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Full text of "North Carolina tobacco report [serial]"

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The Bulletin 
of the 

North Carolina Department of Agriculture 

James A. Graham, Commissioner 
Number 224, May 1976 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Foreword 3 

Tobacco Is the Story of North Carolina 4 

Optimistic Outlook for 1976 10 

State Market Summary 1975-76 13 

North Carolina Tobacco Warehouse Sales 

Report for Season — 1975-76 16 

Summary of N. C. Dealer and Warehouse 

Resales — 1975 18 

Producer and Gross Sales of Flue-Cured 

Tobacco by States — 1975 18 

Flue-Cured Movement In and Out 

of North Carolina 19 

Burley Movement In and Out of 

North Carolina 19 

Flue-Cured Stabilization Receipts 

by Types and States — 1 975 20 

Burley Stabilization Receipts for 

N. C. and Total U. S. 1975-76 20 

N. C. Burley Tobacco Allotments — 1976 21 

N. C. Flue-Cured Tobacco Allotments — 1976 22 

North Carolina Flue-Cured Crops 1920-1975 24 

North Carolina Burley Crops 1928-1975 25 

North Carolina Tobacco Warehouses and 

Operators by Types and Markets — 1975 26 

The Cigarette Tax Burden 33 

State Board of Agriculture 35 

Domestic Tax Paid Cigarette Consumption 

by Kinds 1975 36 



For free distribution by the Field Crops Section, 

Division of Markets, North Carolina Department 

of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 

Curtis F. Tarleton, Director, Division of Markets 

J. H. Cyrus, Chief, Field Crops Section 

J. T. Bunn, Tobacco Marketing Specialist 



Foreword 




The twenty-seventh annual issue 
of the North Carolina Tobacco Re- 
port has been prepared and edited 
under the direction of J. H. Cyrus, 
Chief of Field Crops Section and 
J. T. Bunn, Tobacco Marketing 
Specialist, Division of Markets, 
North Carolina Department of Agri- 
culture. 

This issue of the North Carolina 
Tobacco Report commemorates 
the Bicentennial Year of our great 
nation. Lest you should forget, you 
are reminded once again of the important economic role that 
tobacco has played in building a nation from the laying of the first 
cornerstone by the colonies down to our present time. 

It was tobacco that provided the colonies in the Albermarle area 
with the economic stability to survive for more than 165 years 
before their Declaration of Independence. Tobacco is still the life- 
line of North Carolina today. 

We proudly recognize the following agencies and organizations 
for their assistance in making some of the data available for this 
publication: The Cooperative Crop Reporting Service; Agricultural 
Stabilization Conservation Service, USDA; Agricultural Marketing 
Service, USDA; Flue Cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization 
Corporation; and Tobacco Tax Council. 

The cover picture, the resemblance of an American Indian Head 
made from tobacco, was made available through the compliments 
of Tobacco Associates, Inc. The wooden statue of an American In- 
dian was once used to mark the locations of tobacco shops in early 
America. 




Commissioner of Agriculture 



Tobacco Is the Story of North Carolina 

By J. H. Cyrus 

The story of North Car- 
olina is a story of three 
centuries of tobacco. 

During this Bicentenni- 
al Year as we look back at 
our past, in order to mus- 
ter new strength for the 
future, it is appropriate 
that we examine the in- 
fluence that tobacco has 
had in the history of North 
Carolina, which was des- 
tined to make this State 
the leading tobacco pro- 
ducing and manufactur- 
ing area in the nation. 

Tobacco was the main 
economic cornerstone in 
the birth of a newColonial 
State with the coloniza- 
tion of the Albermarle 
area near Jamestown, and 
the area to the south during the early and mid 1600's. It was in this 
cradle that the great tobacco industry that we have in North Caro- 
lina was born. 




Carolina Chartered 1663 



King Charles I conferred a charter in 1629 for the settlement of 
a territory to be called Carolina, but the Charter remained inactive 
and was finally declared forfeit. A group of English noblemen later 
renewed the proposal for colonization, and a charter was awarded 
them in 1663 making them Lords Proprietors of Carolina. How- 
ever, prior to this charter colonists from Virginia had been mov- 
ing into the Chowan River and Albermarle Sound area prior to 
1650 where they were producing tobacco from the milder seed, 
nicotiana tobocum, imported into Jamestown by John Rolfe in 
1612 from Spanish colonies in South America. These milder 



Spanish seed soon replaced the nicotiana rustica seed that the set- 
tlers found the Indians growing which had a harsh and biting 
taste. Thus, the cornerstone that lead to North Carolina becoming 
the number one tobacco producing, manufacturing and export- 
ing State was laid by John Rolfe when he introduced the milder, 
more flavorable seed that were used by the settlers in the Alber- 
marle area. 

By the beginning of the 1700's the tobacco crops in Carolina 
were in the range of 800,000 pounds annually. As in the Virginia 
and Maryland area to the North, tobacco was used for money, and 
goods and services were paid for with leaf throughout the Colonial 
period. 

To enter the export trade, Carolina growers had to move most 
of their tobacco through the Virginia port. However, Virginian op- 
position to the Carolina's tobacco intensified during the latter 
part of the 17th century because of a realistic fear of competition 
from Carolina in foreign trade. This lead to the enactment of legis- 
lation in Virginia in 1679 which prohibited the admission of Caro- 
lina tobacco into Virginia except in payment of debts. However, 
this problem was solved for Carolina growers by canny New 
England traders who picked up their tobacco in shoal-draft boats 
and conveyed it from the waterside to waiting sloops. The cargo of 
tobacco was then taken to New England harbors and transferred to 
ocean going vessels and carried to markets in Holland, Scotland 
and elsewhere in Europe. 



North Carolina Emerges 

After 1700 certain political changes were taking place that had 
no effect on tobacco production. The southern part of the Caro- 
lina province was separated from the northern part in 1712 to 
form South Carolina. The Lords Proprietors Charter was "extin- 
guished" in 1729, and North Carolina became a royal province ten 
years after South Carolina. Passable roads and usable harbors at 
Brunswick and New Liverpool (later Wilmington), and increasing 
population contributed to a steady growth in tobacco production 
in North Carolina throughout the rest of the colonial period. 

Leaf quality was generally improved as was marketing proced- 
ures after the passage of an inspection law in 1754. Under this law 
tobacco intended for export was brought to public warehouses 
and, after official examination, was credited to the grower by 
warehouse receipts or notes, which were transferable and pay- 
able on demand, and valid for 18 months. 

About a decade prior to the American Revolution, port Roanoke, 
(Edenton) became the center for export shipments of North Caro- 
lina tobacco. Most of the crop went to Scotland, with smaller 
quantities going directly to England. 



Changing Years 

In the post Revolutionary War period, there was a change in the 
markets supplied by North Carolina tobacco. Large amounts of 
tobacco went to domestic outlets, and Great Brittain received less 
than half of the tobacco it had been receiving annually prior to the 
war. These years brought much proverty and disorder to most of 
North Carolina's 389,000 people. Yet, new towns were shortly 
coming into being. Raleigh was laid out in 1792. Old Salem, center 
of the Moravian community and scene of what is probably the 
country's oldest tobacco shops opened by Matthew Miksch in 1773, 
shook itself out of the economic depression. 

