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Smith & De Land. 




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6 1 







of limestone wMter, tliougli there are among them 
many sulphur and chal3-beate sj)rings and a few of 
other salts. This valley is boiiiided on the north 
bv a broken country, that in the western part of 
the State is hilly, and is known as the harrenn, and 
is but a part of the highlands of Tennessee, and 
that in the eastern part of the Slate is mountain- 
ous, and is but apart of the elevated tablelands of 
'I'eunessee. On the" south it is bounded by a pre- 
cipitous escarpment of the elevated plateau of tlie 
Warrior coal field, that is commonly called Sand 
Mountain. This precipitous escarptnent rises 
from GOO to TOO feet above the valley. It has in 
the eastern part of the State, abont half way up 
it, a terrace or bench, which, as you go to the 
west, gradually widens and separates from the 
main mountain until it forms a distinct mountain, 
that is known as fiitlle Mountain, and that has 
between it and the main mountain, or Sand 
Mountain, a fertile valley that gets to be ten to 
twelve miles in width, which is called Little or 
Russelville Valley. Little or Russelville Valley 
is, in most respects, similar to its parent stem, 
the Tennessee Valley. 

(2) The Coosa Vaij.i;v. This valley and its 
outliers are the southwest end of the series of long, 
narrow anticlinal valleys that extend from New 
York to Central Alabama. They are usually, in 
a general way, trough-shaped depressions, that are 
low and flat along the center and have smaller 
ridges and valleys oif each side. Some of the out- 
liers of this valley, as Long Valley or the valley 
in which Birmingham is situated, including its 
different parts, that are known as Roup's, Jones' 
and Murphree's Valley arc over a hundred miles 
in length. These valleys are all -very similar to 
each other in their lithological, tojiographical and 
agricultural features, and they all show plainly 
the close relationshi[) that exists between the geo- 
logical formations or structure and the soils, topo- 
graphy and growth of a country. This is espe- 
cially noticeable in the case of the soils, and is 
well exem{)lificd in the barren ridges of chert, or 
almost pure hornstone, running along parallel to 
and with the fertile limestone valleys at their base. 
The Coosa Valley proper is a continuation of the 
X'alley of Tennessee, which has been described by 
Professor Safford, as a com|)lex trough fluted with 
scores of smaller valleys and ridges. This 
description will apply, equally as well, to all the 
out-liers, as they are, in all respects, similar to 
the main valley, or to the Coosa Valley proper. 

They are all anticlinal valleys, or eroded anticli- 
nal ridges. They, including the smaller ridges of 
each, comprise in Alabama some 4000 square 
miles. 'I'licy Aie very striking topograj^hical fea- 
tures, and, from their being environed by ribs of 
coal and iron, and from their being, for the most 
part, made up of beds of inexhaustible limestones 
and dolomites of the very best quality for iluxing 
purposes, burning lime, etc., and from the fertil- 
ity and durability of their soils and the suj)era- 
bundanco of their hold hlfj Kpr'nif/s and limpid 
streams of perpetual (low, and from their being, 
by far, the most important natural highways be- 
tween the great and busy marts of the Northeast 
and those of the Southwest, they are of the great- 
est interest to the geologist, the engineer, the 
manufacturer and the agriculturist. They are 
due entirely to erosion, though they present many 
features that have been highly influenced by the 
outcroppings of special geological strata. Their 
edges, as a general thing, are well defined by 
ridges or bluffy escarpments of millstone grit on 
the heavy bedded sandstones and conglomerates at 
the base of the coal measures. Their floors are 
often higher than the mountainous country on 
each side, beyond their raised edges, as shown by 
the fact that, though they are bounded on both 
sides by high, perpendicular blulTs of millstone 
grit, etc., their streams do not flow along them 
for any considerable distance before they break 
through the rocky barriers, on one side or the 
other, into the mountainous country beyond. 
I They therefore in these instances present the 
anomalies of valleys that are water divides in a 
mountainous country. They rarely exceed two to 
three miles in width, though occasionally thev are 
much wider. They include outcrops of repre- 
sentatives of all the geological formations from 
the Carboniferous to the Lower Silurian, inclu- 
sive. Their simplest form is a simple regular anti- 
clinal valley, with the older rocks along the cen- 
ters of the valleys and the others occurring in 
regular succession on each side. They seldom 
however, have this simple form, and one or the 
other of their sides is nearly always more or less 
complicated, from the presence of faults and from 
the overlapping of strata. They are rarely compli- 
cated on both sides at one and the same 
time and place. The most important, by 
far, of their geological formations are the 
Upper and Lower Silurian, from their Ijeing the 
great repositories of thf iron ores of Alabama. 



These anticlinal valleys are also remarkable for 
their hicj sjyrings. They are destined to be the 
seats of the greatest industries of the State and to 
be the ricliest and most densely-populated portions 
of Alabama. 


These lands lie to the southwest of the moiaitain 
region with its valleys, as above described, or to the 
south and west of the broken line that connects 
the first cascades, or rocky obstructions to naviga- 
tion in the different rivers, or along and to the 
south and west of the old shore line of the Gulf of 
Mexico, as has been defined by the State Geolo- 
gist. They form a belt of country that runs, in a 
general way, diagonally across the State. This 
belt is some thirty miles wide next to the Missis- 
sippi line, but narrows towards the east, until it 
finally comes to a point near the Georgia line. It 
embraces some 5,915 square miles. These lands do 
not present any very striking topographical feat- 
ures, as they are comj) )sed of strata of compara- 
tive uniformity in hardness, and of strata that are 
almost level, having only a slight dip to the south- 
west. These lands are, however, hilly and broken 
along their upper edge, or the old shore line, where 
they are cut up by some deep gullies and ravines, 
and hence have some considerable irregularities of 
surface. They form the jirairie region that is 
known as the Black Belt, or Cnnebrake, and are, 
for the most part, of this region. This prairie 
region has a gently undulating surface, and a 
remarkable uniformity in its topography. It is in 
places covered by a fine forest growth of oak, ash, 
gum, hickory, etc., though, as a general thing, it 
is bare of such, and is in cultivation. It is noted 
for the great fertility and durability of its soils. 
It produced before the war more of agricultural 
value than any area of like extent in the United 
States. It may, some of these days, become world- 
wide famous for its phosphatic deposits. 


Northern Alabama is well supplied witli an 
abundance of pure water for all j)urposes. Bold 
springs that never go dry, and lasting wells and 
streams of perjjetual flow, are to be met with in all 
parts of the country. The annual rainfall is about 
fifty-three inches. The springs occur wlierever 
the country is the least broken. They gush out 
from the banks of the streams and from the sides 
of the ravines and from under the hills and cliffs, 

and often boil up in low, fiat places. They are of 
all kinds, from the biggest to the smallest, and 
from the purest to the most saline. The hig 
springs are confined principally to the valleys, and 
to limestone formations, though their waters are 
never too hard for domestic purposes. They are 
nothing more than the coming to light of large 
underground streams, and often carry off from 800 
to 1,200 cubic feet of water per minute. Many of 
the saline, or medicinal springs, have been in time 
places of resort for the afflicted and»j3leasure seek- 
ers, and some of them have gained for their cura- 
tive properties more than a State-wide reputation. 
The mean temperature of the waters of seventeen 
of these sjjrings during the months of June and 
July, was, according to Professor Tuoray, 59"^ F., 
while that of the air was 74° F. Wells of lasting 
and cool waters, that are good for drinking and 
domestic purposes, are to be had for the digging 
in nearly all parts of this country, and streams 
that can be made navigable the year round, and 
are the great drainage channels, together with their 
feeders, form a network over Northern Alabama. 
These streams give now to Northern Alabama 
almost a complete system of drainage, and will 
give to it, some of these days, a cheap and ready 
transjwrtation for its every element of wealth. 

Northern Alabama has a most delightful temper- 
ature, uniform and salubrious climate. It seldom 
experiences the extremes of heat and cold, and is 
entirely free from the feverish heat and scorching 
sun of a more southern summer, and the rigors and 
blizzards of a more northern winter. Sunstrokes 
are almost unknown, and the streams of running 
water are never frozen over. The climate is truly 
as equable and as delightful as in any portion of 
the South. The springs are early and wonderfully 
balmy, the summers are long and even in tempera- 
ture, the autumns are late and dry and the winters 
are so slow of approach and so mild that the crops 
are frequently left out in the fields until after 
Christmas. The mean temperatures for tlie sea- 
sons are about as follows: Spring, 03. 9''F; sum- 
mer, 79.5°F; autumn, 64.5°F;and winter, 504 *.F. 


In many sections of Northern Alabama there 
are large forests of soft and hard woods as yet 
untouched by the woodman's ax; and one-half of 
Northern Alabama may be said to be still covered 



with its native growth. This native arborescent 
growth comprises over 125 species, wliich include 
almost every kiiul of tree of any economical value, 
though the prevailing forest growth is pine. In 
many localities, however, the oak, hickory, gum, 
beecii and cedar abound, with, in some j)laces, a 
considerable sprinkling of ash, poplar, cypress and 
walnut. The i)revailing growth of any locality is 
olosely dependent on the soil or the underlying 
geological strata. In other words, if the under- 
lying strata ' are of sandstones, the prevailing 
growth is i)ine: and if the underlying strata are of 
limestones, the prevailing growth is of the iiard 
woods, that vary in kind with the different geo- 
logical formations or the })urity of the underlying 
limestones. So true is the above that the different 
timber belts of the State conform closely to the 
■outcroppings of certain geological formations. So 
the outcroppings of each formation may be said to 
have its own peculiar growth, and so distinct are 
these peculiarities in many cases, that the under- 
lying geological formations can be recognized by 
them. At the present rate of cut, it is believed, 
there is enough standing timber, not allowing any 
•for natural growth, to last at least for 150 years. 


The soils of Northern Alabama are of the follow- 
ing typical varieties with all the intermediate 
grades, namely: (1) The silicious soils of the 
mountains, or elevated lands, (2) the loams of the 
valleys, and (3) the calcareous soils of the prairies. 

(1) The SiLK.'iots Soils of the MofXTAixsou 
Elev.-vted Lands. These soils cover the hinh-lands 
■or barrens, and the table-lands. They are usually of 
a light gray color and often are not much more tlian 
sand or pure silicious matter. Up to a few years 
ago they were regarded as almost wortliless for all 
iigricultural ])urposes, but of late years, by kind 
treatment and the use, in small quantities, on 
them of suitable composts, they have been found 
to be line for cotton, corn, tobacco, small grains, 
grasses and root and fruit crops. The greatest 
objection to them is that they do not hold, or 
retain well, organic matter or fertilizers, and hence 
in many localities they look as if they had been 
leached, so completely have all traces of organic 
matter been washed out of them. 

(2) The Loams OF THE Valleys. These soils 
vary in color from a deep red to almost a deep black. 
They arc commonly of a clayey nature and form 
£ome of the best farming lands in the State. 

They are noted for their fertility and durability, 
and are susceptible of the greatest improvement. 
They contain within themselves all the ingredients 
that are necessary for plant food, and hence, if 
properly cared for, can be made to last or be kept 
rich, for an indefinite length of time, without the 
addition of a single handful of extraneous ma- 
nure of any kind. They, however, as a general 
thing, have been badly abused, some of them for 
as long as seventy-five years, and still, though 
they have never received any outside help, are 
comparatively fertile wherever they lie so as 
not to be easily washed away. Unlike the sili- 
cious soils of the hicjldanils and table-lands, they 
are very retentive of all organic matter, and 
manures ])laced on them show their effects for 
years. They are well suited for a great variety of 
crops, though they have ever been cultivated in 
cotton and corn. 

(3) The Calcareous Soils of the Prairies. 
These soils include all grades from a gray to a 
very black soil. They are based on the rotten 
limestone and are famous for their great and last- 
ing fertility. 'i'hey, in many instances, have 
been constantly abused for the last forty to fifty 
years, by uninterrupted planting in the same 
crops, cotton and corn, by the exhaustive method 
of ever taking off and never putting back, by 
working and tramping over at all seasons of the 
year and under all conditions, etc., still they 
yield good crops for the labor bestowed. They 
have to the north and south of them, and in 
them, rich phosphatic deposits, that can be easily 
and cheaply spread over them, and hence they 
will always be regarded as forming the most valu- 
able farming lands of Xorthern Alabama. 


Xorthern Alabama, in its geological structure, 
or in the variety, location, materials and develop- 
ment of its geological formations, and in the pres- 
ent positions of the outcrops of these formations, 
and the manner in which these outcrops have been 
thrown together and exposed, and in the economic 
wealth of some of these formations, presents a field 
that is of the greatest interest, esjiecially to geolo- 
gists. It has in its outcrops representatives of 
not only every geological formation of the Ap]»ala- 
chian region of North America, but also of two 
newer formations. 

The following is a general and approximate sec- 



tion, in a descending order, of the geological form- 
ations of Northern Alabama : 


(13) Stratified Drift 200 feet 


(l:;) Upper Cretaceous.. . ■[ Jj) ui^ten Limestone'.: '. '. . ! ! . 1 1 ,«» felt 

(11) Lower Cretaceous... -] J^',' Tus'caloosa. ■.'.'.'.■. ■'■.:::::: il.OOO feet 



( Warrior Coal Field \ 

(10) Coal Measures - ("ahaba " " -:!,o001eet. 

( Coosa " " ) 

(9) Calcareous or Mountain Limestone SOO feet. 

,„. „.,. . 1 (rt) Upper Silicious or St, Louis Limestone, 400 ft. 
(») biHcious..| ^.| Lower Silicious or Keokuk 300 ft. 


(7) Black Shale 100 feet. 


(8) Clinton or Red Mountain «H>feet. 


(5) Trenton and Chazy 400 feet. 

»\ n„„v,<,« Mi) KnoxDoloraite 3,.5'Ofeet. 

,4) Quebec -|,„, KnoxShale l,800feet. 

(3) Knox Sandstone 80O f eet 

(3) Potsdam Sandstone 4,000 feet. 

(1) Crystalline Rocks .'i.OOO feet. 

These rocks, as shown by the above general sec- 
tion, are of later origin than the Carboniferous 
formation. They, from their comparatively soft 
and uniform nature, do not make any striking 
topographical features, or are not at all moun- 
tainous. They form the soutliern jjart of the 
State, the part to tlie south and west of the old 
Gulf shore line, or to the south and west of the 
mountain recfion, though the stratified drift occurs 
also to the north and east of this line, covering, in 
patches, some of the higher points of all the older 
rocks. The above section also shows that the only 
representatives in Northern Alabama of the newer 
rocks are of the drift and cretaceous formations. 


(13) Stratified Drift. Thisisa wide-.spread 
formation. There are suj^erficial deposits of it in 
nearly all parts of Northern Alabama. As a rule, 
it is irregularly stratified. The areas covered by it 
have irregularities of surface from the fact that 
some few of its strata are of varying degrees of hard- 
ness, and the underlying strata or formations were 
irregularly eroded previous to its deposition. The 
superficial coating of drift, therefore, determines 
most of the minor details, but not the general con- 
tour and most prominent physical features of the 
country covered by it. It most commonly occurs 
in detached patches or beds, but sometimes covers 

completely areas of considerable extent. As a gen- 
eral thing, it occupies, topographically speaking, 
high positions and is covered with a growth of prin- 
cipally pines, with a mixture of oak, hickory, etc. 
In Northern Alabama it appears, in a general way, 
to thicken to the south and west, and in places is at 
least 200 feet thick. It is made w^i of rounded 
pebbles, sands and different colored loams. These 
different materials occur in irregular streaks or 
seams. The pebbles are of flint and fossiliferous 
chert. The flint pebbles are the more rounded of 
the two, showing that they have been transported 
tlie greater distance. These pebbles are well suited 
to the macadamizing of roads and walks ; much 
better than the cracked-u]} limestones, etc., that 
are generally used, as tliey are round, and hence 
are much less injurious to the feet of horses and 
pedestrians, and to the wear and tear of vehicles, 
and as they are not so easily worn away, and as 
they do not give off any disagreeable and injurious 
impalpable dust. Among these jiebbles are to be 
found beautiful specimens of quartz, agate, jasper, 
chalcedony, cornelian, silicified wood, etc. The 
sands are coarse-grained and rounded. They are 
well suited for movtars, etc., and are frequently of 
the very purest quality. The clays are of various 
grades and shades of color, and many of them 
make the best of ordinary bricks, and some of them 
doubtless would make fine fire bricks and pottery 

Cretaceous. Tlie rocks or strata of this forma- 
tion lie approximately horizontal, having only a 
slight dip to the south and southwest. They form 
a rolling and a prairie region, and are comprised 
within a belt that runs diagonally across the State. 
This belt is some thirty miles wide next to th& 
Mississippi line but gradually narrows toward the 
east until it comes to a point near the Georgia 
line. It embraces some 5,915 square miles. This 
formation is divided, in the general section given, 
into {T2) JJppvr Cretaceous and {11) Lower Creta- 

(12) Upper Cretaceous. This division is made 
up of the {h) Ripley and {g) Rotten Limestone 

(/<) Ripley. Tliis group is composed princi- 
pally of a hard crystalline and often sandy lime- 
stone, and a bluish, micacious and frequently a 
highly fossiliferous marl. It holds near its bottom 
important strata of phosphatic material. It is 
estimated at about 250 feet in thickness. 

((/) Rotten Limestone. This is an impure argil- 



hiceous limestone of great iniifoi-mity of composi- 
tion. It forms a strip of country from fifteen to 
twcjity miles wide that extends clear across the 
State and is known as the Canehrctke or Bhirk Belt. 
Tliis limestone, before it is exposed, is of a bluish 
color, though after weathering, it is of a whitish 
or chalky clay appearance. It gives rise to a topo- 
graphy and soil that are of remarkable uniform- 
ity. The to]TOgraphy is not at all striking, the 
surface being gently undulating. Its growth con- 
sists of oak. ash, gum, hickory, walnut, poplar, 
etc. Its soil is noted for its great fertility and 
durability. It is not easily washed off from the 
prairie likeness of the area covered by it, though 
there are slight elevations from which it has been 
removed and hence these places arc now bald or 
barren. These rocks have in them, and especially 
just under and over them, some very important 
strata that carry phosphatic green sands and very 
rich phosphatic nodules. They are believed to be 
about 1,000 feet in thickness. 

(11) LoiL'er Cretaceous. This division is sub- 
divided into the (/') Eutaw and {()) Tiisailoosn 

(/) Eiitaw. This group is composed pritici- 
pally of gray laminated clays and irregularly 
bedded sands. It also contains beds of lignite and 
lignitized trunks of trees. It is computed at WO 
feet in thickness. 

((/) TuscalGOsa. This group is named from its 
characteristic appearance in and around the city 
of Tuscaloosa. It is made up of a great series of 
beds of sands and clays, and bears a very strong 
resemblance to the stratified drift, for which it was 
taken until within the last few years. It borders 
upon the ot<trr or harder rocks, and forms the old 
shore line of the Gulf of ^lexico. Its clays, espe- 
cially those in the lower part of the group, bid fair 
to come extensively into use for the manufacture of 
fine bricks and various kinds of earthenware. It 
also carries, in places, beds of ochre and a very 
good fjuality of limonite, both of which have been 
tested and used. It is thought to be about 1,C00 
feet thick. 


These rocks include the carboniferous and all 
the older and lower rocks, geologically speaking. 
In Northern Alal)ama they cmlirace representatives 
of all the geological formations of the Appalachian 
system. They form tUe first cascades, or rocky 
obstructions to navigation in the different rivers in 

Alabama, and hence, as has been said, they make 
up and are confined to the (piadrant drawn with 
the northeast corner of the State as a center, and 
the straight line from that point to Tu.scaloosa as 
a radius. They therefore cover about 25,000 
Sfpuire miles of Northern Alabama. They form a 
mountainous country, that is resplendent with 
topographical features of the most striking kind. 
Their strata are thrown into all kinds of positions, 
and are rich in minerals. They give rise to a great 
diversity of soils, and are covered by a great vari- 
ety of forest trees. Their formations will now be 
considered separately and briefly, commencing with 
the uppermost, or newest one. 

C'akhoxifeuous. (10) Coal Measures. — This 
formation is highly developed in Northern 
Alabama. It is but a part of or the southwest end 
of the great coal basin of the Ohio, or of the Appa- 
lachian coal field. It consists of a series of sand- 
stones, conglomerates, shales and cla3's, in which 
are imbedded seams of stone coal. It is rich in 
coal and comprisesabout the thickest coal measures 
in the United States. The coals are all bitumin- 
ous, though they are of almost every variety of 
bituminous coals, and are well suited to all the 
uses of bituminous coals. This formation is not 
only rich in stone coal, but also in fine building 
and paving stones. It also has some iron ores and 
clavs, and some grindstone and whetstone rocks 
that may prove, some of days, to be of great 
value. It is also covered, for the most part, with 
a fine growth of forest trees. It was once con- 
tinuous, and then formed one connected, immense 
coal field of some 10,000 srpiare miles in extent, 
but, during the Appalachian revolution, there was 
thrown up across it, in a general northeast and 
southwest direction, a series of parallel anticlinal 
ridges that were cracked along their summits and 
have since been washed out into narrow anticlinal 
valleys, which now divide the outcrops of this 
formation, or the coal measures of Alabama, into 
three more or less distinct parts, or coal fields of 
very unefpial areas. The edges, or rims of these 
coal fields still show that they were parts of anti- 
clinal folds, and are sufticiently elevated to de- 
termine the general directions of the main water 
courses and to fashion tiie three coal fields into 
long, tray-shaped depi'essions. These coal fields, 
though originally of one and the same coal field, 
and lience composed of very similar strata, in every 
resjH'Ct, are now very different as to their topo- 
graphical features and geological stnwtin-.'. Tliis 



dissimilarity is due jjrimarily to the different de- 
grees of disturbance to whicli the strata of the dif- 
ferent fields have been exposed, and from this there 
resulted a difference in the outcroppings of the 
strata of the several fields, and hence a difference 
in the erosion, or in the inequalities of surface of 
the different fields. These three coal fields are all 
rich in stone coal, and it is believed that two of 
them comprise the thickest coal measures and the 
greatest thickness of coal in the United States. 
They have many advantages, the most important 
of which are, the inexhaustible quantity and un- 
excelled quality of their coal, and the nearness of 
their coal to the iron ores and limestones of the 
narrow anticlinal valleys separating the different 
fields, and the ease and cheapness with which their 
coal can be mined and gotten to market, and their 
most favorable location; for, as has been said, they 
are bounded on three sides by coalless areas, and 
are the neai'est of any coal fields to the Gulf of 
Mexico and the Atlantic ports south of Charles- 
ton. The coals of the different fields differ more 
or less from each other. This difference is doubt- 
less due primarily to the relative positions which 
these fields held in the original coal basin and to the 
different degrees of disturbance to which the strata 
of each of them have been subjected. It is, how- 
ever, believed to be more imaginary than real. 
These coal fields were named in 1849 by Professor 
Tuomy, the Warrior, the CaJiaha and the Coosa, 
respectively, from the names of rivers wiiich drain 

Warrior Coal Field. This field, as commonly 
understood, embraces all of the coal measures in 
Alabama that are drained by the Warrior and Ten- 
nessee rivers. It has an estimated area of 7,810 
square miles, and hence is nearly ten times as large 
as the Cahaba and Coosa fields together. It is the 
most northwestern of the three coal fields of Ala- 
bama. In a general way, it isa vast plain that slopes 
gently to the southwest and that has elevated rims. 
Its strata have been less disturbed by upheavals, 
and hence, as a whole, they have a less dip and 
are less faulty than are those of either of the other 
fields. In fact, they are almost horizontal, except 
near the elevated rims. As this field, away from 
its edges, has no folded or tilted strata, its topo- 
graphical features are not so intimately connected 
with the geological structure as in case of the other 
two fields. It has, however, been conveniently 
divided into a plateau or tahle land area, and a 
hasin area, without any distinct line of division 

between the two, the one gradually merging int& 
the other. 

The 7J?ff/effi/ or tabU land area, characterized by 
its surface rocks of hard sandstones, and conglom- 
erates near base of the measures, is the northeast 
i:)ortion of the field, and includes what is known as 
Sand, Lookout and Kock Mountains. It is most 
elevated in the northeast corner of the State, 
where it forms a wide, flat plateau that is from 
1,200 to 1,800 feet above the sea. Its rims are 
somewhat the higher portions of it, and these 
slope gently towards the center of the plateau, 
while the whole field slopes gently to the south- 
west. It is, therefore, a broad, shallow, elevated 
synclinal trough that slopes gently to the south- 
west. It is divided by an anticlinal valley into 
two jjarts that have a similar structure to each 
other. This anticlinal valley, as an unbroken 
anticlinal ridge, extends some distance down into 
the basin proper. 

The hasin proper is also a wide, shallow ti'ough 
with slightly elevated rims, and as a whole, gently 
slopes to the southwest. It comprises the 
lower or southwest end and greater half of 
the field. Its inequality of surface is much 
greater than in the case of the plateau. In the 
vicinity of the streams it is really broken. Its 
strata undulate, but not enough to affect the 
topography. It is rich in workable seams of coal, 
which increase in number to the southwest, or as 
the measures thicken. Near its southwestern 
visible limits, its measures are believed to be over 
3,000 feet in thickness and to contain over fifty 
seams of coal that have an aggregate thickness of 
about VZh feet of coal and a workable thickness of 
about seventy-five feet of coal. These coals have 
never been developed to any great extent except 
along the southeast edge of the field. There are 
now however plans on foot to work those near the 
center of the field on an extensive scale. There 
is cut off from the southeast edge of this field, 
by a combined fold and fault, ar strip some twelve 
miles long by three in width that has received the 
name of the Little Basin. This little hasin is 
also a tray-shaped depression and runs in the gen- 
eral direction of the anticlinal valleys. The 
Warrior field furnishes about five-sixths of the 
present coal output of Alabama, or about 2,500,- 
000 tons per annum. From the ease and cheap- 
ness with which its coal can be mined, and from 
the peculiar fitness of this coal for steaming and 
coking purposes, this field is destined, in the near 



future, to be the center of one of tlie greatest 
mining and manufacturing districts of this, or 
any other country. 

Cahaba Coal Field. This is the central coal field 
of Alabama. It contains the most southern true 
coal in the United States. It is a long narrow field, 
some sixty miles long by a maxmum width of 
about fifteen miles, with an area of about 435 
square miles. It gradually widens towards the 
south. It is surrounded almost completely by the 
Coosa \' alley and some of its outliers. It is in the 
line of tiie great Appalachian upheavals, and hence 
its strata have been greatly disturbed and are now 
highly inclined. The dip, as a rule, is to the 
southeast and increases to the southeast. The 
surface is broken and conforms strictly to the geo- 
logical structure. As the strata possess varying 
degrees of resistance to disintegration, they have 
been very unequally eroded, and hence ridges and 
valleys have been formed with the strike of tlie 
tilted strata, or with a northeast and southwest 
direction. The measures of this field, like those of 
the Warrior field, are thickest at or near then- 
southwestern visible limits. They are reported 
to have a maximum thickness of over 4,000 feet, 
andtocontain tliirty-nine seams of coal. Eleven 
of these thirty-nine coal seams are of two feet si.x 
inches and over in thickness, and have a total 
thickness of forty feet of marketable coal. This 
coal, as a rule, is thought to be harder and 
cleaner than the coal of the Warrior field, but it 
has the great disadvantages of being highly in- 
clined and of being in a more broken country. 

Coosa Coal Field. This field is the most south- 
eastern, the smallest and least known of the three 
coal fields of Alabama. It is also almost sur- 
rounded by the Coosa Valley and some of its out- 
liers. It comprises about 415 square miles. Its 
strata have been greatly disturbed, and hence, as 
a rule, are highly inclined and more broken up 
than those of either of the other two fields. This 
field, it is believed, made the southeastern edge of 
the original coal basin of Alabama, and hence, to 
a great extent, it is believed to be made up of 
strata near the base of the measures, and as these 
strata are more barren of coal than those higher 
up in the measures, this field, in proportion to 
its size, is not so rich in coal as either of the otiier 
fields. It is known, however, to contain, at the 
least, three seams of workable coal of three feet 
and over each in thickness, and with a combined 
thickness of over ten feet of marketable coal. 

These coals are, however, of a comparatively softer 
and dirtier nature than those of either of the 
other two fields. They are good coking coals. 

StH-CARHOXiFiCKOis. These rocks are princi- 
pally limestones, with divisions of sandstone and 
cherty strata that sometimes reach a remarkable 
thickness. They are much more easily eroded than 
the overlying hard sandstones and conglomerates 
of the coal measures. They are valley-making 
rocks, though the harder varieties of the lime- 
stones and the sandstone and cherty strata form 
the mountainous sides of the steep escarpments of 
the valleys, and oftentimes make distinct moun- 
tainous peaks and ridges. They crop out in all 
of the valleys, though they are most highly devel- 
oped in the extreme northern part of the State or, 
in the Tennessee valley, where they reach a thick- 
ness of at least l,oOO feet. In this valley they lie 
almost level, but in the other valleys, or in the anti- 
clinal valleys, they are highly inclined. The lime- 
stones are often very pure, and well suited for 
fluxing purposes and for burning into lime. They 
also often make beautiful and durable building 
stones, that are easily cut when first quarried and 
harden on exposure. Some of them, it is believed, 
would do very well for lithographic stones and 
hydraulic cement. This formation is noted for 
the sink-holes, caves and big springs that are so 
iniinerous in it. These caves often contain large 
earthy deposits of niter, copperas, alum, Epsom 
salt, etc., which were, in many instances, worked 
(luring the late war. The rocks of this formation 
in many places are stongly impregnated with crude 
petroleum, which sometimes exudes from them as 
a liquid bitumen, or mineral tar, and thus forms 
the so-called Inr .tj)riiig.s that are scattered over 
this country. 

This formation is dividable into two distinct 
groups, namely: (it) Calcareous Mountain Lime- 
stone and (8) Silicious. The Silicious group can 
generally be divided into two smaller groups, 
namely: (d) St. Louis Limestone And (c) Keokuk. 

(9) Calcareous or Mountain Limestone. This 
group, as its name implies, is made up of princi- 
pally mountain-making limestones of the harder 
varieties of limestone of the sub-carboniferous 
formation. .\sa general thing, these limestonesare 
not uniformly eroded, and hence they form a rocky 
or broken surface. Their outcrops are confined, 
for tlie most part, to the sides of the mountains 
or bluffy escarjjments of the valleys, under the 
])rotecting cappings of hard sandstones and con- 



glonierates of the coal measures. Though made 
up of principally limestone, this group always car- 
ries one or more divisions of sandstones, that fre- 
quently reach a very great thickness and some- 
times form distinct ridges and mountains, as the 
rocky rows of the anticlinal valleys and the Little 
Mountain of the Tennessee Valley. From their 
prominent development in Little Mountaiu at and 
near Lagrange, they have been given the local 
name of Lagrange Sandstones. The limestones 
vary very much in composition; some of them a:e 
almost pure carbonate of lime while others aiu 
argillaceous, and others still are silicious. The 
purer varieties furnish a good portion of the flux- 
ing rocks, and some of the lime-burning rocks 
that are now being used in Alabama. The impure 
varieties, it is believed in some instances, would 
furnish very good lithograiihic stones and hydrau- 
lic cement rocks. The sandstones are commonly of 
a very pure quality. They are soft and easily cut 
when first quarried, but harden on exposure. They 
are used in heavy work, in the foundations of large 
buildings, culverts, bridge piers, etc. Their out- 
crops, however, are frequently weathered into 
deep beds of loose sand that can be shoveled up. 
This sand is very jiure and is well suited for mor- 
tars, molds, glass-making, etc. These sandstones 
are remarkable for the very large fossil coal plants, 
Lipidodendron and 8agillaria, which they carry. 
These fossil coal plants reach a maximum diame- 
ter of about four feet. They sometimes show the 
stubs of roots and limbs, and are frequently very 
plainly marked. 

This group has a maximum thickness in Xorth- 
ern Alabama of some 800 feet. 

(8) Silicious. The strata of this group con- 
sist mainly of lime-stone and chert. They are 
usually, though not always, divisible into two sub- 
groups of entirely different topographical, geological 
and agricultural features. The characteristic rocks 
of these two sub-groups are, however, in many 
parts of Northern Alabama so blended together as 
to make such a division of them impracticable. 
These rocks often carry fine deposits of limonite 
and some manganese. 

The two sub-groups are (d) Upper Silicious, or 
St. Lonis Limeslone and (r) Lower Sllieioiis, or 

(d) I'pper Silicious, or St. Louis Limestone. 
This sub-group is made up of massive gray lime- 
stones that carry interspersed through some of 
their strata, nodules of fossiliferous chert. In 

certain localities, however, some of its strata are 
very homogeneous and work up well into archi- 
tectural and monumental stones. They take a fine 
polish and are durable. Tlie rocks of this sub- 
group, as a whole, form a gently undulating sur- 
face, and are, strictly speaking, valley-making 
rocks. The Tennessee Valley proper and the diig- 
out and l/ack valleys of the anticlinal valleys are in 
these rocks. They are noted for the fertilit)', va- 
riety and durability of their soils. These soils, 
however worn, are always susceptible of the great- 
est improvement. They are most retentive of all 
kinds of manures, fertilizers, etc., and show their 
effects for years after apj)lication. They, as a gen- 
eral thing, are in cultivation and are adapted to a 
very great variety of crops. The outcrops of 
these rocks were originally covered by fine forests 
of oaks, hickories, etc., as shown by the beautiful 
groves that are to be seen here and there over the 
knolls and around the residences of the farmers of 
the different valleys. 

((•) Lower Silicious, or I\eokitJc. This sub-group 
consists mainly of silicious limestones and chert 
that is frequently pure hornstone in regularly strat- 
ified seams. Its rocks are, therefore, of a very 
silicious character, and this is true especially of 
the lower strata, where they are in places nearly 
all of pure hornstone, with but little iiiterstratified 
limestone. These hard cherty, or hornstone strata, 
give rise to an elevated country with deep and 
narrow water channels, as the highlands of Ten- 
nessee and the barrens of North Alabama. The 
purer of these hornstones frequently crack up into 
cubes on being struck with a hammer. They are 
the rocks from which the Indians made many of 
their arrow heads, as shown by the piles of chips 
left in the cutting of these arrow heads, in many 
sections of the country. These cherty rocks, from 
their hardness and indestructibility, make prom- 
inent outcrops, as shoals in the different 
streams and the back-lone ridges of the anticlinal 
valleys. They give rise to a usually light gray, 
silicious soil, that is commonly covered with a 
growth of dwarfed and stunted oaks, and that 
heretofore has been considered poor, and hence 
the country formed by it is thinly settled. This 
country is now, however, being rapidly settled and 
cleared up, and looked upon as a most desirable 
country for homes, on account of its pure atmos- 
phere and water and freenessfrom mud, and even 
the reputation that its soil is acquiring as being 
especially suited for certain crops. The inter- 



bedded seams of liniestonearc frer|uently verypin'e 
indeed, and sometimes are a good variety of mar- 
ble; especially is tiiis true of the white crinodal 
kind. In this sub-group, particularly in the Iowit 
part, there are often deposits of consi'lerable 
extent of good limonite and black oxide of man- 
ganese. These ores, as fine cabinet specimens, are 
scattered all over the cherty ridges of the sub- 
group. The lower cherty rocks of this sub-group 
also yield, on disintegi-ation, fine deposits of kaolin 
and fire clay, and beautiful specimens of agate, 
chalcedony, etc. Its maximum thickness in 
Northern Alabama must be some 300 feet. 

Dkvoxian. (7) Blttclc Shale. — This is a 
most persistent formation, though, as a general 
thing, it is comparatively poorly developed in 
Northern Alabama. It consists of a bituminous 
black shale that is sometimes interbedded with a 
red ferruginous sandstone. It crops out a few 
miles soutli of the Tennessee line, along the creeks, 
and along near the tops of the back-bone or red ore 
ridges of the anticlinal valleys. It most com- 
monly consists of the black shale alone, and is 
from ten to twenty feet in thickness, though it 
sometimes gets to be as thick as 100 feet, and. 
when it contains the interbedded seams of sand- 
stones, it occasionally reaches a thickness of about 
250 feet. Its black shale is veiT hard, indeed, 
before exposed, but soon slacks or crumbles on 
weathering. It is always full of iron pyrites and 
is the stumbling block for the miueral hunters, 
who often take it forttone coal, or the evidences of 
stone coal, and frefjuently spend hundreds of dol- 
lars in sinking deej) shafts into it for silver, copper, 
€tc. It is the source of most of the mineral springs 
of the State. Tnese springs derive their medicinal, 
or mineral virtnes, mainly from the weatliering of 
the pyrites. These shales could be made to yield, 
■on distillation, lubricating and other oils, but they 
are, however, of little importance economically. 

SiLL'uiAN. This is one of the most important 
and interesting of the geological formations of 
Northern Alabama, especially from an economical 
standpoint. It might be termed the iron ore- 
bearing formation of Northern Alabama, from its 
preeminence in this respect. It has furnished, for 
some years past, all the iron ores that liave been 
mined in .\labama. Its strata crop out a few miles 
south of the Tennessee line, along the creeks, and 
occupy the central and much the larger portion 
of all the anticlinal valleys. 

This formation is divided into the Upper Sihir- 
idii and Lower Silurian. 

Ui'i'EK Sii.iuiAN. The only representative of 
tliis formation in Northern Alabama is the CUn- 
lou or lied Atauutain (/roup. 

(G) Clinton or Red Mountnin. This group 
in Tennessee is known as the Dyeslone group. It 
consists of befls of sandstones and shales with 
interpolated seams of red ore and liniestone. The 
sandstones are fine and coarse-grained, and are 
usually calcareous. The shales are variegated and 
also commonly calcareous. The inter-bedded lime- 
stone seams are usually impure, being either fer- 
ruginous, argillacious or silicious. The red ore 
seams vary very much in thickness and purity, 
and frequently in number. The same seam at 
different points has been seen to be almost a pure 
hematite ore, a sandstone and a limestone. The 
rocks of this group crop out. as stated, near the 
Tennessee line along the creeks, though their most 
important outcrops are of the anticlinal valleys 
where they, with the two next overlying forma- 
tions and the one just under them, form lines of 
ridges or mountains. These lines of ridges or 
mountains usually occur on each side of the anti- 
clinal valleys skirting the bluffy escarpments of 
the oual measures which form the borders to 
these valleys. Occasionally these ridges or moun- 
tains are duplicated on one side of the vallej's, 
and arc often much more prominent in places 
than in others, though they are never want- 
ing unless engulfed in faults. They are known 
as red ore ridr/es, or red mountains, from their 
deep, red soil, in many localities, over the out- 
croppings of red ore. This group of rocks is also 
known as the Red Mountain Group, because it 
occurs in all of the red mountains, and as the 
Dyestone Group, in Tennessee, because its red ore 
has been, and is still, used in some localities for 
d^'cing purposes, and because it readily stains or 
dyes anything with which it comes in contact. 
The rocks of this group, in their outcrops along 
the anticlinal valleys, always have a considerable 
dip, and are frer|uently more than perpendicular 
or are bent over on themselves. Tiie seams of 
red ore are usually from two to three in number, 
though they sometimes dwindle down to only one, 
and at other times are nuilti]>lied into half a 
dozen. One of these seams sometimes reaches a 
thickness by itself of about thirty-five feet of ore. 
This ore is most highly developed in the neigii- 
borhood of Hirmingham, on the southeast side of 



the valley. It, however, has been tested in hun- 
dreds of other places, and is now being mined and 
used on a very extensive scale. The deep red 
soil derived from its disintegration is very fertile, 
though it is usually shallow and on steejj hill sides. 

Lower Silukian. This is a most highly de- 
veloped formation in Northern Alabama. It must 
be at least 10,000 feet thick. Its rocks are all 
more or less calcareous with the exception of those 
of its basic group. They occupy the central por- 
tions of the anticlinal valleys, or all of the anticlinal 
valleys between the bordering red ore ridges, or 
Ked Mountains. Its strata are always highly 
inclined and are frequently nearly perpendicular. 
In its calcareous groups there are belts of very 
silicious strata, either cherty or sandy strata, and 
belts of very argillaceous strata. The silicious 
belts, in their outcrops, form a very broken or 
rocky country of a succession of rocky ridges and 
hills, while the argillaceous belts give rise to a low 
and flat country of imperfect drainage that is 
known as ffaf -woods. 

This formation in Northern Alabama is divisible 
into the following four separate and distinct 
groups: — (5) Trenton and Chazy (4) Quebec, (3) 
Knox Sandstone and (2) Potsdam Sandstone. 

(5.) Trenton and Chazy. As a general thing, 
the upper strata of this group are calcareous shales 
and the lower strata ai'e impure argillaceous lime- 
stones and pure bine and gray limestones. The 
limestone strata jsredominate. As a whole, these 
rocks are valley-making rocks. They, however, 
commonly form the greater part of the inner steep 
and rocky sides of the red ore ridges, or Red Moun- 
tains, and frequently they make low rounded hills 
and glades that have on their sides the strata of the 
harder limestones cropping out in step-like 
edges. The limestones, though usually shaly and 
argillaceous, contain some strata that are very 
massive and pure, and that are now being used 
very extensively for lime-burning and fluxing pur- 
poses. The argillaceous limestones are frequently 
variegated, in certain strata, with red streaks, and 
are then sometimes called calico rocks. Some of 
the shaly limestones have, in certain localities, 
irregular, thin seams and nodules of chert which 
sometimes carry their streaks of galena. Tliis 
galena, however, has never been seen thicker than 
a knife blade. This group has a maximum thick- 
ness in Northern Alabama of some 400 feet. 

Quebec. This group has the greatest thickness 
and distribution of calcareous rocks of any forma- 

tion of Northern Alabama. It forms the major 
part of the anticlinal valleys of the State, and must 
be at least 6,000 feet in thickness. Its upper beds 
are mainly gray dolomites, that are silicious or 
cherty, and sometimes sandy, while its lower beds, 
as a rule, are mostly of variegated shales that 
alternate with layers of thin sheets of lime- 
stone. It is therefore divisible into the following 
two sub-groups : {b) Knox Dolomite and («) Knox 

{b) Knoj- Dolomite. This sub-groujj con- 
sists of beds of blue limestone that are succeeded 
by thick beds of gray dolomites. The above blue 
limestones are frequently very impure, and it is 
very likely that some of them would make very 
good lithographic stones. The gray dolomites are 
massive and crystalline. They are sometimes sandy 
and in their upper part, are usually associated with 
strata that are very cherty. Tlie cherty portions 
of these cherty strata, on the weathering away of 
the calcareous or dolomitic jjortions, are left as 
nodules and masses of considerable size, that form 
rocky, rounded ridges which are characteristic of 
thisgioup. The chert, therefore, of these ridges 
is of concretionary nature and is not bedded. 

The cherty, angular fragments and masses of 
these ridges sometimes assume the forms of sand- 
stones and conglomerates, and then they more fre- 
quently occur as huge boulders and make high 
hills. These cherty ridges are usually two in num- 
ber, with a valley between them down into the un- 
derlying calcareous rocks, but sometimes there is 
only one of these ridges, there being no intermed- 
iate valley, or the cherty strata not having been 
cut through in the washing out of the anticlinal 
valley, and then this single ridge forms a broken, 
rocky country, frequently a mile or so in width, 
occupying the central portion of the anticlinal 
valley. Near the edges of these ridges, or the 
broken country formed by them, there are numer- 
ous outcroppings of silicious and cherty dolomites, 
and in these cherty ridges, or in this broken coun- 
try, there are often seen lime-sinks. These silicious, 
or cherty rocks, on disintegration, form a gray 
soil that is sometimes of a very fair quality, espe- 
cially for cotton. These cherty ridges are tim- 
bered usually with short-leaf pine, post, black jack 
and Spanish oaks, and some long-leaf pine, hick- 
ory, chestnut, dogwood, etc. 

The lower, or more calcareous rock^of this sub- 
group.insome of the anticlinal not come 
to the surface at all, and in none of them do they 



form so prominent a part as tlie overlying cherty 
.si rata. Tliey, however, in tlie larger valleys, as 
tiie Coosa Valley proper, give rise to some of the 
best farming lands of the State. Their lands are 
timbered with red, Spanish, and black jack 
oaks, hickory, short-leaf pine and dogwood, and in 
the low grounds, with alsosweet gum and sourgum. 

This sub-group is, how-ever, of special interest 
on account of its vast deposits of limonite, by the 
side of which the limonites of all other formations 
in Northern Alabama are very insignificant. 

(«) Knox Shah'. The upper strata of this sub- 
group are made up of thin sheets of limestone, 
alternating, on the outcrop, with seams of clay 
and thin beds of sandy and aluminous shale; and 
the lower strata, principally of calcareous varie- 
gated shales, alternated with layers of thin sheets 
of shaly limestones and dolomites. When the 
shales, or clayey portions of the upper strata, pre- 
dominate, and the drainage is defective, level 
tracts, frequently of very large aresis, are formed, 
that are known us Ji a I woods. These llatwoods are 
usually uncleared, though the timber, principally 
post oak and short-leaf pine, indicates a good soil. 

The lower beds of principally variegated shales 
of brownish, reddish, greenish and grayish colors, 
give rise to valleys with ridges. Tliese shale 
ridges, frequently, are almost bare of soil, or have 
a soil that is thin and drouthy. The lands formed 
by these shales are timbered with principally 
chestnut, red and white oaks, dogwood and 

The only useful materials of this sub-group are 
some small beds of limonite. 

(3) A'no.r Sands/one. This sandstone is of 
no very great tiiickness, and, as the strata are 
highly tilled, iis superficial area is small. It is 
confined to sharp crested steep ridges of no great 
width. It is sometimes thin-bedded'and some- 
times thick-bedded and is commonly calcareous. 
It often has alternating with it, layers of dolomite 
and sometimes layers of shale of variegated colors. 
It forms usually a calcareous, sandy soil. 

(2) Potsdam Sandstone. This is a moun- 
tain-making sandstone. It is usually coarse- 
grained, though sometimes a tine-grained conglom- 
erate or a sandy shale. It forms a broken chain of 
mountains that contains some of the highest and 
most picturesque peaks of the State. It is a dura- 
ble building stone. The soil derived from it is thin 
and timbered with a stunted growth of oak, chest- 
nut and short leaf pine. 

Metamokphic. (1) Crystalline Hocks. These 
rocks are confined to the central eastern 
part of the State and cover about 4,425 square 
miles. They exhibit the greatest diversity as to 
their chemical comjjositions and physical charac- 
ters, and in their topography. They include 
granite, the different kinds of gneisses, schists 
and slates, steatite, quartzite, jasper, limestone, 
and dolomite, or, as has been well said, all grada- 
tions of rocks between the almost indestructible- 
quartzose rocks and the easily eroded marble. 
They form a country of varied scenery, that is- 
made up of high and almost mountainous regions 
alternating with rolling and sometimes rugged 
lowlands and vallevs. 


The natural resources of Northern Alabama, 
though they appear to be very great to the most 
casual observers, are greatest to those who know 
them best. Their character and quality are such 
that no fears need be entertained from a compari- 
son of them with the natural resources of any 
other country. They are now attracting the 
attention and capital of the civilized world, and 
their development within the last few years has 
placed Alabama at the head of all progressive 
States in the growth of its manufacturing and 
industrial enterprises, or has changed it from, 
strictly speaking, a cotton- and corn-producing 
State to one of diversified industries. This devel- 
opment of these natural resources has built cities, 
as if by magic, that present all the evidences of 
wealth and refinement and have a good commerce; 
it has made some few enormously rich, and has 
given to thousands comfortable homes, and to all 
reduced ta.\es with plenty of work at good pay. 
It has increased the property valuation of the 
whole State from ¥l73,808,0!:»7 in 1886, to *21-t,- 
925,809 in 1887, and within the last two years it 
has decreased the State and county taxes 8125,000, 
and within the last two months it has increased the- 
capital stock of incorporated enterprises in the 
State over $4,000,000. 

The natural resources of Northern Alabama, in 
the order of their importance, are about as fol- 
lows: I. Mineral Wealth. II. Agricultural 
Wealth. III. Titnl»;- ll>„///- ;,,m1 IV. X„f,n;>l 


The mineral wealiii of Xorthern .\labama is so- 



great and so evident that the wonder is not that 
Alabama has become within the last few years the 
most progressive of all progressive States in the 
development of its mineral wealth, or in the growth 
of its manufacturing and industrial enterprises, 
but that she did not take the lead in this respect 
years ago, or that she was ever regarded as exclu- 
sively an agricultural State. This untold mineral 
wealth of Northern Alabama, and the rapidity 
with which it is being developed, should be a 
source of very great pride to all Alabainians and 
not alone to those of the favored sections, for the 
prosperity of any one portion of the State will 
not detract from, but will eventually add to, that 
of the rest of the State. The development of this 
mineral wealth, though in its infancy, has already 
assumed magnifii-ent proportions, and gives evi- 
dence of a grand future for Alabama. Fifteen 
years ago the mineral output of Northern Ala- 
bama amounted, it may be said, to nothing; in 
1889, it will be worth at the least $30,000,000, and 
in 1891, it is believed that it will be valued at as 
much as the cotton crop of the whole State, or 
some 130,000,000. This mineral wealth is greatly 
-enhanced by the natural advantages which encom- 
pass it, as the manner in which all the raw mate- 
rials have been thrown together in close juxtapo- 
sition and surrounded by exhaustless provision- 
producing areas. It consists, liowever, principally 
in coal, iron ore and limestones, the three great 
powers of wealth, though Northern Alabama has 
other minerals that have yielded, and doubtless 
will yield again, large fortunes, and other miner- 
als still that have never been worked, though their 
deposits give fair ])roniises of fair returns, as in 
tlie case of the marls and phosphates. These marl 
and phosphatic deposits, as lias been said by the 
State Geologist, may be worth some of these days 
more to the State of Alabama than its at present 
three great powers of wealth, or its combined coal, 
iron and limestone. Should this supposed proba- 
bility ever become halfway true, then there will 
be no comparison between the mineral wealth of 
Northern Alabama and any other section of the 
Union. The importance and value of any min- 
eral deposit is strictly dependent on its quality, 
quantity, accessibility and vicinity to fuel and 
flux. According to this test, the minerals and 
mineral substances of Northern Alabama, in the 
order of their present importance, are as follows : 
1, Goal; 2, Iron Ores: 3, Fluxing I?o-ks and 
Lime- Burning Rocks, or Limestones and Dolo- 

mites; 4, Building and Paving Stones and Brick 
Olays; 5, Poi-celain and Fire Glays; 6, Marls and 
Phosphates; 7, Ochres and Mineral Paints; 8, 
Millstones, Grindstones and Whetstones; 9, Glass, 
Mortars and Molding Sands; 10, Macadamizing 
and Ballasting Materials; 11, Ornamental, Curious 
and Precious Stones; 12, Manganese Ores; 13, 
Copper Ores; 14, Gold; 15, Tin Ores; 10, Lead 
Ores; 17, Silver Ores; IS, Zinc Ores; 19, Graph- 
ite: 20, Hydraulic Cement Eocks and Litho- 
graphic Stones; 21, Natural Gas and Petroleum; 
and 22, Soapstone. Shites, Emery, Heavy Spar, 
Mica and Asbestos. 


1. Coal. Coal, when of sufficient purity and 
quantity, is, from an economic standjioint, the 
most important of all mineral substances. It is, 
as it were, a magnet that draws to it all kinds of 
manufacturing and commercial enterprises, and, 
as no country without it can excel now in these 
enterprises, and as the most prosperous countries 
are the greatest coal-producing countries, it is 
evident that coal is the basis of all great commer- 
cial and manufacturing prosperity, and that it 
might safely be termed the key to the great indus- 
trial progress of to-day, especially of that of North- 
ern Alabama. Fortunate indeed is the country 
that possesses a good quality of coal in very large 
quantities. It is, therefore, a matter of the 
greatest consequence that Northern Alabama pos- 
sesses this mineral in such quantities as to be con- 
sidered almost inexhaustible, and of such quality 
as to be well fitted for all the uses of soft or bitu- 
minous coal, and so accessible as to be easily 
reached from all directions by railroads and rivers 
that can be made navigable all the year round for 
steam tugs and coal barges. There is no doubt 
but that the present unprecedented degree of pros- 
IJerity of Northern Alabama is due more to its coal 
mines than xo its every other element of prosperity 
combined. This is evident from the fact that its 
true and lasting prosperity has been in an exact 
ratio to its relative coal output and consumption. 
This, doubtless, will continue to be the case, and 
hence the coal of Northern Alabama is worth 
more to Alabama than is the gold of California to 
California. These coals, as have been stated, are 
in the southwest end of the great coal basin of 
the Ohio, or of the Appalachian coal field, that 
extenas unbroken from Pennsylvania and Ohio to 
Central Alabama, and is the most important of all 



the coal fields of the United States in its extent, 
and in the number of its workable coal beds and 
in the quality and variety of its coals. It is pro- 
ductive of the best of workable soft coal, especially 
near its southwest visible limits, or in Central 
Alabama, where it is believed to have over fifty 
seams of coal that vary in thickness from about 
two inches to over fourteen feet, and have a com- 
bined thickness of some 125 feet of coal. About 
one-half of these coal seams are eighteen inches 
and over, each, in thickness, and about one-fourth 
of them are two feet six inches and over, each, in 
thickness. The thicker of these seams, however, 
contain interstratified partings of slate, shale, etc., 
tliat render it utterly impossible to cleanly mine 
the coals of some of them. The coals, tiierefoi'e, 
of these thick, dirty .seams, to be made most use- 
ful and valuable, will have to be crushed and 
washed. The coals of the lower seams usually 
become thinner and more slaty as the edges of the 
original great coal basin are approached. The coal 
seams occur in groups that are separated by a great 
thickness of comjiarutively barren strata. These 
coals are, as has been stated, all bituminous coals, 
though of almost every variety of bituminous coals. 
Some of them are bright and hard, and hence are 
well adapted to handling and stocking, while others 
are of a duller color and are softer or of a more 
ri'ial)le and crumbly nature; some of them, by ex- 
periments and uses on a large scale appear to be 
esjiecially fitted for coking and blacksmithing, 
and others for steaming and heating, and others 
still for gas-making. Tlie greater number of these 
coals, however, have never had applied to them 
the only sure test of their quality — or actual use- 
on a large scale and in various operations. Some 
of these coals have a vertical, flaggy structure, or a 
regular face-and-hutt structure, while others are 
divided up by joints into cubical and rhomboidal 
blocks, and others still are solid and compact 
throughout. Those of the flaggy and jointy struc- 
ture can be mined much more easily and In 
larger lumjis than tiie solid and compact coals, but 
then they, as a general thiiig, crumble much more 
easily. Some of these coals are very pure, or con- 
tain but a very small amount of ash and clinker, 
while others are bony and slaty. They all, how- 
ever, as a class, show on chemical analysis, compo- 
sitions equivalent to the bituminous coals of any 
other State. Many of them contain thin sheets of 
mineral charcoal, and they all, as a rule, are free- 
burning coals. Most of these coals, however, have 

been judged of simply by their exposed outcrops, 
and most of the analyses that have been made of 
them have been of average samples of the full 
vertical sections of these outcrops, hence, in many 
cases, these coals doubtless have been underesti- 
mated, for it is a well-known fact that all bitumin- 
ous coals on weathering lose more or less in the 
proportional parts of their valuable constituents, 
volatile matter and fixed carbon, and gain in the 
percentages of their hurtful ingredients, moisture 
and ash. -Much of this coal, however, stands 
weathering finely, for it hasfrequently been known 
to remain lumpy after thirty to forty years' ex- 
posure to the weather. These coals occur in seams 
that are in long, flat waves, and, even in the same 
seams, sometimes vary in quality and thickness, 
though not more so than the well-known coals of 
other States. They, for many years, in ante- 
railroad times in Alabama, and from many places, 
were paised in considerable ((uantities from the beds 
of the rivers, and the mouths of the creeks along the 
rivers, during low stages of the water and floated 
down the river in flatboats, during freshets. This 
business, however, was so perilous to both life and 
property that no considerable capital was ever in- 
vested in it and no regular miners ever engaged in 
it, and so it was abandoned on the building of the 
central railroads through Alabama. It was not, 
however, until the year 1872, or until the comple- 
tion of S. & X. Ala. Uailroad, that any coal seams 
were scientifically opened and worked in Alabama. 
The coal output of the State for 1872 was about 
11,000 tons; for 1S85, about 2,225,000 tons; for 
1887, near 3,000,000 tons, and will be for 1888 at 
the least 3,500,000 tons. This increase in the coal 
output, though most gratifying, is not sufficiently 
great to meet the additional demands of the many 
new furnaces and other manufacturing enterprises 
that have been built lately and are now being built 
in Northern Alabama. The crying need, and the 
greatest drawback to the more rapiil prosperity of 
Xortliern Alabama to-day, is, therefore, the want 
of more coal mines, and to this want is due the 
talk and fears of a coal famine in this, one of the 
richest coal countries. Of the above output of 
coal for 1887, nearly 2,500,000 tons are con- 
sumed in the State, about 1,400,000 tons for 
coking, and the rest for miscellaneous purjioses. 
These coals, as a class, have hard solid roofs and 
soft underbeds, and most of them have either a 
jointy or a face-and-hutt structure. They are 
therefore well adapted to cheap mining ; the 



greatest obstacles that any of them have to cheap 
mining is that some of them are highly inclined 
and others, especially the thicker seams, haveinter- 
bedded in the coal, partings of slate and shale that 

. sometimes can be separated from the coal only by 
crushing and washing. 

The miners of these coals are of many national- 
ities ; among them are Americans (principally 
natives), Germans, Irish, Welsh, English, Swedes 
French, Scotch, Austrians, Swiss, Bavarians, and 
Africans (principally natives). These coals are of 

: special value from their nearness to iron ores 
and limestones of the best quality, and in almost 

■ exhaustlessquantities. As has been stated and ex- 
plained, the coal measures or the original coal field 
of Northern Alabama have been divided by anti- 
clinal valleys into three more or less distinct parts, 
that are now known as the Warrior, Cahaba and 
Coosa coal fields. The combined area of these three 
fields is something like 8,(i00 square miles. ' This 

.area places Alabama only eighth in the list of coal- 
producing States of the Union in the acreage of 
coal measures; still Alabama takes a front rank in 
the quantity and quality of its coal. There is 
believed to be over 100,000,000,000 tons of coal in 
Alabama in the workable seams, or in the sefams 
that are two feet six inches and over in thickness. 
This coal, with an annual output of even 5,000,000 
tons, would last for 30,000 years, and at the 
mouths of the mines would be worth now nearly 


Tliis coal in the Warrior, Cahaba and Coosa 
fields, from the different positions which the areas 
of these fields had in the original coal basin and 
from the different degrees of disturbance of the 
strata of these fields, differ very much in the num- 
ber and dip of its seams, and perhaps some little 
in thickness and quality in indentical seams which 
have not as yet been connected in the difl'erent 

Co^^l of the Wurrior Field The coal of this 
■field is believed to be in fifty-three different 

■seams, that vary in thickness from about two 
inches to fourteen feet, and have a combined 
thickness of some 125 feet of pure coal. Of these 
fifty-three coal seams, twenty-five of them contain 
eighteen inches and over, each, in thickness of coal; 

-and of these twenty-five scams, fourteen seams have 
two feet six inches and over, each, in thickness of 
coal; and of these fourteen seams, nine seams have 
over fourfeet of coal, each;and of these nineseams, 

Tthree seams have over six feet, each, in thickness of 

coal. The coal of the Warrior field, under the 
supposition that its seams retain throughout their 
whole extent a thickness equivalent to that of their 
most accurate and reliable measurements, is esti- 
mated at over 113,000,000,000 tons. Of this vast 
amount of coal, it is estimated that over 108,000,- 
000,000 tons are of the seams that are eighteen 
inches and over in thickness. 

The coal of this field can be mined just as easily 
and cheaply as that of any field, from the fact that 
the physical features of the field and the small 
angle of dip and the structure of the coal ai'e all 
favorable to cheap mining. These physical feat- 
ures are such as will enable good workable seams 
of coal to be found in nearly all parts of the pro- 
ductive measures at moderate depths below the 
surface, and, in nearly all cases, will permit of the 
coal seams being reached by drifts and slopes. 
The dip, as a rule, is only a few degrees, and hence 
it is much better adapted to cheap mining than if 
the coals were perfectly level, as it frequently gives 
a natural drainage, and in all cases will permit of 
the mines being kept dry at comparatively small 
cost. The output of coal from this field for 1887 
was about 2,500,000 tons, or about five-sixths of the 
output for the whole State. This coal is mined 
at the following localities: At and near Warrior, 
Jefferson Mines and Newcastle, on the L. & N. Eail- 
road; at Pratt Mines; at Woodward Mines; at and 
near Coalburg, Day's Gap and Corona, on the Ga. 
& P. Railroad; at and near Clement's Station and 
Tuscaloosa, on the A. G. S. Railroad ; and at Blue 
Creek mines, on the Mineral Railroad. It is also 
mined to some little extent near Huntsville and 
Guntersville, and at several other places in the 
plateau region, and soon will be mined on an ex- 
tensive scale at several points on the K. C. M. & 
B. Railroad, S. & B. Railroad and T. N. Railroad. 
The transportation facilities of this field are good. 
It has now seven different railroads running 
through and into it, and a river length within its 
basin of nearly 100 miles, that can be made nav- 
igable for steam tugs and coal barges all the year 

Coal of the Cahaba Field. The coal of this 
field forms forty or more different seams. Eleven 
of these seams are over two feet six inches each in 
thickness, and have a combined thickness of about 
forty feet of marketable coal. These coals, from 
their steeper dip, crop out in much more limited 
areas, and are much less above drainage level than 
are those of the Warrior field. The seams that are 



over two feet Rix inclies each in thickness coinj)rise, 
it is helieved. some 4.000.000,000 tons of cojil. 
These coals as a chiss. appear to be cleaner and 
harder tli;iri those of the Warrior field, though 
more faulty. 'J'hey are usually of a bright and 
shiny lustre, and are of a very fine rpiality, con- 
taining but a small amount of asii and a large per- 
<'entage of fixed carbon. They are considered 
especially valuable from the fact that they are the 
most Southern true coals in the Ignited States. 
They have one great drawback to cheap mining in 
their steep dip. They are being mined exten- 
sively at or near the following places: Ilenryellen 
Mines on the Ga, P. K. R.; Helena on the S. & N. 
Ala. I{. 11.; Montevallo and Brierfield, on the E. 
T. Va. & Ga. R. R., and Ulockton on the A. G. 
S. R. R. The coals of all these mines are of fine 
<iuality and bring high prices. They furnished 
«bout 240,000 tons, or nearly one-fifteenth of the 
coal output of Alabama for 1887. The coals of 
this field have three great railroad connections, 
with the likelihood of getting several others 
witliin a very short time. 

f W//.S' of the Coosa Field These coals are 
•comparatively little known. They are in at least 
three seams, of respectively three feet, four feet, 
and three feet six inches in thickness. The coal 
in these three seams has been estimated at "600.- 
000,000 tons. It is of a beautiful black color 
with a shining lustre, and is rather friable for 
stocking but is exactly suited to coking. It is 
mined in only the upper part of the field, or in the 
Broken Arrow region. The mines of this region 
have an annual coal output of nearly 72,000 tons. 

Coke. Coke made from Alabama coal was 
proven in 1876 to be well suited for iron-ore smelt- 
ing, and since that time, especially during the 
last few years, its output and its demand have 
increased much more rapidly than even in the case 
of the coal. Its out[)ut for 1887 was about 700- 
000 tons, and for 1888 will be near 1,000,000 
tons. It is of excellent ([uality, as has been 
shown by its uses on a very large scale for iroTi-ore 
enielting and foundry purposes. It i.s consumed 
principally in the State, and, with tlie exception 
of a small percentage, is made from the coal of 
the Pratt seam of the Warrior field. It is worth 
about *J.75 per ton, wliich will give a value of 
*2, 750.000 to the product for 1888. The coke 
industry of Alabama is now next to the greatest of 
its kind in the world. 

Lignite ok Brown Coal. This semi-bitu- 

minous coal occurs in .\lal)aiiui in the tertiary 
and cietaceous formations, it is therefore of more 
recent age than the true, or jjit cool. It usually 
contains considerable iron pyrites, principally as 
nodules, and most commonly a large percentage 
of ash. It can be used for heating and steaming 
purposes, but not for coking or blaeksmithing. 
It occurs in beds of considerable thickness in Ala- 
bama, though it has never been worked any. 

I HON ()1{ES. 

Of all mineral substances, iron is next in im- 
portance to only coal. Its manufacture in Ala- 
bama, from native ores, in the old Catalan forge 
and small charcoal furnaces, in a small way, 
dates back as far as even 1818, but the increase in 
its manufacture was very slow indeed until 1876, 
when a great and lasting impetus was given to its 
manufacture by the successful demonstration 
that good coke-made iron could be made in Ala- 
bama from native materials at a surprisingly low 
cost. In 1876 there were only ten furnaces in 
blast in Alabama, all small charcoal furnaces. 
They had an output of pig iron for 1876 of only 
24,732 tons. In 1888, after a lapse of only twelve 
years, there will be in Northern Alabama some 
forty-four furnaces in blast, ten charcoal and thir- 
ty-four coke furnaces, which will have an output 
of pig iron in 1889 of near 1,000,000 tons. The 
increase in the output of pig iron in Alabama 
during the last decade is represented by the fol- 
lowing figures: 

In 1878 .... 49,482 tons. 

1879 49,841 " 

1880 .... 77,190 " 
1881 98,081 " 

1882 .... 112,765 " 

1883 .... 172,465 " 

1884 .... 189,644 " 

1885 . . . 227.438 " 

1886 .... 265,000 " 

1887 .... 292,,62 " 
There will be built in this State during the 

present year some twenty new furnaces, that will 
liave a combined average outjiut of pig-iron of 
about 2,000 tons per day, or 700,000 tons per 
annum, but, as none of these furnaces will go into 
blast before spring, and some of them, perhaps, 
not until fall or winter, it is impossible, this early 
in the season, to do more than guess at tiie pig-iron 
output of Alabama for 1888; it will, however, 
be close on to 500,000 tons. Tliese twenty new 



furnaces will be all in blast by 1889, and their 
ont[)iit, added on to that of the old furnaces, 
will run up the total output of pig-iron in 
Alabama for ISS'J to about 1,000,000 tons. The 
above output for 1885 placed Alabama fifth on 
the list of iron-producing States, that of 1887 ran 
her up to the third place in this list, with only 
Pennsylvania and Ohio ahead of her, and the out- 
put for 1889 will doubtless enable her to overstep) 
Ohio and to take a rank only second to Penn- 
sylvania as an iron-producing State. The iron 
output of Northern Alabama for 1887 was worth, 
at the furnaces, nearly §5, 000,000, and, at the 
same prices, that of 1888 will be valued at some 
$8,450,000, and that for 1889 at $16,900,000. 
These are very large sums of money to bring into 
and scatter over a comparatively small district, 
especially by an enterprise that can be said to 
be hardly over ten yeai's old, and must necessarily 
render that district prosperous. Say that pig- 
iron can be made in Northern Alabama at an 
average price of $10.45 per ton, and that it has a 
sput value, or value at the furnaces, of $16.90 per 
ton, it will give a total spot profit on the out- 
put for 1887 of nearly $1,000,000, and on the 
above estimated outputs of 1888 and 1889, respect- 
ively, $2,725,000 and $5,550,000. At the above 
rate of increase it will take but a few years more 
to make the iron output of Northern Alabama 
equal in value to the cotton crop of the whole 
State. Within the last few weeks the best grade 
of steel has been made at Birmingham, by the 
Henderson process, from the poorest grades of 
pig-iron of Alabama ores. This glorious result 
shuts the mouths of the croakers who have been 
crying out these many years that steel could not 
be made from Alabama ores, and removes the last 
obstacle to the future great prosjierity of Northern 

The value and hnportanee of an iron ore, as 
already stated, is dependent on its quantity, qual- 
ity and vicinity to fluxing material, fuel and 
transporting facilities. According to this crite- 
rion, the iron ores of Northern Alabama rank as 
follows : (1) Hematite or Red Ore. (2) Limonite 
or Brown Ore. (3) Siderite or Carbonate Ore. 
(4) Magnetite or Magnetic Ore, and (5) Pi/rite or 

(1) Hematite ok Red Ore. This ore is also 
called red hematite, specular ore, oxide of iron, 
anhydrous peroxide of iron, fossiliferous iron ore, 
lenticular ore, Clinton ore and dyestone ore. It 

has, when pure, about 70 per cent of metallic 
iron. It is by far the most important and e.xten- 
sively-used of the ores of Northern Alabama. It 
yields an excellent grade of iron, and hence is 
most highly esteemed by the furnace men. In its 
purest forms, it rivals even the brown ore in its 
per centage of metallic iron. It occurs in North- 
ern Alabama in the (a) Upper Silurian, and (b) 
Metamorphic rocks. 

(a) Red Ore of Upper Silurian Formation. 
This dejjosit of iron ore is not only the largest in 
Northern Alabama, but it is regarded by scientific 
men as one of the mineral wonders of the world. 
It occurs in the Clinton group, a most persistent 
groujj of rocks, that, with its bands of red ore, 
extends irregularly along the eastern escarpment 
of the Allegheny Mountains all the way from 
Canada to Central Alabama, where it becomes 
covered up by a newer formation, lying unconform- 
able to it. Nowhere, however, in this whole dis- 
tance is the ore so well developed as here in Cei;- 
tral Alabama, near its southwestern visible limits. 
It is reported to be, in New York two feet thick 
in Pennsylvania, four feet, in Tennessee, seven to 
eight feet, and in Northern Alabama, it occurs in 
from one to six different seams that have a com- 
bined thickness of from twelve inches to fifty feet. 
One of the seams in Northern Alabama has, by 
itself, in places a thickness of nearly thirty-five 
feet of ore. These different seams of red ore, in 
Northern Alabama, are separated from each other 
by calcareous sandstones and shales, and silicious 
or sandy limestones. They crop out along the tops 
and valley sides of the Red Mountains or red oie 
ridges, that border the anticlinal valleys, and also 
to a very limited extent near the Tennessee line, 
along the creeks. These Ked Mountains, or red 
ore ridges, as has been stated, occur on both sides 
of the valleys, when these valleys are simply anti- 
clinals, separated from the edges of the valleys or 
the bluffy escarpments of the coal measures, by 
narrow back valleys. They sometimes, however, 
from folds and faults in the strata, are doubled or 
are wanting, but seldom, if ever, on both sides of 
the valleys at once. 

The ore is in regularly stratified seams, that are 
well defined between strata of hard sandstones and 
shales, and which, from their positions, would ap- 
pear to cover indefinite areas. The ore is com- 
monly oolitic in structure, or commonly consists of 
rounded, flattened and glazed grains of various 
sizes cemented together. It is nearly always fos- 


siliferoDS and calcareous, though some strata are 
111 nch more so than others. On the outcro[)s tlie 
calcareous matter is frequently completely leached 
out, and the fossil impressions entirely obliterated, 
and the ore conii)aratively soft and o'ten porous. 
Without any respect to their solidity or hardness, 
the leached or non-calcareous ore is called by the 
miners and furnace men )<ofl ore, and the limy ore 
hard, ov JfK.iiiiff ore. Limy or calcareous matter, 
in greater or less quantities, is believed to be always 
present in the unleaclied ore. It varies very much 
from place to place in the same seam, especially on 
and near the outcrop, but, as a rule, it increases 
away from the outcrop until the innermost point 
of scapage or weathering is reached. The limits 
of scapage and weathering are very dejiendent on 
the coverings, and hence they vary very much. 
Though carhonate of lime is the most common im- 
purity of these ores, they are frequently very 
silicious or sandy, especially in some of the seams, 
to one of whicli, in many localities, it has given 
the name of fcnit/i/ scam. It often gets so great as 
to render the ore valueless. Besides carbonate of 
lime and silicious matter, this ore, in phases, has 
through it seams and irregular streaks of clay, 
though none of the good ore is known to have this 
impurity in sutHciunt quantities to require the 
washing of the ore. The sand or silicious matter 
is no very serious objection to the ore, provided 
it is not in too great quantities, and the carbonate 
of lime, when its percentage in the ore is uniform, 
is rather an advantage than anohjection, provided 
it does not exclude a suflicient percentage of iron 
to justify working, as it is mixed intimately in the 
ore, and so causes the ore to fuse more readily than 
fluxing material sepai'ate from the ore. This ore 
in some localities carries as much as 50 per cent of 
metallic iron, and a specific gravity of nearly 4, 
and a comhined thickness of the dilTerent seams 
of some thirty-five feet of ore. If the dilTerent 
workable outcrops of eighteen inches and over in 
thickness of red ore in Xorthern Alabama were 
connected together in one straight line, they 
would form an outcropping of ore some 800 
miles long, that would have a thickness of 
eighteen inches, asptcific gravity of 3, and 40 per 
cent of metallic iron. This liypothetical seam 
of ore would yiehl for every foot of descent 
into it over 237,000 tons of metallic iron, and, 
as it would be supposed to cover an indefinite area, 
the amount of iron wliicb it would carry might 
well be considered inexhaustible. This ore has 

been, or is now being mined extensively at the fol- 
lowing i)laces: In McAshan Mount. , near McCalla; 
between .McC'alla and ]5irmingham, at Sloss Mines 
No. 2, Woodward Mines, liillman Jlines, Smith 
Bros.' Klines, Redding .Mines, Morris Mining Com- 
pany Mines Xo. 1, Eureka Mines No. 2, and Eu- 
reka Mines Xo. 1; between Birmingham and Iron- 
dale, at Old Irondale Klines and Morris Mining 
Company Klines X^o. 2; between Irondale and 
Trussville, at Sloss Mines X'o. 1 and Smith and 
Eastman Klines. It is also mined in diggings near 
Springville, in mines near Attalla, in diggings 
near Reesville, Greenwood, Andrews" Institute, 
Portersville, Fort Payne and Valley Head, and in 
mines near Eureka and Gadsden. Besides the 
above there are many small surface diggings into 
this ore, and, doubtless, by this time several other 
mines of large outj)uts. 

These mines had, for 1887, a combined output 
of ore of nearly 700,000 tons. They, and other 
new mines into this ore, to supplj' the old furnaces 
and the new ones that are now being built, will 
have to have a combined output of ore for.1888 of 
about 1,250,000 tons, and for 1889 of near 2,500,- 
000 tons. This ore formerly was used in the 
furnaces only as a mixture with the Iroirn ore, but 
its proportional part grew greater and greater 
until finally, and for several years past, ithasbeeu 
used alone and has been found to make a better 
grade of iron by itself than as a mixture with the 
brown ore. It not only supplies all the coke fur- 
naces of the State, with two exceptions and, one or 
two of the charcoal furnaces, but it is also shipped 
in large quantities to the furnaces of Tennessee, 
etc. This ore, from its leached outcrops, is also 
ground up and used to a limited extent as a min- 
eral paint and for glazing purposes. 

(i) Red Ore of Metamorphic Rocks. This 
ore is commonly called specular ore from its 
external luster; it is also sometimes called blood- 
stone, from its exhibiting, on being scratched, a 
deep red colored streak. It is a harder and more 
compact ore, as a rule, than the hcmalife of the 
Clinton group. Very little is known as to its 
deposits in Xorthern or Eastern Alabama, though 
it is believed to be in considerable quantities and 
of very good quality. 

(2) Li-MoyiTE ou Browx Ore. This ore is also 
known as hydrous pero.ride of iron, brown hema- 
tite, broirn iron ore and brown o.tide of iron. It 
has, when pure, about GO per cent, of metallic iron. 



It is the most widely diffused of all iron ores, and 
there are but few localities and geological forma- 
tions in Northern Alabama that do not jjossess it 
in greater or less quantities. In most of its 
de^josits, it is of fine quality, and as a rule, it is 
purer, or carries a greater per cent of metallic iron 
than the red ore. On account of its usual large 
per cent, of metallic iron, it was for a long time 
the only ore used in the State. It now supplies all 
of the charcoal furnaces of the State, with one or 
two excei^tions, and several of the coke furnaces. 
From its mode of occurrence in irregular pockets, 
it is a very difficult matter to determine its quan- 
tity, though this quantity is known to be such as 
to be considered well nigh inexhaustible. It sim- 
ply would be impossible to mention all of the 
localities of its occurrence in Northern- Alabama, 
and the best that can be done will be to treat of 
the principal of these localities or the localities of 
its greatest deposits in the different geological 
formations. These geological formations, in the 
order of the imnortance of their brown ore depos- 
its, are as follows: (a) Loioer Silurian, {h) sub- 
carboniferous, (c) cretaceous, (d) inetamurphic, (f) 
drift, (/) and coal measures 

(a) Brown Ore of Lower Silurian Formation. 
This formation is known as the great brown ore 
bearing formation. It carries the most impor- 
tant brown ore deposits of Northern Alabama. 
These ore deposits occur in principally the sub- 
group Knox Dolomite. This sub-group, with its 
thick beds of dolomites and limestones and its vast 
deposits of brown ore, is a most persistent forma- 
tion. It extends, along with the Clinton group, 
or red ore rocks, from Canada to Central Alabama, 
where it becomes covered up by a newer formation 
lying nnconformably to it. For this whole dis- 
tance, brown ore deposits are scattered over, at 
intervals, the outcrops of its strata. They are 
much greater and thicker in places than in others, 
and, like the red ore seams, are much the most 
highly developed in Central Alabama, near the 
southwestern end of the visible strata of this sub- 
group. They are confined to the anticlinal val- 
leys, and, as they are due to the decomposition of 
the underlying ferruginous limestones and dolo- 
mites, they are most numerous and extensive where 
the strata of these underlying rocks have been 
most disturbed and decomposed. Over these local- 
ities of greatest disturbance and decomposition, 
the ore deposits are not evenly distributed, but are 
much thicker and greater in places than in others. 

In some places they are grouped thicklvover areas 
of hundreds of acres in extent, while in other 
places they are almost wanting. They occur, 
principally, in leached knolls, hills and ridges, that 
occupy, usually, a strip of country from two to 
three miles wide, running up and down each anti- 
clinal valley near its center. These knolls, hills 
and ridges are from 50 to :200 feet high, and are 
frequently continuous for sevei-al miles. They are 
made uji of eliiefly reddish and orange-colored 
loams, with brown ore banks cropping out in 
greater or less quantities over them. They, in 
some of the richer localities, are almost entirely 
covered with the loose nodules and boulders of 
this ore, or have scattered over them piles of these 
loose nodules and boulders of ore, that have been 
picked and piled up to get them out of the way of 
the plough. -These ore banks frequently appear to 
extend entirely through the knolls, hills and 
ridges, and, though they usually occur in knolls, 
hills and ridges, they are sometimes found in the 
low, flat places. They contain the ore as hard, 
solid, compact ore, as honey-comb ore, and as 
ochreous and earthy varieties, and as small shot 
ore to boulders fifteen and twenty feet in diameter 
and of 3,000 tons and more in weight. This ore 
is of a concretionary nature. It sometimes breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture, and is frequently 
fibrous. It also sometimes has cavities that are 
lined with a beautiful velvety appearance, and it 
frequently has mammillary and botryoidal surfaces 
that have a dark or nearly black glaze. This ore 
most commonly is of good quality and usually 
carries from 50 to 60 per cent of metallic iron. 
The A. G. S. E. K. and the S. E. & D. E. E. run 
either through or very near the main deposits of 
this ore. These deposits, with one exception, 
furnish all the brown ore that is now being mined 
in the State. 

{b) Brown Ore of the Snb - Carboniferous 
Formation. The brown ore banks of this forma- 
tion are second in importance only to those of 
the Lower Silurian formation. Tiiey are very 
similar to those of that formation in occurrence, 
manner of derivation and composition, though 
they have been derived from entirely different 
rocks. They have been derived j^rincipally from 
the ferruginous cherty limestones of the Upper 
Silicious Group, though there are some beds of 
them of considerable size that have come from 
rocks of the Lower Silicious Group, and others 
that now cover outcrops of the Mountain Lime- 



stone Group, though these beds are believed to 
have come from, or to belong properly to the coal 

Bkowx (Iiu: i'kom iiii; I'i'I'ku Silk lofs 
<ii{ori'. OK St. Ij(U is Limestone. The priii- 
cij)al oi\' (k'po.-jits of tliis sub-group are to be 
found in the Little or liiisselville Valley. 'i'hey 
occur imbedded in a red loam, that forms hills 
ami ridges. This red loam has commonly in it 
also cherty pebbles and nodules. Tlie ore banks 
are distributed not regularly through the hills 
and ridges, but rather in groups at intervals. 
They consist of either an aggregated collection of 
small nodules of ore or of isolated huge boulders 
of ore scattered through the matrix of red loam, 
and are irregular and uncertain as to both their 
■e.xtent and richness in ore. Some of them are 
very prolific in ore and would doubtless yield 
thousands of tons of ore before giving out, while 
others would scarcely justify the working. This 
ore, as a general thing, contains an unusual 
4imount of metallic iron. It once sujiplied a fur- 
nace and made a very fine grade of pig iron, espe- 
cially for casting. These deposits are now being 
worked again, since the building of the S. & B. 
li. R., and will be made to supply the Sliellield 
furnaces, etc. 


Keokik (iRorr. The iron ore deposits or 
the brown ore deposits of this sub-group, 
though much more numerous, are appar- 
ently not near so important, or so great and 
jnire, as those of the overlying or Upper Silicious 
Oroup. The princijial of these deposits are in or 
near the barrens of Lauderdale and i^imestone 
Counties, and over the tops and sides of the Red 
Mountains or fossiliferous cherty ridges of the 
anticlinal valleys. They occur as loose nodules 
and loose boulders in a mati-ix of loose nodules 
and loose boulders of fossiliferous chert. As its 
nodules and boulders are usually intimately mixed 
with those of the fossiliferous chert, it would re- 
<|uire considerable care and much dead work to 
collect together this ore, and hence it would be 
expensive, comparatively speaking, to mine it. 
Being derived from more silicious or cherty rocks, 
it is also, as a general thing, though good, more 
silicious or cherty than the brown ores of the de- 
posits already mentioned. Its varieties are ai)out 
the same as those of the Knox and Lower Sili- 
cious 'sub-groups. It has never been mined any 

in Alabama, though doubtless it will be made to 
furnish the furnaces that are now being built at 
Florence, etc. 

Bkown Ohio oe Limestone or 
Chester Group. Over the mountainous sides 
and ridges of the mountain limestone that crops 
out under the bluffy escarpments of the coal 
measures bordering the valleys, in a matrix of 
sandy loam with small rounded flint pebbles and 
loose boulders of ferruginous sandstones and 
conglomerates, there are numerous deposits of 
brown ore, of usually a very good quality and 
sometimes of considerable extent. These deposits 
of ore, though they now overlie mountain lime- 
stone strata, properly belong to, or have come 
from the outcroppings of a regular stratified seam 
of ore of tire coal measures. This seam crops out 
just above the juncture of the mountain limestone 
and coal measure strata, or just below the bluffy 
escarpments of the coal measures. Its ore in the 
outcrops and in the above loose deposits, is a lini- 
onite or brown ore, though it is believed to have 
been changed into such by atmospheric agencies or 
by weathering, and that the unchanged or un- 
weathered ore in the seam is a carbonate. It is 
evident that the ore of these deposits over the 
mountain limestone has come from the above seam, 
from the fact that the matrix, or the loose pebbles 
and the loose boulders of ferruginous sandstones 
and conglomerates with which the ore is intimately 
mixed, are of the coal measures. These deposits 
of loose ore, however, are removed sometimes over 
one- half mile from the outcroppings of the above 
seam, but they are always on lower ground and 
doubtless have gradually worked their way by 
slides, etc., down the steep mountain sides to their 
present positions. The stratified seam, as well as 
the loose deposits, are much better developed in 
places than in others. These deposits are often 
seemingly wanting, though there is always more 
or less loose ore along, usually just below the line, 
or geological position, for the outcroppings of 
this seam of ore. The loose deposits, like those of 
the Knox group, ajipear to be most numerous and 
extensive in those localities where the parent 
rocks, or those around the outcroppings of the 
stratified ore seam, have been most disturbed and 
disintegrated. 'J'he ore has been seen as thick as 
six feet in the seam, and some of the loose deposits 
occur over areas of seventy-five to one hundred 
acres. U'his ore has never been used or dug any. 
Its greatest drawback is the uncertainty of the 



richness of its deposits, and the fact that it is 
mixed in these deposits through a mass of much 
foreign matter, and hence would be expensive to 

[p) Brown Ores of the Cretaceous Formation. 
The iron ores or brown ores of this formation are 
in its lower and upper parts, or in the Tusca- 
loosa and Eipley sub-groujjs. 

Brown Ore of Tuscaloosa Group. Iron ore 
or iron oxide is widely distributed through this 
sub-grouji, but though some of the strata are 
always highly ferruginous, the localities are very 
few in which the good ore is in sufficient quantity 
to justify working. The ore occurs in both pock- 
ets or patches, and in regular stratified seams. 
That in patches or pockets is. strictly speaking, 
limonite or brown ore, while that in the regular 
stratified seams gives a red streak, or has a deep 
red powder, and is seemingly intermediate between 
a brown and a red ore. The pocket ore occurs 
through, usually, a matrix of a deep red sandy 
loam in irregular lumps from the size of shot ore 
to boulders several feet in diameter. In the 
matrix between the pockets of ore there are fre- 
qi;ently pockets of ferruginous conglomerates and 
sandstones. The ore is usually of good quality, 
and is mainly porous, with red and yellow ochres 
filling the cavities. It often contains twigs, small 
pieces of wood, and other vegetable matter that 
have been converted into limonite. It has been 
used in the furnace, and is said to work easily 
and to make a very fine grade of iron. The prin- 
cipal or most extensive dejiositsof this pocket ore, 
the only ones that have ever been worked, are 
near Vernon, Lamar county, at and near the site 
of the Hale and ilurdock old furnace. The ore in 
regular stratified seams overlies impervious clayey 
strata, and shows plainly that its iron has been dis- 
solved from that disseminated through the overly- 
ing strata and deposited or precipitated in seams 
or layers on reaching the impervious strata. This 
stratified ore is usually shaly or in thin scales, 
though some of it is massive, Avith frequently 
knotty-looking places of concentric rings of ore. 
It is commonly very silicious, compact, hard, 
micaceous, and of a light red color. It is often 
nothing more than a highly ferruginous sandstone 
or conglomerate, and is, so far as known, too 
impure to work, though some of the seams might 
answer very well for ochre. The seams sometimes 
reach a thickness of several feet. 

Brown Ore of Ripley Group. The brown 

ore deposits of this sub-group are numerous. The 
ore is of very good quality and is probably of suffi- 
cient quantity, in places, to be of industrial value. 

{d) Brown Ore of Metamorphic Rocks. The 
brown ore deposits of these rocks are for the most 
part the resultants of the decomposition of beds 
of pyrites and form what are known as "gossans." 
These gossans may be in some instances, of very 
great extent, as their superficial areas are some- 
times great and their depths are unknown. Be- 
sides these ffossans, this formation has considerable 
compact limestone of concretionary origin, and 
of a pure character, scattered over its hornblendic 
rocks. This ore has been worked in the old Cata- 
lan forge, biTt, as a general thing, it is too scatter- 
ing to be of any economic value. 

(e) Brotvn Ore of Drift. Iron oxide or brown 
ore is distributed universally through this form- 
ation. It often acts as a cementing material 
and sticks together the sands and pebbles of this 
formation into hard compact masses of highly 
ferruginous sandstones and conglomerates, that 
might occasionally be regarded as siliceous or 
sand}' limonites. This oxide, however, in some 
localities, is collected together into concretionary 
masses of very good ore. It is not known to be 
in any one place in sufficient quantity to be of any 
jDractical value. 

(/') Brown Ore of Coal Measures. There 
crops out near the base of the Coal Measures a 
seam of ore that, as has been stated, is limonite on 
the out crop but which is believed to be a carbon- 
ate within. This seam sometimes gets to be as 
thick as six feet, and the ore, though usually sili- 
cious, is frequently of a very good quality. This 
is the seam of ore from which the deposits of 
brown ore overlying the mountain limestone 
strata are believed to have come. There are very 
likely other seams higher wp in the coal measures 
that are limonites on the outcrops and carbonates 
within. There are also scattered through the 
shales of the coal measures, at many horizontal 
positions, nodules of very good limonite that have 
been formed by the weathering or decomposition 
of concretionary masses of clay, iron, stones and 
pyrites. These brown ores of the coal measures 
have never been used or dug in any way. 

(3) SiDERiTE OR Cakbox.\te OF Iron. This 
ore, though it occupies a third place among the 
iron ores of Northern Alabama, is the ore from 
which England's i^reponderating amount of iron 
has been produced. It occurs in only the carboni- 



ferous formation or coal measures, and in onlj- 
two varieties; namely, (a) The Black Band Ore, 
and (6) Tke CJutj Iron Stone. 

{ii) The Black Band Ore. This is a coaly 
carbonate of iron. It occurs in Xortliern Ala- 
bama in several known seams, that vary from one 
to four inches in thickness. It has been dugsome 
little from two of these seams in the Warrior field, 
and, in both instances, it worked very well in the 
furnaces with a mixture of more silicious ores. 

(b) Tlie Clay Iron Stone. This is an im- 
pure argillaceous carbonate of iron. It occurs 
usually as balls, nodules and kidney-shape concre- 
tions, disposed in layers and interstratified 
through the shales of the coal measures, at many 
horizontnl positions. It occurs sometimes also in 
stratified seams in the shales. In certain localities 
the quantity is apparently large, and the quality 
is sutticiently good for economical purposes, 
though it lias never been worked any in Northern 

(4) Magnetite ok Magnetic Ikon Ore. 
This ore occurs to a considerable extent in regular 
layers and masses in tiie metamorphic or crystal- 
line rocks of East Alabama. It is sometimes of a 
crystalline, sometimes of a granular and sometimes 
of a slaty texture. It is usually gray in color and 
mixed with more or less foreign matter. It is 
believed, as a general thing, to carry only a small 
percentage of phosphoric acid and to be titanifer- 

(5) Pyrite or Pyrite.s. This ore occurs in 
greater or less quantities in all the geological 
formations of Northern Alabama. It is, however, 
especially abundant in the metamorphic and 
Devonian rocks. Unchanged, it is never used for 
nuiking iron, but the ''gossans" resulting from 
its decom]>osition are frequently used for this pur- 
l)ose. Its chief use, in the pure state, is for the 
nuinufacture of sulphuric acid, which is largely 
used in the arts and in the preparation of com- 
mercial fertilizers. Its deposits in Northern Ala- 
bama have never been used for even this purpose, 
from doubtless the fact tiiat the greater of these 
deposits are far removed from any transporting 

(3) Fluxing Rocks and Lime Blrning 
Hocks, ok Limestones and Dolomites. These 
rocks of the very best quality and in inex- 
haustible quantities, occur in several of the geolog- 
ical formations of Northern .Mabama. 'i'iiey are, 
however, purest and most highly developed in the 

sub-carboniferous and lower Silurian formations. 
They make up tiie greater part of all the valleys 
of the State. Those of the sub-carboniferous form- 
ation in the Tennessee Valley have a thickness 
of some 1.500 feet, while those of the lower 
Silurian formation in the Coosa Valley must have 
a much greater thickness. These rocks are 
now being quarried extensively in Northern Ala- 
bama for botii fluxing aud lime-burning purposes, 
the supply coming j)rincij)ally from the groups, 
mountain limestone of the sub-carboniferous form- 
ation, and Trenton of the lower silurian forma- 
tion. The silicious group of the sub-carbonif- 
erous rocks and the Knox dolomite of the lower 
silurian formation, however, furnish no small sup- 
])]}■ for both of these purjioses. These limestones 
are oftej\ very constant in their composition, and 
frequently carry as much as 98 per cent, of 
carbonate of lime. Thej- are, therefore, well 
adapted to fluxing and lime-burning purposes. 
They readily burn into quick-lime, that is of the 
very best quality as to color, cohesive power and 
ability to stand the extremes of heat and cold. 
These rocks, as a general thing, are most favorably 
located for cheap quarrying and cheai) transporta- 
tion. Their outcrops usually occupy, topograph- 
ically speaking, high positions in the valleys or 
sides of the mountains, ridges and hills, and 
hence they can be easily and cheaply quarried, 
without any trouble from water, and easily and 
cheaply handled or loaded into cars, that can be 
easily and cheaply run along the base of their out- 
crops. These abound with these pure lime- 
stones, especially in the sub-group Knox dolomite 
of the lower silurian formation, dolomitic lime- 
stones of tlie very best or purest quality, that are 
also well suited for fluxing purposes and for mak- 
ing the whitest of quick-lime and the hardest and 
best of mortars. 

(i) Building and Paving Stones and 
Brick Clays. — Building and paving stones of 
beauty and durability occur in unlimited quanti- 
ties in many of the formations and in many parts 
of Northern Alabama. They consist principally 
of almost every variety of limestone and sand- 
stone, though they embrace also some granites, 
soapstones, gneisses and roofing-slates, that are 
invaluable to the architect and builder for many 
purposes. The limestones are of all grades, from 
very good hydraulic cement rocks and litho- 
graphic stones to pure marbles that will take a fine 
polish. The sandstones are massive and fiaggy. 



and, though they sometimes split into thin, tough 
sheets, they most often work with equal ease in 
any direction. Both these limestones and sand- 
stones are comparatively soft on being first quar- 
ried, but they harden on exposure. The paving 
stones are abundant and are of the very best 
quality. They are durable; being compact and 
impervious to water, they do not crack and scale 
off in freezing weather. They are of uniform 
thickness — from, say, two to eighteen inches — 
and are perfectly smooth and beautifully rippled 
marked, and require only to be squared to be 
ready for their many uses. They are most 
abundant, as well as best and most beautiful, in 
the coal measures and Lower Silurian formations. 

Besides the above building and paving stones, 
there are excellent clays, for making ordinary 
bricks, in nearly all of the formations and in 
nearly all parts of Northern Alabama. Those 
of the drift and cretaceous formations, however, 
are of the best quality. 

(5) PoRCELAiif AND FiRE Clays. Light and 
gray colored plastic and silicious clays, that are 
well suited for making pottery ware and common 
fire bricks, abound in several of the geological form- 
ations and in many parts of Xorthern Alabama. 
They are, however, mos^t abundant and j)urest in 
the coal measures and in the Tuscaloosa and lower 
silicious sub-groups, though they occur in con- 
siderable beds in the drift and lower silurian form- 
ations. Those of the coal measures usually are 
of a gray color, and form the underbeds to the coal 
seams. They have been worked in only a few lo- 
calities and to a limited extent, only for making 
potteryware, to which purpose they are well suited. 
They doubtless, in many instances, would make 
good fire bricks. They occur in seams from a few 
inches to ten and twelve feet in thickness. Those 
of the Tuscaloosa group, in some of their beds, are 
very pure, and have a greasy, lialloysite feeling. 
They have been worked also only to a limited ex- 
tent, and in only a few places, and so they have 
never been given a fair test. Some of them, it is 
believed, would make nice porcelain ware, while 
others are well suited for fire bricks. They are the 
same clays, in geological position, etc., as the 
famous fire clays of New Jersey, and may prove, 
some of these days, in some instances, to be of just 
as good quality as the New Jersey clays. Those 
of the lower silicious group occur along the tops 
of the red ore ridges and mountains, just over the 
outcroppings of the black shale. They are derived 

from the disintegration of the cherty or hornstone 
strata at the base of this sub-group, and are fre- 
quently, in the outcrops, of a chalky whiteness. 
Their beds are sometimes from thirty to forty feet 
in thickness, and are of various strata, that differ 
in ajipearance and composition. Some of these 
strata are of a chalky whiteness, while others are 
of a dai-k gray color, and others still are stained 
more or less reddish .-nd yellowish. Some of the 
strata are very silicious or gritty to the feeling, so 
much so as to be frequently very friable, and 
hardly, properly speaking, clays, while others are 
greasy to the feeling and are very plastic on being 
thoroughly wetted. In these different light colored 
strata there are numerous very hard nodules of very 
pure halloysite of a beautiful ci'ystal appearance. 
These ciays are being mined extensively in DeKalb 
county, the different varieties separately, and 
shipped to Chattanooga to be made up into fine 
potteryware and fire bricks. The purer varieties 
were shipped once to the large porcelain works 
of Trenton, Ohio, where they brought about SIO 
per ton, but the distance wasfound to be too great, 
or the freight too much to make this traffic pay. In 
Chattanooga, the gritty or friable strata are made 
into fire bricks and the plastic strata into porcelain 
ware. A full set of fine table ware, made at Tren- 
ton, Ohio, from this clay, was on exhibition at the 
New Orleans Exposition, and its beauty and excel- 
lence, in every resjiect, attracted special attention 
and drew forth unqualified remarks of praise from 
all. It is to be hoped these and all similar clays of 
Northern Alabama will soon be consumed at home 
or made to supply home manufactoiies. 

(G) Marls and Phosphates. The marls and 
phosphates of Northern Alabama are in consider- 
able quantities and are of the greatest interest and 
value. They occur in only the cretaceous and 
tertiary formations, and hence those of the creta- 
ceous formation alone come within the scope of 
this treatise. Those of the cretaceous formation 
are of the same formation as those of England, 
while those of the tertiary formation are of the 
same formation as the deposits of South Carolina. 
Those of the cretaceous formation in Alabama are 
to be found principally in two well-defined belts 
that are made up of the transition beds at the bot- 
tom and top of the rotten limestone, though shell 
marls and phosphatic casts of fossils and phos- 
phatic nodules occur in or over the rotten lime- 
stone, and hence it is probable that this rock may 
contain marly and jihosphatic strata at intervals 



all the way through it. These marls and phos- 
phates, in the majority of cases, are valued almost 
solely by their ]ieroentagcs of phosplioric acid. 
The marls include not only the marls proper, but 
also the green sands and other materials which 
may be valuable as fertilizers. They are nearly 
always phosphatic. The phosphates occur in 
irregular nodules of almost jiure pliosphate of 
lime, in green sands and in silicious limestones. In 
the nodules, the average contents of phosphoric 
acid is al)out twenty-five per cent. If these 
nodules, therefore, could be found in sufficient 
quantity and could be easily or cheaply collected 
together, they would be of great commercial value. 
Tlie phosphatic green sand is insufficient quantity 
and contains phosplioric acid enough to make it a 
most valuable fertilizer. It carries on an avarage 
about ten per cent of phosphoric acid, which is 
equivalent to nearly twenty-two per cent of bone 
phosphate, and is therefore in fertilizing effect 
about equal to tlie Xew Jersey green sand, which 
has wrouglit such a revolution in tlie agriculture 
of that State. The pliospliatic silicious limestones 
disintegrates in jilaces into a phospliatic marl and 
doubtless holds j)hosplioric acid enough to justify 
the burning of the rock for agricultural purposes. 
Marls and i)hospliates, eitherrawor treated with 
sulphuric acid, constitute the chief bulk and cost 
of nearly all manipulated fertilizers, and Alabama, 
instead of making or at least attemjiting to make, 
her fertilizers out of her own raw materials, pays 
out annually to other States nearly $2,000,000 for 
fertilizers. It is true that tlie commercial value 
of these raw materials in Alabama have not as 
yet been fully determined: still, enough is known 
of them to cause a belief that they will make good 
fertilizers and that they will eventually add very 
much to the manufacturing and agricultural 
wealth and prosi)erity of the whole State. 

(7) Ochres Axn Mineral Paixts. Red and 
yellow ochres of very good quality occur in 
several of tlie geological formations of Northern 
Alabama. They are, however, most common in 
the metamorphic and lower cretaceous form- 
ations. Jlineral jjaints that are excellent for 
outdoor work are made by grinding up not only 
these red and yellow ochres, but also the .w/V redore. 


STOXEs. Millstones of very good quality, with 
and without pebbles, are made, principally for 
home uses, from the conglomerates and coarse- 
graia sand stones of the drift, coal measures and 

lower Silurian formations. In all of these form- 
ations, tlie above materials are abundant and the 
millstones made from them are said to be espe- 
cially suited for grist mills or for grinding corn. 
Grindstones and whetstones, particularly of coarse 
grit that is very sharp and good for ordinary edge 
tools, can be easily and cheaply made from many 
of the llagstones of the coal measure and upper 
Silurian formation. These articles are transported 
now for hundreds of miles to this State, when just 
as good, and perhaps often a much better quality 
for many purposes, could be made more cheaply 
right here at home from home materials. 

(9) GLAS^, MoKTAltS AND Moi.DIXfi SaXD.S. 

Pure sands that are good for all the purposes for 
which sands are used are to be found in nearly 
all of the formations of Xorthern Alabama. These 
sands, in the drift and cretaceous formations, 
occurred originally as regular loose strata ; in the 
other formations they occurred originally as regu- 
lar stratified sandstones, of greater or less hard- 
ness and compactness. The outcroi)pings of 
these loose strata and of the sandstones have 
given rise to, on weathering, loose beds or heaps 
of sand that, in many cases, are removed miles 
from the outcroppings of the loose strata or sand- 
stones from which they were derived. The purest 
and best of these sands perhaps have been derived 
from, or form the La Grange sandstone of the 
sub-carboniferous formation. These sandstones, 
as have been stated, form the Little Mountain of 
the Tennessee Valley and the rocky i-mcs of the 
anticlinal valleys. They furnish most of the 
sand that is now used in the State for mortars 
and for molds, :ind will supply sand for the differ- 
ent glass works when completed. 

(10) Macadamizixi; AXi) Ballasting Mate- 
rials. The rounded Hint and cherty pebbles of 
the drift are the very best of materials for mac- 
adamizing walks and drives and for ballasting rail- 
road tracks. They are to be found in the greatest 
quantities along several of the railroad lines of 
Northern Alabama, and, as they occur in loose 
strata or beds, they can be easily and cheaply 
shoveled up and loaded on the cars. They are 
much better adapted to the above purposes than 
the angular cracked up limestones, etc., that are 
usually used, as tiiey are much easier on the feet 
of both man and beast, and on the wear and tear of 
vehicles, and do not give off any disagreeable and 
injurious impalpable dust, and can be packed 
mucii better, or will make a much firmer road. 



(11) Ornamental, Curious and Precious 
Stones. Among the most important of these 
stones in Northern Alabama are to be mentioned 
white and variegated marbles, beautiful stalactites 
and stalagmites, clear and translucent quartz, 
crystals and pebbles, curiously shaped concretion- 
ary masses, well preserved and distinctly marked 
fossil coal jjhnits of great beauty and wonderful 
size, and beautiful specimens of silicified wood, 
agate, chalcedony, etc. The marbles occnr in sev- 
eral of the geological formations, but the most 
beautiful varieties are of themetamorphic or crys- 
talline rocks, through the white and variegated 
marbles of the sub-carboniferous and Silurian 
formations are very good quality. Tliese marbles 
have been quarried to some extent and used for 
monumental and architectural purposes. 

(12) Manganese Ores. Manganese, as pyro- 
lusite or black oxide of manganese, is widely dif- 
fused, in seemingly small quantities, throughout 
Northern Alabama. Fine cabinet specimens of it 
can be jDicked np in most of the formations, but 
perhaps it is in the greatest quantities and of the 
greatest purity in the sub-carboniferous, lower 
Silurian and metamorphic rocks. It is of con- 
cretionary origin, and occurs in patches or pockets, 
like the hroirn ore with which it is intimately asso- 
ciated. It has been mined to some little extent for 
making ferro-mangancse and spicgel eisen. Little, 
however, is known as to its quantity, though it is 
not believed to be great enough to be of any great 
commercial value. 

(13) Copper Ores. The copper ores occur in 
only the crystalline or metamorphic rocks. They 
consist in Northern or Eastern Alabama of chaJ- 
copyrile or coppur pyrites or yelloio copper ore, of 
melaconite or Mack oxide of cuppier or llach copper 
and of covellite or indigo copper. These ores have 
been worked verj- successfully in East Alabama, 
and likely will be worked again. 

(14) Gold. Gold occurs in regular quartz veins 
and in surface gravels and sands in and over the 
metamorphic rocks of East Alabama, and as fine 
washed or placer gold, disseminated through the 
sands and flint pebbles of the drift of Northwest 
Alabama. The metamorphic rocks of East Ala- 
bama are the most southern true gold formation 
of the Atlantic States. The gold-bearing quartz 
veins are now being developed in several localities, 
and they give evidence that they can be worked 
with profit, especially by the use of the improved 
appliances of the present day for mining and 

crushing ores. The loose gravel and sand beds 
over the metamorphic rocks were worked in a 
rough and wasteful way, on an extensive scale, 
some forty to fifty years ago, and yielded consider- 
able fortunes. They doubtless will be worked 
again. The loose gravel and sand beds of the 
drift of Northwest Alabama were also worked 
some little years ago for their placer gold, but 
they likely did not make any one very rich. 

(15) Tin Ores. Tin ore or tinstone, as cassit- 
erite, occurs in the metamoriihic rocks of East 
Alabama, in several localities. It is not known, 
however, to be in sufficient quantity to be of any 
commercial value. 

(IG) Lead Ores. Lead ore, as galena, occurs 
ill situ in several localities in the Silurian rocks of 
Northern Alabama, and in the metamorphic rocks 
of East Alabama. It is also found scattered over 
all parts and over all the formations of Northern 
Alabama, as loose lumps from the size of small 
bullets to fifteen and twenty pounds in weight. 
These loose lumps are particularly numerous 
around the Indian mounds, and, jierhaps, were 
brought to this country by the motind huilders. 
The lead ore in sitii is not known to be in any 
place in Northern Alabama in sufficient quantity 
to be of any commercial value, notwithstanding 
the thousand and one Indian tales of its great 
purity and abundance in hundreds of localities. 

(17) Silver Ores. Most of the galena of 
Northern Alabama carries some silver, and, when 
this silver gets to be as much as several per cent, 
the ore is called a silver ore. 

(18) Zinc Ore. Zinc ore, as sphalerite or zinc 
blende, is found associated with the co]iper ores of 
East Alabama. 

(19) Graphite. Graphite, or jdumbago, or 
black lead, occurs in many localities in East 
Alabama, in small quantities, associated with the 
schists of the metamorphic rocks. 

(20) Hydraulic Cement Eocks and Litho- 
graphic Stones. Impure limestones and fine- 
grained, compact limestones, that would doubtless 
make very good hydraulic cement and lithographic 
stones, abound in the sub-carboniferous and Silu- 
rian formations of Northern Alabama. The 
quality of these limestones for these purposes, 
however, have not as yet been fully determined. 

(21) Natural Gas and Petroleum. Natural 
gas is now and has been known for several years 
to be constantly escaping from between the out- 



crops of strata in several parts of Xortliern Ala- 
bama. There is not believed to be, however, from 
the geological structure of the country and from 
the piiysical nature of the strata, any great reposi- 
tories of it in any of the formations of Northern 
Alabama. Petroleum, or m.ineral oil, impregnates 
rocks in many parts and, in several of the geoiogi- 
cal formations of Northern Alabama, and, as a 
soft asphaUum or pitch, it fills cavities in some of 
these rocks and exudes from cracks in others as a 
semi-liquid bitumen or mineral tar, forming what 
are known as Uir .^pritujs. It is to be hoped that 
an almost inexhaustible reservoir of this valuable 
mineral product will be struck some of these days, 
in Northern Alabama, but, as yet, as with the 
natural gas, little is known, outside of mere con- 
jecture, as to its true supply. 

(22) SoAPSTOXE, steatite or talce; Slates, or 
roofing slates; Emeky, or corundum: Heavy 
Si'AK, barytes or barita; iliCA, or muscovite and 
Asbestos, all occur ia the metamorphic or crysta- 
line rocks of East Alabama, in many localities. 


Northern Alabama, as a whole, i.s a great 
agricultural as well as a great mineral country, 
notwithstanding that it is still, in many sections, 
covered by an unbroken forest, and that, only a few 
years ago, when it was, strictly speaking, an agri- 
cultural country, a large proportional part of its 
lands were looked upon as almost worthless for 
agricultural purposes. The increase in the variety 
and valuation of its agricultural products, or the 
products of its fields, gardens and orchards, for the 
last ten years, has been most gratifying, indeed, 
even when compared witii that of the richest and 
most prosperous of. strictly speaking, agricultural 
countries. Its agricultural wealth consists, pri- 
marily and mainly, in the great cajtabilities of its 
soils and in its erpiable and uniform climate 
and rainfall. Its soils, though in certain sections 
they show a remarkable degree of uniformity in the 
relative proportions of their constituents, are pro- 
lific in every aijricultural product that gives sus- 
tenance and wealth to its cultivators, or are so 
various as to be able to furnish an especially suit- 
able soil for each one of the many great agricul- 
tural products to wliich the climate is adai>ted, 
and to grow, without cultivation, over one hun- 
dred and fifty species of grasses. Some of these 
soils are so fertile that at one time their lands 
produced more of agricultural value than any 

acres of like extent in the United States. The 
same lands can be made to produce again as 
much of agricultural value as any areas of like 
extent in the United States; for their soils, as well 
as those of other sections of Northern Alabama, 
are so duraljle that, after fifty and more years' abuse 
and cultivation in cotton and corn alone, without 
ever having received a single drop of manure or 
fertilizer of any kind, still yield remunerative 
returns in these crops for the labor bestowed in 
cultivation. These crops, cotton and corn, up to 
a few years ago, may be said to have constituted 
the only productions of Northern Alabama; but 
now, however, the indications of progress in diver- 
sified farming in Northern Alabama is most flat- 
tering, indeed. Its cotton crop is on the wane, 
while the food crops and live stock raising are 
proportionally on the increase. This decrease in 
the cotton crop and increase in food crops are 
indicated by the following figures of total produc- 
tions in Alabama of cotton, corn and oats for the 
years 1880 and 1885: 

Cotton Crop (bales). 

Corn Crop (hush) 

Out Ciop (busb) 


2 ,000,000 




The cotton crop, though thus annually falling 
off in quantity, is bringing and keej)ing in the 
State more money, year after year, from the in- 
crease in the home cotton factories and oil mills. 
The increase in the other food crops, or those 
crops which are grown principally for home con- 
sumption, as hay, vegetables, fruits, etc., and in 
the raising of live stock, isequally as gratifying as 
in the case of the corn and oats. The increase in 
live stock raising, though most gratifying, i?, how- 
ever, not what it ought to be, considering the many 
natural advantages of Northern Alabama for this 
most profitable business. The most ))erceptible 
and greatest of these advantages is that Northern 
Alabama grows spontaneously over fifty different 
kinds of plants, of more or less nutritive value, 
that are relished by stock and that are suitable 
for forage and hay crops. In connection with the 
above jileasing fact that the food crops and stock 
raising arc rapidly on the increase in Northern 
Alabama, it is al.«o pleasant to note that the home 
markets for these home-made food products are 
also rajiidly on tJie increase. This is due princi- 
pally to the daily in the home consump- 



tion of the home-made food products, which goes 
to show that the people are fast learning the great 
art of living well or living at home on fresh and 
wholesome food. 

The farmers, as a, are also becoming much 
better educated in their vocation. They are 
abandoning the primitive methods and imple- 
ments of culture of their forefathers and are 
rapidly improving their breeds of stock by im- 
portation. They are also taking a much greater 
and growing interest in their calling, and hence, 
are well organized into State, county and beat 
clubs. They have a State Agricultural Depart- 
ment and two experimental farms, that are sup- 
ported by a tax of 50 cents on every ton of com- 
mercial fertilizer sold within the State. This ta.x 
gave to them the last fiscal year nearly $25,000. 


More than one-half of Northern Alabama may 
still be classed as timber lands. In many sections 
of it there are unbroken forests of heavy timber 
of many square miles in extent that are as yet un- 
touched by the woodman's ax. These forests com- 
prise, as has been stated, over 125 species of arbor- 
escent growth, and include in their heavy timber 
almost every kind of tree of any economical value. 
The prevailing timber, however, of most of these 
iorests is yellow pine, though some of them are of 
the hardwoods, or of oak, hickory, gum, beech and 
cedar, with, in some localities, a considerable 
sprinkling of ash, poplar, cypress and walnut. 
The prevailing timber, however, of any one local- 
ity is closely dependent on the nature of the soil 
or the geological strata from which the soil is 
derived. So true is this, that the timber belts of 
the State closely correspond to the outcroppings 
of certain geological formations, and hence the 
different geological formations can frequently be 
recognized and mapped off, approximately, by 
their peculiar growth. In a general way, the pre- 
vailing timber is of hard woods over a calcareous 
or limey soil, and of the soft woods over a silicious 
or sandy soil. The prevailing timber, therefore, 
over the sandy plateaus is yellow pine, and in tlie 
limestone valleys, oak, hickory, etc. 

