A. B. 

Miss Flora Hawley. A. B. 
1938-30— Mr. J. E. Chrisman. B. S. ... 

Miss Regina Cobb. A. B. 

Miss Betty Gaither 

Miss Virginia Dowdell. \. 

Miss Marv Spainhour. B. 

Miss Nellie Wheeler. B. S. 

Miss Alice Dickinson. B. S. 
1040-41— Miss Hazel Cress. A. B. 

Mr. Millord W. Cress. A. B. 

Miss Harriett Tate Greene. .\. B. 


In Charge oj Training 

Miss Enfield Joiner 

.Miss Enfield Joiner 

.Miss Enfield Joiner 

.Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Enfield Joiner 

Miss Enfield Joiner 

-Miss Enfield Joiner 

-Mrs. Frank P. Tate 



. Mrs. Frank P. Tate 

Boy Scouts 





Class in Swimming 

1845 — Education of thk Dkaf in North Carolina '~ 1945 

Session formal Sttidcnts In Charge of Training 

Miss Norma J. Cheatham, A. B. 

Miss Edra Keplar, B. S. 

Miss Masie Estelle Smith, A. B. 

lQ41.42_Mr. C. J.Holt, B. S - 

Miss Doris Huff, B. S. Mrs. Frank P. Tate 

Miss Bertha Reece, B. S. 

Miss Elva Evans .\. B. 

1042-4.1— Miss Betty Kno.x. B. A. Mrs. Franlc P. Tate 

1Q4.1-44— Miss Mary Hudson, B. \. Mrs. Frank P. Tate 

1044-43_Mrs. Dorothy Smith. B. S — Mrs. Frank P. Tate 

Religious and Moral Training 

Religious and moral training have been given a prominent place 
in the education of the deaf throughout its one hundred years of history. 
The Act providing for education of those handicapped by loss of hearing 
and sight emphasized the need for ":Moral and Religious Training." Those 
in charge of the work have been, throughout, men of deep religious convic- 
tions who sensed the need for development of this phase of human character. 

Dr. E. McKee Goodwin, perhaps one of the most deeply religious 
men North Carolina has produced, sought from the very beginning 
of the School at Morganton, to give proper emphasis to religious and 
moral training. His Sunday services and morning assemblies, most of 
which he personally conducted, were always pointed toward building these 
factors into the lives of boys and girls. 

From the very beginning, teachers were required to teach Sunday 
School as a regular part of their work. This still is the practice in the 
School. Teachers meet their classes at 9: 15 on Sunday morning, and a half 
hour of religious instruction is given. Standard Sunday School literature 
is used. 

Each Sunday afternoon at three o'clock, an in\'ited minister or a 
member of the school staff conducts a student church service in the school 
the auditorium is filled. The services are often conducted by the leader 
the auditoriumm is filled. The services are often conducted by the leader 
in the sign and finger spelling language. In cases where the speaker is unable 
to use signs, an interpreter is used. The reason for this practice is that 
lip reading is not an effective means of communication at greater distance 
than eight or ten feet. 

On Wednesday morning at eighty-thirty children go to the auditori- 
um instead of directly to class. The meeting is utilized for announcements 
having to do with student life and school work in particular — it is, however 
more than that. Usually a student is called upon to lead in the Lord's 
prayer. This is generally followed by a group recitation of assigned memory 
verses 'from the Bible, after this some moral question which has been 
raised is given emphasis in a brief talk by the Superintendent, or by a 
selected staff member. ,^~-, 

1894 ~' North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

For many years the Christian Endeavor Society in the School has 
been the center of student discussion of moral and religious questions. 
One member of the staff is generally selected as advisor to the Society 
and serves with the officers in making out the programs. The programs, 
once they are made out, are left in the hands of the students and are con- 
ducted as they choose. That this work does reflect itself in student life is 
unanimously attested to by the teaching staff. 

There is definite need for more phases of character building work 
along the broad general line of social hygiene. Again, all staff members 
are agreed upon this need. Plans are now being worked out for the under- 
taking of this phase of character building within the next school year. 

V'isiTiNG Clergymen 
Throughout the fifty years of the School, prominent evangelists to 
the Deaf have conducted services at the school. Their roster includes: 

Rev. Job Turner (Episcopal) .._ 1804-1902 

Rev. J. W. Michaels (Baptist) ...._ 1905-1036 

Rev. Robert C. Fletcher (Episcopal) 1928-1943 

Rev. Roma C. Fortune (Episcopal) 1912-1043 

Rev. Herbert R. Smoak (Episcopal) 1940-1944 

Rev. J. W. Gardner (Baptist) 1938- 

Rev. J. R. Fortune (Episcopal) 1943- 

Rev. Andrew C. Miller (Presbyterian) ...1930- 

It is interesting to note here that Rev. Roma Fortune, one of the 
first graduates of this School, was ordained priest in the Episcopal Church 
(Diocese of North Carolina) in 1916. For many years he was rector of the 
Ephphatha Church of Durham, N. C, one of the few churches built ex- 
clusively for deaf congregations. Since his death in 1943, he has been 
succeeded there and in the field of special mission to the deaf in the state 
by his son, James R., who was ordained in .\pril, 1945. 

Health and Physical Education 
Perhaps a program of Health and Physical Education in a school 
for the deaf has an even more vital place than in a hearing school. In the 
first place, the deaf child must leave home for nine months of the year, 
and must, therefore, get at least three-fourths of his physical development 
at the School. ITiat is, for nine months of the year the School has the 
responsibility to provide for plenty of wholesome physical exercise and 
play, and must help him build wholesome health habits. In the second 
place, a well developed program of interscholastic sports in a school for 
the deaf provides one of the finest opjiortunities for deaf boys and girls to 
come into contact with hearing boys and girls, learn to communicate more 
freely with them, and to build habits of social intercourse that will be 
invaluable throughout life. 



For many years three basic ideas have been al the heart of the work 
in Heahh and Physical Education at the North Carolina School. The 
School is a member of the Western Conference of the North Carolina High 
School Athletic Association. For many years its teams have participated 
in the schedule of conference games. That this participation has meant 
much in the li\'es of the students is attested every year by the enthusiasm 
of the entire student body. 

Along with the schedule of games, has always gone a program of 
Health Education which provides for: ( 1 ) regular periodic physical check- 
up, including at least one yearly check-up by a dentist, an otologist, and 
a general physical e.xamination by the School physician; (2) A daily play 
program which includes all children; (3) Special attention to those whose 
physical needs require it; and (4) Classroom instruction in health. 

Physical Directors 

Miss Inez Boynton -„- 1024-1025 

Miss Helen M. Kent - : 1025-1928 

Miss Hazel Dickinson _ .._ ...- 1928-1930 

Miss Lolita Cox - .._ 1930-1932 

Miss Marjiaret .^bernathy _ _ 1932-1935 

Miss Bobbie Wolfe 1935-1937 

Miss .\lice Dickinson _ 1937-1939 

Miss Julia Wayt 1939-1943 

Miss Charline Rotha 1943- 

Art Dep.artment 
It is generally conceded by educators and scientists that the loss of 
one sense increases the power of the remaining senses, and it is nowhere 
more apparent than with the deaf, as shown in their peculiar power to 
observe and imitate. This faculty is requisite for a successful student of art. 
We believe no study will develop the child's mind more than drawing. For 
a number of years special attention was given to free-hand drawing in all 
classes and those showing special talent were given more time in special 
classes of painting in oil, water colors, crayon, and sketching from nature, 
under the able instruction of Mrs. Sudie Faison Belts. These classes occu- 
pied the studio on the third floor of the original School Building a room 
well lighted by six double windows and a skj'-light. The work by the art 
classes took first premium at the State Fair in 1899. .\s the vocational de- 
partment developed it was found more expedient to place all the older pupils 
in classes where the training might be of a more practical nature. The 
younger group of children were given more training in applied arts and 
handicrafts thus supplying the training in drawing which had formerly 
been given under a special teacher. 



Vocational Exhibit 

Hand Crafts 

1 845 — Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — 194.S 

Vocational Instruction 

No better appraisal could be made of the objectives in vocational 
guidance and training undertaken by the School than that given by Odie 
W. Underbill, Diretor of this department, in a recent summary submitted 
fur the permanent report to the Legislature, extracts of which are here 

General plan adopted to follow in our vocational training work: 

1. Elementary crafts for hand skills (small boys and girls — 

3rd grade.) 

2. Pre-vocational (exploratory). General shop and vocational 

agriculture for boys of intermediate grades. 

3. \"ocational instruction (chosen trade), for boys and girls of 

the advanced department. 

4. Placement under our cooperative rehabilitation plan — training 

in an industrial school plant. 

5. Follow-up program by continuous checking through the 

Bureau of Labor for the Deaf to help the individual adjust 
himself to the changing conditions in industry. 

Instruction and training are given in the following vocations: 
Boys Girls 

Handicrafts Handicrafts for Younger Girls 

Primary Wood Work Homecrafts for Older Girls 

Advanced Wood Work Primary Needle Work and Mending 

Printing and Allied Trades Advanced Sewing and Dressmaking 

Dry Cleaning and Pressing Typing 

Metal Work Home Economics 

Vocational Agriculture Home Laundering 

(Dairy. Poultry and Garden) 

In JMay of each year the department puts on a public exhibit of 
vocational work in the school auditorium, each shop having on display 
only products of the work done during the same year. Each succeeding 
exhibit has been marked with real progress in attaining the desired goals 
in our vocational program. 

In October 1941 the school had a booth in the educational section 
at the State Fair in Raleigh for the first time since 1899. The value of 
this efl'ort could be readily seen in the state-wide publicity for our school 
and its work. 

Boys' Vocational Tr.aining 
The program provides two semesters of 108 days each, two hours 
each school day and four hours on Saturdays, making a total of 576 shop 
hours for the entire school year. Due to lack of adequate shop accom- 
modations, the younger boys are divided into two groups, each alternating 
three days in the shop and three days doing "home help work" in the 
buildings, or on the campus. 


1894 ^-^ North Carolina School for the Deaf '-^ 1944 

Each boy of the Sth grade and above is assigned to his class at 
the opening of each semester, after a personal consulation and study of his 
aptitude, home environment and wishes. In most cases each vocational class 
of younger students is the same as in the academic department. 

In the handicrafts shop the little boys find an opportunity to satisfy 
their native instinct to use their hands. Under proper instruction and 
guidance they develop good work habits and hand skills. This early 
training is essential to successful learning and good workmanship in 
the vocation training to follow. 

Classes in primary wood work are given such projects as would 
develop in each boy the desirable traits that will make a good apprentice 
of him as he goes along in his vocational training work. Hand skill as 
well as head work is stressed at all times in this shop. 

In advanced wood work students are given a good deal of practical 
training in carpentry and cabinet-making. They also learn to do repair 
and alteration work which is essential to home life. Graduates from this 
shop have no trouble in securing steady employment in furniture factories 
(jr in war plants. This old shop may be identitied with the lives of hundreds 
of boys who have left school since 1894. 

The print shop has been keeping up its standard of instruction 
and training. It is of interest to note that 95 per cent of the boys, who 
have learned printing in this shop, are today following the trade with 
marked success and entire satisfaction to the employer. 

The old tailor shop has given way to a new project — that of 
dry-cleaning and pressing. New equipment was purchased and today the 
shop is doing a fine service in not only keeping the students' clothes 
conditioned but contributing to their neat appearance. Boys of limited 
academic ability can be gainfully trained in this shop to secure steady 
employment. Several are now employed in some of the larger cleaning 
and pressing establishments of the State. 

At last our long cherished dream for instruction in vocational 
agriculture has come true in the appointment of Mr. Glenn R. Hawkins, 
of Nebraska, who by experience and training is well qualified for the posi- 
tion. Every boy 14 years old and over is given an opportunity to learn 
something of agriculture. We hope soon to have regular classes composed 
of both boys and girls, also 4-H clubs. 

Metal Work was added to our vocational training program in 
the fail of 1943. It has proved to be excellent trainin;; for a number of 
boys with limited academic ability but good mechanical talents. Already 
four are employed in war production work. 


1845 ~ Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 

Girls' \'ocational Training 

The girls' vocational program offers each older girl an equal chance 
at training in three essentials: Cooking, Dress-making and Home-making. 
Each girl of the 7th grade and over has 396 class hours of instruction and 
training during the school year divided as follows: 

Home Ercnoniics 120 hours 

SewinR and Dress-making 120 hours 

Home Crafts including Weaving _ .._ 72 hours 

Cloth Mending ._ „ AS. hours 

Home Laundering - 36 hours 

Each of the younger girls receives instruction and training in the 
following vocations; 

Primary Needle Work and Mending .144 hours 

Handicrafts 144 hours 

Home Laundering 36 hours 

The girls of the high school have 180 hours of instruction and train- 
ing in typing during the school year. Their progress charts show steady 
improvement in speed and accuracy. Already four graduates have secured 
employment as office typists and we have requests for more typists. 

In the handicraft shop the older girls are given projects in wood work, 
home repair work, loom weaving, knitting, making useful articles out of 
waste materials, simple furniture making, varnishing and painting and pic- 
ture framing. They will use the ability and skill acquired in this shop in 
home repairs, beautification and improvement. The younger girls have 
projects such as making wooden toys, making articles from waste materials, 
making rugs, primary weaving by hand and on the looms and painting. 

The older girls have made splendid progress in sewing and dress- 
making under the experienced instruction of Miss Cora Byrd. Each girl 
makes one or more dresses for herself each year and the quality of her work 
is a real credit to the training work in that shop. They hold a fashion show 
about Easter time each year. For the past two years the girls have made 
a great many serviceable dresses, slacks, aprons and suits out of print 
cloth from poultry feed sacks, the actual cost of each dress being 10 or 15 
cents. The girls, too, have made scores of Red Cross gowns and bed-room 
slippers, and knitted sweaters and gloves for use by the Armed Forces. 
Out of that old sewing shop have gone forth into the world hundreds of 
girls who are today using their needle skills to good advantage in their 

Since we installed a new electric range, the classes in Home Eco- 
nomics have made excellent progress in the culinary art. They learn 
about nutrition, marketing and budgeting, besides cooking. This year they 
are taking lessons in dairy products and in canning. 


Class in Printing 


Class in Home Economics 

1845 ~ Education of the Deaf in N'orth Caroltna — 1945 

Printing at the School 

"North Carolina has the honor of publishing the first paper at a 
School for the Deaf in the United States. The paper was started at the 
School for the Deaf and the Blind at Raleigh, sometime in the fifties and 
was called The Deaf JNIute Casket. JNIr. W. D. Cooke, the first super- 
intendent of the school was the editor. During Mr. Cooke's superintenden- 
cy the state printing was all done in the office of the Casket. The office was 
at that time well fitted out and did a great deal of job work, besides the 
state printing. The American Annals of the Deaf was also printed in the 
office of the Casket. During the war of 1860, a large portion of the Con- 
federate States money was printed in this oftlce. The writer of this para- 
graph, :Mr. Z. W. Haynes, deceased, stated that he had seen stacks of crisp 
Confederate bills in the Casket office which, if good money now, would 
amount to an immense fortune. Connected with the office was a book- 
bindery, where several deaf boys became good book binders." 

The original equipment consisted of a printing press, and a small 
steam engine which was also used to grind meal and to cut wood. Books 
for the blind, using raised letters, were produced in the shop. 

There is no definite record of its existence after the Civil War, but 
with the going out of John Nichols, the principal, himself a printer, the 
old shop was permanently closed. 

In October 1895 printing was introduced into the industrial training 
department at the new school. Two Chandler and Price job presses, six 
double stand-cabinets of type and a hand-power paper cutter were equip 
ments installed. The first shop was over the boiler room — nice and warm 
in winter, but uncomfortably warm in spring and fall. 

There the Kelly ^Iessenger made its first appearance September, 
1895, with E. McKee Goodwin as editor and H. ^IcP. Hofsteater as instruc- 
tor of printing. In September, 1903, the paper was rechristened The Deaf 
CaboliniaNj as a name better identifying its purpose. 

From 1896 to 190S the paper was edited by the "Superintendent 
and corps of Teachers." Edwin G. Hurd was the editor during the 1905-06 
session. He was followed by ^Irs. L. .\. Winston who served in that capaci- 
ty until 1909 and was succeeded by !Miss 01i\'ia Blount Grimes. For the 
ne.xt twelve years Miss Grimes edited the paper, putting it on a high 
standard of journalism. W. M. Shuford, who had been instructor of print- 
ing since 1909, succeeded her and continued the high standing until 1926. 

Odie W. Underbill, who began his vocational training as the "printer's 
devil'' in the old shop back in 1895, was made editor and has continuous- 
ly served in that capacity to this time with the exception of the 1939-40 
session when John \\'. .Alexander acted temporarily as editor. 


1894 — North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

Until September. 1913, the type in the school publication was all 
hand-set. The first typesetting machine was installed, and to date it is stiM 
in service. The jirint shop was moved in 1909 to a cooler room in the front 
of the old industrial building, A new drum revolution press was put in use 
In February 1928 the print shop was moved to its present c}uarters in the 
new Boys' Vocational Building. New equipment has been added from time 
to time and today our print shop is considered among the most complete- 
ly equipped of any school in the country. 

Out of this print shop a hundred and seventy-eight boys have fol- 
lowed the trade, according to a recent survey of the Bureau of Labor for 
the Deaf. 

Voc-^TioNAL Teachers — 1894-1945 

Name nj Teacher Vocation Years 

Miss Laura Baucom _ Sewing and Dress-malcing _ 1001-1903 

Miss Ida Bell _ Sewing ._ 1902-1011 

J. W. Berry Shoe Repairing .. 1028-1930 

Miss Sudie Faison Betts _ Art and Free-hand Drawing 1894-1906 

Miss Susie Blanton Laundering ___ 19,!6-193S 

V. S. Birclc .L Crafts (boys) 1913-1916 

Miss Annie B. Brantley Domestic Science 1926-1928 

Mrs. Ethel Bridges -. Laundering _ 1940-1942 

Chas. F. Brown Carpentry 1900-1003 

Geo. K. Brown .Printing _ 1938- 

Miss Hazel Burley Domestic Science 1914-1921 

Miss Cora Byrd Sewing and Dress-making 1914- 

Miss Hazeline Campbell Domestic Science ...., 1932-1933 

Miss Martha Campbell .-. .Domestic Science 1930-1032 

Lynden F. Carr _... Shoe Repairing 1928-1930 

France Cline Dairying 1928-1936 

Miss Nora Coffey ..._ Laundering _ 190,=;-1012 

Geo. L. Cole Printing . 1022-1926 

Paul Crutchfield _ _ Primary Wood Work 1038-1044 

Ralph Crutchl'ield Primary Wood Work 1944- 

H. W. Davis Wood Working 1944- 

Mrs. L. R. Divine Domestic Science 1921-1926 

Horace Duke _ Printing 1936-1944 

Miss Lizzie Ellington Sewing and Dress-making 1807-1900 

Henry Freeman .•. General Shop 1944- 

M\st, Betty Gaither Typing and Arts _... 1938-1940 

Ray Gallimore Boy's Handicrafts 1937-1941 

M. J. Green Carpentry 1903-1905 

V. V. Hallman ...Carpentry :. 1897-1900 

F. U. Hammond Woodworking 1913-1914 

Miss Ethel Hampton Primary Sewing and Mending .. 1939- 

Miss SalUe Hart _ ...Cooking 1900-1903 

G. R. Hawkins _ Manual Arts 1928-1934 

G. R. Hawkins Vocational Agriculture 1942- 


IcS45 — Ei)i;cATioN of thk Dkaf in North Carolina — 1945 

Mrs. G. R. Hawkins Girls' Handicrafts 1944- 

H. McP. Hofsteater Printing 1806-iao5 

Mis Afincs Hunsicker Cooking 100,^-1005 

Miss May Hunter Handicrafts 1005-1010 

Miss Annie Keith Sewing 1011-1014 

O. E. McBrayer Agriculture _.. lOQ.Uloo? 

Thos. P. McKoy Carpentry 1895-1807 

Miss Harleston Mcintosh Home Economics 1944- 

F. T. Meacham Agriculture _ 1000-100.5 

Arthur M. Merilla Tailoring 1021-10,!0 

.■\rthur M. Merilla -, Dry Cleaning and Cloth Repairing 10.59 

Miss Laura Militzer Handicrafts 1910-1912 

Geo. P. Morrison Shoe Making 1922-19.53 

R. M. McAdams _ _. General Shop _ 1937-1939 

Miss Roberta Xeal Domestic Science .„- 1932-1933 

Miss Mary Nash Sewing 1895-1897 

Miss Josie Nussman - Sewing and Dress-Making 1900-1902 

John Oxford -.- Metal Work _ 1944- 

Miss Kathleen Parker _ Girls' Handicrafts - 1937-1944 

Miss Julia Potts _ Cooking 1905-1914 

Miss Sarah Redfern , _. Domestic Science _ 1926-1928 

Miss Anna Ross Laundering _ 1907- 

Miss Anna Ross Baking _ - 1908- 

Miss M. Kay Sallee ._ _ Handicrafts _ 1912-1916 

W. M. Shuford Printing _ _ . 1909-1922 

Dewey Sizemore Shoe Repairing 1918-1922 

C. L. Smith __ Wood Working 1909-1913 

J. L. Sparks Agriculture 1907-1930 

C. \'. Staley Domestic Science - 1928- 

Mrs. Luther Sparks _ _.... Wood Working 1007-1000 

Fred L. Sparks. Jr. __ General Shop .„. 1935-1937 

Miss Mary Spainhour Home Economics 1938-1939 

W. B. Tarkinton Printing _ __ l!905-1919 

W. A. Townsend Shoe Repairing „. _ 1896-1918 

J. A. Taylor Dairying _ _ 1927-1928 

O. W. Underhill _ Printing „_ 1926-1938 

O. W. Underhill _ Director Vocational Education 1938- 

Claude Webb Dairying 1938- 

H. A. Webber _ Baking 1896-1898 

Miss Adelaide Webster Domestic Science 1039-1943 

Miss Lizzie York Laundering 1900-1905 



E.\Hii;|l ul- \\ uOD-WoRK 

Exhibit of Costumes by Classes in Sewing 

1845 — Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 
The Boy and Girl Scouts 

Boy and Girl Scout work has long been a regular part of the program 
of the School. Originally, the Boy Scouts were part of a Morganton troop 
and responsible directly to Boy Scout Headquarters. Twenty-one years 
ago the Piedmont Council with headquarters at Gastonia, North Carolina 
was organized, and Troop 3 of the North Carolina School for the Deaf was 
chartered. The troop has had a continuous and outstanding history since 
that date. Its records show seven Eagle Scouts. Its membership at the 
present time is fifty-five. It has always been distinguished in the Piedmont 
Council for its thorough work and its enthusiasm. Since establishment of 
the Piedmont Boy Scout Camp on Lake Lanier at Tryon, North Carolina, 
a group of boys has gone to camp each summer and has participated 
enthusiastically in camp activities. 

