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Full text of "The Northern California District of the Communist Party, structure, objectives, leadership. Hearings"

6 

THE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 
OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY 
Structure — Objectives — Leadership 

HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



PART 1 

MAY 12, 1960 



I'rinted for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(Index in Part 3) 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBHARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

JAN 16 1961 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
56597 WASHINGTON : 1960 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Repeesentatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIxN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 



CONTENTS 



PART H 

Page 

Synopsis — ___ 1921 

May 12, 1960: 

Testimony of — 

Irving Fishman, Harlin Wong, Stephen K. Louie 1984 

William A. Whoeler 1952 

Barbara Hartle 1950 

Douglas Wachter 1 96ti 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

Barbara Hartle (resumed) 1 969 

Merle Brodsky 1984 

Martin Irving Marcus 1995 

PART 2 

Synopsis (See Part 1, p. 1921) 

May 13, 1960: 

Testimony of — 

William A. Wheeler (resumed) 2000 

Barbara Hartle (resumed) 2003 

Leibel Bergman 2004 

Vernon Bown 2012 

Joseph Figueiredo 20 17 

Noel Harris 2024 

Ann Deirup 2027 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

Karl Prussion 2031 

Elizabeth M. Nicholas 2055 

Donald H. Clark 2057 

Morris Graham 2059 

Martin Ludwig 2062 

William Mandel 2065 

Jack Weintraub 2068 

John Andrew Negro 2071 

Sally Attarian Sweet 2074 

Tyler Brooke 2076 

Elmer E. Johnson 2079 

Karl Prussion (resumed) 2080 

Elmer E. Johnson (resumed) 2080 

PART 3 

Synopsis (See Part 1, p. 1921) 

May 14, 1960: 

Testimony of — 

Karl Prussion (resumed) 2083 

Thomas Cahill 2088 

Michael J. Maguire 2091 

Tillman H. Erb 2092 



^ Documents referred to in Parts 1 and 3 of the proceedings appear In the Appendix, 
Part 4 of this series, see pp. 2205-2404. 

HI 



IV CONTENTS 

May 14, 1960— Continued 

Testimony of — Continued !"■«• 

Archie Brown 2096 

Louis Zeitz 2099 

Matthew C. Carberry 2101 

Thomas Grabor 2107 

Rayme Ellis 2109 

Lottie L. Rosen 2111 

Betty Halpern 2116 

Lillian Ransome 2118 

Edward Ross 2120 

Karl Prussion (resumed) 2124 

Edward Ross (resumed) 2125 

Ruben Venger 2126 

Ralph Izard 2128 

William Reich 2139 

Ralph (Kenneth) Johnsen 2142 

Doris Dawson 2145 

Karl Prussion (resumed) 2146 

Doris Dawson (resumed) 2146 

Travis L. Raffertv 2147 

Saul Wachter.__l 2148 

John Allen Johnson 2151 

Laurent B. Frantz 2156 

Bertram Edises 2161 

June 10, 1960 : 

Testimony of Karl Prussion (resumed) 2177 

Index i 

APPENDIX— PART 4 

Committee Exhibits, through 31 2205—2384 

Prussion Exhibit 1 2385 

Prussion Exhibit 3 2401 

Index i 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946]; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcom- 
mittee, is autliorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
oliaracter, and objects of im-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
f:anda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shnll report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is Avithin the juris- 
diction of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

****** 4> 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1, There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIKS OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to malce from time to time investifii:ations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propa'<anda activities in the United States, 

(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 

(3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such in\estigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the conunittcc or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chainran or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the Plouse in appraisin i the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution by the aduiiuistrative a.^eucics concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that pur- 
pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the 
agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



SYNOPSIS 



Current operations of the Communist Party in Northern Cali- 
fornia — in terms of tactics, leaders, and. techniques to avoid detec- 
tion — were the focus of coimnittee hearings held in San Francisco, 
May 12-14, 1960. 

Extensive evidence of party actions on the national level was also 
received as party documents were put into the record tracing the 
activities of Northern California Communist leaders up to their 
roles at the Communist Partv ITtli National Convention in New York 
City, December 10-13, 1959. " _ 

A total of 46 witnesses testified before the committee in its first 
hearing in the area smce the party, in 1957, reorganized and elevated 
its Northern California membership into a "district"— separate and 
distinct from the Southern California party apparatus. 

Karl Prussion, who left the Communist Party in August 1959, 
after 26 years' membership, testified that Communists sought to ful- 
fill "prerequisities"' for the overthrow of the American form of gov- 
ernment by "the infiltration of social, economic, and political organi- 
zations" in this country. By the process of infiltration, Mr. Prussion 
stated, Commmiists hope not only to gam leadersliip in the organ- 
izations but also to arouse in non- Communists hatred against big busi- 
ness and against the Government. 

A former dedicated Communist who later became an informant 
within the party for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Mr. 
Prussion described, from his own experience in party cells in the Los 
Altos, Mountain View, and Palo Alto communities, how Communists 
have concentrated on infiltrating non- Communist, community-level 
groups. The witness said the Communists in his cell joined a "splen- 
did" local civic organization dedicated "to the principles of our Amer- 
ican way of life" and managed to make an impact on its policies. 
Specific Commmiist attempts to exert influence from within parent- 
teacher associations and political organizations were also described by 
the witness. 

Communists were directed to ditch the party-controlled political 
organization, the Independent Progressive Party, after the 1952 elec- 
tions and to become active in the Democratic Party, JSIr. Prussion 
stated. He named a number of Communists who became active in the 
California Democratic Clubs in the Palo Alto and Stanford areas as 
a result of this shift in party policy. Ed Ross, Los Altos salesman 
whose principal party assignment was activity in local Democratic 
Clubs according to Mr. Prussion, appeared as a witness before the 
committee but invoked his constitutional privilege against self-in- 
crimination in response to questions dealing with party affiliation. 
Another witness called during the hearings was William Reich, of 
Oakland, who also invoked the fifth amendment when asked if he 

1921 



1922 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

made his Communist Party affiliation known to the 8th Congressional 
District Democratic Comicil, which he served as correspondmg 
secretary. 

The aforementioned Ed Eoss was also closely questioned by the 
committee regarding his contacts as a ball-bearing salesman with 
plants in missile and allied industries. Mr. Prussion had testified that 
Mr. Ross boasted to fellow Communist cell members on one occasion 
that he knew when and where missiles were fired, as well as the types 
of missiles and the direction of firing. Mr. Ross refused to affirm 
or deny Mr. Prussion's testimony. 

Efforts to recruit non-Communist supporters for party policy and 
activities through front organizations created by the party were illus- 
trated by the activities of the Palo Alto Peace Club. Set up by the 
party in 1949, this Communist front still uses "peace as a means 
of disarming, pacifying, and placating the citizenry of a nation," 
Mr. Prussion testified. Its official organ. The FlashUght^ serves 
as the "megaphone of the voice from the Kremlin," the witness 
declared. 

Doris Dawson, identified by Mr. Prussion as a fellow Coimnunist 
cell member and one-time president of the Palo Alto Peace Club, 
was called as a witness before the committee but invoked her constitu- 
tional privilege against self-incrimination in response to various com- 
mittee questions, including that of whether she had been a paid 
functionary of the Communist Party. 

Communist documents distributed to delegates to the party's I7th 
National Convention were introduced in the course of the hearings. 
The documents, which have been reproduced in an appendix to 
the printed hearings, verify that the party faithful, not only in 
California but throughout the Nation, are being called upon for in- 
tensive effort in infiltrating non-Communist organizations, with 
special emphasis on those dealing with labor, the Negro, youtli, 
politics, and farmers. The documents include an important policy 
statement by the party's national leader, Gus Hall, and proposed reso- 
lutions for action by the convention. They were analyzed at the 
hearings by Mrs. Barbara Hartle, who testified on the basis of many 
years' previous experience as a full-time, paid functionary of the Com- 
munist Party. Mrs, Hartle declared that the Communist Party con- 
tinues to exploit the privileges of democracy and, despite various 
l)ublic statements to the contrary, the party has not altered its basic 
belief in the seizure of power by force. The party, she said, looks 
forward to "mass action," to — 

breaking through the bourgeois laws, traditions and conven- 
tions, and doing by force and by mass action, by sheer bodily 
weight and numbers, what you cannot accomplish through 

using the laws, the Constitution and the democratic rights 
* * * 

Considerable testimony dealt with varied techniques employed by 
Communists to obscure technical membership in the party. These 
techniques pose difficult legal problems which are under continuous 
study by members of the conmiittee. Mr. Prussion described four 
types of party "membership" : 

1. They have one type of member who attends cell meetings, 
pays his dues. 



COAEMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1923 

2. They have another type of Communist, because he doesn't 
want to identify himself with the cell for fear of exposure by 
an informant such as myself, who has a courier pay his dues. 

3. Then there are many, many Communists who have 
dropped out of the Communist Party, conveniently, so that 
they can hide their identity and in that way are better able to 
carry out the revolutionary work. 

4. There is a fourth type of Communist who is never associ- 
ated with a cell, but he is a Leninist, and so imbued with the 
forthcoming; revolution that he works diligently wherever 
possible and keeps contact with Communist leaders on the 
higher level. 

This type of a Communist is usually a doctor, a lawyer, 
a political officer, and in the professional field of life. 

The witness said that, in his experience, as many Communists have 
technically dropped out of the party to hide their identity in recent 
years as have remained in it as formal cell members. He described 
the chief purpose of these teclinical withdrawals as desire to hide 
Communist connections in view of the individual's occupation and 
to avoid the impact of security laws. He cited as illustrations two 
fellow cell members : William King, who resigned from the cell and 
retained party contact only on an upper level because he wanted to 
continue working as an electronics engineer in a local plant; and 
Elliott Wilson, who was the subject of a fraudulent expulsion from 
the party so that he could apply for a teaching license from the state 
and swear he was not a member of the party. 

Mrs. Hartle also testified to the existence of a "large group of Com- 
munist followers or associates" who do not have formal party mem- 
bership, pay dues, or attend meetings but, nevertheless, follow the 
discipline of the party insofar as their activities and field of work are 
concerned. 

Quite another type of formal dissociation from the Communist 
Party was demonstrated to the committee as details of the "Vernon 
Bown case" were unfolded during the hearings. In 1959, as the re- 
sult of a policy disagreement with higher party officials in the North- 
em California District, Bown was unwillingly ousted from his job as 
organizer for an important party section in San Francisco embrac- 
ing party members affiliated with the unions traditionally in the AFL. 
Pie was finally expelled from the party itself. 

Documents written by Bown and a Communist section associate, 
Leibel Bergman, on the details of this internal party conflict were ob- 
tained by the committee from sources within the party and made part 
of the hearing record. 

The documents provided striking corroboration of testimony re- 
garding the totalitarian nature of the Communist Party organiza- 
tion. The written complaints of Bown and Bergman noted that 
Bown had been ousted from his party office and the party despite the 
support of other Communists in his club and section; that he was 
convicted at a party "trial" which neither he nor any of his represent- 
atives were allowed to attend ; and Bown was never fully informed of 
the nature of the charges against him. There was better observance 
of the principles of justice in a Nazi court than in the Communist 
Party, the complainants observed in an appeal that went all the way 

56597— 60— pt. 1 2 



1924 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

to the National Convention of the party without results. Called as 
witnesses before the committee, Mr Bown and INIr. Bergman invoked 
the fif til amendment in response to all questions relating to this party 
controversy. Similar stands were taken by two other witnesses, 
Jack Weintraub and John Andiew Negro who, according to commit- 
tee information, supported Bown in the imier party councils. Wit- 
ness Prussion summed up the "democracy" in internal operations of 
the party as follows : 

Within the Communist Party there is total disregard for 
law * * * there are rigged trials, forced confessions, provo- 
cations of suicides of Communists who have deviated, repris- 
als of Communists who might deviate even on party strategy. 

The committee called as witnesses five of the nine Communist Party 
functionaries who represented the Northern California District at the 
party's National Convention in New York City in December 1959. De- 
spite party documents inserted into the record to show their partici- 
pation in the convention, the following delegates uniformly refused 
to answer pertinent questions b}^ the committee : 

Archie Brown, San Francisco longshoreman and, according to com- 
mittee information, the second-ranking Communist in the Northern 
California District; his official party post is district committee mem- 
ber in charge of trade union matters. 

Ealph Izard, of San Francisco, active in Communist propaganda 
work in addition to serving on the San Francisco County Committee 
of the party. 

Joseph Figueiredo, active party official in Massachusetts until his 
transfer to Northern California party activities. He served on the 
district committee of the party in 1957. 

Saul Wachter, of Berkeley', active in the party's East Bay region 
Political Committee, according to the committee's information. 

Douglas Wachter, student at the University of California and a 
leader in Communist work among youth. 

Other witnesses subpenaed to appear before the committee on the 
basis of committee information respecting their leading roles in 
Northern California Communist echelons included the following in- 
dividuals who, in every instance, invoked their constitutional privilege 
against self-incrimination and refused to answer pertinent questions: 
Merle Brodsky, Oakland ; Noel Harris, Eureka ; Ann Deirup, Berke- 
ley; Elizabeth Nicholas, Sunnyvale; Donald H. Clark, San Jose; 
Morris Graham, San Jose; Sally Attarian Sweet, HayAvard; Lillian 
Ransome, Wheatland ; Ruben Venger, Cotati. 

Six individuals employed as teachers were subpenaed before the 
committee on the basis of information tliat they have also been active 
in the Communist Party. Martin Irving INIarcus, public school 
teacher of Pacific Grove; Lottie L. Rosen, teacher from Berkeley; 
Betty Halpern, a teacher in a Berkeley private scliool ; and Travis 
fjaft'erty, Oakland teacher, invoked the fifth amendment when ques- 
tioned regarding past and present Communist Party membership. 
Tillman H. Erb, a teacher at the Campbell School in Santa Clara 
County, California, stated he was willing to discuss his own activities 
but would not testify regarding othei'S associated with him. "Wlien 
the committee did not agree to such qualifications, Mr. Erb declined 
to answer all questions concerning Communist Party activities on the 



COIVIMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1925 

ground of possible self-incrimination. John Allen Johnson, a high 
school mathematics teacher of Ukiah, California, also declared he had 
decided to '"offer a certain degree of cooperation" to the committee by 
answering questions concerning his own associations but not those of 
other individuals. Claiming that disorderly demonstrations against 
the hearings had altered his plans, Mr. Johnson proceeded to respond 
to all questions by invoking the fifth amendment. 

Two other witnesses with teacher training, but employed in other 
capacities, were called before the committee as a result of information 
that they have been affiliated with the Communist Party. Ralph 
Johnsen, of Berkeley, presently a machinist, admitted he had resigned 
as a teacher in 1950 rather than subscribe to loyalty oath requirements 
but had finally agreed to si^^i such an oath in 1958. He denied pres- 
ent party membership but invoked the fifth amendment when asked 
whether he had been a member prior to 1958. Louis Zeitz^ a graduate 
student at Stanford University holding teaching credentials he has 
never used, invoked his constitutional privileges in response to all 
questions concerning Commmiist activity. 

Karl Prussion, in a resumption of his testimony in Washington, 
D.C., on June 10, emphasized that the Communist Party is a party of 
Leninism and that party members, as disciples of Lenin, strive to bring 
about the prerequisite conditions that will make it possible for them 
to overthrow the Government by force and violence and set up a dicta- 
torship of the Communist Party. Mr. Prussion outlmed the four pre- 
requisites of Communist revolution as follows : 

1. The establishment of a dedicated Communist Party nucleus 
wliich is strong enough to lead an insurrection to overthrow our 
Government by force and violence. 

2. Disunity in the Government of our Nation ; dissension with- 
in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of our Govern- 
ment on vital current issues. 

3. A chaotic economic situation in which the Communists, 
through their leadership in social, economic, and political organ- 
izations, could successfully carry out a revolution. This situation 
could be a depression or an inflationary spiral. 

4. The establishment of a trade-union movement which the 
Communists can successfully actuate into a political strike. 

Mr. Prussion expressed the opinion that current Communist Party 
strength of approximately 10,000 hard-core, formal members, plus (his 
estimate) its equal number of secret members, is sufficient to carry out 
an insurrection "if the other prerequisites are attained." 

He quoted as evidence for this belief a report by Communist Party 
official James S. Allen to the National Executive Committee of the 
party on May 9, 1958. In that report, ]\Ir. Allen stated : 

Yet, in seeking to chart our road to socialism, we are in a much 
better position than the Marxists in the period before the 
Great Russian Revolution, which pioneered the road, or than 
we were before World War II, before a number of countries 
took that road. 

Mr. Prussion explained that, to the Communists, all Communist 
Party activity is "revolutionary" in nature, whether it be in political, 
economic, or social organizations and even though, on the surface, it 
would appear to be "peaceful work within our Constitution and within 
our Bill of Rights." 



1926 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Prussion gave examples of how the Communists are now work- 
ing in the United States to achieve each of the four prerequisites of 
revolution, emphasizing in his testimony Communist methods of in- 
filtrating various social, political, religious, and trade-union groups 
without arousing the groups' suspicions. 

One such example was the Communist infiltration of the South Palo 
Alto Democratic Club, Mr. Prussion identified 14 of the 25 charter 
members of this club as persons known to him as Communist Party 
members. 

He revealed how the Communists have used a campus group for 
student recruitment purposes. Of a Stanford University organiza- 
tion called Political Forum, Mr. Prussion stated : 

This organization is a good, bona fide organization. I don't 
believe it has any Communist control. They invite speakers 
of all description from the extreme right to the extreme left. 

The Communists, he pointed out, send several party members to the 
Political Forum meetings and they take note of those students who ask 
questions which lead the Communists to believe they would be good 
prospects for recruitment into the Communist Party : 

They befriend such a student and will invite such a student 
down to a social study group in one of the homes of the 
Communists. 

In a similar way, Mr. Prussion testified, the Communists try to use 
PTA, religious, and other grassroots community organizations to pro- 
mote their line and to attempt to win additional converts to their cause. 

In explaining the Communist "peace" appeal and campaign, Mr. 
Prussion stated: 

The only peace that the Communist Party and the Commu- 
nist International want is the "peace" that can come only 
through Communist triumph all over the world * * *. 

Mr. Prussion revealed that the Communists in his area have held 
their secret meetings in members' homes, in public parks, and often 
in public buildings. He recalled examples of secret Communist 
gatherings in the basement of the City Hall at Sunnyvale, Calif., the 
Community Center in Palo Alto, and the South Palo Alto Library : 

Even a room in the Civic Auditorium in San Jose has been 
used. * * * 

As a matter of fact, the Communists have a sense of humor 
and even their sense of humor has a class angle. "Wlien they 
refer to the Sunnyvale banquet room in the City Hall of 
Sunnyvale, they call it Smolny Institute No. 1 and they call 
the community building in Palo Alto Smolny Institute No. 2. 

The Smolny Institute, he explained, was the Moscow headquarters 
of the Bolshevik Party during, prior to, and after the Eussian 
Revolution. 

Mr. Prussion also testified that persons knoAvn to him as Communist 
Party members have falsely signed affidavits that they were not mem- 
bers of any subversive organization in order to run for public office 
and school board positions. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1927 

He also stated that a Communist Party member, Michael Shapova- 
lov, had written a book entitled "Soviet Union," which is bein^ used 
in the public schools of San Mateo County "at the present time. 

In evaluating what he considered to be the major weaknesses of the 
American public in regard to the operations of the Communist Party, 
Mr. Prussion stated : 

I think the Communist Party, especially through their 
peace campaign and their campaigns of peaceful coexistence, 
have had a major success in creating a public apathy and 
indifference to the menace of the Communist conspiracy. 
This apathy should be changed to an acute awareness by our 
citizenry of this danger, and this awareness should express 
itself in such a manner that there will be proper legislation 
passed that would facilitate the containment and the ulti- 
mate destruction of this conspiracy. Appeasement of the 
Soviet Union on their "peaceful coexistence offensive" today 
can only mean the complete capitulation of the American 
way of life to Leninist materialism and dictatorship to- 
morrow. 

Continuing the committee's study into the entry of foreign Com- 
munist propaganda and its dissemination within the United States, 
the committee heard testimony in San Francisco from Irving Fish- 
man, Deputy Collector of Customs in New York City. 

Mr. Fishman reiterated the need for amendments to the Foreign 
Agents Eegistration Act of 1938. The act, according to Mr. Fish- 
man, is directed primarily at forcing disclosure of those persons who 
act within the United States as propaganda agents of a foreign power. 
A second purpose of the act is to require the identification of political 
propaganda so that the American public can appraise and evaluate 
material disseminated by propaganda agents in the light of their 
foreign relationships. 

Mr. Fishman estimated that in the year 1959 over 10 million in- 
dividual propaganda items which had entered the United States from 
Soviet-bloc countries were submitted to his units throughout the 
country for examination. According to Mr. Fishman, the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act does not, at the present time, appear to pro- 
vide tliat this material be properly labeled at the time of importation. 

A provision in the Foreign Agents Registration Act, as interpreted 
by the Attorney General in 1940, calls for establishment of an agency 
relationship between the sender and the foreign government before 
any action can be taken in connection with this propaganda. Mr. 
Fishman pointed out that this is difficult to prove w^hen the Soviet 
propaganda machine directs to the United States material printed 
in, or sent through, other free countries of the world. 

With the assistance of Mr. Stephen K. Louie and Mr. Harlin Wong, 
of the San Francisco office of the Customs Service, Mr. Fishman 
focused particular attention on the influx into California of Commu- 
nist propaganda from the mainland of China and North Korea. 
After analyzing some of this material, Mr. Fishman stated that the 
Chinese Communists have concentrated on the overseas Chinese, with 
special attention to attracting overseas Chinese students for study 
in Red China. Mr. Fishman testified that the volume of propaganda 



1928 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

produced in Europe for dissemination in this country has decreased 
while the Asian Communist material has been on the increase. 

The committee completed its 3-day hearing in San Francisco under 
the most trying conditions possible. Identified Communists, sympa- 
thizers, and students, numbering in the hundreds, engaged in pro- 
test demonstrations within and outside the committee hearing cham- 
bers in a tragic sequence of events which culminated in outright 
rioting. 

It is a matter of record that the Communist apparatus has decided 
that if its operations in the United States are to be more successful, it 
must intensify its campaign to get rid of the House Conmiittee on 
Un-American Activities, and at the same time try to discredit the 
Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and generally weaken 
the F.B.I.'s influence and powers. This campaign is spearheaded 
by two Communist-front organizations, the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee (ECLC) , with headquarters in New York, and the Citizens 
Committee To Preserve American Freedoms (CCPAF) on the West 
Coast. 

One of the moving forces of the CCPAF is Frank Wilkinson, 
an identified Communist whose job has been to incite resistance to and 
trouble for the committee in locations where hearings are sched- 
uled. The CCPAF's "Operation Abolition" campaign against the 
committee was brought into San Francisco by Wilkinson, who freely 
admitted to newsmen covering the demonstrations that he was there 
to "organize protests." 

The long-time classic Communist tactic by which a relatively few 
well-trained, hard-core Communist agents are able to incite and use 
non-Communist sympathizers to perform the work of the Commu- 
nist Party was again made evident. 

