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Full text of "The Northern lakes of Canada : the Niagara River & Toronto, the lakes of Muskoka, Lake Nipissing, Georgian Bay, Great Manitoulin Channel, Mackinac, Sault Ste. Marie, Lake Superior"

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II 









2 






TOZROHSTTCX 

STRICTLY FIRST-CLASS IN ALL ITS APPOINTMENTS. 

Celebrated for its home comforts, perfect quiet, excellent attendance, and the 

gsculiar excellence of its cuisine ; it has been patronized by their Royal Highnesses 
rince Leopold and the Princess Louise, the Marquis of Lome, Lord and 
Lady Dufferin, the Marquis and Marchioness of Lansdowne, and the best families, 
Is most delightfully situated near the Bay, on Front Street,, and is one of the largest 
and most comfortable hotels in the Dominion of Canada. 

McGAW & WINNETT, Proprietors. 




H@nal ttt@t 



NIAGARA-ON-THE-LAKE, ONT. 



This Hotel and Summer Resort is located in a beautiful grove 
opposite Fort Niagara, at the head of Lake Ontario and the mouth 
of the Niagara River. It is capable of accommodating three 
hundred and fifty guests. All modern improvements. The drives 
along the banks of the Lake and River are beautiful and refreshing. 

Application for rooms may be made to the proprietors of the 
Queen s Hotel, Toronto, up to June ist, after that date to the 
" Queen s Royal," Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont. 

McGAWfA WINNETT, Proprietors. 



II 






TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA. 



This favourite and commodious HOTEL is conveniently Situated to 
the principal Railway Stations, Steamboat Landings, and the Parliament 
Buildings. It has ONE HUNDRED and TWENTY-FIVE WELL- 
VENTILATED BED-ROOMS besides spacious Public and Private 
Dining and Drawing Rooms. The house is heated throughout by steam, 
giving a comfortable temperature during the coldest weather ; and its fine 
site, overlooking Toronto Bay on Lake Ontario, renders it a very desir 
able Summer resort. 

TERMS $2.00 and $2.50 per day which includes room and 
attendance, with Full Board (Table d Hote) from a Bill of Fare, compris 
ing the best that the market affords. 

The Transfer Hotel Omnibus and Luggage Waggon, and the 
" Walker House" Porter, attend to the arrivals of all Passenger Trains 
and Steamboats. 

- . . 

1U 



RICE LEWIS & SON, STE n 



GENERAL 

HARDWARE ROpE 

-AND 



HARDWARE -.**M.J^F.I.. MANILLA 



STEEL WIRE, 

AND 



IROIST MERCHANTS, 

TORONTO. 



Mechanics and Carpenters Tools, 

Builders , Foundry and Boat Supplies, 

Table and Pocket Cutlery, 

Plated Forks and Spoons, 

PATENT THREE ROLLER MANGLES, 
A FULL and WELL ASSORTED STOCK OF HARDWARE. 



W* A 



* 







23 East Market Square, Toronto, 

GROCER AND SHIP CHANDLER, 

ANCHORS, CHAINS, 

ROPE, BLOCKS, 



OAKUM, PAINTS and OILS. 



Camping Parties* Outfits. 

SOLICITED ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO. 



IT 



JOHN MALLON & CO.. 



Nos. 12 to 16 ST. LAWRENCE MARKET, 



TORONTO. 



FAMILY BUTCHERS, 



HAVE ALWAYS ON HAND 



MESS BEEF-CHOICEST BRANDS, 



IN CAB LOTS OB SMALLER QUANTITIES. 




ESTABLISHED 1855. 

HEAD OFFICE & STABLES, 11, 13, 15, 17 & 19 Mercer St. 

Telephone No., 979. 
BRANCH, 11 & 13 Queen St. East. 

Telephone No., 933. 

Visitors and Tourists -will study their own interest by send 
ing all orders to us, and insure good turnouts at Tariff 
Rates. 

Excurtlonists can order cabs by telephone from the Chicora " Office. 

HIGHEST REFERENCE. OFFICES NEVER CLOSED. 

GEO. VERRAL, 

Proprietor. 



33. 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TENTS, AWNINGS, FLAGS, 

if OT*^lf^ %\ Tl fl W ) |/*v^T\y/^/\T 

TE3ISTTS TO 



AND DIFFEEENT GRADES OF CANVAS ALWAYS ON HAND. 

Special attention given to the requirements of Hunting and Fishing Camping 

Parties. Tents for Sportsmen, or Compartment Tents for Families. 

All correspondence by mail promptly answered and Price 

Lists forwarded on application. 

D. PIKE., 157 King St. East, Toronto, Ont. 

MILLMAN & CO., 

(Late NOTMAN & PBASBB.) 






41 KING STREET EAST, 
TORONTO. 



MESSRS. MILLMAN & Co., have refitted the Studio through 
out, and adopted all the newest improvements, making it the 
finest Photographic establishment in Canada, and although 
doing a superior class of work, their prices are low. All the 
negatives of the late firm have been preserved. 



IMPORTER OF 

Fine Guns, Fishing Tackle, Camping Goods, &e. 

Just received a splendid assortment of Rods and Tackle ; also a complete line of Base Ball 

supplies. Guns and tents rented. Price list free. 

W. McDOWALL, 67 KING ST. EAST, TORONT o. 



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CAMPBELL & HILL, 



PROPRIETORS. 



TORONTO, HAMILTON AND OAKVILLE. 

STEA.MER 

" SOUTHERN BELLE 







-AND 



Grand Trunk Railway. 

Leave by boat and return by any train, or leave by train and return 
by boat. 

Toronto to Hamilton and return, or vice versa, good one day, $1.25 ; 
good three days, $L0; Saturday excursion good by boat Saturday to 
return by train on Monday a.m., $].CO ; single fare by steamer, 75c. 

Steamer will leave Mowat s Wharf daily (weather permitting) at 11 
o clock a.m., and 5.30 p.m. For departure and arrival of trains see 
G. T. R. time-table. Season trip tickets and bi-weekly excursions. 

W1H. EDGAR, G.T.R. A. &, G. KEITH, Str. "Southern Belle." 



Vll 



3DI 



ESTABLISHED 1836. 

JAMBS B. ELLIS & CO., 

BY APPOINTMENT 

Official, Government, Railway and City Timekeepers, 

IMPORTEKS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

FINE GOLD WATCHES, JEWELLERY, 

Sterling Silver and Plated Ware, Diamonds, French Clocks 
and Bronzes, Split Seconds and Repeating Watches. 

LARGEST STOCK IN THE PROVINCE. LOWEST PRICES. 

ALL GOODS GUARANTEED. 



IEL ELLIS & CO., 

No. 1 KING STREET EAST, TORONTO. 

THE LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD. 

Double Track, Steel Bails, Elegantly Equipped, 

Affords you the finest view of 




EAST OF THE ROCKIES. 

Through the Famous Switzerland of America, Mauch Chunk, Glen Onoko, and 

the beautiful Wyoming Valley. 

ELEGjANT D/VY EXfRESS. 

Solid Eastlake Train between New York or Philadelphia and Buffalo, Suspen 

sion Bridge or Niagara Falls (daily except Sunday). Night Express 

(Daily) between the same points. 

CITY TICKET OFFICES :- 

NEW YORK 235 Broadway. PHILADELPHIA 836 Chestnut Street. 

BUFFALO Cor. Main and Seneca Streets. 

Mauch Chunk, Pa. E. B. BYINGTON, Genl. Pass. Agt. 

viii 




COR 



KING AND YORK STREETS, 

TORONTO, ONT. 



J. C. PALMER, Proprietor, 

ALSO OF KERBY HOUSE, BRANTFORD 



This hotel is the most desirable for the merchant, the 
lawyer, the business man, the pleasure tourist, as street cars 
pass the doors to all parts of the city every five minutes, 
and all the fashionable dry goods stores are located on King 
Street. . Besides its superiority in point of location, it is the 
Hotel of Toronto, 

COMPLETE IN ALL ITS APPOINTMEMTS, 

with magnificent parlors and bed-rooms, detatched and en- 
suite. 

Rates, - - $2.00 per day. 



WM. M. COOPER, 

69 BA.Y STREET, TORONTO, 

desires to notify the public that he has added to his stock of Guns, Rifles 
and Sporting Goods, a complete line of 














OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. 

I keep only the "very best," and Sportsmen may rest assured that in 
my Stock they can at all times find every requisite for Hunting or 
Fishing. 

MY WAREHOUSE, 69 BAY ST., TORONTO, 

will in the future, as heretofore, be found the " Headquarters " for 
everything in Sporting lines, and I guarantee satisfaction to all my 
customers. 

Manufacturers Agent and Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

GUNS, RIFLES, FISHING TACKLE, 

and Sporting Goods of all kinds. 



CLOVERPORT, 



ROSSEA.TJ. 

A new resort. 

On west side of Big Island, 
three and a half miles from 



PENETANGUISHENE- 



GEORGIAN BAY HOUSE 



Exceptionally situated on hill 
side overlooking the Bay. 



(_ _ _ _ 

^Lf^h "*^ 11 - 



dermere, close to the most 
numerous groups of Islands. 

GOOD BATHING & FISHING. 



| able to visit the cele 

brated fishing 
grounds. 

HOT AND COLD WATEK BATHS. 



Boats for hire on reason able I Summer visitors assured of every at- 



terms. Post-Offlce on 
Premises. 

For terms apply to 

M. J. COLLINS, 

Proprietor. 



tention. 



Rate $1.50 per day. Special per week 

ALEX. ARNOLD, 

Proprietor. 







THE 





OF 




THE 



RIVEK, 



TORONTO, 




Jakes 





LAKE NIPISSING, GEORGIAN BAY, GREAT MANITOULIN 

CHANNEL, MACKINAO, SAULT STE. MARIE, 

LAKE SUPERIOR. 

A GUIDE TO THE 

BEST SPOTS FOR WATERSIDE RESORTS HOTELS -CAMPING 

OUTFIT, FISHING AND SHOOTING -DISTANCES 

AND ROUTES OF TRAVEL. 

WITH 

SECTIONAL MAPS OF THE LA.KES & ILLUSTRATIONS. 



SECOND EDITION, WITH LATEST INFORMATION. 



EDITED BY 

BARLOW CUMBERLAND, 

TORONTO. 



HUNTER, ROSE & CO., PRINTERS. 

NORTH YORK PUBLIC LIBRART 
MAIN 



NORTH BAY, LAKE NIPISSING. 



The Sportsman s Home of Canada. 



THE PACIFIC HOTEL. 

GEO. H. MACKIE, Manager. JOHN BOURKE, Prop. 

A new Hotel, well kept and furnished. Only 2^ miles from "Trout 
Lake " Fishing Grounds. Rates and guides on application. 



BUIRIK S F^LLS OISTT. 





This new and comiiiodioii Tourists Hotel is pleasant 
ly situated on the banks of the Maganetawan River- 
80O feet above the level of Lake Ontario. 

Good Fishing and Shooting in the immediate neigh 
bourhood. Best furnished Hotel North of Toronto. 

Electric bells throughout. A perfect Paradise for the 
Tourist, Invalid and Sportsman. First-elass Commercial 
aeeommodation. 

FREE BUS TO AND FROM ALL TRAINS AND BOATS. 

Terms, $1 50 to $2.00 per day. 

D. P. BTJRK, Prop. 



Entered according- to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and eighty-six, by BARLOW CUMBERLAKD, in the office 
of the Minister of Agriculture. 




OF THE 



Calces, 




For Table of Contents, See page 196, 



LAKES. 



PAGE. 

Ah-Mic 155 

Avon 135 

Axe 144 

Balsam 166 

Bass 128 

Bays 147 

Bear 173 

Beaver 152 

Big Joe 151 

Big Twin 161 

Black 116 

Blackstone 140 

Blackwater 156 

Brandy 120 

Buck , 144 

Bull 116 

Burlington 93 

Byers 139 

Canoe 151 

Clear 116 

Commanda 158 

Cooper 151 

Couchi 160c 

Couchiching 85 

Crane 140 

Crotch 151 

Deer 102 

Devil s Angle 151 

Doe. 144 

Eagle 158 

Echo 116 

Fairy 146 



PAGE. 

Fletcher 150 

Foots 135 

Fox 144 

Gloucester 89 

Gull 104 

Hardwood 150 

Hardy s 116 

Haystack 140 

Hollow 148 

Hurons 100 

Isabella 140 

Island 151 

Joseph 134 

Kahweambeteway amog 151 

Legs 89 

Little Joe 137 

Little Round 142 

Little Twin 151 

Long 116 

Loon 143 

Manitowaba 156 

Many Island 158 

Maple 156 

Marsh 156 

Mary 146 

Matchedash 166 

Mill 156 

Morgan s 128 

Nasbonsing 1 60d 

Nipissing 158, 160e 

Ochtwan 151 

Ontario . . 42 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Ox Tongue 151 

Parry Sound 163 

Peninsula 147 i 

Pickerel 158: 

Pigeon 102 

Pine 89 

Poverty 151 

QuintS 166 

Restoul 158 

Rice 102 

Rosseau 119 

Round 144 

Sand 152 

Se-see-be 154 

Silver... 120 

Simcoe 81 

Skeleton 123 

Sparrow 89 

Spring 150 

Star 156, IQOg 



PAGE. 

St. John 88 

Stony , 156, 1606 

Sucker 127 

Superior 177 

Talon 160/ 

Temiscamingue ... 160e 

Three Mile 122 

Thunder Bay 179 

Toronto 100 

Trout (Seguin chain) 156 

Trout (Nipissing). 160/ 

Trading 150 

Turtle 128 

Vernon 143 

Wah-was-kesh 155 

Wanipitae , 160i 

White Fish 140 

White Stone 156 

Wood. 148 



RIVERS. 



PAGE. 

Beaver 169 

Bighead 169 

Black 88 

Black Creek 160c 

Blind 172 

Brandy 120 

Buck 144 

Chenango 8 

Commanda 158 

Coldwater 85 

Current 181 

Dee 121 

Distress 158 

Don 50 

Duchesnay 160e 

French 156, 160ft 

Garden 173 

Hudson 6 

Huraber 47, 78 

Hock Rock, 102 

Indian 117 

Jenesse 158 

Joseph 131, 135 

Kaibuskong IQOd 

Kaministiquia 181 

Kasheshebogamog 89 

La Vase 160<2 

Lehigh 9 

Little Current 172 

Mad 95, 168 

Madawaska , 151, 1606 

Maganetewan 145, 152 



PAGE. 

Mattawan 160/ 

Missasaga 172 

Moon 141, 171, 160<7 

Muskoka N. Branch 146, 160a 

Muskoka S. Branch 147 

Muskosh 116 

Muskrat 160g 

Nepigon 178 

Niagara 15-40, 159 

Nottawasaga 162, 169 

Ottawa 151, 259 

Petewawa 151 

Pigeon 181 

Rosseau 123 

Seguin 140, 156, 1600 

Severn 85 

Shadow 125 

Sharp s Creek 148 

Skeleton 123 

South 156, 160c 

Spanish 172 

St. Mary s 173 

Sturgeon . 160e 

Susquehanna 

Sydenham 170 

Thessalon 172 

Toronto 47, 159 

Trent : 166 

Veuve 160e 

Walter s Creek 148 

Wanipitae 160 



INDEX. 



PLACES and HOTELS. 



PAGE. 

Ah Mic 155 

Algonkin Park 160a 

Allandale 81 

Alport 105 

Algoma Mills 172 

Arthur-lie 120 

Ashdown 126 

Atherly 83 

Aurora 78 

Bala 116 

Barrie 81 | 

Barretts 157 

Baysville 149 

Beeton 95 

Beaumaris 112 

Belle Ewart 81 

Bracebridge 105 

Bradford 80 

Brackenrig 110 

Bruce Mines 173 

Burk s Falls . . 152 

Burlington 93 

Byng Inlet 155, 160& 

Cahiague 166 

Callandar 158, l60d 

Catskills 7 

Cathagouthia 166 

Clifton 27 

Collingwood 168 

Collins Inlet 160A 

Clevelands 131 

Cloverport 121 

Commanda 158 

Craigie-lea ..*... 136 

Cuckoo Valley 169 

Davenport 78 

Dee Bank 122 

Deleware Valley 7 

Depot Farm 155 

Drummond Island 175 

Dunbar s Falls 157 

Dunchurch 156 

gwight . . . . . . 151 

Edgington 156 

Fairmount 1]7 

Ferndale 129 

Fort George 39 

Holmes 176 

Missasaga 37 

Mackinac 175 

" Niagara 33 



PAGE. 

Fort Rouille 43 

St. Joseph 176 

St. George 176 

" Toronto 45 

" William 1*.! 45 

Forest Lake I60c 

French River 160A 

Georgetown , 94 

Goldies 151 

Gore Bay . " 172 

Grassmere 147 

Gravenhurst, 101 

Gregory \\ . . 131 

Hamilton 91 

Hawkstone 83 

Holland Landing 79 

Holland Marsh 80 

Hoodstown 142 

Huntsville 142 

Ilfracombe 144 

Isle Royale 182 

Juddhaven 123 

Katrine 152 

Keswick 83 

Killarney 179 

King 78 

La Cloche 172 

La Vase 153 

Lefroy "" 1 

Lewiston ^6 

Little Current 172 

Longford 87 

Mackinac ] 75 

Maganetewan 154 

Manitoulin Island " 170 

Manito waning ] 72 

Maplehurst 126 

Meaford 169 

Meganoma , 153 

Merriton 9^ 

Michipicton Island 177 

Midland City 163 

McKellar . . . 156, 160? 

Mohawk Valley 7 

Newark 27 

Newmarket 79 

Niagara Falls 12 

Nipissing Junction . . 

North Bay . // 

Oaklands 

Orillia 84 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Owen Sound 170 

Parkdale 78 

Parry Sound 163 

Penetanguishene 162 

Point Kaye 113 

Powasing 158 

Port Arthur 180 

" Anson 155 

" Carling 118 

" Cockburn 138 

" Rosseau 123 

" Sandfield 132 

" Sydney 146 

Queenston Heights 21 

Kama , 86 

Ravenscliff 142 

Redwood 137 

Roach s point 81 

Sault Ste. Marie 173 

Severn Bridge 88 

Shanty Bay 83 



PAGE. 

Silver Islet 178 

Star Lake House 160<7 

SouthFalls 109 

South River 160c 

St. Ignace 178 

St. Catharines 91 

Sundridge 156, 1606 

Sutton 83 

Toronto < 45 

Torrance 117 

Turtle 156 

Utterson 142 

Venetia 128 

Walker s Point 117 

Washago 88 

Weston 78 

Windermere 121 

Yo-ho-cu-ca-ba 137 

York 48 

Youngstown 29 






......... 41 

..................... 53 

Joseph au ..... , .......... 65 

........ ...... -. 118 

144 



L.Nepigon 

Port Arthur 



Slate Islands 

^~~^-~.Michipicoten I. 



Isle Ttoyale 

S U P E R / 

Calumr 1 



Sault de Ste Marie 



Grand Haven 



Matthews, Northrup & Co., Art-Printing Works,Buffalo,N.Y. 




L.Temiscamut 



W /- Sturgeon Falls 



ie T^J-N A-lsoma Mill? 



I V 3B}"ug Inlet 





ovt fJ"r\x* ,-_ , , 

khuTi-- Boodstowi 



v "^ i^wi* ^qrcA i 



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Orangeville" 



Stratford 

i 



Brantford <; 
Niag% 




The New District for -. 



CANOEISTS. 

Copyright, 1886, Barlow Cumberland. 



)uth River 
Suudridge 
Stony L. 

I ickei clL . 
urks Falls 

rTCatrine 

Ems dale 



Pembroke -W 



Lake of Bays 

L.Kahiceambctewagamoa 



Smiths Falls 



Gravenhurst 



f. ff evert 

Sparrow 

Orillia 
r 



boconk 
Sturgeon 



ara Falls 




Erie 




THK WHIRLPOOL RAPIDS. 



THE 




RTHERN LAKES 



OIF 



A Little Farther On. 

It may fairly be said that there is scarcely a tourist who lands on 
he shores of America, who does not visit NIAGARA FALLS, and 
there are thousands of inhabitants of this Continent who feel impelled 
to follow their example. 

Not to have seen Niagara in these days of rapid communication, 
is to admit one s self to be behind the age, therefore, it is, that as in 
Europe, the old saying is, " All the roads lead to Rome," so on 
this continent all the routes lead to Niagara Falls, and everybody 
can go there if they will. 



4 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

The object of this little sketch may frankly be avowed to be that 
when the visitor shall have reached Niagara, it may, by telling him 
truthfully what there is beyond, encourage him to come a little farther 
on. 

It may be he will come only to the mouth of the NIAGARA RIVER 
and back. (See page 15). Here he will visit the most historic scenes 
in this land, where every height tells some thrilling tale of martial 
valour, of victory, or of death, and each succeeding turn of the wind 
ing River opens out a vista of recollection or landscape beauty, 
whose present peace makes pleasant the tale of past and stirring war. 

Or, should he come from some inland country, where ponds are 
called lakes, and little streamlets gurgle as rivers with high-sounding 
names, let us tempt him to cross a Lake as large as many a salty sea, 
and voyaging in an ocean-going steamer, for a short time lose sight of 
land, upon a fresh water trip to the most busy and thriving city in 
Canada. It is of itself a little episode, this rapid trip across the 
Lake Ontario. 

In TORONTO, he will find a change of scene combining the push 
and smart energy of the Yankee, with the solid and phlegmatic 
surety of the Briton. A city of churches and fine public buildings, 
of healthful moral tendencies, and broad streets studded with many 
happy homes. The centre of the mental culture of the land, with 
Public Libraries for the enquiring, Universities and Colleges for the 
learned, and Parks and Island waterside resorts for the athletically 
inclined. 

For many years the visitor to Canada has swept along the border, 
taking the " Rapid " trip down the mighty St. Lawrence to the sea. 
Let him be tempted to stay a while, and go a little farther on into 
the interior of the country, to the " NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA," 
where primeval forests jostle close with summer hotels, and nature 
can be studied and enjoyed, freed from the artificialities of every 
day city life. 

They are not places to which to go, for display of fine clothes or 
many changes of raiment, to see dusty crowds hurry past in herds, 
measuring their pleasures by the mileage over which they rush, but 
they are places where within convenient and cheap distance of the 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 




great highways, exist high 
altitude and pure air, pretty 
scenes and mingled land 
and waterscape ; where 
game laws are respected 
and fishing carefully pre 
served, as being the great 
est source of attraction to 
the work-worn city man ; 
where rest from the busy 
whirl can most surely be 
obtained ; and whether it be 
under the canvas covering 
of the camp, or in the com 
fortable bed of an unpre 
tentious hotel, the 



LANDING A MASKINONGK. 

laden smell of the sighing pine and soft lappings of the little wave 
lets on the quiet shores will lull the weary brain to sound and un 
accustomed sleep. 

The District of the LAKES OF MUSKOKA, is a region of many, 
many lakes of all sizes and forms, where canoeing and boating from 
hamlet to hamlet along the shores, combines the safety of a scat 
tered population with the wildness of uncultivated wastes. This is 
no matter of choice or taste with the hardy settler, for nature has 
so accumulated the rocks and wilds along the shores that only at inter 
vening spots can sufficient breadth of soil be found on which to farm. 
The Hotels are not great caravansaries, but moderate houses where 
plain meals, fresh milk, cleanly rooms and comfortable as distinguished 
from elegant accompaniments, are joined with moderate as distinguish 
ed from high priced charges. This does not mean " Roughing it in the 
Bush," but that the common simple wants are fully supplied, and the 
extra velvets and sauces of city civilization are left at home. A glance 
at the details hereinafter shown will tell at how little cost a whole 
family can have a happy holiday for what indeed in other directions 
would little more than pay their railway fares. 



6 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

But should our tourist wish to stray still a little farther on and spend 
his time in steamers on the Lakes, we will take him for day after day 
upon the great upper water through the beauties of GEORGIAN BAY, 
with its channels winding to the north of the Great Maniioulin Island, 
in sheltered courses, but with unsullied winds fresh from their far off 
homes in the now nearing North, so shall he reach Sault Ste. Marie, 
or Mackinac and its many diverging routes, or sailing out upon the 
broad expanse of the mighty LAKE SUPERIOR, the largest lake in all 
the world, visit the lofty shores of Thunder Bay, Port Arthur and 
Duluth, the "city of the unsalted seas." 

Study, reader, these few leaves and learning that Canada is not 
simply a strip along the coast, make up your mind to breathe a little 
of the air beneath the Red Cross flag, and entering upon the border 
venture yet- -a little farther on. 



For the East and South. 

It has been already said that from all points of America Rates and 
Routes can be obtained to and from Niagara Falls, but there are 
some railways which are preeminent in the numbers they transport 
and in the territory they embrace, and as it may be useful to passen 
gers taking the Niagara River Route from Toronto, some of these 
may be mentioned. 

THE HUDSON RIVER ROUTE. 

Having crossed the lake by the Niagara Navigation Company s 
steamer Chicora, direct connection is made at Lewiston with the 
jVew York Central Railway. Baggage is examined on board and 
checked to destination for holders of through tickets. Once upon 
the express trains of the New York Central Railway, progress to the 
Atlantic shore is swift and certain. The only four track railway in 
America, two of its lines are given up entirely to passenger trains ; 
the other two being occupied only by freight trains ; there are there 
fore no trains to meet and no trains to pass, but a regular flow of traffic 
moves uninterruptedly in one direction along each track. No wonder, 
therefore, the wheels seem to ring along with unvarying regularity 



THE NORTHmX LAKES OF CANADA. 7 

like the steady beating of an unruffled heart. Keeping about the 
course of the Erie Canal, through the level plains and salt pastures 
of the Onondaga District, the picturesque Mohawk Valley is next fol 
lowed from its rising waters, near Rome, to its junction with the 
Hudson, near Albany. Thence the rails just above the level of the 
river s surface follow the left banks of the noble Hudson, with all its 
varied river craft and glorious scenery, passing through the "Gate 
ways of the Catskills" and in front of the Palisades of its lower 
reaches, to the great city, New York. 

At Lewiston connection is made also with the West Shore Railway 
the latest addition to the great Trunk lines under the same man 
agement and direction as the New York Central ; it forms another 
link through much the same line of country to Albany. From here 
it follows down the opposite side of the river, skirting the west or right 
bank of the great Hudson^ and sweeping along under the very foot of 
the lofty mountains until at length, when near the lower end, it leaves 
the river and curving into the midst of the valleys, makes a short 
detour from the banks to return again opposite New York, to whose 
streets the passenger is conveyed by ferry. With new and splendid 
equipment and the most modern and instructed track alignment, its 
claims on the traveller s patronage combine novelty with perfect per 
formance. 

Should passengers holding the Niagara Navigation Company s 
tickets to New York, by either of these Railways, so desire they can 
break their journey at Albany and go down the river by the palatial 
steamers of the Day Line. 

The Eastern shores of Massachusets and Boston are reached by 
train from Albany. 

THE DELAWARE VALLEY ROUTE. 

At Niagara-on-the-Lake the steamer makes direct connection 
with the Michigan Central Railway, whose trains run alongside on 
the dock. By these, at Suspension Bridge, on the Canadian side, 
junction is made with the Express trains of the far-famed Erie R. R. 
Having crossed " the Bridge" the trains follow the shore to Buffalo ; 
from here begins the scenery which has created the name and re- 



8 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



V 

nown of " Picturesque Erie." At Portage, from the lofty bridge 




THE STARUCCA VIADUCT. 

which spans the cleft, a complete view is gained of the dizzy cliffs 
three hundred feet sheer in height, and of the Genesee River, wind 
ing far away below. Farther on are the valleys of the Chenango and 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. <> 

Susquehanna Rivers, with rifts and mountain crags, and rushing 
streams, where views abound which artists have come from afar to 
reproduce, and the massive arches of the Starucca Viaduct act as a 
foil to the surrounding scene. 

Over the heights and nearer the Atlantic shore, the fair vales of the 
Delaware bring the swift train to Jersey City and New York. The 
Erie is celebrated for the excellence of its cars and completness of its 
equipments which are unsurpassed by any. Direct connections are 
made by it with the Lehigh Valley R. R. for Philadelphia and Wash 
ington by a route proverbial for its beauty. 



Travellers to or from the South shores of Lake Erie on the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern R. R., or on any railway system passing 
through Buffalo, can obtain at all principal Railway stations, tickets 
via the Niagara River to Toronto. 



To and From the West. 

OF the great highways between Chicago, Detroit, Niagara Falls 
and Buffalo, there is none that has sprung more quickly into life, 
vigour and the appreciation of the travelling public than the Michi 
gan Central Railway. An air line from lake to lake, with only one 
curve in each hundred miles ; a track made and laid as good as good 
can be ; cars of the finest and engines of the swiftest, it has earned a 
record for speed, successful punctuality and safety, that brings grist 
to its mill, increasing every day that it runs. It was a bi% bang when, 
in May, 81, Cornelius Vanderbilt swept over the road two hundred 
and twenty-nine miles in two hundred and thirty-five minutes, but 
they " Outbanged Bannager when the " Parsons/ on their special 
train, made one hundred and eleven miles in one hundred and nine 
minutes, beating the " Commodore s " time by three minutes over 
the same part of the road ! As we are not all Railway Magnates or 
Angels in disguise, it isn t to be supposed that we, too, shall fly along 
at this rate, but instances such as these prove the character of the 
road, and account for the unwarying reliability with which it does its 
duty to its patrons. 



10 



TRE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



But the Picturesque is not forgotten in the Practical, and the 
managers have not failed to avail themselves of the unexampled 
natural advantages which the location of the railway presents. 





MICHIGAN CENTRAL TKAIN PASSING FALLS VIEW STATION. 

At Falls View the rail follows the brink of the Niagara River just 
where the waters begin to hurry to the brink of the cataract. And 
here, on the lofty bank, a station platform has been placed, at which 
all trains stop, giving passengers ten minutes in which to alight and 
enjoy the view of the falls. 

The whole panorama lies at one glance before the eye, and the 
onlooker almost shrinks back from the stout railing of the platform 
as, watching the eddying waves, he peers over the edge of the 
seething gulf into which they are relentlessly thrown. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



11 



The most hurried traveller, whose time does not permit his 
stopping over to pay a visit in detail to Niagara, may feel assured 
that in these few minutes which the Michigan Central Company give 
him in his way between the east and the west, he has indeed seen 
the Falls. 







A PEEP AT THE AMERICAN FALL. 



12 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



Niagara Falls. 

IT is not within the scope of this little guide to give enlarged 
mention of the beauties and scenery about Niagara Falls, such 
information being better obtained from the local guide-books ; but a 
few notes may be useful to visitors. | 

But a short time since Niagara Falls had gained an unenviable 
notoriety for the expenses if not indeed to be termed extortions- 
which obliged every visitor to pay for the privilege of obtaining 
access to any point from which the Falls could be viewed. 

Particularly was this the case on the American side, but now all 
has been changed, and " Free Niagara" calls all the world to come 
and view its beauties, now restored to their primitive condition, as 
the greatest wonder of Nature on the Continent 

In 1885 the State of New York appropriated $1,433,000 to the 
purchase of the lands surrounding the cataract ; the Province of 
Ontario is engaged in the same work on the Canadian side. 

To see the falls thoroughly used to cost for admissions over $5 ; 
but now the whole is thrown open free, excepting, of course, such 
extras as passing under the Falls or crossing the ferry, or over the 
Suspension Bridge. A visitor can conveniently visit the whole on 
foot, or take the line of street cars which run between the Whirlpool 
and the Cataract. There are thousands who have been at " the 
Falls," yet have never seen the Falls ; a re-visit will now be in order, 
and more happiness be obtained than was possible when every step 
had to be paid for, and every peep cost a sigh. 

Visitors from Torouto can leave in the morning by steamer and 
after spending five hours at the falls, can return and arrive home 
again early the same evening. 

There is such a magnitude of interest, such a constant variety of 
wonders, that neither mind nor eye becomes satiated with watching 
the wondrous cataract or its surrounding scenes. 

With such facilities for travel, it is better to take several visits and 
study each portion in detail, 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



13 



The little map which here appears, gives a list of all the places 
which should be visited, and aided by it, the visitor can easily find 
his way about. 

Passengers via Niagara take the Michigan Central R.R. (late 
C.S.R.) The depot is near the Clifton House, on the Canadian side. 
Passengers via Lewis ton, on the American side, take New York 
Central R.R. The depot is marked " 8 " on the plan. 



1. Jlfuseum. 

2. Clift-iH Htun. 

3. Whirlpool R 

4. Old Whirlpool. 

5. frosprct Part. 
8. Falli Haiti, 

7. Cilaract 
8 3?... 

rnmg Spriny. 
4. Upper Suipfnti jn 

- Canada Southern JZrirlfff. 
C. Lnvitr Suspension 
[>. Tart, Hi,l,r 
K. ii.mt 
F. Viiiil Miit 

1 mnt. 




POINTS OF INTEREST AT THE FALLS. 

The expense of visiting Niagara Falls, other than the amount paid 
for travelling, depends entirely upon the habits or fancy of the 
visitor. The cost of seeing the place is now nothing. A tariff has 
been arranged for cabs, and good bargains can often be made by 
those who wish to drive. 

There are numerous restaurants where good meals can be obtained 
at reasonable rates, and hotels exist of every variety, from $i to $4 
per day. No doubt the old pastime of staying at the Falls, instead of 
hurrying away from them, will once more return, now that the expenses 
of seeing the place can be applied to paying the hotel bill, or, perhaps, 
in purchasing some memento of the visit. In this latter respect, 
don t fail to see "Libbie and Katie." 



14 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



ON THE CANADIAN SIDE. 

On the Canadian side, upon the edge of the new park and on the 
verge of the cliff with its spacious verandahs facing the American 
Falls, stands the Clifton House. The pillars of the verandahs may 

be noted as being 
formed each from the 
single trunk ot so 
many giant pines. In 
earlier days whole 
part of these magni 
ficent trees covered 
the adjacent shores 
and on not a few of 
the porticos of the 
more important resi 
dences will similar use 
be seen to have 
been made of their 
convenient form. 

THE CLIFTON HOUSE. 




PRINCIPAL HOTELS AT NIAGARA FALLS. 

Cataract House ...... American side ............. Capacity 750 



u 



International Hotel.. 

Spencer House 

Niagara House 

Pacific Hotel 

Goat liland Hotel . . . 
Hotel Kaltenbach 

Rapids House 

Temperance House.. 

Clifton House Canadian side ... 

Prospect House 

Brunswick House .... 
Robinson House .... " 



1 1 



l( 



625 

175 

100 

80 

60 

60 

40 

40 

250 

100 

100 

40 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



15 



The Niagara River. 

Between the Falls and Lake Ontario. 

There are two routes by which the visitor can travel between 
Buffalo, Niagara Falls and Toronto. The one on the American side 
of the River, by the New York Central R. R., to Lewiston, the 
other on the Canadian side, (see page 27), by the Michigan Central 
R. R.. to Niagara-on-the-Lake. 

ALONG THE AMERICAN 
SIDE. 



The New York Cen 
tral skirts the shores of 
the River on the Ameri 
can side, and just after 
passing the Suspension 
Bridge Station curves 
sharply round and leav 
ing the level open land 
dips into and runs 
along a shelf or ledge 
which has been boldly 
cut out from the face of 
the mighty cleft through 
which the River runs 
downwards to the lake. 
On the one side the 
cars hug close to the 
towering cliff, on the 

other, far down below, over the debris and the blocks of tossed and 
shattered rocks the waters are seen swirling along in the tumultuous 
foamings of the WHIRLPOOL RAPIDS. The train is in the very gorge 
itself; a glimpse is caught of the sullen solemn whirlpool where the 
mighty flood arrested for a time in its downward rush slowly circles 
around, chafing and grinding against the confining barriers ; suddenly 
it reaches the long sought for outlet and springing anew into re-invig- 



iJSomur, tJUEENSTON 
ST, SOiai-li 




MAP NIAGAEA KIVER. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



oured life, dashes the beads of foam from its exultant waves high into 
the air, and gleefully resumes its onward rapid course. Now slipping 
through tunnels under the projecting cliffs, now sweeping in curves 
around the jutting headlands and giving distant vistas up and down 

the stream and of 
the glorious view 
over the border 
land towards the 
lake, the train 
gradually ap 
proaches the wa 
ters surface ; the 
broken remains of 
the Queenstown 
Suspension Bridge 
come into view, 
and high above, 
the monument to 
Brock. 

LEWISTON, the 
head of naviga 
tion, is seven miles 
from the Falls, and 
the visitor walks 
from the railway to 
the deck of the Ni 
agara Company s 
steamer waiting 
for him at the 
dock. 

Great care is 
always^ taken 
along this portion 

THE NEW YORK CENTRAL IN THE GORGE. of the railway,and, 

never has any accident occurred. The steamer turns in the eddy of 




THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. IT 

he rapids which close just a little above the dock. On the opposite 
shore is Queenston and the scene of the battle of Queenston 
Heights. The first point below the town is Vrooman s Point, and 
now for another seven miles the river winds in many curves between 
high and wooded banks, along the edge of which are seen comfort 
able mansions set in the midst of the peach orchards, which have 
made the district a very fruit garden ; three miles from the mouth is 
Three mile run where the Canadians crossed to attack Fort Niagara, 
and at the mouth itself are the American village of Youngstown, 
and on the opposite shore Niagara-on-the Lake. Beyond them are 
seen the blue waters of Lake Ontario. 



The "Gorge" of Niagara. 

By the Duke of Argyll. 

" A very curious question, and one of great scientific interest arises 
out of the great difference between the course of the Niagara River 
above and below the Falls. It has in my opinion, been much too 
readily assumed by geologists that rivers have excavated the valleys 
in which they run. The cutting power of water is very great, but it 
varies in proportion to the liability of floods, and the wearing power 
of stones that may be carried along : much also depends on the posi 
tion of the rocks over which a river runs. If the stratification pre 
sent edges which are easily attacked or undermined, even a gentle 
stream may cut rapidly for itself a deeper bed. On the other hand 
when the rocks do not expose any surfaces which are easily assail 
able a very large body of water may run over them for ages without 
being able to scoop out more than a few feet or even a few inches. 

Accordingly such is actually the case with the Niagara River in 
the upper part of its course from Lake Erie to the Falls. In all the 
ages during which it has run in that course for fifteen miles it has not 
been able to remove more than a few feet of soil or rock. The 
country is level, and the banks are very low, so low that in looking 



18 



TEE NOETEEEN LAKES OF CANADA. 



up the bed of the stream the more distant trees on either bank seem 
to rise out of the water. 




THE PRECIPICE AT THE HORSE-SHOE FALLS. 

But suddenly in the middle of the comparatively level country the 
river encounters a precipice, and thence forward for seven miles runs 
through a profound cleft or ravine the bottom of which is not less 
than 300 feet below the general level of the country. 

How came that precipice to be there ? This would be no puzzle 
at all if the precipice were joined with a sudden change in the gen 
eral level of the country on either side of the river and there is 



NORTHERN LAKES OP CANADA. 19 

such a change but it is not at the Falls. It is seven miles further 
on. 

At the Falls there is no depression in the general level of the banks. 
Indeed, on the Canadian shore, the land rises very considerably just 
above the Falls. On the American shore it continues at the same 
elevation. The whole country here, however, is a table-land, and 
that table-land has a termination an edge over which the river 
must fall before it can reach Lake Ontario. 

But that edge does not run across the country at Niagara Falls, 
but along a line much nearer to Lake Ontario, where it is a conspicu 
ous feature in the landscape, and is called Queenston Heights. 

The natural place, therefore, so to speak, for the Falls would have 
been where the river came to that edge, and from that point the river 
has all the appearance of having cut its way backward in the course- 
of time. 

Sir Charles Lyell, the eminent geologist, came to the conclusion, 
from comparison of the rate at which the cutting back had been ob 
servable within the memory of man, that this cutting back is about 
one foot in each year. At this rate the river would have taken 35,- 
ooo years to effect its retreat from Queenston to the present position 
of the Falls. 

This is but a very short fathom-line to throw out into the abysmal 
depths of geological time, and making every allowance for the pos 
sibility of any differences in rate, according to variations of tempera 
ture or configuration, the principle of the calculation seems to be a 
sound one. 

The strata or layers of rock which compose the geological forma 
tion can readily be seen in the gorge of the river, and the process 
by which the cataract has eaten its way back from Queenston can be 
readily perceived. At the level of the brink of the Falls, where the 
waters make their final plunge, are thick, regular and flat layers of 
limestone rock. Above and below these is soft soluble shale. The 
running water wearing away the upper deposits makes the inequalities 
which cause the rapids above the Falls, and the reverberation and 
splash of the torrent as it falls, have disintegrated and washed out the 



20 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 




THE " LEDGE " FROM THE AMERICAN SIDE, 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 21 

soft red shale below, so that the limestone ledge is left in over, 
hanging masses until they break off with their own weight, and piece 
after piece dropping into the depths beneath, the Falls continue their 
ceaseless march commenced so many centuries ago. 

This deep groove does seem to be a clear case of a ravine produc 
ed by a known cause which can be seen now in actual operation. 
As far as I could see, there is nothing to indicate that the ravine is 
due to a * fault " or a crack arising from subterranean disturbance, 
but the work has been done by the process which has been described, 
and 35,000 years is, after all, but an insignificant fraction of what has 
been occupied in the operations of geological time." 



Queenston Heights where the Falls once were. 

If the Cataract of Niagara had continued to be where it once was, 
it would have given additional splendour to one of the most beautiful 
landscapes of the world. Instead of falling, as it now does, into a 
narrow chasm, where it cannot be seen a few yards from either bank, 
it would have poured its magnificent torrent over a higher range of 
cliff, and would have shone for hundreds of miles over land and sea. 
The steep line of heights above Queenston form the termination or 
escarpement of the comparatively high, table-land of the upper 
Lakes. On the summit of the ridge has been erected 

BROCK S MONUMENT. 

This magnificent structure was erected by his grateful countrymen, 
to the memory of the brave General, who gallantly fell in the action 
which took place here on the i3th of October, 1812. The spot near 
a thorn bush, where he received his death wound, is further down 
the side of the hill, and marked by a monumental stone. The re 
mains of the General, which had been interred in Fort George, at 
Niagara, together with those of his faithful aide camp, Lt-Col. John 



22 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

McDonell, were in 1824 removed and placed beneath the first monu 
ment at that time erected. This having in 1840 been seriously 
damaged with explosives by a vandal named Lett, public sentiment 
was aroused and by a spontaneous movement, the necessary sum was 
immediately raised for the present unique structure. 

The previous monument was erected by a grant from the Parlia 
ment of the Province, this one, from the voluntary contributions of 
the Militia and Indian warriors of the country. 

On the 1 3th of October, 1853, the remains of the revered dead 
were again removed, to be placed where they now lie in massive stone 
sarcophogi beneath the column. 

To gather some idea of the fervour which has raised so distin 
guished a memorial, we may quote from the speeches made on the 
spot, where twenty-eight years after his death it was determined that 
this second memorial should be raised. Speaking to the assembly 
some 8,000 in number, which had come enthusiastically from all 
parts of the province, Mr. Justice Macaulay, who had served under 
Brock, said, " Looking at the animated mass covering these sacred 
heights in 1840, to do honour for a war in 1812, now old in history, 
one is prompted to ask, How comes it that the gallant General has left 
so lasting an impression in the hearts of his countrymen, how comes it 
that the fame of Brock thus floats down the stream of time, broad, 
deep and fresh as the waters of the famed river with whose waves it 
might be almost said his life s blood mingled ? In reply, we might 
dwell on his civil and military virtues, his patriotic self-devotion, his 
chivalrous gallantry and his triumphant achievements. 

Still, there was more that gave him talismanic influence and ascen 
dancy over his fellow men, and which he wielded for his country s 
good. His was the mind instinctively to conceive and promptly to 
d are incredible things to feeble hearts. With skill and bearing he 
infused his chivalrous and enterprising spirit into all his followers and 
impelled them to realize whatever he boldly led the way to accom 
plish." 

Sir John Beverley Robinson, then the venerable Chief Justice, but 
who, as a young man had fought with distinction alongside the de- 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 23 

ceased General, on the fatal, yet, glorious day, so long before, gave 
his testimony. 