Five years ago Cub Pack No. 9 was organized. Boys between the 
ages of nine and twelve have the opportunity to participate in the activities 
of the Cub Program. One of the interesting outcomes of the introduction of 
Cub work is that last year all Cubs who passed their twelfth birthday at 
once sought an opportunity to become regular Scouts. 

Girl Scout work was introduced at the School when it was first 
organized in the community of Morganton, and there has been a troop in 
the school continuously since. For a number of years some difficulty was 
experienced in the community in finding leadership and the work suffered 
accordingly in the community as a whole. This difficulty has been overcome 
in recent years, and Girl Scout work is now on a firm foundation. 

In recent years, also, a Girl Scout Camp has been operated near 
Gastonia, North Carolina, and members of Troop 10 of the North Caro- 
lina School for the Deaf have attended and experienced enthusiasm for the 
camp program. There are now- two troops of Girl Scouts, one of younger 
girls, numbering 30 and one of older girls, also numbering 30. No resume 
of the Boy and Girl Scout work at the School would be complete without a 
tribute to the fine men and women who over the years have given so freely 
and joyously of their time and energy to its leadership. It is largely because 
of this splendid leadership that the boys and girls have been able to enjoy 
scouting, and out of it have most certainly come finer ideals of .American 
democratic way of living. 

Scoutmasters of Troop 3, Morganton since 1926: 

O. W. Underhill. 10:6-27, lO.'S-Io.v^ 1Q..Q-1Q40 

Fred Kent, 1Q27-2S 

Fred L. Sparks, Jr., IQ.iS-.^T 

R. M. Mc.^dams, lP.w-38 

James E. Chrisman, 193S-30 

Paul B. Crutchfield, 1040- 


1894 — North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

Boy Scouts of Troop 3 who have attained the Eagle rank: 

Lyon Dickson, 10.55 Gilmer Lcntz, 1Q44 

Russell Herring, 1935 Dr. Carl E. Rankin, 1944 

Van Long, 1937 John W. Weaver, 1945 

Paul B. Crutchfield. 1940 Dan Lee .\utrey, 1045 
Ralph P. Crutchfield, 1940 

Military Instruction 

After careful study and observation, Dr. Goodwin recommended the 
introduction of military training in the school. He secured the services of 
Mr. Vernon S. Birck, a graduate of Gallaudet College, and a former gradu- 
ate of the New York Institution for the Deaf, as military instructor. The 
co-operation of parents in furnishing uniforms was obtained, and the 
new feature was begun in September, 1912. Later the War Department 
of the United States Government furnished the cadets with Springfield 
rifles and necessary equipment of the regular army type. The instruction 
given by Major Birck was most gratifying. The boys liked the exacting 
discipline. At the close of the session of 1913-1914, Col. J. T. Gardner 
examined the cadets, and acting as judge in a competitive drill in the 
Manual of Arms, awarded the medal for Company A to Ira Sewell, of Bla- 
den county, to Raymond ]\Iaultsby, Company B, of Wilmington. In 1915, 
the cadets were reviewed by Adjutant General Young, and Dewey Sizemore 
and Everett Brown, Company A, and Rodney Bunn and James Watts, of 
Company B, were awarded medals. 

In a competitive drill with Horner Military School, held in Charlotte 
on the 140th anniversary of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, May 20, 191 S, Company A of cadets from the North Carolina School 
for the Deaf in command of ^lajor \'. S. Birck, military instructor, won 
the first prize — a silver loving cup. The handsome cup now adorns the 
trophy case in the central hall of the Main Building. 

With the introdution of the new Department of Physical Education 
upon the completion of the new gymnasium in 1924, it was found to be 
more practical, considering the needs of both boys and girls, to discon- 
tinue the feature of military training. 

The Kelly Library 

In 18S1, Mr. John Kelly, of Orange County, bequeathed six thou- 
sand dollars "for the education of the Deaf and Dumb". The courts 
decided it was intended for the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and 
the Blind, at Raleigh, and the interest on that fund was used for the 
establishment of a library. Soon after the Morganton School was estab- 
lished, by a decision of the Supreme Court, the library was divided between 


1845 — Education uf the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 

this school and the school for the negro deaf and dumb and the blind, 
at Raleigh, in proportion to the enrollment of each school, the actual 
number of volumes given to the Morganton School being 1194. The 
interest accruing from year to year on the $4,000 Kelly Fund is used 
for the purchase of books. The library was built up until it contained 
more than 4,000 volumes in 1910, when a large part of the library which 
was housed as a supplemental library in the school building was partly 
lost in the fire of 1938 which destroyed the building. A gradual building 
back has brought the number of volumes to more than six thousand, 
housed in two library rooms, one on the second floor of the Main 
Building for leisure time reading for the older pupils, and one on the 
ground floor of the School building for the use of classes. The benefactor's 
name was also perpetuated in the title of the paper being published at 
the School. The Kelly Messenger, until the title was changed to The 
Deaf Carolinian in 1903. 

Reading Rooms 
In addition to and supplementing the purpose of the library, the 
.school has two reading rooms, one for the boys and one for the girls. 
These rooms are supplied with the best newspapers and magazines pub- 
lished. The students use this literature to a very helpful degree in their 
educational work. The education is assured to the deaf boy or girl who 
has acquired the knowledge of books sufficiently to appreciate good litera- 
ture, and the deaf person, who reads, is in near touch to the world. 

Students' Organizations 

The students have their own Literary Society, w-orking out their own 
programs, always encouraged by teachers. The name of the Literary So- 
ciety was changed in 1935 from Kelly to Goodwin in honor of the man 
who devoted his life work to the building of the North Carolina School. 
Students of the 'Slain school have a Christian Endeavor Society, organized 
and conducted by themselves, aided by teachers whenever called upon. 

The Fepha Club for girls and the Sterling Club for boys were formed 
in 1914 as honor societies of older students. They have continued their 
good influence on the student life to this time. The Fepha Club was spon- 
sored by !Mrs. Thomas F. Fox (then Fayetta Peck> and the Sterling Club 
by ;\Iajor \'. S. Birck. then our military instructor. 

The Student Council, organized in 1936, has done much toward 
student government, working in coordination with the Faculty Advisory 

These organizations do a great deal to develop initiative and en- 
courage self-reliance and self-confidence. 


Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf 
MORGANTON, N. C, JuLY 8-15, 1905 

\'n( AimxAi. Agriculture 

1S45 ~ EourATioN of the Deaf in N'orth Carolina ^— 1945 
The American Convention 

The Seventeenth Meeting of the American Convention of Instructors 
of the Deaf was held at the School on July 8 to IS, 1905. Thirty- five States 
were represented and the Provinces of Ontario and Manitoba. Lieutenant- 
Governor Francis D. Winston delivered the address of welcome. Other 
State officials who addressed the Convention were Dr. Charles D. ^Iclver, 
President of the North Carolina Normal and Industrial College, who spoke 
of the needs of the teaching profession, of the growth of educational work 
in the South, and of the nobility of the teacher's vocation. 

Hon. Benjamin R. Lacy. State Treasurer, welcomed the Convention 
and promised that educational interests in North Carolina would receive his 
fullest support. 

The address by Hon. J. Y. Joyner, State Commissioner of Education, 
was inspiring and indicated the deep interest his department shared in the 
education of the Deaf. 

Arrangements for caring for the visitors were as nearly perfect as 
could be. The spacious buildings of the School furnished an ample number 
of large, airy rooms to house every one. E.xcellent meals were served in the 
great dining-hall of the Main Building. The program was replete with 
interesting numbers illustrative of real school work, representative in its 
matter, its methods, and its spirit, of work done daily throughout the term 
and the course of the School. It was the general consensus of all that this 
Convention was one of few to be the epoch makers in history. 

The new officers of the Convention elected at the meeting were: 
President, Dr. E. 'SI. Gallaudet, President of Gallaudet College: \'ice- 
President, E. McK. Goodwin, Superintendent of the North Carolina School: 
Treasurer, J. L. Smith. Principal, ^Minnesota School: Secretary. J. R. 
Dobyns, Superintendent, jMississippi School. 

Bureau of Labor for the Deaf 
Created as a division in the North Carolina Department of Labor 
under section 7312 (j) of the Consolidated Statutes of North Carolina 
by an act of the General .Assembly in 1923, the Bureau of Labor for 
the Deaf became the second agency in the United States to devote its 
interest to problems of the deaf people. The first one was established in the 
State of Minnsesota in 1913. Michigan, Pennsylvania. Wisconsin, and 
several other states have seen the usefulness of such a Bureau and have 
established them in their respective states. In general the North Carolina 
Bureau serves as a clearing for labor and other problems which 
confront its deaf citizen. From this set-up a vitally functioning society of 
self-sustaining citizens has been made out of a group which might otherwise 
have become dependent on public relief. Formerly the deaf were considered 
practically a liability but they are now looked upon as an asset. The law 


1894 ~ North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

specifies the duties of the Bureau but educating and getting the employ- 
ing public interested in deaf workers, matching men and jobs, and making 
placements profitable to job seekers continue to be the chief objectives. 
This divison has a staff of two, the Chief and his secretary. The Chief 
spends a good deal of time in the field and has the whole state to cover in 
conacting employers and clients and making adjustments whenever neces- 

From July 1, 1933 to July 1, 1944, the Bureau had 791 deaf persons 
to apply for assistance in solving their various problems. Of that number 
539 were available for employment and were placed according to then- 
qualifications. From the best information secured by this Bureau it is 
estimated that there are 5,088 deaf adults in North Carolina — 3,188 white 
and 1.900 negroes. Present statistics show that 796 deag workers have 
contributed to essential war production in this state and have liberally 
purchased war bonds. 

In general, deaf persons in North Carolina have successfully engaged 
in textile, hosiery, woodwork and furniture and tobacco manufacturing. 
Others have employed their skill in printing, plastering, dairying, dry 
cleaning, and professional and clerical work. Many deaf persons in rural 
areas have derived good incomes from farming. 

The best information secured from other states by our Bureau 
shows that 11,000 deaf people are employed in war plants in the United 
States. They are working efficiently in 126 different lines of work, such 
as carpenters, building barracks and ships; working as brick and concrete 
masons, building air bases; working in war plants at the production of 
munitions; working in aircraft plants, and they are filling a variety of 
skilled and semi-skilled clerical positions with distinction. 

Upon the establishment of the Bureau for the Deaf, James M. 
Robertson was appointed its first chief and served until 1925, when he wxs 
succeeded by Hugh G. ^filler, who for eight years, carried further the 
good service begun by Mr. Robertson. 

The Bureau of Labor for the Deaf owes much of its fine history 
to the man who took it over in 1933, and has been its chief since, Mr. J, 
Marvin \'estal, a graduate of the North Carolina School for the Deaf, 
and a printer by trade. Fortunately for the Bureau of Labor for the Deaf, 
Mr. Vestal had had long experience in a trade in his own native State. He, 
therefore, came to the Bureau with a background of knowledge of the needs 
of men in industry, as well as a thor(}iigh knowledge of our own Vocational 
Training Program. Furthermore. Mr. \'estal is a man of unusual intelli- 
gence, capable of developing the principles which must underlie the service 
of his bureau. The result is that the Bureau of Labor for the Deaf in North 
Carolina has been an important factor in the success of the deaf citizens of 
the State in securing and holding positions in industry. 


1845 — Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 

Extension Service 

This service has had a much longer history in North Carolina than 
would be indicated in a study of the work since its formal organization in 
1936. For many years both staff and Board Members were called upon from 
time to time to interpret at agricultural meetings where deaf farmers were 
in attendance. Observation of this very limited type of service for these 
farmers and their wives led to the conclusion that what was needed was 
an organized service that took full advantage of the facilities of State 
College and the Department of Agriculture, and which sought for the deaf 
farmer and his family, all the advantages of such services enjoyed by the 
hearing farmer and his family. 

On recommendation of the Superintendent, the Board of Directors 
in 1936 elected Mr. 0. W. Underbill of the staff of the School to head up 
this work, and instructed the Superintendent to seek an arrangement with 
the State College of Agriculture and Engineering of the University, where- 
by this work could be jointly undertaken. In a series of conferences which 
followed, and in which Mr. Underhill participated, a plan was worked out. 
Mr. Underhill received an appointment as Special Extension Agent to the 
Deaf in the Extension Division of the Department of Agriculture in the 
College. The College also agreed to arrange for part of the expense of this 
work. This joint undertaking of the College and the School has now been 
carried on long enough and with such tangible results in the way of real 
service to the deaf farmers of the state, that it can no longer be looked 
upon as an experiment. Year after year it reaches out and touches the 
lives of people who need its services, and who, but for it, would be all 
but completely ignorant of the scientific advances in agriculture. 

Not the least fatcor by any means in this outstanding service, and 
fine undertaking, is the personality of Mr. Underhill. himself. He has made 
it his business over these years to study intensively the needs of the deaf 
farmers, and has sought out, and brought to the farmers, experts who could 
give them proper instructions. In this work he has been helped continuously 
by two Board members in particular, ]Mr. O. A. Betts of Goldsboro, and 
Mr. \V. M. Shuford of Concord. Both of these men have served as inter- 
preters at gatherings or demonstrations of deaf farmers and their wives. 


The Infirmary 

A Company of Cadets — Military Training, 1912-lt 

IS45 ~ Education of the Dkaf in North Carolina " 1945 
Outstanding Personalities of the Early Days 


A\'e would like to speak of the splendid service rendered the school by 
a host of the staff members throughout the half-century just closing but 
space will not permit. However, we feel that our former pupils would be 
disappointed if we failed to tell of the forceful influence and great devotion 
to the welfare of the school by, at least, a few of those listed as heads of 
departments, as well as some of the earlier teachers. 

;Mrs. M.ary B. Malone 

Our first matron, Mrs. ^lary B. JNIalone, starting her career with 
the school when the doors were opened for the tirst time in 1894, will 
live in the memory of every one connected with the school in those early 
years, for, w'hile they were years of great interest, they were also years 
fraught with heavy burdens. Official staffs had to be organized, ine.xperi- 
enced helpers trained, and much had to be done with limited means. To 
this task Mrs. JNIalone set her heart and with courage and fortitude helped 
Dr. Goodwin lay the foundation of a w-ell-organized school. ;\Irs. INIalone 
was ably assisted for several years by Mrs. Corinna S. Jackson who filled 
the position of assistant matron. 

After fifteen years as head of the household department, the condition 
of her health caused !Mrs. Malone to retire in the summer of 1909. 

From that date until her death in 1933, she spent in the home of her 
daughter, ^Mrs. W. \V. Xeal, of ^Marion, X. C. Mrs. Neal is the wife of 
the President of our Board of Trustees. 

Miss Katherine Walton 

Miss Katherine Walton, daughter of Colonel William and Harriett 
INIurphy Walton of "Creekside", members of one of the oldest and most 
prominent families of Burke County, entered this School as supervisor of 
girls in the fall of 1895. "Miss Kate", as she was affectionately called, had 
charge of all the girls, little and big. For a number of years she had as 
many as one hundred and fifty girls under her supervision at once, her 
only assistance being some of the older girls who helped in the care of 
the little ones. She was also nurse and took care of all boys and girls, who 
were sick. Ker interest in her work was a source of inspiration for all. 
.A great lover of nature she was learned in flower and bird and plant lore, 
and did much to impart this knowledge to the children and to beautify 
our campus. 

!Miss \\'alton was, upon the failing health of the matron, IMrs. ^lalone, 
in 1908, made assistant matron and later, 1918, she became the school's 
matron, the position she held till her retirement in the fall of 1935. Her 
devotion to duty and her loyalty to authority were beautiful character- 


]g94 —- North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

istics that endeared every one to her. Miss Walton, upon her retirement, 
Hved with her brother in Morganton until the end, which came so peace- 
fully, April 5, 1936. Today there are scattered all over the nation hun- 
dreds of deaf women whd have grown up to call her blessed. 

Capt. Geo. L. Phiefr 

One of the most interesting personalities of those early years was the 
School's Steward and Treasurer, Capt. George L. Phifer, who had the 
tremendous task, when appropriations were limited and the School's needs 
were pressing hard upon its income, of helping Dr. Goodwin make one 
dollar do the work of two. That Capt. Phifer performed his task efficiently 
is best indicated by the accomplishments during his years of service, 1894- 
1906. "A gentleman of the old school," and one loved and respected by 
all, he was courteous in his business dealings with young and old alike. 
In his beautiful colonial homestead, "Magnolia," about one mile beyond 
the school, overlooking the South Mountains, the doors were kept open, 
graciously inviting to lonely "wayfarers" from the School who were often 
the recipients of the beautiful hospitality of the Phifer family. 

One of Capt. Phifer 's sons, the late Dr. E. W. Phifer, was the School 
Physician from 1925 until his death in April 1939. 

Walter J. Matthews 
At the beck and call of Dr. Goodwin and Mrs. ^lalone, the matron, 
from 1894 until his resignation in 1899, stood Mr. Walter J. jNIatthews, 
performing under the title of "Engineer," which in those days of ' unfinish- 
ed business," meant a multiplicity of crafts, from repairing sewing machines 
to installing a new heating system, either of which he could skillfully 
accomplish. Mr. ^Matthews was a member of the first class to graduate from 
State (A. and ^I.) College. Upon his resignation in Morganton, 1899, he 
went to the Eastern Hospital for the Colored in Goldsboro to become the 
head of the Engineering Department, in which capacity he served until 
1914, when he went into business for himself. 

Mr. Matthews married Miss Irene Peterson, daughter of the late 
mayor of Goldsboro, J. E. Peterson. Three sons and three daughters blessed 
their home at 215 East Pine Street, Goldsboro, where happy grandchildren 
now bring youthful joy to their grandparents. 

Mrs. Laura A. W^inston 
Among the teachers Dr. Goodwin brought with him to the new 
school at Morganton, in October, 1894, was Mrs. Laura A. Winston, the 
eldest daughter of Yancey Ballinger, a descendant from an old French 
Huguenot family of South Carolina who settled in Guilford county, N. C, 
prior to the Revolutionary War. Mrs. Winston's parents were Friends or 
Quakers. \t the age of twelve she began her college training at the New 


184S ~ Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — 194S 

tlarden Boarding School (now (iuilford College), graduating therefrom 
at nineteen. Here she excelled in brUcs letters. By birth and training she 
naturally became keenly alive to spiritual intluences which were to bless 
her future life's work. 

"Not very long after graduation she accepted a postion as teacher 
at the School for the Deaf and the Blind located at Raleigh. Here she 
began that work which afterwards became her chosen vocation. It was while 
I'dling this position she met Alonzo Hinton Winston whom she afterwards 
married. In scarcely a year after their marriage the angel of death called 
the young husband from the scenes of earth. The care of their little daugh- 
ter whose birth occurred just live days before her father's death brought 
some comfort in the hours of darkness. 

"The life toward which Mrs. Winston had looked with such bright 
hopes was changed by a higher decree, and in time, by patient courage, she 
found strength to take her place in the World's great field of usefulness. 
At one time she was actively engaged in the mission field in Mexico. Later 
she went with her little daughter, Lonnie, to Matamoras, Mexico, where 
her sister was for many years Principal of Hussey Institute, a missionary 
school for Mexican girls. Here she rendered very valuable aid in carrying 
on the work of the school. 

"A short time after their return to North Carolina, the beloved 
daughter, then in the bright promise of young girlhood, was called from 
the earthly life to the realms of paradise. This almost crushed the mother. 
The previous winter she had taught in the School for the Deaf and the 
Blind in Raleigh, and after this great sorrow came, she was induced to 
continue her work there. 

"From Raleigh she came to Morganton as a member of Dr. Good- 
win's first staff of teachers. Faithful and successful as a teacher she was 
promoted to the office of Supervising Teacher of the Manual department, 
which position she tilled for several years. Afterward she was elected to 
the office of Lady Principal, a very important postion, the responsibilities 
of which she fully appreciated and faithfully discharged, having the best 
interests and welfare of the School always at heart. 

"In addition to her duties as Lady Principal, she edited The Deaf 
Carolinian, and under her charge, it became one of the best school paper,-; 
in America. She contributed many interesting and instructive articles on 
various subjects — religion, temperance, travel, etc. 

"No one ever connected with the School was more respected and 
loved than Mrs. Winston. She was an inspiration to the younger teachers 
and her work with the deaf girls will long be remembered, and her name 
will be revered by many in years to come. It was a benediction to have 
her in any community. Mrs. Winsti.n died in Greensboro, June 9th, 1922. 
after a brief illness" 



I'OCITBALL li'AM, l''4U 

1845 ~ Education oi- the Deaf in North Carolina — 194S 

A l)niiize tablet (iii llu' \v:ill cif the lnhhy "I the M:iin luiildiii;; of the 
School bears the following inscription: 

"In Loviiii^ Rlniiory oi Mrs. Ijiiira A. Wins/ on i^'lio jor seventeen 
years adorned the Christian ealling as teaeher in this Sehool. 1S50-1922." 

(Extracts jroni a -biographical sitelch of Mrs. Winston by Miss Olivia B. Grimes, 
Vol. 16, No. 8, The Deaf Carolinian.) 

Miss Olivia Blount Grimes 

Probably no one was better acquainted with the objective of the 
Kelly Library Fund than JNIiss Olivia B. Grimes, who was librarian, from 
1884 to 1895, of The Kelly Library, established as a department of the 
School for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind at Raleigh. 

Daughter of Capt. John Gray Blount Grimes, who was steward of 
the school for a number of years, Miss Grimes was a resident of the Schooi 
and was acquainted with the needs and capabilities of both the deaf and the 
blind children, which knowledge served her well in directing the selection 
of books. 

On her maternal side Miss Grimes was the grand-daughter of the 
late Governor Charles Manly of North Carolina. 

In 1895, Miss Grimes was appointed a teacher in the Manual De- 
partment of the Morganton School which position she held until her 
retirement in 1928. 

