STRICTLY FIRST-CLASS IN ALL ITS APPOINTMENTS.
Celebrated for its home comforts, perfect quiet, excellent attendance, and the
gsculiar excellence of its cuisine ; it has been patronized by their Royal Highnesses
rince Leopold and the Princess Louise, the Marquis of Lome, Lord and
Lady Dufferin, the Marquis and Marchioness of Lansdowne, and the best families,
Is most delightfully situated near the Bay, on Front Street,, and is one of the largest
and most comfortable hotels in the Dominion of Canada.
McGAW & WINNETT, Proprietors.
This Hotel and Summer Resort is located in a beautiful grove
opposite Fort Niagara, at the head of Lake Ontario and the mouth
of the Niagara River. It is capable of accommodating three
hundred and fifty guests. All modern improvements. The drives
along the banks of the Lake and River are beautiful and refreshing.
Application for rooms may be made to the proprietors of the
Queen s Hotel, Toronto, up to June ist, after that date to the
" Queen s Royal," Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont.
McGAWfA WINNETT, Proprietors.
TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA.
This favourite and commodious HOTEL is conveniently Situated to
the principal Railway Stations, Steamboat Landings, and the Parliament
Buildings. It has ONE HUNDRED and TWENTY-FIVE WELL-
VENTILATED BED-ROOMS besides spacious Public and Private
Dining and Drawing Rooms. The house is heated throughout by steam,
giving a comfortable temperature during the coldest weather ; and its fine
site, overlooking Toronto Bay on Lake Ontario, renders it a very desir
able Summer resort.
TERMS $2.00 and $2.50 per day which includes room and
attendance, with Full Board (Table d Hote) from a Bill of Fare, compris
ing the best that the market affords.
The Transfer Hotel Omnibus and Luggage Waggon, and the
" Walker House" Porter, attend to the arrivals of all Passenger Trains
- . .
RICE LEWIS & SON, STE n
HARDWARE -.**M.J^F.I.. MANILLA
Mechanics and Carpenters Tools,
Builders , Foundry and Boat Supplies,
Table and Pocket Cutlery,
Plated Forks and Spoons,
PATENT THREE ROLLER MANGLES,
A FULL and WELL ASSORTED STOCK OF HARDWARE.
23 East Market Square, Toronto,
GROCER AND SHIP CHANDLER,
OAKUM, PAINTS and OILS.
Camping Parties* Outfits.
SOLICITED ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO.
JOHN MALLON & CO..
Nos. 12 to 16 ST. LAWRENCE MARKET,
HAVE ALWAYS ON HAND
MESS BEEF-CHOICEST BRANDS,
IN CAB LOTS OB SMALLER QUANTITIES.
HEAD OFFICE & STABLES, 11, 13, 15, 17 & 19 Mercer St.
Telephone No., 979.
BRANCH, 11 & 13 Queen St. East.
Telephone No., 933.
Visitors and Tourists -will study their own interest by send
ing all orders to us, and insure good turnouts at Tariff
Excurtlonists can order cabs by telephone from the Chicora " Office.
HIGHEST REFERENCE. OFFICES NEVER CLOSED.
TENTS, AWNINGS, FLAGS,
if OT*^lf^ %\ Tl fl W ) |/*v^T\y/^/\T
AND DIFFEEENT GRADES OF CANVAS ALWAYS ON HAND.
Special attention given to the requirements of Hunting and Fishing Camping
Parties. Tents for Sportsmen, or Compartment Tents for Families.
All correspondence by mail promptly answered and Price
Lists forwarded on application.
D. PIKE., 157 King St. East, Toronto, Ont.
MILLMAN & CO.,
(Late NOTMAN & PBASBB.)
41 KING STREET EAST,
MESSRS. MILLMAN & Co., have refitted the Studio through
out, and adopted all the newest improvements, making it the
finest Photographic establishment in Canada, and although
doing a superior class of work, their prices are low. All the
negatives of the late firm have been preserved.
Fine Guns, Fishing Tackle, Camping Goods, &e.
Just received a splendid assortment of Rods and Tackle ; also a complete line of Base Ball
supplies. Guns and tents rented. Price list free.
W. McDOWALL, 67 KING ST. EAST, TORONT o.
CAMPBELL & HILL,
TORONTO, HAMILTON AND OAKVILLE.
" SOUTHERN BELLE
Grand Trunk Railway.
Leave by boat and return by any train, or leave by train and return
Toronto to Hamilton and return, or vice versa, good one day, $1.25 ;
good three days, $L0; Saturday excursion good by boat Saturday to
return by train on Monday a.m., $].CO ; single fare by steamer, 75c.
Steamer will leave Mowat s Wharf daily (weather permitting) at 11
o clock a.m., and 5.30 p.m. For departure and arrival of trains see
G. T. R. time-table. Season trip tickets and bi-weekly excursions.
W1H. EDGAR, G.T.R. A. &, G. KEITH, Str. "Southern Belle."
JAMBS B. ELLIS & CO.,
Official, Government, Railway and City Timekeepers,
IMPORTEKS AND MANUFACTURERS OF
FINE GOLD WATCHES, JEWELLERY,
Sterling Silver and Plated Ware, Diamonds, French Clocks
and Bronzes, Split Seconds and Repeating Watches.
LARGEST STOCK IN THE PROVINCE. LOWEST PRICES.
ALL GOODS GUARANTEED.
IEL ELLIS & CO.,
No. 1 KING STREET EAST, TORONTO.
THE LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD.
Double Track, Steel Bails, Elegantly Equipped,
Affords you the finest view of
EAST OF THE ROCKIES.
Through the Famous Switzerland of America, Mauch Chunk, Glen Onoko, and
the beautiful Wyoming Valley.
ELEGjANT D/VY EXfRESS.
Solid Eastlake Train between New York or Philadelphia and Buffalo, Suspen
sion Bridge or Niagara Falls (daily except Sunday). Night Express
(Daily) between the same points.
CITY TICKET OFFICES :-
NEW YORK 235 Broadway. PHILADELPHIA 836 Chestnut Street.
BUFFALO Cor. Main and Seneca Streets.
Mauch Chunk, Pa. E. B. BYINGTON, Genl. Pass. Agt.
KING AND YORK STREETS,
J. C. PALMER, Proprietor,
ALSO OF KERBY HOUSE, BRANTFORD
This hotel is the most desirable for the merchant, the
lawyer, the business man, the pleasure tourist, as street cars
pass the doors to all parts of the city every five minutes,
and all the fashionable dry goods stores are located on King
Street. . Besides its superiority in point of location, it is the
Hotel of Toronto,
COMPLETE IN ALL ITS APPOINTMEMTS,
with magnificent parlors and bed-rooms, detatched and en-
Rates, - - $2.00 per day.
WM. M. COOPER,
69 BA.Y STREET, TORONTO,
desires to notify the public that he has added to his stock of Guns, Rifles
and Sporting Goods, a complete line of
OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS.
I keep only the "very best," and Sportsmen may rest assured that in
my Stock they can at all times find every requisite for Hunting or
MY WAREHOUSE, 69 BAY ST., TORONTO,
will in the future, as heretofore, be found the " Headquarters " for
everything in Sporting lines, and I guarantee satisfaction to all my
Manufacturers Agent and Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
GUNS, RIFLES, FISHING TACKLE,
and Sporting Goods of all kinds.
A new resort.
On west side of Big Island,
three and a half miles from
GEORGIAN BAY HOUSE
Exceptionally situated on hill
side overlooking the Bay.
(_ _ _ _
^Lf^h "*^ 11 -
dermere, close to the most
numerous groups of Islands.
GOOD BATHING & FISHING.
| able to visit the cele
HOT AND COLD WATEK BATHS.
Boats for hire on reason able I Summer visitors assured of every at-
terms. Post-Offlce on
For terms apply to
M. J. COLLINS,
Rate $1.50 per day. Special per week
LAKE NIPISSING, GEORGIAN BAY, GREAT MANITOULIN
CHANNEL, MACKINAO, SAULT STE. MARIE,
A GUIDE TO THE
BEST SPOTS FOR WATERSIDE RESORTS HOTELS -CAMPING
OUTFIT, FISHING AND SHOOTING -DISTANCES
AND ROUTES OF TRAVEL.
SECTIONAL MAPS OF THE LA.KES & ILLUSTRATIONS.
SECOND EDITION, WITH LATEST INFORMATION.
HUNTER, ROSE & CO., PRINTERS.
NORTH YORK PUBLIC LIBRART
NORTH BAY, LAKE NIPISSING.
The Sportsman s Home of Canada.
THE PACIFIC HOTEL.
GEO. H. MACKIE, Manager. JOHN BOURKE, Prop.
A new Hotel, well kept and furnished. Only 2^ miles from "Trout
Lake " Fishing Grounds. Rates and guides on application.
BUIRIK S F^LLS OISTT.
This new and comiiiodioii Tourists Hotel is pleasant
ly situated on the banks of the Maganetawan River-
80O feet above the level of Lake Ontario.
Good Fishing and Shooting in the immediate neigh
bourhood. Best furnished Hotel North of Toronto.
Electric bells throughout. A perfect Paradise for the
Tourist, Invalid and Sportsman. First-elass Commercial
FREE BUS TO AND FROM ALL TRAINS AND BOATS.
Terms, $1 50 to $2.00 per day.
D. P. BTJRK, Prop.
Entered according- to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand eight
hundred and eighty-six, by BARLOW CUMBERLAKD, in the office
of the Minister of Agriculture.
For Table of Contents, See page 196,
Big Joe 151
Big Twin 161
Buck , 144
Devil s Angle 151
Hardy s 116
Kahweambeteway amog 151
Little Joe 137
Little Round 142
Little Twin 151
Many Island 158
Morgan s 128
Nasbonsing 1 60d
Nipissing 158, 160e
Ontario . . 42
Ox Tongue 151
Parry Sound 163
Peninsula 147 i
Star 156, IQOg
St. John 88
Stony , 156, 1606
Temiscamingue ... 160e
Three Mile 122
Thunder Bay 179
Trout (Seguin chain) 156
Trout (Nipissing). 160/
Wanipitae , 160i
White Fish 140
White Stone 156
Black Creek 160c
French 156, 160ft
Huraber 47, 78
Hock Rock, 102
Joseph 131, 135
La Vase 160<2
Little Current 172
Mad 95, 168
Madawaska , 151, 1606
Maganetewan 145, 152
Moon 141, 171, 160<7
Muskoka N. Branch 146, 160a
Muskoka S. Branch 147
Niagara 15-40, 159
Nottawasaga 162, 169
Ottawa 151, 259
Seguin 140, 156, 1600
Sharp s Creek 148
South 156, 160c
St. Mary s 173
Sturgeon . 160e
Toronto 47, 159
Trent : 166
Walter s Creek 148
PLACES and HOTELS.
Ah Mic 155
Algonkin Park 160a
Algoma Mills 172
Barrie 81 |
Belle Ewart 81
Bruce Mines 173
Burk s Falls . . 152
Byng Inlet 155, 160&
Callandar 158, l60d
Collins Inlet 160A
Craigie-lea ..*... 136
Cuckoo Valley 169
Dee Bank 122
Deleware Valley 7
Depot Farm 155
Drummond Island 175
Dunbar s Falls 157
gwight . . . . . . 151
Fort George 39
" Niagara 33
Fort Rouille 43
St. Joseph 176
St. George 176
" Toronto 45
" William 1*.! 45
Forest Lake I60c
French River 160A
Georgetown , 94
Gore Bay . " 172
Gregory \\ . . 131
Holland Landing 79
Holland Marsh 80
Isle Royale 182
La Cloche 172
La Vase 153
Lefroy "" 1
Little Current 172
Mackinac ] 75
Manitoulin Island " 170
Manito waning ] 72
Meganoma , 153
Michipicton Island 177
Midland City 163
McKellar . . . 156, 160?
Mohawk Valley 7
Niagara Falls 12
Nipissing Junction . .
North Bay . //
Owen Sound 170
Parry Sound 163
Point Kaye 113
Port Arthur 180
" Anson 155
" Carling 118
" Cockburn 138
" Rosseau 123
" Sandfield 132
" Sydney 146
Queenston Heights 21
Kama , 86
Roach s point 81
Sault Ste. Marie 173
Severn Bridge 88
Shanty Bay 83
Silver Islet 178
Star Lake House 160<7
South River 160c
St. Ignace 178
St. Catharines 91
Sundridge 156, 1606
Toronto < 45
Walker s Point 117
Joseph au ..... , .......... 65
........ ...... -. 118
S U P E R /
Sault de Ste Marie
Matthews, Northrup & Co., Art-Printing Works,Buffalo,N.Y.
W /- Sturgeon Falls
ie T^J-N A-lsoma Mill?
I V 3B}"ug Inlet
ovt fJ"r\x* ,-_ , ,
v "^ i^wi* ^qrcA i
/ ^ A
The New District for -.
Copyright, 1886, Barlow Cumberland.
I ickei clL .
Lake of Bays
f. ff evert
THK WHIRLPOOL RAPIDS.
A Little Farther On.
It may fairly be said that there is scarcely a tourist who lands on
he shores of America, who does not visit NIAGARA FALLS, and
there are thousands of inhabitants of this Continent who feel impelled
to follow their example.
Not to have seen Niagara in these days of rapid communication,
is to admit one s self to be behind the age, therefore, it is, that as in
Europe, the old saying is, " All the roads lead to Rome," so on
this continent all the routes lead to Niagara Falls, and everybody
can go there if they will.
4 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The object of this little sketch may frankly be avowed to be that
when the visitor shall have reached Niagara, it may, by telling him
truthfully what there is beyond, encourage him to come a little farther
It may be he will come only to the mouth of the NIAGARA RIVER
and back. (See page 15). Here he will visit the most historic scenes
in this land, where every height tells some thrilling tale of martial
valour, of victory, or of death, and each succeeding turn of the wind
ing River opens out a vista of recollection or landscape beauty,
whose present peace makes pleasant the tale of past and stirring war.
Or, should he come from some inland country, where ponds are
called lakes, and little streamlets gurgle as rivers with high-sounding
names, let us tempt him to cross a Lake as large as many a salty sea,
and voyaging in an ocean-going steamer, for a short time lose sight of
land, upon a fresh water trip to the most busy and thriving city in
Canada. It is of itself a little episode, this rapid trip across the
In TORONTO, he will find a change of scene combining the push
and smart energy of the Yankee, with the solid and phlegmatic
surety of the Briton. A city of churches and fine public buildings,
of healthful moral tendencies, and broad streets studded with many
happy homes. The centre of the mental culture of the land, with
Public Libraries for the enquiring, Universities and Colleges for the
learned, and Parks and Island waterside resorts for the athletically
For many years the visitor to Canada has swept along the border,
taking the " Rapid " trip down the mighty St. Lawrence to the sea.
Let him be tempted to stay a while, and go a little farther on into
the interior of the country, to the " NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA,"
where primeval forests jostle close with summer hotels, and nature
can be studied and enjoyed, freed from the artificialities of every
day city life.
They are not places to which to go, for display of fine clothes or
many changes of raiment, to see dusty crowds hurry past in herds,
measuring their pleasures by the mileage over which they rush, but
they are places where within convenient and cheap distance of the
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
great highways, exist high
altitude and pure air, pretty
scenes and mingled land
and waterscape ; where
game laws are respected
and fishing carefully pre
served, as being the great
est source of attraction to
the work-worn city man ;
where rest from the busy
whirl can most surely be
obtained ; and whether it be
under the canvas covering
of the camp, or in the com
fortable bed of an unpre
tentious hotel, the
LANDING A MASKINONGK.
laden smell of the sighing pine and soft lappings of the little wave
lets on the quiet shores will lull the weary brain to sound and un
The District of the LAKES OF MUSKOKA, is a region of many,
many lakes of all sizes and forms, where canoeing and boating from
hamlet to hamlet along the shores, combines the safety of a scat
tered population with the wildness of uncultivated wastes. This is
no matter of choice or taste with the hardy settler, for nature has
so accumulated the rocks and wilds along the shores that only at inter
vening spots can sufficient breadth of soil be found on which to farm.
The Hotels are not great caravansaries, but moderate houses where
plain meals, fresh milk, cleanly rooms and comfortable as distinguished
from elegant accompaniments, are joined with moderate as distinguish
ed from high priced charges. This does not mean " Roughing it in the
Bush," but that the common simple wants are fully supplied, and the
extra velvets and sauces of city civilization are left at home. A glance
at the details hereinafter shown will tell at how little cost a whole
family can have a happy holiday for what indeed in other directions
would little more than pay their railway fares.
6 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
But should our tourist wish to stray still a little farther on and spend
his time in steamers on the Lakes, we will take him for day after day
upon the great upper water through the beauties of GEORGIAN BAY,
with its channels winding to the north of the Great Maniioulin Island,
in sheltered courses, but with unsullied winds fresh from their far off
homes in the now nearing North, so shall he reach Sault Ste. Marie,
or Mackinac and its many diverging routes, or sailing out upon the
broad expanse of the mighty LAKE SUPERIOR, the largest lake in all
the world, visit the lofty shores of Thunder Bay, Port Arthur and
Duluth, the "city of the unsalted seas."
Study, reader, these few leaves and learning that Canada is not
simply a strip along the coast, make up your mind to breathe a little
of the air beneath the Red Cross flag, and entering upon the border
venture yet- -a little farther on.
For the East and South.
It has been already said that from all points of America Rates and
Routes can be obtained to and from Niagara Falls, but there are
some railways which are preeminent in the numbers they transport
and in the territory they embrace, and as it may be useful to passen
gers taking the Niagara River Route from Toronto, some of these
may be mentioned.
THE HUDSON RIVER ROUTE.
Having crossed the lake by the Niagara Navigation Company s
steamer Chicora, direct connection is made at Lewiston with the
jVew York Central Railway. Baggage is examined on board and
checked to destination for holders of through tickets. Once upon
the express trains of the New York Central Railway, progress to the
Atlantic shore is swift and certain. The only four track railway in
America, two of its lines are given up entirely to passenger trains ;
the other two being occupied only by freight trains ; there are there
fore no trains to meet and no trains to pass, but a regular flow of traffic
moves uninterruptedly in one direction along each track. No wonder,
therefore, the wheels seem to ring along with unvarying regularity
THE NORTHmX LAKES OF CANADA. 7
like the steady beating of an unruffled heart. Keeping about the
course of the Erie Canal, through the level plains and salt pastures
of the Onondaga District, the picturesque Mohawk Valley is next fol
lowed from its rising waters, near Rome, to its junction with the
Hudson, near Albany. Thence the rails just above the level of the
river s surface follow the left banks of the noble Hudson, with all its
varied river craft and glorious scenery, passing through the "Gate
ways of the Catskills" and in front of the Palisades of its lower
reaches, to the great city, New York.
At Lewiston connection is made also with the West Shore Railway
the latest addition to the great Trunk lines under the same man
agement and direction as the New York Central ; it forms another
link through much the same line of country to Albany. From here
it follows down the opposite side of the river, skirting the west or right
bank of the great Hudson^ and sweeping along under the very foot of
the lofty mountains until at length, when near the lower end, it leaves
the river and curving into the midst of the valleys, makes a short
detour from the banks to return again opposite New York, to whose
streets the passenger is conveyed by ferry. With new and splendid
equipment and the most modern and instructed track alignment, its
claims on the traveller s patronage combine novelty with perfect per
Should passengers holding the Niagara Navigation Company s
tickets to New York, by either of these Railways, so desire they can
break their journey at Albany and go down the river by the palatial
steamers of the Day Line.
The Eastern shores of Massachusets and Boston are reached by
train from Albany.
THE DELAWARE VALLEY ROUTE.
At Niagara-on-the-Lake the steamer makes direct connection
with the Michigan Central Railway, whose trains run alongside on
the dock. By these, at Suspension Bridge, on the Canadian side,
junction is made with the Express trains of the far-famed Erie R. R.
Having crossed " the Bridge" the trains follow the shore to Buffalo ;
from here begins the scenery which has created the name and re-
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
nown of " Picturesque Erie." At Portage, from the lofty bridge
THE STARUCCA VIADUCT.
which spans the cleft, a complete view is gained of the dizzy cliffs
three hundred feet sheer in height, and of the Genesee River, wind
ing far away below. Farther on are the valleys of the Chenango and
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. <>
Susquehanna Rivers, with rifts and mountain crags, and rushing
streams, where views abound which artists have come from afar to
reproduce, and the massive arches of the Starucca Viaduct act as a
foil to the surrounding scene.
Over the heights and nearer the Atlantic shore, the fair vales of the
Delaware bring the swift train to Jersey City and New York. The
Erie is celebrated for the excellence of its cars and completness of its
equipments which are unsurpassed by any. Direct connections are
made by it with the Lehigh Valley R. R. for Philadelphia and Wash
ington by a route proverbial for its beauty.
Travellers to or from the South shores of Lake Erie on the Lake
Shore and Michigan Southern R. R., or on any railway system passing
through Buffalo, can obtain at all principal Railway stations, tickets
via the Niagara River to Toronto.
To and From the West.
OF the great highways between Chicago, Detroit, Niagara Falls
and Buffalo, there is none that has sprung more quickly into life,
vigour and the appreciation of the travelling public than the Michi
gan Central Railway. An air line from lake to lake, with only one
curve in each hundred miles ; a track made and laid as good as good
can be ; cars of the finest and engines of the swiftest, it has earned a
record for speed, successful punctuality and safety, that brings grist
to its mill, increasing every day that it runs. It was a bi% bang when,
in May, 81, Cornelius Vanderbilt swept over the road two hundred
and twenty-nine miles in two hundred and thirty-five minutes, but
they " Outbanged Bannager when the " Parsons/ on their special
train, made one hundred and eleven miles in one hundred and nine
minutes, beating the " Commodore s " time by three minutes over
the same part of the road ! As we are not all Railway Magnates or
Angels in disguise, it isn t to be supposed that we, too, shall fly along
at this rate, but instances such as these prove the character of the
road, and account for the unwarying reliability with which it does its
duty to its patrons.
TRE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
But the Picturesque is not forgotten in the Practical, and the
managers have not failed to avail themselves of the unexampled
natural advantages which the location of the railway presents.
MICHIGAN CENTRAL TKAIN PASSING FALLS VIEW STATION.
At Falls View the rail follows the brink of the Niagara River just
where the waters begin to hurry to the brink of the cataract. And
here, on the lofty bank, a station platform has been placed, at which
all trains stop, giving passengers ten minutes in which to alight and
enjoy the view of the falls.
The whole panorama lies at one glance before the eye, and the
onlooker almost shrinks back from the stout railing of the platform
as, watching the eddying waves, he peers over the edge of the
seething gulf into which they are relentlessly thrown.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The most hurried traveller, whose time does not permit his
stopping over to pay a visit in detail to Niagara, may feel assured
that in these few minutes which the Michigan Central Company give
him in his way between the east and the west, he has indeed seen
A PEEP AT THE AMERICAN FALL.
12 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
IT is not within the scope of this little guide to give enlarged
mention of the beauties and scenery about Niagara Falls, such
information being better obtained from the local guide-books ; but a
few notes may be useful to visitors. |
But a short time since Niagara Falls had gained an unenviable
notoriety for the expenses if not indeed to be termed extortions-
which obliged every visitor to pay for the privilege of obtaining
access to any point from which the Falls could be viewed.
Particularly was this the case on the American side, but now all
has been changed, and " Free Niagara" calls all the world to come
and view its beauties, now restored to their primitive condition, as
the greatest wonder of Nature on the Continent
In 1885 the State of New York appropriated $1,433,000 to the
purchase of the lands surrounding the cataract ; the Province of
Ontario is engaged in the same work on the Canadian side.
To see the falls thoroughly used to cost for admissions over $5 ;
but now the whole is thrown open free, excepting, of course, such
extras as passing under the Falls or crossing the ferry, or over the
Suspension Bridge. A visitor can conveniently visit the whole on
foot, or take the line of street cars which run between the Whirlpool
and the Cataract. There are thousands who have been at " the
Falls," yet have never seen the Falls ; a re-visit will now be in order,
and more happiness be obtained than was possible when every step
had to be paid for, and every peep cost a sigh.
Visitors from Torouto can leave in the morning by steamer and
after spending five hours at the falls, can return and arrive home
again early the same evening.
There is such a magnitude of interest, such a constant variety of
wonders, that neither mind nor eye becomes satiated with watching
the wondrous cataract or its surrounding scenes.
With such facilities for travel, it is better to take several visits and
study each portion in detail,
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The little map which here appears, gives a list of all the places
which should be visited, and aided by it, the visitor can easily find
his way about.
Passengers via Niagara take the Michigan Central R.R. (late
C.S.R.) The depot is near the Clifton House, on the Canadian side.
Passengers via Lewis ton, on the American side, take New York
Central R.R. The depot is marked " 8 " on the plan.
2. Clift-iH Htun.
3. Whirlpool R
4. Old Whirlpool.
5. frosprct Part.
8. Falli Haiti,
4. Upper Suipfnti jn
- Canada Southern JZrirlfff.
C. Lnvitr Suspension
[>. Tart, Hi,l,r
F. Viiiil Miit
POINTS OF INTEREST AT THE FALLS.
The expense of visiting Niagara Falls, other than the amount paid
for travelling, depends entirely upon the habits or fancy of the
visitor. The cost of seeing the place is now nothing. A tariff has
been arranged for cabs, and good bargains can often be made by
those who wish to drive.
There are numerous restaurants where good meals can be obtained
at reasonable rates, and hotels exist of every variety, from $i to $4
per day. No doubt the old pastime of staying at the Falls, instead of
hurrying away from them, will once more return, now that the expenses
of seeing the place can be applied to paying the hotel bill, or, perhaps,
in purchasing some memento of the visit. In this latter respect,
don t fail to see "Libbie and Katie."
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
ON THE CANADIAN SIDE.
On the Canadian side, upon the edge of the new park and on the
verge of the cliff with its spacious verandahs facing the American
Falls, stands the Clifton House. The pillars of the verandahs may
be noted as being
formed each from the
single trunk ot so
many giant pines. In
earlier days whole
part of these magni
ficent trees covered
the adjacent shores
and on not a few of
the porticos of the
more important resi
dences will similar use
be seen to have
been made of their
THE CLIFTON HOUSE.
PRINCIPAL HOTELS AT NIAGARA FALLS.
Cataract House ...... American side ............. Capacity 750
Goat liland Hotel . . .
Clifton House Canadian side ...
Brunswick House ....
Robinson House .... "
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The Niagara River.
Between the Falls and Lake Ontario.
There are two routes by which the visitor can travel between
Buffalo, Niagara Falls and Toronto. The one on the American side
of the River, by the New York Central R. R., to Lewiston, the
other on the Canadian side, (see page 27), by the Michigan Central
R. R.. to Niagara-on-the-Lake.
ALONG THE AMERICAN
The New York Cen
tral skirts the shores of
the River on the Ameri
can side, and just after
passing the Suspension
Bridge Station curves
sharply round and leav
ing the level open land
dips into and runs
along a shelf or ledge
which has been boldly
cut out from the face of
the mighty cleft through
which the River runs
downwards to the lake.
On the one side the
cars hug close to the
towering cliff, on the
other, far down below, over the debris and the blocks of tossed and
shattered rocks the waters are seen swirling along in the tumultuous
foamings of the WHIRLPOOL RAPIDS. The train is in the very gorge
itself; a glimpse is caught of the sullen solemn whirlpool where the
mighty flood arrested for a time in its downward rush slowly circles
around, chafing and grinding against the confining barriers ; suddenly
it reaches the long sought for outlet and springing anew into re-invig-
MAP NIAGAEA KIVER.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
oured life, dashes the beads of foam from its exultant waves high into
the air, and gleefully resumes its onward rapid course. Now slipping
through tunnels under the projecting cliffs, now sweeping in curves
around the jutting headlands and giving distant vistas up and down
the stream and of
the glorious view
over the border
land towards the
lake, the train
proaches the wa
ters surface ; the
broken remains of
come into view,
and high above,
the monument to
head of naviga
tion, is seven miles
from the Falls, and
the visitor walks
from the railway to
the deck of the Ni
agara Company s
for him at the
Great care is
along this portion
THE NEW YORK CENTRAL IN THE GORGE. of the railway,and,
never has any accident occurred. The steamer turns in the eddy of
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. IT
he rapids which close just a little above the dock. On the opposite
shore is Queenston and the scene of the battle of Queenston
Heights. The first point below the town is Vrooman s Point, and
now for another seven miles the river winds in many curves between
high and wooded banks, along the edge of which are seen comfort
able mansions set in the midst of the peach orchards, which have
made the district a very fruit garden ; three miles from the mouth is
Three mile run where the Canadians crossed to attack Fort Niagara,
and at the mouth itself are the American village of Youngstown,
and on the opposite shore Niagara-on-the Lake. Beyond them are
seen the blue waters of Lake Ontario.
The "Gorge" of Niagara.
By the Duke of Argyll.
" A very curious question, and one of great scientific interest arises
out of the great difference between the course of the Niagara River
above and below the Falls. It has in my opinion, been much too
readily assumed by geologists that rivers have excavated the valleys
in which they run. The cutting power of water is very great, but it
varies in proportion to the liability of floods, and the wearing power
of stones that may be carried along : much also depends on the posi
tion of the rocks over which a river runs. If the stratification pre
sent edges which are easily attacked or undermined, even a gentle
stream may cut rapidly for itself a deeper bed. On the other hand
when the rocks do not expose any surfaces which are easily assail
able a very large body of water may run over them for ages without
being able to scoop out more than a few feet or even a few inches.
Accordingly such is actually the case with the Niagara River in
the upper part of its course from Lake Erie to the Falls. In all the
ages during which it has run in that course for fifteen miles it has not
been able to remove more than a few feet of soil or rock. The
country is level, and the banks are very low, so low that in looking
TEE NOETEEEN LAKES OF CANADA.
up the bed of the stream the more distant trees on either bank seem
to rise out of the water.
THE PRECIPICE AT THE HORSE-SHOE FALLS.
But suddenly in the middle of the comparatively level country the
river encounters a precipice, and thence forward for seven miles runs
through a profound cleft or ravine the bottom of which is not less
than 300 feet below the general level of the country.
How came that precipice to be there ? This would be no puzzle
at all if the precipice were joined with a sudden change in the gen
eral level of the country on either side of the river and there is
NORTHERN LAKES OP CANADA. 19
such a change but it is not at the Falls. It is seven miles further
At the Falls there is no depression in the general level of the banks.
Indeed, on the Canadian shore, the land rises very considerably just
above the Falls. On the American shore it continues at the same
elevation. The whole country here, however, is a table-land, and
that table-land has a termination an edge over which the river
must fall before it can reach Lake Ontario.
But that edge does not run across the country at Niagara Falls,
but along a line much nearer to Lake Ontario, where it is a conspicu
ous feature in the landscape, and is called Queenston Heights.
The natural place, therefore, so to speak, for the Falls would have
been where the river came to that edge, and from that point the river
has all the appearance of having cut its way backward in the course-
Sir Charles Lyell, the eminent geologist, came to the conclusion,
from comparison of the rate at which the cutting back had been ob
servable within the memory of man, that this cutting back is about
one foot in each year. At this rate the river would have taken 35,-
ooo years to effect its retreat from Queenston to the present position
of the Falls.
This is but a very short fathom-line to throw out into the abysmal
depths of geological time, and making every allowance for the pos
sibility of any differences in rate, according to variations of tempera
ture or configuration, the principle of the calculation seems to be a
The strata or layers of rock which compose the geological forma
tion can readily be seen in the gorge of the river, and the process
by which the cataract has eaten its way back from Queenston can be
readily perceived. At the level of the brink of the Falls, where the
waters make their final plunge, are thick, regular and flat layers of
limestone rock. Above and below these is soft soluble shale. The
running water wearing away the upper deposits makes the inequalities
which cause the rapids above the Falls, and the reverberation and
splash of the torrent as it falls, have disintegrated and washed out the
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
THE " LEDGE " FROM THE AMERICAN SIDE,
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 21
soft red shale below, so that the limestone ledge is left in over,
hanging masses until they break off with their own weight, and piece
after piece dropping into the depths beneath, the Falls continue their
ceaseless march commenced so many centuries ago.
This deep groove does seem to be a clear case of a ravine produc
ed by a known cause which can be seen now in actual operation.
As far as I could see, there is nothing to indicate that the ravine is
due to a * fault " or a crack arising from subterranean disturbance,
but the work has been done by the process which has been described,
and 35,000 years is, after all, but an insignificant fraction of what has
been occupied in the operations of geological time."
Queenston Heights where the Falls once were.
If the Cataract of Niagara had continued to be where it once was,
it would have given additional splendour to one of the most beautiful
landscapes of the world. Instead of falling, as it now does, into a
narrow chasm, where it cannot be seen a few yards from either bank,
it would have poured its magnificent torrent over a higher range of
cliff, and would have shone for hundreds of miles over land and sea.
The steep line of heights above Queenston form the termination or
escarpement of the comparatively high, table-land of the upper
Lakes. On the summit of the ridge has been erected
BROCK S MONUMENT.
This magnificent structure was erected by his grateful countrymen,
to the memory of the brave General, who gallantly fell in the action
which took place here on the i3th of October, 1812. The spot near
a thorn bush, where he received his death wound, is further down
the side of the hill, and marked by a monumental stone. The re
mains of the General, which had been interred in Fort George, at
Niagara, together with those of his faithful aide camp, Lt-Col. John
22 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
McDonell, were in 1824 removed and placed beneath the first monu
ment at that time erected. This having in 1840 been seriously
damaged with explosives by a vandal named Lett, public sentiment
was aroused and by a spontaneous movement, the necessary sum was
immediately raised for the present unique structure.
The previous monument was erected by a grant from the Parlia
ment of the Province, this one, from the voluntary contributions of
the Militia and Indian warriors of the country.
On the 1 3th of October, 1853, the remains of the revered dead
were again removed, to be placed where they now lie in massive stone
sarcophogi beneath the column.
To gather some idea of the fervour which has raised so distin
guished a memorial, we may quote from the speeches made on the
spot, where twenty-eight years after his death it was determined that
this second memorial should be raised. Speaking to the assembly
some 8,000 in number, which had come enthusiastically from all
parts of the province, Mr. Justice Macaulay, who had served under
Brock, said, " Looking at the animated mass covering these sacred
heights in 1840, to do honour for a war in 1812, now old in history,
one is prompted to ask, How comes it that the gallant General has left
so lasting an impression in the hearts of his countrymen, how comes it
that the fame of Brock thus floats down the stream of time, broad,
deep and fresh as the waters of the famed river with whose waves it
might be almost said his life s blood mingled ? In reply, we might
dwell on his civil and military virtues, his patriotic self-devotion, his
chivalrous gallantry and his triumphant achievements.
Still, there was more that gave him talismanic influence and ascen
dancy over his fellow men, and which he wielded for his country s
good. His was the mind instinctively to conceive and promptly to
d are incredible things to feeble hearts. With skill and bearing he
infused his chivalrous and enterprising spirit into all his followers and
impelled them to realize whatever he boldly led the way to accom
Sir John Beverley Robinson, then the venerable Chief Justice, but
who, as a young man had fought with distinction alongside the de-
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 23
ceased General, on the fatal, yet, glorious day, so long before, gave
" It has been sometimes objected, that General Brock s cour
age was greater than his prudence, that his attack on Detroit,
though it succeeded, was most likely to have failed, and that a
similar rashness was displayed in the manner of his death. Those
who lived here while these events were passing, can form a
truer judgment ; they know that what to some may seem rashness,
was, in fact prudence, unless, indeed the defence of Canada was to be
abandoned in the almost desperate circumstances in which, General
Brock was placed. He had with him but a handful of men who had
never been used to military discipline, few indeed who had seen ac
tual service, and he knew it must be some time before any reinforce
ment could be sent him. He felt, therefore, his cause was hopeless,
unless he could impress this truth upon the enemy, that whenever a
General with but a few gallant soldiers, and the brave defenders of
the soil could be assembled against them, they must retire from the
land which they had invaded. If he had begun to compare numbers
and had reserved his small force, in order to make a safer effort on a
future day, then would thousands of the people from the neighbour
ing States have been found pouring into this Province. True, he fell
in discharging a duty which might have been committed to a subor
dinate hand. True, he might have reserved himself for a more de
liberate and stronger effort ; but he felt that hesitation might be ruin,
that all depended upon his dauntless courage and self-devotion. It
is true his gallant course was arrested by a fatal wound, such is the
fortune of war, but the people of Canada did not feel that his pre
cious life was therefore thrown away, deeply as ihey deplored his fall.
His was an inflexible integrity, an honesty of character, uncommon
energy and decision, and above all, an entire devotion to his country.
In short, I believe I shall best convey an impression of him, when I
say that it would have required mtfre courage to refuse to follow
General Brock, than to go with him wherever he would lead.
From these we can learn the estimate in which he was held.
Long may this memorial remain to record the gallant deeds, and re.
24 THE NORTHMEN LAKES OF CANADA.
mind the youth of Canada ever to be ready to emulate his and their
Fathers valour in gallant defence of their happy native land.
is of massive stone, in the base, entered by an oaken door, are two gal
leries on the north and south sides of which are the tombs of the
illustrious dead. From the ground to the gallery at the top is a cir
cular staircase of cut stone with 235 steps, and the magnificent view
of the surrounding country is obtained through the circular wreathed
openings. From the exterior the column is of the Roman composite
order, with a sculptured capital containing figures of victory holding
military shields. On the summit is a collossal statue of the Hero in
military uniform, the left hand resting on the sword, the right hand
extended with baton.
The height from the ground is 190 feet, exceeding that of any other
monumental column, either ancient or modern, with the single excep
tion of that of the Great Fire of London, which exceeds it by only
On the exterior of the base are lions rampant, and on the side
facing Queenston, the battle scene, in alto relievo.
The grounds are well laid out, and on the gates are the arms of the
The caretaker s lodge is close by, and a small fee is charged for
Comparative heights of some principal monuments of the same
kind, ancient and modern.
Trajans pillar, Rome n5-o
Antonine column, Rome 123.
Duke of York s column, London 137.
Monument of Great Fire, London 202. .
Napoleon column, Paris 132.
Vendome column, Paris 156.
Alexander column, St. Petersburgh 176.6
Nelson s column, Trafalgar Square, London 171.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
THE VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT.
Having clambered to the summit of the heights, and ascended to
the top of the monument, a scene is met with, than which, few others
in America leave such an impression on the mind. It is altogether
26 THE NORTHERN LkKES OF CANADA.
peculiar, unlike anything in the Old World, and such as few spots
can command in the New.
One great glory of the American continent is its Lakes and rivers.
But they are generally too large to make much impression on the
eye. The rivers are often so broad as to look like lakes without
their picturesqueness, and the lakes are so large as to look like the
Sea, but without so great grandeur. Another great glory of America,
is its vast breadths of habitable surface. But these again, are also so
vast that there are few spots indeed, whence they can be seen and
estimated. But from the heights of Queenston, both these great
features are spread out before the eye after a manner in which they
can be taken in. The steep bank below is covered with thaja occi
dentals commonly called the cedar. Looking to the north-east, the
horizon is occupied by the blue waters of Lake Ontario, which form
the sky-line. But on either hand, the shores can be seen bending
round the Lake to an illimitable distance, and losing themselves in
fading tints of blue. To the left, turning towands the north-west, the
fair Province of Ontario stretches in immense plains and escarpe-
ments of the same table-land.
The whole of this immense extent of country has the aspect of a
land comfortably settled, widely cultivated and beautifully clothed
with trees. Towns and villages are indicated by little spots of gleam
ing white, by smoke, and a few church spires.
On the Canadian shore, and forty miles away over the deep Lake,
the City of Toronto is sometimes distinctly visible, when the atmo
sphere is clear, the elevation of the height overcoming the inter
vening distance. At our feet the magnificent river of the Niagara
emerges from its ravine, into the open sunlight of the plains, and
winds slowly in long reaches of lonely green, and round a succession
of low-wooded capes into the vast waters of Ontario. The contrast
is very striking between the perfect restfulness of the current here,
and the tormented violence of its course at the Falls, and the Rapids.
The wide landscape seen from Brock s monument along the shores
of Lake Ontario, on both sides of the river as far as the eye can
reach, exhibits throughout the same characteristic features,
S THE TRUE
JS THE TRUE
Sportsman s Route,
JS THE TRUE
Tourist s Route,
Invalid s Route,
S THE TRUE 3
S THE TRUE ^
for a Guide of this truly wonderful line. e
W. R. CALLAWAY, Dist. Pass. Agt, 110 King St. West, TORONTO, OUT. e
W. C VAN HORNE, GEO. OLDS, D. McNICOLL, y
Vice- President. Geril Traffic Manager. Gerfl Pass, Agent*
THE ONLY STEAMERS ON
PARRY SOUND NAVIGATION CO.