By the beginning of the nineteenth, chronologically. North Caro- 
lina was not too far away from the period of its greatest expansion, 
which stemmed almost wholly from tobacco. Although, industrial 
progress was hardly obvious during the first half of the 1800's to- 
bacco production continued its slow advance in North Carolina, 
but still far behind Virginia. In 1839 the total North Carolina to- 
bacco crop was about 16.8 million pounds, while Virginia's was 
over 75 million pounds. 

During this period of the early 1800's, snuff lost its dominance, 
and there was a renewed interest in pipe smoking. Consumers at 
home and abroad wanted a tobacco of milder flavor than the dark 
heavy leaf then being generally produced in Carolina and Virginia. 
A thin leaf of yellowish color occasionally produced by some 
growers seemed to provide a smoke with the desired flavor and 
aroma, but this type of tobacco was rare. This led to considerable 
experimentation with soils, cross-breeding of tobacco and curing 
methods. While some yellow light-bodied was produced through 
this effort, growers seemed unable to develop a dependable pro- 
cedure to assure an adequate supply. 

History Changed by Accident 

On the farm of Abisha Slade in Caswell County, North Carolina, 
on an otherwise forgotten rainy night in 1839, a young slave, 
Stephen, headman and blacksmith on the Slade farm, acci- 
dentally changed the course of tobacco history. Stephen was 
seated in the barn watching the open wood fires on the dirt barn 
floor as the tobacco slowly cured, when he fell asleep. Awakening 
and seeing the fires nearly out, he ran to the nearby Charcoal pit 
and got hot coals and rekindled the fire. 

The hot embers created more than the usual amount of heat, 
causing the wilted and yellowing leaves to dry more rapidly to a 
bright yellow color never before seen in tobacco. The 600 pounds 
of yellow cured tobacco was sold to a Danville, Va. manufacturer 
for an unheard of price of 40 cents per pound, which was about 
four times the prevailing price. 



In 1886, Stephen was asked again how he discovered the value 
of Charcoal in curing exceptional bright leaf tobacco, and his 
words were recorded: ". . . to tell the truth about it, 'twas a acci- 
dent. I commenced to cure it and it commenced to git yallow. It 
kep' on yallowin' and kep' on yallowin' and kep' on yallowin' 
twell it got clar up ... it looked so purty. I kept making it yallow 
and when it was cured it was 'musement for folks to come and 
see it." 

New Era in Tobaccoland 

A significant development, that ushered in a new Era in the 
rapid growth of the tobacco industry in North Carolina, took place 
at Durham Station, North Carolina, in the spring of 1865, after 
Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox, Va. While Generals were 
working out peace terms at Bennett's farm near Durham Station, 
soldiers in blue and gray wandered into town and their noses led 
them to the tobacco factory of John Ruffin Green, which contained 
a large quantity of flavorful granulated smoking tobacco that 
Green supplied to students at the nearby University of North Car- 
olina. The soldiers helped themselves to samples of this unusual 
smoking tobacco. After they had departed, about all that Green 
had left was the wooden building and its primitive equipment. 

Under the circumstance Green was hardly aware that his for- 
tune had been made. Within a short while, the men who had 
raided his factory began writing from homes all over the land for 
a supply of Durham tobacco for which they were now willing to 
pay. This new demand supplemented Green's student trade and 
led to the large-scale production of smoking tobacco. Thus, Dur- 
ham was destined for world-wide fame a few years hence with a 
brand of smoking tobacco called "Bull Durham." 

In 1866, following the civil war, only 16,000 acres were under 
tobacco cultivation in North Carolina. Production totaled 7,840,000 
pounds in that year. Tobacco was scarce then and buyers paid an 
average of 20 cents per pound. This price was not reached again 
until 1916. 

By 1870, flues were being used in barns replacing charcoal, to 
evenly distribute the heat in curing tobacco. They soon became 
standard equipment in curing barns throughout the bright-leaf 
area. 

Auction Wareliouses 

Tobacco founded Durham, whose original factory had opened 
for small-scale operations in 1858. That same year the first auc- 
tion warehouse for the sale of tobacco came into use in Danville, 
Va. In 1871 William T. Blackwell & Co. opened the first auction 
warehouse in Durham for the sale of leaf tobacco. A year later in 



1872 Winston (Winston-Salem 1913) opened its first auction ware- 
house and leaf market. Henderson started its auction warehouse 
center in 1873. Within a few years eight or nine other such tobacco 
auction warehouses were opened in small towns in the Piedmont 
counties south of the Virginia line, which ushered in the tobacco 
auction era in North Carolina. 

Cigarette Era Begins 

By 1882, there were 295 tobacco manufacturing plants listed in 
35 North Carolina counties. During the 20 years that followed, the 
number of tobacco factories in this state exceeded 400. These 
plants were making mainly smoking and chewing tobacco. 

During this same period, a young Virginian, James Albert Bon- 
sack, helped usher in the cigarette era with his invention of the 
cigarette making machine, which was registered in the U. S. patent 
office, September 4, 1880. The machine would make 120,000 cig- 
arettes per day. It was first placed into operation in the Duke fac- 
tory at Durham in 1884 where two machines were installed. The 
following year cigarette production passed one billion for the first 
time in history. 

The Old North State was now on the threshold of taking the 
lead from Virginia in the tobacco economy. By 1890, the cultiva- 
tion of the flue-cured type of tobacco had extended into the 
Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Soon after 1895 the harvest of 
tobacco in North Carolina was well in excess of 100 million 
pounds, with the production curve ascending each year. Before 
the turn of the century, the Tar Heel State had firmly taken the 
lead as the number one tobacco producing and manufacturing 
state— a position it has held to this day. 

"The Trust " 

In 1890 the American Tobacco Company was organized by 
James B. Duke and other large manufacturers north of North Car- 
olina. Shortly after this organization, the American Tobacco Com- 
pany began buying all promising independent companies it could 
acquire and then allowed smaller and less aggressive companies 
to die through competition. This was the beginning of what came 
to be known as "the trust." 

The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company started by Richard Joshua 
Reynolds in 1875, who vowed that he would not be swallowed 
by Buck Duke, continued his independent operation until 1899. 
However, pressure was so great that Mr. Reynolds joined "the 
trust" in 1899, after American Tobacco Company purchased the 
majority stock in the Reynolds Company. 

As the American Tobacco trust grew larger, rumblings against 
"the trust" increased, and complaints of tobacco growers through- 



out the southern tobacco producing area grew stronger and louder 
because of the control of "the trust" over prices paid to growers. 
R. J. Reynolds sided with the tobacco farmers in their opposition 
to "the trust." 



Trust Dissolved 

These rumblings came to a head by 1907, when the Federal 
Government brought charges against the American Tobacco 
Company for operating a monopoly in restraint of trade in viola- 
tion of the Sherman Anti-Trust Law. 

In 1911, the courts held that the American Tobacco Company 
had violated the Sherman Law and ordered its dissolution, to be 
carried out under direction of the Circuit Court of Appeals of the 
State of New York. With assistances from the man who had built 
"the trust," J. B. Duke, the court split the American Tobacco 
Company into four corporations: The American Tobacco Com- 
pany, Liggett and Myers Tobacco Company, P. Lorillard Tobacco 
Company, and the courts allowed R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Com- 
pany to assume and to continue its former independent status. 
This action by the court added a new dimension to the growing 
tobacco industry in the Tar Heel State. 