There is believed to be enough timber standing 
now in Northern Alabama to last over 150 years, 
not allowing any for natural growth, at the pres- 
ent rate of cut, which is valued at nearly S!3,500,- 
000 per annum. Lumbering will, therefore, be for 
many years to come, as it has been in the past, 

one of the most important industries of Northern 
Alabama. The lumber mills, and hence the lum- 
ber outputs, are rapidly increasing, though there 
are now in the State 420 saw-mills, with an out- 
put that is worth $.3,246,000 per year. 


The natural advantages of Northern Alabama 
are, in many ■ respects, wonderful, and they are so 
numerous that it would be a difficult task to men- 
tion them all. They are self-evident alike to the 
capitalist and to the day-laborer, and to the manu- 
facturer, miner and farmer. They offer to all a 
temperate and equable climate, a dry and invigo- 
rating atmosphere, pure and health-giving waters, 
a cheap rate of taxation that is being constantly 
diminished, and clieap homes, with peaceable and 
contented neighbors and with good church and 
school facilities. Particularizing, they offer to the 
capitalist investments that cannot be excelled by 
those of any other country; and to the day laborer, 
be he skilled or unskilled, plenty of work at good 
pay ; and to the manufacturer cheap power and 
cheap raw materials, in close jjroximity to each 
other and to good transporting facilities; to the 
miner plenty of steady work in the many newly 
opened mines and quarries; and to the farmer 
cheap and rich lands, with varied soils and early 
springs, long summers and late falls for the plant- 
ing, maturing and gathering of his crops. 


The future possibilities of N^orthern Alabama 
are believed to be greater than the conceptions of 
even the most sanguine. The great waves of 
industrial jirogress may be said to have just fairly 
struck Northern Alabama, and their resultants, 
the huge billows of prosjjerity, that have just 
commenced to roll over it, will doubtless continue 
to roll over it until they have made of it one of 
the most prosperous and wealthiest of countries. 
The time or day will have come when the com- 
bined outputs of all of its old furnaces and of all 
of its new furnaces that are now being built are 
used up in home industries, or are converted into 
the most profitable of home manufactured goods, 
or when every cent of profit that can be gotten 
out of the development and productions of its 
natural resources is retained at home. Judging 
from the unprecedented increase within the last 
few years, in the development of its natural 
resources and in the quantity and kind of its 



manufactured <:foods. and from the fact that all of 
its industrial enterprises are now running on full 
time with a good profit, and from the great prob- 
ability that these industries will increase, both in 
number and kind, during the next twelve 

months, at a much greater ratio than they 
have ever increased in the past, it would seem 
that the above gala day, or day of greatest 
prosperity forNorthern Alabama is not very far. 
in the future. 


Summary of the State's History from Its Earliest Settlement 

TO THE Present Day. 

'L'lie climate, of Alabama is one of its chief at- 
tractions. It is womlerfnlly equable. The ex- 
tremes of heat or cold are rarely ever exjjerienced. 
Snow is rarely seen except in tlie most northern 
parts. The streams of the State are never frozen 
over. The spring is early and wonderfully balmy, 
and as a result vegetation is rajjid and luxuriant 
ill its growth. The summers are even and regu- 
lar in temperature and there is never a great or 
sudden change. The extreme of heat rarely ever 
reaches the height which is often marked in the 
cities of the North, in the low country or the flat 
regions of the States lying north of the Ohio river, 
or on the plains of the great Northwest. The au- 
tumn is late, and the crops have a greater length 
of time to mature than in any portion of the dis- 
tinctively farming section of the North or West, 
and the winter is of so slow ajjproach, that the 
crops need not be removed from the fields until 
late in November. 

To the manufacturer Alabama offers induce- 
ments unrivaled by any section of this country. 
If he desires to operate by steam, the fuel to gen- 
erate the power lies in the greatest abundance un- 
der the hills of the State. It abounds in quanti- 
ties practically inexhaustible and is suscejitible of 
being mined at the minimum cost. The coal beds 
of the State are greater in extent and in capability 
of output, than probably the like deposits of any 
other State in the Union, with possibly the excep- 
tion of Pennsylvania. If a manufacturer desires 
to operate by water power, he would find in any 
section of the State thousands — yes, hundreds of 
thousands — of horse power,rusliing madly to waste, 
idle, because the hand of man has not been laid 
upon it, to turn its course to practical usefulness. 
The streams of Alabama, ever running, have power 
sufficient to operate the mills of New England 
over and over again. A single stream would for 
miles and miles along its banks, furnish sites and 
power enough for millions of sjiindles or looms. 
In fact, an unlimited number of industries sus- 

ceptible of being operated by water jtower might 
find sites along the streams of Alabama where the 
conditions for their ojieration would be most highly 
favorable and where the expenses of the operation 
would be reduced to the lowest possible cost. 

The miner, the man engaged in taking from the 
earth its riches, would find work, and steady 
work, in Alabama. Its coal mines just being de- 
veloped — barely yet producing enough for home 
consumption, are being enlarged — new mines are 
being constantly oj^ened, and in a thousand fields 
there is room for experienced men. The ore mines 
employ already thousands, and the opening of new 
ore beds will call for thousands more. Marble, 
granite and slate quarries are being worked and 
others are soon to be worked, and men will be 
wanted to work them. The field is here, and the 
future promises much for the right men. The 
day laborer will find in this State thousands of 
enterprises on which labor is in demand, with fair 
wages and with surrounding circumstances such 
that he can work every day in the year if he 
chooses. lie will lose no time in Alabama be- 
cause it is too cold to work, nor need he lose a 
day because it is too hot. 

, The farmer of the North or West will find in 
Alabama a series of soils, which for richness can- 
not be surpassed in the world. lie will find sec- 
tions adapted to the cultivation of everthing which 
he raised in his Northern home, while at the same 
time it is adapted to many others which would not 
grow with him. He will find lands which will, 
year in and year out, i)roduce a yield of wheat or 
corn equal to the average production of any wheat 
or corn State of the North or AVest. He will find 
this land excellently well adapted to the cultiva- 
tion of the other small grain grown in those 
States. He will find lands which will produce 
tobacco, in quantity and in quality, equal to that 
produced in Connecticut, Pennsylvania or Wis- 
consin. He will find land which will yield hay 
crops as abundantly as the crop of any State in the 



Union. He will not find a country devoted ex- 
clusively to cotton; or rather, lie will not lind a 
country in which cotton alone can be raised. lie 
will lind that he can raise wheat, rye, barley, and 
in fact, anything that he i)roduccs at home, and in 
addition he will be able to raise cotton, potatoes 
and vegetables, and the two latter he will be able 
to ship home something like a month or two before 
the same articles are ready for market there. He 
can stek the southern portion of the State, and 
there he will be able to raise early vegetables, as 
well as many of the fruits of the warmer zones. 
To the agriculturist, the State of Alabama pre- 
sents a greater variety of features than any other 
State of the Union. It presents opportunities 
which, if seen, would be appreciated, and being 
appreciated, would be eagerly accepted. 

To the capitalist seeking a safe investment, 
Alabama presents as many opportunities, if not 
more, than any State in the Union. Its mineral 
fields abound in chances for safe and profitable 
investments. Farming lands in all parts of the 
State may now be purchased at a very low figure, 
and in the course of a few years they will be 
greatly enhanced in value. Transactions in city 
projierty, in the many growing cities of the State, 
have enriched hundreds, and only the outside has 
been touched. There are scores of cities in all 
quarters of Alabama which have not yet been the 
subject of marked increase of value or great en- 
hancements, which offer inducements and have 
resources, that will most certainly cause them to 
come rapidly to the front when the spirit of de- 
velopment becomes, as it surely will, more widely 
spread . 

As a home, Alabama offers a congenial climate, 
and healthfulness which will compare favorably 
witii any section of the country; immunity from 
the terrible scourges of the colder portions of the 
country and a death rate record below the general 
average of the country at large. 

The State of Alabama is situated south of Ten- 
nessee, west of Georgia and a portion of Florida, 
north of a part of Florida and the Gulf of 
of Me.xico, and west of Mississippi. It has an 
area of .50,72"2 square miles. lu 1880 its popula- 
tion numbered l,'i()2,50.5, but the increase since 
that time has been such that it is safe to say its 
population now numbers over one and a half 

Alabama was first seen by white men, when the 
Spanish cavalier, De Soto, with his followers 

reached its territory, on liieir march westward in 
search of the vast treasures which they had been 
told were to be found in the land of the setting 
sun. De Soto found the State peoj)led by a hardy 
and warlike race of Indians, who lived witii com- 
parative comfort in villages throughout its borders. 
These people were brave, but they mistrusted the 
mission of the gallant cavalier and his mail-clad 
followers, and De Soto found that savages though 
they were, they knew the arts of war and they 
fought with such a daring and such a desperation 
against his well-armed and well-protected troops, 
that although he defeated them, the victory was 
well nigii a defeat, and the blood of many a proud 
Spanish nobleman stained Alabama's soil, and the 
bones of many a Spanish soldier were left to bleach 
with the bones of the slain savage, and De Soto's 
party leaving Alabama was not near so large as 
when he entered it. 

By virtue of De Soto's discovery, Spain claimed 
the southern half of the present States of Ala- 
bama and Mississippi as portions of the Florida 
possessions. France also laid claim to the same 
territory, under a settlement of a portion of it by 
a French expedition under Bienville. France sus- 
tained its claim to the territory in question as a 
portion of its Louisiana possessions. 'I'he title of 
both of thesecountiies to this particular territory 
was denied by Great Britain, and that country 
finally obtained and held possession of it until the 
matter was formally settled by France ceding to 
England all of its Louisiana jiossessions east of the 
-Mississippi river, and about the same time Spain 
ceded Florida to Great Britain; thus that govern- 
ment consolidated all contlicting titles and became 
the owner of this entire country south of the Ohio 
and east of the Mississippi rivers. 

England divided its possessions thus acquired into 
three parts — Florida, West Florida and Illinois. 
From a line drawn across the present States of 
Alabama and Mississippi just north of Montgom- 
ery, from the Chattahoochee to the Mississippi, to 
another drawn along the northern boundary of the 
present State of Flori<la from and to the same 
points, was the portion of the territory which com- 
prised the division known as West Florida. The 
remainder of the State north of the northern line, 
was a portion of Illinois. During the occupation 
of the country by the British, the first cession of 
lands to whites was made by the Indians, who 
relinquislied all the lands between the Pascagoula 
river, in what is now Mississippi and Mobile Bay, 



from the coast, north to a given point on the 
Tombigbee river, thence west to the Pascagoula. 
This cession was confirmed to the United States 
{government after the close of the Eevolution.ary 

During the struggle of the American colonies 
for independence, tlie people of Alabama remained 
loyal to the British government, and when the 
Spaniards espoused the cause of the colonies and 
sent a force to attack Mobile, the white residents 
of Alabama responded to the call and so reinforced 
the garrison at Fort Charlotte, that for several 
days they resisted the attack of the colonists' 

On the conclusion of peace between Great Britain 
and the American colonies, that government ceded 
to the victorious colonists the territory east of the 
Mississippi and north of the 31st degree of lati- 
tude. Spain claimed the portion of this territory 
south of latitude 30-28, as having been ceded to 
that government by England, after the cession of 
the territory to England by France. Spain held 
possession of a portion of the disputed territory, 
and it was only settled after the visit of (;en. 
Thomas E. Pinckney in 1795, to Madrid, for that 
purpose, when Spain relinquished its claim in 
favor of the young government, but it held nom- 
inal possession of the section in controversy, until 

Georgia, which was one of the thirteen colonies, 
claimed the territory now comprised in the States 
of Alabama and Mississippi, and within a year or 
so after the close of the Revolutionary war, that 
State began preparations for the colonization of 
the territory, for the purpose of bringing it 
unquestionably under its control, and to this end 
in 178-1:, tbe legislature of Georgia authorized the 
sending of a party of settlers into the wilds of 
Alabama to organize counties. This party, in 
1785, organized all of that portion now in the 
State, lying north of the Tennessee river, into a 
county which was called Houston, in honor of 
Gov. John Houston, of Georgia. The seat of 
government of this, the first American govern- 
mental organization formed in Alabama, was 
located at or near Muscle Shoals, on the Tennessee 
river. The life of this county was of short dura- 
tion. The offices necessary for government were 
established, but the wildness of the country and 
the fear of the Indians, who were being incited to 
offensive acts by the Spanish authorities, together 
with the slowness of the arrival of immigration 

caused the abandonment of the enterprise and the 
return of the party to Georgia. 

In 1798, the congress of the United States by an 
act created the Territory of Mississippi. This 
Territory embraced that portion of the present 
States of Alabama and Mississippi which 
lies north of an east and west line, along the 
northern boundary of Florida from the Chatta- 
hoochee to the Mississipjji, and south of a similai 
line drawn between those two rivers and passing a 
little north of Montgomery. The seat of govern- 
ment of the new territory was located at Natchez 
on the Mississippi river. John Adams was then 
President of the United States, and he appointed 
as governor of the newly created territory, Win- 
throp Sargeant, of Massachusetts, who proceeded 
to Natchez and organized the territorial govern- 

In 1800, Governor Sargeant, by proclamation, 
created the county of Washington, and defined 
its limits as all the area in the territory of Missis- 
sippi east of Pearl river as far as the Chatta- 
hoochee. The census of the territory was taken 
in that year, and the returns showed Washington 
county's population to consist of 733 whites, 494 
negro slaves and 23 free negroes. At this time 
what is now the counties of Baldwin and Mobile 
were under the domination of the Spanish govern- 
ment, and it is estimated that their population 
equaled that of Washington county. In 1801 the 
people of the territory became dissatisfied with the 
ministration of Governor Sargeant and petitioned 
his removal from office, which petition was granted 
by Thomas Jefferson, who had succeeded to the 
presidency, and William C. C. Claiborne, of Ten- 
nessee, was a25pointed to succeed him as governor 
of the territory. 

Georgia maintained its claim to the northern 
portions of the States of Alabama and Mississippi, 
contending that it held a title to the territory 
under a grant from the British government. 
This dispute was finally settled in 1802, by the 
State of Georgia ceding to the United States all of 
the territory in question, for, and in consideration 
of the sum of one and a quarter million of dollars. 
After the purchase of the title to this land from 
the State of Georgia, the limits of the territory of 
Mississippi were extended so that it all was com- 
prised therein. The next step taken by the gen- 
eral government was the negotiation of treaties 
with the Indian occupants of the lands of the 
entire Territory, that they might be thrown open 



to settlement. An inijiortant treaty was concluded 
in the- hitter j)ortioii of 18(i'^. between coniniis- 
sioners representing the United States and the 
chiefs of sevei'al tribes inhabiting the territory, 
by whicli the Choctaws renewed their grant of 
land to the British in favor of tlie Tnitcd Slates 

In lSii5 Robert Williams, of North Carolina, 
.siicceedei] Governor Claiborne as (iovernor of the 
Territory, and the i)ej)ding negotiations with the 
Indians were concluded, and new negotiations 
opened, which resulted in acquiring large grants 
of lands from the savages, all of whieii were thrown 
open and settled: the tide of immigration began to 
How in the State, and in a short time the jiop'ila- 
tioii had increased materially. In 1808. (iovernor 
Williams created by jiroclamation. from the Chick- 
asaw cession, the county of JIadison, and opened 
up that portion of the Territory to settlement by 
white immigrants. In the succeeding year. 1809, 
the county of Hakhviu was organized. Mobile was 
still in the hands of the Spaniards, and there was 
a continual warfare between them and the settlers. 
In 1809 Governor Williams was succeeded by ])avid 
Holmes, of Virginia, and at that time the three 
countiesof tlie Territory of Mississippi lying within 
the present State of AUbama were: Washington, 
JIadison and Baldwin. According to the census 
of 1810 the ))opu]ation of these counties consisted 
of y'iA'l'i whites and 'lXi'l\ negroes, about half of 
whom resided within the limits of Madison county. 

The Spanish Government ceded Louisiana back 
to France in 1801, retained Florida, and claimed 
as a portion of it the strip of coast lying south of 
the 31st degree of latitude, directly .south of and 
adjoining the Territory of Mississippi. In 1803 
Franc:e sold Louisiana to the United States, but 
Spain still claimed and held possession of the strip 
of coast. 

Before the breaking out of the war of ISIS, the 
Sjianish managed to incite the Indians living in 
the Territory to misehief, and they made fref|uent 
attacks on settlers and immigrants, and com- 
mitted outrages and depredations which brought 
on a state of hostilities, which ended only after a 
long and bitter war. 

On the o]ieningof the War of LST-,' Sj)ainwas an 
ally of (ircat Britain, and the United States Gov- 
ernment thouglit it best to dislodge the Spanish 
soldiers garrisoning the foi'ts south of Mississippi 
Territory, to prevent them falling into the liands 
of tiie foes, and with this end in view. General 

Wilkerson, with a large force, moved from New 
Orleans and laid siege to Fort Charlotte, which, 
after some days of resistance, capitulated, and thus 
the United States became tiie j)ossessor of one of 
the best harboi's on the(!ulf coast, and was in a 
position to prevent an inroad by the enemy to the 
interior by way of the .Mobile and tributary rivers. 

Later in this year, 18i:S, occurred the celebrated 
fight of Burnt Corn, between a force of less than 
two hundred settlers and about twice their num- 
ber of savages, in which, owing to discredit- 
able action on the part of a lai'ge portion of 
the whites, the Indians were victorious. The 
repulse received at the hands of the Indians 
in the Burnt Corn engagement had the effect of 
disheartening the settlers, and at the same time 
their success elated the savages; they were ripe for 
other deeds of violence, and began an indiscrim- 
inate attack on the settlements, murdering all who 
fell into their hands without regard to age or sex, 
burning down the homes of the whites and laying 
their fields waste with fire. The destruction was 
general — none were spared. 

This state of affairs caused theerection through- 
out the disturbed section of the State, numerous 
block houses, or as they were called, stockades, 
where the people retired for security when the 
attacks of the savages became too frequent, and in 
these stockades the people found comparative 
security: but in one of them there occurred the 
most terrible massacre which has marked the 
annals of savage warfare in this country. Such a 
fort was erected at the residence of David Mims, 
in the northeastern portion of Baldwin countv, 
and after the Burnt Corn fight, the whites for 
.some distance around, fearing the sj>irit of reprisal 
in the savages, gathered in this fort, prepared to 
defend themselves against any number of Indians 
that chanced to attack it. The people in the fort, 
according to the most accurate of the State's his- 
torians, numbered ^45 men capable of liearing 
arms, who were under the command of Maj. Oaniel 
Beasley, and 308 women, children aTid friendly 

For many days during the latter part of August, 
1813, rumors reached tlie fort of the api>roach of 
an army of Indians, but as often, investigation by 
scouts sent out for the purpose, proved that the 
rej)ort was without foundation. This occurred 
several times, and as might naturally be supposed, 
it was soon regarded as the fabled cry of the wolf, 
and the occui)ant8 of the fort rested esisily, conscious 



of the possession of an apparently secure place of 

The Indians were enraged by the attack on 
them at Burnt Corn. The warlike spirit in the 
tribes living in the Coosa and Tallapoosa valleys 
had been roused during the preceding winter by 
the fiery sf)eeches of the great Shawnee chief, Te- 
cumsefi, whom, it is said, the British sent from 
his home on the banks of the Ohio, among the 
Indians of the Mississij)pi Territory for the pur- 
pose of rousing them to war. The council fires 
burned- throughout the country along those rivers, 
and the eloquent chief poured hot words of wrong, 
of robbery, of dealh and of devastation into the 
ears of the Indians assembled about him, and he 
stirred up in their bosoms a fire which could only 
be quenched by the blood of the whites; his words 
awakened a hatred which clamored loudly for 
revenge. The peaceably disposed chieftains of 
the tribes endeavored to stay the tide which had 
set in. They endeavored to arrest the current 
which would madly tear onto rapine and murder, 
and which they foresaw would result in the 
destruction of the tribes by the whites, whose 
superiority in warfare would render them in the 
end invincible. In this they failed, and the hills 
were enlivened by the war dance, while the defiant 
war-whoop uttered by a thousand throats, sounded 
over the hills, through the valleys and awoke 
echoes from the mountain dells. The savage 
boiled. The Burnt Corn attack was the 
event which unchained the tiger of revenge. 
After its occurrence, the restraining influence of 
the peaceable chieftains, which had at least 
caused delay, was brushed aside, and the men 
who cried out vengeance! vengeance! gathered 
thousands of the dusky warriors about them. A 
party was organized under the leadership of 
Weatherford, Peter McQueen and I'rophet Fran- 
cis, for a descent upon the white settlements 
along the bottoms of the lower Alabama and Tom- 
bigbee. The army numbered a thousand strong 
and its march to the scene of its greatest carnage 
was as stealthy as the creeping of a cat to a posi- 
tion of vantage from which to spring on its prey. 
This band of warriors surrounded Fort Mims by 
daylight, and at high noon they had crawled up 
to its very gates. The inmates of the fort had 
been deceived often about the enemy's approach, 
and they had grown careless. When the savages 
arrived, they were at their ease; the approaches 
were unguarded; the stockade gates stood open; 

there was not a sentinel in place. With one wild 
cry of expectant victory, the maddened savages 
poured in like demons hungering for carnage. 
They swarmed in on the unpreimred and unsus- 
pecting inmates of the fort, and there ensued the 
most horrible massacre which has ever stained 
with its blood a page of the country's history. 
The tomahawk and the scalping knife were 
greedy for gore, and though the inmates of the 
fort, roused to a sense of their danger, fought 
with desperation the battle of self-preservation, 
the slaughter was complete, and the declining 
sun sent his setting rays over the smouldering 
ruins of Fort Mims, around which lay the dead 
bodies of about 500 of its inmates, and the 
dead bodies of over 2(>0 of its assailants. Of 
the 55;i souls in the fort at the time of 
the attack, all historians writing on the sub- 
ject, agree that less than fifty escaped alive, 
^[en, women, and children, all alike, fell vic- 
tims to the revenge of the savages. The news 
of this terrible slaughter spread like wild-fire, 
and Gen. Andrew Jackson was sent from 
Tennessee, within forty days after the Fort 
Mims disaster, with .3,000 volunteers raised in 
that State to wreak vengeance on the bloodthirsty 
savages. In November a portion of this body 
attacked the Indian town of Tallasseehatchee, 
located within the limits of what is now Calhoun 
county, and after a brief but bloody struggle, 
all the warriors, 186 in number, were killed, 
and General Jackson, in making his report 
of the engagement to Governor Blount, tersely 
wrote: "We retaliated for Fort Mims." 
Later in the same month, he attacked the Indian 
towri of Talladega, and there inflicted a 
crushing defeat, the Indians leaving 299 
warriors dead on the field. The remnant 
retired across the mountains to the town of Ililla- 
bee, and proceeded to open up negotiations with 
Jackson for i)eace. A few days later. General 
White, in command of another body of Tennes- 
see volunteers, surprised the town and killed sixty 
of the warriors. 

Georgia sent out volunteers to the aid- of the 
settlers of Mississipi^i Territory, and the battles 
were frequent and fierce throughout the Territory, 
and were fought with varying success. The Mus- 
cogees were a brave tribe, and' though attacked 
from every point of the compass, they fought 
desperately aiul fought well, and it was not until 
their overwhelming defeat by Jackson's re-inforced 



army, at Horse Shoe Bend, were they a defeated, 
broken and scattered race. This engagement was 
j)ractically tlie deatli-blow to the tribe, as its loss 
footed u]) probably more than 000 warriors slain. 

General Jackson built Fort Jackson on the Ruins 
of Bienville's old Fort Toulouse, in what is now 
Elmore county, and here he concluded treaties of 
peace with tiie various tribes, whereby they sur- 
rendered more or loss of their lands, and after the 
lapse of a few years they exchanged the pitiful 
remnant left to them, for a home beyond the 
" Father of Waters." 

After spending some time at Fort Jackson 
(ieneral Jackson moved his headquarters to Mobile, 
and on the arrival of volunteers from Tennessee, 
he captured Pensacola from the Spanish, after 
wiiich he left the army in charge of Maj. Uriah 
Blue, and proceeded to Xew Orleans to take 
command there. Major Blue was kept busy 
liunting up and crushing out jiredatory bands of 
Indians, and after a short time the mighty Mus- 
cogee was a race of the j)ast. Driven to the 
woods and swamps, with nothing on which to 
subsist, the weather compelled the scattered 
members of the tribe to come with outstretched 
hands begging food, peace and protection at the 
iiands of those who had in battle proven the 

The lands of the C'hickasaws and Choctaws 
were obtained from those tribes by treaties, on the 
[)aynient by the Government of a stipulated sum of 
money. Thus was the red man pushed out of the 
choicest portions of the territory. By force of 
arms, and at the price of blood, and when these 
failed, or the Government concluded that the war 
would be too obstinate, American gold bribetl the 
red man to surrender a domain rich enough in its 
resources to purchase kingdoms for a hundred 
kings. These treaties were concluded in 1814, 
and the Indians having been crushed out, or 
bought off, the country began to rapidly fill up 
with immigrants, and as the richness of its soils 
became known, the dissatisfied in the older States 
packed up their farming implements and in 
wagon trains traveled, orer the rough roads, seek- 
ing a home on Alabama's virgin soil. 



By an act of Congress, dated March 1, 1817, 
the Territory of Mississippi was divided, and by 

another act of Congress, adopted two days later, 
the western portion of the divided Territory was 
organized into a new Territory, to be called Ala- 
bama; defining its boundaries and providing for 
its government. The act fi.xed the seat of govern- 
ment of the new Territory at St. Stephens, in 
Washington county, and directed the president to 
ai)point a governor for the new Territory, who 
should have authority to call a session tliere of 
such members of the Territorial council (the same 
as the senate of to-day) and house of representa- 
tives of the Territory of .Mississippi as resided 
within the boundary of the new Territorv- Presi- 
dent Monroe appointed as governor of Alabama 
William Wyatt Bibb, of Georgia, who accepted 
the position and entered on the discharge of his 
duties shortly after his appointment. Governor 
Bibb called the first session of the Territorial Leg- 
islature together in January, 1SI8. The session 
commenced on January 19, when it was discov- 
ered that ten members of the house of representa- 
tives resided within the boundaries of Alabama, 
while Mr. Titus, of Madison, was the sole mem- 
ber of the legislative council entitled to a seat, and 
throughout the entire session he occupied a 
chamber and adopted or defeated the legislation 
arising in the other house as he saw fit; enacted 
such legislation as he thought necessary, and with 
due formality forwarded it to the lower house for 
ratification or rejection. 

The ten members of tiie house elected Mr. Ga- 
briel Moore of Madison, chairmau, and the follow- 
ing counties were represented: Baldwin, Clarke, 
Madison, Jlobile, Monroe, Montgomery and Wash- 
ington. There was some excitement about this 
time occasioned by a petition of the constitutional 
convention of Mississippi Territory, praving con- 
gress to extend the limits of that Territory to the 
Tombigbee river and Mobile bay, so as to include 
the city and county of ilobile as a portion of that 
territory. Counter petitions were sent up from 
all parts of Alabama, and feeling ran high on the 

The second, and what proved to be the last, ses- 
sion of the Territorial Legislature, assembled at St. 
Stephens in November, 1S18. The most import- 
ant act of this body was to change tlie location of 
the seat of government from St. Stephens to Ca- 
haba, on the Alabama river at the point where it 
is entered by the Cahaba river. This body also pro- 
vided for the erection of public buildings at Ca- 
haba, and for the temporary location of the seat 



of government at Huntsville nntil the completion 
of the public buildings at Cahaba. 

On March 2, 1819, just two years after the 
organization of the Territory, Congress authorized 
the inhabitants to form a state constitution and 
provided that when that constitution was 
framed the State should be admitted into 
the union on the same footing as the original 
States. The act authorizing this donated to 
the prospective State the sixteenth section 
of every township of the j^iiblic lands for the 
maintenance of schools; all salt springs in 
the State and the land adjoining necessary 
to work them to the extent of thirty-five 
acres; five per cent, of the net proceeds of the sale 
of public lands within the State to be apjjlied to 
works of internal improvements; three-fifths 
under the direction of the State Legislature, and 
the remaining two-fifths under the direction of 
Congress; seventy-two sections of public lands for 
the use of a seminary of learning, and 1,020 acres 
to be reserved for a seat of government. 

The act authorized an election to be held on 
the first Monday and Tuesday of May, 1819, 
for delegates to a convention, to assemble in 
Huntsville on the first Monday in July following, 
which was on the 5th day of that month. 

The convention f)rovided for in this act met in 
Huntsville on the 5th day of July, 1819, with 
the following delegates re2oresenting the counties 
named present: 

Autauga — James Jackson. 

Baldwin — Harry Toulmin. 

Blount — Isaac Brown, John Brown and Gabriel 

Cahaba (now Bibb) — Littlepage Sims. 

Clarke — Reuben SafEold and James McGofHu. 

Conecuh — Samuel Cook. 

Cataco (now Morgan) — Melkijah Vaughn and 
Thomas D. Crabb. 

Dallas — William R. King. 

Franklin — Richard Ellis and William Metcalf. 

Lauderdale — Hugh ilcN'ay. 

Lawrence — Arthur F. Hopkins and Daniel D. 

Limestone — Thomas Bibb, Beverly Hughes and 
Nicholas Davis. 

Madison — Clement C. Clay, John Leigh Towns, 
Henry Chambers, Samuel Mead, Henry Minor, Ga- 
briel Moore, Jno. W. Walker and John M. Taylor. 

Marengo — Washington Thomjison. 

Marion — John D. Terrell. 

Mobile— S. H. Garrow. 

Monroe — John MurjDhy, John Watkins, James 
Pickens and Thomas Wiggins. 

Montgomerj' — John D. Bibb and James W. 

St. Clair — David Connor. 

Shelby — George Phillips and Thos. A. Rodgers. 

Tuscaloosa — Marmaduke Williams and John L. 

Washington — Israel Pickens and Henry Hitch- 

The convention elected John W. Walker, of 
•Madison, chairman, and John Campbell secre- 

The constitution adopted by this body was mod- 
eled after the spirit of the age. It guaranteed to 
the citizen the fullest liberty; the declaration of 
rights set out so mucli of the ilagna Charta as 
was consistent in the constitution of a Republican 
State government ; slavery, then existing, was 
recognized; suffrage was accorded to all white 
males of the age of twenty-one and upwards; the 
governor, legislature and county officers were 
made elective by the popular poll; judicial offi- 
cers, it was provided, should be chosen by the 
general assembly. The term of office of the gov- 
ernor was limited to two years, and one successive 
re-election to that office was allowed; terms of 
judicial officers were fixed at six years, senators 
three years and representatives one year. The 
judges of circuit courts collectively were consti- 
tuted a supreme court of appeals, with equity 
jurisdiction, but the constitution provided for 
separate sujireme and chancery courts. The work 
of the convention was concluded on the 2d of 
August, and a copy of the constitution was pre- 
jjared to be forwarded to Congress for its ratifica- 
tion by that body. 

An election ordered by the new constitution for 
governor and members of the legislature was held 
shortly after the adjournment of the convention, 
and resulted in the choice of William Wyatt Bibb, 
first and only Territorial Governor of Alabama, as 
Governor of the new State. Governor Bibb was op- 
posed in the race for this position by Marmaduke 
Williams, of Tuscaloosa, who was one of the 
delegates to the constitutional convention from 
that county. The election for members of the 
legislature resulted in the choice of twenty-two 
senators and forty-five representatives. 

The first session of the State Legislature of 
Alabama met in Huntsville, Oct. 25, 1819, and 



remained in session until Dec. 10, of tliat year. 
Oovernor Bibb was inaugurated as first (iovcrnor of 
the State of Alabama, in lluntsville, on the IHli of 
November, 1810. 


of the State of Alabama was ajiproved by Con- 
gress and a joint resolution admitting the State 
into the Union was adopted, and receiving tiie 
-approval of President 51 on roe on the 14th of 
December, 1819, became law. 

Immigration began to flow into the State, and 
according to the census of 1820, its population, ex- 
clusive of Indians, numbered 127,001, of which 
■85,451 were whites and 42,450 were negroes. With 
tlie growth of the population a disposition to im- 
prove the country was fostered, and, as a result, 
roads were cut, steamboat companies and over- 
land transportation companies were organized, but 
the facilities were so limited that the greater por- 
tion of the supplies for the interior of the State 
were brought from the coast by the rivers in flat- 
boats, and a trip from Mobile to either Montgom- 
ery or Demopolis was a matter of from two to four 
months. This means of transportation was used 
on the river for some years after 1820. 

The first newspaper published in Alabama was 
established in lluntsville bva Mr. Barhaiii in 1812. 
Thomas Eaton, who became the first public printer 
of Alabama Territory, established a paper at St. 
Stephens in 1814. 

Mobile's first newspaper was printed by a Mr. 
Cotton in 1816, and Thomas Davenport printed a 
paper in Tuscaloosa in 1818. In 1820, besides 
the places mentioned, newspapers were jirinted in 
other parts of the State as follows : One in 
Florence, two in Cahaba, one in Montgomery and 
one in Claiborne. 

The constitution, to facilitate trade and imjirove 
the financial condition of the people, provided for 
the establishment of a State bank. For the 
greater convenience of all, it provided that a 
main or principal bank should be established at 
the seat of government, and that branch banks 
could be located throughout the State at points 
where their location would prove the most advan- 
tageous. Under this system the State guaranteed 
the issue of the bank, retaining two-fifths of its 
stock as security. The parent bank of this 
system established at Cahaba in 1820. The 
.seat of government was removed in 1820 to 
■Cahaba, and here the second session of the 

general assembly was convened. Governor Bibb, 
tiie first Governor of the State, died in July of 
this year, and iiis brother, Thomas Bibb, of Lime- 
stone, who was president of tiie senate, succeeded 
to the position and filled out the unexpired term. 
The act to establish the State university was 
passed by the legislature on December 18, 1820. 
This legislature also elected the three electors 
to rejjresent Alabama in the electoral college, and 
who were instructed to cast the vote of the State 
for James Monroe, of Virginia, for President, and 
Daniel D. 'J'ompkins, of New York, for Vice- 
President. The electors selected were John Scott, 
of Montgomery; Henry ilinor, of Madison, and 
George Phillips, of Dallas. 

In 1824, Alabama was visited by General La 
Fayette, who was entertained as the State's guest 
at the ca])ital, then Cahaba, by Governor Pickens, 
(ieneral LaFayette remained several days at 
Cahaba, after which he jjroceeded on his trip to 
New Orleans by way of Claiborne and Mobile. 

In 1856, by a vote of the General Assembly the 
seat of government of the State was removed from 
Cahaba to Tuscaloosa, where it remained about 
twenty years. The government of the State for 
the first ten years of its existence had been highly 
satisfactory, and as a result, the population was 
more than doubled. The people were prosperous, 
and as a natural result they were hapj)y and con- 
tented. The census of 1830 fixed the population 
of the Stateat 300,527, divided asfollows: AVhites, 
100,406; negro slaves, 117,540; and 1,562 free 
negroes. Educational and religious development 
kept pace with the increase in the number of peo- 
ple, while on every hand there was to be seen an 
increased spirit of internal improvement. The 
vast bodies of fine»lands yet in the possession of 
the Indians were acquired and opened to settle- 
ment by purchase and by treaty; one by one the 
tribal remnants of the once great nations which 
owned this State were gathered together and sent 
to a new home in the far West. 

During the term of Governor Moore, which was 
begun in 1820, the construction of a canal around 
Mussel Shoals in the Tennessee river was com- 
menced, and about the same time the building of 
a railroad between Tusoumbia and Decatur was 
begun, which was the first railroad constructed in 
Alabama, and was completed in 1832. The road 
ran between those points by Courtland, and was 
forty-four miles in length. 

The State University at Tuscaloosa was opened 



April 18, 1831, about eleven years after the passage 
of the act establishing it. A spirit of manu- 
facturing began to develop itself in the State 
about this time, and in 1832 the General Assem- 
bly passed a bill incorporating Bell's Cotton Fac- 
tory, which was located in Madison county and 
was the first cotton factory erected in the State. 

In 1835 a treaty was concluded with the Chero- 
kees, the last remaining of the four great tribes of 
Indians whom the whites found in possession of 
the territory of this State. This tribe, for and in 
consideration of $5,000,000 and 7,000,000 acres of 
land in the West, ceded to the Government their 
lands lying in Alabama and Georgia, and shortly 
after were removed by the general Government to 
their new homes in Indian Territory. 

A financial panic was threatened in 1837, being 
occasioned by an accumulation of bank issues — a 
flooding of the country with money, which tended 
to create a feeling of false prosperity, and induced 
the people of all classes to plunge into debt. 
Property of all kinds appreciated far beyond actual 
value, and the anticipations of prosperity not 
being realized, debts fell due, and there was every- 
where an inability to meet them. Business became 
stagnant ; runs were made on the banks, until in 
the early summer of this year, all of them sus- 
pended specie payment. Values depreciated and 
in consequence many of the State's citizens were 
reduced to poverty. The exigency demanded 
action, and a special session of the Legislature was 
called, which devised measures whereby the gen- 
eral condition was ameliorated and the pending 
disaster checked. 

The Legislature of 1839 established separate 
courts of equity and chancery; adopted a peniten- 
tiary system and provided for the erection of the 
necessary buildings at Wetumpka. The boundary 
question, which had long been in dispute between 
Georgia and this State, was settled in this year, by 
a Joint commission of the two States. The 
Alabama members of that commission were : W. 
B. Benton, of Benton ; Alexander Bowie, of Tal- 
ladega, and John M. Moore, of Barbour. 

The year 1840 found the State of Alabama 
wonderfully prosperous. It owed no debts and 
had levied no taxes since the year 1836, the ex- 
penses of the government being defrayed by the 
State bank and its four branches, but that institu- 
tion, which had received the most of the Legisla- 
ture's attention, had from bad management, 
incurred the ill-will of the peojile and the end of 

its existence was fast approaching. The State in 
1840 was composed of forty-nine counties with a 
total population of 590,756, divided as follows : 
white, 335,185; negro slaves, 253,532, and 2,039 
free negroes. 

The General Assembly, in 1842, passed an act 
placing the branches of the State bank, located in 
Mobile, Montgomery, Huntsville and Decatur, in 
liquidation, and provided for winding up the 
affairs of those banks. This act was followed the 
succeeding year by one making the same disposi- 
tion of the mother bank at Tuscaloosa, and the 
method by which the State had supplied its citizens 
with currency for over twenty years was discon- 
tinued, and there was hardly a voice raised against 
this action. Owning stock in the bank, the State 
felt bound for the payment of obligations issued by 
it, and in consequence the legislature passed a bill, 
ordering an issue of State bonds to provide the 
means of making this payment. The debts of the 
bank, owing to mismanagement and the indiscrimi- 
nate endorsement of the worthless paper of individ- 
uals, largely exceeded its assets, and the State ap- 
pointed a commission, consisting of F. S. Lyons, 
of Marengo, C. C. Clay, Sr., of Madison, and Will- 
iam Cooper, of Franklin, for the purpose of ad- 
justing the affairs of the banks and making a 
settlement with the creditors. The issue of bonds 
for the purpose of settling the indebtedness of the 
State bank was the foundation for the present 
bonded debt of the State. 

The question of removing the capital was one 
which was continually coming up, and, to settle 
it definitely, it was submitted to a pojiular vote 
of the State in 1845. The leading points striving 
for selection as the seat of government were Tus- 
caloosa, Wetumpka and Montgomery, and the re- 
sult of the election was the selection of Mont- 
gomery as the future capital of the State. The 
people of that city immediately built a capitol 
building on an eminence reserved for that pur- 
pose, at the head of what was then known as 
Main or Market Street. The State archives and 
public offices were transferred from Tuscaloosa to 
the new capitol at Montgomery in 1846 and 1847. 
In 1849 the people voted on and adopted an 
amendment to the constitution, changing the 
title of county judges to that of probate judges, 
and transferring their election and the election 
of circuit judge from the General Assembly to 
the people. On the 14th of December, 1849, 
while the Legislature was in session in the new 



Capitol at Montgomery, the building was dis- 
covered to be on fire, and, notwithstanding 
the efforts made to save it, the structure was 
destroyed, but the progress of tlie fire was so 
slow that all the important records and doc- 
uments contained in the offices were saved. The 
governor secured apartments in the Exchange 
hotel, at Montgomery, and the session of the 
Legislature was continued in that building. It 
provided means for the erection of another State- 
house, to replace that destroyed by fire, which 
was ready for occupancy by the time of the reiis- 
sembling of the next session. 

The growth of Alabama continued steadily, and 
everywhere it was noticeable that the State had made 
great progress in all things pertaining to civiliza- 
tion. In 1850, the population numbered 771,623, 
divided as follows: whites, 420,514; negro slaves, 
334,844, and 2,265 free negroes. 

The year 1850 and the live years following are 
memorable as times when the subject of internal 
improvement was uppermost in the minds of the 
people of the State, and among the great enter- 
prises then under consideration was the con- 
struction of the following lines of railway : Mo- 
bile & Ohio, Memphis & Charleston, Selma & 
Rome, Alabama & Mississippi Elvers railroad 
(westward from Selma), Montgomery & Pensa- 
cola. Mobile tS: Girard, Alabama & Chattanooga, 
and the Columbus branch of the Western rail- 

The discussion of the great advantage these 
roads would be to the State at large, in opening 
all quarters of it up to immigration, led also to 
discussing the question of the advisability of lend- 
ing to the companies controlling these and other 
roads the credit of the State to aid them in pro- 
curing the means to carry out their enterprises. 
This discussion caused several companies having 
money invested in such schemes to go to the Legis- 
lature and seek relief, or the aid which would come 
should the State lend them its credit, by becoming 
resjjonsible for tiie obligations in the financial cen- 
ters, or by the endorsement of their bonds, or by 
the issue of bonds in their favor. The Legislature 
was composed of members who came from localities 
w^hich would l>e largely benefited by the extension 
and completion of these enterprises, and as the 
local interests would be subserved, there was some- 
thing like a demand sent up to the General Assem- 
bly from such localities, that action affording the 
relief, or aid prayed, be taken. 

John A. Winston, of Sumter, then Governor of 
the State, was a statesman who regarded such 
action inconsistent with the true object of govern- 
ment, vetoed all measures passed by the General 
Assembly subsidizing such enterprises. 

In his message of Jan. It, 1856, vetoing the act 
making a loan to the Memphis & Charleston road, 
he says: 

"Experience teaches us that any departure 
from the legitimate and simple purposes of gov- 
ernment brings, as inevitably as a departure from 
physical and moral law, a speedy punishment, 
and admonishes those who have fixed ideas of 
public policy of the danger of any abandonment 
of principle, in legislation and matters of gov- 
ernment. The experience of Alabama is fruitful 
of the bitter consequences of making expediency 
paramount to principle." 

The insane asylum at Tuscaloosa was built in 
1856, but was not opened until some years later. 
The asylum for the deaf, dumb and blind, at Tal- 
ladega, was completed and put in operation in 

In 1860 the census showed Alabama with a pop- 
ulation of 964,201, of which the whites numbered 
526,271; negro slaves, 435,080, and free negroes 
2,690. The State had grown in people, in wealth, 
in enlightenment, and in all things which tended 
to the happiness of its citizens, and every one saw 
an outlook of great brightness and rich promise 
just ahead. 

Notwithstanding the bright outlook of the State 
at this time, there must have been some who 
regarded the situation with concern if not alarm. 
Slavery was an institution in the State, as it was 
an institution in adjoining States. Slaves were 
property recognized by the constitution, and special 
acts commanded for them humane treatment, care- 
ful attention in time of sickness, proper apparel 
and sufficient and wholesome food at all times. 
The question of slavery was being discussed at the 
North. Enthusiasts preached abolition, and the 
doctrine began to gain converts until its adherents 
numbered thousands. A new party grew up with 
the theory of abolition of slavery as its founda- 
tion. The question of slavery was the rock on 
which the North and the .South in the old parties 
threatened to split. The leaders on both sides of 
the sectional line differed widely in their views, 
and one would not recede from an opinion, for fear 
it would be regarded as the surrender of a princi- 
ple. Thus the South stood at the opening of the 



year 1860 — on the eve of what proved to be the 
most critical epoch of the country's history. The 
growth and seeming strength of the new party — 
the Republican, or rather '' black Republican " 
party — filled some of the Southern leaders with 
apprehension that that party would be success- 
ful in the election for the presidency which 
would occur in the winter of 1860. 

With this fear in view, a resolution was passed 
by both houses of the General Assembly, in Febru- 
ary, I860, requiring the governor, in the event of 
the election of the candidate of the Black Repub- 
lican party, to the presidency of the United States, 
to order elections to be held throughout the State 
for delegates to a constitutional convention of the 
State. The contingency feared occurred, and 
after the count by the electoral college, Governor 
Moore caused writs of election, for the purpose 
specified, to be issued in the several counties of 
the State. After the election and pending the 
meeting of this convention, news was received of 
the secession of South Carolina, and following the 
reception of this news. Forts Morgan and Gaines, 
the defenses of Mobile Bay, and Mount Vernon 
arsenal on the Mobile river were seized by the State 
troops, to prevent the general government from 
strengthening and holding them in the event the 
complications led to a war between the slave hold- 
ing States and the Government of the United 

The State of Alabama also appointed commis- 
sioners to visit the other slave-holding States to 
confer with them "as to what was best to be done 
to protect their interest and honor in the impend- 
ing crisis." 

The constitutional convention, provided for by 
the joint resolutions of Feb. 24, 1860, met in the 
city of Montgomery on the Tth day of January, 
1861, and on the 11th of that month the body 
adopted, by a vote of sixty-one to thirty-nine, an 
instrument entitled, " An ordinance to dissolve 
the union between the State of Alabama and other 
States united under the compact styled 'The Con- 
stitution of the United States of America.'" 

The ordinance was signed by William M. Brooks, 
president of the convention, and the following 
members: A. J. Curtis, W. H. Davis, John W. L. 
Daniel, E. S. Dargin, H. G. Humphries, 0. R. 
Blue, Franklin K. Beck, Samuel J. Boiling, A. 
P. Love, B. H. Baker, of Russell; Thomas Hill 
Watts, A. A. Coleman, Thomas H. Herndon, 
David P. Lewis, Lyman Gibbons, William H. 

Barnes, George Rives, Sr., Archibald Rhea Bar- 
clay, Daniel F. Ryan, Samuel Henderson, of 
Macon; John R. Coffey, Albert Grumpier, George- 
Taylor, James S. Williamson, John Tyler Morgan,. 
Gappa T. Yelverton, Thomas T. Smith, Nicholas 
Davis, W. E. Clarke, of Marengo; George For- 
rester, John W. Inzer, M. G. Slaughter, Julius 
C. B. Mitchell, David B. Creech, John Green, Sr., 
Richard J. Wood, William A. Hood, Arthur Camp- 
bell Beard, R. Jemison, Jr., Jeiferson Buford,^ 
DeWitt Clinton Davis, William S. Earnest, James 

F. Bailey, N. D. Johnson. H. E. Owens, Henry 
M. Gay, Ralph 0. Howard, John P. Ralls, James 
McKinnie, J. P. Timberlake, of Jackson; James 

G. Hawkins, J. M. McClannahan, John B. Len- 
nard, Jere Clemens, Eli W. Starke, 0. S. Jewett, 
John M. Crook, G. C. Whatley, James G. Gil- 
christ, William S. Phillips, James W. Crawford,. 
James S. Clarke, S. E. Catterlin, J. D. Webb, W. 
L. Yancey, George D. Shortridge, J. A. Hender- 
son, John McPherson, James F. Dowdell, James- 
L. Sheffield, George A. Ketcham, John Bragg, 
Lewis M. Stone, John Cochran and Alpheus 

Twenty-four members of the convention did not 
sign the ordinance, as follows: John S. Brashear 
and W. H. Edwards, of Blount; Henry C. Sanford,. 
W. L. Whitlock and John Potter, of Cherokee; 
W. 0. Winston and J. H. Franklin, of DeKalb^ 

B. W. Wilson and E. P. Jones, of Fayette; John 
A. Steele and R. S. Watkins, of Franklin; S. C, 
Posey and H. C. Jones, of Lauderdale; J. P. 
Cowan and T. J. McClellan, of Limestone; I-ang" 

C. Allen and Winston Steadham, of ilarion; .Jona- 
than Ford, of Morgan; A. Kimball, M. .J. Bulger 
and T. J. Russell, of Tallapoosa; William R. 
Smith, of Tuscaloosa; Robert Guttery, of Walker, 
and C. C. Sheats, of Winston. 

The ordinance directed that copies of it should 
be prepared and forwarded to the various slave- 
holding States, with the invitation that each of 
them send delegates to a convention to meet in 
Montgomery on the -ith of February, 1861, for the- 
purpose of forming " a provisional and permanent 
government, ujjon the principles of the Constitu- 
tion of the L^nited States — and for the purpose of 
consulting with each other as to the most effectual 
mode of securing concerted and harmonious action 
in whatever measures may be deemed most desir- 
able for our common peace and security." 

Delegates were chosen by this convention to- 
represent Alabama in this provisional congress of 



the slave-holding States. After this the conven- 
tion took !i recess to await the action of the con- 
gress of the seceding States. The Alabama mem- 
bers of the national congress withdrew from their 
respective houses on the day following the 
adoption of the ordinance of secession. 

Delegates representing seven Southern States 
assembled at the capitol in Jlontgoniery on the 
4th day of February, 18(51, and proceeded to organ- 
ize the government of the Confederate States of 
America. This body adopted a constitution 
embracing all the salient points contained in the 
Federal constitution, which it submitted to the 
various Southern States for adoption. It elected 
Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, as president, and 
Alexander II. Stephens of Georgia, as vice-presi- 
dent of the Confederate States of America, and 
located, temporarily, the scat of government of 
the Confederate States at Montgomery. 

The constitutional convention of the State of 
Alabama, which had recessed after the adoption 
of the ordinance of secession, met again after the 
organization of the Confederate States, and 
changed the sessions of the Legislature from 
biennial to annual, ratified the constitution of the 
Confederate States which had been submitted to 
it, and after making some other changes in the 
State constitution, adjourned suie die on March 
21, 1861. 

An extra session of the State Legislature was 
called in March, 1861, on account of the changed 
condition of affairs, and after its adjournment 
another session was called in October of the same 

War was formally declared by President Lin- 
coln in a proclamation issued April 15, 1861, 
and at once Alabama regiments began to take up 
their march to the front, until it was estimated 
that by October of that year, this State had fur- 
nished fully 27,000 soldiers, and by the same time 
of the following year fully 60,000 citizens of Ala- 
bama were bearing arms in the service of the Con- 
federate government. 

The State was by no means a unit on the ques- 
tion of secession, as was evidenced by the vote of 
the convention on the measure, and further, by 
the failure or refusal of a jiortion of the delegates 
to atlix their signatures to the ordinance, and the 
fact is worthy of note that almost every one of those 
who failed or refused to sigti that instrument 
resided in counties lying in the northern portion 
of the State, the most southerly county whose 

delegates did not sign being Tallapoosa. The 
result of this was that between the adoption of 
the ordinance and the declaration of war by 
President Lincoln, the matter of organizing the 
northern portion of Alabama into a loyal State 
was freely and openly discussed in that section 
of the State. 

The name of the proposed new State had been 
decided on, and had not the proclamation of war 
followed so speedily on the adjournment of the 
constitutional convention, it is probable that the 
State of "Nickajack" would have been brought 
into existence. 

Within a year after the declaration of war the 
northern portion of Alabama was occupied by the 
Federal troops, and the Tennessee valley was the 
scene of war almost continuously from that time 
until the cessation of hostilities. The battles were 
fought with varying success, first one side being in 
control of the ground and then the other. The con- 
tests there were fierce, and the advances and retreats 
left a blood-stained trail through the valleys and 
over the hills of North Alabama. Some of the 
Federal commands occupying this section of the 
State were guilty of the greatest excesses and a 
savage brutality in their treatment of the defense- 
less people whom they found there. Robbery and 
wanton destruction of property was a common 
occurrence, and Federal occupation blighted many 
a growing village in the Tennessee Valley. 

In May, 1863, Forrest captured Col. A. D. 
Streight, with 1,700 men, in the eastern part of 
Cherokee county. The remainder of the State 
was not the scene of actual hostilities until later 
in the war, though occasional raids were made 
from Georgia during the year 1863, and in July, 
1864, General Rosseau, with a party of about 1,500 
cavalry, entered the State from the mountains and 
penetrated as far Loachapoka, en route to Colum- 
bus, Ga. He destroyed a great deal of property on 
this march. 

In August, 1864, the federals, being in possession 
of both Pcnsacolaand New Orleans, turned their 
attention to the capture of Mobile, the approach 
to which was strongly guarded by Forts Gaines 
and Morgan at the entrance of Mobile Bay. To 
accomplish this, on the 3d of August, 1864, 1,500 
Federal infantry were landed on Dauphin Island 
and moved on Fort (iaines, which was situated on 
the eastern point of that island. Two day? later 
eighteen war steamers, having 2,700 men on board 
and carrying 202 guns, under the command of 



Admiral Farragut, made an attempt to ran the 
gauntlet between the forts and enter Mobile Bay. 
The guns from both forts opened on them and one 
of the vessels, an iron-clad, the " Tecumseh," was 
sunk by a torpedo, going down with her crew of 
120 men. The remaining vessels succeeded in 
passing into the bay, where they engaged the Con- 
federate fleet stationed there, which consisted of 
a ram and three gunboats, carrying twenty-two 
guns and about 500 men. 

The engagement which ensued is said to have 
been one of the fiercest naval combats on 
record, and it ended in the capture of the ram 
and one of the gunboats and the retreat of another, 
while the third took refuge under the walls of Fort 
Morgan. The assault on Fort Gaines by land and 
water was such that on the 8th of August it capitu- 
lated. The combined forces at Farragut's control 
were then disposed to capture Fort Morgan. 
Thirty-five hundred men were landed on the main- 
land in rear of the fort, and the siege was com- 
menced. The terrific bombardment by the fleet 
finally resulted in the surrender of the fort. The 
operations about this section were kept up until 
the Federals had forced the evacuation of Spanish 
Fort and its protecting outposts, and had captured 
the garrison at Blakey, after which the Confed- 
erate forces withdrew from the city of Mobile, 
which was occupied by the Federals on the 12tli of 
April, 18C5. 

During the operations about Mobile, Forrest was 
active in North Alabama, and in September, 1864, 
he captured nearly 2,000 Federal infantry near 
Athens, in Limestone county. While the Federals 
were assaulting the forces about Mobile, General 
Wilson advanced from the northern part of Frank- 
lin county with an army of 15,000 troops. His route 
lay by Eussellville, Jasper and Elyton. After 
passing the latter place he was met by Forrest, and 
after some severe skirmishing with him, the great 
number and superiority of Wilson's command 
forced Forrest to fall back towards Selma. Here 
Forrest, with a command of about 3,000 men, many 
of whom were raw, made a stand, and for a time 
resisted the desperate onslaught of the Federal cav- 
alry, but without avail, and Wilson captured Selma 
with 2,500 of its defenders. 

At Elyton General Croxton was detached with 
a force of men and moved in the direction of 
Tuscaloosa, which place he captured after a severe 
skirmish on the 3d of April. This command 
burned down the State University building. 

General Wilson, after the capture of Selma, 
moved on towards Montgomery, which city he 
entered without resistance on the 12th of April, 
1865. The surrender of Gen. Richard Taylor, 
the commander of the military department, of 
which Alabama was a part, to General Canbv, on 
the 4th of May, 1 865, was the occasion of a cessa- 
tion of hostilities throughout the State. 

The flag of an Alabama regiment floated on 
every battle field from Pennsylvania to Missouri, 
and the bravery of Alabamians won for the State 
a renown which is a proud heritage to transmit to 
coming generations. It is estimated that fully 
122,000 of this State's sons took up arms in the 
cause of the Confederacy, and of this number one- 
fourth gave up life at the front; their blood flowed 
on every battle field of the war, and their 
bones lie bleaching on the hill-tops and in the 
valleys of every State in which the contending 
forces met. 

The clouds of war lifted — the smoke of battle 
disappeared, leaving blackened ruins in Alabama, 
and vacant chairs at many firesides. The echoes 
of the groans of the wounded and dying wrung 
the hearts of many Alabamians for years. Cruel 
war had filled the homes of the State with black- 
robed mourners, who in sorrow awaited the sum- 
mons which would call them to meet their loved 
ones on the other shore. The slaves who had 
toiled to produce that which supported their own- 
ers and themselves were, by the result of the war, 
free. The land owners still owned their lands, 
but lacked the means of cultivating their prop- 
erty. The soldiers who returned from the front, 
arrived at their homes sore in body, in spirit, and 
impoverished in purse. They had followed the 
banner of their State through all the varying 
fortunes of war, and when the final disaster over- 
whelmed that banner and the cause for which 
they struggled, they appreciated their condition, 
and though the out-look was gloomy, they deter- 
mined to bend their energies to the recuperation 
of their resources and the itp-building of their 

Buoyed up by this spirit, those who returned to 
Alabama immediately after the cessation of hos- 
tilities, found affairs in a most confused con- 

Civil government was deposed. A military 
master ruled in place of a ruler selected by 
the people from among themselves. Military 
courts dispensed a justice peculiarly their own, 



after their own fashion, and these courts felt tlieni- 
selves paramount to all law. The civil govern- 
nient whicii the Federals found in charge of the 
State when the capital was captured on the 12th 
of April, 1S()5, Avas at once abolished, and from 
that time until June 21 of the same year, there was 
no civil authority in the State. On the latter date 
President Johnston appointed Lewis E. Parsons 
j)rovisional Governor of Alabama, and by procla- 
mation authorized him to call a convention of 
loyal citizens to make such alterations in the or- 
ganic law of the State as would make it conform 
with the United States, under the new order of 
things brought about by the war. The test of loy- 
alty which should determine a right to participate 
in this convention would be subscribing to an oath 
of allegiance to the United States Government. 
In pursuance of this proclamation. Jlr. Parsons 
took charge of the State's affairs, and by appoint- 
ment tilled the various otlices throughout the State. 
The convention provided for in the President's 
proclamation met in Montgomery on the 12th of 
September, 18(55. The body was a representative 
gathering, and at the session, which lasted until 
the 20th of September, ordinances formally abol- 
ishing slavery, annulling the ordinance of seces- 
sion, and annulling all ordinances of the conven- 
tion of 1861 in conflict with the Constitution, were 
adopted. This convention, before its adjourn- 
ment, provided for the election of State and county 
otticers throughout the State in November follow- 
ing, and the outlook led all to believe that the 
bright promises of peace would soon be attained. 
At the election held in November, 18(55, Robert 
M. Patton, of Lauderdale, was cho.sen governor 
over William \\. Smith, of Tuscaloosa, and Michael 
J. Bulger, of Tallapoosa. A Legislature was chosen 
at this election as well as the representatives to 
Congress. The latter were not permitted to take 
their seats. The Legi-slature met at the ajipointed 
time and Governor Patton was duly inaugurated 
into ottice as Governor of the State. Congress had 
passed what is known as the fourteenth amend- 
ment to the Constitution, which conferred the 
priveleges of citizenship on the freedmen of the 
JSouthern States: repudiated their debts incurred 
in support of the war ; disfranchised all .Southern 
men wiio held State or Federal oftices and after- 
wards espoused the cause of the Confederate 
States, and abridged the representation of the 
Southern States in Congress, in proportion, .as their 
citizens were deprived of their voting privilege. 

This amendment was submitted to the legislatures 
of the various Southern States for ratification, 
and on the 7th day of September, 180(5, the Legis- 
lature refused to ratify the amendment. The 
consequence of this refusal to ratify the proposed 
fourteenth amendment, by the Alabama Legisla- 
ture, Congress, on March 2, 18(57, passed a law 
over President Johnston's veto, placing Alabama, 
with other Southern States, under military rule, 
the law providing that the military department, of 
which this State was made a part, should be under 
the command of a regular army ofticer, not of 
lower rank than brigadier general, who was, by 
the law, vested with all power. lie was to take 
charge of the department, and if he saw fit, had 
the authority to remove all civil officers, and 
appoint in their places such oHicials as he chose. 
Courts were abolished and their jilaces taken by 
military tribunals, presided over by officers holding 
appointment from the department commander, 
and these courts had jurisdiction in all matters, 
civil and criminal, and could inflict any punish- 
ment they chose, e.xcept that of death. The law 
provided that this regime should terminate when 
the State held a constitutional convention which 
should draft a constitution embodying the points 
covered by the fourteenth amendment, and which 
constitution should, after adoption, be submitted 
to the people for ratification, which should be by 
])opular rote and would require the votes of a 
majority of the registered electors for ratification. 
The convention was chosen and met in the fall of 
1867. The body, after several days' session, 
adopted a constitution, which was submitted to 
the people for ratification in February, 1868, at 
which election the party favoring the views of 
Congress, voted for the adoption of the constitu- 
tion, and for candidates for State and county 
offices. This party was in the minority, and as 
the party which opposed the views of Congress 
refused to vote on the question, the constitution 
failed to receive a majority of the registered voters, 
and consequently failed of ratification. 

The result of the election was reported to 
Congress and although the constitution had not 
been ratified, as provided in the law authorizing 
the convention and its submission to the people. 
Congress, by act, declared it the constitution of the 
State of Alabama, and ordered that the candidates 
voted for at the election held in February, be 
installed in the offices for which they ran. 

H. M. Patton, who was elected to the office of 



Governor in November 1865, was practically 
deprived of office by the act of Congress of March, 
1867, placing the State under military authority, 
but he nominally filled the office until July, 1868, 
when Wm. H. Smith, of Randolph, who was voted 
for for that position in February, 1868, was inaugu- 
rated, which was on the 13th of July of that year. 
The Legislature, which was convened at once, was 
composed of men, many of whom were not citizens 
of the State, and many of its members were igno- 
rant negroes who had no idea of statesmanship, 
beyond the collection of their per diem. The body 
contained very few representative citizens of Ala- 
bama. Tricksters, lobbyists and monopolists and 
jobbers swarmed down on the capitol building 
during the session, and bribery and corruption were 
the order of the day. Another session of this 
assembly was held in October, 1868. An immense 
indebtedness was saddled on the State by this body, 
through its indiscriminate grants of subsidies to 
railroads, and for many years the State's honor and 
credit were sorely involved and its resources drained 
to meet the obligations which had been fastened 
on it by men who plundered and pillaged for the 
sake of the individual profit in the exercise of the 
duties of misrepresentation. 

Notwithstanding the war and the terribly un- 
settled state of affairs following its termination, 
the census of 1870 showed that Alabama's popula- 
tion was still increasing. That census fixed the 
population of the State at 096,992, of which 
531,384 were whites and 475,510 were negroes. 
An election for State officers was held in Novem- 
ber, 1870, which resulted in the election of Robert 
B. Lindsay, of Colbert, as governor, over W. H. 
Smith, who had served in that capacity since 
July, 1868. Governor Smith refused to surrender 
his office to his successor, and procured an injunc- 
tion restraining the president of the senate from 
counting the returns of the election for the office 
of governor, alleging that the returns were illegal. 
The members of the senate held over from the 
previous election, and that body was presided over 
by R. N. Barr, who, by virtue of his position, 
proceeded to count in a joint session of both 
houses, the election returns, except for the posi- 
tions of governor and State treasurer. A majority 
of the house of representatives were composed of 
good men, men who were representative citizens of 
the State, and this action of the president of the 
senate was objected to by them, and on the con- 
clusion of the first count these representatives. 

with two members of the senate, procured the 
election returns from the office of the secretary of 
State, to which they had been returned by the 
president of the senate. The members of the 
house and those of the senate present installed 
Hon. Edward H. Moren, of Bibb, lieutenant- 
governor-elect, in his office, after which, he, in his- 
official capacity, proceeded to count the returns, 
and declared Robert B. Lindsay elected as 
governor, and James F. Grant, of Calhoun, 
State treasurer. Governor Lindsay was immedi- 
ately inaugurated as chief executive of the State, 
and at once assumed the functions of the posi- 
tion. Governor Smith refused to vacate the capi- 
tol and obtained from the Federal garrison at 
Montgomery a detail of United States soldiers for 
the double purpose of sustaining him in his 
claims to the office of governor, and awing his 
contestant into relinquishing his right to dis- 
charge the duties devolving on him by virtue of 
his election by the people. This period is what is 
known as the " Bayonet Legislature," and con- 
tinued some two or three weeks, the senate recog- 
nizing ex- Governor Smith, while the house recog- 
nized Governor Lindsay as the chief executive. 
Legal steps to oust Governor Smith were taken, 
and, in obedience to a writ issued by the circuit 
court of Montgomery county, he vacated the 
office on the 8th of November, 1870. 

Governor Lindsay found the affairs of the State 
in a deplorable condition on entering office, and 
set about the work of straightening them up. 
He was a man of excellent education, a polished 
gentleman, a most desirable companion, and 
highly entertaining, but he did not possess 
the ability to grapple practically, and successfully 
handle the grave questions which were involved in 
the administration of the State's government at 
the time that duty was in his hands. His friends 
clung to him, and rendered him all the aid possi- 
ble, but his critics were observant, powerful and 
merciless, and the good qualities he possessed were 
not sufficiently strong to condone the faults of, or 
the failures which marked his administration, and 
at its close his party nominated Thomas H. Hern- 
don to succeed him. Mr. Herndon was opposed 
by David P. Lewis, of Madison, the nominee of 
the Republican party, who, with the entire State 
ticket of that party, was elected in 1872. The 
administration of Governor Lewis is classed with 
that of the other Republican administrations 
which followed the close of the war as a recon- 



struction administration. The majoritj' of the 
ofiicers of the State were men who had drifted 
to tlie South at the war's dose for the purjiose of 
picking a competency out of the troubles of the 
people, and were known as carpet-baggers, while 
their State-born-and-reared associates, who aided 
and abetted them in obtaining and keeping con- 
trol of the government against the evident inter- 
ests of the State, were termed by the opposi- 
tion, scallawags. This administration of Governor 
Lewis was marked by an indisposition to do any- 
thing to rescue the State from the fate to which 
it was fast hurrying. Its debt was large and being 
increased. Its credit was at the lowest ebb. Its 
obligjations were hawked about and offered for a 
song. Its revenues, if at all, barely paid the ex- 
penses of extravagant and reckless government, 
and the interest on the State debt was met by bor- 
rowing the amount which the treasury would be 
short. Taxes were becoming onerous, and the 
people looked to the future with dread. Other 
Southern States similarly situated were discussing 
the disgraceful resort of repudiation to relieve 
them of indebtedness for which they received no 
benefit. This matter was discussed to some extent 
in this State, but the popular voice was against it, 
and the leaders set themselves the task of redeem- 
ing the State from the thralldom which had in- 
volved it so deeply, and a continuance of which 
threatened it with absolute bankru]itcy. 

In 18T4 a vigorous campaign was opened in all 
quarters of the State. The watchword of the 
Democratic party was retrenchment and reform, 
and the convention of that jiarty which assembled 
in the summer of that year, selecte<l as its standard 
bearer Hon. Geo. S. Houston, of Limestone. The 
contest was spirited and brilliant, resulting in the 
election of Mr. Houston, in Xovember, 1874. His 
inauguration into office, which followed within a 
short time, was the occasion of rejoicing through- 
out the State, and was celebrated at Mont- 
gomery as an event which would mark the era 
of new and better times. The citizens erected 
in .Montgomery a sjdendid fountain as a monu- 
ment to this occasion, which has been styled 
the redemption of the State. The leading pub- 
lic men of Democratic convictions throughout 
the State contributed to the success of this cam- 
paign, the practical details of which were in the 
master hand of Hon. Walter L. Bra£rg, of Mont- 
gomery, now a member of the L'nited States Inter- 
State Commerce Commission. 

When Governor Houston took chargeof the affairs- 
of the State he began at once to inaugurate a system 
of economy in expenditures at the capitol, a thing 
unknown for years in that building. His views 
on this subject were strictly carried out, and by 
some it was said his economy was carried to a. 
degree of stinginess not befitting the dignity of 
the State. The previous administrations had dis- 
pensed money with a lavish hand, and now the- 
flow from the treasury received a check. The- 
leaks were all stopped up, and not a dollar passed 
from the treasurer's hands unless there was ample- 
warrant of law for its payment. The constitution 
of the State at the time of Governor Ilouston's- 
election was the instrument which had been jire- 
pared by the convention of 18G7, and which failed 
of ratification in February, 18G8, because it did 
not receive the affirmative votes of a majority of" 
the registered electors, but which was forced on 
the people by an act of the Federal Congress. Itt 
was a constitution which did not please the peo- 
ple of Alabama, as they felt that they had no- 
hand in its nuiking, and they certainly liad none 
in its being put into effect. The subject of hold- 
ing a constitutional convention was discussed 
widely during 1874, and a majority of the Demo- 
cratic party favored it, but some of the leading: 
men of the party, among whom was Governor 
Houston, opposed the movement; but those favor- 
ing the convention were in the majority, and 
the Legislature, which met in 1874, passed a law 
authorizing the question of convention or no con- 
vention to be submitted to a vote of the people 
of the State in the summer of 1875, and at the- 
same time vote for delegates to represent them 
should the convention receive a majority of the 
votes cast. The election was ordered, and the- 
convention assembled in the summer of 1875. It 
was for the most part an excellent body of men. 
Some of the best and truest men of the State 
held seats in the body which assembled in the 
capitol at Montgomery, and proceeded to organize 
by electing Hon. Leroy Pope Walker, of .Madison, 
chairman. On taking his seat, Mr. Walker deliv- 
ered an address to the convention marked for its 
eloquence and its ability. It was quoted from by 
the press all over the country, and the views ex- 
pressed were pronounced to stamp him with the 
quality of statesmanship. Mr. B. H. Screws, of 
Montgomery, was elected as secretary of the con- 

The labors of the convention extended over 



several weeks, and resulted in the adoption of a 
constitution, which was afterwards submitted to 
the people, by whom it was ratified, and which is 
still in force. The constitution was framed with 
a view to the reduction of the State's expendi- 
tures. Useless offices were abolished and salaries 
were reduced. The terms of State officers were 
made of an equal length, it changed sessions of 
the Legislature from annual to biennial, and lim- 
iting them to fifty days, and other changes of 
more or less importance were made. 

The most important of all changes was the 
introduction of a clause prohibiting legislatures 
to lend the aid of the State, or to authorize any 
county, city, town or village in the State to lend 
its aid, to any railroad, canal or other enterprise 
or corporation of like nature. The members of 
the convention had seen the evil effects of the 
State granting its aid to railroads, and the body 
which met to take the initiatory steps in bringing 
the State out of the turmoil, thought it well to 
throw that safeguard around the State treasury to 
prevent the recurrence of a similar state of affairs. 
To look back over the past, the great value of 
this clause is readily seen. Had it not been passed, 
every county, city, town and village in the State, 
and most likely the State itself, would be hope- 
lessly involved to-day. 

The discussion of the debt question began to 
take shape during (xoveruor Houston's administra- 
tion, and a bill was adopted by the Legislature, 
providing for the ajipointment of a commission for 
the purpose of making a settlement with the bond- 
holders. This most important act, providing for 
the appointment of this commission, to whom 
would be entrusted a matter in which the State at 
large was so vitally interested, was prepared by 
Hon. Peter Hamilton, then representing the 
county of Mobile in the State Senate. Mr. Ham- 
ilton gave the subject most careful consideration, 
and the bill passed by the Legislature bears on it 
tlie handiwork of his superior intellect. The com- 
mission created by this act consisted of Governor 
Houston, Gen. Levi W. Lawler, of Mobile, and 
Hon. T. B. Bethea, of Montgomery. These gen- 
tlemen at once opened negotiations with the hold- 
-ers of Alabama bonds and securities, and after 
making to them a detailed statement of the con- 
dition of the State, and of what it was hoped 
would be the result of the settlement could they 
agree on terms, the holders of the bonds consented 
to the commissioners' proposition, and old bonds 

to the value of something over $30,000,000 were 
surrendered, and the holders received in lieu new 
bonds to the value of 810,000,000, drawing a low 
rate of interest at first, but gradually increasing as 
the bonds neared maturity. The settlement was 
entirely satisfactory to all parties concerned, and 
the State regularly met the interest when it fell 
due, and in consequence the credit of the State 
began to revive, and it was not a great while before 
its bonds were quoted in financial centers at par 
and above. During administrations preceding 
that of Governor Houston, State obligations had 
been issued in the form of money, which, from a 
design on the backs of the bills, was popularly 
known as " Horseshoe money." This money drew 
8 per cent interest, and was receivable as taxes due 
the State. It was affected by the decline of State 
obligations, and was sold often as low as GO cents 
on the dollar. After the settlement of the bonded 
indebtedness, and the consequent revival of the 
State's credit, this issue of money felt the effect, 
and before it was finally called in by the State, it 
readily brought its par value and was receivable 
currently in the ordinary channels of trade at that 

The commission failed to come to a satisfactory 
settlement with the holders of some State bonds 
issued in favor of the Selma & New Orleans, the 
Selma, Marion & Memphis, and the Selma & 
Greensboro Railroads. It is stated that the amount 
of the bonds issued in aid of these roads, and out- 
standing, is between one and two millions of dol- 
lars. The bondholders, some time since, made an 
effort by mandamus jiroceedings in the United 
States District Court, to collect interest on these 
bonds, but found that their only avenue of relief 
was through the Legislature, and in consequence 
the proceedings were discontinued. The settle- 
ments of these claims will be the work of future 

Gen. John T. Morgan, of Dallas, was elected by 
the Legislature of 1875 as United States senator, 
to succeed Senator Goldthwaite. Governor Hous- 
ton occupied the position of governor two succes- 
sive terms, going out of office in November, 1878. 
He was succeeded by Hon. R. W. Cobb, of Shelby, 
who served as Governor until November, 1883. 

Gov. Houston was elected by the Legislature 
as United States Senator, to succeed George 
Spencer in 1878, but died within a year after 
his election, and was buried in Athens, which 
place was his home. Governor Cobb appointed 



Hon. Luke Pryor, of Limestone, as United States 
senator, to serve until the assembling of the Legis- 
lature, wiien the vacancy would be filled by an elec- 
tion. The Legislature of isso elected lion. James 
L. Pugli, of Barbour, to fill the unexpired term. 

The ten years ending with 1ST9 had witnessed 
a wonderful growth in Alabanui. The State was 
on the eve of a career of development which was 
but little suspected even by its most enthusiastic 
citizens. The vast deposits of iron, coal, marble 
and other articles of nature, highly valuable, had 
begun to attract the attention of the world. The 
citizens of the State had by energy and saving ac- 
cumulated means which they were beginning to 
use in the development of mines and in the estab- 
lishment of manufacturing enterprises. The 
growth of manufactures alone in the ten years 
preceding this date was wonderful, but subsequent 
events have shown that it was only the awakening. 
New cities began to spring up in localities spe- 
cially favored, and many of these held out great 
promise for the future. 

The census of 1880 fixetl the po2nilation of the 
State at 1,262,505. 

Governor Cobb was succeeded in November, 
1882, by Gen. E. A. O'Neal, of Lauderdale, a 
Tuan of excellent qualities, a sound head and 
a kind heart — a man who had won distinc- 
tion as an orator and the renown and glory which 
is accorded to the heroism of a brave soldier. 
Governor O'Neal brought to the executive chamber 
a ripe knowledge of men and affairs, gained by the 
experience of daily association under all condi- 
tions and circumstances, and a sound judgment, 
supported by a clear judicial mind. As governor, 
he was quick to act in the discharge of the duties 
of the position, and stood firmly and untlinchingly 
by the acts performed in the discharges of his 
official duties. Ilis two administrations, which 
closed Dec. 1, 188G, have been more or less the 
subject of criticism, but as the brunt of the pres- 
ent wears off, and the official acts are viewed as 
matters of jiast history, the administration of 
Governor O'Neal will compare favorably with that 
of any official who has filled the position. During 
his time in office Governor O'Neal was called upon 
to fill several very important offices made vacant 
by death or resienation, and in this matter his 
selections have challenged the admiration of all 
thinking men in the State, on account of the 
superior fitness of the appointees for the positions 
to which they were appointed. 

The most important matter of public interest 
which occurred during the administration of Gov- 
ernor O'Neal, was the defalcation and flight of 
Isaac II. Vincent, State treasurer. Mr. Vincent 
was elected State treasurer in 1878, and served 
two terms, but was a candidate and received the 
nomination for a third term at the hands of the 
Democratic convention, which assembled in 1882, 
and was, for a third time, elected to the office in 
August of that year. When the new officials 
elected at the same time were installed in their 
offices, Mr. Vincent held over. The Legislature 
which met that year appointed its usual com- 
mittee to examine the books and accounts in the 
offices of the auditor and State treasurer, and to 
count the money in the vault of the State treas- 
ury. This committee proceeded with its work in 
the auditor's office, completing it in the latter 
part of January, and were preparing to jierform 
their duty in the office of the State treasurer. 

On Monday, the 28th of January, Mr. Vincent 
left the city, informing his family that he was 
going to New York on a hurried visit and that he 
would return on the following Friday. He sent 
by a member of his family, a note to his cliief 
clerk, ilr. Crawford, and a package of money con- 
taining about §15,000, which belonged to the 
State and had been collected by him from a bank 

j in Montgomery that afternoon. Nothing was 
heard directly or positively from Mr. Vincent from 
that day until the 15th of March, 1887, when he 
returned a prisoner as unexpectedly as he left. 

I The committee appointed to examine the books 
in his office and count the cash in the treasury, 
found a shortage amounting to something over 
?!230,000. A description of Vincent was tele- 
graphed to the police of the j)rincipal cities of the 
country, aiul a reward of $5,0(i0 was offered for 
his capture, but in spite of the efforts of police and 
detectives, he evaded arrest for about four years. 

After the fact of the defalcation had been ascer- 
tained, steps were being taken to proceed against 

' Jlr. Vincent's bondsmen. He had made no bond 
for the third term, having offered one which was 
not accepted, and when the auditor looked for the 
bond given for his second term, he found that it 
was missing from its place in the safe where it 

■ was kept. This being the case, that official aiiplied 

' to the office of the Secretary of State for the bond 
book in which that bond was recorded, and on a 

I search, this too, was found to be missing. The 

I names of the signers of N'incent's bond could not 



all be recalled, so the State proceeded to negotiate 
with Messrs. M. E. Pratt, of Autauga, Daniel 

■Crawford, of Coosa, and J. J. Robinson, of Cham- 
bers, who were known to have signed the instru- 
ment, and effected a settlement with the parties, 
whereby a sum of something like S50,000 was 


After Vincent's flight the grand jury of Mont- 
gomery county found thirty-nine indictments 
against him, charging him with embezzlement. 

■On liis arrival in Montgomery in March, 1887, 
he was lodged in the county jail to await trial. 
The trial of one of the cases against him was com- 
menced on the 8th of August, 1887, and con- 
tinued for almost one week, and ended in the 
jury finding him guilty with a recommenda- 
tion to mercy. Another case was taken up and 

-concluded in a few days with a like verdict. The 
prisoner was defended by Gov. T. H. Watts and 
Capt. J. M. Falkner. The prosecution was in the 
hands of Solicitor Lomax, prosecuting officer of 
Montgomery county, Attorney-General McCIellan 
and Hon. H. C. Tompkins. 

The court sentenced Vincent to ten years' im- 
prisonment in the two cases. Tlie remaining 
thirty-seven cases against Vincent will be disposed 

■of at a future term of the city court of Montgom- 
ery county. The §5,000 reward offered for his 
arrest was paid to a Mr. Kay, of Texas, who cap- 
tured him near Big Sandy Springs, in that State, 
and delivered him to the sheriff of Montgomery 


Governor O'Neal was succeeded by Hon. Thos. 

■ Seay, of Hale, the present Governor of tlie State, 
who was inagurated on the 1st of December, 1886. 
The years which have elapsed since 1880 have 
been fruitful of great results for Alabama. They 
have been marked by a steady growth in the older 
cities and towns, and a growth in newer cities, 
advantageously situated, so marvelous and rapid 
that it almost challenges belief. 

In the matter of transportation facilities Ala- 
bama is well supplied. Important trunk lines 
traverse the State in all directions, afforded ample 
transportation for almost every quarter. The fol- 
lowing railroads are being operated in Alabama: 

Alabama Great Southern; Anniston & Atlantic; 
Birmingham, New Orleans & Selnia; Cincinnati, 
Selma & Mobile; Columbus & Western; East Alaba- 
ma; East and West Alabama Narrow Gauge; Eufau- 
la& Clayton; Georgia Pacific; Mem2)his& Charles- 
ton; East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia; Mobile & 

Birmingham: Mobile & Gerard; Montgomery & 
Eufaula; Jlontgoniery & Florida Narrow Gauge; 
Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis; South Western; 
Talladega & C. V.: Tuskegee Narrow Guage; 
Western, West Point Division; Western, Selma 
Division; Birmingham Mineral; Mobile & Mont- 
gomery; Nashville & Decatur; New Orleans, Mobile 
& Texas: Pensacola; Pensacola & Selma; South & 
North: Sheffield & Burmingham. Some of these 
roads are not completed, but portions of such as are 
not are being operated. Besides these lines several 
other companies have been organized, and many of 
them have been surveyed, and active preparations 
are made to begin construction. The railroad 
mileage of the State is at present about ;i, 300. This 
figure will be materially increased within the next 
five years and at least a thousand miles will be 
added within the next ten years. 

Besides this means of transportation by rail, 
Alabama possesses a river system equaled by few 
States, and surpassed by none, having navigable 
rivers in almost every quarter of its area, and in 
addition to this its sixty miles of coast is indented 
by bays which afford excellent harbors, and which 
will aid materially the State's shipping interests. 

Mobile, the principal bay, is a valuable body of 
water which affords communication to the Gulf 
of Mexico. It is now being improved under ap- 
propriatiosn from the General Government, and 
the opening of the channel in the bay to a mean 
depth of twenty-three to twenty-five feet will do 
more for the development of the southern jjortion 
of the State than any other improvement. 

Probably the most important river to the State 
is the Alabama. It is about 480 miles in length 
and is navigable to Montgomery the year round, 
and in high-water seasons as far up as Wetumpke 
on the Coosa. It is given the first place in 
point of importance, because of the fact that 
through its channel the waters of the Coosa seek 
the gulf and when that river is freed from its 
obstructions there will be opened up a great 
water way, extending from Mobile into North- 
western Georgia, a distance by river of over 800 
miles and over which the products of one of the 
richest sections of the country will be transported 
to the sea. 

The valley through which the Coosa river flows 
is one of unexampled productiveness, yielding 
cotton, corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, potatoes, 
fruits — in fact, any article of agriculture produced 
elsewhere in the countrv. In addition to the fer- 



tility of the lands lying along its sides, the Coosa 
flows through a country rich in the possession of 
viiluuble minerals. Coal, iron and marble abouiul 
in the hills which slope down gradually till they 
reach the waters of the Coosa. The river is now 
navigable from lionie, (ia., to Greenport, Ala., 
l)ut between the latter place and Wetumpke there 
is a distance of ];5T miles, locked in by rapids, 
rocky obstructions and falls. These obstructions 
will j)robably be removed by the next Congress, 

Another important river to Alabama is the Tom- 
bigbee, which is formed near Demopolis by the 
junction of the Little or Upper Tombigbee, which 
enters the State through from Mississippi through 
Pickens county, and the Warrior river. It is an 
important river, for the reason that over it a large 
portion of the output of the Warrior coal field may 
reach the Clulf coast. It is navigable from Mo- 
bile to Fulton, ^[iss., a distance of about (100 miles 
via the Little and Mobile Rivers, and via the 
Mobile and Warrior to Tuscaloosa. Like the 
opening of the Coosa, the improvement of the 
Warrior is demanding attention, and no stone will 
be left unturned to secure the necessary aid from 
Congress to put these rivers in navigable con- 

The Cahaba is one of the rivers of the mineral 
section of Alabama, and were it opened to navi- 
gation would become an important factor in the 
water system of the State. It rises in the north- 
ern portion of Shelby county, flows a southeast- 
erly and southerly course through the counties of 
Shelby, Bibb, Perry and Dallas, and empties into 
the Alabama river at the town of Cahaba. Dur- 
ing the seasons of high water, steamboats have 
ascended this river to Centerville, in J5ibb county, 
within a short distance of the famous Cahaba coal 
field. In its present condition the Cahaba, as a 
factor in the development of Alabama, is practi- 
cally valueless. The river can and should be 
made navigable. 

The Tennessee river is one of paramount im- 
portance to the people of Northern Alabama. It 
flows almost through the entire northern ])ortion 
of the State, furnishing several counties with un- 
limited water transportation to the West and to 

The opening of -Mussel Shoals, now nearing com- 
pletion, by the United States (iovcrnment, will 
give uninterrupted navigation from Chattanooga, 
Tenn., to Pa<lucah, Ky,, ami will afford furnace 
men and miners of Northern Alabama a desirable 

outlet to all parts of the world for their immense 
quantities of coal, iron, lumber and manufactured 
articles, and will enable them to pliicc their pro- 
ducts in Northern and Eastern markets in suc- 
cessful competition with those immense manufact- 
urers who have hitherto held a monopoly of these 

Mobile river, which is formed by the junction 
of the Alabama and Tombigbee, forms an imj)ort- 
ant part in the river system of the State, and as 
it is a key to the bay, is an avenue over which all 
the products of the interior must reach the gulf. 
The Mobile river, being both wide and deep, 
requires but little attention and expense to keep 
it in perfect order at all seasons of the year. 

The Chattahoochee river, which flows along the 
eastern border of the State, affords tlie people of 
Russell, Barbour and Henry counties ample com- 
munication with the gulf. The principal rivers 
of Southeast Alabama are the Choctawatchie, Pea, 
Conecuh, Yellow and Escanaba. Of these streams 
the Choctawatchie is probably the most import- 
ant, as it furnishes the only means of transjiorta- 
tion to a large portion of Geneva, Dale and ("offee 
counties. This river, under favorable conditions, 
is navigable as far u]) as Newton, in Dale county. 
The other rivers in this section are more import- 
ant to Florida than to Alabama. The Perdido 
river forms the eastern boundary of Baldwin 
county, dividing that county from Escambia 
county, Florida. Other rivers, of no general im- 
portance, are to be found in Baldwin and in 
Mobile counties. 

In addition to Alabama's mineral resources, the 
State possesses a wealth of timber lands, embrac- 
ing the counties of Washington, ^fobile, I^aldwin, 
Clark, Monroe, Escambia, Conecuh, Butler, Cov- 
ington, Crenshaw, Pike, Coffee, Geneva, Dale 
and Henry. The forest in this section of the 
country is now attracting as much attention as 
the mineral wealth of the northern portion of the 
State. The principal product of this .section is 
the famous long-loaf pine, which here grows to a 
perfection known nowhere else on the continent. 
Oak, hickory, gum, jioplar, cypress, juniper, dog- 
wood, and other varieties useful in building trades 
and in the manufacture of furniture, also abound 
in these forests. 

The soil in this section is peculiarly adapted to 
raising vegetables, which may be here produced 
from one to two months earlier than in the lati- 
tude of Oliii). This section is also well adapted to 



stock raising, and sheep growing may here be made 
especially profitable. 

The climate of the timber belt is probably the 
pleasantest of the State, while the health of this 
quarter is remarkable. The jjeople here are hardy, 
thrifty and honest. 

An important industry along the coast is the 
fisheries, and in this several hundred boats of all 
kinds are engaged. The product is marketed in 
Mobile, and fish and oysters from that point are 
found several miles inland. The oysters obtained 
in Mobile bay are noted for size and flavor, and 
as high rank as any oysters taken on the gulf coast. 

A great industry of Southern Alabama is the 
manufacture of turpentine and rosin, and it is 
rapidly growing from year to year. 

The following is a list of governors who have 
filled the executive oflBce from the formation of 
the Territory of Alabama to the present time: 

William Bibb, first governor of the Territory of 
Alabama, a resident of Georgia when appointed — 
1817 to 1819. 

William Wyatt Bibb, of Autauga — November, 
1819, to July, 1820. 

Thomas Bibb, of Limestone, was president of 
the senate and succeeded to the governorship on 
the death of Gov. W.AV. Bibb, July, 1820, to No- 
vember, 1821. 

Israel Pickens, of Greene — November, 1821, to 
November, 1825. 

John Murphy, of Monroe— November, 182.5, to 
November, 1829. 

Gabriel Moore, of Madison — November, 1829, 
to March, 1831, when he was elected to the United 
States Senate. The President of the Senate, Sam- 
uel B. Moore, of Jackson, succeeded, and served 
out the unexpired term to November, 1831. 

John Gayle, of Greene — November, 1831, to 
November, 1835. 

Clement C. Clay — November, 1835, to July, 
1837, when he was elected to the United States 
Senate. Hugh McVay, of Lauderdale, President 
of the Senate, served out the unexpired term to 
November, 1837. 

Arthur P. Bagby, of Monroe — November, 1837, 
to November, 1841. 

Benjamin Fitzpatrick, of Autauga — November, 
1841, to November, 1845. 

Joshua L. Martin, of Tuscaloosa — November, 
1845, to November, 1847. 

Reuben Chapman, of Madison — November, 
1847, to November, 1849. 

Henry W. Collier, of Tuscaloosa — November, 
1849, to November, 1853. 

John A. Winston, of Sumter — November, 1853, 
to November, 1857. 

Andrew B. Moore, of Perry — November, 1857, 
to November, 1861. 

John Gill Shorter, of Barbour, November, ISOl, 
to November, 18G3. 

Thomas H. Watts, Sr., of Montgomery — No- 
vember, 18C3, to April, 1865, when the Federal 
troops occupied the capital of the State, and 
two months followed in which there was no 

Lewis E. Parsous, of Talladega — Appointed 
firovisional governor, by president Johnson, June, 
1865, to December, 1865. 

Robert M. Patton, of Lauderdale — December, 
1865, to July, 1868. 

William H. Smith, of Randolph — Appointeil 
governor by an act of Congress, July, 1SG8, to 
November, 1870. 

Robert B. Lindsay, of Colbert— November, 1870, 
to November, 1872. 

David P. Lewis, of Madison — November, 1872, 
to November, 1874. 

George S. Houston, of Limestone — November, 
1874, to November, 1878. 

Reuben W. Cobb, of Shelby— November, 1878, 
to November, 1882. 

Edward A. O'Neal, of Lauderdale — November, 
1882, to November, 1886. 

Hon. Thomas Seay, of Hale — Inaugurated De- 
cember 1, 1886. 

Since the admission of Alabama into the Union 
twenty-seven men have filled the position of gov- 
ernor, ^ladisou county leads in the number of 
governors, four of the residents of that county 
having filled the executive chair. Lauderdale fol- 
lows, having furnished the chief executive three 
times. Two governors have been furnished by 
each of the following counties: Autauga, Lime- 
stone, Greene, Monroe and Tuscaloosa. One 
governor has been furnished from each of the fol- 
lowing counties: Jackson, Sumter, Perry, Barbour, 
Montgomery, Talladega, Randolph, Colbert, Shelby 
and Hale. 

The four northern counties of State — Lauder- 
dale, Limestone, JIadison and Jackson — have fur- 
nished ten governors, more than one-third of the 
total number who have filled the chair. Of this 
number three succeeded to fill vacancies, and ex- 
cept in one instance — Thos. Bibb, of Limestone, 



succeeded Gov. W. W. Bibb, of Autauga — the 
governor who was succeeded was a citizen of one 
of tlie four counties named. 

Of the governors of Alabama, one, tiie first, W. 
W. ]{ibb, of Autauga, died in office. Two, Ga- 
briel iloore, of .^ladison, and Clement G. Claj-, of 
the same county, left the ofliice before the 
expiration of their terms to take seats to which 
they had been elected in the Senate of tlie United 

The only other governor elected who failed to 
serve a full term was Thomas II. Watts, of Mont- 
gomery, whose term began in November, lS(J3,and 
was concluded in April, 18G5, on the occupation of 
tile cajjital by the Federal troops. Thomas IMbb, 
of Limestone, who succeeded W. W. Bibb, of 
Autauga, and Hugh ilcVay, of Lauderdale, w'ho 
succeeded C. C. Clay, of iladison, each filled the 
position from July to the November following. 
The next governor, in shortness of the duration of 
his term, was Lewis E. Parsons, of Talladega, ap- 
pointed provisional governor by President John- 
son. He held the i^osition from June to the De- 
■oember following. R. ^I. Patton, of fiauderdale, 
served the longest single term, being nominally 

governor from December, 18G5, to July, 18G8, two 
years and seven months. 

E.x-Governor Israel Pickens, of Greene, was 
appointed in February, 182G, by Governor JIurphy, 
United States senator to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Henry Chambers, of Madison, 
until the Legislature met to elect a successor. 
He served until November, 182G, when the Legis- 
islature elected John McKinley, of Lauderdale. 

The following occupants of the executive office 
were elected to the United States Senate after 
the exj)iration of their terms as governors. Arthur 
P. Bagby, of Monroe; Benjamin Fitzpatrick, of 
Autauga: J. A. Winston, of Sumter (elected in 
1867, but was not admitted to his seat), and Geo. 
8. Houston, of Limestone. No governor who suc- 
ceeded to fill a vacancy was afterwards elected to 
the position. Two governors were named Bibb 
and three bore the name of Moore. 

Two governors, W. W. Bibb, of Autauga, and J. 
A. Winston, of Sumter, have been remembered by 
the bestowal of their names on counties. Pickens 
county was named for Gen. Andrew Pickens, of 
South Carolina, and before Gov. Israel Pickens 
became governor. 

Historical Resume of the Various Counties in the State. 

CEREAL belt. 


Population: White, 14,000; colored, 700. Area, 
560 square miles. Woodland, all. 

Acres — In cotton, approximately, 16,500; in 
corn, 27,100; in oats, 3,400; in wheat, 5,800; in 
rye, 150; in tobacco, 48; in sugar cane, 50; sweet 
j)otatoes, 243. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton in round 
numbers, 5,500. 

County Seat — Guntersville; population, 500. 

Xewspaper published at County Seat — Demo- 

Postoflfices in the County — Albertville, Arab, 
Bartlett, Bean Rock, Blue Rock, Cedar Ridge, 
Cotton ville, Fowler, Friendship, Grassy, Guuters- 
ville, Henryville, Hillian's Store, Hyatt, Kennamer 
Cove, Lot, Lumpkin, Marshall, Martling, Meltons- 
ville Mill, Minorville, North, Oleander, Pender- 
grass, Peters, Preston, Ragsdale, Red Apjole, Red 
Hill, Reedbrake, Sidney, Southern, Swearengin, 

One of the first white men to settle in this 
county was John Gunter, a Scotchman, who located 
among the Cherokee Indians and niitrried a beau- 
tiful Indian girl. The Cherokee's originally owned 
the section of the State whereof Marshall county 
now forms a part. They had a village near the 
present site of Red Hill, a point about twelve 
miles southeast from Guntersville. 

John Gunter had three sons. Of these, Edward 
served with Gen. Andrew Jackson at the battle of 
Horseshoe, and was with that warrior throughout 

the whole war. Sam, another son, died on Town 
Creek about 1835. The third son, John, became, 
with Edward, a leader among his people and they 
both went with the Cherokees about the year 1837, 
where they both died. 

Another early settler was Hugh Henry, who 
came to Marshall county in 1828 from Upper East 
Tennessee. He sold goods at Gunter's landing 
on the south side of the Tennessee river. He was 
successful in merchandising and accumulated some 
wealth which the vicissitudes of fortune in some 
measure depleted before his death. 

Hugh Henry was the father of the present heads 
of the house of Henry, Messrs. Albert G. and 
Patrick Henry, whose fame as reliable and safe 
merchants, is second to none in the eastern whole- 
sale markets. 

Among the early pioneers who were prominent 
men were William Black, Arthur C. Beard, James 
M. Macfarlane, and others. 

About the year 1835 the country had become 
sutBcieutly settled to cause the organization of 
Marshall county, which event was properly cele- 
brated in 1836. 

Among the prominent citizens now living who 
were here about this time are: Samuel K. Ray- 
burn, Washington T. May, Judge Lewis Wyeth 
and Albert G. Henry. These gentlemen are still 
(March, 1888) in excellent health, although in each 
case past " three-score years and ten." 

At the time of organisation and for some years 




afterward there was considerable rivalry in the 

location of the county seat, that matter having 
been, on three several occasions, left to the will of 
the people. The first election made Claysville, two 
miles ojiposite Giintersville, across the river, the 
place selected. Here court was held during the 
years ISSG-T-S. 

In the latter year the seat of government was 
changed to ilarshall, a place immediately in the 
center of the present town of Wyeth City, and 
about one mile from the present court house in 
Guntersville. Here, for the years lS.'iI)-40— 41 the 
seat of justice remained. Still another election 
changed the county seat to Warrenton, a beautiful 
village five miles away to the West. Here it was 
suffered to remain si.x years. 

In the vear 1848 the town of Guntersville was 

growing and increasing her trade to such a point 
th;it it became an incorporated town. 

Through the far-sightedness of Judge Louis 
Wyeth, this place captured the county seat during 
the year 1840, the change being made principally 
because Judge Wyeth offered to donate a hand- 
some brick court-house to the county on condi- 
tion of the seat of government being permanently 
located at Guntersville. This was done, the court- 
house was built, and Guntersville has since been 
enjoying uninterruptedly the honor of being the 
seat of government for Marshall county. 

The otticials who constituted the first county 
court which met at Claysville were as follows : 
county judge, AVashington T. ^fay; county clerk, 
Kichard S. Kandles; sheriff, Percival il. Bush; 
circuit clerk, J. M. Macfarlane. 



County Seat— Iluntsville ; Population, 8,000; 
located on M. & C. IJ. R. 

Madison county, Alabama, is at the head of the 
famed Tennessee valley, and hivs an area of 872 
square miles, with a frontage on the Tennessee 
river of thirty miles. The salubriousness of its 
climate, fertility of soil, abundance and purity of 
water, agricultural resources, beautiful, grand and 
l>ictures(|ue scenery, educational advantages, cul- 
tured and refined society, and noted healthfulness, 
give it such substantial charms as make it one of 
the most desirable sections for residence in the 
South. Madison is the banner county of the cereal 
belt. It leads all others in wealth and the produc- 
tion of cotton. The soils of the county vary, but 
generally are of the red clay subsoil. Its shape is 
almost sijuare. The county is remarkably well 
watered, there being twelve creeks and rivers 
running through it from the north to south. 
These are Barren Fork. Indian, Prices' Fork, 
Beaver Dam, Frier's Fork, Mountain Fork, Hur- 
ricane, Aldridge, Limestone and Huntsville Spring 

creeks, and Flint and Paint Rock rivers. In the 
mountainous portion of the county, eastward, 
and on the Whitesburg pike to the Tennessee 
river south of Huntsville, are found farms which 
are devoted to raising-clover, small grain and stock 
with great success. This county occupies medium 
ground between the tropical and temperate pro- 
ducing regions, with many characteristics peculiar 
to both. Its soil yields cotton, but is most natur- 
ally adapted to the raising of grasses, grain, corn 
and stock. 

The average annual yield of cotton is 20,000 
bales, but there is a growing disposition on the 
part of the farmers to forsake cotton, and to adopt 
stock raising and the production of cereals exclu- 
sively. The lands being of red clay subsoil, are 
susceptible of the highest state of fertility, and 
being generally level, are easily cultivated. Mad- 
ison is one of the largest corn-producing counties 
in the State. The raising of wheat is annually 
increasing, and twenty-five or thirty bushels per 
acre is not considered an unusual crop on good 



land. The soils of the county are especially 
adapted to corn, cotton, wheat, tobacco, oats, rye, 
barley, peas, jDotatoes and millet. Orchard grass, 
Herds grass, Timothy and all the clovers grow- 
here to jierfection, producing as much as three 
tons per acre. The cotton crop is estimated at 
$1,000,000 ; corn cro]^ about the same ; jieas and 
beans, $50,000 ; potatoes, $100,000, and horses, 
cattle and sheep, nearly 81,000,000. Being well 
watered, with clear running streams the entire 
year, the county is admirably adapted to the rais- 
ing of horses, mules, cattle, sheeji and hogs ; all 
these thrive, and this has jiroven a most profitable 
business. Importations of stock of all kinds have 
been attended witli great success, this climate 
proving remarkably healthy for them. There is 
in this county now, at least 100 registered Jersey 
cattle (a recent business), and several head are 
direct from the island of Jersey. They are as 
healthy and jirolific a herd as anywhere in the 
United States. 

There are also two or three herds of Holsteins. 
in which are represented some of the finest milk 
strains in the world. Tliey have fine health, and 
thrive remarkably well. Madison has, perhajDS. 
the finest horses and jacks in the entire country, 
and stock-raising is becoming a chief and very 
profitable business. Perliaps in no county in the 
State is more attention devoted to the matter of 
education than in Madison. Schools of excellent 
grade are to be found throughout the county. 
Men of thi'if t, energy and enterprise, whether with 
or without capital, will be cordially welcomed in 
this county. Adjacent to the mountains, the soils 
are admirably adapted to the cultivation of vine- 
yard and orchard products. Great and rapid 
strides have already been made in the direction of 
horticulture. In this county is the largest nursery 
in the United States, and its business has proven 
eminently successful. Its name is " Huntsville 
Wholesale Nurseries," and as that name implies, 
the trees grown are intended for the wholesale 
trade. The tract of land devoted to the business 
is over a thousand acres. Orders received are 
mostly from distant nurserymen. The production 
is confined to pears, plums, cherries and peaches. 
The plants that will be ready for setting ne.xt 
spring will be over 3,000,000,000, which with the 
large crops of trees already growing, yield sup- 
plies for an extensive business. Ship)ments of 
trees are made to all parts of the United States 
and Canada. 

Varieties of fruit trees suited to the most North- 
ern or Southern limits are propagated here. The 
products of these nurseries have given satisfaction 
wherever sent, and the demand for them is con- 
stantly increasing. 

The immense water power of this county, its 
abounding timber, and its splendid climate are 
attracting repeated accessions of population. Its 
various advantages are unequaled. No causes for 
local disease exist, and the elements of wealth are 
in close proximity. The timber is chiefly iiost, 
black, white, Spanish oaks, and beech, poplar and 
sugar maple. A world of the finest cedar is in the 
adjoining county of Jackson, through which the 
Memphis & Charleston Railroad runs. Labor is 
abundant and cheap. Lands are cheaper tlian 
anywhei'e in the South, considering their intrinsic 
value, though they are gradually increasing in 

There are fine pikes in the county and the 
public roads are excellent most of the year. Madi- 
son county is out of debt, and does not owe a 
dollar. Taxes are low. There is every substan- 
tial indication that this valley of remarkable beauty, 
iTuequaled health, and wonderful fertility, will, at 
an early day, reach the highest state of develop- 
ment, and an era of the greatest prosperity will 
reign. So high an authority as Commodore Maury 
states, in his celebrated work on geography, that 
this valley, all things considered, is the garden 
spot of the United States. And such is the verdict 
of all who see it. Coal has been discovered in the 
Northern portion of Madison, and iron is also 
believed to exist in valuable and paying quantities. 
Gas is believed, by exjierts, to exist in the vicinity 
of Huntsville, and that if the test was made by 
boring, it would be discovered in abundance, and 
of a fine quality. The partial boring of a well 
near the city developed eYidences of oil and gas 
such as to warrant the above opinion. 

Newspapers published at County Seat^Z'pww- 
vrat (democrat). Gazette (colored republican), In- 
dependott (democrat), Mercury (democrat). New 
South (republican). Normal Index (educational). 

Postoffices in the County — Bell Factory, Berk- 
ley, Bloomfield, Brownsborough, Carmichael, 
Cluttsville, Dan, Fisk, Green Grove, Curly, 
Haden, Hayes' Store, Hazel Green, HnntsviUe, 
Lowe, Madison Cross Eoads, Madison Station, 
Maysville, Meridianville, Monrovia, New Ifarket, 
Owen's Cross Roads, Plevana, Popular Ridge, 
Rep, Triana, Whitesburgh, Wiley. 



Madison is an incorporiited town of about 500 
iiiluibittiiits, in .Madison county, ten miles west 
from Hiintsville on the Menn)liis & Cliarleston 

Its prosperity dejwnds mostly upon tlie fertility 
of the soil in tlie surrounding country, and the 
cotton, of which about 2,(iOO bales are shipped 
from its station annually. 

It has eight or nine general stores: a post, tele- 
graph and e.vpress office; Methodist, Haptist, 
C'hristian. and tiiree colored churches, and a 
good academy ; a very healthful place ; has fine 
freestone water, and its society is liighlv moral. 


C. W. MARTIN was born near :\Iadison in 
1820, and has spent his entire life in Madison 
county. In business he has been a farmer and 
mei chant, in the last of which be has been very 

At the close of the late war he, like almost 
everybody else at the South, was tinancially 
a wreck, but by close and persistent iij)plica- 
tion to business, he has retrieved his loss. He 
was a son of Richard and Lydia (Fitts) ilartin, 
who came from Virginia to Alabama about 

Uichard .Martin was a farmer, and served in the 
War of 1812. They had eleven children, of whom 
but four are living. Two of their sons were in 
Ward's Battery (Confederate States army), and 
both serve<l through the war, spending a great 
part of the time at Mobile. 

Mr. ilartin was married, in 184'.t, to Miss Xan- 
nie Lecman, of .Madison county, and they have 
seven children living, of whom two are merchants. 

one is railroad agent at Madison, and one a farmer 
in Limestone county. .Mr. Jlartin is a member 
of the Methodist church and a F. it .V. .M. 

— — *— ;<s^— ^^^ 

G. W. and J. A. WISE, merchants, Madison, 
Ala., sons of Samuel and Sarah A. (Line) Wise, 
who came with them from \'irginiato this place in 
the fall of 1872. The senior Wise died on his farm 
near Madison, in 187C. He reared seven sons to 
manhood, and two of them, John M. and William, 
served through the late war in the 1st Virginia 
Cavalry, under Fitz Hugh Lee. They now reside 
in Kansas. Of the others, Samuel is in Iowa, 
Henry A. in Virginia, David L. died in 18(;2. 
The only daughter is in Virginia. 

O. W. Wise was born in Virginia, Nov. 20, 1854, 
there grew to manhood, and followed farming a 
number of years. In 1882 he began the life of a 
merchant at Madison, in the firm of Wise, Ilertz- 
ler & Co. In January, 1887, that firm was dis- 
solved, and the present one of G. W. & J. A. 
Wise was organized. They deal in general mer- 
chandise and trade in cotton. Wise Bros. & Har- 
per is a firm including G. W. and J. A. Wise and 
B. F. Harper, who is a clerk in the store of the 
Wise Bros. 

G. W. Wise is a steward in the ^Methodist Epis- 
copal church. 

J. A. Wise was born in \"irginia, on the 2d day 
of August, 18(i0, and was married, Feb. 28, 1884, 
to Miss Lucy Harris, of this State. _ Her father, 
Thomas Harri,s, received a wound at the battle of 
.Manassas, from which he afterwards died. Dr. A. 
S. Harris, of Madison, her grandfather, was a Vir- 
ginian. J. A. Wise ha.s twolivinK children. 



Population: White, 12.000: colored, 4,500. 
Area, 700 square miles. Woodland, all. Coal 
measures of sand mountains and sandy land of 
Little Mountain, 415; valley lands, red lands, 
coves and stoops, 570. 

Acres — In cotton, approximately, 18,828; in 
corn, 35,G10; in oats, 4,704; in wheat, 7,005; in 
rye, 135 ; in tobacco, 53; sweet potatoes, 305. 
Approximate number of bales of cotton in round 
numbers, 6,500. 

County Seat — Somerville : Population, 1,000. 

Postoilices of tlie County — Apple Grove, Ba- 
shams Gap, Blue Sjorings, Cedar Plains, Cotaco, 
Crowton, Danville, Decatur, Falkville, Flint, 
Fort Bluff, Gandys, Cove, Hartselle, Hulaco, 
Lacy's Springs, Lawrence Cove, Leesdale, Price- 
ville. Slipup, Somerville, Stringer, Trinity Sta- 
tion, Whisenaut, Winter, Woodland ilills. 

The county of Morgan was established in the 
j'ear 1818, and named for General Daniel Morgan, 
of Pennsylvania. It lies directly south of the 
Tennessee river, and is one of the most important 
counties in north Alabama. 

Proceeding southward from the Tennessee river, 
which forms the northern boundary of ilorgan 
count}', there are met four terrace-like plains, each 
with characteristics peculiar to itself. The first 
of these would be the bottoms, which lie in close 
proximity to the Tennessee river. The soils here 
are porous and productive, but liable to overflow. 
For this reason they are planted almost altogether 
in corn. Occasionally, however, where the soil is 
not so much exposed to overflow, there is cotton 

Then comes the land of the valley of the Ten- 
nessee proper. This is elevated above the bottoms 
about seventy-five or one hundred feet, and pos- 
sesses the red or brown soils, which mark the great 
valley from limit to limit. Because of the gener- 
ous soil possessed by this valley, the lands are 
almost wholly cleared. The valley in this county 
varies very greatly. In some jiarts it is but a mile 
or two wide, while in others it is fully eight. 

Ascending to the next natural formation one is 
from seventy-five to one hundred feet above the 
valley, and is upon the summit of a range known 
as Little Mountain. The lands along this broad, 
natural shelf are not so fertile as those in the 
valley for purposes of farming, but are superior in 
pasturage qualities. Grasses in the greatest va- 
riety and luxuriance gi-ow along this lofty plateau. 
Here we find the stock-producing section of the 
county. Of course from this it will not be under- 
stood that the soils of this section are incapable of 
jiroducing only grasses. In this portion of Mor- 
gan are found many thrifty farms, surrounded by 
all the comforts of life. It is more distinctively 
adapted, however, to stock-raising than to agri- 

From tills elevated plain, which commands the 
view of the Tennessee Valley, and going south- 
ward there is a jjerceptible descent to the foot of 
Sand Mountain. This is the fourth distinct divis- 
ion of the county. The width of this terrace va- 
ries from one to twelve miles. Along this we find 
a great variety of soil, the fertility or thinness of 
which is indicated by its peculiar hue. In some 
1 portions the lands are black, while in others they 
I are red and gray. That iiart of the county which 
is now being described is a portion of the great 
Warrior coalfield. Thus it will be seen that Mor- 
gan possesses, to a greater or less degree, all the 
advantages, agriculturally and otherwise, which 
are possessed by the surrounding counties of the 
great Tennessee Valley. All the grains are pro- 
duced here that are produced elsewhere in this 
Xorth Alabama region. And the hardy fruits, such 
as apples, peaches, pears and the various berries 
are grown abundantly, and are usually of superior 
quality. The water supply of the county is supe- 
rior. The Tennessee river forms the whole of tlie 
northern boundary of the county, while Flint creek, 
and its two forks, Cotaco, Xo Business, Cedar, 
Shoal, Six Mile. Crowdabout, Gaudy's fork, pene- 
trate every portion of it, and not only su25ply it 
with water, but contribute greatly to the enrich- 



:neiit of the soils. The countj' is also well watered 
with superior springs. In the northeastern portion 
are the ^'alhernloso and Ijaev springs, which enjoy 
a local reputation. The ditl'frent streams afford 
excellent fish. 

There is an abundance of wood for all purposes 
in the county. \'ast districts of the county have 
scarcely been touched by the woodman's axe. 
Principal among the timbers which throng the 
forests are the post oak, white oak, red oak, black- 
jack, hickory, poplar, walnut, maple, sourwood, 
cherry, cedar and short-leaf pine. There are 
large milling interests which are engaged in the 
conversion of much of this timber into lumber 
for home consum})tion and for shipment to distant 

Facilities for transportation are found in the 
Tennessee river, which forms the northern bound- 
ary line of the county; the Louisville & Nashville 
Hailroad, which runs entirely through, and the 
^leniphis & Charleston Kailroad, which penetrates 
the northern end of the county and crosses the 
Louisville & Xashville system at Decatur. Other 
railway lines are in contemplation, which are ex- 
pected to pierce other portions of the county, and 
thus greatly enlarge facilities for the shipment of 
jiroduets; but suflicient outlet for transportation 
is already alforded in the lines which now pene- 
trate the county. Unusual advantages for the 
shipment of jiroduce is afforded the inhabitants of 
Morgan, as the competing lines of railway cross 
at Decatur, and there also cross the Tennessee 
river, the navigation of which will soon be open 
in both directions. 

The county is being rapidly peopled and corre- 
sjwndingly developed, ilinerals exist in different 
parts of the county. These are chielly coal and 
limestone, though there is the evident presence of 
gold, and the indications are that it is in large 
quantities. Asphalt also exists, being the first 
trace of it discovered in America. Oil and natural 
gas has also recently been found at Ilartselle. Di- 
rect effort has been made to develop these mineral 
resources, and the investigations have been satis- 
factory beyond the expectations of the most san- 

The moral tone of the population of the county 
is healthy, and excellent school and church facili- 
ties abound in towns and country alike. The 
schools at Mountain Home, near Trinity, at Ilart- 
selle and at Decatur are regarded the equal of any 
institutions in this portion of the State. 