When the portion of the books allotted to the ^Morganton School 
from The Kelly Library arrived, Miss Grimes, ^liss Flora Dula and Mr. 
John ;\liller were assigned the task of arranging books in the room selected 
for the library on the first floor of the Main Building. Later, after many 
new books had been added to the Library, ^Miss Grimes, assisted by Mr. 
Archer and !Miss Annie Ervin, catalogued all books and rearranged them 
in the cases, listing them by means of the card index system. Later a 
catalog of all books was printed by the school press. 

As editor of the The Deaf Carolinian for the ten years she served 
the school in this extra-curricular duty. Miss Grimes carried on her part of 
the task most efficiently, with that calm dignity of manner and speech 
which made her presence a valuable asset to the school. 

David Ray Tillinghast 

David Ray Tillinghast was born in Fayetteville, N. C, in 1842, the 
sixth descendant of Pardon Tillinghast who was closely associated with 
Roger Williams in the earliest settlement of Rhode Island. Young David 
Tillinghast was a bright and apparently a sound child. He lost his hearing 


1894 — North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

between five and six years of age, owing to the effects of whooping cough. 
His misfortune was greatly alleviated by the companionship of a deaf, 
elder brother from whom he was inseparable. This brother was Thomas 
H. Tillinghast, a teacher of the deaf in the Raleigh School for a number 
of years. In fact his education began in the office of his brother a book- 
binder, where he would pore over the pictures of Harper's Magazine and 
get many ideas in explanation of what he saw from his brother. 

He was sent, at the age of twelve, to the Institution for the Ueaf in 
New York. Here he won the highest encomiums of the late Dr. H. P. Peet, 
and other teachers. He received the gold medal offered by the School for 

He was the first President of the Fanwood Literary Society, which 
was a formal recognition by his fellow students of his scholarship and his 
desire to aid others in the pursuit of an education. 

In the spring of 1862, a few months before he had finished his course 
in the High Class, he was elected teacher in his .'Mma Mater. Here he con- 
tinued six years. In 1868, he was called to the same work in his native state 
and became a member of the teaching staff of the North Carolina School 
for the Deaf and the Blind, at Raleigh, in which he continued until he was 
called to the new School at Morganton, October 1894. He remained the sen- 
ior teacher in the advanced department of the Morganton School until 1906, 
when he was relieved of class work and was elected Chaplain of the School, 
in which capacity he served for two years, until his final retirement in 1907. 

In 1868 IXIr. Tillinghast married Miss Catherine Kirkland Stansbury, 
daughter of Judge Stansbury, Baldwinsville, N. Y. Five children blessed 
this happy union. The two sons, well equipped for the work, labored ac- 
ceptably in the same field as their father. The older son, J. .\lex Tillinghast, 
became Superintendent of the State School for the Deaf of Montana, later 
Superintendent of the School in Belfast, Ireland. The other son, Edward 
S., after several years experience as teacher, succeeded his brother as Super- 
intendent of the Montana School, later Superintendent of the School at 
Salem, Oregon, after which he became Superintendent of the School at 
Fulton, Missouri, and later head of the South Dakota School. The three 
daughters, Mary, Robina and Linda, were also teachers of the deaf in some 
of the leading schools in the LTnited States. 

The elder Tillinghast lived with his daughter in St. Petersburg, Fla., 
until his death, on September 5, 1942, as he was approaching his 101st 
anniversary. Thus ended a life representing the highest qualities of a deaf 
man — a life of devoted service to the deaf and his family and one conse- 
crated to the Christian faith. Those students, who were in this school during 
his teaching years, recall the soul-stirring chapel sermons he delivered, 
particularly his reading of Bible stories in superb sign language. 



Zacharias W. Haynes 

Zacharias W. Haynes was born near the little village of Hampton- 
ville, Yadkin County, X. C., April 5, 1848. He spent his boyhood days upon 
a farm amidst a happy family circle of father, mother, three brothers and 
three sisters. At the age of eleven he lost his hearing by typhoid fever. 
He attended the public schools before losing his hearing, and for a while 
after becoming deaf, but being totally deaf he did not receive any apparent 
benefit. In the autumn of 1861 he entered the North Carolina School for 
the Deaf and the Blind, at Raleigh. He was a pupil there during those try- 
ing days of the Civil War, when the work of carrying on the school was 
beset on every hand with extraordinary difficulties and disadvantages. This 
was the only school for the Deaf kept open in the South during the war. 

In 1865 Mr. Haynes became a teacher in the Institution. In 1869 he 
was elected one of the principal teachers of the colored deaf, the school 
having been established by an act of the Legislature of 1868. He remained 
a teacher in this school for twenty-one years. In 1890 he was transferred 
to the white department again where he taught until the new School for 
the Deaf was opened at Morganton, X. C, in October 1894, where he 
taught until his death in 1900. 

In 1873 he was married to Miss Louisa E. Bunker, also of Yadkin 
County. This union was blest with seven children, four daughters and three 
sons. All the daughters became teachers of the deaf, three of whom. Misses 
Mabel, Carrie and Effie Haynes. taught in the ^Nlorganton School, while 
Miss Alice (Mrs. Harvey P. Grow) taught in the Kentucky School. The 
older son, Chris, for a couple of years was head supervisor of boys and 
stenographer to Dr. Goodwin. 

John C. ]Miller 

Out on the front porch of his home on West Union street, Morganton, 
may be seen seated in his rocker, basking in the warm sunshine, an aging 
educator of the deaf. He is enjoying a Havana; he is enjoying the super- 
beauty of the mountain scenery around: he is enjoying the richness of a 
life — a half century of devoted service to his fellow deaf; the comfort and 
happiness of a charming home and helpmate and a devoted family of 
children. Xo doubt his thoughts go back to the good old days when he 
imparted knowledge to his pupils, to the good old days when the football 
and baseball teams he helped organize won fame in games with David- 
son, Wake Forest, Oak Ridge. Bingham and .\sheville colleges in the 
1900s, to the good old days when he took part in organizing the Kelly (now 
Goodwin) Literary Society that has been serving its purpose so well to 
this day. This aging educator-friend is John Craton Miller, now in re- 


The Queen of May and Her Court, 1942 

The Festive May Pole 

1,S94 ~ XoRTii Carolina Schooi, for the Deaf — 1944 

Born in Goldsboro, N. C, on Sept. 10. 1S()5, son of the late Dr. 
J. F. Miller and Sarah Borden Miller, Mr. Miller spent his boyhood in 
and around the great State Hospital of which his father was superintend- 
ent. Deprived of the sense of hearing in infancy he entered the School for 
the Deaf and the Blind at Raleigh in 1873.. After spending seven years there 
he attended the New York (Fanwood) School where he graduated with 
honor in 1884. Among his schoolmates were a number who later became out- 
standing teachers of the deaf, among them being the late Dr. Thomas 
Francis Fox. the late W. W. Beadell, and the late IMrs. Grace D. Coleman, 
wife of Thomas H. Coleman who founded the Florida School and others. 

Due to the condition of his health soon after graduation, he went 
to Florida where he ran a small orange grove for his father. His health 
restored, he returned to North Carolina and accepted a position in the 
colored department of the old Raleigh school. In 1894 ]Mr. Goodwin took 
him along with him to his new school plant at Morganton and put him 
on his teaching staff. In this capacity Mr. ^liller served continuously until 
his retirement at the end of the 1939-40 session — just fifty years since 
he first entered the profession. In addition to his teaching duties he took 
a leading part in the extra curricular activities of the school, and was the 
"Father" of the Kelly Literary Society. 

In June 1899 he was happily married to ^Nliss Mabel Fisher of 
Athens. Ohio, who died in 1905. They made their home in a beautiful 
location at the intersection of West Union and Burkemont Avenue. For 
the next forty years he walked to and back from his class room, a distance 
of two miles, every day during each school year except Saturdays. Taking 
236 school days including Sundays each year, multiply this by 2 and 
again by 40 we find that the total distance Mr. Miller covered in walking 
to and from his class room to be in excess of 18,800 miles — almost the 
distance around the earth at our latitude. 

By the first marriage one daughter, ]\Iabel Fisher, and one son, Hugh 
Lee, were born. Several years after the death of his first wife, Mr. ]\Iiller 
married Miss Edna Bryan, then a teacher in the North Carolina School. 
Two daughters, Marjorie Bryan and Edna Holliday, were born to this 
union. All the daughters are following in the steps of their father and 
mother in the work of teaching the deaf. 

IMrs. Nannie Fleming Jeter 

On the enrollment of the offical staft" of the School when the doors 
were opened for the first session in October 1894, was the name of ]Miss 
Nannie McKay Fleming, daughter of Capt, John Martin Fleming of 
Raleigh, who was listed as a member of the first Normal Class in Training. 
However, Miss Fleming's first e.xperience with deaf children actually 


1894 ~ XoRTH Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

began at the School for the Deaf and the Blind at Raleif;h in 1893, soon 
after her graduation from Peace, where she observed the work of the 
classes under the late Anna C. Allen, who afterward became the first 
Supervising Teacher of the Oral Department of the Morganton School. 

"Some are born teachers", is a time-worn phrase, yet a most ap- 
propriate description of Miss Fleming's work with deaf children, especially 
with the "mis-fit" member of her class who may have entered school late in 
life, or the one who was ill-prepared both in speech and English. With 
these she could, in a most natural way, accomplish marvelous results. For 
the nine years she taught in the Morganton School, the results of her efforts 
were outstanding, both in speech development and in English, the real test 
of an efficient teacher, especially when the respect and cooperation of her 
pupils was so nearly ideal as Miss Fleming's former pupils will bear 
witness. In addition to her regular work as teacher, she was a willing assist- 
ant in extra, curricular duties which were numerous in those early years. 

On January 28, 1904, ]Miss Fleming was married to Dr. I. P. Jeter, 
one of Morganton 's leading dentists and an outstanding citizen of the com- 
munity. To this happy marriage were born two lovely daughters, Tucker, 
(Mrs. Robert Walker), and Nan, both of whom followed in the foot- 
steps of their mother by taking the Normal Course for teachers at the 
Morganton School and becoming regular grade teachers, both possessing 
the inherent ability and enthusiasm of their mother. 

In 1905, Dr. Jeter was appointed a member of the Board of Directors 
of the Morganton School by Governor Glenn, in which position he served 
faithfully until 1917, when Governor Bickett appointed Mrs. Jeter a 
member of the Board, in which capacity she served with distinction until 
1929. In 1917, Mrs. Jeter was persuaded to join the staff of the Public 
School System of Morganton where she has won the highest approbation 
of her associates as well as the student body and parents. 

Miss Eugenia T. Welsh 
Miss Eugenia T. Welsh, of Raleigh, the first normal student trained 
in North Carolina for teaching of the deaf (1893) holds a cherished place 
in the heart of the North Carolina School, and a distinguished place in 
the profession. After eleven years' teaching in this School and four in the 
Rhode Island School, she "came back" to the North Carolina School in 
1911 to take charge of the long dreamed of Primary School, as a depart- 
ment separate and distinct from the Main School. With the opening of 
the newly erected Goodwin Hall, she became its first resident supervising 
teacher, with a completely organized unit in her hands — six teachers, a 
housekeeper, two superivsors and fifty-one pupils — and for ten years direct- 
ed that unit notably. The Rhode Island School called her back as Princi- 
pal, where she has remained since leaving Morganton in 1920. .Mmost 


1845 — Education of the Ueaf in North Carolina — 1945 

Ihe last of his original staff to visit Dr. Goodwin, Miss Welsh came with 
ISIrs. Hurd back to Morganton in 1936; and again in 1940, still devoted 
"lirst family." to visit the School again, and her warm circle of friends 
both here and in Morganton. 

Mrs. Fayetta Peck Fox 

Another rare personality of the early years of the school, who 
li-ft an enduring mark upon us, was Miss Fayetta Peck, our Educational 
I'rincipal from 1912 to 1917. 

Trained in Kindergarten work at Hunter School in New York, and 
in Oral work at the Scranton School, she taught one year in the Primary 
Department at Fanwood and twelve years in the grades at the Scranton 
School before coming to North Carolina in 1912. Five years later she 
was married to Dr. Francis F. Fox, one of the distinguished deaf teachers 
at the New York School (Fanwood) and moved to New York. From 1922 
to 1933 she was Supervising Teacher in the Primary Department at Fan- 
wood, retiring in 1933 when her husband retired. 

Under her administration as Educational Principal here, the Normal 
Training program was brought into sharper focus — with group classes of 
normal students and a closely organized course of study in normal training. 

.A gracious and enthusiastic personality, she drew the social life of 
the household into a memorably warm and friendly circle. 

But our daily tangible reminder of "IMiss Peck" and one of the 
most valuable factors in our school life is the honor societies — the girls' 
Fepha Club and the boys' Sterling Society, which she started. To many 
of our students of the past thirty-odd years, these societies mean both 
goal and reward, a fellow-ship of "good citizens" throughout both school 
and later years, which may not be taken lightly. 



\ '/ 

^^'\^\ x/'lw.-' 




Folk Dancers 


A ll.Al'I'N .\1a\ I ) \\ C.kilL P 

School Staff Year 1944 - 1945 


Carl E. Rankin, M.A.. Ph.D Supcrinletident 

Mrs. Azile S, Barron (1943-1944) _ _ _. Budget Officer 

W. K. Kceter Business Mamiger 

Mrs. Marparet C. Simmons - - Seeretarv 


Mrs. Pattie T. Tate. M.A. ..._ 

Mrs. Frances E. Davis 

Mrs. Katherine W. Thomason 


Mrs. Iva .\lexandcr 

Miss Elizabeth Avery 

Mrs. Harriett Banta, B. A. 

Mrs. Susan Boger 

Miss Joy Bovvers 

Mrs. Dorothy Bowman. B. .■\. 

Mrs. Beatrice Chapman, A.B. 

Mrs. Charlotte Ccnley 

Mrs. Bashie Crutchfield 

Miss Marie Davis 

Mrs. Cordelia Giles, B.A. 

Miss Lillian Glover 

Miss Marjorie Gordon 

Miss Ethel Hampton 

C. Jackson Holt, B.A. 

Mrs. Mozelle Horton 

Miss Mary Hudson. B. .A. 

Miss Charlinc Rotha, A. B. . 

- -- Principal 

.... Assistant Principal, Upper School 
Assistant Principal, Primary School 

Miss Nan Jeter. B. .\. 
Mrs. Addie Kno.x 
Mrs. Betty Long, B. A. 
Miss Mary Mauzy 
Miss Lucile Pearson 
Miss Marie Pearson 
E. O. Randolph, Ph.D. 
Miss Linnie Rankin 
Mrs. Irene Ross 
Mrs. Annie Starrett 
Mrs. Marjorie Triebert, B. .'\. 
Mrs. Mary Tuttle 
Mrs. Elizabeth Walker 
Mrs. Jessie Warber 
Miss Elizabeth Watrous 
Mrs. Helen Watkins 
Mrs. Rose Underbill 
Physical Education 


O. W. Underbill, M. .\. Director 

George K. Brown, B. A . Printing and Allied Trades 

J. Horace Duke (1943-1944) Printing and Mechanics 

G. R. Hawkins Mech. Drawing & I'oc. Agriculture 

Harold \V. Davis Advanced Wood Work & Mech. Drawing 

John Oxford ... .... Machine and Metal Work 

Paul B. Crutchfield — Primary Wood Work 

Miss Cera Byrd _ Sewing and Dress-making 

Miss .Adelaide Webster (1943-1944) Home Economics 

Miss Harleson Mcintosh, .A. B. Home Economics 

Mrs. Edythc Hawkins Domestic Arts and Elementary Crafts 

Miss Kathleen Parker (1943-1944) _.. Girls' Handicrafts 

Mrs. Sarah Sheppard ... .. . ... . .. Typing 

Miss Ethel Hampton Primary Sewing and Mending 

.Arthur Merrilla Dry Cleaning, Pressing, and Cloth Repairing 

Mrs. Ruth Orders _ Laundering 


1894 — ■ North Carolina School for the Deaf ~— ^ 1944 


Mrs. Nina Wood ..._ __ _ House Director, Main Building 

Mrs. Blanche Downes Home Director, Good',vin Hail 

Dan .Autrey J. C. Holt 

Mrs. Lula Carsuell Mrs. Beulah Lingafelt 

Miss Marie Diuckworth Miss Emma Lou Mace 

Miss Phyllis Duckworth Miss Golda D. Mastiller 

Miss Ruth Estcs Miss Edna McHan 

Mrs. Willa Freeman Mrs. Epsy Rusmiselle 

Miss Mary Kirksey Miss Inez Willil'nrd 

Mrs. Kate Wesson Miss Mary Sue Wilson 

Ralph Crutchfield Henry Freeman 


John W. Ervin, M. D. _... .„. .„._ Physician 

Ralph Coffey, D. D. S Dentist 

Miss Gladys Ouinn> K- N Nurse 

Miss Hazel Glenn . 1 ... ... Assistant Nurse 


Mrs. Rolen Welch Dietitian 

Mrs. Ida Rhyne .. Assistant Dietitian 

Gertrude Dale Pitting Room Assistant, Main Building 

Annie Holder . . Dining Room Assistant, Goodwin Hall 


G. L. Blanton . Farm Manager 

C. E. Webb _ Dairyman 

Oscar Hoylc . . . . Poultryman 


Newton Rusmiselle .... _ Plant Engineer 

Ted Dale .„ _.. Fireman 

L. R. Davis - _ ..- Fireman 

R. A. Pearson Night-Walch 

Mrs. Mary Pearson _ Night-Watch 


1845 — Education of tiik I)i;af i\ Xorth Carolina - 1945 

Mrs. Pattik Tiiomason Tatk 

Mrs. I'attie '{'hoinason Tate conie.s fnim a (lisliiinui.slied South Caro- 
lina Family of educators of the deaf, "the W'aii^ers, " affectionately known 
throuf^hout the country for four generations. By heritage, luie training and 
e.xperience, she "belongs" in this profession. .After graduating from Con- 
verse College with a major in music she went immediately into training 
at the South Carolina School. 

As a young teacher, she had a notable career of teaching in the Florida 
School, the Pennsylvania School at Philadelphia, and the New York School 
(Fanwood). In 1912 she was called to the Rhode Island School to under- 
take special work in speech and rhythm and remained there until 1915. 
During that time she studied voice under Professor White of Boston, took 
an advanced normal training course under Miss Martha E. Bruhn, and 
received a certificate in Speech Correction from New York University. In 
1917 she went to the Newark Day School for a year, again to do special 
work in speech and rhythm. In 1918 she came to the North Carolina School 
as Principal. Four years later her marriage to one of the distinguished citi- 
zens of Morganton, Mr. Frank P. Tate, took her out of the profession. 
.After some years absence, Mrs. Tate returned to the North Carolina School 
in 1938 and has since served as Principal. 

Under Mrs. Tates leadership the School has made distinct progress 
in both .Academic and Yocational work. In the area of .Academic work 
the School has moved toward the raising of standards of work throughout 
the grades and toward a closer aligning of its programs with that of the 
public hearing schools. During her regime the standard of teaching has 
keen raised, certification of teachers through the State Department of 
Education has been carried through, and several courses especially designed 
to raise the professional standing of the slaft" have been conducted. 

Two changes in the instructional progam should be noted. First, 
there has been a trend toward greater emphasis on language development 
throughout the grades in contiast to an earlier major emphasis on speech 
development — an emphasis in line with the best thought throughout the 
profession. In the upper grades, increasing emphasis has been placed upon 
an aud!o-visual program, making the use of electrical sound amplification 
and of motion pictures for instructional work. 

It can be well said that under Mrs. Tate's leadership the School has 
gone forward, maintaining during the years of her administration, its repu- 
tation for progressive education. 


Mrs. Pattie T. Tate 

1845 ~ Education of the Dkaf in Xdrth Carolina — 1945 

Prominent Citizens of Morganton Who Contributed 
TO THE Establishment of the School 

Those of us who were close enough to the firing line in 1891, when 
Dr. Goodwin was mustering forces to persuade State officials, Legislators, 
educators and all others interested in promoting the humanitarian cause 
of improving the status of the deaf in North rarolina. recall the splendid 
support given him by the influential citizens of Morganton, regardless of 
party affiliation or personal consideration. In fact, a concerted action for 
any worthy cause by the citizenry of JMorganton and Burke County in 
those days of fifty years ago, as now, is a factor to be reckoned with and 
one which commands a respectful hearing from the State. 

Space and time will not permit me to relate in detail the personal 
efforts of individuals. However, there come to mind several who gave 
generously from time to time until the objective sought — A New School 
FOR THE Deaf — was accomplished. 

We begin with Col. Samuel 'SlcD. Tate, State Treasurer, 1892-1896, 
who was appointed a member of the Board of the School by Governor 
Thomas M. Holt, in 1891 and rendered valuable service in the selection 
of the site for the School. Others who lent their influence in various capaci- 
ties during the period of initial legislation in 1891, and through the years 
of building and beyond, were: Hon. Isaac T .Avery, Legislator in 1891; 
Judge A. C. Avery, former member of the State Supreme Court; Hon. 
Samuel M. Huffman, former Legislator and member of the Board of Di- 
rectors of the School, 1894-1900; Hon. John H. Pearson, former Legislator; 
Mr. William E. Walton, banker; Mr. C. ^Nlanly ^IcDowell, former sheriff; 
Hon. L. A. Bristol, former Legislator; Mr. T. G. Cobb, editor and publish- 
er; Mr. I. I. Davis, former member of the Board of Directors of the 
Western Hospital; Hon. B. F. Davis, former Legislator; Dr. Patrick L. 
Murphy, Superintendent of the Western Hospital, and ^Member of the 
School Board, 1891-1893; Maj. James W. Wilson, former State Commis- 
sioner of Railroads: ^Nlr. W. C. Ervin, Attorney; Capt. George Phifer 
Erwin, banker: Dr. Isaac M. Taylor of the medical staff of the Western 
Hospital; Mr. Samuel J. Ervin, attorney; J. A. Dickson, secretary, Mor- 
ganton Manufacturing Co.; Mr. C. H. McKesson, attorney; ^lessrs. S. R. 
Collett, R. B. Claywell, all prominent merchants; Mr. R. K. Presnell; Mr. 
Frank P. Tate, civil engineer who rendered valuable service in surveying 
for the School; Hon. H. L. Millner, former Legislator, instrumental in 
securing appropriation for erection of the Primary School: Dr. I. P. Jeter, 
dentist, and a member of the Board of Directors of the School, 1905-1916; 
Mrs. Ernestine Kistler (INIrs. A. M.) wh(i was untiring in helping both 
pupils and staff members in a social way. 

