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Full text of "Northumberland words. A glossary of words used in the County of Northumberland and on the Tyneside"

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THE GLOSSARY, GA to Z - - 311 to 807 
ADDENDA . 809 

ERRATA - 812 


[The letters N., S., T., W.-T., when following a word, refer to divisions of 
Northumberland wherein characteristic variations of the dialect are 
heard ; and a word so marked means that the form or sound is proper to 
the district indicated. N. is North Northumberland, the district north 
of the river Coquet, including Redesdale. S. is South, or Central, 
Northumberland, including the part of the county south of the river 
Coquet and lying between that line and the eastern portion of the Tyne 
valley. T. is Tyneside, with Newcastle as its centre, including the 
valley of the Tyne and both its banks from Wylam to the sea, and a 
portion of the northern part of the county of Durham. W.-T. is West 
Tyne, the district west of Wylam, having Hexham as its centre. When 
no sign follows a word the form may be understood as common to all 
the districts named.] 

GA, gave (the a short as in gat). This form of the p.t. is used 
before a word beginning with a consonant. " Ye ga twice as 
much as it's worth." " Ye gav ower much." Ga'd, gave it. 
" He gfl's," he gave us (gave me). See GAV, Gov. 

GAA, or GAW, gall. " As bitter as gaa." " Nowther gut nor 

GAADGER, a gauger, an exciseman. 

GAADY, gaudy, garish. " Nyen o' yor goody colours, mistor ; 
let's he' plain reed an' yalla." 

GAADY-DAY, GAWDY-DAY, a holiday. (Obsolescent.) 

" A gawdy-day myeks a' hands merry." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 64. 

" There are certain times of the year when the young men and lads 
refuse to work, and insist on a gaudy-day for instance, the first morning 
they hear the cuckoo, and when the turnips and peas are at maturity. 
'A cuckoo mornin,' 'a tormit mornin, 1 and 'a pea mornin 1 ." Note to 
Pitman's Pay. 


GAAKY, a soft, or awkward person. See GOWK. 
GAAKY, clownish. 

GAAN, going (pres. part, of gan). " Aa's gaan" "Them at's 
gaan up." Gannin is another form. See GAN. 

GABY, or GABY-RIDDLE, a sieve with very wide mesh, used 
in separating the rougher parts of chaff from corn. 

GAD, a rod, a staff, a fishing rod, a cattle goad, a spear. " A 
gad o' iron," a nail rod. Compare GORD. 

GADDER, to gather. See GETHER. 

GADDERIN, GETHERIN, an assembly, a crowd. "Eh, 
what a gttforin' thor wes." 

GADMAN, GADSMAN, the man who had charge of the team 
of oxen in ploughing. (Obs.) 

GAD-SMASH-ME-SARK! a minced oath of complicated 

GAE [N.] , to go. " Gae doon the toon an' seek the milk." 
Past tense, gaed. " We gaed away at a bonny pace." See GAN. 

GAE, somewhat, very. "Gae thin." See GAY. 
GAFF, the upper shore rope of a salmon net. 
GAFFIN, lowering, cloudy. " The weather's ower gaffin." 

GAG, in the pumping arrangement of a colliery, "an obstruction 
in a bucket, or clack, preventing the fall, or lid, from working." 
W. E. Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

GAILY, a variant of gay, which see. Yor lukin gaily weel thi 
day, Tommy" that is, pretty well. 

rather ' some - 

GAINER, GAINOR, a gander. 

GAINSTAND, to stand against, to withstand. (Obs.) 


GAIR, a strip of verdure on the uplands, generally the outcrop 
of a limestone. Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterburn and Elsdon. 
Geological Survey Memoir. A gair is a bright, green, grassy 
spot, surrounded by bent or heather. Also an irregular strip 
of green turf running down the side of a moorland hill. Above 
Linnshiels, in Coquet Dale, there is a fairy-looking spot of 
this kind known as Barty's Gair. 

" To the north is the vast and almost pathless solitude of the forest of 
Lowes, here and there studded with a few enclosures, a farmhouse, or a 
shepherd's shield ; and, in places, enlivened with grassy, limestone gairs, 
edged about with beds of deep ling, or impassable peat mosses." Rev. 
John Hodgson, Letters on Housesteads. Archaologia JEliana, vol. i., p. 271. 

GAIRD, guard. 

" The gaird comes fleein like the wind, 
His blasts like thunner blawin." 

T. Wilson, Oilin' o' Dicky's Wig. 

GAIRIL, girl. 

GAIRISHON [N.], a rowdy gang of young men or lads. 
Sometimes adults of rough-looking appearance, when in a 
body, are spoken of as a gairishon^ but the term is oftener 
applied to boys, especially when " flig " or ragged. 

GAIRN [N.] , woollen yarn. 

GAIRN, to grin, to make a face. See CORN. 

" Girn'd and laught." G. Smart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 71. 

GAIT, a goat. 

GAIT, sheaves set up singly in a corn field. A "stook" is a 
group of sheaves as distinguished from the gait. " A country 
dotted with rows of shock and gait." See GATEN. 

GAIT, to set up sheaves of corn in wet weather to dry. 
Halliweirs Diet. See GATED, GATEEN. 

GALASH, to mend shoes or boots with leather on the upper 
part, or " by a band round the fore part of the upper leather 
undoubtedly allied to French galoche, a wooden shoe." 


GALE, to ache with cold. See GEAL. 


GALIC, incomprehensible talk. A bad or " bletherin " speaker 
is often told that no sense can be made of his talk, as it is all 
galic. Compare DOUBLE DUTCH. 

GALLEY-BAAK, the balk or beam fixed across a chimney 
over the fire, from which a pot hook called a " reetin cruck " 
was hung. The galley-baak was sometimes a tree branch with 
the bark stripped off, but otherwise undressed and unsquared. 
In this case it was commonly called a " peeled grain " that 
is, a barked branch. (Obs.) See RANNEL-BALK. 

GALLOWAY, a horse under fourteen hands high, of the sturdy 
breed formerly common but now almost extinct. They were 
used on the fells to carry ore over from the mines to the smelt 
mills. When going loaded the galloways were always muzzled 
and driven in droves, and in this way they tracked the moors 
in single file. The leading galloway was called the " raker." 

GALLOWAY PUTTER, a pony putter. W. E. Nicholson, 
Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

GALLOW-HILL, GALLOW-LAW, the spots where 
unfortunate criminals were executed in such franchises as 
had the power of the furca, or gallows. They have not 
yet lost their name, for we have Gallow-hill, in Bolam 
parish ; Gallows-hill, in Hartburn ; Gallows-law, in Elsdon and 
Ellingham ; Gallow-moor, in Eglingham ; Gallows-shaw, in 
Nether witton ; and Gallowside, in Haltwistle. Hodgson's 
Northumberland, iii., 2, p. 54. 

GALLOWSES, GALASES, a pair of braces for the trousers. 

GALLOWS-TIMBER, a cross-piece, or crown-tree of timber 
supported by two upright pieces ; this arrangement is also 
called " a pair of gears." 

GAM, a game, fun Of the gams among boys may be specified 
leap-frog in its form of "loup-the-lang-lonnin" and "cappy- 
back ; also stotty baal, watch-webs, tripet and quoit, nine- 
holes, cat and dog, duck-styen, spinny-wye, hatty-cappy, 
pigeon-walk bait the bear, beggarly Scot, cherry- pit, hitchy- 
dabber widdy-way, bed-stocks, handy-dandy, pie-ba 1 kitty 
cat-an -buck stick puss-in-the-corner; all lld,bo g gle-^oot. 

^'^^ tiggee,'and g fhe many 

bal1 ' hand - ball > prison 


GAMALERIE ("gamblery" or "gambolry"), gambolment, 
playfulness. (Obs.) Compare GAMEL. 

GAMASHERS, GAMASHES, gaiters. (Obs.) 

" The term was formerly applied to a kind of loose drawers or 
stockings worn outside the legs over the other clothing, and much used 
by travellers." Halliwell's Diet. 

GAMEL, to gambol, to gamble. 

GAMMELS-PATH, the northernmost portion of the Roman 
Watling Street. See KEMMELS-PATH. 

GAMLER, a gambler. 

GAMMIN, funning, making a fool of. 

GAMMY, lame. The same as game. " He's getten a gammy 

GAN, to go. Past, gaid or gaed ; p.p., gyen. In the pves. p. both 
gan and gannin are used. 

" Gan that as it likes '' let that go as it will. Stuart's Joco-Scrious 
Discourse, 1686, p. 5. 

" Sae weel she ettles what aw get, 

Sae far she's a'ways gars it gan, 
That nyen can say we are i' debt, 
Or want for owther claes or scran." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., v. 80. 

This is sometimes spoken broadly "Gaan about like a geuse 
nicked i' the heed." In narrative, " Aa gans" is often used in 
describing a past event. "As seun as aa hard him, aa gans 
up tiv him." When a child acquires its first step it is said to 

" When aw was young they teuk a lang way better plan, 
The bairns was put ta wark as seun as they could gan." 

George Chatt, "Old Farmer," Poems, 1866, p. 87. 

In North Northumberland the forms of the verb are often 
used as gae or gan p.t., gaed ; p.p., gaen or gane. 

" ' Gannen down here,' a vocal signal from the banksmen to the brakes- 
men that men are going down the pit." Nicholson's Gloss, of Coal Trade 

" Gan yor aan gait," go your own way. "To gan wi'" is to 
make away with. " The frost's gyen wiv aall the grozers this 
eer." " His fethor left plenty, but he's gyen wid aall." 

GANDY-GANDY, the farm call to the geese. See CALLS. 

3 i6 


GANG, to go. See GAN. 

GANGRAL, GANGREL, a wandering person, a " vagrom 

man." (Obs.) 

GANG-TOOTH, a tooth as one of a row, or set of teeth. 

A Gang, a Row or Set, for example, of Teeth or the like. It is in 
this sense a general word all over England." Ray, 1691. 

