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Full text of "The Northern lakes of Canada : the Niagara River & Toronto, the lakes of Muskoka, Lake Nipissing, Georgian Bay, Great Manitoulin Channel, Mackinac, Sault Ste. Marie, Lake Superior"

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QUEBN
8 BOTE L 
 
TORO
TO_ 
STRICTLY FIRST-CLASS IN ALL ITS APPOINTMENTS. 


Celebrated for its home comforts, perfect quiet, excellent attendance, and the 
peculiar excellence of its cuisine; it has been patronized by their Royal Higbnesses 
Prince Leopold and the Princess Louise, the Marquis of Lorne, Lord and 
Lady Dufferin, the 
iarquis and Marchioness of I.lansdowne, and tbe best families. 
Is most delightfully situated near the Bay, on Front Street, and is one of the largest 
and most comfortable hotels in the Dominion of Canada. 
McGAW & WINNETT, Proprietors. 



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U
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Q;!JQm Hotel, 
NIAGARA-ON-THE-LAKE, ONT. 


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This Hotel and Summer Resort is located in a beautiful grove 
opposite Fort Niagara, at the head of Lake Ontario and the mouth 
of the Niagara River. It is capable of accommodating three 
hundred and fifty guests. All modern improvements. The drives 
along the banks of the Lake and River are beautiful and refreshing. 
Application for rooms may be made to the proprietors of the 
Queen's Hotel, Toronto, up to June 1st, after that date to the 
" Queen's Royal," Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont. 


McGAW

 WINNETT, Proprietors" 
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roAùI\E
 QOUSE, 


TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA. 



 'vvv'- '" '" 'v'-" '"" "^' '" '" '" '\, '" '" '" '" '\. '" '\, '\, '"" 


This favourite and commodious HOTEL is conveniently Situated to 
the principal Railway Stations, Steamboat Landings, and the Parliament 
Buildings. It has ONE HUNDRED and TWENTY-FIVE WELL- 
VENTILATED BED-ROOMS besides spacious Public and Private 
Dining and Drawing Rooms. The house is heated throughout by steam, 
giving a comfortable temperature during the coldest weather; and its tine 
. site, overlooking Toronto Bay on Lake Ontario, renders it a very desir- 
able Summer resort. 


TERMS :-$2.00 and $2.50 per day which includes room and 
attendance, with Full Board (Table d'Hote) from a Bill of Fare, compris- 
ing the best that the market affords. 
The Transfer Hotel Omnibus and Luggage Waggon, and the 
" Walker House" Porter, attend to the arrivals of all Passen&,er Trains 
and Steamboats. 


Iii 



HEAYY
HELF I RICE LEWIS & SON, 
CENERAl 
HARDWARE. I HARDWARE 
-AND- 


IRON. 
STEEL. WIRE. 


UD 


tlANILLA 
ROPE. 


IRON MEROHANTS
 
TORONTO. 


Mechanics and Carpenters' Tools, 
Builders', Foundry and Boat Supplies, 
Table and Pocket Cutlery, 
Plated Forks and Spoons, 
PATENT THREE ROLLER MANGLES, 


A. FULL and WELL ASSORTED STOCK OF HARDWARE. 


W!J A" BRADBHA WI 


23 East 31arket Square, Toronto, 


GROCER AND SHIP CHANDLER, 


ANCHORS. 
ROPE, 
OAK U M, 


CHAINS, 
BLOCKS, 
PAINTS and OILS. 


(jamping Parties' Outfits. 


SOLICITED ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO. 
iv 



JOHN MALLON & CO.. 


Nos. 12 to 16 ST. LAWRENCE MARKET, 


TORONTO. 


FAMILY BUTCHERS, 


HAVE ALWAYS ON HAND 


MESS BEEF-CHOICEST BRANDS, 


IN CAR LOTS OR SMALLER QUANTITIES. 


VERRAL'S 
Cab, Coupe, Li very & Boarding Stables. 


ESTABLISHED 1855. 
HEAD OFFICE & STAßLES,-II, 13, 15, 1'4' & 19 Mercer st. 
Telephone No., 9'4'V. 
ßRANCH,-11 & 18 Queen St. East. 
Telep}lOne 1\"0., 933. 
Visitors and Tourists will study their own interest by send- 
ing all orders to us, and insure good turnouts at Tariff 
Rates. 
Excurl10nists can order cabs by telephone from the I. Chicora" Office. 


HIGHEST REFERENCE. OFFICES NEVER CLOSED. 


GEO. VERRAL, 
Proprietor. 


y 



D. PIKE, 


M:ANUF.4.CTUBEB OF 


TENTS, AWNINGS, FLAGS, 
F
:S1 
Horse and \ _ . Waterproof 
W aggon 

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Oovers, 


 
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Preservers, 
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TEJN""TS TO :8E
T, 
AND DIFFERENT GRADES OF CANVAS ALWAYS ON HAND. 



peCla.l attention given to the requirements of Hunting and Fishing- Camping 
Parties. Tents for Sportsmen, or Compartment 1'ents for Families. 
All correspondence by mail promptly answered and Price 
I....ists forwarded on application. 


D. PIKE, 157 King St. East, Toronto, Ont. 


MILLMAN & CO., 


(Late NOTMAN & FRASER.) 


@H0Tl10G
AF>HIG 


fI 
Tl1lSTl1S, 


41 KING STREET EAST, 


'I. 1 0R o Nrl.' O. 


. MESSRS. MILLMAN & Co., have refitted the 8tudio through- 
out, and adopted all the newest improvements, making it the 
finest Photographic establishlnent in Canada, and although 
doing a superior class of work, their prices are low. All the 
negatives of the late firm have 
een preserved. 
Yl 



-vT_ ::McDO-vT ..ALL, 


-IMPORTER OP-- 
:rine Guns, Fishin
 Tackle, <<Ja.mping Good
, &
. 


.Just received a sp1endid assortment of Rods and Tackle; al!'!o a complete line of Base Ban 
supplies. Guns and tents rented. Price list free. 
W. McDOWALL, 67 KING ST. EAST, TORONT O. 


OOEAN E:OUSE, 
BUBLJrNCTOJN BEACH" ONT ABED. 


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TORONTO, HAMILTON AND OAKVILLE. 
STEAMER 
"SOUTHERN BELLE," 
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rr:E:::E LONG :e::e-ANC:a: OF CAN ADA_ 
CAMPBELL & HILL, PROPRIETORS. 


Grand Trunk Railway. 


Leave by boat and return by any train, or leave by train and return 
by boat. 
Toronto to Hamilton and return, or vice versa, good one day, $1.25; 
good three days, $1.[0; Saturday excursion good by boat Saturday to 
return by train on Monday a.m., $] .{)o; single fare by steamer, 75c. 
Steamer will leave Mowat's Wharf daily (weather permitting) at 11 
o'clock a.m., and 5.30 p.m. For departure and arrival of trains see 
G. T. R. time-table. Season trip tickets .and bi-weekly excursious. 
WM. E DGAR'I G. T.R. A. & 
: KEITI., St'J". "S[)'ItfhfJr'it Bplle."'. 
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-..::IV ..A.. TC::S:ES_ 


:OIA:M:O
DA. 


ESTABLISHED 1836. 


JAMES E. ELLIS & CO., 


BY APPOINTMENT 


Official, Government, Railway and City Timekeepers, 


. IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 


FINE GOLD WATCHES, JEWELLEBY, 
Sterling Silver and Plated Ware, Diamonds, Frenoh Clooks 
and Bronzes, Split Seoonds and Repeating Watohes. 
LARGEST STOCK IN THE PROVINCE. LOWEST PRICES. 


ALL GOODS GUARANTEED. 


J A-])L[ES EL :ELLIS & 00., 

o. I KING STREET E
"-ST, TORONrro. 


THE LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD. 


Double 'rrack, Steel Rails, Elegantly Equipped. 


Affords you the finest view of 


B e[t II tlful 8 ((J6n (fJ)ry 
EAST OF THE ROCKIES. 


Through the Famous Switzerland of America, Mauch Chunk, Glen Onoko, and 
the beautiful Wyoming Valley. 


ELEGjçNT DjçY EXpRESS. 


. 


Solid Eastlake Train between New York or Philadelf hia and Buffalo, Suspen- 
sion Bridge or Niagara Falls (daiIy except Sunday). Night Express 
(Daily) between the same points. 
CITY TJCKET O
"'FICES:- 
NEW YORK 23ð Broadway. PHILADELPHIA-S3G Chestnut Street. 
BUFFALO -Cor. Main and Seneca Streets. 


Mauch Chunk, Pa. 


E. B. BYINGTON. Genl. Pass. Agt. 
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COR. KING AND YORK STREETS,. 
TORONTO, aNT. 


· J. o. PALMER, Proprietor, 
ALSO OF KERBY HOU3E, BRANTFORD 


This hotel is the most desirable for the mercha.nt, the 
lawyer, the business 111an, the pleasure tourist, as street cars 
pass the doors to all parts of the city every five minutes, 
and all the fashionable dry goods stores are located on King 
Street.. Besides its superiority in point of location, it is the 
Hotel of Toronto, 
COMPLETE IN ALL ITS APPOINTMEMTS, 
with magnificent parlors and bed-rooms, detatched and en- 
suite. 


Rates, - - $2.00 per day. 



\ 


WM. M. COOPER, 
69 BAY STREET, TORONTO, 
desires to notify the public that he has added to his stock of Guns, Rifles 
and Sporting Goods, a complete line of 


FISHING 


TACKLE 


OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. 
I keep only the "very best," and Sportsmen may rest assured that in 
my Stock they can at all times find every requisite for Hunting or 
Fishing. " 
IIY \VA-REHOIJSE, 69 BA.Y ST., TORONTO, 
will in the future, as heretofore, be found the " Headquarters" for 
everything in Sporting lines, and I guarantee satisfaction to all my 
customers. 
Manufacturers' Agent and Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 


GUNS, RIFLES, FISHING 


TACKLE, 


aud SI)Ortill
 Goods or all kinds. 


CLOVER PORT, 


. 


LAKE ROSSEAU. 


A new resort. 


On "rest sitlc of Bi
 Island, 
three and a balf miles Croln 
Port Carlin;;, four front \Viu- 
dernlere, close to the most 
numerous groups of Islands. 


PENETANGUISHENE. 


GEORGIAN BAY HOUSE 


Exceptionally situated on hin- 
side overlooking the Bay. 
Small steamboat avail- 
able to visit the cele- 
brated fishing 
grounds. 


GOOD BATHING & FISHING. HOT AND COLD WATER BATHS. 


Boats for hire on reasonable Summer visitors assured of every at- 
terms. Post-Office on tention. 
Premises. 


For terms apply to 
M. J. COLLINS, 
Proprietor. 


Rate $1.50 per day. Special per week 
ALEX. ARNOLD, 
Proprietor. 



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THE NIAGARA RIVEH & TORONTO, 


CQrhf y&âkf5 of c4)lu5Iwkâ, 


LAKE NIPISSING, GEORGIAN BAY, GREAT MANITOULIN 
CHANNEL, MACKINAC, SAULT STE. MARIE, 
LAKE SUPERIOR. 


A GUIDE TO THE 


BEST SPOTS FOR 'VATERSIDE RESORTS-HOTELS-CAMPING 
OUTFIT, FISHING AKD SHOOTING-DISTANCES 
AND ROUTES OF TRAVEL. 


WITH 


SECTIONAL MAPS OF THE LA.KES & ILLUSTRATIONS. 


SECOND EDITION, WITH LATEST INFORMATION. 


EDITED BY 
BARLOW CUMBERLAND, 
TORONTO. 


(!t;.orontO': 
HU
TER, ROSE & CO., PRINTERS. 


NORTH YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY' 
MAIN 



NORTH BAY, LAKE NIPISSING. 


Tile Sportsman's Home of Canada. 


THE 


P AOIFIO 


HOTEL. 


GEO. H. MACKIE, Manager. JOHN BOURKE, Prop. 
A new Hotel, well kept and furnished. Only 2! miles from "Trout 
Lake" Fishing Grounds. Rates and guides on application. 


BURK
S 


F ALLS
 


ONT. 


BURIr 1I0USE
 


Tllis ne'v and couullodioU8 Touri
ts' Hotel is pleasant.. 
Iy 
ituated on tbe banks or the ltIa;-anetawan River- 
SOO reet abo,.e tile le,rel or Luke Ontario. 
Good Fishing and Sllootillg in tile immediate neigh- 
bourbood. Best rurubbed Hotel Nort). or Toronto. 
Electric bells t1trou;-llout. A perCec1 Paradise for the 
Tourist, Invalid and Sportsnlan. First-class Counnercial 
accoullnodation. 


FREE 'BUS TO AND FROl\i ALL TRAINS AND BOATS. 
TernlS, $1.50 to $2.00 Iter day. 
D. F. BURK, Prop. 


Entered accordin
 to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year one thomand eight 
. hundred and eighty-six, by BARLOW CU'IBERLAl\D, in the office 
of the Minister of Agriculture. 



I}'J19BX 


OF THE 


La
e8, l1iu
rs g pla\
8 fT)
l)tiol)
d 


For Table of Contents, See page 196, 


LAKES. 


P.\.GE. PAGE. 
Ah-l\Iic. . . . . . .. ................... 155 Fletcher........................... 150 
Avon. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 135 Foots......,.... .... _ .. . . . . . . . . .. 135 
Axe.. ............................ 144 Fox.... .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . " 144 
Balsam. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. ......... l(iG Gloucester........................ 
9 
Ba"ls. . . .. ........................ 128 Gull........................ 104 
Bays. .... . . . . . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . .. 147 Hardwood.......... ...... . . . .. .... 150 
Bear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 173 Hardy.s.... ...................... 116 
Beaver . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. 152 Haystack........... . . . . . ... ... . . . . .. 140 
Big Joe....................,...... 151 Hollow ................... . . . . . . .. 148 
Big Twin........... ..... .... ...... 161 Hurons............................ 100 
Black ............................ 116 Isabella............................ 140 
Blackstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 140 Island.......... .................. 151 
Blackwater ....................... 156 Joseph.................. ... . . . . . . .. 134 
Brandy. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 120 Kahweambetewayamog............ 151 
Buck. . . . . . . .., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 144 Legs.............................. 89 
Bull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 116 l.olittle Joe ....,............ ...... 137 
Burlington . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . 93 Li ttl e Round. .. . . . .. . .. .. .., .. .. 142 
ByerR.. . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. l::m Little Twin.. . . . . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . .. 15] 
Canoe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 151 Long....................... .. . . . ... l1û 
Clear. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 116 Loon............................... 143 
Commanda . . . . . ... . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. 158 l\'la.nitowaba....................... 156 
Cooper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 151 Many Island.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 158 
Couchi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . .. 160c l\Iaple ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 156 
Couchiching ..... , . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... 85 
Iarsh............................ 1.36 
Crane ............................ 140 Mary..... ....................... 146 
Crotch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ......... 151 l\Iatchedash.... .................. ] 6H 
Deer. . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 102 Mill... ... ....................... 156 
Devil's Angle........o............. 151 l\Iorgan's........................ . 128 
Doe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . " 144 N as Lonsing . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... 1 GOd 
Eagle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 58 N i pissing . . . . . . . . . .. 0 . .. . . . . .. 158 J 160c 
Echo.......... ...0............ .. I1G Ochtwan.......................... 151 
Fairy. . . . . . . . . . . . , ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. 146 J Ontario. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 42 



lNDEX. 


PAGE. i PAGE. 
OX Tongue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 151 St. John.......................... 88 
Parry Sound...... . . . .. . ........ 16;
 Stony......,................. 156, 160b 
Peninsula. . . . . . .. ................. 1471 Sucker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 127 
Pickerel. . . . . . . . . . .. .............. 158 Superior...................,...... 177 
Pigeon. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. ............ 102 Talon ............................ 160{ 
Pine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . 89 Temiscamingue... ....... ....... 160e 
Poverty .......................... 151 Three l\Iile. . . .. ......,........... 122 
Quinté. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 166 Thunder Bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 179 
Restoul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 158 Toronto........................... 100 
Rice...............:...... -....... 102 Trout (Seguin chain}........... ". 156 
Rosseau. . . . . . . . .. ......... ...... 119 Trout (Nipissing)......... ....... 160! 
Round. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ......... 144 Trading... _ . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . .. ..... 150 
Saud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. 152 l'urtle..... .......... ..... ...'. 128 
. Se-see- be. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 154 Vernon............................ 14:{ 
Silver..... .......... ............. 120 'Vah-was-kesh.......... .... ... 155 
Simcoe.... ............. .......... 81 Wanipitae ........................ 160i 
Skeleton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 123 'Vhite Fish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 
Sparrow _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 White Stone...............,....,. 156 
Spring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. 150 Wood................. _ . . . . . . . .. " 148 
Star. . . . . . . . ., ." ... . . . . . . . .. 156, 160g 


RIVERS. 


PAGE. 
Beaver. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 169 
Bighead. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 169 
Black. . . . . . . . . .. ................. 88 
Black Creek . . . . . ., . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 160c 
Blind . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 172 
Brandy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 120 
Buck, . . . . . . . . .. '. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 144 
Chenango. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 8 
Commanda. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 158 
Coldwater. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 85 
Curren t.. ........................ 181 
Dee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 121 
Distress ............... . . . . . .. ... 158 
Don .. . . . . . . , .. . . . . . . . .. .......... 50 
Duchesnay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 160e 
French...................... .156, 160h 
Garden. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . , . . . . . . . " 173 
Hudson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Humber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47, 78 
Hock Rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 102 
Indian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 117 
J enesse. . . . .. ........... . . .. . . . . .. 158 
Joseph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131, 135 
.l{aib?s
o!lg : .. .. . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. 160d 
Kammlstlqma. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 181 
Ka
heshebogarnog........ ......... 89 
La Vase . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. ..... 160d 
Lehigh. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
Little Current. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 172 
l\lad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .95, 168 
l\iadawaska ..... ............ 151, 160b 
Maganetewan. . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . 14ñ, 152 


PAGE. 
l\-Iattawan ....................... 160{ 
J\Hssasaga.. .. . . . . . . .. ... .. . . . . . '" 172 
Moon. . . . .. .. . .... .. .. . ...141, 171, 160g 
l\luskoka N. Branch......... 146, 160a 
l\luskoka S. Branch. ' . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 147 
Muskosh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 116 
l\Iuskrat. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . .. . .. 160e 
N epigon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 178 
Niagara.. . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . .15-40, 159 
N ottawasaga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162, 169 
Ottawa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151, 2f)9 
Petewawa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 151 
Pigeon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 181 
Rosseau. . . . . , . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 123 
Seguin. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 140, 156, 160g 
Sevem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 85 
Shadow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 125 
Sharp's Creek...................... 148 
Skeleton. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ...... . . . . .. 123 
South ....................... 156, IGOc 
Spanish .......................... 172 
St. Mary's.... .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. .... 173 
Sturgeon ... ..................... 160e 
Susquehanna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
Sydenharn . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . .. ... ... 170 
Thessalon . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 172 
Toronto. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . .47, 159 
'l'rent ............................ 166 
V eu ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160e 
'V alter's Creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 148 
'Vanipitae ........................ 160 



INDEX. 


PLACES and HOTELS. 


PAGE. I PAGE. 
Ah Mic . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 155 Fort RouiIlé .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 
Algonkin Park. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 160a " St. Joseph................... 176 
Allandale........................... 81 "St. George................... 176 
Alport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 105 "1'oronto. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -15 
Algoma Mills. . .. . . . . .. . ... . .0 . . . '" 172 "\Villiam. . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . 45 
Arthurlie. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . ., 120 Forest Lake. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. HiOe 
Ashdown. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 126 French River . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . " 160h 
Atherly.................... ...... 83 , Georgetown.................... .. .. 94 
Aurora. . . . . . . . . . . '. .............. 78 Goldies. .......................... 151 
Rala. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 116 Gore Bay. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . ., 172 
Barrie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... 81 Grassmere........................ 147 
Barretts. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............ 157 I Gra venhurst. . . .. .................. 101 
Baysville. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 149 Gregory.......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 131 
Beeton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . .. D5 Hamilton.......... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 91 
Beaumaris. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. 112 Hawkstone...... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:3 
Belle Ewart. . . . . - . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ., 81 Holland Landing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 79 
Brace bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 105 Holland l\iarsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 80 
Bradford. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 80 H oodstown. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 142 
Brackenrig......................... 110 Huntsville.......... ............... 142 
Bruce Mines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 173 I I Ilfracombe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 144 
Burk's Falls. . . . . . . , . . . . . . . ..... . . .. 152 Isle Royale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 182 
Burlington. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 J u ddha ven. . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... 123 
Byng Inlet .. .. .. . . . . . . .. .... 155, 160h Katrine.....,..................... 152 
Cahiagué. .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. ... . . . .. 166 Keswick........................... 8:{ 
Callandar ................... 158, HiOd Killarney.. . . . . . . . '.. . . . . . . . . . . .. 170 
Cats kills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 King......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " '" 78 
Cathagouthia...................... 166 La Cloche...... ...... ... ........... 172 
Clifton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 27 La Vase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 158 
Collingwood. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 168 Lefroy....................... ... 81 
Collins Inlet. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 160h Lewiston......................... 16 
Clevelands. .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . , . .. . . .. 131 Little Current. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . '" 172 
Cloverport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... ., 121 Longford............ .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 
Commanda. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .... . 158 l\lackinac......................... ] 75 
Craigie-lea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 136 lVlaganetewan...................... 154 
Cuckoo Valley.. . ... .............. 169 !\-IanitouIin Island................. 170 
Davenport. . . . . . . . . . .. ............ 78 Manitowaning..................... ] 72 
Dee Bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 122 Maplehurst........................ 126 
Deleware Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Meaford.......................... 169 
Depot Farm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 155 l\-feganoma....................... .. 158 
Drummond Island. ............... 175 :Merriton.......................... !H 
Dunbar's Falls.................... 157 lVlichipicton Island..... .......... 177 
Dunchurch. . .. . . .. .. .. .. . ... ...... 156 Midland City.. .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. . . . . 163 
Dwight. . . . .. . .. .. .. . .... . . . . . . .... 151 }\;IcKellar................... 156, 160.0 
Edgington.. .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. .. .... 15ü l\Iohawk Valley.... .............. 7 
Fairmount. . . . . . . . . . ... . 0 . . . . . . . . .. 1] 7 Newark........................... 27 
Ferndale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 129 N ewmarket. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 79 
Fort George.. . . . . . " ............. :'m Niagara Falls. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 
" Holmes...................... 176 Nipissing Junction. ... . ... . .. .. " 160d 
" Missasaga.................... 37 North Bay . . . . . . . . . .. ....,...... 160e 
" Mackinac.................... 175 Oaklands .........................129 
" Niagara...................... 33 Orillia .......... . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . 84 



PAGE. 
Owen Sound ..................... 170 
Parkdale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 78 
Parry Sounò.......... . . . . . . . . . . .. 163 
Penetanguishene........... ...... .. 162 
Point Kaye. . . . . ... . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . .. 113 
Powasing. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. ...... 158 
Port Arthur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 180 
" Anson ..... ................ 155 
" Carling.. . . . . . . . . .. .......... 118 
" Cockburn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 138 
" Rosseau..... ................ 12:3 
" SandfieJd. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1:32 
" Sydney....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 146 
(lueenston JIeights................ 21 
Rama. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 86 
Ravenecliff. . . .. .................. 142 
Redwood. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. 137 
Roach's point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 
Sault Ste. Marie.. .... ............. 173 
Severn Bridge. .. ................. 88 
Shanty Bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 


INDEJ{. 


PAGE. 
Silver Islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 178 
Star Lake House................. 160g 
South Falls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 109 
South River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 160c 
St. Ignace. . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 178 
St. Catharines. , . . .. .............. 91 
Sundridge. .. . . . . .. ... .. . . . . .. 156, 160b 
Sutton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........... 83 
Toronto. . . . .. .................... 45 
Torrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 117 
Turtle. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 156 
U tterson. . . . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . . . . . . .. 142 
Venetia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ... 128 
Walker'sPoint..... ..............117 
'Vashago . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 88 
Weston. . . . . . . . . . ... .............. 78 
\Vindermere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 121 
Y 0- ho-cu -ca- ba. . .. ............... 137 
York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .......... 48 
Youngstown. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 29 



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THE 


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O::EP OAN ADA. 


. ... . 


A Little Fart.her 011. 


It may fairly be said that there is scarcely a tourist who lands on 
he shores of America, who does not visit NIAGARA FALLS, and 
there are thousands of inhabitants of this Continent who feel impelled 
to follow their example. 
Not to have seen Niagara in these days of rapid communication, 
is to admit one's self to be behind the age, therefore, it is, that as in 
Europe, the old saying is, "All the roads lead to Rome," so on 
this continent all the routes lead to Niagara Falls, and everybody 
can go there if they will. 



4 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


I 


\, 
The object of this little sketch may frankly be avowed to be that 
when the visitor shall have reached Niagara, it may, by telling him 
truthfully what there is beyond, encourage him to corne a little farther 
011. 
It may be he will corne only to the mouth of the NIAGARA RIVER 
and back. (See page IS). Here he will visit the most historic scenes 
in this land, where every height tells some thrilling tale of martial 
valour, of victory, or of death, and each succeeding turn of the wind- 
ing River opens out a vista of recollection or landscape beauty, 
whose present peace makes pleasant the tale of past and stirring war. 
Or, should he come from some inland country, where ponds are 
called lakes, and little streamlets gurgle as ri vers with high-sounding 
names, let us tempt hinI to cross a Lake as large as many a salty sea, 
and voyaging in an ocean-going steamer, for a short time lose sight of 
lalld, upon a fresh water trip to the most busy and thriving city in 
Canada. It is of itself a little episode, this rapid trip across the 
Lake Ontario. 
In TORONTO, he will find a change of scene conlbining the push 
and smart energy of the Yankee, with the solid and phlegmatic 
surety of the Briton. A city of churches and fine public buildings, 
of healthful moral tendencies, and broad streets studded with many 
happy hOlues. The centre of the mental culture of the land, with 
Public L
braries for the enquiring, Universities and Col1eges for the 
learned, and Parks and Island waterside resorts for the athletical1y 
inclined. 
For many years the visitor to Canada has swept along the border, 
taking the "Rapid" trip down the mighty St. Lawrence to the sea. 
Let him be tempted to stay a while, and go a little farther OIl into 
the interior of the country, to the" NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA," 
where primeval forests jostle close with sumlnef hotels, and nature 
can be studied and enjoyed, freed from the artificialities of every- 
day city life. 
They are ?lOt places to w
ich to go, for display of fine clothes or 
many changes of rainIent, to see dusty crowds hurry past in herds, 
measuring their pleasures hy the mileage over which they rush, but 
they are places where within convenient and cheap distance of the 



THE NORTI1ERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


5 


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 scenes and mingled land 
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fortable bed of an un pre 
LANDING A 1IASKINONGR. tentious hotel, the resin- 
laden smell of the sighing pine and soft lappings of the little wave- 
lets on the quiet shores will lull the weary brain to sound and un- 
accustomed sleep. 
The District of the LAKES OF MUSKOKA, is a region of many, 
many lakes of all sizes and forms, where canoeing and boating from 
hamlet to hamlet along the shores, combines the safety of a scat- 
tered population with the wildness of uncultivated wastes. This is 
no matter of choice or taste with the hardy settler, for nature has 
so accumulated the rocks and wilds along the shores that only at inter- 
vening spots can sufficient breadth of soil be found on which to farm. 
The Hotels are not great caravansaries, but moderate houses where 
plain meals, fresh milk, cleanly rooms and comfortable as distinguished 
from e1e.f{aJlt accompaniments, are joined with moderate as distinguish- 
ed (ronl hlf:h priced charges. This does not mean" Roughing it in the 
Bush," but that tl1e common sin1ple wants are CuHy supplied, and the 
extra velvets and sauces of city civilization are left at home. A glance 
at the details hereinafter shown will tell at how little cost a whole 
family can have a happy holiday for what indeed in other directions 
would little more than pay their railway fares. 


? -. 



{3 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


But should our tourist wish to stray still a little farther on and spend 
his tin1e in steamers on the Lakes, we will take him for day after day 
upon the great upper water through the beauties of GEORGIAN BAY, 
with its channels winding to the north of the Great Manz"toulill Island, 
in sheltered courses, but with unsullied winds fresh frorrl their far off 
homes in the now nearing North, so shall he reach Sault Ste. Marie, 
or Mackinac and its many diverging routes, or sailing out upon the 
broad expanse of the mighty LAKE SUPERIOR, the largest lake in all 
the world, visit the lofty shores of 77l1tJlder Bay, Purt Arthur and 
Duluth, the "city of the unsalted seas." 
Study, reader, these few leaves and learning that Canada is not 
simply a strip along the coast, make up your mind to breathe a little 
of the air beneath the Red Cross flag, and entering upon the border 
venture yet - a å"ttle fartlter on. 


1 .., ..._ _ 


For the East alltl South. 
It has been already said that from all points of America Rates and 
Routes can be obtained to and from Niagara Falls, but there are 
SOIne railways which are preelninent in the numbers they transport 
and in the territory they embrace, and as it may be useful to pass en 
gers taking the Niagara River Route from Toronto, some of these 
n1ay be mentioned. 


THE HUDSON RIVER ROUTE. 
Having crossed the lake by the Niagara Navigation Company's 
steamer Chicora, direct connection is made at Lewiston with the 
J.\?e71.1 York Celltral Railway. Baggage is examined on board and 
checked to destination for holders of through tickets. Once upon 
the express trains of the New \Tork Central Railway, progress to the 
Atlantic shore is swift and certain. The only four track railway in 
America, two of its lines are given up entirely to passenger trains; 
the other two being occupied only by freight trains; there are there. 
fore no trains to meet and no trains to pass, but a regular flow of traffic 
moves uninterruptedly in one direction along each track. No wonder, 
therefore, the wheels seem to ring along with un varying regularity 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


7 


like the steady beating of an unruffled heart. Keeping about the 
course of the Erie Canal, through the level plains and salt pastures 
of the Onondaga District, the picturesque Mohawk Valley is next fol- 
lowed from its rising waters, near Rome, to its junction with the 
Hudson, near Albany. Thence the rails just above the level of the 
river's surface follow the left banks of the noble Hudson, with all its 
varied river craft and glorious scenery, passing through the "Gale- 
'loa)'s of the Catskills" and in front of the Pa/z'sades ,of its lower 
reaches, to the great city, N ew York. 
At LewiS/on connection is made also with the fVest Sllore Railway 
-the latest addition to the great Trunk lines-under the same man. 
agement and direction as the N ew York Central; it forms another 
link through much the same line of country to Albany. Fronl here 
it follows down the opposite side of the river, skirting the west or right 
bank of the great Hudson, and sweeping along under the very foot of 
the lofty mountains until at length, when near the lower end, it leaves 
the river and curving into the midst of the valleys, nlakes a short 
detour from the banks to return again opposite N ew York, to whose 
streets the passenger is conveyed by ferry. With new and splendid 
equipment and the most modern and instructed track alignment, its 
claims on the traveller's patronage combine novelty with perfect per- 
formance. 
Should passengers holding the Niagara Navigation Company's 
tickets to New York, by either of these Railways, so desire they can 
break their journey at Albany and go down the river by the palati
l 
steamers of the Day Line. 
The Eastern shores of Massachusets and Boston are reached by 
train from Albany. 
THE DELA \V ARE VALLEY ROUTE. 
At Niagara-on-the-Lake the steamer makes direct connection 
with the Michigan Central Railway, whose trains run alongside on 
the dock. By these, at Susþension Bridge, on the Canadian side, 
junction is made with the Express trains of the far-famed Erie R. R. 
Having crossed "the Bridge" the trains follow the shore to BllÛ'alo ; 
from here begins the scenery which has created the name and re- 



8 


THE NORTHERll LAKES OF CANADA. 


nown of "Picturesque Erie." 


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THE STARUCCA VIA-DrCT. 
which spans the cleft, a complete view is gained of the dizzy cliffs 
three hundred feet sheer in height, and of the Genesee River, wind- 
ing far away below. Farther on are the valleys of the Chellal1go and 



THE NORTBERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


B 


SltsqllellallJla Rivers, with rifts and mountain crags, and rushing 
streams, where views abound which artists have come from afar to 
reproduce, and the massive arches of the Slarucca Vzaduct act as a 
foil to the surrounding scene. 
Over the heights and neafer the .Atlantic shore, the fair vales of the 
Delaware bring the swift train to Jersey City and N ew York. The 
Erie is celebrated for the excellence of its cars and completness of its 
equipments which are unsurpassed by any. Direct connections are 
n1ade by it with the Lehigh Valley R. R. for Philadelphia and \Vash- 
ington by a route proverbial for its beauty. 


Travellers to or frùm the South shores of Lake Erie on the Lake 
Shore alld Michigan SOldltern R. R., or on any railway system passing 
through Buffalo, can obtain at all principal Railway stations, tickets 
via the NiaLRara Bitler to Toronto. 


. .. ...- 


To and }'rom the "Yest. 


OF the great highways between Chicago, Detroit, Niagara Falls 
and Buffalo, there is none that has sprung more quickly into life, 
vigour and the appreciation of the travelling public than the Michi- 
gan Central Railway. An air line from lake to lake, with only one 
curve in each hundred miles; a track made and laid as good as good 
can be; cars of the finest and engines of the swiftest, it has earned a 
record for speed, successful punctuality and safety, that brings grist 
to its mill, increasing every day that it runs. It was a bi
 ballg when, 
in IVlay, '8 I, Cornelius Vanderbilt swept over the road two hundred 
and twenty-nine miles in two hundred and thirty,five !I1inutes, but 
they "Outbanged Bannager" when the" Parsons/, on their special 
train, made one hundred and eleven miles in one hundred and nine 
minutes, beating the "Commodore's" time by three minutes over 
the same part of the road! As we are not all Railway Magnates or 
Angels in disguise, it isn't to be supposed that we, too, shall fly along 
at this rate, but instances such as these prove the character of the 
road, and account for the unwarying reliability with which it does its 
duty to its patrons. 



10 


TRE NORTHERN LAKES OF OAN ADA. 


But the Picturesque is not forgotten in the Practical, and the 
managers have not failed to avail themselves of the unexampled 
natural advantages which the location of the railway presents. 


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At Falls View the rail follows the brink of the Niagara River just 
where the waters begin to hurry to the brink of the cataract. And 
here, on the lofty.bank, a station platform has been placed, at which 
all trains stop, giving passengers ten minutes in which to alight and 
enjoy the view of the faUs. 
The whole panorama lies at one glanc.e before the eye, and the 
onlooker almost shrinks back from the stout railing of the platform 
as, watching the eddying waves, he peers over the edge of the 
seething gülf !oto which they are relentlessly thrown. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF O.A
N.AD.A. 


11 


The most hurried traveller, whose time does not permit his 
stopping over to pay a visit in detail to Niagara, may feel assured 
that in these few minutes which the Michigan Central Company give 
him in his way between the east and the west, he has indeed seen 
the Falls. 


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.A PEEP AT THE AMERICAN FALL. 



12 


THE NORTITERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Xiagarn Falls. 


IT is not within the scope of this little guide to give enlarged 
mention of the beauties and scenery about Niagara Falls, such 
information being better obtained from the local guide-books; but a 
few notes may be useful to visitors. . 
But a short time since Niagara Falls had gained an unenviable 
notoriety for the expenses-if not indeed to be termed extortions- 
which obliged every visitor to pay for the privilege of obtaining 
access to any point from which the Falls could be viewed. 
Particularly was this the case on the American side, but now all 
has been changed, and" Free Niagara" calls all the world to come 
and view its beauties, now restored to their primitive condition, as 
the greatest wonder of Nature on the Continent. 
In 1885 the State of New York appropriated $1,433,000 to the 
purchase of the lands surrounding the cataract; the Province of 
Ontario is engaged in the same work on the Canadian side. 
To see the falls thoroughly used to cost for admissions over $5 ; 
but now the whole is thrown open free, excepting, of course, such 
extras as passing under the Falls or crossing the ferry, or over the 
Suspension Bridge. A visitor can conVeniently visit the whole on 
foot, or take the line of street cars which run between the 'Vhirlpool 
and the Cataract. There are thousands who have been at "the 
Falls," yet have never seen the Falls; a re-visit will now be in order, 
and more happiness be obtained than was possible when every step 
had to be paid for, and every peep cost a sigh. 
Visitors from Torouto can leave in the morning by steamer and 
after spending five hours at the falls, can return and arrive home 
again early the same evening. 
There is such a n1agnitude of interest, such a constant variety of 
wonders, that neither mind nor eye becomes satiated with watching 
the wondrous cataract or its surrounding scenes. 
'Vith such facilities for travel, it is better to take sever31 visits and 
study each portion in detail. 



7'11E NORTBERJ..V L..11(ES UB' CANADA. 


1:3 


The little map which here appears, gives a list of all the places 
which should be visited, and aided by it, the visitor can easily find 
his way about. 
Passengers via Niagara take the Michigan Ccntral R.R. (late 
C.S. R.) The depot is near the Clifton House, on the Canadian side. 
Passengers via Lezc.'isto1l, on the American side, take J\7ezo York 
Central R.R. The depot is marked" 8 " on the plan. 


, 
\'ð-':' 
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3. Whirlpool Rapia.. 
4. 0/01" horlpool. 
5. Prn!fp'
l Pari. 
6. Fall. II otol. 
7. ('-atnrad llow.,. 
Ii :N. 7.1,,

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pot. 
9. Bürn.ng Springe 
A. Opper S.lIp"n..lJn BritlfJ
. 
B. On",urlø 8outA"rnßridg,. 
C. Lotðer S""pt'UII.OR iJrldg
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t'r lølandø. 
E.. {;'.1I11ðlIJJJff. 
F. '[nld 0". .lI("t LanJ'''9_ 
a. T"hl.. Hurlt "c,.nt. 


POINTS 01' INTERE
1' A1' '{'HE l"AI.U;. 


The expense of visiting Niagara Falls, other than the amount paid 
for travelling, depends entirely upon the habits or fancy of the 
visitor. The cost of seeing the place is now 110thÙlg. A tariff has 
been arranged for cabs, and good bargains can often be made by 
those who wish to drive. 
There are nun1erous restaurants where good meals can be obtained 
at reasonable rates, and hotels exist of every variety, fron1 $1 to $4 
per day. No doubt the old pastin1e of stayÙzg at the Falls, instead of 
IzurryÙzt, a10ay from them, will once more return, now that the expenses 
of seeing the place can be applied to paying the hotel bill, or, perhaps, 
in purchasing some memento of the visit. In this latter respect, 
don't fail to see" Libbie and Katie." 



14 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


ON THE CANADIAN SIDE. 


On the Canadian side, upon the edge of the new park and on the 
verge of the cliff with its spacious verandahs facing the American 
Falls, stands the Clifton House. 


The pillars of the verandahs n1ay 
be noted as being 
-: "',' formed each frotTI the 
single trunk ot so 
many giant pines. In 
earlier days whole 
..... part of these magni- 
..,.. 
ficen t trees covered 
the adjacent shores 
and on not a few of 
the porticos of the 
more important resi- 
dences will similar use 
be seen to have 
been n1ade of their 
convenient form. 


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THE CLIFTON HOUSE. 


PRINCIPAL HOTEIJS AT NIAGARA 'FALLS. 


Cataract House, . . . . . American side . . . . . .. . . . . . . Capacity 750 
International Hotel.. " . . . . . . . . . .. . . " 625 
Spencer House...... " . ..... ... .... " 175 
Niagara House. . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . .. " 100 
Pacific Hotel. ... .... " . .. . . .. . .. .... " 80 
Goat laland HoteL.. " . . . . . _ . . . "60 
Hotel KaUen bach. . .. " . . . . .. ,. "60 
Rapids House....... " ...........-. " 40 
Temperance House.. " . _ _ _' ,. . .. .... " 40 
Clifton House.... ....Canadian side ... .. .. - . .. .. " 250 
Prospect House. . . . .. " . . , .. . . . . . . . .. " 100 
Brunswick House.... " . . . . . . . . ....... " 100 
Robinson House.... " . . . . . . . . . . . .. " 40 




THE NORTHERN LAKES OP OANADA. 


15 


The Niagara Rive
 
Between the Falls and Lake Ontario. 


There are two routes by which the visitor can travel between 
Buffalo, Niagara Falls and Toronto. The one on the American side 
of the River, by the New York Central R. R., to Lewiston, the 
other on the Canadian side, (see page 27), by the Michigan Central 
R. R.: to Niagara-on-the-Lake. 


The N ew York Cen- 
tral skirts the shores of 
the River on the An1eri- 
can side, and just after 
passing the Suspension 
Bridge Station curves 
sharply round and leav- 
ing the level open land 
dips into and runs 
along a shelf or ledge 
which has been boldly 
cut out from the face of 
the mighty cleft through 
which the River runs 
downwards to the lake. 
On the one side the 
cars hug close to the 
towering cliff, on the 
other, far down below, over the debris and the blocks of tossed and 
shattered rocks the waters are seen swirling along in the tumultuous 
foamings of the \VHIRLPOOL RAPIDS. The train is in the very gorge 
itself; a glimpse is caught of the sullen solemn whirlpool where the 
n1ighty flood arrested for a time in its downward rush slowly circles 
around, chafing and grinding against the confining barriers; suddenly 
it reaches the long sought for outlet and springing anew into re-invig- 


ALONG THE AMERICAN 
SIDE. 


MAP NIAGARA RIVER. 



14; 


l'HE NORTHERN LJKES OF OANADA. 


oured life, dashes the beads of foan1 from its exultant waves high into 
the air, and gleefully resun1es its onward rapid course. N ow slipping 
through tunnels under the projecting 
liffs, now sweeping in curves 
around the jutting headlands and giving distant vistas up and down 
the strealn and oi 
the glorious view 
over the border- 
land towards the 
lake, the train 
g r a d u a II y a p- 
proaches the wa- 
ters' surface; the 
broken remains of 
the Queenstown 
Suspension Bridge 
come into view, 
and high above, 
the monun1ent to 
Brock. . 


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THE NEW YORK CENTRAL IN THE GORGE. of the railway, and, 
never has any accident occurred. 1'he steamer turns in the eddy of 


LEWISTON, the 
head of naviga- 
tion, is seven l11iles 
from the Falls, and 
the visitor walk
 
from the railway to 
the deck of the Ni- 
agara Con1pany's 
stean1er waiting 
for him at the 
dock. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OAN ADA. 17 


he rapids which close just a little above the dock. On the opposite 
shore is Queenston and the scene of the battle of Queenston 
Heights. The first point below the town is Vrooman's Point, and 
now for another seven miles the river winds in many curves between 
high and wooded banks, along the edge of which are seen comfort- 
able mansions set in the n1Ïdst of the peach orchards, which have 
ma.de the district a very fruit garden; three miles from the mouth is 
Three "Ute ruft where the Canadians crossed to attack Fort Niagara, 
and at the mouth itself are the American village of Youngstown, 
and on the opposite shore Niagara-on-the Lake. Beyond them are 
seen the blue waters of Lake Ontario. 


-
-- 


1
he "Gorge" of Niagara. 


, 


By thfl Duke of Argyll. 


" A very curious question, and one of great scientific interest arises 
out of the great difference between the cúurse of the Niagara River 
above and below the Falls. It has in my opinion, been much too 
readily assumed by geologists that rivers have excavated the valleys 
in which they run. The cutting power of water is very great, but it 
varies in proportion to the liability of floods, and the wearing power 
of stones that may be carried along: n1uch also depends on the posi- 
tion of the rocks over which a river runs. If the stratification pre- 
sent edges which are easily attacked or undermined, even a gentle 
stream may cut rapidly for itself a deeper bed. On the other hand 
when the rocks do not expose any surfaces which are easily assail- 
able a very large body of water may run over them for ages without 
being able to scoop out more than a few feet or even a few inches. 
Accordingly such is actually the case with the Niagara River in 
the upper part of its course from Lake Erie to the Falls. In all the 
ages during which it has run in that course for fifteen miles it has not 
been able to relTIOVe more than a few feet of soil or rock. The 
country is level, and the banks are very low, so low that in looking 



18 


THE NORTBERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


up the bed of the stream the more distant trees on either bank seem 
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THE PRECIPICE AT THE HORSE-SHOE FALL:-;. 


But suddenly in the n1Ïddle of the comparatively level country the 
ri ver encounters a precipice, and thence forward for seven miles runs 
through a profound cleft or ravine the bottom of which is not less 
than 300 feet below the general level of the country. 
H ow carne that precipice to be there? Tbis would be no puzzle 
at all if the precipice were joined with a sudden change in the gen- 
erallevel of the country on either side of the river-and there is 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF' OANADA. 


19 


such a change-but it is not at the Falls. It is seven miles further 
on. 
At the Falls there is no depression in the generalleve1 of the banks. 
Indeed, on the Canadian shore, the land rises very considerably just 
above the Falls. On the American shðre it continues at the same 
elevation. The whole country here, however, is a table-land, and 
that table-land has a termination-an edge-over which the river 
must fall before it can reach Lake Ontario. 
But that edge does not run across the country at Niagara Falls, 
but along a line much nearer to Lake Ontario, where it is a conspicu- 
ous feature in the landscape, and is caned Queenston Heights. 
The natural place, therefore, so to speak, for the Falls would have 
been where the river can1e to that edge, and from that point the river 
has all the appearance of having cut its way backward in the course. 
of time. 
Sir Charles Lyell, the eminent geologist, came to the conclusion, 
from comparison of the rate at which the cutting back had been ob- 
servable within the menlory of man, that this cutting back is about 
one foot in each year. At this rate the river would have taken 35,- 
000 years to effect its retreat from Queenston to the present positiun 
of the Falls. 
This is but a very short fathom-line to throw out into the abysmal 
depths of geological time, and making every allowance for the pos- 
sibility of any differences in rate, according to variations of ten1pera- 
ture or configuration, the principle of the calculation seems to be a 
sound one. 
The strata or layers of rock which compose the geological forn1a- 
tion can readily be seen in the gorge of the river, and the process 
by which the cataract has eaten its way back from Queenston can be 
readily perceived. At the level of the brink of the Falls, where the 
waters make their final plunge, are thick, regular and flat layers of 
limestone rock. Above and below these is soft soluble shale. The 
running water wearing away the upper deposits makes the inequalities 
which cause the rapids above the Fans, and the reverberation and 
splash of the torrent as it falls, have disintegrated and washed out the 



20 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 



 


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THE" LEDGE" FROM THE A
IERICAN SIDE. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


21 


soft red shale below, so that the limestone ledge is left in over_ 
hanging masses until they break off with their own weight, and piece 
r 
after piece dropping into the depths beneath, the Falls continue their 
ceaseless march comn1enced so many centuries ago. 
This deep groove does seen1 to be a clear case of a ravine produc- 
ed by a known cause which can be seen now in actual operation. 
As far as I could see, there is nothing to inàicate that the ravine is 
due to a " fault" or a crack arising fron1 subterranean disturbance, 
but the work has been done by the process which has been des
ribed, 
and 35,000 years is, after all, but an insignificant fraction of what has 
been occupied in the operations of geological time. " 


.. 


