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Full text of "The Northern California District of the Communist Party, structure, objectives, leadership. Hearings"


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THE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 
OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY 
Structure — Objectives — Leadership 

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HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGKESS 

SECOND SESSION 



PART 3 

MAY 14 x\ND JUNE 10, 1960 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(Including Index) 

««««» ^^ i'r 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
56597 WASHINGTON : 1960 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of REa?EESENTATivES 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS. Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

RicuARD Arens, Staff Diredor 

n 



CONTENTS 



PART 1» 

Page 

Synopsis (See Part 1, p. 1921) 

May 12, 1960: 

Testimony of — 

Irving Fishraan, Harlin Wong, Stephen K. Louie 1934 

William A. Wheeler 1952 

Barbara Hartle 1 956 

Douglas Wachter 1 966 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

Barbara Hartle (resumed) 1969 

Merle Brodsky 1984 

Martin Irving Marcus 1995 

PART 2 

Synopsis (See Part 1, p. 1921) 

May 13, 1960: 

Testimony of — 

William A. Wheeler (resumed) 2000 

Barbara Hartle (resumed) 2003 

Leibel Bergman 2004 

Vernon Bown 2012 

Joseph Figueiredo 2017 

Noel Harris 2024 

Ann Deirup 2027 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

Karl Prussion 2031 

Elizabeth M. Nicholas 2055 

Donald H. Clark 2057 

Morris Graham 2059 

Martin Ludwig 2062 

William Mandel 2065 

Jack Weintraub 2068 

John Andrew Negro 2071 

Sally Attarian Sweet 2074 

Tyler Brooke 2076 

Elmer E. Johnson 2079 

Karl Prussion (resumed) 2080 

Elmer E. Johnson (resumed) 2080 

PART 3 

Synopsis (See Part 1, p. 1921) 

May 14, 1960: 

Testimony of — 

Karl Prussion (resumed) 2083 

Thomas Cahill 2088 

Michael J. Maguire . _ 2091 

Tillman H. Erb 2092 

Archie Brown 2096 

Louis Zeitz 2099 

Matthew C. Carberry 2101 

» Documents referred to In Part 1 of the proceedings appear In the Appendix, Part 4 
of this series, see pp. 2205 — 2404. 

m 



IV CONTENTS 

May 14, 19(50— Continued 

Testimony of — Continued I'age 

Thomas Grabor 2107 

Rayme Ellis 2109 

Lottie L. Rosen 2111 

Betty Halpern 2116 

Lillian Ransome 2118 

Edward Ross 2120 

Karl Prussion (resumed) 2124 

Edward Ross (resumed) 2125 

Ruben Venger 2120 

Ralph Izard 2128 

William Reich 2139 

Ralph (Kenneth) Johnsen 2142 

Doris Dawson 2145 

Karl Prussion (resumed) 2146 

Doris Dawson (resumed) 2146 

Travis L. Laflferty 2147 

Saul Wachter 214S 

John Allen Johnson 2151 

Laurent B. Frantz 2156 

Bertram Edises 2161 

June 10, 1960: 

Testimony of Karl Prussion (resumed) 2177 

Index i 

APPENDIX— PART 4 

Committee Exhibits 1 through 31 2205—2384 

Prussion Exhibit 1 2385 

Prussion Exhibit 3 2401 

Index i 



Public T.aw 001, 79tii Congress 

The legislulion iiiidor wliich the House Cominittee on l^n-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [194G]; GO Stat. 
812, which provides: 

Be it enarted by the Senate and Hoin^c of Representatives of the United States of 
Afncrica in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-A.merican Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Tiie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to make from time to time investigalions of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISL.\TIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

****** * 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

• ****«* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any nece'ssary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessury, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfiihiess 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



THE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT OF THE 

C03IMUNIST PARTY 

Structure — Objectives — Leadership 
(Part 3) 

SATTJEDAY, MAY 14, 1960 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

San Francisco^ Calif. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 9:30 a.m., in the Supervisors Chambers, 
City Hall Building, San Francisco, Calif., Hon. Edwin E. Willis 
(chairman of the subcommittee), presiding. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, 
of Louisiana; August E. Johansen, of Michigan; and Gordon H. 
Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; William A. 
Wheeler, investigator; and Fulton Lewis III, research analyst. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

We are glad to have with us this morning our colleague from Ohio, 
Representative Gordon Scherer, 

Mr. Scherer is a member of the full committee, and due to the inabil- 
ity of Mr, Moulder, of Missouri, to be here, he was designated in his 
stead. 

However, Mr. Scherer was delayed in coming to the hearing. It 
looked as though yesterday we might have to go over imtil Monday, 
We asked him to please come to San Francisco. However, last night 
we had a rather late session and heard quite a number of witnesses. 
It is quite definite that we will not go over until Monday, but will 
complete the hearings today. 

Nevertheless, we are very happy to have with us today as a member 
of the subcommittee, our friend and colleague from Ohio, Mr. 
Gordon Scherer. 

Will you proceed Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Prussion, will you kindly resume the witness chair. 

TESTIMONY OF KARL PRUSSION— Resumed 

Mr, Arens, You were sworn yesterday on this record ? 
Mr, Prussion, Yes, sir, 

Mr, Arens, Mr. Prussion, yesterday in the course of your testimony 
you stated in essence, among other things, that the Communist opera- 

2083 



2084 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

tion now on American soil, in your jiuljrnient, based upon your back- 
ground and experience in the Communist Party, Avas more serious and 
more deadly and menacing than ever Ix-fore in the history of this 
Nation. 

Two obvious questions would then come to mind. Why would you, 
then, as a patriot who was serving in this conspiratorial force at the 
behest of your Government get out of the Communist Party ? Wliy 
wouldn't you stay in the force if it is so serious at this time? 

Mr. Prussion. I came to tlie conclusion while I was working 
to the best of my ability in the interests of the preservation of our 
democratic foj-m of government, by being an informant for the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, I realized that the manner in 
which America was fighting communism was indeed an utter and com- 
plete failure. 

I Avatched the Communist International gain more and more 
ground, and I watched the freedom-loving world retreat step by step 
before the Soviet onslaught. 

I felt, in view of the fact that the Communists were having consider- 
able success with their deceitful peace campaigns and coexistence cam- 
paign, that millions of Americans were becoming victims of this 
deceit, and I believed that I could serve my country much better by 
leaving the services of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and doing 
what I can to try to change, in my small way, tlie complacency and 
indifference of our citizenry to this menace. 

I felt that this complacency and indifference should be changed 
to an acute awareness of the danger, and that this acute awareness 
should express itself by our citizenry in proper, effective legislation to 
contain, pigeonhole, and destroy this menace in our midst. This is 
why I left at this time. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Prussion, I have a few areas of inquiry which I 
should like to pursue with you. We were unable to cover them yester- 
day. 

The first is this : With respect to the number and effectiveness of the 
Communists in the United States, a^ou stated A^esterdav that there are 
people Avho ai-e Communists under Communist discipline, but that 
they do not have technical affiliation with the Communist Party as 
such. 

I would like to ask you a few general questions. 

In the first place, based upon your information as a recent mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, hoAv many UHMubers are there of this 
formal entity Avho now maintain a technical relationship Avith the en- 
tity knoAvn as the Communist Party, roughly speaking? What is 
your best estimate? 

Mr. Prussion. My best testimony would be that the national mem- 
bership of the Commmiist Party at this moment would be approxi- 
mately 10,000. 

Mr. AuExs. PIoAv many Communists are submitting themselves to 
Communist discipline, Avho are in the operation as dedicated Commu- 
nists, but Avho do not haA^e technical relationship to the Communist 
Party? 

How many are there in the nonformal membership category? 

Mr. Prussion. In my testimony yesterday, I said that that type 
of membership is equal to the actual fonnally enrolled membership in 
the Communist Party. 



COJMIMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2085 

So you have an additional 10,000 members who are active Commu- 
nists. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be a fair approximation to say that there are, 
in your judgment, based upon your experience, approximately 20,000 
Communists under Communist discipline at the present time on Ameri- 
can soil ? 

Mr. Prussion. That would be a modest figure ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. That would be I'ar in addition to a division of troops, 
that is, in numerical strength? 

Mr. Prussiox. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, then, why you have concluded 
that these 20,000 Comnnuiists constitute a menace, or are more threat- 
ening now than ever before in a population of 180 million people. 
Surely, someone would ask, "Twenty thousand people of a particular 
political vein, a particular political concept, a particular idea would 
have no appreciable impact in a society of 180 million people." 

'\Aniat is your response to that inquiry based upon your intimate 
experience in the hard core of this operation ? 

Mr. Prussion. My experience within the ranks of the conspiracy 
definitely indicates that individual Communists are capable, under 
certain conditions, of leading hundreds and thousands on certain 
issues, and that it is through their infiltration, especially in various 
mass organizations, as they call them, that they are able to motivate 
and move people in what they call the class struggle. 

Numbers are not too important insofar as membership is con- 
cerned in the Communist Party. There are many prospective little 
Castros in the Communist Party in the United States and many pros- 
pective little Lenins in the Communist Party in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Prussion, during the course of your work in the 
Communist Party, you told us that you were subjected to certain 
courses, attended certain training schools, and were taught and prac- 
ticed as a comrade, first, as a sympathetic comrade and later as an 
undercover agent for the FBI, that you were taught certain tech- 
niques, certain strategies, and tactics to be used as a trained agent 
of the conspiracy. 

Can you give us, please, sir, a word about the techniques of the 
Communists, in what those of us in this work call provocation to 
violence? 

Did you have a training and did you have experience in that type 
of activity ? 

Mr. Prussion. I had considerable training in provocation to vio- 
lence. The Communist Party, being, of course, a party of Lenin, 
believes that it should use legal methods and illegal methods to con- 
clude a certain situation. It uses violence and it uses peaceful meth- 
ods, either one. 

The purpose of the Communist Party is to raise what it calls the 
class-conscious level of the working class, and it is its purpose to 
educate the working class through incidents such as we had here 
yesterday, in methods and techniques of class struggle. 

I believe that all of those present here yesterday witnessed a tech- 
nique commonly used by the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Do the Communists in the attaimnent of their goals 
actually desire to see strife, actually desire to see bloodshed ? 



2086 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Prussion. In this particular situation, as "vve are experiencing 
it in the last few days, the Communist Party has tried every possible 
l)eaceful method, through petition, organization meetings, and so 
forth, to stop the hearings of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities. 

In this they have failed and, as a result they resorted to this spec- 
tacle that many witnessed here, of trying to close the hearings of a 
legally constituted body of our Government through force and vio- 
lence, such as demonstrated by their leader yesterday, Archie Brown. 

Air. Abens. Now, sir, during the course of your training and your 
experience in the Communist Party, did you receive any instructions, 
any pattern of activity, which the comrades were to use with reference 
to the Committee on Un-American Activities, and what, in general, 
was and is the objective of the conspiracy toward this committee ? 

Mr. Prussion. Well, at all times one of the major targets, and at 
(liis time, of course, the major target of the Communist Party, is 
the Committee on Un-American Activities, because the committee, 
tliey feel, is the biggest stumbling block that they have at this time in 
their effort to break out in a full-fledged Communist operation of 
peaceful methods and violent methods in their efforts to overthrow 
our Government by force and violence. 

Mr. Arens. Is this just your conclusion as a student of communism, 
or is it your conclusion, based upon your experience in the operation, 
itself, and your directives which you have received from other com- 
rades? 

Mr. Prussion. It is a combination of all, from my training and 
education and experience and directives on situations pertaining to the 
( 'ommittee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about this breakout technique which 
you alluded to a moment ago, which you say is now in process by the 
conspiracy on American soil. 

Mr. Prussion. The greatest stimulant that the Communist Party of 
the United States has ever received has been the recent visit by Mr. 
Khrushchev who came here with a dove of peace in one hand and a 
dagger in the other hand. 

One of his motives in coming here was to stimulate, arouse, and build 
the Communist Party and the activities of the Communist Party in 
1 1 ic United States. 

Mr. Arens. Were you instructed in that vein while you were in the 
Communist Party prior to the time that Khrushchev set foot on 
American soil ? 

Mr. Prussion. I was not in the Communist Party when Khrushchev 
set foot on American soil. 

However, during the period up until the time I dropped out of the 
conspiracy, the motivations of Khrushchev's visit here were well 
Uiiown and talked about within the ranks of the Communist Party. 

Every Communist in the United States knew the reasons why Kliru- 
shchev came herCj as well as Khrushchev himself. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word more, sir, about this breakout teclmique. 
Is this what you alluded to yesterday when you were characterizing 
ill nitration of mass organizations by the comrades? 

Mr. Prussion. The new policy of the Communist Party, and they 
always come up with new policies — their dialectical materialism tells 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2087 

them "now times, new soiiiis, now conditions, new activities" — at5 the 
hist meet in*:; of tlie Connnunist International the Communist Party of 
the United States came back with directives to use an all-out efi'ort of 
infiltration into all mass organizations in an effort to^ as they say, 
organize America socially, economically, politically, agamst monopoly 
capital. 

This is their program today, and tliis is the program whereby they 
are infiltrating, and T believe at this time successfully, hundreds of 
organizations throughout our country. 

Mr. Akens, Mr. Pinission, give us a word, please, about your experi- 
ence in the Communist Party in provocations to violence and assess- 
ment of the ensuing violence by the comrades in their conduits of 
public expression, and what they call police brutality.^ 

Mr. Prussion. Do you want me to give you a specific example of 
what I experienced? 

Mr. Akens. I wish you would ; yes, sir. 

Mr, Prussion. Forty members of the Communist Party had infil- 
trated the Packard Motor Car Company in 1934. The Communist 
Party at that time decided to see how effective those forty members 
could be in influencing the workers in the plant. 

A strike was provoked by these forty members ; the plant was shut 
down; picket lines were thrown around the plant, with no obvious 
reason for a strike whatsoever. 

The strike continued for about four days, and it was obvious that the 
strike was to be lost. 

I attended a meeting of the Industrial Commission of the Commu- 
nist Party, and at this meeting one Nat Ganley stated 

Mr. Arens. Was he a comrade ? 

Mr. Prussion. He was a member of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party at that time. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Prussion. He stated, in essence, as follows : 

It is obvious that we are going to lose the strike, but we have shown the 
effectiveness of the Communist Party in being able to call out all the workers. 
But in order to bring this strike to a proper conclusion there will have to be 
violence and bloodshed on the picket line tomorrow morning. Without that, we 
cannot hope to arouse public interest and support, we cannot hope to embarrass 
the local government through bitter complaints — police brutality, and so on. 

Bloodshed and violence did take place that next morning. 

Mr. Arens. Was he alluding to bloodshed and violence of the com- 
rades? Was he suggesting that the bloodshed be the bloodshed of his 
own people? 

Mr. Prussion. The bloodshed and the violence, of course, included 
some Communists, but in the main it was quite a bloody battle in 
which innocent victims suffered as a result of this violence. 

Mr. Arens. Was he calling for bloodshed and violence for the sake 
of bloodshed and violence, or to obtain an objective, or for propaganda 
purposes ? 

Mr. Prussion. He called for bloodshed and violence in this instance 
because he felt that this was an opportunity to arouse the indignation 
of the citizenry against the management and against the government 
of the city, and what they later called police brutality, sadism, et 
cetera, very similar to the provocation that we had here in San Fran- 
cisco yesterday. 



2088 COMMUNIST PARTY — ^NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience in the 
Communist operation, what can be expected in the Communist press 
and through the Communist channels, and in the form of Communist 
expressions witli respect to the violence which took place here yester- 
day? 

Mr. Prussion. The Communist press will carry out a campaign of 
vilification of the Committee on Un-American Activities. 

They will hurl invectives ; they will accuse the city of San Francisco 
of police brutality, sadism, denial of democratic rights, and a whole 
series of false accusations will flow from the Communist press and 
all their agencies, through infiltrated organizations, in the interest of 
the Communist Party. They will get well-known people, professors, 
ministers, and others to sign petitions and protests — all to embarrass 
American processes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
temporarily excused. 

I should like to call now Chief of Police Tom Cahill. 

Chief Cahill, will you kindly come forward and remain standing 
while the chairman administers the oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give to 
this subcommittee, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God. 

Mr. Cahill. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS CAHILL, CHIEF, SAN FRANCISCO POLICE 
DEPARTMENT, CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Cahill. Thomas Cahill, chief of police of the Police Depart- 
ment of the city and county of San Francisco. I live at 248 Seven- 
teenth Avenue, San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been chief of police of this city? 

Mr. Cahill. Since September 1948. 

Mr. Arens. And can you give us — although it ought to be obvious on 
the record — the general nature of your duties and responsibilities? 

I think your title probably would cover that, but jou might give us 
a word about that, please, sir. 

Mr. Cahill. To enforce the laws, that is, the penal laws, over which 
we have jurisdiction, in the city and county of San Francisco, and, of 
course, all of us as law enforcement officers have the duty to maintain 
law and order. 

Mr. Arens. Chief, the gentleman who just preceded you to the 
stand, Mr. Prussion, served for a number of years in the Communist 
Party. 

First of all, for a number of years as a dedicated Communist and, 
thereafter, for a number of years as an undercoA-er agent of the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation, after he had broken from the Com- 
munist Party, severed his ideological affinity to the party. 

He testified, which I can say is just confirmation of testimony we 
have received elsewhere, that part of the Communist strategy and 
technique is to incite violence, part of the Communist tactic is to incite 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2089 

the use of force so that the Communists can, in turn, attempt to turn 
the tables on the enforcement agencies, complain of police brutality, 
and complain of arbitrary action by tlie committees such as the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities and the like. 

I think that is a fair summary of the testimony he just gave. I 
don't believe you were present in the hearing room at that time. 

In view of the fact that he said he can now anticipate a turn of 
tables on the incident of the last day or so, we should like to ask you, 
sir, as the chief law enforcement officer of the city, to give us a brief 
account of the orders and directives which you gave to your officers 
respecting the maintenance of peace and order here in anticipation of 
these hearings, and based upon the information w^hich has been re- 
ported to you by your subordinates in the course of the last 24 houi-s, 
the essence of the position of the police department here, under your 
jurisdiction, in respect to the incidents in which force was employed 
in the course of the last several hours. 

Mr. Cahill. Sir, when we have any proceedings of this type an- 
ticipated, the men in my department make contact with members of 
the committee to start with, and it is ascertained what, if any, trouble 
may be anticipated. 

We then, in turn, deal with those people who are interested from a 
standpoint of protesting, and we attempt to set ujd an orderly and 
an organized protest system. 

That was done by some of the men in my bureau of detectives in 
dealing with the civil liberties student groups. 

And as a result of that work which was clone over a period of possi- 
bly a week, the demonstration at the Union Square, the march to the 
City Hall, and the conduct of the students of that group, or identified 
with that group outside of the City Hall was carried on in an orderly 
manner and we did not have any trouble. 

However, because of the fact that the City Hall is a public build- 
ing, we could not prevent people from coming in and as a result, a 
group of some two hundred — I was not here at the time — estimated at 
some two himdred, gathered outside the hearing room doors. 

It became impossible to get the witnesses in and out of the doors 
because they w^ere crowding against the doors. They became so un- 
ruly that a conference took place at noon to determine what action 
should be taken, and that it would have to be more drastic than had 
been taken. 

During the first day of the hearings, even though the crowd out- 
side had become unnecessarily unruly, their conduct was such that it 
disturbed the conduct, that is, the normal conduct, of operations in the 
City Hall. 

However, we in tlie police department put up with that situation 
in an effort to be overly fair. 

Yesterday morning, the situation was growing in intensity, tension 
and emotions were running higli. There seemed to be no leadership 
whatever to the group who gathered outside the hearing room 
here in contrast to the student group which was under the control 
of some leaders who were able to reason "with those young people. 

The group here were infiltrated with individuals who, in some in- 
stances, were older than the average, and who agitated it 

Mr. Arens. Were you advised by your subordinates in the secur- 
ity unit that these persons who were old(ir and who were the agitators 



2090 CO]VIMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

were persons whom your security officers knew to be members of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cahill. They told me that a number of those who seemed to 
whip those people in the group into a mob frenzy, were individuals 
who had been hostile and who had testified at the hearing. 

Mr. Arens. As hostile witnesses ? 

Mr. Cahill. Yes. Some of them. Not all of them. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please, sir. 

Mr. Cahill. At noontime yesterday, of course, it had become very 
apparent that additional barriers, in addition to those that had been 
set up yesterday morning, would be necessary. 

However, before that happened an additional 20 men were called 
in to assist the officers directly outside the doors of the hearing. 

Again, no action was taken by the police other than continued pleas 
on the part of Sheriff Carberry and others, to these young people, to 
tone down their conduct and to refrain from interrupting the normal 
proceedings of the City Hall, that we had to have a lawful assemblage 
and that the hearings would have to be not interrupted ; were not to 
be interfered with, I should say. 

The whole incident which resulted in violence yesterday was trig- 
gered when, according to my officers who were on the scene, they say 
that a member of tlie group charged one of my officers assigned to the 
Northern District Station, a police officer in uniform. They took his 
night club away from him, struck him over the head, and the incident 
was triggered which resulted in the police being forced to take the 
necessary action to control the group, to bring the whole situation 
under control, and to restore order. 

The action taken by the men in the police department was not started 
by us. We had put up with a great deal. We were charged with 
the responsibility and it is our sworn duty to maintain law and 
order. We will do that. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Chief. 

Mr. Willis. May I say to the gentleman that we appreciate the 
efficiency, and tolerance, and at the same time the firmness of his 
department, which includes also the department of the sheriff. 

Frankly, I only met Chief Cahill yesterday, after the incident he 
referred to. From information that comes to me and to us, his recita- 
tion of the incident and the events leading up to the triggering of the 
unfortunate affair, is accurate. 

That is my understanding; it is our understanding of what 
occurred. 

Neither Chief Caliill nor I was around when the actual physical 
demonstration took place. 

I would like to say especially that I speak not only for this sub- 
committee, but for the full committee, and just as sure as I sit here I 
feel I reflect also the sentiments of the Members of the Congress of 
the United Stales. It was a very well done job. Chief Cahill, liis 
officere, the slierilf and his deputies, deserve, and I tender to all of 
them, the highest commendation possible. 

Proceed Mr. Arens. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2091 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. Mr. Cliaimian, I wanted, as the other member of 
the subcoinniitteo wlio has been hero present for tlie entire proceetl- 
ings, to associate myself completely with the statement of the chair- 
man and to express our appreciation to the law enforcement officials 
for the very excellent, restrained, but firm job that they have done. 

Mr. Caiiill. Mr. Chairman, I want to make this last statement, and 
I want to em])hasizc the fact, that wo at no time have objected to 
orderly, peaceful demonstrations. 

This morning there is demonstration in an orderly fashion. It is 
being conducted in the proper way, and we have no problems. 

Plad tliat been maintained yesterday, and if it continues today, 1 
see no trouble. It will certainly not bo brought about by us. 

Mr. Willis. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Arens. Inspector INIaguiro, please come forward and remain 
standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. ^ViLLis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee, shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. ^SIaguire. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL J. MAGUIRE, POLICE INSPECTOR, CITY 
AND COUNTY OE SAN ERANCISCO, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation ? 

Mr. ]Maguire. My name is Michael J. Maguire. I live at 2647 
Thirty-Sixth Avenue, San Francisco. 

I am a police inspector, city and county of San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Inspector Maguire, were you in charge of a unit of the 
police force which has been operating here in the City Hall in the last 
two or three days, during the hearings of this committee? 

Mr. Maguire. At times I was in charge. Yesterday I was in charge. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in the course of the discharge of your duties 
in City Hall, observe the activities among the young people who had 
been assembled here in the hall, by certain people who were known by 
you from confidential sources to be members of the Communist Party ? 

(At this point ]\Ir. Johansen left the hearing room.) 

Mr. ]SL\GUiRE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see agitational activities among the young peo- 
ple by iSIerle Brodsky, who was ejected twice from this committee 
hearing ? 

Mr. Maguire. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see agitational activities among the young peo- 
ple by Archie Brown, who likewise has been identified as a member 
of the Communist Party and who likewise has been twice ejected from 
this hearing room because of his disturbances of the proceedings ? 

Mr. Maguire. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see among the young people, Frank Wilkinson ? 

Mr. Maguire. No, sir ; I can't truthfully answer that one. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that Frank Wilkinson has been in town 
in the course of the last several days ? 

Mr. Maguire. Yes, sir ; we did. 



2092 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. I )o you know that Frank "Wilkinson has been repeatedly 
identified under oath before this committee as a member of the hard- 
core of the Communist Party, and that the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities has issued a report entitled "Operation Abolition," in 
which it is revealed that Frank Wilkinson has responsibility of the 
conspiracy to direct the activities of the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee and of an organization Imown as the Citizens Committee 
To Preserve American Freedoms, with the avowed objective of the 
party of discrediting the Committee on Un-x\.merican Activities and 
attempting to discredit the Federal Bureau of Investigation and its 
great director, J. Edgar Hoover ? 

Are you aware of that ? 

Mr. ^Iaguire. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you aware of the fact that Harry Bridges, of the 
International Longshoremen's Union, has arrived in this commimity 
and was yesterday participating in the affairs in the hall? 

Mr. ISIaguire. I did not observe him participating, but I arrived 
shortly after he was creating a scene. 

Mr. Arens. Did you observe Sally Sweet participating as an agita- 
tional force among the young people ? 

Mr. IVIaguire. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Did you observe Kalph Izard participating in agita- 
tional activities among the young people ? 

Mr. Maguire. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any others whose names come to your mind 
at the moment whom you know from your security information to be 
members of the Communist Party who were participating in agita- 
tional activities among the young people? 

(At this point Mr. Johansen returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. IVIaguire. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you very much. 

Mr, Willis. Inspector, you are included among the highest of the 
deserving ones in the remarks I made a while ago concerning your 
chief. We appreciate your cooperation, and you, particularly, the day 
before yesterday, took a very prominent, active and admirable part. 

We are very grateful to you. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Tillman IT. Erb. 

Mr. Erb, please come forward. 

Please remain standino; while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr, Wn.Lis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you shall give before this 
subcommittee, shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so hel]) you God ? 

Mr. Erb, I do. 

Mr. Edises. May we have the lights turned off, please ? 

Mr. AViLLis. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF TILLMAN H. ERB, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

BERTRAM EDISES 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Erb. My name is Tillman Erb. I reside at 336 Kings Drive, 
Campbell, California. I am a school teacher. 



COIMIMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2093 

Mr. Arexs. You are api)e:ii'in<r today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by tliis conmiittee? 

Mr. Erb. I did not understand the question. 

Mr. Ain:xs. You are appearing in response to a subpena which was 
served upon you by tliis connnittee ? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. Yes, the answer is I was served. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Erb. I am represented by counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Edises. Bertram Edises, Oakland, California. 

Mr. Erb. At this time, Mr. Chairman, may I make a statement 
for personal privilege ? 

Mr. Willis. Pardon? 

Mr. Erb. A statement of very important personal privilege ? 

INIr. "Willis. "We will develop the facts on the basis of questions and 
answers in the regular order. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Erb, how long have you lived in California or in 
this general area ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Erb. In answer to that question, I wish again to request this 
committee personally to relieve me of the ordeal of this inquiry because 
of my wife's serious heart condition. 

"When I received the subpena to appear before this committee, last 
June, she suffered a heart attack and was hospitalized. 

During the past year, her condition has steadily deteriorated be- 
cause of the necessity for a year-long search for a position and the 
security and the work for which I have been trained and in which 
I have devoted 30 years of my life. 

This committee has received letters from two of her physicians, 
testifying to the commitment and the uncertainty of my appearance 
at these hearings, that it would have on her physical condition. I 
most earnestly request that you do not endanger her life further. 

I might further add that the faculty of my school yesterday sent 
a telegram to the chairman of this committee to the same effect. 

Mr. Arexs. She is not in the hearing room, is she, Mr. Erb ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. Yes, she is here. 

Mr. "Willis. That puts a different complexion on it. You seem 
to want to expose her to the things you want to save her from. You 
have been summoned, you are here now. "We must proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Erb, did you live in Denver, Colorado, prior to the 
time that you moved to California ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. Mr. Chairman, before I answer that question, I would 
like to state to the committee that I am ready and willing to answer 
questions pertaining to my life and activities regarding myself, 
personally. 

Mr. "Willis. "What is the question ? 

Mr. Arens. I asked him if he lived in Denver, Colorado, before he 
lived out here. 

Mr. "Willis. You are ordered 

Mr. Erb. For myself, personally, on condition that no questions 
will be asked me regarding any persons or associations. 

56597— 60— pt. 2 2 



2094 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Willis. You answered the question. If that is your answer, 
proceed. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. I repeat my offer that I will answer any of these questions 
pertaining to my life and activities regarding myself personally, on 
condition that 

Mr. Willis. I have ordered you to answer the question. You have 
not answered it. 

Counsel, proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is the fii"st question which he didn't 
answer. 

How long have you lived in this area, in California. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. I take it from what you say that you are rejecting my 
request, my offer to talk about myself ? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. You can talk about how 
long you lived here. That would be a start in the direction. 

How long have you lived here in California ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. Well, since you refuse me the privilege of answering only 
questions pertaining to myself, I will in no circumstances be an in- 
former; you now force me to stand on my constitutional right of not 
being compelled to testify as a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Erb, did you run for Congress from a congressional 
district in Denver back in 1950 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. You now have my answer to these questions. It will be 
the same answer to any other question you may give. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Erb, I have in my hand 

Mr. Willis. That is not an answer. 

Do you mean you decline to answer for the same reason you have 
given? 

Mr. Erb. I am standing on my constitutional right of not being 
compelled to testify as a witness against myself. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. Arens. I have in my hand a photostatic reproduction of the 
Rocky Mountain News of October 20, 1950. I should like to read it 
to you, then I expect to interrogate you with reference to the facts 
revealed in this article. 

Congress Candidate Erb Denies Any Ties With Reds 

Tillman H. Erb, independent candidate for Denver's congressional seat, yes- 
terday denied that he is in any way associated with the Communist Party after 
the question had been raised by a group of persons who had signed his petition 
for nomination. 

The signers, in a letter to the candidate, said that "rumors have come to our 
attention that as a candidate for Congress, you are acting as a front for the 
Communist Party." 

They asked that "in all fairness to us and others who signed your petition at 
face value, that you openly disassociate yourself from the aims of Russian 
imperialism in the Far East and Europe, and the role of the Communist Party 
on the American scene." 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2095 

The letter was signed by — 
and I will skip their names, but it is a number of people. 

lu bis categorical douial of the question, Mr. Erb stated "I am not associated 
with any Communist or Communist front organization and I never have been." 

"Anyone who opposes our bipartisan foreign policy in anyway is liable to that 
charge these days," he said. 

In announcing his candidacy Sept. 23, the former South High School history 
teacher sent a telegram to President Truman calling for the issue of a cease 
fire order in Korea, the withdrawal of all foreign troops there and admission 
of Korea into the United Nations. 

******* 

Mr. Erb has taken a leave of absence from bis teaching position while cam- 
paigning for election to Congress. 

]Mr. Erb, I ask you, sir, when you, as reported in this Rocky Moun- 
News, stated "I am not associated with any Commmiist or Communist 
front organization and I never have been," were you then telling the 
truth? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. Mr. Chairman, since you have sources that you have just 
read which are from highly reliable sources, I can see no pertinency 
to asking me to verify this. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. Because you have what you claim are highly reliable 
sources. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest now, so that this 
record is clear, the witness be ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Willis. You have not answered the question. I direct you to 
answer it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Erb Exhibit No. 1" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Arens. You were not under oath, not subject to the pains and 
penalties of perjuiy, Mr. Erb, were you, when you stated, "I am not 
associated with any Communist or Communist front organization and 
I never have been" ? 

Mr. Erb. You are just asking the same question in another form, 
and I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Erb, I have in my hand a photostatic repro- 
duction of a document applying for credentials authorizing public 
school service in California, dated July 5, 1957, signed by Tillman 
H. Erb. 

In the course of this document there appears on oath of allegiance 
in the form of an affidavit : 

I solemnly swear that I will support the Constitution of the United States 
of America, the Constitution of the State of California, and the laws of tlie 
United States and the State of California, and will by precept and example, 
promote respect for the Flag and the statutes of the United States and of the 
State of California, reverence for law and order, and undivided allegiance to 
the Government of the United States of America. 

On July 5, 1957, at the hour and the minute and the second at which 
you affixed your signature to this application, "Tillman H. Erb," were 
you then a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 



2096 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Erb. Before giving a direct answer, I state to you that I do 
not stand second to anyone in my allegiance to the Constitution of 
the United States of America. But in response to your direct ques- 
tion, I will stand on the same grounds as previously stated. 

(Document marked "Erb Exhibit Xo. 2'' and retained in committee 
files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member, and are you now a member, 
of an organization which is an organization allied with the interna- 
tional Commmiist operation ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. Once again I state I am willing to answer questions like 
that if you will accept my offer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Erb, are you now, at this instant, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Erb. If you will not require me to be a stool pigeon, to any 
people or associations, I will gladly answer that question. I repeat 
the offer. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. We are inquiring about yourself. 

Mr. Erb. I respectfully decline 

Mr. Willis. Nobody else is involved in that question. I direct you 
to answer. 

Mr. Erb. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff' interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Archie Brown. 

Please come forward and remain standing wliile the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Brown. I do that. 

Mr. Andersen. Ask them to turn off tliose lights, Archie. 

Mr. Brown. Mr. Chairman, can we shift tlie lights a bit, just shift 
them. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, if that is your desire. 

Mr. Andersen. Can't we have the lights off? Well, that is a lot 
better. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF ARCHIE BROWN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

GEORGE R. ANDERSEN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Brown. My name is Archie Brown. I live at 1027 Brussels 
Street, San Francisco ; I am a longshoreman. 

I want to state, Mr. Chairman, that 



C0RI3MUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2097 

Mr, Willis. "We will develop the story on a qiiestion-and-answer 
basis. 

jNIr. AuEXS. You are lioi-e today in response to a subpena whicli 
was served upon you by tliis committee ? 

;Mr. Browx, I want lo tell this committee 

^[r. Arkxs. You are ai>]iearing today in response to a subpena 
wliicli "was served ujion you by tliis committee ? 

]\rr. Brown. My family is being threatened 

Mr. ^\jiENS. Are you a]ipearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Chairman, I now request that the witness be ordered and di- 
rected to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

]Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Browx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arex^s. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Brow^x^. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. AxDERSEX. George Andersen. 

INIr. Arexs. "When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Browx. ]\Ir. Chairman, I want to state 

Mr. "Willis. I direct you to answer the question. That is the only 
way we can proceed orderly. 

Mr. Browx. I was subpenaed here. 

]Mr. Arex's. "\Aliere and wdien were you born, sir ? 

Mr. Brown. I was subpenaed here and my family 

]\Ir. "Willis. Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Aeex'S. Kindly give us, if you please, sir, a word about your 
education. 

Mr. Browx". I was born in Sioux City, Iowa. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the outstanding principal question. 

Mr. Browx. "^AHiat is the outstanding principal question? 

Mr. Arexs. The outstanding principal question is: "Where and 
when were you born ? 

Mr. Broavx. I already said. 

]Mr. Arex's. Give us, then, please, a word about your education. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Browx'. Mr. Cliairman, I want to read a statement and make 
a motion relative to the relevance — will I not be allowed to make a 
statement here? Is this just going to be a kangaroo court where I 
cannot defend myself at all, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. "Willis. I direct you to answer the question ? 

Mr. Brow^x. How come I cannot read this statement ? 

Mr. Arex^s. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question respecting his educa- 
tion. 

Mr. "Willis. I will now do it for the second time. 

]\Ir. Browx'. Let me consult with my attorney. 

(The vv'itness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Browx'. My education consisted of the grade school and most 
of junior high school in Sioux City, Iowa, and in the school of hard 
knocks, which I am quite a graduate of. 



2098 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Now, I want to make a motion to disqualify the committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive 

Mr. Brown. I wish to make a motion to disqualify the committee. 

Mr. Arens. You may file tlie motion. We will be glad to have you 
file the motion. 

Mr. Brow^n. I will read it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the witness should be advised that the 
rules of this committee permit him to file any motion of this kind for 
consideration by the committee. 

Mr. Brown. I want to read a statement, my statement, and make 
a motion. 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
admonished that he will either conduct himself in an orderly manner 
or he will be removed from the hearing room. 

Mr. Willis. Under the rule of the committee, you may file that 
paper with our director at this time, if you wish to. 

Mr. Brown. I wish to read this statement. 

Mr. Willis. That is the end of it. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Brown. I wish to read this statement. How come you are 
bridling me ? I want to express my position here. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest the witness be admonished that he will either 
conduct himself in an orderly manner or be removed, for the third 
time. 

Mr. Brown. Mr. Chairman, I was subpenaed here not as a willing 
witness, and I want to defend myself. You have no right not to let 
me read this statement. 

Mr. Willis. You may file the paper, but you may not read it. 

Mr. Brown. I want to read my statement if I make a motion. Be- 
fore the House of Representatives of the United States 

Mr. Willis. I direct you, sir, to escort the witness outside the court- 
room. 

Mr. Brown. Pursuant to amendment 14 of the Constitution 

(Witness was removed from the hearing room.) 

Mr. Willis. Call your next witness, Mr. Arens. 

There will be no more demonstrations in the room. You have 
seen me issuing such an order and enforcing it. We are very glad 
to have everybody here. As I said yesterday, it is a privilege to 
have you, you are privileged to be here, to the limit of the capacity 
of this hearing room. You need not agree with what one witness 
says or what another witness says, but we are conducting these hear- 
ings under an order of the United States Congress, and this commit- 
tee represents that brancli of the Government of the United States. 
We will not tolerate any demonstration or interference. 

Proceed, IVIr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if your please, !Mr. Louis Zeitz. 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

T)o you solemnly swear "that the testimony you are about to give 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God. 

Mr. Zeitz. I do. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2099 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS ZEITZ, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

FRANCIS McTEENAN 

Mr. AiiENS. Kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Zeitz. Louis Zeitz, 39-A, Escondido Village, Stanford, Cali- 
fornia. 

jMr. iVnExs. Mr. Zeitz, would it be convenient to keep your voice 
up a little, or to get a little closer to the microphone? Thank you. 

You are appearing today in i-esponse to a subpena which was 
served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Zeitz. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. Ajid you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Zeitz. Yes. 

Mr. Akens. Comisel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. JNIcTernan. Francis McTernan, 703 Market Street, San 
Francisco. 

Mr. AlKens. "\Mien and where were you born ? 

Mr. Zeitz. January 22, 1922, Lakewood, N.J. 

Mr. Ajiens. Give us please a word about your formal education. 

Mr. Zeitz. Formal education ? I w'ent to the University of Mich- 
igan for 2 years, the University of Minnesota for 1 year, and Army 
Aar Force cadet meteorology training for 9 months 

Mr. Arens. I do not mean to interrupt you, but did you receive a 
degree from the University of Michigan ? 

Mr. Zeitz. No, I did not. I enlisted in the Army Air Force. I 
went to meteorology training for 9 months, graduated as a second 
lieutenant, spent 3 years overseas, and came out of the Army as a 
captain. 

Then I went to Berkeley, gi-aduat^d in physics, and in 1946 did 
graduate work at UCLA, and at present I am a student at Stanford. 

Mr. Arens. I did not hear the last part; you lowered your voice. 

Mr. Zeitz. I am a student at Stanford. 

Mr. Arens. What degrees do you have ? 

Mr. Zeitz. I have a I^A degree in physics, from Berkeley. 

JMr. Arens. Do you also have teaching credentials ? 

Mr. Zeitz. 1 did get a teaching credential in 1950, which I have 
never used. 

ISlr. Arens. Have you, except for your travels in the military, 
traveled abroad since you reached adulthood? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Akens. Would you kindly keep your voice up a little bit, 
please ? 

Mr. Willis. Wliat wius the outstanding question ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you traveled abroad, other than your travels in 
the military, since you reached adulthood ? 

Mr. Zeitz. "V^Hiiat do you mean by abroad ? 

Mr. Arens. Outside the continental United States? 

Mr. Zeitz. Only vacation trips to Tia Juana, and a vacation trip 
to Toronto, Canada. 