STEAMERS "MAXWELL" AND "CHICOUTIMV
Connecting with Northern and North-Western Railroad.
Leave Midland and Penetang on arrival of morninar trains from Toronto.
Returning, Leave Parry Sound 6 a.m. daily, except Sunday.
THROUGH ALL THE ISLANDS BY DAYLIGHT.
For Rates and Tickets apply to all Agents N. & N.-W. R. R., and
Barlow Cumberland, John Pearse,
35 Yonge Street, Toronto. Manager, Parry Harbor.
This New Hotel favourably situated, facing the waters of the
Bay, is cool, airy and well proportioned.
A PLEASANT SUMMER RESIDENCE.
TERMS ; SI. 00 to $1.50 per day, according to location. Special
Kates for Summer Residents-
H. COWAtf, Proprietor.
NORTH AMERICAN HOTEL,
J. AVERY, - - Proprietor.
Every attention to Tourists and Pleasure-Seekers,
Superior Accommodation to the General Public-
BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURERS,
ELEOTEOTYPEES AND STEKEOTYPERS,
25 Wellington Street West,
Spacious Parlours overlooking
THE LEADING HOTEL.
WHITNEY & JERRA11LI),
ADJOINING THE NATIONAL
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ALL MODERN EQUIPMENTS.
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OF EVEEY DESCRIPTION.
The Largest and Only Complete Stock in tie Dominion,
COMPRISING THE FOLLOWING :
Rubber Sportsman s Boots.
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Air Pillows and Air Beds
Life Preservers (the
" Ivlursery Sheeting.
Clothing (of all kinds.)
Horse Covers and
Gloves (the greatest in
vention *of the age,
price only $1.50 per
Bands and Rings.
Hats and Caps.
Ladies Gossamer Circulars and
Cloaks, from the very
cheapest to the very
Rubber Ice Bags.
Cotton and Linen Hose,
" Packing (all kiuds).
" Lawn Hose (over 75,000
feet in stock).
Car and Waggon Springs
" Gaskets and Rings.
Buckets and Pails.
RUBBER BELTING, PACKING AND HOSE.
RUBBER, COTTON AND LINEN HOSE.
Go to the great Rubber Warehouse for genuine goods such
as are sold by an exclusive Rubber Store.
THE TORONTO RUBBER COMPANY,
AGENTS FOR THE CUTTA PERCHA AND RUBBER MF C. CO Y.
(MANNING ARCADE) - KING STREET WEST,
T O R O 3V T O .
THE NOETHEEN LAKES OF CANADA. 27
They are features eminently picturesque, combining the aspects of
wildness with the impression of exuberant fertility, and of boundless
Peaceful may they ever both remain.
The Niagara River, along the Canadian Side.
The Michigan Central R. R., after crossing the river near Black
Rock on the International Bridge, skirts the bank, and passing
" Falls View" as previously described, reaches the Niagara Falls
station, within a stone s throw of the Clifton House, Wesley Park
and the river banks. Two miles nearer Lake Ontario is Clifton or
Suspension Bridge, where are the suspension and cantilever bridges
and the junction with the Erie R. R. Soon the track, after running
alongside the Grand Trunk R. R. for a few miles, dips suddenly
under and, emerging, begins to wind slowly down the mountain side.
Far below lie, laid out before the eye, the fertile and well tilled farms
of fruit and grain, orchards and sheep-dotted pastures of the "Garden
District of Canada ;" above, upon the summit ridge, boldly stands
out against the sky Brock s Monument. Having reached the lower
level the train runs through a succession of vineyards and peach
groves and gains the river at
Alongside the dock are the steamers of the Niagara Navigation
Company. This old town, in early days called Newark, was once
the seat of Government and the Capital of Upper Canada whose
first Parliament used to here hold its sittings. Now it is principally
a place of summer resort. Upon the blufif headland facing the fresh
breezes of the Lake is the " Queen s Royal Hotel," a first-class house
kept in first-class style, by the proprietors of the " Queen s Hotel,"
Toronto. A capital beach for bathing, unlimited fishing celebrated
for enormous " bass," good boating, excellent roads and pleasant
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
THE, QUEEN S ROYAL HOTEL.
drives in a surrounding district of romantic and historic interest
make a stay at " Niagara-on-the-Lake" most enjoyable. The Satur
day evening " Hops" at the hotel are largely patronized by the resi
dent American and Canadian Garrisons and the squadrons of the
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 29
" Royal Canadian" and " Toronto" Yacht Clubs are constant visitors.
Many visitors from the Southern States spend their summer here
and the Canadian Chatauqua holds its meetings in a large pavilion
not far from the hotel
There are many pleasant private residences in the town, and the
steamers of the Navigation Company keeping up a swift and constant
service the " Society" of Toronto moves out en masse during the sum
mer, so that Niagara- on-the-Lake has become almost a suburb of
On the opposite bank of the river is Youngstown, with pleasant
groves for picnicers and the headquarters and rifle ranges of the
American forces of the Buffalo District, whose barracks are in the
white-walled Fort Niagara.
The Battle of " Queenston Heights."
The surroundings of Niagara teem with historic reminiscences.
Here sat the first Parliament of Canada, meeting in primitive sim
plicity beneath the shade of a spreading oak. Here were the
headquarters of the garrison, and gallant soldier courted pretty maid
in the festive days of the Capital of Upper Canada. But there were
more stirring scenes than these, and deeds of valour took the place
of sports of love.
Among the renowned of the many strifes along the River was the
battle of Queenston Heights fought on the i3th of October, 1812.
The two countries had drifted into war ; and on the morning of the
nth the Americans assembled a strong force at Lewiston, under
General Rensselaer, with a view of making an attack upon Queen
ston. In addition to 800 men in garrison at Fort Niagara, there were
5,300 men under his command along the banks of the river. The
Canadian force on the Western bank consisted of 1500 men, includ
ing Indians. Early on the morning of Tuesday, the i3th, their troops
put off in thirteen boats and boldly crossed the rapid river, covered
by a battery of two 18, two 6-pounders, and two field pieces, which
they had placed on the high bank to the left of where the hotel now
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
stands completely commanding every part of the opposite shore from
which a landing could be effectually opposed. The Canadian bat
teries were one i8-pounder, high up on the Queenston Heights, and
another 24-pound carronade, placed a little below the village, at Vroo-
man s Point. Three of the boats put back, while the remaining ten
struck the shore a little above the village, and then returned for more
troops. The Canadian force in Queenston consisted of two compan
ies of the 4Qth Regiment and the "York Volunteer Militia" altogether
about 300 men. These, under Captain Dennis, advanced with a
3-pounder against the first division of the enemy under Colonel Van
Rensselaer, who had formed his men near the river and was awaiting
the arrival of the next boats. The Americans were driven with some
loss behind a steep bank close to the water s edge, where they were
reinforced with a fresh supply of troops, and returned the fire of the
Canadians, who, stationed on the brow of the hill, fired down upon
A turn now took place
in the course of the battle,
for a strong detachment of
the Americans, under Cap
tain Wool, passing un per
ceived around a point of
the river, ascended the
rocks by a path which had
been considered impass
able, and gaining the crest
of the Heights thus took
the i8-pounder battery in
rear. Captain Dennis was
now compelled, with con.
siderable loss, to retire to
Meantime Sir Isaac
H Brock, in Niagara, hear-
"^S -if- I
-* ling the cannonade, and
WHERE WOOL LANDED,
THE NORTHERN LAKES ^OF CANADA. 31
thinking that the attack at Queenston was only a feint to draw
the garrison out of Fort George which was then to be attacked by
the main body of the Americans, whom, he understood, were con
cealed in boats around the point on which Fort Niagara stands,
determined to ride out himself and see how matters were before
moving any of his troops.
Arriving with his two aides-de-camp at Queenston, he found the
Americans who had in the interval been strongly reinforced, and
were about i.ooo in number in possession of the Heights. Orders
were despatched to General Sheaffe to bring up reinforcements from
Fort George and to bombard Fort Niagara, which latter was done
with such effect that its fire was silenced, and it was abandoned by
its garrison. Although his available force numbered but 300, General
Brock determined to retake the Heights, and, dismounting, charged
at the head of his men. With impetuous rush, and despite the
superior numbers, the hill was being carried I
But now the gallant Brock, struck by a bullet in the breast, fell
near a thorn-bush, which marks the spot, and giving his last order,
" Push on the York Volunteers 1" lived only long enough to express
the wish that his fall might not be made known to his men. Gal
lantly breasting the Height, his aide-de-camp, Lieutenant-Colonel
Macdonell, the Attorney- General of the Province, next was mortally
wounded when charging on up the hill and leading the York Volun
teers. The battery was retaken, the i8-pounder spiked, and the
Americans driven back to the edge of the cliff. Here some of their
officers, hoisting a handkerchief upon a bayonet, were about to sur
render, when Captain Wool valiantly tore it off, and, re-animating
his men, opened a heavy fire. Inferior in numbers, their leaders
fallen, and one-third of their men killed or wounded, the Canadians
were now again compelled to retire, taking with them the body of
the General, to the village of Queenston, there to await the expected
The Americans remained in quiet possession of the Heights for
some hours, during which they did not receive many reinforcements,
the events of the morning which had gone on in full view before their
32 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
eyes, and the return to their side of many of the wounded causing,
on the part of those who were left behind, a general disinclination
to come across to the support of their comrades.
General SheafFe now arrived from Fort George with nearly 400 of
the 4ist Regiment, 300 Militia, and 250 Indians, and leaving two
field pieces in front of Queenston for its protection, marched off to
the right by a circuitous route, and thus getting to the crest of the
heights on which the Americans were posted, took them in flank. In
numbers the two sides were about equal, and the courage of both un
questioned. The onset again commenced. The Indians, being
more active in ascending the hill and passing through the woods,
came first into contact, and, being repulsed, fell back on the
main body, when the whole, advancing at the charge with a
cheer, the Americans, after a short resistance, gave way and fled
down the hill towards the landing place. Some who attempted
to escape into the woods were driven back by the Indians, and
many, cut off in their retreat, clinging to the bushes, went down the
cliffs ; some, losing their hold, were dashed upon the rocks beneath ;
and many others, reaching the river, perished in their attempt to swim
across. The boats had been dispersed, the boatmen, panic stricken,
having disappeared so that all retreat was cut off.
A flag of truce was now sent, and Brigadier Wadsworth and 950
men, surrendering unconditionally, were made prisoners.
All this proved the good results of General Brock s impetuous
dash, for had the Americans not been attacked as they were, their
reinforcements would have poured across the river and from their
far superior numbers would have been able to over run the frontier.
The victory had been dearly gained by the loss of the General ;
and a three days armistice to bury their dead being asked by the
Americans, it was agreed to.
On the 1 5th General Brock was buried in one of the bastions of
Fort George, with all military honours, and, with much generosity,
minute guns, from the American Fort Niagara which had been re-
occupied by its garrison, were fired during his funeral as a mark of
respect due to a brave enemy."
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 33
Such was the befitting close of the action so gallantly fought on
both sides, and on condition of the Americans destroying their boats,
which they at once did, the armistice was indefinitely prolonged.
The Niagara was freed from the invader s presence and Brock rests
in memory " The Saviour of his Country."
LrNES ON THE DEATH OF BROCK.
As Fame alighted on the mountain s crest,
She loudly blew her trumpet s blast ;
Ere she repeated Victory s notes she cast
A look around, and stopped : Of power bereft,
Her bosom heaved, her breath she drew with pain
Her favourite Brock lay slaughtered on the plain !
Glory threw on his grave a laurel wreath,
And Fame proclaims, " A Hero sleeps beneath."
The Forts of Niagara.
The Forts, as now existing, are : On the American side, fort
Niagara, whose white walls tower over the meeting of the river and
the lake ; on the Canadian side, Fort Missasaga, whose decaying
central tower peeps above the banks near the entrance of the river,
and Fort George, whose bastions are barely recognizable in the grass-
grown mounds into which their earthen walls have decayed, and
crown the hill-tops just behind the steamboat landing. If for no
other purpose, it would at least have been due to their historic past
that these old monuments of gallant deeds should have been better
It will be interesting to note how often the sites of these forti
fications have changed hands with the varying results of war.
THE EARLY STRUGGLES.
Happily these are times of peace ; and the shores of this historic
river are now given over to pleasure-seekers and the placid tillers of
34 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
the soil. But in earlier days it was far different, and the mouth of
the river, as commanding the best practicable route of transport
between the East and West, was the scene of many a conflict.
The Indians Senecas, Onondagas, Iroquois, and Missasagas
(ought with one another for its possession, and against them all came
the invading whites. As mourned Tecumseh,
" The Great Spiiit gave
The red men this wide continent as theirs,
And in the East another to the white ;
But, not content at home, these crossed the sea,
And drove our fathers from their ancient seats.
Their sons in turn are driven to the lakes,
And cannot further go unless they drown." Mair.
THE FRENCH OCCUPATION.
The French, having entered the St. Lawrence in 1534, had, by
means of the connecting waters of the Ottawa, extended their alli
ances with the natives in the region of the upper waters of Lakes
Huron and Superior. For many years this was their sole route to
the North-west, and it was not until 1669 that the southern route by
the Niagara River and Lake Erie was discovered ; and even then, as
the shores were occupied by hostile tribes, they could not avail
themselves of it. In 1684, the Northern tribes sent 500 of their
warriors to the mouth of the Niagara River, there to meet the
French forces, who, under Chevalier de la Barre, were to join
them in occupying this, the central, point of their proposed new
line of communication ; but being intercepted on their way at
Frontenac (now Kingston), by the Senecas and Iroquois who occu
pied the southern shores of Lake Ontario the French were beaten
and retired again to Montreal, and their northern allies were then
forced to return unsuccessful to their own countries.
In 1687 the French again advanced, and, having defeated the
Senecas in a series of pitched battles in which they were aided by
the northern Indians from Mackinac succeeded in erecting a
wooden fort on the spot now occupied by the American Fort
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 35
Niagara. Scarcely had the main army retired than the garrison,
under de la Troye, were hemmed in by the Senecas ; and once more
it passed into the hands of the Indians, but ten survivors of the
whites escaping to tell the tale. It was again reoccupied, and, from
a small log blockhouse seen during his travels in 1721 by Pere
Charlevoix, the French, under Joncaire, were, in 1726, permitted by
treaty with the Senecas to enlarge the fort by adding four bastions,
and to erect a storehouse. Meantime, the British colonies had
established themselves at Oswego ; and, the war between the British
and French for the possession of the continent being in progress,
Brigadier Prideaux was, in 1759, despatched with 2,500 men and
900 Indians, under Sir William Johnson, to capture Niagara. The
account of the struggle is largely abridged from the excellent descrip
tion given by Parkman in " Wolfe and Montcalm." The fort had
been strongly rebuilt in regular form by Captain Pouchot, of the
battalion of Beam, and, being well supplied with munitions of war,
was held by a garrison of 600, and assistance was expected from
Detroit and the western French posts, under Aubrey.
On the 7th July the fort was invested from the land, and the lake
was patrolled by numerous armed boats. The siege was begun in
regular form, and by the i3th the British parallels had opened fire.
The besieged contested every foot of the way, but their constant
sallies were as constantly repulsed. On the igth, the French
schooner Iroquois attempted their relief, but was driven off by the
British batteries, and the same night Prideaux was killed in the
trenches while superintending the attack. The command devolved
on Sir William Johnson, and in two or three weeks the fort was in
extremity the ramparts were breached, and many of the garrison
slain. Pouchot watched anxiously for the promised succour ; and
on the morning of the 24th a distant firing told him they were at
Aubrey and Ligneris had advanced to the rescue with 1,100
French and 1,200 Indians. To meet them, Johnson had been com
pelled to divide his forces into three separate bodies one to guard
the boats, one to guard the trenches, and one to fight Aubrey and
36 THE NOETEEEN LkKES OF CANADA.
his band. This last body placed themselves in ambush, and awaited
When Pouchot heard the firing, he went, with a wounded artillery
officer, to the bastion next the river, and from here, by glimpses
among trees and bushes, they descried bodies of men now advancing
and now retreating Indians in rapid movement, and the smoke of
guns, the sound of which reached their ears in heavy volleys, or a
sharp, angry rattle. Meanwhile the British cannon had ceased their
fire, and the silent trenches seemed deserted, as if their occupants
were gone to meet the advancing foe. There was a call in the fort
for volunteers to sally and destroy the work s ; but no sooner did
they show themselves along the covered way than the seemingly
abandoned trenches were thronged with men and bayonets, and the
attempt was given up. The distant firing ceased, and Pouchot re
mained in suspense. An Indian who had penetrated the lines told
him that his friends had been defeated ; but Pouchot would not
In the afternoon, after a furious cannonade on both sides, a trum
pet sounded from the trenches, and an officer approached the fort,
announcing the defeat, and with a summons to surrender. Still
Pouchot would not believe, but, sending an officer of his own to
the British camp, unanswerable proof was obtained ; for there sat
Ligneris, severely wounded, together with Aubrey and many others
nearly all the French officers, in their desperate efforts to retrieve the
day, having been either killed or captured. An honourable capitu
lation was granted ; and, in acknowledgment of their gallant defence,
the garrison were allowed to march out with all the honours of war,
and then lay down their arms upon the shores of the lake.
THE BRITISH OCCUPATION.
So passed away the power of the French in this district, for so
great were the results of this victory that all their western posts, as
far as Erie, surrendered without a struggle; and in 1763, by the
Treaty of Paris, the whole of Canada and all the French possessions
east of the Mississippi were ceded to the British crown.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
For a long time the whole of the surrounding country was occu
pied solely by Indian tribes, so that during the war of 1776, although
a small military post was maintained at Niagara by the British, no
strife disturbed its quietude. By the treaty of peace of 1783, the
east bank of the river was transferred to the United States, but Fort
Niagara still continued to be held by a strong British garrison.
A settlement of U. E. Loyalists was now begun, and Paul Camp
bell, writing in 1791 of his visit there, says: "Opposite the fort of
Niagara, on a large flat point on the Canadian side of the river, is a
town lined out, and lots given gratis to such as will undertake to
build on it agreeably to a plan laid down by Government, which, to
me, seems to be a good one ; half an acre is allotted for the stance of
each house and garden, and eight acres at a distance for enclosures,
besides a large commonty reserved for the use of the town. Several
people have taken lots here already, and no doubt, as the country
advances in population so will the town in building. In the event
of the fort on the opposite (American) side being given up, it is said
there is one to be erected on this side, and the ground is already
marked out for this purpose."
This town was Newark^ afterwards changed to its present name of
Niagara, and the fort was Fort George, which was constructed in
1792 the following
year in such position
that it should command
Fort Niagara, the an
chorage for shipping
along the banks of the
river, and the harbour
within its mouth. Fort
Missasaga was subse
quently constructed to
command the Cana
dian side of the mouth of the river, and any attacks which might be
made from that quarter.
THE KEMAINS OF FORT GEORGE.
38 THE NORTHEEN LAKES OF CANADA.
Disturbances were threatening among the Indians of the west,
and a council was called at Fort Niagara between their chiefs and
representatives of the United States and Canadian Governments.
Accordingly, in May, 1793, there arrived Benjamin Lincoln, Henry
Randolph, and Timothy Pickering, the United States Commissioners.
They were cordially received, and lodged in the fort. While await
ing the arrival of the delegates from the distant Indian tribes, it
happened that, on the 24th of June, the birthday of King George
of England was celebrated. Governor Simcoe gave an entertainment,
ending with a ball in the evening. Thus it came about that the
Commissioners, somewhat amusedly, found themselves guests cele
brating a Royal gala day, with a Royal salute fired by a British gar
rison from a fortress on United States soil.
It is further said, that the meetings of the first Parliament of the
Province of Upper Canada, which was summoned here in 1792,
were held within the precincts of Fort Niagara.
Governor Simcoe, when, in that year, he first came to Canada
supposed that the Government would still retain the possession of
the fort, but he had his misgivings ; and beginning to cast his eye
about for another capital, which would not be " under the guns of
an enemy s fort," selected the harbour on the north shore, then called
Toronto, and occupied only by two families of Missasaga Indians
the French settlement at Fort Rouille having been abandoned by
the French one hundred and fifty years before.
In 1795 the Duke de Liancourt visited Newark, and, telling of his
stay at the humble wooden residence of Governor Simcoe, to which
the sentries came daily from the fort across the river, says : "With
very obliging politeness the Governor conducted me over the fort,
which he is very loth to visit as he is sure he will be obliged to
deliver it up to the Americans." Thirty artillerymen and eight
companies of the Fifth Regiment then formed the garrison.
The seat of Government had, in 1793, been removed to Toronto,
its name being changed to York ; and, under Jay s treaty, in 1794,
the fort, together with those at Osvvego, Detroit, Miami, and Michili-
mackinac, were to be given up. At length, no less than twenty
TEE NORTEEEN LAKES OF CANADA. 39
years after the Revolution, on the nth July, 1796, the last salute
was fired to the red-cross flag as it was slow y lowered from the
flagstaff, and, the garrison and the guns being removed across the
river to Fort George, Fort Niagara was finally handed over, and
the stars and stripes floated peacefully above it until the war of 1812.
THE AMERICANS TAKE FORT GEORGE.
As previously mentioned, at the battle at Queenston Heights, in
October, 1812, Fort Niagara was so vigorously assailed by Fort
George that its garrison had to evacuate and retire from it. Posses
sion was retaken upon the armistice, and again, in November, the
two forts had an artillery duel which resulted in nothing but their
mutual damage, without superior advantage to either. Matters re
mained quiet during the winter, but in the spring the Americans
collecting together a large number of ships and boats, and a force of
soldiers and seamen embarked in the early morning of the 27th
May, 1813, and, under cover of a fog, crept down the Canadian shore.
The battery, which occupied the site of the present Fort Missasaga,and
near the lighthouse, which was then on the point, was first attacked,
and was silenced by the weight of superior artillery ; and after a
gallant struggle the forlorn hope of 500 men forced a landing at a
creek [about a mile to the west. The Canadians, on the level
plain, were shot down by the fire from the ships, while the landing
parties being protected by the high, overhanging banks effected
their landing on the beach. Reinforced from the fleet, they advanced
4,000 in number upon Fort George, which General Vincent, be
ing satisfied that the victory of the Americans was complete, eva
cuated, having spiked the guns and blown up all of the magazines,
and retired with the remnants of his force to St. David.
The Americans remained in possession of Fort George all through
the summer, during which a series of engagements took place with
the result that they were hemmed in on all sides, and their supplies
cut off. At length, on loth December, 1813, upon the advance of
the Canadian forces, under Colonel Murray, they evacuated Fort
George, having first set fire to all the houses in Newark, rendering
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
all the inhabitants including the
women and children homeless and
houseless in mid-winter.
Murray s advance was so swift
that the retreat was precipitate, so
much so that tents for 1,500 of the
American garrison were left stand
ing, and the fort itself undamaged.
THE CANADIANS RE-TAKE FORT
Aroused to avenge the burning
of the town, Murray, under the com
mand of General Rial], on the night
of the i8th December crossed the
river, about three miles up, with
550 men, advancing stealthily at
dawn, with bayonets fixed, and not
a musket loaded lest by any chance
an alarm might be given. The out
lying picquets were surprised, and
bayoneted to a man. Rushing for
ward, the walls were scaled with
scaling-ladders, the interior gained,
the main gate carried ; and after a
gallant resistance by the garrison,
of whom 65 were killed and 12
wounded, at 5.30 in the morning
Fort Niagara was once more in
British possession. The Ameri
can flag was sent as a trophy to the Governor-General at Montreal,
and the Red-Cross floated again on both sides of the mouth of the
river. Matters so continued until peace was declared, in February,
1815, when once more Fort Niagara was gracefully given up ; and
again, and in peace, the stars and stripes took the place of the red-
/ /? A f\ I
42 TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Thus had three nationalities the French, the British, and the
United States been in successive possession of the fortifications
that crowned this ancient point of land.
Twice had British valour stormed the ramparts, and from each of
the others had it in turn wrested their possession at the bayonet s
point each time again retiring in honour to cede them as an evi
dence of national good-will.
The dismantled forts on the Canadian side, and the reverberating
" sun-set gun " from the American fort, mark the continuance of the
era of better days, wherein all strife upon these so oft-disturbed and
still so hallowed shores has found an end; and their guardians now
are rivals only in the arts of peace.
This lake, the last of the series before the St. Lawrence proper is
reached, is 180 miles long, and 234 feet above the sea. At this
point the breadth between Niagara and Toronto is 35 miles, and is
crossed in about two hours. The passage across the lake, in the
middle portion of which the steamer is for a short time out of sight
of land, gives full advantage of the pure cool winds which in summer
fan its surface, and make the trip over and back one of the most
attractive routes for those going from the districts south or west of
Buffalo, to or from Toronto, and a great resort for the citizens of the
The palace steamer CHICORA, of the Niagara Navigation Company,
is the largest steamer on the lake, is built of iron and steel, and is of
the strongest and most substantial character. Of regular ocean
going style having been built on the Clyde, and crossed the Atlan
tic she maintains exact regularity of service in all weathers ; and as
old Boreas sometimes wakes up and develops a " snorter," it is well,
therefore, to have a good bridge to carry one across. But these dis
plays are only fitful in their occurrence, calm weather being the
average from June to September. In olden days the crossing used
THE ^NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
to be made in from four to six hours, and communication before
the days of railways was kept up the year round, the passengers
being landed on the ice which fringed the shores. On the doors of
the warehouses at Niagara are still to be seen the names of some of
the old time vessels that occupied the route.
The Chicora is 230 feet long, with two raking funnels, and a
generally " rakish " appearance. The Entrance, Saloon is laid with
maple and walnut ; and a handsome circular staircase, with richly
twisted railings, leads to the Deck Saloon. This unique apartment
occupies the centre of the promenade deck, and is surrounded by
windows giving a complete view and complete protection in rainy
weather. The Promenade Deck extends the full length of the steamer,
so that a walk of a mile is obtained without much difficulty. Seats
and comfortable arm chairs are provided in abundance, so that every
opportunity is afforded for making a pleasant trip. The Bar is sup
plied by the Company with the choicest brands, and in the Restaurant
meals are supplied while crossing the lake.
The Marine Double Oscillating Engines, built by the celebrated
marine engineers, Messrs. Fa wcett, Preston & Co., and the like of which
are not in any other steamer on fresh water, are objects of much
interest and admiration to visitors.
44 THE NORTHMEN LAKES OF CANADA.
This steamer, leaving Toronto each week-day at 7 A.M. and 2 P.M.,
and Lewiston at n A.M. and 4.30 P.M., makes two trips each day,
calling both ways at Niagara-on-the-Lake, and giving a pleasant outing
on the open water of Lake Ontario, with the run of fourteen miles
up and down the charming Niagara River. Direct connections are
made, and through tickets issued in connection with all the Trunk
Line Railways of the United States and Canada, and with the Royal
Mail Line for the Thousand Islands and the Rapids of the St. Law
rence. Baggage requiring to pass Customs is examined by Customs
officers on board the steamer while crossing the lake. (See Advt}.
THE ISLAND TORONTO.
When approaching Toronto from the southern shore, the light
house, on Gibraltar Point the extreme west point of the island
which forms and protects Toronto harbour will be the first object
to come in view. The island has been formed by the sands washing
from the lofty Scarboro Heights, which will be seen far away to the
east. At one time it was possible to drive from the mainland along
the Island, but ten years ago a breach was made at Ashbridges Bay,
which has since enlarged, and a permanent opening has from that
time existed. The form of the island is being constantly changed.
The lighthouse, when first erected, was within a few feet of the water;
now it is a considerable distance inland, the sand having been con
stantly deposited here and on the long spits forming the west side of
the protection of the harbour. A large and increasing population of
summer visitors from the city is in occupation of the many slight but
pretty houses erected all along the shores. A plank walk follows
the beach the whole circuit of the island, and a steam tramway will
soon be in operation.
Hanlan, the champion oarsman of the world, was born on this
island, and the prominent building with high gables is his hotel,
where can be seen the trophies of his prowess which he has won in
all quarters of the globe. Bands play every evening in the summer
in front of the hotel ; and roller-coasters and merry-go-rounds make
this the Coney Island of Torontonians. Ferries run to all parts of
the island every few minutes.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 45
The Exhibition Buildings attract the eye to the west, on the main
land, the white buildings in front of them, and close to the shore, are
the barracks of the New Fort. Near here the American forces
landed in 1813, and, after meeting with considerable resistance, they
stormed the Old Fort, which may be noticed on the shore close to
the entrance of the harbour. The Canadian garrison, being inferior
in numbers, and unable to withstand the attack, retreated, and, in
doing so, blew up their magazine, by which the American commander,
General Pike, and 200 of his men were killed, and many wounded.
The spot where this occurred is just a little to the west of the pre
Toronto slopes very gently upwards from the water s edge, so
gently as to present an almost level apppearance. The sky line is
broken by the spires and towers of the churches and other buildings,
and a fringe of green from the trees surmounting the Davenport Hills,
which are the north limit of the city, forms a setting to the whole.
Baggage is claimed on board, and transferred by the Toronto
Transfer Company to the several hotels or railway stations.
The Royal Mail Line Steamers, for the Rapids of the St. Law
rence and Montreal, leave from the same dock.
Toronto as a Summer Resort,
This city has gradually become the acknowledged centre for the
Province of Ontario, of intellectual study, political opinion, legal re
search and monied influence all potent motives to attract residents
to settle within its borders. But beyond and in addition to these are
the lighter and more enjoyable attractions of amusement and relaxa
tion that serve to lighten the labour of anxious business, and while
away the hours for persons of leisure.
Theatres, concert halls, parks, and (if they may be enumerated in
the class of mental relaxations) sensational preachers of much power,
are adjuncts that may be added to any city, wherever its location.
46 THE NOETHEHN LAKES OF CANADA.
In these respects Toronto is amply endowed. She has, however, %
natural endowment in her geographical and physical position and of
which she is now only beginning to avail herself ; these advantages
have contributed not a little to her past improvement, and bid fair
to aid her happily in her advance towards metropolitan greatness.
This city is pre-eminently a lakeside resort. In the past the streets
have, and unless the city fathers should with infinite blindness to
her own good, and with poor faithlessness in their future expansion,
adopt an opposite policy, will for all time give open and unrestricted
access to the waters of the harbour. No resident of, or visitor to,
Toronto but can either by street-car or a short walk get down to
the water side, and enjoy a balmy evening s row upon the sheltered
waters of the bay, reaching home again at an early hour, and retire
to rest invigorated by manly exercise and health- giving air. In the
evenings the waters of the harbour are fairly alive with boats. Take
any city of similar size, and beyond all doubt there are more pleasure
boats to the aggregate number of families in Toronto than anywhere
else on the globe. It is said there are cities in China where a large
number of people live in houses floating on the water ; but any one
who saw the welcome given to Edward Hanlan the Patron Saint of
Toronto Bay when he came home crowned with the laurels of vic
tory, and all the water was covered with multitudinous craft of every
size and shape, from the stately Chicora to the veriest " dug-out,"
would have said, " Here is a whole city all afloat." And so it is ; the
people of Toronto are the most persistent water lovers for corro"
borative evidence see the puffing ferries carrying their teeming loads
of laughing children and anxious mothers to the sandy beaches of
the island ; see the evening moonlight excursions, when, to the light
of the moon and the strains of merry music, the maidens and their
swains dance the soft summer hours away ; see the Saturday after
noon excursions, when steamer after steamer leaves the docks for
neighbouring lakeside parks, for " luscious " Oakville, " ambitious "
Hamilton, or " historic," delightful Niagara.
By common consent the Canadian business world has agreed that
"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy," and while our
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 47
neighbours in the States may dig and delve, may sweat and strain in
the ceaseless struggle for dollars and gain, we in Canada will pause
awhile in the quick pursuit, and cultivating that more intelligent view
of the work of man, let our youth sally forth to open air, fresh fields,
athletic sports and vigorous play, setting their systems all aglow with
vigorous health, and mind and brain re-invigorated and better fitted
for week day work again. It is this opportunity of enjoyment, and
this spirit of taking advantage of the opportunity, that has attracted
to Toronto many people from other parts of Canada, and in fact
from the world at large to become permanent residents.
Cool lakeside breezes in summer and temperate moderation of
cold in winter, make Toronto a very pleasant place in which to live,
and the progress of the past proves it also to be a very good place
in which to thrive.
The City of Toronto,
NAME AND EARLY HISTORY.
The Capital of Ontario is perhaps the most progressive and pro
mising City in Canada. Even now it may be considered to be only
in its youth, as there are still living within its borders inhabitants
who can remember when there were but two or three brick houses,
and they, and the few shanties which comprised the village, were
hemmed together in a small clearing cut from the surrounding
The earliest mention of the name is found among some French
memoirs in 1686, in connection with the " Portage of Toronto."
The country in the neighbourhood of what is now called Lake
Simcoe, appears then .to have been known as the " Toronto region,"
a region " well peopled," and a great " place of meeting," which is
the most probable signification of the word. The portage to this
place of meeting began at the protected harbour on the shores of
the lake, thence by the Humber river, then called the Toronto
48 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA .
river, and then by a trail to the interior. In course of time a fort
was erected by the French, at the Lake Ontario end of the trail, the
remains of which are to be seen in the grounds of the Exhibition
Buildings. This at first, called Fort Rouille, afterwards came to be
called Fort Toronto, and thus the general name of the interior coun
try came to be localized in this one vicinity and applied to the vil
lage which sprung up on the shores of the bay.
In 1793 the seat of government of the Province was removed
from Niagara to Toronto, and the name of the latter then changed
to " York," in compliment to Frederick, Duke of York, the son of
the then reigning King, George III.
The new name of York never seems to have fitted smoothly to
the tongue or to have thoroughly settled down upon the place.
In 1 80 1 the Poet Moore, writing "from the banks of the St. Law
rence," most probably from St. Anne s, when he composed the
undying "Canadian Boat Song," adheres to the musical cadence of
the old and cherished name.
" I dreamt not then that ere the rolling year
Had filled its circle, I should wander here
In musing awe ; should tread this wondrous world.
See all its store of inland waters hurled
In one vast volume down Niagara s steep,
Or calm behold them, in transparent sleep,
Where the blue hills of old Toronto shed
Their evening shadows o er Ontario s bed."
In 1834, on the occasion of the community having arrived at the
size and dignity of a "City," the old name of Toronto was once
more enthusiastically revived and officially renewed.
In 1794 there were 12 houses in the village, in 1812 its popula
tion was 900, in 1879, T 1 * 000 * an( ^ now^the little " place of meeting,"
has grown to be a city of 130,000 inhabitants, a rate of progress of
which any community might well be proud.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
50 TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The hotel accommodation is ample for the largest gatherings, hence
Toronto is now more than ever a favourite " place of meeting," and
as in olden days the Indian tribes came here together, so now,
headed by their Chiefs and Patriarchs, come the brethren of the vari
ous social, benevolent, or business organizations from all parts of the
The Rossin and Queen s ($2.00 to $4.00), Walker and American
($2.00), Albion, Russell, Revere, ($1.50), may be mentioned as
among the best. (See advts.)
The Town was first established on the banks of the river Don, at
the head of the harbour, and in the far east end of the present city.
At the shores of this river begins King, the east and west entry of
the city, the main street of the original village, as it is now of the
grown up community.
Upon the site where now exists the unattractive but massive stone
proportions of the " OLD GAOL," stood the original and first Houses
of Parliament of the Province of Upper Canada. The Buildings
were of wood and not of very imposing character, but they con
tained * two elegant halls," for the accomodation of the Legislature
and the Courts of Justice.
At the time of the American foray in 1813, these, together with the
library and all the papers and records, were burned, the church was
robbed and the town library pillaged. Strangely enough the Public
Buildings at Washington, were a few months afterwards destroyed by
a British force, and this was considered at the time a fair reparation
for the damages effected at Toronto.
The town market-place used to be in the block between the St.
Lawrence Hall and Church street, opposite where St. James Cathe
dral now stands. The land is still the property of the city, and the
revenue from the ground leases contributes to decrease the taxation
of the citizens,
TEE NORTHMEN LAKES OF CANADA. 51
Here, as late as 1834, the stocks and pillory used to be set up;
and it is on record that a certain Elizabeth Ellis was, for " being a
nuisance," condemned to stand in this pillory for two hours on each
of two market days. Seeing that these ancient instruments of
punishment have long since been removed, we may be satisfied that
the ladies of this fair city are now free from any such imputation ;
indeed, any one who makes his afternoon stroll along the fashionable
strolling grounds, that is to say, between Church and York streets, on
the south side of King street, at the fashionable hour of four in the after
noon particularly on Saturday afternoons will see such glimpses of
beauty, combined with bright complexions and hearty healthfulness,
that he will admit the justice of the reputation for pretty faces and
good nature which is so widely conceded to the young ladies of
King street continues westward, lined by the best of the retail
stores, and after penetrating Parkdale the " flowery suburb " loses
itself upon the banks of the Number Bay, thus connecting together
the two rivers which, east and west, bound the plateau upon which
the city is built.
The streets of Toronto are all laid out at right angles to one
another. This, no doubt, takes away from its picturesqueness, but
contributes to its convenience, as, once the bearings of the compas 8
have been ascertained, the visitor can scarcely lose his way. Roughly
speaking, the water side is to the south ; the streets starting from the
Bay run north the others, crossing them, run east and west. They
are all of good width, many are block-paved and boulevarded, and
most are fringed with trees a feature which in time will add greatly
to their appearance.
Yonge street, at the foot of which the steamers land, is perhaps
the longest street in the world ; at all events, the palm is given to it
by George Augustus Sala in his " Streets of the World." It was pro-
52 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
jected in 1793 to form a "portage to the upper lakes without the
necessity of going up Lake Erie, and passing Detroit."
The intersection of King and Yonge streets may be taken to be
the centre of the city s life, and forms a sort of Quatre-voies, or Four
Cr os sway, from which a starting point may well be made.
Forty years ago, Yonge street, between King and Queen streets,
was well-nigh impassable ; and when the road-bed was excavated for
the present block pavement, remnants were still found of the old
corduroy road which once served to keep the ox-carts of the early
settlers afloat through this slough of Despond. A good tanner
named Jesse Ketchum then lived alongside, and his name is here per
petuated by the " Bible House," the ground on which it stands having
been given by him to the " Bible and Tract Society " on condition
that they would annually expend the amount of the ground rent in
Bibles, and distribute them to scholars in the public schools an
annual ceremonial which is never omitted, and always is productive
of great interest.
Built as a Government work, for forty-six miles Yonge street became
the main artery for settlements to the north, its roadsides soon were
lined with the houses of settlers, and the name of " street" thereby just
ified. An early incident is pleasantly embalmed in " Toronto of Old,
that "A story is told of a tourist, newly arrived at York, wishing to util
ize a stroll before breakfast by making out as he went along the where
abouts of a gentleman to whom he had a letter. Passing down the
hall of his hotel, he asked in a casual way, of the book-keeper, Can
you tell me where Mr. So-and-so lives ? (leisurely producing the note
from his breast pocket) ; it is somewhere along Yonge street here
in your town. Oh, yes, was the reply, when the address had been
glanced at ; Mr. So-and-so lives on Yonge street, about twenty-five
miles up !
Having now got the bearings of the two main arteries, we may
wander more at large.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Map of Toronto.
Showing the principal streets and public buildings.
(Street Car Routes are marked in dotted lines.)
*~"""* " ~ ** ~ "
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The street car system is being rapidly extended, and is even now
such that with a little consideration all parts of the city can be reached
by their means. The routes covered are shown in the attached plan
of the city, and the cars are plainly marked with the names of the
principal streets along which they run. Fare for continuous trip, 5c.;
six fares, 25c.
The Street Car Routes.
King to Strachan Avenue.
King, Yonge to North Toronto
King, Yonge, Queen West to
Queen & Brockton.
King, Yonge, Queen west, Dun-
das St. to JJundas Bridge.
McCaul & College.
Red and Blue
King, York, Queen McCaul,
Spadina Avenue to
King, Spadina Ave., College,
Bathurst to Bloor.
Spadina Avenue to
:<ed & Green.
King, Spadina Ave. to Bloor.