Demonstrations within the hearing room on the first day of the 
hearing completely disrupted normal committee procedure time and 
time again and, at one point, forced a halt in the proceedings for over 
40 minutes. The principal agitational demand of the Conimunist 
demonstrators and their followers was that the hearing room doors be 
opened so that more agitators could gain entry. 

As film coverage of the hearing reveals, the committee, in an ejffort 
to be fair, had made every possible concession to those intei-ested in 
viewing the proceedings. After every seat in the hearing room had 
been filled for the opening morning session, the committee, in violation 
of its normal procedure, permitted an additional 100 to 140 spectators 
to enter the room to view the proceedings while standing in the aisles 
and along the rear and side walls. The demonstrations were carried 
on in spite of this and, in oi-der to put a stop to them and restore order, 
the chairman was forced to order evicted from the hearing room Archie 
Brown, Ral]^h Izard, Merle Brodsky, Saul Wachter, Morris Graham, 
Juanita Wlieeler, Sally Attarian Sweet — all subpenaed witnesses and 
active Commimists in the area, according to committee information. 
Several students were also ejected. 

Because of this development, the aisles wei-e cleared that afternoon 
and during the i-emaining 2 days of the hearings. However, a rotation 
seating procedure vras adopted in an attempt to permit as mnny as 
possible of the spectators Malting in the hallways to observe the pro- 
ceedings. Because the agitators engaged in repeated outbursts, dem- 



COMIMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1929 

onstrations, and disruptive behavior in spite of tliis arrangement, the 
hearing room had to be carefully patrolled by police and sheriff's 
officials for the duration of the hearing. 

On the second day of the hearing, the committee, at the request of 
the police and sheriff's department, had loudspeakers set up 
across the street from City Hall in an attempt to placate the crowds 
trying to gain entrance to the hearing room. (Due to the limited 
seating capacity only several hundred people could be admitted to the 
actual hearing room.) 

As was the case on the previous day, several professional Com- 
munist agitators directed the activity of students and others waiting 
in the hallways. The demonstrators there became so loud that, after 
two judges in their chambers on the third floor had complained that 
they were unable to conduct court proceedings because of the noise, 
Presiding Superior Court Judge Clarence Morris, who had been ex- 
periencing the same difficulty, ordered the sheriff and police officials to 
clear the City Hall. Wlien an attempt was made to carry out the 
order, rioting broke out. One student, according to the police officers 
on the scene, provided the spark that touched off the violence when 
he attacked a police officer with a night stick. In order to remove the 
demonstrators from City Hall, fire hoses had to be used. 

Among those arrested during the riots were a few trained Com- 
munist agents. The others were the unwitting dupes of the party 
who had, in their demonstrations against the committee, performed 
like puppets — with the trained Communists manipulating the 
strings — even to the point of wilfully and deliberately defying law 
and order. 

Thomas Cahill, Chief of Police; Michael J. Maguire, Police In- 
spector; and Matthew C. Carberry, Sheriff, all of the City and 
County of San Francisco, testified before this committee on the last 
day of the hearings regarding the demonstrations and riots. Each of 
these men discussed their participation in the events just described. 
All of these officials agreed that the student demonstrators were in- 
filtrated by a number of professional Communist agitators who were 
able to incite the students to riot. The committee praised 
these officials for exercising restraint, caution, and attention to the 
rights of all persons during the events which took place at the hearings. 

The unprecedented disorder and violence surrounding the hearings 
led the committee to renew its appeal for legislation providing pen- 
alties for misbehavior before congressional committees. Communists 
and their dupes were able to disrupt committee hearings with virtual 
impunity. IJnder existing law, the committee cannot set in motion 
any type of judicial j)rocess aimed at punishing (and thereby also 
preventing) misbehavior which obstructs orderly congressional in- 
quiry. 

Immediately after the San Francisco hearings, the chairman of 
the committee introduced H.R. 12366, which would make it a mis- 
demeanor for anyone to misbehave in the presence of either House of 
Congress or any one of their committees. The legislative proposal is 
discussed in detail in House Eeport 2228, submitted by the chairman 
of the committee to the House of Representatives. Film footage of 
the riots in San Francisco taken by TV stations KRON and KPIX 
of that city and made into a dociunentai-y film by Washington Video 
Productions, Inc., was made a part of this report. 



THE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT OF THE 

COMMUNIST PARTY 

Structure — Objectives — Leadership 

(Part 1) 



THURSDAY, MAY 12, 1960 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

San Francisco^ Calif. 

public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 9 :30 a.m. in the Supervisors Chambers, City Hall 
Building, San Francisco, California, Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chair- 
man of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, 
of Louisiana, and August E, Johansen, of Michigan. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; William 
A. ^AHieeler, investigator; and Fulton Lewis III, research analyst. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please be in order. 

The hearings which begin today in San Francisco are in furtherance 
of the powers and duties of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, pursuant to Public Law 601 of the T9th Congress, which not only 
establishes the basic jurisdiction of the committee, but also mandates 
this committee, along with other standing committees of the Con- 
gi'ess, to exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution of any laws, 
the subject of which is within the jurisdiction of the committee. 

In response to this power and duty, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities is continuously in the process of accumulating factual in- 
formation respecting Communists, the Communist Party, and Com- 
munist activities which will enable the committee and the Congress to 
appraise the administration and operation of the Smith Act, the 
Internal Security Act of 1950, the Communist Control Act of 1954, and 
numerous provisions of the Criminal Code relating to espionage, 
sabotage, and subversion. In addition, the committee has before it 
nmnerous proposals to strengthen our legislative weapons, designed 
to protect the internal security of this Nation. 

86597— 60— pt. 1 3 1931 



1932 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

I shall now read the resolution of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities authorizing and directing the holding of the instant hear- 
ings: 

April 5, 1960. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the committee or a subcommittee thereof, 
to be held in San Francisco, California, or at such other place or places as the 
chairman may designate, on such date or dates as the chairman may determine, 
be authorized and approved, including the conduct of investigations deemed 
reasonably necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, relating to the follow- 
ing' subjects and having the legislative purposes indicated : 

1. The extent, character and objects of Communist infiltration and Communist 
Party activities in Northern California, for the legislative purpose of obtaining 
additional information for use by the committee in maintaining surveillance 
over the administration and operation of the Internal Security Act, the Com- 
munist Control Act, and other security legislation. 

2. The past form, structure, organization and activities of the Communist 
Party and members of the Communist Party, whether in California or elsewhere, 
for the purpose of enabling the committee to interpret the significance of the 
present form, structure, organization and activities of the Communist Party, 
for the legislative purpose of obtaining information for use by the committee 
in consideration of proposed amendments to the security laws relating to the 
term "member of the Communist Party," possible use in legislation of the term 
'•under Communist Party discipline," and for use by the committee in considera- 
tion of a proposed amendment to Section 4 of the Communist Control Act of 1954, 
prescribing penalties for knowingly and willfully becoming or remaining a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party with knowledge of the purposes or objectives thereof. 

3. The entry into and dissemination within the United States of foreign 
Communist Party propaganda, the legislative purpose being to determine the 
advisability of amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act, designed 
to counteract Communist devices now used in avoiding the prohibitions of 
that act. 

4. Techniques, strategies, tactics, and devices used by members of the Com- 
munist Party for the purpose of evading the impact of present security laws, the 
legislative purpose being to reveal factual situations to the committee which 
may require remedial legislation in the interest of national defense and internal 
security. 

5. Any other matter within the jurisdiction of the committee which it, or 
any subcommittee thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

I shall now read the order of appointment of the siibconmiittee to 

conduct these hearings: 

April 6, 1960. 
To : Mr. Richard Arens, 
Btaff Director, House Committee on JJtv-American Activities. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appointed a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, con- 
sisting of Representative Edwin E. Willis, as Chairman, and Representatives 
Morgan M. Moulder and August E. Johansen as associate members, to conduct 
hearings in San Francisco, California, Monday through Thursday, May 9, 10, 
31, and 12, 1960, at 10:00 a.m., on subjects under investigation by the Committee 
and take such testimony on said days or succeeding days, as it may deem 
necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 6th day of April, 1960. 

Francis E. Waltkk. 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

I wish it were possible for the Congress of the United Slates to pass 
a single law wliich would for all times solve the threat to our security 
posed by the Communist operation in this country. Unfortunately, 
however, the pi'oblem with which we are confronted by communism 
is too complex and has too many ramifications to be coped with by a 
single panacea. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1933 

Anyone who has had experience in dealing with Communists knows 
that they are constantly changing their strategy and tacticSj con- 
stantly revising their forms of attack and constantly maneuvering in 
order to avoid the impact of those legislative weapons which we,have 
devised to protect this Nation against their machinations. 

Accordingly, ours is the task to pursue the trails of the Communists 
wlierever they may lead and in whatever form they appear, in order 
that we can continuously appraise our security laws in their adminis- 
tration and operation, and where the facts warrant to amend or revise 
those laws. 

What are the present strategies and tactics of the Communist op- 
eration in this general area? What tecliniques are the hard-core 
Communists pursuing in order to avoid detection as they pursue their 
nefarious work? What are the lines of control and communication 
between the various Communists' nests here and elsewhere in the Na- 
tion? Wliat loopholes or weaknesses exist in our present security 
laws ? How may those laws be strengthened ? These questions shall 
be uppermost in our minds as we elicit testimony during these 
hearings. 

May I emphasize that the purpose of the subcommittee here is to 
sample factual material with reference to types and patterns of ac- 
tivity, and not to attempt to exhaust the subject matter. We have 
not subpenaed witnesses for these hearings merely to put on a show, 
nor shall we attempt to interrogate in these hearings even a signifi- 
cant percentage of all possible witnesses on whom we have compiled 
information. 

It is a standing rule of this committee that any person identified 
as a member of the Communist Party during the course of the com- 
mittee hearings will be given an early opportunity to appear before 
this committee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying or explaining 
any testimony adversely affecting him. It is also the policy of the 
committee to accord any witness the privilege of being represented by 
counsel; but, within the provisions of the rules of this committee, 
counsel's sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise liis client. 

I would remind those present that a disturbance of any kind or an 
audible comment during the hearings will not be permitted, as it can- 
not be. This is a serious proceeding in which we are earnestly trying 
to discharge an important and arduous duty. 

I may sa\' that it is not a pleasant task. We are here pursuant to 
an act of Congress. The House of Representatives, each Congress, 
lias ordered our continuance. So far as I know, no Member of Con- 
gress has ever voted against our authority to act. 

I would like to announce that by instruction of the authorities here, 
there cannot be smoking in the room. I am sure you understand 
that. People here have been kind enough to make these facilities 
available, and we certainly want to respect that, so there cannot be 
any smoking, please. 

Mr. Arens, please call your first witness. 

Mr. Arens. The first witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr, Irving Fishman, Deputy Collector of Customs at the Port of 
Entry in New York City, who is accompanied and will be assisted 
in his testimony today by two of his colleagues whom he will introduce 
at the appropriate time on this record. 



1934 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Fisliman, will you kindly stand while the chairman administers 
the oath? 

Mr. Wnxis. Will the three of you stand ? 

Please raise your right hands. Do you solemnly swear that the 
testimony that you will give before this subcommittee will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. I do. 

Mr. Wong. I do. 

Mr. Louie. I do, 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING FISHMAN, HAELIN WONG, 
AND STEPHEN K. LOUIE 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, will you kindly give us a word of identifi- 
cation of yourself, your duties, your personal background, and then, 
if you please, I would request that your two colleagues, likewise, give 
a word of identification of themselves, 

Mr. Fishman. I am Deputy Collector of Customs assigned to the 
Port of New York. My duties include exercising control over the 
importation of printed matter into the United States which may be 
considered as prohibited under various Federal statutes. 

I have been with the Customs Service for over 32 years and have 
been engaged in the enforcement of the provisions of law which deal 
with the importation of political propaganda for some 8 or 9 years. 

The Customs Service, in cooperation with the United States Post 
Office Department, has set up several control units in the United 
States, among which is the miit attached to the Office of the Collector 
of Customs in San Francisco, California. 

Mr. AnENS. Would you kindly now mtroduce your two colleagues. 

Mr. Fishman. To my left is Stephen K. Louie, who is in charge of 
the unit which examines printed matter imported through this port. 

To my right is Harlin Wong, who is one of the translators and 
reviewers of this material assigned to this port. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, did you and the United States Customs 
Service make a study, in the course of the last several months, of the 
Communist propaganda which is coming into the United States via 
the port at San Francisco, California ? 

Mr. Fishman, We have. 

Mr. Arens. Before we get into the specifics of your statistics, would 
you care to give us an overall appraisal as to tlie quantity or volume 
of the Communist propaganda which is imported, and has been im- 
ported in the course of the last year, via this port of entry? 

Mr. Fishman. Actually, this propaganda floods the country. It 
emanates in the Soviet-bloc countries and in Communist China. I 
have prepared a statement for submission to the committee which 
presents to some degi-ee the background and basis for our operation. 

Mr, Arens, Mr, Fishman, I respectfully suggest to the chairman 
that the statement which you liave prepared be incorporated into the 
body of this record and then we will proceed to interrogate you on 
the highlights of your statement, if that meets with the approval of 
the chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Let the statement be incorporated at this point. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1935 

(The statement referred to follows :) 

Statement by Irving Fisiiman, Depxjtt Collector of Customs, Before 
THE House Committee on Un-Ameeican Activities, San Francisco, 
Calif., May 12, 19G0 

As the subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities is 
aware, the United States Customs Service has a responsibility for the 
examination of merchandise imported into the United States. As a 
matter of law, Federal statutes which deal with imported merchandise 
are enforced by our Service. In the Tariff Act of 1930 there are pro- 
hibitions against the importation of treasonable material, material which 
invites insurrection against the United States or advocates the over- 
throw of the United States Government. There is also responsibility 
with respect to printed materials which contain foreign political, Com- 
munist propaganda. So far as the mails are concerned this responsi- 
bility, we believe, is shared with the Post Office Department. In the 
treatment of printed matter which contains political Communist propa- 
ganda, our agencies base this responsibility, to a degree, upon the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938. This Act is directed primarily 
at forcing disclosure by persons who act within the United States as 
propaganda agents for foreign governments or foreign political parties. 
A second purpose of the Act is to require the identification of political 
propaganda so that the American public can appraise and evaluate 
material disseminated by propaganda agents in the light of their foreign 
relationships. 

Based upon the Foreign Agents Registration Act and the rulings of 
the Attorney General supplementing the same, agents registered with 
the Department of Justice who disseminate political propaganda are 
required to identify the same as to source. Specifically, under the 
Attorney General's opinion of December 10, 1940, a person in a foreign 
country acting on behalf of a foreign principal who sends political 
propaganda to this country is considered as though this action took place 
in the United States. 

We should like to make it clear that there is no intent in connection 
with our work to deprive citizens of political information, even if this 
information should be propaganda of a foreign government or a foreign 
principal. However, we do feel that Congress did intend to bring out 
into the open the activities of persons engaged in disseminating Com- 
munist propaganda and to make known the source of the propaganda. 

To aid in the enforcement of these provisions of law, the United 
States Customs Service and the Post Office Department have set up three 
control units, staffed with personnel having language abilities, to ex- 
amine printed materials entering the United States. These units are 
located at the ports of New York, San Francisco, and New Orleans. 
Mail from the Soviet-bloc countries, for example, is directed to our 
New York Control Unit, and mail from the mainland of China and North 
Korea is directed to the port of San Francisco. It may be of interest 
to the committee to know that our unit at the port of New Orleans was 
established only recently and concerns itself for the most part with 
Communist propaganda shipped via certain Latin American countries 
into the United States. 

To conclude the formal part of my statement, we should like to give 
the subcommittee some idea of the volume of printed materials sub- 
mitted to our units by the Post Office Department. In 1959 at all three 
control units there were received from the Post Office Department ap- 
proximately 6 million packages containing over 10 million items of 
printed matter. 

This constituted an 18% increase over the printed materials submitted 
for 1958, and in comparison with the 1955 figures the volume in 1959 has 
practically doubled. At San Francisco, specifically, the 1959 figures in- 
dicate the receipt of over a million mail articles of printed matter sub- 
mitted by the Post Office Department for examination. These figures do 
not include redefection material which is received via first-class mail. 
It has been estimated that 125,000 individual envelopes are received each 
month at the port of New York alone, or approximately 1,500,000 a year, 
of this latter type of material. This material is printed in Russian, 



1936 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Byelo-Russian, Georgian, Ukrainian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, and 
Rumanian. 

To pinpoint material directed to students or the youth of this country, 
there have been continuing increases in the volume of this matter 
at a rate of almost 40% a year. In W'>\) there were 380,000 packages, 
containing 580,000 items. Interestingly enough, the European propa- 
ganda volume has dropped, while the Asian Communist material has been 
on the increase. This same situation was referred to in an article 
appearing in the Scripps-Howard newspapers on April 13, 1960, entitled 
"Reds Beating U.S. in Asian Propaganda." The lead sentence of the 
article reads, "The United States is being trounced soundly by the Com- 
munists on Asia's propaganda battlefields, a survey of Far Eastern 
leaders disclosed today.'' Similar comment was made editorially by this 
same newspaper chain on April 14, 1960. A sentence in this editorial 
is worth repeating, "Propaganda is no less important than foreign aid in 
cold war strategy." 

To reflect this situation, the committee may wish to know that the 
number of copies of "China Pictorial" in the English language sent 
to the United States increased by almost 50% ; the magazine "Chinese 
Literature" by 100% ; publications entitled "Korea Today" and "Korea," 
in English are new to a degree, but there have been quantities of these 
publications submitted to us. As a sidelight, it may be of interest to 
note that "People's China" in the Esperanto language was sent in very 
small quantities to the United States in 1958. There was, however, 
a marked increase in the number of these publications forwarded to 
our country in 1959. We have prepared, and there are before the 
members of the subcommittee, samples of some of the material inter- 
cepted here, together with translations. The context of propaganda 
publications has changed considerably in recent months, due in a great 
measure to the upcoming summit meetings. This change is reflected 
to a degree in the pronouncement of the Soviet Government. It has 
been evident, at least until this week, that the spirit of Camp David 
has affected the propaganda line from Moscow, except perhaps as it 
relates to East Berlin. There has been a marked cessation of the 
harsher type of vilification and innuendo and a perhaps more gentle, 
guarded approach to the issues to be misrepresented. 

This change has, however, been restricted to the Moscow line. The 
Chinese news service has taken a much tougher stand, both in mate- 
rial sent here from the China mainland and transmitted through 
friendly Latin American sources. For example, the Prensa Latina 
news service in Cuba, a propaganda outlet, combines its efforts with 
Red China's North China News Agency functioning through Czech- 
oslovakia. This is also evident in the volume of scientific and tech- 
nical printed materials exported to the United States. 

It is almost as though the Chinese fear that they are being over- 
shadowed in this field. 

The Chinese Communists through their propaganda press have con- 
centrated on the overseas Chinese. A discussion of the many facets of 
the program would take up more time than is available here. An inter- 
esting angle, however, relates to students aroimd the world. For ex- 
ample, great efforts have been made to increase pro-Peking teaching in 
the Chinese schools in southeast Asia. Special attention has been given 
to attracting overseas Chinese students for study in China, and there 
has been some success resulting from an appeal to patriotism and by 
subsidizing those who wish to return to the mainland. Students from 
abroad are welcomed to China with great fanfare and receive prefer- 
ence in college placements. The main motive in attracting students 
has been to make use of their skills in development programs and Pe- 
king desires to attract students from abroad to fill its growing uni- 
versities. Because of unfavorable reports from students who have 
gone to China, enlistments have fallen off in recent years. 

To refer very briefly on the overall affect of the overseas Chinese 
propaganda effort, I have asked Mr. Harlin Wong, of the San Francisco 
office, to comment on this issue. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1937 

Mr. Akens. Mr. Fishman, where are the principal control points or 
l)rocessing points in the United States for Communist propaganda 
emanating from the Iron Curtain countries and from Ked China? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. As I have indicated in my statement, the Treasury 
Department, Bureau of Customs, and the Post Office Department 
consider it a responsibility of the respective agency to concern itself 
with the importation of any foreign printed matter which contains 
Communist political propaganda. 

The responsibility stems from the Foreign Agents Re^stration Act. 
The problem of how to control this propaganda and still stay within 
the limits of our appropriation was one that we considered for a 
number of years and finally set up units on the East Coast — in New 
York, in Cliicago, and one on the West Coast, in San Francisco. 

Tlie Chicago unit was subsequently incorporated with the one in 
operation at the Port of New York, and a new unit opened at the 
Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, to take care of the huge volume 
of propaganda which was flooding the United States through friendly 
countries in Latin America. 

We would like to make it clear that our agencies, in the treatment 
of this material, are fully aware of our responsibility. It is our feel- 
ing that the Foreign Agents Registration Act is primarily a disclosure 
statute and that it makes it necessary for a foreign government which, 
through any of its agents, sends political propaganda into the United 
States, to disclose the source of the information. 

That is to make the information readily available to the reader — 
who should know, when he reads material, or has access to it — just 
where it emanates from and just who is responsible for it. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt to rephrase — as I understand j^our 
statement of the law, is in a rather summary vein. See if this is sub- 
stantially correct, namely, that the Foreign Agents Registration Act 
requires that Communist propaganda which is being sent into the 
United States be labeled "Political Propaganda" and that those per- 
sons in the United States who are disseminating this Communist 
propaganda must, themselves, register with the Department of Justice. 

The law does not require anything further. The law does not 
attempt to stop the importation of the propaganda. It only requires 
a labeling, a disclosure that it is political propaganda and that the 
person who is disseminating it into the United States is the agent of 
a f oreigii power ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That generally relates to the provisions of law with 
which we are concerned here this morning. 

Mr. Arens. The theory of the law is similiar to the theory of the 
law we have respecting food and drug commodities, is it not? 

Mr. FiSHMAx. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Namely, that there be a labeling so that the recipient 
will know that the material which is being transmitted in the United 
States is political or Communist propaganda; is that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. The Congress saw fit in both the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act and also in the Internal Security 
Act to include a proviso that this matei'ial be properly labeled, both 
on the material and on the mailing wrapper. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you say you had been in the Customs 
Service ? 



1938 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Some 32 years. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of that time, you have examined 
probably millions of specimens of Communist propaganda coming 
mto the United States, have you not? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You have before you now exhibits of propaganda which 
have been sent through the Port of San Francisco in the course of 
the recent past ; is that correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Does any of this material which is presently before this 
committee bear the labeling "Political Propaganda," as required by 
the law? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. None that I have been able to discover. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of your 32 years' experience in the United 
States Customs Service in charge of the examination of Communist 
propaganda coming into the United States via the various ports of 
entry, which I believe you have characterized as coming in flood 
proportions, have you ever seen a single piece of Communist propa- 
ganda labeled in accordance with requirements of the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act? 