Thriving Industry Today 

North Carolina in this bicentennial year continues to thrive as 
the number one tobacco producing, processing, manufacturing 
and exporting state in the nation. Tar Heel farmers today produce 
and market two-thirds of all the flue-cured tobacco grown in the 
United States. Approximately 75 percent of the National flue-cured 
production is processed in North Carolina plants. 

The four tobacco manufacturing companies that came out of 
the "the trust" continue to thrive in North Carolina, and account 
for more than 55 percent of the Nations total production of cig- 
arettes. North Carolina also exports more tobacco than any other 
state today. 

Thus, each field of tobacco seen today across this tobacco state 
is a link in an exceptional history that began more than three cen- 
turies ago. This link was forged by mankind's most Social appetite 
for tobacco products of rich flavor and aroma. 



Optimistic Outlook for 1976 

North Carolina flue-cured and burley tobacco growers continued 
to feel the cost-price squeeze more than ever during the 1975 mar- 
keting season, due mainly to a larger crop and poorer quality that 
resulted in a decline in market averages of more than $5 per 
hundred. However, because of the volume of sales, 932 million 
pounds, which was the States 5th largest flue-cured crop, growers 
received a record gross return of $930 million. 

North Carolina burley tobacco growers also received a record 
gross return from their 1975 crop of $22 million. However, as was 
the case with flue-cured growers, burley growers experienced a 
declining market average due to a larger crop and poorer quality 
in some areas, averaging $4.55 per hundred less than $106.65 in 
1974. 

There is no question but that adverse weather conditions, dur- 
ing the 1975 growing season, was the major contributing factor to 
poorer quality and lower prices last season for both flue-cured 
and burley growers. Weather is always the limiting factor in any 
crop that cannot be predicted. 

Cost Leveling Out 

For 1976, flue-cured and burley tobacco growers will have the 
best ratio between the cost-of-production and price support that 
they have had in a number of years. The cost of production has 
leveled out. For instance, fertilizer is costing less, fuel cost is 
about the same, pesticides are about the same as last season, 
interest rates are about the same, labor is about the same or slight- 
ly higher in some areas. The items of production that are still rising 
in cost are farm equipment and parts for equipment. 

Price Support Up 

While the cost-of-production is leveling out, flue-cured and 
burley growers will receive a 13.7 percent increase in price sup- 
port, which is the largest increase ever received in any one year 
since the price support program has been in operation. This in- 
crease, which is tied to the cost-of-production in the price sup- 
port formula, pushes the flue-cured average support to $106.00 per 
hundred for 1976, or an increase of $12.80 per hundred over the 
1975 loan rate. The average burley support for 1976 will move up- 
to $109.20, compared to $96.10 in 1975. 

When this increase in price support is spread across the U. S. 
Standard Grader, it will increase the loan rates for the individual 
grades from about 5 to 20 cents above the 1975 grade loan rates. 



10 



The up-stalk leaf (B) grades which are now in strongest market 
demand will get the largest increases, while the bottom of the 
stalk lug, priming and non-descript grades will get the smallest 
increase in loan rates. 



Supply and Demand 

The carryover supply of flue-cured tobacco at the beginning of 
the 1976 market year will be up about 8 percent above the 1975 
starting level, and the total supply is projected at about 2.5 times 
the current disappearance, which is considered a normal level. 
However, there is a problem of embalance of grades in the total 
supply situation in that there is currently a surplus of low lug, 
priming and non-descript grades, which make up the bulk of the 
stocks held under loan by Flue-cured Stabilization. At the same 
time there is a deficit of up-stalk leaf grades, especially better 
quality leaf (B) grades. 

Thus, we can expect a strong market demand for good quality 
leaf (B) grades during the 1976 season from both domestic and 
export buyers. At the same time there will be a good domestic 
demand for solid priming and lug grades that are free from exces- 
sive foreign matter. Unfortunately, there is very little export de- 
mand for primings and lugs, which means that Stabilization will 
likely continue to take large volumes of low lug and priming 
grades under loan during the 1976 marketing season. However, 
with an anticipated smaller overall flue-cured crop for 1976, pro- 
jected at about 1,340 million pound compared to 1,411 million in 
1975, it is doubtful that any significant amount of up-stalk leaf to- 
bacco will go under loan to Stabilization. 

The keynote for the 1976 marketing season will be quality. Qual- 
ity to most buying companies is ripe tobacco of most any stan- 
dard grade, free of sand and other foreign matter, with the very 
best care possible given to uniformly sheeting it for market. 
Growers who concentrate on marketing tobacco with these ele- 
ments of quality can be assured of receiving the top market price. 
With a little luck from the weather during the growing season, 
and with the $1.06 average price support, the 1976 marketing sea- 
son should average at least $1.10 per pound. Thus, North Caro- 
lina with an effective quota of 942 million pounds, has the poten- 
tial of selling its first billion dollar crop. 



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state Market Summary 1975-76 

The tobacco industry appealed to North Carolina growers to 
significantly step up production in 1975 in order to protect our ex- 
port markets, increase domestic stocks, slow down importation 
of foreign flue-cured and burley tobacco and preserve the tobacco 
quota program. Growers responded to the pleas for more to- 
bacco by producing the largest crop since 1964 and the 5th largest 
crop produced in this state. However, unseasonable weather 
ranging from a very dry June to an extremely wet July, to a 
severely dry and hot August caused much of the 1975 crop to 
come up short of the desirable quality characteristics that were in 
strong demand. Lower stalk tobacco contained unusually large 
amounts of sand and foreign matter and displayed a washed out 
appearance, while upper stalk tobacco in the Piedmont area ex- 
hibited sun-baked and immature characteristics. None of these to- 
baccos were attractive enough to stimulate continuous keen com- 
petition among the buying interest for the entire season. So, with 
the larger, lower quality crop in 1975, growers did not achieve 
the record high average established in 1974. 

Flue-cured average price of $99.77 per hundred pounds for 
North Carolina markets was disappointing to growers because of 
a $5.77 per hundred pounds decline from the previous year's 
record high average of $105.54. Although the average price de- 
clined, a substantial volume increase pushed the crop value to a 
record level. North Carolina flue-cured markets sold 924,574,261 
pounds of tobacco for a sum of $922,467,722 in 1975. In compari- 
son, the 1974 sales were 756,758,214 pounds which sold for 
$798,702,014. 

Burley farmers were not able to maintain the record breaking 
trend that had existed for the previous year. North Carolina Bur- 
ley markets averaged $102.10 per hundred pounds for the season, 
down $4.55 per hundred pounds from the previous years average. 

Type 13 Markets opened July 9, the earliest opening date in the 
history of the flue-cured markets. The season stretched over 66 
sales days, eight more sales days than the previous season, with 
final sales occurring on November 5. Farmers halted several sales 
during the early part of the season in protest of low prices being 
paid for offerings. 

Quality was down in comparison to the previous year due to 
fewer good leaf grades and more low quality lugs, primings, non- 
descript and damaged tobacco being sold. 

Grade price averages were off $1.00 — $18.00 per hundred 
pounds on most grades with the heavy losses occurring on low 
leaf grades. A few priming and lug grade averages were up $1.00 
per hundred pounds. Type 13 season market average was $100.00 



13 



per hundred pounds, down $3.83 per hundred pounds from the 
1974 record average. 

Producer sales for 1975 totaled 144,895,965 and sold for 
$144,902,327 which is a sizeable increase from the 1974 sales of 
113,433,437 pounds which brought $117,778,281. 