Of the towns, Somerville is an interior vil- 
lage, with a poj)ulation of several hundred, and 
and it is the seat of justice of the county. Decatur, 
with a population of 4,000, is the point of greatest 
interest in the county, and is a place of growing 
business importance.* 

Trinity, Ilartselle, Leesburg, Danville and Val- 
herinoso Springs are points of chief importance, 
and possess valuable educational interests. 

Lands in this county may be purchased at prices 
ranging from 85 to 8-10 per acre. 

Considering the comj)eting lines which cross 
each other in the county, its superior soil, its 
climate and medicinal waters, together with its 
numerous social advantages, Morgan county is the 
peer of any other in the great cereal belt. The peo- 
ple regard with favor and encouragement the settle- 
ment of men of studious, industrious and frugal 
habits in their midst. 

The county embraces within its limits govern- 
ment land to the extent of 25,280 acres. 

— «"; 

EDWARD J. ODEN, editor Ilartselle Index, was 
born in Morgan county, Ala., in 1840, and grew 
to manhood and received his education there. 
He responded to the first call to arms in the 
recent civil strife, and became a member of 
Company E, Fourth Alabama Cavalry, of which 
company he was made captain in regular order 
of i)romotion from the ranks. He was with For- 
rest in his campaigns in Alabama, the Valley of 
the Tennessee, and Georgia; in the pursuit and 
capture of General Streight, when, by their pluck 
and well-devised strategeni, Forrest succeeded in 
capturing a Federal force of more than five times 
the number of his own. The audacity of Forrest's 
scheme, and the chagrin of the prisoners when, 
too late, they discovered the ruse, will never be 
forgotten by those who witnessed it. 

Captain Oden was in battle at Decatur, Ala., 
Athens, Sulphur Trestle, Tenn., Pulaski, Tenn., 
Corinth, Tupelo, Miss., and many others. 

He was with Johnson's army at Dalton, Ga., 
and in the running fight from Dalton to Atlanta. 
From the battle of Peach Tree creek he returned 
to the Valley of the Tennessee, and saw his last 
fight at Selma, Ala., where his regiment, and in 
fact, nearly the whole army, were captured, but 
Captain Oden, accomj)anied by General Forrest 
and about one hundred others, cut their way out 

• See history of Decatur, this volume. 



through the lines and escaped. They proceeded 
soon afterwards to Wheeler's Station, near Deca- 
tur, and surrendered in May, 1865. After the 
war Captain Oden farmed in Franklin county, 
Ala., and taught school one year. Since 1868 he 
has had an interest in a store at Falkville, and 
another at Coal Hill, Ark. He has been county 
superintendent of education for ten years consec- 
utively. In 1884 he became interested in a bank 
in Decatur, in connection with C. C. Harris and 
W. W. Littlejohn, and is now a director in tlie 
First National Bank, of Decatur, into which the 
Bank of Decatur was merged. 

In 1886, Captain Oden bought a half interest 
in the Hartselle Index from E. H. Rolfe, with 
whom his brother, A. A. Oden, had previously 
been associated, and since that time has edited 
that paper. He was married, in 1862, to Miss 
Carrie E. Sherrill. They have two sons, Arthur 
L. and Waiter L. The Captain is a member of 
the Christian churcli, a Free Mason, Knight of 
Pythias and Knight of Honor. 

Edward J. Oden is a sou of Elias Oden, and 
grandson of Hezckiali Oden, of East Tennessee, who 
was a soldier of the IJevolutionary War ; brought 
his family to Alabama in 1819, and died in 1848. 

Elias Oden was born in 1812, spent his life in 
agricultural pursuits, was a Baptist, and made his 
religion the prominent feature of his life. He 
was married, in 1834, to Miss Mary E. Stringer, 
of Kentucky, and raised three sons and five 

The oldest, W. H. Oden, is a merchant of Ban- 
gor. The third son, A. A. Oden is agent of L. 
& N. R. R., at Hartselle, and has held that posi- 
tion ever since it was opened. He is also editor 
and proprietor of the Hartselle Index, the oldest 
paper in the county except tlie Decatur Neivs. 

ALBERT G. McGREGOR, President of Hart- 
selle College, is a son of William and Elizabeth 
(Carpenter) McGregor, and was born in Lawrence 
County, Ala., March 1, 183.5. He was educated 
primarily in Lawrence County and subsequently 
at La Grange, that once beautiful college and lo- 
cation on the spur of a mountain in Colbert 
County, this State. This was a very jirosperous 
and popular institution of learning in antebellum 
times, but was burned during the war by the 
ruthless invader, because, forsooth, many of Ala- 

bama's sons had received their military training 
there. It has never been rebuilt. At this college 
Albert McGregor graduated in the classical course 
in 1854, and was elected to the chair of matliemat- 
ics of his Alma Mater in the following year. This 
institution was subsequently known as La Grange 
Military Academy, having received the patronage 
of the State, which authorized each county to keeji 
two cadets in attendance at her expense. Professor 
McGregor taught at La Grange until he joined the 
Confederate Army in 1861. He became Quarter- 
master in Col. Jeff. Forrest's regiment, and served 
with Gen. P. D. Roddy and General Forrest most 
of the time in North Alabama, North Mississippi 
and West Tennessee. i\f ter returning from the war,. 
Professor McGregor raised cotton for four years, 
then at the request of friends, returned to La 
Grange, where he taught school in a church 
building for about six years. He then took charge 
of the academy at Tuscumbia for one year, but on 
account of poor health, was compelled to quit 
teaching and return to the farm. In February, 
1885, he took charge of the college of Hartselle, 
and is still there. Professor McGregor was mar- 
ried December 23, 1858, to Miss Celia King, 
daughter of Robert King, an extensive planter, of 
Lawrence County, and they have seven children. 
He and his family are Methodists. He is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic Order, and has been an educa- 
tor all his life, 

William Carpenter, Professor ilcGregor's mater- 
nal grandfather, served in the War of 1812. 

The McGregors ai'e, as the name would indicate, 
of Scotch blood, but came from North Carolina to 
Alabama and became farmers in Lawrence County. 
Professor McGregor had one brother killed and 
one wounded at the battle of Franklin. 

The "Union Male and Female College," of 
Hartselle, Ala., was founded March 3, 1883, by 
Rev. Thomas Morrow, the object being to establish 
a school of high grade at this place, at which the 
students might attend and complete a thorough 
collegiate course. The building comprises five 
recitation rooms, and the schools employ four 
teachers. The school teaches all that is included 
in a thorough academic course, but as a college, is 
as yet, somewhat embryotic. It has hopes for de- 
velopment and better days. It is under religious 
influences, but is in no sense denominational. It 
is attended by about fifty pupils at the present 
time. It has a musical department and teaches 
both vocal and instrumental music. 



DABNEY A. BURLESON. Hartsellc, Ala., was 
Ixini lu'ur ncraiiir. I'Vliriiary 15. 18.'5o, and reared 
in this county. He was educated at Union I'ni- 
versity, Murfreesboro, Tenn., and at IJaylor I'ni- 
versity, Independence, Tex. He began his busi- 
ness life as a merchant at Danville, Ala., and went 
into tlie Confederate Army in 1801 as a member 
of Col. Joe Patterson's Uegiment. lie was for 
some time at Grenada, Miss., in the Quartermas- 
ter's department, but served mostly in the Tennes- 
see valley under General P. Uoddy. lie was once 
captured but escaped after a few hours, and was 
at Selma at the time of the surrender, lie is a 
fanner and has been successful. 

He was married February 11, 18")7, to iliss 
Sallie, daughter of Jonathan Orr, and of one of the 
most prominent families in this county. They 
have five living children, viz.: Jonathan, Kitty, 
Hetty, Florence and Ellen Byrd. 

Mr. Burleson is a Baptist, and an Odd Fellow, 
lie takes a great interest in any enterprise which 
tends to help or develop the agricultui-al interests 
of the country. 

D. A. Burleson is a son of Jonathan and Eliza- 
beth (Byrd) Burleson. His grandfather, .John 
Burleson, was a pioneer from North Carolina, ami 
settled at the Spring at lluntsville in 1817, ami 
liel[)ed expel the Indians from the country. He 
died in Lawrence County, this State. Hislirother 
.loe was a captain in the Indian wars. Jonathan 
Burleson was a native of Kentucky. He was in 
many fights with the Indians, in company with his 
uncle Joe, and fought in the War of 1812. He 
came to Alabama in 1818, and settled nine miles 
south of Decatur, where he remained until his 
death, in 1807. He was a county commissioner, 
justice of the peace, a wealthy planter, and a man 
of much local influence. He was twice married 
and had fourteen children, of whom twelve lived to 
maturity. • 

It is related that before 1S-.20 a gang (if horse 
thieves infested this part of the country and com- 
mitted many dej>redations. A body of citizens 
who desired to be rid of them met in convention 
in a cave in this county and passed resolutions 
which partook of the nature of laws : that conven- 
tion has been called "the first legislature.'' They 
cliose Joe Burleson for their president, and Jona- 
than Burleson for secretary. "They quickly 
cleaned out the horse thieves."' 

.lonathiin Burleson's first marriage was to Eliz- 
abeth Byrd, daughter of William Byrd. a Baptist 

preacher. She bore him thirteen children. The 
second was to Ann Humphreys, widow of Dr. 
Humphreys, of Somerviile. Her maiden name 
wiis lioby, and she bore him one child. The eld- 
est of this family, Aaron A. Burleson, was the first 
white child born in Morgan county ; he was a 
physician in Decatur for nuiny years, and is now 
in Arkansas, liufus C. Burleson is the most prom- 
inent member of the family. He is a Baptist 
preacher, a famous educator, and is now president 
of the Waco University, Waco, Tex. He entered the 
ministry when but eighteen years of age. and has 
led a life of ceaseless activity in Texas for a third 
of a century. It is recorded in history that Rufus C. 
Burleson has done more for the cause of education-- 
than any other man in Texas, and he has been 
called the "Xestor of Texas preachers and teach- 
ers. " He was a pioneer of that country in his 
profession, and he has educated thousands who 
have gone forth to success in all the learned 
professions. He is proficient in ancient Ian-- 
guages and lore : is eloquent in the pulpit ; kind 
and industrious in the class, and much beloved at- 

WILLIAM H. SIMPSON, attorney-at-law, Ilart- 
selle, Ala., was born at Danville, this State, July 
15, 1857, and attended school there until he went 
to college at Tu.scaloosa, where he was graduated 
in the law department of the State University in 
187'.i. Prior to his entering college he read law 
four months at Tuscumbia under Governor Lind- 
sey, was admitted to the bar in October, 187», 
and licensed to practice in the Supreme Court 
of the State in February, 1880. He was elect- 
ed to the Legislature on the Democratic ticket 
in 1886. 

Mr. Simpson seems to have things very much 
his own way in Ilartselle, being the only lawyer 
there, and his practice, which is mostly in common 
law and equity, gives him about as much work as 
he can do. He was married March 2(i. 1882, to 
Miss JIary Daniel Johnson, a daughter of Daniel 
Johnson, who was killed in the battle of Shiloh 
when Mary was an infant, and she was given his 
full name in honor of his memory. 

Stephen and Malinda (Stovall) Simpson, our 

subject's })arents, were residents of Danville, where 

Stephen .Simpson was a merchant for more than 

thirty years. He was postmaster at various times, 

' before, during and since the war. He accumulated. 



a fortune, but lost heavily by the war and by 
the credit system. He was a Baptist and a 

He died at Danville in June, 1884. Malinda 
Stovall (William's mother) was a daughter of Drew 
Stovall, one of tlie pioneers who helped expel the 
Indians from the country. He accumulated a 
large fortune in land and slaves, and died just be- 
fore the late war. 

Moses Simpson (William's grandfather) and 
his sons, James and Tliomas, came down the 
Tennessee river on a flat boat, from the Sequatchie 
Valley, Tenn., in 1823, and made a corn crop 
where Decatur is now located. In the fall of tliat 
year, he brought his family there, and afterwards 

entered land near Danville and there located per- 

He raised a family of eight sons and four 
daughters: James, Thomas, Abington, William, 
George, Reuben, Stephen, Moses, ^latilda, Polly, 
Betsy, and Emily. 

Stephen reared four sons and one daughter. 
They are Walter T., now of Texas; Wm. H., our 
subject; Claud, wlio died in 1883, and Edgar, now 
near Selma. Orrie, the daughter, married W. V. 
Echols, a merchant of Hartselle. 

William H. Simpson is a jiopular and jirosperous 
young man, and received the largest vote for the 
Legislature that was ever cast in his county for one 


Population: White, 12,(:!50; colored, 8,400. 
Area, 790 square miles. Woodland, all. Red 
Valley lands, 260 square miles. Calcareous 
slopes, 220 square miles. Mountain lands, 150. 
Coal measures, 160. 

Acres — In cotton, approximately, 42,800; in 
corn, 54,600; in oats, 5,700: in wheat, 6,000; in 
rye, 125: in tobacco, 100; in sweet potatoes, 400. 
Approximate number of bales of cotton in round 
numbers, 14,000. 

County Seat — Moulton: Population, 800: located 
fifteen miles south of Memphis & Charleston Rail- 

Newspaper publislied at County Seat — Adver- 
tiser (Democrat). 

Postoffices in the County — Avoca, Brick, Camp 
Springs, Concord, Courtland, Gum Pond, Hatton, 
Hillsborough, Jesseton, Kinlock, Moulton, Mount 
Hope, Oakville, Ora, Pitt, Pool, Progress, Spang- 
ler. Town Creek, Wheeler Station. 

Lawrence was established by the first Territorial 
Legislature, Feb. 4, 1818. It was formed out of 
the Cherokee and Chickasaw, cessions of lol6, and 
still retains its original dimensions. 'It lies in the 

nortliwest quarter of the State, contiguous to 
Lauderdale and Limestone on the north, Morgan 
on the east, Winston on the south, Franklin and 
Colbert on the west. It was named for Capt. 
James Lawrence, of the United States Xavy. His 
last order was : "Fight her till she sinks." 

The county is penetrated from east to west by 
two extensive valleys, known as Courtland and 
Moulton Valleys, the former of these being in the 
northern and the latter being in the southern 
j)ortion of tlie county, while the center is occupied 
by a detached mountain known as Little J\Iountain. 

The Little Mountain region, which occupies 
the central portion of the count}-, has a light sandy 
soil, which in point of fertility falls far behind 
those of the two valleys. But no portion of the 
county is more inviting than this as a place of res- 
idence. Elevated three or four hundred feet above 
the valleys, supplied with a profusion of freestone 
and chalybeate springs, with a soft, healthful atmos- 
phere, with extensive reaches of grazing lands for 
herds, this section is most inviting to many who 
come to Lawrence County in search of homes. A 
small colony of Quakers has recently located in this 



rejiioii, midway between the towns of Courtland 
and Moultoii. 

The county is traversed by iiun)i-rous streams, 
large and small, wliich alTord abundant supplies 
of water to every portion. Tiie northern boundary 
of the county is formed by the Tennessee Kiver. 
and more than half this boundary is occupied by 
the (ireat Jlussel Shoals, which are not navigable. 
The upper boundary, however, is on the open por- 
tion of the 'J'enncssee River, which will soon be 
oj)ened to the largest packets. In other portions 
of the county are Town and Xance Creeks, a fork 
of Flint Itivur and Sipsey Fork. Springs of great 
coolness and of unceasing flow issue from the hilly 
portions of the county. 

'JMmber is not in sufficient quantities for com- 
mercial purjioses. In the past the Little Jloun- 
tain region furnished great (puintities to the two 
valleys between which it is situated; but the for- 
ests have been sufficiently depleted to create care 
and protection against future depredations. For 
home consumption Ihere is still a sufficiency of 
])ine, white oak and poj)lar. The islands in the 
Tennessee are densely wooded with poplar, white 
oak, ash, red gum and black oak; but this timber 
is inaccessible to a great degree, and will remain so 
until the canal shall have been opened around the 
Mussel Shoals. 

The mineral resources of the county, as far as 
discovered, are limited. A few thin seams of coal 
are found on the high escarpments of the moun- 
tains, but it is not in sufficient quantities forprac- 
tical purposes. Almost every kind of fruit seems 
to do well in Lawrence County. The productions 
have been the most satisfactory. Grape culture 
has received more attention than any other. 

The facilities for transjiortation will be restricted 
to the ^femphis & Charleston Railroad, which 
runs through the Courtland Valley, east and 
west, until the Tennessee River shall liave been 
opened by the completion of the JIussel Shoals 

The chief towns of the county are Moulton, the 
county-seat, Courtland and Leighton. 

Good cotnmon schools exist in every section of 
the county, and a female acailemy of high grade 
in the town of Moultou. 

In almost every region of the county are the ev- 
idences of thrift and jirogress. Along the high, 
healthful ridges are found many handsome homes, 
adorned with flower gardens and surrounded with 
spacious orchards. 

In some regions of the county, where coves are 
formed, there are oftentimes found scenes of great 
wildness and beauty. 

The prices of land vary in the county, and are 
controlled by the fertility of the soil and the lo- 
cation of the land. Lands vary in prices from $5 
to $.50. 

Thrifty, wide-awake, progressive immigrants 
will be greeted by the good people of Lawrence 
County. Farmers, fruit-growers, and stock-raisers 
could not find a more inviting section. The 
county embodies 07,200 acres of land belonging to 
the gover!iment, some of which is subject to entry. 

JOSEPH WHEELER of Lawrence County, pres- 
ent member of Congress from the E'gbth Alabama 
district, and distinguished in the history of the 
country as the greatest cavalry commander of 
the Southern Confederacy, was born at Augusta, 
Ga., Sept. 10, 1636, and graduated from West 
Point as brevet second lieutenant of dragoons, 
class of 1859. His first assignment to duty 
was at the Cavalry School for Practice at 
Carlisle, Pa. From here he was transferred to 
Xew Jle.xico, where he was commissioned second 
lieutenant. About this time he began to study 
in earnest the science of war. Ilis greatest ambi- 
tion was to become a gallant cavalry commander, 
and his success in the prosecution and accomplish- 
ment of this desire must be read in the authenti- 
cated annals of the bloodiest war of which history 
gives an account. For four long years his brilliant 
achievements crowded upon the heels of each other 
like the revolving views of a panorama, and while 
many a chieftain whose heroic valor canonized him 
in the hearts of a glorious people, drank oft of the 
bitter cup of defeat, when the penant of Wheeler 
was lowered and the hilt of his sabre was turned, 
it was when resistance was no longer war; it was 
when the notes of the bugle summoned the cava- 
lier no more to the charge, but in tones, saddened 
indeed, though sounding a pa>an to peace, signaled 
him from the field of carnage and of strife; it wjis 
when the curtain had fallen upon the last act of 
the terrible trngcdy: it was when the Civil War 
was ended I 

As has been seen, Wheeler was in New Mexico 
at the outbreak of the war between the States, and 
the following letter written by him to his brother, 
Capt. William II. Wheeler, of (ieorgia, early in 



1861, gives something of an insight of the sjjirit 
that actuated many a brave man, and contradicts 
the oft- repeated charges of disloyalty and treason 
at heart, to the Union: "Much as I love the 
Union, much as I am attached to my profession, 
all will be given up when my State, by its action, 
shows that such a course is necessary and proper. 
If Georgia withdraws and becomes a separate 
State, I can not, with propriety, and justice to my 
people, hesitate in resigning my commission." 

Lieutenant Wheeler's resignation was dated at 
Fort Fillmore, February 21, 1801, and he reached 
Augusta in person early in the following March. 
He was at once commissioned first lieutenant of 
artillery in the regular army and stationed at Pen- 
sacola, Fla., where he busied liimself erecting 
batteries and fortifications, drilling regiments, 
instructing companies in artillery practice and 
various other duties. While there he attracted the 
attention of the Hon. James L. Pugh and other 
gentlemen, who, without his knowledge, indited 
the following to Mr. Davis: "We feel it our duty 
to call your attention to a young officer at this 
place. Lieutenant Wheeler of tlie regular army. 
Our observation of him convinces us that he would 
be of great value as the commander of volunteer 
soldiers. His qualifications are unquestioned. " 
Similar recommendations were forwarded by Gen. 
Bragg and others, and early in the summer of 
1861, Wheeler was promoted to the rank of colonel 
and assigned to the command of the Nineteenth 
Alabama Infantry. At the head of this regiment 
he won his first distinction at Shiloh. Division 
Commander Withers, in his report of that engage- 
ment, says: " * * * Colonel Wheeler, through- 
out the fight, proved himself worthy of all trust 
and confidence — a gallant commander and an 
accomplished soldier. " Col. Wheeler was imme- 
diately promoted to brigadier-general, and from 
that hour, his star, which had never waned, was, 
to the close of the conflict, particularly in the 

How he fought the enemy at Farmington and 
checked his advance upon Corinth; covered the 
retreat of Beauregard from the latter place, and 
deceived federal General Pope; took charge of 
the idle, neglected and almost decimated cavalry 
of the Army of the Mississippi ; organized it, 
thrust it inside of the well-established lines of the 
enemy, destroyed his communications, whipped 
his cavalry, captured his trains, burned his cotton, 
and sped back to cover of safety without the loss 

of a man, are all given in detail by the historians 
of the war, and commented upon as opening the 
eyes of army commanders to the hitherto uu- 
thought of possibilities in cavalry service. There 
is no doubt but what Wheeler's tactics, as practiced 
by himself, revolutionized cavalry warfare and 
developed it into the important branch of service 
it soon became and will forever remain. 

On the march of the Southern army into Ken- 
tucky, Wheeler's cavalry struck many a well- 
aimed blow at the flanks of the retreating enemy; 
at Mumfordsville he won the admiration and com- 
pliments of the Xorthern army "for gallantry 
and brilliancy in action," and at Perry ville he 
was the cynosure of both armies, as he held the 
enemy in check, or charged him again and again 
at the head of his brigade, finally jJutting him to 
rout. Upon retiring from Kentucky, General 
Bragg appointed Wheeler chief of cavalry, and as 
such he covered that retreat into Tennessee. We 
next see him harrassing the enemy about Nash- 
ville, making life a burden to Rosecrans' foragers, 
and fighting, in quick succession, twenty-eight dis- 
tinct battles and as many skirmishes — historic 
events that flashed with the rapidity and changes 
of the kaleidoscope before the eyes of the world. 

Pages upon pages have been written and might 
be repeated by us to tell only a partial history of 
Wheeler's command. In our mind's eye we follow 
his phantom-like movements about Stone River> 
where for five days he slept not to e.xceed so man}' 
hours: where, at the head of his gallant followers, 
he dashed into the enemy's rear, his right, his left, 
his center— here, there, everywhere, borne with 
the speed of the wind from point to point during 
the memorable conflict, encircling Rosencrans" 
entire army, charging him in detachments, jilung- 
ing into his battle lines, stampeding his wagon 
trains, destroying his stores, terrifying his guards, 
capturing bis jirisoners, firing depots — round and 
round he glides with the charm of a wizard, till 
summoned again to cover the I'ctreat of the army. 

And of such was the life of Wheeler, from the 
beginning of the war to its close: never idle, always 
on the alert, he was by far the most distinguished 
cavalry commander develoi^ed by the American 
conflict. In the spring of 1865 he was promoted 
to the rank of lieutenant-general of cavalry, and as 
such retired from the jjrofession of war to that of 

Less than twenty-nine years of age, he had, by 
acknowledged merit, risen from the rank of a sub- 



ordinate to that of eminent command. Though 
small in stature, it was with giant strides he rose 
to exalted position. Under him. from time to 
time, fought many men whose distinguished 
acliievemeiits added bright luster to the renown of 
American soldiery. Nor did he ever forget them. 
Their names, many now recorded upon marble and 
ashlar that mark the sodded mound 'neath which 
tliey fiiuilly rest, are engraven upon the eiitabUi- 
ture of his heart, and, as in retrospect, he calls 
up in long review the heroes of Shiloli, Corinth, 
Terryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Knox- 
ville, Iiinggold, Rocky Face, Dalton, Uesaca, 
Cassville, New Mope, Kcnesaw Mountain, Peach 
Tree Creek, Decatur, Atlanta. Savannah. Ayers- 
l)oro, Bentonville, and literally the thousand and 
one other contlicts of arms through which they 
followed him, it is with the emotion of a gener- 
ous acknowledgment of deeds performed that 
I'edounded so much to his own glory. 

With his sad farewell to his soldiers, we close 
this brief sketch of fieneral Wheeler's military 
career, leaving to others the jdeasant duty of 
adorning the literature of war bygiving it in full: 


. Cavalry Corps, ) 
• April -.29, 1805. ) 

"Gallant Co.\iuai)ES: — You have fought your 
tight; your task is done. During a four years' 
struggle for liberty, you have exhibited courage, 
fortitude, and devotion; you are the sole victors 
i>f more tiian two hundred severely contested 
lields; you have participated in more than a thou- 
sand conflicts of arms; you arc heroes, veterans, 
patriots; the bones of your comrades mark battle- 
fields upon the soil of Kentucky, Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, (ieorgia, 
Alabama and Mississippi; you have done all tliat 
human exertion could accomplish. In bidding 
you adieu, I desire to tender my thanks for your 
gallantry in battle, your fortitude under suffering, 
and your devotion at all times to the holy cause 
you have <lone so much to maintain. I desire al- 
so to express my gratitude for the kind feeling 
you have seen fit to extend toward myself, and to 
invoke upon you the blessings of onr Heavenly 
Father, to whom we must always look for support 
in the hour of distress. 

"Hrethren in the cause of freedom, comrades 
in arms, I bid you farewell I 

" .1. WlIKKLKR." 

Leaving the army. (Jcneral Wheeler si>ciit three 

years in New Orleans in the commission business, 
and ill l^C'.l located iiiion his i)lantation at what is 
now known as Wheeler's Station, and turned his 
attention to agriculture and the practice of law. In 
isSd, he was elected to Congress from the Kighth 
District, was re-elected in 1884, and again in 18SC. 

His election in 1880 was contested by Mr. Lowe, 
and Wheeler was unseated in June, 1882. In 
Congress, as in the army he has exhibited ihe 
same active, energetic, intrepid and fearless char- 
acter, and it is safe to say that no member of that 
body has performed more labor and with better 
results than he. 

(ieneral Wheeler was married at AVheeler's Sta- 
tion, February 8, IS'iiJ, to Miss Ella .Jones, the 
accomplished daughter of the late Richard Jones, 
one of the pioneers of Lawrence County, a native 
\'irginian and an extensive planter, and has had 
born to him two sons and four daughters. 

JAMES E. SAUNDERS, a^ distinguished citi- 
zen of Lawrence County, was born in Brunswick 
County, \'a.. May 7, 18(i(i, and was two years of 
age when his jjarents migrated to Williamson 
County, Tenn. He was educated under private 
instructors and at the University of Georgia. 
Immediately after graduating, he began the study 
of law, in the office of Foster & Fogg, Nasliville, 
Tenn., and entered the practice during the twenty- 
first year of his age. 

In 1826 he located at Moultoii, this county, 
where his superior (|ualifications as a lawyer were 
at once recognized. Three years later, he re- 
moved to Courtland, and entered into partnersliip 
with John J. Ormand. This arrangement con- 
tinued until the elevation of Judge Ormand to 
the supreme bench of the State. 

In 184(1, Mr. Saunders was elected to the I-egis- 
lature, and was assigned to the chairmanshij) of 
the judiciary committee. 

From Mr. Garrett's " Public .Men of .Mabama "' 
we (|Uote the following as (iprojms : 

•'In the first di,scu.ssion which arose, relative to 
tiie election of United States Senator, the rank 
assigned him (Saunders), l)y general consent, was 
that of leader on the Democratic side. He wjis 
calm as a May morning, never permitting the 
exciting scenes around him to ruffle the perfect 
equanimity of his temjier. His thoughts ajipcarcd 
so well arraiige<l, and his facts so connected, that 



he seemed only to make a statement m order to 
carry a point by the force of deduction. He bore 
himself with so much ease and yet with such force 
in debate, tliat, while he astonished all by the 
strength of his logic, it seemed tliat he held him- 
self back, and never darted his heaviest bolts. 
Congress would have been a more suitable arena 
for the exhibition of his true character and emi- 
nent abilities. The laurels he gained never with- 
ered, but each successive performance added lustre 
to his victories." 

Mr. Saunders was for many years a Trustee 
of tlie University, and contributed to that change 
of administration which took place in 18.37, when 
the Rev. Alva Woods retired from the Presidency, 
and was succeeded by the Rev. Basil Manly. In 
1843, he changed his residence to Mobile, where 
he carried on a commission business. In 1S45, Mr. 
Polk appointed him Collector of the Port of Mo- 
bile, which office he held for four years. In 1852 
he served on the Electoral Ticket which cast the 
vote of Alabama for Pierce and King. He pos- 
sessed a large fortune, having married Mary F., 
daughter of Maj. Robert H. Watkins, formerly 
of Georgia. Mr. Saunders dispensed a liberal 
hospitality, and gave freely of his wealth to char- 
itable objects and the support of the ministry. 
He is a member of the Methodist Eijiscopal 
Church, South, and has faithfully performed the 
duties imposed by tliat relation. He has acted 
well his part as a Christian philosopher, and is 

now enjoying that retirement and universal re- 
spect so well merited by his spotless character. 

Colonel Saunders opposed secession, and was 
president of the Douglas Convention, held at Mont- 
gomery in 1860 ; but when Alabama withdrew 
from the Federal Union, he recognized the State's 
first and greatest claim upon his allegiance, and 
at once threw himself actively into her defense. 
He was connected with the army from the begin- 
ning to the close, and rendered the cause much 
valuable and highly apjireciated service. He 
is honorably mentioned many times in " Tlie 
Life of Albert Sidney Jolmston," the "Campaigns 
of Lieut. -Gen. Forrest," and other popular works. 

After the war, Colonel Saunders resumed his 
favorite jiursuit, agriculture, and is now living 
a life of comfortable, not to say elegant, re- 
tirement at his magnificent country seat, near the 
little town of Courtland. Here, in his ripe old 
age, he continues to disj^ense Southern hospitality 
in kee25ing with the time-honored customs of a 
glorious people. 

He was married, July 1-1, 1824, to ilary Francis 
Watkins, the handsome and accomplished daugh- 
ter of Maj. Robt. A. "Watkins, of this county, and 
formerly of Virginia. The children born to this 
happy union, and that grew to adult age, are 
named as follows: Robert T., Elizabetli Dunn, 
deceased, Mary Louise, deceased, Dudley Dunn, 
Sarah Jane, Prudent, deceased, Lawrence Watkins, 
deceased, and Ellen Virginia. 

,, . e,^Z^iC^ )j((g^S^rL..,, 


Population : White, l-.>,0(i() : colored. '.),;U0. 
Area, 590 square miles. Wooillaiicl, all. Keil 
Valley lands, 175 square miles. Barrens, 415 
square miles. 

Acres — In cotton, a])pro.\iinately, 45.000: in 
corn, 47,000: in oats, 4, -400: in wheat, 7,900; in rye, 
250; in tobacco, 125; in sweet potatoes, 450. Ap- 
proximate number of bales of cotton, 17,000. 

County Seat — Athens: Population, 1,300; lo- 
cated on Nashville & Decatur branch of Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad, 107 miles south of 
Nashville, and 195 north of Montgomery. 

Newspapers published at County seat — Alabania 
Courier and Dviiwcnit, both Democratic. 

Postottices in the County — Athens. Belle Jlina, 
Carriger, Center Hill, Elkmont, Elk Kiver Mills, 
Estaville, Ciilbertsborough, Good Springs, Green- 
brier, Ilyde Park, Mooresville, Mount Roszcll, 
O'Neal, Peltey, Pettusville, Quid Nunc, Kowland, 
Sand Springs, Swancott, Veto, Westmoreland, 
AVooley Springs. 

Limestone was created out of the lands pur- 
chased from the Chickasaws and Cherokees, by 
an act of the Territorial Legislature, passed Feb- 
ruary (i, 1818. 

This county lies directly north of the Tennessee 
River. It is one of the first counties formed in the 

Limestone has all the varieties of soil which be- 
long to the Tennessee Valley. 

The southern portion of tiie county e.\ceeds in 
fertility that of the northern. The southern has 
a more uniform surface and is capitally adapted to 
the growth of all the cereals. The lands in this 
section are almost entirely cleared and are in a fine 
state of cultivation. The bottom lands which 
skirt the numerous streams are exceedingly fertile. 
Notwitlistanding Limestone has long been recog- 
nized as one of the chief cereal counties of the 
State, and still is, the farmers are turning their 
attention more every year to the growth of grasses 
and breeding of thoroughbred horses and blooded 

cattle, hogs and slice}). This change has proven 
to be the best thing our farmers have ever under- 

The grasses usually grown for stock are produced 
here in the greatest perfection, and the most san- 
guine expectations of stock-raisers have been real- 
ized. The finest pasture lands can be had here, 
the value of which is greatly enhanced by the 
multitude of streams which penetrate every part 
of the county. Great encouragement has been 
given stock-raisers, year by year, to imjjrove the 
character of their breeds. 

Except upon the lowlands and near the rivers, 
the county is wonderfully healthy, and along the 
ridges adjoining these basins excellent places of 
residence can be had. Formerly these ridges were 
dwelling places of the wealthiest farmers in the 
county, while they cultivated the land in the bot- 
toms. Along these knolls, as almost in every part 
of the county, fine water is found, together with 
a salubrious climate. 

In many parts of the county are forests of tim- 
ber in which are found hickory, poplar, chestnut, 
red and white oak, beech, maple, red and white 
gum, ash, walnut and cherry. 

Along the southern border of the county runs 
the Tennessee river, several of the large tributa- 
ries of which penetrate the territory of Limestone. 
Elk river Hows through the northwest, and at cer- 
tain seasons is navigable for light crafts. This 
stream will be of vast local advantage when the 
obstructions are removed from the Tennessee. 
Big Poplar, Round Island, Swan, Piney, Lime- 
stone, and Beaver Dam creeks streak the county 
in every section with waters of perpetual How. 
These are reinforced by many large springs in the 
mountain and hill regions. Mineral springs also 
exist and are said to be equal to any in the State. 
The streams abound in remarkably fine fish, vast 
quantities of which are caught every year. 

No great public industries have as yet been es- 
tablished, but a number are in contemplation at 




Athens, on the Louisville & Nashville railroad. 

Energy, skill and capital are needed to make Lime- 

. stone what it is by nature fitted to become — a great 

manufacturing as well as an agricultural region. 

As yet but little attention has been given the 
mineral products of Limestone. Valuable speci- 
mens of lead have been discovered in the Elk River 
hills. In some portions of the county there have 
been discovered out-croppings of iron ore, as well 
as fine specimens of coal. Slate has been found 
to exist in vast quantities, though it has failed 
thus far to attract public attention. Silver ore 
has also been discovered, but it is not known to 
what extent it exists. 

The county is highly favored in its facilities 
for transportation. It is divided in twain from 
north to south by the great Louisville & JSIashville 
Railroad, which brings it into easy and rapid com- 
munication with New Orleans on the south and 
the great cities of the West on the north. 

Fruits grown along these valleys find a ready 
market in the cities of the Northwest, into com- 
mercial relations with which this section is brought 
by means of its excellent railroad facilities. 

Along the southern portion of the county runs 
the ;Memphis«!fc Charleston Railroad, which affords 
a competing line to the producers of the county. 

The social advantages of Limestone are those 
which belong to the best regulated society of the 
South. The people are hospitable and are 
prompted by a most generous disposition. Schools 
of varying grades exist in different jiarts of the 
county. In Athens, the county seat, which has a 
population of about 1,500, there are -several 
schools of high grade. Churches usually of the 
Methodist, Presbyterian and Baptist denomina- 
tions prevail. 

The other chief towns are Mooresville and Elk- 
mont. The last named point is a town with 
promising importance. Lands may be purchased 
in some sections for $5 per acre ; in others they 
will cost much more, being dependent upon the 
fertility and location. 

Athens. — Athens, tlie seat of justice of Lime- 
stone county, was first incorporated November 19, 
1818, and the courthouse was located here at once. 
A seminary of learning, for females, was early 

The corner stone of the Masonic Hall was laid 
in March, 182G, it being the second brick building 
in the town. 

There are four brick churches, the Baptist being 

the first one built and was used by all denomina- 
tions. The Methodist was the next one, which 
was built in 1836. The Cumberland Presbyter- 
ian Church was built early in 1850; owing to 
its proximity to the railroad, the congregation 
has sold it and purchased a lot for a new one. 
The Ei^iscopal Church has been recently built, 
and is a very handsome one. 

There are two colleges, male and female, the 
latter an imposing brick structure, with ample and 
beautiful grounds. Under the supervision of 
Prof. M. G. Williams it has very rapidly increased 
in the number of pupils and is now one of the 
finest schools in the State. The male college is a 
large and roomy frame building, situated in a 
beautiful grove at a sufficient distance from the 
public square to make it quiet. Splendid brick 
pavements lead to both colleges from any jiortiou 
of the town. 

The earliest records of the town we have been 
able to find, is April 37, 1824, at which time Sam- 
uel Tanner was mayor. 

Among the members of the bar the mo.'^t prom- 
inent were Daniel Coleman, Egbert J. Jones, 
William Richardson, Thomas Hobbe, George S. 
Houston, LukePryor, Elbert English, "William 11. 

In the medical profession were such distinguished 
men as T. S. Malone, J. F. Sewell, Joshua P. 
Comau, Frank ^lalone, P. Capshaw. 

GEORGE SMITH HOUSTON was the grandson 
of John Houston and Mary Ross, who, in 1760 
migrated from County Tyrone in the north of 
Ireland and settled in Newbury District in North 

David, their fourth son, and the father of George 
Smith Houston, married Hannah (PLigh) Reagan, 
whose mother was of Welch extraction, being of 
the family of Pughs, who were noted for their love 
for, and ijromotionof education. 

He removed to Virginia, and afterward settled 
near Franklin in Williamson County. Tenn., where 
on the 17th of January, 1S08, the subject of this 
sketch was born in 1824 or 1825, the family settled 
twelve miles west of Florence, in Lauderdale 
County, Ala., and engaged in agriculture. His 
father considered manual labor essential to mental 
and physical perfection, and reared his sons to 
work. In his boyhood, educational facilities were 


not as good as now. Though not possessed of the 
advantages necessary to the thorough and finished 
scholar, he received an elementary education in an 
academy in Lauderdale County. Ambitious and 
fond of books, he daily added to this foundation, 
by the close study of standard works. 

As a boy he was happy-hearted, bright, liigh- 
toncd, industrious, self-reliant and noted for iiis 
devotion to his mother. 

He read law under Judge Coalter, in Florence, 
anil completed his studies in the law school at 
Ifarrodsburgh, Ky. In 1831 he was admitted to 
the bar, and in 1S3-2. was sent to the Legislature. 
He was there twice elected Circuit Solicitor, in 
which position he made a decided reputation, being 
considered one of the ablest prosecutors in the State. 

He removed to Athens, Limestone County, Ala., 
and, in 1835, married Mary L Beaty, the daughter 
of Hobert Beaty. They had eight children, all of 
whom died before 1860, except David, (ieorge S., 
.lohn P. and Mary E. Houston. David entered 
the service as captain of a company of the Ninth 
Alabama regiment. He was afterward a member 
of (Jeneral Roddy's command. He died, unmar- 
ried, September 7, 1880. 

George S. entered the service as a private in 
.lohnson's regiment of General Koddy's command, 
and was afterward lieutenant of General Roddy's 
escort. He married Maggie Irvine of Florence, 
Ala., and now resides on a farm near Mooresville, 
in Limestone County. 

.John P. is engaged in the practice of law in 
Memphis, Tenn. ^lary E. resides in Athens, Ala. 

In April, 1861, he married Ellen Irvine, of 
Florence, Ala., a daughter of James Irvine, one of 
the leading lawyers of the State. They had two 
children, Emma and Maggie Lou. Emma is now 
living with her mother at Athens. Maggie Lou 
died November 24, 18T7. 

In 1841 George S. Houston was elected to Con- 
gress on the general ticket. With the exception 
of one term, when he declined to make the race, 
he served in Congress until .lanuary 21, 1861. He 
was recognized as one of the leaders of the House. 
He took an active part in the debates on important 
measures. He was a strict constructionist, or a 
State's rights Democrat, believing all legislation 
should be left to the States "over subjects where 
they could as amply and beneficially legislate as 

He was opposed to the tariff system, and held 
the public land to be a trust for the people, and 

not for speculative greed. He was so economical 
and watchful of the public funds, that he was 
known in Congress as the " Watch-dog of the 

His reputation and influence were by no means 
local. He was particularly influential with Pres- 
idents Pierce and Polk. It is stated on good 
authority that it was the intention of Mr. Tilden 
to olfer him a Cabinet position, had he been de- 
clared President in 1876. 

Perhaps no member was ever more complimented 
with committee appointments than he; not only 
was he placed on the most important committees, 
but was chairman of Military Affairs, Ways and 
Means, and the Judiciary, an honor rarely, if ever, 
accorded to any other member. He was several 
times chairman of Way.* and Means, which is per- 
hap.'^ the most important committee in the House. 
While a party man, he was not such for selfish 
motives. He did not study to ride into power on 
a popular wave. He was fearless in his convic- 
tions, and, while keeping party lines, he directed 
rather than followed it. He was earnestly opposed 
to secession, and pr^'bilbly niadff thf lnBt Dnnglm 
speech ^er made in Alnhiiniii. While in Congress 
and when secession seemed almost a certainty, he 
boldly advocated and became a member of the 
famous committee of thirty-three to devise means 
to save the Union; but when Alabama seceded, he 
drafted and presented to the speaker the formal 
withdrawal of the Alabama delegation from the 
Federal Congress. He retired to his home, and, 
though not in the active service, he repeate<ily re- 
fused to take the oath of allegiance demanded by 
the Federal authority, and was thoroughly in sym- 
pathy with th^e Confederacy, and contributed to 
its support. He was never defeated when before 
the people, and was regarded one of the ablest 
stump speakers in the South. He was gifted with 
a commanding person, a deep, full and clear voice, 
keen repartee and a flow of humor and logic. 
Though he lacked the nervous and electric cur- 
rent of eloquence, his efforts were always ponderous 
and convincing, often grand and eloquent. In 
186.5 he was elected to the Senate of the L^uited 
States, but not allowed a seat, because his State 
was denied representation. 

In 1866, he was again offered for the Senate, but 
was defeated by ex-(Jovernor Winston, the vote 
being Winston 65 and Houston 61. In 1872, he 
was again an applicant for the Senate, At this 
time it was extremely doubtful whether the one 



elected would be allowed a seat, the Legislature 
being divided and in session in two places. After 
many ballots all the names before the Democratic 
wing of the Legislature, by agreement of the can- 
didates, were simultaneously withdrawn, and the 
Hon. F. W. Sykes, who had not been before it, 
was elected. 

In 1874 the Radical party had control of this 
State. EflEorts to dislodge it had been repeatedly 
made, but were fruitless. After a careful survey 
of the field, George S. Houston was deemed by far 
the most available man to make the race against 
David P. Lewis for Governor. 

Some of Houston's more intimate friends urged 
him not to make the race ; they said the success of 
the party was extremely doubtful ; that he had 
earned sufficient reputation as a statesman, and 
had served the people long enough to be entitled 
to a discharge from further service. 

At that time the State's indebtedness amounted 
to about ^32,000,000 ; the rate of taxation for State 
purposes was not less than three-fourths of one per 
cent.; her treasury was empty; her people were 
impoverished ; her obligations were almost worth- 
less, and the State was entirely without credit — so 
much so, it is said, the funds necessary to hold the 
constitutional convention of 1875, could not be 
raised until Governor Houston pledged his honor 
that the same should be repaid. 

To protect the honor and credit of the State, 
and not confiscate the property of her citizens, 
seemed a herculean task. He was told it would be 
impossible ; that the people could not and would 
not pay tlie indebtedness as it was then ; that the 
creditors would not accept less, but would consider 
any effort to settle at less than the full amount 
claimed, repudiation ; that it would be impossible 
to satisfy both the creditors and the taxpayers, and 
that whoever tried it would find himself politically 
dead. Though warned that this rock would 
wreck the vessel laden with the fruits of his 
earlier years and labor, and at his time of life he 
could not hope to repair the injury which would 
be wrought by a failure to satisfactorily handle 
this perplexing problem, he was not deterred but 
accepted the nomination which the convention by 
acclamation tendered him. 

The State was thoroughly canvassed and the lead- 
ing issues discussed and fairly put before the people 
by the ablest speakers in the party. The Radical 
majority of ten to fifteen thousand was overcome, 
and the Democratic ticket elected by alike majority. 

As Governor, he advocated a policy which con- 
verted the penitentiary, that had previously been 
a considerable charge to the State, into a source 
of State revenue. He favored aiding the public 
schools to the full capacity of the State, but not to 
the extent of crippling her ability to meet her just 

He urged economy in every department of state, 
setting the example by saving more than $10,000 
of the $1.5,000 set apart for contingent expenses. 

"While Governor, he was in thorough accord with 
the Legislature, having confidence in the honesty 
and ability of the members, and inspiring their 
confidence. So thoroughly were they in accord, 
the veto power was not used oftener than four 
times during one term, if so often. 

The most important measure for their consider- 
ation was the State debt. In a message to the 
Legislature, he recommended the appointment of 
a committee to investigate and make some adjust- 
ment of it. The committee was composed of T. 
B. Bethea, Levi W. Lawless and George S. Hous- 
ton, who was chairman. 

Their management of it is considered one of the 
grandest achievements of the age ; the creditoVs 
were fairly dealt with and were satisfied ; the 
State's honor was not tarnished ; the taxpayers 
were j)rotected, and now her bonds are far above 
par ; the interest is paid with perfect regularity ; 
property has greatly enhanced in value ; the rate 
of taxation has been greatly reduced, and taxes 
are cheerfully paid. 

In 1876, and shortly after his re-election as 
Governor, Geo. S. Houston was balloted for in the 
caucus for United States Senator. He developed 
a strong following, but meeting with considerable 
opposition he determined to withdraw his name, 
serve another term as Governor, and come before 
the Legislature at the expiration of his second 

His successful competitor, the able and generous 
John T. Morgan, thus spoke of his candidacy: 
"At the expiration of his first term as Governor, 
the people were ready to honor him still further 
by electing him a second time to the Senate of the 
United States, but they had again chosen him 
Governor of the State and they would not consent 
to relieve him of that service until he had com- 
pleted fully, the wise course of policy inaugurated 
during his first term. " 

At the expiration of his second term he was sent 
to the United States Senate. He served in the 

^ ^ 




extra session of 1879, but did not return to Wash- 
ington on account of ill health. On the 31st day 
of December, 1870, he died at his home in Athens. 

The Hon. Luke Pryor, his former law partner, 
bosom friend and successor in the Senate, thus 
s|)oke of liini: ■' He was a man free from deform- 
ity of mind, body and heart. He was a man im- 
pressive and imposing in his personal appearance. 
His mind was vigorous, analytical, quick of 
perception, sufficiently inrjuisitive, detective and 
discriminative —a mind that came to conclusions 
slowly but certainly; not because of its dullness, 
but because of its caution, its prudence, its sense 
of rectitude, and when reached, never found un- 
just, ])rejudiceil, biased or partial, and rarely incor- 
rect, staiuling and withstanding the severest tests. 

•'Added to this was a judgment sound, well- 
defined and trustworthy, and whicl), when once 
formed, was firm and immovable. He was a man 
of foresight and judgment profound. He was a 
safe counselor, sagacious, well-trained, and ad- 
mirably versed in the principles of wise statesman- 
ship and public policy; an instructive, judicious 
and adhesive friend, unselfish, never withholding 
his views, but promptly and fully disclosing the 
same to his associates. His industry in search of 
truth was rarely eipialed. He could not l)e unduly 
persuaded, and was beyond seduction to do a 

•' As a debater he was sagacious, ponderous and 
■convincing; a hum emphatically of argumentation. 
He had no superiors and few equals when dealing 
with questions of facts; his powers of separation 
and condensations of facts and their application 
were wonderful. 

'• On questions of law, discriminating clearly and 
forcibly, with great cajiacity to present singleness 
of point. In debate his manner was courteous, 
becoming earnest, attractive and resj)ectful, espe- 
cially toward his adversary, with a marked 
toleration in respect to those differing with him 
in views or sentiments. 

LUKE PRYOR. distinguished lawyer, legislator 
and citizen, Athens, Ala., was born in ^ladi- 
son County, this State, July 5, 1820, and his 
parents were Luke and Ann 15. (Lane) Pryor, 
natives of the State of Virginia, ami descendants 
of English ancestry. 

The senior Luke Prvor marrieil in his native 

State ; came to Madison Connty, Ala., in 1820, 
and into Limestone County in 1822. He was a 
planter by occupation ; a quiet, unassuming gen- 
tleman ; a good citizen, and died, mourned by all 
who knew him, in 1851, at the advanced age of 
eighty-one year*. His widow survived him several 
years, and died at Athens, in 1874. They reared 
but two sons, John B. Pryor, now resident of New 
Jersey, and a distinguislied turfman, and the sub- 
ject of this sketch. 

It was at the common schools of Limestone 
County, Luke Pryor acquired the rudiments of an 
English education which he subsequently aug- 
mented at an academy at Washington, Miss. He 
studied law under Daniel Coleman, at Athens; 
was admitted to the bar in 1841, and gave to that 
profession forty years of his life. His first law 
partner was Robert Urickell, now the distinguished 
Alabama jurisprudent. He was afterward at 
different times associated with Egbert Jones, 
(leneral Walker, and lastly, the Hon. George S. 

Since coming to man's estate, Mr. Pryor has 
been identified prominently with every important 
inteiest and industry of this community, and 
every good work has received his heartiest encour- 
agement and support. As early as 1854, he made 
himself conspicuous as the friend and ailvocate of 
what is now known as the L. & N, R. P., then, 
we believe, spoken of as the North & South 
Railroad. It is of history that that enterprise, in 
its inception, met with much strenuous opposition 
at the hands of some of the leading men of North 
Alabama, and particularly of Limestone County. 
This should not be construed into meaning that 
those men opposed the construction of the road 
as such, but they objected to the means proposed, 
to-wit : that of subsidizing the corporation by ta.x- 
ation to be levied upon the common people. Stock 
was issued for the involuntary subscription or 
county taxes to the tax payer. Upon the other 
hand, Mr. Pryor and other gentlemen associated 
with Jiim, took the ground that no moneved com- 
pany would find it sufficiently to their interest to 
induce them to invest the large amount required 
for the construction of such line of road at that 
early day : for it was known that the product of 
the country was then insufficient to make it a 
paying investment, and that it would probablv 
remain so for many years. Therefore, he argued, 
that as the road was to redound to tlie immediate 
advantage of the people of that section of the 


Northern Alabama. 

country by giving tliem an outlet to the world, 
and access to markets, thus enhancing the value 
of their property, and increasing the price of the 
product of the plantation, it was but right that 
the people, as a whole, should bear a part of the 
necessary expense. It was upon this question that 
the people differed ; and the history of the North 
& South Railroad shows that Mr. Pryor and his 
friends were successful, and that a majority of the 
people of Limestone were with him to the extent 
that they voted in aid of the enterprise §200,000. 
It then became a question as to whether the legis- 
lature would pass a bill for this purpose, and Mr. 
Prvor and Thomas H. Hobbs were sent to the 
Legislature particularly in the interest of the enter- 
prise. The bill as introduced and joassed, was 
vetoed by the Governor, but it was immediately 
passed over his head by the required two-thirds 
majority, under the leadership of Mr. Pryor. 

Mr. Prvor remained with this railroad com- 
pany, and as its friend and champion, for many 
years, until, in fact, it became a through line of 
road from Nashville to the Tennessee Kiver, and 
thence onward in the direction of Montgomery. 
As this was one of the most important enterprises 
of the South, and resulted in so much good to the 
whole people, it is just that we should say that 
there were associated with Mr. Pryor, and in its 
behalf, many other good and true men, and among 
them may be mentioned specially, Major Thomas 

H. Hobbs, James Sloss, Geo. S. Houston, 

Gilmer, Belser, et al. These men were, 

many of them, identified later on with what was 
known as the " Mountain Contracting Company,^' 
organized for the purpose of constructing this 
road between Decatur and Calera. It is now 
known that the road was in process of construction 
at the outbreak of the late war. It is also known 
that the three per cent, levy due from the State to 
the trust fund established for the purpose of con- 
necting the Tennessee River and Jlobile Bay, was 
appropriated to the North & South Railroad Com- 
pany, and undoubtedly hastened the construction 
of this road, which finally led on to Birmingham 
and made that city possible. The bill providing 
for this appropriation was largely the work of 
Luke Pryor. 

In 1880 (.January) Governor Cobb appointed 
Hon. Luke Pryor United States Senator, to fill 
the unexpired term of the late George S. Houston. 
This appointment was made not only in consid- 
eration of the warm friendship existing between 

Messrs. Pryor and Houston during the lifetime of 
the latter, but was also in response to a demand 
on the part of people that the great Houston be 
succeeded by one most familiar with his methods 
and his purposes, and by the man most fitted in 
every way to jn'osecute them to comi^letiou. How- 
well Mr. Pryor discharged this great duty is now 
known to the intelligent reader, and forms a part 
of the history of the nation. 

At the expiration of the term for which he was 
appointed, Mr. Pryor refused to allow his name 
to go before the Legislature for re-election. In 
the fall of 1882 the people of his district, in con- 
vention assembled at Decatur, without any knowl- 
edge or solicitation on his part, nominated Luke 
Pryor, by acclamation, as the Democratic candi- 
date for the United States Congress. Mr. Lowe, 
who was at that time the Greenback Re2)ublican 
candidate, died quite suddenly during the can- 
vass, and the Hon. David D. Shelby was placed in 
his stead upon that ticket. Though at the pre- 
ceding election Mr. Lowe had been returned by 
a handsome majority, Mr. Pryor was elected by 
over 800. At the end of the term Mr. Pryor 
again declined further nomination. 

Mr. Pryor, now in the sixty-eighth year of his 
age, the possessor of a sound physical constitution, 
in the enjoyment of robust health and the exercise 
of every God-given faculty, promises yet to live 
many years of usefulness in a community where 
he has spent a long life, and where he is known 
and loved by all who can apjireciate true worth in 
a noble citizen . Kindhearted, generous to a fault, 
never purposely inflicting a wound upon any 
heart, Luke Pryor, when he shall have been gath- 
ered unto his fathers, will leave behind him a 
name and reputation to be honored by those who 
knew him, and worthy of emulation by the greatest 
to succeed him. 

Mr. Pryor was married in Limestone County, 
August 20, 1845, to a daughter of John H. Harris, 
a native of A^irginia, and her given name was Isa- 
bella Virginia. To them has been born one son, 
William Richard Pryor, now an extensive farmer 
in this county. Their daughters are: Aurora 
(Mrs. Robert A. McClellan), Memory (widow o€ 
the late William S. Peebles), Ann P. (Mrs. Maclin 
Sloss), Mary (Mrs. Thomas Leslie), Fannie Snow 
and Hattie. 

The family are somewhat divided in their church 
relations, some of them being Presbyterians and 
others Methodists. 



JOHN N. MALONE, Attorney-at-law, Athens, 
Ala., was born in Sussex County, Va. His parents, 
George and Sallie (Moyler) Malone, natives of 
Virginia, and of Irish descent, came to Limestoi\e 
county in 1823, and here spsnt the rest of their 
lives, the old gentleman dying in 1847, at the 
age of sixty-two years ; his wife having preceded 
him to the other world by about four years. They 
reared a family of three sons and three daughters, 
of whom John N., and a sister are the only ones 
living. One of the sons was a doctor, another a 

The subject of this sketch graduated from La 
Grange College, Franklin County, Ala., as A. B., 
in 1830, and subsequently in due course received 
from the same institution the degree of A. M. He 
studied law with J. W. McLung, Huntsville : was 
admitted to the bar in 18-41, and i^racticed law 
for ten years. Then for the next succeeding ten 
years, though maintaining his office at Athens, he 
devoted his time to planting. In 1 51, he was 
elected to the State Senate and was kept there for 
six consecutive years. After the war, he resumed 
the practice of law, and farming, and in 1881, 
was appointed probate judge to fill out an unex- 
pired term of five years, the office having been 
vacated by the death of John M. Townsend. 

Judge Malone was one of the trustees of the 
Alabama University from 1851 to the outbreak of 
the war, and has been one of the trustees of the 
Agricultural and Mechanical School of Auburn 
since its organization in 1874. Thus we find that 
he has nearly all his life been interested in the 
cause of education. He was a delegate to the 
National Convention at Baltimore in 1852, and 
supported Franklin Pierce and William R. King. 
He took an active part in the memorable presiden- 
tial campaign of 18G0; supported Stephen A. 
Douglas for the presidency ; was opposed to 
secession because he feared it would be followed 
by coercion and war; but after Alabama seceded, 
he cast his fortunes and fate with her, and was 
intensely Southern in iiis sentiments and in full 
sympathy with the Southern Confederacy. 

John N. Malone was nuirried in Lauderdale 
County in 1844, to Mary Lucy Kernachan, who 
died in 1848, leaving one son, Robert, now a 
planter in Limestone County. His second mar- 
riage took place in the same county in 1854, to 
Miss Rebecca Simmons, and to this union have 
been born two sons and three daughters. The 
youngest son, Henry, is a farmer: George is a 

merchant; two of the daughters are married to 
merchants in Arkansas, and the third one is at 

The family belong to the Jlethodist Episcopal 
church and .ludge Jfalone is a .Mason. 

— — «"f^i^- ■ < '■ • 

JOHN J. TURRENTINE, prominent Attorney- 
ai-luwund Deputy Di.stricl Solicitor, Athens, Ala., 
was born in Lawrence County, this State, June 
10, 1840 ; and is a son of John and Elizabeth 
(Stephens) Turrentine. natives of Xorth Carolina 
and Alabama, respectively. 

Mr. Turrentine was educated at Athens; studied 
law under Judge Walker; admitted to the bar 
April, IcGO, and embarked at once in the practice 
of his profession. Early in the outbreak of the 
war between the States, been listed in H. H. Hig- 
gins' Company at Athens, and at Memphis was 
mustered into the "Walker Fortieth" known 
afterward and in history as the Fortieth Tennessee 
Infantry. He served with that regiment up to the 
time of his capture. After being held about five 
months as jjrisoner he was exchanged at A'icks- 
burg. In the Fortieth Tennessee he held the rank 
of first lieutenant ; he went into the service as a 
second junior lieutenant. The Fortieth Tennessee, 
which did not have a Tennessee company in it, was 
afterwards re-organized, and the Alabama com- 
panies helped form the Fifty-fourth Alabama 
Regiment, commanded by Alpheus Baker, colonel 
in General Tillman's brigade up to the battle of 
Baker's Creek. Just before this battle the com- 
mand was transferred to Brigadier-General 0. A. 
Buford. ]\Ir. Turrentine remained with the Fifty- 
fourth through General Buford 's Mississijjpi cam- 
paign, and under Lowring through the Jackson 
campaign. In 18G3 lie was detailed Assistant 
Quartermaster of his regiment, which position 
he held until the spring of 18C4, at which time he 
organized a company of skirmishers from the Fifty- 
fourth Alal)ama Regiment. He participated in all 
the Georgia campaign, and on August IG, 18G4, 
was seriously wounded before Atlanta. He had 
under him about 172 men at one time, and with 
them, in the early jnirt of August, near Atlanta, 
fought two Federal regiments for over two liours 
a hand-to-hand conflict, in which some of the men 
distinguished themselves as skirmishers, among 
whom was Mr. Lania, of Choctaw County. Ala. 
After the Georgia campaign, on account of some 



difference with the colonel, he withdrew entirely 
from his old regiment and proceeded to organize a 
compan}' to be composed of the great surplus of 
commissioned officers that, through the destruction 
of men, had been virtually dej)rived of commands. 
It appears that tliis company, if ever fully organ 
ized, was not afterwards engaged in battle, as the 
final surrender succeeded shortly after. In Jan- 
uary, 1866, he removed to Arkansas; there prac- 
ticed law for five years and returned to Athens in 
1871. He was elected county solicitor in 1872, 
and held the office until the law jaroviding for a 
district solicitor went into force. The only other 
civil office held by Captain Turrentine appears to 
have been that of general administrator. He lield 
this position about six years. He married while in 
Arkansas (186G) iliss Elizabeth Sanders. She 
died at Athens in May, 1881, leaving one son. 
His second marriage was to a daughter of Dr. J. 
M. Collins, of this county. 

The Captain is an active Democratic worker; was 
chairman of the Democratic Congressional Com- 
mittee in 1882; is a good lawyer, a forcible speaker, 
a citizen of the highest repute, a member of the 
Masonic fraternity and of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. 

BENTON SANDERS, Merchant, Athens, Ala., 
was horn in this county, November 10, 1829. 
His parents, William and Sarah (Fox) Sanders, 
natives, respectively, of the S'ates of Georgia 
and Virginia, were married in Madison County, 
this State, and came to Limestone in 1841:. 

The senior Mr. Sanders was a soldier in the War 
of 1812, and along in the thirties, represented Lime- 
stone County several sessions in the Legislature. 
In 1834-5, lie was in the banking business at 
Decatur. He died at his home, twelve miles east 
of Athens, in 1840, at the age of 47 years. His 
widow survived him several years, and died at the 
age of 67. They reared three sons, the eldest. 
Dr. W. T. Sanders, eminent in his profession, 
died in 1865, and Oliver Perry, an extensive 
planter, died at Grenada, Miss., in 1868. 

Benton Sanders was educated at La Grange 
College, studied law with Fred Tate, at Athens; 
was admitted to the bar in 1850 ; served the 
county three years as sheriff, and was in mercan- 
tile business afterward, until the beginning of the 
war. Soon after the close of hostilities, he was 

appointed register in chancery, a position he filled 
until 1874, when he was elected Judge of Probate, 
for the term of six years. 

Much to the regret of the people of Fjimestone 
County, Judge Sanders, at the end of his term, 
declined a second nomination for the probate 
judgeship, and the sentiment of the public may 
be inferred from the following quotation from a 
newspaper editorial of that date : 

"Judge Sanders retires to private life without 
a blur or blot on his administration. No one has 
ever filled that highly responsible office with more 
satisfaction to our peojde, and in vacating the 
office he carries with him the best wishes of the 
people of Limestone County." 

In 1880, he resumed mercantile business, at the 
head of the firm of Sanders & Richardson, and 
has since devoted his time to it. 

Mr. Sanders is president of the Athens Male 
College, and a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the Athens Female Institute. 

In casting about over the State for a suitable 
person to investigate, as an expert, the various 
public offices, Governor O'Neal at once settled 
upon Benton Sanders, of Athens, and in an 
urgent letter, under date of March 24, 1883, 
tendered him the ajipointment as follows : 

" The Legislature ordered me to have the offices 
of auditor, treasurer, secretary of State, super- 
intendent of education, and warden of peni- 
tentiary examined by a competent person at least 
twice each year, and to this end appropriated a 
sufficient sum out of which to jDay the expense. 
You have been recommended to me by Chief 
Jjstice Brickell and others as the man to do this 
important work, and I hereby tender you the place." 

Though recognizing this as a compliment of 
a very high order, Mr. Sanders' private business 
was such as compelled him to decline the duty. 

[Afterward, Colonel Lapsley received the ap- 
pointment, and discharged the duties with marked 
ability.— Ed.] 

Mr. Sanders was married at Athens. January 
27, 1853, to Miss Eliza Thach, daughter of 
Thomas H. Thach, planter and merchant, of 
Mooresville, and of the five children born to him 
we make the following notice : His only son, 
W. T., is a student at Vanderbilt University; one 
of his daughters is the wife of Thomas J. 
Turrentine, another is the wife of J. W. 
Woodruff, Jr., a planter of Mooresville. and he 
has two daughters at home. 



Mr. Sunders' family belong to tlie Wetliodist 
Ei)iscopiil C'liurch. 

ROBERT A. McCLELLAN, Attorney-at-hiw. 
Atliens, was born in Lincoln County, Tenii., 
December, \%\^l. His father was Thomas J. 
McClellan, a native of Tennessee, and of Scotch 
descent, and liis mother's maiden name was Mar- 
tha Beattie, also a native of Tennessee. 

The senior Jlr. MoClellan came into Limestone 
County in 1844, located npon a farm ten miles 
east of Athens, and there followed planting until 
1884, when he retired, and. we think, moved 
into Athens. lie died October 14, 1887. lie 
was a member of the Secession Convention of 1860, 
and voted against that movement. He was a 
member of the lower house. State Legislature, 
in 1862, and of the Constitntional Convention of 
18C5. He was not, of choice, a politician. He 
was an old line Whig; a plain, common-sense man; 
honest, above all things; entertaining and forci- 
ble in conversation. It was this latter ac- 
complishment probably that forced him into dis- 
cussions and, finally, into politics. He had the 
reputation of being one of the best posted men 
on public cpiestions in the county. He reared 
four sons to manhood. .John B., the eldest, is a 
farmer in this county; has served in the Legislature, 
and was probate judge at the time the Reconstruc- 
tion party came into power, when he was ousted. 
The second son, William C, died in this county, 
December 11, 1869, at the age of thirty-two years. 
He was four years in the Confederate Army: 
was captured two days before Appomattox, and 
kept in prison until August, 1865. The youngest 
son, the Hon. Thomas N. McClellan, is now 
Attorney- (ieneral of the State. 

The subject of this sketch was educated at the 
common schools, studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1868 at Athens. In the fall of 1862 he 
joined the Seventh Alabama Cavalry, and served 
to the close of the war, holding the rank of lieu- 
tenant, and most of the time was in command of 
his company. He participated in the campaigns 
of Middle and East Tennessee, (leorgia, and the 
Carolinas, and in many battles. 

He was a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 187-"), and in November of that year 
was elected to the State Senate to till out an unex- 
pired term. His name was before the Congres- 

sional Convention in 1880, when Wheeler was 
nominated, and received a flattering vote — a ma- 
jority on the first ballot. 

He was married in 1872 to Miss Aurora Pryor, 
a ilaugliterof Hon. Luke I'ryor. 

WILLIAM R. FRANCIS, Jr., Attorney-at-law, 
;ind editor ami prf^irietor of the Athens Demo- 
crat, a live democratic weekly paper, published 
at Athens, was born in Franklin County, Tenn., 
September 25, 1843. His father, William R. 
Francis, Sr., a native of Virginia, is now a 
planter in Franklin County, Tenn. 

The great-grandfather Francis was a soldier in 
the Revolutionary War, and Mr. Francis' grand- 
father fought in the war of 1812. 

The sub ject of this sketch was educated at the 
jiublic schools of Tennessee; studied law under 
John Frizzell, at Winchester, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1867. He first began the practice 
of law at Winchester, and remained there until 
1879, and in the fall of that year came to Athens, 
where he has since been in the practice. In 1886 
the Limestone County Publishing Co. established 
the Demticrat, and Jlr. Francis was made its 

At Winchester, Tenn.. in the fall of 1861, Mr. 
Francis enlisted as a private in Company I, Forty- 
first Tennessee Infantry, C. S. A., and served 
through the war. At Cliickamauga, September 2:0, 
1863, a minie ball crushed the upper section of 
the left femur, resulting in crippling him for life. 
While not thereafter in active service, he was in the 
Retired Corps to the close of the war. Before 
Chickamauga, he had participated in the battles of 
llaymond, Jliss., Port Hudson, Jackson, Black 
River and Corinth. Ilis regiment was captured 
at Fort Donelson, but he being sick, he was 
allowed to escape, After that time, he served 
in the Seventeenth Tennessee. He was paroled in 
May, 1865, and in August of that year returned to 
Tennessee, and thence, as has been seen, came to 

Mr. Francis is a wide-a-wake, active democratic 
worker, and runs a red-hot jiaper. 

— — *>— J^^-^— — 

WILLIAM H. WALKER, son of John F. and 

Kliza Walker, was Ijorn near Mooresville, Lime- 



stone County, Ala., March 2, 1822, and died 
March 4, 1870. 

Mr. Walker, one of the leading lawyers of his 
day, was left an oi'jjhan at the age of four years. 
He was educated at La Grange, began the practice 
of law when a young man, and with the exception 
of a part of a term, served by appointment, as 
Probate Judge, devoted his life thereto. 

He was married July 7, 1859, to Miss Sally E. 
Ryan, of Baltimore, and had born to him eight 
children, seven of whom are living at this writing 
(1888): Mary Eloise (Mrs. R H. Richardson), 
William Ryan, Ada, John Fortraan, Maria Rich- 
ardson, and Robert Henry. 

Mr. Walker was an able lawyer, a highly re- 
spected citizen, and a consistent member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. South. 

WILLIAM R. WALKER, Attorney-at-law, 
Athens, son of William H. Walker, a prominent 
jurist, who died at this place in 1870. 

Mr. Walker was educated primarily at Athens' 
schools and Auburn, Ala., and graduated in the 
law department of Yanderbilt University in 
1882. He began the practice at once at Athens, 
and in September, 1885, moved to Guutersville, 
and there, associated with B. Coman, edited the 
Guntersville Democrat, in connection with the 
practice of law, w^ to January, 1887. Since that 
date he has been practicing law at Athens. He 
was born, in this town, November 10, 1861. 

— ^i- 

JAMES E. HORTON, Judge of Probate, Lime- 
stone County, Ala., was born near Huntsville, 
this State, May 20, 1833. His parents, Rodah 
and Lucy (Otey) Horton, iratives of Virginia and 
England, were married in Madison County, this 
State, where their three sons and three daughters 
were born. Of the six children. Judge Horton 
and a brother only are now living. The others 
all moved South, where it seems their lives were 
materially shortened. 

The senior Mr. Horton died in 18-16, at the age 
of fifty-four years. He was an extensive planter, 
and represented Madison County once or twice in 
the State Legislature. 

The subject of this sketch was educated at the 
University of Alabama, and the University of 

Virginia. He came into Limestone County in 
18.57, settled on the Elk River, and engaged in 
farming. At Bardstown, Ky., in the fall of 1862, 
as aid-de-camp to Gen. Daniel S. Donelson, he 
entered the Confederate service. He was with 
General Donelson until the death of that gentle- 
man, which occurred .at Knoxville, Tenn., in the 
latter part of 1863. From that time to the close 
of the war. Major Horton was Acting General 
Qttartermaster, and was on the Florida coast when 
the war closed. 

Returning to Limestone County at the close of 
the war, he resumed his planting operations, 
which he followed up to August, 1886, when he 
was elected Judge of Probate. Sometime before 
this he had served one term as county commis- 
sioner, which appears to be the sum of his office, 
holding. He was married in Tennessee, near the 
"Hermitage," October 18, 1860, to Miss Emily 
Donelson, the accomjilished daughter of Daniel 
S. Donelson, a nephew of Mrs. Gen. Andrew 
Jackson. To this union four daughters and a 
son have been born, the eldest of the former is 
now the wife of John B. Tanner, of Athens. 

Judge Horton's family are members of the 
Presbyterian Church, and he is of the Masonic 

JAMES BENAGH, Attorney-at-Law, Notary 
Public and Register in Chancery, Athens, was 
born at Lynchburg, Va., February 23, 1828, and 
his parents were James and Elizabeth (Rich- 
ardson) Benagh, the first a native of Ireland and 
the latter of Virginia. They lived and died at 
Lynchburg, the old gentleman in 1861 at the age 
of 74, and his widow in 1868 at the age of 68. 

The senior Mr. Benagh was a lawyer by pro- 
fession, and was for many years Clerk of the Court 
at Lynchburg and Master in Chancery. He came 
with his i^arents to America in 1792. 

.Tames Benagh was educated at Lynchburg, 
there studied law and was admitted to the bar, 
but did not actively enter the practice. At the 
outbreak of the late war, he was speculating and 
taking the world easy. He went into the army 
as Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General on 
General Kirby Smith's staff. He was in the war 
from the beginning to the close, and is probably 
the last man that ever received an order fi'om the 
Confederate Government. AtJiVashington, Wilkes 
County, Ga., and on the day that President Davis 



and his Cabinet left that town, orders came tli rough 
yuarterniastcr-Ueneral Lawton, to Captain Ben- 
a<rh, to take charge of all stores accumulated at dif- 
ferent depots and turn tliem over to the Georgia 
liailway Company-. This was for the purpose of 
enal)ling the road to run, that they might carry 
paroled men toward their homes. The Captain 
was also ordered to see to the delivery of certain 
silver coin then being sent in bags to a distin- 
guished ex-official. The orders were carried out 
as far as in Captain Benagh's power lay. ]5ut 
the timid gentleman refused to receive it, and the 
supposition is that the boys who had the silver 
bags in charge realized the whole. After the war, 
Captain Benagh returned to Virginia, and later on 
to Athens and followed planting in Limestone 
County up to 1875, since when he has been engaged 
in the practice of law. He was appointed Kegis- 
ter in Chancery, in 188G, by Hon. Thomas Cobbs. 
He was married in Baltimore, ild., in 1872, to 
a I!yan. 

— " — ■ ■^— J^^s — ^ • — • — 

JOHN THOMAS TANNER, lieal Estate, Im- 
migration Agent and Healer in Exchange, Athens, 
was born in Madison County, this State, August 
25, 1820. His father, Samuel Tanner, a native 
of Virginia, came ■ to Alabama in 1818, and to 
Athens in 1825. He was a merchant all his life. 
He died in 1871, at the age of 87 years. He was 
an active business man to the very day of his 
final sickness. He reared four sons, one of whom, 
W. P. Tanner, deceased, was secretary and treas- 
urer of the Cotton Seed Oil Mill at Montgomery. 

The subject of this sketch was educated at 
Athens ; began clerking for his father at the age 
of thirteen years, from which time, it may be 
truthfully said, he has been an active business 
man. In 1842 he engaged in the cotton business 
in Xew Orleans ; two years later he removed to 
Shreveport, and in 1847 returned to Athens and 
was with his father in mercantile business up to 
1852. He at that time engaged in banking, at 
which business we hnd him at the outbreak of 
the war, and to which he returned at the close of 
the war. In 1866 he was appointed Revenue 
Collector (United States); held that office about 
eighteen months, and was succeeded by a gentle- 
man from Pennsylvania. 

As secretary anc^ treasurer of the North & 
South Hailroad. during the war. Mr. Tanner was 

exempt from (iovernnient service, and the fact of 
his not having participated in any manner in the 
cause of the South led to his appointment by the 
United States (iovernment to the office of Col- 
lector of Pevenne. 

Associated with the Hon. Luke Pryor and 
others, Jlr. Tanner was conspicuous in the or- 
ganization and construction of the North & 
South Railroad, and was officially connected with 
it for twenty-five years. [This road was first 
called the Tennessee & Alabama Central. — Ed.] 

Since 1871, Mr. Tanner has devoted his time 
to the business indicated at the introduction of 
this sketch. He has been connected officially 
with the Athens Female College for the past 
thirty years, a great deal of the time as vice- 
president, and at the death of Senator Houston 
was made president, a position he has since con- 
tinued to fill. He has been five years Mayor of 
the city of Athens, and always identified with her 
best interests. He is probably the most conspic- 
uous advocate of i'rohibition in the State, if not 
in the South. The first State Temperance Al- 
liance was held and organized at his office, in 
1881. He was chairman of the first State Con- 
vention called in Alabama in the interest of pro- 
hibition. In 1884 he was a delegate to the conven- 
tion at Pittsburgh, and in the roll-call of States 
placed the Hon. John P. St. John in nomination 
for the Presidency of the United States. In 1886, 
Mr. Tanner was nominated at Birmingham for 
Governor, on the Prohibition ticket, made 
the race, and distinguished himself as a powerful 
and sincere worker in the cause of temperance. 
He is now one of the vice-presidents of the Na- 
tional Temperance Society, whose headquarters 
are in Xew York City, and is also chairman of 
executive committee of the Prohibition party for 
the State of Alabama. 

At this writing (1888) Mr. Tanner is promi- 
nently spoken of in connection with the vice- 
presidential candidacy of the Prohibition party, 
his name having been indorsed for that place by 
the State Prohibition Convention. December 15, 
1887. [Mr. Tanner's was presented to the con- 
vention at Indianajiolis, June, 1888, for Vice- 
President of the United States on the Prohibition 
ticket, and received a flattering vote. — Ed.] 

He was married at Greenwood, La., November 
26, 1846, to Miss Susan Owen Wilson, a native of 
Jackson, Tenn., and has had born to him four sons 
and fourdaughters,to-wit: John B.. who isacotton 



broker, Athens ; Jason S., deceased, aged nine- 
teen years; Stephen, deceased, and Maria, 
deceased : Margaret Elizabeth (Mrs. Dr. W. R. 
McWilliams); Mary Ruth (Mrs. J. L. Thompson), 
and Susan 0'. (Mrs. C. F. Carter.) 

Mr. Tanner and family are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

at Athens, was born in Limestone County Febru- 
ary 27, 1819, and his parents were Nicliolas and 
Martha (Hargrave) Davis, of Virginia. 

Nicholas Davis came to Alabama in 1817, set- 
tled on Limestone Creek, this county, and fol- 
lowed planting the rest of his life. He died in 
1856, at the age of seventy-six years. He was a 
public-spirited man, and one of the first men of 
distinction in this county. Prior to 1817 he was 
a United States marshal in Virginia, and, after 
coming here, was a member of the first Constitu- 
tional Convention (1819), and was a rejiresentative 
in tlie lower house of the first Legislature after 
Alabama was admitted to the L^nion as a State. 
From 1820 to 1828, inclusive, he was a member 
of the Senate, and for five sessions was President 
of that body. He was the Whig candidate against 
Cha23mau for Governor in 1847, and ran for 
Congress against C. C. Clay in 1829, and was 
defeated by only eighty votes, though the district 
was known to be largely Democratic. He was a 
captain in the War of 1S12. 

Another writer, in speaking of Captain Davis, 
says: " That he was a man of great exjjerience 
in public atfairs, and of the highest personal 
worth; that he occupied a high rank in the esti- 
mation of all parties as a citizen, and for faithful 
public services; and in the councils of the Whig 
party his views were received with confidence." 

In 1844, he was at the head of the Wliig elec- 
toral ticket, and in speaking further of him in 
this connection, the author above referred to 
says : "In his speech at the close of the conven- 
tion, in taking leave of his fellow Whigs he was 
very impressive; he was truly the 'old man elo- 
quent.' He was a great lover of his country, and 
in alluding to its future under under a good gov- 
ernment, and the visions opened up to him in the 
distance, and the important influence his party 
was destined to exert in developing the energies 
and greatness of the country, he was overpowered 

with emotions, which brought relief in a flood of 
tears as he took his seat." 

The subject of this sketch was educated in 
Limestone County, read law, and was licensed to 
practice, but never went to the bar. He followed 
farming up to the beginning of the late war, and 
probably up to 18G3. In 1873 he came into 
Athens, and started the Limestone Xews, con- 
ducted it for one year, and sold it out. It was in 
this year that he was appointed private secre- 
tary to Governor Houston, which took him 
to Montgomery. In 1849, to recur to a much 
earlier period in his life, he ran for the Legisla- 
ture on the Whig ticket against W. H. Harrison, 
and, notwithstanding the great Democratic major- 
ity to be overcome, he was elected by about 500. 
In 1855 he was again a caTididate for the Legisla- 
ture, and was ojiposed by the Hon. Luke Pryor 
and the late Major Hobbs. The leading question 
before the people at that time was in reference to 
the aid, by taxation, of the North & South 
Road. Mr. Davis, as an anti-taxation man, was 
defeated. In 1859 he was again elected, and was 
a member of the Legislature when the State 
seceded. He was opposed to secession at the be- 
ginning, but yielded gracefully to the will of the 
majority, and at the request of the Governor he 
canvassed Northern Alabama, urging the people 
to a peaceful acquiescence in the result of the 
Secession Convention. It will be remembered 
that there was mucli bitter opjjosition in the Ten- 
nessee Valley to secession, and particularly was 
this the case in Limestone County: so when Mr. 
Davis reached this part of the State, he encoun- 
tered the most intense excitement. In 1860 he 
was the elector for his District on the Bell and 
Everett ticket, and took an active part in that 
heated contest. 

Mr. Davis was appointed Register in Cluincery 
in 1876, and was still holding that position when 
appointed postmaster by President Cleveland, 
October, 1885. He has always been recognized 
as an active worker, and a man of far more than 
ordinary influence in the ranks of the Democratic 
party. He edited the Post in 1882; has repre- 
sented his party in the various State and Con- 
gressiotuil Conventions from time to time, and 
has delivered more stump speeches than any other 
man in Northern Alabama. His last important 
canvass was in support of the Hon. Luke Pryor 
for Congress, as against D. D. Shelby. 

ilr. Davis was married first in Russell County, 



Ala., to Miss Mary Abercroinbie, March 27. 1851. 
She died in 185ft. and in 18(!1 -Mr. Davis was mar- 
ried to Miss Sarah A. .\[ef'Ielian. 

J. R. HOFFMAN. M. D., Athens, was born 
at Kingsport, Kust 'I'eniiessee, August 13, 1830, 
and is the son of Aaron and Mary Ann (Richard- 
son) lIolTman, natives of Virginia and Tenmessee, 
and of (ierniau and Irish descent, respectively, 
lie was educated at Jonesboro, Tenn., Academy; 
raine to Athens in 185G; read medicine with Dr. 
\'arbrough; graduated from Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, in 1858; came at once to Lime- 
stone county; practiced three or four years in the 
-southern part of the county, and removed to 
Athens in 18C5. In 1861 Dr. Hoffman enlisted 
as a private soldier in Ward's Battery, and served 
about eight months in that position. At the 
end of this time he was appointed Assistant-Sur- 
geon, and as such saw much service in (ieorgia 
and Virginia. At the close of the war he returned 
to East Tennessee, ana directly to Athens. From 
ISUG to 1874 he was in the drug business with Dr. 
Coman, at the same time, however, giving atten- 
tion to his practice. He was a member of the 
State Hoard of Health from 1882 to 1887: has 
been chairman of the Board of Censors of -Lime- 
stone ('ounty,and was County Health Oflicer from 
1884 to 188G. 

Dr. Hoffman was married in this county Decem- 
ber 29, 185!i. to iliss Fannie C. Jones, who died 
April 12, 1878, leaving one son -and two daugh- 


At ho lis, was liiii-n in (iili'sCiiunty.'rciin., Xovunilier 
21, 1834, and was educated jiriniarily at Pulaski, 
graduating at Nashville, in 1855, as a Doctor of 
Medicine. He began practice first, and at once 
after leaving college, in Giles County, subsequently 
locating at Pulaski for a few years, and came into 
Athens in 1879. In 1880 he established a drug 
store in connection with his practice. 

In the summer of 18(>1 Dr. Westmoreland went 
into the army as Surgeon of the Fifty-third Ten- 
nessee Infantry, and afterwards was made Chief 
Surgeon of (Jeneral Quarles" brigade, in which 
])osition he remained to the close of tiie war. He 
was captured at Fort Donelson, and when the 

Federals were removing the sick, he and two other 
j)hysicians got permiasion to take a trip up the 
river, and, not being under any [Kirole, made their 

The Doctor was in the Western Army and on 
duty at the battle of Port Hudson, Dalton, and 
many other jilaces during the war, and finally at 
the last conflict of arms, Bentonville, X. C. 

Aside from his profession and drug business he 
is largely interested in agriculture. He takes no 
interest in politics particularly, is no office-seeker, 
though a reliable Democrat, and has served the 
town one term as Mayor. 

lie was married in 1802 at Gilbertsborough,. 
this county, to a daughter of Louis Nelson, 
an old citizen, merchant and {)lanter of that 
place. Mrs. Westmoreland died in 1877, leaving 
two daughters and a son. One of the daughters, 
an accomplished young lady of seventeen years, 
died in 1884. The other is Mrs. Vandegrift of 
Athens. The Doctor's second marriage occurred 
at Athens, where he wedded Miss May F. Lane, 
daughter of Judge (ieorge W. Lane, of Huntsville, 
July 29, 1879. [George W. Lane was some years 
Judge of the Circuit Court, and was appointed by 
Buchanan United States District Judge, and held 
the office over, under -Mr. Lincoln.— F.u.] By his 
last marriage Dr. Westmoreland has two children, 
Frank Grant and Pat tie Lane. 

The Doctor stands high in his profession, is a 
member of the various medical societies, and is 
one of Athens' most popular citizens. 

MARCUS G. WILLIAMS. President of the 

Atlicn.s Female College, was born at Boonville, 
JIo., October 25, 1831, and is a son of the IJev. 
Justinian Williams, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, late of the Tennessee Conference. 

The l{ev. Mr. Williams was placed in charge of 
Huntsville Station, in 1837, and spent most of 
the remainder of his life in Alabama, preaching, 
and died ■ in 1859, at the age of seventy-two 

Professor Williams was educated at La (Jrange 
College, Alabama ; studied medicine awhile, but 
feeling that it was his duty to preach, turned his 
attention to theology, and was licensed to preach 
in the Methodist l]])iscopaI Church, South, in 
March, 1854. During the following fall, he en- 
tered the Tennessee Conference, on trial, and 



remained there ixntil the outbreak of the war, 
when he was made Chajilain of the Third Ten- 
nessee Infantry. At the end of the first year, 
his commission as Chaphiin having exjjired, he 
raised a company of cavalry for the Xinth Ala- 
bama, and, as Captain, commanded it about a 
year and a half. He left the service on account 
of an injury received at Murfreesboro, and re- 
turned to Lawrence County and taught school 
for a short time. In 1867 he was transferred to 
the Arkansas Conference, Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, going thence, at the end of two 
years, to the Southwest Missouri Conference. He 
remained in Missouri eleven years, devoting his 
time to the ministry, and to the advancement of 
education. He resigned his Professorship in the 
Central Female College, Lexington, Mo., to come 
to the Korth Alabama Conference, ^lethodist 
Episcopal Church, South (1880). Since coming 
here he has had charge of Xew Market Circuit 
and Xew Market High School, Madison County ; 
Tuscumbia Station and Tuscumbia Male Acad- 
emj^, and Leighton Circuit, and came to his pres- 
ent position by election, January, 1884. He 
preaches at Elkmont and State Line gratuitously, 
and fills the pulpit at Athens in the absence of 
the regular pastor. 

Professor Williams was married in Lauderdale 
County, Ala., October 23, 1850, to a Miss Coffey, 
and has reared two daughters, one of whom is 
adopted, but is as near to him and as dear to him, 
seemingly, as his own child. Both his daughters 
are teachers in the college over which he pre- 

RICHARD W. VASSER was born in Amelia 
County, ^'a., in September, ISOO. His father, 
Peter Yasser, moved to Halifa.x County, Va., 
during the infancy of his son, and being a man 
of extravagant and somewhat dissipated habits, 
wasted a handsome estate. This induced his son 
Richard, in 1816, to join his cousin Ed Dand- 
ridge.Jonesinamoveto Middle Tennessee, and they 
■afterward settled in (Jiles County. Young Yasser 
came to Xorthern Alabama the next year, and de- 
cided to make his home henceforth in Limestone. 
By persevering energy and the exercise of an in- 
domitable will which possessed the magic of 
moulding circumstances to his purposes, he in a 
few years accumulated sufficient means to bring 

his parents and sisters to his new home. The 
death of his father, a year or two after their ar- 
rival, left the mother and sisters entirely depend- 
ent on his personal efforts for their support, and 
never did son or brother more faithfully discharge 
this sacred duty. His fine intellect, wonderful 
business capacit}-, and well-known integrity, made 
him a leading spirit in those early daj's of our 
young Commonwealth. He was president of the 
board of directors of the first Huntsville bank, 
and used to take a monthly trip to the then infant 
town, on horseback, astride his saddle-bags filled 
with papers, currency and coin. Throughout his 
life his memory was marvelous, and his friends in 
Philadelphia, Pa. (to which city he made a yearly 
trijJ, even when it took six weeks to get there), 
have told the writer of some of his feats of 
memory, especially in dates and figures, not un- 
worthy of Parr or Bradford. In 1833 he married 
his second cousin, Elizabeth Dandrige Jones (she 
being the great-granddaughter of the Peter Jones 
who, about 1720, assisted Colonel AVilliam Byrd, 
then commissioner of the English C'rown in this 
country, to lay off the cities of Richmond and 
Petersburg, Ya., and the latter city was named 
for this Peter Jones, (and not for Petersburg 
in Russia, as many erroneously suppose.) She 
bore him thirteen children, nine sons, of whom 
William Ed. Yasser was the youngest, and is the 
sole survivor. Mr. Yasser died in Athens, Ga,, in 
18G4, and in 1880 his remains (with those of his 
son. Lieutenant Harry Yasser, who was killed in 
Johnston's retreat from Atlanta, just one month 
after his father's decease), were brought to Athens, 
They lie side by side in the old town ceme- 
tery, on ground taken from the garden of the old 
home, where the surviving members of the family 
still keeji their resting-place fragrant with roses 
and lilies, planted by hands long since returned to 
mother earth. 

W, and Elizabeth B. (Jones) Yasser, natives of 
Yirginia and Xorth Carolina, respectively, was 
born March 19. 1855. He was educated at the 
^Military Institute, Lexington, Ya., and at the 
University of Yirginia, graduating from the 
first in 1875, and from the latter in 1876. In 
1878, he made a tour of Europe, for the j'urpose 



of observation. and study; returned to Athens, and 
fur the succeeding three years, turned his attention 
to farming. 

During the years of 1882-3, Mr. ^■as^<er con- 
ducted tlie editorial columns of the Alabama 
Courier, and in 188(j, the people of the county, 
chose him as against six competitors to represent 
them in the lower house of the State Legislature, 
and it is wortliy of remark that at the primary 
election, he received a decided majority of the en- 
tire vote cast. At tlie general election, there was 
no opposition to Jlr. Yasser. As a member of the 
Legishiture, he was chairman of the Committee on 
Education, and an active member of the Com- 
mittee on Public Roads and Highways. In the 
first named committee, and before the House, he 
took a prominent stand in favor of the Kormal 
School system, and maintained it successfully 
against the combined opposition of its enemies, 
and it is to his efforts that the peof>le of Alabama 
are indebted for the improvement and increase of 
the Normal School privileges, if not indeed its 
present existence. It was his committee that intro- 
duced the law, compelling county superintendents 
to cover public money coming into their hands, 
into the State Treasury, instead of disbursing it as 
they had hitherto done. As under the old system, 
defalcations had been for many years more or less 
frequent, a change in the law is at once recog- 
nized as salutary. It was his committee that 
separated the Deaf and Dumb from the Blind 
Institution, established different schools for them, 
and procured separate appropriations for each 
institution. He also advocated successfully an 
appropriation for the Auburn Polytechnic School. 

Mr. Yasser is a cultured, educated gentleman, 
with a decidedly literary cast of mind. His 
eulogy in verse on the distinguished Houston, was 
((uoted by Congressman Williams in his eulogy 
upon the dead Senator before the United States 
House of IJepresentatives, and his volume of poems 
entitled "Flower Myths and other Poems" (1884) 
has attracted much favorable comment from liter- 
ary critics in almost every State in the Union, and 
many of his poems have been published and repub- 
lished by the leading papers of the country. 

-. ... > ..;^^. . < .. ■ 

THOMAS HUBBARD HOBBS, Athens, was born 
in Limestone County, Ala., April 19, 182G, and 
died in Lynchburg, Va., July 24, 18G2. His 

parents were Ira E. and Rebecca E. (Maclin) 
Hobbs, natives of Brunswick county, Ya., and of 
Scotch-Irish extraction. His mother was a daugh- 
ter of Thomas Maclin, a captain in the War of 
1812, and his uncle, Hubbard Hobbs, was a lieu- 
tenant in the United States Navy, and an officer 
on the Yincennes, the first vessel sent by the 
United States (Government to circumnavigate the 
globe. Lieutenant Hobbs sjient most of his life at 
sea, though he occasionally visited Alabama, and 
probably erected the first cotton-mill in this State. 
It was at Fulton, and in the year 1827. 

The subject of this sketch received his academic 
education at La Grange College; graduated from 
the L'niversity of Yirginia as ]?achelor of Arts in 
1853, and subsequently from the law department 
of the University of Pennsylvania. He practiced 
law but a short time at Athens, this State, when, 
finding his plantation requiring most of his 
attention, he abandoned the profession almost 

He was one of the prime movers of the North i<: 
South Railroad, and was associated with the Hon. 
Luke Pryor in the establishment and final success 
of that enterprise. 

He was elected to the Legislature in 1856, as 
favoring the railroad approj)riation, and was sent 
by that body to represent his Congressional district 
at the Cincinnati Convention of that year. He 
was in the Legislature continuously from 1856 to 
1861, and was a Breckenridge elector in 1860. 
Though quite a young man, he was prominently 
spoken of in connection with the gubernatorial 

In speaking of him after hisdeath, the Jlemphis 
Appeal says: ■•Among Alabama's brightest and 
purest sons was JIajor Thomas II. llobbs, of Lime- 
stone County. He was of the cavalier stock of th» 
Old Dominion. His education was thorough, 
vai'ied and polished. He wielded a facile pen, 
and in writings showed his refined and tacit taste. 
He was gifted with a clear, cogent and convincing 
eloquence. Calm, dignified, self-poised, he dis- 
cussed the most difficult questions with eminent 
ability. As a member of the Legislature, he de- 
voted his time and talents to the development of 
the resources of his own State. He was foremost 
in all noble enterprises. In her system of pojiular 
enterprises, Alabama owed more to Thomas Hobbs 
than to any other one man. A politician of the 
old Democratic school, he was the courteous and 
gentlemanly opponent, never condescending to 



low and unmanly tricks to gain his point. Pure, 
and as gentle as a woman, he was tlie embodiment 
of masculine energy and heroic valor. With a 
courage cool, calm and daring, he was among the 
first to enter the army." 

An original Secessionist, he was opposed by 
some of the leading men of his country. He 
entered the army in 1861 as the Cajitain of Com- 
pany F, Ninth Alabama Infantry, and proceeded 
at once to Richmond. 

While the battle of Manassas was being fought 
he was at Piedmont, and reached the battle-ground 
the next day, where, as he said, "I saw for the 
first time the awful result of war." After going 
through all the battles in which his regiment liad 
participated, in the first day of what is known as 
the Seven Days' Fight around Richmond, he was 
wounded by a gun-shot in the knee. This wound, 
though slight, resulted in his death. 'While in 
the army Captain Ilobbs was asked to become a 
member of the Confederate Congress, but declined 
the honor. 

He was first married at Richmond, Ya., August 
4. 185"2, to Indiana E. Booth. She died 'at Athens 
in 185-1. His second marriage was at Lynchburg. 
Va., February 17, 1858, to Anne Benagh, a daugh- 
ter of James Benagh, of that city. She died at 
Athens in 1872, leaving two sons: Thomas JIaclin 
and James Benagh. The latter died in 1883 at 
t lie age of 21 years. Thomas Jlaclin Hobbs was 
educated at the Virginia Military Institute and 
the Alabama State University. He lives now upon 
the plantation once owned by his grandfather. 
Thomas jMaclin, and is the sole successor and 
heir to the estates of that family. 

JOHN R. MASON, the second son of William 
and Rebecca ilasun. was born in tireenville Coun- 
ty, Va., 1803, and died at luka, Miss., in April, 
1862. He was educated in his native State, came 
with his parents to Limestone County; and at 
Athens was many years engaged in the mer- 
cantile business, in addition to which he was an 
extensive farmer and stock grower. He took a 
prominent part here in the agitation of the ques- 
tion of aid, by taxation, in the construction of the 
North and South Railroad, bitterly opposing the 
proposition to subsidize. However, after the road 
was put under way, we find that he was equally 
as earnest in having it pushed forward to comple- 

tion, and that he was for years a member of its 
Board of Directors. 

He was first married in Limestone County in 
1833, to a daughter of Gabriel Smith, who died 
in 1844, leaving one son, William Mason, who 
died in Waco, Texas, in 1878. John R. Mason was 
again married at Athens, ilarch 27, 1845, to Miss 
(ilorvinia Beaty, a daughter of Robert Beaty, one 
of the early settlers of this place. Robert Beaty 
came from Ireland when he was but a child, grew 
to manhood in the State of Virginia, and there 
married Sallie Parrott. He was one of the 
jiioneers of Limestone County, and took an active 
part in having the county site established at 
Atliens. as against the claims of the then preten- 
tious village of Cambridge. He was an influential 
and jiublic-spirited citizen. He donated to the 
town the famous '"Athens Springs," with several 
acres of land, with the understanding that it 

•^ should be devoted to the public usfr forever. Mr. 
Beaty was familiarly known as Captain Beaty. 
He died in Missouri, where he had gone on a busi- 
ness trip. 

John R. Mason, by his second marriage, had 
two sons, Robert Beaty and John Ormond; the 
latter died at Athens in 1884, at the age of thirty- 
six years. Robert B. Mason, the elder son, was 
born June 27, 1846; educated at Athens, Ala., 
and Pittsburgh, Pa.: entered the Confederate 
Army as a member of (Jen. P. D. Roddy's escort, 
served to the close of the Civil War, and surren- 
dered at Pond Springs. After the war lie devoted 
some time to the mercantile business, but after- 
ward turned his attention entirely to farming 
and stock raising. 

He married at Fayette, Tenn., in 1870, Miss 
Mollie P. (larrett, who died in 1882, leaving four 
children, Clyde Ormond, Robert Beaty, John 

j Greer and Mary Elice. 

I John R. Mason was a self-made man. starting 

: out in life with little of this world's goods, but by 
dint of persistent effort, close application to busi- 
ness, and the exercise of sound discretion, he 
accumulated and left to his family a handsome 
competency. He was universally popular and was 
beloved. by all classes. Everybody knew, and en- 
joyed the society of " Ca])tain Jack Mason." 

It was while visiting his son William (in Missis- 
sippi, after the battle of Shiloh), who was a Con- 
federate soldier under (jeneral Bragg, that he was 
taken sick, and died at luka, without again reach- 
ing, his home, which was occujiied just at this 



time by the Federal forces. The Federal officers 
made his residence their head quarters, and pro- 
liibitcd the Mason family from leaving town, even 
for thf i)ur])ose of bringing him home before he 

lie was a strong Douglas Democrat and a 
I'nion man until his State seceded, then he went 
with his i)eoiile. 

DANIEL COLEMAN was Ix.rn in Caroline 
County. \'a.. August t, ISOl, and died at 
Athens Xovember 4, 1S57. When sixteen years 
old he left his home to make his way in the 
world, the death of his fatlier having reduced 
the family from affluence to poverty. He taught 
school at the Kanawha Salt Works a year, and 
used the money thus obtained to graduate at the 
Transylvania University. He then obtained 
employment as a scribe at a court in Frankfort, 
Ky.. and read law while so engaged under the eye 
of Judge Bledsoe. In 1819 he came to this State 
and located at Mooresville, this county. The fol- 
lowing year he was cliosen by the Legislature 
(through the influence of Hon. Nich. Davis) Judge 
of the county court. He was only nineteen years 
old, but the gravity of his deportment led no one 
to question his majority, and he held the office 
several years. In 1829 he represented Limestone 
in the Legislature. In 18:J5 he was elected by the 
Legislature a judge of the circuit court. Tiiis dig- 
nitied and responsilile position he filled for twelve 
years. How satisfactorily he performed his duties 
may be inferred from the compliment paid hitu in 
June. 1851, when (iovernor Collier selected him to 
fill a vacancy on the supreme bench. He served till 
the following winter, when he declined a candi- 
dacy before the Legislature, feeling tiiat his 
enfeel)led health would not permit him to undergo 
the labors of the post. 

Judge Coleman left a character fpr spotless 
integrity, piety, decorum and sobriety. As a 
judge he was dignified. laborious and impartial. 
In a[ipeai'anee he Wiis slen<ler and tall, with a light 
complexion. In manner he was grave to austerity. 
lie married Miss Peterson of this county, and 
left, several children. 

Of these we have the following data: P.ev. James 
L. Coleman is a graduate of La Grange College, 
Ala.: Daui?l Coleman is a graduate of Wesleyan 
College (or University), Florence. Ala., and after- 

ward of the Law Department of the University 
of Vipginia: John Hartwell Coleman graduated 
at Florence with first honors, and afterward like- 
wise took the Law Course at the University of \'ir- 
ginia: Hichard H. Coleman was attending High 
School in Virginia when the war broke out, and 
he joined the army at about seventeen years of 
age; Dr. Ruffin Coleman obtained his collegiate 
training at the Southern L'niversity, Greensboro, 
and studied medicine at the University of Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Judge Coleman was a conspicuous and zealous 
menilier of the ilethodist Episcopal Church, 
Soutii. His wife, a native of South Carolina, was 
noted for beauty of face and character. She was 
a brilliant conversationalist and a noted hostess. 
She survived her husband many years, and died at 
Athens, February 14, 1885. 

JOHN TURRENTINE, .Merchant, Athens, was 
born at lIillsbcHo, X. ('., May j5, 1811. 

His parents were John and Nancy (Wilson) Tur- 
rentine. The Turrentines came from Ireland in 
the Colonial days, and some of them fought with 
distinction in the Revolutionary War, and after- 
ward, held important trusts in the civil govern- 
ment. The senior John Turrentine entered the 
I'nited States Regular Army soon after the battle 
of New Orleans, and served five years, lacking 
three months, and died. His wife in the mean- 
time had removed, at his request, from North 
Carolina to Tennessee, settled in Lincoln' County, 
and there received the news of his death. He was 
a non-commissioned officer, and was the father of 
four daughters and two sons. Through the influ- 
ence of (ieneral Houston, Congress j)assed a bill 
granting a bounty to his heirs in consideration of 
his services. Mrs. Turrentine removed to ilorgan 
County. Ala., in 1820, and there died in 1820, at 
the age of forty-five years. 

The subject of this sketch was brought up on a 
farm and acquired such education as was possible 
to his limited circumstances. He lived in Law- 
rence County twelve years, coming from Courtland, 
where lie had been a salesman, with a small stock 
of goods, to Athens in 1844. He has now been 
forty-four years a merchant in this town. 

For twelve years preceding the war, he held tha 
office of .Justice of the Peace, and for three or four 
vears after the war was General Administrator. 



He was opposed to secession, and did what he 
could to prevent it, but when the South withdrew 
from the Union, he espoused the cause of his 
State, and it cost him the whole of his property, 
for the Yankees burned up everytiiing he had. 

Mr. Turrentiue was married while in Lawrence 
County (May, 183T), to Susan Ann Stevens, who 
died in Xovember, 1842, leaving one son, now the 
Hon! John J. Turrentine, of this city. 

Mr. Turrentine married his second wife, Amanda 
Melvina Francis Higgins, in this county, and she 
died Jiily 16, 1884. Of the seven children born 
to her, SIX were living at the time of her death, 
and one has since died. The living are: Thomas 
J., a merchant; William H., a lawyer; Nancy 
Elizabeth ; Sarah Louisa (Mrs. James William 
Bridgfourth), Martha Ann, died August 1, 1870, 
and Jane died March 9, 1885. 

Mr. Turrentine is a Master Mason and a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

WILLIAM A. HINE, Hardware Merchant, 
Athens, was born in Limestone County January 
29, 1822. His father, Silas Hine, was a native of 
Connecticut, from whence he removed to Vir- 
ginia, and in 1818 to Alabama. Here he was a 
planter, and died in 1850. In Virginia, he mar- 
ried Miss Temperance Harrison, who bore him 
three sons and one daughter, who grew to man's 
and woman's estate. 

William A. Hine was the second son born, and 
is the only one living. He received his education 
in the Athens schools ; followed planting many 
Tears, and engaged in mercantile business in 

The senior Mr. Hine was a merchant in Athens 
in connection with his planting interests, and it 
was with him that the present Mr. Hine took his 
first lessons in mercliandizing. 

During the late war, ilr. Hine was commis- 
sioner of revenue and roads. He has never been 
in jiolitica, and with the excejition of the period 
of the war, he has devoted his time and his talents 
to business, and has been successful. 

Mr. Hine is a member of the Methodist Ejjis- 
copal Church, and is a Mason. He was married, 
in Lauderdale County, in February, 1845, to 
Miss Letitia Sloss, wlio bore him three children 
that grew to man's and woman's estate. She 
died in 1865, leaving three children: Clara (Mrs. 

Dr. Borroum, Corinth, Miss.), William A., Jr., 
died in February, 1879, at the age of twenty-two 
years; and Ernest, a farmer, now in this county. 

Mr. Hine's second marriage occurred in Cor- 
inth, Miss., in 1867, where he wed Eva, a younger 
sister of his first wife. 

— «^S^{^- < • • • 

WILLIAM B. RUSSELL, of the firm of W. B. 
Kussell iS: Co.. wholesale and retail grocers, and 
cotton dealers, was born November 28, 1851, at 
the town of Athens, and is the son of John G. 
Russell, deceased. He was educated in the Athens 
schools: began clerking when fifteen years of age, 
and at the age of twenty-three, entered into busi- 
ness for himself. The present partnership was 
formed in January, 1887; ■ the concern has been 
doing a jobbing business since 1879. It is the 
lai-gest retail house in Athens, and the only whole- 
sale store of any kind. 

Mr. Russell was married at Winchester, Tenn., 
January 18, 1881, to Miss Jessie Houghton, 
daughter of Dr. S. W. Houghton, of that town, 
and has had born to him four children. The 
family are members of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church, and Mr. Russell is an active 
worker in the cause of temperance. Devoting his 
entire time to his business, he cares but little for 
politics and less for office holding. The only offi- 
cial position he has filled, we believe, has been 
that of councilman from his ward. 

Mr. Russell, in addition to being a shrewd, suc- 
cessful business man, gives some time and thought 
to literature, and some of his contributions to 
current pajjers have attracted considerable atten- 

■ •♦ > --;^t^-' < '- — 

CHARLES W. RAISLER, native of Pennsyl- 
vania, son is a of Frederick William and Elizabeth 
(Himeberger) Raisler, of Wiirtemberg, Germany. 

In early life he learned the cabinet maker's 
trade, in New York City, and from there went to 
New Orleans, from which place he joined Company 
F, Second Regiment, Louisiana Volunteers, and 
served through the Mexican War, under General 
Taylor. At the close of the Mexican War he 
returned to New Orleans, and from there worked 
his way North, stopping, ad libitum, at various 
cities between the Gulf and the Ohio River, and 
finally landing at Triana, Ala., where he en- 



gaged in the manufacture of furniture. In 1856, 
after having liis furniture factory at Triana 
burned, he came into Athens, and here was en- 
gaged in the cabinet-making business, at the out- 
break of the late war. In May, 18(31, he raised a 
company of volunteers for the Fortieth Ten- 
nessee, and was with it until the capture of Island 
No. 10. As an officer he was taken to Johnson's 
Island, held thirteen or fourteen months, and 
exchanged. His command was re-organized 
into the Fifty-Fourth Alabama Infantry, with 
Uaisler as Captain of Company B. He was with 
this regiment at Baker's Creek, and was again 
captured, near Jackson, and returned to John- 
son's Island, where he was kept until within one 
month of the fall of Kichmond. He returned 
home, June 15, 1865, and out of the 127 men 
that went with him to the front, only eighteen 

Captain Kaisler was the first representative to 
the Ijegislature, from Limestone County, after the 
cessation of hostilities, and he served in that body, 
sessions of 1865, '66, 'G7, '70, '71, "82, and '83. 
He served one term as mayor of Athens, in 18 i 8, 
and is the present incumbent of that office. He 
is a member of the Masonic order, Knights of 
Honor. Golden Rule, Knights and Ladies of 
Honor, and a communicant of the Episcopal 

He has always been an active political worker, 
and was for many years chairman of the demo- 
cratic executive committee, though recently it 
has been charged, and probably rightly, that his 
independence has taken him somewhat out of the 
line of stalwart democracy, though probably not 
into the enemy's camp. 

While in the Legislature, he introduced several 
bills, that became laws, of more than ordinary im- 

Captain Raisler was a gallant soldier during 
the war, and afterward, undoubtedly, rendered the 
people of Alabama much valuable service. 

He is now engaged in the drug business. 

C. A. ARNETT. Real Estate Broker, born at 
Triana, Madison County, Ala., March 12, 18.38, 
and his parents were Thomas and Mathilda (Cole) 
Arnett, of Virginia, and descended from the 

The senior Arnett married before leaving Vir- 
ginia, and died in Alabama, when the subject of 
this sketch was an infant. 

Mr. Arnett was educated in Madison County and 
lived there until 1869. When a young man he be- 
gan the study of medicine, but gave it up, and, in 
1854, engaged in mercantile business at Triana, 
where he was at the outbreak of the war. He 
came to Athens in 1875 and engaged in business ; 
was elected Mayor of the city in 1887 ; has been 
secretary of the Limestone Agricultural Associa- 
tion since 1884, and has served tiie town many 
years as its clerk and treasurer. He was appointed 
by Gov, Houston, July, 1877, assistant commis- 
sioner of emigration, and proved himself of great 
efficiency in that deptirtment. 


ROBERT M. RAWLS, Editor and Proprietor of 

the Alabiimii (jiiiricr,\\. Weekly Democratic paper, 
published every Wednesday at Athens, was born 
in Lincoln County, Tenn. Jan. 6, 1861. He was 
a son of Luke H. Rawls, who was a merchant dur- 
ing his life, and who died in 1873 at the age of 
sixty-six years. 

Robert M, Rawls was the youngest of twelve chil- 
dren. He received his schooling at Jackson, Tenn. 
and at the age of sixteen years, entered a news- 
paper office in that town and learned the printer's 
trade. From the office of the Fayetteville Obser- 
ver, where he had worked about eighteen months, 
he took charge of the Lynchburg, (Tenn.) Seiifi- 
nel, going thence, within a few months, to a posi- 
tion upon the Nashville World, then a new paper, 
and upon which he set the first line of type ever 
placed in a " stick" for its columns. He remained 
upon the World until January, 1883, when he came 
to Athens and in partnership with J. J. Turren- 
tine, purchased the Courier. Mr. Tnrrentine 
withdrew from the paper in 1884, since which l^me 
Mr. Rawls has been sole proprietor. 

Mr. Rawls is now and has been since May, 1886, 
treasurer of the Alabama Press Association. 

He was married in Athens, May 8, 1883, to Miss 
Fannie Black, daughter of the late John W. Black, 
and has had born to him two children, a son and 
a daughter. Mr. Rawls is a wide awake, public 
spirited, progressive young man, and gives the peo- 
ple of his county one of the best papers they have 
ever had. 


Population: White, 15,000; colored, 0,000. 
Area, 700 square miles. Woodland, all; barrens, 
400 square miles; Red Valley land and gravelly 
hills, 300 square miles. Acres in cotton, ajDprox- 
imately, 26,600; in corn, 4.3,000; in oats, 4,600; 
in wheat, 8,500; in rye, 350; in tobacco, 100; in 
sweet potatoes, 450. Approximate number of 
bales of cotton, 9,500. 

County Seat — Florence; population, 3,000; lo- 
cated on the North bank of the Tennessee river; 
noted for its manufactures, elegant schools and 
superior class of society. (See History of Florence, 
this vol.) 

Newspapers published at Florence, Banner, 
Gazette, Wave — all Democratic. 

Postoffices in the County ^ — Anderson Creek, 
Arthur, Baily Springs, Centre Star, Comer, Cov- 
ington, Florence, Gravelly Springs, Green Hill, 
Lexington, Oakland, Pruitton, Rawhide, Rogers- 
ville. Saint Florain, Smithsonia, Sugar, AV'aterloo. 

Lauderdale is one of the most fertile counties in 
the State. It is situated in the northwestern corner 
of Alabama, and is joined on two sides by the 
States of Mississippi and Tennessee. It was one 
of the first sections of Alabama settled by the 
whites, and was organized as a county before the 
State was constituted. It was established in 1818, 
and named for the famous Indian fighter. Col. 
Lauderdale, of Tennessee, who fell in the battle of 
Talladga, December 33, 1814. 

It has a diversity of soil, as is abundantly indi- 
cated in the variety of crops grown. In the 
northern portion of the county the surface is 
somewhat more uneven than is that in the south- 
ern end. The prevailing soil in the northern por- 
tion is of a grayish hue, but yields quite readily. 
In the south the lands are reddish in character. 
This is due to the presence of iron. These lands 
are quite fertile, and though some of them have 
been in cultivation seventy-five years, they are 
still productive without the aid of fertilizers. 
West of Florence, in a great bend of the Tennes- 
see river, is a large body of valley lands known 

as the Colbert Reservation. It is overspread in 
different directions by some of the finest farms 
found in this section of Alabama. These valley 
lands, when fresh, will jiroduce as much as one 
thousand pounds of seed cotton to the acre. The 
most of the cotton grown in the county is raised 
ujion the red valley lands, and the product per 
acre is considerably above the average. 