Queellston Heigbts-wb
r
 tIle Falls once ,vere. 


If the Cataract of Niagara had continued .to be where it once was, 
it would have given additional splendour to one of the most beautiful 
landscapes of the world. Instead of falling, as it now does, into a 
narrow chasm, where it cannot be seen a few yards from either bank, 
it would have poured its magnificent torrent over a higher range of 
cliff, and would have shone for hundreds of miles over land and sea. 
The steep line of heights above Queenston fonn the termination or 
escarpement of the comparatively high table-land of the upper 
Lakes. On the summit of the ridge has been erected 


BROCK'S MONUMENT. 


This n1agnificent structure was erected by his grateful countrymen, 
to the memory of the brave General, who gallantly fell in the action 
which took place here on the 13th of October, 1812. The spot near 
a thorn bush, where he received his death wound, is further down 
the side of the hill, and marked by a monumental stone. The re- 
mains of the General, which had been interred in Fort George, at 
Niagara, together with those of his faithful azIde canz}, Lt-Col. John 



22 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


McDonell, were in 1824 removed and placed beneath the first monu- 
ment at that time erected. This having in 1840 been seriously 
damaged with explosives by a vandal nan1ed Lett, public sentiment 
was aroused and by a spontaneous n10ven1ent, the necessary sum was 
immediately raised for the present unique structure. 
1'he previous monument was erected by a grant from the Parlia- 
ment of the Province, this one, from the voluntary contributions of 
the Militia and Indian warriors of the country. 
On the 13th of October, 1853, the remains of the revered dead 
were again removed, to be placed where they now lie in massive stone 
sarcophogi beneath the column. 
To gather son1e idea of the fervour which has raised so distin- 
guished a n1emorial, we may quote from the speeches made on the 
spot, where twenty-eight years after his death it was determined that 
this second memorial should be raised. Speaking to the assembly 
son1e 8,000 in number, which had con1e enthusiastically from all 
parts of the province, Mr. Justice ./l1acaulay, who had served under 
Brock, said, "Looking at the animated mass covering these sácred 
heights in 1840, to do honour for a war in 18 I 2, now old in history, 
one is prompted to ask, , How comes it that the gallant General has left 
so lasting an in1pression in the hearts of his countrYlnen, how comes it 
that the fame of Brock thus floats down the stream of tin1e, broad, 
deep and fresh as the waters of the famed river with whose waves it 
might be almost said his life's blood mingled? In reply, we might 
dwell on his civil and military virtues, his patriotic self-devotion, his 
chivalrous gallantry and his triumphant achieven1ents. 
Still, there was more that gave him talismanic influence and ascen- 
dancy over his fellow men, and which he wielded for his country's 
good. His was the n1ind instinctively to conceive and promptly to 
dare-incredible things to feeble hearts. With skill and bearing he 
infused his chivalrous and enterprising spirit into all his followers and 
impelled then1 to realize whatever he boldly led the way to accom- 
plish ." 
Sir John Beverley Robinson, then the venerable Chief Justice, but 
whO, as a young man had foqght with distinction alongside the de. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF O.ANAl)A. 


23 


ceased General, on the fatal, yet, glorious day, so long before, gave 
his testimony. 
"It has been sometimes objected, that General Brock's cour- 
age was greater than his prudence, that his attack on Detroit, 
though it succeeded, was most likely to have failed, and that a 
similar rashness was displayed in the manner of his death. Those 
who lived here while these events were passing, can form a 
truer judgment; they know that what to some may seem rashness, 
was, in . fact prudence, unless, indeed the defence of Canada was to be 
abandoned in the almost desperate circumstances in which, General 
Brock was placed. He had with him but a handful of men who had 
never been used to Inilitary discipline, few indeed who had seen ac- 
tual service, and he knew it must be some tilne before any reinforce- 
ment could be sent him. He felt, therefore, his cause was hopeless, 
unless he could inlpress this truth upon the enemy, that whenever a 
General with but a few gallant soldiers, and the brave defenders of 
the soil could be assembled against them, they must retire from the 
land which they had invaded. If he had begun to compare numbers 
and had reserved his snlall force, in order to make a safer effort on a 
future day, then would thousands of the people from the neighbour- 
ing States have been found pouring into this Province. True, he {ell 
in discharging a duty which might have been committed to a subor- 
dinate hand. True, he might have reserved himself for a more de- 
liberate and stronger effort; but he felt that hesitation might be ruin, 
that all depended upon his dauntless courage and self-devotion. It 
is true his gallant course was arrested by a fatal wound, such is the 
fortune of war, but the people of Canada did not feel that his pre- 
cious life was therefore thrown away, deeply as :hey deplored his fall. 
His was an inflexible integrity, an honesty of character, uncommon 
energy and decision, and above all, an entire devotion to his country. 
In short, I believe I shall best convey an impression of him, when I 
say that it would have required mare courage to refuse to follow 
General Brock, than to go with him wherever he would lead." 
From these we can learn the estimate in which he was held. 
Long may this memorial remain to record the gallant deeds, and re.. 



24 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


mind the youth of Canada ever to be ready to emulate his and their 
Fathers' val our in gallant defence of their happy native land. 


THE MONUMENT 


is of massive stone, in the base, entered by an oaken door, are two gal- 
leries on the north and south sides of which are the tombs of the 
illustrious dead. From the ground to the gallery at the top is a cir- 
cular staircase of cut stone with 235 steps, and the magnificent view 
of the surrounding country is obtained through the circular wreathed 
openings. From the exterior the column is of the Roman composite 
order, with a sculptured capital containing figures of victory holding 
military shields. On the summit is a collossal statue of the Hero in 
military uniform, the left hand resting on the sword, the right hand 
extended with baton. 
The height from the ground is 190 feet, exceeding that of any other 
monumental column, eithet: ancient or modern, with the single excep. 
tion of that of the Great Fire of London, which exceeds it by only 
twelve feet. 
On the exterior of the base ,are lions rampant, and on the side 
facing Queenston, the battle scene, in alto relievo. 
The grounds are well laid out, and on the gates are the arms of the 
Brock family. 
The caretaker's lodge is close by, and a small fee is charged for 
admission. 


Comþarative heights of some principal monuments of the same 
kind, ancient and modern. 


FT. 


Trajans pillar, Rome ...... ....... .........................115. 0 
Antonine column, Rome ..... ......... ...... ...... . ... . . 12 3. 
Duke of York's column, London ........ ...... ....... 137. 
1Ionument of Great Fire, London ....... ..............,202. . 

apoleon column, Paris ................................ ...13 2 . 
Vendome column, Paris ...... ....... ......-- ........... 15 6 . 
Alexander column, S1. Petersburgh ....,.......,.........17 6 . 6 
)J' elson's column, Trafalgar Square, London............ 1 7 1 . 



THE NORTHERN LA.KES OF OANADA. 


25 



 


THE VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT. 


Having clambered to the summit of the heights, and ascended to 
the top of the monument, a scene is met with, than which, few others 


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in America leave such an impression on the mind. It is altogether 



26 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


peculiar, unlike anything in the Old ,V orId, and such as few spots 
can command in the New. 
One 6reat glory of the American continent is its Lakes and rivers. 
But they are generally too large to make much impression on the 
eye. The rivers are often so broad as to look like lakes without 
their picturesqueness, and the lakes are so large as to look like the 
Sea, but without so great grandeur. Another gr
at glory of America, 
is its vast breadths of habitable surface. But these again, are also so 
vast that there are few spots indeed, whence they can be seen and 
estinlated. But from the heights of Queenston, both these great 
features are spread out before the ey
 after a manner in which they 
can be taken i!1. The steep bank below is covered with thajo, occz"- 
dell/a/is commonly called the cedar. Looking to the north-east, the 
horizon is occupied by the blue waters of Lake Ontario, which form 
the sky-line. But on either hand, the shores can be seen bending 
round the Lake to an illimitable distance, and losing themselves in 
fading tints of blue. To the left, turning towaJÙs the north-west, the 
fair PrOVInce of Ontario stretches in immense plains and escarpe. 
ments of the same table-land. 
The whole of this immense extent of country has the aspect of a 
land comfortably settled, widely cultivated and beautifully clothed 
with trees. Towns and villages are indicated by little spots of gleam- 
ing white, by smoke, and a few church spires. 
On the Canadian shore, and forty miles away over the deep Lake, 
the City of Toronto is sometimes distinctly visible, when the atmo- 
sphere is clear, the elevation of the height overcoming the inter- 
vening distance. At our feet the magnificent river of the Niagara 
emerges from its ravine, into the open sunlight of the plains, and 
winds slowly in long reaches of lonely green, and round a succession 
of low-wooded capes into the vast waters of Ontario. The contrast 
is very striking between the perfect restfulness of the current here, 
and the tormented violence of its course at the Falls, and the Rapids. 
The wide landscape seen from Brock's monument along the shores 
of Lake Ontario, on both sides of the river as far as the eye can 
reach, ex.hibits throughout the same characteristic features. 



T :s:: E 


C ANADIAN p ACIFIC 
R..A..IL -W- ..A.. -y- 
IS TH
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Transcontinental Route. 
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IS T
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Sportsman's Route, 


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IS THE 

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Tourist's Route, 


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IR THE TRUE 
Invalid's Route. 


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IS T
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Scenic Route. 


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tMi) Send f01' a G'uide of this tTuly wonde
1uJ line. e 
W. R. CALLA WAY, Dist. Pass. Agt, 110 King 81. West J TORONTO, ONT. e 
W. G. VAN HORNE, GEO. OLDS, D. McNICOLL, y 
VicehPresident. Gen'l Traffic .i1Ianager. (len'{ Pass. A[;ent. h 

1fONTRE.AL. 


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INSIDE ROUTE 


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PARRY SOUND NAVIGATION CO. 
STEA.MERS "l\IAX\VELL" AND "CHICOUTI)(I
 " 
_ Conn
cting with Northern and North-'Vestern Railroad. 
Lea\'e 
Iidland and Penetang on arrival of mornin
 trains from Toronto. 
Returning, Lea"e Parry Sound 6 a.m. daily. eli:cept Sunday. 
THROUGH ALL THE ISLANDS BY DAYLIGHT. 
For Rates and Tickets apply to aU Agents N. & N.-W. R. R., and 
Barlow Cumberland, John Pearse, 
35 Y onge Street, Toronto. Manager, Parry Harbor. 


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PENETA NGUI SHENE. 
GEORGI.A..:N"" E.A -y :a:O-crSE_ 
This New Hotel favourably situated, facing the waters of the 
13aY1 is cool 1 airy and well proportioned. 
A PLEASANT SUMMER RESIDENOE. 
TER
IS :-$1.00 to 81.50 per day, according to location. Special 
Rates for Summer Residents. 


'V 


H_ COWAN, 


Proprietor. 


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NORTH AMERICAN HOTEL, 


BRACE BRIDGE, MUSKOKA. 



 


.I. A.VERY, 


PrOlu-ietor. 


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Every attention to Tourists and Pleasure-Seekers. 
Superior Accommoãation to the General Public. 


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PRI
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->> J300I\J3Ij'IEEl\$, .t. FtIßLIprIEl\
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PJIPE
 
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BbANK BOOK M
NUF
CTURERS, 
ELECTR.OTYPERS AND STEREOTYPERS, 
25 Wellington Street West, 
TORONTO. 


NIAGARA FALLS, NIAGARA FALLS, 
NE\i'V YO
X:_ N E:..VV" YOE.:K:. 
CATARACT HOUSE. INTERNATIONAL HOTEL I 
ADJOINING THE NATIONAL 
Spacious Pä.rlours overlooking PARK. 
the Rapids. 
Broad Piazzas and Fine 
CURRENT BATHS. Shade Trees. 
THE LEADING HOTEL. ALL MODERN EQUIPMENTS. 
""UITSEf &. JERRACLJ), GLUCK, WARE & DELANO, 
PROPRIETORS. PROPRIETORS. 


JUJ. ""nV.LUJVY'"' '-'<+
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INDIA RUBBER GOODS 


OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 


-:0:- 


The Largest and Only Complete Stock in the Dominion, 
COMPRISING THE FOLLOWING: 


Rubber Sportsman's Boots. Rubber :\Iats. 
" Knee Boots. " Syringes. 
" :Fishing Stock.in
s. " Bands and Ring:'!. 
" \Vading Pants and Boots " HatH and Caps. 
.. combined. " LeggIngs. 
" Gun Covers. Ladie
' Gossamer Circulars and 
" Air Pillows and Air Beds Cloaks, from the very 
H Life Preser vera (the cheapest to the very 
late
t invention). best. 
, , \Vater Bottles. Rnbber Ice Bags. 
" Gas Bags. " Cotton and Linen Hosp. 
" N ursery Sheeting. " Packing (all kiuds). 
" Clothing (of all kinds.) " Lawn Hose (over 75,000 
f ' , HorliJe Covers and feet in stock). 
f Waggon Aprons. " Car and \Vaggon Springs 
" Gloyes (the greatest in. " Gaskets and Rings. 
r vention .of the age, " Val ves. 
price only $1. 50 per ' . Buckets and Pails. 
pair. " \V ringer Rolls. 


'\ 


RUBBER BELTING, PACKING AND HOSE. 
RUBBER, COTTON AND LINEN HOSE. 


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Go to the great Rubber Warehouse for genuine goods such 
as are Bold by an exclusive Rubber Store. 


THE TORONTO RUBBER COMPANY, 


v 


ACENTS FOR THE CUTTA PERCHA AND RUBBER MF'C. CO'Y. 
WAREHOUSE: 
(MANNING AROADE) KING STREET WEST, 
TORONTO. 


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THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


27 


They are features eminently picturesque, combining the aspects of 
wildness with the impression of exuberant fertility, and of boundless 
wealth. 
Peaceful may they ever both remain. 


Tile Niagaru. RiY
", ulong the funa.diull Sidt'. 


The Michigan Central R. R., after crossing the river near Black 
Rock on the International Bridge, skirts the bank, and passing 
"Falls View" as previously described) reaches the Niagara Falls 
station, within a stone's throw of the Clifton House, \Vesley Park 
and the river banks. Two miles nearer Lake Ontario is Clijlon or 
Suspension Bridge, where are the suspension and cantilever bridges 
and the junction with the Erie R. R. Soon the track, after running 
alongside the Grand Trunk R. R. for a few miles, dips suddenly 
under and, emerging, begins to wind slowly down the mountain side. 
Far below lie, laid out before the eye, the fertile and well tilled farms 
of fruit and grain, orchards and sheep-dotted pastures of the "Garden 
District of Canada;" above, upon the summit ridge, boldly stands 
out against the sky Brock's Monument. Having reached the lower 
level the train runs through a succession of vineyards and peach 
groves and gains the river at 
NIAGARA-ON -THE-LAKE. 
Alongside the dock are the steamers of the Niagara Navigation 
Company. This old town, in early days called Ne'wark, was once 
the seat of Government and the Capital of Upper Canada whose 
first Parliament used to here hold its sittings. N ow it is principally 
a place of summer resort. Upon the bluff headland facing the fresh 
breezes of the Lake is the" Queen's Royal Hotel," a first-class house 
kept in first-class style, by the proprietors of the "Queen's Hotel," 
Toronto. A capital beach for bathing, unlimited fishing-celebrated 
for enormous "bass." -good boating, excellent Toads and pleasant 


. 



28 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


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drives in a surrounding district of romantic and historic interest 
make a stay at "Niagara-on-the-Lake" most enjoyable. The Satur- 
day evening "Hops" at the hotel are largely patronized by the resi- 
dent American and Canadian Garrisons and the squadrons of the 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF; OANADA. 


29 


" Royal Canadian" and " Toronto" Yacht Clubs are constant visitors. 
Many visitors from the Southern States spend their summer here 
and the Canadian Chatauqua holds its meetings in a large pavilion 
not far from the hotel 
.[here are many pleasant private residences in the town, and the 
stea mers of the Navigation Company keeping up a swift and constant 
service the" Society" of Toronto moves out en 11laSSe during the sum- 
mer, so that Niagara-on-the-Lake has become almost a suburb of 
that city. . 
On the opposite bank of the river is YOltngstoum, with pleasant 
groves for picnicers and the headquarters and rifle ranges of the 
Alnerican forces of the Buffalo District, whose barracks are in the 
white-walled Fort Niagara. 


The Battle of "Queenstoll Heights." 


The surroundings of Niagara teem with historic reminiscences. 
Here sat the first Parliament of Canada, meeting in primitive sim- 
plicity beneath the shade of a spreading oak. Here were the 
headquarters of the garrison, and gallant soldier courted pretty maid 
in the festive days of the Capital of Upper Canada. But there were 
more stirring scenes than these, and deeds of val our took the place 
of sports of love. 
Among the renowned of the many strifes along the River was the 
battle of Queenston Heights-fought on the 13th of October, 1812. 
The two countries had drifted into war; and on the morning of the 
11th the Americans assembled a strong force at Lewiston, under 
General Rensselaer, with a view of making an attack upon Queen. 
stone In addition to 800 men in garrison at Fort Niagara, there were 
5,3 00 men under his command along the banks of the river. The 
Canadian force on the Western bank consisted of 1500 n1en, includ.. 
ing Indians. Early on the morning of Tuesday, the 13th, their troops 
put off in thirteen boats and boldly crossed the rapid river, covered 
by a battery of two 18, two 6-pounders, and two field pieces, which 
they had placed on the high bank to the left of where the hotel now 



30 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


stands completely commanding every part of the opposite shore from 
which a landing could be effectually opposed. The Canadian bat- 
teries were one I8-pounder, high up on the Queenston Heights, and 
another 24-pound carronade, placed a little below the village, at Vroo- 
man's Point. Three of the boats put back, while the rema.ining ten 
struck the shore a little above the village, and then returned for more 
troops. The Canadian force in Queenston consisted of two compan- 
ies of the 49th Regiment and the "York Volunteer l\1ilitia"-a1together 
about 300 men. These, under Captain Dennis, é!dvanced with a 
3-pounder against the first division of the enemy under Colonel ,\T an 
Rensselaer, who had formed his n1en near the river and was awaiting 
the arrival of the next boats. The An1ericans were driven with son1e 
loss behind a steep bank close to the water's edge, where they were 
reinforced with a fresh supply of troops, and returned the fire of the 
Canadians, who, stationed on the brow of the hill, fired down upon 

 
."..- - 
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Á- . .,
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WHERE woor, LANDED. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES_ OF CANADA. 31 


thinking that the attack at Queenston was only a feint to draw 
the garrison out of Fort George which was then to be attacked by 
the main body of the Americans, whom, he understood, were con- 
cealed in boats around the point on which Fort Niagara stands, 
determined to ride out himself and see how n1atters were before 
moving any of his troops. 
Arriving with his two aides.de-camp at Queenston, he found the 
Americans-who had in the interval been strongly rt:inforced, and 
were about 1;000 in Dun1ber-in possession of the Heights. Orders 
were despatched to General Sheaffe to bring up reinforcements from 
Fort George and to bombard Fort Niagara, which latter was done 
with such effect that its fire was silenced, and it was abandoned by 
its garrison. Although his available force numbered but 300, General 
Brock determined to retake the Heights, and, dismounting, charged 
at the head of his men. With impetuous rush, and despite the 
superior numbers, the hill was being carried J 
But now the gallant Brock, struck by a bullet in the breast, fell 
near a thorn-Lush, which marks the spot, and giving his last order, 
" Push on the York Volunteers I" lived only long enough to express 
the wish that his fall might not be made known to his men. Gal- 
lantly breasting the Height, his aide-de-camp, Lieutenan
-Colonel 
Macdonell, the Attorney-General of the Province, next was mortally 
wounded wht:n charging on up the hill and leading the York V olun- 
teers. The battery was retaken, the 18-pounder spiked, and the 
Americans driven back to the edge of the cliff. Here sorr.e of their 
officers, hoisting a handkerchief upon a bayonet, were about to sur- 
render, when Captain ,V 001 valiantly tore it off, and, re-animating 
his men, .opened a heavy fire. Inferior in nun1bers, their leaders 
fallen, and ont:-third of their men killed or wounded, the Canadians 
were now again compelled to retire, taking with them the body of 
the General, to the village of Queenston, there to await the expected 
assistance. 
The Americans remained in quiet possession of the Heights for 
some hours, during which they did not receive many reinforcements, 
the events of the morning which had gone on in full view before their 



32 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


eyes, and the return to their side of many of the wounded causing, 
on the part of those who were left behind, a general disinclination 
to come across to the support of their comrades. 
General Sheaffe now arrived from Fort George with nearly 400 of 
the 41st Regiment, 300 Militia, and 250 Indians, and leaving two 
field pieces in front of Queenston for its protection, n1arched off to 
the right by a circuitous route, and thus getting to the crest of the 
heights on which the Americans were posted, took them in flank. In 
numbers the two sides were about equal, and the courage of both un- 
questioned. The onset again commenced. The Indians, being 
more active in 
scending the hill and passing through the woods, 
canle first into contact, and, being repulsed, fell baèk on the 
main body, when the whole, advancing at the charge with a 
cheer, the Americans, after a short resistance, gave way and fled 
down the hill towards the landing place. Some who attempted 
to escape into the woods were driven back by the Indians, and 
many, cut off in their retreat, clinging to the bushes, went down the 
cliffs; some, losing their hold, were dashed upon the rocks beneath; 
and nlany others, reaching the river, perished in their attempt to swim 
across. The boats had been dispersed, the boatmen, panic stricken, 
having disappeared so that all retreat was cut off. 
A flag of truce was now sent, and Brigadier \Vadsworth and 950 
men, surrendering unconditionally, were made prisoners. 
All this proved the good results of General Brock's impetuous 
dash, for had the Americans not been attacked as they were, their 
reinforcements would have poured across the river and from their 
far superior numbers would have been able to over run the frontier. 
The victory had been dearly gained by the loss of the General; 
and a three days' armistice to bury their dead being asked by the 
Americans, it was agreed to. 
On the 15th General Brock was buried in one of the bastions of 
Fort George, with all military honours, and, with much generosity, 
minute guns, fronl the American Fort Niagara which _had been re- 
occupied by its garrison, were fired during his funeral " as a mark of 
respect due to a brave enemy.u 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


33 


Such was the befitting close of the action so gallantly fought on 
both sides, and on condition of the Americans destroying their boats, 
which they at once did, the armistice was indefinitely prolonged. 
The Niagara was freed from the invader's presence and Brock rests 
in memory "Th
 Saviour of his Country." 


LrNES ON THE DEATH OF BROCK. 


As Fame alighted on the mountain's crest, 
She loudly blew her trumpet's blast; 
Ere she repeated Victory's notes she cast 
A look around, and stopped : Of po".er bereft, 
Her bosom heaved, her breath she drew with pain- 
Her favourite Brock lay slaughtereà on the plain! 
Glory threw On his grave a laurel ,vreath, 
And Fame proclaims, " A Hero sleeps beneath." 
- Bruyëru. 


-.
- 


Tbt
 Forts of Niaga.ra. 
The Forts, as now existing, are: On the American side, Port 
Niagara, whose white walls tower over the meeting of the river and 
the lake; on the Canadian side, Fort Missasaga, whose decaying 
central tower peeps above the banks near the entrance of the river, 
and Fort Gtorge, whose bastions are barely recognizable in the grass- 
grown mounds into which their earthen walls have decayed, and 
crown the hill-tops just behind the steamboat landing. If for no 
other purpose, it would at least have been due to their historic past 
that these old monuments of gallant deeds should have been better 
cared for. 
It will be interesting to note how often the sites of these forti- 
fications have changed hands with the varying results of war. 


THE EARLY STRUGGLES. 


Happily these are times of peace; and the shores of this historic 
river are now given over to pleasure-seekers and th
 placid tillers of 



34 


THE NORTHER
'V LAKES OF OANADA. 


the soil. But in earlier days it was far different, and the mouth of 
the river, as commanding the best practicable route of transport 
between the East and 'Vest, was the scene of n1any a conflict. 
The Indians-Senecas, Onondagas, Iroquoic;, and 
1issasagas- 
{ought with one another for its possession, and against them all came 
the invading whites. As mourned Tecumseh,- 
" The Great SpiIit gave 
The red men this wide continent as theirs, 
And in the East another to the white j 
But, not content at home, these crossed the sea, 
And drove our fathers from their ancient seats. 
Their sons in turn are driven to the lakes, 
And cannot further go unless they drown."-Mair. 


THE FRENCH OCCUPATION. 


The French, having entered the St. Lawrence in I 534, had, by 
means of the connecting waters of the Ottawa, extended their alli- 
ances with the natives in the region of the upper waters of Lakes 
Huron and Superior. For many years this was their sole route to 
the North-west, and it was not until 1669 that the southern route by 
the Niagara River and Lake Erie was discovered; and even then, as 
the shores were occupied by hostile tribes, they could not avail 
themselves of Ít. In 1684, the 
 orthern tribes sent 500 of their 
warriors to the mouth of the Niagara River, there to meet the 
French forces, who, under Chevalier de la Barre, were to join 
them in occupying this, the central, point of their proposed new 
line of communication; but being intercepted on their way at 
Frontenac (now Kingston), by the Senecas and Iroquois-who occu- 
pied the southern shores of Lake Ontario-the French were beaten 
and retired again to 
f ontreal, and their northern allies were then 
forced to return unsuccessful to their own countries. 
In 1687 the French again advanced, and, having defeated the 
Senecas in a series of pitched battles-in which they were aided by 
the northern Indians from Mackinac-succeeded in erecting a 
wooden fort on the spot now occupied by the American Fort 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


35 


Niagara. Scarcely had the main army retired than the garrison, 
under de la Troye, were hemmed in by the Senecas; and once more 
it passed into the hands of the Indians, but ten survivors of the 
whites escaping to tell the tale. It was again reoccupied, and, from 
a small log blockhouse seen during his travels in 172 I by Père 
Charlevoix, the French, under J oncaire, were, in 1726, permitted by 
treaty with the Senecas to enlarge the fort by adding four bastions, 
and to erect a storehouse. Meantime, the British colonies had 
established themselves at Oswego ; and, the war between the British 
and French for the possession of the continent being in progress, 
Brigadier Prideaux wa.s, in 1759, despatched with 2,500 nlen and 
900 Indians, under Sir \Villiam Johnson, to capture Niagara. The 
account of the struggle is largely abridged from the excellent descrip- 
tion given by Parkman in "\V olfe and Montcalm. J) The fort had 
been strongly rebuilt in regular form by Captain Pouchot, of the 
battalion of Béarn, and, being well supplied with munitions of \var, 
was held by a garrison of 600, and assistance was expected from 
Detroit and the western French posts, under Aubrey. 
On the 7th July the fort was invested from the land, and the lake 
was patrolled by numerous arnled boats. The siege was begun in 
regular form, and by the 13th the British parallels had opened fire. 
The besieged contested every foot ot the way, but their constant 
sallies were as constantly repulsed. On the 19th, the French 
schooner Iroquois attempted their relief, but was driven off by the 
British batteries, and the same night Prideaux was killed in the 
trenches while superintending the attack. The command devolved 
on Sir \Villianl Johnson, and in two or three weeks the fort was in 
extremity-the ramparts were breached, and many of the garrison 
slain. Pouchot watched anxiously for the promised succour; and 
on the morning of the 24th a distant firing told him they were at 
hand. 
Aubrey and Ligneris had advanced to the rescue with I, I 00 
French and 1,200 Indians. To meet thero, Johnson had been com- 
pelled to divide his forces into three separate bodies-one to guard 
the boats, one to guard the trenches, and one to fight Aubrey and 



36 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


his band. This last body placed themselves in ambush, and awaited 
the onset. 
When Pouchot heard the firing, he went, with a wounded artillery 
officer, to the bastion next the river, and from here, by glin1pses 
among trees and bushes, they descried bodies of men now advancing 
and now retreating-Indians in rapid movement, and the smoke of 
guns, the sound of which reached their ears in heavy volleys, or a 
sharp, angry rattle. Meanwhile the British cannon had ceased their 
fire, and the silent trenches seemed deserted, as if their occupants 
were gone to meet the advancing foe. There was a call in the fort 
for volunteers to sally and destroy the works; but no sooner did 
they show themselves along the covered way than the seemingly 
abandoned trenches were thronged with men and bayonets, and the 
attempt was given up. The distant firing ceased, and Pouchot re. 
mained in suspense. An Indian who had penetrated the lines told 
him that his friends had been defeated; but Pouchot would not 
believe him. 
In the afternoon, after a furious cannonade on both sides, a trum. 
pet sounded fronl the trenches, and an officer approached the fort, 
announcing the defeat, and with a summons to surrender. Still 
Pouchot would not believe, but, sending an officer of his own to 
the British camp, unans
rable proof was obtained; for there sat 
Ligneris, severely wounded, together with Aubrey and many others- 
nearly all the French officers, in their desperate efforts to retrieve the 
day, having been either killed or captured. An honourable capitu. 
lation was granted; and, in aCKnowledgment of their gallant defence, 
the garrison were allowed to march out with all the honours of war, 
and then lay down their arms upon the shores of the lake. 


THE BRITISH OCCUPATION. 


So passed away the power of the French in this district, for so 
great were the results of this victory that all their western posts, as 
far as Erie, surrendered without a struggle; and in 1763, by the 
Treaty of Paris, the whole of Canada and all the French possessions 
east of the 1iississippi were ceded to the British crown. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


37 


For a long time the whole of the surrounding country was occu- 
pied solely by Indian tribes, so that during the war of 1776, although 
a small military post was maintained at Niagara by the British, no 
strife disturbed its quietude. By the treaty of peace of 1783, the 
east bank of the river was transferred to the United States, but Fort 
Niagara still continued to be held by a strong British garrison. 
,A settlement of U. E. Loya-lists was now begun, and Paul Camp- 
bel1, writing in 1791 of his visit there, says: "Opposite the fort of 
Niagara, on a large flat point on the Canadian side of the river, is a 
town lined out, and lots given gratis to such as will undertake to 
build on it agreeably to a plan laid down by Government, which, to 
me, seems to be a good one; half an acre is allotted for the stance of 
each house and garden, and eight acres at a distance for enclosures, 
besides a large commonty reserved for the use of the town. Several 
people have taken lots here already, and no doubt, as the country 
advances in population so will the town in buiiding. In the event 
of the fort on the opposite (American) side being given up, it is said 
there is one to be erected on this side, and the ground is already 
marked out for this purpose." 
This town was Newark, afterwards changed to its present name of 
N'iagara, and the fort was .Fort George, which was constructed in 
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THE RE1IIAINS OF FORT GEOR(
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38 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Disturbances were threatening among the Indians of the west, 
and a council was called at Fort Niagara between their chiefs and 
representatives of the United States and Canadian Governments. 
Accordingly, in May, 1793, there arrived Benjamin Lincoln, Henry 
Randolph, and Timothy Pickering, the United States Commissioners. 
They were cordially received, and lodged in the fort. \Vhile await- 
ing the arrival of the delegates from the distant Indian tribes, it 
happened that, on the 24th of June, the birthday of King George 
of England was celebrated. Governor Siincoe gave an entertainment, 
ending with a ball in the evening. Thus it canle about that the 
Commissioners, somewhat amusedly, found themselves guests cele- 
brating a Royal gala day, with a Royal salute fired by a British gar- 
rison frOin a fortress on United States soil. 
It is further said, that the meetings of the first Parliament of the 
Province of Upper Canada, which was summoned here in 1792, 
were held within the precincts of Fort Niagara. 
Governor Simcoe, when, in that year, he first came to Canada 
supposed that the Government would still retain the possession of 
the fort, but he had his misgivings; and beginning to cast his eye 
about for another capital, which would not be "under the guns of 
an enemy's fort," selected the harbour on the north shore, then called 
Toronto, and occupied only by two families of Missasaga lndians- 
the French settlement at Fort Rouille having been abandoned by 
the French one hundred and fifty years before. 
In 1795 the Duke de Liancourt visited Newark, and, telling of his 
stay at the hunlble wooden residence of Governor Sinlcoe, to which 
the sentries came daily from the fort across the river, says: "\Vith 
very obliging po1.iteness the Governor conducted me over the fort, 
which he is very loth to visit as he is sure he will be obliged to 
deliver it up to the Anlericans." Thirty artillerymen and eight 
companies of the Fifth Regiment then fonned the garrison. 
1'he seat of Government had, in 1793, been renloved to Toronto, 
its name being changed to York; and, under Jay's treaty, in 1794, 
the fort, together with those at Oswego, Detroit, Miami, and Michili- 
mackinac, were to be given up. At length, no less than twenty 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


39 


years after the Revolution, on the 11th July, 1796, the last salute 
was fired to the red-cross flag as it was slowly lowered from the 
flagstaff, and, the garrison and the guns being removed across the 
river to Fort George, Fort Niagara was finally handed over, and 
the stars and stripes floated peacefully above it until the war of 1812. 


THE AMERICANS TAKE FORT GEORGE. 
As previously mentioned, at the battle at Queenston Heights, in 
October, IS I 2, Fort Niagara was so vigorously assailed by Fort 
George that its garrison had to evacuate and retire from it. Posses. 
sion was retaken upon the armistice, and again, in November, the 
two forts had an artillery duel which resulted in nothing but their 
mutual damage, without superior advantage to either. Matters re. 
mained quiet during the winter, but in the spring the Americans- 
collecting together a large number of ships and boats, and a force of 
soldiers and seamen-embarked in the early morning of the 27th 
May, 1813, and, under cover of a fog, crept down the Canadian shore. 
The battery, which occupied the site of the present Fort Missasaga. and 
near the lighthouse, which was then on the point, was first attacked, 
and was silenced by the weight of superior artillery; and after a 
gallant struggle the forlorn hope of :500 men forced a. landing at a 
creek :about a mile to the west. The Canadians, on the level 
plain, were shot down by the fire from the ships, while the landing 
parties-being protected by the higl1, overhanging banks-effected 
their landing on the b<?ach. Reinforced froll1 the fleet, they advanced 
-4,00:> in number-upon Fort George, which General Vincent, be- 
ing satisfied that t he victory of the Americans was complete, eva- 
cuated, having spiked the guns and blown up all of the magazines, 
and retired with the rem-nants of his force to St. David. 
The Americans remained in possession of Fort George all through 
the summer, during which a series of engagements took place with 
the result that they were hemmed in on all sides, and their supplies 
cut off. At length, on loth December, 1813, upon the advance of 
the Canadian forces, under Colonel lVlurray, they evacuated Fort 
George, having first set fire to all the houses in Newark, rendering 



40 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Aroused to avenge the burning 
of the town, Murray, under the com- 
mand of General RialJ, on the night 
of the 18th December crossed the 

 

 river, about three miies up, with 
550 men, advancing stealthily at 
dawn, with bayonets fixed, and not 
a nlusket loaded lest by any chance 
an alarm might be given. 'The out- 
lying picquets were surprised, and 
bayoneted to a man. Rushing for- 
ward, the walls were scaled with 
scaling-ladders, the interior gained, 
the main gate carried; and after a 
gallant resistance by the garrison, 
of whom 65 were killed and 12 
wounded, at 5.30 in the morning 
Fort Niagara was once more in 
British possession. The Ameri- 
can flag was sent as a trophy to the Governor-General at Montreal, 
and the Red-Cross floated again on both sides of the mouth of the 
river. lVlatters so continued until peace was declared, in February, 
1815, when once more Fort Niagara was gracefully given up; and 
again, and in peace, the stars and stripes took the place of the red- 
cross Jack. 


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Murray's advance was so swift 
that the retreat was precipitate, so 
much so that tents for 1,500 of the 
American garrison were left stand- 
ing, and the fort itself undamaged. 


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42 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


Thus had three nationalities-the French, the British, and the 
United States-been in successive possession of the fortifications 
that crowned this ancient point of land. 
Twice had British valour stormed the ramparts, and from each of 
the others had it in turn wrested their possession at the bayonet's 
point-each time again retiring in honour to cede them as an evi- 
dence of national good-will. 
The dismantled forts on the Canadian side, and the reverberating 
" sun-set gun " from the American fort, mark the continuance of the 
era of better days, wherein all strife upon these so oft-disturbed and 
still so hallowed shores has found an end; and their guardians now 
are rivals only in the arts of peace. 


Lake Ontario. 


This lake, the last of the series before the S1. Lawrence proper is 
reached, is 180 n1iles long, and 234 feet above the sea. At this 
point the breadth between Niagara and Toronto is 35 miles, and is 
crossed in about two hours. The passage across the lake, in the 
middle portion of which the steamer is for a short time out of sight 
of land, gives full advantage of the pure cool winds which in sumnler 
fan its surface, and make the trip over and back one of the most 
attractive routes for th'ose going from the districts south or west of 
Buffalo, to or from Toronto, and a great resort for the citizens of the 
city Ïtsdf. 
The palace steamer CHICORA, of the Niagara Navigation Compa1lY, 
is the largest steamer on the lake, is built of iron and steel, and is of 
the strongest and most substantial character. Of regular ocean- 
going style-having been built on the Clyde, and crossed the Atlan- 
tic-she maintains exact regularity of service in all weathers; and as 
old Boreas sometimes wakes up and develops a "snorter," it is well, 
therefore, to have a good bridge to carry one across. But these dis- 
plays are only fitful in their occurrence, caInl weather being the 
average from June to Septen1ber. In olden days the crossing used 



THE
NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


43 


to be made in from four to six hours, and communication-before 
the days of railways-was kept up the year round, the passengers 
being landed on the ice which fringed the shores. On the doors of 
the warehouses at Niagara are still to be seen the names of some of 
the old time vessels that occupied the route. 
The Chicora is 230 feet long, with two raking funnels, and a 
generally "rakish" appearance, The Entrance Saloon is laid with 
n1aple and walnut; and a handsome circular staircase, with richly 
twisted railings, leads to the Deck Saloon. This unique apartment 
occupies the centre of the promenade deck, and is surrounded by 
windows giving a complete view and con1plete protection in rainy 


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weather. The Promenade Deck extends the full length of the steamer, 
so that a walk of a mile is obtained without much difficulty. Seats 
and comfortable arm chairs are provided in abundance, so that every 
opportunity is afforded for making a pleasant trip. The Bar is sup- 
plied by the Company with the choicest brands, and in the Restaurant 
meals are supplied while crossing the lake. 
The llfarine Double Osdllatillg Engines, built by the celebrated 
marine engineers, Messrs. Fawcett, Preston & Co., and the like of which 
are not in any other steanler on fresh water, are objects of much 
interest and admiration to visitors. 



44 


TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


This steamer, leaving Toronto each week-day at 7 A.M. and 2 P.M., 
and Lewiston at I I A.M. and 4.30 P.M., makes two trips each day, 
calling both ways at Niagara-on-the-Lake, and giving a pleasant outing 
on the open water of Lake Ontario, with the run of fourteen miles 
up and down the charming Niagara River. Direct connections are 
ll1ade, and through tickets issued in connection with all the Trunk 
Line Railways of the United States and Canada, and with the Royal 
Mail Line for the Thousand Islands and the Rapids of the St. Law- 
rence. Baggage requiring to pass Customs is examined by Customs 
officers on board the steamer while crossing the lake. (See Ad'l!!). 


THE ISLAND-TOR-ONTO. 


When approaching Toronto from the southern shore, the light- 
house, on Gibraltar .Point-the extreme west point of the island 
which forms and protects Toronto harbour-will be the first object 
to come in view. The island has been formed by the sands washing 
from the lofty Scarboro' Heights, which will be seen far away to the 
east. At one time it was possible to drive from the mainland aloDg 
the Island, but ten years ago a breach was made at Ashbridge's Bay, 
which has since enlarged, and a permanent opening has from that 
time existed. The form of the island is being constantly changed. 
The lighthouse, when first erected, was within a few feet of the water; 
now it is a considerable distance inland, the sand having been con- 
stantly deposited here and on the long spits forming the west side of 
the protection of the harbour. A large and increasing population of 
summer visitors from the city is in occupation of the many slight but 
pretty houses erected all along the shores. A plank walk follows 
the beach the whole circuit of the island, and a steam tramway will 
soon be in operation. 
Hanlan, the champion oarsman of the world, was born on this 
island, and the prominent building with high gables is his hotel, 
where can be seen the trophies of his prowess which he has won in 
all quarters of the globe. Bands play every evening in the summer 
in front of the hotel; and roller-:coasters and merry-go-rounds make 
this the Coney Island of Torontonians. Ferries run to all parts of 
the island every few minutes. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 45 


The Exhibitlon Buildings attract the eye to the west, on the nlain- 
land, the white buildings in front of them, and close to the shore, are 
the barracks of the New Fort. N ear here the American forces 
landed in 18 I 3, and, after meeting with considerable resistance, they 
stormed the Old Fort, which may be noticed on the shore close to 
the entrance of the harbour. The Canadian garrison, being inferior 
in numbers, and unable to withstand the attack, retreated, and, in 
doing so, blew up their magazine, by which the Anlerican comn1ander, 
General Pike, and 200 of his men were killed, and many wounded. 
The spot where this occurred is just a little to the west of the pre. 
sent parapet. 
Toronto slopes very gently upwards from the water's edge, so 
gently as to present an almost level apppearance. The sky line is 
broken by the spires and towers of the churches and other buildings, 
and a fringe of green from the trees surmounting the Davenþort Hills, 
which are the north limit of the city, forms a setting to the whole. 
Baggage is daimed on board, and transferred by the Toronto 
Transfer Company to the several hotels or railway stations. 
The Royal Mail Line Stean1ers, for the Rapids of the St. Law. 
rence and Montreal, leave from the same dock. 


Toronto as éI SUlulner I:eso..t. 


This city has gradually become the acknowledged centre for the 
Province of Ontario, of intellectual study, political opinion, legal re- 
search and monied influence-all potent n10tives to attract residents 
to settle within its borders. But beyond and in addition to these are 
the lighter and more enjoyable attractions of amusement and relaxa- 
tion that serve to lighten the labour of anxious business, and while 
away the hours for persons of leisure. 
Theatres, concert halls, parks, and (if they may be enun1erated in 
the class of mental relaxations) sensational preachers of much power, 
are adjuncts that may be added to any city, wherever its location. 



46 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF C.ANADA. 


In these respects Toronto is amply endowed. She has, however, a. 
natural endowment in her geographical and physical position and of 
which she is now only beginning to avail herself; these advantages 
have contributed not a little to her past improvement, and bid fair 
to aid her happily in her advance towards metropolitan greatness. 
This city is pre-eminently a lakeside resort. In the past the streets 
have, and unless the city fathers should with inflnite blindness to 
her own good, and with poor faithlessness in their future expansion, 
adopt an opposite policy, will for all time give open and unrestricted 
aceess to the waters of the harbour. 
 0 resident of, or visitor to, 
Toronto but can-either by street-car or a short walk-get down to 
the water side, and enjoy a balmy evening's row upon the sheltered 
waters of the bay, reaching home again at an early hour, and retire 
to rest invigorated by manly exercise and health. giving air. In the 
evenings the waters of the harbour are fairly alive with boats. Take 
any city of similar size, and beyond all doubt there are more pleasure 
boats to the aggregate number of families in Toronto than anywhere 
else on the globe. It is said there are cities in China where a large 
number of people live in houses floating on the water j but anyone 
who saw the welcome given to Edward Hanlan-the Patron Saint of 
Toronto Bay-when he came home crowned with the laurels of vic- 
tory, and all the water was covered with multitudinous craft of every 
size and shape, froin the stately Chicora to the veriest "dug-out," 
would have said, "Here is a whole city all afloat." And so it is; the 
people of Toronto are the n10st persistent water lovers-for corro- 
borative e,'idence see the puffing ferries carrying their teeming loads 
of laughing children and anxious mothers to the sandy beaches of 
the island; see the evening moonlight excursions, when, to the light 
of the nloon and the strains of merry music, the maidens and their 
swains dance the soft summer hours away; see the Saturday after- 
noon excursions, when steamer after steamer leaves the docks for 
neighbouring lakeside parks, for "luscious" Oakville, "ambitious " 
Hamilton, or " historic," delightful :Niagara. 
By common consent the Canadian business world has agreed that 
"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy," and while our 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


47 


neiJhbours in the States may dig and delve, may sweat and strain in 
the ceaseless struggle for dollars and gain, we in Canada will pause 
awhile in the quick pursuit, and cultivating that more i!1telligent view 
of the work of man, let our youth sally forth to open air, fresh fields, 
athletic sports and vigorous play, setting their systems all aglow with 
vigorous health, and mind and brain re-invigorated and better fitted 
for week day work again. It is this opportunity of enjoyment, and 
this spirit of taking advantage of the opportunity, that has attracted 
to Toronto many people from other parts of Canada, and in fact 
irom the world at large to become permanent residents. 
Cool lakeside breezes in summ(>r and tenlperate moderation of 
cold in winter, make Toronto a very pleasant place in which to live, 
and the progress of the past proves it also to be a very good place 
in which to thrive. 


Tile City of Toronto. 


NAME AND EARLY HISTORY. 


The Capital of Ontario is perhaps the most progressive and pro- 
mIsing City in Canada. Even now it may be considered to be only 
in its youth, as there are still living within its borders inhabitants 
who can remember when there were but two or three brick houses, 
and they, and the few shanties which comprised the village, were 
hemlned together in a small clearing cut from the surrounding 
forest. 
The earliest mention of the name is found among some French 
memoirs in 1686, in connection with the "Portage of Toronto." 
The country in the neighbourhood of what is now called Lake 
Simcoe, appears then to have been known as the "Toronto region," 
a region "well peopled," and a great "place of meeting/' which is 
the most probable signification of the word. The portage to this 
place of meeting began at the protected harbour on the shores of 
the lake, thence by the Humber river, then called the Torollto 



48 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


river, and then by a trail to the interior. In course of time a fort 
was erected by the French, at the Lake Ontario end of the trail, the 
remains of which are to be seen in the grounds of the Exhibition 
Buildings. This at first, called Fort Rouillé, afterwards came to be 
called Fort Toronto, and thus the general name of the interior coun- 
try came to be localized in this one vicinity and applied to the vil- 
lage which sprung up on the shores of the bay. 
In 1793 the seat of government of the Province was removed 
from Niagara to Toronto, and the name of the latter then changed 
to "York," in con1pliment to Frederick, Duke of York, the son of 
the then reigning King, George III. 
The new name of York never seems to have fitted smoothly to 
the tongue or to have thoroughly settled down upon the place. 
In 1801 the Poet Moore, writing "from the banks of the St. Law- 
rence," most probably from St. Anne's, when he composed the 
undying "Canadian Boat Song," adheres to the musical cadence of 
the old and cherished nan1e. 


U I dreamt not then that ere the roIling year 
Had filled its 'circle, I should wander here 
In musing awe; should tread this wondrous world. 
See all its store of inland waters hurled 
In one vast volume down Niagara's steep, 
Or calm behold them, in transparent sleep, 
Where the blue hills of old Toronto shed 
Their ,evening shadows o'er Ontario's bed." 