Mr. AnENS. ^^^lat instructing have you done, Mr. Zeitz? 

Mr. Zeitz. I instructed while I was gomg to UCLA — I taught 
radio and electronics at a radio-television institute to make money to 
continue my schooling. 



2100 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. Did you do any instructing in Los Angeles in 1955? 

(The witness conferred witli his coimsel.) 

Mr. Zeitz. I don't understand tlie pertinency of that question. 

Mr. Arens. The pertinency of that question is simply tliis: that 
among the rcsponsibilitias of this committee is to develop factual 
information respecting Communist propaganda. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Zeitz. I still don't understand what you are driving at. 

Mr. Arens. Were you an instructor for the Communist Party in 
Los Angeles in 1955 in training schools? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Zeftz. I stand on my right to remain silent on questions of 
thought, affiliation, and associations. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about your activity. Did you 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Zeitz. In response to that direction, this will be my answer: 

I respect the rights of congressional committees to investigate in 
the interests of developing legislation. However, it is obvious, after 
sitting through sessions of this committee, that it has no legislative 
purpose. This committee is an instrument of fear, its goal the estab- 
lishment of conformity of thought. 

This committee may be successful in establishing conformity with 
the aid of clubs and water hoses that were used on the students yester- 
day. But if it is successful in establishing conformity, it will have 
killed Americanism, for Americanism is almost synonymous with 
dissent. The birth of this country is a result of dissent, and that 
which is great in this country came about because we were free to 
dissent. I will take no part in the eiforts of this monstrocity to ossify 
people's minds, to paralyze people with fear. 

Albert Einstein, years ago, as a result of his experience with Nazi 
Germany, warned of this type of committee. In 1953, Einstein stated 
the strength of the Constitution lies entirely in the determination of 
each citizen to defend it. Only if every single citizen feels duty- 
bound to do his share in its defense are the rights secure. 

The intellectuals have a particular influence on the formation of 
public opinion. This is the reason why those who are about to lead 
us toward authoritarian government are particularly concerned with 
muzzling that group. It is, therefore, especially important for the 
intellectuals to do their duty. 

I see this duty in refusing to cooperate in any undertaking that 
violates the constitutional rights of the individual. This holds, in 
particular, for all inquisitions that are concerned with the private life 
and political afHliations of the citizens. 

With the above in mind, I decline to answer the questions, basing 
this declination on the right to remain silent on questions of thought, 
affiliations, and associations guaranteed under the first amendment and 
the privilege of not being compelled to be a witness against oneself 
granted in the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Now, let's don't talk about thought or associations or 
anything of that kind. Just tell us, have you, up to this minute, been 
active as a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Zeitz. The same answer as before. 



COROrUNIST PARTY — NORTPIERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2101 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this very instant, a member of that con- 
spiratorial force that would overthrow the Government of the United 
States by force and violence and that would establish an authoritarian 
government even worse than the Nazis, namely, the Communist dic- 
tatorship? 

Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Zeitz. The same answer as before. 

Mi\ Arexs. I would respectfully suggest, INIr. Chairman, that will 
conclude the stall' interrogation of t his witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

;Mr. iVRENS. Sheriff Carberry, would you kindly come forward and 
remain standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. "Willis. Please raise your right hand, Sheriff. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give be- 
fore this subcommittee, will be the tiiith, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

^[r. Carberry. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MATTHEW C. CARBEREY, SHERIFF, CITY AND 
COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Carberry. My name is Matthew C. Carberry, slieriff, city and 
coimty of San Francisco. 

^Ir. Arens. Sheriff Carberry, this morning while you were absent 
from the hearing room, a former undercover agent of the FBI, serv- 
ing in the Communist Party was elucidating on Communist Party 
techniques and activities. 

We asked him to speculate what the Commimist Party would be 
doing about the events that occurred, the incidents that occurred, in 
the last day or so. lie said that they would, of course, try to portray 
police brutality and arbitrai-y action and the like. 

Well, that happened here just 30 seconds or so before you took 
the witness stand. One who has been identified to us — and who would 
not answer questions, of course — -as a Communist, started the technique 
here of assessing the events of the last day or so against the committee, 
against the police, against the law enforcement officers, so that they, 
the Communists, can portray themselves as martyrs when, in fact, 
they are conspirators. 

We would like, therefore, to have on this record, in addition to 
the sworn testimony of some several moments ago of the chief of police 
and one of the inspectors, a word fj'om yourself as the sheriff of this 
county with respect to tlie incidents of the last 2 days so that those 
who care to know the facts may, when this record is printed, read the 
facts. 

If you will proceed at your own pace, Sheriff, to make your state- 
ment under oath, we would appreciate it. 

Mr. Carberry. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, the 
only things of which I have knowledge and the only things which I 
can discuss, of course, were the things that I have observed in the last 
2 days under my duties as sheriff of San Francisco. 



2102 CO]MMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

For your information, the sheriff of San Francisco lias the prime 
responsibility of maintaining order in the courts. We manage the 
county jails and perform certain civil duties. 

Normally, the arresting process is that of the police department. 
At the request of the committee, we have had assigned to this hearing 
room since the beginning of the hearing, deputy sheriffs whose duty 
has been to preserve order within this courtroom. Obviously, we have 
had and appreciated the complete cooperation of the police depart- 
ment. 

I spent all of my time on Thursday in and about the hearing room, 
in the corridors and rotunda of the City Hall, with one basic thought 
in mind: to preserve peace, to maintain a measure of order and de- 
coinim, pursuant to the request which had been made upon us by the 
committee representatives. 

Incidents occurred during those 2 days which I can relate only by 
way of fact and my own personal knowledge, which may be of some 
assistance to better judge the incidents that happened in the last 24 
hours. 

On Thursday morning, as the committee well knows, the number 
of persons who sought attendance in this room perhaps exceeded the 
capacity of the room by three to four times. The general nature of 
the room in this building makes it difficult to accommodate large 
groups of persons in the corridor in view of the fact that on Thursday 
and Friday we have busy days here at City Hall, with the taxpayers 
entitled to their full measure of service for the duties which are part 
of a normal civil process. 

The same things hold true for the orderly decorum of our superior 
courts on the fourth floor and municipal courts on the third floor. 

These are the common ordinary routine businesses of city govern- 
ment in San Francisco in these corridors. 

With the desire to maintain order and decorum, I personally 
appealed to those outside in the corridor, on the difficult situation of 
limited capacity, and stated we would do everything in our power to 
accommochite a rotation of persons witliin the limits that we had. 

There was a reasonable acceptance of that idea by most of the 
persons outside, with the noise, the clamor, that has been prevailing 
for the last 2 days. 

After a lunch recess about 1 :30 p.m., on Thursday — and I might say 
this for the record: there has been a protest made by many on the 
fact of admission that the room was inadequate and another protest 
as to limited capacity. I state those only because of the general 
nature of protests. 

Among the group, and I can say this in complete truth, there were 
certain individuals who would not accept any logic or reason. Tliis 
was particularly demonstrated about 1 :30 p.m. when a large number 
of — I would say perhaps 100 to 200 persons, of all ages, but in the 
main i:)erhaps between the ages, I would guess, of 18 to 24 or 25 — con- 
gregated outside the main eutiance to these ]iroceedings, this room, and 
in a completely hostile and belligerent attitude made extremely loud 
noises and protests. But among them were certain leadei^s who as- 
sumed leadership by demanding atteiition, one in particular whom 
I shall dcvscribe — I have not seen him since; I liave been looking for 
him out of curiosity. He is about G ft. 21/^ in. dark hair, wearing 
glasses, very lean, perhaps 165 lbs. In age perhaps 23 or 24. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2103 

Tliis person was leadiiio; a hostile group, this group I mentioned of 
100 to 200 persons, outside this proceeding room about 1 :''>() and mak- 
ing shouts, "I^et's break down the doors. We are American citizens. 
They can't keep us out." 

They had already been told that the liall had been filled and the 
ca]iacity was limited. 

Mr. Arens. May 1 interpose this connnciit, or this question: The 
hall we are meeting in now is the largest hall that is available around 
town ; isn't that correct ? 

Afr. Carberry. It is the largest hall that the city and county has 
for any purpose such as this. 

Mr. Arens. The only other larger place where we could have held 
the hearings would be in the Cow Palace i 

Mr. Carberry. Well, there are other public buildings. 

Mr. Arens. This is the only oiiicial buildmg in which we cotdd meet 
to accommodate the maximum number of people; is that right? 

Mr. Carberry. Well, sir, there are larger public buildings, but 
those buildings are under contract, which takes advance dating, de- 
ferring to the Civic Auditorium, it would take months of advance 
preparation to get into the Civic Auditorium, which is a large public 
building. 

To get to the incident involved, because I think it points up the fact 
that the police department and the sherifi"s department exercised 
restraint, caution, and attention to the rights of all persons involved, 
I am covering the record on the incident which I know personally 
about. 

In my opinion, it appeared that an incipient riot was brewing and 
there was serious danger to life and property. 

Doing a thing which was almost reflex action for me, dressed as I 
am, I moved into this hostile crowd and demanded attention. It was 
not easy to get it. But after patiently listening to the heckling and 
abuse and trying to turn some of it with whatever like remarks, I 
opened by demanding attention for 1 minute, identified myself as 
Matthew Carberry, sheriff, and stated : "I would like to appeal to you. 
I would like to appeal to your reason." 

These things that I am mentioning to you are from memory, but only 
as a matter of interest to you. 

I learned later that one of the local, I think it was a radio station, 
had a recording of events that preceded my remarks and all of the 
remarks that I have made, with all of the background sounds that 
took place. I have since heard that and I found it of interest and 
perhaps the committee would be interested. 

I think it taught me some things. I stated to them as calmly as I 
could, and I believe I was quite calm 

Mr._ SciiERER. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest that the tape recording 
to which the sheriff referred be made a part of the record. 

Mr. Willis. If it can be spared or if a duplicate can be obtained. 

Mr. Carberry.^ I would like to say only this: that it came to me as 
a matter of surprise that it happened. 

Apparently the reporter was on the scene. It has since been re- 
peated. I know that it is available. It is not my property, but I 
think it can be made available. I am interested in it only as a matter 
of fact. 



2104 COMMUNIST PARTY— NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr, Willis. I think by all means it should be preserved. We would 
very much like to have one. 

Mr. SciiERER. Whom did you say made the tape? 

Mr. Carberky. I think it was one of the local reporters. I think it 
is KCBS. I think his name is James Leonard. I know it is avail- 
able because I was told so. 

INIr. SciiERER. If a copy of that tape can be made available, I move, 
Mr. Chairman, that it be made part of the hearing record in this case. 

(Tape obtained and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Carberry. In regard to the instance — and I repeat, I had to 
demand and fight for attention and I believe honestly did receive 
rather good attention, despite certain remarks that were made — I 
appealed, as I said, to their reason. I stated that all of the uniformed 
men in these corridors, and at that time there were not a great many, 
were uniformed police and deputy sheriffs in uniform. 

When I was able to demand and receive some attention, enough to 
be heard — and I think the record bears out the fact that I was heard — 
I stated that these uniformed police officers and San Francisco law 
enforcement people were interested in one thing and, under our 
system of American government, they should understand that these 
officers are essentially peace officei'S, their essential duty is to preserve 
the peace. 

I also stated, because I felt that I v.-as appealing to their reason, I 
stated I felt they were intelligent Amei'ican citizens. These things 
were happening only, so far as I am concerned, to remove the hostility 
that took place. I stated that we had to respect the rights of congres- 
sional committees to hold their hearings peaceably, even if we dis- 
agreed w4th them. We had the right to people's free protest and, 
speaking as a peace officer, if those persons chose to go outside and 
demonstrate in an orderly and legal manner, they would not be in- 
terfered wdth. 

Other remarks were said along the same direction and they were 
generally accepted, and the persons wdio were leading this, what I 
believe to be an incipient riot, which could have been dangerous to 
life and property, they disap]')eared and the general temper of the 
crowd was at least reduced in noise. 

That was maintained for all of Thursday. 

At the close of the hearing, because there liad been considerable 
protests made by persons who claimed that they could not get in, on 
my initiative I asked the chairman of this connnittee if he would 
accede to a service wdiich I would be able to perform, in having the 
proceedings of this hearing carried out by loud speaker to Civic Center, 
w'hich was the closest ]ilace in the area which would provide order and 
a minimum of disorder for the regular order of business within this 
hall. 

The chairman acceded, and on Friday morning and during all of 
yesterday's proceedings, and I believe today, the proceedings here 
have gone out by ])ublic-address system to Civic Center. 

Certain precautions were taken again yesterday morning regarding 
care and order within this building, and there was a large group of 
persons seeking admission yesterday morning inside these proceedings. 
They were told that the room was crowded, that we would provide 
replacements as vacancies occurred. 



COMMXTNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2105 

I niiirlit say also, that, in the course of the hostility on Thursday at 
1 :30, a ffentloman who offered himself as a representative of some of 
(lie jzroiip whom I had never met before, a man by the name of Mr. 
Thomas, who, I believe, is at Styles Hall, University of California, 
was somewhat helpful to me in trying to preserve order on a reason- 
able basis; and I was able to promise, with his cooperation, some 
semblance of order in providiuir a ro])lacement of persons fi-om their 
•n-oup within the proceeding's, as vacant seats occurred, and it worked 
out somewhat successfully. 

Friday mornino; I told the irroup assembled outside that they would 
be allowed to stand there, if they chose to, so long as they maintained 
peace and order, were not unduly loud or noisy. If they chose to go 
outside and listen to accommodations of the hearing in Civic Center, 
those facilities had been provided for them. 

The general temper of the crowd was orderly, except that there 
were certain individuals — some of whom I can see and remember and 
can find if I choose to do so — who continued to heckle and who con- 
tinued, in my opinion, to excite those assembled. In my opinion, these 
individuals — and I can see them and if they are in the building or 
around the area, I can point them out — refused to accept any element 
of order and deliberately excited the persons who were there, in my 
opinion, in the main, here to seek information. 

Tlie excitement was reasonably controlled until about 12 o'clock on 
Friday, at which time I was official!}' apprised by one of the police 
inspectors here that Judge Clarence Morris in superior court had 
officially protested to the police department about the loud noise and 
misconduct, which was interfering with the order of superior court. 
I was told a similar protest had been made by the presiding judge of 
municipal court. 

I then proceeded to the rotunda and told all the persons assembled 
there that we were continuing to cooperate to provide access to the 
general public within this building and I was going to intercede again 
with the chairman at noon on that point. 

I also told them that tliey were now subjecting themselves to the 
possibility of arrest for disturbing the peace, that they were making 
protests about duress of law and they, themselves, were interfering 
with the due process in our superior and municipal courts, and I 
pointed out to them calmly and plainly the facts regarding the physi- 
cal occupancy of this building. 

One in particular, and I can recall him distinctly, said, "Why don't 
they adjourn the courts today. We want to get in. Cut out every- 
thing else. This is the only thing that is important." 

I mention tliis for one reason only, that this did not reflect the 
general temper of the crowd, but it did reflect the temper of certain 
indi\aduals who continued to excite the crowd to, apparent!}^, some 
act or incident. 

These are the facts only as I saw them, as I know them. 

One other point. I left this building about 12 :15 for lunch. I had 
been in it all day the previous day and was in it all of yesterday ex- 
cept for lunch recess. I A\as back about 1 :25, so I did not see any of 
the incidents that took place during the interlude. 

I did, however, approach again the chairman of this committee, 
again with the desire of preserAdng peace. I stated that was the 



2106 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

basic job that all of these officers had done. That was why no arrests 
were made, perhaps, in the preceding day, but order was being main- 
tained. 

The Chair stated he would cooperate fully to provide a general 
admission to the limits of this building, within whatever reason could 
be provided. 

Unfortunately, when we returned to tliis building at about 1 :25 p.m., 
the incidents which we all know had already taken place. This room 
had already been filled. It was crowded to capacity. 

During the ensuing afternoon we maintained order within it, re- 
placing vacant seats on a first-come, first-served basis. 

These are the facts only as I know them. 

As to the activities of this committee, I assure you I have nothing 
to say. 

Mr. Willis. Sheriff, I expressed myself a while ago about the fine 
w^ork that you and your deputies and others did. I want to now 
repeat them in your presence. 

I might say, when you say you were at lunch and did not witness 
the demonstration here, you happened to have been eating lunch with 
me and we were talking about the plan of having an exchange of 
seats, if the crowd wanted that to try to be as reasonable as possible. 

Mr. Carberry. For the record as well, sir, I would like to state 
that my particular reason, aside from the pleasant company involved, 
was to see you for the purpose of continuing to provide order in here. 

Mr. Willis. That is right. That is why we had lunch together, 
to discuss it. 

Let me just say this, as we must proceed : 

One of the great living Americans in my book is Sam Rayburn. 
He told me once that the best quality, the one word that describes the 
best quality of a man is a man of judgment, and I regard you as a man 
of maturity and good judgment. You handled yourself admirably 
well. 

Mr. Carberry. Thank you. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, before the sheriff leaves, I want 
again, in his presence, to associate myself with the statements which 
the chairman made and to express my appreciation in behalf of the 
committee and the Congress. 

Mr. Carberry. Thank you. 

Mr. Willis. I believe the reporter's fingers are probably getting a 
little tired, so we will take a brief recess. 

(A short recess was taken. Present in the hearing room. Repre- 
sentatives Willis, Scherer, and Johansen.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in order, please. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Thomas Grabor, please come forward and remain stand- 
ing while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee, will be truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God. 

Mr. Grabor. I do. 



CO&niUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2107 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS GRABOH 

Mr. Arj:xs. Please identity yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

]Mr. Grabor. My name is Thomas Grabor. I reside in San Fran- 
cisco, at 68 State and I am a salesman. 

Mr. Arkns. IIow long have you resided in these parts, Mr. Grabor? 

Mr. Grabor. A little over 3 years. 

Mr. Arexs. How okl are you 'i 

Mr. Gr/VBOR. Thirty. 

Mr. Arexs. Where did you come from just innnediately prior to 
your arrival here in California? 

j\Ir. Grabor. From Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. From Hungary? 

]Mr. Grabor. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, it is our intention to permit Mr. Grabor 
to testify briefly respecting communism in action, as distinct from 
connnunism as it portrays itself beliind the facade of humanitarianism. 

Mr. Grabor, would you kindly tell us where you were when the 
Hungarian revolution broke out in your native land? 

Mr. Grabor. I was in Budapest, the capital of Hungary. 

Mr. Arexs. Proceed in your own words to tell us about the Hun- 
garian revolution and your part as a freedom fighter in that struggle 
for liberty. 

Mr. Grabor. Mr. Chairman, as I told you, I came from Hmigary, 
from Budapest, where thousands and thousands of students and yomig 
people died wliile fighting for freedom against communism. I have 
participated in this fight against communism. The uprising was 
started by students who were demanding their basic rights from the 
Communist regime, which basic rights were promised to them by 
Communists 12 years before that date when the Commmiists took over 
Hungary, and behind them was the Red Russian army. 

Mr. Arexs. JNIr. Grabor, we had the testimony of a former under- 
cover agent of the FBI, this morning, who testified in essence that 
there were approximately 20,000 to 25,000 Commmiists, in his esti- 
mation, in the United States. 

How many Communists spearheaded the takeover of your mother- 
land, Hmigary ? 

Mr. Grabor. Well, sir, dedicated Communists were — I don't know 
the correct number, but I would say 1,000 or a couple of thousand in 
Hungary, among them those dedicated Communists who came back 
in 1945 with the Russian army from the Soviet Union. 

They took over the political power, political and economical power 
in Hungarj' by force and by forgeiy. "Wlien I say forgery, I mean 
they forged the elections in 1947 in Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. They weren't voted into power by the people; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Grabor. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. If there were an election tomorrow morning, a free 
election in Hungary, would the Communists be reelected to power? 

Mr. Grabor. No, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. What would be a good estimate, based upon your ex- 
perience under the regime, as to the percentage of the vote that the 
Communists would get if there were a free election ? 

Mr. Grabor. I would say 2 or 3 percent. 



2108 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

]Mr. Arexs. Now, Mr. Grabor, tell us briefly just a ^vord about "what 
it means to live under communism, as you lived under it in your native 
land. 

Mr. Grabor. Well, sir, in 1947, when they actually took over the 
political and economical ])ower in Hungary hy forging the elections, 
by taking the Communist Party members from town to town with 
false registration cards to vote, and they have been voting five, six, 
seven or eight times, one person, they were getting the majority this 
way; before this they have promised everything to the people of 
Hungary'. They have promised freedom; they have promised better 
living standards; they have promised better education; they have 
promised everj^thing that is possible. 

After they have taken over in 1947, they started to destroy opposi- 
tion deliberately. They destroyed and abolislied every opposition 
party by force, by arresting and convicting the leaders of these opposi- 
tion parties. Opposition papers were not permitted. At a later date 
there were no Western newspapers and magazines that were allowed in 
the state of Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. Is there freedom in the schools ? 

Mr, Grabor. There is no freedom, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is there freedom anywhere in Hungary ? 

Mr. Grabor. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, we don't want to prolong your testimony. We 
would like just to ask you if you, as a young man, having lived under 
communism, having seen communism in action, as distinct from com- 
munism as it portrays itself as the pie in the sky, what word would 
you have as a young man to say to the young people of your adopted 
land of freedom respecting the significance of communism in the world 
and the status of communism in America ? 

Mr. Grabor. Sir, in my country not everybody has admission to the 
schools, not every young person, even to the high schools and colleges. 
Their father and grandfather had to belong to the woi'king class and 
had to be trusted by the Communist Party to be admitted to the uni- 
versity or colleges. 

In the universities and colleges they could not study whatever they 
wanted. They had to study whatever the Hungarian Government 
reeded, whatever it was short of. For instance, if I wanted to be an 
electrical engineer, and the state needed mechanical engineers, I could 
not study for electronics engineer. 

So also in the universities were the subjects of Marxism and Lenin- 
ism, which everybody had to take. There was the subject of Russian 
language, which everybody had to take and graduate from. 

Mr. Arens. Is your native country — and I say this with great reluc- 
tance, but I must ask it — is your native country, Hungary, now in a 
state of "peaceful coexistence" with the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Grabor. I didn't exactly understand the question. You have to 
forgive me, but my language 

Mr. Arens. You witnessed the Soviet tanks rolling into Budapest, 
-did you not? 

]\Ir. Grabor. Yes, sir. I was fighting against them. 

Mr. Arens. And you saw your own people massacred, did you not ? 

Mr. Grabor. Yes, sir, I saw thousands and thousands of people 
dying on the streets just because they wanted their rights, their free- 
dom. They wanted the Russian army to leave Hungary. They wanted 



COMIVIUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2109 

the niinaai"i:in ii'oods to boloni>- to tlie ITiiiiiiariaii people. They 
wanted to be patriots, and patriotism is a crime under a Connnunist 
regime. 

Mr, Arexs. Thank you, sir. 

^fr. Chairman, it is not our intention to prolong the interrogation 
of Mr. Grabor. We just thought it would be well to have in this 
record some indication of what it is to live under communism and 
what is in the mind of a young man who was in the schools under a 
Connnunist regime, connnunism in action. 

Mr. AViLLis. Thank you very nnich, sir. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Kayme Ellis. 

Please come forward, Mrs. Rayme Ellis. 

Mr, Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee, will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

]\rrs. Ellis, I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RAYME ELLIS 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, ma'am, by name, residence, 
and occupation. 

Mrs. Ellis. My name is Rayme Ellis. I live at 8926 Wonderland 
Avenue, Los Angeles. I am primarily a mother of three young cliil- 
dren and I do secretarial work. 

Mr. Arexs. You are appearing today in response to a subpena ? 

Mrs. Ellis, Right. 

Mr. Arens, We observe that you are not represented by counsel. 
Do you know that you have the privilege, under the rules of this com- 
mittee, to be represented by counsel ? 

Mrs, Ellis, Yes. 

Mr, Arexs. I beg your pardon ? 

Mrs. Ellis. Yes, I know that. 

Mr. Arexs. Is it agreeable with you to proceed without counsel ? 

Mrs, Ellis. Yes, 

Mr, Arens. As we proceed, if there is any area in which, on the 
basis of our experience, you might desire legal advice, we will try, so 
far as we can, to give jou that advice objectively and fairly, I, my- 
self, am a lawyer and I believe all of the members of the subcommittee 
are lawyers. 

We, of course, prefer that you do have counsel. 

]Mrs. Ellis, if I ask you a question and you honestly believe that 
the answer to that question w^ould be supplying information which 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding, you are not 
obliged to, but you have the privilege of, declining to answer that 
question by announcing to the committee that you invoke the self- 
incrimination provision of the fifth amendment. 

Do you understand ? 

Mrs. Ellis, I do. 

Mr. Arex'S. Mrs. Ellis, are yon connected with the Willowbrook 
Cooperative Nursery School ? 

Mrs. Ellis. I decline to answer. I take the fifth amendment. 

56597— 60— pt. 3 3 



2110 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Ellis, it is the information of this committee that 
you are now, or in the very recent past have been, a member of the 
Communist Party. Would you kindly tell us now in response to my 
question : Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Ellis. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Ellis. I decline to answer. I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Ellis, I am put at a rather disadvantage here and 
embarrassment. You have asserted that you are not now, tliis instant, 
a member of the Communist Party. Ordinarily, when we have a 
witness who denies present membership we attempt to develop, by 
direction or indirection, on the record w^hether or not that individual 
is presently within the Commmiist operation though not a technical 
member of the Communist Party. We try also to develop on the 
record, by our interrogation, as of what time that person ceased being 
a member of the Communist Party. 

I would like, if I could do so, just to speak in a rather informal 
vein with you, to ask you, w^ithout any sense of an intensive interro- 
gation, since what date has it been that you have not been a member 
of the Communist Party. You can tell us that. 

Mrs. Ellis. I decline. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Let me ask you this question — and I will not, under 
the circumstances, attempt to proceed further, because this commit- 
tee is exceedingly sensitive, although the Communists and the pro- 
Communists don't give us that credit, we are exceedingly sensitive to 
the fact that we are constantly criticized for being unfair- and we try 
to be fair — have you been a member of the Conmiunist Party any time 
since you were served with your subpena to appear before this 
committee ? 

Mrs. Ellis. I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Communist Party at 
any time in the course of the last year ? 

Mrs. Ellis. I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Communist Party at 
any time in the course of the last 2 years ? 

Mrs. Ellis. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Coimnunist Party any 
time in the course of the last 3 years ? 

Mrs. Ellis. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, ma'am, consider yourself presently mider Com- 
munist Party discipline ? 

Mrs. Ellis. No. ._ i 

Mr. Arens. Have you broken, finally and irrevocably, irrespective 
of the time, have you broken finally and irrevocably from the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Ellis. I stated tliat I am not a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Have you broken finally and irrevocably from the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Ellis. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask this, ma'am : AVould you desire a private 
session with this committee? 

Mrs. Ellis. I see no reason for it. 



COAIMUNIST PARTY — NORTtlERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2111 

Mr, Arens. You observed on the subpena which was served upon 
you, nil indication that if 3'ou cared to discuss matters with the com- 
initteo — on the bottom of tlie subpena which was served upon you, 
this hmguage appeared ; did it not : 

If you desire a conference with a representative of the Committee prior to the 
date of the hearing, please call or write to : Richard Arens, Staff Director, 
Committee on Un-American Activities, Washington 25, D.C. 

and tlio telephone number. 

Did vou observe tluit i 

Mrs. Ellis. Yes; I saw tliat. 

Mr. i\jRExs. Mr. Chairman, under the circumstances, it is my judg- 
ment, and I so recommoiul to this committee, tliat we do not proceed 
further in this session with the interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. I agree with that suggestion. You are excused. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this witness 
is now notified that she is being released from her subpena. 

The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be — I don't 
know whether it is Miss or Mrs. — Lottie Laub Rosen. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

]Mrs. EosEx. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOTTIE L. ROSEN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

BERTRAM EDISES 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation ? 

Mrs. Rosen. My name is Lottie Rosen. I live at 1609 Rose Street, 
Berkeley. I am a teacher. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you, is it Miss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Rosen. Mrs. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mrs. Rosen, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by this committee? 

Mi-s. Rosen. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Rosen. Yes ; I am represented by counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mrs. Rosen. Though I do not feel that my counsel can adequately 
represent me since he is not given the opportunity to cross-examine or 
to ask questions, as you are. 

Mr.^ Arens. You know, as your counsel can advise you, that this is 
not a judicial, adversaiy proceeding in that sense, nor has any congres- 
sional committee in the history of the Nation ever assumed to function 
in that capacity. 

Kindly, identify yourself. Counsel. 

Mrs. Rosen. But you are sitting m judgment on me and you have 
said this is not a judicial pivK-eeding. 

Mr. Edises. Bertram Edises, Oakland, Calif. 



2112 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in this area ? 

Mrs. Rosen. Approximately G years. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you live prior to the time that you cajne 
to this area. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Rosen. May I ask what the purpose of that question is? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, ma'am. We want to inquire respecting your ac- 
tivities — not your tiioughts, not j-our beliefs, not your associations — 
your activities, in New York City. 

In anticipation of that, as groundwork, I wanted to ask you where 
you lived prior to the time you came here. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel. 

Mrs. Rosen. What kind of act ivities are you referring to ? 

Mr. Arens. Communist Party activities, ma'am. 

Now, kindly tell us where you lived immediately prior to the 
time that you came to this area? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Rosen. This is my answer to your question, Mr, Arens. Last 
year, 110 California teachers were subpenaed by this committee. In 
northern California, 40 teachers had their names smeared on the front 
pages of nvimerous local newspapers. 

Mr. ScHERFJt. Mr. Chairman, I ask for regular order. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. Answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. The outstanding principal question is : "Where did you 
live immediately prior to the time that you moved to California? 

Mrs. Rosen. I am answering your question. I would like to be 
allowed to answer it in my own way. 

Mr. Willis. What is tlie outstanding question ? 

Mr. Arens. The outstanding princi})al question, sir, is: Where did 
you live prior to the time that you moved to California ? 

^Ir. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

ISfrs. Rosen. I decline to answer (hat statement upon the following 
grounds- 



Mr. Willis. Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is 

Mrs. Rosen. You are not giving me a chance to state my grounds. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed with the next question. 

Mrs. Rosen, Afay I say that I was subpenaed last year. My name 
was smeared in the headlines of all the local newspapers. 

Mr. Willis. Next question. 

Mrs. Rosen. I have been harassed for 1 year, and this is now my 
opportunity to speak, and T would like to have it. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell the committee how long you 
lived in New York City? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs, Rosen, You have indicated to me alread^y the purpose of that 
question, and I decline to answer that question, I would like to be 
able to state my grounds for this declinal ion. 

Mr, Arens. Do you decline to answer t liat question on constitutional 
grounds ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Rosen. I will state my grounds as follows 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2113 

'Sir. Arens. Were you a (op Communist Party functionary in the 
Bronx, from 1950 (o 1954^ 

(The Avitness conferred with lier counsel.) 

Mrs. RosEX. I repeat that you are denying me my constitutional 
grounds and my reasons for answering tliis question in my own way, 
and I would like to con! inuo by saying ■ 

Mr. Akexs. Mr. Chairman, 1 respectfully suggest that if this wit- 
ness is in truth and in fact attempting to answer on constitutional 
grounds, she should be permitted to do so, but if, on the other hand, 
she is going to give another (\)mmunist Party speech, I think it is 
quite proper that she be denied tlie opportunity to use this conmiittee 
as a forum for that purpose. 

Mrs. Rosen. These are my constitutional grounds, Mr. Chairman, 
and I wish to state them in my own words. 

Mr. Willis. State your constitutional grounds. 

]Mrs. RosEX. I repeat, last year 110 teachers were subpenaed by 
this committee 

Mr. Willis. That is not a constitutional ground. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. RosEX. I am not a lawyer. I wnsh to state these grounds in 
the best way that I can and I demand the right to do so. 

yiv. Willis. You are not a hnvyer, but you have a lawyer advising 
you constantly during this tactic. 

Mrs. RosEX'^. Yes, but this statement was prepared by me, and I 
wish to be allowed to read it. 

jMr. Willis. "Wliat statement ? 

Mrs. RosEX'. It is handwritten, two pages. 

Mr. Willis. Go on and read it. 

Mrs. RosEX". Last year, 110 California teachers were subpenaed by 
this committee. In northern California, 40 teachers had their names 
smeared on the front pages of numerous local newspapers. This was 
done just before the end of the school semester and prior to summer 
vacation. 

One hundred and ten California teachers, tired from their year's 
work, had no vacations, no opportunity to rest, because the committee 
postponed the June 17th hearing and scheduled them for early Sep- 
tember, thus harassment and continued press publicity followed the 
teachers all through the summer. 

The committee then postponed its hearings until October 14, no 
explanations were given for these postponements. 

Widespread public protest, coming from church groups, ministers, 
professors, teachers' organizations, parent groups, labor unions, news- 
papers and individuals finally caused this committee to cancel the 
hearings entirely. 

If you are interested, Mr. Chairman, in seeing documentation of 
these protests, may I refer you to a document of unimpeachable in- 
tegrit}^, the speech before the House of Representatives of the Hon- 
orable James Roosevelt, dated INIonday, April 25, 1960, in which he 
calls upon the House of Representatives to abolish this Committee 
on Un-American Activities. 

This story could and should have ended here, but no, this commit- 
tee had not finished its dirty work. It sent its files on the teachers 
to the state superintendent of instruction and then, not certain that 



2114 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

these would be used against the teacliers, ran around the state and 
deposited these files with local district attorneys, who then dumped 
them into the laps of the school boards, whether requested by them, or 
not. 

I would like to quote from Mr. Roosevelt's speech : 

When State Attorney General Mosk issued a formal opinion he stated, 
among other things, that the committee files themselves were worthless as evi- 
dence against the teachers involved. The reason, he said, was that the authors 
of the information were not identified. No action for the revocation of teaching 
credentials could be based on the allegations of unnamed allegedly "reliable 
sources." Only if the charges could be backed up by the evidence of identified 
persons could action against the teachers be initiated by the school department. 
The California attorney general, in a letter to me dated February 2, 19G0, stated 
the following : "I recognize that the reports, standing alone, could not be used by 
the superintendent of public instruction" 

Mr. ScHERER, Just a moment, Mr. Chairman. The witness said she 
wanted to read a two-page statement in longhand, and now she is 
reading the gentleman from California's speech that he made on the 
floor of the House. 

I submit she is not invoking any constitutional amendment in re- 
fusing to answer this question. 

Mr. Willis. I so rule. This always happens when we have a senti- 
mental appeal to make a little statement. She started with a little 
statement and now has gone to a large document. 

I order you to answer the question outstanding. 

What is it. Counsel, to be specific ? 

Mrs. Rosen. I would ask the chairman, please, to be permitted to 
continue with my own statement and disregard Mr. Roosevelt's state- 
ment. 

Mr. Willis. You started with a two-page statement. 

Mrs. Rosen. This is handwritten on one side of the page. I have 
just one more sheet to read, if you don't mind. 

This year the committee returned. School boards were informed as 
long as 3 weeks before the subpenas were served that their employees 
Avere in danger. Many school boards, intimidated by the representa- 
tives of this committee, informed their teachers they would not be 
rehired. There are at least six such cases in this area alone. 

Many teachers subpenaed last year have now been resubpenaed. 
Community protests are again pouring in. The academic community 
is aroused by this repeated tlireat to freedom of thought and inquiry. 
This committee has no right to inquire into this area. This connnittee 
has no riglit to question me as to my thoughts, associations, and activi- 
ties. 

Mr. Willis. Wait a moment. There is an outstanding question that 
I now order and direct her to answer on constitutional grounds only. 

If she goes beyond that, lier lawyer knows the significance of it, 
Mr. Counselor. You will proceed Avilh the (luestion. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Rosen. I stand on my rights under the first amendment of the 
Constiution of the United States, guaranteeing me freedom of speech, 
thought, and association, and the ninth amendment, which guaran- 
tees to me the right not to speak, and the fifth amendment, which was 
placed in the Constitution by our forefathers to protect the innocent 
from being compelled to act as a witness against themselves. 



CORDMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2115 

Mr. Arens. As of the instant that yoii were served with your sub- 
pena to api)oar before this coniniittee, were you then a memDcr of the 
Conmuniist Party? 

(The witness oonf erred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. EosEN, You have my answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give it to us again ]")lease. 

Mr. SciiEUER. I ask tliat you direct tlie witness to answer. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is directed to answer the question. 
(Tlie witness conferred with her counseL) 

Mrs. Rosen. I decline to answer on the <i:rounds previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Does that include the invocation of the fifth 
amendment? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

]\Irs. Rosen. You heard my answer, sir. 

]\Ir. SciiERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer my ques- 
tion, because the courts have said that when there is a question in our 
minds as to Avhether or not the witness is invoking the fifth amend- 
ment, we are compelled to ask the witness specifically whether the 
declination involves the use of the fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer. 

Mr. "Willis. You are dircvted to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosen. Mr. Willis, I am not a lawyer. I would like to have 
my lawyer have the privilege of arguing that point because he ap- 
parently disagrees. 

]Mr. Edises. May I be heard on that point ? 

^h\ Willis. No. 

Mr. Edises. I happen to disagree with Mr. Scherer's interpretation 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. That will be all. 

Mv. Edises. If you will drop the question as far as this witness is 
concerned ? 

Mr. Willis. The question is not dropped. There is an outstand- 
ing order directed to her to answer the question. 

Mr. Edises. She has already declined to answer and her grounds 
are in the record. 

Mr. Willis. Next question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, today, this instant, a member of the Com- 
mimist Party ? 

(The witness conferred Avith her counsel.) 

Mrs. Rosen. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Just one final question : 

Did you happen to read the address of the gentleman from Ohio, Mr. 
Scherer, who is a member of this committee, responding on the floor of 
the House to the address by the gentleman from southern California, 
Mr. Roosevelt ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Rosen. I happen not to have read it. I am sure it was well 
publicized. 

_Mr. Arens. That will conclude the staff interrogation of this 
witness. 

INIrs. Rosen. May I 

Mr. Willis. No ; the witness is excused. 



2116 COMIVIUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Call the next witness, 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, Mr. Cliairman, if you please, will be 
Mrs. Betty Halpern. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give to 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Halpern. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BETTY HALPERN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

ALBERT M. BENDICH 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Halpern. My name is Betty Halpern. I live at 6 Acton Circle, 
Berkeley, Calif., and I am a teacher. 

Mr. Arens. Is it Miss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Halpern. Mrs., the mother of two. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mrs. Halpern. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Halpern. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Bendich. Albert M. Bendich, staff counsel, American Civil Lib- 
erties Union of Northern California. 

Mr. Arens. When and where were you born ? 

Mrs. Halpern. In Rumania, 1924. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for permanent 
residence ? 

Mrs. Halpern. 1929. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mrs. Halpern. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. By derivation or naturalization? 

Mrs. Halpern. By derivation, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere have been your principal i)laces of residence 
since you established your residence in this country? 

Mi's. Halpern. New York and Berkeley. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live in New York, and over what 
period of time? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halpern. I lived in Brooklyn, N.Y., until 1944. Then I came 
to Los Angeles, and then spent a year there and came to Berkeley, 
Calif. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education? 

Mrs. Halpern. Graduated from public elementary school in Brook- 
lyn, N.Y. ; high school, Brookl3'n, N.Y. The University of California, 
Berkeley. 

Mr. Arens. You have a teacher's certificate to teach in the public 
schools ? 

(Tlie Avitness conferred witli her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halpern. I had an emergency credential when I taught in the 
public school, and I am now teaching in a private school. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2117 

Mr. Arkns. ITavo you jiiven lis all of Hie institutions in Avhich you 
liave received your ti-ainina? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halperx. Sir, maj- 1 have some clarification on that question ? 

Mr. Arexs. Have you received any S])eciali/,ed training, let us say, 
in Los Anoeles, since you have arrived in these parts? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halperx. Could you be a little bit more specific? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes. Have you received any specialized Conmiunist 
Party training? 

Mrs. Halperx. Not to my know^Iedge. 