The chief crops of the county are cotton, corn, 
wheat, oats, sorghum and sweet potatoes. Apples 
and peaches are grown in vast quantities in the 
orchards. These are the chief fruits, though 
other fruits are grown with success when they 
receive proper attention. This is especially true 
of the grape. Wild fruits, such as hickorynuts 
and berries grow in large quantities. 

The chief pursuits of the people are farming, 
stock-raising and manufacturing, to all of which 
the county is admirably adapted. For many 
years the single pursuit was that of planting; but 
the superb water power of the county and the 
abundant fuel suggested the establishment of 
manufactories long before the beginning of the 
war. Cotton and wool factories were accordingly 
established, as well as manufactories of leather. 
At this period Lauderdale was, perhaps, in ad- 
vance of any other portion of the State in its 
manufactories. It is believed to be the jjioneer 
county in establishing manufacturing interests. 
These industries perished amid the ravages of the 
war, but are now rebuilt to some extent, and in 
the town of Florence, joarticularly, manufactur- 
ing is assuming important proportions. 

The country is abundantly sujjplied with per- 
petual streams of water. Shoal, Cypress, Blue 
Water, Bluff and Second creeks flow through the 
county from the north. 

Striking the southwestern boundary of the 
county is the Elk river. Besides these there are 
many bold mountain springs, containing both 
limestone and freestone water. There are springs 
in several parts of the county that have medicinal 
properties, the most noted of these being Bailey's 




Springs, but a short distance from the town of 
Florence: though Taylor's Springs have a local 
reputation. In every part of the county are to 
be found local industries, such as gins, and grist, 
and saw mills. 

There are forests of valuable timber in every 
part of Lauderdale County. comprise sev- 
eral varieties of oak, poplar, chestnut, beech, 
liickory, walnut^ cherry, and short leaf pine. The 
forests, in many places, are heavily wooded with 
these valuable timbers. Facilities for transporta- 
tion of products to market are already good, but 
are destined to be greatly increased at no remote 
])eriod. The Memphis & Charleston Railway runs 
a branch road into Florence from Tuscumbia; the 
Louisville & Nashville taps the same town with 
a road known as the Nashville & Florence, from 
Columbia, Teun., and other roads are proposed 
and in process of construction. 

The educational advantages of the county are 
superior. Throughout the entire county there 
are good local schools, affording all the educational 
facilities necessary for common school instruction. 
These schools are supported by all the moral influ- 
ence that comes of long established and well-reg- 
ulated society. The people are law-abiding and 
thrifty, and the tone of society is elevating. 

In the northern portion of the county, adjoin- 
ing the State of Tennessee, are to be found excel- 
lent dejjosits of iron ore. The extent of tiie preva- 
lence of this ore is not known, as it has been 
oulv partially developed. In the southeastern 
part of Lauderdale, on Elk River, is a valuable 
cave of saltpetre. 

Theciiief towns of the county are Florence (the 
county seat), Lexington, Rodgersville and Waterloo, 

With water power from the hills and mountains, 
with a climate, the brace of which cannot be 
excelled, even in midsummer, with superior society 
and schools, Lauderdale offers rare advantages to 
those seeking homes. Land may be purchased at 
prices ranging from fi") to $15 per acre. 

The population of the county has increased 
seventy per cent, in the past decade, and is still 
more rai)idly advancing. 

The coneal artificial mound at Florence, is one 
of the largest and best preserved of the many left 
iiy that mysterious and unknown pre-historic race 
in so many [larts of our country. 

In 1819, voting places were established at the 
houses of Wm. S. Barton and Thomas Barnett, 
and in 1821, at the houses of Joel Burrows, And- 
rew McMicken and William Howe. 

Haywood's IHstory of Tennessee says that the 
portion of Alabama, north of the Tennessee, was 
organized into a county by the (ieorgia Legisla- 
ture in 1785 and called Iloustoun, in honor of 
John Iloustoun, governor of that state in 1778 
and 1784. A party of eighty men came down the 
Tennessee shortly after, and effected a settle- 
ment at a point on the Muscle Shoals within the 
present limits of this county. They opened a land 
office, elected one of their number to the Georgia 
legislature, and performed other right of citizen- 
ship. But within a fortnight the settlement was 
abandoned in dread of tlie warlike Chicasas. 

The region now embraced within this country 
was the scene of several bloody skirmishes 
between the Tennessecans and Chicasas about the 
years 1787-90. 

During the war between the States a cavalry 
fight occurred two miles east of Florence, in which 
the cavalry regiment of Col. Wm. A. Johnson, of 
Colbert, scattered a federal command with some 
loss to it. Near the same spot the army of Gen. 
Ilood lay encamped for several weeks just before 
entering on the disastrous campaign which cul- 
minated at Franklin and Nashville. Lauderdale, 
then in common with the other counties of the 
Tenessee valley, suffered fearfully inconsequence 
of its exposed position. 

Probably no single county in the State can boast a 
higher order of citizenship than Lauderdale, 
while her past history is replete with the names 
of men whose brilliant achievements illumine the 
annals of a nation. The brave old soldier. Gen. 
John Coffee, Jackson's most trusted lieutenant, 
lived and died here; Robt. Miller Patton, one of 
Alabama's greatest governors, made this his home, 
while the distinguished soldier, statesman and 
citizen, Edward Asbury O'Neal yet resides at 
Florence. Caroline Lee Ilentz, whose memory is 
so dear to every lover of a pure literature, spent 
nine years of her life here. Judge John Edmund 
Moore, Wade Keys. Hugh McVay, Sidney C. 
Posey, James Jackson, James Irvine, and many 
others names are identified with the liistory 
of xVlabama, were citizens of this county. 



Population : White. 21,074: colored, 4,040. 
Area, 990 square miles, woodland all. Valley 
lands, (of which 190 square miles are in the Val- 
ley of the Tennesse), 500 square miles. Coves 
and slopes, 310 square miles. Mountain lands, 
490 square miles. Acres in cotton, approximately, 
19,685; in corn, 60,2»5; in oats, 8,241; in wheat, 
10,051; in rye, 347; in tobacco, 99; in sweet pota- 
toes, 592. Approximate number of bales of cot- 
ton, 6,984. 

County Seat — Scotsborough ; pojiulation, 1,500. 
Located on Memphis & Charleston Kailroad, forty- 
two miles from Huntsville, and fifty-five miles 
from Chattanooga. Newspapers published at coun- 
ty seat : Citizen, Progressive Age and Alabama 
-ffer«/fZ, all Democratic; at Stephenson, The Chron- 
icle, democratic. 

PostofBces in the county — Atto, Bass Station, 
Bellefonte, Berry's Store, Big Coon, Bridgeport, 
Coffey's Store, Dodsonville, Dorans Cove, Dry 
Cove, Emmert, Estill's Fork, Fabius, Fackler, 
Fern Cliff, Francisco, Garth, Gray's Chapel, 
Greerton, Hannah, Iligdon, Holly Tree, Kirby's 
Creek, Kosh. Langston, Larkin's Fork, Larkins- 
ville. Lime Kock, Long Island, Maynard's Cove, 
Paint Rock, Park's Store, Pisgah, Press, Prince- 
ton, Samples, Santa, Scottsborough, Stevenson, 
Trenton, Tupelo, Wallston. Wamsville, Widows, 

This county takes its name from the hero of 
New Orleans. It was organized in 1819, the 
same year of the admission of Alabama into the 
Union. Jackson County is the extreme north- 
eastern county in the State. It is bounded on 
the north by the State of Tennessee ; on the east 
by the State of Georgia and De Kalb County, 
Ala. ; on the south by De Kalb and Marshall 
Counties, on the west by Marshall and iladison 
Counties. It is about sixty-five miles long, by 
thirty miles wide. Scottsboro is the county 
seat of Jackson, and is a pleasajit Itttle town, 
situated on the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, 

about the center of the county, and four miles 
from the Tennessee River. It is a new town, 
built up since the county seat was located at 
that point, which was done in the year 1868. 
It has a population of about 1,000 ; has a new 
courthouse and jail, which cost S37,000, and are 
of good architectural design. The town is regu- 
larly laid out, and has many commodious business 
houses, built around the court house square, and 
on other streets, with many new and attractive 
residences, besides five comfortable churches, and 
two commodious hotels, a college building, which 
is quite sufficient to accommodate from 300 to 400 
pupils, with college ground of six acres, on which 
the building is situated, which for beauty of loca- 
tion and grounds, cannot be surpassed in the 
South. Scottsboro is also noted for the health- 
fulness of its location, being situated at the high- 
est point of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, 
between the eastern boundary line of the State of 
Alabama and the city of 31emphis, Tenn., and at 
a distance of 285 miles from Memphis, Tenn.; 
indeed, the entire county of Jackson has an ele- 
vation above any other county west of it toward 
Memphis, its valley lands being at the highest 
point 602 feet, and at the lowest point, at Paint 
Rock, 595 feet above Mobile Bay. The altitude 
diminishes gradually toward the west, until you 
reach ^lemphis, Tenn., where it is only 245 feet ; 
add to the elevation in Jackson, from 600 to 1,000 
feet, and you have the elevation of our mountain 
lands above the sea-level ; for this reason people 
living west of us often speak of our county as 
High Jackson. The destructive malarial fevers 
and epidemic diseases, such as yellow fever, chol- 
era, etc., which are so common in the warmer 
temperatures and low lands south and southwest 
of us, have never been known in this county, and 
in all human probability, never will be. The 
general appearance of this county is much more 
broken, and its scenery greatly diversified. It is 
made up of high mountain tracts of level lands. 




extending for many miles. These mountains are 
cut back into by many beautiful coves and valleys 
of level and fertile lands, some of which are three 
or four miles wide, shut in by steep mountain 
slopes, covered with forest growth of valuable 
timber; indeed, the whole of the valley lands are 
said by geologists to have been cut out of what 
was at one time, a level mountain surface, by the 
flow of the Tennessee River and its numerous 
tributaries. This mountain surface at that time 
was all the Cumberland Mountain, but is now cut 
in two by the river, at the point known as the 
Jioiling Pot, this side of Chattanooga, and has 
cut out the Tennessee River Valley in which this 
county is situated : leaving that part of the moun- 
tain north of the river known as the Cumberland 
Mountain, and that j)art of the mountain south of 
the river, known as the Raccoon Mountain, or 
Sand Mountain, as it is called by the natives. 
Both these mountains e.\tend through north Ala- 
bama, and have an average width of about twenty 
miles ; hence the main valley lands lie along the 
Tennessee River, and are as fine farming lands for 
all kinds of farming purposes, as can be found in 
the South. (,'otton, corn, oats, wlieat, rye, to- 
bacco, sweet potatoes, wool, sorghum, honey, and 
butter are chief among its manifold productions. 
Pears, apples, peaches, grapes, and berries grow 
almost to perfection. 

Along the slojies of the hills of Jackson county 
are found splendid orchards of peaches. There is 
a steady growth of interest in stock-raising. Along 
the high table lands of the county are numerous 
small farms which are surrounded with all the 
evidences of plenty an<l contentment. The streams 
are the Tennessee and Paint Rock rivers, and Big 
and Little Raccoon, .Mud, Wido, Big Crow, Jones' 
Santa. Big Lanne, and Williams' creeks, and 
Hurricane and Larkins' forks. Besides these, 
numerous mountain springs abound, the water of 
which is pure and perj)etual. The county is unex- 
celled in its water supply. The hills and mountain 
flanks are densely wooded, while some of the al- 
luvial valleys are still uncleared and are covered 
over with valua'ole timber. On the uplands are 
found black and red oaks, pine, cedar and hickory. 
Along the valleys are found poplar, ash, maple, 
beech, walnut, sweet gum, cherry and giant white 
oak. Indeed, both upon the table lands and in 
the valleys, many of the forests remain in their 
virgin state. They extend along tiie broad and 
deep streams of the county, ami timber hewn from 

them may be easily rafted. The inclination of the 
different water course is such as to favor the erec- 
tion of manufactories, and for local demands such 
do exist. 

The mineral products of Jackson are coal and 
iron, while the supply of marble and limestone is 
unlimited. Coal abounds both in the Cumber- 
land and Sand mountains. These ranges travers 
the county twenty or thirty miles. From one of 
the numerous caves in the county is obtained salt- 
petre. It was used by the confedrate authorities 
during the civil war. In several parts of the 
county are mineral springs, containing waters of 
superior quality. 

There are several industries in the county 
which have attained considerable local prominence. 
Among these are the Belmont mines, situated 
twelve miles west of Scoltsboro. In the town of 
Scottsboro are numerous steam and saw mills, and 
a hub, spoke and felloe factory. There are facili- 
ties of industry afforded in Jackson county, the 
variety of which, perhaps, is not surpassed by that 
of any other county in Alabama. 

The valuation of property in Jackson county 
for the year 1887 is «i3,3'JG, 283.27, as shown by 
the abstract of assessment filed with the auditor. 

GEORGE B. CALDWELL was born in Belfont, 
Jackson county, April 'i, ISGl, and is a son of 
Hamlin and Mary J. (Snodgrass) Caldwell. His 
early life was spent on his father's farm, and his 
education was acquired at the schools of Spring- 
field, Ohio, and at Lookout Mountain academy. 
From nineteen to twenty-five years of age he was 
in business in Louisiana, and there in April, 1875, 
married Miss Sarah PI Hair, daughter of J. B. 
and Ann (Brone) Hair, natives respectively of the 
states of Ohio and Tennessee. In 1870 he re- 
turned to his native county and resumed farming. 
He came to Scottsboro, merchandised a few 
months, was burned out, and is now, in addi- 
tion to his farming, running a saw miil. The 
only official position that he api)ears to have held 
is that of justice of the peace, and he filled that 
office one term. 

Hamlin Caldwell, father to the subject of this 
sketch, was born in New Hampshire in 1812. His 
parents moved to Portsmouth, Ohio, in 1814, and 
when twelve years of age he took up his abode in 
Cincinnati, making his home with a sister. For 



awhile, when a young man, he was in mercantile 
business at Chillicothe, Ohio, and from there, in 
1837, came to Alabama and located in Jackson 
county. At Belfonte, this county, he established 
a store, having brought liis stock of goods with 
him from Ohio. He was among the first mer- 
chants, if not the very first, at Belfonte, and he 
continued there until 1850. For the then next 
succeeding thirty years he followed farming, and 
in 1880 moved into Scottsboro, where he has since 
made his home. He reared a family of six chil- 
dren. Mr. Caldwell is a self-made man. He 
started in the world poor, without even the ad- 
vantages of schooling, but he rounds up a ripe old 
age with a handsome competency, and with the 
knowledge tliat in the accumulation tliereof he 
has wronged no man. His father was Europe 
Caldwell, a native of New Hampshire, and his 
mother's maiden name was Hamlin, a relative of 
Hon. Hannibal Hamlin. 

REV. MILTON P. BROWN, son of James 
D. Brown, who in early days, preached on 
Sunday and farmed through the week, is the oldest 
of a family of seven. He was left an orphan at the 
age of nine, took charge of his father's farm when 
but eleven, and conducted it with a reasonable de- 
gree of success until he was seventeen, attending 
schools in the neighborhood at such times as he 
could be spared from his duties on the farm. He 
was licensed to preach in the M. E. Church, South, 
in October, 1848, and served as an intinerant in 
the Tennessee Conference until 1858. In that 
year he located in Scottsboro and conducted 
a farm and taught school in that vicinity until 

He joined the Confederate army and was 
severely wounded in the hip at the first battle at 

He was elected Probate Judge in 1862, and held 
the office until 1868, in Bellefonte, which was then 
the county seat of Jackson. Since 1868, he has 
conducted a mercantile business in Scottsboro. 

In 1854, Mr. Brown was married to Mary Eliz- 
abeth Parks, daughter of W. D. Parks, of Scotts- 
boro and they have been the parents of eight chil- 
dren, namely: Julian C.,who was educated at Van- 
derbilt University, is a preacher in the M. E. 
Church South, and is now at Francis street 
charge, St. Joseph, Mo.; Idella H., wife of M. D. 

McClure; Eva R., wife of W. J. Robinson; 
Kittie F., wife of S. M. Bains; William Davis, 
Annie E., Hattie M., and Mary P. 

Having lost his first wife, Mr. Brown was mar- 
ried May 7, 1870, to Mrs. Annie E. Williams, a 
widow, and daughter of Hiram Read, originally 
of Eatonton, N. C, but late of Auburn, AJa. 

Mr. Brown is a Royal Arch Mason and a Knight 
of Honor. He has been Councilman and Mayor 
of Scottsboro, President of the Board of Trustees 
of Scott Academy and Superintendent of Educa- 
tion of Jackson County. 

JAMES ARMSTRONG, Editor of the Scotts- 
boro Citizen, was born September 7, 1855, at 
Hillsboro, Lawrence County, this State, and is 
the son of the late Hon. James Armstrong, who 
was well known as a lawyer and legislator from 
Lawrence County, and as one of the Franklin 
Pierce electors in 1852. 

The subject of our sketch moved to Scottsboro 
on the 3d of March, 1869. He attended the com- 
mon schools of that place, and afterwards the 
East Tennessee University at Knoxville. Soon 
after attaining his majority he embarked in the 
newspaper business, established the Scottsboro 
Citizen October 5, 1877, and has conducted it 
ever since with considerable success, giving it 
high rank among democratic journals of the 
State. He was married May 18, 1880, to Miss 
Malie R., daughter of Rev. P. L. Henderson, of 
Decatur, Ala. They have three living children, 
Phillip H., Andrew and Harry Cheatham. 
James, the youngest child, died September 10, 
1887, aged three weeks. 

Mr. Armstrong and wife are members of the 
Methonist Episcopal Church, South, and he is a 
member of the K. of H. 

. JOHN BENTON TALLY, Judge of the Ninth 
Judicial Circuit, son of Jolm Benton and Sarah 
E. (Price) Tally, was born June 28, 1851, near 
Stevenson, Jackson county, Ala. 

His parents were born in East Tennessee in 
1815, and Jackson county, Ala., in 1817, respect- 

John B. Tally, senior, was brought to Jackson 
county by his parents in 1819, and located near 



Stevenson, where lie received a common school 
education and became a well-to-do farmer. He 
was in the Florida AVar from this State, and held 
the rank of Orderly Sergetiiit. lie served in the 
Al.ibiiiiia Legislature in 185G-7, and again in 
I8<iu-1. lie was a stauncli Union man, and a 
Douglass Democrat. He raised a family of three 
sons and one daughter, and died February 11, 
1881. His father, Jacob Tally, was born in East 
Tennessee, and married Mary Mourning lioberts 
of Virginia. Her father was killed by the Indians 
before she was born, and her mother named her 
Mourning in memory of that sad event. Jacob 
Tally was an Irishman, and his wife was of 
Scotch extraction. 

John Benton Tally was reared on a farm, and 
received a common school education, which was 
limited on account of the war. In January, 1867, 
he was matriculated at Cecilian College, Hardin 
county, Ky., and graduated from that institution 
as A. B. in 1870. He spent two years farming 
and teaching, and began the study of law. He 
entered Cumberland University at Lebanon, 
Tenn., and graduated from the law department 
in February, 187.3. After this he located in 
Scotsboro, and actively engaged at his pro- 

He was elected Judge of the probate court of 
Jackson county in August, 1880, and in August, 
1886, elected Judge of the circuit court of the 
Ninth Judicial Circuit, a position which he has 
filled until the present time with marked ability. 

.Judge Tally was married November 8, 1877, to 
>Iiss Sidney M. Skelton, of Scottsboro, a daughter 
of .lames T. ami Charlotte C. (Scott) Skelton, 
both natives of Jackson county. Mr. Skelton 
was a merchant. He died in December, 188Si, at 
the age of 57 years. Charlotte C. Scott is a 
daughter of Kobert T. Scott, who represented 
Alabama in a negotiation with the United States 
Government, and settled certain claims growing 
out of the depredations of the Indians. 

This branch of the Scott family came to America 
in the person of William Scott (as a stowaway) 
away back in the last century. He subsequently 
became a lieutenant in the Colonial navy, and 
served througli the Revolutionary War under Paul 
Jones on the flag-ship Bonhomniie. He was 
afterwards L'nited States agent in the settlement 
of some sort of French claims. 

Judge Tally has two sons, Walter II. and John 
B. Tally, and ho and his wife are members of the 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The Judge is 
a public-spirited man, and fully in sympathy with 
every legitimate enterprise tending to advance 
and build up Northern Alabama. He is probably 
the youngest man ever placed on the Bench of 
the Circuit in the States. 

DANIEL W. SFEAKE, County Solicitor of 
.lackson county, son of James B. Speake, was 
born July 8, 18.56, in Lawrence county, Ala. 

.James B. Speake was the son of a German fam- 
ily. He was born in 1803, and is now living in 
Lawrence county. He came from Washington 
county, Ky., to Alabama soon after completing his 
education, and taught school for a time in Lawrence 
county. He soon secured a small farm, and kept 
adding unto it until he had a large plantation and 
a number of slaves. He was for many years super- 
intendent of education in Lawrence county; was 
once a candidate for the State Senate, and in 
1805 was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion. In 1870-2 he was a representative to the 
General Assembly from his county, and was 
returned there in 1876-7. He had three sons in 
the army. Since he was last in the Legislature 
he has lived on his farm. 

He was married June' 4, 1833, to Miss Sarah 
Brooks Lindscy, who was born A,ugust 1. 1818, 
and was the first white girl child born in Law- 
rence County. 

James B. Speake and wife had eight children, 
of whom six were sons and two daughters. Four 
of the sons only are now living. 

H. C. Speake, born June 17, 1834, now Circuit 
.Judge of the Eighth Circuit, resides in Hunts- 
ville ; John Marshal Speake, Dennis Basil Speake 
(who was a soldier in I'^orrest's Cavalry, and died 
in prison at Chicago), James Tucker Speake and 
Charles W. Speake. 

Daniel W. Speake worked on a farm in his early 
days, and attended the common schools of the 
county until seventeen years of age, when he 
began teaching, by which means he paid his own 
way at the University of Alabama, which institu- 
tion he entered in 1877, and from which he gradu- 
ated in tlie classical course in July, 1878. During 
the succeeding year he took his degree of LL.B. 
at the same institution. He was admitted to the 
bar in September, 1879. in Franklin County, this 
State. lie practiced law for two years at Moul- 



ton, formed a copartnei-ship with Gen. Joseph 
Wheeler, and practiced three years at Courtland. 
He came to Scottsboro January 1, 1885, and is 
now county solicitor. 

Mr. Speake was married December 1-4, 1881, to 
Miss Caro McCalla, of Tuscaloosa, a daughter of 
Maj. E. C. McCalla, a prominent railroad 
man, chief engineer of construction of the E. T., 
Va. & G. Kailway system, also chief engineer of 
the Alabama & Chattanooga Kailroad Co., now 
better known as the A. G. S. Jlailroad. 

D. W. Speake has two living children and one 
dead— Richard McCalla, born October 30, 1882, 
died July 34, 1884, Bessie and Charles Louis. 

ROBERT C. ROSS, son of Robert and Ellen 
(Nugent) Ross, was born in Clark County, Wis., 
September 21, 1853. 

Robert Ross was born on the Inland of Mauri- 
tius, formerly called the Isle of France (East 
Indies), in ISlfl. He located with his parents in 
Quebec, about 183G. He married in Canada; 
located in Clark County, Wis., in lc48, and did 
an extensive lumber business for many years. 
Our subject's grandfather, Robert Ross, was born 
in Scotland; became a lieutenant in the British 
army, and served last in Canada. He lived to be 
about ninety years of age, and was the father of 
twelve children. Our subject's mother was also 
born in Canada. 

Robert C. Ross received a common-school edu- 
cation, and began his business life as a lumber 

He married Miss Ida W. Ross in June, 18.6. 
She was a daughter of James Ross, of Eufaula, 
Ala. They have but two children: Alice and 

Mr. Ross came to Scottsboro in March, 1887, 
and organized the Jackson County Bank, the first 
institution of that kind ever operated in the county. 

Mr. Ross and wife are members of the Episcopal 
Church, and he is a JIason and a Knight of Honor. 


JAMES ALFRED KYLE, Register in Chancery, 
Scottsboro, is a son of Xelson Kyle, was 
born February 28, 1862, in Bellefonte, this State. 

Nelson Kyle was a son of John Kyle, and a 
native of Alabama. He was a farmer and subse- 

quently a merchant at Bellefonte, and has been 
Sheriff, Clerk of the Probate Court, County Trea- 
surer, Probate Judge from 1874: to 1880, and was 
Register in Chancery at the time of his death, Sep- 
tember 19, 1886. He was married, first, to the 
widow of Henry Walker, of Bellefonte, daughter 
of Nelson Robinson, and one of a family of five. 
They were the parents of three sons and one 
daughter, viz. : William; .James A., the subject of 
our sketch; Sallie B., wife of W. B. Hunt; and 
Chas. E. 

James A. Kyle was educated at the Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical School at Auburn. He 
assisted in the Probate Judge's office in Jackson 
County for some time previous to 1880, clerked 
in stores until 1883, became a partner with his 
father, and was a merchant for two years. After 
his marriage, he went to Texas and remained 
there about a year. He returned to Jackson Coun- 
ty in 1886, and has been Register in Chancery 
ever since. 

He was married to Jliss Vula Sanders on March 
2-4, 1885. She is a daughter of C. B. Sanders, a 
minister in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 
They have two interesting children: Mary Du 
and Vula Sidney. 

Mr. Kyle is a member of the Knights of Honor. 

JOHN H. NORWOOD, Probate Judge of Jack- 
son County, was born in Bellefonte November 
23, 1828. 

He was a son of Henry and Aletha (Caperton) 
Norwood, natives of South Carolina and Virginia, 
respectively. The senior Mr. Norwood was in 
the War of 1812, and held the rank of lieutenant. 
He came to Jackson County in 1820, and here 
was an extensive planter and slave owner. He 
took a prominent part in the Indian wars of his 
time, holding the rank of captain in the Creek 
War and colonel in the Seminole War. He subse- 
quently served several terms in both branches of 
the State Legislature, where he acquitted himself 
with the highest honor, and to the entire satisfac- 
tion of his constituency. He died in 1840, hold- 
ing the rank of major-general of the militia. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on a 
farm, received such education as could be ob- 
tained in the schools of the country, and spent 
three years in Irving College. He read law in 
the village of his nativity, and was admitted to 



the bar in 1852. After liaviiigr practiced three 
years he was appointed Probate Judge, and served 
under that appointment twelve niontiis. He was 
then elected to the oftice and held it until March, 
18G1, when he resigned and entered the Confed- 
erate Army as first lieutenant in Captain Brad- 
ford's company. Second Alabama Kegitnent. 
During that summer he resigned this position, 
returned to his home and raised five com]>anie.s, 
and with them joined the Forty-third Tennessee 
Regiment, of which he was elected lieutenant- 
colonel, lie was captured at Fort Donelson, im- 
prisoned at Fort Warren, and, in .July of the 
.same year, exchanged at Kichmond, Va. After 
this he went to Vicksburg in General Loring's 
Division, i)articipated in the fight at Port (Jibson 
and the bombardment of N'icksburg. After the 
fall of that city he went to East Tennessee and 
was sub3e(|uently engaged at Ringgold, Resaca, 
and all the fights of the Atlanta Campaign. In 
18(1-1, under the direction of the War Department, 
he recruited a brigade in Alabama, and com- 
manded it to the close of the war. At White's 
Lancling he surrendered, leaving the service with 
the rank of brigadier-general. 

IJeturning to his native village, he resumed the 
practice of law, and in 1865 was elected to the 
State Senate, where he took an active part in the 
legislation of that important session. He was a 
delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 
18T5, and took a jirominent part in the proceed- 
ings of that a.<.sembly. In 18SG he was elected 
Probate Judge. His term will expire in 1892. 
When not in the discharge of the duties of the 
various offices to which his peoi)le have called 
him, the Judge's extensive law practice has been 
diversified by the attention given his farming 

.Judge Norwood was married December 2."), 
1850, to Miss Margaret, daughter of John Neth- 
erland, who came to Alabama in 1820. The fam- 
ily are cotninunicants of the Presbyterian Church, 
and the Judge belongs to the Masonic order. 

JESSE EDWARD BROWN, son of Jeremiah 
and Mary Ann (Williams) Brown, of Scottsbro, 
was born May I, 1845. in Jackson County. 

Jeremiah Brown is one of a family of North 
Carolinians who gave its name to Brownsboro. 
He was a planter in .lackson County and died here. 

He was a man of firm convictions and great sta- 
bility of character. He was married three 

His first wife was a Miss Moore, and by her he 
had two sons and one daughter: Bridges, who 
was a soldier and died at the battle of Corinth;. 
John A., and Nancy, who married a Mr. Yates, 
of Birmingham. Mrs. Yates, a fluent speaker 
and writer, has edited various papers, at different 
times, both in this State and Mississippi. 

Jeremiah Brown was married t he second time to- 
Miss Mary Ann Williams, a daughter of a Samuel 
Williams, one of the pioneers of this county, who- 
accumulated a goodly estate in land and slaves. 
She was one of a family of six chbldren, and her- 
self was the mother of four, viz.: Mary wife of 
Col. .John Snodgrass, of this place: Jesse Edward, 
of whom we now write: Margaret, wife of Will- 
iam H. Payne, druggist: Charles A\'., a lawyer, 
graduated at the University of Alabama, and now 
in the office of the superintendent of education. 

Jesse E. Brown was educated at Georgetown,. 
Ky., and Lebanon, Tenn., where he studied 
law. lie was admitted to the bar in August, 18G9,. 
at Huntsville, and began his practice in Scotts- 
boro, where he has remained uji to the present 
writing. He represented his county in the State 
Legislature in 1872-3, and was one of the framers 
of the present Constitution of Alabama. 

Mr. Brown became a member of the Confeder- 
ate Army, in Frank Gurley's company, Fourth Al- 
abama Cavalry, and served throughout the entire- 
war. He was in battle near Farniington, wounded 
and captured at the second battle of Fort Donel- 
son, and a piisoiier at Louisville and Baltimore 
for about two months. He fought at Murfrees- 
boro, Chickamauga, and Kenesaw Mountain,, 
where he lost a leg, and was confined to the hos- 
pital for a long time thereafter. Having returned 
home, he studied law, as before mentioned. 

Mr. Brown was married November 5, 1873, to 
Miss Virginia E. Wood, at Winchester, Tenn. 
She was a daughter of Dr. Ira G. Wood, and they 
have three children, viz.: Zaida, Lawrence Ed- 
ward; Clifford, who was born in 1878 and died in 
18811; and E. 

.Mr. Brown is a member of the Episcoi>al Church 
and of the fraternity of ( >dd Fellows. His position 
as one of the most prominent members of the 
bar in Northeastern Alabama is well known 
throughout that portion of the State, and his- 
practice is extensive and lucrative. 


JOHN R. C F F E Y, of Fackler, Jackson 
County, son of Kice and Sallie (Bradford) Coffey, 
was born at Wartrace, Bedford County, Teun., 
March 27, 1814. 

Rice Coffey was born in Pennsylvania in 1766. 
When a young man he removed to Xorth Carolina 
and became a gunsmith. He married and again 
removed to Tennessee about 1801, and settled on 
a farm of a thousand acres of land which lie bought 
of General Jackson, and on which his son, John R. 
Coffey, was born. He died in 1853, and his wife 
in 1840. He was a son of James Coffey, of early 
times, who raised a large family, all of the older 
sons of wliom served as soldiers in the Revolution- 
ary War. The Coffey family are Baptists. 

John R. Coffey spent his early days on a farm 
attending the common old-field schools. When 
he was thirteen years of age he went to a high 
school at Shelby ville, Tenn., and remained there 
twelve months. After this, became to Bellefonte, 
without an acquaintance in tl:e county or a 
■dollar in his pocket, and became a clerk in a store. 
At the age of twenty-two, he established a mercan- 
tile business of his own in that village, and contin- 
ued it until 1846. In 1840, he was elected Sheriff 
■of Jackson County. At the breaking out of the 
Mexican AVar, he enlisted in the army in a com- 
pany commanded by Capt. Richard W. Jones. He 
afterwards acted as lieutenant, lieutenant-col- 
onel, and major-general in the militia ; went to 
Mobile and organized the First Alabama Regiment 
and was elected its colonel, and as such, partici- 
pated in the siege of Vera Cruz. After the war 
with Mexico, he became a general of the militia. 
He had now returned to his farm and devoted his 
attention to its cultivation until 1853, when he 
moved to Stevenson a#d engaged in the mercan- 
tile business, which he prosecuted with consider- 
able success until the begining of the late war, 
when he again closed his store and returned to his 
farm of 4,000 acres, on the banks of the Tennessee 

Iq 1861 he was elected a delegate to the con- 
vention which passed the ordinance of secession. 
He was bitterly opposed to that ordinance, but, 
being overpowered, he submitted with the best j^os- 
sible grace, and thereafter gave moral and substan- 
tial support to the Confederacy.* 

General Coffey was married January 21, 1849, to 
Miss Mary Ann Cross, daughter of Col. Chas. and 

♦General Coffey's granrtraother was a sister to Col. Ben, Cleve- 
land, who commanded a regiment at the battle of King's Moun- 

Eliza (Clark) Cross, of Jackson County. They 
were natives of North Carolina and came to Ala- 
bama about 1826. He was a soldier in the Indian 
wars, and was drowned in the Tennessee River 
about 1848.t 

General Coffey is the father of six children, of 
whom four grew to maturity, namely: Eliza, 
wife of Wm. J. Tally ; Sallie B., wife of C. W. 
Brown, chief clerk in the office of the State Super- 
intendent of Education ; John B. and Clark 
Mac'.in. General Coffey's wife died September 6, 
1887. He is a member of the MetLodist I^pisco- 
pal Church and the Masonic order. General Cof- 
sey is a man of commanding presence, being over 
six feet in height and having apparently the vim 
and energy of a youth. He is one of the best 
known men of the State and one of the most influ- 
ential men in Northeastern Alabama. 

— «^;^^- < '- • 

Jackson County, son of Samuel M. Cowan, was 
born near Stevenson, this county, March 17, 1837. 

His father, Samuel M. Cowan, was born in 
Kentucky in 1798; came to Jackson County in 
1824, and settled at Bolivar, two miles north of 
Stevenson. He served as captain in the Florida 
War, in 1837. In 1819, he was married in Frank- 
lin County, Tenn., to Elizabeth Caperton, from 
Virginia. He was one of a family of eight chil- 
dren, four boys and four girls, and was father of 
twelve children. Of these, Eleanor married T. 
Boyd Foster, a prominent man, who has been 
County Surveyor of Jackson for forty years, and 
was in the Florida War; Jane married Dr. Wm. 
Mason, who was a major in the Florida W^ar and 
afterwards a member of the Legislature — he was 
a cousin of Gen. Winfield Scott; Hugh C. was a 
lawyer, a member of the Legislature in 1852, a 
delegate to the National Convention which nomi- 
nated Jas. Buchanan, and an elector of the college 
which elected him — he died in 1860; John F. was 
a lawyer, well educated and brilliant, but died of 
consumption in his early manhood; Samuel C. was 
one of the first merchants in Stevenson — he died 
in 1858; Geo. E. went into the Confederate Army 
in 1861 as lieutenant, and became a major in the 
Thirty-third Alabama Regiment. 

tHis wife'.'* great-giandfather, Col.Wm. Maclin, and her grand- 
father, Robert Clark, were in the Rc\olutiouar.v War ; the latter' 
was wounded in battle at Eutaw Springs, from which he died. 
Her grandfather, Maclin Cross, was in the battle at Nick-a-Jack, 
Indian Nation. 



Mr. Cowan's grandfather was an Irisliman; 
served in the War of 3812. and in most of the 
Ind'an wars; was a major under General Jackson, 
and died in Franklin County. Tenn. 

James II. Cowan attended Biirritt College in 
Van Buren County. Tenn., and was a merchant 
before the war. lie entered tlio army in 1801 and 
served one year as commissary with the rank of 
• ■iqitiiin. 1 Ic was captured at the battle of Fort 
DoncLson in 181)2, and confined in prison at 
Camp Chase and Johnson's Island for several 

After his exchange, lie served a.s captain of 
infantry in the Fifty-sixth Alabama Regiment 
until the close of the war. lie was in battle at 
Baker's Creek. Port Hudson, Jackson, Miss., and 
all of the Georgia campaign from Rcsaca to Peach 
Tree Creek, lie was wounded three times at the 
latter battle, and incapacitated for further service 

In 1870, J. H. Cowan was electeii to the Legis- 
lature, re-elected in 1872, and served until 187:); 
since that time he has been engaged in agricultural 
pursuits. His wife was Miss Sophia E. Taliaferro, 
daughter of Richard II. Taliaferro, a minister of 
some note in the Missionary Baptist Church, at 
Princeton. Mr. Cowan has six children: Geo. 
W., Elizabeth, Sophronia, Angle, Sophie T., and 
Samuel C. 

Mr. and Mrs. Cowan are members of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church, and he is a Free- 

R. C. HUNT. Attorney at Law, was born Feb- 
ruary 5. 1860. in Franklin County, Tenn. His 
father, William Hunt, was born in the same place 
in 1812. He was a substantial farmer, and served 
as a captain in the Florida War. He died in 1862. 
He married Miss Annis Clayton, a native of Jack- 
son County, Ala., and daughter of R. B. Clayton, 
of North Carolina, who came to Alabama about 
1820. R. B. Clayton was the first C'lerk of the 
Circuit Court of .Jackson County. He died in 
Baldwin, Miss., in 1872, at the age of 82 years. 

R. C'. Hunt received his early education in the 
common schools of Tennessee. In 1870 he began 
the study of law, and in 1871 was admitted to the 
bar at Winchester, Tenn. He commenced the 
practice of his profession in Texas, but located in 
Scottsboro. in 1875, where he has since establish- 
ed a very successful practice. 

Mr. Hunt was married in April, 1877, to Miss 
Annie Scruggs, a daughter of Frederick and .Mar- 
garet (Kimbrough) Scruggs, of East Tennessee. 

• 'V* •{QiJ2P5' 'v ' ■ 

Scottsboro. sou of James 1). Snodgrass, was born 
in Washington t^ounty, Va.. October 1, 1820. 

James 0. Snodgrass was born in the same jilaoe 
about 17!iO. He was a weaver by trade, as was 
his father before him, and he was also a farmer, 
lie married .\bigail Dunlap, of Scotch descent and 
they had nine children. 

Alexander Snodgrass was born in the ancestral 
home; educated at the common schools and 
Duffield Academy, Elizabeth, Tenn., and at Ab- 
ingdon, Va. He came to Alabama in lS43;ha8been 
tax assessor, and was rtceivcr of public money at 
the land offices at Lebanon and Centre for six years. 
He represented Cherokee County in the State Leg- 
islature two years, and was State agent for ship- 
ping salt for a year or two during the war. After 
the war, he established the Alabama Herald at 

In 1872 he was elected to represent Jack- 
son, Marshall and DeKalb counties in the 
State Senate, and served there four years. He 
continued the publication of the Jleruld until 
January 16, 1887, when, on account of his ap- 
pointment as postmaster by President Cleveland, 
the paper was discontinued. 

In 1843, Mr. Snodgrass was married to Miss 
Lucetta Byrd, of this vicinity, by whom he had 
one daughter, Mary A., married to C. W. Daugh- 
drill, and now living in Gadsden. In 18-53 the first 
Mrs. Snodgrass died, and in December, 1854. Mr. 
Snodgrass was married to Miss Susan Jane Hill, 
a lady related to a family of that name well known 
in Georgia and Tennessee. The children of this 
marriage are John Nathaniel, who died in infancy; 
Fannie V., now widow of F. R. King of New 
Orleans and for some time known as junior edi- 
tress of the Herald. She has become quite famous 
throughout the State as a writer under the iiom 
de jdnme of "Hex" in the Birmingham Af/e; Su- 
san Cornelia, wife of I). K. Caldwell, of this 
county, and living in Scottsboro; Jesse Alexander, 
wife of Dr. Beech, a dentist of Scottsboro; Irene 
and Minnie, yet at home. 

Mr. Snodgrass is a member of the P^piscopal 
Church and the Masonic fraternitv. 



JAMES K. P. ROREX, M. D., Physician and 
Surgeon, son of David and Sarali A. (Wilkinson) 
Eorex, was born the 3d of March, 1845, in Fay- 
ettesville, Lincoln Oonnty, Tenn. 

His father, David Eorex, vpas born in East Ten- 
nessee October 16, 180G. He was a merchant; 
moved to Alabama in January, 1858, and died in 
Scottsboro March, 1880. His wife, Sarah Ann 
Wilkinson, died in March, 1863. They had six 
children, two boys and four girls. 

Dr. Eorex received a common-school edu- 
cation at Stevenson in the ante-bellum days. He 
entered the Confederate Army at the age of fifteen, 
in the Sixth Alabama Infantry. He was in the 
Seven Days' Fight before Richmond in 18G2: at the 
battle of Chancellorsville, where he was wounded; 
at Gettysburg, and the second battle of the Wil- 
derness, where he received a wound which crippled 
him for five or six years. After the war he 
attended school at Stevenson for one year. Then 
he went to the University of Virginia, after which 
he came home and taught school for three years, 
studying medicine in the meantime. He attended 
two courses of lectures in Nashville; took his 
degree of M. D. at Mobile, in March, 1875; 
attended Louisiana State Medical College in New 
Orleans in 1884; and has practiced medicine in 
Scottsboro since 1875. He is a member of the 
State Medical Association and a counsellor therein 
since 1881; was County Health Officer five years, 
and is President now of the Jackson County Med- 
ical Society. He is a member of the Christian 
Church and of the Odd Fellows fraternity. 

Dr. Rorex was married November 6, i876, to 
Miss Ella Lou Whitworth, a daughter of Wm. 
Whitworth, of Tennessee. The Doctor has three 
children: Louis Wyetb, Fannie Polk and William 

JOHN RICHARD HARRIS, son of Richard B. 
and A. H. Clopton Harris, of A'irginia, was born 
near Huntsville, May 5, 1841. Richard B. 
Harris was born in 1806, educated in the country 
schools, in early life was a merchant, and after- 
ward a farmer. He was a captain of militia at 
Huntsville for many years and served also as 
a justice of the peace. He reared two sons and 
five daughters. 

John R. Harris was reared on a farm, and 
when eight years old removed with his parents to 
Larkinsville, Ala., and received his education at 

Irvin College. In March, 1861, he enlisted in 
the Confederate Army, in Capt. Hal. Bradford's 
company; went to Fort Morgan, where he and his 
company were merged into the Second Alabama 
Regiment; remained there for ten months, was 
transferred to Fort Pillow, and after a short time 
discharged. While Mr. Harris and his comrades 
were on their way home he joined an Alabama 
regiment for the occasion and participated in the 
memorable battle of Corinth. Having reached his 
home, he remained there but a few days, and went 
out as an independent with Colonel Stearns, of 
the Fourth Tennessee Cavalry, and there was or- 
ganized into Company K., Commanded by Capt. 
Francisco Rice, of Madison County, Ala., For- 
rest's old brigade. While here he declined an office 
which was tendered him. After this he partici- 
pated in all the engagements in which his brigade 
fought; was never excused from duty at any time; 
was in Bragg's campaign in Kentucky; fought 
with Kirby Smith's command, and himself com- 
manded the extreme advance guard of Smith's 
division till he reached Barbersville and Cumber- 
land Ford. When his squad had only crossed the 
Kentucky line a short distance, they were fired 
on by bushwhackers, when they dashed into the 
hills and captured some of them; then met a 
Federal lieutenant with twenty scouts, and killed 
and captured together, fourteen of the same. 
Here Mr. Harris was slightly wounded on top of 
his head. He was engaged at Eichmond, Perry- 
ville, second battle of Fort Donelson, Parker's 
Cross Roads, Huntington, Lexington and Dres- 
den, where his brigade captured General Fry's 
command. He was afterward in the battles of 
Thompson Station, Tenn., Knoxville, Chicka- 
mauga, Resaca and the campaign of Atlanta, Ga. ; 
was slightly wounded several times; was with Gen. 
Joe Wheeler in the East Tennessee campaign, 
in the winter of 1863-4. After Hood's raid he 
was on detached duty as a secret scout, in which 
duly he again had command of a small squad of 
men, and had numerous fights with an independ- 
ent Alabama company, and Federals in Middle 
Tennessee and North Alabama, often successfully 
fighting five and ten to one; and thinks he, with 
five others, made the last fight of the war near 
Larkinsville, Ala., killing seven out of sixteen of 
the enemy. This engagement was on horseback, 
the enemy getting in first fire. A short time be- 
fore this Mr. Harris, with Lieutenant Haveren 
and eight men, boarded a Federal steamboat some 



miles below Chattanooga, on the Tennessee Kiver, 
and captured the urew and destroyed the vessel, 
with several cannon. 

After the war lie cnjjaged in farming, wliich he 
has continued till the jiresent time. In 1871, he 
was elected Sheriff, and served one term. It is 
said by his countrymen that he made a most 
excellent sheriff. In 18K0. he removed to Scotts- 
boro, where he owns considerable property. 

In 1800, lie was married to Miss MoUie F. Win- 
bourn, of West Tennessee. He had one daughter 
by this marriage — .Mollie F. His wife dieri in 
1870; was married again in 1874 to Miss ilaria 
W. Kinkle, daughter of LaFayette and Agnes 
(Jones) Kinkle. of lluntsville. They have several 
cliildren — Robert K.. John R., Fannie T., Emma 
1'., Jennie I'., .Maria W., Lulu (J. and George W. 
Mr. Harris and wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and he is a .Mason and Knight 
of Honor. 

— -^-f^t^-^*— ^ 

JOHN P. TIMBERLAKE, Contractor, Steven- 
son, son of Joel and Martha (Perkins) Tim- 
berlake, was born in Louisa County, Va., August 
13, 1817. 

His parents were both natives of Louisa County, 
where his father was born, in 177*;. He was a 
farmer, and died in 1831, leaving five children. 
Ili.< widow died a few years later. 

Philip Timberlake, grandfather of John P. 
'J'imberlake, was also a native of ^'Jrginia, and 
was a soldier in the Revolutionary War. The 
'I'imberlakes came from England. 

John P. Timberlake was reared mi a farm, and 
received a common school education. When 
twenty years of age, he took a contract on the 
James River & Kanawlni Canal. After this was 
completed, he came to Georgia (in 1838), and 
took contracts in the construction of the Western 
& Atlantic Railway. He followed the business of 
contracting, in Georgia and Alabama, until 1857, 
and was successful in accumulating a considerable 

In 1852, he located at Stevenson, where he 
he hivs since resided, and has been a merchant and 
farmer, besides continuing his business as a con- 
tractor, in pursuance of which, he was interested 
in erecting all the principal buildings of Steven- 
son, including the William and Emma Austin 
College, which was finished in 1873. 

In 1801, he was a delegate to the Secession Con- 

vention, and gave his entire influence against the 
ordinance of secession. 

Mr. Timberlake was married, in 1858, to Sarah 
T. Roach, of Jackson County, Ala., a daughter 
of Rev. Charles L. and Sarah (Bradford) Roach, 
of Virginia and Tennessee, respectively. Charles 
L. Roach was a minister of the Missionary Baptist 
Church. Mrs. Timberlake died in 1807. Mr. 
Timberlake is a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church and the Masonic fraternity. 

JAMES P. HARRIS. Proprietor of the Harris 
House, Scottsboro, son of Richard B. Harris, and 
grandson of a soldier in the Revolutionary war, 
was born April 4, 1847, near lluntsville. 

Mr. Harris was a weakly youth until he had 
served awhile in the army. His father had plenty 
of slaves, and he did nothing in his boyhood davs 
but go to school. He joined the Confederate 
Army in 1861, being then but sixteen years of age, 
and was mustered into Company K, Fourth 
Alabama Infantry, under Col. Egbert J. Jones. 
He was in the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 
1861, but was discharged from the infantry 
service on account of his extreme youth. 
He returned to his home and remained there 
about a month, when he joined Forrest's Cav- 
alry in the Fourth Tennessee Regiment; was in the 
battle at Jamestown, the seven days' fight before 
Richmond, and in all Forrest's West Tennessee 
campaigns, including eight or ten heavy battles 
and many skirmishes; was at the second battle of 
Fort Donelson, the battle of Thompson's Station 
and the capture of Streight, whom Forrest pur- 
sued from near Tuscumbia until within a few 
miles from Rome, Georgia, riding and fighting 
day and night for three or four days. 

Our subject was engaged in the battle of Tulla- 
homa, a most severe fight, in which Colonel 
Starnes of his regiment was killed. He was also 
in the battle of Chickamauga, and after that went 
to East Tennessee and participated in the siege of 
Knoxville, and was continuously fighting most 
of the winter. In the spring his regiment came 
through the Carolinas and joined Johnson's 
army at Dalton, Georgia. This regiment was 
placed in the rear guard on their retreat from 
Dalton to Atlanta, and participated in the 
battles of Resaca, Calhoun, Kenesaw Mountain, 
and Peach Tree Creek. Before the battle of Peach 



Tree Creek they captured Stoneman and his com- 
mand south of Atlanta, and made a. raid through 
Middle Tennessee. After the battle at Atlanta 
tiiey fought a most severe one at Franklin, Ten- 
nessee, and then retreated to North Carolina, 
where Johnson surrendered. 

He was married October 31, 1866, to Miss Jen- 
nie Robertson, of Jackson County, and four chil- 
dren have been born to this union: "William 8., 
Anna B., Mary S. and James P. 

Mr. Harris and lady are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and he is an Odd Fellow. 


Population: White, 10,456; colored, 1,699. 
Area, 610 square miles. Woodland, all. Red Val- 
ley and other calcareous lands, 220 square miles. 
Sandy soil and gravelly hills, 240 square miles. 
Coal measures, 150 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton, approximately, 10,368; in corn, 
21,038; in oats, 320; in wheat, l,6ci0; in tobacco, 
17; in sugar cane, 96; in sweet potatoes, 137. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 3,000. 

County Seat — Bel Green : Population, 500 ; 
located 23 miles from Tuscumbia. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Frank- 
lin News, Democratic. 

Postofficesin the County — Alauthus, Bel Green, 
Burleson, Ezzell, Fordton, Frankfort, Isbell, 
Mountain Springs, Nelsonville, Newburgh, Pleas- 
ant Site, Eussellville, Spruce Pine, Waco. 

Franklin is one of the northwestern counties of 
the State, and adjoins the State of Mississippi. 
Its history as a county antedates the history of 
the State, it having been organized in 1818, by 
the first Territorial Legislature. The county 
perpetuates the memory of Benjamin Franklin, 
the great American jihilosopher. It is one of 
the oldest counties in the State, and has long 
been noted for its richness in minerals as 
well as the fertility of its soils. At Russellville, 
which was once the county-seat, there was estab- 
lished the first iron furnace erected in the State ; 
but, owing to superior facilities of transportation 
in other quarters, its operation has long since been 
discontinued, and now its existence is only a 
memory of the past. 

The principal mineral resources of the county 
consist of coal and iron ore, both of which are 
found in apparently inexhaustible quantities. The 
presence of these minerals bids fair to bring 
Franklin County into prominence and materially 
increase the value of its lands. The want of fa- 
cilities of transportation, in the past, has been 
the cause which retarded the develojiment of the 
resources of this county ; but this condition is 
somewhat changed now, as the county is pene- 
trated by the Sheffield & Birmingham Railroad, 
which will soon be completed through to the 
latter city. In addition to this road, others 
highly important to the interests of Franklin 
are projected, and no doubt the work of con- 
structing some of them will be commenced at an 
early date. This is what Franklin has long 
awaited, and when the time arrives the county 
will enjoy an era of prosperity greater than is now 
dreamed of. 

The surface of the county is marked by a series 
of ridges, and taken as a whole is more or less 
broken, but has frequent valleys notable for their 
fertility, which furnish excellent lands sufficient 
to support a large population of small farmers. 
The soil on the ridges is thin and cultivation of it 
yields poor return; but in the valleys the results 
will compare favorably with sections which are 
strictly classed as good agricultural regions. The 
princijial products of the county are corn, cotton, 
wheat, oats, rye, tobacco, sorghum, potatoes and 
the usual field crops. Probably the leading crop 
of the county is corn, although it produces nearly 



4,000 bales of cotton per year. This crop was 
placed at 2,07*^ bales by tlic Census of 1S70, 
while the Census of 1880 shows a yield of .'!,r.03 

The conditions of the county especially adajit 
it to the cultivation of grain, in which it 
will compare favorably with leading counties of 
the cereal belt. 

The matter of stock raising i.s receiving much 
attention, and Franklin County's wool product 
bids fair to be a most imjiortant feature at an 
early day. 

The county is fairly well wooded, the i)rincipal 
of its timbers being red, white, post and black- 
jack oaks, dogwood, chestnut and hickory. Co!i- 
siderable (piantities of the more valuable timbers — 

black locust, cedar, walnut and cherry — are found 
in many portions. 

Bear River, Little Hear, and other smaller and 
uniTuportant streams give the county an ample 
supjily of water. Until changed at the last ses- 
sion of the Legislature, Bear Kiver was known as 
Big Bear Creek. 

The County Seat is Bel Green, a pleasant little 
town, located about the center of the county. 
The other principal towns are llusselville, Frank- 
fort, Nelsonville and Center Line. The educa- 
tional and religious facilities of the county are up 
to the standard. Fine private schools are kept up 
in almost every town, while every township has its 
public school. Meeting-houses are found in all 
l)ortions of the county. 



Population: White. 9.203; colored, C, 0.50. Area, 
570 sfpiare miles. Woodland, all. (iravelly hills 
and sandy soil, -l^O square miles; red valley and 
other calcareous lands, 150 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton, approxiniately,25,0U0; in corn, 
31,575; in oats, 3.840; in wheat, 1,704; in rye, 
6'.i; in toViacco, 34; in sugar-cane, 15; in sweet 
potatoes, 28(). 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 10,000. 

County Seat — Tuscumbia: population. 2,000; 
located near tlic Tennessee Kiver, on the Memphis 
& Charleston Railroad. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Di^jxitch 
and yorlh A hi/mm inn, both Democratic. At Shef- 
feld — Enterprise, Independent. 

Postotlices in the Count}- — Allsborougli, Bar- 
ton, Beeson, Bishop, Cheatham, Cherokee, 
Chickasaw, Dickson, Dug, Ingleton, Leighton, 
Littleville, Margerum, Maud, Mountain Mills, 
I'ride's .Station, Rock Creek, Saint's Store, Shef- 
field, South Florence, Spring Valley, Tharp, Tus- 

Colbert Countv. named for a famous chief of 

the Chickasaws, who once lived within its limits, 
was created from territory cut off from the 
northern part of Franklin County in 1807. 
■'Though one of the youngest counties in the 
State," says a recent writer, "it is rapidly coming 
to the froTit as one of the most progressive." It 
is one of the most highly-favored counties in 
Alabama, taking into consideration its climate, 
soil, farm products, water-powers, timbers, mine- 
rals, and transportation by river and rail. 

The county lies east and west, in the sliape of 
an irregular parallelogram (twenty by thirty 
miles), much compressed in the middle by a 
southward flexure of the Tennessee River, which 
washes its whole northern border. It contains 
570 square miles. 

Population in IS'.O, 12,537; in 1880, 10,153 ; in 
1887 (estimated), 22,000, of whom fifty-nine per 
cent, are white, and forty-one i)er cent, are 

The i>rincipal farm i)roducts are cotton, corn 
(in the production of which, per acre, the county 
ranks first in the State), oats, wheat, clover, the 



grasses, sorghum, sweet and Irish potatoes, hay, rye, 
and tobacco in limited quantities. Peaches grow to 
perfection in the mountains, and all other kind of 
fruit and vegetables thrive in the valleys. 

A range of hills called the " Little Mountain " 
runs east and west through the county, north of 
which lies the Valley of the Tennessee, and 
south Kussel's Valley, in Franklin County. 
Toward Kussel's Valley, the hills slope gradually, 
and are covered with pebble beds of considerable 
thickness, while toward the Tennessee Valley, the 
mountain sinks down abruptly, leaving escarp- 
ments of rock from 75 to 175 feet in height. 

But two geological formations, the sub-carbon- 
iferous and the stratified drift, are represented in 
the county. These, though lying in contact, are 
divided chronologically by the mighty gap which 
separates paliszoic from quarterman time. The 
sub-carboniferous is composed of limestone and 
sandstone; the drift of angular fragments of 
clod sands, clay, and rounded pebbles. The lat- 
ter is found chiefly in the soutJiern and western 
part of the county. 

The drainage of the county is northward all the 
streams flowing into the Tennessee River, and all, 
except Bear River, in the west, having their sources 
in the Little Mountain. The streams flowing north 
are Spring Creek, Little Bear Ci-eek, Cane Creek, 
Buzzard Roost Creek and Bear River. The first four 
have cut deep gorges or canons into the sandstone, 
which forms the upper stratum of the Little 
Mountain. These canons abound in mineral 
springs and are wildly picturesque and beautiful. 
After leaving the mountains streams flow through 
a comparatively level valley to the river. The St. 
Louis or coral limestone underlies this valley. 

The most striking topographical features of the 
county are the bluffs of coral limestone, .50 to 100 
feet high, along the south bank of the Tennessee 
River, the level and beautiful valley, thirty miles in 
length by ten miles in breadth, lying parallel, and 
the bold escarpment of the Little Mountain visible 
from every part of the valley, forming a mighty 
wall of stone to the southward. 

The lands of the county may be classified agri- 
culturally as follows: Fifty-seven square miles of 
alluvial lands — these are -'made lands" along 
Tennessee and Bear Rivers, subject to overflow, 
but astonishingly fertile, producing maximum 
crops of 100 bushels of corn and \\ bales of cotton 
to the acre : l.")3 square miles of red lands of the 
■valley lying between the coral limestone bluffs of 

the river and the limestone escarpments of the 
Little Mountain — these lands are not subject to 
overflow, have a red to dark brown soil, a deep 
red sub-soil, are easily renovated when worn, and 
are exceedingly rich and productive ; the bad 
class of land — 380 square miles of "mountain" 
lands — about one-half of which has a light sand 
soil, not very productive, but covered with the 
fine forests of pine and oaJc, and the other half 
of caves and rich, rounded hills covered with 
growth of walnut and poplar, and producing 
fine crops of corn, cotton and small grain. Lands 
vary from 15 to $50 per acre in price, according to 
character, location and surroundings. 

The spontaneous and exuberant growth of 
grasses in Colbert County marks it specially for a 
stock country. The efforts heretofore made at 
raising horses, mules, cattle, hogs, etc., and im- 
proving breeds of live stock, have been eminently 
successful. Few counties in the State could make 
an exhibition of live stock that would rival that of 
this county. 

Colbert is rich in valuable timljers. Forests of 
short leaf pine, cutting from 400,000 to 500,000 
feet, board measure, to the square mile, abound. 
All varieties of oak are found. Thousands of 
cords of tan bark are annually shipped by river to 
northwestern cities. Red gums of great height 
and beauty grow in all parts of the county. Chest- 
nut grows everywhere upon the mountains, and 
cypress is abundant along the streams. 

The mineral wealth of the county is very great. 
Beds of silica, hydraulic limestone, ochre, fire- 
clay and kaolin are found in various parts, par- 
ticularly in the west. Good beds of iron ore 
(limonite) are found near Tharptown in the south- 
east and near Chickasaw in the northwest portion 
of the county. Gray marble, approximating stat- 
uary marble in the polish it takes, is quarried at 
Ingleton near the Mississippi line. Samples of 
this stone may be seen in the Confederate monu- 
ment at Montgomery, and the soldiers' monument 
at Mobile. Sandstone of superior quality abounds. 
Keller's quarry, near the center of the county, 
and Ilolsapple's quarry, near Cherokee, are among 
the best. The cleavage of this stone is perfect, 
any size and thickness being obtained. 

Among the industrial and manufacturing enter- 
prises of the county are the stone quarries above 
mentioned, the lime works of Dr. Pride, near 
Pride Station, and of Mr. John A. Denny, near 
Margerum, the cotton factory of Messrs. Cheney 



& Brandon, near Barton, and quite a number of 
steam saw and grist mills in various parts of the 

At Slieffield, ])reparations for making and work- 
ing iron on tlie most extensive scale are being 
made, and shipments of ore have begun. Five 
blast furnaces of a combined capacity of COO tons 
of iron daily, are completed, or in process of con- 
struction. The limits of this article forbids any 
enumeration of the various manufacturing enter- 
prises at Sheftield and Tuscumbia, which include 
plow factories, ice factories, planing mills, brick 
yards, sash and blind factories, etc. 

The first railroad in the South, a horse-car rail- 
way, was built from Tuscumbia, in this county, to 
Decatur, in Morgan County. These points are now 
connected by the Jremphis& Charleston Ixailroad, 
which runs through Colbert County from east 
to west. A branch of the the same road connects 
Tuscumbia with Florence. The Sheffield & Bir- 
mingham liailroad runs through Colbert County 
from north to south, connecting Sheffield with 
the iron and coal deposits in Franklin, A\Mnston, 
Walker and Jefferson Counties. Besides these 
roads the following railroads, all to i)ass through 
this county, are projected and in process of con- 
struction: The Louisville & Nashville exten- 
sion, from Columbia, Tenn., to Sheffield, Ala.: 
the Illinois Central extension, from Aberdeen, 
Miss., to Sheffield, Ala.; the Florence & Tus- 
caloosa Railroad from Tuscaloosa to Florence, 
via Sheffield; and the Padueah, Chickasaw & 
Birmingham Railroad from Chickasaw to Birm- 

r.eighton, lying partly in Lawrence County, 
Brides, Bartoii, Cherokee, Dickson and Margerum 
are stations and thriving towns surrounded by a 
fine country and have good churches and schools. 

Chickasaw, tlie head of summer navigation on 
the Tennes.see River, is below Colbert Shoals. It 
is the most northwesterly town in Alabama, and 
during low water stage goods may be billed to it 
cheaper than any other town in the State. Alls- 
boro is a prosperous village on the Bear River 
twenty miles below its mouth. 

Ninety jier cent, of the population of Saint's, 
Camp Smith, Wheeler's and Seygley beats, which 
constitute tiio mountain ])recincts are white. Tiie 
farmers of this section are the most independent 
and self-sustaining in the county. 

The Tennessee River secures to dwellers on its 
banks water connection with all the river cities of 

the north, west and south. The navigation from 
Padueah, Ky., to Chickasaw, Ala., is equaled 
in this country only by that of the lower Missis- 
sippi and the Hudson. The distance is about 
three hundred miles. An additional three hun- 
dred miles will be added to the navigation of this 
river as soon as the Mussel Shoals Canal is com- 
pleted and obstructions removed from Colbert 
Shoals, for which work there has been an appro- 
priation of |!50,000. 

FRANK R. KING, born at Leighton, Ala.. 
October 30, IS.JT, is a son of Ilartwell P. and 
Mary Henderson (Smith) King. 

The senior Mr. King was born near Raleigh, 
N. C, in LS20. He entered the army as a mem- 
ber of Captain Rand's Company, with which he 
served until the close of the war. He had born 
to him eight children, viz.: Henry, Hartwell, 
Richard, Duncan, Paul, William, Frank R. and 
Susie. The three first named died when quite 

The grandfather of our subject, Hartwell Kinsr, 
was a native of North Carolina. He reared a 
large family and died before the war. His widow 
died in 1871, at the extreme old age of 88 years. 

The subject of this sketch engaged in mercan- 
tile business with his brother Paul, which business 
they are still conducting. This firm is one of the 
oldest in Leighton, and has the largest trade of 
any of its kind in that section of the country. 

Mr. King was married in June, 1876, to Imo- 
gene White, daughter of James AVhite, of ilem- 
phis, Tenn. The union has been blessed with 
one child, Walter. Mr. King and wife are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal and Presbyterian 
Churches, respectively. 

— ««: 

B. R. KING, M. D., born near Leighton, Ala., 
in 1830, is a son of Oswald and Martha (DeLone) 

'J'he senior Mr. King was born in North Caro- 
lina in the year 1785; came to Alabama with his 
parents at the age of seventeen years, and died in 
1870. He was a well educated man, a thorough 
instructor, and one of the leading citizens of the 
county. He taught school when quite young, 
and also was a successful planter, in which avoca- 



tion he accumulated a large fortune. He reared 
a family of eleven children, of whom we make 
the following mention: Edward H., deceased; 
Robert, a planter; B. R., our subject; Burchert, 
planter ; Margaret F., wife of F. Hubbard ; the 
rest of the family died at an early age. The King 
family came originally from England. 

The mother of our subject was also born in 
North Carolina, and was a daughter of C'apt. E. 
B- DeLone, a native of Virginia, and of French 
Huguenot ancestry. Cajit. DeLone came to 
Alabama in its early history, located at Hunts- 
ville, where he became an extensive trader, and 
thence removed to Arkansas, where he died be- 
fore the war. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on a 
farm, and received his education at La Grange 
College, from which institution he was graduated. 
He also attended a military school at ilarietta, 
Ga., ten months. About 1857 he began the study, 
of medicine with Dr. Kumpie, and was graduated 
from the University of Peunsylvania in 1861. 
Immediately after his graduation he located in 
the practice of his profession at Leighton. In 
1863, he entered into a contract with the Confed- 
erate Government as Surgeon of the Thirty-fifth 
Alabama Regiment, with which command he 
served about two years. He then acted as Surgeon 
of Warren's Battalion for a short time. 

After the war, Dr. King settled at Leighton, 
where he has been engaged, more or less, in the 
practice of his profession ever since. He also 
conducts a large farm. He stands high in the 
estimation of the community, and is regarded by 
the profession as one of the most skillful physi- 
cians in Northern Alabama. 

DR. GEORGE E. KUMPIE was born near 
Castle, Germany, September 7, 1819. He re- 
ceived his education in his native country, and in 
early life was connected with the Lutheran 
Church. When quite young, he and his brother, 
John, came to the United States, locating at 
Tusciimbia, Ala. 

The Doctor took his first course in medicine at 
Louisville, in 1847, and graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. After his graduation, 
he located at La Grange, Ala., where he found a 
good field for his profession, and in which he 
labored, with much success, until 1876. He 

then moved to Little Rock, Ark., where he lived 
a few years, coming thence to Leighton, where he 
lived until his death, which occurred August 29, 

Being a man of much popularity, a skillful 
physician, an active worker in the church, and a 
public-spirited citizen, his death was regretted by 
a large circle of friends. He was a prominent 
Mason, and stood at the head of his profession. 
He served as president and vice-pre.sident of the 
State Medical Association, and was deeply inter- 
ested in all matters pertaining to the advance- 
ment and edification of the medical profession. 
He left an interesting family, of six sons and one 
daughter, who comprise some of Northern Ala- 
bama's best citizens. 

PARKER N. G. RAND was born at La Grange, 

Colbert County, Ala., in October, 1829, and is a 
son of John and Martha (Curtis) Rand, natives 
of Wake County, N. C. 

Mr. Rand's parents moved to La Grange in 
1826; purchased two farms, one in Lawrence and 
the other in Franklin County, and were success- 
ful in accumulating a large amount of land. 
They reared four sons and five daughters, namely: 
Louise, wife of William Mullens of Alabama; 
Pemantha, widow of Robert A. Lampkin; Martha^ 
wife of Reece Cook, of Vicksburg, Miss. ; Jackson. 
C, deceased; John W., physician; William H.,. 
farmer; Molsey A., wife of F. C. Vinson; Parker 
N. G., our subject; Mary A., wife of Dr. William 
Stephenson — she died in Texas. The elder Mr. 
Rand died in 1863, at the age of seventy-six years. 
His wife died in 1845, aged fifty-six years. He 
was a very active and industrious man while in 
North Carolina. Beginning in life apparently a 
poor man he succeeded in accumulating a fortune 
of at least 850,000. The Rand family were origin- 
ally of Irish and Scotch ancestry. The mother 
of our subject was a daughter of John Curtis, a 
native of Wake county, N. C. He was a lineal 
descendant of Irish parentage. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on a farm; 
received a common-school education, and in 1845 
entered La Grange College, from which institution 
he was graduated as A. B. in 1849. After his grad- 
uation he was engaged with his father farming until 
February, 1855, when he was married to Martha 
A. Smith, daughter of John Smith, of Lawrence 



County, .Ala. They reared a family of six 
chiklren, namely: Pattie; Parker, book-keeper for 
F. I{. King & Co.; Leighton, Hall, John and Mary. 
After marriage Mr. Pand located in the neigh- 
borhood of his birth where he was engaged at 
farming. He was elected magistrate, which office 
he has held for thirty years *or more. In the 
sjiring of 1803, he raised a company of soldiers; 
was elected captain, and entered a battalion under 
.Major Williams of the Confederate Army. This 
company remained a part of the battalion until its 
major was killed, after which it was merged into 
Company H, Eleventh Alabama, commanded by 
Col. James Burtwell, a graduate of West Point. 

Mr. Hand remained with this regiment until the 
close of the war. He was mostly engaged as a 
scout and participated at the battle of Tishomingo 
Creek and at the fall of Selma. He surrendered 
at Pond Springs, after which he returned home 
and resumed farming. Having lost considerable 
of his fortune, he went to work with energy and 
has succeeded in replenishing his coffers. 

Mr. Rand and wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, of which he has been steward 
for many years. He is also worshipful master of the 
Masonic lodge, and has taken an active interest in 
all that pertains to the advancement and progress of 
his section of the country. 



Population: White, 14,210; colored, 1,159. 
Area, 700 square miles. Woodland, all. Coal 
measures, 460 square miles; valley lauds, 240 
square miles: Brown's and Murphree's Valley, 240 
square miles. 

Acres iu cotton, approximately, 12,500; in corn, 
29,161; in oats, 4,551; in wheat, 10,087; in tobac- 
co, 48; in sweet potatoes, 371. Approximate num- 
ber of bales of cotton, 5,000. 

County Seat — Blountsville;poi5ulation, 300; loca- 
ted fifty miles south of Huntsville and forty-eight 
miles north of Birmingham. 

Newsjiapers published at County Seat — Blount 
Coiinty News, democratir. 

Postoffices in the County — Anderton, Arkadel- 
phia. Balm, Bangor, Blount Springs, BlountsviUe, 
Brooksville, Chejjultepec, Craige, Dineston, Gar- 
den City, Garrison Point, Gum Springs, Hanbys 
Mills, Ilanceville, Hendrick, Huldah, Liberty, 
Little Warrior, Lowery, McLarty, Murijhree's Val- 
ley, Xectar, Ogee, Remlap, Snead, Strawberry, 
Summit, Village Springs, Viola, Wynnville. 

This county was formed in 1818, and named 
in honor of Governor William G. Blount, of Ten- 
nessee. It is noted for the abundance of its 
minei'als, the diversity of its soils, the variety of 
productions, and mineral waters. In its progress. 

it is keeping pace with the surrounding counties, 
and is ranked among the best in the State. 

The face of the country in Blount is rather 
peculiar. It is penetrated through the center by 
a plateau which occupies a belt from eight to ten 
miles in width. On one side of this mountain 
plateau, running parallel with it, is Murphree's 
Valley, while on the opposite side is Brown's Val- 
ley. Along this belt of plateau are found excel- 
tent farming lands, which have been wonderfully 
assisted during the last few years by the moderate 
use of fertilizers. Cotton grows most readily upon 
this broad upland, especially if a little assisted 
with fertilizers. 

Excellent school and church facilities exist in 
almost every portion of the county. Blountsville, 
the seat of justice, Bangor, Summit, Hanceville, 
and Garden City are places of importance. The 
industries of the county are varied. Extensive 
limeworks are seen at Blount Springs. Limestone, 
dug from the quarries here, is daily shipped iu 
large quantities to Birmingham, where the manu- 
facturers hold it in repute above any other avail- 
able limestone. It prevails in inexhaustible stores, 
in hills about Blount Springs. Coal and iron are 
abundant in the county. Petroleum is also found. 
Enjoying, as it does, facilities for transportation to 




the markets of the South, Nortli, and all points in 
the far Northwest, nothing prevents Blount from 
taking rank with the foremost counties of the 

Here, as in the adjoining counties which lie 

along the railroad, the value of the lands dim- 
inishes as they recede from tiie lineof communica- 
tion. Land can be purchased in the county at 
prices ranging from k'l to ^3.5 per acre. There are 
;U,3'.iO acres of government land in Rlount County. 



Poimlation: White. G.OOO; colored, ;!,000. 
Area, 610 square miles. Woodland, all. Hilly 
lands, with long-leaf pine, 310 square miles. C'a- 
haba coal fields, Vlh square miles. Eoup's Valley, 
100 square miles. Valley lands south of Cahaba 
coal fields. To square miles. Gravelly hills, with 
long-leaf pines, 110 square miles. 

Acres in cotton, approximately, 15,737; in corn, 
18,816 ; in oats, 3,935 ; in wheat, 3,125 ; in rye, 
151: in tobacco, 36; in sugar-cane, 36; in sweet 
potatoes, 308. Approximate number of bales of 
cotton, 5,931. 

County Seat — Centerville ; population 300: lo- 
cated on Cahaba River. 

Postoftices in the Count}' — Abercrombie, Affo- 
nee, Ashby, Bibbville, Blocton, Brierfield, Cen- 
tervUh, Furnace, Green Pond. Ilarrisburgh, Xcw 
Marrs, Pondville, Randolph, River Bend, Scotts- 
ville, Si.\ Mile, Slick, Tionus, Woodstock. 

Formerly, Bibb County was one of the largest 
counties in the State ; but a great deal of its area 
has been cut off to make up the surrounding 
counties established later on in the history of the 

In the first days of its settlement, and for 
a long time, agriculture was tlie only pursuit of 
its citizens ; but along in the d.ays of the Confed- 
eracy the industries began to be diversified, and 
some attention was given to her minerals. But 
her inhabitants soon settled again into the tilling 
of the soil, and not until a few years ago have 
her great resources of mineral and timber wealth 
been discovered ; and while she stands to-day 
among the richest and most wonderful of the 

counties of the great Commonwealth, she has not 
lost much of her agricultural value. 

Very little corn is bought by the farmers, and 
they could easily i-aise it all. Besides this, the 
soil produces with ease and in abundance oats, 
rye, potatoes, peas, rice, sugar-cane, and in fact 
almost everything except wheat. The forests and 
fields afford excellent pasturage for cattle and 
hogs, though as yet not much attention is paid to 
either, as a rule. A most important crop is grass, 
which can be raised at a considerable profit ; and 
in many parts of the county the farmers are turn- 
ing their attention to stock-raising. The fertility 
of the lands can not be too highly spoken of. 

The entire country in the eastern portion of the 
county is full of iron of the finest quality. With- 
in a short distance lie beds of limestone, and coal 
is near by. Iron can be made at a small cost. 
JIany varieties of marble are found which could 
be easily utilized. The finest fire-clay exists in 
many places, and is being worked at two points. 
Fine brick are made. Yellow ochre is found and 
some gold-bearing quality. There are also man- 
ganese, asbestos, saltpetre, and some other inferior 

Great forests of pine timber offer a rich harvest 
to mill men, and some of them are being worked. 
The county is shaded by the finest of timbers, 
embracing hickory, oak, gum, maple, beech, pop- 
lar, walnut, chestnut, elm, persimmon, cotton- 
wood, and the finest of cedar; all of this timber 
could be put to use, and the county abounds in 
good openings for wooden manufactories. 

Anywhere on the banks of the beautiful streams 



may be found fine water-powers, where small 
manufactories could be run. The most important 
of those streams are the Cahaba and Little Cahaba 
Rivers, and Haysoy, Shultz, Shades, Ockmul- 
gee, Sandy, Six Mile, and Mahean Creeks. On 
most all of them are found mills and gins, and 
many sites for others. 

The established industries of Bibb are limited 
for a county of so much material wealth, but they 
are important. A great many saw-mills are run- 
ning, which shiji quantities of lumber to other mar- 
kets. Notable among these are Harrison's, at Ran- 
dolph, Carter's, at Brierfield, ilartin Strickland's, 
at Blaston, besides the many smaller ones. 

The Brierfield Coal & Iron Company own the 
most extensive manufacturing plant. They mine 
coal, make coke, make pig iron, run it through 
rolling mills, cast it at the foundry, make nails, 
and jiut up some machinery. The Cahaba Coal 
Mining Comjiany, at Blaston, are mining immense 
quantities of coal, which they make into coke and 
ship to Anniston. The Edwards Iron Company, 
at Woodstock, will be running very soon. At 
Ashley and Bibbville there are large fire and 
machine made brick works, which ship large 
quantities. At Scottsville, there is a flouring mill 
and wool-carding mill. 

The places of importance are — -Centerville, the 
the county seat, Randolph, Brierfield, Six Mile, 
Blaston, Woodstock, Green Pond and Scottsville. 

The county is skirted by two railroads, the 

East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia on the east, 
and the Alabama Great Southern on the west. 
Two others are projected through the center. 
The Mobile & Birmingham has been located, and 
will strike Ashley Furnace, Blaston and Wood- 
stock, and will run directly through the coal and 
iron fields. The Selma & Cahaba Valley is a pro- 
posed line through the timber, marble and coal 
regions. Boats have run as high up the Cahaba 
River as Centerville, and that stream can easily be 
made navigable, thus giving an outlet by water. 

The water and climate is fine, and health good. 
Good schools are accessible at all points. The 
morals of the people are above the average, there 
being little business in the courts — churches are 
well supported. 

Trade is good and many merchants have made 
fortunes. The peojile only lack enterprise to 
some extent, though they are awakening to a due 
sense of the value of their county. Lands can be 
bought cheap, and there is a great deal of public 
land subject to entry. 

A minute description would require a large 
volume, and the above are only a few points 
touching the true status of the county. There is 
an inviting field for those who desire to invest, 
and in this age of advancement and progress we 
soon expect to see our county put down among the 
first of the State. The county is entirely out of 
debt, and only imposes a tax of forty-five cents on 
the ^100. 



Population: Wliite : U,8T2: colored, 4,9-v'l. 
Area. C,io square miles. Wootlland. all. Coosa 
A'allev and Coosa coal fields, 040 square miles. 

Acres in cotton, approximately, 2(),,43o: in corn, 
33,714: in oats, 8,8.52; in wheat, 10,745; in rye, 
287; in tobacco, 29; in sweet potatoes, 283. Ap- 
proximate number of bales of cotton, 11,927. 

County Seat — Jacksonville; population 5,000; 
on Kast Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroad. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Rejnth- 
Uciin, democratic; at Anniston, Hot Blast, Watch- 
man, and Southeni Industni, all democratic; at 
Cross Plains, Post, democratic; at Oxford, .£"(7*0, 

Postotliees in the County — Adelia, Alexandria, 
Allsup. .Viiniston, Beasley, Bera, Bruner, By- 
num, Cane Creek, Choccolocco, Cross Plains, 
Davisville, l)e Armanville, Duke, Eulaton, Fran- 
cis, Germania, Grayton, Hebron, Jacksonville, 
Jenkins, Ladiga, Mack. Marthadell, Martin's 
Cross-roads, Merrellton, Morrisville, Nance, Ohat- 
ohee, Ottery, Oxanna, Oxford, Peaceburgh, Peek's 
Hill, Rabbit Town, Randall, Weaver's Station, 
Wliite Plains. 

Calhoun County, in the northeastern i)art of 
the State, is bounded on the north by l-^towah and 
Cherokee Counties, on the east by Cleburne, on 
the south by Cleburne and Talladega, and on the 
west by St. Clair. It was organized December 
IS, 1833, out of territory ceded the Marcli before 
by the Creek Indians. 

Exclusive of town lots, railroad rights of way, 
and public lands, 324,210 acres of land are assessed 
for taxation at a valuation of ?!l,4Gl,722, town 
lots and improvements are valued at *il,409,071, 
and personal property at ^2,000,078; in all ^4,907,- 
471. Since these values were fixed on the first of 
January last, there has been something like a 
•'boom" in Anniston and other parts, and they 
would now be not less than fifty per cent, 

The county tax for all purposes is forty cents on 
the «ln(), one-third loss than last year and pre- 

vious years. Except about ■^14,(»o(i for the new 
court-house, the county is out of debt. 

There are 1 10 miles of railway in the county, as 
follows: The East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia 
Railroad, 37.73 miles; the East & West Railroad, 
30.58 miles; the Georgia Pacific Railroad, 30.50 
miles; and the Anniston & Atlantic Railroad, 11.42 
miles. These are valued at $855,078. In addi- 
tion, the .Jacksonville, Gadsden «& Atalla Rail- 
road is partly graded; and the Anniston & Cin- 
cinnati Railroad, from Anniston to Atalla, will be 
open for traffic by the first of February next. 
These will increase the railroad mileage of the 
county nearly forty miles. The Georgia Central 
Railroad extension, projected from Carrollton,Ga., 
to Decatur, Ala., has been surveyed through the 

There are about 100,000 acres of imi)roved lands 
in the county, which, in 1880, were divided into 
l.'.iOO farms, the annual products of which were 
worth more than *l,000,ooo then, and are worth 
much more now. 

Except the western slopes of the hills forming 
its eastern boundary, the county lies wholly in 
what is known as the Coosa Valley, which is a 
continuation of the valleys of Virginia and East 
Tennessee, and has the same physical and geo- 
logical characteristics. It is a trough between 
tlie metamorphic area and the coal fields, 
broken by considerable sandstone elevations, with 
wide, beautiful, and fertile valleys, abundantly 
wooded and watered. These valleys, gently roll- 
ing, not swampy or subject to overflow, are fineh' 
adapted to cotton, corn, small grains, red clover, 
and all the grasses, and the whole county is 
specially suited for stock-growing. 

The county is rich in minerals — perhaps the 
richest in the State. Almost everywhere brown 
hematite iron ore abounds, and around the bases 
and on the sides of the sandstone hills it is in 
amazing (piantities and of the greatest ricliness. 
From Oxford to Cross Plains, in the Choccolocco 
and Alexandria vallevs. and in the Colvin Moun- 




tains, there are the greatest masses of it every- 
where exposed on the surface, and everywhere 
seemingly inexhaustible. There is not probably 
one single section of land in the county without 
ore. In the Colvin Mountains, in close proximity 
to the brown ores, there are veins of red hematite 
scarcely inferior in extent, and not inferior in 
quality, to those of the famous Eed Mountain in 
Jefferson County. 

JEanganese, in greater or less quantity, is found 
in many of the brown hematite beds, and inde- 
pendently in large dejiosits. Limestone, and 
marble of excellent quality, are abundant, as, also, 
kaolin, sandstone, barite, and fire-brick clay, with 
some copper, lead, and lithograjihic stone. The 
Choccolocco, TerrajDiu, Tallasahatchie, Ohatchee, 
and Cane Creeks, and the Coosa River, furnish 
never-failing and almost limitless water-power. 
For all domestic and agricultural jnirposes, water 
abounds in every part of the county. 

Attention has only recently been turned to the 
vast mineral wealth and unequaled manufacturing 
advantages of this county, and industrial develop- 
ment has only fairly begun. In 1873 the first 
furnace was erected in Anniston, which was fol- 
lowed six years later by a second, both owned by 
the Woodstock Iron Company, and two others are 
being erected there by the same company. Annis- 
ton has now in operation, in addition to the fur- 
naces, car works with $.30,000 capital ; car- wheel 
works and rolling-mill, $200,000 ; compress and 
warehouse, $100,000 ; pipe works (in construc- 
tion), $300,000 ; cotton mills, $250,000 ; steel 
bloomery, $.50,000 ; fire-brick works, $25,000 ; 
boiler shops, machine shops, planing mills, etc., 
$250,000; three banks; land company, $3,000,000; 

and claims a population of over 9,000, with water- 
works, electric lights, costly churches, first-class 
schools, well-graded streets, a large general mer- 
chandise business, and the finest hotel in the 
State. The capital of the Woodstock Iron Com- 
pany is $3,000,000. Jacksonville, twelve miles 
north of Anniston, with mineral resources, mann- 
facturing facilities, and location unsurpassed, has 
just organized a land and improvement company, 
with large capital, which has entered into nego- 
tiations for the early inauguration of several large 
industrial enterprises that will be under way by 
the close of the year. Oxford, four miles below 
Anniston, with 1,200 inhabitants, and Cross Plains, 
twelve miles north of Jacksonville, with 800 peo- 
ple, have situations in all respects as good as those 
of Anniston and Jacksonville, and are built up in 
the midst of the richest mineral deposits of this 
section. Alexandria, in the loveliest valley in the 
county, is on the line of the Anniston & Cincin- 
nati Railroad, and has a bright future. There are 
other thriving villages, as White Plains, Ger- 
mania, Oxanna, Morrisville, Cane Creek, Chocco- 
locco, etc. 

There is a State Normal Scliool at Jacksonville, 
excellently conducted high schools at Anniston, 
Oxford, Cross Plains, and Alexandria, and good 
public schools and churches in every neighbor- 
hood. There are thirty-eight postoffices in the 
county, about half of which have daily mails. 
Xo person in the county lives more than five or 
six miles from a railroad. There is a good deal 
of government land subject to homestead entry. 
Improved lands can be bought at from $5 to $50 
an acre, the cheaper lands being more or less 
broken, but well wooded and watered and fertile. 



THOMAS CARTER HILL, prominent Physi- 
cian and Surgeon, son of Thomas H. and Miranda 
(Gregory) Hill, natives, respectively, of the States 
of Virginia and Xorth Carolina, was born in 
Green (now Hale) County, this State, November 
14, 1830. After acquiring a thorough preliminary 
education at some of the leading colleges of the 

State, he, at the age of nineteen, began the study 
of medicine, and pursued it successively through 
medical institutions of learning in New York, 
Boston, and Philadelphia, graduating from Jef- 
ferson Medical College, in the latter city, in 1800. 
Early in 18G1, young Hill enlisted as a private 
soldier in the Fifth Alabama Regiment, and was 



in a short time promoted to Assistant-Surgeon. 
Ill 18)14, after liaving followed the fortunes of his 
regiment through its various campaigns, he was 
transferred to the Valley District of \'irginia, as 
•Medical Director, with the rank of a full Surgeon, 
and remained in tliat department to the close of 
the war. 

Heturniug to Alabama, at the close of hostili- 
ties. Dr. Hill first located at Dayton, Marengo 
County, in the practice of medicine, and re- 
mained there until 1884, at which time he moved 
into Oxford. Since coming here, he has devoted 
his time to real estate and other business enter- 
prises, to the exclusion of the profession. As a 
]iliysician. Dr. Hill stood very higii. He was, 
jirobably, as well taught in the science of materia 
medica as any man in Alabama. Not satisfied 
with the most thorough training possible at the 
finest institutions of learning in America, he, in 
18]0, studied arduously under the greatest in- 
structors in Europe; and it is to the loss of the 
profession, that he has withdrawn from the 

Dr. Hill was married in Marengo County, 
May, 1870, to Miss Margaret Lee, daughter of 
Columbus W. and Elizabeth (Parker) Lee, and has 
had born to him five children: Columbus L., 
Thomas C, Margaret, Myra C. and Plarry. 

The Hon. Columbus W. Lee, native of Georgia, 
was many years a member of the Alabama Legis- 
lature, and was one of the most prominent men 
of his day. He was a Pierce and King presiden- 
tial elector in 1852 and a Douglas elector in 18C0. 
He opposed secession and canvassed tlie State for 
Douglas, although he went with his State in her 
subse(iuent efforts in behalf of the Southern Con- 
federacy. He was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1805, and made the race for Con- 
gress that same year against Joseph W. Taylor, 
and was beaten. He was an original speaker and 
the master of thought and sarcasm. He died in 

Thomas H. Hill, father to the subject of this 
sketch, migrated in early manhood to North Car- 
olina, there married, and in 1812 settled in Green 
t'ounty, Ala., wliere he became an extensive 
planter. He reared a family of two sons and 
three daughters. He died in 1800, at the age of 
seventy-eight. His father, Joseph Hill, was a 
native of England, and came to America prior to 
the Revolution and settled in Culpeper County, 

JOHN L. DODSON. President of Oxford Male 

and Female College, Oxford, is a native of Georgia, 
and was born April 10, 1837. His early life was 
spent on his father's plantation, in his native 
State. His education was acquired at some board- 
ing school, the County Academy, and at Davidson 
College, North Carolina. He came to Alabama 
in 1800, and at Jacksonville taught school one 
year. From Jacksonville, as professional educa- 
tor, he taught successfully at various places in this 
State and in Georgia, during the period of the 
war. After the declaration of peace, he returned 
to Calhoun County, and at Brock's school-house 
taught two years. In 1808, he located at Oxford 
and, associated with Mr. W. J. Borden, founded 
Oxford College. One year later he became sole 
owner and proprietor of this popular institution of 
learning, and to it has since given his time and 

Professor Dodson, as will be seen by this brief 
recital, has given almost his entire life to the 
cause of education, and of him it may be truth- 
fully said, that that great cause has appreciated 
as much from his efforts as from that of any one 
man. The success of Oxford College attests at 
once his superior ability as an organizer, disciplin- 
arian, and educator, and the people of this vicinity 
are justly proud of him and his institution. 

July, 1883, Professor Dodson, at Oxford, led to 
the altar Miss Fannie S. (Uadden. the accom- 
plished daughter of James A. and ^Martha (Kelley) 
Gladden, of this place. The Professor and his 
wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, and 
he is identified with the Independent Order of ( )dd 
Fellows and the Masonic fraternity. 

Samuel and Rebecca (Gardner) Dodson, the 
parents of the subject of this sketch, were natives, 
respectively, of (ireen and Morgan Counties, 
Ga. The senior Mr. Dodson, a farmer by occu- 
pation, was born in 1788, and participated in 
the war of 1812. He was partially reared in South 
Carolina, and spent a portion of his early man- 
hood in Mississippi. His father, Joshua Dodson, 
was a native of Virginia, and his grandfather 
came from England. He reared a family of six 
sons and four daughters. One of his sons, James 
W,, now a farmer in Texas, took part in the Flor- 
ida War and the Confederate War; another son, 
Joshua M., was in the Confederate service during 
the late war as quartermaster in the Trans-^Iiss- 
issippi Department. He died in Texas. Christo- 
pher C., another son, was in the Mexican War 



from Texas, as a lieutenant, and during the late 
war commanded a troop of Indians from Arizona. 
He died in Tucson, Ariz. The fourth son, Samuel 
P. died in Texas; Elijah M. was major of the 
First Confederate Georgia Regiment, and is an 
attorney-at-law at Chattanooga, Tenn., and George 
W. was in the Fifty-first Alabama Iiegiment, and 
is a farmer in Georgia. 

The Gardner family, in tiie person of the grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, Christopher 
Gardner, on account of political troubles, came 
from Ireland away back in the eigliteenth century, 
settled in Virginia, and was a soldier in the 
Eevolutionary War, and was severely wounded at 
Brandywine. He died in Georgia, after having 
reared a large family of daughters and two sous. 

WILLIAM W. WHITESIDE, prominent Attor- 
ney- at-law, Oxford, is a native of what is 
now Calhoun County, this State, where he was 
born February 13, 18.58. His early life was spent 
on his father's plantation and in attendance at 
the old-field school, completing his education, 
however, at Oxford College, from which institution 
he was graduated in 1879. Prior to his graduation 
he taught school and, in the meantime, read law. 
He comjjleted his law studies at Cumberland Uni- 
versity, Tenn. .in 1881, and located immediately 
in the practice at Oxford, wliere he has since 
remained. In the practice of his profession he 
has met with much success, and, though a young 
man, he is at this time regarded as one of the 
brightest lights at the Calhoun Bar. In 1881 he 
was elected to the lower house of the Legislature, 
and in that body took a conspicuous part, acquit- 
ing himself with much credit and to the entire 
satisfaction of his constituency. 

Mr. Whiteside was married at Alexandria, De- 
cember, 1884, to Miss Alice CoojJer, the accom- 
plished daughter of W. P. Cooper, Esq., and has 
had born to him two children: William Cooper 
and Kenneth Whittington. Mr. Whiteside and 
wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, and 
he is identified with the order of the Knights of 
Honor and the Masonic fraternity. 

Josiah W. Whiteside, the father of the subject 
of this sketch, was a native of North Carolina, and 
came with his parents in 1837 to Alabama: his 
wife was Elizabeth J. Small, a native of McMinn 
County, Tenn. She died in 1873, leaving four 

children, viz.: Lizzie, James ^L, Joseph, and 
William W. 

His second wife, Amanda Little, of Calhoun 
County, to whom he was married in the fall of 
1875, is the mother of one child: Worth. 

The Whiteside family are probably of English 
origin, and came into North Carolina at a very 
early date in the history of our country. John 
Whiteside, the grandfather to the subject of this 
sketch, was a native of North Carolina, and his 
wife was a Miss Hemphill; they reared a family of 
six sons and two daughters: J. W. Leander, Adol- 
phus, Thomas, William .J., James M., Mary, and 
Ellen. Mary married Dr. S. C. Williams; she and 
her husband are both dead. 

William W. Whiteside's grandfather, Matthew 
Small, was a Cumberland Presbyterian minister. 
He married a Miss Buchanan, at McMinn, Tenn., 
and settled m Alabama about 1835. In 1845 he 
moved into De Kalb County, and in 1875 located 
at Sulphur Springs. He died in 1883. He reared 
a family of four sons and two daughters. His 
sons were all soldiers in the Confederate Army. 
The Small family came originally from Scotland. 

ROBERT P.THOMASON, Merchant and Banker, 
Oxford, was born in Harris County, Ga., De- 
cember 21, 18.51, and is the son of John Thom- 
ason, a planter, who came to Alabama in 1853, 
lived in Tallapoosa County till 1808, and removed 
thence to Elmore County, where he now resides. 

The subject of this sketch spent the first seven- 
teen years of his life on his father's plantation in 
Tallapoosa County, and by dint of perseverance 
and application to study, without the aid of pro- 
fessional instruction, acquired something like an 
elementary education. He began life for himself 
as a salesman, at the age of seventeen years, and 
at the age of twenty-one embarked in business. 

From 1879 to 1883, he "drummed" for a New 
York grocery house, and in the latter year estab- 
lished the wholesale grocery business over which 
he now presides at Oxford. 

This was the first jobbing concern opened up in 
this part of the State, and from a limited affair, 
with a capital of $10,000, it has grown until its 
trade roaches throughout Northeastern Alabama 
and into Georgia, and now employs a capital of 
$100,000. The style of the company at present is 
C. J. Cooper & Co. 



In addition to his mercantile business, Mr. Tiiom- 
ason is largeU' interested in real estate at Oxford 
and Anniston, and in tlie bankiTig iioiise recently 
establisiied in connection with liis grocery con- 

llemeinljering the fact that young 'I'honiason 
came to Oxford penniless, tlie preceding details 
need no comment at our iiands to elaborate his 
success a.-i a business man. 

5Ir. 'I'homason.iii July ls7-">, at 'rallodaga, mar- 
ried Miss Mary 8cott, the accomplished daughter 
of AVm. Scott, Esq. 

The senior Mr. Thomason was a gallant Confed- 
erate soldier during the late war : his father served 
tlirough the war with Mexico, and his grandfather 
was a Revolutionary soldier. His great-grand- 
father, Cooper Tiiomason, came from Scotland 
prior to the War for Independence, and settled in 
\'irginia, where he lived to the remarkable age of 
104 years. Old Cooper Thomason liad eight or 
nine sons in the Colonial Army during the ]{evolu- 

It might be remarked that the war record of the 
Thomasons is also a matter that needs no elabo- 
ration at tlie hands of tiie writer. 

They all appear to have been well-to-do jdan- 

- \^. 

THOMAS H. BARRY, Merchant and Manu- 
fatturui-. (txlord, .son of Keese and Ann S. 
(Man.son) Barry, natives, respectively, of Virginia 
and Maryland, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, May 
4, 18;3i!, and in that city received his education. 
Accompanying his mother, in 18.55, he moved to 
San Antonio, Tex., and was there engaged in mer- 
cantile business until the outbreak of the late war. 
Karly in the spring of IStil, he enlisted as a pri- 
vate soldier in Company G, Eighth Texas ("Ter- 
ry's Rangers"), and remained in the service until 
the close of the war, })articipating in the battles 
of Woodsonville, Ky., Shiloh, Murfreesboro, and 
all the engagements from Chickamauga to New 
Hope Court-Housc. At the latter engagement he 
was wounded, and fell into tlie hands of the 
enemy, but escaped while '■« nnde to Rock Island, 
rejoined his command, and took part in the bat- 
tles around Atlanta. At Waynesboro, November 
^'^i. 1SH4, he was severely wounded, and from that 
date to tlie close of the war remained in hospital 
Returning to Texas in IHiio, he engaged at his 
former business, and was there until is;-.', when 

he came to Oxford. Here he has since been, in 
the mercantile business, and was one of the organ- 
izers of the Barry & Draper Manufacturing Co. 
This company was organized in ls-^4, and ilr. 
Barry has been its president from the beginning. 
He is also president of the Oxford Building «& 
Loan Association, and is otherwise identified with 
various other industries. 

Mr. Barry was married March •>, l.sti5, to Jliss 
Emily F. (Jray, of (ieorgia. He is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Knights 
of Honor, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and of the Masonic fraternity. 

The senior ^Ir. Barry moved to Cincinnati 
when he was a young man, and was engaged at 
steamboating the rest of his life. He died iu 
1S40, leaving three children, to-wit : William D., 
Thomas II., and Caroline E. His father, Daniel 
Barry, was a farmer in Virginia, where he lived 
and died. The family came originally from Ire- 
land, and the Mansons appear to be of French 

• ■'>';^^'-^ — 

DANIEL P. GUNNELS was born in Franklin, 
Ga., near Bold Spring, October 0. is-^:i, and his 
parents vmvfi Nathan and Nancy (Hunt) Gunnels, 
natives of Wilkes and Franklin Counties, Ga., 

The senior Mr. G. moved to Franklin County 
at an early day, and there subsequently made his 
home. He was a planter by occupation, and died 
in 18T0 at Atlanta, at the age of seventy years. 
He was an officer in the AVar of 1 8:5(1, and was a 
niembei' of the Georgia Constitutional Conven- 
tion. He was quite a politician in his day, of the 
Clay and Webster faith, and a man of no little 
influence in the vicinity where he lived. His 
children were — Daniel P., Sarah F. (Mrs. J. M. 
Alexander). Joel I).. Nathan C, Mary E. (Mrs. 
Shephard), Elmira (deceased), and John H. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on a 
farm, receiving an academic education, and in 
184o located at Boiling Springs, in Calhoun 
County. Ala., where he was several years clerk in 
a mei'cantile establishment. He subsequently 
purchased an interest with his employer, and later 
on became sole owner of the concern. lie came 
to Oxford in 18.")4, where he continued in the 
mercantile business until 18T'-i. It is proper to 
explain, however, that from 180".2 to the close of 
the war he found it expedient to i^uspeiid the 



mercantile business and was, during that period, 
in the employ of the Oxford Iron Co. Though 
the war swept away his fortune in common with 
the fortunes of other men, he has since succeeded 
in amply replenishing his exchequer. Since 187'2 
he has given most of his time to planting. 

March, IS.Vi', Mr. Gunnels was married to Miss 
Susan E. Cunningham, daughter of William N. 
and Nancy E. (Pratt) Cunningham, natives of 
South Carolina, and his children are: Nancy E. 
(Mrs. Warnock), John X. and James N. (twins), 
Esther L., Elmira P., Henry C. and Willie 

The family are all identified with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and Mr. Gunnels is a 
member of the Masonic and Odd Fellow fratern- 

CLARKE SNOW, Merchant, Oxford, was born 
at this place July 5, 184(j, and is a son of 
Dudley and Priscilla (Munger) Snow. He was 
reared on the farm, and at Howard College and 
the schools of Talladega acquired a fair English 
education. At the age of twenty-one years, at 
Selma, he accejjted a situation in a mercantile 
establishment, remained there one year, returned 
to Oxford, and with C. Snow & Co. embarked in 
the grocery business. In 1870 he formed a part- 
nership with C. J. Cooper in mercantile business, 
and from 1871 to 1874 devoted his time to farm- 
ing. In the latter year, associated with James Stew- 
art, under the style and firm name of James Stew- 
art & Co., he engaged in the leather and carriage 
business. This firm was dissolved in December, 
188"-3, since wliich time Mr. Snow has conducted 
the business alone, and has been thereat quite 
successful. In addition to his mercantile business 
he is largely interested in various other enter- 

In the fall of 1803, Mr. Snow entered the 
Fifty-first Alabama Cavalry, and, though not an 
enlisted soldier, he jiarticipated with that com- 
mand in the battles of I\Iaryville, Rockford, and 
Knoxville. In ilay, 1804, he regularly enlisted, 
and thereafter took part in the battles of New Hope 
Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Rome, and the battles 
around Atlanta. At Decatur, Ala., he was 
wounded, and at Salt Creek participated in his 
last engagement. He was married, November "-iO, 
1808, to Miss Roxy C. Elston, of Davisville, and 

the children born to this union are : Corinne, 
Ada, Ruth, Maxie, Norman, and Mary. 

Dudley Snow was born in Graceland County, 
Va., December 25, 1803, and his parents, John 
and Elizabeth (Hale) Snow, migrated to North 
Carolina in 1812. From there they moved to 
Tennessee in 1832, and from Tennessee Dudley 
Snow moved to Oxford, where he died in 1803. 

The Snow family came originally from England, 
and the Plungers from Germany. 

Henry Snow, a brother of Clarke, entered the 
Confederate Army from Texas, as a private in the 
First Texas Infantry. At the re-organization of 
this regiment, in 1802, he was made first lieu- 
tenant, and he participated in all the battles of 
Northern Virginia, and at the Seven Days' Fight 
around Richmond was seriously wounded. 

ABNER WILLIAMS, Merchant, Oxford, was 
born in Jefferson County, this State, Novem- 
ber 21, 1824, and his parents were Jordan and 
Edna (Atkins) Williams. He was reared on his 
father's farm, attended the old-field schools, and 
in 1844 began life as a school teacher. The year 
following he accepted a clerkship in a store at Tal- 
ladega, for which service he received, at the begin- 
ning, five dollars per month. He remained with 
that concern three years, another firm three years, 
another one year, and for his last year's labor re- 
ceived $375. In 1853, at Curry's Station, he be- 
gan business for himself, and in 1855 removed to 
Selma, where he was engaged in cotton business 
until 1802. At the close of the war he returned 
to Selma from Talladega County, resumed his old 
business, and was there until 1884. In August of 
that year he came to Oxford and engaged in the 
millinery business. 

December 23, 1852, Mr. Williams was married 
to Agatha A. Ileacock, daughter of Dr. Joseph D. 
and Rachel M. (Garner) Heacock, of Talladega 
County; and of the six children born to them we 
have the following data: Curry E., Emma R. 
(widow of II. A. Singleton), Mollie E. (wife of 
Dr. B. D. Williams, of Utah Territory), Joseph, 
Albert. Abner J. P., and Lillie B. 

Jordan Williams was born in South Carolina, 
August 31, 1794; served through the war of 1812 
as a member of the Eighth United States Infantry; 
married Edna Atkins in Abbeville district, South 
Carolina, May 5, 1810; settled near Elyton, Jef- 



ferson County, Ala., in 181S; from there moved 
to ii farm near Trussville, and subsequently, or 
aliout irarcli 1, 1S33, settled in Talladega County, 
lie was stricken with paralysis while preaelnng to 
the Confederate conscript soldiers at Talladega, 
Sejjtember, 1S6"2, and died near Tallasahatchie 
Bajjtist Church, fifteen miles south of Talladega, 
November ■l\, 18(5",'. He was a farmer, and a min- 
ister of the Baptist Church. 

LUCIUS L. ALLEN, son of Ilud.son 11. and 
Xaiiiy (Corneilsoii) Allen, was born in Gwinnett 
County, (Ja., June "..'3. l!s;il, and was educated at 
Emory College, that State. In 18ii'^* he enlisted in 
Company D, Fifty-first Alabama Cavalry, and with 
that command participated in the battles of Jlur- 
freosboro, .Missionary Kidge, Kno.wille, Chicka- 
niauga, and the Atlanta and Dalton campaigns. 
His father came into Alabama in 18:!."), purchased a 
large tract of government land, and other lands 
from the Indians, and became one of the most 
extensive planters and slavelmlders in his neigh- 
borhood . 

Mr. Allen was reared on a farm, and to agricul- 
ture has devoted his time and his talents. He was 
married, in November, 18.5-i, to Miss Kmma Pyles, 
daughter of Lewis and Catherine (Perrin) T'yles, 
and his children are: Susan C. (Mrs. Hudson), 
Lelia J. (Mrs. Snow), Nancy Lulu. Lilly A. and 
Alice C. The faniilv are all members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and Jlr. 
Allen is a Mason. 

The senior Mr. Allen died at his home, near O.x- 
ford, .January 8, 188."), at the age of 83 years: his 
wife died in 18(j'J. They reared a family of three 
sons: ^\'illiam II., Asa F., and the subject of this 
sketch. Asa F. is a Baptist minister, and resides 
on the old homestead. 

Asa Allen was the name of the grandfather of 
Lucius L. He married a Miss Jones in Georgia, 
whither he had migrated from Virginia at an 
early day. He reared a family of four sons and 
four daughters, and in ls:J4 or 18:!.") moved to Lime- 
stone County, Ala., where ho died in ls4ii at the 
age of tiO years. 

■ ■ • 

SAMUEL K. BORDERS was born in Jackson 
County, Ga., January VI, 18>'-,', and died at Ox- 

ford Ala., December 20, 1881. His parents were 
John and Cynthia Borders. The senior Mr. Bor- 
ders in early manhood migrated from Virginia to 
Tennessee, and from there to (ieorgia, where he 
was married. From Georgia he moved to Missis- 
sij)pi, where he was engaged at planting, and from 
Jlississippi in 18:!:! or 18:!4 he came to Calhoun 
County. Here he located near O.xford, and be- 
came one of the most extensive planters of his 
neighborhood. He reared a family of two sons 
and six daughters, namely: Samuel K., Abner, 
-Mary (.Mrs. Brooks), ^'irginia (Mrs. Cunningham), 
Adaline (.Mrs. Bush), Ann (ilrs. Jenkins), Eliza 
(Mrs. Pondor), Evaline (Mrs. Bush), and buried 
one daughter, Georgia, in early girlhood. 

The subject of this sketch was educated at 
Athens, Ga., and after graduating began the study 
of medicine. At the request of his father he gave 
uj) the idea of professional life, and thereafter 
turned his attention to farming. He served 
through the Mexican War as a member of Com- 
pany I, First Uegiment Alabama Volunteers, and 
through the war between the States as a member 
of the Fifty-first Alabama Cavalry. 

March, 18.51, Jlr. Borders was married to Miss 
Sallie Williams, daughter of Dr. John AVilliams, 
and had born to him seven children: Georgia 
(Mrs. Christian), JIary (Mrs. Waters), Ilattie 
(.Mrs. AVilson), Annie, Sallie, Lillie and John. 

___.^„!cgj^— .4» i— 

AURELIUS F. BULLARD. M. D.. prominent 
Physician and Surgeon, Oxford, was born at 
Bennington, Vt., September l.j, 1848, and is 
the son of William H. and Koxanna K. (Moon) 
Bullard, natives of Massachusetts and Vermont, 
and of Irish and Scotch extraction, respectively. 

Doctor Bullard received his primary education 
in the common schools of Vermont, and at the 
Wesleyan Institute of Willbraham, Mass., and at 
the age of fifteen years went to sea as a sailor 
before the mast. In 18ii!», as second mate of a 
ship, he came South. The crew, while at Mobile, 
were taken with yellow fever, from the fatal 
effects of which, it appears, that he and his cap- 
tain were the only ones to escajie. lie made his 
way to Wilmington, Avhere another crew was or- 
ganized, and as first mate he sailed to Boston, 
where he abandoned seafaring life. Returning 
to Alabama, he attended school at ^lontgomery, 
and graduated in 18T1. In the meantime he took 



lectures at Jefferson rdlege, Philadelphia. Since 
engaging regularly in the practice of his jjrofes- 
sion, he has been recognized as one of the most 
careful, studious, and reliable physicians of Oxford, 
and he is at this writing in the enjoyment of an 
excellent practice. He is a member ot the various 
medical associations, and is held in high esteem 
by the members of the profession throughout the 

He was married August "28, 18T0, to iliss Julia 
B. Goodhue, daughter of Prof. Amos B. Good- 
hue. The Goodhues are also of Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire, and came South about thirty 
years ago. Professor Goodhue is now retired. 

The senior Mr. Bullard came South in 18G8, 
and to Oxford in 1872. He reared three sons: 
the subject of this sketch, William E. and 
Oliver H. 

Doctor Bullard is a member of the Knights of 
Pythias, of the ^lasonic fraternity, and of the 
Baptist Church. His children are: William G., 
Alice A., and Elerslie W. 

JOHN F. SMITH is a native of Cleburne 
County, where he was born December 1.3, 1839, 
and is a son of John and Sarah Ann (Lambert) 
Smith. The senior Mr. Smith immigrated to Ala- 
bama from Georgia in 18;33, and moved from Cle- 
burne County to a point on the Tallapoosa Eiver, 
south of Edwardsville in 18.51, and there died in 
18.33, at the age of forty-two years. He reared two 
sons: the subject of this sketch and Samuel H. 

John F. Smith was reared on a farm ; was edu- 
cated at the common schools, and at the age of 
eighteen accepted a clerkship in a store. In 18.58 he 
went to Wetumpka, and from there the year fol- 
lowing to Talladega, where he engaged in business 
in partnership with J. B. Gay. This partnership 
lasted but a short time, when he sold out and re- 
sumed employment as a clerk. 

In 1801 Mr. Smith enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany II, Tenth Alabama, and remained in the ser- 
vice until the close of the war. Soon after the 
battle of Dranesville he was promoted to third 
lieutenant, and when he left the service he held 
the rank of first lieutenant, and had been for some 
time in command of his company. From first to 
last he participated in many of the hardest-fought 
battles of the war, and was wounded three times. 
Returning from the war, he located at Selma, and 

from there, in 1866, came to Oxford, where he has 
since made his home. In 1869 he moved upon his 
farm, at Boiling Springs, and from that date has 
given most of his time to agriculture. He was 
mai-ried in 1869, to Miss Augusta G. Caver, daugh- 
ter of Thomas J. and Eliza (Davis) Caver, and 
has had born to him four children : Kate E., Xan- 
nie Gay, Carrie Lee and Thomas F. 

WILLIAM F. HIGGINS, is a native of Butts 
County, (ia., a son of Joseph and Judith W. 
(Key) Iliggins, and was born June 11, 1838. The 
senior Mr. Iliggins came from Edgefield Dis- 
trict, S. C, into Georgia, when a boy, there 
married, and in 1844 settled in Chambers County, 
Ala. He located at Oxford in 18T5, and died in 
188(1, at the age of sixty-six years. He was a jew- 
eler by trade, but the latter part of his life was 
devoted to farming. His father, AVilliam Iliggins 
was a native of South Carolina, there married a 
Miss Ashley, and subsequently became one of the 
early settlers of Georgia. 

William F. Higgins was reared and educated at 
Lafayette, in Chambers County, and while a 
young man learned the jeweler's trade. He entered 
the army in 1863, and remained until the close of 
the war. After the war he resumed the jewelry 
business; moved into Oxford in 1868, and in 1874, 
turned his attention entirely to farming. He be- 
gan life at the close of the war without money, 
but has succeeded in accumulating a handsome 
competency. He was married May 29, 1869, to 
Miss Virginia Dennis, daughter of Sumeral and 
Mary (Ilanchett) Dennis, natives of South Caro- 

Mr. Dennis came into Alabama in 1832; re- 
' moved thence to Tallapoosa County, and died at 
Dadeville. He was a captain in the irexican War, 
and also in the late Confederate Army. 

Mr. Higgins and wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and Mr. H. 
is of the Masonic fraternitv. 

WILLIAM J. ALEXANDER was born in Cal- 
houn County, Ala., in May, l!S42, and is a son of 
Arthur T. and Rebecca (Borden) Alexander. 

The senior Mr. Alexander was born in Xorth 
Carolina, and when a child taken by his parents 




to Habersham County, and thence to Carroll 
County, Ga. He came to Calhoun County, this 
State, in is;)-,', and settled eight miles east of 
Cross Plains (now in Cleburne County), where his 
father entered lands and improved them. He 
died in 1S.")1, and a few months later his wife fol- 
lowed lii|n. They left two sons and four daugh- 
ters, all of whom lived to maturity. The Alex- 
anders and Hordens are of English ancestry. 

The subject of this sketcli was reared on a farm, 
received a common-school education, and at the 
age of seventeen years began life as a farmer, 
which he has continued ever since. 