In 1834, on the occasion of the community having arrived at the 
size and dignity of a "City," the old name of Toronto was once 
n10re enthusiastically revived and officially renewed. 
In 1794 there were 12 houses in the village, in 1812 its popula- 
tion was 900, in [879, 71,000, and now..the little" place of meeting," 
has grown to be a city of 130,000 inhabitants, a rate of progress of 
which any community might well be proud. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


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50 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


The hotel accommodation is ample for the largest gatherings, hence 
Toronto is now more than ever a favourite "place of meeting," and 
as in olden days the Indian tribes came here together, so now, 
headed by their Chiefs and Patriarchs, come the brethren of the vari- 
ous social, benevolent, or business organizations from all parts of the 
Continent. 
The Rossin and Queen's ($2.00 to $4.00 ), Walker and American 
($2.00), Albion, Russell, Revere, ($1.50), may be mentioned as 
among the best. ( See advts.) 


KING STREET. 


The Town was first established on the banks of the river Don, at 
the head of the harbour, and in the far ea.st end of the present city. 
At the shores of this river begins King, the east and west entry of 
the city, the main street of the original village, as it is now of the 
grown up community. 
Upon the site where now exists the unattractive but massive stone 
proportions of the "OLD GAoL," stood the original and first Iioltses 
of Parliamellt of the Province of Upper Canada. The Buildings 
were of wood and not of very imposing character, but they con- 
tained "two elegant halls," for the accomodation of the Legislature 
and the Courts of Justice. 
.i\t the time of the .i\merican foray in 1813, these, together with the 
library and all the papers and records, were burned, the church was 
robbed and the town library pillaged
 Strangely enough the Public 
Buildings at Washington, were a few months afterwards destroyed by 
a British force, and this was considered at the time a fair reparation 
for the damages effected at Toronto. 
The town market-place used to be in the block between the St. 
Lawrence Hall and Church street, opposite where S1. James' Cathe- 
dral now stands. The land is still the property of the city, and the 
revenue from the ground leases contributes to decrease the taxation 
of the citizens. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OAN.ÂDA. 


51 


Here, as late as 1834, the stocks and pillory used to be s
t up; 
and it is on record that a certain Elizabeth Ellis was, for "being a 
nuisance," condemned to stand in this pillory for two hours on each 
of two market days. Seeing that these ancient instruments of 
punishment have long since been removed, we may be satisfied that 
the ladies of this fair city are now free from any such imputation; 
indeed, anyone who makes his afternoon stroll along the fashionable 
strolling grounds, that is to say, between Church and York streets, on 
the south side of King street, at the f
shionable hour of four in the after- 
noon-particularly on Saturday afternoons-will see such glimpses of 
beauty, combined with bright complexions and hearty healthfulness, 
that he will admit the justice of the reput.ation for pretty faces and 
good nature which is so widely conceded to the young ladies of 
Toronto. 
King street continues westward, lined by the best of the retail 
stores, and after penetrating Parkdale-the "flowery suburb ".-loses 
itself upon the banks of the Humber Bay, thus connecting together 
the two rivers which, east and west, bound the plateau upon which 
the city is built. 


YONGE STREET. 


The streets of Toronto are all laid out at right angles to one 
another. This, no doubt, takes away from its picturesqueness, but 
contributes to its convenience, as, once the bearings of the compass 
have been ascertained, the visitor can scarcely lose his way. Roughly 
speaking, the water side is to the south; the streets starting from the 
Bay run north-the others, crossing them, run east and west. They 
are all of good width, many are block-paved and boulevard ed, and 
most are fringed with trees-a feature which in time will add greatly 
to their appearance. 
Y onge street, at the foot of which the steamers land, is perhaps 
the longest street in the world; at all events, the palm is given to it 
by George Augustus Sala in his" Streets of the World." It was pro- 



52 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CAN.ADA. 


jected in 1793 to form a "portage to the upper lakes without the 
necessity of going up Lake Erie, and passing Detroit." 
The intersection of King and Yonge streets may be taken to be 
the centre of the city's life, and forms a sort of Quatre-voies, or FOllY 
Crossway, from which a starting point may well be made. 
Forty years ago, Y onge street, between King and Queen streets, 
was well-nigh impassable; and when the road-bed was excavated for 
the present block pavement, remnants were still found of the old 
corduroy road which once served to keep the ox-carts of the early 
settlers afloat through this slough of Despond. A good tanner 
named J esse Ketchum then lived alongside, and his name is here per- 
petuated by the" Bible Hol1se," the ground on which it stands having 
been given by him to the "Bible and Tract Society" on condition 
that they would annually expend the amount of the ground rent in 
Bibles, and distribute them to scholars in the public schools-an 
annual ceremonial which is never omitted, and always is productive 
of great interest. 
Built as a Governnlent work, for forty-six miles Y onge street became 
the main artery for settlements to the north, its roadsides soon were 
lined with the houses of settlers, and the name of " street" thereby just- 
ified. An early incident is pleasantly embalmed in "Toronto of Old," 
that "A story is told of a tourist, newly arrived at York, wishing to util- 
ize a stroll before breakfast by making out as he went along the where- 
abouts of a gentleman to whom he had a letter. Passing down the 
hall of his hotel, he asked in a casual way, of the book-keeper, , Can 
you tell me where Mr. So-and-so lives?' (leisurely producing the note 
from his breast pocket) ; 'it is somewhere along Y onge street here 
in your town.' 'Oh, yes,' was the reply, when the address had been 
glanced at; 'Mr. So-and-so lives on Y onge street, about twenty-five 
miles up l' " 
Having now got the bearings of the two main arteries, we may 
wander more at large. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF' CANADA. 


53 


)Ial) of Toronto. 
Showing the þrincipal streets and public buildings. 


(Street Car Routes are marked in dotted Jines.) 


n H .l \f 


N 0 
\f 1 
 3 8Wf18 
/100 

 I W I 1 



54 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF ('ANAD.Â. 


STREET CARS. 
The street car system is being rapidly extended, and is even now 
such that with a little consideration all parts of the city can be reached 
by their means. The routes covered are shown in the attached plan 
of the city, and the cars are plainly marked with the names of the 
principal streets along which they run. Fare for continuous trip, sc.; 
six fares, 2 S C. 


Tile Street (jar Routes. 


CARS MARKED. 


ROUTE. 


COLOUR 
LIGHT. 


King 
Yonge. . 
Queen 
Queen & Brockton. 


BI ue. 
Red. 


White. 


Green. 


:McCaul & College. Red and Blue 


Spadina Avenue to Yellow. 
Seaton Village. 
Spadina A venue to Red & Green. 
Bloor. 
Queen East. 
Y onge St. to Northl Red. 
Toronto. 
Church. 
Sherhourne. 
Sherbourne. 


White. 


Blue. 
Red. 
Red. 


Winchester. Green. 


Parliament. White. 


College Ave. and White. 
Carlton St. 


STARTING 
POINT. 


Don Bridge. 
Market. 


" 


" 


" 


" 


" 


King to Strachan A venue. 
King, Yonge to North Toronto 
Station. 
King, Y onge, Queen West to 
Parkdale. 
King, Y onge, Queen west, Dun- 
das St. to Dundas Bridge. 
King, York, Queen McCaul, 
College. 
King, Spadina Ave., College, 
Bathurst to Bloor. 


King, Spadina Ave. to Bloor. 
Union Station Front, Y onge, Queen to Don 
Bridge. 
Front, Y onge to North Toronto. 


" 


" 


" 


, , 


" 


Across town. 


Front, Church to Bloor. 
York, King, Sherbourne to Bloor 
Front, Church, Queen, Sher- 
bourne to Bloor. 
Front, Church, King, Sher- 
borne, Carlton, Parliament, 
Winchester. 
Front, Church, King, Sher- 
borne, Queen, Parliament 
and Gerrard St. east. 
College St., College Ave., Carl- 
ton, Parliament. 


CABS. 
Cabs can be obtained on the public stands or from the principal 
livery stables-by telephone from the hotels.-(See Advertisements). 



TBE NORTBERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


55 


The usual rate is $1 per hour, within the city limits, for one to four 
persons. The drivers and vehicles are all licensed under police 
supervision, and incivility or overcharges are very seldom met with. 
In taking a drive around the city or its environs, the pleasantest way 
for driver and for passenger is to come to an understanding about 
the rate before starting. 


DRIVES. 


In addition to the usual drives through the maIn 
treets to visit 
the several public buildings, the following drives may be mentioned 
as giving good examples of the pretty country surrounding the city. 


Distances out and back from CO? ner of King and Yonge streets. 
EAsT-The Lake Shore Road, Woodbine, Ben Lanlond, Don and 
Danforth Road, and the N ecropolis-8! miles. 
NORTH-EAsT-Necropolis, Todmorden, Don Valley, Eglinton, Mount 
Pleasant- 6!miles. 
NORTH-Queen's Park, Deer Park, Ridge Road, S1. Albans street, 
St. George street-6 miles. 
NORTH-\VEsT-College street, Bloor street, Slattery's, High Park, 
Queen street, and Subway-8ì miles. 
WEsT-King street, Lake Shore Road, Humber Bay and back
9 
miles. 


THE PUBLIC 
UILDINGS. 


The public buildings of Toronto are of singuIa:- excellence, and 
are really well worth visiting both for their architectural value and 
the instructive and interesting character of their contents. The 
more important are here mentioned, somewhat in the order in which 
they may be visited during a drive through the city. 
Front street, running parallel with the harbour, is lined with hand- 
some wholesale warehouses. 



56 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


UNION STATION.-Upon the 


\ 

 Esplanade which skirts the 

 
. 
\ 
 ___;"... water's ed g e , all the railwa y s 
Ii 1 '\ ',\
-
 
 
__
.
 J I, 

ì
;
 ->.....y enter the city, and focus their 


, '<
 radiations in this station. In 



 I
 
 '" 


"" 
"" 1851 the first sod of the 

" '.{iIl,I, ':'.. ,- 

.l, II I H ' ja ' : Ontario, Simcoe and Huron 

ll"!I",
:;:"I' . / i ,
 R I ( h fi . 1 . 
't_
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:,
, 

'II . ,:'L
 ai w
y t erst ral way In 

 
 .[(;,' I
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. Ontano) was turned at a spot 


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_ \ on the water's bank, not far 
I 
 
 
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 Ja\k" .. J'\""
 from here. The ceremon y 
" I I]
 1'" 
 "::-. , I!II: 


 _ _. n- . \ \';,1 '. was performed by the Count- 



 
 l'
 
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 J
 
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: 


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usly said 

 i 
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;:: "It may seem a singular ap. 
:.;-
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# 't..
 _
I 
 \:7 plication of the principle of 
- 




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t:i1-


_ _ 

 " division of labour, that the 
UNION STATION. lady should dig and the gen- 
tleman speak. But this is an age of progress in which we must be 
prepared for much that is strange." He the!1 adverted to the great 
advantages which would accrue from the construction of railways- 
predictions which have been fully verified. 
It seems almost impossible to believe that so short a time ago this 
city was in the winter locked in from all communication except by 
sleigh, and that in the summer the only connection with the 
out,er world was by water. Yet it was so, and some of the older boys 
can still remember the wonderment with which the first locomotives 
were viewed when they emerged from J emmy Good's workshops, on 
Richmond street, and made their slow progress on temporary wooden 
tracks through the streets, down Y onge street to the Esplanade. 
As contrast to this primitiveness there are now 77 trains, bearing 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


57 


and delivering passengers to all parts of the continent, daily entering 
the Union Station. 
The visitor arriving by water will notice at the foot of Y onge street 
the CUSTOM HOUSE, of highly decorated I talian architecture. On 
the exterior are elaborate carvings of fruits and flowers, a well executed 
bust of the Queen, and alto- 
relievos of the most cele- 
brated English navigators 
and seamen -Drake, N el- 
son, Jacques Cartier, Cook, 
and otherS. "The Long 
Room," where the public 
business is transacted, is 
most handsomely fitted and 
decorated. 
On the opposite corner 
is the new and handsome 
Bank of Montreal, a good 
instance of the care of 
a thoughtful architect to 
preserve the un purchase- THE CUSTOM HOUSE. 
able advantage of trees and foliage as an adornment to the structure 
itself. The octagonal counting-room within is admirably decorated 
with rare marbles and stained glass. The other Banks are mainly 
situated on Wellington street-the Standard, Ontario, and Bank of 
Toronto being well housed. 
Torontonians are proverbial as a church-going people, there being 
no less than 120 churches and chapels in the city, or almost one for 
every 1,000 inhabitants. Sunday in Toronto' is really a day of rest. 
· All saloons close at 7 on Saturday evening, and do not open again 
until Monday morning-a law which is strictly observed. No street 
cars are run and scarcely a wheel of any kind turns. No business 



58 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF' OANAD.Á. 


of any description is conducted and no shops are open. Yet the 
streets are full of people either going te and from church or visiting 
their friends. Thus Monday morning finds everyone reinvigorated 
and ready for their work. On the corner of Church and King 
street, the most important street of this city, is ST. JAMES' CATHEDRAL, 
the Seat of the Anglican Bishop of Toronto, a fine example of per- 
pendicular Gothic architecture. 
The spire, rising to the height 
of 3 16 feet,is gracefully propor- 
tioned, and the most lofty on 
the continent-exceeding that 
of Trinity Church, New York, 
by 2 I feet. The tower con- 
tains a chime of bells and the 
celebrated clock manufactured 
by Benson, of London, which 
_, obtained the highest prize at 
- _ 
.:
 íW í ! .WIII I 
 =-- =_ 

 _ _ 
 :. the Vienna Exhibition. 
- 

 õ.'I'W t
, -ti = f-

 = t =---- In the interior, the apse, 
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 c, in carved oak, and contains 
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. 
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 the first Anghcan BIshop In 


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' < ., -- 
 :::==-
-;:-
 =' Canada, and Dean Grasett- 
RT. JAMER' CATHEDRAL. both of whom, as also the 
wife of the Dean, are interred in the chancel-Chief- Justice Draper 
and others. The stained glass chancel windows-illustrating in the 
upper sections "The Ascension," and below, "The Last Supper," 
after Leonardo da Vinci j- also in the east wiI?
ow "The Christian 
Virtues "-are fine examples of the best art work of Munich. 
The tower and spire can be ascended; and in addition to seeing 


-=- , 
-== --=---=-===- 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA 


59 


the works of the clock, a wide range of view can be had of the city, 
the harbour and surrounding country. 
The present church is the fourth which has occupied the present 
site, its predecessors having been destroyed by fire. 
The acoustic properties are peculiarly good, most probably due to 
the apsidal form of the chancel, so that the lowest tones are carried 
to the farthest extremity. Entrance is by the north-west door between 
. 
10 A.M. and 3 P.M. A fee of ten cents for ascending the tower is 
collected towards the cost of maintaining the clock and chimes. 
A little further east on King street is the St. Lawrence Hall, with 
cupola and clocks, containing the principal markëts and some muni- 
cipal offices. The present home of the city officials is in the old City 
Hall, a little to the south; but a site has been purchased, and new 
city buildings and Court-House, to cost $500,000, are projected. 
Church street used to be the extreme west end of the town, and 
was so called from the fir.st church, which occupied the corner of it 
and King, and was then entirely surrounded by the forest trees. 
The Public Library, on the corner of Adelaide street, is the success- 
ful growth of but a few years. The number of books on its shelves 
in 1885 was 41,286 ; and as it is already attracting generous dona- 
tions from private libraries, as being the fit receptacle for the custody 
and preservation of books valuable either for their rarity or their 
character, and where the benefit of their ownership may be shared with 
other less fortunate but yet congenial n1inds, its size will soon attain 
considerable proportion". A sum of about $4,000 per annum is 
expended on new purchases, and the Library has already an estab- 
lished reputation for its collection of books and docun1ents bearing 
on early Canadian history. The number of books taken out by 
readers in 1885 was 277,931-a goodly proportion to the population 
of the city. A well
conducted Free Reading Room, stocked with 
the best periodicals and newspapers, is a favourite resort, and well 
attended. 



60 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


" 


" 


" 


The NOlmal School is the centre of the Public School System of 
the Province. In it are the offices of the Minister of Education, 
and the Depository of books, &c., for distribution to the schools; 
and adjoining it are the Model Schools for boys and girls, in whic
 
tqe student teachers can see the school system in actual operation, 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


61 


The gardens are kept in fine T 
order, each plant there being _" _ -
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Theatre are placed busts of NORMAL SCHOOL. 
the philosophers, orators and historic men of Roman and Grecian 
eras, the monarchs of England and en1Ïnent statesmen, authors, poets 
and celebrities of each reign. In the Gallery of the Statues are 
many examples of modern and ancient sculpture, among them Venns 
de Medicis, Urania, Cicero, Canova's Hebe, Powers' Greek Slave, 
Gibson's Homeless 'Vanderer, and Psyche borne bJ' the Zephyrs, 
Thorwaldsen's Guardian Angel, &c. In the same room is a full 
series of impressions in wax from the seals of the Sovereigns of Eng- 
land, from the time of Edward the Confessor. A number of fine 
copies of portrait medallions and antique gems most interesting to 
those interested in gem cutting. In the next Gallery are examples 
of great educational value of the best varieties of maps, models for 
object lessöns, philosophical apparatus, and generally of school equip- 
ment from which n1any useful ideas can be gleaned. 
The Pz"cture Galleries occupy the whole front of the buildings and 
on their spacious walls the PaÙztings are splendidly displayed. The 



62 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


Italian, Flemish, Dutch, German, French and Spanish Schools of 
Art are all represented. The pictures are all numbered and the fol- 
lowing may be particularly lnentioned : 
13, "Peter's Denial of Christ," Gherardo. 35," The Mother of 
Sorrows," Sassoferato, a painter celebrated for the beautiful shades 
of blue which usually appear in his portraits of the Virgin and of 
female saints. 15," The Remorse. of Peter," Carlo Dolci. 40, 
" Head of St. John presented to Herodias," Luini. 51," The Grand 
Canal, Venice," Canaletti. Among some good examples of Guido 
Reni, whose grace and harmony of colouring aTe rarely excelled, are, 
61, "Lucretia," a lady of ancient Rome distinguished for her beauty 
and virtue, who, resenting the outrage offered to her by Sextus 
Tarquin (B. C. 507), took own life. 63," The Massacre of the 
Innocents." 62," Beatrice Cenci." 60," The Archangel Michael.', 
64, "Aurora," Goddess of the 1\forning (this last one is on the 
west stairway). 68," The Last Communion of St. Jerome," Domeni- 
chino. 73," The Conspiracy of Cataline," Salva tor Rosa. 82, 
"Beatrice Cenci the Night Before Her Execution," A. Ratti (See 
also No. 62). The poet Shelley has dramatized, in his poem" The 
Cencis," the story of the wrongs of her who was 
" Cut off 
F
om light and life and love in youth's sweet prime." 
23, " Madonna della Sedia," the only Madonna painted by Raphael 
who has not her eyes cast down. The original was painted upon the 
head of a cask. 32," Tþe Transfiguration," Raphael-by common 
consent his master-piece-which was placed over his head when he 
lay in state at his funeral obsequies. 30," La Fornarina," portrait 
of the Roman maiden with whom Raphael fell in love. 2," The 
Head of the Medusa," Leonardo da Vinci. 


H.OW PERSEUS BROUGHT BACK THE GORGON'S HEAD. 


In the old Greek myth of Perseus and how he slew the Gorgon. to 
those who read beneath, there lies a deeper meaning than appears 



THE NORTHERN L.AKES OF OANADA. 


63 


upon the surface. The goddess Athené inspires 
erseus, a noble 
Greek youth, to brave deeds, leading him to feel it were" Better to 
die in the flower of youth, on the chance of winning a noble name, 
than to live at ease and die unloved and unrenowned." Having come 
to manhood's age she tests him to go forth and slay Medusa, the Gor- 
gon, and bring back to her, as trophy, the foul one's head The 
Medusa had once been a maiden beautiful as morn, till in her pride 
she sinned a sin at which the sun hid his face; and from that day her 
hair was turned to vipers and her hands to eagle's claws; and her heart 
was filled with shame and rage, and her lips with bitter venom; and 
he
 eyes became so terrible that whosoever looked upon them was 
turned to stone. Her children were the winged horse and the Giant 
of the golden sword, and her grandchildren Echidna, the witch-adder, 
and Geryon, who fed his herds beside the herds of hell. So she be- 
came the sister of the Gorgons, Stheino and Euryte the abhorred. 
Then Athené gave to Perseus her polished shield, in the reflected 
brass of which he was to look so that he might strike safely and not 
be turned to stone, and Hermes gave his sandals, on which quivered 
living wings, so that they might carry him unwearied safe over land 
and sea, and his sword of diamond of one clear precious stone, Herpé, 
the Argus-slayer. So Perseus sailed high over the mountain tops and 
skin1med over the billows like a sea-gull and his feet were never 
wetted, far away into the heart of the Unshapen Land, beyond the 
streams of Ocean, where there is neither night nor day, until he heard 
the rustle of the Gorgons' wings and saw the glitter of their brazen 
talons, and as he looked in the mirror of his shield he saw the three 
lying below him in their sleep with mighty wings outspread. And the 
Medusa tossed to and fro restlessly, and as sbe tossed Perseus pitied 
her. In her face still stayed the form of beauty, but her cheeks 
.were pale as death and her brows were knit with everlasting pain, 
and her lips were thin and bitter like a snake's; and around her 
temples the horrid vipers wreathed and, moving constantly, shot out 
their fiery tongues. But as he looked, Perseus saw, that for all her 
beauty the Medusa was as foul and venomous as those with whom 



64 


THE hORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


she lay. 'Vith one stroke from Herpé the head was, severed, and her 
wings and talons rattled as Medusa sank dead upon the rocks. And 
so, wrapped in a goatskin, Perseus bore back to Pallas Athené the 
Gorgon's head. 
In Room No.6, in the rotary stands, is a collection of over 600 
photographs of National Historical Portraits, being taken from 
paintings of eminent persons frum the time of the Plantagenets to the 
end of James II (1152 to 1688). The originals were exhibited at 
the first special exhibition of national portraits, at South Kensington 
Museum. They are classified and chronologically arranged and the 
names of the painters given when known. Othér stands contain 
photographs of paintings in the National Gall", ,England. 
The Italian and Flemish schools are the best represented, and in the 
corridors are many excellent small examples of the Dutch school. In 
cases in the centres of the rooms are photographs of the Kings and 
Queens of England and of well-known men of Britain and Canada. 
In the "Nineveh Gallery," are copies from the great Layard collection 
of the British Museum. 
There are many electrotypes of art treasures in the London South 
Kensington Museum'-casts of gems, medals, coins, etc. ; and alto- 
gether an Art collection of singular excellence. 
Here school-boys and scholars will find materialized-either in 
picture or in sculpture-many of the personages or events with which 
they meet in their reading; and if this collection were intelligently 
used and referred to, it would be found that much additional interest 
and zest would be given thereby to reading and to study. There is 
a good catalogue for sale at the office-price 25 cents. Entrance is 
free throughout the year from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. on week-days, except 
on Christmas and N ew Year's days. 
The private residences of Toronto present a genuine air of quiet 
and comfort, and in this district a very fair example may be seen 
of their character. On Jarvis street is the ßaptist Church-one of 
the most picturesque in the city; the interior is of amphitheatrical 
form, thus giving great play of outline to the exterior, to which the 
Queenston brown stone, New Brunswick red granite, and ornamental 





 


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slates, add great colour and 
effect. The organ is remark- 
able for the beauty of its tone. 
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\Y. Allan. 1'hc gardens were opened by His Royal Highness the 
I Prince of 'Yales in 1860; and a tree then planted by him now 
exhibits considerable growth. 
The Pavilion Music Hall occupies the west side of the gardens. 
Attached to it are the conservatories, in which an excellent "winter 
garden" is maintained. Having a seating accommodation for 3,000, 
and excellent acoustic properties, it has been of great advantage to 
the music-loving people of the city as an educator, and has given 
opportunities for attracting the best exponents of the continent. The 
Monday Popular Concerts, given here every fortnight throughout the 
winter, and the annual festivals of the Philharmonic and Choral . 
Societies, are good evidences that a very high class of music culture 
E 



66 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


flourishes among the citizens. The best public balls are given in this 
Pavilion, for which it has unexampled facilities. 
The Bo)'s' Honle and the Girls' Ho/ne, two excellent charities for 
the retreat and care of destitute children not convicted of crime, are. 
in the vicinity, and invite visitors to view their work. The tall 
towers of 77ze General Hosþital are seen still further to the east. 
1"'his establishment is in every way a model, with its subdivisions; 
,for cure of the various classes of disease, eye and ear infirmary,. 
lying-in hospital, etc., and separate convalescent and recreation 
wIngs. 
N ear by are its attendant schools of medicine. Trinity School 
taking its degrees from Trinity College and Toronto School from 
University College. The reputation of these schools is very high 
,_ , and their degrees greatly 
esteemed throughout the 
Continent, so that a college 
population of between 400 
and 500 are in attendance 
at their lectures. 
Not far frcm King Street, 
and at the head of York 
Street, standing in ornamen- 
tal grounds is Osgoode Hall, 
named after the first Chief 
Justice of Canada, and the 
seat of the IIighest Law 
Courts of the Province. 
The interior surpasses that 
of any other Courts of 
Law, and is of rare beauty. 
The Central Court, of two 
stories in the Italian style, 


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THE NOR1.'HERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


67 


is adorned with double rows of Doric columns in cream-coloured 
stone from Caën, in Normandy. The best view on the entrance floor 
is obtained from the extreme north-west corner, from where the 
several rows of columns can be brought into perspective. On the 
walls are portraits of the Chief-Justices and Chancellors; from the 
upper colonnade the Law Courts are entered-in each, above the 
seats of the Judges, a bas-relief of "Impartial Justice." The Library 
is a magnificent chamber, with lofty domed ceiling, and many-nooked 
bookshelves for the 30,000 volumes which it contains. A fire-place 
of fine design and proportions occupies the west end; over it the 
portrait of Chief-Justice Sir John Beverley Robinson, who, when a 
young man, served under General Brock, at the battle of Queenston 
Heights, in 182 I. In the adjoining wings are the offices of the 
various Courts. 1'he grounds are well kept. 
The judges in Canada are not elected, but are appointed by the 
General Government, during "good behaviour," or practically for 
life j and as they are always selected from the first ranks of the pro- 
fession, the Canadian Judiciary bears high record for talent and un- 
impeachable integrity. 
Should any of the Courts be in session the visitor will be struck 
,with the dignity and decorum with which the Law is administered. 
Separated from .politics, with income assured and absolutely unas- 
sailable, and in a social position of rank by all classes respectfully 
recognized, a seat on the" Bench" is considered one of the highest 
honours obtainable in the Dominion. 
The Parks of Toronto have so far not had much done to beautify 
or embellish their natural advantages. The Riverside Park is situate 
upon the banks of the Don at the eastern limits of the City. Upon 
the shores of the Humber Bay, at the west end, and adjoining the 
windings of the Humber River!, is " The High Park." Extending 
over an area of four hundred acres it comprises within its boundaries 
great possibilities for landscape gardening. Roads have been 



68 


THE NORTHERN L.AKÈJS OF C.ANAD...4.. 


opened through its \vinding dells and rolling hills, skirting the minia- 
ture lakes, and opening vistas of distant views, making a drive 
through its woodlan.d glades a pleasur Ie outing. Pic-nickers revel 
in its groves, and stealIlboats and railway trains give hourly access. 
The Queen's Park of about fifty acres in extent, is situated in the 
heart of the City, and is approached through THE COLLEGE AVENUE, 

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'mE. during the Fenian raid, in 1866. 
On the summit-Britannia. Below-Two Infantry Volunteers, 
and emblematical figures of Hope and Grief. An effective railing of 
crossed rifles surmounts the base. 
Opposite to this is the bronze statue of the HOll. George Bro7C11l, 
one or the forenlost Canadian politicians of his day, an<f the founder 
of the Globe newspaper. The figure, which is of heroic size, repre- 
sents the orator in the act of speaking, and is a very effective work 
of art. The sculptor was C. B. Burch, A.R.A., London, Eng. The 
Park is well wooded with old forest trees, principally oaks, and has 



THE NORTBERN LAKES OF OANAlJA. 


69 


.. 
much natural beauty. Surrounding it are many villa residences. 
The road winds down a hill and passing a small sheet of water next 
comes in view upon the opposite slope. 
The UnizJersity of TorOllto.- This noble Norman Gothic group of 
buildings is the finest example of its style of architecture in America 
-whether in its massive proportions or in the mediæval detail of the 
carvings in stone, no two of which are the same. 
The principal front is of great grandeur, a massive tower rises in 
the centre flanked by wings on either side with long ranges of varied 
windows; to th
 left a picturesque minaret with shady cloister below, 
and a circular building containing the Laboratory. 


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UNIVEHSITY OF TORONTO. 


The whole group forms three sides of a square, with an internal 
quadrangle; the west wing contains the students' quarters, and the 
east wing with the Octagon Tower and Convocation Hall is one of 
the most excellent portions of the design. 
On the Entrance Door7øay are the Arms of the College, and 
columns of richly carved stone. The entrance hall and long corridors 



70 THE NORTHER:N LAKES OF CANADA. 


ead to 7 he COil-vocation Hall, with high gabled oak roof, carved in 
grotesque forms. The stained glass triple window is in memory of 
the Students who feU defending the frontier in 1866. On the Senate 
Stairway ar.e some marvellous carvings in white Caën stone of Cana- 
dian birds. These, as works of the highest merit, should not be 
missed. The Library, a splendid chamber, with inviting quiet re- 
cesses, contains 40,000 volumes, also a statue of William of Wyke- 
ham. The MUSeUlIl contains a collection of birds, beasts and curiosi- 
ties, well worthy of a visit. A winding stair, of 160. steps from this 
level, leads to the top of the To'wer, from whence a fine view of 
Toronto and its environs is obtainable, and on clear days, of the 
cloud of spray hovering over the Niagara Falls. The keys must be ob- 
tained from the curator. The details of the designs and of the carv- 
ings in stone of this building are worthy of close study, as having been 
framed on the best examples of European architecture. It will be 
noticed that there is no repetition. Every column and capital is a 
separate study, and each enrichment a new design. This is applic- 
able to the exterior as well as the interior, and some fantastic Gothic 
carvings are to be seen about the west cloister and around the eave 
of the laboratory. 
Entrance free, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Big Tom, whose solemn tones are to be heard from the tower at 9 
o'clock every evening, when the students are in residence, weighs 
On the opposite side of the lawn is the Tower and Dome of the 
Observatory, now the home of the Meteorological Departnlent for 
the Dominion, or what is more popularly known as, " Old Probabili- 
ties." From here the daily weather forecasts are telegraphed to all 
parts of the Dominion. Every mail train starting in the morning, in 
all parts of Canada, carries on its InaiI car a large signal which can 
be seen as it passes along, and indicates the weather for the day. 
Thus the country as well as the town's people get the advantage of 
the forecasts. This establishment was originally initiated by the Brit- 



PHE 1VOllTHEllN LAKES OF OANAlJA. 


71 


ish Gövetnrnent some thirty years ago, and during that time and now 
meteorological observations are made and recorded by skilled ob- 
servers, every minute without intermission! a quiet, unostentatious 
pursuit of scientific knowledge, which few are aware goes on in their 
midst. 
The monstrosity in red brick alongside, is the School of Technology. 
.JI;IcMaster College, the training college for the Baptist clergy, is at 
the head of the Queen's Park. This was founded and endowed by 
the Hon. 'Vm. McMaster, a wealthy resident of Toronto, and its 
handsome Credit Valley stone facade forms a very effective grouping 
in the midst of the surrounding trees. 


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KNOX COLLEGE-TORONTO. 


Further to the West of the Park is KNOX COLLEGE, well situated 
at the head of Spadina A venue. This is the headquarters of the 
educational work of the Presbyterian Church of Canada. The Col- 
lege was formed in 1844, and is well endowed. The present build- 
ings were erected in 1875, and are occupied by six professors and 
about one hundred students. 



72 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


On the east side of th
 Queen's Park is St. Michael's College, oc- 
cupying an excellent position on the crown of Clover Hill. Here is 
carried on the higher education of the Roman Catholic body of the 
Province of Ontario. Close by it is the excellent young ladies' 
school, kept in St. Mary's Convent by the nuns of the order. 


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TRINITY COLLEGE. 


In the west end of the city, and standing In its own grounds, 
TRINITY COLLEGE, built in the early English style, has a quaint 
scholastic air. The facade is pleasantly diversified with cut. stone 
dressings and projecting bay windows, while the bell turrets above 
(yclept b. the students "pepper pots ") add much to the appearance. 
The newly added Chaþel, whose plain exterior rather mars the 
continuity of the facade, is admirably finished and arranged in its 
interior, and is worthy of inspection. 
The Convocation Hall has a handsome oak roof highly carved, and 
portraits of founders and chancellors of the University. 
The students' quarters are in the wings. The College is the seat 
of the Anglican or Episcopal Church in Canada under a Royal 
charter, and was erected by the exertions of Bishop Strachan in 1851. 
It has al1 outlying branch in "Trinity School," at Port Hope, a boys' 



THE NORTHERN L.AKES OF CANADA. 


73 


school of rare excellence, and founded and conducted on the lines of 
the great English public schools. 
The [/llÍ'Z J erszty of Trinity College and the UnÏ'l'ersity of Toronto are 
the only corporations having power to confer degrees, the other 
colleges being colleges of instruction "in affiliation." It will be 
readily seen that Toronto is thus quite a "University City," and 
when during the winter the Colleges are in session there are fully 
1,500 students in residence. 
In addition to these, the Toronto VeterÙlarJ' College, numbering on 
an average 300 students, has a Continental reputation, and some first- 
class Busi1less Colleges are also in operation. 
On the western limits of the city, upon the shores of the beautiful 
curve of the Humber Bay, is .the High Park, comprising 400 acres 
of hill and dale of varied wood-land seenery. The Humber River 
affords pleasant boating jaunts, and the views over the lake, fronl 
the high lands in the rear, are well worth the drive. 
In Parkdale will be found The HOJJle for Illcurables, one of the 
most perfectly conducted charities of the city. Visitors are cordially 
welcomed. The view from the top of the central tower gives a better 
idea of the geographical location of the city than is obtainable fron1 
any other place, and is worth seeing. 
The Exhibitioll Buildings, most prominently set on the Lake shore, 
are complete in every respect, and at the time of the Fall Fairs in 
Septem ber are thronged with visitors from all parts. The grounds 
are open and maintained by the city as a park, with flower gardens 
in the summer, making a pleasant and cool drive. 
The Central Prison for men, and the Mercer RefoYlllatory or Prison 
for women, are open to visitors upon orders from the Governlnent 
Inspector of Prisons. In the l)rovincial Lunatic Asylulll, with large 
central dome and wide extending wings, are collected the insane 
from all parts of Ontario. 
At the intersection of King and Simcoe streets are Upþer CalZada 
College, the oldest boys' school in the Province, and St. Alldrew's 



74 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


Church, a splendid edifice in the old Scotch baronial style, of massive 
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GOVERNMENT HOUSE, the palatial residence of the Lieutenant- 



 
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Governor of Ontario, is on the opposite corner. The valley which 
winds through the gardens is the last reminiscence of "Russell's 
Creek," up which Governor Simcoe used to row from the Bay when 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF GANA1JA. 


75 


he first chose Toronto to be his capit
l. The gardens are well kept, 
and the conservatories well stocked. In the interior is a very hand- 
some main entrance hall, with grand staircase; to the left is the suite 
of Presence Chambers, in which the receptions and levees are held. 
Beyond these are the conservatories and ball-room. In the dining- 
room is a fine collection of life-size portraits of the Governors of 
Upper Canada from its cession to the British Crown. Permission to 
view the interior nlust be obtained by letter fronl the A.D. C. 111 
wailing. 
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is of good fornl, and has a -= 
seating capacity of 2,3 00 , POST-OFFICE. 
with a large and spacious stage adapted to the production of the 
most exacting plays. The traditions of the house include renlinis- 
cences of the best modern actors-Fechter, Irving, Booth, Boucicault, 
Neilson, Bernhardt, and others. Toronto audiences are proverbially 
of high requirements and acute taste-no doubt in great degree. 
from the large and educated student population, whose approval and 



76 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


disapproval of the plays sub- 
mitted to its criticism is 
frequently expressed in un- 
C1istakeable terms. This 
healthy expression of mer- 
curial temperament-pulsa- 
ting with the progress of the 
action on the stage-is of 
Jike character with that found 
at the theatres in Dublin; 
and thus it is that not a few 
companies-the fascinating 
Adelaide Neilson's among 
them-have preferred to 
submit new plays to the 
audiences at "the Grand" 
before bringing them to the 
less exacting and more coldly 
undemonstrative audiences 
GRAND OPERA HOUSE. of the United States. 
In the outskirts of the city are nlany pleasant drives: The valley 
of the DOll, Tot/mordell, Norway, Daz 1 ellþort, etc., while the Summer 
afternoon water excursions by steamers to .1.Viagara, Victoria Park, 
Scarboro' Heights, Humber Bay, Mimico, Oakville, Hamilton, etc., 
at fares from 25 cents to $1.00, serve to diversify the visitor's stay. 
Situated as Toronto is, upon the shores of Lake Ontario, the summer 
heats are tempered by the presence of the broad expanse of water 
and attendant breezes; whatever may have been the heat of the 
day, it rarely ever extends into the night, so after sundown the cool 
air and soft summer evenings make the city-what it really is-a 
· pleasant lake
side resort. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 77 


Off for a Rcal Good Fish. 


GENTLEMAN (to grocer)-" Two gallons Santa Cruz, one gallon Old 
Tom, two gallons Maryland Ciub, four dozen Pommery Sec, four. 
dozen Milwaukee and six boxes of Reina Vics." 
GROCER-" Yes, sir. That all, sir?" 
GENTLEMAN-" Er- Do you keep fishing tackle?" 
GROCER-" Yes, sir, full line, sir." 
GENTLEMAN-" Ah-Put in a couple of fish hooks." 



 .. 


Tile Northern Lakes. 


Our tourists will now direct their attention to the trip to the " Inter- 
ior," and the country stretching 200 miles nòrthward of Toronto, to- 
wards the Georgian Bay and the Inland Lakes. Until recently it was a 
wilderness, but within twenty years or so numerous towns and hamlets 
have sprung up; many summer hotels have been opened at attractive 
points, and settlers have poured in with a rapidity equal to the settle- 
ment of lllany parts of the \Vestern States. Railroads have pene- 
trated into its heart. Steamboats ply upon its larger lakes, and some 
excellent highways traverse its length and breadth. It is emphati- 
cally a country of forests, lakes, and rivers. The lakes vary greatly 
in size, the larger ones thirty and forty miles in length, apd the 
snlaller ones mere ponds, but clear and deep, and all abounding in 
salmon-trout, perch, black-bass and speckled trout. 


THE NORTHERN AND NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY 


Is one of the connecting links between the frontier and the interior. 
Leaving Toronto by one of the express trains furnished with fine 
parlour cars, the passengers will pass through a populous and rich 
country, with substantial farm houses and extensive saw-mills at in- 
tervals, along the whole line. The appointments of the railway are 



78 


THE NORTHERlv LAKES OF OANADA. 


first-class, and the station houses, models of neatness and beauty, 
have tasteful flower gardens and lawns attached, with jets of water 
spurting fron1 fountains that cool and refresh the plants. 
At Parkdale will be noticed the Subway, by which Queen street, 
the,great east and west artery of the city, passes under the converging 
railways. At this point the Canadian Pacific, Grand Trunk and 
Northern Railways all enter the city. The growth of the suburbs 
shows itself along the next couple of miles, where the houses are 
gradually creeping farther and farther into the country and streets 
of buildings occupy the receding farms. 
At four miles is Da'llellþor/, a hill side locality fast filling wi h sub- 
urban residences, having a pretty station, with flower-garden and high- 
gabled roof. 
On the left between this station and Weston, is seen the Valley o.f 
the Humber River and the heights of the Caledon Hills which close 
the distant view to the west. Toward the south will be seen the blue 
outline of the lake with the wooded points ;bout Mimico jutting out 
into its waters. 
The height of land between Lakes Ontario and Huron, which is 
reached at twenty-six miles from Toronto, is 7 SS feet above the level 
of Lake Ontario, and 415 feet above that of Lake Huron. 
A few miles beyond King the line passes by not a few curves 
through" The Ridges. " Here, within the confines of a single farm, 
the waters diverge on either side the summit of the water-shed. One 
streamlet running south forms the tiny headwaters of the infant 
Humber, whose mouth debouches into Lake Ontario at Toronto, the 
other winds its way northward to the Holland River on its way to 
the Georgian Bay, and thence returns by Lake Erie and over the 
Niagara Falls to reunite their waters in I,ake Ontario, after a circuit 
of over 800 miles. 
The train emerges from the turnings among the hills and on the 
left is caught a pleasant view over the finely nurtured farms of the 
" Vale of Aurora." The hill-sides dotted with comfortable fårm 
steadings, the rounded copses of hardwood trees and the spires of 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


79 


the little village churches give a picture which might be taken out of 
fair England itself. 
"Glen Lonely" the ancestral home of the descendants of the Cheva- 
lier de St. George, "Larchmere" of the Baldwins and "Elmwoods" 
the country house and stock farm of 'V. Mulock, Esq., the Member 
for the County, are among the favourite holdings in this favoured Vale, 
which has a well-earned renown for the excellence of its horses and 
its sheep. 
Next is Ne11.Jnzarket, the county town of the County of York, with 
a population of 5,000. A place of considerable age and importance, 
and the headquarters of some energetic manufacturing interests. 
The corner-stone of the picturesque church on the hill-side to the 
left, was laid by His Excellency Lord Dufferin, during his progress- 
in 1874. 
In a little while a small stream will be noticed on the right, meander- 
ing sometimes through grassy meadows and again through groves of 
forest elms. It is the first gathering of the Holland River and the 
firSt water on which used to be shipped the canoes of the Indians 
and of the voyageurs, in times long past, after they had passed over 
the carrying place or " portage" from the harhour at Toronto. 
By it came the fierce invading Iroquois when they made their too 
successful incursions and decimated the tribes of the Hurons that 
lived between the banks of Lake Simcoe and the shores of the 
Georgian Bay. Along this valley, too, were carried the munitions of 
war and the materials for the equipment of the naval squadron and 
the Navy-yard, which, in the early years of the country, was maintained 
at Penetanguishene. 
Holland La1lding, now a quiet and picturesque village, was the 
point at which the heavy goods were transferred to the large batteaux 
for transport across Lake Sinlcoe. Its pretty white church, with 
. 
sqU::1re tower stands on the hill-side to the right, and long ago looked 
down upon a busy scene, W!1en all the business of the North passed 
on long lines of heavy laden waggons before its doors. Sir John 
Franklin called here when on his first expedition overland to the 
North Pole in 1825, and in 1827 Galt passed by on his way tQ 
Goderich, 'l/ia Penetanguishene. 



80 


THE NORTHERN
LAKES OÞ CANAD.A,. 


N ear by, on the village green rests a g
gantic anchor, which having 
come all the way over the sea from Her Majesty's dockyards, in 
England, and by the laborious work of sixteen yoke of oxen, been 
hauled thus far on its way to the" N avy Yard," was interrupted on its 


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THE ANCHOR AT HOLLAND LANDING. 


journey by the declaration of peace, and nOw rernains to form a 
quaint monument and record of the early days of the Great Portage. 
Bradford (42 miles) is at the crossing of the river and close to the 
Ho/land River .1JIarsh, a locality celebrated among sportsmen for its 
abundant supply of partridge, snipe, wild duck and hares. There is 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 81 


good trolling in the river for maskinonge. First-class accommoda- 
tion can be got at Bingham's HQtel, Bradford, and information respect- 
ing guides, punts, etc. 


LAKE SIMCOE. 


At Lefroy is seen the first view of Lake Simcoe, the first of the various 
chains of inland lakes which are now met with in succession. Stages 
run regularly to Belle Ewart, I 
 miles on the shore of the Lake, here 
called Cook's Bay. A name given by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, 
after Captain Cook, the great circunlnavigator of the globe, who 
had been master of the ship " Pembroke," on which the Lieut.-Gover- 
nor's father was captain during the expedition ag3.inst Quebec, in 
1759; Major Holland, after whom the river was named, also served 
in the same conquest. 
A ferry steamer keeps up constant connection with Roach's Point, 
whose houses can be seen on the opposite shore of the Bay. This 
pretty village is much frequented by tourists in summer on account 
of its nearness to Toronto and excellent boating and fishing-bass, 
trout and maskinonge-Raike's Hotel and several family boarding- 
houses. 
Serþent Island will be seen on the lake, where linger a few rem- 
nants of the Huron tribe who even still continue to make pilgrim- 
ages to join their brethren on the Christian Islands at their annual 
tribal gatherings. 
A Ilandale is the junction point of the Northern and N orth- Western 
Railway system. Here join together from the south the N orth- 
Western Branch from Hamilton and the Northern Branch from 
Toronto. Three lines radiate north. 
The Muskoka Branch to the Lakes of Muskoka, Callandar, the 
Canadian Pacific and the all rail route rcund the north shores of 
Lake Superior. 
The Pelletangulshelle Branch to Midland, Matchedash and Penetang 
Bays, and the Parry Island Archipelago (42 miles). 
The Cotlt"ngwood Branch to Collingwood, on the shore
 of the 
Georgian BaYf where connection is made with the splendid stean1ers 
F 



82 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


of the "Collingwood Lake Superior Line," for the grand tour of 
Lake Superior, Thunder Bay, Silver Islet, Nipegon, etc., the water 
route to the N orth- West, via Port Arthur and Duluth and Georgian 
Bay Line the Great Northern Transit Co. for Manitoulin Islands, 
the Great North Channel, Mackinac, Sault Ste. Marie, Parry 
Sound, etc. An excellent refreshment station is maintained at 
this junction, and trains stop for meals. The mon
ment in the 
garden was erected by the men of the railway to the memory of 
Col. Fred. W. Cumberland, who for twenty-two years was General 
Manager of the Company. During that time he had succeeded 
in conducting the railway to the satisfaction of the people whom it 
served and in winning the personal attachment of every man in 
his enlploy. The Bronze is an excellent likeness-the work of a 
Canadian artist, 1lr. F. Dunbar. 
The arm of Lake Simcoe on which the station stands, is ]ieJnþen- 
ftldt Bay, named after another naval hero, whose loss with all his 
crew by the sinking of the Royal Georgt, when lying at anchor 
in harbour at Spithead, sent a thrill throughout the world. 


His sword was in its sheath, 
His fingers held the pen, 
\Vhen KempenfeJdt when down, 
With twice four hundred men. 
-COWPER. 