Stabilization received 24,856,203 pounds 17.15 percent of pro- 
ducer sales. In 1974, receipts were 2,835,136 or 2.5 percent of 
producer sales. 

Type 12 markets open on July 15, the earliest opening in the 
history for these markets, and operated through November 26, 
for a total of 75 sales days, 14 more sales days than the previous 
year. 

Quality of offerings was noticably lower with a significant de- 
crease in good lemon and orange grades and corresponding in- 
crease in varigated and green grades. 

Grade price averages were generally unchanged to $5.00 per 
hundred pounds lower. A few top quality grades showed slight in- 
crease. N 2 tobacco was off $37.00 per hundred pounds. Type 12 
markets averaged $101.16 per hundred in 1975, down $4.82 per 
hundred pounds from the 1974 record average. 

Producer sales for 1975 increased to 506,560,874 pounds and 
returned $512,413,354 to growers which is a record value for 
type 12 markets. In 1974, producers sold, 407,007,009 pounds for 
$431,331,721. 

Stabilization receipts totaled 90,283,862 pounds or 17.82 per- 
cent of producer sales. In 1974, Stabilization received 8,032,463 
pounds or 1.97 percent of producer sales. 

Type 11 markets began operating the earliest in history with 
five of the sandhill markets opening on July 15, seven additional 
markets opened July 29, and the remaining markets opened 
August 5. The season lasted 74 sales days, five more than the 
previous year, with final sales occurring on November 25. 

Quality declined substantially with less good leaf, smoking 
leaf and cutter grades being sold, while a relative increase oc- 
curred in poor offerings. A larger percentage of the crop was com- 
posed of lugs and nondescript grades. The color factor also de- 
teriorated with more of the tobacco being varigated instead of 
orange. 

Grade price averages were predominately lower from $3.00 — 
$7.00 per hundred pounds but a few choice grades showed slight 
gains. The season average for type 11 markets was $97.08 per 
hundred pounds for producer sales, a loss of $8.54 per hundred 
pounds from the 1974 record average. 

Producer sales totaled 273,117,422 pounds and sold for 
$265,152,050. In comparison, the 1974 producer sales were 
236,317,768 pounds which brought growers $249,592,012. 

Stabilization receipts were 61,082,075 pounds and amounted to 
22.36 percent of producer sales. In 1974, Stabilization received 
3,138,620 pounds or 1.3 percent of producer sales. 



14 



Type 31 Burley markets opened on November 24, and oper- 
ated 20 sales days with final sales occurring on January 8. 

Quality was similiar to the previous year. The percentage of 
mixed grades decreased slightly with more of the crop going into 
straight grades. 

Grade price averages were down generally $3.00 — $9.00 per 
hundred pounds while some tip and nondescript grades were off 
$29.00 per hundred pounds. North Carolina markets averaged 
$102.10 per hundred pounds for the season, a decline of $4.55 per 
hundred pounds from the 1974-75 record average. 

Producer sales on the three North Carolina Markets for 1975-76 
increased to 20,357,407 pounds and returned growers $20,785,618. 
During the 1974-75 season producers sold 17,401,664 pounds for 
$18,558,653. 

Burley Stabilization receipts were 2,316,730 pounds or $10.56 
percent of producer sales; up sharply from the 1974-75 season 
when only 308,993 pounds of 1.78 percent of producer sales 
went to the Burley pool. 



15 








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17 



SUMMARY OF N. C. DEALERS AND 
WAREHOUSE RESALES — 1975 



Percentage 
Type Pounds Dollars Resale 

TYPE 13 
Dealer 

Warehouse 

TYPE 12 
Dealer 

Warehouse 

TYPE 11 
Dealer 
Warehouse 

Total Flue-Cured Resales 

TYPE 31 
Dealer 
Warehouse 

Total Burley Resales 



385,380 
6,779,764 


341,485 
7,102,680 


0.27 
4.68 


2,108,067 

14,625,514 


2,028,332 
14,802,330 


0.42 
2.89 


1,015,303 
11,323,546 


898,832 
11,345,550 


0.37 
4.15 


36,237,574 


36,519,209 


3.92 


200,586 
1,395,347 


205,464 
1,431,021 


0.99 
6.85 


1,595,933 


1,636,485 


7.84 



PRODUCERS AND GROSS SALES OF FLUE-CURED 
TOBACCO BY STATE — 1975 





Producer 
Pounds 


Sales 
Average/cwt 


Gross Sales 
Pounds Average/cwt 


North Carolina 


924,574,261 


99.77 


960,811,835 


99.81 


Virginia 
South Carolina 


127,714,836 
176,474,352 


101.15 
99.54 


132,079,536 
185,234,040 


101.14 
99.61 


Georgia 


154,711,126 


100.41 


162,286,703 


100.49 


Florida 


27,133,679 


97.85 


28,293,240 


98.02 


Total 


1,410,608,254 


99.90 


1,468,705,354 


99.95 



18 



FLUE-CURED MOVEMENT IN AND OUT 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



N. C. Tobacco Sold Out of State Out of State Tobacco Sold in N. C. 
(Pounds) (Pounds) 

1975 1974 1975 1974 



Virginia 21,814,000 23,302,000 

South Carolina 6,933,000 7,297,000 

Georgia — 165,000 

Florida — 91,000 

Total 28,747,000 30,855,000 



5,988,000 
16,661,000 



22,649,000 



5,263,000 
11,699,000 



16,962,000 



BURLEY TOBACCO MOVEMENT IN AND OUT 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



N. C. Tobacco Sold Out of State Out of State Tobacco Sold in N. C. 
(Pounds) (Pounds) 

1975 1974 1975 1974 



Tennessee 


4,461,719 


3,047,628 


620,707 


515,421 


Virginia 


48,202 


10,066 


1,066,552 


1,066,461 


W. Virginia 


— 


— 


33,070 


38,962 


Georgia 


— 


— 


28,503 


23,844 


South Carolina 








1,176 
1,750,008 


2,162 


Total 


4,509,921 


3,057,694 


1,646,850 



19 



FLUE-CURED STABILIZATION RECEIPTS 
BY TYPES AND STATES— 1975 







Producer 


Stabilization 


Percentage 


State 


Type 


Sales (lbs.) 


Receipts (lbs.) 


Stab. Received 


Va. Total 


11 


127,714.836 


22,160.005 


17.35 


N. C. 


11 


273.117.422 


61.082,075 


2236 


N. C. 


12 


506,560,874 


90,283,862 


17.82 


N. C. 


13 


144,895,965 


24,856,203 


17.15 


N C. Total 


11-13 


924,574,261 


176,222,140 


19.06 


S C Total 


13 


176.474,352 


31.724.349 


17.98 


Ga^ Total 


14 


154,711,126 


23.730.972 


1534 


Fla^ Total 


14 


27,133,679 


5,191,159 


19.13 


Total All Types 




1.410,608,254 


259,028.625 


1836 



BURLEY STABILIZATION RECEIPTS 
FOR N.C, AND TOTAL U.S. — 1975-76 



State 


Type 


Producer 
Sales (lbs.) 


Stabilization 
Receipts (lbs.) 