Mr. Aeens. Have you attended the People's Educational Center? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halperx". I think I took a dance and drama course there 
once, to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Arexs. "When you so quickly denied training by the Communist 
Party, that leads me to ask you this question : Were you given training 
in Communist techniques. Communist activities. Communist political 
warfare at any time ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halperx. If dance and drama covers this, then maybe it 
was 

Mr. Arexs. Of course, it does not. And I did not suggest that it did. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halperx. I again have to ask you for clarification, sir. 

Mr. Arex^s. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halperx. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arex's. Have you held Communist Party cell meetings in your 
home ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halperx. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
for the previous statement that I made. 

Mr. Arens. When did you receive your teacher's certificate ? 

Mrs. Halperx. I think it was in 1950, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Was that on October 8, 1950, do you recall ? 

Mrs. Halperx'^. I am not sure. 

Mr. Arexs. I have a photostatic copy here of your application, 
and the date is not quite clear on here. It is in your handwriting, but 
it is not quite clear. 

In this application, you signed an oath of allegiance. As of that 
date, on October 8, 1950 [1951], when you signed this application, 
were you then a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Halperx. I again repeat, sir, I respectfully decline to answer 
that question on the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Halpern Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Halperx. I decline on the grounds previously stated. 



2118 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be Lillian 
Eansome. 

Mr, Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this subcommittee, will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Kansome. I do. 

I would like to have you turn those lights out. I didn't come here 
to be cooked. 

TESTIMONY OF LILLIAN EANSOME; ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

VINCENT HALLINAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mrs. Ransome. I am Lillian Ransome, of Wheatland, Calif., 515 
State Street, Post Office Box 159. I am an agricultural worker. I 
came to California in 1947, to Wheatland, Calif. I have been here 
since. 

Mr. Arens. Is it Miss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Ransome. Mrs. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Ransome, you are appearing today in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by this connnittee ? 

Mrs. Ransome. I must have been, or I would not have been here. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, ma'am. And you are represented by 
counsel ? 

Mrs. Ransome. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you identify yourself ? 

Mr. Hallinan. My name is Vincent Hallinan, and as to identifying 
myself, I am the man who asked leave to testify here that the state- 
ment made by the • 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, you know your sole and exclusive prerogative 
is to advise your client, and you are in violation of the rules of this 
committee. You are performing unethical conduct and you know it. 

I respectfully suggest that counsel be admonished to abide by the 
rules of this committee, Mr. Chairman. If he wants to be a witness, 
we will be glad to call him to be sworn a little later on. 

Mr. Hallinan. Would you tell me what you meant by identifying? 
Did you want my name ? 

Mr. Arens. Counsel is violating the rules of this committee. 

Mr. Hallinan. I deny that. Tell me what rule it is. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Ransome, kindly tell us where you lived prior to 
the time you came to California. 

Mrs. Ransome. On the advice of my attorney, I refuse to answer that 
question for the following reasons : One, it is not within the scope of 
the purpose of which this committee was formed ; two, the committee 
has no rights to inquire into my personal, private belief or associations. 

Mr. Arens. I was not asking you if you believed where you lived ? 

Mrs. Ransome. Three, it violates my rights under the Constitution 
of tlie United States, particularly the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Now, please tell us where you lived prior to the time you 
came to California. 



COMIMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2119 

Mrs. Ransoime. I told yoii Avliere I live, in Wlieatland, California, 
515 State Street. 

Mr. Arens. Tell ns how lon_<; you have lived there. 

Mrs. Ransosee. I have lived there since 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you live prior to 1947 ? 

Mrs. RANsotE. I lived at 515 State Street since 1947. 

Mr. Arexs. Where did yon live in 1946 ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ransome. On the advice of my attorney I refuse to answer 
that question for the folloAving reasons: It is not within the scope of 
the purpose for which this committee was formed ; two, the committee 
has no ri<^ht to inquire into my personal, private beliefs or associa- 
tions ; three, the question violates my rights under the Constitution of 
the United States, and particularly under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly and truly apprehend that if you told 
this committee where 3^ou were living in 1946, you would be supplying 
information which might be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding ? 

I ask that question Avith this explanation in the record, that it would 
appear that you are not invoking the fifth amendment provisions of 
the Constitution against self-incrimination in good faith. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ransome. It is not Avithin the scope of the purpose for which 
this committee was formed ; tw^o, the committee has no right to inquire 
into my personal, private beliefs, or associates. The question violates 
my rights under the Constitution of the United States, and particu- 
larly under the first and the fifth amendments. 

]VIr. Arens. This committee is trying to develop factual information 
which will be used by the United States Congress in enacting legisla- 
tion to protect this country, this Constitution, this flag, this Nation, 
against the onslaught of the Communist conspiracy which threatens 
freedom everywhere. 

Do you have information, current information respecting the activi- 
ties, the program, of the Communist Party in northern California? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ransome. On tlie advice of my attorney, I refuse to answer 

Mr. Arens. You could save time if you just say "For the same 
reasons." That would help all the way around. 

_Mrs. Ransome. — on the following grounds : Number one, it is not 
within the scope of the purpose for wdiich this committee was formed ; 
two, the committee has no right to inquire into my personal, private 
beliefs or associates ; and three, the question violates my rights under 
the Constitution of the United States, particularly under the first and 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a full-time, paid functionary in the 
Valley Section of Northern California of the Communist Party? 

I said that wrong. A full-time, paid functionary of the Communist 
Party operating in the Valley Section of Northern California? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ransome. On the advice of my attorney, I refuse to answer 
that question for the following reasons : One, it is not within the scope 
of the purpose for which this committee was formed; two, the com- 
mittee has no right to inquire into my personal, private beliefs or 



2120 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

associates; three, the question violates iny ri<:;hts under the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, and particuhirly under the first and the fifth 
amendments, 

Mr. Arexs. Thank you, ma'am. 

That will conclude, if you please, the staff interrogation of this 
witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Ed Ross. 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Lewis. Mr. Chairman, on behalf of my client, may I request 
that the lights remain off as he comes forward. 

Mr. Willis. They are off. 

Please raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Ross. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWAED ROSS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH F. LEWIS 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Which of these are the live mikes, or are they all live? 

Mr. Arens. The one you should get close to is the one there near 
you. 

Now, would you kindly give us your name, residence, and occupa- 
tion ? 

Mr, Ross. My name is Edward Ross. I live at 134 Lockhart Lane, 
Los Altos, California. I am a salesman. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Ross. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by comisel ? 

Mr. Ross. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on tliis record. 

Mr. Lewis. Joseph F. Lewis, Sunnyvale, California. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born, INIr. Ross ? 

Mr. Ross. I was born in New York City on September 3, 1915. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word, please, about your education. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Does this just concern my sckooling, my formal educa- 
tion? 

Mr. Arens. Well, let's start with that. 

Mr. Ross. I am a gi-aduate of grade schools and high schools in 
New York City. 

Mr. Arens. No college or higher education ? 

Mr. Ross. No. 

Mr. Arens. What other training have you had ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2121 

Mr. Ross. Sir, is (his for the purpose of identilication only? 

Mr. Arexs. Don't you want to toll us any otiier trainiiiii- you have 
had? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Koss. Sir, if this is purely for the purposes of identification, I 
will assert that I am truly Ed Koss who was served witli a subpena. 

Mr. Akexs. Can't you tell us what other training you have had be- 
sides the schoolino- that you have just alluded to ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Sir, I don't really understand the question. 

Mr. Arexs. You have adequately identified yourself. AVe under- 
stand that. 

Tell us about any training you have had other than, or in addition 
to, the training which you have already described. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Arexs. Maybe I can help you. Have you taken any corre- 
spondence cources from any of the universities ? 

Mr. Ross. I know at one time I did that. I was interested in some 
matters and took a correspondence course in some things, although 
I had been through formal education. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever had any correspondence courses in any 
schools ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Sir, I still feel that you have not made yourself clear, 

Mr. Arex's. Well, have you attended any night schools ? Now we 
will abandon the inquiry about a correspondence course. Have you 
attended any night schools of any kind that come to your mind ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Ross. Sir, I am not really able to answer that question with 
complete 

Mr. Arex's. Shall we go further ? 

Mr. Ross. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you had some training of any kind in engineer- 



ing: 



(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Sir, I have educated myself in this field. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us about the nature of the training you have had 
in engineering. Was that correspondence or just by going to the li- 
brary or studying at home like Abraham Lincoln did, or how was 
that? How did you acquire this knowledge you have in engineering? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Sir, will you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes. By what devices did you train yourself in engi- 
neering, and in what fields of engineering have you specialized in your 
training? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Sir, it was mostly by my own study and application. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you able to read blueprints? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. I think tlie witness is delaying too much, really, on 
a simple question. 

Mr. Ross. I am trying to answer these questions to the best of my 
knowledge. 



2122 COMMTINIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us whether or not you can read blue- 
prints ? I can tell you pretty quickly I can't. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Sir, in my field I think I can read blueprints. 

Mr. Arens. Is your engineering field mechanical engineering, 
chemical engineering? What type of engineering? Bridgebuilding? 
AVhat is it that has been your particular training in this engineering 
field? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Sir, will you break that question up into its compon- 
ents ? You have asked me about three questions. 

Mr. Arens. I was asking you of tlie various alternatives. Wliich 
segments of engineering are you particularly trained in ? You have 
told us now that you have been studying on your own, equipping 
yourself as one who is familiar in engineering fields, a very fine area 
to be engaged in, particularly in this time in which we need engi- 
neers, need people who will help develop weapons to defend our 
great Nation. 

Tell us what field have you been particularly interested in? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Sir, as I pointed out before, I have a limited education 
in engineering 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't understand your last answer. 

Mr. Arens. He said he had a limited education in engineering. 

Mr. Ross. Right. I am a self-taught engineer and I can read some 
blueprints, not all, those applicable to the particular field that I am 
in. 

Mr. Sgherer. We wanted to know what field is it, sir. Is it elec- 
trical, mechanical, civil ? 

Mr. Ross. It could be 

Mr. SciiERER. Or all three of them ? 

Mr. Ross. Well, civil it wouldn't be, but it would be electrical and 
mechanical, mainly. 

Mr. Arens. You have been interested in electronics in the course 
of your home studies ? 

Mr. Sciierer. He said electrical. 

Mr. Arens. That shows how little I know about mechanical mat- 
ters. 

Tell us how long you have been engaged as a ball-bearing sales- 
man. 

Mr. Ross. For about 20 yeare. 

Mr. Arens. Without revealing the particular plant, what is the 
nature of a plant to which you sell your ball bearings? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. This is a very simple question. We have to move on. 
I order you to answer the question. 

Mr. Ross. Sir, can I decide how to answer my questions? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Let's put it more direct. Do you sell ball bearmgs 
to plants that have defense contracts ? 

Mr. Ross. Well, why didn't he ask that question before ? 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking it now. 

Mr. Ross. Okay. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2123 

Mr. Koss. Sir, I sell to plants that are in tlie missile and allied in- 
dustries. I also sell to automotive users. T sell to farm machinery, 
food machinery manufacturers. I sell to anybody who uses ball bear- 
inirs in the manufacturin<j of anylhino; tliat moves. 

Mr. Arens. In your procedures of selling to the plants that manu- 
facture missiles or missile machinery, do you have access to the plants? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Koss. Sir, I normally don't have access to these missile plants, 
except in the lobbies. 

]Mr. Arens. That is normally. Do you have access to people, or do 
you eno:age in conversations with people, who do work in these missile 
plants ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel . ) 

Mr. Eoss. I have a contact with anybody who is interested in pur- 
chasino; ball bearings, not specifically those people who work in mis- 
sile plants. I sell to anybody who needs ball bearings. 

Mr. Arens. We understand to whom you sell. We are trying to in- 
quire of you from whom you may acquire certain information. 

Do you or have you, in the course of the time in which you have been 
selling ball bearings to missile plants, engaged in conversations per- 
sons known by you to be members of the Communist Party who are 
employed in missile plants ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Will you repeat tlie question again ? 

Mr. Arens. Read the question, please. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wiixis. It sliould be noted tliat tliere have been very few ques- 
tions asked thus far and the witness has been on the stand for a 
very long time. 

Mr. Ross. I cannot hear you. 

Mr. Willis. Please answer the questions. 

Mr. Ross. I think counsel is developing a line which I think is a 
little unfair. I mean, he is trying to make me say something that I 
don't particularly believe in. 

Mr. Arens. I am not asking you to say anything that isn't the 
truth. If the answer to the question is "No," just say "No." 

Mr. Ross. To my best knowledge, no. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Karl Prussion? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. That is a very simple question. I direct you to answer 
it. 

Mr. Ross. Yes : I am going to answer it, sir. 

INIr. Willis. All rig] it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. 

Mr. Ross. Sir, I am going to have to decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the following reasons: First, I incorporate in the answer the 
points made by me in the petition filed on my behalf by my attorneys 
with the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman 
of this committee regarding the legality of the proceedings by virtue 
of the participation of the congressman from Louisiana. 

Second, by the very nature of the proceedings, as well as those 
charges made against me, their vagueness and lack of substantiation. 



2124 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

on advice by counsel tliat I liave no alternative but to invoke the first, 
fifth, and fourteenth amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States. 

IVIi'. ScHERER. I will put it to you as a fact: Is it not a fact that you 
knew Prussion as a member of the Comnninist Party when you were 
a member of t he (^onnnunist Party ? 

I will ask you to affirm or deny the assertion I just made. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Sir, I will have to decline to answer this question for the 
same reasons that I declined to answer the last question. 

Mr. ScHERER. And does that include the invocation of the fifth 
amendment? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ross. Shall I read it again to you, sir ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I asked you, just to be sure, whether you are de- 
clining to answer on the grounds that you decline to answer because of 
your rights under the fifth amendment. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. I frankly didn't remember whether you cited the 
fifth amendment when you read all of the reasons for which you did 
not answer. 

Mr. Ross. I did, sir. The stenographer should have it in the record. 

Mr. Arens. Mi: Prussion, will you kindly stand up where you are, 
please? 

You were previously sworn on this record ? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF KARL PEUSSION— Eesumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Prussion, during the course of your service as an 
undercover agent in that conspiratorial force known as the Com- 
munist Party, did you know to a certainty as a member of the Com- 
munist Party a person by the name of Ed Ross ? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see him in the hearing room today, now ? 

Mr. Prussion. I so do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you point him out to the committee? 

Mr. Prussion. Tliere [indicating]. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Prussion, did you, in tlie course of your knowing 
Ed Ivoss as a member of the Communist Party, at any time engage 
him in conversation respecting the acquisition by him of information 
pertaining to the missile program of the United States? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly, in your own words and with the utmost care, 
recite the essence of any conversation or conversations which you held 
with him or which transpired in his presence. 

Mr. Prussion. The conversation took place on May 21, 1958, at a 
Commimist Party cell meeting in Palo Alto. Attending tliat cell 
meeting were Michael Shapovalov, Esther Shapovalov, myself, Doris 
Dawson, Gertrude Adler, INIary Field, and Sara Alchermes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you repeat that and raise your voice, please? 

Mr. Prussion. On May 21, 10r»8, at a Palo Alto cell meeting of the 
Comnumist Party, which was attended by Michael Shapovalov, my- 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2125 

self, Doris Dawson, Gortnide Adler, ]\Iary Field, Sara Alchermes, 
Alary Wilson, Elizabeth Nicholas, and Isaac FolkolL 

Mr, Ross, durinij: the usual educational period, as is had at all cell 
ineetinjxs, was the leader of discussion on the subject "The Next Step," 
by Lenin. Ed Koss at tliat time stated 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute, Mr. Chairman. The Witness Ross is 
seated there shaking his head at the statements made by Mr. Pnis- 
sion. 

Have any of the statements which Air. Prussion has made up to 
this point, at which you are shakinir your head, been untrue? 

Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to answer my 
question. 

Mr. Ross. Sir, I have to respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the same reason that I have declined to answer the previous 
question. 

Air. SciiERER. You were sitting there shaking your head "no" to 
ahuost every statement he made. 

Air. Ross. I have a right to do that. 

Air. ScHERER. I understand you have a right to do it, but I wanted 
to give you an opportunity to say whether any statement he made up 
to this point was untrue. You refused to answer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Air. Prussiox. Air. Ross at that time was extremely active in the 
South Palo Alto, Stanford, and Los Altos Democratic Clubs, princi- 
pally the California Democratic clubs. 

Mr. Arens. By that time, you mean Alay 21, 1958 ? 

Air. Prttssion. That is correct. Everybody at the meeting had to 
describe their activities during the past month period. Air. Ross de- 
scribed his activities within the Democratic Party and described them 
as very successful, functioning A'ery properly, and he also stated that 
he knew when missiles were fired, and I will quote "types of missiles 
and where and what direction they are fired." He did not give any 
more detail. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWAED ROSS— Resumed 

Air. Arens. Air. Ross, you have heard the statement there by Mr. 
Prussion. Is there any item of information in any degree which is 
in error or which you care to deny ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Air. Ross. Sir, I think at this point I will have to again refuse to an- 
swer your question for the same reasons I have declined to answer 
the previous questions. 

Air. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Air. Ross. Sir, I will have to again decline to give you an answer 
to this question for the same reasons as I gave before to the previous 
questions. 

Air. Arens. Air. Chairman, I respectfully suggest this witness be 
maintained under his subpena, subject to further direction of this 
committee as to a time and place for further appearance, but that he 
be temporarily excused from attendance upon these hearings during 
our stay in San Francisco. 

56597— 60— pt. 3 4 



2126 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Willis. That is the order of the Chair. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Ross, as a result of the contacts you had with 
plants engaged in the manufacture of missiles, did you obtain any 
information which you passed on to anybody in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Ross. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
same reasons that I have given on previous questions concerning this 
particular end. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. By excused, Mr. Chairman, you mean, of course, ex- 
cused from immediate attendance. 

Mr. Willis. Excused at this time, but he is under continuing 
subpena. 

Mr. Ross. Thank you. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will take a 15-minute recess. 

(Members of the subcommittee present at the taking of the recess : 
Representatives Willis, Johansen, and Sclierer.) 

(At the expiration of the recess, the following members of the 
subcommittee were present: Representatives Willis and Johansen.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Arens, call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Ruben Venger, please come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Venger. I do. 

Mr. Andersen. Mr. Arens, for the benefit of other counsel, would 
it be possible to announce the order of the witnesses ? Some of them 
would like to go out and get a bite to eat, if they have time. 

Mr. Arens, May I suggest this: that it is our present intention 
to call Mr. Ruben Venger, who is now here, and then pursuant to 
your request to call Mr. Ralph Izard. Then we had in mind calling 
William Reich. Then we were going to call Mr. Lafferty. Then 
we were going to resume with Mr. Prussion for a short while. 

So Counsel, those who would like to absent themselves to get a bite to 
eat now have an idea of what our intentions are. 

From the Floor. May I inquire whether the list of witnesses just 
announced by Mr. Arens will represent all the witnesses? 

Mr. Arens. No ; I was just giving the next few. 

Mr. Willis. Please proceed, Mr. Arens. 

TESTIMONY OF RTJBEN VENGER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

GEORGE R. ANDERSEN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Venger. My name is Ruben Venger. I live at 420 West Rail- 
road Avenue, Cotati, Calif. My occupation was a tailor all the 
time. Then I went chicken and poultry ranching. Now, thanks to 
the administration, I had to go back to tailoring. 

(At this point Representative Scherer entered the hearing room.) 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2127 

Mr. Arens, You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 
Mr. Venger. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 
ISIr. Venger. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 
Mr. Andersen. George Andersen. 
Mr. Arens. Where were you born, Mr. Venger ? 
Mr. Venger. In old czarist Russia. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for permanent 
residence ? 

Mr. Venger. 1912. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 
Mr. Venger. At 21 years of age I became a citizen of the United 
States. 

Mr. Arens. By naturalization or derivation ? 
Mr. Venger. Naturalization ; of my own free will. 
Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of William Kimple ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

lilr. Venger. I don't think I want to talk about anybody else ex- 
cept myself. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell us about yourself. Are you now a Commu- 
nist Party functionary in Sonoma County, in northern California? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Venger. I refuse to answer that on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. William Kimple appeared before this conamittee 
and swore that he knew you as a member of the Communist Party. 
Was Mr. Kimple in error in that identification of you in that capacity ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Venger. I give the same answer as I previously stated. 
Mr. Arens. Do you have any mcome other than the income from 
the occupation which you described a moment ago as your occupation ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Venger. I don't think it is any oi your business to know of 
those incomes. 

Mr. Arens. We are not concerned 

Mr. Scherer. Just a moment. 

I ask that you direct the witness to answer the question. 
Mr. Willis. The witness is directed to answer the question. 
Mr. Scherer. It is certainly our business if it comes from the Com- 
munist Party. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Venger. The same as I previously stated. 
Mr. Scherer. Do you mean you refuse to answer ? 
Mr. Venger. I refuse on the same grounds as I previously stated. 
Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Commimist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Venger. I give you the same — I refuse to answer on the same 
ground as I previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that will conclude the staff in- 
terrogation of this witness. 



2128 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 
t 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. Ralph Izard, please come forward and remain stand- 
ing while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Izard. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF RALPH IZARD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

GEORGE R. ANDERSEN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify youi-self by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Izard. My name is Ralph Izard. I live at 1335-A Columbus 
Avenue, San Francisco. I am a writer and a student. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Izard. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

(The witness confen^ed with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. I should think that the committee would loiow the 
answer to that question. 

jNIr. Willis. Let me explain it to you. I would think that you 
would want that question asked. In other words, you did not come 
here voluntarily, you have been subpenaed, and we want the record 
to reflect that. 

Mr. Izard. I would never be on hand here voluntarily. 

Mr. Willis. It is a proper question. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us if you are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Izard. I am represented by able counsel who, unfortmiately, is 
unable to speak up and represent me as I would like to be represented. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify j'^ourself for this 
record ? 

Mr. Andersen. My name is George Andersen. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Chicago, 111., the 19th of November 1905. 

Mr. Arens. And a word, please, about your education? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel) 

Mr. Izard. Education is a broad term. My education is still going 
on. I have had a very fine education the last 3 days here. 

Mr. Arens. We are speaking about your formal education. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the Chair again admon- 
ish those who are in attendance that we insist upon proper decoiiim. 

Mr. Willis. I think the audience understands that very well. I 
plead with them to respe<?t the rule. We will have to enforce it. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us a word, sir, respecting your fomial edu- 
cation. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. I atteiidcMl kindergarten and, to the be,st of my recol- 
lection, the lii-st grade in Chicago. 1 believe I attended another kin- 
dergarten in Flint, ]Mich. By the time I arrived in Lakewood, Oliio, 



COROrUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2129 

I think I was in the second grade. My nieniory fails mo on this point, 
but at the time I went there to be with my motlier, so she would be a 
better check on this than I am. 

I iinislied my lower, my element aiy schooling, in the schools of 
Lakewood, Ohio, and with one gap, attended straight through them, 
junior high school and high school, in Lakewood, Ohio. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education? 

(Tlie witness conferred Avith his counsel.) 

^h\ IzAKD. Yes. I went to college. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly give use a word on that, please, sir. 

Mr. Izard. Which word do you want, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the query. 

Mr. Izard. I don't understand the query. He asked me for a word. 

Mr. Arens. You don't understand what I am asking you ? 

Mr, Izard. No, I don't. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend college ? 

Mr. Izard. I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What college did you attend ? 

Mr. Izard. The University of Wisconsin. 

Mr. Arens. "Wlien did you attend the University of Wisconsin? 

Mr. Izard. From the autumn of 1925 until my graduation in the 
spring of 1929. 

Mr. Arens. What degree, if any, did you receive from the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin ? 

Mr. Izard. The usual academic degree, AB, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Did that then complete your formal education ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. To the best of my recollection, yes. The committee may 
have other interpretations on it. 

Mr. AiiENS. How long have you been living in California? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Izard. Since 1948, sir. 

Mr. AnENS. Have you, in the course of the last 5 years, traveled 
abroad ? 

(The w^itness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Please repeat the question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of the last 5 years, traveled 
abroad ? 

Mr. Izard. Will you name the interval that you mean by the last 5 
years ? 

Mr. Arens. Five years prior to today. 

(The witness conferred w^ith his comisel.) 

Mr. Izard. I take it you mean May of 1955 to May of 1960 ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Izard. No, I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you traveled abroad in the course of the last 6 or 
7 years? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Iz.vRD. Will you repeat the question, sir? I am sorry, I am 
a little 

Mr. Arens. Have you traveled abroad in the course of the last 6 or 
7 years? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



2130 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Izard. Well, I think I have been to Ensenada, Mexico, on a va- 
cation. 
Mr. Arens. Have you traveled to India and the Far East ? 
Mr. Izard. Several times, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time did you make these several 
journeys to the Far East? 
Mr. Izard. 1946-47 and 1950. 
Mr. Arens. 'Where did you go in 1950 ? 

Mr. Izard. This will require some consultation, if counsel will excuse 
me for a moment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Yes, Mr. Arens, I think your question was where I went ? 
Mr. Arens. Yes, please, sir. 

Mr. Izard. My ship took me first to Yokohama and from there I 
went to Tokyo for several days while the ship was tied up, and then 
from Yokohama to Manila for several days ; to Cebu City for another 
day, back to Manila for a few hours, then direct to Hong Kong, where 
I stayed 15 days, after which I went to Macao. 

From Macao I went to Chung-shan. From Chimg-shan I went to 
Yangshuo, from Yangshuo to Wuhan. 

Mr. Arens. Would you hesitate to inform one who is unenlight- 
ened, are these places which you are now describing within the confines 
of Ked China? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Does the counsel mean the People's Republic of China ? 
Mr. Arens. Well, it is not the same terminology. You use one ter- 
minology and I use another. We will accept your terminology for the 
purpose of this query only. Yes. 

Mr. Izard. Well, you see, at Macao, Macao used to be an island, 
and in the old days when the countries of the world did what they 
wanted, to loot China, Macao was owned by the Portuguese, and it is 
still a Portuguese entry port, although the harbor is silted up to about 
6 feet and it nas no real economic significance any more. Its only real 
economic significance, and the only reason it is able to sustain life, 
is a causeway about 6 miles in length, which connects it with the Chi- 
nese mainland and from where rice 

Mr.^ Scherer. Mr. Chairman, this is just a smart-aleck answer by 

the witness. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. The question is : Are these places you named 

within the territory of the 

Mr. Andersen. He was explaining that Macao is Portuguese. That 
is what he was explaining. 

Mr. Arens. Go ahead, please, sir. 

Mr. Izard. Well, if I have Mr. Scherer's permission, I will go ahead. 
I don't want to go ahead without the consent of the full committee. 
Mr. Scherer, I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tions. Are any of the places he mentioned in Red China? 

Mr, Andersen. If there is a question before the witness, I want it 
repeated, so my client knows Avhere he stands, 

Mr. Arens. The essence of the question or thought which is intended 
to be conveyed to any reasonably receptive mind is : Are the cities or 
places that you have been describing Avithin the mainland of China, 
which we characterize as "Red China" and which you have charac- 
terized as "The People's Republic of China"? 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2131 

Mr. IzARo. Cliung-slian is the birtlipliice of Sun Yat-sen, known as 
the George Washington of China, the Father of his Country. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, would you continue your description 

Mr. SciiERER. He has not answered the question. I ask that you 
direct tlie witness to answer the question. 

Mr. AViLLis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. IzAKD. Honorable Member Willis, I am at a loss as to what to 
answer. Mr. Scherer has totally confused me. 

Mr. Arens. We will "unconf use" you and start over. 

Are these cities, these places that you have described, in Red China, 
or are they not in Red China? 

Mr. Izard. Macao is in China. It is part of China. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. Now would you ^o on and tell us 
the other places where you traveled in this journey in 1950? 

Mr. Izard. But it is Portuguese occupied. Hong Kong is China. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly proceed. 

Mr. Izard. From Chung-shan, which, as I say, is the birthplace of 
Sun Yat-sen, famous throughout China for that reason, I went to 
Yangshuo, by riverboat. 

At Yangshuo, after a wait of about a week, I boarded a train, a 
special tram, bound for Peking, which is usually called mistakenly, 
Peiping. Peking means "northern capital," and Peiping means 
"northern peace." 

Mr. Arens. Now we are for a certainly in Red China ? 

Mr. Izard. Yes. This train carried people of the Chinese political 
consultative peoples, a mouthful in English, shorter in Chinese, 
bound for the second session of that congress of the Chinese people. 
So we had the red-carpet treatment all the w^ay from Yangshuo to 
Peking. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Could you, in summary form, tell us where else you 
went on this trip in 1950 ? 

Mr. Izard. I looked briefly on Mukden and Tientsin. In Tientsin I 
was about a month there. 

Mr. Arens. May I suggest you might move that microphone a little 
closer to you? 

Mr. Izard. I would have to put it my lap. Is that better ? 

Mr. Arens. That is better. Thank you, sir. 

Did that conclude your trip or did you go someplace else before you 
returned ? 

Mr. Izard. No, sir. 

^ Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us in summary form the prin- 
cipal other places where you went? 

Mr. Izard. From Tientsin to Otaru, on the Island of Hokkaido, and 
from Otaru into Sapporo, which is the main city on the Island of 
Hokkaido, back to Otaru again, and then to the port of San Francisco. 

Mr. Ajiens. Did you travel on a United States passport ? 

Mr. Izard. I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did the passport have a provision prohibiting travel 
on that passport in Red China? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a visa for admission into Red China ? 



2132 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Izard. Sir, it is impossible to get visas from countries which 
are not recognized by my own country. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have travel documents for travel in Red 
China? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. No, sir. I just went to China ; that is all. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have prearranged plans, make prearrange- 
ments on your trip ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. No, sir, I did not. That is why I had to wait in Hong 
Kong and then wait again in Macao. 

Mr. Arens. Whom did you contact in Hong Kong to make ar' 
rangements for your admission into Eed China? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. How do you mean "Who did I contact ?" I don't under- 
stand. 

Mr. Arens. Did you contact someone to make arrangements for you 
to be admitted into China, Red China ? 

Mr. Izard. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Who was that person ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. I talked to a Chinese news agency in Hong Kong. 

Mr. Arens. Did you identify yourself to that news agency ? 

Mr. Izard. I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And did you pay a sum of money to that news agency 
for the service and accommodations to be rendered to you in order to 
let you travel in Red China ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. I can't recall the amount of the expenditure, sir, but I 
spent some money, but how much, I don't know what it was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you pay all of your expenses in Red China? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Or were you in any sense a guest of some person, gi'oup, 
or organization ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Will you repeat that question, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you pay all of your expenses personally on your 
trip into and through Red China, or were your expenses, on the other 
hand, paid by some other person, group, or organization? 

(The witness conferred witli his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. I misplaced my books tliat I may have kept of the actual 
expenditures at tliat time, but it seems to me this is very minute 
and piddling information on my financial status at the time, which I 
have no record of any more. That, after all, is 10 years ago, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you the guest of the Red Chinese Government? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Yes, sir. My passage to Peking, Peiping, I was a guest 
of the Chinese Government. 

Mr. Arens. I am going to come back to that in a minute, but I have 
to back up for just a moment. 

Wlien you filed your application for a U.S. passport to travel as a 
U.S. citizen abroad, did you, in your passport application, indicate 
to your Government, or that agency of the Government known as the 



COIVCMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2133 

State Departnu'iit, (hat you intoiided in llial trip which you proposed 
to tiike to travel in Ked China, or was that just as, you might say, an 
after! houiiht? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IzAKi). I annoiuiced my intention of iroing to East Asia. 

Mr. Akexs. Now would you kindly answer the question? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IzAKD. 1 tliought I had, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, on your passport application, tell the Depart- 
ment of State that you proposed and intended to go to Ked China ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. But I had no such intention when I left here. 

Mr. Arens. "When did this intention formulate itself in your mind, 
to go to Red China ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. When I found out that I could get into the country with 
some ease and that there were no other Western newsmen there and 
that I would have a free field. 

Mr. Arens. Who is it on behalf of the Eed Chinese regime that 
extended to you the first indication of hospitality or acceptability of 
yourself into that area ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. I am sorry, I don't know — I never did know his name. 

Mr. Arens. Then you just walked into Eed China, got on a train, 
and went in ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Izard. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell us, in your own words, please, sir, man to man, 
how you got into Red China. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\fr. Izard. Let's drop the man-to-man appeal, INIr. Arens. I know 
I am speaking as a man — I speak for myself. 

Mr. Arens. That is a colloquialism, and you know it, sir. 

Now, kindly tell us when and how you first received word that you 
were to be a guest of the Red Chinese regime. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. So far as I know, this news agency that I mentioned to 
you paid for it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you reveal to the news agency that you were then a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness confererd with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. In answer to your question, the committee is running 
true to form. It has already defamed, befouled, and brutalized the 
city of St. Francis. 

I seek by use of the citizens' shield of the Republic, the fifth amend- 
ment, the same as you, Mr. Arens, sought it yesterday when you were 
not even under oath, but you were asked whether you were subsidized 
by a racist propagandist, and you refused to say whether you were 
or were not. You refused either to confirm or to deny that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Izard, you certainly wouldn't suggest, you of all 
people, guilt by association ? 

Mr. Izard. No, I suggest 

Mr. Akens. Would you kindly proceed with your response? 

Mr. Izard. I already have responded to you, sir. 



2134 COMMUNIST PARTY — ^NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Ahens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest this witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. AViLLis. You are ordered to answer the question. We have 
given you too much time already. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. I avail myself of the first amendment, which you have 
already trampled upon, and I avail myself also of that citizen's 
shield of the Eepublic, the privilei^e of not being forced to testify 
against myself, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. A very fine speech, coming from a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, sir, have conferences with representatives of 
the Red China regime in the course of your sojourns in 1950 in that 
country ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Well, I couldn't certainly be in the city of Peking, which 
is a city of some millions of people, and not talk with somebody, and 
I did talk to the vice mayor of the city. 

Mr. Arens. Did you talk with the Propaganda Ministry repre- 
sentatives in Eed China ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Not to my knowledge, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Did you acquire information in Red China which you 
subsequently used in your writings and in your lecturing back in the 
United States of America ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Mr. Willis, there seems to be a slight misunderstanding 
in the question. There is some gradation of meaning there. Will you 
repeat it, please ? 

Mr. Willis. You have been referring to Mr. Arens as Mr. Willis, 
I believe. 

Mr. Izard. Excuse me. Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you acquire information there which you subse- 
quently used in lectures and writmgs here on American soil, in tliis 
free country ? 

JMr. Izard. Yes, I think I did — Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was that one of the reasons why you traveled through 
Red China, to acquire information that you could use as a basis for 
your lectures and writings in the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Yes, that is one reason. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vhile you were there, did it occur to you to inquire, 
and did you inquire, respecting the commune system in Red China? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Sir, you jumped the gun by 8 years. 

Mr. Arens. ^^Hiile you were there, did you make inquiry respecting 
the emasculation, the crucifixion, of the Christian missionaries who 
had been teaching in Red China ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. You must have visited China more extensively than 
I did, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question, sir. 

Mr. Izard. Nothing of that kind ever happened, to my Icnowledge, 
that I know about. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2135 

Mr. Arexs. "Wliile you were there, did you make inquiries respecting 
the conipU^te obliteration, murder, of the some 12 to 20 million peo- 
ple by the l\ed China regime in its ascendancy to power on that 
continent? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, IzAKD. No, sir. What I was asked about was the obliteration 
of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 

Mr. Akexs. Wliile you were there in Eed China, did you acquire 
any information — I was going to ask you if you acquired any informa- 
tion that you could use in the interests of your Government in defend- 
ing itself against the onrush of that Communist regime, but that w^ould 
be a ridiculous question in "view of the status of the record. 

Now, sir, after you came back to the United States, did you address 
certain groups and organizations on the subject of your findings and 
the subject of your trip to Red China ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

INIr. Izard. Yes, sir, I spoke from Bellingham, Washington, to San 
Diego, along the coast here. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. xirens, the witness indicated, if I remember the 
testimony correctly, that when he went into Red China, he went in as 
a newspaperman. Am I correct that that was his statement? 

Mr. Arens. That is the way I interpret his testimony, at the invita- 
tion and as a guest of this terror regime ; yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, were you employed by anyone when you 
went into Red China ? 

Mr. Izard. I had some understandings that my pieces would be 
bought, but as for regular employment, no, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were a freelance newsman or writer or journalist 
at that time ? 

Mr. Izard. That is correct, sir. Journalists only earn $25,000 a 
year or more, so I was a freelance. 

Mr. Arens. Did you then subsequently sell your stories about the 
situation in Red China to certain of the news outlets in this country? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. If you will be kind enough to repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you subsequently sell to certain news outlets in this 
country, your stories, your pieces, your articles? 

Mr. Izard. Yes, sir ; I sold some here and abroad. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us what news outlets here carried your 
material respecting the situation there as you viewed it ? 

]\[r. Izard. The newspaper "The People's World'' here on the Pacific 
Coast, which was then a daily paper, and Telepress News Agency in 
London. 

IMr. Arens. May I ask, in passing, have you also, or were you also 
during the war a correspondent for Yank magazine ? 

Mr. Izard. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. AYere you at that time a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. My answer is the same as it was, the shield of the Re- 
public still stands, despite all your work. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time did you continue your lectur- 
ing respecting the People's RepubMc and the regmie there, as you 
viewed it, when you took this trip ? 



2136 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Izard. I should say, sir, until it became old hat, you know, 
passe information. 

Mr. Arexs. I meant from the standpoint of chronology. You be- 
gan your speaking about what time ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arexs. About what year did you begin this lecturing around 
the countiy ? 

Mr. Izard. I began on my return from China. 

Mr. Arexs. Let's get that year down. 

Mr. Izard. 1950, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. How long did you continue in that vehi ? 

Mr. Izard. Well, I continued lecturing that way mitil, as I said, it 
became passe information, about 1953 or so. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you doing this lecturing during the Korean war? 

Mr. Izard. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you doing this lecturing about the People's Re- 
public of China and wdiat you beheld there, at the time the Red 
Chinese armies attacked the boys who were defending this Nation, 
lighting under the flag of this Government, in Soutli Korea? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Yes, I was doing it until about 1953 ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. And did you express to the groups and organizations 
that were listening to you, the indignation, any indignation, respecting 
the atrocities committed against our soldiers in South Korea by the 
Red Chinese? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Mr. Counsel, Mr. Arens, everything I said or wrote is a 
matter of public record. One of your FBI boys had his microphones 
planted in a Christmas tree when I spoke m Pasadena. The Christ- 
mas tree was right beside the speaker's platform. So they must have 
a record of all of this. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Izard. Will you please repeat the question, Mr. Arens? I have 
lost sight of it in the long colloquy of it. 

Mr. Arexs. I will strike the question. 

Are you now", at this instant, one of the propagandists for the Com- 
munist conspiracy in northern California ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. I avail myself of the same bright and shining shield of 
the Republic, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a delegate (o the ITtli National Convention of 
I ho Connnunist Party, a delegate from California to the l7th Na- 
tional Convention of the Communist Partj^ in New York City? 

Mr. Izard. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. That was December 1959. 

Mr. SciiERER. Does the record show that he was, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes. That is in the record. 

Yes, on Thursday, Mr. Schercr, when the delegates were included in 
the record, obtained from unimpoarhiil^lo, confidential sources. 

Do you know a person by the name of Charles Blodgett? 

Mr. Izard. The same answer, sir. 



COIMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2137 

^fr. Akexs. Cliarlos l^loduett took an oalh bol'oiv this coinniittee, 
and swore, in lOaJ) that lie knew you, sir, to be a hard-core member 
of (he i'onsj)iratorial force wliich operates on American soil behind 
the fai'ade of the Connuunist Parly. Was he in error or was he tellint^ 
the truth when he swore that to this committee? 
(The witnesses conferred with his counsel.) 

'Mr. TzARD. I will still stand on the fifth amendmeni, although I 
would like to swear at, rather than with, this committee. 

Mr. Arens. AYe understand that. 

Do you know a man by the name of Archie Brown ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You were his campaign manager here, were you not, 
Avhen he decided to sacrifice himself on the "altar of public service" 
and run for some public office— I believe, supervisor, which meets in 
the room in which we are now assembled ; isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Izard. The same answer, sir. 

^Ir. Arens. We would like to display to you a thermofax reproduc- 
tion of a letter by the Committee to Elect Archie Brown to the Board 
of Supervisors, in which the recipient of this letter, addressed as "Dear 
Friend," is urged to make contributions for this campaign. It is 
signed: "Yours for electing Archie Brown, Kalph Izard, Campaign 
^Igr." 