\\\ July, liSiil, he enlisted in Comiiany I, 
Twenty-fifth Alabama Infantry, and was in the 
first battle of Farmersvilie, Tenn., south of Shi- 
loli. He participated in the Kentucky invasion, 
was taken prisoner at Glasgow, Ky,, and was ex- 
changed about two months later. He joined his 
regiment again at Shelbyvillc, Tenn., and wiis in 

the battles of Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, in 
all the fights from ( 'liattanooga to Atlanta and Xew 
Hope Church to Atlanta. When Hood made his 
raid into Tennessee, our subject joined Wheeler's 
cavalry, with which command he remained until 
the surrender. 

At the close of the war he resumed farming. In 
ISTl he was appointed sherilT of Cleburne County, 
and in ISTi was elected to that office. He served 
in this capacity about six years. In 1878 he was 
elected to the Lower House of the Legislature, 
reelected in 188-J, and in 1884 was elected to the 
Senate from his district, which ofHce he holds at 
the present writing (1888). Mr. Alexander was 
married in August, 18G(!, to Sarah Cornelia, 
daughter of Henry A. Smith, of Floyd County, 
Ga. This union has been blessed with two chil- 
dren. William H. and Bessie E. 

Mr. Alexander and wife are members of the 
Christian Church. 

--^—i^jS'j— ^- 


WILLIAM A. WILSON, Postmaster at Cross 
Plains, was born in Campbell County, Ga., October 
■•i4, Xt^.Vl, and is a son of Craven and Lucinda 
(Ijangston) Wilson. 

Tiie senior Mr. Wilson was a native of Virginia, 
from which State he removed into North Carolina, 
thence to Hall County, Ga. In December, 183"2, 
he migrated to Alabama and located about four 
miles east of Cross Plains. He was a farmer, and 
at his death, which occurred in IS75, he was the 
j)Ossessor of about l,",'(iO acres of land. He reared 
five sons and two daughters, to-wit: William A. 
(the subject of our sketch), John J,, Daniel S. 
(deceased), Jerry C, Benjamin C. (who died in 
his youth), Xancy Y.. (deceased), and Mary Ann 
Croft (deceased). All of the sons served in the 
war between the States. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson 
were communicants of the Episcopal Church. The 
Langston family were of Gernnin descent. 

The subject of this s"ketch was reared on a farm, 
received a common school education, and at the 
age of twenty-one years began life on his own ac- 
count. In ISGl he enlisted in the Confederate 
Army as a member of Comjiany E, First Alabama 

C^avalry, and particii)ated in the battles of Shiloh, 
Corinth, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, 
and all the principal fights from Chattanooga to 
Beutonville, N. C. Company F was detached 
from the First Alabama after the Kentucky cam- 
paign and iissigned to General Wheeler's com- 
mand. Mr. Wilson was captured at Beutonville, 
N. C, and imprisoned at Point Lookout until 
July 'I, 1S05, when he was released. He imme- 
diately returned home and resumed farming. He 
was appointed postmaster at Cross Plains in No- 
vember, 1SS3, which position he is now filling. 

Mr. Wilson was married in December, ].S57, to 
Martha il. Harris, daughter of Warren and .Mary 
(Statum) Harris, of this county. She is noted as 
being the first white female child born in this 
county. Mr. Wilson and wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is a Mason. 

■ ■ • > ■ ''^^' < ' ■ • 

JACOB F. DAILEY was born in Lincoln 
County, N. C, December 3, 1817, and is ason of 
Aaron and Mary (Albernathy) Dailey, natives 



of Ireland and of Xorth Carolina, respectively. 
The senior Mr. Dailey came to America with 
his parents (about 1705), and settled in Lincoln 
County, N. C. He was a farmer and also super- 
intendent of an iron furnace. He reared a family 
of four sons and three daughters, and died in 1858 
at the age of forty years. His widow survived 
him many years, and died at the extreme old 
age of ninety-six years. She was a strong and 
hearty woman up to the time of her death. 

Jacob K. Dailey, our subject, was reared in 
Xorth Corolina by his uncle. Miles W. Abernathy; 
received a common-school education, and at the 
age of sixteen years began life as a sailor, which 
avocation he followed six years, and at the age of 
twenty-one entered into business on his own ac- 
count at Lincolnton Court House, X. C. In 1847, 
he came to Cross Plains, entered into a general 
merchandise business, and continued it with suc- 
cess ever since. His was the lirst store erected in 
this village. In 1849 he purchased several hun- 
dred acres of land, and in connection with his 
merchandise business, has been farming ever since. 
He now owns several large farms near Cross 
Plains. In 1802 he was apjiointed member of the 
Advisory Board with headquarters at Jacksonville, 
this State. 

Mr. Dailey was married August 10, 1841, to 
Jane M. Kibler, daughter of Michael and Catherine 
(Lawrence) Kibler, of North Carolina, and has had 
born to him two children: Mary Catherine, 
wife of Alexander Mct!ollister, and Jacob Kibler. 
The family are communicants of the Episcopal 
Church. Mr. Dailey is a j^rominent Mason; is a 
wide-awake, public-spirited citizen, and is always 
alive to the development of enterprise in his 
section of the couutrv. 

MARTIN T. MOODY, was born at Belmont, 
Sumter County, Ala., 2v.'ovember 4, 1845, and is 
a son of Theopliilus and ilary L. (Little) Moody, 
natives respectively of South Carolina and Georgia. 

The senior Mr. Moody moved with his parents 
from South Carolina to .Mississippi. In is;il he 
came to Alabama and joined the Alabama Con- 
fei-ence in 1832 at Tuscaloosa, of which he was 
one of the original organizers. He lived in Ala- 
bama until his death, which occurred at Gadsden, 
March 1.3, 1870. His wife died at Gainesville, Ala., 
in 1854. He reared two sons and two daughters. 

viz.: AVilliam R., Martin T. (our subject); Fan- 
nie A., wife of Milton Jenkins, Camden, Ala.; 
and Sarah E., wife of George W. Caldwell, also of 
Camden. Mr. iloody was one of the pioneer 
preachers of this State, and was a very popular 
and well-known man. 

The mother of our subject was a daughter of 
William Little, a leading attorney of Carnesville, 
Ga. He was a prominent and wealthy citizen, 
and died about the close of the war. 

The subject of this sketch was reared in Alabama 
and educated princijially at Summerfield, Dallas 
County. In the spring of 18<i2, he enlisted in 
Company I, Twenty-eighth Alabama, as a private, 
and served until health failed. From an attack of 
brain fever, he lost his hearing and was detailed 
in the niter mining service as a clerk in which 
capacity he remained until the close of the war. 

At the close of hostilities he returned to Cam- 
den, where he served as Clerk of the Probate 
Court four years, going thence to Selma, and serv- 
icg four years in the Probate Court of that 
County. In 1873 he came to Cross Plains and 
engaged in the drug business, which he has con- 
tinued ever since, with marked success. 

September 15, 1800, Mr. Moody was married to 
Sarah E. Scurry, daughter of Dr. John R. Scurry 
of Cross Plains. They had born to them seven 
children, to-wit: Arthur R., May Louise, Anna, 
Lucy, Ida, Martin T., Jr., and Harry. The family 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 

JOSEPH W. HARRIS, born Xovcmber 7, 1830, 
at Warrenton, Va., is a son of William and Eliz- 
abeth (Anderson) Harris, natives, respectively, of 
Talbot and Warren Counties, Ga. The senior 
Harris was a farmer until his marriage, when he 
was elected sheriff of Warren County, which 
office he held for two years. In January, 1840, 
he located in Talbot County, entered into the 
merchandise business, and died there in June, 
1848. He served in the Seminole War. He 
reared three sons and three daughters, viz. : 
Sarah, William, Joseph, Mary, Martha, and 
Thomas. lie and his wife are members of the 
Baptist Church. The grandfather of our sub- 
ject, Henry Harris, came to Georgia as one of 
the earliest settlers of that State, about the 
year 1800. The subject of this sketch was 
reared and educated in the common schools at 



Fiiyetteville, and at the age of seventeen began 
his business career as clerk in a general mer- 
chandise store of that town, which position he 
held six months, after which he spent three years 
at Montovallo. 

September 10, 1801, he enlisted as a private in 
{'om])any E, Twenty-sixth Alabama, and par- 
ticipated in the first battle of Fort Gibson, the 
battle of Baker's Creek, siege of N'icksburg, the 
battle of Missionary Kidge, camjiaign from Dal- 
toii to Atlanta, the battle of Nashville, and the 
last light at Uentonville, N. C. In 1863 he was 
commissioned third lieutenant of the regiment, 
and at Dalton, in 1804, was promoted to second 
lieutenant, and shortly after, at Palmetto Sta- 
tion, (ia., was again promoted, to first lien- 
tenant. He was captured at Tupelo, Miss., in 
December, 1804. After the war lie returned to 
his home and engaged in farming, and in the 
fall of 1805, accepted a position with the Ala- 
bama & Tennessee River Railway, in the ca- 
jiacity of agent, express agent, and telegraph 
operator. In the fall of 18T2, he went to Bir- 
mingliam, as express agent, thence to Montevallo, 
in laT3, where he engaged in merchandising, and 
in 1870 went to South Alabama, and merchan- 
dised two years. In December, 1881, he came 
to Cross Plains, as telegraph operator for the 
East Tennessee Railway, where he has since con- 
tinued to live. In connection with the railroad 
business he is running a hotel. 

In December, 1801, Mr. Harris was first mar- 
ried to Martha J. Wilson, daughter of Henry 
Wilson, of Columbiana, Ala., and has had born 
to him seven children, three of whom are now 
living: Rolling, of Talladega; Ernest, clerk and 
book-keeper, of Burkville, Ala., and May. Mrs 
Harris died in November, 1881, and in February, 
1S84. .Mr. Harris was married to Nannie .Jones, 
of Cave Springs, Ga., and to this union two 
children were born: Jones and Albert. Mr. 
Harris is a member of the Baptist Church, and 
his wife is of the Congregational Methodist 
Church. He is of the Masonic fraternity and 
Knights of Pvthias. 

in Cherokee County, Ala., May 11, 1840, and is a 
son of Rev. Samuel 1{. (born in N'irginia, .January 

'II, 1801) and Nancy Ann (Gamble) Russell, na- 
tive of East Tennessee. 

The senior Mr. Russell was a minister in the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Ciiurch. He came to 
Alabama in ls;i-->, and settled near Jacksonville. 
He reared eight sons and two daughters: James 
E., Robert A., Samuel L., John (\., William C, 
(ieorge B., Andrew B., Marcus M., Elizabeth A. 
and Mary J. Of the sons the following served in 
the war: James E., Samuel L. (lieutenant and 
chaplain), John G. (orderly sergeant, was killed 
at Chickamaugu), and William C. (was killed at 
Shiloh). The senior Mr. Russell died September 
30. 18T0, at the age of seventy-five years : his 
wife died at the close of the war at the age of 
sixty-two years. Tlie Russell family were of 
Scotch-Irish parentage, and the Gamble family 
came originally from Ireland . 

George Bryant Russell was reared on a farm; 
attended the common schools of the neighborhood, 
and was graduated at (ialesville, Ala., in 1873. 
He subsequently spent two years at Cumberland 
University, Lebanon, Tenn., and in 1874 began 
teaching. In a 877 he migrated to Cross Plains, 
where he was occupied teaching and farming until 
1881, when he moved to Jacksonville and taught 
one year as Assistant Principal of Calhoun Col- 
lege. On his return to Cross Plains he took 
charge of the Cross Plains Educational Institute, 
which was soon afterwards chartered. 

.Mr. Russell having received his license to preach 
September 10, 1870, and being ordained Septem- 
ber 22, 1873, is now a preacher in the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church. He has represented his 
Presbytery in the General Assembly several times; 
has served Calhoun County as Suj)erintendent 
of Education twelve years, and is at present second 
Vice-President of the Alabama Educational Asso- 

Mr. Russell was married September 23, 1873, 
to Sarah A. Hampton, daughter of John Hamp- 
ton, of Cherokee County, Ala. They have had 
born to them three children, namely: Samuel 
Hampton, deceased, John Floyd and James Gor- 
don. Mr. Russell is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity and Knights of Honor. He has ever 
been a temperance worker ; was elected by the 
County Temperance Convention in 1880 to the 
State Convention, and was of Committee on 
Ifesolutions in that convention. He was elected 
President of the County Temperance Convention 
at .\nni.<t<)ii in ISSO. 



Our subject bears the reputation of being one 
of the best educators in the State. 

DR. ORVILLE D. LAIRD, born in Cohunbus, 
Ga., January 20, 1840, is a son of Dr. Orville P. 
and Xancy (Dyer) Laird, natives of Oneida j 
County, N. Y. 

Doctor Laird was reared in Kew York; received 
an academic education, and at the age of nineteen 
years began life as a clerk. In April, 18G1, he 
enlisted in Company E, Seventh Ohio Regiment, 
with which command he served three months, 
and then joined Company C, One Hundred and 
Sixteenth New l^ork Infantry. In 1863 he was 
promoted to the Quartermaster's Department at 
Xashville, and early in IS'Jo was commisioned 
lieutenant of light artillery. He was mustered 
out in July of the latter year. 

In 18.39 Mr. Laird was graduated as M. D. from 
Ann Arbor, and after the war practiced in Tennes- 
see, locating at Clinton in ISOG. In November, 
1869, he engaged in the railroading and furnace { 
business. In 188-1 he was appointed United 
States Commissioner for the District Court, 
Northern District of Alabama, and in 1886 came 
to Cross Plains. 

Dr. Laird was married October 2.5, 186.5, to 
Mary C. Stevens, daughter of Rev. R. AI. and 
Nancy (King) Stevens, natives of Tennessee. 
They have had born to them three children: 
Harvey, George Edgar, and James G. The Doe- 
tor and wife are members of the .Methodist Epis- 
cojjal Ciiurch. 

Dr. Orville P. Laird, the father of the subject 
of this sketch, was a practical dentist. He spent 
the winters in Georgia, and the summers in New 
York up to 1857, after which he lived in Ohio 
and Michigan in order to be more convenient to 
his business interests. He reared four children, 
and died at Adrian, Mich., in 1886. The Laird 
family originally came from Scotland. 

ROBERT F. HUGHES, born in Calhoun 
County, Ala. : is a son of John T. and Mary T. 
(Brown) Hughes, natives of South Carolina. 

The senior Mr. Hughes came to Alabama in 
1832, and settled near Weaver's Station, where he 
engaged in farming. He represented Calhoun 

County, in its early history, as a member of the 
Legislature. He reared three sons and seven 
daughters, of whom William J. T. died in the 
war; John W., of Atlanta, served through the war 
and was in prison at Fort Delaware two years. Mr. 
Hughes was a member of the Presbyterian Church, 
and died in 187-5, at the age of .seventy-four years. 
His widow, who is still living, moved to Cross 
Plains. The Hughes family are originally from 

The subject of this sketch was reared on a farm 
and received a common-school education. He was 
engaged in farming up to 18T'.i, when he entered 
mercantile business, which he lias conducted suc- 
cessf ullv ever since. 

CLAIBORNE A. SHARP was born iti Iredell 
County, N. C, January 12, 1848, and is a son of 
Claiborne I. and Courtney A. (Johnson) Sharp, 
natives of the same county. 

The father of our subject was a farmer and 
stock-raiser; came to Alabama in 1854, and set- 
tled on a farm near Cross Plains, w^here he re- 
mained until 1868, when he entered into mercan- 
tile business. He reared five sons and six daugh- 
ters, of whom are now living four sons and two 
daughters. Three of the four sons now living 
served in the late war. 

Our subject's grandfather was a farmer of North 
Carolina, and was of Scotch origin. He served 
in the War of 1812, and died in his native State. 
The mate;-nal grandfather was also a farmer of 
North Carolina, and of English ancestry. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on a farm 
and received a common school education. He 
enlisted in Company G, Third Alabama Cavalry, 
and in the fall of 1864 was in AVheeler's com- 

After the war he farmed until 1880. when he 
engaged in the livery business for one year, after 
which he purchased a half interest in his father's 
store. He is still in the merchandise business, and 
is very successful. 

Mr. Sharp was married in December, 1869. to 
Miss Julia F. daughter of John Chancellor, 
of Cherokee County, this State. To this union 
have been born six children : Charles C, Oliver 
W\, Mary G., Claude, Nellie D., and Annie H. 
Mr. Sharp and family are members of the Baptist 



ELISHA D. McCLELLEN. born uear Jaekson- 
villo, Ala.. October v'4. Is4^, is a son of Samuel D. 
and Deborah (Price) McClellen, natives of Kast 
Tennessee. 'I'iie senior ^Ir. MeClellen came to 
Alabama with his parents in 1834, and settled in 
Talladega County. In 1844 he removed to t!al- 
hoiin County, where he was engaged in farming, 
lie represented the county in the Legislature one 
term, and assisted in removing the Indian.s from 
the State. 

lie died in December, 188T. The McClellens 
are descendants from Scotland. The Price 
family came from Ireland. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on a farm 
and received an academic education. He 
worked on a farm until 1808. when he came to 

Jacksonville, where he was engaged in mercantile 
business with his father. In 188:i he was engaged 
in the livery business for a short time, and in Jan- 
uary, 1884, came to Cross Plains, started in the 
millinery business, and subsequently engaged in 
general merchandising. In 1887 he was running 
a brick business in connection with farming and 

In January, 18T4, Mr. McClellen was first mar- 
ried to Dollie Barron, of Jackson County, and had 
born to him one child. Mrs. McClellen died in 
1878, and in December, 188G, Mr. McClellen was 
married to Sallie Glover, of Cherokee County. 

Mr. McClellen is a member of the Baptist Ciiurch 
and is also a prominent Mason. His w^ife belongs 
to the Presbvterian Church. 


Population: White. 10,05(1; colored, 5,0(5;:!. 
Area — 'i7U square miles. Woodland, all. 

Acres — In cotton 20,408; in corn, 29,!t!iO; in 

oats, 5, "^25; in wheat, 9,735; in tobacco, ; 

in sweet jiotatoes, . Ajiproximate number 

of bales of cotton, '.t.doo. 

County Seat — Rockford: population l,0(iO. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — En- 
terprise (Democratic). 

Postottices in the County — Bentleysville, 
Crewsville, Dollar, Equality, Gantt. Gold Branch, 
Good Water, Hanover, Ilissop, Iwana, Kellyton, 
Lauderdale, Marble Valley, Mount Olive, Nix- 
burgh, Pentonville, Rockford, Salter, Stewarts- 
ville. Traveler's Rest, Weogufka. 

Coosa County was established by an act of the 
State Legislature dated December 18, ]8.'i2, out 
of a jiortion of the territory ceded by the JIus- 
cogee Indians by the treaty of Cusseta in March, 
183"i. The original area of the county was much 
larger than its present size, as it comprised a 
considerable portion of that part of Elmore 
County which lies east of the Coosa Ifiver, which 

territory, with the County Seat, Wetumpka. was 
taken from Coosa on the organization of Elmore 
County, in 1860. 

Coosa County receives its name from the Coosa 
Hiver, which in turn perpetuates the name of the 
beautiful and fertile valley which so charmed the 
eyes of De Soto and his cavaliers when their gaze 
first rested on it and its bosom was for the first 
time pressed b\- the foot of the white man. 

The surface of the county is uneven and is 
marked by mountainous elevations, valleys, broad 
ridges containing beautiful stretches of level table- 
lands and sections of slightly rolling lands. The 
general character of the soils is red and gray, but 
along the hills and ridges some sandy lands are 
found, while in the valleys and along the bot- 
toms of the numerous creeks, a black soil of won- 
derful productivcnesss is found, which yields 
cotton, corn, wheat or oats equal to the best lands 
of the State., with sweet potatoes and cane, 
form the principal crops raised, and while Coosa 
County is not regarded as one of the banner agri- 
cultural counties of the State, it is a safe county. 



and its soil returns a yield which will average up, 
year in and year out, with some of the counties 
which stand higher than it in the agricultural 
scale. The red lands of this county are sjiecially 
adapted to the culture of wheat and other small 
grain, and the yield of these articles per acre w'ill 
compare favorably with the production of like 
crops in any other portion of the State. 

The hills of Coosa County are clothed with a 
rich forest of long-leafed pine, with considerable 
oak, hickory, gum, and some short-leaf pine. Ow- 
ing to the fact that this county is only entered 
by a railroad on its border, this forest has scarcely 
been touched. 

Besides its agricultural features and its timber 
wealth, Coosa County can lay claim to distinction 
on account of the extent and variety of its mineral 
deposits. Like the county of Tallapoosa, which 
joins it, Coosa has gold within its borders, but 
none has yet been discovered in quantities which 
would pay to work. North of Rockford there lies 
a belt of granite of a superior character, which 
will be quarried and used largely, as soon as trans- 
portation facilities are provided to convey it to 
centers where it will be in demand. There is an 
extensive deposit of iron ore some miles north of 
Rockford, which at present is unavailable for the 
reason that it is locked in by the absence of the 
means of conveying it to points where it could be 
utilized. The other minerals, which are found in 
this county in greater or lesser quantities, are 
copper, tin, asbestos, corundum, emery, kaolin, 
and mica. 

The principal streams of the county are the 

Coosa River, which forms its western boundary, 
Hatchett, Weogufka, Paint, Socapotoy, Pintlocco 
and Futtegal Creeks. These streams all furnish 
water-power of almost unrivaled extent. The 
Coosa River, where it borders this county, is ren- 
dered inq^assable by obstructions and rapids, and 
should the movement now on foot cause it to be 
opened to navigation, the benefit to Coosa County 
will be inestimable. At Bradford, on Socapotoy 
Creek, there is a cotton mill known as Bradford's 
Factory, which has been idle for some years. The 
building is a substantial stone structure, and, bvit 
for the fact that it is situated so far off of tlie line 
of railroad, the property would be very valuable 
and the mill might be worked to advantage. 

Rockford, a little town of about 1,000 inhabit- 
ants, is the County Seat. It possesses excellent 
schools, good society, and has several churches. 
Kellyton and Good Water are the only railroad 
stations in the county. For some years the latter 
has been the terminus of the Columbus & West- 
ern Railroad. This road is now being extended 
to Birmingham, and will be completed at an early 
date. The other towns of Coosa are: Xixburg, 
Bradford, Mt. Olive, Stewartsville, Hanover, 
Equality, Lorraine, Traveler's Rest, Ilissop, Weo- 
gufka and Marble Valley. 

The price of land ranges from %1 to 81.5 per 
acre- The county contains a large body of public 
land, ojjen to homestead settlement or purchase. 
The future of Coosa County is most promising, and 
with increased railroad facilities, and the Coosa 
River open to navigation, it would come to the 
front as one of the wealthiest counties of the State. 


I'opuliitiou : White, 8,()")1; colored, 2,14"-i. 
Area, TOO square miles. Woodland, all. (iravelly, 
hills, and long-leaf pines, 400 square miles. 
•Metamorphic, 2^*0 square miles. Slate resjion, 
80 square miles. 

Acres— In cotton, (approximately), 11,5.38; in 
corn, 18,185; in oats, '-l/ioo in wheat, 4,507; in 
rye, 00: in sweet potatoes, -350, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 4,000. 

County Seat — Clanton; population, 800 : on rail- 
road, about forty miles north of Montgomery. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — ChiUon 
View (Democratic). 

Postoffices in the County — Clanlon. Clear 
Creek, Cooper, Dixie, Energy, Jamison, Jumbo, 
Kincheon, Lily, Maplesville, Mountain Creek, 
Spigner, Stanton, Strasburgli, \'erbena. 

When this county was organized, in 1SC8, it 
was called Baker, which name it retained until 
1874, when, in honor of Judge W. P. Chilton, it 
received its present designation. Chilton occu- 
pies the geographical center of the State. AVon- 
derful advances have been made in the indus- 
tries of the county within the last few years. 
From 1870 to 1880 the i)opulation of Chilton was 
almost doubled. 

Chilton is varied, both with respect to the face 
of the country and the character of the lands. 
In tlie eastern jiortion there is a high ridge which 
forms the watershed between the Coosa and Ala- 
bama Hivers. Along the southern border of the 
county the surface is uneven. This irregularity 
of tlie face of the country extends northward for 
some distance. The soils vary from the rich red 
and brown loam lands to the most sterile. In the 
western portion of the county, and especially in 
the regions lying contiguous to ^fulberry Creek 
and its tributaries, are found the best agricult- 
ural lands. It is here that the population is 
denser than elsewhere in Ciiilton. This is em- 
phatically tlie farming section of the county. 
On the opposite side (the eastern) of the county 
are found altogether a different class of indus- 

tries. Extensive pine forests are a prevailing 
feature here. They spread over the knolls and 
hills which hold within their bosoms deposits of 
minerals. To what extent these minerals exist 
has not yet been discovered. Professor Eugene 
A. Smith, State Geologist, atlirms that there is a 
greater variety of minerals in Chilton than in 
any other county in Alabama. They consist of 
mica, graphite, iron, copper and gold. Copper 
mines and gold mines have been operated with 
some success. 

The timber resources of Chilton are very ex- 
tensive, as is indicated by the fact that there are 
twenty-nine saw-mills in the county. These com- 
prise some of the largest mills and lumber in- 
dustries in the State. Many of these are found 
along the line of the Louisville & Nashville 
Railroad. It will be inferred from the foregoing 
that the forests of Chilton are composed almost 
entirely of the yellow or long-leaf pine. 

As the timber is cleared off these lands they are 
brought into cultivation, and yield readily in re- 
sponse to proper fertilizing. Corn, cotton, oats, 
wheiit and rice are principal crops. The cultiva- 
tion of rice for the market has been undertaken 
within the last few years with the most gratifying 
results. It will ultimately prove a source of great 
revenue in the county. It has been tested in the 
refineries of New Orleans, and pronounced equal 
to that grown upon the famous rice plantations 
of South Carolina. 

The crops which can be profitably raised are 
corn, wheat, oats, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, 
peas, sugarcane, rice, cotton, and every variety of 
garden truck, besides fruit in the greatest abund- 
ance, such as strawberries, melons, peaches, ajiples, 
pears, plums, etc. Stock-raising can also be carried 
on with profit, and the splendid stock ranges in 
various portionsof the county would be more than 
trebled in value were they put to the i)roper use. 
The raising of sheej) is also engaged in with profit. 

The increase in wealth is keeping pace with the 
growth in population. In 1870 the first assess- 




ment of property was made, the county having 
been formed the latter part of 1868. For the 
first assessment the county gave in 139,449 acres 
of land, valued at *ai4,879; in 1887 the number 
of acres has increased to 399,743, valued at 
$250,334, showing how rapidly Government lands 
in this county have been and are still being set- 
tled. Tlie value of town property in 1870 
amounted to nothing, there being only a few rail- 
road stations in the county. Since this time 
thriving villages have grown up around these sta- 
tions, and the value of town property goes up into 
the hundred thousands. The increase in tax val- 
ues during the past year amounted ^ to $155,622. 
The railroad property of the county was assessed 
for the i^resent year at $.756,507. 

Chilton County, with its beautiful scenerj', could 
be made a great State park. Along the Coosa and 
on Yellow-Leaf and Blue Creeks the scenery is 
wild and weird as one could wish to see. 

Advantages for the shipment of products to 
distant markets are afforded by the splendid line 
of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, which 
passes through the county. The East Tennessee, 
Virginia & Georgia Railroad also passes through 
the county. 

Thei'e is no lack of water, as the county is 
drained by the Coosa River, and Chestnut, Swift, 
Big and Little Mulberry, Yellow Leaf and Blue 

The placesof greatest importance are: Clantou, 

the County Seat, with a population of 600; Ver- 
bena, Maplesville, Jemison and ilountain Creek 
have become somewhat noted as summer resorts. 
At the former place an elegant hotel has been 
erected, both for summer and winter boarders; 
while at the latter point neat cabins of summer 
visitors dot the slopes and crown the higher 
ridges. Families from Montgomery and the 
neighboring towns have established these tasteful 
retreats in order that they may find a pleasant 
refuge from the heat and dust of the city. Both 
these points are growing in popularity as jilaces of 
summer resort. 

Good schools are found at every center of in- 
terest in the county. At Clanton and Verbena 
the schools are of high grade, and moral in- 
fluences good. Churches of the different de- 
nominations also abound. 

Immigrants or investors desiring to jiurchase 
lands in this county may obtain them for prices 
ranging from %\ to S15 per acre. Knowing how 
much depends ou an increased population of 
thrifty habits, the people of this county are eager 
to encourage such to establish homes in their 

Chilton County embraces 52,000 acres of land 
belonging to the General Government, which are 
being very rapidly settled. 

The valuation of taxable property in Chilton 
County is $1,864,832, as shown by the al)stract of 
assessment filed with the Auditor. 


Population: White, 1-2,000: colored, 1,000. 
Area, (JlO square miles. Woodland, all. 

Acres — In cotton (ajiproximatel\'), 13,921; in 
corn, ■v>4,503; in oats, 4,894; in wheat, 9,785; in 
tobacco, 85; in sugar cane. 10; in sweet potatoes, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 5,:i00. 

County Seat — Ashland; population, 450; located 
25 miles from Talladega. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — (.'lai/ 
County Watchman (Democratic). 

Postoffices in the County — Ashtuml, Black 
Store, Bluff Spring, Buckeye, Coleta, Copper 
Mines, Dean, Delta, Elias, Enitachopco, Flat 
Kock, (ribsonville, (ireshamton, Ilarlan, Hatcli- 
ett Creek, Ilillabee, Idaho, Lineville, Mad In- 
dian, Mellow \'alley, Moseley, Mountain Meadow, 
Pinckneyville, Rocky Mount, Shinbone, Wheeler- 

This county was created in 1800, and took its 
name from the great Kentucky statesman, Henry 
Clay. Like other interior counties in Alabama, 
the mineral and agricultural properties are not as 
yet fully recognized and appreciated. It is remote 
from lines of transportation and is not as acces- 
sible as other portions of the State which 
have won distinction among capitalists, and yet 
are not a whit in advance of Clay. When the pro- 
ductive soils, the varied minerals, and the vast 
water-power of the county shall attract public no- 
tice, gateways of commerce will be opened, and 
its hills anil valleys will teem with population. 

Clay County is varied both with respect to the 
face of the country ami the character of the soil. 
The eastern portion has a varied surface with a soil 
of sandy loam. A mountainous ridge penetrates 
the county from the southwest to the northeast. 
Most of tiie lands lying adjacent to this ridge are 
very productive. In the northern end of Clay and 
west of this range, is a valley of exceedingly rich 
farming land. The bottom lands which lie along 
the streams which water the county are generally 
j)roductive. A belt of "flatwoods" four or five 

miles wide is found east of the ridge lands. This 
belt is covered with a mixed growth of oaks and 
pine and has generally a gray and somewhat sandy 
soil. Throughout the county the gray lands are 
regarded the best for farming purposes. 

The bulk of the cotton crop of Clay is raised in 
the southern and eastern parts of the county, 
because of the superiority o'f the soils. The chief 
jiroductlons are cotton, corn, wheat, oats and 
sweet potatoes. Orchard and garden fruits also 
do well. 

The timbers of the county include both short- 
and long-leaf pine, with blackjack and other oaks, 
hickory, sweet gum, walnut, poplar, crab apple, 
persimmon, ash, maple, dogwood and alder. The 
mountains and hillsides are covered with the heavi- 
est timbers. The timber and lumber trade is one 
of the future industries of Clay County. 

(Jold, silver, barytes, tin, manganese, pyrites, 
soapstone, iron, copper, copperas, mica, graphite 
and slate are found in different parts of Clay. The 
Confederate authorities, during the last two years 
of the war, secured much sulphur from this coun- 
ty for the manufacture of powder. 

The water-power of the county is immense. 
The inclination of many of the streams is great, 
imparting a mighty momentum to the descending 
waters. Big Kitchabadarga, Talladega, Hatchet, 
Ilillabee, Ilatchee, Enitachopka, Condutchkee, 
Crooked and Mad Indian Creeks are the main 
streams. The county is abundantly supplied, 
too, with perennial springs of freestone water. 

.Vshland, Lineville and Delta are the jirincipal 
points of interest. Excellent schools of a high 
grade are found at all these i)oints. 

At present Clay County is entirely without 
railroads, which, more than any other cause, 
accounts for its want of development. The 
county lies between the Coosa and Tallajioosa 
Kivers, and the mountainous range which pene- 
trates it, divides the water flowing to those streams. 
The healtii of Clay County is exceptional, while 
its soil is varied and fairly productive. The 




people are thrifty and contented, raising at 
home almost everything needed for domestic 

Some of the railroads projected througli this 
section of the State will penetrate this county, 
and, upon completion of one or more of these 
roads, the resources of Clay will divide the atten- 
tion which is now concentrated on more favored 
localities, and the growth and development of 

the county will be commensurate with the past 
experience of the mineral region of Alabama. 
AVithin the limits of this county there is a large 
body of public lands subject to homestead entry 
or purchase, which within a few years will become 
the homes of a thriving population. At present 
the prices of land range from 81 to $15 per acre, 
depending upon situation and condition of im- 


Population: White, 10,800; colored. 2,000. Area, 
ceo square miles. Woodland, all. Coal measures 
of Lookout Mountain, 150 square miles. Coosa 
Valley, etc., 510 square miles. 

Acres — If cotton (approximately), 24,390; in 
corn, 33,3;5; in oats, 7,475; in wheat, 10,085; 
in rye, IGO; in tobacco, 80; in sweet potatoes, 335. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 11,000. 

County Seat — Centre; population (150: on Coosa 
river, 140 miles north by east of Montgomery, 20 
miles north of Jacksonville. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Chcro- 
hee Advertiser, Coosa River News, and the Tele- 
phone (all Democratic). 

Postoffices in the County — Alexis, Ball Flat, 
Blaine, Broomtowu, Cedar Bluff, Cedar Spring, 
Centre, Chance, Colma, Davis' Cross-roads, Farill, 
Firestone, Forney, FuUerton, Gaylesville, Gnat- 
ville, Grantville, Hancock, Howel's Cross-roads, 
Hurley, Key, Kirk's Grove, Lay, Leesburgh, 
Maple Grove, Moshat, New Goshen, New Moon, 
Piano, Eieks, Einggold, Eock Eun, Eock Eun 
Station, Bound Mountain, Sand Eock, Slackland, 
Spring Garden. Sterling, Stock's Mills, TafE, 

Cherokee County derives its name from the 
Indian tribe which formerly inhabited it. The 
county was constituted in 183C. It is a border 
county, lying alongside Georgia upon the east. 
Its natural advantages are very great, especially 
those relating to its mineral richness. Its agri- 

cultural capabilities are also good. Considerable 
enterprise has existed in the county for many 
years, and great progress has been made in the 
development of its resources, as its numerous 
mining interests will attest. 

In 1880 the population was almost doubled. 
There has been a steady influx of population into 
the county, which has increased with the years. 
More and more its numerous advantages in soil, cli- 
mate, mineral wealth and location are being ap- 
preciated. The face of the county is generally 
uneven, and sometimes mountainous, and, like all 
the counties of this region, the upper lands are 
thin, with very fertile valleys lying between. 

The cultivated soils of Cherokee are composed 
of red and brown loams, which belong to the coves 
and valleys, and skirt the principal streams. Upon 
these lands most of the cotton of the county is 
produced. Then along the ridges and hills are 
found the thinner soils, which have a grayish cast 
and are mixed with a flinty gravel. The charac- 
ter of both these classes of land varies very greatly 
with the different localities. Then there are what 
are called " the flatwoods," which form a consider- 
able belt in the county. Though this soil, when 
analyzed, shows that it has fine productive capa- 
bilities, it is but rarely cultivated, because care 
has not been taken to drain it. No doubt it can 
be brought into profitable cultivation. Perhaps 
in no county in the State can there be found a 
greater diversity of soil than in Cherokee. 



The valley lamls are almost entirely devoted to 
the production of corn, cotton, wlicat and oats. 
l'l)on the higher or table lands are produced ex- 
cellent fruits, chief among which are apples, pears, 
peaches and plums. Fruit tree.s are seldom dis- 
turbed by frost. With proper care and cultivation 
orchards growing upon these elevated lands become 
very profitable. The vine is cultivated with won- 
derful success along the mountains. 

Stock-raising in Cherokee is on the increase 
because of the revenue derived from the experi- 
ments already made. Herbage grows with such 
readiness and in such profusion as to encourage 
the greater production of stock. 

'J'he growths of the forests comprise oaks (of the 
several varieties), hickory, chestnut, short- and 
long-leaf pines. There is quite an extensive prev- 
alence of pine forests in the county, wliich 
have given rise to many mills and log yards, 
which are established at convenient bluffs along 
the Coosa River, giving employment to many 

In several portions of Cherokee there are exten- 
sive and valuable deposits of iron ore, much of 
wliich is worked up in furnaces along the East 
Tennesse. A'irginia tS: Georgia liailroad. The 
following iron works are in successful operation in 
the county: The Stonewall IronComjiany, Tecum- 
seh Iron Company, Kock Run Furnace, Ala- 
bama Iron Company, Cornwall Iron Works and 
Round Mountain Furnace. There is a fine cotton 
factory at Spring (Jarden. Rich coal deposits also 
exist in the count v. 

Cherokee has an abundant water supply, being 
traversed by the Coosa, Chattanooga, Yellow and 
I.ittle Rivoi's, and (^owairs. Hall Play, Wolf. Spring, 
Terrapin, Vellow and .Mill Creeks. All tiiese are 
valuable streams, which are fed by numerous tril)- 
utaries. This is the only county the heart of 
which is penetrated by the beautiful Coosa River. 
With the exception of Etowah, near whose eastern 
boundary the river runs, it forms the border line of 
all the other counties which it waters. But Chero- 
kee it divides in twain, imparting fertilitv and 
beauty from limit to limit of the county. The 
waterways already named have, almost without 
exception, immense capabilities of water-power 
adapted to the planting of vast enterjjrises. 

The line between Cherokee and DeKalb Counties 
runs along the summit of Lookout Mountain. 

The Broomtown Valley, in the northwest corner 
of Cherokee, is worthy of special mention by rea- 
son of its fertility and romantic beauty. The 
grandeur of this section is enchanced by its bold 
and clear streams which ramify it throughout. 

Transportation is afforded the county by the 
East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroad, 
and the Coosa River. 

Centre, the county seat, and Cedar BhilT are the 
leading towns. Together with other centers of 
population, these possess good educational and 
religious advantages. At Gaylesville there is a 
high school of note. 

Lands range in price from *!2.5n to *3.5 per acre. 
The Government owns 2(»,720 acres of land in 
Cherokee County. 



the Northeast division of .Vlabama, resident of 
Centre, son of the Rev. Samuel and Rebecca 
(I)onalson) McSpadden, natives, respectively, of 
the States of Virginia and South Carolina, was 
born in Warren County, Tenn., November 12, 
1.S'.'3. The senior McSpadden, a minister of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, died at the old 
homestead, in Wilsoii County, Tenn., in 18C0, at 
the age of eighty-three years. He was one of the 

original agitators of the questions that led to the 
division of the old Presbyterian Church and the 
organization of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
denomination. His home was on the Cumberland 
Hiver and in the bounds of the Cumberland Pres- 
bytery, and it was from that fact that the denom- 
ination mentioned took its name. 

Thesul)ject of this sketch may be said to be a 
self-educated man. He learned the saddler's trade 
at Winciiester, Tenn., and worked at it until 184:8. 



He came to Alabama in-1843 and lived seven years 
at Talladega. While at that place he began ilie 
stndyof law, pursuing the study finally under the 
distinguished Samuel F. Rice, and was admitted 
to practice before George W. Stone, the present 
Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court. 
This was in 1848 or '49, and Mr. McSpadden be- 
gan the practice in 1850 in Cherokee County, 
where he has since made his home. He entered 
the army as a private in the Nineteenth Alabama 
Infantry in 1801, and upoji the final organization 
of that regiment was appointed its major. In 
1863, upon the return of the army from Kentucky, 
Major McSpadden was promoted to lieutenant col- 
onel. The regiment was then at Knoxville. He 
had commanded the regiment from the time it 
left Kentucky, and at Tullahoma he was promoted 
to colonel. At Resaca he fell into the hands of 
the enemy. May, 1804, and was taken to John- 
son's Island, where he was detained until March, 
1865. He never again joined his command, though 
he met them in Salisbury, N. C. It should have 
been mentioned that Mr. McSpadden was elected 
to the State Senate in 1857, and that he was a 
member of that body at the time he entered the 

Chancellor ileSpadden was first elected by the 
Legislature, session of 1865-0, and in 1868 tiie 
United States Congress declared him further in- 
competent. This retired him to his practice, to 
which he devoted himself until again made Chan- 
cellor, in 1885. He was elected to the Senate in 
1882, and resigned as a member of that body to 
accept the Chancellorship. In Xovember, 1880, 
the unexpired term for which he had been aj)- 
pointed having expired, he was regularly elected 
for the ensuing term of six years. 

At Centre, Ala., June 14, 1854. Samuel King 
McSpadden was married to ^liss Charlcie Ann 
Garrett, daughter of Gen. John H. Garrett. To 
this union was born one child, Lulu, now the wife 
of Hon. H. W. Cardon, of Centre. 

The Chancellor and Mrs, McSpadden are mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian Church, and he of the 
Masonic fraternity. 

ROBERT R. SAVAGE, Judge of the Pro- 
bate Court of Cherokee County, was born in Union 
District, S. C, September 23, 1831, and at the 
common schools of his native place acquired a fair 

education. He was married February 24, 1852, 
to Miss Louisa J. Geer, daughter of Willis and 
Cynthia E. (Hall) Geer, of Cherokee County, and 
from that date until 1869 was here engaged in 
farming. In the latter named year he was elected 
Tax Collector, held that office two terms, and in 
1880 was elected Probate Judge, a position he has 
continued to hold, having been re-elected in 

February, 1863, Judge Savage enlisted in Com- 
pany E, Forty-seventh Alabama Regiment, and 
was elected first lieutenant. He resigned at the 
end of nine months, returned home, and soon 
afterward joined General Wheeler's escort, and 
remained in the service until the close of the war. 

Judge Savage is one of the substantial citizens 
of Cherokee County. He has reared a family of 
six children. He and his wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

James P. Savage, the father of the subject of 
this sketch, was born in South Carolina, and in 
1848 settled at the town of Goshen, Cherokee 
County, Ala.; from there in 18T3 he moved to 
Cross Plains, Calhoun County, where he died in 
1874. He reared a family of nine sons anl three 
daughters. His father, .James Savage, was a 
native of Pennsylvania, and his grandfather came 
from Europe. 

JAMES AVERY REEVES, Attorney and Coun- 
selor at Law, Centre, native of Jasper County, 
Ga., son of James Madison and Susan Rice 
(Watt) Reeves, was born November 22, 1842. 
Until twelve years of age his home was at Cedar 
IJlutf. At that time, his father having been dead 
some years, his mother married the Rev. 0. D. 
McNeely, and moved upon a farm. 

This limited our subject's early education for a 
sliort time. In 1858 he entered college at Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn., where we find him at the outbreak of 
the late war. In August, 1861, he enlisted in 
the Nineteenth Alabama, and from that time to 
the close of the war was identified with the 
Confederate service. At Shiloh he was severely 
wounded. This led to his discharge, and in the 
fall of 1803 he entered tlie Quartermaster's 
Department, in which he was assigned to post duty 
at Centre and Gadsden. Early in 1864 he was ap- 
pointed by the Governor as Special Aid, with the 
rank of colonel, and assigned to the duty of rais- 



iiig and organizing State troops. In September, 
]S(i5, he began tiio study of law, and in the fall of 
isi;;, was admitted to the bar at Centre. Here heat 
once entered upon a successful practice, wiiicli he 
has maintained fully to the present time. lie was 
elected County Treasurer in 18()5 and held that 
office one term. He was Journal Clerk of the 
House of Representatives, session of 18(>'i-7. lie 
had been appointed Kegister in Chancery, probably 
in 18<i">, and he hold this ofKce in addition to his 
other duties until iScO. He was elected to the 
[legislature in February 18G8, and took a con- 
spicuous ])ait in the succeeding important session. 
He was appointed State Examiner of Public 
Accounts by Governor Seay, in the spring of 1887, 
and how well he has acquitted himself in the 
discharge of this important duty is a matter of 
public record. 

Mr. IJeeves was married December "JO, 18<i(i, to 
•Miss Mary E. Haynes, and the names of the chil- 
dren born to them are: Maggie S., James H.. Mary 
T. and John A. The family are identified with 
the Jlethodist Episcopal Church, South, and Mr. 
Reeves is a Mason. 

• ■ » > ■ •t^^'-»—- 

ELLIS HALE. Clerk of the Cherokee County 
Court, was born in Carroll County, Va., March 'I'u 
184",', and is a son of Fielden L. and Evaline 
(Anderson) Hale, natives of Georgia. 

He was a soldier in the late war, and partici- 
pated in all the battles in which liis regiment, 
the Twenty-fourth Virginia, took part. He 
entered the service .is first sergeant, and left it 
with the rank of first lieutenant. He was 
wounded at the battle of Gettysburg; spent six 
months in the hospital at Staunton, Va., and was 
disabled thereafter for service. At the close of the 
war he returned to Virginia, and was elected 
Clerk of the Carroll County Court. At the end 
of si.x months he gave up that oftiee and came to 
Alabama. He was in the mercantile business 
some years at Leesburg, and from there came to 
Centre. He was elected County Treasurer of 
Cherokee County in 18T7, and holds that office at 
this time, in addition to the clerkship to which 
he was apjiointed in 1880. 

He was married while a young man to Miss 
Xannie I'ullen. of Centre. She died in 1877, 
leaving one child. Bernard. In October, 1878, 
.Mr. Hale led to the altar Miss .Tosie ^f. Davidson, 

of Rutledge, Tenn., and the four children born to 
this union are named respectively: .Marslial E., 
Benjamin F., Elbert and Anna Bell. Mr. and 
Mrs. Hale are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
C'hurch, .South, and he is of .the JIasonic fra- 

The senior Mr. Hale was a merchant and miner 
in Carroll County, \'a., from about 1840 to 18(j5. 

J He was also many years Clerk of that county, and 
Superintendent of Education. He was a member 

' of the Secession Convention of Virginia, and held 
tiie rank of captain during the war. He settled 
in Cherokee County in l.S(;."(, and from there re- 
turned to Virginia three years later. In 1884 he 
left Virginia and settled in \'olutia County, Fla., 

I where he yet resides, and is engaged in mercantile 
business. His wife died in 18.")."). 

A. M. PRATT, M. D. The suljjert uf this 
sketch was born in York District, S. C, Novem- 
ber, 1837, and is the son of John J. and Dorcas I-]. 
(Moore) Pratt. He was reared in Unionviile, S. 
C, where he received his primary and literary 
education, and at the age of eighteen began the 
study of medicine. Having graduated from the 
colleges of Charleston, the Jefferson of Philadel- 
phia, and Stuyvesant University of New York 
City, as M. D., he at once entered into the prac- 
tice of his profession in his native State, where he 
remained for two years. After leaving there he 
located in Carnesvilie, Ga., in 1853; there he 
mai'ried the daughter of Dr. Henry Freeman, who 
was a distinguished physician and who figured 
prominently in the Legislative Halls of Georgia as 
a Representative and Senator. 

Dr. Pratt having practiced his profession for 
several years in a successful and lucrative way, 
and having established himself as a skilled physi- 
cian and successful practitioner, concluded to 
move West; having done so, he located in Cherokee 
County, Ala., in the year 18-57, and in ISGO at 
Centre, where in 18ii3, he was appointed Post 
Surgeon, a position he filled to the close of the 

Dr. Pratt is one of the most successful and pop- 
ular physicians of Northeastern Alabama. Al- 
though the war dissipated his am])le means, he has 
long since recovered, and is at this writing, again 
possessed of a moderate competency. The Doctor 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity and several 



other orders, and is a believer in evolution and all 
other subjects which promote and foster liberty 
of thought and freedom of oi^inions. The Doctor 
has three sisters who possess rare literary attain- 
ments; one a playwright of considerable ability, 
and who has translated many foreign period- 
cal magazines, novels, and other literature into 
the English language; another who has written 
several novels and private histories of the United 
States. The third lister is an extensive traveler 
(at this time she is sojourning in Europe), having 
crossed ths Atlantic Ocean no less than a half 
dozen times, and visited all the provinces and 
principal cities of Europe, and personally met 
several of the potentates. 

John J. Pratt, a younger brother of the Doctor, 
is an inventor of considerable note, being the 
inventor of one of the first type writers: also the 
inventor of the type writer which was awarded 
the highest gold medal at the New Orleans Expo- 
sition. He, John J. Pratt, Jr., is the supei-intend- 
ent of the Hammond Type Writing Company of 
New York City. The Doctor's father, .John J. 
Pratt, Sr., was a native of Newberry, S. C, and 
was twenty-one years Probate Judge of Union 
District, that State; he was also a prominent 
merchant and shoe and leather manufacturer. He 
came to Cherokee County, Ala., in 1851, and was 
here an extensive planter and slave-holder. 
The Doctor's grandfather, John J. Pratt, was a 
native of Salem, Mass. He moved from there to 
Fauquier County, Ya., in 1780, and on to Newberry, 
S. C, in 1790. His forefather came over in the 
noted " Mayflower" in the year 1020. 

Eound Mountain Iron Company, Centre, Ala., 
was born in Home, Ga., August 2(i, 1860, and is 
the son of James Madison and P^mily .Jane (Hoss) 
Elliott. He graduated from Emory and Henry Col- 
lege, Ya., as A. B., class of 187'.t, and immediate- 
ly thereafter engaged at steamboating on the 
Coosa Kiver. Here he was for some time master 
and pilot of the steamboat Magnolia, In 1885 he 
abandoned the river, and accepted a situation as 
book-keeper for the Gadsden Iron Company. He 
remained with that company three years, and has 
since that time been connected with the Round 
Mountain Iron Company. 

Mr. Elliott was married March 15, 1887, to Miss 

Sallie E. Bogan, the accomplished daughter of 
Henry S. and Amanda (Hoss) Bogan. 

JOHN BUTLER WALDEN, Attorney-at law, 
was born in Jasper County, Ga., September 1, 
181G, and is a son of Charles and Sarah (Walker) 
Walden, natives of South Carolina. 

He was reared on a farm, and at the age of 
twenty years, at Wetumpka, Ala., began the study 
of the law, and at Talladega was admitted to the 
bar. He located first in the practice at Lebanon, 
De Kalb County, and was within a short time 
appointed Register in Chancery, and afterward 
appointed -Tudge of the County Court of De Kalb 
C'ounty, He held these offices but a few months, 
when he resigned for the purpose of devoting his 
entire time to the jiractice of the law, and soon 
gained rank in the profession. He was appointed 
Solicitor of the Huntsville Circuit in 18(i2, and 
was shortly afterwards elected by the Legislature 
to that office, and held it the close of the war. 
In 1864 he came to Centre, and has here since 
that time given his whole attention to his pro- 

Mr. Walden was married in December, 1812, to 
Catharine 0. Chambliss, daughter of John and 
Sarah (Pierce) Chambliss, who came from Dar- 
lington District, S. C, to Talladega County in 
1841. Of the children reared by Mr. Walden we 
have the following data: John is a farmer and 
trader in Texas; Charles is a trader at McMinn- 
ville, Tenn. ; Joseph A. studied law of his own 
volition; was admitted to the bar on the day after 
he was twenty-one; was elected Solicitor for Chero- 
kee County by the jjopular vote, and served one 
term only. He holds a high standing in his pro- 
fession as an untiring, zealous advocate. Emily 
married Captain Marable, of Georgia, and Minnie 
is unmarried, and remains with her parents. 

The senior 3Ir. Walden, in about 1800, moved 
to Green County, Ga., and from thence to Jasper. 
He was a lieutenant under General Floyd in the 
War of 1812, He came into Alabama in 1819, 
and located in Autauga County, near old Fort 
Jackson. He died in 1832. Of his seven sons 
John B. is the only one now living. 

His wife was one of those excellent pioneer. 
Christian women. She was a member of the 
Baptist Church over fifty years, and many of her 
ancestors and kinsmen were noted divines. She 



died in 1854, at the age of seventy years. Her 
fatlier, Jeremiah Walker, a Virginian by birth, 
and a gaHant old Revolutionary soldier, was a 
fanner in South C'aroliini. His paternal ancestors 
came from Kiigland. 



JOHN W. TATUNS, (deceased) was born in 
t'alhouu County. Ala., in 183.">: came into Chero- 
kee County in ISti.s, and in January of that year 
married the widow of M. J. Alexander, a daugh- 
ter of Dr. William and Rebecca W. (Parker) ^Sfc- 
Klrath. Mr. McElrath was born in Spartanburg 
District and his wife in Tennessee. 'J"he Doctor 
graduated in medicine from the Cincinnati Med- 

ical College, and in 183<> located in Coosa County, 
Ala. In 1S3'.I he came into Cherokee County, and 
settled within three miles of Centre, where he 
practiced medicine until 1837. In that year, his 
wife's health having become imjjaired, he gave up 
his practice and turned his attention to farming. 
The Doctor was a public-spirited man, noted for his 
cliarity, and for his interest in the general good 
of his neighborhood, lie died in 188.") at the age 
of eighty-seven years, leaving a large estate. His 
wife had died the year before. His father was a 
native of Ireland. 

John W. Tatuns at his death, in 1884, left three 
children: Samuel C, Leonora I., and Wcstly S. 
He was a consistent member of the ilethodist 
Episcojial Church and a highly respected citizen. 


Population: White, 6,312: colored, 143. Area, 
590 square miles. Woodland, all. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 1,409 ; in 
corn, 10,343 ; in oats, 1,179; in wheat, 2,569 ; in 
rye, 480 ; in sugar-cane, 66 ; in tobacco, 41 ; in 
sweet potatoes, 215. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton in 
round numbers, 400. 

County Seat — Cullman ; population, 1,600 ; 
located on South & North Alabama Railroad. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Alabama 
Tribune and Trumpet. 

Postoffices in the County — Baileyton, Bosen- 
berg, Bremen, Crane Hill, Crooked Creek, Chill- 
man, Dreher, Etha, Jones Chapel, Logan, Mar- 
riott, May Apple, Nesmith, Ruby, Sinicoe, Trim- 

This is one of the last counties formed in the 
State, and was organized in 1877, and has an in- 
teresting history, which begins in 1873, when 
John 0. Cullman became the agent for the sale 
of the vast tracts of land belonging to the South iS: 
North Alabama and Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
roads. [See History of Cullman, this volume.] 

^, ^ tJr^ ^lf^ 


Populatiou : AVliite, 10,308 ; colored, 068. 
Area, S-tO square miles. Woodland, all. Meta- 
morpliic, 400 square .miles. Coosa Valley, 140 
square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), it, 150; in 
corn, ^1,552; in oats, 567; in wheat, 7,."i04; in 
tobacco, 85; in sweet potatoes, 2'il. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 4,000. 

County Seat — Edwardsville; population, 600; on 
Georgia Pacific liailroad. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Cleburne 
County Netvs (Democratic), Stundard (Demo- 

Post-offices in the County — Abernathy, Ai, Ar- 
bacoochee. Beecham, Bell's Mills, Belltown, Bor- 
den Springs, Chulafinnee, Cicero, Cold Water, 
Edwardsville, Grantly, Heflin, Hightower, Hoop- 
er's Mills, Kemp's Creelr, Lecta, Micaville, Mus- 
cadine, Oakfuskee, Oak Level, Oak Lone. Pales- 
tine, Kosewood, Slioal Creek, Solomon, Stone 

This county was formed in 1867 from portions 
of Calhoun, Talladega and liandolph Counties, 
and named for the lamented General Cleburne, 
who fell in the forefront of the famous battle at 
Franklin, Tenn., in 1864. Though abounding in 
natural resources, the county is not as fully devel- 
oped as some others in the same region. Since 
the construction of two railroads through the 
county, giving its productions a ready outlet, it is 
winning to itself a thrifty population, and in many 
ways the merits of Cleburne are coming more and 
more to be recognized and appreciated. 

Great inducements exist in the county for cap- 
italists and immigrants, as its mines are stored 
with rich ores, and its lands abound in fertility. 

Cleburne has a varied surface. In the nortli- 
ern end of the county there are rugged interven- 
ing valleys, of fertility. These valley lands are of 
a reddish hue, as is true of the most of the lands of 
this character in this and the northern portion of 
Alabama. The lands which lie along the ridges 
are of a light or grayish color. 

But few of the mountain lands have ever been 
cultivated, as the residents of the county have 
never felt the necessity of leaving the level for the 
higher districts. Along the slopes, however, there 
are good farming lands with yellow sub-soil. The 
remainder of the county is covered with either red 
or gray lands, excejit in the creek and river bot- 
toms, where the soil partakes largely of sand. 

In the western jiortion of the county there is a 
sparser population than in any other section, be- 
cause the lands are regarded as less fertile. Cle- 
burne has many fertile valleys, which are mostly 
devoted to the production of corn, though some 
cotton is planted. Along these valley stretches 
are some of the best farms in the county. The 
lower portion of the county abounds in red fertile 

The productions are corn, cotton, wheat, and 
oats, with minor crops of great importance. 

Near the line of the East & West Alabama 
Kailroad in this county, a very extensive bed of 
manganese has been opened, the property of State 
Senator Hon. W. J. Alexander and a Jacksonville 
la)id company, and has been pronounced by scien- 
tific assayists to be of most excellent quality. 

The soils are admirably suited to the produc- 
tion of apples and peaches. The clover and 
grasses are found to thrive with great readiness, 
and home stock raising is gradually receiving 
more attention. 

The county has many forests of excellent tim- 
ber, the chief growth of which is white, red, Span- 
ish and post oak, sh(>rt and long-leafed pine, wal- 
nut, hickory and gum. 

For many years a gold mine has been success- 
fully worked at Arbacoochee. The same ores 
are also found in other places in the southern 
portions of the cotinty. 

In different parts of the county copper, mica, 
slate, graphite, pyrites, zinc and kaolin are found 
prevailing. Iron exists in great abundance, and 
silver has also been discovered . These await capi- 
tal to be developed. 




The supplies of water in every portion of Cle- 
burne are unfailing, as it is penetrated by such 
streams as the Talla])Oosa river, whieh runs diag- 
onally through the county from northeast to south- 
west, and such streams as Terrapin, Muscoaline, 
Cane, Shoal, Chulafinnee, Cohulga, Dying and 
Snake and Lost Creeks. All these are sustained 
by numerous tributaries which eontril)ute further 
to the supply of water. 

The places of the greatest importance are Ed- 
wardsville, the county seat, Hetlin. Oak licvel, 
ChulaHnne and Arbacoocliee. 

At Edwardsville and Heflin tlieic arc high 
schools of local note. Otlier good schools are 

found in different parts of the county. The 
channels of transportation are the Ceorgia Pacific 
Railroad, and Edwardsville is about midway 
between Atlanta and J5irmingham. The East & 
West railroad, running from Centerville, Ga., to 
Birmingham, runs through the north end of the 
county, and runs near an inexhaustible dejtosit of 
excellent roofing slate. Another important rail- 
way line is being constructed through the county 
from Carrollton, Ga., to Decatur, Ala., by way of 
Oak Level, in this county. 

A large area of (iovcrnineiit lands is yet on the 
market, which can l)e had under the homestead 



Population: White. I'-i, 125: colored, -IIG. Area, 
740 square miles; coal measures, on Lookout and 
Sand Mountains, 4'.I0 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately),?, 409: in corn, 
23,!)"^fl: in oats, 5.115; in wheat, (i.84C: in rye, 
383; in tobacco, 19; in sweet potatoes, 218. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 3,100, 

County Seat — Fort Payne: pojiulation, 350; on 
Alabama Great Southern Kailroad. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — louriiid 

Post-offices in the County — .\ndrews Institute, 
Hlack Oak, Brandon, Chavies, Chumley, Collins- 
ville, Cordell, Cotnam, Crossville, Crumly, Deer 
Head, Denton, Floy, Fort Payne, Geraldine, (ilad- 
ney. Grove Oak, Ilenagar, Ider, Laurel, Lebanon, 
Lookout, Loveless, Luna, Lutterell, Lydia, Ma- 
lum, Jhisgrove, Nicholson's Gap, Pea Hidgc, Por- 
tersville, Kodentown, Sand Mountain. Sandy Mills, 
Skiruin, Snake Creek. South Hill, Stella, Sulphur 
Springs, Ten Brocck, Thirty-Nine. X'allcv Head, 
Whiton, Wills. 

Ho Kalb County took its mime from the 
famous Baron De Kalh. It was constituteil in 

183G. De Kalb lies in the extreme northeastern 
corner of the State, and is bounded by Georgia on 
the east, its extreme northern point touching the 
line of the State of Tennessee. It shares largely 
in the fertile lands and mineral deposits, both of 
which abound in this section of Alabama. Its 
climate, liealthfulness, favorableness of location, 
and natural sources of wealth make it one of the 
most desirable counties in the State. 

De Kalb has been almost doubled within the 
last ten years, which serves to indicate quite fully 
the estimate which is placed upon the county by 
immigrants and investors. This is due to the 
peculiar advantages offered in climate, -diversity 
of productions, mineral deposits, and cheapness of 
lands, all of which are chief factors in tlie pros- 
perity of the county. De Kalb County is occu- 
pied in great part by the two plateaus of Sand 
and Lookout Mountains. The former of these 
constitutes a high plane, whose surface rocks are 
those of the Coal Measures, These two plateaus, 
of which that of Sand Mountain is the greater, 
are separated by Wills A'alley. which cuts entirely 
across tiie county from northeast to southwest. 
This valley embraces the most productive lands of 



De Kalb. It is here that almost all the cotton in 
the county is produced. 

The land along the valleys was very highly 
prized by the first settlers of the County, and but 
little regard was had for that which lay along the 
plateaus. Later, however, the uplands were 
brought into use, and the result of their tillage 
has been peculiarly gratifying. 

They are not only cultivated with far less effort, 
but are found to be almost equal in production 
to the lower soils, when assisted some with 

The lands of the county may thus be divided in 
a general way between the dark, stiff soils of the 
valley and the lighter soils of the plateaus. The 
staple productions are cotton, corn, wheat, oats, 
rye and sweet potatoes. Grasses and clover 
flourish also, and the attention which is being 
given their production is tending to the improve- 
ment of stock. As is true throughout this entire 
section of the State, the lands upon the plateaus 
are those devoted to fruit culture. Apples, pears 
and peaches, and. indeed, all fruits grown in this 
latitude attain perfection. Fruit trees thrive here 
for many years, and the crop is rarely killed or in- 
jured by frosts. Perhajis no section of America 
can display finer specimens of plums than grow 
in this region. The principal timbers of the 
county are oaks, hickory, cherry and short leaf 
pines. These exist in sufficient quantities for all 
domestic purposes. 

DeKalb County has the amplest water supplies 
for all purposes. Streams of rapid and deep cur- 
rents offer inducements for the erection of ma- 
chinery, while cool and everlasting springs issue 

from the hills in every section of the county. 
Lookout Mountain plateau is drained by Little 
lliver and its tributaries, while Sand Mountain is 
drained by Tom Creek and the numerous streams 
which empty into it. Prominent among the 
streams are Long Island, Scarham, Black and 
South Santa Creeks. 

Near Valley Head, in Lookout Mountain 
plateau, is where the beautiful falls of Little River 
occur. They are nearly 100 feet in height, 
with a deep, rocky gorge below them. 

L-on and coal largely prevail in the county. Li 
Willis' Valley there is found a superb quality 
of fire clay, which has become famous. It exists 
also in other parts of DeKalb. 

The kaolin of the county is very fine. Speci- 
mens displayed at the Xew Orleans Exposition 
took the first premium in 188.5, and beautiful 
crockery manufactured from these porcelain clays 
was exhibited there. 

Railroad transportation is enjoyed by the peo- 
ple of the county, as the Alabama threat Southern 
Railroad penetrates it from northeast to south- 
west. Fort Payne, the county seat, Collinsville, 
Lebanon and Portersville are the principal towns 
of the county. 

Public school system is good, and church facil- 
ities abound. 

Lands can be secured upon the most reasonable 
terms possible. There are many Government 
lands yet unsettled, being 32,600 acres, and vast 
quantities of railroad lands, which can be had at 
a marvelously low rate. In other sections, where 
land is purchasable, it can be had for from ^v* to 
%'lh per acre. 



Population: Wliite, 19.808; colore'1, 3.000. 
Are:i. 5'iO s<inare miles. Woodlanil, all. Coal 
measures. 14(i square miles (40 on Lookout Moun- 
tain and 100 on ."^aml Mountain). 

Acres — In cotton, approximately. 17.000; in 
corn. 24,891; in oats, (5,000; in wheat. 7,000: in 
tobacco, 07: in sugar-cane, 9; in sweet potatoes, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, in 
round numbers, 7,.>00. 

County Seat — Gadsden: population, 4,000. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Times 
and yorx. 

Postoffices in the county: Atalla, Aurora, Ball 
Play. Huford, Clear Spring, Coats Hend, Coxville, 
Duck Springs. Etowahton, Gndsilen, Greenwood, 
Hill. Hokes Hluff. Howelton, Keysburgh, Mark- 
ton. Nix. <»ak Hill, Heaves, Red Bud, Seaborn, 
Shahan. Stanfield, Turkeytown, Walnut (Jrove. 

Three-fourths of the county is made up of 
mountain jdateaus or table lands. 

The agricultural resources of the county are 
tine, and when you take into consideration the 
diversity of crops which flourish in it, it is equaled 
by few counties in the State. 

The county contains lands of nearly every va- 
riety, and these lands are adapted to raising profit- 
ably many of the cereals and fruits. Some of the 
richest valley lands to be found in the State are in I 
this county, and these valley lands produce the 
finest staple of cotton, as well as abundant crops 
of corn, oats and wheat. Some of these valleys 
are remarkable for their beauty, as well as their 
fertility, and we mention the Little Wills Valley, 
up which runs the (Jreat Southern Railroad. 

We have these beautiful valleys running through 
the county, in addition to the Coosa River bot- 
toms, as they are called. 

This Coosa bottom land is remarkable for pro- 
ducing a very fine grade of cotton, from which 
the celebrated Coates thread is made. 

It also yields large crops of corn and oats, and 
other small grains. 

10 13 

The county is penetrated from the northeast to 
the southwest by two mountain plateaus and their 
valleys. As before nientioned. nearly three-fourths 
of the county is mountainous, the other fourth 
takes in the three valleys. These valleys are 
known as the Coosa Valley, which averages from 
three to four miles on either side of the river, 
making its width about six or seven miles. 

The other two valleys are known as Big and 
Little Wills Valleys, and are remarkable for their 
beauty and fertility, especially the latter, which 
is the smaller of the two valleys. 

While Etowah County is rich in minerals of 
nearly every description, her mineral treasure is 
not her only wealth. Her agriculturol resources 
are very fine, and her chief products are cotton, 
corn, wheat, oats, millet, sorghum, sweet and Irish 
potatoes, besides the clovers and grasses. The 
amount of tilled lands is nearly <;.i,000 acres. Of 
this amount, nearly 17,000 acres are planted in 
cotton, yielding annually about 7,500 bales. About 
2,50(t acres are planted in corn: 6,0"^.5 acres in 
oats; 7,0.5.3 acres in wheat: ■,'<!<• acres in sweet po- 
tatoes, and about ti7 acres in tobacco. 

The soils of the county vary greatly in the dif- 
ferent localities. The valley lands are quite pro- 
ductive being of a loamy character, and of a dark 
color. These lands are usually stiff, but yield 
abundant crojis when properly cultivated. 

The lands along the ridges and plateaus are of a 
different character, being light, sandy, and easily 
cultivated. L'pon the plateaus crops can be 
rotated very rapidly, as tliey grow more rapidly 
and mature earlier than on the valley lands. 
Among the early settlers the valley lands were 
])rized the most highly, but latterly the plateau 
lands have come quite in demand, and their tillage 
has been very gratifying. These plateau lands 
are not only cultivated with far less effort, but 
when assisted by fertilizers are found to be almost 
equal in production to the lower soils in the val- 

The lands of the countv mav be divided, in 



a general way, between the dark, stiff soils of the 
valleys and the light soil of the plateaus. 

In connection with a description of the soils, 
we mention the fact that in this county there 
are 13,000 acres of Government lands, still open to 
settlers, besides a large quantity of railroad lands, 
which can be bought very cheap, with the mineral 
rights reserved. 

The mountain lands are especially adapted to 
the raising of fruits. Fruits grow upon them to 
the greatest perfection, and the climate, as well as 
the soil, seems adapted to peaches, api)les, plums, 
pears and the smaller fruits, such as strawberries, 
grapes, raspberries and the like. Grape culture 
has proven quite a success, and experts believe that 
as fine grapes can be grown on Sand Mountains 
as in France or any other grape countries. 

In addition to fruits, all garden vegetables flour- 
ish here and some of them reach the highest per- 

Within the jjast few years, the clover known as 
Lespecleza Striata, has spread rapidly over the 
mountain lands of the county, and is even going 
into the. valleys. It affords a luxuriant green pas- 
ture for cattle, horses and sheep — even hogs fatten 
on it. This new clover is self-propagating, and 
grows in the sun as well as under shade. 

Besides the Lespedeza, we have the Bermuda 
grass, which flourishes in this county, affording 
fine pasturage for stock. It is also valualile for 
producing hay. 

The Johnson grass also does well here with cul- 
tivation. These other grasses grow without any 
attention or cultivation. Especially would we 
mention the crab grass, which is indigenous and 
very abundant. It is equal in value to any other 
grass grown in the county. Several of the Etowah 
farmers gather fine crops of hay from this grass, 
which springs up after the wheat and oats have 
been taken from the land. 

There are few counties in the State that offer as 
many inducements to stock raisingas Etowah does 
in consequence of her fine grasses. 

The timber is another source of wealth to the 
county. In the valleys are found forests of oak, 
hickory, chestnut and walnut, while in the flat 
wood region, south of Gadsden, are found large 
numbers of Spanish, red, post, and black-jack 
oaks, and short-leaf pines. Very little of the 
above timber has been used beyond the home mar- 

The long-leaf yellow pine, which is found in 

great abundance along the Coosa Eiver, just on 
the edge of the valley, has been a great source of 
wealth to Etowah County, and especially to the 
city of Gadsden. 

As before stated, the county is crossed midway 
by the 3-tth parallel of latitude and is divided 
north and south by the 8iith degree of west longi- 

Tiie climate is all that could be desired, being 
exempt from either extreme of heat or cold. 

The following is taken from the records of the 
signal service which have been kept in the city of 
Gadsden, by Prof. D. P. Goodhue, for a number 
of years. Of course the average is a fair ajqiroxi- 
mation, and as nearly accurate as can be obtained. 


The winter season averages 40"-^ F. 

" spring " '■ fid 

" summer " " 76 " 

" fall " " 58 " 

" whole year " 58J2 " 


Winter season .- l(i inches 

Spring " 13 

Summer " 11 " 

Fall " 8 " 

Total 48 inches 

The above shows that the county has a very 
generous rainfall, and at the same time its distri- 
bution is such as to practically exempt the county 
from either floods or drouths. 

The general distribution of it, through the 
year, prevents the extremes of heat and cold, 
and gives the county quite an equable climate. 

The whole county is almost a bed of minerals, 
in which nearly every variety is found. It is im- 
possible to give accurate information concerning 
the mineral wealth of the county, because it is 
only partially developed. 

In the county are found the following ores, with 
an analysis of each appended, as far as we have 
been able to obtain them: 

1st. Red Hematite, a fossiliferous ore, yielding 
from 45 to .50 per cent, of metallic iron. This 
ore is found in large quantities along the Coosa 
River, and five miles west of the Coosa, at or 
near Atalhi, is found what is called Red Mountain, 
containing inexhaustible deposits of this ore, and 
is not only one of the largest deposits in the State, 
but is one of the mineral wonders of the American 
continent. The seams vary from eighteen inches 
to three feet in thickness. 



This vast body of fossiliferous ore runs from a 
jjoiiit a few miles east of the city of Tuscaloosa to 
the northeastern limits of the State and is said to 
be loo miles in lengtli by from half a mile to a 
mile wide. This vast deposit passes right through 
tiie county of Etowah. 

In addition to the red hematite, the county 
has large quantities of brown hematite, though 
undeveloped. The<|ualityof this brown hematite 
ore is regarded l)y exi)crts as good, though we have 
no analysis of it. 

Though in its initial state of development, 
the most abundant mineral of the county is coal. 

Around the city of Gadsden the coal deposits 
have been tapped and worked at eight or ten dif- 
ferent points, and it is clearly established that 
there are three veins, one above the other, running 
under the mountain. The top veins alone have 
been worked, and they have averaged from eighteen 
to thirty-six inches in thickness. The yield is a 
soft, bituminous coal, which is very fine for coking. 
It is supposed that the twolower veins are thicker, 
and of a better quality. The quality of the top 
vein improves as you follow it under the moun- 
tain, and (iadsden to-day is mining as good coal 
as is to be found in the State, with a few ex- 

On the western edge of the county, on Straight 
Mountain, east of Murphy's \'alley, the coal fields 
of the county have been tapped, and here they 
show four veins, varying in thickness from eigh- 
teen inches to five feet. It is a soft, bituniiiious 
coal, and makes fine coke. 

To these coal fields on the western edge of the 
county two railroads are in process of construction, 
and these fields will doubtless soon be developed. 
The coal fields, as far as they are known, extend 
under Sand and Lookout Mountains, and all indi- 
cations would lead one to infer, that the quantity 
of coal is simply inexhaustible. 

Mai\ijanc!<i\ — The extent and character of these 
deposits of manganese are hardly known, as until 
the six months, no efforts have been made 
to locate or open up the mines, except by the 
(iadsden Iron, Coal and Heal Estate Co., but the 
surface indications are good. Floats of this ore 
are found on the line of the R. & D. R. R., north- 
east of Gadsden, but the richest deposits are found 
in the western part of the county near the village 
of Walnut Grove, on this same line of railroad, 
the Rome ant! Decatur. 

These mines have been examined by Earle Sloan, 

of the firm of Reccio, Sloan & V'ediles, Birming- 
ham, Ala. We will copy his report: 

" P]ntering gulch along the outcrops we ascend- 
ed comb of ridge affording a bold outcrop of man- 
ganese ore ; a test-shaft was sunk, showing section 
affording vein thirty-five inches in thickness, the 
lower ten inches being an inferior ore, the upper 
twenty-five inches affording ore ranging from forty- 
five to sixty-five per cent, metallic manganese, as 
determined by series of analyses of sections made 
by writers, and also by analysis rendered by J. 
Blodgett Britton, of the Iron Masters' Laboratory, 
Philadelphia, Penn. The ore is low in both phos- 
phorus and sulphur, containing of phosphorus less 
than O.ti per cent.; of sulphur less than 0.05 per 

'• Careful inspection of analysis rendered, shows 
an ore of manganese of the di-oxide class, emi- 
nently adapted to the production of ferro-manga- 
nese, so essential to the manufacture of steel." 

This deposit was also examined by Mr. Carl 
Wentrock, of Birmingham, Ala., who is the min- 
eralogist of the Alabama Mineral Bureau. His 
report was as follows: 

" AVe examined the outcrop for over one mile 
and chose a place for prospecting. On opening 
this, we found a vein of four layers. 

" 1, Six inches of ore (mixed); 3, seven inches of 
clay between; 3, two inches of ore; 4, four inches 
of clay; 5, two and one-half inches of ore; C, 
eight inches of clay; 7, eighteen inches of ore. 

•• This shows a true vein runs through the prop- 
erty. After this, about 100 yards distant and 
thirty feet below in the same course, wc made an- 
other opening, and found the same true vein in a 
better condition, showing a first layer of eleven 
inches solid manganese super-oxide of best quality, 
called soft manganese ore. I went over the prop- 
erty for three miles and found the same outcrop- 
ping and leading veins over the whole distance." 

The deposit of manganese extends over a con- 
siderable area between Blountsville and Walnut 
Grove, but has not been developed. The above 
facts and following analysis we get from Mr. 
James M. Cooper, President of the Gadsden Iron, 
Coal and Real Estate Co. 

Analysis of outcrop of vein, much washed, made 
by J. Blodgett Brittain, June 3, 1887, for the fol- 
lowing substances only: 

Pure metallic Maganese 44.094 

•• Silica 12.160 

" Pliosphorus 106 



Contained of available binoxide of manganese, 

Analysis of specimen from pocket made bj' same 

party on June 22, for the following substances 


Pure metallic 3Iangauese .59.840 

Sulphur 0.000 

Phosphorus 212 

Contained of binoxide of manganese, 93.85. 

Stillwell & Gladding, chemists of the TS'ew 
York Produce Exchange, made the following ana- 
lysis on June 0, 1887. 

Manganese .56.950 

Phosphorus 0.081 

Sulphur 0.0.50 

Other minerals. 

Besides iron, coal, and manganese, the follow- 
ing minerals, rocks, and clays are found in the 
county: Baryta, used in the manufacture of 
mineral paints, is found in different sections of 
the county. 

Building Stones. Lime rock, in great abund- 
ance and easily quarried, blue sandstone of the 
prettiest quality, and yellow sandstone in the 
greatest quantities. 

In addition to the building stones mentioned 
we have a marble quarry containing the varie- 
gated marble of chocolate color, and of the finest 

Bath brick are also to be found, and they are 

Kaolin is found within iive miles of the City of 
Gadsden, though the mines are undeveloped, 
specimens of the finest quality having been ob- 
tained from wells dug at different points. 

Potters' clay of a very fine quality can be found 
almost anywhere in the county. 

Beautiful sjiecimens of galena have also been 
found, but not in working quantities. 

As we have before stated, the extent of these 
mineral dejjosits are not known, but in many cases 
they are known to be very great. 


Population: White, 8,873; colored, 1,2G2. Area 
C60 square miles. Woodland, all. Coal measure 
600 square miles. Generally pine hills, CO square 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 12,341; in 
corn, 2,495; in oats, 3,ii27; in wheat, 4,826; in 
rye, 40; in tobacco, 37; in sweet potatoes, 421. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 5,000. 

County Seat — Fayette; population, 1,000; 
located forty miles from Tuscaloosa, on the Geor- 
gia Pacific Railroad. 

Newspaper published at the County Seat — 
Fayette JournuL 

Postoffices in the Countj^ — Ballard, Boley 
Springs, Brockton, Buck Snort, Cane, Cave Springs, 
Davis Creek, Dublin, Fayette, Froglevel, Glen 
Allen, Handy, Julian. Legg, iMont Calm, New 
River, Newtonville, Palo, Pilgrim, Ridge, Spen- 
cer, Toledo, Wavside, Willingham. 

Fayette County lies in the northwestern quarter 
of the State, and is surrounded by the counties of 
Larmar, Clarion, Walker, Tuscaloosa and Pickens. 
Almost the entire area of the county lies in the 
famous Warrior coal field, and it is destined in 
time to be the center of mining operations second 
to no county in the State. 

This county was organized in 1824, being creat- 
ed out of the territory belonging to the counties of 
Tuscaloosa and Marion. General LaFayette, the 
French military leader, who espoused the cause of 
the struggling colonist during the Revolutionary 
War, was at the time of the creation of this coun- 
try on a visit to America, and in his honor it was 
called Fayette. 

Fayette is not, strictly, speaking, an agricul- 
tural county, but its soils have proven prolific. 

The surface of this county is much broken, and 
its soils are jirincipally a broad loam with clay sub- 



soil, sandy iiplunds aud creek and river bottoms, 
tlie latter being covered with alluvial desposits 
which render them exceptionally fertile. The 
county is well watered, three rivers coursing 
through its borders, viz., Sipsey, Luxapalia and 
North. None of these streams are navigable. In 
addition to these rivers, the county is watered by 
several creeks in all portions, the principal of 
which are Lost, Cane, Wolf and Dry. 

These water-courses render the valleys through 
whicli they tlow very fertile, and the three valleys 
named for the three rivers of the county are of the 
character and richness of the Tennessee valley. 
The crops grown on tJie farms of Fayette County 
are corn, cotton, wheat, oats, rye, sorghum, sugar 
cane, tobacco, peas and a variety of small articles. 
The country is admirably adapted to the culture of 
fruit, and on the uplands peaches, pears and ap- 
ples yield abundantly, and with a little care the 
culture of these articles proves highly remunera- 
tive. The farm in Fayette County alTords a good 
living, and the people can raise everything neces- 
sary to sustain life comfortably on the county's 
soil. Considerable attention is now being given 
to the subject of stock raising, and, as the results 
of experiments in this line become generally known , 

this industry will become one of the prominent 
.sources of wealth. 

Fayette County need not depend on either agri- 
culture or stock raising for a future of greatness. 
Its bosom covers a wealth of mineral resources. 
The coal supply of the county is practically inex- 
haustible, while iron ore of a sujjerior quality of 
fineness abounds in limitless quantity. The prox- 
imity of these two articles can only result in. the 
establishment of works to i^roduce pig iron, and 
when this is done the county will enter on an era 
of prosjierity which will jilace it in the front rank 
of Alabama's progressive counties. 

1'he resources of Fayette have remained unde- 
veloped for want of facilities of transi)ortation, 
but now the (leorgia Pacific Railroad is completed 
through it from east to west, and it is thereby 
by rendered accessible. Other roads projected, 
tiirough the mineral region of Alabama will pene- 
trate Fayette, and in the near future its mineral 
resources will become as well known as those of 
counties which have been more favored in the 
matter of transportation facilities. 

The health of the county is excellent. The 
people "'are law-abiding, industrious, thrifty, hos- 
pitable and patriotic. 


Population: White, 30,000; colored, 15,000. 
Area, 9G0 square miles. Woodland, all. Coal 
measures, 7C0 square miles; Cahaba fields, i:SO 
square miles; \'alley lands, 70 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 15,000; in 
corn, :5O,9O0: in oats, 4,500; in wheat, 105,089; 
in rye, 83; in tobacco, 55; in sweet potatoes, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 6,000, 

County Seat — Hirmingham: jiopulation, 30,0(t0; 
at tlie junction of the Louisville & Nashville and 
Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Railroads. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Aijc 

(Democratic), Evening Chronicle, Herald (Inde- 
pendent), Alabama Christian Advocate (Meth- 
odist), Alabama Sentinel (Democratic), Prohibit- 
ionist (Prohibitionist), Furnace and Factory, 
Southern Industries and Planters' Jour naJ (Agri- 

Postottices in the County — Alice, Argo, Avon- 
dale, Ayres, Baylor, Birmingham, Brake, Brevard, 
Brock's Gap, Brownsville, Clay, Coalburgli, Dolo- 
mite, Earnest, Ezra, Curley's Creek, Ilenryellen, 
Huffman, Jonesborough, Leeds, McCalla, Morris, 
Mount Pinson, New Castle, Oxmoor, Partridge, 
Porter, Pratt Mines, Rasburgh, Rolibin's Cross 



Roads, Scrap, Short Creek, Sloss, Toad Yiue, 
Trussville, Warrior Station, Wetona, Wheeling, 

Jefferson County was established in December, 
1819. The territory was taken from Blount, and 
retains about its original boundaries. It is in the 

centre of the State, south of Blount and Walker, 
west of Shelby and Saint Clair, north of Shelby, 
and east of Tuscaloosa and Walker. The county 
was named for Hon. Thomas Jefferson, of Vir- 
ginia. [See History of Birmingham, this vol- 
ume. 1 


Population: White, 10,000; colored, 2,000. 
Area, 590 square miles. Woodland, all. Gravelly 
hills 550; coal lands, 40 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton, apjjroximately, 15,245; in 
corn, 28,300; in oats, 440; in wheat, 5,630; in rye, 
75; in tobacco, 45; in sweet potatoes, 625. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 5,200, 

County Seat — Vernon; population, 300; located 
28 miles from Columbia, Miss. 

Newspaj)ers jniblished at County Seat — Courier 
and Lamar News (both Democratic). 

Postoffices in the County — Angora, Anro, 
Beaverton, Cansler, Detroit, Fernbauk, Gentry, 
Hudson, Jewell, Kennedy, Kingville, Millport, 
Molloy, Moscow, Pine Sjjrings, Purnell, Vernon. 

This county was formed in 1860, and named 
Jones; in 1808 the name was changed to that of 
Sanford, and in 1877 its present designation was 

Remote from transportation, the county of 
Lamar has been placed at great disadvantage, 
uothwithstanding its rich stores of mineral and 
the productiveness of its soils. 

Like the most of this section of Alabama, the 
surface of Lamar is hilly and broken, with many 
productive valleys. The soil along the oak up- 
lands is superior, while that along the pebbly 
ridges is barren. The general character of the 
soils of Lamar is that of red loam. The best lands 
in the county are those found along the uj^lands, 
or table lands, and those alona: the banks of the 

streams. But there is a mixture of sand in all the 
lands of the county. The soil is easily tilled 
under all circumstances. 

The chief productions of the county are cotton, 
corn, wheat and oats. Nearly, or quite, one-half 
of the tilled lauds of Lamar is devoted to the 
production of cotton. Grasses grow here sponta- 
neously, and afford rich pasturage for stock. Bet- 
ter grasses are cultivated, and much attention is 
devoted to stock raising, and, with commercial 
outlets, this would be one of the chief industries 
of the county. The forests of Lamar are heavily 
timbered with short-leaf pine, the various species 
of oak, hickory, ash, chestnut and sassafras. 

The drainage of Lamar is secured through But- 
tahatchie River and Luxapalila, Weaver, Coal 
Fire and Yellow creeks, all of which have large 
branches and tributaries. The river and creeks 
are finely suited to machinery, by reason of their 
immense water-power. 

The mineral products of the county are iron, 
coal, and valuable stones for building purposes. 

The county now enjoys railroad transportation 
since the passage of the Georgia Pacific through 
its territory. With the completion of this great 
line the county will be speedily appreciated and 

Vernon, Moscow and Millport are towns of 
local importance, the first mentioned being the 
county seat. Schools and churches are found in 
every part of the county. 


Population: White, 12,-ilT: colored, 15,045. 
Area, 010 square miles. Woodland, all. All 
nietaniorphic; but the rocks, overabout 250 square 
miles in the soutliern jwrt of the county, are 
covered witli stratified drift. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 51,889; in 
corn, 30,i;i;: in oats, 11,018; in wheat, 8,(j'.):; in 
rice, 10; in tobacco, 11; in sugar-cane, 'iOf>: in 
sweet potatoes, !)"^5. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, l-t,lS'.i. 

County Seat — Opelika; population 4,000; located 
on the Western Alabama IJailroad, at the junction 
of the Columbus. Western & East Alabama Kail- 
road . 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Demo- 
crat and Rejmhlican. At Lively — Saturdaii Even- 
iiKj Xe%v» (Democratic). 

I'ostofbces in the County — Auburn. Beulah, 
Gold Hill. Halawaka, Lively, Loacliapoka, Jfe- 
chanicsville, -Mott's Mill, Opelika. Koxana. Salem, 
Smith Station, Wacoocliec, Waverly and Yonges- 

This county, organized in accordance with an 
act approved December 15, 1880, was formed from 
portions of Chambers, Kussell, Macon and Talla- 
poosa Counties, and named in honor of Gen. 
liobert E. liCe. It is located in a high and 
hcalthfnl section of country in the east-central 
l)ortion of the State, and is entirely free from 
malaria. The elevation above sea level ranges 
from TOO to 850 feet, and the water from wells 
and springs is exceptionally fine. The surface 
is undulating, and the entire county is well 
watered bv creeks and smaller streams which 

never fail. The Chattahoochee Kiver forms the 
eastern boundary of the county, and is one contin- 
uous chain of falls along the entire line, affording 
rare facilities for manufacturing enterprises. In 
addition to this fine water, the'-e is not a commu- 
nity in this county that does not already enjoy the 
advantages of water-power grist and flouring mills. 

The county is well timbered, principally with 
long- and short-leafed pine, though oak, hickory, 
j)oplar, ash, maple, walnut, dogwood, the gums 
and cherry abound. 

There are fine deposits of soapstone, granite 
and lime rock in the county, and attention is now 
being given to the quarrying of building stone 
in the western part of the county, while the 
lime works near Yongesboro are making large 
quantities of lime for shipments to the markets of 
this and adjoining States. Considerable excite- 
ment has been caused recently by the discovery of 
of large beds of superior soapstone and iron ores 
in the vicinity of fiold Hill, an extensively prosper- 
ous community in the county, ten miles northwest 
of Opelika on the Columbus it Western Kailroad. 

Few counties in the State enjoy superior advan- 
tages in transportation facilities. Two trunk 
lines cross the county, while the East Alabama 
llailroad pours into Opelika almost the entire 
produce of Chambers and a large amount of that 
of Randolph County. The model railroad of the 
south, the Western Railroad of Alabama, crosses 
the county from west to east, and the Columbus 
& Western from southeast to northeast, giving 
the county about seventy-five miles of railway. 
[See Opelika, this volume.] 



AiMU'KX, one of the most moral and cultured | road seven miles from Oje'.ika, and sixty miles 
communities to be found anywhere, is a town of from .Montgomery. The State Polytechnic Insti- 
1,5011 inhabitants situated on the Western Rail- tute and the Agricultural and Mechanical College 




is located here. Brownsville, Loachapoka, Salem 
and Yongesboroiigh are pleasant towns in the 
county that enjoy fine railroad and school advan- 
tages. The various neighborhoods in the county 
have good schools and churches, and new settlers 
are accorded hearty welcome. 

Land can be had from $2 to $20 per acre. 

The valuation of taxable property in Lee County 
for the year 1887 is *3,017,!i3S, as shown by the 
abstract of assessment filed with the Auditor. 


In 1862 an act was passed by Congress donating 
public lands to the several States and Territories 
for the purpose of establishing colleges "for the 
liberal and practical education of the industrial 
classes." Owing to the demoralization incident 
to the civil war, and the subsequent period of re- 
construction, this grant, for ten years, was unutil- 
ized by the State of Alabama. Finally, in Feb- 
ruary, 1872, during the administration of Gov. 
R. B. Lindsay, an act Avas passed by the State 
Legislature accepting the national grant, and in- 
corporating a college pursuant to the Federal act. 
The Board of Trustees was immediately appointed, 
and by the latter part of Jlarch the college was 
organized and in operation. 

The proceeds of the sale of the land scrip furnish 
the only permanent endowment for strictly col- 
legiate purposes. The amount of public land that 
fell to the share of Alabama was 240,000 acres, 
which realized on sale $2.53,500. The sum is in- 
vested in State bonds bearing eight per cent. — 
which rate is guaranteed as perpetual — making 
the permanent annual income $20,280. About 
ninety per cent, of this income is used in the pay- 
ment of salaries. 

In 1884, the State Legislature appropriated to 
the college $30,000, and in 1887 $12,500 more for 
technical education. According to an act of 
1885, one-third of the net proceeds arising from 
the ta.xation of the commercial fertilizers sold in 
the State goes to defray tlie expenses of the experi- 
mental station. This fund has averaged about 
$8,000 per annum. By a recent act Congress has 
made an annual appropriation of $15,000 to aid 
the experiment station. An annual income of 
about $1,500 is derived from the incidental fees. 

The Congressional Act forbidding the use of any 
of the endowment fund for building purposes, and 
the State treasury being dejileted in 1872, the 
Legislature was forced to offer the location of the 

college to the community making the most liberal 
bid in buildings or money. In the village of Au- 
burn, in 1858, through the zealous efforts of Rev. 
L. B. Glenn, president of their Board of Trustees, 
the Methodists of Alabama had erected a hand- 
some structure for a college, known as the East 
Alabama Male College. 

The structure was a handsome brick building 
four stories in height, of the Italian school of 
architecture. It was one hundred and sixty by 
seventy-five feet, containing thirty-eight rooms. 
Its erection cost $75,000. Through the generosity 
of the Methodist denomination, this commodious 
building was proferred the State for the accommo- 
dation of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
and easily won the location over many competitors. 
This building, with nearly all its valuable contents, 
furniture, laboratories aiul museums, was burned, 
June 24, 1887. 

The new building, now in process of construc- 
tion, will be upon the same basement as the old 
building, and will conform, in the main, to the 
same proportions, with such changes and modern 
improvements as are desirable. It will be an ele- 
gant and impressive structure, finished off with 
pressed brick, and stone trimmings. The new 
chemical laboratory at the north end of the cam- 
pus has been recently completed. It is a stately 
building sixty by one hundred feet, two stories high, 
with a tower, and is of the same finish as the main 

Langdon Hall is two-stories high, and is ninety 
by fifty feet. The first story is appropriated to 
the use of the wood and machine shop of mechanic 
arts; the second story is usea as the College 
Audience Hall. 

To the rear of Langdon Hall stands the boiler 
house, and a single story brick building, seventy- 
two by thirty-two feet, divided into two rooms 
for the forge and foundry departments. The 
Chambers residence adjoining the campus has re- 
cently been purchased, and furnishes offices and 
lecture rooms for some of the officers of the Col- 
lege. Ultimately, it will be used as a dormitory. 
The college also owns two residences, and several 
out buildings on the experiment station farm. 

Objects — Faculty — According to the act of 
Congress, the leading object of this institution is, 
" excluding other classical and scientific studies, 
and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture 
and the mechanic arts, in such a manner as the 



Legislature of the State may prescribe, in order to 
promote the liberal and practical education of the 
industrial classes in the several pursuits and jiro- 
fessions of life." 

United States Commissioner Eaton says in his 
report of 1883: "These colleges seek to educate 
for leading industries. They aim also to prepare 
by a general education for a share of the govern- 
ment of the people." Since its organization in 
18T>', the college has kept steadily in view these 
main objects. About nineteen-twentieths of the 
salaries, and more than this ratio of the e.xpendi- 
tures for apparatus, has been in behalf of the 
department ever since. Seven of the eight original 
claims pertained to a strictly technical college, and 
one to the '"classical studies" referred to in the 
Act of Congress, The first faculty consisted of 
the president, who was also (1) i)rofessor of Politi- 
cal Economy and Rhetoric, and professors of (2) 
Pure Mathematics. (3) Analytical and Agricul- 
tural Chemistry, (4) Natural History and Civil 
Engineering, (5) Practical Agriculture and Hor- 
ticulture, (<)) Moral Philosophy, and English 
Literature, (7) Ancient and Modern Languages, 
(S) Military Service and Engineering. With 
the e.xcejition of the chair of Ancient Languages, 
all of these chairs, bearing some slight modifica- 
tion, remain intact. In 1883 Greek was elimin- 
ated from the chair of Ancient Languages and 
Latin was associated with History. In 188'i, Latin 
was combined with English into a chair. In 1884 
the Department of Mechanic Arts was established 
under an instructor. Tiiere are now also an 
adjunct professor of Modern Languages, and two 
instructors for the fourth class. 

The faculty and officers at present are as follows: 
William LeKoy i$roun. M. A., LL. I)., Presi- 
dent, and Professor of Physics and Astronomy ; 
(•tis D. Smith, .\. M., Professor of Mathematics; 
P. H. Mell, .Ir.. M. E.. Ph. I)., Professor of 
Natural History and Geology ; James H. Lane, 
C. E., A. M., Professor of Civil Engineering and 
Drawing: J. S.Newman, Professor of Agriculture 
and Director of the Experiment Station : Charles 
C.Thach, B. E., Professor of English and Latin ; 
N. T. Lupton, A. M., M. D., LL. D., Professor 
of (ieneral and Agricultural Chemistry and State 
Chemist ; Lieut. M. C. Richards, 'US. Artillery, L'. 
S. A. [W'est Point], Commandant and Professor of 
Military .Science ; (icorge H. Hryatit, M. E. [Mass. 
Institute Technology], Instructor in .Mechanic 
Arts: George Petrie, M. A. [University of \'ir- 

ginia]. Adjunct Professor of Modern Languages 
and History : L. W. Wilkinson, B. Sc, B. S. Bur- 
ton, H. Sc, Assistants in the Chemical Laboratory; 
C. 11. Ross, B. Sc, V. L. Allen, B. Sc, Assistants 
in Mathematics and English; J. II. Drake, M. D., 
Surgeon; C. C. Thach, Recording Secretary; E. 
T. Glenn, Treasurer. 

Previous to this organization the offices and 
chairs were filled as follows: The presidency by 
Rev. I. T. Tichenor, D. D. (18:2-8-^) : W. 
L. Broun, LL. D., (1882-83): Col. D. F. Bojd, 
(1883-84); the Chair of Agriculture by Prof. W. 
H. Jemison(18T2); President Tichenor (18:3-78); 
Col. W. H. Chambers (1878-83); Prof. W. C. 
Stubbs (1881-83); Engineering by Prof. J. B. 
Read (1872); Col. R. A. llardaway (1873-81); 
Chemistry by Prof. W. C. Stubbs (1872-85); Eng- 
lish by Prof. B. B. Russ (1872-78); Prof. G. W. 
Maxson (1878-84); Mathematics by Prof. Alex- 
ander Hogg (1872-74); Ancient Languages by 
Prof. J. T. Dunklin (1872-8G); Natural History 
was united with Chemistry until 1S77, when Prof. 
E. Q. Thornton was elected (1877) ; Military Science 
and Tactics and office of Commandant by Gen. G. 
P. Harrison (1872-73). For several years this 
chair was filled by the Professor of Engineering; a 
United States officer is now detailed to discharge 
its duties. Four professors have died while 
connected with the institution. Prof. B. B. 
Ross in 1878; Prof. E. Q. Thornton in 1878; 
Col. W. H. Chambers in 18,s3; Prof. J. T. Dunk- 
lin, 1886. 

Courses — Studies — Degrees— li the above enu- 
meration of departments indicate that the Board 
has always addressed itself in good faith to 
meet the letter and spirit of the law that requires 
the college to teach such branches of learning as 
are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, equally has the faculty shown itself in 
accord with the predominance of the scientific 
element by the arrangement of the courses of 
instruction. Instruction was at first offered in 
four regular courses: (1) Agriculture, (2) Science, 
(3) Civil Engineering, (4) Literature. Three of 
these, it is seen, were purely scientific; the fourth 
one was also well filled with science. The three 
first courses have undergone little or no change. 
Modern languages were eliminated from them in 
l.ss3,and agricultureand science were consolidated, 
leaving two courses strictly teclinical. Greek was 
eliminated from the literary course, and French 
and German were substituted . These three courses 



are now known as— (1) Chemistry and Agriculture 
(2) Mechanics and Engineering, (3) General 

Course I. includes theoretical and practical in- 
struction in those branches that relate to chemis- 
try and agriculture, and is especially adaptetl to 
those who propose to devote themselves to agricul- 
ture or chemical pursuits. 

Course II. includes Ihe principles and applica- 
tions of the sciences that directly relate to civil 
and mechanical engineering, and is adapted to 
those who expect to enter the profession of en- 

Course III. has been arranged to give a general 
and less technical education in subjects of science 
and language to meet the wants of those students 
who have selected no definite vocation in life, as 
well as of those who propose ultimately to engage 
in teaching, or in some commercial or manufac- 
turing business. 

The three courses require four years for gradua- 
tion. Tlie first two years' work is substantially 
the same for all. 

Freshman Year (introductory to ull courses) — 
English grammar and the principles of English 
composition, history of United States, algebra after 
quadratic equations, geometry (six books), physics, 
linear drawing and grapliic studies, physiology, 
agriculture, mechanic arts (covering a course of 
carpentry, turning and pattern-making). In the 
general course, Latin (Virgil, Cicero and com- 
position) is substituted for physics and physiology. 

Sophomore Year (common to all courset) — Khet- 
oric, critical study of American poetry, plane and 
spherical trigonometry, solid geometry, surveying 
and mensuration, general chemistry, theoretical 
and practical agriculture, or modern languages 
for students who have decided to follow the course 
in engineering, drawing in projection, shades and 
shadows and jjerspective, mechanic arts (embracing 
a course in moulding and casting iron), forge work 
in iron and steel, and lectures on the working of 
metals. In the general course, Latin (Cicero, 
grammar and com]iosition) is substituted for 

At the end of the second year the courses di- 
verge, and the work in the junior and senior 
classes become more special in the several lines 

The studies pursued in common by all mem- 
bers of junior and senior classes are: In junior 
year — English, history of literature, critical study 

of English poetry and prose, elements of criticism, 
political economy, physics, rational mechanics, 
treated graphically, molecular mechanics, prop- 
erties of matter, military science. In senior 
year: English criticism continued, pliysics, prac- 
tical application of electricity, astronomy and me- 
teorology, geology, mineralogy, military science. 

I. The special studies pursued in chemistry 
and agriculture are: In Junior year — (1) Recita- 
tions and lectures in industrial and theoretical 
chemistry,qualitative analysis and laboratory prac- 
tice; {'I) Theoretical and practical agriculture, 
stock-raising and feeding, etc.; (3) Zoology, with 
practical laboratory work in the study of insects; 
(4) Lectures and analytical laboratory work in bot- 
any. In Senior year: (1) Lectures on agricultural 
chemistry, including "a thorough discussion of 
the origin, composition and classification of soils, 
the composition and growth of plants, the sources 
of plant food and how obtained, the imj)rovement 
of soils, the manufacture and use of fertilizers, the 
chemical principles involved in the rotation of 
crops, in the feeding of live stock, and m the va- 
rious operations carried on by the intelligent and 
successful agriculturist" ; (■^) Agriculture, the ob- 
jects and results of experiments, proj^agation, 
planting, pruning, and cultivation of plants, farm 
management and improvement; (3) Zoology con- 

II. The course in Mechanics and Engineering 
embraces the following special studies: In Junior 
year — (1) Analytical geometry, descriptive geom- 
etry; ("-i) Engineering and laying out curves, lev- 
eling, grading, construction of railroads and com- 
mon roads, Henck"s Field Book ; (3) Technical 
drawing in perspective, shades and shadows, ma- 
chines and buildings. In the Senior Y^ear — (1) 
Differential and integral calculus, with their prac- 
tical application: (".3) Engineering, building ma- 
terial, resistance of materials, roofs and bridges, 
graphic and mathematical problems in strains, 
location and construction of roads, Wheeler's en- 
gineering; (3) Technical di'awing in topography 
and machines. 

III. The general course offers special instruction 
in Junior year in: (1) Latin, Tacitus, Horace, 
composition; (2) Analytical geometry: (3) French 
and German. In Senior year: A full course in 
French and German is offered in addition to the 
scientific and other studies pursued in common 
with the other courses. 

In fine, according to President Broun's announce- 



mcnt: "The college endeavors to subject each 
student under itsintluenoeto the exact and accurate 
training of science-discipline, giving prominence 
in its instruction to the sciences and their api)lica- 
tionssofarasthe facilities at itsdisixisal will permit. 

'• The essential discipline obtained by an accn- 
arteand critical studyof languages is not neglected. 
All students are refpiircd to study the English 
language in each course of study for a degree, thus 
giving it special prominence. The Latin, French 
and German languages are taught, and opportu- 
nity for their study is offered to students in any 
course. In the general course they are re(|uired 
for a degree." 

I'ntil 18S3, four (different) degrees were con- 
ferred; subsequently only one, Haclielor of Science, 
has been conferred. There is a post-graduate 
course in Alining Engineering, leading to the de- 
gree of M. E. Master of Science and t'ivil Engi- 
neer are conferred upon graduates on examination 
after at least one year's residence at the college. 
Xo honorary degrees are conferred. 

Atlinidance — Graduates — The success of the 
college on the new line, if not brilliant, was stable. 
To be sure, some practical, narrow-minded people 
pooh-poohed at book-farming, and lifteen years 
ago there was a dearth of technical pursuits in the 
South to induce students to pursue technical 
courses as a means of securing a sure and ready in- 

Farming had not then advanced to the j)oint of 
science and protit that it now occupies, and that 
enables it to offer such flattering rewanls to young 
men who, though without capital, may be 
possessed of scientific training. Indeed, none of 
those material walks had then been developed that 
have since made Alabama the cynosure of the 
world, and that have created a demand for skill 
in all branches of mechanics. Still, the college 
grew. The attendance the first session was 103; 
in IKSO it was 2T0. For various causes a jieriodof 
de])ression intervened, but for several years past 
the attendance has been steadily increasing. The 
numbers of students in attendance the last session 
lSKO-87 was 18.5. Of these, ten were resident 
graduates, 1.'5 seniors. 24 juniors, 5'! sophomores, 
'Si freshmen. 

The College has given tuition, altogether, to 
about 1,G()() students, of whom l.">t) — nearly ten per 
cent., the usual rate in. Southern institutions — have 
graduated. In the distribution of this jiatronage, 
the one classical chair did not. as has been charged 

in some quarters, overshadow tiie other five chairs 
of science; the sheaves of the three scientific 
courses did not make obeisance to the solitary 
course, called literary. During the first decade, 
according to the records, ninety-four students 
graduated as follows : In engineering, 3i!; science, 
and agriculture, ■^U; literature, 3'^. 

Sixty-jiine of these, about seventy per cent., 
engaged in those ]iursuits, "which," according to 
Commissioner Eaton, "the aid given to their 
Alma Mater was intended to promote."' Of this 
number, 'ii were teachers, \i farmers, 4 manu- 
facturers, T civil engineers. T scientists, IT mer- 
chants. Several of these young men have taken 
leading positions in their j)rofession8. Lai-ge 
numbei'S of these graduates began their careers as 
teachers, and it is to the credit of the institution 
that they have given eminent satisfaction. 

No data are available to show the occupation of 
those who have graduated during the last five 
years. It is to be presumed that the per cent, fol- 
lowing technical courses is even higher than the 
above exhibit. 

Nine-tenths of the 1500 under-graduates are en- 
gaged in other than the learned professions, and 
iiave carried into their life work all the benefits of 
the valuable instruction in science given in the 
lower classes. 

Pravtiral Work — Eqiiipinent — The Board has, 
from the first, done all in its power to develop the 
practical work of the college. Its desires and de- 
signs have been long thwarted, or at least tram- 
meled, by lack of means. It must beborne in mind 
that an equipment for technical instruction is ex- 
pensive. Some subjects can be successfully taught 
in a bare room — some advantage possibly accruing 
from a bench and a blackboard. Not so scientific, 
technological courses. Plants for jiractical agricul- 
ture, for engineering, mechanic arts, physics, 
natural histor\' — are all expensive. Not a cent of 
the endowment could be touched: for twelve long 
years not a dollar did the State appropriate. Only 
incidental fees and. at first, tuition were available 
for this end. Witii their funds a farm was 
purchased, and, at an expense of §2,000, was 
stocke<l and jnit in repairs. Though inadequate for 
all the i)urposes desired, it sufficed for much valu- 
able research under Dr. Tichenor, and Professors 
Chambers and Stubbs. A chemical laboratory was 
ei|uii)ped. the department of engineering furnished 
witii necessary instruments, and even an effort was 
made to obtain a slight equijjment for mechanics. 



The impecunious condition of the Board was finally 
relieved in 1884 by the State appropiation of §30,- 
000. As soon as judicious investigation could be 
made of an untried field, the dejiartment of me- 
chanic arts was established after the plan of the 
leading technical institutions in this country and 
Europe; a large farm with proper appliances was 
bought, and a thoroughly appointed experiment 
station was organized, and all the departments of 
science were furnished with the most improved 
apparatus for field and laboratory use. Unfortu- 
nately, much of this valuable apparatus was de- 
stroyed by the recent fire. However, neither the ex- 
2")eriment station nor the department of mechanic 
arts sustained any injury. By means of the State 
appropriation, made in 188", the equipment of 
mechanic arts has been completed, and the dejjart- 
ments of engineering, natural history, physics, and 
chemistry partially rehabilitated after their de- 
struction. Laboratory instruction is now offered 
in the following departments: Mechanic Arts, Ag- 
riculture, Civil Engineering, Technical Draw- 
ing, Chemistry, Physics, Natural History. It 
may be well to specify the equipments and facili- 
ties for instructions in these departments of science 
and manual training. 

I. Agriculture and Horticulture — The farm 
contains 2"-i<! acres, and is supplied with illustrative 
specimens of stock of select varieties. By Act of 
the Legislature the experiment station for the State 
of Alabama is located at Auburn. The Professor 
of Agriculture is also Director of the Experiment 

" This public work done at Auburn in behalf of 
the agricultural and industrial interests of the 
State affords to students an unusual opportunity 
to become familiar with its agriculture, its defects 
and remedies. 

"The Exjjeriment Station is not a model farm; 
but a i^lace where experiments and scientific inves- 
tigations in agriculture are made, at the public ex- 
pense, for the common good, and where the young 
men at the college receive instruction in the 
methods applied. 

" The students of agricultitre accompany the pro- 
fessor in the field, garden, conservatory, stock- 
yard, etc., where lectures are delivered in presence 
of the objects discussed." 

All students of the fourth class attend lectures 
in this department. Instruction continues through 
the third, second and first classes. 

II. Mechanic Arts — The laboratory is thor- 

oughly equipped in all four departments. The 
power for running the apparatus in this department 
is derived from a twenty-five horse-power Harris- 
Corliss automatic engine, which is supplied with 
steam by a thirty horse-power steel horizontal 
tubular boiler of most approved design. A Deane 
steam pump and a heater for the feed-water form 
a part of the steam apparatus. 

The equij)ment for the wood-working shop com- 
prises the following: 20 double wood-working 
benches, each with complete set of carpenters' 
tools; 20 turning lathes, 10-inch swing, each with 
complete set of tools; 1 double circular saw; 1 band 
saw; 1 board planing machine; 1 buzz planer; 3 
scroll saws (power); 1 large pattern maker's lathe, 
16-inch swing; 1 3G-inch grindstone. In addi- 
tion to these, the tool-room is supplied with a 
variety of extra hand tools for special work. 

The equipment for the foundry consists of 
moulding benches for twelve students, each sup- 
j^lied with a complete set of moulder's tools; a 
14-inch cupola with all modern improvements, 
capable of melting 1,000 pounds of iron per 
hour ; a brass furnace in which can be melted 
100 pounds of brass at a heat, with a set of cruci- 
bles, tongs, etc., also a full supply of ladles, large 
and small moulding flasks, special tools, etc. 
The forge shop equipment consists of twelve 
hand forges of new pattern, each with a set of 
smith's tools, anvil, etc. The blast for all the 
forges is supplied by a No. o Sturtevant steel pres- 
sure blower (which also furnishes blast for the 
foundry cupola); and a No. lo Sturtevant exhaust 
blower draws the smoke from the fires into the 
smoke flues and forces it out through the 

The machine shop is furnished with the fol- 
lowing machines and appliances : 

Six engine lathes, 14-incli swing and two ditto 
IG-inch swing; one speed lathe, one 20-inch drill 
press, one post drill jiress, one jslaner, 22x22 in. by 
5 ft., one 15-inch shaper, one Universal milling 
machine, one corundum tool grinder, one bench 
emery grinder. Vise benches for twelve students 
are provided; each bench is supplied with vise, 
sets of files, chisels, hammers, etc. The tool 
room is well supplied with cutting and measuring 
tools, shop appliances, etc. 

This course is obligatory upon the students of 
the three lower classes (fifth, fourth and third.) 
For satisfactory reasons a student may be excused 
from this laboratorv work by the facultv. 



Tlie full work of each class is six hours per week, 
ill three exercises of two hours each. 

I'resideut liroun says: "The work performed 
by the students is as indruclive in character as in 
any other college laboratory; the classes are taught 
in sections under the supervision of the professor. 
There is no attempt to teach students skill in con- 
structing s])ecial article^ of commercial value, but 
all exercises are systematically arranged and de- 
signed for purpo.^es of education. The >rechanic 
Ai't Laboratory is used as an auxiliary in indus- 
trial education, to instruct in the arts that consti- 
tute the foundation of various industrial pursuits, 
thus aiding in giving mentally and manually, in 
theory and practice, that sound education that 
will, in a measure, fpialify a young man to enter 
upon some one of the associated industries; that 
education wliich comes of training the eye and the 
hand as well as the mind, and tends to associate 
.skilled manual and mental labor." 

III. Civil Eiigiurcring ami DniiciiK/ — This de- 
partment, having recently had valuable additions 
made to its equijiment, is now well supplied with 
instruments, with which all important field work 
is taught. All the students in the two lower 
college classes are required to take drawing. Well- 
lighted drawing rooms are provided with suitable 

IV. Chemisfry — The entire chemical depart- 
ment of the college, the professors' lecture-room, 
student laboratory. State laboratory, and offices are 
situated in the new chemical laboratory building. 

This building affords accommodation to sixty 
analytical students; and all of its rooms are 
furnished with the best of modern appliances for 
analyzing, assayiiig — in short, for all fields of ex- 
perimental and original work. The student labora- 
tory is provided with gas and water, filtering 
pumps, analytical balances, and working tables for 
each student; indeed, ''it is provided with every- 
thing necessary for instruction in chemical manip- 
ulation, in the rpialitative and quantitative analy- 
sis of soils, fertilizers, minerals, mineral waters, 
technical products. It is perfectly equipped for 
the special study of practical chemistry." Acourse 
of systematic lal)oratory work is carried on in con- 
nection with each course of lectures. The labora- 
tory is open from !• \. M. to .i v. m., five days in 
the week, liy law, the Professor of Chemistry is 
also State Chemist. In the State laboratory work 
is done for the State Uepartment of Agriculture, 
and the Experiment Station. Several hundred 

quantitative analyses are annually made of fertil- 
izers, soils, and mitierals. 