There were others in the county of Burke, who, with those mention 
ed "threw their weight" in promoting this worthy cause. — T/ie Editor 


Institutions Exerting Great Influence in the 
Hducation of the Deaf 

I. The Volta Bureau and the American Association 
To Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf 

Two important factors in the education of the deaf in the United 
States are the X'olta Bureau and the American Association to promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, both founded and endowed Ijy Alexander 
Graham Bell. The combined story of these two important organizations 
is told herein by Harriet Montague, .Associate Editor of the Volta Review: 

Bell's interest in the deaf was aroused v.-hen he went to Boston in 
1871, to lecture to the teachers of the Horace Mann School on Visible 
Speech, a system of phonetic writing invented by his father, Ale.xander 
Melville Bell. Msible Speech was not orginally intended to be used with 
deaf children, but it had proved helpful in showing teachers of the deaf 
what a child was expected to do with his speech organs and his voice in 
forming the sound of speech. Bell, whose primary interest was speech, was 
immediately attracted by the possibilities of speech of the deaf, and before 
he had been in Boston very long, he was devoting much of his knowledge 
and enthusiasm to teaching deaf children to talk. .\t the same time, he was 
carrying on the experiments that led to the invention of the telephone, 
and his first thought, when he learned that the telephone would bring 
him wealth was, "Now we shall have money to teach speech to little deaf 

He had long had in mind a national organization to further this end, 
and when, in 1873, a little group of teachers he had instructed, met in 
Worcester, Massachusetts, there was some talk of forming an association. 
But Mr. Bell felt that the time for this was not yet ripe. He believed 
that such an association should have a widely representative membership; 
and that parents of deaf children, public school officials, otologists and 
social workers should know something about the deaf child's educational 

His ideas bore fruit, and when the Convention of .\rticulation 
Teachers of the Deaf met in New York in 1884, there were two hundred 
present. The proceedings of their meeting is one of the most interesting and 
arresting documents related to the education of the deaf, for it offers in 
concise form almost all the ideas now being publicized as highly advanced 
and modern: the development of residual hearing in deaf children: the 
the use of artificial aids to hearing; the possibilities of special instruction 
in lip reading; the importance of speech and of speech teaching; the 
need of better training for teaching. 

In 1890, this group incorporated under the law of the State of New 
York, as the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech 


1894 ~ North Carolina School for the Deaf "— 1944 

to the Deaf. Membership was open to anybody interested in speech and 
lip reading for the deaf. Mr. Bell presented the Association with an en- 
dowment fund, which he augmented from time to time, and in 1908 
the Volta Fund, which had been created some years previously, was placed 
in charge of the Association. 

The name, V'olta, we owe to Alesandro Volta, the Italian scientist 
who invented the first chemical generator of electricity. \'olta demonstrated 
his battery at a meeting of the French Institute in Paris in 1800. Napoleon 
proposed that France should award Volta a good medal and a gift of 
6,000 francs. He also established a fund from which a sum of money, 
known as the "V'olta Prize," should be conferred upon those who made 
important contributions to the "new science of electricity." In 1880, this 
prize, which now amounted to 50,000 francs, was bestowed upon Alexan- 
der Graham Bell for the invention of the electric speaking telephone. 

Bell determined to invest this money in such a way that it would 
promote scientific research and at the same time would remain a permanent 
fund. This, he accomplished in a characteristic fashion by using part of 
the Volta Fund to further the improvement of phonograph records, the 
patent of which, when sold, brought a considerable sum for himself and 
his co-worker. Some of these experiments had been carried on in a small 
brick building in Georgetown, Washington, D. C, which he had named 
the Volta Laboratory. It was located behind the house he had bought 
for his father several years previously, and it was here that a great 
bulk of mail began coming, filled with inquiries concerninig deafness and 
the education of deaf children. 

In 1887, Bell turned over to his father $100,000 to be held in trust 
and used "for the purpose of founding and maintaining a Bureau for 
the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the Deaf." John Hitz, 
formerly Consul General to the United States from Switzerland, who had 
been assisting Dr. Bell in his research was named superintendent of the 
Volta Bureau, and May 8, 1893, Helen Keller turned the first sod to break 
the ground for the construction of the fireproof building across the street 
from the Volta Laboratory, which has been the home of the Volta Bureau 
since 1894. It may be of interest to know that the original laboratory 
is now used by \V'alter Lippmann, the newspaper columnist, as a study; 
and that Mr. Lippmann lives in the house formerly occupied by Mel- 
ville Bell. 

The Volta Bureau has been for almost sixty years a disseminating 
center for information relating to all classes and ages of deaf and hard 
of hearing persons. Thanks to the broad policy adopted by Dr. Bell and 
maintained by Mr. Hitz and his successors, nothing that would aid the 
welfare of progress handicapped by any degree of deafness has been ex- 
cluded. The library contains the largest collection of books on deafness 
in America, perhaps in the world. The Bureau publishes and distributes 


1,S45 — EnrrATiox of the Dkaf in N'orth Carolina — 1945 

(|Li;iiititifs of printed matter on all the problems of deafness except medical 
prolileiiis; and answers with personal letters inquiries from all parts of 
the world. 

The Volta Review, published by the X'olta Bureau since 1910, 
succeeded the Association Review, which had been issued for ten years as 
a bi-monthly. The Volta Review is a 64-page illustrated monthly for 
parents and teachers of deaf children and for the adult hard of hearing. 
It is the only magazine of its type published in the United States; and 
is widely read in this as well as in many foreign countries. 

The \'olta Bureau is in regular contact with schools for the deaf and 
organizations of the deaf and the hard of hearing throughout the world, 
and is frequently called upon to make suggestions in regard to furthering 
the welfare of deaf persons. The staff supply research workers with biblio- 
graphers and other materials: and the facilities of the Volta library are 
alw'ays at the service of many interested persons. The United States 
Office of Education, the Library of Congress, the National Education As- 
sociation, and other national organizations refer to the Volta Bureau 
inquiries concerning the education of the deaf. Although its duties have 
grown faster than its income, the \'olta Bureau has remained an important 
source of educational knowledge. 

The \'olta Bureau is located at 1537 35th Street, X. \V., Washington 
7, D. C, and is the publisher of The Volta Review; Editor, Josephine B. 
Timberlake: -Associate Editor, Harriet ^Montague. The Bureau is also 
headquarters of the .\merican .Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf. 

Officers of the \'olta Bureau 1945 are as follows: Honorary President, 
!Mrs. Calvin Coolidge: Honorary Vice-President, Gilbert Grosvenor: Hon- 
orary Director, David Fairchild: President. Elbert .A. Gruver: First \'ice- 
President, Clarence D. O'Connor; Second Vice-President, Clara E. Xewlee; 
Secretary, A. C. Manning; Treasurer, Herbert Poole; Auditor, Oliver 
Whildin: Executive Secretary. Josephine B, Timberlake. 

II. Gallaudet College, W.ashington, D. C. 

In the year 1S62, years after the establishment of the Columbia 
Institution for the Deaf of the District of Columbia, at Kendall Green, Dr. 
Edward M. Gallaudet, its superintendent, in his annual report of that 
year, called the attention of Congress to the importance of providing higher 
education for the deaf, and to the fact that the peculiar organization of 
that Institution afforded an opportunity for the foundation within it of a 
college for the deaf of the United States. 















1845 — Education of the Deaf in North Carolina ~ 1945 

Congress responded favorably to Dr. Gallaudet's suggestion. In 
April, 18o4, an act authorizing the Board of Directors of the Institution, 
"to grant and confer such degrees in the liberal arts and sciences as are 
usually granted and conferred in colleges" was, after considerable discus- 
sion, passed without a dissenting voice in either branch of Congress. Con- 
gress showed its further approval of the new departure within the next 
few years by making a considerable increase in its annual grants for sup- 
port, by appropriating large sums for the purchase of additional grounds 
and the erection of new buildings, and by providing that a limited number 
of students might be admitted to the collegiate department from the sev- 
eral States and Territories free of charge. The number of students thus 
admitted free was at first ten: the number has been increased by acts of 
Congress from time to time until now it is one hundred and forty-five. 

The College was publicly inaugurated June 28, 1864, under the 
name of the National Deaf-Mute College, and Dr. Gallaudet at the same 
time was inaugurated as its president. He continued to hold the office 
until September, 1910. The College began its teaching work in September, 
1864, with seven students and one professor besides Dr. Gallaudet. 

In 1887, in response to an earnest appeal from women for an equal 
share with men in the advantages of higher education, the doors of the 
College were opened to young women. 

In 1891, a Normal Department for the training of hearing teachers 
of the Deaf was established with the double purpose of raising the stand- 
ard of teachers in American schools for the Deaf and of affording the deaf 
students of the College increased opportunities for practice in speech- 
reading. Out of the one hundred eighty-one graduates of the Normal 
Department, 87 later became executives of American schools for the Deaf. 
32 of whom are still in office today. 

In 1894. in accordance with a petition from the graduates of the Col- 
lege, its name was changed to Gallaudet College in honor of Thomas Hop- 
kins Gallaudet, the founder of the instruction of the deaf in America, a 
beautiful bronze statue of whom had been placed in the College grounds 
by the deaf people of .America in 1889. 

The Courses of instruction and study are given in the arts and 
sciences. The system of instruction includes the recitation of assigned sub- 
jects: discussions and lectures: work in laboratories and with instruments: 
courses of reading directed by members of the Faculty, and practice in 
English composition. 

The entire curriculum, including a Preparatory year, embraces a 
period of five years, each of which is di\ided into three terms. 

Special pains are taken to preserve and improve, by suitable and 
frequent oral exercises, whatever powers of speech and ablitity to read 
the lips are possessed by students on entering College. 



North Carolina School for the Deaf 


The Library of Congress and the collections of the Smithsonian 
Institution, the National Museum, the Corcoran Art Gallery, and col- 
lections of the National Capitol, open to the public, are of inestimable 
value to the students of the College. 

Religious services of an undenominational character, in which the 
Faculty and the students participate, are held daily except Saturday. 

Students whose parents desire that they attend a church of a special 
denomination, may communicate this wish to the President. 

Students From North Carolina Attending 
Gallaudet College 1864-1944 

Linwood W. Alderman 

Mary Allison 
♦Albert J. Andrews 

George H. Bailey 
*Ernest Bingham 
•'Edith S. Boggs 

Emma C. Bradley 
*Robcrt W. Brouch 

Max Brown 

Ward B. Butler 

James Calhoun 

W. H. Chambers 

Pearl Coltrane 

Pauline Conklin 

Alberta DeLozier 

John Dermott 

Lyon Dickson 

Edward Farnell 

Irene L. Hamilton 
\'irginia A. Haywood 

*Sarah K. Herring 
Leslie Hinnant 

♦William A. Hunter 
Charles E. Jones 
Calton James 

♦Jasper A. Jamison 

♦Jennie Jones 

♦Wallace Kinlaw 
Ruth Kirby 
Lillian G. McFarland 

♦Joseph M. Mallet 
William S. McCord 
Robert C. Miller 
David Morrill 
Laverne Palmer 
Malina C. Parker 

M. Kathleen Parker 
Mittie H. Parker 

♦Emma L. Pike 
Hazel Pike 
Orpah J. Prevatt 

♦Peter L. Ray 
Rosalind Redfearn 
James M. Robertson 
Marion Sessoms 
Ray Sherrill 

♦Hazel Taylor 

♦Robert S. Taylor 
Carrie Thomas 
Odie W. Underbill 
Nonie Watson 
Julian West 
Edith Williamson 

Ophelia Zachary 

Degrees Conferred (In Course) 

Bachelor of Arts 

♦Ernest Bingham _ _ ., 1S95 

Robert S. Taylor _ 1901 

Odie W. Underbill _ _ __ IPOS 

George H. Bailey _ _ 1911 

♦Emma L. Pike _ _ 1911 

Virginia H. Haywood 1912 

♦William O. Hunter .._ _ 1914 

David Morrill 1933 

Normal Fellows 
Master of Arts 

♦Joseph A, Tillinghast 1892 

B. S., Davidson College 

Edwin F. Mumford 1901 

M. A., Wake Forest College 

♦Frank O. Huffman ___ ..___ 1903 

B. A., Wake Forest College 

Claude R. Mclver 1902 

B. Ph., University of North Carolina 

Bachelor of Science 

Leslie Hinnant ._ 1935 

Lyon Dickson 1940 

Edith Williamson 1943 

Bachelor of Letters 

Robert C. Miller 1903 

Honorary Degrees Conferred: 

E. McKee Goodwin Doctor of Letters 1037 

Odie W. Underbill, Masters of Arts 1935 

Musa Marbut ..-- 

B. A., Converse College 
Graduated 'ivith a Diploma 
Helen Bailey, Mitchell College _ __ 
Rose Woodard, Morganton H.S. 
Jerome Hicks, Rundolph-Macon 







Part III 

In Memory of 

Edward McKee Goodwin 

1859 - 1937 

Edward McKee Goodwin 

A Tribute 

(From a Member of the Board) 
The statement which in my loving appreciation 
of Dr. E. McKee Goodwin most fully covers his total 
life is none other than these words: "And I heard a 
voice from heaven saying unto me. Write, Blessed are 
the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, 
saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; 
and their works do follow them." — Rev. 14:13. 


Salem College 
Winston-Salem, N. C. 


Dr. Goodwin in His Office 

In Memory of the Founder 

Edward jNIcKee Goodwin 

No more appropriate introduction could be made for the pages which 
are here devoted to the Hfe and works of Dr. E. McKee Goodwin than the 
one written for a special memorial edition of The Deaf Carolinian in 
1937, by Odie W. Underbill, a member of the first class of beginners to be 
admitted when the school opened its doors for the first time in 1894, later 
to graduate with honor in the Class of 1903. He completed the full course 
leading to the Bachelor's degree at Gallaudet College in 1907. Then, after 
years of experience in the class room in both the academic and vocational 
departments of other schools, he returned to his Alma IMater, in 1926, to be 
the "right arm" of both Dr. Goodwin and his successor: 

"The more we attempt to get out a special edition to the memory of 
our lamented superintendent and friend, the more we feel our inadequacy 
to the task of doing honor to the man who dedicated his life to the educa- 
tion of the deaf in his native state. Only those who have had the good 
fortune of associating with Edward McKee Goodwin can appreciate the 
spirit in which we endeavor to undertake this task. 

"On these pages of the memorial number are printed tributes to his 
great soul and to his life work. There is no greater tribute to pay "Supt. 
Goodwin," as we were wont to call him, than that he exemplified the 
truest Christian attributes which were long ago set forth as guarantees of 
eternal solace in the kingdom of God. Because of that, he was eminently 
fitted to fill the role of educator and friend to a class of handicapped chil- 
dren whose peculiar cause needs understanding of and sympathy with 
their problems." 

"A little over four months have passed by since he departed from our 
midst. Yet we feel he is still here with us — over at his home, in his office, 
at Goodwin Hall, in the hosptial, or at the old barn. Every day we are 
doing the day's work in the nearness of his spirit. Yes, Supt. Goodwin is 
still with us. 

"As I write these lines, my mind is stirred with memories of my happy 
days at school. It was a chilly October morning back in 1894 when I saw 
for the first time the man who, for the next forty-three years, was my 
teacher and guide. It was the first opening day of the new school he found- 
ed. How well I recall that first meeting! As he greeted us, that shining 
countenance with its handsome dark beard, that twinkle from his piercing 
dark eye, so dear to us all, left an impress upon my whole being that has 
remained to this day. Later, at College, teaching in other schools, and finally 


1894 ~' North Carolina School for the Deaf -^ 1944 

back at my alma mater, that picture has ever been before my mind. Supt. 
Goodwin, here and yonder, is a constant inspiration to greater effort. 

"Never will I forget his chapel talks, rich in religious conviction; his 
firm, yet kindly and just punishments for misconduct; his dominating per- 
sonality in every phase of school life. So strong was his impress upon his 
protegees that in after school life, the only thought, the only desire of most 
of them is to practice the Christian faith he preached. "How would Supt. 
Goodwin feel if I do this or that" is the spirit that has guided the feet of 
"his deaf children" along the many and various paths they follow. 

"So in that spirit we dedicate this issue of The Deaf Carolinian in 
loving memory and grateful appreciation of his life." 

Final tribute was paid at 10:30 o'clock Tuesday morning, July 20, 
1937, to Dr. E. ^McKee Goodwin whose career, crowned by the development 
of the North Carolina School for the Deaf, was closed by death Sunday 
afternoon, July 18. Funeral services were held at the First Baptist Church 
of IMorganton of which he was chairman of the board of deacons, with the 
pastor. Rev. R. L. Councilman, in charge. Interment followed in the family 
plot at Forest Hill Cemetery. On his tombstone are inscribed: "Edward 
McKee Goodwin, Founder of North Carolina School for the Deaf." 

An Appreciation 

(, by 0. A. Betts, delivered at the Memorial Service 
held by the Alumni Association of the North Carolina School 
for the Deaf, at the Home-Coming Reunion, Sunday morning, 
September 5, 19:37. It was Dr. Goodwin who inspired Mr. 
Betts to take up his life work with the Deaf.) 

When I was asked by your secretary to be one of your guests on this 
occasion and to pay a word of tribute to Dr. Goodwin, I deemed it not 
only an honor but a privilege and a duty. An honor, because of the emi- 
nent position to which Dr. Goodwin had attained in the field of special 
education as it pertained to the deaf, not only in America, but in cither 
countries as well; a privilege, because there are many others more gifted 
who might have given you an appraisal of Dr. Goodwin and his work that 
would have been a tribute indeed; a duty, for I doubt if there is living 
today any one who had a more intimate association with him at that period 
of his young manhood when he was preparing himself to do battle against 
the illiteracy e.xisting in the South at that time. 

To attempt to evaluate either the life or the work of Dr. Goodwin 
with any degree of justice is a task I would not presume to undertake, 
especially at this time, l)Ut one, I hope, that will not be too long delayed. 
Nor shall I give a chronological sketch, in accurate detail, of the develop- 
ment of this School, for that, too, is a task for the experienced biographer. 

I shall therefore endeavor, for the sake of the Alumni and their 
friends, in my humble way, with memories reaching back into my child- 


1845 — Kducation of the Dkaf in Xorth Carolina ~ 1 945 

hdud, to pa\' a triljuti' which no nialtri' hiiw ina(iec|uate, is from ihe heart 
and carries with it a sincere appreciation of the man and his great purpose. 

Born in the same community in which I took up my residence in 
liic tender years of my youth, a few years my senior. Dr. Goodwin lii<e 
myself, lived, on a farm within a few miles of the State Capitol. He was 
a mere lad of six years when the Civil War closed and soon had to share 
the burden of the work on the farm with his older brothers. There was 
jilenty of work and few diversions for boys at that time. There was but 
little wealth in the South in those post-war days. Many young men felt 
discouraged and the roster of nearly every State west of the Mississippi 
bears the names of thousands of Southern families whose sons went into 
new t'lelds to seek their fortune. What a blessing to our State that the man 
to whom we pay tribute today so loved his home and had such a clear 
vision, even in his youth, of the great need of education for all its people, 
that he chose to remain here. 

I can recall, when I was a mere lad and Dr. Goodwin was an elemen- 
tary school student, that he was particularly concerned about my progress 
in school. How fresh in my memory are his words of admonition — "Study 
hard and get an education." \\'ords that fired his own imagination and 
made him one of the most serious minded students I ever knew. "Burning 
the midnight oil" was to young "Ed" Goodwin a habit of life. 

I know you will pardon me for injecting into this tribute to Dr. Good- 
win some reminiscences of my early life which was influenced by both 
his precept and his example. In fact, no greater tribute can be paid to 
any man than to saj' that he made the battles of life easier for others. There 
are scattered over this and other states scores of young men and women 
holding places of honor, both in the State and the Nation, who refer to Dr. 
Goodwin as the man to whom they owe more than to any other, the success 
to which they have attained. There was about him a zest for study and 
work that was contagious. His unbounded energy and enthusiasm were 
inspiring. Youth felt the warmth of the glow and caught the spirit of a 
determination to win — which knew no surrender. 

It w-as my good fortune to spend many months in his class room: 
First, a very brief period, as a school mate, theri later, as one of his pupils, 
and finally, as a member of his staff of teachers in this school. Do you 
wonder that I count it a privilege to pay tribute to the man who helped 
me so much and whose life was held up to me, even when a child, by my 
own parents, as one worthy of emulation and to whom I rendered a 
service that was indeed a pleasure ! 

No task was too hard for his spirit and pluck. He paid his way 
through his preparatory and college courses by the sweat of his brow. 
At the age of nineteen he began his college preparatory studies in the Aca- 
demies of Raleigh and his progress through these renowned schools and 


Dr. Goodwin in 
One of His Characteristic Postures 


his teaching experience before entering college, one of which was with the 
t'ary Academy, and his years in college leading to his graduation in the 
class of 1884, were years of laying a solid foundation for the great work 
he was destined to undertake as his life s caiiing. 

After sefving one year as superintendent of the City Schools in the 
town of Kinston, N. C, Dr. Goodwin decided to take up the profession 
in this new field in the State School for the Deaf and the Blind at Raleigh. 
This first year with the deaf was perhaps the turning point of his life for 
there was little at the old school at Raleigh to lire the imagination of one 
with Dr. Goodwin's ambition. However, the desire for research and study 
prompted him to attend the Convention of American Instructors of the 
Deaf which convened in San Francisco in the summer of 1885. There he 
came in contact with the leading educators of the deaf. He was offered a 
position on the teaching staffs of several of the best schools in America. 
He decided to accept the offer of the Iowa school and remained there until 
the spring of 1888. He then came back to the old school at Raleigh. But 
he brought with him the spirit of adventure and, after three long years of 
arduous campaigning he succeeded in convincing many of the State's 
leading educators and legislators of the need lor better facilities for edu- 
cating the deaf, including new buildings entirely separate from those of the 

The culmination of this effort was an Act ratified by the General 
Assembly of the State, on March 7, 1891. X'ividly do I recall that day. 
for, as substitute instructor I was in charge of Prof. Goodwin's class while 
he was in the legislative halls fighting like a noble Spartan of old, the 
great battle of his life. When the good news finally reached the school, 
there was genuine rejoicing among the deaf boys and girls for they seemed 
to sense the dawn of a better day for themselves and for those to come 
after them. From that day in March, 1891, until the new school opened 
its doors for the reception of pupils for the first time, on October 2, 1894, 
and throughout the remaining years of his career, there was one purpose 
motivating the life of Dr. Goodwin and that was to develop a school for 
the deaf boys and girls of this State that should be a model in its ec|uip- 
ment and its achievement. 