]\Ir. FiSHMAN. Not at the time of importation. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us, first of all, the summary statistics 
on the volume of Communist propaganda which, we will say over 
the course of the last year, has been beamed or directed into the 
United States from the Communist countries? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We have estimated, and we keep fairly accurate sta- 
tistics at the three control units, that in 1959 approximately 6 million 
parcels of mail, containing over 10 million individual items of printed 
matter, were submitted to our units for examination by the Post Office 
Department as having emanated in the Soviet-bloc countries. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly tell us through what conduits this 
Communist propaganda comes into the United States and through 
what conduits the Customs Service is prohibited from making a 
determination to ascertain if Communist propaganda is coming into 
this country ? 

ISIr. FiSHMAN. A provision of the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act and the interpretation placed on this Act by the Department of 
Justice makes it almost mandatory that before any action can be taken 
in connection with this material that we be in a position to establish 
an agency relationship between the sender and the foreign govern- 
ment, so that any of this material which is shipped through a friendly 
country cannot come under our surveillance. Our interest necessarily 
must be directed to that which comes from the Soviet-bloc countries. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt so that we can keep our record clear 
as we go along? 

The statistics which you have just revealed respecting this flood 
of Communist propaganda coming into the United States unlabeled, 
although required to be labeled by the law, does not include Com- 
munist propaganda wliich the Communists in the Iron Curtain coun- 
tries are transshipping into the United States via free countries; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That would be correct. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1939 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, on the basis of your examination, study, 
and investitration of this subject, are the Communists utilizing to 
anj appreciable extent free countries of the world as transshipment 
points for the shipment of Communist propaganda into the United 
States ? 

Mr. Fishman. There is very ample evidence to that effect. 

Mr. Aeens. Would you give any further specific characterization 
of the extent to which the Communists are using free countries as 
transshipment points for their propaganda and thereby evading sur- 
veillance by the Customs Service ? 

Mr. Fishman. There is no doubt in our minds that, knowing our 
limitations, the Soviet propaganda machine has directed much of its 
material through countries such as Canada — material printed either 
in Canada or directed to Canada — and then mto the United States. 

Mr. Akens. How about Mexico? 

Mr. Fishman. The Soviet Embassy in Mexico maintains huge print- 
ing plants for the purpose of preparing and disseminating anti- Ameri- 
can propaganda both in the United States and in Latin American 
countries. 

Mr. Arens. Does this Communist propaganda in flood proportions, 
as you characterized it, go through the United States mails ? 

Mr. Fishman. A lot of it does. 

Mr. Arens. Does the postage which is paid for this propaganda 
by the Communist countries pay for the shipment in total of the 
propaganda from the point of origin to the point of ultimate 
destination ? 

Mr. Fishman, I have no expert information on that score ; but since 
the Post Office Department is subsidized, it would follow that the 
carrying of this mail and the payments provided for this service would 
hardly pay for its cost. 

Mr. Aeens. Then is it a fair interpretation that part of the cost 
of shipping this Communist propaganda in flood proportions into 
the United States at these various ports of entry is paid for by the 
United States taxpayers who subsidize the mails ? 

Mr. Fishman. I think that would be a fair statement. 

Mr. Arens. Through how many ports of entry in the United States 
does the Communist propaganda enter this country ? 

Mr. Fishman. There are some 45 ports of entry and a number of 
sub-ports. Of course, we have, with Post Office Department coopera- 
tion, directed much of it to the three units I mentioned. 

Mr. Arens. That is for channeling purposes ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is for channeling purposes. 

Mr. Arens. Is_ the volume of Communist propao;anda emanating 
f rom_ abroad which is subject to your surveillance increasing or de- 
creasing ? 

Mr. Fishman. It has been increasing steadily. In 1958 we had a 
total of some 4,897,000 odd mail parcels. So the figure for 1959 
reflected an increase of some 18 percent. To come more specifically 
to the Port of San Francisco, where we have just recently completed 
our study, in 1959 there were over one million mail parcels containing 
some 2,032,000 pieces of printed matter. 

In 1958 there were only 945,000 mail parcels, so here, too, we reflect 
an increase. None of these figures, of course, includes the retum-to- 

56597— 60— pt 1 4 



194U COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

the-homeland or redefection material which comes in the first-chiss 
mail. 

Mr. Arens. I ex})ect to pursue that line of inquiry with you in just 
a moment, Mr. Fisliman. I want the record to reflect those areas 
which are subject to your surveillance and those areas which are not 
subject to your surveillance. 

Does the Customs Service, which maintains at least a watchfulness 
over this flood of Communist propaganda, ha\e access to what we call 
first-class mail ? 

Mr. FisiiMAx. No. Under the Constitution, first-class mail is not 
subject to examination. 

Mr. Arens. Does tlie Customs Service have access, in a surveillance 
pattern, to Communist propaganda channeled by diplomatic routes? 

ilr. FisiiiMAx. By reciprocal agreements, we do not have access to 
diplomatic mail. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Customs Service have access to Communist 
propaganda which comes in bulk shipment for redistribution to dis-. 
semination points which, in turn, distribute the material outside the 
United States? 

xvlr. Fisii]MAN. No ; we haA^e no control over that either. 

Mr. Arens. Then there are vast areas in which Conununist propa- 
ganda is coming into the United States whicii are not subject to offi- 
cial scrutiny, let alone official censor or oillcial labeling; is that 
correct? 

Mr. FisuMAN. That is correct. I would like to add a very specific 
avenue, and that is by way of the agents who are registered with the 
Department of Justice. They may, of course, bring in tons of it with- 
out any control by any Government agency. 

Mr. Arens. I Mant to make the record clear on that. A person in 
the United States wlio is registered Avith the Department of Jusl ire 
under the Foreign Agents llegistration Act and conies forward and 
says "I am a foreign agent of the Soviet Union" — or Red China or 
any one of the captive countries — "and am regularly receiving (/oin- 
munist propaganda for redistribution," can receive an unlimited 
quantity, can he not ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Ho can distribute an unlimited quantity under our 
existing laws and f>r()cedures, can lie not ? 

Mr. FisnMAN. That is correct. The Congress contemplated that by 
registration these people Avould be brought out into the open, their ac- 
tivities would be well known, and that that would suffice. 

Mr. Arens. But in the course of your experience in the United 
States Customs Service, including your most recent examination of 
(his quantity of Communist propaganda which you have brought for 
display purposes here to this committee, you have yet to see a single 
]nece of Communist propaganda being brought into the United States 
which is labeled as Communist propaganda in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act; is tliat correct? 

M)'. FisiiMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are you in a position to give us, fii"st of all, the rnuge 
of the recipients of this Communist propaganda? Is it directed to 
schools and colleges in the United States? 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1941 

Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. We have some general idea of how the ma- 
terial is directed. It is directed, of course, primarily and princi- 
pally to people who have their heritage in the countries now under 
Conmimiist aomiuation and control. It is directed to colleges, univer- 
sities, and secondary schools, to every organization associated with 
these schools. 

Mr. Aeens. TYliether or not they solicit it ; is that correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. For the most part, tliis material is unsolicited. It is 
merely sent to them with or without their consent. 

Mr. Aeens. Specifically, does this Communist propaganda that you 
have displayed here say ''Tliis is Communist propaganda" or does it 
give any overt indication that it is part of the propaganda apparatus 
of the world Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. Much of this material bears absolutely no indi- 
cation of origin. A good deal of it does, of course, but it is not la- 
beled as contemplated by the law. 

Mr. Arens. To the miinitiated reader who does not know the vari- 
ous Communist lines in the various areas of the world and the objec- 
tives of the apparatus in each of the segments of our society, does it 
reveal to him that it is Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. 

Mr. Aeens. How about the material which is being sent into the 
United States from international Communist fronts which are based 
in the free countries of the world ? 

jVIr. FiSHMAN. Much of that material bears absolutely no indication 
that the publisher or the production of the material has been subsi- 
dized by the Communist movement. 

As I mentioned a few minutes ago, a great deal of material is 
directed to the youth of this country and also to the youth of every 
other democratic comitry. But a great deal of that latter material 
comes from places other than the Soviet-bloc countries. 

Mr. Aeens. Can you tell us the segments of our society which are 
the principal recipients of this Communist propaganda? If you 
please, state first of all those in the San Francisco area. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Here in San Francisco, the fertile ground, of course, 
would be the overseas Chinese. 

Mr. Aeens. How many overseas Chinese are there? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Our last information, and perhaps it is not authen- 
tic, is that there are some 12 million overseas Chinese around the 
world. Just how many there are in the Western States we do not 
know. The last census, I think, for this particular area was some 
40,000. That may be way off, judging by the volume of this mail 
which now comes to San Francisco. 

But that would be a fertile ground here in this area. In other 
areas — for example, in the Illinois area — it would be the people work- 
ing in industry who perhaps came originally from Poland or Czecho- 
slovakia. 

Mr. Arexs. In a ludicrous vein, let me ask you a question before it 
slips my mind. Does the international Communist apparatus let 
down its bars and let American material, material propagandizing 
other people respecting the cause of freedom, enter the Iron Curtain 
comitries freely without restriction, without labeling ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Not to my knowledge. We have some understand- 
ing with regard to one magazine that goes into the Soviet Union and 



1942 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

one, perhaps, that goes into Poland. But eveiy effort made to estab- 
lish a quid-pro-quo exchange agreement has never been very successful. 

Mr. AuENS. Are some of these magazines which you have on display 
here designed for women's groups ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes. I doubt whether any facet of our democratic 
life has been ignored. 

Mr. Arexs. They hit all segments of our society ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Including the young children ; and, of course, every 
phase of life is covered, women, young women, the worker. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the nature of the line that they are propagan- 
dizing in each of the principal areas of their activity ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is a little difficult to describe in a brief time. 
Actually, right at this moment, and until last week, I guess, the propa- 
ganda material which emanated in the Soviet Union had pretty much 
been toned down. 

Mr. Arens. Is it becoming more subtle; is that what you mean ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It became more subtle and gave the overtones of the 
Camp David spirit. The material from the mainland of China, how- 
ever, never varies. It continues just about as tough as possible. That 
is reflected in the material here which emanates in China and now in 
Communist Korea. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fisliman, I see you have some mail sacks which you 
have brought in. Can you tell us what these mail sacks are ? If we 
are not violating some regulation, is there a mail sack which you could 
open at random to determine the nature of the contents of the sacks ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. As the committee has suggested, we have here a num- 
ber of mail sacks submitted to our unit in the past 2 days by the Post 
Office Department and which we have not yet reached for examination. 
Any of them are available for examination by the committee, but we 
do have a restriction agamst exhibiting the name and address of the 
recipient. 

Mr. Arens. Is it permissible and can you open a mail sack now 
before the committee in order to give us an indication of the percent- 
age, we will say first of all, the percentage of the mail coming into 
San Francisco from Eed China which is outright Communist propa- 
ganda and the percentage which has redefection material and the 
percentage which has other material? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We will be glad to open a sack. 

Mr. Arens. I would suggest, if you please that you just take a fair 
sampling, so we do not consume any more time than ought to be used. 

Will you just proceed at your own pace to give us a word descrip- 
tion of what you find in that mail sack ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. This particular sack comes directly from the main- 
land of China. We have several that come by way of Hong Kong. 
I will have to depend on Mr. Louie for translation of the contents of 
these packages. 

Mr. Arens. May I suggest you just do a sampling of two or three of 
them? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. This is a copy of "China Reconstructs." 

Mr. Arens. Is that being sent to an individual recipient or an 
institution ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. This is addressed to an individual here in California. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1943 

Mr. Arens. Is there any indication on the literature which is being 
sent that it is in compliance with the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act? 

Mr. FiSHsiAN. Nothing that I can see on the wrapper. 

This is a newspaper ni the Chinese language, entitled "People's 
Daily," printed on the mainland of China. There are quite a few 
copies of this newspaper in this lot. 

Here are two copies of "Evergreen," the magazine of Chinese youth 
and students. It is addressed to someone in Portland, Oregon. 

This envelope is addressed to Comanche, Iowa. It contains a copy 
of Evergreen, the magazine of Chinese youth and students, and a 
copy of China Reconstructs. 

Mr. Arens, Is there any advertising in these magazines which you 
are displaying which would give any indication that they are paid for 
by advertisers or sustained in a businesslike manner ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No ; there is no advertising whatsoever in these maga- 
zines, which indicates quite clearly that the publication is completely 
subsidized. 

Mr. Arens. Completely subsidized by the Communists? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How do these various magazines compare in quality of 
presentation, from the standpoint of pictorial content and the like, 
with other magazines? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. They compare quite favorably. They are probably 
very expensive to produce. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly take a moment to characterize some 
of the typical material you have on display there, which I understand 
has been processed by the San Francisco Port of Entry in the course 
of the last few weeks ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Similar publications are with the members of the 
committee. 

This one, "Communist" No. 4, 1960, which is a publication of the 
Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, con- 
tains, of course, the usual type of attack on SEATO and CENTO ; 
but we picked this out particularly because of an article dealing with 
the congressional Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, you have visited certain areas of the 
world making a study of the world Communist propaganda drive re- 
lating not only to that material which goes into the United States but 
into other areas of the world ; is that true ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You have done so at the behest of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities and have submitted certain summary factual 
statements to the committee respecting the results of your survey ; is 
that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us an overall appraisal, first of all, of 
what the Communists are doing worldwide, let us say near home in 
the Caribbean? Do you have any information on what they are 
doing out of San Juan, Puerto Rico, with propaganda beamed into 
the Spanish-speaking countries of this hemisphere ? 

Mr. Fishman. A ^reat deal of Communist propaganda material is 
printed in the Spanish language. Actually, that reflected here on 



1944 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

the table is prepared in Mexico and is directed to Central, South, and 
Latin America, and also into the San Juan area. Much of it is anti- 
American and tends to foster hate for Americans and for our foreign 
policies. 

Mr. Arens. Does this spirit of Camp David that you alluded to a 
moment ago prevail in the Communist propaganda which they are 
beaming into other countries of the world? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. It is directed and concentrated specifically to 
material which comes here from the Soviet Union into the United 
States. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have an estimate as to the dollar expenditures 
by tlie Communists — a rough estimate — in the one single drive which 
they are beaming in literature of this kind which is being quarter- 
backed or controlled by the Communists out of San Juan, Puerto 
Rico, into the Latin American countries ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. We had to depend pretty much on information 
which is supplied by the U.S. Information Service. 

Mr. Arens. What is the nature of that information, in summary 
form, as to the dollar expenditures? It has to be rough because we 
are translating rubles into dollars. 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I seem to recall that they talked about $10 million 
being expended in one specific program. 

Mr. Arens. Just one program out of JNIexico ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Do they have similar programs in every nook and 
corner of the globe ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Does the line of the Communists vary in accordance 
with their particular objective in a specific area of the world ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. There isn't any doubt about that. Right now, for 
example, there is a great deal of cooperation being exhibited between 
the Soviets and Cuba, and jointly prepared anti- American propaganda 
is being disseminated. 

Mr. Arens. We have so much material we want to cover in the 
course of our relatively brief stay here that I would like to ask you 
just a question or two respecting the redefection program from Red 
China and respecting the pressures which the examination by the 
Customs Service indicates are presently being exercised by the Com- 
munists in Red China against American citizens of Chinese extraction 
here in the United States. 

Would you kindly give us a brief summarj- comment on that? 
Then we would like to hear from your two colleagues. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. There is no question but that a great deal of effort 
is being made to concentrate on overseas Chinese. We have observed 
from the material which reaches here in San Francisco that every 
effort is made to explain to overseas Chinese the advantages of a 
return to the homeland, for example. 

This program, this redefection program, is not new to us. It 
has been in existence from the Soviet-bloc countries for many years. 
As I mentioned before, the information which we had given, the 
statistical information, did not include tlie redefection progi-am. 

Mr. Ajrens. Which comes through the first-class mail? 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1945 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. We estimated that, in a given year, 
a million and a half first-class letters are sent to people who have their 
origins in foreign countries, pointing out the advantages of redefection 
and also playing on their sentiments and their attachment for their 
homeland. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a solicitation of funds? 

Mr. FisioiAN. We have some evidence to that effect; but as I men- 
tioned before a good deal of this information, in order to be verified, 
would have to be taken from first-class mail. We have no access to 
first-class mail and our only basis for examining a piece of first-class 
mail would ])e on the ground that we suspected that it contained a 
prohibited article. 

In such a case, under the law and under the joint regulations be- 
tween the Post Office and the Treasury Departments, we would have 
to go to the addressee and get his written permission to open the 
mail. We have done that in many cases in connection with redefection 
material. 

The committee may be interested in knowing that many of the 
answers we have received are to the effect that we should keep the mail 
from the addressees. They want no part of any of this mail. Most 
of the recipients seem to be afraid that this is an effort to contact them 
for one purpose or another. 

They have, to a great extent, indicated to us that in leaving their 
homes and countries they had escaped control. But now here they are 
being followed. I have one or two of these letters to which I would 
like to make reference. 

Here is a letter from one individual in which he says : 

Please do not allow anything from Communist coimtries to be sent on to 
me. 

Here is a letter authorizing us to open an envelope and saying : 

I do not know what it is all about, and don't give my address to the sender 
under any circumstances. 

Mr. Willis. Those letters are addressed to you as an American 
official ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right, addressed to us in response to our 
request for permission to open the package. 

Here is a letter, "I am an Estonian and I hate communism and 
fear Communists. 'VVlien we lived in New York I dropped out of the 
Estonian gi'oup because there were Communist spies in it. This piece 
of mail from East Germany I presume is an effort to maintain con- 
tact and I do not want it. Please destroy it immediately," and so on. 

We have dozens of other letters. One reads : 

If this package contains any Communist papers or other matters, just dump 
it in the trash or transmit it to the FBI. Don't send me anything. 

In other words, many of these people are just scared to death every 
time they hear from these areas. 

_ Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, this committee has had under considera- 
tion and has made recommendations, from time to time, to the House 
of Representatives and to the administrative agencies respecting pro- 
posals which the committee had in mind for attempting to label — as 
the law requires — the Communist propaganda which is sent in here. 
Of course, we know the Communists and the Communist dupes and 
the suckers say we are trying to engage in censorship. 



194G COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

I would like to ask you if it would help you in your attempts to 
control this flood of Communist propaganda if the law provided that 
the labeling take place prior to the actual physical reception of this 
material on American soil ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The agency I represent, of course, has an official 
viewpoint, and so have many of the other administrative agencies. 
Personally, and from my own experience with this work, I believe an 
amendment to the Foreign Agents Registration Act in two respects 
would be of great help. One, of course, would be in connection with 
this general work. We operate very much on the basis of an opinion 
of the Attorney General given in 1940, which has been criticized by 
lawyers' groups, and perhaps to some degree justly. 

The Foreign Agents Registration Act does not, at the present time, 
appear to provide that this material be properly labeled at the time of 
importation, a requirement which attached to many other classes of 
merchandise such as you mentioned, food and drugs and products from 
foreign countries and so on. 

These products require compliance with existing law at the time of 
importation and not after the material reaches the United States. 
Presently a foreign agent, for examplej may import tons of this mate- 
rial and the requirement that he label it properly doesn't attach until 
he disseminates it in the United States. We think it would be of im- 
measurable help to the administrative agencies if this requirement 
attached at the time of importation. 

I think another angle that should be explored, and perhaps amend- 
ments to the law made, would deal with the issue of how to control 
Communist propaganda materials coming from friendly countries. 

Mr. Arens. We have virtually no surveillance over that ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. I think if it were not mandatory for us to es- 
tablish an agency relationship between the sender and the foreign 
government, we would be in a position to control a good deal more of 
that type of material. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any suggestions, Mr. Fishman, which you 
could make to the conunittee respecting any control devices on Com- 
munist propaganda which is being shipped in transit, say from 
Mexico up through Texas, via New Orleans, and on to the Spanish- 
speaking countries of the hemisphere ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. That would require a review of the International 
Postal Union Agreement. 

Mr. Arens. Is this transshipment of Communist propaganda in 
ti-ansit in considerable quantity? 

Mr. Fishman. It is in very large quantities. The issue before the 
administrative agencies and the enforcement agencies is the permis- 
sion granted in the International Postal Union Agreement, which con- 
templates that member nations carry closed mails through their 
countries. 

Much of this propaganda we speak of is in closed mails. We have 
no access to it and we have no way of doin^ anything about it. So 
as I say, that agreement, to which the Soviet Union is a signatory, 
should be given some review by the Congress, perhaps with a view 
toward providing access to the closed mails, especially when we know 
it is prohibited matter. Of course, the other facet of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act which may be of some help is that which 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1947 

contemplates that on representation by a South American republic 
to this country, we could stop this in-transit flow. 

These are both provisions of law which should be reviewed if we 
are to have any help. 

Mr. Arens. I should like, if it meets with the chairman's approval, 
to interrogate briefly Mr. Wong, who is Mr. Fishman's associate, on 
one facet of this problem. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Akens. Mr. Wong, you have been sworn by the chairman on this 
record. 

Mr. Wong. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly move closer to the microphone? I 
am sure the committee cannot hear you, Mr. Wong. 

Would you give us, please, sir, just a word of your own personal 
backgi'ound ? 

]Mr. Wong. I have been employed by the United States Customs Serv- 
ice for 4 yeai-s, and previous to that I was employed at the Immi- 
gration Service as an interpreter. 

Mr. Arens. For purposes of identification, you are of Chinese 
extraction? 

Mr. Wong. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And you read the Chinese language ? 

Mr. Wong. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I take it that part, of your duty, if not all of your duty, 
is to maintain a look-out on the processmg of the Red Chinese Commu- 
nist propaganda which is being beamed via this port of entry ; is that 
coiTect ? 

Mr. Wong. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wong, I woidd suggest in the interest of brevity 
that you proceed at your own pace to tell the committee the significant 
items of information which, in your judgment, ought to be on this 
public record. 

Mr. Wong. I am assigned to the Restricted Merchandise Unit here 
in San Francisco as a reAdewer of printed materials in the Chinese 
language. I have been asked to comment on the effect of the Chinese 
publications sent to the United States, intended for distribution 
among people of Chinese origin. 

There has been a great deal of material, mostly anti- American, and 
a general discussion of many kinds and types imported would take a 
great deal of time. I would, however, like to mention one particular 
phase of this program. 

This has to do with the effort made by the Communist line to ex- 
plain to overseas Chinese that the Government of China affords ex- 
cellent opportunity for overseas Chinese returning to China and that 
their problems can be made quite simple for both tliese returned 
Chinese and their families. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wong, do you live in San Francisco ? 

Mr. Wong. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is the effect, if you are able to tell us, of the prop- 
aganda which is emanating from Red China, let us say on the first 
generation Americans of Chinese ancestry ? 

Mr. Wong. Well, the effect has been considerable. Most Chinese, 
prior to 1954, did not like the Government of China because of the 

56597— 60— pt. 1 5 



1948 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

fact that they were blackmailed and the members of their families 
tortured. But since they feel by reading this propaganda that the 
present regime is interested in their welfare, that they don't have 
unemployment in China — they feel that China is very good. 

I heard some Chinese remark "Who says the Government of China 
is no good?" 

Mr. xVrens. The Chinese propaganda coming into the country, and 
I say this facetiously, of course, does not reveal the commune system 
which is in existence there, in which families are split up ; it doesn't 
reveal the millions which have been destroyed, body and soul, by this 
awful reghne in Red China, does it? 