Front, Yonge, Queen to Don
Yonge St. to North
Front, Yonge to North Toronto.
Front, Church to Bloor.
York, King, Sherbourne to Bloor
Front, Church, Queen, Sher
bourne to Bloor.
Front, Church, King, Sher-
borne, Carlton, Parliament,
Front, Church, King, Sher-
borne, Queen, Parliament
and Gerrard St. east.
College Ave. and
College St., College Ave., Carl-
Cabs can be obtained on the public stands or from the principal
livery stables by telephone from the hotels. (See Advertisements),
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 55
The usual rate is $i per hour, within the city limits, for one to four
persons. The drivers and vehicles are all licensed under police
supervision, and incivility or overcharges are very seldom met with.
In taking a drive around the city or its environs, the pleasantest way
for driver and for passenger is to come to an understanding about
the rate before starting.
In addition to the usual drives through the main streets to visit
the several public buildings, the following drives may be mentioned
as giving good examples of the pretty country surrounding the city.
Distances out and back from Coiner of King and Yonge streets.
EAST The Lake Shore Road, Woodbine, Ben Lamond, Don and
Danforth Road, and the Necropolis 8J miles.
NORTH-EAST Necropolis, Todmorden, Don Valley, Eglinton, Mount
NORTH Queen s Park, Deer Park, Ridge Road, St. Albans street,
St. George street 6 miles.
NORTH-WEST College street, Bloor street, Slattery s, High Park,
Queen street, and Subway 8J miles.
WEST King street, Lake Shore Road, Humber Bay and back 9
THE PUBLIC BUILDINGS.
The public buildings of Toronto are of singular excellence, and
are really well worth visiting both for their architectural value and
the instructive and interesting character of their contents. The
more important are here mentioned, somewhat in the order in which
they may be visited during a drive through the city.
Front street, running parallel with the harbour, is lined with hand
some wholesale warehouses.
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
UNION STATION. Upon the
Esplanade which skirts the
water s edge, all the railways
enter the city, and focus their
radiations in this station. In
1851 the first sod of the
Ontario, Simcoe and Huron
Railway (the first railway in
Ontario) was turned at a spot
on the water s bank, not far
from here. The ceremony
was performed by the Count
ess of Elgin, in the presence
of well nigh the whole town.
Lord Elgin facetiously said
" it may seem a singular ap
plication of the principle of
division of labour, that the
UNION STATION. lady should dig and the gen
tleman speak. But this is an age of progress in which we must be
prepared for much that is strange." He then adverted to the great
advantages which would accrue from the construction of railways
predictions which have been fully verified.
It seems almost impossible to believe that so short a time ago this
city was in the winter locked in from all communication except by
sleigh, and that in the summer the only connection with the
outer world was by water. Yet it was so, and some of the older boys
can still remember the wonderment with which the first locomotives
were viewed when they emerged from Jemmy Good s workshops, on
Richmond street, and made their slow progress on temporary wooden
tracks through the streets, down Yonge street to the Esplanade.
As contrast to this primitiveness there are now 77 trains, bearing
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
and delivering passengers to all parts of the continent, daily entering
the Union Station.
The visitor arriving by water will notice at the foot of Yonge street
the CUSTOM HOUSE, of highly decorated Italian architecture. On
the exterior are elaborate carvings of fruits and flowers, a well executed
bust of the Queen, and alto-
relievos of the most cele
brated English navigators
and seamen Drake, Nel
son, Jacques Cartier, Cook,
and others . " The Long
Room," where the public
business is transacted, is
most handsomely fitted and
On the opposite corner
is the new and handsome
Bank of Montreal, a good
instance of the care of
a thoughtful architect to
preserve the unpurchase- THE CUSTOM HOUSE.
able advantage of trees and foliage as an adornment to the structure
itself. The octagonal counting-room within is admirably decorated
with rare marbles and stained glass. The other Banks are mainly
situated on Wellington street the Standard^ Ontario, and Bank of
Toronto being well housed.
Torontonians are proverbial as a church-going people, there being
no less than 120 churches and chapels in the city, or almost one for
every 1,000 inhabitants. Sunday in Toronto is really a day of rest.
All saloons close at 7 on Saturday evening, and do not open again
until Monday morning a law which is strictly observed. No street
cars are run and scarcely a wheel of any kind turns. No business
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
of any description is conducted and no shops are open. Yet the
streets are full of people either going to and from church or visiting
their friends. Thus Monday morning finds everyone reinvigorated
and ready for their work. On the corner of Church and King
street, the most important street of this city, is ST. JAMES CATHEDRAL,
the Seat of the Anglican Bishop of Toronto, a fine example of per
pendicular Gothic architecture.
The spire, rising to the height
of 3 1 6 feet,is gracefully propor
tioned, and the most lofty on
the continent exceeding that
of Trinity Church, New York,
by 21 feet. The tower con
tains a chime of bells and the
celebrated clock manufactured
by Benson, of London, which
obtained the highest prize at
the Vienna Exhibition.
In the interior, the apse,
surrounded by fine traceried
windows, is finely decorated
in carved oak, and contains
monuments to Bishop Strachan,
the first Anglican Bishop in
Canada, and Dean Grasett
ST. JAMES CATHEDRAL.. both of whom, as also the
wife of the Dean, are interred in the chancel Chief-Justice Draper
and others. The stained glass chancel windows illustrating in the
upper sections " The Ascension," and below, "The Last Supper/
after Leonardo da Vinci ; also in the east window " The Christian
Virtues " are fine examples of the best art work of Munich.
The tower and spire can be ascended ; and in addition to seeing
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA 59
the works of the clock, a wide range of view can be had of the city,
the harbour and surrounding country.
The present church is the fourth which has occupied the present
site, its predecessors having been destroyed by fire.
The acoustic properties are peculiarly good, most probably due to
the apsidal form of the chancel, so that the lowest tones are carried
to the farthest extremity. Entrance is by the north-west door between
10 A.M. and 3 P.M. A fee of ten cents for ascending the tower is
collected towards the cost of maintaining the clock and chimes.
A little further east on King street is the St. Lawrence Hall, with
cupola and clocks, containing the principal markets and some muni
cipal offices. The present home of the city officials is in the old City
Hall, a little to the south ; but a site has been purchased, and new
city buildings and Court-House, to cost $500,000, are projected.
Church street used to be the extreme west end of the town, and
was so called from the fkst church, which occupied the corner of it
and King, and was then entirely surrounded by the forest trees.
The Public Library, on the corner of Adelaide street, is the success
ful growth of but a few years. The number of books on its shelves
in 1885 was 41,286 \ and as it is already attracting generous dona
tions from private libraries, as being the fit receptacle for the custody
and preservation of books valuable either for their rarity or their
character, and where the benefit of their ownership may be shared with
other less fortunate but yet congenial minds, its size will soon attain
considerable proportions. A sum of about $4,000 per annum is
expended on new purchases, and the Library has already an estab
lished reputation for its collection of books and documents bearing
on early Canadian history. The number of books taken out by
readers in 1885 was 277,931 a goodly proportion to the population
of the city. A well-conducted Free Reading Room, stocked with
the best periodicals and newspapers, is a favourite resort, and well
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Passing up Church street, next is seen the METROPOLITAN CHURCH,
the headquarters of the Methodists of Canada. It is magnificently
situated in the centre of
an open square. The tur-
reted tower and many pin
nacles distinguish it from
the other churches of the
city. The organ is the
largest in Canada, contain
ing 3,315 pipes, and com
pares favourably with many
noted organs in Europe
Organ, Toronto . . 53 Stops.
Strasbourg Cathedral 46
Temple Church, Lon
don, England ... 47 "
Westminster Abbey . 32
Exeter Hall 42
The voicing and tone of
the organ are of rare excel
lence ; thus much attention
is devoted to musical excel
lency and the choir of the church is ef a high standard.
Next is the Roman Catholic St. MichaeVs Cathedral, the interior
highly frescoed, and containing a very handsome east window in
stained glass, representing " The Crucifixion." The Archbishop has
here his official throne.
The Notmal School is the centre of the Public School System of
the Province. In it are the offices of the Minister of Education,
and the Depository of books, &c., for distribution to the schools ;
and adjoining it are the Model Schools for boys and girls, in which
the student teachers can see the school system in actual operation,
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The gardens are kept in fine
order, each plant there being
labeled with its proper bota
nical name. In the interior
is a really fine collection of
paintings, comprising selec
tions of originals and copies
illustrating the great schools
of art, copies of the most
celebrated statues, and casts
exhibiting the characteristic
styles and ornaments of
Gothic and Modern archi
tecture. In the Grand Cen
tral Hall and around the
Theatre are placed busts of
the philosophers, orators and historic men of Roman and Grecian
eras, the monarchs of England and eminent statesmen, authors, poets
and celebrities of each reign. In the Gallery of the Statues are
many examples of ihodern and ancient sculpture, among them Venus
de Medicis, Urania, Cicero, Canova s Hebe, Powers Greek Slave,
Gibson s Homeless Wanderer, and Psyche borne by the Zephyrs,
Thorwaldsen s Guardian Angel, &c. In the same room is a full
series of impressions in wax from the seals of the Sovereigns of Eng
land, from the time of Edward the Confessor. A number of fine
copies of portrait medallions and antique gems most interesting to
those interested in gem cutting. In the next Gallery are examples
of great educational value of the best varieties of maps, models for
object lessons, philosophical apparatus, and generally of school equip
ment from which many useful ideas can be gleaned.
The Picture Galleries occupy the whole front of the buildings and
on their spacious walls the Paintings are splendidly displayed. The
62 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Italian, Flemish, Dutch, German, French and Spanish Schools of
Art are all represented. The pictures are all numbered and the fol
lowing may be particularly mentioned :
13, "Peter s Denial of Christ," Gherardo. 35, " The Mother of
Sorrows," Sassoferato, a painter celebrated for the beautiful shades
of blue which usually appear in his portraits of the Virgin and of
female saints. 15, "The Remorse of Peter," Carlo Dolci. 40,
" Head of St. Johi^ presented to Herodias," Luini. 51, " The Grand
Canal, Venice," Canaletti. Among some good examples of Guido
Reni, whose grace and harmony of colouring are rarely excelled, are,
61, " Lucretia," a lady of ancient Rome distinguished for her beauty
and virtue, who, resenting the outrage offered to her by Sextus
Tarquin (B. C. 507), took own life. 63, "The Massacre of the
Innocents." 62, "Beatrice Cenci." 60, " The Archangel Michael.
64, " Aurora," Goddess of the Morning (this last one is on the
west stairway). 68, " The Last Communion of St. Jerome," Domeni-
chino. 73, " The Conspiracy of Cataline," Salvator Rosa. 82,
" Beatrice Cenci the Night Before Her Execution," A. Ratti (See
also No. 62). The poet Shelley has dramatized, in his poem "The
Cencis," the story of the wrongs of her who wa&
From light and life and love in youth s sweet prime. J
23, " Madonna della Sedia," the only Madonna painted by Raphael
who has not her eyes cast down. The original was painted upon the
head of a cask. 32, "The Transfiguration," Raphael by common
consent his master-piece which was placed over his head when he
lay in state at his funeral obsequies. 30, " La Fornarina," portrait
of the Roman maiden with whom Raphael fell in love. 2, " The
Head of the Medusa," Leonardo da Vinci.
HOW PERSEUS BROUGHT BACK THE GORGON S HEAD.
In the old Greek myth of Perseus and how he slew the Gorgon, to
those who read beneath, there lies a deeper meaning than appears
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 63
upon the surface. The goddess Athen6 inspires Perseus, a noble
Greek youth, to brave deeds, leading him to feel it were " Better to
die in the flower of youth, on the chance of winning a noble name,
than to live at ease and die unloved and unrenowned." Having come
to manhood s age she tests him to go forth and slay Medusa, the Gor
gon, and bring back to her, as trophy, the foul one s head The
Medusa had once been a maiden beautiful as morn, till in her pride
she sinned a sin at which the sun hid his face ; and from that day her
hair was turned to vipers and her hands to eagle s claws ; and her heart
was filled with shame and rage, and her lips with bitter venom ; and
her eyes became so terrible that whosoever looked upon them was
turned to stone. Her children were the winged horse and the Giant
of the golden sword, and her grandchildren Echidna, the witch-adder?
and Geryon, who fed his herds beside the herds of hell. So she be"
came the sister of the Gorgons, Stheino and Euryte the abhorred.
Then Athene gave to Perseus her polished shield, in the reflected
brass of which he was to look so that he might strike safely and not
be turned to stone, and Hermes gave his sandals, on which quivered
living wings, so that they might carry him unwearied safe over land
and sea, and his sword of diamond of one clear precious stone, Herpd,
the Argus-slayer. So Perseus sailed high over the mountain tops and
skimmed over the billows like a sea-gull and his feet were never
wetted, far away into the heart of the Unshapen Land, beyond the
streams of Ocean, where there is neither night nor day, until he heard
the rustle of the Gorgons wings and saw the glitter of their brazen
talons, and as he looked in the mirror of his shield he saw the three
lying below him in their sleep with mighty wings outspread. And the
Medusa tossed to and fro restlessly, and as she tossed Perseus pitied
her. In her face still stayed the form of beauty, but her cheeks
were pale as death and her brows were knit with everlasting pain,
and her lips were thin and bitter like a snake s ; and around her
temples the horrid vipers wreathed and, moving constantly, shot out
their fiery tongues. But as he looked, Perseus saw, that for all her
beauty the Medusa was as foul and venomous as those with whom
64 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
she lay. With one stroke from Herp6 the head was severed, and her
wings and talons rattled as Medusa sank dead upon the rocks. And
so, wrapped in a goatskin, Perseus bore back to Pallas Athene the
Gorgon s head.
In Room No. 6, in the rotary stands, is a collection of over 600
photographs of National Historical Portraits, being taken from
paintings of eminent persons from the time of the Plantagenets to the
end of James II (1152 to 1688). The originals were exhibited at
the first special exhibition of national portraits, at South Kensington
Museum. They are classified and chronologically arranged and the
names of the painters given when known. Other stands contain
photographs of paintings in the National Galldly, England.
The Italian and Flemish schools are the best represented, and in the
corridors are many excellent small examples of the Dutch school. In
cases in the centres of the rooms are photographs of the Kings and
Queens of England and of well-known men of Britain and Canada.
In the "Nineveh Gallery" are copies from the great Layard collection
of the British Museum,
There are many electrotypes of art treasures in the London South
Kensington Museum casts of gems, medals, coins, etc. ; and alto
gether an Art collection of singular excellence.
Here school-boys and scholars will find materialized either in
picture or in sculpture many of the personages or events with which
they meet in their reading ; and if this collection were intelligently
used and referred to, it would be found that much additional interest
and zest would be given thereby to reading and to study. There is
a good catalogue for sale at the office price 25 cents. Entrance is
free throughout the year from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. on week-days, except
on Christmas and New Year s days.
The private residences of Toronto present a genuine air of quiet
and comfort, and in this district a very fair example may be seen
of their character. On Jarvis street is the Baptist Church one of
the most picturesque in the city ; the interior is of amphitheatrical
form, thus giving great play of outline to the exterior, to which the
Queenston brown stone, New Brunswick red granite, and ornamental
JOSEPH ^ D RQSSEAU
"The Northern Lakes of Canada"
Copyright J886. .Barlow C umberland.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
slates, add great colour and
effect. The organ is remark
able for the beauty of its tone.
THE HORTICULTURAL GAR
DENS occupy a square of ten
acres. During the summer a
beauti&il display of flowers is
kept up, which is well worth
visiting particularly the Rosa
rium, for its great variety of
roses. The grounds are the
property of the city, and en
trance is free from 6 A.M. to
8 P.M. Band concerts and
exhibitions of fire-works are
given at frequent intervals in
the evenings, from the pro
ceeds of which, together with
a grant from the city, the gar
dens are maintained. The
land was a liberal gift to his
native city by the Hon. Geo.
\V. Allan. The gardens were opened by His Royal Highness the
Prince of Wales in 1860 ; and a tree then planted by him now
exhibits considerable growth.
The Pavilion Music Hall occupies the west side of the gardens.
Attached to it are the conservatories, in which an excellent " winter
garden " is maintained. Having a seating accommodation for 3,ooo,
and excellent acoustic properties, it has been of great advantage to
the music-loving people of the city as an educator, and has given
opportunities for attracting the best exponents of the continent. The
Monday Popular Concerts, given here every fortnight throughout the
winter, and the annual festivals of the Philharmonic and Choral
Societies, are good evidences that a very high class of music culture
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
flourishes among the citizens. The best public balls are given in this
Pavilion, for which it has unexampled facilities.
The Boyf Home and the Girls Home, two excellent charities for
the retreat and care of destitute children not convicted of crime, are
in the vicinity, and invite visitors to view their work. The tall
towers of The General Hospital are seen still further to the east.
This establishment is in every way a model, with its subdivisions;
for cure of the various classes of disease, eye and ear infirmary,.
lying-in hospital, etc., and separate convalescent and recreation
Near by are its attendant schools of medicine. Trinity School
taking its degrees from Trinity College and Toronto School from
University College. The reputation of these schools is very high
and their degrees greatly
esteemed throughout the
Continent, so that a college
population of between 400
and 500 are in attendance
at their lectures.
Not far frcm King Street,
and at the head of York
Street, standing in ornamen
tal grounds is Osgoode Hal/,
named after the first Chief
Justice of Canada, and the
seat of the Highest Law
Courts of the Province.
The interior surpasses that
W of any other Courts of
Law, and is of rare beauty.
The Central Court, of two
OSGOODE HALL. stories in the Italian style,
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 67
is adorned with double rows of Doric columns in cream-coloured
stone from Caen, in Normandy. The best view on the entrance floor
is obtained from the extreme north-west corner, from where the
several rows of columns can be brought into perspective. On the
walls are portraits of the Chief-Justices and Chancellors ; from the
upper colonnade the Law Courts are entered in each, above the
seats of the Judges, a bas-relief of " Impartial Justice." The Library
is a magnificent chamber, with lofty domed ceiling, and many-nooked
bookshelves for the 30,000 volumes which it contains. A fire-place
of fine design and proportions occupies the west end ; over it the
portrait of Chief-Justice Sir John Beverley Robinson, who, when a
young man, served under General Brock, at the battle of Queenston
Heights, in 1821. In the adjoining wings are the offices of the
various Courts. The grounds are well kept.
The judges in Canada are not elected, but are appointed by the
General Government, during " good behaviour," or practically for
life ; and as they are always selected from the first ranks of the pro
fession, the Canadian Judiciary bears high record for talent and un
Should any of the Courts be in session the visitor will be struck
with the dignity and decorum with which the Law is administered.
Separated from politics, with income assured and absolutely unas
sailable, and in a social position of rank by all classes respectfully
recognized, a seat on the " Bench " is considered one of the highest
honours obtainable in the Dominion.
The Parks of Toronto have so far not had much done to beautify
or embellish their natural advantages. The Riverside Park is situate
upon the banks of the Don at the eastern limits of the City. Upon
the shores of the Humber Bay, at the west end, and adjoining the
windings of the Humber River, is " The High Park" Extending
over an area of four hundred acres it comprises within its boundaries
great possibilities for landscape gardening. Roads have been
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
opened through its winding dells and rolling hills, skirting the minia
ture lakes, and opening vistas of distant views, making a drive
through its woodland glades a pleasurable outing. Pic-nickers revel
in its groves, and steamboats and railway trains give hourly access.
The Queen s Park of about fifty acres in extent, is situated in the
heart of the City, and is approached through THE COLLEGE AVENUE,
120 feet wide and a mile in length,
bordered on either side by horse
chestnuts and elms. On gaining
the Park the road passes the
Russian guns captured by the
British troops at Sebastopol, and
presented by the British Govern
ment to the city.
The bands of the volunteer
regiments play here on Saturday
evenings during the summer from
the band stand under the trees.
The drive then sweeps along
the edge of a ravine to the
Volunteers Monument^ erected in
memory of Canadians who fell
during the Fenian raid, in 1866.
On the summit Britannia. Below Two Infantry Volunteers,
and emblematical figures of Hope and Grief. An effective railing of
crossed rifles surmounts the base.
Opposite to this is the bronze statue of the Hon. George Brown,
one or the foremost Canadian politicians of his day, and the founder
of the Globe newspaper. The figure, which is of heroic size, repre
sents the orator in the act of speaking, and is a very effective work
of art. The sculptor was C. B. Burch, A.R.A., London, Eng. The
Park is well wooded with old forest trees, principally oaks, and has
THE COLLEGE AVENUE.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
much natural beauty. Surrounding it are many villa residences.
The road winds down a hill and passing a small sheet of water next
comes in view upon the opposite slope.
The University of Toronto. This noble Norman Gothic group of
buildings is the finest example of its style of architecture in America
whether in its massive proportions or in the mediaeval detail of the
carvings in stone, no two of which are the same.
The principal front is of great grandeur, a massive tower rises in
the centre flanked by wings on either side with long ranges of varied
windows ; to the left a picturesque minaret with shady cloister below,
and a circular building containing the Laboratory.
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO.
The whole group forms three sides of a square, with an internal
quadrangle ; the west wing contains the students quarters, and the
east wing with the Octagon Tower and Convocation Hall is one of
the most excellent portions of the design.
On the Entrance Doorway are the Arms of the College, and
columns of richly carved stone. The entrance hall and long corridors
70 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
ead to 7 he Convocation Hall, with high gabled oak roof, carved in
grotesque forms. The stained glass triple window is in memory of
the Students who fell defending the frontier in 1866. On the Senate
Stairway are some marvellous carvings in white Caen stone of Cana
dian birds. These, as works of the highest merit, should not be
missed. The Library, a splendid chamber, with inviting quiet re
cesses, contains 40,000 volumes, also a statue of William of Wyke-
ham. The Museum contains a collection of birds, beasts and curiosi
ties, well worthy of a visit. A winding stair, of 1 60 steps from this
level, leads to the top of the Tower, from whence a fine view of
Toronto and its environs is obtainable, and on clear days, of the
cloud of spray hovering over the Niagara Falls. The keys must be ob
tained from the curator. The details of the designs and of the carv
ings in stone of this building are worthy of close study, as having been
framed on the best examples of European architecture. It will be
noticed that there is no repetition. Every column and capital is a
separate study, and each enrichment a new design. This is applic
able to the exterior as well as the interior, and some fantastic Gothic
carvings are to be seen about the west cloister and around the eave
of the laboratory.
Entrance free, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.
Big Tom, whose solemn tones are to be heard from the tower at 9
o clock every evening, when the students are in residence, weighs
On the opposite side of the lawn is the Tower and Dome of the
Observatory, now the home of the Meteorological Department for
the Dominion, or what is more popularly known as, " Old Probabili
ties." From here the daily weather forecasts are telegraphed to all
parts of the Dominion. Every mail train starting in the morning, in
all parts of Canada, carries on its mail car a large signal which can
be seen as it passes along, and indicates the weather for the day.
Thus the country as well as the town s people get the advantage of
the forecasts. This establishment was originally initiated by the Brit-
THE NOtlTHE&tt LAKES OF CANADA.
ish Governfnent some thirty years ago, and during that time and now
meteorological observations are made and recorded by skilled ob
servers, every minute without intermission ! a quiet, unostentatious
pursuit of scientific knowledge, which few are aware goes on in their
The monstrosity in red brick alongside, is the School of Technology.
McMaster College, the training college for the Baptist clergy, is at
the head of the Queen s Park. This was founded and endowed by
the Hon. Wm. McMaster, a wealthy resident of Toronto, and its
handsome Credit Valley stone facade forms a very effective grouping
in the midst of the surrounding trees.
KNOX COLLEGE TORONTO.
Further to the West of the Park is KNOX COLLEGE, well situated
at the head of Spadina Avenue. This is the headquarters of the
educational work of the Presbyterian Church of Canada. The Col
lege was formed in 1844, and is well endowed. The present build
ings were erected in 1875, and are occupied by six professors and
about one hundred students.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
On the east side of the Queen s Park is St. Michael s College, oc
cupying an excellent position on the crown of Clover Hill. Here is
carried on the higher education of the Roman Catholic body of the
Province of Ontario. Close by it is the excellent young ladies
school, kept in St. Mary s Convent by the nuns of the order.
In the west end of the city, and standing in its own grounds,
TRINITY COLLEGE, built in the early English style, has a quaint
scholastic air. The facade is pleasantly diversified with cut stone
dressings and projecting bay windows, while the bell turrets above
(yclept by the students " pepper pots ") add much to the appearance-
The newly added Chapel, whose plain exterior rather mars the
continuity of the facade, is admirably finished and arranged in its
interior, and is worthy of inspection.
The Convocation Hall has a handsome oak roof highly carved, and
portraits of founders and chancellors of the University.
The students quarters are in the wings. The College is the seat
of the Anglican or Episcopal Church in Canada under a Royal
charter, and was erected by the exertions of Bishop Strachan in 1851.
It has an outlying branch in " Trinity School," at Port Hope, a boys
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 73
school of rare excellence, and founded and conducted on the lines of
the great English public schools.
The University of Trinity College and the University of Toronto are
the only corporations having power to confer degrees, the other
colleges being colleges of instruction "in affiliation." It will be
readily seen that Toronto is thus quite a " University City," and
when during the winter the Colleges are in session there are fully
1,500 students in residence.
In addition to these, the Toronto Veterinary College, numbering on
an average 300 students, has a Continental reputation, and some first-
class Business Colleges are also in operation.
On the western limits of the city, upon the shores of the beautiful
curve of the Humber Bay, is the High Park, comprising 400 acres
of hill and dale of varied wood-land scenery. The Humber River
affords pleasant boating jaunts, and the views over the lake, from
the high lands in the rear, are well worth the drive.
In Parkdale will be found The Home for Incurables, one of the
most perfectly conducted charities of the city. Visitors are cordially
welcomed. The view from the top of the central tower gives a better
idea of the geographical location of the city than is obtainable from
any other place, and is worth seeing.
The Exhibition Buildings, most prominently set on the Lake shore,
are complete in every respect, and at the time of the Fall Fairs in
September are thronged with visitors from all parts. The grounds
are open and maintained by the city as a park, with flower gardens
in the summer, making a pleasant and cool drive.
The Central Prison for men, and the Mercer Reformatory or Prison
for women, are open to visitors upon orders from the Government
Inspector of Prisons. In the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, with large
central dome and wide extending wings, are collected the insane
from all parts of Ontario.
At the intersection of King and Simcoe streets are Upper Canada
College, the oldest boys school in the Province, and St. Andrew s
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Church, a splendid edifice in the old Scotch baronial style, of massive
stone-work and arched windows, the abode of the " Old Kirk.
GOVERNMENT HOUSE, the palatial residence of the Lieutenant-
Governor of Ontario, is on the opposite corner. The valley which
winds through the gardens is the last reminiscence of " Russell s
Creek, ; up which Governor Simcoe used to row from the Bay when
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA,
he first chose Toronto to be his capital. The gardens are well kept,
and the conservatories well stocked. In the interior is a very hand
some main entrance hall, with grand staircase ; to the left is the suite
of Presence Chambers, in which the receptions and levees are held.
Beyond these are the conservatories and ball-room. In the dining-
room is a fine collection of life-size portraits of the Governors of
Upper Canada from its cession to the British Crown. Permission to
view the interior must be obtained by letter from the A.D.C. in
There are many other fine
buildings ; among them THE
POST-OFFICE, and the many
surrounding Financial Insti
tutions upon Toronto street,
which is fast becoming the
Lombard or Wall street of
Upon King street will have
been noticed a fine building
bearing the title, " Manning s
Arcade ; " passing through the ||
archway in its centre, access
is gained to THE GRAND
OPERA HOUSE. The interior
is of good form, and has a
seating capacity of 2,300,
with a large and spacious stage adapted to the production of the
most exacting plays. The traditions of the house include reminis
cences of the best modern actors Fechter, Irving, Booth, Boucicault,
Neilson, Bernhardt, and others. Toronto audiences are proverbially
of high requirements and acute taste no doubt in great degree
from the large and educated student population, whose approval and
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
disapproval of the plays sub
mitted to its criticism is
frequently expressed in un-
mistakeable terms. This
healthy expression of mer
curial temperament pulsa
ting with the progress of the
action on the stage is of
like character with that found
at the theatres in Dublin ;
and thus it is that not a few
companies the fascinatinS
Adelaide Neilson s among
them have preferred to
submit new plays to the
audiences at " the Grand
before bringing them to the
less exacting and more coldly
of the United States.
In the outskirts of the city are many pleasant drives : The Valley
of the Don, Todmorden, Norway, Davenport, etc., while the Summer
afternoon water excursions by steamers to Niagara, Victoria Park,
Scarboro Heights, Humber Bay, Mimico, Oakville, Hamilton, etc.,
at fares from 25 cents to $1.00, serve to diversify the visitor s stay.
Situated as Toronto is, upon the shores of Lake Ontario, the summer
heats are tempered by the presence of the broad expanse of water
and attendant breezes ; whatever may have been the heat of the
day, it rarely ever extends into the night, so after sundown the cool
air and soft summer evenings make the city what it really is a
pleasant lake-side resort.
GRAND OPERA HOUSE.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 77
Off for a Real Good Fish.
GENTLEMAN (to grocer) " Two gallons Santa Cruz, one gallon Old
Tom, two gallons Maryland Club, four dozen Pommery Sec, four,
dozen Milwaukee and six boxes of Reina Vies."
GROCER " Yes, sir. That all, sir?"
GENTLEMAN " Er Do you keep fishing tackle ?"
- GROCER "Yes, sir, full line, sir."
GENTLEMAN " Ah Put in a couple of fish hooks."
The Northern Lakes.
Our tourists will now direct their attention to the trip to the " Inter
ior," and the country stretching 200 miles northward of Toronto, to
wards the Georgian Bay and the Inland Lakes. Until recently it was a
wilderness, but within twenty years or so numerous towns and hamlets
have sprung up ; many summer hotels have been opened at attractive
points, and settlers have poured in with a rapidity equal to the settle
ment of many parts of the Western States. Railroads have pene
trated into its heart. Steamboats ply upon its larger lakes, and some
excellent highways traverse its length and breadth. It is emphati
cally a country of forests, lakes, and rivers. The lakes vary greatly
in size, the larger ones thirty and forty miles in length, and the
smaller ones mere ponds, but clear and deep, and all abounding in
salmon-trout, perch, black-bass and speckled trout.
THE NORTHERN AND NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY
Is one of the connecting links between the frontier and the interior.
Leaving Toronto by one of the express trains furnished with fine
parlour cars, the passengers will pass through a populous and rich
country, with substantial farm houses and extensive saw-mills at in
tervals, along the whole line. The appointments of the railway are
78 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
first-class, and the station houses, models of neatness and beauty,
have tasteful flower gardens and lawns attached, with jets of water
spurting from fountains that cool and refresh the plants.
At Parkdale will be noticed the Subway, by which Queen street,
the great east and west artery of the city, passes under the converging
railways. At this point the Canadian Pacific, Grand Trunk and
Northern Railways all enter the city. The growth of the suburbs
shows itself along the next couple of miles, where the houses are
gradually creeping farther and farther into the country and streets
of buildings occupy the receding farms.
At four miles is Davenport, a hill side locality fast filling with sub
urban residences, having a pretty station, with flower-garden and high-
On the left between this station and Weston, is seen the Valley of
the Humber River and the heights of the Caledon Hills which close
the distant view to the west. Toward the south will be seen the blue
outline of the lake with the wooded points about Mimico jutting out
into its waters.
The height of land between Lakes Ontario and Huron, which is
reached at twenty-six miles from Toronto, is 755 feet above the level
of Lake Ontario, and 415 feet above that of Lake Huron.
A few miles beyond King the line passes by not a few curves
through " The Ridges/ Here, within the confines of a single farm,
the waters diverge on either side the summit of the water-shed. One
streamlet running south forms the tiny headwaters of the infant
Humber, whose mouth debouches into Lake Ontario at Toronto, the
other winds its way northward to the Holland River on its way to
the Georgian Bay, and thence returns by Lake Erie and over the
Niagara Falls to reunite their waters in Lake Ontario, after a circuit
of over 800 miles.
The train emerges from the turnings among the hills and on the
left is caught a pleasant view over the finely nurtured farms of the
" Vale of Aurora" The hill-sides dotted with comfortable farm
steadings, the rounded copses of hardwood trees and the spires of
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 79
the little village churches give a picture which might be taken out of
fair England itself. ^
"Glen Lonely" the ancestral home of the descendants of the Cheva
lier de St. George, " Larchmere " of the Baldwins and "Elmwoods"
the country house and stock farm of W. Mulock, Esq., the Member
for the County, are among the favourite holdings in this favoured Vale,
which has a well-earned renown for the excellence of its horses and
Next is Newmarket , the county town of the County of York, with
a population of 5,000. A place of considerable age and importance,
and the headquarters of some energetic manufacturing interests.
The corner-stone of the picturesque church on the hill-side to the
left, was laid by His Excellency Lord Dufferin, during his progress-
In a little while a small stream will be noticed on the right, meander
ing sometimes through grassy meadows and again through groves of
forest elms. It is the first gathering of the Holland River and the
first water on which used to be shipped the canoes of the Indians
and of the voyageurs, in times long past, after they had passed over
the carrying place or " portage" from the harbour at Toronto.
By it came the fierce invading Iroquois when they made their too
successful incursions and decimated the tribes of the Hurons that
lived between the banks of Lake Simcoe and the shores of the
Georgian Bay. Along this valley, too, were carried the munitions of
war and the materials for the equipment of the naval squadron and
the Navy-yard, which, in the early years of the country, was maintained
Holland Landing, now a quiet and picturesque village, was the
point at which the heavy goods were transferred to the large batteaux
for transport across Lake Simcoe. Its pretty white church, with
square tower stands on the hill-side to the right, and long ago looked
down upon a busy scene, when all the business of the North passed
on long lines of heavy laden waggons before its doors. Sir John
Franklin called here when on his first expedition overland to the
North Pole in 1825, and in 1827 Gait passed by on his way to
Goderich, via Penetanguishene.
THE NORTHERN ^LAKES 01 CANADA.
Near by, on the village green rests a gigantic anchor, which having
come all the way over the sea from Her Majesty s dockyards, in
England, and by the laborious work of sixteen yoke of oxen, been
hauled thus far on its way to the " Navy Yard," was interrupted on its
THE ANCHOR AT HOLLAND LANDING.
journey by the declaration of peace, and now remains to form a
quaint monument and record of the early days of the Great Portage.
Bradford (42 miles) is at the crossing of the river and close to the
Holland River Marsh, a locality celebrated among sportsmen for its
abundant supply of partridge, snipe, wild duck and hares. There is
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 81
good trolling in the river for maskinonge. First-class accommoda
tion can be got at Bingham s Hetel, Bradford, and information respect
ing guides, punts, etc.
At Lefroy is seen the first view of Lake Simcoe, the first of the various
chains of inland lakes which are now met with in succession. Stages
run regularly to Belle Ewart, i ^2 miles on the shore of the Lake, here
called Cook s Bay. A name given by Lieutenant-Go vernor Simcoe,
after Captain Cook, the great circumnavigator of the globe, who
had been master of the ship " Pembroke," on which the Lieut.-Gover-
nor s father was captain during the expedition against Quebec, in
1759 ; Major Holland, after whom the river was named, also served
in the same conquest.
A ferry steamer keeps up constant connection with Roaches Point)
whose houses can be seen on the opposite shore of the Bay. This
pretty village is much frequented by tourists in summer on account
of its nearness to Toronto and excellent boating and fishing bass,
trout and maskinonge Raike s Hotel and several family boarding-
Serpent Island will be seen on the lake, where linger a few rem
nants of the Huron tribe who even still continue to make pilgrim
ages to join their brethren on the Christian Islands at their annual
Allandale is the junction point of the Northern and North-Western
Railway system. Here join together from the south the North-
Western Branch from Hamilton and the Northern Branch from
Toronto. Three lines radiate north.
The Muskoka Branch to the Lakes of Muskoka 3 Callandar, the
Canadian Pacific and the all rail route rcund the north shores of
The Penetanguishem Branch to Midland, Matchedash and Penetang
Bays, and the Parry Island Archipelago (42 miles).
The Coilingwood Branch to Collingwood, on the shores of the
Georgian Bay, where connection is made with the splendid steamers
82 TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
of the " Collingwood Lake Superior Line," for the grand tour of
Lake Superior, Thunder Bay, Silver Islet, Nipegon, etc., the water
route to the North-West, via Port Arthur and Duluth and Georgian
Bay Line the Great Northern Transit Co. for Manitoulin Islands,
the Great North Channel, Mackinac, Sault Ste. Marie, Parry
Sound, etc. An excellent refreshment station is maintained at
this junction, and trains stop for meals. The monument in the
garden was erected by the men of the railway to the memory of
Col. Fred. W. Cumberland, who for twenty-two years was General
Manager of the Company. During that time he had succeeded
in conducting the railway to the satisfaction of the people whom it
served and in winning the personal attachment of every man in
his employ. The Bronze is an excellent likeness the work of a
Canadian artist, Mr. F. Dunbar.
The arm of Lake Simcoe on which the station stands, is Kempen-
feldt Bay, named after another naval hero, whose loss with all his
crew by the sinking of the Royal George, when lying at anchor
in harbour at Spithead, sent a thrill throughout the world.
His sword was in its sheath,
His fingers held the pen,
When Kempenfeldt when down,
With twice four hundred men.
Barrie, the county town of the County of Simcoe, is a prosperous
place of 5,000 inhabitants. Its houses and church spires rising
picturesquely upon the sloping hill sides, are seen on the opposite
shores of the bay, around the head of which the railway comes.
Barrie is a delightful summer resort, with an excellent fleet of
boats and yachts, some of which will be seen lying at their
anchorages ; and there are some good fishing streams in the neigh
The steamer connects from Barrie with the new summer hotel at
Big Bay Point, nine miles down the Kempenfeldt Bay, where it joins
with the main water of the lake and forms a splendid place for
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
excursion parties, for whom very favourable rates are made (see
adv.) Apply to Isaac Robinson, Allandale.
In passing down the bay some admirably situated private resi
dences will be seen on both shores at Shanty Bay on the north, and
Strath Allan on the south.
The main water being entered, Lake Simcoe is one of the largest
inland Lakes of Ontario, being 30 miles long and 16 miles broad.
Its shores are characterized by great sylvan beauty.
At Keswick may be seen the charmingly situated resort of one of
the great lumber kings of the country, and many of the other choice
spots begin to be occupied with the summer residences of the more
Serpent Island, Lighthouse, and other islands are at the south end.
Sutton is pleasantly situated upon a sheltered bay on the south
shore of the lake, and is the terminus of the Nipissing Branch of
the G. T. Railway.
The steamer then skirts the upper shores of the lake, past deep
bays, whose wooded promontories jut out picturesquely into the lake,
and sighting Atherly, after an easy run of two hours, passes Grape
and other islands closely clustered together, and enters the " Narrows,"
the water channel joining Lake Simcoe with Lake Couchich-
ing, of which the first view is here gained, and passing through the
swing bridges of the Muskoka and Midland Railways, soon, upon a
point stretching out into the lake, is seen the Couchiching Park.
The steamer rounds the point, and our " water tourist " is landed
Continuing on by rail from Barrie, the train skirts the shores of
Lake Simcoe and pleasant vistas of its waters are gained.
Near Hawkstone are some excellent speckled trout streams.
The train plunges into an almost contiuuous line of forest and,
emerging once more on the shore of the lake, a view is seen (to the
right) of Grape Island and the others grouped together at the head of
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The rails curve across the neck of land between the lakes and
reach Orillia. Fast rising in importance, the town is situated at the
foot of Lake Couchiching upon a hill side facing the water. It is a
favourite centre of summer travel, the hotels excellent and the neigh
bourhood enjoyable. Close by is the beautiful Couchiching Park
and the neighbourhood gives scope for pleasant rides and drives,
while sailing and boating, and the steamers " Orillia," " Cariella,"
etc., on Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching, afford opportunities for
GRAPE ISLAND LAKE SIMCOE.
charming water parties and picnics, A pretty trip of fifteen miles is
made by the steamer Orillia through the Narrows to Strawberry Is
land, situated at the head of Lake Simcoe. It is forty five acres in
extent, partially cleared and partially wooded. Strawberry Island
Hotel is an excellent summer resort with fine sandy beach for bathing
(see advt.), good boating and camping. The fishing for black bass in
the neighbourhood is renowned, particularly at Starvation Island,
whose fame is well known among adepts. Capt. C. Mclnnes, Orillia,
will answer all questions.