Kindly look at this document which Mr. Wheeler will now display 
to you, and tell this committee whether that is a true and correct repro- 
duction of a document which was passed out by yourself over this 
community. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. It seems to be a well-written document, sir, but the 
answer is the same. 

(Document marked "Izard Exhibit No. 1" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you write the document ? 

Mr. Izard. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Now I display to you a thermofax reproduction of an 
advertisement appearing in the San Francisco Chronicle — 

I will withdraw that. 

Since you were subpenaed to appear before this committee, have 
you been in session with people known by you to be members of the 
Communist Party, respecting a concerted course of action to be taken 
by people who have been subpenaed to appear before this committee 
in this series of sessions here in San Francisco ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. I hope this is growing as wearisome to you as it is to me, 
but the answer is the same. 

Mr. Arexs. Yes, sir, over the course of many years you would be 
surprised how frustrating and wearisome it gets to usl! 

Have you been in session with international Communist agent, 
Frank Wilkinson, in the course of the last week to 10 days, respecting 
a course of action to be taken to stimulate and to incite to riot these 
young people who have been in session in this courthouse, in this 
City Hall, and around the City Hall, the last few days. 



2138 coMMuisrisT party — ^northern California district 

Mr. Izard. In answer to your question, sir, the temper of the com- 
mittee was revealed in all its hideous clarity in yesterday's events. 
The answer is the same. 

Mr. ScHKRER. Mr. Chairman, I request that you direct the witness 
to answer (lie question. 

Mr. WiLi-iR. You are directed to answer the (question. 

Mr. Izard. Tlie answer is the same, the bright and shining shield 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. WiLiJS. Next question. 

Mr. Arens. I just want to be sure the record is clear on one 
question. 

Are you now, at this instant, a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard, The answer is the same, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that this will conclude the staff 
interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Scherer. Let us not leave that "the same." Does he decline 
to answer for the same reasons ? 

Mr. Will-is. You are directed to answer the last question. 

Mr. Izard. I will accept Mr. Scherer's kindly offered amendment. 

Mr. Willis. It must come from your lips. 

Mr. Izard. It must come from my lips, did you say ? Yes, the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Do you mean you decline to answer ? 

Mr. Izard. I decline to answer on the grounds that I am not com- 
pelled to bear witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a participant in the incitement of the 
riotous conduct which has been witnessed here in the course of the 
last 2 or o days of our committee sessions? 

Mr. Izard. I charge this committee with inciting that what hap- 
pened yesterday. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the wit- 
ness now be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Izard. I stand on the first amendment, and I stand on my 
rights not to be a witness against myself. I charge this committee 
wit.li guilty responsibility in yesterday's events. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Izard. Oh. a fellow Ohioan. 

Mr. ScTiERER. Have you ever received anything of value, either 
directly or indirectly, from the Communist apparatus for your known 
service to the Communist cause? 

Mr. Izard. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. SciiERER. The fact is, Witness, and I ask you to affirm or deny 
it, that you are a paid agent of the Communist apparatus in the 
United States. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Izard. Tlie answer remains the same, sir. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. SciiwiER. Now we Imow how the riots started, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the next witness is AVilliam Reich. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2139 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. A\'iLLis. Please raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God^ 

Mr. IIeich. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM REICH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

NOEMAN HOWARD 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Eeicii. My name is William Eeich. I live at 7G15 Sunkist 
Drive, Oakland, California. By occupation I am an ex-teacher. At 
present I am engaged in journalism and research, only part time, 
however, since I suffered an attack of spinal meningitis in 1953. I 
also raise Bedlingtons. The Bedlington is a dog. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee 'i 

Mr. Ketch. Yes. And I would like to inform this committee how 
the subpena server violated Federal law in serving this subpena, since 
this person who served the subpena posed as 

Mr. WiLXiis. Well, you responded to it. Proceed. 

Mr. Reich. I wish to point out that the person who served this 
subpena posed as a census taker to gain admittance to my home, which 
is a clear violation of Federal law^, which I have taken up with proper 
authorities. 

Mr. Wiixis. Good. I think you should. 

Mr. Arexs. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Reich. I am. 

Mr. Arexs. Counsel, kindlj^ identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Howard. Norman Howard, San Jose, Calif. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a person by the name of Charles Blodgett, 
Mr. Reich ? 

Mr. Reich. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Arexs. David Blodgett. 

Mr. Reich. I don't recall any such person. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a person by the name of Lloyd Hamlin ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

ilr. Reich. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arexs. We would like to display to you now a photostatic 
reproduction of a letter on the letterhead of the 8th Congressional 
District Democratic Council, 7615 Sunkist Drive, Oakland 5, Calif., 
addressed to District Attorney J. Frank Coakley, Oakland, Calif. I 
want to read this. 

Deae Mb. Coaexet. The enclosed resolution was adopted by the 8th Cod- 
gresslonal District Democratic Council on April 22. 

At the regular monthly meeting of the Council you were charged with en- 
couraging, aiding and abetting local school boards in Alameda County to harass 
teachers on the basis of flimsy, unchecked evidence in the House Un-American 
Activities Committee files, thereby jeopardizing the livelihood of the accused 
teachers. This despite the fact that Attorney General Stanley Mosk advised 
that the "evidence" submitted by the Committee be ignored. 



2140 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

We feel this is a serious charge, since such harassmeut constitutes violation 
of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the U.S. (persecution for per- 
sonal beliefs). Furthermore, civil rights are violated since teachers have been 
given no information regarding who made the accusations, and they are given 
no opportunity to confront their accnisers. 

Since we do not wisli to be guilty of the same unconstitutional and undemo- 
cratic procedure, we will give you an opportunity to confront your accusers, if 
you so desire, at our next meeting which will be held in San I^andro City 
Hall, Friday, May 27, at 8 P.M. 

Then there is accompanying this a resolution, on tlie face of wliich 
it indicates that it was passed by the 8th Congi-essional District Dem- 
ocratic Council. This letter of transmission is signed William Reich, 
Corresponding Secretary. 

Kindly look at this photostatic reproduction of this docmnent and 
tell this committee, first of all, if this is a true and correct repro- 
duction of a letter sent by you in the capacity of corresponding secre- 
tary of the 8th Congressional District Democratic Council to the 
Alameda County Courthouse, District Attorney Coakley, and sec- 
ondly, and most importantly, whether you made known to the mem- 
bers of the 8th Congressional District Democratic Council the fact 
that you were at the instant you were participating in this enterprise 
not a member of the Democratic Party in the concept we have in the 
free world, but were then at that instant a member of the Conununist 
Party. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 
(The witness conferi-ed with his counsel.) 

Mr. Reich. Mr. Chainnan, since I believe this committee has no 
right to inquire into my political associations and beliefs, I will take 
the first and fifth amendments and decline to answer that question. 

(Document marked "Reich Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee hies.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you on the date on which you signed this letter 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Reich. Again I will take the first and fifth amendments to 
decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. You weren't at all hesitant to reveal in the letter that 
you were then a member and corresponding secretary of the Congres- 
sional District Democratic Council, were you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Reich. Same answer. ]My political beliefs, I feel, are no busi- 
ness of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. You revealed your political beliefs in this letter, did 
you not? 

Mr. Reich. This letter was not sent to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. You realize that you are under oath now, sir ? 

Mr. Reich. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Is it your design and your intention, after you are re- 
lieved from the pains and penalties of ]ierjury, released by this com- 
mittee from your subpena, to return to the 8th Congressional District 
Democratic Council and say to those good people of tliat legitimate 
political organization, "Of course I am not a member of the Commu- 
nist Party, but I wasn't going to tell that witch-hunting, Fascist, Red- 
baiting, Constitution-destroying Connnittee on Un-American Activi- 
ties that I was or was not a member of the Communist Party"? 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2141 

Is that your intention or design ? 

]\rr. Rkk:h. ^Iv. Chairman, I will take my privilege under the first 
and lifth amendments to decline to answer that question. 

]Mr. Ahens. Are you, (liis very instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. IxEicir. Again I take my privilege under the first and fifth 
to decline to answer, 

Mr. Arexs. "Were you at one time what is known as a Trotskyite? 

Mr, Reich. Mr. Chairman, under the first and fifth amendments I 
refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. 1 would like to read to you a thermofax reproduction 
of an article ai)pearing in the Western Worker under date of March 
12, 1936. The headline of this article is "Johnson, Hallett, Reich 
Repudiate Trotzky," Trotsky, of course, being a one-time member of 
the Kremlin force but who fell out wdth Joe Stalin, and who subse- 
quently got a pickax in his head in Mexico, 

Warning their "Socialist comi*ade.s" against tlie introduction of Trotskyism 
into tlio ranks of the Socialists of America, three prominent leaders of the 
Trotskyite Workers Party have resigned from that group and have declared for 
the realistic program of the Communist Party of the U.S.A., and of the Com- 
munist International. 

Among those named is the following: "Bill Reich, educational di- 
rector of the Pennsylvania Unemployed League, who served 30 days 
in a Columbus, Ohio, jail for fighting evictions" — and then others. 

Are the facts which I have just read to you, or the statements which 
I have just read to you, a true and correct representation of the facts 
as they transpired and as they are revealed in this publication, the 
Western Worker, of March 12, 1936 ? 

Mr. Reich. May I see the document, please? 

Mr. Arens. Certainly. I apologize for not si lo wing it to you, 

(The document was handed to the witness,) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Reich, Mr. Chairman, exercising my rights under the first 
and fifth amendments, I decline to answer, 

(Document marked "Reich Exhibit No, 2" and retained in commit- 
tee files,) 

Mr. Arens, Aie you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Reich. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, although we had a number of other 
items we wanted to interrogate this man on, oi- thought we might 
wan! to interrogate him on, in view of the time situation and other ele- 
ments, I respectfully suggest that will conclude the staif interrogation 
of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Out of consideration for the reporter, we will take a brief recess. 

(Members of the subcommittee present at the taking of the recess: 
Representatives Willis, Johansen, and Scherer.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at time of reconvening: 
Re])i-espntatives Willis, Johansen, and Scherer.) 

Mr. "Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. Mr. Arens, call 
your next witness. 



56597— 60— pt. 3- 



2142 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. Ralph Johnsen, kindly come forward and remain 
standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

Ralph Johnsen ? 

Mr, Wheeler, would you please see that he is paged ? 

Mr. Johnsen, please come forward and remain standing while the 
chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Johnsen. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RALPH (KENNETH) JOHNSEN, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, ALBERT M. BENDICH 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself my name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Johnsen. My name is Ralph Johnsen. I reside at 1920-A 
Grant Street, Berkeley. I am a machinist. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Johnsen. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Johnsen. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Bendich. Albert M. Bendich, staff counsel, American Civil 
Liberties Union of Northern California. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Johnsen, were you previously employed as a school- 
teacher ? 

Mr. Johnsen. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And did you resign your employment as a school- 
teacher? 

Mr. Johnsen. Yes, I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And what precipitated your resignation as a school- 
teacher ? 

Mr. Johnsen. Would you clarify that question as to time, sir? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. I can give you the approximate time. October 
24 or thereabouts, 1950 ? 

Mr. Johnsen. That is correct. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us what precipitated your resignation. 

Mr. Johnsen. I derided to resign as a probationary teacher at the 
Tompkins School in Oakland. 

Mr. Arens. Would you get closer to the microphone or keep your 
voice up, please? 

Mr. Johnsen. I resigned in protest against the recently passed 
T^evering Act. 

Mr. Ahens. That was an act that was passed in or about that period 
of your resignation ; is that correct? 

Mr. Johnsen. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Sliortly prior to your resignation ? 

Mr. Johnsen. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And the act required signing a loyalty affidavit as a 
prerequisite to obtaining credentials ; is that correct? 

Mr. Johnsen. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2143 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. Was that a statute of the State of California? 

Mr. JoiiNSEN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Areks. Did you thereafter change your mind about your sUtus 
as a then schoolteacher? 

Mr. JoiiNSEN. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you thereafter decide that you would sigii the 
loyalty oath? 

Mr. JoiiNSEN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And did you thereafter sign a loyalty oath? 

Mr. JoHNSEN. Yes, sir; I did. 

Mr. Arens. xVre you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
C^onnnunist Party? 

(The witness conferred witli his counsel.) 

Mr. JoiiNSEN. I am not now a member of tlie Communist Party. 

Mr, Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. JoiiNSEN. I would lilve to invoke my privilege under the first 
and fifth amendments and refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Were 3^ou a member of the Communist Party at the 
time 3'ou first refused to sign the loyalty oath? 

Mr. Johnsen. I must invoke my right under the liflh amendment 
to refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a technical member of the Communist Party 
as of the time you did subsequently sign the loyalty oath ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JoiiNSEN. What do you mean by "teclmical" ? 

Mr. Arens. We will eliminate the word "technical" for the moment. 
Were you a member of the Communist Party when you did sign the 
loyalty oath? 

Mr. JoHNSEN. No, sir ; I was not. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, your status of not being a member of 
the Communist Party was tlie status acquired after the period in which 
you refused to sign the loyalty oath and before you did sign the loyalty 
oath ; is that correct ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Johnsen. I don't know what time you are referring to in that 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Well, we will have to be specific, then, from the affidavit, 
itself. December of 1958 you signed the loyalty oath, did you not? 

Mr. JoiiNSEN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And as of that instant you were not then a member of 
the Communist Party; is that correct? 

Mr. JoiiNSEN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, on September 17, 1958, did you sign a statement 
which reads as follows : 

To Whom It May Concern: 

In regard to iny answer under item Il.b Professional conduct: I have the 
following to say. 

In the fall of 19,50 I was employed as an elementary school teacher in the 
Oaliland School District. Shortly after I began to teach, a new requirement 
was made of all State employees; namely, the signing of an additional affidavit 
of loyalty contained in the Levering Act. I refused to sign and subsequently 
resigned from the school system, 

A number of factors were involved in my refusal to sign. I felt that insuf- 
ficient thought had been given to the bill as passed by the legislature. I felt 
that it contributed to an atmosphere of hysteria and that in a sense it was 



2144 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

intimidation to ask State employees to further swear and affirm their political 
aflSliations. On the other hand I sympathized with those who opposed the new 
loyalty affidavit so I chose to resign in protest. 

Since that time I have had cause to reflect and thouj^h I still disagree with 
the philosophy of the law ; nevertheless, I believe it was an error on my part 
to sacrifice a teaching career for such a vain i^rotest. I believe also that resig- 
nation with such short notice works an unusual hardship on any school system 
and that I gave insufficient consideration to this factor in my action. 

I do not want to any longer dLsipialify myself from teaching in this state 
and I therefore state that I will sign the oaths and affidavits as required by 
school systems in which I may apply in the future. 

I hope that my credential will be renewed and that I can resume status as 
a teacher in the public schools of this state. 

Is that a correct reading of a statement signed by yourself, Ralph K. 
Johnsen, on September 17, 1958 ? 

(The document was handed to llie witness.) 

Mr. JoiiNSEN. Yes, sir. 

(Document marked "Ralpli Johnsen Exhibit No. 1" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. x\rens. In this statement you say that certain things liave inter- 
vened since then, "A number of factors were involved in my refusal 
to sign." 

Was there any factor involved in your refusal to sign the loyalty 
affidavit prior to September 17, 1958, which you lune not revealed in 
tliis statement "To Whom It May (^oncern" ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Joi[NSEN. May I have clarification on that ? 

Mr, Arens. Yes. Perhaps it isn't clear. 

In your statement which you signed on September 17, 1958, you are 
giving an explanation as to why you refused to sign the loyalty oath 
prior to that date. In this letter of explanation, you say the reason 
whv vou refused to sign was that von didn't want to contribute to 
hysteria, that you didn't agree witli the concepts of the law, and it 
was all intimidation, and that you therefore chose to resign in protest. 

I am just asking you if there might have been some other element 
which contributed to your refusal to sign the loyalty affidavit which 
you didn't reveal in this statement. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnsen. I can say that those are the only things that moti- 
vated me. 

INIr. Arexs. Were you a member of the Connnunist Party at the 
time you resigned and refused to sign tlie loyalty affidavit ? 

Mr. JoiiNSEx. I stand on my constitutional rights and refuse to 
answer that quesi ion, sir; the fifth amondmonl. 

Mr. Arens. Did you resign membership in (he Connnunist Party 
after you refused to sign the loyalty oath and before you did sign the 
loyalty oath on December 18, 1958 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnsen, 1 would like to refuse to answer that qut'slion. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that will conclude the staff in- 
terrogation of this witness. 

Mr. WiLiJS. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr, Arens. The next witness, please, Mr. Oiainuan, will be Doris 
Dawson. 



COMJVIUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2145 

Please come forward and leinaiii standing while the chairman ad- 
minisioi's an oath. 

Mr. AViLLis. IMease raise your ri<j,h( hand. Do you solenudy swear 
that the (estinioiiy you are al)out to liive will be the truth, the whole 
trutli, and nothing hut the tiuth, so help you God? 

Mi-s. Dawson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DORIS DAWSON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH F. LEWIS 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mrs. Dawsox. My name is Doris Dawson. I live iii Los Altos, and 
I am a housewife. 

jSIr. Arens. You are appearing today m response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mrs. Dawson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by coimsel ? 

Mi's. Dawson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Lew^s. Joseph F. Lewis. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in these parts, please, Mrs. 
Dawson ? 

JSIi-s. Daw^son. About 12 years. 

JSIr. Akens. Have you been president of the Palo Alto Peace Club ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

]Mrs. Dawson. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of 
the fii'st and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Surely you w^ouldn't be reluctant to answer about 
presidency of a club sincerely and honestly dedicated to peace, would 
you, Mrs. Dawson ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Daw^son. I refuse to answer on the gromids of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Was your presidency of the Palo Alto Peace Club at 
the behest and direction of that conspiratorial force known as the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Dawson. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active in the PTA, a fine organization ? 
Have you been active in that, the Parent -Teachers Association? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Daw^son. May I just say that my youngest child is 30 years 
old and I haven't been a PTA member for 15 years. 

Mr. Arens. "Were you active as a Conunuiiist in the PTA? 

Mrs. Dawson. Same answer ; the first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. What is the Council for Civic Unity ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Dawson. I have never heard of such an organization. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a paid functionary of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred wdth her counsel.) 

Mrs. Daw^son. Same answer; first and fifth. 



2146 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Karl Prussion ? 
Mrs. Dawson. Same answer; first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Prussion, would you kindly stand? You have 
been sworn, have you not ? 
Mr. Prussion. Yes ; I have. 

TESTIMONY OF KARL PRUSSION Resumed 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your membership, serving for your 
Government in that conspiratorial force known as the Communist 
Party, wliich you penetrated at the behest of that great organization, 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to acquire information to help 
save this society from the penetrations of connnunism, did you know 
as a Communist a person by the name of Doris Dawson ? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see that person in the hearing room today ? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes ; 1 do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly indicate where she is ? 

Mr. Prussion. Right here [indicating]. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us, please, sir, what were her duties and 
responsibilities and what were her activities as a Communist when 
you knew her ? 

Mr. Prussion. Doris Dawson was a member of the same cell that 
I was in, the Mountain View-Los Altos cell of the Communist Party 
and at a later date in the Palo Alto cell of the Communist Party. 

Her activities varied, such as the National Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Colored People, the Parent- Teachers Association, the 
Palo Alio Peace Clnl), and the Council for Civic Unity. 

At one of the meetings which I described earlier today, Doris Daw- 
son reported that she was very happy to announce that the Com- 
munist resolution to end atomic testing, which was presented in the 
Parent-Teachers organization, will pass at the national convention of 
the Parent-Teachers Association. This was 3 weeks before that 
identical resolution did pass. 

TESTIMONY OF DORIS DAWSON Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Dawson, will you Icindly tell this coininittee, was 
this gentleman telling the truth or was he in error in his testimony 
just now respecting yourself? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Dawson. Same grounds ; the first and fifth amendments, 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrooation of t his witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Travis LafTerty. 

Please come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimon}^ you are about to give 
will bo the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Lafferty. I do. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2147 

TESTIMONY OF TEAVIS LAFFERTY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL 

ALBERT M. BENDICH 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oo 
cupation. 

Mr. Lafferit. My name is Travis Lafferty. T live at 230 Seventh 
Street, Oakland; I am a teacher. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, JVIr. Lafferty, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by this committee? 
Mr. Lafferty. That is true. 
ISIr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 
Mr. Lafferty. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself. 

Mr. Bendich. Albert M. Bendich, staff counsel for the American 
Civil Liberties Union of Northern California. 

Mr. Arens. A word, please, about your place of birth and your edu- 
cation. 

Mr. Lafferty. What do you mean by "a word," sir ? 
Mr. Arens. I thought one sufficiently educated to be a teacher 
would understand. That means, w^ould you give us a word, a de- 
scription, an enumeration of the institutions in which you received 
formal training. 

Mr. Lafferty. I am here because I have to be here. You ask me 
the questions, and I will answer the ones I have to, and I will not 
answer the ones I am not required to answer. 
Mr. Arens. You are required to answer this question. 
Please tell us in what educational institutions you were trained. 
Mr. Lafferty. I graduated from Oakland public schools and I was 
educated at the University of California in Berkeley. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a degree from the University of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley ? 
Mr. Lafferty. I did. 
Mr. Arens. Wliat year? 
Mr. Lafferty. 1939. 
Mr. Ajiens. \Yhat degree? 
Mr. Lafferty. A.B. 

Mr. Arens. Was it the only degree you have received from a formal 
institution? 

Mr. Lafferty. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a teacher ? 
Mr. Lafferty. One year. 

Mr. Arens. When did you acquire your status as a teacher ? 
Mr. Lafferty. About last June. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lafferty. I have been advised by coimsel that I do not have 
to answer any questions of that nature, so I refuse to answer on the 
basis of my privileges under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you answered that 
(juestion truthfully while you were under oath you would be supply- 
ing information which might be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding? 
Mr. Lafferty. I do not have to answer 



2148 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Akens. jNIr. Chairman, I now suggest the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. "Willis. You are directed to answer the question. It is the 
foundation of whether you are really invoking the privileges ac- 
corded to you in the Constitution legally, lawfully, in good faith. It 
is a proper question and I order you to answer it. 

]SIr. Lafferty. Well, sir, I have been here since 9:30 without any 
lunch, and I couldn't get a drink of water for several hours, and I 
am under a certain nervous strain, so I am afraid I have to ask you to 
repeat that question again. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if you answered whether or not you 
are now a member of the Communist Party you would be suppljang 
information which might be used against you in a criminal proceed- 
ing? 

Mr. Lafferty. My understanding of the laAv, sir, is that that is a 
decision for me to make, and I have taken the privilege under the 
first and fifth amendments as I have been advised bv counsel, and I do 
so take that privilege under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer the question. 

The reason I asked the question was to test this witness' good faith 
in invoking the fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

IMr. Lafferty. The fifth amendment does not allow any inference 
to be drawn from it when properly used, and I stand on that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, has the witness been ordered and di- 
rected to answer the principal question, which is for the purpose of 
testing his good faith in invoking the constitutional privilege? 

Mr. "Willis. In order to make it plain, I now order you to answer 
the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lafferty. Well, I respectfully decline to answei- on t lie grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments as I previously stated. My coun- 
sel informs me that I am within my rights. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witnevSS. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. Saul Wachter, please come forward and remain stand- 
ing while the chairman administers an oath to you. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise vour riffht hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Wachter. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAUL WACHTER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

BERTRAM EDISES 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself my name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Wachter. My name is Saul Watcher. I live at 1830 Derby 
Street, Peikolov, Calif., and I am a factorv worker. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — ISOKTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2149 

Ml'. Akkns. Ami yoii arc a|)|)(Mriii<>- today in response to a subjxMia 
wliii'li was served upon y<iu by this connnii tee ^ 
Mr. ^^^^('T^|•K1J. 'i'es. 

.Mr. Akkns. You are represented by connsel ^ 

Mr. A\'ai n 1 i.K. I am rt'i)reseiite(l by counsel who does not s[)eak 
I'oi' me and 1 would 

Mr. Akkns. Counsel, wouKl you identify yourself? 

Mr. A^^\(•IrrKl{. 1 would like to suii'^est that Mr. Arens I'eniove him- 
self and mv counsel remoxc himsell" and T will answer the (juestions 
of Ml. Willis directly. 

Ml-. AuKXs. Counsel, will you identify yourself ? 

]\lr. EmsEs. As soon as my client has answered. 

Mr. Aiii:NS. Since counsel has refused to identify himself, we will 
]>roceed with the witness. 

A\'here were yon born '. 

]\rr. Waciitki!. I was born in Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Mr. Akens. How long' did you live in Brooklyn ? 

y{\\ AVachtek. Until I was about 18. 

Mr. Arexs. I low lono- have yon lived in these parts ? 

]Mr. "Waciitek. About '1\ or 25 years. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you travel to New^ York in December of \\)W.) I 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]Mr. AVaciiter. What is the purpose of your question 'i 

Mr. Arexs. To find out whether or not you traveled to New York in 
December of 11)59. 

]\rr. Waciiter. "What is the ]nii'pose of the cpiestion I 

]Mr. Arex^s. To find out whether or not you were, or are <i'oino; to tell 
this committee that you were, a delegate to the National Convention of 
the Comnnmist Party held in New York in 1959. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]Mi'. WACirrER. Why could you not have come out and directly asked 
me that question instead of tryino- to sneak up on lue? 

Mr. Arexs. Would you kindly tell us, then, openly, candidly, fully, 
everythino- to your certain knowledge which transpired at the National 
Convention of the Connnunist Party held in 1959? 

]Mr. Waciitek. Mr. Arens, ]\Ir. Willis, I decline to answer on the 
following grounds : 

I formally protest this committee's attem])t to liold my son u]) for 
public scoi-n, an 18-year-old boy, loved and respected by his family, 
friends and comnumity, and I might add this continues to gi-(nv espe- 
cially before his appearance before you. You should be ashamed of 
yourselves to stoop to such vicious and low tactics. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir 

]\rr. Wachter. I have not hnished answeiing youi- question. 

Yesterday at one-fifteen my boy was standing outside talking to a 
KPFA rei)orter and suddenly lie" was hit l)y the full force of a fire 
hose. He acted as any red-blooded American Avould. lie attempted 
to stand his ground. 

He was choked, his aim was twisted, and he was (lung into jail 
where he was booked. ])liotogiai)hed, and it took me 4 houi-s to find 
him. T am very disturbed about this. T am his father. 

You are trying to pillory my son. I stand here and I objcrt Jo ii. 
1 want everybody in ilic counlry (o know il. Lt>| il be placed in i he 

56597— 60— pt. 3 6 



2150 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

record. Ivct this record sliow tluit tiiis dis^riicofiil incident of the 
Icist '24- hours is the responsibility of how this ]Mr. "Wheeler and this 
committee tried to stack this committee witli its card-carryni<^ con- 
spiracy, to till this hearin<r, so that the American people cannot see 
and hear what is goin.tr on for themselves. 

I am very much sliaken up about this. These childi-en are tiyin<>- 
to learn about a democracy. 

Mr. Arexs. You are reading- from a prepared statement ? 

Mr. Wachter. I am reading from the notes I wrote while listening 
to you. Why not allov\- the children to come in and tell their stoiy ? 
Why not allow that tape tlie KPFA made outside about the liose^ 
Why not put that into the record ? 

^ii'. Willis. I am directing you to answer the question. 

Afr. "WAfii'iT.R. I am i^ow finisliing my answer. I will conclude my 
answer. 

Mr. Areiss. We tried to get your son to tell his story. 

Mr. Wachter. I further decline to answer the question on the fur- 
th.er Constitution grounds that such a question invades my right of 
privacy, my right to lup.e any opinions, political or otherwise, whether 
I have them or not. 

You don't have a right to in([uire, by the firet amendment. Con- 
gress b.as no right to inquii'e into tliese matters. However, this is 
not sufficient, I understand, legally, for tliis committee. Therefoi'e, 
I have to invoke, as my son did, and I am proud of him, and I think 
the rest of the country is, too— — 

Mr. Arexs. Wiiat is his name ? 

Mr. AVachter. I am answering your quesdon. I have to invoke, 
in answer to your question, the fifth amendment, which, as you well 
know, is designed to protect dissentei-s, people who have opinions 
ditfei'ent from youi's. and on those grounds T stand. 

I refuse to answer your (piestion on the grounds of the tirst and 
fifth amendments, which casts no aspersions on me personally, as you 
well know. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Commu- 
nist Party f 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

INIr. Wacmter. I am not going to answer any furtJier ([uestions 
along this line. You are simj)lv wasting vour breath. Mv answer 
will stand as T have stated to the previous questions from here on in. 

Mi-. Arexs. I am inclined to agree witli you that Ave Avould l)e 
wasting our l)i-eath on fui-ther interrogation of yourself. 

Mr. Chairman, T respectfully suggest, that tliis will coiiclnde the 
stafl' inten-ogat ion of tliis witness. 

aTi-. AVachter. Thank you. 

Mr. Arexs. The next witness will be Elmer E. Johns<^)n. 

Please come forwai'd and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. AA^iLLis. I might say that the factual part of this last witness' 
answer as to what ))rompted the difficulty yesterday is refuted by 
exactly three i-e]nitable ])e()ple under oath, the Chief of Police, the 
Sheriff, and the very fine Inspector. 

Proceed. 

Mr. .\rexs. Mr. Elmer E. Johnson, please come forward. 



COMMUXIST PAHTY- -XOHTIIHIIN' CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2151 

Mr. Johnson. 1 wjis reloasiMl from testinionv. I \v:is (wciised yes- 
terday. 

Mr. Akexs. Mr. ,loliusoiu did ycMi testify yesterday? AVe liavo 
three , Johnsons liei'e. 

Mr. JoHxsox. I am Fdmei- K. -lohiisoii. 1 was the last one to 
testily-. 

ATr. Ain.Ns. I hei!. your pardon, sii'. 

John Allen Johnson, please come forward and remain standin<>- 
while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. "WiiJ.is. Please raise your ri<^ht hanth 

You do solenndy sweai' that the testimony which yon are ahont to 
give will he the truth, the whole truth, and nothing hut the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Johnson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN ALLEN JOHNSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, BERTRAM EDISES 

Mr. xVrens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Johnson. I am John Allen Johnson. My address is 254 Irv- 
ington Drive, Ukiah, California, 

Mr. Ajiens. Your occupation ? 

Mr. Johnson. I am a high school mathematics teacher. 

]\fr. AnENS. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served u{)on you by this committee •? 

]Mr. Johnson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Johnson. To the extent that I am permitted. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, v»'ill yo\i kindly identify yourself? 

Mr. Edises. Bertram Edises, of Oakland, Calif. 

Mr. Abens. Were you one time engaged as a carpenter, ^Ir. John- 
son? 

(The Avitness confered with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. What is the j^ertinency of that question ? 

Mr. Arens. I intend to interrogate you with respect to a little dif- 
ficulty I understand you were in as a person who was engaged as a 
member of a carpenters local. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. What was the nat ure of the difHcidty, sir i 

jNIr. Arens. You tell us. You were there. I wasn't. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. What has that got to do with the subject mattei- of 
your inquiry ( 

Mr. Arens. I will display to you now, if you please, sir, or read 
to you and then display to you, a thermofax reproduction of an article 
appearing in the Comnuniist People's AVoi'ld of April 3, 11)5'2 : 

Carpenters chief ousts member. M. A. Hntcheson. intei-national president of 
the AFL Carpenters, has arbitrarily ruled that Allen .Johnson can no U)nger be 
a member of East r>:iy Cari?enters T>o'iil .".(!. 

Johnson was charfied l)y some l(»cal union officials with behm.fflDj? to "a sub- 
versive organization". Hutcheson's letter, read at the local's membership meet- 
ing of March 21, called for .Iohns(m to sign an affidavit swearing he had never 
been a member of a "subversive" organization, but at the same time the letter 
said that he (Hutcheson) "deemed" Johnson guilty. 



2152 COMMUNIST PARTY — XORTHERX CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Some 300 members of the local heaid Ilutchesou's letter r(>ad by the secretary 
and also heard a reply letter written by Johnson answering the charges. 

In the course of the article it says that Johnson is going to take 
legal steps to upset this decision, arbitrarily throwing him out or 
disassociating him from the local, and he is going to cani})aign for the 
United States Congress. 

Xf)-\v, Mr. Jolmson, does tliat refresh your recnlloction, first of all, 
Avith reference to the incident I was undertaking to elicit information 
from you on ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arexs. Is your recollection refreshed now? 

Mr. Jonxsox. Mr. Chairman and Mr. Staff Director, to liiat ques- 
tion and all questions along that particular line I decline to answer 
on the following grounds : 

Mr. Chairman, prior to the end of the noon recess yesterday, I had 
decided to offer a certain degree of cooperation to this committee. I 
felt obligated to do so because of the trust placed in me as a teacher. 

I had also arrived at this position to prevent this committee from 
distorting the facts of my life which have no meaning, apart from my 
dedication to the American i(h\'ils of democracy, Innnan l)i-otherhood 
and peace. I was prepared to answer any and all questions about 
myself, ideas and affiliations, so long as I might be granted the right 
to decline the role of Judas and not be forced to subject others to tlie 
indignities and liarassments to which I have been subjected. 

My decision to offer cooperation abruptly changed when I ap- 
proached tlie chamber yesterday afternoon and Avitnessed the shock- 
ing display of brutality against students whose only crime was a 
desire to witness these hearings. 

This committee bears full responsibility for yesterday's outrage. 
It was the committee policy of packing the chamber which i)rovoked 
the justifiabh^ iudignat ion of the students. 

(Document marked "'John Alk^i Johnson Ex. Xo. 1" aiul retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Winnis. I doirt kuow^ how long this is, but I will order you to 
come to the point. 

Mr. Joiixsox. It w\]\ just take me one second. 

Mr. Arexs. You are reading from a prepared statement? 

Mr. Joiixsox. 1 am reading. I ])re])are(l it a little ahead of time. 
I am a little nervous. I ;nn a teacher. I have the necessity of working 
with children who do get e.xcited. If there is one thing that 1 know 
about children 

Mr. \\'inLTs. Answer the (juesl ion. 

Mr. rloHXsox. I think this has a bearin<>-. 

Mr. AA'iEi-is. I'his speech of yonrs is unim|)ressive. 1 am not con- 
vinced that the position yon arc now taking is not what it would have 
been yesterday, the day liefore and weeks ago. r>nl I order you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. doiixsON. Students do have one thing that they hold very 
sacred, and that is a sense of fair play. You can treat students vei-y, 
very sternly, very strictly, as long as you engage in fair play. 

Afr. AA'iEF.is. l^roceed with youi- next qncstion. Mi". Arens. He has 
had an opportunity to answer. 



COMMUNIST PARTY XOHITIKHX (ALIIOHNIA DISTRICT 2153 

Mr. Akexs. AViMv you ;U the time, Miircli '21. r.).'>2, wIumi you were 
thrown out of the Krst Hsiy Carpenlers Local, were you then :i member 
of the C'onnuunibt Party ^ 

(The wilnei^js conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Joirxsox. 1 continue to decline tr) answer that question and 
continue my statement as follows: 

As 1 approached the chamber yesterday, unifoiiuiMl eniph)yees of 
thecitv wereiiuietlv i-oUiuirout the tire 

Ml-. AitKXs. Mr. Chairman, I su<2:gest that the witness now he or- 
dered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. AViLLis. You are ordered to answer the question. Your counsel 
will surely advise you of the consequences of not complying with the 
cjrder, Avhich simply means contem])t. 

Mr. Sc'iiKKKK. Mv. CMuiirman, I have been watchino- (his counsel 
;-.ll day and it is counsers fault. He has been puttino- words into the 
witnesses" mouths who have testified before this connnittee, what they 
should say and how they should bait this connnittee, instead of advis- 
ino- them as to their constitutional rights. He is the one that should 
be censured- 

Mr. Kdises. Mr. Scherer, \ou made a charge against me. Will you 
give me an opportunity to defend myself? If you will give counsel 
the ()i)porl unity 

Mr. AuExs. Counsel, you know you are presently in \iolation of the 
lades. not alone of this committee but of the United States Congress. 

Mr. EmsEs. — to function, as an ;itiorn.ey it would not be necessary 
to gi'ap[)le with these problems. 

^Ir. SciiEREU. You liave been doing it all day. 

Mr. Edises. If you say that again, Mr. Scherer, I will insist upon 
an opportmiiiy to answer you, and I have a number of things to say 
to you . 

Air. AVii.Lis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arexs. ]Mr. "Witness, tell this connnittee, are you now a mem- 
ber of the Conununist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his coimsel.) 

^Tr. Joiixsox'. ]\Ir. Chairman. 1 refuse to answei' that (piestion, 
and I continue with my following grounds. 

I feel I would be remiss in mv duty 

^fr. Wilms. Hew loiio- is (hat statement i 



Mr. Joiixsox'. 1 1 is a page and a half 

Mr. WiLETs. ^'ou told me a half page a while ago. We give you 
peoj)le an inch and you want five yards. 

Air. Jojixsdx. I didn't tell you how long it was. 

Mr. "\\'iEEis. Vou will come to the point and answer the (luestion. 

yiv. ,b)iixsox'. Accordingly, I must say that the 

Mr. WiEEis. Pioceed witlr your next, question. 

Mr. Akexs. Mr. AVitness, tell this committee if you have had occa- 
sion to view riots which you have assessed against the Fascists. 
■ (The witne.ss conferred wiih his counsel.) 

Mr. doiixsox'. I am answering that question in my own way. I 
will say tliat this committee has no right to pry into anyone's beliefs 
or associations, that the Krst amendment <>-uarantees my right to think, 
to express ideas and to join with others to promote the ideas and ideals 
in which I believe. 



2154 COMMUNIST PARTY- — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Moreover, the first amendment of the Constitution is meaningless, 
if 1 or others are forced to dechii-e their ideas and affiliations to those 
Avho would vilify, harass, and punish us witli loss of livelihood. There- 
fore, 1 refuse to ansver that question because under the lirst amend- 
ment this conxmittee has no right to inquire into my beliefs and 
iissociations. 

Further, in view of the fact that antidemocratic forces in our coun- 
try have temporarily undermined our tirst aineuduient, 1 back tliLs 
refusal by stating that this committee has no right to force me to be 
a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do these anti-democratic forces include the Commu- 
nists '? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Johnson. You have heard my answer, 

Mr. Arexs. Do you invoke the fifth amendment in response to that 
question, too? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. I adopt the grounds that I have just given. 

Mr. Arens, Xow, sir. does this fail- i)lav ^^'hich vou have said you 
want to inculcate in the children inclutle complete candor? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. Would you explain that question? What is the 
pei'tinency of that (juestion ( 

Mr. Arens, Complete candor and honesty. Did you, when you got 
your credentials to teach in this State, make a complete revelation 
and a truthful revelation to the authorities respecting your member- 
ship in the Communist Party ^ 

Mr. Johnson. I think you have my answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, 1 respectfully suggest the witness now 
either answer that question yes, no, or take a position in which he 
tells this conunittee and the world that to answer that question would 
supj)ly information that could be used against liim in a criminal pro- 
ceecling. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. There is no grounds to browbeat me, Mr, Staff Direc- 
tor. I have already stated my position and I stand upon it. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Does this concept of fail- play with your students en- 
compass a revelation to them and to their parents and to the j)eople 
of this coimuunity respecting the instructions which you have been 
giving in the past at the California Labor School, controlled by the 
Conuuunist conspiracy ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. You have my answer. To all (juestions along this 
same line my answer will be the same. 

Ml'. Arens. Have you ever told the students, have you ever told the 
faculty, the school ollicials, the students' parents, that you are now a 
member of a conspiratorial force wluch destroys freedom within 
academic institutions as this witness testified here under oath today 
M'ho had served, who had lived under the (^onunnnist regime in 
Hungary ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



rO]MMT'NlST PARTY XORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 21o0 

Mr. Johnson. I doiTt think I would (li<rnify this committor to 
answer these questions, and what 1 woidd answer this committee is not 
Avhat I would answer to my scliool l)oar(l. 