GANG-WEEK, " The Time when the Bounds of the Parishes 
are lustrated by the Parish Officers, Rogation Week." 
Bailey. Rogation Week is the next but one before Whit 
Sunday, and on the Wednesday in that week Rogations and 
Litanies were formerly used. The Thursday in that week is 
Ascension Day, but it is better known in Newcastle as Barge 
Thursday. See BARGE-DAY. 

GANNER, a good goer. Brockett has ganger, and quotes the 
proverb, " He's a ganger, like Willie Pigg's dick-ass." " He's 
not bonny-leukin', but he's a ganner noo ! " 

GANNER, or GANGER, a beggar or poor hawker half a 
pedlar and half a beggar. (Obsolescent.) 

GANNIN, moving, stirring. 

GANNIN-BORD, going board. When the crane, flat, or 
station in a pit is not at the end of the headways course at 
the face, the coals are brought down a board for one, two, or 
more pillars, as the case may be, to the crane. This board is 
called the going (or "gannen") board. Greenwell's Gloss, of 
Coal Trade Terms, 1849. 

GANNIN-HEEDWIS, the going headways in a pit usually 
the headways course next the face. Greenwell's Gloss, of 

Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

GANT, GAUNT, to gape, to yawn. " It's a wonder he dissent 
get lock-jaa wi' gantin." A proverb says, " The long gaunts o 
Elishaw were heard at the loans o' Blakelaw." This is now 
spoken in deriding lover's sighs. The same or a similar 
saying was current in other localities with similar names on 
the Tweed and across the Border. See note, Dr. James 
Hardy, in Hist, of Bwks. Naturalists' Club, vol. viii., p. 130, 
note. Gant also means an inhalation caught at a gasp, as a 
bad smell. " Aa gat a fair gant on't," said in passing a 
midden heap with an offensive smell. 


GAN-WIFE, a female pedlar, going about with a basket 
containing pins, laces, and nick-nacks ; or with tinware, 
brushes, and other domestic articles. 

GAR, to compel, to force, to cause. A local proverb says, 
" Gar's an ill weed to grou." 

" Sae weel she ettles what aw get, 
Sae far she a'ways gars it gan." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 60. 

GARBOARD, the planking hoard next the keel of a vessel. 
The garboard strake is the first or lowest streak (stretch or 
line) of planking or row of plates in a ship. 

GARCIL, underwood. Garcil-heuk, "a bill-knife for cutting 
the garcil" Brockett. (Obs.) 

GARDENER'S GARTERS, the ribbon grass, Phalavis arun- 
dinacea. Called also ladies' garters. 

GARN, woollen yarn. In Chaucer garnment is used for garment. 
Gm*-windles, yarn-winders. See GAIRN. 

GARN, to darn, or mend a woollen stocking with yarn or 
threads spun of woollen. Hodgson MS. 

GARRET, a watch tower. Describing the walls of Newcastle, 
the author of an Impartial History of Newcastle adds, p. 47, " It 
was observed by Mr. Milbank, in the MSS. which he left, 
that between each of these large towers there were generally 
two lesser ones, of a square form, with the effigies of men cut 
in stone upon their tops, as in a watching posture, and they 
were called garrets, having square holes, or apertures, through 
which to discharge arrows, stones, and other missiles at a 
besieging enemy." Garir, in French, is to take refuge, and 
garite is a place of refuge. Our attic storey in a house is from 
this word. Some of the old stone men from the town wall may 
be seen in the dungeon of the Castle at Newcastle. One is 
a rude figure leaning the chin on a weapon, as if on the look 

GARSE, GORSE, grass. 

GARSIN, GORSIN, a grazing, a pasture an ing or enclosure 
in grass. (Obs.) Also probably gursage. See GYSSURGE. 

GARTEN, a garter. The outer edge of a web of cloth torn off. 


T a vard or any guarded or fenced place. The 
re ofhe CastJ a? Newcastle is the Castle-^/, 
a potato field. A sta'-^, a stack yard. 

GAT, got-the strong p.t. Get-p.t., gat ; p.p., getten and gatten. 
GAT, GAUT, a female, pig that is spayed. See GELD, 2. 

GATE, a road, a way GEYET [SJ ; GYET [T.] . Afield 
gate isyett. See AAL-GATES, GUT, YETT. 

" They asked him if he kend the way. 
Tho 1 much he thought, yet little he said, 
He knew the gate as well as they." 

Ballad, Hobbie Noble. 

GATE, method, manner of going. From the foregoing word 
as applied to conduct, or "the way" a person has of doing. 
Gan yor aan gate," do your own, or go your own, way. 
" A bonny gate he's gannin," a sad course of conduct he is 

GATE, a stint or right of pasture, or other way-going. A right 
of so many stints or cattle gates. A cattle gate is a stint five 
sheep make a stint. A cow gate is the stint for a cow ; plural, 
kine gate. For cattle on the Fell, " Every gate there is to pay 
One Shilling." Gateshead Church Books, Order of June 7, 1652. 
A coble gate is the right of fishing for a coble. 

GATE, GAIT, GYET, a journey or trip. " Three gates o' 
lime " that is, three journeys to the lime-kiln and back : 
three goings. In a pit it has the same meaning, a gyet 
being a journey from the shaft to the flat and back again. 

GATED, oats and barley set up in single sheaves. Bailey and 
Culley, General View of the Agriculture of Northumberland. See 

CATENA GAITEEN, or GAITIN, a single sheaf of corn set 
on its end in a harvest field to dry. The word means to stand 
singly, and is sometimes applied thus : " Yor stannin' there 
just like a gaten," that is alone. A gaten is distinguished from 
a sheaf by the band being bound round it close below the 
ear, and not in the middle, as in a sheaf, by which means the 
straw is more easily spread out. Before being stacked the 
band is always removed to the middle part ; in other words, 
the gaten becomes a sheaf. Oats and barley alone are thus 
treated, wheat and rye never. 


GATER, a quoit played in front of the hob, so as to stand on 
edge and prevent an antagonist following with a " ringer." 

GATEWAY, a roadway ; in a pit, a passage through the goaf, 
secured by a pack wall on each side, for the purpose of 
bringing out the coals worked on the longwall system. A 
rolley-way. W. E. Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms. 

GAUCY, fat, comely, jolly. " A big gaucy man." 



GAUMLESS, silly, ignorant, vacant, stupid. Brockett. 

GAUNT, to yawn. See GANT. 

GAUNTIN, sighing. 

GAUP, to gape or stare. "What are ye gaupin there for!" 

G AV, gave. When the word following begins with a consonant, 
ga is used. " He ga me." When it begins with a vowel, or 
mute aspirate, gav or gov is used. " He gav a strait acoont." 
" He gav him nowt for'd." " He gov ower." See GA, Gov. 

GAVEL, or JAVEL, a gaol. See JAVEL GROUP. (Obs.) 

" Sent theys said three prisoners into Hexham, to the Queene's 
Majestie's gavel there." Errington to Forster, Hexham, December 17, 
I 559i i n Dr. Charlton's North Tynedale, p. 70. 

GAVEL, a strip of land. Compare CABLE and KYEVEL. 

"The Town-fields (of Whelpington) made up of numerous gavels, 
ridges, and buts scattered and intermixed." Hodgson's Northumberland, 
pt. ij., vol. i., p. 188, note. 

GAVELICK, GEAVLICK, GAVELOK, a crowbar. It is a 
term as common in Northumberland as across the Border. 

" Gavelock, a pitch, and iron bar to enter stakes into the ground, or the 
like uses." Ray's Collection of North-Country Words, 1691. 

GAVLE, or GEYAVLE, the gable of a house. See GEYAVLE. 

GAVY, an ungainly female. Brockett, third edition. Probably 
a variant oigaby. 


GAW, an unusually fine day, or an unseasonably fine day, 
thought to be a precursor of bad weather. See WEATHER- 


GAY, GAE, GEY, rather, somewhat, very; or added to 
emphasize. " He's gay aad." " Yor a gay lang time i' comin." 
The word is sometimes spoken as if it were gay an'" He was 
gay an' seun here thi' day." See GAIN. 

GEAL, GEYAL, to crack with heat or frost. See GELD, 4. 
Compare GYLE. 

GEALL, to grieve Northumberland. HalliwelVs Diet. 

GEAN, the wild cherry, Prunus avium. It is usually called 
"the gean tree." 

GEASSY, a pig. 

GEAT, pace, motion. 

GEAT, GEED [N.] , jet. " Black as geet" See JET. 

GED, the pike fish. 
GEDGE, to make a wry face. 

GEDGIN, giggling, impertinent. Probably derived from the 
foregoing word. 

" She's a gedgin, akward huzzy." Thropton. 

GEE, a sudden turn, a pique. Agee, or aglee, is askew, atwist. 

GEE (the g soft), sometimes gee-y, to go off the straight. A 
horse is ordered to gee, that is, to turn to the right, as " heck " 
is to the left. In North Northumberland the forms are " gee- 
wo-beck " (right), and " heck-wo-heck " (left). 

knife made from a sickle, and fitted into a long handle, used 
for cutting small twigs off hedges, or cutting down thistles. 

GEED, gave. Gi, give, the pres.t., becomes #i or gav in the 
p.t., and in N. geed ; p.p., geen. See Gi. 

GEED, See GEAT, 2, and JET. 

GEEG, the right way of anything. (Obs.) 


GEEN, GIEN, given; p.p. of gi. "Aa wad geen owt to 
seen'd " I would have given anything to have seen it. 

GEERS, a staging, a set of shearlegs ; the timberwork 
supporting the roof of a pit. 

GEEZER, a mummer ; and hence any grotesque or queer 
character. See GIZER, GUIZARD. 

GELD, GILD, GELT, a tax. Hence gelddbk or gildable, 
taxable. (Obs.) 

GELD, to split open or crack by exposure to heat. 

GELDEET, sun cracked ; or in the case of a butt or water 
tub cracked badly through and through, and consequently 
leaking. To geld is applied to the cracking of the material 
itself. But when the joints only are affected, to gizen is the 
descriptive word. 

GELDERT, a snare for catching birds. See GILDERT. 
GENNIC, genuine, fair, honest. See JANIC and JENICK. 
GENTIN, projecting, in the way. 

GENZIE, an engine of war. 

" Wi 1 gun and genzie, bow and speir, 
Men might see mony a cracked crown." 