" It has been sometimes objected, that General Brock s cour 
age was greater than his prudence, that his attack on Detroit, 
though it succeeded, was most likely to have failed, and that a 
similar rashness was displayed in the manner of his death. Those 
who lived here while these events were passing, can form a 
truer judgment ; they know that what to some may seem rashness, 
was, in fact prudence, unless, indeed the defence of Canada was to be 
abandoned in the almost desperate circumstances in which, General 
Brock was placed. He had with him but a handful of men who had 
never been used to military discipline, few indeed who had seen ac 
tual service, and he knew it must be some time before any reinforce 
ment could be sent him. He felt, therefore, his cause was hopeless, 
unless he could impress this truth upon the enemy, that whenever a 
General with but a few gallant soldiers, and the brave defenders of 
the soil could be assembled against them, they must retire from the 
land which they had invaded. If he had begun to compare numbers 
and had reserved his small force, in order to make a safer effort on a 
future day, then would thousands of the people from the neighbour 
ing States have been found pouring into this Province. True, he fell 
in discharging a duty which might have been committed to a subor 
dinate hand. True, he might have reserved himself for a more de 
liberate and stronger effort ; but he felt that hesitation might be ruin, 
that all depended upon his dauntless courage and self-devotion. It 
is true his gallant course was arrested by a fatal wound, such is the 
fortune of war, but the people of Canada did not feel that his pre 
cious life was therefore thrown away, deeply as ihey deplored his fall. 

His was an inflexible integrity, an honesty of character, uncommon 
energy and decision, and above all, an entire devotion to his country. 
In short, I believe I shall best convey an impression of him, when I 
say that it would have required mtfre courage to refuse to follow 
General Brock, than to go with him wherever he would lead. 

From these we can learn the estimate in which he was held. 
Long may this memorial remain to record the gallant deeds, and re. 



24 THE NORTHMEN LAKES OF CANADA. 

mind the youth of Canada ever to be ready to emulate his and their 
Fathers valour in gallant defence of their happy native land. 

THE MONUMENT 

is of massive stone, in the base, entered by an oaken door, are two gal 
leries on the north and south sides of which are the tombs of the 
illustrious dead. From the ground to the gallery at the top is a cir 
cular staircase of cut stone with 235 steps, and the magnificent view 
of the surrounding country is obtained through the circular wreathed 
openings. From the exterior the column is of the Roman composite 
order, with a sculptured capital containing figures of victory holding 
military shields. On the summit is a collossal statue of the Hero in 
military uniform, the left hand resting on the sword, the right hand 
extended with baton. 

The height from the ground is 190 feet, exceeding that of any other 
monumental column, either ancient or modern, with the single excep 
tion of that of the Great Fire of London, which exceeds it by only 
twelve feet. 

On the exterior of the base are lions rampant, and on the side 
facing Queenston, the battle scene, in alto relievo. 

The grounds are well laid out, and on the gates are the arms of the 
Brock family. 

The caretaker s lodge is close by, and a small fee is charged for 
admission. 



Comparative heights of some principal monuments of the same 

kind, ancient and modern. 

FT. 

Trajans pillar, Rome n5-o 

Antonine column, Rome 123. 

Duke of York s column, London 137. 

Monument of Great Fire, London 202. . 

Napoleon column, Paris 132. 

Vendome column, Paris 156. 

Alexander column, St. Petersburgh 176.6 

Nelson s column, Trafalgar Square, London 171. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

THE VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT. 



25 



Having clambered to the summit of the heights, and ascended to 
the top of the monument, a scene is met with, than which, few others 




in America leave such an impression on the mind. It is altogether 



26 THE NORTHERN LkKES OF CANADA. 

peculiar, unlike anything in the Old World, and such as few spots 
can command in the New. 

One great glory of the American continent is its Lakes and rivers. 
But they are generally too large to make much impression on the 
eye. The rivers are often so broad as to look like lakes without 
their picturesqueness, and the lakes are so large as to look like the 
Sea, but without so great grandeur. Another great glory of America, 
is its vast breadths of habitable surface. But these again, are also so 
vast that there are few spots indeed, whence they can be seen and 
estimated. But from the heights of Queenston, both these great 
features are spread out before the eye after a manner in which they 
can be taken in. The steep bank below is covered with thaja occi 
dentals commonly called the cedar. Looking to the north-east, the 
horizon is occupied by the blue waters of Lake Ontario, which form 
the sky-line. But on either hand, the shores can be seen bending 
round the Lake to an illimitable distance, and losing themselves in 
fading tints of blue. To the left, turning towands the north-west, the 
fair Province of Ontario stretches in immense plains and escarpe- 
ments of the same table-land. 

The whole of this immense extent of country has the aspect of a 
land comfortably settled, widely cultivated and beautifully clothed 
with trees. Towns and villages are indicated by little spots of gleam 
ing white, by smoke, and a few church spires. 

On the Canadian shore, and forty miles away over the deep Lake, 
the City of Toronto is sometimes distinctly visible, when the atmo 
sphere is clear, the elevation of the height overcoming the inter 
vening distance. At our feet the magnificent river of the Niagara 
emerges from its ravine, into the open sunlight of the plains, and 
winds slowly in long reaches of lonely green, and round a succession 
of low-wooded capes into the vast waters of Ontario. The contrast 
is very striking between the perfect restfulness of the current here, 
and the tormented violence of its course at the Falls, and the Rapids. 

The wide landscape seen from Brock s monument along the shores 
of Lake Ontario, on both sides of the river as far as the eye can 
reach, exhibits throughout the same characteristic features, 



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Tourist s Route, 

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Scenic Route. 



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TERMS ; SI. 00 to $1.50 per day, according to location. Special 
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NIAQAEA FALLS, 



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Spacious Parlours overlooking 
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CURRENT BATHS. 
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PROPRIETORS. 



NIAGARA FALLS, 



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Buckets and Pails. 
Wringer Rolls; 



RUBBER BELTING, PACKING AND HOSE. 

RUBBER, COTTON AND LINEN HOSE. 

Go to the great Rubber Warehouse for genuine goods such 
as are sold by an exclusive Rubber Store. 

THE TORONTO RUBBER COMPANY, 

AGENTS FOR THE CUTTA PERCHA AND RUBBER MF C. CO Y. 

WAREHOUSE : 

(MANNING ARCADE) - KING STREET WEST, 

T O R O 3V T O . 



o 
n 






THE NOETHEEN LAKES OF CANADA. 27 

They are features eminently picturesque, combining the aspects of 
wildness with the impression of exuberant fertility, and of boundless 
wealth. 

Peaceful may they ever both remain. 



The Niagara River, along the Canadian Side. 

The Michigan Central R. R., after crossing the river near Black 
Rock on the International Bridge, skirts the bank, and passing 
" Falls View" as previously described, reaches the Niagara Falls 
station, within a stone s throw of the Clifton House, Wesley Park 
and the river banks. Two miles nearer Lake Ontario is Clifton or 
Suspension Bridge, where are the suspension and cantilever bridges 
and the junction with the Erie R. R. Soon the track, after running 
alongside the Grand Trunk R. R. for a few miles, dips suddenly 
under and, emerging, begins to wind slowly down the mountain side. 
Far below lie, laid out before the eye, the fertile and well tilled farms 
of fruit and grain, orchards and sheep-dotted pastures of the "Garden 
District of Canada ;" above, upon the summit ridge, boldly stands 
out against the sky Brock s Monument. Having reached the lower 
level the train runs through a succession of vineyards and peach 
groves and gains the river at 

NIAGARA-ON-THE-LAKE. 

Alongside the dock are the steamers of the Niagara Navigation 
Company. This old town, in early days called Newark, was once 
the seat of Government and the Capital of Upper Canada whose 
first Parliament used to here hold its sittings. Now it is principally 
a place of summer resort. Upon the blufif headland facing the fresh 
breezes of the Lake is the " Queen s Royal Hotel," a first-class house 
kept in first-class style, by the proprietors of the " Queen s Hotel," 
Toronto. A capital beach for bathing, unlimited fishing celebrated 
for enormous " bass," good boating, excellent roads and pleasant 



28 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 







THE, QUEEN S ROYAL HOTEL. 

drives in a surrounding district of romantic and historic interest 
make a stay at " Niagara-on-the-Lake" most enjoyable. The Satur 
day evening " Hops" at the hotel are largely patronized by the resi 
dent American and Canadian Garrisons and the squadrons of the 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 29 

" Royal Canadian" and " Toronto" Yacht Clubs are constant visitors. 

Many visitors from the Southern States spend their summer here 
and the Canadian Chatauqua holds its meetings in a large pavilion 
not far from the hotel 

There are many pleasant private residences in the town, and the 
steamers of the Navigation Company keeping up a swift and constant 
service the " Society" of Toronto moves out en masse during the sum 
mer, so that Niagara- on-the-Lake has become almost a suburb of 
that city. 

On the opposite bank of the river is Youngstown, with pleasant 
groves for picnicers and the headquarters and rifle ranges of the 
American forces of the Buffalo District, whose barracks are in the 
white-walled Fort Niagara. 



The Battle of " Queenston Heights." 

The surroundings of Niagara teem with historic reminiscences. 
Here sat the first Parliament of Canada, meeting in primitive sim 
plicity beneath the shade of a spreading oak. Here were the 
headquarters of the garrison, and gallant soldier courted pretty maid 
in the festive days of the Capital of Upper Canada. But there were 
more stirring scenes than these, and deeds of valour took the place 
of sports of love. 

Among the renowned of the many strifes along the River was the 
battle of Queenston Heights fought on the i3th of October, 1812. 
The two countries had drifted into war ; and on the morning of the 
nth the Americans assembled a strong force at Lewiston, under 
General Rensselaer, with a view of making an attack upon Queen 
ston. In addition to 800 men in garrison at Fort Niagara, there were 
5,300 men under his command along the banks of the river. The 
Canadian force on the Western bank consisted of 1500 men, includ 
ing Indians. Early on the morning of Tuesday, the i3th, their troops 
put off in thirteen boats and boldly crossed the rapid river, covered 
by a battery of two 18, two 6-pounders, and two field pieces, which 
they had placed on the high bank to the left of where the hotel now 



30 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



stands completely commanding every part of the opposite shore from 
which a landing could be effectually opposed. The Canadian bat 
teries were one i8-pounder, high up on the Queenston Heights, and 
another 24-pound carronade, placed a little below the village, at Vroo- 
man s Point. Three of the boats put back, while the remaining ten 
struck the shore a little above the village, and then returned for more 
troops. The Canadian force in Queenston consisted of two compan 
ies of the 4Qth Regiment and the "York Volunteer Militia" altogether 
about 300 men. These, under Captain Dennis, advanced with a 
3-pounder against the first division of the enemy under Colonel Van 
Rensselaer, who had formed his men near the river and was awaiting 
the arrival of the next boats. The Americans were driven with some 
loss behind a steep bank close to the water s edge, where they were 
reinforced with a fresh supply of troops, and returned the fire of the 
Canadians, who, stationed on the brow of the hill, fired down upon 

them. 



A turn now took place 
in the course of the battle, 
for a strong detachment of 
the Americans, under Cap 
tain Wool, passing un per 
ceived around a point of 
the river, ascended the 
rocks by a path which had 
been considered impass 
able, and gaining the crest 
of the Heights thus took 
the i8-pounder battery in 
rear. Captain Dennis was 
now compelled, with con. 
siderable loss, to retire to 
the village. 

Meantime Sir Isaac 
H Brock, in Niagara, hear- 

"^S -if- I 

-* ling the cannonade, and 




WHERE WOOL LANDED, 



THE NORTHERN LAKES ^OF CANADA. 31 

thinking that the attack at Queenston was only a feint to draw 
the garrison out of Fort George which was then to be attacked by 
the main body of the Americans, whom, he understood, were con 
cealed in boats around the point on which Fort Niagara stands, 
determined to ride out himself and see how matters were before 
moving any of his troops. 

Arriving with his two aides-de-camp at Queenston, he found the 
Americans who had in the interval been strongly reinforced, and 
were about i.ooo in number in possession of the Heights. Orders 
were despatched to General Sheaffe to bring up reinforcements from 
Fort George and to bombard Fort Niagara, which latter was done 
with such effect that its fire was silenced, and it was abandoned by 
its garrison. Although his available force numbered but 300, General 
Brock determined to retake the Heights, and, dismounting, charged 
at the head of his men. With impetuous rush, and despite the 
superior numbers, the hill was being carried I 

But now the gallant Brock, struck by a bullet in the breast, fell 
near a thorn-bush, which marks the spot, and giving his last order, 
" Push on the York Volunteers 1" lived only long enough to express 
the wish that his fall might not be made known to his men. Gal 
lantly breasting the Height, his aide-de-camp, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Macdonell, the Attorney- General of the Province, next was mortally 
wounded when charging on up the hill and leading the York Volun 
teers. The battery was retaken, the i8-pounder spiked, and the 
Americans driven back to the edge of the cliff. Here some of their 
officers, hoisting a handkerchief upon a bayonet, were about to sur 
render, when Captain Wool valiantly tore it off, and, re-animating 
his men, opened a heavy fire. Inferior in numbers, their leaders 
fallen, and one-third of their men killed or wounded, the Canadians 
were now again compelled to retire, taking with them the body of 
the General, to the village of Queenston, there to await the expected 
assistance. 

The Americans remained in quiet possession of the Heights for 
some hours, during which they did not receive many reinforcements, 
the events of the morning which had gone on in full view before their 



32 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

eyes, and the return to their side of many of the wounded causing, 
on the part of those who were left behind, a general disinclination 
to come across to the support of their comrades. 

General SheafFe now arrived from Fort George with nearly 400 of 
the 4ist Regiment, 300 Militia, and 250 Indians, and leaving two 
field pieces in front of Queenston for its protection, marched off to 
the right by a circuitous route, and thus getting to the crest of the 
heights on which the Americans were posted, took them in flank. In 
numbers the two sides were about equal, and the courage of both un 
questioned. The onset again commenced. The Indians, being 
more active in ascending the hill and passing through the woods, 
came first into contact, and, being repulsed, fell back on the 
main body, when the whole, advancing at the charge with a 
cheer, the Americans, after a short resistance, gave way and fled 
down the hill towards the landing place. Some who attempted 
to escape into the woods were driven back by the Indians, and 
many, cut off in their retreat, clinging to the bushes, went down the 
cliffs ; some, losing their hold, were dashed upon the rocks beneath ; 
and many others, reaching the river, perished in their attempt to swim 
across. The boats had been dispersed, the boatmen, panic stricken, 
having disappeared so that all retreat was cut off. 

A flag of truce was now sent, and Brigadier Wadsworth and 950 
men, surrendering unconditionally, were made prisoners. 

All this proved the good results of General Brock s impetuous 
dash, for had the Americans not been attacked as they were, their 
reinforcements would have poured across the river and from their 
far superior numbers would have been able to over run the frontier. 

The victory had been dearly gained by the loss of the General ; 
and a three days armistice to bury their dead being asked by the 
Americans, it was agreed to. 

On the 1 5th General Brock was buried in one of the bastions of 
Fort George, with all military honours, and, with much generosity, 
minute guns, from the American Fort Niagara which had been re- 
occupied by its garrison, were fired during his funeral as a mark of 
respect due to a brave enemy." 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 33 

Such was the befitting close of the action so gallantly fought on 
both sides, and on condition of the Americans destroying their boats, 
which they at once did, the armistice was indefinitely prolonged. 
The Niagara was freed from the invader s presence and Brock rests 
in memory " The Saviour of his Country." 

LrNES ON THE DEATH OF BROCK. 

As Fame alighted on the mountain s crest, 

She loudly blew her trumpet s blast ; 

Ere she repeated Victory s notes she cast 

A look around, and stopped : Of power bereft, 

Her bosom heaved, her breath she drew with pain 

Her favourite Brock lay slaughtered on the plain ! 

Glory threw on his grave a laurel wreath, 

And Fame proclaims, " A Hero sleeps beneath." 

Brttyeres, 



The Forts of Niagara. 

The Forts, as now existing, are : On the American side, fort 
Niagara, whose white walls tower over the meeting of the river and 
the lake ; on the Canadian side, Fort Missasaga, whose decaying 
central tower peeps above the banks near the entrance of the river, 
and Fort George, whose bastions are barely recognizable in the grass- 
grown mounds into which their earthen walls have decayed, and 
crown the hill-tops just behind the steamboat landing. If for no 
other purpose, it would at least have been due to their historic past 
that these old monuments of gallant deeds should have been better 
cared for. 

It will be interesting to note how often the sites of these forti 
fications have changed hands with the varying results of war. 

THE EARLY STRUGGLES. 

Happily these are times of peace ; and the shores of this historic 
river are now given over to pleasure-seekers and the placid tillers of 



34 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

the soil. But in earlier days it was far different, and the mouth of 
the river, as commanding the best practicable route of transport 
between the East and West, was the scene of many a conflict. 

The Indians Senecas, Onondagas, Iroquois, and Missasagas 
(ought with one another for its possession, and against them all came 
the invading whites. As mourned Tecumseh, 

" The Great Spiiit gave 
The red men this wide continent as theirs, 
And in the East another to the white ; 
But, not content at home, these crossed the sea, 
And drove our fathers from their ancient seats. 
Their sons in turn are driven to the lakes, 
And cannot further go unless they drown." Mair. 

THE FRENCH OCCUPATION. 

The French, having entered the St. Lawrence in 1534, had, by 
means of the connecting waters of the Ottawa, extended their alli 
ances with the natives in the region of the upper waters of Lakes 
Huron and Superior. For many years this was their sole route to 
the North-west, and it was not until 1669 that the southern route by 
the Niagara River and Lake Erie was discovered ; and even then, as 
the shores were occupied by hostile tribes, they could not avail 
themselves of it. In 1684, the Northern tribes sent 500 of their 
warriors to the mouth of the Niagara River, there to meet the 
French forces, who, under Chevalier de la Barre, were to join 
them in occupying this, the central, point of their proposed new 
line of communication ; but being intercepted on their way at 
Frontenac (now Kingston), by the Senecas and Iroquois who occu 
pied the southern shores of Lake Ontario the French were beaten 
and retired again to Montreal, and their northern allies were then 
forced to return unsuccessful to their own countries. 

In 1687 the French again advanced, and, having defeated the 
Senecas in a series of pitched battles in which they were aided by 
the northern Indians from Mackinac succeeded in erecting a 
wooden fort on the spot now occupied by the American Fort 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 35 

Niagara. Scarcely had the main army retired than the garrison, 
under de la Troye, were hemmed in by the Senecas ; and once more 
it passed into the hands of the Indians, but ten survivors of the 
whites escaping to tell the tale. It was again reoccupied, and, from 
a small log blockhouse seen during his travels in 1721 by Pere 
Charlevoix, the French, under Joncaire, were, in 1726, permitted by 
treaty with the Senecas to enlarge the fort by adding four bastions, 
and to erect a storehouse. Meantime, the British colonies had 
established themselves at Oswego ; and, the war between the British 
and French for the possession of the continent being in progress, 
Brigadier Prideaux was, in 1759, despatched with 2,500 men and 
900 Indians, under Sir William Johnson, to capture Niagara. The 
account of the struggle is largely abridged from the excellent descrip 
tion given by Parkman in " Wolfe and Montcalm." The fort had 
been strongly rebuilt in regular form by Captain Pouchot, of the 
battalion of Beam, and, being well supplied with munitions of war, 
was held by a garrison of 600, and assistance was expected from 
Detroit and the western French posts, under Aubrey. 

On the 7th July the fort was invested from the land, and the lake 
was patrolled by numerous armed boats. The siege was begun in 
regular form, and by the i3th the British parallels had opened fire. 
The besieged contested every foot of the way, but their constant 
sallies were as constantly repulsed. On the igth, the French 
schooner Iroquois attempted their relief, but was driven off by the 
British batteries, and the same night Prideaux was killed in the 
trenches while superintending the attack. The command devolved 
on Sir William Johnson, and in two or three weeks the fort was in 
extremity the ramparts were breached, and many of the garrison 
slain. Pouchot watched anxiously for the promised succour ; and 
on the morning of the 24th a distant firing told him they were at 
hand. 

Aubrey and Ligneris had advanced to the rescue with 1,100 
French and 1,200 Indians. To meet them, Johnson had been com 
pelled to divide his forces into three separate bodies one to guard 
the boats, one to guard the trenches, and one to fight Aubrey and 



36 THE NOETEEEN LkKES OF CANADA. 

his band. This last body placed themselves in ambush, and awaited 
the onset. 

When Pouchot heard the firing, he went, with a wounded artillery 
officer, to the bastion next the river, and from here, by glimpses 
among trees and bushes, they descried bodies of men now advancing 
and now retreating Indians in rapid movement, and the smoke of 
guns, the sound of which reached their ears in heavy volleys, or a 
sharp, angry rattle. Meanwhile the British cannon had ceased their 
fire, and the silent trenches seemed deserted, as if their occupants 
were gone to meet the advancing foe. There was a call in the fort 
for volunteers to sally and destroy the work s ; but no sooner did 
they show themselves along the covered way than the seemingly 
abandoned trenches were thronged with men and bayonets, and the 
attempt was given up. The distant firing ceased, and Pouchot re 
mained in suspense. An Indian who had penetrated the lines told 
him that his friends had been defeated ; but Pouchot would not 
believe him. 

In the afternoon, after a furious cannonade on both sides, a trum 
pet sounded from the trenches, and an officer approached the fort, 
announcing the defeat, and with a summons to surrender. Still 
Pouchot would not believe, but, sending an officer of his own to 
the British camp, unanswerable proof was obtained ; for there sat 
Ligneris, severely wounded, together with Aubrey and many others 
nearly all the French officers, in their desperate efforts to retrieve the 
day, having been either killed or captured. An honourable capitu 
lation was granted ; and, in acknowledgment of their gallant defence, 
the garrison were allowed to march out with all the honours of war, 
and then lay down their arms upon the shores of the lake. 

THE BRITISH OCCUPATION. 

So passed away the power of the French in this district, for so 
great were the results of this victory that all their western posts, as 
far as Erie, surrendered without a struggle; and in 1763, by the 
Treaty of Paris, the whole of Canada and all the French possessions 
east of the Mississippi were ceded to the British crown. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



37 



For a long time the whole of the surrounding country was occu 
pied solely by Indian tribes, so that during the war of 1776, although 
a small military post was maintained at Niagara by the British, no 
strife disturbed its quietude. By the treaty of peace of 1783, the 
east bank of the river was transferred to the United States, but Fort 
Niagara still continued to be held by a strong British garrison. 

A settlement of U. E. Loyalists was now begun, and Paul Camp 
bell, writing in 1791 of his visit there, says: "Opposite the fort of 
Niagara, on a large flat point on the Canadian side of the river, is a 
town lined out, and lots given gratis to such as will undertake to 
build on it agreeably to a plan laid down by Government, which, to 
me, seems to be a good one ; half an acre is allotted for the stance of 
each house and garden, and eight acres at a distance for enclosures, 
besides a large commonty reserved for the use of the town. Several 
people have taken lots here already, and no doubt, as the country 
advances in population so will the town in building. In the event 
of the fort on the opposite (American) side being given up, it is said 
there is one to be erected on this side, and the ground is already 
marked out for this purpose." 

This town was Newark^ afterwards changed to its present name of 
Niagara, and the fort was Fort George, which was constructed in 

1792 the following 
year in such position 
that it should command 
Fort Niagara, the an 
chorage for shipping 
along the banks of the 
river, and the harbour 
within its mouth. Fort 
Missasaga was subse 
quently constructed to 
command the Cana 
dian side of the mouth of the river, and any attacks which might be 
made from that quarter. 



THE KEMAINS OF FORT GEORGE. 




38 THE NORTHEEN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Disturbances were threatening among the Indians of the west, 
and a council was called at Fort Niagara between their chiefs and 
representatives of the United States and Canadian Governments. 
Accordingly, in May, 1793, there arrived Benjamin Lincoln, Henry 
Randolph, and Timothy Pickering, the United States Commissioners. 
They were cordially received, and lodged in the fort. While await 
ing the arrival of the delegates from the distant Indian tribes, it 
happened that, on the 24th of June, the birthday of King George 
of England was celebrated. Governor Simcoe gave an entertainment, 
ending with a ball in the evening. Thus it came about that the 
Commissioners, somewhat amusedly, found themselves guests cele 
brating a Royal gala day, with a Royal salute fired by a British gar 
rison from a fortress on United States soil. 

It is further said, that the meetings of the first Parliament of the 
Province of Upper Canada, which was summoned here in 1792, 
were held within the precincts of Fort Niagara. 

Governor Simcoe, when, in that year, he first came to Canada 
supposed that the Government would still retain the possession of 
the fort, but he had his misgivings ; and beginning to cast his eye 
about for another capital, which would not be " under the guns of 
an enemy s fort," selected the harbour on the north shore, then called 
Toronto, and occupied only by two families of Missasaga Indians 
the French settlement at Fort Rouille having been abandoned by 
the French one hundred and fifty years before. 

In 1795 the Duke de Liancourt visited Newark, and, telling of his 
stay at the humble wooden residence of Governor Simcoe, to which 
the sentries came daily from the fort across the river, says : "With 
very obliging politeness the Governor conducted me over the fort, 
which he is very loth to visit as he is sure he will be obliged to 
deliver it up to the Americans." Thirty artillerymen and eight 
companies of the Fifth Regiment then formed the garrison. 

The seat of Government had, in 1793, been removed to Toronto, 
its name being changed to York ; and, under Jay s treaty, in 1794, 
the fort, together with those at Osvvego, Detroit, Miami, and Michili- 
mackinac, were to be given up. At length, no less than twenty 



TEE NORTEEEN LAKES OF CANADA. 39 

years after the Revolution, on the nth July, 1796, the last salute 
was fired to the red-cross flag as it was slow y lowered from the 
flagstaff, and, the garrison and the guns being removed across the 
river to Fort George, Fort Niagara was finally handed over, and 
the stars and stripes floated peacefully above it until the war of 1812. 

THE AMERICANS TAKE FORT GEORGE. 

As previously mentioned, at the battle at Queenston Heights, in 
October, 1812, Fort Niagara was so vigorously assailed by Fort 
George that its garrison had to evacuate and retire from it. Posses 
sion was retaken upon the armistice, and again, in November, the 
two forts had an artillery duel which resulted in nothing but their 
mutual damage, without superior advantage to either. Matters re 
mained quiet during the winter, but in the spring the Americans 
collecting together a large number of ships and boats, and a force of 
soldiers and seamen embarked in the early morning of the 27th 
May, 1813, and, under cover of a fog, crept down the Canadian shore. 
The battery, which occupied the site of the present Fort Missasaga,and 
near the lighthouse, which was then on the point, was first attacked, 
and was silenced by the weight of superior artillery ; and after a 
gallant struggle the forlorn hope of 500 men forced a landing at a 
creek [about a mile to the west. The Canadians, on the level 
plain, were shot down by the fire from the ships, while the landing 
parties being protected by the high, overhanging banks effected 
their landing on the beach. Reinforced from the fleet, they advanced 
4,000 in number upon Fort George, which General Vincent, be 
ing satisfied that the victory of the Americans was complete, eva 
cuated, having spiked the guns and blown up all of the magazines, 
and retired with the remnants of his force to St. David. 

The Americans remained in possession of Fort George all through 
the summer, during which a series of engagements took place with 
the result that they were hemmed in on all sides, and their supplies 
cut off. At length, on loth December, 1813, upon the advance of 
the Canadian forces, under Colonel Murray, they evacuated Fort 
George, having first set fire to all the houses in Newark, rendering 



40 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



all the inhabitants including the 
women and children homeless and 
houseless in mid-winter. 

Murray s advance was so swift 
that the retreat was precipitate, so 
much so that tents for 1,500 of the 
American garrison were left stand 
ing, and the fort itself undamaged. 

THE CANADIANS RE-TAKE FORT 
NIAGARA. 

Aroused to avenge the burning 
of the town, Murray, under the com 
mand of General Rial], on the night 
of the i8th December crossed the 
river, about three miles up, with 
550 men, advancing stealthily at 
dawn, with bayonets fixed, and not 
a musket loaded lest by any chance 
an alarm might be given. The out 
lying picquets were surprised, and 
bayoneted to a man. Rushing for 
ward, the walls were scaled with 
scaling-ladders, the interior gained, 
the main gate carried ; and after a 
gallant resistance by the garrison, 
of whom 65 were killed and 12 
wounded, at 5.30 in the morning 
Fort Niagara was once more in 
British possession. The Ameri 
can flag was sent as a trophy to the Governor-General at Montreal, 
and the Red-Cross floated again on both sides of the mouth of the 
river. Matters so continued until peace was declared, in February, 
1815, when once more Fort Niagara was gracefully given up ; and 
again, and in peace, the stars and stripes took the place of the red- 
cross Jack. 




CO 

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53 

3 



W 

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a 
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42 TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Thus had three nationalities the French, the British, and the 
United States been in successive possession of the fortifications 
that crowned this ancient point of land. 

Twice had British valour stormed the ramparts, and from each of 
the others had it in turn wrested their possession at the bayonet s 
point each time again retiring in honour to cede them as an evi 
dence of national good-will. 

The dismantled forts on the Canadian side, and the reverberating 
" sun-set gun " from the American fort, mark the continuance of the 
era of better days, wherein all strife upon these so oft-disturbed and 
still so hallowed shores has found an end; and their guardians now 
are rivals only in the arts of peace. 



Lake Ontario. 

This lake, the last of the series before the St. Lawrence proper is 
reached, is 180 miles long, and 234 feet above the sea. At this 
point the breadth between Niagara and Toronto is 35 miles, and is 
crossed in about two hours. The passage across the lake, in the 
middle portion of which the steamer is for a short time out of sight 
of land, gives full advantage of the pure cool winds which in summer 
fan its surface, and make the trip over and back one of the most 
attractive routes for those going from the districts south or west of 
Buffalo, to or from Toronto, and a great resort for the citizens of the 
city itself. 

The palace steamer CHICORA, of the Niagara Navigation Company, 
is the largest steamer on the lake, is built of iron and steel, and is of 
the strongest and most substantial character. Of regular ocean 
going style having been built on the Clyde, and crossed the Atlan 
tic she maintains exact regularity of service in all weathers ; and as 
old Boreas sometimes wakes up and develops a " snorter," it is well, 
therefore, to have a good bridge to carry one across. But these dis 
plays are only fitful in their occurrence, calm weather being the 
average from June to September. In olden days the crossing used 



THE ^NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



43 



to be made in from four to six hours, and communication before 
the days of railways was kept up the year round, the passengers 
being landed on the ice which fringed the shores. On the doors of 
the warehouses at Niagara are still to be seen the names of some of 
the old time vessels that occupied the route. 

The Chicora is 230 feet long, with two raking funnels, and a 
generally " rakish " appearance. The Entrance, Saloon is laid with 
maple and walnut ; and a handsome circular staircase, with richly 
twisted railings, leads to the Deck Saloon. This unique apartment 
occupies the centre of the promenade deck, and is surrounded by 
windows giving a complete view and complete protection in rainy 



- 







STEAMER CHICORA. 



weather. The Promenade Deck extends the full length of the steamer, 
so that a walk of a mile is obtained without much difficulty. Seats 
and comfortable arm chairs are provided in abundance, so that every 
opportunity is afforded for making a pleasant trip. The Bar is sup 
plied by the Company with the choicest brands, and in the Restaurant 
meals are supplied while crossing the lake. 

The Marine Double Oscillating Engines, built by the celebrated 
marine engineers, Messrs. Fa wcett, Preston & Co., and the like of which 
are not in any other steamer on fresh water, are objects of much 
interest and admiration to visitors. 



44 THE NORTHMEN LAKES OF CANADA. 

This steamer, leaving Toronto each week-day at 7 A.M. and 2 P.M., 
and Lewiston at n A.M. and 4.30 P.M., makes two trips each day, 
calling both ways at Niagara-on-the-Lake, and giving a pleasant outing 
on the open water of Lake Ontario, with the run of fourteen miles 
up and down the charming Niagara River. Direct connections are 
made, and through tickets issued in connection with all the Trunk 
Line Railways of the United States and Canada, and with the Royal 
Mail Line for the Thousand Islands and the Rapids of the St. Law 
rence. Baggage requiring to pass Customs is examined by Customs 
officers on board the steamer while crossing the lake. (See Advt}. 

THE ISLAND TORONTO. 

When approaching Toronto from the southern shore, the light 
house, on Gibraltar Point the extreme west point of the island 
which forms and protects Toronto harbour will be the first object 
to come in view. The island has been formed by the sands washing 
from the lofty Scarboro Heights, which will be seen far away to the 
east. At one time it was possible to drive from the mainland along 
the Island, but ten years ago a breach was made at Ashbridges Bay, 
which has since enlarged, and a permanent opening has from that 
time existed. The form of the island is being constantly changed. 
The lighthouse, when first erected, was within a few feet of the water; 
now it is a considerable distance inland, the sand having been con 
stantly deposited here and on the long spits forming the west side of 
the protection of the harbour. A large and increasing population of 
summer visitors from the city is in occupation of the many slight but 
pretty houses erected all along the shores. A plank walk follows 
the beach the whole circuit of the island, and a steam tramway will 
soon be in operation. 

Hanlan, the champion oarsman of the world, was born on this 
island, and the prominent building with high gables is his hotel, 
where can be seen the trophies of his prowess which he has won in 
all quarters of the globe. Bands play every evening in the summer 
in front of the hotel ; and roller-coasters and merry-go-rounds make 
this the Coney Island of Torontonians. Ferries run to all parts of 
the island every few minutes. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 45 

The Exhibition Buildings attract the eye to the west, on the main 
land, the white buildings in front of them, and close to the shore, are 
the barracks of the New Fort. Near here the American forces 
landed in 1813, and, after meeting with considerable resistance, they 
stormed the Old Fort, which may be noticed on the shore close to 
the entrance of the harbour. The Canadian garrison, being inferior 
in numbers, and unable to withstand the attack, retreated, and, in 
doing so, blew up their magazine, by which the American commander, 
General Pike, and 200 of his men were killed, and many wounded. 
The spot where this occurred is just a little to the west of the pre 
sent parapet. 

Toronto slopes very gently upwards from the water s edge, so 
gently as to present an almost level apppearance. The sky line is 
broken by the spires and towers of the churches and other buildings, 
and a fringe of green from the trees surmounting the Davenport Hills, 
which are the north limit of the city, forms a setting to the whole. 

Baggage is claimed on board, and transferred by the Toronto 
Transfer Company to the several hotels or railway stations. 

The Royal Mail Line Steamers, for the Rapids of the St. Law 
rence and Montreal, leave from the same dock. 



Toronto as a Summer Resort, 

This city has gradually become the acknowledged centre for the 
Province of Ontario, of intellectual study, political opinion, legal re 
search and monied influence all potent motives to attract residents 
to settle within its borders. But beyond and in addition to these are 
the lighter and more enjoyable attractions of amusement and relaxa 
tion that serve to lighten the labour of anxious business, and while 
away the hours for persons of leisure. 

Theatres, concert halls, parks, and (if they may be enumerated in 
the class of mental relaxations) sensational preachers of much power, 
are adjuncts that may be added to any city, wherever its location. 



46 THE NOETHEHN LAKES OF CANADA. 

In these respects Toronto is amply endowed. She has, however, % 
natural endowment in her geographical and physical position and of 
which she is now only beginning to avail herself ; these advantages 
have contributed not a little to her past improvement, and bid fair 
to aid her happily in her advance towards metropolitan greatness. 
This city is pre-eminently a lakeside resort. In the past the streets 
have, and unless the city fathers should with infinite blindness to 
her own good, and with poor faithlessness in their future expansion, 
adopt an opposite policy, will for all time give open and unrestricted 
access to the waters of the harbour. No resident of, or visitor to, 
Toronto but can either by street-car or a short walk get down to 
the water side, and enjoy a balmy evening s row upon the sheltered 
waters of the bay, reaching home again at an early hour, and retire 
to rest invigorated by manly exercise and health- giving air. In the 
evenings the waters of the harbour are fairly alive with boats. Take 
any city of similar size, and beyond all doubt there are more pleasure 
boats to the aggregate number of families in Toronto than anywhere 
else on the globe. It is said there are cities in China where a large 
number of people live in houses floating on the water ; but any one 
who saw the welcome given to Edward Hanlan the Patron Saint of 
Toronto Bay when he came home crowned with the laurels of vic 
tory, and all the water was covered with multitudinous craft of every 
size and shape, from the stately Chicora to the veriest " dug-out," 
would have said, " Here is a whole city all afloat." And so it is ; the 
people of Toronto are the most persistent water lovers for corro" 
borative evidence see the puffing ferries carrying their teeming loads 
of laughing children and anxious mothers to the sandy beaches of 
the island ; see the evening moonlight excursions, when, to the light 
of the moon and the strains of merry music, the maidens and their 
swains dance the soft summer hours away ; see the Saturday after 
noon excursions, when steamer after steamer leaves the docks for 
neighbouring lakeside parks, for " luscious " Oakville, " ambitious " 
Hamilton, or " historic," delightful Niagara. 

By common consent the Canadian business world has agreed that 
"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy," and while our 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 47 

neighbours in the States may dig and delve, may sweat and strain in 
the ceaseless struggle for dollars and gain, we in Canada will pause 
awhile in the quick pursuit, and cultivating that more intelligent view 
of the work of man, let our youth sally forth to open air, fresh fields, 
athletic sports and vigorous play, setting their systems all aglow with 
vigorous health, and mind and brain re-invigorated and better fitted 
for week day work again. It is this opportunity of enjoyment, and 
this spirit of taking advantage of the opportunity, that has attracted 
to Toronto many people from other parts of Canada, and in fact 
from the world at large to become permanent residents. 

Cool lakeside breezes in summer and temperate moderation of 
cold in winter, make Toronto a very pleasant place in which to live, 
and the progress of the past proves it also to be a very good place 
in which to thrive. 



The City of Toronto, 

NAME AND EARLY HISTORY. 

The Capital of Ontario is perhaps the most progressive and pro 
mising City in Canada. Even now it may be considered to be only 
in its youth, as there are still living within its borders inhabitants 
who can remember when there were but two or three brick houses, 
and they, and the few shanties which comprised the village, were 
hemmed together in a small clearing cut from the surrounding 
forest. 

The earliest mention of the name is found among some French 
memoirs in 1686, in connection with the " Portage of Toronto." 
The country in the neighbourhood of what is now called Lake 
Simcoe, appears then .to have been known as the " Toronto region," 
a region " well peopled," and a great " place of meeting," which is 
the most probable signification of the word. The portage to this 
place of meeting began at the protected harbour on the shores of 
the lake, thence by the Humber river, then called the Toronto 



48 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA . 

river, and then by a trail to the interior. In course of time a fort 
was erected by the French, at the Lake Ontario end of the trail, the 
remains of which are to be seen in the grounds of the Exhibition 
Buildings. This at first, called Fort Rouille, afterwards came to be 
called Fort Toronto, and thus the general name of the interior coun 
try came to be localized in this one vicinity and applied to the vil 
lage which sprung up on the shores of the bay. 

In 1793 the seat of government of the Province was removed 
from Niagara to Toronto, and the name of the latter then changed 
to " York," in compliment to Frederick, Duke of York, the son of 
the then reigning King, George III. 

The new name of York never seems to have fitted smoothly to 
the tongue or to have thoroughly settled down upon the place. 

In 1 80 1 the Poet Moore, writing "from the banks of the St. Law 
rence," most probably from St. Anne s, when he composed the 
undying "Canadian Boat Song," adheres to the musical cadence of 
the old and cherished name. 

" I dreamt not then that ere the rolling year 
Had filled its circle, I should wander here 
In musing awe ; should tread this wondrous world. 
See all its store of inland waters hurled 
In one vast volume down Niagara s steep, 
Or calm behold them, in transparent sleep, 
Where the blue hills of old Toronto shed 
Their evening shadows o er Ontario s bed." 

In 1834, on the occasion of the community having arrived at the 
size and dignity of a "City," the old name of Toronto was once 
more enthusiastically revived and officially renewed. 

In 1794 there were 12 houses in the village, in 1812 its popula 
tion was 900, in 1879, T 1 * 000 * an( ^ now^the little " place of meeting," 
has grown to be a city of 130,000 inhabitants, a rate of progress of 
which any community might well be proud. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 




50 TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

The hotel accommodation is ample for the largest gatherings, hence 
Toronto is now more than ever a favourite " place of meeting," and 
as in olden days the Indian tribes came here together, so now, 
headed by their Chiefs and Patriarchs, come the brethren of the vari 
ous social, benevolent, or business organizations from all parts of the 
Continent. 

The Rossin and Queen s ($2.00 to $4.00), Walker and American 
($2.00), Albion, Russell, Revere, ($1.50), may be mentioned as 
among the best. (See advts.) 

KING STREET. 

The Town was first established on the banks of the river Don, at 
the head of the harbour, and in the far east end of the present city. 
At the shores of this river begins King, the east and west entry of 
the city, the main street of the original village, as it is now of the 
grown up community. 

Upon the site where now exists the unattractive but massive stone 
proportions of the " OLD GAOL," stood the original and first Houses 
of Parliament of the Province of Upper Canada. The Buildings 
were of wood and not of very imposing character, but they con 
tained * two elegant halls," for the accomodation of the Legislature 
and the Courts of Justice. 

At the time of the American foray in 1813, these, together with the 
library and all the papers and records, were burned, the church was 
robbed and the town library pillaged. Strangely enough the Public 
Buildings at Washington, were a few months afterwards destroyed by 
a British force, and this was considered at the time a fair reparation 
for the damages effected at Toronto. 

The town market-place used to be in the block between the St. 
Lawrence Hall and Church street, opposite where St. James Cathe 
dral now stands. The land is still the property of the city, and the 
revenue from the ground leases contributes to decrease the taxation 
of the citizens, 



TEE NORTHMEN LAKES OF CANADA. 51 

Here, as late as 1834, the stocks and pillory used to be set up; 
and it is on record that a certain Elizabeth Ellis was, for " being a 
nuisance," condemned to stand in this pillory for two hours on each 
of two market days. Seeing that these ancient instruments of 
punishment have long since been removed, we may be satisfied that 
the ladies of this fair city are now free from any such imputation ; 
indeed, any one who makes his afternoon stroll along the fashionable 
strolling grounds, that is to say, between Church and York streets, on 
the south side of King street, at the fashionable hour of four in the after 
noon particularly on Saturday afternoons will see such glimpses of 
beauty, combined with bright complexions and hearty healthfulness, 
that he will admit the justice of the reputation for pretty faces and 
good nature which is so widely conceded to the young ladies of 
Toronto. 

King street continues westward, lined by the best of the retail 
stores, and after penetrating Parkdale the " flowery suburb " loses 
itself upon the banks of the Number Bay, thus connecting together 
the two rivers which, east and west, bound the plateau upon which 
the city is built. 

YONOE STREET. 

The streets of Toronto are all laid out at right angles to one 
another. This, no doubt, takes away from its picturesqueness, but 
contributes to its convenience, as, once the bearings of the compas 8 
have been ascertained, the visitor can scarcely lose his way. Roughly 
speaking, the water side is to the south ; the streets starting from the 
Bay run north the others, crossing them, run east and west. They 
are all of good width, many are block-paved and boulevarded, and 
most are fringed with trees a feature which in time will add greatly 
to their appearance. 

Yonge street, at the foot of which the steamers land, is perhaps 
the longest street in the world ; at all events, the palm is given to it 
by George Augustus Sala in his " Streets of the World." It was pro- 



52 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

jected in 1793 to form a "portage to the upper lakes without the 
necessity of going up Lake Erie, and passing Detroit." 

The intersection of King and Yonge streets may be taken to be 
the centre of the city s life, and forms a sort of Quatre-voies, or Four 
Cr os sway, from which a starting point may well be made. 

Forty years ago, Yonge street, between King and Queen streets, 
was well-nigh impassable ; and when the road-bed was excavated for 
the present block pavement, remnants were still found of the old 
corduroy road which once served to keep the ox-carts of the early 
settlers afloat through this slough of Despond. A good tanner 
named Jesse Ketchum then lived alongside, and his name is here per 
petuated by the " Bible House," the ground on which it stands having 
been given by him to the " Bible and Tract Society " on condition 
that they would annually expend the amount of the ground rent in 
Bibles, and distribute them to scholars in the public schools an 
annual ceremonial which is never omitted, and always is productive 
of great interest. 