^Ir. Akkn^. Do you anticipate al'ter you iiave been released tVom the 
pains and penalties of perjury, released from your subpeua by this 
connnittee, no longer subject to the pains and penalties of ])erjury if 
you lie. to return to your institution aiul return to the ])arcnts and 
return to these ])e<)ple, these students to whom you want to give fair 
play, and say, "Of course 1 am not a Connnnnist, of course I have never 
been a Comnuniist; of course T know nothing about that conspira- 
torial organization, but 1 wasn't going to tell (hat witch-hunting, 
Constitution- wi-eeking, labor-bailing Connnittee on Un-Amei'ican 
Activities that T Avas or was not a Connnnnist" 'i 

Mr. JoHXsox, I will adopt yonr Avoi-ds. 

Mr. Arexs. INf]-. Chairman, I res])ectfully suga'est the Avitness now 
be ordered and directed to answer that (juestion. 

Mr. Joiixsox, I decline on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you include in that those provisions of the fifth 
amendment which give yon tlie privilege of invoking the fifth amend- 
ment if you honestly a})prehend that the answer Avould su[)ply infor- 
nnition which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

^fr. JoHxsox'. I am proud that we still have the opportunity and 
the right to refuse to witness against ourselves. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you a member of a conspiratorial organization 
which has over the course of generations been dedicated to the destruc- 
tioii of the Constitution of the United States 'i 

(The witness conferred Avith his counsel.) 

Mr. fFoiixsox'^. Xo matter hoAv many Avays you rephrase that ques- 
tion, I luiA'e already given my answer. 

Mr. Arex's. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that Avill con- 
clude the stall' interrogation of this Avitness. 

]\Ir. JoHAXSEX'. I have no questions to ask, Mv. Chairman, bnt I liaA-e 
one comment to make. 

I sat througli these hearings for 8 days. I have obserA'ed or have 
heard testimony about Avhat has transpired outside and inside tliis 
room. 1 liaA'e been sickened Ix^yond expression b}^ the role which 
young people and teenagers haAe played in some of these proceedings. 

I am mindful of testimony that Avas given here yesterday in re- 
sponse to my direct questions as to the loyalties and Avheiv those 
loyalties are given on the i)art of any person avIio is a membei- of the 
Comnumist Party. 

I could not conceive of any loyal Amei-ican Avanting to do anything 
other than disowning any association in such an organization. I have 
only this connnent to make : That if there are some tragically mixed up 
young people, I can understand in the light of some of thetestimony, 
including that just giA'cn, why that is so. 

^U\ Wnxis. The Avitness is excused. 

Mr. Arexs. The next Avitness, if you please, Mr. Chaii-nnni, will be 
Laurent Brown Frantz. 

Please come forwai'd and I'emni!! standing wliile tlie chaii-man ad- 
ministers an oath. 

Mr. AViLLis. Do you solemnly SAvear, sir, that you Avill tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ^ 

Mr. Frax^tz. I do. 



2156 COMMl'XTPT PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

I liope tlie committee will not ])e too alarinod at the size of those 
l)ooks. I don't intend to read them from cover to cover. 
Mv. Willis. Proceed, ^fr. Arons. 

TESTIMONY OF LATJEENT B. FRANTZ 

]\rr. Arkxs. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Frantz. My name is Laurent B. Frantz, 936 Shevlin Drive, El 
Cerrito, California. I am a leaal writer and researclier. 

Mr. Chairman, I submitted to tlie committee under Kidc IX on yes- 
terday a statement which 1 respectfully requested ])ermission to read 
to the committee. It is a very long statement, but I have made it as 
short as I can, sir. 

Mr. Willis. I regret that it cannot be })ermitted. You may lile the 
statement. It has been received. We must proceed. 

Mr, Arens, Would you spell your last name, please ? 

Mr. Frantz. F-r-a-n-t-z. 

Mr. Arens. You are a])])earing in response to a sub])ena served upon 
you by this committee i 

Mv. Frantz. I will be hap])y to stipulate that my a]:)pearance is in- 
voluntaiy and I can think of better ways of s])ending a springtime 
Saturday ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are not represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Frantz. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know you have the ])rivilege under the rules of 
this committee to be represented by counsel t 

Mr. Frantz. I have read the rules of the connnittee. It is not my 
intention to waive my right to counsel. My position is this, sir : While 
technically a witness here, I am in substance a defendant, and I feel 
that I should be })ei'mitted a counsel who can act in the way that has 
been developed in the traditions of the American Bar when a client is 
under accusation of any kind. 

If I can be pei'uiitted a counsel in that sense, I have one ready who 
M'ill a])pear for me. If the procedure is to be as I have seen it in the 
])ast several days, T will not be represented by counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Connnunist Party? 

Mr. Frantz. ]\Ir. Chaii'man, my answer to that would liavc been 
simplified if you had permitted me to read this statement. I will state 
my grounds of objecting to that as briefly as I can. 

INIy ])rinci])al, my only ground, has to do Avith the structure and 
function, the constitutional ])lan of the United States Government as 
I understand it, sir. My understanding is that the founders, the 
framers of the Constitution, felt that the powers of the institutions 
they were ci'eating ought to be limited, that it was possible to do that 
oidy through the countervailing ])ower of othei- institutions, and for 
that purpose they created a system of checks and balances. 

(At this point Mr. Willis left the hearing roonu) 

Mr. Frantz. Tliey also created this Constitution under the theory 
that all powers are derived fi'oiu the people: that the Govermnent was 
not to be sovereign; that the people were to retain their sovereignty; 
and that the people were not transferring to the delegated authority 
all of the ]iowers which they ]H)ssessed. all of the governing powers. 



COMMUNIST PARTY NORTPIERX CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2157 

It Avtis mado clear by the first niiuMKlineiit tliat a part of the reserve 
ofoverniiiir })owers of the people or I lie power (o carry on a free dis- 
cussion on public ])olicv, on ])()litical theory and political i)r()<!:ranis 
and policies of all kinds, which would not be interfered with in any 
May by the delciiatetl auihority. 

i think that, in ci-eatino- tlie system of checks and balances, it is part 
of the theory that each element 

^[r. Akkxs. Mr. Frantz, I re-let to interrupt you, but let me ask 
you this: Do you honestly ai)prehen(l, sir, that to answer that (juestion, 
it Avould ol)li<i-e you to ii'ive inToi'mation which might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding 

Mr. Frantz. Mr. Chairman, 1 believe Mr. Arens has opened it u]) 
for me to explain my mulerstanding of the Hfth amendment. 

Mr. Aiu:ns. Mr. Chairman, 1 recjuest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question as to whether or not if he told us he 
was a member of the Conununist Party, he would be supplying in- 
formation which might be used against him in a criminal proceeding. 

Mr. JoiiAXSF.x (presiding). The witness is so instructed and 
ordered. 

Mr. Fkaxjz. Does the Chair rule that 1 am not i)ermitted to state 
my undei'standing of what the fifth amendment means? 

.Mr. ,)onANsKx. The Chair so rules. The Chair directs and orders 
you to answci- the question stated by counsel. 

Mr. Frax-^tz. My answer, sir, is that the question stated by counsel 
is an incorrect way to characterize the fifth amendment, that the 
counsel is misleading the public and the audience about what the fifth 
amendment means. I cannot accept his premise that the fifth amend- 
ment has that significance. 

3.1r. JoiiAxsKX. The Chair is not going to tolerate any argument 
with counsel over the meaning of the Hfth amendment. The (|ues- 
tion is whether the gentleman, the witness, apprehends that if he 
answers the questions, he will thereby give information which could 
be used against him in criminal proceedings, and is that the position 
that he takes ^ 

I direct and oi'dei- the witness to answer. 

Mr. Frax'tz. That is not my undei'standing of the fifth amend- 
ment, sir. T am not malcitig that ]xai-ticular i-ei)rcsentation to the 
committee. 

Mr. ScHERKK. Mr. Chaiiman 

Mr. Frantz. I am standing on the fifth amendment and I would 
like to state what tlie fifth amcndnuMit means in my position, in my 
o[)inion. 

Mr. Johax'sex. The witness will sus[)end and the witness will an- 
swer the question. 

_Mr. Arexs. Xow, Mi-. Witness, we will just hesitate long enough to 
give you a reasoiuible time to tell this connnittee, and we Avill not be 
badgered any further, whether or not you honestly a])i)rehend that if 
you told this committee whethei- or not you are a membei- of the 
Conununist Party, you would be su])plying information which might 
be used against you in a criminal jjroceeding. 

Mr. Frantz. Mr. Chairman. I cannot answer the question in that 
form. T am standing on the fifth amendment, but not Mr. Arens* fifth 
amendment. 



2158 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. .loHANSEN. The witness will suspend. The witness says he 
stands on the fifth amendment. Counsel will ask the next question. 

Mr. AuENs. I be<r youi- pardon, Mr. Chairman. I don't yet con- 
strue his testimony to he that he will not answer on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

(At this point Mr. A\'illis entered the hearinir room.) 

Afr. Akexs. To clarify the record, let me ask this (juestion : Are you 
now, or have you ever been, a member of the Connnunist Party ? 

Mr. Frantz. If the chairman had permitted me to read my state- 
ment, all of this would be very nuich clearer. It is all set forth very 
carefully in the statement which I have asked the committee to let 
me read and which I have asked the conniiittee to incorporate into 
the record if I was not called. 

Since I was called, l)ut not permitted to read the statement, I still 
ask that it be incorporated as 

Mr. Arens. Will you answer the question as to whether or not you 
are now, or ever have been, a member of th.e (^ommunist Party, sir ? 

Mr. Fr.\ntz. No, sir; I will not answer that question for the reason 
that it violates my rights under the first amendment, includin<r the ar- 
irument Mhich you would not permit me to make, sir, and for all the 
reasons in my statement, including the fact that to call persons before 
this committee under such circumstances has the eti'ect of creating 
a trial in which the accused is not permitted to 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, the witness has had time to answer 
the question. He has refused to answer the question. I move that he 
be dismissed. 

Mr. Fraxtz. These are legal objections to the ([uestion. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to ask another question first. 

Mr. Johansp:n. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the counsel proceed 
with the next question. 

Mr. Sciierer. I will withdraw my motion until after the next ques- 
tion of Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. AVitness, were j^ou employed by the P'und for the 
Republic to make an analysis and stud}' of the testimony of J. Edgar 
Hoover before congressional connnittees? 

Mr. Frantz. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Arens. Did you make such a study? 

Mr. Frantz. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive lunds from the Fund for the Republic 
for that purpose? 

Mr. Frantz, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When did you make that study? 

Mr. Frantz. I don't precisely remembei'. It was several years ago. 

Mr, Arens. Approximately? 

Mr. Frantz. I guess it was about 1954, but I am not certain about 
that. 

Mr. Arens. Has the study been completed and tuiiied over to the 
Fund for the Republic? 

Mr. Frantz. It has ; yes, sir. 

AFi". Arens. Have you been compensated foi- tliat study? 

Mr. Fran'I'Z. "\'es. sir. 

Mr. Arens. .Vre you })resently in tlic employ of the Fund for the 
Rei)ublic? 

Afi". Frantz. Xo. sir. 



COMMUNIS r PAHTY NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2159 

Mr. AuKxy. AVas tlie study whicli you made for the Fund for the 
Kepiihlic, in wliioli you submitted a report on J. Edpir Hoover and 
liis testimony, the only service which you rendered to the Fund for 
the Republic^ 

Mr. Fkaxtz. Yes, sir. 

^[r. Akens. Over wliat period of time were you eng:a<red in tliis 
work for the Fund for tlie I\ei)ublic? 

Mr. Fkaxtz. Xot ]on<r; ■) or 4 weeks. 

Mr. ScHERKR. St ranire how the Fund for the Kepnblic has picked up 
such individuals as this to make these studies. Tliis man has been 
identihed, has he not, as a member of tlie Connnnnist Party? 

Let me ask yon: You are a member of the Communist Party right 
now, aren't yon, and you were wlien you made this study? 

Mr. Frantz. I believe that question has been asked and answered, 
sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Xo, it hasn't been answered. You danced around the 
fifth amendment and liave not invoked it. I have been listening care- 
fully. You liave not answered the question, nor have you refused to 
answer. 

^fr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I personally do not know whether he has 
or hasn't. I just don't know. 

Mr. ScHERER. He lias not answered. 

Mr. Arens. On whether or not he has invoked tlie fifth amendment, 
I couldn't say honestly on this record. 

Would you tell us whether or not you have invoked the fifth amend- 
ment in response to the question of wliether or not you are a member 
of the Communist Party ^ 

Mr. Fraxtz. Mr. (^hairman, I have invoked with respect to any 
questions as to my political affiliations any and all legal rights 1 miglit 
have to refuse to answer, including the entire Constitution insofar as 
it is applicable, including certain of tlie Bill of Kights, including the 
fifth amendment, including the reserve powers of the people 

Mr. Arexs. That will include enough. 

Mr. Fraxtz. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Now. sir, have you likewise written for The Xation 
magazine ? 

^fr. Fraxtz. Yes, sir. 

^^r. Arexs. Have you wiMtteu an article entitled "Hoes Silence 
Mean Guilt?'' 

Mr. Fraxtz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. When you wrote that ai-ticle, were you then a member 
of the Connnnnist T-*arty ^ 

Afr. FitAXTZ. My answer- with i-espect to all questions with regard 
to political affiliations Avill be the same, and T think it has been 
given, although it could have been given better if you would let me 
read my pi'epared version. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you written articles for The Xation magazine re- 
specting the "Bankrupt Inquisition," namely, this Committe on Un- 
American Activities? 

Mr. Fraxtz. Yes, sii-: I would like to offer a reprint of it in evi- 
dence, if I may, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. And at the time you wrote that article, were vou then 
a member of the Communist Partv ? 



2160 COMMUNIST PARTY — XORTHERX CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Fi;a.\tz. Mr. ("liaiiiiiMi!. this is ;i waste of time. I made clear in 
the articles which you read and placed in my dossier before I was 
called tliat I would not answer (Jue^tions of this kind. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you want to decline on the same <i;rouiids, to eco- 
nomize on your time ? 

Mr. Frantz. Yes, sir. I am tryino- to economize the committee's 
time. I made the statement to the committee yesteixlay and I have, 
1 thouaiit, made clear ah-eady that 1 would not answer questions of 
that kind. This asking it again in a ditferent sense is certainly a waste 
of time. 

Mr. Akexs. Did yoti make it clear for the Fund for the Kei)ul)lic 
when they engaged you to write that report for su!)niission to that tax- 
exempt organization that you were a member of tlie Connnunist Party 
at the time you were making this investigation of the great Director 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. SciiEitKR. li he had, there would have been something said 
about that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make it clear when you wi'ote your articles at- 
tacking the members of this committee that you were a member of the 
Comnnniist Party ? 

Mr. Frantz. The same answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you wi-itten articles published in national maga- 
zines attacking the secui'ity ])rovisions of our immigration laws, have 
3-ou written articles such as "DepoHation Deliriums" i 

Mr. Frantz. Yes, sir; I have, and I am very happy the connnittee is 
kindly makino- 

Mr. Arex's. Did you make it clear to the readers who would read 
yotir articles that you were writing as a membei" of the Comnumist 
Party, or did you just omit to tell them that ? 

Mr. Frantz. ]\rr. Chairman, what it says in those articles is in print 
and easily available. I am soiTy I don't have reprints about them all. 
But the text of the ai'ticle is a much better source as to what I said or 
didn't say tliaii any I'ccoilcciion I might have as to what I said when I 
wrote it. 

Mr. Arex's. Have you written articles for the Daily People's "World i 

Mr. Frantz. I am going to refuse to answer that on the grounds 
previously stated. 

May I also submit this "Bankrupt Tn<iuisition" article for the rec- 
ord, ]\Ir. Chaii-man ^ I would like to liave it mai'ked "Defendant's 
Fxhibit No. 1,'' please, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you libraiian at Drake Fniversity i 

Mr. Fi{.\NTZ. Yes, sir. 

Ml". Arex's. Did you make known to the authorities at Drake T'ni- 
versity that you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Fraxtz. The (juestion assumes a fact not in evidence. 

^\v. Arexs. "Were you a member of the ronnnunist Party at the 
time you were librarian at Drake University ? 

Mr. Frantz. The same answer, the same general line of objections. 

Mr. Arexs. AVere you uiuler Conmiunist Party discipline wliileyou 
were librarian at Di-ake T'nivei-sity with respect to your activities in 
that library ( 

Mr. Frantz. I believe that is the same question, or at any rate within 
the area to which I addressed my constitutional objections. 



COMMUNIST PARTY NORTHKKN C'ALIFOHXIA DISTRICT 21()1 

y\v. AiJKNs. I n'spi'ct I'lilly sup:avst. Mi-. ( "liMiriiiaii. l!i;il allJiouiili we 
c'oiiKl _<:() ovtM- :i ai-(\ii iiuiiilxT of itciDS lu'ic ill ;i siiniisir vein, iis one 
witness said, we have arrived at that point with this vritness wliere it 
would be a waste of our breath. 

I respectfully suji'ii'i'st this will, therefore, conchide the stall's iiiter- 
roiiation of this witness. 

Mr. AVii.i.is. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Akkns. The lU'.xt witness, if you please, Mr. C'haii-nian, will be 
Mr. Bertram Edises. 

Please come forward and icmain standing" while the chairman 
adnunistei-s an oath. 

Mv. A\'inLis. l^lease raise vour ri<2:ht hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testnnony you are about to ffive 
will be t\w tiuth. the whole truth, and notliinii' but the truth, so help 
you (xod t 

Mr. Edisks. 1 do. 

TESTIMONY OF BERTRAM EDISES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

NORMAN LEONARD 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly idenify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Edises. ]My name is, as you know, Bertram Edises. I live at 
()80 Hilldale Avenue, Berkeley, California. My occupation is that of 
an attorney-atdaw, and in that connection I think I would like to tell 
the connnittee a little about the more specialized aspects of my finic- 
ionino- as attorney-atdaw. 

Mr. Akexs. We will pursue it further, if we are interested in it, in 
our interrogation. 

Yon are appearing today in response to a subpena which was served 
njKHi you by this committee ( 

Mr. Edises. I am appearing in response to a subpena which was 
served upon me by this committee, and I think 

Mr. Willis. Next question. 

y\v. Akex's. You are re]:)resented by counsel ? 

Mr. Edises. I hadn't quite linished my answer. 

Mr. Arex's. You have satisfied ns that you are appearing in response 
to the subpena, so we will withdraw any other (juestion of that vein. 

Mr. AVitness, are you represented by counsel i" 

ATr. Edises. My very good friend, Norman I-(eonard, has consented 
to appeal- with me because he is aware that it is highly improper for 
a committee of this kind to, in elt'ect, attack an attorney who is trying 
to render a professional service to his clients and any of us, under 
those circumstances, are likely to become a little bit emotionally upset. 

For this reason, although I am an attorney, 1 have in mind the old 
adage that an attorney who acts as his own attorney has a fool for a 
client and I don't want to be ])ut in that ])osition. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. (Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Leoxard. You address me as counsel, Mr. Arens, but the fact of 
the mattei- is that the rides of this committee do not ])ermit me to 
function ell'ectively as counsel. I will sim[)ly be here to advise Mr. 
Edises. Your (jwn rules do not permit the attorney to function in the 



2162 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

way that the Bar of America permits them to fimction and in the way 
that they fimction before other committees of tlie C'ongress. 

Mr. Arp:ns. Now, Mr. Edises, give us a word about your formal 
education. 

(The Avitness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Edises. Well, I — You didn't ask me where I was born. Are 
you interested^ I was born in Oakland, (Ailifornia. I have lived in 
this state all my life. I can't i-cineinber all of the various schools that I 
went to. 

Mr. Akens. We are not interested in each specific school. I think 
any reasonable interpretation of that question by a person of good 
faith would be of the same significance. 

Mr. Edises. Please, Mr. xVrens, don't talk to me about good faith. 

Mr. Arens. We will test it right now. Are you now, or have you 
ever been, a member of the Comnumist Party ? 

Mr. Edises. This, of course, is your com])lete proof that you are 
not performing in good faith, i intend to elaborate on thai question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I request that the witness he ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Li:oNARD. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Arp:ns. Counsel, your sole and exclusi\ e right under the rules 
of this committee and under the rules of the I"^nitecl States Congress is 
solely to advise your client. 

Mr. Leonard. I am a])pealing to the chairman of the committee to 
ask the stall' director to permit my client to answer a question. I 
think, as an attorney, I have that much right. 

May I not appeal to the chairman of fh.e connnittee to ask the staff 
director to permit my client to answer the question ^ 

Mr. Arens. Kindl}- answer the question: Are you now a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Willis. May I say something ( 

Mr. PjDISEs. I am going to addi-ess myself to you. T am going to 
address myself to you, Mr. Chairm;ui. 

Mr. Willis. Wait a minute, ^'our counsel has asked me for a 
lading. 

Of course you are entitled to ask questions, but no one in this room 
knows better than you that a simple question as to giving your back- 
ground and legal education and so on does not require an extensive 
dissertation or long discussion. 

If you want to answer it prom])tly, corirteously, accurately, that is 
all right, lint you will not be permitted, because you ha])})en to be 
an attorney, to have greater latitude than anybody else. 

There was a question or two before the last one, and we can return 
to it to answei- it promi)tly. if you want to, and I will give you that 
chance. You were questioned as to your educational background. 

Mr. Edisks. 1 was in the process of answering it, I thought. 

Mr. Willis. I suggest, Mr. Arens, that you ask him what colleges 
he attended, when, and what degrees ho achieved, so that there is no 
poijit in elaborat ion. 

Mr. Edises. I will be glad to answer that, Mr. AVillis, aiul I must 
say that although I certainly don't agiee with what I know ab(mt 
your politics. I do commend your nianr.ci' of answering questions. 



COMMITNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 21f)3 

Vou do\\\ try lo brow l>e:U witnesses in ihc way Mr. Are'iis does, lie 
(.loesn't ask questions. Tie makes stump speeches. 

(A disturbauee in the hearino- room.) 

Mr. AVu.iJs. A^'e ai'e not t>-oini>- to have any disturbancf^s. I am 
iToin*: to issue the same ruli nil. One more ilisturbance and I will issue 
a rulina- that the peopk^ keeping the peace keep an eye on tlu- leaders 
of the disturbances. 

I am not oi-(!ci-in^- it now, but one more disturbance or infraction 
of the nde. and I will ask them, as 1 did yesterday, to escort them out. 
Xot now, but with one more that will be the case. 

Mr. KnisES. xVnswerino- your question with i-eijard to my formal 
education. I am a graduate of the University of California at lierke- 
le}'. I am also very i)rou(l lo be a graduate of the University of Cali- 
fornia l^aw School, also at Berkeley. 

Xow, if 1 may acklress myself to the othei- question that your belli- 
gerent Mr. A reus 

Ml". Arexs. Xow, listen, ('ounsel, you are not going to attack me 
any further. 

M]-. Edises. You have been attacking peo])le ;ill day, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arexs. I have not. 

]Mr. Edises. (^an't you take it? You can't take it: is that it? 

Mr. "Willis. Is there an outstanding question ? 

Mr. Arexs. The outstanding question is: Are you now. or have you 
ever been, a member of the Communist Pai'ty ? 

]\Ir. Edises. T submit — I am answering that in my ovrn vray and 
nobody is going to put woi-ds in my mouth, and that goes for Mr. 
Arens and foi- tlu* meni})e!-s of the conunittee. I will answer the ques- 
tion, if you will allow me to do so. 

Won't you please permit me to answer? .Vll right. 

Xow, I know and you know that that question is not asked in good 
faith, and 1 will tell you why, and this is part of my legal objection. 
part of my legal objectioiL It wasn't very long ago that your com- 
mittee came out with a publication, and I have it right here, called 
"Communist Legal Subversion, The Role of the Communist Lawyer.'' 

On page o() of this publication there appears what purports to be 
an ofKcial biogra})hy of someone by the name of Bertram Edises of 
California. It goes into great detail. It purports to indicate that Mr. 
Bertram Edises was identified as a member of the Commtmist Party, 
et cetera, et cetera ; that he has served as a membeT- of the legal staff 
of the Civil Rights Congress since its inception; that the (^ivil 
Rights Congress retained Mr. Edises to r-epresent certain defendants 
in both Federal and State courts; that the activities of Bertram Edises 
on behalf of the Conununist Party Inive not been confiiied to the Civil 
Rights Congress, and so on; a remarkably detailed ))uri)orted bio- 
graphy. 

It so happens tliat although I have been subj)enaed four times, this 
is the first time that I have ever testified before this organizatioiL 
before the Un-American Activities Committee: and therefore, I can 
only conclude that you got this information which you published 
at Government expense, and which you didn't set forth in any doubt- 
ful form at all, it is all set forth as gospel truth, it is findings of fact, 
and I can only conclude that you got the information from youi- so- 
called reliable, unimpeachable sources that vou have been bragging 
about. 



2164 COIVIMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Aken-s. You skipped soniethino- when you were reading the re- 
port, Mr. Edises. 

Mr. Edises. You know tlie facts, Mr. Arens? Then, Mr. Arens, 
wliy do you ask me that (question when you ah'eady claim to knosv the 
information i Why do you do it ( You can ha\e only one purpose, and 
that is to try to embarrass me, to humiliate me, to pillorize me, to 
pillory me, and that is tlie whole function of your organization, Mr. 
Arens. 

That is all you do. You m^ throuirh the motions, you come into a 
big courtroom, you liaYe an American flag behind you. 

Mr. Arexs. ^fr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this witness 
now be ordered and directed to answer the outstanding principal 
question. 

^ye haye been baited by expei-fs. 

Mr. Edises. You are just a kangaroo court : that is all. 

Mr. Willis. You are ordered and directed to answer the question 
and come to the point. 

Mr. Edises. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it is unmistakablY clear, unmistakablY clear — ^Ir. Scherer, will voii 
please pay attention ? 

Mr. SciiEREK. ]\lr. (^hairman, T move the witness be escorted from 
the courtroom. He is utterly in contempt of this committee. 

Mr. Edises. I insist on being permitted to answer your questions. 

Mr. Leonard. Mr. Chairman, is uiy client excused as a witness? 

Mr. Willis. Wait. 

Mr. Leonard. Is my client excused? 

Mr. Willis. No. Wait a minute. 

I would like, as chairman of this committee, to ask my colleague to 
defei- his motion just for two minutes, to giv(^ tliis gentleman an op- 
])ortunity to answer the question. 

If not, unless you come to tlie point and answer the question, the 
motion is pro)-)er. I will have to carry it out. Won't j'ou please 
state the constitut ional irrounds ? 

Mr. Edises. Mr. Willis, I got a little bit excited there. 1 am sorry. 

Mr. Scherer. This is only a show. 

Mr. Edises. Mr. Scherer, if you are going to abuse me, I will just 
get u]) and leave. If you will treat me and other Avitnesses with 
courtesy, I will give you courteous answers, but if you browbeat me, 
I won't. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I request now that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer the outstandiug i'»rinci])al question, namely: 
Are you now a member of the Communist Party ( 

Mr. Edises. I am not going to ansAver that question and I want to 
tell yon why. Am T mistaken, Mr. Arens, in my assumption that 
you had the honor of having something to do with the drafting of 
the so-called Communist Control Act of ID^i^ 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chaii-man, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
again be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. SniERF.R. Just a minute. ^Iv. Chairman, I move that tlie wit- 
ness be dismissed, be ejected from the room for complete and utter 
contempt of a committee of the Congi-ess. As 1 said before. I am 
ashauKul that he is a member of the bar. 

Mr. Wir.Lis. You still have a half-minute left. I said two, so you 
have a half-minute to answer it on constitutional grounds. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — XORTITERX CATTFOHXIA DISTRICT 2]i)~) 

jSIr. EmsES. All lia'lit. Tlu' (luestion, as to uuMnl)ershi[) in the Coni- 
iimnist I'aity, is:i(|iu'sti()n- lot iiic put it this way 

Mr. AA'iLLis. ^'ou said you would not answer it. 

Mr. Knisr.s. I am statinir uiy liTounds. I am trying- to state my 
iii-ouuds. One oround is that it is a question that it is impossilile, 
really, to answei- with any decree of accuracy. And the reason. Mi'. 
Chairman, Mr. Willis, is'that in the Communist Control Act of 1!).M 
there is a deliuition of Conununist. Mi-. Willis, will you please listen? 

Mr. SciiERER. 1 renew my mot ion. 

Mr. AVii.Lis. 1 so order. Will you escort the gentleman out ? 

Mr. Leoxaui). Do 1 understand that he is now excused from his 
subpena ? I think we are entitled to that. 

Is he excused from his subpena, Mr. Chairman ? May I iiuiuire on 
the record i 

Mr. Wir.T.is. Yes: he is excused. 

Mr. Ahexs. Mr. Chairman, may we have about a 2- or 3-minute 
recess, please, sir? 

JSIr. Willis. We will take an informal recess of a very few minutes, 
not over 5. 

(A short recess was taken at which time the followinii' members of 
the subcommittee were present : Representatives Willis, Johansen, and 
Scherer.) 

(At the expiration of the recess the following members of the sub- 
committee were ])resent : Rei)resentati\es Willis, Johansen, and 
Scherer. ) 

Mr. Willis. The committee will please come to order. 

Proceed. ^h\ Arens. 

jMr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, that would conclude the presentat ion of 
witnesses whom we desired to call in this series of sessions of these 
hearino'sin San Francisco. 

Tliere are a number of exhibits which have been shuffled around 
here, some of which we have not actually received into the I'ecord. 
They should be incorporated. There is some material that Mr. 
Prussion has not been able, because of time, to cover, and some exhibits 
which he has which we want to have identified. 

I, therefore, Mr. Chairman, respectfully suo-o-ost that this record 
be ordered to be kept open so that it can be c()in])leted after we have 
I'eturned to Washina'ton in order that the exhibits and the material of 
^Ir. Prussion can bo ap])ro]~)riatoly identified tnid incorporated into 
the recoi'd. 

Mr. Willis. That course will l)e followed. 

The rei)orter will, of course, include that in his notes, that the 
record is to remain open for that time. 

Xow, ladies and lientlemen, in concluding- these heariiiiis hei'e in 
San Francisco, I should like to make a very few observations. 

At the outset of these hearings I emphasized that we were seekinix 
here factual material which would assist the Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities in the discliar<>-e of its lefrislative duties. 

These le<2:islative duties are not limited to the mere passa^'e of laws 
or their amendment. T'hey involve, first of all, an accumulation of 
factual matei'ial on whicli leo-jslation in tlie field of internal security 
can be based. 

May I say we have heard mudi about this committee not lia\in<j.- a 
leofislative purpose. Tf you v>ill just analyze the laws that have l)een 

56397—60 — pt. .3 7 



2166 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

eiKicted as a result of our liearinas, you realize how unfounded that 
is. The Smith Act, the Internal Security Act, the Foreijiii Ag:ents 
Reg-istratiou Act, and many other acts, includiua- the Communist 
Control Act of 1054, to n;ime three offhand, with my colleajiue from 
Ohio uamino- another one, and many other laws which have been 
sponsored by, inspired by, and passed by, the Conirress as a result 
of the accumulation of factual information gathered at public hear- 
inffs and its consideration in "Wasliins'ton in the legislative field, and 
adopted invai'iably by the Conofress of the United States. 

We have had nnich discussion here that we cannot jiossibly engajje in, 
nor can we exchanije verbal blows with witnesses who want to argue 
and debate and delay. This is not a pleasant task, T assure you, for 
us members of the committee: but Avhen we talk about the job of the 
committee to assemble facts leading to legislation regarding the 
intei-nal security of the United States, what do we mean? 

Tjet us be reasonable about the situation. Just last week we Members 
of Congress were re{[uired to vote on a bill involving some $40 billion 
for national defense and security. "We have to turn around and tax 
the peo})]e to raise that money. 

Imagine ])assing a bill every year for between $40 bilbon and $45 
l)illion, even du:-ing peacetime, up to close to $00 billion a year. 

Do you know what a billion dollars is? Can you conceive of the 
enormity of it? You have some students hei'e who are good mathe- 
maticians — and I am speaking off the cuff, T had no idea of what I 
Avas going to say until I started — but in terms of billions, since the 
time of the birth of our Lord, the clock hasn't ticked nnich more than 
one billion minutes. And that is the amount of money we are appro- 
priating every year, $40 billion for national defense and security. 

National defense and security against Avhoni? Is it Enghnid? Is 
it France? Is it Japan? Is it Germany? Is it Italy? Is it 
Europe? 

We all know that defense and security means defense and security 
against the Soviet Union, (^ertaiidy it would be folly to want to 
defend ourselves against the (^ommunists abroad and not have a com- 
mittee of Congress to maintain a continuing study of the operations 
and machinations and techniques of sucli Communists as there might 
be, or might continue to sprout out. in oni- own country. 

You have heard during the hearings here talk about this committee 
being unusual in its method of operation. There is not a committee 
of the Congress in the other 1') on (he House side and as many on the 
Senate side, which opei-ate any differently. 

This is not a court proceeding. No committee of the Congress, 
and I doubt that any committee in your State legislature or elsewhere 
when they are conducting hearings leading to legislation, iu-etend that 
everyone who take.s the stand iu\s a right to stop tho proceedings and 
make speeches and cross-examine. 

About contempt and so on, we are not in the business of citing 
people for contempt. That is an incident. In the fii-st place, the 
record is submitted to the Department of Justice, and if there is con- 
tempt that is up to the courts. That is an incident to our jurisdiction, 
as any othf^r congressional connnittee has the same prerogative and the 
same obligation to try to maintain order and dio-nity. 



COMMUNIST PARTY XOHTHKRN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 21 07 

Well, what, tlieii, has been accomplished by the hearhij2:s which we 
have been coiiductiiio: over the course of the last few days liere in 8au 
Fi-ancisco!? 

in the first place, we have seen confirmed here patterns of Com- 
munist activity wliich we are witnessing elsewhere in the Xation. 
These patterns include penetration of non-Communist entities by 
trained conspirators who masquerade behind a deceitful facade of 
respectability. 

Also, we have observed here the technique of obscuring technical 
membershii) in the Communist Party by oflicial resignation from that 
entity, Vvliile maintaining actual status within the operation. This 
situation poses difTicult and involved legal problems which are cur- 
rently under discussion by the members of our committee. 

Another pattern concerning which I should like to comment is 
the campaign of foreign Connnunisi propaganda being sent into this 
country and disseminated across the land. We have witnessed similar 
situations at other ports of entrv^ in the United States. 

I presided ovei- a hearing some time ago in the port of INew Or- 
leans, and there you have tons and quantities of material, propaganda 
material, entering our country unlabeled as required by law. It has 
nothing to do with prohibiting material from entering the country. 

No Member of Congress that I know of would vote for such a 
law. But we are entitled to have propaganda material properly so 
labeled. If you buy a can of food under tlie Federal law, you must, 
on that labef, state what is in the can, or any other item that you see 
on a shelf. It is the same thing in that regard. And poison, for in- 
stance. Yet this material is en.tering in total violation of that law. 
That is an element we must consider, or at least submit it to the mem- 
bership in Congress to see whether they want to continue that law 
being violated or whether they want to amend it. 

"We are going to have some recommendations to make, and it will be 
uj) to your Congressmen, the Congressmen throughout the United 
States, to express themselves as to whether they want some improve- 
ments. 

Certainly Ave should believe in majority rule; for instance, in con- 
nection with propaganda, the gentleman who testified here, who 
traveled to China, is one of the most suave individuals I know. I 
know he is smart. But what do v(m think he is doing i' PTe 
is engaging in propaganda, propaganda from the point of view, or 
slanted from the point of view, of the Communists. 

In the course of the hearings which we have been conducting, 
much of the information which we have obtained has been by in- 
direction, although we have, I believe, obtained substantial informa- 
tion from the direct testimony of those witnesses who have come forth 
and candidly, pati'iotically testified fully and freely. 

It may surprise you that much of the testimony given hei-e nega- 
tively, by invocation of the constitutional amendments which they 
are entitled protection under, is valuable to us in more ways than 
one, by keeping abreast of the techniques here. So even an indirection 
or a negative reply to ])i'()j)er e\"aluation of our security poslui'e has 
some value to us. 

There is a collateral result of hearings of this character, in that 
they ccmstitute a constant reminder to the American people that the 
threat of communism is real. Connnunism involves a philosophy and 



2168 COMMUNIST PARTY — ^NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

an i(le()lo<iv — but it is more than a ])hilosop]iy and an ideolo*};}-. It 
is a (lynamic system whicli is in opei'ation now to destroy freedom and 
suj)i)lant it with tyranny. 

We shall take back to Washington the transcript of these hearin<^s, 
which Avill be studied carefully by the statf and by the members of 
the committee in the furtheranceof our duty. 

Before concludini>-, T want to thauk everyone in this area who 
conti'ibuted to the heai'in«rs. That includes the mayor and the others 
who have made this hearinu" room available. It includes the dedicated 
members of the police force, the sherill's department, and so on. They, 
too, had a verj^ unpleasant task to perform. 

They are not really euitaiied in law enforcement. Their priiuary 
obligation is to maintain the ])eace. It was a delicate situation, verv 
sensitive and electrified moments we went throuirh. 

1 tried to preside with fairness. I do not ever expect people to 
ajjree with my p]iil()so})hy. They may care to disairrce. But I don't 
o-et excited l)ecause people have difl'erent ideas than I have. I feel a 
sense of obligation to be fair to all. For instance. I happen to be a 
lawyer, as I mentioned before, and the hist witne.ss was a member of 
mv i)rofessi()n. But whv should I deny — and I nnist deny in the in- 
terest of exj)edition durino- our work — peo})le who want to argue and 
make speeches, why should I deny that right aud insist on the rules 
with respect to civilians, and give a lawyer a greater opjjortunity ? 
It just cannot be done. You have to balance your ideas and youi- 
actions. 

It has been a [)leas\ne being here, some moments anyway, and I do 
want to express my aj)preciati<)n to all who contributed to the 
hearings. 

Mr. Johansen? 

Mr. JoiiAXSEX. Ml. Chairman, I Avant veiy briefly, first of all, to 
l)ay tribute to the distinguished chairman of this subcommittee for 
the firumess and the courage in seeing this very difHcult task through. 
desj)i(e evident determined etl'orts and intentions that the job would 
not be completed. 

I express again, of course, my ap[)reciati()n to the mayor and all of 
the ofhcials who have made it possible to complete this job. 

Yesterday 1 did express the hope that there might be. with some 
ot" the young college students here, at least, who feel that they are 
enamored of this ideology and this movement, a glinnnering and 
awakening awai'eness. 

As 1 said yesterday, they are toying with treason and disloyalty. 
T hope they \y\]\ recognize that there are at least tAvo sides to the 
thing about which I feared in some instances they have been led to be- 
lieve there is only one side. 

In that connection, if they have interest in the work of this com- 
mittee, in the previous hearings and reports of the connnittee, and its 
legislative activities, they can secure material by dii-ecting an inquiry 
or a re(|iiest to the slafl' diiiM'ior of" th(> House Connnittee^ on T^n -Amer- 
ican Activities. 

I just sum this all up wiili one or two sentences. "\\'e lia\(> heard 
the Constitution invoked a great many times and in a great many 
ways the last thi'ee days. The Constitution in its Preamble piovides 
that one of its functions and the functions of the Federal Govern- 



COMjMI^XIST party — XOKTIlF.riX CALIFOKXIA DISTRICT 21()1) 

iiUMil is lo prox ulr for ilic connnon dcftMisi'. That is I he hiisiiicss 
iliai \\i> lia\r Ixhmi aboul and thai is llie business that tlic ( "oniiToss 
has manchiti'd that wo shoiihl be, and should continue to be, al)out. 

Olio linal word : Some archious. dillit-uh, and unpleasant things liave 
occurred here in those pasi few (hiys. They do not aher my impres- 
sion of the very line citizens and tlie \-oi-y line connnunily and tlio 
very line leadersliip in San Francisco. 

Mr. ^^'Il.I,Is. Mr. Scherer ^ 

Mr. SciiEREK. Mr. Chairman, at tlie outset, let me state catejiori- 
callv that the shameful riotino- here in San Francisco was not a 
si)ontaiioous outburst of student indioMiatiou against the TTouse Com- 
mittee on Fn-Americau Acti\ities, as many people would like for us 
to belie\e. ^Ve will be able to understand and better evaluate the 
demonstrations that took place here in San Francisco if we look 
back a few years. 