Percentage 
Stab, Received 


N. C. 

U. S, Total 


31 
31 


21.949.517 
639.900.000 


2,316.730 
51.194.487 


10.56 
8.00 



20 



N. C^ BURLEY TOBACCO ALLOTMENTS-1976' 



Number Base Effective 

County Farms Poundage Poundage Rank 

Allegfiany 

Asfie 

Avery 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Caldwell 

Cfierokee 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Davidson 

Graham 

Granville 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Iredell 

Jackson 

fVlcDowell 

Macon 

Madison 

Mitchell 

Polk 

Rutherford 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swam 

Transylvania 

Watauga 

Wilkes -- • 

Yancey 

Total 

"Source: USDA Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service 



587 


685,729 


871,598 


9 


2,639 


2,780,070 


3,763,360 


4 


249 


306,439 


414,454 


10 


2,893 


3,419,749 


4,407,937 


2 


7 


5,476 


10,272 


22 


13 


8,373 


16,953 


20 


183 


150,917 


268,096 


13 


232 


185,051 


288,732 


12 


8 


5,517 


9,542 


21 


2 


1,636 


2,545 


26 


710 


712,329 


982,473 


8 


1 


299 


240 


29 


1,940 


2,181,381 


2.675.251 


5 


113 


87,579 


165,306 


16 


1 


1.373 


2,818 


27 


249 


224.233 


413,262 


11 


58 


49,094 


89.694 


18 


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144.503 


251.126 


14 


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5,299,802 


5.799.375 


1 


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1.322,873 


1.810,926 


7 


5 


2,354 


6.856 


25 


55 


32,030 


62,291 


19 


2 


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827 


28 


7 


2,910 


3,265 


24 


155 


122,515 


224,847 


15 


72 


52,562 


91.802 


17 


1,689 


1,968,921 


2,543,896 


6 


6 


3,906 


6,412 


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2,805,590 


3,412,799 


3 


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23 



North Carolina Flue-Cured Crops 
1920-1975* 







Yield Per 








Year 


No. Acres 


Acre 


Production 


Value 


Average 






(Pounds) 


(1,000 lbs.) 


(1,000 Dollars)- 


Price 


1920 


621,900 


681 


423,703 


88,271 


20.80 


1921 


414 


900 


594 


246,540 


60,402 


24.50 


1922 


444 


000 


611 


271,170 


74,572 


27.50 


1923 


544 


300 


728 


396.354 


81,998 


20.70 


1924 


473 


500 


585 


276,819 


62,597 


22.60 


1925 


536 


200 


696 


373,352 


83,756 


2240 


1926 


546 


700 


692 


378,274 


96,762 


2560 


1927 


639 


600 


755 


482,982 


100,414 


20.80 


1928 


712 


400 


692 


493,132 


93.450 


19.00 


1929 


729 


300 


665 


484,630 


89,470 


18.50 


1930 


768 


000 


757 


581,200 


74,733 


12.90 


1931 


688 


500 


692 


476,382 


42,024 


8.80 


1932 


462 


500 


624 


288,750 


34.949 


12.10 


1933 


667 


800 


794 


530,133 


85,530 


16 10 


1934 


486 


500 


847 


412.055 


177,999 


28.60 


1935 


612 


500 


635 


572.625 


116,418 


20 30 


1936 


591 


000 


765 


451.975 


101,856 


22.50 


1937 


675 


000 


883 


595.815 


143,058 


24.00 


1938 


603 


500 


844 


509,470 


115,428 


22.70 


1939 


843 


000 


964 


812.540 


123,893 


15.20 


1940 


498 


000 


1,038 


516.835 


85,792 


16.60 


1941 


488 


000 


928 


452.825 


132,291 


29 20 


1942 


539 


000 


1,052 


566.810 


221,538 


39.10 


1943 


580 


000 


935 


542.200 


219,074 


40.40 


1944 


684 


000 


1,077 


736.990 


317,628 


43.10 


1945 


722 


000 


1,100 


794.310 


349,148 


44.00 


1946 


802 


000 


1,138 


912.970 


451,639 


49.50 


1947 


783 


000 


1,139 


892.205 


374,513 


42.00 


1948 


594 


000 


1,239 


739.380 


368,040 


49.80 


1949 


621 


000 


1,178 


731.530 


352,508 


48.20 


1950 


640 


000 


1,441 


858.140 


477,508 


55.60 


1951 


735 


000 


1,331 


978.375 


523,358 


53.50 


1952 


735 


000 


1,222 


898.090 


448,582 


49.90 


1953 


674 


000 


1,235 


832.305 


447.076 


53.70 


1954 


686 


000 


1,204 


889.490 


483,003 


54.30 


1955 


653 


000 


1,499 


978.775 


520,845 


53.20 


1956 


579 


000 


1,661 


961.495 


496,324 


51.60 


1957 


443 


000 


1,469 


50.780 


358,442 


55.10 


1958 


429 


000 


1,718 


736.855 


427,307 


58.00 


1959 


458 


500 


1,533 


702.942 


407,055 


57.90 


1960 


457 


500 


1,836 


839.870 


512,731 


61.10 


1961 


463 


000 


1,797 


832.215 


541,468 


65.10 


1962 


483 


000 


1,890 


912.810 


549,594 


60.20 


1963 


460 


500 


1,999 


920.660 


535,622 


58.18 


1964 


416 


000 


2,282 


949.450 


549,875 


57.90 


1965 


375 


000 


1,840 


690,050 


442,796 


64.20 


1966 


409 


500 


1,859 


761.360 


506,605 


66.50 


1967 


395 


400 


2,071 


818,997 


523,809 


64.00 


1968 


350 


500 


1,850 


648,533 


430,613 


66.45 


1969 


378 


500 


1,838 


695,665 


502,305 


72.20 


1970 


383 


800 


2,076 


796,941 


571,211 


71.70 


1971 


339 


000 


2,102 


712,960 


552,544 


77.50 


1972 


332 


000 


1,993 


661,520 


566,267 


85.60 


1973 


376 


000 


2,111 


793,615 


700,410 


88.30 


1974 


390 


000 


1,975 


770,160 


813,427 


105.60 


1975" 


470 


000 


1.982 


932,000 


930,000 


99.70 



24 



"Source: N, C. and USDA Crop Reporting Service 
■■Preliminary for 1975 

Note: Since 1965. production is pounds produced and does not reflect pounds 
not sold or pounds carried forward to the next season. 



North Carolina Burley Crops 

1928-1975' 







Yield Per 








Year 


No Acres 


Acre 


Production 


Value 


Average 






(Pounds) 


(1,000 lbs ) 


(1,000 Dollars) 