Built as a Government work, for forty-six miles Yonge street became 
the main artery for settlements to the north, its roadsides soon were 
lined with the houses of settlers, and the name of " street" thereby just 
ified. An early incident is pleasantly embalmed in " Toronto of Old, 
that "A story is told of a tourist, newly arrived at York, wishing to util 
ize a stroll before breakfast by making out as he went along the where 
abouts of a gentleman to whom he had a letter. Passing down the 
hall of his hotel, he asked in a casual way, of the book-keeper, Can 
you tell me where Mr. So-and-so lives ? (leisurely producing the note 
from his breast pocket) ; it is somewhere along Yonge street here 
in your town. Oh, yes, was the reply, when the address had been 
glanced at ; Mr. So-and-so lives on Yonge street, about twenty-five 
miles up ! 

Having now got the bearings of the two main arteries, we may 
wander more at large. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Map of Toronto. 

Showing the principal streets and public buildings. 
(Street Car Routes are marked in dotted lines.) 



53 





*~"""* " ~ ** ~ " 




54 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



STREET CARS. 

The street car system is being rapidly extended, and is even now 
such that with a little consideration all parts of the city can be reached 
by their means. The routes covered are shown in the attached plan 
of the city, and the cars are plainly marked with the names of the 
principal streets along which they run. Fare for continuous trip, 5c.; 
six fares, 25c. 

The Street Car Routes. 



CARS MARKED. 


COLOUR 
LIGHT. 


STARTING 
POINT. 


ROUTE. 


King 


Blue. 


Don Bridge. 


King to Strachan Avenue. 


Yonge 


Red. 


Market. 


King, Yonge to North Toronto 








Station. 


Queen 


White. 





King, Yonge, Queen West to 








Parkdale. 


Queen & Brockton. 


Green. 





King, Yonge, Queen west, Dun- 








das St. to JJundas Bridge. 


McCaul & College. 


Red and Blue 





King, York, Queen McCaul, 








College. 


Spadina Avenue to 


Yellow. 





King, Spadina Ave., College, 


Seaton Village. 






Bathurst to Bloor. 


Spadina Avenue to 


:<ed & Green. 







Bloor. 






King, Spadina Ave. to Bloor. 


Queen East. 


White. 


Union Station 


Front, Yonge, Queen to Don 






n 


Bridge. 


Yonge St. to North 


Red. 


i 4 


Front, Yonge to North Toronto. 


Toronto. 








Church. 


Blue. 





Front, Church to Bloor. 


Sherbourne. 


Red. 


II 


York, King, Sherbourne to Bloor 


Sherbourne. 


Red. 


1C 


Front, Church, Queen, Sher 








bourne to Bloor. 


Winchester. 


Green. 





Front, Church, King, Sher- 








borne, Carlton, Parliament, 








Winchester. 


Parliament. 


White. 


(( 


Front, Church, King, Sher- 








borne, Queen, Parliament 








and Gerrard St. east. 


College Ave. and 


White. 


Across town. 


College St., College Ave., Carl- 


Carlton St. 






ton, Parliament. 



CABS. 



Cabs can be obtained on the public stands or from the principal 
livery stables by telephone from the hotels. (See Advertisements), 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 55 

The usual rate is $i per hour, within the city limits, for one to four 
persons. The drivers and vehicles are all licensed under police 
supervision, and incivility or overcharges are very seldom met with. 
In taking a drive around the city or its environs, the pleasantest way 
for driver and for passenger is to come to an understanding about 
the rate before starting. 

DRIVES. 

In addition to the usual drives through the main streets to visit 
the several public buildings, the following drives may be mentioned 
as giving good examples of the pretty country surrounding the city. 

Distances out and back from Coiner of King and Yonge streets. 

EAST The Lake Shore Road, Woodbine, Ben Lamond, Don and 
Danforth Road, and the Necropolis 8J miles. 

NORTH-EAST Necropolis, Todmorden, Don Valley, Eglinton, Mount 
Pleasant 6^miles. 

NORTH Queen s Park, Deer Park, Ridge Road, St. Albans street, 

St. George street 6 miles. 
NORTH-WEST College street, Bloor street, Slattery s, High Park, 

Queen street, and Subway 8J miles. 

WEST King street, Lake Shore Road, Humber Bay and back 9 
miles. 

THE PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

The public buildings of Toronto are of singular excellence, and 
are really well worth visiting both for their architectural value and 
the instructive and interesting character of their contents. The 
more important are here mentioned, somewhat in the order in which 
they may be visited during a drive through the city. 

Front street, running parallel with the harbour, is lined with hand 
some wholesale warehouses. 



56 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



UNION STATION. Upon the 
Esplanade which skirts the 
water s edge, all the railways 
enter the city, and focus their 
radiations in this station. In 
1851 the first sod of the 
Ontario, Simcoe and Huron 
Railway (the first railway in 
Ontario) was turned at a spot 
on the water s bank, not far 
from here. The ceremony 
was performed by the Count 
ess of Elgin, in the presence 
of well nigh the whole town. 
Lord Elgin facetiously said 
" it may seem a singular ap 
plication of the principle of 
division of labour, that the 
UNION STATION. lady should dig and the gen 

tleman speak. But this is an age of progress in which we must be 
prepared for much that is strange." He then adverted to the great 
advantages which would accrue from the construction of railways 
predictions which have been fully verified. 

It seems almost impossible to believe that so short a time ago this 
city was in the winter locked in from all communication except by 
sleigh, and that in the summer the only connection with the 
outer world was by water. Yet it was so, and some of the older boys 
can still remember the wonderment with which the first locomotives 
were viewed when they emerged from Jemmy Good s workshops, on 
Richmond street, and made their slow progress on temporary wooden 
tracks through the streets, down Yonge street to the Esplanade. 

As contrast to this primitiveness there are now 77 trains, bearing 




THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



57 



and delivering passengers to all parts of the continent, daily entering 
the Union Station. 

The visitor arriving by water will notice at the foot of Yonge street 
the CUSTOM HOUSE, of highly decorated Italian architecture. On 
the exterior are elaborate carvings of fruits and flowers, a well executed 
bust of the Queen, and alto- 
relievos of the most cele 
brated English navigators 
and seamen Drake, Nel 
son, Jacques Cartier, Cook, 
and others . " The Long 
Room," where the public 
business is transacted, is 
most handsomely fitted and 
decorated. 

On the opposite corner 
is the new and handsome 
Bank of Montreal, a good 
instance of the care of 
a thoughtful architect to 
preserve the unpurchase- THE CUSTOM HOUSE. 

able advantage of trees and foliage as an adornment to the structure 
itself. The octagonal counting-room within is admirably decorated 
with rare marbles and stained glass. The other Banks are mainly 
situated on Wellington street the Standard^ Ontario, and Bank of 
Toronto being well housed. 

Torontonians are proverbial as a church-going people, there being 
no less than 120 churches and chapels in the city, or almost one for 
every 1,000 inhabitants. Sunday in Toronto is really a day of rest. 
All saloons close at 7 on Saturday evening, and do not open again 
until Monday morning a law which is strictly observed. No street 
cars are run and scarcely a wheel of any kind turns. No business 




58 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



of any description is conducted and no shops are open. Yet the 
streets are full of people either going to and from church or visiting 
their friends. Thus Monday morning finds everyone reinvigorated 
and ready for their work. On the corner of Church and King 
street, the most important street of this city, is ST. JAMES CATHEDRAL, 
the Seat of the Anglican Bishop of Toronto, a fine example of per 
pendicular Gothic architecture. 
The spire, rising to the height 
of 3 1 6 feet,is gracefully propor 
tioned, and the most lofty on 
the continent exceeding that 
of Trinity Church, New York, 
by 21 feet. The tower con 
tains a chime of bells and the 
celebrated clock manufactured 
by Benson, of London, which 
obtained the highest prize at 
the Vienna Exhibition. 

In the interior, the apse, 
surrounded by fine traceried 
windows, is finely decorated 
in carved oak, and contains 
monuments to Bishop Strachan, 
the first Anglican Bishop in 
Canada, and Dean Grasett 

ST. JAMES CATHEDRAL.. both of whom, as also the 

wife of the Dean, are interred in the chancel Chief-Justice Draper 
and others. The stained glass chancel windows illustrating in the 
upper sections " The Ascension," and below, "The Last Supper/ 
after Leonardo da Vinci ; also in the east window " The Christian 
Virtues " are fine examples of the best art work of Munich. 

The tower and spire can be ascended ; and in addition to seeing 




THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA 59 

the works of the clock, a wide range of view can be had of the city, 
the harbour and surrounding country. 

The present church is the fourth which has occupied the present 
site, its predecessors having been destroyed by fire. 

The acoustic properties are peculiarly good, most probably due to 
the apsidal form of the chancel, so that the lowest tones are carried 
to the farthest extremity. Entrance is by the north-west door between 
10 A.M. and 3 P.M. A fee of ten cents for ascending the tower is 
collected towards the cost of maintaining the clock and chimes. 

A little further east on King street is the St. Lawrence Hall, with 
cupola and clocks, containing the principal markets and some muni 
cipal offices. The present home of the city officials is in the old City 
Hall, a little to the south ; but a site has been purchased, and new 
city buildings and Court-House, to cost $500,000, are projected. 

Church street used to be the extreme west end of the town, and 
was so called from the fkst church, which occupied the corner of it 
and King, and was then entirely surrounded by the forest trees. 

The Public Library, on the corner of Adelaide street, is the success 
ful growth of but a few years. The number of books on its shelves 
in 1885 was 41,286 \ and as it is already attracting generous dona 
tions from private libraries, as being the fit receptacle for the custody 
and preservation of books valuable either for their rarity or their 
character, and where the benefit of their ownership may be shared with 
other less fortunate but yet congenial minds, its size will soon attain 
considerable proportions. A sum of about $4,000 per annum is 
expended on new purchases, and the Library has already an estab 
lished reputation for its collection of books and documents bearing 
on early Canadian history. The number of books taken out by 
readers in 1885 was 277,931 a goodly proportion to the population 
of the city. A well-conducted Free Reading Room, stocked with 
the best periodicals and newspapers, is a favourite resort, and well 
attended. 



60 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



Passing up Church street, next is seen the METROPOLITAN CHURCH, 
the headquarters of the Methodists of Canada. It is magnificently 

situated in the centre of 
an open square. The tur- 
reted tower and many pin 
nacles distinguish it from 
the other churches of the 
city. The organ is the 
largest in Canada, contain 
ing 3,315 pipes, and com 
pares favourably with many 
noted organs in Europe 

Metropolitan Church 

Organ, Toronto . . 53 Stops. 
Strasbourg Cathedral 46 
Temple Church, Lon 
don, England ... 47 " 
Westminster Abbey . 32 
Exeter Hall 42 

The voicing and tone of 
the organ are of rare excel 
lence ; thus much attention 
is devoted to musical excel 
lency and the choir of the church is ef a high standard. 

Next is the Roman Catholic St. MichaeVs Cathedral, the interior 
highly frescoed, and containing a very handsome east window in 
stained glass, representing " The Crucifixion." The Archbishop has 
here his official throne. 

The Notmal School is the centre of the Public School System of 
the Province. In it are the offices of the Minister of Education, 
and the Depository of books, &c., for distribution to the schools ; 
and adjoining it are the Model Schools for boys and girls, in which 
the student teachers can see the school system in actual operation, 




METROPOLITAN CHURCH. 






THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



61 




NORMAL SCHOOL. 



The gardens are kept in fine 
order, each plant there being 
labeled with its proper bota 
nical name. In the interior 
is a really fine collection of 
paintings, comprising selec 
tions of originals and copies 
illustrating the great schools 
of art, copies of the most 
celebrated statues, and casts 
exhibiting the characteristic 
styles and ornaments of 
Gothic and Modern archi 
tecture. In the Grand Cen 
tral Hall and around the 
Theatre are placed busts of 
the philosophers, orators and historic men of Roman and Grecian 
eras, the monarchs of England and eminent statesmen, authors, poets 
and celebrities of each reign. In the Gallery of the Statues are 
many examples of ihodern and ancient sculpture, among them Venus 
de Medicis, Urania, Cicero, Canova s Hebe, Powers Greek Slave, 
Gibson s Homeless Wanderer, and Psyche borne by the Zephyrs, 
Thorwaldsen s Guardian Angel, &c. In the same room is a full 
series of impressions in wax from the seals of the Sovereigns of Eng 
land, from the time of Edward the Confessor. A number of fine 
copies of portrait medallions and antique gems most interesting to 
those interested in gem cutting. In the next Gallery are examples 
of great educational value of the best varieties of maps, models for 
object lessons, philosophical apparatus, and generally of school equip 
ment from which many useful ideas can be gleaned. 

The Picture Galleries occupy the whole front of the buildings and 
on their spacious walls the Paintings are splendidly displayed. The 



62 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

i < 

Italian, Flemish, Dutch, German, French and Spanish Schools of 
Art are all represented. The pictures are all numbered and the fol 
lowing may be particularly mentioned : 

13, "Peter s Denial of Christ," Gherardo. 35, " The Mother of 
Sorrows," Sassoferato, a painter celebrated for the beautiful shades 
of blue which usually appear in his portraits of the Virgin and of 
female saints. 15, "The Remorse of Peter," Carlo Dolci. 40, 
" Head of St. Johi^ presented to Herodias," Luini. 51, " The Grand 
Canal, Venice," Canaletti. Among some good examples of Guido 
Reni, whose grace and harmony of colouring are rarely excelled, are, 
61, " Lucretia," a lady of ancient Rome distinguished for her beauty 
and virtue, who, resenting the outrage offered to her by Sextus 
Tarquin (B. C. 507), took own life. 63, "The Massacre of the 
Innocents." 62, "Beatrice Cenci." 60, " The Archangel Michael. 
64, " Aurora," Goddess of the Morning (this last one is on the 
west stairway). 68, " The Last Communion of St. Jerome," Domeni- 
chino. 73, " The Conspiracy of Cataline," Salvator Rosa. 82, 
" Beatrice Cenci the Night Before Her Execution," A. Ratti (See 
also No. 62). The poet Shelley has dramatized, in his poem "The 
Cencis," the story of the wrongs of her who wa& 

"Cutoff 
From light and life and love in youth s sweet prime. J 

23, " Madonna della Sedia," the only Madonna painted by Raphael 
who has not her eyes cast down. The original was painted upon the 
head of a cask. 32, "The Transfiguration," Raphael by common 
consent his master-piece which was placed over his head when he 
lay in state at his funeral obsequies. 30, " La Fornarina," portrait 
of the Roman maiden with whom Raphael fell in love. 2, " The 
Head of the Medusa," Leonardo da Vinci. 

HOW PERSEUS BROUGHT BACK THE GORGON S HEAD. 

In the old Greek myth of Perseus and how he slew the Gorgon, to 
those who read beneath, there lies a deeper meaning than appears 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 63 

* 

upon the surface. The goddess Athen6 inspires Perseus, a noble 
Greek youth, to brave deeds, leading him to feel it were " Better to 
die in the flower of youth, on the chance of winning a noble name, 
than to live at ease and die unloved and unrenowned." Having come 
to manhood s age she tests him to go forth and slay Medusa, the Gor 
gon, and bring back to her, as trophy, the foul one s head The 
Medusa had once been a maiden beautiful as morn, till in her pride 
she sinned a sin at which the sun hid his face ; and from that day her 
hair was turned to vipers and her hands to eagle s claws ; and her heart 
was filled with shame and rage, and her lips with bitter venom ; and 
her eyes became so terrible that whosoever looked upon them was 
turned to stone. Her children were the winged horse and the Giant 
of the golden sword, and her grandchildren Echidna, the witch-adder? 
and Geryon, who fed his herds beside the herds of hell. So she be" 
came the sister of the Gorgons, Stheino and Euryte the abhorred. 
Then Athene gave to Perseus her polished shield, in the reflected 
brass of which he was to look so that he might strike safely and not 
be turned to stone, and Hermes gave his sandals, on which quivered 
living wings, so that they might carry him unwearied safe over land 
and sea, and his sword of diamond of one clear precious stone, Herpd, 
the Argus-slayer. So Perseus sailed high over the mountain tops and 
skimmed over the billows like a sea-gull and his feet were never 
wetted, far away into the heart of the Unshapen Land, beyond the 
streams of Ocean, where there is neither night nor day, until he heard 
the rustle of the Gorgons wings and saw the glitter of their brazen 
talons, and as he looked in the mirror of his shield he saw the three 
lying below him in their sleep with mighty wings outspread. And the 
Medusa tossed to and fro restlessly, and as she tossed Perseus pitied 
her. In her face still stayed the form of beauty, but her cheeks 
were pale as death and her brows were knit with everlasting pain, 
and her lips were thin and bitter like a snake s ; and around her 
temples the horrid vipers wreathed and, moving constantly, shot out 
their fiery tongues. But as he looked, Perseus saw, that for all her 
beauty the Medusa was as foul and venomous as those with whom 



64 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

she lay. With one stroke from Herp6 the head was severed, and her 
wings and talons rattled as Medusa sank dead upon the rocks. And 
so, wrapped in a goatskin, Perseus bore back to Pallas Athene the 
Gorgon s head. 

In Room No. 6, in the rotary stands, is a collection of over 600 
photographs of National Historical Portraits, being taken from 
paintings of eminent persons from the time of the Plantagenets to the 
end of James II (1152 to 1688). The originals were exhibited at 
the first special exhibition of national portraits, at South Kensington 
Museum. They are classified and chronologically arranged and the 
names of the painters given when known. Other stands contain 
photographs of paintings in the National Galldly, England. 

The Italian and Flemish schools are the best represented, and in the 
corridors are many excellent small examples of the Dutch school. In 
cases in the centres of the rooms are photographs of the Kings and 
Queens of England and of well-known men of Britain and Canada. 
In the "Nineveh Gallery" are copies from the great Layard collection 
of the British Museum, 

There are many electrotypes of art treasures in the London South 
Kensington Museum casts of gems, medals, coins, etc. ; and alto 
gether an Art collection of singular excellence. 

Here school-boys and scholars will find materialized either in 
picture or in sculpture many of the personages or events with which 
they meet in their reading ; and if this collection were intelligently 
used and referred to, it would be found that much additional interest 
and zest would be given thereby to reading and to study. There is 
a good catalogue for sale at the office price 25 cents. Entrance is 
free throughout the year from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. on week-days, except 
on Christmas and New Year s days. 

The private residences of Toronto present a genuine air of quiet 
and comfort, and in this district a very fair example may be seen 
of their character. On Jarvis street is the Baptist Church one of 
the most picturesque in the city ; the interior is of amphitheatrical 
form, thus giving great play of outline to the exterior, to which the 
Queenston brown stone, New Brunswick red granite, and ornamental 



HOTELS 

HOUSES 

Rocxs 

M/LLS 

ROADS 




LAKES 

JOSEPH ^ D RQSSEAU 

DRAWN FOR 

"The Northern Lakes of Canada" 

Copyright J886. .Barlow C umberland. 




THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



65 



slates, add great colour and 
effect. The organ is remark 
able for the beauty of its tone. 

THE HORTICULTURAL GAR 
DENS occupy a square of ten 
acres. During the summer a 
beauti&il display of flowers is 
kept up, which is well worth 
visiting particularly the Rosa 
rium, for its great variety of 
roses. The grounds are the 
property of the city, and en 
trance is free from 6 A.M. to 
8 P.M. Band concerts and 
exhibitions of fire-works are 
given at frequent intervals in 
the evenings, from the pro 
ceeds of which, together with 
a grant from the city, the gar 
dens are maintained. The 
land was a liberal gift to his 
native city by the Hon. Geo. 
\V. Allan. The gardens were opened by His Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales in 1860 ; and a tree then planted by him now 
exhibits considerable growth. 

The Pavilion Music Hall occupies the west side of the gardens. 
Attached to it are the conservatories, in which an excellent " winter 
garden " is maintained. Having a seating accommodation for 3,ooo, 
and excellent acoustic properties, it has been of great advantage to 
the music-loving people of the city as an educator, and has given 
opportunities for attracting the best exponents of the continent. The 
Monday Popular Concerts, given here every fortnight throughout the 
winter, and the annual festivals of the Philharmonic and Choral 
Societies, are good evidences that a very high class of music culture 
E 




BAPTIST CHURCH. 



66 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



flourishes among the citizens. The best public balls are given in this 

Pavilion, for which it has unexampled facilities. 

The Boyf Home and the Girls Home, two excellent charities for 

the retreat and care of destitute children not convicted of crime, are 

in the vicinity, and invite visitors to view their work. The tall 

towers of The General Hospital are seen still further to the east. 
This establishment is in every way a model, with its subdivisions; 

for cure of the various classes of disease, eye and ear infirmary,. 

lying-in hospital, etc., and separate convalescent and recreation 

wings. 

Near by are its attendant schools of medicine. Trinity School 

taking its degrees from Trinity College and Toronto School from 

University College. The reputation of these schools is very high 

and their degrees greatly 
esteemed throughout the 
Continent, so that a college 
population of between 400 
and 500 are in attendance 
at their lectures. 

Not far frcm King Street, 
and at the head of York 
Street, standing in ornamen 
tal grounds is Osgoode Hal/, 
named after the first Chief 
Justice of Canada, and the 
seat of the Highest Law 
Courts of the Province. 
The interior surpasses that 
W of any other Courts of 
Law, and is of rare beauty. 
The Central Court, of two 
OSGOODE HALL. stories in the Italian style, 




THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 67 

is adorned with double rows of Doric columns in cream-coloured 
stone from Caen, in Normandy. The best view on the entrance floor 
is obtained from the extreme north-west corner, from where the 
several rows of columns can be brought into perspective. On the 
walls are portraits of the Chief-Justices and Chancellors ; from the 
upper colonnade the Law Courts are entered in each, above the 
seats of the Judges, a bas-relief of " Impartial Justice." The Library 
is a magnificent chamber, with lofty domed ceiling, and many-nooked 
bookshelves for the 30,000 volumes which it contains. A fire-place 
of fine design and proportions occupies the west end ; over it the 
portrait of Chief-Justice Sir John Beverley Robinson, who, when a 
young man, served under General Brock, at the battle of Queenston 
Heights, in 1821. In the adjoining wings are the offices of the 
various Courts. The grounds are well kept. 

The judges in Canada are not elected, but are appointed by the 
General Government, during " good behaviour," or practically for 
life ; and as they are always selected from the first ranks of the pro 
fession, the Canadian Judiciary bears high record for talent and un 
impeachable integrity. 

Should any of the Courts be in session the visitor will be struck 
with the dignity and decorum with which the Law is administered. 
Separated from politics, with income assured and absolutely unas 
sailable, and in a social position of rank by all classes respectfully 
recognized, a seat on the " Bench " is considered one of the highest 
honours obtainable in the Dominion. 

The Parks of Toronto have so far not had much done to beautify 
or embellish their natural advantages. The Riverside Park is situate 
upon the banks of the Don at the eastern limits of the City. Upon 
the shores of the Humber Bay, at the west end, and adjoining the 
windings of the Humber River, is " The High Park" Extending 
over an area of four hundred acres it comprises within its boundaries 
great possibilities for landscape gardening. Roads have been 



68 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



opened through its winding dells and rolling hills, skirting the minia 
ture lakes, and opening vistas of distant views, making a drive 
through its woodland glades a pleasurable outing. Pic-nickers revel 
in its groves, and steamboats and railway trains give hourly access. 

The Queen s Park of about fifty acres in extent, is situated in the 
heart of the City, and is approached through THE COLLEGE AVENUE, 

120 feet wide and a mile in length, 
bordered on either side by horse 
chestnuts and elms. On gaining 
the Park the road passes the 
Russian guns captured by the 
British troops at Sebastopol, and 
presented by the British Govern 
ment to the city. 

The bands of the volunteer 
regiments play here on Saturday 
evenings during the summer from 
the band stand under the trees. 

The drive then sweeps along 
the edge of a ravine to the 
Volunteers Monument^ erected in 
memory of Canadians who fell 
during the Fenian raid, in 1866. 
On the summit Britannia. Below Two Infantry Volunteers, 
and emblematical figures of Hope and Grief. An effective railing of 
crossed rifles surmounts the base. 

Opposite to this is the bronze statue of the Hon. George Brown, 
one or the foremost Canadian politicians of his day, and the founder 
of the Globe newspaper. The figure, which is of heroic size, repre 
sents the orator in the act of speaking, and is a very effective work 
of art. The sculptor was C. B. Burch, A.R.A., London, Eng. The 
Park is well wooded with old forest trees, principally oaks, and has 




THE COLLEGE AVENUE. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



69 






much natural beauty. Surrounding it are many villa residences. 
The road winds down a hill and passing a small sheet of water next 
comes in view upon the opposite slope. 

The University of Toronto. This noble Norman Gothic group of 
buildings is the finest example of its style of architecture in America 
whether in its massive proportions or in the mediaeval detail of the 
carvings in stone, no two of which are the same. 

The principal front is of great grandeur, a massive tower rises in 
the centre flanked by wings on either side with long ranges of varied 
windows ; to the left a picturesque minaret with shady cloister below, 
and a circular building containing the Laboratory. 




UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



The whole group forms three sides of a square, with an internal 
quadrangle ; the west wing contains the students quarters, and the 
east wing with the Octagon Tower and Convocation Hall is one of 
the most excellent portions of the design. 

On the Entrance Doorway are the Arms of the College, and 
columns of richly carved stone. The entrance hall and long corridors 



70 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

ead to 7 he Convocation Hall, with high gabled oak roof, carved in 
grotesque forms. The stained glass triple window is in memory of 
the Students who fell defending the frontier in 1866. On the Senate 
Stairway are some marvellous carvings in white Caen stone of Cana 
dian birds. These, as works of the highest merit, should not be 
missed. The Library, a splendid chamber, with inviting quiet re 
cesses, contains 40,000 volumes, also a statue of William of Wyke- 
ham. The Museum contains a collection of birds, beasts and curiosi 
ties, well worthy of a visit. A winding stair, of 1 60 steps from this 
level, leads to the top of the Tower, from whence a fine view of 
Toronto and its environs is obtainable, and on clear days, of the 
cloud of spray hovering over the Niagara Falls. The keys must be ob 
tained from the curator. The details of the designs and of the carv 
ings in stone of this building are worthy of close study, as having been 
framed on the best examples of European architecture. It will be 
noticed that there is no repetition. Every column and capital is a 
separate study, and each enrichment a new design. This is applic 
able to the exterior as well as the interior, and some fantastic Gothic 
carvings are to be seen about the west cloister and around the eave 
of the laboratory. 

Entrance free, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 

Big Tom, whose solemn tones are to be heard from the tower at 9 
o clock every evening, when the students are in residence, weighs 

On the opposite side of the lawn is the Tower and Dome of the 
Observatory, now the home of the Meteorological Department for 
the Dominion, or what is more popularly known as, " Old Probabili 
ties." From here the daily weather forecasts are telegraphed to all 
parts of the Dominion. Every mail train starting in the morning, in 
all parts of Canada, carries on its mail car a large signal which can 
be seen as it passes along, and indicates the weather for the day. 
Thus the country as well as the town s people get the advantage of 
the forecasts. This establishment was originally initiated by the Brit- 



THE NOtlTHE&tt LAKES OF CANADA. 



71 



ish Governfnent some thirty years ago, and during that time and now 
meteorological observations are made and recorded by skilled ob 
servers, every minute without intermission ! a quiet, unostentatious 
pursuit of scientific knowledge, which few are aware goes on in their 
midst. 

The monstrosity in red brick alongside, is the School of Technology. 

McMaster College, the training college for the Baptist clergy, is at 
the head of the Queen s Park. This was founded and endowed by 
the Hon. Wm. McMaster, a wealthy resident of Toronto, and its 
handsome Credit Valley stone facade forms a very effective grouping 
in the midst of the surrounding trees. 




KNOX COLLEGE TORONTO. 



Further to the West of the Park is KNOX COLLEGE, well situated 
at the head of Spadina Avenue. This is the headquarters of the 
educational work of the Presbyterian Church of Canada. The Col 
lege was formed in 1844, and is well endowed. The present build 
ings were erected in 1875, and are occupied by six professors and 
about one hundred students. 



72 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



On the east side of the Queen s Park is St. Michael s College, oc 
cupying an excellent position on the crown of Clover Hill. Here is 
carried on the higher education of the Roman Catholic body of the 
Province of Ontario. Close by it is the excellent young ladies 
school, kept in St. Mary s Convent by the nuns of the order. 




TRINITY COLLEGE. 

In the west end of the city, and standing in its own grounds, 
TRINITY COLLEGE, built in the early English style, has a quaint 
scholastic air. The facade is pleasantly diversified with cut stone 
dressings and projecting bay windows, while the bell turrets above 
(yclept by the students " pepper pots ") add much to the appearance- 

The newly added Chapel, whose plain exterior rather mars the 
continuity of the facade, is admirably finished and arranged in its 
interior, and is worthy of inspection. 

The Convocation Hall has a handsome oak roof highly carved, and 
portraits of founders and chancellors of the University. 

The students quarters are in the wings. The College is the seat 
of the Anglican or Episcopal Church in Canada under a Royal 
charter, and was erected by the exertions of Bishop Strachan in 1851. 
It has an outlying branch in " Trinity School," at Port Hope, a boys 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 73 

school of rare excellence, and founded and conducted on the lines of 
the great English public schools. 

The University of Trinity College and the University of Toronto are 
the only corporations having power to confer degrees, the other 
colleges being colleges of instruction "in affiliation." It will be 
readily seen that Toronto is thus quite a " University City," and 
when during the winter the Colleges are in session there are fully 
1,500 students in residence. 

In addition to these, the Toronto Veterinary College, numbering on 
an average 300 students, has a Continental reputation, and some first- 
class Business Colleges are also in operation. 

On the western limits of the city, upon the shores of the beautiful 
curve of the Humber Bay, is the High Park, comprising 400 acres 
of hill and dale of varied wood-land scenery. The Humber River 
affords pleasant boating jaunts, and the views over the lake, from 
the high lands in the rear, are well worth the drive. 

In Parkdale will be found The Home for Incurables, one of the 
most perfectly conducted charities of the city. Visitors are cordially 
welcomed. The view from the top of the central tower gives a better 
idea of the geographical location of the city than is obtainable from 
any other place, and is worth seeing. 

The Exhibition Buildings, most prominently set on the Lake shore, 
are complete in every respect, and at the time of the Fall Fairs in 
September are thronged with visitors from all parts. The grounds 
are open and maintained by the city as a park, with flower gardens 
in the summer, making a pleasant and cool drive. 

The Central Prison for men, and the Mercer Reformatory or Prison 
for women, are open to visitors upon orders from the Government 
Inspector of Prisons. In the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, with large 
central dome and wide extending wings, are collected the insane 
from all parts of Ontario. 

At the intersection of King and Simcoe streets are Upper Canada 
College, the oldest boys school in the Province, and St. Andrew s 



74 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



Church, a splendid edifice in the old Scotch baronial style, of massive 
stone-work and arched windows, the abode of the " Old Kirk. 
GOVERNMENT HOUSE, the palatial residence of the Lieutenant- 







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Governor of Ontario, is on the opposite corner. The valley which 
winds through the gardens is the last reminiscence of " Russell s 
Creek, ; up which Governor Simcoe used to row from the Bay when 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA, 



75 



he first chose Toronto to be his capital. The gardens are well kept, 
and the conservatories well stocked. In the interior is a very hand 
some main entrance hall, with grand staircase ; to the left is the suite 
of Presence Chambers, in which the receptions and levees are held. 
Beyond these are the conservatories and ball-room. In the dining- 
room is a fine collection of life-size portraits of the Governors of 
Upper Canada from its cession to the British Crown. Permission to 
view the interior must be obtained by letter from the A.D.C. in 
waiting. 

There are many other fine 
buildings ; among them THE 
POST-OFFICE, and the many 
surrounding Financial Insti 
tutions upon Toronto street, 
which is fast becoming the 
Lombard or Wall street of 
Toronto. 

Upon King street will have 
been noticed a fine building 
bearing the title, " Manning s 
Arcade ; " passing through the || 
archway in its centre, access 
is gained to THE GRAND 
OPERA HOUSE. The interior 
is of good form, and has a 
seating capacity of 2,300, 
with a large and spacious stage adapted to the production of the 
most exacting plays. The traditions of the house include reminis 
cences of the best modern actors Fechter, Irving, Booth, Boucicault, 
Neilson, Bernhardt, and others. Toronto audiences are proverbially 
of high requirements and acute taste no doubt in great degree 
from the large and educated student population, whose approval and 




POST-OFFICE. 



76 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



disapproval of the plays sub 
mitted to its criticism is 
frequently expressed in un- 
mistakeable terms. This 
healthy expression of mer 
curial temperament pulsa 
ting with the progress of the 
action on the stage is of 
like character with that found 
at the theatres in Dublin ; 
and thus it is that not a few 
companies the fascinatinS 
Adelaide Neilson s among 
them have preferred to 
submit new plays to the 
audiences at " the Grand 
before bringing them to the 
less exacting and more coldly 
undemonstrative audiences 
of the United States. 
In the outskirts of the city are many pleasant drives : The Valley 
of the Don, Todmorden, Norway, Davenport, etc., while the Summer 
afternoon water excursions by steamers to Niagara, Victoria Park, 
Scarboro Heights, Humber Bay, Mimico, Oakville, Hamilton, etc., 
at fares from 25 cents to $1.00, serve to diversify the visitor s stay. 
Situated as Toronto is, upon the shores of Lake Ontario, the summer 
heats are tempered by the presence of the broad expanse of water 
and attendant breezes ; whatever may have been the heat of the 
day, it rarely ever extends into the night, so after sundown the cool 
air and soft summer evenings make the city what it really is a 
pleasant lake-side resort. 




GRAND OPERA HOUSE. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 77 



Off for a Real Good Fish. 

GENTLEMAN (to grocer) " Two gallons Santa Cruz, one gallon Old 
Tom, two gallons Maryland Club, four dozen Pommery Sec, four, 
dozen Milwaukee and six boxes of Reina Vies." 

GROCER " Yes, sir. That all, sir?" 

GENTLEMAN " Er Do you keep fishing tackle ?" 
- GROCER "Yes, sir, full line, sir." 

GENTLEMAN " Ah Put in a couple of fish hooks." 



The Northern Lakes. 

Our tourists will now direct their attention to the trip to the " Inter 
ior," and the country stretching 200 miles northward of Toronto, to 
wards the Georgian Bay and the Inland Lakes. Until recently it was a 
wilderness, but within twenty years or so numerous towns and hamlets 
have sprung up ; many summer hotels have been opened at attractive 
points, and settlers have poured in with a rapidity equal to the settle 
ment of many parts of the Western States. Railroads have pene 
trated into its heart. Steamboats ply upon its larger lakes, and some 
excellent highways traverse its length and breadth. It is emphati 
cally a country of forests, lakes, and rivers. The lakes vary greatly 
in size, the larger ones thirty and forty miles in length, and the 
smaller ones mere ponds, but clear and deep, and all abounding in 
salmon-trout, perch, black-bass and speckled trout. 

THE NORTHERN AND NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY 

Is one of the connecting links between the frontier and the interior. 
Leaving Toronto by one of the express trains furnished with fine 
parlour cars, the passengers will pass through a populous and rich 
country, with substantial farm houses and extensive saw-mills at in 
tervals, along the whole line. The appointments of the railway are 



78 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

first-class, and the station houses, models of neatness and beauty, 
have tasteful flower gardens and lawns attached, with jets of water 
spurting from fountains that cool and refresh the plants. 

At Parkdale will be noticed the Subway, by which Queen street, 
the great east and west artery of the city, passes under the converging 
railways. At this point the Canadian Pacific, Grand Trunk and 
Northern Railways all enter the city. The growth of the suburbs 
shows itself along the next couple of miles, where the houses are 
gradually creeping farther and farther into the country and streets 
of buildings occupy the receding farms. 

At four miles is Davenport, a hill side locality fast filling with sub 
urban residences, having a pretty station, with flower-garden and high- 
gabled roof. 

On the left between this station and Weston, is seen the Valley of 
the Humber River and the heights of the Caledon Hills which close 
the distant view to the west. Toward the south will be seen the blue 
outline of the lake with the wooded points about Mimico jutting out 
into its waters. 

The height of land between Lakes Ontario and Huron, which is 
reached at twenty-six miles from Toronto, is 755 feet above the level 
of Lake Ontario, and 415 feet above that of Lake Huron. 

A few miles beyond King the line passes by not a few curves 
through " The Ridges/ Here, within the confines of a single farm, 
the waters diverge on either side the summit of the water-shed. One 
streamlet running south forms the tiny headwaters of the infant 
Humber, whose mouth debouches into Lake Ontario at Toronto, the 
other winds its way northward to the Holland River on its way to 
the Georgian Bay, and thence returns by Lake Erie and over the 
Niagara Falls to reunite their waters in Lake Ontario, after a circuit 
of over 800 miles. 

The train emerges from the turnings among the hills and on the 
left is caught a pleasant view over the finely nurtured farms of the 
" Vale of Aurora" The hill-sides dotted with comfortable farm 
steadings, the rounded copses of hardwood trees and the spires of 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 79 

t 

the little village churches give a picture which might be taken out of 
fair England itself. ^ 

"Glen Lonely" the ancestral home of the descendants of the Cheva 
lier de St. George, " Larchmere " of the Baldwins and "Elmwoods" 
the country house and stock farm of W. Mulock, Esq., the Member 
for the County, are among the favourite holdings in this favoured Vale, 
which has a well-earned renown for the excellence of its horses and 
its sheep. 

Next is Newmarket , the county town of the County of York, with 
a population of 5,000. A place of considerable age and importance, 
and the headquarters of some energetic manufacturing interests. 

The corner-stone of the picturesque church on the hill-side to the 
left, was laid by His Excellency Lord Dufferin, during his progress- 
in 1874. 

In a little while a small stream will be noticed on the right, meander 
ing sometimes through grassy meadows and again through groves of 
forest elms. It is the first gathering of the Holland River and the 
first water on which used to be shipped the canoes of the Indians 
and of the voyageurs, in times long past, after they had passed over 
the carrying place or " portage" from the harbour at Toronto. 

By it came the fierce invading Iroquois when they made their too 
successful incursions and decimated the tribes of the Hurons that 
lived between the banks of Lake Simcoe and the shores of the 
Georgian Bay. Along this valley, too, were carried the munitions of 
war and the materials for the equipment of the naval squadron and 
the Navy-yard, which, in the early years of the country, was maintained 
at Penetanguishene. 

Holland Landing, now a quiet and picturesque village, was the 
point at which the heavy goods were transferred to the large batteaux 
for transport across Lake Simcoe. Its pretty white church, with 
square tower stands on the hill-side to the right, and long ago looked 
down upon a busy scene, when all the business of the North passed 
on long lines of heavy laden waggons before its doors. Sir John 
Franklin called here when on his first expedition overland to the 
North Pole in 1825, and in 1827 Gait passed by on his way to 
Goderich, via Penetanguishene. 



80 



THE NORTHERN ^LAKES 01 CANADA. 



Near by, on the village green rests a gigantic anchor, which having 
come all the way over the sea from Her Majesty s dockyards, in 
England, and by the laborious work of sixteen yoke of oxen, been 
hauled thus far on its way to the " Navy Yard," was interrupted on its 




THE ANCHOR AT HOLLAND LANDING. 



journey by the declaration of peace, and now remains to form a 
quaint monument and record of the early days of the Great Portage. 
Bradford (42 miles) is at the crossing of the river and close to the 
Holland River Marsh, a locality celebrated among sportsmen for its 
abundant supply of partridge, snipe, wild duck and hares. There is 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 81 

good trolling in the river for maskinonge. First-class accommoda 
tion can be got at Bingham s Hetel, Bradford, and information respect 
ing guides, punts, etc. 

LAKE SIMCOE. 

At Lefroy is seen the first view of Lake Simcoe, the first of the various 
chains of inland lakes which are now met with in succession. Stages 
run regularly to Belle Ewart, i ^2 miles on the shore of the Lake, here 
called Cook s Bay. A name given by Lieutenant-Go vernor Simcoe, 
after Captain Cook, the great circumnavigator of the globe, who 
had been master of the ship " Pembroke," on which the Lieut.-Gover- 
nor s father was captain during the expedition against Quebec, in 
1759 ; Major Holland, after whom the river was named, also served 
in the same conquest. 

A ferry steamer keeps up constant connection with Roaches Point) 
whose houses can be seen on the opposite shore of the Bay. This 
pretty village is much frequented by tourists in summer on account 
of its nearness to Toronto and excellent boating and fishing bass, 
trout and maskinonge Raike s Hotel and several family boarding- 
houses. 

Serpent Island will be seen on the lake, where linger a few rem 
nants of the Huron tribe who even still continue to make pilgrim 
ages to join their brethren on the Christian Islands at their annual 
tribal gatherings. 

Allandale is the junction point of the Northern and North-Western 
Railway system. Here join together from the south the North- 
Western Branch from Hamilton and the Northern Branch from 
Toronto. Three lines radiate north. 

The Muskoka Branch to the Lakes of Muskoka 3 Callandar, the 
Canadian Pacific and the all rail route rcund the north shores of 
Lake Superior. 

The Penetanguishem Branch to Midland, Matchedash and Penetang 
Bays, and the Parry Island Archipelago (42 miles). 

The Coilingwood Branch to Collingwood, on the shores of the 
Georgian Bay, where connection is made with the splendid steamers 
V 



82 TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



of the " Collingwood Lake Superior Line," for the grand tour of 
Lake Superior, Thunder Bay, Silver Islet, Nipegon, etc., the water 
route to the North-West, via Port Arthur and Duluth and Georgian 
Bay Line the Great Northern Transit Co. for Manitoulin Islands, 
the Great North Channel, Mackinac, Sault Ste. Marie, Parry 
Sound, etc. An excellent refreshment station is maintained at 
this junction, and trains stop for meals. The monument in the 
garden was erected by the men of the railway to the memory of 
Col. Fred. W. Cumberland, who for twenty-two years was General 
Manager of the Company. During that time he had succeeded 
in conducting the railway to the satisfaction of the people whom it 
served and in winning the personal attachment of every man in 
his employ. The Bronze is an excellent likeness the work of a 
Canadian artist, Mr. F. Dunbar. 

The arm of Lake Simcoe on which the station stands, is Kempen- 
feldt Bay, named after another naval hero, whose loss with all his 
crew by the sinking of the Royal George, when lying at anchor 
in harbour at Spithead, sent a thrill throughout the world. 

His sword was in its sheath, 

His fingers held the pen, 
When Kempenfeldt when down, 

With twice four hundred men. 

COWPER. 

Barrie, the county town of the County of Simcoe, is a prosperous 
place of 5,000 inhabitants. Its houses and church spires rising 
picturesquely upon the sloping hill sides, are seen on the opposite 
shores of the bay, around the head of which the railway comes. 
Barrie is a delightful summer resort, with an excellent fleet of 
boats and yachts, some of which will be seen lying at their 
anchorages ; and there are some good fishing streams in the neigh 
bourhood. 

The steamer connects from Barrie with the new summer hotel at 
Big Bay Point, nine miles down the Kempenfeldt Bay, where it joins 
with the main water of the lake and forms a splendid place for 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

excursion parties, for whom very favourable rates are made (see 
adv.) Apply to Isaac Robinson, Allandale. 

In passing down the bay some admirably situated private resi 
dences will be seen on both shores at Shanty Bay on the north, and 
Strath Allan on the south. 

The main water being entered, Lake Simcoe is one of the largest 
inland Lakes of Ontario, being 30 miles long and 16 miles broad. 
Its shores are characterized by great sylvan beauty. 

At Keswick may be seen the charmingly situated resort of one of 
the great lumber kings of the country, and many of the other choice 
spots begin to be occupied with the summer residences of the more 
wealthy inhabitants. 

Serpent Island, Lighthouse, and other islands are at the south end. 

Sutton is pleasantly situated upon a sheltered bay on the south 
shore of the lake, and is the terminus of the Nipissing Branch of 
the G. T. Railway. 

The steamer then skirts the upper shores of the lake, past deep 
bays, whose wooded promontories jut out picturesquely into the lake, 
and sighting Atherly, after an easy run of two hours, passes Grape 
and other islands closely clustered together, and enters the " Narrows," 
the water channel joining Lake Simcoe with Lake Couchich- 
ing, of which the first view is here gained, and passing through the 
swing bridges of the Muskoka and Midland Railways, soon, upon a 
point stretching out into the lake, is seen the Couchiching Park. 
The steamer rounds the point, and our " water tourist " is landed 
at Orillia. 