Barrie, the county town of the County of Simcoe, is 
 prosperous 
place of 5,000 inhabitants. Its houses and church spires rising 
picturesquely upon the sloping hill sides, are seen on the opposite 
shores of the båy, around the head of which the railway com(s. 
Barrie is a delightful summer resort, with an excellent fleet of 
boats and yachts, some of which will be seen lying at their 
anchorages; and there are some good fishing streams in the neigh- 
bourhood. 
The steamer connects from Barrie with the new summer hotel at 
Big Bay Point, nine miJes down the Kempenfeldt Bay, where it joins 
with the main water of the lake and forms a splendid place for 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. Sg 


excursion parties, for whom very favourable rates are made (see 
adv.) ...t\pply to Isaac Robinson, Allandale. 
In passing down the bay some admirably situated private resi- 
dences will be seen on both shores at Shanty Bay on the north, and 
.5trath Allan on the south. 
The main water being entered, Lake Simcoe is one of the largest 
inland Lakes of Ontario, being 30 miles long and 16 miles broad. 
Its shores are characterized by great sylvan beauty. 
At Keswick may be seen the charmingly situated resort of one of 
the great lumber kings of the country, and many of the other choice 
spots begin to be occupied with the summer residences of the more 
wealthy inhabitants. 
Serþent Island, Lighthouse, and other islands are at the south end. 
Sutt01l is pleasantly situated upon a sheltered bay on the south 
shore of the la
e, and is the terminus of the Nipissing Branch of 
the G. T. Railway. 
The steanler then skirts the upper shores of the lake, past deep 
bays, whose wooded promoTItories jut out picturesquely into the lake, 
and sighting Atherly, after an easy run 
f two hours, passes Graþe 
and other islands closely clustered together, and enters the" Narrows," 
the water channel joining Lake Simcoe with Lake Couchich- 
ing, of which the first view is here gained, and passing through the 
swing bridges of the Muskoka and Midland Railways, soon, upon a 
point str
tching out into the lake, is seen the Co
chiching Park. 
The steamer rounds the point, and our "water tourist" is landed 
at Orillia. 
Continuing on by rail from Barrie, the train skirts the shores of 
Lake Simcoe and pleasant vistas of its waters are gained. 
Near Hawkstone are some excellent speckled trout streams. 
The train plunges into an almost contiuuous line of forest and, 
emerging once more on the shore of the lake, a view is seen (to the 
right) of Grape Is/and and the others grouped together at the head of 
Lake Simcoe. 



84 


THE NORTHERN LAkES OF OANADA. 


The rai1s curve across the neck of land between the lakes and 
reach Orillia. Fast rising in importance, the town is situated at the 
foot of Lake Couchiching upon a hill side facing the water. It is a 
favourite centre of sumn1er travel, the hotels excellel1t and the neigh- 
bourhood enjoyable. Close by is the beautiful Couchiching Park 
and the neighbourhood gives scope for pleasant rides and drives, 
while sailing and boating, and the steamers" Orillia," "Cariella," 
etc., on Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching, afford opportunities for 


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GRAPE ISLAND-LAKE SIMCOE. 


charming water parties and picnics, A pretty trip of fifteen miles is 
made by the stean1er Orillia through the Narrows to Stra'wberry Is- 
land, situated at the head of Lake Simcoe. It is forty-five acres in 
extent, partially cleared and partially wooded. Stra'loberry Island 
Hotel is an excellent summer resort with fine sandy beach for bathing 
(see advt.), good boating and camping. The fishing for black bass in 
the neighbourhood is renowned, particularly at StarvatiOn Island, 
whose fame is well known among adepts. Capt. C. McInnes, Orillia, 
will answer all questions. 
Among oth
r points of interest on the lakes to the visitor from 
Orillia are the Ojibbeway settlement of Indians at Rama, Chief 15- 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


85 


land, Longford, the Quarries, the Rapids and Falls of the Severn, 
and Washago, at the head of Lake Couchiching. 


LAKE CQUCHICHING. 


Couchiching! \Vell may the curious tourist, struck by the peculi- 
arity of the name, ask its meaning. Indian nomenclature is always 
appropriate and descriptive j here the varying breezes, welcome ad- 
juncts of a summer resort, that fan the surface of the lake, have given 
the Indian name for" Lake of many winds." This locality is among 
the highest in Ontario, being 750 feet above Lake Ontario, 415 above 
Lake Huron, and 390 feet above Lake Superior j and it is the next 
lake to Lake Simcoe in the chain that en1pty their waters by the 
River Severn into the Georgian Bay and Lake Huron. 
The rapidity of the rise from Lake Ontario may thus be judged; 
and the consequent elevation and clearness of the atmosphere, and 
the cool breezes, would, apart from any other consideration, be suffi- 
cient to commend the locality as a favourite one for a summer visit. 
The black bass, pickerel, and salmon-trout fishing in the lake is 
most excellent; and ready access is gained, from Orillia as a central 
point, to the celebrated Sparrow Lake, where maskinonge, black bass, 
speckled-trout, etc., are found in abundance, and the best of duck 
and partridge shooting in season. 
The Midland Railway here connects with the Georgian Bay j and 
excursions may be made to Midland, Penetanguishene, Parry Sound, 
and to the island district of the lake, and to the trout streams of the 
rivers Coldwater and Severn. 
There are a number of summer residences of Canadian citizens 
around the shores, and the visitor from a distance should not fail to 
" layoff " at Orillia, so that he may thus get a full idea of the differ- 
ent chains of lakes, which present marked differences. 
A pleasant place is the COllchichillg I J ark, situated on the point of 
a narrow promontory projecting a mile and a half northward into the 
lake, and surrounded on three sides by water; thus, come from 
whatever quarter it may, every breeze has play, while the lake on the 



86 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


one side or the other, being protected by the point from wind and 
wave, pleasure-boating in safe calm waters can at all times be enjoyed. 
Drives and shady walks bordering the margins of the lake are 
tastefully laid out in a park of 180 acres; and a handsome avenue, 
three-fourths of a mile in length, winding through forest trees, leads 
to the stations of the Northern and Midland Railways. Arbours, 
erected at convenient places on the lake, extend out into the water, 
where, sheltered from the sun, the views can be enjoyed. A lovelier 


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VIE\V A I COUCHICHI
<.i. 
sight could not be wished for. From any portion of the buildings, 
no matter in what direction you look, fine stretches of water, verdure- 
clad banks sloping to the water's edge, and green forest glades, pre- 
sent themselves to the eye. Across the bay, in an attractive Cove, 
backed by hills clad to their summits with fresh foliage, lies the now 
prosperous town of Orillia. To the north, scarcely discernible be- 
tween the miniature islands that bestud the lake's surface, may be 
seen the settlement of Ojibbeway Indians, appropriately called Rama, 
its tin-tipped church spire like a bar of silver under the ]ight of the 
rising sun, or as a streak of gold under the sunset's declining rays. 



THE NOR
PHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


87 


At Rama is the "reservation" of the last remnants of the great 
tribe of the Ojibbeways. Near Longford have been carefully 
preserved some ancient Indian inscriptions, representing one of the 
early strifes between this tribe and the Iroquois. The figures of men 
fighting with spears and bows are roughly scratched upon the litho- 
graphic stone, and some traces of colour still remain. At one time 
all this surrounding land was occupied by their numerous villages, a 
population of at least 25,000 being settled around the shores of 
Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching; and now but a few survivors 
remain, seeming, from their shy and distant manner, almost shrink- 
ingly to excuse themselves for still remaining with us. 
In "Tecumseh "-that new and thrilling poem which should be in 
every Canadian's hand-graphically rises the prophetic lament of 
Iena, the Indian maiden :- 


" Oh, it is pitiful to creep in fear 
O'sr lands where once our fathers stept in pride! 
The Long-Knife strengthens, while our race decays, 
And falls before him as our forests fall. 
His flowers, his very weeds, displace our own- 
Agressive as himself. All, all thrust back! 
Destruction follows us, and swift decay. 


As clouds will sheer small fleeces from their sides, 
Which, melting in our sight as in a dream, 
Will vanish aU like phantoms in the sky. 
So melts our heedless race I 


--MAIR. 


In the Park, or around the shores, bathing-houses, dancing plat- 
forms, bowling-alleys, croquet lawns, and cricket grounds, afford 
every means of amusement. 
It is but a short row by water, or ride by land, from Orillia, so 
that the Couchiching Park is one of the additional advantages for 
SUDlmer stay at this town. 
Splendid brook trout are caught in the streams in the neighbour- 
hood, and the finest black bass fishing in America is in these sur- 
rounding lakes. (See Hallock's Sþortsman's Gazetteer.) 



88 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA n 


The tourist having" stopped over" either at Orillia or Couchiching 
is again given choice of two routes, either by " water" on steamer up 
Lake Couchiching (14 miles), calling at the different little ports, to 
Washago where the train is again taken: or by" all rail" by the 
Northern Railway. After crossing the Narrows swing bridge, the 
line passes through forests, through which distant views are obtained 
of Lake Couchiching to the left and Lake St. John to the right. At 
LOllgford is a large lumbering establishment, and after If/ashago, 
where the water tourists join the train, is the village of Bez/ern Bridge. 
The place takes its name from the noble stream, the Severn, which 
runs westward throughout, draining the whole area of its great tribu- 
tary the The Black River and of Lake Simcoe into the Georgian 
Bay. 


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.... SEVERN RAPIDS-SPARRO\V LAKE. 


SPARROW LAKE. 


First amung the sporting districts of the Northern Lakes, n1et on 
the northward trip, is the Severn River. At Severn Bridge the 
tourist will take boat or steamer, and
after
a short run...down the 
River Severn, reach 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


89 


Sparrow Lake has long been celebrated for the excellence of its 
fishing, but particularly for the deer, duck and ruffled grouse shooting 
obtainable in their proper seasons. Many spots are available for 
pic-nics and camping, especially near the rapids at the lower end. 
Proceeding further down the river, an interesting canoe route is 
available, and easily traced through Beaver, Legs and Pine Lakes, 
with short portages to Gravenhurst, for which Indians and canoes 
can be got at Rama. An easy one day excursion to Sparrow Lake 
and return can be made from Orillia. 
Proceeding down the Severn River, a splendid fishing trip can be 
made following the stream through Six-Mile Bay and Gloucester 
Pool to its outlet in Georgian Bay, opposite \Vaubaushene and Pen- 
etanguishene. There are many portages and difficult rapids. The 
trip should, therefore, not be attempted without guides. Canoe and 
guide will cost about $2.00 per day. These can be obtained at 
Rama or Orillia. The Severn is the line of division between 
the frontier counties and of the Free Grant district of M uskoka, 
which is here entered. Having crossed the river upon a lofty 
bridge, the line passes the height of land separating the Lakes 
of Muskoka from Lake Couchiching. False impressions of the free 
grant district are frequently taken from the appearance of the country 
seen along this part of the trip; but, as on the south side there are 
tracts of fine farming land, so, to the north, this ridge being passed 
over, lies the wide arable country which is being so rapidly peopled 
by thrifty settlers. 
The Kashesheboganlog, a small stream with a very long name, is a 
few miles afterwards crossed. This awful word is usually observed 
to have such a knock-down effect upon strangers that they subside 
into a gentle melancholy for the rest of the trip, apparently lost in 
wonder at the ingenuity which could invent so big a name for so 
small a river. Some folks of extra powers of mind have been known 
to enquire the name of the next creek, but such cases are few and 
far between. 
It may have been noticed that south of Washago, being the coun- 
try adjacent to the Lake Simcoe Chain of Lakes, all the rocks are of 



90 


THE NURTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


limestone formations. After passing the Severn nothing but granite 
meets the eye; massive in form, deep red in colour, and with a mi- 
caseous sheen shining through it.. 
As we wind through the" divide" the granite rocks raise high their 
lofty sides, bluff cliffs overhang the railway as it curves around their 



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bases, in some places the front portion of the Train is lost to sight 
from the rear, but finally the "Granite Notch" is reached, land the 
railway slips through a natural gap, fortunately left for its pass age by 
nature. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 91 


At twenty-seve
 miles from Orillia (I 15 from Toronto) is Graven- 
hurst, a rising village at the foot of the chain of the " Lakes of lIfus- 
koka," and the point of transfer to the steamer for this, the second 
chain of lakes. 


. 


FroB} Niagara Falls via Hallliitoll. 


In addition to the route by the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and 
Toronto, access to these inland lakes is gained via H
milton. The 
Grand Trunk Railway from Suspension Bridge passes through a 
beautiful country, well cultivated, and full of orchards, which line the 
fore-shore at the foot of the high elevation which follows the lake, 
and at the foot of which the railway runs. 
Near Merritton the railway passes under the Welland Canal, by a 
short tunnel, and a passing glimpse is got of the magnificent new 
locks of the New Welland Canal and of the smaller and more pic- 
turesque locks and weir-gates, with miniature water-falls of the Old 
canal. 
St. Catha rines, the Sanatariuln of Western Canada, and whose 
health-restoring waters have a world-wide reputation, is seen to the 
right on the farther side of the valley through which the old Welland 
Canal finds its way to the waters of Lake Ontario, and soon the 
lake itself comes into view. At the foot of its "Mountain" nestles 


THE CITY OF HAMILTON. 


Transfer is here made from the Grand Trunk to the station of the 
Northern and North-Western R. R., the only line whose trains run 
to the Lakes of Muskoka. 
The city is built upon one of the steps or terraces which surround 
the lake, and would appear to have at one tin1e formed the immedi- 
ate shore. Looking down from the elevation of the" Mountain," its 
streets slope away towards the lake and diminish in the distant 
perspective. The form of the harbour, closed in from the open 
water by the Burlington Beach, is clearly limned, and away to the left 



92 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


stretches the pretty valley in the midst of which can be seen the 
spires and chimnies of the little town of Dundas. 
Before Hamilton was Dundas had been. At this latter place, as 
being the head of navigation, which by means of the Burlington 
Canal was extended to its very doors, in early days had been con- 
centrated the busy commerce of all the country west. To this place 
came for shipment to the sea all the golden grain, and back from it 


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HAMILTON FROU THE MOUNTAIN. 


trailed the heavy waggons laden with the merchandise purchased in 
exchange. But times have changed. The construction the of Great 
Western Railway altered the course of business and the young rival, 
Hamilton, has grown into the dimensions of a city of the first-rating, 
while decorous seemly old .:',ge has set its placid mark upon the more 
ancient town. 
Hamilton has been fortunate in its inhabitants,-men of nerve, 
energy and combination. They have, whatever may have been their 
internal competitions, always :pulled together for the weal of their fair 
city, 



PHE NORTHEllN:.LAKES OF CANADA. 93 


Reaching out to bring commerce to their doors, they created the 
construction of the Great Western, and Wellington Grey and Bruce 
to the west; the Northern and N orth- Western R R.' s to their north, 
and the Lake Erie R. R. to the south-and thus their city has become 
the largest rnanufacturing centre in Ontario, and its forward progress 
for ever secured. 1'o.day Hamilton produces one thirty-fourth in 
value of all the manufactures produced throughout the Dominion, 
and consumes one-fourteenth of all the coal used in the Province of 
Ontario. 
At the foot of the mountain will be seen the handsome homes of 
some of its merchant princes. 1'he large building with wide extended 
wings on the crest of the hill, is the Government Lunatic Asylum. 
In the centre of the city are the prettily kept gardens of the "Gore 
of Hamilton," and around it some business edifices which would 
do credit to any capital. Few better are to be found anywhere than 
the" Canada Life " and the" Post Office" Buildings. 
Dundurn Park, on the heights towards the edge of the bay, .is a 
favourite resort. The Royal Hotel, central1y situated on the main 
street, is fully recommended. 
From Hamilton the connection to the Northern Lakes of Canada 
is by the N orth Western R.R. 
After running for some distance through the town the railway reaches 


BURLINGTON BEACH. 


Across the upper end of Lake Ontario, where the shores of the 
Lake have approached within five miles of one another, the sweeping 
action of the easterly storms has in long centuries formed a narrow 
continuous bank or bar of sand, stretching froll1 shore to shore and 
varying from 600 to 1,000 feet in width. On the east the rollers of 
Lake Ontario toss their surge; to the west, protected by it, lie the 
placid waters of Burlington Bay, the harbour of Hamilton. Com- 
posed 0; .:
ear shingly pebbles and pure sharp sand, its five miles 
length of level continuous beach resembles the sea.shore in its ex- 
tent, and the distant blue horizon of the great Lake, where the sails 



94 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


of passing vessels fade away and disappear beneath its edge, adds to 
the illusion. The railway runs along the crown of the bank between 
the separated waters; a large number of pretty private residences 
have been erected by the citizens of Hamilton, and near the swing 
bridge over the canal which has been cut through the bank to join 
the lake and the harbour, is the pretty Burlington Beach Station. 
The Burling/oil Beach Hotel is just opposite the station. Its un- 
ri \?alled situation and fresh and airy surroundings make it a very 
favourite resort, and visitors from a distance enjoy the fresh breezes 
together with many of the members of families of Hamilton, whose 
business does not permit theln to go farther away from home. 
Bowling alleys and billiard rooms in separate buildings, and a fleet 
of row boats on the bay side, give plenty of scope for amusement, 
while for anyone who is fond of yachting, there is scarcely a more 
favourable position on the inland lakes. The yachts of the Hamil- 
ton Yacht Club are moored just behind the hotel and excellent sail- 
ing craft can be hired for sails down the lake. 
The fast iron steamer" Southern Belle" keeps up daily communi- 
cation between Toronto and Han1Ílton, calling at Oakville, with its 
acres of strawberries, and at Burlington Beach each way, giving a 
pretty coasting trip of thirty-three miles along the shores between the 
two cities. 


THE NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY. 


Having crossed over the Swing Bridge, the railway commences to 
make its ascent to the upper levels of the interior. High bridges 
spanning deep gullies are from time to tin1e met with. At George- 
town (36 miles) is met the Grand Trunk R. R., by which tourists from 
Western Canada come, and at Cardwell Junction, at the foot of the 
Caledon Hills, connection is made with the Owen Sound Branch of 
the Canadiãn Pacific Railway. 
The country passed through exhibits all that could be desired from 
a fanning point of view, particularly near Bee/on, where the hill sides 
rolling up in closer profusion, show breadths of grain and pasture 
that tell of solid agricultural knowledge of high degree, and of the 
wealth which does not fail to follow it 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 95 


At Beeton is the centre of the honey interest of Ontario-What 
was once a pastime has by hard-headed intelligence been brought 
to be a talented business craft, and the tons of honey m3.rketed at this 
"Bee town" affect the markets of the whole world. There are 
regular bee-farms and bee-nurseries. The pedigrees of the hives 
are as closely watched and cared for as those of herds of cattle, 
and isolated islands on the Georgian Bay are brought into requisition 
for the purity and nurture of the parent swarms. All this has 
brought the honey product from being only a few years ago a rarity, 
mainly in the hands of chemists, to be a common article in daily use. 
At this point the railway divides into two branches; ,the one going 
off by the Blue J\10untains and the valley of the Mad River to join 
the Georgian Bay at Collingwood 
The other by a short run through a pretty country bnngs the train 
to the junction station at Allandale. 


.. ....... .. 


Jly Little Girrs First Fi
lt. 


My thoughts often travel back to my early fishing days. I cannot 
remember my first trout or my first bass, or even my own first fish. 
I imagine this epoch occurred when I wore petticoats and short 
breeches but I can, and always will remember the first fish of the 
little girl that calls me papa. 
About the time she could talk she began to take an interest in my 
fishing-tackle, and whenever I brought out the box containing it she 
was my interested audience. She asked over and over again the 
name of each particular articJe the box contained, and was soon able 
to inform her mother, whom she thought not so well posted, what 
each article was for. 
Early in her little life she administered a rebuke on this subject to 
her cousin, a little boy, several years her senior. He said: 
" Uncle, how many fish-poles have you got? " 
Her prompt comment was: "Those are not fish-poles, they are 
fish-rods; you cu t poles in the woods." 



95 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Many a confidential talk have we had upon the subject of fishing, 
and more than one pron1ise did she extract from me that when she 
was a "little bigger girl" I would take her fishing. 
One day, taking the baby and nurse out for a drive, I put a hook 
and line in my pocket. A few miles out we came to a trout stream, 
and while the carriage stood on the bridge that crossed it, I caught 
a trout from beneath it. I wish some stern parent, who looks with 
disfavour upon hooks and lines in the hands of his children, could 
have seen the eager look in the great blue eyes of that baby while 
I was waiting for a bite, and the smile that lighted up her little face 
when I put the trout, alive and struggling, into her fat little hands. 
Was she afraid of it? Not a bit. Did she let it go? No. She 
held it tightly with one hand, and with a little finger of the other she 
pointed out the bright spots, opened its mouth to look down its 
throat, and examined its eyes and fins. She would not let go of her 
prize; so I took her home to her mother, smelling strongly of fish, 
and as well covered with trout slime as one small trout was capable 
of covering her. 
vVhen my little girl was three years old-and that was ?nly a few 
years ago-she went out for a pleasant day with her mother and 
father and grand-mother and aunties. 
While on the steamer, she reminded me of my many promises, 
that she should that day fish for the first time. We were no sooner 
landed than I procured tackle suitable for the hands of such a little 
" tot," and from the hotel dock she made her maiden effort in the 
gentie art. Her eagerness and excitement was for some time a bar 
to her success, and the sun-fish and rock-bass removed the bait from 
her hook nearly as fast as I could put it on. She wished to bait her 
own hook, and would take the worms from the can for this purpose, 
but I persuaded her that I could do it better. 
She did not like the idea of fishing with a pole; she wanted a rod, 
and thought I was very forgetfuì not to have brought one. At last, 
with a scream of delight, she landed a rock-bass, about four inches 
long. She dropped the pole instantly and grasped the struggling 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA 


97 


fish-her eyes fairly dancing with delight as she informed me, at the 
top of her voice, " I've got one! I '1Je got one!" In an instant she 
was gone-like a flash-toward the hotel, to show her capture to her 
mother. She would not let it out of her hands, but held it up to be 
admired, assuring the people that "I caught it, all alont ! " with a 
strong accent on the I. 
Soon she came back, and when I had told her it was a rock
bass, 
and why it was called a rock-bass, and answered several other 
" why's," and she had stuck her finger down the throat of the fish 
and into its eyes, and turned it over and over, examining it thor- 
oughly, she resumed fishing, with the dead fish on the dock behipd 
her. 
No more fish for her t.hat day; it took far too much of her time to 
turn around and see if the one already caught was safe. 'Vïth all 
her watchfulness the little bass came to grief, for another little girl, 
walking along the dock, kicked it into the water. As it fell with a 
splash in front of her, she gave one glance over her shoulder to see 
who could have done this unkind thing, and then down she went, 
prone on her face, with a suddenness that made my heart leap into 
my throat, and reached out with her little arm to get her much-prized 
fish. I was at her side in an instant; and the tears welled into her 
eyes as she told me of the misfortooe that had come to her. I res- 
cued the fish, and all that day she did not trust it again out of her 
hands. 
That night, as we were nearing home, and the little tired body was 
leaning back on the seat, with her eyes half-closed, but the little 
hands still tightly grasping the fish, her grandmother said to her: 
"Beatrice, of all the things that you have seen or done to-day, 
what did you most enjoy?" 
" Fishillg," was the sententious but emphatic reply. 
She had the fish for her breakfast the next morning; and a prouder 
or more happy little girl it would have been hard to find. When 
informed by one of her aunties that it was a "sore-eyed -bass," she 
was positive it did not have sore eyes, for she had examined them. 
G 


, 



98 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


II was a rock-bass, "because papa said so I" and her faith in the 
authority she quoted remains unshaken. 
The story of a little girl's first fish may find a tender spot in some 
parental heart; but, at all events, lots of other little boys and girls 
will find abundant opportunities in the happy waters of the lakes of 
Muskoka to angle for and catch their own" first fish." 


The Lakes of ltluskoka. 


The district known as the Muskoka District occupies the "High.. 
lands of Ontario," 111any of its lakes being over four hundred feet 
above the level of Lake S
perior-the highest lake of the great St. 
Lawrence system. From it radiate the various lake and river systems 
of the Province: The French, Maganetewan, Muskoka, and lVlus- 
kosh Rivers to the west j the Petewawa and Ottawa to the east, 
and the Trent system to the south. 
In area it comprises a territory equal in size to that of the kingdom 
of Belgium, or to come nearer home, five times the size of our own 
Province of Prince Ed ward Island. Of this area some eight hun- 
dred lakes of all sizes, from thirty miles in length to mere ponds, 
and their river connections occupy no less than one,tenth of its sur- 
face. The presence of so nluch water, not in the shape of sodden 
swamps, but in quick flowing streams and bright deep lakes contriv 
butes, no doub
, to the equable temperature, and combines, with the 
extreme altitude to that brisk exhiliarating effect which the dear at.. 
n10sphere undoubtedly has upon the visitor. Hay fever does not 
exist among the inhabitants and is greatly mitigated, and after a suffi- 
cient stay, entirely cured to strangers. 
The waters are of a peculiar deep brown, except in some of the 
lakes, and when bathing their buoyancy is peculiarly noticeable and 
better still they do not leave that certain relaxing eff
ct noticed in 
more southern fresh waters. It is said that as a beverage they are 
favourable to any ailments of the kidneys. 



99 


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TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


99 


Rocks abound throughout; indeed four-tenths of the country is 
occupied by rocks and lakes; but both in the water and on the land 
the rocks jut directly up, so that alongside the base is immediately 
a good depth of water or of soil. Thus the whole of the remaining 
sixty per cent. is available for use, and having these adjacent store- 
houses of moisture or of heat, its powers are largely improved. Graz- 
ing is peculiarly successful, and in this branch lies the future of Mus- 
koka. It will become the dairy and the sheep grazing district of the 
Province, for the rocks of Muskoka seem to have the faculty of nur- 


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LAKE MUSKOKA. 


turing trees, shrubs, and verdure which cling to and cover their sides 
in a most incomprehensible manner. 
The flora of the district is, as might be expected from its situation, 
peculiar to itself, and walks through the woods will bring to the un- 
taught eye many unaccustomed varieties and to the educated bota- 
nist, a rare storehouse of pleasure. One of them says: "The vege- 
tation is almost tropical in its undisturbed luxuriance. The beautiful 
white fringed Orchis-the loveliest of all the Habenarias-and the 



100 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


splendid Cinnamon and Royal Osmund ferns grow to perfection in 
low and moist situations, while the Polypody and the Shield-fern 
flourish in the higher grounds. In the district are also found, in 
exceptional abundance, Club-mosses of various species, and the 
curious Pitcher plant nestles in its moss-setting along the margins 
of the sequestered pools." 
The district was long occupied by the various sub-tribes of the 
Hurons, as being a safe asylum from the fury of the warring nations 
who occupied the shores of Lake Ontario, while its woods and 
waters afforded them ample sustenance of fish and game. 
The tract is shown upon the Carte de fa N01Jvtlle France (Map of 
New France), published by the early voyageurs and Jesuit Fathers, as 
lying between the country of the " Ancien Pays des Hurons" (Ancient 
Land of the Hurons) who were destroyed and scattered by the Iroquois 
ill I649), and the country of the "Pays Oulaouais" (Ottawa tribes). 
Lake 11uskoka was then called by the French .'Pdit Lac des Hu
 
rons," and Lake Simcoe "Lac Toronto." 
The origin of the name is, as is the case with all names originating 
from Indian sources, couched in mystery and subject of different 
opinions. Some assert it is derived from the Indian word "Mus. 
quo-tah," signifying " red ground," probably owing to its rusty iron 
and ochre-coloured sediments which may be seen in the soils of 
many of the fields, and around the banks of some of the streamlets. 
Others that its meaning is that of the "Clear-sky-Iand," a signifi
 
cation which would appear to have some reasonable accuracy, but 
whatever its meaning 111ay be, we may fairly accept the earliest testi- 
timony, and join with :Mr. Alex. Sheriff, who in his topographical 
notices, published by the Ql1ebec Historical Society, in 183 I, says: 
"This river is called the Muskoka, after the Missasaga chief, who 
used to hunt in some part of its neighbourhood." 
This chief's name is elsewhere spelt "Mesqua-Okee." All Indian 
names have some attendant meaning; be this whatever it may, it was 
borne by a gallant warrior and a bold hunter, whose renown spread 
through the surrounding country. The home of his tribe was hard 
by the shores of Lake Ontario, and little was it supposed, when he 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 101 


sought sport and recreation in this inland paradise of game, that he 
was leading the way for so many others to follow exactly in his foot- 
steps, in our later and modern days. Thus we connect the present 
beautiful and improving district with the romantic and receding past. 
Perhaps some of the writers, to whom Canada is now giving birth, 
will do for this territory what Fenimore Cooper did for those farther 
south, or Bulwer Lytton has done for Pompeii, and will re-people 
these ancient homes with the romance and story of their earlier In- 
dian and French occupation. Once more then shall the birch bark 
canoe, with its dusky occupants, steal through the waters between the 
silent islands, either in peaceful summer-bright journey, or on expedi- 
tion of deadly internecine hate. 
Gravenhurst. This town, now grown to considerable estate, has 
been always the Gateway to the Muskoka district. Here used to 
arrive the wearied stages after their fourteen miles jolting over 
the rocks and through the gullies which line the whole way over 
the portage from Washago, where the last transfer was made from 
the steamers. How many a heart has sank in despair as the 
forbidding rocks seemed almost to crowd out the soil. Nothing 
but the firm determination to win "independence" has spurred 
the wayfarer to press still further into "the bush," instead of retiring 
precipitately after this first acquaintance, whose fallacy is soon 
shown once the rocky barrier has been surmounted. N ext, in 
1879, came the extension of the railway to this point, and from 
Gravenhurst the busy lumberman or the busier tourist took stealner 
to gain the northern parts of the country, and then in 1886 comes 
the crowning advance of all, the opening of the Pacific Junction 
Branch right through the heart of the district to the great Lake Nip- 
pissing, to Callander, and the connection with the Canadian Pacific. 
Later on we will trace the steps of the traveller along this line of 
railway, but still taking Gravenhurst as the c, Gateway City," we will 
follow first along the water route. 
The town occupies a most eligible site, crowning elevated but not 
too hilly ground, and encircling deep bays with shores sloping down 
to the water's edge. On the eastern side of the town is Gull Lake, 



102 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OAN.ADA. 


a charming little sheet which discharges its waters through the HOlk 
Rock trout stream. The place has considerable trade in the lllanu- 
facture and shipment of lumber and timber. There are three 
churches; the stores, hotels and other establishments are creditable 
in appearance, and supplies of all kinds can be had at extremely 
moderate prices. The hotels are commodious, well kept and inex- 
pensive. The town is in thriving condition, making fine progress 
and extending rapidly. The immediate neighbourhood 
ffords con- 
siderable attraction to the tourist and sportsman. Brook trout (in 
limited quantities), salmon trout, bass and pickerel in abundance; 
deer, partridge, hare and a limited amount of duck shooting-all can 
be conveniently reached from Gravenhurst as a centre. Pigeo1l Lake, 
Deer Lake, and Pine Lake are reached by the Muskoka road to the 
north-west. 
Loon Lakt, Leg Lake, and Rice Lake are nearer, and more to the 
WEst of the town. Doe Lake is about two miles to the east. 
The railway station for the town and where the junction for the 
Callender extension is made, is on the upper level. The lake station, 
called Muskoka rVharf, where connection is made with the Mus: 
koka N avigat
on Coy's steamers, is reached by a very steep grade 
winding down a natural gully to the water side. The details of the 
routes of the steamers is given elsewhere, to which reference should 
be made. 


rfl1e Jlusko
1t River (j)laill. 


LAKE l\1USKOKA. 


This is one of the largest of the lakes cOInprised under the generic 
term of "The Lakes of rvluskoka," being 22 miles long and 9 miles 
wide in its extremest points. It is the peculiarity of these lakes that 
they are so studded with islands that wide open reaches of rough 
water are scarcely to be n1et with. This appears to be less the case 
with Lake :Muskoka than with any others; but its greater size is the 



!fEE l/ORTHERN LAKES OF OAN.ADA. 103 


only reason, for it teems with islets (as do all its cOlnpanion lakes), 
having, in round figures, an islanrl for every day in the year. Its 
beauties, in detail, are equal to any other lake, but its larger expanse, 
and the fact that many of its islands are of large size, and have been 
allowed, in earlier times, to be burned over, take from its pictur- 
esqueness. Yet the inhabitants of its islands and shores are enthusi- 
astic in its praises, and vaunt its features as being above all the 
others. In common with all the lakes of the district, it affords most 
splendid fishing. The shores are fringed with islands, and salmon- 
trout are successfully caught by trolling between them; black bass 
and pickerel abound. One certain advantage it has in accessibility, 
being the most southerly of all the lakes, so that the visitor coming 
north arrives earlier and going .south leaves later than from any other. 
But visitors to the Lakes of Muskoka must see, not one, but all the 
lakes; and so we will start from the dock. 
To the left is the new village of U'es! Gra1.1elZhurs!, with busy 
sawmills, and all around the high bluff, granite rocks dipping steeply 
into the water, so that ample depth exists right alongside their face. 
Winding between Percy, Henry, Mary, and Daisy islands, we enter 
another pool, and, after a little, slip through The Narrows, where 
there is bare room for the steamer to pass between the rocks, we 
enter the broadest part of the lake. On the west point is the light- 
house. 
Passing up the centre of the lake, on the east, are Kata
o, Aul/- 
bowne, and Whitt Islands
. while far off to the west are the island 
settlements of the Denison, Patton, and Moberly families. The 
largest island is Browning's Is/and. Next, Eilian-Gowall, the sum- 
mer house of :rvfr. Justice Gowan, comes in view, where art and love 
of landscape have been called in to assist the attractiveness of 
Nature, and walks and drives, glades and grottoes, have been formed 
to make pleasant this holiday country home. 
Just opposite this, and winding through the reedy banks which line 
the shores and forming a sort of delta, are the two mouths of 



]04 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


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THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 105 


THE MUSKOKA RIVER. 


Entering by an abrupt turn the steamer winds its way up the tortuous 
channel. Unlike the banks of all other rivers in 'Muskoka and all other 
parts, even øf Itself, the banks of the Muskoka River, between the 
entrance to the lake and Bracebridge, are soft alluvial deposits of 
much richness and great depth. The shores are lined to the water's 
edge with a profusion of rank vegetation and tangled roots of trees 
or toppled trunks, whose downward branches sweep the surface of 
the stream. The water is of a dark brown hue and, completely 
sheltered from the wind, its surface has an oily glassiness, wherein is 
clearly reflected every bough and li:tle twig, or the white masses of 
summer clouds that float across the sky above. The river is full of 
sudden turns; at times the prow appears to be headed direct for 
the opposing land, when with a sudden sweep the boat is turned al- 
most at right angles, and new vistas with their promontories bathed 
in sunlight and their cool recesses sunk deep into deeper shadow, 
come into view. 
For six miles turn succeeds to turn; so narrow is the river that we 
see the surge from the steamer's wheels lay bare the shore, and boats 
n1ust either be securely fastened to their stakes or else their anxious 
owners hurry down to keep them from being swept away by the re- 
current flood. 
.Ät Alport, hard by the celebrated "Muntz Farm," where is the 
prize-taking herd of Muskoka cattle, we may deliver Her Majesty's 
mail, and by-and-bye the hills, which we have seen peeping through 
the vacancies in the forest that fringes the banks, close in, and at the 
very foot of the "North Falls" is the dock which forms the head of 
steamboat navigation. 
Bracebridge- The chief town of the Muskoka District, and, if not 
its geographical, yet most certainly its business and county centre. 
Starting in 1861 with two log huts and their attendant potato patches, 
and only a fallen pine tree for a bridge over the River, it advanced in 
1866 to the proud pre-eminence of three bush stores and a tavern, 



106 


THE J:.IORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


and now may be congratulated upon being a thriving town, with a. 
stirring and fast increasing population, and possessing accommoda. 
tion for tourists and travellers' which retain it in its position of being 
the best starting point from which to explore the river district and to 


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HIGH FALLS. 


obtain supplies necessary for the trip. It is true the railway now 
passes through Bracebridge and runs direct to points beyond, but 
nevertheless the town has obtained such a lead in its hotel and busi- 
ness advantages, that it will be advisable to continue to avail of tbem. 



PHE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANA1JA. 107 


There are five excellent hotels (see advt.), Anglican, Methodist, 
Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic churches. A Mechanics' Insti.. 
tute and Library, a nd Mason ic, and Oddfellows Lodges. 
The town is agreeably situ. 
- - ated on the cliffs surrounding 
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OUTH .FALLS-MUSKOKA RIVER work with steep walls of deep- 
est foliage hemming in its sides. But the chief attraction are the 


i
 


GREAT SOUTH FALLS. 


Above Bracebridge the river is divided into two great branches, 
each draining a large area of the country. These two unite in the 



108 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


neighbourhood of the town. The Falls of the North Branch are 
those which are seen from the steamboat landing, but their natural 
beauty has been sadly interfered with by the necessity of man for 
bread wherewith to feed, and home wherein to shelter himself and 
household; thus grist and sawmills abstract the water, and lay bare 
part of the bed of the stream. 


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THE UPPER LEAP-SOUTH FALLS. 


Having crossed through the town above the North Falls, a walk 
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spans the upper "chute" of the Great SouthFalls. In the level 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 109 


country, when nearing the river, there is nothing to give evidence of 
the approaching gorge j and from the bridge, as from a perch high 
up above, we look downward over the mass of tossing, seething foam. 
It will be noticed that the river, in its descent of a hundred and 
thirty feet, makes two perpendicular leaps, joined together by upper 
and by lower pools, in which the waters boil and swirl between their 
successive rapid descents. To see the Falls to better effect it is well 
to clamber down over the rough and slippery crags to the foot of the 
torrent, about 1,000 feet down from the bridge. 
The best way, however, to approach this-the most commanding 
natural feature of Muskoka, and which if it existed in some Euro- 
pean country would be considered worth a pilgrimage to visit-is to 
take canoe down the river from Bracebridge. Shortly after passing 
Beardmore's Tanneries, the South Branch of the river is entered at 
a point where a small bridge crosses the entrance. It is a nice row 
or paddle of three miles to the foot of the Falls. There is one 
short reach of rapid water, which can be either poled up, or one 
hundred yards þortage made. The flecks of foam floating by on the 
surface of the stream tell of the approaching change of level; soon 
the voice of the mighty waters itself is heard; and in a little while 
the whole cataract comes full into view. Then, passing through the 
circling white bells of the eddy foot, we step on shore. 
Looking up along the tumultuous snowing mass, the belts of spray 
at each successive fall hang over the several steps, and sometimes 
little rainbows enhance the scene. The water is torn into a whitened 
foam, here and there marked by deep brown streaks where, in deeper 
spots, it sweeps over some smoother stone. On either side rise the 
walls of spray-danlped solid rock, fringed with young maples and 
feathered birch, while high above the dark green pines and age- 
browned bridge stand clear-cut out against the sky. 
To facilitate the bringing of the sawlogs down the stream, and 
prevent their being damaged as they used to be when making the 
passage of the Falls, the Government has constructed on Dne bank a 



110 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


"timber-slide," and down this the logs may be seen to run, and 
tumbling in quick succe
sion, like so many porpoises, into the still 
waters of the river reach below. 
As to the geological action which has formed this cleft, it must, 
most probably, be classed with thos e c aused by a " fault" or " fissure." 
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THE GREAT SOUTH FALLS. 


The abrading action of either frost or water has been very slight, 
there being nothing here as in the Gorge of Niagara, capable of be- 
ing loosened or undermined and the adamantine_rocks on tither 
hand repel any great abrasion. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 111 


The chasm is like a cleft, wide at the top and contracting towards 
the water's edge, at one place to about fifteen feet. On the right 
bank (the left hand side looking up) a vast, almost perpendicular 
smooth dark, iron.coloured rock is intersected by lighter coloured 
sean1S, apparently mixtures of quartz and rosy feldspathic crystals. 
The other bank is different, for here crags of what resembles grey 
sandstone appear in company with others, dazzling the eye by their 
micaceous glitter. 
At the foot of the fall may be noted the bank of pebbles consist. 
ing of water-worn stones, from the size of an egg to that of a man's 
head, of varied colours and all worn smoth-some being actually 
polished. 
Soine very remarkable round pockets or cups may also be noticed 
in the rocks caused by the perpetual rubbing of the imprisoned 
stones. 
The basins of the torrent show plain signs of the laborious friction 
of the water and the attendant drift, but beyond these and the 
little bowls before noticed, the centuries have left but little mark 
upon the barriers of the falls. 
From Bracebridge expeditions may be made with facility to Bays. 
ville and the Lake of Bays, returning by canoe down the south 
branch of the Muskoka River, or to the pretty chain of Lakes Vernon, 
Fairy, and Mary returning fron1 Port Sydney down the North branch, 
but these will be dealt with further on. 


LAKE MUSKOKA AGAIN. 


From the mouth of the river, still keeping northward up the lake 
we pass close to the Birch and Wilsoll Islands. Along the 
high bluff banks may be seen the large encan1pments of summer 
visitors, some from other parts of Canada, over which will fly the 
deep red Union Jack, and others from our neighbours of the United 
States spreading to the air the more variegated Stars and Stri:res. 



112 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Some of these will have groups of eight and ten large tents and 
reverberating reports from guns will salute the steamer as it passes by 


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BEAUMARIS. 
This, the southermost of the summer resorts of Muskoka, is situ- 
ated on Tondern Island, which, like its progenitor, Anglesea, is 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 113 


separated from the mainland by a narrow channel, the Menai strait. 
The high square tower of the hotel forms an imposing landmark from 
all sides. Elevated well above the lake, and with broad continuous 
verandahs, the hotel is one of the most modern in this district. From 
the steamer it cannot be seen that in front of the west Bide is a well 
cared for tennis ground, or that the very freedom from, surrounding 
obstruction affords unexampled island views extending all over the 
lake and giving a pleasant outlook from every window, while the 
shady verandah and free access of the breeze give the coolness so 
much sought for. 
The fishing in the neighbourhood is remarkable, and many long 
strings of bass gr3.ce the hotel kitchen. 
Tondern Island has many pretty nooks and bays. The bathing 
houses are on a nice sand beach near the hotel, and affording per- 
fectly safe bathing for ladies and children. The circuit of the island 
can be made in a pleasant row of about three miles, passing through 
the Menai Sl1aits and around home again. Home, Fairholm, and 
TIle Brothers Islands are close at hand. For rainy days, and these 
will sometimes come even in Muskoka, the bowling alleys and bil- 
liard rooms in a separate house, close by the hotel, will afford plea- 
sant recreation. Like all other Muskoka resorts, fresh air, fine fishing, 
bathing and boating, are the staple ingredients of the summer holi- 
day, and in opportunity for all these Beaumaris fully abounds. Mr. 
Prowse, the proprietor of the hotel, has a very large stock of excel- 
lent boats both for rowing and sailing (see advt.) 
Point Kaye is the last point on the east shore 
 of Lake Muskoka 
before entering the Indian River, which forms the connection with 
Lake Kosseau. The village consists of only a few houses and a post- 
office. 
Immediately opposite Beaumaris, in sight from the hotel, and on 
the route which the steamer takes when crossing to the western side 
H 



114 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


of the lake, is a cluster of islands known as The Kettles, with son1e. 
what of a maze or lab- 
yrinth in their many 
interwe3.ving channels. 
Among these islands is 
found the very best 
bass fishing on the 
lakes, and splendid 
_0 trolling for salmon 

 
 -! 
 ==== trout. Good guides 
'- - 1 --= . 
 are advised, as the dis- 
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THE KETTLE
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A S))CCilUell Musl{oka Letter. 


BEAU MARIS, August 10th, 1885. 
DEAR TOM,-I wrote you last on my arrival at Toronto, and not caring to 
spend the balance of my holidays in a city, made up my mind to put in the last 
week in the far-famed 1\1 uskoka Lakes; so went down to Mr. Barlow Cumber- 
land's office on Y onge street, and purchased a ticket for Beaumaris. Off next 
morning at 8 a.m. per Northern Ry. for Gravenhurst, where I arrived about 1.3 0 . 
I found a very comfortable steamer waiting to take us up the lakes; had dinner 
which was served on the boat in first-rate style, and, after a
out an hour and a 
half sail up the lake, found myself at Beaumaris. Here I found a first-rate hotel, 
with capital accommodation. Having secured my room I took a walk round the 
place to inspect my new quarters. There is a most beautiful view from the front 
of the house, and a balmy breeze from across the lake was most enjoyable. Some 
guests were playing tennis on the fine lawn in front, and I purpose putting in part 
of mv time the same way. I then looked up my fishing tackle and got things in 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


115 


order for the next day. Had supper about half past six, then got a boat and took 
an hour's row to get myself in training. After, returned to the hotel, where I 
found the folks dancing. There is a large room here which is always ready for 
that or any like purpose. Next morning, having had lunch put up for me, I 
started off with a guide for a day's fishing, and commencing just below the hotel, 
fished along the shores of the island, casting in at all likely spots, and so went on 
till noon with a re5ult of ten nice bass and three pickerel. We landed at a pretty 
point, made a fire, got some coffee, cooked sufficient fish for dinner, and I can 
tell you that is the way to enjoy them, right fresh out of the water into the frying. 
pan; I never tasted anything like it before. About half-past three we started 
again, returning tú the hotel for supper with a grand result of thirty-two bass and 
seven pickerel-not so bad for one day. In the evening played billil!l.rds. Next 
morning, about 9 a. m., the steamer called here on her way to Bala, the outlet of 
these waters, so I took a trip in her. We first went up to Point Keye P.O., and 
left the mails, then across to Bala, where we arrived about 10.30. It is a most 
beautiful spot. There is a fine waterfall, also a large dam where all the logs go 
over into the river below. Arrived back at the hotel in time for dinner. This is 
a splendid trip; the scenery all along the route is simF ly magnificent. I put in the 
afternoon playing lawn tennis and bathing; in the evening there was lots of good 
music and singing. Next day, after my morning bath, I rowed over to Huckle- 
berry Rock, a place about two miles distant, although only about a mile as the 
crow flies. It gets its name from the quantity of berries growing upon it, and cer- 
tainly there is any quantity of them. I climbed to the top of the rock and walked 
several hundred yards to a place called the Look-out, and here I got one of the 
finest views I think I ever saw. Nearly the whole of Muskoka Lake and part of 
Lake Rosseau lay before me, with the islands dotted here and there; it was a 
perfect panorama. I returned to the hotel for dinner. In the afternoon I played 
awn tennis for a while and then went down to the bowling-alley for an hour; 
in the evening had a good dance. N ext day I and some others took a ramble 
through the woods as far as Leonard Lake, a very pretty lake about two miles 
from here. On the way gathered any amount of wild raspberries, also got a lot 
of pitcher plants. . I had never seen any before; they are very pretty and peculiar. 
Put in the rest of the day playing billiards and bathing. N ext day I spent fish- 
ing with pretty much the same result as before. In the evening there was a con- 
cert in the dancing room, which went off very well. Sunday, there was service 
in the morning and afternoon; in the evening most of the guests assembled in the 
music room and had selections of sacred music, sang hymns, etc. On :VIonday, 
the proprietor having engaged a steamboat for the day, about fifty guests took a 
trip up to the head of Lakes Rosseau and Joseph, stopping about an hour at each 
place. This was truly a delightful sail; we saw everything at the best advantage, 
and enjoyed the day thoroughly, getting back to the hotel about 7 p. m., when we 



116 


THE NORTHERN LAKE
 OF CANADA. 


found our supper ready for us. 1 am spending this evening writing you, 
 I 
think it is the best opportunity I shall have, as I must get away to-morrOW morn- 
ing. I only wish I could stay here for a month, as I feel 20 per cent. better since 
I came, and bave gained about five pounds in weight. The air is so good and 
cool I always sleep well at nights, and as for appetite I am afraid to think of it ; 
I am sure the landlord made very little out of me. I hear several people, who 
have suffered for years from hay fever, say they have never been so well anywhere 
as here. In fact they have been quite free from it. Now I must close as I am 
sure you will he getting tired, and all I can say is that if you want to enjoy your- 
self and have a real good time, go to Mllskoka and spend a week or two. 
Yours, 


BOB. 