Among 1 other points of interest on the lakes to the visitor from
Orillia are the Ojibbeway settlement of Indians at Rama, Chief Is-
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 85
land, Longford, the Quarries, the Rapids and Falls of the Severn,
and Washago, at the head of Lake Couchiching.
Couchiching ! Well may the curious tourist, struck by the peculi
arity of the name, ask its meaning. Indian nomenclature is always
appropriate and descriptive ; here the varying breezes, welcome ad
juncts of a summer resort, that fan the surface of the lake, have given
the Indian name for " Lake of many winds." This locality is among
the highest in Ontario, being 750 feet above Lake Ontario, 415 above
Lake Huron, and 390 feet above Lake Superior; and it is the next
lake to Lake Simcoe in the chain that empty their waters by the
River Severn into the Georgian Bay and Lake Huron.
The rapidity of the rise from Lake Ontario may thus be judged ;
and the consequent elevation and clearness of the atmosphere, and
the cool breezes, would, apart from any other consideration, be suffi
cient to commend the locality as a favourite one for a summer visit.
The black bass, pickerel, and salmon-trout fishing in the lake is
most excellent ; and ready access is gained, from Orillia as a central
point, to the celebrated Sparrow Lake, where maskinonge, black bass,
speckled-trout, etc., are found in abundance, and the best of duck
and partridge shooting in season.
The Midland Railway here connects with the Georgian Bay ; and
excursions may be made to Midland, Penetanguishene, Parry Sound,
and to the island district of the lake, and to the trout streams of the
rivers Coldwater and Severn.
There are a number of summer residences of Canadian citizens
around the shores, and the visitor from a distance should not fail to
" lay off " at Orillia, so that he may thus get a full idea of the differ
ent chains of lakes, which present marked differences.
A pleasant place is the Couchiching Park, situated on the point of
a narrow promontory projecting a mile and a half northward into the
lake, and surrounded on three sides by water thus, come from
whatever quarter it may, every breeze has play, while the lake on the
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
one side or the other, being protected by the point from wind and
wave, pleasure-boating in safe calm waters can at all times be enjoyed.
Drives and shady walks bordering the margins of the lake are
tastefully laid out in a park of 180 acres ; and a handsome avenue,
three-fourths of a mile in length, winding through forest trees, leads
to the stations of the Northern and Midland Railways. Arbours,
erected at convenient places on the lake, extend out into the water,
where, sheltered from the sun, the views can be enjoyed. A lovelier
VIEW AT COUCHICHIlS G.
sight could not be wished for. From any portion of the buildings,
no matter in what direction you look, fine stretches of water, verdure-
clad banks sloping to the water s edge, and green forest glades, pre
sent themselves to the eye. Across the bay, in an attractive cove,
backed by hills clad to their summits with fresh foliage, lies the now
prosperous town of Orillia. To the north, scarcely discernible be
tween the miniature islands that bestud the lake s surface, may be
seen the settlement of Ojibbeway Indians, appropriately called Rama,
its tin-tipped church spire like a bar of silver under the light of the
rising sun, or as a streak of gold under the sunset s declining rays.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 87
At Rama is the " reservation of the last remnants of the great
tribe of the Ojibbeways. Near Longford have been carefully
preserved some ancient Indian inscriptions, representing one of the
early strifes between this tribe and the Iroquois. The figures of men
fighting with spears and bows are roughly scratched upon the litho
graphic stone, and some traces of colour still remain. At one time
all this surrounding land was occupied by their numerous villages, a
population of at least 25,000 being settled around the shores of
Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching ; and now but a few survivors
remain, seeming, from their shy and distant manner, almost shrink-
ingly to excuse themselves for still remaining with us.
In " Tecumseh " that new and thrilling poem which should be in
every Canadian s hand graphically rises the prophetic lament of
Jena, the Indian maiden :
Oh, it is pitiful to creep in fear
O r lands where once our fathers stept in pride !
The Long-Knife strengthens, while our race decays,
And falls before him as our forests fall.
His flowers, his very weeds, displace our own
Agressive as himself. All, all thrust back !
Destruction follows us, and swift decay.
As clouds will sheer small fleeces from their sides,
Which, melting in our sight as in a dream,
Will vanish all like phantoms in the sky.
So melts our heedless race !
In the Park, or around the shores, bathing-houses, dancing plat
forms, bowling-alleys, croquet lawns, and cricket grounds, afford
every means of amusement.
It is but a short row by water, or ride by land, from Orillia, so
that the Couchiching Park is one of the additional advantages for
summer stay at this town.
Splendid brook trout are caught in the streams in the neighbour
hood, and the finest black bass fishing in America is in these sur
rounding lakes. (See Halloctis Sportsman s Gazetteer.}
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA,
The tourist having " stopped over" either at Orillia or Couchiching
is again given choice of two routes, either by " water" on steamer up
Lake Couchiching (14 miles), calling at the different little ports, to
Washago where the train is again taken: or by "all rail" by the
Northern Railway. After crossing the Narrows swing bridge, the
line passes through forests, through which distant views are obtained
of Lake Couchiching to the left and Lake St. John to the right. At
Longford is a large lumbering establishment, and after Washago ,
where the water tourists join the train, is the village of Severn Bridge.
The place takes its name from the noble stream, the Severn, which
runs westward throughout, draining the whole area of its great tribu
tary the The Black River and of Lake Simcoe into the Georgian
SEVERN RAPIDS SPARROW LAKE.
First among the sporting districts of the Northern Lakes, met on
the northward trip, is the Severn River. At Severn Bridge the
tourist will take boat or steamer, andTafter~a short run-down the
River Severn, reach
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 89
Sparrow Lake has long been celebrated for the excellence of its
fishing, but particularly for the deer, duck and ruffled grouse shooting
obtainable in their proper seasons. Many spots are available for
pic-nics and camping, especially near the rapids at the lower end.
Proceeding further down the river, an interesting canoe route is
available, and easily traced through Beaver, Legs and Pine Lakes,
with short portages to Gravenhurst, for which Indians and canoes
can be got at Rama. An easy one day excursion to Sparrow Lake
and return can be made from Orillia.
Proceeding down the Severn River, a splendid fishing trip can be
made following the stream through Six-Mile Bay and Gloucester
Pool to its outlet in Georgian Bay, opposite Waubaushene and Pen-
etanguishene. There are many portages and difficult rapids. The
trip should, therefore, not be attempted without guides. Canoe and
guide will cost about $2.00 per day. These can be obtained at
Rama or Orillia. The Severn is the line of division between
the frontier counties and of the Free Grant district of Muskoka,
which is here entered. Having crossed the river upon a lofty
bridge, the line passes the height of land separating the Lakes
of Muskoka from Lake Couchiching. False impressions of the free
grant district are frequently taken from the appearance of the country
seen along this part of the trip ; but, as on the south side there are
tracts of fine farming land, so, to the north, this ridge being passed
over, lies the wide arable country which is being so rapidly peopled
by thrifty settlers.
The Kasheshebogamog, a small stream with a very long name, is a
few miles afterwards crossed. This awful word is usually observed
to have such a knock-down effect upon strangers that they subside
into a gentle melancholy for the rest of the trip, apparently lost in
wonder at the ingenuity which could invent so big a name for so
small a river. Some folks of extra powers of mind have been known
to enquire the name of the next creek, but such cases are few and
It may have been noticed that south of Washago, being the coun
try adjacent to the Lake Simcoe Chain of Lakes, all the rocks are of
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
limestone formations. After passing the Severn nothing but granite
meets the eye ; massive in form, deep red in colour, and with a mi-
caseous sheen shining through it
As we wind through the " divide" the granite rocks raise high their
lofty sides, bluff cliffs overhang the railway as it curves around their
bases, in some places the front portion of the Train is lost to sight
from the rear, but finally the " Granite Notch" is reached, |and the
railway slips through a natural gap, fortunately left for its passage by
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 91
At twenty-seven miles from Orillia (115 from Toronto) is Graven-
hurst, a rising village at the foot of the chain of the " Lakes of Mus-
koka? and the point of transfer to the steamer for this, the second
chain of lakes.
From Niagara Falls via Hamilton.
In addition to the route by the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and
Toronto, access to these inland lakes is gained via Hamilton. The
Grand Trunk Railway from Suspension Bridge passes through a
beautiful country, well cultivated, and full of orchards, which line the
fore-shore at the foot of the high elevation which follows the lake,
and at the foot of which the railway runs.
Near Merritton the railway passes under the Welland Canal, by a
short tunnel, and a passing glimpse is got of the magnificent new
locks of the New Welland Canal and of the smaller and more pic
turesque locks and weir-gates, with miniature water-falls of the Old
St. Catharines, the Sanatarium of Western Canada, and whose
health-restoring waters have a world-wide reputation, is seen to the
right on the farther side of the valley through which the old Welland
Canal finds its way to the waters of Lake Ontario, and soon the
lake itself comes into view. At the foot of its " Mountain nestles
THE CITY OF HAMILTON.
Transfer is here made from the Grand Trunk to the station of the
Northern and North-Western R. R., the only line whose trains run
to the Lakes of Muskoka.
The city is built upon one of the steps or terraces which surround
the lake, and would appear to have at one time formed the immedi
ate shore. Looking down from the elevation of the " Mountain," its
streets slope away towards the lake and diminish in the distant
perspective. The form of the harbour, closed in from the open
water by the Burlington Beach, is clearly limned, and away to the left
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
stretches the pretty valley in the midst of which can be seen the
spires and chimnies of the little town of Dundas.
Before Hamilton was Dundas had been. At this latter place, as
being the head of navigation, which by means of the Burlington
Canal was extended to its very doors, in early days had been con
centrated the busy commerce of all the country west. To this place
came for shipment to the sea all the golden grain, and back from it
HAMILTON FROM THE MOUNTAIN.
trailed the heavy waggons laden with the merchandise purchased in
exchange. But times have changed. The construction the of Great
Western Railway altered the course of business and the young rival,
Hamilton, has grown into the dimensions of a city of the first-rating,
while decorous seemly old ^.ge has set its placid mark upon the more
Hamilton has been fortunate in its inhabitants, men of nerve,
energy and combination. They have, whatever may have been their
internal competitions, always pulled together for the weal of their fair
TEE NORTHERN ^LAKES OF CANADA. 93
Reaching out to bring commerce to their doors, they created the
construction of the Great Western, and Wellington Grey and Bruce
to the west ; the Northern and North-Western R. R. s to their north,
and the Lake Erie R.R. to the south and thus their city has become
the largest manufacturing centre in Ontario, and its forward progress
for ever secured. To-day Hamilton produces one thirty-fourth in
value of all the manufactures produced throughout the Dominion,
and consumes one-fourteenth of all the coal used in the Province of
At the foot of the mountain will be seen the handsome homes of
some of its merchant princes. The large building with wide extended
wings on the crest of the hill, is the Government Lunatic Asylum.
In the centre of the city are the prettily kept gardens of the " Gore
of Hamilton," and around it some business edifices which would
do credit to any capital. Few better are to be found anywhere than
the " Canada Life " and the " Post Office " Buildings.
Dundurn Park, on the heights towards the edge of the bay, is a
favourite resort. The Royal Hotel, centrally situated on the main
street, is fully recommended.
From Hamilton the connection to the Northern Lakes of Canada
is by the North Western R.R.
After running for some distance through the town the railway reaches
Across the upper end of Lake Ontario, where the shores of the
Lake have approached within five miles of one another, the sweeping
action of the easterly storms has in long centuries formed a narrow
continuous bank or bar of sand, stretching from shore to shore and
varying from 600 to 1,000 feet in width. On the east the rollers of
Lake Ontario toss their surge ; to the west, protected by it, lie the
placid waters of Burlington Bay, the harbour of Hamilton. Com
posed or ^ear shingly pebbles and pure sharp sand, its five miles
length of level continuous beach resembles the sea-shore in its ex
tent, and the distant blue horizon of the great Lake, where the sails
94 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
of passing vessels fade away and disappear beneath its edge, adds to
the illusion. The railway runs along the crown of the bank between
the separated waters ; a large number of pretty private residences
have been erected by the citizens of Hamilton, and near the swing
bridge over the canal which has been cut through the bank to join
the lake and the harbour, is the pretty Burlington Beach Station.
The Burlington Beach Hotel is just opposite the station. Its un
rivalled situation and fresh and airy surroundings make it a very
favourite resort, and visitors from a distance enjoy the fresh breezes
together with many of the members of families of Hamilton, whose
business does not permit them to go farther away from home.
Bowling alleys and billiard rooms in separate buildings, and a fleet
of row boats on the bay side, give plenty of scope for amusement,
while for any one who is fond of yachting, there is scarcely a more
favourable position on the inland lakes. The yachts of the Hamil
ton Yacht Club are moored just behind the hotel and excellent sail
ing craft can be hired for sails down the lake.
The fast iron steamer " Southern Belle " keeps up daily communi
cation between Toronto and Hamilton, calling at Oakville, with its
acres of strawberries, and at Burlington Beach each way, giving a
pretty coasting trip of thirty-three miles along the shores between the
THE NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY.
Having crossed over the Swing Bridge, the railway commences to
make its ascent to the upper levels of the interior. High bridges
spanning deep gullies are from time to time met with. At George
town (36 miles) is met the Grand Trunk R.R., by which tourists from
Western Canada come, and at Car dwell Junction, at the foot of the
Caledon Hills, connection is made with the Owen Sound Branch of
the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The country passed through exhibits all that could be desired from
a farming point of view, particularly near Beeton, where the hill sides
rolling up in closer profusion, show breadths of grain and pasture
that tell of solid agricultural knowledge of high degree, and of the
wealth which does not fail to follow it
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 95
At Beeton is the centre of the honey interest of Ontario What
was once a pastime has by hard-headed intelligence been brought
to be a talented business craft, and the tons of honey marketed at this
" Bee town " affect the markets of the whole world. There are
regular bee-farms and bee-nurseries. The pedigrees of the hives
are as closely watched and cared for as those of herds of cattle,
and isolated islands on the Georgian Bay are brought into requisition
for the purity and nurture of the parent swarms. All this has
brought the honey product from being only a few years ago a rarity,
mainly in the hands of chemists, to be a common article in daily use.
At this point the railway divides into two branches ; the one going
off by the Blue Mountains and the valley of the Mad River to join
the Georgian Bay at Collingwood.
The other by a short run through a pretty country brings the train
to the junction station at Allandale.
My Little Girl s First Fish.
My thoughts often travel back to my early fishing days. I cannot
remember my first trout or my first bass, or even my own first fish.
I imagine this epoch occurred when I wore petticoats and short
breeches but I can, and always will remember the first fish of the
little girl that calls me papa.
About the time she could talk she began to take an interest in my
fishing-tackle, and whenever I brought out the box containing it she
was my interested audience. She asked over and over again the
name of each particular article the box contained, and was soon able
to inform her mother, whom she thought not so well posted, what
each article was for.
Early in her little life she administered a rebuke on this subject to
her cousin, a little boy, several years her senior. He said :
" Uncle, how many fish-poles have you got ? "
Her prompt comment was : " Those are not fish-poles, they are
fish-ra& ; you cut poles in the woods."
96 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Many a confidential talk have we had upon the subject of fishing,
and more than one promise did she extract from me that when she
was a "little bigger girl " I would take her fishing.
One day, taking the baby and nurse out for a drive, I put a hook
and line in my pocket. A few miles out we came to a trout stream,
and while the carriage stood on the bridge that crossed it, I caught
a trout from beneath it. I wish some stern parent, who looks with
disfavour upon hooks and lines in the hands of his children, could
have seen the eager look in the great blue eyes of that baby while
Iwas waiting for a bite, and the smile that lighted up her little face
when I put the trout, alive and struggling, into her fat little hands.
Was she afraid of it ? Not a bit. Did she let it go ? No. She
held it tightly with one hand, and with a little finger of the other she
pointed out the bright spots, opened its mouth to look down its
throat, and examined ibs eyes and fins. She would not let go of her
prize ; so I took her home to her mother, smelling strongly of fish,
and as well covered with trout slime as one small trout was capable
of covering her.
When my little girl was three years old and that was only a few
years ago she went out for a pleasant day with her mother and
father and grand-mother and aunties.
While on the steamer, she reminded me of my many promises,
that she should that day fish for the first time. We were no sooner
landed than I procured tackle suitable for the hands of such a little
" tot," and from the hotel dock she made her maiden effort in the
gentle art. Her eagerness and excitement was for some time a bar
to her success, and the sun-fish and rock-bass removed the bait from
her hook nearly as fast as I could put it on. She wished to bait her
own hook, and would take the worms from the can for this purpose,
but I persuaded her that I could do it better.
She did not like the idea of fishing with a pole ; she wanted a rod,
and thought I was very forgetful not to have brought one. At last,
with a scream of delight, she landed a rock-bass, about four inches
long. She dropped the pole instantly and grasped the struggling
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA 97
fish her eyes fairly dancing with delight as she informed me, at the
top of her voice, " / ve got one ! I *ve got one /" In an instant she
was gone like a flash towand the hotel, to show her capture to her
mother. She would not let it out of her hands, but held it up to be
admired, assuring the people that " / caught it, all alone ! " wkh a
strong accent on the /.
Soon she came back, and when I had told her it was a rock-bass,
and why it was called a rock-bass, and answered several other
" why s," and she had stuck her finger down the throat of the fish
and into its eyes, and turned it over and over, examining it thor
oughly, she resumed fishing, with the dead fish on the dock behind
No more fish for her that day ; it took far too much of her time to
turn around and see if the one already caught was safe. With all
her watchfulness the little bass came to grief, for another little girl,
walking along the dock, kicked it into the water. As it fell with a
splash in front of her, she gave one glance over her shoulder to see
who could have done this unkind thing, and then down she went,
prone on her face, with a suddenness that made my heart leap into
my throat, and reached out with her little arm to get her much-prized
fish. I was at her side in an instant ; and the tears welled into her
eyes as she told me of the misfortune that had come to her. I res
cued the fish, and all that day she did not trust it again out of her
That night, as we were nearing home, and the little tired body was
leaning back on the seat, with her eyes half-closed, but the little
hands still tightly grasping the fish, her grandmother said to her :
" Beatrice, of all the things that you have seen or done to-day,
what did you most enjoy ? ;!
" Fishing" was the sententious but emphatic reply.
She had the fish for her breakfast the next morning ; and a prouder
or more happy little girl it would have been hard to find. When
informed by one of her aunties that it was a " sore-eyed bass," she
was positive it did not have sore eyes, for she had examined them.
98 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
It was a rock-bass, " because papa said so / " and her faith in the
authority she quoted remains unshaken.
The story of a little girl s first fish may find a tender spot in some
parental heart ; but, at all events, lots of other little boys and girls
will find abundant opportunities in the happy waters of the lakes of
Muskoka to angle for and catch their own * first fish."
The Lakes of jlluskoka.
The district known as the Muskoka District occupies the " High
lands of Ontario," many of its lakes being over four hundred feet
above the level of Lake Superior the highest lake of the great St.
Lawrence system. From it radiate the various lake and river systems
of the Province : The French, Maganetevvan, Muskoka, and Mus-
kosh Rivers to the west ; the Petewawa and Ottawa to the east,
and the Trent system to the south.
In area it comprises a territory equal in size to that of the kingdom
of Belgium, or to come nearer home, five times the size of our own
Province of Prince Edward Island. Of this area some eight hun
dred lakes of all sizes, from thirty miles in length to mere ponds,
and their river connections occupy no less than one tenth of its sur
face. The presence of so much water, not in the shape of sodden
swamps, but in quick flowing streams and bright deep lakes contri
butes, no doubt, to the equable temperature, and combines, with the
extreme altitude to that brisk exhiliarating effect which the clear at
mosphere undoubtedly has upon the visitor. Hay fever does not
exist among the inhabitants and is greatly mitigated, and after a suffi
cient stay, entirely cured to strangers.
The waters are of a peculiar deep brown, except in some of the
lakes, and when bathing their buoyancy is peculiarly noticeable and
better still they do not leave that certain relaxing effect noticed in
more southern fresh waters. It is said that as a beverage they are
favourable to any ailments of the kidneys.
IK- THIS- CATALOGUE
/A AI L
I "< P-r.A-v-3oo^>
2 BooK$ 09 .
M YACHTS CANOES -CAMPING.
Fishing irith the Fly. By C. F. Orvis. Colored plates
of 149 standard Salmon, Bass and Trout Flies, w th
Book of the Black Bass. Its scientific and life history,
with a treatise on Angling by Dr. Henshall. Fully illus
i Superior Fishing. Striped Bass, Trout, etc., of North
America. By R. P. Rossevelt. Illustrated. $2.25.
a t The Game Fish of Northern f nited States and
L Canada. By R. B. Rossevelt. Illustrated. $2.25.
Q j Flu Rods and Fly Tackle. Suggestions as to the
manufacture and use. By H. P. Wells. Illustrated. $3.00.
The Modern Practical Angler. A complete guide to
^1 Fly Fishing, Bottom Fishing and Trolling. By H. Pru-
nell. Illustrated. $1.25.
The Book of the Pike. By H. Prunell. Illustrated. $1.25.
The- Complete Angler; or, The Contemplative Man s
P Recreation. By Isaak Walton and Charles Cotton. With
j six original etchings and two portraits. 450 pp. $10.50.
Fly Fish ing. Salmon, Trout and Grayling. By Edward
al Hamilton, M.I). 82.00.
fa Frank Forester s Fish and Fishing. Illustrated
from nature. By. H. W. Herbert. $2.75.
, A Practical Guide to Bottom Fishing, Trowling, Spin-
k ning and Fly Fishing. By. J. T. Burgess. With numer-
g; ous practical illustrations, sac.
jv- Angling Talks. Being the winter talks on summer pas
times. By George Dawson. 6oc.
The Scientific Angler $1.75-
Ci Sport with Rod ami Gun in Canadian and American
Woods and Waters. Beautifully illustrated by Alfred M.
American Sportsman. Containing hints to sportsmen.
b notes on shooting, etc. By F,. J. Lewis, M.D. 83.00.
Williamson -& Co.,
The Yacht Sailor. A Treatise on Practical Yachtsman-
ship, Cruising and Racing. By Vanderdeaken. $3.00.
Small Yachts. Their design and construction, exemplified ing
by the ruling types of modern practice, with numerous ,_
plates and 70 illustrations, by C. P. Kunhardt. .$9.00.
Practical float Sailing. With a short vocabulary of raZ-
nautical terms. By Douglas Frazar. $1.20. [llS-
Practical Boat Building. Illustrated. By Kemp. $1.20. fUg
Practical Boat Sailing. By Davis. 82.00
Canoe and Boat Building. A complete manual for
amateurs. Containing plans and comprehensive direc
tions for the construction of canoes, rowing and sailing
boats, and hunting craft. With numerous illustrations
and 24 plates of working drawings, by W. P. Stephens.
Canoe Handling. The Canoe its history, uses, limita-
. tions and varieties, practical management and care. Il
lustrated by C. Bowyer Vaux. $1.25.
Canoeing in Kanuckia ; or, Haps and Mishaps Afloat
and Ashore. By Norton and Habberton. $1.75.
The Rob Roy on the Baltic. By John Macgregor. $1.25.
A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe. By John
Voi/age Alone in the yawl " Rob Roy." By John Mac
The Canoe Aurora. A cruise from the Adirondacks to
the Gulf. With maps of the route. By Dr. Charles A.
Paddle and Portage. $1.50.
Camping and Cruifting iii Florida. By Dr. Hen-
shall. Illustrated. $1.75.
Wo?/- to Camp Out. By John M. Gould. $1.00.
Practical Hints on Camping. By H. Henderson
Woods-raft. By Nessmuk. #1.25.
Canoe and Camp Cookery. A practical book for canor [QJ-J
ists and others. By Seneca. $i.2S-
Catnp JAfe and the Tricks of Trapping. By W. H. Gibson.
Illustrated. $1.25. "
Booksellers, Toronto. / i
ai MAPS & GUIDE BOOKS
Famous Fishing Districts
A NEW MAP of Muskoka Lakes, Parry
Sound, and Nipissing Districts.
.Showing Canoe Routes mentioned in Barlow Cumberland s
New Guide to the Northern Lakes. It also shows Railways,
Government Roads, Free Grant Lands, and Lumber Limits
Jj In cloth case, convenient tor the pocket. 75t .
1 MAP AND GUIDE BOOK to the Muskoka
* Showing all the Islands. By Capt. Rogers, of the Steam
3 Yacht " Sunbeam." Canoeists and Campers will find this
an invaluable pocket companion. >Oc.
1 MUSKOKA, the Picturesque Playground of
A portfolio of 12 lithographic views (n x 15) of well-known
c and picturesque scenes. By Edward Roper. Ijil.
l A L<try< Supply of Light Litei-dtm-c fo
i ffiflinf/ nht fti/fi in stock.
i WILLIAMSON & CO
No. 5 King- Street West, - Toronto.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Rocks abound throughout ; indeed four-tenths of the country is
occupied by rocks and lakes ; but both in the water and on the land
the rocks jut directly up, so that alongside the base is immediately
a good depth of water or of soil. Thus the whole of the remaining
sixty per cent, is available for use, and having these adjacent store
houses of moisture or of heat, its powers are largely improved. Graz
ing is peculiarly successful, and in this branch lies the future of Mus-
koka. It will become the dairy and the sheep grazing district of the
Province, for the rocks of Muskoka seem to have the faculty of nur-
turing trees, shrubs, and verdure which cling to and cover their sides
in a most incomprehensible manner.
The flora of the district is, as might be expected from its situation,
peculiar to itself, and walks through the woods will bring to the un
taught eye many unaccustomed varieties and to the educated bota
nist, a rare storehouse of pleasure. One of them says : " The vege
tation is almost tropical in its undisturbed luxuriance. The beautiful
white fringed Orchis the loveliest of all the Habenarias and the
100 THE NOETHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
splendid Cinnamon and Royal Osmund ferns grow to perfection in
low and moist situations, while the Polypody and the Shield-fern
flourish in the higher grounds. In the district are also found, in
exceptional abundance, Club-mosses of various species, and the
curious Pitcher plant nestles in its moss setting along the margins
of the sequestered pools."
The district was long occupied by the various sub-tribes of the
Hurons, as being a safe asylum from the fury of the warring nations
who occupied the shores of Lake Ontario, while its woods and
waters afforded them ample sustenance of fish and game.
The tract is shown upon the Carte de la Nouvelle France (Map of
New France), published by the early voyageurs and Jesuit Fathers, as
lying between the country of the " Ancien Pays des Hurons" (Ancient
Land of the Hurons) who were destroyed and scattered by the Iroquois
in 1649], and the country of the "Pays Outaouais " (Ottawa tribes).
Lake Muskoka was then called by the French "Petit Lac des Hu
rons" and Lake Simcoe "Lac Toronto"
The origin of the name is, as is the case with all names originating
from Indian sources, couched in mystery and subject of different
opinions. Some assert it is derived from the Indian word " Mus-
quo-tah," signifying " red ground," probably owing to its rusty iron
and ochre-coloured sediments which may be seen in the soils of
many of the fields, and around the banks of some of the streamlets.
Others that its meaning is that of the " Clear-sky-land," a signifi
cation which would appear to have some reasonable accuracy, but
whatever its meaning may be, we may fairly accept the earliest testi-
timony, and join with Mr. Alex. Sheriff, who in his topographical
notices, published by the Quebec Historical Society, in 1831, says:
" This river is called the Muskoka, after the Missasaga chief, who
used to hunt in some part of its neighbourhood."
This chief s name is elsewhere spelt " Mesqua-Okee. ; All Indian
names have some attendant meaning ; be this whatever it may, it was
borne by a gallant warrior and a bold hunter, whose renown spread
through the surrounding country. The home of his tribe was hard
by the shores of Lake Ontario, and little was it supposed, when he
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 101
sought sport and recreation in this inland paradise of game, that he
was leading the way for so many others to follow exactly in his foot
steps, in our later and modern days. Thus we connect the present
beautiful and improving district with the romantic and receding past.
Perhaps some of the writers, to whom Canada is now giving birth,
will do for this territory what Fenimore Cooper did for those farther
south, or Bulwer Lytton has done for Pompeii, and will re-people
these ancient homes with the romance and story of their earlier In
dian and French occupation. Once more then shall the birch bark
canoe, with its dusky occupants, steal through the waters between the
silent islands, either in peaceful summer-bright journey, or on expedi
tion of deadly internecine hate.
Gravenhurst. This town, now grown to considerable estate, has
been always the Gateway to the Muskoka district. Here used to
arrive the wearied stages after their fourteen miles jolting over
the rocks and through the gullies which line the whole way over
the portage from Washago, where the last transfer was made from
the steamers. How many a heart has sank in despair as the
forbidding rocks seemed almost to crowd out the soil. Nothing
but the firm determination to win "independence has spurred
the wayfarer to press still further into " the bush," instead of retiring
precipitately after this first acquaintance, whose fallacy is soon
shown once the rocky barrier has been surmounted. Next, in
1879, came the extension of the railway to this point, and from
Gravenhurst the busy lumberman or the busier tourist took steamer
to gain the northern parts of the country, and then in 1886 comes
the crowning advance of all, the opening of the Pacific Junction
Branch right through the heart of the district to the great Lake Nip-
pissing, to Callander, and the connection with the Canadian Pacific.
Later on we will trace the steps of the traveller along this line of
railway, but still taking Gravenhurst as the " Gateway City," we will
follow first along the water route.
The town occupies a most eligible site, crowning elevated but not
too hilly ground, and encircling deep bays with shores sloping down
to the water s edge. On the eastern side of the town is Gull Lake,
102 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
a charming little sheet which discharges its waters through the Hock
Rock trout stream, The place has considerable trade in the manu
facture and shipment of lumber and timber. There are three
churches , the stores, hotels and other establishments are creditable
in appearance, and supplies of all kinds can be had at extremely
moderate prices. The hotels are commodious, well kept and inex
pensive. The town is in thriving condition, making fine progress
and extending rapidly. The immediate neighbourhood affords con
siderable attraction to the tourist and sportsman. Brook trout (in
limited quantities), salmon trout, bass and pickerel in abundance ;
deer, partridge, hare and a limited amount of duck shooting all can
be conveniently reached from Gravenhurst as a centre. Pigeon Lake,
Deer Lake, and Pine Lake are reached by the Muskoka road to the
Loon Lake, Leg Lake, and Rice Lake are nearer, and more to the
west of the town. Doe Lake is about two miles to the east.
The railway station for the town and where the junction for the
Callender extension is made, is on the upper level. The lake station,
called Muskoka Wharf, where connection is made with the Mus
koka Navigation Coy s steamers, is reached by a very steep grade
winding down a natural gully to the water side. The details of the
routes of the steamers is given elsewhere, to which reference should
The Muskosh River Chain*
This is one of the largest of the lakes comprised under the generic
term of "The Lakes of Muskoka," being 22 miles long and 9 miles
wide in its extremest points. It is the peculiarity of these lakes that
they are so studded with islands that wide open reaches of rough
water are scarcely to be met with. This appears to be less the case
with Lake Muskoka than with any others ; but its greater size is the
NO RI HERN LAKES OF CANADA. 103
only reason, for it teems with islets (as do all its companion lakes),
having, in round figures, an island for every day in the year. Its
beauties, in detail, are equal to any other lake, but its larger expanse,
and the fact that many of its islands are of large size, and have been
allowed, in earlier times, to be burned over, take from its pictur-
esqueness. Yet the inhabitants of its islands and shores are enthusi
astic in its praises, and vaunt its features as being above all the
others. In common with all the lakes of the district, it affords most
splendid fishing. The shores are fringed with islands, and salmon-
trout are successfully caught by trolling between them ; black bass
and pickerel abound. One certain advantage it has in accessibility,
being the most southerly of all the lakes, so that the visitor coming
north arrives earlier and going south leaves later than from any other.
But visitors to the Lakes of Muskoka must see, not one, but all the
lakes ; and so we will start from the dock.
To the left is the new village of West Gravenhurst, with busy
sawmills, and all around the high bluff, granite rocks dipping steeply
into the water, so that ample depth exists right alongside their face.
Winding between Percy, Henry, Mary, and Daisy Islands, we enter
another pool, and, after a little, slip through The Narrows, where
there is bare room for the steamer to pass between the rocks, we
enter the broadest part of the lake. On the west point is the light
Passing up the centre of the lake, on the east, are Kata^o, Ault-
bowrie, and Whitl Islands ; while far off to the west are the island
settlements of the Denison, Patton, and Moberly families. The
largest island is Brownings Island. Next, Eilian-Gowan, the sum"
mer house of Mr. Justice Gowan, comes in view, where art and love
of landscape have been called in to assist the attractiveness of
Nature, and walks and drives, glades and grottoes, have been formed
to make pleasant this holiday country home.
Just opposite this, and winding through the reedy banks which line
the shores and forming a sort of delta, are the two mouths of
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 105
THE MUSKOKA RIVER.
Entering by an abrupt turn the steamer winds its way up the tortuous
channel. Unlike the banks of all other rivers in Muskoka and all other
parts, even of itself, the banks of the Muskoka River, between the
entrance to the lake and Bracebridge, are soft alluvial deposits of
much richness and great depth. The shores are lined to the water s
edge with a profusion of rank vegetation and tangled roots of trees
or toppled trunks, whose downward branches sweep the surface of
the stream. The water is of a dark brown hue and, completely
sheltered from the wind, its surface has an oily glassiness, wherein is
clearly reflected every bough and liitle twig, or the white masses of
summer clouds that float across the sky above. The river is full of
sudden turns ; at times the prow appears to be headed direct for
the opposing land, when with a sudden sweep the boat is turned al
most at right angles, and new vistas with their promontories bathed
in sunlight and their cool recesses sunk deep into deeper shadow,
come into view.
For six miles turn succeeds to turn ; so narrow is the river that we
see the surge from the steamer s wheels lay bare the shore, and boats
must either be securely fastened to their stakes or else their anxious
owners hurry down to keep them from being swept away by the re
At Alport, hard by the celebrated "Muntz Farm" where is the
prize-taking herd of Muskoka cattle, we may deliver Her Majesty s
mail, and by-and-bye the hills, which we have seen peeping through
the vacancies in the forest that fringes the banks, close in, and at the
very foot of the " North Falls is the dock which forms the head of
Bracebridge The chief town of the Muskoka District, and, if not
its geographical, yet most certainly its business and county centre.
Starting in 1861 with two log huts and their attendant potato patches,
and only a fallen pine tree for a bridge over the River, it advanced in
1866 to the proud pre-eminence of three bush stores and a tavern,
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
and now may be congratulated upon being a thriving town, with a
stirring and fast increasing population, and possessing accommoda
tion for tourists and travellers which retain it in its position of being
the best starting point from which to explore the river district and to
obtain supplies necessary for the trip. It is true the railway now
passes through Bracebridge and runs direct to points beyond, but
nevertheless the town has obtained such a lead in its hotel and busi
ness advantages, that it will be advisable to continue to avail of them.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
There are five excellent hotels (see advt.\ Anglican, Methodist,
Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic churches. A Mechanics Insti
tute and Library, and Masonic, and Oddfellows Lodges.
The town is agreeably situ
ated on the cliffs surrounding
the river, and the neighbour
hood merits some sojourn from
the tourist to visit its interest
At a distance of four miles,
| either by road or along the
of the Muskoka river,
are the High Falls.
In the summer this group of
three falls, which are divided
from each other by two islands,
are best approached from the
right bank. Very little rock is
to be seen in the advance to
the river, but when it is reach
ed, the visitor, standing on a
parapet one hundred feet above
the basin, sees on the one side
the rushing fall, and then in
front from where the curving
basin joins again the river
bank, stretches out a long
straight canal cut by nature s
SOUTH FALLS-MUSKOKA RIVER WOrk with Stee P walls f dee P
est foliage hemming in its sides. But the chief attraction are the
GREAT SOUTH FALLS.
Above Bracebridge the river is divided into two great branches,
each draining a large area of the country. These two unite in the
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
neighbourhood of the town. The Falls of the North Branch are
those which are seen from the steamboat landing, but their natural
beauty has been sadly interfered with by the necessity of man for
bread wherewith to feed, and home wherein to shelter himself and
household; thus grist and sawmills abstract the water, and lay bare
part of the bed of the stream.
THE UPPER LEAP SOUTH FALLS.
Having crossed through the town above the North Falls, a walk
of about three miles brings one suddenly to the bridge which
spans the upper "chute" of the Great SouthFalls. In the level
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 109
country, when nearing the river, there is nothing to give evidence of
the approaching gorge ; and from the bridge, as from a perch high
up above, we look downward over the mass of tossing, seething foam.
It will be noticed that the river, in its descent of a hundred and
thirty feet, makes two perpendicular leaps, joined together by upper
and by lower pools, in which the waters boil and swirl between their
successive rapid descents. To see the Falls to better effect it is well
to clamber down over the rough and slippery crags to the foot of the
torrent, about 1,000 feet down from the bridge.
The best way, however, to approach this the most commanding
natural feature of Muskoka, and which if it existed in some Euro
pean country would be considered worth a pilgrimage to visit is to
take canoe down the river from Bracebridge. Shortly after passing
Beardmore s Tanneries, the South Branch of the river is entered at
a point where a small bridge crosses the entrance. It is a nice row
or paddle of three miles to the foot of the Falls. There is one
short reach of rapid water, which can be either poled up, or one
hundred yards portage made. The flecks of foam floating by on the
surface of the stream tell of the approaching change of level ; soon
the voice of the mighty waters itself is heard ; and in a little while
the whole cataract comes full into view. Then, passing through the
circling white bells of the eddy foot, we step on shore.
Looking up along the tumultuous snowing mass, the belts of spray
at each successive fall hang over the several steps, and sometimes
little rainbows enhance the scene. The water is torn into a whitened
foam, here and there marked by deep brown streaks where, in deeper
spots, it sweeps over some smoother stone. On either side rise the
walls of spray-damped solid rock, fringed with young maples and
feathered birch, while high above the dark green pines and age-
browned bridge stand clear-cut out against the sky.
To facilitate the bringing of the sawlogs down the stream, and
prevent their being damaged as they used to be when making the
passage of the Falls, the Government has constructed on .one bank a
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
" timber-slide," and down this the logs may be seen to run, and
tumbling in quick succession, like so many porpoises, into the still
waters of the river reach below.
As to the geological action which has formed this cleft, it must,
most probably, be classed with those caused by a " fault" or " fissure."
THE GREAT SOUTH FALLS.
The abrading action of either frost or water has been very slight,
there being nothing here as in the Gorge of Niagara, capable of be
ing loosened or undermined and the adamantine rocks on either
hand repel any great abrasion.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. Ill
The chasm is like a cleft, wide at the top and contracting towards
the water s edge, at one place to about fifteen feet On the right
bank (the left hand side looking up) a vast, almost perpendicular
smooth dark, iron-coloured rock is intersected by lighter coloured
seams, apparently mixtures of quartz and rosy feldspathic crystals.
The other bank is different, for here crags of what resembles grey
sandstone appear in company with others, dazzling the eye by their
At the foot of the fall may be noted the bank of pebbles consist
ing of water-worn stones, from the size of an egg to that of a man s
head, of varied colours and all worn smoth some being actually
Some very remarkable round pockets or cups may also be noticed
in the rocks caused by the perpetual rubbing of the imprisoned
The basins of the torrent show plain signs of the laborious friction
of the water and the attendant drift, but beyond these and the
little bowls before noticed, the centuries have left but little mark
upon the barriers of the falls.
From Bracebridge expeditions may be made with facility to Bays-
ville and the Lake of Bays, returning by canoe down the south
branch of the Muskoka River, or to the pretty chain of Lakes Vernon,
Fairy, and Mary returning from Port Sydney down the North branch,
but these will be dealt with further on.
LAKE MUSKOKA AGAIN.
From the mouth of the river, still keeping northward up the lake
we pass close to the Birch and Wilson Islands. Along the
high bluff banks may be seen the large encampments of summer
visitors, some from other parts of Canada, over which will fly the
deep red Union Jack, and others from our neighbours of the United
States spreading to the air the more variegated Stars and Stripes,
THE NORTHERN LAKES Off CANADA.
Some of these will have groups of eight and ten large tents and
reverberating reports from guns will salute the steamer as it passes by
This, the southermost of the summer resorts of Muskoka, is situ
ated on Tondern Island, which, like its progenitor, Anglesea, is
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 113
separated from the mainland by a narrow channel, the Menai strait.