Price 


1928 


3,600 


650 


2,340 


$ 690 


S 29.50 


1929 


5,500 


730 


4,015 


863 


21.50 


1930 


7,200 


750 


5,400 


853 


15-80 


1931 


7,100 


710 


5,041 


464 


9.20 


1932 


6,500 


735 


4,778 


726 


15,20 


1933 


9,200 


785 


7,222 


715 


9.90 


1934 


5,500 


870 


4,785 


809 


17.50 


1935 


5,200 


925 


4,810 


1,025 


21.30 


1936 


6,000 


900 


5,400 


2,095 


38.80 


1937 


9,000 


975 


8,775 


1,787 


21.40 


1938 


8,600 


900 


7,740 


1,308 


16.90 


1939 


8,100 


1,070 


8,667 


1,447 


16.70 


1940 


6,500 


1,050 


6,825 


1,242 


18.20 


1941 


6,200 


1,075 


6,665 


2,093 


31,40 


1942 


6,600 


1,150 


7,590 


3,211 


42,30 


1943 


8,500 


1,225 


10,412 


5.102 


49.00 


1944 


12,000 


1,390 


16,680 


8.157 


48,90 


1945 


13.000 


1,500 


19,500 


7.568 


38,30 


1946 


9,800 


1,475 


14,455 


5,999 


41,50 


1947 


9,600 


1,560 


14,976 


6,335 


42,30 , 


1948 


10,300 


1,680 


17,304 


8.012 


46,30 


1949 


10,800 


1,440 


15,552 


6.750 


43.40 


1950 


10,500 


1,700 


17,850 


9,175 


51,40 


1951 


12,200 


1,750 


21,350 


11,572 


54.20 


1952 


12,000 


1,680 


20,160 


9,818 


48.70 


1953 


11,400 


1,800 


20,520 


11,019 


53,70 


1954 


12,700 


1,920 


24,384 


12,680 


52,00 


1955 


9,800 


1,900 


18.620 


10,651 


57,20 


1956 


9,400 


1,850 


17.390 


10,747 


61,80 


1957 


9,600 


1,975 


18,960 


11,073 


58.40 


1958 


9,300 


2,000 


18,600 


11,978 


64,40 


1959 


9,800 


2,060 


20,188 


11,426 


56,60 


1960 


9,500 


1,940 


18,430 


12,016 


65,20 


1961 


10,400 


2,090 


21,736 


14,346 


66,00 


1962 


11,000 


2,185 


24,035 


14,421 


60,00 


1963 


11,000 


2,285 


25,135 


13,573 


54,00 


1964 


9,700 


2,165 


21,000 


12,054 


57,40 


1965 


8,900 


2,030 


18,067 


12,159 


67,30 


1966 


7,900 


2,320 


18,328 


12,371 


67,50 


1967 


7,800 


2,010 


15.678 


11.037 


70,40 


1968 


7,900 


2,385 


18,842 


13.868 


73,60 


1969 


7,900 


2,570 


20,303 


13.928 


6860 


1970 


7,300 


2,545 


18,579 


13.544 


7290 


1971 


7,000 


2,065 


14,455 


11,535 


79,80 


1972 


7,700 


2,450 


18,865 


14,658 


77,70 


1973 


7,500 


2.440 


18,300 


16,781 


91,70 


1974 


8,000 


2,370 


18,960 


20,477 


106,70 


1975'* 


9,000 


2,400 


21,600 


22,037 


102,10 



'Source: N, C. and USDA Crop Reporting Service 
'•Preliminary for 1975 

Note: Since 1965 production is pounds produced and does not reflect pounds 
not sold or pounds carried forward to the next season. 



25 



North Carolina Tobacco Warehouses and Operators 
By Type and Markets — 1975 



Type 13 



Chadbourn 



Jimmy Green — Jimmy Green 

Producers — Kenneth Ray. Horace Cox, Jack Cox 



Clarkton 



New Clarkton — Maynard Talley, Cecil Hartley, J. R. Jessup 

Bright Leaf — Jimmy Green 

Clarkton Farmers Exchange — Edwin Ekins, Howard Watts 



Fair Bluff 



Powell's — B. A^ Powell, Albert H. Powell 

Planters 1 & 2 — Randolph Currin, C. W. Shaw, S. Lawrence, H. E. Dunn, 

H^ B, Dunn 
Fair Bluff — J. G. McNeill, Mgr. 

Fairmont 

Planters-Mitchell — Harry Mitchell, Morris Daniel 

Liberty & Twin State — Lynn Floyd, Hoke Smith, Jr., Landis Joyce 

Big Brick — A. W. McDaniel 

Holliday-Frye — E. H. Frye. J. W. Holliday, J. M. Holliday, Joe Frye 

Square Deal — Mrs. W. G. Bassett, C. L. Smith 

Tobacco Land — J. Q. Rogers, Ralph Britt 

Big Five Warehouse Co. — Carl Britt, Dick Belts 

Carolina — A. D. Lewis, Jr. 

Fayetteville 

Big Farmers — Clifton McNeill, P. L. Campbell 
Planters — Billy Adams, Jimmy Adams, J. C. Adams 

Lumberton 

Carolina — J. L. Towsend, Sr. & Jr., J. E. Johnson, Jr., Sam Dunn 

Liberty — H. D Goode, R. H. Livermore 

Hedgepeth — E. H. Collins, Albert Thornton, Jr. 

Cooperative — Mrs. V. H. McLaurin, L. D. West 

Smith-Dixie — Jack Pait 

Star — D. T. Stephenson, Hogan Teater, Russell Teater 

Lumbee — Howard Oxendine, Ralph Hunt 



Tabor City 



R. C. Coleman — R. C Coleman, Sr., & Jr., Joe Coleman, Joey Coleman, 

Ricky Coleman 
Planters — Don Watson, Mgr. 
New Tabor — Milton Clemmons, H. B. Buffkins, Earl McDaniels 



26 



WhJteville 



Crutchfield's — G. E. Grutchfield, Jimmy Dale Smith 
Columbus County — A. Dial Gray, A. Dial Gray, III 
Lea's Big Dixie — William Townes Lea, Louis Love 
Nelson's — Jimmy Smith, Lennox Long, Milton Gore 
Moore's — C. C. Mason, C. E. Jeffcoat 
Planters — A. O. King, Jr., Cliff Stephens 
Smith's — Ernest Smith, Joe T. Smith, J. D. Smith 
Liberty — J. W. Hooks, C. B. Barefoot 
Golden Leaf — Jimmy Dale Smith, E. H. Smith 



TYPE 12 



Ahoskie 



Basnight's — L. L. Wilkins, Jr., H. G. Veasey, H. Jenkins, Jr. 
Farmers — W. M. Odom, S. S. Pierce, J. L. Morris 



Clinton 



Carolina — Mrs. L. D. Herring, C. J. Strickland, N. L. Daughtry, L. D. Starling, 

J. P. Gore, Mrs. M. L. Peak 
Ross — Clarence Kirven, Jr. 

Farmers — L. D. Starling, Mrs. N. L. Daughtry, Mrs. N. L. Peak, Mrs. J. P. Gore 
Bright Leaf — Hugh Barwick, Albert Thornton 



Dunn 



Big Four — Jack Calhoun, John Calhoun, Cleo Jones 
Lee's Planters — Leiand Lee 



Farmville 



Bell's — R. A. Bell & Bros. 

Fountain-Moye — James B. Fountain, Howard D. Moye 

Planters — Chester Worthington, W. O. Newell, B. S. Correll, David Jones, 

Mark Mozingo 
New Blue — W. A. Allen 
Pierce — Robert Pierce 
Lee — Gordon Lee 
Farmers Tobacco — Charles Sutton, W. A. "Red" Forbes 



Goldsboro 



Farmers — Rudy Hill 

Victory — Richard Gray 

Carolina — Guy Best, D. M. Price 

Gold Leaf — Willie Strickland, W. W. Barnes 

Big Brick — J. R. Musgrave, Sr. & Jr., Helen Musgrave 

Big Three — N C. Newman, Max Parrish, Max Futrell 



Greenville 



Cannon's — W. T. Cannon, Carlton Dail 

Keel's — J. A. Worthington, J. B. Worthington, Fenner Allen, A. T. Venters 



27 



New Carolina — Laddie Avery, Larry Hudson 

Star Planters — Harding Sugg 

Farmers — Harold Watson, Jack Warren 

New Independent — T. W. Pruitt, W. A, Pruitt, James Belcher, W. E. Pruitt, 

Jack Warren 
Growers — J. L. Tripp 
Raynor, Forbes, Clark — N. S. Porter, H. L. Fornes, W. C. Clark, R. P. 