BALA. 


The east shore of Lake lVIuskoka is well supplied with islands, 
but the west shore is very much more so. At present not very ex- 
tensive hotel advantages exist, but 1Ir. Thomas Currie has opened a 
private boarding house for canoeists and campists ; there is no better 
region than on this west coast of the lake. Most of the islands have 
been taken up by Torontonians and on many of then1 houses qave 
been erected. No doubt, when steamboat facilities increase, this 
region will become as well known as those lying on the more direct 
routes. Bola is a regular fishing centre; close by are Inany little 
lakes among which may be named Bull, Echo, Clear, Long, Black 
and Hardy's, but the crowning feature is the Muskoslt Rh'vr, which, 
beginning at this point, carries away the waters of the whole of the 
vast inland chain of lakes. 


l\1USKOSH AND MOON RIVERS. 


After the stop-log dan1S erected by the Government for the control 
of the water of the lake, the stream narrows to a width of about 4 0 
yards, then passing swiftly along for a short distance, gathering, as it 
were, its energies for the grand leap it now takes over a rocky ledge 
about twenty-three feet in height. Immediately below the Falls the 
river widens again, forming powerful eddies, particularly at high 
water. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 117 


Strangers require to exercise extra precaution in the management 
of their boats or canoes below the portage until the disturbed waters 
are safely passed, which is only the work of a few minutes. 
Descending the river, amid beautiful scenery, are fine bass and 
pickerel fishing for a distance of about four miles. The channel here 
divides itself into two streal11s, the one called the Muskosh, the other 
the Moon Rivtr', and both discharging their waters into the Georgian 
Bay through mouths many miles distant from each other. 
Numerous falls and rapids interrupt navigation on both streams and 
no strangers should venture without experienced guides. At the 
above mentioned dividing point there is really splendid maskinonge 
fishing; the fish are large and of the finest quality. 
Canoes can be taken down the Moon River to Georgian Bay and 
return made from there by the Crane and Blackstone Lake chains to 
Lake Joseph or Port Cockburn. (See the route map.) 
Walker's Point and TOlrance are hamlets and post offices ún the 
west shore of Lake Muskoka, and in the neighbourhood of the Mus- 
kosh River. 


THE INDIAN RIVER. 


Having sailed up Lake Muskoka, we approach the Northern and 
upper end of the lake, and, threading our way through the Seven 
Sisters Islands-a cluster not far from Beaumaris-we then pass 
Idlewiid, Olle Tree, and Horseshoe Islands. On the right hand is 
seen Fairmount. Fairmount is situated one and a quarter miles from 
Point Kaye
 on a pretty bay with a southern aspect, just at the entry 
of the Indian River. A few families can be accommodated by Mr. 
Butter, and three cottages can be rented furnished. The little Angli 
can Church of the Holy Cross nestles against the woods in the east 
corner of the bay; service every Sunday. A sandy beach, sloping 
gradually down, furnishes perfectly safe bathing for children. 
We now enter the converging channel of the Indian Ri'ùer. The 
banks rise high on either side, and the thickly wooded slope
 throw 



118 THE NORTBERN L.AKES OF OANADA. 


dark shadows at the rapid turns, widening out almost into a little 
lake-some good farms are to be seen upon the shore-and then 
narrowing up again after a sudden turn, we pass through a channel 
marked out with fir trees for buoys, and reach the prettiest part of 
the river. At four miles from Lake Muskoka is 


PORT CARLING. 


This, of all the villages on the lakes, is the most important-being 
the most central. Being the converging point for all the steamers 
running to and fro on the three lakes, access to all parts can most 
conveniently be obtained from this centre, and frequent communi- 
cations be kept up with all. The Stratton House, most excellently 
kept by Mr. John Fraser, is very commodious, and has an established 
reputation. !vIr. Vanderbergh's comfortable hostelrie is favourably 
situated on the garden bank, and has a dock all to itself-(see adve1'- 
tiselllent). Boats and guides to all the fishing and sporting points 
obtained. There are also very good supply stores, kept by Mr. 
'Vallis and Mr. Hanna-(see advertiselllellt)-and three churches. 
On Sundays, row-boats will be noticed coming from all points, bear- 
ing the congregations to divine service Steam launches for visiting 
the lakes can be hired from Mr. Vanderbergh. 
At Port Carling the steamers pass through the locks which connect 
Lake Muskoka and Lake Rosseau, the latter being four feet the 
higher level. Transfer is made at the locks from the Lake Muskoka 
steamer to the side-service steamers running up the different lakes; 
and tourists are recommended to look closely after their baggage 
themselves, for, however good any system of checking may be, errors 
will sometimes occur; and it is little satisfaction either to see your 
trunk going away on the deck of another steamer, or yourself arriving 
at your destination to find that your baggage and all your comforts 
have been left behind. At this transfer point
 therefore, have an eye 
to your baggage yoursel
 





 



 


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THE NORTHERN LAKEò OF CANADA lID 


Leaving the village, perched on its picturesque and rugged rocks 
behind us, we enter a beautiful wooded basin, in which there is most 
excellent fishing, next passing a point which has been 1aid out for 
Illterlaken Park-a splendid grove for camping and picnicking, and 
one of the few cases in M uskoka of happy nomenclature. Another 
turn brings us to the end of the river, and the southern end of the 
next lake. 


LAKE ROSSEAU. 


Where the lakes are of such exceedingly irregular form as are all 
the Lakes of Muskoka, lengths and breadths vary greatly J according 
to the place from which the measurements are taken. The tourist is 
usually familiar with lakes which, formed in hollows and basins, have 
some tolerable regularity of shape; but these Lakes of Muskoka are 
unlike any others, being formed, not by any regular depressions of 
normal strata, but being the uph
aval of the old Laurentian sys- 
tem-the oldest geological formation on the continent-which here 
alone thrusts its head up through the super-imposed masses. Hence 
the genera] elevation of the district, and the remarkable changes of 
shape in the coast lines. Jutting points, deep bays, sudden elonga- 
tions, and sharp changes of direction, follow quick upon one another, 
so that the course of the steamer is undergoing constant alteration, 
instead of proceeding in one general direction following along a 
somewhat similar shore. It is this constant change which affords 
such pleasure to the eye on the Lakes of Muskoka; and though the 
component parts of the landscape shall be of the same-water, and 
rock, and tree-yet the ever-changing play of light and form con- 
stantly opens out new combinations in colour and beauty of which 
the sight never wearies nor the interest grows dull. 
Lake Rosseau is fourteen miles long in its extremest points. For 
distances between the several places on this and other lakes, mea- 
surements can be made on the maps, which are accurately drawn to 
a scale of 2 
 miles to the inch. After leaving the Indian River, 



120 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


the steamer for Lake Jostþh diverges to the left, that for Lake Rosseatt 
to the right; and we will first follow up the eastern shore of the lake. 
A rthurlie House, about two miles from Port Carling, is ensconced 
in Arthur/it Bay, whose entrance is guarded by a group of pretty 
islands. There is exce
lent b3.sS fishing in Silver Lake, just behind 
the house. 


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A GLIMPSE ALONG THE COAST. 


Brackellrz'g P. O. lies at the foot of a. deep bay. From here a 
short þortage, one-quarter of a mile, can be made to Bra1ldy Lake, 
and thence by canoe down Brandy River to Lake Muskoka, near 
Point Kaye and Beaumaris. 
Leaving Baktr's, Bohemia, Vacuna, and Silver Islands, and others 
forming the group at the south pOInt of the island. On a fine bay on 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 121 


the west side of the island is Cloverþor/-a new and attractive sum- 
mer house. 
We now coast up the east shore of Big or Tobin's Island itself, 
with high rocks, and, in many places, woods to the water's edge. 
WÙzdermele is pleasantly situated on a small bay, four iniles froin 
Port Carling and ten miles from Rosseau. The" 
Vindemere 
House," kept by Mr. Thos. Aitkens, has large accommodation, and 
increasing business testifies the appreciation of the past endeavours 
of the proprietor, who, like almost all the other lake-shore hotel- 
keepers on the lakes, is also the post master and express agent. 
Hotel-keepers in Muskoka are not only expected to be "Poo-Bahs 
in offices, but also in information as to all kinds of bait and fish, and 
where and how to get them. There are plenty of boats kept by the 
hotel and Mr. J. R. Boyd, and a good bathing place. "The Win- 
dermere Mechanics' Institute" has a capital reading room, with a 
very fair librél:ry. A specialty of the neighbourhood is the "\Vinder- 
mere Club," a company which has erected a number of pleasant 
lake-side cottages which can be rented or purchased, as 110t a few 
have been, by families who prefer to "keep house." The resident 
carpenter, Mr. Clinyboyle, makes repairs and looks after the cottages 
during the winter months. A very good market held weekly in the 
summer months, by the farmers in the neighbourhood, insures a 
cheap and constant supply of fresh provisions. 
Ministers of Methqpist and Presbyterian churches resides in the 
village. Pleasant expeditions can be made from Windemere by 
row boat passing Florence island, the residence of the celebrated 
actor" Billy Florence," whose Colonel Sellers has become a prover- 
bial type of character, thence to the head of Portage Bay, where there 
is a capital sandy beach. 
On going northwards past .iVorway Isla1ld to Dee Mouth with its 
saw mill at the outlet of Dee River. The mouth of the river is wide 
and a canoe excursion can be made up it to the Three-1\Iile Lake, a 
distance of about two miles with three portages, each of about one 
hundred yards. It is a pretty woodland walk of two :111iles to 



]22 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


Dee Bank from where canoeists can take water on the quaint-shaped 
THREE-MILE- LAKE. 


It may be interesting to note that of the township which contains 
this lake there is one acre of water to every three of land. There is 
excellent pickerel fishing in the lake, and its herrings, to be found in 
shoals near the rocks and banks later on in the fall, are quite famous. 


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ON THE SHORES OF LAKE ROSSEAU. 
rrhere is no regular hotel, but the shores are well settled with 
thrifty farmers who will welcome visitors. The scenery is much 
varied and at one point there is a Inost renlarkable echo. Ella IS4 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 123 


land, near the centre, contains the summer residence of Mr. C. Mc- 
Kenzie, of Toronto. It is expected a small steamer will shortly be 
placed on this lake, but it is a very pretty day's excursion fron1 Dee 
Bank, where is a post office and a capital general store, along the full 
length of the lake, a distance of eight miles, to RaYJllonds Bay. 
From here-if the voyagers desire to still further penetrate into the 
country-canoes can be taken by waggon, making a short cut across 
the country of about six miles, to join the railway at Vtterson, and 
fronl there to Huntsville, and so take water again on the Vernon Mary 
chain. 
Renewing our trip up Lake Muskoka, and having passed the east 
side of Tobin's Island, a peninsula just out from the west shore, on 
which is Juddhavell, with small dock and post office. 
The east shore continues to show sharp promontories and deep 
bays, the largest, Skeleton Bay, about two n1iles long, and a celebrat- 
ed fishing point. The entrance is obscured by several islands; at the 
head is the foot-water of Skeldon River, on which are the MÙlnellaha 
Falls, well worthy a visit, not so much for their magnitude as for 
their prettiness. Four miles inland is Skeletoll Lake, another of the 
larger inland lakes, attractive to venturesome canoeists for its excel- 
lent fishing, untrodden islands, many with high cliffs projecting over 
the water so that boats call be rowed underneath, and its remoteness 
from the generally travelled routes. The waters are clear like those 
of Lake Joseph. Considerable portaging has to be done past the 
rapids and the higher falls to reach its waters, but they can also be con. 
veniently got at in the opposite direction from Dtterson. 
Rosseau Falls is mainly composed of a saw mill and accompanying 
houses situate at the mouth of the river. 
From this on, the banks on the east shore grow in height, and 
bluff rocks, with deep water at their foot, line the water's edge. At 
14 miles from Port Carling we reach the head of the lake. 
PORT ROSSEAU. 
This village is a place of much importance as it occupies the head 
of navigation in this direction, and is the starting point for coloni- 

ation roads leading to Parry Sound and Nippissing and the many 



124 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


settlements situated along their lengths. Post and telegraph offices 
keep up communication with the southern world, and there are some 
good stores, particularly for hardware and fishing tackle. 
Pratt's Hotel, which stood on a well elevated situation, but was 
destroyed by fire one autumn, used to monopolize a large portion of 


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ake, that attention was almost wholly directed to it, and it was not 
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ON THE SHADOW RIVER. 



THE NORTH.E'RN LAKES OF OANADA. 125 


of the lakes, and that as each had its own peculiar attractions and 
advan tages, it was best to see them alL 
The waters about Rosseau are well stocked with fish, and abundant 
and pleasant boating can be enjoyed. 
The Monteith House is well situated near the stean1boat wharf, and 
amo.ng the amusements of the village is a roller skating rink. 
The Shadow River, one of the most wonderful natural curiosi- 
ties of the Muskoka district, empties its waters into the bay on the 
shores of which Port Rosseau stands. Its course can be explored 
inlaud by boats for about five miles, the stream varying throughout 
from twenty to sixty feet in width. Entering the mouth of the river, 
about the time of the fast declining rays of the afternoon sun, and 
following the erratic curves, all sight of the lake is soon lost. In 
front and behind, the river winds like a silver streak, hemmed in on 
either hand by forest trees, and losing itself in the distant curves. 
Tall elms and ranks of tapering pines line the banks, and below 
them the sedgy shores, heavy with foliated ferns and wreaths of 
moss, overhang the edge. The surface is as motionless as glass and 
everything is duplicated in marvellous detail, each leaf and branch 
having its reflected counterpart even more distinct than it appears 
itself. 


" The fair trees look over, side by side, 
And see themselves below." 


In the deep silence which pervades the place and affects the on- 
looker as he gazes at the magic scene, a wonderful illusion creeps 
over his absorbed senses. Gradually the river's surface fades away, 
double lines of forest trees array the shores, their stems divided in 
the centre, the one part pointing upward to the sky, the other reach- 
ing downward until in fairy vision the vacancy of spaceless depth is 
bounded far away beneath by mountains of snowy clouds in setting 
of azure blue. The boat appears suspended in mid-air, half-way be- 
tween two zenith heavens, and at every stroke of the dripping oar 
would seem as though upon the verge of being plunged into a bottom- 
less abyss. 



126 THE .NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


Peering silently over the side, eternity lies spread before the gaze, 
at all sense of earthliness is lost, while the eye searches the passing 
glimpses of what looks to be another world... ...A merry laugh or the 
swoop of the king-fisher, as he seeks his finny prey, will recall the 
dreamer to his senses, but leave a profound impression of a strange 
and eyrie sensation that elfs and fairies may have been about. 


" For there are haunts in this fair land, 
Ah ! who may dream or tell 
Of all the shaded loveliness 
That hides by grot and dell." 


On a small tributary of the Shadow River, the Bridal Vtil Falls 
by delicate feathery cascade, makes silver music in its forest grove, 
and a visit perchance may give some hesitating anxious swain an 
opportunity of freeing from his halting tongue the words which cleave 
so closely to his heart. 
Half a mile from the village and on a projecting point, giving 
long vistas up and down the lake, is the new hotel, 


MAPLEHURST. 


The high gabled roof and broad eaves proj ecting like those of some 
Swiss chalet, are prominent objects long before the steamer reaches 
the little dock. 
Harry Ditchburn's fleet of boats and canoes clustered around the 
landing place invite to frequent water trips, and the cool shades of 
the surrounding grove of evergreen and silver birch, or lounges on 
the spacious verandah, 200 feet in length, may tempt to more lazy 
methods of passing over the hours of the happy summer days. A 
ferry to the dock in the village keeps up constant communication, 
and mails and telegraphs are delivered at the Hotel (see adv.). 
It is a very pretty walk of I 
 miles through the forest, from 
Rosseau to Ashdown, the junction of the main roads; or a drive of 
10 miles passing a succession of pretty little lakes, lands the traveller 
at Port Cockburn, at the head of Lake Joseph. Carriages can be 



PHE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


127 


engaged in the village. A stage runs regularly 23 miles to Parry 
Sound. 
At many of the rocky points, from one to six miles down the main 
Lake Rosseau, there is good fiishing for Bass, Pickerel and Salmon 
Trout. 


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THE BRIDAL VEIL FALLS. 


Morgan's Bay, a large estuary opening from the main lake a little 
south from M aplehurst, is studded with many islands and several 
deep-recessed bays. In the north bay a portage of ;{. mile enters 
S1Jcker Lake, and in the south bay a 100 yards portage leads to ßass 



]28 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


Lake. Both of these are well stocked. There are also a whole series 
of small lakes to the north beginning with Turtle Lake, the head 
waters of the Shadow River, reached best by a drive of six miles 
from Rosseau. Connected with this by short portages are several 
other lakes where sport is certain. Good speckl 
d trout fishing can 
be enjoyed in White Oak Creek and its tributaries, and in several of 
the lakes connected with it, easily reached by road five miles from 
Rosseau. Blackstone Lake is reached by daily stage to Pender's 
Corners, and then a drive of four miles down the side road. It is 
better not to attempt these more distant excursions without experi- 
enced guides. There are many other small lakes containing good 
fish, but not so accessible as those named. These can be reached 
by the aid of Indians and birch bark canoes. Indians can be hired 
through Ditchburn Bros. at about $2 per day including use of canoe. 
The active canoeist, who is making the tour of the lakes, can, instead 
of returning down the main Lake Rosseau, make a very interesting 
short cut to Lake Joseph. At the west side of Morgan's Ba,y there 
is a much frequented portage of 76 mile to Little Lake JosePh. This 
makes a varied and novel expedition for parties with light canoes 
and camping equipment, and saves the necessity of doubling any 
portion of their trip. 
Returning to the foot of the lake we will join the steamer for Lake 
Joseph, which, on leaving the Indian River, turns to the left, heading 
for Port Salldfield, distant on the direct route six miles from Port 
Carling, although this is generally prolonged by many calls at the 
intermediate islands. 


..-... 


Velletia. 


This southern portion of Lake Rosseau is fairly gemmed with islets, 
and as they were early selected for their beauty and admirable situa- 
tion, more island population has been accumulated in this part than 
in any other. On almost every island can be seen some pretty horne, 
each varied by the tastes or fancies of the owner. Horne-made 
architecture and amateur carpentering have put some together out 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 129 


of the materials to be found on the spot; others have called in more 
specially instructed aid, but none are at all pretentious. Comfort 
rather than display, simplicity and make-the- best-or.it seem to be the 
ruling influences among the "Muskokans." They are clannish in 
their upholding of the special beauties of the vicinity in which they 
are settled, but national in united assertion that there is no place like 

luskoka. Hospitable they certainly are, and to overflowing, for 
when the steamer touches at their islands, and one sees the number 
of people and babies that run down to the dock, and the number of 
heads that pop out of the windows of the house itself, one wonders 
where they all put up, and whether some, like the Indians, wrap 
themselves in blankets and sleep beneath the spreading trees. But 
another turn of the wheel and the white ridge of a tent or the clus- 
tering poles or a wigwam, tell where the boys-and what boys the 
Muskoka boys are-have overflowed to make room for the welcome 
guests. 
This lower part of Lake Rosseau may well be called "Vent!ia," 
for a boat is as necessary to a man as a pair of legs, and not in 
. Venice itself are boats more used or needed. Whether it be to make 
a call on a neighbour, to bring the bread from the baker, or fuel for 
the fire, or fish for the pot, a boat is always put in requisition, so 
that the Muskokans might almost be considered an amphibious race. 
They all row, from the smallest baby upwards, and La Belle Cana- 
dienne, who in.winter has been seen in picturesque toboggan suit, 
with bright rased cheeks, flushed by the keen vigour of her native 
air, will here be met again with those same cheeks bronzed to a 
ruddy brown and handling the oars of her boat with an the grace 
and deftness of an adept. 
 0 wonder Canada's oarsmen lead the 
world! Vive la CalladÙnne I 
On the south point of Tobin's Island is the new hotel, Oaklands. 
which, being just opposite to all the many islands of Pelle/ill, is sure 
to afford a pleasurable summer outing. 
Fenldale is an excellent hotel, kept by Mr. Penson, and on a 
pretty bay, into which the steamer turns. The sumn1er-houses on 
I 



130 


THE NORTHERlv LAKES OF CANADA 


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'l'HE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 131 


the high cliffs have before them one of the most beautiful views of 
the lakes, and the groves of oak and maple, the virgin forest of hard- 
wood trees in the rear, give opportunity for pleasant walks. The 
steamer then threads her way through the island homes of ., Venetia." 
To the right is St. Leonard's Isle and the "Parson's Group," where 
the relatives of two reverend gentlemen of Toronto have established 
themselves, and clerical friends are right royally welcomed. On the 
left are in succession Edith, Fairview, SUlIllllerside, Gouldillgs, then Oak 
and Flora, the pretty home of Dr. Hall, one of the earliest and most 
enthusiastic of the Muskokans. Still farther away, on the right, Cedar 
Island, the property of Mr. C. S. Warren; then Mazengah, the home 
of the Dwights and Blatchfords, and Fair..vlands, the Lilly homestead. 
Lastly we turn sharply round Olive Island, where so deep is the 
water and sheer the rock that the steamer runs alongside without 
need of any dock. Here the Baldwins early found a happy resting 
place, and by practice, learned how to fell trees so that they should 
not fall, as did an early one they cut, squash down upon their newly 
erected house to its complete destruction. A mute protest, perchance, 
from the forest king against the innovations made into his realm. 
Passing the lofty headland of Eagle's Nest, the lake narrows up 
and we. are soon in view of Port Santljield. 
The steamer runs to and fro, calling at the different islands and 
also crosses to the northerly side of the lake. At about two miles is 
Cleveland' s 
. a summer boarding house is kept here, by Mr. Minnett, 
with excellent accommodation. Further down the shore, to the east, 
Mrs. Lawson takes boarders. Mr. Wood's boarding house at Fair- 
f/iew-Farm is about a mile to the west, with a nice sand beach and 
dock, at which the steamers land. All these localities are in the 
vicinity of good fishing, and being a little out of the regular route, 
are perhaps more quiet and retired, and favourable arrangements can 
be made for short visits or lengthened stay. 
Gregory is just at the entrance of the Joseph River, has a post- 
office, and some of the residents in the neighbourhood will accommo- 
date summer visitors. 



132 


TIIE NORTHERN LAKES O]t OANA.DA. 


PORT SANDFIELD. 
At one time a narrow spit, or bar, of sand, here separated Lake 
Rosseau from Lake Joseph, but in the interests of continuous steam- 
boat navigation a canal was dug through it by the Ontario Govern- 
ment, and the new village which sprung up was named after the 


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EAGLE'S NEST, LAKE ROSSE.AU. 


then Premier-the Hon. Sand field Macdonald-as the point where 
the junction was made between Lakes 1\fuskoka and Rosseau had 
been named after the then Commissioner of Crown Lands, the 
Hon. John Carling. Originally Lake Joseph was I 
 feet the higher, 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 138 


but now both lakes are of the same level. A lofty bridge, spanning 
the canal, keeps up the communication by road with Port Carling. 


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On the top, or saddle, of the promontory, and with views extend 
ing east and west over both the lakes, is Prosþect House, kept by the 

hara.cteristic Enoch Cox. So great is the desire to stay at this 



134 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


favoured spot that although each year its capacities have been enlarged, 
untiì now there are rooms for 120 visitors, yet the cry is "still they 
come." Pleasant verandahs and shady groves covering the tops of 
rocky points, fifty and sixty feet above the level of 1 he water, form 
pleasant lounging places. Bathing can be enjoyed from the rocks in 
an adjacent bay, or from the bathing-houses, which are situated on a 
pleasant sandy beach. Row-boats can be hired from Mr. Cox by 
the day or week at low rates, and tbe steam yacht, built, owned, and 
captained by Mr. John Rogers-the "hydrographer of the lakes"- 
leaves the hotel every morning for the points of interest in the neigh- 
bourhood, which enables visitors to take delightful excursions out of 
the regular track of the mail steamers. Special charters can be made. 
on very reasonable terms. The belfry of the Anglican church will 
be seen near the hotel; service is held regularly every Sunday. 
There are several cottages, which n1ay be rented, and summer 
boarding-houses, in the vicinity-among them Rockhurst, just on the 
opposite side of the bay, kept by Mr. G. C. Hazelwood, well situated 
and supplied with boats. There is a pretty walk through the woods, 
176 miles, to Port Carling. 


LAKE JOSEPH. 


This, the third of the series of the Lakes of Muskoka, was for a 
long time a 1Itare incognitum except to the venturesonle spirits, who, 
rècking not the labour, rowed themselves up its length of fourteen 
miles, when the steamer used to be stopped by the natural barrier 
at Port Sand field. 
I t will be noted that the waters of aU the other lakes and rivers 
of Muskoka are, although translucent and clear, yet of a dark or 
tawny hue, while, strangely enough, those of Lake Joseph are a clear 
white. Its islands, too, rise perhaps more abruptly, and to higher 
elevations, and more rugged cliffs line its shores, than do those of the 
other lakes. Backed by these peculiarities, the inhabitants of the 
Canton of Lake Joseph claim for it a beauty surpassing that of all 
the others. This at least may be granted, that it has characteristics, 
such as tho
e mentioned, unique and peculiar to itself j but so have 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 135 


all the lakes, and this is one of the inexhaustible charms of the Lakes 
of Muskoka district. 
Very nice jaunts, with excellent fishing, can be enjoyed from Porb 
Sand field. A row up Lake Joseph of three miles to Hel1l1ock Poillb 
and the lines having been cast in around the group of fish-narned 
islands off the point, or on a row down Avon and Cumberland Ba)!!f 
will surely be rewarded by a good catch. 
Bass Lake is best reached by Rogers' steam yacht to Foot's Bay, 
a distance of about seven miles; from here a þortage of a quarter ot 



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a mile brings to the lake. Mr. T. Hamill, whose house is near by, 
keeps boats upon the lake, and is recommended for supplying guides. 
The lake is carefully preserved, and well stocked with fish. 
.A, very pretty round trip can be made by towing the row-boats 
behind the yacht 4P Lake Joseph, and past Fisher, Foster, and Cani,þ' 
Islands, to the upper end of the Joseph River, near by the prettily 
situated CraigÙ-Lea. From here the boats can be rowed down the 
river through channels too narrow and shallow for even the little 
steamer. A beautiful succession of changes of direction and sur 
prises follows, for a distance of three miles, to the exit into Lake 
Rosseau, near Gregory's. Two miles further, and the party is home 
again at Prospect House. The whole distance round can be rowed 



136 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


by a vigorous oarsman in about five hours, or the journey can- 
as is most pleasant
be broken for the night at 


CRAIGIE-LEA. 


Before the cutting of the Port Sand field Canal, this Joseph River 
was the only means of water communication between the lakes, and, 
being very tortuous, was available only for small boats. Nestled in 
behind the POllemah Group of islands. and on a pretty projecting 
point of land, Mr. John 'Valls has placed his new hotel-( see adver- 
tisemellt). The situation is most unique for quiet anq retirement; 
the surround- 
ing shores are 
all as Nature 
first, in simple 
beauty, deco- 
rated the m 
with her un- 
erring hand; 
and, sheltered 
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ST I:N
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AROUND CLIFF ISLAND. 
height. .studded at intervals 
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Norway and the dwarf Northern pine. No landscape gardener ever 
posed his groups with more effective result; nor could he, with all 


..-, 



THE NORTHERN L.AKES OF CAN.AD.A. 137 


his art, attain to such unstudied loveliness as here exists. Just to 
the right of the hotel is the entrance to Lii/le Lake Josph, sometimes 
fondly termed Lil/Ü Joe. No settlers have yet occupierl its untrodden 
shores, and there is splendid fishing in its waters. At the head of 
the lake-seven miles from Craigie-Lea-is the landing for the half- 
mile þor/age to Morgan's Bay, and thence three miles by water to 
Maplehurst and Rosseau. 
Resuming the direct route up the centre of Lake Joseph, from Port 
Sandfield the stea.mer calls first at Redwood, the admirably situated 
summer home of the Ardaghs. Leaving Foot's Bay on the left, we 
thread our way through the Ponemah Group, comprising the largest 
islands in the lake. On the shores of "Chief Island" is the home- 
stead of Herbert Mason, Esq. ; and on "Governors Island," a beau- 
tifullittle islet commanding a lovely view over the length of the open 
lake, is the summer residence of the Hon. John Beverley Robinson, 
the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario. The shores stretch wider 
apart" and then comes another series called the Yo-ho-cu-ca-ba Grouþ. 
A thoroughly Indian intonation would appear to attach to this name, 
with its constantly repeated vowel sounds, and one wonders as to 
what may be its nati,oe meaning. It is a revelation to be told that 
it was framed fro\m the first syllables of the names of the first occu- 
pants of the largest island. Thus:
 


Yo 0 
Ho 
Cu . 
Ca 
Ba . 


Professor Young. 
. '\V. H. Howland. 
Montgomery Cumming. 
. Profe
sor Campbell. 
James Bain. 


This group are as largely populated as any parts of the lakes; and 
the Sunday services, held in a natural amphitheatre on "Y oho," as 
the principal island is lovingly called, have acquired a provincial 
celebrity from the standing of the preachers who have officiated at 
them, under the canopy of the forest trees. 
Mr. McMurrich's completely-developed island, where the Marquis 
of Lansdowne
 Governor-General of Canada, sojourned in 1885, is 



138 


THE NORTHERN L.A.KES OF C.AN.A.DA. 


passed on the left; then McLellall's and TlIahneshing, and the lofty 
Equity Crest. After the beautifully-shaped Round Island, we enter 
the last bay, and come into view of the end of the trip in this direc- 
tion. 


PORT COCKBURN. 


This is the head of navigation of Lake Joseph. Upon a high 


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cliff, and surrounded by a beautiful grove of second growth oak 
and maples, so that only the gables can be seen, is the Summit 
House, wen kept by Hamilton Fraser, now the largest house 
in the distriçt. Between the trees and on the sides of the rocks 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 139 


where convenient nooks give opportunity, are swinginJ hammocks 
and rustic seats, and from the ample height and pleasant shade, a 
lovely view overlooking the island-studded lake can be most fully 
grasped and thoroughly enjoyed. 
The steamer lands at the foot of the stairways leading up to the 
hotel. N ear by is seen the Island Park, where a grove has been set 
out with winding paths and a bridge built to connect the island with 
the main land. On the other side of the hotel is a splendid bathing 
house and sheer rocks from which the bolder ones can spring into 
fifty feet of water. 
1'he ubiquitous Ditchburn Bros. here again appear with a full line 
of excellent row boats, from small ones for those with whom" two 
is company and three is none" to the large family ark wherein the 
good-natured Father, having stowed his substantial partner together 
with all their merry flock of chattering youngsters, can swelter at the 
unaccustomed oar in full 
njoyment of his Sllmn1er holiday of rest. 
About fifteen minutes' row from the hotel are the celebrated" Echo 
Rocks" where in the mysterious moonlight hours weird repetitions 
may be evoked. 
" Hark! how the gentle echo from her cell, 
Talks through the cliffs and murmuring o'er the stream 
Repeats the accents "we-shall-part-no-more." 
-Akellsz"de. 
It is a pretty trip al
o to " Hawk's nest," and to the little bay and 
portage to Byers Lake. 
Post and telegraph offices in the hotel and a large room for con- 
certI) and dancing ensure plenty of amusement for the summer 
evenIngs. 
Port Cockburn is the centre of a great many fishing resorts to which 
access can from it most conveniently be obtained. Guides and canoes 
can be arranged for with Ditchburn and bait provided. 
Lake Joseph abounds with black bass, pickerel and large salmon 
trout obtained by deep trolling. 
Within a radius of six miles from the Summit House, there are 
some forty little lakes, some reached by driving and many by walks 



140 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


through the "bush," and in the tributary streams brook trout are 
often canght weighing I 
 pounds. 
The Seguin River Chain begins a few miles back from here and 
conlprises a conlplete chain of lakes and river to Parry Sound on the 
Georgian Bay. IVhite Fish, Clear, Turtle, Star and Isabella are the 
principal ones, and in all black bass and trout abound. Blacks/one 
and Cral1e lakes, which are five miles off (see the route map to 
Moon River), may best be described by taking the statement of 
Battelle in the Toledo " Post" : 
" The shores of Crane and Blackstone Lakes are capital specimens 
of the primitive wilderness, and long may they so continue. The few 
who have visited their teeming waters have mostly been genuine 
fishermen who are happiest when far.away from conventionalities and 
habitations. But one clearing broke the majestic sweep of the grand 
old forests, within the sheltered bays the loons laughed undisturbed, 
and the wild birds splashed in the marshy edges or upon the sandy 
shores with none to molest or make them afraid. 
" \;Y e were out for maskinonge, and took no account of either black 
bass or pickerel. It seems strange to talk of shaking off black bass 
and making disrespectful remarks about these gamy gentry when 
they insisted in taking the hook, but they were so plenty as to be 
really troublesome. 
"When an angler goes forth to catch the maskinonge it is necessary 
to be -'careful lest the maskinonge should catch him. The native 
method of taking the maskinonge in the primeval waters of Canada 
is by a small clothes line, hauled in by main strength when the fish 
bites, but we proposed to troll, as should an angler, with the rod. 
Ours were split bamboo rods 9
 feet long, quadruplex reel, and 
braided linen line, two feet of medium sized copper wire, a No. 4 
spoon with double hooks, and finally a good gaff. 
" Our guide, as we started over to Crane Lake the first morning, in- 
dulged in sundry smiles and remarked that we should break our rods, 
so that, although placid in outward mien, I felt inwardly a little ner- 
vous, but I didn't mean to back down until compelled, 



THE NORTHERN LA]{ES OF OANADA. 141 


"Swinging around a little point, with some twenty yards of line 
astern, before fishing a great while I felt a sudden movement at the 
spoon that was more like a crunch than a bite. It took only a 
second to give the rod a turn that fixed the hooks and another sec- 
ond to discover that I had hung something. Scarcely had I tighten- 
ed the line when the fish started
 I do not know that I wanted to 
stop him, but I felt the line slip rapidly from the reel as though at- 
tached to a submarine torpedo. The first run was a long one, but 
the line was longer, and the fish stopped before the reel was bare. 
This was my opportunity and I had the boatman swing his craft 
across the course, and reeling in the slack line, I turned his head 
towards the deeper water. Forty-five minutes of as pretty a fight as 
one could wish to see left my new acquaintance alongside the boat, 
and before he recovered his surprise the gaff was in his gills and the 
bOfltman lifted him on board. 
" He weighed fourteen pounds on the steelyards and was my heaviest 
fish. There were other encounters of a similar character, but 
none quite so protracted; but I wouldn't be afraid of the largest 
veteran in the lake, and all fishermen, who aim for sport, will assured- 
ly troll with the rod. Our time was limi
ed, far too short, and in a 
word, a day and a half on Crane Lake gave us, without counting bass, 
ten maskinonge whose weight aggregated 110 pounds, (on the scales) 
an average weight of 1 I pounds per fish." 


THE MOON RIVER. 


The lower reaches of these famed waters, where they enter the 
Georgian Bay, can conveniently be attained by the route of these 
lakes as shown on tbe detailed map, or, having descended the river 
by canoe from Lake Muskoka at Bala (the easier mode), return can 
be made by them to Lake Joseph, at Port Cockburn. ... 
The fishing scores in the Moon River, particularly maskinonge, are 
of the heaviest, and some giants have been hooked. 
This expedition should not be attempted without good guides and 
ample camping equipment and supplies. 



142 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF O.A.NAD.A.. 


The Xe,v Railway. 


Gl'a'l'e1lhurst to Lake NiþissÙzg. 


Having followed the shores of the group of the BIG TRIO and traced 
their waters to the outfall by the Muskosh and Mooll Rivers, we will 
strike further inland to the newer districtC\ which are now opened out 
for convenient access by the new extension of the railway through 
their n1idst. Starting afresh from Gravenhurst (page 101), the rail- 
way strikes inland along the shores of Gull Lake, and after crossing 
the south branch of the Muskoka River, reaches Bracebridf(e (10 % 
miles). (The mileages here and afterwards mentioned are mileages 
from Gravenhurst.) 
Here the iron bridge spans the stream above the very midst of the 
Falls-a strange situation; but the defiles through which railways in 
this district may be constructed are exacting, and their behests must 
be obeyed, hl)wever, unusual the forced selections. Still keeping in 
the valley alongside the river at about two miles beyond Bracebridge, 
a very pretty view is obtained, on the right of Elliott's Falls
 
Utterson (24 miles)-Connection can be made from here by good 
waggon road to Skeleton Lake or else to Three fiIile Lake, and by either 
route convenient voyage made by their waters to those of Lake Ros- 
seau, not far from Wi1ldermere. 
, rrwo and a half n1Íles to the east by road is Port Sydney, at the 
southern end of Mary Lake, to which we "will make a visit farther on. 
After a passing glimpse at Little Round Lake, the train arrives at 
Huntsville (35 miles). This is an important tourist point, as here 
connection is made with a new chain of lakes, whose waters may be 
followed, either west to their source, or east and south until they are 
drained by the Muskoka River. The village is progressing, and will, 
no doubt, soon have its full share of the increase business which the 
railway now brings to its doors. Jacob's Hotel, Gilchrist's and Birtch's 
Hotels, are mentioned here. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 143 


TIt
 Muslíoka River {;lta.in. 


WESTWARD TO THE HEADWATERS. 


Alongside the railway station will be found the steamboat dock, 
at which can be taken, for the trip up the lakes, the steamer .Northerll, 
Captain Denton. Should our voyageurs, however, have so prepared 
themselves, and intend to start off on one of the many canoeing 
trips which radiate from here, their traps and camping equipment 
will be quickly packed away, and soon 


"Their bark is on the sea." 


After about three miles of open river navigation, Lake Verllon is 
entered. On the right bank will be seen where the waters of the 
Upper North Branch enter the lake. Hood's Island is passed on 
the left, and, the lake widening out again, the village of }?az l eJlscliff 
is called at. Here enters the stream which brings down the waters 
of Loon and Long Lakes. At 9 miles the lake ceases; and we 
arrive at the head of steamboat navigation in this direction. 


HOODSTO\VN. 


The town is situated at the outlet of the upper waters, and a 
splendid water-power has been formed, which, no doubt, some day 
will turn some busy wheels, if its owner will only allow it to be used. 
There IS a waterfall of about 40 feet in height over the mill-dam. 
The Albioll Hotel, kept by J. G. Henderson, and the .ðfcCallulll House 
are spoken of as good hostelries. There are good roads in the neigh- 
bourhood, and a large adjacent population. 
 ear by, and rising 
abruptly above the plain, is MOlint A raral. The bluff is 500 feet 
above the highest parts of the land; its top is flat, and if the Ark 
did not stop here it may at least have touched. 
From the summit the wood-clad landscape may be seen, waving 
for miles around, in billows of massy green fading into distant blue, 



144 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.. 


and upon its front, set like so many precious gems, are to be counted 
the surfaces of fifteen little lakes, reflecting in their rippling waters the 
bright rays of the summer sun. 
Having examined the neighbourhood, the trip to the head waters 
of the chain is recommenced. It is a short portage through the town 
fronl Lake Vernon to the foot water of Fox Lake, so called from the 
shape of its shores taking a figure very much the outline of a fóx. It 
is about three miles to the narrows, between the body and the tail. 
At the end of the lake the Buck River is entered. The river runs 
sn100th and deep, between 30 and 40 feet wide. The banks are 
steep and high, showing signs of excellent soil, and there are many 
picturesque turns in the route of five miles. There is one short rapid 
which going up must be passed by a portage of 100 yards, but com- 
ing down can be run with safety. N ext is entered Buck Lake, six 
miles long and of narrow but varying width. On its shores is Il/ra- 
combe with saw and grist mills, and the centre of an English colony 
of high county standing and much cultivation. 
The pretty Anglican church is well maintained, and as far as can 
be, brings back fond memories of services in 
he ivy-clad fanes of the 
fatherland. At the head of the lake a small stream is entered, and 
after one mile access is made to Round Lake, itself 2 
 miles long. 
Another stream nearer the foot of Buck Lake leads by a route of 
about six miles, in which there is one rapid, which must be portaged 
both ways, to Axe Lake, itself 2 
 miles long. These two lakes, Axe 
and Round, are the head waters in this direction of this chain of 
lakes. From Huntsville to here (26 miles) row boats can be used; 
and there is no better or safer line of route for a pleasant camping 
and boating trip, combining both lake and river accessible to all. 
Throughout these upper waters and in the tributary streams there 
is excellent trOTIt fishing. Our voyageur will either return from here, 
or, if his equipmënt permit its transport, may make a portage of three 
miles over the water-shed which here forms the dividing line, and 
embark his craft upon the waters of Doe Lake, a tributary to the 




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THE NORTHER11 LAKES OF CANADA. 


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headwaters of the Maganetewan River. Proceeding down this for nine 
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There is society where none intrudes." 


J 



146 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Down Strealll to Bracebridge. 


By the North Branch. 


From Huntsville the voyageur returning down the river to join the 
railway again at Bracebridge, or farther on at Gravenhurst-has 
two routes open to his choice the one by the North, the other by 
the South branch of the 1\Iuskoka River. 
In taking the first, the steamer can be availed of, passing through 
the pretty Fairy Lake, (five miles) and then the river again is 
entered. 
For the furtherance of navigation, a lock has been constructed by 
the Ontario Government, near Fetterley's and by this means, after 
three miles more of river navigation, winding and re-winding through. 
out, the next lake of the chain is reached. 
Mary Lake is one of the gems of Muskoka; many neat residences 
with clearings of some extent adorn its shores. Its surface is stud. 
ded with many islands, where berries of various kinds are plentiful 
in the season, and afford delightful places for pic-nics and camps. At 
the foot of the lake, upon a gentle elevation overlooking its length, 
is Port Sidney. The village contains the Sydney Hotel, where there 
is excellent accommodation provided by Mr. Jeff Avery. A good 
supply of boats is kept and pleasant trips can be made upon the ro. 
mantic little lakes. From Port Sidney, return to the railway can be 
made by two and a half miles drive to the station at Utlerson. 
For those who do not venture on small boating or canoeing, the 
steamboat route between Hoodstown and Port Sydney, upon the 
"Little Trio," Vernoll, Fairy and Mary, will make a. very pretty 
excursion and give additional zest to the enjoyment of the larger and 
more well-known lakes. 
Those, however, who do "canoe," can take the Muskoka River 
from Port Sydney, and enjoy the unique sensation of "running a 
rapid." In the route of fifteen miles to Bracebridge, there are some of 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 147 


the rapids which it is not safe to run, but which nlust be portaged. 
The entrances to all are well marked so that a watchful eye will keep 
the canoe from danger. It will be best to leave in the morning and 
then the run through can be made in the day 


By the South Branch. 


The other choice of route in returning from Huntsville is confined 
to canoeists. 
Passing easterly through the length of Fairy Lake, a narrow is 
entered, in which are two portages, each of one hundred feet length 
on the right or south bank, and thus access is obtained to Pellillsula 


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RUNNiNG A RAPID-)IVSKOKA RIVER.-IO I '<'. 
Lake. On the north shore is Grassmere post-office, and at the south- 
east end (seven miles), a portage of I! miles brings to the Lake 
of Bays. The convenience of a waggon will easily be obtained from 
some neighbouring settler. Thence to Baysville, at the foot of the 
lake, is twelve miles, and from there, twenty-five miles by river to the 
south .branch of the Muskoka to Bracebridge. Some people may 
prefer to go up stream, so we will start with them from Bracebridge. 
It may be well for the canoeist who is making his first acquaintance 
with these river waters, to begin by'going up stream, as he will thus 



148 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


become acquainted with the indications of rapids, and by no chance 
run himself into danger. The South Branch of the Muskoka is the 
starting point for some of the best fishing districts of 1'Iuskoka, 
among others are fValter's Creek, Hollow Lake, Wood Lake, Sharþ's 
Creek,-all celebrated for their brook trout. 
A stage runs regularly from Bracebridge to Baysville (16 miles), 
leaving on arrival of the mail trains and arriving in the evening. 
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Muskoka River by canoe to the" River Forks," thence up the South 
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MAKIì\'"f; A PORTAGE-:\IUSKOKA RIVER 


age n1ust be made, or, bringing the canoes and camping equipment 
by waggon, can at this same point commence the ascent of the 
rIver. 
The stream is rapid, and several portages must be made during 
the first day. At some the baggage is carried round by land and the 
canoes poled up the rapid; at others, the Indians shoulder the 
canoes, thus presenting the appearance of huge snails. At" Rocky 
Portage n good ground is found ior the first " camp." On the second 
day, "Island Portage" is reached at noon, and "Gravelly Rapids" 
for the night. At both of these points there is good trout fishing. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 149 


On the third day" Cedar Rapids" are passed, and at the "Upper 
Falls" near Baysville, the best camping ground is found. The river 
here runs fast, tumbling down in rocky rapids, and the best speckled 
trout fishing afforded. 
Baysville, on the river and [
miles from the e.ntrance to the lake, 
is a capital resort for the tourist and the sportsman. Those who are 
on the round trip will find it about a day's canoeing from the" Upper 
Falls," to the camping ground at the portage to Peninsula Lake; 
from thence they can proceed, as previously described. There are 
good local supply stores in the town, and arrangements for steam- 
boat trips on the lakes can he made with Capt. Huckins. Jelly's 
Hotel; the Norfolk House, kept by Mr. Howard, and Keeler's Hotel 
are mentioned here. 


LAKE OF BAYS. 


This is the largest of the lakes which are tributary to the l\iuskoka 
River, being about 20 miles in length. In width it is eccentric 
and fully deserves its name. There are not rnany islands in it, 
but it is superlative in jutting points, clad with the dark green 
outlines of the finest pine timber. Canoeists who are exploring its 
shores, had better, after taking the south east trip towards Dorset, 
return north by Haystack Bay, and make the short portage to North 
East Bay. As not having been so accessible, the shores of its deep 
clear waters remain more in the state of nature than any ether. N ei- 
ther the settler's axe nor the fires of careless camping parties have 
denuded the banks of their leafy coverings. 


CAMP-FIRES. 


How earnestly it is to be wished, that all who light "camp-fires" 
would be watchful to see that all sparks are perfectly extinguished. 
Oftentimes it will appear to the eye that no fire remains, but under- 
neath, in the dry mossy ground, a "smudge" still exists to burst 
long after into flame, and spreading slowly through the root3 and 
undergrowth to do infinite damage. 