Raid of Redeswin. 

GEORDY, the name by which Tynesiders are known outside 
the district. Also a Tyne ship. Compare CRANKY, 3. 

GEORDY, George Stephenson's safety lamp. 

GERN [N.], a snare for bird-catching. In W.T. this is 
called a gildert. 

GERSE, grass. See GARSE. . 
GESLIN, a gosling. 
GESLINS, catkins or "palms." 
GESSEN, rare, scarce. (Obs.) 

GET-AGATE, to make a beginning of a work 6r thing ; to go 
out again after being confined indoors or otherwise hindered 
from the ordinary routine of work. 


GETHER, to gather. The word also means to suppurate. 
An abscess is called a getherin ; and, in the act of forming or 
swelling, the place is said to " beeld." To gether, in husbandry, 
is the first half of the operation of forming a rig by the plough. 

GETHERIN -COAL, a large piece of coal generally put on 
the fire just before going to bed, so that it may be heated on 
the under surface. When broken up in the morning it 
speedily forms a good fire. 

GETHERS, tucks, or folds, plaited in women's dress. 

GETS, the nett payment received by a blacksmith under the 
Crowley system of working. The smith received from the 
warehouse a certain quantity of iron. This was charged to 
him at a fixed rate of eleven shillings per 6olbs. weight half 
a cwt., long weight and he took it to his smithy, where he 
fashioned it as ordered by his overseer. On returning his 
finished work, the weight was taken and put to his credit at 
a price fixed for each kind of finished article. Then an 
allowance of so much per cwt. was also put to his credit for 
waste in the fire, &c. The balance between these two credits 
and the original charge for the material was called " the 
gets," being the nett earnings of the smith on each job. By 
this system at Swalwell and Winlaton a peculiar relationship 
between master and workman was originated, as different as 
possible from the modern factory system. Each man was 
recognized in the individuality of his own smith's hearth. 

GETTER, a man employed in breaking down the coal which 
has been previously kirved (only applied where holers or 
kirvers and fillers are employed). Nicholson's Gloss, of Coal 
Trade Terms, 1888. 

GETTS, young children. 

GEUFISH, flighty or unstable in mind. "He's a rether 
gcufish chep." 

GEWGAA, GEWGO, GEWGY, GEWGIE, the Jew's harp. 

GEY, very, somewhat. See GAY. 

GEYAVLE (pron. ge-yavle), a gable. 

GEYEN [S.] , GYEN [T.] , gone ( P r.t., gan). See GAN. 

?J E Q [ ^' Y r P [T ' ] ' t0 gaP^e g Bunded hard as in 
get. See GANT, GAUP. 


GEYEST [S.] , GYEST [T.] , a ghost the g sounded hard. 

GEYPIN, gaping, and hence soft or rustic like. See GEYEP. 

"Aw cood gar the geypin lads work oot their varra leyves." Geo. 
Chatt, " Old Farmer," Poems, 1866, p. 86. 

GEYUS [S.] , GYUS [T.] , a goose. 

GEYUS-CREE, a pen, or shelter to put geese in. 

GEYZENED, dried up, parched. See GIZEN. 

GHENT, a tall and thin person. " He's a greet, muckle 

GHYEST, a ghost. See GEYEST. 

GI, to give. The i is very short on Tyneside, but in North 
Northumberland it is spoken broadly, as gee-ah, or gee. Gi 
is generally used before a word beginning with a consonant. 
When the word following begins with a vowel giv is used. 
In the p.t. the forms are gee-a^ or ga and gav, which are 
used as euphony suggests. Gied, p.t., is used in North 
Northumberland instead of the strong forms, ga, gav, or gov. 

GIANTIC, gigantic. 

" In the Newcastle dialect the adjective is formed not from the 
classical gigas, but from the English giant, as a ' giantic chep or fellah.' " 
Dr. Embleton, Archaologia JEliana, vol. xi., p. 145, note. 

GIB (the g soft as in jib), to refuse to draw, as a horse that gibs 
and shrinks from pulling. 

GIB, Gilbert. 

GIB, a hook, the bend at the end of a stick or staff, a bend or 
crook in a stream. 

GIB, a knitting hook, a crochet hook. 
GIBBY-STICK, a stick with the end bent for a handle. 

GIB-FISH, a male salmon during the spawning season. The 
fish being then in a poor condition, its lower jaw assumes a 
gib form, being quite turned up and elongated. 

GIENEEGITE, GIENIGYTE, gone wrong. "It's a' 
gienigyte" it has all gone agate. 

GIEST, JEEST, a joist. 


GIF, if. 

GIFF-GAFF, give and take, either in talking or in a helpful 
way of mutual assistance. 

GIFTS, white specks on the finger nails. When these grow to 
the end of the nail a gift is expected to come from some 
quarter or other. 

" A gift on the thoom comes soon, 
A eift on the finger comes nivver." 

Old Proverb. 

Another version says 

" Gifts on the fingers lingers, 
But gifts on the thooms syun comes." 

GIFTY, prolific. When corn thrashes well out it is said to be 


GIGLET, a giggling girl ; suggesting also a wanton. 

GILD, play, high spirits. "A body full o' gild" is a cheery 
person, one full of mischievous fun. Gilt, or gilded, was also 
a current expression for drunk. In the former sense it is still 
in use. See GUILD. 

GILD, light hearted, mirthful. 

GILD, to skylark, to play pranks. " He fell an' hort hissel 
aal through gildin" 

GILDERT, GILDART, a noose or snare used for catching 
birds. See GERN. 

GILL (the g hard), a place hem'd in with two steep brows or 
banks, usually flourishing with brushwood, a rivulet running 
between them. Tomlinson. Quoted by Ray, Collection of 
North-Country Words, 1691. Mr. J. V. Gregory, in his Place- 
Names in the County of Northumberland, Archaologia ^E liana, 
new series, vol. ix., p. 65, notes the occurrence of the word in 
three places only in Northumberland. He adds : " This 
word has come into Northumberland from the Norwegian 
settlers of Cumberland." 

GILLABER, to gabble. 

GILLIHOWLET, the yellow owl, Strix flammea, Linn. 

GILRAVISHIN, a tumult, a row. 


GILSE, an intermittent or temporary spring of water. (? Obs.) 
GILTY, gilded, gilt. 

GIMALICK-EYE, a squint eye. 

GIMCRANKS, GIMCRACKS, "a light or novel sort of 
vehicle." Gloss, to Pitman's Pay. Any novel or curious 

GIMMER (g soft), the fork of a tree. " Tyek off that 
gimmer" that is, cut off one of the forks only. See JIMMER. 

GIMMER (g hard), a young ewe. A sheep between its first 
and second shearing. A gelt-gimmer, a barren ewe. 

GIMMER, a low woman. 

GIMP (the g soft), thin, neat in figure. See JIMP. 

GIN, if. (The g sounded hard, as in get.) This is used 
alternately with gif, which has the same meaning. 

GIN, a machine, a contrivance; short for " engine." Compare 


GING, to join in company with. " Co'wa, ging in an' ha' a jirt 
o' whusky." The word is generally used for a sportive or 
frolicsome party. " One of the merry ging." 

GING, dung. Probably a variant of goung. 

GIN-GAN, GIN-GAUN, the circular track in which horses 
move in turning a threshing machine. Also applied to the 
entire machine, with the building and everything connected 
with it. 

GINIFER, the juniper plant, Juniperus communis. A place in 
Hexhamshire is known as " The Ginifevs" It is marked *' The 
Junipers " since Ordnance surveyors corrected the vulgar 

GIN-RACE, the horse track round a gin. See GIN-GAN. 
GIP, to punish. " I'll gip ye." 
GIPSEY, a wooden peg. 


GIPSEY, a giddy, thoughtless girl. 

GIRDLE, a very thin, compact band or stratum. Girdles, in 
mining, are beds from about three inches to two feet or more 
in thickness ; but the term is usually applied to beds varying 
from three inches to nine or ten inches thick. When the 
stratum is of a distinct character, as in the case of the layers 
which divide the upper from the lower portions of a seam of 
coal, it is generally called a " band." " Bands" vary from 
half an inch to six or seven inches in thickness. A yet thinner 
deposit is called a " parting." Girdles are also called " lumps," 
and, when formed of ironstone, " catheads." A " whin girdle " 
is a. girdle composed of excessively hard stone. " Post girdles " 
are girdles of sandstone. "Metal girdles" are of hard, coarse 
shale. A " brass girdle 9 ' is one of pyrites. 

GIRDLE, GORDLE, a flat, circular iron plate with a bow 
handle. It is set on the open fire and is used for baking 
" singin-hinnie," the accompaniment of all high festival in 
the homes of the people. The commemoration of a birthday, 
a christening, or a wedding is always kept with the honour of 
" settin on the gordle " and the baking of a "spice singin-hinnie." 
A girdle was formerly made from a flat stone. See previous 
word. Compare BAKSTONE. 

"The ' bakstone ' was often three or four feet in diameter, capable of 
holding two cakes, and fixed upon three or four low pillars: the girdle 
was less and lighter, and stood upon an iron tripod, called a ' brandreth.' 
After iron plates began to be used for the same purpose, the larger one 

continued to be Called the bakstone,' and the smaller the girdle." 

Hodgson's Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. ii., p. 306, note. 

GIRDLE-CAKE, GORDLE-KEYEK, a name for the cakes 
baked on a girdle. See SINGIN-HINNIE. 

GIRDLEY, stratified in girdles. 

GIRN, to grin, to leer, to make a wry face. See GAIRN, CORN, 

GIRN, a snare for catching game or trout. 

GIRSE, grass. A word in very common use by old people. 

GIRSEL, gristle. 


GIRSOME, a fine on renewal of a lease. Lands " leased under 
annual rents, and, by the payment of a fine, called a girsome 
fine, at the end of every twerfty-one years." Hodgson's 
Northtimberland, pt. ii., vol. iii., p. 32. See GRESSOM. 

GIS, GIZ, GFES, or GEE'Z, give me. See Gi'. 
GISS-GISS, the call to a pig. 
GISSY, a pig. 