A})[)roximately three years ago the Communist apparatus decided 
that, if its operations in the United States were to be less hampered 
and more successful, it had to get rid of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities, discredit the great Director of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, and generally weaken the P'Bl's intluence and powers. 
Two and a half years ago, on September 20, 1057, to be exact, the 
Emergency Ci\il Liberties Connnittee at Carnegie Hall in New York 
City assumed this obligation. Obviously such a campaign, conducted 
in the name of the Conununist Party would be unsuccessful. Since 
iliat meeting in Carnegie Hall, the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee has dedicated itself to three objectives : 

L To abolish the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
and In-ing to an end congressional investigations into subversive 
activities. 

2. To discredit J. Edgar Hoover and the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation. 

3. To bring about the repeal of the Smith Act, the Internal Secu- 
rity Act, and the Communist Control Act of 1954. 

Now, the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee has a high-sound- 
ing name. Unfortunately the great majorit}' of Americans and 
some Members of Congress are not aware of the natui-e of this organ- 
ization. So that we may better evaluate and undei-stand what it 
says and does, let me tell you about the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee. 

lioth tlie Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and the House 
Committee on Un-American .Vcti\ities, as well as J. Edgar Hoover in 
his book, '•]\Iastei'S of Deceit," lia\e found this outfit to be Commu- 
nist-controlled and Communist-dominated. Its present chairman, 
Harvey O'Connor, is an identihed Connnunist, presently under indict- 
ment for contempt of Congress for refusing to answer questions con- 
cerning his Communist activities. 

One of the moving forces of the committee is Frank A^'ilkinson, 
also an identified Communist, who has been convicted and sentenced 
;ind whose case is now on ap])eal foi- contemi)t in refusing to answer 
questions about his connections with the Communist conspiratorial 
apparatus. AVilkinson has a long record of service to the Communist 
cause and is the coordinator of tlie efi'ort to bring about the abolition 
of the House Committee on L^n-American ActiA-ities. Frank Wilkin- 
son has been here at City Hall participating in these demonstrations. 



21 70 coivrMuisrisT party — northern California district 

The majority of the ineinlxn-s of tlie national council of this ()r<ran- 
ization have lonor records of service to Communist and Communist- 
front causes. These records are set forth in detail in the House 
(^ommittee on Un-American Activities report (Mititled "Operation 
Abolition.-' 

Xow lot's take a look at what the Emer^jency Civil Lil>erties Com- 
mittee, with the help of others, has done in these two and a half years 
which finallv resulted in this "ufflv American" insurrection in San 
Francisco. 

At first the Emeroency Civil Liberties Committee sent its paid 
hirelings, Clark Foreman and the notorious Frank Wilkinson, into 
the cities Avhere the connnittee lield its liearinofs. Clark Foreman, in 
particular, met in advance of the liearino-s with identified Communists 
aaIio had been subpenaed to testif\^ before the committee. Witnesses 
were instructed how to avoid answerinof questions of the committee 
l)y makinir lonff. Connnunist propa^randa speeches. They were told 
how to bait, vilif}-. and harass members and counsel of the Connnittee 
on Un-American Activities. 

Subsequently, the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee grew 
bolder in its attempt to disrupt the hearings of the Committee on 
l^n-Aniorican Activities. E(Tj(^ sent its people into the (-ities where 
heai'ings were to be held a week or more in advance of the hearings. 
They drafted petitions against the committee in which the work and 
objectives of the committee were com]>letely misrepresented. Signa- 
tures to these petitions were obtained from well-meaning and some 
not so well-meaning citizens of the commmiity. ECLC saAV that ad- 
vertisements bitterly attacking the committee were placed in local 
newspapers. Of course, these "disciples of discord" did not disclose 
to the peoi)le of the community the fact that the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee Avas a (^ommunist-dominated and controlled 
organization. 

Later, other additional techniques Avere adopted. Afeetings and 
rallies Avere set up in advance of and during the committee's appear- 
ance. Leftwing and pro-Communist speakers were imported to ad- 
dress the rallies. Soon it Avas found that rallies did not reach enough 
people, so they began to use the radio for their pro]iaganda attack 
against the investigation of subversive activities. 

In December of last year the Committee on Un-American ActiA^ties 
Avent into Puerto Rico for hearings to shoAv that San Juan Avas a 
nerA'ecenter for a ncAv $100 million prop!ig;ind;i assault upon the Carib- 
bean, Central and South America for the purpose of creating hatred 
and ill-will toAvard the Tmited States. The testimony shoAved Iioav 
the Foi-eign Agents IJegistration Act Avas being flagrantly \'iolated 
and Avhy loopholes in that act must be ])lugo;e(l by the Congress. 

We all know that oA'er 05 percent of the l*uerto Kicans are loyal 
and fine American citizens, but the Congress is also Avell aware of the 
fact that there is a small gi-ouji of radical, unstable, and fanatical na- 
tionalists in the Puerto TJican community. Evei' since Puerto Kicans 
from this gi-oup shot the guards at Plair TTouse during the Truman 
administration aiul INfembers of the Mouse from the gallery, these 
revolutionaries have l)een comi)aratively quiet. T^ately. however, there 
has been a cleA'er. subtle infiltration of their ranks by Communist 
agents for the purpose of stirring nj) agitation and hativd against 
the United States. 



COMMUNIST PARTY NOUTllEKN CALllUUNL/V DISTRICT 2171 

III spite ol" the emolioiml iiisrt ability and ri'volutionary tendencies 
ol' this seirnuMit of I'nerto Kicans, the Enierizency Civil Lil)erlies Ooni- 
niittee sent its executive ilirecloi- all the way from New V(nk (o Sau 
Juan m advance of our iieaiinas. He was on tlie radio vi.'ifvinii' the 
connnittee before its appearance, lie w:i,s ineetina" with subpenaetl 
('(unnnuiists and their left wi no- lawyers and oilier groups in the city. 
He was busy [)reparini>- antl issuing inllamniatory press releases 
against the connnittee. 

As a result, last December m San Juan, we had a preview of what 
liappened here in San Francisco. In San fJuan pickets surrounded 
the Federal Iniilding. I'hey jeered at the conmiittee and spat u[)()n 
our automobiles as we entered the I".S. Courthouse. The continual 
chanting and shouting outside the Courthouse in an attempt to disrupt 
the hearings was a new techni(]ue which was used even more exten- 
sively here in San Francisco. 

In Puerto Kico members of the committee and its stall required 
police protection. None of the leftwing crowd, who regularly- cry 
crocodile tears over alleged de])rivati()n of tlie civil rights of Com- 
numists called befoi'e congressional investigating committees, said 
one w^ord about Members of Congress being deprived of their right 
to move freely about and conduct hearings provided by law without 
physicrd interference from those who differ with the objectives and 
duties of the Connnittee on I Ti-American Activities. 

It is ironical that we heard no cries from these left wingers about 
Members of the Congress being deprived of their civil liberties, their 
freedom of speech, their freedom to move about as they please, and 
their freedom of association. 

The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee was well pleased with 
what liappened in San Juan. 

Two months later, in February of tliis year, the Connnittee on Fn- 
American Activities was liolding hearings in "Washington. Dur- 
ing these hearings it was shown l.ow the disturbances and riots that 
took place at the Seventh Vrorld \ outh P^stival in Vienna last year 
resulted largelv from the fact that the heads of manv of the delegations 
to that festival were not youths but hard-core 40- to (iO-year-old 
members of the Communist apparatus. 

For the Washington hearings the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee developed still anothei- technique. Supposedly spontaneon.sly, 
there sprang up an organization called Youth Against the House Ln- 
American Activities (^ommittee to protest our hearings on the Vienna 
Youth Festival. AA'e were charged with investigating youth and inter- 
fering with the free exj)ression of yotiili, when all we were trying to 
show was that some of the delegations had no hve expression because 
of their being Communist-dominated and coiitrolled by agents of the 
Kremlin. Some of the leftwing jjress cried crocodile tears for the 
young people who descended on Washington. This youth organiza- 
tion against the C(jnnnittee on rn-Ainerican Activities was repi-e- 
sented in the hearing room in Washington by some 200 young- 
people who were supposedly representative of American youth gen- 
erally. T wish you could have seen the disre))utable ari'ay of char- 
acters who wei-e supposed to be a cross section of American youth. 

Before the heai'ings ended, it was shown conclusively that these 
young people i)rotesting these healings were brought toWashington 



2172 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

on buses from New York City by the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee. They were, shepherded there from New York by the same 
notorious Clark Foreman who did the dirty work in San Juan. 
Dorothy Marshall, who is anything but youthful, went all the way 
from Los Angeles to Xew York to assist Foreman in bringing this 
group to Washington. 

Tt was also shown, before the hearings ended, that the headquartei"S 
of this organization called Youth Against the House Un-American 
Activities Committee was the same ollice as the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee; that its press releases attacking the Committee 
on T f^n-American Activities were issued from the office of the Emer- 
gency Ci\jl Liberties Committee. There is no doubt in my mind that 
they were written by Clark Foreman. It was shown that before this 
group made its expedition to "Wasliington, it met in New York and 
was addressed and harangued by Clark Foreman, Dorothy ]Marshall, 
and a number of hard-core Coinmunist fmictionaries, none of whom 
can be classified as youthful. 

The February hearings in Washington were a disgraceful, de- 
ceitful exploitation of youth by the Communist apparatus in an at- 
tempt to further discredit and destroy the Connnittee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities and to furnish grist for the Soviet propaganda ma- 
chine throughout the world. 

As I have said, tiie violence here in San P'^rancisco was the next 
step in the Connnunist assauU against the connnittee. It was clearly 
planned at the highest Communist levels. The demonstrations, the 
rioting, and the resulting photogra})hs are wanted for use throughout 
tlie world by the Kremlin's propagandists in a deceitful attempt to 
show that the young people in America are opposed to their Gov- 
ernment when it \vas moving against Connnunist activities in the 
United States. 

Harry Bridges, the notorious head of the Longshorcnien"s Union, 
was also outside the hearing room inciting the mob to move in. It 
was Harry Bridges who just last year testified before our committee. 
He had just completed a trip around the world during which he 
consuhod with all top (^omnuuiist labor leadei'S in the transportation 
lield. The hearings clearly established that the purpose of his trij) 
was to bring about an agreement with these (^onnnunists in the trans- 
portation field to act in concert in tying uj) shipping tlu'ongliout the 
world when tlie word was given. It was Ilai'ry Bridn'cs who called 
("hiang Kai-shek a "bum" and testified that he wouhl rel'use to send 
war nuiterials to Chiang Kai-shek even though the President of the 
United States felt that shii>ment of such material was necessary for 
the safety and secui'ity of this country. 

In the mol) here in San Fi'ancisco were li\e oi' six other well-known, 
identified Conmiunists. Among them was Archie Brown, avIio started 
the demonstrations in the hearing room the day before. Archie 
Bi'own, in his own words, is a "top-ranking (^ommunist" and has 
been "for 20 years.'' In truth, he is the second-top Connnunist in 
California — second only to Mickey Lima. Also there were Douglas 
Wachtei' and Kalj)!! Izard. I am going to tell you about these two 
in a few minutes. 

Aniouij; the riotei's wcic nicnibcrs of !laii'\ Bi'idm's' Longshore- 
men s Union. In the forcl'ionl were a huge segment of the "beatnik'' 
crowd, or course, a consithM abli^ nnnibcr of students IVoni universi- 



co:\r:\rrxisT party- -xonTiiKnx' rAT.iF(M]xiA district 2173 

ties in the l'>;iy aiva wcro Ihmv. Afostly tlioy were llic victims of tliis 
despicaltlo piopnjjiiiuln i)lnl. Cliicdy I hey Imd coiuc hero only to 
pii'kiM and protest. ur<:ed on by the letnvina', [)ro-(\)nnuuiiist, and 
(\)nniuniisi teachers in the I-iay area who hate the Connnittee on 
Uii-Aniericau Acti\ities with an \in1)elieval)le \enoni. IFowever, 
these brave teacliers stayed in the cloisters of (lie classroom wliile 
tlie students, whose minds had been |)ois()ned with hati'ed and ill-will 
aa'ainst the conimittee, became in\()l\ed in this well-conceived and 
well-oraanized demonstrat ion. 

Before the Con)nntiei' on Fn-American Activities arrived in San 
Francisco. ineetin<2's had been held to arranii'e for picket i]i<i" and 
demonstrations. Meetings \\ere called dnriii^' the hearinii'S to ur<>;e 
attendance and further demonsti-ations a^'ainst the committee. 

Here is a typical excei-pt from the Daily Falifoi-nian, the student 
pnl)lication of the T"ni\ersily of California : 

The Student Committee for Civil TJberties plans to picket 
the heai'ino's today. It has issued a call for students to 
attend the rally and hearina'S and su^-^-ests that people 
"lauirh out loud" in the hearino-s when thinirs ffet ridiculous. 

Hides foi- students who want to attend the hearino-s will 
leave at 8:1.") to !(• a.m. this mornino- from Stiles Hall. 

Amono- the Communist aoeiits who were the principal au'itators, 
and in some cases actual participants in these demon.strations were: 
Archie Brown, Ralph Izard, Frank Wilkinson, Harry Brido;es, Merle 
Brodsky. Douglas Wachter", and Vei'non Bown. It is interestino; to 
note that the hierarchy of the Connnunist Party — Archie Brov.n, 
Balph Izard, Frank Wilkinson, Harry liridaes, and Merle ]3rod- 
sky — was careful to avoid actual violation of the law. They left 
that u)) to the underlinirs in ])arty raidvS. 

I would like to point out that Vernon Boavu, among those ar- 
rested, is the same Vernon Bown who was in 1954 among the no- 
torious Louisville Seven — charged at th.at time with sedition, destruc- 
tion of ])ro))erty. conspiring to destroy pi'operty to acliieve a political 
end, and contempt of court. 

I say for some of the stiulents in\()lved, that they may not have 
fully realized that theii- protests had been organized and directed by 
a liandful of expertly trained Connnunist agents — jiersons who have 
attended training schools for tlie sj)ecitic ])uri)Ose of learning how to 
create insurrection, how to incite a riot, how to organize peaceful 
and nou]:)eaceful ])i'()test, and how to lead and direct sincere inno- 
cents to the service of Communist aims. 

Some de\elopments, as a i-esult of the i-iots. are shocking. I men- 
tion a few of these only to ])oint out the underlying Communist 
tactic and plan Avhich, when the time comes, could well be used for a 
major scale i-iot. insurrection, or o])en i-evolution against duly 
constit uted authority. 

First of all, an important fact which is beginning to plague this 
Nation more and more is what is known as the upcoming ''second 
generation'' Commmiists. The committee has faced these young 
Conununists sons and daughters of Connnunist pai'ents on an ever- 
increasing basis in the past few years. They are school, college, and 
post-college age young people who have been born into the closed 
cell of the Connnunist Partv. Duriuir their school vears, thev are 



2174 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

trained by their parents to follow and promote communism in every 
way possible. 

During these San Francisco hearings, one such "second generation'" 
Communist Avas Douglas Wachter — the son of Saul Wachter, an 
identified (^ommunist agent. Douglas Wachter attended Berkeley 
High School in Berkeley, Calif., and two years ago, his senior year, 
was elected as president of the Junior Statesmen Club, an influential 
]K)litical group on the cam]:)us. He then went on to the I^niversity 
of California where he has been extremely active in campus political 
activity, the Congress of Racial Ecjuality (COKE), and boasts that 
he led the student contingent in the recent protests against the execu- 
tion of Caryl Chessman. 

Douglas Wachter attended the I7th National Convention of the 
Communist Party last December as a delegate from the northern 
sector of the California Communist Party. 

"What did the Comnnniist Party accomplish as a result of the San 
Francisco riots? Their major aim of stopping the hearings failed, 
but the second aim of creating an issue which the Comnnniist press 
can use and twist for propaganda ])urposes throug]u)ut the world 
against the United States was inflniiely successful. For years to 
come, the Communists will be constantly referring to the so-called 
"Black Friday in San Francisco, when the red-baiting, witch-hunting. 
Fascist, racist, T'n -American Committee had to call in 'goon squads' 
whicli used police brutality of the Avorst sort against a spontaneous 
student protest." 

Since the early days, one of the Communists' chief aims has been 
to destroy the confidence of the people in their law-enforcement agen- 
cies. Charges of police brutal it v have ])een revived and used over and 

L.I *. 

over again. 

Some of the (^oimnunist apologists say the police used undue force 
in San Francisco. The Communist publications go so far as to charge 
the police with causing the riot. T hesitate to re])eat some of the 
scurrilous and absolutely untrue charges of brutality being made 
against the police. 

The truth is, that the police and the sheriff leaned over backward 
using almost e\ei'y known device short of force to break u]") the demon- 
strations and flagrant violations of a half-dozen laws before they were 
com])elled to meet violence with fire hoses and forcible eviction from 
the City Plall. It was not until the mob attempted to break into the 
already overcrowded hearing i-oom, had knocked down a police officer 
and had taken away his mace and started pounding him with it, that 
the police moved m. Eight policemen and foui- rioters were has])ital- 
ized. Of course, we hear little sympathy for these police officers. 
We see no ]^hotograi)hs of the attack on the police. We see only 
])ictui-es of rioters being dragc'ed by police fi'om the City Hall because 
they had engaged in mob violence and refused to leave the building 
on directions of the police so that law and order might prevail. 

Of course, the riot and the |)hotos of the police dragging rioters 
who refused to leave the building are grist for the Counnunist propa- 
ganda machine throughout the world. 

This is what some call police brutality or use of excessiA'e force. 

Themembei-s of the Coiumittee on T^n-American Activities state that 
Chief of l\)lice of San Francisco, the Sheriff of San Francisco County 



COMMUNIST PAKTY — NORTHERN CALIFORISIA DISTRICT 217.J 

aiul their men ucled in acionlance willi (lie highest and finest traditions 
of hiw-enforcement otlicials. 'rhisCongressshouhl romniond tliem and 
express onr regrets and sympathy lor those ollicers and tlieir I'amilies 
who were injured in the proper performance of their dnty. 

I appreciate, Mr. Chairman, your giving me tliis opportunity to 
make these observations. I know it took a long time, but I felt that 
the record should ilisclose what I have said. 

Mr. AViLLis. Thank you very much. 

Mr. SciiEREK. 1 also ask leave to revise and extend additional re- 
marks before the record of these hearings is printed. 

Mr. WiLiJs. A^'ithout objection (he recpiesl of llie gentleman from 
Ohio is granted. 

The hearings are now concluded. 

("Whereupon, at 5:58 p.m., Saturday, May 14, 1960, the subcom- 
mitte adjourned, to reconvene at the call of the Chair.) 



(Additional remarks by Congressman Scherer follow:) 

Mr. Scherer. Since returning from San Francisco I have received 
from a number of ministers who were present at the liearings a copy 
of a voluntary joint statement issued by the following: Dr. G. Archer 
Weniger, of Oakland; Key. Don Watson, of Oakland; Dr. II. Austin, 
of San Francisco; Rev. Eobert F. Hakes, of Alameda; Dean William 
G. Bellshaw, of the San Francisco Baptist Seminary; Dr. H. O. Van 
Gilder, of the Western Baptist Bible College; Dr. Arno Weniger, of 
San Francisco: 

Here follows their own eyewitness account of what transpired in- 
side the hearing room. Of course, the rioting outside the hearing- 
room was, to say the least, far more serious. 

More than a dozen ministers were in attendance at the con- 
gressional hearings of tlie House Un-American Activities 
Committee in San Francisco on May 12 and 13 in the Super- 
visors Chambers in the City Hall. What we witnessed was 
utterly fantastic. The sh.ameful demonstration against law 
and ordei- and against this duly constituted connnitte« of the 
Congress deiie.s description. We sat in the rear of the room 
on a raised platfonn whei-e we could easily observe the pro- 
ceedings, I'ight in the midst of the student demonstrators. 
We studied the crowd carefully for houi-s and could easily 
discern which were the masterminds of the mob riots. It is 
our certain conviction that this indefensible demonstration 
against law and oi-der was conceived. i)lanned, and directed 
by a few hard-core Conununist agitators who were cari*jdng 
out their textbook ordei-s on insurrection with classic success. 
I^eaders of the mob included faculty members and well- 
known leftist lawyers for the fifth-amendment Communists. 

We were sitting where we were able to observe the giving 
of instructions by the riot leaders who had gained access to the 
room. The Daily Californian, which was disti-ibuted widely 
at the scene, gave explicit instructions on the front page of 
the Thursday issue on exactly how to harass the committee. 
They were told to laugh out loud at every incident that ap- 



2176 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

peared to be ainusini>- in order to make tlie Congressmen look 
ridiculous. These well-disciplined mobsters laughed on the 
dotted line and obeyed their masters to the last jeer. We 
watched a national connnitteeman for the part}' line up a 
dozen Connnunists near tlie railing and throw every sneer, 
invective, abusive language, vile profanity, and fiendish 
charge at the Congressmen tliey could conceive. For nearly 
15 minutes at one point, this lawless crowd of students from 
the univei'sity, togetlier with party cadres, had the chambers 
almost in their control. The students, comprising the rear 
third of the audience stood up on tlieir seats and yelled, 
jeered, hissed, and scoU'ed at the Congressmen. It was al- 
most complete ])reakdow]i of law and order. "We witnessed 
more violations of the law in 1.') minutes than we have seen 
in 15 years. The only criticisms we have of the police au- 
thorities were of allowing this clement to make sucli a mock- 
ery out of law and order, without jailing every one of the 
leaders. 

The height of their devilish hypocrisy was reached when 
they had the consunnnate nerve to profane the national an- 
them by singing it at the peak of their demonsti'ation, and 
giving expression to their treasonable tlelight by singing 
'"Mine Eyes Have Seen the (ilory of the Coming of the 
Lord." The depth of their deceit was reached when this mob 
element })ut their hand over their heart aiul pledged allegi- 
ance to the flag. We shall never forget the hisses and boos 
that greeted Mr, Arens when he first mentioned the name of 
God in comiection witli one who broke from the party. 

We are at a loss to understand how clergymen, such as 
Bishop .lames IMke, could give any aid and comfort to this 
lawless kintl of activity by statements deriding the commit- 
tee, and by allowing his assistant i)astor to address one of 
their despicable rallies. 

We came away from tliis hcai-ing absolutely convinced of 
the overwhelming necessity of continuing the House Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities. No free agent could view the 
hearings without being imi)ressed with the fairness, justice, 
and dedication to a thaidcless, but i)ositively necessary task. 
Cliairman Edwin Willis was unusually tem[)erate and pa- 
tient. We have nothing but unbounded admiration for 
Ixichard Arens, committee counsel, whose skill and under- 
standing of this })erilous conspiracy was a blessing to be- 
hold. We a[)ologi/e to these devoted })ublic servants from 
Congress for the devilish and deceitful conduct of an in- 
finitesimally small hiii alaiiningly arrogant segment of this 
area, who are willing to be tools of the Connnunist conspiracy 
which would make a shambles out of the liberty which marks 
this m'eat Nation as the land of the free and the home of the 
brave. 



THE XOIITHEUX ( AIJIORMA DIS I RI( T OF THE 

COMMIMST rAKTY 

Structure — Objectives — lieadership 

(Part 3) 



FRIDAY, JUNE 10. 1960 
TjxiTKi) States House of Representatives, 

SuBCOM^riTTEE OF THE 

Committee ox Un^- Americax Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 
executive SESSIOX" ^ 

The subconiinittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in room 226, Old House Office Buildino-, 
Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the subcommhtee) presidinir. 

Subcommittee members present : Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana, and 
Auo-ust E. Johansen, of Michigan. 

Start' members present: Richard Arens, start' director; Francis J. 
McXamara and Fulton Lewis III, research analysts. 

^Ir. Wiixis. The subcommittee will ])lease come to order. 

It will not ]>e necessary to again swear the witness, because we are 
today completing the record which we began and were unaljle to con- 
clude because of lack of time duriiii!: our recent hearings in San 
Francisco, ^lay 12-14. 

Mr. Prussion, we are pleased to welcome you here in Washington to 
complete your testimony. 

Proceed, if you please, Mr. Arens. 

TESTIMONY OF KARL PRUSSION— Resumed 

Af]-. Ahexs. Ml-. Pi'ussioii, during your previous testimony in San 
Francisco you spoke of the prerequisites of revolution. What ai-e 
these prerequisites from the Communist viewpoint? 

Mr. l*Russiox. Hie C^ommunist Party is a party of Leninism and 
all party members are disciples of Lenin. Leninism is a program 
which directs Communist Party members in attaining the prerecjuisites 
of the revolution and, when these prerequisites are accomplished, llie 
overall strategy of overthrowing the Government by force and vio- 
lence and setting up a dictatorshi]) of the Communist Party will be 
carried out. 



'^ Released hy the committee and ordered to he printed. 

2177 



2178 COMMUNTST PARTY NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

The prerequisites, briefly, are as follows : 

Fii-st, a strong enough Communist Paiiy — which the Communist 
calls the vanguard of the working class — strong enough to lead an 
insuiTCction and actions to overilirow our Govei-nment by force and 
violence. 

This does not mean sti"ength in numbers in tlie Communist Party 
but it means a dedicated core able to lead, as pre\-iously described. 

The second prerequisite of the ro\-o]ution is that there must l)e 
disunity of the govermnental body of our Nation, that there be dis- 
sension within the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of our 
Government on vital issues of the day. 

llie third prerequisite for the revolution is an economic situation 
whereby the Communists, through their leadership in social, eco- 
nomic and political organizations, can successfully carry out the 
revolution. 

This economic situation does not necessarily n^.ean a depression. It 
could be an inflationary spiral, whereby economic chaos could ma- 
terialize. 

The fourth prerequisite of a revolution, and this is closely related 
to the third prerequisite, is a trade union movement that the Com- 
munist Party can successftdly actuate into a political strike. 

A j)olitical strike is different from an economic and social strike, 
such as wages, working conditions, et cetera, in that it is a strike 
against law, against legislation oi- some other political issue. 

Such a strike, for example, was recently threatened b}- Walter 
l\euther Avhen he stated, in eil'ect, that if the Taft-Hartley Act was 
invoked in the steel strike, he would call a slowdown strike within the 
(TO. This wotild have beeri a political strike. 

Harry Bridges has many times staled that he will call a j)olitical 
strike of his long-shoremen if there is a war in which he and his union 
are not in accord. 

A more recent example, not in the T'nited States, but in riapan, 
of a political strike was the recent strike called by the leftwing trade 
imion movement against Eiseniiower's visit and against the treaty that 
we are now concluding with Japan. 

Mr. Arens. In general, Mr. Prussion, how would you say the United 
States Commimist Party stands today in relation to this objective it 
has of establishing its prerequisites for revolution ? 

First of all, there is the questioji of the strength of the Commmiist 
Party ? 

Mr. Prussion. I think the Communist Party today is sufficiently 
capable of carrying out an insuiTection if the other prerequisites are at- 
tained. The figure of ap[)roximately 10,000 hard-core members of the 
Communist Party, of course, is not at all accurate because at least an 
equal number. I estimate through my experience, have dr()pj)ed out oF 
the (\)inmunist Party for the sole purpose of hiding their identity so 
that they can cany out their rexolutionary work more eil'ect i\ely in 
economic, political, and social organizations. 

Mr. Arens. When you say you believe the United States Communist 
Party is strong enough to lead an insurrection, you do not mean, tlo 
you, that the party itself will take over this Government by force and 
violence? 

Mr. Prission. No, of course tiot. I mean that the Connnujiist 
Pai'ty is able al tlie })resent time with the prerequisites, assuming they 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2179 

were attained at the present time, to snccessfully lead snch an insnr- 
rection throutjli their inllucnce politically, economically, and socially 
tliroug-hout the United States. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, it wouhl be a situation something like 
the riots that took place in San Francisco a few weeks a<jo, where 
there will be handt'nl of Communists who stinmlate and incite large 

groups of non-Connnunists to take certain actions wliich help the 
onnnunist Party ? Is that the idea ? 

Mr. Puussiox. That is a very mild example of the degree- with which 
the Communists can operate under what tliey call a more favorable 
revolut ionaiy situation. 

At a 1958 Xational Executive Committee meeting of the Connnunist 
Party, in the report of James S. Allen, it was clearly stated that the 
situation and conditions in the T"'^nited States at the present time are 
more satisfactory toward ihe j)]aniiing of the Connnunist j)rogram 
of the dictatorship of the i)roletariat than they vrere in the Soviet 
Union when the Bolshevik Party seized power in October 1917. 

1 quote from James S. Allen's report on basic program for the 
Initiating Committee on Program to the Xational Executive Commit- 
tee of the Communist Party, May 9, 1958 : 

Yot. in seeking to chart our road to socialism, we are in a much liotter jjosition 
than the Marxists in the period before the Great Russian Revolutiou, wliich pio- 
neered the road, or than we were before World War II, before a number of coun- 
tries took that road. 

( Document marked "Prussion lOxhihit No. 1,'' see A])]), p. ^^kS;").) 

It is important to note that all of the activities of the Communist 
Party, whether they be within political organizations, church organi- 
zations, school organizations, all organizations — political, economic, 
or social— all of their work is revolutionary work in their view, whereas 
on the surface it woidd appear to be peaceful work within our Consti- 
tution and within our Bill of Rights. 

AVe always have to bear in mind that the Communist Party is a party 
of Lenin, and Lenin clearly stated that the parliament can never be 
an arena of struggle for tlie improving of the conditions of the citi- 
zenry, that the parliament is only to be used ultimately for the estab- 
lishment of a dictatorship and for the destruction of the parliament 
itself. 

This is elementary to every Communist and it is the purpose, there- 
fore, of all their actions within our democratic process, to accelerate 
the day when the prerequisites of the revolution can be met, parliament 
destroyed and the dictatorship established. 

Mr. xVrens. Could you give us some examples, Mr. Prussion, of 
the kind of so-called |)eaceful activity which the Communists engage 
in which, in their view, are actually ])rvjmoting the 'prerequisites for 
the day when outright violence can be used ? 

Mr. Prussion. The Conmmnist Party, ever since its inception in 
the United States, has made the Negro people a target of Communist 
Party propaganda in an effort to "lead" the Negro people in their 
struirgle to better tlieir conditions, but the (Communist Party is not 
interested in bettering the conditions of the Negro people as such. 
Communists are only interested to the degree that they can organize 
the Negro pe(>])]e into a part of the insurrectionary movement at some 
future date for tlie ovei'throw of 1 he (loveriimoit hv foii'e and violence. 



2180 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

They are exploiting the Xeoro })eoi)le rather than helping them. 
This is one example. 

Mr. Arexs. This -svould lit in, then, Avith the second prerequisite for 
revolution, too — that is, that of creating disunity and dissension in the 
Nation, not only within the Government but among the people as a 
whole ? 

Mr. Prussiox. Yes. The Communist Party has used every 
strategem that the}' know to attempt to win over the Xegro people to 
the Conmiunist cause of revolution. 

At first they had a program of self-determination of the Negroes 
in the Black Belt, which meant that where the Negro people consti- 
tuted a majority in the South, they should rebel and secede from the 
Nation and set up their own government. 

This ])r()gram of the Connnunist Party amongst the Negro people 
failed miserably because tlie Negro people did not want to secede from 
our Government but wanted to be part of it. 

The Communist Party very recently changed its ])roclaimed policy 
to one of total integration and full equality for the Negro people, and 
since this change of policy the Connnunists hope to achie\e greater 
success in their Avork in winning over segments of the Negro popula- 
tion to the "'class struggle." This is not, of course, to say that integra- 
tion as such is Connnunist or that all who advocate integration are 
Communists. 

The Communists' purpose, of coui-se, in working amongst the Negro 
people is to provoke race hatred, violence, to raise what they call the 
class conscious level of the Negro people, to instill class hatred, to get 
members into the Connnunist Party and to ultimately utilize this whole 
section of the American workina- class in their final goal of destroving 
our Government by force and violence and establishing a dictatorship 
of the proletariat. 

]Mr. Arkxs. Could you give us one or two more examples. ^Ir. 
Prussion, of areas or issues in which the Comnnmists are operating 
today in a so-called peaceful manner but with the objective of promot- 
ing the <'onditions that are prerequisites for revolution ^. 

Mr. Prussiox. Yes. 1 would like to cite an example of Com- 
munist infiltration in the Mountain A^iew, Los Altos-Palo Alto ai-ea. 

There is an organization there known as the Council for Civic 
lenity, Los Altos-]\rountain A^icw 1)i'anch. This organization ob- 
viously is a good American organization which is symbolic of the 
cracker barrel and town hall meeting methods of doing things. It is 
:in oi'ganization that Americans can be proud of. It believes that all 
mankind should have equality, regardless of their race, color, or creed. 

However, in 11)51 (lie Con.nnunist Pai-ty, Los Altos-Mountain View 
cell, received directives from the section committee to infiltrate this 
organization. The infiltration took place. Approximately nine mem- 
bers of the Communist l^irty joined the o7-ganization. And it Avas 
the ])urpose of the Connnunists witliiii tliat organization to do their 
revolutionary work therein. 

As a result, the organization was used to carry out activities that 
the Communist Party has seen fit at difl'erent periods during the exist- 
ence of this organization. 

To show you the degree of ])enetration in this organization: At a 
cell meeting held at the home of Michael Shapovalov in Menlo Park, it 



COMMUXIST PARTY — NOKTHKHN CALllUi;.\ lA JJI.STKICT 2181 

was decided that I, Karl Prussion, become nu)ie active in the Council 
for Civic Unity. 

Doris DaAvson, a member of tiie cell, stated that she would contact 
Peter Szego, who is a professor at the University of Santa Clara and 
at that time was secretary of the Mountain View-Los Altos branch of 
the Council for Civic Unity, and she Avould instruct him to sti^p down 
from his position as secretary, since he was too busy in orgaiiizing the 
Los Altos-Mountain View California Democratic Club, in my favor. 

Approximatel}' three or four days after this agreement was reached 
in the Communist l*arty cell, I^eter Szego came to my home and handed 
over to me the indexed membership list of the Mountain View-Los 
Altos Council for Civic Unity, which I have here today. 

Of course, this membership list has always been available to the 
(^onnnunist Party since it had infilti'ated the organization so thor- 
oughly. As a result, most of these members who are not Connnunists 
have Jbecome inadvertent victims of Communist propaganda through 
the mails and through personal contact. IMany of these members 
Jiave been used by the Connnunists for such purposes as signing peace 
pledges, getting subscriptions to the official organ of the Communist 
Party, inviting these people to other meetings that were initially 
started by the Communist Party, et cetera. 

This is one example of how the Connnunist Party uses deceit in order 
to work in the revolutionary Avay amongst innocent people who have 
good motivations. 

]Mr. Arexs. "Would you identify for us, Mr. Prussion, those persons 
known to you to be Communist Party members who infiltrated the 
club ? 

Mr. Pkussiox. The Communist Party members who infiltrated this 
organization are: Mr. and Mrs. Ed Becks, Mr. and Mrs. Walter 
ITarju, Elizabeth Xicholas, Mary Wilson, Mary Field, Peter Szego, 
and of course I was in there, too. 

I want to emphasize that there are many members of the Council 
for Civic Unity wdio hold positions of high esteem in the community, 
such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, et cetera. And I, by no means, 
infer that these people are either fellow travelers or sympathetic to the 
cause of communism. I simply say that they are targets of Commu- 
nist Party propaganda and activity. 

Mr. Arexs. As a meml^er of this group yourself, did you see any 
evidence of where the Communist infiltraters in it had influenced other 
members ? 

Mr. Prussiox'. Well, most all the other members are influenced by 
tlie effect of the activity of the Communist Party because the program 
of this club, unfortunately, has yielded to Commmiist Party activity 
A\hich the Communists use for their revolutionary work. 

Mr. Arex'S. Could you give us some specific examples? 

Mr. Prussiox". Yes. The Communist Party through the Council 
for Civic LTnity has been able to stinudate people in the area to support 
such activities as getting housing for Negro peo]:)le in what is cus- 
tomarily considered a white community. In doing this, the Com- 
munist Party tries to gain leadership and tries to instill a "class 
hatred" and a "class consciousness" in people involved in tliese activ- 
ities, and they also try, of course, to recruit members into the Com- 
munist Party as a result of these activities. T don't want my statc- 

.".(■..-,07 -CO pt ?, R 



2182 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

ments here to be misconstrued. I am not saying that the community 
integration of Negro people is Communist, but that the Communists 
use this as a means of trying to gain prestige and to infihrate. 

Mr. Arens. Woidd you care to give more details on the second 
of the prerequisites for revolution that you mentioned ? That was the 
one on national disunity and dissension, or do you feel you have cov- 
ered that ? 

Mr. Prussion. As an example of how the Communist Party uses 
our democratic privileges in their effort to hasten the day when the 
prerequisites of the revolution are met, and then ultimately destroy 
these democratic privileges that give them the right to act at the 
present time : 

The Supreme Court of the United States has always been a target 
of the Communist Party through petitions, telegrams, letters, mass 
meetings, delegations, et cetera, in order to attempt to influence deci- 
sions from the Supreme Court, as they pertain to various anti-Com- 
munist Party legislation, to influence the court decisions favorable to 
the Commmiist Party and make it easier for them to operate. 

Mr. Arens. Would the recent U-2 incident be the type of thing the 
Communists would try to exploit to create dissension and dismiity? 

Mr. Prussion. Wliy, certainly. The Communist Party of the 
United States at the present time is justifying the breaking up of the 
Smnmit Conference by Khrushchev, using the U-2 incident as a pre- 
tense. This is the line of the Communist Party following the line of 
the Communist International or the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union through Khrushchev. 

Another example of promoting national disunity was that during 
the period of the Korean War, the Communist Party of the United 
States set up hundreds of so-called "peace"' organizations. These 
peace organizations were set up through instructions from Moscow 
through the World Peace Congress that was set up by the Kremlin. 

The purpose of the peace clubs was principally to put the Soviet 
Union forth to the American public as the country that is desirous 
for peace, whereas the United btates was portrayed as a comitry bent 
on aggression or war. 

During the time that peace clubs were active they circulated the 
so-called Stockholm Peace Petition and were instnicted to get millions 
of signatures in the United States. The purpose, of course, was to 
cause complacency and indifference, to split the iVmerican public 
insofar as national defense is concerned and two or tlu^ee months after 
this petition was started. North Korea, using gims and tanks and 
military equipment made in the Soviet Union, attacked and invaded 
South Korea. 

This is an example of the creation of disunity and thei*eby disarming 
America in preparation for the Soviet attack on South Korea. 

Mr. Arens. Did these same peace clubs, after the war in Korea 
started, try to break up the generally united purpose of the American 
people to fight that war to a successful conclusion? 

Mr. Prussion. The peace clubs, and when I say peace clubs, I have 
in mind the peace club that I was operating in, the Palo Alto Peace 
Club, playing upon the emotions of tha American people and the 
Christian desire for peace that America does have, tried to help the 
North Korean ofFensive by demoi'alizing the public generallv and our 



coMivrcmiST party — noutiieun California district 2183 

troops at the front, callinc: it a needless war, callin«^ for our boys to 
come home, and ap})ealinij: principally to mothers, and this certainly 
was historically a veiy effective method used by these peace clubs in 
helpinof the Soviet forces win a partial victory in Korea. 

It is interestinf^ to note that when the South Korean forces and the 
United Nations forces were almost driven out of Korea, that the cry 
for peace was minimized, whereas when MacArthur succeeded in driv- 
inc: the North Korean forces to the Yalu River the peace clubs called 
for peace at the 38th parallel, 

Mr, Arexs. Could you give us a few examples of the manner in 
which Communists tiy to promote the economic conditions that would 
serve as a prerequisite to revolution ? 

Mr. Prussiox. Well, the Communist Party tries, within the trade 
union movement, to arouse class hatred and raise what it calls the 
"class conscious" level of the workers. Communists attempt to use 
the leiiitimate trade miion movement and legitimate social advances 
for the purpose of causing more and more inflation. The party at- 
tempts to stimulate excessive wage demands and excessive Government 
spending for social benefits with the idea of hastening the collapse of 
om: economic system, which is one of the prerequisites of the revolu- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens, Did Communist leaders actually discuss and give di- 
rectives on this point in the course of your own experience in the 
Communist Party? 