Mr. Wong. Well, not generally. 

Mr. Arens. Describe a commune, Mr. Wong ? 

Mr. Wong. A commune is an organization formed in a particular 
district or area of China in an attempt to maintain economic self- 
sufficiency, that is, people live together, work together, for the greater 
part of the day, and they have just barely enough to live by. 

Mr. Arens. Are they forced to do so, or is it a voluntary process? 

Mr. Wong. Normally they are supposed to enroll according to their 
own will, but pressure is exerted against them for them to jom. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wong, do you have any other comment you would 
like to make on this record before we proceed to other matters ? 

Mr. Wong. No. 

Mr. Arens. Does Mr. Fisliman's other colleague, Mr. Louie, have 
any comment which he would like to make on this record ? 

Mr. Louie. I don't have any. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fisliman, is there any other significant item of 
information that you would like to supply at this time? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No ; we have nothing to add to that wliich we have 
already submitted. We plan to prepare and draft for the committee 
a complete report on the results of our study. 

Mr. Arens. I have one area that I forgot to ask you about ; namely, 
tlie extent to which the Communists are intensifying tlieir drive to 
condition the minds of the youth of this country. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That program has become an intense one, and abso- 
lutely no effort or expense has been spared in covering every college, 
university, and secondaiy school in the United States. 

The volume of student material continues to increase and from what 
started out to be a mere handful of material now occupies a very sig- 
nificant part of all of the overall picture. There isn't a language 
which has been ignored. There are Soviet youth program materials 
in Chinese, Plungarian, every other language used in the Soviet-bloc 
countries as well as English. 

Of course, as you probably may recall, there has been a concentra- 
tion of effort and the expenditure of a great deal of money in arrang- 
ing for student meetings in the various countries of tlie Soviet bloc. 

Mr. Arens. Of course, they masquerade under the guise of peace, 
friendship, and so on ; is that correct ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. The front organizations are the International Union 
of Students and the World Federation of Democratic Youth. Both 
print their material and indicate the place of publication, varying 
from Hungary to Czechoslovakia, and so forth. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1949 

But there isn't any question, judging by the class of the material, 
the nature of it, and the low cost, that it is entirely subsidized. One 
can subscribe, for example, to a youth publication for $1 a year. 

Mr. Arens. The Communist propaganda, the Communist technique, 
and the Comnmnist line are to masquerade behind a facade of human- 
itarianism, is it not ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. You never see in the Communist propaganda a revela- 
tion of the conspiracy, do you ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. 

Mr. Arens. J. Edgar Hoover, in his book "Masters of Deceit" — 
I believe he quite pointedly used that title — said that the Communists 
use propaganda to condition the minds of people, masquerading be- 
hind a facade of that which would be appealing. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is a basic tenet of the program. 

Mr. Arens. I have just been advised by one of our staff members 
that there is a demonstration going on right around this building 
against this committee by people 

Mr. Willis. That will not be tolerated, that applause from the 
audience. 

Mr. Arens. — by people who have been enlisted by the Communists 
in response to the propaganda which they have received respecting 
this committee. Is that the technique which you see revealed in the 
propaganda which you have displayed to this committee today? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. There have been considerable and ample evidences 
of that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. I have one or two questions. 

Mr. Fishman, how long did you say you have been connected with 
the Federal Government? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Over 32 years. 

Mr. Willis. How long have you been engaged in watching over the 
operation and administration of the Foreign Agents Registration 
law? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Approximately 10 years. 

Mr. Willis. I suppose you have sampled, or supervised the sam- 
pling of, considerable propaganda material, certainly running into the 
millions ; is that right ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. That is, propaganda material which you have talked 
about. Is that correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. You did open several magazines which you took out of 
the sack, and I see you have considerably more spread out on the table 
before you. Did I understand you to say that the magazines that you 
sampled this morning did not contain advertising ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. None of these on the table here today contains any 
advertising, other than indicating how to subscribe for the particular 
material. 

Mr. Willis. Has that been the pattern that you found and saw over 
the years under your experience ? 



1950 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. FisiiMAN. I don't recall in nil of my experience ever seeing 
a publication of any type from the Soviet-bloc countries or from 
China which contained any advertising at all. 

Mr. Willis. Do I understand, theii, that these publications are not 
really self-supix>rting, but are purely propaganda material? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is obvious. As a matter of fact to indicate to 
you that no facet of this program has been ignored, there are a great 
many scientific and educational books and magazines sent to the United 
State and sold in bookshops which are connected in some way with 
the Communist movement. 

These highly technical books retail for prices wliich make it obvious 
that they could not possibly cover the cost of production. 

]Mr. Willis. From your testimony, I gather that the present law 
that you have been engaged in trying to enforce is wholly delicient m 
this sense ; that it is not workable ; is that right ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It doesn't provide the legal basis we tliink we should 
have in order to function properly and adequately. 

Mr. AViLLis. You certainly have given us evidence to indicate that 
should be the subject of serious consideration in the shape of amenda- 
toiy legislation. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Thank you. 

Mr. AViLLis. Mr. Johansen ? 

Mr. Johansen. I have one question, Mr. Fislinian. One matter I 
Avould like to pursue just a little further. 

You have some examples and made some references to fii'^t-class 
mail, the recipients of which, in returning it, indicated a gi-eat concern 
that they not receive further mail of that type or that their for- 
warding addresses not be given to the senders of the mail; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Johansen. You spoke of what seemed to me to indicate a fear 
of this mail on the part of the recipients. Could you elaborate a 
little as to the nature of it? Is it fear of continued involvement with 
Comnnmists abroad? Is it fear of elt'orts to control or utilize these 
persons now in the United States ? Is it fear of blackmail, extortion ? 
Is it fear of what might happen to their relatives in the Iron Curtain 
countries ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. All of those are no doubt true. The addresses are 
obtained by the propaganda machine through the medium of organ- 
ization listings. For example, there is one organization, the Polish- 
American Congress, which has some 50,000 membei's. 

By obtaining the roster you have 50,000 people that can be written 
to from Poland, or from any other Soviet country. The people who 
receive this material, or who are advised of its presence here, have 
probably reached a point in their lives in the United States where 
they feel no attaclunent to any organization or any govermnent other 
than the United States. 

All of a sudden they receive a letter wliich asks them to do a number 
of things, to give information, for example, or comment on life in the 
United States, and so on, and each one of these j^eople, without know- 
edge of the other having been contacted, feels that he has been singled 
out as a contact point. 

Mr. Johansen. In other words, it is a genuine fear of dangers they 
envision from these Communist countries ? 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1951 

Mr. FisiiMAN. That is right. 

^Nfr. JoiiANSEN. It is not a fear tliat the FBI or the Un-American 
Activities Committee will hound them because they received this 
mail, is it i 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. On the contrary, I think publicity as is given 
to this redefection program by a hearing such as this and by observa- 
tions made b}^ the House Committee on Un-American Activities in 
the past, has allayed many of these fears. People realize this is part 
of one great Coimnunist program and it is not just something directed 
to the individual. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. In view of some of the allegations of the terror 
tactics of this committee, I wanted the record to be very clear as to 
what quarter they directed their fears. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I believe Mr. Wong has an additional 
comment he wanted to make, if you please. 

Mr. Wong. Sir, a little while ago you asked me if the Chinese here 
in the United States know of the communes. What I w^as saying is 
that they don't actually know the inner organization of the communes, 
but they have heard of the communes. 

The Conmiunist Government is very subtle in hiding what they 
actually have to do in a commune. All the Chinese Government tells 
them is that in a commune system they live very well and have 
nurseries taking care of their children and that their wives are free 
for work, for construction, and that they are living in government 
quarters, eating in communal mess halls, and they have no worries. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of these three witnesses. 

Mr. Willis. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

The committee will take an informal recess of 5 minutes. 

(A short recess Avas taken. Present at time of recess. Representa- 
tives Willis and Johansen.) 

(At the expiration of the recess the following members of the sub- 
committee were present : Representatives Willis and Johansen.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

I would like again to admonish all in this room to cooperate and 
not applaud either in disapproval or approval of anything that goes 
on. We are perfectly happy to have all of you. 

I notice we have people standing in the aisles, wliich we do not 
usually permit, out of orderliness. I certainly do not want to do 
anything to alter that privilege of being our guests, but I must repeat 
that we cannot afford to have demonstrations. 

Mr. Archie Brown (from the audience). Well, w^hy did you send 
cards only to your friends ? Why didn't you send cards to our friends ? 
Why didii't I get some cards to send to my friends here? There isn't 
a Xegro person in this hall. There are only white people. How come 
you didn't give me cards to give to my friends ? 

Mr. Willis. Will you escort the gentleman out of the room please ? 

Mr. Brown. Are you going to enforce my subpena ? Are you going 
to cooperate with me ? 

Mr. Willis. One more demonstration and we will have to clear 
the aisles. 

Mr. Counsel, please proceed. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, will be Mr. William 
Wlieeler. 



1952 COMMUTSriST party — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Wheeler. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM A. WHEELER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Wheeler. William A. Wheeler, Los Angeles, Calif. ; investiga- 
tor for the House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wlieeler, how long have you been engaged as an 
investigator by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Wheeler. Eleven years. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, just a thumbnail sketch of 
your employment prior to the time that you became an investigator for 
the Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Wheeler. A Deputy United States Marshal, Los Angeles, 
Calif.; United States Secret Service, Los Angeles and Washington, 
D.C. ; United States INIilitary Intelligence, both service in the United 
States and overseas; back to the United States Secret Service; and 
with the committee since August 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I wonder if we could have a little more 
order. It is veiy difficult for me to hear the witness, and I am sure 
it is difficult for him to hear me with the hubbub here. 

Mr. Willis. We cannot hear the witness up here. We must have 
order. I regret to say that if there will be any more demonstrations 
I will have to clear the aisles. You must agree to be quiet. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wheeler, did you, in the course of the recent past, 
from confidential sources of unimpeachable integrity, procure certain 
documents ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do these documents relate to the proceedings of the 
I7th National Convention of that conspiratorial organization on 
American soil which masquerades behind the facade of the Com- 
munist Part}^? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in addition, procure as an investigator of 
this committee, from confidential sources of unimpeachable integrity 
and reliability, the list of the delegates to the [17th] National Con- 
vention of the Communist Party who were delegates from the State 
of California? 

Mr. Wheeler. Delegates from the Comminiist Party, Northern 
District of California. 

Mr. Arens. That is what I meant to say. I beg your pardon. With 
that correction, did you likewise procure that information? 

Mr. Wheeler. I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was the source of your information an intelligence 
source of unimpeachable reliability and integritj'^? 

Mr. Wheeler. I consider it as such, sir; yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1953 

Mr. Arens. Is it a source concerning which we cannot make a 
revelation on a public record because of security reasons? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. The source should not be identified in 
public session. 

Mr. Arens. Are you satisfied, on the basis of your integrity, upon 
your investigative techniques, that the documents which you have 
procured from this source are bona fide in every respect ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly, without characterizing the contents 
of the documents at this time, identify those documents so that they 
may be properly identified and incorporated in our record? 

Mr. Wheeler. I will initial tlie documents. 

Mr. Arens. I prefer, if you please, that you mark them Exhibit 
1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Exhibit No. 1 would be what document, Mr. 
A^'heeler? 

Mr. Wheeler. Exhibit No. 1 is "Let Us Set Our Sights to the 
Future," which is a keynote address by Gus Hall at the l7th National 
Convention, CP, USA. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest, if it meets with 
the approval of the chairman, that each of these documents, as Mr. 
Wlieeler identifies them, be appropriately marked and incorporated 
in an appendix to this record.^ 

Mr. Willis. Let them be so marked and so incorporated. 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 1," see App. p. 2205.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, will you proceed with your identification of the 
documents ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Document No. 2 is entitled "Introduction." Do you 
want me to explain what it is ? 

Mr. Arens. Just the general subject matter. We expect to pui-sue 
the contents of the document and the interpretation of the document 
by the testimony of succeeding witnesses. 

Mr. Wheei.er. It was a proposed introduction to resolutions passed 
by the 17th National Convention of the Communist Party in New" 
York City. By tlie way, it was held December 10-13, 1959. 

This introduction to the resolution and Gus Hall's speech are very 
mucji the same. This introduction to the i*esolution mal<;es an assess- 
ment of the situation that Khrushchev's visit, the search for release of 
world tensions through the summit meeting, creates an opportunity 
for the Commimist Party in this country to make a big leap forward. 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 2," see App. p. 2212.) 

Mr. Wheeler. The next document is entitled "General Principles." 
It sets forth a proposed statement of the general principles of the 
Commimist Party of the United States, 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 3," see App. p. 2216.) 

Mr. Wheeler. No. 4 is entitled "Peaceful Co-Existence." 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 4," see App. p. 2219.) 

Mr. Wheeler. The next document is "Competition Between the 
Two Systems." 



^ The Communist documents designated as Committee Exhibits 1 through 27 and Exhibit 
29 in the Appendix were in pacljets passed out to all delegates to the Communist Party's 
17th National Convention in New York City, December 10-13, 1959. Although many are 
self-explanatory, it should be made clear that Exhibits 2-2.3 consist of policy statements 
proposed for adoption by the convention. A comparison with resolutions finally adopted 
and subsequently publicly released shows that some of the proposed policy statements were 
substantially revised while others were subject only to minor changes in language. 



1954 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

(Document marked '"Committee Exhibit No. 5," see App. p. 2222.) 
Mr. Wheeler. Number 6 is entitled '"The Current Struggle and the 

Socialist Aim." 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 0," see App. p. 2224.) 
Mr. WiiEEi.ER. Number 7 is "Defense and Extension of Democracy."' 
(Document marked "'Committee Exhibit No. 7," see App. p. 2228.) 
Mr. Wheeler. Nimiber 8 is "Curbing the Monopoly Power." 
(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 8," see App. p. 2231.) 
Mr. Wheller. Number 9 is "Class and Strategic Alliances." 
(Document marked '"Committee P^xhibit No. J)," see App. p. 2240.) 
Mr. Wheeler. Number 10 is "Independent Political Action." 
(Document marked "'Committee Exhibit No. 10," see App. p. 2243.) 
Mr, Wheeler. Numljer 11 is "The Problem of Class Collaboration." 
(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 11," see App. p. 2248.) 
Mr. Wheeler. Number 12 is "The Communist Party." 
(Document marked "Committee P^xhibit No. 12," see App. p. 2252.) 
Mr. Wheeler. Number 13 is "Draft Declaration of Aims and 

Tasks." 

(Document marked "Connnitt-ee Exhibit No. 13," see App. p. 2256.) 
Mr. Wheeler. Number 14 is a proposed "Resolution on Od)a." 
(Docmnent marked "Committee Exhibit No. 14," see App. p. 2264.) 
Mr. Wheeler. Number 15 is entitled "The Worker," which is the 

Communist publication in New York City. 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 15," see App. p. 2266.) 
Mr. Wheeler, Numl)er 16 is a "Fami Resolution." 
(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 16," see App. p. 2268.) 
Mr. Wheeler, Number IT is a proposed "'Resolution on the Work 

and Status of Women," 

(Document marked "'Conuiiittee Plxhibit No. 17," see App. p. 2270.) 
Mr. Wheeler. Nmuber 18 is a suggested ''Resolution on the Youth 

Question." 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 18," see App, p, 2272.) 
Mr, Wheeler, Numl>er 19 is headed "17th Convention Resolution 

on the Negi'O Question in the United States." 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 19," see App. p. 2276.) 
Mr. Wheeler. NuiuIxm- 20 is a proposed "Resolution on the 1960 

Elections." 

(Document marked "(^ommittee Exhibit No. 20," see App, p, 2286,) 
Mr. Wheeler, Number 21 is "Draft Resolution on Trade Union 

Pi-oblems." 

(Document marked ''Committee Exhibit No. 21," see App. p. '2290.) 
Mr. Wheeler. Numlx^r 22 is a proposal for a "Resolution on Puerto 

Rican Work in llie United States." 

(Document mai-ked "Conunittee Exhibit No. 22," see App. p. 2300.) 
Ml'. WnKKr.EK. Xninbcr 23 is "Draft Resolution on Party 

Organization." 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 23," see App. p. 2302.) 
Mr, Wheeler, Number 24 is "'Disaimament and the American 

Kconomy." This is a icpoi-t of Hyman Lumer. National Education 

Director of the Conununist Party, USA, to the 17th National 

Convention. 

(Document marked "Committee P^xhibit No. 24," see App. p. 2308.) 



COMMUNIST PARTt — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1955 

Mr. Wheeler. Number 25 is "Preconvention Discussion," which 
outlines, more or less, what the draft resolutions are going to be, and 
which the Communist Party convention would follow. 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 25," see App. p. 2316.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Number 26 is the "Report of Constitution Commit- 
tee, Proposed Changes to Party Constitution." 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 26," see App. p. 2385.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Number 27 is "Some Comments on the Draft Reso- 
lution, By Pettis Perry." 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 27," see App. p. 2338.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Number 28 is a document entitled "For the Infor- 
mation of the Party." 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 28," see App. p. 2350.) 
' Mr. Wheeler. Number 29 is a reprint of some publication entitled, 
"On the Jewish Question," by A. Waterman. 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 29," see App. p. 2379.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you likewise have, Mr. Wheeler, the list of the 
delegates to the 17th [National] Convention of the Communist Party 
who were delegates from the Northern District of the Communist 
Party of California ? 

Mr. Wheeler. I do, sir. They are not in the form of a document. 
They are in the form of a report based on our intelligence sources. 

Mr. Arens. Are those intelligence sources of unimpeachable re- 
liability and integrity? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest you mark that document and I respectfully 
suggest, Mr. Chairman, that it likewise be incorporated in the Ap- 
pendix to this record. 

Mr. Wn^Lis. It shall be so incorporated. 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 30," see App. p. 2383.) 

Mr. Arens. Does that complete the listing of the documents ? 

Mr. Wheeler. No, sir. There is one additional document. It is 
the members of the National Committee, CPUSA, which is a list of 
the 25 delegates-at-large of the Communist Party, USA, and the 
various members of the National Committee from the various Com- 
munist districts throughout the United States. 

Mr. Arens. That has been procured by you in the course of your 
official duties as an investigator of this committee from sources, in- 
telligence sources, of unimpeachable reliability and integrity; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Wheeler. That is correct. 

(Document marked "Committee Exhibit No. 31," see App. p. 2384.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, does the record reflect the chairman's 
order that these documents be incorporated in the Appendix to this 
record ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes, I did, but in passing from one to another, if I did 
not make it plain, all the documents identified by this witness will be 
properly marked and made a part of the Appendix to the record. 

Mr. Arens. That will conclude the interrogation of this witness, 
Mr. Chairman, if you please. 

The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be Mrs. Bar- 
bara Hart le. 



5C597— 60— pt. 1- 



1956 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Please come for%rard and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mrs. Hartle. I do. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF BARBARA HARTLE 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Hartle, I am Mrs. Barbara Hartle. I live at Evans, Wash., 
and I am a poultry raiser by occupation. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Hartle, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly, in very succinct form, give us the 
highlights of your career in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Hartle. In the latter part of 1933 or early 1934, that winter, 
I joined the Communist Party, and I was a member of it until I broke 
with the Commuiiist Party in the spring of 1953. 

During that tiii'*' I was active in very many of the activities of the 
party, and during the latter eiglit years was a district official of the 
Northwest District of the Communist Party, with headquarters in 
Seattle. 

I was a member of the Northwest District Committee, the North- 
west District Board, the organizational secretary of the district for a 
time, for several years, and educational director of the district for 
several years. 

For nine years, up until 1950, I was a paid, full-time functionary 
of the party. For two years I was a partly subsidized underground 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Did >ou, subsequent to your break with the Communist 
Party, or in the process of breaking, I should say, make available to 
your Government information respecting this conspiratorial force 
on American soil ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes : I did, 

Mr. Arens. Just in passing, before we proceed further, as soon as 
you broke from tlie Communist Party did you, like many others, re- 
ceive the smears and innuendoes and character assassinations from 
members of this conspiratorial force and from the suckei*s and dupes 
whom they are able to enlist in front of them ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. A KENS. Mrs. Hartle, we have made available to you in the 
course of the last several weeks copies of these documents which have 
been identified by Mr. A\Tieeler in the course of the last several minutes 
on this record, have we not ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party in the high echelons of the party, and your 
familiarity with party semantics and party techniques, did you, at the 
request of this committee, make an extensive study of these documents 



COMMUNIST PARTY^-NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1957 

and of other security information respecting the activities and pro- 
gram of the Communist Party of the United IStates ? 

Mi-s. Hari'le. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Before we proceed further in the specifics, I should like 
to ask you, were you arrested as a one-time hard-core member of the 
Communist Party under the Smith Act? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you actually sentenced under the Smith Act as 
a hard-core conspirator of the party itself ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr, Arens. You have, have you not, broken irrevocably from this 
conspiratorial force ? 

Mrs. Hartle. That I certainly have. 

Mr. Arens. You have found your way back to God and patriotism; 
is that correct ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Hartle, before we proceed further, may I ask you 
a general characterization, based upon your study of these documents 
which have been made available to you, how serious now, this instant, 
is the Communist operation on American soil I 

Mrs. ILvRTLE. The Communist operation in this country at the 
present time, in my opinion, based on studying this material and other 
material — the Communist movement is carrying on very serious ac- 
tivity, is veiy enthusiastic about the gains that it can make, and based 
on tlie contacts which it is able to make again, and the dupes that it 
is able to recruit as members, is indeed, a rising menace and peril to 
our countiy. 

Mr. Arens. How does the menace, the strength and the force of 
the Communist conspiracy on American soil, compare now, say, with 
the past 10 or 15 years? 

Mrs. Hartle. It is a greater menace now than at any time in that 
last period. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to clarify the record on that point, if you 
please. So many dupes of the Communists and uninformed say that 
we have relatively little to fear from the Communist Party as a formal 
entity, and they use the illustration of the glass of water. They say, 
"I^et this glass of water, which I now have in my hand, represent 
the 180 million people in the United States." 

Then they say, "Drop into that glass of water a few drops of red 
ink representing the Communists in the Communist Party. All you 
see is a slight discoloration. Therefore, on a percentage basis, pro- 
portionately, there is little to fear from this operation." 

Mrs. Hartle, based upon your experience in the conspiracy, and 
upon your study of the oi^eration, what is your appraisal of this 
analogy ? Is it fallacious or is it valid ? 

Mrs. Hartle. It is a highly fallacious argument because it appar- 
ently is made by persons who have no idea of the nature of the organi- 
zation that calls itself the Communist Party. 

It is a very closely knit, highly organized, highly disciplined group 
that works more like an Army than it does like a political party. 

Mr. Arens. Is the formal entity, known as the Communist Party, 
all of the Communist operations on American soil, or is it only a part 
of the total Commmiist operation on American soil ? 



1958 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mrs. IIarti.e. The Communist Party, as such, is only one facet, one 
organization, one form of activity of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any Communists under Communist discipline 
doing the work of the Communist conspiracy, consciously doing it, 
who do not have formal membership in the sense that you and I might 
have a membership in a church or in a club ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. There is a large group of Communist followers 
or associates who do not have and maintain formal membership, the 
paying of duos or attending the various regular meetings, or even 
carrying out all of the regular discipline that pertains to all the activ- 
ities. But they are persons who do follow the discipline of the Com- 
munist Party insofar as their activities are concerned and their field 
of work is concerned, and they are responsive to the party. 