150 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Never light a fire except upon bare rock or bare ground-if on 
the latter, remove all neighbouring moss, so that the fire cannot by 
any means spread. 
Always before leaving put the fire out, deluge the place with water 
and cover it with dqr earth. Be careful that none of the charred and 
unburned sticks retain any fire. 
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THE NORTH.b
N LAKES OF CANAD.A. 151 


retained at the eastern extremity. A little further to the east is a 
lake whose name nlay be managed by those who have survived the 
little stream north of the Severn-Lake Kahweambeteu r aya11lo!{. 
Captain Huckin's steamers Dean and Excelsior, the latter a capital 
new one of seventy-five feet keel, keep up the communications be- 
tween Baysville and the post-offices and settlements around the lake. 
At North East Bay, near Dwight Post-office, the continuation of 
the river enters the lake. Upon its waters are strung out a long 
series of little lakes, all affording good sport, among thenl Ochl1RJan (or 
Ox,Tongue), Ca1loe, Isla1ld, Big Joe and other lakes By this chain 
there is a canoe route which has been already foHowed by several 
parties which, arriving at the head waters of the Muskoka, ll1ake a 
short portage to the PeteuJa'wa and Mlda'waska Rivers, thence down 
to the Ottawa River,-a round trip of n1uch attractiveness and 
variety. GO.'die's IIotel at Dwight, will make a good headquarters- 
and a ready welcome be assured to all good sportsmen. 
The district around Lake of Bays is Inost highly esteemed for its 
deer hunting, the best of duck and partridge shooting,-indeed, 
whether for rod or gun the visitor is sure of ample employment. Here- 
abouts are to be found "The happy hunting grounds of the Dwight- 
Wiman Sporting Club." Their names have become localized, and 
here for rest and recreation, zest and fresh energy comes annually 
that ardent Canadian, Erastus \Viluan, whose successes in the United 
States seem only to intensify his affection for his native land. A 
good example gives he to the young Canadian. 
From Goldie's, a line of excellent lakes run north, all full of sport J 
Cooþer, Devil's Angle, Long, Lit/Ie Twin, Big Twin, C'i"otch, Poverty, 
Buck and Clear, all communicating by short portages. 
Good sport, canoes and guides who know where the best fishiug 
spots are, and trained dogs accustomed to the vicinity for hunting, are 
all necessary. The names of the best men, well-known and reliahle 
from having already conducted fishing and hunting parties through 
this district, are given in the list of guides. 
Mr. W. H. Brown, of Baysville, is also referred 
o as an obliging 
correspondent. 



152 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


The JlaA'3lletew81l Ri\
e.. (Jhain. 


Leaving Huntsville, the railway crosses the Muskoka river near 
1I1dissa (39 miles), and then surmounts the water shed, during which 
several streams are followed, and the acute eye will note when those 
that run south are left and those that run north are met. 
Katrine (55 miles), Morton's HoteI.- This is the centre of a 
splendid lake country. Sand, Beaver, and Long Lakes, on the South 
Maganetewall River, Tilree Mile and Doe Lakes close by. Here, as 
noted previously, connection is made with the Maganetewan River, 
and canoes or light boats can be taken for the water trip to Hunts- 
ville. The railway continues following the banks for four miles, dur- 
ing which the river is crossed four times, the next station is 
Burk's Falls (60 miles).- This station opens up another and en- 
tirely new region to steamboat navigation to the tourist and the tra- 
veller, and particularly to the sportsman, who can now get with com- 
paratively little trouble to a district which has hitherto been accessible 
. 
only to those with ample means and time. This chain of lakes and 
the Maganetewan River is just equidistant between the Muskoka and 
Nipissing chains of waters, and drains a surface of about 4,000 square 
l11iles. S0111e idea may therefore be gathered of its magnitude, and 
of the possibilities for canoeing, opened up by the ramification of the 
numerous tributaries and their attendant lake enlargements. 
The very heart centre for sport for rod and gun, its rivers and lakes 
can be ascended and descended in canoes and boats amid the best of 
sport, while the eye is fascinated by the fresh, unsullied wildness of its 
forest haunts. 'Vild birds and deer abound. Speckled trout are 
caught weighing 3 to Sibs.; bass, 5 to 8 lbs.; pickerel, 8 to I4 lbs . 
" Music," in Forest and Strea1Jl, thus speaks of the Maganetewan : 
" Now a word about the region. If a man can stand out-door life, 
and live on venison, trout, bass, partridges, ducks, pork, tea and 
crackers, there is no better place to go to in America that is as ac- 
cessible. A man can go there in July, August, Septen1ber, or Octo- 



THE NORTHERN LAKES
OF CANADA. 153 


ber with comfort, if he will go in the right way, and shoot deer and 
catch trout to his heart's content. June to August for trout, after that 
for deer. Remember the Maganetewan is as large as the Schuylkill 
at Philadelphia, or considerably wider and deeper than the IIarlem 
at High Bridge, and that the trout have an unlimited range, and are 



 
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seldom disturbed, so that they have a chance to grow. Deer can be 
bagged in greatj numbers if you choose to do so; with a couple of 
good hounds magnificent sport could be had in the fall. I have shot 
partridges with my rifle from the canoe while travelling, as they were 
strutting on the shore, and their 'drumming' was one of the plea- 



lõ4 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


santest every-day sounds. Do not try to go without some guide. 
There are men who know the country, and they should be secured, 
for if you get in there alone, you will have little sport and much 
trouble. I have no possible interest in noticing this region except 
that I believe it to be unsurpassed in many ways." 
The village of Burk's Falls stands upon the banks of the main 
11aganetewan (" the smooth flowing water "), at the head of steam- 
boat navigation, and about half a mile below the forks of the river 
where the two great north and south branches join. The station is 
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LAKE AH-MIC. 


country hotels-D. F. Burk's, Trimmer's, and the Cataract House, by 
W. F. Thomson. From here can be taken daily the new combined 
paddle and screw steamer Wenonah, of the lYIuskoka Navigation 
Company. ' 
For fifteen miles the river is fo
lowed, winding to and fro, as all 
l\Iuskoka rivers seem to do. Lake Se-see-be forms the next link for ten 
miles, at the foot of which is the thriving town of Magalle/
wan. Here 
the Great Northern Colonization road crosses the river and a centre for 
the surrounding districts has been formed. There are two hotels, Maga- 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OJ/ CANADA. 155 


netewan House, by S. B. Fish; Northern House, by Mr. Carroll. A 
number of stores form a particularly good headquarters during the 
hunting season. 
After passing through the locks, the steamer continues for three tniles 
more in the river, and then enters the lovely Lake Ah-Mic. This is 
another of the gems of Muskoka; most quaint in form, its arms and 
elongations form a very maze of interlacings, so their constant vistas 
of projecting heights with glimpses of distant waters and high ridges 
with closely-wooded forests of hard wood trees, give soft rounded out- 
lines to the distant scenery. 
In summer this combination of the rich greens of the maple, oak 
and birch, is 1110St beautiful, but when in autumn the bright red tints 
show forth their resplendent colours, it is sin1ply indescribable. 
The lake is twelve miles in length, and calling places are not yet 
very numerous. The Depot Farm, now called Port A1lson, Thomas 
Baldock's Hotel, and Ah-Mic Harbour with Croswell's Hotel may be 
mentioned as attractive points where travellers will find very fair ac- 
commodation, at the end of his forty mile trip from the railway station. 
This is also another excellent route for boating, as there are no 
rapids to interfere or portages to make while a nice diversity of pad- 
dling or rowing in the rivers is interspersed with sailing on the lakes. 
The camping facilities are good, and not a few farm houses will 
give ready supplies and shelter. The pioneers who have penetrated 
to this country and settled on its lake shores are all sportsmen, and 
boats and canoes and skilful guides, whose wood craft has been learned 
by long practice on their own account, can be found everywhere. 
From here on, the more adventurous can continue their canoe route 
by the Great River, twelve miles to Lake IVah-zoa-kesh, and thence to 
Byng Inlet, about fifty-five miles away on the shores of the Georgian 
Bay. In this distance there are 2 I portages, of varying lengths, from 
one of some two miles, to most of only a few yards. Their combined 
length is about eight miles, leaving 42 miles of good canoeing water. 
It is a trip not to þe attempted without first-class guides. These 
portages made there are few difficulties to be overcome, and in good 
hands these form only the sources of adventure for which the trip 
is undertaken. 



156 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Tile Seguin Chain. 


DU 1 1church, a village three and a half miles by road from Ah- Mic 
Lake, is on the shores of Whitestone Lake, another of the celebrated 
centres for sport in fin and fur. 1'he herring fishing in the narrows 
is most excellent, and the hunting and shooting of the best. 
From here retnrn can be made in another direction by taking the 
colonization road, 9}6 n1Ïles, to the village of McKellar, which is the 
centre of another lake system. Here the canoe can again be put in 
the water and following the Seguin River and its enlargements, Lakes 
Mallitowaba, Trotti, and Mill, can with facility arrive at Parry Sound, 
on the shores of the Georgian Bay. There are only three portages in 
the whole distance, one of half a mile, and two of one mile each; there 
are also three very short lifts. The other following the eastern arm 
of Lake Manitowaba portage 276 miles to Blackwater Lake, and then 
canoe through the connecting Lake Isabella past the village of Edg- 
ington into iJ1'aple Lake and Marsh and Star Lakes, and so portage 
again half a mile to Turtle P. O. on Turtle Lake, close to Port Cock- 
burn on Lake JOSepll. 
N either of these routes present very great difficulties, as they are 
almost entirely lake work. 
These samples give some idea of the possibilities of navigation in 
the many connecting waters of the Muskoka District, and what a 
wealth of exercise and adventure lies before the youth of Canada. 


. 


Tile French River Cllain. 


Sundridge (70 miles), the next point of any importance, is on the 
shores of Stony Lake, the summit water of the south slope of the 
district being 268 feet above Lake Muskoka. The lake is shallow, 
very regular in form, without any islands, and abounds in fish. 
South River (77 miles) is the first crossing of the new watershed, 
where the waters run north to Lake Nipissing. It is the highest 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 157 


point on the railway, and the dividing line between the two water- 
sheds, being 378 feet above Lake Muskoka, and 553 above Lake 
Nipissing. One must suppose that this is called the" South ., River 
because it runs" north" on the san1e principle as that given by Pat 
concerning the different Irish jaunting cars, on one kind of which the 
passengers sit back to back with their feet over the wheels, and the 
other face to face with their feet inside the car. " Oh, I dunno at 
all, but I suppose they call it an outsyde kyar becase the whales is 
insyde, and it's an insyde kyar becase the whales is outsyde." 
Mr. Holditch keeps the hotel, the "Ontario Height of Land 
House," and intends putting up an observation platform in Moose 
Park) from where eight lakes can be seen in a circle of five miles. 
The Dunbars Falls of the river are worthy a visit, being I So feet 
high. The river itself is from ISO to 200 feet in width, and a good 
canoeing stream. It is 24 miles paddle to Lake Nipissing, during 
which some rapids, but not very fast, are passed. The speckled trout 
in the river are the largest and most plentiful anywhere this side of 
N epigon, and in the hunting season moose ale met as well as large 
numbers of the red deer. It will be noticed that for some little time 
the appearance of the country has changed and the land im- 
proved. All through this latter part of the railway, immigration is 
beginning, and fine fertile farms with soil as good and opportunities 
better than the frontier farms of thirty years ago, will here be carved 
out of the forest. A certain market to the lumberman, and now 
easy access to the front country will settle up the better parts of this 
d is tri ct. 
Barretls (92 miles), is the centre of a large and thriving settle- 
ment, and another unexcelled centre for brook trout fishing and for 
moose and deer hunting. 
Commanda is fifteen miles west by road from here, or can also be 
most conveniently reached by the regular stages running daily from 
Maganetewan (see page 154). This section has been deservedly 
awarded the highest renown for the record of its sport. Being some- 
what remote, but now brought into more convenient access, the banks 



158 THE NURTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


of the streams and of the lakes are more completely in the state of 
nature than elsewhere, and for miles unbroken forest hems in the 
view. Following up the Great Nipissing Colonization road from 
Maganetewan, about halfway is 
Meganoma.-[We have struck the trail]. Russell & Archer's hotel 
here is absolutely first-class, kept by good caterers and ardent sports- 
men. This is the centre for Eagle Lake, Afany Island, Spring and 
Pickerel Lakes, and Distress River,-all celebrated fishing and 
hunting spots and comprised in what is known as the Commanda 
District. 
Rye is also a good centre. The stages stop for dinner at '\Vm. 
Park's hotel. At Còmmanda itself Carr's Temperance Hotel and 
Fitzgerald's are good stopping places. From here the Commanda 
Rz"z'er can be followed through C011l11landa Lake and Res/out Lake to 
Chaudiere Falls, near the shores of Lake Nipissing, than which no 
more pleasant or more sporting route exists. As all this neighbour- 
bùod is comparatively uninhabited, it is not advisable to attempt it 
without guides. 
After Powasing (95 miles) a good spot for trout on the Jenesse 
Creek, we arrive at 


Lake Nipissing.. 


Callender (108 miles), on South East bay, gives the first glimpse of 
the waters, being situated on a hill side sloping up from the bay. At 
present there about forty houses and three country hotels. Here the 
steamers touch for various parts of the lake. At the entrance to the 
bay is a very numerous group of islands, almost all of which have 
been taken up by residents of Hamilton. 
La Vase (112 miles from Gravenhurst and 226 from Toronto) is 
the connecting point with the Canadian Pacific Rail way and the all- 
rail route to l\1:anitoba and the North-West. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 159 


The Earliest Route to the Nortll-\Vest. 


The country we have now arrived at would at first thought seem to 
have been newly discovered, and to be now for the first time opened 
to the transport of the civilized traveller. Yet long before the 
aàvancing European colonist had penetrated to the shores of the 
Niagara, this route, up the Ottawa valley and along the shores of 
Lake Nipissing-the very line of the newly constructed Canadian 
Pacific Railway-had been traversed by many traders and travellers, 
and was their highway between Montreal and the Red River 
Country. 
As we have been travelling North, crossing the various East and 
West routes, and seemingly passing from the older and front coun- 
tries to the newer and more remote districts, we have really been 
meeting them in the reverse order of their development. When the 
whites first commenced to trade with the interior of the continent by 
the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, the first route that was opened up by 
them was this by Lake Nipissing. N ext came the portage by the 
Humber, or Toronto River, and Lake Simcoe; and lastly, that by 
the Niagara. 
It was not until 1669 that Père Gallinée, canoeing around the 
western shores of Lake Ontario, says: " We found a river, one-eighth 
of a league broad, and extremely rapid, forming the outlet of Lake 
Erie, and emptying into Lake Ontario. The depth of the river is 
at this place extraordinary, for, on sounding close by the shore, we 
found fifteen or sixteen fathoms of water. This outlet is forty leagues 
long, and has, from ten to twelve leagues above Lake Ontario, one 
of the finest cataracts in the world; for all the Indians of whom I 
have enquired about it say that the river falls at that place from a 
rock higher than the tallest pines-that is, about two hundred feet." 
Then was the Niagara River first met by the whites; and not until 



160 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


16 7 8 did Father Hennepin, the first European to see those Falls, 
stand by the cataract of Niagara. 
Yet sixty-three years before this, in 1615, before even the Pilgrim 
Fathers had landed on the shores of America, Champlain, the 
French Governor of Quebec, had advanced with a party of armed 
men and passed up the Ottawa to Lake Nipissing. He found the 
shores occupied by between 700 and 800 Indians, and after enjoying 
its" abundance of game," and describing its northern side as being 
"very pleasant, with fine meadows for the grazing of cattle, and 
many little streams discharging into the lake," he passed down the 
French River to the Lake of the Hurons. 
Following him came the Coureurs-des-bois, the voyageurs and trap- 
pers of the Canadian "North-'Vest" and" X. Y." fur companies, 
carrying over the rocky portages all the stores for themselves and 
the Hudson's Bay Company, at Fort vVilliam, and the packs of furs 
which sought this, for nearly a century the main route between the 
North-West and Tide-water. Early travellers have described its dan- 
gers and difficulties, and the many crosses erected along the route- 
memorials of brave men who had lost their lives in battling with the 
turbulent rapids of the stream, or with the many foes along its banks, 
of whom stories of valour, or of pathos and self-sacrifice, such as that 
of the gallant Cadieux, "voyageur, poête et guerrier," float down 
in history : 


" Seul en ces bois, que j'ai eu de sou cis 
 
Pensant toujours à mes si chers amis, 
J e demandais : Hélas! sont-ils noyés? 
Les Iroquois les auraient-ils tués? 
-E. GAGNON, Chansons Fopulains du Canada. 


Along the shores, the summer tourist can in fancy picture the pass- 
ing lines of heavy-laden canoes, and hear once mor
 the gay-hearted 
voyageurs singing out their cheerful French chansons, while keeping 
time wjth dripping paddle to the stirring tune. 



THE NORTHÞJRN LAKES OF OANADA. 160a 


The Higblands of Ontario. 


ALGONKIN PARK. 


It will have been noted that the heights above the sea level have 
been steadily increasing as the traveller has come north from Toronto, 
and on reference to the "Bird's Eye" map at the beginning of this 
guide, it will be at once seen that the District we are now in is the 
summit ridge of the great watershed of the Peninsula. 
The Mattawa, Pette'wa'wa, Bonnechere and Madawaska rivers will 
all be seen to run easterly, emptying their waters into the great Ottawa, 
and on the other side running to the west are the river chains whose 
details have just been described j the Muskosll, Muskoka, .ðfagane- 
lewan, Seguin and Frcncll rivers falling into the waters of the Georgian 
Bay. 
A happy thought has been conceived by the Government of the 
Province of Ontario, the details of which are set out in a publication 
by Mr. Kirkwood, of the Crown Lands Department. It is proposed 
that the centre of this territory shall be set aside as a " Forest reserve," 
principally for the preservation and maintenance of the natural forest, 
and of protecting the headwaters of the rivers, and in which it shall 
be unlawful for any person to enter and cut timber for any private use, 
or to disturb or destroy the fur-bearing animals, but in whose waters, 
under stated restrictions, the gentle art of angling may be indulged in. 
Such reservations wherein the destruction of the native animals of 
the wilds shall be stayed, and opportunity given in future years for 
the continued study of theii habits instead of causing their races to 
become extinct, have been intelligently adopted in other parts of this 
continent and the National Parks at Mackinac, and the JTellou1stone 
in the United States, and at Banff in the Rocky Mountain recesses 
of our own Canadian N orth- West, are tributes to the desire to retain 



160b THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


some of the forms of nature in their primeval state and to the hu- 
manitarian tendencies of this century. 
The Government will be warmly applauded for this project, and no 
better place could be chosen than this, wherein now the moose, 
cariboo and red deer wander in freedom, and the passing canoeist 
sees on the banks as he passes along the quiet strean1 the traces of 
the work of the mink, beaver, the otter and other fur-bearing animals, 
the contemplation of whose native haunts adds so greatly to the 
pleasure of a jaunt into the forest wilds. 
So close do the waters here approach that the head waters of the 
Muskoka and of the Madawaska are little over half a mile apart and 
each is 1,405 feet above the sea. 
In the centre of the district, the Park of about 28 miles square, 
has been selected, containing about 330}000 acres of land and 60,000 
acres of water. 
The speckled trout abound throughout this section, and the con- 
tinuance of good fishing Inay be secured under the control of those 
whose duty it would be to preserve the game and improve the forest 
by cutting out the mature timber for the advantage of what is retained, 
and the obtaining of revenue for the maintenance of the Park. 
The name has been suggested as being a method of preserving the 
Inemory of the great Algonquin-Huron race of Indians, whose history 
is touched upon at page 165. 


The Northern und Pacific Junction Railwuy. 


The northern end of this railway was completed in the autumn of 
1886, and by means of the night express trains, with sleeping cars, 
leaving Toronto in the evenings, the hitherto long distant sporting 
grounds are reached early the next 
orning. In addition to the 
information given in the preceding pages, the following may be 
added:- 
Sundridge.-(See page 156). The best trout fishing in Stony Lake 
will be found at Tile Inlet, at the north-east end, near the mouth of 



THE NORTHERN LAKE8 OF CANADA. 160c 


the small river which here enters it. Small trout can be caught in 
plenty for I 
 miles up the river, but the largest up to 3lbs. are 
caught in the lake itself. The best points are found by following the 
current of the river as it strikes into the water of the lake. Black 
Creek, a short distance away, has also good trout. 
South River.-(See page 156). The hotel accommodation has 
been added too. The Queen's is close to the station. Jacob Mars, a 
celebrated trapper, and H. B. Chapman, "chief guide," are referred 
to for hotel and sporting accommodation. 
The sport and fishing to be found by following down the stream 
towards Lake Nipissing is even better when going up towards its 
head. 
A paddle of 7 miles up the river, which is open and clear, when 
logs are not being run, brings the calloe to 


LAKE COUCH I. 


In this lake, about 2 miles long by 
 mile wide, is excellent fly 
fishing for speckled trout, and around the shores are good camping 
places. Forest Lake post-office is on the shores of the Lake 
and 1\lr. P. McDermett, the post master is an excellent refer- 
ence. At the upper end the river falls into the lake with a strong 
rapid, around this a somewhat difficult portage of a 
 mile must be 
made. Then follows a fishing reach of 4 miles where the" beauties" 
are to be found with the seductive fly. A morning's work with 2 rods 
of "Rolph's party," in 1886, showed 2 I trout all from 14 to 1 7 
 
inches in length. The fish in this river are the true speckled trout, 
game as steel and gorgeous in their colouring, the red marks shining 
on their glistening sides like glittering rubies gleam. 
The shores of the river are lined with heavy alder bush and im- 
practicable of approach. The sport must be all sought from the 
canoe. By further portages, other reaches can be attained. This 
section is only for the enthusiastic angler who is willing to camp out 
and to work hard before attaining his reward, like one who, corning 



160d THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


back to camp, his clothes, from fierce struggling at the portages, hang- 
ing about him in tattered shreds, with tangled hair and perspiring 
brow, threw first his string of speckled trophies and then himself upon 
the ground, exclaiming, "well, I have had a happy day. To land such 
fish was worth it all 
 " . 
There are a number of other small lakes in the vicinity. The 
land rolls in grand heights, clad with fine groups of hardwood trees 
and magnificent black and white birch. Game abounds, and beaver, 
otter, martin and mink are to be seen along the river, It is greatly 
to be hoped that the game laws will be strictly observed, so that 
legitimate sport, which will bring so n1uch profit to the district, will 
be maintained. 
Callandar.-(See page 158). This is a good headquarters from 
which, by the new train service of the N. and P. J. R. R., to reach 
South River, Trout Creek and Powasin, going out in morning and 
returning in evening. Wm. Windsor and Nicholas 'Vessels are 
referred to for hotel and sporting requirements. 
A smal! portage railway of five miles in length, by which logs are 
taken from Lake Nipissing, connects from here to Lake Nasbonsillg. 
The cars cross several times in the day. In the lake are plenty of 
black and silver bass, maskinongé, pickerel and white fish. From 
here the waters descend towards the Ottawa by the Kai-buskong river 
and thence by the Mattawan. 
Niþissing JUllction.- This station, formerly called La Vase, is where 
the Railway crosses the La Vase river at a point about 2 miles from 
its entry into Lake Nipissing: Sheppard's Hotel is recommended. 
The river is navigable for canoes throughout with the exception of a 
few portages and with the several streams, tributaries ,to' it, makes a 
good fishing ground. 
Bass, pickerel, maskinongé are the principal catch, affording good 
trolling with butterfly or minnow troll.-Trout Lake is distant 2 miles 
and Turtle Lake 9 miles from here.- 



THE NORTHERLV LAKES OF CANADA. 160e 


North Bay -(11676 miles from Gravenhurst and 227 miles from 
Toronto). This is the point of junction with the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, and the present terminus of tþe Northern and Pacific J unc- 
tion Railway until it shall have been extended further north towards 
Lake Temiscamingue, and the great lumbering district of the Upper 
Otta wa. 
The Town is situated on the shores of Lake Nipissing and good ac- 
commodation for sportsmen will be found a t Pacific Hotel, J no. Bourke, 
highly recommended, and The jJlackay House, Fee & Mackay, at both 
of which places waggons, guides, and sporting equipment can be ob- 
tained. There is a good sandy beach in the bay favourable for bathing. 
Here the main line trains of the Canadian Pacific RR. are taken 
either to Winnipeg and the Far West, or to Ottawa and Montreal. 
This is a very good centre from which to visit the surrounding lake 
country and to explore the river systems emptying into the great 
lake. 


1..4a.ke Nipissing. 
This is the largest of the interior waters of this marvellous lake dis- 
trict through which we have been passing. It is 8.0 miles long and 
varies from 20 to 40 miles in width. In altitude above the sea it does 
not occupy so high a point as the District further south, but into its 
waters from all sides pours a vast network of tributary rivers. 
The waters are shallow on the North but deep on the East and 
South shores, and abound with bass, pickerel, and whitefish; and huge 
sturgeon are to be caught. 
Coasting around the North shore there are met in succession the 
Duchesna)', Muskrat, Li/tle Sturgeoll, and Veuve Rivers, and at 23 miles 
west the Great Sturgeoll, the largest river falling in from the North. 
The western end of the lake foliates into several deep arms into which 
fall several small streams and from the largest of these commences 
the French Riz'er, by which the waters of the Lake fall to the 



1601 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


Georgian Bay. The islands are not very numerous except at the 
mouth of South East Bay; Manitou Island is at the north west end, 
Goose Island about the centre, and Iron Island away to the west. 
In exploring this district and particularly when hunting in the 
shooting season, when red deer and moose are plentiful, it is advis- 
able to have guides, and among these the following names are favour- 
ably known, 1\L H. Ritchie, Jno. McGillis, J. M. Sheppard, Isaac 
Ritchie and J no. Halliday; address all to Nipissing Junction. 
All around here will be found relics of the French tongue, the lan- 
guage of the first white adventurers who made their way through the 
woods and along the rivers, but now the translating English turns the 
original word into the newer language and the association of the names 
of voyageurs, of high dignitaries, or valiant soldiers are merged into 
mere landll1arks telling off the distances for the passing wanderer. 
To the north-west of the lake lies the watershed of the Ottawa 
district, and by a good portage road üf but 2 
 miles from North 
Bay the canoe can be launched in 


TROUT LAKE. 


This lake, 9 rnilés long, by an average of 3 wide, is 200 feet above 
the level of Lake Nipissing. Passing through this, and then, by the 
increasing waters of the .iJfattawall River, with a few portages at some 
rapids, and with good paddling where it widens out into Turtle and 
Taloll lakes, the voyageur can float his canoe down the great Ottawa 
and then by the Rideau Canal to Kingston on Lake Ontario, making 
a magnificent and adventurous tour, such as was enjoyed in 1886 by 
a detachment from the Canoe Club of Toronto. In the early ye3.r 
the rivers may be somewhat impeded by the timbermen "driving" 
their logs, but after the 1st August, they will, as a rule, be found , 
clear. 
Trout Lake is plentifully sprinkled with islands, and a number of 
deep bays. The water is of peculiar purity, and well stocked with 



THE NORTBERN LAKES OF CANADA. 160g 


ñsh. Mr. R. B. Jessup, whose house is at the head of the lake, keeps 
a supply of boats. 


Lake Ros"eau to Parry SOIlI1(I. 


The Muskoka and Nipissing Navigation Con1pany have added a 
splendid steel steamer to their fleet on the larger inland lakes, and 
have also added their two fine passenger steamers upon the "Inside 
Route" between Parry Sound and Penetanguishene. (See page 163.) 
. 
Having thus combined the two interests, there is now offered an ex- 
ceptionally interesting round trip route, going one way via the Mus- 
koka lakes and returning via the Parry Island Archiþelago. TI. 
government road has been well built and new stages are put on 
between Port Cockburn, Port Rosseau and Parry Sound, so that this 
connecting link has become a pleasant drive through the varied 
scenery of the little inner lakes and the rough rugged granite cliffs. 
Star Lake House, kept by Mr. W. F. Thomson, is a capital resting 
place, on the shores of Star Lake, five miles from Port Cock burn, 
and eight from Rosseau, where access is gained to the canoe route 
of the Seguin Chain (p. 15 6 ). A little steam yacht makes pleasant 
jaunts, and the fishing of the connecting lakes, having been little dis- 
turbed, is reported excellent. 
McKellar on the Seguin chain (see page 156) is now supplied with 
good hotel accomodation "The Armstrong House" a temperance 
hotel of which the resident physician Dr. B. .M. 'Valtin is proprietor, 
is well situated. A small steam yacht is available for picnic parties 
on the many interlacing lakes; stages run daily from Parry Sound 
(16 nliles) and from Ah Mic Harbour (16 miles), making thus a corn- 
plete conriection through this middle lake district from Burk's .Falls 
and the inland stations on the railway (page 154). As the ac- 
comodations improve on these inner lakes they will become increas- 
ingly sought by families in search of out door summer recreation. 



160h THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


Parr)T Sound to French River. 


Still another extension northwards has been effected by bi-weekly 
steamer from Parry Sound skirting through the island groups which 
continue to fringe the shores of the Georgian bay. 'fhis forms a 
great facility for reaching the lower waters of the Mootz River, or 
forms a pleasant two day's trip for the summer sojourners at Parry 
Sound. 
Byng Inlet and Frellcli River and Collins Inlet are regular calling 
points of the steamer, so that new combinations for round trips 
re opened in connection with those elsewhere described. 


French River-Canoe Route to Lake Nil)issillg. 


There are four Inouths by which the French River opens into the 
Georgian Bay. On the second of these lies the village of French 
River, at which the steamer from Parry Sound lands; or should the 
canoeist have made his way from that place by paddle and sail 
through the myriads of islands sprinkled along the shoTe, he can 
easily find the proper entrance by watching the smoke rising from 
the great sawn1Ïlls near the village. 
For a surnn1er outing in the modern sailing canoe there is no Inor
 
enjoyable trip than this through the islands from Parry Sound, then 
uþ the French River to Lake Nipissing, and thence return by rail 
from North Bay to Toronto. It is better tó go in this direction; for 
in running down stream on unmarked rivers such as this there is 
danger of running into rapids too boisterous to be safely overcome. 
The ships, loading with lumber, lie in the first reach of the river, 
with deep water sheer up to the banks. 
Two miles above the village is the first rapid, which is easily passed 
by an excellent tram road portage of a quarter of a mile. Now 
begins the real navigation. A map published in 1847 by the Geo. 
logical Survey of Canada is the best ext
nt, and so minute is it that 



TITR NOR'l'HEI:N LAKES OF OANADA. IGOi 


the correct route can, by clear heads, be made out without a guide; 
while failing such assistance the river would prove a troubleson1e 
maze. 
Its formation is peculiar. At intervals there would seem to be dykes 
or barriers, which cross its course and back up the waters; between 
these the river will divide itself up into various channels, coursing 
through the several parallel depressions, the water moving s10wly, 
and in SOIne places seelning entirely at rest, and not re-uniting for 
sometimes as much as twenty miles. The changes of direction are 
frequent and abrupt, sometimes appearing almost like cross-roads. 
There are no finger-posts to point out the way, yet the selection of 
the wrong opening will lead. to no danger, but only to the necessity 
of retracing the steps when the end of the false bay has been reached. 
The rocks are all merciless, forbidding granite, though graced with 
many kinds of trailing mosses and a superabundant supply of huge 
blueberries; but of animal life there is an almost absolute dearth. 
This area, between the south-west end of Lake Nipissing and the 
Georgian Ray, is a wilderness of water channels, separated by ribs 
of rock. It is a literal gridiron, through which pass the waters of 
the watershed; yet it has its beauties to the eye,. and a sense of 
novelty and exciten1ent that, combined with its safety, and its clpar 
un-incumbered river reaches Inake it a most available canoe route. 
At the second fork a lake is fonned, about five miles in length, 
into the north end of which enters the Wallipitae River. Now 
follows a long stretch of clear paddling for twenty miles, to COllté's 
Tí'llage, a small collection of Indian houses, where all the people 
l:l,lk French. For five Iniles there are a series of small rapids, some 
of which can be towed up, and others poled up, or else passed by 
short carrying places, the entrances to whic
 are clearly defined. 
N ext are the Chaudière Raþids, the most picturesque piece of water 
on tlH
 route, boiling through rocks fifty feet high on either h1.nd. 
Con1ing up the river an old log house will be noticed on the left 
hank, hehinrl which is an old Indian hurying-ground. One hundrC'n 



lüOj T,HE NOBTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


yards of swift water is worked up to the entrance of a bay which 
opens to the right; here land at the foot of a splendid portage of 
about five hundred yards over smooth rock, thus cutting off a rapid 
of one and a-half miles long. In the ledges here will be seen the 
,; pot-holes," marked on the .supremely accurate n1ap-geological 
formations whose razsùn d'é/re still forn1s a source of discussion for 
scientists. Ten miles open paddling brings to the open lake and 
J. B. Smith's sawmill. 
The river distance from the lake is seventy-five miles, and five 
days of easy but steady work may be fairly counted as the time to 
be allotted. Thence coast around the lake to the railway junction 
at North Bay, and so back again to the ?outh. 




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THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


161 


A. la (jlaire Fontaine. 


From Chansons Poþltlaires du Canada.-MoRGAN, QUEBEC. 


\ .... ... 


Andantino. 



Þ

J

 
A ]a cl ai - re fon - tai - ne M'en al - lant 



 
pro- me- ner, J'ai trou-vé l'eau si b el - Ie Que je me suis bai - gné. 



-
 - 
= 
-.' 
Lui ya long temps que je t'ai- me, J a - mais je ne 


. 
.. 
. 
.... 


t'ou - blie- rai. 


J'ai trouvé l'eau si belle, 
Que je m'y suis baigné ; 
Sous les feuilles d'un chêne 
J e me suis fait sécher. 
I...ui ya longtemps, etc. 


Tu as le cæur à rire, 
Moi je l'ai-t-à pleurer, 
J'ai perdu ma maitresse 
Sansl'avoir mérité. 
Lui ya longtempst etc. 


Sous les feuilles d'un chêne 
Je me suis fait sécher ; 
Sur la plus haute branche 
Le rossignol chantait. 
Lui ya longtemps, etc. 


J'ai perdu ma maitresse 
Sans l'avoir mérité, 
Pour un bouquet de roses 
Que je lui refusai. 
Lui ya longtempR, etc. 


Sur la plus haute branche 
Le rossignol chantait, 
Chante, rossignol, chante, 
Toi qui as Ie cæur gai. 
IJui ya longtemps, etc. 


Pour un bouquet de roses 
Que je lui refusai. 
J e voudrais que la rose 
Füt encore au rosier, 
Lui ya longtemps, etc. 


Chante, rossignol, chante, 
1'oi qui as Ie cæur gai, 
Tu as Ie cæur à rire, 
Moi je l'ai-t-à-pleurer. 
Lui ya longtemps, etc. 


J e voudrais que la rose 
Füt encore au rosier, 
Et moi et ma maîtresse 
Dans les même amitiés. 
Lui ya longtemps, ete. 


K 



162 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


The Parry Island Archipelago. 


The Penetallguishene branch, after leaving Allandale, follows the 
curve of the hills to the east of the No/lawasaga Valley. The river 
is filled with the accumulations of the débris of the freshets of hun- 
dreds of years, so that large portions of the valley are completely 
flooded in the early spring. Little by little it is being reclaimed; 
but vast acres of forest still occupy the bottom banks; and to the 
left of the train a view is had over their waving tops, surging like a 
green ocean with the inequalities of the surface. 
Penetallguishelle (102 miles from Toronto) is one of the historic 
spots of Canada, but in the impatient haste of these modern days it 
has had to allow its name to be curtailed to "Penetang." The town 
lies at the head of a deep inlet on the south.east shore of the Georgian 
Bay, which early attracted attention as a safe and commodious har- 
bour. The importance of the naval command of the Upper Great 
Lakes led the British Government, in 1818, to fix upon a site near 
the 1I10uth of the bay for the establishment of a dockyard. A war- 
sloop, the lI
iJas, was here stationed for some years; but the idea 
of making a naval centre was shortly after abandoned. [The position 
has since been occupied by a Juvenile Reformatory, maintained by 
the Canadian Government]. The British Government had induced 
a number of pensioners to occupy lands in the vicinity which formed 
part of the military reservation-the records of the names of many 
of whom are to be found in the old lVlilitary Church, and under the 
waters of the bay may still be seen, on calm days, the sunken hulls 
of the old gunboats of which they formerl the crews. 
The town, situated 276 miles from the Reformatory, developed a 
considerable trade in furs, large quantities of which were brought by 
Indians and Half-breeds from the almost unbroken forests and count- 
less lakes to the North-East, which afforded an unrivalled hunting 
ground. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. ]63 


Some families of French and English Half-breeds and of French 
Canadians, who, on the giving up of Drummond Island, Lake Huron, 
to the Americans, in 1828, retained their British allegiance, were 
granted lands in the vicinity. In 1841 a number of their compatriots 
from Lower Canada joined them, forming what is now known as the 
French Settlement. In 1880 the census reports the French-speaking 
population of the County of Simcoe as 3,669, almost all of whon1 
live within a few miles of Penetanguishene; and in the Roman 
Catholic churches the services are still rendered in the French lan- 
guage. 
Pleasant excursions can be made from here to Midland City, Mouth 
of the Severn, Parry Sound, etc. The Clarkson House, on a height 
overlookin2' the bay, is recommended. 


THE ARCHIPELAGO. 


There are two lines of steamers which ply through these islands on 
the route to Parry Sound. The Great Northern Transit Company, from 
Collingwood, and the Parry Sound Company, from Penetang. Both 
lines of steamers pass through this maze of islands. Ten thousand 
have been counted about here in the nautical survey of the Georgian 
Bay, and the whole shore is fringed with them, of all sizes, from mere 
dots to hundreds of acres, with high towering cliff-like centres. 
Through the Inside Chanllel of these the steamers wind their way. 
One open spot only exists, Moose Point, where the lake has open 
sweep, but except this, all else is through channels, some so narrow 
as to almost touch the steamers' sides. Many of the Islands are oc- 
cupied with summer-houses, and there is no doubt that ere long 
there will be as great a population as now takes its summer outings 
on the inland Lakes of Muskoka. 


PARRY SOUND. 


This large and flourishing town is beautifully situated at the mouth 
of the Seguin River, whose waterfalls are utilized for its gigantic 
sawmills, and upon a deep recessed harbour, completely sheltered 
from the open water. From it the summer can be spent either in ex- 



164 THE hORTHEflN LAKES OF OANADA 


ploring, by means of the several steam launches, the windings up the 
Archipelago, or striking inland, take the canoe trips up the interior. 
Good fishing abounds of the same character as inland, except that 
some extra-sized bass, old lake stagers, are occasionally captured. 
The BrlvÙlereHolel($I.50) is opened only in the summer season, 
being specially intended for tourists. Its situation upon a high hill- 
side, facing the- most beautiful view, has been excellently selected. 
The Seguin HOllse, R. B. Armstrong, and Albit/n House, Henry Jukes 


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THE THREE SISTERS. 


(both $1000;, are favourably mentioned. There are several churches, 
some good stores, a local weekly paper, and telegraph communica- 
tion. It is just twelve hours' run, half boat and half rail, between 
Toronto and Parry Sound. Harvie's stage line runs regularly between 
here and Port Cockburn, L:lke Joseph (24 miles). It is a good road, 
and passes along an almost consecutive line of pretty lakes. Round 
trip tickets, going one way and coming back the other, can be 
obtained, including both the Lakes of Muskoka and the Parry Island 
Archipelago. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 165 


The Hurons aUfl French ill the Early Da)

. 


BY 


MR. J AS. BAIN, JR., PUBLIC LIBRARIAN, TORONTO. 


The early history of the existing town of Penetanguishene only 
carries us back to the beginning of this centu.ry, but the sur- 
rounding district recalls the history of a nation whose tragic fate was 
the theme of innumerable pens, and which disappeared altogether 
from the face of the country in the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. At a time when the infant European settlements were strug- 
gling for bare existence in Salem, Fort Orange, Jamestown, and 
8t. Augustine, French priests and traders, had worked their way 
up the turbulent rivers and through the trackless forests to this 
neighbourhood, and had organized an extensive mission and built 
a fort and church, the ruins of which exist to this day. 
The Hurons, a branch of the great Huron-Iroquois family, had 
early separated themselves from their kindred, who were afterwards 
known as the Ir
quois, or Five Nations, dwelling in what is now 
N ew York State. A bitter feud had arisen between them, and 
the warfare was conducted with all the cruelty and vindictiveness 
to be expected from the most ferocious Indians of this continent. 
The establishment of a fort at Quebec, in 1608, at once drew 
large numbers of the I-Iurons, to trade their furs for French goods. 
Their yeady visits attracted the attention of Champlain, the Gover- 
nor of the new French possessions, who, as did Cartier when 
he named the first village above tide-water La ChÙze, still drearnt 
of reaching China and the golden East, and hoped to be able, with 
the IIurons' assistance, to gain the road to the Eastern seas. In 
1615 he made his second attempt to reach th
ir country, ascended 
the Ottawa River, crossing Lake Nipissing, and descending the nver 
of that name, now called the French River, he gazed for the first 
time upon the great fresh-water sea of the Huron
1 



166 THE NORTBERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Passing, in his canoe, along the eastern side of the Georgian Bay, 
threading his path amid the countless islands which line its shores, 
he finally landed at Thunder Bay, a few miles west of Penetangui- 
shene. He was immediately taken to a town in the vicinity, called 
Carhagouthia, where he was welcomed by Father Le Caron, who had 
preceded him. On the 17th of August he reached the chief town, 
Cahiagué (near Coldwater). 
The unfortunate decision which now led Champlain to join the 
Hurons in an attack upon the Iroquois, near Onondaga, was the 
inlmediate cause of the long and bitter warfare which almost resulted 
in driving the French from Canada. The expedition took its way by 
Balsam Lake, the Trent River, and the Bay of Quinté, thence across 
Lake Ontario. Having failed to carry the Indian fortifications in 
spite of the firearms of their French allies, they retreated to their 
homes. Champlain returned to Quebec in the following spring, 
after spending the wintei in excursions through the Huron country. 
The number of towns and villages, he reported, was 32, and the 
population about 20,000; but a later traveller fixed it more ac- 
curately at 30,000. \Vell may Parkman say that "here, within an 
area of sixty or seventy miles, was the seat of one of the most 
remarkable savage communities of this continent." The entire 
population seems to have been confined to the country lying between 
the Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe, with its northern extension, 
Lake Couch iching. 
On the return of Champlain to Quebec, reinforcements were sent 
to the Mission; and as 
he annual Relations of the Jesuit Fathers 
were published in Paris, detailing the strange discoveries and painful 
labours of those who had ventured their lives, a fervent missionary 
spirit arose which was profitable to the Mission both in money and 
men. In 1639, the Jesuits, finding it imperative to establish some 
fixed headquarters, chose a spot on the banks of the River Wye, 
near where it empti
s into Matchedash Bay. Here they built a fort 
and church, named it Ste. Marie, manning the one with soldiers to 
the number of thirty, and adorning the other with the ecclesiastical 
ornamepts which they had succeeded in transporting over the long 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 167 


reaches and weary portages of the Ottawa and Nipissing Rivers. 
The fort, built partly of stone, partly of wood, was enclosed within 
a palisaded fortification and surrounded by a moat. \Vithin its gates, 
charity and medicines were dispensed to the poor and suffering from 
the surrounding Indian towns, and every means were adopted to lead 
the savage to the service of the church. 
The Iroquois saw with intense hatred this settlement of white men 
to their north, and resolved to make a powerful effort to reduce the 
Hurons to subjection and to extenninate the French. A temporary 
peace which had been concluded between themseh'es and the French 
and their Indian allies was broken, and a series of desperate on- 
slaughts was made upon the French settlements along the St. Law- 
rence, until almost the entire population was driven into the isolated 
forts for protection from the human wolves. Turning their attention 
next to the Hurons, a numerous party cróGsed Lake Ontario, and 
ascending the Humber River to its head waters, soon reached by 
bush paths their frontier town, at the foot of a range of hills, about 
twenty miles to the south-east of Penetanguishene, known as Tean- 
austayé or St. Joseph. The Hurons were caught unprepared; in a 
short time the town was in ashes and the inhabitants massacred, 
with the exception of 700 who were carried off prisoners. Father 
Daniel, the priest in charge, was cut to pieces in front of his own 
church. After destroying in a silnilar manner another small town in 
the vicinity, the Iroquois returned home in triumph. In 1649, eight 
months after, a larger party, principally composed of Senecas and 
Mohawks, said to number about 1,000, again crossed Lake Ontario, 
and leisurely hunting till they drew near to the Hurons, burst upon 
the settlements like a whirlwind, burning the towns and destroying th e 
inhabitants, until the cowed remnant of the Hurons, clustered round 
the Fort of St. Marie, resolved to fly from their own country and take 
refuge in some of the islands to the north. The Jesuits had no 
option-if their flock fled they must accompany them, and accordingly 
the torch was applied to the buildings, and the result of years of labour 
was soon a mass of broken walls and heaps of ashes. Part of the 
stonework was standing about six feet above the ground as late as 



]68 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


1870, but has since been destroyed, and the mounds and hollows are 
are all that left of one of the earliest buildings of this continent. 
A memorial church is being erected in Penetanguishene, to com- 
memorate the martyrdom of the priests, Brebæuf and Lallemant, who 
fell victims to the ferocious cruelty of the Iroquois. The first resting 
place of the unfortunate Hurons was the Christian Island, lying ten 
miles to the N orth West, where the Jesuits once more erected a fort, of 
which the walls are still standing; but their spirit was broken, and har- 
rassed again by the Iroquois, they scattered over the isiands still further 
to the north, a small remnant alone remaining with the Jesuit fathers, 
and finally, when the surviving French left the country, accompanied 
them to Lower Canada, where in the little village of Lorrette, close 
by Quebec, their descendants dwell to this day. The towns o{ the 
Hurons were composed of long bark-covered houses, accommo- 
dating numerous famiIÏr
s, easily constructed and as easily destroyed. 
Nothing was permal1
øot, and the forests speedily overran their sites. 
With the one exception of Ste. Marie built by the French, we are 
dependent on the heaps of ashes, stone implements and burnt corn 
turned up by the settlers, for the identification of the dwel1ing places 
of a populous nation who passed away two centuries ago, leaving the 
country empty and desolate {or almost an hundred ye8rs. 


. - 


The Georgian Ba,)T. 