Harrington 

Kinston 

Farmers-New Dixie — John Jenkins, Sr. & Jr., Lee Jenkins 

H & H — Dempsey Hodges, Jr., Virgil Harper 

Knott's 1 & 2 — Graham Knott, Billy Brewer 

Growers — Robert T. Gray, P. G. Sutton, Jr. 

Central — W. I. Herring, Sr., & Jr., Dennis Bailey 

New Central — W. I. Herring, Sr. & Jr., Dennis Bailey 

Robersonville 

Gray-Red Front-Central — Jack Sharp. Vernon Hardee, Harry T. Gray 

Hardees — Edwin Lee 

Big Gem 1 & 2 — J. H. Gray, Sr., H. H. Pope, Jr. 

Rocky Mount 

Cobb & Carlton Warehouse — W. E. Cobb, Jr., J. C. Carlton 

Farmers 1 & 2 — Joe W. Coleman, Allen C. Cooper 

Fenner's — Julian B. Fenner, Jr. 

Tobacco Planters — S. S. Edmondson, Sr., & Jr. 

Works — R. J. Works, Jr., A. B. Raynor 

Peoples — Guy Barnes, Gene Simmons, James Walker 

Smith's — Jimmie D. Smith, Sr. & Jr. 

Smithfield 

Big Planters — Joe Stephenson, Jerry Stephenson 

Gold Leaf — R A. Pearce, Sr., & Jr. 

Wallace ~ Bobby Wallace, Larry Wallace 

Riverside — Gilbert Stephenson 

Farmers — N. Leo Daughtry, Bill Kennedy 

Tarboro 

Clark's 1 & 2 — J. F. Wilson, Jr., George L. Proctor 

Victory — W. V Leggett, C. H. Leggett 

Farmers — Walter Walker, W. G. Maples, Fred Walston 

Wallace 

Farmers — H. G. Perry 

Sheffield's — Homer M. Boney, Jr. 

Blanchard & Farrior — Jean Blanchard, R. H. Lanier 

Hussey's — Joe Bryant 



28 



Washington 

Bright Leaf — N. T Cox, Harry L, Roberts 
Gravely's — W, A^ Gravely, Sr. & Jr, 
Talley Bros. — W. G. Talley 
Hassell — Malcolm P. Hassell 

Wendell 

Farmers — Carson Jones, Mgr 

Northside — Graham Dean, Bill Sanders 

Liberty — H, H. Eddins, Berdon Eddins 

Banner — C. P. "Pete" Southerland, E, C Rogers 

Growers — Clyde Holmes, C. M. Pate, Charles Congleton 

Planters — Bob Doyle, Bill Raybon 

Williamston 

Rogers — Urbm Rogers, H. L. Barnhill, Rossell Roger 

New Dixie — J. Elmo Lilley, Sr. & Jr., Stephen Lilley, William Lilley 



Wilson 



Big Star— Thurman B. Pate 

Big Dixie — W. Cecil Thompson, W. C. Edmondson 

Liberty — J. T. Worthington, W. Cecil Moore, Robert D. Oldham 

Nichols & Scott — A. B. Nichols, Clay Scott 

Centre Brick — S. M. Cozart, U. H. Cozart, III, Fred Eagles 

Bob & Clark — C. R. Clark 

Wainwright's — George L. Wainwright, Sr. & Jr. 

Smith's-Planters — S. Grady Deans, John F. Deans 

Growers Cooperative — Clifford Aycock, Mgr. 



Windsor 



Planters — C. B. Griffin, B. U. Griffin. Dave Newson 
Farmers — Bill David, Norman Swain 
Center — Jerry Shakleford, J. R. Freshwater 



TYPE 11 

Aberdeen 

Planters — W. Fentress Phillips 
Hardee's — Hugh T. Hardee, Jr. 

Carthage 

McConnell's — E. C. Layton, Earl J. Ennis, George W. Mabe 
Farmers — Bill Carter, Sr. & Jr. 
Victory — E. C. Layton, Earl J. Ennis 
Carthage Coop. — Joe F. Cook, Mgr. 



29 



Durham 



Liberty — Walker S, Stone 

Farmers-Planters — J. M. Talley, Bob Dale, Bobby Thomas, Sam Mangum 

Estate 
Star 1 & 2 — W. W Cozart, W. L. Currm, A. L. Carver, Estate 
Roycroft's Currin — Randolph Currin 
CCF #1 Tobacco Coop. — James Spell, Mgr. 

Ellerbe 

Richmond County ~ Ashton Richardson, R. P. Brim, Jr., Ransom Raines 
Farmers — Cecil Moore, Bobby Oldham 

Fuquay-Varina 

Carolina — Douglas E. Knott, Larry C. Knott 

Roberts — Joe Roberts 

Fuquay Cooperative — Leo Matthews, Mgr. 

Planters — Billy Adams, Jimmy Adams, W. C. Lipscomb, Ray Owen 

New Deal — Dan Talley, Dan Brisson 

Gold Leaf — J. W. Dale 

Henderson 

Jeff's Big Banner — C. E. Jeffcoat 
Alston-Farmers — W. J. Alston, Jr. 
High Price-Dixie — C B. Turner, R. E. Tanner, R. E. Fleming, J. K. Parks, 

M, D. Abbott 
Liberty 1 & 2 — George T. Robertson, S. E. Southerland, John Wilson 
Ellington — H. Ellington, John Ellington 
Big Dollars — M. L. Hight, James H. O'Brien, Thomas Barham 

Louisburg ^ 

Ford — Charlie Ford, Sr. & Jr. 

Star — James Speed, Gus McGhee, Clemmons Pearce 

Big Franklin — S. T. Cottrell, James B. Cottrell, L. D. Cottrell 



Oxford 



Yeargin — W. W. Yeargin 

Banner Mitchell — David Mitchell 

Johnson-High Price-Owen — John S. Watkins, Jr., C. R. Watkins, Jr. 

Joe C. Hamme, T. J. Currin, C. B. Wilkins, M. A. Goode 
Granville-Mangum — R. W. Crews, Bernard Jones, Allen Daniel, Guy 

Whitehurst 
Fleming — F, O. Finch, D. T. Currin, Jr. 



Sanford 



Castleberry — C. N. Castleberry, Jr., Mitchell Jackson 
Farmers Cooperative — Gilbert Mathews, Mgr. 
Morgan's — Jimmy Morgan 
Twin City 1 & 2 — W. M. Carter, T. W. Mansfield 



30 



Warrenton 

Farmers — H. J. Carter, G, H Limer 

Centre 1 & 2 — Ed Moody, B. M. Griffin, W. E. Radford 

Currin's — D. G. Currin, B. W. Currin, C. W. Currin, David Tillotson 

High Dollar ~ M. P. Carroll, Charles Steinback 

Thompson's — C. E Thompson, M. P. Edwards, Jr. 