Mr. Arens. I have been engaged in this work with congressional 
committees, developing information on the Communist operation, for 
14 years. I am constantly amazed, at the extent to which a relatively 
few trained, dedicated, hard-core conspirators, masquerading behind 
the facade of humanitarianism, can suck in and use and condition 
non-Communists. 

Can you give us from your own experience in the conspiracy the 
techniques which are used by the few Communists, to condition non- 
Communists to do their dirty work ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes, I can, because that really is the central work of 
the Communist Party. Building its own organization, recruiting 
members into the Communist Party and keeping it going is not for 
itself alone. 

The Communist Party, itself, says that; that the Communist Party 
is a vanguard organization, it is a leadership organization. It is 
the hub of the wheel that turns all the other organizations that it is 
connected with through its members. 

The Commmiist Party told me when I first joined that a member in 
the Communist Party would not be a good member or an effective one 
unless he had at least 100 people who would follow him on one issue 
or another, and that a really good Communist is capable of leading and 
influencing thousands of persons. 

This is done through members of the Communist Party being in 
trade unions 

Mr. Arens. Does the party instruct its comrades to make known to 
the non-Communists, whom they expect to condition and to use, that 
they are Communists? 

Mrs. Hartle. No. That is part — that is a very important part of 
the united front technique. It goes this way : We will work for Negro 
rights, or we will work for youth needs and, therefore, we will try 
and interest youth or Negro people, and other persons interested in 
that issue, to go along on some question. 

It is understood in united front work that you can't come out and 
say you are a Communist, because that would be work of the Com- 
munist Party in its own name. 

Mr. Arens. That brings us to a difficult problem that this committee 
is constantly confronted with, and I would like to ask your reaction 
to it. 

When this committee pursues a Communist, say, a schoolteacher, 
the comrades and those suckers in front of the comrades and those who 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1959 

they liave duped say we are investigating education. When this com- 
mittee pursues a hard-core Communist in a hibor organization, the 
comrades and tlie suckers and those they can condition in front of the 
suckers, put up the cry that we are investigating hibor. 

When this committee pursues a Communist conspirator in any area 
of our society, the comrades, those in front of the comrades and the 
suckers in front of those, start the same cry, and they are successful 
in conditioning the minds of a great number of people. 

Based upon your experience, Mrs. Hartle, as a hard-core con- 
spirator yourself, at one time in the Communist Party, tell us how 
that process is evolved by the comrades. 

Mrs. Hartle. In the course of united front work, the Communist 
Party teaches its members how to combat what it calls red-baiting, 
and it teaches the Communist Party members the technique of how to 
get across to broader masses of people, non-Communists, that pursuing 
Conmiunists in an organization is not really for the purpose of getting 
the Communists, but it is for the purpose of smashing that organiza- 
tion or that aim. They say that that is red-baiting that organization. 

Communists say that the committee, for example, is trying to smash 
the schools, not the Communists in the schools, or it is trying to smash 
the unions, not the Communists in the unions. 

Mr. Arexs. Do they explain in any of the sessions of the comrades, 
and I say this facetiously, that this committee is after Communists, 
after conspirators, and that is our sole and exclusive function? Do 
they make that clear ? 

Mrs. Hartle. No, they don't make that clear even in the Communist 
Party, because even there they continue to carry on the line that the 
efforts of this committee will hurt the other fields more than the Com- 
munist Party, although I must say that in the higher echelons of the 
Communist Partv the masks are taken off and assignments are made 
and forces are assigned, and finances are turned over, and a program 
is laid out, to stop such a committee as this; whereas, across the street, 
maybe another committee is doing a lot of harm to some other field of 
something, or apparently doing a lot of harm, and they don't even know 
about it, much less do anything, 

Mr. Arens. I would like to ask you to comment on what those, who 
have watched this conspiracy work in all segments of our society 
over the course of many years, call Communist semantics. 

Can you tell us, first of all, what is meant by "semantics"? Sec- 
ondly, liov,- this is used in the propagation of the conspiratorial force 
on American soil, that every expert says is weakening our society 
with greater speed every day, causing this society to have the impact 
of the world conspiracy with no less than our freedom and our lives 
at stake? 

Would you kindly give us your observation on Communist se- 
mantics? 

Mrs. Hartle. Well, the most ordinary word that I can think of for 
semantics is just weasel- wording or just playing around with words 
that apparently mean one thing when they mean another, or mean 
one thing to one person and something else to somebody else. 

Mr. Arexs. Let's take the term "peaceful coexistence." Based 
upon your background and experience and study of the world Com- 
munist movement, can the Communists, if they remain Communists, 



1960 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

be adherents to peaceful coexistence as we in the free world interpret 
that term ? 

Mrs. Hartle. No, they couldn't possibly, because they are dedi- 
cated to achieving world communism. 

Mr. Arens. If Khrushchev and his international Communist ap- 
paratus, of which the operation on American soil is one facet, in 
truth and in fact wanted peaceful coexistence as we interpret that 
term, Khrushchev and the international Communist apparatus would, 
by that fact, cease to be Communists, wouldn't they? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes; they would cease to be Communists. They 
would have to repudiate Marx, E-ngels, and Lenin. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Hartle, may I ask you to proceed at your own 
pace to tell us the processes by which the Communists use and enlist 
non-Communists for their specific objectives in procuring petitions, 
in participating in Communist fronts, in participating in demonstra- 
tions, in creating youth groups, masquerading behind an appealing 
facade and the like? "Would you proceed at your own pace to tell 
us about that ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Well, the Communist Party starts by saying that 
this is the united front tactic; it says that we must all master the 
united front tactic. It says it is a tactic. 

The way the Communist Party operates the united front is to have 
Communists lead and influence non-Communists. A very simple 
example is to have a Communist Party member have a petition which 
says, "I would like to see that there will be no more atomic bomb 
explosions," such as the Stockholm Peace Appeal was at one time. 

That member takes it out to liis church, his PTA, or his neighbor- 
hood, or to friends and relatives, and says "Don't you think this is a 
splendid idea, that there will be no more atomic explosions ? We will 
call upon our government not to have anj- more atomic explosions of 
any kind." 

The person will probably say "Yes." They know them and halfway 
trust them and don't pay much attention to it, so tliey sign it. Some- 
times they don't even look at it. Sometimes they get the same per- 
sons two or three times. I think the committee might look those j)eti- 
tions over sometimes. The same person will sign them more tlian 
once, if you happen to check into them. 

Then that petition is sent in. Then later on an organization is 
formed and these people are contacted to be in the organization. It 
goes on that it is a peace organization. Then all of a sudden along 
comes the House Un-American Activities Committee and says, "Well, 
there is a Communist in this organization," and the Communists say, 
"Look, they are trying to wreck our peace organization." 

So these people get mad because they are tr3nng to wreck the peace 
organization, and that is the way they get the dupes in — in just the 
simplest way or form. 

Mr. Arens. The Communists or the Communist fronts profess to 
be those who are strong adherents to constitutional safeguards and 
the like, and they have been successful, I regret to say from my study 
of the operation, in convincing vast number of Americans, many of 
whom are sincere, that this committee is out to destroy tlie Consti- 
tution. 

Can you tell us the techniques by which they are able to accomplisli 
that result? 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1961 

^Irs. Hartle. Well, tlie techniques that they use are — they appeal 
to the riffht of free speech, assembly, press, all of our traditional 
democratic freedoms that we love and cherish in this country'. Wlien 
the House committee or similar bodies object to Communists organiz- 
ing find using- these democratic liberties for the purpose of destroying 
tliem, they point the finger and say, "You are trying to destroy the 
liberties." 

Mr. Arexs. May I inquire on one other point, and then I want to 
get into tJiese documents with you, Mrs. Hartle. 

When we subpena a Communist, a hard-core, identified conspirator 
before us to interrogate him, the hue and cry goes up that we are 
undertaking to suppress his political beliefs, his political opinions, 
that we are involved in thought control and the like. 

Based upon your background and experience, is a Communist a 
person who is an adherent to a political philosophy as such, or is he 
a part of a world conspiratorial apparatus? 

Mrs. Hartle. He is a part of a world conspiratorial apparatus. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party a political party or is it a 
tentacle of the world conspiracy ? 

Mrs. Hartle. It is an arm of the world Communist conspiracy. It 
is not a political party in the sense that we or otlier coimtries have a 
political party. 

Mr. Arens. I want to explore one other area with you, and that 
is this : We occasionally have this experience Mrs. Hartle. We will 
subpena a person who has been identified to us by competent intelli- 
gence sources as a member of the conspiracy, engaged in conspira- 
torial operations on American soil. In the course of the interroga- 
tion, we will say, "Are you now a member of the Conmiunist Party?" 
(referring to the moment of appearance) and with great indignation 
he says, "No." Then we say, "Were you a member of the Communist 
Party any time since the subpena was served upon you?" and he 
invokes constitutional guarantees. 

Is there a technique by the conspirators to resign technical mem- 
bership even in the formal entity laiown as the Communist Party in 
order to avoid the impact of the work of this congressional committee ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes; there is the technique of formally resigning 
which, according to the Communist Party, allows the member then 
to proceed as though he were not a member, just for the purposes 
of that committee. 

]\Iy own experience has been with some who formally resigned 
from the Communist Party under the Taft-Hartley Act, and who I 
then was put in charge of to collect their dues and organize them 
and activize them and give them their leadership for what they should 
do in the trade miion movement. 

So far from ceasing to be members, they were even better organized. 
My district organizer at that time warned me to be sure in organizing 
these people that they don't take their resignations seriously. 

Mr. Arens. Is the objective of the Conmiunist operation on Ameri- 
can soil now to convert, you, me, and eveiybody here, ideologically, to 
communism as an ideolog}^ and philosophy, or is the objective of the 
Communist operation, conquest ? 

Mrs. Hartle. The objective is the conquest of power. The Com- 
munist Party says that we wouldn't have socialism in 10,000 years if 



1962 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

you pursued the educational method, that force is absolutely neces- 
sary — and it is right in these dociunents, again — the conquest of 
power. 

Mr. Arens. In Soviet Eussia right now, only three percent are 
members of the Communist Party ; isn't that correct ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. In the satellites, less than one percent are membei*s of 
the Communist Party ; isn't that correct? 

Mrs. Hartle. Right. 

Mr. Arens. In Red China, where they have killed off an estimated 
20 million people, only a few thousand are the hard-core Communists; 
isn't that correct? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Hartle, would you direct your attention, please, 
to Committee Exhibit No. 1, which Mr. Wheeler has identified, and 
a copy of which you have before you — the keynote speech by Gus 
Hall. (See App. p. 2205.) 

Knowing Communist semantics, Commmiist techniques, and Com- 
munist objectives, give us your interpretation of the significance of 
that keynote speech by Gus Hall ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Gus Hall, in this keynote speech given to the national 
convention, the l7th National Convention of the Commmiist Party, 
projects the idea that the Communist Party can be very enthusiastic 
about its prospects for the future; that the international situation is 
such that very great strides can be made by the Communist Party in 
this country, and that the national situation is also such as to really 
make it possible for the Communist Party to go ahead by leaps and 
bounds. 

There is a paragraph in here that I would like to read, which shows 
that he does give that in his report. It is on page 3 of Exhibit 1 : 

The outstanding world phenomenon of today is the fact that the balance of 
strength is tipping decidedly in the direction of the socialist world. 

Mr. Arens. By "socialist world" in Communist semantics, he means 
Communist world ? 

Mrs. Harti.e. Communist; yes. That is a good example. It 
couldn't be called Connnunist world. Why it couldn't be called Com- 
munist world I Avill leave to someone else. 

Mr. Arens. Khruslichev himself even calls the Communist regime in 
Russia a Socialist regime. 

Mrs. PIartle. Yes. Apparently it is more popular. 

Mr. Arens. It is a little more acceptal)le to the ear because there 
have been so many revelations of the deceit and the murder connected 
with communism ; is that correct? 

Mrs. Harti.e. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, please. 

Mi's. Hartle (reading) : 

This is a development of profound importance to every capitalist country, but its 
impact on the leading capitalist stronghold, the bastion of world capitalism, is a 
virtually explosive one. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to ask you about tliat term "capitalism." 
There are those who apparently do not understand the nature of this 
o]:)eration, wlio suggest that the issue in the world tcxiay is the issue 
between competing economic forces, namely, an economic system 
known as comnnuiisni and an economic system known iis capitalism. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1963 

Is tliat true, Mrs. Hartle, is that the issue with which w^e are con- 
fronted in the operation of tlie Communist movement '. 

Mi-s. Hartle. No; that is not the issue. The Communist movement 
is interested in the capture of power, a state power in any country. 

Mr. Akexs. The Communists themselves foster the concept that we 
have only competing economic systems '\ 

]Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And they try to obliterate from the mind of the free 
world the concept that they are a conspiratorial force out to destroy all 
free societies, irrespective of the economic system; isn't that correct? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes; that is wdiat they do. They talk about the 
conquest of power, the political conquest of political power, and then 
establishing what they call socialism or the economic system. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any significant difference in the objectives, in 
the discipline, in the operation of Communists on American soil and 
Communists who sent the tanks into Budapest to mow down the 
freedom fighters % 

Mrs. Hartle. No ; the same general principles of Marxism-Lenin- 
ism guide those activities. 

Mr. Arexs. Is there any significant difference between the objec- 
tives, the techniques, the operation of the Communists on American 
soil and the Communists who now^ hold in bondage the millions of 
people in the satellite countries of Eastern Europe ? 

Mrs. Hartle. No. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any significant difference between the opera- 
tion of the Communist program on American soil and the operation 
of the Communist program in Red China where they have destroyed 
millions upon millions of people in the ascendency of this force % 

Mrs. Hartle, No ; there is no difference. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other comment to make or interpre- 
tive remarks to put into the record respecting the keynote speech by 
GusHall? 

Mrs. Hartle. In the keynote speech by Gus Hall he details some 
of the reasons for this favorable climate. One of them I have read 
from the document, about the ascendency of socialism, that is, com- 
munism, in the world. 

One of the reasons that he assesses for this favorable climate, and 
this is emphasized, by the way, throughout these documents, is the 
effect of the recent visit of Khrushchev to this country, that his visit 
here has opened the way in many quarters, and has created a much 
better climate for the moving ahead of the Communist Party in 
building its organization and in penetrating its influence and mem- 
bership into the organizations of labor and the people very broadly. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask in passing, while you were in the Com- 
munist Party, did you know Gus Hall ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes ; I did. 

Mr, Arens. Gus Hall, as head of the Communist Party, USA, like 
the other leaders, masquerades behind this facade of do-goodism and 
humanitarianism. 

Do you have any information respecting Gus Hall which might 
enlighten us and the record respecting his true motivations ? 

Mrs. Hartle, Well, Gus Hall is a long-time member of the Com- 
munist Party. I recall reading a document which explained that at 



1964 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

some time or another he swore that he would very willingly overthrow 
the Government of the United States by force and violence. That 
was back in the early 1930's, before any laws were passed. 

So a Commimist who states he opposes force and violence does not 
really mean that, but means something else. Gus Hall was known by 
me as a member of the Communist Party, a part of tlie Ohio Conmiu- 
nist leadership and very anxious to capture the top leadership of the 
Coimnunist Party. It is apparent to me now, with his making the 
keynote speech, that he has at last fulfilled his ambition. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to suggest, Mr. Chairman, that as we 
proceed in the course of our interrogations here in San Francisco, 
that after Mrs. Hartle has explained, on the basis of her background 
and experience, the signficance of the Commmiist program in each of 
several fields, that we then let her defer further testimony for a 
period of time until we interrogate one or two witnesses whom we 
have reason to believe have information about the operation in that 
particular field. 

In view of JSIrs. Hartle's explanation here of the overall objectives 
and progi'am of the Communist Party as annomiced by Gus Hall 
in his keynote speech at the national convention of the Communist 
Party, I respectfully suggest she be temporarily excused from the 
witness stand and that we then call another witness. 

Mr. Willis. You are excused. Thank you veiy much. You are 
excused temporarily. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Archie Brown. 

Mr. George R. Andersen. I represent Archie Brown, Mr. Chair- 
man. He was physically ejected from this room a few moments ago 
for exercising his right of petition. I suggest if you want him before 
the committee that you invite him to return. 

Mr. Willis. He has been called. 

Mr. Andersen. Mr. Chairman, during this delay may I address 
the Chair? 

Mr. Willis. Are you his attorney ? 

Mr. Andersen. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Willis. He has been called as a witness now. 

Mr. Andersen. This is a preliminary matter. I have in my hand 
a motion to disqualify this committee, and particularly 

Mr, Willis. The gentleman is not recognized for that purpose. 

Will the witness please come forward ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Marshal, will you please page the witness, Mr. 
Archie Brown to come forward ? 

Deputy Sheriff John Ortelle. I have, sir, and I have been in- 
formed that he has left the building. 

Mr. Willis. Let the record show that the witness, whom I never 
heard of in my life, was in the room a Avhile ago and offered some 
violent demonstration and he had to be temporarily ejected out of 
respect for orderly procedure. He is now being called and he is under 
subpena. He should respond at this moment. 

Counsel, do you suggest waiting? 

Mr. Arens. No, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest we proceed. 
We will call him again tliis afternoon. If he does not appear this 
afternoon — his counsel is present and hears this statement — may I 
respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that if he does not appear tliis 



COISIMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1965 

afternoon, this subcommittee consider a recommendation to the full 
committee to cite him for contempt. 

Mr. Andersen. As long as we are talking about the 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that Mrs. Bar- 
bara Hartle return to the stand for a brief interrogation on anotlier 
item. 

Mr. Andersen. I have been refused the right 

Mr. Willis. The gentleman is not recognized. 

Mr. Andersen. That is a very easy way to cut off statements. I 
have what T think is an important matter to state to the chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Hartle, would you return to the witness stand ? 

TESTIMONY OF BARBARA HARTLE— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Hartle, I expected, in view of your general dis- 
sertation respecting the Communist overall program, to interrogate 
Mr. Brown respecting activities in furtherance of that program here. 

I should like to ask you now to direct your attention to the material 
before you, developed in the 17th National Convention of the Com- 
munist Party, held last December in New York City, respecting youth 
activities. 

Would you kindly ferret out that docimient in the resolutions passed 
there, and give this committee the benefit of your background and ex- 
perience in interpreting the significance of that resolution? (See 
Committee Exhibit No. 18, App. p. 2272.) 

Mrs. Hartle. The resolution on the youth question, first of all, points 
out the great importance that the Communist Party attaches to win- 
ning the youth to the party, and says that this is an extremely impor- 
tant question, that a gi'eat deal of attention and work must be put to it. 

It says on the second page of the resolution, "Youth work shall 
be placed next to labor and the Negro people's movement as our 
major areas of mass work." The document further sets forth a 
program for youth, and parts of the program are : 

1. Abolition of the draft — of compulsory military train- 
ing and service, and of the ROTC. 

2. Ending of all atomic testing. 

3. Complete disarmament. All funds needed for the im- 
plementation of this whole program could easily come from a 
part of the present armaments expenditures. 

4. Development of youth exchanges — students, workers, 
athletes, musicians, teachers, etc. — ^between the United States 
and the socialist countries. 

And then it says that this should be incorporated into an Ameri- 
can Youth Bill on a Federal basis, and also be put into state youth 
bills in the state legislatures of the various states. 

Mr. Arens. From your study of the resolution, is there an acceler- 
ation of the Communist attempts to condition the minds of the youth ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes ; there is. The study shows that the Commimist 
Party is revitalizing and reworking all of its contacts in the col- 
leges and universities and in high schools, too; that it is working to 
penetrate the various youth organizations, church, service and other 
organizations of youth that already exist, student organizations. 



1966 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

It further shows that the Cormiiunist Party hopes out of this to buikl 
a very hirge Communist youth organization out of which it can draw 
members into the Communist Party as it trains and develops them. 

Mr, AiiENS. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that Mrs. Hartle 
be temporarily excused, in view of her interpretation of the Commu- 
nist drive among youth and the significance of that draft resolution, 
and another witness be called to testify. 

Mrs. Hartle, please keep yourself available for further testimony 
with reference to other subject matters. 

Douglas Wachter, please come forward. 

Mr. W tt.t.t s. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Wachter. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DOUGLAS WACHTER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

GEOEGE BRUNN 

Mr. Ajrens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Wachter. My name is Douglas Wachter. I live at 1830 Derby 
Street, Berkeley, and I am a student at the University of California. 

Mr. AnENS. You are appearing today, Mr. Wachter, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Wachter. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Wachter. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel;, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Brunn. My name is George Brunn. My address is 41 Sutter 
Street. Mr. Chairman, I would request the privilege of rising to a 
point of personal privilege. Could I rise on a point of personal 
privilege ? 

Mr, WhiLIs. No, You see, you are here as the gentleman's attor- 
ney to advise him of his rights. What we have to do is to develop 
the information by question and answer. You have a right to advise 
him. That is the procedure. 

Mr. Brunn. Very well. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wachter, please tell us where and when you were 
born. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Wachter. I was born on June 7, 1911, in Berkeley, Calif., at 
the Alta Bates Community Hospital. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us a word about your education ? 

Mr. Wachter. I am now a student at the University of California. 
I am a sophomore there. My education has been in the main in 
Berkeley. I attended a grammar school in Albany. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wachter, since you were subpenaed to appear be- 
fore this committee, have you issued public statements as to why 
you were subpenaed to appear before this committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wachter. Yes ; I have. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 19G7 

Mr. Arens. I should like to read to you a press account and ask you 
if this is a true and correct statement by yourself. It appears in the 
Daily Calif ornian, imder date of May 4, 1900 : 

The 18-year-old University sophomore who has been subpenaed by the House 
Un-American Activities Committee told the Daily Californian yesterday why 
he thought he had been called to appear at the May 10th hearing. 

"I think the Committee wanted to subpena someone on campus in order 
to tag Cal's political movement as unamerican. I don't know why they picked 
my name ; people have been involved in actions similar to mine," he said. 

Continuing the quotation : 

"I think they pick people whose ideas are liberal, radical or in any way con- 
sidered to be nonconformist," the student said. "I will not be intimidated by 
the subpena ; I am going to fight this committee's invasion of my political free- 
dom in every way that I can." 

Is that a true and correct reproduction of the public statement you 
issued respecting your appearance before this committee? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wachter. I respectfully object to that question because it 
clearly violates my rights under the First Amendment to the Consti- 
tution of the United States of America. 

(Document marked "Douglas Wachter Ex. No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Now Mr. Wachter, do you think there might have 
been some other reason why you are under subpena to appear before 
this committee other than the reasons which you gave in this press 
statement ; namely, that we are exploring into your liberal ideas and 
your political beliefs ? 

Is there something else you have been doing that you think might 
be of interest to this committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wachter. I respectfully object to the question on the same 
grounds. Any question as to my political beliefs, associations, state- 
ments, deprives me of the right of free speech, press, assembly and 
petition. 