Continuing on by rail from Barrie, the train skirts the shores of 
Lake Simcoe and pleasant vistas of its waters are gained. 

Near Hawkstone are some excellent speckled trout streams. 

The train plunges into an almost contiuuous line of forest and, 
emerging once more on the shore of the lake, a view is seen (to the 
right) of Grape Island and the others grouped together at the head of 
Lake Simcoe. 



84 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



The rails curve across the neck of land between the lakes and 
reach Orillia. Fast rising in importance, the town is situated at the 
foot of Lake Couchiching upon a hill side facing the water. It is a 
favourite centre of summer travel, the hotels excellent and the neigh 
bourhood enjoyable. Close by is the beautiful Couchiching Park 
and the neighbourhood gives scope for pleasant rides and drives, 
while sailing and boating, and the steamers " Orillia," " Cariella," 
etc., on Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching, afford opportunities for 







GRAPE ISLAND LAKE SIMCOE. 

charming water parties and picnics, A pretty trip of fifteen miles is 
made by the steamer Orillia through the Narrows to Strawberry Is 
land, situated at the head of Lake Simcoe. It is forty five acres in 
extent, partially cleared and partially wooded. Strawberry Island 
Hotel is an excellent summer resort with fine sandy beach for bathing 
(see advt.), good boating and camping. The fishing for black bass in 
the neighbourhood is renowned, particularly at Starvation Island, 
whose fame is well known among adepts. Capt. C. Mclnnes, Orillia, 
will answer all questions. 

Among 1 other points of interest on the lakes to the visitor from 
Orillia are the Ojibbeway settlement of Indians at Rama, Chief Is- 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 85 

land, Longford, the Quarries, the Rapids and Falls of the Severn, 
and Washago, at the head of Lake Couchiching. 

LAKE COUCHICHING. 

Couchiching ! Well may the curious tourist, struck by the peculi 
arity of the name, ask its meaning. Indian nomenclature is always 
appropriate and descriptive ; here the varying breezes, welcome ad 
juncts of a summer resort, that fan the surface of the lake, have given 
the Indian name for " Lake of many winds." This locality is among 
the highest in Ontario, being 750 feet above Lake Ontario, 415 above 
Lake Huron, and 390 feet above Lake Superior; and it is the next 
lake to Lake Simcoe in the chain that empty their waters by the 
River Severn into the Georgian Bay and Lake Huron. 

The rapidity of the rise from Lake Ontario may thus be judged ; 
and the consequent elevation and clearness of the atmosphere, and 
the cool breezes, would, apart from any other consideration, be suffi 
cient to commend the locality as a favourite one for a summer visit. 

The black bass, pickerel, and salmon-trout fishing in the lake is 
most excellent ; and ready access is gained, from Orillia as a central 
point, to the celebrated Sparrow Lake, where maskinonge, black bass, 
speckled-trout, etc., are found in abundance, and the best of duck 
and partridge shooting in season. 

The Midland Railway here connects with the Georgian Bay ; and 
excursions may be made to Midland, Penetanguishene, Parry Sound, 
and to the island district of the lake, and to the trout streams of the 
rivers Coldwater and Severn. 

There are a number of summer residences of Canadian citizens 
around the shores, and the visitor from a distance should not fail to 
" lay off " at Orillia, so that he may thus get a full idea of the differ 
ent chains of lakes, which present marked differences. 

A pleasant place is the Couchiching Park, situated on the point of 
a narrow promontory projecting a mile and a half northward into the 
lake, and surrounded on three sides by water thus, come from 
whatever quarter it may, every breeze has play, while the lake on the 



86 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



one side or the other, being protected by the point from wind and 
wave, pleasure-boating in safe calm waters can at all times be enjoyed. 
Drives and shady walks bordering the margins of the lake are 
tastefully laid out in a park of 180 acres ; and a handsome avenue, 
three-fourths of a mile in length, winding through forest trees, leads 
to the stations of the Northern and Midland Railways. Arbours, 
erected at convenient places on the lake, extend out into the water, 
where, sheltered from the sun, the views can be enjoyed. A lovelier 




VIEW AT COUCHICHIlS G. 

sight could not be wished for. From any portion of the buildings, 
no matter in what direction you look, fine stretches of water, verdure- 
clad banks sloping to the water s edge, and green forest glades, pre 
sent themselves to the eye. Across the bay, in an attractive cove, 
backed by hills clad to their summits with fresh foliage, lies the now 
prosperous town of Orillia. To the north, scarcely discernible be 
tween the miniature islands that bestud the lake s surface, may be 
seen the settlement of Ojibbeway Indians, appropriately called Rama, 
its tin-tipped church spire like a bar of silver under the light of the 
rising sun, or as a streak of gold under the sunset s declining rays. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 87 

At Rama is the " reservation of the last remnants of the great 
tribe of the Ojibbeways. Near Longford have been carefully 
preserved some ancient Indian inscriptions, representing one of the 
early strifes between this tribe and the Iroquois. The figures of men 
fighting with spears and bows are roughly scratched upon the litho 
graphic stone, and some traces of colour still remain. At one time 
all this surrounding land was occupied by their numerous villages, a 
population of at least 25,000 being settled around the shores of 
Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching ; and now but a few survivors 
remain, seeming, from their shy and distant manner, almost shrink- 
ingly to excuse themselves for still remaining with us. 

In " Tecumseh " that new and thrilling poem which should be in 
every Canadian s hand graphically rises the prophetic lament of 
Jena, the Indian maiden : 

Oh, it is pitiful to creep in fear 
O r lands where once our fathers stept in pride ! 
The Long-Knife strengthens, while our race decays, 
And falls before him as our forests fall. 
His flowers, his very weeds, displace our own 
Agressive as himself. All, all thrust back ! 
Destruction follows us, and swift decay. 

As clouds will sheer small fleeces from their sides, 
Which, melting in our sight as in a dream, 
Will vanish all like phantoms in the sky. 

So melts our heedless race ! 

MAIR. 

In the Park, or around the shores, bathing-houses, dancing plat 
forms, bowling-alleys, croquet lawns, and cricket grounds, afford 
every means of amusement. 

It is but a short row by water, or ride by land, from Orillia, so 
that the Couchiching Park is one of the additional advantages for 
summer stay at this town. 

Splendid brook trout are caught in the streams in the neighbour 
hood, and the finest black bass fishing in America is in these sur 
rounding lakes. (See Halloctis Sportsman s Gazetteer.} 



88 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA, 



The tourist having " stopped over" either at Orillia or Couchiching 
is again given choice of two routes, either by " water" on steamer up 
Lake Couchiching (14 miles), calling at the different little ports, to 
Washago where the train is again taken: or by "all rail" by the 
Northern Railway. After crossing the Narrows swing bridge, the 
line passes through forests, through which distant views are obtained 
of Lake Couchiching to the left and Lake St. John to the right. At 
Longford is a large lumbering establishment, and after Washago , 
where the water tourists join the train, is the village of Severn Bridge. 
The place takes its name from the noble stream, the Severn, which 
runs westward throughout, draining the whole area of its great tribu 
tary the The Black River and of Lake Simcoe into the Georgian 
Bay. 




SEVERN RAPIDS SPARROW LAKE. 
SPARROW LAKE. 

First among the sporting districts of the Northern Lakes, met on 
the northward trip, is the Severn River. At Severn Bridge the 
tourist will take boat or steamer, andTafter~a short run-down the 
River Severn, reach 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 89 

Sparrow Lake has long been celebrated for the excellence of its 
fishing, but particularly for the deer, duck and ruffled grouse shooting 
obtainable in their proper seasons. Many spots are available for 
pic-nics and camping, especially near the rapids at the lower end. 
Proceeding further down the river, an interesting canoe route is 
available, and easily traced through Beaver, Legs and Pine Lakes, 
with short portages to Gravenhurst, for which Indians and canoes 
can be got at Rama. An easy one day excursion to Sparrow Lake 
and return can be made from Orillia. 

Proceeding down the Severn River, a splendid fishing trip can be 
made following the stream through Six-Mile Bay and Gloucester 
Pool to its outlet in Georgian Bay, opposite Waubaushene and Pen- 
etanguishene. There are many portages and difficult rapids. The 
trip should, therefore, not be attempted without guides. Canoe and 
guide will cost about $2.00 per day. These can be obtained at 
Rama or Orillia. The Severn is the line of division between 
the frontier counties and of the Free Grant district of Muskoka, 
which is here entered. Having crossed the river upon a lofty 
bridge, the line passes the height of land separating the Lakes 
of Muskoka from Lake Couchiching. False impressions of the free 
grant district are frequently taken from the appearance of the country 
seen along this part of the trip ; but, as on the south side there are 
tracts of fine farming land, so, to the north, this ridge being passed 
over, lies the wide arable country which is being so rapidly peopled 
by thrifty settlers. 

The Kasheshebogamog, a small stream with a very long name, is a 
few miles afterwards crossed. This awful word is usually observed 
to have such a knock-down effect upon strangers that they subside 
into a gentle melancholy for the rest of the trip, apparently lost in 
wonder at the ingenuity which could invent so big a name for so 
small a river. Some folks of extra powers of mind have been known 
to enquire the name of the next creek, but such cases are few and 
far between. 

It may have been noticed that south of Washago, being the coun 
try adjacent to the Lake Simcoe Chain of Lakes, all the rocks are of 



90 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



limestone formations. After passing the Severn nothing but granite 
meets the eye ; massive in form, deep red in colour, and with a mi- 
caseous sheen shining through it 

As we wind through the " divide" the granite rocks raise high their 
lofty sides, bluff cliffs overhang the railway as it curves around their 




W.JWELCH.SII.HGUMD. 



bases, in some places the front portion of the Train is lost to sight 
from the rear, but finally the " Granite Notch" is reached, |and the 
railway slips through a natural gap, fortunately left for its passage by 
nature. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 91 

At twenty-seven miles from Orillia (115 from Toronto) is Graven- 
hurst, a rising village at the foot of the chain of the " Lakes of Mus- 
koka? and the point of transfer to the steamer for this, the second 
chain of lakes. 



From Niagara Falls via Hamilton. 

In addition to the route by the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and 
Toronto, access to these inland lakes is gained via Hamilton. The 
Grand Trunk Railway from Suspension Bridge passes through a 
beautiful country, well cultivated, and full of orchards, which line the 
fore-shore at the foot of the high elevation which follows the lake, 
and at the foot of which the railway runs. 

Near Merritton the railway passes under the Welland Canal, by a 
short tunnel, and a passing glimpse is got of the magnificent new 
locks of the New Welland Canal and of the smaller and more pic 
turesque locks and weir-gates, with miniature water-falls of the Old 
canal. 

St. Catharines, the Sanatarium of Western Canada, and whose 
health-restoring waters have a world-wide reputation, is seen to the 
right on the farther side of the valley through which the old Welland 
Canal finds its way to the waters of Lake Ontario, and soon the 
lake itself comes into view. At the foot of its " Mountain nestles 

THE CITY OF HAMILTON. 

Transfer is here made from the Grand Trunk to the station of the 
Northern and North-Western R. R., the only line whose trains run 
to the Lakes of Muskoka. 

The city is built upon one of the steps or terraces which surround 
the lake, and would appear to have at one time formed the immedi 
ate shore. Looking down from the elevation of the " Mountain," its 
streets slope away towards the lake and diminish in the distant 
perspective. The form of the harbour, closed in from the open 
water by the Burlington Beach, is clearly limned, and away to the left 



92 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



stretches the pretty valley in the midst of which can be seen the 
spires and chimnies of the little town of Dundas. 

Before Hamilton was Dundas had been. At this latter place, as 
being the head of navigation, which by means of the Burlington 
Canal was extended to its very doors, in early days had been con 
centrated the busy commerce of all the country west. To this place 
came for shipment to the sea all the golden grain, and back from it 




HAMILTON FROM THE MOUNTAIN. 



trailed the heavy waggons laden with the merchandise purchased in 
exchange. But times have changed. The construction the of Great 
Western Railway altered the course of business and the young rival, 
Hamilton, has grown into the dimensions of a city of the first-rating, 
while decorous seemly old ^.ge has set its placid mark upon the more 
ancient town. 

Hamilton has been fortunate in its inhabitants, men of nerve, 
energy and combination. They have, whatever may have been their 
internal competitions, always pulled together for the weal of their fair 
city, 



TEE NORTHERN ^LAKES OF CANADA. 93 

Reaching out to bring commerce to their doors, they created the 
construction of the Great Western, and Wellington Grey and Bruce 
to the west ; the Northern and North-Western R. R. s to their north, 
and the Lake Erie R.R. to the south and thus their city has become 
the largest manufacturing centre in Ontario, and its forward progress 
for ever secured. To-day Hamilton produces one thirty-fourth in 
value of all the manufactures produced throughout the Dominion, 
and consumes one-fourteenth of all the coal used in the Province of 
Ontario. 

At the foot of the mountain will be seen the handsome homes of 
some of its merchant princes. The large building with wide extended 
wings on the crest of the hill, is the Government Lunatic Asylum. 
In the centre of the city are the prettily kept gardens of the " Gore 
of Hamilton," and around it some business edifices which would 
do credit to any capital. Few better are to be found anywhere than 
the " Canada Life " and the " Post Office " Buildings. 

Dundurn Park, on the heights towards the edge of the bay, is a 
favourite resort. The Royal Hotel, centrally situated on the main 
street, is fully recommended. 

From Hamilton the connection to the Northern Lakes of Canada 
is by the North Western R.R. 

After running for some distance through the town the railway reaches 

BURLINGTON BEACH. 

Across the upper end of Lake Ontario, where the shores of the 
Lake have approached within five miles of one another, the sweeping 
action of the easterly storms has in long centuries formed a narrow 
continuous bank or bar of sand, stretching from shore to shore and 
varying from 600 to 1,000 feet in width. On the east the rollers of 
Lake Ontario toss their surge ; to the west, protected by it, lie the 
placid waters of Burlington Bay, the harbour of Hamilton. Com 
posed or ^ear shingly pebbles and pure sharp sand, its five miles 
length of level continuous beach resembles the sea-shore in its ex 
tent, and the distant blue horizon of the great Lake, where the sails 



94 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

of passing vessels fade away and disappear beneath its edge, adds to 
the illusion. The railway runs along the crown of the bank between 
the separated waters ; a large number of pretty private residences 
have been erected by the citizens of Hamilton, and near the swing 
bridge over the canal which has been cut through the bank to join 
the lake and the harbour, is the pretty Burlington Beach Station. 
The Burlington Beach Hotel is just opposite the station. Its un 
rivalled situation and fresh and airy surroundings make it a very 
favourite resort, and visitors from a distance enjoy the fresh breezes 
together with many of the members of families of Hamilton, whose 
business does not permit them to go farther away from home. 

Bowling alleys and billiard rooms in separate buildings, and a fleet 
of row boats on the bay side, give plenty of scope for amusement, 
while for any one who is fond of yachting, there is scarcely a more 
favourable position on the inland lakes. The yachts of the Hamil 
ton Yacht Club are moored just behind the hotel and excellent sail 
ing craft can be hired for sails down the lake. 

The fast iron steamer " Southern Belle " keeps up daily communi 
cation between Toronto and Hamilton, calling at Oakville, with its 
acres of strawberries, and at Burlington Beach each way, giving a 
pretty coasting trip of thirty-three miles along the shores between the 
two cities. 

THE NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY. 

Having crossed over the Swing Bridge, the railway commences to 
make its ascent to the upper levels of the interior. High bridges 
spanning deep gullies are from time to time met with. At George 
town (36 miles) is met the Grand Trunk R.R., by which tourists from 
Western Canada come, and at Car dwell Junction, at the foot of the 
Caledon Hills, connection is made with the Owen Sound Branch of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

The country passed through exhibits all that could be desired from 
a farming point of view, particularly near Beeton, where the hill sides 
rolling up in closer profusion, show breadths of grain and pasture 
that tell of solid agricultural knowledge of high degree, and of the 
wealth which does not fail to follow it 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 95 

At Beeton is the centre of the honey interest of Ontario What 
was once a pastime has by hard-headed intelligence been brought 
to be a talented business craft, and the tons of honey marketed at this 
" Bee town " affect the markets of the whole world. There are 
regular bee-farms and bee-nurseries. The pedigrees of the hives 
are as closely watched and cared for as those of herds of cattle, 
and isolated islands on the Georgian Bay are brought into requisition 
for the purity and nurture of the parent swarms. All this has 
brought the honey product from being only a few years ago a rarity, 
mainly in the hands of chemists, to be a common article in daily use. 

At this point the railway divides into two branches ; the one going 
off by the Blue Mountains and the valley of the Mad River to join 
the Georgian Bay at Collingwood. 

The other by a short run through a pretty country brings the train 
to the junction station at Allandale. 



My Little Girl s First Fish. 

My thoughts often travel back to my early fishing days. I cannot 
remember my first trout or my first bass, or even my own first fish. 
I imagine this epoch occurred when I wore petticoats and short 
breeches but I can, and always will remember the first fish of the 
little girl that calls me papa. 

About the time she could talk she began to take an interest in my 
fishing-tackle, and whenever I brought out the box containing it she 
was my interested audience. She asked over and over again the 
name of each particular article the box contained, and was soon able 
to inform her mother, whom she thought not so well posted, what 
each article was for. 

Early in her little life she administered a rebuke on this subject to 
her cousin, a little boy, several years her senior. He said : 

" Uncle, how many fish-poles have you got ? " 

Her prompt comment was : " Those are not fish-poles, they are 
fish-ra& ; you cut poles in the woods." 



96 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Many a confidential talk have we had upon the subject of fishing, 
and more than one promise did she extract from me that when she 
was a "little bigger girl " I would take her fishing. 

One day, taking the baby and nurse out for a drive, I put a hook 
and line in my pocket. A few miles out we came to a trout stream, 
and while the carriage stood on the bridge that crossed it, I caught 
a trout from beneath it. I wish some stern parent, who looks with 
disfavour upon hooks and lines in the hands of his children, could 
have seen the eager look in the great blue eyes of that baby while 
Iwas waiting for a bite, and the smile that lighted up her little face 
when I put the trout, alive and struggling, into her fat little hands. 
Was she afraid of it ? Not a bit. Did she let it go ? No. She 
held it tightly with one hand, and with a little finger of the other she 
pointed out the bright spots, opened its mouth to look down its 
throat, and examined ibs eyes and fins. She would not let go of her 
prize ; so I took her home to her mother, smelling strongly of fish, 
and as well covered with trout slime as one small trout was capable 
of covering her. 

When my little girl was three years old and that was only a few 
years ago she went out for a pleasant day with her mother and 
father and grand-mother and aunties. 

While on the steamer, she reminded me of my many promises, 
that she should that day fish for the first time. We were no sooner 
landed than I procured tackle suitable for the hands of such a little 
" tot," and from the hotel dock she made her maiden effort in the 
gentle art. Her eagerness and excitement was for some time a bar 
to her success, and the sun-fish and rock-bass removed the bait from 
her hook nearly as fast as I could put it on. She wished to bait her 
own hook, and would take the worms from the can for this purpose, 
but I persuaded her that I could do it better. 

She did not like the idea of fishing with a pole ; she wanted a rod, 
and thought I was very forgetful not to have brought one. At last, 
with a scream of delight, she landed a rock-bass, about four inches 
long. She dropped the pole instantly and grasped the struggling 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA 97 

fish her eyes fairly dancing with delight as she informed me, at the 
top of her voice, " / ve got one ! I *ve got one /" In an instant she 
was gone like a flash towand the hotel, to show her capture to her 
mother. She would not let it out of her hands, but held it up to be 
admired, assuring the people that " / caught it, all alone ! " wkh a 
strong accent on the /. 

Soon she came back, and when I had told her it was a rock-bass, 
and why it was called a rock-bass, and answered several other 
" why s," and she had stuck her finger down the throat of the fish 
and into its eyes, and turned it over and over, examining it thor 
oughly, she resumed fishing, with the dead fish on the dock behind 
her. 

No more fish for her that day ; it took far too much of her time to 
turn around and see if the one already caught was safe. With all 
her watchfulness the little bass came to grief, for another little girl, 
walking along the dock, kicked it into the water. As it fell with a 
splash in front of her, she gave one glance over her shoulder to see 
who could have done this unkind thing, and then down she went, 
prone on her face, with a suddenness that made my heart leap into 
my throat, and reached out with her little arm to get her much-prized 
fish. I was at her side in an instant ; and the tears welled into her 
eyes as she told me of the misfortune that had come to her. I res 
cued the fish, and all that day she did not trust it again out of her 
hands. 

That night, as we were nearing home, and the little tired body was 
leaning back on the seat, with her eyes half-closed, but the little 
hands still tightly grasping the fish, her grandmother said to her : 

" Beatrice, of all the things that you have seen or done to-day, 
what did you most enjoy ? ;! 

" Fishing" was the sententious but emphatic reply. 

She had the fish for her breakfast the next morning ; and a prouder 

or more happy little girl it would have been hard to find. When 

informed by one of her aunties that it was a " sore-eyed bass," she 

was positive it did not have sore eyes, for she had examined them. 

G 



98 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

It was a rock-bass, " because papa said so / " and her faith in the 
authority she quoted remains unshaken. 

The story of a little girl s first fish may find a tender spot in some 
parental heart ; but, at all events, lots of other little boys and girls 
will find abundant opportunities in the happy waters of the lakes of 
Muskoka to angle for and catch their own * first fish." 



The Lakes of jlluskoka. 

The district known as the Muskoka District occupies the " High 
lands of Ontario," many of its lakes being over four hundred feet 
above the level of Lake Superior the highest lake of the great St. 
Lawrence system. From it radiate the various lake and river systems 
of the Province : The French, Maganetevvan, Muskoka, and Mus- 
kosh Rivers to the west ; the Petewawa and Ottawa to the east, 
and the Trent system to the south. 

In area it comprises a territory equal in size to that of the kingdom 
of Belgium, or to come nearer home, five times the size of our own 
Province of Prince Edward Island. Of this area some eight hun 
dred lakes of all sizes, from thirty miles in length to mere ponds, 
and their river connections occupy no less than one tenth of its sur 
face. The presence of so much water, not in the shape of sodden 
swamps, but in quick flowing streams and bright deep lakes contri 
butes, no doubt, to the equable temperature, and combines, with the 
extreme altitude to that brisk exhiliarating effect which the clear at 
mosphere undoubtedly has upon the visitor. Hay fever does not 
exist among the inhabitants and is greatly mitigated, and after a suffi 
cient stay, entirely cured to strangers. 

The waters are of a peculiar deep brown, except in some of the 
lakes, and when bathing their buoyancy is peculiarly noticeable and 
better still they do not leave that certain relaxing effect noticed in 
more southern fresh waters. It is said that as a beverage they are 
favourable to any ailments of the kidneys. 



99 



IS 



IK- THIS- CATALOGUE 

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2 BooK$ 09 . 

M YACHTS CANOES -CAMPING. 



Fishing irith the Fly. By C. F. Orvis. Colored plates 
of 149 standard Salmon, Bass and Trout Flies, w th 
names. $2.75. 

Book of the Black Bass. Its scientific and life history, 
with a treatise on Angling by Dr. Henshall. Fully illus 
trated. $3.25. 
i Superior Fishing. Striped Bass, Trout, etc., of North 

America. By R. P. Rossevelt. Illustrated. $2.25. 

a t The Game Fish of Northern f nited States and 

L Canada. By R. B. Rossevelt. Illustrated. $2.25. 

Q j Flu Rods and Fly Tackle. Suggestions as to the 

manufacture and use. By H. P. Wells. Illustrated. $3.00. 

The Modern Practical Angler. A complete guide to 

^1 Fly Fishing, Bottom Fishing and Trolling. By H. Pru- 

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The Book of the Pike. By H. Prunell. Illustrated. $1.25. 
The- Complete Angler; or, The Contemplative Man s 
P Recreation. By Isaak Walton and Charles Cotton. With 

j six original etchings and two portraits. 450 pp. $10.50. 

Fly Fish ing. Salmon, Trout and Grayling. By Edward 
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fa Frank Forester s Fish and Fishing. Illustrated 

from nature. By. H. W. Herbert. $2.75. 

, A Practical Guide to Bottom Fishing, Trowling, Spin- 

k ning and Fly Fishing. By. J. T. Burgess. With numer- 

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jv- Angling Talks. Being the winter talks on summer pas 

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The Scientific Angler $1.75- 

Ci Sport with Rod ami Gun in Canadian and American 

Woods and Waters. Beautifully illustrated by Alfred M. 
Mayer. #5.50- 

American Sportsman. Containing hints to sportsmen. 
b notes on shooting, etc. By F,. J. Lewis, M.D. 83.00. 

IT 

Williamson -& Co., 

fa 



99 



y s 
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The Yacht Sailor. A Treatise on Practical Yachtsman- 
ship, Cruising and Racing. By Vanderdeaken. $3.00. 

Small Yachts. Their design and construction, exemplified ing 

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plates and 70 illustrations, by C. P. Kunhardt. .$9.00. 

Practical float Sailing. With a short vocabulary of raZ- 

nautical terms. By Douglas Frazar. $1.20. [llS- 

Practical Boat Building. Illustrated. By Kemp. $1.20. fUg 

Practical Boat Sailing. By Davis. 82.00 

iur- 

Canoe and Boat Building. A complete manual for 

amateurs. Containing plans and comprehensive direc 

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boats, and hunting craft. With numerous illustrations 

and 24 plates of working drawings, by W. P. Stephens. 

$1.65. 

Canoe Handling. The Canoe its history, uses, limita- 
. tions and varieties, practical management and care. Il 

lustrated by C. Bowyer Vaux. $1.25. 

Canoeing in Kanuckia ; or, Haps and Mishaps Afloat 
and Ashore. By Norton and Habberton. $1.75. 

The Rob Roy on the Baltic. By John Macgregor. $1.25. 

A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe. By John 

Macgregor. 81-25. 

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Voi/age Alone in the yawl " Rob Roy." By John Mac 
gregor. $1.50. 

The Canoe Aurora. A cruise from the Adirondacks to 
the Gulf. With maps of the route. By Dr. Charles A. 

Neide. $1:25. 

Paddle and Portage. $1.50. 

Camping and Cruifting iii Florida. By Dr. Hen- 

shall. Illustrated. $1.75. 

Wo?/- to Camp Out. By John M. Gould. $1.00. 

Practical Hints on Camping. By H. Henderson 

#1.50. des 

Woods-raft. By Nessmuk. #1.25. 

Canoe and Camp Cookery. A practical book for canor [QJ-J 

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Illustrated. $1.25. " 

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A NEW MAP of Muskoka Lakes, Parry 
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.Showing Canoe Routes mentioned in Barlow Cumberland s 
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Government Roads, Free Grant Lands, and Lumber Limits 
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a 

1 MAP AND GUIDE BOOK to the Muskoka 

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* Showing all the Islands. By Capt. Rogers, of the Steam 

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an invaluable pocket companion. >Oc. 



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No. 5 King- Street West, - Toronto. 




THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



99 



Rocks abound throughout ; indeed four-tenths of the country is 
occupied by rocks and lakes ; but both in the water and on the land 
the rocks jut directly up, so that alongside the base is immediately 
a good depth of water or of soil. Thus the whole of the remaining 
sixty per cent, is available for use, and having these adjacent store 
houses of moisture or of heat, its powers are largely improved. Graz 
ing is peculiarly successful, and in this branch lies the future of Mus- 
koka. It will become the dairy and the sheep grazing district of the 
Province, for the rocks of Muskoka seem to have the faculty of nur- 




LAKE MUSKOKA. 



turing trees, shrubs, and verdure which cling to and cover their sides 
in a most incomprehensible manner. 

The flora of the district is, as might be expected from its situation, 
peculiar to itself, and walks through the woods will bring to the un 
taught eye many unaccustomed varieties and to the educated bota 
nist, a rare storehouse of pleasure. One of them says : " The vege 
tation is almost tropical in its undisturbed luxuriance. The beautiful 
white fringed Orchis the loveliest of all the Habenarias and the 



100 THE NOETHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

splendid Cinnamon and Royal Osmund ferns grow to perfection in 
low and moist situations, while the Polypody and the Shield-fern 
flourish in the higher grounds. In the district are also found, in 
exceptional abundance, Club-mosses of various species, and the 
curious Pitcher plant nestles in its moss setting along the margins 
of the sequestered pools." 

The district was long occupied by the various sub-tribes of the 
Hurons, as being a safe asylum from the fury of the warring nations 
who occupied the shores of Lake Ontario, while its woods and 
waters afforded them ample sustenance of fish and game. 

The tract is shown upon the Carte de la Nouvelle France (Map of 
New France), published by the early voyageurs and Jesuit Fathers, as 
lying between the country of the " Ancien Pays des Hurons" (Ancient 
Land of the Hurons) who were destroyed and scattered by the Iroquois 
in 1649], and the country of the "Pays Outaouais " (Ottawa tribes). 
Lake Muskoka was then called by the French "Petit Lac des Hu 
rons" and Lake Simcoe "Lac Toronto" 

The origin of the name is, as is the case with all names originating 
from Indian sources, couched in mystery and subject of different 
opinions. Some assert it is derived from the Indian word " Mus- 
quo-tah," signifying " red ground," probably owing to its rusty iron 
and ochre-coloured sediments which may be seen in the soils of 
many of the fields, and around the banks of some of the streamlets. 
Others that its meaning is that of the " Clear-sky-land," a signifi 
cation which would appear to have some reasonable accuracy, but 
whatever its meaning may be, we may fairly accept the earliest testi- 
timony, and join with Mr. Alex. Sheriff, who in his topographical 
notices, published by the Quebec Historical Society, in 1831, says: 
" This river is called the Muskoka, after the Missasaga chief, who 
used to hunt in some part of its neighbourhood." 

This chief s name is elsewhere spelt " Mesqua-Okee. ; All Indian 
names have some attendant meaning ; be this whatever it may, it was 
borne by a gallant warrior and a bold hunter, whose renown spread 
through the surrounding country. The home of his tribe was hard 
by the shores of Lake Ontario, and little was it supposed, when he 






THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 101 

sought sport and recreation in this inland paradise of game, that he 
was leading the way for so many others to follow exactly in his foot 
steps, in our later and modern days. Thus we connect the present 
beautiful and improving district with the romantic and receding past. 

Perhaps some of the writers, to whom Canada is now giving birth, 
will do for this territory what Fenimore Cooper did for those farther 
south, or Bulwer Lytton has done for Pompeii, and will re-people 
these ancient homes with the romance and story of their earlier In 
dian and French occupation. Once more then shall the birch bark 
canoe, with its dusky occupants, steal through the waters between the 
silent islands, either in peaceful summer-bright journey, or on expedi 
tion of deadly internecine hate. 

Gravenhurst. This town, now grown to considerable estate, has 
been always the Gateway to the Muskoka district. Here used to 
arrive the wearied stages after their fourteen miles jolting over 
the rocks and through the gullies which line the whole way over 
the portage from Washago, where the last transfer was made from 
the steamers. How many a heart has sank in despair as the 
forbidding rocks seemed almost to crowd out the soil. Nothing 
but the firm determination to win "independence has spurred 
the wayfarer to press still further into " the bush," instead of retiring 
precipitately after this first acquaintance, whose fallacy is soon 
shown once the rocky barrier has been surmounted. Next, in 
1879, came the extension of the railway to this point, and from 
Gravenhurst the busy lumberman or the busier tourist took steamer 
to gain the northern parts of the country, and then in 1886 comes 
the crowning advance of all, the opening of the Pacific Junction 
Branch right through the heart of the district to the great Lake Nip- 
pissing, to Callander, and the connection with the Canadian Pacific. 

Later on we will trace the steps of the traveller along this line of 
railway, but still taking Gravenhurst as the " Gateway City," we will 
follow first along the water route. 

The town occupies a most eligible site, crowning elevated but not 
too hilly ground, and encircling deep bays with shores sloping down 
to the water s edge. On the eastern side of the town is Gull Lake, 



102 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

a charming little sheet which discharges its waters through the Hock 
Rock trout stream, The place has considerable trade in the manu 
facture and shipment of lumber and timber. There are three 
churches , the stores, hotels and other establishments are creditable 
in appearance, and supplies of all kinds can be had at extremely 
moderate prices. The hotels are commodious, well kept and inex 
pensive. The town is in thriving condition, making fine progress 
and extending rapidly. The immediate neighbourhood affords con 
siderable attraction to the tourist and sportsman. Brook trout (in 
limited quantities), salmon trout, bass and pickerel in abundance ; 
deer, partridge, hare and a limited amount of duck shooting all can 
be conveniently reached from Gravenhurst as a centre. Pigeon Lake, 
Deer Lake, and Pine Lake are reached by the Muskoka road to the 
north-west. 

Loon Lake, Leg Lake, and Rice Lake are nearer, and more to the 
west of the town. Doe Lake is about two miles to the east. 

The railway station for the town and where the junction for the 
Callender extension is made, is on the upper level. The lake station, 
called Muskoka Wharf, where connection is made with the Mus 
koka Navigation Coy s steamers, is reached by a very steep grade 
winding down a natural gully to the water side. The details of the 
routes of the steamers is given elsewhere, to which reference should 
be made. 



The Muskosh River Chain* 

LAKE MUSKOKA. 

This is one of the largest of the lakes comprised under the generic 
term of "The Lakes of Muskoka," being 22 miles long and 9 miles 
wide in its extremest points. It is the peculiarity of these lakes that 
they are so studded with islands that wide open reaches of rough 
water are scarcely to be met with. This appears to be less the case 
with Lake Muskoka than with any others ; but its greater size is the 



NO RI HERN LAKES OF CANADA. 103 

only reason, for it teems with islets (as do all its companion lakes), 
having, in round figures, an island for every day in the year. Its 
beauties, in detail, are equal to any other lake, but its larger expanse, 
and the fact that many of its islands are of large size, and have been 
allowed, in earlier times, to be burned over, take from its pictur- 
esqueness. Yet the inhabitants of its islands and shores are enthusi 
astic in its praises, and vaunt its features as being above all the 
others. In common with all the lakes of the district, it affords most 
splendid fishing. The shores are fringed with islands, and salmon- 
trout are successfully caught by trolling between them ; black bass 
and pickerel abound. One certain advantage it has in accessibility, 
being the most southerly of all the lakes, so that the visitor coming 
north arrives earlier and going south leaves later than from any other. 
But visitors to the Lakes of Muskoka must see, not one, but all the 
lakes ; and so we will start from the dock. 

To the left is the new village of West Gravenhurst, with busy 
sawmills, and all around the high bluff, granite rocks dipping steeply 
into the water, so that ample depth exists right alongside their face. 
Winding between Percy, Henry, Mary, and Daisy Islands, we enter 
another pool, and, after a little, slip through The Narrows, where 
there is bare room for the steamer to pass between the rocks, we 
enter the broadest part of the lake. On the west point is the light 
house. 

Passing up the centre of the lake, on the east, are Kata^o, Ault- 
bowrie, and Whitl Islands ; while far off to the west are the island 
settlements of the Denison, Patton, and Moberly families. The 
largest island is Brownings Island. Next, Eilian-Gowan, the sum" 
mer house of Mr. Justice Gowan, comes in view, where art and love 
of landscape have been called in to assist the attractiveness of 
Nature, and walks and drives, glades and grottoes, have been formed 
to make pleasant this holiday country home. 

Just opposite this, and winding through the reedy banks which line 
the shores and forming a sort of delta, are the two mouths of 



104 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 








H 

ffi 
H 

55 

O 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 105 

THE MUSKOKA RIVER. 

Entering by an abrupt turn the steamer winds its way up the tortuous 
channel. Unlike the banks of all other rivers in Muskoka and all other 
parts, even of itself, the banks of the Muskoka River, between the 
entrance to the lake and Bracebridge, are soft alluvial deposits of 
much richness and great depth. The shores are lined to the water s 
edge with a profusion of rank vegetation and tangled roots of trees 
or toppled trunks, whose downward branches sweep the surface of 
the stream. The water is of a dark brown hue and, completely 
sheltered from the wind, its surface has an oily glassiness, wherein is 
clearly reflected every bough and liitle twig, or the white masses of 
summer clouds that float across the sky above. The river is full of 
sudden turns ; at times the prow appears to be headed direct for 
the opposing land, when with a sudden sweep the boat is turned al 
most at right angles, and new vistas with their promontories bathed 
in sunlight and their cool recesses sunk deep into deeper shadow, 
come into view. 

For six miles turn succeeds to turn ; so narrow is the river that we 
see the surge from the steamer s wheels lay bare the shore, and boats 
must either be securely fastened to their stakes or else their anxious 
owners hurry down to keep them from being swept away by the re 
current flood. 

At Alport, hard by the celebrated "Muntz Farm" where is the 
prize-taking herd of Muskoka cattle, we may deliver Her Majesty s 
mail, and by-and-bye the hills, which we have seen peeping through 
the vacancies in the forest that fringes the banks, close in, and at the 
very foot of the " North Falls is the dock which forms the head of 
steamboat navigation. 

Bracebridge The chief town of the Muskoka District, and, if not 
its geographical, yet most certainly its business and county centre. 
Starting in 1861 with two log huts and their attendant potato patches, 
and only a fallen pine tree for a bridge over the River, it advanced in 
1866 to the proud pre-eminence of three bush stores and a tavern, 



106 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



and now may be congratulated upon being a thriving town, with a 
stirring and fast increasing population, and possessing accommoda 
tion for tourists and travellers which retain it in its position of being 
the best starting point from which to explore the river district and to 




HIGH FALLS. 



obtain supplies necessary for the trip. It is true the railway now 
passes through Bracebridge and runs direct to points beyond, but 
nevertheless the town has obtained such a lead in its hotel and busi 
ness advantages, that it will be advisable to continue to avail of them. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



107 



HH bank 



There are five excellent hotels (see advt.\ Anglican, Methodist, 
Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic churches. A Mechanics Insti 
tute and Library, and Masonic, and Oddfellows Lodges. 

The town is agreeably situ 
ated on the cliffs surrounding 
the river, and the neighbour 
hood merits some sojourn from 
the tourist to visit its interest 
ing surroundings. 

At a distance of four miles, 
| either by road or along the 
of the Muskoka river, 
are the High Falls. 

In the summer this group of 
three falls, which are divided 
from each other by two islands, 
are best approached from the 
right bank. Very little rock is 
to be seen in the advance to 
the river, but when it is reach 
ed, the visitor, standing on a 
parapet one hundred feet above 
the basin, sees on the one side 
the rushing fall, and then in 
front from where the curving 
basin joins again the river 
bank, stretches out a long 
straight canal cut by nature s 

SOUTH FALLS-MUSKOKA RIVER WOrk with Stee P walls f dee P 
est foliage hemming in its sides. But the chief attraction are the 

GREAT SOUTH FALLS. 

Above Bracebridge the river is divided into two great branches, 
each draining a large area of the country. These two unite in the 




108 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



neighbourhood of the town. The Falls of the North Branch are 
those which are seen from the steamboat landing, but their natural 
beauty has been sadly interfered with by the necessity of man for 
bread wherewith to feed, and home wherein to shelter himself and 
household; thus grist and sawmills abstract the water, and lay bare 
part of the bed of the stream. 







THE UPPER LEAP SOUTH FALLS. 



Having crossed through the town above the North Falls, a walk 
of about three miles brings one suddenly to the bridge which 
spans the upper "chute" of the Great SouthFalls. In the level 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 109 

country, when nearing the river, there is nothing to give evidence of 
the approaching gorge ; and from the bridge, as from a perch high 
up above, we look downward over the mass of tossing, seething foam. 
It will be noticed that the river, in its descent of a hundred and 
thirty feet, makes two perpendicular leaps, joined together by upper 
and by lower pools, in which the waters boil and swirl between their 
successive rapid descents. To see the Falls to better effect it is well 
to clamber down over the rough and slippery crags to the foot of the 
torrent, about 1,000 feet down from the bridge. 

The best way, however, to approach this the most commanding 
natural feature of Muskoka, and which if it existed in some Euro 
pean country would be considered worth a pilgrimage to visit is to 
take canoe down the river from Bracebridge. Shortly after passing 
Beardmore s Tanneries, the South Branch of the river is entered at 
a point where a small bridge crosses the entrance. It is a nice row 
or paddle of three miles to the foot of the Falls. There is one 
short reach of rapid water, which can be either poled up, or one 
hundred yards portage made. The flecks of foam floating by on the 
surface of the stream tell of the approaching change of level ; soon 
the voice of the mighty waters itself is heard ; and in a little while 
the whole cataract comes full into view. Then, passing through the 
circling white bells of the eddy foot, we step on shore. 

Looking up along the tumultuous snowing mass, the belts of spray 
at each successive fall hang over the several steps, and sometimes 
little rainbows enhance the scene. The water is torn into a whitened 
foam, here and there marked by deep brown streaks where, in deeper 
spots, it sweeps over some smoother stone. On either side rise the 
walls of spray-damped solid rock, fringed with young maples and 
feathered birch, while high above the dark green pines and age- 
browned bridge stand clear-cut out against the sky. 

To facilitate the bringing of the sawlogs down the stream, and 
prevent their being damaged as they used to be when making the 
passage of the Falls, the Government has constructed on .one bank a 



110 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



" timber-slide," and down this the logs may be seen to run, and 
tumbling in quick succession, like so many porpoises, into the still 
waters of the river reach below. 

As to the geological action which has formed this cleft, it must, 
most probably, be classed with those caused by a " fault" or " fissure." 




THE GREAT SOUTH FALLS. 



The abrading action of either frost or water has been very slight, 
there being nothing here as in the Gorge of Niagara, capable of be 
ing loosened or undermined and the adamantine rocks on either 
hand repel any great abrasion. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. Ill 

The chasm is like a cleft, wide at the top and contracting towards 
the water s edge, at one place to about fifteen feet On the right 
bank (the left hand side looking up) a vast, almost perpendicular 
smooth dark, iron-coloured rock is intersected by lighter coloured 
seams, apparently mixtures of quartz and rosy feldspathic crystals. 

The other bank is different, for here crags of what resembles grey 
sandstone appear in company with others, dazzling the eye by their 
micaceous glitter. 

At the foot of the fall may be noted the bank of pebbles consist 
ing of water-worn stones, from the size of an egg to that of a man s 
head, of varied colours and all worn smoth some being actually 
polished. 

Some very remarkable round pockets or cups may also be noticed 
in the rocks caused by the perpetual rubbing of the imprisoned 
stones. 

The basins of the torrent show plain signs of the laborious friction 
of the water and the attendant drift, but beyond these and the 
little bowls before noticed, the centuries have left but little mark 
upon the barriers of the falls. 

From Bracebridge expeditions may be made with facility to Bays- 
ville and the Lake of Bays, returning by canoe down the south 
branch of the Muskoka River, or to the pretty chain of Lakes Vernon, 
Fairy, and Mary returning from Port Sydney down the North branch, 
but these will be dealt with further on. 

LAKE MUSKOKA AGAIN. 

From the mouth of the river, still keeping northward up the lake 
we pass close to the Birch and Wilson Islands. Along the 
high bluff banks may be seen the large encampments of summer 
visitors, some from other parts of Canada, over which will fly the 
deep red Union Jack, and others from our neighbours of the United 
States spreading to the air the more variegated Stars and Stripes, 



112 



THE NORTHERN LAKES Off CANADA. 



Some of these will have groups of eight and ten large tents and 
reverberating reports from guns will salute the steamer as it passes by 




02 




i-T 



O 

W 

OQ 



O 
05 



BEAUMARIS. 

This, the southermost of the summer resorts of Muskoka, is situ 
ated on Tondern Island, which, like its progenitor, Anglesea, is 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 113 

separated from the mainland by a narrow channel, the Menai strait. 
The high square tower of the hotel forms an imposing landmark from 
all sides. Elevated well above the lake, and with broad continuous 
verandahs, the hotel is one of the most modern in this district. From 
the steamer it cannot be seen that in front of the west side is a well 
cared for tennis ground, or that the very freedom from surrounding 
obstruction affords unexampled island views extending all over the 
lake and giving a pleasant outlook from every window, while the 
shady verandah and free access of the breeze give the coolness so 
much sought for. 

The fishing in the neighbourhood is remarkable, and many long 
strings of bass grace the hotel kitchen. 