GISSY-PIG, a little pig, or the name of a pig when spoken of 
to children. 

GISTING, the agistment of cattle. (Obs.) 

GIT, in a mould, the narrow neck or channel through which 
the metal is poured. It is generally applied as the term for 
the superfluous piece of metal which is left in the neck of the 
mould after a casting is made. 

GITE, deranged, daft, mad. 

G I YENS AGYEN, a rebate on a price, or a price fixed which 
is understood to be subject to a certain sum being handed 
back to the negotiator. 

G1VE-OWER, give over, be done. 

GIYEN, GIEN [T.] , given, p.p. of gi. In S. Northumberland 
two syllables are distinctly pronounced, as: " He's gi-yen far 
ower much for the mear." The form goven is also occasionally 

GIZE, to disguise. On going out for a poaching expedition, 
near Rothbury, a man of notoriously dirty appearance asked 
his wife, " Hoo mun a gize mesel ?" '* Wesh thee fyess," was 
the prompt reply. See GUIZARD and GUIZED. 

GIZEN, GYZEN, to dry up, to crack open with drought. An 
empty cask lying in the sun becomes gizened that is, dry and 

GIZER, a masquerader, something extraordinary or akin to 
the miraculous. See GUIZAR and GEEZER. 

GIZZERN, the " pluck " of an animal or the gizzard of a fowl. 
Also, by application, the life principle in a human being. A 
maddened opponent sometimes threatens his enemy to pull 
his gizzern out. 


GLAIKY, giddy, foolish, thoughtless, inattentive to duty, 

GLAIKEDNESS, giddiness. 

GLAIR, GLAUR, GLOAR, GLAR, liquid mud of the filthiest 
sort. Gloar, " mud, shining dirt, filth." In its common use 
now-a-days, however, it is simply applied to the most 
offensive dirt ; something worse than "clarts," if it is possible 
to conceive of depths of shade in such. 

GLAIRED, GLARRY, or GLORY, shining with mud or 

GLAMS, the hands. Halliwell. 

GLAND, the space for packing round a piston rod or other 
similar parts of an engine or machinery. 

GLASP, a clasp, fastener, or iron shackle. 

GLAVE, or GLASE, smooth. Glavering is generally used for 
flattering with smooth speech. A glaveving fellow, a smooth- 
tongued, flattering fellow. Ray's North-Country Words, 1601. 


GLEDE, a falcon. See GLEEDE. 

GLEE, to squint. See GLEED, 2, and GLYME. 

GLEECE, a surprise. See GLIFF. 

GLEED, GLEDE, a red-hot coal or peat. (Obsolescent.) 

GLEED, GLIDE, crooked or twisted, not straight hence 


GLEED > GLEDE > * falcon, Faho 
GLEE-EYE, squint eye. A glee, asquint. 


GLEG, quick, smart, acute. " Gleg at the uptak" acute in 

41 Mony a cap was cock'd to catch me : 
Gleg was mony a wily e'e." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. Hi., v. 8. 

GLEG, worn smooth; hence loose fitting. A tap that turns 
too easily and leaks from wear is said to be getting gleg 
Compare GLID. 

GLENT, to glint, to flash. 

GLENT, a glance. " Aa seed it bi the glent o' yor ee." 

GLENT-STONES, GLENTERS, stones inserted at a corner 
or along the side of a narrow street to fend off the wheels of 
passing vehicles. 

GLETTY, green and slimy, applied to the appearance of 
stagnant water. 

GLID, smooth, polished. 
GLID, to slip smoothly, to glide. 

GLIDDER, GLITTER, a loose rolling stone, didders are 
similar to the Cumberland and Westmoreland "screes" the 
talus of loose stones at the foot of a precipitous place. 

" The ground falls away in a very steep descent, covered with loose 
rolling stones, here called glidders or glitters." Canon Greenwell, 
Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, vol. vi., p. 18. 

* GLIDDY, slippery. An icy road or pavement is said to be 

GLIFF, a sudden fright. 

GLIFF, a glance, a glimpse. 

GLIFF, to frighten, as with an apparition. 

GLIFFY, easily frightened, nervous in disposition, timorous. 

GLIME, to glance slyly. Hodgson MS. See GLYME. 

GLISHY, glistening, as in the glittering effect produced by 
sunshine after rain. 

GLISK, a glance of light; a transient ray, a transient view. 
Compare GLIFF, 2. 


GLISTER, a clyster. 
GLORE, shining filth. See GLAIR. 

GLOSS, a glow; applied to a bright red fire. " Ye can bake 
the cyek noo ; the fire hes a fine gloss." 

GLOTTIN, thawing. 
GLOUP, to gulp, to swallow. 
GLOUPIN, sulking moodily. 

GLOWER, to gaze with wonderment, to stare with wide-open 
eyes. Many places in Northumberland that have a high and 
extensive view are called " Glower-ower-him," " Glower-or'- 
him," and " Glower-a.t-him." Hodgson MS. Glororum, town- 
ship, i m. S.W., and in the parish of Bamburgh. The 
place-name may, however, be a corruption of another word 
than glower. A glower is also used as the name for an 
intense stare. 

GLOWERY, GLARRY, smooth and shining in surface, like 
wet mud. See GLAIR and GLAIRED. 

GLUMMOR [N.] , a glimmer, a gleam, a faint light. 
GLUMP, to look sulky. 
GLUMPS, the sulks. 

GLUT, a piece of wood to fill up behind cribbing or tubbing. 

Mining Glossary, Newcastle Terms, 1852. 

GLUT, a drink. " Tyek a glut or twee an' ye'il be bettor." 
GLUT, to swallow. 

GLUTEN EEN (W.-T.), a valley fog from the sea. Compare 

GLUTTY, gluttonish. 

GLYME, to look slyly. See GLIME. 


GOAF, " a part of the mine from which all the coal has been 
worked."- Mining Glossary, Newcastle Terms, 1852. See GOAVE 

" In course of time the whole of these pillars are brought off, and this 
vast district becomes a precarious goaf." Robert Scott, Ventilation of 
Coal Mines, 1868, p. 14. 

"It is usually a large dome, resting upon the wreck which has fallen 
from the roof of the exhausted space." Greenwell's Glossary of Coal 
Trade Terms, 1849. 

GOAM, GOME, to take notice of, to recognise. " I never 
goamed you." " He never goamed anybody " he took no notice 
of any one." The word also means to notice with surprise 
and fear; used negatively, as " He never goamed it." " How 
did that young horse behave ?" " O, well, aa drave him a' 
day, an' he nivver goamed at it " that is, he had never been 
startled or surprised as he was driven. 


GOAT'S-HAIR, streaky or cirrus clouds. 

GOATSUCKER, the nightjar, Caprimulgus Euvopaus. See also 

GOAVE, space cleared of coal. Usually printed, but 
inaccurately, as goaf. See GOAF. 

GOB, the mouth. Gob also means speech, power of expression. 
George Stephenson on one occasion had in vain endeavoured 
to controvert Dean Buckland on a point of argument, when a 
lawyer present picked up the engineer's case and completely 
overturned the Dean's theory. Stephenson admiringly 
exclaimed, " It's a grand thing the gift o' the gob!" Gob 
becomes the term also for bragging speech, or insolence. 
*' To set up his gob " is to set up his impudence, to 
talk impertinently. The form gab is quite unknown in 

" Aall gob an' guts, like a young craa." Proverb. 

GOB, to talk impudently, to brag. 

GOBBY, the mouth, a variant of gob ; generally used in child's 

GOBBY, an unfledged bird. See GORLIN. 

GOBBY, impudent. " A gobby brat." 

GO-BON, equivalent to "go bond," or "you be bound." 


GOB-STICK, a spoon. Brockett. (Obs.) 
GOB-STRING, a bridle. 

GOCKS, GOX, or BEGOX, an exclamation (in some dialects 
heard as cocks in cocks -wunters, cocks-nuns, &c.). It very thinly 
disguises the name of God in swearing. See also Gox, GOSH, 

GODSAKE, " for Godsake " is for charity. (Obs.) 

" Item, paid to James Watson for Godsaike, as appeareth by Mr. 
Maior's bill, los." Newcastle Municipal Accounts, Oct., 1566. 

GOFFER, to crimp the frills of a woman's cap or a man's 
shirt. See next word, also TALLY-IRON. 

GOFFERIN-FRAME, a frame made for holding a series of 
sticks or canes between which a frill is worked in and out 
in waving form. The whole is clamped by a screw. 

GOG, a boy's marble, or taw in ring in the game of boorey. 
GOGGLES, a disease in sheep. See STURDY. 

GOLDILOCKS, GOLDYLOCKS, the wood ranunculus, 

Ranunculus auricomus, Linn. 

FLINCH, the goldfinch, Carduelis elegans. There is a house 
near Newcastle called Goldspink Hall. 

GOLDY, golden. 

GOLLAN, GOLLAND, GOWLAN, a flower of a golden 
hue. " As yalla as a gollan " is a common expression. The 
following plants are included under the term gollan, or gowlan 
(usually distinguished as "white" or "yalla," as the case 
may be) : The common scentless May weed, Pyrethrum 
inodorum, Sm. (called white gollan, horse gowan, horse gowlan, and 
horse daisy) ; the dog-daisy, Chrysanthemum leucanthemuw, Linn. ; 
the corn marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum ; the common daisy, 
Btilts perenms (called gowan in North Northumberland and in 
Scotland) ; also the buttercup, Ranunculus bulbosus. The marsh 
mangold, Caltha pdvstw, is called the waiter gollan or yalla 
go wan. 


COLLAR, GOLLER, GOLLOR, to growl or shout violently ; 
to speak in a loud, angry, or threatening tone. See GOWL, 

GOLLAR, a growl, a gesticulation ; a rough, uncouth, scolding 

"Between the Megstone Rock at the Fame Islands and the House 
Island, the opposite currents frequently cause a short, and to small 
boats a rather dangerous swell, like breakers. This ripple is known to 
the fishermen of the neighbourhood by the very significant name of the 
gollors." S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 204. 

GOLLUP, to sup hastily and noisily. " Dinna gollup yor 
broth like that." 