It would take more time than I have at my disposal to give you 
any conception of the task Dr. Goodwin set for himself when he resolved 
to make this idealistic dream of his come true. We can all dream beautiful 
day dreams about the wonderful things we wish to do, but how many have 
the stamina and the faith to forge ahead day and night, year in and year 
out, against discouragements which, at times, are seemingly too overwhelm- 
ing for anyone to combat. There would be no answer more compelling nor 
more gloriously proclaimed as to the success of his adventure than to look 
into the faces of the former pupils of this school who have come to pay 


1845 -^ Education of the Deaf in North Carolina ~ 1945 

tribute, inadequate as it may be, to him who labored so hard in their be- 
half and for hundreds of others who are not able to be here, but who are 
one with us in spirit today as their thoughts travel back over the happy 
years of their school days spent here with a protector and mentor who 
loved them and dared to care for them. What the world needs today are 
leaders, yea, teachers, who not only dare, but care. Some one to care 
whether the "forgotten man" has a square deal, the handicapped child 
every opportunity that modern science can evolve. 

That Ur. Goodwin's dream for a well-equipped school was realized 
is the attestation given by leaders of the profession throughout this broad 
land of ours, as well as by the honors conferred upon him by such national 
organizations as the Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, the 
Conference of Executives of American Schools for the Deaf and the Associ- 
ation to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, all of which have 
awarded him their highest honors and retained him on some of their most 
important committees up to the day of his death. 

Dr. Goodwin was in my judgment too modest in his estimation of 
the rank this school held in comparison to the other schools of the nation. 
He was ambitious to class it as one among the best, but I am not the only 
teacher of the deaf who feels that this phrase should be transposed to 
read "second to none." 

Although his labors were, in a sense, restricted to his native State 
and chiefly to the cause of educating the deaf, they were not wholly con- 
fined to this single group for Dr. Goodwin identified himself with the great 
movement of universal education for all classes as well as in other spheres 
of service. We shall always class him with the great leaders of the State 
who, in the latter years of the nineteenth and at the opening of the twen- 
tieth century, did so much to revolutionize the state educationally. In 
other words, to do justice to Dr. Goodwin we shall always place him as 
a contemporary of Gov. Chas. B. Aycock, North Carolina's great Educa- 
tional Governor; Dr. Chas. D. Mclver, the founder of the great college 
for Women at Greensboro, with whom Dr. Goodwin labored many years 
as a member of the Board of Trustees of the College; the Convention of 
the Baptist denomination of the state for he was one of the leading spirits 
in establishing Meredith College at Raleigh and for many years a member 
of its Board of Directors, and with Dr. J. Y. Joyner, State Superintendent 
of Schools; Dr. Edwin A. Alderman, President of the State University; Dr. 
P. P. Cla.xton, former United States Commissioner of Education, and others 
who were his friends and with whom he held a common interest in the 
crusade against the entrenchment of illiteracy within the State. 

Dr. Goodwin's interest in the advancement of education and his active 
participation in matters of a civic and religious nature, I am happy to say, 
were duly recognized by both Wake Forest College and Gallaudet College, 
Washington, D. C, both of which conferred upon him the Doctor's degree. 


1845 — Education of the Dkaf in Xorth Carolina — 1945 

On Ihf 12th (l:iy ul April, 1935, the General Assembly of the State 
of North Carolina, forty-four years after the ratification of the Act estab- 
lishing the School, ratified the following resolution — "That felicitations of 
love and esteem are hereby extended to Dr. E. McK. Goodwin on the com- 
pletion of lilty years of service to the State as teacher and Superintendent of 
the Xorth Carolina School for the Deaf at Morganton with the hopes that he 
may be spared for many more years of usefulness." 

Anything else that we might say concerning Dr. Goodwin and his 
work will be but a feeble attempt compared with this high tribute paid 
him by the State which, by mandate, in 1 89 1 gave him the means and 
entrusted to his hands the great task of improving the condition of the deaf 
of the State. 

From 1891 to the close of his life on the 18th day of July, 1937, the 
splendid course planned minutely by Dr. Goodwin for the building up of 
a modern school for the deaf progressed from year to year. There was no 
recession. From one central building, completed in 1894, the physical plant 
was developed into a system consisting of nine commodious buildings 
besides several homes for the school staff and barns for the farm. To the 
original plot of land chosen as a site for the School have been added 
additional acres until the total acreage is more than four hundred. The 
Annals of the Deaf for 1937 gives the \alue of the buildings and grounds 
of more than one and a quarter million dollars. 

In telling of the work of Dr. Goodwin in developing this school 
for the deaf, it has not been my intention to convey the impression that 
he was a man so immersed always in study and work that he had no time 
for the social or aesthetic amenities of life, for the school curriculum was 
well balanced with pleasing features of a social and artistic nature. In 
the home of Dr. Goodwin, shared by his beloved wife until June 2, 1934, 
w-hen she was called to her heavenly home, and by his four daughters, one 
was conscious of an atmosphere of culture and relinement made beautifully 
home-like by books and art and the touch of loving hands. He lived and 
died in an environment that made duty a pleasure and recreation peaceful. 

The positions of responsibility that Dr. Goodwin was called upon tc 
fill by his church within the State, attest his deep religious convictions. 
From these convictions sprung the indomitable courage which made him 
such a formidable opponent to all social and moral evils. 

In closing this simple tribute to Dr. Goodwin, I might say that this 
splendid School which he conceived and built is his monument, and I could 
well say that the hundreds of boys and girls, the product of this school, 
who have faced life with something of the exalted spirit of the founder, 
represent a fitting memorial more appropriate than marble. Yet with my 
knowledge of Dr. Goodw^in and his work and my experience with the deaf, 
I am constrained to say that there can be no greater testimonial to him 
than that which your presence today and your own hearts conlirm when 
we say he was a friend of the deaf. 


Last Picture of Dr. Goodwin, April 1937 

184S — Education ok the Deaf in Xorth Carolina — 1945 

A Tribute 


A truly great man is known not only by the manner 
in which he responds to the call of humanity in times of 
a great crisis but is more often measured by his ability 
to meet and rise above the common everyday problems 
of life in his dealings with just ordinary folks. Such a 
man was Dr. E. McK. Goodwin as we like to remember 
him. Those who were intimateh' associated with him in 
his daily life can more fully appreciate these finer quali- 
ties in the man, and will remember him for the quiet 
influence of his life among those with whom he lived and 
labored. He was a man who loved his friends but loved 
justice and right even more. His devotion to his obliga- 
tion to the State was e.xcelled only by his devotion to 
the cause to which he dedicated his life, that of service 
to the handicapped child. He will continue to live in 
the lives of the hundreds of boys and girls who have 
gone out from the School and are filling their places in 
this commonwealth as loyal and obedient citizens. Dr. 
Goodwin was truly a great man and fortunate indeed are 
those of us who were privileged to know and labor with 
him for so many years. 

W. M. Shuford 

Formerly of our School Staff, a jormer Superintendent 
of the National Junior Order Orphans Home, Lexington, 
iV. C, no-ii' a member of the Board of Trustees of our 


1894 — North Carolina School for the Deaf "— 1944 

A Life Devoted To Service 

To appraise properly and appropriately the life and work of Dr. E. 
McK. Goodwin, whose name throughout North Carolina — indeed in pro- 
fessional circles throughout the nation — is synonymous with service to the 
deaf, would be an assignment worthy of time to do the subject justice and 
of a pen more gifted than this can hope. However, at a time like this, 
when the mind gropes helplessly for v^^ords with which to pay tribute to 
such a full, useful life, a life spent wholly and devotedly for others, the 
inadeciuateness of written e.xpression may perhaps be made to balance with 
sincerity of purpose which actuates the effort to write, and the depth of 
feeling which attends it. 

Doubtless the death of Dr. Goodwin, which occurred here Sunday 
afternoon, July 18, 1937, will be the occasion of many testimonials as to his 
high character and his eminent position in the profession in which he was 
recognized to have few equals and no peer. In his case, as does not always 
happen, recognition of his worth and ability did not wait until after he had 
passed on, we are gratified to reflect, but for years he has been rated in 
the forefront of his profession, several degrees having been bestowed upon 
him, and the North Carolina School for the Deaf, into which he put his 
whole life and ambition, stands out as one of the best among similar insti- 
tutions in the country. Its normal teachers have needed no further recom- 
mendation than that they were trained in the North Carolina School. 

However, as we who knew him well and were favored with his friend- 
ship think of him now at the close of an interesting and purposeful career, 
it is not as a teacher, not as an intelligent, thrifty manager, a tireless 
worker, a diplomat in handling difficult situations (including State Legis- 
latures! ) or as an executive of high order that we would and will remember 
him best, as much as these contributed to his success. In our opinion the 
greatest thing in his life, standing out in bold relief, was the mutual de- 
votion that existed between him and all the deaf of the State. They instinc- 
tively realized as soon as they came under his influence that he was their 
friend and that their interests were uppermost in his mind and heart. If 
any were inclined to self-pity, because of the handicap of deafness, this 
was overcome, and the friendliness and sympathetic understanding which 
Dr. Goodwin invariably made the watchwords of his management of his 
youthful charges won their affection for life. They loved him as father, 
and his name will be venerated and his memory revered for generations to 

— Editorial by Miss Beatrice Cobb /// the ( Rfor^aiitoii) Xcws-Herald 


1845 — Kdi'Cation of the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 

Dr. Goodwin As Our Superintendent 

\\hen news of the passing of Dr. E. McKee Goodwin reached me, 
I felt, as did hundreds of other educators of the deaf, that sadness and 
sense of loss that come to us when a great leader has gone from us whose 
place cannot be filled. Dr. Goodwin was one of the greatest educators of 
deaf children in the United States and he was truly an eminent super- 
intendent. His personaUty and his work are so indeUbly impressed on the 
North Carolina School for the Deaf that, for time to come, it will always 
be known as "Goodwin's School." 

There is nothing I can say in the way of appreciation of Dr. Goodwin, 
the man, or his work as an educator that could add to what has already 
been said, or what will continue to be said by his profession. However, 
there are some fine qualities that he possessed which only those who knew 
him well over a period of years could possibly appreciate. It is of some of 
these lesser known facts of his every day school life that 1 want to express 
my appreciation and high regard. 

I cannot remember the time when I didn't hear of "Goodwin and 
his school at Morganton," for I belonged to the Walker family of South 
Carolina and back in those days the profession was like a large family. 
Superintendents and their families were close friends. They exchanged 
friendly letters, visited back and forth, and what was going on in the North 
Carolina School was of interest to the Walkers at Cedar Spring. It was 
early impressed on me that the North Carolina School was doing fine work 
and Doctor Goodwin was a leader. 

After teaching a number of years in several of the large eastern 
schools, I came to North Carolina, in 1918, as Dr. Goodwin's principal. 
For five years I worked "with him" (not for him) and learned to know 
and to appreciate better some of the qualities that made him a great 

Dr. Goodwin's keen grasp of every detail in and around the school 
was amazing. His simplicity was one of his very fine traits. His knowledge 
was wide. He could go out on the farm and show deaf boys how to pick 
peas as easily as he could lead a conference of teachers on the latest method 
of teaching speech. Officers, teachers and pupils could go to him with their 
problems and he was always ready to help them. .\ friendly chat in the 
hall, a funny story at the breakfast table, made many a day bright, which 
might otherwise have been wasted so far as school was concerned. 

Living and working with people you learn to know them. Dr. Good- 
win was always kind. He could see your side, and if you were fortunate 
enough to have an idea, he would let you "try it out." In this way he 
developed initiative in pupils and teachers to a great degree. He believed in 
you — that was why you were in his school. He believed in work. You 
instinctively moved a little faster when you heard his step in the hall. 


1894 ~ North Carolina School for the Deaf "-^ 1944 

You tried to use your time wisely because he valued time. You caught 
something of his fine spirit if you were with him very long. You can't 
think of him as gone. He is still at work "over on the hill." 

— Pattie Thomason Tate, Principal 

Dr. Goodwin As A Superintendent 

Several years ago the young superintendent of a school for the deaf 
which had been but recently established visited the North Carolina School. 
He saw work in every class room and in every shop. \i the end of his visit 
he made but one comment: "Fifty years from now we may have a school 
like this." It had taken almost fifty years to make the North Carolina 
School — almost fifty years and the right sort of leadership. A school is not 
made of brawn and brick and mortar; a school is made of brain and interest 
and energy. It was these three — interest that burned like a flame, fed by 
abundant energy, controlled by unusual intelligence — that Dr. Goodwin 
brought to his task of leadership. 

Intelligence may be defined as ability to learn from the printed page, 
from one's own experiences and from observation of the experiences of 
others. Sound judgment, a sense of proportion, selection of the vital and the 
essential, appraisal of results from a detached viewpoint, sensitiveness to 
the reactions of others are some of the manifestations of intelligence. Its 
supreme manifestation, its quintessence is known as "common sense." To 
a marked degree Dr. Goodwin possessed, along with these other character- 
istics of a fine mind, common sense. 

Dr. Goodwin, possessed courage. In his earlier years he was not afraid 
of being called a radical, as for instance, when he introduced oral work into 
his school. In these latter days of half-baked experimentation pursued in 
the name of Progress, he was not afraid to be called a conservative and he 
held fast to that which he knew to be good. Open-minded he accepted no 
theory until he had become convinced of its practicability. With a wisdom 
born of long experience he knew that "the old order changeth" but he 
yielded no place to the new until he had assured himself of its worth. He 
had learned, too, that the upward way lies along the way of evolution, not 
revolution, and by that road he led those who followed him. 

Under Dr. Goodwin's leadership the North Carolina School became 
a democracy in which it was a joy to work. He had none of the foibles and 
faults of the big frog in the little pond. He was the least autocratic of 
leaders. Having delegated authority he was always ready to assist, to 
advise, to "back up," l)ut he issued no mandates, and, as he was fond of 
putting it, he was always "open to conviction." Honest opposition was 
given its day in court. Keys might rattle and the desk be pounded with 
a resolute fist, but when the argument was ended and the stirred waters 
settled, the stream ran clear again. 


I84.S — Education or the Dkaf in North Carolina ~ 1945 

Dr. Gtwdwin was too intelligent not to realize that the best way to 
fit a boy or girl to earn a living was first to fit him or her to live. Intensely 
practical himself he knew that in order to profit by vocational training a 
boy or girl must have a foundation in the use and understanding of English 
on which to build. Hence with him in the order of importance, next to the 
moral and physical welfare of his children, class room work came first. It 
was sacrificed to nothing. An excellent teacher before he became a super- 
intendent he was quick to recognize and appreciate good teaching. Like all 
successful leaders he knew that contented workers are the most efficient 
workers, and he was exceedingly considerate of his teachers and of other 

members of his staff. 

Dr. Goodwin's pride and delight in his school was immense, but 
whenever he heard it praised, it was his pleasure to divide the credit. "I 
have had good help," he was wont to say. He seemed not to feel that his 
securing and holding good help was entirely due to his qualities as a leader. 
Cooperation cannot be commanded. Like loyalty and respect it must be 
won. The measure of his success as a superintendent was indicated by the 
admirable team work with which the departments of his school — house- 
hold, academic, vocational — functioned. 

There are today hundreds of deaf men and women in North Carolina 
and in other states who owe all to the school he founded and directed; 
there are hundreds of teachers who are better teachers for having served 
under him; there are superintendents who have been inspired by his 
example and helped by his advice. There is but one tribute that they can 
pay him — to support the ideas and ideals for which he stood as an educator. 
The remarkable Tightness of those ideas and ideals results have attested. 
— Enfield Joiner, Educational Principal. 1927-1938. 

The Measure of A Man 

Not— "How did he die?" But— "How did he live?" 

Not — "What did he gain?" But — "What did he give?" 

These are the units to measure the worth 

Of a man as a man, regardless of birth. 

Not — "WTiat was his station?" But — "Had he a heart?" 

And — "How did he play his God-given part?" 

"Was he ever ready with a word of good cheer 

To bring back a smile, to banish a tear?" 

Not — "What was his church?" Nor — "What was his creed?" 

But — "Had he befriended those really in need?" 

Not — "What did the sketch in the newspaper say?" 

But — "How many were sorry when he passed away?" 

In making an estimate of the life of Dr. E. McK. Goodwin we can 
do no better than to make use of the units of worth as given by the author 
in this poem, "The ^kleasure of .\ Man". 


1894 ~ North Carolina School for the Deaf ~— ^ 1944 

''How did he live?" "In the fear and admonition of the Lord.'' His 
faith in God and his belief in the Bible could not be shaken. He was a 
consistant member of the Baptist church and a strict observer of the Sab- 
bath. "What did he give?". Many years of faithful service to his native 
State: love and devoted care to his family. 

"Had he a heart?" Anyone who had ever seen him with the small 
children clustering around him could not doubt it. To them he represented 
a kind and loving father, who was interested in their work and play. Until 
the last two years of his life, when failing health prevented, he attended 
every school party, often participating in the games, entering wholeheart- 
edly into the fun of the evening. 

"How did he play his God-given part?" Courageously and faithfully. 
In the days when Dr. Goodwin began his life's work among the deaf teach- 
ing was no easy task. What is now a broad highway leading upward to 
higher education for the deaf, was then a narrow path with stumbling blocks 
and difficulties to be surmounted at every step. Only the courageous who 
entered the ranks could stay and gain success. And when he came to the 
place where the path of teacher led into that of the superintendency his 
difficulties and responsibilities were not diminished but increased. He met 
them all with courage and faithfulness, and never called retreat. 

In the long years of service as superintendent he was kind, consider- 
ate and impartial in all his dealings with his teaching staff. He was not only 
willing to hear but welcomed suggestions for the betterment of the school 
from any of his faculty, and while he might not agree, he was always open 
to conviction. Possessed of indomitable energy he could not tolerate indo- 
lence in pupil or employee. With untiring effort and perseverance he built 
up a school for the deaf the equal of any in America. Outstanding qualities 
of his character were industry, perseverance and punctuality. 

"Had he befriended those really in need?" This question can be best 
answ'ered by the deaf themselves. They better than anyone else know what 
the education they received has meant to them. Surely no people are more 
in need than the uneducated deaf. No child who ever entered this school, 
whether he stayed to complete the course or left after a few years, but was 
better for the instruction he received here, better physically, mentally and 

"How many were sorry when he passed away?" All who knew him. 
All who had worked with him or for him, all who have been pupils or are now 
pupils of this school. Let us keep his memory green by doing our work as 
he would wish it done, and by so doing carry on his work for the School 
with this for our motto, Nunquam Retorsum (Never Backwards). And 
perhaps he will know it. "The living- arc the only dead; 

The dead live — nevermore to die. 

And often, when we mourn them fled, 

They never were so nigh!" 

— Mary Christine JNIauzy, Teacher 


lcS45 — Education of the Deaf in N'orth Carolina — 1945 

From His Friend of Pioneer Days in Educational 
Work in North Carolina 

Dr. E. McK. Goodwin was the best friend the deaf of North Caro- 
lina ever had.. The education of the deaf was the ruling passion of his life. 
He was the father of the North Carolina School for the Deaf at Morganton. 
To its development he devoted his splendid talents, his remarkable e.xecu- 
tive ability, his indomitable energy, his irresistible enthusiasm, and placed 
it in the front ranks of schools for the deaf in the nation. Through ages to 
come, let us hope, this school, this best sort of monument to a great, good 
man, will continue to brighten and bless the lives of thousands and to 
make eternal the name and multiiily the influence of the life and work of 
its founder. 

Dr. Goodwin was a happy and rare combination of the idealist and 
the realist. While the education of the deaf was his major interest and work, 
his interests and activities were not limited to this. He was interested and 
active in the educational, civic and religious life and development of his 
state and community. 

He was one of that small group of young men that were chiefly re- 
sponsible for starting in the nineties our educational renaissance. 

.As a public-spirited citzen and Christian, he could always be counted 
on to do his part in every movement for the betterment of his State, his 
community, and his church. 

"He is gone but nothing can bereave him 
Of the force he made his own 
Being here, and we believe him 
Something far advanced in state, 
And that he wears, a truer crown 
Than any wreath that man can weave him." 

— J. Y. JoYNER, For many years State 
Supcriuteudent of Public Instruction. 

From the Convention of American Instructors 

OF THE Deaf 
By the death of Dr. E. McK. Goodwin, the deaf profession has lost 
one of its most faithful workers. Dr. Goodwin founded the School for the 
Deaf at Morganton, North Carolina and served as its executive head for 
forty-three years, during which time he had the satisfaction of seeing a 
barren hillside converted intd the site of one of the most attractive and 
efficient schools for the deaf in the country. Because of ill health he was 
made Emeritus Superintendent in May, and despite the well advanced age 
of 78 years, he retained an active interest in the progress and development 
of the school until death intervened on July 18, 1937. 

Dr. Goodwin was one of the best known of superintendents having 


1894 ~ North Carolina School for the Deaf ^— 1944 

taken an active interest in the work of the Convention of American In- 
structors of the Deaf, the Conference of Executives of American Schools 
for the Deaf, and the American Association to Promote the Teaching of 
Speech to the Deaf; in all of which organizations he had from time to time 
been honored with positions of trust. During a period of forty years he 
had not failed to attend a single meeting of the Convention. He served one 
term as president of the Conference and was, at the time of his death, 
honorary president of the American Association. 

His long term of service was outstanding because of the progressive 
nature of his administration. Ever alert to detect the modern trend and to 
utilize such improved methods as would best serve the deaf in their broader 
walks of life, he never lost sight of the educational needs of the children 
entrusted to his care. The greatest tribute that can be paid to Dr. Goodwin 
is the fact that a host of former students, whose lives have been moulded 
by his precept and example, unanimously acclaim him as their benefactor. 
— Ignatius Bjorlee, President Convention of 
American Instructors of the Deaf. 