V. Pliysirs — X'aluable additions are constantly 
being made to this department. Practical work is 
given in the applications of electricity, manipula- 
tion of batteries, dynamos, circuit-laving, etc. A 
physical laboratory will be equip])ed when tlie new 
l)uilding is completed. 

VI. Natural History — In the junior class, con- 
siderable time is devoted to systematic and struc- 
tural botany, and to advanced laboratory work 
with the microscope, in the preparation of speci- 
mens showing plant structure, sufficient not only 
to familiarize the students with the methods of 
j)lant building and cellular organizations, but also 
to practice them in detecting the various forms of 
fungi that are injurious to fruits and vegetables. 
A biological laboratory has been fitted up for stu- 
dents, provided with excellent microscopes of the 
most improved patterns, well-constructed tables, 
and all the necessary chemicals for preparing and 
mounting vegetable tissues. A dark room is at- 
tached to this laboratory for micro-photographic 

Adiiiissioji — Expense — Ap})licants for admission 
must be of good moral character. To enter the 
fourth class the applicant must be not less than 
fifteen years of age, and be qualified to pass a sat- 
isfactory examination in the following subjects: 

I. Geography and history of the United States. 

II. English. — (a) An examination upon sen- 
tences containing incorrect English, (i) A com- 
position giving evidence of satisfactory proficiency 
in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and division 
into paragra]ihs, 

III. Mathematics. — (a) Arithmetic, including 
fundamental operations: common and decimal 
fractions; denominate numbers: the metric sys- 
tem: j>ercentage, including interest and discount; 
proportion; extraction of square and cube roots; 
(/;) Algebra to quadratic etjuations. 

For admission to the fourth class in the general 
course a satisfactory examination is also required 
in Latin grammar and ('a?sar, four books. 

Incidental fee, per half session, is ij:7 50 

Library fee, per lialf session 1 00 

Siirg(ion's fee, per lialf .session 2 ."lO 

Hoard, pernioutli, wilh fuel and liglits $12 to 14 00 

These fees are payable, >!ll on matriculation 
and >«11 on February 1st. By order of the Hoard, 
no fees can be remitted. Tuition is free. 

The Colleire has no barracks or dornutories. and 



the students board with the families of the town 
of Aubvirn, and thus' enjoy all the protecting and 
beneficial influences of the family circle. 

By messing, the cost of board has been reduced 
by a few students to IsS.SO per month. For stu- 
dents entering after January 1st, the fees for half 
session only are required. 

Any economical student can bring his annual 
expenses, including clothing, books, washing, 
board and lodging within the limits of %-i.^O. 

Experiment Station — On February "24, 1888, 
the Board of Trustees organized the Experiment 
Station as a department of the College, with the 
following corps of officers: 

President of the College in charge; Agriculturist 
and Director, Chemist and Vice-Director, Physi- 
ologist, Botanist, Entomologist and Meteorologist, 
First and Second Assistant Chemists, First and 
Second Assistant Agriculturist, Assistant Meteor- 

— — ^-f^J^-^ 

WM. LeROY BROUN, M. A., LL.D., President 
of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, was 
born in Loudoun County, Va., in 1827. His 
parents were Edwin Conway and Elizabeth Broun, 
natives of the same State. His father was of 
Scotch ancestry and lived in Virginia up to the time 
of his death, in 1840. 

The subject of this sketch received his collegiate 
education at the University of Virginia, and grad- 
uated with the degree of Master of Arts from that 
institution in 1850. In 1852 he was elected to 
a professorship in a college in Mississippi, and 
filled the chair to which he was called, two years. 
He was then chosen to the chair of Mathematics in 
the University of Georgia, at Athens, and discharg- 
ed the functions of that position for two years. In 
the year 1857, he organized Bloomfield Academy, 
situated near the University of Virginia, and con- 
ducted that school until ISGl. 

Professor Broun, at this juncture, entered the 
Confederate service as a lieutenant of artillery; was 
shortly afterward promoted to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the Ordnance Department, C. S. 
A., and was assigned to duty as commandant of 
the Richmond Arsenal, over which he exercised 
supervision until the war closed. 

After the war the University of Georgia, situ- 
ated at Athens, elected him Professor of Natui'al 
Philosophy; and also, subsequently, President of 
the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 

Arts. Professor Broun's connection with this 
Seat of learning continued from 186(; until 1875, 
when he was elected to fill the chair of Mathe- 
matics in Vanderbilt University, at Nashville, 
Tenn., where he remained seven years. In 1882, 
Dr. Broun was called to the presidency of the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, at Auburn, 
which he held one year, .and was then elected 
Professor of ^Mathematics in the University of 
Texas, at Austin, where he was elected Chair- 
man of the Faculty. He resigned in 1884, to 
accept, for the second time, the presidency of the 
Agricultural and ^lechanical College, in Alabama. 
The degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by St. 
John's College, Maryland, in 1874. 

Dr. Broun, as a gentleman, citizen, soldier, 
scholar, and as a man in the broadest sense of the 
term, ranks among the foremost of his country and 
time. At any eijoch in oir history, he would 
have been an ornament to his kind. Especially 
to the youth and people of the South is lie endeared 
by numberless ties which it were needless and 
imj^ossible to enumerate. His example can well 
be adopted, by the young men of the country he 
has loved so well, as a model. To him do many 
of the best young men of the South owe the value 
of timely advice and assistance. With his admir- 
able qualifications to fill the various positions to 
which he has been called, it is in no sense sur- 
prising that he is honored among her best and 
brightest men. 

Dr. Broun was married, in 185'.i, to Miss Sallie, 
daughter of George and Mary (Coleman) Flem- 
ming, of Hanover County, Va. They have 
had seven children born to them, viz.: LeRoy, 
Mary, Maud, Bessie, Sallie, George and Katie. 

Our subject has been a member of the Episcopal 
Church for more than thirty years. 

LL.D., Chair of Chemistry, Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, and State Chemist of Alabama, 
was born near Winchester, Va., December 19, 
1830. His parents were Xathaniel and Elizabeth 
(Hodgson) Lupton, natives of Mrginia and of 
English descent. 

Dr. Lupton graduated at Dickinson College, 
Carlisle, Pa., in the year 1849. Chemistry has 
always been a favorite pursuit with him, and con- 
sequently, after graduation, he sought to gratify 



his wishes by stiulyiiig tlie subject under the 
great Bnnsen, at Heidelberg, (iermany. He 
spent two winters there in the ])roseciition of liis 
scientific studies, and upon liis return to this 
country was well (|uali(ied to deal with scientific 
subjects in the departments of chemistry and 
geology. He filled the chair of these sciences at 
the famous Kandolph-Macon College, Vii-ginia, 
from ISoli to 18.j8, and in the following year, up 
to and including 1871, a period of twelve years, 
discharged the functions of a similar position in 
the Southern University at Greensboro, Ala. He 
then accepted the presidency and professorship of 
chemistry at the State University of Alabama 
from 1871 to 1874, when he was called to the 
chair of chemistry at Vanderbilt U)iiversity, 
Nashville, Tenn., where he renuiined from 18 4 
to 1885. In that year he was selected to fill the 
chair of Chemistry at the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, where he has since remained. 

I'rofessor fAijiton has received ample and 
gratifying recognition from his contemporuries 
in the world of science, and has sustained many 
honorable relations towards different scientific 
bodies. He is at present State Chemist of Ala- 
bama ; has twice been Vice-President of the 
American Scientific Association, and presided 
over the section- of chemistry at the meetings 
held in the city of Nashville during his residence 
there, and at the meeting in Ann Arbor, ^Hch., 
in 1885 ; has been \'ice-I'resident of the American 
Chemical Society, and has taken an active and 
leading part in the deliberations of many other 
scientific bodies. During the war he was Chemist 
in the Ordnance Department of the Confederate 
(iovernmcnt, with headquarters at Selma. 

Thus do we see Professor Lupton, from the time 
he returned to America, ins]ured w-ith the instruc- 
tions received at the liands of the great Bunsen. 
taking an eminent stand in the scientific world, 
and in all these years, his career has been but a 
succession of triumphs and a recognition of his 
great ability. He has sustained the most honor- 
able relations to his fellow-num, and, wherever his 
lot had been cast, has always moved in the highest 
social spheres. While in the lecture room he has 
bestowed unlimited benefit upon the many young 
men who have been so fortunate as to receive his 
instruction.-;, his life has been spent in eminent 
usefulness, and to him are many of the young men 
of the South indebted for their practical knowl- 
edge of the sciences. 

Professor Lupton was married in 1854, to Miss 
Ella v., daughter of the l{ev. John and Hannah 
(Paine) Alleniong, of Frederick County, \'a. To 
them three children have been born, viz. : Kate, 
who is a regular graduate of the Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, from which she received the degree of 
M. A. She afterwards went to Europe, where she 
pursued her studies for some time. The other 
children are Ella and Frank. 

Professor Lupton has been a member of the 
.Methodist Flpiscopal Church, South, for many 
years. He is now a prominent member of the 
church at .\uburn, superintendent of the Sab- 
bath-school, and on three different occasions, has 
been a lay delegate to the General Conference of 
the Southern Methodist Church. 


PATRICK H. MELL, Jr., M.E.. Ph.D., Chair 
of Natural History and (ieology. Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, was born at Penfield, Ga., 
-May '24, 1850. His parents were Patrick II. and 
Lurene (Howard) Mell, natives of that State. 

The senior Mr. Mell, was connected with the 
University of (ieorgia, at Athens, from 1857 to 
1888, and he died in the latter year. He was 
Chancellor of that institution from 1878 until the 
time of his death. He was well known through- 
out the country, and was distinguished as an 

Patrick H. .Mell was educated at the University 
of Georgia, graduating in ]S71 with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. In 187'-i, he graduated in min- 
ing and civil engineering, and subsequently 
received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. He 
was State Chemist of Georgia from 1873 to 1877, 
and afterward actively engaged in mining engi- 
neering. In the latter calling he was employed 
until 1878, when he was elected to the chair of 
Natural History and (Jeology at the Alabama Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College, which position he 
now fills. He is a member of the American In- 
stitute of Mining Engineers, with which he has 
been identified as a member since 187'.i, and is also 
Director of the Signal Service for tJie State of 

Professor Mell was married in June. 1875, to 
Miss .\nnie. daugliter of William N. and Hebecca 
(Benedict) \\'hite. Mr. White was a noted hor- 
ticulturist and agriculturist, and was editor and 



proprietor of the Southern CuUivator up to the 
time of his death, in 1807. 

Prof. Mell is a member of the Baptist Churcli. 

JAMES S. NEWMAN, Professor of Agriculture 
of tlie Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
Auburn, was born in Orange County, Ya., 
in 18o<;. His parents were James and Mary 
(Scott) Newman, natives of the same county and 
State. The senior Mr. Newman was a farmer up 
to the time of his death, in 1886. 

James S. Newman attended the University of 
Virginia, where he completed the jDrescribed 
course in 1859. He taught school two years, and 
in 1801 enlisted as a private in the Confederate 
army. He was in active service until 1864, when, 
owing to failure of his health, he was discharged. 
He farmed for the first two years after leaving the 
a.imy; then, at Hancock, Ga., taught a jjrivate 
school and filanted until 1875. From here he 
accepted a position with the Department of Agri- 
culture of Georgia, and remained there until 
1883, when he was elected Professor of Agricul- 
ture and Director of the Agricultural Experiment 
Station of the Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 

He is also director of the Canebrake Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station of Alabama, at Union- 
town; Vice-President of the American Pomologi- 
cal Society, and State Statistical Agent of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, and 
was for three years President of the State Agri- 
cultural Society. 

Professor Newman enjoys great distinction on 
account of his great ijroficiency as an agriculturist. 
His reputation as a writer is co-extensive with the 
country on horticultural and agricultural sub- 
jects, and his articles are everywhere character- 
ized by ability. Whatever subject in his chosen 
field of thought he may select for discussion or 
elucidation, bears the impress of deep and careful 
thought, and his opinion on all matters pertaining 
to his profession is accepted as authority. 

Prof essor Newman was married, in 1863, to Miss 
Elberta, daughter of Elbert and Eliza Lewis, of 
Macon County, Ga. To this union five children 
have been born: CliSord L., Assistant Professor 
of Agriculture and Natural History in the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee, at Knoxville; Wilson H., As- 
sistant Agriculturist of the Experiment Station at 

the Agricultural and Mechanical College, this 
State; Mary S., Alba and Charles C. 

The Professor and family are communicants of 
the Episcopal Church. 

CHARLES C. TRACK, B.E., Chair of Eng- 
lisli and Latin, Agricultural and Mechanical 
College, Auburn, Ala., was born at Athens, this 
State, in 1860. His parents were Robert H. and 
Eliza (Coleman) Thach, natives of Alabama. The 
senior Mr. Thach was a practicing lawyer for many 
years at Athens, and died there in 1866. 

Charles C. Thach received his education at the 
State Agricultural, and Mechanical College, Au- 
burn, and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 
Md. Mr. Thach began teaching at Hopkinsville, 
Ky., in the High School, in 1877, where he re- 
mained one year, and in ls78 was elected to the 
position of assistant professor in the preparatory 
department of the Agricultural and Jlechanical 
College at Auburn. He was elected principal of 
that department in 1879. In the session of 
1880-81 he attended lectures at the Johns Hop- 
kins University, Baltimore. The following year, 
1881, he was chosen to fill the chair of Modern 
Languages in a college conducted under the aus- 
pices of the Presbyterian Church at Austin, Tex. 
In 188"2 he was elected Adjunct Professor of Lan- 
guages in the Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege at Auburn; in 1884 he filled the chair of 
English and Modern Languages, and in 1886 was 
chosen to his present position. 

Professor Thach is one among the youngest of 
the Faculty of Auburn, and among the youngest 
educators in the State, and yet the mantle of 
learning has never fallen on more worthy shoulders. 
There are few men who possess the varied attain- 
ments of our subject, due not less to his natural 
capacity, the innate power of mind, than to 
earnest, jiersevering and well-directed industry in 
the acquisition of that priceless treasure, know- 
ledge. He justly ranks among the brilliant men 
of the State. 

Professor Thach was married in November, 1886, 
to Miss Nellie S.. daughter of Professor Otis D. 
Smith, of the Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege, at Auburn. Their union has been blessed 
with one child, Elizabeth. 

The family are members of the ilethodist Epis- 
copal Church, South. 



[Professor Tluich is the author of tlie chapter 
on the Agricultural ami Mechanical College, tiiis 
volume, the only complete history of that insti- 
tution ever pnlilished. A perusal of it will repay 
the reader. — Kn.] 

JAMES H. LANE, was born in 18:i:J, in Mat- 
thews t'cumty, Va., anil his parents were Walter 
(i .and Mary A. II. (Barkwell) Lane, of that State. 
The elder Mr. Lane was a merchant at Matthews 
Court House, where he died in 18GS. 

.Tames H. Lane was educated at the Virginia 
Military Institute, and at the University of Vir- 
ginia. He graduated with honors at the former 
in 18.">4, and in the scientific course at the latter 
in 1857. His first appointment was on the hydro- 
graphic survey of York River. He was then ap- 
pointed assistant professor in the Virginia Mili- 
tary Institute, where he remained one year. From 
there, he went to Floriila as professor of Mathe- 
matics ami Instructor of Tactics in the State Sem- 
inary at Tallahasse, and after one year's connec- 
tion with that institution, was elected Professor 
of Natural Philosophy and Instructor of Tactics 
ill the North Carolina Military Institute, at Clhar- 

Professor Lane remained at tlie Xoith Carolina 
Military Institute until 1861, when he entered the 
Confederate service as Adjutant of the first Camp 
of Instruction at llaleigh. From major, he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel of the First North 
Carolina Volunteers, and later, colonel of the 
Twenty-eighth North Carolina Tioojis. In 
18(;2 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier- 

(ieiieral Lane saw service at the fiont in the Army 
of Northern Virginia through the entire war, and 
won that distinction which is only accorded to the 
Ijrave. chivalrous, intrepid, sagacious and heroic. 
He was, in the best acceptation of the word, a mar- 
tial spirit, and all over the South there are many 
who will bear testimony to his faithful record as a 
soldier and oHicer. He was not one who ordered his 

men where he himself was not willing to go ; and 
those that served under him, jjlace him among the 
•'truest of the true," and the " bravest of the 
brave," He, therefore, is one of the soldiers who 
retired to the peaceful walks of life with a military 
record upon which there is no stigma and whose 
escutcheon is untarnished. In peace he has proved 
himself as worthy as he did in war. 

After the surrender (ieneral Lane taught pri- 
vate schools in North Carolina and Richmond, 
Va., a short time, and for eight years thereafter 
acted in the dual capacity of Professor of Natural 
Philosophy and Commandant of Cadets at the Ag- 
ricultural and JMechanieal College at Blacksburg, 
Va. In 1880 taught a private school in Wilming- 
ton, N. C. ; in the following year was called to the 
chair of Mathematics in the School of Mines and 
Metallurgy of the State University of Missouri; 
in the succeeding year was called to Richmond, 
Va., to take charge of the Virginia Mining and 
Manufacturing Company, where, their property 
being destroyed by fire before their works were 
put in operation, he had no opportunity of 
showing his fitness for that department of active 
industrial life. He was too well known, how- 
ever, to be left long without offers, and it was 
reserved for the Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege of this State to exhibit its knowledge of the 
fitness of men by selecting him to fill the chair of 
Eiigineeriug and Drawing, and to discharge the 
duties of Commandant of the Corps of Cadets of 
that institution. He still fills the position of pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering and Drawing and the 
board of trustees have had no occasion to regret 
their choice. He has cast in his lot with the 
peo])le of Alabama, and has shown his determin- 
ation to identify himself with this State by pur- 
chasing property in the town of Auburn. 

General Lane was married in 18G9 to Miss 
Charlotte, daughter of Benjamin L. and Jane E. 
Meade, of \'irginia, and to them four daughters 
have been born, viz.: Lidie II., Mary B., KateM., 
and Lottie E. 

The family are communicants of the Episcopal 


Po^julation: White, 8,841; colored, 5'i3. Area, 
810 square miles. Woodland, all. Coal measures, 
660 square miles. Gravelly aud pine hills, 150 
square miles. 

Acres.— In cotton (apiDroximately), 7,260; in 
corn, 21,835; in -oats, 2,321; in wheat, 3,925: iu 
tobacco, 44; iu sugar-cane, 15; in sweet potatoes, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 3,240. 

County Seat — Hamilton; population, 225; on 
Buttahatchee Kiver, 45 miles from Aberdeen, 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Mario)i 

Postoffices in the Count}' — Allen's Factory, 
Allhill, Barnesville, Bexar, Bull Mountain, Can- 
dle, Chalk Bluff, Gold Mine, Hackleburgh, Haleys, 
Hall's ilills, HamiUon, Hodges, Ireland Hill, 
Pearce's Mills, Pikeville, Shottsville, Texas, Thorn 
Hill, Ur, Young. • 

Marion County was created in 1818, and was 
named for Gen. Francis Marion, the celebrated 
South Carolina soldier, whose brave deeds and 
the sore privations he endured during the Revo- 
lutionary War endeared his memory to every 
American heart. This county forms a portion 
of the Warrior coal field, and as such it is rapidly 
coming into prominence. [See part I. this vol- 


Population: White, 13,155; colored, 3,420 
Area, 610 square miles ; Woodland all. All meta- 

Acres — In cotton (approximately). 23, ITT ; in 
corn, 29,595 ; in oats, 4,850 ; in wheat, 10,156 ; in 
tobacco, 44 ; in sweet potatoes, 433. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, T,500. 

County Seat — Wedowee ; population 300. lias 
fine water jiower and mineral deposits. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Observer 

Postoffices in the County — Almond, Blake's 
Ferry, Christiana, Corn House, Dingier, Gaj', 
Graham, Handley, Haywood, High Shoals, La- 
mar, Level Road, Louina, Miluer, Omaha. Roan- 

oke, Rock Dale, Rock Mills, Sewell, Wedowee, 
Wehadkee, Wild wood. 

The county of Randolph was created in 1832, 
and named for the famous John Randolph, of Vir- 
ginia. Its natural advantages are, in a great 
many respects, superior. Its climate salubrious, 
lands good, tone of society elevated, and health 

During the census of 1880 the census official 
reudered in his report at Washington only to have 
it returned to him for correction, the Washington 
official declaring the death rate to be too small to 
be true. But the original rsport was returned to 
Washington unchanged, as no error had been com- 




The soils of Kaiidolph are of average fertility, 
and on account of deep clay subsoil and abundant 
rainfall, are quite reliable for agricultural pur- 
jioses. Xot more tlian one-fourth of the mag- 
nificent forests of Randolph have been cleared, 
and the fine pine timber here will one day be a 
feature in itself. The lands are easily worked and 
j)roduee remarkably well. All the crops that are 
congenial to the southern climate grow their best 
here. Fruit-gnnving is gradually expanding, and 
bids fair ere long to rival all other industries. 
There has been only one failure of the peach crop 
in thirty-five years, and the apple crop never fails. 
The farmers produce nearly everything they 
use at home, and are, as a general tiling, well- 

Like other counties, the absence of railroad 
transportation has prevented much attention be- 
ing given to the minerals of Randolph, but this 
want is now being supplied. The Kast Alabama 
Railway has been extended to Roanoke, in the 
southern portion of the county, and will soon be 
completed to Anniston, running right through 
the centre of the county, and will open up some 
of the finest timber and mineral lands in the 

In gold, copper, mica, tin, graphite, kaolin and 
iron, Randolph is doubtless one of the richest 
counties in the State. All these abound in the 
northern portion of the county. The kaolin is 
of .<upcrior quality and is inexhaustible. More 

than one mine is now being worked to ad- 

There is scarcely a square forty acres of land in 
the county that is not penetrated by a rivulet, 
creek or river. The Tallapoosa and Little Talla- 
poosa rivers run through the county, and have 
some of the finest shoals on them that nature has 
ever formed. There will be large cotton factories 
run by them some time in the near future. As 
for creeks, Randolph has almost a superfluity of 
them. There are eight flour and grist-mills turned 
by the waters of Wedowee Creek. Randolph has 
the purest and coldest freestone water in the world, 
and that in abundance. This accounts for the 
wonderful health enjoyed here. 

Wedowee, situated as it is, in rich mineral beds 
of kaolin and mica, will one day be a large and 
prosperous city. Leaving out the minerals, the 
large pine forests that extend for miles and miles 
around it in every direction will one day make it 
an interesting town. Brockville, in the north- 
eastern portion of the county, has a fine school, 
and is building up rapidly. 

J?ock Mills and Roanoke, in the southern por- 
tion, are also points of interest. Rock Mills has 
a cotton factory, a tannery, pottery and cabinet 
establishment, and a fine school also. Roanoke 
has lately arrived at the importance of being the 
only railroad station in the county, and will doubt- 
less be a flourishing village. There is a flourishing 
and well-established collcsje there. 


Population: White, 13,500; colored, :i,500. 
Area, 030 square miles. Woodland, all. Coosa 
and Cahaba Valley lands, 430. Coal measures, 
etc., 2,000 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), l-i,7oO; in 
corn, •->5,450; in oats, 4,603; in wheat, 9,840; in 
tobacco, 50; in sweet potatoes, 230. 

Api3roximate number of bales of cotton, (i,500. 

County Seat — Ashville; population '^50; on the 
Alabama & Great Southern Railroad, forty miles 
northeast of Birmingham, Ala. 

Newspaper published in the county — Soulhern 
JEgis (Democratic). 

Postottices in the County — Alluxla, Ashville, 
Beaver Valley, Branchville, Broken Arrow, Cald- 
well, Cook's Springs, Cornelia, Cropwell, Eason- 
ville, Eden, Fairview, Greensport, Kelley's Creek, 
Lochthree, Moody, Odenville, Poe, Riverside, 
Round Pond, Seddon, Slate, Springville, Steel's 
Depot, Trout Creek, Whitney, Wolf Creek. 

St. Clair County was founded in 1818. Quite 
a number of aborigines i-oamed over its soil, or 
still occupied its territory then, and among the 
old records are found deeds of land from the 
Indians to the white settlers. While the county's 
resources are just coming into notice, its histori- 
cal character, coincident with that of the State of 
whose territory it forms a part, has been known 
ever since its creation. It is the only county in 
the State, mentioned by name in Chambers' Uni- 
versal Knowledge — it is, the OTily one that has 
furnished more than one Governor for its own and 
other States. 

Its soil is memorable as a part of the Jack- 
son campaign in the War of 1813 against the 
Muscogees, which aboriginal commune were the 
natives of this county at that time. There are still 
trace of the encampments and defenses of the mili- 
tary, as well as many evidences of Indian settle- 
ments in various parts of the county. Besides the 
Indian town Litafutchee, once situated not far 
from where the county seat is now located, is a 
relic of the ancient empire of the Red Man's 

dominion here, preserved on the pages of our 
State History. 

The northwestern boundary of the county i3 
Blount Mountain, a spur of the great Sand Ridge. 
In the same corner is Chandler's Mountain. The 
table lands of those elevations are noted for fruit 
culture, and no better conditions exist for sheep 
raising. Besides the level plateaus are submissive 
to agricultural life, and in this jiarticular, owing 
to the fertility of the soil, are very productive, and 
can be made very profitable. For health and en- 
joyment no more desirable locations can be found 
in the South. The mineral character of those 
mountains is well known — coal, lime and iron are 
found in jDlaces, with excellent rock, while timber 
is abundant. 

But the principal coal beds of the county lie 
south in the neighborhood of Broken Arrow, and 
along the East & West Railroad. Here, owing 
to the peculiar formation of hills and small valleys, 
between the ridges the soil is even more diversified 
than in the northern jiart of the county — the 
country around is broken, undulating, and the 
ridges narrower and less steep than further north. 
The surface features are just such as one would 
naturally expect in a section of mineral character- 
istics varied by agricultural pursuits. 

While the recent industrial progress has not 
concentrated at one point or centre in the county, 
so to speak, the effect of general material devel- 
opment all over its territory has been very marked 
in the improved condition of society, and is visi- 
ble in the numerous thriving and enterprising^ 
communities sjjringing up in all directions. New, 
Broken Arrow, Fairview, Ragland, River Side, Sed- 
den. Pell City etc., are familiar names in the news- 
pajjers. The lumber business along the railroads, 
rivers and large creeks has increased to immense 
proportions, within a few months. 

Six years ago only one railroad passed through 
the county near its western boundary. Now, be- 
sides the Alabama Great Southern — a link of the 
great trunk line of the Cincinnati Southern — thft 




Georgia Pacific traverses oiif territory south, and 
the East & West pierces the very heart of the 
coal and iron region,, giving life and vigor to hun- 
dreds of before latent industrial operations. Other 
railroads are projected into the county and still 
others are in view. St. Clair lies directly on the 
line of the great railroad belt through the mineral 
and timber regions of the south to the (iulf. aiul 
on the East «& AVest line from the Atlantic coast 
to the pojjulous Mississippi regions of teeming 
wealth and progress. It is probable that both 
Anniston and Birmingham will be compelled to 
draw from the natural resources of tliis county. 
Unfortunately for the latter city, neither of the 
great lines of railroad mentioned pass through the 
sections of our territory that would give it the 
greatest advantages by opening roads to the great 
wealth stored away in our hills and forests. Hut 
it will be seen that the advantages to travel and 
shipping afforded by transportation lines in this 
county are almost equal, if not entirely so, to the 
best in the State, and they are sure in a short time 
to be unsurpassed in the South. 

(Juitc recently several mining and improvenient 
companies have been incorporated to ojierate in 
in this county. These have invested largely in 
mineral lands, and sooner or later a greater indus- 
trial era will begin here. Active operations, in 
this respect, are secured by the amount of capital 
already scattered among the land owners of the 

The agricultural ijrospects of the county are in 
a flattering condition, and the farmers have not 
been so generally in a better financial condition, 
since the war. The products of the soil are cotton, 
Irish and sweet potatoes, with all the cereals of a 
temperate climate. Potatoes of both kinds grow 
abundantly. The sorghum crop seldom fails, and 
the syrup manufactured from this cane is much 
superior usually to the grades of syrups shipped 
to our local markets. This county will produce a 
finer te.xture of cotton and more to the acre on an 
average, with care and attention to cultivation, 
than can be produced elsewhere in the State. Corn 
can be raised in greater abundance than in the 
corn growing States with proi)er cultivation — the 
soil seems, adapted naturally to this cereal growth, 
if planted early, but the crop is too generally left 
to take care of itself when it needs most attention. 

Lands are remarkably cheap, but this will not 
be long the case. Grasses and clover grow lu.\ur- 
iantlv. though little or no cu+tivation is given to 

such crops, the soil naturally producing grasses 
enough for home purjjoses without culture. The 
dew, black and huckle-berries grow abundantly, 
while the raspberries and strawberries can be cul- 
tivated to great advantage. 

The local educational advantages can hardly be 
e.xcelled anywhere, as the people are paying great 
attention at this time to literary and business cul- 
ture. Every community has its local school, and 
new school buildings are going up where they are 
needed. The same progress is making in religious 
and moral culture. In this respect St. Clair's his- 
tory of late has been remarkable, from the new 
places where public works have been going on. 
The county is almost free from criminals or law 
violators. Even the new-comers, if wild and reck- 
less wheu they come here, soon adapt themselves 
to the quiet, peaceful habits of the old element of 
our society. 

The valuation of taxable property in St. Clair 
county for the year 1887 is S:^, 403, 230, as shown 
by the abstract of assessment filed with the audi- 

JAMES T. GREENE. Probate Judge of St. 
Clair County, was born in 1841). The father of 
the subject of our sketch came to this country 
from Ireland at an early period, and was one of 
the first settlers in St. Clair County. His mother, 
Elizabeth Thoniasoii, was a native of Alabama. 
Her brother, John I. Thomason, was Probate 
Judge of St. Clair County from 184i; to 185U. He 
was a public-spirited man, and took part in the 
incorporation of the Alabama Great Southern 
Kailroad Company. 

The early educational advantages of our subject 
were very meager, and his literary attainments are 
entirely the results of his own efforts. He at- 
tended the country schools at his home, and, after 
leaving them, commenced reading law in 1871, at 
Ashville. He was admitted to the bar in 187"2, 
and during the same year was appointed Register 
in Chancery, in which position he remained until 

In 1S7(), when Judge L. F. Box, now Circuit 
Judge, wa.s State Superintendent of Education, 
James T. Greene was chief clerk in his office at 
Montgomery throughout two terms, and while 
ho'ding such position he, of course, became widely 
known in this State. 

.lames T. (ireene was elected in 18s4 to rejire- 



sent St. Clair County in the Legislature, and while | 
in that body was Chairman of the Committee on 
Education. Prior to this time Judge Greene had 
been identified with his party in some of its most 
important councils, and from IST-i to 1870 was 
Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee 
of St. Clair County. In 1887 he was appointed 
Probate Judge, and is still holding that jiosition. 

Among other interesting facts before us, in the 
life of our subject may be mentioned his intense 
love of country at a time in life when we are not 
expected to show much appreciation of such things. 
He enlisted in the Confederate Army at the youth- 
ful age of thirteen years, and while the spirit was 
willing, the strength was not proportioned to its 
demands, and on account of ill health he was com- 
pelled to leave the service. 

Judge Greene is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, and was for some time W. M. of the lodge 
at Ashville. 

In 1873, our subject was married to Miss Mag- 
gie Ashley, of Ashville. To this union have been 
born five children, one of whom was recently taken 
from them by a dreadful accident. The following 
touching notices of the sad occurrence is copied 
from recent publications: 


Postelle Greene, born August 27th, 188"^, died 
in the afternoon of March 14, 1888, from the effects 
of burns received while popping corn with her 
little sisters few hours before. Her sufferings, at 
first intense, were soon greatly relieved, and her 
last hours were calm and peaceful. The untold 
anguish of the fond parents was shared by the 
community, and all that tender, loving hands 
could do was done. The deceased was an unusually 
attractive child. From infancy the jjet of the 
household, the darling of all, her bright, winsome 
beauty and artless loving manner, found their 
way like a sunbeam, to every heart. She retained 
entire consciousness until the sad end came, speak- 
ing brightly and pleasantly to her many grief- 
stricken friends who crowded around her bedside, 
calling them by name, aud manifesting a courage 
and bravery wonderful to see. Her bright little 
spirit passed away from this to a heavenly home, 
where, safe in " the Lord Christ's bosom," she 
awaits the coming of papa, mamma, brother and 
sisters at the '•beautiful gates ajar" — not alone, 
but hand in hand with a cherub brother gone be- 

fore. Just before her death she exclaimed, 
"Everything looks golden." 

Perchance a gleam from the golden splendor 
"beyond" lit up her passage across the dark 
stream. ■' I am trying, but can not see you, papa," 
were the last words she uttered. Then sweetly 
she fell asleep; as sweetly and calmly as the flower 
at evening closes its petals at the kiss of the dew- 

" She is not dead, but sleepelb."' 

Our associations with our little friend, now a 
'• little white angel in Heaven," will ever be a 
bright spot in memory's waste. Lovingly wo will 
cherish them, and indulge the fond hojie that we 


"Meet beyond the river, 
Where the surges cease to roll." 

In the hour of deep affliction consolations are 
not of this world — the balm for the wound must 
come from a higher source. May "a glimmer of 
light in the darkness " penetrate the deep anguish 
of the distressed household." 

It is with most profound sorrow we learned this 
morning of the death of little Postelle, daughter 
Judge and Jlrs. Jas. T. Greene, of Ashville, St. 
Clair County, Ala., Little Postelle, the idolized 
and beloved child, was six years old, and as beauti- 
ful as the fairest dream, and endowed with so 
lovely a disposition that, though in the very per- 
fection of health, the impress of heaven seemed 
placed upon her angelic face. While playing 
around the fire with her sisters, her mother left 
the room for a few moments and returned to find 
her child mangled by the flames. She died in a 
short time and has 

" Gone to the land of life and love, 
She whom we loved, 

Risen to mansions fair and bright, 

Dwelling ia God's eternal sight, 

She whom we held so dear — so dear." 

Judge and Mrs. Greene have a large circle of 
friends in Montgomery and over the State, who 
sympathize with them in their hour of sorrow, 
and rejoice in the one comforting thought that 
their darling is safe in the hands of Jesus " wait- 
ing and watching at the beautiful gate" her loved 
ones to meet." 

JOHN W. INZER, Attorney-at-law, Ashville, 
was born in Gwinnett County, Ga., in 1834, and 
lived there until he had nearly attained his 



majority. lie attended the commoTi schools of his 
iieigliborhood, and "Gwinnett Labor School," 
near Lawrenceville, Ga., where he received tlie 
greater part of his education. 

lie read hiw with .Morgan & Walker, of Talhi- 
doga, was admitted to the bar in that city in -May, 
1S5."), and at Ashville began the practice of his 
profession. He was appointed Probate Judge of 
St. Chiir County in 18.")9, and held the office 
eleven months. 

,Iudge Inzer was the youngest member of the 
Secession Convention of 18(!1, and voted against 
the ordinance; but after it was passed he signed 
and supported it to the best of his ability. After 
the war. Governor Parsons appoiiited him Probate 
Judge of his county. He held the office only for 
a short time, when he resigned. In I8Ij6 he was 
elected to that office and held it until removed by 
the reconstruction. In 1874 he was elected to 
the State Senate, and remained in that body two 
years. In August, 187.5, he was elected delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention, in the labors of 
which he took an active part. Since that time he 
has been engaged at the law — his practice extend- 
ing throughout the State. He has never been an 
office-seeker nor-jilace hunter, and has not been a 
candidate since 18;. 5. 

When the war broke out Judge Inzer was in 
feeble health: nevertheless he entered the army in 
18111 as a member of the Xinth Alabama Hattal- 
lion of Infantry. In 18i;"2 he was transferred to 
the Eighteenth Infantry, and in February, 18G3, 
the Xinth IJattallion being reorganized, he again 
became a member of that command, held the 
rank of captain one week, and was promoted 
to the office of major of the battalion, Itush 
Jones being its colonel. In July the X^inth Bat- 
tallion became tiie Fifty-eighth Alabama Regi- 
ment, and Inzer was made lieutemmt-colonel. 
During the war he was engaged in many battles, 
among which were Sliiloh, Corinth, Chickamauga, 
Lookout .Mountain, Missionary Kidge and others. 
He was eajnured on Xovember 2.5, 1863, at Mis- 
sionary Kidge and carried to Johnson's Island, 
where he was kept in confinement until the close 
of the war. Until he was captured, his regiment 
never went into battle without him. 

The Judge's grandfather, John Inzer, was an 
Englishman, and a soldier in the Colonial Army 
during the Revolutionary War. (He afterward 
settled in .Maryland, and later on emigrated to 
North Carolina). His maternal grandfather, 

John Reid, was an Irishman ; he too was a 

Revolutionary soldier. Our subject's father, Rev. 
Henry White Inzer, a minister of the Baptist 
Church, was a native of Xorth Carolina; removed 
thence to Georgia when a young man, and was 
there married to Miss Phebe II. Reid. He served 
as a captain in the Florida War, and in 18.54 immi- 
grated to Alabama, settling in St. Clair County, 
where he died April 25, 1881. His mother was 
born and raised in Xorth Carolina. She is now 
living with Judge Inzer, her only son. 

Judge Inzer was married in ISii'i, to Miss Sallie 
E. Pope, of Columbiana, a daughter of Capt. 
Wiley H. Pope, late of the Twenty-fifth Alabama 
Regiment, and afterward Clerk of the Circuit 
Court of Shelby County. 

Judge and Mrs. Inzer have three children, two 
daughters and one son. The family are members 
of the Baptist Church, and the Judge is a Royal 
Arch ^lason and Past Master of the Lodge. 



JOHN B. BASS, M. D., was born in Jefferson 
County, Ala., January T, 184.5, and was educated 
partly at Ruliama (now East Lake). His first 
medical course was at the L'niversity of Virginia, 
in 1809 where he graduated in medicil jurispru- 
dence, and afterward took a ditiloma as JI. D. at 
AVashington University, Baltimore, February 'li, 
1870. He came to Ashville in 1870, began the 
practice of his profession, and has remained 
here until the present time. 

Di-. Bass' grand father, Burrell Bass, was of Eng- 
lish descent. He served in the Revolutionary 
War, migrated from X'orth Carolina to Alabama 
about 1813, and settled near where now stands the 
city of Birmingham when Alabama was yet a 
Territory. The Doctor's maternal grandparents 
were of Irish lineage, and came from South 
Carolina to Tennessee, and thence to Alabama the 
same year. 

Dr. Bass' great-grandfather Bass was in the 
Revolutionary War. The Doctor's father, Andrew 
Bass, lived on a farm near Birmingham until the 
time of his death, in 1854. He served in the 
Confederate Army as a member of Company 
B, Second Engineer Corps, and operated with 
Gen. Leonidas Polk, anil later in the Army of 
the Tennessee. 



Dr. Bass was married in February, 1875, to 
Miss Annie E. Gunn, of Georgia. Tliey have but 
one child, Hershel W. Bass. 

The Doctor lias eschewed politics, devotes his 

time exclusively to his profession, and has held 
every official position in the Saint Clair County 
Medical Society. He stands at the head of the 
profession in his county. 


Population : White, l-.^SOO ; colored, 4,500. 
Area, 780 square miles. Woodland, all. Valley 
lands and coal fields, 780 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 17,900; in 
corn, 26,170; in oats, 4,765; in wheat, (;,2!i5; in 
tobacco, 10; in sweet potatoes, 350. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 0,750. 

County Seat — Columbiana; population, 600; lo- 
cated 73 miles northeast of Selma, Ala., on East 
Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroad. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Shelby 
Chronicle (Democrat). At Calera Shelbtj Sentinel, 
Democrat, and AUiniice-Netrs. 

Postoffices in the County — Aldrich, Bridgeton, 
Calera, Cobb, Cohanbiana, Ilarpersville, Helena, 
Highland, Hot Spur, Knight, Lewis, Longview, 
Montevallo, Pelham, Shelby Iron Works, Siluria, 
Spradley, Sterrett, Weldon, Wilsonville. 

The county of Shelby was constituted in the 
year 1819. It received its name from Governor 
Isaac Shelby, of Kentucky. It is highly favored 
in location, wealth and mineral wealth. It is 
justly ranked one of the best counties of the 
State. Of late, rapid strides have been made in 
Shelby County in the development of her mineral 
wealth. Large interests of many kinds have been 
established and are in a thriving condition. 

The general surface of the county is hilly 
and rough — features inseparable from a mineral 
district. Still, there are many valuable lands for 
agricultural purposes to be found. The north- 
western portion of the county is formed by the 
coal measures of the famous Cahaba coal field; the 
central portion by those of the Coosa coal field. 
Lying between these two natural divisions is the 

Valley of the Coosa. Alo7ig these coal measures is 
to be found the usual rugged surface, and the soil 
is of a sandy character, and not very fertile. The 
Coosa Valley, which extends the distance of thirty 
miles through the county, is based upon mountain 
limestone. It varies in width from two to eight 
miles. The lower valley lands, formed of lime, 
clay, and vegetable matter, are' quite fertile; the 
higher lands, of gravel and clay, are of inferior 
character. The lands in the valleys are deemed 
altogether as good as those found in the famous 
Valley of the Tennessee. Corn and cotton grow 
luxuriantly here, and the yield, under favorable 
circumstances, is immense. In addition to these 
Shelby produces oats, wheat, rye, barley, and 
indeed all crops grown in this latitude. Some 
portions of the valley are peculiarly adapted to 
stock raising. This is especially true of the region 
lying west of the valley alread_y described. 

On the western boundary of the county is the 
Cahaba Valley, the width of which varies as does 
that of the Coosa on the east. The characteristics 
of the soil are the same as in the valley first men- 
tioned — fertile in the bottoms, and thin and 
gravelly upon the high lands. 

The conditions in many j)ortions of Shelby are 
quite favorable to the production of fruit, and 
orchard culture is receiving, by degrees, more atten- 

The prevailing timbers are hickory, oak, chest- 
nut, mulberry and pine. Along the numerous 
valleys that intersect each other throughout the 
county is to be found the short-leaf pine; while 
the knolls and the uj^lands are crowned with 
the long-leaf pine. During the greater part of the 



year water prevails in great abundanfc in every 
section of the county. 

The Coosa river forms tlic eastern bonntlary, an<l 
receives the drainage of that portion of Shelby. 
Hig and Little (.'alKil)a rivers drain the western 

Springs abound throughout the county. Issu- 
ing from beneath june-crowned ridges that lie be- 
tween the minor intersecting valleys, or else burst- 
ing from thousands of craggy mouths from the 
rocky hillsides, these springs flow down through 
the valleys in perennial streams, supplying water 
in richest abundance to man iind beast. 

But the peculiar glory of Shelby is her l)road 
domain of coal and iron, her vast treasures of stone, 
marble and timber, and her health-giving mineral 

Extensive manufactories of iron exist at 
the Shelby Iron Works, which have been in suc- 
sessful operation for thirty years, and at Helena, 
where are located the Central Iron \\'orks. In 
addition to these interests are found the Helena 
coal mines, and the Montevallo coal mines. Fur- 
thermore there are considerable lime-works at 
Calera, Siluria, and J^ongview, in the county. 
Some of these furnish lime as far south as Galves- 
ton, and as far north as Louisville and Cairo. Saw- 
mills are also numerous. ' 

In some of the Liniestor.e formations are to be i 
found as superb building stone as exists in any 
quarter of the globe. Among these may be men- 
tioned a light grayish-blue rock, dotted over with 
dark spots, black marble, yellow marble with black 
spots, gray and dove-colored marbles. These are 
very durable, and serve admirably as ornamental 
building material. In the mountains between the 
ujiper jjortion of Shelby and the St. Clair portion 
of the Cahaba valley, there is, in wonderful abuiul- 
ance. a beautiful sand-stone that would serve for 
building purposes. Harytes and slate also exist. 

Just above Calera. on the East Tennessee. Vir- 
ginia & Georgia Railroad are the Shelby S|irings, 
a favorite watering resort. The location is liigh 
and healthful, and the waters have valuable medici- 
nal jiropcrties. At Helena and .also near Bridegton 
there are valuable mineral springs. 

The advantages of transportation are excellent 
in this county. At Calera, tliere is an intersec- 
tion of the Louisville & Xasliville and the East 
Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroads. The 
former of these lines runs north and south through 

the county, and the other almost east and west. 
All the benelits accruing from the competing lines 
are here afforded . 

The points of greatest interest are Columbiana, 
the county seat, with a population of about 5<iH, 
Calera, which is located at the intersection of the 
two railroads already mentioned, Wilsonville, 
Ilarpersville, Helena, and Montevallo. Kxcellent 
church and educational advantages exist at all of 
these places. A common-school system, uiuler 
favorable direction, exists throughout the county. 

The chief center of interest in the county is the 
growing town of Calera. Its name is of Spanish 
origin, and indicates the character of tlie sur- 
rounding region, Calera being the Spanish name 
for lime. It has a population of possibly ■■.',00(», 
and for a number of years has been the location 
of a large foundry. 

Other important enterprises have already been 
established. The Charcoal and Furnace Comjiany 
have a magnificent plant and one of the finest wells 
in the State. The two shoe factories are turning 
out daily a very superior quality of shoes that com- 
pare very favorably with the best of eastern fac- 
tories, and are sold at prices that defy competi- 
tion, and they are consequently crowded with or- 
ders. The Spoke and Handle Factory is a i)aying 
institution, and their products are shipped to 
every portion of the Union, as they are finely fin- 
ished and made of the most perfect timber. Two 
large steam brickworks are in operation, and have 
orders ahead for several weeks. Another spoke 
and handle factory will soon be established. The 
waterworks are now nearly completed, and nego- 
tiations are now pending for the erection of a fine 
academy. « 

'{'he town suj)ports good schools, and has two of 
the best hotels in the State. It is located in the 
midst of coal, iron, lime and excellent timber, and 
enjoys railroad facilities in all directions, being 
the intersection of the Louisville & Nashville and 
East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroads. 

Throughout the connty of Shelby there abound 
the facilities of luunan comfort, so great are ad- 
vantages of climate and the diversity of soils and 
mineral jiroducts. 

Laiuls may be purchased at jirices ranging from 
ijix'.oii to *'^.5 per acre. 

There exist :5T,!i"-iIi acres of (Jovernment land in 
the county, wliich is being rapidly entered as 
homesteads bv actual settlers. 





Probate, was born in Mnulton, Lawrence County, 
Ala, September 'ii, myi. 

In his extreme youth his parents moved to 
Talladega County, where their son was given a 
common-school education. 

In 1S48, young Leeper moved to Shelby County, 
but in 1850, returned to Talladega to be employed 
as clerk in the probate office a position he held 
for a year and a half. Coming again to Shelby, 
he was employed in the same cajiacity. lu ISS-l 
he was admitted to the bar. In 1855 Mr. Lee- 
per assisted M. II. Cruikshank. Register in Chan- 
cery for Talladega, with the duties of his office. 
The next year he was himself appointed Register for 
Shelby County by Chancellor James B. Clark, of 
Eutaw. In connection with his duties as Register 
he entered upon the practice of the law, in co- 
partnership with his father, Samuel Leeper, who 
was one of the most successful jiractitioners in 
this circuit. 

Mr. Leeper was elected a member of what is 
known as the "Parson's convention" of 1865. 

In 1865 he was appointed by Governor Parsons 
solicitor for this circuit; in 18C6 he formed a law 
partnership with Mr. Lewis; two years later he 
was appointed Register in Cfiancery for the Dis- 
trict of three counties, Jefferson, St. Clair and 
Shelby, by Chancellor Woods, afterward Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
The year following (18G9), Mr. Leeper was ap- 
pointed Judg% of Probate for Shelby by Gov. 
W. H. Smith. He has held the office continuously 
since, by three popular elections, and, when his 
present term expires in 1893, will have .occupied 
that and other important appointment and elect- 
ive positions of trust and emolument for the 
greater part of forty-four years. 

Judge Leeper is a son of Samuel and Elanora 
(Stone) Leeper, and is one of a family of nine, of 
whom eight are now living. Samuel Leeper was 
born in Georgia in 1800; taken to Tennessee when 
but nine years of age; came to Alabama in l^'il, 
and settled in Lawrence County. In early life he 
was a merchant, but afterward studied law, and 
twice represented Shelby County in the Legislature. 
He died in ISTl. One of his sons, Francis L. 

Leeper, is a Presbyterian minister in Tennessee. 

On the 1st of Xovember, 185T, Judge Leeper 
was united in marriage to Miss Antoinette M. 
Bandy; and of the nine children born to them 
only five are living — three sons and two daughters. 
The eldest son, Samuel B. Leeper, assists in his 
father's office. The Judge is a Royal Arch ]\Iason, 
and an Odd Fellow. 

In 1807 Judge Leejier joined the Presbyterian 
Church, and four years later was made an elder of 
the same, which position he has filled with that 
dignity and singleness of purpose which distin- 
guishes his life. 

He is frank, open, easy and social in manner. 
His courtesy is never varying, his sincerity is self- 
vindicating, and the native courage of his life at- 
tracts men of all degrees and conditions. Xo man 
ever lived in the county who carries a wider per- 
sonal influence than he. The popular vote which 
fixed the county on the side of Prohibition, was the 
result of his calm but firm espousal of that policy. 
He acts only after mature deliberation, and seldom 
changes his opinion. 

As a Judge of Probate, he possesses the un- 
bounded confidence of his constituency. 

Prior to the late war. Judge Leeper was an active 
Whig in politics and opi)osed secession. 

• ■♦ > ■ •^^^>-»— ^- 

HENRY WILSON, Attorney-at-law, was born 
at Afontevallo, Shelby County, this State, Febru- 
ary 21, 1850. He was reared and educated at 
Montevallo. He studied law there for a time with 
B. B. Lewis (late president of the University of 
Alabama), and afterward read law at Columbiana 
with R. W. Cobb (afterward Governor of the 
State), and was admitted to the bar in April, 1871. 
He was apjDointed Solicitor of Chilton County in 
that year, and remained such until 1873, when he 
removed to Montevallo. He has practiced law 
throughout Shelby and adjoining counties from 
1873 until the j^resent time, 1888. Judge A. A. 
Sterrett and Gov. R. W. Cobb were his partners 
until the death of Judge Sterrett, after which 
time the firm name became Cobb & Wilson, 
including Mr. Benjamin F. Wilson, brother of 



Henry. They had office sat Montevallo ajid 
Coliinibiana. This firm was dissolved in 1884, and 
a new jiartnership etfocted with K. P. Lyman, of 
Montevallo. In 1887. anotlier change included 
J. L. Peters, of Pibb County, and the firm name 
became Peters, Wilson & Lyman. In 1880 and 
1881 .Mr. Wilson represented Shelby County in the 
Legislature and was on some important com- 
mittees, inchtding the Committee on Judiciary 
and the Committee on Commerce and Common 

Mr. Wilson is a son of Dr. Joiin B. Wilson, of 
.ATontevallo, and his grandfather, Benjamin Wil- 
son, was one of the pioneers of that village, long 
known as Wilson's Hill. The Wilsons came from 
Tennessee and Mrginia. 

Dr. John B. Wilson was a iiroininent physician 
of ilontevallo, where he practiced medicine for 
forty or fifty years. He died in 1881, about sev- 
enty years old. He was married twice, first to a 
Mrs. Watrous, who died. He was next married 
to Miss Amanda Bandy, a sister of Mrs. Judge 
Leepei'. By the second marriage there were 
five children who grew to maturity: three sons 
and two daughters, viz. : Henry Wilson, Ben- 
jamin F.. John B., Ella (who married J. L. 
Peters), and Leta (who married .Foe Slaton). 

The subject of this sketch was married in 18?:! 
to Miss Augusta Allen, of Montevallo. He is a 
Mason. Knight of Honor and member of the I. 
II. < >. V. 

^Ir. Wilson stands in Shelby County as a man 
of liigh character. He is well known in the State 
as a fine lawyer, a man of influence, and an ad- 
herent of Democratic principles. 

at-law, was Ijoi'ii in Piiiladclpliia in 1853. Heob 
lained his education at .Sjiring Hill College, near 
-Mobile, and at the University of the South, Sewa- 
nee. Tenn. He began the study of law in 1871 at 
Montevallo, with Paul H. Lewis, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1873, at Columbiana, where he has 
been practicing law ever since. 

His father, William P. Browne, was born in 
\'ermont, in 1804, raised there, and ]>racticed law 
for about seven years. He took a contract, at an 
early day, to 'construct a canal at New Orleans, 
and, after several years, completed it and received 
a fair profit for his work. He then went to 

Mobile, whence he was sent to the Legislature 
in 1840. 

While at Tuscaloosa, he met Miss Margaret 
Stevens, whom he afterward married. In 1848, 
he moved to Shelby County, opened the Monte- 
vallo Coal Mines, and operated them until his 
death in 1809. He was a man of great energy 
and indomitable will. 

Of his seven children four are still living. One 
of them, Cecil ^Browne, of 'I'alladega, represents 
Talladega and Clay Counties in the State Senate. 
A daughter, Mrs. Jfargaret Collins, is an actress, 
and is well known to theatre going jieople as Flor- 
ence Elmore. She has attained enviable distinc- 
tion as a star. 

William B. Browne was married, in 1885, to 
Miss Lizzie, daughter of Samuel B. Roper, of 

Mr. Browne and wife are members of the Pres- 
byterian Church. 


WILDES S. DU BOSE, M. D., was born in 
Soiitii Carolina in IS'!;, and spent his youth at 
Columbia. He attended ilount Zion College, 
at Winnsboro, that State, three years, and spent 
the same length of time at the State LTniversity 
located at Columbia. He graduated in the class- 
ical course from the University of Louisiana, in 
New Orleans, and after studying elsewhere, 
graduated finally at the Atlanta Medical Col- 
lege, in 18.")8. He practiced medicine at Decatur, 
Ga., until IS'il, when he entered the Confed- 
erate Army as captain of the Anthony ( ireys. This 
company was captured at Koanoke Island, Feb- 
ruary (i, 180"2. Dr. Dn Bose afterward served as 
surgeon of the Eleventh Confederate Cavalry, and 
othei' commands. After the war he practiced 
medicine in South Carolina until 1872, when he 
came to Columbiana. He has been Chairman of 
the Board of Censors of Shelby County almost 
continuously since its organization, and is now 
Senior Counselor of the State -Medical Association. 

Kev. Julius J. Du Bose, our subject's father, 
was a minister of the Presbyterian Church in 
South Carolina, and a man of great ability. He 
died in 1843. His wife, Margaret, was a daugh- 
ter of (.'ol. Wm. Thomjison, of .Savannah, who 
was a contractor, and built the railroad from 
Charleston to Augusta, said to be the first rail- 
road begun in the United States. In this venture 



lie performed a large part of the work with the 
labor of his own slaves. 

Dr. Du Bose was married in 1859 to Miss Anna, 
daughter of James M. Calhoun, of Atlanta. Mr. 
Calhoun was a lawyer of distinction in Georgia, 
and a man of great personal pojiularity. He was 
elected Mayor of Atlanta eleven consecutive times, 
and held that office when the city was surrendered 
to Sherman. He was a member of the Georgia 
Senate for many years, and wielded a great influ- 
ence in regulating the banking Interests of that 
State. He was a cousin of John C. Calhoun, of 
national fame. 

Dr. Du Bose has seven children living. One of 
them, Clarence C, is editor and proprietor of the 
Slielby Chronicle; another, Gordon, is an attorney- 
at-law in Columbiana. 

The Doctor is a Freema.son, and he and his fam- 
ily are members of the Presbyterian Church. 

AMOS MERRILL ELLIOTT, merchant, was 
born about ten miles south of Columbiana, March 
2-.', J 829; attended such sciiools as the vicinity 
afforded, and was early initiated into the mysteries 
of merchandising. In 1855, he began selling 
goods on his own account at Harpersviile, this 
county; in 1857, i-emoved his business to Colum- 
biana, and, in 1858, purchased another store in 
Elliottsville. He continued this business until 
1801, when he was elected Clerk of the Circuit 
Court. In ]8r2, he was elected to the lower 
house of the Legislature; in 1874, again he was 
elected Clerk of the Circuit Court, which position 
he filled, in the aggregate, twenty-five years, and 
finally declined a re-election. After this he re- 

established his mercantile business in Columbiana, 
and has continued it to the present time. 

His father, Amos M. Elliott, a Tennesseean by 
birth, came to Alabama when quite young; his 
grandfather, of same name, came from Virginia 
to Tennessee in eai'ly times, and to Alabama about 
1810. He settled first in the Cahaba Valley, and 
afterward about ten miles south of Columbiana. 

A. M. Elliott's mother was Sarah (Hale) Elliott, 
from Tennessee. Chas. B. Eilfott, the elder 
brother, was sheriff of the county soon after the 
war. and is now County Treasurer. He also w;as a 
merchant for many years. Lindsey F. Elliott, the 
other brother, has served the county as a deputy 
sheriff. Both these brothers were in the army. 
The sister, Rachel M., is now the widow of Dr. 
Thomas P. Lawrence, who was a member of the 
Legislature in 185'2-.3. He was an eminent physi- 
cian and an eloquent orator. He was elected on 
the Whig ticket. 

Amos M. Elliott was married in 1847 to Miss 
Mary Bragg, a daughter of Captain Chas. Bragg, - 
of South Carolina. She died in September, 1800. 
They had six children, of whom three lived to be 
grown, and two, James and Charles, are still living. 
Both are farmers. 

Amos M. Elliott was married again in Sejitem- 
ber, 1801, to Mrs. Sophronia Holdman, daughter 
of James Hampton, of St. Clair County, Ala. 
They had two children, Emma, now wife of R. L. 
Cater, of Columbiana, and Amos M., who is in 
his father's store. 

Mr. Elliott is a Methodist, a Royal .\rch Mason, 
and has been Master of Shelby Lodge N"o. 140 for 
a number of years. He is also Past Chancellor of 
Knights of Pythias of Shelby Lodge, No. 50. 

Mr. Ellioit has been Justice of the Peace many 
vears. and has been Countv Administrator. 


Helexa is a mining and manufacturing town 
in Shelby County, situated on the Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad Company's main line from 
Louisville to New Orleans, and within five miles 
of the half-way point between the above two 

cities, also about a half-mile from the half-way 
point between Birmingham and Calera. 

Tiie town is mostly in the valley that skirts the 
Cahaba coal fields along the full length of its 
eastern boundary, and is near the middle of town- 



ship 20, S. range 3 west of the Iluntsville Meri- 
dian. The population within a radius of one and 
one half miles from the railroad depot is about 
1,7(10. Hiifk Creek, a rocky, swift-flowing stream 
passes almost in a direct line across the valley and 
through tlietown to theCahalia Uiver, joining the 
river about a mile northwest of the town. The 
town contains three churches built by the white 
people of the place, and the two churclies (Meth- 
odist and Baptist) built by tlie colored inhabi- 

The oldest church in tiie place is Harmony 
C'huVch (Presbyterian), the Rev. J. C. JIale being 
l)ast()r ; by a special law of the State, all liquors are 
forbid being sold within five miles of this church. 

The Baptist denomination have a good substan- 
tial church on Main street, of which the Rev. H. 
C. Taul is pastor. 

The Methodists liave a handsome new cluirch 
about a block Avest of the Baptist Church, with 
the Rev. 1'. B. McKane as pastor. The above 
three churches have a fair attendance, are out of 
debt, and increasing in strength, The town has 
a good, large well-lighted frame school-house, 
owned by the towns-people, in which the rising 
generation are ably taught by Professor Moses 
Crittenden, assisted by Miss Fanny Hale; the at- 
etndance is large, some of the pupils coming three 
or four miles to this school. 

The people of Helena are mostly engaged in 
coal mining and iron manufacturing. 

The Eureka Comjiany, of Oxmoor, employ 
about 1")0 men in mining and coking coal for 
their furnaces at O.xmoor and outside markets. 
.Said company are now enlarging their woiks here, 
building new coke ovens, and opening up new 
mines, contemplating a large output of coal and 
coke in the future. 

Mr. R. Fell, Sr., his son-in-law. the Hon. R. 
W. Cobb, and three sons, Charles, Richard and 
Albert Fell, forming the Central Iron Works 
Company, have a well-fiitted up rolling-mill here 
for the manufacture of merchant bar iron and 
cut nails. The oldest member of the firm, Mr. 
R. Fell, Sr., has had over fifty years' experience 
in the manufacture of wrought iron. 

The Fell Brothers have an excellent water-power 
grist-mill and cotton-gin within a few yards of 
the railroad depot here. 

The Cahaba Comi)any are contemjilating the 
opening up of the ('ahal>a Mines. 'J"he company 
have almost entire control of the basin of the 

Cahaba seam, which can be worked from three 
different slopes. 

The altitude of Helena is 400 feet above sea 
level, and is located in what is generally known 
as Possum \'alley, a valley remarkable for health- 
iness along its whole length of forty or fifty miles. 
Said valley is nearly solely drained by the heads 
of small tributaries of the Cahaba River, having 
no large streams in it except Buck Creek, at 
Helena, and the east prong of Cahaba River cross- 
ing it at right angles. The valley, consequently, is 
entirely free from malaria. 

Doctor Tucker, a practicing physician at Hel- 
ena for the sixteen years just past, states that he 
has never known a single case of disease from 
malarious causes that originated at Helena. 

The gap in Conglomerate Ridge on the west 
side, and the gap in New Hope Mountain on the 
east side of the town, keep the air currents con- 
stantly moving from one gap to the other across 
the town. This is the secret of Helena's health- 

Helena is mostly located on the geological for- 
mation usually classified as " Quebec" or Knox 
shales and Knox sandstones and dolomites, but 
pai-tly on the Cahaba coal measures, the two being 
divided by an immense ujithrow or "fault" of 
the measures of over a mile in vertical displace- 
ment at the railroad culvert, :ii)n yards west of the 
railroad depot. The measures are all thrown up, to 
an angle of from twenty-eight degrees to vertical, 
thus giving a greater variety of si)ring waters than 
any other place along the lines of railroads, at least 
for a distance of twenty miles from Birmingham. 

There are seven springs, each affording entirely 
different water from the rest, within a radius of 
.■)0n yards from the railroad depot. One of them 
the "Alum Spring" has already become famous 
for its benefits in certain chronic diseases; quanti- 
ties of it have been shijiped to parties continu- 
ing its use after returning home. 

A railroad from Heleiui to Blocton is exi)ected 
to be built shortly, and said road will be the best 
coal road in the State, giving Helena with its abun- 
dance of water, first-class manufacturing advant- 
ages. The scenery around Helena is reniarkabh' 
picturesque; that on the west side, where the 
creek and railroad go through the gap in con- 
glomerate ri<lge, closely resembling (on a small 
scale) the vjdley and surroundings of Mauch 
Chunk, Penn. 

The town has six stores doinir a ilrv i;oods and 



grocery business, one drug store, two hotels, and 
several boarding houses 

RUFUS W. COBB, was born at Ashville, St. 
Clair County, Ala., February 25, 1829. 

He attended school at an academy at Ashville, 
and graduated from the University of Tennessee 
in 1850. After leaving his alma mater he at once 
began the study of law at the home of his child- 
hood; was licensed to practice at the same place 
about 1855, and admitted to the bar of the Su- 
preme Court very soon afterward. 

He began his professional life at Ashville, but 
moved to Montevallo, Shelby County, in 1856, 
and made that place his residence until after the 
war. In the tall of 1865 he transferred his home 
to Marion, Perry County, where he practiced law 
until 1868, at which time he returned to Shelby 
County, and located at Columbiana. 

In 1872 his friends of the Democratic party 
elected him to the State Senate from the district 
including Shelby and Bibb Counties. In 1876 he 
was again sent to the Senate fiom this district, 
which by a change was now comprised of Shelby, 
Jefferson and Walker Counties. This Senate made 
him their president, and in 1878, the Democratic 
party expressed its appreciation of his services and 
ability by placing him in the gubernatorial chair. 
About 1874 the State of Alabama found herself 
hampered with an enormous debt, amounting to 
about thirty millions of dollars, a very large por- 
tion of which was improper and fraudulent. A 
plan for the adjustment of that debt was devised 
by Peter Hamilton, of Mobile, Rufus W. Cobb and 
other members of the Senate, and after it had been 
submitted to, and approved by, the Governor 
(Houston), bills were prepared, and proper steps 
taken to effect such legislation as would develop and 
carry out this plan. They provided for a com- 
mission to adjust the indebtedness, which com- 
mission consisted of George S. Houston, Levi AV. 
Lawler, and T. B. Bethea, who effected the pro- 
posed adjustment, and reduced the State indebted- 
ness to about ten millions of dollars. This action 
on the part of the commission was ratified by the 
Legislature. The position of Rufus W. Cobb,at this 
time, as President of the Senate, and his active en- 
ergy in developing the plan to relieve the State 
from her burden, made him the prominent and 
most desirable man to succeed Houston as Gover- 

nor. He was re-elected Governor in 1878, and at 
the expiration of his second term (1882) his pub- 
lic life ceased. Since that time he has been active 
as a member of the bar of Shelby, and has resided 
at Helena. 

When the tocsin of war rang through the land 
in 1861, Rufus W. Cobb responded promptly to its 
call. He entered the army as captain of Com- 
pany C, Tenth Alabama Regiment. This command 
was in the Army of Xorthern Virginia. In 1863, 
he was transferred to the Western Army under 
Bragg, and placed on special and detached duty, 
reporting personally to the generals in command. 
He remained in this service until the close of the 

Governor Cobb is a son of John W. Cobb, who 
was born in Virginia about 1800, reared in South 
Carolina, and came to Ashville about 1820. He 
married Catherine Peake, a widow, whose maiden 
name was Stevens. They had two sons, of whom 
W. Harvey Cobb is the elder. He was born Sej> 
tember 2, 1823, at Ashville, where he has always 
lived, and is now the oldest inhabitant. John W. 
Cobb was by occupation a merchant and farmer, 
and served as a member of the State Legislature, 
several terms. He was a colonel in the Florida 
War, and died in 1845. Bishop Cobb, of the Epis- 
copal Church, is related to Governor Cobb, and 
it is believed that all the Cobbsin the country des- 
cended from the one stock, which originated in 
Wales Governor Cobb was married in 1850 to iliss 
^largaret, daughter of W. S. McClurg, of Knox- 
ville, Tenn. By this marriage Governor Cobb 
has two living children — John W. Cobb, a farmer 
near Blount Springs, and Dora, now the wife of 
Richard Pell, Jr., of the Central Iron Works and 
Helena Mills, ilrs. Margaret Cobb died in 1865. 

On the last day of December, 1866, Governor 
Cobb was niiirried to Miss Frances Pell, daughter 
of Richard Pell, Sr., a practical and successful 
iron master, and by this marriage has two child- 
ren — Edith and Richard. 

Governor Cobb and family are Baptists: the Gov- 
ernor is a Knight Templar and has taken the 32d 
degree in the Scottish Rite. He has been Master 
of Blue Lodge at every place in which he has lived, 
and was Grand Master of the State for two terms. 
He is the only man who was ever Grand Master 
and Governor at the same time. The Governor 
is an eloquent speaker : a man of great deliber- 
ation and forethought i social in his disposition ; 
liberal in his means, and attracts hosts of friends. 


Population: White, 12,319; colored, UMl. 

Area — 7()(i square miles. Woodland, all. 

All Coosa \'alley and woodland. 

Acres — In cotton, approximately, l>"i,S5(»; in 
corn, 4(i,:57(i; in oats, 9,280; in wheat, i:{,2:50: in 
rye, 140; in tobacco, 30; in sweet potatoes, .335. 

Approximate number bales of cotton — 12,000. 

County Seat — Talladega: poj>ulation, 3.000. 
on East Tennessee, Virginia it Georgia, AiinistoTi 
& Atlantic, Talladega & Coosa Valley Railroads. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Our 
Mountain Home, Re/xnii'i- and Wotcli Tower, both 

Postoffices ill llic County — Alpine, Bledsoe, 
Chandler Springs. Childersburgh, Cyprian, Esta 
lioga. Eureka, Fayetteville, Ironaton, Jenifer, 
Kentuck, Kyniulga, Lincoln. McElderry, McFall, 
Munford, Pcckerwood, Reiidalia, IJenfroe, Silver 
liun, Smelley, Sycamore, TaUadeya. Turner, Wal- 
do. White Cloud. 

Talladega County was established December 18, 
1832, the territory being a ))artof the last Muscogee 
cession. The original limits were retained until 
Clay County was formed in 1860. Its name is said 
to be derived from the Muscogee words. Teka, 
meaning border, and Talla, meaning town. 

This county has long numbered among its res- 
idents some of the most distinguished men of Ala- 
bama, prominent among whom may be mentioned 
as follows: 

.Judge Shortridge. Judge John White, Mr. 
Joab Lawler, Mr. Lewis \\ . Ijiiwler, Mr. 
Alexander IJowie, Mr. Felix (J. McConiiell, the 
gifted Mr. Frank \\'. Howdon, Mr. .Jacob T. Bran- 
ford, Mr. John J. Woodward, ilr. Jabez L. M. 
Curry, Ex-CJov. Lewis E. Parsons, Mr. Marcus 
II. Cruikshank. Gen. James B. Martin, Mr. 
.John T. Iletlin, Mr. John Henderson, Mr. X. D. 
Johns, Mr. A. R. Biircliiy. Mr. M. C. Slaughter, 
Mr. Joseph D. McCaiiii. Mr. Andrew Cunningham, 
Mr. Alexander White. 

MoUie E. Jloore, a native of this county, but 
now of Texas, has acquired a just colclnity as a 

poet. Some of her verses are among the rarest 
gems of Southern literature. 

Talladega County, situated along the southern 
tier of the northeastern counties of the State, and 
having within its borders the southern terminus 
of the Blue Ridge Mountains, is favored in cli- 
mate, location, soil, accessibility and varied re- 

The mean tempei'ature is Sn degrees. The aver- 
age annual rainfall is 50 inches. The soil and 
climate are peculiarly adapted to all kinds of fruits 
and vegetables, besides growing, fairly well, corn, 
wiieat, oats, rye, cotton, clover and the grasses. 
While many varieties of soil exist, the prevailing 
color is red clay; and as there is an abundance of 
lime in the soil, they respond readily to manuring. 
The county offers prominent inducements to stock- 
men, fruit growers, truckers, saw-mill men, and 
iron workers. 

Lanils are to be had from five to thirty five 
dollars per acre, owing to location and fertility; 
but there are within the county thousands of 
acres of timbered lands which can be had for the 
value of the timber, and which will inevitably 
bring wealth when used for vineyards, orchards 
and truck. 

The location of the county favors such a system 
of farming, as it is environed by growing cities 
which must needs be fed: and it has, within its 
borders, great quantities of timber, of limestone 
and marble, of gold and of iron, besides being 
contiguous to limitless beds of coal. These var- 
ious resources are beginning to be developed, and 
on every hand are being evidenced thrift, vitality 
and wealth. Iron furnaces are located at .Jenifer 
and Ironaton. and others are contemplated at 
Talladega. Sylacauga and Childersburg. Large 
saw-mills are in operation at Berneys. Cymulgee, 
Childersburg. Nottingham. Lincoln and l{enfroe. 

The county isaccessible. having on the west the 
Coosa River, and being traversed by the East 
Tennessee. Virginia & Georgia, the Georgia Pa- 
cific, the Anniston & Atlantic, the Coosa Valley 




and the Columbus Western Railroads. The county 
has three summer resorts, viz. : Talladega, Chand- 
ler and Shocco Springs, which, from their health- 
ful waters and favorable locality, add much to the 
inducements of the county. 

The people are intelligent, hospitable and largely 
church-going. The county is well supplied with 
churches and schools, and the roads are fast being 

put in good condition. There is no debt on the 

The taxable values are §4,.50O,U0O, and rate of 
taxation one per cent. 

The valuation of taxable ^jroperty in Talladega 
County for the year 1887 is $4,722,308, as shown 
by the abstract assessment filed in the office of the 
State Auditor. [See Talladega, this volume.] 



Population: White, 15,216; colored, 9,711. 
Area, square miles, 1,390. Woodland, all. (h-av- 
elly hills and long-leaf pines, 675. Coal measures 
965 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 33,773; in 
corn, 38,638; in oats, 6,974; in wheat, 2,689; in 
rye, 130; in sugar-cane, 35; in tobacco, 20; in 
sweet potatoes, 919. Approximate number of 
bales of cotton, 12,000. 

County Seat — Tuscaloosa; population, 2,500; 
located on Black Warrior River at the head of 
steamboat navigation, and on Alabama Great 
Southern Railroad. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Gazette,\ Alabama University — the former Dem- 
ocratic and the latter educational. 

Postoffices in the County — Binion's Creek, 
Clement's Depot, Coaling, Cottondale, Dudley, 
Fosters, Hagler, Hayes, Hybernia, Hickman's, 
Hull, Humphrey, .Jena, Leled Lane, McConnell's, 
Marcumville, Moore's Bridge, New Lexington, 
Northport, Odenheim, Olmsted Station, Ore- 
gonia, Reuben, Romulus, Samantha, Sijisey Turn- 
pike, Skelton, Sylvan, Tannehill, Tuscaloosa, 
Tyner, Waldo, White Cloud. 

Tuscaloosa County was established February 7, 

Its original northern boundary was that of 
the jjresent counties of Marion and Winston. It 
was named for the river Tuscaloosa, wliieii Hows 
through it. Tiie name is from tiie Choctaw 

words, tusca, warrior, loosa, black, hence Black- 
warrior. The northern and northeastern por- 
tions of the county contains the finest long-leaf, 
yellow pine forests in the State. Poplar, ash, 
white oak, hickory and beech, and others of the 
forest trees, some of which are marvelous in size. 
Coal, iron ore and fire clays abound throughout 
the entire county. 

In addition to the Queen and Crescent, several 
railroads have been projected and surveyed, and a 
large force is now constructing one, the Tusca- 
loosa Northern, which crosses tlie Warrior nine 
miles above the city, and will pass the great coal 
and timber belt north and northeast of the city, 
and cpnnect with the Georgia Pacific at Ada, and 
thence with the great St. Louis & Memphis sys- 
tems, giving access to the great West. The Gulf 
& Chicago has been surveyed from Florence to 
Mobile, developing a remarkably low grade con- 
sidering the rough country through which the 
northern division passes. The Mobile & Tusca- 
loosa has also been surveyed, which will be ex- 
tended to Natchez via Jackson. In addition is 
another important railroad, the Great Northwes- 
tern, which is to be built from Montgomery 
through the Cahaba and Warrior coal-fields, cia 
Tuscaloosa to Sheffield. 

The Tuscaloosa Cotton Mills, with about 200 
looms, started six years ago with 140,000 capital, 
and has paid out over §(250,000 to employes. The 
varn mills of L. P. Gander run about 3,000 



spindles, and have doubled tlieir output within the 
last year. These are located on the river front, 
and are models of success. The Cottondule Mills 

have been equally successful. In addition to these, 
four or five extensive brickyards are in successful 


J'opulation : White, KJ, 108 : colored, 7,283. 
Area, 810 square miles. Woodland, all. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 41,200 ; in 
corn, -11,450 ; in oats, 9,100 ; in wheat, 14, .572 ; 
in tobacco, 21 ; in sugar-cane, 41 ; in sweet pota- 
toes, 408. Approximate number of bales of cot- 
ton, 14,921. 

County Seat — Dadeville ; pojuilatiou, 1,200; 
on the Columbus & Western Railroad, thirty 
miles from Opelika, and forty-five miles northeast 
of -Montgomery. 

Xeuspaper published at County Scat — Talla- 
pmixa yew Era, Democratic. 

Postollices in the County — Alexander City, Bul- 
ger's Mills, Huttston, Camp Hill, Cowpens. Dade- 
ville, Daviston, Dudleyville, Emuckfaw, Fish 
Pond, Foslieeton, Goldville, llackneyville. Island 
Home, Jackson's Gap, Mary, Matilda. Melton's 
Mill, Xew Site, Sturdevant, Susanna, Thaddeus. 

Tallapoosa County lies in the east center of the 
State, and was created in 1832 out of a portion of 
the last cession of the Creek Indians. The word 
Tallapoosa, means ''cat town,"' and was first ap- 
plied to the Tallapoosa KiveV, from wliidi the 
county derived the name. 

The soils of this county may be divided into 
two prominent or predominating classes, the red 
and the gray, both of which are based on a subsoil, 
of a reddish or yellowish color, but in addition to 
these soils, which are found mostly on uplands, 
there are a large number of bottoms along the 
banks of the Tallapoosa River, and the many creeks 
tributary to that stream. These bottom lands are 
the most productive lands of the county, and com- 
prise a considerable proportion of the county's 
area. The yield of this class of lands will compare 

favorably with the yield of the best laiuls in the 
State, and, take it year in and year out, crops plant- 
ed on them yield with regularity and certainty. 
The reddish lands of the uplands are specially 
adapted to the ])roduction of small grain, and fair 
crops of wheat and oats are produced on them. 
All the soils of the county are used in the pro- 
duction of cotton, though that article is culti- 
vated more extensively on the loamy lands of the 
southern portion. The yield of corn and wheat 
on the red lands will compare favorably with tlie 
best results obtained elsewhere in the State, while 
in the production of the latter, Tallapoosa ranks 
with the leading counties of Alabama. 

The forests are heavily timbered with white, 
red and Spani.<h oak, poplar, hickory, pine, ash, 
mulberry, and gum. These valuable timbers will 
be brought into requisition as the demand grows 
for their use in the mechanical arts. 

'J'he county is watered by the Tallapoosa River 
and the Hillabee, Chattasofka, Big Sandy, Little 
Sandy, Sorgahatchee, Buck, Elkehatchee, Blue, 
Winn, and Emuckfaw Creeks. Immense water- 
power jjrevails in every section of the county and 
upon the principal streams, notably upon Big 
Sandy and Hillabee. The incline jjlanes over 
which the vast volumes of water are precip- 
itated give them immense power for numufactur- 
ing purposes. 

The Tallapoosa River which flows through the 
county, dividing it in two, is capable of furnishing 
many thousand horse-power to be utilized for 
manufacturing purposes. The great falls on 
this river occur in the southern portion of the 
county, and are utilized at Tallassee, in Elmore 
County, for the manufacture of cotton goods. At 



this point the waters of the river rush for several 
hundred yards down a steep declivity, until the 
falls are reached where they pour down over a shelf 
about twenty feet in height. The fall of the river, 
within 500 yards of the factory at Tallassee, 
is fixed at between 50 and 75 feet, and it is 
estimated that this fall is capable of furnishing 
fully 100 horse-power. The many sites for manu- 
facturing purposes in this county, where motive 
power could be furnished by water, are used for 
nothing more important than saw or grist mills. 

Tallapoosa is rich in mineral resources, and it is 
thought that, for extent and variety, its mineral 
deposits will lead those of any other county in the 
State. There is no question as to the presence of 
gold in different portions of the county, and 
recent investigations have strengthened the belief 
that it was in sufficient quantity to make work- 
ing it highly profitable. This precious article is 

being mined in several localities in the county, 
with more or less success. Copper mines, near 
Dadeville, have been fitted up at a great cost with 
a stamping mill, and it is said that the indications 
point to a rich reward in the future for the out- 
lay. In addition to gold, silver signs have been 
discovered in several localities, but the extent of 
the deposits has never been ascertained. Besides 
the minerals of great value, Tallapoosa contains 
deposits of mica of a superior grade and an extra 
large size, graphite, asbestos, emery and granite. 
Dadeville, the county seat of Tallapoosa, is a 
pleasant little town of about 2,000 people, situated 
on the Columbus and Western road, about sixty 
miles west of Opelika. Its people are content, 
prosperous and happy. The location of the town 
is all that could be desired in point of scenery and 
health. Fine schools flourish, and churches of 
various denominations are found here. 


Population : \Miite, 4,23G ; colored, lo. Area, 
540 square miles. Woodland, all. All coal meas- 
ures, but in western part of county these rocks are 
covered with drift. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately). 2,000: in 
corn, 8,098; in oats, 5.79 ; in wheat, 1,9G7 ; in 
sweet potatoes, 173. . 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, G55. 

County Seat — Double Springs; population 325. 

Newspaper publisheil at County Seat — Winston 
Herald, Democratic. 

Postoffices in the County — Ark, Biler, Brown's 
Creek, Clear Creek Falls, Collier Creek, Double 
Springs, Houston, Larissa, ]\Iotes, Pebble. 

The name of this county was changed from that 
of Hancock in 1858. Under the original name it 
was organized in 1850. 

As far as investigations have gone the county 
seems to have immense resources of minerals. 
Within the last year it has attracted considerable 

attention, which has been mainly due to the con- 
struction of the Georgia Pacific Kailroad. As soon 
as the road shall have been comjileted, Winston 
will become one of the chief manufacturing dis- 
tricts of the State. 

It is in no sense an agricultural county, although 
in some portions cotton and corn are quite readily 
produced. The local industries are farming, 
stock raising and wool growing. Dairy-farming 
is carried on to a limited extent. 

This county is abundantly supplied with water. 
These numerous streams, by their confluence, form 
the chief water-ways of the county — Black AVater, 
Big Bear, Clear and Eock Creeks, and Sipsey and 
Brushy Forks. The Buttahatchie and New Rivers 
have their fountain heads amid the wild hills of 
Winston Ciounty. Along the abounding gorges and 
valleys there rush the multitudinous tributaries 
which feed these principal streams from many 
quarters. Winston can not be excelled, perhaps, by 



any county in tlie State, in the wildness and pict- 
uresqueness of its natural scenery. The waters 
in some instances have worn channels in the sand- 
stones, and often flow through gorg:es with high, 
])erpoudicular sides. In some instances rapids and 
cataracts are found, wliich till the solitudes with 
their loud-sounding thunder. Two of these water- 
falls occur in Clear Creek about :iOO yards apart; 
tlie fall of each is about thirty feet. Below the 
falls the water dashes down a deep, narrow gorge. 
They are objects of pecular interest, and will one 
(lay attract many sight-seers. " Kock-houses," as 
they are locally named, abound along these streams. 
In the neighborhood of these rocky caverns are 
found growing in luxuriance and beauty the rarest 
ferns known to American florists. 

The natural timber growth is composed of post, 
red, and Spanish oaks, poplar, beech, holly, 
chestnut, sour gum, and occasionally short-leaf 
pine. In many parts of Winston the forests are 
as yet untouched, aiul hence abound in many 
fine specimens of the timber already named. 
This is especially true of the lands which lie adja- 
cent to creeks in the bottoms. 

One of the chief attractions of this county is 
its abundatit game. Turkeys and deer abound in 
every portion of Winston, and hunters resort 

thither from the adjoining counties. Most excel- 
lent fish, too, are found in the numerous streams. 

The county is exceedingly rich in its mineral 
properties. The extent of these deposits is as 
yet unknown, but it is believed that no portion of 
Alabama, of the same compass, will excel the 
county of Winston in its mineral resources. 

Vast quantities of coal underlie the hills, and 
iron ore is also abundant. In some sections a 
superior quality of slate is found, and in large 
quantities. These slumbering resources only 
await the construction of railway lines in order to 
fiiul their way into the mai-kets of the world. 

There are several railroads contemplated, some 
of which are under construction, which will add 
greatly to the market facilities and general im- 
provement of the county. Among them may be 
mentioned, as most prominent, the Georgia I'acific. 

The educational advantages of the county are 
fairly good; church facilities good. Land may 
be purchased at from S3 to §30 per acre. 

Government land in the county, 20,T'J0 acres. 

The people of the county of Winston are social, 
industrious, thrifty, law-abiding, hospitable. God- 
fearing and serving, and will gladly welcome all 
good people who may come to make tlieir home 
witli them. 


population : White. !i,000; colored, .i,000. 

Area, 880 square miles. Woodland, all.t 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 8,f.50: in 
corn, -21,830; in oats, 2,580; in wheat, 5,-430; in 
rye, 80; in tobacco, 70: in sugar cane, 11; in 
sweet potatoes, '.Vl'i. 

Approximate numlier of hales of cotton, '2, 800. 

County Seat — Jasper; population, OdO; located 
on the Kansas City, Memphis, Hirmingham & 
Atlanta Railroad. 

Newspapers publislied at County .Seat — Mountain 
Ea(jh, Democratic; True Cilizen, Indejiendent. 

Postoffices in the County — Bartonville, Heach 
(irove, Boldo, Clark, Cordova, Corona, Eagle, 
Edgil, Eldridge. Gamble, Gravleeton, Gurganus, 
Hewitt, Holly Grove, Janeburgh, ,/rtc>7;f;-, Kansas, 
Leith, Loss Creek, Luckey, Manasco, Marietta, 
jMiddleton, Xaiivoo. Patton, South Lowell, Wil- 
mington, York, 

Walker was cieated December 'J", 18'2-1. ami 
the territory taken from Tuscaloosa and Marion. 
Tiie northern portion was set apart to form Win- 
ston in IS.iO. It lies soutii of Winston, west of 
Blount, northwest of Jefferson, north of Tusca- 



loosa, east of Marion and north and east of Faj- 
ette. It was nanaed for the Hon. John W. 
Walker, of Madison. 

It is attracting remarkable attention at this 
time by reason of its immense resources of coal. 
From present indications. Walker is the richest of 
all the counties of the State in its mineral deposits. 
It seems to be almost an unbroken coal-field from 
limit to limit. The coal is of a hard bituminous 
character, with but a small percentage of ash. 
Various geological reports point to the existence of 
five or six valuable seams, which lie in successive 
layers, one above the other. There are various 
outcroppings, indicating, from the surface, seams 
of superior coal which vary in thickness from two 
to eight feet. Remoteness of transportation has 
forbidden the establishment of mines in the past, 
but the construction of the Georgia Pacific is 
awakening new life, and the early comjjletion of 
the Sheffield & Birmingham and the Memphis & 
Birmingliam Railroads, running from Kansas City 
to the Atlantic, will greatly enhance the value of 
Walker County lauds. The surface of the county 
is broken, the hills in some places being steep and 

Like the adjoining county of Winston, the soils 
of Walker are not remarkable for their fertility, 
it being in nowise an agricultural county, but 
adapted almost solely to manufactures. Still, it 
is not without fertile lands. Snug farms are found 
in many portions of it, and many of its inhabi- 
tants have subsisted upon the productions of their 
farms since, and even before, the formation of 
their county. 

About one-third of the area of AValker is cov- 
ered with a sandy soil. This land is admirably 
suited to the production of fruit, which grows 
here in great abundance, especially such as the 
hardy fruits, jjears, apples, peaches, plums, etc. 
Fruit trees have been standing in many orchards 
for many years, and have rarely failed of an annual 
yield. In other sections of Walker, especially in 
those lying adjacent to main streams, there are 
many thrifty farms, upon which grow, with great 
readiness, corn, cotton and wheat. 

This is also true of what are locally termed " the 
bench lands'' — the plateau regions of the county. 
Here are many first-class farms, which are easily 
. tilled, and whose cultivation is most remunera- 
tive. Stock-raising is receiving some attention in 
the county, and the experiments have been most 

The county is highly favored with streams, whose 
rapid and perjietual flow mark them for future 
usefulness in the manufactures. Chief among 
these are Mulberry Fork, which flows through the 
southeast and joins Locust Fork in the south; the 
Black Water, SijDsey Fork and Lost Creeks. These 
are supplied by numerous tributaries, which drain 
the county from every quarter. As fine timber 
forests skirt these sti'eams as are found in the 
northern portions of the State. These embrace 
the different varieties of oak, post, red and Sjjan- 
ish, together with beech, poplar, the gums, and 
short-leaf pine. In the neighborhood of South 
Lowell, about six miles from Jasper, the county 
seat, there is a section of long-leaf pine forest, 
covering an area of about ten miles broad and 
twenty-five miles long. This superb tract of tim- 
ber is penetrated by the Black Water River, the 
banks of which are lined by thriving manufac- 
tories, such as corn, wheat and lumljer mills and 
cotton gins. 

The passage of the Georgia Pacific through the 
county has awakened much interest, and when 
that shall have been intersected by the j\IobiIe & 
Birmingham Railroad, which will run the entire 
length of the State, from Mobile to Florence, the 
advantages of the county will be immense. 
Through these great channels of trade her rich 
minerals of coal and iron will seek outlets to the 
world beyond. These minerals are considered 
j^ractically inexhaustible. In the interior of the 
basin in Walker County is the Jagger's coal bed, 
which is said to be one of exceeding thickness. 

The coal development of Walker County is only 
in its infancy. The following collieries have been 
opened and are now in operation on the main line 
of the Georgia Pacific Railroad : The Tennessee 
& ilobile Coal Co. ; Virginia & Alabama Mining 
and Manufacturing Co. ; Wolf Creek Coal Co.; 
O'Brien Coal Co.; Black Diamond Coal Co.; Ed. 
Donaldson Co. and the Norvil Coal Co. The 
capacity of these mines at present is 1,500 tons 
daily, and if a supply of cars could be bad they 
would increase their output to 2,500 tons of coal 
daily. The quality of this coal can not be excelled 
for domestic and steam purposes. The seam of 
coal averages three feet and eight inches, covering 
a territory of 20,000 acres of this seam of coal, to 
say nothing of three other seams of coal on the 
same property, adapted for coking and steam 

The Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham 



Koad is now comi)leted from Memphis to Uir- 
iniiigliam, passing through Wali<er County. 
The seams of coal in Walker County im the War- 
rior Coal Fields are entirely clear of faults, which 
is a great inducement for coal operators to locate 
in AWilker County. There is no oounty in the 
State of Alabama to equal Walkei- County in coal 
and lumber interests. 

Throughout the county the educational advan- 
tages are moderate, and church facilities abound. 
Both these improve, as one approaches the princi- 
pal villages. Jasjjer, the county seat, with a 

population of three or four hundred, has good 
schools and two comfortable church edifices. Holly 
(Jrove and South Lowell are also points of interest 
and growing importance. 

TJke other counties, the resources of which are 
being ra|)idly developed, the peoj)le of Walker are 
anxious to have their lands purchased and jiopu- 

Great inducements are just now beinir offered 
to purchasers of lands. 

There are embraced within the limits of Walker 
County U'8,840 acres of Government land. 


Jasi'KU, county-seat of Walker, is located at the 
junction of the Kansas City, Memphis it Birming- 
ham, and Sheffield & Birmingham Kailroads, forty- 
four miles west of Birmingham, 210 miles east 
from Sheffield, and fifty-six miles northeast of 
Tuscaloosa. The country around Jasper is like 
most of Walker County, broken and mountainous. 
The growth and prosperity of the town depends on 
coal, timber, and agriculture in the valleys. 

Jasper is centrally located in the county, coal- 
fields extending in every direction for about fifty 
miles. It promises to be an important railroad cen- 
ter in the future: that is to say in addition to the 
two roads now here, there will be a connection 
with the Georgia Pacific, and Tuscaloosa Xorth- 
crn, and the Sheffield & Birmingham Coal. Iron & 
Railway Company. There are now going on ne- 
gotiations for a furniture factory, as well as a large 
lumbering outfit; also for a rolling mill, and a 
plant for pit cars, wheel-barrows, etc. Also, a 
coke plant, at a cost of !!!500,(i00, is now breaking 
ground. This company owns, in Walker County, 
70,0(1(1 acres of mineral lands, and has a capital of 
xSdO.ddO. In addition to the above named indus- 
tries, there are twenty other comiianios owning 
valuable coal mines in Walker County. 

Jasper has two churches — Methodist and Bap- 
tist — a Miwonic lodge, twenty-five business housss, 
including a bank with a )>aid up capital of ^••200,000, 
and two hotels. Its population is now about l,.")(Ki, 
and is daily increasing. It is an active and bust- 
tling plare, full of hope and enterju'ise. The 

value of town property has advanced ten-fold in 
the last eighteen months. 

The city of Jasper was iiteorporated December 
22, 1887, and George H. Guttery was its first may- 
or; W. S. Foster its first secretary and tax assessor; 
B. M. Bradford, marshal and collector: and J. B. 
Shields, W. C. Rosamond, I). L. Stovall, and W. 
G. Gravlee its first Board of Councilmen. 

The streets are all laid off, and some grading 
done, a corporation building, including a court- 
room and council chamber and prison, has been 
erected, and the entire town has been platted, ex- 
tending over one square mile. The Sheffield & 
Birmingham Coal, Iron & Railway Company are 
now building at this place 250 coke ovens and the 
largest coal bins in the State. The trestle over 
which the railroad track runs will be about fifty 
feet high, and the coal will be placed in the bins, 
taken thence and placed in the ovens without be- 
ing handled from the time it leaves the mine. The 
intention of the comjiany is to increase the num- 
ber of ovens to 1,000, and when completed will 
have a capacity of 1,000 tons of coke per diem. 

The city of Jasper is not yet old enough to have 
made much history, but for the unparalleled ad- 
vantages offered by it and Walker County, the 
reader is referred to the history of the county, 
and the •' Toi)ography, Geology and Natural Re- 
sources '' of Xortherii Alabama, so elegantly and 
elaborately set forth in this volume. Among the 
prominent members of the legal profession of 
Jasper nniy be named: A\'. B. Appling. E. W. 



Coleman, C. J. L. Cunniugham, S. M. Gunter, 
S. Lacy and John McQueen, while the other pro- 
fessions are well represented. 

Among the oldest families iu JasjDer is the 
Miisgrove family, in fact they were the first set- 
lers of the town. Dr. E. G. Musgrove moved to 
that section of Alabama befoi'e the State was ad- 
mitted into the Union, and, immediately after the 
formation of the county of Meeker, he laid out 
the town of Jasper and gave the entire town to 
the county, conditioned upon locating the county 
seat there, which was accepted, and a court-house 
and jail was immediately built. This family has 
been continuous residents of Jasper. First after 
the death of Dr. Musgrove came his oldest son, 
Capt. P. A. Musgrove, who was born and reared 
in the place and was amongst the first citizens of 
the town and county, having filled various jiosi- 
tions of trust and honor in the county and served 
one term in the State Legislature. At the begin- 
ing of the war he went into service as captain of 
OomiDany L, Twenty-eighth Alabama Regiment. 
He was wounded at the battle of Murfreesboro, and 
after his recovery went into service as major of a 
cavalry conijiany which he raised at home during 
his illness. Following in the direct line of the 
decendants comes L. B. and J. C. Musgrove, his 
only sons, who are still living at the old home- 
stead, and are both closely identified with the 
building of the city, and also in the development of 
the coal and iron interests of the count}-. 

The Jasi^er Land Company was organized on 
December 19, 1S87, by the election of the follow- 
ing Board of Directors: 

G-orge H. Nettleler, President of the Kansas 
City, Memphis & Birmingham Railroad; James 
P. Johnston, President of the Alabama Xational 
Bank; J. G. Chamberlain, (General Manager of 
the Sheffield & Birmingham Coal, Iron, and Rail- 
road Company; A. G. Francis, of the Corona Coal 
& Coke Company; J. C. Musgrove, W. L. Wallis, 
R. H. Elliot, Chief Engineer of Kansas City, 
Memphis & Birmingham Railroad; P. A. Gamble 
and S. B. Musgrove. 

The following were elected the active officials of 
the Company: 

Joseph P. Johnston, President; L. B. Mus- 
grove, Vice-President and General Manager; J. 
M. Burrell, Secretary, and William S. Foster, 

This company owns about 4,000 acres of land 
in and ai-ound the city of Jasper, and is closely 

identified with both the citizens and railroads 
running into that place. It is quite liberal in 
its efforts to build up a flourishing city in shape 
of donations, and also in loaning money to insti- 
tutions to locate here. The greater portions of 
the most valuable property of the city is in the 
possession of the Land Company, and it is sjiaring 
neither means nor money to develop this fast-grow- 
ing city. The Company has succeeded in locating 
several of the largest and best industries in the 
State at Jasper, and with their efforts bent on 
this line, as it is at the present time, will in a 
very few years, put Jasper among the flourishing 
cities in North Alabama. 

WALKER COUNTY BANK was organized in 
Xovenibei', 1887, with llinton F,. Carr, president, 
John B. Hughes, cashier, and a cajjital stock of 
$20,000, all paid in. The business has been satis- 
factory from the first, and has doubled itself the 
last two months. The deposits are larger than 
the managers had any reason to exjiect, and the 
business is conducted on a strictly legitimate 
plan. The managers will change it into a national 
bank November 1, 1888. 

HiNTON EvEKETT Cark, president of the bank, 
was born May 23, 1856, in Coffeeville, Miss. His 
father, Louis F. Carr, moved from Coffeeville to 
Memphis, Tenn., in the same year, and the sub- 
ject of our sketch resided there until fourteen 
years ago. In 1870 he went to Arkansas with his 
father, studied law there and was admitted to the 
bar at Helena. He practiced law in Helena and 
edited The Patriot, a daily and weekly paper. 
He came to Jasper April 1, 1877, and soon after 
associated himself in the practice of law with 
Hon. A. E. Stratton, which partnership continues. 

Mr. Carr was married in Helena in 1880 to Miss 
Emma, daughter of Joseph Delaney. They have 
two daughters. 

Mr. Carr's father, Louis P. Carr, was a native 
of North Carolina, and a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of that State. His wife, Lucy, was a daugh- 
ter of Alfred Turner, one of the most extensive 
slave owners of Mississippi. He died about the 
close of the war. 

H. E. Carr has fought his own way in the world 
and has been entirely the architect of his own 
fortune, since the fortune he would have inher- 
ited was lost on account of the war. 



John Bell Hl'uhes, son of Daniel and Char- 
lotte (Bell) Hughes, was born in Tuscaloosa County, 
Ala., February t|, 1S.'38. He was roared on a farm, 
attended the country schools and the academy at 
Tiiylorville, spent some years in a tannery, and at 
the breaking out of the war, became a member of 
Company (J, Eleventh Alabama Kegiment. In 
the fall of 18G1 he was elected lieutenant, and in 
18G-2 was promoted to a captaincy. lie was in 
the first battle of Manassas, all the important 
battles of the army of Xorthern Virginia, and was 
at Appomattox at the surrender. He was once 
captured and imprisoned two montlis at Washing- 
ton and Fort Delaware; was wounded at the bat- 
tles of Sharpesburg and Gettysburg. 

Mr. Hughes was appointed clerk of the circuit 
court at Jasper in 1881. At the organization of 
the Walker County Bank, he was made its cashier, 
and still holds that office. His father, Daniel 
Hughes, was a native of Tennessee, and his 
mother was born in Georgia. The Hughes family 
was originally from near Charleston. S. C. 

JOHN B. SHIELDS. Probate Judge of Walker 
County, .son of i>r. Milton and Priscilla J, (Brad- 
son) Shields, was born at Marshall's Ferry, in 
Granger County, Tenn., xVugust "^5, 1840. He 
attended an old field school in that neighborhood 
until about fifteen years of age, when he went to 
Greensville College, East Tennessee, and pursued 
his studies there for two years. He next studied 
medicine for two or three years, and upon the 
breaking out of the war became first lieutenant 
of Company I, Fifty-ninth Regiment Tennessee 
Confederate Infantry. This regiment was cap- 
tured at the siege of Vicksburg, but was paroled at 
once, and thereafter mounted as cavalry under 
Gen. J. C. Vaughan (since the war a Congress- 
man). His brigade made a camjiaign into Mary- 
land in 1864, under (ien. Early. After the raid 
into -Maryland they went into East Tennessee and 
Western Virginia. He then commanded the com- 
pany as captain. He was engaged at the battle 
of Grand (iulf, siege of Vicksburg, Baker's Creek, 
Piedmont, Morristown, Bull's Gap, Monocacy 
.Junction, ild., Winchester and many others. 
After Lee'.s surrender he went into North Caro- 
lina and joined Joseph F]. Johnson's army, but 
surreiulered at Athens, Ga. 

After the war he went into mercantile business 

at Newnan, Ga., and remained there eighteen 
months. During tiiis time he married and returned 
to his native place in East Tennessee in 18<J(i. He 
found his home entirely desolate, and his first 
business was to rebuild the old house and re-estab- 
lish the homestead. After acconijilishing this he 
clerked two years at Morristown. 

In 1808 he moved to AVolf Creek, then the ter- 
minus of the Cinciunatti, Cumberland Gap & 
Charleston Railroad, as merchant and railroad 
station-agent. In 1871, he moved to Carroll 
County, Ga., to sujierintend the (ieorgia Paper 
]\Ianufacturing Company. (His childhood had 
been largely spent in his father's pa]>er-mill.) In 
1873 he moved to Walker County, re-fitted Long's 
Mill, on Black AVater Creek, and became a mer- 
chant and miller there. After three years he sold 
out that interest to B. M. Long, moved to South 
Lowell, and ran a steam saw and planing-mill, 
which he conducted individually for two years. 
He still owns an interest there as a member of the 
firm of Shields & Cartter. 

His old homestead in Tennessee ha.s been in the 
possession of his family for si.xty years, and it has 
been very recently discovered that the place con-- 
tains a ledge of solid marble of many different 
colors, beautifully variegated, and more than 300 
feet thick. 

The Judge's residence is properly at South 
Lowell, which was once a flourishing village (six 
miles from Jasper), but is now neglected and dead. 

Judge Shields was elected to the Legislature in 
1878 on the Greenback ticket, by a majority of 
twenty-eight votes, but was counted out. In 1884 
he was again elected to the Legislature on an Inde- 
pendent ticket, and served in 1884 and 1885. In 
the year 188G he was elected Probate Judge of 
Walker County, and is still the incumbent of that 

Judge Shields was married September IK, 18IJG, 
in Carrollton, Carroll County, (ia., to iliss Carrie 
E., youngest daughter of Judge John Long, who 
was a native of Tennessee, and served as judge, 
legislator, and in other offices, for more than 
twenty-five years. He settled in Carroll County 
in 182G, when the county was full of Indians, and 
reared a family of four sons and tiiree daughters. 
One of these sons, B. M. Long, of Cordova, is one 
of the most prominent and infiuential men in 
Walker County, and pays more taxes than any 
other man in the county. 

Five children have been born in Judge Shield's 



family, all of whom are girls. Their names are : 
Kaniiie P., Lily Lou (now dead), Carrie May, J. 
Maud, and Johnnie B. The Judge is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity, and of the Presbyterian 
Church. His wife is a Methodist. 

Milton Shields, the Judge's father, was a son of 
James Shields, and of Irish descent. He was 
born in Greene County, Tenn., in 1804, and died 
in Sevier County, Tenn., December 20, 1866. He 
owned pajjer-mills at Marshall's Ferry and at 
Middlebrook, near Knoxville, and was interested 
in an iron furnace. He made the writing and 
printing paper that was used throughout this 
country fifty or sixty years ago, and shipped it 
here down the Tennessee Eiver. This paper was 
at first made by hand, and one sheet moulded at 
a time. 

of the Jasjjer Land Company, is a son of John E. 
and Jane (Mills) Gamble, and was born September 
23, 1830, in Shelby County, this State, near 
where Calera now stands. His father moved to 
Walker with his family and goods in a wagon, in 
1837. His early advantages were poor, and his 
education was principally obtained by hard study at 
home. He left the farm in 1855, and clerked for 
two years. He was elected Judge of the Probate 
Court in May, 1859, and March, 1862, was captain 
of Company F, Twenty-eighth Alabama Kegiment 
Infantry, and served with that regiment in Bragg "s 
camjjaign through Kentucky. The hardshijjs of the 
army proved too severe for him. His health failed, 
and he was sent home in the latter part of that 
year, and saw no more service in the army. 

From 1865 until 1868 he served as County Ad- 
ministrator, and directed the management of a 
farm. In 1869, he embarked in mercantile busi- 
ness, and followed that for four years. In 1874 he 
took charge of the Mountain Eagle, a weekly 
paj)er at Jasper, and edited it until July, 1877, 
when the Eagle office and other buildings, includ- 
ing the Walker County Court-House were burned. 
Soon after this. Judge Gamble was apjiointed 
Judge of the Probate Court by Gov. George S. 
Houston, an old and warm personal friend of his, 
and he retained that office by election until No- 
vember, 1886. During his term of office, he 
dealt to some extent in real estate, and has con- 
tinued that business. He was one of the origina- 
tors of, and a stock-holder and director in, the 

Jasper Land Company, and has had much to do 
with its management from its inception. He also 
owns and controls large and extensive mining in- 
terest in Walker County. 

Judge Gamble was first married in Kovember, 
1857, to Jliss Jerusha A., daughter of Rev. James 
H. Freeman, who was a minister of the Methodist 
Ej)iscoi3al Church, South, for about sixty-two 
years, and was extensively known in Walker, Fay- 
ette and Tuscaloosa Counties. By this marriage, 
the Judge had five children born to him, of whom 
but one (Lelia J.), is now living. Mrs. Gamble 
died in April, 1874, and the Judge was again mar- 
ried in April, 1877, to Miss Mary A., daughter of 
Judge Thomas Owen, one of the jDioneers of Tus- 
caloosa. By the second marriage the Judge had 
a family of five, of whom two sons only are living: 
Frank A. and Foster K. 

The .Judge's father was a minister of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South, for many years, and 
held some county offices. He was a soldier under 
General Jackson in the War of 1812, and died in 
186;). Judge Gamble's two grandfathers, Robert 
Gamble and James Mills, were both soldiers in the 
Revolutionary War, and Robert Gamble was present 
at the surrender of Cornwallis. He came from Ii-e- 
land at an early date. James Mills was one of 
the few survivors of the Continental Army at the 
battle of Bunker Hill. He was bayoneted in that 
conflict by a British soldier, knocked into a deep 
ditch by the blow of the bayonet against the 
buckle of his sword belt, and left there for dead, 
as he feigned to be, but his life was saved by the 
buckle, and when opportunity ofEered he made 
his escape. About thirty years after this he met 
Joseph Crawford, a comrade, messmate and most 
intimate friend before the battle of Bunker Hill; 
each one of them having long been confident 
that the other had been killed in that battle. 

Jasper, Ala., son of Nathaniel J. and Amy (Pow- 
ell) Rosamond, was born in Lawrence District, 
S. C, in 1833, worked on a farm until he was 
eighteen, when he began the study of medicine at 
Northport, Ala., and was licensed to practice at 
Tuscaloosa, this State. He came to Walker 
County in 1856, and soon attained an extensive 
practice here. In 1862 he joined the Confederate 
Army, serving as a private; was appointed Assist- 



ant-Surgeon in General Fiirgeson's brigade, and 
saw service in Tennessee, Louisiana. Mississippi 
and Alabama. He was at Shiloh and Vicksburg, 
and served under Bragg and Johnston in Ten- 

In l!S(J() Dr. Rosamond returned to .Tasper. and 
l)racticed medicine until 187.S. when he retired 
from practice on account of his health. He was 
soon afterward elected to the State Senate from 
Walker, Jefferson and Shelby Counties. Since 
that time he has been engaged in nierchaiidising, 
and is now a druggist. 

Dr. JJosamond was first married, in 18.")6, to 
Miss Medorah F., daughter of Kev. Jas. H. Free- 
man, a poi)ular Methodist preacher then living at 
Tuscaloosa. There were six children born to this 
union, viz.: Edward P.. Willie L., Ethbert C, 
Franklin K., Hester May and Amy Lee. Mrs. 
Rosamond died November 1.5, 1882, and the Doc- 
tor contracted his second marriage December li, 
18S.'3, with Miss Henrietta, daughter of David F. 
Dinsmore, of Laudersville. Mr. Dinsniore was a 
prominent citizen, and held several county offices 
in Lawrence County. 

N'athaniel J. Rosamond, Dr. Rosamond's father, 
was of French Huguenot origin. His ancestors 
came to Virginia about the time of the Edict of 
Nantes (1.598). The Doctor's mother. Amy Pow- 
ell, was born in Kentucky, and came to South 
Carolina with her parents, and was married 

Dr. Rosamond is a member of the .Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and of the Masonic 

• - O '-S^^--^ 

City of Jasper, son of Robert and Sarah (Will- 
iams) Guttery, v.'as born in Walker County, Ala., 
in 1818. He was reared on a farm: educated at 
Jasper and llollygrove, and farmed until the 
breaking out of the war, when he went into the 
army as a member of Company A, Fifty-si.xth 
Alabama Regiment, with Capt. A. J. Guttery, his 
brother, commanding the company. He served in 
Forrest's command in Mississippi, and with John- 
son's army from Dalton to Atlanta, and in all the 
battles in which it participated until, and imlud- 
mg, Peach Tree Creek. 

In 18(i'i, Mr. Guttery came from llollygrove to 
Jasper, commenced business as a merchant, and 
conducted that business until 1874, when he was 

elected sherifT of Walker County, and served as 
such until 1877. In the following year he com- 
menced merchandising again, and continued it 
until April 20, 1SS8. The city of Jasper was in- 
corporated December 22, 1887, and Jlr. Guttery 
was elected its first major, a position he still holds. 

He was married in 187li, to Miss Alice C, 
daughter of W. L. Stanley, one of the pioneers of 
Jasper and treasurer of AValker County before 
and during the war, and has three children. 
Claude, Pearl and John McQueen. 

Mr. Guttery's father, Robert (iuttery, was a 
pioneer preacher of the Primitive Baptist Church, 
and among the first settlers of Walker County. 
He came here from Tennessee with his father, 
William Guttery, at an early day. 


JOHN B. LOLLAR, son of John A. and Susan 
(Gillin) Lollar, was born November 30, 1835, near 
Jasper, Ala., and was reared on a farm at Lost 
Creek. He went into the Confederate Army as 
third lieutenant in Company G, Thirteenth Ala- 
bama Regiment, Cavalry (Colonel Hewlitt.) This 
regiment was consolidated with the First Ala- 
bama, which was commanded by Colonel Boyle, 
of .Mobile, and for about a year did garrison duty 
at Columbus, j\Iiss. It afterward served at other 
places in that State. 

After the war Mr. Lollar made corn and cotton 
for some years on Lost Creek. In 1877 he was 
elected sheriff of Walker County, and ta.\ collector 
in 1880. In 1885 he was appointed postmaster at 
Jasper, and in 1880 was elected Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court, which position he has held until the 
present time. 

Mr. Lollar was married in 1857 to Miss Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Isaac Taylor, a prominent citi- 
zen of Poplar Cove, N. Ala., and who died in 
Texas. Jlr. Lollar has eight living children, viz : 
William R., Fannie E., Meta J., Queen Victoria, 
JIargaret E., Isaac II., Andrew J. and Joe. 

John A. Lollar (John B.'s father) came to 
Walker County at its first settlement, and his 
father. Hugh Lollar, named the town of Jasper. 

Hugh Lollar, Jr., John B.'s oldest brother, 
was sheriff of Walker County before the war, and 
is said to have been one of the best oflicers the 
county ever had. He was killed at the battle of 



Population: White, 11,36-1; colored, 12,076. 
Area, 610 square miles. Woodland, all. All 

Acres — ^-In cotton (approximately), TO.iiS-l; in 
corn, 49, .300; in oats, 9,258; in wheat. 11,520; in 
tobacco, 39; in sugar-cane, 211; in sweet potatoes, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 20,100. 

County Seat — La Fayette; population, 2,000; 
located on East Alabama Railroad, eighteen miles 
from Opelika, and eighty-four miles from Mont- 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Cham- 
ber.s County Democrat and Sun, both Democratic. 

Postoffices in the County — Bloomingdale, Bos- 
worth, Buffalo, Chapel Hill, Cusseta, Fredonia, 
Happy Land, Hickory Flat, La Faijette, Lystra, 
Milltown, Oakbowery, Osanippa, Sandy Creek, 
Sharon, Stroud, Tuckersburgh. 

Chambers County lies in tlie eastern portion of 
the State, and joins the State of Georgia, from 
which a portion of it is separated by the Coosa 

The county was created in 1832 from a por- 
tion of the lands ceded by the Muscogees at the 
treaty of Cusseta. It was named in honor of 
Hon. Henry Chambers, of Madison County, who 
represented Alabama in the Senate of the United 
States at the time of his death in 1826. 

The area of the county is about 610 square 
miles. The surface is rolling and hilly, with light 
soils, having a good sub-soil, though in the county 
there is a considerable area of bottom lands ren- 
dered very fertile by alluvial deposits. The land 
generally is red, mulatto or gray, the first of 
of which is specially adapted to the culture of 
grain. The gray lands are best adapted to the 
production of cotton, while the mulatto lands 
produce all crops abundantly. 

This county is well wooded, and it contains fine 
forests of red, white, post and Spanish oaks, which 
grow luxuriantly on the red hill lands. Long- 
leaf pine is found in limited quantities, but not 

sufficiently to be enumerated as one of the factors 
of material wealth. 