Burlington 

Newman & Roberts — N. C. Newman, Joe Robertson 
Farmers — Bill McCauley, Alpha McCray 
Carolina — C. R. McCauley 

Greensboro 

Greensboro— R. C. Coleman, Jr. 

Guilford — J. R. Pell, H. P. Smothers, W. B. Hull, J. E. Pell, Rachel 
S. Hull 

Madison 

Carolina — Lee McCollum, Ray White, Mrs. Lloyd Webster 
New Brick — Mrs. Lloyd Webster, Ray White 

Sharpe-Smith-Farmers — W. S. Smith, George Denham, Jr., F. S. Williams, 
D. H. Price, Jr. 

Mebane 

Piedmont — Billy Hopkins, Jimmy Hopkins 
Farmers — Jule Allen, Bill Allen 

Mt. Airy 

Dixie — Tom Jones, Boyd Cam, F. V. Dearmin, Jr., H. Y. Hodges. Fred 

Chilton 
Hunter — Dean Hunter, Max Hunter 
Gold Leaf — Paul Draughn, Roger L. Nichols 

Reidsviile 

New Farmers — C. E. Smith, Steve Smith. S. L. Fairchild, Phillip Carter 
Smothers-Watts-Leaders — A. P. Sands, Larry Sands. Tom Kimbro. T Garland 

Smothers 
North State Farmers Coop. — Pete Gunn, Mgr 

Roxboro 

Hyco — F. J Hester, F. J. Hester, III 

Growers 1 & 2 — Elmo Mitchell, F^oy Carver 

Planters — T. O. Pass, Sr., & Jr. 

Farmers — Lindsay Wagstaff. Kenneth Wagstaff. R. A Hester. Larry C. Hester 

Four Acres — H. W. Winstead. Jr. & Pres. 



31 



Stoneville 

Joyce's — O. P. Joyce, Sr. & Jr., W. R. Joyce 

Piedmont — R. N. Linville, Clarence Peeples, W, Q.Chilton, Robert Rakestraw, 
Garland Rakestraw 

Winston-Salem 

Carolina Star — Ken Chilton 

Growers — R. J. Harris, J. T. Harris, Roger Harris 

Pepper's — C. F. Hutchins, Dan Hutchins 

Cook's — Claude Strickland, Jr., P. Thomas, Doug Cook 

Taylor's — L. E. Pope 

Big Winston — Taylor Carter, Jack Carter 

Yadkinville 

Northwest Farmers — R. A. Owen, Ken Gray 

Miller Tobacco — J. A. Miller, Sr., & Jr. 

Yadkin County Tobacco 1, 2 & 3 — J. W. Flinchum, Bill Wall, Howard Pegram 



BURLEY BELT 

Asheville 

Day's — Charlie Day 

Dixie Burley — R. A. Owens 

Planters — J. W. Stewart 

Boone 

Mountain Burley — Joe Coleman, Joey Coleman, Ricky Coleman, Lavelle 
Coleman 

West Jefferson 



Tri-State Burley — Rex Taylor 
Farmers Burley — Mrs. Tom Faulkner 



32 



THE CIGARETTE TAX BURDEN 



Hundreds of books, magazine articles and pamphlets have been 
written telling the colorful story of tobacco from Colonial days 
down to the present. These writings have made clear the im- 
portance that tobacco has played in giving strength to the economy 
of the early settlers as they labored in the birth of a nation. 
However, the Tobacco Tax Council emphasizes that what has not 
been fully told by early and present day writers is the history of 
tobacco as a subject of taxation. 

The early experiments in tobacco taxation in the United States 
were intensified with the advent of the Civil War as the Federal 
Government embarked upon an extensive program of excise taxes, 
most of which were abandoned shortly after the close of the war. 
However, taxes on tobacco products were retained and became 
fixed as a permanent feature of the Internal Revenue System, con- 
tinuing down to the present with a federal tax of 8 cents a pack. 

In 1921, Iowa became the first state to impose taxes on cig- 
arettes. Today all 50 states impose taxes on cigarettes ranging from 
2 cents a pack in North Carolina to 21 cents a pack in Connecticut. 
Eighteen years ago, the most prevalent state tax rate was 3 cents 
a pack. Today, state taxes on cigarettes average about 12.5 cents a 
pack. 

During the decade of the 1930's municipal governments entered 
the cigarette tax field in substantial numbers. In the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1975, 365 local governments imposed cigarette 
taxes. 

In 1975, with three levels of government exacting revenues from 
cigarettes, the total tax from all three levels amounted to $5.7 
billion. These taxes represent more than five times the gross 
receipts of the farmer for the tobacco leaf used in the manufacture 
of domestically consumed cigarettes. (See accompaning chart). It 
should be pointed out that the overall taxes imposed at the three 
levels of government operate to double the price of cigarettes. 

Contrary to the thinking of economists of the past, the demand 
for cigarettes in many states is quite elastic. Simply stated the 
demand for cigarettes in a given community is directly influenced 
by the market price of cigarettes. According to statistics compiled 
by the Tobacco Tax Council, consumers have already demonstrated 
their unwillingness to buy cigarettes in a community in which tax 
rates on cigarettes are high. They have several alternative choices. 
They can cut down or abandon their use of cigarettes. They can 



33 



cross political boundaries where cigarette taxes are lower; or they 
can acquire their cigarettes from sources which by one means or 
another avoids the heavy burden of the tax in their own com- 
munities. 

Such is the magnitude of the burden of cigarette taxes as to cause 
grave concern regarding their effect upon the leaf grower, the 
manufacturer and allied industries. While it is true that these ex- 
cise taxes are passed on to the consumer, it follows that the mar- 
ket for cigarettes depends upon the price the consumer is willing to 
pay for his smoking pleasure. 



J. H. Cyrus, Treasurer 
Tobacco Tax Council 



THE GROWTH OF CIGARET EXCISE TAXES COMPARED TO GROWERS' GROSS RKEIPTS 



6000 


M 


LLIONS C 


F DOLLARS 


MILLIONS OF 


DOLLARS 


5500 


- 








"^^ - 


5000 


- 


E«c.>e 


laxei on cigarett compsfad with 
\ Bfon receipt* for lea' lobacco 




- 


4500 


- 




- 




- 


4000 


- 








- 


3500 


- 








- 


3000 


- 








- 


2S00 


- 




FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL TAXES 




- 


2000 


^ 


y^ 






- 


1500 


- 








- 


1000 


- 




GROWERS GROSS RECEIPTS 




^- 


BOO 





Kt- 


t \ — \'^ T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Mill 


1 1 



l«SO If SI I«S1 l«S] mt l*5S l«S« Itjr l«Jt I9S9 l*U l**l l**l l*»3 1**4 1«*> 1*4* l*»7 ■«»• l»* 1*70 1*7 1 1*71 



Source: Tobacco Tax Council 



34 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 

James A. Graham; Commissioner 
Ex-Officio Chairman 

Dr. Ben Harrington Raleigh 

Evelyn M. Hill Edneyville 

Donald R. Kincaid Lenoir 

George P. Kittrell Corapeake 

Henry Gray Shelton Speed 

Henry Smith Farmville 

Fred Snow Dobson 

James L. Sutherland Laurinburg 

Windell L. Talley Stanfield 

Sherrill Williams Newton Grove 



35 



DOMESTIC TAX PAID CIGARETTE CONSUMPTION 
BY KINDS 1975 



Total Domestic Consumption 
598 Billion Cigarettes