The high square tower of the hotel forms an imposing landmark from
all sides. Elevated well above the lake, and with broad continuous
verandahs, the hotel is one of the most modern in this district. From
the steamer it cannot be seen that in front of the west side is a well
cared for tennis ground, or that the very freedom from surrounding
obstruction affords unexampled island views extending all over the
lake and giving a pleasant outlook from every window, while the
shady verandah and free access of the breeze give the coolness so
much sought for.
The fishing in the neighbourhood is remarkable, and many long
strings of bass grace the hotel kitchen.
Tondern Island has many pretty nooks and bays. The bathing
houses are on a nice sand beach near the hotel, and affording per
fectly safe bathing for ladies and children. The circuit of the island
can be made in a pleasant row of about three miles, passing through
the Menai Straits and around home again. Home, Fairhotm, and
The Brothers Islands are close at hand. For rainy days, and these
will sometimes come even in Muskoka, the bowling alleys and bil
liard rooms in a separate house, close by the hotel, will afford plea
sant recreation. Like all other Muskoka resorts, fresh air, fine fishing,
bathing and boating, are the staple ingredients of the summer holi
day, and in opportunity for all these Beaumaris fully abounds. Mr.
Prowse, the proprietor of the hotel, has a very large stock of excel
lent boats both for rowing and sailing (see advt)
Point Kaye is the last point on the east shore of Lake Muskoka
before entering the Indian River, which forms the connection with
Lake Rosseau. The village consists of only a few houses and a post-
Immediately opposite Beaumaris, in sight from the hotel, and on
the route which the steamer takes when crossing to the western side
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
of the lake, is a cluster of islands known as The Kettles, with some
what of a maze or lab
yrinth in their many
Among these islands is
found the very best
bass fishing on the
lakes, and splendid
trolling for salmon
trout. Good guides
are advised, as the dis
tances are considerable
and acquaintance with
the points of the com
pass necessary for a
prompt return to house
A Specimen Muskoka Letter.
BEAUMARIS, August loth, 1885.
DEAR TOM, I wrote you last on my arrival at Toronto, and not caring to
spend the balance of my holidays in a city, made up my mind to put in the last
week in the far-famed Muskoka Lakes ; so went down to Mr. Barlow Cumber
land s office on Yonge street, and purchased a ticket for Beaumaris. Off next
morning at 8 a.m. per Northern Ry. for Gravenhurst, where I arrived about 1.30.
I found a very comfortable steamer waiting to take us up the lakes ; had dinner
which was served on the boat in first-rate style, and, after about an hour and a
half sail up the lake, found myself at Beaumaris. Here I found a first-rate hotel,
with capital accommodation. Having secured my room I took a walk round the
place to inspect my new quarters. There is a most beautiful view from the front
of the house, and a balmy breeze from across the lake was most enjoyable. Some
guests were playing tennis on the fine lawn in front, and I purpose putting in part
of mv time the same way, I then looked up my fishing tackle and got things in
THE NORTHERN LA.KES OF CANADA. 115
order for the next day. Had supper about half past six, then got a boat and took
an hour s row to get myself in training. After, returned to the hotel, where I
found the folks dancing. There is a large room here which is always ready for
that or any like purpose. Next morning, having had lunch put up for me, I
started off with a guide for a day s fishing, and commencing just below the hotel,
fished along the shores of the island, casting in at all likely spots, and so went on
till noon with a result of ten nice bass and three pickerel. We landed at a pretty
point, made a fire, got some coffee, cooked sufficient fish for dinner, and I can
tell you that is the way to enjoy them, right fresh out of the water into the frying-
pan ; I never tasted anything like it before. About half-past three we started
again, returning to the hotel for supper with a grand result of thirty-two bass and
seven pickerel not so bad for one day. In the evening played billiards. Next
morning, about 9 a.m., the steamer called here on her way to Bala, the outlet of
these waters, so I took a trip in her. We first went up to Point Keye P.O., and
left the mails, then across to Bala, where we arrived about 10.30. It is a most
beautiful spot. There is a fine waterfall, also a large dam where all the logs go
over into the river below. Arrived back at the hotel in time for dinner. This is
a splendid trip ; the scenery all along the route is simply magnificent. I put in the
afternoon playing lawn tennis and bathing ; in the evening there was lots of good
music and singing. Next day, after my morning bath, I rowed over to Huckle
berry Rock, a place about two miles distant, although only about a mile as the
crow flies. It gets its name from the quantity of berries growing upon it, and cer
tainly there is any quantity of them. I climbed to the top of the rock and walked
several hundred yards to a place called the Look-out, and here I got one of the
finest views I think I ever saw. Nearly the whole of Muskoka Lake and part of
Lake Rosseau lay before rne, with the islands dotted here and there ; it was a
perfect panorama. I returned to the hotel for dinner. In the afternoon I played
awn tennis for a while and then went down to the bowling-alley for an hour ;
in the evening had a good dance. Next day I and some others took a ramble
through the woods as far as Leonard Lake, a very pretty lake about two miles
from here. On the way gathered any amount of wild raspberries, also got a lot
of pitcher plants. . I had never seen any before ; they are very pretty and peculiar.
Put in the rest of the day playing billiards and bathing. Next day I spent fish
ing with pretty much the same result as before. In the evening there was a con
cert in the dancing room, which went off very well. Sunday, there was service
in the morning and afternoon ; in the evening most of the guests assembled in the
music room and had selections of sacred music, sang hymns, etc. On Monday,
the proprietor having engaged a steamboat for the day, about fifty guests took a
trip up to the head of Lakes Rosseau and Joseph, stopping about an hour at each
place. This was truly a delightful sail ; we saw everything at the best advantage,
and enjoyed the day thoroughly, getting back to the hotel about 7 p.m., when we
116 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
found our supper ready for us. 1 am spending this evening writing you, as I
think it is the best opportunity I shall have, as T must get away to-morrow morn
ing. I only wish I could stay here for a month, as I feel 20 per cent, better since
I came, and have gained about five pounds in weight. The air is so good and
cool I always sleep well at nights, and as for appetite I am afraid to think of it ;
I am sure the landlord made very little out of me. I hear several people, who
have suffered for years from hay fever, say they have never been so well anywhere
as here, In fact they have been quite free from it. Now I must close as I am
sure you will be getting tired, and all I can say is that if you want to enjoy your
self and have a real good time, go to Muskoka and spend a week or two.
The east shore of Lake Muskoka is well supplied with islands,
but the west shore is very much more so. At present not very ex
tensive hotel advantages exist, but Mr. Thomas Currie has opened a
private boarding house for canoeists and campists ; there is no better
region than on this west coast of the lake. Most of the islands have
been taken up by Torontonians and on many of them houses qave
been erected. No doubt, when steamboat facilities increase, this
region will become as well known as those lying on the more direct
routes. Bala is a regular fishing centre \ close by are many little
lakes among which may be named Bull, Echo, Clear, Long, Black
and Hardy s, but the crowning feature is the Muskosh Rivvr, which,
beginning at this point, carries away the waters of the whole of the
vast inland chain of lakes.
MUSKOSH AND MOON RIVERS.
After the stop-log dams erected by the Government for the control
of the water of the lake, the stream narrows to a width of about 40
yards, then passing swiftly along for a short distance, gathering, as it
were, its energies for the grand leap it now takes over a rocky ledge
about twenty-three feet in height. Immediately below the Falls the
river widens again, forming powerful eddies, particularly at high
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 117
Strangers require to exercise extra precaution in the management
of their boats or canoes below the portage until the disturbed waters
are safely passed, which is only the work of a few minutes.
Descending the river, amid beautiful scenery, are fine bass and
pickerel fishing for a distance of about four miles. The channel here
divides itself into two streams, the one called the Muskosh, the other
the Moon River, and both discharging their waters into the Georgian
Bay through mouths many miles distant from each other.
Numerous falls and rapids interrupt navigation on both streams and
no strangers should venture without experienced guides. At the
above mentioned dividing point there is really splendid maskinonge
fishing ; the fish are large and of the finest quality.
Canoes can be taken down the Moon River to Georgian Bay and
return made from there by the Crane and Blackstone Lake chains to
Lake Joseph or Port Cockburn. (See the route map.}
Walker s Point and Tot ranee are hamlets and post offices on the
west shore of Lake Muskoka, and in the neighbourhood of the Mus-
THE INDIAN RIVER.
Having sailed up Lake Muskoka, we approach the Northern and
upper end of the lake, and, threading our way through the Seven
Sisters Islands a cluster not far from Beaumaris we then pass
Idlewild, One Tree, and Horseshoe Islands. On the right hand is
seen Fairmount. Fairmount is situated one and a quarter miles from
Point Kaye, on a pretty bay with a southern aspect, just at the entry
of the Indian River. A few families can be accommodated by Mr.
Butter, and three cottages can be rented furnished. The little Angli
can Church of the Holy Cross nestles against the woods in the east
corner of the bay ; service every Sunday. A sandy beach, sloping
gradually down, furnishes perfectly safe bathing for children.
We now enter the converging channel of the Indian River. The
banks rise high on either side, and the thickly wooded slopes throw
118 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
dark shadows at the rapid turns, widening out almost into a little
lake some good farms are to be seen upon the shore and then
narrowing up again after a sudden turn, we pass through a channel
marked out with fir trees for buoys, and reach the prettiest part of
the river. At four miles from Lake Muskoka is
This, of all the villages on the lakes, is the most important being
the most central. Being the converging point for all the steamers
running to and fro on the three lakes, access to all parts can most
conveniently be obtained from this centre, and frequent communi
cations be kept up with all. The Stratton House, most excellently
kept by Mr. John Fraser, is very commodious, and has an established
reputation. Mr. Vanderbergh s comfortable hostelrie is favourably
situated on the garden bank, and has a dock all to itself (see adver
tisement). Boats and guides to all the fishing and sporting points
obtained. There are also very good supply stores, kept by Mr.
Wallis and Mr. Hanna (see advertisement) and three churches.
On Sundays, row-boats will be noticed coming from all points, bear
ing the congregations to divine service Steam launches for visiting
the lakes can be hired from Mr. Vanderbergh.
At Port Carling the steamers pass through the locks which connect
Lake Muskoka and Lake Rosseau, the latter being four feet the
higher level. Transfer is made at the locks from the Lake Muskoka
steamer to the side-service steamers running up the different lakes ;
and tourists are recommended to look closely after their baggage
themselves, for, however good any system of checking may be, errors
will sometimes occur; and it is little satisfaction either to see your
trunk going away on the deck of another steamer, or yourself arriving
at your destination to find that your baggage and all your comforts
have been left behind. At this transfer point, therefore, have an eye
to your baggage yourself.
LAKE MUSK OKA
TH E N RTH ER N LA K ES CANADA
Scale 2 1 2 Miles = I Inch
JLLS ... *
THE NORTHERN LAKEb OF CANADA 119
Leaving the village, perched on its picturesque and rugged rocks
behind us, we enter a beautiful wooded basin, in which there is most
excellent fishing; next passing a point which has been laid out for
Interlaken Park a splendid grove for camping and picnicking, and
one of the few cases in Muskoka of happy nomenclature. Another
turn brings us to the end of the river, and the southern end of the
Where the lakes are of such exceedingly irregular form as are all
the Lakes of Muskoka, lengths and breadths vary greatly j according
to the place from which the measurements are taken. The tourist is
usually familiar with lakes which, formed in hollows and basins, have
some tolerable regularity of shape ; but these Lakes of Muskoka are
unlike any others, being formed, not by any regular depressions of
normal strata, but being the upheaval of the old Laurentian sys
tem the oldest geological formation on the continent which here
alone thrusts its head up through the super-imposed masses. Hence
the general elevation of the district, and the remarkable changes of
shape in the coast lines. Jutting points, deep bays, sudden elonga
tions, and sharp changes of direction, follow quick upon one another,
so that the course of the steamer is undergoing constant alteration,
instead of proceeding in one general direction following along a
somewhat similar shore. It is this constant change which affords
such pleasure to the eye on the Lakes of Muskoka ; and though the
component parts of the landscape shall be of the same water, and
rock, and tree yet the ever-changing play of light and form con
stantly opens out new combinations in colour and beauty of which
the sight never wearies nor the interest grows dull.
Lake Rosseau is fourteen miles long in its extremest points. For
distances between the several places on this and other lakes, mea
surements can be made on the maps, which are accurately drawn to
a scale of 2^ miles to the inch. After leaving the Indian River,
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
the steamer for Lake Joseph diverges to the left, that for Lake Rosseau
to the right ; and we will first follow up the eastern shore of the lake.
Arthurlie House, about two miles from Port Carling, is ensconced
in Arthurlie Bay, whose entrance is guarded by a group of pretty
islands. There is excellent bass fishing in Silver Lake, just behind
A GLIMPSE ALONG THE COAST.
Brackenrig P. O. lies at the foot of a deep bay. From here a
short portage, one-quarter of a mile, can be made to Brandy Lake,
and thence by canoe down Brandy River to Lake Muskoka, near
Point Kaye and Beaumaris.
Leaving Baker s, Bohemia, Vacuna, and Silver Islands, and others
forming the group at the south point of the island. On a fine bay on
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 121
the west side of the island is Cloverport a new and attractive sum
We now coast up the east shore of Big or Tobin s Island itself,
with high rocks, and, in many places, woods to the water s edge.
Windermeie is pleasantly situated on a small bay, four miles from
Port Carling and ten miles from Rosseau. The " Windemere
House" kept by Mr. Thos. Aitkens, has large accommodation, and
increasing business testifies the appreciation of the past endeavours
of the proprietor, who, like almost all the other lake-shore hotel-
keepers on the lakes, is also the post master and express agent.
Hotel-keepers in Muskoka are not only expected to be " Poo-Bahs
in offices, but also in information as to all kinds of bait and fish, and
where and how to get them. There are plenty of boats kept by the
hotel and Mr. J. R. Boyd, and a good bathing place. " The Win-
dermere Mechanics Institute has a capital reading room, with a
very fair library. A specialty of the neighbourhood is the " Winder-
mere Club," a company which has erected a number of pleasant
lake-side cottages which can be rented or purchased, as not a few
have been, by families who prefer to " keep house." The resident
carpenter, Mr. Clinyboyle, makes repairs and looks after the cottages
during the winter months. A very good market held weekly in the
summer months, by the farmers in the neighbourhood, insures a
cheap and constant supply of fresh provisions.
Ministers of Methodist and Presbyterian churches resides in the
village. Pleasant expeditions can be made from Windemere by
row boat passing Florence Island, the residence of the celebrated
actor " Billy Florence," whose Colonel Sellers has become a prover
bial type of character, thence to the head of Portage Bay, where there
is a capital sandy beach.
On going northwards past Norway Island to Dee Mouth with its
saw mill at the outlet of Dee River. The mouth of the river is wide
and a canoe excursion can be made up it to the Three-Mile Lake, a
distance of about two miles with three portages, each of about one
hundred yards. It is a pretty woodland walk qf two [miles to
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Dee Bank from where canoeists can take water on the quaint-shaped
It may be interesting to note that of the township which contains
this lake there is one acre of water to every three of land. There is
excellent pickerel fishing in the lake, and its herrings, to be found in
shoals near the rocks and banks later on in the fall, are quite famous.
ON THE SHORES OF LAKE ROSSEAU.
There is no regular hotel, but the shores are well settled with
thrifty farmers who will welcome visitors. The scenery is much
varied and at one point there is a most remarkable echo. Ella Is-
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 123
land, near the centre, contains the summer residence of Mr. C. Mc-
Kenzie, of Toronto. It is expected a small steamer will shortly be
placed on this lake, but it is a very pretty day s excursion from Dee
Bank) where is a post office and a capital general store, along the full
length of the lake, a distance of eight miles, to Raymonds Bay.
From here if the voyagers desire to still further penetrate into the
country canoes can be taken by waggon, making a short cut across
the country of about six miles, to join the railway at Utterson, and
from there to Huntsville, and so take water again on the Vernon Mary
Renewing our trip up Lake Muskoka, and having passed the east
side of Tobin s Island, a peninsula just out from the west shore, on
which \&Juddhavm, with small dock and post office.
The east shore continues to show sharp promontories and deep
bays, the largest, Skeleton Bay, about two miles long, and a celebrat
ed fishing point. The entrance is obscured by several islands ; at the
head is the foot-water of Skeleton River, on which are the Mmnehaha
Falls, well worthy a visit, not so much for their magnitude as for
their prettiness. Four miles inland is Skeleton Lake, another of the
larger inland lakes, attractive to venturesome canoeists for its excel
lent fishing, untrodden islands, many with high cliffs projecting over
the water so that boats can be rowed underneath, and its remoteness
from the generally travelled routes. The waters are clear like those
of Lake Joseph. Considerable portaging has to be done past the
rapids and the higher falls to reach its waters, but they can also be con.
veniently got at in the opposite direction from Utterson.
Rosseau Falls is mainly composed of a saw mill and accompanying
houses situate at the mouth of the river.
From this on, the banks on the east shore grow in height, and
bluff rocks, with deep water at their foot, line the water s edge. At
14 miles from Port Carling we reach the head of the lake.
This village is a place of much importance as it occupies the head
of navigation in this direction, and is the starting point for coloni
zation roads leading to Parry Sound and Nippissing and the many
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
settlements situated along their lengths. Post and telegraph offices
keep up communication with the southern world, and there are some
good stores, particularly for hardware and fishing tackle.
Pratfs Hotel, which stood on a well elevated situation, but was
destroyed by fire one autumn, used to monopolize a large portion of
ON THE SHADOW RIVER.
the tourist business, and so great
was the satisfaction of visitors with
the amusements and the beauty
of the environs of this part of the
ake, that attention was almost wholly directed to it, and it was not
until the withdrawal of the hotel accommodation having obliged
visitors to seek other points of sojourn, that the world woke up to the
knowledge that there were many other beautiful spots on the shores
THE NORTHMEN LAKES OF CANADA. 125
of the lakes, and that as each had its own peculiar attractions and
advantages, it was best to see them all.
The waters about Rosseau are well stocked with fish, and abundant
and pleasant boating can be enjoyed.
The Monteith House is well situated near the steamboat wharf, and
among the amusements of the village is a roller skating rink.
The Shadow River, one of the most wonderful natural curiosi
ties of the Muskoka district, empties its waters into the bay on the
shores of which Port Rosseau stands. Its course can be explored
inland by boats for about five miles, the stream varying throughout
from twenty to sixty feet in width. Entering the mouth of the river,
about the time of the fast declining rays of the afternoon sun, and
following the erratic curves, all sight of the lake is soon lost. In
front and behind, the river winds like a silver streak, hemmed in on
either hand by forest trees, and losing itself in the distant curves.
Tall elms and ranks of tapering pines line the banks, and below
them the sedgy shores, heavy with foliated ferns and wreaths of
moss, overhang the edge. The surface is as motionless as glass and
everything is duplicated in marvellous detail, each leaf and branch
having its reflected counterpart even more distinct than it appears
" The fair trees look over, side by side,
And see themselves below."
In the deep silence which pervades the place and affects the on
looker as he gazes at the magic scene, a wonderful illusion creeps
over his absorbed senses. Gradually the river s surface fades away,
double lines of forest trees array the shores, their stems divided in
the centre, the one part pointing upward to the sky, the other reach
ing downward until in fairy vision the vacancy of spaceless depth is
bounded far away beneath by mountains of snowy clouds in setting
of azure blue. The boat appears suspended in mid-air, half-way be
tween two zenith heavens, and at every stroke of the dripping oar
would seem as though upon the verge of being plunged into a bottom
126 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Peering silently over the side, eternity lies spread before the gaze,
at all sense of earthliness is lost, while the eye searches the passing
glimpses of what looks to be another world A merry laugh or the
swoop of the king-fisher, as he seeks his finny prey, will recall the
dreamer to his senses, but leave a profound impression of a strange
and eyrie sensation that elfs and fairies may have been about.
" For there are haunts in this fair land,
Ah ! who may dream or tell
Of all the shaded loveliness
That hides by grot and dell."
On a small tributary of the Shadow River, the Bridal Veil Falls
by delicate feathery cascade, makes silver music in its forest grove,
and a visit perchance may give some hesitating anxious swain an
opportunity of freeing from his halting tongue the words which cleave
so closely to his heart.
Half a mile from the village and on a projecting point, giving
long vistas up and down the lake, is the new hotel,
The high gabled roof and broad eaves projecting like those of some
Swiss chalet, are prominent objects long before the steamer reaches
the little dock.
Harry Ditchburn s fleet of boats and canoes clustered around the
landing place invite to frequent water trips, and the cool shades of
the surrounding grove of evergreen and silver birch, or lounges on
the spacious verandah, 200 feet in length, may tempt to more lazy
methods of passing over the hours of the happy summer days. A
ferry to the dock in the village keeps up constant communication,
and mails and telegraphs are delivered at the Hotel (see adv.}.
It is a very pretty walk of i ^ miles through the forest, from
Rosseau to Ashdown^ the junction of the main roads ; or a drive of
10 miles passing a succession of pretty little lakes, lands the traveller
at Port Cockburn, at the head of Lake Joseph. Carriages can be
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
engaged in the village. A stage runs regularly 23 miles to Parry
At many of the rocky points, from one to six miles down the main
Lake Rosseau, there is good fiishing for Bass, Pickerel and Salmon
THE BRIDAL VEIL FALLS.
Morgan s Bay, a large estuary opening from the main lake a little
south from Maplehurst, is studded with many islands and several
deep-recessed bays. In the north bay a portage of # mile enters
Sucker Lake, and in the south bay a 100 yards portage leads to Bass
128 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Lake. Both of these are well stocked. There are also a whole series
of small lakes to the north beginning with Turtle Lake, the head
waters of the Shadow River, reached best by a drive of six miles
from Rosseau. Connected with this by short portages are several
other lakes where sport is certain. Good speckled trout fishing can
be enjoyed in White Oak Creek and its tributaries, and in several of
the lakes connected with it, easily reached by road five miles from
Rosseau. Blacks tone Lake is reached by daily stage to Fender s
Corners, and then a drive of four miles down the side road. It is
better not to attempt these more distant excursions without experi
enced guides. There are many other small lakes containing good
fish, but not so accessible as those named. These can be reached
by the aid of Indians and birch bark canoes. Indians can be hired
through Ditchburn Bros, at about $2 per day including use of canoe.
The active canoeist, who is making the tour of the lakes, can, instead
of returning down the main Lake Rosseau, make a very interesting
short cut to Lake Joseph. At the west side of Morgan s Bay there
is a much frequented portage of ^ mile to Little Lake Joseph. This
makes a varied and novel expedition for parties with light canoes
and camping equipment, and saves the necessity of doubling any
portion of their trip.
Returning to the foot of the lake we will join the steamer for Lake
Joseph, which, on leaving the Indian River, turns to the left, heading
for Port Sandfield, distant on the direct route six miles from Port
Carling, although this is generally prolonged by many calls at the
This southern portion of Lake Rosseau is fairly gemmed with islets,
and as they were early selected for their beauty and admirable situa
tion, more island population has been accumulated in this part than
in any other. On almost every island can be seen some pretty home,
each varied by the tastes or fancies of the owner. Home-made
architecture and amateur carpentering have put some together out
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 129
of the materials to be found on the spot ; others have called in more
specially instructed aid, but none are at all pretentious. Comfort
rather than display, simplicity and make-the best-of-it seem to be the
ruling influences among the " Muskokans." They are clannish in
their upholding of the special beauties of the vicinity in which they
are settled, but national in united assertion that there is no place like
Muskoka. Hospitable they certainly are, and to overflowing, for
when the steamer touches at their islands, and one sees the number
of people and babies that run down to the dock, and the number of
heads that pop out of the windows of the house itself, one wonders
where they all put up, and whether some, like the Indians, wrap
themselves in blankets and sleep beneath the spreading trees. But
another turn of the wheel and the white ridge of a tent or the clus
tering poles of a wigwam, tell where the boys and what boys the
Muskoka boys are have overflowed to make room for the welcome
This lower part of Lake Rosseau may well be called "Venetia]
for a boat is as necessary to a man as a pair of legs, and not in
Venice itself are boats more used or needed. Whether it be to make
a call on a neighbour, to bring the bread from the baker, or fuel for
the fire, or fish for the pot, a boat is always put in requisition, so
that the Muskokans might almost be considered an amphibious race.
They all row, from the smallest baby upwards, and La Belle Cana-
dienne, who in winter has been seen in picturesque toboggan suit,
with bright rosed cheeks, flushed by the keen vigour of her native
air, will here be met again with those same cheeks bronzed to a
ruddy brown and handling the oars of her boat with all the grace
and deftness of an adept. No wonder Canada s oarsmen lead the
world ! Vive la Canadienne I
On the south point of Tobin s Island is the new hotel, Oaklands^
which, being just opposite to all the many islands of Venetia, is sure
to afford a pleasurable summer outing.
Ferndale is an excellent hotel, kept by Mr. Penson, and on a
pretty bay, into which the steamer turns. The summer-houses on
THE NORTHER* LAKES OF CANADA.
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 131
the high cliffs have before them one of the most beautiful views of
the lakes, and the groves of oak and maple, the virgin forest of hard
wood trees in the rear, give opportunity for pleasant walks. The
steamer then threads her way through the island homes of " Venetia."
To the right is St. Leonard s Isle and the " Parson s Group," where
the relatives of two reverend gentlemen of Toronto have established
themselves, and clerical friends are right royally welcomed. On the
left are in succession Edith, Fairview, Summer side, Gouldings, then Oak
and Flora, the pretty home of Dr. Hall, one of the earliest and most
enthusiastic of the Muskokans. Still farther away, on the right, Cedar
Island, the property of Mr. C. S. Warren ; then Mazengah, the home
of the D wights and Blatchfords, and Fairylands, the Lilly homestead.
Lastly we turn sharply round Olive Island, where so deep is the
water and sheer the rock that the steamer runs alongside without
need of any dock. Here the Baldwins early found a happy resting
place, and by practice, learned how to fell trees so that they should
not fall, as did an early one they cut, squash down upon their newly
erected house to its complete destruction. A mute protest, perchance,
from the forest king against the innovations made into his realm.
Passing the lofty headland of Eagle s Nest, the lake narrows up
and we are soon in view of Port Sandfteld.
The steamer runs to and fro, calling at the different islands and
also crosses to the northerly side of the lake. At about two miles is
Cleveland s ; a summer boarding house is kept here, by Mr. Minnett,
with excellent accommodation. Further down the shore, to the east,
Mrs. Lawson takes boarders. Mr. Wood s boarding house at Fair-
View-Farm is about a mile to the west, with a nice sand beach and
dock, at which the steamers land. All these localities are in the
vicinity of good fishing, and being a little out of the regular route,
are perhaps more quiet and retired, and favourable arrangements can
be made for short visits or lengthened stay.
Gregory is just at the entrance of the Joseph River, has a post-
office, and some of the residents in the neighbourhood will accommo
date summer visitors.
TSE NORTHERN LARES OF
At one time a narrow spit, or bar, of sand, here separated Lake
Rosseau from Lake Joseph, but in the interests of continuous steam
boat navigation a canal was dug through it by the Ontario Govern
ment, and the new village which sprung up was named after the
EAGLE S NEST, LAKE ROSSEAU.
then Premier the Hon. Sand field Macdonald as the point where
the junction was made between Lakes Muskoka and Rosseau had
been named after the then Commissioner of Crown Lands, the
Hon. John Carling. Originally Lake Joseph was i ^ feet the higher,
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
but now both lakes are of the same level. A lofty bridge, spanning
the canal, keeps up the communication by road with Port Carling.
On the top, or saddle, of the promontory, and with views extend
ing east and west over both the lakes, is Prospect House, kept by the
characteristic Enoch Cox. So great is the desire to stay at this
134 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA,
favoured spot that although each year its capacities have been enlarged,
until now there are rooms for 120 visitors, yet the cry is "still they
come." Pleasant verandahs and shady groves covering the tops of
rocky points, fifty and sixty feet above the level of the water, form
pleasant lounging places, Bathing can be enjoyed from the rocks in
an adjacent bay, or from the bathing-houses, which are situated on a
pleasant sandy beach. Row-boats can be hired from Mr. Cox by
the day or week at low rates, and the steam yacht, built, owned, and
captained by Mr. John Rogers the u hydrographer of the lakes "
leaves the hotel every morning for the points of interest in the neigh
bourhood, which enables visitors to take delightful excursions out of
the regular track of the mail steamers. Special charters can be made
on very reasonable terms. The belfry of the Anglican church will
be seen near the hotel ; service is held regularly every Sunday.
There are several cottages, which may be rented, and summer
boarding-houses, in the vicinity among them Rockhurst, just on the
opposite side of the bay, kept by Mr. G. C. Hazelwood, well situated
and supplied with boats. There is a pretty walk through the woods,
i Y& miles, to Port Carling.
This, the third of the series of the Lakes of Muskoka, was for a
long time a mare incognitum except to the venturesome spirits, who,
recking not the labour, rowed themselves up its length of fourteen
miles, when the steamer used to be stopped by the natural barrier
at Port Sandfield.
It will be noted that the waters of all the other lakes and rivers
of Muskoka are, although translucent and c^ar, yet of a dark or
tawny hue. while, strangely enough, those of Lake Joseph are a clear
white. Its islands, too, rise perhaps more abruptly, and to higher
elevations, and more rugged cliffs line its shores, than do those of the
other lakes. Backed by these peculiarities, the inhabitants of the
Canton of Lake Joseph claim for it a beauty surpassing that of all
the others. This at least may be granted, that it has characteristics,
such as those mentioned, unique and peculiar to itself; but so have
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
all the lakes, and this is one of the inexhaustible charms of the Lakes
of Muskoka district.
Very nice jaunts, with excellent fishing, can be enjoyed from Port*
Sandfield. A row up Lake Joseph of three miles to Hemlock Point*
and the lines having been cast in around the group of fish-named
islands off the point, or on a row down Avon and Cumberland Bays
will surely be rewarded by a good catch.
Bass Lake is best reached by Rogers steam yacht to Foofs Bay,
a distance of about seven miles ; from here a portage of a quarter of
a mile brings to the lake. Mr. T. Hamill, whose house is near by,
keeps boats upon the lake, and is recommended for supplying guides.
The lake is carefully preserved, and well stocked with fish.
A very pretty round trip can be made by towing the row-boats
behind the yacht up Lake Joseph, and past Fisher, Foster, and Canty
Islands, to the upper end of the Joseph River, near by the prettily
situated Craigie-Lea. From here the boats can be rowed down the
river through channels too narrow and shallow for even the little
steamer. A beautiful succession of changes of direction and sur
prises follows, for a distance of three miles, to the exit into Lake
Rosseau, near Gregorys. Two miles further, and the party is home
again at Prospect House. The whole distance round can be rowed
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
by a vigorous oarsman in about five hours, or the journey can
as is most pleasant be broken for the night at
Before the cutting of the Port Sandfield Canal, this Joseph River
was the only means of water communication between the lakes, and,
being very tortuous, was available only for small boats. Nestled in
behind the Ponemah Group of islands, and on a pretty projecting
point of land, Mr. John Walls has placed his new hotel (see adver
tisement}. The situation is most unique for quiet and retirement ;
ing shores are
all as Nature
first, in simple
with her un
erring hand ;
islands in con
Just in front is the particu
larly beautiful Cliff Island.
Green slopes, looking in the
distance as though of softest,
smoothest turf, rise from the
water s edge to the rounded
top, about two hundred feet in
height. .Studded at intervals
over these are regularly shaped groups of evergreens the rich-toned
Norway and the dwarf Northern pine. No landscape gardener ever
posed his groups with more effective result ; nor could he, with all
ABOUND CLIFF ISLAND.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 137
his art, attain to such unstudied loveliness as here exists. Just to
the right of the hotel is the entrance to Little Lake Joseph, sometimes
fondly termed Little Joe. No settlers have yet occupied its untrodden
shores, and there is splendid fishing in its waters. At the head of
the lake seven miles from Craigie-Lea is the landing for the half-
mile portage to Morgan s Bay, and thence three miles by water to
Maplehurst and Rosseau.
Resuming the direct route up the centre of Lake Joseph, from Port
Sandfield the steamer calls first at Redwood^ the admirably situated
summer home of the Ardaghs. Leaving Foot s Bay on the left, we
thread our way through the Ponemah Group, comprising the largest
islands in the lake. On the shores of " Chief Island " is the home
stead of Herbert Mason, Esq. ; and on " Governors Island," a beau
tiful little islet commanding a lovely view over the length of the open
lake, is the summer residence of the Hon. John Beverley Robinson,
the Lieutenant-Govern or of Ontario. The shores stretch wider
apart, and then comes another series called the Yo-ho-cu-ca-ba Group.
A thoroughly Indian intonation would appear to attach to this name,
with its constantly repeated vowel sounds, and one wonders as to
what may be its native meaning. It is a revelation to be told that
it was framed from the first syllables of the names of the first occu
pants of the largest island. Thus :
Yo . . . . . . Professor Young.
Ho W. H. Rowland.
Cu ...... Montgomery Gumming.
Ca Professor Campbell.
Ba James Bain.
This group are as largely populated as any parts of the lakes ; and
the Sunday services, held in a natural amphitheatre on " Yoho," as
the principal island is lovingly called, have acquired a provincial
celebrity from the standing of the preachers who have officiated at
them, under the canopy of the forest trees.
Mr. McMurrich s completely-developed island, where the Marquis
of Lansdowne, Governor-General of Canada, sojourned in 1885, is
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
passed on the left ; then McLellan s and Wahneshing, and the lofty
Equity Crest. After the beautifully-shaped Round Island, we enter
the last bay, and come into view of the end of the trip in this direc
This is the head of navigation of Lake Joseph. Upon a high
cliff, and surrounded by a beautiful grove of second growth oak
and maples, so that only the gables can be seen, is the Summit
House, well kept by Hamilton Eraser, now the largest house
in the district. Between the trees and on the sides of the rocks
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 139
where convenient nooks give opportunity, are swinging hammocks
and rustic seats, and from the ample height and pleasant shade, a
lovely view overlooking the island-studded lake can be most fully
grasped and thoroughly enjoyed.
The steamer lands at the foot of the stairways leading up to the
hotel. Near by is seen the Island Park, where a grove has been set
out with winding paths and a bridge built to connect the island with
the main land. On the other side of the hotel is a splendid bathing
house and sheer rocks from which the bolder ones can spring into
fifty feet of water.
The ubiquitous Ditchburn Bros, here again appear with a full line
of excellent row boats, from small ones for those with whom " two
is company and three is none " to the large family ark wherein the
good-natured Father, having stowed his substantial partner together
with all their merry flock of chattering youngsters, can swelter at the
unaccustomed oar in full enjoyment of his summer holiday of rest.
About fifteen minutes row from the hotel are the celebrated " Echo
Rocks " where in the mysterious moonlight hours weird repetitions
may be evoked.
" Hark ! how the gentle echo from her cell,
Talks through the cliffs and murmuring o er the stream
Repeats the accents " we-shall-part-no-more. "
It is a pretty trip also to " Hawk s nest," and to the little bay and
portage to Byers Lake.
Post and telegraph offices in the hotel and a large room for con
certs and dancing ensure plenty of amusement for the summer
Port Cockburn is the centre of a great many fishing resorts to which
access can from it most conveniently be obtained. Guides and canoes
can be arranged for with Ditchburn and bait provided.
Lake Joseph abounds with black bass, pickerel and large salmon
trout obtained by deep trolling.
Within a radius of six miles from the Summit House, there are
some forty little lakes, some reached by driving and many by walks
140 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
through the " bush," and in the tributary streams brook trout are
often canght weighing i ^ pounds.
The Seguin River Chain begins a few miles back from here and
comprises a complete chain of lakes and river to Parry Sound on the
Georgian Bay. White Fish, Clear, Turtle, Star and Isabella are the
principal ones, and in all black bass and trout abound. Blackstone
and Crane lakes, which are five miles off (see the route map to
Moon River), may best be described by taking the statement of
Battelle in the Toledo " Post" :
11 The shores of Crane and Blackstone Lakes are capital specimens
of the primitive wilderness, and long may they so continue. The few
who have visited their teeming waters have mostly been genuine
fishermen who are happiest when faraway from conventionalities and
habitations. But one clearing broke the majestic sweep of the grand
old forests, within the sheltered bays the loons laughed undisturbed,
and the wild birds splashed in the marshy edges or upon the sandy
shores with none to molest or make them afraid.
" We were out for maskinonge, and took no account of either black
bass or pickerel. It seems strange to talk of shaking off black bass
and making disrespectful remarks about these gamy gentry when
they insisted in taking the hook, but they were so plenty as to be
"When an angler goes forth to catch the maskinonge it is necessary
to be^careful lest the maskinonge should catch him. The native
method of taking the maskinonge in the primeval waters of Canada
is by a small clothes line, hauled in by main strength when the fish
bites, but we proposed to troll, as should an angler, with the rod.
Ours were split bamboo rods 9^- feet long, quadruplex reel, and
braided linen line, two feet of medium sized copper wire, a No. 4
spoon with double hooks, and finally a good gaff.
" Our guide, as we started over to Crane Lake the first morning, in
dulged in sundry smiles and remarked that we should break our rods,
so that, although placid in outward mien, I felt inwardly a little ner
vous, but I didn t mean to back down until compelled,
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 141
" Swinging around a little point, with some twenty yards of line
astern, before fishing a great while I felt a sudden movement at the
spoon that was more like a crunch than a bite. It took only a
second to give the rod a turn that fixed the hooks and another sec
ond to discover that I had hung something. Scarcely had I tighten
ed the line when the fish started. I do not know that I wanted to
stop him, but I felt the line slip rapidly from the reel as though at
tached to a submarine torpedo. The first run was a long one, but
the line was longer, and the fish stopped before the reel was bare.
This was my opportunity and I had the boatman swing his craft
across the course, and reeling in the slack line, I turned his head
towards the deeper water. Forty-five minutes of as pretty a fight as
one could wish to see left my new acquaintance alongside the boat,
and before he recovered his surprise the gaff was in his gills and the
boatman lifted him on board.
" He weighed fourteen pounds on the steelyards and was my heaviest
fish. There were other encounters of a similar character, but
none quite so protracted ; but I wouldn t be afraid of the largest
veteran in the lake, and all fishermen, who aim for sport, will assured
ly troll with the rod. Our time was limited, far too short, and in a
word, a day and a half on Crane Lake gave us, without counting bass,
ten maskinonge whose weight aggregated no pounds, (on the scales)
an average weight of n pounds per fish."
THE MOON RIVER.
The lower reaches of these famed waters, where they enter the
Georgian Bay, can conveniently be attained by the route of these
lakes as shown on the detailed map, or, having descended the river
by canoe from Lake Muskoka at Bala (the easier mode), return can
be made by them to Lake Joseph, at Port Cockburn.
The fishing scores in the Moon River, particularly maskinonge, are
of the heaviest, and some giants have been hooked.
This expedition should not be attempted without good guides and
ample camping equipment and supplies.
142 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The New Railway.
Gravenhurst to Lake Nipissing.
Having followed the shores of the group of the BIG TRIO and traced
their waters to the outfall by the Muskosh and Moon Rivers, we will
strike further inland to the newer districts which are now opened out
for convenient access by the new extension of the railway through
their midst. Starting afresh from Gravenhurst (page 101), the rail
way strikes inland along the shores of Gull Lake, and after crossing
the south branch of the Muskoka River, reaches Bracebridge (10^
miles). (The mileages here and afterwards mentioned are mileages
Here the iron bridge spans the stream above the very midst of the
Falls a strange situation ; but the defiles through which railways in
this district may be constructed are exacting, and their behests must
be obeyed, however, unusual the forced selections. Still keeping in
the valley alongside the river at about two miles beyond Bracebridge,
a very pretty view is obtained, on the right of Elliott s Falls.
Utterson (24 miles) Connection can be made from here by good
waggon road to Skeleton Lake or else to Three Mile Lake, and by either
route convenient voyage made by their waters to those of Lake Ros-
seau, not far from Windermere.
Two and a half miles to the east by road is Port Sydney, at the
southern end of Mary Lake, to which we will make a visit farther on.
After a passing glimpse at Little Round Lake, the train arrives at
Huntsville (35 miles). This is an important tourist point, as here
connection is made with a new chain of lakes, whose waters may be
followed, either west to their source, or east and south until they are
drained by the Muskoka River. The village is progressing, and will,
no doubt, soon have its full share of the increase business which the
railway now brings to its doors. Jacob s Hotel, Gilchrist s and Birtch s
Hotels, are mentioned here.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 143
The Muskoka River Chain.