Chambers County is well watered, being touched 
on the southeastern quarter by the Chattahoochee 
River, while the Tallapoosa cuts off its northwest- 
ern corner. Through the center of the county 
there runs from the northeast to the southeast a 
ridge, which is the watershed that divides the 
waters that flow into the Chattahoochee and those 
that flow into the Tallapoosa. The body of the 
county is watered by several creeks, tributary to 
one or the other of these rivers, the principal of 
which are: Weehadkee, Oclickee, Osanippa, He- 
olethloochee, Cohelsaneia and several other minor 

The climate of the county is excellent and es- 
pecially adaptable for fruit culture, which prom- 
ises to become an important industry. At j^resent 
it ranks as one of the first counties of the State in 
the i>roduction of peaches. The mineral resources 
of the county have never been developed, but there 
is very little doubt that it contains many articles 
highly valuable. It adjoins the counties of Talla- 
poosa and Randolph, in both of which gold is 
known to exist, and by many it is thought that 
this precious metal will one day be discovered in 
Chambers. Granite has been found here, as well 
as a superior article of graphite, both of which 
might be developed with great jirofit. 

This county is possessed of ample water-power, 
which is being utilized for running grist- and saw- 
mills and gins. There are two cotton factories on 
the Chattahoochee, partly in Chambers and partly 
in Georgia. 

The Western Railroad of Alabama passes 
through the southern corner of the county, and 
the East Alabama & Cincinnati Railroad extends 
to the central portion from Opelika, terminating 
at Buffalo Wallow. 

La Fayette is a jjleasant little city. It is located 
in the central portion of the county, and enjoys an 
excellent trade. It possesess all the advantages of 
rail communication, and is the seat of several edu- 




cational institutions of ii high order. The inhab- 
itants are noted for their refinement and liospital- 
ity, and no city of its size iu the State can present 
more attractions as a home. 

Churches of the leading Christian denomina- 
tions are found here; 

The other towns, worthy of mention, are Fre- 
donia, Miljtown and Cussetta. At the hitter place 
the celebrated treaty was concluded with theMus- 
cogees in 18;3'^, whereby that tribe surrendered a 
large body of land, the last of its possessions in 
Alabama, to the General Government. 



Population: AVhite, 4,760; colored, 8,105. Area, 
660 square miles. Woodland, 060 square miles. 
Gravelly hills, .560 square miles. Calcareous lands, 
100 squai'e miles. 

Acres — In cotton 30,130; in corn, 20,750; in 
oats, 2,010; in wheat, 940; in rye, 110; in rice, 
37; in sugar-cane, 62; in sweet potatoes, 500. 

Approximate number of Ijales of cotton, 7,700. 

County Seat — Prattville: population, 1,625; lo- 
cated fifteen miles northwest of Montgomery. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Progress 
and Southern Signal (both Democratic). 

Postoffiees in the County — Autaugaville, Bill- 
ingsley, Bozeman, Independence, Jones Switch, 
Kingston, Milton, :\rulberry, Prattville, States- 
ville, Vine Hill, Wads-.voil!' " 

Prior to 1818 this was a part of the territory of 
the county of Montgomery. In the fall of that 
year the Legislature at St. Stephens, assembled, by 
statutory enactment, created the new county of 
Autauga. It was named for Autauga Creek, a 
stream rising among the northern hills of the 
county, and meandering in a southerly direction, 
empties into the Alabama river. 

The exact significance of the word "Autauga " 
is not now known. By some it is claimed to have 
meant "dumpling," an article of food, indicating 
a land of plenty. By others it is thought to mean 
" Clear Water. " The latter is pro1)ably more nearly 

The county is bounded on the east, west and 
north by Elmore, Dallas and Chilton Counties, 
respectively, and on the south by the Alabama 
Eiver. Skirting the entire southern line of the 
county, the Alabama River affords ample trans- 

portation for its products to Montgomery, Selma 
and Mobile. The Louisville & Nashville Eailroad 
crosses the northeast corner of the county, and 
the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia traverses 
nearly the whole of its western boundary. There 
are also several other railways contemplated and 
surveyed, whose routes will penetrate the interior 
section of the county, and give outlet to the in- 
exhaustible minerals of Bibb, Tuscaloosa, and 
Walker Counties, and to the magnificent lumber 
of Autauga and Chilton. 

The soils of Autauga County are of every vari- 
ety. They are the isinglass lands and rich allu- 
vial river bottoms, occasional jiatches of prairie, 
sandj' surfaces with clay subsoil, rich hummock, 
and elevated red or brown table-lands. The sur- 
face of the county isgenerally broken and undulat- 
ing, and yet in that portion bordering on the river, 
and even in the northern section where the hills 
predominate, there are extensive level plateaus 
well adapted to the purpose of agriculture. In- 
deed some of the most attractive farms to be found 
in Central Alabama maybe seen in this county. In 
the ujjper or northern section the soil is compara- 
tively thin, and yet in many of the valleys and 
creek bottoms there is considerable productiveness, 
and the jieople often make good crops of the 
cereals, besides cotton, and are happy and content. 
It is in northern Autauga that the tall yellow 
pine, which is of so much commercial value, tow- 
ers to j)erfection; and acres of this valued growth 
remains to-day in virgin ignorance of the sound 
of the woodman'.-* axe or saw. In the lower or 
southern section there are endless kinds of trees, 
the black, red and white post oaks, hickory. 




including shell bark, chestnut, walnut, persimmon, 
ash, sassafras, dogwood, poplar, gum, oodar, and 
cypress, with pines interspersed. The jirocuring 
of cypress and other valuable timbers for ship- 
ment is becoming an industry. The woods and 
forests at seasonable periods abound in fruits and 
(lowers. Tiiere the wild grape and muscadine 
nourish in the greatest profusion, and when spring 
comes and touches nature with her verdure tlie 
most fragrant and lovely Howcrs, from the expan- 
sive magnolia to the modest violet, regale the 
senses and laden the air with the sweetest perfume. 

The soils of Autauga, under judicious cultiva- 
tion respond in abundant crops of cotton, corn, 
peas, potatoes, rye, oats, barley, wheat, chufas, 
rice, millet, milo-maize, sorghum, and sugar-cane. 
Perhaps in no section does tiie seuppernoiig grape 
grow in greater profusion in proportion to its cul- 
tivation. Pecans are also succestffully produced. 
The gardens and orchards, uiuler proper manage- 
ment, return all vegetables and fruits known to 
the climate, embracing, in the line of the latter, 
apples, pears, peaches, grapes, quinces, prunes, 
dates, plums, pomegranates and figs. 

Perhaps no land is more favored with bright, run- 
ning streams than Autauga. From north to south 
her territory is traversed witli a number of bold and 
beautiful creeks, wliose waters in many instances 
skirt rich productive bottom lands. Among these 
may be mentioned Big and I^ittle Mulberry, Ivy, 
Swift, White Water, Hear. Autauga, Beaver. Pine, 
Big and Little Mortar. Upon the courses of these 
streams may be found many eligible locations for 

the founding of manufactories and industrial 

This was one of the pioneer counties of the 
State in manufacturing. Located at Autaugaville 
are two cotton factories; at Prattville, one cotton 
factory, one sash, door and blind factory, and one 
cotton-gin factory. The Prattville Cotton-(;in 
Manufactory is the largest of the kind in the 
world. It employs upwards of one hundred men, 
turns out over one thousand gins annually, and 
the " Pratt (iin " is known throughout the civil- 
ized world. Xear Prattville, also, is a cotton fac- 
tory, and scattered throughout the county is tJie 
usual number of grist-mills, shoe and blacksmith 
shops, ])ublic ginneries, etc. In the eastern part 
of the county is an earthenware establishment, 
manufacturing jugs, churns, urns and other arti- 
cles of clay. 

Ochre, fire-clays, paints and pigments abound in 
the county, while many of her miignificent springs 
are pregnant with healing and health-giving min- 

Land is worth from one dollar to fifteen dollars 
per acre, and fine farming land can be liad for three 
dollars per acre. Government land in the county, 
about 12,000 acres. 

Kate of taxation, forty cents on the *:loO; coun- 
ty debt, none. 

The people are law-abiding, iiospitable, indus- 
trious and jtatriotic. The public-school system is 
but indifferently developed, though popular 
enough witli the masses, and growiftg in impor- 
tance, (leneral health of the county, good. 



Population: White, 7,390; colored, 8,341. 
Area, 930 square miles; oak and hickory and long 
leaf pine uplands, 830 square miles; pine hills, 
100 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton 31,080; in corn, 25,013; in 
oats, 3,338; in rice, 38: in sugar-cane, 101; in 
tobacco, 23; in sweet potatoes, 7-18. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, lO.oOO. 

County Seat — Butler: population, 300; forty 
miles east of Meridian, Miss., near the Tombigbee 

Newspaper published at County Seat — The 
Choctaw Herald (Democratic). 

Postoffices in the County — Aquilla, Ararat, 
Bergamot, Bevill's Store, Bladen Springs, But- 
ler, De Sotoville, Fail, Isney, Lenora, Lusk, Mel- 
vin, ]\Iount Sterling, Naheola. Pushmataha, Res- 
cueville, Silas, Souwilpa. Tompkinsville, Tusca- 
homa, Womack Hill, Yantley Creek. 

The county was organized December 29, 1847, 
from territory originally belonging to Washing- 
ton and Sumter Counties. It is in the western 
portion of the State, and bounded, north by Sum- 
ter, south by Washington, east by Marengo and 
Clarke, and west by Mississippi. 

The lands are rolling and flat. The ridges and 
pine lands are sandy, but the river and creek 
" bottoms" are all alluvial. The pine forests are 
extensive, and can be and are being made a source 
of great wealth. 

Grazing for cattle is in great abundance and 
first-class in the outlying lands. 

The inhabitants are honest, industrious, brave 
and patriotic, and gladly welcome all good people 
who may come to make their home with them. 
There are numerous churches and school- 
houses scattered throughout the county easy of 


Population: White, 13,091; colored, 20,888. 
Area, 860 square miles. Woodland, all. Oak, 
hickory and long-leaf pine, 610 square miles; Blue 
marsh land, 250 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 100,000; in 
corn, 61,800; in oats, 10,300; in wheat, 150; in rye, 
100; in rice, 50; in tobacco, 25; in sugar-cane, 650; 
in sweet potatoes, 1,300. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, in round 
numbers, 26, 100. 

County Seat— Clayton; population, 1,200; lo- 

cated seventy-five miles southeast of Montgomery, 
and at the terminus of the Eufaula & Clayton Rail- 

Newspa25ers published at County Seat — Courier, 
Democrat; at Eufaula, Mail, Times, Xeivs — all 

PostofRces in the County — Batesville. Belcher, 
Bush, Clayton, Clio, Coleridge, Cotton Hill, Cow- 
ikee. Cox's Mill, Elamville, Eufaula, Harris, Haw- 
kinsville, Howe, Lodi, Louisville, Mcluness, 
]Mount Andrew, New Topia, Oateston, Pea River, 




Ueccler's>[ill. Star Hill. Tuli. \S\\\W Oak Springs, 
White I'oiul. 

'I'lic county was organized in 183'^, and luinied 
ill lionor of Gov. James Barbour, of X'irginia. It 
lies ill the eastern portion of tlie State, and issep- 
aralcd from Georgia by the C'liattahooclice River, 
Hliich forms its entire eastern boundary. Harbour 
ranks as one of the leading counties in tlie State. 

.\ line drawn east and west through Harbour 
County, near the center, will divide it into two 
parts wiiich are quite dissimilar. The soils on the 
iicirth of this line are more or less calcareous, those 
(111 the south, sandy. The northern half has a sub- 
stratum of marl and limestone of the upper cre- 
taceous formation, which, acting upon the soil, 
gives rise to some of the best and safest cotton 
lauds in the State. This portion of the county is 
il rained by the tiiree forks of Cowikee Creek, and 
is known thoiighout the county a.s the Cowikee 

Tlie soil is moderately stiff, calcareous clay, 
with patches of what is known as hog-wal- 
low, which are seldom more than an acre or two 
in extent. In the immediate vicinity of the 
streams the soil is much more sandy, but highly 
productive. The general appearance of these 
lands is that of a gently undulating, occasionally 
hilly region, somewhat resembling the prairies of 
the Rotten Limestone country, hut with reddish 
or light-colored soils. This region, though fertile, 
is malarious, and is inhabited by comparatively 
few white families. The negroes, however, appear 
to endure it very well. There is a peculiar mix- 
ture of trees characterizing these lands,viz. : hick- 
ory, white and Spanish oaks, sweet and sour gums, 
and long-leaf pine. The latter appears to be out 
of place with sucli surroundings. 

'I'he Chattahoochee Kiver forms the eastern 
boundary of the county, and the bottom lands of 
this stream are from one to three miles wide, and 
very productive, Xext to these are the second 
linltoiiis or liuinniock.s, or pine Hats, always safe 
and easy to cultivate. Bordering upon these are 
the foot-hills of the pine uplands. 

Although the larger part of the surface of this 
county is orcupicd by lirowii lnaiiis, with a 

growth of oak, hickory, and pine, yet the charac- 
teristic agricultural features of Barbour depend 
upon the blue marls of the Cowikee and other 
drainage areas of tiie northern half of the county. 
A large proportion (more than half) of the cotton 
crop is produced in the northeastern part of the 
county, where these maris give character to the 
soils. There is, jierhaps, no part of the State 
which ranks higher in the jiroduction of cotton 
than the blue marl lands of adjacent parts of 
Russell, Barbour and Bullock Counties, whose 
prevailing soils are light, sandy loams, easily 
worked, possessing a comparatively high percent- 
age of lime, by which they are rendered extraor- 
dinarily thrifty. 

From the hills in tiie southwest have been gath- 
ered specimens of iron ore. Lime rock iirevails 
in abundance in different portions of Barbour, 
while specimens of kaolin have been secured. In 
the town of Louisville is a bed of green marl 
about twelve or eighteen feet below the surface, 
and in vast quantities. Repeated experiments by 
gardeners prove its value. 

In the southern portion of the county, four 
miles above the line of Dale, is a great natural 
curiosity in the form of a niagniticent spring, the 
dimensions of which are 4itx80 feet. Its waters 
are of a bluish cast and so transparent that the 
light glows through them. The eye of a fish is 
distinctly seen in their shining depths. This was 
once a point of popular resort, but since the de- 
struction of the spacious hotel it has been aban- 
doned as such. The waters of this spring are sup- 
posed to possess wonderful curative powers. There 
issues directly from it a large, bold stream. 

Clayton is the county seat, and is a pleasant 
little village. It is the seat of several excellent 
institutions of learning. 

Eufaula, on the Chattaliooclieo. is the most im- 
portant place in Eastern Alabama. It is a cily of 
between six and seven thousaml people, and has 
a promise of an extensive growth in tlie near fu- 
ture. Eiifaula's commercial importance will be 
greatly increased by the completion of several 
railroads which are projected. Batesville and 
Louisville are the other towns of the coiinly. 


Population: White, 0,800; colored, 21,4S(;. 
Area, 000 square miles. Woodland all, excejit a 
few square miles of prairie. Prairie region, 300 
square miles (300 of black prairie etc.. and 10'.) 
hill prairie, or Chunnenugga Kidge). Oak and 
hickory iiplands, with long-leaf pine, oGO square 

Acres in cotton (approximately), SO, 470 ; in 
corn, 47,441; in oats, 0,177; in wheat. 111; in rye, 
88; in sugar-cane, 429; in rice, 10; in sweet pota- 
toes, 77.'S. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, in 
round numbers, 22,000. 

County Seat — Union Springs; jjopulatiou, 2,200; 
situated near the center of the county. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Bullock 
dounty Reporter and Herald (both Democratic). 

Postoffices in the County — Aberfoil, Arbor 
Vitfe, Bughall, Enon, Fitzpatrick's, Flora, Guer- 
rytown, Hector, Indian Creek, Inverness, James, 
Midway, Mitchell's Station, Mount Hilliard, 
Perote, Pine Grove, Postoak, Shopton, Straw- 
berry, Suspension, Thompson. Three Notch, 
Uninn Springs. 

Bullock County, situated in what is known as 
the Black Belt of Alabama, was formed in 1880 
out of j)arts of the adjacent counties of Maconj 
Eussell, Barbour, Pike and Montgomery. 

It took its name from the late Edward C. Bul- 
lock, of Barbour County. 

The tax valuation of its jiroperty in 1887 was 
about $3,500,000, with rate for the county of four 
mills, which is sufficient for current expenses, the 
county being out of debt. 

The county is divided into two nearly equal 
parts by Chunnenugga Ridge, which extends quite 
through it from the northeast to the southwest. 

That portion north and west of the Eidge is 
known as the prairie district. It is from 100 to 
150 feet lower than the ridge, and is for the 
most part level but sufficiently undulating for 

thorough drainage. These lands are chiefly what 
are known as black and post oak prairie, being of 
calcareous formation, interspersed in many places 
with jihosphatic nodules, and are very rich. They 
are best adapted to cotton and corn, which con- 
stitute the chief crop, though small grain, jiotatoes. 
sugar-cane, and all varieties of vegetables and 
nnmy fruits grow quite as well. 

From a third to half a bale of cotton and twelve 
to fifteen bushels of corn to the acre, are regarded 
as about the average yield. Fully one-half of the 
tillable lands are devoted to cotton. 'J'hese lands 
raTige in price from five to ten dollars per acre, 
depending upon the amount and character of the 

That portion of the county south of the Kidge 
is of drift formation, and constitutes what are 
called the uplands. It is generally elevated, hav- 
ing very nearly the altitude of the Eidge, sloping 
gently, however, toward the south. This region 
is composed mostly of what is known as oak and 
hickory lands, sandy with clay subsoil. They are 
abundantly watered, and in the main thoroughly 
well drained, naturally. The head waters of Pea 
and Conecuh Elvers are in this county; besides 
there are important tributaries of the Chatta- 
hoochee in the eastern, and Tallapoosa Eiver in the 
western and northern jjarts of the county. 

The lands in the southern part of the county, 
though less rich than the prairie region, yield, 
with moderate fertilization, abundant crops of 
corn and cotton, and in their capacity for vegeta- 
bles and all kinds of fruits are probably unexcelled 
in the South. Stock-raising is but recently begin- 
ning to receive attention, and promises from the 
favorable soil and climate for the production of 
grasses, to equal any of the more favored portions 
of the State. 

Besides several varieties of valuable native 
grasses, the Japan clover [Lesindgezn) and Ber- 
muda grass, imported i^robably through accident, 




grow and spread abundantly on all uncultivated 
lands. Many cultivated grasses as Texas blue 
grass, Lucerne and .Mellilotus grow well. 

JIucli of the original forestry still exists, abound- 
ing in all varieties of oak, hickory, ash, elm, beach, 
poplar, and other varieties of valualile woods. 

.Manufacturing has hitherto received no very 
special attention, the county iieiug preeminently 
an agricultural one, though it is believed that, 
situated centrally in the cotton belt as it is, 
the manufacture of this staple might be made very 
profitable. The altitude at Union Springs is 51'.f 
feet above sea-level, being perliai)s the highest 
l>oint on tiiis parallel of latitude anywhere be- 
tween the Atlantic Ocean and Hocky ^[ountains. 
This extraordinary altitude is thought to protect 
it in some degree from excessive rain-fall, the 
average from a correctly kept record of seventeen 
years being only forty-eight inchesannually, which 
was distributed tolerably nearly equally through 
the four seasons of the year. The southwest 
winds are most frequently the ones that attend the 
rains, tiiough seasons of somewhat continuous 
rains are chiefly brought by the southeast winds. 

Gentle breezes from the south Gulf region are 
very common during the summer months of June 
and July, setting in late in the afternoon and con- 
tinuing until midnight, generally roulering the 
nigiits sutticiently comfortable for refreshing sleep. 

The summer heat, which occurs cliiefly in June 
and July, rarely a.<cends higher tiian 90'-\ nor is 
this height maintained for very many days. Ex- 
ceptionally it reaches 94'-'or 96", but these periods 
are of short duration, usually not more than a day 
or two, before they are broken by refreshing 

From carefully kept vital and mortuary statis- 
tics, regulated by law, it appears that the white 
deatli rate from all causes, per 1,(10<) of ]iopulation 
in 188<;, was 11.47, and in 1S8T the rate was 1(1.73 
per l,Otiti. 

The prevailing diseases, gleaned from the same 
source, are malarial fever, dysentery and pneu- 
monia. .\mong the colored people there is consid- 
erable consumption, due probably to their want of 
projjcr regard for personal hygiene, but the death 

rate from this cause in 1887, in the county, was only 
1.1 per l,00t)of population among the whites. In 
deed,consumptiop,inanyof its forms, is a very rare 
disease among the whites in this part of the State. 
In most cases it yields to proper treatment, and, 
it is known, to our physicians, that manv cases, 
contracted in the North, get well by a kind of 
felf-liuiitation when moved to the southern part 
of Alabama. 

Union Springs, the county seat, is situated near 
the center of the county, on Chunnenuggee Ridge, 
overlooking the immense prairie district to the 
north, anil at the crossing of the Mobile & Girard 
with the Montgomery & Eufaula Iiailroads. It 
has a population of about -.'.500. It is beautifully 
laid off and shaded with numerous oaks and elms. 
It has several splendid buildings, among which may 
be mentioned the court house, which cost about 
1560,000, and in point of magnificence is second 
only to the best in the State. 

There are four churches, namely, Presbyterian, 
ilethodist. Baptist and Episcopalian. There are 
two very fine schools in successful operation. The 
I' nion Springs Female College, chartered by the 
Legislature in lhG6, Prof. H. K. W. Smith, Presi- 
dent, with a full corps of teachers, and the Union 
Springs Seminary, presided over by Prof. J. R. 
Smith. There is also a street railroad owned by a 
corporation of the town. 

Surrounded by one of the finest agricultural 
districts of the State, L'nion Springs has few 
superiors in a business point of view. Her mer- 
chants aie thrifty, and many of them in very easy 
circumstances — a wealth that has for the most part 
been accumulated by a legitimate business confined 
to the immediate vicinit}'. 

Midway, the next largest town in the county, 
with a population of about 500, is situated on the 
Montgomery & Eufaula L'ailroad, twelve miles 
Southeast of I'nion Springs. It is noted for its re- 
fined society, its excellent schools, the thrift of its 
merchants and the fertile quality of its agricultu- 
ral lands. 

Enon, Guerryton, Perote, Inverness, Thomp- 
son's and Fitzpatrick's are the other smaller 




LEWE SESSIONS, M. D., President of the 
Bullock County Bank, was born March 37, 1825, 
in Spalding County, Ga. His parents were Fred- 
erick and Mary (Kendall) Sessions, who were 
Georgians by birth 

John Sessions, the grandfather of our subject, 
was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and by 
birth a North Oarolinian. Frederick Sessions was 
a farmer, and died when his son Lewe was only 
two years of age. 

Our subject, in consequence of the death of liis 
father, as already noted, was thrown on his own 
responsibilities early in life. He did not have 
what would be termed good educational advant- 
ages, but made the best use of such opportunities 
as were offered. He studied medicine at Augusta, 
Ga., where he graduated from the medical col- 
lege of that city in 1848. He came to Bullock 
County, where he j^racticed his jjrofession for 
nineteen years, and practiced one year in Bibb 
County. After the war Dr. Sessions retired 
from the practice and engaged in the general 
merchandising business and farming until 1879. 

In that year he organized the Bullock <^ounty 
Bank, in company with J. F. Leary. He was 
made j)resident of it, and still holds that position. 
The bank is now a chartered State institution. 
He was one of the organizers, and a stock-holder 
of the Montgomery State Bank, and also sustains 
the same relations to the Clayton Banking Com- 
pany of Barbour County. 

I)r. Sessions was married in 1847 to Miss Ange- 
line, daughter of Jonathan and Margaret Musick, 
of Chambers County, Ala. To their union one 
child has been born, Statira. She is the wife of 
Dr. Benjamin F. Coalman, of Florida. 

The first Mrs. Sessions died in May, 1853, and 
the Doctor was nuirried again in August, 1854, 
to Miss Carrie, daughter of William [I. and Exie 
(Maddox) Simmons, of Pike County, Ga. To 
them two children have been born: Don. F. and 
Bettie. The family are members of the Metho- 
dist Episcojial Church, South. 

A. and Virginia C. (Tarrant) Hogan, native Ken- 
tuckians, and of Scotch-Irish descent. His father 
was a merchant. 

Samuel M. Hogan received his literary education 
at Talladega, and attended medical lectures at 
Nashville, Tennessee, in the session of 185G-'57. 
When the war came on, he entered Company F, of 
the fifty-first Alabama cavalry as a private, was 
subsequently promoted to the position of surgeon, 
and was on post and hos2")ital duty until the close 
of the war. 

Keturning from the war. Dr. Hogan settled and 
commenced i^racticing medicine in Union Springs 
and in 1873 graduated from the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Louisville, Ky. 

Dr. Hogan returned to Union Springs, took up 
his practice and has since devoted himself untir- 
ingly thereto. The result has been that he has 
won a rejiutation which extends far beyond the 
confines of his immediate locality. He is well 
known all over the South, and favorably known as 
a physician and sui'geon in various portions of the 
United States. Dr. Hogan's office is one of the 
best equipped in the way of surgical instruments 
in the State; he has S2)eut for these alone thou- 
sands of dollars. He acts on the wise plan that a 
physician should always be prepared for any emer- 
gency that arises, and it is his motto never to al- 
low a case to pass him for lack of attention. In 
September, 1887, Dr. Hogan was a member of the 
International Medical Congress, which met at 
Washington, D. C. He is a member of the County 
Medical Society and the State iledical Association; 
has been President of the former and Councilor in 
the latter. He is also President of the County 
Board of Censors. 

Dr. Hogan is a permanent member of the 
American Medical Association. 

Our subject was married in 1865, to Miss Sallie 
T., daughter of Thornton M. and Ann E. (Mc- 
Lamare) Baugh, of Chambers County, Ala. The 
family belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church, 

SAMUEL M. HOGAN, M. D., was born at Talla- 
dega, this State, in ls:)8. His jjarents were James 

NATHANIEL M. BLEDSOE, was born in April, 
1835, in Butts County, Ga. His parents were 
Morton and Mary (Bailey) Bledsoe. His father 



was a native of Orange County, Va. . and liis 
mother of Oglethorpe County, Ga. The senior 
Mr. IJledsoe, was a planter. In political affilia- 
tions, lie was an old-line Whig, and took an active 
pai't in politics. lie died in Butts County, Ga., 
in 1^4."). 

The subject of tiiis sketch was educated at 
Jackson, Butts County, Ga., attended the Medical 
De])ai-tnient of the University of the South, at 
Nusliviile, TiMiti., in 18.").i-'.5l>-'57, and was gradu- 
ated in the latti-r year. He began the practice in 
.Macon, now Bullock County, in 1857, and has 
here been actively engaged in professional work 
ever since. During the war, he was detailed to 
remain at home to extend his professional services 
to his community. Dr. Bledsoe has had a large 
practice for many years, and may be rankeil among 
the successful physicians of the State. 

lie has always been remarkably kind to the 
poor and needy, going night and day to visit 
them in their sickness and distress, generally ex- 
tending to them the blessings of his medical skill 
and the benefactions of his benevolent hand. Xo 
doulit he has done more, (jratnitously, to bless his 
fellow men around him than any other man of 
his means in his ccmnt}". 

Dr. Bledsoe has farmed extensively for a num- 
ber of years. He takes an especial interest in 
educational matters, and iias undoubtedly paid out 
more money for the education of poor and orphan 
chililren than any man in the county. Having 
no children of his own. he has taken this noble 
method of extending aid where it was most needed. 
Among the particularly praiseworthy deeds in this 
connection, may be mentioned his adojition of an in- 
fant child when she was but seven days old, to whom 
he gave the name of Nellie Lorena. She is now 
grown to woman's estate, and is an accomplished 
lady, unusually gifted in music and art. Dr. 
Bledsoe has ])aid the tuition of some child for 
the last thirty years, and has selected such as least 
expected assistance. 

In connection with his i>rofessioual labors. Dr. 
Bledsoe has carried on the drug business. He 
belongs to the Bullock County ifedical Society, 
an<l has been its vice-president. (A\r subject 
was married in December, 1857, to Miss Amanda, 
daughterof .Iame.~ U. ['ickett, of Bullock County, 
Ala. He is a Mason and a member of the Baj)- 
tist Church. 

As a Christian gentleman, he has always been 
true to the ini|nilses of a warm heart, — ten- 

derly alTectionate to his brethren, very kind and 
liberal to his pastor, and ever prompt and active 
in the discharge of his religious duties. Though, 
from the very ardor of his nature, may be, he is 
sometimes a little imi)etuous, yet, in the honesty 
of his motives and the purity of his aspirations. 
Dr. Bledsoe is truly a grand man, abounding in 
every good word and woi-k. 

JAMES T. NORMAN, Attorney -at-law, was born 
.January :5ii, 1S3U, at Columbus, (ia. His parents 
were James S. and Leah J. (Marks) Norman. 
His father was a native of London, England, and 
his mother a Georgian. The former came to the 
United States when a boy, and lived in South 
Carolina two years, afterward came to Georgia, 
and, in 1854. located permanently in Russell 
County, .Via. He died in 1871. at I'nion Springs, 

Our subject received a common-school educa- 
tion; studied law in the office of Thomas & Down- 
ing, at Columbus, Ga., was admitted to the bar 
in 1849, and admitted to practice before the Su- 
jirenie Court of Alabama, in 1857. He came 
to I^nion Springs in 1S54. He entered the Con- 
federate Army as a lieutenant in the Twenty-third 
Alabama Infantry; was afterward promoted to 
the rank of adjutant, which he filled until ilay. 
1863, when he was taken prisoner, and kept two 
months in the State penitentiary, at Alton. III.; 
was then transferred to prison on Johnsoirs 
Island, where he remained until February, 1805, 
and was patroled a short time before the surren- 

Immediately returning home, Mr. Xorman be- 
gan the ]iractice of law at L^nion Springs, which 
he has successfully followed ever since. In 188"2, 
he was elected to the Alabama Senate, and re- 
elected in 1884. He was married in October, 
1851, to Miss Mary E., daughter of Dr. David, 
and Miriam (Eilaiid) Dean, of (Jeorgia. To them 
five children have been born: Miriam, James D., 
Frederick D., Mary E., and Thomas J. He is a 
member of the Presbyterian Church. 

ROBERT H. HAYES. M. D., Union .Springs, 
was Ijorn in May, Is"):), in Chambers County. Ala. 
His parents were Dr. James A. and Anna L. 



(Thomas) Hayes, native Georgians. Dr. Hayes, 
Sr., iDracticed medicine at Union Springs from 
1859 to 1883, and died in the latter year. 

Our snbject received his elementary education 
at the common schools, and attended Emory Col- 
lege, at Oxford, Ga., in 1872. lie began reading 
medicine in his father's office in the spring of 1875. 
In the fall of 1875 and spring of 1870 he attended 
the Medical Department of Vanderbilt University, 
at jSTashville. In lS78-'9 he attended medical 
lectures at the St. Louis Medical College, and 
graduated from there in March of the laiter year. 
He immediately commenced the practice at Union 
Springs, where he has since been professionally 
engaged. He is a member of the Bullock County 
Medical Society and Examining Board; member 
of and Senior Counselor in the State iledical 
Association, and Health officer of Bullock County. 

Dr. Hayes was married in 1883, to Miss Annie 
M., daughter of Dr. Robert Williams, of Barbour 
County. They have two children living: 3Iaud 
C. and Carrie B.; Geraldine Hunter died at the 
age of sixteen months. 

Dr. Hayes is a member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South. 

CHARLES H. FRANKLIN, M. D„ was born in 
May, 1838, at Albany, Ga. His parents were Tal- 
bert H. and Mary (Adams) Eranklin, natives of 
that State. The senior Mr. Franklin was a farmer, 
and died at Elba, Ala., in 1866. 

Charles H. Franklin was an attendant at a 
boarding school, and received a liberal education; 
taught school at Elba, this State, two years; at- 
tended the medical department of the University 
of Nashville, Tenn., one year, when the presence 
of the Federal troof)s in that city closed the Uni- 
versity. In January, 1805, he became a student in 
the medical department of the University of Louisi- 
ana, at New Orleans, and was graduated in 186G. 
He had practiced medicine awhile prior to taking 
his last course of lectures. In 1860 he located per- 
manently at Union Sjirings, and at once entered 
into a lucrative practice. He has also carried on 
the drug business since his residence in that town; 
has devoted much time and attention to agricul- 
ture, and, being a most successful fruit raiser, is 
worthily accounted a true disciple of Pomona. 

Dr. Franklin is a member of the Pullock Coun- 
ty Medical Society, and has been its president; he 

is also counsellor in the State Medical Association, 
and a member of the State Board of Health. 

He was married in 1870, to Miss Sallie, daugh- 
ter of Jabez B. and Jane (Ilarvy) Banks, of Rus- 
sel County, Ala. To this union two children 
were born, Charles and Lula. Mrs. Franklin 
died in 1879, and the Doctor afterwards mar- 
ried Miss Lula, a sister of his first wife, and to 
them five children have been born: John K., 
Jerome C, James .1., Jane, and Higgs B. 

DANIEL M. COLLINS, Clerk of the Circuit 
Court of Bullock County, Ala., was born in Feb- 
ruary, 1848, in the county where he now resides. 
His parents were Charles B. and Elvira (Culpep- 
per) Collins, who came from Georgia. 

Daniel M. Collins received his education at the 
common schools of Bullock County. After leav- 
ing school he went to Montgomery, Ala., where 
he read lav in the office of Governor Watts and 
Col. Daniel S. Troy, and in 1873, was admitted to 
the bar. He did not engage in the practice of 
the law, but taught school and farmed until 1 80. 
In 1884 he was Justice of the Peace, and two 
years later was elected Circuit Court Clerk, and 
is still filling the position with credit to himself 
and to the interest of his county. 

Mr. Collins was married in 1875 to Miss Sarah 
E., daughter of Oliver and Martha (Martin) Pow- 
ell, of Dallas County, Ala,, and to them three- 
children have been born : Bertie, Charles M. and 
Robert Lee. 

FLEMING LAW, Attorney-at-law, was born in 
October, 1833, at Sunberry, Liberty County, 
Ga. His parents were Josiah S. and Ellen S. 
(Barrett) Law, both Georgians. His father was 
a minister of the Baptist Church in Georgia, 
for over twenty-five years, and died in October, 

The subject of this sketch was educated at the 
common schools; read law in the office of Law & 
Sims, Rainbridge, Ga, ; was admitted to the bar 
in 1853. He was also admitted to practice before 
the Supreine Court of that State in 1850. He 
began the practice at Fort Gaines, Ga., which he 
continued until 18G"2, when he entered the Con- 
federate Army as a private in Company G, Fifth 
Georgia Cavalry, and, being subsequently appointed 



to a non-commissioned office, lie served in that 
capacity until tlic war closed. 

After the war, Fleming Law was farming until 
18(i7: came in that year to I'nion Sjirings, and 
resumed the practice of his profession, to which he 
has since sedulously devoted his attention. Since 
coming to Union Springs, he has held the oflice of 
County Solicitor for six years, and has also been 
Jfayor of the town. As a lawyer he ranks well at 
the liar before which he practices, 

Jlr. Law was married, in 185ti, to iliss Caledonia 

A., daughter of 'William P, and Ann A. (Baily) 
Ford, of Fort CJaines,(Ja. Tiiey have fourchildren: 
M'iliiam F., Callie, DeLacy, and Claud, 

Our subject has been a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, South, for thirty-five years, 
a steward therein for thirty years, and super- 
intendent of the Sunday-school at L'nion Springs 
for ten years. 

He was a lay delegate to the General Conference 
in 18:8. 18S-2 and 1S8(;, and to the Annual Con- 
ferences several years. 


Population: White, 8,42.5; colored, 40,008, 
Area, 980 square miles. A\'oodland and Prairie, 
830 square miles. Gravelly hills, with pine, 150 
square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately). 115,031; 
in corn, 4G,. 542; in oats. 8,260; in wheat, 71; in 
tobacco, 13; in sugar-cane, 18; in sweet potatoes, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 40, OOO. 

County Seat — Selma; population, 10,.J00; situ- 
ated on the Alabama river, liOO miles from its 
mouth: center of trade, in cotton, lumber, iron, 
and coal, at the terminus of the Western Railroad, 
of Alabama; Selma & Pensacola; also Selma 
& Cincinnati. Selma \ Mobile, and Selma & New 
Orleans Uoads. 

Postothces in the County — Helknap, Berlin, 
Brown's, Burnsville, Cahaba, Central .Mills, Cren- 
shaw, llarrell, Hazen, King's Landing, Marion 
Junction, Martin's Station, Jfassillon, Minter, 
Morrowvillc. Orrville, Plantersville, Pleasant Hill, 
Portland, Richmond, Selma. Shields' Mill, Soap- 
stone, Summerfield, Tasso, Terry, Tilden. 

Dallas County was organized in 1818, during 
Alabama's Territorial period, and was named in 
honor of Hon. A. .1. Dallas, of Pennsylvania. 
Rate of taxation, *!l.05 on tiie *100. Bonded 
debt, for railroad purposes, 4^73.000, Floating 

debt none. About 144 miles of raiload cross the 
county in all directions, giving eveiy portion 
ample shipping and market facilities. 

The surface of the country is gently undulating, 
and in no portion is found barren soils. Along 
the Alabama and Cahaba Rivers the lands are 
famous for their depth, strength and fertility, and 
the second bottoms, or terraces found after the 
bottoms arc passed are level and susceptible of a 
high state of cultivation. In the northwestern 
part, pine lands prevail and lumbering is the prin- 
cipal industry. Thi.s region is noted for its clear. 
swift-tlowing streams, healthfulness and excellent 
pine timber, but as the forests disappear it is grad- 
ually being converted into an agiicultural section, 
as cotton, corn, potatoes, fruits and vegetables 
are found to do most excellently there. All of the 
northern part is elevated and well adapted to gen- 
eral farming and stock-raising. Upon the table 
lands the soils are red and gray, friable, easily cul- 
tivated and very jiroductive. Toward the center 
sandy "lands are encountered, interspersed with 
flowing streams. These sandy lands are very pro- 
ductive, and by many preferred to either bottom 
or uplands. In the western portion are found the 
famous caiiebrake lands, which for productiveness 
and location are unexcelled, while lower down on 
the western border are found variable soils, and a 



great diversity of forest growth and field vegeta- 

Dallas produces more cotton than any other of 
Alabama's sixty-six counties, and its farm pro- 
ducts exceed in value those of any other county 
in the State. 

Land is worth from ^"•2..">0 to §40 per acre, and 
excellent farming land maybe purchased from *10 
to $15 per acre. Government land. none. Titles 
wee perfect, and from the records kept at Selma, a 
perfect abstract title may be easily obtained. 

The educational advantages of Dallas County 
are among its many attractive features. There 
are over one hundred public schools in the rural 
district, wliite or colored; the latter, while not en- 
joying educational privileges in common with the 
former, being, nevertheless well provided for in this 
direction, and the schools often taught by persons 
of their own race. Every neighborhood has its 
school-house and is provided with efficient teach- 
ers. Churches are also scattered jilentifully 
throughout the county, and all the princii)al de- 
nominations are represented. Thus it will be seen 
that the new comer finds all the advantages of 
civilization, a well-ordered and regulated com- 
munity, and as intelligent and law abiding a citi- 
zenship as that of his Northern and Western home. 
In the far West all these things must be acquired 
after many long years of frontier jiioneering, full 
of danger, hardships and privation. It may be 
true that sectional feelings and strong prejudices 
against "Yankees" exist in the South, but if such 
is the case, the writer, who has spent ten years in 
traveling through every portion of that much- 
maligned division of this great republic, has failed 
to discover it. There are "cranks" and fools and 
ignorant persons in every part of the world, but 
no greater 2iercentage of this class is found in the 
South than in the North, or elsewhere in the world, 
for that matter. No one need be deterred from 
going to Dallas County for fear of ostracism or 
nnkindness on account of political predilections; 
because politics are less thought of now tlian 

money making, and every dollar of Northern cap- 
ital invested in the South (and millions are invest- 
ed annually) is an unanswerable argument in favor 
of the desirability, the advantages, resources and 
glorious future of that grand section, and a lie 
direct, given to malignant falsifiers of facts, who 
for political purposes would make it appear 
that neither Northern men nor northern capital 
are safe in the South. 

Certain it is that great advantages will be found 
in Dallas County in the shape of fertility of soils, 
cheapness of lands, abundance of timber, ease of 
transportation, and the law-abiding disjjosition of 
the jieople. More productive lands cannot be 
found in the State than in this county, which 
is the very heart of the South's great cotton 

The class of immigrants wanted for the agri- 
cultural districts of the State (Alabama) is small 
farmers who understand our language and cus- 
toms, men with money enough to pay their 
fares, purchase their farms and live independ- 
ent of charity or assistance from the community 
in which they locate. And to this class every 
good citizen says. Come and be welcome sharers 
in the great favors which a bountiful nature 
has lavished upon our fair State. Compare ad- 
vantages and resources with those of your North- 
ern or Western homes. We offer you the most 
fertile lands at prices that will enable you to 
pay for and imjorove them; we offer you a climate 
the most delightful that the mind can conceive 
of, and water as jiure as the earth produces. 
We have ample and ever-increasing transporta- 
tion facilities to carry your products to every 
market in the world, and we offer you good so- 
ciety, religious and educational advantages, a 
good, wise and economical State, county and 
municipal government; in short, all the advant- 
ages of civilization, and extend the right hand 
of fellowshiji, and welcome you most heartily, 
provided your object is to live among us, and aid 
in the grand work of developing our resources. 




at-la«' ami Solicitor of the First Judicial Circuit, 
was born January Ifi, 1849, at Moiitgomery. and 
is a son of Edward F. and Anne S. (Trezevant) 
Taylor, both natives of Columbia, S. C. After 
his father came to Alabama he was engaged in 
planting: iuid at the time of his death he was a 
Confederate soldier, and died at .Montgomery, 
November 4, 18112. 

Our subject was educated at the University of 
South Carolina, situated at Columbia, which has 
been a seat of culture and refinement for many 
years. He was graduated from this institution in 
June. ISfir. Going back somewhat, we find that 
in November, 18(!4, he entered the army as a 
private in Company D, of the First Regiment of 
South Carolina Cavalry, and served in the capacity 
of courier till April, 18(;5, when the war closed. 

Immediately after his graduation, as already 
noted, we find our subject engaged in teaching in 
Jlobile, Ala., which he continued four years, and, 
having read law in the meantime, he was admitted 
to the bar in 18.1, In the following year he 
located in Choctaw County, for the practice of 
his profession, lie was a member of the Alabama 
Legislature from Choctaw during the session of 
18T8-T9, and served on a special committee and 
was a member of the Judiciary Committee of the 

In November, ls8(i, he was elected Solicitor of 
the First Judicial Circuit, and having come to 
Demojjolis in January, 1883, to live, he was re- 
elected from there to the same position in 188<i. 
It needs no assurance on our part to satisfy our 
readers that Mr. Taylor has been eminently suc- 
cessful as a lawyer. If the tree is known by its 
fruit then, indeed, can we know by the results of 
his life'.s work thus far: and should we base the 
outcome of the future on the past and present, 
we can say that his life will present a well-rounded 
and well-won series of events achieved in a useful 
and noble calling. 

Mr. Taylor was married January, 1881, to Miss 
-Margaretta V. T., daughter of F]. H. and Mary J. 
Metcalf, of ^lontgomcry. Their family consists 
uf four children: Mary, Maggie M., Edward and 
Lucy C, 

Mr. Taylor is a member of the Masonic fraternity 

of the Knights of Pythias and of the Episcopal 

JOHN R, ROBERTSON, I'.anker, was born in 
Hale County, this State, July 28, 1842, and is a 
son of Henry C. and Julia 0. (Yancey) Robert- 
son, natives of Virginia. The senior ilr. Rob- 
ertson was a planter, and died in Sumter County, 
this State, in Uctobei', 1879. 

John R. Robertson attended the common schools 
of his immediate locality until twelve years old, 
and then entered the academy for boys kept by 
the Rev. W. A, Stickney, at Marion, this State. 
After completing a course of studies here he went 
to Texas, and assumed control of a plantation 
which his father owned, and was there when the 
war broke out. He enlisted as a private soldier in 
Company I), Fifth Texas, and was ]iromoted by 
regular gradation until attaining the rank of 
major. He gave four years to the cause of the 
South, and participated in many battles. He was 
wounded slightly while skirmishing around Rich- 
mond in June, 18(i4. 

Returning from the war in ISUo, Mr. Robertson 
spent one year in the "Old Dominion," and 
returned to Texas, where he engaged at farming 
for three years. In December, 1869, he came to 
Demojjolis, and engaged in the banking business 
in partnership with Mr. R. H. Clark. After one 
year Mr. D. T. Front bought out Mr. Clark's 
interest, and the business was continued under the 
firm name of Front & Robertson. This commer- 
cial institution does a large business, and is rightly 
regarded as a solid concern. 

Mr. Robertson has achieved far more than the 
ordinary measure of success, and being yet in the 
prime of manhood, there is no extravagance in 
asserting that a bright future yet awaits him in 
his chosen field of life. He is identified with 
other substantial enterprises, among which may 
be mentioned the Presidency of the Demojiolis Oil 
Mill Comiiany. and the directorship of the ilem- 
phis & Pensacola Railroad, a line now in process 
of construction. 

Mr. Robertson was married in May, L^C.'i, to 
Miss Virginia, daughter of II. F. and .Mary (King) 
Watson, of Christian Countv, Ky. 



He is a member of the Episcopal Church, one 
of its wardens, takes an active interest in all its 
affairs, and was for some years superintendent of 
the Sunday-school at liis liome. He is also a 
member of the Blasouic fraternity. 

E. H. C. BAILEY, Physician and Surgeon, 
was born at Lewisburg, Va".. December 14, lo25, 
and his parents were Edward B. and May C. 
Bailey, natives, respectively, of Virginia and 
South Carolina. 

The senior Mr. Bailey was a distinguished at- 
torney, and was several years Judge of the Fayette- 
ville Circuit of Virginia. He was an active poli- 
tician, and in several presidential campaigns was 
district elector. He died at Demopolis, at the 
residence of his son, in 1874. 

Dr. Bailey was educated at Lewisburg Academy, 
and entered the Medical Deiiartment of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, at Charlottesville, in 1846, 
graduating June 20, 1848. In the same year he 
began the practice of his profession at his home, 
and afterward moved to Kanawha County, W. 
Va., where he remained until 1852; from 
thence to Palmyra, Mo., and continued the 
practice until 18G1. Early in this year, he was 
made Chief Surgeon of the Second Division of 
the Missouri State Troops, in the service of the 
Confederate States, and was afterward appointed 
Surgeon of the Second Regiment, First Brigade, 
of that State. 

In 1862, Dr. Bailey was appointed Medical 
Purveyor in the Department of Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, and East Louisiana, in which position he 
remained until the war closed. 

Thus do we see a young man emerging from 
the halls of his medical instruction, and, by de- 
serving and sterling qualities, winning his way 
rapidly as an excellent and skillful physician and 
surgeon, and the crowning glory of his career 
comes when his ability is thought amply sufficient 
to entitle him to recognition in such distinguished 
manner as we have just chronicled: nor does he 
prove any way lacking in the qualities which go 
to make up the faithful, worthy, useful and skill- 
ful jDhysician and surgeon. How much he did to 
relieve suffering humanity will never be known to 
but comparatively the fewest number: but he will 
be ever held in honest esteem by thousands of 
people throughout the South. 

He came to Demopolis in 186.5, and has been 
in active j)ractice ever since. 

Dr. Bailey belongs to the State and County 
Medical Societies, and has served several years as 
president of the latter. 

He was married in 1851 to iliss ^largaret, 
daughter of John Shrewsburg, of Kanawha 
County, W. Va. Their union has been blessed 
with five children — John S., Edward B.. Alex- 
ander C, Mary Cori-ie and Eobert Augustus. 
The familj' are communicants of the E]iiscopal 
Church, and the Doctor is a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity. 

— — ^'-"^^^- < ' ■ • 

JAMES F. RUFFIN, Physician and Surgeon, 
was born December, 1826, in Rockingham County, 
N. C, and is the son of James H. and Susan 
(Williamson) Euffin, natives of Virginia and 
Xorth Carolina, and of English and Scotch de- 
scent, respectively. 

James F. Ruffin graduated in the literary 
course from the University of North Carolina in 
1846: three years afterward graduated in medi- 
cine from the University of Pennsylvania (Phil- 
adelphia), and at once came to Demopolis to 
inirsue the practice of his profession, where he 
has ever since been living. 

Dr. Ruffin was married in January, 1851, to 
Miss Rosalie, daughter of Samuel Strudwick, of 
Marengo County. Her death occurred in 1860, 
and he was married, the second time, to Miss 
Ann, a sister of his first wife, in 1864. Dr. 
Ruffin has one child, Agnes Y. 

The Doctor is a Mason and a member of the 
Knights of Pythias. 

GEORGE GAINES LYON, Attorney-at-law, was 
borii in W ashington County, Ala., January 11, 
1821. He is a son of James Gaines and Rosa 
(Fisher) Lyon, natives of North Carolina. His 
father was a prominent lawyer, and, for sevei-al 
years. Clerk of the Circuit Court and Register in 
Cliancery, in Washington County. In 1827 he 
went to Mobile: engaged quite extensively in the 
real estate business and the practice of law, and 
was for a time Register in Chancery. He was the 
eldest brother of the Hon. F. S. Lyon, and nephew 
of the late George S. Gaines, who was one of the 



first settlers of Alabama. He remained there 
until his death in l.s4'.'. 

Our subject studied law at famous old Yale Col- 
lege \a,\s School. Iteturning lumie. lie began 
the practice in the citj' of Mobile, and after remain- 
ing there a short time lie removed to Demopolis. 
He was admitted to the bar in February, 1S40, arid 
subsequently admitted to practice before the Su- 
preme Court. Since coming to the bar he has been 
in the active practice at Demopolis, and has been 
eminently successful, both professionally and finan- 

During the war. Mr. Lyon jield the ofiice of 
Sequestrator, and was, in addition, one of the 
Commissioners of the Confederate (iovernment. 
During the administration of Gov. John Gill 
Shorter, he was the (iovernor's Aid for West Ala- 

Since the advent of Democratic rule at Wash- 
ington Mr. Lyon is among those who luive been 
favored, in consequence of his fitness and admirable 
qualifications for tiie holding of public ofiice, and 
was by reason of this and without his solicitation 
made United States Circuit Court Commissioner. 
In this position, as elsewhere, he has given every 
evidence of his capacity for what he has undertaken 
to do, and Uncle Sam in no wise has reason to re- 
gret iuiving thus favored one of his faitiiful and 
worthy citizens. 

Mr. Lyon, for a man of liis ])osition. capacity, 
fitness, influence and acceptabloness to the peo- 
ple, has held very few otlices. This has not been 
owing to that the office was not in reach, but 
because he has not been of that class of citizens, 
wiio are always anxious for political preferment. 
Among the conspicuous examples which we may 
cite ill supjwrt of this fact was his declination of 
two nominations of tiie Whig party to run for the 
legislature, once, for the lower house and once for 
the senate; and also, of the office of chancellor, in 
1SG8. an office which owing to its dignity, honor 
and lucrativeness, has always made it a prize 
eagerly sought after: but he turned aside from 

this, prefering, as much greater prizes, the pleasure 
of domestic life and the success of its professional 

Mr. Lyon was married in April, 18.50, to Miss 
Annie (i., daugiiter of Allen and Mary A. (Diven) 
(ilover, one of the leading and best families of 
Marengo County. To tiiem iiave been born nine 
children, of whom James (i., Allen G., Xorman 
and Francis S. are all dead. Of the children who 
grew to maturity may be mentioned: Rosa, after- 
ward Mrs. William T. Kembert, who met a dread- 
ful fate in the burning of the Steamer " (iardner," 
on the Tombigbee IJiver, in 1887: Susie D., wife of 
Julius P. Rembert, met the same fate as her sister, 
at the same time; George C, is now a promi- 
nent physician at Pulte Medical College, Cincin- 
nati; Mary G. and Annie (i. 

Our subject is a member of the F. A. & M., 
and an active and efficient member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, South. 

Several years back, when tlie Grange movement 
started in the South, Alabama was no exception to 
the list of Southern States taking hold of the 
movement, believing it to be for her material 
good. Mr. Lyon interested himself very much in 
the movement, and gave it all the aid in his power. 
In 1S7">, he was appointed by Gov. George S. 
Houston, Commissioner of Immigration, and, in 
connection with it. took an active and aggressive 
part in the canvass of the southern portion of the 
State on the subject, which was then absorbing a 
considerable part of the ])ublic attention. 

Mr. Lyon's grandmother was a Gaines, sister of 
the late George Strother Gaines, and General E. 
P. Gaines, who were among the first settlers of 
Alabama, at St. Stej)hen's. 

Since the above sketch was written, Mr. Lyon's 
son, Francis Strother Lyon, died of Bright's disease, 
January 111, 1888, in the twenty-fourth year of his 
age. lie graduated at the University of Alabama, 
in 188G, and, at the time of his death, was study- 
ing law in his father's office, with fine prospects 
before him. 


Population: White, 8,74T; colored, 8,755. 

Area, 630 square miles. Woodland, all. Grav- 
elly hills, with long-leaf pine, "^30 square miles; 
metamorphic 400 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 31,045; in 
corn, 20,000; in oats, 5,153; iu wheat, 3,883; in 
rye, 37; in rice, 5: in tobacco, 12: in sugar-cane, 
16; in sweet potatoes, 642. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton — 10,000. 

County Seat — Wetumpka; population 1,20(): 
on the Wetumpka branch South & North IJuil- 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Elmore 
Express, Times (both Democratic). 

Postoffices iu the County — Bingham, Bnyck, 
Central Institute, Channahatchee, Colley, Coosada 
Station, Cotton's Store, Deetsville, Eclectic, Edge- 
wood, Elmore, Good Hope, Irnia, Kowaliga, Kob- 
inson Springs, Sand Tuck, Sykes' Mills, Tallas- 
see, Ware, Weoka, Wetumpha. 

Elmore County was created out of portions of 
Coosa, Autauga, Montgomery and Tallapoosa Coun- 
ties, by an act of the Legislature approved Febru- 
ary 15, 1866. The county was named for Gen. 
John A. Elmore, who was one of the first settlers of 
Autauga County, and resided in that portion which 
was embraced in this county. The county is d ivided 
into two parts by the Coosa River, and the Talla- 
poosa, which forms a portion of its eastern bound- 
ary, takes a bend and washes its entire southern 

The surface of the county is generally rolling. 
The lands vary in appearance, and in thcraerit of 
their soils. The gray lands have the predomi- 
nancy in the county, and vary with the localities. 
On the Coosa River above Wetumpka, there are 
found narrow basins of good land, but out from 
these bottoms there are formed level plains wliich 
are generally covered with a sandy soil. On the 
side of the Coosa River, opposite the town of 
Wetumpka, there is an extended plain which 
stretches away to the boundary of Autauga County. 
The character of the land belonging to this level 

stretch of country is a sandy surface ^vith a stiff 
clay subsoil. This gives to the wagon ways a per- 
jsetual firmness, and renders hauling easy. Follow- 
ing along the Tallapoosa one finds a girt of 
superior lands which are excellent for the pro- 
duction of cotton and corn. Perhaps the best 
lands are found in the fork of the Coosa and Talla- 
poosa Rivers. These alluvial bottoms have been 
steadily planted for many years, and have yielded 
unceasingly heavy crops of corn and cotton. The 
planters prize these river lands because of their 
capacity to produce the snowy staple as well as the 
stafE of life, to-wit, corn, more than any others in 
the county. 

The lands that lie just above those alluded to, 
and which are above the annual overflow of the 
rivers, are also superb cotton lands, and are re- 
garded the safest for the production of that staple. 
Of course, it must not be understood that the 
production of cotton is confined to these lands. 
In different parts; of the county are brown loam 
and slaty soils, which yield splendid crops. 

Elmore has many magnificent pine forests, and 
on many of its streams fine saw-mills are erected, 
which turn out large quantities of fine pine lum- 
ber for local use, as well as for shipment to south- 
ern and western markets. 

The health of the county is unsurpassed, and 
all portions of it possess drinking water as jiure and 
wholesome as any found in any portion of the 
world. The climate is equable, and the hills make 
most desirable residences for those to whom a 
healthy locality and an abundance of pure water 
for all purposes is an inducement in selecting a 

Among the fruits which experience has proven 
will thrive in Elmore County may be mentioned: 
pears, apples, figs, j^eaches and grapes, while 
strawberries, raspberries and other small fruits 
yield abundantly. 

The timber of the county consists of oak, jjine, 
hickory, beech, walnut, magnolia, dogwood, gum 
and persimmon. 




Yellow uchre has heen discovered at several 
points in tlie county, sind is reported to be of an 
excellent grade. The county can produce a buhr 
stone, for millstones, which in service is equal 
to any ever used, and in crushing corn into meal 
is superior to many so-called finer varieties. In 
addition there are deposits of stone which is 
very durable and useful as a building stone. Gold 
exists in localities in the county, and has been 
worked with great profit and satisfaction to those 
engaged. Large deposits of clay have been 
found in the county, which is thought valuable 
for the manufacture of a tine grade of porcelain 
ware, while some sands of tiie county have 
been pronounced to be excellent for making glass. 

At Tallassee, on the Tallapoosa Kiver, is the 
Tallassee Cotton Factory, which was, for many 
years, the largest mill of that character in the 
South. The falls in the river at that point far- 
nish immense water-po«'er, which is only slightly 
utilized. This is but one of the numerous sites 
favorable to the location of manufactories in the 

Splendid streams of water ramify the county 
in all directions. Among these are the Coosa 
and Tallapoosa Kivcrs, Shoal. Wewoka, Mill, 

Safkahatchee, Hatchee, Chubbee. Corn, and 
Wallahatchee Creeks. Tiiese lesser streams find 
outlet.s through either the Coosa or Tallapoosa 
Hi vers. 

The points of interest in the county arc \Ve- 
tumpka, the county seat, with a jiopulation of 
1,500; Tallassee, with about 1,200; and Kobinson 
Springs. Wetumpka has long been noted as the 
location of the State Penitentiary. Tallassee is 
famous as a manufacturing center, and Robinson 
Springs, in former years, was a noted local resort 
for the vlitc of Montgomery. 

The educational advantages of the county are 
good, as are also facilities for the enjoyment of 
religious worship. The means of transportation 
are convenient. The Louisville & Nashville 
Railroad runs through the county, a branch of 
wliich terminates at Wetumpka, while in the 
eastern end the Western Railroad is sutticientiy 
near to be quite accessible. The Coosa River fur- 
nishes another cheap means of transportation to 
Montgomei'y and Selma upon the Alabama River, 
and the cities upon the Southern coast. 

Lands may be had from %\.h^ to ^15 per acre 
in the county. The Government owns 7,320 
acres of land subject to entry. 


Population: White, 3,76.''); colored, 18,106. Area, 
520 square miles. Woodland all, except about 
twenty-five square miles of prairie. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), i>3,G43: in 
corn, 31,820; in oats, 2,103; in wheat, 214; in rye, 
25; in sugar-cane, 25; in tobacco, 41; in sweet 
potatoes, 705. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 1."),8(M). 

County seat — Eutaw; population 1.100; situated 
on the Alabama <)t Great Western Railroad, thirty- 
five miles from Tuscaloosa, and sixty miles west 
of Selma. 

Newspapers published at t'ounty Seat — Mirror, 
Whig and Observer (all Democratic). 

Postoffices in the County — Boligee, Rurton's 
Hill, Clinton, Dobbs, Eutair, Forkland. Knox- 
ville, Mantua, Mount Hebron, Pleasant Ridge, 
Tishabee, Union, West Greene. 

The county bounded is on the north by the Sip- 
sey River, on the east and southeast by the War- 
rior River, and on the west and southwest by the 
Tombigbee River; is situated in the western part 
of Alabama, and, agriculturally considered, is 
one of the best counties in the State. Its county 



seat, Eutaw, is situated on the Alabama (ireat 
Southern Ilailroad, and three miles west of a 
steamboat landing on the Warrior River. Its 
other towns are Forkland, 300 inhabitants, in 
the southern part of the county, near the junc- 
tion of the Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers; Bol- 
igee, on the Alabama Great .Southern Railroad, 
300 inhabitants: Mount Hebron, West Greene 
and Pleasant Ridge, in the western part of the 
county, near the Tombigbee River, each contain- 
ing about 150 inhabitants: Knoxville, 200 inhab- 
itants, and Union and Mantua, two small villages 
in the northern j^art of the county. The Alabama 
Great Southern Railroad crosses the county from 
east to west. The lands lying south of this rail- 
road, with a few exceptions, are what are known 
as "canebrake lands,'' and much resemble the 
jorairies of the North and Xorthwest. They are 
very productive, an average crop being one-half 
bale of cotton or thirty bushels of corn per acre. 
These lands are worth from six to fifteen dollars 
per acre, according to locality and fertility. North 
of the river is a small belt of black or canebrake 
lands, but the main body of the lands lying north 
of this railroad are either dark red or gray sandy 
lands. These sandy lands are good for all kinds 
of farming, and respond generously to judicious 
fertilizing. Thev are worth from two to twelve 

dollars per acre, according to locality and quality. 
The principal products of the county are corn, 
cotton, peas, potatoes, molasses, and vegetables. 
Large bodies of cane are to be found upon the un- 
cleared lands of this county, which form a splen- 
did winter jjasture for stock, and owing to the 
sjilendid climate, fertility of soil and abundance 
of water, and its adaptability to the growth of 
clover, this county would be a sjilendid locality 
for stock raisers. Greene County contains large 
bodies of virgin timber, consisting of oak, red 
and white, ash, poplar, cypress, hickory and pine, 
and the Sipsey, Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers 
would be splendid places for the lumber mills. 
Greene County lies seventy miles south of Birming- 
ham, and '• truck farming" there would yield good 
and immediate profits. 

Among the great men given to the State by 
this county are to be mentioned the brilliant ad- 
vocate, William M. Murphy: the eminent jurist, 
John Erwin: the well-known Chancellor Clark. 
These men are now dead. Among the living are to 
be mentioned Thomas Seay, the present Governor 
of Alabama, who was born in Greene County, and 
Thomas W. Coleman, the present efficient Chan- 
cellor of the Southwestern Chancery Division of 
this State. Educational and religions facilities 
of the countv are good. 


is a son of James C. and ^[artha (Anderson) 
Coleman, natives of North and South Carolina, 

Judge Coleman's grandfather, John Coleman, 
a planter, came from North Carolina to Alabama 
in 1S18, and settled near Eutaw in 1821. James 
C. Coleman, his son, was also a planter, and, like 
his father, farmed successfully and on an exten- 
sive scale. 

Thomas Wilkes Coleman was born at Eutaw in 
1833, educated partly at Green Springs, Ala. 
and graduated in classical course at Princeton, 
N. J., in 1853. He read law at Eutaw 
under Stephen F. Hale (for whom Hale 

County was named), and was admitted to the bar 
in 1855. 

Mr. Coleman volunteered in the Confederate 
Army in 18C1, raised a company, and became its 
cajitain. He was captured at the siege of Vicks- 
biirg, and, at the battle of Missionary Ridge, was 
wounded by a minie ball which passed entirely 
through his body, destroying his left lung, and in- 
cai)acitating him for further military duty. He 
recovered from his wound, however (a fact which 
seems marvelous to those who know its character 
and extent), and resumed the practice of law. 

Captain Coleman was a member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1805, and in 1866 he was 
elected Solicitor for the Fifth Circuit, but was 



ousted by the reconstruction performance of IKfiS. 
In 1878 he was iippoitited to the same ofKce forthe 
Seventh Circuit by Gov. K. W. Cobb, and, in 
1880, was elected to that office by the Legislature, 
for a six-years term. In 1886, Captain Coleman 
was again elected .Solicitor for another six-years 
term, and in ilarch, 1887, he was appointed Chan- 
cellor of the Southwestern Chancery Division of 
Alabama, by (rov. Thomas Seay. 

Judge Coleman's life has been a busy one. In 
politics, he has always been a staunch Democrat. 
He lost a fortune by the war, but has made for 
himself a name and a place among his people, 
which might well be envied by the most fortun- 
ate of the land. He was heartily opi)osed to the 
idea of secession and war from its earliest in- 
ception, but when the issue was made, he threw 
his entire influence with the cause of his people. 

The Judge was married in 18(30, to Miss 
Frances J., daughter of Samuel J. Wilson, and 
of a family very prominent in their locality and in 
the Presbyterian Church, and has ten living 
children, six sons and four daughters. One of the 
sons, P]. W. Coleman, is practicing law in Texas; 
another, T. W. Coleman, Jr., graduated at the 
University of Alabama, in 1885, taught school two 
years, and is now taking a law course at the 
University of Virginia. 

Judge Coleman is a Presbyterian of the old 
school, and an elder in tiiat church. He is also a 
IJoyal-Arch Mason. 

WILLIAM C. OLIVER, Judge of the Pro- 
bate Court of (ireene County, was born December 
12, 181i>, in Xottoway County, \'a. His father, 
Isaac Oliver, and his mother, Mary A. (i. Oliver, 
were both of English lineage. His maternal 
grandfather. Col. Parks Bacon, was a native of 
Lunenburg County, Va. Asa Oliver, a paternal 
uncle, was a member for many years of tiie \'ir- 
ginia F^egislature: Charles Oliver, another uncle, 
resided in Botetourt County, Va., and owned 
many negroes and a large estate there. 

Onr subject was reared and educated in Virginia. 
He clerked in a retail store in Petersburg, 
until he was twenty years old, and then came to 
Alabama, settling at Erie, then the county seat of 
(ireene. He there clerked and kept books. From 
1840 to 1844, he clerked on the steamboat " Vic- 
toria," which ran the Warrior River between Mobile 

and Tuscaloosa. During a portion of this time he 
was tax collector and assessor for Greene County. 
In 1844, he was deputy-sheriff. He then en- 
gaged as a drygoods salesman in Mobile for three 
years, and was elected sheriff of Greene County in 
18.i0, which office he held three years. He was 
elected probate judge in 18.50, and served until 
1808, when he was removed from office under the 
reconstruction acts. In 1880, he was again 
elected probate judge, and has held that office 
ever since. 

Judge Oliver was first married in 1842, to Miss 
Elizabtth Phillips, daughter of W. II. Phillips, 
of Ilillsboro, X. C. She died in 1850, leav- 
ing three children, of whom two died in child- 
hood, and Martha Epes grew to maturity and 
married John P. Gilmer, In 1800, our subject was 
married, to Miss Lizzie S. Whitehead, of Carroll 
County, Miss., by whoni he had two children, 
Jeannette, who married W. D. Duncan (a merchant 
of Eutaw), and William W. Oliver, a teacher at 

Judge Oliver is a Free & Accepted Mason. 

WILEY COLEMAN. Attorney-at-law, was 
born near GohLsboro. X. C, in 181!', and is a son 
of John and Rhoda (Cobb) Coleman, natives of 
tiie same State. The Coleman family, of whom 
there is a great number, came originally from 

John Coleman came from Xorth Carolina with 
his family, and first settled in Bibb County, Ala., 
in 1810 From there he removed to Greene 
County, in 1821, and here lived until his death. 
He was engaged here, as formerly, in planting; was 
a good farmer, a good neighbor, and a member of 
the Baptist Church; owned many slaves and 
was in many respects a successful man. He ranked 
among the best pcopleof his part of the State, and 
left a posterity that has always borne an excellent 
name for all tiie better traits of human nature. 

Wiley Coleman was educated at Tuscaloosa and 
La Grange, this State. He graduated in law at 
the University of Virginia, in the year 1842, and 
has devoted most of his life to its practice in Eutaw. 
So far his life has flowed along smoothly and 
harmoniously, with no more than the ordinary 
number of exceptions. He was never married. 

He was in the Mexican War for a short time; 
has held few political oHicee, heing one of those 



philosophical natures that preferred the quiet sat- 
isfaction of a tranquil life to the broils and heai't- 
bnruings that invariably fall to the lot of aspir- 
ants for public favor. 

Mr. Coleman was made Judge of Greene County 
for one term, in 18-iG, and represented the 
county in the Legislature two terms during the 
war. He was a member of the State Constitu 
tional Convention which formed a new Constitu- 
tion for the State, in ISTS. 

Being now at the age when men cease, gener- 
ally sj^eaking, to be troubled with the cares and 
excitement of life, he is, to use his own expres- 
sion, taking his ease in the quiet retireinent of 
private life. 

JOSEPH P. MC QUEEN, Attorney-at-law, 
was born in Eutaw, June z'l, lS.5-i. His 
father, John McQueen, Avas born in Robeson 
County, N. C. When quite a young man 
he removed into Benuettsville, Marlborough Dis- 
trict, S. C, and there practiced law until he 
was sent to Congress, where he represented his 
district for thirteen consecutive years jn-ior to 
the war. 

As the name indicates, John McQueen was 
of Scotch extraction, and was born February !•, 
1804. He was in Washington City at a time mem- 
orable in American history. This was when the 
country was on the eve of the great civil strife. 
As was natural. Judging from the part of the coun- 
try that he came from, he took an active interest 
in the secession movement, and went out of the 
Union with his State when the final separation 
came. He was identified with the first delegation 
that seceded and became a member of the Con- 
federate States Congress, remaining in tliat mem- 
orable body four years. 

John McQueen was a man of abundant means, 
and, after the war, devoted himself to his extensive 
agricultural interests. He was married in 1852, to 
Miss Sarah Pickens, of Eutaw, a daughter of 
Joseph Pickens, and a granddaughter of Gen. 
Andrew Pickeiis, of Revolutionary fame. 

Andrew Pickens, a son of General Pickens, was 
Governor of South Carolina, and his son Francis 
W. Pickens, was Governor of that State at the 
breaking out of the war, and made the famous de- 
mand of Major Anderson for the surrender of 
F'-rt Sumter to the Confederate Government. 

The Pickens family are related to that of the great 
John C. Calhoun. 

The subject of this sketch was in South Caro- 
lina until sixteen years old, and, upon the death of 
his father in 1S6T, came with his mother to Eutaw. 
After the completion of his scholastic training, he 
read law with Chancellor Clark and Judge AViley 
Coleman, and was admitted to the bar April 15, 
18T5. He has been practicing law ever since, and 
with such success as to place him among the best 
lawyers in his section of the State. He has 
eschewed political life, and with the exception of 
representing his county in the Legislature, during 
the session of 1884-1885. has always remained in 
private life. 

Mr. McQueen was married in December, 1875, 
to Miss Roberta Kirksey, daughter of Robert B. 
W. Kirksey, of Marengo County. Three children 
have been born to this union: Anna, John and 

JUDGE & DeGRAFFENRIED, Attorneys-at- 
law. This firm consists of Ililliard M. Judge and 
Edward De GrafEenried. 

An old adage says: " Young men for war and 
old men for council," but this seems to be a 
change, wherein the young men are popular as 
counsel. Jlr. Judge is a young man in his " thir- 
ties," and Mr. De GrafEenried is still younger. Tliis 
firm has attained a prominence second to none in 
their vicinage, ilr. Judge is a son of James L. 
Judge, a pioneer and planter of the olden times. 
H. M. Judge was Judge of the County Court of 
Greene, in 1885 and 1886. He has been practic- 
ing law about ten years. 

Mr. De Graffenried is a scion of an old family 
and a nephew of Governor Seay. He has been 
practicing law about seven years. 

HARRY T. HERNDON, Clerk of the Circuit 
Court of Greene County, is a son of H. T. Hern- 
don and Sarah (Inge) Herndon, both rf wliom are 
native Alabamians. 

The senior H. T. Herndon was born at Erie in 
18"2(5; received his earlier educational training at 
or near his home, and finished it by graduation at 
the L^niversity of Alaljama in 844. He was mar- 
ried, in 1840, to Miss Sarah J., daughter of Dr. 



Ixichard Inge, of Tisliabee, Ala. Tliere were born 
to this union, two sons and two daugiiters. Mr. 
Ilerndon diod August 11, 1S5.">. 

Our subject was born at Forkland, Ala. in 
1S51, and wa.s reared at Eutaw. Having complet- 
ed ills education, lie read l.'iw in .Mol)ile with tiie 
lirni of Smith & llerndoii, but never engaged 
in the practice of his profession, as we find him 
shortly afterward merchandising in Eutaw, which 
he followed from isr:i to 188?. In the last 
named year, he was elected Circuit Clerk (also 
alderman of the town of Eutaw), by an overwhelm- 
ing majority. The former position he has held 
ever since. 

Jlr. Heriidon wa.s married October "28, I8T:i, to 
Miss Mary A. Watkins, daughter of Dr. II. E. 
Wiitkiiis aiul Anna (Oliver) AVatkins, boih of 
Kutaw. The latter is a sister of .ludge William 
Oliver. By this union he had two children, only 
one of whom is living, Anna Mary Ilerndon. 
Mrs. Ilerndon died September '11, 18.S(). 

Mr. Ilerndon is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. South, and of the .Masonic 

Althoufjli it may be regarded as a digression, still 
it is higlily appropriate to speak of another member 
of the Ilerndon family here, who indeed is worthy 
of the liigliest esteem among bright and honor- 
able Southern names. AVe refer to the Hon. 
Tliomas Ilerndon, for many years a resident in 
-Mobile, and one of the most conspicuous charac- 
ters identified with the history of the State. He 
was born at Erie, July 21, 1828, on the banks of 
the historic Black Warrior. 

Thomas II. Ilerndon was educated jiartly by 
(Jen. Samuel Houston, partly at La(irange, and 
the I'niversity of Alabama, where he graduated in 
1M47. He took the degree of Bachelor of Laws at 
Harvard I'niversity, in liS18. Co-incident with 
the year of his graduation he was married to Miss 
Mary Alexander, daughter of Dr. A. F. Alexander, 
of North Carolina. The youthful couple were 
aged respectively twenty and si.xteen years. 

In 18.51, he was defeated as the Democratic can- 
didate for the Legislature; in 1853 he moved to 
-Mobile, and in 1.^57, was sent to the Legislature. 
When the Secession Convention met at Montgom- 
ery in 18C0. he was :i member of it; nor was he of 
that class who ]irefcrred remaining at home away 
from danger and duty. 

He entered the Confederate Army as major, and 
rapidly rose to the rank of colonel. Though twice 

severely wounded, he faltered not in the perform- 
ance of duty, nor was he ever known to shirk re- 
sponsibility. The future recorder of the brave 
deeds of Alabama sons will rank his name ainor.g 
the very foremost. 

In 1872, when the hydra-lieaded monster of re- 
construction was rampant in the South, he was 
nominated by the Democi'atic party for governor, 
but as the time had not come for the State to be 
rid of her worst foes, the miserable horde of polit- 
ical tramps who weighed upon her as a blighting 
curse, he was defeated. Future and greater hon- 
ors awaited iiim, and he was a member of the 4<)th, 
47th and 48th Congresses, successively, whither 
he was sent to represent the Mobile District. 

His devotion to Alabama was always ardent. 
He suffered for her and the whole South alike. 

The wounds which he received finally cost him 
his life. While, of course, we say he recovered, 
it must be remembered that the words are only 
used in an a))proximate sense. He came out of 
the struggle deprived of fortune and healtli. The 
one. he retrieved by courageous and persistent 
effort: to the other he succumbed as to the inevit- 
able. Among other debts, than which there is no 
greater, that Alabama owes this her most worthy 
and noble son, is that for the important part he 
took in ridding her of the worst form of carpet- 
bag rule, wresting her from adventurers, political 
thieves, knaves and ignorant negroes, and restor- 
ing her once proud name to the intelligent and 
good people of the Commonwealth. 

Colonel Herndon's death occurred in Washing- 
ton City -March 2!-:, 188;i. Sj)ccial proceedings of 
both the lower and upper houses of Congress were 
had in his honor on the 12th and ISth of April, 
1S84. Among the fitting tributer; paid liis 
memory none are more worthy of a place in 
this volume than the words of Mr. Culberson of 
Texas : " His name in camp and field was the 
synonym of all that is heroic in courage, noble in 
])atriotic devotion to duty, magnanimous in vic- 
tory, or hopeful in defeat. He loved liis home, 
his native State, with more than filial devotion, 
and served her cause in peace and war with the 
energy of his tireles.s nature. When the noble 
deeds of the sons of Alabama in that great 
struggle shall be gathered up by the historian, 
there will Ite no brighter, ]>urer or lovelier chapter 
than that which shall record the sacrifices, the un- 
selfish love of home and country, the indomitable 
courage and fortitude of her trifted son whose 



virtues we commemorate, aud whose deatli we now 

WILLIAM 0. MONROE, was boru at Athens, 
Ga., in 18;!5, and came to Alabama iu 1843 with 
his parents, who settled at Ilinton's Grove, Greene 

His father was John Monroe, of South Carolina, 
and his mother Emily, a daughter of John Paschal, 
of Georgia. 

William in all spent about five years at school. 
He has had an unbroken connection with the press 
since 1840, barring sh(n-t intervals which he sjient 
at school. 

It was in 1846 that he entered the office 
of Tlie Eutaw Whig, where he served an apprentice- 
ship of five years. This journal was founded by 
Houston aud Davis in 1840, but was owned by the 
former at the time young Monroe's connection with 
it commenced. In 18.59, when he had attained his 
twenty-fourth year, young Monroe purchased a 
half interest in the ]\hig. He purchased the 
Observer in 1861, and during the same year it was 
consolidated with the Wiig. under the -name of the 
Eutaio WM(j and Observer. The new paper was 
conducted by Anderson and Monroe, it seems, until 
after the war. 

Mr. Monroe was in the war a short time as 
lieutenant of cavalry in Clanton's brigade, one of 
the most noted organizations of its kind that took 
part in the great civil strife. Owing to ill health 
he was compelled to give up his command, which 
he did by resigning. 

He continued in copartnership with Anderson 
in management and conduct of The Whig und Ob- 
server during the war, and after that he became 
sole proprietor, a relation he has ever since 
maintained. This journal is a weekly. Dem- 
ocratic in politics, and has a circulation of 800 
subscribers. It is one of the most influential 
papers of its class in the State, and has always 
enjoyed a liberal degree of prosperity. Its utter- 
ances have, throughout its course, been dictated 
by .honest convictions; its intentions characterized 
by honesty itself, and its career has been a con- 
stant labor to build up the material and highest 
interests of the county with which it has been 
identified for so long a time. 

W. 0. Monroe was married to Jane, a daughter 
of the Rev. John DuBois, of Greensboro, Ala., 
in 1866. llev. DuBois was for half a century a 

minister of the gospel. He was the inventor of the 
famous Du Bois cotton-gin, one of the finest ma- 
chines of its kind ever made in this country. 

Tliere are but two of the children, born to this 
union, living: Jane and Louise. 

Mr. Monroe and family are all members of the 
church, and he himself is a Roval-Arch Mason. 

WILLIAM T. CALLAHAN, Editor aud Pro- 
prietor of the Ei(t(iw Mirror, is a son of Elias 
and Sallie (Stockman) Callahan, and was born in 
Bibb County, this State, August 24, 1852. He 
spent his early life on the farm, and gave his father 
very material assistance in all the work incident to 
that kind of life. At an early age, however, we 
find him leaving the parental roof, and, to his 
credit be it said, he educated himself. He first 
worked with his brother, J. W. Callahan, in the 
office of the Elyton Enterprise, in 1866, where he 
remained several years. He worked with other 
journals, at different times, in various parts of the 

William T. Callahan came to Eutaw in June, 
1876, and worked in the office of the Whig and 
Observer for nearly three years, and then estab- 
lished the Eutaw Mirror, April 22, 1879. 

Some remarks in reference to this pajier will af- 
ford an insight into the success achieved by its 
proprietor. It is an independent Democratic 
journal, a firm friend of progress and all material 
advancement, and makes use of every means 
which will secure these desirable results. Believ- 
ing that a protective tariff is th^best jiolicy, it 
supports that idea, notwithstanding the fact it is at 
variance with the views of a majority of those 
among whom it circulates. All the greater credit, 
however, is due its proprietor for having the 
courage to announce his views in such a locality; 
and that he has achieved success, would seem to 
indicate that he has, in a great measure, made a 
new idea popular to his constituents. The Mirror 
has a circulation of one thousand subscribers, or 
thereabouts, whicli, taken from a practical stand- 
point, is very flattering for a country journal 
and places it far above the average. 

In addition to journalistic work, ^Ir. Callahan 
does a lage job-printing business. 

Some years back Mr. Callahan was married to 
Miss Nannie A. Speed, of Greene County. Their 



union has been blessed *ith one eliild, a 

Mr. Callahan bcloii<j;s to the Masonic fraternity. 

FOSTER M. KIRKSEY is a son of Jehu and 
Nellie (Foster) Kirkse\-, natives of North and 
South Carolina, respectively, llis grandfather, 
John Kirksey, Sr., was a Scotchman, and emi- 
grated to America some time prior to the Kevolu- 
tionary War, in which he took part. Ilis father 
came to Alabama in 1804, and settled in what is 
now Madison County, and engaged at planting. 
In 181G lie moved to Tuscaloosa; in \'6'l'l to Cireene 
County, this State, and settled at Erie, the county 
seat, and in 1S24, to Greensboro, now the county 
seat of Hale. 

F. M. Kirksey was born at Tuscaloosa, Ala., 
June 10, 1817. In 1834 we find him at Erie, 
where he received most of his education. In 1839 
he removed to Eutaw, where he has since resided. 
As an interesting part of his career in the county 
of his adoption, it may be mentioned that at one 
time he knew personally every man living witiiin 
its bounds. He lias been engaged in planting and 
merchandising during his residence in Greene 
County, in both of which callings he has been 
successful. He has .served the public in different 
capacities. In 183(1 he was Deputy Sheriff of 
Greene County, and was Sheriff from 184.") to 1848. 

Mr. Kirksey was married the first time Octo- 
ber 2(1, 1845, to Jane Merriweather, daughter of 
Dr. Z. Jlerriweather, of Greene County, Ala. 
She died in 18")7. All of the children by his first 
wife are dead. He was married the second time 
to Margaretta Liston, of Indiana, who was a 
daughter of Jonathan J. Liston, a prominent 
lawyer of that State. By his second wife he has 
four living children, three sons and one daughter: 
Liston, Hobert, Harold, and Margaretta. 

The Hon. Stephen F. Hale married Mary E. 
Kirksey, a sister of our subjeoi. He was a Ken- 
tuckian l)y Ijirth, and came to Erie in 1838 and 
from there to Eutaw in 1839. He was a lawyer 
by profession, and served in the State T^egislature 
in 1843. He went to the Mexican war in 1.S4G, 
and serveil there two years as a lieutenant. He was 
again in the Legislature from lo.">7 to 1859. In 
all his political acts and af!iliations he was a Whig, 
and in them all proved himself a man of great 
force. He was Attornev-(ieneral of the State in 

18(51, under the Confederate Government. After- 
ward he joined the Army of Virginia, with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel, and was killed in one 
of the battles around Richmond, in 1862, while 
gallantly leading his command in action. In 18G6 
the Legislature formed a new county out of a part 
of Greene and portions of other counties, and 
named it Hale, in honor of the man who had 
proved himself a lawyer of ability, a worthy citi- 
zen, an intelligent lawmaker and a brave soldier. 

REV. STEPHEN U. SMITH, Eutaw, is a son of 
Stephen and .Sally A. ( Kluxles) Smith, of North 

On his mother's side he is related to William li. 
King, for several terms United States Senator 
from Alabama, and also Vice-President of the 
United States during the administration of 
Franklin Pierce. His maternal grandfather, 
James Rhodes, was for a great while member of 
the North Carolina Legislature, and a member of 
State Senate at the time of his death. His ma- 
ternal great-grandfather, Andrew Bass, was a 
prominent man in Dobbs County, N. C, in the 
IJevolutionary War, and was a member of the con- 
vention which framed the first constitution for 
the State. 

Our subject was born January 2, 1817, in 
Wayne County, N. C. His first educational 
training was obtained at his home, and after fur- 
ther prepiiration elsewhere, he entered the Law 
department of Transylvania L^niversity, at Lex- 
ington, Ky., from which he graduated in February, 
1841. Some time afterward he came to Alabama 
and was made a deacon of the Episcopal Church, 
by Bishop Cobb, at Montgomery, February 16, 
1853. Prior to this time, he had practiced law. 
He was ordained to the priesthood of his church 
in May, 1854. Since that time, he has devoted 
his life to its service in West Alabama. At one 
period in his early ministerial career he did mission- 
ary work. He occupied the parish at Livingston, 
Ala., at several different times, and has been in 
charge of the parish at Eutaw, for thirty years. 

Rev. Mr. Smith is a Roval Arch .Mason. 

GREENE P. MOBLEY is a son of Wiley Mob- 
ley, of Winnsboro, S. C, and Nancy (Coleman) 



The Mobleys were originally from Wales, and 
came to this country with Lord Baltimore, and 
settled in Maryland. 

G. P. Mobley was born in Greene County, Ala., 
in 1849, and educated at Greene Springs. He 
went into the army when but thirteen years old, 
and took part in many battles, among which may 
be instanced Spanish Fort and the Seven Days' 
Fight around Richmond, in both of which en- 
gagements he was severely wounded. 

After the war he taught school to defray the 
expenses incident to finishing up his own educa- 
tion. Immediately afterward he applied himself 

industriously to the study of the law, was 
admitted to the bar in 1870, and has practiced his 
profession ever since, at Eutaw. He has the 
proud consciousness of knowing that he laid the 
foundation by his own personal efforts for the suc- 
cess which h,e has achieved in life. 

Mr. Mobley has, by industry, attention to the 
wants of his clients, acquaintance with the de- 
mands of his profession, and an accurate knowl- 
edge of the law. built up a good and lucrative 

He is a member of the fraternity of Free and 
Accepted Masons. 


PoiJulation : White, 5,G45; colored, y5..")31. 
Area, 740 square miles. AVoodland, all, except a 
few square miles of prairie. 

Acres — In cotton (a^iproximately), OS. 200; in 
corn, 41,169; iu oats, 3,030; in sugar-cane, 201; 
in sweet potatoes, 1,000. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 30,000. 

County Seat — Hayneville; population, 500; lo- 
cated 23 miles southwest of Montgomery. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Exam- 
iner (Democratic); True Citizen (Independent 

Postoffices in the County — Benton, Burkville, 
Braggs, Calhoun, Collirene, Farmersville, Fort 
De230sit, Gordonsville, Hayneville, Letohatchee, 
Lowndesborough, itorganville, Mount Willing, 
Saint Clair, Sandy Eidge, White Hall. 

Established in 1830, this county was named 
in honor of Hon. William Lowndes, of South Caro- 
lina. It has long been known for the productive- 
ness of its lands, and is regarded one of the best 
agricultural districts in the South. Prior to the 
war the planters of Lowndes made immense for- 
tunes from farming upon its fertile cotton fields. 
Though in use many years, the lands remain 
unimpaired in their productiveness. The county 
needs onlv the hands of svstem and diligence to 

direct and urge the industries suited to the capa- 
bilities of its soil, to place it alongside the most 
advanced sections of our planting interests. Like 
all other localities of the famous cotton belt, 
Lowndes County has shared in the shrinkage of the 
valuation of lands. This is mainly due to the 
destruction of an organized labor system conse- 
quent upon the emancii^ation of the slaves. Its 
lauds are well adapted to the employment of im- 
proved imjilements of labor. 

The surface of Lowndes is rolling. The whole 
of the county lies within the prairie belt, still 
there is a fair proportion of upland soils. Along 
the table-lands are found sandy loam soils; in the 
extensive bottoms which prevail along the river 
and numerous streams are found dark loam soils, 
while iijion the prairies proper, and the flanks of 
the lime-hills, exist the soils which have a great 
admixture of lime. While the prevailing surface 
of Lowndes is rolling, there are many precipitous 
hills in the southern portion. The presence of 
lime in the clay makes the roads miry during the 
wet seasons. This feature, connected with that 
extreme southwestern portion, has won it the 
local name of "Little Texas." But this consti- 
tutes but a fractional part of this magnificent 
agricultural region. A feature belonging largely 



to the first bottom soils is tliat they are sandy, but 
they derive vast Ijeiiefits from the mulerlying for- 
mations of lime. Here, as elsewhere in the prairie 
region, there are occasional interventions of sandy 
knollf!, which furnish locations for liouses and set- 
tlements, and also an abundance of good water. 

The main crops grown in Low'iules are cotton, 
corn, oats, sweet and Irish potatoes, millet and 
sugar-cane. The black lands are usually devoted 
to the j)roduction of corn, while the sandy lands 
are employed for raising cotton; but the red lands 
produce equally well. Many of tliese lands are 
well adapted for jiasturage purposes. Numerous 
grasses tiourish, some of which are indigenous and 
others imported. These, together with the vari- 
eties of clover and the dense brakes of cane which 
prevail along the streams and in marshy lowlands, 
makes this one of the most desirable sections for 

This consideration is enhanced by the fact 
that the winters in this latitude are brief and 
mild, and stock does not have to be cared for 

so tenderly as in sections farther north. Pint- 
lala. Big Swamp, Manack, Cedar and Dry Creeks, 
with numerous tributaries, flow across the county. 
It is along these streams that much of the richest 
land in the county is found. 

Scattered throughout Lowndes are broad belts 
of valuable timber, comprising several varieties of 
oak, hickory, long- and sliort-leaf pine, elm, ash, 
poplar, walnut, sycamore, gum, beech, cedar, mul- 
berry and chestnut. Points of interest are Ilayne- 
ville, the county seat, with a population of several 
hundred, Lowndesboro, Benton, Fort Deposit and 
Letohatchee. Good schools are found in almost 
all the centers of population, while a common- 
school system provides educational advantages for 
all classes. 

Transportation is afforded by the Louisville & 
Xashviilc Railroad, the Montgomery & Selnia, and 
the Alabama River. 

Lands may be inirchased from *3 to *v'0 per 

There are no (ioveriiment lands in the county. 


Population : White, 5,000 ; colored, 20,000. 
Area, 1170 square miles. Woodland, all, except 
some prairie region and gravelly hills. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 70,000 ; in 
corn, 43,250 ; in oats, 3,GT5: in wheat, 1,430; in rye, 
60; in rice, 1(J ; in tobacco, IC ; in sweet potatoes, 

Appro.ximate number of bales of cotton, in round 
numbers, '20,000. 

County Seat— Greensborough; population, 2,100; 
located on Cincinnati, Selma & Mobile Railroad. 

Xews])apers i>ubli8hed at County Suat — Ahi- 
hima beacoti, Walchman (Democratic); Sotilheru 
University Monthly (Educational). 

Postoftices in the County — Akron Junction, 
Carthage, Cedarvillc. Dominick, Evans, Five 
Mile, Gallion, Grefiixbnroiigli, Havana, Laneville, 

Xewbern, Phipps, Powers, Sa\v_verville, Stewart's 
Station, Whitsitt. 

The above named county was founded in 1867, 
and was named for Col. Stephen F. Hale. It em- 
braces one of the finest agricultural districts in 
the South. Productive in soil, healthful in cli- 
mate, abundantly supplied with superior schools, 
and with an intelligent, thrifty, and progressive 
people, the county of Hale, deservedly ranks among 
the best in the State. The industry of the people 
is agriculture, with few exceptions. 

In the northeast the county is hilly. There is 
almost every variety of soil to be found in Hale. 
The southern portion, being a little less than one- 
half of its territory, is composed almost entirely 
of black cane-brake land, which has a marvelous 
fertility. The western and northwestern parts of 



the county furnish a variety of lands, some of 
which are sandy and others red, wliich gradually 
shade oS into the dark lands composing what is 
called the second Warrior bottom. Most of this 
land is of excellent quality, being strong, and some, 
especially that referred to as second bottom, of 
superior richness. The bottoms along the War- 
rior River, which constitutes the western boundary 
line, with few exceptions, are subject to overflow, 
and are not regarded as valuable as those 
higher up and beyond the reach of the water- 

Along these lower bottoms there is a terrace of 
land called second bottoms, which are not exposed 
to overflow. As has been said, the northeastern 
part of the country is more or less hilly. It is not 
cultivated except in isolated tracts; but the thin- 
ness of the soil is atoned for by the abundance of 
yellow or long-leaf jjine, which jjossesses rare value 
because of its location and its relation to the ad- 
joining domains of rich prairie lands. In the 
eastern portion there is a commingling of sand and 
red loam, which makes the lands exceedingly 
valuable for agricultural purposes. 

The staple protluctions grown in the South are 
raised in Hale, viz. : cotton, corn, peas and pota- 
toes. Many other elements are produced, as the 
statistics at the head of this article will show, and 
every year increases more and more the variety 
of crops. Rice, sugar and tobacco are gradually 
receiving more attention. Farms for the produc- 
tion of hay are coming annually more into note. 

and there is a corresponding improvement in 
stock. The principal timbers which stock the 
forests of Hale are oak, maple, hickory, gum, 
long- and short-leaf pine, poplar and ash. 

The county abounds in excellent streams, which 
not only will furnish supplies of water for house 
and farm purposes, but for manufactories as well. 
Chief among the streams may be mentioned War- 
rior River, Big Prairie, Little Prairie, German, 
Big, Brush, Five Mile, Gabriels, and Elliott's 
Creeks. Together with the abounding springs, 
these streams afford amjile sujiplies of water. 

Late geological surveys have established the fact 
that there are large deposits of phosj^hate in Hale 

Means of transf)ortation are furnished by the 
Warrior River, the Cincinnati, Selma & Mobile, 
the Alabama, Great Southern & East Tennessee, 
Virginia & Georgia Railroads, and Chicago & Gulf 

The county is throughout sui^plied with educa- 
tional advantages. 

Agricultural lands may be had for from 82 to 
$30 per acre. Pine lands will cost from $1.3.5 to 
$5 per acre. These lands are everywhere supplied 
with streams of water. Artesian wells abound, 
especially in the southern portion. A desire pre- 
vails to have the county populated with thrifty 

There are about 1,000 acres of Government land 
in Hale County. 

[See Greensborough, this volume.] 



Population: White, 4,587; colored, 1"^,786. 
Area, G30 square miles. Woodland, all. Gravel- 
ly hills, with long-leaf jiiiie, 330 square miles; 
prairie and metamorphic regions, 300 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 56,763; in 
corn, ■,'3,833; in oats, 6,195: in wheat, 1,016; in 
rye, 45; in sugar-cane, 140; in sweet potatoes, 9"^S. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 15,000. 

County Seat — Tuskegee; population, •■i,500; 40 
miles from Montgomery. 

Newspaper jmblished at County Seat — News 

Postoftices in the County — dough's Store, 
Cotton Valley, Cowles Station, Creek Stand, 
Dick's Creek, Gabbett, La Place, Xotasulga, 
Shorter's Depot, Society Hill, Swamp, Tuskegee, 
Warrior Stand. 

Macon County was formed in 1832, and named 
for Nathaniel Macon, Esq., of North Carolina. 
The county has long been noted for the intelli- 
gence and thrift of its inhabitants. Prior to the 
war its centers of interest were abodes of wealth, 
intelligence and refinement. The county has 
been gradually rallying from the prostrating influ- 
ences of the war, and is now assuming its wonted 
place among the best counties of the State. Its 
social and nniterial advantages are vast, and, when 
combined, they furnish the county elements of 
advancement inferior to none of the agricultural 
counties of the great Cotton Belt. 

The general surface of the county is undulat- 
ing, except in the northwest, which is inclined to 
hills; but there are no elevations of note within 
the territory of Macon. The lands, as a rule, lie 
quite well for drainage and cultivation. In the 
northern, northeastern and northwestern portions 
of the county the soil is of a light, sandy charac- 
ter. Skirting the watercourses it is much more 
fertile and productive. In the southern, south- 
eastern and southwestern parts of the county the 
soils are very fine, being a rich loam, with clay, 
lime, or sand predominating, according to the lo- 
cality. Usually sjjcaking the bottoms of tiie 

county are very fertile. While Chewacla Creek, 
for the most part, winds its way through regions 
iif pine, there are to be found bordering it lands 
of a bluish hue which are very productive. Per- 
haps the richest lands lie along Big Swamp Creek. 
Thus it will be seen that a diversity of soils pre- 
vails throughout the entire county, and this gives 
rise to a diversity of crops. Chief among the 
products of the farm are cotton, corn, potatoes, 
peas, wheat, oats, rye, millet, rice, sugar-cane and 

Domestic grasses have as yet received but lit- 
tle attention. Swamp cane grows in rank profu- 
sion along the watercourses, and sometimes serves 
to sustain stock during an entire winter. Fruits 
are easily grown in the soils of Macon — apples, 
pears, peaches, grapes, cherries, walnuts, plums, 
figs, quinces, pomegranates, raspberries, straw- 
berries and melons yield readily in proportion to 
the attention bestowed upon them, ilany wild 
fruits are found in the old fields, and along the 
edge of swamps and through the forests. These 
include blackberries, strawberries, dewberries, mus- 
cadines, chestnuts, etc. 

Through the swamps the towering oaks yield a 
vast abundance of mast, which serves to fatten the 
hogs during the fall and winter, without the 
owners being subjected to the slightest expense. 
The county is watered by the Ufoupee, Chewacla, 
Calebee, Big Swamj), Cupiahatchee and Oakfus- 
kee Creeks. The Tallapoosa Kiver sweeps through 
the northwestern corner. JIany smaller streams 
exist, furnishing an abundant water sujiply to all 
parts of the county. The water from the springs 
and wells is pure and delightful. 

The timbers are oak, hickory, pine, jioplar, 
beech, red elm, gum, magnolia, and maple. The 
forests are frequently drawn upon for the manu- 

There are two railroads which furnish transport- 
ation for the products of the county, viz.: the 
Western Bailroadand the Tuskegee Narrow Guage. 
These serve to place the county into easy connec- 




tion with the great lines which converge both at 
Montgomery and Atlanta. The towns of impor- 
tance are Tuskegee, the county seat, Xotasulga, 
and La Place. 

Tuskegee has long been famous as an education- 
al seat. Here is located the Alabama Conference 
Female College, which is an institution of great 

merit: and the Alabama High School for boys and 
young men. At the other places named, are good 
schools, and indeed in every part of the county 
are good common schools. Churches exist in 
towns and country alike, affording facilities for re- 
ligious worship. The moral tone of the society 
in Macon County ia excellent. 


Population: White, 15,000; colored, 30,000. 
Area, TiO square miles. Woodland, all. Level 
and hilly prairies, of which 75 square miles have a 
coating of drift, 640 square miles sandy and peb- 
bly hills, with 100 square miles pine. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 11"^, 100; in 
corn, 62,300: in oats, 4,800; in wheat, 58; in 
sugar-cane, l'i'4; in sweet potatoes, 1,720. 

Api^roximate number of bales of cotton, 32,000. 

County Seat — Montgomery: population, 25,000; 
on Alabama Kiver, 197 miles northeast of Mobile, 
at the centering point of six railroads. 

Newspapers published at the County Seat — Ad- 
vertiser (Democratic), Dispatch (Democratic), AS'^r;/-, 
Alabama Uaptisf (Denominational), Herald (Re- 
publican), Odd Fellows' Journal. 

PostofSces in the County — Ada, Arcadia, Ba- 
rachias, Catoma, Chambers, Devenport, Hope 
Hull, Legrand, Mathews, Meadville, Montgomery, 
Mount Carmel, Mount Meigs, Myrtle, Panther, 
Patterson, Pike Eoad, Pine J.evel, Pugli, Raif 
Branch, Earner, Snowdoun, Stoddard, Strata, 
Tharin, Woodley. 

Montgomery was one of the first counties in the 
State, being erected by an act of the Legislature 
of the Territory of Mississippi, bearing date De- 
cember 6, 1816. Originally this county was 
formed from Monroe County, and comprised al- 
most the whole of Central Alabama, south of the 
mountains of Blount County, to the Cahaba Eiver, 
from the watershed between Tombigbee and War- 
rior Eivers on the west, to the lands of the Creek 

Indians on the east. From the original territory 
of Montgomery the following counties have been 
wholly taken: Autauga, Bibb, Dallas and Shelby. 
St. Clair was formed entirely of the latter county. 
The following counties were formed in portion 
from the area of Montgomery directly: Bullock, 
Elmore, Lowndes and Perry, while other counties 
have been formed from counties which were con- 
stituted out of the territory taken from Montgom- 
ery County. 

The princii^al products of the county are cot- 
ton and corn. Of late years considerable atten- 
tion is being paid to the jiroduction of oats and 
grasses, while stock-raising is noted as growing, 
and the profits in this branch tends to the belief 
that it will become more general within the next 
few years. Fruits and early vegetables do well in 
this county, and largely increasing quantities of 
the latter are shijiped north every year. 

The forests are timbered with oak, hickory, 
short-leaf pine, poplar, gum, magnolia, beech, 
hawthorn, wild plum and ash. 

The principal streams which water the county 
are the Alabama and Tallapoosa Rivers, Lime, Ea- 
rner, Catoma, Pintlala and other smaller and un- 
important creeks. 

The county is intersected by the Louisville & 
Xasliville, the Western, the ilontgomery & Eu- 
faula, the Selma & Montgomery, the ^lobile & 
Montgomery, and the Montgomer}- & Florida Eail- 
roads. The latter is a narrow-gauge road, which 
is now being built to the Florida line, through a 



very rich portion of Southeast Alabama. The 
following railroads are projected: the Alabama 
Midland, the Montgomery, Hayneville and Cam- 
den, and tlie(ireat Northwestern of Alabama, and 
the .Montgomery & Chattanooga. The subject of 
building a railroad to connect with the Anniston 
U'oad at Svlacauga is being discussed. 

The county is well provided with facilities for 
religious worship, there being in it churches of 
all denominations. The schools are the equal of 
any in the South, and in Montgomery the public 
schools will compare favorably with any similar 
institutions in the country. [See Montgomery 
City, this volume.] 


Population: White, 1,'i',Q: colored, 23,G17. 
Area. 050 square miles. Woodland, all. Prairie 
oak and hickory uplands, with long-leaf pine and 
post-oak flat wood. 

Acres in cotton SO, 790: in corn, 43,870; in oats, 
G,.5T4; in sugar-cane, 43; in tobacco, 43; in rice, 
2G; in sweet potatoes, 1,138. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 24,000. 

County Seat — Linden; population, 300; 52 
miles southwest of Selma. 

Newspajier published at County Seat — Reporter 

Postoffices in the County — Clay Hill, Dayton, 
Demopolis, Dixon's Mills, Faunsdale, Gay's Land- 
ing, Hampden. Hoboken, Jefferson, Linden, 
Luther's Store, .McKinley, Magnolia, J[oss. 
Myrtlewood, Xanafalia, \icholsville, Nixonville, 
Octago, Old Spring Hill, Putman, IJembert, 
Shiloh, Sweet Water, Tombigbee, Van Dorn, 

This historic county was settled by French 
immigrants after the fall of Xapoleon L, and was 
organized as a county in the year 1818. It is one 
of the largest counties of Alabama, containing 
960 square miles, or about 015,000 acres. Its 
soil, for the most part, is fertile, and the uplands 
offer as great advantages to the agriculturist as 
can be found in the world, combining, as they do, 
healthfulness witli great productiveness. It has 
a population of about 3o,O00, three-fourths of 
whom are blacks. 

The white population is made up largely 

of immigrants from the older States, and 
their descendants, chiefly from the States of 
Virginia and South Carolina. Throughout its 
length and breadth the county possesses intelli- 
gent, substantial citizens, far above the average of 
agricultural communities. Prior to the war be- 
tween the States the people of the upper portion 
of the county were noted for their wealth, culture 
and hospitality, and, although impoverished by 
the Avar, they yet retain the characteristics of 
ante-bellum days. 

The northern portion of Marengo County is 
level, or slightly undulating. The soils vary, 
being partly stifE prairie and partly light, sandy 
loams. There is prevailing in some parts of this 
section a post-oak soil, which is heavy, sandy clay, 
of reddish and yellowish colors. 

The county is diversified throughout with hills, 
plains and fertile valleys. The great stretches of 
prairie arc broken here and there by a line of hills, 
which overlook vast regions of country or gaze 
down upon rich valleys. The several soils are 
black prairie, which belong to the plains; the 
mulatto soils, which belong to the higher table- 
lands, and the gray hnmmock. As is true through- 
out the counties of the Black Pelt, the most 
valuable of these soils is the black prairie, but all 
are valuable under different circumstances. Over 
these limelands grows the mellilotus, or honey- 
weed, an excellent forage herb, of which stock of 
all kinds are exceedingly fond. Oftentimes it 
grows to the height of six feet, and overspreads 



the bare lime rock. Eaisers of stock prize it quite 
highl}' for its nutritious qualities. 

The cane-brake lands of Marengo are found in 
the northern end of the county, and extend south- 
ward about ten or fifteen miles. These lands 
have long been proverbial for their marvelous 
productive qualities. 

From about the center southwards the lands 
become thinner with a sandy surface. About the 
county occur the "flat woods," which extend with 
varying width across the country from east to west. 
The average width is five or six miles. This 
region of flat woods is slightly undulating, and, 
because of the waxiness of the soil, is sought by 
the planter. Upon analysis, the soils of this 
peculiar section are found to be deficient in 
lime, though in some jiortions of it cotton grows 
remarkably well. Early in the spring the wild 
clover (lespedaza), begins to show itself in this 
flat woods country, and attains to the height of 
two or three feet. A finer grazing region was 

never seen than this flat woods section, which 
sweeps without interruption from the Tombigbee 
to the Alabama Eiver. This wild clover is eag- 
erly sought by all kinds of stock, and lasts from 
March or April until the coldest jjeriods of 
winter. Where streams flow across the flat 
woods they arethickly bordered with luxuriant 
swamp cane. 

Lower down still are the famous Eembert hills, 
the favorite resort of the planters of the past as 
a region in which to establish their homes. These 
high hills overlook the rich valleys which lie along 
Beaver Creek. Along the last named stream are 
outcropjiings of marl beds, which lend additional 
richness to the soils. All these lands — the black 
prairie and the brown loam on the uplands, as 
well as the light gray — are valuable and product- 
ive. The crops usually produced are corn, cot- 
ton, peas, sweet potatoes, millet, oats, and sugar- 
cane. Corn and cotton thrive about equally well 
upon the different lands. 


Population : White, 7.500 ; colored, ^2,591. 
Area, 700 square miles. Woodland, all. Gravelly 
hills, with long-leaf j^ine, 4G0 square miles. 
Prairie region, 3"^5 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton, 75,303; in corn, 48,132; in 
oats, 6,003; in wheat, 440; in rye, 70; in rice, 27; 
in tobacco, 24; in sugar-cane, 20: in sweet pota- 
toes, 1,107. 

Approximate- number of bales of cotton, 22,000. 

County Seat — Marion; population, 2,500; located 
30 miles northwest of Selma, on Cincinnati, Selma, 
& Mobile branch of the Western Eailroad. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Stan- 
dard, Normal Fepo?ier, Hoivard Collegian and 
Judson Echoes. 

Postoffices in County — Augustin, Bush Creek, 
Chadwick, Cruess, Felix, Hamburgh, Ironville, 
Jericho, Le Vert, Marion, Morgan Springs, Muse- 

ville, Oakmulgee, Perryville, Pine Tucky, Scott's 
Station, Sprott, Talmage, Theo, Uniontown, Vi- 

Perry was created in 1819, and named in honor 
of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, of the United 
States Navy. 

The county lies between parallels 32 and 33 
north latitude, and embraces most of the elevated 
lands between the Tombigbee and Alabama Eivers. 
Its maximum elevation is 470 feet, and its mini- 
mum 190 feet above sea level. 

The face of the country is somewhat broken, 
though there are no great elevations. The ex- 
treme western jiortion of the country is drained by 
small streams emptying into the Tombigbee, while 
the country generally slopes off gently to the east, 
and its waters shed off into the Cahaba and its 
tributaries. The highest land is somewhat sandy; 



the chief growth is the long-leaf pine. Next 
comes the prairie, "a gently umhilating trough-like 
plain lying between the ilrift liills on the north 
and similar ones on the south." 

The northern half of the county has an abun- 
dance of freestone water supplied by surface 
springs and wells: the prairie sections are supplied 
by pools and artesian wells. 

The climate is as mild and salulirious as can be 
found in the South. Our proximity to the Gulf 
gives us the benefit of its refreshing breezes. The 
summers are long, and the days are nnfrequently 
very hot, but our nights are cool and pleasant. 
Sunstroke is very rare. 

Mean temperature for fourteen years: spring, 
fi5. 3: summer, SO. <i: autumn, (i.i.o: winter, 50.4. 

No section on the globe can show a better health 
record than I'crry County. The county occupies 
the liigh lands lying between the Alabama and 
Tombigbee Rivers, and it is almost above the mias- 
ma line. In the river bottoms there are more or less 
of chills and fever in the summer and fall. There 
is but little pneumonia, and consumption is rare 
among the whites. 

The State tax this year is levied on the basis of 
:>\ mills, the county on 4 mills. There is a con- 
stitutional prohibition against any county levying 
a tax of more than ,"> mills. 

County school funds for the year ending Sep- 
tember :S0. 1886, were *11,03-^. 

Number of schools: wiiite, 3."); colored, o3; total, 
88. Average number of teachers: white, 33; 
colored. .*>(); total. 83. 

Average number of pupils to teacher, 42. 

Average monthly pay of teachers, |i30.90. 

School age, seven to twenty-one years. 

Average length of schools, eighty days. 

Marion and Uniontown enjoy very superior 
public schools. 

No section enjoy.s greater advantages than this 
county in the number and character of its higher 
educational institutions. 

Located at Marion are two institutions of learn- 
ing that are second to none in the South; Jud- 
son Female Institute, founded in is:i'.t, denom- 
inational, Haptist: Marion Female Seminary, 
founded in 1830. non-sectarian. 

The prairie comprises about one-third of the 
county area, or about 170,000 acres. 

Sandy lands comprise the balance of the county 
area. There are no special features that are pecu- 
liar to these lands. 

Bottom lanils lie along the branches, creeks and 
Cahaba River, and are a superior kind of soil. 

The prairie lands can be bought at from 110 to 
^1.") per acre; the clay lands from *8 to %Vl per 
acre; the sandy lands from %-l to %h, and the 
bottom lands from ^S to %\'l per acre. 


Corn, average number of lbs. per acre 840 

Cotton, ■• ' " 414 

Hye, 3.50 

Wheat. 400 

Oats, " 4.'50 

Barley, " " " " " " 600 

Potatoes, " " " 4,ij00 

Hay, 4.000 

Average number of pounds per acre, 1,444. 

Total value of Perry County's products per 
acre about ^"^5. 

Corn, rye. barley and oats do well in this county, 
and with the proper attention as much can be pro- 
duced as anywhere else on the globe. Wheat 
usually suffers with rust. Forty years ago these 
lands produced, on an average, twenty bushels of 
wheat per acre. 

All grasses do well, but especially red clover, 
nieliotns, Johnson grass. Japanese clover and 

Sorghum cane can be raised here in the greatest 
abundance, and if it will pay anywhere to raise it, 
it will pay nowhere better than here. Sugar-cane 
pays well on our mulatto lands. 

All kinds of vegetables grow here, and of most 
of them two crops can be made. Two crops of 
Irith potatoes, or Irish potatoes first and sweet 
potatoes next, on the same ground. 

The county is doing something in stock raising, 
and the success that has attended the little that 
has been done, promises to revolutionize the present 

There are two railroads through the county; 
the Alabama Central and the Selma & Memphis: 
the Alabama Grand Trunk, leading from Mobile 
to Birmingham, is now under construction, 
and will be completed in about six months. 
This road will bisect the county from south to 
north, giving us direct communication with Mobile 
on the south, and Birmingham, Bessemer, Annis- 
ton, Decatur, Sheffield, etc., on the nortli. In 
addition to the above, the following roads have 
been chartered, and will run through the county: 
Chicago & Gulf Air Line: Baltimore, Birmingham 
& Gulf; Bessemer & Selma; Selma & Cahaba Val- 



ley, and a through trunk line to Pensacola. The 
Kansas City & Birmingham Railway will also be 
built through this county to the Gulf. Cahaba 
River, for all practical purposes, is past navigating. 

We have the very best society in this country, 
and this does not mean aristocracy in any sense. 

No section in the Union offers so many induce- 
ments to those who are seeking homes in the genial 
South than Perry County, Ala. With a cli- 
mate mild and healthy, with tJie best of soil, and 
in great variety, with good prices for products and 
low prices for land and labor; with unsurpassed 
educational surroundings: with plenty of markets 
near at hand and good facilities to reach them; 
with great timber resources; with the best of 
society; with the greatest iron, limestone and coal 
beds in the world in the counties joining us on the 
north; with pure water, purer atmosphere, high 
and dry, we extend to the northern farmers a most 
cordial welcome to come and live amongst us, and 

reap the great harvest that is ready and waiting 
for the intelligent and progressive farmer. We 
say, and it is beyond the possibility of contradic- 
tion, that every acre of land in this county will 
yield enough in crop products to pay for itself in 
one year. If you have the means to buy our land 
and sustain yourself for one year, you need have 
no misgivings on this score. The land will pay 
for itself in one year, acre for acre, that is culti- 
vated. It will do it now, and if more could be 
asked of any land it is an unreasonable demand. 