GOMMEREL, GUMMERAL, a foolish body, a stupid fellow. 

or stupid person; one easily imposed upon. The " goniel 
country," to a Tindale man, is the district about Ponteland. 

" It's aal them greet goniels that drove us away." 

James Horsley, Geordy's Dream, 1880. 

GOO [W.-T.] , an offensive smell. " Set-it ootside till the goo 
bias off 't" said of tainted meat. 

GOOD-DOWTOR, a daughter-in-law. "She's gyen ti leeve 
win her good-dowtor ." Heard in Hexham in 1891. 

GOOD-FEW, a fair number. "A canny-few" is similarly 

GOODISH, rather good. " Thor wis a goodish congregation at 

the meetin'." 


GOOD-KING-HENRY, wild spinage; called in the North, 
mercury or Good King Henry. Hodgson's Northumberland, iii., 
2, p. 324. The Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus, is also known as 
flowery -docken and smiddy leaves. 

GOODLIKE, good looking. " She's a goodlike lass." 
GOOD WEDNESDAY, the Wednesday before Easter Day. 
GOOLDY, a sovereign. The goldfinch. 


GOOSE-GRASS, silver weed, Potentitta anserina. Also the 
brome grass, Bromus mollis. The trembling grass (dothenn 
dicks), briza media, is also called, among its many titles, goose 

GOOSE'S-FLESH, a term used to denote the state of the 
skin when it is raised into small tubercles, in consequence of 
cold or fear, so as to resemble that of a plucked fowl. 

GORBIT, a newly-hatched bird. See GORLIN. 

GORCOCK, the red grouse, Lagopus scoticus, Brisson. Known 
also as moorcock, moor-game, and muir-fowl. 

GORD, a hoop. "The gords is aall comin' off the rain-tubs." 
" The bairns hez all getten gords ti play wi' !" 

" Has your wine barrels cast the girds ?" 

Ballad, Fair Annie. 

GORD, to gird, to jeer. 

GORE, GOR, dirt, anything rotten or decayed. B rockett. 

GORE, a tapering strip of land pointed at one end ; a wedge- 
shaped piece of cloth. Compare SWIM. 

GORE, to insert a tapered piece of cloth in a garment. 

GORE. In the New World of Words, ed. 1706, " Gone, a pool, or 
pit of water to keep fish in ; also, any stop in a river, such as 
wears, mills, stakes, &c., which hinder the free passage of 
ships or boats." 

"Gore is the modern French gour. The Old French form was 
sometimes gorg, and- sometimes gort, and the derivation is from Latin 
accusative gurgitem, from gurges, a whirlpool. The plural, gores, was 
gora.and then mistaken for a singular, and a new plural, gorces, arose." 
Prof. W. W. Skeat. 

GORE-BLOOD, blood. 

" I've spurred my beast till he's gore bleud" G. Stuart, Joco-Serious 
Discourse, 1686, p. 9. 

"Gore, or gore blood, clotted or corrupt blood." New World of Words, 

" But applied to either fluid or clotted blood." Embleton. 

GORE-CHOWER, a sheep which, owing to some structural 
defect in its mouth, is unable to retain or properly masticate 
its food. This defect is not always immediately fatal. 


GORL, GURL, to rush and roar, as wind does in a storm. 
" Aa could't sleep a wink ; the weind (wind) gorl'd see." 

GORLIN, GORBIT, or GOBBY, a newly-hatched or unfledged 
bird. In its first state it is usually called a raa gorlin, raa 
}it, or raa gobby. Compare FOOT, 

GORLY, wild, windy. " What a gorly day." See GORL. 

GORMER, the cormorant, Phalacvocorax carbo. 

"Aa tell ye what ; a gormer, iv a pick black neet, '11 find his way ti 
Fahren islands; an what dis he knaa aboot ' nevigation ' eh ah?" 
A Fisherman's Discussion. 

GORN, to grin, to make a face. See GAIRN. 

GORNY, GIRNY, ill-natured. 

GORNIGAA, GIRNIGAW, the cavity of the mouth. 

GORNYGIBBY, GIRNEYGIBBY, a term of reproach, often 
used by children. 

GORT, great. 

GOSH, GOSHCAB, very common oaths in Northumberland. 

GOTE [N.], a stream of water approaching the sea through 
sand or slake. Compare GUT. 

GOTHERLY, kind, sociable. 

" The ewe is gotherley with its lamb." Brockett. 

GO-TO-BED-AT-NOON, goat's beard, Tragopogon pmtensis, 

GOV, gave. Used as the p.t. of gi or give. Gav is also a 
common form of the same p.t. Although gov and .gav are 
used interchangeably, gov expresses emphasis on the word, 
whilst gav is usually less emphatic.' 

GOVEN, given, the p.p. of gi or give. See GIVEN and Gi. 

GOWxAN, the common daisy, Bellis perennis, in Tynedale and 
North Northumberland. Called also the ewe-gowan, as in 
Scotland. Gowan is a variant of words meaning golden 
[see GOLLAN and GOWLAN] and is applied as a generic term 
to a large class of plants which are of this hue. 


or lockev-gowlan, is the name for the mountain globe-flower, 
Troilus Euvobceus. Yalla-gowan is the marsh marigold, Caltha 
palustns. The white clover, Trifolium npens, is called sheep s 
gowan. The scentless May- weed, Pyvethrum modonim, is known 
as horse gowan. 

" Gowan-syke' is a place-name in the parish of Haltwhistle. This, to 
all appearance, derives its prenomen from the prevalence in the halt- 
stagnant marsh or syke of Caltha palustris."'Dr. James Hardy, History 
of Berwickshire Naturalists Club, vol. ii., p. 19- 

GOWAYES-DAY, for Guy Fawke's day in the following : 

" Nov. sth, 1627, paid to the Ringers on Gowayes-day for ringing Oyle 
and Candle light, 00.04.02." Gateshead Church Books. 

GOWD, GOUDY, wanton, lascivious. 

GOWD, to toy, to play with. Hodgson MS. 

GOWDSPINK, the goldfinch. See GOLDSPINK. 

GOWDY, Dutch cheese, generally ; or specially Gouda cheese. 

GOWDY, the fish Gemmeous Dragonet, Callionymus lyra, Linn. 

"The'Gowdy" occurs occasionally in great plenty at Cullercoats. 
Richard Howse, Natural History Transactions, vol. x., 1890, p. 350. 

GOWDY, GOWDY-HOOSE, a sort of bower that children 
form to play in, composed of figures made with shells or 
broken crockery ; or a gowdy-hoose is a toy-house erected by 
children with small wooden bricks or other material when at 

GOWDY, frolicsome, festive. " Ye he' been hevin a gowdy 
time on't." 

GOWDY-LAKIN, a child's toy or plaything. 

GOWK, the heart or pith of a plant. "An apple gowk"- 
the seed cases and the seeds in the heart of an apple. The 
centre piece in a stack of hay left after the outside has been 
cut away all round. The bottom sheaves in a stack of corn 
set upright to form a foundation, or more properly, a nucleus 
for the rest. The part of an animal's horn beneath the shell 
is called the gowk, or flint. The matter which has obtruded 
or filled in the space between the edges of a hitch or trouble 
found in mining is called the "gowk of the trouble." 

GOWK, a cuckoo. 


GOWK, a simpleton, a countryman. April gowk an April fool. 

GOWK-AN'-TITLIN, an incongruous pair of any kind. Gowk 
is a cuckoo, and titlin. the little meadow pipit, Anthus 
pratensis, Linn. The disproportion in size between the two 
birds when seen in company suggests the phrase. 

GOWKISH, fond, foolish. " He's oney a gowkish kind o' a chap." 

GOWK-OATS, late sown oats. The season for sowing oats is 
usually during the month of March. When by chance the 
sowing is delayed until April they are gowk-oats. 

MEAT, wood sorrell, Oxalis acetosella, Linn. 

GOWK'S-ERRAND, a fool's errand. 

rattle, Rhinanthus crista-galli, Linn. Called also hen-pen and 

GOWK'S-SPIT, cuckoo-spit. 

GOWL, GOOL, GYLE, a hollow passage or pass between 
hills. Lord Francis Russell was slain on the mountain in 
Kidland district called the Windy Gyle, and where the 
pile or cairn of stones raised in his memory is still called 
" Russell's cairn." 

" The fortresses of Carrow and Sewing Shields stand in such a Goole 
passage, or common entry of all the thieves of Liddisdale in Scotland, or 
from Tindale lying both north from the said two fortresses." Bowes' 
Survey, 1542. Hodgson's Northumberland, iii., i, 229. 

GOWL, GOUL, GOOLE, to make a hollow and fitful sound, 
like the north wind ; to wail, to growl, to scold. In Hampole 
a child is said to be no sooner born than it begins to " goule 
and cry." Edition Morris, 1. 477. Compare GORL and GURL. 

GOWLAN, GOWLON, golden ; but applied specially to those 
familiar flowers which are of a yellow or golden colour. See 


" In the vicinity of Newcastle this plant [the corn-marigold, Chrysan- 
themum segetum] is entitled the marygowlon, and in other parts of 
Northumberland the gowlon. At the present day, in the Northern parts 
(of Northumberland), the yellow gowlon is the term by which the various 
tribe of crowfoots [Ranunculus acris, L., R. Bulbosus, L., and R. repens, L.~] 
that ' gild the plain ' is designated. Passing the Tweed we find the 
appellation still retained, but altered by the omission of a letter (to 
gowan). White gowlans is a generic term for the various plants in the 
common parlance of the North of England, termed ' big daisies.' 
Buttercups Und Daisies. History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. iv., 
p. 14. 



GOWLY, GOOLEY, howling like a dog or the wind; 
boisterous, stormy. Compare GORLEY and see GOWL, 2. 

GOWP [W.-T.] , to gulp. 

GOWPEN, the hollow of both hands placed together. "A 
fowpen o' yetts." As much as both hands can lift, the thumbs 
being each turned to the side and the hollow of the hands 
bowl-shaped by placing the little fingers side by side. A 
" nief full " is one hand full, but a gowpen full is invariably 
both hands put together and filled. Hence in the phrase 
" Goold i' gowpens" the term is applied figuratively to mean a 
very large quantity or untold wealth. 
" A gowpen o 1 meal." Hodgson MS. 