Reverting again to Allandale (page 8 I), the Collingwood Branch 
leads north-westerly over the level known as the" Pine Plains," once 
covered with stately pine
, but now being rapidly changed to broad 
acres of grain-laden fields and meadow pastures. Passing Angus and 
crossing the Mad and No//a7c 1 asaga Rivers, a reminiscenre of the 
olden days is preserved in the name of Batteaux, where the voyageurs 
used to embark their laden canoes, and then we reach the lake. 
Collingwood. Forty years ago the shores were lined with forest, and 
the Hen and Chickens harbour was but the resort of the Indians, or 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 169 


the home of the wild fowl. N ow a stirring town of 5,000 inhabita.nts 
occupies the spot. Sawmills and huge grain elevators meet the eye, 
and busy steamers connecting with all the upper lakes lie at the docks. 
There is good brook trout fishing in the neighbourhood, and plea- 
sant excursions can be made to the Caves, in whose re
esses the ice 
of winter lingers the summer through, or to the Nottawasaga Beach, 
where for miles an excellent drive can be enjoyed on the firm hard 
sands around the curving shore of the bay. N ear the nlouth of the 
river lies the skeleton hulk of an old British gunboat, driven hard 
upon the shore, and behind which, in the sand banks, have been found 
some of the round shot fired at it by the pursuers when it sought 
shelter from the foe. 
Collins' "Grand Central Hotel," and Rowland's" Globe Hotel," 
can be recommended as excellent headquarters. (See adv.) 
Leaving Collingwood by the Lake Superior or the Georgian Bay Line 
steamers, the Blue Afountaills rise high above the town, and fringe 
the southern shores of the Georgian Bay. This is the same elevation 
which, running south-easterly across the peninsula, is successively 
known sixty miles inland, as the Caledon Moulltains, at Burlington 
Bay as "The Mountain" and terminates in the "Niagara Escarp- 
ment':' on the banks of the Niagara River. The Christian Islands lie 
out to the right, another Notlawasaga Island, with revolving light- 
house, nearer to the shore. 
Meaford lies at the foot of a bay under the protection of the pro- 
montory of Caþe Rich. A rich agricultural country lies at the back, 
drained by the Bighead and Beaver Rivers, in whose upper reaches 
good sport is still to be had in speckled trout. Pretty drives up 
there, and the Cuckoo Valley, and good boating and bathing on the 
shores of the bay make the little village a pleasant summer resort. 
Mrs. Paul's hotel has long been a favourite with city visitors, and 
Noble's hotel is also recommended. The district is celebrated for 
its fruit, particularly plums, which grow to a size and luxuriance not 
approached in any other part of Ontario. It is a strange fact, too, that 
under the shelter of the lofty headlands peaches and grapes grow 
freely in the open air. 



170 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Owen Sound, the next calling place, is around Cape Rich, and at 
the head of a deeply-recessed bay. It is the terminus in this direc- 
. tion of the Owen Sound division of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
which connects with Toronto, and is the starting point of their line 
of swift steel steamships plying between here and Port Arthur. 
Ingles and Engellia Falls, and the river Sydenham, are picturesquely 
situated in the deep rock-bound valley. The town is fast advancing 
in importance, and is the centre of an improving trade. 
From here the steamers take the direct course up the bay. Lonely 
Island marks almost half the way, and in the morning the northern 
shores, with the lofty granite cliffs of the La Cloche Mountains come 
into view. At their foot lies the sheltered channel on which is Kil- 
larney, a fishing village of much fish importance, originally caned, in 
the Indian tongue, She-ba-wa-na-1Zillg (here is a channel). It has been 
modernized in name, but the beauty of its surroundings still remains 
the same. 


'4 +-4Þ-+- . 


The Great .North Jlallitolllin tJbauuel. 


From here begins the wonderously beautiful trip of the Great 
N.-1rlh Channel in behind the warding shelter of the Great Manitoulin 
Islalid. The steamers of the Great Northern Transit Comþany are 
really excellent models of what excursion and safe lake-going steamers 
should be. Carrying Her Majesty's mails, they call from little hamlet to 
hamlet along the Island shores, running into out-of-the-way recesses, 
and passing backwards and forwards to cross the North Channel in 
doing their "Local" business on a way that is entirely different to 
that of the direct routes of the "'Through" steamers. The searchers 
for the novelties of this route are fast increasing in numbers, and its 
and the steamers' good nanle becoming proverbial. 
A correspondent in the Forest and Stream thus describes the scene: 
"Islands succeed islands in an unbroken continuity hour after hour 
as we glide on; islands of every conceivable size and shape, more 
numerous than the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence many times 



THE NORTHERN LAKE/:) OF CANADA 171 


multiplied; islands barren, wooded, sandy, rocky, columnar, grace- 
fully rounded, precipitous and gently sloping, wind-swept and storm- 
polished, large, diminutive, and infinitesimal; reefs widely spreading, 
and submarine monoliths whose peaks barely project above the sur- 
face. There is a breadth and sweep and never-ending change in the 
panorama which is all-absorbing to a mind intent upon the picture. 
F or one hundred and seventy miles we steam through this island 
scenery! In the calm repose of a summer's morning, when the waves 
are stilled and the face of the lake gleams like polished glass, the 
shadows fall heavily from the indented shores, and every rock and 
tree is sharply outlined 
and reproduced inverted 
in the mirror. Then we 
seem to float on airy 
nothing, looking upward 
into cloudland and down- 
ward into cloudland, in- 
to depths above and be
 
low that seem illimitable. 
There is very little animal 
life upon the Islands. 
The mainland is a con- 
tinuous upheaval of bare 
Laurentian billows of granite that once were molten. There is but a 
scanty growth of trees. Sweeping blasts have scathed them and 
frequent fires blasted out their vitality. There are very few houses 
and but little cultivation. Occasionally a bark canoe glides from be- 
hind a point, and at intervals a solitary fisherman's hut is descried. 
Were it not for the gaunt white guUs that hover over our wake or 
keep vigil on the rùcks, this would be a solitude. 
" In places the flinty strata of rocks yield a mineral wealth suffi- 
cient to induce the sinking of a mining shaft, or the back country af- 



J72 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


fords a supply of furs which necessitates the establishment of a trad- 
ing post and depot. At these the steamboat touches, sometimes to 
take in wood, sometimes to land a passenger, and anon to discharge 
some freight." 
Captain Bayfield, R.N., who compiled the nautical charts of these 
waters, states that 27,000 islands have been counted in the combined 
shores of the Georgian Bay and the North Channel. 
After, lVIanitowaning, a rising settlement on the island, where are 
said to be some good trout streams (Quinn's and the Commercial 
Hotel); next on the route comes Lit/Ie Current, another hamlet, and 
here a tide sets between the islands with a four-knot current. It is 
said the tide is caused by the wind, that it sets in whichever direction 
the wind is blowing at the time. Still further on is the picturesque 
Hudson's Bay Company post, called La Cloche, with its sunny white 
buildings, red-roofed. 
Gore Bay, one of the most important points upon Manitoulin 
Island, and the principal port to the free grant lands, is next 
touched at. 
Crossing back again, 
SþallÍsh Rizrer, an important lumbering 
entre, is Inet, and from 
here the steamer, after passing through the narrow straits of the 
" Ðevil's Gap," threads its way through the islands that fringe the 
Northern shore. 
Algoma Mills is the point where the Canadian Pacific branch, 
after leaving the main line and skirting the north shores of Lake 
Nipissing first approaches the waters of Lake Huron on its way to 
Sault Ste. Marie. 
Blind River and Missasaga River empty the waters of the North 
water shed, and are connecting routes to the Indian reserva tions 
further inland. At Thessalon is Jackson's hotel, and boats and 
guides can be obtained for the upper trout streams of the Missasaga 
Ri ver. 



THE NOllTHERN LAKES OF OAN.Af).A. 173 


The Direct steamers from Collingwood coming in through the 
Missasaga channel now join the route of the Local steamers, and 
at the Bruce Mtizts, 307 miles from Collingwood, are the huge chim- 
ney stacks and shops and piles of copper ore, and ranges of hovels two 
miles long that belonged to the great company that used to delve 
the precious metal froiTI the bowels of the surrounding earth. The 
works have cost over a quarter of a million of dollars. After a 
particularly beautiful part of the route, in which the steamers wind 
through a series of small islands and so close to the cliffs in passing 
through the" Wilsons Channel,'" that a biscuit can almost be pitched 
to land, Bear Lake is next passed, and after the N ebeesh Rapids we 
presently enter the serpentine St. Mary's Riv.:r, with its Indian 
__ reservation and vil- 

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 lages upon the Cana- 
dian side, and an oc- 
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Catholic missions to the Indians in this district. 
Forty miles from Bruce Mines, we reach Sault Ste. 1J[arie, with its 
foaming rapids, its great ship canal, and the rival villages that con- 
front each other from either shore. Here, if one elects to tarry, he 
will find good fishing in the rapids and smaller streams in the 
vicinity. There are nurnerous Indians on hand to lend their services 
and canoes, and if the sportsman will try the Garden River, on the 
Canada side, he can fill his creel with trout. Sixteen iniles below the 
Sault is Hay Lake and its outlets, affording fine trouting and good 
duck shooting in their respective se:lsons. There is a very comfort- 
able hotel at Sault Ste. Marie, on the American side, called the 


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174 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Chippewa House. In Fort Brady is a detachment of the United 
States regular army. The Canadian side is more picturesque, and 
there are some fine private residences there. 11illar's and Murray's 
hotels are excellently kept and nicely situated on the banks of the 
flver. 
The waters of Lake Superior here pour over the Sault Ste. frfarÍt 
Falls. There is no one bold single fall, but a continuous rapid of 
about three-quarters of a mile in length, the waters rushing down with 
great fury, and breaking in huge waves over the rocks. 


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SAULT ST. 
IARIE FALLS. 
At the Sault is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Algoma, and 
the "Shingwauk Home," a school for the education of Indian 
children. On the American side is the great ship canal with two sets 
of locks. The earliest built in 1855 are 70 feet wide and 350 feet 
long, and fine examples of masonry, but they have been far eclipsed 
by the new lock 80 feet wide and 560 feet long, which is perhaps as 
large as any lock in the world, and raises the vessels by one lift of 18 
feet to the level of Lake Superior. 
Tourists can stop over and go on by the next steamers, and enjoy 
some fishing or "run the rapids; " canoes and two men can be hired 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OAN.A.D.A. 


175 


at fifty cents for each person. The white.fish of ,:the Sault are the 
finest and firmest of the lakes. It is interesting to watch the Indians 
as, poling their canoes up the surging rapids, they peer through the 
clear waters to discover the fish swimming in the channels in the 
rocks, when suddenly dropping down with the swift current, they 
sweep them out with their long-handled scoop nets. 



 . 


ltlackinac. 
Connection with this famed resort, where the United States Govern- 
ment has created the whole island a "national park," is made daily 
from Sault Ste. Marie by various lines of steamers. 
On the special "Mackinac Excursions/' the Collingwood steamers 
turn westwards at St. Joseþh's Island, skirting the shores of Drum- 
l1UJnd Island, from which, at the time of its cession to the United 
States, the patriotic British population migrated to Penetanguishene. 
The S1. Mary's river is the highway for an immense volume of trade, 
and many huge steamers and tows of barges laden with grain or iron 
and copper ore will be met with in its channels. At Detour entry is 
made from it into Lake Huron, and after running westwards the 
heights of Mackinac Islalld come into view. 
Around this island centre many historic events. As Michilimackinac 
it appears in the early annals as one of the most coveted strategic 
points and was in succession held by all the nationalities who in 
successive ages warred for the possession of the internal commu- 
nications of this continent. The many local guide books and the 
several "Histories of Mackinac" will tell the details. A fort tops 
the sheer precipice, at the foot of which lies a part of the town, 
and for picturesqueness of position can very rarely be equalled. 
In 176 I the British had built the first old Fort Michilimackinac 
but in 1763 it was surprised by the Indians under the great chief, 
Pontiac, and the garrison almost wholly massacred. In 1764 the 



176 THE NORTHEllN LAKES OF OANADA. 


present Fort Mackinac was built, and upon its being given over to 
the United States in 1793, at the conclusion of the revolutionary 
war, the British removed their headquarters to a new fort erected 
about 4 0 miles to the north on St. Joseph's Island, some remnants 
of which still remain. 
When the war of 1812 began, Capt. Roberts, who was in command 
at Fort St. Joseþh, under instructions received froin General Brock, 
sallied forth, with the gallant Toussaint Pothier (afterwards member 
of the Upper House of Parliament, Montreal) and 455 Canadians and 
.Indians. Having dropped down the river in boats and canoes they 
landed on the north side of the Island at a place now called ,. English 
Landing," and re-took Fort Mackinac from the Ainericans. 
In 1814, a force of United States troops of 1,000 men, under Col. 
Crogan undertook to recapture the fort but they were met at the 
Dousman Farm and repulsed with considerable loss, Major Holmes, 
the second in command, being killed, and having retired hastily to 
the shore they re-embarked on their vessels and sailed off the same 
evenIng. 
.Fort St. Gtorge was erected on the highest part of the Island by the 
the Canadians, who held possession of the place until 1815, when 
the island was peaceably surrendered to the United Stg,tes, and the 
the name of the Fort was then changed to Fort Holmes, in honor of 
the Major who had been killed the previous year. 
Visits can be made to "The Lovers' Leap, Arch Rock, the 
several battle fields, etc., and their legendary and historic lore 
sought out with pleasure. Summer hotels of the finest description, 
and palatial lines of steamers from Detroit and Chicago have 
combined to fornl this one of the most engaging summer resorts 
in the north, and from it radiate many series of connections, including 
this alons:{ the Great North Manitoulin Channel to Collingwood, or 
to the Northern Shores of the mighty Lake Superior. The round 
trip from Collingwood to Sault Ste. 1\larie and Mackinac occupies 
just about one week. From Mackinac or the Sault to Lake Superior 
about the same. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


177 


The North Shore of Lake Superior. 


fhrough the Sault and into Lake Superior ! We have traversed 
one vast Mediterranean, and another is before us. 
Lake Superior is 460 miles long, 170 miles broad; its depth is 800 
feet, being 200 feet below the level of the Atlantic. 
It is only now that we begin to realize the immensity of these in- L. 
land seas. The voyage for duration is like a journey to Europe. 
Great ships of thousands of tons burthen, traverse its highways, and 
storms that are not surpassed in violence sometimes agitate its depths, 
but in the summer time its clear cold waters are seldom stirred ex- 
cept by passing thunder showers. 
The direct steamers, after passing up the river from Sault Ste. 
Marie across Waiska Bay, now phonetically and modernly calleå 
Whiskey Bay, and by the noble headlands of Iroquois and Gros Cap, 
" the portals of Lake Superior," head directly across the lake. 
The coasting steamer turns northwards and proceeding one hun- 
dred iniles, after losing sight of land, arrives at Michiþicoton Island 
and river. Here in summer the boats tarry a few hours that excur- 
sionists nlay pick up agates along the pebbly shore or catch huge 
trout in the adjacent waters. Were it not that larger fish can be 
taken on the N epigon, the size and quantity of these would seem 
an1azing. Some of the agates found here are of unusual beauty and 
transparency. The light-house keeper, who has a sort of monopoly 
of the business, in that he has thoroughly raked the placers, will sell 
a pint of them for about a dollar. 
Hence to Port Arthur and Fort William, the distance is 306 miles. 
The cliffs around the North Shore are bluff to the water's edge. 
Among the Slate Islands is some very fine fishing, and large exports 
of salmon trout are m
de from here. All around this shore thére are 
regularly established "fisheries" and the boats of the hardy fisher- 
men may often be met with. 
On the north shore of Lake Superior is the noble N epigon Bay. 
Entrance is by the straits between lofty islands and cliffs 1,500 feet 
L 



178 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANDA. 


from base to summit, ragged with shattered rocks or clad with verdure, 
or past small islets barely holding ground for a few small trees. At the 
Inouth of the river is the famed Red Rock, sacred to the Manitou, 
and carved with hieroglyphics, the marks and relics of early Indian 
visits. . 
Of this rock, from tilne immemorial, has the Indian " Calumet" or 
pipe of peace been made, and far down upon the Mississippi, and in 
Mexico, in the nlounds or tumuli of extinct races, are found samples of 
its peculiar stone. 



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Half a mile from the mouth is the Hudson's Bay post. 
Around the shores of St. Ignace Island, which divides the bay from 
the open lake, is magnificent lake trout fishing, (see Orvis Cheney 
" Fishing with the Fly") and the sport on the river is renowned. 
Silver Islet lies under the shadow of Thunder Cape, and from its 
depths have been extracted many millions in value of silver, but now 
the mines, which were centred on a small rock barely above water, 



THE NORTH.bRN LAKES OF CANADA. 


179 


have become too difficult for profitable working, and attention IS 
being directed to the main-land. 
Thunder Bay, the great point of interest of the route is now en- 
tered, a grand expanse of water twenty miles in diameter, encircled 
by an amphitheatre of fantastic hills and guarded at its portal by 
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THUNDER CAPE--LAKE SUPERIOR. 


leap and re-echo froiTI point to point of the entire circumference of 
the bay. But when the Titanic voice of the thunder-blast rolls 
through the broad expanse, it resounds with mighty intonations that 
shake the cliffs and split the air, and give to cape and bay their most 
appropriate name. It is the tongue of the Great Spirit, Nana-bijoo, 
thRt speaks. And the god hinlself lies prone upon his back, like 



180 THE .NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


some ancient crusader resting from his labours. Looking fronl the 
distance his gigantic form can be seen plainly limned in the outline 
of the adjacent mountain ridge. It has been the custom of the 
ancient Indians to toss hinl a bit of tobacco, by way of a propitiatory 
offering, as they pass! 'ro the south-west is seen McKay's l\10untain, 
and further to the left the peculiarly shaped Pie Island, its form 
resem bling a gigantic pork pie. 
Port Arthur.-Here is the Lake terminus of the Canadian National 
Highway, the Canadian Pacific Railway, which {ron1 here spans the 
Continent over forest, plain, and mountain range, to the temperate 
climate of British Columbia and the shores of the Pacific. Here too 
toward the east joins the just finished portion of the railway which, 
skirting the north shore of Lake Superior, running for miles around 
the bays and headlands in sight of the mighty waters, leaves them in 
the neighbourhood of J ackfish Bay, and cuts across the inland coun- 
try to the shores of Lake Nipissing. 
One cannot help comparing the first route of communication, when 
in canoes forced slowly and with difficulty up the rapids, or pain- 
fully carried over rugged portages from Montreal, up the Ottawa, over 
Lake Nipissing, and down the French River to the Lake Huron; 
then coasting with carefulness the long weary miles of rock-bound 
shore past the Sault the voyageur arrived at Thunder Bay, with this, 
the ntwest connection, its palace cars and express trains sweeping on 
swift wheels over the same route, often within sight of the same 
spots, beside the same rapids of the rivers and along the same shores 
of the lakes! 
Where can a greater contrast be found between the Past and the 
Present, or where a tnore vivid example of the overcoming of the 
obstacles of nature by the genius and energy of man! 
Port Arthur is growing fast. Into the lap of this bay is being 
poured the business of half a continent, and with it must corne the 
welfare of the neigh bourhood. 
The Northern Hotel, kept by F. S. 'Viley, faces the full view of 
the Bay, and will be a pleasant place where meetings for the summer 
holidays can be arranged between families from the N orth- West and 
their members which may have remained ,behind in Eastern Canada. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


181 


A most pleasant excursion can be made by small tug up the Kami. 
nistiquia river to Poillte à Muron, a distance of 12 miles, to the head 
of navigation, fronl where a magnificent view of Thunder Bay and 
the mighty ranges which encircle it like an amphitheatre can be ob- 
tained. Pigeon Ri'ller, the boundary between the United States and 
Canada, and having fine Falls j Current River, with rushing rapids 
and silver mines; Amethyst Bay, where the beautiful amethyst veins 
are found in abundance ; Silver Harbour, the silver Inines, and the 
numerous trout streams, will all give plenty to do and to amuse during 
the stay. 



 
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M'KAY'S MOU
TAIN. 


Fort William is reached either by road or by boat, a pull of about 
two miles, or by the Canada Pacific R. R.. I t is about the oldest 
Hudson's Bay post on Lake Superior, on the banks of the Kaministi- 
quia River, a sluggish stream, winding with many a turn at the foot of 
McKay's Mountain, named after one of the early, residents at the 
Hudson's Bay post. The ascent, although son1ewhat difficult, is well 
worth making. Following an Indian trail for about four miles, the 
precipitous sides of the mountain are ascended and the summit 
reached, about 1,200 feet above the level of the lake. Directly be. 
neath winds like a silver thread the Kalllillistiquia River, dividinj! 



]82 THE NORTHERN LAKEA", OF CANADA. 


where it flows into Thunder Bay, into many channels, justifying its 
name, which means in the original " many-mouthed stream." 
Eastward across the bay, at the distance of 25 miles, rises the lofty 
wall of Thunder Cape and attendant ranges. Then Pie Islands, the 
\Velcome Islands, and far beyond them out in the broad water is the 
Isle Royale, a portion of the United States, to the left the Pointe a 
Muron range
 with the river winding through them and the course of 
the Canada Pacific Railway, stretching far away through miles of 
forest. Around the river mouth cluster the giant elevators and the 
black masses of coal heaped np on the docks for transport inland, and 
through the web-like interweaving of the tracks puff the yard-engines 
of the railway sorting out the products of the Great N orth- \V est. The 
front of the mountain is a sheer cliff of 300 feet high to the first 
ledge, and from its giddy height an unbroken view of all the country 
round for 50 miles delights the eye. There are son1e good hotels in 
the town. 






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THE KAKABEKAH FALLS. 


The Kakabekah 
Falls, another of 
the great natural 
features, are now, 
that the railway is 
constructed, quite 
easy of access. 
Canoes 
 and In- 
dians are taken 
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cataract when a 
portage is made 
around the Falls 
which exceed in 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 183 


height and present a striking general reselnblance to those at Niagara. 
Rejoining the canoes, a run down the rapids brings the party to 
the mouth of the river in from three to four hours. 
From Port Arthur connection is made by steamer to 
Duluth, "The Zenith City of the unsalted seas," of all places the 
most written of and talked of in the United States. It is advan- 
tageously situated at the extreme head of Lake Superior, and by rail- 
way connection with the interior, will, without doubt, some day justi- 
tify the glorious prophecies which heralded its birth. Here the 
steamers commence the return trip, having been joined by tourists 
from Chicago, St. Paul, Manitoba, &c., and picking up any who have 
" stopped off" at Thunder Bay, return by the saine route, as pre- 
viously described. 
Whether it be for the return trip from either Toronto, Port Arthur, 
or Duluth, or for the single trip in one direction, opportunity is given 
for what is, beyond aU question, the Cheaþest, Most Invigorating and 
Grandest 7" rip on the continent. 
Here then we will cease, having conducted our tourist from the 
shores of the Niagara over all the intervening waters and to the many 
pleasant summer resorts on 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


-.
- 


ERRATA. 


Page 38, line 24, for" one hundred and fifty" read" fifty." 
Page 8[, line 20, for" Huron" read" Ojibbeway." 
Page 113, line 16, for "miles" read " hours." 



184 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Our Uountry. 


Our Country! 'Tis a glorious "land! 
\Vith broad arms stretched from shore to shore 
The proud Pacific chafes her strand, 
She hears the dark Atlantic roar; 
And, nUltureå on her ample br
ast, 
How many a good.ly prospect lies 
In Nature's wildest grandeur drest, 
Enamel'd with her loveliest dyes. 


Rich prairies decked with flowers of gold, 
Like sunlit oceans roll afar ; 
Broad lakes her azure heavens behold, 
Reflecting clear each trembling star: 
And mighty river
, mountain-burn, 
Go sweeping on" ard dark and deep 
Through forests where the bounding (awn 
Beneath their sheltering branches leap. 


Still may her flowers untrampled spring; 
Her harvests wave, her cities rise; 
.\nd e er, till Time shall fold his wings 
Remain Earth's loveliest paradi.,e ! 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


185 


Hints as to Routes. 


e- All information and tickets for these Northern Lakes Routes can be obtained 
from BARLOW CUMBERLAND, General Ticket Agent, 35 Y onge Street (Ameri- 
can Hotel Block), Toronto. 
Toronto is the starting point for all points of interest in the "Northern Lakes 
of Canada." 
Tourists from the Eastward, Boston, New York, can come by the connecting 
lines to Buffalo or Suspension Bridge, and then to Lewiston and Niagara to To- 
ronto, or by Grand Trunk R. R. from Montreal. 
From Niagara Falls and Buffalo, N ew York Central and Michigan Central 
Raiiroads connect at Lewiston and Niagara with palace steamer "Chicora" daily 
to Toronto, or the Grand Trunk Railway can be taken round the head of Lake 
Ontario. 
Passengers from Toronto can have five hours at the Falls and return to Toronto 
same evening. 
Tourists going down the St. Lawrence should not fail to stop at least one day 
in Toronto. 
The Lakes of Muskoka are within a few hours of Toronto by the Northern 
Railway. Excursion tickets, good for the season, are issued to Bracebridge, 
Rosseau, Joseph and Parry Sound, and are available to stop at Barrie or OriIlia 
by making known to the conductor the intention to do so. Round trip tickets to 
Parry 
onnd can be obtained to go via M uskoka Lakes and return by Georgian 
Bay. 
}'or a grand all-round summer tour, this route is unsurpassed. Buffalo, Nia- 
gara Falls, Toronto, Couchiching, Lakes of Muskoka, Collingwood; thence Col- 
lingwood Line Steamers via Georgian Bay, Gt. Northern :Manitoulin ChanneJ, 
/ Sault Ste. Marie, North Shore of Lake Superior, Thunder Bay, Duluth, thence 
by rail to St. Paul and Chicago, or by Lake Superior Transit Co. via South 
Shore of Lake Superior to Detroit and Buffalo, or return by Collingwood Line 
and Northern Railway to Toronto. The whole round trip to Lake Superior re- 
turning to Toronto occupies ten days. 
The most beautiful and economical trip on the Northern Lakes is to Sault Ste. 
Marie and return by the Great Northern Transit Company's steamer, calling at 
all the inland ports and in midsummer running specially to "Picturesque Mac- 
kinac." The round trip occupies six days. 
These are the only lines passing through the inside picturesque route of the 
Georgian Bay and North Manitoulin Channel, avoiding the open waters of Lake 
Huron, and passing in daylight the LA CLOCHE l\IOUNTAINS, and through Island 
Scenery unsurpassed by the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence. 



186 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


N ORTHERN L AKES L INES 


..
 


BARLOW 


OUMBERLAND, 


Passenger Agency" Toronto. 


Nortbern an(1 Nortb-"\1 T estern Rail,va,y. 
The Ontario all-Rail connection to the North-West and to all the Sporting 
Districts of the North. 


CJolli
gwood Lake SUI)erior Line. 
Great North Channel, Sault Ste. Marie, Lake Superior, Thunder Bay, Nepigon, 
Duluth, Manitoba, Dakota. 


Georgian Hn)? Line. 
Great Northern Transit Co., Georgian Bay, Manitoulin Island, Sault Ste. Marie, 
French River, Mackinac, Parry Sound. 


Northern N aviga,tioll CJon})))? 
Lake Simcoe, Barrie, OriIlia, Lake Couchiching. 


ltluskoka NaYigation CJompy. 
Lakes Muskoka, Rosseau and Joseph, the Maganetewan l,{iver, Lake Nipissing. 


Xing-ara Na,-igation CJOnl)))r. 
Toronto, Niagara, Lewiston, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, New York, Boston, Phila- 
delphia, and all points East or South. 


RO)Tal Jlail Line. 
Lake Ontario, The Thousand Islands, White Mountains, Montreal, Quebec, 
Saguenay, Gulf of St. Lawrence. 


OOEA
 


LINES. 


I
MAN LI NE-Queenstown, Liverpool. GUIC>N LINE-Queenstown, Liverpool. 
NORTH GERMAN LLOYD-London, Cherbourg. Bremen. STATE LINE-Belfast, 
Glasgow. RED STAR LINE-Antwerp. The Continent. 
ø- Ticket and Pa.ssenger arrangements made, Berths Becured, for all the above 
Lines. 


BARLOW CUMBERLAND, General Ticket Agent. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OAN ADA. 


187 


GIJIDES. 


It is often true economy to engage the 
ervices of those whose local 
knowledge will most quickly bring the newcomer to the best places for engag- 
ing in the sport for which he seeks, and at all events they will lighten his 
labours and certainly add to his pleasures. In canoeing, dangers may often be 
avoided. In deer hunting there is absolute necessity, and at all times, in an 
unknown country, it is well to have with one a Guide 
. . . . . . who knows the bush 
As the seaman knows the sea. 


Men and boys to row may be engaged from $1.00 to $1.50 per day. 
Experienced fishermen and huntsmen, including canoes, $2.00 per day; 
Hounds, 50c. per day. The various Hotel-keeper
 may be consulted. The 
following men have been locally recommended: 


Lakes Rosseau and Joseph and Moon River Districts. 
I 
ThoB. Webster, John Peters, Abraham Asa. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. Rosseau P. O. 
R. Holton...... . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... L . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 Ashdown ' , 
J as. Davis, Frank \Ving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trout Lake " 
J. Jennings, H. Vankoughnet............................... Folding " 
W m. Brady, John Richards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. Port Cockburn " 
Ed. Yellowhead, Joe Ingersoll, Sampson Ingersoll, John Bigwin.. . Bala " 
Lake of Bays and South Branch, Muskoka River District. 
Dorset P. O. 
Allan Phillips, Alvin Phillips, Henry Sawyer, Chris. Sawyer, Matthew 
McCaw, Tom Keown. 


Dwight P. O. 
Thos. E. Salmon, Archie Goldie, Edward Goldie, '\Villiam BlackwelJ, Frank 
BlackwelJ, Arthur Osborne, Tom Salmon, George Robson, Grieves Robson, 
J ames Trueman, William Trueman. 


Baysville P. O. 
Daniel Vancliff, Henry Vancliff, Samuel Vancliff. 
Menominee P. O. 
J eft: A very, and his Sons. 



188 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Commanda District. 


Thomas Grawbarger.... Restoul P. O. 
Thomas Smith...... '.. " " 
Thomas Armstrong.. . . Nipissing " 
R. Manering....... ....... Rye " 
W m. Porter........... Restoul " 
John Suttiffe. ......... Ardagh " 


Nipissing District. 
Nicholas \Vessels. . Boolah Creek P. O. 
Fred. Killey...... " " 
Sam. Lett........ ,. " 
Jas. Sheppard........ .La Vase .. 
Rich. Jessup . . . . . . . . . . " 


Maganetewan District. 
George Ross...... . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ .. .. _ _......, ...,...... Spence P. O. 
J. Mc:VIilIan.. _ _. . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ " ,:Maganetewan " 
W m. Harris................. . . .. . 0 ....,........... . " , · 
J os. Jenkins .........................,...... 0 "" 
John Wilkins.....,.. . . . Dunchurch .' 
John Labr3sh. . . ., ........... . . , . Maple Island " 
,.' 
H. Annstrong..........".... 0.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ...McKellar .. 

. G. I{i tter . . .. ............ 
 o. 0 ... ....... 0 ... _. .. ., 


Hints as to tJampillg Outfit. 


The equipment carried by "Campers" varies according to their 
fancy. The following are the most necessary requirements: 
EQUIPMENT.-Ridge Tent, NO.3. The pole can be carried fron1 
place to place, and pins and uprights cut on landing. For a 
larger party a smaller tent to shelter the" cook" and the provisions 
is desirable. Axe, hatchet, deep pot or bake keJ:tle, sauce pan, 
frying pan, gridiron, kettle, tea-pot, long iron spoon, long iron fork, 
butcher knife, knives, forks, and spoons, tin wash dish, round tin 
dish pans, tin cups, tin, or thick earthenware plates, water pail, 
sugar, salt, pepper, and tea cans, two hand lanterns for candles. 
PROVISIONS.-Biscuits, flour, bread, sides clear bacon sewn in 
canvas, tea, sugar, salt, pepper, soap in bars, condensed milk, 
raisins, beans, dried apples, rice, matches, sperm candles. 
CLOTHING-One change of underclothing, flannel shirt, and woollen 
trousers; three or four pairs of wool socks, overcoat, or mackintosh, 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 189 


heavy long boots for day, pair easy old gaiter boots, or leather 
slippers for camp, extra cap or tuque, handy bag for small things, 
large dunnage bag to hold all clothing. 


1"he Game I
aws of Ontario. 


The Game Laws of Ontario are rigidly enforced, particularly in the 
district of Muskoka, where the residents are fully alive to the fact 
that in the providing of good sport, both with gun and rod, lies op- 
portunity for Luge cash earnings by their community from the visitors 
who come among them. 
Game inspectors are appointed in each township, who are empow- 
ered to watch their neighbourhood, to inspect boxes or receptacles, 
and search houses, when they have reason to Believe game, or skins 
of gan1e, are concealed out of season, and to summon offenders before 
the justices of the peace. 
Confiscation of the game follows conviction. 


SEASONS FOR SPORT. 


Fish and game may be taken within the following periods: 


FISH: 
Saln10n and lake trout ......_ 1st Dec. to 1St Nov. 
Speckled or brook trout.......... ....... 1St May to 15th Sept. 
Bass ......... .......... ........ ......... ... 15 th June to 15th May. 
Maskinonge and Pickerel ,. .......... 15 th May to 15th April. 
GAME. 
Deer, elk, moose, reindeer, caribou.. 15 th Oct. to 15th Dec. 
W oodcoc k ......... .......0:,. .............. 15 th Aug. to 1st J any. 
Grouse, pheasants, praine fowl, par- 
tridge ' . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . , 1st Sept. to [st Jany. 



190 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OANADA. 


Snipe, plover............ u.. 
....... ...... 1St Sept. to 1St J any. 
Swans or Geese. ........................... 1St Sept. to 1St May. 
Duck and all other water fowl.......... 1St Sept. to 1St Jany. 
Hares ..............,.............,......... 1St Sept. to 15th J\1arch. 
Quail may not be taken at all during 1886, 1887, nor wild turkey, 
during 1886, 1887, or 1888, and tbereafter only frotn 15th Octo- 
ber to 15th December. 
No person may have any of above game in his possession except 
during the above stated periods, or for the purposes of being exposed 
for sale for fifteen days after such periods. 
No eggs of game birds may be taken at any tinle. 
No game may be taken by trapping, nor by use of swivel guns or 
sunken batteries, nor during the night from one hour after sundown 
to one hour before sunrise. 


FUR BEARING ANIMALS. 


No bea.ver, mink, muskrat, sable, martin, otter or fisher may be 
hunted or taken except between 1st November and 1st May, and any 
one finding any traps set for them during any other time, may destroy 
the traps without incurring any liability. No muskrat houses nlay be 
broken into at any time. 
Where imported kind of game is preserved by anyone "on their 
own lands," no one can hunt it without the consent of the owner of 
the land. 
No hound or dog, known to pursue deer, shall be allowed to run 
at large from the 15th Nov. to the following 15th Oct. 
No deer can be exported from Ontario. 


FINES. 


Not less 
than 


X ot more 
than 


In case of feer... ...... ... ...... ... .. . Each offence $10 $50 
In case of birds or eggs ........ ,.." 5 25 
In case of fur trapping .....,........" 5 2 5 
Other breaches,................ ......" 5 25 
Costs are payable in addition to fines. The whole fine goes to the 
inspector, or to the prosecutor if not an inspector. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


191 


List of Islands and Owners. 


LAKE MUSKOKA. 


Nos. 


NAME. 


OWNERS. 


1 Horse Shoe. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............ Barker. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2 One Tree..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3 ....................... ..................... 
4 ............................................. 
5 \V olesley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .................. 
6 A poll 0 . . . . . . . .. ............................. 
7 Sappho. . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8 Kewaydin.. ................. .... .... . . . . Mrs. Ross. 
9 H illerest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ...........,...... 
10 H ia \vatha. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1 1 Friday. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. .,.. 
12 Seven l ................... , . ,.. . . . . . .' ...... 
13 S i .. t e rs 
 ..................... . . .. ...... .... 
14 l<..obinsonCrusoe ............... ....... .......... 
15 Crown. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . " . . . . . . . . 
18 Ship.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ...........,.,........... 
21 Gibraltar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. ............ Prof. Taverner. 
25 Morris. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . , . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
26 S haw . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . ... '.... ... 
27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,.. ..................,... 
28 W u n ilah . . . . '.. . . . . . .. . . . .. .. ..... . . . . . . . 
29 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... .. .. ........... . . 
3 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . '.' " . . . " . . . . ..... 
Camp Comfort.. .................... ....... .,.... 
31 . . . .., . . . . . . .., . .. . . .... ... . . ... . . ... . . . . .. ......... E. Mo rris. 
3 2 ............ ........ .......... .... .. .. . .. . .... ... .J. H. l\forris. 
35 Columbia....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Madame J aneck. 
36 Murillo. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... 
37 Home. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . H. C. Rodick. 
38 F airholm . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .., ... .' .... . . . . . . . . W. E. Foot. 
39 Duncan.......... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . 
40 Marion's.. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
41 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .... . . . . . . J. MeN a b b. 
44 The Brothers. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . R. T. Pope 
45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . .. ........... J. H. Morris. 
46 Burnt... . . . . . ... . . '.,' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . 
47 B i rc h . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . ....... , . . . . . . . . . . . . 
48 :F"ran k . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . " . . .. ............ . . . 
49 Frank... . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., ....... . . 
50 Eil ian Gowan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 
52 Chief. . . . . .. . . .. ............................... 



192 


THE NOR
PHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


LAKE l\IUSKOKA-(Continued.) 


Nos. 


NAME. 


OWNERS. 


54 Browning's. . . . .. , . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 


5 7 Walker's... . . . . . ... .........,............. 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
73 
76 
79 
80 
83 
84 
92 
, , 


Delamere .................., .............. J.:à-I . Delamere. 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. ................. S. Denison. 
Twin Bluffs. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . .., ,. ...... W m. Millar. 


, , 


Island F........................ ............ R. K. Burges,;. 
Plum pudding .... . . .. ........ '" ,........ 
Fishermans. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. ................. 
Beach Grove. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . , . . . T. E. Moberly. 
Heydon .............................. . . . . G. T. Denison. 
Crawford's...... . . . ... . . . . '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rankin ........,...... . _. " . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gairney . . . . ... . .. .. .......................... 
Broomleigh... . . . . . . .. ................ _ . . . . . . . 
\Vhitt... . . ....... . . . .. . . . . ' ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ault.Dowrie .......... ......... ..._.......... 
Gull ....................................... 
Katago ...'.. ....... . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 
Mary. . . . . . . . . '" . . ,.... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . 
Daisy " .......................... .............. 
Henry. . . . . . " , . .. . . ... . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . " ,.. 
Percy . .. . . .. .......... . . .. ......... .. . . . . . . .. . 


" 


LAKE ROSSEAU. 


Nos. 


NAME. 


OWNERS. 


1 
2 


Shady. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. ..........J. Maclennan. 


3 . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . - . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Kingsmill. 
6 Picnic............ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .J as. Maclennan. 
7 McKeaggie...................................J. McKeaggie. 
8 ... ......................................... 
9 Jaw Bone.. . . . ' . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .. ...... 
18 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ......... . . R. K. B urgesSi. 
Point Idleswood.......................... ............ Mrs. Little. 
19 .............. .............. .................. Rev. M. Sanson. 
20 Carter...,.................................... ....E. T. Carter. 
21 Yorum ....................,... .............. ..1\:lr. Murray. 
22 1\Iazengah........ .. . . . . . . . . . . . . '.. . . . . ... . . . . . . C. E. Blachford. 
.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,'. . . . ,... . . . . . . . . . . ... ... . . ... . . . . . . H. P. Dwight. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF OA,NADA. U}S 


LAKE ROSSEAU-(Continuèd}. 


No
. 


NAME. 


OWNERS. 


23 f'airy Lands. . . . '" . . .... _ . . . . . ... ...... ... . . .... ... . . . . G. C. Lilly. 
24 Prospect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . ........... . . . . .. 
25 0 Ii ve .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. R 0 bt. Bald win. 
.26 Beacon ......'.......................... ...........Dr. Hall. 
27 Cedar. . . . ... ......... . . . . . . . .. . . . . '" . . ...... ,.. . . . . . C. S, \Varren. 
28 Oak.......................................,....... Dr. Hall. 
Flora ......,......... .... ................,..............Or. I-Iall. 
29 Goulding......... .................... ............ ...G. Goulling. 
Point Eaglt:'sNest ....... ...... ..... .............. .........]. C. LiIly. 
30 SunnySide..,...... .....................................R. J{, Uurgess. 
Point Aurora....................,........................... 
ir. Beddoe. 
3 I Fair \'" iew . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. ... ... '.. '" ',' . . .'... ... ... R. !(. Burgess. 
32 Ell i th . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . R. L. Gun n. 
33 Violet.................. .... . . ...... . . .., . . ... .. ..... ' .. Capt. 0 rd. 
34 Warsaw. . . . . . . . . ". . . . . . . . . . .. .. ........... ........ do. 
Arthur.......... ..'.. ...... ................... ..,..... do 
36 St. Le0nard's,. ............ ..... . ..... ....... .......... Hon. W. Cayley. 
37 Red ........................... .................. ...... ...Capt. Ord. 
38 White.. ... . . . . ... . . . . .. ........,.......,.....'............ do. 
39 Blue. . . . ... .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . ...... . . ... .. ... do 
40 Cassie. .. . .. ...... . .. . . . . . ., . . .... . . . . .. . . . . . .... . . . . . . 
41 ........... .......... ................ ...........,.........II. Baker. 
42 Bohemia... . . . .. .................. ... ...... . . . . . . .. .J. S. Ploskell. 
43 . . .. ...............,.................... ..... . . . . , . .. ](. 1\1: oysey. 
44 Bakers......................................... .A. Baker. 
45 Vacuna..................... ........ ,.............. ..,Mr. Scadding. 
46 Craster. . . . . . .... . .. . . . . . . . . .... ... . . ...... ... ... ... .... .. .J. \V. Thomas. 
48 RJ.ss . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .......................... J. I). C I a' k. 
49 Caledonia... .... . ,................. . ... ....... ...... ....... P. 1\1. Shannon. 
50 Florence................................................ \V. J. Florence. 
51 Wellesley.... .....,.. ......... .. ... ........................... ..J. E. Smith. 
52 S il ver ... .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... .. . .. .. ... ... .. .1\1 rs. 1\1 ole;; "Forth. 
53 Norway........,........,...,... ............. ........A.I
. 1\Iacdonald. 


LAKE JOSEPH. 


Nos. 


NAME. 


OWNERS. 



 
 Summit House ............... . ...... .. _..... .. II. Fraser 
3 Round.... . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . ... . . . · ... · · ... . · · , · · J as. 1\faclennan 
4 ............................................... ... do 
Point Burgess............. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .. ... . . .., .. R. 1<" Burgess. 
5 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ..,......... .. J as. l\iaclennan. 
M 



IH4 


THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 


LAKE JOSEPH-(Conti1lued.) 


II 
12 
13 
14 
15 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
3 1 
3 2 
33 
34 
35 
3 6 
37 
3 8 
39 
Pomt 
" 


4 0 
4 1 
4 2 
43 
44 
45 
4 6 
Point 
" 


Nos. 


N Al\IE. 


OW:-JERS. 


6 Emerald. ,.. .. .".,........... . . ... , .. . . ... J as. Baine. 
7 \Vegausind . . . . . . , . . . .. . .. ........... .. ........J as. Maclennan. 
8 
9 
10 


. . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . ....... . . .. .. .. .. .. .... ........ 


" 


G.......... .............. ., ....,.... ,...J.S.Playfair. 

 Gitchemene ' .... .., ..,.. ......\V. B. McMurrich. 

 Harmony Hall. .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . .., . . ... do 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .., . . . . .., , , . ... Pro f. Camphell. 
Waneshing....... .............. ,... T. H. Morris.... 
Yoho.. ...,....... ..... ....., ...... .... .... ..,.Prof. Can1pbell. 
. . .. ..... .......,...........,. .. . . . . , . , . . . J as. l\faclennan. 
. . . . .. ............ . ........., . . . . . . . . , . . . . . do 
Chief. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. -- .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . ,..J. H. 1\Iason. 
Strawberry. . . . . . . '" . ., .................. .. A. B. Lee. 
Cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. " ..'",.,'..".. do 
Baco . . . .. . . . ., . . . . , . . . . .. . . . do 
Eagle . .. .... ... ., do 
Grebe. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . ' . ... . . . . . . . , . . . . . , do 
Loon... . . ,., .., ., .,.....,...'....".....,..... ..... do . 
Lilbourne....... ........... .............. ..'V. S. Tackson. 
.................,........... ... ,...Dr. G. of. Cameron. 
feaberry...... . . ... . . . . , . . . . A. B. Lee.........: 
Governor's Island. .. . .,. .......,.,........ Lieut.-Gov. Robinson. 
Elsinore. . . . . . ... ... . . ..... .. ......... \V. }{. Johnston. 
Keef. . . . '" . . . . ... . . .. ......, 
Badgerow. . . . . ., . . . . '. . . . . 


.................. ........... 


., . G. \V. Badgerow. 
, . . . Dr. Oldwright. 


Nissowema. . . . .. . . . . . . , .. 


............ ..................... ... 


Rose... ,.... ,.. . ., '" . .. .. .. . . . . . .., ." ., . J. Rose. 
Lount....... ,. ... "... .. . . ..... ,..... G. Lount. 
\Volverton ... ..,....... .... ..... ... .H. \Volverton. 
. . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . ... .. . . .... ... Dr. Caniff. 
Haggart's . .... ..................... ...... .,Mr. Haggart. 
\Voud's. ........... ., . ,.,.. S. C. \\food. 
Sugar Loaf.... .... .... ., ...... .., . ........ .H. Sto\ye. 
Stratford .... .. .. ........... ,. . ........J. P. \Y oods. 
Morrison.... ..., ., ..... ., ...... ...R. l\lorrison. 
Fisher . . . . .. . . . .. .. ,.... J. Fisher. 


........... -. ........ .... .. .. -.. 


.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... 


McFarlane....... ....... ......... ...... .G.1\fcFarIane. 
Surveyors ......... .. ...... ..... ,. . ..... ..... 
Moss Rock Lodge.., ,.... ., ... .'... .......H. S. Crews. 
Mount View ............,. ......... ...R. F. Smyth. 
47 Scadding...,............................ .., .....Mr. Scadding. 
51 Robinson.... ............ -. ....... ..........C. Robinson. 
52 
53 


......................................... ...a..... 


Scho oner . . .., ". . . . . . . . . . .., . , . . . . . . ... 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 195 


I.ALE JOSEPH-(ContÙlUed.) 


Nos. 


NAME. 


OWNERS. 


54 Perch... : . '.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . ,.. ... ... ... Dr. Hodgins. 
55 Grant. ........ . . . . . . . .. .............................J. Minto. 
56 Bass,..... . . ". . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . ......... ... ... Dr. Hodgins. 
57 Pickerel.......... ...., .................. ...... do 
Point Redwood................,.... ................ ,..Mrs. Ardagh. 
58 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... ' . . . . . . . . . . . .. E. Cox. 
59 Sto\ve...................... ................... ...Dr. Stowe. 
Point .......... .................... ..........................Dr. G. Wright. 


THE OLIFTON HOUSE, 


NIAGARA FALLS, 


Is so situated on the bank of the river that from its windows and balconies a 
comprehensive view of the Great Cataract may be had. The view at night of the 


American Falls illumined by the Electric Light, 


the varied hues of the falling waters, and the strange play of light of many colour! 
upon the ever-rising foam, is grand beyond description. From no other first-class 
Hotel at Niagara can a view of the Falls and Electric Illumination be had. 


IT IS SEEN ONLY FROM" THE CLIFTON." 