Besides many smaller streams, there are the 
Cahaba River, and the Washington, Legreon, Blue 
Cat, Brush, Belcher's, Five Mile, Big and Bogue 
Chitta Creeks in Perry. A bounteous supply of 
water is furnished from the copious wells which 
are found in every portion of the county. 

The valuation of taxable property in Perry 
County, for the year 1887,U $2, 977,890, as shown by 
the abstract of assesssment filed with the Auditor. 


JOHN C. WELCH, Mayor of Uniontown, was 
born September 6, 1845, in Itawamba Coixnty, 
Miss. He is a son of Henry H. and Emily 
(Patterson) Welch, natives respectively of North 
Carolina and Georgia. His father throughout his 
life was a merchant, and died at his home in iliss- 
issipi^i, in 188.5. 

Our subject attended the common schools at his 
home, until fifteen years old, and then enlisted in 
the Confederate service, in that organization 
known as the Confederate Guards' Artillery, under 
command of Captain Bradford. He remained in 
active service throughout the course of the war, 
and during the time was in a number of severe bat- 
tles. Returning from the war, he located at Col- 
umbus, Miss., in 1865, where he began the jewelry 
business, and remained there six months. In the 
early part of 1866, he came to Uniontown, and 
began the same business, which he has enlarged 
by adding books and stationery. Mr. Welch has 
also been closely identified with the city government 
of Uniontown for a number of vears. He was for 

more than eleven years a member of the city coun- 
cil, was city treasurer for several years, and served 
as tax assessor. In March, 1887, he was elected 
mayor of Uniontown, and has held the office ever 
since. He possesses many of the traits which 
would give one standing in any locality, for to the 
better instincts of the polished Christian gentle- 
man, he adds the tact and adaptiveness of the 
business man of the world, a combination at once 
calculated to inspire confidence and esteem. It is 
needless to say that he has won such a stand- 
ing among those with whom he has resided for so 
long a time. 

John C. Welch was married in December, 1874, 
to Miss Carrie, a daughter of Warren DuBose and 
H. H. Stewart, of Hale County, Ala. Their 
family consists of four children — John C Jr., 
Stewart H., Annie S. and Evelyn. 

Our subject is a member of the Masonic Order, 
a steward in the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, and secretary of the Sunday-school of 



and I)ni<jgist. «as born Scpteniher 'I. 1S4S, near 
Rock Hill, in York County. S. C, and is a son of 
liifhard and ilary (Williams) Sadler, wlio were 
both natives of Yoi'k County. 

We find our subject attending tlie common 
schools in the immediate vicinity of his home 
until attaining the age of sixteen, when he entered 
tiie Confederate Army as orderly sergeant of the 
South Carolina State troops, but was only in the 
service three months, owing to the closing of the 
great struggle. 

Immediately after returning home he went to 
school two years, then engaged in farming three 
or four years, and afterward went to IJradley 
County. Ark., and there studied medicine under 
Dr. J. T. Meek, two years. lie then went to the 
Louisiana University Medical Department, at New 
Orleans, where he graduated in March, 1873, with 
the degree of M. ]). 

Dr. Sadler began the practice in IJradley fJounty, 
and remained there till 1880, when he came to 
L'niontown, where he has ever since engaged in 
the active practice of his profession. His exten- 
sive i)ractice would make it needless to affirm that 
iu' is ranked well in his profession. Dr. Sadler 
has al-so engaged in the drug business since iden- 
tifying himself with Uniontown. and in this, as 
in his i)rofessional life, he has been successful. 

Dr. Sadler was married in February, 188G, to 
Miss Etta, daughter of William O. and Virginia 
C, Key. His wife's father is a native of Mary- 
land, and descended froni one of the oldest and 
most highly resjiected families of that grand old 

Ur. Sadler belongs to the Masonic fraternity, 
and is a member of the County and State Medical 
Societies. He served as president of the County 
Society during the year 1S8T, and has acted as 
medical examiner for a number of insurance com- 

JOHN BRADFIELD, M. D., was born May VI, 
181.'), in liockingham County, N. C, and is a son 
of Louis and JIary (Farrar) Bradfield, natives, 
resjiectively, of Virginia and North Carolina. 

The father of our subject was a farmer and car- 
penter, and, after a long and useful career, died at 
Uniontown in is^d. 

John Hradfield attended Smith's high school in 
Rockingham County, where he prepared himself 

to enter the medical college in Charleston, of 
which institution he was a graduate in lK-1.'). In 
that year he began the practice of his profession 
at Uniontown, where he has had an unbroken 
professional career of forty-three years, and is be- 
yond doubt the oldest practicing physician in the 
county, where he has resided so long, and has, 
perhajjs, few equals in the State who can claim as 
long an experience in any locality as he. It needs 
no assurance on the writer's part to convince any 
one that Dr, Bradfield has been uniformly success- 
ful as a physician. If such were wanting it could 
be established from the testimony of hundreds to 
whom he has skillfully applied the great healing 
art, and by reason of which he is constantly the 
recipient of the benedictions of those thus jilaced 
nnder a pleasant obligation. 

Dr. Bradfield is a member of the Perry County 
and Alabama Medical Societies, and has held the 
office of president of the former and censor of 
both. He is likewise a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and belongs to the 
Masonic fraternity. 

Dr. liradfield was married in November, 1845, 
to Miss Emily F., daughter of Dr, Archibald and 
Frances (Ware) Perkins, of Madison, Ga., and has 
a family of three sons, all of whom are now suc- 
cessfnl men of the world and ornaments of the 
social spheres to which they belong, George H, is 
a practicing lawyer, John W, a doctor, both resi- 
dents of Uniontown: and Louis T. a successful 
business man of Birmingham, Ala. 

— •■*— 5^^?^— ^- 

GEORGE M. CORCORAN, M.D., Physician 
and Surgeon, Uniontown, was born March .31, 
ISfWI, at Black Kock, Baltimore County, Md., 
and is a "son of Christopher and Cynthia (F.) Cor- 
coran, an old and respectable Maryland family. 
His father is a farmer in that State at this writing 
(188S). . 

The subject of this sketch attended the common 
schools until he was sixteeti years old ; took private 
instructions two years, and began the study of 
medicine at the University of Maryland (Balti- 
more). During two years of his course he had the 
advantage of an hospital experience equivalent 
to actual professional life to such as are inclined 
to use it and there is no doubt of its application in 
this manner by young Corcoran. He graduated 
March tl, 1887, with the degree of M.D. 



Dr. Corcoran, shortly after his graduation, 
came to Unioiitown, and entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession, and from the beginning lias 
met with signal success. As a slvillful practitioner 
and polished gentleman he is held in higli esteem. 

The Doctor is a member of the Perry County 
Medical Society, and the Alabama State Medical 
Society, and of the American Legion of Honor, 
of which latter he is the Examining Officer. He 
is also a member and vestryman of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

JAMES H. HOUSTON, Physician and Sur- 
geon, was born in Iredell County, N. C, De- 
cember 'I'l, 1826, and is a son of James H. and 
Sarah (Lee) Houston, natives of that State. The 
two grandfathers of our subject were soldiers in 
the Revolutionary War. James Kerr, his moth- 
er's father, took part in the battle at Eamsour's 
Mills, N. C, and James Houston, his grand- 
father was commander of a company at that 
battle, and was severely wounded. He lived to a 
good old age, to tell of the event to his numerous 
grandchildren. Tn the same battle Mrs. Houston's 
great-grandfather was killed while leading his 
command as captain. Dr. Eph. Bravard, who 
wrote the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independ- 
ence of 20th of May, 177."), Charlotte, N. C, was 
the uncle of his grandmother Houston. Our sub- 
ject's father was a farmer and merchant, and died 
in 1826. His widow afterward married Maj. W. 
Lee Davidson, the son of Gen. Wm. Davidson, 
who was killed at Cowan's Ford, on February 1, 
1781, during the Revolutionary War. They both 

lived to a good old age, and died some years ago. 
James H. Houston, like most other boys, re- 
ceived his preliminary education at his home, but 
completed it at Davidson College, in his native 
State. He then studied medicine in the office of 
Dr. John McClean, in Newton County, N. C, 
and subsequently entered the L^niversity of 
Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia. In 1848, he began 
the practice of his pi-ofession in his native county, 
and remained there eight years. In 1856, he came 
to LTniontown, where he has had an unbroken 
practice, with the exception of the time spent 
in the war. Dr. Houston entered the Confederate 
service as Assistant Surgeon of Beulah Batter}', and 
wasstationed part of the time at Savannah, Ga., and 
maintained his connection with the command until 
the war was brought to a close. He took part in 
a number of severe battles, and fortunately escaped 
unhurt. He returned to LTniontown and immedi- 
ately resumed his practice, which has been a very 
successful one. He belongs to the best class of 
people in the State, and is regarded by his brother 
physicians as an adornment to the profession 
which he has followed for so many years with suc- 
cess. He belongs to the State Medical Associa- 
tion and the County Medical Society, and has 
been officially connected with both. 

Dr. Houston has been Superintendent of Edu- 
cation in Perry County, and Postmaster at Union- 
town, and, in both jjositions, discharged the duties 
devolving upon him with marked credit to himself 
and to the satisfaction of the peoi^le. He was 
married in 1849, to Miss Mary J., daughter of 
Absey and Isabella (Falls) Simonton, of Statesville, 
N. C. They have three children living: Lula, wife 
of Cleveland Terrel, of Uniontowu; Isabella and 
Robert L. 


Population: White, 11,000; colored, 11,250. 
Area. 1,000 square miles. Woodland, all. (}rav- 
elly i)iiie hills. ii.")0 square miles; prairie, •")(• square 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 52,051; in 
corn. 43,104; in oats, 8,(i53; in wheat, 2,220; in 
rye, 3G; in tobacco, 51; in sugar-cane. Ill; in sweet 
potatoes, 757. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 17.283. 

County Seat — Carrollton; population, 34!i; 
about i!0 miles west of Tuscaloosa, and same dis- 
tance southeast of Columbus, Miss. 

Newsjiaper published at County Seat — IIVvY 
Alnbdinian (Democratic). 

Postotlices in the County — Beard, Benevola, 
Bethany, Bridgeville, Byars, CarrolUon, ("oal Fire, 
nillburgh, Durrow, Franconia, Garden, Gordo, 
Henry, Koon, Lineburgh, Lubbub, McBee, Mem- 
phis. Palmetto, Pickensville, Pleasant Grove, 
Providence, Kaleigh, Reform, Sharp, Stafford, 
Stone, Temple. \'ienna. 

Pickens County was carved out of Tuscaloosa 
December lH, 1820, and has preserved nearly its 
original dimensions, with the addition of two 
beats on the west side, added in 1832, the town- 
ship and fractional townships in range 2 having 
originally belonged to (ireene, to which county 
they were again attached several years ago. It 
was named in honor of Gen. Andrew Pickens, of 
South Carolina. Assessed valuation of taxable 
property in 1887, *1, 181.008. Hate of taxation in 
county and State. 50 cents on the ^100. 

The surface in the northeast is hilly aiul sandy, 
with alluvial loam in creek bottoms. The soil in- 
creases in fertility in the westerly direction, and 
the valleys of the Tombigbee aiul its tributaries, 
and tiie prairies in the southwestern part of the 
county are very rich and productive. Some of 
the lands have been in continuous cultivation 
since first the forests were removed, fully fifty 
ago, and yet they are still very prolific. During 
all this time, too, no fertilizers have been em- 
l)loycd to stay the decline of fertility of the soil. 

This only proves what immense liarvests would 
accrue from the cultivation of these lands if they 
were put to their utmost capacity. 

The fruits grown in the county are such as 
might be expected of a section with so mild a cli- 
mate. They are apples, peaches, pears, pome- 
granates, cherries, nectarines, apricots, figs, 
quinces, grapes, scuppernongs, strawberries and 
raspberries. The bland climate enables them to 
ripen rapidly, and to find their way, at an early 
season, to the market, thereby commanding good 

In addition to the above, common fruits — 
prunes, Japan plums, jujube, Spanish chestnuts, 
English walnuts, almonds and filberts have been 
planted to a limited extent, and so far as tried 
have been successful. 

The water supplies of the county are extensive. 
The Tombigbee and Sipsey Rivers, together with 
Bogue Chitta, Coal Fire, Lubbub , Blubber, and 
JIcBee Creeks, are the princi})al streams. Besides 
these, there are numerous sources of water in the 
abounding springs and wells. Artesian wells ex- 
ist in some parts of the county, and the water 
supply is perpetual throughout the year. 

In most of the streams there are superb fish, 
which are easily caught. alTording much delight 
to the sportsman. 

The transportation facilities of the county are 
confined at present to the Tombigbee River, 
which unites with the Alabama and forms the 
Mobile River, just above the (Julf City. An im- 
portant railway line is being constructed between 
Brunswick, (ieorgia and Kansas City, Mo., which 
will directly through Pickens County. 

Points of interest are: Carrolton, the county 
seat, Pickensville and Vienna, all of which are 
towns of much local commercial importance. 
Valuable schools for males and females are found 
in all these places; indeed, throughout the 
county are found valuable educational facilities. 
Excellent places of worship, which represent the 
different religious denominations, are also found. 



The timbers which are fouud in the forests of 
Pickens, embrace the ash, birch, black walnut, 
cedar, cherry, chestnut, cottonwood, cypress, elm, 
gum, hickory, maple, mulberry, oak, persimmon, 
pine, poplar, sycamore and willow. 

Many timbers of the highest character are 
rafted along the 'i'ombigbee to Mobile, where 
they command a good price. The excellent oaks 
are admirably adapted to the manufacture of bar- 
rel staves, which are made in great quantities and 
find their way to Mobile. 

More than any other county of the cotton belt, 
perhaps Pickens has tested the virtue of immigra- 
tion. Earnest, vigorous and thrifty immigrants 
have purchased land in the county at low figures, 

and are contributing in no small degree to the 
development or the divers resources of the county. 
Under the auspices of these immigrants, a 
broom factory has been established near Carrol- 
ton. These immigrants have added greater diver- 
sity of the crops of the country. 

Within the last year or two, the castor bean has 
been planted with successful results. 

Lands may be purchased at prices ranging from 
85 to *3(». 

Men of sobriety and thriftiness would be 
welcome to Pickens, where they would find an 
orderly and law-abiding community. Pickens 
County has 0,l"-?0 acres of land belonging to the 


Population: White, 6,182: colored, 18,6.5.5. 
Area, 670 square miles. Woodland, all. Grav- 
elly hills, with pine and oak uplands, and blue 

Acres — In cotton (aj)proximately), 81,600; in 
corn, 34,300; in oats, 9,700; in wheat, 1,000; in 
rice, 65; in sugar-cane, 190: in sweet potatoes, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 20,000. 

County Seat — Seale; population, <iOO: on Mobile 
& Girard Railroad. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Russell 
Register (Democratic). 

Postoffices in the County: Arahburgh, Craw- 
ford, Dexter, Fort Mitchell, Glenville, Hatche- 
chubbee, Hurtsboro, Jernigan, Loflin, Marvyn, 
Oswichee, Seale, Uchee. 

The county was established in 1832, and named 
for Col. Gilbert C. Russell, of Mobile. This is 
one of the border counties of the State, being sep- 
arated from Georgia by the Chattahoochee River. 
It has many valuable tracts of land and a thrifty 

The general surface of Russell County is undu- 

lating, and in some sections broken. It abounds 
in capital agricultural lands, many of which have 
been in cultivation for quite a number of years. 
Its soils differ widely in their character, but are 
generally quite .productive. 

Beginning the survey with lands in the eastern 
part of the county, and those which lie along the 
western bank of the historic Chattahoochee, we 
find them to be excellent for farming purposes, 
the loamy soil having the color of chocolate. 
These embrace a belt five or six miles in width, 
when the more elevated table-lands begin. These 
are covered with a red loam soil, and are consid- 
ered even more valuable than those which lie in 
close proximity to the river. Beyond this, still 
westward, are the hill regions, which have long 
sustained a reputation for productiveness. 

In the hills which adjoin the two I'chee Creeks, 
limestone is found in inexhaustible quantities and 
of the finest quality. 

Next this comes a range of gravelly hills, which 
penetrate the county near the center. From this 
point to the extreme western boundary there is 
quite a diversity of soil, produced largely by the 



numerous streams wliich ramify this portion of 
Kussell. In this western half may be found rich 
alluvial bottoms, as well as thin, sandy ridge 
lands. These lands are peculiarly adapted to the 
production of corn, cotton, oats, potatoes and 
sugar-cane, and to all kinds of fruit, including the 
Lecompte pear which grows in great luxuriance. 
The uplands arc especially adapted t(i all kinds of 
grajjcs and berries. 

The bottom lands are usually preferred for cot- 
ton. The lands are generally tilled with ease. 
Every variety of soil may be found in the county, 
from I hat of sand to that of the most fertile black 
jirairie and blue marl. The county is highly fav- 
ored in its dense forests of excellent timber. Both 

the short-leaf, and yellow or long-leaf, pine, the 
white, red, water and blackjack oaks, hickory, 
gum, beech, dogwood, willow, maple, walnut, cy- 
press and cedar timbers prevail in different sec- 
tions of Hussell. The county has ample supplies 
of water throughout the entire year. The Chat- 
tahoochee h'ivcr forms the entire eastern boundary 
of the county, giving a river front of more than 
fifty miles, while its territory is watered by such 
streams as Cowikee and Watauia Creeks. These 
bold streams are fed by numerous tributaries that 
drain every section of the county. The springs 
iind wells afford abundant suj)plies, taken in con- 
nection witii the readiness with which stock mav 
be raised. 


Population: White, G,451 ; colored, 22,277. 
Area, 1,000 square miles. Woodland, all. 

Acres — In cotton, approximately, 80,000 ; in 
corn, 51,4:00; in oats, 2,700; in wheat, 24; in rye, 
H>2; in sugar-cane, 42; in tobacco, 1:5: in sweet 
potatoes, 1,050. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 25,00(1. 

County Seat — Livingston; population, 1,200; 
on Alabama & Great Southern Kailroad. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Jouinud, 

Postoffices in the County — Alaniuchee, Belmont, 
Coatopa, Cuba Station, Curl's Station, Dove, Epes' 
Station, Gainesville, Gaston, Kinterbish, LiviiKjs- 
/on, McDowell, Kamsey, Kosser, Shernum, Sum- 
terville, Warsaw, York Station. 

Sumter County was organized in l.s:i2. and was 
named for Gen. Thomas Sumter, of South Caro- 

A line running northwest and southeast through 
Livingston would mark approximately the limit 
iif the prairies which form the upper part of Sum- 
ter County down to that line. I'his part of the 
countv has an average elevation of 150 feet above 

tide, and is underlaid throughout with the rot- 
ten limestone of the cretaceous formation. This 
material is directly concerned in the formation of 
a considerable proportion of the soils, which are in 
some cases little more than the disintegrated lime- 
stone mixed with organic matter. Where this 
rock forms the surface the country is gently un- 
dulating, and the differences in level are very slight. 
Interpersed, however, throughout this whole cane- 
brake region, are ridges and hills capped with sand 
and pebbles of the stratified drift formation. 
These ridges are occasionally elevated l.")0 feet and 
more above the surrounding country, and 2.">0 feet 
above the river. Their distribution, structure and 
other circumstances point to the conclusion that 
they are the remnants of a once universal cover- 
ing of drift. Where this formation is at the sur- 
face, the soils are sandy loams of the usual drift 
type. These loams, in mingling with the disin- 
tegrated limestone give rise to a class of soils 
known as post-oak or prairie soils. 

Southwest of the line above alluded to, and 
occupying a belt varying in width from five to 
eight miles, aie the so-called flatwoods or post-oak 



flatwoods. This division shares with the prairies 
their gently undulating surface and elevation 
above tide. It rests, however, upon a bluish, tena- 
cious clay of the lowest tertiary formation. Like 
the prairies this belt is covei'ed in spots with the 
sands and other material of the drift, and the var- 
ieties of soils thus produced by intermixture are 
quite numerous. Beyond the flatwoods, in the 
southwestern part of the county, the sandy and 
clayey strata of the lignitic group of the tertiary 
are, as a rule,hidden from view by the overlying beds 
of sand and pebbles and red loam of a later forma- 

This portion of the county presents the usual 
characters of the drift regions so often pie- 
viously described. The high, level table-lands 
which occupy the main water-sheds have a sandy 
loam soil and red-loam subsoil resting upon sand 
and pebbles, and these in turn overlie the lami- 
nated clays and other beds of the lignitic group. 
Sometimes the surface is made up of deep beds of 
sand, as is the case near Gaston. The growth upon 
these sandy tracts consists mostly of long-leaf pine 
and blackjack oak. Beds of lignite are exposed 
in many places thi'oughout this section, and one 
of these, in a cut along the Alabama Great South- 
ern Railroad, has been on fire for many years. As 
yet this lignite has not been profitably used as a 

The agricultural relations of Sumter County are 
similar to the adjoining counties of Mississippi 
and Alabama, which are situated in the same belt, 
which is pre-eminently the cotton belt of the State. 
While the soils of this belt are, perhaps, in the 
elements of plant-food not much superior to those 

of other divisions, they are rendered more thrifty 
by the usually large percentage of lime. 

Livingston is a pretty city, and is the seat of sev- 
eral important institutions of learning. Gaines- 
ville, Ejjps, York and Cuba are the other points 
of interest. 

Transportation lines abound throughout Sum- 
ter. The Alabama Great Southern and the East 
Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroads both 
traverse the county, and cross at York. A rail- 
road is expected soon to unite Gainesville with 
Narkeeta, Miss. Both the Tombigbee and Noxu- 
bee Rivers are navigable. These several lines place 
the county in readiest communication with the 
north, west, east and extreme south. 

The points of interest in the county are Living- 
ston, the county seat, with a jiopulation of 1,200, 
Gainesville, Epes, York, Cuba, and Warsaw. In 
most of these places the tone of society is excel- 
lent. Edticational facilities are good throughotit 
the county. 

At Livingston there is a high school for boys 
and young men, with an able corps of professors. 
This school will compare favorably with any insti- 
tiTtion in the State. There is also a normal col- 
lege for girls. This is a school of great repute, 
and conducted by educators of State and National 

Lands may be purchased at prices ranging from 
83 to $12 per acre. Many of these lands embrace 
beds of marl. This fertilizer is mined in large 
quantities near Coatopa, and shipped to ileridian. 

Sumter County embraces ;5,<140 acres of Govern- 
ment land. 


LiviNuSTON was founded about the year 1833. 
It is located upon a beautiful sandy plateau, with 
the black, undulating prairies on the north and 
east, and the Sucarnatchee River on the south 
and west. Prior to its settlement by the whites 
it is said to have been an Indian village and a 
favorite resort for the pastimes of the Red Men. 
Its groves of green trees, overspreading leagues of 

white sand with an occasional patch of grass, were 
well calculated to lure the wild hunter to rest, the 
youths in their primitive games of ball, and the 
dusky lovers of the forest wilds. For many years 
prior to the civil war, Livingston was a favorite 
place of residence of the wealthy planters who 
built handsome houses along its broad, shady 
streets, while their slaves tilled the prairie planta- 



tions in the adjacent regions. Thus the place 
came to be, even in its earliest days, one of social 
elegance and refinement. 

Upon the organization of the county of Sumter, 
Livingston became the seat of justice, a distinc- 
tion which it enjoys to-day. It has a population 
of about 1,200. It is located upon the Alabama 
(ireat Southern Division of the famous Queon & 
Crescent Line, which extends from Cincinnati to 
New Orleans. South of Livingston nine miles, 
at the village of York, the East Tennessee, \'ir- 
giiiia & Georgia Hailroad system crosses the Ala- 
bama Great Southern; and north, at Akron, thirty- 
tivo miles distant, the Western Railroad of Alabama 
forms a junction with the line upon which Liv- 
ingston is located. Of late years the place has 
become a watering resort and an educational 
center. While boring for water with which to 
supply the town, a saline current was reached, 
which, upon investigation and analysis, was found 
to contain wonderful curative i3roj)erties. Work 
was begun upon the well on December 13, 1854, 
ami it was not completed until April 1, 18.57. It 
is 1,im;2 feet deep, and yields about five pints every 
minute. The water caught at the spout in a clear 
glass discloses slight eirervescent ipialities, as the 
minute bubbles rise to the surface or cleave to the 
sides of the vessel. 

The water is saline in taste and to most persons 
is slightly unjjleasant when it is first drunk, but 
becomes quite palatable after drinking it a few 
times. Its temperature is 08 deg. Fahr., and 
from this does not vary. 

The following is an analysis of the water: 


Silicic Acid and Silicates (Troy Grs) 1.138 

Bi-Carb. of Iron " 0.204 

Hi- Unrb. of .Magnesia '• 2..320 

I'.i Curb, of Lime " 7.140 

I'crc hloride of Iron '• 0.190 

Chloride of iMajrnesium ■' 1.^39 

Chloride of C'aUium " 2.983 

Chloride of Potassium " 0.325 

Chloride of Sodium " 29ri.435 

Strontiii " Trace 

Bromide of Sodium " 11.980 

Persons resort to the waters from every section 
of the f nion. especially sufferers from dyspepsia 
and chronic affections of the bowels, and find the 
waters exceedingly beneficial. Large rpiantities 
of the water are also shijjped. The well is upon 
a corner of the public square, which is coverul 
throughout with a carpet of green grass and 

shaded by broad-branched water oaks. Within 
easy distance of the well are spacious hotels and 
livery stables. 

There are located in the town two schools of re- 
pute — a boys' high school, and the Alabama Nor- 
mal Female College. They arc liberally patronized 
not only by the people of Alabama, luit by those 
of the adjacent States. The town sustains two 

In the surrounding sections are some of the 
most fertile agricultural lands to be found in the 
famous Black Belt. With its social, religious and 
educational advantages, Livingston is the peer of 
any town of the same size in the South. 



REV. B. F. RILEY, D. D., the subject of this 
sketch is a native Ahibamian. He was born near 
the village of rineville, .Monroe (.'ounty, July 16, 

Keared in a country home far in the interior, 
his early scholastic advantages were meagre. His 
early years were chiefly spent laboring on his 
father's farm, with occasional alternations of at- 
tendance at a country school. At the age of 
eighteen he asked permission of his father to leave 
home, in order that he might secure an education. 
Going to Starlington, Butler County, he taught a 
primary school, where he made his first money. 
In his nineteenth year he went to Erskine Col- 
lege, S. C, and begged that he be taken on trial 
in the sophomore class. Ilis training had been 
so defective that he found it difficult to retain his 
place in the class, but, overcoming all barriers, he 
pushed through and graduated in 18T1. 

His original purpose was to prepare for the bar, 
but this idea he abandoned and chose the ministry 

After the completion of his course at Erskine, 
he ei^ered the Southern Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary, then at Greenville, S. C, but his health had 
been so impaired by the taxation of his strength 
in his literary course, that he had to give up the 
prosecution of his theological studies. Returning 
to Alabama, he engaged in manual labor, in order 
to recuperate his strength for the further pursuit 
of his divinity coilrse. 

After the lapse of a year or more he entered the 
Crozer Theological Seminary, near Philadel]ihia, 
and returned to Alabama in 18T6. 

He has served as jmstor of the Baptist Churches 



at Snow Hill and Opelika, Ala., and Albany, Ga. 
At present he is pastor at Livingston, Ala. In 
1885 he was honored with the title of Doctor of 
Divinity by the State University. 

Dr. Riley's tastes are decidedly literary. He 
has accumulated an excellent library, and is a 
regular contributor to some of the leading jour- 
nals of the country. 

He has written two small works — one a local 
history, the History of Conecuh County, Ala., 
and the Immigrants' and Capitalists' Guide-Book 
to Alabama. The latter work was purchased by 
the State for gratuitous distribution, and is used 
in the interest of immigration. 

Dr. Riley has other works in course of prepara- 
tion, which will be issued as early as the exactions 
of his pastoral work will allow. 


minister of the Metliodist Episcopal Church, 
South. He is a son of David and Mary (Jones) 
Boland, natives of South Carolina, and of German 
and English descent, respectively. 

Mr. Boland's grandfather came from Germany 
to South Carolina prior to the Revolutionary War, 
and participated in that struggle for liberty. His 
father, David Boland, came to Georgia in 1837, 
and was a successful farmer in Muscogee County. 
He reared a family of four daughters and six 
sons to maturity. Three of his sons became min- 
isters in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
Rev. Elijah Boland was for years a member of the 
Georgia Conference, and died at Rome, Ga., in 
1863, while acting as chaplain of a hospital. Rev. 
Josiah A. Boland is now a member of the North- 
west Texas Conference. His brother William was 
in the Mexican War under General Scott, and 
James F. belonged to a Georgia Regiment during 
the late civil war and was killed at Gettysburg, 
while John Boland, an uncle, was a captain in the 
famous Seminole War in Florida. 

Rev. Jeremiah M. Boland was born July 12, 
1835, and was brought up at Columbus, Ga. He 
came to Alabama while in his "teens," and was 
educated at Summerfield in th« male department 
of Centenary College. He received the degree of 
A. M. from Hiwassee College, in Tennesee. 

In 1859, he joined the Alabama Conference. 
The first ten years of his itinerant life were spent 

in South Alabama ; the next decade were spent in 
Xortli Alabama, during which time he was Pre- 
siding Elder on the Huntsville District, and 
station ^jreacher at Talladega and Tuscaloosa He 
was a delegate to the General Conference in 1874 
and 1878, from the North Alabama Conference. 
During his stay in North Alabama, he made a 
deeji imj^ression as an able preacher, a strong 
writer, and a fine organizer. He was in the Bish- 
op's cabinet which organized the North Alabama 
Conference in 1870, and stood the peer of any 
man in it. 

He was also one of the leading actors in 
establishing the ''Alabama Christian Advocate," 
the official organ of the two Alabama Con- 

Mr. Boland returned to South Alabama at the 
close of 1878, and has served as presiding elder of 
the Pensacola, the Union Springs and the Selma 
Districts. He now has charge of Livingston and 
Eutaw Stations — his home being at Livingston. 

For years Mr. Boland has been a regular cor- 
respondent of several leading periodicals of his 
church, and his articles have been copied in other 
periodicals, and read by a large number of admir- 
ing readers. Some of his articles have been copied 
into European periodicals. In addition to several 
good sized pamphlets, he is the author of a 12 mo. 
volume of 331 jiages, bearing the title, "Tlie Prob- 
lem of Methodism," which has just been pub- 
lished by the " Southern Methodist Publishing 
House," at Nashville, Tenn., and of which the 
Book Editor, Rev. W. P. Harrison, D. D., speaks 
in very complimentary terms. 

The "Irish Correspondent"' of the Nashville 
Advocate says: 

"Mr. Boland is a fine and vigorous writer. He 
thinks. He is possessed of strong mental grasp 
and wide intellectual girth. He writes like a 
Christian philosopher, or rather like an able 
metaphysician, who is faithful to the Cross. I 
always read his articles with more than ordinary 
interest, and shall always be right glad to meet 
him with pen in hand in any walk of literature in 
which he may jjlease to travel." 

Mr. Boland has been married twice. He was 
married, in 1860, to Miss Sallie E. Pennington, 
and by her he had four daughters and one son. 
After her death, in January, 1881, he was married 
in May, 18»2, to Miss Hattie .John, daughter of 
Chancellor John, of Selma, Ala. 
Mr. Boland is a Royal Arch-Maspn. 



JEREMIAH H. BROWN, son of an English 
fatluT !ind Knglisli niotlier, was born in Darling- 
ton District, S. C, in 1800. ITis father, Samuel 
Brown, was a minister of the Baptist t'liurch, and 
a man of great wealth. 

J. II. Brown graduated at .South Carolina Col- 
lege in \%i'.\ with the highest honors, and soon 
after studied law and was admitted to the bar, but 
never jiracticed the profession because it had no 
attractions for him, and the management of his 
interests on his plantations occupied his entire 
time. At the time of his graduation he found 
himself ready to start in life with more than sixty 
field hands aiul a very large tract of land. 

lie was married in 1834 to Miss Julia, daughter 
of Hobert 1 lines, and in the following year came 
to Alabama, brought his slaves with him, and 
settle-,1 near Sumterville. In his treatment of 
his slaves, he is said to have been very kind and 
indulgent. He gave them every Saturday the 
entire day for their own, and fiirnished them with 
good churches and white preachers on Sunday, 
and saw that they had a reasonable amount of 
instruction and religious training. His business 
increased until he found himself the master of 
more tiian a thousand slaves, and a jilantation of 
more than eight thousand acres of land in the 
most fertile portion of Alabama. He was a Bap- 
tist, and more devoted to his Church than people 
ordinarily are, and his enormous wealth gave him 
opportunity for doing a great deal of good. For 
many years he donated $1.5,000 every year to the 
missionary cause. He furnished the means to 
educate forty young men in Howard College for 
the ministry in his Church. In 185.") he endowed 
the Brown Theological Chair in Howard College 
with ?i5"),o0{i: and his treatment of the poor of 
his neighborhood was in a similar degree of benefi- 
cence. In the Baptist Encyclopa'dia of 1881, he 
is called "a princely planter, an intelligent and 
cultivated gentleman of vast intluenee, and liberal 
with his money." 

Probably no man in Alabama ever did so much 
good with money as he. During the war he 
furnished the means to equip and provide for, 
])erhaps, more than a regiment of soldiers, and 
after the emancipation, so great was the affec- 
tion of his slaves, that many of them declared 
that they iiad no desire for freedom, but pre- 
ferred to remain in his service. 

Mr. Brown died at the house of his daugliter, 
Mrs. H. S. Lide, February 10, 1868. He left 

two sons and one daughter, all of whom are now 
living. Laura, the elder child, was married in 
1853, to Col. H. S. Lide. a successful farnie 
and aide-de-camp to Governor Shorter during 
the war, but he resigned that position and took 
one of more active service in the army. He 
died in 18T9. His widow was married October 
.5, 1880, to Dr. James (J. Forster, of Livings- 
ton, where they now reside. She had five chil- 
dren by the first marriage, of whom three are 
sons and two are daughters. Mrs. Forster is a 
stanch Baptist. 

Dr. Forster was born in Clarke County. Ala., 
in 18',;ii. He merchandised in his younger days, 
studied medicine and graduated at the L'niver- 
sity of Louisiana at New Orleans in 1856, and 
has practiced medicine ever since. The Doctor 
was married in 1S47 to Miss Eliza M. Gilmore, 
and had five children by that marriage, two sons 
and three daughters, one of whom is dead. One 
of the three daughters is married to Samuel Ruffin, 
Jr. ; one son, W. C. Forster, is practicing med- 
icine in Birmingham, and James M., the young- 
est, is with a commercial house in Meridian. Dr 
Forster is a ^lethodist, and a Mason. 

•«^?g^' <" ■ 

WILLIAM R. DeLOACH, Judge of the Pro- 
bate Court of Sumter County, was born at the 
town where he now resides, in the year 184"^. 

His father was the late Dr. A. B. DeLoach, a 
luitive of Tennessee, and his mother was, before 
marriage, a Jfiss Roby, of the State of Georgia. 

William K. DeLoach finished his educational 
training at Professor Tutwiler's excellent institu- 
tion at Greene Springs, Ala., and at the out- 
break of the late war promptly enlisted as a pri- 
vate soldier in the Southern Army. As a member 
of the Army of Virginia, he participated in many 
hotly contested engagements, and upon his person 
bears several scars in commemoration of Cold Har- 
bor, Chancellorsville, Antietani, etc. 

Late in the war he was transferred to the West- 
ern Army, and became a captain in Gen. Forrest's 
cavalry. At the close of hostilities, he returned 
to his native place, and was some time afterward 
elected to the office of Ta.x Assessor, a position he 
lield for ten consecutive years. In 1880 he was 
elected to the Probate Judgeship, and re-elected in 

Judge DeLoach is a num of high standing in 



tlie community where his life has been spent. He 
is a modest, unostentatious, wide-awake, progress- 
ive citizen ; enjoying the confidence and esteem 
of the good people among whom he resides. Such 
is the tribute paid him by one of the best-known 
citizens of Alabama. In 1867, our subject was 
married to Susan T. Gibbs, a daughter of the late 
Charles R. Gibbs, a colonel in the War of 1812. 

REUBEN CHAPMAN, Attorney-at-law, son 
of the late Hon. Samuel C'hapmau, native of Vir- 
ginia, was born in Madison County, this State, 
May 25, 1833. The senior Chapman was born in 
in 1791; removed from Virginia to Tennessee in 
his early manhood, there became State's Attorney 
General; and, in 1818, came to Alabama, settling 
in Madison County. He was a member of the first 
Legislature that assembled after the admission of 
this State into the Union, and, as he lived till 1803, 
he was many years the sole survivor of that body. 
He was thirty years a Judge of nisi prius Courts, 
twelve of the county and eighteen of the circuit- 
He removed to Livingston in 1834, and called 
that place home thereafter, though his last days 
were spent at the residence of his son-in law, 
Gen. E. W. Pettus, at Cahaba. He died October 
11, 1863, at the age of seventy-two years. His 
younger brother, Reuben Chapman, is known in 
the history of our country as Governor of Alabama 
and member of the United States Congress. [See 
Gov. Reuben Chapman, this volume.] 

The subject of this sketch received a thorough 
educational training at some of the best institu- 
tions in the countr}', and studied law under 
Colonel Wetmore, at Livingston. He was licensed 
to practice by the Supreme Court in January, 1856, 
and the year following hung out his shingle at the 
thriving little village of Carrollton. He was 
expounding the intricacies of Blackstone, Chitty, 
and Coke upon Littleton, at this suburban retreat, 
when the tocsin of war summoned him to the 
defense of his State. During 1861 and a part of 
1862, he was attached to the Army of Virginia as 
a cajitain in the Eleventh Alabama Infantry. His 
health compelling his resignation, lie returned 
home, where he speedily recujierated sufficiently to 
re enter the service, which he did as a member of 
Bradford's Battalion of Scouts. He remained with 
this command until the close of the war, when he 
returned to Livingston and resumed the practice 

of law. I'o his profession he has assiduously 
devoted his time and his talents. Always inter- 
ested and active in the political advancement of 
friends, he has sought no preferment in that line 
for himself. 

In March. Is61, at Livingston, Mr. Chapman 
was married to Miss Rebecca S. Arrington, daugh- 
ter of Robert Arrington, who came from Xorth 
Carolina in the early history of the State, and 
was a member of that numerous and honorable 
family so well known throughout the South. 

Mrs. Chapman died March 1, 1866, leaving two 
children — a daughter, Alta, at present a popular 
teacher in Livingston Normal College, and 
Robert A., now a business man at Sheffield. 

Captain Chapman's second wife was Miss Mary 
C. Scruggs, also of Livingston. They were mar- 
ried July 27, 1870, and their children are Lillie 
Beck, Reuben, Anna and Lulu. 


REV. W. T. ALLEN, Rector in charge of the 
Episcopal Church, was born iu Shenandoah Valley, 
Clarke County, Va., on December 15, 1855. He 
remained there, living on his father's farm, and 
attending the neighborhood schools until he was' 
nineteen years of age. In 187-t, he taught school 
in West Mrginia, and in 1876 went to the Theolog- 
ical Seminary of Virginia, where he remained two 
years. While there his health was shattered by 
typhoid fever, which nearly proved fatal. Being 
called to teach in the Church School in Seguin, 
Tex., his health being impaired, he accepted and 
taught till 1879, studying theology meanwhile, 
under the principal. Rev. Wallace Carnahan. 

In 1879 he was ordained deacon by the late 
Bishop Elliott, at San Antonio, Tex., and placed 
in charge of Boerne, Tex., and points adjacent. 
Having built a neat church in this place, in 1881, 
he went to the University of the South, Sewanee, 
Tenn., and remained two years. In 1883, he took 
charge of San Marcos, Tex., and other points. 
AVhile here he was ordained to the priesthood by 
the late Bishop Elliott. In December, 1884, being 
called to Eufaula and Livingston, Ala., he ac- 
cepted the latter, Avhere he has remained uj:) to 
date, having Boligee and Gainesville, also, under his 
charge. He was married in December, 1885, to the 
widow of the late Dr. Pettey and daughter of the 
late Jesse Weissinger, of Dallas County, Ala. 

The great-grandfather of our subject. Col. 



Thomas Allen, came from Comity Armagh, Ire- 
hiiul, aiul settled in Shenandoah Valley, Va., in 
1732. He commanded a regiment in the War of 
the Kevolution, and was presented with a sword by 
tlie .State for distinguished services. 'J"he grand- 
fatiier of our subject, D, II. Allen, on of Col. 
Thomas Allen, was a graduate of Princeton C^ol- 
lege. studied and practiced law for a time, but 
retired early to his estates, spending his time in 
making the family residence, Clifton, one of the 
handsomest in the State. His eldest sister married 
(ieneral llussell, of the Kevolution, one of whose 
daughters married a son of Henry Clay. I). H. 
Allen married a daughter of Col. (Jriftin Taylor, 
whose wife was descended from Laird McKinnon 
and Lady Anne Maitland, of Scotland. The 
father of our subject, also named W. T. Allen, 
graduated at Princeton in 183'.). In 1841 he went 
to the Pacific as Secretary to the Commodore of 
the PaciQc Squadron. In 18-10 he married iliss E. 
Bayly, of Fauquier County, \'a., and settled on a 
farm, relieving the monotony of it by literary and 
scientific pursuits. One of these was the study of 
ornithology. He made life-size portraits of 150 
species of Virginia birds, which, being submitted 
to the late Professor liaird, of Smithsonian Insti- 
tute htad of the science in this country — were 
pronounced by him to be ''very si)irited drawings 
and accurate likenesses.'' He then took up botany, 
and is now engaged on an •' Illustrated Flora of 
tiie Shenandoah Valley," for which he has collect- 
ed, classitied and made paintings of 7Hi species. 

The mother of our subject is descended from 
General Payne, on the one side, and Thomas 
Greene, brother of Generals Moses and Duff 
Greene, of the Ilevolution. Our subject's sister, 
Emma Allen, married Bushrod Charles Washing- 
ton, grandson of Charles \\'ashington, brother of 
George Washington. 

JAMES W. ABERT WRIGHT, President of the 
Ala!)ama Xormal College for Girls, and co- 
principal of Livingston Feni.ale Academy, was 
born at Columbus, Miss., July 28, 1834. His 
father, the IJev. David Wriglit, of the Presbyterian 
Church, (;ame to the South from Massachusetts in 
1820, as a missionary to the Choctaw Indians in 
Jlississijipi. and, in connection with Revs. Kings- 
bury and IJyington, established headquarters at 
a place called Mayhew, near Starkville. the pres- 

ent site of the Agricultural College of that State. 
He was distinguished as a scholar and educator, 
and devoted to missionary work. His grammar 
of the Choctaw language, prepared during that 
period for in the mission schools, is the recog- 
nized authority to this day. FraTiklin Academy, 
Columbus, Miss., one of the first public schools 
of the South, was organized by him ; and his 
only surviving daughter, Mrs. Laura E. Eagar, 
presides over the female department at this writ- 
ing (March, 18SS). 

Kev. David Wright was many years pastor of 
the Presbyterian church at Columbus, and there 
died in 1S40, leaving behind him a record that 
will endure so long as Christian people shall live. 

His mother, nee Eliza Abert, was a native of 
Virginia, her father, Jolin Abert, born in Mar- 
seilles, France, having come with the French 
army, under La Fayette and Count Rochambeau, 
in 1T81, to aid in our War for Independence. Mrs. 
Wright was a sister of Col. John J. Abert, of 
AVashington City, who was for many years at the 
head of the Topographical Engineers of the United 
States Army ; also, of Col. Charles II. Abert, of 
the Confederate Army, a prominent citizen of Col- 
umbus, iliss. 

Major .Tames W. A. Wright became associate 
Principal of Alabama Normal College for Girls, in 
September, 188G, and in December following was 
elected to the position he now fills with distin- 
guished ability in the consolidated institutions. 

He began teaching as an assistant to Professor 
Henry Tutwiler, at Greene Springs, in 18.54, and 
at the end of one year entered Princeton College, 
New Jersey, and graduated therefrom in 1857, 
as valedictorian of his class. 

Returning to Greene Springs, he associated him- 
self with Professor Tutwiler and devoted his time 
thereafter, for several years, to teaching in that 
popular institution. 

In May, 18fJ2, Professor Wright raised a com- 
pany of infantry (Company H),and with it joined 
the Thirty-sixth Alabama Regiment. Through 
tiie many terrible engagements in which this regi- 
ment participated, Cajitain Wright led this com- 
panv, and during the last year of service, frequent- 
ly commanded his regiment. He left the service 
at the final surrender with the rank of major. 

Company H, tiiat mustered 15ii men at the 
out-set. answered the last roll call at Jleridian, 
Miss., with si.x names. The rest were mustered 
into the miirhtv armv of the dead, had been dis- 



charged for physical disability, or languished yet 
in Northern prisons. They had fought at Chicka- 
mauga. Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, 
Dalton, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and through 
all of Hood's campaigns up to April li, 18(i5, 
at Spanish Fort, in the final defense of Mo- 

At Missionary Ridge, Captain Wright was 
severely wounded, and fell into the hands of the 
enemy. As prisoner of war, he was taken first to 
Nashville, and from there to Camp Chase, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. While in transit from Camp Chase, 
destined to Fort Delaware, he Jumped from the 
train and made his escape, reaching home finally 
by way of Philadelphia, Kew York, Canada, the 
Bermuda Islands, and Wilmington, N. C. 

For three years after the war, he was Associate 
Princijial with Professor Tutwiler at Greene 

In August, 1S59, Prof. Wright married Miss 
Margaret, the accomplished daughter and eldest 
child of Professor Tutwiler, at Greene Springs. Of 
the seven children born to them, three are living: 
Ruffin A., teacher at Livingston Academy, 
while Julius T. and Henry T., are students 
thereat. Three died in infancy. Their only 
daughter, Willie, a brilliant and accomplished 
young lady, graduate of the Normal College, Liv- 
ingston, died in August, 1883, at Greene Sfirings. 
Professor Wright belongs to the Masonic fratern- 
ity, and is prominently identified with the Pres- 
byterian Church, having been ordained as elder in 
1867, in Concord Chuich, Hale County. 

In 18G8, he removed to California, and there 
for fifteen years followed farming and insurance 
business, diversifying his labors in the meantime 
with journalistic work, and in the advancement of 
the interest of the State Grange, of which organi- 
zation he was the first Master, and afterward lec- 

In 1883, he returned to Alabama, and again be- 
came co-principal in Greene Spring School with 
Professor Tutwiler, in which position he remained 
until the death of the latter. 

In his life-studies and life-work, Prof. Wright 
has been especially devoted to the Physical Sci- 

DEVEREUX HOPKINS, Register in Chancery, 
is by birth a North Carolinian. In 1S35, at the 

age of twenty-two, he came into Greene County, 
and began farming. He was educated at Raleigh, 
N. C, and there began the battle of life as a 
clerk. His father, Wm. W. Hopkins, was many 
years a merchant at Smithfield, that State, and 
there died when our subject was only five months 
old. The maiden name of his mother was Sarah 
Boone, daughter of Joseph Boone, of North Caro- 
lina, a relative of the famous Daniel Boone, of 

Ten years after her husband's death, Mrs. Hop- 
kins married Thomas Cobbs, of Raleigh. Chan- 
cellor Cobbs, of the Northwest Chancery Division, 
this State, and James Cobbs, many years Circuit 
Judge of the Mobile District, are half-brothers of 
Mr. D. Hopkins. 

In 1836, D. Hopkins removed from Greene 
County to Mobile, and there embarked in the 
commission business with Hiiiton & Horton. 

In 1838, he married Miss Elizabeth W. Ryan, 
daughter of the Rev. Joseph Ryan, of the Baptist 
Church, and the same year returned to Central 
Alabama, and settled in Sumter County, where 
he resumed cotton jilanting upon a pretty exten- 
sive scale. 

In 1846 he held his first public otlice, that of 
sheriff; in 1851 he was a member of the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a Whig; and in 1868 
removed to California, residing some years at 
Stockton, serving the people jiart of the time as 
justice of the peace and police judge. In 1880 
he returned to this State, and was soon after- 
ward appointed Register in Chancery. 

Mrs. Hopkins died March 2, 1884. Of the ten 
children born to them six are now living. The 
eldest son, AVm. W., was a member of Hampton's 
brigade during the late war, and is now employed, 
professionally as an expert accountant. A daugh- 
ter, Sarah E., was the wife of the brave Capt. 
Abner L. Gaines, who lost his life at Shiloh. Mrs. 
Abner L. Gaines subsequently married Captain 
Lake, also an old soldier, now of Mobile. Another 
daughter, Miss Kate Hopkins, is now the efficient 
postmistress at Livingston. Anna married Dr. 
Wm. M. Br3'ant, of Clarke County; Florence is 
now Mrs. Addison G. Smith, of Livingston. Ala., 
and Miss Julia, the youngest, has not left the 
paternal roof. 

Mr. Hopkins is now in his seventy-fifth year. 
It is more than a half century since he first came 
into Alabama. Here he has lived past the average 
years of man, and here will his presence be more 



missed and mourned than average men when, in 
the fulness of tlie Maker's own good time, he shall 
be gathered unto his fathers. 

North Carolina Ai>ril 1, liS^il. He was adopted 
by an uncle, whose name was the same as his own, 
and was reared by liim from tlie age of ten. He 
received his education at Philadelphia and Colum- 
bus, Ohio. While still quite young, his uncle 
placed him in charge of a farm, near Gainesville, 
Ala., but he had no taste for farming, and soon 
entered a commission house at Jlobile — Tartt, 
Stewart & Co., — of which his uncle was the head. 
Here he developed the remarkable traits of his 
character which afterward made him so succes.s- 
ful as a merchant. In 1806 he was married to 

Annie Maria Jones, near Sumterville, and they, 
in 1867, moved to Livingston, where Mr. Tartt 
went into business as a merchant, and continued 
it until his death. Asa business man, Jfr. Tartt's 
life was particularly worthy of attention. 

He sailed through the hard times of 18 1 3. 
The commercial crash carried down hundreds of 
the leading merchants of that country, but he 
was one of the few who came out unhurt. lie 
succeeded in accumulating a fortune, where 
others could secure but a competency, and was 
one of the men who could successfully compete 
with the "Sheeney" system of advancing, now 
in vogue in that country. 

Mr. Tartt was a public-spirited, philanthropic 
citizen, and as such was highly esteemed by the 
commuity in which he lived, lie died in Living- 
ston in 188.5. His wife was reared by an uncle, 
the liev. D. P. Bestor, a Baptist minister of this 
State, who wa,^ quite prominent in his day. 


Population: White, 6,911; colored, -25,000. 
Area, 060 square miles. Woodland, all. Oak and 
hickory uplands with long-leaf pine, 600: central 
prairie and flatwood, .160 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 77,000, in 
corn, 40,0.5:5: in oats, 7.011: in sugar-cane, 'IhX; 
in rice, 14; in tobacco, 15; in sweet potatoes, 1,597. 

Appro.ximate number of bales of cotton, 28, "201. 

County Seat — Camden; population, 1.500: near 
Alabama Itiver, 40 miles southwest of Selma. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Home 
Ruhr and Wilcox Progress (both Democratic). 

Postoftices in the County — Allenton, A win, 
Uethel, Black's Bluff, Boiling Springs, Caledonia, 
('(inirloi, Canton Bend, Clifton, Dumas' Store, 
Fatama, Furman. (Jeesbend, Lower Peach Tree, 
Pine Apple, Pine Hill, Prairie Bluff, Rehoboth, 
Bosebud, Kowell, Sedan, Snow Hill, Yellow 

This county derives its name from Lieut. Joseph 
M. Wilcox. It was created as early as 1819, and 
has steadily maintained a reputation as one of the 
leading agricultural counties of the State. It is 
highly favored both with respect to the character 
of its lands and the abundant supplies of water. 
Most of its lands, and especially its most tillable 
soils, lie well for cultivation. 

The timbers of the county are long and short- 
leaf pine, the different varieties of oak, hickory, 
ash, elm, poplar, cedar, mulberry, beech, magno- 
lia, sycamore and walnut. Some of the most 
splendid specimens of timber found in Southern 
forests can be obtained in AVilcox. Perhaps no 
county surpasses it in the abundance of its cedar 

There is also quite a quantity of excellent 
cypress timber. When this is removed and 
the land upon which it grows is thoroughly 



drained, it has been found to equal any other in 
its capacity of production. 

Lands may be purchased in the county at prices 
ranging from §2 to S25, depending, of course, 
upon the locality and the fertility. 

So eager are the people to have thrifty and ener- 
getic settlers locate in their midst, that they are 
willing to offer extraordinary inducements in the 
sale of lands and homes. There are 3,380 acres of 
Government land in Wilcox County still untaken 

f C^ /C^<^^e^^t:^i^ii-^£yXC-'€^^2^C00- 



l'o|MilatioM: Whiu'. lii,'.i-.'(i. ciilnrt-il. S.oou. 
Area. S(MI sr|iiiii'e miles. AVoodlanrl. all. Oak 
ami liickory uplands. li-'iO square inile.s. Pine 
ii|)lamls, 4()() square miles. Hill-|iraii-ie ami lime- 
liilKs, oil square miles. 

Acres — In ootton (approxima''ely), 35,!t00; in 
corn, •-24, 048; in oats, 7,4".I4; in sugar-cane, -V-iS: 
in rice, 17: in sweet potatoes, ()70. 

.Vpproximate ntiniberof bales of cotton, 12,000. 

County Seat — (ireenville: population, 3,ikmi; on 
.Mobile & A[ontgomery Railroad. 

Xewspai)ers pul)lislied at County Seat — Advocatv 

Postoffices in the County — Rolling, Butler 
Springs. Dunham. Forest Home, (farland, Georgi- 
ana. (iiasgow, (IreeiiviUe, Lamont, Manningham, 
ifonterey. Oaky Streak, Pigeon Creek, Pontus, 
liunville, Searcy. Shell. Sim's Afill. Starlington. 
Tohu-i, Crbanity. 

The county of Hutler was established in 1810. 
It derived its name from one of the earliest set- 
tlers, Captain William Hutler. 

There is a great diversity of soil and a corres- 
ponding variety of productions in the county. Its 

climate, health, location and resources give jii-om- 
ise that it will become one of the leading counties 
of this great timber section. 

In different sections of Hutler County there are 
s])lendid forests of timber, comprising the several 
varieties of oak, pine, ash, gum, cedar, poplar, 
hickory, dogwood, maple, beech, and magnolia. 
Of the yellow, or long-leaf, pine there are vast 
districts, and the timber is equal to that of any 
other section or this belt. 

In the northern or prairie region of Hutler there 
are belts of cedar growth as fine as can be obtained 
in the Union. 

Those desiring lands may secure them in many 
localities at nomimil figures. The present market 
price extends from $1..")0 to §10 per acre. There 
! are in the county 13,1 CO acres of public land sub- 
ject to homestead entry. In addition to this there 
are i,0OO acres of railroad land, which can be pur- 
chased at %\.i.-i per acre. 

Pleasant and cheap homes are here afforded 
tiiose desiring to settle. The people are industri- 
ous, thrifty and quiet, and immigrants will be 
well received. 

JULIUS C. RICHARDSON, a prominent Law- at Auburn College, Summertield Institute, and 

yer, .son of the ii'ev. Simon Peter and Mary E. the Southern University, at (ireensboro. Ala. 
(Arledge) Richardson, was born on the Island of From 1^70 to 1872 he gave his time to teaching. 

Key West, Fla.. April 18, 1851, and was educated In the latter year he entered the law department 



of the Cumberland University, at Lebanon, Tenn., 
and graduated therefrom, as Bachelor of Laws, in 
1873, In January, lS?-i, he located at Greenville, 
where he at once entered upon a successful 
practice in his chosen profession, and where he, 
at this writing (1888), is recognized as standing 
at the head of the Butler County bar. His prac- 
ti-^e is general, and extends largely throughout 
Central and Southern Alabama. 

He was elected to the State Senate in 1886-87, 
where, as a member of the joint committee of the 
House and Senate on the revision of the code of 
Alabama, he rendered much valuable service and 
proved himself entirely familiar with the needs 
and purposes of the undertaking, and was identi- 
fied with the princijDal legislation of the session. 
Another writer very Justly describes him as a man 
of '■' quick and acute perception, possessed of a 
mind thoroughly trained and organized for the law 

which he loves for its own sake He 

is a most brilliant conversationalist, an extensive 
miscellaneous reader, an eloquent speaker and 
writer, and possessed of much dignity of character. " 
In an article devoted to the Senator, the JMont- 
gomery Advertiser says of him : " He is a source 
of pride and pleasure to his friends throughout 
the State. As a loublic man he has always been 
upright, honest and true, and his ability to fill the ■. 
honorable position to which he has been called by I 
the people of his district, is unquestioned and un- 
questionable." I 

Mr. Richardson diversifies the duties of profes- 
sional life to some extent by turning his attention 
occasionally to fruit culture, in which he has i 
achieved decided success. Within his well-culti- 
vated fields devoted to the jiurpose, he produces | 
some remarkable results in horticulture and venti- 
oulture : his varieties of grapes are probal.ily the 
finest in the State. 

A sort of modern ethics that seems to prevail in 
the treatment of popular living men in publica- 
tions of this character confines us at times too 
much to a bare recital of well-known facts, leav- 
ing no room for the play of imagination or the 
display of any pyrotechnics in the eulogy of the 
worthiest of men. Thus, in the jDresent instance, 
the publishers find themselves reduced to the pres- 
entation of the outlines of one of Alabama's most 
promising young men. As a mark of distinction 
and as a means of testifying to the high esteem in 
which Julius C. Kichardson is held, thejiublishers 
take pleasure in prefacing this sketch with a hand- 

some and life-like steel-plate portrait of that 

Mr, Richardson was married in Xovember, 18?!, 
at Greenville, to Miss Bettie McCall, the accom- 
plished daughter of D. T. McCall, Esq.. of that 
place, and has had born to him two children : 
Terry ^I. and Mack. 

• "^"•6S5J2^" 'x*" — • — 

ZELL GASTON, Attorney-at-law, Greenville, of 
the firm of Carmichel & Gaston, was born in But- 
ler County, this State, June 31, 18U.'5, and is a 
son of Lucius C. and Amanda J. Gaston, natives, 
respectively, of the States of Georgia and Florida. 

Mr. Gaston attended the common schools of 
his neighborhood until about sixteen years of age, 
at which time time he entered the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College at Auburn, where he 
remained four yeai's. From the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College he entered the Alabama Uni- 
versity, and from' there graduated as Bachelor of 
Arts, class of 1884. Returning to Greenville, he 
accepted the principalship of the public schools, 
and taught therein for the two succeeding years. 
He read law in the office of the Hon. J. C. Rich- 
ardson, of this city, was admitted to the bar in 
February, 1886, and entered at once into a part- 
nership with John C. Carmichel, in the practice 
of law. 

Mr. Gaston is now, and has been for some time. 
County Superintendent of Education; lie is a mem- 
ber of the Knights of Pythias, Knights and Ladies 
of Honor and of the Methodist Episcopal Chui-ch. 

He was married January 26, 1887, to Miss Lelia 
Dulin, daughter of Adam B. Dulin, Esq., of this 

ROBERT E. STEINER, prominent Attorney- 
at-law, (rreenville. was born in Butler County, 
this State, May 9, 1862, and is a son of Joseph 
and Matilda M. (Camja) Steiner, of this place. 

From the age of five years to twenty-two, the 
subject of this sketch was almost continuously at 
school. Hegraduated with the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts from the State University (Alabama) when 
sixteen years of age, and, two years later, received 
from the same institution the degree of Master of 
Arts. In 1884 he graduated from the Law Depart- 
ment of Harvard University as a LL. B. ; returned 
at once to Greenville and, associated with the 
Hon. John K. Henry, entered at once upon the 



practice of law. Judge lleiiiT died in 188(!, and 
Mr. Stciner formed a partnership, as at present, 
with the Hon. J. C. l}ichard.<on. In ]88<!. lie was 
elected to the Legislutiire and was made chairman 
of the Committee on Military Afl'airs, in which he 
performed mucli valuable service. JLr. Steiner 
lias always taken much interest in State Military 
matters, and is at this writing holding the com- 
mission of major of the Second Keginient Ala- 
bama Troops. 

lie is a member of the order of Knight of Phy- 
tliias, of the Masonic fraternity, and of the ileth- 
odist Kjiiscopal Church, South. He devotes much 
of his time tocluirch work, and in 1S8T, as lay del- 
gate, represented the Union Springs District in the 
Alal)ama Conference. lie is also a member of the 
board of stewards, and is one of the trustees of 
his church at (ireenville. 

Major Steiner was married in December, 1884, 
to Miss May Flowers, the handsome and accom- 
plished daughter of John .1. Flowers, Esq., of 
Butler County. 


JESSIE F. STALLINGS, prominent Attorney- 
at-law, Greenville, was born in Butler County, this 
State, April -4. 1855, and is a son of IJobert and 
Lucinda (Ferguson) Stalliiigs, of that county. 

^Ir. Stallings' grandfathers were among the 
early settlers of Butler County, having settled 
there in 1818. 

Mr. Stallings' father was a farmer, and his 
sons were brought up to that vocation. The 
subject of this sketch was educated at the 
Universities of Kentucky and Alabama, gradua- 
ting from the last named institution in 1877. After 
teaching school one year he took up the study of 
law with Mr. J. C. Richardson, of Greenville, as 
his preceptor. It is proper to remark, however, 
that he had taken the law course at the Alabama 
University. He was admitted to the bar in ls7!i, 
and at once, in partnershiji with Mr. L. \i. Brooks, 
entered upon the practice. This partnership was 
dissolved at the end of two years, ami the present 
one, with Mr. C. L. Wilkerson, formed. 

.Mr. Stalling was elected solicitor for the Second, 
or Montgomery District in May, l.sS7, for the term 
of six years. He was married in March. 1S85, at 
Eufaula, Ala., to Miss Ella McCallister, the accom- 
plished daughter of A. M. McCallister, Esq., of 

that city. Mrs. Stallings died, leaving one child, 
and in 1887, Mr. Stallings was married to Miss 
Bessie McCallister, a sister of his former wife. 


JOHN C.CARMICHEL, Attorney-at-Law, 
Greenville, son of Duggald and Caroline E. Car- 
miclu'l, natives, respectively, of the States of 
South Carolina and Georgia, was born in Dallas 
County, this State, July 2, 1801. 

The senior Mr. Carmichel was a minister in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He came into Ala- 
abama in early life, devoted his time to the minis- 
try until 1867, and in that year embarked in the 
mercantile business in Dallas County, where he 
died in 1875. 

John C. Carmichel was educated, primarily, at 
the common schools. In 1882 he entered the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College at Auburn, 
remained one year, and for the ne.xt succeeding 
twelve months turned his attention to teaching 
in the public schools. In 1885 he edited the Ala- 
bama Free Press, at Brownsville, and while there 
conceived the idea of studying law. In the office of 
^\'. .1. Sanford, at Opelika. he ])ursued the study of 
law about one year, and on April 15, 188(), was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He began the jii'actice at 
Greenville in October, 1887, in partnership with 
^Ir. Zell Gaston. The firm of Carmichel & Gas- 
ton are among the most reputable in Central Ala- 

Mr. Carmichel is a member of the Knights of 
Honor, Knights of I'ythias, the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, and is officially identified with 
the Sabbath school. 

Greenrillc Aiirfini/c. was born in Hayneville, 
Lowndes County, Ala.. August 9, 1845, and was the 
fourth .-^on of Robert II. and Emma Stone Stanley. 
His father was a Carolinian of English parentage; 
his mother was a daughter of a British officer, 
and was born in Paris. 

His first work of w'hich we have any record, is 
in connection with the Soulheni Messenger, a 
weekly paper printed at Greenville, his family 
having already removed to that place. He entered 
the office of this jiaper as an apprentice in 185:j, 
and remained there for two vears. He was then 



entered as a cadet of the Glennville Collegiate 
and Military Institution, but did not remain tliere 
but one session, when the whole college, aroused 
by Southern patriotism, entered the army in de- 
fense of the Southern Confederacy. The subject 
of this sketch joined the Seventeenth Alabama, 
and remained with it until the close of the war. 
Although he was in active service all the time, 
and witnessed some of the bloodiest of the fights, 
he was wounded in but one battle. On the mem- 
orable field of Franklin, Tenn., he received two 
severe wounds, which disabled him for several 

Immediately after the close of the war Mr. 
Stanley returned home, and in November, 1805, 
he commenced tlie publication of the GoeeiiriUe 
Advocate. Day by day the paper grew more and 
more in the favor of the people, until to-day it is 
welcomed in thousands of families. 

Although he is a stanch Democrat, and has 
always been a strong advocate of the principles 
of his party, he is not particularly fond of jJolities, 
and has never shown any desire for office, though 
he has been sent by his county as a delegate to 
every State Convention since 186T, and in 1884 
was elected by that convention as an alternate 
delegate from the State at large to the National 
Convention in Chicago, which nominated Presi- 
dent Cleveland. He has held a number of impor- 
tant offices in various societies; three years ago he 
was elected Grand Vice-Dictator of Alabama, of 
Knights of Honor, and, probably, would have 
been Grand Director to-day, could he have attend- 
ed the last session of the Grand Lodge. 

He is a member of the ^lethodist Episcopal 
Church, but is a man of views too broad to believe 
that there is but one church, and that all that is 
good and holy is in that church. As all earnest 
Christians should be, he is constantly striving to 
impress the minds of the young with the sacred 
teachings of the holy scriptures, and is rarely 
ever absent from the Sunday School, of which, 
until recently, he was superintendant. 

In May, 188"i. on a steamboat on the Alabama 
River, the editors of the State almost unanimously 
elected him president of the Editors and Pub- 
lishers' Association of Alabama. The members 
of the Press showed their appreciation of his abili- 
ties as an officer by re-electing him the succeeding 
three years by acclamation. He takes a great 
interest in the brotherhood, and does everything 
in his power to make each meeting of the Asso- 

ciation as pleasant as possible. Two years ago he 
was apjjointed by the President of the National 
Press Association as a member of the National 
Executive Committee from Alabama, and at the 
meeting of that Association in Cincinnati last 
year he was retained in that position by election. 

The success of his jjaiier and the noble qualities 
of his character, have won for him a wide reputa- 
tion and given him rank among the journalists of 
the country. 

He was united in marriage to Miss Lulu Reid, 
December 7, 18ti7. His wife was indeed a help- 
mate, whose worth was only rivaled by her mod- 

SAMUEL J. STEINER, M. D„ Physician and 
Surgeon, (ireenville, native of Butler County, this 
State, son of Joseph and Matilda M. Steiner, was 
born January 18th, 1857. At the age of thirteen 
years he was employed as a clerk in a drug store 
and remained there about five years. In 18T6, he 
entered the literary department of the Vanderbilt 
University, Nashville, and graduated from the 
medical department of that institution as M. D. 
in 1878. Immediately II jjon receiving his dijjloma 
he returned to Greenville, and entered upon the 
practice of medicine. 

Dr. Steiner, though yet a young man, occujjies 
a high position in the estimation of the fraternity 
throughout the State. He was for some years 
Medical Examiner for the order of Knights of 
Pythias, and is now (1888) Examiner in Chief for 
the Equitable Life Insurance Company for the 
district of Butler and adjacent counties. He is a 
member of the firm of Joseph Steiner & Sons, 
bankers; Steiner Bros. & Co., merchants; J. JI. 
Steiner & Co., hardware dealers; and of the 
Steiner Hardware Company. The two first named 
institutions are located at Greenville, and the 
others at Decatur, this State. 

The Doctor is a member of the order of the 
Lnights of Pythias, the I. 0. G. F., and of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He was mar- 
ried at Greenville, September 2.ith, 1879, to Miss 
Lottie McCall, daughter of D. T. McCall, Esq., 
of this place. 

He was commissoned surgeon of Second Regi- 
ment, Alabama State Troops, 1863 and served in 
that capacity at the Battle of Birmingham and all 
the engagements of said Regiment. 



JOSEPH M. STEINER. .Merchant and Banker, 
(Irecnvillc. was born in Butler County, this .State, 
in IS.")-!, and is a son of Joseph and .Afargaret M. 
(Camp) Steiner. 

"Slv. Steiner was educated at the eonunoiiscliools 
of (ireenville, and was onlj' fourteen years of age 
when he was engaged as a clerk in his father's cotton 
establislinu'Ut, at Mobile. lie remained at Mobile 
one year, and returned to Greenville, accepted a 
clerkship in the store of Dunklin & .Steiner, was 
there until 1874, and was in that year admitted to 
partnership. In 188T, Governor Seay appointed 
him Treasurer of Butler County, to fill out the 
unexpired term, caused by the death of the recent 
incumbent of that office. He is, therefore, at this 
writing County Treasurer, and is also a member 
of the (ireenville Board of Aldermen. His busi- 
ness relations may be summed up as follows: He 
is a member of the firm of Joseph Steiner iS: Sons, 
bankers, and .1. M. Steiner & Co., hardware mer- 
chants, (ireenville; Steiner Bros. & Co., general 
merchandise; Jose])h Steiner & Sons, fertilizers, 
etc. ; and the Steiner Hardware Company, Decatur, 

Altogether, Mr. Steiner is oneof the most active 
and successful business men (and he is a business 
man, to the exclusion of everytliing else except of 
his duties to the community as a good citizen,) in 
the .state of Alabama. He was married at (ireen- 
ville JIarch 11,1875. to Jliss Ida, daughter of 
A. J. and Clara E. Hawthorne, of this city, and 
has haa born to him four children: Bettie, Clara, 
.Joseph, Aileen. 

-Mr. .Steiner is a member of the (ireenville Light 
Guards, of the Knights of Pythias, Knights of 
Honor, and the I. 0. 0. F., in all of wliich organ- 
izations he has filled the various chairs. 

— -*"J^t^-«— — 

DANIEL G. DUNKLIN, prominent Merchant 
and I'lanter. was boin at (ireenville, Ala., October 
28, 1823, and his parents were James and Cath- 
arine (Lee) Dunklin, tlie former a native of .South 
Carolina and tiie latter of Lecsburg, X. C. 

James Dunklin came to -Mabama in 1.S18, and 
was among the first (if not the very first) settlers at 
where now stands the town of Greenville. He be- 
came an extensive planter, was one of the com- 
missioners that laid out the town of Greenville, and i 
was afterward commissioner of the county. He 1 
died in (ireetiville in 1828. ' 

I Daniel G. Dunklin, during his youth, acquired 
such learning as was ])ossible at the neighboring 

j schools, attending perhaps three months out of 
the year. As will be seen he was only four years 
of ijige at the time of his father's death. At the 
age of fourteen years in a dry goods house at 

I Montgomery, he received his first employment as 

t a clerk, and he remained with that concern seven 
years. He was twenty-one years of age when he 
engaged in the mercantile btisinessat Montgomery 
on his own account. He remaine<l tliei'e two years, 
came to (ireenville, and established himself in the 
mercantile business. Here he has been oneof the 
most successful merchants; he has devoted his 
time to his business, and has accumulated a com- 
jietency. Prior to the war he owned a large num- 
ber of slaves, was extensively interested in plant- 
ing, and had standing out on interest a large 
amount. It is not necessary to add that the war 
swept away this immense fortune, for that was 
but the common lot of a great many. 

During the four years of the war, Mr. Dunklin 
was in the Quartermaster's Department of the Con- 
federate States, and afterwards engaged in mercan- 
tile business again at (ireenville. He has suc- 
ceeded in regaining largely his lost estate. He is 
now one of the most extensive farmers in Butler 
County, producing annually many bales of cotton, 
and giving particular attention to the breeding of 
stock. He has probably the finest stock farm and 
vineyard in this section. He is one of Greenville's 
most respected citizens, noted for his kind-heart- 
edness, liberality and jjublic-spiritedness. 

He was married January lit, 18-17, to Miss Susan 
C. Burnett, of Greenville, Ala. She died in 18<J1, 
leaving one child. Walter J. January 12, 1864, 
Mr. Dunklin married Miss Hanna Patton, of Green- 
ville, Ala., and has had born to him one son, Pat- 
ton B. The family belong to the Episcopal Church, 
and Mr. Dunklin is a member of the -Masonic fra- 
ternity and of the I. O. 0. Y. 

JOItN T. STEINER, Merchant and Banker, 
(ireenville, son of Joseph and Margaret (Camp) 
Steiner, was born November 27, 1800, in Butler 
County, this State. From the common schools 
of Greenville, at the age of sixteen years, he 
entered Vanderbilt LTniversity, where he remained 
two years, and returned to Greenville and engaged 
with his father in the Greenville Bank, in the 



capacity of runner. From this initial step he 
rose rapidly to j)roficiency in the various depart- 
ments of the banking business, and of late years 
has been the controlling element in the manage- 
ment of that institution. He is a member of the 
firms of Steiner & Sons, bankers; Steiner Bros. & 
Co., general mei'chants; J. H. Steiner & Co., 
hardware dealers; and the Steiner Hardware Com- 
pany, the latter institution being at Decatur, 

Mr. Steiner, in addition to his various enter- 
prises, takes an active interest in politics, and is 
one of the solid workers of the Democratic jiarty. 

He represented his i:)arty from Greenville as dele- 
gate to the convention that nominated Governor 
Seay in 1886, and aftei-ward worked faithfully 
in the interest of the ticket. He is a mem- 
ber of the order of the Knights of Pythias, 
Knights of Honor, the American Legion of 
Honor, and is a lieutenant in the Greenville Light 

J. T. Steiner was married in July, 1881, to 
Miss Annie Dunklin, the accomplished daughter 
of .J. H. Dunklin, of Greenville, and has had 
born to him three children: Jolin, Lucile and 


Population : White, 5,000 ; colored, 3,000. 
Area, 1,620 square miles. Woodland, all, except 
coast marshes. Eolling jDine land, 000 square miles; 
pine flats, 730 square miles. 

Acres-In cotton (ai^proximately), 1,400; in corn, 
2,000 ; in oats, 350 ; in rice, 121 ; in sugar-cane, 
81 ; in sweet potatoes, 484. 

A23j)roximate number of bales of cotton, 050. 

County Seat — Daphne; population, 150. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — None. 

Postoffices in the County — Battles, Bay Mi- 
nette, Bromley, Carney, Daphne, Dowty, 
Gasque, Herndon, Hurricane Bayou, Josephine, 
Kohler, Lamberta, Latham, Lillian, Magnolia 
Springs, Montrose, Perdido Station, Point 

Clear, Ray, liosinton, Stockton, Swift, Ten.saw, 

Baldwin County was created in 1809. It has 
the honor of being the largest county in the State, 
embracing within its limits a larger scope of terri- 
tory than that embraced by the entire State of 
Rhode Island. Lands in Baldwin are remarkably 
cheap. Where the timber has been removed they 
may be purchased at 25 to 50 cents jjer acre. 
Others may be had for fl and f5 per acre. 

Many Government lands exist, and are subject 
to entry, there being 120,240 acres. 

Men of limited means, but of industrious habits, 
could not find a more inviting region for settle- 
ment than Baldwin County. 



Popuhition: Wliite, 8,000: colored, 9,088. Area, 
1,1(10 Sfiuare miles. AVoodlaiid, all. Lime-hills, 
5G0 square miles. Oak, hickory, and long-leaf 
])ine uplands, 340 square miles; rolling and open 
pine woods. 260 square miles. 

Acres — In coiton (approximately). o^.-loO; in 
corn, 28,220; in oats, 5,00."); in tobacco. 19; in 
sugar-cane, 200; in rice. 22: in sweet potatoes, 

Approximate number of li;ilcs of cotton, 12,000. 

County Seat, (irove Hill: ])Oj)ulation. 30o: 84 
miles northeast of Mobile. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Clai-ke 
County Democrat (Democratic.) 

Postottices in the C'ounty — Airmount, Baggett, 
Barlow Bend, Bashi. Bedsole, Campbell. Carney'tj 
Bluff, Cherry, Chocktaw Corner, Coffeeville, 
Conde, Cunningham, Dead Level, Gainestown, 
Glover, Gosport, Grove Hill. Jackson, Jlorvin, 
Nettleborough. Pickens Landing. Rual, Salitpa, 
Singleton, Suggsville, Tallahatta Springs. \'a.shti. 
Walker Springs, Winn, Wood's Bluff. 

This county was created in 1812. It is 
historically associated with many of the bloody 
scenes enacted during the prevailing war of that 

Clarke abounds in forests of excellent timber, 
comprising oak, jioplar, hickory, beech, bay, cy- 
press, maple, elm, cedar and pine. Vast pine for- 
ests prevail in several portions of Clarke, and the 
trees are some times rafted to ^lobile, where they 
find a ready market. 

Some attention is now being bestowed upon 
the improvement of stock. In the western part 
of the county are quite a number of salt 
springs and wells, to which the peojile of that 
and adjoining counties were forced to resort 
and manufacture salt during the late war, while 
the ports of the south were blockaded. 

There are 9T,G00 acres of Government land in 
Clarke, which are subject to entry. 

The people of Clarke are eager to have their 
lands peopled by a thrifty energetic population. 



Population: White. •',831 : colored, 1,288. Area, 
70<i S(|uare miles. Woodland, 340 square miles. 
Rolling or undulating j)iue lands, 300 square 

Acres — In cotton (ajiproximately), 10,5U0; in 
corn, 18,608; in oats, 2,370; in rye. 3l; in wheat. 

22: in rice, 21; in sugar-cane, 254; in sweet pota- 
toes, 474. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 4,788. 

County Seat — Elba: population, 222; located 
on the Pea Kiver, 30 miles south of Troy, and 
75 miles southeast of Montgomery. 




Newspajjer published at County Seat — Coffee 
County News. 

Postoftices in the County — Alberton, Cliuton- 
ville. Cross Trails, Damascus, Elba, Elizabeth, 
Enterprise, Haw Ridge, Rodney, Victoria. 

Coffee County was established by an Act of the 
Legislature, dated December 29, 1841, and was 
formed from territory taken from Dale County. A 
portion of its original territory was set ajiart in 
1868, to form Geneva County. The county was 
named in honor of General Colfee, one of the pio- 
neers of Lauderdale County. 

This county is jjarticularly noted for its forests, 
which consist of the greater part of pine, but in 
localities large quantities of ash, hickory, oak 
beach and poplar are found. Timber form the 
chief industry of the county, though stock raising 
is receiving much attention now, and the wool 

product of the country is increasing largely every 

The advancement of the county is considerably 
retarded by the want of transportation facilities, 
which, if it had, would cause it to become one of 
the pleasantest and most substantial portions of 
the State. 

The health of the county is phenomenal, and 
this, more than any other cause, goes to make it 
a most desirable place as a home. 

The county is watered by Pea River, Double 
Branch, White Water,and Bluff Creeks and their 

Educational and religious institutions flourish 
in all portions of the county. 

Elba, on Pea River, is the county seat. Vic- 
toria, Ciintonville and Enterprise are some of the 
other towns of the county. 


Population: White, 6,500; colored, 6,000. Area, 
840 square miles. AVoodland, all. Lime-lands, 
470 square miles; f)ine uplands and rolling pine 
lands, 3T0 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 16,500; in 
corn, 20,118; in oats, 3,17.3; in rye, 32; in sugar- 
cane, 267; in rice, 124: in sweet potatoes, — . 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 5,000. 

County Seat — Evergreen; jjopulation, 1,200; on 
Mobile & Montgomery branch of Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Conecuh 
Escambia Star, Democratic. 

Postoffices in the County — Alniarant, Belleville, 
Bermuda, Betts, Bonnette, Brooklyn, Castleberry, 
Cohasset, Commerce, Crete, Evergreen, Gravella, 
Herbert, Hilaryton, Jayvilla, Mount Union, Oli- 
via, Pryor, Range, Repton, Sepulga. 

Conecuh was established as a county in 1818. 
The name is derived from two Indian terms, 
which, taken together, mean "Caneland," or 
" Land of Cane," supposed to have been suggested 

by the beautiful straight cane which grew along 
the banks of its wide and clear streams when the 
Red Man held sway. The early settlers describe 
the face of the country as having been one of sur- 
passing lovliness before the woodman's axe laid the 
the forests low and the hands of progressive 
art displayed the wigwam of the rude children of 
the woods. The land was radiant with long, wav- 
ing grass, intersjiQrsed with the wild oat and the 
native peaviue, in the midst of which grew the 
towering forms of )nonarch pines. At any time 
could be seen herds of deer and flocks of wild 
turkeys roaming at will over these lands of smiling 
beauty. The whites first occupied its soil in 1815 
The lands in the county may be had for prices 
ranging from §1.25 to 810 per acre. They are 
coming more into demand. Even from the sur- 
rounding counties the lands of Conecuh are being 
sought. There are public lands which may be 
entered by settlers. Strangers seeking homes would 
be gladly received by the peoi^le of this county. 
The county has 50,320 acres of public land. 


Popuhition: W'liite, !i,500; colored, "^,<i()0. Area, 
TiGU S(iuare miles. Woodland, all. Long-leaf pine 
ui)land, 4:i.") square miles; oak and hickory up- 
lands, T-i.") square miles; hill, prairie and lime 
lands, 100 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 27,000; in 
corn, 28,090; in oats, .5,208; in tobacco, 33; in 
rice, 2.5: in sugar-cane, 2'J4; in sweet potatoes, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 8,500. 

County Seat — Kutledgc; jiopulation, 300. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Enler- 
prine, Democratic. 

Postoffices in the County — Aiken, Argus, Best, 
Bradleyton, Bullock, Cook's Stand, Helicon, Hon- 
oraville. Host, Johnson, Leon, Live Oak, Mount 
Ida, New Providence, Xorwood, Peacock, Rid- 
Iidge, Sal-Soda, Saville, Vidette. 

This county was formed in 180."), ami named for 

Hon. Anderson Crenshaw. It lies in that section 
of the State toward which much attention is now 
being turned, because of its varied resources and 
growing industries. Debarred the enjoyment of 
railroad privileges, there has not been that spirit 
of enterprise and energy which is warranted by 
the varied resources of Crenshaw. 

In this county, as in all others in this region, 
lands may be had at very moderate figures. Over- 
spread with forests of splendid timber, both of 
pine and oak, they are destined to be quite valu- 
able, and yet may be bought in some sections for 
$1 per acre, in others for ^2.50, and in others 
still, for §5. 

There are 24,500 acres of land belonging to tne 
general Government in Crenshaw. 

Vast tracks of land may be purchased at nom- 
inal prices, and the people would welcome immi- 
grants of thrifty habits. 


Population: White, 5,000; colored, 600. Area, 
l,03o square miles. AVoodland, all. Undulating 
pine lands, 720 square miles: lime-hills and pine 
uplands, 310 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 4,200; in corn, 
10.558: in oats, 2,114; in rice, 47; in sugar-cane, 
147; in sweet jiotatoes, 400, 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 1,358. 

Connty Seat — Andalusia: population, 025; lo- 
> ated 9(t miles south of Montgomery. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Coving- 
ton Timex, Democratic. 

Postoffices in the County — Andalusia, Cameron, 
Conecuh River, Beda, Dannelly, Fairfield, Green 
Bay, Ilallton, Ilamptonville, Hilton, Lake View, 
Loango, Opine, Rat. Red Level, Rome, Rose Hill, 
Sanford. Shirley, Vera Cruz, Wiggins, Williams' 

Established in 1821, this county took its name 
from Gen. Leonard W. Covington, of JIaryland. 




It is noted for its streams, grazing lands, and 
superb regions of timber. Like other sections of 
Alabama, Covington has failed of appreciation, 
because of its remoteness from lines of transporta- 

The timbers of the county are yellow or 
long-leaf pine, oak, hickory, elm, beech, and poplar. 
The county is noted for its forests of towering 

pine. Districts of this magnificent timber extend 
for many miles in all directions through the 

Beneath these lofty pines, there flourisli tlie 
greenest grasses and leguminous plants, which 
afford superior range for herds of cattle, sheep, 
and goats. Great quantities of lumber are hewn 
from the forests every season. 


Population: White. 7',.55 ; colored, 3,124. 
Area, 6.50 square miles. Woodland, all. Pine 
upl.ands, 420 square miles ; undulating, pine 
lands, -230. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 27,000; in 
corn, 31,867; in oats, 5,114; in wheat, 59; in rye, 
24; in rice, 49; in sugar-cane, 373; in sweet 
potatoes, 872. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 0,800. 

County seat — Ozark; population, 700; located 
near the center of the county. 

Newspaper ])ublished at County Seat — South- 
ern Sfur, Democratic. 

Postoffices in the County — Barnes Cross Roads, 
Beaver Creek, Clayhatchee, Clopton, Crittenden's 
. Mills, Daleville, Eclio, Newton, Ozark, Rockyhead, 
Skipperville, Strickland, Weed, Wicksburgh. 

This county was organized in 1824, and named 
in honor of Gen. Samuel Dale. It is one of the 
counties of the State in which there were manu- 

factories prior to the war. Its people have long 
been noted for their sobriety and progressiveness, 
and, in the centers of interest, for their intelli- 
gence. Possessing a varied soil, genial climate, 
healtliful atmosj)here, abounding resources of 
water, rich pasture lands, and broad forests of 
pine. Dale County is the peer of any other section 
in this portion of Alabama. 

The prices of land extend from 81 to §10 per 
acre. The county has an industrious agricultural 
population that would readily greet settlers and 
investors seeking homes and locations for business. 
No doubt these lauds will attract great attention 
within a few years, because of the vast abundance 
of yellow j)ine timber which they contain. Rare 
bargains can now be had by those seeking profit- 
able investments in lands and real estate. Much 
of the land is public, and may be entered under 
the homestead act. Of this there are 46,240 


Population: Wliite, 4,00(1: colored, l.oim. Area. 
1,000 sf|iiare niili's. Wooillaiul, all. All rolling 
pine lands. 

Aere.s — In cotton (appro.xiniately), 3oo; in corn, 
3,fi09; in oats, S(I9; in sugar-cane, 83; in rice, 
405; in sweet potatoes. 404. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 100. 

County Seat — Hrewton; ])opulation, ]..")0o: on 
Louisville & Nashville Eailroad. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Bdiincr 
aiul Esriimhid liiildiriii lltnes, the former Inde- 
pendent, the latter Democratic. 

Postoffices iti the County — Boykin, Brewfoti, 
Canoe Station, Douglasville, Flomatoii, Kirkland, 
Mason, Pollard, Koberts. Steadhani, Wallace, 
Williams Station, Wilson. 

The county of Escambia was constituted in 
1SG8, and named for the beautiful river which 
flows across it. It is one of the youngest 
counties of the State, but is regarded as one of 
the thriftiest in the great Timber Belt. It has 

peculiar natural advantages in its forest wealth, 
its smooth topography, and its deej) and wide 

But the glory of Escambia is her magnificent 
forests of pine. In this county the e.\paiisive do- 
mains of yellow or long-leaf pine may be seen in 
its perfection. These pines give rise to the chief 
industries of the county, viz.: the timber, lumber, 
and turpentine business. Some of the finest and 
best equi[)ped saw-mills and turpentine distilleries 
known to the South are found in Escambia 

Timbers are hewn from the forests and rafted 
along the large streams to the mills to be con- 
verted into lumber, or else to Pensacola, where a 
ready market awaits them. Tliese lumber and 
turpentine industries are near the Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad, which traverses tlie county 
north and south. 

The county contains 140,949 acres of Govern- 
ment land. 



Population: White, 4,0ii0; colored, oOO. Area, 
591 ( square miles. Woodland, all. Undulating 
pine lands, 56o square miles; red lime lands, 30 
square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 5,onO; in corn 
9,47<i: in oats, l.To.i; in sugar-cane, 118; in rice, 
1.54: in sweet potatoes, ." 

Aj)proximate number of bales of cotton. 1,300. 

County Seat — (ieneva; population. Ton. 

Newspaper published at County Seat — Record, 

Postoffices in the County — Big Creek, Coffee 
Springs. Dundee. Elton, Ennola. Garrard, Geneva 
High Falls, ilartha, Noblin, Pea, Taylor, 
A'aughanville, Warwick, Watford. 

The county of Geneva was formed in iSiiS. It 
is one of the most progressive counties in this por- 
tion of the State. Capital and enterprise have 




been wou to it, and its lands are being rapidly oc- 
cupied. Long remote from important lines of 
transportation, it now enjoys facilities which en- 
able its numberless resources to find their way 
easily to market. The wide-awake sj)irit which 
prevails among the people of Geneva, may be in- 
ferred from the rapid increase of i^opulation 
within the last four years. 

The trees are largely those of yellow pine, while 
there are also oaks, hickory, poplar and beech. 
The manufacture of the pines into lumber for 
shipment is a growing branch of business. Large 
quantities of logs are floated down the waters of 
the principal streams to markets further south. 
The manufacture of turpentine is also a pursuit, 

the proportions of which are constantly increasing. 
Schools are moderately good and are annually 
improving. Churches of the Baptist and Meth- 
odist denominations, jn-incipally, exist. 

Lands may be had as low as $1 and -f3 per 
acre. Vast quantities of public or Government 
lands are found in Geneva, there being 216,840 
acres. Rare inducements for investments, or for 
settlements, are found in this young and growing 
county. The people are of a progressive spirit, 
and will cordially welcome to the county men of 
limited means, who are seeking cheap and pleas- 
ant homes, as they will the capitalist with ampler 
resources, who desires to make a profitable invest- 


Population: White, 12,000: colored, 6,500. 
Area, 1,000 square miles. AVoodland, all. Oak, 
hickory and brown loam lands, 100 square miles; 
pine uplands and undulating pine lands, also red 
lime-lands, 450 square miles. 

Acres — \\\ cotton (approximately), 54,000; in 
corn, 48,605: in oats, 790; in rye, 265; in wheat, 
195; in tobacco, 24; in rice, 25; in sugar-cane, 670; 
in sweet potatoes, 1,266. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, 12,600. 

County Seat — Abbeville; population, 500; lo- 
cated 90 miles southeast of Montgomery. 

Newspapers published at County Seat — Spirit 
of the Age, Times; at Columbia, population 700, 
Enterprise, Democratic. 

Postoffices in the County — Alihcville, Baker, 
Balkum, Brackin, Columbia, Cottonwood, Co- 
warts, Crosby, Cureton's Bridge, Dothen, Gor- 
don, Grafton, Granger, Ilaleburgh, Hardwicks- 
burgb, Headland, Hilliardsville, Kinsey, Law- 
renceville, Otho, Pleasant Plains, Shorterville, 
Smithville. Wesley, Zornville. 

Henry County was created in the same year 
that Alabama became a State, 1819. It derived its 
name from that of the great Virginia orator, Patrick 
Henry. It lies in the extreme southeastern cor- 

ner of the State, having on the east Georgia, 
from which it is separated by the Chattahooche, 
and on tlie south, Florida. 

It was originally composed of the territory now 
constituting Henry, Dale, and a large portion of 
Geneva and Coffee Counties. 

The county seat was then at '' Old Richmond," 
a i^lace now marked only by a single church and a 
beautiful sjjring known as the ''Wiggins Spring," 
twenty miles due west from Columbia. After 
some of its western territory had been cut off, the 
court-house was removed to Columbia — a town 
situated on a beautiful plateau overlooking the 
Chattahooche River, a half-mile to the east, and 
the clear, health-giving and rippling waters of 
the Omercee Creek a half-mile to the west, and 
which was then the trading and shipping point for 
all the country one hundred miles west. After the 
county of Dale had been cut off on the west, the 
county was left in an oblong shajie, being about 
twenty-two miles wide, while from north to south 
along the line of the Chattahooche, measured a 
distance of some sixty miles. 

In 1834, the court-house was removed to Abbe- 
ville, a point situated near the center of the east- 
ern and western boundaries, but within' twelve 



miles of the northern. This portion of the county 
is very miu-h broken and cut up by the streams of 
the Choctawliatchee Kiver, Abbey Creek, and their 

At tlie time of the removal of the court-liouse, 
this portion of tiie county was very thickly settled, 
the lands being fresh and fertile, while the lower 
or southeast portion was but sparsely settled ex- 
cept along the Chattahoochee Kiver, where there 
was a continuous line of large and rich farms. 

The Chattahoochee l\iver on the eastern border 
of the county, furnishes to the inhabitants an 
avenue for the cheapest transportation of all her 
products to all portions of the world. Nine differ- 
ent railroads, though not all under different man- 
agement, now tap the river, requiring only a small 
local tariff to the boats, to give them the advan- 

tage of either, besides the open outlet to the gulf 
through the point at Appalachieola, wiiich is at the 
mouth of the river. 

The people are solicitous of, and welcome, im- 

Kare bargains can yet be had by those seeking 
profitable investments in lands and real estate. 
Some of the lands are yet public, and may be en- 
tered under the homestead act at 11.2.5 per acre. 
Improved lands vary in valuation according to im- 
provements and location. The level pine lands, 
convenient to market, being preferred and ranging 
from *!•■.' to %\h per acre. 

An educational system prevails through the 
county, and is equally accessible by all classes. 

Churches, mainly of ]?aptist and Methodist de- 
nominations, prevail throughout the county. 


Population: White, 7,800: colored, 0,2.50. Area, 
1,0:50 square miles. Woodland, all. Undulating 
pine lands, iJSO square miles. Pine uplands, oak 
and hickory and lime hills, G.50 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 33,500; in 
corn, 25,135: in oats, 4,997; in rice, 78; in sugar- 
cane, 329: in tobacco, 11; in sweet potatoes, 920. 

Ajiproximate number of bales of cotton, 12,000. 

County Seat — Monroeville; population, 300. 

Newspaper published at the County Seat — Mon- 
roe Journal (Democratic). 

Postotticesin the County — Activity, Axile, Bell's 
Landing, Buena Vista, Burnt Corn, Bursonville, 
Carlisle, Chestnut, Claiborne, Dennard, Finch- 
burgh, Fork, Olendale, Hollinger, Kempville, 
Monroeville. Mount Pleasant, Nero, Newton 
Academy, I'erdue Hill, Jiiley, River Ridge, Simp- 
kinsville, Tinela, Turnbull, Watson. 

-Monroe County was created in 1815, and named 
in honor of President Jlonroe, of Virginia. It 

was one of the first counties of the State settled by 
the whites, and its people have been uniformly 
thrifty while engaged chiefly in planting. Much 
of the productive land belonging to the timber 
belt is found in this county. 

The points of interest are Monroeville, the county 
seat, with apopulation of 400, Perdue Hill, Buena 
Vista, Burnt Corn, and Pineville. The school 
and church advantages of the county are good. 

Transportation is afforded by the Alabama 
River, and by the Selma & Pensacola Railroad, 
in Wilcox, or the Louisville & Nashville, as 
it passes through the adjoining county of 

Lands maybe had for figures runningfrom *1.25 
to $10 per acre. About 77,000 acres of public 
lands exist in the county. Anxious to have the 
prosperity of the county enhanced, and its unoc- 
cupied lands taken, the people would hail with 
delight the influx of an industrious population. 


Population: White, 27,500; colored, 21,000. 
Area, 1,200 square miles. Woodland, all, except 
coast marshes; rolling pine lauds, f:<2(i square miles: 
pine flats, 470 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton, approximately, 10; in corn, 
1,G39: in oats, 139; in rice, 191; in sugar-cane, 
151; in sweet potatoes, 776. 

County Seat — Mobile; population, 32,000; lo- 
cated on Mobile River, near its entrance into ^fo- 
bile Bay. 

Xewspapers published at County Seat — Register, 
Blade, Clirutian Weekly, Item and Sunday Times, 

Postoffices in the County — Bayou, Labatre, 
Chickasabogue, Chunchula, Citronelle, Coden, 
Cox, Creola, Grand Bay, Mobile, Mount Vernon, 
Nanna, Hubba, Prichard, Saint Elmo, Spring 
Hill, Theodore, Venetia, Whistler. 

Mobile was established in 1813, and named for the 
bay whose waters wash its eastern shores. It lies in 
the extreme southwest corner of the State, and is 
the wealtiest, most populous, and one of the largest 
counties of the Commonwealth. 

The educational advantages of Mobile have been 
proverbially excellent for almost a half century. 

The city takes great pride in the maintenance of 
her famous institution of learning — the Barton 
Academy. The Medical College of Alabama is 
located here. As a point of refuge from the chill 
and blast of a Xortheru clime. Mobile is without 
a rival. Generally, the winters are exceedingly 
mild and but rarely at all harsh. It is delight- 
ful as a place of residence even in midsummer. The 
cool breezes from the sea sweep it continually and 
fan away the scorching heat of summer tide. Dot- 
ting the coasts of the Bay. opposite the city, are 
magnificent hotels which have become famous as 
summer resorts. 

The timbers of the county include the oak, 
hickory, elm, magnolia, bay, cypress, sweet and 
sour gums, and yellow pine. The water outlets 
are furnislied by tlie Mobile River and Bay on the 
one side, and the Escatawpa River on tlie other. 
Beautiful streams of perpetual flow ramify differ- 
ent portions of the county. 

The natural, social, and commercial advantages 
possessed by Mobile indicate it as one of the com- 
ing cities of the South. 

Mobile County contains 9T,000 acres of land be- 
longing to the Government. 



DR. GEORGE A. KETCHUM. Ralph Ketch- 
um, the father of the subject of this sketch, wlio 
was born on Long Island, of Welch ancestors, in 
1780, was married in 1807, in the city of Xew 
York, to Christiana Colden, a daughter of Gen. 
Griffiths of the British Army. Prior to his mar- 
riage, Ralph had made his home in Augusta, Ga., 
and there his English wife became the mother of 
five sons who have made their impress upon the 

history of the South. Richard Colden Ketchum 
became a distinguished divine in the place of his 
birth ; Major William H. Ketchum commanded 
a battery of artillery in the Confederate Army ; 
Col. Charles T. Ketchum became the Colonel 
of the Thirty-eighth Alabama Infantry : Capt. 
John R. Ketchum died in tlie defense of Atlanta 
in the first battle fought after the removal of (Jen. 
Johnston. The career of Dr. George A. Ketchum 






us physician, teacher and citizen, constitutes one 
of tlie brightest pages iu tlie history of Alabama. 
Creorge Augustus Ketchuni was born iu Augus- 
ta, (ia., April (J, \%'lh, and there his youtli was 
passed uj) to the time of the removal of his fatlier 
to Mobile, Ala., which took place in \%'-\h. His 
scholastic training, which was committed in turn 
to two teachers of distinction, was completed 
under the tutorship of Mr. A. A. Kimball, who 
prepared him for the Sophomore class at Prince- 
ton. At this juncture his father's failure in busi- 
ness disconcerted his plans, and led him, at the age 
of sixteen, to accept the jiosition of assistant 
teacher then offered him by his tutor, Mr. Kim- 
ball, in his Academy at Livingston, Ala. After 
such wholesome preliminary training, he, in due 
time, began his studies in his chosen profession, 
under the guidance of the late Dr. F. A. Ivoss, 
and for two years he occupied the position of resi- 
dent student in the Mobile City Hospital. While 
thus employed, the yellow fever epidemic of 1843 
brought him for the first time into practical con- 
tact with a disease in whose treatment he was des- 
tined to win such wide and merited distinction. 
In the ilctlical College of South Carolina, at 
Charleston, he attended his first course of lectures 
at the session of 1S4-1-1845. In the spring of 
184."), he went for the completion of his studies to 
I'hiladeliihia, graduating at the University of 
Pennsylvania as il.]). in the spriiig of 1840. While 
a student in Philadelphia, he formed the acquaint- 
ance of Miss Susan Burton, a daughter of one of 
the original (Quaker families tliat came over with 
Penn, and to her he was married in November, 
1848. Two years prior to that event he had be- 
gun the practice of medicine in Mobile, where his 
professional success was marked and rapid. The 
yellow fever ei)idemics of 1.S47 and 1848, which 
took place soon after his admission to practice, 
gave him the opjjortunity for an experiment 
which produced rich and permanent results. At 
this time, he, it was. wlio first ventured to admin- 
ister large doses of quinine in the earlier stages of 
the disease, a treatment which was repeated witli 
sucli success in the epidemics of 1853-58-67-70- 
73 and 78 iu ^[obile, that it has now become the 
general practice in yellow fever cases throughout 
the South. With sucli a beginning, and with a 
power to labor which has been seldom equalled, 
and with a charm of manner never to be surpassed, 
the young physician soon won his way into as 
large and lucrative a practice as any physician has 

ever enjoyed in the city of Mobile. For many 
years liis labors as a practitioner and consulting 
physician have been sufficient to exhaust the time 
and resources of any ordinary man, and to exclude 
all other pursuits. And yet in sjjite of this mass 
of work his activities have extended so far beyond 
the circle of his duties as a mere practitioner of 
medicine, that his achievements in that s))here con- 
stitute only a part in the sum total of his life 

Dr. Ketchum's relations to the medical profes- 
sion and to the cause of public hygiene, can not 
be measured by any standard that excludes from 
consideration the services ho has rendered to the 
cause of medical education and to the preservation 
of the public health. To every movement which 
has been orgai.ized in his day, not only in his own 
State, but in the Union, for the advancement of 
the medical profession as a corporate body, and 
for tlie increase of its usefulness as a teacher of 
sanitary science, he has given his active and 
earnest support. The central aim of his life has 
been to teach the true science of medicine in its 
highest sense to the younger members of his own 
profession, and at the same time to practically 
demonstrate how the science of public hygiene 
can be utilized by the State for the preservation 
of the public health. In both departments of 
labor he has been eminently successful, and ia 
both he has been awarded the very highest stations 
of usefulness and authority. In 1848, in conjunc- 
tion with Dr. J. C. Nott and others, he organized 
the Medical College of Alabama, with which he 
has ever since been jirominently connected. Since 
1859. he has held the position of Professor of the 
Theory and Practice of Medicine: and since the 
resignation of the late Dr. Wm. II. Anderson, he 
has been the Dean of the Faculty. As a medical 
lecturer he is especially hai)py. An easy and nat- 
ural delivery, coupled with a perfect mastery of 
English prose, render his lectures as attractive as 
they are instructive. In the sanitary government 
of ilobile, city and county, he has been the most 
important factor for nearly twenty years. Presi- 
dent of the Board of Health since 1871, he has 
rendered, without compensation, services to the 
public which but few outside of his own profession 
either understand or appreciate. In the medical 
government of the State his influence has been 
hardly less potent. Xo one was more active than 
he in bringing about the organization of the 
Medical Association of Alabama, of which he be- 



came president in 1873. For many years he has 
been a member of the Board of Censors and of 
the State Board of Health. His activity in the 
line of medical organization has not been limited, 
however, to the boundaries of his own State; as a 
member of the American Public Health Associ- 
ation, as a member of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, and as a member of the Ninth Inter- 
national Medical Congress, his name and fame as 
a leader in his profession have assumed a national 

No review of this many sided man, however 
brief and incomplete, should exclude from con- 
sideration the influence which he has exercised as 
a citizen upon the political affairs of his State and 
county. With a j)erfect comprehension of the 
constitutional system under which we live, with 
a clear insight into all the details of executive 
administration, with great gifts as an orator and 
parliamentarian, had his tastes been otherwise, 
he might have figured as one of the foremost poli- 
ticians of his time. Whenever duty has called 
him into service in that department of work, his 
great aptitude for public iiffairs, his immovable 
firmness, coupled with great tact in the manage- 
ment of popular assemblies, have invariably given 
to him a position in the foi'emost rank. For 
many years before tlie war he stood at the head of 
Mobile's municipal legislature as president of the 
Common Council; and when the stirring events 
of 1800-61 made every community in the South 
turn for counsel to its wisest and strongest men, 
the county of Mobile selected him as one of four 
to represent her in the convention which severed 
the relations of Alabama with the Union. As 
volunteer surgc-on ho went with the State Artillery 
to Pensacola, where he received his commission as 
surgeon of the Fifth Alabama. While on his way 
to Virginia with his regiment, he was solicited by 
Dr. J. C. Nott to accept a position as surgeon in 
an organization formed for the defense of Mobile, 
which was then sadly deficient, owing to the in- 
crease of population and the absence of jihysicians. 
in medical aid. In tliis laborious position he 
continued until the end of the war. After the 
surrender he was appointed by Governor Parsons, 
provisional governor under Andrew Johnson, a 
member of the Common Council; and for a short 
time he became, ex officio, ]\[ayor of Mobile. In 
the councils of the Democratic party in his State 
and county, he has been recognized as a leader 
for twenty years. 

And yet, neither in his capacity as physician at the 
bedside, neither in his capacity as teacher in the 
college to which he has given the best years of his 
life, neither in his capacity as a tireless adminis- 
trator of health laws, nor yet in his cajiacity as 
political leader, can be found the record of services 
which will forever interlace the name of George 
A. Ketchum with that of the city of his adoption. 
When every other memory connected with his life 
has been forgotten, the fact will remain that his 
care for the public health, backed by his patience 
and indomitable will, has brought a pure stream 
of living water from distant hill tops to the cot- 
tage door and to the palace gate of every dweller 
in the city of Mobile. This great achievement is 
the legitimate outcome of his scientific instinct. 
His far-seeing eye perceived years ago that the 
public health of his city was imperiled by the lack 
of a bountiful supply of i^ure and wholesome water. 
With the heart of a humanitarian, with the fore- 
sight of a scientist, and with the pluck and pa- 
tience of a man of business, he imposed upon him- 
self the task of organizing a scheme for the relief 
of the city, and that scheme he has carried into 
successful execution. After selecting an available 
stream in the silence of the forest, he next em- 
ployed competent hands to overcome the engineer- 
ing and legal difficulties which forbade its in- 
gress to the city, and at last induced capitalists 
to come from abroad and transform his dream 
into a reality. Through his efEorts, after twenty 
years of working and waiting. Mobile to-day enjoys 
one of the most perfect aiid bountiful sujijilies of 
water that can be found in any city in the Union, 
not only for sanitary bnt for fire purposes. In 
the time to come, when his labors have ended, jier- 
haj^s a grateful people will perpetuate the memory 
of this great service, by the erection of a public 
drinking fountain, over which the unselfish physi- 
cian shall preside in bronze or marble. 

In the social life of Mobile, Dr. Ketchum's 
splendid home has been a source of j^leasureand an 
object of interest for many years. Here his warm- 
hearted wife and charming daughter (married a few 
years ago to Robert Gage, Esq., of Boston) dis- 
pense a hospitality as unaffected as it is attractive. 

When, from every point of view — professional 
political and social — it appears that the life-work 
of a man has ripened into a full harvest of suc- 
cess, honor and usefulness, the fact is revealed 
that the author of such results must be a man, not 
only of well-rounded character, but of systematic 



and conscientious habits of work. Of no one 
could this be more truly said tluiii of Dr. 

With high natural endowmont.s, hotii of mind 
and person, he has trusted nothing to chance 
or genius: with him genius has been made the 
voke-fellow of labor. V>\ linking together great 

natural gifts with habits of patient and sys- 
tematic work, he has attained, not an eccentric 
eminence, but the highest legitimate distinction 
as a physician and citizen. When the roundness, 
the fullness, the completeness of his life-work is 
considered, the result may be well e.vpressed — 
"Simphx a/i/i/c ruhiinhis." 


Population: White, ]4,;5(JS; colored, f!,-^;-^. 
Area. 740 square miles. Woodland, all. Oak and 
hickory uplands. 5!t0 square miles: ])ine hills, 
150 square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately). SS.lJdii: in 
corn, 5(1,648; in oats, 6,508; in wheat, 80; in rye, 
127: in sugar-cane, 550; in sweet potatoes, 1,359. 

Approximate number of bales of cotton, in round 
numbers. 19,000. 

County Seat — Troy; population. :i.000: located 
at terminus of 3[obile & Girard Railroad. 

Newspapers published at the County Seat — En- 
quirer and Messenger (Democratic). 

Postoffiees in the County — Barr's Mill, Krun- 
didge. Buck Horn, Catalpa, Chesser, China (irove. 
County Line, Curry. Fleetwood, Flemington, 
Goshen Hill, Harmony. Henderson. Indian Branch, 
Josie. Linwood, Little Oak, ^filo, Monticello, 
Olustee Creek, Orion, Pottersville, Troi/, Wingard. 

Pike County was established December 17, 
1821, from portions of Henry and Montgomery, 
and was named in honor of General Zebulon M. 
Pike, who fell at York (now Toronto), April 27, 

The Alabama Midland Railroad will pass through 
Troy, and diagonally across the county from the 
northwest to the southeast corner the Mobile & Gir- 
ard, from Troy to Pollard, the Brunswick & Mem- 
phis Railroad, ria Greenville, through Troy to 
Clayton. All the present indications favor and 

justify the expectation that these roads will be 
completed within i-easonahle time. 

Tlie lands are generally level with suflicient un- 
dulation for proper drainage. Except in a few 
localities in the northern and central portions of 
the county, there is no land unsuited for cultiva- 
tion on account of the abruptness of those undula- 
tions. The character of the soil varies, embody- 
ing red clay, black hummock and sandy soils. In 
the northwestern and southeastern portions of the 
county are large bodies of fine red lands, 
which are very ])roductive and lasting. In the 
northeastern and southwestern portions it is 
generally sandy, with a sufficient admixture of 
lime to render them very productive when first 
brought into cultivation: but within five years 
their i)roductive capacity exhausts, unless aided 
by fertilizers. In the central portion of the county 
every character of soil above enumerated can be 
found. The close proximity of a clay foundation 
renders all of these lands susceptible of the highest 
improvement by fertilization. 

A chain of hills in the northeastern portion of 
the county contains iron ore of good quality in 
abundance. There are also beds of marl sufficient- 
ly rich in phosphoric .acid to justify utilization in 
several localities in the county. There are also 
deposits of ochre, acid iron earth and other val- 
uable minerals in the county, none of which have 
been utilized. 



There are vast areas of pine timber in the county, 
which, with better faf>ilitiesfor shipment or being 
more accessible to a railroad line, would be very 

There are also large quantities of hickory, 
white oak, red oak, and cypress in the swamps 
near watercourses, which could be utilized to ad- 
vantage by a furniture or bucket and barrel factory. 
Several large contracts for staves are now being 
filled by residents of Linwood, and the staves fur- 
nished are classed A No. 1. 

Immigrants of limited means will find all their 
hearts could crave or wishes prompt in regard to a 
cheap, pleasant, healthy home in Pike County. 
The price of land ranges from §2 to *10 per acre. 
Some highly improved command $20 jier acre, but 
in such cases the improvements represent over 

half of the price. Immigrants would be kindly 
received and considerately treated. Regardless of 
nativity, they would be accorded that regard and 
esteem to which their merits and intrinsic worth 
would entitle them. 

The i^eople are law-abiding and orderly, very 
hospitable and kind, and ambitious to elevate and 
improve their condition and place their posterity 
on a higher plane of intelligence and usefulness. 
They study their business closely, and are prompt 
in adojiting improvements that are j)ractical and 
advantageous. Their homes are generally well 
kept, neat and tidy, and possess every comfort and 
convenience their ability will i^ermitthem to enjoy. 
By judicious management they have largely 
increased the jn-oductiveness of their lands within 
the past ten years. 



Population: White, 3,000; colored, 1,500. 
Area, 1,0.")0 square miles. Woodland, all. Undu- 
lating pine-lands, 800 square miles; lime hills and 
shell-prairie lands, 1.50 square miles: pine hills, 100 
square miles. 

Acres — In cotton (approximately), 3,300; in 
corn, 4,259; in oats, 464; in rice, 07; in sugar- 
cane, 90; in sweet potatoes, 448. 

Ai^proximate number otf bales of cotton, 1,400. 

County Seat — St. Stephens; population, 200. 

Postoffices in the County-^Atchison, Bigbee, 
Escatawpa, Gondola, Healing Springs, Koeton, 
Lumberton, Mcintosh Bluff, Millry, St. Stejihens, 
Sims Chapel, Washington. 

Washington is the oldest county in the State, 
having been created by Governor Sargent in 1800. 
It was named for the first President of the United 
States. Considerable historic interests attaches 
to the county. It has the honor of having within 
its limits the first capital of Alabama — St. 

Stephens. It was in this county that Aaron Burr 
was arrested, in 18<i7. It is alike noted for the 
quiet tone of its people, its forests of timber, its 
health, and its healing springs. 

Pine, oak, hickory, beech, ash, cedar, cypress, 
and dogwood are the trees which stock the forests 
of the county. Many of these are of matchless 
size, and are of great marketable value, (heat 
quantities of turpentine are gathered from the jjine 

St. Stephens and Escatawpa are the places of 
interest. A good common-school system exists in 
the county. 

Lands may be had