Tondern Island has many pretty nooks and bays. The bathing 
houses are on a nice sand beach near the hotel, and affording per 
fectly safe bathing for ladies and children. The circuit of the island 
can be made in a pleasant row of about three miles, passing through 
the Menai Straits and around home again. Home, Fairhotm, and 
The Brothers Islands are close at hand. For rainy days, and these 
will sometimes come even in Muskoka, the bowling alleys and bil 
liard rooms in a separate house, close by the hotel, will afford plea 
sant recreation. Like all other Muskoka resorts, fresh air, fine fishing, 
bathing and boating, are the staple ingredients of the summer holi 
day, and in opportunity for all these Beaumaris fully abounds. Mr. 
Prowse, the proprietor of the hotel, has a very large stock of excel 
lent boats both for rowing and sailing (see advt) 

Point Kaye is the last point on the east shore of Lake Muskoka 
before entering the Indian River, which forms the connection with 
Lake Rosseau. The village consists of only a few houses and a post- 
office. 

Immediately opposite Beaumaris, in sight from the hotel, and on 
the route which the steamer takes when crossing to the western side 
H 



114 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



of the lake, is a cluster of islands known as The Kettles, with some 
what of a maze or lab 
yrinth in their many 
interweaving channels. 
Among these islands is 
found the very best 
bass fishing on the 
lakes, and splendid 
trolling for salmon 
trout. Good guides 
are advised, as the dis 
tances are considerable 
and acquaintance with 
the points of the com 
pass necessary for a 
prompt return to house 
or camp. 

THE KETTLES. 




A Specimen Muskoka Letter. 

BEAUMARIS, August loth, 1885. 

DEAR TOM, I wrote you last on my arrival at Toronto, and not caring to 
spend the balance of my holidays in a city, made up my mind to put in the last 
week in the far-famed Muskoka Lakes ; so went down to Mr. Barlow Cumber 
land s office on Yonge street, and purchased a ticket for Beaumaris. Off next 
morning at 8 a.m. per Northern Ry. for Gravenhurst, where I arrived about 1.30. 
I found a very comfortable steamer waiting to take us up the lakes ; had dinner 
which was served on the boat in first-rate style, and, after about an hour and a 
half sail up the lake, found myself at Beaumaris. Here I found a first-rate hotel, 
with capital accommodation. Having secured my room I took a walk round the 
place to inspect my new quarters. There is a most beautiful view from the front 
of the house, and a balmy breeze from across the lake was most enjoyable. Some 
guests were playing tennis on the fine lawn in front, and I purpose putting in part 
of mv time the same way, I then looked up my fishing tackle and got things in 



THE NORTHERN LA.KES OF CANADA. 115 

order for the next day. Had supper about half past six, then got a boat and took 
an hour s row to get myself in training. After, returned to the hotel, where I 
found the folks dancing. There is a large room here which is always ready for 
that or any like purpose. Next morning, having had lunch put up for me, I 
started off with a guide for a day s fishing, and commencing just below the hotel, 
fished along the shores of the island, casting in at all likely spots, and so went on 
till noon with a result of ten nice bass and three pickerel. We landed at a pretty 
point, made a fire, got some coffee, cooked sufficient fish for dinner, and I can 
tell you that is the way to enjoy them, right fresh out of the water into the frying- 
pan ; I never tasted anything like it before. About half-past three we started 
again, returning to the hotel for supper with a grand result of thirty-two bass and 
seven pickerel not so bad for one day. In the evening played billiards. Next 
morning, about 9 a.m., the steamer called here on her way to Bala, the outlet of 
these waters, so I took a trip in her. We first went up to Point Keye P.O., and 
left the mails, then across to Bala, where we arrived about 10.30. It is a most 
beautiful spot. There is a fine waterfall, also a large dam where all the logs go 
over into the river below. Arrived back at the hotel in time for dinner. This is 
a splendid trip ; the scenery all along the route is simply magnificent. I put in the 
afternoon playing lawn tennis and bathing ; in the evening there was lots of good 
music and singing. Next day, after my morning bath, I rowed over to Huckle 
berry Rock, a place about two miles distant, although only about a mile as the 
crow flies. It gets its name from the quantity of berries growing upon it, and cer 
tainly there is any quantity of them. I climbed to the top of the rock and walked 
several hundred yards to a place called the Look-out, and here I got one of the 
finest views I think I ever saw. Nearly the whole of Muskoka Lake and part of 
Lake Rosseau lay before rne, with the islands dotted here and there ; it was a 
perfect panorama. I returned to the hotel for dinner. In the afternoon I played 
awn tennis for a while and then went down to the bowling-alley for an hour ; 
in the evening had a good dance. Next day I and some others took a ramble 
through the woods as far as Leonard Lake, a very pretty lake about two miles 
from here. On the way gathered any amount of wild raspberries, also got a lot 
of pitcher plants. . I had never seen any before ; they are very pretty and peculiar. 
Put in the rest of the day playing billiards and bathing. Next day I spent fish 
ing with pretty much the same result as before. In the evening there was a con 
cert in the dancing room, which went off very well. Sunday, there was service 
in the morning and afternoon ; in the evening most of the guests assembled in the 
music room and had selections of sacred music, sang hymns, etc. On Monday, 
the proprietor having engaged a steamboat for the day, about fifty guests took a 
trip up to the head of Lakes Rosseau and Joseph, stopping about an hour at each 
place. This was truly a delightful sail ; we saw everything at the best advantage, 
and enjoyed the day thoroughly, getting back to the hotel about 7 p.m., when we 



116 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

found our supper ready for us. 1 am spending this evening writing you, as I 
think it is the best opportunity I shall have, as T must get away to-morrow morn 
ing. I only wish I could stay here for a month, as I feel 20 per cent, better since 
I came, and have gained about five pounds in weight. The air is so good and 
cool I always sleep well at nights, and as for appetite I am afraid to think of it ; 
I am sure the landlord made very little out of me. I hear several people, who 
have suffered for years from hay fever, say they have never been so well anywhere 
as here, In fact they have been quite free from it. Now I must close as I am 
sure you will be getting tired, and all I can say is that if you want to enjoy your 
self and have a real good time, go to Muskoka and spend a week or two. 

Yours, 

BOB. 
BALA. 

The east shore of Lake Muskoka is well supplied with islands, 
but the west shore is very much more so. At present not very ex 
tensive hotel advantages exist, but Mr. Thomas Currie has opened a 
private boarding house for canoeists and campists ; there is no better 
region than on this west coast of the lake. Most of the islands have 
been taken up by Torontonians and on many of them houses qave 
been erected. No doubt, when steamboat facilities increase, this 
region will become as well known as those lying on the more direct 
routes. Bala is a regular fishing centre \ close by are many little 
lakes among which may be named Bull, Echo, Clear, Long, Black 
and Hardy s, but the crowning feature is the Muskosh Rivvr, which, 
beginning at this point, carries away the waters of the whole of the 
vast inland chain of lakes. 

MUSKOSH AND MOON RIVERS. 

After the stop-log dams erected by the Government for the control 
of the water of the lake, the stream narrows to a width of about 40 
yards, then passing swiftly along for a short distance, gathering, as it 
were, its energies for the grand leap it now takes over a rocky ledge 
about twenty-three feet in height. Immediately below the Falls the 
river widens again, forming powerful eddies, particularly at high 
water. 






THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 117 

Strangers require to exercise extra precaution in the management 
of their boats or canoes below the portage until the disturbed waters 
are safely passed, which is only the work of a few minutes. 

Descending the river, amid beautiful scenery, are fine bass and 
pickerel fishing for a distance of about four miles. The channel here 
divides itself into two streams, the one called the Muskosh, the other 
the Moon River, and both discharging their waters into the Georgian 
Bay through mouths many miles distant from each other. 

Numerous falls and rapids interrupt navigation on both streams and 
no strangers should venture without experienced guides. At the 
above mentioned dividing point there is really splendid maskinonge 
fishing ; the fish are large and of the finest quality. 

Canoes can be taken down the Moon River to Georgian Bay and 
return made from there by the Crane and Blackstone Lake chains to 
Lake Joseph or Port Cockburn. (See the route map.} 

Walker s Point and Tot ranee are hamlets and post offices on the 
west shore of Lake Muskoka, and in the neighbourhood of the Mus- 
kosh River. 

THE INDIAN RIVER. 

Having sailed up Lake Muskoka, we approach the Northern and 
upper end of the lake, and, threading our way through the Seven 
Sisters Islands a cluster not far from Beaumaris we then pass 
Idlewild, One Tree, and Horseshoe Islands. On the right hand is 
seen Fairmount. Fairmount is situated one and a quarter miles from 
Point Kaye, on a pretty bay with a southern aspect, just at the entry 
of the Indian River. A few families can be accommodated by Mr. 
Butter, and three cottages can be rented furnished. The little Angli 
can Church of the Holy Cross nestles against the woods in the east 
corner of the bay ; service every Sunday. A sandy beach, sloping 
gradually down, furnishes perfectly safe bathing for children. 

We now enter the converging channel of the Indian River. The 
banks rise high on either side, and the thickly wooded slopes throw 



118 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



dark shadows at the rapid turns, widening out almost into a little 
lake some good farms are to be seen upon the shore and then 
narrowing up again after a sudden turn, we pass through a channel 
marked out with fir trees for buoys, and reach the prettiest part of 
the river. At four miles from Lake Muskoka is 

PORT CARLING. 

This, of all the villages on the lakes, is the most important being 
the most central. Being the converging point for all the steamers 
running to and fro on the three lakes, access to all parts can most 
conveniently be obtained from this centre, and frequent communi 
cations be kept up with all. The Stratton House, most excellently 
kept by Mr. John Fraser, is very commodious, and has an established 
reputation. Mr. Vanderbergh s comfortable hostelrie is favourably 
situated on the garden bank, and has a dock all to itself (see adver 
tisement). Boats and guides to all the fishing and sporting points 
obtained. There are also very good supply stores, kept by Mr. 
Wallis and Mr. Hanna (see advertisement) and three churches. 
On Sundays, row-boats will be noticed coming from all points, bear 
ing the congregations to divine service Steam launches for visiting 
the lakes can be hired from Mr. Vanderbergh. 

At Port Carling the steamers pass through the locks which connect 
Lake Muskoka and Lake Rosseau, the latter being four feet the 
higher level. Transfer is made at the locks from the Lake Muskoka 
steamer to the side-service steamers running up the different lakes ; 
and tourists are recommended to look closely after their baggage 
themselves, for, however good any system of checking may be, errors 
will sometimes occur; and it is little satisfaction either to see your 
trunk going away on the deck of another steamer, or yourself arriving 
at your destination to find that your baggage and all your comforts 
have been left behind. At this transfer point, therefore, have an eye 
to your baggage yourself. 






GLEN ORCHAR 




Route Map 
LAKE JOSEPH 

MOON RIVER 



LAKE MUSK OKA 

DRAWN FOR 

TH E N RTH ER N LA K ES CANADA 



Scale 2 1 2 Miles = I Inch 



J JK 



Zxplana&ens. 

HOTELS a 

HOUSES 

ROCKS x 

JLLS ... * 




KA 




.yo 



V- v 



RAVENHURST 



THE NORTHERN LAKEb OF CANADA 119 

Leaving the village, perched on its picturesque and rugged rocks 
behind us, we enter a beautiful wooded basin, in which there is most 
excellent fishing; next passing a point which has been laid out for 
Interlaken Park a splendid grove for camping and picnicking, and 
one of the few cases in Muskoka of happy nomenclature. Another 
turn brings us to the end of the river, and the southern end of the 
next lake. 

LAKE ROSSEAU. 

Where the lakes are of such exceedingly irregular form as are all 
the Lakes of Muskoka, lengths and breadths vary greatly j according 
to the place from which the measurements are taken. The tourist is 
usually familiar with lakes which, formed in hollows and basins, have 
some tolerable regularity of shape ; but these Lakes of Muskoka are 
unlike any others, being formed, not by any regular depressions of 
normal strata, but being the upheaval of the old Laurentian sys 
tem the oldest geological formation on the continent which here 
alone thrusts its head up through the super-imposed masses. Hence 
the general elevation of the district, and the remarkable changes of 
shape in the coast lines. Jutting points, deep bays, sudden elonga 
tions, and sharp changes of direction, follow quick upon one another, 
so that the course of the steamer is undergoing constant alteration, 
instead of proceeding in one general direction following along a 
somewhat similar shore. It is this constant change which affords 
such pleasure to the eye on the Lakes of Muskoka ; and though the 
component parts of the landscape shall be of the same water, and 
rock, and tree yet the ever-changing play of light and form con 
stantly opens out new combinations in colour and beauty of which 
the sight never wearies nor the interest grows dull. 

Lake Rosseau is fourteen miles long in its extremest points. For 
distances between the several places on this and other lakes, mea 
surements can be made on the maps, which are accurately drawn to 
a scale of 2^ miles to the inch. After leaving the Indian River, 



120 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



the steamer for Lake Joseph diverges to the left, that for Lake Rosseau 
to the right ; and we will first follow up the eastern shore of the lake. 
Arthurlie House, about two miles from Port Carling, is ensconced 
in Arthurlie Bay, whose entrance is guarded by a group of pretty 
islands. There is excellent bass fishing in Silver Lake, just behind 
the house. 




A GLIMPSE ALONG THE COAST. 

Brackenrig P. O. lies at the foot of a deep bay. From here a 
short portage, one-quarter of a mile, can be made to Brandy Lake, 
and thence by canoe down Brandy River to Lake Muskoka, near 
Point Kaye and Beaumaris. 

Leaving Baker s, Bohemia, Vacuna, and Silver Islands, and others 
forming the group at the south point of the island. On a fine bay on 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 121 

the west side of the island is Cloverport a new and attractive sum 
mer house. 

We now coast up the east shore of Big or Tobin s Island itself, 
with high rocks, and, in many places, woods to the water s edge. 

Windermeie is pleasantly situated on a small bay, four miles from 
Port Carling and ten miles from Rosseau. The " Windemere 
House" kept by Mr. Thos. Aitkens, has large accommodation, and 
increasing business testifies the appreciation of the past endeavours 
of the proprietor, who, like almost all the other lake-shore hotel- 
keepers on the lakes, is also the post master and express agent. 
Hotel-keepers in Muskoka are not only expected to be " Poo-Bahs 
in offices, but also in information as to all kinds of bait and fish, and 
where and how to get them. There are plenty of boats kept by the 
hotel and Mr. J. R. Boyd, and a good bathing place. " The Win- 
dermere Mechanics Institute has a capital reading room, with a 
very fair library. A specialty of the neighbourhood is the " Winder- 
mere Club," a company which has erected a number of pleasant 
lake-side cottages which can be rented or purchased, as not a few 
have been, by families who prefer to " keep house." The resident 
carpenter, Mr. Clinyboyle, makes repairs and looks after the cottages 
during the winter months. A very good market held weekly in the 
summer months, by the farmers in the neighbourhood, insures a 
cheap and constant supply of fresh provisions. 

Ministers of Methodist and Presbyterian churches resides in the 
village. Pleasant expeditions can be made from Windemere by 
row boat passing Florence Island, the residence of the celebrated 
actor " Billy Florence," whose Colonel Sellers has become a prover 
bial type of character, thence to the head of Portage Bay, where there 
is a capital sandy beach. 

On going northwards past Norway Island to Dee Mouth with its 
saw mill at the outlet of Dee River. The mouth of the river is wide 
and a canoe excursion can be made up it to the Three-Mile Lake, a 
distance of about two miles with three portages, each of about one 
hundred yards. It is a pretty woodland walk qf two [miles to 



122 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



Dee Bank from where canoeists can take water on the quaint-shaped 

THREE-MILE-LAKE. 

It may be interesting to note that of the township which contains 
this lake there is one acre of water to every three of land. There is 
excellent pickerel fishing in the lake, and its herrings, to be found in 
shoals near the rocks and banks later on in the fall, are quite famous. 




ON THE SHORES OF LAKE ROSSEAU. 



There is no regular hotel, but the shores are well settled with 
thrifty farmers who will welcome visitors. The scenery is much 
varied and at one point there is a most remarkable echo. Ella Is- 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 123 

land, near the centre, contains the summer residence of Mr. C. Mc- 
Kenzie, of Toronto. It is expected a small steamer will shortly be 
placed on this lake, but it is a very pretty day s excursion from Dee 
Bank) where is a post office and a capital general store, along the full 
length of the lake, a distance of eight miles, to Raymonds Bay. 
From here if the voyagers desire to still further penetrate into the 
country canoes can be taken by waggon, making a short cut across 
the country of about six miles, to join the railway at Utterson, and 
from there to Huntsville, and so take water again on the Vernon Mary 
chain. 

Renewing our trip up Lake Muskoka, and having passed the east 
side of Tobin s Island, a peninsula just out from the west shore, on 
which \&Juddhavm, with small dock and post office. 

The east shore continues to show sharp promontories and deep 
bays, the largest, Skeleton Bay, about two miles long, and a celebrat 
ed fishing point. The entrance is obscured by several islands ; at the 
head is the foot-water of Skeleton River, on which are the Mmnehaha 
Falls, well worthy a visit, not so much for their magnitude as for 
their prettiness. Four miles inland is Skeleton Lake, another of the 
larger inland lakes, attractive to venturesome canoeists for its excel 
lent fishing, untrodden islands, many with high cliffs projecting over 
the water so that boats can be rowed underneath, and its remoteness 
from the generally travelled routes. The waters are clear like those 
of Lake Joseph. Considerable portaging has to be done past the 
rapids and the higher falls to reach its waters, but they can also be con. 
veniently got at in the opposite direction from Utterson. 

Rosseau Falls is mainly composed of a saw mill and accompanying 
houses situate at the mouth of the river. 

From this on, the banks on the east shore grow in height, and 
bluff rocks, with deep water at their foot, line the water s edge. At 
14 miles from Port Carling we reach the head of the lake. 

PORT ROSSEAU. 

This village is a place of much importance as it occupies the head 
of navigation in this direction, and is the starting point for coloni 
zation roads leading to Parry Sound and Nippissing and the many 



124 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



settlements situated along their lengths. Post and telegraph offices 
keep up communication with the southern world, and there are some 
good stores, particularly for hardware and fishing tackle. 

Pratfs Hotel, which stood on a well elevated situation, but was 
destroyed by fire one autumn, used to monopolize a large portion of 



ON THE SHADOW RIVER. 




the tourist business, and so great 
was the satisfaction of visitors with 
the amusements and the beauty 
of the environs of this part of the 
ake, that attention was almost wholly directed to it, and it was not 
until the withdrawal of the hotel accommodation having obliged 
visitors to seek other points of sojourn, that the world woke up to the 
knowledge that there were many other beautiful spots on the shores 



THE NORTHMEN LAKES OF CANADA. 125 

of the lakes, and that as each had its own peculiar attractions and 
advantages, it was best to see them all. 

The waters about Rosseau are well stocked with fish, and abundant 
and pleasant boating can be enjoyed. 

The Monteith House is well situated near the steamboat wharf, and 
among the amusements of the village is a roller skating rink. 

The Shadow River, one of the most wonderful natural curiosi 
ties of the Muskoka district, empties its waters into the bay on the 
shores of which Port Rosseau stands. Its course can be explored 
inland by boats for about five miles, the stream varying throughout 
from twenty to sixty feet in width. Entering the mouth of the river, 
about the time of the fast declining rays of the afternoon sun, and 
following the erratic curves, all sight of the lake is soon lost. In 
front and behind, the river winds like a silver streak, hemmed in on 
either hand by forest trees, and losing itself in the distant curves. 
Tall elms and ranks of tapering pines line the banks, and below 
them the sedgy shores, heavy with foliated ferns and wreaths of 
moss, overhang the edge. The surface is as motionless as glass and 
everything is duplicated in marvellous detail, each leaf and branch 
having its reflected counterpart even more distinct than it appears 
itself. 

" The fair trees look over, side by side, 
And see themselves below." 

In the deep silence which pervades the place and affects the on 
looker as he gazes at the magic scene, a wonderful illusion creeps 
over his absorbed senses. Gradually the river s surface fades away, 
double lines of forest trees array the shores, their stems divided in 
the centre, the one part pointing upward to the sky, the other reach 
ing downward until in fairy vision the vacancy of spaceless depth is 
bounded far away beneath by mountains of snowy clouds in setting 
of azure blue. The boat appears suspended in mid-air, half-way be 
tween two zenith heavens, and at every stroke of the dripping oar 
would seem as though upon the verge of being plunged into a bottom 
less abyss. 



126 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Peering silently over the side, eternity lies spread before the gaze, 
at all sense of earthliness is lost, while the eye searches the passing 

glimpses of what looks to be another world A merry laugh or the 

swoop of the king-fisher, as he seeks his finny prey, will recall the 
dreamer to his senses, but leave a profound impression of a strange 
and eyrie sensation that elfs and fairies may have been about. 

" For there are haunts in this fair land, 

Ah ! who may dream or tell 
Of all the shaded loveliness 
That hides by grot and dell." 

On a small tributary of the Shadow River, the Bridal Veil Falls 
by delicate feathery cascade, makes silver music in its forest grove, 
and a visit perchance may give some hesitating anxious swain an 
opportunity of freeing from his halting tongue the words which cleave 
so closely to his heart. 

Half a mile from the village and on a projecting point, giving 
long vistas up and down the lake, is the new hotel, 

MAPLEHURST. 

The high gabled roof and broad eaves projecting like those of some 
Swiss chalet, are prominent objects long before the steamer reaches 
the little dock. 

Harry Ditchburn s fleet of boats and canoes clustered around the 
landing place invite to frequent water trips, and the cool shades of 
the surrounding grove of evergreen and silver birch, or lounges on 
the spacious verandah, 200 feet in length, may tempt to more lazy 
methods of passing over the hours of the happy summer days. A 
ferry to the dock in the village keeps up constant communication, 
and mails and telegraphs are delivered at the Hotel (see adv.}. 

It is a very pretty walk of i ^ miles through the forest, from 
Rosseau to Ashdown^ the junction of the main roads ; or a drive of 
10 miles passing a succession of pretty little lakes, lands the traveller 
at Port Cockburn, at the head of Lake Joseph. Carriages can be 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



127 



engaged in the village. A stage runs regularly 23 miles to Parry 
Sound. 

At many of the rocky points, from one to six miles down the main 
Lake Rosseau, there is good fiishing for Bass, Pickerel and Salmon 
Trout. 




THE BRIDAL VEIL FALLS. 



Morgan s Bay, a large estuary opening from the main lake a little 
south from Maplehurst, is studded with many islands and several 
deep-recessed bays. In the north bay a portage of # mile enters 
Sucker Lake, and in the south bay a 100 yards portage leads to Bass 



128 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Lake. Both of these are well stocked. There are also a whole series 
of small lakes to the north beginning with Turtle Lake, the head 
waters of the Shadow River, reached best by a drive of six miles 
from Rosseau. Connected with this by short portages are several 
other lakes where sport is certain. Good speckled trout fishing can 
be enjoyed in White Oak Creek and its tributaries, and in several of 
the lakes connected with it, easily reached by road five miles from 
Rosseau. Blacks tone Lake is reached by daily stage to Fender s 
Corners, and then a drive of four miles down the side road. It is 
better not to attempt these more distant excursions without experi 
enced guides. There are many other small lakes containing good 
fish, but not so accessible as those named. These can be reached 
by the aid of Indians and birch bark canoes. Indians can be hired 
through Ditchburn Bros, at about $2 per day including use of canoe. 
The active canoeist, who is making the tour of the lakes, can, instead 
of returning down the main Lake Rosseau, make a very interesting 
short cut to Lake Joseph. At the west side of Morgan s Bay there 
is a much frequented portage of ^ mile to Little Lake Joseph. This 
makes a varied and novel expedition for parties with light canoes 
and camping equipment, and saves the necessity of doubling any 
portion of their trip. 

Returning to the foot of the lake we will join the steamer for Lake 
Joseph, which, on leaving the Indian River, turns to the left, heading 
for Port Sandfield, distant on the direct route six miles from Port 
Carling, although this is generally prolonged by many calls at the 
intermediate islands. 



Venetia. 

This southern portion of Lake Rosseau is fairly gemmed with islets, 
and as they were early selected for their beauty and admirable situa 
tion, more island population has been accumulated in this part than 
in any other. On almost every island can be seen some pretty home, 
each varied by the tastes or fancies of the owner. Home-made 
architecture and amateur carpentering have put some together out 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 129 

of the materials to be found on the spot ; others have called in more 
specially instructed aid, but none are at all pretentious. Comfort 
rather than display, simplicity and make-the best-of-it seem to be the 
ruling influences among the " Muskokans." They are clannish in 
their upholding of the special beauties of the vicinity in which they 
are settled, but national in united assertion that there is no place like 
Muskoka. Hospitable they certainly are, and to overflowing, for 
when the steamer touches at their islands, and one sees the number 
of people and babies that run down to the dock, and the number of 
heads that pop out of the windows of the house itself, one wonders 
where they all put up, and whether some, like the Indians, wrap 
themselves in blankets and sleep beneath the spreading trees. But 
another turn of the wheel and the white ridge of a tent or the clus 
tering poles of a wigwam, tell where the boys and what boys the 
Muskoka boys are have overflowed to make room for the welcome 
guests. 

This lower part of Lake Rosseau may well be called "Venetia] 
for a boat is as necessary to a man as a pair of legs, and not in 
Venice itself are boats more used or needed. Whether it be to make 
a call on a neighbour, to bring the bread from the baker, or fuel for 
the fire, or fish for the pot, a boat is always put in requisition, so 
that the Muskokans might almost be considered an amphibious race. 
They all row, from the smallest baby upwards, and La Belle Cana- 
dienne, who in winter has been seen in picturesque toboggan suit, 
with bright rosed cheeks, flushed by the keen vigour of her native 
air, will here be met again with those same cheeks bronzed to a 
ruddy brown and handling the oars of her boat with all the grace 
and deftness of an adept. No wonder Canada s oarsmen lead the 
world ! Vive la Canadienne I 

On the south point of Tobin s Island is the new hotel, Oaklands^ 
which, being just opposite to all the many islands of Venetia, is sure 
to afford a pleasurable summer outing. 

Ferndale is an excellent hotel, kept by Mr. Penson, and on a 
pretty bay, into which the steamer turns. The summer-houses on 

I 



130 



THE NORTHER* LAKES OF CANADA. 




TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 131 

the high cliffs have before them one of the most beautiful views of 
the lakes, and the groves of oak and maple, the virgin forest of hard 
wood trees in the rear, give opportunity for pleasant walks. The 
steamer then threads her way through the island homes of " Venetia." 
To the right is St. Leonard s Isle and the " Parson s Group," where 
the relatives of two reverend gentlemen of Toronto have established 
themselves, and clerical friends are right royally welcomed. On the 
left are in succession Edith, Fairview, Summer side, Gouldings, then Oak 
and Flora, the pretty home of Dr. Hall, one of the earliest and most 
enthusiastic of the Muskokans. Still farther away, on the right, Cedar 
Island, the property of Mr. C. S. Warren ; then Mazengah, the home 
of the D wights and Blatchfords, and Fairylands, the Lilly homestead. 
Lastly we turn sharply round Olive Island, where so deep is the 
water and sheer the rock that the steamer runs alongside without 
need of any dock. Here the Baldwins early found a happy resting 
place, and by practice, learned how to fell trees so that they should 
not fall, as did an early one they cut, squash down upon their newly 
erected house to its complete destruction. A mute protest, perchance, 
from the forest king against the innovations made into his realm. 

Passing the lofty headland of Eagle s Nest, the lake narrows up 
and we are soon in view of Port Sandfteld. 

The steamer runs to and fro, calling at the different islands and 
also crosses to the northerly side of the lake. At about two miles is 
Cleveland s ; a summer boarding house is kept here, by Mr. Minnett, 
with excellent accommodation. Further down the shore, to the east, 
Mrs. Lawson takes boarders. Mr. Wood s boarding house at Fair- 
View-Farm is about a mile to the west, with a nice sand beach and 
dock, at which the steamers land. All these localities are in the 
vicinity of good fishing, and being a little out of the regular route, 
are perhaps more quiet and retired, and favourable arrangements can 
be made for short visits or lengthened stay. 

Gregory is just at the entrance of the Joseph River, has a post- 
office, and some of the residents in the neighbourhood will accommo 
date summer visitors. 



132 



TSE NORTHERN LARES OF 



PORT SANDFIELD. 



At one time a narrow spit, or bar, of sand, here separated Lake 
Rosseau from Lake Joseph, but in the interests of continuous steam 
boat navigation a canal was dug through it by the Ontario Govern 
ment, and the new village which sprung up was named after the 




EAGLE S NEST, LAKE ROSSEAU. 

then Premier the Hon. Sand field Macdonald as the point where 
the junction was made between Lakes Muskoka and Rosseau had 
been named after the then Commissioner of Crown Lands, the 
Hon. John Carling. Originally Lake Joseph was i ^ feet the higher, 






THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



133 



but now both lakes are of the same level. A lofty bridge, spanning 
the canal, keeps up the communication by road with Port Carling. 



35 



H 
P 

d 




On the top, or saddle, of the promontory, and with views extend 
ing east and west over both the lakes, is Prospect House, kept by the 
characteristic Enoch Cox. So great is the desire to stay at this 



134 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA, 

favoured spot that although each year its capacities have been enlarged, 
until now there are rooms for 120 visitors, yet the cry is "still they 
come." Pleasant verandahs and shady groves covering the tops of 
rocky points, fifty and sixty feet above the level of the water, form 
pleasant lounging places, Bathing can be enjoyed from the rocks in 
an adjacent bay, or from the bathing-houses, which are situated on a 
pleasant sandy beach. Row-boats can be hired from Mr. Cox by 
the day or week at low rates, and the steam yacht, built, owned, and 
captained by Mr. John Rogers the u hydrographer of the lakes " 
leaves the hotel every morning for the points of interest in the neigh 
bourhood, which enables visitors to take delightful excursions out of 
the regular track of the mail steamers. Special charters can be made 
on very reasonable terms. The belfry of the Anglican church will 
be seen near the hotel ; service is held regularly every Sunday. 

There are several cottages, which may be rented, and summer 
boarding-houses, in the vicinity among them Rockhurst, just on the 
opposite side of the bay, kept by Mr. G. C. Hazelwood, well situated 
and supplied with boats. There is a pretty walk through the woods, 
i Y& miles, to Port Carling. 

LAKE JOSEPH. 

This, the third of the series of the Lakes of Muskoka, was for a 
long time a mare incognitum except to the venturesome spirits, who, 
recking not the labour, rowed themselves up its length of fourteen 
miles, when the steamer used to be stopped by the natural barrier 
at Port Sandfield. 

It will be noted that the waters of all the other lakes and rivers 
of Muskoka are, although translucent and c^ar, yet of a dark or 
tawny hue. while, strangely enough, those of Lake Joseph are a clear 
white. Its islands, too, rise perhaps more abruptly, and to higher 
elevations, and more rugged cliffs line its shores, than do those of the 
other lakes. Backed by these peculiarities, the inhabitants of the 
Canton of Lake Joseph claim for it a beauty surpassing that of all 
the others. This at least may be granted, that it has characteristics, 
such as those mentioned, unique and peculiar to itself; but so have 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



135 



all the lakes, and this is one of the inexhaustible charms of the Lakes 
of Muskoka district. 

Very nice jaunts, with excellent fishing, can be enjoyed from Port* 
Sandfield. A row up Lake Joseph of three miles to Hemlock Point* 
and the lines having been cast in around the group of fish-named 
islands off the point, or on a row down Avon and Cumberland Bays 
will surely be rewarded by a good catch. 

Bass Lake is best reached by Rogers steam yacht to Foofs Bay, 
a distance of about seven miles ; from here a portage of a quarter of 




LAKE JOSEPH. 

a mile brings to the lake. Mr. T. Hamill, whose house is near by, 
keeps boats upon the lake, and is recommended for supplying guides. 
The lake is carefully preserved, and well stocked with fish. 

A very pretty round trip can be made by towing the row-boats 
behind the yacht up Lake Joseph, and past Fisher, Foster, and Canty 
Islands, to the upper end of the Joseph River, near by the prettily 
situated Craigie-Lea. From here the boats can be rowed down the 
river through channels too narrow and shallow for even the little 
steamer. A beautiful succession of changes of direction and sur 
prises follows, for a distance of three miles, to the exit into Lake 
Rosseau, near Gregorys. Two miles further, and the party is home 
again at Prospect House. The whole distance round can be rowed 



136 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



v 

I: 



by a vigorous oarsman in about five hours, or the journey can 
as is most pleasant be broken for the night at 

CRAIGIE-LEA. 

Before the cutting of the Port Sandfield Canal, this Joseph River 
was the only means of water communication between the lakes, and, 
being very tortuous, was available only for small boats. Nestled in 
behind the Ponemah Group of islands, and on a pretty projecting 
point of land, Mr. John Walls has placed his new hotel (see adver 
tisement}. The situation is most unique for quiet and retirement ; 

the surround 
ing shores are 
all as Nature 
first, in simple 
beauty, deco 
rated them 
with her un 
erring hand ; 
and sheltered 
passages wind 
between the 
islands in con 
stantly chang- 
ing forms. 

Just in front is the particu 
larly beautiful Cliff Island. 
Green slopes, looking in the 
distance as though of softest, 
smoothest turf, rise from the 
water s edge to the rounded 
top, about two hundred feet in 
height. .Studded at intervals 
over these are regularly shaped groups of evergreens the rich-toned 
Norway and the dwarf Northern pine. No landscape gardener ever 
posed his groups with more effective result ; nor could he, with all 




ABOUND CLIFF ISLAND. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 137 

his art, attain to such unstudied loveliness as here exists. Just to 
the right of the hotel is the entrance to Little Lake Joseph, sometimes 
fondly termed Little Joe. No settlers have yet occupied its untrodden 
shores, and there is splendid fishing in its waters. At the head of 
the lake seven miles from Craigie-Lea is the landing for the half- 
mile portage to Morgan s Bay, and thence three miles by water to 
Maplehurst and Rosseau. 

Resuming the direct route up the centre of Lake Joseph, from Port 
Sandfield the steamer calls first at Redwood^ the admirably situated 
summer home of the Ardaghs. Leaving Foot s Bay on the left, we 
thread our way through the Ponemah Group, comprising the largest 
islands in the lake. On the shores of " Chief Island " is the home 
stead of Herbert Mason, Esq. ; and on " Governors Island," a beau 
tiful little islet commanding a lovely view over the length of the open 
lake, is the summer residence of the Hon. John Beverley Robinson, 
the Lieutenant-Govern or of Ontario. The shores stretch wider 
apart, and then comes another series called the Yo-ho-cu-ca-ba Group. 
A thoroughly Indian intonation would appear to attach to this name, 
with its constantly repeated vowel sounds, and one wonders as to 
what may be its native meaning. It is a revelation to be told that 
it was framed from the first syllables of the names of the first occu 
pants of the largest island. Thus : 



Yo . . . . . . Professor Young. 

Ho W. H. Rowland. 

Cu ...... Montgomery Gumming. 

Ca Professor Campbell. 

Ba James Bain. 

This group are as largely populated as any parts of the lakes ; and 
the Sunday services, held in a natural amphitheatre on " Yoho," as 
the principal island is lovingly called, have acquired a provincial 
celebrity from the standing of the preachers who have officiated at 
them, under the canopy of the forest trees. 

Mr. McMurrich s completely-developed island, where the Marquis 
of Lansdowne, Governor-General of Canada, sojourned in 1885, is 



138 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



passed on the left ; then McLellan s and Wahneshing, and the lofty 
Equity Crest. After the beautifully-shaped Round Island, we enter 
the last bay, and come into view of the end of the trip in this direc 
tion. 

PORT COCKBURN. 

This is the head of navigation of Lake Joseph. Upon a high 




cliff, and surrounded by a beautiful grove of second growth oak 
and maples, so that only the gables can be seen, is the Summit 
House, well kept by Hamilton Eraser, now the largest house 
in the district. Between the trees and on the sides of the rocks 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 139 

where convenient nooks give opportunity, are swinging hammocks 
and rustic seats, and from the ample height and pleasant shade, a 
lovely view overlooking the island-studded lake can be most fully 
grasped and thoroughly enjoyed. 

The steamer lands at the foot of the stairways leading up to the 
hotel. Near by is seen the Island Park, where a grove has been set 
out with winding paths and a bridge built to connect the island with 
the main land. On the other side of the hotel is a splendid bathing 
house and sheer rocks from which the bolder ones can spring into 
fifty feet of water. 

The ubiquitous Ditchburn Bros, here again appear with a full line 
of excellent row boats, from small ones for those with whom " two 
is company and three is none " to the large family ark wherein the 
good-natured Father, having stowed his substantial partner together 
with all their merry flock of chattering youngsters, can swelter at the 
unaccustomed oar in full enjoyment of his summer holiday of rest. 

About fifteen minutes row from the hotel are the celebrated " Echo 
Rocks " where in the mysterious moonlight hours weird repetitions 
may be evoked. 

" Hark ! how the gentle echo from her cell, 

Talks through the cliffs and murmuring o er the stream 

Repeats the accents " we-shall-part-no-more. " 

Akenside. 

It is a pretty trip also to " Hawk s nest," and to the little bay and 
portage to Byers Lake. 

Post and telegraph offices in the hotel and a large room for con 
certs and dancing ensure plenty of amusement for the summer 
evenings. 

Port Cockburn is the centre of a great many fishing resorts to which 
access can from it most conveniently be obtained. Guides and canoes 
can be arranged for with Ditchburn and bait provided. 

Lake Joseph abounds with black bass, pickerel and large salmon 
trout obtained by deep trolling. 

Within a radius of six miles from the Summit House, there are 
some forty little lakes, some reached by driving and many by walks 



140 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

through the " bush," and in the tributary streams brook trout are 
often canght weighing i ^ pounds. 

The Seguin River Chain begins a few miles back from here and 
comprises a complete chain of lakes and river to Parry Sound on the 
Georgian Bay. White Fish, Clear, Turtle, Star and Isabella are the 
principal ones, and in all black bass and trout abound. Blackstone 
and Crane lakes, which are five miles off (see the route map to 
Moon River), may best be described by taking the statement of 
Battelle in the Toledo " Post" : 

11 The shores of Crane and Blackstone Lakes are capital specimens 
of the primitive wilderness, and long may they so continue. The few 
who have visited their teeming waters have mostly been genuine 
fishermen who are happiest when faraway from conventionalities and 
habitations. But one clearing broke the majestic sweep of the grand 
old forests, within the sheltered bays the loons laughed undisturbed, 
and the wild birds splashed in the marshy edges or upon the sandy 
shores with none to molest or make them afraid. 

" We were out for maskinonge, and took no account of either black 
bass or pickerel. It seems strange to talk of shaking off black bass 
and making disrespectful remarks about these gamy gentry when 
they insisted in taking the hook, but they were so plenty as to be 
really troublesome. 

"When an angler goes forth to catch the maskinonge it is necessary 
to be^careful lest the maskinonge should catch him. The native 
method of taking the maskinonge in the primeval waters of Canada 
is by a small clothes line, hauled in by main strength when the fish 
bites, but we proposed to troll, as should an angler, with the rod. 
Ours were split bamboo rods 9^- feet long, quadruplex reel, and 
braided linen line, two feet of medium sized copper wire, a No. 4 
spoon with double hooks, and finally a good gaff. 

" Our guide, as we started over to Crane Lake the first morning, in 
dulged in sundry smiles and remarked that we should break our rods, 
so that, although placid in outward mien, I felt inwardly a little ner 
vous, but I didn t mean to back down until compelled, 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 141 

" Swinging around a little point, with some twenty yards of line 
astern, before fishing a great while I felt a sudden movement at the 
spoon that was more like a crunch than a bite. It took only a 
second to give the rod a turn that fixed the hooks and another sec 
ond to discover that I had hung something. Scarcely had I tighten 
ed the line when the fish started. I do not know that I wanted to 
stop him, but I felt the line slip rapidly from the reel as though at 
tached to a submarine torpedo. The first run was a long one, but 
the line was longer, and the fish stopped before the reel was bare. 
This was my opportunity and I had the boatman swing his craft 
across the course, and reeling in the slack line, I turned his head 
towards the deeper water. Forty-five minutes of as pretty a fight as 
one could wish to see left my new acquaintance alongside the boat, 
and before he recovered his surprise the gaff was in his gills and the 
boatman lifted him on board. 

" He weighed fourteen pounds on the steelyards and was my heaviest 
fish. There were other encounters of a similar character, but 
none quite so protracted ; but I wouldn t be afraid of the largest 
veteran in the lake, and all fishermen, who aim for sport, will assured 
ly troll with the rod. Our time was limited, far too short, and in a 
word, a day and a half on Crane Lake gave us, without counting bass, 
ten maskinonge whose weight aggregated no pounds, (on the scales) 
an average weight of n pounds per fish." 

THE MOON RIVER. 

The lower reaches of these famed waters, where they enter the 
Georgian Bay, can conveniently be attained by the route of these 
lakes as shown on the detailed map, or, having descended the river 
by canoe from Lake Muskoka at Bala (the easier mode), return can 
be made by them to Lake Joseph, at Port Cockburn. 

The fishing scores in the Moon River, particularly maskinonge, are 
of the heaviest, and some giants have been hooked. 

This expedition should not be attempted without good guides and 
ample camping equipment and supplies. 



142 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

The New Railway. 

Gravenhurst to Lake Nipissing. 

Having followed the shores of the group of the BIG TRIO and traced 
their waters to the outfall by the Muskosh and Moon Rivers, we will 
strike further inland to the newer districts which are now opened out 
for convenient access by the new extension of the railway through 
their midst. Starting afresh from Gravenhurst (page 101), the rail 
way strikes inland along the shores of Gull Lake, and after crossing 
the south branch of the Muskoka River, reaches Bracebridge (10^ 
miles). (The mileages here and afterwards mentioned are mileages 
from Gravenhurst.) 

Here the iron bridge spans the stream above the very midst of the 
Falls a strange situation ; but the defiles through which railways in 
this district may be constructed are exacting, and their behests must 
be obeyed, however, unusual the forced selections. Still keeping in 
the valley alongside the river at about two miles beyond Bracebridge, 
a very pretty view is obtained, on the right of Elliott s Falls. 

Utterson (24 miles) Connection can be made from here by good 
waggon road to Skeleton Lake or else to Three Mile Lake, and by either 
route convenient voyage made by their waters to those of Lake Ros- 
seau, not far from Windermere. 

Two and a half miles to the east by road is Port Sydney, at the 
southern end of Mary Lake, to which we will make a visit farther on. 

After a passing glimpse at Little Round Lake, the train arrives at 
Huntsville (35 miles). This is an important tourist point, as here 
connection is made with a new chain of lakes, whose waters may be 
followed, either west to their source, or east and south until they are 
drained by the Muskoka River. The village is progressing, and will, 
no doubt, soon have its full share of the increase business which the 
railway now brings to its doors. Jacob s Hotel, Gilchrist s and Birtch s 
Hotels, are mentioned here. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 143 



The Muskoka River Chain. 

WESTWARD TO THE HEADWATERS. 

Alongside the railway station will be found the steamboat dock, 
at which can be taken, for the trip up the lakes, the steamer Northern, 
Captain Denton. Should our voyageurs, however, have so prepared 
themselves, and intend to start off on one of the many canoeing 
trips which radiate from here, their traps and camping equipment 
will be quickly packed away, and soon 

Their bark is on the sea. " 

After about three miles of open river navigation, Lake Vernon is 
entered. On the right bank will be seen where the waters of the 
Upper North Branch enter the lake. Hood s Island is passed on 
the left, and, the lake widening out again, the village of Ravensdiff 
is called at. Here enters the stream which brings down the waters 
of Loon and Long Lakes. At 9 miles the lake ceases ; and we 
arrive at the head of steamboat navigation in this direction. 

HOODSTOVVN. 

The town is situated at the outlet of the upper waters, and a 
splendid water-power has been formed, which, no doubt, some day 
will turn some busy wheels, if its owner will only allow it to be used. 
There is a waterfall of about 40 feet in height over the mill-dam. 
The Albion Hotel, kept by J. G. Henderson, and the McCallum House 
are spoken of as good hostelries. There are good roads in the neigh 
bourhood, and a large adjacent population. Near by, and rising 
abruptly above the plain, is Mount Ararat. The bluff is 500 feet 
above the highest parts of the land ; its top is flat, and if the Ark 
did not stop here it may at least have touched. 

From the summit the wood-clad landscape may be seen, waving 
for miles around, in billows of massy green fading into distant blue, 



144 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

and upon its front, set like so many precious gems, are to be counted 
the surfaces of fifteen little lakes, reflecting in their rippling waters the 
bright rays of the summer sun. 