WESTWARD TO THE HEADWATERS.
Alongside the railway station will be found the steamboat dock,
at which can be taken, for the trip up the lakes, the steamer Northern,
Captain Denton. Should our voyageurs, however, have so prepared
themselves, and intend to start off on one of the many canoeing
trips which radiate from here, their traps and camping equipment
will be quickly packed away, and soon
Their bark is on the sea. "
After about three miles of open river navigation, Lake Vernon is
entered. On the right bank will be seen where the waters of the
Upper North Branch enter the lake. Hood s Island is passed on
the left, and, the lake widening out again, the village of Ravensdiff
is called at. Here enters the stream which brings down the waters
of Loon and Long Lakes. At 9 miles the lake ceases ; and we
arrive at the head of steamboat navigation in this direction.
The town is situated at the outlet of the upper waters, and a
splendid water-power has been formed, which, no doubt, some day
will turn some busy wheels, if its owner will only allow it to be used.
There is a waterfall of about 40 feet in height over the mill-dam.
The Albion Hotel, kept by J. G. Henderson, and the McCallum House
are spoken of as good hostelries. There are good roads in the neigh
bourhood, and a large adjacent population. Near by, and rising
abruptly above the plain, is Mount Ararat. The bluff is 500 feet
above the highest parts of the land ; its top is flat, and if the Ark
did not stop here it may at least have touched.
From the summit the wood-clad landscape may be seen, waving
for miles around, in billows of massy green fading into distant blue,
144 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
and upon its front, set like so many precious gems, are to be counted
the surfaces of fifteen little lakes, reflecting in their rippling waters the
bright rays of the summer sun.
Having examined the neighbourhood, the trip to the head waters
of the chain is recommenced. It is a short portage through the town
from Lake Vernon to the foot water of fox Lake, so called from the
shape of its shores taking a figure very much the outline of a fox. It
is about three miles to the narrows, between the body and the tail.
At the end of the lake the Buck River is entered. The river runs
smooth and deep, between 30 and 40 feet wide. The banks are
steep and high, showing signs of excellent soil, and there are many
picturesque turns in the route of five miles. There is one short rapid
which going up must be passed by a portage of 100 yards, but com
ing down can be run with safety. Next is entered Buck Lake, six
miles long and of narrow but varying width. On its shores is Ilfra-
combe with saw and grist mills, and the centre of an English colony
of high county standing and much cultivation.
The pretty Anglican church is well maintained, and as far as can
be, brings back fond memories of services in the ivy-clad fanes of the
fatherland. At the head of the lake a small stream is entered, and
after one mile access is made to Round Lake, itself 2 J^ miles long.
Another stream nearer the foot of Buck Lake leads by a route of
about six miles, in which there is one rapid, which must be portaged
both ways, to Axe Lake, itself 2 ^ miles long. These two lakes, Axe
and Round, are the head waters in this direction of this chain of
lakes. From Huntsville to here (26 miles) row boats can be used ;
and there is no better or safer line of route for a pleasant camping
and boating trip, combining both lake and river accessible to all.
Throughout these upper waters and in the tributary streams there
is excellent trout fishing. Our voyageur will either return from here,
or, if his equipment permit its transport, may make a portage of three
miles over the water-shed which here forms the dividing line, and
embark his craft upon the waters of Doe Lake, a tributary to the
" HOODS TOWN
-O I \Little Mount-am
LA K ES
VERNOX FAIRY MARY
PENINSULA AND IAKK OF BAYS
DRAWN FO R
The Northern Lakes of Canada"
BarJ-on- C Lt rrt
SCALE 2 4 MILES = I INCH.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
headwaters of the Maganetewan River. Proceeding down this for nine
miles he will join the railway again at Katrine (55 miles).
And in penetrating to the interior all this may here be found, but
without the necessity of going too far away from the centres of habi
There is a pleasure in the pathless woods,
There is a rapture on the lonely shore,
There is society where none intrudes."
146 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Down Stream to Bracebridge.
By the North Branch.
From Huntsvilie the voyageur returning down the river to join the
railway again at Bracebridge, or farther on at Gravenhurst has
two routes open to his choice the one by the North, the other by
the South branch of the Muskoka River.
In taking the first, the steamer can be availed of, passing through
the pretty Fairy Lake, (five miles) and then the river again is
For the furtherance of navigation, a lock has been constructed by
the Ontario Government, near Fetterley s and by this means, after
three miles more of river navigation, winding and re- winding through
out, the next lake of the chain is reached.
Mary Lake is one of the gems of Muskoka many neat residences
with clearings of some extent adorn its shores. Its surface is stud
ded with many islands, where berries of various kinds are plentiful
in the season, and afford delightful places for pic-nics and camps. At
the foot of the lake, upon a gentle elevation overlooking its length,
is Port Sidney. The village contains the Sydney Hotel, where there
is excellent accommodation provided by Mr. Jeff Avery. A good
supply of boats is kept and pleasant trips can be made upon the ro
mantic little lakes. From Port Sidney, return to the railway can be
made by two and a half miles drive to the station at Utterson.
For those who do not venture on small boating or canoeing, the
steamboat route between Hoodstown and Port Sydney, upon the
" Little Trio," Vernon, Fairy and Mary, will make a very pretty
excursion and give additional zest to the enjoyment of the larger and
more well-known lakes.
Those, however, who do " canoe," can take the Muskoka River
from Port Sydney, and enjoy the unique sensation of "running a
rapid." In the route of fifteen miles to Bracebridge, there are some of
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
the rapids which it is not safe to run, but which must be portaged.
The entrances to all are well marked so that a watchful eye will keep
the canoe from danger. It will be best to leave in the morning and
then the run through can be made in the day
By the South Branch.
The other choice of route in returning from Huntsville is confined
Passing easterly through the length of Fairy Lake, a narrow is
entered, in which are two portages, each of one hundred feet length
on the right or south bank, and thus access is obtained to Peninsula
RUNNING A RAPID MUSKOKA RIVER.
Lake. On the north shore is Grassmere post-office, and at the south
east end (seven miles), a portage of ij- miles brings to the Lake
of Bays. The convenience of a waggon will easily be obtained from
some neighbouring settler. Thence to Baysville, at the foot of the
lake, is twelve miles, and from there, twenty-five miles by river to the
south branch of the Muskoka to Bracebridge. Some people may
prefer to go up stream, so we will start with them from Bracebridge-
It may be well for the canoeist who is making his first acquaintance
with these river waters, to begin by going up stream, as he will thus
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
become acquainted with the indications of rapids, and by no chance
run himself into danger. The South Branch of the Muskoka is the
starting point for some of the best fishing districts of Muskoka,
among others are Walter s Creek, Hollow Lake, Wood Lake, Sharp s
Creek, all celebrated for their brook trout.
A stage runs regularly from Bracebridge to Baysville (16 miles),
leaving on arrival of the mail trains and arriving in the evening.
Leaving Bracebridge by water, the tourist can either descend the
Muskoka River by canoe to the " River Forks," thence up the South
Branch to the foot of the " Great South Falls," where the first port-
MAKTNG A PORTAGE MUSKOKA RIVER
age must be made, or, bringing the canoes and camping equipment
by waggon, can at this same point commence the ascent of the
The stream is rapid, and several portages must be made during
the first day. At some the baggage is carried round by land and the
canoes poled up the rapid ; at others, the Indians shoulder the
canoes, thus presenting the appearance of huge snails. At " Rocky
Portage" good ground is found for the first " camp." On the second
day, " Island Portage is reached at noon, and " Gravelly Rapids "
for the night At both of these points there is good trout fishing.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
On the third day " Cedar Rapids " are passed, and at the " Upper
Falls " near Baysville, the best camping ground is found. The river
here runs fast, tumbling down in rocky rapids, and the best speckled
trout fishing afforded.
Baysville, on the river and c ^ miles from the entrance to the lake,
is a capital resort for the tourist and the sportsman. Those who are
on the round trip will find it about a day s canoeing from the " Upper
Falls," to the camping ground at the portage to Peninsula Lake ;
from thence they can proceed, as previously described. There are
good local supply stores in the town, and arrangements for steam
boat trips on the lakes can he made with Capt. Huckins. Jelly s
Hotel ; the Norfolk House, kept by Mr. Howard, and Keeler s Hotel
are mentioned here.
LAKE OF BAYS.
This is the largest of the lakes which are tributary to the Muskoka
River, being about 20 miles in length. In width it is eccentric
and fully deserves its name. There are not many islands in it,
but it is superlative in jutting points, clad with the dark green
outlines of the finest pine timber. Canoeists who are exploring its
shores, had better, after taking the south east trip towards Dorset,
return north by Haystack Bay, and make the short portage to North
East Bay. As not having been so accessible, the shores of its deep
clear waters remain more in the state of nature than any ether. Nei
ther the settler s axe nor the fires of careless camping parties have
denuded the banks of their leafy coverings.
How earnestly it is to be wished, that all who light " camp-fires "
would be watchful to see that all sparks are perfectly extinguished.
Oftentimes it will appear to the eye that no fire remains, but under
neath, in the dry mossy ground, a "smudge" still exists to burst
long after into flame, and spreading slowly through the roots and
undergrowth to do infinite damage.
TSE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Never light a fire except upon bare rock or bare ground if on
the latter, remove all neighbouring moss, so that the fire cannot by
any means spread.
Always before leaving put the fire out, deluge the place with water
and cover it with dry earth. Be careful that none of the charred and
unburned sticks retain any fire.
Not only for the sake
of beauty do this, but
also for the sake of the
settlers and the lumber
men, whose "all" may
be lost by your care
lessness, for sometimes
a small camp-fire fanned
by the winds will run
for miles and destroy a
The streams falling in
to this lake are inter
spersed with rapids and
waterfalls which form
> home and harbour for
many speckled trout. It
is somewhat peculiar to
note that this class of
fish seems to be almost
restricted in this section
to the neighbourhood of
this lake, and running often up to three or four pounds weight.
White fish and salmon trout are found in the lake itself. Hollow,
Fletcher and Hardwood Lakes are all on the eastern branch of the
main lake and noted for their trout. Under the name of Trading
Lake, these waters have attained renown, and this name is still
i .P.I .,. ..^
BRINGING HOME THE CATCH.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 151
retained at the eastern extremity. A little further to the east is a
lake whose name may be managed by those who have survived the
little stream north of the Severn Lake Kahweambetewayamog.
Captain Huckin s steamers Dean and Excelsior, the latter a capital
new one of seventy-five feet keel, keep up the communications be
tween Baysville and the post-offices and settlements around the lake.
At North East Bay, near Dwight Post-office, the continuation of
the river enters the lake. Upon its waters are strung out a long
series of little lakes, all affording good sport, among them Ochtwan (or
Ox-Tongue), Canoe, Island, Big Joe and other lakes By this chain
there is a canoe route which has been already followed by several
parties which, arriving at the head waters of the Muskoka, make a
short portage to the Petewawa and Mddawaska Rivers, thence down
to the Ottawa River, a round trip of much attractiveness and
variety. Go! die s Hotel at Dwight, will make a good headquarters
and a ready welcome be assured to all good sportsmen.
The district around Lake of Bays is most highly esteemed for its
deer hunting, the best of duck and partridge shooting, indeed,
whether for rod or gun the visitor is sure of ample employment. Here
abouts are to be found " The happy hunting grounds of the Dwight-
Wiman Sporting Club." Their names have become localized, and
here for rest and recreation, zest and fresh energy comes annually
that ardent Canadian, Erastus Wiman, whose successes in the United
States seem only to intensify his affection for his native land. A
good example gives he to the young Canadian.
From Goldie s, a line of excellent lakes run north, all full of sport,
Cooper, Devil s Angle, Long, Little Twin, Big Twin, Crotch, Poverty,
Buck and Clear, all communicating by short portages.
Good sport, canoes and guides who know where the best fishing
spots are, and trained dogs accustomed to the vicinity for hunting, are
all necessary. The names of the best men, well-known and reliable
from having already conducted fishing and hunting parties through
this district, are given in the list of guides.
Mr. W. H. Brown, of Baysville, is also referred to as an obliging
152 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The JUaganetewaii River Chain.
Leaving Huntsville, the railway crosses the Muskoka river near
Melissa (39 miles), and then surmounts the water shed, during which
several streams are followed, and the acute eye will note when those
that run south are left and those that run north are met.
Katrine (55 miles), Morton s Hotel. This is the centre of a
splendid lake country. Sand, Beaver, and Long Lakes, on the South
Maganetewan River, Three Mile and Doe Lakes close by. Here, as
noted previously, connection is made with the Maganetewan River,
and canoes or light boats can be taken for the water trip to Hunts
ville. The railway continues following the banks for four miles, dur
ing which the river is crossed four times, the next station is
Burtis Falls (60 miles). This station opens up another and en
tirely new region to steamboat navigation to the tourist and the tra
veller, and particularly to the sportsman, who can now get with com
paratively little trouble to a district which has hitherto been accessible
only to those with ample means and time. This chain of lakes and
the Maganetewan River is just equidistant between the Muskoka and
Nipissing chains of waters, and drains a surface of about 4,000 square
miles. Some idea may therefore be gathered of its magnitude, and
of the possibilities for canoeing, opened up by the ramification of the
numerous tributaries and their attendant lake enlargements.
The very heart centre for sport for rod and gun, its rivers and lakes
can be ascended and descended in canoes and boats amid the best of
sport, while the eye is fascinated by the fresh, unsullied wildness of its
forest haunts. Wild birds and deer abound. Speckled trout are
caught weighing 3 to 5 Ibs. ; bass, 5 to 8 Ibs. ; pickerel, 8 to i4lbs.
" Music," in Forest and Stream, thus speaks of the Maganetewan :
" Now a word about the region. If a man can stand out-door life,
and live on venison, trout, bass, partridges, ducks, pork, tea and
crackers, there is no better place to go to in America that is as ac
cessible. A man can go there in July, August, September, or Octo-
THE NORTHERN LAKES^OF CANADA.
ber with comfort, if he will go in the right way, and shoot deer and
catch trout to his heart s content. June to August for trout, after that
for deer. Remember the Maganetewan is as large as the Schuylkill
at Philadelphia, or considerably wider and deeper than the Harlem
at High Bridge, and that the trout have an unlimited range, and are
THE HUNTER S CAMP.
seldom disturbed, so that they have a chance to grow. Deer can be
bagged in great] numbers if you choose to do so ; with a couple of
good hounds magnificent sport could be had in the fall. I have shot
partridges with my rifle from the canoe while travelling, as they were
strutting on the shore, and their drumming was one of the plea-
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
santest every-day sounds. Do not try to go without some guide.
There are men who know the country, and they should be secured,
for if you get in there alone, you will have little sport and much
trouble. I have no possible interest in noticing this region except
that I believe it to be unsurpassed in many ways."
The village of Burk s Falls stands upon the banks of the main
Maganetewan (" the smooth flowing water "), at the head of steam
boat navigation, and about half a mile below the forks of the river
where the two great north and south branches join. The station is
half a mile from the town, in which are several good stores and three
country hotels D. F. Burk s, Trimmer s, and the Cataract House, by
W. F. Thomson. From here can be taken daily the new combined
paddle and screw steamer Wenonah, of the Muskoka Navigation
For fifteen miles the river is followed, winding to and fro, as all
Muskoka rivers seem to do. Lake Se-see-be forms the next link for ten
miles, at the foot of which is the thriving town of Maganet ewan. Here
the Great Northern Colonization road crosses the river and a centre for
the surrounding districts has been formed. There are two hotels, Maga-
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 155
netewan House, by S. B. Fish ; Northern House, by Mr. Carroll. A
number of stores form a particularly good headquarters during the
After passing through the locks, the steamer continues for three miles
more in the river, and then enters the lovely Lake Ah-Mic. This is
another of the gems of Muskoka ; most quaint in form, its arms and
elongations form a very maze of interlacings, so their constant vistas
of projecting heights with glimpses of distant waters and high ridges
with closely-wooded forests of hard wood trees, give soft rounded out
lines to the distant scenery.
In summer this combination of the rich greens of the maple, oak
and birch, is most beautiful, but when in autumn the bright red tints
show forth their resplendent colours, it is simply indescribable.
The lake is twelve miles in length, and calling places are not yet
very numerous. The Depot Farm, now called Port Anson, Thomas
Baldock s Hotel, and Ah-Mic Harbour with Croswell s Hotel may be
mentioned as attractive points where travellers will find very fair ac
commodation, at the end of his forty mile trip from the railway station.
This is also another excellent route for boating, as there are no
rapids to interfere or portages to make while a nice diversity of pad
dling or rowing in the rivers is interspersed with sailing on the lakes.
The camping facilities are good, and not a few farm houses will
give ready supplies and shelter. The pioneers who have penetrated
to this country and settled on its lake shores are all sportsmen, and
boats and canoes and skilful guides, whose wood craft has been learned
by long practice on their own account, can be found everywhere.
From here on, the more adventurous can continue their canoe route
by the Great River, twelve miles to Lake Wah-wa-kesh, and thence to
Byng Inlet, about fifty-five miles away on the shores of the Georgian
Bay. In this distance there are 2 1 portages, of varying lengths, from
one of some two miles, to most of only a few yards. Their combined
length is about eight miles, leaving 42 miles of good canoeing water.
It is a trip not to be attempted without first-class guides. These
portages made there are few difficulties to be overcome, and in good
hands these form only the sources of adventure for which the trip
156 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
The Seguiu Chain.
Dunchurch, a village three and a half miles by road from Ah-Mic
Lake, is on the shores of Whitestone Lake, another of the celebrated
centres for sport in fin and fur. The herring fishing in the narrows
is most excellent, and the hunting and shooting of the best.
From here return can be made in another direction by taking the
colonization road, 9^ miles, to the village of McKellar, which is the
centre of another lake system. Here the canoe can again be put in
the water and following the Seguin River and its enlargements, Lakes
Manitowaba, Trout, and Mill, can with facility arrive at Parry Sound,
on the shores of the Georgian Bay. There are only three portages in
the whole distance, one of half a mile, and two of one mile each ; there
are also three very short lifts. The other following the eastern arm
of Lake Manitowaba portage 2^ miles to Blackwater Lake, and then
canoe through the connecting Lake Isabella past the village of Edg-
ington into Maple Lake and Marsh and Star Lakes, and so portage
again half a mile to Turtle P. O. on Turtle Lake, close to Port Cock-
burn on Lake Joseph.
Neither of these routes present very great difficulties, as they are
almost entirely lake work.
These samples give some idea of the possibilities of navigation in
the many connecting waters of the Muskoka District, and what a
wealth of exercise and adventure lies before the youth of Canada.
The French River Chain.
Sundridge (70 miles), the next point of any importance, is on the
shores of Stony Lake, the summit water of the south slope of the
district being 268 feet above Lake Muskoka. The lake is shallow,
very regular in form, without any islands, and abounds in fish.
South River (77 miles) is the first crossing of the new watershed,
where the waters run north to Lake Nipissing. It is the highest
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 157
point on the railway, and the dividing line between the two water
sheds, being 378 feet above Lake Muskoka, and 553 above Lake
Nipissing. One must suppose that this is called the " South " River
because it runs " north " on the same principle as that given by Pat
concerning the different Irish jaunting cars, on one kind of which the
passengers sit back to back with their feet over the wheels, and the
other face to face with their feet inside the car. " Oh, I dunno at
all, but I suppose they call it an outsyde kyar becase the whales is
insyde, and it s an insyde kyar becase the whales is outsyde."
Mr. Holditch keeps the hotel, the " Ontario Height of Land
House," and intends putting up an observation platform in Moose
Park, from where eight lakes can be seen in a circle of five miles.
The Dunbars Falls of the river are worthy a visit, being 150 feet
high. The river itself is from 150 to 200 feet in width, and a good
canoeing stream. It is 24 miles paddle to Lake Nipissing, during
which some rapids, but not very fast, are passed. The speckled trout
in the river are the largest and most plentiful anywhere this side of
Nepigon, and in the hunting season moose aae met as well as large
numbers of the red deer. It will be noticed that for some little time
the appearance of the country has changed and the land im
proved. All through this latter part of the railway, immigration is
beginning, and fine fertile farms with soil as good and opportunities
better than the frontier farms of thirty years ago, will here be carved
out of the forest. A certain market to the lumberman, and now
easy access to the front country will settle up the better parts of this
Barretts (92 miles), is the centre of a large and thriving settle
ment, and another unexcelled centre for brook trout fishing and for
moose and deer hunting.
Commando, is fifteen miles west by road from here, or can also be
most conveniently reached by the regular stages running daily from
Maganetewan (see page 154). This section has been deservedly
awarded the highest renown for the record of its sport. Being some
what remote, but now brought into more convenient access, the banks
158 TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
of the streams and of the lakes are more completely in the state of
nature than elsewhere, and for miles unbroken forest hems in the
view. Following up the Great Nipissing Colonization road from
Maganetewan, about halfway is
Meganoma. [We have struck the trail]. Russell & Archer s hotel
here is absolutely first-class, kept by good caterers and ardent sports
men. This is the centre for Eagle Lake, Many Island, Spring and
Pickerel Lakes, and Distress River, all celebrated fishing and
hunting spots and comprised in what is known as the Commanda
Rye is also a good centre. The stages stop for dinner at Wm.
Park s hotel. At Commanda itself Carr s Temperance Hotel and
Fitzgerald s are good stopping places. From here the Commanda
River can be followed through Commanda Lake and Restoul Lake to
Chaudiere Falls, near the shores of Lake Nipissing, than which no
more pleasant or more sporting route exists. As all this neighbour
hood is comparatively uninhabited, it is not advisable to attempt it
After Powasing (95 miles) a good spot for trout on the Jenesse
Creek, we arrive at
Callender (108 miles), on South East bay, gives the first glimpse of
the waters, being situated on a hill side sloping up from the bay. At
present there about forty houses and three country hotels. Here the
steamers touch for various parts of the lake. At the entrance to the
bay is a very numerous group of islands, almost all of which have
been taken up by residents of Hamilton.
La Vase (IT 2 miles from Gravenhurst and 226 from Toronto) is
the connecting point with the Canadian Pacific Railway and the all-
rail route to Manitoba and the North-West.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 159
The Earliest Route to the North-West
The country we have now arrived at would at first thought seem to
have been newly discovered, and to be now for the first time opened
to the transport of the civilized traveller. Yet long before the
advancing European colonist had penetrated to the shores of the
Niagara, this route, up the Ottawa valley and along the shores of
Lake Nipissing the very line of the newly constructed Canadian
Pacific Railway had been traversed by many traders and travellers,
and was their highway between Montreal and the Red River
As we have been travelling North, crossing the various East and
West routes, and seemingly passing from the older and front coun
tries to the newer and more remote districts, we have really been
meeting them in the reverse order of their development. When the
whites first commenced to trade with the interior of the continent by
the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, the first route that was opened up by
them was this by Lake Nipissing. Next came the portage by the
Humber, or Toronto River, and Lake Simcoe ; and lastly, that by
It was not until 1669 that Pre Gallinee, canoeing around the
western shores of Lake Ontario, says : " We found a river, one-eighth
of a league broad, and extremely rapid, forming the outlet of Lake
Erie, and emptying into Lake Ontario. The depth of the river is
at this place extraordinary, for, on sounding close by the shore, we
found fifteen or sixteen fathoms of water. This outlet is forty leagues
long, and has, from ten to twelve leagues above Lake Ontario, one
of the finest cataracts in the world ; for all the Indians of whom I
have enquired about it say that the river falls at that place from a
rock higher than the tallest pines that is, about two hundred feet."
Then was the Niagara River first met by the whites ; and not until
160 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
1678 did Father Hennepin, the first European to see those Falls,
stand by the cataract of Niagara.
Yet sixty-three years before this, in 1615, before even the Pilgrim
Fathers had landed on the shores of America, Champlain, the
French Governor of Quebec, had advanced with a party of armed
men and passed up the Ottawa to Lake Nipissing. He found the
shores occupied by between 700 and 800 Indians, and after enjoying
its " abundance of game," and describing its northern side as being
" very pleasant, with fine meadows for the grazing of cattle, and
many little streams discharging into the lake," he passed down the
French River to the Lake of the Hurons.
Following him came the Coureurs-des-bois, the voyageurs and trap
pers of the Canadian " North-West" and " X. Y." fur companies,
carrying over the rocky portages all the stores for themselves and
the Hudson s Bay Company, at Fort William, and the packs of furs
which sought this, for nearly a century the main route between the
North-West and Tide-water. Early travellers have described its dan
gers and difficulties, and the many crosses erected along the route
memorials of brave men who had lost their lives in battling with the
turbulent rapids of the stream, or with the many foes along its banks,
of whom stories of valour, or of pathos and self-sacrifice, such as that
of the gallant Cadieux, " voyageur, poete et guerrier," float down
in history :
" Seul en ces bois, que j ai eu de soucis !
Pensant toujours a mes si chers amis,
Je demandais : Helas ! sont-ils noyes?
Les Iroquois les auraient-ils tues ?
E. GAGNON, Chansons Fopulaires du Canada.
Along the shores, the summer tourist can in fancy picture the pass
ing lines of heavy-laden canoes, and hear once more the gay-hearted
voyageurs singing out their cheerful French chansons, while keeping
time with dripping paddle to the stirring tune.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 160a
The Highlands of Ontario.
It will have been noted that the heights above the sea level have
been steadily increasing as the traveller has come north from Toronto,
and on reference to the " Bird s Eye" map at the beginning of this
guide, it will be at once seen that the District we are now in is the
summit ridge of the great watershed of the Peninsula.
The Mattawa, Pettewawa, Bonnechere and Madawaska rivers will
all be seen to run easterly, emptying their waters into the great Ottawa,
and on the other side running to the west are the river chains whose
details have just been described ; the Muskosh, Muskoka, Magane-
tewan, Seguin and French rivers falling into the waters of the Georgian
A happy thought has been conceived by the Government of the
Province of Ontario, the details of which are set out in a publication
by Mr. Kirkwood, of the Crown Lands Department. It is proposed
that the centre of this territory shall be set aside as a " Forest reserve"
principally for the preservation and maintenance of the natural forest,
and of protecting the headwaters of the rivers, and in which it shall
be unlawful for any person to enter and cut timber for any private use,
or to disturb or destroy the fur-bearing animals, but in whose waters,
under stated restrictions, the gentle art of angling may be indulged in.
Such reservations wherein the destruction of the native animals of
the wilds shall be stayed, and opportunity given in future years for
the continued study of theis habits instead of causing their races to
become extinct, have been intelligently adopted in other parts of this
continent and the National Parks at Mackinac, and the Yellowstone
in the United States, and at Banff in the Rocky Mountain recesses
of our own Canadian North-West, are tributes to the desire to retain
1606 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
some of the forms of nature in their primeval state and to the hu
manitarian tendencies of this century.
The Government will be warmly applauded for this project, and no
better place could be chosen than this, wherein now the moose,
cariboo and red deer wander in freedom, and the passing canoeist
sees on the banks as he passes along the quiet stream the traces of
the work of the mink, beaver, the otter and other fur-bearing animals,
the contemplation of whose native haunts adds so greatly to the
pleasure of a jaunt into the forest wilds.
So close do the waters here approach that the headwaters of the
Muskoka and of the Madawaska are little over half a mile apart and
each is 1,405 feet above the sea.
In the centre of the district, the Park of about 28 miles square,
has been selected, containing about 330,000 acres of land and 60,000
acres of water.
The speckled trout abound throughout this section, and the con
tinuance of good fishing may be secured under the control of those
whose duty it would be to preserve the game and improve the forest
by cutting out the mature timber for the advantage of what is retained,
and the obtaining of revenue for the maintenance of the Park.
The name has been suggested as being a method of preserving the
memory of the great Algonquin-Huron race of Indians, whose history
is touched upon at page 165.
The Northern and Pacific Junction Railway.
The northern end of this railway was completed in the autumn of
1886, and by means of the night express trains, with sleeping cars,
leaving Toronto in the evenings, the hitherto long distant sporting
grounds are reached early the next morning. In addition to the
information given in the preceding pages, the following may be
Sundridgc. (See page 156). The best trout fishing in Stony Lake
will be found at The Inlet, at the north-east end, near the mouth of
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 160c
the small river which here enters it. Small trout can be caught in
plenty for i^ miles up the river, but the largest up to 3lbs. are
caught in the lake itself. The best points are found by following the
current of the river as it strikes into the water of the lake. Black
Creek, a short distance away, has also good trout.
South River. (See page 156). The hotel accommodation has
been added too. The Queen s is close to the station. Jacob Mars, a
celebrated trapper, and H. B. Chapman, " chief guide," are referred
to for hotel and sporting accommodation.
The sport and fishing to be found by following down the stream
towards Lake Nipissing is even better when going up towards its
A paddle of 7 miles up the river, which is open and clear, when
logs are not being run, brings the canoe to
In this lake, about 2 miles long by y% mile wide, is excellent fly
fishing for speckled trout, and around the shores are good camping
places. Forest Lake post-office is on the shores of the Lake
and Mr. P. McDermett, the post master is an excellent refer
ence. At the upper end the river falls into the lake with a strong
rapid, around this a somewhat difficult portage of a ^ mile must be
made. Then follows a fishing reach of 4 miles where the " beauties
are to be found with the seductive fly. A morning s work with 2 rods
of " Rolph s party," in 1886, showed 21 trout all from 14 to 17^
inches in length. The fish in this river are the true speckled trout,
game as steel and gorgeous in their colouring, the red marks shining
on their glistening sides like glittering rubies gleam.
The shores of the river are lined with heavy alder bush and im
practicable of approach. The sport must be all sought from the
canoe. By further portages, other reaches can be attained. This
section is only for the enthusiastic angler who is willing to camp out
and to work hard before attaining his reward, like one who, coming
IQOd THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
back to camp, his clothes, from fierce struggling at the portages, hang
ing about him in tattered shreds, with tangled hair and perspiring
brow, threw first his string of speckled trophies and then himself upon
the ground, exclaiming, " well, I have had a happy day. To land such
fish was worth it all ! "
There are a number of other small lakes in the vicinity. The
land rolls in grand heights, clad with fine groups of hardwood trees
and magnificent black and white birch. Game abounds, and beaver,
otter, martin and mink are to be seen along the river, It is greatly
to be hoped that the game laws will be strictly observed, so that
legitimate sport, which will bring so much profit to the district, will
Callandar. (See page 158). This is a good headquarters from
which, by the new train service of the N. and P. J. R. R., to reach
South River, Trout Creek and Powasin, going out in morning and
returning in evening. Wm. Windsor and Nicholas Wessels are
referred to for hotel and sporting requirements.
A small portage railway of five miles in length, by which logs are
taken from Lake Nipissing, connects from here to Lake Nasbonsing.
The cars cross several times in the day. In the lake are plenty of
black and silver bass, maskinonge, pickerel and white fish. From
here the waters descend towards the Ottawa by the Kai-buskong river
and thence by the Mattawan.
Nipissing Junction. This station, formerly called La Vase, is wher e
the Railway crosses the La Vase river at a point about 2 miles from
its entry into Lake Nipissing : Sheppard s Hotel is recommended.
The river is navigable for canoes throughout with the exception of a
few portages and with the several streams, tributaries to it, makes a
good fishing ground.
Bass, pickerel, maskinonge are the principal catch, affording good
trolling with butterfly or minnow troll. Trout Lake is distant 2 miles
and Turtle Lake 9 miles from here.
THE NOETHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 160e
North Bay (116^2 miles from Gravenhurst and 227 miles from
Toronto). This is the point of junction with the Canadian Pacific
Railway, and the present terminus of the Northern and Pacific Junc
tion Railway until it shall have been extended further north towards
Lake Temiscamingue, and the great lumbering district of the Upper
The Town is situated on the shores of Lake Nipissing and good ac
commodation for sportsmen will be found at Pacific Hotel, Jno. Bourke,
highly recommended, and The Mackay House, Fee & Mackay, at both
of which places waggons, guides, and sporting equipment can be ob
tained. There is a good sandy beach in the bay favourable for bathing.
Here the main line trains of the Canadian Pacific RR. are taken
either to Winnipeg and the Far West, or to Ottawa and Montreal.
This is a very good centre from which to visit the surrounding lake
country and to explore the river systems emptying into the great
This is the largest of the interior waters of this marvellous lake dis
trict through which we have been passing. It is 80 miles long and
varies from 20 to 40 miles in width. In altitude above the sea it does
not occupy so high a point as the District further south, but into its
waters from all sides pours a vast network of tributary rivers.
The waters are shallow on the North but deep on the East and
South shores, and abound with bass, pickerel, and whitefish; and huge
sturgeon are to be caught.
Coasting around the North shore there are met in succession the
Duchesnay, Muskrat, Little Sturgeon, and Veuve Rivers, and at 23 miles
west the Great Sturgeon, the largest river falling in from the North.
The western end of the lake foliates into several deep arms into which
fall several small streams and from the largest of these commences
the French River, by which the waters of the Lake fall to the
160/ THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Georgian Bay. The islands are not very numerous except at the
mouth of South East Bay ; Manitou Island is at the north west end,
Goose Island about the centre, and Iron Island away to the west.
In exploring this district and particularly when hunting in the
shooting season, when red deer and moose are plentiful, it is advis
able to have guides, and among these the following names are favour
ably known, M. H. Ritchie, Jno. McGillis, J. M. Sheppard, Isaac
Ritchie and Jno. Halliday ; address all to Nipissing Junction.
All around here will be found relics of the French tongue, the lan
guage of the first white adventurers who made their way through the
woods and along the rivers, but now the translating English turns the
original word into the newer language and the association of the names
of voyageurs, of high dignitaries, or valiant soldiers are merged into
mere landmarks telling off the distances for trie passing wanderer.
To the north-west of the lake lies the watershed of the Ottawa
district, and by a good portage road of but 2)^ miles from North
Bav the canoe can be launched in
This lake, 9 miles long, by an average of 3 wide, is 200 feet above
the level of Lake Nipissing. Passing through this, and then, by the
increasing waters of the Mattawan River, with a few portages at some
rapids, and with good paddling where it widens out into Turtle and
Talon lakes, the voyageur can float his canoe down the great Ottawa
and then by the Rideau Canal to Kingston on Lake Ontario, making
a magnificent and adventurous tour, such as was enjoyed in 1886 by
a detachment from the Canoe Club of Toronto. In the early year
the rivers may be somewhat impeded by the timbermen " driving "
their logs, but after the ist August, they will, as a rule, be found
Trout Lake is plentifully sprinkled with islands, and a number of
deep bays. The water is of peculiar purity, and well stocked with
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. IQQg
fish. Mr. R. B. Jessup, whose house is at the head of the lake, keeps
a supply of boats.
Lake Rosseau to Parry Sound.
The Muskoka and Nipissing Navigation Company have added a
splendid steel steamer to their fleet on the larger inland lakes, and
have also added their two fine passenger steamers upon the "Inside
Route" between Parry Sound and Penetanguishene. (See page 163.)
Having thus combined the two interests, there is now offered an ex
ceptionally interesting round trip route, going one way via the Mus
koka lakes and returning via the Parry Island Archipelago. TUt
government road has been well built and new stages are put on
between Port Cockburn, Port Rosseau and Parry Sound, so that this
connecting link has become a pleasant drive through the varied
scenery of the little inner lakes and the rough rugged granite cliffs.
Star Lake House, kept by Mr. W. F. Thomson, is a capital resting
place, on the shores of Star Lake, five miles from Port Cockburn,
and eight from Rosseau, where access is gained to the canoe route
of the Segnin Chain (p. 156). A little steam yacht makes pleasant
jaunts, and the fishing of the connecting lakes, having been little dis
turbed, is reported excellent.
McKellar on the Seguin chain (see page 156) is now supplied with
good hotel accomodation " The Armstrong House" a temperance
hotel of which the resident physician Dr. B. M. Waltin is proprietor,
is well situated. A small steam yacht is available for picnic parties
on the many interlacing lakes ; stages run daily from Parry Sound
(16 miles) and from Ah Mic Harbour (16 miles), making thus a com
plete connection through this middle lake district from Burtis Palls
and the inland stations on the railway (page 154). As the ac-
comodations improve on these inner lakes they will become increas
ingly sought by families in search of out door summer recreation.
160/i THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Parry Sound to French River.
Still another extension northwards has been effected by bi-weekly
steamer from Parry Sound skirting through the island groups which
continue to fringe the shores of the Georgian bay. This forms a
great facility for reaching the lower waters of the Moon River, or
forms a pleasant two day s trip for the summer sojourners at Parry
Byng Inlet and French River and Collins Inlet are regular calling
points of the steamer, so that new combinations for round trips
^re opened in connection with those elsewhere described.
French River Canoe Route to Lake Xi pissing.
There are four mouths by which the French River opens into the
Georgian Bay. On the second of these lies the village of French
River, at which the steamer from Parry Sound lands ; or should the
canoeist have made his way from that place by paddle and sail
through the myriads of islands sprinkled along the shore, he can
easily find the proper entrance by watching the smoke rising from
the great sawmills near the village.
For a summer outing in the modern sailing canoe there is no more
enjoyable trip than this through the islands from Parry Sound, then
up the French River to Lake Nipissing, and thence return by rail
from North Bay to Toronto. It is better to go in this direction ; for
in running down stream on unmarked rivers such as this there is
danger of running into rapids too boisterous to be safely overcome.
The ships, loading with lumber, lie in the first reach of the river,
with deep water sheer up to the banks.
Two miles above the village is the first rapid, which is easily passed
by an excellent tram road portage of a quarter of a mile. Now
begins the real navigation. A map published in 1847 by the Geo
logical Survey of Canada is the best extant, and so minute is it that
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 160i
the correct route can, by clear heads, be made out without a guide ;
while failing such assistance the river would prove a troublesome
Its formation is peculiar. At intervals there would seem to be dykes
or barriers, which cross its course and back up the waters ; between
these the river will divide itself up into various channels, coursing
through the several parallel depressions, the water moving slowly,
and in some places seeming entirely at rest, and not re-uniting for
sometimes as much as twenty miles. The changes of direction are
frequent and abrupt, sometimes appearing almost like cross-roads.
There are no finger-posts to point out the way, yet the selection of
the wrong opening will lead, to no danger, but only to the necessity
of retracing the steps when the end of the false bay has been reached.
The rocks are all merciless, forbidding granite, though graced with
many kinds of trailing mosses and a superabundant supply of huge
blueberries ; but of animal life there is an almost absolute dearth.
This area, between the south-west end of Lake Nipissing and the
Georgian Bay, is a wilderness of water channels, separated by ribs
of rock. It is a literal gridiron, through which pass the waters of
the watershed ; yet it has its beauties to the eye, and a sense of
novelty and excitement that, combined with its safety, and its clear
un-incumbered river reaches make it a most available canoe route.
At the second fork a lake is formed, about five miles in length,
into the north end of which enters the Wanipitae River. Now
follows a long stretch of clear paddling for twenty miles, to Conte s
Village, a small collection of Indian houses, where all the people
talk French. For five miles there are a series of small rapids, some
of which can be towed up, and others poled up, or else passed by
short carrying places, the entrances to which are clearly defined.
Next are the Chaudiere Rapids, the most picturesque piece of water
on the route, boiling through rocks fifty feet high on either hand.
Coming up the river an old log house will be noticed on the left
bank, behind which is an old Indian burying-ground One hundred
100J THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
yards of swift water is worked up to the entrance of a bay which
opens to the right ; here land at the foot of a splendid portage of
about five hundred yards over smooth rock, thus cutting off a rapid
of one and a-half miles long. In the ledges here will be seen the
pot-holes," marked on the supremely accurate map geological
formations whose raison d etre still forms a source of discussion for
scientists. Ten miles open paddling brings to the open lake and
J. B. Smith s sawmill.
The river distance from the lake is seventy-five miles, and
days of easy but steady work may be fairly counted as the time to
be allotted. Thence coast around the lake to the railway junction
at North Bay, and so back again to the South.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
A la Claire Fontaine.
From Chansons Populaires du Canada. MORGAN, QUEBEC.
A la clai - re fon - tai - ne M en al - lant
pro- me- ner, J ai trou-ve 1 eau si bel - le Que je me suis bai - gne",
Lui ya longtemps que je t ai- me, Ja - mais je ne t ou - blie- rai.
J ai trouvd 1 eau si belle,
Que je m y suis baigne* ;
Sous les feuilles d un chene
Je me suis fait sdcher.