The House Un-American Activities Committee serves no real legis- 
lative or constitutional purpose. It punishes individuals and 
groups 

Mr. Arexs. You are reading from a prepared statement 

(Applause.) 

Mr. Arens. You are reading from a prepared statement? 

Mr. Wachter. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Willis. That's all right. Let him answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Continue reading, please? 

Mr. Wachter. It punishes individuals and groups for their politi- 
cal ideas and associations through public exposure and condemnation. 

Mr. Wn.Lis. I am sorry. You are refusing to answer on the basis 
of the first amendment ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Wachter. I have objected to the question. 

Mr. Arens. I don't believe you have completed your answer, sir, and 
I would like to have you complete it, if you please. 

Mr. Wachter. Thank you. 

I have respectfully objected to the question. 

It punishes individuals and groups for their political ideas and 
associations through public exposure and condemnation, often result- 



1968 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

ing in economic sanction. I cannot cooperate with the committee in 
answering any such questions. 

I feel I have an obligation as a citizen of this country to preserve 
the Constitution, and 1 do not feel tliat I can do so in good conscience 
by allowing the House Un-American Activities Committee to inquire 
into my beliefs or associations. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Wachter, it is the information of this com- 
mittee from unimpeachable intelligence sources that you were a dele- 
gate to the National Convention of the Communist Party from the 
Northern District of California, the Communist Party convention 
held in New York City in December of 1959. 

Would you kindly affirm or deny, while you are under oath, that 
information ? 

Mr. Wachter. I object to the question on the previous grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his coimsel.) 

Mr. Wachter. The same objection. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, in view of the fact that this witness has 
not invoked that part of his constitutional privileges against self- 
incrimination, I respectfully suggest he now be ordered to answer the 
question as to whether or not he is presently a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

I explain to the witness that the reason why we want that infor- 
mation is that it is a necessary first question in order that we may 
undertake to elicit from this witness information of which we think he 
is possessed respecting the operation of this conspiratorial force 
Imown as the Communist Party in northern California, of which we 
know he is a member. 

If he will answer that question, we expect to elicit from him infor- 
mation respecting the techniques of the Communist operation, par- 
ticularly among youth groups in northern California, so that infor- 
mation might be available to the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties in appraising the administration and operation of the Internal 
Security Act of 1950, the Communist Control Act of 1954, the For- 
eign Agents Registration Act, and other security legislation, with the 
end in view of attempting to evolve such legislation as may be neces- 
sary to cope, so far as we can legislatively, with the operations of the 
Communist Party on American soil. 

With that explanation, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the 
witness now be ordered and directed to answer the principal outstand- 
ing question, namely: Are you now a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes; I order you to answer the question, sir, because 
you have not invoked — you have only invoked the fii-st amendment of 
the Constitution. You have a lawyer, and a right to act on his advice, 
if vou want to. 

iBut as chaiiTnan, I will tell you that in our opinion your position at 
this time is not justified and I order you to answer the question. 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wachter. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated, and I also respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 
tion on the constitutional grounds that I cannot be forced to bear wit- 
ness against myself. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 19()9 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, young man, that if you told 
this committee whether or not you are presently a member of Ihe 
Communist Party, you would be giving information that might be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

I advise you that if you honestly apprehend that you would be 
giving information that could be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding, you have a right, under the Constitution, to invoke the pro- 
vision of the fifth amendment against self-incrimination. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wachter. As the chairman knows, the purpose of the amend- 
ment to the Constitution to which I refer was created to safeguard 
both the innocent and the guilty. There is no inference in that 
amendment as to the position of the person who invokes it. 

I respectfully refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

(A disturbance in the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you in the course of the last 12 months used an 
alias ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wachter. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Just one final question : Do you, sir, presently have in- 
formation, current information, respecting the operation of the Com- 
munist Party in northern California ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wachter. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. You are excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until one-thirty. 

(Member of the subcommittee present at time of recess: Repre- 
sentatives Willis and Johansen.) 

("\Yliereupon, at 12 noon the subcommittee recessed, to reconvene at 
1 :30 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, MAY 12, 1960 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1 :30 p.m.j Representative Edwin 
E. Willis, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of reconvening : Rep- 
resentatives Willis and Johansen.) 

Mr. Willis. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Barbara Hartle, please resume the witness stand. 

TESTIMONY OF BARBARA HARTLE— Resumed 

(A disturbance and demonstration in the hearing room.) 
Mr. Willis. We are now having our hearing broken up — disturbed. 
I ask the marshal to eject from the room those people who are lead- 
ing the crowd right in the midst of our hearing. 

The hearing will resume in an orderly fashion. I repeat, we are 
here under the power of the United States Congress and ordered to 
be here. We want to conduct these hearings in an orderly fashion. I 



1970 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

think everyone with a sense of fairness and decency will say that 
these hearings have been conducted in a dignified fashion. 

(Disturbance.) 

The only reason, the only earthly reason why these doors aren't open 
is this : In no courtroom in America are people allowed on the side 
aisles unless they are orderly. In no picture show or other public 
function are people allowed in the side aisles without being orderly. 
That is the only reason why tliis tiling has been brought about. We 
were very patient this morning. We shall continue to be patient, but 
firm and decisive. 

Now, this thing was brought about by disorderly conduct this morn- 
ing. A lot of noise was going on. I announced that one more public 
display would result in the clearing of the aisles. That was accom- 
plished over the noon recess. 

Mr. Counsel, please call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that you an- 
nounce to the police officers that they are under a mandate from this 
subcommittee to cause the removal from this room of any person wlio 
causes a disturbance in the course of the proceedings which will now 
begin. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. I assume that is what I have just done. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Hartle, you were sworn this morning; is that cor- 
rect? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you get a little closer to the microphone so we 
may proceed with our interrogation ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You have before you at the present time the additional 
documents which were identified and incorporated in this record; is 
that correct ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly proceed at your own pace to give your 
descriptive interpretation of those documents, at least the principal 
documents, and the significance of them from the standpoint of the 
operation on American soil of the Communist conspiratorial ap- 
paratus ? 

Mrs. Hartle. In the report by Gus Hall to the I7th National Con- 
vention, Gus Hall makes a very strong call for mobilization of a peace 
movement, and in it he exhorts the Communist Party that peace is the 
most important issue before the Communist Party. (See Committee 
Exhibit No. 1, App. p. 2205.) 

This is based on the fact that the Communist Party wants to take 
advantage of the peaceful coexistence with the Soviet Union and wants 
to undermine the United States economically and politically and take 
power and lead it into the Communist camp. 

Mr. Arens. If I may interrupt, you are giving an interpretation 
to the Communist documents, based upon your background and train- 
ing in the dialectics of communism and in Communist use of words. 
Communist semantics; is that correct? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes; that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Hartle. I can give a comparison of this peace movement with 
another peace movement in the late 1930's — the American Peace Mo- 
bilization, through which the Communist Party, when I was active in 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1971 

it, mobilized or tried to mobilize for peace right up mitil the time of 
a change in policy by the Soviet Union, and tlien, of course, the Com- 
munist Party was for war. 

So a quick switch can take place on the peace front whenever the 
Communist movement on a world scale needs it and demands it. 

In the keynote speech, Gus Hall also brings up some problems on the 
homefront and tells the Communist Party to take advantage of what 
they consider to be problems on the homefront in order to link it up 
with the fight for peace, all of it together to be a fight against the 
whole American free enterprise system, the American way of life we 
have, which they call imperialism, American imperialism. 

Gus Hall emphasizes in several places the very enthusiastic atmos- 
phere for the growth of the Communist movement that came about as 
a result of the historic visit of Khrushchev to this country and its 
momentous consequences. 

The analysis of Gus Hall was that the Communist Party in this 
new atmosphere was and would very rapidly grow and develop in the 
United States. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in the course of your membership in the con- 
spiratorial apparatus known as the Communist Party, know as a 
Communist the man who was causing such disruption here a little while 
ago, shouting for peace and democracy, and the like, in the Commu- 
nist jargon, a man by the name of Archie Brown ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes ; I did know Archie Brown. I knew him to be a 
Communist. 

(A disturbance in the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the Chair 
issue an admonition to those who are disorderly in this hearing room, 
that this congressional committee will not be taken over by the Com- 
munists or those under Communist discipline, and that anyone who is 
engaged in disorderly conduct in this hearing room will be ejected 
from the hearing room. 

Mr. Willis. I have so ordered. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Under what circumstances did you know Archie Brown ? 

Mrs. Hartle. I met with Archie Brown in a Communist meeting 
here in San Francisco in the early part of 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now, while you are under oath, testify 
that you knew Archie Brown to a certainty to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes ; I knew him to a certainty to be a member. In 
fact, I knew him to be a member of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat activities was he engaged in as a member of this 
conspiratorial force known as the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Hartle. He was engaged in waterfront activities, waterfront 
union activities to quite a large extent in California, at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you proceed with your analysis ? 

Mrs. Hartle. In Exhibit No. 2, called "The Introduction," to the 
main resolution of the convention, the point is made that the Com- 
munist Party bases itself on the principles of INIarxism-Leninism, and 
which, in terminology that maybe somebody else can understand, 
means that the way to get to this socialism or communism that the 



1972 COMJMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Communist Party talks about is by the violent seizure of power in a 
capitalist country, and that the Communist Party is the indispensable 
instrument for this seizure of power ; and that in this era this seizure 
has to be forceful and violent. (See Committee Exhibit No. 2, 
App. p. 2212.) 

Sometimes in the material tliis is disclaimed by the Communist 
Party, but when they say they base themseh-es on the principles of 
Marxism-Leninism, every Communist that studies that material knows 
that that is what is meant. 

The document further says that the peaceful coexistence policy will 
make it possible to put on the pressure to make a shift in tlie foreign 
policy of the United States, to further shift the foreign policy of 
the TJnited States. 

This they attach a great deal of importance to, because that will 
further clear the atmosphere for a very rapid and successful building 
of the Communist movement in the United States. 

What it means is that if the foreign policy of our country were to 
be less alert, and were to become dupes themselves of the Communist 
conspiracy, the Communist could go aliead and organize and make 
a lot more progress in this country than they can at the present time. 

In the document on General Principles, the resolution sets forth, 
again, that the basic analysis of capitalism and imperialism by Marx 
and Lenin have been confirmed. It is stating there again that they 
base themselves on the principles of Marxism and Leninism. (See 
Committee Exhibit No. 3, App. p. 2216.) 

]SIr. Arens. "VNHiat, in essence, are these principles to wliich the 
Communist operation on American soil is dedicated ? 

Mrs. Hartle. From Marx comes the principle of the class struggle, 
that the working class and the capitalist class, as they put it, are in 
eternal conflict, and that the working class is inevitably going to win 
that conflict. It is an irreconcilable conflict. 

They say it is tlie workijig class led by the Communist Party. 
That is the way they always put it. It is not the Communist Party 
that is going to take power, altliongli in one or two classics of the 
party somebody did slip and say the Communist Party, but they did 
kind of clear that up, but you must always say it is the working class 
led by the Communist Party. Of course, they say it is the Communist 
Party that is indispensable. That is the way that is made clear. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a document there, Mrs. Hartle, which 
announces to the comrades in assembly at the national convention of 
the Communist Party what the conspiracy regards as political action, 
what they call political action ? 

Mrs. Harti.e. What the Communist conspiracy regards as political 
action is the seizure of power by force. It is mass action. It is break- 
ing through the bourgeois laws, traditions and conventions, and doing 
by force and by mass action, by sheer bodily weight and numbei-s, 
what you cannot accomplish through using the laws, the Constitution 
and the. democratic rights, which they say are limited. 

That is the mass action, that it teaches the Communist Party and 
the masses, because this is the training for the seizure of power. That 
is the way the seizure of power taices place, too. (See Committee 
Exhibit No. 10, App. p. 2243.) 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1973 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mrs. Ilartle, do you have a resolution there, 
or documents, from the Communist national convention last Decem- 
ber, with respect to the intensification of their propaganda activities 
in the United States? 

JNIrs. Hartt.e. Yes. There is a document entitled "The Worker" 
and in this document — it is a resolution on The Worker, which is 
the Communist weekly newspaper nationally in the United States. 

It calls for the spreading of The Worker, gaining many thousands 
of new subscriptions and building up and raising funds for it so that 
the Communist propaganda and line can be more effectively spread 
around among tlie members and among the people in various walks 
of life, to give them the line. (See Committee Exhibit No. 15 App. 
p. 2266.) 

Mr. Arexs. Would you proceed at your own pace to an analysis of 
the principal it«ms in these documents from the national convention 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Hartle. In the document on General Principles, one of 
the important points made is that the mam factor in the world is the 
competition between capitalism and, as they call it, socialism. They 
used to call it communism, but now they use socialism quite a bit. ( See 
Connnittee Exhibit No. 3, App. p. 2216.) 

That is, that these two worlds are in conflict, and they say that the 
competition can be peaceful or it can be not peaceful, but that at any 
rat© in this competition, the capitalist countries, including the United 
States, will lose. This competition is in the interest of the United 
States because they will lose in this competition and will eventually 
become a part of the Communist world. 

It is in that sense that the Communists see the competition being 
in the interest of the United States. That is serious. It is not face- 
tious, but it is serious. That is the way they see it being in the interest 
of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Hartle, is there any significant deviation in the 
program, policies and political warfare announced in these various 
documents in the assembly of the Communist Party in New York 
City and the program, policies and political warfare of the worldwide 
apparatus ? 

Mrs. Hartle. No; there is no difference, excepting that different 
tactics are evolved for different countries. 

Mr. Arens. Those are to fit the particular situation in any specific 
country ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. Hartij:. That is right; to mobilize the masses in the struggle. 
In any country, maybe one thing or another will be emphasized or 
one thing or another will be done now and not done tomorrow. It is 
just a matter of tactics. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to interrupt you here. Based upon your 
extensive experience in the operation itself, why or how is it that 
the Communists are so successful in their conditioning, brainwashing, 
of the non-Communists ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Well, they are so successful in the main in the use of 
non-Commmiists because the non-Communists don't have any idea 
of what they are being used for. When they are working for peace and 
a minister of a, church believes in peace or a member of a congrega- 
tion believes m peace, there is nothing very strange for him to do 



1974 COlVEVrUNIST party — northern CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

something for peace if he believes in it. He doesn't think he is be- 
traying his country, changing his politics or anything else. 

Somebody that is interested in gaining minority rights of any kind, 
interested in racial relations of any kind, are not, unless they suspect, 
but usually they don't kno^y that the Communists are building the 
whole thing. Most of the people in the united front don't know. 

The ones that get recruited into the Communist Party, they know. 

Mr. Arens. The hard-core know, but the dupes and the suckers do 
not ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. Harti.e. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How is it, Mrs. Hartle — and this has puzzled me per- 
sonally as I have studied this operation for 14 years, and I have seen 
the degree to which they can condition non-Communists against the 
fight on communism — that they can condition them to resist any 
struggle against this threat to our freedom, how is it that they are 
able to engender such dedication and zeal and enthusiasm, even in the 
non-Communist for the Communist program ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Well, of course, I think the first basis of it is, how 
come the Communist has the zeal and enthusiasm. I think the best 
explanation of that is that the struggle for power has always en- 
gendered a great deal of enthusiasm in the world, whether it was good 
or bad. 

That is a very mighty, sensitive thing, the desire to be in power, the 
desire to will the destiny of a country or of the people in it. That is 
a pretty serious matter. People who go into that kind of movement 
are usually pretty serious about it. 

Then they work hard enough and learn enough to be able to throw 
over to other people a good deal of their — what do you call it — 
militancy and fervor. 

Mr. Arens. We saw a little of that militancy here in the courtroom 
just a few minutes ago, didn't we ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes; that is militancy in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience, do you 
have any suggestions which you could make, just as one person, to 
people who will read this public record as to how we could at least 
begin an approach to bring the realization of the truth as to the nature 
of communism, as to the nature of the Communist operation, to these 
suckers, these dupes who are controlled by the conspirators themselves? 

Do you have any suggestions along that line? 

Mrs. Hartle. Well, one suggestion I have for the youth, and I 
think if it had been used on me it might have had an effect. If the 
young people would know when they start fooling with the Com- 
munist movement how completely they are going to lose their free- 
dom right in these United States of America, that they will not 
even be able to move from one city to another 

Mr. ^Vrens. Do you agree with me that the average youngster who 
is a sucker or a dupe, or manipulated, consciously or unconsciously, 
by (he conspiratorial force, does not realize that he is actually serv- 
ing the cause of destroying freedom and liberty? 

Mrs. Hartt,e. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. He thinks he is doing somethmg good — many of them. 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes. 

]\fr. Arens. How do you account for that ? 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1975 

Mi*s. Hartle. Well, of course, it is through a very well calculated 
propaganda. The Communist Party says it is for freedom, and it 
IS aJble to convince some people. It is not able to convince every- 
body, thank God, but it is able to convince some people. ^ 

Then, after it has drawn the people in and indoctrinated them for 
a while, then along comes the discipline. By that time you are obli- 
gated and oriented to where you can't desert the movement because 
you don't want to go back on your obligations, you know, to hu- 
manity, peace and all of that, so then you accept the discipline. 

In order to get all of these good things you can't move from Seat- 
tle or — you can't move from Spokane to Seattle, and you can't marry 
somebody, either, especially if they are not just quite the right type 
of person. They will tell you what to do with your children when 
you finally have some. 

Mr. Aeens. Isn't that what the Communists complain about this 
committee ? Isn't that thought control ? 

Mrs. Hartle. They have the most effective thought control that I 
have ever had any experience with. 

Mr. Arens. "Would you kindly proceed with your summary analysis 
of these documents ? 

Mrs. Hartle. The document on the Competition Between the Two 
Systems says the following, which points up the fact that in this 
peaceful competition the United States will lose. It doesn't say the 
United States here, but that is what we are talking about. 

The status of capitalism is determined essentially by its own contradictions, 
which operate in the direction of the eventual replacement of capitalism by 
socialism. 

So that the peaceful competition allows the Socialist or Commu- 
nist sector to increase its productivity through trade and all of 
that. 

But the capitalist world will lose in the competition. That, ac- 
cording to the Communist viewpoint, is what they mean, that that is 
what is good for the United States about this competition. They will 
lose out — that is what is good about it. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 5, App. p. 2222.) 

Mr. Arens. Is there any monolithic force in this Nation, unified, 
disciplined force in this Nation, of comparable numerical strength 
to the numerical strength of that monolithic, unified force known as 
the Commimist operation? Is there any competing force that is 
monolithic, unified, subject to a single direction, that is actually resist- 
ing and meeting the Communist onslaught? 

Mrs. Hartle. Well, no ; I am not aware of any. 

Mr. Arens. I am not, either. Would you proceed ? 

Mrs. Hartle. On the document. Defense and Extension of De- 
mocracy, the meaning of the document is to use democracy in order 
to obtain commmiism, to use the Constitution and the Bill of Eights 
in order to set up the Communist system. 

There is talk in here that the Constitution might even not have to 
be removed. It might be seriously amended. I remember when I 
went to a national training school in New York in 1946 they said, 
"Well, we don't have to be so worried about the Constitution in a 
serious crisis; martial law can be declared." (See Committee Ex- 
hibit No. 7, App. p. 2228.) 



1976 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

The seriousness that the Communist Partj^ attached to the Consti- 
tution is, just in pLain, ordinary words, plain hogwash. I can re- 
member the district organizer of the Communist Party coming to 
Spokane and avo local Connnunists had put out a leaflet about defend- 
ing the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. We were going into 
the 1930 progressive era at that time. 

The district organizer read us up and down. He said, "It might 
l:>e all riglit to put the Bill of Rights in there, but where in the Avorld 
did you get the idea that it Avas our position to defend the Con- 
stitution?" 

So we were young people then and we were straightened out on 
that point. Since then, though, the Communist movement thinks it 
is all right to pretend to defend the Constitution. We can amend 
it or have martial law later when there is enough force to sweep aside 
the people that happen to be interested in the Constitution. 

Mr. Arexs. Mrs. Hartle, I wonder if I could inject still another 
question in the course of the presentation you are making — an analy- 
sis of these Commmiist documents. 

Wliat caused you to disassociate yourself from this conspiratorial 
force? We know from our own records that you were a hard-core, 
dedicated Commmiist. 

"WHiat actually caused you to see the light and break away from the 
influence of this devilish force to which you had dedicated your life 
with a zeal and a determination that far excelled that of any Com- 
munist wliom we had to have expelled from the hearing room ? Can 
you tell us about that ? 

Mrs. Hartle. The most important thing that began to take me out 
of the Communist Party was the constant factionalism, the constant 
struggle for leadership in the Commmiist Party. This I ran into 
when I first came to Seattle. 

I was brought in the district office to be in the district leadership. 
There Avere ahvays a couple or three factions and each one Avanted to 
be the district organizer and the top dog, and they Avere just fighting 
about that all the time. 

I just didn't take too much interest in that. I thought Ave should get 
on Avith our work, being it Avas such good Avork and important Avoi'k. 
Then they began to haAe more difficulties on the national scale, Avith 
Earl BroAvder and William Z. Foster and some more like that. 

Then I heard of a feAV district squabbles doAA-n here in California, 
too. That kind of factional fighting and knifing each other Avas going 
on, a struggle for poAver in the Communist Party in the United 
States. 

Besides that, I Avas sent underground by the Communist Party in 
the summer of 1950 and, perforce, I Avasn't able to associate as closely 
Avith Commimists. I AAasn't in just daily, morning, noon and night 
contact Avith other Communists. Thousands of meetings and many, 
many books to read and reports to make, and people to teach, and 
demonstrations to hold, and picket lines and signs to make, and all 
these millions of things that just practically SAvalloAv up an individual 
in the Communist movement. 

I did haA'e a chance to read, again, some literature Avhich I had 
been much interested in in the past, before I joined the Comnmnist 
Party, and some histories that Avere not on the good list of the Com- 
munist Party. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1977 

I think I loosened the bonds a little bit, the discipline a little bit, 
at that time, because it was then that I decided that I was just — 
well, I was disgusted with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a recognition of the basic deceit of the 
Communist Party ? Did you come to recognize that fact ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes; I did. I came to a recognition of that. 
Strangely enough, I saw the deceit on all fronts and the very last place 
where I could see the deceit was in the Soviet Union, and the adherence 
and love and loyalty of Communists to the Soviet Union is unimagi- 
nable, I do believe, to the average person. 

But that was almost like giving up my mother. Wlien I finally 
was able to see that, then there was no more chance of the Communist 
Party influencing me any further. 

Mr. Arens. What is the training and teaching of the comrades as 
to how they were to react, what they were to do, in the face of attempts 
by congressional committees to ferret out Communists and to get the 
facts? How were they to react toward congressional committees? 

AVliat were they to do to attempt to enlist people to do their work 
against congressional committees ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Well, the congressional committees such as this, the 
Comnmnist Party has always opposed, no matter what the name was 
or whether it was in Congress or in a State legislature or whether it 
was someplace else, in the school system or other places. 

The Communist Party has always very, very strongly campaigned, 
mobilized, and organized against any attemps to curb the rights of 
Communists or their activities, or to look into their doings. 