Having examined the neighbourhood, the trip to the head waters 
of the chain is recommenced. It is a short portage through the town 
from Lake Vernon to the foot water of fox Lake, so called from the 
shape of its shores taking a figure very much the outline of a fox. It 
is about three miles to the narrows, between the body and the tail. 
At the end of the lake the Buck River is entered. The river runs 
smooth and deep, between 30 and 40 feet wide. The banks are 
steep and high, showing signs of excellent soil, and there are many 
picturesque turns in the route of five miles. There is one short rapid 
which going up must be passed by a portage of 100 yards, but com 
ing down can be run with safety. Next is entered Buck Lake, six 
miles long and of narrow but varying width. On its shores is Ilfra- 
combe with saw and grist mills, and the centre of an English colony 
of high county standing and much cultivation. 

The pretty Anglican church is well maintained, and as far as can 
be, brings back fond memories of services in the ivy-clad fanes of the 
fatherland. At the head of the lake a small stream is entered, and 
after one mile access is made to Round Lake, itself 2 J^ miles long. 
Another stream nearer the foot of Buck Lake leads by a route of 
about six miles, in which there is one rapid, which must be portaged 
both ways, to Axe Lake, itself 2 ^ miles long. These two lakes, Axe 
and Round, are the head waters in this direction of this chain of 
lakes. From Huntsville to here (26 miles) row boats can be used ; 
and there is no better or safer line of route for a pleasant camping 
and boating trip, combining both lake and river accessible to all. 

Throughout these upper waters and in the tributary streams there 
is excellent trout fishing. Our voyageur will either return from here, 
or, if his equipment permit its transport, may make a portage of three 
miles over the water-shed which here forms the dividing line, and 
embark his craft upon the waters of Doe Lake, a tributary to the 



" HOODS TOWN 



/AE1LU 



CO.RAVENSCLIFF 



LAKK C 

VERXO.N 




BAYSVILLE. 



-O I \Little Mount-am 
\> 





LA K ES 

VERNOX FAIRY MARY 
PENINSULA AND IAKK OF BAYS 

DRAWN FO R 

The Northern Lakes of Canada" 

BarJ-on- C Lt rrt 



SCALE 2 4 MILES = I INCH. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



145 



headwaters of the Maganetewan River. Proceeding down this for nine 
miles he will join the railway again at Katrine (55 miles). 

And in penetrating to the interior all this may here be found, but 
without the necessity of going too far away from the centres of habi 
tation. 




.- ; 



There is a pleasure in the pathless woods, 
There is a rapture on the lonely shore, 
There is society where none intrudes." 



146 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



Down Stream to Bracebridge. 

By the North Branch. 

From Huntsvilie the voyageur returning down the river to join the 
railway again at Bracebridge, or farther on at Gravenhurst has 
two routes open to his choice the one by the North, the other by 
the South branch of the Muskoka River. 

In taking the first, the steamer can be availed of, passing through 
the pretty Fairy Lake, (five miles) and then the river again is 
entered. 

For the furtherance of navigation, a lock has been constructed by 
the Ontario Government, near Fetterley s and by this means, after 
three miles more of river navigation, winding and re- winding through 
out, the next lake of the chain is reached. 

Mary Lake is one of the gems of Muskoka many neat residences 
with clearings of some extent adorn its shores. Its surface is stud 
ded with many islands, where berries of various kinds are plentiful 
in the season, and afford delightful places for pic-nics and camps. At 
the foot of the lake, upon a gentle elevation overlooking its length, 
is Port Sidney. The village contains the Sydney Hotel, where there 
is excellent accommodation provided by Mr. Jeff Avery. A good 
supply of boats is kept and pleasant trips can be made upon the ro 
mantic little lakes. From Port Sidney, return to the railway can be 
made by two and a half miles drive to the station at Utterson. 

For those who do not venture on small boating or canoeing, the 
steamboat route between Hoodstown and Port Sydney, upon the 
" Little Trio," Vernon, Fairy and Mary, will make a very pretty 
excursion and give additional zest to the enjoyment of the larger and 
more well-known lakes. 

Those, however, who do " canoe," can take the Muskoka River 
from Port Sydney, and enjoy the unique sensation of "running a 
rapid." In the route of fifteen miles to Bracebridge, there are some of 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



147 



the rapids which it is not safe to run, but which must be portaged. 
The entrances to all are well marked so that a watchful eye will keep 
the canoe from danger. It will be best to leave in the morning and 
then the run through can be made in the day 

By the South Branch. 

The other choice of route in returning from Huntsville is confined 
to canoeists. 

Passing easterly through the length of Fairy Lake, a narrow is 
entered, in which are two portages, each of one hundred feet length 
on the right or south bank, and thus access is obtained to Peninsula 




RUNNING A RAPID MUSKOKA RIVER. 



Lake. On the north shore is Grassmere post-office, and at the south 
east end (seven miles), a portage of ij- miles brings to the Lake 
of Bays. The convenience of a waggon will easily be obtained from 
some neighbouring settler. Thence to Baysville, at the foot of the 
lake, is twelve miles, and from there, twenty-five miles by river to the 
south branch of the Muskoka to Bracebridge. Some people may 
prefer to go up stream, so we will start with them from Bracebridge- 
It may be well for the canoeist who is making his first acquaintance 
with these river waters, to begin by going up stream, as he will thus 



148 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



become acquainted with the indications of rapids, and by no chance 
run himself into danger. The South Branch of the Muskoka is the 
starting point for some of the best fishing districts of Muskoka, 
among others are Walter s Creek, Hollow Lake, Wood Lake, Sharp s 
Creek, all celebrated for their brook trout. 

A stage runs regularly from Bracebridge to Baysville (16 miles), 
leaving on arrival of the mail trains and arriving in the evening. 

Leaving Bracebridge by water, the tourist can either descend the 
Muskoka River by canoe to the " River Forks," thence up the South 
Branch to the foot of the " Great South Falls," where the first port- 




MAKTNG A PORTAGE MUSKOKA RIVER 

age must be made, or, bringing the canoes and camping equipment 
by waggon, can at this same point commence the ascent of the 
river. 

The stream is rapid, and several portages must be made during 
the first day. At some the baggage is carried round by land and the 
canoes poled up the rapid ; at others, the Indians shoulder the 
canoes, thus presenting the appearance of huge snails. At " Rocky 
Portage" good ground is found for the first " camp." On the second 
day, " Island Portage is reached at noon, and " Gravelly Rapids " 
for the night At both of these points there is good trout fishing. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

On the third day " Cedar Rapids " are passed, and at the " Upper 
Falls " near Baysville, the best camping ground is found. The river 
here runs fast, tumbling down in rocky rapids, and the best speckled 
trout fishing afforded. 

Baysville, on the river and c ^ miles from the entrance to the lake, 
is a capital resort for the tourist and the sportsman. Those who are 
on the round trip will find it about a day s canoeing from the " Upper 
Falls," to the camping ground at the portage to Peninsula Lake ; 
from thence they can proceed, as previously described. There are 
good local supply stores in the town, and arrangements for steam 
boat trips on the lakes can he made with Capt. Huckins. Jelly s 
Hotel ; the Norfolk House, kept by Mr. Howard, and Keeler s Hotel 
are mentioned here. 

LAKE OF BAYS. 

This is the largest of the lakes which are tributary to the Muskoka 
River, being about 20 miles in length. In width it is eccentric 
and fully deserves its name. There are not many islands in it, 
but it is superlative in jutting points, clad with the dark green 
outlines of the finest pine timber. Canoeists who are exploring its 
shores, had better, after taking the south east trip towards Dorset, 
return north by Haystack Bay, and make the short portage to North 
East Bay. As not having been so accessible, the shores of its deep 
clear waters remain more in the state of nature than any ether. Nei 
ther the settler s axe nor the fires of careless camping parties have 
denuded the banks of their leafy coverings. 

CAMP-FIRES. 

How earnestly it is to be wished, that all who light " camp-fires " 
would be watchful to see that all sparks are perfectly extinguished. 
Oftentimes it will appear to the eye that no fire remains, but under 
neath, in the dry mossy ground, a "smudge" still exists to burst 
long after into flame, and spreading slowly through the roots and 
undergrowth to do infinite damage. 



150 



TSE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



Never light a fire except upon bare rock or bare ground if on 
the latter, remove all neighbouring moss, so that the fire cannot by 
any means spread. 

Always before leaving put the fire out, deluge the place with water 
and cover it with dry earth. Be careful that none of the charred and 
unburned sticks retain any fire. 

Not only for the sake 
of beauty do this, but 
also for the sake of the 
settlers and the lumber 
men, whose "all" may 
be lost by your care 
lessness, for sometimes 
a small camp-fire fanned 
by the winds will run 
for miles and destroy a 
whole forest. 

The streams falling in 
to this lake are inter 
spersed with rapids and 
waterfalls which form 
> home and harbour for 
many speckled trout. It 
is somewhat peculiar to 
note that this class of 
fish seems to be almost 
restricted in this section 
to the neighbourhood of 
this lake, and running often up to three or four pounds weight. 
White fish and salmon trout are found in the lake itself. Hollow, 
Fletcher and Hardwood Lakes are all on the eastern branch of the 
main lake and noted for their trout. Under the name of Trading 
Lake, these waters have attained renown, and this name is still 




i .P.I .,. ..^ 

BRINGING HOME THE CATCH. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 151 

retained at the eastern extremity. A little further to the east is a 
lake whose name may be managed by those who have survived the 
little stream north of the Severn Lake Kahweambetewayamog. 

Captain Huckin s steamers Dean and Excelsior, the latter a capital 
new one of seventy-five feet keel, keep up the communications be 
tween Baysville and the post-offices and settlements around the lake. 

At North East Bay, near Dwight Post-office, the continuation of 
the river enters the lake. Upon its waters are strung out a long 
series of little lakes, all affording good sport, among them Ochtwan (or 
Ox-Tongue), Canoe, Island, Big Joe and other lakes By this chain 
there is a canoe route which has been already followed by several 
parties which, arriving at the head waters of the Muskoka, make a 
short portage to the Petewawa and Mddawaska Rivers, thence down 
to the Ottawa River, a round trip of much attractiveness and 
variety. Go! die s Hotel at Dwight, will make a good headquarters 
and a ready welcome be assured to all good sportsmen. 

The district around Lake of Bays is most highly esteemed for its 
deer hunting, the best of duck and partridge shooting, indeed, 
whether for rod or gun the visitor is sure of ample employment. Here 
abouts are to be found " The happy hunting grounds of the Dwight- 
Wiman Sporting Club." Their names have become localized, and 
here for rest and recreation, zest and fresh energy comes annually 
that ardent Canadian, Erastus Wiman, whose successes in the United 
States seem only to intensify his affection for his native land. A 
good example gives he to the young Canadian. 

From Goldie s, a line of excellent lakes run north, all full of sport, 
Cooper, Devil s Angle, Long, Little Twin, Big Twin, Crotch, Poverty, 
Buck and Clear, all communicating by short portages. 

Good sport, canoes and guides who know where the best fishing 
spots are, and trained dogs accustomed to the vicinity for hunting, are 
all necessary. The names of the best men, well-known and reliable 
from having already conducted fishing and hunting parties through 
this district, are given in the list of guides. 

Mr. W. H. Brown, of Baysville, is also referred to as an obliging 
correspondent. 



152 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



The JUaganetewaii River Chain. 

Leaving Huntsville, the railway crosses the Muskoka river near 
Melissa (39 miles), and then surmounts the water shed, during which 
several streams are followed, and the acute eye will note when those 
that run south are left and those that run north are met. 

Katrine (55 miles), Morton s Hotel. This is the centre of a 
splendid lake country. Sand, Beaver, and Long Lakes, on the South 
Maganetewan River, Three Mile and Doe Lakes close by. Here, as 
noted previously, connection is made with the Maganetewan River, 
and canoes or light boats can be taken for the water trip to Hunts 
ville. The railway continues following the banks for four miles, dur 
ing which the river is crossed four times, the next station is 

Burtis Falls (60 miles). This station opens up another and en 
tirely new region to steamboat navigation to the tourist and the tra 
veller, and particularly to the sportsman, who can now get with com 
paratively little trouble to a district which has hitherto been accessible 
only to those with ample means and time. This chain of lakes and 
the Maganetewan River is just equidistant between the Muskoka and 
Nipissing chains of waters, and drains a surface of about 4,000 square 
miles. Some idea may therefore be gathered of its magnitude, and 
of the possibilities for canoeing, opened up by the ramification of the 
numerous tributaries and their attendant lake enlargements. 

The very heart centre for sport for rod and gun, its rivers and lakes 
can be ascended and descended in canoes and boats amid the best of 
sport, while the eye is fascinated by the fresh, unsullied wildness of its 
forest haunts. Wild birds and deer abound. Speckled trout are 
caught weighing 3 to 5 Ibs. ; bass, 5 to 8 Ibs. ; pickerel, 8 to i4lbs. 

" Music," in Forest and Stream, thus speaks of the Maganetewan : 
" Now a word about the region. If a man can stand out-door life, 
and live on venison, trout, bass, partridges, ducks, pork, tea and 
crackers, there is no better place to go to in America that is as ac 
cessible. A man can go there in July, August, September, or Octo- 



THE NORTHERN LAKES^OF CANADA. 



153 



ber with comfort, if he will go in the right way, and shoot deer and 
catch trout to his heart s content. June to August for trout, after that 
for deer. Remember the Maganetewan is as large as the Schuylkill 
at Philadelphia, or considerably wider and deeper than the Harlem 
at High Bridge, and that the trout have an unlimited range, and are 




THE HUNTER S CAMP. 

seldom disturbed, so that they have a chance to grow. Deer can be 
bagged in great] numbers if you choose to do so ; with a couple of 
good hounds magnificent sport could be had in the fall. I have shot 
partridges with my rifle from the canoe while travelling, as they were 
strutting on the shore, and their drumming was one of the plea- 



154 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



santest every-day sounds. Do not try to go without some guide. 
There are men who know the country, and they should be secured, 
for if you get in there alone, you will have little sport and much 
trouble. I have no possible interest in noticing this region except 
that I believe it to be unsurpassed in many ways." 

The village of Burk s Falls stands upon the banks of the main 
Maganetewan (" the smooth flowing water "), at the head of steam 
boat navigation, and about half a mile below the forks of the river 
where the two great north and south branches join. The station is 
half a mile from the town, in which are several good stores and three 




LAKE AH-MIC. 

country hotels D. F. Burk s, Trimmer s, and the Cataract House, by 
W. F. Thomson. From here can be taken daily the new combined 
paddle and screw steamer Wenonah, of the Muskoka Navigation 
Company. 

For fifteen miles the river is followed, winding to and fro, as all 
Muskoka rivers seem to do. Lake Se-see-be forms the next link for ten 
miles, at the foot of which is the thriving town of Maganet ewan. Here 
the Great Northern Colonization road crosses the river and a centre for 
the surrounding districts has been formed. There are two hotels, Maga- 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 155 

netewan House, by S. B. Fish ; Northern House, by Mr. Carroll. A 
number of stores form a particularly good headquarters during the 
hunting season. 

After passing through the locks, the steamer continues for three miles 
more in the river, and then enters the lovely Lake Ah-Mic. This is 
another of the gems of Muskoka ; most quaint in form, its arms and 
elongations form a very maze of interlacings, so their constant vistas 
of projecting heights with glimpses of distant waters and high ridges 
with closely-wooded forests of hard wood trees, give soft rounded out 
lines to the distant scenery. 

In summer this combination of the rich greens of the maple, oak 
and birch, is most beautiful, but when in autumn the bright red tints 
show forth their resplendent colours, it is simply indescribable. 

The lake is twelve miles in length, and calling places are not yet 
very numerous. The Depot Farm, now called Port Anson, Thomas 
Baldock s Hotel, and Ah-Mic Harbour with Croswell s Hotel may be 
mentioned as attractive points where travellers will find very fair ac 
commodation, at the end of his forty mile trip from the railway station. 

This is also another excellent route for boating, as there are no 
rapids to interfere or portages to make while a nice diversity of pad 
dling or rowing in the rivers is interspersed with sailing on the lakes. 

The camping facilities are good, and not a few farm houses will 
give ready supplies and shelter. The pioneers who have penetrated 
to this country and settled on its lake shores are all sportsmen, and 
boats and canoes and skilful guides, whose wood craft has been learned 
by long practice on their own account, can be found everywhere. 

From here on, the more adventurous can continue their canoe route 
by the Great River, twelve miles to Lake Wah-wa-kesh, and thence to 
Byng Inlet, about fifty-five miles away on the shores of the Georgian 
Bay. In this distance there are 2 1 portages, of varying lengths, from 
one of some two miles, to most of only a few yards. Their combined 
length is about eight miles, leaving 42 miles of good canoeing water. 
It is a trip not to be attempted without first-class guides. These 
portages made there are few difficulties to be overcome, and in good 
hands these form only the sources of adventure for which the trip 
is undertaken. 



156 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

The Seguiu Chain. 

Dunchurch, a village three and a half miles by road from Ah-Mic 
Lake, is on the shores of Whitestone Lake, another of the celebrated 
centres for sport in fin and fur. The herring fishing in the narrows 
is most excellent, and the hunting and shooting of the best. 

From here return can be made in another direction by taking the 
colonization road, 9^ miles, to the village of McKellar, which is the 
centre of another lake system. Here the canoe can again be put in 
the water and following the Seguin River and its enlargements, Lakes 
Manitowaba, Trout, and Mill, can with facility arrive at Parry Sound, 
on the shores of the Georgian Bay. There are only three portages in 
the whole distance, one of half a mile, and two of one mile each ; there 
are also three very short lifts. The other following the eastern arm 
of Lake Manitowaba portage 2^ miles to Blackwater Lake, and then 
canoe through the connecting Lake Isabella past the village of Edg- 
ington into Maple Lake and Marsh and Star Lakes, and so portage 
again half a mile to Turtle P. O. on Turtle Lake, close to Port Cock- 
burn on Lake Joseph. 

Neither of these routes present very great difficulties, as they are 
almost entirely lake work. 

These samples give some idea of the possibilities of navigation in 
the many connecting waters of the Muskoka District, and what a 
wealth of exercise and adventure lies before the youth of Canada. 



The French River Chain. 

Sundridge (70 miles), the next point of any importance, is on the 
shores of Stony Lake, the summit water of the south slope of the 
district being 268 feet above Lake Muskoka. The lake is shallow, 
very regular in form, without any islands, and abounds in fish. 

South River (77 miles) is the first crossing of the new watershed, 
where the waters run north to Lake Nipissing. It is the highest 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 157 

point on the railway, and the dividing line between the two water 
sheds, being 378 feet above Lake Muskoka, and 553 above Lake 
Nipissing. One must suppose that this is called the " South " River 
because it runs " north " on the same principle as that given by Pat 
concerning the different Irish jaunting cars, on one kind of which the 
passengers sit back to back with their feet over the wheels, and the 
other face to face with their feet inside the car. " Oh, I dunno at 
all, but I suppose they call it an outsyde kyar becase the whales is 
insyde, and it s an insyde kyar becase the whales is outsyde." 

Mr. Holditch keeps the hotel, the " Ontario Height of Land 
House," and intends putting up an observation platform in Moose 
Park, from where eight lakes can be seen in a circle of five miles. 
The Dunbars Falls of the river are worthy a visit, being 150 feet 
high. The river itself is from 150 to 200 feet in width, and a good 
canoeing stream. It is 24 miles paddle to Lake Nipissing, during 
which some rapids, but not very fast, are passed. The speckled trout 
in the river are the largest and most plentiful anywhere this side of 
Nepigon, and in the hunting season moose aae met as well as large 
numbers of the red deer. It will be noticed that for some little time 
the appearance of the country has changed and the land im 
proved. All through this latter part of the railway, immigration is 
beginning, and fine fertile farms with soil as good and opportunities 
better than the frontier farms of thirty years ago, will here be carved 
out of the forest. A certain market to the lumberman, and now 
easy access to the front country will settle up the better parts of this 
district. 

t 

Barretts (92 miles), is the centre of a large and thriving settle 
ment, and another unexcelled centre for brook trout fishing and for 
moose and deer hunting. 

Commando, is fifteen miles west by road from here, or can also be 
most conveniently reached by the regular stages running daily from 
Maganetewan (see page 154). This section has been deservedly 
awarded the highest renown for the record of its sport. Being some 
what remote, but now brought into more convenient access, the banks 



158 TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

of the streams and of the lakes are more completely in the state of 
nature than elsewhere, and for miles unbroken forest hems in the 
view. Following up the Great Nipissing Colonization road from 
Maganetewan, about halfway is 

Meganoma. [We have struck the trail]. Russell & Archer s hotel 
here is absolutely first-class, kept by good caterers and ardent sports 
men. This is the centre for Eagle Lake, Many Island, Spring and 
Pickerel Lakes, and Distress River, all celebrated fishing and 
hunting spots and comprised in what is known as the Commanda 
District. 

Rye is also a good centre. The stages stop for dinner at Wm. 
Park s hotel. At Commanda itself Carr s Temperance Hotel and 
Fitzgerald s are good stopping places. From here the Commanda 
River can be followed through Commanda Lake and Restoul Lake to 
Chaudiere Falls, near the shores of Lake Nipissing, than which no 
more pleasant or more sporting route exists. As all this neighbour 
hood is comparatively uninhabited, it is not advisable to attempt it 
without guides. 

After Powasing (95 miles) a good spot for trout on the Jenesse 
Creek, we arrive at 

Lake Nipissing. 

Callender (108 miles), on South East bay, gives the first glimpse of 
the waters, being situated on a hill side sloping up from the bay. At 
present there about forty houses and three country hotels. Here the 
steamers touch for various parts of the lake. At the entrance to the 
bay is a very numerous group of islands, almost all of which have 
been taken up by residents of Hamilton. 

La Vase (IT 2 miles from Gravenhurst and 226 from Toronto) is 
the connecting point with the Canadian Pacific Railway and the all- 
rail route to Manitoba and the North-West. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 159 



The Earliest Route to the North-West 

The country we have now arrived at would at first thought seem to 
have been newly discovered, and to be now for the first time opened 
to the transport of the civilized traveller. Yet long before the 
advancing European colonist had penetrated to the shores of the 
Niagara, this route, up the Ottawa valley and along the shores of 
Lake Nipissing the very line of the newly constructed Canadian 
Pacific Railway had been traversed by many traders and travellers, 
and was their highway between Montreal and the Red River 
Country. 

As we have been travelling North, crossing the various East and 
West routes, and seemingly passing from the older and front coun 
tries to the newer and more remote districts, we have really been 
meeting them in the reverse order of their development. When the 
whites first commenced to trade with the interior of the continent by 
the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, the first route that was opened up by 
them was this by Lake Nipissing. Next came the portage by the 
Humber, or Toronto River, and Lake Simcoe ; and lastly, that by 
the Niagara. 

It was not until 1669 that Pre Gallinee, canoeing around the 
western shores of Lake Ontario, says : " We found a river, one-eighth 
of a league broad, and extremely rapid, forming the outlet of Lake 
Erie, and emptying into Lake Ontario. The depth of the river is 
at this place extraordinary, for, on sounding close by the shore, we 
found fifteen or sixteen fathoms of water. This outlet is forty leagues 
long, and has, from ten to twelve leagues above Lake Ontario, one 

of the finest cataracts in the world ; for all the Indians of whom I 

have enquired about it say that the river falls at that place from a 

rock higher than the tallest pines that is, about two hundred feet." 

Then was the Niagara River first met by the whites ; and not until 



160 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

1678 did Father Hennepin, the first European to see those Falls, 
stand by the cataract of Niagara. 

Yet sixty-three years before this, in 1615, before even the Pilgrim 
Fathers had landed on the shores of America, Champlain, the 
French Governor of Quebec, had advanced with a party of armed 
men and passed up the Ottawa to Lake Nipissing. He found the 
shores occupied by between 700 and 800 Indians, and after enjoying 
its " abundance of game," and describing its northern side as being 
" very pleasant, with fine meadows for the grazing of cattle, and 
many little streams discharging into the lake," he passed down the 
French River to the Lake of the Hurons. 

Following him came the Coureurs-des-bois, the voyageurs and trap 
pers of the Canadian " North-West" and " X. Y." fur companies, 
carrying over the rocky portages all the stores for themselves and 
the Hudson s Bay Company, at Fort William, and the packs of furs 
which sought this, for nearly a century the main route between the 
North-West and Tide-water. Early travellers have described its dan 
gers and difficulties, and the many crosses erected along the route 
memorials of brave men who had lost their lives in battling with the 
turbulent rapids of the stream, or with the many foes along its banks, 
of whom stories of valour, or of pathos and self-sacrifice, such as that 
of the gallant Cadieux, " voyageur, poete et guerrier," float down 
in history : 

" Seul en ces bois, que j ai eu de soucis ! 

Pensant toujours a mes si chers amis, 

Je demandais : Helas ! sont-ils noyes? 

Les Iroquois les auraient-ils tues ? 

E. GAGNON, Chansons Fopulaires du Canada. 

Along the shores, the summer tourist can in fancy picture the pass 
ing lines of heavy-laden canoes, and hear once more the gay-hearted 
voyageurs singing out their cheerful French chansons, while keeping 
time with dripping paddle to the stirring tune. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 160a 



The Highlands of Ontario. 

ALGONKIN PARK. 

i 

It will have been noted that the heights above the sea level have 
been steadily increasing as the traveller has come north from Toronto, 
and on reference to the " Bird s Eye" map at the beginning of this 
guide, it will be at once seen that the District we are now in is the 
summit ridge of the great watershed of the Peninsula. 

The Mattawa, Pettewawa, Bonnechere and Madawaska rivers will 
all be seen to run easterly, emptying their waters into the great Ottawa, 
and on the other side running to the west are the river chains whose 
details have just been described ; the Muskosh, Muskoka, Magane- 
tewan, Seguin and French rivers falling into the waters of the Georgian 
Bay. 

A happy thought has been conceived by the Government of the 
Province of Ontario, the details of which are set out in a publication 
by Mr. Kirkwood, of the Crown Lands Department. It is proposed 
that the centre of this territory shall be set aside as a " Forest reserve" 
principally for the preservation and maintenance of the natural forest, 
and of protecting the headwaters of the rivers, and in which it shall 
be unlawful for any person to enter and cut timber for any private use, 
or to disturb or destroy the fur-bearing animals, but in whose waters, 
under stated restrictions, the gentle art of angling may be indulged in. 

Such reservations wherein the destruction of the native animals of 
the wilds shall be stayed, and opportunity given in future years for 
the continued study of theis habits instead of causing their races to 
become extinct, have been intelligently adopted in other parts of this 
continent and the National Parks at Mackinac, and the Yellowstone 
in the United States, and at Banff in the Rocky Mountain recesses 
of our own Canadian North-West, are tributes to the desire to retain 



1606 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

some of the forms of nature in their primeval state and to the hu 
manitarian tendencies of this century. 

The Government will be warmly applauded for this project, and no 
better place could be chosen than this, wherein now the moose, 
cariboo and red deer wander in freedom, and the passing canoeist 
sees on the banks as he passes along the quiet stream the traces of 
the work of the mink, beaver, the otter and other fur-bearing animals, 
the contemplation of whose native haunts adds so greatly to the 
pleasure of a jaunt into the forest wilds. 

So close do the waters here approach that the headwaters of the 
Muskoka and of the Madawaska are little over half a mile apart and 
each is 1,405 feet above the sea. 

In the centre of the district, the Park of about 28 miles square, 
has been selected, containing about 330,000 acres of land and 60,000 
acres of water. 

The speckled trout abound throughout this section, and the con 
tinuance of good fishing may be secured under the control of those 
whose duty it would be to preserve the game and improve the forest 
by cutting out the mature timber for the advantage of what is retained, 
and the obtaining of revenue for the maintenance of the Park. 

The name has been suggested as being a method of preserving the 
memory of the great Algonquin-Huron race of Indians, whose history 
is touched upon at page 165. 

The Northern and Pacific Junction Railway. 

The northern end of this railway was completed in the autumn of 
1886, and by means of the night express trains, with sleeping cars, 
leaving Toronto in the evenings, the hitherto long distant sporting 
grounds are reached early the next morning. In addition to the 
information given in the preceding pages, the following may be 
added : 

Sundridgc. (See page 156). The best trout fishing in Stony Lake 
will be found at The Inlet, at the north-east end, near the mouth of 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 160c 

the small river which here enters it. Small trout can be caught in 
plenty for i^ miles up the river, but the largest up to 3lbs. are 
caught in the lake itself. The best points are found by following the 
current of the river as it strikes into the water of the lake. Black 
Creek, a short distance away, has also good trout. 

South River. (See page 156). The hotel accommodation has 
been added too. The Queen s is close to the station. Jacob Mars, a 
celebrated trapper, and H. B. Chapman, " chief guide," are referred 
to for hotel and sporting accommodation. 

The sport and fishing to be found by following down the stream 
towards Lake Nipissing is even better when going up towards its 
head. 

A paddle of 7 miles up the river, which is open and clear, when 
logs are not being run, brings the canoe to 

LAKE COUCHI. 

In this lake, about 2 miles long by y% mile wide, is excellent fly 
fishing for speckled trout, and around the shores are good camping 
places. Forest Lake post-office is on the shores of the Lake 
and Mr. P. McDermett, the post master is an excellent refer 
ence. At the upper end the river falls into the lake with a strong 
rapid, around this a somewhat difficult portage of a ^ mile must be 
made. Then follows a fishing reach of 4 miles where the " beauties 
are to be found with the seductive fly. A morning s work with 2 rods 
of " Rolph s party," in 1886, showed 21 trout all from 14 to 17^ 
inches in length. The fish in this river are the true speckled trout, 
game as steel and gorgeous in their colouring, the red marks shining 
on their glistening sides like glittering rubies gleam. 

The shores of the river are lined with heavy alder bush and im 
practicable of approach. The sport must be all sought from the 
canoe. By further portages, other reaches can be attained. This 
section is only for the enthusiastic angler who is willing to camp out 
and to work hard before attaining his reward, like one who, coming 



IQOd THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

back to camp, his clothes, from fierce struggling at the portages, hang 
ing about him in tattered shreds, with tangled hair and perspiring 
brow, threw first his string of speckled trophies and then himself upon 
the ground, exclaiming, " well, I have had a happy day. To land such 
fish was worth it all ! " 

There are a number of other small lakes in the vicinity. The 
land rolls in grand heights, clad with fine groups of hardwood trees 
and magnificent black and white birch. Game abounds, and beaver, 
otter, martin and mink are to be seen along the river, It is greatly 
to be hoped that the game laws will be strictly observed, so that 
legitimate sport, which will bring so much profit to the district, will 
be maintained. 

Callandar. (See page 158). This is a good headquarters from 
which, by the new train service of the N. and P. J. R. R., to reach 
South River, Trout Creek and Powasin, going out in morning and 
returning in evening. Wm. Windsor and Nicholas Wessels are 
referred to for hotel and sporting requirements. 

A small portage railway of five miles in length, by which logs are 
taken from Lake Nipissing, connects from here to Lake Nasbonsing. 
The cars cross several times in the day. In the lake are plenty of 
black and silver bass, maskinonge, pickerel and white fish. From 
here the waters descend towards the Ottawa by the Kai-buskong river 
and thence by the Mattawan. 

Nipissing Junction. This station, formerly called La Vase, is wher e 
the Railway crosses the La Vase river at a point about 2 miles from 
its entry into Lake Nipissing : Sheppard s Hotel is recommended. 
The river is navigable for canoes throughout with the exception of a 
few portages and with the several streams, tributaries to it, makes a 

good fishing ground. 

Bass, pickerel, maskinonge are the principal catch, affording good 

trolling with butterfly or minnow troll. Trout Lake is distant 2 miles 
and Turtle Lake 9 miles from here. 



THE NOETHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 160e 

North Bay (116^2 miles from Gravenhurst and 227 miles from 
Toronto). This is the point of junction with the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, and the present terminus of the Northern and Pacific Junc 
tion Railway until it shall have been extended further north towards 
Lake Temiscamingue, and the great lumbering district of the Upper 
Ottawa. 

The Town is situated on the shores of Lake Nipissing and good ac 
commodation for sportsmen will be found at Pacific Hotel, Jno. Bourke, 
highly recommended, and The Mackay House, Fee & Mackay, at both 
of which places waggons, guides, and sporting equipment can be ob 
tained. There is a good sandy beach in the bay favourable for bathing. 

Here the main line trains of the Canadian Pacific RR. are taken 
either to Winnipeg and the Far West, or to Ottawa and Montreal. 

This is a very good centre from which to visit the surrounding lake 
country and to explore the river systems emptying into the great 
lake. 

Lake Mpissing. 

This is the largest of the interior waters of this marvellous lake dis 
trict through which we have been passing. It is 80 miles long and 
varies from 20 to 40 miles in width. In altitude above the sea it does 
not occupy so high a point as the District further south, but into its 
waters from all sides pours a vast network of tributary rivers. 

The waters are shallow on the North but deep on the East and 
South shores, and abound with bass, pickerel, and whitefish; and huge 
sturgeon are to be caught. 

Coasting around the North shore there are met in succession the 
Duchesnay, Muskrat, Little Sturgeon, and Veuve Rivers, and at 23 miles 
west the Great Sturgeon, the largest river falling in from the North. 
The western end of the lake foliates into several deep arms into which 
fall several small streams and from the largest of these commences 
the French River, by which the waters of the Lake fall to the 



160/ THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Georgian Bay. The islands are not very numerous except at the 
mouth of South East Bay ; Manitou Island is at the north west end, 
Goose Island about the centre, and Iron Island away to the west. 

In exploring this district and particularly when hunting in the 
shooting season, when red deer and moose are plentiful, it is advis 
able to have guides, and among these the following names are favour 
ably known, M. H. Ritchie, Jno. McGillis, J. M. Sheppard, Isaac 
Ritchie and Jno. Halliday ; address all to Nipissing Junction. 

All around here will be found relics of the French tongue, the lan 
guage of the first white adventurers who made their way through the 
woods and along the rivers, but now the translating English turns the 
original word into the newer language and the association of the names 
of voyageurs, of high dignitaries, or valiant soldiers are merged into 
mere landmarks telling off the distances for trie passing wanderer. 

To the north-west of the lake lies the watershed of the Ottawa 
district, and by a good portage road of but 2)^ miles from North 
Bav the canoe can be launched in 

9 

TROUT LAKE. 

This lake, 9 miles long, by an average of 3 wide, is 200 feet above 
the level of Lake Nipissing. Passing through this, and then, by the 
increasing waters of the Mattawan River, with a few portages at some 
rapids, and with good paddling where it widens out into Turtle and 
Talon lakes, the voyageur can float his canoe down the great Ottawa 
and then by the Rideau Canal to Kingston on Lake Ontario, making 
a magnificent and adventurous tour, such as was enjoyed in 1886 by 
a detachment from the Canoe Club of Toronto. In the early year 
the rivers may be somewhat impeded by the timbermen " driving " 
their logs, but after the ist August, they will, as a rule, be found 
clear. 

Trout Lake is plentifully sprinkled with islands, and a number of 
deep bays. The water is of peculiar purity, and well stocked with 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. IQQg 

fish. Mr. R. B. Jessup, whose house is at the head of the lake, keeps 
a supply of boats. 

Lake Rosseau to Parry Sound. 

The Muskoka and Nipissing Navigation Company have added a 
splendid steel steamer to their fleet on the larger inland lakes, and 
have also added their two fine passenger steamers upon the "Inside 
Route" between Parry Sound and Penetanguishene. (See page 163.) 
Having thus combined the two interests, there is now offered an ex 
ceptionally interesting round trip route, going one way via the Mus 
koka lakes and returning via the Parry Island Archipelago. TUt 
government road has been well built and new stages are put on 
between Port Cockburn, Port Rosseau and Parry Sound, so that this 
connecting link has become a pleasant drive through the varied 
scenery of the little inner lakes and the rough rugged granite cliffs. 

Star Lake House, kept by Mr. W. F. Thomson, is a capital resting 
place, on the shores of Star Lake, five miles from Port Cockburn, 
and eight from Rosseau, where access is gained to the canoe route 
of the Segnin Chain (p. 156). A little steam yacht makes pleasant 
jaunts, and the fishing of the connecting lakes, having been little dis 
turbed, is reported excellent. 

McKellar on the Seguin chain (see page 156) is now supplied with 
good hotel accomodation " The Armstrong House" a temperance 
hotel of which the resident physician Dr. B. M. Waltin is proprietor, 
is well situated. A small steam yacht is available for picnic parties 
on the many interlacing lakes ; stages run daily from Parry Sound 
(16 miles) and from Ah Mic Harbour (16 miles), making thus a com 
plete connection through this middle lake district from Burtis Palls 
and the inland stations on the railway (page 154). As the ac- 
comodations improve on these inner lakes they will become increas 
ingly sought by families in search of out door summer recreation. 



160/i THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Parry Sound to French River. 

Still another extension northwards has been effected by bi-weekly 
steamer from Parry Sound skirting through the island groups which 
continue to fringe the shores of the Georgian bay. This forms a 
great facility for reaching the lower waters of the Moon River, or 
forms a pleasant two day s trip for the summer sojourners at Parry 
Sound. 

Byng Inlet and French River and Collins Inlet are regular calling 
points of the steamer, so that new combinations for round trips 
^re opened in connection with those elsewhere described. 

French River Canoe Route to Lake Xi pissing. 

There are four mouths by which the French River opens into the 
Georgian Bay. On the second of these lies the village of French 
River, at which the steamer from Parry Sound lands ; or should the 
canoeist have made his way from that place by paddle and sail 
through the myriads of islands sprinkled along the shore, he can 
easily find the proper entrance by watching the smoke rising from 
the great sawmills near the village. 

For a summer outing in the modern sailing canoe there is no more 
enjoyable trip than this through the islands from Parry Sound, then 
up the French River to Lake Nipissing, and thence return by rail 
from North Bay to Toronto. It is better to go in this direction ; for 
in running down stream on unmarked rivers such as this there is 
danger of running into rapids too boisterous to be safely overcome. 

The ships, loading with lumber, lie in the first reach of the river, 
with deep water sheer up to the banks. 

Two miles above the village is the first rapid, which is easily passed 
by an excellent tram road portage of a quarter of a mile. Now 
begins the real navigation. A map published in 1847 by the Geo 
logical Survey of Canada is the best extant, and so minute is it that 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 160i 

the correct route can, by clear heads, be made out without a guide ; 
while failing such assistance the river would prove a troublesome 
maze. 

Its formation is peculiar. At intervals there would seem to be dykes 
or barriers, which cross its course and back up the waters ; between 
these the river will divide itself up into various channels, coursing 
through the several parallel depressions, the water moving slowly, 
and in some places seeming entirely at rest, and not re-uniting for 
sometimes as much as twenty miles. The changes of direction are 
frequent and abrupt, sometimes appearing almost like cross-roads. 
There are no finger-posts to point out the way, yet the selection of 
the wrong opening will lead, to no danger, but only to the necessity 
of retracing the steps when the end of the false bay has been reached. 
The rocks are all merciless, forbidding granite, though graced with 
many kinds of trailing mosses and a superabundant supply of huge 
blueberries ; but of animal life there is an almost absolute dearth. 
This area, between the south-west end of Lake Nipissing and the 
Georgian Bay, is a wilderness of water channels, separated by ribs 
of rock. It is a literal gridiron, through which pass the waters of 
the watershed ; yet it has its beauties to the eye, and a sense of 
novelty and excitement that, combined with its safety, and its clear 
un-incumbered river reaches make it a most available canoe route. 

At the second fork a lake is formed, about five miles in length, 
into the north end of which enters the Wanipitae River. Now 
follows a long stretch of clear paddling for twenty miles, to Conte s 
Village, a small collection of Indian houses, where all the people 
talk French. For five miles there are a series of small rapids, some 
of which can be towed up, and others poled up, or else passed by 
short carrying places, the entrances to which are clearly defined. 
Next are the Chaudiere Rapids, the most picturesque piece of water 
on the route, boiling through rocks fifty feet high on either hand. 
Coming up the river an old log house will be noticed on the left 
bank, behind which is an old Indian burying-ground One hundred 



100J THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

yards of swift water is worked up to the entrance of a bay which 
opens to the right ; here land at the foot of a splendid portage of 
about five hundred yards over smooth rock, thus cutting off a rapid 
of one and a-half miles long. In the ledges here will be seen the 
pot-holes," marked on the supremely accurate map geological 
formations whose raison d etre still forms a source of discussion for 
scientists. Ten miles open paddling brings to the open lake and 

J. B. Smith s sawmill. 

The river distance from the lake is seventy-five miles, and 
days of easy but steady work may be fairly counted as the time to 
be allotted. Thence coast around the lake to the railway junction 
at North Bay, and so back again to the South. 







THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



161 



A la Claire Fontaine. 

From Chansons Populaires du Canada. MORGAN, QUEBEC. 



Andantino. 






A la clai - re fon - tai - ne M en al - lant 




^S=*=l 

3z ui 






pro- me- ner, J ai trou-ve 1 eau si bel - le Que je me suis bai - gne", 





Lui ya longtemps que je t ai- me, Ja - mais je ne t ou - blie- rai. 



J ai trouvd 1 eau si belle, 
Que je m y suis baigne* ; 
Sous les feuilles d un chene 
Je me suis fait sdcher. 
Lui ya longtemps, etc. 

Sous les feuilles d un chene 
Je me suis fait se cher ; 
Sur la plus haute branche 
Le rossignol chantait. 
Lui ya longtemps, etc. 

Sur la plus haute branche 
Le rossignol chantait, 
Chante, rossignol, chante, 
Toi qui as le coeur gai. 
Lui ya longtemps, etc. 

Chante, rossignol, chante, 
Toi qui as le cceur gai, 
Tu as le coeur a rire, 
Moi je 1 ai-t-a-pleurer. 

Lui ya longtemps, etc. 
K 



Tu as ie coeur a rire, 
Moi je l ai-t-a pleurer, 
J ai perdu ma maitresse 
Sans 1 avoir me rite . 

Lui ya longtemps, etc. 

J ai perdu ma maitresse 
Sans 1 avoir me rite , 
Pour un bouquet de roses 
Que je lui refusai. 

Lui ya longtemps, etc. 

Pour un bouquet de roses 
Que je lui refusai. 
Je voudrais que la rose 
Fut encore au rosier, 

Lui ya longtemps, etc. 

Je voudrais que la rose 
Fut encore au rosier, 
Et inoi et ma maitresse 
Dans les meme amitids. 
Lui ya longtemps, etc. 



162 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA . 



The Parry Island Archipelago. 

The Penetanguishene branch, after leaving Allandale, follows the 
curve of the hills to the east of the Nottawasaga Valley. The river 
is filled with the accumulations of the debris of the freshets of hun 
dreds of years, so that large portions of the valley are completely 
flooded in the early spring. Little by little it is being reclaimed ; 
but vast acres of forest still occupy the bottom banks ; and to the 
left of the train a view is had over their waving tops, surging like a 
green ocean with the inequalities of the surface. 

Penetanguishene (102 miles from Toronto) is one of the historic 
spots of Canada, but in the impatient haste of these modern days it 
has had to allow its name to be curtailed to " Penetang." The town 
lies at the head of a deep inlet on the south-east shore of the Georgian 
Bay, which early attracted attention as a safe and commodious har 
bour. The importance of the naval command of the Upper Great 
Lakes led the British Government, in 1818, to fix upon a site near 
the mouth of the bay for the establishment of a dockyard. A war- 
sloop, the Midas, was here stationed for some years ; but the idea 
of making a naval centre was shortly after abandoned. [The position 
has since been occupied by a Juvenile Reformatory, maintained by 
the Canadian Government]. The British Government had induced 
a number of pensioners to occupy lands in the vicinity which formed 
part of the military reservation the records of the names of many 
of whom are to be found in the old Military Church, and under the 
waters of the bay may still be seen, on calm days, the sunken hulls 
of the old gunboats of which they formed the crews. 