GOWSTY, dreary, frightful, ghastly. It is frequently used as 
signifying dismal or uncomfortable, and applied to a dwelling- 
house without ceiling, &c. A gusty, that is, a draughty 
place, is said to be gowsty. " Gan roon' the corner ; it's ower 
gowsty here." 

" What a gowsty hole he lives in." Brockett. 

GOWSTY, gusty, tempestuous. 

GOX, a common oath. This appears to be the local version of 
cocks, as heard elsewhere in the exclamation cocks-wunters, 
cocks-body. It is really a corruption or purposed disguise 
of the name of God. 

41 By cocke they are to blame." Hamlet, iv., 5. 

GRACE-WIFE, a midwife. Brand, vol. ii., p. 362, note, 
observes, " Feb., 1645, a mid-wife is styled grace-wyfe" (Obs.) 

GRAF, GRAFT, a trench, a place graved or cut out. Graft, 
a grave. See GRAIF and GROVE. 

GRAFFY, rough, sturdy, short, thick-set. 

GRAIF, a grave. At Alston the word gre-af means to dig. 
They go to grave peat. A miner is called a greaver. Adit 
levels in many parts are known as grove holes. The meaning 
of cutting is present in all the kindred words grave (engrave), 
graf, grove, groove. Graif means any kind of cutting, either 
with pick-axe or spade, and they go to graif or greave peat or 
stone. See GRAF. 


GRAILING, a slight fall of hail which barely covers the 
ground. Brocket^. 

"Grail, small particles of any kind." Todd. 

GRAIN, a branch or fork of a river or a tree, or anything that 
turns or springs into two parts ; hence to grow into grains, as 
that of wood. Hodgson MS. A grain is thus a branch of a 
tree, and a " peeled grain" is a grain stripped of its bark. 
A grain in a chimney is a tree branch laid across the flue for 
suspending the pot-hooks. A grain is also the branch or tine 
of a fork. From the branch of a tree or river the term grain, 
or grayne, passes to mean the branches of the ancient and 
powerful families who inhabited Tynedale and the branching 
valleys of the district. Grain is thus in Northumberland 
equivalent to the word clan. 

The grains in Tynedale and Redesdale are the river branches of the 
North Tyne, and so, too, the grains and ' hopes ' of the country on the 
South of the Coquet. Northern Tribune, 1854, vol. i., p. 159. 

GRAIN, to groan ; making a needless noise and trouble over a 
little labour. It is usually applied to the kind of groan to 
which people give utterance in lifting heavyweights. "What 
a grain he gav when he lifted the seek o' floor !" 

" Pantin an 1 grainin like a soo at a yett." Old proverb. 

" He peght and grained." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 45. 

GRAIP, GRAPE, to grope, to feel by groping, to feel where 
one cannot see. 

GRAIP, to gripe, to pain internally. 

GRAIP, GRAPE, GRIPE, a three, four, or six-pronged dung 
or delving fork. A pronged shovel for lifting a mixture of 
straw and dung from the cow byre or stables. A two- 
pronged implement is always called a fork, whilst one with 
three or more tines is called a graip. Compare HACK. 

GRAITH, lather from soap. It is also used as the term for 
the dirt in water after washing. 

GRAITH, gear, equipment, riches, furniture. The word in N. 
Northumberland is applied to rank in life, as in the expression, 
"Ye cannot expect iz ta mix wi' thame graith," where the 
allusion is to the superior rank (graitti) of the persons spoken 
of. It is also used in speaking of an inferior graith as well 
as of a higher social rank. 


GRAITH, to harness, to equip, to accoutre, to dress. " Aa 
see y'or graithin yor scythe." In colliery work to graith is to 
replace the worn leather in a pump clack or bucket. " Weel 
graithed "well provided. " He's weei gmithed for claes." 

" Round them cam the Croziers keen, 
All riding graithed and in array." 

Death of Parcy Reed. 

GRAITHER, the ''changer and graither" in a pit is the man 
who changes and replaces or puts in order the leather of the 
pumping buckets. 

GRAITHIN, equipment, trappings. 

GRAITHLY, trimly, tidily. In the Pricke of Conscience, graythely 
is used in the sense of carefully. Edition Morris, 1. 645. 

GRANGE, " a barn, originally the granary of a monastery [or 
manor] , but now often a modern name of a small mansion 
Anick Grange." J. V. Gregory, Place-Names in Northumberland. 
Mr. Gregory counts nineteen places in which grange is found 
in Northumberland. 

GRANKY, complaining neither well nor ill. See CRANKY. 

GRAP, GRAFT (p.t. of gripe), clutched. 

GRASS, the grazing season. 

" A gelding five years old the last grass." Advertisement, Newcastle 
Courant, December i, 1722. 

GRASSMEN. At Gateshead Common, before its enclosure, 
" the gentlemen acting for the borough were called grassmen," 
and had charge, with the lord's steward, of the common 

GRASS-NAIL, the stiffening piece of iron at the end of a 
scythe, crossing the angle where the scythe is fixed into the 
end of the shaft, and connecting the head of the scythe blade 
with the sned. 

GRAT, wept, regretted. " Aa grat sair aboot it at the time." 
The strong p.t. of greet. 

GRAY AT, a cravat. 
GRAVE, to dig. See GRAIF. 


GRAVER, GREAVER, a worker at an adit level. See 


GRAYNE, a clan or family. See GRAIN, i. 

GREAP, GRIPE, GRUP, a gutter in a cow-house or stable. 

GREAVES, GROVES, tallow-chandler's refuse. 

GREE, to agree. The second e is sounded like ah, or a short 

GREE, a position of superiority, a prize. 

" Of aw the pipers I did see 
This piper Tony wan the gree." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 20. 

GREEDY-HOUND, one bolting or swallowing his meat like 
a hound. 

GREEN, to wish for, to long for. 

GREENBONE, a fish of the genus Muraena. Rambles in 
Northumberland, S. Oliver the Younger, 1835. This is the 
garfish, or sea needle, Esox belone, Linn., or Belone vulgaris, 

"The bones are grass-green naturally, and the colour is not the effect 
of boiling, as is usually stated." History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Field 
Club, vol. i., p. 173. 

GREEN-CROP, a turnip crop. 
GREEN-DRAKE, the may-fly. 

GREENED, a term applied to seed potatoes exposed to the 
sun to harden them before storing. They are then termed 
greened potatoes. 

GREENEY, or GREEN LENNART,the greenfinch, Ligurinus 

GREENEY, a greenhorn. 

GREEN-GRAVEL, the name applied to the central personage 
in a child's game. All but one join hands in a ring, one 
stands in the centre, and the rest go slowly round him or her, 
chanting a peculiar song, each verse of which begins with 

" Green-gravel, green-gravel ! " 


GREENING, longing. 

GREENLEIGHTON, a place-name, also a name applied to 
a foolish person. It is used in a mild or jocular way of rebuke 
to people who make a foolish remark or indulge in some 
ridiculous action. 

GREEN-LENNART, the green linnet or greenfinch, Ligurinus 

GREEN-MOOD, confervoid growth in the water, the green 
slime commonly found in streams in hot weather. 

GREEN-PLOVER, the lapwing or peesweep. 
GREEN-TOP-YALLA, Dale's hybrid turnip. 

GREENWELL, a salmon fly. So called from its inventor. 
See next. 

GREENWELL'S-GLORY, the name of a celebrated artificial 
trout fly, invented by Canon Greenwell, well-known to 
Border anglers. 

GREESH, grease. GREESHY, greasy. See CREESHY. 

GREET (p.t., grat; p.p., gratten or greeten), to cry, to fret, to 
weep or bewail piteously. 

GREET, great, large. The duplication " greet big " is common 
in describing anything of very great size. 

GREET, GRIT> kind, friendly, companionable. 

, " Young Johnny was fain to get greet wi' wor Sal." 

J. P. Robson, The KUtliri Legacy, 1848. 

GREEVE, GRIEVE, an overseer, an under-steward. It is 
generally applied to a resident agent who has charge of 
property in his locality. 

GREEVESHIP, the district under the charge of a greeve. 

GREG. In the game of " spell and oar," to " greg a sack " was 
to pretend to seek it, but to walk, upon it and gveg or drive it 
into the earth out of sight and to come afterwards and take 
it away. 

GRESSOM, GRYSSOM, GIRSOME, an ingoing fee on 
entering upon the rental or renewal of the lease of fields. 


GREW, a greyhound. 

GREY, a badger. From Anglo-Saxon grceg, gray (in colour) : 
from his colour. Compare BROCK. 

" Gray as a badger." Proverb. 

" Gray, a wild beast call'd a badger." Bailey. 

GREY, a greyhound. From Icelandic grey, a dog. It has no 
connection with grey, a badger, above. 

GREY, the young of the black grouse. In their callow condition 
they are gray in colour, and are commonly spoken of as "a 
nest of greys." See GREY-HEN, 2. 

GREY-BACK, or GREY-BACKED-CRAA, the hooded crow, 
Corvtis comix. Called also hoody and corby. 

GREY-BEARD, a brown stone-ware spirit bottle. It has a 
wide belly and a narrow neck, with a curling ear on one side 
and a man's face with flowing beard on the other. Once a 
familiar object in cottage homes, it is now found in the 
cabinet of the collector. 

GREY-BEDS, the many-bedded alternations of sandy shales 
and shaly sandstones, generally micaceous, which form much 
of the main bulk of the Upper Carboniferous series. 
Professor G. A. Lebour, Geoloay of Northumberland and Dtwham, 
ed. 1889, p. 40. 

"Grey-beds, arenaceous shale, generally grey or buff-coloured. Hugh 
Miller, Geology of Otter burn and Elsdon, Geological Survey Memoir, 1887. 

GREY-BORD, GREY-BIRD, the song thrush, Turdus mucicus. 
Called also mavis, thrissel-cock, and throssel, but never spoken of 
as the thrush in Northumberland. By thrush the missel 
thrush is always understood. 