From the Conference of Executives of American 
Schools for the Deaf 

Through the nearly fifty years of my life with the deaf it has been my 
good fortune to meet and to know intimately many great men and women. 
One of these truly great souls was Dr. E. McK. Goodwin of North Carolina. 
In his presence always we had a deep feeling of reverence. To know him 
was to love him. We cannot feel that he has left us for he lives enshrined 
within our hearts. His life and its radiance are still ours to keep and cherish 
while we remain. His inlluence for good and noble deeds, his constant 
devotion to his family, and his untiring efforts to build for the deaf children 
of North Carolina a great educational institution leave for all of us a living 
inspiration and benediction. 

There is nothing quite so wonderful as the passage of a human heart. 
It glows and sparkles with a myriad of effects as it moves through life 
with us. — Frank M. Driggs President, Conference 

of Executives of American Schools. 

From the American Association To Promote the 

Teaching of Speech to the Deaf 
Of the various organizations which will feel a distinct loss in the 
death of Dr. E. McK. Goodwin, there is probably none with which he has 
been more continuously associated than with the American Association to 
Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. Since 1904 the Board of 
Diretcors of this organization ha.? had his wise counsel and support. Only 
two members ever served longer, and none more faithfully. 


1845 — ~ Education of the Deaf in \orth Carolina — 1945 

Since 1914 Dr. Goodwin has been an officer of the Association, serv- 
ing from that year as Second Vice-president, later as First \'ice-president. 
In January 1937 the Board honored itself by electing him honorary Presi- 
dent of the Association — a position held by no one else in the history of 
the Association. 

Those who participated with him in these Board meetings could ap- 
preciate doubly the characteristics which made him a leading educator of 
the deaf. He was a lovable man, a clear thinker, firm in conviction, yet 
withal mild and refined in action. Well born, always a gentleman, he ad- 
ministered steadfastly and justly. Those who tried to balk his action or 
hinder his purpose invariably rode for a fall, for to malign him simply 
belittled the maligner, as those who tried, on several occasions found to 
their sorrow. He did his work well, was honest, kept his word, helped when 
and where he could and was fair. His greatest contribution to the profession 
was himself. 

— Elbert A. Gruver, President, The American Association 
to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. 

Citations Conferring Honorary Degrees 
Doctor of Humanities 
"Edward MKee Goodwin, ,B. A., M. A., George Peabody College. While 
teaching in the public schools of this State he sponsored legislation for the 
creation of a school for the deaf. In 1893 he witnessed the laying of the 
corner stone at ^Morganton for the North Carolina School for the Deaf of 
which he has continued as president. His achievement to this unique re- 
lationship has brought self-support, music, literature, culture into the lives 
of thousands who having ears can not hear. His fame has furnished leader- 
ship and inspiration to other states of this country. A half century of hu- 
manitarian service in many fields and national distinction in that in which 
he has spent almost his entire life commend him for the L. H. D. degree." 

— Thurman Kitchin, President 
June, 1932. Wake Forest College 

Doctor of Letters 
"Edward McKee Goodwin, able teacher of the deaf, administrator 
and leader in the education of the deaf; during the past fifty years under 
your direction, the State of North Carolina has built, equipped and main- 
tained one of the most advanced and largest schools for the deaf in the 
country; you have all that time with skill and success trained these handi- 
capped children of the state to become self-suporting, independent God- 
fearing citizens." — Percival Hall, President 
June, 1935. Gallaudet College 



A. B.. M. 

A.,Litt. D., L. H. D. 

1845 ■— Education of the Dkaf in North Carolina ~' 1945 

Recognition by the General Assembly 

Joint Resolution Extending Felicitations of Love and Esteem 
To Dr. Edward McKee Goodwin, Superintendent of the Xorth 
Carolina School for the Deaf, on His Fifty Years of Service 
To the State. 

"Whereas, Dr. Edward JNlcKee Goodwin. Superintendent of the 
Xorth Carolina School for the Deaf at INIorganton, has served the State 
and its deaf mute wards for fifty years as teacher and superintendent of 
the said institution, during which time he has rendered self-sacrificing 
service coupled with a high degree of efficiency and sympathetic under- 
standing for the physically afllicted and under-privileged children under 
his care; and 

"Whereas it is desired to express public recognition of the splendid 
services rendered to the State of Xorth Carolina for half a century by Dr. 
Goodwin; now, therefore, be it 

Resolved by the House of Representatives, the Senate concurring: 

"Section 1. That felicitations of love and esteem are hereby extend- 
ed to Dr. Edward ;McKee Goodwin on the completion of fifty years of 
service of the State as teacher and superintendent of the X'orth Carolina 
School for the Deaf at ^Nlorganton with the hope that he may be spared 
for many more years of usefulness. 

"Section 2. That a cop}' of these resolutions be sent to Dr. Goodwin. 

"Section 3. That this resolution shall be in full force and effect 
from and after its ratification." 

In the General Assembly, read three times, and ratified, this the 12th 
day of April, 1935. 

— A. H. Graham, 

President of the Senate 

— R. G. Johnson, Speaker 

House oj Representatives 


Ig94 ~' North Carolina School for the Deaf ^— 1944 

Dr. Rankin — Dr. Goodwin's Successor 

The North CaroHna School fnr the Deaf has had only two superin- 
tendents — Dr. E. McK Goodwin, founder and Superintendent from 1894 
to 1937. and Dr. Carl E. Rankin. It was a happy coincidence that a member 
of the founder's family through marriage, an educator whom he could 
trust to understand his work, should be called upon to assist him in carrying 
on the work of his declining years, and later to succeed him thru appoint- 
ment based on his own broad educational background and experience. 

Carl Emmet Rankin was born in Guilford County, September 14. 
1892, a son of INIillard J. and Mollie E. Rankin, and a gieat-pfreat ;^rind- 
son of Robert Rankin of Scotch-Irish descent, who came from Delaware 
and settled in Guilford County in 1763, one of a group of Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians who founded Buffalo Church, the first Presbyterian Church 
established in Guilford. 

Mr. Rankin graduated with the Degree of B. A. from Davidson Col- 
lege in 1917, and shortly thereafter with rank of 1st Lieutanant from the 
First Officer's Training Camp at Fort Oglethorpe. For nearly two years he 
served with this rank in the 1 1th U. S. Cavalry, and as machine-gun instruc- 
tor at Fort Oglethorpe and at Fort Sill. Approval by the War Department 
of his transfer to the air service and promotion to the rank of Captain 
reached him in early November 1918; but immediately following the 
Armistice of November 11, he resigned his commission and returned to 
civilian life. 

Carl Rankin's college ambition was to study medicine, but he became 
interested in the problems of education through his association with Dr. 
(ioodwin during his courtship and marriage to Dr. Goodwin's eldest 
daughter. In 1919 Mr. Rankin entered upon graduate study at Teachers 
College, Columbia University, and was awarded the M. A. degree in 1920. 
In 1921-22 he taught English in the Horace Mann School for Boys for one 
year, then as head of the Department of English in McBurne^' High 
School for Boys, New York City, for four years. During these years he 
pursued further graduate study at Columbia, spending two summer vaca- 
tions as Woodcraft Counselor at Camp Hanoum in Vermont, and two as 
Director of the New York City Mission Camp for Boys, in the hills of 
Dutchess County. 

In 1926 he was invited to occupy the Teachers College Chair of 
Education and Psychology in Lingnan University, Canton, China, where 
he served five years. In 1930-31 he served as Dean of the College of .Arts 
and Sciences of that University, working out with his faculty a carefully 
prepared five-year plan for the following period, assisting in establishing 
experimental and model schools in and near the city of Canton, and in de- 
veloping intelligence tests in the Chinese language — a perid which was 
interrupted by the Japanese invasion of 1932. 


1S4S — Education of the Deaf in North Carolina ~^ 1945 

Returning to the Uniteil States on sabbatical leave in 1931, Mr. 
Rankin resumed further graduate study and research at Columbia Uni- 
versity and the University of North Carolina, and was awarded the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Philosophy at Columbia Uni- 
versity in 1934. 

During his graduate study at Columbia Dr. Rankin was made a 
member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity, and of the national eduactional 
honor societies. Kappa Delta Pi and Phi Delta Kappa, which latter he 
served as President of its Columbia chapter; in 1932 he was awarded the 
Naomi Norsworthy Graduate Fellowship. For the interim 1933-34 he 
served as Dean of Westminister College in Pennsylvana. 

In the fall of 1934 he undertook for a group of organizations in New 
York a research study of work conducted by educational agencies among 
seamen in the port of New York, with particular regard to adult education 
problems of adjustment, and submitted a finished report. This work led 
to a deep interest in social problems of adjustment. 

Outstanding among these problems is the increasing difficulty of 
handicapped people in being able to fit into an age that continually empha- 
sizes the development of new machinery. When Dr. Rankin was offered 
the task of helping to meet problems facing the deaf in 1935, he accepted 
thechllenge; and upon the death of Dr. Goodwin in July 1937, Dr. Rankin 
was made superintendent. 

His administration has been marked by a program of extensive fire- 
proofing and renovating of the buildings, farm and food-production ex- 
pansion, increased facilities for recreation and Physical Education, aided 
in no small measure by increased impetus to our Boy Scout program: by 
the expansion of vocational training; introduction of various mechanical 
devices for instruction in hearing and visual aid, and the modernization 
of instruction as a result of research findings. He has led in stressing better 
professional preparation of teachers; working away from the old insti- 
tutional ideas of household life, he has been an exponent of Social Educa- 
tion for deaf children; he has constantly stressed the need of the individual 
child, the vital need for Parent Education, and the need of applying the 
best thought in mental hygiene to our problems. 

Thru his efforts, State College provided special Extension Service 
for adult deaf in agriculture and home economics. 

As early as 1921, in New York, Dr. Rankin began, as Scoutmaster 
at Horace IMann School, his long service to the Boy Scouts of America, 
an interest which has tied together his devotion to his two sons, Edward 
]\IcKee Goodwin, fifteen, and Robert Wharton, ten, with a keen interest 
in boyhood everywere. There is no doubt in the minds of Scouts at our 
School that Dr. Rankin's hobby is "Boys", or in the Boy Scout organization, 
which he has served as member of the Piedmont Council since 1935, 


1894 — North Carolina School for the Deaf — 1944 

member of its Executive Board since 1942, and National Council Member 
since 1944. He earned his Eagle Scout badge in 1944 along with one of 
his sons and one of his students; in 1945 the National Council of Boy 
Scouts of America conferred upon him its Silver Beaver Award "For Dis- 
tinguished Service to Boyhood. " 

Since coming to Morganton Dr. Rankin has been a member of the 
First Presbyterian Church, which he serves as one of its Elders. 

An educator of most pleasing personality, and deeply interested in 
his work of equipping deaf children for citizenship. Dr. Rankin is ably 
carrying on the work begun by the founder of the North Carolina School 
for the Deaf. He is a member of the Conference of Executives of Ameri- 
can Schools for the Deaf, and a Director of the Convention of American 
Instructors of the Deaf: in the American Association to Promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, he is serving as chairman of its committee 
now making a nationwide study of the relation of the home to the school 
for the deaf. He has served in conferences in Washington on problems 
and programs of national legislation relating to education and aid for 
the handicapped. 




Education of the Dkaf in North Carolina —^ 1945 

Students Registered at North (Carolina 
School for the Deaf lcS94-1944 

(.Arranged Alpliabeticalty by Couitliti) 


Bailey, Betty Louise 
Banlcs. Kathcrine 
Banks, Kathleen 
Bradsliaw, Hattie 
Brad?haw, Mattie 
Brown, Everette C. 
Cape, Charles T. 
Davis, Clyde 
Dixon. Currie 
Durham, Mozclle 
Durham, Melvin 
Durham, Flossie 
Hinshaw, Elmira 
McBane, Julia 
McDaniel, Dona 
McKinney, Colleen 
Mebane, Leslie 
Mebane, Ethel 
Mebane, Have 
Mebane, Alma 
Millard, Alice 
Miller, Sandra Lee 
Moser, Thomas 
Paris, Lizzie May 
Parrish, Broodie 
Pendergraph, Ina B. 
Quails, Argia Ahse 
Richardson, Edna 
Rozzelle, Xelda 
Sykes, Floyd 
Tate, May 
Taylor, Billic Jean 
Wilson, Willie V. 
Wilson, Nellie 
Whitefield, Everett 
Zachary, Alfred M. 
Zachary. Mahlon 


Beckham, Robert 
Bowman, Earl H. 
Bowman, William 
Bowman, Dewey 
Brocks, Carlos 
Brown. Hattie L. 

Brown, Everett W. 
Chapman. Fred 
Feimster, Charles 
Feimster, .\sa 
Fo.\, Rin 
Hollar, Elsie 
Isenhour, Marvin 
Jolly, William Hall 
Jolly, Mono 
Jolly, Dorothy 
Kerley, Dallas 
Lackey. Lafayette 
Mayberry. Elzy 
McDaniel. .\manda 
Reid. Thelma 
Reid. Zelma 
Rcid, Selma 
Rhyne. Mczelle 
Sherrill, Edwin Ray 
Starnes, Bessie 
Stewart, Clay 
Watts. Joe D. 
Watts, James 
Warren, Lula 


Blevins, Charlie -A. 
Caudill. Vance 
Fry, Catherine 


Barwick, Joseph W. 
Burr, Mary 
Deason. Thomas 
Diggs, Walter 
Hendley, Pearl 
Hendley, John 
Howell. Eunice 
Hyatt. Joe 
Knotts, Edna L. 
Knctts. Nettie J. 
Knotts. Duke 
Knotts, Charlie 
Knotts, Nona 
Knotts, Willard 
Moore. Jabes 
Nichols, Nathan 

Kedfearn, Rosalind 
Redfearn. Sarah 
Talent, Earl 
Watson, Charles 
Watson, Percy 


.'\shlc\-. James 
.Ashley, Paul 
Barker, Clarence 
Bledsoe, Bobby Dean 
Bledsoe, R. H. 
Brcoks, Wilma 
Burkett, \innie 
Davis, Lizzie Mae 
Dixon, Rena E. 
Dougherty, Pleas 
Glass, Ellen D. 
Haire, .■\lbert 
Jones, Carl 
Jones, Richard 
Phillips, Albert S. 
Phillips, Zollie 
Phillips, Iva Lee 
Porter. Barbara .-\vcnella 
Rhodes. Cora E. 
Saults, \'ernie Lee 
Seagroves. Landen 
shepherd. Thomas 
Sheiiherd. \'irginia Ruth 
Walters. James \. 
Weaver. Elijah 


Coffey. David 
Daniels. Robert 
Green, Dallas 
Gwynn. Sybil 
Howe. Frances E. 
Howell, Spencer 
Howell. Ray 
Ollis. Ralph 
Palmer. Faye Marion 
Pitman. Charlie 
Ray. Julia Laura 
Wise, .^nne May 


North Carolina School for the Deaf 



AUigood, Hazel 
AUigocd. Blanche 
Barber, Hugh 
Chauncy, Myron 
Daniels, Cottie 
Daniels, Audrey 
Daniels, Preston 
Daniels, Elrice 
Edwards, Leon 
Hardison, Doris 
Ives, David 
Matthews, Francis 
McGowan. Mitchell 
Mixon, Noah 
Moore, Cora E. 
Moore, Jessie R. 
Moore, Dtorothy 
Mcore, Dwris Jean 
Parker, H. W. 
Powell, Naomi 
Ross, Bennie 
Rowe, Lawrence 
Sawyer, Ralph 
SncU, Victoria 
Tankard, Nancy Irence 
Tver, Ruth 
Williams. Stella 


Baggett, lona 
Cobb, William Tommy 
Floyd, Robert L. 
Mitchell, Ruth 
Owen, Elva H. 
Pierce, Cora 
Pierce, Mary 
Tyler, William J. 


Brcvvn, Lauder 
Bunnell, William Troy 
Guyton, Warren 
Hines, John 
Hines, Virginia 
Huffman, Edna 
Moore, Pete 
Sewell, Ira 


Brower, Hans 
Brower. William Ralph 
Farrow, Julius 

Johnson, Lillie 
Pierce, Daniel 
Pierce, Bascom 
Reynolds, Irving 
Robinson, Eva Belle 
Robbins. Hazel 
Sewell, Leon McK 
Smith, Annie Maude 
Smith, Duffie 


Anders, Eniest 
Anders, Peirl 
Anders, R'jb\ Lee 
Kiddix, \'irginia 
Boggs, Edith 
Collins, Andrew 
Davis. Montie 
Davis, Etta E. 
Evans, Robbie 
Evans, Edith 
Franklin, Betty Lee 
P'risbee, Edna 
Frisbec, Letch 
Frisbee, Fred 
Guire, Oscar 
Hagan, Grace 
Hamlet, Oscar 
Hampton, Ethel 
Hare, Lucy 
Hensley, Beulah 
Hinson, Sarah K. 
Kesterton, Howard 
Kuykendall, Mary Ella 
Letterman, Lois 
Letterman, Neil 
Letterman, Cornelius 
Loader, Margaret 
Masters, L. Ethel 
McEIreath, Ervin P. 
McMahan, Elsom 
Morgan, Carrie May 
Morgan, Ben Ledford 
Morgan, Gladys 
Myers, Thomas 
Ogden, John Helton 
Phillips, Styles 
Phillips. Kremer 
Phillips, Mike 
Quarles, Vernon 
Reed, Fred 
Rhodes, Lillian 
Rhyder, Mary E. 


Rice, Mary L. 
Rich, Avery 
Ricks, Charles 
Riddle, liinnie May 
Scnter, Robert Eugene 
Senter, George Maxton 
Sorrells, Carrie M. 
Spurling, Hortense 
Stamey. Brownie 
TurbyfiU, Juanita Jane 
Waldrop, Fred 
Ward, Fred 
Watts, Rufus 


Austin, Ze'juion 
Austin. Jeanette 
.■Austin, t'"ay 
Bailey, Durwood 
Baker, Sadie 
Berry, Andrew' 
Bradley, English Lee 
Bradley, Robert 
Bradley, William 
Bradley, Sarah 
Burnett, Mabel 
Chapman, Barbara 
Cline, Leroy 
Cline, Annie May 
Cowan, Ray 
Dale, .^bbie 
Dale, Mamie 
Fleming, Melvin 
Fleming, Marvin 
Fox, Harold 
Gwynn, Charlie 
Holder, Gertie 
Houck, Edgar 
Hudson, Hubert 
Huffman, James 
Huffman, John 
Huffman, Fannie 
Johnson, Clara Belle 
Johnson, Nell 
Leonard, Doris Ruth 
Leonard, Lonnie Joe 
Leonard, Patricia Ann 
Leonard, Richard 
Lovings, Jay Dee 
McCall, Priscilla 
McGalliard. Owens 
McKesson, Eliza 


Education of the Deaf in North Carolina ~ 1945 

McMahan. VVavie 
Mills. Louise 
Mills, Vernie 
Mills. Corrie 
Mitrhell, Joseph E. 
Moses, Mary 
Moses, Gertrude Floy 
Morrow, Mearl 
Mull, Dorothy 
Mull, Wilson 
Pearson, Ervin Glenn 
Piercy, David 
Powell, Myrtle L. 
Puett, Charles 
Rector, Opal 
Sawyer, Willis 
Senter, Donald 
Stamey, Vernie 
Stevens, Dorothy 
Stevens, Derotha 
Stroup, Clyde 
Suttle, Aurelia 
Wilson, Carrol 
Winters, Gaither 
Whisenant, Cecil 
Whisenant. Frank 
Whisenant, Ernest 
Whisenant, John Adams 
Whisenant, Jack 
Whisenant, Harold 
Williams, Bono 


Bastion, Thelma 
Beaver, Everett 
Bent^eld, Willie 
Belgania, Juanita 
Biggers, Wade 
Boger, Recce 
Brigman, Luther 
Brown, Sallie 
Caudle, J. W. 
Carelock. Jeanne 
Chambers. WiUiam 
Clark. Geraldinc 
Donaldson, Carrie May 
Dover, Mildred 
Ferguson, Etta 
Gordon, Jewell 
Hartsell, Luther 
Helms, Everette 
Hendrix, \'erna 
Hcrrine, Sarah 

Honeycutt, Joseph 
Jordon, Helen 
Ketner. Ray 
Lambert. Cassie 
Lippard, Carrie 
Little, William 
Mauny, Ida 
McCall, Leona May 
McDonald, Mary A. 
McLain, Geraldine 
McLain, Billy 
McLain, Wallace 
Morgan, Maggie 
Morris, .\nnie 
Nesbit, Charles 
Nichols, Howard 
Pethel, Robert 
Roberts, Eula M. 
Robbins, Joan 
Smith. Dorcas M. 
Smith. Merle D. 
Stancil, Lewis 
Tradaway, Susie 
Turner, Betty 
Washam, Flossie 
Winecoff, Edgar 
Wentzell, James 
Widenhouse, A. Glenn 
Verton, Luther 
Yerton, Clara 
Yerton, \'iolet May 


Barlow, Violet 
Bowman, .\rthur L. 
Bumgarner, Mary 
Cherry, Jr., Cecil 
Cline, Edith 
Coffey, Ward 
Davis, Martha Geneva 
Dula, Mamie 
Dyson, Zero 
Dyson, Lindsay 
Dyson, Marcus 
Eckard. Davis 
Eller, Lloyd 
Green, Louis 
Hendrix, Bessie 
Icard, Lonnie 
Jenkins, Deawy 
Leonard, David 
Lloyd. Gilmer Howard 


McLean. Janie 
Moore. Coy 
Munday. Ray 
Palmer. Laverne 
Powell, Cora L. 
Prestweod, Lillian 
Sanders. Joe 
Sherrill, Wilson 
Shcrrill, Frances 
Sherrill, Betty 
Sherrill, Pershing 
Smith, Joseph 
Smith, Dorothy 
Triplctt, Ross 
Walker, George 
Wilson, George 


Cartwright, Daniel 
White, Sarah 


Abee, Lloyd 
Abee, Willie A. 
.\berncthy, Percy 
.Abernethy, Grayson 
.\bernethy, Flossie 
.Abernethy, Ocie 
Bishop, Janie 
Boston, Oliver 
Bowman, Nellie 
Bowman, Richard 
Bright. Jamie 
Brown. Samuel 
Brown. Everett 
Brown. Cordia 
Brown. .Mfred 
Brown. Max J. 
Byers. Roscoe 
Campbell, Inez 
Callahan, Bobby 
Conner, Irma Lee 
Curtis. Chlce 
Deal. Ruth 
Drum. Eva 
Frye, Samuel 
Hartzoge. Inona 
Heath, Billy 
Heath. Myrtle 
Hicks. Howard 
Hicks. Luther 
Hoke, Hugh 


North Carolina School for the Deaf 


Hollar, Bessie 
Hosley, Hettie 
Hcsley, Cephus 
Huffman, Gracie P. 
Killian, Sadie Pearl 
Lane, Paul 
Martin, Georgia 
Melton, Frank 
Mills, Cecil 
Milton, Frank 
Settlemyre, Dorothy 
Settlemyre, Florence 
Spencer, Herman Lee 
Starr, Claude 
Warner, Lewis 
Withers, William Ralph 
Yoder, Oscar E. 
Yoder, Katherine 
Yoder, Adolphus 


Cobb, Fred Hassie 
Gatewood, Harry 
Newman, Walter 
Newman, Edgar 
Shclton, Eddie 
Shelton, Willie 
Shelton, Emma 
Stephens, Lula 
Stephens, Billie Carter 


Betts, Wayne 
Brinson, Cecil Burns 
Daniels, Ralph 
Daniels. Betty Jean 
Daniels, Mildred 
Gutherie, Aleane 
Hill, Katie 
Lewis, Corbett 
Lewis, Willie 
Lewis, Lydia 
Lewis, Lunettie 
Mason, Ira 
Mason, Gertrude 
McCain, Reba 
Nelson, Marina 
Smith, Foster 
Smith, Lucille 
Watson, Nona 
Watson, Edna 
Watson, Rudolph 

Willis, Hattie 
Willis, Louise 


Buckncr, Lizzie 
Buckner, Johnnie 
Cofigins, Eddie 
Dixon, Lee O. 
Durham, Grover 
Durham, Oscar 
Durham, Mary 
Durham, Josie 
Gaines, Molly Margaret 
King, William 
Landrcth, E. M. Jr. 
Neal, Hilda 
O'Kelly, Ida 
Partin, ."^ddie 
Partin, Betty 
Williams, Joe 
Williams, Mary 


Anderson, Ruby 
Armes, William 
Beavers, Glenn 
Birchticid, Marie 
Brendle, Harley C. 
Bryson, Porter 
Clonts, Hayden 
Davis, Horner 
Davis, Harva 
Dockery, J. B. 
Huggins. Lida 
McCandless, William 
McCandless, Kathleen 
McCIure, Annie B. 
Murphy, Allen Bruce 
Phillips, Jack 
Thomason, Nell 


Parker, Kathleen 
Winslow, Essie 


Crawford, Alvin 
Kernea, Fred 
Wood, Andrew J. 