'rhe Cuisine and Service of The Clift0n will be carefully maintained at the 
highest excellence, and no pains spared to make the stay of visitors pleasant 
and enjoyable. 
PARLOURS AND Roo:u'3 with Baths attached may be had en suite. 


OMNIBUS FARE SAME AS TO AND FROM OTHER HOTELS AT NIAGARA. 


Address, 


o. M. OOLBU RN, Proprietor, 


NIAG.\.RA FALLP!, 
.Y. 



INDEX 


A Little Farther On .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
The Hudson River Route. . . .. . . . . 
The Delaware VaHey Route ... .... 
To and From the \Vest . . . . . . . . . . 
Niagara Falls. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
The l\Tiagara River. 
Along the American Side . . . . . . 
The "Gorge" of Niagara. . . .. . . 
Queens/on Heights. 
Where the Falls once were. . ., . . 21 
Speech of Justice Macaulay. . . . . 22 
Speech of Sir John Robinson.,... 23 
Brock's Monument.. . ... ....... 24 
The View from the Summit. . . . . 25 
Along the Canadian Side.. . . . . . 27 
Niagara-on-the-Lake. . . . . . . . . ... 27 
The Battle of Queenston Heights 29 
The Death of :Brock. . . . . . ., . . . . 3 1 
The For/s of N'iagara. 
The Early Struggles. . . . . . ,. . . . . 33 
The French Occupation. . . . . . . . 34 
The British Occupation........ 3 6 
The Americans take Fort George 39 
The Canadians retake Ft. Ni'gara 4 0 
:Map of Niagara River. . . . . . .. . . 4 1 
Lake Ontario. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 
Toronto Island. . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . 44 
Toronto as a Summer Resort.. . . 45 
The City of Toronto. 
Name and Early History. . . . . . . 
King Street. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Y onge Street. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . 
Map of Toronto..... .... ........ 
Street Car Routes. . . . . .. . . ... . 
Drives . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
The Public Buildings. 
The First Railway. . . .. . . . . . . . . 
Custom House.. . . . . . . ... . . .. .. 


TO 


OONTEN
TS. 


.,
,þ. 


PAGE 


PAGE 


Banks.. .. ............ . . . . . . .. . . . . 
St. James' CathedraL.......... 
The Pub
ic Library.... ........ 
Metropolitan Church............ 

t. Michael's Cathedral.. ........ 
The Normal School.. ... ....... 
The Picture Galleries... . . .. .. . . 
" How Perseus brought back the 
Gorgon's head"... ........... 62 
Baptist Church......... . . . . . . . 64 
Horticultural Gardens.......... 65 
Osgoode Hall........,.......... 66 
The Parks.................... 68 
The Universities.......... 69 
V niversity of Toronto. .. ... ...... 69 
Knox College..,.......... ....... 7 1 
Trinity College. . . . . . . . . . . . '.. ... 7 2 
Government House....... ....... 74 
Grand Opera House. . . .. . . .... 75 
" Off for a real good Fish". . .. . . 77 
The Nvr/hern Razlway. 
Height of Land..,....... ....... 
Vale of Aurora......... .......... 
Holland River. . ... . . . . . . ..' . . . . 
Brad ford . . . . ... . . ... . . . .. . ..' .. . .. . 
The Severn River Chain. 
Lake Simcoe.. ............... .., 
Allandale.. ................... 
o ri Ilia . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .... " . 
Lake Couchiching....... . . ..- 
Sparrow Lake ..,...... ........... 
47 Kasheshebogamog ..,.... ...... .. 
50 Canoe Route to \Vaubaushene ... 

; From Niagara Falls via Hamilloll.. 
54 Burlington Beach............... 
55 The North \Vestern R. R.. . .. ... 
" My Little Girl's first Fish" .... 
56 The Lúkes of AIuskoka. . 
57 Water and Rocks.. .... .. . ... .... . 


3 
6 
7 
9 
12 


57 
58 
59 
60 
60 
61 
61 


15 
17 


7 8 
7 8 
79 
80 


81 
81 
84 
85 
88 
88 


9 1 
93 
94 
9S 


99 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 


PAGE 
Origin of Name. . ... . . . . . " . . .. 100 
Gravenhurst ... .......... ...... .. 101 
The Muskosh Rlver Chain. 
Lake lJluskoka........ . ... .......... 102 
The 1Iuskúka River.... ... ...... 105 
Bracebridge..... .............106 
The Great South Falls. . . ... .... 107 
Beaumaris .,...................... III 
A Specimen Muskoka Letter.. ,. 114 
BaJa. . ... . . ... .. . . .. ... . . . . . . .... .. 116 
The 1Iu'ìkosh River........ ....... 116 
The Inùian .kiver.... ,... ........ 117 
Port Carling.... ......... . . ..... 118 
Lake Rosseau..... ............ ........119 
Windermere... ... '.. . . . o. . . ......... 121 
Threel\1ileLake...... .......... 122 
Skeleton River...... ............. 123 
Port Rosseau.... ........... . ..... 123 
The Shadow River....... ..0.. ... 125 
Maplehurst.. ..................126 
Venetia............ .........,.
... 128 
Oak lands . . . .. . .. ... ... . . . . ,.. '" .. 129 
Ferndale... .............. 129 
Clevelands.. ... '" . . . .. . . . . . . .. 13 1 
Gregory... ...................... 13 1 
PortSandfield........... .......132 
Lake yoseP!l......... ........ """ .. 134 
Joseph River. ..... ............. 135 
Craigie Lea....... .... ......... ... 136 
Little Lake Joe... .....,........... [37 
Yo-ho-cu-ca-ba.................... 137 
Port Cockburn.................. .. 13 8 
Echo Rocks............. .... . ... 139 
Canoe Route to Parry Sound.. .. 140 
Crane Lake............ .......... 14 0 
The ,Moon River........ .......... [4 1 
The New Railway. 
U t terson . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 14 2 
Huntsville.... . ................ 142 
The lJ.fteskoka River Chain. 
Canoe Route to the Headwaters. 143 
Lake Vernon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 143 
HoodstoWll. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 143 
Fox Lake..................... 144 
Axe Lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 144 
Doe Lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..' [45 
Catloe Route by North Branch. 
Fairy Lake... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14 6 


191 


PAGE 
Mary Lake................... 146 
Port Sydney. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 146 
Canoe Route by South. Branch. 
Peninsula Lake .............. 147 
Rocky Portage................ 14 8 
Lake of Bays ................. 149 
Baysville\ .. ,.. . . . . . . . .. ....... 149 
Camp Fires.... .............. .. 150 
Madawaska River................ 151 
Erastus Wiman .... . ..... ........ 151 
The .A1agandawan River Chain. 
11 el is sa ...................... 152 
Kftrine. .......................152 
Burk's Falls.. ................... 152 
Sport... .... .......... ......... . 153 
Lake Se.see-be................. 154 
Lake Ah.Mic................. 155 
Lake \Vah-wa-kesh............ 155 
Canoe Route to Byng Inlet ...... 155 
The Seguin River Chain. 
'Vhitestone Lake ............. 156 
11cKeIlar .... .......... ......... 156 
Canoe Route to Parry Sound..,.. 156 
Canoe Route to Lake J o
eph.. ., 156 
The Fi enek River Chain. 
Sundridge................... ...... 156 
South River.... ....... ...... .. 157 
Canoe Route to Lake Nipissing.. 157 
Commanda.. .. . . . . . . . ... ... . . .. 158 
Canoe Route to Restoul Lake.... 158 
Meganoma.......... ............... 158 
Lake Niþissing. 
Callender ......... .... . .......... ISh 
La Vase......,......, . . . . ... .. .. 15 8 
The Euliest Route to the North- 
West. . '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 159 
Champlain..... . . .. ........... .. 160 
Cad ieux . . '" .. .. '... .. . . . . .0' 160 
A la Claire Fontaine.. ...... .. 161 
The Parry Island ArchiPelago. 
Penetanguishene .. .... ...., ..... 162 
The Archipelago..... .... ......... 163 
Parry Sound ......... .......... 164 
The Hurons and French in the 
Earl}' Days... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 165 
The Georgian Bay. 
Collingwood... . . o' . . . . . . . . . . . .. 168 



198 


INDEX TO OONTENTS. 


PAGE 
Blue Mountains .............. .. 16 9 
l\leaford.... .... ..... . .... .........,.. 16 9 
Owen Sound... ....... .. . . ... ' ., 17 0 
The Great Manitoulin Channel. 
She-ba-wa-naning .......... . .. .. 17 0 
:Manitowaning .. . . . . '" . . . . '" .., 17 2 
Algoma Mills .., .......... ......... 17 2 
St. :Mary's River. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 173 
Sault Ste. :Marie. ..........,..174 
Mackinac. 



 Is lar;i: ... .. . . .. ....... . . ..... I 75 
. ltary lstory... ..... .... . . . . .., 17 6 
The North Shore, Lake SUþerior. 
Michipicoten Island ............. 177 
Slate Islands........ .'........ .... 177 


PAGE 
Nepig-on ............. . ......... 17 8 
Thunder Cape .. ....... . ..... .... 169 
Port Arthur....... ...... .... ,180 
The Past and the Present......... 180 
Fort 'Villiam,.,....,...... .......181 
Kakabekah Falls .............. ,.. 182 
Duluth............................ 183 
Our Country. ........,...... ....... ... 184 
Hints as to Routes.. ............... 185 
" " Camping Outfit.... ., 188 
Guides. . . . . . ..... . .... . . . . .. 188 
The Game Laws. . ... ... . . . . .. 189 
Names and Owners of Islands. 
Lake Muskoka....... ....,..... 191 
Lake Rosseau ..,....... ..... ...... 191 
Lake Joseph... . ....... ........ .. 193 


INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 


Transportation. P_
OE. 
Great Northern Transit Co............. 2115 
Canada Transit Co.. ...... ............. 204 
Northern and North-Western R. R..... 206 
New York Central R. R................ 203 
Niagara Navigation Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . _ 202 
LehIgh Valle.y R. R........... ......... M 
Hudson River Day Line...... ...... .... 208 
" " People's Line........... 208 
}luskoka Xayigation Co.... .... ..,... 207 
Steamer Southern Belle _.............. ï 
:tlt:rchants Line.. . . . . .. .,.. ....,..... 210 
Sundries. 
Hice, Lewis & Son, hardware. . .. .. . _ iv 
W. A. Bradshaw, grocer and ship goods. iv 
.J. .Mallon {<i, Co., butchers ........,... v 
Geo. Yerrall, cabs... v 
D. Pike, tents. etc. . .. . , . ... . . . . . . . . . , . . vi 
D. ,Millman, photos.. .. .... ......... vi 
\V. }lcDowell, fishing tackle..., . _ _ _ '. "ii 
J. E. Ellis, jewellery. . . .. . . . . . , . . . . . , .. V1I1 
Fulton, }1ichie & Co., camping supplies 201 
.P. C. Allan, camp furniture. . , . . . , . . . .. 199 
Aikenhead & Crumbic, hardware and 
fi!Shing tackle... ." .. .... ... _ . _ 199 
Allcock, Laig-ht & Co., fishing tackle .. 222 
Woltz Bros., jewellery...,.. ...".".. 200 
Cox & Co., brokers.....,... . 200 
ChÏl'a Hall, chinaware..,. ........ _, 201 
W. Hanna & Co., general store.,.. .... 214 
J orda n, general store. . . . . . . . .. . . . . _ , .. 214 
Thos. Walters, saw mill .., .,.. ...... 214 
J, S. W
llis, general store",. '... .... 215 


PAGR. 
F. D. Stubbs, grocer. . .. .....,...,.,.. 215 
Sewell Bros., tourists' supplies......... 210 
Hotels. . 
NIAGARA FALLs-Clifton House.. ..... 198 
Niagara-on-the-Lake-Queen's Royal. .. 2 
TORoNTo-American. . , . . . . . .. ........ 223 
" Queen's.. .. .. .. .... ........ ii 
Revere. . .. ...... .......... 223 
Rossin.... ......... Back cover 
" \V"alker. ... ................ ................ 3 
Burlington Beach Hotel, _ .. .., . . . . . . 7 
.MrsKoKA. 
Beaumaris- Prowse Hotel. . .. .... ".. 218 
Port Carling-Vanè.f'rburgh House.. _.. 213 
.. Stratton House.......... 213 
Oakland Park HoteL..... 215 
Windermere-Aitken Hotel.. .... .,.. 21f) 
Rosseau-1rIonttith House. ..,....... 214 
Ferndale-Penson Hotel.. . .... .. . . .. .. 217 
Clevelands-C. J. 1rlinett... ... . . , . . . . .. 217 
.Maplehurst-Brown's Hotel. . . . . , .. . . .. 210 
Port Sandtk ld- Prospect House. . . . . . .. 212 
Craig'ielea-Crabielea House.. ........ 214 
Port Cockburn-Sumrr.it House........ 209 
Ah-Mic Harbour- Croswell HoteL..... 214 
Huntsville-DomÌl,ion HoteL..... ..... 217 
Baysville,- Forest House.......... . . . .. 219 
PARRY SOGKD-Belvidere Hotel... .... 216 
COLLINGWOoD-Globe Hotel,. .......... 220 
" Central Hotel.......... 220 
:Meaford--Paul's Hotel.. . ... . .. . . . . . . .. 221 
" Noble's HoteL........ .. .... 121 
PO!!,'f ARTffUR,-Tþç Northern JIotel.. ,. 
19 



HEADQUARTERS 


-FOR- 
Tents, Camp-Furniture, Hammocks, &c., &c. 
FOLDING CHA1RS AND STOOLS FOR STEAMBOA1'ING IN GREAT VARIETY. 


Just the thing 
for the lawn, ve- 
randah or "The 
coolest place in 
the house." 


The Champion 
}-'olding Camp- 
Cot opens and 
shuts like a J ack- 
knife, and will 
cary half a ton 
. weight with per- 
PrIce only $2.50.".... . _ fect safety. 
\Vhen not in use occupies no more space than a broom. Expressed to any addres 
on receipt of S2.50 or C. O. D. Write for complete illuF;trated catalogue of abov 
goods; also of out-door games, 
l..A WN TENNIS, BASE B
"-LL, CRICKET, LACROSSE, 


&c., &c., to 


P. C. ALLAN'S 


City News and Games Depot, 
3[> "'
lNG 8TREET 
.Esrr, T()R{,)NTO. 


AIKENBEAD & CROMBIE, 
HAR D W ARE 
- --- --- - -- -- - 
!i 


Corner King and Y on
e Strpets, Toronto, 


-DrrORTERS 01"- 


l\od
eFs' Fine J?ocltet and Table eu tleF}', 
GALVANIZED BOAT and CANOE FITTINGS, 


Cordage, CÞUklI1U, Blocks, 
Fhip Iroll Stable Fittings and 
Put(.llt Jlngh e Fcc(I-Box. 


Builders', Machinists', Carvers,' Blacksmiths' Supplies and 
every description of Hardware. 


Fishing Tackle and Dog Collars in Great Variety. 
199 


Established 1830 I 



W OL T Z B R OSe 
 CO., 


Il\IPORTERS AKD DEALERS IN 


DIAMONDS, 


Fine Swiss and American \V atche
, Gold Chains, Ladies Gold and Silver Jewel. 
lery, Gold Headed Canes, Gold Thimbles, Sterling Silver and ELECTO- 
PLATED \V ARE, etc., etc. 
We would caU sepcial attention to our fine adjusted Swi
s \Vatches, Minute Re- 
peaters, Sporting \Vatches, with independent split second; also single fly back at- 
tachments, fine OPES face watches suitable for railroad conductors and engineers. 


Every 'Vat ell 'Varranted to Givc Satisfaction. 

 \\',/ 
 
.I'j,
.:i.. I 
'

 
írl'
'" 
" I 
 l \A
, ".


' 
 , ' . The best value in the market. Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

 r ,-- l \ 
:
 


Our $20.00 Diamond Rings, 


1 1 , 
II' 


WOLTZ BROS. & CO., 
29 King Street East, Toronto, Ont. 


OOX: & 00_, 
STOCK BROKERS, 


(MEMBERS TORONTO STOCK EXCHANGE.) 


Have the only Independent Direct Wire giving continuous New York Stock quo- 
tations, and which are received QUICKER r.I.'RAN BY ANY OTHER LINE. 


Buy and Sellon COD1mission for (jash or on Jlargin 
ALL SECURITIES DEALT IN ON THE TORONTO, MONTREAL, 
A
D NE\V YORK STOCK EXCHANGES. 


ALSO EXECUTE ORDERS ON THE 


ClI/GAGO BOARIJ OF TRADE 


In Grain and Provisions. 
Daily Cable Quotations of Hudson's Bay and otller stock. 


26 TORONTO STREET. 
200 




wn
A WA


 
49 King St. East, Toronto. 


One of Toronto's Greatest Attracti01'lS. 


ITS ART ROO1vI AL'VAYS FILLED WITH ORNA:\IENTS OF THE 
LATEST DESIGNS FROM THE BEST EUROPEAN 1vIARKETS. 


Dinner, Dessert, Tea and Breakfast Sets 
In English and French China and Stone 
PARIAN MARBLE, 
Bisque and Bronze Figures and Ornaments, 
ELECT R O-P LA T E, LA T EST NO VEL TIE S. 


HOTEL GLASS, CHINA AND CUTLERY A SPECIALTY. 
GLOVER HARRISON, PRoPRrEToR. 


Ft1LTON, MICHIE & CO., 


G-:&OCERS, 


WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANTS, 


are prepared to supply a full aEsortment of every rEquisite for 


CAMPING, FISHING AND SHOOTING. 


Soups, ltleats and Vegetables, 
Hanls and Bacon, etc., etc. 


ALL KINDS OF LIQUORS, TOBBACCO AND CIGARS. 


Goods Packed Carefully and Promptly Delivered. 


7 King street West, Toronto. 
201 



SH()RTEST ROUTE 


BETWEEN 



@ m @

@ 


-AND- 



.\.LL POIKTS NORTH AND EAST IN OXT ARlO 


-A
D- 


NIAGARA FALLS JI BUFFALO JI 


NEW 


YORK, 


BOSTON, 


Philadelphia, Washington, Pittsburgh, Erie, Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, and all Points South of the Lakes. 


NIAGARA NAVIGATION COMPANY 


PALACE 
TEA.MER 


"CHICORA" 


Leaves Yonge Street 'Vharf, Toronto, daily (except Sundays) at 7 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
for Niagara and Lewiston; coming north, leaves Lewiston (Eastern time) 10 a.m. 
and 5.30 p.m. and Niagara-on-tbe-Lake half an hour later, making close connec- 
tioI1s with the New York Central and :Michigan Central Railways. Through 
Tickets to all points East and 'Vest. For tickets and all information, apply at 
office on steamer or to all agents on railways connecting with Buffalo. 


BARLOW CUMBELAND, 


JOHN FOY, 


Tioket Agent, 35 Yonge St., TORONTO. 


Manager, Toronto. 



 'Vllen "OiD
 to tile Tl10usand Islalld
 or St. La,v- 
rence Rapids, or to Nia
ara Falls, do not fail to see tIle 
Historic Nia;-ara River. 


202 



New York 


Central 


-AND- 


HUDSON RIVER RAILROAD. 


THE FAVOURI'TE ROUTE FOR TOURISTS 


Solid trains with luxurious PARLOUR and SLEEPING CARS from Suspension 
Bridge, Niagara Falls and Buffalo to 


NEW YORK AND BOSTON. 


THE NEW YORK CENTRAL affords its patrons the best accommodation 
and the finest scenery on the American Continent, embracing views en route of 
the 


Niagara River and Falls, The Beautiful Mohawk Valley I 
and the Picturesque and Historic Hudson. 



 e THE ONLY 4. TRACK RAILROAD IN THE WORLDe p 


Having two tracks for freight traffic and two tracks exclusively for passenger busi- 
ness, thus ensuring PERFECT SAFETY and a certainty of arrival at desti- 
nation ON TIME. 
It is also the only line having a DEPOT IN NEW YORK CITY, thus saving 
its patrons the inconvenience of being transferred to another state by ferry 
boat. 
For any information not obtainable from nearest ticket agent, call on or ad- 
dress, 


D. M. KENDRICK, I EDSON J. WEEKS, 
Gen. Passenger Agent. I Gen. Agent Pass. Dept.. 
Gd, Central Depot, New York, No.1, Exchange St., Buffalo, 
20a 



The Grandest Scenery 


. 


America 


In 


IS ON THE 


]'!Ol\Tr! þr!Ol\E, LfII\E pÚJ?EI\IOl\ 


-AND- 


COLLINGWOOD LINE. 


CANADA TRA
SIT Co. (LIMITED.) 


St.ea.r.n.ers lea. "V"e Cc
ood. on 


TUESDAYS AND FRIDAYS, 


On arrival of 
Iorning Trains of the Northern and North-Western Railway from 


HAMILTON AND TORONTO. 


s.s. CAMPANA, Fast Express Steamer, 1500 tons, Iron, Clyde-built, 
Twin Screw, calls at 1\ieaford, Owen Sound, Bruce 
Iines, St. Mary's 
River, Sault, Port Arthur and Duluth direct. 


S.S. CITY OF O\VEN SOUND, 900 Tons. l\Ieaford, Owen 
Sound, Killarney, North Channel Ports, Bruce Mines, St. Mary's 
River, Sault, 1\lichipicoten Island, and around North Shore, Lake 
Superior, Port Arthur and Duluth. 


I2iT Passengers can go b:J' one Steamer and return b)7 tilt' other, tbu" 
making ('omplt"(" tour. 


SUMMER 


EXCURSIONS. 


V ery low Round Trip Excursion Tickets, all around the Lakes, in- 
cluding Meals and Staterooms. 


Through and Return Tickets can be purchased from all Agents Cana- 
dian Pacifi
, Grand Trunk, and Northern and N orth- \Vestern Rail ways. 


J AS. NEIL, Collingwood. 
T. MÅITLA
D, Owen S1und. 
R. E. 1'1ITCHELL, Port Arthur. 
J. T. ROSE, Duluth. 


BARLOW CUMBERLAND, 


GENERAL AGENT, 


35 Yonge St., Toronto. 


204 



A CONTINUOUS CHAIN OF INTEREST 


EXISTS ALONG 


The Grand Manitoulin Channel, 
THE GREAT NORTHERX TRA,NSIT co. (Limited.) 


Royal 


Mail 


Line. 


CollIngwood 


and 


Sault Ste. 


Marie. 


SS Pacific, 
Capt. Campbell. 


S
 Atlantic, 


Capt. Foote. 


SS Nortbern 
Belle, 
Capt. Barrett. 


The new Palace Steamers Pacific and Atlantic leave Collingwood 
'VEDNESDAYS AND SATURDAYS, 


On arrival of morning trains of Nortbern and North-'Vestern Railways from 
Hamilton and Toronto, ('aIling at l\leaford, Owen Sound, Wiarton, thence 
connecting with Grand Trnnk Railway to Killarney, :I\lanitowaning, Little Cur- 
rent, La Cloche, Spa.nish River, anù all the Inner Ports in The Great North 
Channel, St. Joseph's Island, St. Mary's River, Sault Ste. Marie. 



 MACKINAC EXCURSIONS.
 


During the Summer season the Steamers continue their trip round to the far-famec! 
Island of Mackinac, giving sufficient time for Excursionists to visit the many 
point'i of beauty and interest. 
The cabins are wide, lofty, and every effort ul!led to entertain the Travelling 
l>ublic with both comfort and hospitality. 


PARRY ISLAND ARCIIIPELA.GO. 
S.S. NORTHERY BELLE leaves Collingwood Mondays and Thursdays, 1 p.m.J 
for Parry Sound, passing through all the Islands. 


THOS. LO
G, Secretary, 
COLLINGWOOD. 


CHA.S. CAMERO
, Manager, 
COLLINGWOOD. 


205 



-T::S:E- 


Northern &. North-Western Ry 
IS THE GREAT AND 
eÛNúY ÙINE'3 


RUNNING TO THE FAR-FAMED 


MUSKOKA DISTRICT, 
The Sportsman's Paradise and the 
Free Grant Lands of Ontario. 


}'ast Trains Daily from Toronto and Hamilton, connecting with Steamers 
of the Muskoka Navigation Company for all Points on the Lakes. 
Parlour Cars. 


Fishing, Hunting, (;un11)ing, Delig'htful Sunlluer Re.. 
sort for Faolilies, First-Class Hotels at Lo,v Rates. 





























 



 --
 For a CHEAP TRIP and SOLID 
.
 _4 .'
 COM FORT take the 

:
bb REILIABILE 
-:..
- _
.Jj

 I 'j I 
-
 -' _...,.,,,,-
....# ...", I 
;":E
":;'
 _- 
 
I 
J 
 
J 
J 
'

..J..
 ) 
-- ... --

--- 

 
, 
 
...,þ/y ))./. - 
"
..J,

........ y, . :-....
 'Vhich connects at Collingwood and Penetan- 
\ 



.þ';


 guishene with Steamers for Grand and Pic- 
-.of..:..-



\t\

 turesque Resorts of the Georgian Bay, 
'JJ.

 4.'\. Lakes Huron and Superior. 


BARLOW CUMBERLAND, 
Ticket Agent, 3S Yonge St., Toronto. 
206 


TOURISTS' RATES.-Tourists' or Sportsmen's Tickets are good to stop 
over at any point north of Barrie, and return up till close of K avigation. Camp 
equipage, stores and dogs are carried free when accompanied by owners. 
Baggage checked to principal points on lakes. 
For Tickets, Rate
, Time Tables, etc., apply to Agents at all principal Ticket 
Offices in Canada or United States, or to 
SAMUEL BARKER, 
Gen. 1Jlanager, Toronto. 
ROBERT QUINN, 
Gen. Pass. Agent, Toronto. 



MUSKOKA & NIPISSING NA V. co. 


DAILY PASSENGER STEAMERS, 


Upon the Lakes of Muskoka, between Gravenhurst, (on the 
N. & N.W. Railway), Bracebridge, Beaumaris, Bala, Port 
Carling, Windermere, Port Sandfield, Rosseau and 
Port Cockburn, &c. 
Upon the Upper Maganetawan Waters, between Buck's Falls 
on the N. & P.J. Railway), Maganetewan Village, Depot 
Farms and Ah-Mic Harbour. 


Upon Lake Nipissing, between North Bay, (upon the C. P. 
Railway), Callander, Nipissing Village, &c. 


Tbe Most Attractive and Popular Resorts in America. 


EXCURSION TICKETS. 


Good for THIRTY or more days, to be had in the principal cities and towns of 
Canada and the United States. 


SPECIAL STEAMERS, NICELV FITTED UP FOR THE 
(TSE OF PRIV..."-TE PARTIES, 


To be had at moderate rates. 


Good Ilotcl accoIDlnodatioll abounds tbrou
hout the 
Lake Di
1ricts at Inoderat
 rates. 


ROBT. QUINN, 
Gen. Pass. Agent 
N. & N. W. Railways. 


A. P. COCKBURN, 
Gen Manager 
M. & N. Nav. Co'y. 


TORONTO TICKET AGENCY at B. CUMBERLAND'S, 35 Yon
e St. 
207 



HUDSON RIVER BY DAYLIGHT 


-VIA THE- 


DA- -y 


LIN""E 


Of Palace Stealners 011 the Hudson River 


-AND THE- 


l\Iew Y OI'
 CentI'aI 
 Fnd
on 
iVBI' 
.
. 


Leave Albany 8.30 a.m., Arrive at New York 6.30 p.m. 
Lea're New York (Sunday excepted), Vestry St. Pier, 8.40 a.m., 
22nd St. Pier, N. R., 9 a.m., (making principal landings) arriving at 
Albany (foot Hamilton St.). 6.10 p.m. 
Trains from Utica, Geneva, Niagar:t Fallt', Buffalo, Lewiston, Toronto. Cleve- 
land. Chicago. Alexandria Bay and the Thousand Islands, reach ALBANY in time 
to conlltct with the .Morning Boat for New York, and going North Trains leave aiter arrival of 
Boat. Berths in Heep:ng Cars can be secured on the Ste.imer. 
Be Sure and Secure Tickets via this Route. 
Dining Rooms on main deck, a la carte, open from 7 a.m. Drawing Rooms for Parties. 
C. T. V AN 8ANTVOORD, } "ESTRT STREI-:T PIER. f C. R V ANBENTHUYSEN 
Gen') .Manager. New York City. 1 Gen'l Ticket Agent. 


PEOPLE
S LINEo 


NEW YORK TO ALBANY. 
DREW, Capt. S. J. Roe. I ST. JOHN, Capt. Thos. Post' 
FROM PIER 41, NORTH RIVER, 
South Side of Canal Street, near Jersey City Ferry, Debrosses Street, 
AT 6.00 P.JI. 
Connecting at ALBASY. except Sundl),v. with trains of t,he New York Central fl"lr the West, and 
with trains for S.lratoga and all the summer rcsurts of Lake George and Lake Chaml-Iain. 


ALBANY TO NE'V YORK. 
ST. JOHN, Capt. Thos. Post. ! DREW, Capt. S. J. Roe. 
LEAVE ALBANY AT 8.00 P.M. 


On arrival of trains from the NORTH and WEST, cbanlZ'c from cars to Bo
t. 
Baggage transferred FREE between N. Y. Central R.B. and Steamers at Albany. 
TICKETS and STATEROO)tS secured by telegraph and telephone ill Alba'lY, at the Office. 
Steamboat Squa e, aud tickets for sale at all the principal railrlJad ticket offices in the EA::>T, 
.NORTH and SOUTH. 
J. H. ALLAIRE, Gen. Ticket Agent. II. B. WATERS, Gen. Paas. Agent. 
E. C. $HAFFER,Agent. Alban
 
208 



Summit House and Island Park, 


Port (;ockburn, Lake Josel)h, Muskoka. 
-FO:e.- 


FAMILIES, TOURISTS AND SPORTSMEN. 


This favourite house has been enlarged this season, making 
it the largest hotel in Muskoka,. is beautifully situated at the 
head of Lake JoseYJh (the prettiest of the Muskoka Lakes); 
commands fine lake and forest views; daily steamer, post 
and telegraph offioes in house. 
EXCELLENT BLACK AND ROCK BASS," PICKEREL 
AND SALMON TROUT FISHING. 


HAMILTON FRASER, 


Proprietor. 


LA.1rES OF MtU SI({O;({A@ 
Boats, Yachts, Canoes, Tents for Hire. 


TO URISTS AND C AMPIN G PAR TIES 


Supplied at Moderate Rates. 


Boats Forwarded to any Point Desired. 
A Good supply is kept by the undersigned at Port Carling 
and Windermere as well as Rosseau, where all 
applications should be sent. 


OARS, PADDLES AND ROWLOCXS KEPT FOR SALE. 


HENRY DITCHBURiV, 


Boat Builder, Rossea.u 


209 



MAPLEIIURST 
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 ,e Q;t@)ll
 
LAKE ROSSEA U. 


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Tbis hotel has just been erected regardless of expense, with a view to the 
comfort of the summer tourists, anrl is cbarming-Iy situated on one of the most ro- 
mantic spots on tbese waters. A first cJa
s table will be kept and every possible 
amusement for the guest!'!. A daily mail will he brought to the house and constant 
communication kept by ferry with Rosseau, which is three-quarters of a. mile dis- 
tant. 'Jhe steamboat callR daily, leaving guests J-ight at their destination. A fleet 
of boats will be kept at the house, which is surrounded by a charming grove of 
silver birch, ashen, and evergreen. 


P .ARTIES WHO DESIRE TO SPEND .A PLEASANT SUMMER WITH PLENTY OF 


BOA TING,FISHING,BATHING 


Etc, will find this resort one of the lIlost comfortable and commodious on this 
beautiful chain cf lakes. 


J. P. BROWN.. Propr.. 
ESTABLISH:D 1869. Merchants Line. 


1869. 


SEWELL BR O!S., 


Grocers and Italian Warehousemen, 


IMPORTER!! OF 


Fine Wine8, English and French 
Fancy Groceries 


AXD DEALERS IN ALL KIXDS OF 


TOURISTS' SUPPLIES, 


No. 32 JAMES ST., 
HAMILTON, CANADA. 


Intending- Touri<:ts and Camping- Parties to 
our 1\orthern Lakes and other parts of 'Vest- 
ern Canada, during' the coming summer will 
find )t to their advantage to purchase tnelr 
supplies from us. 
Send for cataJogue and prices. 
All orders by mail will receive prompt and 
l'aTeful attention. 
210 


MONTREAL, TORONTO, 
CLEVELAND, CHICAGO. 
UPPER CABIN STEAMERS 
Armenia, Cuba and California. 


These Steamers have magnificent fun lenoth 
cabinò, and are eh g-ant y fitted up, and h;ve 
a I the comforts and convenienc.s of a first- 
class hotel. Stat.:-roúms are all furnishEd 
with woven wire mattr,-sI--es. making the most 
luxuriousl.r c 'mfortable bed. They will ply 
regularly betwel'n MONTREAL & CHICAGO 
calling at all princil,al way-ports, during the 
seas'ln of navigation, passìr'g through the 
beautiful Scenery of the Thousand I
Jands 
calling at TORO
TO fOvfry THURSDAY at lÒ 
a.m.. going' east, and 9.30 pm., going- wcst. 
Berths can be H:cured fn ad vance b
' applJ'ing 
to 


Or to 


HAGARTY & CO., 
56 lUng St. Em..t, Toronto. 


B. CUMBERLAND, 
35 r on:,:-e St., Toronto. 



L AK E 


Iii, 


OSSEAU. 


THE 


NEW 


HOTEL 


At the Head of the Lake and near the Shadow River 


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J. P. BROWN., Proprietor. 
21] 



MUSKOKll LAKES. 


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FOl\T pJIÑ
FIEL
, 
ENOCH COX, Proprietor. 


Terms, $1. 50 Per Day. Special Terms for Families. 


The Hotel stands at the junctiori of LAKES ROSSEAU and JOSEPH, commands & 
fine view of both lakes; can accommodat
 over one hundred guests; roomy 
piazzas extend around the house. An excellent table is also set 
at this house and is one of its leading feature8, and no 
pains will be spared by the proprietor to make 
the stay of guests at Prospect House 
pleasant in every respect. 


Gentlemen visiting the Lakes, accompanied by their families, 
will find Prospect House a very desirable house 
to stay at. 


Ladies and young people can here indulge in boating without the least danger, 
as it is always free from rough water. 


A FINE SANDY BEACH FOR BATHING. 


It is well noted for its 


Pick.erel a:a..d Bass Fishi::c..g_ 


The steam yacht "Sunbeam" makeR daily trips from the Hotel during the en- 
tire season. Post-office on the premises; daily mail. 
PROSPECT HOUSE, in the fall, is a favourite resort for sportsmen. Guides 
and hounds kept. 


212 



fJar:ti COJl?liDl9! $mwwoJr! 3t1etl?outi'.) 
CHERRY GROVE. 


VANDERBURGH 


HOUSE. 


Tourists will not find tlies here at any season of the year, making a very 
desirable place in the early part of Summer for Tourists wishing to 
spend the most desirable part of the season in pure air. 


THE PICTURESQUE STEAM LAUNCH 


(i,
 
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A great favourite with American and Canadian tourists is owned by the 
Proprietor of the Honse; the "Kate" has been refitted with new engines, 
and is the fastest Yacht on these Lakes, and may be hired on reasonable 
terms to touch at all points of interest. 


--0-- 
:Building l\faterial delivered to any part of Lake by Contract. Address all 
communications to 


c. W. V ANDERBURGH. 


STRATTON HOUSE, 
PO:R,T CA
LI:N""G. 


This Hotel is delightfully situated at the junction of Indian River and 
Lake Rosseau. Passengers from Toronto and Hamilton arrive here at 
from 4 to 5 p. m. the same day. 
A very convenient stopping place. Guests patronizing the house will 
find it as comfortable as any Hotel on the Lakes, and their wants 
promptly attended to. 
Accommodation for 50 people. The rooms are large and airy, and a 
liberal table is a leading feature of the House. The surrounding scenery 
being fine, artists will find full scope for their pencils. Sportsmen will 
have some of the best bass fishing to be had on these waters, as Lake 
Rosseau and Mnskoka, as well as Silver I...ake are within very easy 
distance of the House. 
A commodious enclosed Bathin
 House for Visitors. Lawn Tennis 
Ground. A superior class of Boats on hand for hire by the day or week. 
Terms for Board, from $1.25 per day.--Special terms by the week or month. 


JOHN FRASER, Proprietor. 
213 




ûntfÎth 
û1tØf, 
ROSSEAU. 


Good Accolnlnodatioll for 
Tourists. 
FIRST-CLASS TABLE, 
LARGE ROOMS, 
BATH ROOMS, &ic. 


Billard Room and Roller Skating Rink. 


JOHN MONTEITH, Propr. 


Craigielea House, 
LAKE JOSEPH. 


This house has been improved 
and refitted since last sea- 
son and visitors will :find 
comfortable quarters 
and some of the 
Best Fishing in the District. 


Close to the entrance to Little Lake Joseph. 


CAMPERS, TOURISTS, SPORTSMEN 


-GO TO- 


JORDAN'S 
General Store, 
ROSSEAU, 


FOR 


Fishing Tackle, Tents, Coal 
il Stoves 


AND ALL SUPPLIES. 


TENTS FOR HIRE. 
-N E W- 


SAW énd PLANING MILL. 


The urdersigned has ereí'terl a new saw and 
planing n,ill near Craigielea, at the en- 
trance to Little V\ke JO!':t:ph, where 
he \\ ill ktep a supply of all 
kinds of rough and 
dressed 


LUMBER AND SHINCES. 


Building Contracts Taken 


ESTIMATES FURNISHED. 


JOHN C. WALLS.. THOMAS WATERS. 
:l?J:-o]?:r5.eto:r. Cra1gielea P.O., Lake Joseph. 


PORT CARl:..ING AH-MIC HARBOUR, 
FOp'!' -OFFI
E pT Ol\E l One of the best locations for Sportsmen and 
touristi in Parry Sound District; can reach it 
I from Toronto the same day by Gravenhurst 
I and BUlk's Falls, down the l\lagauetewan 
Dr y Goods, Boots & Shoes, Hardware River ilJto Ah-l\1ic Lake; gcod accommodation 
for travellers or tourists; the best Hunting 
and Fishing in the district; boats and livery 
011 hand; charges moderate; ma"l three time<; 
CAMPING PARTIES A
D TOURISTS WILL FISD a. week; steamboat lanès at the door; goat's 
Fishing Tackle, Butter, Fggs. Fresh milk kept for sickly children Rnd adults, which 
Bread always on hand. ii highly recommended. 


- FULl. SUPPLY 01<'- 


FREtH CROCERIES AND PROVISIONS. 


PROMPT ATTENTION GIVEN TO BUSINESS. 


w. HANNA & CO. 


JOHN CROSWELL, PROP'R, 
Ah.Mic Harbour, P.O., Muskoka. 


214 



PORT CARLING. 


PORT CARLING. 


-GO TO- 



AMPERS AND T
URI
TS' 
SUPPLIES. 


JOS. S. VI ALLIS' 


DEALER IN GOOD FRESH 


General Merchant 


GROCERIES 


-Al'D- 


FOR 


PROVISIONS, 
CONFECTIONERY, 


Dry Goods, Groceries! Boots & Shoes) 


HARDWARE. 


FISHING TACKLE. 


-ALSO- 


Lumber, Timber and Shingles. 


DRY GOODS 


-AXD- 


PLANINC "NO MATCHINC A SPECIALTY. 


BOOTS &; SHOES. 


BUILDERS' SUPPLIES. 


Canned Goods of Every De3criptl
n. 


Communications b)r letter promptl). answered. 


FREDERICK D. STUBBS, 


OAKLAND P ARX H(>>T1E
L9 


Opposite Head of Port Carling River, Lake Rosseau. 


-0- 


This new Hotel commands extensive views over the greater portion of Lake 
Rosseau, both east and west, including Windermere. 


Good Bathing. Steamboat'Vharf. Boats can be had on application. 


Terms from $1.25 per day. Special Rates to Families. 


.JOSEPH M. TOBIN", - 


Proprietor, 


J?o:e'J:' C.A :eLJ:N G 
215 



THE 


BELVIDERE HOTEL, 


PARRY 


SOUND. 



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ceive guests. The Iiotel occupies a beautiful and com- 
manding position on a height of land overlooking the 
waters and numerous islands of Parry Sound. The air 
is pure and the scenery beautiful. The nun1erous is- 
lands and channels are very picturesque and afford 
excellent opportunities for boating, camping and fishing. 


RIOHARD aODOLPHIN, 


Land and Estate fI
eIlt, J1uctionee:tt, <!oIl1teyaIlceJ:!, 


COMMISSIONER FOR TAKING AFFIDAVITS IN H. C. J. 


HUNTSVILLE, 


ONTARIO. 


216 



LA :E::E: ::e 0 S S :E: A "'C" .. 


CLEVELAN D'S 
LAKE ROSSEAU, 


FEl\Ñ
JILE y.lOÚßE, 


NEAl{ PORT CARLING. 


JIIJSKOKA. 


R. G. PENSON, 


PROPRIETOR. 


Picturesquely Situated. 


Parties visiting Muskoka will find thi
 


Good Fishing, Boats, etc., etc. 


a most pleasant and comfortable sumlIl
r 


resort. Every attention paid to the COTIl- 
Daily Mall. Steamboat Calls. f t f t G d B th O d F . h 
or 0 gues ,'3. 00 a mg an IS- 


ing. Daily Steamboat. 


TERMS VERY MODERATE. 


0.00:0 'r.A.:E3L:E:_ 


FOR PARTICULARS APPLY TO 


a,. ;J. MINE.TT. 


R. G. PENSON, PORT CARIJING. BOATS AT REASONABLE RATES. 


H U1VTSV I LLE. 


DOMINION 


HOTEL. 


Touri!iit!ii and tile . rl'ravellill
 Publi(' entel'tained in u 
manner unequalled out ,-ide Toronto. 


Fishing and Shooting. 


'rable and 'Vines first-rate. Good Stablin;; uccolllnlodu- 
(iOIl. Fhre Ininutes' ,valk Crom Railway Del)of. of 
Nortl1ern and Pacific Junction. 
Terlns Moderate. 


JAIIES 'V. JA.COBS, 


Proprietor. 


211 




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BEAUMARIS 


HOTEL 


Tondern Island. 


Good Fishing, Boating and Bathing; 
Billiard Room, Bowling Alley; 
Lawn Tennis and Croquet Ground. 


BOATS AID GUIDES FOB HIBE. 


Board $1.50 to $2.00 Per Day. 


SPECIl\L RATES MADE WITH FAMILIES. 


Business men joining their families by the Saturday express 
trains arrive at Beaumaris early Saturday afternoon, 
before tea time, and do not leave until after 
usual breakfast on Monday morning, 
giving ample time for a 
pleasant rest. 


Daily 
ail_ 


EDWARD PROWSE, Proprietor. 
218 



LAKE ROSSEAU. 


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Situatcd on tllC Shores or 


LAKE ROSSEAU, MUSKOKA. 


Improvements constantly being made with the view of adding to the 
comfort and pleasure of its guests. For de
cription of 
surroundings, see page 121 of Guide. 


TERMS :-from $1.25 to $1.50 PER DAY. 


SPECIAL RATES TO FAMILIES. 


THOMAS AITXEN, 


Proprietor. 


EA. -YS-VILLE. 



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ø 


JORDAN KEELER, Proprietor. 


Tourists can enjoy unrivalled scenery on .. Lake of Bays." Two first-class 
steamboa.ts ply on its waters during ßeasun ; rare sport for Speckled Trout in this 
region; the neighbouring woods abound in Deer and Partridge; ample accommoda- 
tion ; an excellent table; every attention to gue
ts. 





 

 




 
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(ERECTED 1884.) 
P(
rt Arthur, Canada. 


THE FINEST HOTEL IN WESTERN CANADA. 


Th8 Canadian Pacific Trains east and west stop here 30 minutei for dinn8r. 
F. S. WILEY, MANAGER. 
219 



(I)
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COLLINGWOOD, ONT. 
TER
S-1_50 FER DA.. -y_ 


This Hotel commands a fine view of the COllingwood Harbour 
and Mountain, rendering it a pleasant resort to 
Tourists, to whom the best of atten- 
tion is paid. 


Free 'Bus to and from all Trains and Boats. 
Telephone Communication with all parts of 
the town. 


JOHN ROWLAND, 
Fropr:ietor_ 


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Telephone Communication with all parts of the town. 
THOMAS COLLINS, Proprietor. 
220 



PAUL'S HOTEL, 
MEAFORD. 


TERMS, $ 1.50 per day. 


Special Rates for Families. Pleasant Verandahs and 
Gardens 011 the River Bank. 


FREE 'BUS TO ALL TRAINS & BOATS. 


MItS. S. P.A. t7L. 
.OD 
 IJ
S a O!BJL, 
MEA FORD, ONT. 
RATES, $1.00 per dayoM 
SPECIAL RATES given Cor Families by the Week. 


:0:- 


Boats can be hired at reasonable Rates. 


PLENTY OF FRESH FISH AND FRESH AIR. 


:0: 


JUST THE PLACE TO SPEND A QUIET HOLIDAY. 


JAMES NOBLE, 
PROPRIETOR. 


221 



FISHING 


Rods, 


Lines, 


Flies I 


Hooks, 


Baits, 


T AOKLE. 




 
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TORONTO WAREHOUSE. 
ALLCOCK, LAICHT & WESTWOOD, 
::M:.A..N""U""F AOTLTRERS, 
REDDITCH, ENGLAND, and 
6 W ellingtoll 
t..eet \Vest, Toronto, Olltul.io. 

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Rellidcnt Partner. 


222 



A:h![ERICAN HOTEL 


COR. YONGE and FRONT STS., TORONTO, ONT. 


ED. H. ED.3ALL. MANAGER. THOS. TAYLOR. PROPR. 
H. G. EDSALL. CLERK. 


RATES, $2.00 PER DAY 


And graded according to rooms. 


SPECIAL RATES TO THEATRICAL PEOPLE AND THE COMMERCIAL TRADE. 


This favourite old hostelier has just undergone a, thorough course of renovat- 
ing, remodeling and refitting throughout, and now stands second to no $2.00 
per day housE" in the Dominion. The cuisine will be found equal to that of any 
,hotel in the Queen City. and neither pains nor expense are spared in seeing that 
guests are plOperly cared for. 
The A!IERICAN is the only hotel in Toronto running FREE 'Buss to and from 
all trains, steamboam, etc., and it is safe to say that guests once stopping there 
will not fail to do S{1 again. 


R P Tr 
 .R TJjff 
==
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==
 


HOUSE} 


OOR. KING AND YORK STREETS. 
TORONTO. 


Situated in the bu
lne

 portion or the City. 
Five minutes ,valk from the Colon Depot. 
Street Cars puss the door to all part
. 


T'rIE J3EpT $1.50 Fel' k)ay [lOtJpE IJ'! eRJ'!Rk)J1, 


SPECIAL ATTENTION TO TOURISTS. 


J. J. JAMESON, 


223 


Proprietor.