Mr. Akexs. Are Communists liberal or are they reactionary in the 
proper connotation or construction of those terms ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Well, I say I guess they are very reactionary as far 
as these committees are concerned. 

Mr. Arexs. They are actually those who, in the ultimate, want a 
totalitarian society ; isn't that correct ? 

]Mrs. Hartle. They would not give a minority voice to somebody 
that is opposed to communism because that is counterrevolutionary, 
and counten-evolutionaries deserve only one fate, and that is extermi- 
nation, or as close as you can get to it. 

Mr. Arens. Would you proceed with the higlilights of the remain- 
ing docimients, please, Mrs. Hartle, because we want to get on to other 
matters ? 

Mrs. Hartle. In the use of democracy, the Connnunist Party calls 
upon its members to use the fifth amendment in order to thwart the 
attempts of courts or committees to gain answers from persons, or in- 
formation of any kind, and tliey use the tactic of using the courts in 
order to bring the Communist message to what they call "the people." 

They will go througli a trial and go through all the fanfare of a 
trial, and go through a lot of things that they really consider to be on 
the surface in order to get tlieir message across to the public, their 
program across to the public. They use the courts for the purpose of 
putting their program across. 

In the document on Curbing the Monopoly Power, it is made clear 
t hat curbing of the monopoly power is a tactic. This is not a solution, 
curbing the monopolies, that is, big business or the trusts and break- 
ing down their power. This is not the final solution, but it opens the 
road to the solution, according to their idea. 



1978 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

If they can get all kinds of people, small business included, that are 
anti-monopoly, anti-big business, farmers, et cetera, all together in 
one camp, they hope that they can set up an anti-monopoly people's 
very left-wing type of government whicli then opens the road to the 
Communist seizure of power. 

Mr. Arens. That brmgs me to a question I would like to have you 
clarify on this public record, a place where so many folks misunder- 
stand the nature of this operation. 

Do the Communists, as such, in truth and in fact, seek the alleged 
reforms for which they profess to be driving, or do they use the pro- 
fessed activity toward the reforms for the ultimate control of a 
society ? 

Mrs. Hartle. They do the latter. The Communist Party explains 
it tliis way: that the reforms are a byproduct of the revolution. 
There is a revolutionary reform and there is a reformist reform. 

The reformist reform is the kind that you get when a business agent 
sits down with the boss and they work out something that is suitable 
to both sides, a small or a reasonable wage increase, or a possible one, 
or at least what is suitable to both sides, without a big strike and a big 
hassle about it. 

But the revolutionary type of reform is one that is wrested from 
the opposition, where there is organization, mobilization, uniting of 
the forces, activizing, teaching, training, a demonstrative action, be- 
cause you have to get the people into action, into mass action, into 
united action. The aim of the whole thing is to get them to that point 
to have enough power to seize power in the country. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Hartle, one more question, and I hope I am not 
too badly interrupting your presentation of these documents. 

Frequently we on the committee are asked by the patriotic people 
across this country who write in or attend our hearings who come up 
and say : "Don't worry about those few Communists ; we are behind 
you, and don't worry about these people who are dupes of the Com- 
munists, and the youth that they are able to enlist in picket lines and 
the like; that the real Americans are behind you"; and then they ask 
this question about which we are puzzled, and perhaps you can help us 
or help the people who read this public record. 

Mr. and Mrs. America so frequently come up and say, "What can I 
do as an individual to get into the fight against this awful thing which 
is makmg such tremendous inroads into our society?" 

"We who are connected with the committee say: "We are glad to 
make available to you the authoritative facts respecting the operation 
of this force, read our conunittee hearings and reports, and try to get 
the truth." 

But beyond that we are pretty well without any ideas. Do you 
have any idea as to what JNIr. and iSIrs. Honest, Freedom-Loving 
American can do to lock liorns with the Communists and the suckers 
in front of the Communists and the dupes in front of the suckers that 
they control ? 

Mrs. Hartle. There really is only one thing that I can think of 
that an average American can do, and that is to acquaint himself 
somewhat with how this whole conspiracy operates because I know that 
the American people, the men and women, will know what to do. But 
they just haven't taken the trouble to acquaint themselves with it. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1979 

Mr. Arens. Do you sense an apathy in the average American re- 
specting the onrush of this force which you have testified here this 
morning was more menacing tlian ever before ? 

Mi*s. ILvRTLE. Yes, I think there is an apathy and my own opniion 
is that a lot of it is due to a hxck of very much information about it at 
till. I am mindful of the fact that there is much information put out 
all right, but it probably takes quite a lot more. 

Mr. Arens. Let me ask you still another question, and I hadn't 
thought of this except in the vein in which we are proceeding today : 
As a former deadly enemy of this committee and of its work, and now 
one who is serving your goveriunent in making available your knowl- 
edge, interpretation of the operation, can you tell tliis committee how 
you think this committee could do a better job to serve the cause of 
resisting this awful force which is penetrating every segment of our 
society ? 

Is there anything you think we ought to do that we are not doing ? 

Mrs, Hartle. Well, I don't know whether the committee can do it or 
who can do it, but apparently the education about communism that 
has to be gotten to more people will have to be done with a little bit 
more effective means than expecting somebody to read a congressional 
record because it just isn't — well, I think we all understand that that 
is just not in the cards, to expect the average American to read some- 
thing like that and study it. 

A student will do it and some people will do it, but a lot of people 
won't. I don't know, but if it were possible to have really good TV 
programs and really good radio programs, and really good books 

Mr. Arens. We are disposed to think that is beyond the purview 
of the official function of this committee. 

Mrs. Hartle. But if the average American would know enough 
about the Communist Party, then he would be very effective. I can 
remember when I was in the Communist Party I belonged to the 
Central Labor Council in Spokane and that was many years ago, 
1936-37, when the Communists were riding pretty high and we had 
(^uite a few Communists in that Central Labor Council, but I can 
remember to this day one or two men in there who knew what the 
Communist conspiracy was, and they just caused us Communists all 
kinds of trouble and we never did get anywhere in that Central Labor 
Council over those two fellows. Red-baiters we called them, but 
they knew, 

Mr. Arens. Fascists, red-baiters, witch hunters ; we are used to that. 

Mrs. Hartle. In some other Central Labor Councils they just went 
to town and practically took them over. 

Mr. Arens. Now, will you kindly give us a summary analysis of 
some of the other docmnents, so we can get the essence of your testi- 
mony mto the record. 

Mrs. Hartle. In the document on Class and Strategic Alliances, 
the point is made that the Communists have to try to influence people 
as widely as possible in order to get their program across, not to be too 
narrow, not to just hammer the same point home with the same group, 
but to try to influence farmers, Negro people, the teclinical workers 
and scientists, highly paid, but nevertheless workers according to the 
Communist Party. 



1980 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Even some sections of the capitalist class should be drawn into this 
anti-monopoly front, to work on issues on a broad front, to get a big, 
broad revolutionary stream going. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 9, App. p. 2240.) 

In the article on Independent Political Action, the Conmiunist 
Party calls upon the Communist to work in both the Democratic and 
Republican Parties and any other parties and organizations where 
they can gain influence with a more general aim of the formation of a 
labor-led peopjle's party in this country. 

The analysis of the Communist Party is that the Democratic and 
Republican Parties are both bourgeois or capitalist parties, represent- 
ing the capitalist class, and what is really needed is a labor-led people's 
party that fights both of these parties. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 10, App. p. 2243.) 

They have a document on the question of The Problem of Class 
Collaboration. It explains that in the labor movement in America 
there is a strong tendency for collaboration between labor and capital, 
and that the labor leaders in the United States have always supported 
the foreign policy of the United States, and have never come to logger- 
heads with our system as a system. 

The fighting they have done and the strikes they have led have al- 
ways been just for wages and hours, but not to overthrow the system ; 
and the Communists have to get in there and have to sell communism 
and show them how to work in the labor movement to lead the labor 
forces so they will feel like overthrowing the whole system and not just 
getting a few wage increases. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 11, App. p. 2248.) 

There is a Resolution on Cuba which fully supports the Cuban 
Government. 

Mr. Abens. Castro, do you mean ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Castro ; yes. 

It calls upon the Communist Party to use every propaganda medium 
to convince the American people that Cuba is a people's government. 
Cuba is an example, in the Communist movement, of what the Com- 
munists are fighting for. 

This is the end that the Communist movement is trying to attain in 
all of the Americas, the United States, North and South America, 
Latin America, Puerto Rico, and everyplace else. It holds it up as a 
shining example of the great success made by the Latin American 
people in the fight against the Yankee imperialism. 

They don't give the Communists too much of the credit for it down 
there, but in their own wording, with their semantics, what it means 
is that this is something that they really think is a very fine accom- 
plishment. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 14, App. p. 2264.) 

The Farm Resolution is more or less really a joke. There are a 
number of statements in there of things that they would like to do for 
the farmers, but what it really amounts to is trying to involve the 
farmers in the Communist Party so that they can be liquidated as 
farmers and become collectives later on. It is not a very important 
document as far as I can tell. 

(Se^ Committee Exhibit No. 16, App. p. 2268.) 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1981 

In the Kesolution on the Negro Question, the point is made now by 
the Communist Party, after all these many years, that the Negro 
people m the United States are not a nation. All the time that I was 
m the Communist Party, witii sort of a brief lapse under J-Carl Brow- 
der, and that was not spelled out very well, the Negro people in the 
black belt of the South, where they are in an area of majority, a cer- 
tain area, were considered to be a separate nation with a right to 
secede. 

Now the Communist Party at this last convention, the ITtli conven- 
tion, has gone on record that they are not a nation. But the practical 
program remains the same, of trying to get a hold among the Negro 
people for a force to support the Conmmnists' program. 
(See Connnitte-e Exhibit No. 19, App. p. 2276.) 

Resolution On the 1960 Elections — this document calls for utiliz- 
ing the elections to get the program of the Communist Party across. 
The point here is that the program that is put out by the Communist 
Party for the election is not for the solution of our jjroblems. 

It might appear so on the surface, but when you add the whole 
thin": together you will find, and you will readily see, it is not for a 
solution of the problems, Avhatever problems there may be; on the 
contrary, it is for an aggravation of the problems in order to have a 
crisis for the Communists to take over. 

Part of this is calling for so much spending in all directions and 
raising so much dissension in so many directions that it will eventually 
focus on the Goverimient itself, to try to make the people realize that 
it is the Government as a whole that has to be gotten rid of, not just 
solving these problems. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 20, App. p. 2286.) 

Mr. Arens. On that point, to what extent do the Communists, from 
your experience, engage in what we call political subversion, namely, 
pressure public officials to take a position which is favorable to the 
immediate objective of the Communists? 

Mrs. Hartle. That is a very, very important activity in the Com- 
munist Party. In fact, I don't know which activity is more im- 
portant or comes in for more time and effort than writing letters, 
sending petitions and delegations, and such and such, to Congressmen 
and Senators, and Governors, Mayors, and what have you. That is a 
very important part of Communist activity. 

Mr. Arkxs. They tell us, sneeringly, they can have 50,000 letters 
on Capitol Hill on any subject under the sun in 72 hours. Do you 
think that is an exaggeration, or, based upon your background and 
experience, do you think they are able, by enlisting the dupes and 
the suckers on any particular issue in which they aie interested, to 
])ress the butlon and get the letters in Yv^ashington ? 

Mrs. Hartle. That is no exaggeration, I assure you. 

Mr. Arexs. But they don't reveal it in their letters, in their cor- 
respondence, and in their petitions to the public officials that they 
are Conmiunists or that it is a Communist operation, do they? 

Mrs. Hartt.e. And many of the people that write the letters don't 
know that it has nnything to do with communism at thnt moment. 
But 1 would like to clarify that, because they will say: "Well, then, 
if nobody knows, what difference does it make?" 



1982 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

It makes tliis difference : The Communists ^vol■k with these people, 
they get them to %vrite these letters, they go to their homes, they get 
their names on the list. They recruit into the Communist Party the 
best prospects out of them, and they, in turn, then lead the rest of them. 

A small force leads a large group of people, because if the Com- 
munists were just out here talking about Negro rights or labor rights, 
and that is all they were doing, surely they have as much right to do 
that as anybody else. But what they do is build the conspiracy, build 
the Communist Party, what they call the conspiracy, and organize a 
lot of other activities that you don't know about, and that they don't 
come out in the open about; such things as hiding mimeograph ma- 
chines, having undercover people here and there, and all kinds of ways 
of contact that nobody knows about, and a system whereby everybody 
will leave home overnight and not be availalile in case of an arrest or 
something like that. 

There is a lot that the Communist Party does that it doesn't come 
to this committee with and say : ''What is the matter with us ? There 
is nothing wrong with us." 

Mr. Arens. I might suggest with some degree of apology for the 
constant interruptions I have caused, in view of the time element in 
our stay, that I would appreciate it if we could conclude your general 
presentation in another 10 or 15 minutes. 

Mrs. Hartle. I think that will be highly possible. 

Mr. Arens. Again I say, I am responsible for consuming so much 
of your time, but there are so many elements that I thought this rec- 
ord ought to reflect, based upon your extensive background and expe- 
rience, and based on the obvious — to those of us who are in this work — 
that we are losing to a few conspirators. 

Mrs. Hartle. There was a resolution on Puerto Rico at the 17th 
Convention. The Communist Party has had an interest in this ques- 
tion of Puerto Rico for many years. When I attended the national 
convention in New York in 1945, I, myself, introduced the resolution 
to the convention for the independence of Puerto Rico. 

Puerto Rico is considered by the Communist Party to be a colony 
of American imperialism, and that this colony should be free. They 
say it is Yankee imperialism holding down this colony. That is the 
program for Puerto Rico, and if the program is carried through it 
will be similar to that in Cuba, excepting that it will be the United 
States instead of Batista that is on the receiving end there, which will 
probably make it even worse. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 22, App. p. 2300.) 

The Draft Resolution on Party Organization talks about how to 
build party organization and how to do it in united front work, which 
I mentioned a moment ago. It is not united front work if you don't 
build the Communist Party; it is not Communist work. 

A man can be in a trade union from now on and be a good trade 
union leader, but he must recruit into the Communist Party, get sub- 
scribers to the Communist press, hand out Communist literature, and 
spread the, Communist propaganda to the most likely persons. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 23, App. p. 2302.) 

Mr. Arens. Most of Avhich is not revealed, per se, as Communist 
literature, is it? 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1983 

Mrs. Hartle. Most of which is not. But there is always that ele- 
ment in there of recruiting a few people in order to bring what they 
consider the best elements in to help operate and strengthen the con- 
spiracy itself, which has to have replacements from time to time. 

On the question of disarmament, the resolution carries on at great 
length about the need for disarmunipnt for the United States, but it 
leaA-es it pretty well up in the air about disarmament anyplace else. 
Maybe they will say that that is not their province, but it doesn't 
seem to bother them when it is on another subject that they do want 
to talk about. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 24, App. p. 2308.) 

There is a document entitled Preconvention Discussion which shows 
that in the pre-convention discussion a Communist Party line on all 
the main issues had already been given and that the discussion was 
directed, because the resolution and keynote report of Gus Hall are 
very much along the lines of tlie so-called discussion before the 
convention. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 25, App. p. 2316.) 

In the report on the constitution, there were quite a number of 
changes made in the constitution of the Communist Party of the 
USA, and it is my experience in the Communist Party that the con- 
stitution is changed fairly regularly to meet the exigencies of the 
situation. 

(See Committee Exhibit No. 26, App. p. 2335.) 

Mr. Arens. At previous conventions did they change the constitu- 
tion in order to meet the changing legislative devices which this com- 
mittee attempts to recommend to cope with the conspiracy ? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes; that is right. I have been in discussions in 
the national convention where those very matters were discussed, 
how the wording can be so you can get the Marxism-Leninism across, 
and still avoid legal prosecution. 

That, I think, covers, as far as I can recall, the main points in these 
documents. 

Mr. Arens. We appreciate your general summary, Mrs. Hartle. 
Your interpretation of these documents of the National Committee of 
the Communist Party will help lay a foundation for other matters 
which we want to go into. 

I would respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of Mrs. Hartle, but I would like to request, 
if it is agreeable with her, that she might keep herself available 
in the course of the next day or so, because we may have overlooked 
some item on which we would like to have the benefit of her judg- 
ment and interpretation in this record before we conclude our sessions 
here in San Francisco. 

Mr. Willis. Thank you very much, Mrs. Hartle. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Mr. Merle Brodsky. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath, 

Mr. Wheeler, would you kindly see that Mr. Merle Brodsky is 
paged — if he is in the hall ? 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 



1984 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and notliing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MERLE BRODSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

GEORGE R. ANDERSEN 

Mr. Akens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Brodsky. My name is Merle Brodsky. I live at 3915 Patter- 
son Avenue, Oakland. I am a tile mason. 

Mr. Arexs. You are appearing today, Mr. Brodsky, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I — just a moment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Yes; I am appearing in response to a subpena. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Brodsky. Yes ; I am represented b}' counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Andersen. George R. Andersen, 240 Montgomery, attorney 
at law. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Brodsky, do we have the spelling of your name 
correct — B-r-o-d-s-k-y ? 

Mr. Brodsky. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used any name other than the name 
Merle Brodsky, pursuant to which you are appearing here today? 

(The Avitness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I would like to know from tlie committee, for my 
clarification, what is the pertinency of this question in relationship to 
your function here ? 

Mr. Arens. I would be glad to explain it to you, sir. 

This Committee on Un-American Activities is under a mandate 
from the United States Congress to maintain a continuing surveillance 
over the administration and operation of the security laws of this Na- 
tion for the purpose of advising the Congress of the United States 
respecting tlie administration and operation of such laws as the In- 
ternal Security Act of 1950, the Communist Control Act of 1954, the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act, Espionage and Sabotage Act, for 
the purpose of advising the Congress respecting any amendments 
which the committee mi^ht feel the facts justify, respecting the opera- 
tions of this conspiratorial force on American soil known as the Com- 
munist Party and the activities of tliose conspirators popularly known 
as Communists. 

In order for this committee to make a studied judgment, make 
recommendations, advise the Congress of the United States respect- 
ing the operation of this conspiracy, we must interrogate the con- 
spirators, we must have the facts Avhich we get from testimony under 
oath. 

This committee has received testimony here on this record respect- 
ing certain of the programs and activities of the Communists. Tliis 
committee in the past has learned about Communist techniques of 
changing names; of going in what the Communist conspirators call 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1985 

the underground; of the Communist tie-in witli the international 
Communist apparatus ; of the Communist conditioning of the minds 
of people to believe that they are only liberals, that they are out to do 
good and the like; Communists using suckers and dupes to carry the 
Conununist line; Conmiunists remaining in the background, manipu- 
lating those whom they are able to lay their hands on or to dupe. 

It is the information of this committee, sir, that you are now a hard- 
core Communist conspirator; that in the past you have obliterated 
all identification of yourself and liave used an alias and have been, 
for some several years, in the Communist conspiracy, in the Com- 
munist imderground. 

If you, sir, while you are under oath, will answer this first question 
M'hich I have just posed to you, as to whether or not you have ever 
used an alias, I intend to pursue this line of inquiry. 

I intend to ask you what alias you used. I intend to ask you under 
what circumstances you used it. I intend to pursue with you not your 
beliefs, not your associations, not your political concepts as these 
dupes are taught to use against this committee. In intend to ask you 
about your conspiratorial activities on behalf of this awful force 
which is sweeping the world. 

I intend to ask you, sir, about what part you are playing now in 
this area to further the program Witness Hartle just aimounced as 
part and parcel of the program of this conspiratorial force on Ameri- 
can soil, all for the purpose of having information which this 
committee might take back to Washington ; that its research staff can 
analyze and interpret it, so that the Committee on Un-American 
Activities may advise the Congress of the United States in the dis- 
charge of its legislative duties to try to cope with this conspiracy 
which would destroy freedom in this country. 

Now, sir, with that explanation, I resf)ectfully request you to 
answer the last outstanding principal question: Have you ever used 
any name other than the name Merle Brodsky ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Bkodsky. I am sorry, but all I got there was a speech. I am not 
following you. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this record 
now reflect an order and direction to this witness to answer the out- 
standing question or suffer the possibility of contempt citation. 

Mr. Brodskt. May I answer the question first ? 

Am I not entitled to ask clarification? I didn't understand the 
statement. 

Mr. Willis. I order you to answer it. You have your counsel to 
advise you whether you should or not. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I would have to say, JVIr. Chairman, that, in light 
of the way the counsel placed this, he has accused me of crimes, he 
has threatened me with all sorts of things ; that the only alternative 
I have is to utilize, first, the first amendment, my right and privilege 
of freedom of speech and press and privacy of it ; secondly, the four- 
teenth amendment, tliat this committee is constituted illegally because 
the chairman of this committee represents a district where there are 
over 300,000 voters and only 8,000 voters in that district, or over 
9,000; and also on the grounds, and especially in light of the way the 



1986 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

person here placed it, on the grounds that I cannot be compelled to be 
a witness against myself. 

(A disturbance in the hearing room.) 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Brodsky, how long have you been employed in 
your present place of employment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Again, please try to give me a short answer this 
time. 

Mr. Willis. I think the general foundation he has laid for these 
questions is considered to be sufficient. I suggest that you answer 
the question. 

Mr. Brodsky. As long as you suggest it, Mr. Chairman, let me 
suggest that my occupation and my livelihood is being jeopardized 
by this committee as a reason why I am trying to get clarification, 
but short and brief, not a speech or an attack, but a short and brief 
explanation of what is the pertinency of my work here? 

Mr. Arens. The pertinency of your work is that I expect to pursue 
this line of questioning to determine how long you have been engaged 
in the profession or occupation which you announced as your 
present profession or occupation, with the end in view of attempting 
to trace, if we possibly can, for the purpose of the security of this 
Nation, your activities, if any, which you will reveal in this con- 
spiratorial force known as the Communist Party, when you went into 
the underground, when you came out of the underground, certain of 
your activities on behalf of this force, which is the same force that 
sent the tanks into Budapest. 

Now, sir, kindly answer the last outstanding principal question. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mi\ Brodsky. You got me mixed up again. You are bringing in 
the whole world here. I can't understand it. What was the answer 
to my question? 

Are you trying to jeopardize my employment, my job ? What is the 
pertinency of this question to passing the laws of the United States? 
That is what I would like to know, but not a big speech, please. 

Mr. Willis. A sufficient foundation has been made. We don't want 
to delay this thing. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest the witness be ordered and directed 

Mr. Willis. A sufficient foundation has been laid. I order you to 
answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. What is the question again ? 

Mr. Willis. Will j'ou repeat the simple question ? 

Mr. Arens. How long have you oeen engaged in your present 
occupation, which I believe you said was a tile setter, or something 
to that effect. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I am unemployed at the present time. 

Mr. Arens. What was your last principal employment? 

INIr. Brodsky. Again, I would like to ask 

Mr. Arens. JMr. Chairman, I think this record is abundantly clear. 
I respectfully suggest this witness now be ordered and directed to 
answer the question. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1987 

Mr. Willis. I order you to answer the question. 

Mr. Brodsky. The question is my 

Mr. Arens. — last principal occupation. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I said it was a tile mason. 