Mr, Prttssiox, Yes. The literature and books that the Communist 
must read, such as "State and Revolution" ; books on the trade miion 
movement; principally the works and classics of Lenin, " 'Left-Wing" 
Communism — An Infantile Disorder," "Strategy and Tactics," et 
cetera. All of these books and lectures and discussion groups and edu- 
cationals within the cells, discuss the hastening of the collapse of our 
economic stiiicture through the class struggle principle generated by 
the Communist Part}' through the trade union movement. 

Mr. Arexs, That leads us to the fourth point you mentioned, the 
fourth prerequisite for revolution, tliat is, the creation of a trade 
union movement that is of such a nature that the Communist Party 
can activate it into political strikes, rather than strikes concerning 
economic and labor issues. 

Would you care to say anything about the Commmiist Party's esti- 
mate of the situation in this countiy today on this point? 

Mr. Prussiox. The Communist Party feels that the trade union 
movement contains within it elements which may be exploited so far 
as this prerequisite of the revolution is concerned. 

Mr, Arexs. Inasmuch as some 11 unions — and important unions — 
were thrown out of the CIO in 1950 for being under Communist 
control, how can the Communists feel this way? 

Mr, Prussion. The Communist Party is not too concerned about 
who the leadership of the trade union movement is at the present time, 
as long as it believes the trade union movement is being built and 
directed in the spirit of class struggle, class war generally ; in which 
the class-conscious level of the working people is raised. The Com- 
munists feel that they will be al)le to exploit this class hatred for the 
purpose of overthrowing our Government by force and violence. Of 
course this does not mean that the trade union movement is Com- 
mmiist inspired. 



2184 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

I would like to relate an incident which I will always remember. 
Back in 1938, durino; a period in which the Connnunist Party in 
Detroit was extremely influential in the leadership of the development 
and direction of the CIO industrial labor movement, the Communist 
Party members throughout tlie Detroit area were discouraged by the 
fact that Walter Reuther, who at that time was coming forward as 
the leader of the United Auto Workers Union, CIO, that Walter 
Reuther was not giving jobs to Communists within the union and 
that it was more difficult to control Walter Reuther than in the past. 

A meeting was called of Connnunist Party cells throughout the 
plants on the west side of the city of Detroit, where Walter Reuther 
was entrenched. The meeting was attended by such people as Jack 
Stachel, Earl Browder, William Weinstone, Nat Ganley, and one 
Bill Gebert. Bill Gebert represented the Communist International 
in the city of Detroit during the period that the CIO was formed 
and he directed the whole organizational strategy of sit-down strikes 
and activities of the Communists in the unions generally. Even the 
top party leaders obeyed Gebert. 

Mr. Arens. "VMiat was the purpose of the meeting ? 

Mr. Prussion. The meeting was to discuss whether or not to come 
out openly within the CIO to attempt to dispose of Walter Reuther 
and for the Communist Party to try to seize complete control of the 
ITnited Automobile Workei-s Union at that time. 

After considerable discussion by many of the national leaders of 
the Communist Party at this meeting. Bill Gebert stated as follows : 
That we Communists are a party of Leninism, a party of strategy 
and tactics, and it is the policy of the Communist Party to build a 
trade union movement, based on Ijeninism, based on class struggle, 
based on class hatred, a union in which the class-conscious level of 
the auto workers would be raised, based on the need for recruiting 
members into the Communist Party and, as long as Walter Reuther or 
any other leader would build and continue to build a union in which 
we could take advantage of this spirit, the Connnunist Party cer- 
tainly would not enter into a struggle within the union for the titular 
control of the miion. 

The Communists recognize that the great majority of union leadere 
and rank-and-file members are loyal and anti-Communist, so they are 
now concentrating their eiforts at the grassroot level within the shops 
and locals, ti-ying to exert prCvSsures on the leaders in the mterest of 
policies and programs which the Communist Party favors. Of course, 
they do not reveal that they are Connnunists or that tlie pi-ogi-ams 
which they advocate are wliat the Connnunist Party wants. They are 
confident that they are making gi'eat headway in this tactic. They 
are using an "anti-monopoly'' and "anti-big-business" line which goes 
OA^er well with some militant unionists. 

JNIr. AiiENS. In other words, is it the spirit of the trade unionists 
generally, rather than their actual control by party members, that 
the Communists hope to use for their ends? That is, if they are gen- 
erally emotionall}^ antagonistic to big business as such, the party con- 
siders that they are then ripe for Connnunist influence ? 

Mr. Prussion". That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. By Communists; to do things that will serve the Com- 
munist cause even though their leaders may be actually anti- 
Communist ? 



CO]MjVITJNIST party NORTH KKX CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2185 

jNIr. Pkussiox. That is absolutely coiTocf. 'I'he Commnnist Party 
would certaiuly like to have leailei-sliip within the trade union move- 
ment l)ut they are working- hard now, as previously stated, down at 
the grassroots within the trade union movemiMit through which the}' 
try to exert pressures upon the leadership of the trade union move- 
ment, tryiuir to get, for example, legislation passed in the interest of 
the program of the Conuuunisi l*arly, 

Mr. Akexs. Earlier in your testimony, Mr. Prussion, you spoke of 
(\)inunniist infiltration in political fields. Could you give us some 
examples of this^ 

]Mr. Prfssiox. ]\Iy following testimony as regards Communist 
Party infiltration in political fields is in no way a reflection on either 
of our two great political parties, the Kepublican Party or the Demo- 
cratic Paity. However, 1 would like our two political parties to be- 
come acquainted with facts that are alarming concerning attempted 
C^onnnunist Party infiltration and the major successes that it has had 
in its political work. 

Back just ])rior to the defeat in 1952 of Vincent Hallinan, who was 
ruiniing for President on the Independent Progressive Party ticket — 
and at that time the Independent Progressive Party was the political 
arm of the Connnunist Party, totally and completely controlled by 
the Connnmiist l^arty — the Connnunist Party at that time changed its 
})olicy, torpedoed the Independent Progressive Party and let it shift 
for itself until it disintegrated, and began a full scale effort of infiltra- 
tion of the Democratic Party. 

I want to point out that at the time this was done the Communist 
Party was seriously considering infiltrating the Ilepublican Party, 
since they felt that the Republican Party was at that time the party 
of peace, and the Democratic Party was the party of war. Put Com- 
numist leadership decided, in xiew of the fact that the mainstream 
of the labor movement still flowed toward the Democratic Party, that 
it would be coiTect to try to attempt to infiltrate the Democratic 
Party. 

For example, the Coimnunist Party so thoroughly infiltrated the 
South Palo Alto Democratic Club that it was able to exert considei-- 
able influence on the club's policies. 

JSIr. xVeexs. When was this club formed ? 

Mr. Prussiox'. It was formed back in 1956. 

Mr. Arexs. Did tlie Communists move into this club back in 195(5, 
and actually have a hand in the formation of the club ? 

Mr. Prussion. That is right. Shall I name the Communists who 
are members of this club ? 

Mr. Arex^s. If you know positively from your own experience with- 
in the Communist Party that they are member's of the party and if 
you haven't named them previously. 

Mr. Prussiox'. I have named some of them previously, but not as 
associated with this particular grouj:). 

Mr. Arens. Then you may go ahead and name each one who is 
known to you as a party mem])er and a member of this club. 

JNIr. Prussion. The following are members of the Connnunist Party 
in this club: Sara Alchermes, Mary Field, Leonard Grumet, Walter 
Harju, Allan Isaksen, Edward Ross, Belle Ross. I might add that 
Isaksen's wife, Eleanor, and Harju's wife, "Wilma, have also joined 



2180 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

this club. However, I have never seen them at Communist Party cell 
meetings and do not know that they are actually party members. 

Mr. 2\jtENS. Is Belle Koss the wife of Ed lloss i 

Mr. Prussion. Yes. Jack Stallings, Ann Stallings, his wife; El- 
liott Wilson, Mary Wilson, and Emei*son Street. 

Now, about Emerson kStreet, I would like to say that he was a 
member of the Coimnunist Party for a considerable length of time and 
was dropped out of the Communist Party. However, he is regarded 
very highly in the party circles and his name very often comes up at 
cell meetings as a good, active, worldng Communist within the ranks 
of the California Democratic clubs. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of any examples of Conmiunist infiltra- 
tion in the Republican Party I 

Mr. Prussion. I know of no such examples other than myself. 
At a section meeting of the Conmiunist Party held during the time the 
infiltration was started into the Democratic Party, I was instructed 
to register as a llcpublican because of the position that I held in 
the community and it is very possible that a few others of whom I 
have no knowledge may have been instructed to do the same. 

Mr. Arens. Specifically, what do you mean, your position in the 
community ? In what way were you different from the other mem- 
bers of the Communist cells to which you belonged ? 

Mr. Prussion. Well, I had been a contractor in the area, building 
tracts of homes, and I was considered a segment of that part of the 
community that would most likely be in the Republican Party. And 
you have to remember, too, at this time, this decision was made at the 
time when they were seriously considering whether to go all out into 
the Republican Party. 

Mr. Arexs. W^hat did you do in the Republican Party to further 
Communist aims ? 

j\Ir. Prussion. Nothing. The party gave me no directives. I just 
registered Republican, never joined a Republican club. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us an example of the ends achieved by 
the Communists through this type of infiltration ? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes, I can give you an example. This infiltration 
of this club, California Democratic Club of South Palo Alto, was 
not unique and peculiar to South Palo Alto. I*erhaps I should ex- 
plain here that a movement began to set up local ''Democratic Coun- 
cils," as tliey are called, all o\ er the State, in 1953, I believe, for the 
purpose of activating the Democratic Party. The Conmnniist Party 
has not only had its members join establislied Denuicratic Party clubs 
but has also moved into these couiu'ils and, through them, is setting 
up additional local clubs. Annually, ilelegates from some of the 
Democratic clubs and other official party bodies which have affiliated 
lluMuselves with the California Democratic Council meet in a state- 
wide California Democratic Council convention. The council con- 
\cntion ser\es as the Connnunist's statewide political transmission belt 
insofar as they have l)een able to capture or dominate these councils 
and also the selection of the clubs' delegates to the convention. Hence 
it was that on February i-2, lo, and 14, 19G0, when the California 
Democratic clubs sent delegates to the annual convention of the Cali- 
fornia Democratic Council in Fiesno, some of the resolutions that 
were passed were indeed a great victory for, and stimulant to tlie 
Conununist conspiracy and its general strategy and tactics of prepar- 
ing the Nation through parliamentary methods for the forthcoming 
seizure of power by the Conununist Party. 



COMMUNIST PARTY NOKTUKKN CALIFOKNIA DISTRICT 21^7 

Mr. Ain:xs. ^Vhat were the resolutions ^ 

]\Ir. PuirssiON. One of the resolutions passed demanded that the 
Unitod States disarm, even if ne^rotiations to achieve world disarma- 
ment failed, and even if the Soviet Union does not disarm. 

Mr. Arexs. "Was that the only one? 

ATr. Piussiox. Xo, there are many more. 

Inchide llvd China in ne^-otiations to hall nuclear tests. 

Mr. AiiENS. AMiat is the Communist purpose in that resolution? 

Mr. Prussion. It is the avowed puq)ose of the Connnunist Party to 
gradually and ultimatidy get the recognition of Communist China, 
and by including them in halting nuclear tests, this is a step in that 
direction. The recognition of Ited China would indeed be a catas- 
trophe for the free world because Red China is morally wron<^ and 
something that is morally wrong can never be politically, economically 
right. 

Red China in its drive for power has killed hundreds of thousands 
of Christians. They are an atheistic regime and recognition of Red 
China would help perpetuate the tyraimical govermiient that they have 
and would raise them in the esteem of the rest of Asia to the extent 
where they could, with little effort, take all of Asia into their orbit. 

jNIr. Arexs. Were any other resolutions adopted which coincided 
with Commmiist Party demands ? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes. Abolish the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities. One of the first and most important activities of the 
Communist Party to make it easier for them to do their revolutionary 
work is to abolish the Committee on Un-American Activities. Cer- 
tainly the abolition of the committee would be a staggering blow to 
the freedom-losing people of the world, because this would certainly 
facilitate to no end the activities of the Connnunist Party. 

The Conmimiist Party, just prior to the recent hearing in San Fran- 
cisco, used es'ery conceiA'able parliamentary method to stop the com- 
mittee hearing, such as petitions, telegrams, meetings, picketing, et 
cetera. 

This failed to stop the committee from appearing in San Francisco 
so the Communist Party, bent on its destruction, resorted to force and 
violence to attain that end. Based on my experience in the Com- 
munist Party I would say that this demonstration has all the eannarks 
of a (\)mmunist Party operation. 

This is an example of Leninism in action, Lenin states, and I 
might say that this is the heart of the Communist movement in the 
Linited States, and throughout the w^orld : 

No parliament can in any circumstances be for Commnnists an arena of struggle 
for reforms. The only question can be that of utilizing bourgeoisie state insti- 
tutions for their destruction * * *. A Communist must be prepared to make 
every sacrifice anrl if necessary, even resort to all sorts of schemes and strate- 
gems. employ illegitimate methods, conceal the truth in order to get into social, 
political and economic organizations, stay there and conduct the revolutionary 
work within. (Vol. XXV p. 149, vol. XXVII p. 142, Colleated Works.) 

Another resolution : Oppose all legislation which would inhibit the 
powers of the United States Supreme Court. The Communists are 
very anxious not to have any legislation which would inhibit the 
powers of the Supreme Court because, unfortunately, the Supreme 
Court in recent years has made decisions, usually by a 5^ vote, that 
reversed many lower court rulings and facilitated the activities and 
perpetuation of the Conmiunist Party. For this reason the Commu- 



2188 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

nists don't want the lower courts to have the final say on these ques- 
tions and this is what would happen if Congress were to take from the 
Supreme Court some of the powers it now lias. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any further resohitions you would like to 
mention ? 

Mr. Prussion. Request the President to review the ^Morton Sobell 
conviction "to secure uKimate justice (vindication)/' This is an 
alarmina' resolution to he ])assed by the (California Democratic clubs, 
because Morton Sobell has been tried and convicted of work of espion- 
age in the interest of the Soviet Union. 

Another resolution was to outlaw secret congressional committee 
hearings. 

Mr. Arens. How would this serve the Communist Party? 

Mr. Prussion. This would definitely serve the Communist Party be- 
cause it would make top secret defense testimony public. Ancl the 
Communist Party and therefore the Soviet Union could have all of 
our military information with no effort on their part whatsoever. 

Mr. Arens. Were any other resolutions passed which would be help- 
ful to the Communists ? 

Mr. Prussion. Abolish all "dis-loyalty"' oaths — State and Federal. 

Mr. Arens. Inasmuch as it is generally recognized that the Com- 
munists won't hesitate to perjure themselves, why are the Communists 
so fearful of these oaths and why do they want them eliminated? 

Mr. Prussion. Even though the Communists would perjure them- 
selves in taking a loyalty oath in order to get a job as a teacher or to 
work in a defense plant and so forth, they are fearful of a loyalty oath 
because if exposed, if their perjury is exposed, of course they face 
])rosecution. jail sentences, and fines and they would like to eliminate 
that possil)ility. Therefore, the loyalty oaths are a must, both State 
and Federal, so that in the event the Comnnniists are apprehended in 
disloyal acts, they can be prosecuted. Without such laws there can 
be no prosecution. 

Repeal of the Landrum-Griflln labor reform bill of 1051). 

Mr. Arens. Why do the Communists desire this ? 

Mr. Prx ssioN. The Communist Party has always been o]>posed to the 
Landrum-Grifiin law because they feel that any goAernmental regu- 
lation within the labor movement, anything that resembles control 
in the labor movement, would certainly impair their efforts to utilize 
tlie labor movement in their strugale to overthrow our Government by 
force and violence. 

Another resolution which, on the surface, does not appear to be very 
important but it is extremely important, and tliat is re])eal the Rela- 
tives' lves])onsibility Law. This resolut ion is very \-ital to the ( 'onnnu- 
nist Pai'ty because if this resolution repealing that law were to pass, 
it would strike a blow at the stability of the American family. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Prussion. Let me ex])lain what this resolution would do: For 
example, a son living with a widowed mother, if this law is repealed, 
could refuse to supj^ort his motliei' and force lier to go on the welfare 
rolls for her subsistence. This, of course, strikes at the very root of 
Connnunist ultimate accomplishment, that of destroying the family, 
destroying the spirit and close l)oiid within the i"amily--the basis of 
the American Christian and Judaic way of life. 



COjVUVIUNIST party — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2189 

Establish local police review boards to hear complaints against po- 
lice methods. 

Mr. Akens. Why are the Coniniunists promoting this tyj)e of legis- 
lation? 

Mr. Prussiox. The Connnunist Tarty is trying to promote this 
type of legislation because it would give them a method through which 
tliey could arouse public indignation against police department actions 
against the Connnunist Tarty, such as we have recently witnessed in 
the city of San Francisco at the hearings by the Connnittee on Un- 
American Activities. 

Another resolution is increase economic aid to underdeveloped na- 
tions and reduce military assistance abroad. 

Mr. Akexs. Why do the Communists take this position ? 

Mr. Trussiox. It is not wrong, of course, for the United States 
to help underdeveloped nations that are not within the Comnnmist 
orbit, but to reduce military assistance to our allies in our fight 
against Soviet aggression would be certainly assisting the Soviet 
Union and the Connnunist Tarty of the United States in their drive 
to ultimately conquer the world. 

]Mr. Arexs. If the Communist aim is to weaken other nations for 
Soviet conquest, why do they recommend increased foreign aid to 
these nations, that is, economic aid ? 

Mr. Trussiox. The economic aid that the Communists are princi- 
pally interested in is economic aid to those countries which princi- 
pally fall within the Soviet orbit or to those countries which they feel 
will shortly fall within the Soviet orbit. 

Mr. Arexs. Do not the Communists believe that this aid will help 
strengthen these nations against Soviet take-over ? 

Mr. Trussiox. I do not believe that they feel it would deter future 
Communist conquest. On the contrary, the Commmiists, the Soviet 
U'nion, believe that any development in these countries would greatly 
facilitates the economic recovery of such a country when the Soviet 
Union would take over power in these countries. Moreover, all 
Communists are for excessive U.S. spending abroad for two reasons : 
(1) It would hasten the weakening of our economic structure 
through increased indebtedness, and (2) they can hope to influence 
the spending of our dollars in many foreign countries for their own 
advantage. 

Mr. .Vrexs. Are tliere more resolutions or is that the last one? 

Mr. Trussiox. Another resolution is: Remold the United Nations 
into a world organization that can enact and interpret and enforce 
world law upon individuals and governments alike. 

Tills, of course, is the yearning of all Communist hearts of the Com- 
munist International, because it would be their purpose to control 
such a world government and the indications are at the present time, 
if such a world government were set up, it Avould be one that would 
be influenced to a major degree by the Soviet Union, and in this man- 
ner not only would the individuality of the American and the rights 
of the State and our whole Government be submissive to world court 
and world government decisions, but it would also hasten the seizure 
of power not only in the United States but everywhere in the world, 
because this is a strongly centralized form of government that can 
be controlled from the top veiy expeditiously, veiy readily. 



2190 COMMUNIST PARTY — ^NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Strip the Postmaster General of powers to halt the use of U.S. mails 
by the purveyors of pornographic materials. 

This, of course, the Conununists would like, because they feel that 
b}' stoppino- poruograpliic lihns sent through the mail the Post Oilice 
Department coukl also stop the conspiracy propaganda that is sent 
through the mail by the Communist Party and the Communist Inter- 
national. 

These are all of the lesolutions. 

(Document marked "Prussion Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. PiiussiON. I might jiist make one comment on these resolutions. 
One could understand where the California Democratic Council could 
by chance be in favor of two, three, or four of the resolutions that the 
Communists are sponsoring, but the fact that the California Demo- 
cratic Council goes all out on all of the resolutions that the Conunu- 
nists are in favor of would cast serious doubt on who controls the 
California Democratic Council. I indicated that through delegations 
sucli as were sent from the South Palo Alto Club, which had 14 
members of the Communist Party in it, that tlie Comnumist l^aity is 
a dynamic and influenchig force in the California Democratic Councih 

Mr. Akens. On the basis of your contacts with them, would you 
say that these resolutions express the feelings and beliefs of the 
majority of the people who make up the grassroots of the Democratic 
Party of California? 

Mr. Peussion. I would have no way of knowing. I just can say I 
believe that this certainly is not the expression and the opinion and 
feelings of the ])eople wlio are Democrats, members and nonmenibers 
of the Democratic Party, the people who vote Democratic and so forth. 

I think this is the expression of the (^ommunist Party as expresstnl 
tlirough the California Democratic Council in wliich they obviously 
have a great deal of influence, but it should not be interpreted as a 
program that tJie typical American Domocrat sponsors. This is not 
a reflection on the Democratic Party at all. It is a reflection of the 
attempted influence of the Commmiist Party within the California 
Democratic Council which, of course, is not the Democratic Part}'. I 
am sure many patriotic California Democrats are sick at heart over 
tliis dominance of many clubs, through the Council, by agent>s of the 
Kremlin. 

Mr. Arens. Are you familiar with the People's World? 

Mr. Prussion, Yes. 

Mr. Arens. This newspaper is generally recognized by people in- 
formed about communism as a Communist Party newspaper, the 
official voice of the Communist Party on the West Coast. 

People who publish and edit that paper, however, have always de- 
nied that this is so. Do you have any information to give us on this 
point? 

Mr. Prusston. It is true that the Communist Party consistently, 
and also the Daily People's World consistently, denies that it is the 
official organ of the Communist Party on the West Coast. But I have 
with me here documentary evidence, a party document concerning a 
press conference of the Communist Party held on October 27 and 28, 
1956, in wliich the historic background of Peoi)le's World was taken 
up, and the way the Communist Party affects the paper. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2191 

As you read the entire account there can be no question in any- 
lx>dy's mind, or there should not be any more, that the People's World 
is the official oriran of the Communist Party of California, both 
Northei-n and Southei-n Districts, and is totally controlled financially 
and editorially by the (^onununist Party. 

For example, when the situation for the Daily People's World be- 
came acute financially back in June 1951, the Commmiist Party deter- 
mined to maintain the Daily Peo!)le"s World mider anv circum- 
stances — and T am quotinii- this party document: "l)ecause (1) The 
paper remained as the sole c-onsistent medimn for public expression 
of our views. (2) The paper represented a princi])al toehold on a 
legal status. (3) Abandonment of this position, under enemy attack, 
would have grave consequences on morale of party and movement. 
(4) The paper aii'orded a channel for exercising leadership when 
other 'normal' channels were disrupted or clogged because of the 
system of leadership esta.blished in party." 

Mr. jVmkns. Could you clarify that last point you just read in which 
the paper was described as a channel of leadership, ^^'^lat did the 
Communists mean by that? 

Mr. Pnussiox. The paper att'orded an excellent channel for exercis- 
ing leadership tecause the party at that time was working under- 
ground. Many party people resigned to hide their identity and 
carry on the revolutionary work, and the paper was the real medium 
througli which leadership of the Communist Party could be main- 
tamed and continued under these adverse conditions for the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Mr. Arexs. By leadership, do you mean the conveying of instruc- 
tions and so forth ? 

Mr. Prussion. I mean that the paper served as a means of inform- 
ing membei-s, wherever they might be, as to what the party policy was 
during that particular period on different issues that the Communist 
Party was confronting. 

Mr. Arens. That is, whether or not these members were formally in 
the part}^ and attending part}'^ meetings? 

Mr. Prussiox. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. ]May we have that document, JNIr. Prussion, for our 
files and as an exhibit in this hearing? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes, certainly you may have it. 

(Document marked "Prussion Exhibit Xo. o,*" see App. p, 2401.) 

Ml'. .Vrexs. What was the Communist Party \dewpoint of Premier 
Khrushchev's visit to the I 'nited States ? 

Mr. Prussiox. The Connnunist Party, all members of the Commu- 
nist Party, liad been cai-rying on a long campaign of coexistence and 
a long campaign to get Khrushchev to ^•isit the United States. 

Xow, in line with the Leninist theory of the Communist Party of 
accelerating the day when the prerequisites to revolution have oeen 
met, Khrushchev's \'isit here played a gi-eat role toward that achieve- 
ment. 

All Communists knew that he came here for the four following 
reasons : 

One. to stimulate and to actiAate the Communist Party, not only in 
the United States but Communist Parties throughout the world, be- 
cause just by his visit here he had raised the prestige of the Commu- 
nist International everyw-here, and he had given the Communist Party 



2192 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

of the United States more enthusiasm and nioie zeal for tlieir future 
activities. He succeeded in this very AvelL 

The second reason for his coming here was to discourage the re- 
sistance of freedom loving people throughout tlie Soviet orbit and 
throughout the world because, certainly, cooperation betAveen Khru- 
shcliev and the United States Avould dampen the spirits of the people 
who had been fighting communism behind the Iron Curtain. The 
Communist Party succeeded in this to a great extent. 

The third reason why Khrushchev came here, and this is probably 
one of the most important reasons, was to, if possible, split up XATO. 
By coming here he aroused suspicion in the other members of NATO 
as to the relationship between the Ignited States and the Soviet 
Union — and splitting up NATO would be a great accomplishment for 
the Comnnniist International in its drive to attain one of the major 
prerequisites of world revolution. 

He was fairly successful in this. This was evidenced by the fact 
that President Eisenhower had to quickly go to France and England 
and consult with Macmillan and deGaulle in order to give them re- 
assurance and imderstanding, to prevent any question on their part as 
to the intentions of the United States. 

I might comment at this time that the reason why the Summit Con- 
ference did not continue, the reason why Khrushchev torpedoed the 
Summit Conference was not the U-2 incident, but the fact that he did 
not succeed in splitting NATO. Had he so succeeded, he would have 
proceeded with the Smiimit Conference and he would have come out 
on top of the conference. He is presently once again beginning a 
campaign of trying to split NATO. 

The fourth reason for his coming to the United States is also in 
line with the worldwide prerequisites for a revolution, because, if 
Khrushchev could establish strong economic relationship, trade, with 
the United States he would accelerate the collapse of the economic 
structure of the Western European countries, because they certainly 
could not compete in trade with the products put out by a countr}'' 
such as the Soviet Union wliich produces under a system of dictator- 
ship, where the respect for the individual is completely ignored. 

Any agreement with the Soviet ITnion economlcnlly would, to a 
large degree, injure the economics of the Western countries. 

It is also kno\Mi historically that any agreement that we make with 
the Soviet Union is not worth the paper it is written on and if — let 
us assume the Ignited States hns built up a strong economic and trade 
relationship with the Soviet T'nion — and at a time when the United 
States has more or less become dependent upon its trade with the 
Soviet Union the Soviet Union could, without any notice, pull the rug 
from under us, break otf trade relationship with us, and put the 
United States in a precarious economic situation. 

Mr. Arens. Give us an example or two of how effective Communists 
are in achieving their objectives in organizations they infiltrate. 

Mr. Pra\ssi()x. To give you n small example, but yet an important 
example of how ell'ective Communists are in infiltration: When I first 
became active in the Communist Party again, approximately in 1948, 
without any solicitation whatsoever I began to receive literature from 
dozens of Communist-front organizations and Communist-infiltrated 
organizations, so it is evident that it was possible for Conununist 
Party members in these organizations to put me on their mailing list. 



COAUIUMST I'AKTY KOliiliKKN CALIFOUMA DISTRICT 2193 

However, as of Aiionst 12, 1959, avIioii I broke wilh llic Communist 
Party and so jinblii'ly stated, :dl mail, with no exception, fi'om all 
orii'anizations in till rated l)y Communists and Conununist-lront oi'ii'ani- 
zations stopped, which showed me — and should show to America^ — 
that they had inlluence enough within these organizations to pull my 
name from the mailing list of all of these organizations. 

This is an important example of the inlluence of the Communist 
Party although it mav seem minor, it does show the effectiveness of 
Connnunists everywhere. This sudden stoppage of literature even 
had somewhat of an international aspect because I had been i-eceiving 
the publications of the World Health Organization, which, of course, 
stopped Avith the rest of the })ublications that I had been receiving. 

]\lr. Aiu:xs. On the basis of your experience, can you give us an ex- 
ample or tAvo of the tactics the Communists are now using to influence 
and convert st udents to their cause ? 

jNIr. Prussiox. Yes. Students, of course, are a major concern of 
the Communist Part}^, and they make a special effort to recruit students 
into the consjMracy. 

One example of this is a situation up at Stanford University where 
there is an organization called Political Forum. This organization is 
a good, bona fide organization, I don't believe it has any Communist 
control. They invite speakers of all description, from the extreme 
right to the extreme left. Just recently they had Archie Brown speak 
there, from the Communist Party. At one time they invited Albert 
Mickey Lima, the district organizer of the Communist Party. 

The way the Communists operate, they will send three or four 
Communists to such a meeting and these Communist Party members 
will take note of those students wdio ask questions of such a nature 
that the Communists feel that that particular student would be a 
good prospect for recruitment into the Communist Party. They be- 
friend such a student and will invite such a student down to a social 
study group in one of the homes of the Communists, 

A Communist who is very active in this sort of work is Elliott 
Wilson. Another man is Leonard Grumet. Most of the meetings 
in that area Avere held in the home of Leonard Grumet. Similiar 
meetings of students whom the Communists felt could be Aveaned aiul 
indoctrinated with communism Avere held at the home of Plolland 
Roberts in Palo Alto. 

Mr. Arexs. This is an aspect of Communist activity AAdiich I am 
sure never occurs to these people Avho think they are being demo- 
cratic and broadminded Avhen they invite people, even Communists 
and felloAv travelers, to address such groups. They are not aAvare that 
the Communists' scheme is to take advantage of eA^ery possible opening 
given them. 

You also mentioned Parent-Teacher Associations. Could you tell us 
something about Communist actiAdty in regard to these groups and 
the purjwseof it? 

Mr. Prussiox. Well, the Parent-Teacher Associations — I do not 
have too much information on it, because the Communist Party has its 
oAvn parent-teacher association cell of which I was never a member. 
But 1 do recall that Doris DaAvson — Avho I don't belieA'e Avas a member 
of the Parent-Teacher Association though slie had associat ion with the 
parent-teacher association cell — she came to a cell meeting and re- 



2194 COIVIMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

ported that the resolution that the Communist Party was anxious to 
have the Parent-Teacher Association pass at its national convention 
would pass — and that resolution was the one to stop nuclear testing. 

So the Communists, of course, are active in the PTA, as evidenced 
by my testimony, the purpose being to try to pass resolutions at 
PTA meetings which are in the interest of the Communist conspiracy. 
But I also here want to point out that the PT2V is obviously some- 
times inadvertently a victim of their deceit. Also, in working in 
the PTA they have the usual line of picking out certain members of 
the PTA who they feel might be susceptible to the line of the Com- 
munist Party, recruiting them into the Communist Party and also 
activating people into other Communist mass organizations. This 
line is generally the same throughout all of the activities of the Com- 
munist Party in all civic, political, and religious organizations. 

Mr. Arexs. This, I believe, is a major concentration of the Com- 
munist Party today and has been for the last few years, isn't that 
true — that they are to infiltrate and penetrate our grassroots, com- 
munity-level organizations ? 

Mr. Prussiox. Yes. This is in line with the Communist Party 
program of infiltration and carrying on the revolutionary work with- 
in tliese organizations. And the revolutionary work consists princi- 
paUy of carrying out the Communist Party line as it pertains to cei'tain 
situations that are taking place locally, nationall}', and internation- 
ally. 

It was Lenin who said, and this is a hard and fast rule with all 
Conununists, that there is no revolutionary theory without revolu- 
tionary practice. This is the basis upon which Conununists work 
in mass organizations and this constitutes the revolutionary practice, 
to attain the final goal of overthrowing the Government by force 
and violence as per Lenin's revolutionary theory. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your many ^-ears of experience in the 
Communist Party, both as a real member and as an undercover 
operative for the FBI, would 3'ou say, if an international situation of 
a critical nature developed and the Soviet Union ordered the Com- 
munists in this country to engage in sabotage, insurrection, and so 
forth, (hey would obey the order? 

Mr. Prussion. This is a must with a member of the Communist 
Party, in line with the teachings of Lenin. It is the duty of the 
Communist Party of the LTnited States to come to the assistance of 
the Soviet Union whenever and wherever tlie Soviet Conununist Party 
might need such assistance. It is also the duty of the Soviet Union to 
help the Communist Party Avithin the United States in every way 
possible when tlie Communist Party of the United States needs such 
assistance. 

Mr. Arens. Are all Communists instructed along these lines? 

Mr. Prussion. The Conununist Party member who has been a 
member of the Communist Party for a reasonable length of time, I 
would say, for approximately a year and a half to two years, is fully 
aware of this Leninist inner obedience that is peculiar to all Com- 
munists. I would like to quote from Lenin here: 

The victory of socialism is possible first in a few or oven in one single capital- 
ist country taken separately. The victorious proletariat of that country having 
expropriated the capitalist and organized its own production would rise against 
the rest of the capitalist world, attract to itself the oppressed classes of other 



COMMITNISI' PAUrV— NOKTHKKN CALliOli.NIA DISTRICT 2195 

countries, raise revolts amouK them against the capitalists and in the event of 
necessity come out even with armed force a.t:ainst the exploltinfj classes and 
their states. (P. 150, Lenin and Ziuoviev, Against the Stream.) 

The entire program of the Communist Party is geared to the inter- 
ests of tlic Soviet Union and it is historically a fact that the Com- 
munist Party of the Ignited States has turned somersaults as requested 
by the Soviet Union on all issues that the Soviet Union felt were 
paramount in tlie interest of the Soviet Union. 

Tlie Soviet Union is the symbol of the strength and the might of 
the Conununist parties of all countries in the world, including, of 
coui*se, the United States. 

Mr, Arens. The Soviet Union says today that it wants peace and 
tlie Communist Party of the United States says the same thing. Do 
they really want peace? 

Mr. Prussiox. The Soviet Union is carrying out a campaign of 
fraudulent peace and the same campaign, of course, is being carried 
out by the Communist Party of the United States. 

The only peace that the Communist Party and the Conmiunist In- 
ternational want is the "peace'* that can come only through Commu- 
nist triumph all over the world, and any period in which the Com- 
munist parties are carrying out a "peaceful" program is only a period 
in which there is a respite in the wars that the Communist Interna- 
tional is continuing and expects to culminate in the Soviet domination 
of the world. 

Here I would like to quote Lenin again, and this quote from Lenin 
is very elementary : 

We are living not only in a state but in a system of states and the existence 
of the Soviet Union side by side with the United States for a long time is un- 
thinkable. One or the other must triumph in the end and before that end 
comes a series of frightful clashes between the Soviet Union and the United 
States is inevitable. (Vol. XVI, p. 102, Collected Works.) 

1 have already cpioted Dimitri Manuilsky on coexistence. 

See pp. 2052, 2053. 

The Communist Party, of course, today and at all times insists that 
it is the political party of the United States, that it is the party of 
Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, George Washing-ton, but the 
attempt on the part of the Communist Party to validate its existence 
is only an expediency for Communists to carry on their revolutionary 
work within the United States. 

Mr. Arexs. What arrangement is the Communist Party using to- 
day for the holding of meetings ? We know that a dozen or so years 
ago, before the top leaders of the party were indicted under the 
Smith Act, you could walk down the street in a major city of this 
country and you would see a building which had a sign out in front, 
such and such Communist Party Club. All tliese were broken up 
and the party went underground and adopted other methods of con- 
cealment in 1948 or so. Could you tell us just what the party was 
doing when you left it? 

Mr. Prussiox. The Communist Party had very secretive meetings, 
meetings were never held at the same place, meetings were always held 
in different homes, different locations. 

I recall several instances where Comnuniist Party meetings were 
held in parks, one such meeting was held in Flood Park, in Menlo 



2190 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Park, Calif. Another such meeting was held in Rinconada Park in 
Palo Alto. 

Mr. Arexs. About how many people were in attendance at these 
meetings ? 

Mr, Prussiox. Ten or 12 in each of these two instances. 

Mr. Arexs. Were they held during the day or the night? 

Mr. Prfsstox. One of these meetings was held during the day, the 
other meeting that I referred to was held in the evening. 

Mr. Arexs. Did these people give the appearance of simply being 
picnickers or some such thing as that ? 

Mr. Prtssiox. That is correct, sitting around a table and talking, 
away from any people who might be in the area. The subject of meet- 
ings is a very important one because public buildings are very, very 
often used by the Communist Party and by Communist-front organi- 
zations. For example, one of the most used public buildings for meet- 
ings of the Connnunist Party and meetings of front organizations 
that were initiated by the Communist Party, was the City Hall in 
Sunnyvale, Calif. The meetings were held in the banquet room of 
the City Hall and were usually the type that could I'aise money for the 
various ]')urposes that the Communist Party was conducting a cam- 
paign on. 

For example, in that particular hall I recall three outright meet- 
ings of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arexs. Were they held in the name of the Connnunist Party? 

Mr. Prussiox. These were held not publicly in the name of the 
Communist Party but were Communist Party meetings. Two such 
meetings were to discuss, principally to discuss the circulation of the 
People's World, how to raise money for the Peo]ile*s World. Another 
such meeting was held during the strike at the Westinghouse Electric 
Corp. plant. The Communist Party members were called together 
to see what they could do to help win that particular sirike. The 
leader of that strike was a member of the (^onnnunist Party, one 
Joe Houseman. He attended this meeting that I am talking about. 

Othei' meetings called at this particular place involved all l>arty 
members aiid also other people who were invited to these meetings 
though they Avere not open to the general ])ublic. When Holland 
Roberts, for example, retiu-ned from one of his numerous trips to the 
Soviet Union such a meeting was held so that he could lecture to the 
Communist Party members and very close adherents of the Commu- 
nist Party on the "glorious situation in the Soviet Union." 

Mr. Arexs. What device did the party use for obtaining this public 
facility for meetings of a party cell or group ? 

Afr. Prtsstox. TTsually these meetings wore held by having individ- 
uals rent the banquet room at Sunnyvale, I think it was for $;>. It 
would be such a person as Elizabeth Nicholas, Avho was the section 
organizer of the (^ommunist Party. In one instance it was Don Clark. 
T (lotrt recall the others who may have reiiled (hat particidar location. 
But it is excellent for (\)nuuunist Party purposes, because it is in the 
basement of the City Hall, has one entrance and is locked off from 
anybody who might intrude. Many dignitaries of the Communist 
]*arty had s])oken at many meetings in tlie Sunnyvale City Hall, such 
as (Jeoi-ge ^lorris, Holland Roberts, Herbei't Aptheker, and of course 
section organizers such as Elizabeth Nicholas spoke there, Joe House- 
man spoke there, he was business agent of the United Electrical 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2197 

AVorkers Union in (he area. Banquets weit' lidd thei'e (o riiisc money 
for Sidney Eogei"s, a radio connnentator who expounded the cause ol" 
the C\)nununist I'arty at all times. 

The siii'nilicant thinjx is (hat it is not, only the City JIall in Sunnv- 
yalo that was used for such meetin<>;s, but siniihir meetin<^s arc held in 
public l)uildin_<j:s in Palo Alto, for example, the Conununity Center, the 
Souih Palo Alto Lihi-ary has been used. Kycn a rooui in (he Ci\ic 
Auditorium in San ,Iose has been used. 

I "want to ])oint out that some of these meetings are called in the 
name of a front organization such as the Palo Alto Peace Club, but the 
actual meeting itself was started and directed by the Communist Party 
cell in this organization. 

The schools are not arailable to Communist Party meetings or or- 
ganizations that haA^e been declared subversiye. But the Communists 
laugh about this because they don't haye to go to tlie public schools 
when they haye access to other public buildings. 

As a matter of fact, the Conmuinists haye a sense of humor and eyen 
their sense of humor has a class angle. When they refer to the Sunny- 
vale banquet room in the City Hall of Sunnyyale, they call it Smolny 
Institute Xo. 1 and they call the community building in Palo Alto 
Smolny Institute No. 2. Smolny Institute was the Moscow head- 
quarters of the Bolsheyik Party during, prior to, and after the Russian 
I'evolution and I think to this day is being used as an educational 
center for the Communist International. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Prussion, it is my understanding that under Cali- 
fornia law anyone filing candidacy for election to public office must 
sign a statement to the elTect that he is not a member of any subyersiye 
oi-ganization. Do you know of any persons known to you as Connnu- 
nist Party members wdio haye filed and signed this oath ? 