GREY-GATE, a strange and evil way or course of conduct. 
"Aye, he's gyen a grey-gate sin ee left us" said of a 

GREY-GLED, the hen harrier, Circus cyaneus, Linn. 

GREY-GOOSE, or WILD-GOOSE, the grey-lag goose, Anser 

GREY-HEN, the black grouse, Tetrao tetrix. Called also 
black-cock, black-game, and brown-hen. 

GREY-HEN, a large stone-ware bottle, 



GREY-LENNART, the linnec, Cannabiita linota, Gucelin. This 
species has the breast sometimes red, sometimes grey, and 
consequently, a few years ago, individuals so differing were 
described as two species, and named respectively the brown 
and grey linnet. Males never regain the red on the breast 
after moulting. John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and 
Durham, p. 53. 

GREY-MEAL, oatmeal. 

GREY-METAL, a slightly silicious indurated clay of a light 
grey colour. See GREY-BEDS. 

GREY-METAL-STONE, grey metal, very silicious and gritty. 

GREYMIN, GRIMIN, GRYMING, a sprinkling, a smirch. 
Compare GRIME. 

" The sun was na up, but the moon was down, 
It was the gvyming o' a new fa'n snow." 

The Ballad of Jamie Telfer. 

GREY-POST, sandstone of a grey colour. 

GREY-STONES, coarse mill stones, for common meal. 
Brockett. See GREY-MEAL. 

GREY-WHIN, a very hard, dirty, brown quartzose stratum. 

GRICE, a little pig. 

GRIG, a cricket, a merry companion. 

GRIME, the black ashes upon wood which are in a state 
between soot and charcoal. Any black smudge is called a 
gnme mark. Lignite, or wood coal, is sometimes called 

GRIME, to blacken with grime, to smirch with soot or any 
black substance. Hence, a grimin is a smirch. 

GRINCE, to grind the teeth. 

GRINDSTONE-SILL, the thick sandstones whence the 
celebrated Newcastle grindstones are cut. It is on the whole 
i fane grained, moderately hard, light-yellow stone ; but it is 
m places porous enough for the manufacture of filter stones, 
which were formerly extensively made from it 


GRINSTAN, grindstone. See GRUNSTAN. 

GRIPE, a pronged lifting fork for dung, litter, coke. See 

GRIPE, a drain. See GRUP. 

GRIPE, to grip, to clutch ; p.t. grap, p.p. gruppen. 

GRIP-GRASS, the Galium aparine of Linnaeus; familiar as it 
clings to and climbs up the hedge side, or grips and holds to 
.the dress of any one touching it. Its familiarity is shown by 
the various names under which it is known, among which 
are Robin, or Lizzy-run-the-hedge, RoUn-nm-the-dike, bluid tongue, 
or tongue bluiders. It is elsewhere called goose grass, but in 
Northumberland that term is applied to the little silver- 
weed, Potentilla anserina, and to the quaking grass, Briza media. 

GRIPY, grasping, avaricious. 
GRISLY, speckled. See GRIZZLED. 

GRIT, pith, as applied to a man's mind, robust character. 
" He hes some grit in him." 

GRIZZLED, speckled with black and white. 

GROANIN, a lying-in; sometimes called the cryin-oot. 
Groanin-breed, or groanin-cyek, is the cake provided on the 
occasion. Groanin-chair, the chair on which the matron is set 
after a child-birth to receive her gossips and friends. Groanin- 
cheese, cheese to be eaten with the cake prepared for the 
gossips at a woman's confinement. It was on the same 
occasion a custom to brew as much as was 
required to serve round with the other items of the birth 

GROATS, fragments of broken food, such as are left by cattle 
when kept in the byre. 

GROGRAM. " Grograin, a coarse kind of silk taffety, usually 
stiffened with gum." HalliweWs Diet. ' 
" Stuff made of silk and hair." Bailey. 

GROIN, GRUIN, GROYNE, the snout of a pig.Brockett. 
A breakwater or pier of piles projecting from the shore to 
deflect the wash of the sea, or otherwise to protect the land 
from erosion. The fork of the body or thigh. Bare groins 
are naked thighs. In the last sense compare GRAIN. 


GROONGE, a growl. See GROUNGE. 

GROOP, a drain, as the Gaol Groop, now the Javel Groop, in 
Newcastle. See GRUP. 

GROSBEAK, the hawfinch, Coccothraustes vulgaris. 

GROSSER, a grocer. It is constantly pronounced grosser in 
Northumberland. Grossers, groceries. 

" Grocer. This should be written grosser." Todd. 

GROUND-ASH, the wild angelica, Angelica sylvestris, Linn. 
Called alsojeelico. 

GROUND-COAL, the lowest portion of a seam of coal. Called 
also bottom coal. 

GROUNGE, to growl as a dog. Brockett. 

GROUSIN, used to describe the feeling of the skin when 
chilled or under the influence of severe cold. 

" Togrowze,to be chill before the beginning of an ague-fit." Ray, 1691. 

GROUT, to run in thin fluid lime between rubble stones. 
GROVE, a groove. 

driven in from the surface for coal or fire-clay. Sometimes 
this is called a grove-hole, but the common term is a drift. A 
grove-seam is a bed of coal worked by an adit level. See 

" Mouth-groves are short levels, generally entering upon the crop of a 
coal." Hugh Miller, Geology of Otterburn and Ehdon, 1887. 

GROVER, a miner who works in an adit level or a lead mine. 
The word in West Tyne is pronounced greaver, in three 
syllables. See GRAIF. 

GROWEL, to growl. 

GROWZE, to be chill before the beginning of an ague fit. 
Scotch, grue, growe, groue.Jamiescn. See GROUSIN. 

GROZER, a gooseberry, the fruit of Ribes grossularia. An 
eager person is said to "Jump like a cock at a grozer." In 
N. Northumberland the term is grozet. 



GRUBBER, GRUB-SCUFFLER,an implement, with broad- 
faced curved teeth, used for cleaning drill crops. It is 
furnished with " stilts," or handles, like a plough. It is a 
modern improvement upon the old wooden scufflev. 

GRUFF, to snatch. See GRUMPHEY. 

GRUMEL, GRUMLE, to grumble. In words like grumble, 
jumble, stumble, humble, tumble, rumble, mumble, &c., the b is silent. 

GRUMLY, fault-finding, grumbling. 
GRUMMET, an iron thimble shaped like a U. 
GRUMPHER, to clear the voice. 

GRUMPHEY, GRUMPY, surly, bad-tempered; of a piggish 
disposition. Grumphey, a pig. 

GRUMPHEY, to snatch craftily. To grnmphey marbles is to 
clutch and steal the pool suddenly. 

GRUN, GRUND, ground, the earth. 

GRUND, to grind, to grate or make a grinding noise. The p.p. 
gnmnen is still occasionally in use. 

GRUN-DAVY, ground ivy, Nepeta glechoma, Bentham. 

GRUND-FOOR, the last foor (furrow) in a lea-rig. After the 
" takin-up foor" (the last full furrow) is turned, the plough 
returns and takes a light furrow back. This narrows the 
open furrow and is called the grund-foor. Stubble, generally 
speaking, is not grund-fcor'd. It is only so when wanted for 
sowing, and is, properly speaking, ploughed with a sub-soil 

GRUNDIT, grounded, foundered. Any animal or a man that 
cannot stand is described as grundit. 

GRUNDY-SWALLOW [N.] , GRUNSEL [S.] , the common 
groundsel, Senecio vulgaris, Linn. 

grindstone. The very common proverb tells us that "A Scot, 
a rat, and a Newcastle gvnnstan are found in every part of 
the world." 


GRUNTLE, to grunt or grumble sullenly. 

" He gruntl'd like a sow wi' piggs." G. Stuart, Joco-Senous Discourse, 
1686, p. 45. 

GRUNTY, discontented. 

between the double rows of stalls in cowhouses for receiving 
the dung and urine. It is also applied to stables built in the 
manner of cowhouses, but single. 

GUDDLE, to catch fish with the hands ; a favourite pastime 
in Rede water and Coquetdale. Gumph and thrimmel have the 
same meaning, The process is also called ticklin or kitlin. 

GUDGEON, a pivoted axle, sometimes removable, as the axle 
on which a bell swings or the trunnions on which anything 
moves. . 

GUESS, to suppose, to believe. Familiar now as an 
Americanism. It is curious to find " / guess " innocently 
used in a Newcastle book of the seventeenth century. 
" / guess they've heard what this day's vote is, 
We'll paik their hides, let them take notice." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, i686 ; p. 43. 

GUESSING-STORY, a conundrum or riddle. The winter 
nights in many country houses were passed by the fire-light, 
and guessing -stories often relieved the graver talk. The guessing - 
stones had a narrative form, and were not mere puzzles in a 
sentence. Such a one as the following is a common instance : 
* Clink, clank doon the bank, ten again fower, splish, splash 
in the dish, till it run ower." Answer, the milking of a cow. 
Both hands are required that is, ten fingers against the 
four teats. Another : " As green as grass, as white as milk, 
and bearded like a pard." Answer, a turnip. 

GUEST, a ghost ; an incorrect spelling. See GEYEST and 

GUESTIN, a hospitable welcome, a warm reception. 

Brockett, as guesting. 

GUFF, a foolish, silly, or ignorant person, generally the latter. 
GUGGLE, to gurgle ; the sound of a stream or of liquid. 

GUIDE, a tendon or muscle. "The guides off" that is, the 
tendon is dislocated. 


GUIDE, to treat, to use. " Weel guided:' " Badly guided." 

GUIDES, the framework or the ropes stretched down the sides 
of a pit shaft on which the ascending and descending cages 

GUIDE-SHEEP, old wethers kept on purpose to guide and 
direct the flocks. 

GUILD, uproar, confusion. Compare GILD. 

GUILD-BELL, the bell which summons the meeting of the 
Newcastle Freemen. The assembly of the Incorporated 
Companies is announced by the tolling of the great bell 
("the major," of St. Nicholas' Church), just as the same 
bell tolls for the death or funeral of some person of 

GUIZARD, GUIZART, GUIZER, a masquerader, a mummer. 

GUIZEN, to dry up with drought or thirst. See GIZEN. 