Allison, Jimmie H. 
Barrett, Rachel Faye 


Biggerstaff, John A. 
Black. Delia 
Black, Georgia 
Blanton. Hashell 
Bowen, J. R. 
Bridges, Lewis 
Callahan, James 
Callahan, Edgar 
DeYenny, Theron 
Dixon, Emma 
Dorsey, Nanny 
Edwards. Shirley Mae 
Gladden, Donnie 
Hames, Ted 
Hamrick, Thomas 
Harrill. Jack 
Hendrick, Boyd 
Herndon, George 
Hope, Zeldia 
Hope. Buster 
Jolly, Welley 
Jones, Charlie 
McSwain, Carver 
McSwain, Buford 
Miller, Hugh 
Miller, Robert 
Miller, .Andrew 
Miller, Walter 
Milligan, Amy P. 
Nanny, Dorsey 
Parker, Effie 
Ray, Alton 
Revels, Margaret 
Rich. Bertha 
Rich. Jennie 
Richard, Ronald 
Self, Boyd 

Self, Charlie Warren 
Turner, Cecil 
Whetstine, Lillian 
Whisenant, Virgic 
Wood, .Andrew 
Wright, Hoylc 
Wright, Gertie L. 
Wright, Hayward 
Wright, Lorene 


.Applewhite. Geo W. 
Best, Ernest 
Bill, Dora 
Bowen, Herbert 


Education of the Deaf in North Carolina ~ 1945 

Britt. \idalia 

Burchctt, James Edward 

Coleman, Day 

Coleman, Frosty 

Cox, Spencer 

Ciimbec. Bernie 

Dew, Sims 

Dew, Cola 

Dew, Wessell 

Fowler, John 

Fowler. Dollie 

Fowler, Ida 

Fowler, Homer 

Gore, Bertha 

Gore. Rufus 

Hinson, David 

Hinson, Evelyn 

Long. Goley 

Long, Vance, 

Miller. Bill 

Miller. Jack 

Millinar, Walter 

Millinar. John 

Xoble, Hanes 

Pierce, .-Mice 

Prince, Retha M. 

Register, Teberan 

Register, Minos 

Sales, Francis 

Sellers. Burrus 

Smith. Eunice 

Soles, Dorus 

Stanly. Ermine Mary 

Stevens. Oscar 

Strickland. Frosty 

Ward. Ruby 

Watts, Edder 

Worley. Walter 

Worley. Johnson 


Gautier. Mary 
Kirkman, William 
McLawhorn, Ben 
Slaughter, Buyrl 
Watson, Dorothy 
Watson, Marshall 


Bishop, Charles 
Brigman. Cecil 

Carter, Marv 

Carter, Sewley 
Carter. Minnie 
Garden, Grover 
Canady, Gene 
Canady, Dovie 
Creel, Frankie 
Culbreth, Stephen 
Culbreth, Julius 
Edge Randie 
Faircloth, Ivey 
Faircloth, Phoebe 
Fillyaw, Jessie 
Fillyaw, Marion C. 
Godfrej-, Seldon 
Hall, \icky 
Howard, Ruth 
Matthews. Rudell 
McCcrquodale. Madison 
Neal. Kathleen 
Patterson. Sara 
Patterson. Lena 
Phipps. Corina 
Register, Burton 
Riddle. F'ora 
Robinson. Elsie May 
Rcbinson. John Xoble 
Smith. S. Erastus 
Stein, Sadie 
Strickland, John Jr. 
Strickland. Mary 
Wells, Jesse 
West. Emma L. 


Cartwright, Shelton 
Gallop. Clara 
Gallop. Lawrence 
Watertield. Richard 


.Austin. Ulysses Crowder 
Austin. Glenda 
Murphy. Spencer 
Scarborough. James 
Scarborough. Lonnie 
Scarborough. Mary 


.Mien, Jo .Ann 
Bean. Hczwkiah 
Berrier. Daisy 
Brinkley, Edna 
Brinkely. Elwood 


Brinkley. Wayne 
Caldwell. Henry .\. 
Davis. Ruby 
Fritts. Jesse Jones 
Gallimore. Jessie 
Gallimore, Elmer 
Gallimore, Lester 
Gallimore, Carrie 
Gallimore, Ray 
Gallimore, Joyce 
Hcdrick, Hayes 
Hedrick, Howard 
Hilton, Eva 
Hilton, Xona 
Hilton. Wayne 
Jones, James 
Lambeth. John Worth 
Lecnard. Kenneth 
Meachum, Joe M. 
Michael, Evelyn 
Miller, Mary P. 
Myers. Mar\- 
Phillips. Bain 
Rule. \'crnon 
Scarlett. Hilliard 
Seagroves, Edgar 
Snider. Roy 
Starnes. George 
Thomas, Hattie H. 
Thcmason. Willie 
Tise. .Andrew C. 
Varner. Effie 


Bohannon. Irene 
Gartner. Roy 
Call, Vestal 
Danner. Louise 
McClamrcck, Mary 
Miller. Edward 
Myers. John 
Taylor. Paul Linney 


.\lbertson. Samuel 
Bartlctt, Victor!.! 
Bell, .\nnie 
Brinson. \'erta 
Clark. Joshua 
Cox. Dorothy Frances 
Coley. Earl 
Davis. Luther Carroll 
Hall. Corbett 


North Carolina School for the Deaf 


Hall, Benjamin 
Hatcher, Howard 
Hatcher, James 
Houston, James 
Jones, Frances 
King, Maggie 
King, Leonard 
Kconce, Cecil 
Marcady, Linwood 
Mashborn. David 
Millard, McJoel 
Myers, Sue 
Parker, Mattic 
Parker, Andrew J. 
Parker, Mclinda C. 
Parker, Elina 
Raynor, Tuth 
Rouse, Joe 
Rouse, Lee 
S\immerlin, Walter F. 
Taylor, Robert S. 
Watkins, Newton 
Walters. Rose 
Whaley, Mary Alice 


An^ier, Seviers P. 
Ashley, Lucy Pearl 
Boyd, Daisy 
Brown, Sallie 
Campbell, Hettie 
Carden, Mary 
Crabbc, Willis G. 
Dermott, John E. 
Dickson, Lyon 
Duncan, Sandy 
Edmundson, Peggy 
Fuciuay, Ella 
Gardner, Daisy 
Gardner, William 
Glenn, Lizzie 
Glenn. Norma 
Greenburg, Fannie 
Harrell, Earl B. 
Harwood, Glendora 
Hopson, Harvey 
Lindsay, Tommy 
McCorquodale, Rosa 
McCorquodale, Ethel 
McCorquodale, Lillie 
McFarland, Lindsey 
Moore, Edw"ard L. 

Morrison, Dorothy 
NeNlson, Emma 
Nichols, Eugene 
O'Brien, Peggy Louise 
Partin, George W. 
Perkins, Pauline 
Pickett, William 
Stroud, Willie 
Thomas, Hattie Ma\' 
Tilley, Florrie 
Tillman, Autney 
X'andergrift, John F. 
Whaley, Ruby 
Williford, Ruby 
Yates, Doris 


Barnes, Agnes 
Brake, Cleveland 
Brown, James 
Bullock, Robert 
Cale, Carey 
Frazier, Billie 
Goff, Thomas 
Henning, Lois 
Herring, Russell 
Hyman, .Mice M. 
Hyman, Clifton 
Leonard, Irene 
McKennzie, Juanita 
Price, Ethel Lee 
Robinson, Bascom 
Turner, .■Mice Ellen 
Wamsley, Charles 
Watson, Virginia 
Whitley, Thurman 
Whitley, Isolene 
Willis, Gelia 


Bullock, Pearl 


Beeson, Elizabeth 
Binklcy, Leroy 
Campbell. Herbert 
Coltrane, Pearl 
Crutchfield, George 
Crulchfield, John E. 
Crutchfield, Edgar 
Crufchtield, Paul B. 
Crutchfield, Ralph P. 


Crater, Earleen 
Edwards, Wilbur 
Ferris. Beulah 
Forest, Gordon 
Godfrey, Mary 
Hampton. Maggie 
Hill. Donald Lee 
Holt. Rufus 
Horn, Dorothy 
Johnson, James 
Kiger, Hilda 
Lawrence, Obediah 
Long, Van 
Marshall, Margie 
Marshall, Nonie 
McGee. Paulette 
Morgenroth, Fred 
Norman, Dick 
Ovcrby, Cecil 
Peeples, Howard 
Pike. Mary 
Pike, Clarence 
Pike, John D. 
Powell, Odell 
Powell, Shuford 
Reed, Daisy 
Reeves, Grady- 
Reeves, Helan 
Sanders, Henry 
Shore. Herbert 
Spach. Bertha 
Tate. Walter 
Turner, Virginia 
Tuttle. Elbert 
Tuttle. Marvin 
Walker, Maxine 
Walker, Harry 
Walker. Nell Hope 
Warren, Loraine 
White. Joe 
White. Mildred 
White. Sterling 
Willard. William Rassie 
Williams, Helen 
Womack. P'lizabeth 
Womack, Bessie 
Womack, Nelson 
Viung. John W. 


Bunn, Rodney T. 
Bunn. Luther 

1845 ~ Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 

Evans. Joseph 
Hacwood. Percy 
Harris, Joseph 
Holden, Benjamin 
Leonard, \erna 
Parrish, Cleary D. 
Robertson, James M. 
Sherian, Ernest 
Sherian, OUie \V. 
Sherian, .Allen 
Sherian, Eufzene 
Tharrinpton, Gaynelle 
Upchurch, Estelle 
Upchurch, Otis 
West, Nina E. 
Wood. Sallie 


Crawford. Lucy E. 
Eure, Sarah Emily 
Green, Huel 
Owens, Emmett 


Barber, Betty 
Blanton, John 
Braswell, Donald 
Chandler, J. Ervin 
Cline. Billie 
Costner, Tcm 
Davis, John 
Dye, Jean 
Earney, William 
Ferguson, Richard 
Herron, Virgil 
Holbrook, John 
Howard. Minor 
Huffsettler. Roberta 
James. Marie 
Lineberger. Carrie 
Moore. Eugene 
Plonk. Beverly 
Plonk, Ellis Craig 
Reagon. Jack 
Saunders. Charlene 
Saunders. Truitt 
Smith. Charles E. 
Smith. Ralph 
Stepps, John 
Stroup. Frank 
Summit. Spurgeon - 
Weaver. William 

Weaver. John Walden 
Weaver. .Ann 


Cable. Howard 
Collins. Otis 
Dunn. Iva 
Edwards. Harry 
Millsaps, Ruby Jean 
Waldrop, Otis 


Blackwell. George 
Cash. Bractor 
Chandler. Emma 
Fleming. Nina 
King, W. Spencer 
McFarland, Lillian 
Royster, John 
Speed, .Annie 
Wilkerson, Kate 
Wooding, Henry 


Butts, Marvin 
Carraway, Mildred 
Lang. Nannie 
Shackleford, Richard 
Tyler, Charlie Lee 


.Albertson. Louise 
Bailey. Bobby Lou 
Binder, John Edwin 
Brown, Robert 
Brown, Ernest 
Brown, Robert Lee 
Calhoun, Bcnnie 
Calhoun, Charlie 
Calhoun, James 
Carmichael, .Alice 
Calhoun. Ollie 
Campbell. Doris 
Capes. Herbert 
Capes. Kermit 
Clark. Oliver 
Cock. Raymond C. 
Cobb. Eulalia 
Ccstner. Eli Mofett 
Davis. George 
Douglass. Thomas 
Dvkes. Ann 

D\kes. Robert W. 
Foust. .Allen 
Gibbs. John W. 
Gordon, .Ashburn 
Gordon. Charles 
Hall, Donald 
Haithcock, Edgar Lee 
Hanner, Hal C. 
Harper. Conrad 
Hunt. Ruby 
Johnson. Inex 
Kennctt. Robert 
Kirkman. Mary J. 
Kirkman. Hazel 
Lambeth. Charles 
Laws. Carol 
Lester. Herman 
Lowery. Willie 
May, Beulah 
Mayhew, Joe Elkins 
McCuiston, Billy 
McLees, Mary 
Minetree. Mary Belle 
Mitchell. Frank Ray 
Moore. Blanche 
Murray, Eugene 
Newman, Emma Virginia 
Pike, Emma 
Pike, Numer Edsil 
Pike. Hazel 
Sharp, Mamie 
Shepherd, Henry 
Smith, Clark 
Stacy. Margaret 
Stewart. Margaret 
X'aughn. James 
Walker. Lillie 
Whitakcr. Kenneth 
Wilson. Lamar 
Woodward. CharUe L. 
Wright. Billy Sue 


.Andleton. Music 
-Aycock. Leonard 
Carlisle. Bessie 
Council, Melvin 
Harlow, Willie 
Hawkins, Gertrude 
Hux, Troy 
Melvin, Louise 
Moore, Richard 



-~ North Carolina School for the Deaf 


Moore, Earl 
Nevvson, Rudolph 
Pope, Car! 
Tanner, Shelton 
Wells, . Thomas 
Wilson, Rollins 
Whitaker, Horace 
Woolen, Jessie Mae 


Benton, Troy Lee 
Cobb, Jarvis 
Cobb, Sandy 
Cobb, Geraldine 
Core. Donald 
Dickens, Julian L. 
Dickens, Lawrence 
Ennis, Maude 
Fowler, Edna 
Hamilton, Irene 
Hodges. Mary Anna 
Hodges, Gladys 
Horton, Ray 
Johnson, Douglas 
Mason, Pennic J. 
Oliver, Doris 
Parrish. Tyson 
Smith, Forest 
Strickland, Daisy 
Tickner, Ruth 
West. D'onald Leslie 
West, Pharby 
West, Mamie E. 
Weed, WilMam C. 


Arlington, liartsell 
Blaylock, Joseph 
Camp, Everett 
Davis, Eula 
Davis, Thurman 
Dollard, Jimmie 
Ferguson, Jarvis 
Greene, Weston 
Henderson, Robert 
King, Charles 
Kirby, Earl 
Kirby, Ruth 
Kuykendall, Edgar 
Leatherwood, Jack 
Leatherwood, Sarah 
Mason, Maxine 

Mease, Emma Lee 
Nelson, Ruby 
Reece, Helen 
Reece, lona 
Reece, Louis 
Reece, OUver 
Reece, Oscar 
Ricks, Charles 
Scay, Harmon 
Taylor, Lorenzo 
Tittle, Frank 
Williamson, Edith 


Ballard, Pauline 
Barnett, Sallie 
Bradley, Betty 
Brock, Mildred 
Flasher, Guy 
Garren, Joanna 
Guice, James Monroe 
Hclbert, Fern 
Lance, William J. 
Lance, Wilma 
Phillips, William E. 
Sentell, Carl 
Sentell, Eugene 
Shipman, George Edward 
Stepp, Cora Lee 
Waldrop, Etham 


Black, Vivian 
Forbes, Luther 
Holloman, Esther 
Jones, Lewis 
Wilder, Cleveland 
Wilder, Grover 


Chambers, Clyde 
Clark, John Pershing 
McFayden. Angus 
Moore, Pender 
Smith, Lois 


Brooks, Golden 
Harris, Willis 
O'Neal, Adclphus 
O'Neal, Millard 
O'Neal, Mary 



Brown, Demmie 
Christie, Wilham 
Danner, Maggie 
Freeze, May 
Grant, Bucy Lee 
Harris, James D 
Holland, Paul C. 
Jacks, Carl 
Jenkins, Halcic W. 
Johnson, Reid 
Mann. Benny 
Miller, Edith 
Morrison, Paul 
Morrison, George 
Morrison, Hunter 
Nicholson, Leslie 
Ostvvalt, Mamie E. 
Perry, Grace 
Ramsey, Charles 
Ramsey, Delia 
Rash, Tyre 
Steelman, Mamie 
Stewart, Roy 
Suther, Eulalia 

Taylor, Martha 
Troutman, Eva L. 
Turner, Douschka 


Brown, Augustus 
Cook, Margaret 
Cowan, Trotter 
Crawford, Minnie 
Hanner, David 
Morgan, Griffin 
Morrison, Sallie 
Paxton, Miriam 
Presslcy, Buford 
Queen, William A. 
Queen, Ansel R. 
Slatten, Ira 
Slattcn, William 
Smith, Lillian 


Barefoot, Aldon 
Batten, Mary Eliz;d)elh 
Batten, William 
Batten, Floyd 
Braswell, John 

1845 — Kducation of the Deaf in North Carolina — 


Crocker, Richard 
I)a\'is, Carroll 
Kriwarcls. Elma 
Ellis, Virginia 
(Jrcsory, Hobart 
Hinnant, Leslie 
Hodges, Lcola May 
Holmes, Mary Jane 
Ingram, Ruth 
Johnson, Hugh 
Lambert, .-Ml red 
Lee, Dorothy 
Lee. Florence 
Lucas, James 
Matthews, X'crta 
Parker, Waddell 
Peeden, Bertha Jo 
Raynor, Norma 
Rhodes, James Wilson 
Vinson, John Roland 
Woodard, Melvin 
Young, Lottie Ellen 
Young, John Delma 


Jones, Ida 
Jones, Xora 
Morton, Aileen 


Buchanan, Lonnie Max 
Crabtree, Dallas 
Dowd, Freeman 
Holder, Doris Dell 
Lee, Rosalyn 
Maddox, \'elvine 
Morrison, Madk E. 
Riddle. James 
Riddle, L.-iha E. 
kiddle, Peggy 
Thomas, Clyde 
Thomas, Mary Rose 


Baker, Beaty 
Brown, Charlie 
Brown, Thelma 
Cockerel!, Earl 
Corbett, Melvin .-Xrthur 
Corbctt, Rosa Lee 
Fordham, Cecil 
Fordham, Grover 

Hardison, \'ernon 
Herbert, Grace 
Jackson, Nannie E. 
Johnson, Leslie 
Kennedy, Linster 
Kennedy, George 
Kennedy, Herman 
Mozingo, Mary 
Murphy, Ray 
Pate, Eva 
Pate, Laura Ellen 
Russell, Lillian 
Smith, Mildred 
Stroud, Nannie E. 
Stroud, Lottie 
Taylor, Hazel 
Taylor, Mark 
\'ick, Lucille 
West. Julian 


Healiier, Joe 
Leonard, Carroll L. 
Little, Elsie 
Mauny, Mary 
Mauny, Hannah 
McAlister, Everette W. 
Miller, Horace 
Munday, Annie Fay 
Munday. Charlie 
Proctor, Blair 
Self, lola 
Sigmon, Daisy 
Sigmon, Calvin Leroy 
Walker, Julius 
Whiteside, Virginia 
Whiteside, Paul 
Whitncr, Louise 
Withers, Lucy 
Wooding, Oscar 


Jones, Willie 
Jones, Elmer 
Ledford, \'ernon Paul 
Stockton, Myrtle 
Williamson. Judson 


.■Xrrington, Joe 
.■\rrington. Nelson 


Banks, Mabel 
Bishop, Faye 
Brown, Nellie 
Chandler, Mary Bland 
Crowder, Cecil 
Franklin, Harvey 
King, Corpus 
King, Raleigh 
Landers. Benjamin 
Landers, Olivet 
Marshbanks, Robert 
Ramsey, C. P. 
Ray, Arville 
Roberts, Eva Nell 
Sams, Virgie 
Scales, George 
Shelton, Oscar 
Shelton, Thomas 
Shelton, Covell 
Shelton, Cora 
Shelton, Lillie 
Shelton, Clyde 
Shelton, Oliver 
Smith, Paul 
Stanton, Paul 
Wallin, Guy 


Deadman, Lucille 
Edmundson, Linwood 
Edmundson, Lucille 
Edmundson. Jerome 
Edmundson, Woodrow 
Everett, Simon D. 
Hines, Evelyn 
Holliday, Haywood 
Jones, Sarah 
Moore, Louis 
Moore, Crissie 
Perry, Edna Earl 
Roebuck, Shepherd 
Simpson. Blanche 
Taylor, Curtis 
Thomas, Cctil 
Wobbleton, James 
W>nn. W. O. Jr. 