The town, situated 2^2 miles from the Reformatory, developed a 
considerable trade in furs, large quantities of which were brought by 
Indians and Half-breeds from the almost unbroken forests and count 
less lakes to the North-East, which afforded an unrivalled hunting 
ground. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 163 

Some families of French and English Half-breeds and of French 
Canadians, who, on the giving up of Drummond Island, Lake Huron, 
to the Americans, in 1828, retained their British allegiance, were 
granted lands in the vicinity. In 1841 a number of their compatriots 
from Lower Canada joined them, forming what is now known as the 
French Settlement. In 1880 the census reports the French-speaking 
population of the County of Simcoe as 3,669, almost all of whom 
live within a few miles of Penetanguishene ; and in the Roman 
Catholic churches the services are still rendered in the French lan 
guage. 

Pleasant excursions can be made from here to Midland City, Mouth 
of the Severn, Parry Sound, etc. The Clarkson House, on a height 
overlooking the bay, is recommended. 

THE ARCHIPELAGO. 

There are two lines of steamers which ply through these islands on 
the route to Parry Sound. The Great Northern Transit Company, from 
Collingwood, and the Parry Sound Company, from Penetang. Both 
lines of steamers pass through this maze of islands. Ten thousand 
have been counted about here in the nautical survey of the Georgian 
Bay, and the whole shore is fringed with them, of all sizes, from mere 
dots to hundreds of acres, with high towering cliff-like centres. 
Through the Inside Channel of these the steamers wind their way. 
One open spot only exists, Moose Point, where the lake has open 
sweep, but except this, all else is through channels, some so narrow 
as to almost touch the steamers sides. Many of the Islands are oc 
cupied with summer-houses, and there is no doubt that ere long 
there will be as great a population as now takes its summer outings 
on the inland Lakes of Muskoka. 

PARRY SOUND. 

This large and flourishing town is beautifully situated at the mouth 
of the Seguin River, whose waterfalls are utilized for its gigantic 
sawmills, and upon a deep recessed harbour, completely sheltered 
from the open water. From it the summer can be spent either in ex- 



164 



THE bOBTHEItN LAKES OF CANADA 



ploring, by means of the several steam launches, the windings up the 
Archipelago, or striking inland, take the canoe trips up the interior. 
Good fishing abounds of the same character as inland, except that 
some extra-sized bass, old lake stagers, are occasionally captured. 

T/ie BelvidereHotel ($1.50) is opened only in the summer season, 
being specially intended for tourists. Its situation upon a high hill 
side, facing the- most beautiful view, has been excellently selected. 
The Seguin House, R. B. Armstrong, and Albion House, Henry Jukes 







THE THREE SISTEKS. 



(both $1.00), are favourably mentioned. There are several churches, 
some good stores, a local weekly paper, and telegraph communica 
tion. It is just twelve hours run, half boat and half rail, between 
Toronto and Parry Sound. Harvie s stage line runs regularly between 
here and Port Cockburn, Lake Joseph (24 miles). It is a good road, 
and passes along an almost consecutive line of pretty lakes. Round 
trip tickets, going one way and coming back the other, can be 
obtained, including both the Lakes of Muskoka and the Parry Island 
Archipelago. 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 165 



The Hurons and French in the Early Days. 

BY 

MR. JAS. BAIN, JR., PUBLIC LIBRARIAN, TORONTO. 

The early history of the existing town of Penetanguishene only 
carries us back to the beginning of this century, but the sur 
rounding district recalls the history of a nation whose tragic fate was 
the theme of innumerable pens, and which disappeared altogether 
from the face of the country in the middle of the seventeenth cen 
tury. At a time when the infant European settlements were strug 
gling for bare existence in Salem, Fort Orange, Jamestown, and 
St. Augustine, French priests and traders, had worked their way 
up the turbulent rivers and through the trackless forests to this 
neighbourhood, and had organized an extensive mission and buiU 
a fort and church, the ruins of which exist to this day. 

The Hurons, a branch of the great Huron-Iroquois family, had 
early separated themselves from their kindred, who were afterwards 
known as the Iroquois, or Five Nations, dwelling in what is now 
New York State, A bitter feud had arisen between them, and 
the warfare was conducted with all the cruelty and vindictiveness 
to be expected from the most ferocious Indians of this continent. 
The establishment of a fort at Quebec, in 1608, at once drew 
large numbers of the Hurons, to trade their furs for French goods. 
Their yearly visits attracted the attention of Champlain, the Gover 
nor of the new French possessions, who, as did Cartier when 
he named the first village above tide-water La Chine, still dreamt 
of reaching China and the golden East, and hoped to be able, with 
the Hurons assistance, to gain the road to the Eastern seas. In 
1615 he made his second attempt to reach their country, ascended 
the Ottawa River, crossing Lake Nipissing, and descending the river 
of that name, now called the French River, he gazed for the first 
time upon the great fresh- water sea of the Hurons, 



166 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Passing, in his canoe, along the eastern side of the Georgian Bay, 
threading his path amid the countless islands which line its shores, 
he finally landed at Thunder Bay, a few miles west of Penetangui- 
shene. He was immediately taken to a town in the vicinity, called 
Carhagoulhia, where he was welcomed by Father Le Caron, who had 
preceded him. On the iyth of August he reached the chief town, 
Cahiagu^ (near Coldwater). 

The unfortunate decision which now led Champlain to join the 
Hurons in an attack upon the Iroquois, near Onondaga, was the 
immediate cause of the long and bitter warfare which almost resulted 
in driving the French from Canada. The expedition took its way by 
Balsam Lake, the Trent River, and the Bay of Quint6, thence across 
Lake Ontario. Having failed to carry the Indian fortifications in 
spite of the firearms of their French allies, they retreated to their 
homes. Champlain returned to Quebec in the following spring, 
after spending the winter in excursions through the Huron country. 
The number of towns and villages, he reported, was 32, and the 
population about 20,000 ; but a later traveller fixed it more ac 
curately at 30,000. Well may Parkman say that " here, within an 
area of sixty or seventy miles, was the seat of one of the most 
remarkable savage communities of this continent." The entire 
population seems to have been confined to the country lying between 
the Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe, with its northern extension, 
Lake Couchiching. 

On the return of Champlain to Quebec, reinforcements were sent 
to the Mission ; and as the annual Relations of the Jesuit Fathers 
were published in Paris, detailing the strange discoveries and painful 
labours of those who had ventured their lives, a fervent missionary 
spirit arose which was profitable to the Mission both in money and 
men. In 1639, the Jesuits, finding it imperative to establish some 
fixed headquarters, chose a spot on the banks of the River Wye, 
near where it empties into Matchedash Bay. Here they built a fort 
and church, named it Ste. Marie, manning the one with soldiers to 
the number of thirty, and adorning the other with the ecclesiastical 
ornaments which they had succeeded in transporting over the long 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 167 

reaches and weary portages of the Ottawa and Nipissing Rivers. 
The fort, built partly of stone, partly of wood, was enclosed within 
a palisaded fortification and surrounded by a moat. Within its gates, 
charity and medicines were dispensed to the poor and suffering from 
the surrounding Indian towns, and every means were adopted to lead 
the savage to the service of the church. 

The Iroquois saw with intense hatred this settlement of white men 
to their north, and resolved to make a powerful effort to reduce the 
Hurons to subjection and to exterminate the French. A temporary 
peace which had been concluded between themselves and the French 
and their Indian allies was broken, and a series of desperate on 
slaughts was made upon the French settlements along the St. Law 
rence, until almost the entire population was driven into the isolated 
forts for protection from the human wolves. Turning their attention 
next to the Hurons, a numerous party crossed Lake Ontario, and 
ascending the Humber River to its head wafers, soon reached by 
bush paths their frontier town, at the foot of a range of hills, about 
twenty miles to the south-east of Penetanguishene, known as Tean- 
austaye or St. Joseph. The Hurons were caught unprepared ; in a 
short time the town was in ashes and the inhabitants massacred, 
with the exception of 700 who were carried off prisoners. Father 
Daniel, the priest in charge, was cut to pieces in front of his own 
church. After destroying in a similar manner another small town in 
the vicinity, the Iroquois returned home in triumph. In 1649, eight 
months after, a larger party, principally composed of Senecas and 
Mohawks, said to number about 1,000, again crossed Lake Ontario, 
and leisurely hunting till they drew near to the Hurons, burst upon 
the settlements like a whirlwind, burning the towns and destroying the 
inhabitants, until the cowed remnant of the Hurons, clustered round 
the Fort of St. Marie, resolved to fly from their own country and take 
refuge in some of the islands to the north. The Jesuits had no 
option if their flock fled they must accompany them, and accordingly 
the torch was applied to the buildings, and the result of years of labour 
was soon a mass of broken walls and heaps of ashes. Part of the 
stonework was standing about six feet above the ground as late as 



368 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

1870, but has since been destroyed, and the mounds and hollows are 
are all that left of one of the earliest buildings of this continent. 

A memorial church is being erected in Penetanguishene, to com 
memorate the martyrdom of the priests, Breboeuf and Lallemant, who 
fell victims to the ferocious cruelty of the Iroquois. The first resting 
place of the unfortunate Hurons was the Christian Island, lying ten 
miles to the North West, where the Jesuits once more erected a fort, of 
which the walls are still standing ; but their spirit was broken, and har- 
rassed again by the Iroquois, they scattered over the islands still further 
to the north, a small remnant alone remaining with the Jesuit fathers, 
and finally, when the surviving French left the country, accompanied 
them to Lower Canada, where in the little village of Lorrette, close 
by Quebec, their descendants dwell to this day. The towns of the 
Hurons were composed of long bark-covered houses, accommo 
dating numerous families, easily constructed and as easily destroyed. 
Nothing was permau^t, and the forests speedily overran their sites. 
With the one exception of Ste. Marie built by the French, we are 
dependent on the heaps of ashes, stone implements and burnt corn 
turned up by the settlers, for the identification of the dwelling places 
of a populous nation who passed away two centuries ago, leaving the 
country empty and desolate for almost an hundred yeors. 



The Georgian Bay. 

Reverting again to Allandale (page 81), the Collingwood Branch 
leads north-westerly over the level known as the " Pine Plains," once 
covered with stately pines, but now being rapidly changed to broad 
acres of grain-laden fields and meadow pastures. Passing Angus and 
crossing the Mad and Nottawasaga Rivers, a reminiscence of the 
olden days is preserved in the name of Batteaux, where the voyageurs 
used to embark their laden canoes, and then we reach the lake. 

Collingwood. Forty years ago the shores were lined with forest, and 
the Hen and Chickens harbour was but the resort of the Indians, or 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 169 

the home of the wild fowl. Now a stirring town of 5,000 inhabitants 
occupies the spot. Sawmills and huge grain elevators meet the eye, 
and busy steamers connecting with all the upper lakes lie at the docks. 
There is good brook trout fishing in the neighbourhood, and plea 
sant excursions can be made to the Caves, in whose recesses the ice 
of winter lingers the summer through, or to the Nottawasaga Beach, 
where for miles an excellent drive can be enjoyed on the firm hard 
sands around the curving shore of the bay. Near the mouth of the 
river lies the skeleton hulk of an old British gunboat, driven hard 
upon the shore, and behind which, in the sand banks, have been found 
some of the round shot fired at it by the pursuers when it sought 
shelter from the foe. 

Collins "Grand Central Hotel," and Rowland s "Globe Hotel," 
can be recommended as excellent headquarters. (See adv.} 

Leaving Collingwood by the Lake Superior or the Georgian Bay Line 
steamers, the Blue Mountains rise high above the town, and fringe 
the southern shores of the Georgian Bay. This is the same elevation 
which, running south-easterly across the peninsula, is successively 
known sixty miles inland, as the Caledon Mountains, at Burlington 
Bay as " The Mountain " and terminates in the "Niagara Escarp- 
ment, ; on the banks of the Niagara River. The Christian Islands lie 
out to the right, another Nottawasaga Island, with revolving light 
house, nearer to the shore. 

Meaford lies at the foot of a bay under the protection of the pro 
montory of Cape Rich. A rich agricultural country lies at the back, 
drained by the Bighead and Beaver Rivers, in whose upper reaches 
good sport is still to be had in speckled trout. Pretty drives up 
there, and the Cuckoo Valley, and good boating and bathing on the 
shores of the bay make the little village a pleasant summer resort. 
Mrs. Paul s hotel has long been a favourite with city visitors, and 
Noble s hotel is also recommended. The district is celebrated for 
its fruit, particularly plums, which grow to a size and luxuriance not 
approached in any other part of Ontario. It is a strange fact, too, that 
under the shelter of the lofty headlands peaches and grapes grow 
freely in the open air. 



170 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Owen Sound, the next calling place, is around Cape Rich, and at 
the head of a deeply-recessed bay. It is the terminus in this direc 
tion of the Owen Sound division of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
which connects with Toronto, and is the starting point of their line 
of swift steel steamships plying between here and Port Arthur. 

Ingles and Engenia Falls, and the river Sydenham, are picturesquely 
situated in the deep rock-bound valley. The town is fast advancing 
in importance, and is the centre of an improving trade. 

From here the steamers take the direct course up the bay. Lonely 
Island marks almost half the way, and in the morning the northern 
shores, with the lofty granite cliffs of the La Cloche Mountains come 
into view. At their foot lies the sheltered channel on which is Kil- 
larney, a fishing village of much fish importance, originally called, in 
the Indian tongue, She-ba-wa-na-ning (here is a channel). It has been 
modernized in name, but the beauty of its surroundings still remains 
the same. 



The Great North JUanitoulin Channel. 

From here begins the wonderously beautiful trip of the Great 
North Channel in behind the warding shelter of the Great Manitoulin 
Island. The steamers of the Great Northern Transit Company are 
really excellent models of what excursion and safe lake-going steamers 
should be. Carrying Her Majesty s mails, they call from little hamlet to 
hamlet along the Island shores, running into out-of-the-way recesses^ 
and passing backwards and forwards to cross the North Channel in 
doing their " Local " business on a way that is entirely different to 
that of the direct routes of the " Through " steamers. The searchers 
for the novelties of this route are fast increasing in numbers, and its 
and the steamers good name becoming proverbial. 

A correspondent in the Forest and Stream thus describes the scene : 
" Islands succeed islands in an unbroken continuity hour after hour 
as we glide on ; islands of every conceivable size and shape, more 
numerous than the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence many times 



THE NORTHERN LAKEb OF CANADA 



171 



multiplied ; islands barren, wooded, sandy, rocky, columnar, grace 
fully rounded, precipitous and gently sloping, wind-swept and storm- 
polished, large, diminutive, and infinitesimal ; reefs widely spreading, 
and submarine monoliths whose peaks barely project above the sur 
face. There is a breadth and sweep and never-ending change in the 
panorama which is all-absorbing to a mind intent upon the picture. 
For one hundred and seventy miles we steam through this island 
scenery ! In the calm repose of a summer s morning, when the waves 
are stilled and the face of the lake gleams like polished glass, the 
shadows fall heavily from the indented shores, and every rock and 

tree is sharply outlined 
and reproduced inverted 
in the mirror. Then we 
seem to float on airy 
nothing, looking upward 
into cloudland and down 
ward into cloudland, in 
to depths above and be 
low that seem illimitable. 
There is very little animal 
life upon the Islands. 
The mainland is a con 
tinuous upheaval of bare 
Laurentian billows of granite that once were molten. There is but a 
scanty growth of trees. Sweeping blasts have scathed them and 
frequent fires blasted out their vitality. There are very few houses 
and but little cultivation. Occasionally a bark canoe glides from be 
hind a point, and at intervals a solitary fisherman s hut is descried. 
Were it not for the gaunt white gulls that hover over our wake or 
keep vigil on the rocks, this would be a solitude. 

" In places the flinty strata of rocks yield a mineral wealth suffi 
cient to induce the sinking of a mining shaft, or the back country af- 




3 72 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

fords a supply of furs which necessitates the establishment of a trad 
ing post and depot. At these the steamboat touches, sometimes to 
take in wood, sometimes to land a passenger, and anon to discharge 
some freight." 

Captain Bayfield, R.N., who compiled the nautical charts of these 
waters, states that 27,000 islands have been counted in the combined 
shores of the Georgian Bay and the North Channel. 

After, Manitowaning, a rising settlement on the island, where are 
said to be some good trout streams (Quinn s and the Commercial 
Hotel) ; next on the route comes Little Current, another hamlet, and 
here a tide sets between the islands with a four-knot current. It is 
said the tide is caused by the wind, that it sets in whichever direction 
the wind is blowing at the time. Still further on is the picturesque 
Hudson s Bay Company post, called La Cloche, with its sunny white 
buildings, red-roofed. 

Gore Bay, one of the most important points upon Manitoulin 
Island, and the principal port to the free grant lands, is next 
touched at. 

Crossing back again, 

Spanish River, an important lumbering >centre, is met, and from 
here the steamer, after passing through the narrow straits of the 
" Devil s Gap," threads its way through the islands that fringe the 
Northern shore. 

Algoma Mills is the point where the Canadian Pacific branch, 
after leaving the main line and skirting the north shores of Lake 
Nipissing first approaches the waters of Lake Huron on its way to 
Sault Ste. Marie. 

Blind River and Missasaga River empty the waters of the North 
water shed, and are connecting routes to the Indian reservations 
further inland. At Thessalon is Jackson s hotel, and boats and 
guides can be obtained for the upper trout streams of the Missasaga 
River. 






THE NORTttEEN LAKES OF CANADA. 



173 



The Direct steamers from Collingwood coming in through the 
Missasaga channel now join the route of the Local steamers, and 
at the Bruce Mines, 307 miles from Collingwood, are the huge chim 
ney stacks and shops and piles of copper ore, and ranges of hovels two 
miles long that belonged to the great company that used to delve 
the precious metal from the bowels of the surrounding earth. The 
works have cost over a quarter of a million of dollars. After a 
particularly beautiful part of the route, in which the steamers wind 
through a series of small islands and so close to the cliffs in passing 
through the "Wilsons Channel, " that a biscuit can almost be pitched 
to land, Bear Lake is next passed, and after the Nebeesh Rapids we 
presently enter the serpentine St. Mary s Rivzr, with its Indian 

reservation and vil 
lages upon the Cana 
dian side, and an oc 
casional farm on the 
Michigan shore. 

At the mouth of 
the Garden River are 
the churches of the 
Anglican and Roman 
Catholic missions to the Indians in this district. 

Forty miles from Bruce Mines, we reach Sault Ste. Marie, with its 
foaming rapids, its great ship canal, and the rival villages that con 
front each other from either shore. Here, if one elects to tarry, he 
will find good fishing in the rapids and smaller streams in the 
vicinity. There are numerous Indians on hand to lend their services 
and canoes, and if the sportsman will try the Garden River, on the 
Canada side, he can fill his creel with trout. Sixteen miles below the 
Sault is Hay Lake and its outlets, affording fine trouting and good 
duck shooting in their respective seasons. There is a very comfort 
able hotel at Sault Ste. Marie, on the American side, called the 




174 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



Chippewa House. In Fort Brady is a detachment of the United 
States regular army. The Canadian side is more picturesque, and 
there are some fine private residences there. Millar s and Murray s 
hotels are excellently kept and nicely situated on the banks of the 
river. 

The waters of Lake Superior here pour over the Sault Ste. Marie 
Falls. There is no one bold single fall, but a continuous rapid of 
about three-quarters of a mile in length, the waters rushing down with 
great fury, and breaking in huge waves over the rocks. 




SAULT ST. MARIE FALLS. 

At the Sault is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Algoma, and 
the " Shingwauk Home," a school for the education of Indian 
children. On the American side is the great ship canal with two sets 
of locks. The earliest built in 1855 are 7 ^ eet w ^e and 350 feet 
long, and fine examples of masonry, but they have been far eclipsed 
by the new lock 80 feet wide and 560 feet long, which is perhaps as 
large as any lock in the world, and raises the vessels by one lift of 1 8 
feet to the level of Lake Superior. 

Tourists can stop over and go on by the next steamers, and enjoy 
some fishing or " run the rapids ; " canoes and two men can be hired 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 175 

at fifty cents for each person. The white-fish of the Sault are the 
finest and firmest of the lakes. It is interesting to watch the Indians 
as, poling their canoes up the surging rapids, they peer through the 
clear waters to discover the fish swimming in the channels in the 
rocks, when suddenly dropping down with the swift current, they 
sweep them out with their long-handled scoop nets. 



Mackinac. * 

Connection with this famed resort, where the United States Govern 
ment has created the whole island a " national park," is made daily 
from Sault Ste. Marie by various lines of steamers. 

On the special "Mackinac Excursions," the Collingwood steamers 
turn westwards at St. Joseph s Island, skirting the shores of Drum- 
mond Island, from which, at the time of its cession to the United 
States, the patriotic British population migrated to Penetanguishene. 
The St. Mary s river is the highway for an immense volume of trade, 
and many huge steamers and tows of barges laden with grain or iron 
and copper ore will be met with in its channels. At Detour entry is 
made from it into Lake Huron, and after running westwards the 
heights of Mackinac Island come into view. 

Around this island centre many historic events. As Michilimackinac 
it appears in the early annals as one of the most coveted strategic 
points and was in succession held by all the nationalities who in 
successive ages warred for the possession of the internal commu 
nications of this continent. The many local guide books and the 
several " Histories of Mackinac" will tell the details. A fort tops 
the sheer precipice, at the foot of which lies a part of the town, 
and for picturesqueness of position can very rarely be equalled. 

In 1761 the British had built the first old Fort Michilimackinac 
but in 1763 it was surprised by the Indians under the great chief, 
Pontiac, and the garrison almost wholly massacred. In 1764 the 



176 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

present Fort Mackinac was built, and upon its being given over to 
the United States in 1793, at the conclusion of the revolutionary 
war, the British removed their headquarters to a new fort erected 
about 40 miles to the north on St. Joseph s Island, some remnants 
of which still remain. 

When the war of 1812 began, Capt. Roberts, who was in command 
at Fort St. Joseph, under instructions received from General Brock, 
sallied forth, with the gallant Toussaint Pothier (afterwards member 
of the Upper House of Parliament, Montreal) and 455 Canadians and 
Indians. Having dropped down the river in boats and canoes they 
landed on the north side of the Island at a place now called -English 
Landing," and re-took Fort Mackinac from the Americans. 

In 1814, a force of United States troops of 1,000 men, under Col. 
Crogan undertook to recapture the fort but they were met at the 
Dousman Farm and repulsed with considerable loss, Major Holmes, 
the second in command, being killed, and having retired hastily to 
the shore they re-embarked on their vessels and sailed off the same 
evening. 

Fort St. George was erected on the highest part of the Island by the 
the Canadians, who held possession of the place until 1815, when 
the island was peaceably surrendered to the United States, and the 
the name of the Fort was then changed to Fort Holmes, in honor of 
the Major who had been killed the previous year. 

Visits can be made to " The Lovers Leap, Arch Rock, the 
several battle fields, etc., and their legendary and historic lore 
sought out with pleasure. Summer hotels of the finest description, 
and palatial lines of steamers from Detroit and Chicago have 
combined to form this one of the most engaging summer resorts 
in the north, and from it radiate many series of connections, including 
this along the Great North Manitoulin Channel to Collingwood, or 
to the Northern Shores of the mighty Lake Superior. The round 
trip from Collingwood to Sault Ste. Marie and Mackinac occupies 
just about one week. From Mackinac or the Sault to Lake Superior 
about the same. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 177 



The North Shore of Lake Superior. 

Through the Sault and into Lake Superior ! We have traversed 
one vast Mediterranean, and another is before us. 

Lake Superior is 460 miles long, 170 miles broad ; its depth is 800 
feet, being 200 feet below the level of the Atlantic. 

It is only now that we begin to realize the immensity of these in 
land seas. The voyage for duration is like a journey to Europe. 
Great ships of thousands of tons burthen, traverse its highways, and 
storms that are not surpassed in violence sometimes agitate its depths, 
but in the summer time its clear cold waters are seldom stirred ex 
cept by passing thunder showers. 

The direct steamers, after passing up the river from Sault Ste. 
Marie across Waiska Bay, now phonetically and modernly called 
Whiskey Bay, and by the noble headlands of Iroquois and Gros Cap, 
" the portals of Lake Superior," head directly across the lake. 

The coasting steamer turns northwards and proceeding one hun 
dred miles, after losing sight of land, arrives at Michipicoton Island 
and river. Here in summer the boats tarry a few hours that excur 
sionists may pick up agates along the pebbly shore or catch huge 
trout in the adjacent waters. Were it not that larger fish can be 
taken on the Nepigon, the size and quantity of these would seem 
amazing. Some of the agates found here are of unusual beauty and 
transparency. The light-house keeper, who has a sort of monopoly 
of the business, in that he has thoroughly raked the placers, will sell 
a pint of them for about a dollar. 

Hence to Port Arthur and Fort William, the distance is 306 miles. 
The cliffs around the North Shore are bluff to the water s edge. 
Among the Slate Islands is some very fine fishing, and large exports 
of salmon trout are made from here. All around this shore there are 
regularly established " fisheries " and the boats of the hardy fisher 
men may often be met with. 

On the north shore of Lake Superior is the noble Nepigon Bay. 

Entrance is by the straits between lofty islands and cliffs 1,500 feet 
L 



178 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANDA. 



from base to summit, ragged with shattered rocks or clad with verdure, 
or past small islets barely holding ground for a few small trees. At the 
mouth of the river is the famed Red Rock, sacred to the Manitou, 
and carved with hieroglyphics, the marks and relics of early Indian 
visits. , A^ 

Of this rock, from time immemorial, has the Indian " Calumet " or 
pipe of peace been made, and far down upon the Mississippi, and in 
Mexico, in the mounds or tumuli of extinct races, are found samples of 
its peculiar stone. 




Half a mile from the mouth is the Hudson s Bay post. 

Around the shores of St. Ignace Island, which divides the bay from 
the open lake, is magnificent lake trout fishing, (see Orvis Cheney 
" Fishing with the Fly ") and the sport on the river is renowned. 

Silver Islet lies under the shadow of Thunder Cape, and from its 
depths have been extracted many millions in value of silver, but now 
the mines, which were centred on a small rock barely above water, 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



179 



have become too difficult for profitable working, and attention is 
being directed to the main-land. 

Thunder Bay, the great point of interest of the route .is now en 
tered, a grand expanse of water twenty miles in diameter, encircled 
by an amphitheatre of fantastic hills and guarded at its portal by 
Thunder Cape, a rugged headland of columnar basaltic trap of 1,350 
feet high. When the steamer s whistle sounds, the reverberations 




THUNDER CAPE LAKE SUPERIOR. 

leap and re-echo from point to point of the entire circumference of 
the bay. But when the Titanic voice of the thunder-blast rolls 
through the broad expanse, it resounds with mighty intonations that 
shake the cliffs and split the air, and give to cape and bay their most 
appropriate name. It is the tongue of the Great Spirit, Nana-bijoo, 
that speaks. And the god himself lies prone upon his back, like 



180 THE NORTHERN LAKES 01 CANADA. 

some ancient crusader resting from his labours. Looking from the 
distance his gigantic form can be seen plainly limned in the outline 
of the adjacent mountain ridge. It has been the custom of the 
ancient Indians to toss him a bit of tobacco, by way of a propitiatory 
offering, as they pass ! To the south-west is seen McKay s Mountain, 
and further to the left the peculiarly shaped Pie Island, its form 
resembling a gigantic pork pie. 

Port Arthur. Here is the Lake terminus of the Canadian National 
Highway, the Canadian Pacific Railway, which from here spans the 
Continent over forest, plain, and mountain range, to the temperate 
climate of British Columbia and the shores of the Pacific. Here too 
toward the east joins the just finished portion of the railway which, 
skirting the north shore of Lake Superior, running for miles around 
the bays and headlands in sight of the mighty waters, leaves them in 
the neighbourhood of Jackfish Bay, and cuts across the inland coun 
try to the shores of Lake Nipissing. 

One cannot help comparing the first route of communication, when 
in canoes forced slowly and with difficulty up the rapids, or pain 
fully carried over rugged portages from Montreal, up the Ottawa, over 
Lake Nipissing, and down the French River to the Lake Huron ; 
then coasting with carefulness the long weary miles of rock-bound 
shore past the Sault the voyageur arrived at Thunder Bay, with this, 
the newest connection, its palace cars and express trains sweeping on 
swift wheels over the same route, often within sight of the same 
spots, beside the same rapids of the rivers and along the same shores 
of the lakes ! 

Where can a greater contrast be found between the Past and the 
Present, or where a more vivid example of the overcoming of the 
obstacles of nature by the genius and energy of man ! 

Port Arthur is growing fast. Into the lap of this bay is being 
poured the business of half a continent, and with it must come the 
welfare of the neighbourhood. 

The Northern Hotel, kept by F. S. Wiley, faces the full view of 
the Bay, and will be a pleasant place where meetings for the summer 
holidays can be arranged between families from the North- West and 
their members which may have remained behind in Eastern Canada. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



181 



A most pleasant excursion can be made by small tug up the Kami- 
nistiquia river to Pointe d Muron, a distance of 12 miles, to the head 
of navigation, from where a magnificent view of Thunder Bay and 
the mighty ranges which encircle it like an amphitheatre can be ob 
tained. Pigeon River, the boundary between the United States and 
Canada, and having fine Falls ; Current River, with rushing rapids 
and silver mines ; Amethyst Bay, where the beautiful amethyst veins 
are found in abundance ; Silver Harbour, the silver mines, and the 
numerous trout streams, will all give plenty to do and to amuse during 
the stay. 










M KAY S MOUNTAIN. 

Fort William is reached either by road or by boat, a pull of about 
two miles, or by the Canada Pacific R. R.. It is about the oldest 
Hudson s Bay post on Lake Superior, on the banks of the Kaministi- 
quia River, a sluggish stream, winding with many a turn at the foot of 
McKay s Mountain, named after one of the early .residents at the 
Hudson s Bay post The ascent, although somewhat difficult, is well 
worth making. Following an Indian trail for about four miles, the 
precipitous sides of the mountain are ascended and the summit 
reached, about 1,200 feet above the level of the lake. Directly be 
neath winds like a silver thread the Kaministiquia River, dividing 



182 



THE NORTHERN LAKE* OF CANADA. 



where it flows into Thunder Bay, into many channels, justifying its 
name, which means in the original " many-mouthed stream." 

Eastward across the bay, at the distance of 25 miles, rises the lofty 
wall of Thunder Cape and attendant ranges. Then Pie Islands, the 
Welcome Islands, and far beyond them out in the broad water is the 
Isle Royale, a portion of the United States, to the left the Pointe a 
Muron range, with the river winding through them and the course of 
the Canada Pacific Railway, stretching far away through miles of 
West. Around the river mouth cluster the giant elevators and the 
black masses of coal heaped up on the docks for transport inland, and 
through the web-like interweaving of the tracks puff the yard-engines 
of the railway sorting out the products of the Great North- West. The 
front of the mountain is a sheer cliff of 300 feet high to the first 
ledge, and from its giddy height an unbroken view of all the country 
round for 50 miles delights the eye. There are some good hotels in 
the town. 

The Kakabekah 
Falls, another of 
the great natural 
features, are now, 
that the railway is 
constructed, quite 
easy of access. 
Canoes \ and In 
dians are taken 
out by train to a 
point about six 
miles above the 
Falls. The river 
is then followed 
to within a short 
distance above the 
cataract when a 
portage is made 
around the Falls 
which exceed in 




THE KAKABEKAH FALLS. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 183 

height and present a striking general resemblance to those at Niagara. 

Rejoining the canoes, a run down the rapids brings the party to 
the mouth of the river in from three to four hours. 

From Port Arthur connection is made by steamer to 

Dututh, " The Zenith City of the unsalted seas," of all places the 
most written of and talked of in the United States. It is advan 
tageously situated at the extreme head of Lake Superior, and by rail 
way connection with the interior, will, without doubt, some day justi- 
tify the glorious prophecies which heralded its birth, Here the 
steamers commence the return trip, having been joined by tourists 
from Chicago, St. Paul, Manitoba, &c., and picking up any who have 
"stopped off" at Thunder Bay, return by the same route, as pre 
viously described. 

Whether it be for the return trip from either Toronto, Port Arthur, 
or Duluth, or for the single trip in one direction, opportunity is given 
for what is, beyond all question, the Cheapest , Most Invigorating and 
Grandest Trip on the continent. 

Here then we will cease, having conducted our tourist from the 
shores of the Niagara over all the intervening waters and to the many 
pleasant summer resorts on 

THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



ERRATA. 



Page 38, line 24, for "one hundred and fifty " read " fifty." 
Page 81, line 20, for " Huron" read " Ojibbevvay." 
Page 113, line 16, for "miles " read " hours." 



184 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 



Our Country. 

Our Country ! Tis a glorious land ! 

With broad arms stretched from shore to shore 
The proud Pacific chafes her strand, 

She hears the dark Atlantic roar ; 
And, nurtured on her ample breast, 

How many a goodly prospect lies 
In Nature s wildest grandeur drest, 

Enamel d with her loveliest dyes. 

Rich prairies decked with flowers of gold, 

Like sunlit oceans roll afar ; 
Broad lakes her azure heavens behold, 

Reflecting clear each trembling star ; 
And mighty river?, mountain-born, 

Go sweeping onward dark and deep 
Through forests where the bounding fawn 

Beneath their sheltering branches leap. 

Still may her flowers untrampled spring ; 

Her harvests wave, her cities rise ; 
And e er, till Time shall fold his wings 

Remain Earth s loveliest paradise ! 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 185 

Hints as to Routes. 



information and tickets for these Northern Lakes Routes can be obtained 
from BARLOW CUMBERLAND, General Ticket Agent, 35 Yonge Street (Ameri 
can Hotel Block), Toronto. 

Toronto is the starting point for all points of interest in the Northern Lakes 
of Canada." 

Tourists from the Eastward, Boston, New York, can come by the connecting 
lines to Buffalo or Suspension Bridge, and then to Lewiston and Niagara to To 
ronto, or by Grand Trunk R. R. from Montreal. 

From Niagara Falls and Buffalo, New York Central and Michigan Central 
Railroads connect at Lewiston and Niagara with palace steamer " Chicora " daily 
to Toronto, or the Grand Trunk Railway can be taken round the head of Lake 
Ontario. 

Passengers from Toronto can have five hours at the Falls and return to Toronto 
same evening. 

Tourists going down the St. Lawrence should not fail to stop at least one day 
in Toronto. 

The Lakes of Muskoka are within a few hours of Toronto by the Northern 
Railway. Excursion tickets, good for the season, are issued to Bracebridge, 
Rosseau, Joseph and Parry Sound, and are available to stop at Barrie or Orillia 
by making known to the conductor the intention to do so. Round trip tickets to 
Parry Sound can be obtained to go via Muskoka Lakes and return by Georgian 
Bay. 

For a grand all-round summer tour, this route is unsurpassed. Buffalo, Nia 
gara Falls, Toronto, Couchiching, Lakes of Muskoka, Collingwood ; thence Col- 
lingwood Line Steamers via Georgian Bay, Gt. Northern Manitoulin Channel, 
Sault Ste. Marie, North Shore of Lake Superior, Thunder Bay, Duluth, thence 
by rail to St. Paul and Chicago, or by Lake Superior Transit Co. via South 
Shore of Lake Superior to Detroit and Buffalo, or return by Collingwood Line 
and Northern Railway to Toronto. The whole round trip to Lake Superior re- 
turning to Toronto occupies ten days. 

The most beautiful and economical trip on the Northern Lakes is to Sault Ste. 
Marie and return by the Great Northern Transit Company s steamer, calling at 
all the inland ports and in midsummer running specially to " Picturesque Mac- 
kinac." The round trip occupies six days. 

These are the only lines passing through the inside picturesque route of the 
Georgian Bay and North Manitoulin Channel, avoiding the open waters of Lake 
Huron, and passing in daylight the LA CLOCHE MOUNTAINS, and through Island 
Scenery unsurpassed by the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence. 



186 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

NORTHERN LAKES LINES 

BARLOW CUMBERLAND, 

Passenger Agency, Toronto. 



Northern and North- Western Railway. 

The Ontario all-Rail connection to the North- West and to all the Sporting 

Districts of the North. 

Collingwood Lake Superior Line. 

Great North Channel, Sault Ste. Marie, Lake Superior, Thunder Bay, Nepigon, 

Duluth, Manitoba, Dakota. 

Georgian Bay Line. 

Great Northern Transit Co., Georgian Bay, Manitoulin Island, Sault Ste. Marie, 

French River, Mackinac, Parry Sound. 

Northern Navigation Compy. 

Lake Simcoe, Barrie, Orillia, Lake Couchiching. 

Muskoka Navigation Compy. 

Lakes Muskoka, Rosseau and Joseph, the Maganetewan River, Lake Nipissing. 

Niagara Navigation Compy. 

Toronto, Niagara, Lewiston, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, New York, Boston, Phila 

delphia, and all points East or South. 

Royal Mail Line. 

Lake Ontario, The Thousand Islands, White Mountains, Montreal, Quebec, 

Saguenay, Gulf of St. Lawrence. 



INMAN LINE Queenstown, Liverpool. GUION LINE Queenstown, Liverpool. 

NORTH GERMAN LLOYD London, Cherbourg. Bremen. STATE LINE Belfast, 

Glasgow. RED STAR LINE Antwerp. The Continent. 

S&T Ticket and Passenger arrangements made, Berths secured, for all the above 
Lines. 

BARLOW CUMBERLAND, General Ticket Agent. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 187 



GUIDES. 

It is often true economy to engage the services of those whose local 
knowledge will most quickly bring the newcomer to the best places for engag 
ing in the sport for which he seeks, and at all events they will lighten his 
labours and certainly add to his pleasures. In canoeing, dangers may often be 
avoided. In deer hunting there is absolute necessity, and at all times, in an 
unknown country, it is well to have with one a Guide 

who knows the bush 

As the seaman knows the sea. 

Men and boys to row may be engaged from $1.00 to $1.50 per day. 

Experienced fishermen and huntsmen, including canoes, $2.00 per day ; 
Hounds, 50c. per day. The various Hotel-keepers may be consulted. The 
following men have been locally recommended : 

Lakes Rosseau and Joseph and Moon River Districts. 

Thos. Webster, John Peters, Abraham Asa Rosseau P. O. 

R. Holton Ashdown " 

Jas. Davis, Frank Wing Trout Lake " 

J. Jennings, H. Vankoughnet Folding " 

Wm. Brady, John Richards . . Port Cockburn " 

Ed. Yellowhead, Joe Ingersoll, Sampson Ingersoll, John Bigwin. . .Bala " 

Lake of Bays and South Branch, Muskoka River District. 

Dorset P. O. 

Allan Phillips, Alvin Phillips, Henry Sawyer, Chris. Sawyer, Matthew 
McCaw, Tom Keown. 

Dwight P. O, 

Thos. E. Salmon, Archie Goldie, Edward Goldie, William Blackwell, Frank 
Blackwell, Arthur Osborne, Tom Salmon, George Robson, Grieves Robson, 
James Trueman, William Trueman. 

Baysville P. O. 
Daniel Vancliff, Henry Vancliff, Samuel Vancliff. 

Menominee P. O. 

Jeff. Avery, and his Sons. 



188 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Commanda District. Nipissing District. 

Thomas Grawbarger. ..Restoul P. O. Nicholas Wessels . .Boolah Creek P. O. 

Thomas Smith " " Fred. Killey 

Thomas Armstrong.. . .Nipissing " Sam. Lett " " 

R. Manering Rye " Jas. Sheppard La Vase " 

Wm. Porter Restoul " Rich. Jessup " 

John SuttifFe . Ardagh 

Maganetewan District. 

George Ross Spence P. O. 

J. McMillan Maganetewan " 

Wm. Harris " " 

Jos. Jenkins " " 

John Wilkins Dunchurch * 

John Labrash Maple Island " 

H. Armstrong McKel&r " 

S. G. Ritter.. 



Hints as to Camping Outfit. 

The equipment carried by " Campers " varies according to their 
fancy. The following are the most necessary requirements : 

EQUIPMENT. Ridge Tent, No. 3. The pole can be carried from 
place to place, and pins and uprights cut on landing. For a 
largerparty a smaller tent to shelter the " cook" and the provisions 
is desirable. Axe, hatchet, deep pot or bake kejtle, sauce pan, 
frying pan, gridiron, kettle, tea-pot, long iron spoon, long iron fork, 
butcher knife, knives, forks, and spoons, tin wash dish, round tin 
dish pans, tin cups, tin, or thick earthenware plates, water pail, 
sugar, salt, pepper, and tea cans, two hand lanterns for candles. 

PROVISIONS. Biscuits, flour, bread, sides clear bacon sewn in 
canvas, tea, sugar, salt, pepper, soap in bars, condensed milk, 
raisins, beans, dried apples, rice, matches, sperm candles. 

CLOTHING One change of underclothing, flannel shirt, and woollen 
trousers; three or four pairs of wool socks, overcoat, or mackintosh, 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 189 

heavy long boots for day, pair easy old gaiter boots, or leather 
slippers for camp, extra cap or tuque, handy bag for small things, 
large dunnage bag to hold all clothing. 



The Game Laws of Ontario, 

The Game Laws of Ontario are rigidly enforced, particularly in the 
district of Muskoka, where the residents are fully alive to the fact 
that in the providing of good sport, both with gun and rod, lies op 
portunity for large cash earnings by their community from the visitors 
who come among them. 

Game inspectors are appointed in each township, who are empow 
ered to watch their neighbourhood, to inspect boxes or receptacles, 
and search houses, when they have reason to believe game, or skins 
of game, are concealed out of season, and to summon offenders before 
the justices of the peace. 

Confiscation of the game follows conviction. 

SEASONS FOR SPORT. 

Fish and game may be taken within the following periods : 

FISH: 

Salmon and lake trout ist Dec. to ist Nov. 

Speckled or brook trout ist May to 1 5th Sept. 

Bass i 5 th June to 1 5th May. 

Maskinonge and Pickerel i5th May to 1 5th April. 

GAME. 

Deer, elk, moose, reindeer, caribou.. i5th Oct. to i5th Dec. 

Woodcock -. i5th Aug. to ist Jany. 

Grouse, pheasants, prairie fowl, par 
tridge ist Sept. to ist Jany. 



190 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

Snipe, plover , ist Sept. to ist Jany. 

Swans or Geese ist Sept. to ist May. 

Duck and all other water fowl ist Sept. to ist Jany. 

Hares , ist Sept. to 1 5th March. 

Quail may not be taken at all during 1886, 1887, nor wild turkey, 
during 1886, 1887, or 1888, and thereafter only from i5th Octo 
ber to 1 5th December. 

No person may have any of above game in his possession except 
during the above stated periods, or for the purposes of being exposed 
for sale for fifteen days after such periods. 

No eggs of game birds may be taken at any time. 

No game may be taken by trapping, nor by use of swivel guns or 
sunken batteries, nor during the night from one hour after sundown 
to one hour before sunrise. 

FUR BEARING ANIMALS. 

No beaver, mink, muskrat, sable, martin, otter or fisher may be 
hunted or taken except between ist November and ist May, and any 
one finding any traps set for them during any other time, may destroy 
the traps without incurring any liability. No muskrat houses may be 
broken into at any time. 

Where imported kind of game is preserved by any one " on their 
own lands," no one can hunt it without the consent of the owner of 
the land. 

No hound or dog, known to pursue deer, shall be allowed to run 
at large from the i5th Nov. to the following i5th Oct. 

No deer can be exported from Ontario. 

FINES. 

Not less Not more 
than than 

In case of c eer Each offence $10 $50 

In case of birds or eggs 5 25 

In case of fur trapping 5 25 

Other breaches 5 25 

Costs are payable in addition to fines. The whole fine goes to the 
inspector, or to the prosecutor if not an inspector. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 191 



List of Islands and Owners. 

LAKE MUSKOKA. 



Nos. NAME. OWNERS. 



1 Horse Shoe Barker 

2 One Tree 

3 

4 

5 Wolesley 

6 Apollo 

7 Sappho 

8 Kewaydin Mrs. Ross. 

9 Hillerest 

10 Hiawatha 

11 Friday. 

12 Seven 

13 Sisters 

14 Robinson Crusoe , 

1 5 Crown 

18 Ship 

21 Gibraltar Prof. Taverner. 

25 Morris , 

26 Shaw 

27 , 

28 Wunilah 

29 

30 

Camp Comfort 

31 E. Morris. 

32 J. H. Morris. 

35 Columbia Madame Janeck. 

36 Murillo 

37 Home H. C. Rodick. 

38 Fairholm W. E. Foot. 

39 Duncan 

40 Marion s 

41 J. McNabb. 

44 The Brothers R. T. Pope 

45 J.H.Morris. 

46 Burnt 

47 Birch 

48 Frank 

49 Frank 

50 Eilian Gowan. 
52 Chief 



> 



192 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

LAKE MUSKOKA 



Nos. NAME. OWNERS. 