Lui ya longtemps, etc.
Sous les feuilles d un chene
Je me suis fait se cher ;
Sur la plus haute branche
Le rossignol chantait.
Lui ya longtemps, etc.
Sur la plus haute branche
Le rossignol chantait,
Chante, rossignol, chante,
Toi qui as le coeur gai.
Lui ya longtemps, etc.
Chante, rossignol, chante,
Toi qui as le cceur gai,
Tu as le coeur a rire,
Moi je 1 ai-t-a-pleurer.
Lui ya longtemps, etc.
Tu as ie coeur a rire,
Moi je l ai-t-a pleurer,
J ai perdu ma maitresse
Sans 1 avoir me rite .
Lui ya longtemps, etc.
J ai perdu ma maitresse
Sans 1 avoir me rite ,
Pour un bouquet de roses
Que je lui refusai.
Lui ya longtemps, etc.
Pour un bouquet de roses
Que je lui refusai.
Je voudrais que la rose
Fut encore au rosier,
Lui ya longtemps, etc.
Je voudrais que la rose
Fut encore au rosier,
Et inoi et ma maitresse
Dans les meme amitids.
Lui ya longtemps, etc.
162 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA .
The Parry Island Archipelago.
The Penetanguishene branch, after leaving Allandale, follows the
curve of the hills to the east of the Nottawasaga Valley. The river
is filled with the accumulations of the debris of the freshets of hun
dreds of years, so that large portions of the valley are completely
flooded in the early spring. Little by little it is being reclaimed ;
but vast acres of forest still occupy the bottom banks ; and to the
left of the train a view is had over their waving tops, surging like a
green ocean with the inequalities of the surface.
Penetanguishene (102 miles from Toronto) is one of the historic
spots of Canada, but in the impatient haste of these modern days it
has had to allow its name to be curtailed to " Penetang." The town
lies at the head of a deep inlet on the south-east shore of the Georgian
Bay, which early attracted attention as a safe and commodious har
bour. The importance of the naval command of the Upper Great
Lakes led the British Government, in 1818, to fix upon a site near
the mouth of the bay for the establishment of a dockyard. A war-
sloop, the Midas, was here stationed for some years ; but the idea
of making a naval centre was shortly after abandoned. [The position
has since been occupied by a Juvenile Reformatory, maintained by
the Canadian Government]. The British Government had induced
a number of pensioners to occupy lands in the vicinity which formed
part of the military reservation the records of the names of many
of whom are to be found in the old Military Church, and under the
waters of the bay may still be seen, on calm days, the sunken hulls
of the old gunboats of which they formed the crews.
The town, situated 2^2 miles from the Reformatory, developed a
considerable trade in furs, large quantities of which were brought by
Indians and Half-breeds from the almost unbroken forests and count
less lakes to the North-East, which afforded an unrivalled hunting
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 163
Some families of French and English Half-breeds and of French
Canadians, who, on the giving up of Drummond Island, Lake Huron,
to the Americans, in 1828, retained their British allegiance, were
granted lands in the vicinity. In 1841 a number of their compatriots
from Lower Canada joined them, forming what is now known as the
French Settlement. In 1880 the census reports the French-speaking
population of the County of Simcoe as 3,669, almost all of whom
live within a few miles of Penetanguishene ; and in the Roman
Catholic churches the services are still rendered in the French lan
Pleasant excursions can be made from here to Midland City, Mouth
of the Severn, Parry Sound, etc. The Clarkson House, on a height
overlooking the bay, is recommended.
There are two lines of steamers which ply through these islands on
the route to Parry Sound. The Great Northern Transit Company, from
Collingwood, and the Parry Sound Company, from Penetang. Both
lines of steamers pass through this maze of islands. Ten thousand
have been counted about here in the nautical survey of the Georgian
Bay, and the whole shore is fringed with them, of all sizes, from mere
dots to hundreds of acres, with high towering cliff-like centres.
Through the Inside Channel of these the steamers wind their way.
One open spot only exists, Moose Point, where the lake has open
sweep, but except this, all else is through channels, some so narrow
as to almost touch the steamers sides. Many of the Islands are oc
cupied with summer-houses, and there is no doubt that ere long
there will be as great a population as now takes its summer outings
on the inland Lakes of Muskoka.
This large and flourishing town is beautifully situated at the mouth
of the Seguin River, whose waterfalls are utilized for its gigantic
sawmills, and upon a deep recessed harbour, completely sheltered
from the open water. From it the summer can be spent either in ex-
THE bOBTHEItN LAKES OF CANADA
ploring, by means of the several steam launches, the windings up the
Archipelago, or striking inland, take the canoe trips up the interior.
Good fishing abounds of the same character as inland, except that
some extra-sized bass, old lake stagers, are occasionally captured.
T/ie BelvidereHotel ($1.50) is opened only in the summer season,
being specially intended for tourists. Its situation upon a high hill
side, facing the- most beautiful view, has been excellently selected.
The Seguin House, R. B. Armstrong, and Albion House, Henry Jukes
THE THREE SISTEKS.
(both $1.00), are favourably mentioned. There are several churches,
some good stores, a local weekly paper, and telegraph communica
tion. It is just twelve hours run, half boat and half rail, between
Toronto and Parry Sound. Harvie s stage line runs regularly between
here and Port Cockburn, Lake Joseph (24 miles). It is a good road,
and passes along an almost consecutive line of pretty lakes. Round
trip tickets, going one way and coming back the other, can be
obtained, including both the Lakes of Muskoka and the Parry Island
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 165
The Hurons and French in the Early Days.
MR. JAS. BAIN, JR., PUBLIC LIBRARIAN, TORONTO.
The early history of the existing town of Penetanguishene only
carries us back to the beginning of this century, but the sur
rounding district recalls the history of a nation whose tragic fate was
the theme of innumerable pens, and which disappeared altogether
from the face of the country in the middle of the seventeenth cen
tury. At a time when the infant European settlements were strug
gling for bare existence in Salem, Fort Orange, Jamestown, and
St. Augustine, French priests and traders, had worked their way
up the turbulent rivers and through the trackless forests to this
neighbourhood, and had organized an extensive mission and buiU
a fort and church, the ruins of which exist to this day.
The Hurons, a branch of the great Huron-Iroquois family, had
early separated themselves from their kindred, who were afterwards
known as the Iroquois, or Five Nations, dwelling in what is now
New York State, A bitter feud had arisen between them, and
the warfare was conducted with all the cruelty and vindictiveness
to be expected from the most ferocious Indians of this continent.
The establishment of a fort at Quebec, in 1608, at once drew
large numbers of the Hurons, to trade their furs for French goods.
Their yearly visits attracted the attention of Champlain, the Gover
nor of the new French possessions, who, as did Cartier when
he named the first village above tide-water La Chine, still dreamt
of reaching China and the golden East, and hoped to be able, with
the Hurons assistance, to gain the road to the Eastern seas. In
1615 he made his second attempt to reach their country, ascended
the Ottawa River, crossing Lake Nipissing, and descending the river
of that name, now called the French River, he gazed for the first
time upon the great fresh- water sea of the Hurons,
166 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Passing, in his canoe, along the eastern side of the Georgian Bay,
threading his path amid the countless islands which line its shores,
he finally landed at Thunder Bay, a few miles west of Penetangui-
shene. He was immediately taken to a town in the vicinity, called
Carhagoulhia, where he was welcomed by Father Le Caron, who had
preceded him. On the iyth of August he reached the chief town,
Cahiagu^ (near Coldwater).
The unfortunate decision which now led Champlain to join the
Hurons in an attack upon the Iroquois, near Onondaga, was the
immediate cause of the long and bitter warfare which almost resulted
in driving the French from Canada. The expedition took its way by
Balsam Lake, the Trent River, and the Bay of Quint6, thence across
Lake Ontario. Having failed to carry the Indian fortifications in
spite of the firearms of their French allies, they retreated to their
homes. Champlain returned to Quebec in the following spring,
after spending the winter in excursions through the Huron country.
The number of towns and villages, he reported, was 32, and the
population about 20,000 ; but a later traveller fixed it more ac
curately at 30,000. Well may Parkman say that " here, within an
area of sixty or seventy miles, was the seat of one of the most
remarkable savage communities of this continent." The entire
population seems to have been confined to the country lying between
the Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe, with its northern extension,
On the return of Champlain to Quebec, reinforcements were sent
to the Mission ; and as the annual Relations of the Jesuit Fathers
were published in Paris, detailing the strange discoveries and painful
labours of those who had ventured their lives, a fervent missionary
spirit arose which was profitable to the Mission both in money and
men. In 1639, the Jesuits, finding it imperative to establish some
fixed headquarters, chose a spot on the banks of the River Wye,
near where it empties into Matchedash Bay. Here they built a fort
and church, named it Ste. Marie, manning the one with soldiers to
the number of thirty, and adorning the other with the ecclesiastical
ornaments which they had succeeded in transporting over the long
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 167
reaches and weary portages of the Ottawa and Nipissing Rivers.
The fort, built partly of stone, partly of wood, was enclosed within
a palisaded fortification and surrounded by a moat. Within its gates,
charity and medicines were dispensed to the poor and suffering from
the surrounding Indian towns, and every means were adopted to lead
the savage to the service of the church.
The Iroquois saw with intense hatred this settlement of white men
to their north, and resolved to make a powerful effort to reduce the
Hurons to subjection and to exterminate the French. A temporary
peace which had been concluded between themselves and the French
and their Indian allies was broken, and a series of desperate on
slaughts was made upon the French settlements along the St. Law
rence, until almost the entire population was driven into the isolated
forts for protection from the human wolves. Turning their attention
next to the Hurons, a numerous party crossed Lake Ontario, and
ascending the Humber River to its head wafers, soon reached by
bush paths their frontier town, at the foot of a range of hills, about
twenty miles to the south-east of Penetanguishene, known as Tean-
austaye or St. Joseph. The Hurons were caught unprepared ; in a
short time the town was in ashes and the inhabitants massacred,
with the exception of 700 who were carried off prisoners. Father
Daniel, the priest in charge, was cut to pieces in front of his own
church. After destroying in a similar manner another small town in
the vicinity, the Iroquois returned home in triumph. In 1649, eight
months after, a larger party, principally composed of Senecas and
Mohawks, said to number about 1,000, again crossed Lake Ontario,
and leisurely hunting till they drew near to the Hurons, burst upon
the settlements like a whirlwind, burning the towns and destroying the
inhabitants, until the cowed remnant of the Hurons, clustered round
the Fort of St. Marie, resolved to fly from their own country and take
refuge in some of the islands to the north. The Jesuits had no
option if their flock fled they must accompany them, and accordingly
the torch was applied to the buildings, and the result of years of labour
was soon a mass of broken walls and heaps of ashes. Part of the
stonework was standing about six feet above the ground as late as
368 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
1870, but has since been destroyed, and the mounds and hollows are
are all that left of one of the earliest buildings of this continent.
A memorial church is being erected in Penetanguishene, to com
memorate the martyrdom of the priests, Breboeuf and Lallemant, who
fell victims to the ferocious cruelty of the Iroquois. The first resting
place of the unfortunate Hurons was the Christian Island, lying ten
miles to the North West, where the Jesuits once more erected a fort, of
which the walls are still standing ; but their spirit was broken, and har-
rassed again by the Iroquois, they scattered over the islands still further
to the north, a small remnant alone remaining with the Jesuit fathers,
and finally, when the surviving French left the country, accompanied
them to Lower Canada, where in the little village of Lorrette, close
by Quebec, their descendants dwell to this day. The towns of the
Hurons were composed of long bark-covered houses, accommo
dating numerous families, easily constructed and as easily destroyed.
Nothing was permau^t, and the forests speedily overran their sites.
With the one exception of Ste. Marie built by the French, we are
dependent on the heaps of ashes, stone implements and burnt corn
turned up by the settlers, for the identification of the dwelling places
of a populous nation who passed away two centuries ago, leaving the
country empty and desolate for almost an hundred yeors.
The Georgian Bay.
Reverting again to Allandale (page 81), the Collingwood Branch
leads north-westerly over the level known as the " Pine Plains," once
covered with stately pines, but now being rapidly changed to broad
acres of grain-laden fields and meadow pastures. Passing Angus and
crossing the Mad and Nottawasaga Rivers, a reminiscence of the
olden days is preserved in the name of Batteaux, where the voyageurs
used to embark their laden canoes, and then we reach the lake.
Collingwood. Forty years ago the shores were lined with forest, and
the Hen and Chickens harbour was but the resort of the Indians, or
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 169
the home of the wild fowl. Now a stirring town of 5,000 inhabitants
occupies the spot. Sawmills and huge grain elevators meet the eye,
and busy steamers connecting with all the upper lakes lie at the docks.
There is good brook trout fishing in the neighbourhood, and plea
sant excursions can be made to the Caves, in whose recesses the ice
of winter lingers the summer through, or to the Nottawasaga Beach,
where for miles an excellent drive can be enjoyed on the firm hard
sands around the curving shore of the bay. Near the mouth of the
river lies the skeleton hulk of an old British gunboat, driven hard
upon the shore, and behind which, in the sand banks, have been found
some of the round shot fired at it by the pursuers when it sought
shelter from the foe.
Collins "Grand Central Hotel," and Rowland s "Globe Hotel,"
can be recommended as excellent headquarters. (See adv.}
Leaving Collingwood by the Lake Superior or the Georgian Bay Line
steamers, the Blue Mountains rise high above the town, and fringe
the southern shores of the Georgian Bay. This is the same elevation
which, running south-easterly across the peninsula, is successively
known sixty miles inland, as the Caledon Mountains, at Burlington
Bay as " The Mountain " and terminates in the "Niagara Escarp-
ment, ; on the banks of the Niagara River. The Christian Islands lie
out to the right, another Nottawasaga Island, with revolving light
house, nearer to the shore.
Meaford lies at the foot of a bay under the protection of the pro
montory of Cape Rich. A rich agricultural country lies at the back,
drained by the Bighead and Beaver Rivers, in whose upper reaches
good sport is still to be had in speckled trout. Pretty drives up
there, and the Cuckoo Valley, and good boating and bathing on the
shores of the bay make the little village a pleasant summer resort.
Mrs. Paul s hotel has long been a favourite with city visitors, and
Noble s hotel is also recommended. The district is celebrated for
its fruit, particularly plums, which grow to a size and luxuriance not
approached in any other part of Ontario. It is a strange fact, too, that
under the shelter of the lofty headlands peaches and grapes grow
freely in the open air.
170 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Owen Sound, the next calling place, is around Cape Rich, and at
the head of a deeply-recessed bay. It is the terminus in this direc
tion of the Owen Sound division of the Canadian Pacific Railway
which connects with Toronto, and is the starting point of their line
of swift steel steamships plying between here and Port Arthur.
Ingles and Engenia Falls, and the river Sydenham, are picturesquely
situated in the deep rock-bound valley. The town is fast advancing
in importance, and is the centre of an improving trade.
From here the steamers take the direct course up the bay. Lonely
Island marks almost half the way, and in the morning the northern
shores, with the lofty granite cliffs of the La Cloche Mountains come
into view. At their foot lies the sheltered channel on which is Kil-
larney, a fishing village of much fish importance, originally called, in
the Indian tongue, She-ba-wa-na-ning (here is a channel). It has been
modernized in name, but the beauty of its surroundings still remains
The Great North JUanitoulin Channel.
From here begins the wonderously beautiful trip of the Great
North Channel in behind the warding shelter of the Great Manitoulin
Island. The steamers of the Great Northern Transit Company are
really excellent models of what excursion and safe lake-going steamers
should be. Carrying Her Majesty s mails, they call from little hamlet to
hamlet along the Island shores, running into out-of-the-way recesses^
and passing backwards and forwards to cross the North Channel in
doing their " Local " business on a way that is entirely different to
that of the direct routes of the " Through " steamers. The searchers
for the novelties of this route are fast increasing in numbers, and its
and the steamers good name becoming proverbial.
A correspondent in the Forest and Stream thus describes the scene :
" Islands succeed islands in an unbroken continuity hour after hour
as we glide on ; islands of every conceivable size and shape, more
numerous than the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence many times
THE NORTHERN LAKEb OF CANADA
multiplied ; islands barren, wooded, sandy, rocky, columnar, grace
fully rounded, precipitous and gently sloping, wind-swept and storm-
polished, large, diminutive, and infinitesimal ; reefs widely spreading,
and submarine monoliths whose peaks barely project above the sur
face. There is a breadth and sweep and never-ending change in the
panorama which is all-absorbing to a mind intent upon the picture.
For one hundred and seventy miles we steam through this island
scenery ! In the calm repose of a summer s morning, when the waves
are stilled and the face of the lake gleams like polished glass, the
shadows fall heavily from the indented shores, and every rock and
tree is sharply outlined
and reproduced inverted
in the mirror. Then we
seem to float on airy
nothing, looking upward
into cloudland and down
ward into cloudland, in
to depths above and be
low that seem illimitable.
There is very little animal
life upon the Islands.
The mainland is a con
tinuous upheaval of bare
Laurentian billows of granite that once were molten. There is but a
scanty growth of trees. Sweeping blasts have scathed them and
frequent fires blasted out their vitality. There are very few houses
and but little cultivation. Occasionally a bark canoe glides from be
hind a point, and at intervals a solitary fisherman s hut is descried.
Were it not for the gaunt white gulls that hover over our wake or
keep vigil on the rocks, this would be a solitude.
" In places the flinty strata of rocks yield a mineral wealth suffi
cient to induce the sinking of a mining shaft, or the back country af-
3 72 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
fords a supply of furs which necessitates the establishment of a trad
ing post and depot. At these the steamboat touches, sometimes to
take in wood, sometimes to land a passenger, and anon to discharge
Captain Bayfield, R.N., who compiled the nautical charts of these
waters, states that 27,000 islands have been counted in the combined
shores of the Georgian Bay and the North Channel.
After, Manitowaning, a rising settlement on the island, where are
said to be some good trout streams (Quinn s and the Commercial
Hotel) ; next on the route comes Little Current, another hamlet, and
here a tide sets between the islands with a four-knot current. It is
said the tide is caused by the wind, that it sets in whichever direction
the wind is blowing at the time. Still further on is the picturesque
Hudson s Bay Company post, called La Cloche, with its sunny white
Gore Bay, one of the most important points upon Manitoulin
Island, and the principal port to the free grant lands, is next
Crossing back again,
Spanish River, an important lumbering >centre, is met, and from
here the steamer, after passing through the narrow straits of the
" Devil s Gap," threads its way through the islands that fringe the
Algoma Mills is the point where the Canadian Pacific branch,
after leaving the main line and skirting the north shores of Lake
Nipissing first approaches the waters of Lake Huron on its way to
Sault Ste. Marie.
Blind River and Missasaga River empty the waters of the North
water shed, and are connecting routes to the Indian reservations
further inland. At Thessalon is Jackson s hotel, and boats and
guides can be obtained for the upper trout streams of the Missasaga
THE NORTttEEN LAKES OF CANADA.
The Direct steamers from Collingwood coming in through the
Missasaga channel now join the route of the Local steamers, and
at the Bruce Mines, 307 miles from Collingwood, are the huge chim
ney stacks and shops and piles of copper ore, and ranges of hovels two
miles long that belonged to the great company that used to delve
the precious metal from the bowels of the surrounding earth. The
works have cost over a quarter of a million of dollars. After a
particularly beautiful part of the route, in which the steamers wind
through a series of small islands and so close to the cliffs in passing
through the "Wilsons Channel, " that a biscuit can almost be pitched
to land, Bear Lake is next passed, and after the Nebeesh Rapids we
presently enter the serpentine St. Mary s Rivzr, with its Indian
reservation and vil
lages upon the Cana
dian side, and an oc
casional farm on the
At the mouth of
the Garden River are
the churches of the
Anglican and Roman
Catholic missions to the Indians in this district.
Forty miles from Bruce Mines, we reach Sault Ste. Marie, with its
foaming rapids, its great ship canal, and the rival villages that con
front each other from either shore. Here, if one elects to tarry, he
will find good fishing in the rapids and smaller streams in the
vicinity. There are numerous Indians on hand to lend their services
and canoes, and if the sportsman will try the Garden River, on the
Canada side, he can fill his creel with trout. Sixteen miles below the
Sault is Hay Lake and its outlets, affording fine trouting and good
duck shooting in their respective seasons. There is a very comfort
able hotel at Sault Ste. Marie, on the American side, called the
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Chippewa House. In Fort Brady is a detachment of the United
States regular army. The Canadian side is more picturesque, and
there are some fine private residences there. Millar s and Murray s
hotels are excellently kept and nicely situated on the banks of the
The waters of Lake Superior here pour over the Sault Ste. Marie
Falls. There is no one bold single fall, but a continuous rapid of
about three-quarters of a mile in length, the waters rushing down with
great fury, and breaking in huge waves over the rocks.
SAULT ST. MARIE FALLS.
At the Sault is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Algoma, and
the " Shingwauk Home," a school for the education of Indian
children. On the American side is the great ship canal with two sets
of locks. The earliest built in 1855 are 7 ^ eet w ^e and 350 feet
long, and fine examples of masonry, but they have been far eclipsed
by the new lock 80 feet wide and 560 feet long, which is perhaps as
large as any lock in the world, and raises the vessels by one lift of 1 8
feet to the level of Lake Superior.
Tourists can stop over and go on by the next steamers, and enjoy
some fishing or " run the rapids ; " canoes and two men can be hired
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 175
at fifty cents for each person. The white-fish of the Sault are the
finest and firmest of the lakes. It is interesting to watch the Indians
as, poling their canoes up the surging rapids, they peer through the
clear waters to discover the fish swimming in the channels in the
rocks, when suddenly dropping down with the swift current, they
sweep them out with their long-handled scoop nets.
Connection with this famed resort, where the United States Govern
ment has created the whole island a " national park," is made daily
from Sault Ste. Marie by various lines of steamers.
On the special "Mackinac Excursions," the Collingwood steamers
turn westwards at St. Joseph s Island, skirting the shores of Drum-
mond Island, from which, at the time of its cession to the United
States, the patriotic British population migrated to Penetanguishene.
The St. Mary s river is the highway for an immense volume of trade,
and many huge steamers and tows of barges laden with grain or iron
and copper ore will be met with in its channels. At Detour entry is
made from it into Lake Huron, and after running westwards the
heights of Mackinac Island come into view.
Around this island centre many historic events. As Michilimackinac
it appears in the early annals as one of the most coveted strategic
points and was in succession held by all the nationalities who in
successive ages warred for the possession of the internal commu
nications of this continent. The many local guide books and the
several " Histories of Mackinac" will tell the details. A fort tops
the sheer precipice, at the foot of which lies a part of the town,
and for picturesqueness of position can very rarely be equalled.
In 1761 the British had built the first old Fort Michilimackinac
but in 1763 it was surprised by the Indians under the great chief,
Pontiac, and the garrison almost wholly massacred. In 1764 the
176 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
present Fort Mackinac was built, and upon its being given over to
the United States in 1793, at the conclusion of the revolutionary
war, the British removed their headquarters to a new fort erected
about 40 miles to the north on St. Joseph s Island, some remnants
of which still remain.
When the war of 1812 began, Capt. Roberts, who was in command
at Fort St. Joseph, under instructions received from General Brock,
sallied forth, with the gallant Toussaint Pothier (afterwards member
of the Upper House of Parliament, Montreal) and 455 Canadians and
Indians. Having dropped down the river in boats and canoes they
landed on the north side of the Island at a place now called -English
Landing," and re-took Fort Mackinac from the Americans.
In 1814, a force of United States troops of 1,000 men, under Col.
Crogan undertook to recapture the fort but they were met at the
Dousman Farm and repulsed with considerable loss, Major Holmes,
the second in command, being killed, and having retired hastily to
the shore they re-embarked on their vessels and sailed off the same
Fort St. George was erected on the highest part of the Island by the
the Canadians, who held possession of the place until 1815, when
the island was peaceably surrendered to the United States, and the
the name of the Fort was then changed to Fort Holmes, in honor of
the Major who had been killed the previous year.
Visits can be made to " The Lovers Leap, Arch Rock, the
several battle fields, etc., and their legendary and historic lore
sought out with pleasure. Summer hotels of the finest description,
and palatial lines of steamers from Detroit and Chicago have
combined to form this one of the most engaging summer resorts
in the north, and from it radiate many series of connections, including
this along the Great North Manitoulin Channel to Collingwood, or
to the Northern Shores of the mighty Lake Superior. The round
trip from Collingwood to Sault Ste. Marie and Mackinac occupies
just about one week. From Mackinac or the Sault to Lake Superior
about the same.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 177
The North Shore of Lake Superior.
Through the Sault and into Lake Superior ! We have traversed
one vast Mediterranean, and another is before us.
Lake Superior is 460 miles long, 170 miles broad ; its depth is 800
feet, being 200 feet below the level of the Atlantic.
It is only now that we begin to realize the immensity of these in
land seas. The voyage for duration is like a journey to Europe.
Great ships of thousands of tons burthen, traverse its highways, and
storms that are not surpassed in violence sometimes agitate its depths,
but in the summer time its clear cold waters are seldom stirred ex
cept by passing thunder showers.
The direct steamers, after passing up the river from Sault Ste.
Marie across Waiska Bay, now phonetically and modernly called
Whiskey Bay, and by the noble headlands of Iroquois and Gros Cap,
" the portals of Lake Superior," head directly across the lake.
The coasting steamer turns northwards and proceeding one hun
dred miles, after losing sight of land, arrives at Michipicoton Island
and river. Here in summer the boats tarry a few hours that excur
sionists may pick up agates along the pebbly shore or catch huge
trout in the adjacent waters. Were it not that larger fish can be
taken on the Nepigon, the size and quantity of these would seem
amazing. Some of the agates found here are of unusual beauty and
transparency. The light-house keeper, who has a sort of monopoly
of the business, in that he has thoroughly raked the placers, will sell
a pint of them for about a dollar.
Hence to Port Arthur and Fort William, the distance is 306 miles.
The cliffs around the North Shore are bluff to the water s edge.
Among the Slate Islands is some very fine fishing, and large exports
of salmon trout are made from here. All around this shore there are
regularly established " fisheries " and the boats of the hardy fisher
men may often be met with.
On the north shore of Lake Superior is the noble Nepigon Bay.
Entrance is by the straits between lofty islands and cliffs 1,500 feet
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANDA.
from base to summit, ragged with shattered rocks or clad with verdure,
or past small islets barely holding ground for a few small trees. At the
mouth of the river is the famed Red Rock, sacred to the Manitou,
and carved with hieroglyphics, the marks and relics of early Indian
visits. , A^
Of this rock, from time immemorial, has the Indian " Calumet " or
pipe of peace been made, and far down upon the Mississippi, and in
Mexico, in the mounds or tumuli of extinct races, are found samples of
its peculiar stone.
Half a mile from the mouth is the Hudson s Bay post.
Around the shores of St. Ignace Island, which divides the bay from
the open lake, is magnificent lake trout fishing, (see Orvis Cheney
" Fishing with the Fly ") and the sport on the river is renowned.
Silver Islet lies under the shadow of Thunder Cape, and from its
depths have been extracted many millions in value of silver, but now
the mines, which were centred on a small rock barely above water,
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
have become too difficult for profitable working, and attention is
being directed to the main-land.
Thunder Bay, the great point of interest of the route .is now en
tered, a grand expanse of water twenty miles in diameter, encircled
by an amphitheatre of fantastic hills and guarded at its portal by
Thunder Cape, a rugged headland of columnar basaltic trap of 1,350
feet high. When the steamer s whistle sounds, the reverberations
THUNDER CAPE LAKE SUPERIOR.
leap and re-echo from point to point of the entire circumference of
the bay. But when the Titanic voice of the thunder-blast rolls
through the broad expanse, it resounds with mighty intonations that
shake the cliffs and split the air, and give to cape and bay their most
appropriate name. It is the tongue of the Great Spirit, Nana-bijoo,
that speaks. And the god himself lies prone upon his back, like
180 THE NORTHERN LAKES 01 CANADA.
some ancient crusader resting from his labours. Looking from the
distance his gigantic form can be seen plainly limned in the outline
of the adjacent mountain ridge. It has been the custom of the
ancient Indians to toss him a bit of tobacco, by way of a propitiatory
offering, as they pass ! To the south-west is seen McKay s Mountain,
and further to the left the peculiarly shaped Pie Island, its form
resembling a gigantic pork pie.
Port Arthur. Here is the Lake terminus of the Canadian National
Highway, the Canadian Pacific Railway, which from here spans the
Continent over forest, plain, and mountain range, to the temperate
climate of British Columbia and the shores of the Pacific. Here too
toward the east joins the just finished portion of the railway which,
skirting the north shore of Lake Superior, running for miles around
the bays and headlands in sight of the mighty waters, leaves them in
the neighbourhood of Jackfish Bay, and cuts across the inland coun
try to the shores of Lake Nipissing.
One cannot help comparing the first route of communication, when
in canoes forced slowly and with difficulty up the rapids, or pain
fully carried over rugged portages from Montreal, up the Ottawa, over
Lake Nipissing, and down the French River to the Lake Huron ;
then coasting with carefulness the long weary miles of rock-bound
shore past the Sault the voyageur arrived at Thunder Bay, with this,
the newest connection, its palace cars and express trains sweeping on
swift wheels over the same route, often within sight of the same
spots, beside the same rapids of the rivers and along the same shores
of the lakes !
Where can a greater contrast be found between the Past and the
Present, or where a more vivid example of the overcoming of the
obstacles of nature by the genius and energy of man !
Port Arthur is growing fast. Into the lap of this bay is being
poured the business of half a continent, and with it must come the
welfare of the neighbourhood.
The Northern Hotel, kept by F. S. Wiley, faces the full view of
the Bay, and will be a pleasant place where meetings for the summer
holidays can be arranged between families from the North- West and
their members which may have remained behind in Eastern Canada.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
A most pleasant excursion can be made by small tug up the Kami-
nistiquia river to Pointe d Muron, a distance of 12 miles, to the head
of navigation, from where a magnificent view of Thunder Bay and
the mighty ranges which encircle it like an amphitheatre can be ob
tained. Pigeon River, the boundary between the United States and
Canada, and having fine Falls ; Current River, with rushing rapids
and silver mines ; Amethyst Bay, where the beautiful amethyst veins
are found in abundance ; Silver Harbour, the silver mines, and the
numerous trout streams, will all give plenty to do and to amuse during
M KAY S MOUNTAIN.
Fort William is reached either by road or by boat, a pull of about
two miles, or by the Canada Pacific R. R.. It is about the oldest
Hudson s Bay post on Lake Superior, on the banks of the Kaministi-
quia River, a sluggish stream, winding with many a turn at the foot of
McKay s Mountain, named after one of the early .residents at the
Hudson s Bay post The ascent, although somewhat difficult, is well
worth making. Following an Indian trail for about four miles, the
precipitous sides of the mountain are ascended and the summit
reached, about 1,200 feet above the level of the lake. Directly be
neath winds like a silver thread the Kaministiquia River, dividing
THE NORTHERN LAKE* OF CANADA.
where it flows into Thunder Bay, into many channels, justifying its
name, which means in the original " many-mouthed stream."
Eastward across the bay, at the distance of 25 miles, rises the lofty
wall of Thunder Cape and attendant ranges. Then Pie Islands, the
Welcome Islands, and far beyond them out in the broad water is the
Isle Royale, a portion of the United States, to the left the Pointe a
Muron range, with the river winding through them and the course of
the Canada Pacific Railway, stretching far away through miles of
West. Around the river mouth cluster the giant elevators and the
black masses of coal heaped up on the docks for transport inland, and
through the web-like interweaving of the tracks puff the yard-engines
of the railway sorting out the products of the Great North- West. The
front of the mountain is a sheer cliff of 300 feet high to the first
ledge, and from its giddy height an unbroken view of all the country
round for 50 miles delights the eye. There are some good hotels in
Falls, another of
the great natural
features, are now,
that the railway is
easy of access.
Canoes \ and In
dians are taken
out by train to a
point about six
miles above the
Falls. The river
is then followed
to within a short
distance above the
cataract when a
portage is made
around the Falls
which exceed in
THE KAKABEKAH FALLS.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 183
height and present a striking general resemblance to those at Niagara.
Rejoining the canoes, a run down the rapids brings the party to
the mouth of the river in from three to four hours.
From Port Arthur connection is made by steamer to
Dututh, " The Zenith City of the unsalted seas," of all places the
most written of and talked of in the United States. It is advan
tageously situated at the extreme head of Lake Superior, and by rail
way connection with the interior, will, without doubt, some day justi-
tify the glorious prophecies which heralded its birth, Here the
steamers commence the return trip, having been joined by tourists
from Chicago, St. Paul, Manitoba, &c., and picking up any who have
"stopped off" at Thunder Bay, return by the same route, as pre
Whether it be for the return trip from either Toronto, Port Arthur,
or Duluth, or for the single trip in one direction, opportunity is given
for what is, beyond all question, the Cheapest , Most Invigorating and
Grandest Trip on the continent.
Here then we will cease, having conducted our tourist from the
shores of the Niagara over all the intervening waters and to the many
pleasant summer resorts on
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Page 38, line 24, for "one hundred and fifty " read " fifty."
Page 81, line 20, for " Huron" read " Ojibbevvay."
Page 113, line 16, for "miles " read " hours."
184 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Our Country ! Tis a glorious land !
With broad arms stretched from shore to shore
The proud Pacific chafes her strand,
She hears the dark Atlantic roar ;
And, nurtured on her ample breast,
How many a goodly prospect lies
In Nature s wildest grandeur drest,
Enamel d with her loveliest dyes.
Rich prairies decked with flowers of gold,
Like sunlit oceans roll afar ;
Broad lakes her azure heavens behold,
Reflecting clear each trembling star ;
And mighty river?, mountain-born,
Go sweeping onward dark and deep
Through forests where the bounding fawn
Beneath their sheltering branches leap.
Still may her flowers untrampled spring ;
Her harvests wave, her cities rise ;
And e er, till Time shall fold his wings
Remain Earth s loveliest paradise !
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 185
Hints as to Routes.
information and tickets for these Northern Lakes Routes can be obtained
from BARLOW CUMBERLAND, General Ticket Agent, 35 Yonge Street (Ameri
can Hotel Block), Toronto.
Toronto is the starting point for all points of interest in the Northern Lakes
Tourists from the Eastward, Boston, New York, can come by the connecting
lines to Buffalo or Suspension Bridge, and then to Lewiston and Niagara to To
ronto, or by Grand Trunk R. R. from Montreal.
From Niagara Falls and Buffalo, New York Central and Michigan Central
Railroads connect at Lewiston and Niagara with palace steamer " Chicora " daily
to Toronto, or the Grand Trunk Railway can be taken round the head of Lake
Passengers from Toronto can have five hours at the Falls and return to Toronto
Tourists going down the St. Lawrence should not fail to stop at least one day
The Lakes of Muskoka are within a few hours of Toronto by the Northern
Railway. Excursion tickets, good for the season, are issued to Bracebridge,
Rosseau, Joseph and Parry Sound, and are available to stop at Barrie or Orillia
by making known to the conductor the intention to do so. Round trip tickets to
Parry Sound can be obtained to go via Muskoka Lakes and return by Georgian
For a grand all-round summer tour, this route is unsurpassed. Buffalo, Nia
gara Falls, Toronto, Couchiching, Lakes of Muskoka, Collingwood ; thence Col-
lingwood Line Steamers via Georgian Bay, Gt. Northern Manitoulin Channel,
Sault Ste. Marie, North Shore of Lake Superior, Thunder Bay, Duluth, thence
by rail to St. Paul and Chicago, or by Lake Superior Transit Co. via South
Shore of Lake Superior to Detroit and Buffalo, or return by Collingwood Line
and Northern Railway to Toronto. The whole round trip to Lake Superior re-
turning to Toronto occupies ten days.
The most beautiful and economical trip on the Northern Lakes is to Sault Ste.
Marie and return by the Great Northern Transit Company s steamer, calling at
all the inland ports and in midsummer running specially to " Picturesque Mac-
kinac." The round trip occupies six days.
These are the only lines passing through the inside picturesque route of the
Georgian Bay and North Manitoulin Channel, avoiding the open waters of Lake
Huron, and passing in daylight the LA CLOCHE MOUNTAINS, and through Island
Scenery unsurpassed by the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence.
186 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
NORTHERN LAKES LINES
Passenger Agency, Toronto.
Northern and North- Western Railway.
The Ontario all-Rail connection to the North- West and to all the Sporting
Districts of the North.
Collingwood Lake Superior Line.
Great North Channel, Sault Ste. Marie, Lake Superior, Thunder Bay, Nepigon,
Duluth, Manitoba, Dakota.
Georgian Bay Line.
Great Northern Transit Co., Georgian Bay, Manitoulin Island, Sault Ste. Marie,
French River, Mackinac, Parry Sound.
Northern Navigation Compy.
Lake Simcoe, Barrie, Orillia, Lake Couchiching.
Muskoka Navigation Compy.
Lakes Muskoka, Rosseau and Joseph, the Maganetewan River, Lake Nipissing.
Niagara Navigation Compy.
Toronto, Niagara, Lewiston, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, New York, Boston, Phila
delphia, and all points East or South.
Royal Mail Line.
Lake Ontario, The Thousand Islands, White Mountains, Montreal, Quebec,
Saguenay, Gulf of St. Lawrence.
INMAN LINE Queenstown, Liverpool. GUION LINE Queenstown, Liverpool.
NORTH GERMAN LLOYD London, Cherbourg. Bremen. STATE LINE Belfast,
Glasgow. RED STAR LINE Antwerp. The Continent.
S&T Ticket and Passenger arrangements made, Berths secured, for all the above
BARLOW CUMBERLAND, General Ticket Agent.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 187
It is often true economy to engage the services of those whose local
knowledge will most quickly bring the newcomer to the best places for engag
ing in the sport for which he seeks, and at all events they will lighten his
labours and certainly add to his pleasures. In canoeing, dangers may often be
avoided. In deer hunting there is absolute necessity, and at all times, in an
unknown country, it is well to have with one a Guide
who knows the bush
As the seaman knows the sea.
Men and boys to row may be engaged from $1.00 to $1.50 per day.
Experienced fishermen and huntsmen, including canoes, $2.00 per day ;
Hounds, 50c. per day. The various Hotel-keepers may be consulted. The
following men have been locally recommended :
Lakes Rosseau and Joseph and Moon River Districts.
Thos. Webster, John Peters, Abraham Asa Rosseau P. O.
R. Holton Ashdown "
Jas. Davis, Frank Wing Trout Lake "
J. Jennings, H. Vankoughnet Folding "
Wm. Brady, John Richards . . Port Cockburn "
Ed. Yellowhead, Joe Ingersoll, Sampson Ingersoll, John Bigwin. . .Bala "
Lake of Bays and South Branch, Muskoka River District.
Dorset P. O.
Allan Phillips, Alvin Phillips, Henry Sawyer, Chris. Sawyer, Matthew
McCaw, Tom Keown.
Dwight P. O,
Thos. E. Salmon, Archie Goldie, Edward Goldie, William Blackwell, Frank
Blackwell, Arthur Osborne, Tom Salmon, George Robson, Grieves Robson,
James Trueman, William Trueman.
Baysville P. O.
Daniel Vancliff, Henry Vancliff, Samuel Vancliff.
Menominee P. O.
Jeff. Avery, and his Sons.
188 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Commanda District. Nipissing District.
Thomas Grawbarger. ..Restoul P. O. Nicholas Wessels . .Boolah Creek P. O.
Thomas Smith " " Fred. Killey
Thomas Armstrong.. . .Nipissing " Sam. Lett " "
R. Manering Rye " Jas. Sheppard La Vase "
Wm. Porter Restoul " Rich. Jessup "
John SuttifFe . Ardagh
George Ross Spence P. O.
J. McMillan Maganetewan "
Wm. Harris " "
Jos. Jenkins " "
John Wilkins Dunchurch *
John Labrash Maple Island "
H. Armstrong McKel&r "
S. G. Ritter..
Hints as to Camping Outfit.
The equipment carried by " Campers " varies according to their
fancy. The following are the most necessary requirements :
EQUIPMENT. Ridge Tent, No. 3. The pole can be carried from
place to place, and pins and uprights cut on landing. For a
largerparty a smaller tent to shelter the " cook" and the provisions
is desirable. Axe, hatchet, deep pot or bake kejtle, sauce pan,
frying pan, gridiron, kettle, tea-pot, long iron spoon, long iron fork,
butcher knife, knives, forks, and spoons, tin wash dish, round tin
dish pans, tin cups, tin, or thick earthenware plates, water pail,
sugar, salt, pepper, and tea cans, two hand lanterns for candles.