Belk, Jas. H. Jr., 
Bradley, Chas. B. 
Bradley, Morgan 
Fortune, Roma 


North Carolina School for the Deaf 


Goforth, Bertha 
Harris, Broughton 
Hunter, Oscar 
Lavendar, Thomas 
McCall, Sarah L. P. 
McCurry, Rebbecca 
McCurry, Bettie 
York, Laura 


Baker, Bertie 
Beaver, Roscoe 
Bigham, Emma L. 
Bigham, Little 
Briggs, Helen 
Brooks, J. C. 
Broom, Walter Elliott 
Brown, Tom 
Brown, Charles Jr. 
Brown. P'ranklin 
Brown, Richard 
Burgess, Ramona 
Carper, Mozelle 
Cox, Freddie 
DeVenny, Hugh Edelen 
DeVenny, Robert 
Dorsey, Henry 
Ezell, Ruth 
Falls, Clifton 
Fincher, Mildred 
Foster, Woodrow 
Graham, James 
Graves, Ella 
Griffin. Hugh . 
Hedrick, Pauline 
Henderson, Ross 
Herron, Mack 
Ingram, Maud 
Julian, Elizabeth 
Knox, Kathleen 
LeGrand, Maggie 
McCall, Charles 
McCord, William 
Merritt, Ernest 
Mikacl, Jewell 
Odell, Charles 
Pace. Mildred 
Phillips, .Ada 
Phillips, \ander 
Pierce. Bertha 
Presnell, Jerry 
Privettc, Barbara Ann 

Readling. Elsie 
Robertson, John R. 
Robinson, Jack 
Routh, Margaret Ann 
Rozzelle, Jefferson 
Rozzelle, Mattic 
Sease, Mary Elizabeth 
Shackleford, Claude 
Shields, Helen 
Smith, Thomas Franklin 
Stevens, Vera Lee 
Stewart, EUzabeth 
Suttle, George William 
Vanderburg, Eloise 
Watts, Lizzie 
Wcarn. Maggie 
West, Hunter Robert 
White, Bessie D. 
White, May A. 
Williamson, Joe Reid 
Wilson, George W. 
York, Sammie 


.\utrey, John Ra'iih 
Autrey, Dan 
Bennett, June 
Burleson, Grace 
Campbell, McKinley 
Correll, Rettie 
Dale, Guy 
Edwards, Sinclair 
Franklin, J. Parker 
Garland, William 
Glenn, Mary Ruth 
Green, Nellie 
Greene, Georgia 
Green, Ncah W. 
Grindstaff, Thelma 
Haney, Cline 
Jones, Wyatt 
Mace, Fred 
McKinney, James 
Stout, Velna 
Wilcox, Bertie L. 


Britt, Robert 
Davis, Pearl 
Gibson, Barney 
Hight, Brantley 
Lewis, Fred T. 


Lowder, Jason 
Luck, Warren 
Luck, Tate 
Needham, Mattie 
Owen, Carson CUo 
Saunders, Dora 
Shoe, Burt 
Stephens, Winfred 
Wade, J. Claude 


Boyd, Hugh 
Bradshaw. Ruby 
Deaton, Lorene 
Freeman, .Avis 
Jones, .Aggie 
Lovett, Minnie 
McDonald, Adell 
McKenzie, Lillie 
McKenzie, Pearl 
McKenzie, Daniel 
Monroe, Guy 
Pope, John W. E. 
Riddle, j. McGoo.hvin 
Seawell, Willie 
Sheffield, Catherine 
Sheffield, Barney 
Sheffield, Margaret 
Sheffield, Pearl 
Spivey, Rosa 
Thomas, Lillian 


Barnes. Moe 
Bunn, .Annie Belle 
Carlisle, Lillian 
Collie, Estelle 
Cooper, Mary Magdalene 
Cooper. Rudolph 
Cooper, Thelma 
Cooper, Lois 
Davis, Rochellc 
Davis, Clifford 
Finch, Isabel 
Gupton, Pearl 
Joyner, Selva 
Pridgeon, Otis 
Revis. Nellie 
Rhodes. Elmira 
Stone. Raymond 
Winstead. Nellie 
Womble, Ruth 


Education of the Deaf in Xorth Carolina ~ 1945 

New Hanover 

Alderman. W. Linwood 
Croom, Bessie Lou 
Dickinson. Gcoree 
Farrow. Nancy L. 
Fryar, Walter- 
Johnson. Charles T. 
Justice, Leo 
Lewis, MoUie 
Maultsby, Rayinond 
McCarthy, George B. 
Mintz, Edmond 
Phipps, Elbert Ray 
Reaves, .\cey 
Swann. Jimmie 
Taylor, James 
Walker. Frances 
Watson, Lula May 
Wricht, Ernest 


Acree, Rosalee 
.Mien, Sidney 
Barnes, Matt 
Bass, Howard Lee 
Bracy, Walter 
Bracy, Earl 
Bridges, Winnie 
Collier. Bailey 
DeLoath. John 
DeLoath. Julia 
Knight. Jessie N. 
Lane. James .A. Jr. 
Lassiter. John C. 
Parker. Quindolyn 
Stanly, Jack 
\ick. Ruth 


Brite. William Clifton 
Farnell. Edward 
Howard. Carlton 
Hudson. Estelle 
Huffman. Eva 
King, Gideon 
Millis, Myrtle J. 


Honeycutt, Hilda 
Riggsbee. .-Mma 
Stephens, Guy 
Wilson, W. .Anderson 
Wilson, Nellie 


Flowers. Zella 
Gaskins, Lora 
Gatling, Reginald 
Galling, .^sa 
Green, Mandley 
Harris, David 
Leary, Nancy 
Newton, Leather 
Newton, Elizabeth 
Yokely. Roy Jr. 


Brothers. Stella 
Hooper, Matt R. 
Horton, Carneiga 
Murden, Spruill 
Plemmcns. Lois 
Scarborough, Elmer 


Harper. John 
Henderson. Asahel 
Jordon, Ivey 
Larkins. John 
Smith, Mamie 
Smith, Maude 


Chandler, Ray 
Chandler, Dewey 
Clayton, Henry 
Clayton, Lorese 
Shotwell, Mary Elizabeth 
Smith, Robert 
\'an Hook, Bobby 
Walker, .Andrew- 
Walker. Henry B. 
Wilbourne, Jeanie 


.\dams, Lena May 
Anderson. Willie 
Anderson, Linda 
Bowers, Graham 
Burgps, Helen 
Butts, Charles 
Calton, James 
Cuthrell, Sadie 
EUis, Melvin 
Gardner, William C. 
Gladson, .Agnes 
James, John 
James, Calton 


Jones. Irma May 
Joyner, Robert 
Kennedy, Mary G. 
Key, June 
Lockamy, Richard 
Moore, James R. 
Morrill, Jenness 
Morrill, David 
Parker. Martha Rachel 
Simons, Edith 
Smith. Emily 
Stokes, Bruce 
Tucker. Winfield 
Weathington. Walter 
Whichard. Hattie 
Whitehurst. Robert 
Whitehurst, WilHe 


Edwards, EUa 
Owens, Estelle 
Richard, J. T. 
Swann, Roy 
Thompson, Virginia 


Bean, Earnell 
Brown, Mary Ruth 
Bulla. Nancy 
Cox. Bessie 
Cox. Mary Rachel 
Craven. Rassie 
Ferree. Nclma 
Fox. Thomas 
Hackney. William 
Hamilton. Vernon 
Hudson, Elkin 
Jarrell, Benjamin 
Jarrell. Henry 
Johnson, Sarepta 
Leach, Frank 
Morley, Thomas 
Parham, Terry 
Poole. Millicent E. 
Poole, Reid 
Poole, Alfred D. 
Pugh, Frank 
Ragan. Myrtle 
Reams, Asa 
Shockley, Willie A. 
Spivey, Rena C. 
Stuart. Lester 
Tavlor. Robert 


North Carolina School for the Deaf 



Broun, John L. 
Clark, Jennie 
Dixon, L. Bee 
Gibson, James 
Jones, Blanche 
Jones, Jennie 
McKimmon, Mary M. 
Wright, Willie 


Bunnneli, Mary 
Bunnell, Nina 
Canady, George 
Canady, Carolus 
Canady, Lettie B. 
Caulk, Sallie 
Coley, Emma 
Cox, George Edward 
Hammond, Edna 
HuKgins, Daniel 
Kinlaw, Wallace 
McCormick. Walter 
McCormick, Neil 
McLean, Charles 
McKenzie, Charles 
Nunnery, \'iolet 
Parker, Adrian 
Parnell, Nona M. 
Parnell, Sarah C. 
Prevatt, Dolah 
Prevatt, Orpah 
Pridgeon, Viola 
Riddle, Edna Ruth 
Riddle, Lowell 
West, Morris Trenton 
Woodell, Robert 
Woodell, Agnora 
Woodell, Nora 


Blackwell, Annie F. 
Blackwell, Evelyn 
Blackwell, Gladys 
Blackwell, Bernice 
Brann, Carrie 
Carroll, Leander 
Dabbs, Laura 
Dabbs, O'Neal 
Eaton, Lewis 
Farrow, Dewey 
Grogan, Bessie 
Hege, Helen 

Howell, Edward 
Johnston, Faye 
Knight, Mary Lee 
Martin, John Ray 
Merritt, Juanita 
Mills, Julius 
Odell, Floyd 
Pruitt, Calvin C. 
Roberts, Elizabeth 
Tilley, Kate 
Tilley, Ola 
Tilley, Carl 
Tilley, Frank 
Tinnin, William 
York, Willie 


Bailey, George 
Beaver, Carrie 
Blackwell, Annie 
Childers, Walter 
Cooley, Nelson 
Cruse, Daniel 
Deadman, Blanche 
Falls, Dorothy 
Gobble, Warren 
Gobble, Gaither 
Grubb, Alfaretta 
Honey cutt, E>avid 
Huffman, Laura 
Humphreys, Gertrude 
Husscy, Pauline 
Ketner, Edith 
Ketner, Frank 
Ketner, Clarence 
Kylcs, James 
Lazenby, Avery 
Lazenby, Hugh 
Lentz. Gilmer Lee 
McLaughlin, John 
Misamor, Melvin M. 
Morris, Maude 
Patterson, Jessie 
Peeler, Mary Betty 
Rogers. Effie 
Rufty, Bert Dee 
Sccrcv, Barbara Ann 
She].)hard, Mack 
Small, Ruth 
Stoner, Ruth 
Trexler, Adolphus S. 
Whirkiw, Robert C. 



Baynard, Ada 
Biggerstaff, Alvin 
Biggerstaff, Kelly 
Biggerstaff, Robert 
Brady, Etta 
Carter, Maydie May 
Cooper, Arnold B. 
Dixon, James 
Downey, Oliver J. 
Downey, Ola J. 
Eubanks, Golden 
Hamrick, Maynard 
Hardin, Alice 
Harris, Garland 
Hudgins, Charlie O. 
Lookadoo, Lome 
Millard, Mack 
Moore, Nathan 
Poole, Lynda 
Putnam, Mallory W. 
Stainback, Charles E. 
Williams, Starr 
Withrow, Frances 


Autrey, Lillian 
Bishop, Herbert 
Butler, Ward Beecher 
Carroll, John 
Grumpier, Billy 
Faircloth, Romulus 
Fann, Naola 
Hales, Marshall 
Highsmith, David 
Honeycutt, Estella 
Johnson, Lucy Gray 
Mashborn, Marvin 
McLamb, Ethel 
Pope, Sam 
Radford, Christine 
Sessoms, Marion 
Sewell, Wauline 
Simmons, Stella 
Simmons R. Mary 
Simmons, Bessie 
Sinmions, Elma Gray 
Smith, Earl 
Smith, Wiley 
Williams, William Stuart 
Williams, Ulmont 
Williams, J. Stuart 

1845 — Education of the Deaf in Xortii Carolina ~ 1945 


Bass. Owen 
Brown. Emma 
Brown. I.andy 
Brown, John W. . 
Chavis. Lindbergh 
Laniiley, Hubert 
Langlcy. Lonnie 
Laviner. William 


.\ustin, .Alonzo 
Barfield, Sami'cl F. 
Bcwers, Mary 
Brooks, Sam 
Efird, .Eileen 
Frazier, Vertie 
Furr. Eldridpe 
Hartsell. Daisy 
Hartsell, Sophrona M. 
Hartsell, Alonzo 
Hartsell. Mummie 
Harwood. Charles 
Hurt. Pearl 
Jenkins, Deris 
Kendall. Eva 
Lisenbery, Susan 
Maner, Wesley 
Morton, Clyde 
Pase, Rosa May 
Poplin. .Amanda 
PopHn, Mary Eillie 
Ritchie, Truedell 
Shoe, William 
Shoe, Delphia 
Tucker, Lillie 
Ward, Wm. Thomas 
Ward, James 
Whitley. Alma 


Cain, Henry 
Cain, Miller 
Cain. Robert 
Cain. William 
Eaton. Ella 
Eaton. John 
Hutchinson, James 
Xeedham, Harold 
Nelson, .Angela 
Smith. Frances E. 
Smith, X'ernon 

Southern, Catherine 
Turner. Cclia 
Tyson, Charles 
Watson, Mildred 
Willard, Bessie 
Wright, John Henry 


Burton. Cassie M. 
Byrd. Charles 
Childress, Leo 
Cook, Daisy Ann 
Cook, Ella 
Cook, Emma 
Cook, Tony 
Cook, William L. 
Cook, Louetta 
Cook, Leonard 
Cook, Seldon 
Crissman, Richard 
Doss, Xezic 
Flincham, Edith Marie 
Flynn, Jacob 
Flynn, Joyce 
Fowler, Ora 
Gentry, McCree 
Hill, Susie 
Jarvis, Lydia M. 
Jessup, Joseph 
Jones, George A. 
Marshall, Anne 
Mooney, Raleigh 
Moore. Catherine 
Park. Sarah 
Pruitt, Robert C. 
Reich, Ralph 
Scott, John 
Scott, Jack 
Settle, Ardie 
Shook, Ruth 
Simpson, Grace 
Stcne, John 
Tide, James 
W'illard, Thelma 
Welfe, Viola 


Bird, Joel M. 
Davis. Grady 
DeLozier. Alberta 
Enloe. Bert 
Gibson. Ernest 
Higdon. Ethel 


ll\att. Belle 
Lindsay, Harnett 
McHan. Edna 
Mills, Wilmer 
Plemmens, Lois Elizabeth 
Robinson, Fannie 
Robinson, Bertie 
Sutton, Wade 


Barnes, Paul 
Brown, Henry F. 
Calhoun, Mackie 
England, .Arthur David 
Mull, Emma 
Mull, Anna 
Smith, Gene 
Thomas, Clara 
Whitmire, Shipman 
Zachary, Ophelia 


.Alexander, Doris 
.Armstrong, Frank 
Hassell, Marjorie 
Swain, Lucille 
White, Alonzo 


Baucom, Clonnie 
Belk, Warren 
Biggers. Ethel 
Eason, Ada 
Eason, \'ictor 
Fowler, Annie Frances 
Hargett, Morris C. 
Haywood, Virgie 
Helms, Louise 
Helms. Etta 
Henry, Reuben 
Keziah, William 
King, Dorothy 
Simpson, Viola 
Starnes, Joseph 
Starnes, Lillian 
Stewart, Lenna 
Thomas, Maltie 
Thomas. Carrie 
Williams. Chloe 


Ellington. Bud 
Gill, Bessie 


North Carolina School for the Deaf 


Gill, Minnie 
Hedrick, N'audie 
Hnyle, Mabel 
Jones, D. Melville 
Pendergrass, Clara 
Roberts, Clarence 
Sox, Cecil 
Sox, Landy 
Turner, Bettie D. 


Askew, James 
Baugh, Willis 
Biillman, Ayecal 
Bunch, Carl 
Carter, Elsie 
Celey, Dorothy 
Celey, Mildred 
Celey, Muriel 
Council, Joseph A. 
Cosby, William 
Creel, Nola 
Duke, Horace 
Duncan, William 
Dunn, Annie Virginia 
Eakes, Malcolm 
Edwards, Blanche 
Finch, Gray 
Fleming, Alice 
Gordon, Janie 
Hagwood, Mary 
Holbrook, Charlie 
Jackson, Harvey 
Jenkins, Matthew T. 
Jones, Edna 
Kemp, Blonnie 
McGhee, J. Sidney 
Morris, Joan 
Poole, Grover C. 
Poole, Virginia 
Poole, Mary 
Powell, Edrith 
Primrose, Eliza 
Richardson, Mattie 
Scagrovcs, H. J. 
Scnter, Wray 
Sherron, Clara E. 
Smith, Marvin 
Spencer, Leonard 
Stevens, Mary 
Undcrhill, Odie 
Uzzel, Jessie 

Wilkins, Ruby Mae 
Williams, Forest 
Wiiodell, Thomas 
Wooten, Madeline 


Conkhn, Pauline 
Davis, Chester 
Dunbar, Helen P. 
Harrison, Leslie 
Hopkins, Sarah 
Hopkins, Henry 
Hopkins, Harry 
Hopkins, John 
Lcary, Elizabeth C. 
Phelps, James 
Sexton, Emily Gray 


Faucett, Julia 
Myrick, Joseph 
Overby, John F. 
Overby, James M. 
Overby, Matildah 
Shearin, Amy 
Stewart, John F. 
Sullivan, Edgar 
Vaughn, Jule 
Williams, Jonas 
Williams, Joe 
Wilson, Andrew 
Wilson, Wilton 
Wilson, Wilbur 


Barlow, Maude 
Brady, Emma 
Eggers, Eunella 
Eggers, Wilson 
Fletcher, Don 
Fletcher, Eugene 
Fletcher, Albert 
Fletcher, Faye 
Fletcher. Charlie 
Gragg, Ida 
Greene, Jean 
Greene, Pcgg.\' 
Guy. Julia 
Henson, Minnie 
Kerley, Patty 
McGuire. J. Monroe 
MiUf-r. Lcona 


Robinson, Helen Jean 
Stories, Beulah 
Taylor, Bobby Dean 
Triplett, William F. 
Wilson, Donally 


Adams. Woodard 
Anderson, Maggie E. 
Aycock, Herman 
Balkcum, Edward 
Capps, Eva 
Casey, Dorothy 
Copeland, Nannie 
Coker, Milton 
Coley, Edward 
Dail, Edward 
Glisson, Ernest 
Grantham, Hiram 
Gufford, Irene 
Hare, Walter 
Henson, Lela 
Herring, Selma 
Hinson, Leha 
Ingram, Gordon 
Jones, Martha E. 
Lane, M. Butler 
Langley, Willie W. 
McCulUn, Fannie 
Millard, George 
Millard, James 
Mozingo, James R. 
Neal, Chester 
Oliver, Smithie 
Raines, Albert 
Sasser, Agnes 
Sasser, Alfred 
Smith, Dennie 
Spively. Lula 
Spivey John 
Spivey, William 
Spivey, Bessie L. 
Stevens, Edith 
Summerlin, Cliarlotte D. 
Summerlin, Etta Louise 
Taylor, Walter 
Taylor, Arthur 
Whitley, Shirley Ann 
Whitley, Mary Rose 
WilHams, Mildred V. 

1845 ~ Education of the Deaf in North Carolina — 1945 


Absher, Richard 
Anderson, Hotly Sue 
Barber, Gerald 
Barlow, Claude 
Barlow, John 
Boyd, Buddy 
Brown, Ernest 
Childress, Jack 
Church, Don 
Church, Jesse 
Colvord, Kenneth 
Gambill, Bascomb 
Gray, Lee Ellen 
Hauser, Walter 
Hawkins, Mae 
Hendrix. Grover 
Hendren, Turner 
Johnson, Lament 
Johnson, Robert 
lohnson, \'ilas 
Johnson, Delia 
Johnson, Coma 
Johnson, Mildred 
Johnson, \'irginia 
Johnson. Pauline 
Johnson, Mary Ellen 
Johnson, Rachel 
Johnson, Marie 
Justice, Glenn 
Killough, Robert 
Lovett, Frank 
Mathis, Albert 
Pearson, Charles 
Pendergrass, Ethel May 
Porter, Marcellus 
Raymer, Coy 
RoUens, Leonard 

Walker, Tyre 

Wilson, Esther Elizabeth 


B:iile\ , Betty Louise 
Baker, Dorothy Jean 
Barnes, Rozzelle 
Batchelor, Mary 
Bryant, Edrena 
Farrior, Jonathan 
Hood, Waverly 
Lamm, Dolly 
Land, Raymond 
Pace, Gordon P. Jr. 
Skinner, Robert Lee 
Smith, Doris 
Taylor, Glad>s Mae 
Wells, William 
Williford, Inez 
Winstead, Frances A. 
Winstead, Gerald 
Winstead, Rudolph 
Woodard, William 


.•\dams, Larry 
Bowman. Billy 
Hemric, Paul 
Hudson, Clarence 
Hudson, Henry 
Hutchins, Wesley 
Matthews, Vernice 
Meyers, .Addie 
Mickles, Joy 
Scott, Gracie 
Sheltcn, Waller 
Shellon. Glenn 
Sizemore, Gernev E. 

Sizcmore. Dewey 
Tucker, Harrison 
\eslal, Charlie C. 
Vestal, James M. 
Wishon, Wallace 


.Autrey, Ralph 
Ballew, Fait 
B levins, Wile\' 
Butner, Sammie 
Byrd, Cora 
Gibbs, J. Nelson 
Green, Myrtle 
Griffith, Reba 
Hampton, Wade 
Hampton, Woodford 
Hampton, Craig 
Hensley, Roy 
Ledford, Ward 
McCurry, Lola 
Miller, Dan 
Passcns, Grace 
Penland, Everelte 
Peterson, Rassie 
Ray, Rosaetta 
Ray. Lucy 
Riddle, I ew is 
Robinson, Kathleen 
Silver, .\lphonse 
Wilson, Fred 
Wyatt, Joseph 
Young, John 

Dunn, Judson Carey 
Little, Alice 
McCall, Hazel 
Wilton, .Alice Ray 

















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