54 Browning s 



57 Walker s 



59 Delamere ................................. J. M . Delatnere. 

60 ............................................. S. Denison. 

61 Twin Bluffs ................................... Wm. Millar. 

62 ........................................... 

63 Island F ................................... . .R. K. Burgess. 

64 Plumpudding ................. ............. 

65 Fishermans .................................. 

66 Beach Grove ............................. ____ T. E. Moberly. 

67 Heydon ................................... G. T. Denison. 

68 Crawford s ..................................... 

69 Rankin ........................................ 

73 Gairney . ___ ........ .......................... 

76 Broomleigh ................................... 

79 Whitt ..................... .................... 

80 Ault-Dowrie ... .............. ... .............. 

83 Gull ....................................... 

84 Katago .... ................................... 

92 Mary ........................................... 

" Daisy .......................................... 

" Henry ........................................ 

" Percy ......................................... 



LAKE ROSSEAU. 



Nos. NAME. OWNERS. 

1 Shady J. Maclennan. 

2 

3 H. Kingstnill. 

6 Picnic Jas. Maclennan. 

7 McKeaggie J. McKeaggie. 

8 

9 Jaw Bone 

18 R. K. Burgess. 

Point Idleswood Mrs. Little. 

19 , , Rev. M. Sanson. 

20 Carter. . . E. T. Carter. 

2 1 Yorum Mr. Murray. 

22 Mazengah C. E. Blachford. 

.22 ff ...,..., H. P. Dwight. 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 193 

LAKE ROSSEAU (Continued}. 

No*. NAME. OWNERS. 

23 P airy Lands G. C. Lilly. 

24 Prospect 

25 Olive , Robt. Baldwin. 

26 Beacon Dr. Hall. 

2; Cedar C. S Warren, 

28 Oak , Dr. Hall. 

Flora Dr. Hall. 

29 Goulding G. Goui ling. 

Point Eagle sNest , J. C. Lilly. 

30 Sunny Side R. K Burgess. 

Point Aurora Mr. Beddoe. 

31 Fair View R. K. Burgess. 

32 Edith R. L. Gunn. 

33 Violet ...Capt. Ord. 

34 Warsaw c. do. 

Arthur do 

36 St. Leonard s Hon. W. Cayley. 

37 Red Capt. Ord. 

38 White do. 

39 Blue . do 

40 Cassie 

41 H. Baker. 

42 Bohemia J. S. Ploskell. 

43 K. Moysey. 

44 Bakers A. Baker. 

45 Vacuna Mr. Scadding. 

46 Craster J. W. Thomas. 

48 BASS J. P. Clatk. 

49 Caledonia P. M. Shannon. 

50 Florence W. J. Florence. 

51 Wellesley J. K. Smith. 

52 Silver Mrs. Mole>\vorth. 

53 Norway A. F. Macdonald. 

LAKE JOSEPH. 



Nos. NAME. OWNERS. 

j Summit House . II. Fraser 

3 Round ..Jas. Maclennan 

4 do 

Point Burgess R. K. Burgess. 

5 Jas. Maclennan< 

M 



194 



THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 

LAKE JOSEPH (Continued.} 



Nos. 



NAME. 



OWNERS. 



6 Emerald Jas. Baine. 

7 Wegausind Jas. Maclennan. 

8 "".. 

9 G J- S. Playfair. 

10 j Gitchemene ..W. B. McMurrich. 

" j Harmony Hall do 

j j , Pro f. Campbell. 

12 Waneshing J- H. Morris.... 

I " Yoho Prof. Camp bell. 

j, Jas. Maclennan. 

15 . . . . . I*. .. . . . . d 

18 Chief J- H - Mason. 

19 Strawberry A. B. Lee. 

20 Cliff 

21 Baco do 

22 Eagle do 

23 Grebe 

24 Loon do 

25 Lilbourne W. S. Jackson. 

2 6 Dr. G. F. Cameron. 

27 Teaberry A. B. Lee : 

28 Governor s Island Lieut. -Gov. Robinson. 

29 Elsinore w - K - Johnston. 

31 Reef 

32 Badgerow G - w - Badgerow. 

2 3 Dr. Oldwright. 

34 Nissowema 

3^ 

36 Rose J.Rose. 

37 Lount G. Lount. 

38 Wolverton " , H. Wolverton. 

^g Dr. Caniff. 

Point Haggart s" . . .. .. . . . ;. .- .Mr. Haggart. 

Wood s S. C. Wood. 

40 Sugar Loaf P^ S^^j 

41 Stratford J- P- Woods. 

42 Morrison R. Morrison. 

43 Fisher... J- Fisher - 

45 McFarlan e.V. . . . . V..V. . . . . . . G. McFarlane. 

46 Surveyors 

Point Moss Rock Lodge 

Mount View 5m 7 tn - 

47 Scadding Mr Scaddmg. 

51 Robinson C. Robinson. 

52 

53 Scho oner 



TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 195 

LALE JOSEPH (Continued.) 

Nos. NAME. OWNERS. 

9 

54 Perch Dr. Hodgins. 

55 Grant J. Minto. 

56 Bass Dr. Hodgins. 

57 Pickerel do 

Point Redwood , Mrs. Ardagh. 

58 E. Cox. 

59 Stovve Dr. Stowe. 

Point Dr. G. Wright. 



THE CLIFTON HOUSE, 

NIAGARA FALLS, 

Is so situated on the bank of the river that from its windows and balconies a 
comprehensive view of the Great Cataract may be had. The view at night of the 

American Falls Illumined by the Electric Light, 

the varied hues of the falling waters, and the strange play of light of many colours 
upon the ever-rising foam, is grand beyond description. From no other first-class 
Hotel at Niagara can a view of the Falls and Electric Illumination be had. 

IT IS SEEN ONLY FROM "THE CLIFTON." 

The Cuisine and Service of The Clifton will be carefully maintained at the 
highest excellence, and no pains spared to make the stay of visitors pleasant 
and enjoyable. 

PARLOURS AND ROOMS with Baths attached may be had en suite. 



OMNIBUS FARE SAME AS TO AND FROM OTHER HOTELS AT NIAGARA. 



Address, 

G. M. COLBURN, Proprietor, 

NIAGARA FALLS, W 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

A Little Farther On 3 

The Hudson River Route 

The Delaware Valley Route 7 

To and From the West 9 

Niagara Falls I2 

The Niagara River. 

Along the American Side 15 

The Gorge" of Niagara I? 

Queenston Heights. 

Where the Falls once were. ..,.. 21 

Speech of Justice Macaulay 22 

Speech of Sir John Robinson 23 

Brock s Monument 24 

The View from the Summit 25 

Along the Canadian Side 27 

Niagara-on-the-Lake 27 

The Battle of Queenston Heights 29 

The Death of Brock 3 1 

The Forts of Niagara. 

The Early Struggles 33 

The French Occupation 34 

The British Occupation 36 

The Americans take Fort George 39 

The Canadians retake Ft. Ni gara 40 

Map of Niagara River 4 1 

Lake Ontario 42 

Toronto Island 44 

Toronto as a Summer Resort.. . . 45 

The City of Toronto. 

Name and Early History 47 

King Street 

Yonge Street 

Map of Toronto 

Street Car Routes 

Drives 55 

The Public Buildings. 

The First Railway 

Custom House 57 



PAGE 

Banks 57 

St. James Cathedral 58 

The Public Library 59 

Metropolitan Church 60 

St. Michael s Cathedral 60 

The Normal School 61 

The Picture Galleries 61 

" How Perseus brought back the 

Gorgon s head" 62 

Baptist Church 64 

Horticultural Gardens 65 

Osgoode Hall 66 

The Parks 68 

The Universities 69 

University of Toronto 69 

Knox College.., 7 1 

Trinity College 72 

Government House 74 

Grand Opera House 75 

Off for a real good Fish" 77 

The Northern Railway. 

Height of Land... 78 

Vale of Aurora 78 

Holland River 79 

Bradford 80 

The Severn River Chain. 

Lake Simcoe 81 

Allandale 81 

Orillia 84 

Lake Couchiching 85 

Sparrow Lake 88 

Kasheshebogamog 88 

Canoe Route to Waubaushene ... 

From Niagara Falls via Hamilton.. 91 

Burlington Beach . 93 

The North W estern R. R 94 

" My Little Girl s first Fish " .. . . 95 
The Lukes ofMuskoka.. 

Water and Rocks 99 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 



197 



PAGE 

Origin of Name 100 

Gravenhurst 101 

The Muskosh River Chain. 

Lake Muskoka 102 

The Muskoka River 105 

Bracebridge 106 

The Great South Falls 107 

Beaumaris in 

A Specimen Muskoka Letter ..... 114 

Bala 116 

The Muskosh River 1 1 6 

The Indian River 117 

Port Carling 118 

Lake Rosseau ........ 119 

Windermere 121 

Three Mile Lake 122 

Skeleton River 123 

Port Rosseau 123 

The Shadow River 125 

Maplehurst 126 

Venetia 128 

Oaklands. 129 

Ferndale 129 

Clevelands 131 

Gregory ... 131 

Port Sandfield 132 

Lake Joseph 134 

Joseph River 135 

Craigie Lea ... 136 

Little Lake Joe 137 

Yo-ho-cu-ca-ba 137 

Port Cockburn 138 

Echo Rocks 139 

Canoe Route to Parry Sound.. .. 140 

Crane Lake 140 

The Moon River 141 

The New Railway. 

Utterson 142 

Huntsville i42 

The Muskoka River Chain. 

Canoe Route to the Headwaters. 143 

Lake Vernon 143 

Hoodstown 1 43 

Fox Lake 144 

Axe Lake 144 

Doe Lake , 145 

Canoe Route by North Branch. 

Fairy Lake 146 



PAGE 

Mary Lake 146 

Port Sydney 146 

Canoe Route by South Branch. 

Peninsula Lake 147 

Rocky Portage 148 

Lake of Bays 149 

Baysville? 149 

Camp Fires 1 50 

Madawaska River 151 

Erastus Wiman 151 

The Maganetawan River Chain. 

Melissa 152 

Ketrine 152 

Bark s Falls 152 

Sport 153 

Lake Se-see-be 154 

Lake Ah. Mic 155 

Lake Wah-wa-kesh 155 

Canoe Route to Byng Inlet 155 

The Seguin River Chain. 

Whitestone Lake 156 

McKellar 156 

Canoe Route to Parry Sound 156 

Canoe Route to Lake Joseph.. .. 156 

The French River Chain. 

Sundridge 156 

South River 157 

Canoe Route to Lake Nipissing.. 157 

Commanda 158 

Canoe Route to Restoul Lake.... 158 

Meganoma 158 

Lake Nipissing. 

Callender 158 

La Vase 158 

The Eirliest Route to the North- 

West 159 

Champlain 160 

Cadieux 160 

A la Claire Fontaine .. 161 

The Parry Island Archipelago. 

Penetanguishene 162 

The Archipelago.. 163 

Parry Sound 164 

The Hurons and French in the 

Early Days 165 

The Georgian Bay. 

Collingwood , 168 



198 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Blue Mountains 169 

Meaford 169 

Owen Sound 170 

The Great Manitoulin Channel. 

She-ba-wa-naning 170 

Manitowaning j 72 

Algoma Mills 172 

St. Mary s River 173 

Sault Ste. Marie . . 1 74 

Mackinac, 

The Island 175 

Military History 176 

The North Shore, Lake Superior. 

Michipicoten Island 177 

Slate Islands 177 



PAGE 

Nepigon 178 

Thunder Cape 1 69 

Port Arthur . 180 

The Past and the Present 180 

Fort William 181 

Kakabekah Falls 182 

Duluth 183 

Our Country ... 1 84 

Hints as to Routes 185 

" " Camping Outfit 188 

Guides 188 

The Game Laws 189 

Names and Owners of Islands. 

Lake Muskoka 191 

Lake Eosseau .. 191 

Lake Joseph 193 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Transportation. PAGE. 

Great Northern Transit Co 205 

Canada Transit Co 204 

Northern and North-Western R. R 206 

New York Central R, R 203 

Niagara Navigation Co 202 

Lehigh Valley R. R 8 

Hudson River Day Line 208 

People s Line 208 

Muskoka Navigation Co 207 

Steamer Southern Belle 7 

Merchants Line 210 

Sundries. 

Rice, Lewis & Son, hardware iv 

W. A. Bradshaw, grocer and ship goods, iv 

J. Mallon & Co., butchers v 

Geo. Verrall, cabs v 

D. Pike, tents, etc vi 

D. Millican, photos vi 

W. McDowell, fishing tackle vii 

J. E. Ellis, jewellery viii 

Fulton, Michie & Co., camping supplies 201 

P. C. Allan, camp furniture 199 

Aikenhead & Crumble, hardware and 

fishing tackle 199 

Allcock, Laight & Co., fishing tackle . . 222 

Woltz Bros., jewellery 200 

Cox & Co., brokers 200 

China Hall, chinaware 201 

W. Hanna & Co., general store 214 

Jordan, general store 214 

Thos. Walters, saw mill 214 

J, S. Wallis, general store . . . , 215 



PAGB. 

F. D. Stubbs, grocer 215 

Sewell Bros., tourists supplies 210 

Hotels. 

NIAGARA FALLS Clifton House 198 

Niagara-on-the-Lake Queen s Royal. . . 2 

TORONTO American 223 

" Queen s ii 

Revere 223 

Rossin Back cover 

Walker 3 

Burlington Beach Hotel 7 

MUSKOKA. 

Beaumaris- Prowse Hotel 218 

Port Carling Vanderburgh House 213 

<l Stratton House 213 

Oakland Park Hotel 215 

Windermere Aitken Hotel 219 

Rosseau Monteith House 214 

Ferndale Penson Hotel 217 

Clevelands C. J. Minett 217 

Maplehurst Brown s Hotel 210 

Port Sandtit Id Prospect House 212 

Craigielea Crai^ielea House 214 

Port Cockburn Summit House 209 

Ah-Mic Harbour -Croswell Hotel 214 

Huntsville Dominion Hotel 217 

Baysville Forest House 219 

PARRY SOUND Belvidere Hotel 216 

COLLING WOOD Globe Hotel 220 

Central Hotel 220 

Meaford Paul s Hotel 221 

Noble s Hotel 121 

PORT ARTHUR The Northern Hotel 219 



HEADQUARTERS 



-FOR- 



Tents, Camp-Furniture, Hammocks, &c., &c. 

FOLDING CHAIRS AND STOOLS FOR STEAMBOATING IN GREAT VARIETY, 



Just the thing 
for the lawn, ve 
randah or " The 
coolest place in 
the house." 

Price only $2.50. 




The Champion 
Folding Camp- 
Cot opens and 
shuts like a Jack- 
knife, and will 
cary half a ton 
weight with per 
fect safety. 



When not in use occupies no more space than a broom. Expressed to any addres 
on receipt of $2.50 orC. O. E>. Write for complete illustrated catalogue of abov 

goods ; also of out-door games, 

LAWtf TEWtflS, BASE BALL,, CRICKET, L.ACROSSE, 

&c., &c., to 

P. G. ALLAN S 

City News and Games Depot, 
35 K.IIVO (STREET WEST, TORONTO, 

AIKEIYTHEAD & CROMBIE, 

HARDWARE, 

- ^ 

Corner King and Yonge Streets, Toronto, 



-IMPOBTEBS OF- 



Dodgers pine Pocket and tfable Cutlery/ 

GALVANIZED BOAT and CANOE FITTINGS, 

Cordage, Oakum, Blocks, 

Fine Iron Stable Fittings and 

Patent Magic Feed-Box. 

Builders , Machinists , Carvers, Blacksmiths Supplies and 

every description of Hardware. 



Fishing Tackle and Dog Collars in Great Variety, 

199 



Established 1830, 







171 

!L M ly. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

DIAMONDS, 

Fine Swiss and American Watches, Gold Chains, Ladies Gold and Silver Jewel^ 
lery, Gold Headed Canes, Gold Thimbles, Sterling Silver and ELECTO- 

PLATED WARE, etc., etc. 

We would call sepcial attention to our fine adjusted Swiss Watches, Minute Re 
peaters, Sporting Watches, with independent split second ; also single flyback at 
tachments, fine OPEN face watches suitable for railroad conductors and engineers. 

Every Watch Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

Our $20.00 Diamond Rings, 

The best value in the market. Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

WOLTZ BEOS. & CO., 
9 King Street East, Toronto, Ont. 




ooix: &c co., 
STOCK BROKERS, 

(MEMBERS TORONTO STOCK EXCHANGE.) 

Have the only Independent Direct Wire giving continuous New York Stock quo 
tations, and which are received QUICKER THAN BY ANY OTHER LINE. 

Buy and Sell on Commission for Cash or on Margin 

ALL SECURITIES DEALT IN ON THE TORONTO, MONTREAL, 
AND NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGES. 

ALSO EXECUTE ORDERS ON THE 

CHICAGO BOARD OF TRADE 

In Grain and Provisions. 
Daily Cable Quotations of Hudson s Bay and other stocks 

26 TORONTO STREET. 

200 













40 King St. East, Toronto. 



One of Toronto s Greatest Attractions. 

ITS ART ROOM ALWAYS FILLED WITH ORNAMENTS OF THE 
LATEST DESIGNS FROM THE BEST EUROPEAN MARKETS. 

Dinner, Dessert, Tea and Breakfast Sets 

In English and French China and Stone 

PARIAN MARBLE, 

Bisque and Bronze Figures and Ornaments, 

ELECTRO-PLATE, LATEST NOVELTIES. 

HOTEL GLASS, CHINA AND CUTLERY A SPECIALTY. 
GLOVER HARRISON. PROPRIETOR. 

FULTON, MICHIE & CO., 

O- IR, O O E IR, S , 

WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANTS, 

are prepared to supply a full assortment of every requisite for 

CAMPING, FISHING AND SHOOTING. 

Soups, Meats and Vegetables, 

Hams and Bacon, etc., etc. 

ALL KINDS OF LIQUOKS, TOBBACCO AND CIGAES. 

Goods Packed Carefully and Promptly Delivered. 

7 King Street West, Toronto. 

201 



SHORTEST ROUTE 



BETWEEN 










AND 

ALL POINTS NORTH AND EAST IN ONTARIO 

-A N D- 

NIAGARA FALLS, BUFFALO, 

NEW YORK, BOSTON, 

Philadelphia, Washington, Pittsburgh, Erie, Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, and all Points South of the Lakes, 



NIAGARA NAVIGATION COMPANY 



"CHICORA 93 

Leaves Yonge Street Wharf, Toronto, daily (except Sundays) at 7 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
for Niagara and Lewiston ; coming north, leaves Lewiston (Eastern time) 10 a.m. 
and 5.30 p.m. and Niagara-on-the-Lake half an hour later, making close connec 
tions with the New York Central and Michigan Central Railways. Through 
Tickets to all points East and West. For tickets and all information, apply at 
office on steamer or to all agents on railways connecting with Buffalo. 

BARLOW CUMBELAND, JOHN FOY, 

Ticket Agent, 35 Yonge St., TORONTO. Manager, Toronto. 



When going to the Thousand Iland or SI. Law 
rence Rapid, or to Niagara Fall, do not fail to ee the 
Historic Niagara River. 

202 



New York Central 



-AND 



HUDSON RIVER RAILROAD. 



THE FAVOURITE ROUTE FOR TOURISTS 



Solid trains with luxurious PARLOUR and SLEEPING CARS from Suspension 

Bridge, Niagara Falls and Buffalo to 

NEW YORK AND BOSTON. 



THE NEW YORK CENTRAL affords its patrons the best accommodation 
and the finest scenery on the American Continent, embracing views en route of 

the 

Niagara River and Falls, The Beautiful Mohawk Valley, 

and the Picturesque and Historic Hudson, 



> THE ONLY 4-TRACK RAILROAD IN THE WORLD*}) 

Having two tracks for freight, traffic and two tracks exclusively for passenger busi 
ness, thus ensuring PERFECT SAFETY and a certainty of arrival at desti 
nation ON TIME. 

It is also the only line having a DEPOT IN NEW YORK CITY, thus saving 
its patrons the inconvenience of being transferred to another state by ferry 
boat. 

For any information not obtainable from nearest ticket agent, call on or ad 
dress, 

D. M. KENDRICK, 1 EDSON J. WEEKS, 



Gen. Passenger Agent. 
Gd, Central Depot, New York. 



Gen. Agent Pass. Dept., 
No. 1, Exchange St., Buffalo. 



203 



The Grandest Scenery in America 



IS ON THE 







AND 



COLLING-WOOD LINE. 

CANADA TEANSIT Co. (LIMITED.) 



Steai3Q.ers learve Cell T.TTI T*rood. on. 

TUESDAYS .AJSTD 



On arrival of Morning Trains of the Northern and North- Western Railway from 

HAMILTON AND TORONTO. 

.. CAMPANA, Fast Express Steamer, 1500 tons, Iron, Clyde-built, 
Twin Screw, calls at Meaford, Owen Sound, Bruce Mines, St. Mary s 
River, Sault, Port Arthur and Duluth direct. 

S.S. CITY OF OWEN SOUND, 900 Tons. Meaford, Owen 
Sound, Killarney, North Channel Ports, Bruce Mines, St. Mary s 
River, Saulfc, Michipicoten Island, and around North Shore, Lake 
Superior, Port Arthur and Duluth. 



Passengers can go by one Steamer and return by the other, thus 
making complete tour. 



SUMMER EXCURSIONS. 

Very low Round Trip Excursion Tickets, all around the Lakes, in 
cluding Meals and Staterooms. 



Through and Return Tickets can be purchased from all Agents Cana 
dian Pacific, Grand Trunk, and Northern and North-Western Railways. 

JAS. NEIL, Coiiingwood. BAELOW CUMBEELAND, 

T. MAITLAND, Owen Sound. GENERAL AGENT 

K. E. MITCHELL, Port Arthur. GENERAL AGENT, 

J. T. ROSE, Duluth. 35 Yonge St., Toronto. 

204 



A CONTINUOUS CHAIN OF INTEREST 



EXISTS ALONG 



The Grand Manitonlin Channel, 

THE GREAT NORTHERN TRANSIT CO. (Limited.) 



Royal 
Mail 

Line. 
Gollingwood 

and 
Sault Ste, 

Marie, 




SS Pacific, 

Capt. Campbell. 

SS Atlantic, 

Capt. Foote. 



SS Northern 
Belle, 

Capt. Barrett. 



The new Palace Steamers Pacific and Atlantic leave Collingwood 
WEDNESDAYS AND SATURDAYS, 

On arrival of morning trains of Northern and North-Western Railways from 
Hamilton and. Toronto, calling at Meaford, Owen Sound, Wiarton, thence 
connecting with Grand Trunk Railway to Killarney, Manitowaning, Little Cur 
rent, La Cloche, Spanish River, and all the Inner Ports in The Great North 
Channel, St. Joseph s Island, St. Mary s River, Sault Ste. Marie. 



Q^MACKINAC EXCURSIONS/^0 

During the Summer season the Steamers continue their trip round to the far-famed 
Island of Mackinac, giving sufficient time for Excursionists to visit the many 
points of beauty and interest. 

The cabins are wide, lofty, and every effort used to entertain the Travelling 
Public with both comfort and hospitality. 



PARRY ISLAND ARCHIPELAGO. 

S.S. NORTHERN BELLE leaves Collingwood Mondays and Thursdays, 1 p.m., 
for Parry Sound, passing through all the Islands. 

THOS. LONG, Secretary, CHAS. CAMERON, Manager, 

COLLINGWOOD COLLINGWOOD. 

205 



-THIIE- 



Northern & North-Western Ry 




IS THE GREAT AND 

ONLY LIIN 




TO THE FAR-FAMED 



MUSKOKA DISTRICT, 

The Sportsman s Paradise and the 

Free Grant Lands of Ontario, 

Fast Trains Daily from Toronto and Hamilton, connecting with Steamers 
of the Muskoka Navigation Company for all Points on the Lakes. 

Parlour Cars. 

Fishing, Hunting, Camping, Delightful Summer Re 
sort for Families, First-Class Hotels at Low Rates. 



For a CHEAP TRIP and SOLID 
COMFORT take the 





Which connects at Collingwood and Penetan- 
guishene with Steamers for Grand and Pic 
turesque Resorts of the Georgian Bay, 
Lakes Huron and Superior. 



TOURISTS RATES. Tourists or Sportsmen s Tickets are good to stop 
over at any point north of Barrie, and return up till close of Navigation. Camp 
equipage, stores and dogs are carried free when accompanied by owners. 

Baggage checked to principal points on lakes. 

For Tickets, Eates, Time Tables, etc., apply to Agents at all principal Ticket 
Offices in Canada or United States, or to 

SAMUEL BARKER, 

Gen. Manager, Toronto. 

BARLOW CUMBERLAND, ROBERT QUINN, 

Ticket Agent, 35 Yonye St., Toronto. Gen. Pass. Agent, Toronto. 

206 



MUSKOKA & NIPISSING NAV. GO. 



DAILY PASSENGER STEAMERS 

Upon the Lakes of Muskoka, between Gravenhurst, (on the 

N. & N.W. Railway), Bracebridge, Beaumaris, Bala, Port 

Oarling, "Windermere, Port Sandfield, Bosseau and 

Port Cockburn, &c. 

Upon the Upper Maganetawan Waters, between Buck s Falls 
on the N. <$z P. J. Railway), Maganetewan Village, Depot 
Farms and Ah-Mic Harbour. 

Upon Lake Nipissing, between North Bay, (upon the O. P. 
Railway), Callander, Nipissing Village, &c. 



The Most Attractive and Popular Resorts in America. 



EXCURSION TICKETS, 

Good for THIRTY or more days, to be had in the principal cities and towns of 

Canada and the United States. 

SPECIAL, STEAMERS, NICELY FITTED UP FOR THE 
USE OF PRIVATE PARTIES, 

To be had at moderate rates. 



Good Hotel accommodation abound* throughout the 
Lake Districts at moderate rales. 

ROBT. QUINN, A. P. COCKBURN, 

Gen. Pass. Agent Gen. Manager 

N. & N. W. Railways. M. & N. Nav. Co y. 

TORONTO TICKET AGENCY at B. CUMBERLAND S, 35 Yonge St. 

207 



HUDSON RIVER BY DAYLIGHT 



-VIA THE 









H 



Of Palace Steamers on the Hudson Hirer 



AND THE 



ffleW 




Cental 



jlud^on 




Leave Albany 8.3O a.m., Arrive at New York 5. 3D p.m. 

Leave New York (Sunday excepted), Vestry St. Pier, 8.40 a.m., 
22nd St. Pier, N. R., 9 a.m., (making principal landings) arriving at 
Albany (foot Hamilton St.). 6.10 p.m. 

Trains from Utlca, Geneva, Niagara Fall**, Buffalo, Lewiston, Toronto, Cleve 
land. Chicago, Alexandria Bay and the Thousand Islands, reach ALBANY in time 
to connect with the Morning Boat for New York, and going North Trains leave alter arrival of 
Boat. Berths in Sleeping Cars can be secured on the Steamer. 

Be Sure and Secure Tickets via this Route. 

Dining Rooms on main deck, a la carte, open from 7 a.m. Drawing Rooms for Parties. 
C. T. VAN SANTVOORD, ) VESTRY STREET PIER, ( C. R. VANBENTHUYSEN 



Gen l Manager. 



New York City. 



Gen l Ticket Agent. 





DREW, 



NEW YORK TO ALBANY. 

Capt. S. J. Hoe. | ST. JOHN, Capt. Thos. Post 
FROM PIER 41, NORTH RITER, 

South Side of Canal Street, near Jersey City Ferry, Debrosses Street, 

AT 6.00 P.m. 

Connecting at ALBANY, except Sunday, with trains of the New York Central f<r the West, and 
with trains for Saratoga and all the summer resorts of Lake George and Lake Chamj,lain. 



ALBANY TO NEW YORK. 

ST. JOHN, Capt. Thos. Post- ! DBEW, - Capt. S. J. Roe. 

LEAVE ALBANY AT 8.00 P.M. 

On arrival of trains from the NORTH and WEST, chanere from cars to Boat. 
Baggage transferred FREE between N. Y. Central R.R. and Steamers at Albany. 

TICKETS and STATEROOMS secured by telegraph and telephone in Albany, at the Office, 
Steamboat Squa e, and tickets for sale at all the principal railroad ticket offices in the EA&T, 
NORTH and SOUTH. 

J. H. ALLAIRE, Gen. Ticket Agent. M. B. WATERS, Gen, Pass. Agent 

E. C. SHAFFER, Agent, Albany. 
208 



Summit House and Island Park, 

Port Cockburn, Lake Joseph, Muskoka. 



FAMILIES, TOURISTSApSPORTSMEN. 

This favourite house has been enlarged this season, making 
it the largest hotel in Mushoha ; is beautifully situated at the 
head of Lahe Joseph (the prettiest of the Mushoha Lahes); 
commands fine lahe and forest views; daily steamer, post 
and telegraph offices in house. 

EXCELLENT BLACK AND ROCK BASS," PICKEREL 
AND SALMON TROUT FISHING. 

HAMILTON ERASER, - Proprietor. 

ros 



Boats, Yachts, Canoes, Tents for Hire. 

TOURISTS AND CAMPING PAETIES 

Supplied at Moderate Bates. 



Boats Forwarded to any Point Desired. 

A Good supply is kept by the undersigned at Port Carlingf 

and Windermere as well as Rosseau, "where all 

applications should be sent. 

OAES, PADDLES AND ROWLOCKS KEPT FOE SALE. 

HENRY DITCHBURN, 

Boat Builder, Rosseau 
209 



MAPLEHURST 





LAKE ROSSEAU. 



This hotel has just been erected regardless of expense, with a view to the 
comfort of the summer tourists, and is charmingly situated oil one of the most ro 
mantic spots on these waters. A first c]a c s table will be kept and every possible 
amusement for the guests. A daily mail will he brought to the house and constant 
communication kept by ferry with Rosseau, which is three-quarters of a mile dis 
tant. The steamboat calls daily, leaving guests right at their destination. A fleet 
of boats will be kept at the house, which is surrounded by a charming grove of 
silver birch, ashen, and evergreen. 

PARTIES WHO DESIRE TO SPEND A PLEASANT SUMMER WITH PLENTY OF 

BOATING.FISHING.BATrllNG 

Etc, will find this resort one of the most comfortable and commodious on this 

beautiful chain of lakes. 

J. F. BROWlff. Propr- 



1869- ESTABLISH :D 1869. 



SEWELL BROS., 

Grocers and Italian Warehousemen, 

IMPORTERS OF 

Fine Wines, English and French 
Fancy Groceries 

AND DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OP 

TOURISTS SUPPLIES, 

No. 32 JAMES ST., 
HAMILTON, CANADA. 

Intending Tourists and Camping Parties to 
our Northern Lakes and other parts of West 
ern Canada, during the coming summer will 
find it to their advantage to purchase their 
supplies from us. 

Send for catalogue and prices. 

AH orders by mail will receive prompt and 
careful attention. 



Merchants Line. 



MONTREAL, TORONTO, 

CLEVELAND, CHICAGO. 

UPPER CABIN STEAMERS 

Armenia, Cuba and California. 



210 



These Steamers have magnificent full length 
cabins, and are elegant y fitted up, and have 
a 1 the comforts and conveniences of a first- 
class hotel. State-rooms are all furnished 
with woven wire mattresses, making- the most 
luxuriously c mfortable bed. They will ply 
regularly between MONTREAL & CHICAGO 
calling at all principal way-ports, during the 
season of navigation, passing through the 
beautiful Scenery of the Thousand Islands, 
calling at TORONTO every THURSDAY at 10 
a.m., goinar east, and 9.30 p m., going west. 
Berths can be secured fn advance by applying 
to 

HAGARTY & CO., 

56 King St. East, Toronto. 

B. CUMBERLAND, 

35 Youge St., Toronto. 



Or to 








THE NEW HOTEL 

At the Head of the Lake and. near the Shadow River. 




CO 
CO 

O 
tf 

w 



05 



ffi 



Special Rates Made for Families. forrespondenee Solicited. 

J. P. BROWN, Proprietor. 

21] 



MUSKOKA LAKES. 








ENOCH COX, Proprietor. 



Terms, $1,50 Per Day, Special Terms for Families, 



The Hotel stands at the junction of LAKES ROSSEAU and JOSEPH, commands a 

fine view of both lakes ; can accommodate over one hundred guests ; roomy 

piazzas extend around the house. An excellent table is also set 

at this house and is one of its leading features, and no 

pains will be spared by the proprietor to make 

the stay of guests at Prospect House 

pleasant in every respect. 

Gentlemen visiting the Lakes, accompanied by their families, 
will find Prospect House a very desirable house 

to stay at, 

Ladies and young people can here indulge in boating without the least danger, 
as it is always free from rough water. 

A FINE SANDY BEACH FOR BATHING. 

It is well noted for its 

3PeHs::i?eIL azcul Bass ZETsla-:ELg- 

The steam yacht " Sunbeam " makes daily trips from the Hotel during the en 
tire season. Post-office on the premises ; daily mail. 

PROSPECT HOUSE, in the fall, is a favourite resort for sportsmen. Guides 
and hounds kept. 

212 










fftft 

CHERRY GROVE. 

VANDERBURQH HOUSE. 

Tourists will not find flies here at any season of the year, making a very 

desirable place in the early part of Summer for Tourists wishing to 

spend the most desirable part of the season in pure air. 

THE PICTURESQUE STEAM LAUNCH 

TO fro A ( w k @@ 



A great favourite with American and Canadian tourists is owned by the 

Proprietor of the House ; the " Kate " has been refitted with new engines, 

and is the fastest Yacht on these Lakes, and may be hired on reasonable 

terms to touch at all points of interest. 



o 



Building Material delivered to any part of Lake by Contract. Address all 
communications to 

C. W. VANDERBTJRGH. 



STRATTON HOUSE, 



This Hotel is delightfully situated at the junction of Indian River and 
Lake Rosseau. Passengers from Toronto and Hamilton arrive here at 
from 4 to 5 p. m. the same day. 

A very convenient stopping place. Guests patronizing the house will 
find it as comfortable as any Hotel on the Lakes, and their wants 
promptly attended to. 

Accommodation for 50 people. The rooms are large and airy, and a 
liberal table is a leading feature of the House. The surrounding scenery 
being fine, artists will find full scope for their pencils. Sportsmen will 
have some of the best bass fishing to be had on these waters, as Lake 
Rosseau and Muskoka, as well as Silver Lake are within very easy 
distance of the House. 

A commodious enclosed Bathing House for Visitors. Lawn Tennis 
Ground. A superior class of Boats on hand for hire by the day or week. 

Terms for Board, from $1.25 per day. -Special terms by the week or month. 

JOHN ERASER, Proprietor. 
213 





ROSSEAU 



Good Accommodation for 
Tourists. 

FIRST-CLASS TABLE, 

LARGE ROOMS, 

BATH ROOMS, &c. 

Billard Room and Roller Skating Rink. 

JOHN MONTEITH, Propr. 

Craigielea House, 

LAKE JOSEPH. 

This house has been improved 
and refitted since last sea 
son and visitors -will find 
comfortable quarters 
and some of the 

Best Fishing in the District. 

Close to the entrance to Little Lake Joseph. 

JOHN C. WALLS, 



CAMPERS, TOURISTS, SPORTSMEB 

GO TO 

JORDAN S 



ROSSEAU, 

FOR 



Fishing Tackle, Tents, Coal Gil Stoves 

AND ALL SUPPLIES. 

TENTS FOR HIRE. 
-N EW- 

SAW and PLAMG MILL. 



PORT CABLING 




-OFFICE 




- FULL SUPPLY OF 

Dry Goods,Boots & Shoes, Hardware 

FRESH GROCERIES AND PROVISIONS. 

CAMPING PARTIES AND TOURISTS WILL FIND 

Fishing Tackle, Butter, Eggs, Fresh 
Bread always on hand. 



The urdersigned has erected a new saw and 
planing n.ill near Craigielea, at the en 
trance to Little Like Joseph, where 
he will keep a supply of all 
kinds of rough and 
dressed 

LUMBER AND SHINGES. 

Building Contracts Taken 

ESTIMATES FCRNISHED. 

THOMAS WATERS, 

Craigielea P.O., Lake Joseph. 

AH-MiC HARBOUR, 

One of the best locations for Sportsmen and 
tourists in Parry Sound District ; can reach it 
from Toronto the same day by Gravenhurst 
and Burk s Falls, down the Maganetewan 
River into Ah-Mic Lake ; good accommodation 
for travellers or tourists ; the best Hunting 
and Fishing in the district ; boats and livery 
on hand ; charges moderate ; ma 1 three times 
a week ; steamboat lands at the door ; goat s 
milk kept for sickly children and adults, which 
is highly recommended. 



PROMPT ATTENTION GIVEN TO BUSINESS. 

W. HANNA & 00. 



JOHN CROSWELL, PROP R, 

Ah-Mic Harbour, P.O., Muskoka. 



214 



PORT CARLING, 



-GO TO- 

JOS. S. WALLIS 

General Merchant 



POK 



Dry Goods, Groceries, Boots & Shoes, 

HARDWARE, 

Lumber, Timber and Shingles. 



PLANING AND MATCHING A SPECIALTY. 



BUILDERS SUPPLIES. 



Communications by letter promptly answered. 



PORT CARLINQ. 



CAMPERS AID MISTS 



SUPPLIES. 



DEALER IN GOOD FRESH 

OEOCERIES 

AND 

PKOVISIONS, 

CONFECTIONERY, 

FISHING TACKLE. 



GOODS 

AND 

BOOTS & SHOES. 



Canned Goods of Every Description. 

FREDERICK D. STUBBS, 



Opposite Head of Port Carling River, Lake Rosseau. 



-o- 



This new Hotel commands extensive views over the greater portion of Lake 
Rosseau, both east and west, including Windermere. 

Good Bathing. Steamboat Wharf. Boats can be had on application. 
Terms from $1.25 per day. Special Bates to Families. 



JOSEPH Ul. TOBIN, - 



Proprietor, 



C-A 

215 



Q- 



BELVIDERE HOTEL 

PARRY SOUMD. 




This Hotel is open during the Summer Season to re 
ceive guests. The Hotel occupies a beautiful and com 
manding position on a height of land overlooking the 
waters and numerous islands of Parry Sound. The air 
is pure and the scenery beautiful. The numerous is 
lands and channels are very picturesque and afford 
excellent opportunities for boating, camping and fishing. 

RICHARD GODOLPHIN, 



, Auctioneer, 



Land and Estate 

COMMISSIONER FOR TAKING AFFIDAVITS IN H. C. J. 

HUNTSVILLE, .... ONTARIO. 

216 





NEAK PORT CABLING. 



R. G. PENSON, 



PROPRIETOR. 



Picturesquely Situated. 

Good Fishing, Boats, etc,, etc. 
Daily Mail. Steamboat Calls. 

TERMS VERY MODERATE. 

FOR PARTICULARS APPLY TO 

R. tt. PENSON, PORT CARLING. 



CLEVELAND S 

LAKE ROSSEAU, 



MUS&OKA. 



Parties visiting Muskoka will find this 
a most pleasant and comfortable summer 
resort. Every attention paid to the com 
fort of guests. Good Bathing and Fish 
ing. Daily Steamboat. 

C3-OO3D T-a-IBIjE. 

G, 3. MINETT. 

BOATS AT REASONABLE RATES. 



HUNTSVILLE. 



DOMINION HOTEL. 



Tourists and I lie .Travelling Public entertained in a 
manner unequalled outride Toronto. 

Fishing and Shooting 1 . 

Table and Wine first-rate. Good Stabling accommoda 
tion. Five minute* walk from Railway Depot of 
Northern and Pacific Junction. 
Terms Moderate. 



JAMES W, JACOBS, 



Proprietor. 



217 














BEAUMARIS HOTEL 

Tondern Island. 

Good Fishing, Boating and Bathing; 

Billiard Eoom, Bowling Alley ; 

Lawn Tennis and Croquet Ground. 





Board $1.50 to $2.00 Per Day. 



SPECIAL RATES MADE WITH FAMILIES. 



Business men joining their families by the Saturday express 

trains arrive at Beaumaris early Saturday afternoon, 

before tea time, and do not leave until after 

usual breakfast on Monday morning, 

giving ample time for a 

pleasant rest. 

IMIa,:L- 



EDWARD PROWSE, Proprietor. 



218 



LAKE ROSSBAU. 








Situated on the Shores of 

LAKE ROSSEAU, MUSKOKA. 

Improvements constantly being made with the view of adding to the 

comfort and pleasure of its guests. For description of 

surroundings, see page 121 of Guide. 

TERMS : from $1.25 to $1.50 PER DAY. 

SPECIAL RATES TO FAMILIES. 

THOMAS AITKEN, - Proprietor. 



JORDAN KEELER, Proprietor. 

Tourists can enjoy unrivalled scenery on "Lake of Bays." Two first-class 
steamboats ply on its waters during season ; rare sport for Speckled Trout in this 
region ; the neighbouring woods abound in Deer and Partridge ; ample accommoda 
tion ; an excellent table ; every attention to guests. 



(ERECTED 1884.) 
Port Arthur, Canada. 



TME FIHEST HOTEL IH WESTEKH CANADA, 

Th Canadian Pacific Trains east and west stop here 30 minutes for dinner. 

F. S. WILEY, MANAGER. 
219 













COLLINGWOOD, ONT. 



This Hotel commands a fine view of the Collingwood Harbour 
and Mountain, rendering it a pleasant resort to 
Tourists, to whom the best of atten 
tion is paid. 



Free Bus to and from all Trains and Boats. 
Telephone Communication with all parts of 
the town. 

JOHN ROWLAJSTD, 



HOTEL, 

COLLINGWOOD, ONT. 



CO 

"oS 

<=> 
OQ 

fS 

2 

CO 
CO 



a M 



CO 

=3 
OQ 

CO 




CO 
ct> 

CO 



B 
& 




S* 



Telephone Communication with all parts of the town. 

THOMAS COLLINS, - - Proprietor. 

220 



PAUL S HOTEL, 

MBAFORD. 

TERMS, $ 1.5O per day. 

Special Rates for Families. Pleasant Verandahs and 
Gardens on the River Bank. 



FREE BUS TO ALL TRAINS & BOATS. 



MRS. S. PAUL. 












ME A FORD, ONT. 

RATES, $1.OO per day. 

SPECIAL. RATES given for Families by the Week. 



Boats can be hired at reasonable Bates. 

PLENTY OF FRESH FISH AND FRESH AIR. 



JUST THE PLACE TO SPEND A QUIET HOLIDAY. 

JAMES NOBLE, 

PROPRIETOR. 



221 



FISHING TACKLE. 



JRods, 



Lines, 



Flies, 



Hooks, 



Baits, 




Reels, 

Needles 
and 

Smallwares. 






TORONTO WAREHOUSE. 



ALLGOGK, LAIGHT& WESTWOOD, 



RBDDITCH, ENGLAND, and 

Wellington Street West, Toronto, Ontario. 




B. WESTWOOD, 

Resident Partner. 



N. B.- Fishing 
Bods & Tackle 
made on the pre 
mises. 



COR. 1 O\GE and FRONT STS., TORONTO, OtfT. 

ED. H- ED3ALL, MANAGER. THOS. TAYLOR, PROPR, 

H. G. EDSALL, CLERK. 

RATES, $2.00 PER DAY 

And graded according to rooms. 
SPECIAL RATES TO THEATRICAL PEOPLE AND THE COMMERCIAL TRADE. 



This favourite old hosteller has just undergone a thorough course of renovat 
ing, remodeling and refitting throughout, and now stands second to no $2.00 
per day house in the Dominion. The cuisine will be found equal to that of any 
hotel in the Queen City, and neither pains nor expense are spared in seeing that 
guests are pioperly cared for. 

The AMERICAN is the only hotel in Toronto running FREE Buss to and from 
all trains, steamboats, etc., and it is safe to say that guests once stopping there 
will not fail to do sc again. 










V 

COB. KING AND YORK STREETS, 

TORONTO. 
Situated in the business portion of the City. 

Five minutes walk from the Union Depot. 

Street Car pa the door to all parts. 



tf fte BEpf $1.50 Per Day jiOlfgE Ifl 




SPECIAL ATTENTION TO TOUEISTS. 

J. J. JAMESON, - * Proprietor. 

223