PROVISIONS. Biscuits, flour, bread, sides clear bacon sewn in
canvas, tea, sugar, salt, pepper, soap in bars, condensed milk,
raisins, beans, dried apples, rice, matches, sperm candles.
CLOTHING One change of underclothing, flannel shirt, and woollen
trousers; three or four pairs of wool socks, overcoat, or mackintosh,
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 189
heavy long boots for day, pair easy old gaiter boots, or leather
slippers for camp, extra cap or tuque, handy bag for small things,
large dunnage bag to hold all clothing.
The Game Laws of Ontario,
The Game Laws of Ontario are rigidly enforced, particularly in the
district of Muskoka, where the residents are fully alive to the fact
that in the providing of good sport, both with gun and rod, lies op
portunity for large cash earnings by their community from the visitors
who come among them.
Game inspectors are appointed in each township, who are empow
ered to watch their neighbourhood, to inspect boxes or receptacles,
and search houses, when they have reason to believe game, or skins
of game, are concealed out of season, and to summon offenders before
the justices of the peace.
Confiscation of the game follows conviction.
SEASONS FOR SPORT.
Fish and game may be taken within the following periods :
Salmon and lake trout ist Dec. to ist Nov.
Speckled or brook trout ist May to 1 5th Sept.
Bass i 5 th June to 1 5th May.
Maskinonge and Pickerel i5th May to 1 5th April.
Deer, elk, moose, reindeer, caribou.. i5th Oct. to i5th Dec.
Woodcock -. i5th Aug. to ist Jany.
Grouse, pheasants, prairie fowl, par
tridge ist Sept. to ist Jany.
190 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Snipe, plover , ist Sept. to ist Jany.
Swans or Geese ist Sept. to ist May.
Duck and all other water fowl ist Sept. to ist Jany.
Hares , ist Sept. to 1 5th March.
Quail may not be taken at all during 1886, 1887, nor wild turkey,
during 1886, 1887, or 1888, and thereafter only from i5th Octo
ber to 1 5th December.
No person may have any of above game in his possession except
during the above stated periods, or for the purposes of being exposed
for sale for fifteen days after such periods.
No eggs of game birds may be taken at any time.
No game may be taken by trapping, nor by use of swivel guns or
sunken batteries, nor during the night from one hour after sundown
to one hour before sunrise.
FUR BEARING ANIMALS.
No beaver, mink, muskrat, sable, martin, otter or fisher may be
hunted or taken except between ist November and ist May, and any
one finding any traps set for them during any other time, may destroy
the traps without incurring any liability. No muskrat houses may be
broken into at any time.
Where imported kind of game is preserved by any one " on their
own lands," no one can hunt it without the consent of the owner of
No hound or dog, known to pursue deer, shall be allowed to run
at large from the i5th Nov. to the following i5th Oct.
No deer can be exported from Ontario.
Not less Not more
In case of c eer Each offence $10 $50
In case of birds or eggs 5 25
In case of fur trapping 5 25
Other breaches 5 25
Costs are payable in addition to fines. The whole fine goes to the
inspector, or to the prosecutor if not an inspector.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 191
List of Islands and Owners.
Nos. NAME. OWNERS.
1 Horse Shoe Barker
2 One Tree
8 Kewaydin Mrs. Ross.
14 Robinson Crusoe ,
1 5 Crown
21 Gibraltar Prof. Taverner.
25 Morris ,
31 E. Morris.
32 J. H. Morris.
35 Columbia Madame Janeck.
37 Home H. C. Rodick.
38 Fairholm W. E. Foot.
40 Marion s
41 J. McNabb.
44 The Brothers R. T. Pope
50 Eilian Gowan.
192 THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
Nos. NAME. OWNERS.
54 Browning s
57 Walker s
59 Delamere ................................. J. M . Delatnere.
60 ............................................. S. Denison.
61 Twin Bluffs ................................... Wm. Millar.
63 Island F ................................... . .R. K. Burgess.
64 Plumpudding ................. .............
65 Fishermans ..................................
66 Beach Grove ............................. ____ T. E. Moberly.
67 Heydon ................................... G. T. Denison.
68 Crawford s .....................................
69 Rankin ........................................
73 Gairney . ___ ........ ..........................
76 Broomleigh ...................................
79 Whitt ..................... ....................
80 Ault-Dowrie ... .............. ... ..............
83 Gull .......................................
84 Katago .... ...................................
92 Mary ...........................................
" Daisy ..........................................
" Henry ........................................
" Percy .........................................
Nos. NAME. OWNERS.
1 Shady J. Maclennan.
3 H. Kingstnill.
6 Picnic Jas. Maclennan.
7 McKeaggie J. McKeaggie.
9 Jaw Bone
18 R. K. Burgess.
Point Idleswood Mrs. Little.
19 , , Rev. M. Sanson.
20 Carter. . . E. T. Carter.
2 1 Yorum Mr. Murray.
22 Mazengah C. E. Blachford.
.22 ff ...,..., H. P. Dwight.
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 193
LAKE ROSSEAU (Continued}.
No*. NAME. OWNERS.
23 P airy Lands G. C. Lilly.
25 Olive , Robt. Baldwin.
26 Beacon Dr. Hall.
2; Cedar C. S Warren,
28 Oak , Dr. Hall.
Flora Dr. Hall.
29 Goulding G. Goui ling.
Point Eagle sNest , J. C. Lilly.
30 Sunny Side R. K Burgess.
Point Aurora Mr. Beddoe.
31 Fair View R. K. Burgess.
32 Edith R. L. Gunn.
33 Violet ...Capt. Ord.
34 Warsaw c. do.
36 St. Leonard s Hon. W. Cayley.
37 Red Capt. Ord.
38 White do.
39 Blue . do
41 H. Baker.
42 Bohemia J. S. Ploskell.
43 K. Moysey.
44 Bakers A. Baker.
45 Vacuna Mr. Scadding.
46 Craster J. W. Thomas.
48 BASS J. P. Clatk.
49 Caledonia P. M. Shannon.
50 Florence W. J. Florence.
51 Wellesley J. K. Smith.
52 Silver Mrs. Mole>\vorth.
53 Norway A. F. Macdonald.
Nos. NAME. OWNERS.
j Summit House . II. Fraser
3 Round ..Jas. Maclennan
Point Burgess R. K. Burgess.
5 Jas. Maclennan<
THE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA.
LAKE JOSEPH (Continued.}
6 Emerald Jas. Baine.
7 Wegausind Jas. Maclennan.
9 G J- S. Playfair.
10 j Gitchemene ..W. B. McMurrich.
" j Harmony Hall do
j j , Pro f. Campbell.
12 Waneshing J- H. Morris....
I " Yoho Prof. Camp bell.
j, Jas. Maclennan.
15 . . . . . I*. .. . . . . d
18 Chief J- H - Mason.
19 Strawberry A. B. Lee.
21 Baco do
22 Eagle do
24 Loon do
25 Lilbourne W. S. Jackson.
2 6 Dr. G. F. Cameron.
27 Teaberry A. B. Lee :
28 Governor s Island Lieut. -Gov. Robinson.
29 Elsinore w - K - Johnston.
32 Badgerow G - w - Badgerow.
2 3 Dr. Oldwright.
36 Rose J.Rose.
37 Lount G. Lount.
38 Wolverton " , H. Wolverton.
^g Dr. Caniff.
Point Haggart s" . . .. .. . . . ;. .- .Mr. Haggart.
Wood s S. C. Wood.
40 Sugar Loaf P^ S^^j
41 Stratford J- P- Woods.
42 Morrison R. Morrison.
43 Fisher... J- Fisher -
45 McFarlan e.V. . . . . V..V. . . . . . . G. McFarlane.
Point Moss Rock Lodge
Mount View 5m 7 tn -
47 Scadding Mr Scaddmg.
51 Robinson C. Robinson.
53 Scho oner
TEE NORTHERN LAKES OF CANADA. 195
LALE JOSEPH (Continued.)
Nos. NAME. OWNERS.
54 Perch Dr. Hodgins.
55 Grant J. Minto.
56 Bass Dr. Hodgins.
57 Pickerel do
Point Redwood , Mrs. Ardagh.
58 E. Cox.
59 Stovve Dr. Stowe.
Point Dr. G. Wright.
THE CLIFTON HOUSE,
Is so situated on the bank of the river that from its windows and balconies a
comprehensive view of the Great Cataract may be had. The view at night of the
American Falls Illumined by the Electric Light,
the varied hues of the falling waters, and the strange play of light of many colours
upon the ever-rising foam, is grand beyond description. From no other first-class
Hotel at Niagara can a view of the Falls and Electric Illumination be had.
IT IS SEEN ONLY FROM "THE CLIFTON."
The Cuisine and Service of The Clifton will be carefully maintained at the
highest excellence, and no pains spared to make the stay of visitors pleasant
PARLOURS AND ROOMS with Baths attached may be had en suite.
OMNIBUS FARE SAME AS TO AND FROM OTHER HOTELS AT NIAGARA.
G. M. COLBURN, Proprietor,
NIAGARA FALLS, W
INDEX TO CONTENTS.
A Little Farther On 3
The Hudson River Route
The Delaware Valley Route 7
To and From the West 9
Niagara Falls I2
The Niagara River.
Along the American Side 15
The Gorge" of Niagara I?
Where the Falls once were. ..,.. 21
Speech of Justice Macaulay 22
Speech of Sir John Robinson 23
Brock s Monument 24
The View from the Summit 25
Along the Canadian Side 27
The Battle of Queenston Heights 29
The Death of Brock 3 1
The Forts of Niagara.
The Early Struggles 33
The French Occupation 34
The British Occupation 36
The Americans take Fort George 39
The Canadians retake Ft. Ni gara 40
Map of Niagara River 4 1
Lake Ontario 42
Toronto Island 44
Toronto as a Summer Resort.. . . 45
The City of Toronto.
Name and Early History 47
Map of Toronto
Street Car Routes
The Public Buildings.
The First Railway
Custom House 57
St. James Cathedral 58
The Public Library 59
Metropolitan Church 60
St. Michael s Cathedral 60
The Normal School 61
The Picture Galleries 61
" How Perseus brought back the
Gorgon s head" 62
Baptist Church 64
Horticultural Gardens 65
Osgoode Hall 66
The Parks 68
The Universities 69
University of Toronto 69
Knox College.., 7 1
Trinity College 72
Government House 74
Grand Opera House 75
Off for a real good Fish" 77
The Northern Railway.
Height of Land... 78
Vale of Aurora 78
Holland River 79
The Severn River Chain.
Lake Simcoe 81
Lake Couchiching 85
Sparrow Lake 88
Canoe Route to Waubaushene ...
From Niagara Falls via Hamilton.. 91
Burlington Beach . 93
The North W estern R. R 94
" My Little Girl s first Fish " .. . . 95
The Lukes ofMuskoka..
Water and Rocks 99
INDEX TO CONTENTS.
Origin of Name 100
The Muskosh River Chain.
Lake Muskoka 102
The Muskoka River 105
The Great South Falls 107
A Specimen Muskoka Letter ..... 114
The Muskosh River 1 1 6
The Indian River 117
Port Carling 118
Lake Rosseau ........ 119
Three Mile Lake 122
Skeleton River 123
Port Rosseau 123
The Shadow River 125
Gregory ... 131
Port Sandfield 132
Lake Joseph 134
Joseph River 135
Craigie Lea ... 136
Little Lake Joe 137
Port Cockburn 138
Echo Rocks 139
Canoe Route to Parry Sound.. .. 140
Crane Lake 140
The Moon River 141
The New Railway.
The Muskoka River Chain.
Canoe Route to the Headwaters. 143
Lake Vernon 143
Hoodstown 1 43
Fox Lake 144
Axe Lake 144
Doe Lake , 145
Canoe Route by North Branch.
Fairy Lake 146
Mary Lake 146
Port Sydney 146
Canoe Route by South Branch.
Peninsula Lake 147
Rocky Portage 148
Lake of Bays 149
Camp Fires 1 50
Madawaska River 151
Erastus Wiman 151
The Maganetawan River Chain.
Bark s Falls 152
Lake Se-see-be 154
Lake Ah. Mic 155
Lake Wah-wa-kesh 155
Canoe Route to Byng Inlet 155
The Seguin River Chain.
Whitestone Lake 156
Canoe Route to Parry Sound 156
Canoe Route to Lake Joseph.. .. 156
The French River Chain.
South River 157
Canoe Route to Lake Nipissing.. 157
Canoe Route to Restoul Lake.... 158
La Vase 158
The Eirliest Route to the North-
A la Claire Fontaine .. 161
The Parry Island Archipelago.
The Archipelago.. 163
Parry Sound 164
The Hurons and French in the
Early Days 165
The Georgian Bay.
Collingwood , 168
INDEX TO CONTENTS.
Blue Mountains 169
Owen Sound 170
The Great Manitoulin Channel.
Manitowaning j 72
Algoma Mills 172
St. Mary s River 173
Sault Ste. Marie . . 1 74
The Island 175
Military History 176
The North Shore, Lake Superior.
Michipicoten Island 177
Slate Islands 177
Thunder Cape 1 69
Port Arthur . 180
The Past and the Present 180
Fort William 181
Kakabekah Falls 182
Our Country ... 1 84
Hints as to Routes 185
" " Camping Outfit 188
The Game Laws 189
Names and Owners of Islands.
Lake Muskoka 191
Lake Eosseau .. 191
Lake Joseph 193
INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS.
Great Northern Transit Co 205
Canada Transit Co 204
Northern and North-Western R. R 206
New York Central R, R 203
Niagara Navigation Co 202
Lehigh Valley R. R 8
Hudson River Day Line 208
People s Line 208
Muskoka Navigation Co 207
Steamer Southern Belle 7
Merchants Line 210
Rice, Lewis & Son, hardware iv
W. A. Bradshaw, grocer and ship goods, iv
J. Mallon & Co., butchers v
Geo. Verrall, cabs v
D. Pike, tents, etc vi
D. Millican, photos vi
W. McDowell, fishing tackle vii
J. E. Ellis, jewellery viii
Fulton, Michie & Co., camping supplies 201
P. C. Allan, camp furniture 199
Aikenhead & Crumble, hardware and
fishing tackle 199
Allcock, Laight & Co., fishing tackle . . 222
Woltz Bros., jewellery 200
Cox & Co., brokers 200
China Hall, chinaware 201
W. Hanna & Co., general store 214
Jordan, general store 214
Thos. Walters, saw mill 214
J, S. Wallis, general store . . . , 215
F. D. Stubbs, grocer 215
Sewell Bros., tourists supplies 210
NIAGARA FALLS Clifton House 198
Niagara-on-the-Lake Queen s Royal. . . 2
TORONTO American 223
" Queen s ii
Rossin Back cover
Burlington Beach Hotel 7
Beaumaris- Prowse Hotel 218
Port Carling Vanderburgh House 213
<l Stratton House 213
Oakland Park Hotel 215
Windermere Aitken Hotel 219
Rosseau Monteith House 214
Ferndale Penson Hotel 217
Clevelands C. J. Minett 217
Maplehurst Brown s Hotel 210
Port Sandtit Id Prospect House 212
Craigielea Crai^ielea House 214
Port Cockburn Summit House 209
Ah-Mic Harbour -Croswell Hotel 214
Huntsville Dominion Hotel 217
Baysville Forest House 219
PARRY SOUND Belvidere Hotel 216
COLLING WOOD Globe Hotel 220
Central Hotel 220
Meaford Paul s Hotel 221
Noble s Hotel 121
PORT ARTHUR The Northern Hotel 219
Tents, Camp-Furniture, Hammocks, &c., &c.
FOLDING CHAIRS AND STOOLS FOR STEAMBOATING IN GREAT VARIETY,
Just the thing
for the lawn, ve
randah or " The
coolest place in
Price only $2.50.
Cot opens and
shuts like a Jack-
knife, and will
cary half a ton
weight with per
When not in use occupies no more space than a broom. Expressed to any addres
on receipt of $2.50 orC. O. E>. Write for complete illustrated catalogue of abov
goods ; also of out-door games,
LAWtf TEWtflS, BASE BALL,, CRICKET, L.ACROSSE,
&c., &c., to
P. G. ALLAN S
City News and Games Depot,
35 K.IIVO (STREET WEST, TORONTO,
AIKEIYTHEAD & CROMBIE,
Corner King and Yonge Streets, Toronto,
Dodgers pine Pocket and tfable Cutlery/
GALVANIZED BOAT and CANOE FITTINGS,
Cordage, Oakum, Blocks,
Fine Iron Stable Fittings and
Patent Magic Feed-Box.
Builders , Machinists , Carvers, Blacksmiths Supplies and
every description of Hardware.
Fishing Tackle and Dog Collars in Great Variety,
!L M ly.
IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN
Fine Swiss and American Watches, Gold Chains, Ladies Gold and Silver Jewel^
lery, Gold Headed Canes, Gold Thimbles, Sterling Silver and ELECTO-
PLATED WARE, etc., etc.
We would call sepcial attention to our fine adjusted Swiss Watches, Minute Re
peaters, Sporting Watches, with independent split second ; also single flyback at
tachments, fine OPEN face watches suitable for railroad conductors and engineers.
Every Watch Warranted to Give Satisfaction.
Our $20.00 Diamond Rings,
The best value in the market. Sent by mail on receipt of price.
WOLTZ BEOS. & CO.,
9 King Street East, Toronto, Ont.
ooix: &c co.,
(MEMBERS TORONTO STOCK EXCHANGE.)
Have the only Independent Direct Wire giving continuous New York Stock quo
tations, and which are received QUICKER THAN BY ANY OTHER LINE.
Buy and Sell on Commission for Cash or on Margin
ALL SECURITIES DEALT IN ON THE TORONTO, MONTREAL,
AND NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGES.
ALSO EXECUTE ORDERS ON THE
CHICAGO BOARD OF TRADE
In Grain and Provisions.
Daily Cable Quotations of Hudson s Bay and other stocks
26 TORONTO STREET.
40 King St. East, Toronto.
One of Toronto s Greatest Attractions.
ITS ART ROOM ALWAYS FILLED WITH ORNAMENTS OF THE
LATEST DESIGNS FROM THE BEST EUROPEAN MARKETS.
Dinner, Dessert, Tea and Breakfast Sets
In English and French China and Stone
Bisque and Bronze Figures and Ornaments,
ELECTRO-PLATE, LATEST NOVELTIES.
HOTEL GLASS, CHINA AND CUTLERY A SPECIALTY.
GLOVER HARRISON. PROPRIETOR.
FULTON, MICHIE & CO.,
O- IR, O O E IR, S ,
WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANTS,
are prepared to supply a full assortment of every requisite for
CAMPING, FISHING AND SHOOTING.
Soups, Meats and Vegetables,
Hams and Bacon, etc., etc.
ALL KINDS OF LIQUOKS, TOBBACCO AND CIGAES.
Goods Packed Carefully and Promptly Delivered.
7 King Street West, Toronto.
ALL POINTS NORTH AND EAST IN ONTARIO
-A N D-
NIAGARA FALLS, BUFFALO,
NEW YORK, BOSTON,
Philadelphia, Washington, Pittsburgh, Erie, Cleveland,
Cincinnati, and all Points South of the Lakes,
NIAGARA NAVIGATION COMPANY
Leaves Yonge Street Wharf, Toronto, daily (except Sundays) at 7 a.m. and 2 p.m.
for Niagara and Lewiston ; coming north, leaves Lewiston (Eastern time) 10 a.m.
and 5.30 p.m. and Niagara-on-the-Lake half an hour later, making close connec
tions with the New York Central and Michigan Central Railways. Through
Tickets to all points East and West. For tickets and all information, apply at
office on steamer or to all agents on railways connecting with Buffalo.
BARLOW CUMBELAND, JOHN FOY,
Ticket Agent, 35 Yonge St., TORONTO. Manager, Toronto.
When going to the Thousand Iland or SI. Law
rence Rapid, or to Niagara Fall, do not fail to ee the
Historic Niagara River.
New York Central
HUDSON RIVER RAILROAD.
THE FAVOURITE ROUTE FOR TOURISTS
Solid trains with luxurious PARLOUR and SLEEPING CARS from Suspension
Bridge, Niagara Falls and Buffalo to
NEW YORK AND BOSTON.
THE NEW YORK CENTRAL affords its patrons the best accommodation
and the finest scenery on the American Continent, embracing views en route of
Niagara River and Falls, The Beautiful Mohawk Valley,
and the Picturesque and Historic Hudson,
> THE ONLY 4-TRACK RAILROAD IN THE WORLD*})
Having two tracks for freight, traffic and two tracks exclusively for passenger busi
ness, thus ensuring PERFECT SAFETY and a certainty of arrival at desti
nation ON TIME.
It is also the only line having a DEPOT IN NEW YORK CITY, thus saving
its patrons the inconvenience of being transferred to another state by ferry
For any information not obtainable from nearest ticket agent, call on or ad
D. M. KENDRICK, 1 EDSON J. WEEKS,
Gen. Passenger Agent.
Gd, Central Depot, New York.
Gen. Agent Pass. Dept.,
No. 1, Exchange St., Buffalo.
The Grandest Scenery in America
IS ON THE
CANADA TEANSIT Co. (LIMITED.)
Steai3Q.ers learve Cell T.TTI T*rood. on.
On arrival of Morning Trains of the Northern and North- Western Railway from
HAMILTON AND TORONTO.
.. CAMPANA, Fast Express Steamer, 1500 tons, Iron, Clyde-built,
Twin Screw, calls at Meaford, Owen Sound, Bruce Mines, St. Mary s
River, Sault, Port Arthur and Duluth direct.
S.S. CITY OF OWEN SOUND, 900 Tons. Meaford, Owen
Sound, Killarney, North Channel Ports, Bruce Mines, St. Mary s
River, Saulfc, Michipicoten Island, and around North Shore, Lake
Superior, Port Arthur and Duluth.
Passengers can go by one Steamer and return by the other, thus
making complete tour.
Very low Round Trip Excursion Tickets, all around the Lakes, in
cluding Meals and Staterooms.
Through and Return Tickets can be purchased from all Agents Cana
dian Pacific, Grand Trunk, and Northern and North-Western Railways.
JAS. NEIL, Coiiingwood. BAELOW CUMBEELAND,
T. MAITLAND, Owen Sound. GENERAL AGENT
K. E. MITCHELL, Port Arthur. GENERAL AGENT,
J. T. ROSE, Duluth. 35 Yonge St., Toronto.
A CONTINUOUS CHAIN OF INTEREST
The Grand Manitonlin Channel,
THE GREAT NORTHERN TRANSIT CO. (Limited.)
The new Palace Steamers Pacific and Atlantic leave Collingwood
WEDNESDAYS AND SATURDAYS,
On arrival of morning trains of Northern and North-Western Railways from
Hamilton and. Toronto, calling at Meaford, Owen Sound, Wiarton, thence
connecting with Grand Trunk Railway to Killarney, Manitowaning, Little Cur
rent, La Cloche, Spanish River, and all the Inner Ports in The Great North
Channel, St. Joseph s Island, St. Mary s River, Sault Ste. Marie.
During the Summer season the Steamers continue their trip round to the far-famed
Island of Mackinac, giving sufficient time for Excursionists to visit the many
points of beauty and interest.
The cabins are wide, lofty, and every effort used to entertain the Travelling
Public with both comfort and hospitality.
PARRY ISLAND ARCHIPELAGO.
S.S. NORTHERN BELLE leaves Collingwood Mondays and Thursdays, 1 p.m.,
for Parry Sound, passing through all the Islands.
THOS. LONG, Secretary, CHAS. CAMERON, Manager,
Northern & North-Western Ry
IS THE GREAT AND
TO THE FAR-FAMED
The Sportsman s Paradise and the
Free Grant Lands of Ontario,
Fast Trains Daily from Toronto and Hamilton, connecting with Steamers
of the Muskoka Navigation Company for all Points on the Lakes.
Fishing, Hunting, Camping, Delightful Summer Re
sort for Families, First-Class Hotels at Low Rates.
For a CHEAP TRIP and SOLID
COMFORT take the
Which connects at Collingwood and Penetan-
guishene with Steamers for Grand and Pic
turesque Resorts of the Georgian Bay,
Lakes Huron and Superior.
TOURISTS RATES. Tourists or Sportsmen s Tickets are good to stop
over at any point north of Barrie, and return up till close of Navigation. Camp
equipage, stores and dogs are carried free when accompanied by owners.
Baggage checked to principal points on lakes.
For Tickets, Eates, Time Tables, etc., apply to Agents at all principal Ticket
Offices in Canada or United States, or to
Gen. Manager, Toronto.
BARLOW CUMBERLAND, ROBERT QUINN,
Ticket Agent, 35 Yonye St., Toronto. Gen. Pass. Agent, Toronto.
MUSKOKA & NIPISSING NAV. GO.
DAILY PASSENGER STEAMERS
Upon the Lakes of Muskoka, between Gravenhurst, (on the
N. & N.W. Railway), Bracebridge, Beaumaris, Bala, Port
Oarling, "Windermere, Port Sandfield, Bosseau and
Port Cockburn, &c.
Upon the Upper Maganetawan Waters, between Buck s Falls
on the N. <$z P. J. Railway), Maganetewan Village, Depot
Farms and Ah-Mic Harbour.
Upon Lake Nipissing, between North Bay, (upon the O. P.
Railway), Callander, Nipissing Village, &c.
The Most Attractive and Popular Resorts in America.
Good for THIRTY or more days, to be had in the principal cities and towns of
Canada and the United States.
SPECIAL, STEAMERS, NICELY FITTED UP FOR THE
USE OF PRIVATE PARTIES,
To be had at moderate rates.
Good Hotel accommodation abound* throughout the
Lake Districts at moderate rales.
ROBT. QUINN, A. P. COCKBURN,
Gen. Pass. Agent Gen. Manager
N. & N. W. Railways. M. & N. Nav. Co y.
TORONTO TICKET AGENCY at B. CUMBERLAND S, 35 Yonge St.
HUDSON RIVER BY DAYLIGHT
Of Palace Steamers on the Hudson Hirer
Leave Albany 8.3O a.m., Arrive at New York 5. 3D p.m.
Leave New York (Sunday excepted), Vestry St. Pier, 8.40 a.m.,
22nd St. Pier, N. R., 9 a.m., (making principal landings) arriving at
Albany (foot Hamilton St.). 6.10 p.m.
Trains from Utlca, Geneva, Niagara Fall**, Buffalo, Lewiston, Toronto, Cleve
land. Chicago, Alexandria Bay and the Thousand Islands, reach ALBANY in time
to connect with the Morning Boat for New York, and going North Trains leave alter arrival of
Boat. Berths in Sleeping Cars can be secured on the Steamer.
Be Sure and Secure Tickets via this Route.
Dining Rooms on main deck, a la carte, open from 7 a.m. Drawing Rooms for Parties.
C. T. VAN SANTVOORD, ) VESTRY STREET PIER, ( C. R. VANBENTHUYSEN
Gen l Manager.
New York City.
Gen l Ticket Agent.
NEW YORK TO ALBANY.
Capt. S. J. Hoe. | ST. JOHN, Capt. Thos. Post
FROM PIER 41, NORTH RITER,
South Side of Canal Street, near Jersey City Ferry, Debrosses Street,
AT 6.00 P.m.
Connecting at ALBANY, except Sunday, with trains of the New York Central f<r the West, and
with trains for Saratoga and all the summer resorts of Lake George and Lake Chamj,lain.
ALBANY TO NEW YORK.
ST. JOHN, Capt. Thos. Post- ! DBEW, - Capt. S. J. Roe.
LEAVE ALBANY AT 8.00 P.M.
On arrival of trains from the NORTH and WEST, chanere from cars to Boat.
Baggage transferred FREE between N. Y. Central R.R. and Steamers at Albany.
TICKETS and STATEROOMS secured by telegraph and telephone in Albany, at the Office,
Steamboat Squa e, and tickets for sale at all the principal railroad ticket offices in the EA&T,
NORTH and SOUTH.
J. H. ALLAIRE, Gen. Ticket Agent. M. B. WATERS, Gen, Pass. Agent
E. C. SHAFFER, Agent, Albany.
Summit House and Island Park,
Port Cockburn, Lake Joseph, Muskoka.
This favourite house has been enlarged this season, making
it the largest hotel in Mushoha ; is beautifully situated at the
head of Lahe Joseph (the prettiest of the Mushoha Lahes);
commands fine lahe and forest views; daily steamer, post
and telegraph offices in house.
EXCELLENT BLACK AND ROCK BASS," PICKEREL
AND SALMON TROUT FISHING.
HAMILTON ERASER, - Proprietor.
Boats, Yachts, Canoes, Tents for Hire.
TOURISTS AND CAMPING PAETIES
Supplied at Moderate Bates.
Boats Forwarded to any Point Desired.
A Good supply is kept by the undersigned at Port Carlingf
and Windermere as well as Rosseau, "where all
applications should be sent.
OAES, PADDLES AND ROWLOCKS KEPT FOE SALE.
Boat Builder, Rosseau
This hotel has just been erected regardless of expense, with a view to the
comfort of the summer tourists, and is charmingly situated oil one of the most ro
mantic spots on these waters. A first c]a c s table will be kept and every possible
amusement for the guests. A daily mail will he brought to the house and constant
communication kept by ferry with Rosseau, which is three-quarters of a mile dis
tant. The steamboat calls daily, leaving guests right at their destination. A fleet
of boats will be kept at the house, which is surrounded by a charming grove of
silver birch, ashen, and evergreen.
PARTIES WHO DESIRE TO SPEND A PLEASANT SUMMER WITH PLENTY OF
Etc, will find this resort one of the most comfortable and commodious on this
beautiful chain of lakes.
J. F. BROWlff. Propr-
1869- ESTABLISH :D 1869.
Grocers and Italian Warehousemen,
Fine Wines, English and French
AND DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OP
No. 32 JAMES ST.,
Intending Tourists and Camping Parties to
our Northern Lakes and other parts of West
ern Canada, during the coming summer will
find it to their advantage to purchase their
supplies from us.
Send for catalogue and prices.
AH orders by mail will receive prompt and
UPPER CABIN STEAMERS
Armenia, Cuba and California.
These Steamers have magnificent full length
cabins, and are elegant y fitted up, and have
a 1 the comforts and conveniences of a first-
class hotel. State-rooms are all furnished
with woven wire mattresses, making- the most
luxuriously c mfortable bed. They will ply
regularly between MONTREAL & CHICAGO
calling at all principal way-ports, during the
season of navigation, passing through the
beautiful Scenery of the Thousand Islands,
calling at TORONTO every THURSDAY at 10
a.m., goinar east, and 9.30 p m., going west.
Berths can be secured fn advance by applying
HAGARTY & CO.,
56 King St. East, Toronto.
35 Youge St., Toronto.
THE NEW HOTEL
At the Head of the Lake and. near the Shadow River.
Special Rates Made for Families. forrespondenee Solicited.
J. P. BROWN, Proprietor.
ENOCH COX, Proprietor.
Terms, $1,50 Per Day, Special Terms for Families,
The Hotel stands at the junction of LAKES ROSSEAU and JOSEPH, commands a
fine view of both lakes ; can accommodate over one hundred guests ; roomy
piazzas extend around the house. An excellent table is also set
at this house and is one of its leading features, and no
pains will be spared by the proprietor to make
the stay of guests at Prospect House
pleasant in every respect.
Gentlemen visiting the Lakes, accompanied by their families,
will find Prospect House a very desirable house
to stay at,
Ladies and young people can here indulge in boating without the least danger,
as it is always free from rough water.
A FINE SANDY BEACH FOR BATHING.
It is well noted for its
3PeHs::i?eIL azcul Bass ZETsla-:ELg-
The steam yacht " Sunbeam " makes daily trips from the Hotel during the en
tire season. Post-office on the premises ; daily mail.
PROSPECT HOUSE, in the fall, is a favourite resort for sportsmen. Guides
and hounds kept.
Tourists will not find flies here at any season of the year, making a very
desirable place in the early part of Summer for Tourists wishing to
spend the most desirable part of the season in pure air.
THE PICTURESQUE STEAM LAUNCH
TO fro A ( w k @@
A great favourite with American and Canadian tourists is owned by the
Proprietor of the House ; the " Kate " has been refitted with new engines,
and is the fastest Yacht on these Lakes, and may be hired on reasonable
terms to touch at all points of interest.
Building Material delivered to any part of Lake by Contract. Address all
C. W. VANDERBTJRGH.
This Hotel is delightfully situated at the junction of Indian River and
Lake Rosseau. Passengers from Toronto and Hamilton arrive here at
from 4 to 5 p. m. the same day.
A very convenient stopping place. Guests patronizing the house will
find it as comfortable as any Hotel on the Lakes, and their wants
promptly attended to.
Accommodation for 50 people. The rooms are large and airy, and a
liberal table is a leading feature of the House. The surrounding scenery
being fine, artists will find full scope for their pencils. Sportsmen will
have some of the best bass fishing to be had on these waters, as Lake
Rosseau and Muskoka, as well as Silver Lake are within very easy
distance of the House.
A commodious enclosed Bathing House for Visitors. Lawn Tennis
Ground. A superior class of Boats on hand for hire by the day or week.
Terms for Board, from $1.25 per day. -Special terms by the week or month.
JOHN ERASER, Proprietor.
Good Accommodation for
BATH ROOMS, &c.
Billard Room and Roller Skating Rink.
JOHN MONTEITH, Propr.
This house has been improved
and refitted since last sea
son and visitors -will find
and some of the
Best Fishing in the District.
Close to the entrance to Little Lake Joseph.
JOHN C. WALLS,
CAMPERS, TOURISTS, SPORTSMEB
Fishing Tackle, Tents, Coal Gil Stoves
AND ALL SUPPLIES.
TENTS FOR HIRE.
SAW and PLAMG MILL.
- FULL SUPPLY OF
Dry Goods,Boots & Shoes, Hardware
FRESH GROCERIES AND PROVISIONS.
CAMPING PARTIES AND TOURISTS WILL FIND
Fishing Tackle, Butter, Eggs, Fresh
Bread always on hand.
The urdersigned has erected a new saw and
planing n.ill near Craigielea, at the en
trance to Little Like Joseph, where
he will keep a supply of all
kinds of rough and
LUMBER AND SHINGES.
Building Contracts Taken
Craigielea P.O., Lake Joseph.
One of the best locations for Sportsmen and
tourists in Parry Sound District ; can reach it
from Toronto the same day by Gravenhurst
and Burk s Falls, down the Maganetewan
River into Ah-Mic Lake ; good accommodation
for travellers or tourists ; the best Hunting
and Fishing in the district ; boats and livery
on hand ; charges moderate ; ma 1 three times
a week ; steamboat lands at the door ; goat s
milk kept for sickly children and adults, which
is highly recommended.
PROMPT ATTENTION GIVEN TO BUSINESS.
W. HANNA & 00.
JOHN CROSWELL, PROP R,
Ah-Mic Harbour, P.O., Muskoka.
JOS. S. WALLIS
Dry Goods, Groceries, Boots & Shoes,
Lumber, Timber and Shingles.
PLANING AND MATCHING A SPECIALTY.
Communications by letter promptly answered.
CAMPERS AID MISTS
DEALER IN GOOD FRESH
BOOTS & SHOES.
Canned Goods of Every Description.
FREDERICK D. STUBBS,
Opposite Head of Port Carling River, Lake Rosseau.
This new Hotel commands extensive views over the greater portion of Lake
Rosseau, both east and west, including Windermere.
Good Bathing. Steamboat Wharf. Boats can be had on application.
Terms from $1.25 per day. Special Bates to Families.
JOSEPH Ul. TOBIN, -
This Hotel is open during the Summer Season to re
ceive guests. The Hotel occupies a beautiful and com
manding position on a height of land overlooking the
waters and numerous islands of Parry Sound. The air
is pure and the scenery beautiful. The numerous is
lands and channels are very picturesque and afford
excellent opportunities for boating, camping and fishing.
Land and Estate
COMMISSIONER FOR TAKING AFFIDAVITS IN H. C. J.
HUNTSVILLE, .... ONTARIO.
NEAK PORT CABLING.
R. G. PENSON,
Good Fishing, Boats, etc,, etc.
Daily Mail. Steamboat Calls.
TERMS VERY MODERATE.
FOR PARTICULARS APPLY TO
R. tt. PENSON, PORT CARLING.
Parties visiting Muskoka will find this
a most pleasant and comfortable summer
resort. Every attention paid to the com
fort of guests. Good Bathing and Fish
ing. Daily Steamboat.
G, 3. MINETT.
BOATS AT REASONABLE RATES.
Tourists and I lie .Travelling Public entertained in a
manner unequalled outride Toronto.
Fishing and Shooting 1 .
Table and Wine first-rate. Good Stabling accommoda
tion. Five minute* walk from Railway Depot of
Northern and Pacific Junction.
JAMES W, JACOBS,
Good Fishing, Boating and Bathing;
Billiard Eoom, Bowling Alley ;
Lawn Tennis and Croquet Ground.
Board $1.50 to $2.00 Per Day.
SPECIAL RATES MADE WITH FAMILIES.
Business men joining their families by the Saturday express
trains arrive at Beaumaris early Saturday afternoon,
before tea time, and do not leave until after
usual breakfast on Monday morning,
giving ample time for a
EDWARD PROWSE, Proprietor.
Situated on the Shores of
LAKE ROSSEAU, MUSKOKA.
Improvements constantly being made with the view of adding to the
comfort and pleasure of its guests. For description of
surroundings, see page 121 of Guide.
TERMS : from $1.25 to $1.50 PER DAY.
SPECIAL RATES TO FAMILIES.
THOMAS AITKEN, - Proprietor.
JORDAN KEELER, Proprietor.
Tourists can enjoy unrivalled scenery on "Lake of Bays." Two first-class
steamboats ply on its waters during season ; rare sport for Speckled Trout in this
region ; the neighbouring woods abound in Deer and Partridge ; ample accommoda
tion ; an excellent table ; every attention to guests.
Port Arthur, Canada.
TME FIHEST HOTEL IH WESTEKH CANADA,
Th Canadian Pacific Trains east and west stop here 30 minutes for dinner.
F. S. WILEY, MANAGER.
This Hotel commands a fine view of the Collingwood Harbour
and Mountain, rendering it a pleasant resort to
Tourists, to whom the best of atten
tion is paid.
Free Bus to and from all Trains and Boats.
Telephone Communication with all parts of
Telephone Communication with all parts of the town.
THOMAS COLLINS, - - Proprietor.
PAUL S HOTEL,
TERMS, $ 1.5O per day.
Special Rates for Families. Pleasant Verandahs and
Gardens on the River Bank.
FREE BUS TO ALL TRAINS & BOATS.
MRS. S. PAUL.
ME A FORD, ONT.
RATES, $1.OO per day.
SPECIAL. RATES given for Families by the Week.
Boats can be hired at reasonable Bates.
PLENTY OF FRESH FISH AND FRESH AIR.
JUST THE PLACE TO SPEND A QUIET HOLIDAY.
ALLGOGK, LAIGHT& WESTWOOD,
RBDDITCH, ENGLAND, and
Wellington Street West, Toronto, Ontario.
N. B.- Fishing
Bods & Tackle
made on the pre
COR. 1 O\GE and FRONT STS., TORONTO, OtfT.
ED. H- ED3ALL, MANAGER. THOS. TAYLOR, PROPR,
H. G. EDSALL, CLERK.
RATES, $2.00 PER DAY
And graded according to rooms.
SPECIAL RATES TO THEATRICAL PEOPLE AND THE COMMERCIAL TRADE.
This favourite old hosteller has just undergone a thorough course of renovat
ing, remodeling and refitting throughout, and now stands second to no $2.00
per day house in the Dominion. The cuisine will be found equal to that of any
hotel in the Queen City, and neither pains nor expense are spared in seeing that
guests are pioperly cared for.
The AMERICAN is the only hotel in Toronto running FREE Buss to and from
all trains, steamboats, etc., and it is safe to say that guests once stopping there
will not fail to do sc again.
COB. KING AND YORK STREETS,
Situated in the business portion of the City.
Five minutes walk from the Union Depot.
Street Car pa the door to all parts.
tf fte BEpf $1.50 Per Day jiOlfgE Ifl
SPECIAL ATTENTION TO TOUEISTS.
J. J. JAMESON, - * Proprietor.