Mr. Prussiox. Yes ; I do Iviiow such peoi)le. 

The people I had in mind who ran for public office are Isobel 
Cerney, who ran for Congress on the Independent Progressive Party 
ticket 

Mr. Arexs. When did she run for Congress, what year ? 

Mr. Prussiox. I think it was 1054, although I am not sure that 
was the year. I am pretty sure. 

Mr. Arexs. Has she run since that time ? 

Mr. Prussiox. No. I think the law was in efl'ect in 1948. The 
other candidate is Holland Poberts, who ran for superintendent of 
schools and received pretty close to a half million yotes in California. 
Holland Roberts, an intellectual, is a foremost Communist lecturer and 
instructor on leninism, prerequisites to the revolution, et cetera. 

Mr. Arexs. What year was that ( 

Mr. Prussiox. This was in 1058. The other candidate is Al Isak- 
sen, Avho ran for the assembly in the 28tli District and came pretty 
close to winning the election. These are three people who in filing 
to run for office took the oath and perjured themselves when they did. 
this. 

Another case is that of Michael Shapovalov, who had a book^ pub- 
lislied and it is being used in the public schools of San Mateo County 
at the present time. 1 don't know whetlier he liad to take a loyalty 



^ Investifiration by the committpp reveals thnt book is entitled Soviet T:nio>i imblisbed 
by the Fideler Publishing Co., Grand Kapids, Mk-li., 1958. 

56597— <30^pt. 3 9 



2198 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

oath when his book was contracted for by the Board of Education 
but if he did take such an oath he, too, perjured himself because he 
is a member of the Connnunist Party. 

Air. Akexs. His book is being used as a toxtl)Ook in jiublic schools? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you read this book ? 

Mr. Prussion. No, I have not read this book. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you heard the book discussed in Communist 
Party circles ? 

Mr. Prussion. Only to the degree that it was anotlier bit of humor 
witliin the Communist Party circles that Shapovalov, who was a very 
close friend of Lenin, has published a book and this book is being 
used in the public school system in California. 

Mr. Arens. Do the Communists get a great kick out of this? 

Mr. Prussion. They get a big bang out of this, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is it conceivable to you that a Communist, one of many 
years' standing, would write a book with the hope that it would be 
used as a textbook in the schools, and that he would not work the 
Communist Party line or certain Communist Party doctrines into its 
text? 

Mr. Prussion. I have not read the book but I think somewhere 
along the line he tried to inject some materialistic thought other than 
that characteristic of the American heritage and ideals. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat is the subject of this textbook ? 

Mr. Prussion. I think, although I am not sure, it is a civics book. 
I think we should find out more about the book but regardless, even 
if the book does not have anything in it, our Government should 
not help support an avowed Connnunist of the type j\Ir. Shapovalov is 
when they can get good American citizens who can write better or 
ecjually as well on the same subject. 

Mr. Arens. Will you tell us, Mr. Prussion, whether or not, along 
with their infiltration of parent-teacher associations, political groups, 
civic organizations and so forth, the Communist Party is also carrying 
out infihration of religious organizations? 

Mr. Prussion. The Communist Party, although its function is in 
political, economic, and civic organizations, realizes that the church 
and that religion, allect the thinking of every American citizen in 
every field of life, so the Communist Party has always engaged in a 
campaign of influencing and infiltrating church groups, and in that 
way they can liave better results in working with American citizens in 
various organizations. 

I would like to cite an example of that, a veiy impoi-tant and 
serious one. 

The Palo Alto Peace Club, which was foi-nied in l!)4l) and was part 
of the AVorld Peace Congress set up by Joseph Stalin, was declared 
subversive by the Attorney General's office. 

Mr. Arens. That is the U.S. Attorney General ? 

Mr. Prussion. Yes. When tlie organization was declared subver- 
sive, the Communist Party in the area had a hurried meeting in which 
they decided to drop the membership aspect of that organization and 
to continue an executive board whicli consisted of all (Communist Party 
members, so that it could call meetings whenever a situation so re- 
quired and so that its jiublication, Fla.shUghf^ would be continued. 
Flashlight is being continued to this day. 



COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2199 

Mr. ^\rens. Was the purpose of discontinuing formal membership 
a security measured 

Mr. 1'kussii»n. Yes, because this was during the Smith Act prosecu- 
tions and the Connnunist Party was fearful of prosecution of those 
people who were members of the Palo Alto Peace Club. The Palo 
Alto Peace Club, out of a total membership of 64 in my last count, 
about 40 or 45 were members of the Communist Party and all other 
members were members of diil'erent front organizations or people 
who "vvere very close to tlie Communist Party. 

At a meeting held in the home of Valeda Bryant on Middlefield Road 
in Palo Alio, the Communist Party decided tliat in view of the fact 
that the Quakers, the Friends Service Committee, had proven to be 
an excellent held for infiltration b}' a few party members, they decided 
to carry on the Connnunist Party line ''peace"" work — ])eace in 
quotes — through the Quaker organization. 

At a meeting called by the Connnittce to End Nuclear Testing of the 
American Friends Service Committee (Quakers), of a delegated bod}' 
of approximately 40 attending, 15 by count were members of the 
Comnnmist Party. 

jNIr. Arens. Approximately when did this meeting take place? 

]Mr. Prussion". The meeting took place some time in July, I believe, 
1957. 

The Communist Party members at this meeting w-ere the most 
articulate and volunteered and accepted appointments for the spade 
work necessary for a program of activity resulting in an encampment 
Monday through Saturday in Livermore, Calif., daily picketing of the 
AEC Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, a walk for peace in Liver- 
more from their camping grounds to the AEC laboratories, and a 
motorcade to Livermore and house-to-house visiting of people in 
Livermore, and a final meeting at Foresters Hall in Livermore. 

JVIr. Arens. From the Conmiunist viewpoint, would the United 
States' halting of nuclear weapons tests and the abolition of the uses 
of nuclear weapons promote war or peace ? 

Mr. Prussion. You have to remember that the Communist Lenin- 
ists' theory is that war is perpetual, continuous, it is universal, and it is 
not limited to missiles and atomic bombs and so forth, that it involves 
evQvy facet of human life, and this is what they commonly call the class 
struggle that goes on at all times, which will culminate, they believe, 
in a revolution in the United States. 

The Commimist drive for the abolishing of atomic weapons was 
started at a time when the Soviet Union did not have atomic bombs and 
the United States did. And it would have been to their advantage 
at that time to abolish atomic bombs. 

Mr. Arens. They are continuing that drive today. Why? 

Mr. Prussion. Because the Communist International is so thor- 
oughly imbued and resolved with the possibilities of overthrowing 
the various governments all over the world through insurrection and 
force and violence that they feel that there is no iieed for the use of 
atomic bombs. 

As a matter of fact, I feel that the atomic bomb situation, the hydro- 
gen bomb situation, has balanced itself off between the free world 
and the world behind the Iron Curtain and it is no longer a world 
factor in what the Communists call future struggles between the 
United States and the Soviet Union. 



2200 COMMUNIST PARTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

This is one of the reasons why Khrushchev talks about burying us 
and one of the reasons why Khrushchev is so confident that we will 
see a Soviet form of government in the not too far distant future in 
the United States. 

i\lr. Akexs. In other words, from the Communist viewpoint, if they 
succeed in this campaign of eliminating all atomic weapons, supposing 
it were actually to agree to it — for tlie Soviet Union it would merely 
be giving up a weapon which it feels it won't need to accomplish its 
ultimate aim, but the United States, on the other hand, would be giving 

up a weapon which at some time might be vital to its own defense 

Mr. Prussiox. That is essentially correct. 
Mr. Arexs. x\gainst Soviet Union aggression ? 

Mr. Prussiox. That is essentially correct. Of course the question 
of the atomic bomb and the hydrogen bomb, although it is very serious 
!Uid very critical, I believe is not the major problem that is confront- 
ing the United States and other free countries. The ])roblem is one of 
subversive activities within these countries through which Khrushchev 
expects to win the rest of the world. Cuba is an excellent example of 
the almost perfect manner in which the Leninist line was carried out to 
the point where Cuba today, after its successful uprising led by the 
Communist Party, is now preparing for the outright establishment of 
the dictatorship of the proletariat, which, according to Lenin, will 
follow colonial u]:>rising whether in Cuba or any other country. Cuba 
today, I believe, will become the pivot point for the activities of the 
(\)nnnunist conspiracy in the Western Hemisj^here. 

^Iv. Arex^s, When you were in the Communist Party, did the cell to 
whicli you belonged receive any instruction concerning the Cuban 
situation and Castro's armed rebellion against the Batista regime^ 

Mr. Prussion. Yes. There were very many discussions and educa- 
t ioual programs surrounding the Cuban situation, and the Communist 
Party members at all times accepted (\istro as a con^.rade and stories 
were circulated, and probably true stories, that Castro's brother had 
gone to the Lenin School in Moscow and that Castro himself was 
slated to go to the Lenin School, but he turned the otl'er down because 
lie was so busy cariying out his revolutionaiy work in Cuba. 

This Avas a type of conversation that was prevalent in the cells where 
I at tended meetings during that period. 

There was no question in my mind at all, there should not be in any 
Amei-ican citizen's mind any more, as to where Castro stands. 

In Leninism, Lenin calls for, just as Kiirushchev did when he spoke 
before the Security Council of the United Nations here in the United 
States, the revolt of the oppressed people in the colonial countries. In 
levolts of such types as described by Lenin, the Connnunist Party 
takes a leading part in these revolts and, if and when these revolts 
are successful, in which the colonies drive out their oppressors, so- 
called, the Communist Part}' is sulliciently entrenchetl and has enougli 
sui)port to transform, at some future date, this colonial ni)rising into 
an ui)rising for the establishment of the Soviet form of government. 
This is why. of course, the Communists are active in this field, in 
Africa, South America and in Asia. The Comnnniist Party always 
has in mind the ultimate establishment of a Communist dictator- 
ship, even tliough they participate in these colonial uprisings which 
sometimes, and almost at all times, get the support of democratic and 
['wv nal ions all o\'er the world. 



COMMUNIST PARTY XOHTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2201 

All". Akkns. .Mr. Prussioii, you wri'i' discussing- Coiiumiiiisl iiili](r;i- 
(ioii of religious organizations when we got oft' on the suhjcci of atomic 
testing. 

Mr. Pkussiox. Yes. 

Mr, Akexs. Did you lune anything further you wanted to say on tin- 
incident YOU were discussing at that time ? 

Afr. PiussioN. I would just like to say that llie Connnunist Parly, 
of course, instigated, planned, and directed all of these acliYities which 
on the surface would appear to be directed by the Quaker oiganiza- 
tion. This is typical of the deceitful manner in which ("onnuunists 
intilti'ate and direct o])erafions of a churcli organization. 

For example, 1 have here with me a note from one of the ( "om- 
nnniist Partv members concerning this meetino-. 

Mr. Akens. What does the note say 'i 

Mr. Pkt'ssiox. It says : 

Sorry that you have to look up phone numbers. The people you phone should 
be receiviu.i; fact sheet late this week which will give them detailed iufurnmtion 
on Livermore activities and motorcade. Your call is to alert them to the activily 
that is going on, inform them that it looks like it will be a rousing success, and 
invite and urge them to participate. If you want more information call Roy 
Kepler at \Vhitehaven S-158r> (home) and DA 4— t.'^l'l (store). Please return 
list of names in enclosed envelope to Mrs. Jean Miller, 3145 David, Palo Alto. 

This referred to a list of names given to me by Mary Wilson wlio 
was a member of the Communist Party. 

(Document marked "Prussion E.xhibit No, 4,"' and retained in 
conmiittee tiles.) 

Mr. Arexs. Was the man you were to call, who is mentioned in that 
note, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Prussiox. Xo, Roy Kepler is not a member of the Communist 
Party to my knowledge, but he was chairman of this meeting which 
15 Communist Party members attended, and Mr. Kepler owns a book- 
store in which, for example, Frank Wilkinson held a meeting against 
the Committee on Un-American Activities prior to the committee's 
arrival. And Roy Kepler's bookstore, of course, is a gathering point, 
meeting point for Communists and left-wing people. I, in no way, 
mean to infer that Roy Kepler is a member of the Communist Party. 
He certainly has been cooperating with them, inadvertently or ad- 
vertently, I don't know. He is an active Quaker. 

Mr, Arexs. Were the people you were to call about this meeting 
Communists or was it a broader list ? 

Air. Prussiox. Most of the ])eo]ile to be called were non-Co]nmu- 
nists. _ For example, members of the Unitarian Church, the member- 
ship list of the Unitarian Church obtained by a Communist within the 
Unitarian Church was used. The people who had signed. 

Mr. Arkxs. Do you know the person who ol)tained tliis list? 

Mr. Pklssiox. Yes. Valeda Pryant, in whose home many Com- 
munist Party meetings had been held. 

Mr. Arexs. Was this meeting, these demonstrations and so forth, a 
rousing success, as you were told to tell peo])le it would be ? 

Mr. Prusssiox. It did turn out to be a successful meeting. 

Another means of names obtained for calling up and sending 
literature to for these demonsti-ations Avere obtained from the list of 
people who signed the Stockholm Peace Petition which had been 
circulated a year or so prior. 



2202 COMMUNIST PARTY — ^NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Arexs. The Communist Party kept names on a list such as 
that and made future use of them ? 

Mr. Puussiox. That is correct. As a matter of fact the millions of 
signatures that %Yere obtained became the propertj^ of the Communist 
Party. The local Communist Party where these petitions were circu- 
lated used those names, copied tliem off before the petition was sent 
away to a post office box to which the petitions were mailed. 

Mr. Aren's. On the basis of your experience in the Communist 
movement over a considerable period of years in this country, what 
would you say are the major weaknesses of the American public in 
regard to the operations of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Prussion. I think the Communist Party, especially through 
their peace campaign and their campaigns of peaceful coexistence, 
have had a major success in creating a public apatliy and indifference 
to the menace of the Communist conspiracy. This apathy should 
be changed to an acute awareness by our citizenry of this danger and 
this awareness should express itself in such a manner that there will 
be proper legislation passed that would facilitate the containment and 
the ultimate destruction of this conspiracy. Appeasement of the 
Soviet Union on their "peaceful coexistence offensive" today can only 
mean the complete capitulation of the American way of life to 
Leninist materialism and dictatorship tomorrow. 

Mr. Arens. What are some of the legislative measures that you be- 
lieve are necessary? 

Mr. Prussion. First, I think that it is vitally important that we 
have legislation that will make it possible for cooperation between our 
executive, judicial, and legislative branches of government in the fi^ht 
against subversion. Valuable material gathered by the executive 
branch of government is not available to the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities, for example. This information would assist the com- 
mittee in securing evidence and also in writing effective legislation to 
counter the Communists' offensive. 

Two, I believe in the continuation and the strengthening of the 
enforcement of the Walter-McCarran Immigration Act so that such 
agents as Bill Gebert and othei'S cannot have access to our comitry for 
the spreading of their subversive Soviet propaganda and agitation. 

Three, we should have passport legislation to make it impossible for 
active Communists such as Holland Roberts, Harvey Eichards, and 
others to be able to travel freely behind the Iron Curtain and back to 
the United States and in this manner serve the Soviet cause. 

Four, I believe the Smith Act should be strengthened and written 
in such a manner that the Supreme Court could not come up with 
adverse decisions as they pertain to the Smith Act. 

Five, I think the loyalty oath shoidd be strengthened so that the 
wording "a member of an organization which advocates the over- 
throw of the Government by force and violence" should be changed to 
"Communist Party." 

In the State of California I think the Dilworth Act should be en- 
forced and strengthened and the machinery should be set up in this 
State so that credentials can be revoked of any State employee who 
refuses to cooperate. 

Mr. Arens. Do jou think that such legislative recommendations as 
you have just made will be sufficient to close the gap in our defenses? 



COMMUNIST PAKTY — NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 2203 

Mr. Prussion. No, I don't believe thai it is sufficient. I believe that 
public apnthy and indiirci-omv can be cliauirod so that tlie public be- 
comes enlio-htenod (hrouirli a broad and intensive educational pro«^ram 
on the subject, and I also believe that it is the job of free Americans 
and free enterprise everywhere to organize in an orderly democratic 
fashion in the light against coinmnnism Avherever it appears in any 
form. 

Mr. Aeens. You testified in San Francisco that party members gen- 
erally could learn the identity only of persons in the same cell they 
were in, but that section meetings were held at which you met members 
from other cells. 

How often were these section meetings held, as a rule ? 

Mr. Pkussion. About every 6 months. 

Mr. Akexs. Roughly, how many people attended? Would there 
be a delegate from every cell, or what ? 

Mr. Piussiox. There would be one delegate for eveiy 20 members. 

Mr. Akexs. For every 20 members 

Mr. Prussiox. In the cell; 20 meml:>ers or under, in other words. 

Mr, Arexs. The cells today, then, some of them, are as large as 20 
members ? 

Mr. Prussiox. Today they are. 

Mr. Arex^s. Or even larger ? 

Mr. Prussiox. Yes. Through these section committee meetings I 
have gotten to know ]Morris Graliam, Albert Bob Lindsay, Mrs. Albert 
Rob Lindsay, Francis Fink, Dave A^olberg, Mrs. Dave Volberg, and Joe 
Irving as Communist Party members. 

]Mr. Arexs. Could you tell us something of the role of these people 
in the party? What type activity or cell they were members of. 

Mr. Prussiox'. These people who were members of other cells were 
usually the cell organizers. They are usually delegates to the section 
committee, and all of these people at section meetings — there were 
usually about 30 present — were articulate, strong leaders within the 
Communist Party apparatus. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you able to determine what type work they did 
in their own cell or what type cell they were in, or were you limited 
in your knowledge to the mere fact that they represented other cells 
in these section gatherings? 

Mr. Prussiox. I determined the concentration cell work of some 
of these members, like Dave Volberg, who headed the cell at the 
Ford Motor Co. in ]Milpitas. I also learned that Albert Bob Lindsay 
was active in the cell of the Lithogi'aphers Union. 

Mr. Arexs. In what city ? 

Mr. Prussiox. San Jose. 

And that Joe Irving was active in the Carpenters Union. 

Mr. Arexs. In what area, or city or town, was that ? 

Mr. Prussiox. The San Jose area. 

Mr. Arexs. Had you ever met any of these people in places other 
than at these section meetings? 

Mr. Prussiox". At party functions tliat were not closed party func- 
tions. In other words, people on the fringe, people who were fellow 
travelers would attend such affairs, principally to raise money. All 
of these peojile would be present at such functions. 



2204 COMMUNIST PARTY — ^NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 

Mr. Akkxs. Mr. Pnission, do you believe that the Communist 
l^urly should l)e outlawed? 

Mr. Pkussiox. I am deliuitely of such a belief because the Com- 
numist Party is uot a ])()liti('al party. It is a conspiracy which owes 
its allegiance iivst to tlu* Soviet Union and is dedicatee! to the over- 
throw of our Govenunent by force and violence and the establish- 
ment of a dictatorship. I know that during the period of the Smith 
Act ])i-()secutions, when the party wavS suddenly driven underground, 
that the Communist Party Avas at its lowast ebb and organizationally 
and ])roductively was in a A'ery poor, sad condition. I feel that out- 
lawing the Communist Party would greatly deter, or possibly even 
destroy, the Communist Party in its drive to sovietize America. 

jNIr.*^ Arexs. I gather you*^ feel that the Communist Party has 
regained a lot of ground since that period? 

Mr. Prfssiox. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Since the early 1950's, when it was in such a Ioav state, 
what do you believe have been the major reasons for this? 

Mr. Prussiox. The major reasons have been some of the decisions 
of the Supreme Court as they pertain to certain individuals who 
came under the Smith Act and the Internal Security Act, and I also 
strongly feel that the visit and reception given Klirushchev in the 
United States Avas a tremendous factor in stimulating and causing the 
breakthrough period of the Communist Party that Ave are experienc- 
ino* today. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that Avill conclude 
the staff interrogation of this Avitness. 

Mr. "WiLiJS. I Avant to thank you, Mr. Prussion, for coming to 
Washington to appear before the committee again. 

I know that the information you have given us today Avill be 
extremely A-aluable, not only to its members in carrying out their legis- 
lative. functions, but also to the American })cople in helping shake 
them out of the apathy you haA'e referred to and in Avarning them about 
some of the tactics the Communists are noAv using in this country in 
their efforts to destroy the freedom and the Government of the Ameri- 
can people. 

(Pi-esent : RepresentatiA'es Willis and Johansen.) 

(W]iereu[)on, at 12 :30 p.m., Friday, June 10, 1060, the hearing 
adjoui'ued.) 



INDEX 



l.M)IVIl)UALS 

Patro 

Adler. Gertrude 2048. 2124. 212.", 

Allen. James S 192."), 217!) 

Audersen, George K 11IC>4. 

19S4. 2004, 2017, 2023, 2024, 2055, 2059, 20G2, 2068, 2071, 2096, 2126. 

2128. 

Aptheker, Herbert 2041, 219<; 

Austin. II 2175 

Alchermes, Sara 2048, 2124, 2125, 2185 

Bailey (Dr.) 2038 

Batista (Fulgeucio) 1982, 2200 

Becks. lul 2048, 2lsl 

Becks. Gelsomiue (Mrs. Ed Becks) 2048,2181 

Bellshaw, William 2175 

r.emlich, Albert M 2024.2116,2142,2147 

Bergman, Leibel 1923, 1924, 2001, 2004-2011 (testimony) 

Blodgett, Charles (David) 2136,2137,2139 

Bown, Vernon 1923, 

1924. 2000. 2001, 2002, 2009, 2012-2017 (testimony), 2069, 2070. 

2173. 
Bradley, Steve. (See Brodsky, Merle.) 

Bridges, Harry (Reuton) 2074,2092,2172,2173,2178 

Brodsky, Merle (also known as Steve Bradley) 1924. 

1928, 19&3, 1984-1995 (testimony), 2050, 2001, 2173 

Brooke, Tyler (also known as Taylor Brooke) 207(>-2079 (testimony) 

Browder, Earl 1976, 1981, 20.38, 2184 

Brown. Archie 1924. 

1928. 1951. 1964. 1965. 1971, 2023. 2fMn, 2062. 2086. 20!:)1. 2096-2O98 

(testimony), 2137, 2172, 2173, 2193. 

Br mm, George IIK!*; 

Bryant. Valeda 2199, 2201 

Cahill, Thomas 1929. 2088-2091 (testimony) 

Carberry. Matthew C 1929, 2090, 2101-2106 (testimony) 

Castro (Fidel) 19S(>, 22(iO 

Cerney (Edwin H.) 204s 

Cerney, Isobel (Mrs. Edwin H. Cerney) 2048.2197 

Chessman. Caryl 2174 

Chiang Kai-shek 2172 

Clark, Donald H 1924, 2054, 2057-2059 (testimony), 2190 

dinger, Moiselle J 1988 

Coakley, J. Frank 21.39.2140 

Dawson, Doris 1922. 2043. 

2048, 2054, 2061, 2124, 2125, 2144, 2145-2146 (testimony), 2181. 

2193. 

(le Gaulle (Charles) 2192 

Deirup, Ann 1924,2027-2030 (testimony) 

Dumerai (Father) 203.S 

Edises. Bertram 2027, 2065, 2075, 2092, 2111, 2148, 2151-2165 ( testimony) 

Einstein, Albert 2100 

Ei.senhower (Dwight D. ) 2178,2192 

Ellis, Rayme_ 2109-2111 (testimony) 



ii INDEX 

Page 
EnRels (Filedrich) 1960 

Erb, Tillman H 1024, 2092-2006 (testimony) 

Field, Mary 204S. 2050. 2124, 2125, 2181, 2185 

Figueiredoi Joseph 1924, 2017-2023 (testimony) 

Fink, Francis 2203 

Fisher, Betsy 2044. 2046 

Fishman, Irving 1927, 1934-1951 (testimony) 

Folkoff, Lsaac 2048, 2125 

Foreman. Clark 2170, 2172 

Foster, William Z 1976 

Frantz, Laurent Brown 2155, 2156-2160 (testimony) 

Clanley, Nat 2087, 2184 

Gebert, Bronislaw Konstantine (also known as Boleslaw K. Gebert and 

William K. Gebert) 2038, 2184, 2202 

Grabor, Thomas 2107-2100 (testimony) 

Graham, Morris 1924, 1928, 2054, 2059-2061 (testimony), 2203 

Grumet, Leonard 2185, 2193 

Hakes. Robert F 2175 

Hall. Gus 1922, 1953, 1962-1964, 1970, 197L 1983 

Hallett (Winslow) 2141 

Halliuan, Vincent 2012, 2048, 2118. 2185 

Halpern, Betty (Mrs. RaA-mond Halpern ; nee Weinstein) 1924. 2116- 

2118 (testimony) 

Hamlin. Lloyd 2130 

Harju, Walter 2043, 2048, 2181, 2185 

Harjii, Wilma (Mrs. Walter Harju) 2181, 2185 

Harris, Noel 1924, 2024-2027 (testimony) 

Hartle, Barbara 1922. 1923, 105r>-1964 (testimony). 1065-1')66 (testi- 
mony), 1969-1983 (testimony), 1985, 2002, 2003-2004 (testimony), 
2037. 

Hessler, Gertrude 2035 

Hoover, J. Edgar 1949,2158,2159,2169 

Houseman. Joe 2043, 2196 

Howard, Norman 2057, 2001. 2139 

Hutcheson, M. A 2151. 2152 

Irving, Joe 2203 

Isaksen. Allan 2049. 2050, 2051, 2185, 2196 

Isaksen, Eleanor (Mrs. Allan Isaksen) 2185 

Izard. Ralph 1024, 1928, 2092, 2126, 2128-2138 (tos)imony). 2172, 2173 

Johnsen, Ralph Kenneth 1925, 2142-2144 (testimony) 

Johnson (Arnold) 2141 

Johnson, Elmer E 2079-2081 (testimony), 21,50. 2151 

Johnson, John Allen 1925, 2151-2155 (testimony) 

Kepler. Roy 2201 

Khrushchev. Nikita (S.) 1053,1960. 

1002, 1063, 1971, 2033, 2041, 2052, 2086, 2181, 2191, 2192, 2200, 2204 

Kimple. WMlliam (Ward) 2127 

King, Estelle (Mrs. William King) 2043, 2048 

Kim:, William 1923, 2043, 2047, 2048 

Knowland, (WMlliam F.) 2049 

Laffertv. Travis 1924, 2126,2146,2147-2148 (testimony) 

I^nin (V. I.) 1925, 1!)60. 1972. 

2035, 2052, 2085, 2125, 2177, 2179, 2183, 2187, 2194, 2195, 2198. 2200 

Leonard, James 2104 

Leonard, Norman 2161 

Letts (F. Dickinson) 2070 

Lewis, Joseph F 2061,2120,2145 

Lima, Albert Mickey 2172,2103 

Lindsay, Albert Bob 2050, 2203 

Lindsav, Mrs. Albert Bob 2203 

Longman (Dr.) 2038 

Louie, Stephen K 1927,1934-1051 (testimony) 

Ludwig. Martin 2062-2065 (testimony) 

Lumer, Hvman 1954, 2036 

MacArthur (Douglas) 2183 



INDEX iii 

Page 

Macmillan (Harold) ^11>^ 

Masuire, Michaol J 1929,12001-2002 (testimouy) 

Maudol. William 2005-20G8 (testimony) 

Manuilsky. Dimitri Z 2052,2195 

Marcus. Martiu Irving 1924,1995-1998 (testimony) 

Marshall, Diirothy (N.) ^1^- 

Marx, Karl I960, 1972, 2052 

McCarthy (Joseph li.) 20GG, 20U( 

McTernan, Francis (J.) 2079,2099 

ISIeiiny, George 2001 

Miller, Jean 2201 

Morris, Clarence 1929, 2105, 2190 

Mosk ( Stanley ) 2114, 2139 

Negro, John Andrew 1924,2071-2074 (testimony) 

Newman, Edward 2074,2070 

Nicholas, Elizabeth M 1924, 204S-2()5(), 

2054, 2055-2057 ( testimony ), 2125, 2181, 2196 

O'Connor, Harvey 2169 

Ortelle, John 1964 

Perrv. Pettis 1955 

Philbrick, Herbert (A.) 2020,2021 

Pike, James 2176 

Prussion, Karl 1921, 1922, 1924-1927, 2031-2055 

(testimony), 2057, 2059, 2060, 2080 (testimony), 2083-2088 (testi- 
mony), 2123, 2124-2125 (testimony), 2126, 2146 (testimony), 2165, 
2177-2204 (testimony) 

Ransome, Lillian 1924, 2118-2120 (testimony) 

Eayburn, Sam 2106 

Keich, William 1921,2126,2139-2141 (testimony) 

Reuther, Walter 2178, 2184 

Richards, Harvey 2048, 2202 

Roberts, Holland 2048, 2193, 2196, 2197, 2202 

Rogers, Sidney 2197 

Roosevelt (James) 2072, 2113-2115 

Rosen, Lottie Laub 1924,2111-2115 (testimony) 

Ross, Belle (Mrs. Edward Ross) 2048,2185,2186 

Ross, Edward 1921, 1922, 

2048, 2049, 2051, 2054, 2055, 2120-2126 (testimony), 2185, 2186 

Schneider, Ed 2048 

Shapovalov, Esther (Mrs. Michael Shapovalov) 2048,2124 

Shapovalov, Michael 1927, 2048, 2124, 2180, 2197, 2198 

Sobell, Morton 2188 

Stachel, Jacob (Jack) 2038,2184 

Stalin, Josef 2053, 2141, 2198 

Stalliugs, Ann (Mrs. Jack Stallings) 2186 

Stallings, Jack 2186 

Stevenson (Adlai E.) 2051 

Stewart, Charles A 1995 

Street, Emerson 2186 

Sweet, Sally Attarian 1924, 1928, 2074-2075 (testimony), 2092 

Szego, Peter 2049, 2051, 2181 

Thomas 2105 

Trotsky (Leon) 2141 

Truman (Harry S.) 2095 

Van Gilder, II. O 2175 

Venger, Ruben 1924, 2126-2128 (testimony) 

Volberg, Dave 2203 

Volberg, Mrs. Dave 2203 

Wachter, Douglas 1924,1966-1969 (testimony), 

207.5, 2172-2174 

Wachter, Saul 1924, 1928, 2075, 214,8-21.50 

(testimony), 2174 

Waterman, A 1955 

Watson, Don 2175 

Weinstone, William 2038, 2184 

Weintraub, Jack 1924,2068-2071 (testimony) 

Weniger, Arno 2175 



iv INDEX 

Page 

Weuiger, G. Archer 2175 

Wheeler, Juauita 1928 

Wheeler, William A 1952-1955 (testimony), 

2000-2002 (testimony) 

White, Alvin 204S 

White, Myra 2048 

Wilkinson, Frank 1928, 2073, 2091, 2092, 2137, 21(i9, 2170, 2173, 2201 

WiLsoii, Elliott 1923. 2043. 2047-2051, 218G. 2193 

Wilson, Mary (Mrs. Elliott Wil.son) 2043. 2047. 204S. 2125. 2181, 21S(j, 2201 

Wong, Harlin 1927, 1934-1951 (testimony) 

Yates. Oleta (O'Connor) 2050 

Zeitz. Louis 1925, 2099-2101 (testimony) 

Zinoviev (Grigori) 2195 

Orga.nizatioxs 
American Civil Liberties Union 

Northern California 2025, 2116, 2142, 2147 

American Federation of Labor 2000, 2001 

Central Labor Council, Spokane, Washington 1979 

American Peace Mobilization 1970 

Auto Workers, United CIO. (See Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural 

Implement AVorkers of America, CIO.) 
Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, 

CIO 2184 

Briggs & Co 2038 

CORE. (See Congress of Racial Equality. ) 

California Democratic Council 2050, 2186, 2190 

Convention, Fresno, 1956 2050, 2051 

Convention. Fresno. February 12, 13, and 14, 1960 2186 

Sth Congi-essional District 1922, 2139, 2140 

California Labor School 2069, 2154 

Campbell School (Santa Clara County, California) 1924 

Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of, AFL 2151, 2203 

Local 36 (East Bay area, Calif.) 2151, 2153 

Chrvsler Corp. : 

DeSoto Plant (Detroit, Michigan) 2036,2038 

Plymouth Plant (Detroit, Michigan) 2038 

Citizens Committee To Preserve American Freedoms (CCPAF) 1928, 2092 

City Hall, San Francisco 2089,2090,2174,2175 

City Hull, Siinnyvale, Calif 1926, 2196,2197 

Civic Auditoriimi (San Jose, Calif.) 2197 

Civic Center (San Francisco) 2104 

Civil Rights Congress 2163 

Committee to Elect Archie Brown to the Board of Supervisors 2137 

Communist International. (See International, III.) 

Communist Party, Poland — Trade Union Commission 2038, 2041 

Communist I'arty, Soviet Union — Central Committee 1943 

Communist I'arty. USA 2041, 2042, 2087 

National Structure: 

Industrial Commission 2087 

National Committee 1955, 1971, 

2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2040, 20(i3, 2070. 2087 

Executive Coininittee 2179 

17th National Convention. December 10-13, 1959. New York Citv_ 1922. 
1924. 1952-1955, 1962, 1968, 2001, 2006, 2007, 2013, 2022, 2084, 2136, 
2149, 2174. 
Districts : 

District 7 (Michigan) : 

District Committee 2032 

District Training School, Farmingtoii. Mich 2035, 203(> 

Industrial Commission 2032 

District 12 (Northwest District-Washington State) 1956 

District Committee 1 95(5 

District Board 195«t 



INDEX V 

Coiiinuiiiisi Tarly. ISA ('ciit iiiucd 

I>istrif(s — Coutinufd Papc 

Xorthem Califoruiu District 1921. 

1924, 19r.2, 1955, 19G8, 2000, 2008, 2022, 20-10 

Dlslrict Comniittop 1924 

District Political Committee 2049 

East Ray rejiion 1991, 1998 

Alameda County 1990 

County Committee 2030 

I'olitical Committee 1921 

Kxecutive Committee 2001 

Humboldt County 2020 

San Francisco : 

American Federation of Labor Section 2000, 

2001, 2002, 2005, 2010, 2014, 2070 

Section Committee 2001 

County Committee 1924, 2000 

Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo Section 2040 

Santa Clara County : 

Cell within Food Machinery and Chemical Corp 2044 

Cell within (ieneral Electric Co 2044 

Cell within I'ermanente Cement Co 2044 

Cell within San Jose Steel 2044 

Cell within Westinghouse Electric Corp 2044 

Industrial (or Trade Uni(m) Commission 2032,2044 

I.o« Altos-Mountain View cell 2043, 

2040-2048, 2054, 2146, 2180 

Milpitas— Cell within Ford Motor Co 2203 

Palo Alto Cluli 2040. 2048, 2053, 2054. 2124, 2140 

San Jose — Cell within the Carpenters and Joiners of 

America, United Brotherhood of, AFL 2203 

San Jose — Cell within the Lithographers of America 

Amalgamated 2203 

Santa Monica 1989 

Sonoma County 2127 

County Committee 1998 

Valley Section 2119 

Northwest District. ( See District 12. ) 

Southern California District 2040 

States : 

Arizona 2061 

California 2003,2191 

Central Committee 2056 

Executive Committee 1998 

Massachusetts : 

Bristol County 2018 

Michigan : 

Detroit 2080, 2184 

Cell within Ford Motor Co 2032 

West Side Sectitm 2032 

Flint 2035 

Ohio 1964 

Community Center (Palo Alto, Calif.) 1926,2197 

Congress of Indu.strial Organizations 2038,2184 

Congress of Kacial E(piality (CORE), University of California branch 2174 

Council for Civic Unity 2044,2145,2146 

Los Altos-Mountain View Branch 2180,2181 

Democratic Party. California 1921, 1980, 2049, 2050, 2125, 2185, 2186, 2190 

Los Altos-Mountain View Democratic Club 212.5, 2181 

South P.-ilo Alto Democratic Club 1926,2040,2125,2185,2186,2190 

Stanford Democratic Club 2049,2125 

DeSoto. ( Sec Chrysler Corp., DeSoto. ) 

Drake University 2160 

Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, United 2043, 2196, 2197 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee (ECLC) 1928,2092,2169-2172 



vi INDEX 

Page 

Fideler Publishing Co. (Grand Rapids, Mich.) 2197 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corp 2044 

Ford Motor Company 20.32, 2203 

Friends Service Committee. (See Religious Society of Friends, American 
Friends Service Committee.) 

Fimd for the Republic 2158-2160 

General Eh^ctric Co 2043, 2044 

General Motors Corp. 

General Motors Truck and Coach Division (Detroit, Mich.) 2038 

Independent Progressive Party (California), (t^ee Progressive Party, 
California.) 

International. Ill 2041, 2053 

International Union of Students 1948 

Jenks-Muir Sprin? Plant (Detroit. Mich.) 2038 

KCBS (Radio Station, San Francii=co) 2104 

KPIX (Television Station, San Francisco) 1929 

KRON (Televison Station. San Francisco) 1929 

Lenin School of Political Warfare (Moscow) 2052,2200 

Lithographers Union of America, Amalgamated 2203 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union. International 2172 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 2054, 

2146 

North China News Agency 1936 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 2192 

Packard Motor Car Co 2038,2087 

Palo Alto Peace Club 1922, 2058, 20,54, 2145, 2146, 2182, 2197-2199 

Executive Board 2054 

Pennsylvania Unemployed League 2141 

People's Educational Center 2117 

Permanente Cement Co 2044 

Presna Latina 1936 

Progressive Party (California) (Independent Progressive Party) 1921, 

2044, 2046, 2048, 2049, 2185, 2197 
Religious Society of Friends : 

American Friends Service Committee 2199 

Committee To End Nuclear Testing 2199 

Republican Party 1980, 2185, 2186 

San Francisco Police Department 2088 

San Jose Steel 2044 

South Palo Alto Library 2197 

Stanford University 1925, 2043, 2047, 2099, 2193 

Political Forum 1926, 2193 

Stockholm Peace Petition. (Sec World Peace Appeal.) 

Telepress News Agency 2135 

Tompkins School (Oakland, California) 2142 

Trotskyite Workers Party. ( See Workers Party of the U.S. ) 

Unitarian Church 2201 

United Nations 2189 

Security Council 2052 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of — Embassy, Mexico — 1939 
United States Government : 

Atomic Energy Commis.sion. Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 2199 

Justice Department — Federal Bureau of Investigation 21(>9 

Post Office Department 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939 

Treasury Department: 

Custom.s, Bureau of 1934,1935,1937,1938,1940 

San Francisco Control Unit 1934 

University of California 1924, 1966, 2030, 2105, 2173, 2174 

Student Committee for Civil Liberties 2173 

University of Santa Clara 2181 

Washington Video Productions, Inc 1929 

Wayne University 2035, 2037 

Westinghouse Electric Corp 2043,2044,2196 

Willowbrook Cooperative Nursery School 2109 



INDEX vii 

Page 

Workers' Party of the Uuitod States 2141 

World Federation of Deniocratic Youth 1948 

World Peace Appeal (also known as Stockholm Peace Appeal or Peti- 
tion) 1900, 2053, 2182, 2201 

World Peace Con.izress 2053,2182,2198 

World Youth Festival, Seventh, July 26-Aug. 4, 1959, Vienna 2171 

Youth Against the House Un-American Activities Committee 2171,2172 

Publications 

China Pictorial 1930 

China Reconstructs 1942 

Chinese Literature 193G 

Daily I'aliforniau (University of California publication) li!67, 2173, 217.'') 

Evergreen 1943 

Flashlight, The 1922,2054,2198 

Korea 1936 

Korea Today 1936 

Masters of Deceit (book) 1949,2109 

Nation, The 2159 

People's China 1936 

People's Daily 1943 

People's World (Formerly Daily People's World) 2054, 

2135, 2160, 2190, 2191, 2196 

Soviet Far East and Central Asia (book) 2006 

Soviet Union (book) 1927,2197 

Worker, The 1973 

Tank (magazine) 2135 

o 



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