Mr. Ajiens. Wliat was your occupation immediately prior to your 
occupation as a tile mason, please, sir ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I was a machinist. 

Mr. Arens. And how long did you pursue that occupation? 

Mr. Brodsky. I would like, Mr. Chairman, and by this point I 
think I am entitled to, some clarification of what are the pertinencies 
of these questions. Is the pertinency of this question, one, to keep 
me out of what my present trade is, and, two, to try to keep me from 
going back to my trade after I am finished ? Is this the pertinency 
of this question ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we have heard this type of Commimist 
line from one end of this coimtry to another. We would like to have 
the witness answer the question of how long he engaged in the pre- 
ceding occupation. 

Mr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman, I appeal to you. You are from Con- 
gress, but he is just an agent. I appeal to you to direct him to answer 
me what is the pertinency. Is he trying to drive me out of a liveli- 
hood ? That is what I want to know. 

Mr. Willis. No, that is not the pertinency. He is going back to 
an area where perhaps you w^ere employed in other matters. 

Anyway, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Brodsky. Where I was employed how ? I'm soriy. I didn't 
hear you. 

Mr. Willis. I order you to answer the question. 

IVIr. Brodsky. Are you through explaining the question ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I am sorry, I got lost again. Wliat was the question 
again ? 

Mr. Willis. Ask the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first principal occupation after com- 
pleting your formal education ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I was a tile helper. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you pursue that occupation ? 

(The witness conferred with his coimsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I guess it must have been about a couple of years. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you complete your formal education, please, 
sir? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I never did complete it. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you complete that part of your education 
which you did complete. Where were you given higher education, 
if any? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. It was in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Arens. What was your occupation in 1951 ? . 



1988 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I just don't remember that date. 

Mr. Aeens. Do you know a person by the name of Moiselle dinger ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I cannot answer that question. I think that the pur- 
pose now is you are going to begin to name all kinds of names and then 
ask me do I know this and that. 

I think my conviction is that you are proceeding on the grounds that 
this committee has no right to get into my privacy of association, of 
political beliefs. 

I think this is very clear to you. I think it has been made clear. T 
see no reason of repeating this line of questioning with me. 

Therefore, in good conscience, by my rights under the Constitution, 
I can see no reason to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. I assure you we are not undertaking to pursue your 
political beliefs at all. You told us a few minutes ago you could not 
recall your activities or your employment in 1951. We have a docu- 
ment here which we thought might refresh your recollection. It is a 
copy of an article in the Daily People's World of June 11, 1951: 
"CRC rallies launch fight on court edict." 

I will display this to you in just a moment. 

Among other items in the article appears the following with respect 
to a rally that was conducted. The leadership of the rally is listed 
here, including Merle Brodsky, who is identified here in the Daily 
People's World article as area organizer of the Commmiist Party. 

Look at that document which Mr. "Wlieeler will now display to you 
and see if that refreshes your recollection respectmg your activities in 
1951. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Would you repeat the question, if there was a ques- 
tion? 

Mr. Arens. The question is this, if I did not pose it in the precise 
form of a question : 

Are you properly identified in that article, in 1951, as an organizer 
for the Communist Party ? 

(Document marked "Brodsky Exhibit No. 1, and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Well, in view of the accusation, vituperative accusa- 
tions, that you have already levied, it leaves me no alternative but, first, 
to rely on my rights of political privacy, my rights of freedom of 
speech and press. 

Secondly, my deep, personal conviction that no committee has a 
right to judge a citizen of the United States that has on it a member 
who was elected in violation of the fourteenth amendment of the 
Constitution of these United States ; and 

Third, on my fundamental right, and especially again in view of 
the fact of the accusations by the hireling of this committee on my 
fundamental rights that I cannot be compelled to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Arens. Moiselle Clinger testified before this committee under 
oath, some months ago, October 20, 1959, that while she was a member 
of the Communist Party operating in the hard core, she knew you. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNU DISTRICT 1989 

to a certainty, as a member of the Communist Party and one of the 
leaders in the Los Angeles area. 

We Avould like to give you an opportunity to deny^, while you are 
under oath, the validity and accuracy of that testimony. Do you 
care to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

ilr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman, before I comment on anybody's testi- 
mony, I would insist on the following : 

First, that such a person confront me in person and stand right here 
and confront me, or, second, at least that I be confronted with a 
copy of the testimony. 

But isn't it proper for this committee, or doesn't this committee 
believe that such a person — I am asking you a question, Mr. Chair- 
man — doesn't this committee believe that if a person stands up before 
this committee to accuse somebody they should appear in person and 
face the person they are accusing? Is that the procedure of this 
committee or not ? 

Mr. Arens. We would like to read you this testimony. 

Mr. Brodskt. I talked to the chairman, not to you. 

Mr. Chairman, Can I address a question to you over his head ? 

Mr. Willis. The question can be asked in a different form, and 
refer to it. 

What he has indicated is that someone swore that you were a member 
of the Communist Party, some months ago, and the simple question is : 

Was that person telling the truth, or, if you prefer it another way, 
then counsel can ask you the direct question : Were you a member of 
the Commmiist Party on that date. That would accommodate you. 

Mr. Brodsky. I am not here to comment on other people's testimony. 
I am here to answer questions directly. 

Mr. Willis. Ask him the direct question. 

Mr. AiiENS. Were you the section organizer of the Communist Party 
in Santa Monica, California ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman, I especially address myself to the 
Chair, it seems that the agent of this committee is pursuing on a line, 
the answers of which become fairly obvious. He has accused me and 
made violent accusations. Therefore, it is obvious that the only 
answer I can give to this type of question, the only possible, conceiv- 
able, constitutional answer, is, first, my right of political privacy and 
freedom of speech and the press. 

Secondly, my right not to be compelled to be a witness against 
myself. 

I ask the Chair to please instruct this man to stop this line of 
questioning. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Arens is one of the most dedicated American 
citizens I know. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, where were you employed in the fall and 
winter of 1956 ? 

Mr. Brodsky. Wliat was that year? 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you employed in the fall and winter of 
1956? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman 



1990 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Willis. The question is quite simple. 

ISIr, Brodsky. ]May I answer the question as I wish ? 

Mr. Willis. There is an outstanding question. I order you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Brodsky. I am trying to answer the question. May I proceed 
to answer the question ? 

Mr. Willis. Answer the question. 

Mr. Brodsky. As I see fit to answer this question, Mr. Chairman, or 
are you saying I can't answer it ? 

Mr. Willis. Answer the question. 

Mr. Brodsky. ISIay I consult with my attorney. I wiuit to answer 
the question, but I am not clear now whether you say I can or I can't. 
May I answer the question ? 

Mr. Willis. Just answer the question. 

Mr. Brodsky. In answering the question, 3'ou have asked me, and I 
have told you of various trades I have been involved in, when the 
committee asked me. That has been clear to this committee. 

It seems that Mr. — what's his name — I forget his name — he is now 
branching over again into where I have made clear, questions involv- 
ing right of political privacy, what I believed in, what my politics are, 
whatever else are my sacred and personal beliefs, and so forth. 

Therefore, I must refuse to answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment and on the rights that I cannot be compelled to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in November 1956 secretary of the Alameda 
County Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. We display to you now, if you please, sir, a thermof ax 
reproduction of an article in the Communist publication, the People's 
World of November 16, 1956, in which, among other language, the 
following appears: "Merle Brodsky, Alameda county Communist 
party secretaiy." 

Mr. Wlieeler will now display that to you. 

Tell this committee whether or not the identification of yourself 
in November 1956 as secretary of the Alameda County Communist 
Party is true and correct ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman, for the same reasons, I have to give 
the same answer. 

(Document marked "Brodsky Ex. No. 2," and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Now, let us move on to the year 1957. Can you tell us 
what your occupation was in 1957 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I am trying to refresh my memory. I believe in the 
year 1957 I was a machinist. To the best of my recollection, I was. 

Mr. Arens. Were you engaged in any other activity in 1957? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Any other activity I may have proceeded in that 
year is concerned with questions of beliefs, associations, questions 
that I have made very clear to this committee I do not believe they 
have the right to ask, and, therefore, I decline to answer. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1991 

Mr. Arens. Were you a leader in the East Bay region of the Com- 
munist Party, the East Bay region comprising Alameda and Contra 
Costa Counties? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. We display to you now, if you please, a thermofax 
reproduction of an article appearing in the Daily People's World of 
January 4, 1957, in which the Communist press, itself, describes you 
in that capacity. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee while you 
are under oath whether or not that identification of yourself in that 
capacity, by the Communist press, was true and correct. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Andersen. There are two. Do you want us to read them both ? 

Mr. Arens. Just turn to the back page which gives the description 
and identification by the Communist press of this man. 

Mr. Andersen. Would you show it to us, please. 

Mr. Arens. Show it to him, Mr. Wheeler. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Andersen. This has an exhibit 6 on it. You mean the reverse 
of that, the reverse of the page where the six is written. 

(The witness confeiTed with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Same answer- 

( Document marked "Brodsky Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you file an income tax return for the years 1951, 
1952, 1953, or 1954? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Wliat is the pertinency of that ? 

Mr. Arens. I am glad you asked me, because I want the record to 
reflect what we think is the pertinency of that, namely, that it is the 
information of this committee that during 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954, 
you obliterated your identity, went into the undergromid of the 
conspiratorial apparatus, the Communist Party, and we would like 
to ask you whether or not during that period of years, 1951 through 
1954, you revealed to the Federal Government via the income tax re- 
turn device from whence you gained your income. 

(The witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman, you seem to be alluding to the fact 
that you have some forms or something, income tax forms, before you. 
What confuses me and what I want answered is my understanding 
that income tax forms are sacred property that are not to be revealed 
to anyone. 

If that is the case, I want to know from this committee, what is 
your access to the income tax forms of the people of this coimtry. 
Are you now going into this question ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
now be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Brodsky. Do you illegally have forais? If you do, you are 
illegally asking question. 

I want to know. Does this committee have income tax forms? 
Are you going into that area now ? What area are you going to leave 
untouched ? 



1992 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

I have a right to ask that question on the income tax forms. There 
is a Department of Revenue in this country and not an un-American 
committee. These things have been sacred. 

I want to know how the committee crossed that line, I demand an 
answer to that. 

Mr. Arexs. Now, sir, I 

Mr. Brodsky. Can I ask the chairman. He has authority here. 
You don't. I want to know. 

Mr. "Willis. Mr. Arens, ask him the direct question about the three 
years. 

Mr. Arens. Four years. The outstanding principal question is: 
Did you file a Federal income tax return for the years 1951, 1952, 1953, 
and 1954? 

I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and directed to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Arens, you misunderstood me. You revealed the 
pertinency for the four years, but will you ask him that direct question 
and accomplish the same ? 

Mr. Brodsky. May I ask, does this committee have income tax 
forms ? 

Mr. AViLLis. Ask the question directly. 

Mr. Brodsky. I am asking you directly, yes. 

Mr. Arens. I am a little confused as to the status of the record. 

Mr. "Willis. He asked the pertinency of the question, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. The purpose is to determine whether this man, during 
the period of time about which we have asked him, while he was in the 
undergroimd, made a revelation to the Federal Government as to the 
sources of his income during the years 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954. 

I respectfully suggest the chairman order and direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Brodsky. This is a sacred question we are going into, income 
tax forms. Never before have I known of a committee entitled to 
start asking people about their income tax forms, I am asking: Has 
the Un-American Committee started now to look into the tax forms 
of the American people ? 

I am entitled to ask that. If not, have you the forms? "V\niat in- 
formation do you base this on ? Forget tlie other question. 

Please, try to answer my simple question in a simple matter and not 
about Hungary and all of that. 

Mr. Arens. I would be happy to answer that question. 

This Committee on Un-American Activities does not have income 
tax forms, nor is the Committee on Un-American Activities investi- 
gating the income tax forms. 

Mr. Brodsky. Why are you asking me? If you want other in- 
fonnation, why don't you ask the other information ? Wliy have you 
entered into the area of asking me about my income tax fonns? You 
are beating around the bush. 

(Disturbance in the hearing room.) 

Mr. Willis. Now wait a minute. 

You youngsters were outside because there were no seats. We 
brought you in here. I'd like to have you hear the hearing, but we are 
not going to permit disturbances. "$'ou were not here a while ago 
when I said it. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1993 

Mr. Arens. I want an explanation on this record, because we re- 
gard this as a crucial question, a crucial line of inquiry. 

This record presently reflects that this witness, by documentation of 
the conspiracy itself is, and has been, a member of the Communist 
Party. 

We have confronted this witness with the information of this com- 
mittee that during 4 years, 1951, 1952, 1953 and 1954, this witness was 
engaged in the underground of the conspiracy, the Communist Party. 

We have asked him now three or four times to put on the record 
whether or not he filed Federal income tax returns for those years re- 
vealing the sources of his income. 

I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Brodskt. The chairman looked like he wanted to say some- 
thing. Do you want to say something ? 

Mr. Willis. I think the question is perfectly proper the way coun- 
sel has asked it. 

Mr. Brodsky. You think it is proper for this committee to ask any 
American citizen about their income tax forms. 

Mr. Willis. I've been awfully patient and I think decent with you. 

Now, let me say this : He has told you, of course, we do not have 
income tax forms or income tax information. He has asked you a 
direct question whether, during those 4 years, you filed an income tax 
return, which might show your employment during those 4 years. 

You have declined to give it. That is all this is about. 

So I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman, in view of the statement of the 
counsel and the accusations of the counsel, he apparently is accusing 
me of something and, therefore, I have to decline on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, is the record clear that this witness has 
been ordered and directed to answer the question ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes, I ordered him and he reiterated his denial. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. I gave the same answer. If he wants me to spell it 
out, you have heard it spelled out before. 

Mr. Willis. I ordered you to answer, and you gave the same an- 
swer, based on the same reliance on the first and fifth amendments. 
The record so shows. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now one of the leaders of the East Buy region 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I don't think this committee has any right to in- 
quire into my political beliefs. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. The question is proper, and I order you to answer it. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman, this question, it seems to me, goes 
to the heart of the question. I am being asked what are my political 
beliefs. In essence, I am being asked who would I vote for, who 
would I support, who would I be for, who would I be against. 



1994 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

I am being asked in the most straightforward way a question that 
the first amendment of the Constitution clearly says nobody tlieie- 
after, whether it be a Mr. What's-His-Name or anybody else, would 
have the right to say to any person, what political party do you be- 
long to, are you a Communist, are you a Democrat, are you a Republi- 
can, how do you stand on this question, a public body calling you before 
the newspapers, the television, and saying, "Here, you no longer have 
political privacy." 

Therefore, Mr. Chairman, first, I must say that from the most 
deepest conviction, first I must defend the first amendment of the 
Constitution by relying on it. 

Secondly, Mr. Chairman, and I say this again in deep consciousness, 
I think it is presumptuous that from an area of where three hundred 
thousand people are denied the right to vote, or denied the right of 
political expression to say how, in a secret manner in a ballot box, they 
want to stand, that a committee chaired by such a person dares ask 
me what is my political belief. 

Therefore, on the grounds of the fourteenth amendment I must 
take this. 

Further, Mr. Chairman, my recollection of history, and I believe 
it is correct, is that after the inquisitorial period of where bodies that 
had no right were able to assume power, power through control of 
mediums of communication and publication, were able to drag people 
before them and say, "Are you a believer or are you not a believer," 
a law was passed that said when you reach a point like this, when other 
laws can't be used to defend you, such as your right of freedom of 
speech and press, we give you one more weapon, tell that committee 
they can't compel you to be a witness against yourself. 

And I tell you, Mr. Chairman, and I tell you, committee, I stand on 
that sacred amendment. 

I will not be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, that if you told this 
committee truthfully, while you were under oath, whether or not you 
are presently a leader of the East Bay region of the Communist Party, 
you would be supplying information which could be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman, I have told him — I forget his name — 
I have told him answers to a number of questions, the essence of which 
is my politics is none of his business and I have to give the same 
answer, just none of his business. 

I state again my politics is none of this committee's business. That 
is what I state, and I state it backing me up with the constitutional 
provisions which says you can tell a committee like this it is none of 
their business. That is what I am doing. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, but could you help this committee by telling us 
whether or not you have ever used the name Steve Bradley? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. "Willis. That is a simple question, it is a pertinent question, 
and I order you to answer it. 

(The witness confei-red with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1995 

Mr. Brodsky. I have to have clarification; he asked me if I am 
going to help this committee and I am not going to help this commit- 
tee in any way. 

Please, don't accuse me of helping the committee. That is a ques- 
tion that needs rephrasing. 

Mr. Willis. Ask him the direct question. 

Mr. Aeens. Have you ever used the name Steve Bradley ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Same answer, the first, fifth, fourteenth, eighth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, will be Martin Marcus. 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Kindly raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee, will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Marcus. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARTIN IRVING MARCUS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, CHARLES A. STEWART 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. ]\'Iarcus. My name is Martin I. Marcus. I reside at 1498 Peco 
Avenue, Pacific Grove, Calif. I am a teacher. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Marcus, you are appearing today in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by this committee ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus. Would you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Marcus. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Marcus. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Stewart. My name is Charles A. Stewart, attorney at law, prac- 
ticing in Carmel, Calif., Lincoln at Seventh. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Marcus, are you now, or have you ever been, a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Marcus. Could you please explain to me the specific legislation 
which is pertinent to this question which you have asked me ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus. Could you please give me the title of the bill, or bills ? 

Mr. Arens. The explanation which I shall now make to the witness 
as to the pertinency of that question is that this Committee on Un- 
American Activities, pursuant to a mandate of the Confess of the 
United States, is imdertaking to develop factual information respect- 
ing the opeiation of the Commmiist Party, its techniques, its strata- 



1996 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

gies, its tactics, all for the purpose of bein^ able to appraise our pres- 
ent security laws, for the purpose of having a fund of information 
as a background to recommend to the Congress amendments to 
these laws. 

In order for the Committee on Un-American iVctivities to know 
about the Commmiist operation, we subpena before the committee 
persons who we have reason to believe possess information which, if 
they will reveal it to the conmiittee, would add to the fund of knowl- 
edge of the committee. 

We believe, sir, that you have such information. 

As a preliminary question, I should like, therefore, to ask you: 
Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus. I respectfully object to this question, on the principal 
ground that the first amendment of the Constitution prevents Congress 
from asking any questions in my private and personal political beliefs. 

In addition, I feel that I would like to object to the question on the 
basis of the fourth amendment, the fifth amendment, which states that 
I cannot be compelled to give testimony against myself, that I may not 
be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law ; the 
sixth amendment which guarantees me the right to be confronted with 
accusers, to compel witnesses to testify in my favor. 

With the eighth amendment which sn,ys that cruel punishment shall 
not be inflicted, and I believe one of tlie purposes of this committee is 
to bring people to public scorn and cause them to lose their jobs, which 
is a very cruel punislmient, and the ninth amendment, which states 
that the rights which people have which may not be enumerated in the 
Constitution, shall not be denied to the people, but shall be retained 
by the people. 

Mr. Arens. I don't believe, sir, you told us your employment. You 
said you were engaged in — this singing and noise and demonstration 
outside, it makes it difficult for us to hear you. 

Wliere did you say you were employed ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JMarcus. You did not ask me where I was employed. 

Mr. Arens. Then kindly tell us, please, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus. I object to this question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Willis. You say you object? Do you mean decline to answer 
for the same reason ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens, Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IMarcus. I decline to answer that question because it has already 
been asked and I have already answered it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. It is not the same as 
the first question which I asked him. 

Mr. Willis. I think the question was have you ever been 

Mr. Marcus. Would the court reporter please read back the first 
question ? 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 1997 

Mr. Arens. I will give it to you, then. 

Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus. I object to the question. 

Mr. Willis. You decline to answer? 

Mr. Marcus. I decline to answ^er the question on the principal 
gi'ounds that there is no legislation which can be enacted by Congress 
which has any pertinency to a person's freedom of speecli, freedom of 
press or political beliefs. 

In addition, I decline to answer on the basis of the other grounds 
cited in the other question. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I lay before you a reproduction of an applica- 
tion for credential as an instructor in the public school service in Cal- 
ifornia, which is signed by Martin I. Marcus, dated July 1, 1959. 

In the application there is an affidavit and an oath of allegiance. 
This oath of allegiance reads as follows : 

I solemnly aflirm (or swear) that I will support the Constitution of the 
United States of America, the Constitution of the State of California, and the 
laws of the United States and the State of California, and will by precept and 
example, promote respect for the Flag and the statutes of the United States and 
of the State of California, reverence for law and order, and undivided allegiance 
to the government of the United States of Ajnerica. 

Kindly look at that document, sir, and tell this committee whether 
or not when you signed that document you were at that instant a 
member of the Cormnunist Party. 

(Document marked "Marcus Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus, I acknowledge that the signature on this oath of 
allegiance is mine, that I have taken an oath of allegiance to support 
the Constitution of the United States of America ; that because I have 
taken this oath I cannot answer — I decline to answer the question on 
the grounds, the principal grounds, that to answer it would be against 
upholding the Constitution of the United States of America, and the 
amendments to the Constitution which state that Congress shall make 
no law, and so forth, respecting freedom of speech, freedom of press, 
political opinions, and also that the fiftli amendment of tlie Con- 
stitution guarantees to the innocent as- well as to the guilty, tlie right 
to refuse to be compelled to give testimony against one's self, 

Mr, Arens, Kindly tell this committee, while you are under oath, 
whether or not you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party 
the instant you signed that affidaAdt in 1959, you would be supplying 
information which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ]\L\RCUS. I liave sworn to uphold the Constitution; tlierefore, 
I decline to answer this question because tlie Constitution, which I 
have sworn to uphold, says that a witness may not be compelled to 
give testimony against himself. 

And I would like to further remind this committee that this privi- 
lege of refusing to bear witness against one's self, extends to me as 
well as it may to guilty people. 



1998 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. Sir, we put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that in the recent past you were on the Comity Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party of Sonoma County. 

"Would you kindly affirm or deny that statement while you are 
under oath. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus. On the basis of the same principal grounds which I 
stated before, I decline to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee sir, that you 
are the Sonoma County regional representative, or were until recently, 
to the California Executive Committee of the Communist Party. 

Kindly affirm or deny that statement. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, sir, presently have information respecting the 
current operations here in California of that conspiratorial force 
which masquerades behind the facade of the Communist Party ; do you 
presently have information respecting the activities of members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Do you presently have information respecting the program of the 
Communist Party here in California, current information ? 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Marcus. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. He will be the last of 
the witnesses we expect to call today. We had other witnesses we 
expected to call, but because of a number of delays, disruptions and 
the difficulty which we are presently encountering because of the 
demonstration just outside the door of the hearing room, I respect- 
fully suggest that we recess now, Mr. Chairman, to resume tomorrow 
morning at nine-thirty, in this hearing room. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. We will resume our session 
tomorrow morning at 9 :30. 

(Committee members present in the hearing room: Mr. Willis and 
Mr. Johansen.) 

(Thereupon, at 4 :20 p.m., Thursday, May 12, 1960, the subcommittee 
was recessed, to reconvene at 9:30 a.m., Friday, May 13, 1960.) 

X