GULLET, an open fissure or orifice in a stratum discharging 
water. Gullety hole in a stream bed is a narrow fissure 
running into a chasm. 

GULLION, a mean wretch. Bvockett. 
GULLMA, the guillemot. See WULLEMOT. 
GULLY, a large knife. 
GULPIN, a greenhorn, a credulous simpleton. 

GUMP, GUMPH, to touch and feel gently, as in the attempt 
to catch fish by the hand ; as boys gumping under stones in a 
burn for trout. See also GUDDLE, THRIMMEL, TICKLE, and 

GURL, to hurtle with a moaning sound, as the wind does in 
storm. See GORL. 

GURNALD, the gurnard. 

GUST, to taste. 

" Gust yor ain gob," do not be beholden to anybody. Rothbury. 

GUT, a narrow stream, a straitened place. There was Halig 
gut at Hexham ; now Hallgate. 


GUT-HALLION, a voracious eater. 

GUTSY, GUTTY, gluttonous, fond of his belly. 

GUTTER-SNIPE, the common snipe, Gallinago scolopacinus, 
Bonaparte, This bird is also called the mire-snipe and heather- 

GUY, a young cow. See QUEY. 

GUZZLE [N.] , to throttle. 

" Aa'll guzzle ye directly." Spittal. 

GWONNY JOKESANE'S DAY, the ayth day of October 
that is, the day after Ovingham October fair. The farce of 
proclaiming a mayor of the village was gone through on this 
day. Compare under DUNT, i. 

" It has been so called since the recollection of the eldest living ; why 
so is not known." Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div., 1846, vol. Hi., 
p 200. 

GY-CARLING, a sort of mischievous elf who guides astray. 

GYE, crooked. See JYE. 

GYEP, to gape. 

GYET, or YETT, a gate, a roadway, a street. 

GYLE, a hollow between hills. See GOWL. 

GYLE, wort. 

GYLE-FAT, a wort vat or tub. The vessel in which ale is 

GYTE, the spawn of herrings. During the fishing season the 
herring gyte fouls the nets. 

GYZEND, parched. See GIZEN. 

H - The so "nd of the aspirate h is always emphasized in 
Northumberland, and is used with the nicest discrimination. 
t is especially sounded in which, whe, when, and in all words 
formerly written hw as hwa', modern who. The aspirate is 
preserved in the word hit (it), the neuter form of he, and in 
buz (we or us.) 

HA A BT i CK ' an uncouth fellow. J. P. Robson, Gloss, to Bards 
of the lyne, 1849, under hawbuck. 


H AA-CORN-BEER, a certain quantity of barley, paid by the 
tenants of Amble to the lord of the manor, formerly for the 
use of the monastic cell there. 

HAAD, HAD, the hold or retreat of a fish under a projecting 
river bank (brae). 

HAAD, a grasp. See HAD. 

HAA-HOOSE, a farmer's house. It is always distinguished 
from the hinds' hooses, as the hinds' cottages are called. 

HAAK, or HOWK, a disease of the eye. 
HAAK, a hawk. 

HAAL, the pronunciation alike of hall and haul. The former 
sometimes pronounced without the final /, as haa. 

HAA-MAIDEN, a maid servant in the farmer's house, in 
contradistinction to a hind's maiden. 

H AA-TREE, H AW-TREE, the hawthorn, Cratcegus, oxyacantha, 
Linn. The fruit is called haas and cat-haas. 

HABER-NATEL, oatmeal cake. See HAVER. 
HABNAB, anyhow, in random fashion. 
HACK, a pick-axe. 

HACK [S.], HAWK [N.] , a muck fork having three or four 
tines or teeth which are bent at a right angle to the handle. 
It is used for drawing litter out of cattle lairs and similar 
places, and is sometimes called a " drag." This implement 
is probably peculiar to Northumberland, and is called a 
" teeming" hack, as it is used in emptying (teeming). There 
is also a "filling" hack, which is like a four or five-pronged 
fork bent at the neck to an angle of forty-five degrees with 
the shank. Both "teeming" and "filling" hacks are used 
when working among manure. Compare GRAIP. 

HACK, a surface fissure or chap in the skin produced by cold 
or work. Hacked hands are chapped hands. Black hackt 
is applied to hands where from work and dirt the hacks have 
become black. A deeper fissure than a hack is called a 

HACK-CLAY, a whitish sort of clay, found in Northumberland 
moors, as on the sides of the road about Ottercops and 
Raylees. It is tough, unctuous, of a whitish (colour), and 
like rotten clay (or) like that of the decomposed granite kind 
found in Somersetshire. Hodgson MS. 


Prunuspadus, Linn. Hack-wood is a name for the shrub itself, 
and hacker, hack, and hagberry are names for its fruit. 

HACKLE, an iron comb with very long, sharp-pointed, round 
teeth used for "teasing" hemp or flax. The short fibres, 
called tow, are combed out and held by the hackle. Hackler, 
a hemp or flax dresser. See HECKLE. 

HACKLE, a crest of feathers or hair ; as the long pointed 
feathers on a cock's neck [the " bonny reed hackle' 1 of the 
angler] , or the ridge on a dog's back. 

HACKSPYEL, a useless joiner or cartwright. 

HACKSTEAD, the place where bricks are laid out to dry in a 
brick garth. (Obs.) 

HAD, HAAD [T.] , HAUD, HOD [N.] , HOAD [W.-T.] , a 
grasp, a hold on anything. " To tyek had " is to take hold of. 
" Let's hev a haad together " let us wrestle together. 

HAD AW AY, equivalent to begone. " Hadaway wi' ye." Or, 
as an exhortation of encouragement, equal to " go on," " hold 
on," as in the "Hadaway Harry" to an oarsman. Howay is 
equivalent to come. 

HADDED, the p.t. of hold. 

" He hadded horses for ha'pennies." 

J. P. Robson, Days and Deeds of Shakspere, 1849. 

HADDEN, the p.p. of hold, is used in the sense of held by 
necessity; as "He's hard hadden" or "He's sair hadden" 
hardly held, sorely held. " Hoo are ye hodden ?" means how 
are you held, how is your health, or your condition, or your 
ailment. It is an idiom always suggesting an environment 
of difficulty or necessity. 

HADDER, heather. See HEDDER and HATHER. 

HADDER-UP, holder-up ; the name for a plater's helper in 
an iron shipbuilders' yard. 

HADDIN, holding. " He was haddin on for bare life." 

HADE, a sloping place, the slope or angle at which a fault 
intersects strata. In mining (lead) it is applied to the slope 
of a vein from the perpendicular. 



HADFASH [S.], HODEFASH [W.-T.], a bothersome, 
troublesome person. See HAD-TYUL. 

HAD-OFF ! hold off keep back. It is the caution shouted 
by a putter when coming on with a full tub and about to meet 
a returning empty tub. The latter must get out of the way. 

HADSEE, hold so stop so. " Fill up (the glass) an' hadsee." 

HAD-TYUL [S.], a troublesome person. "He's a reg'lar 
had-tyul ; aa wish he'd stop at hyem." Had fash is similarly 

HAD-TYUL, to hamper, to hinder. " Whe are ye haddin-tyul ?" 

HAD-WEEL, a miserly person. 
" Ane o' HadweeVs kind." Proverb. 

HAD-YOR-WHISHT, hold your tongue. Had-yor-gob is the 
commoner expression. 

HAEL [N.] , whole. 

HAFFIT, the side of the head. 

HAFFITS, the undersides of the jaw. 

HAFFLE, HUFFLE, a clout tied round a hurt finger. 

H AFFLE, to stammer, to prevaricate, to falter. To be haffled 
to be confused. Raffle has almost the same meaning. 

HAG, a certain division of wood intended to be cut down ; a 
clearing or cutting down of timber. 

HAG, HAGG, a fenced place ; a wood into which cattle are not 
admitted. Hodgson MS. Seven place-names in Northumber- 
land have this ending. Compare HAY and HAIN. 

" The hays or hags of former ages were grounds that were hedged 
round." Hodgson's Northumberland, pt. ij., vol. ij., p. 176. 

HAG, HAGG, PEAT-HAG, or MOSS-HAG, a projecting 
mass of peat forming an escarpment on a peat moor, or the 
peat on high moors left by edges of water gutters. These 
hags form miniature ravines on the surface. 

HAG, a mist, and similar to dag. Hodgson MS. 

HAG, the belly Northumberland. HalliweWs Diet. Compare 


HAG, to wane. " The muin is haggin "the moon has passed 
the full. Compare HADE. 

gift. See HOGAMANAY. 

BERRY, the fruit of the bird cherry, Prunus padus. 

HAGGER-MAKER'S-SHOP, a public house. Brocket*. 

HAGGER'T, beggared. "He wis fair hagger't"he was 
completely beggared. In boys' games the loser at marbles, 
when cleared out, is said to be hagger't. 

HAGGISH, HAGGISH-MEAT, tripe minced small. 
HAGGISH, to cut up. 

" By gox, 'fore aw's duen ye'll be haggished eneuf." 

J. P. Robson (d. 1870), A Cut at Wor Toon. 

HAGGISH, a contemptuous term, equivalent to the expression 
" you baggage." 

HAG- WORM, the blind worm or slow worm, Anguis fragilis. 
See Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div., vol. iii., p. 15. 

H AID-CORN, the plants of wheat in winter Northumberland. 
HalliwelFs Diet. Compare HARD CORN. 

HAIGLE, to carry with great difficulty. " Here she comes 
iglin wi a greet bunch o' sticks." 

HAIL, a goal at football. To kick hail is to make a goal. See 
HALE, 3. 

HAIL, to pour (verb intransitive), as perspiration does during 
severe exertion. 


HAIN, to keep back, as thrifty people do in husbanding their 
resources. A man hains his food or drink to make it go as 
far as possible. A man takes work easily and hains himself 
in order that his strength may endure to the end of the day. 
A man who has gone through a long life and presents a fresh 
appearance is said to be " weel hained." A grass field kept 
back from pasture till late in summer is said to be hained. 

HAINCH, the haunch. 


HAINCH, HENGE, to throw a stone by striking the hand 
against the haunch bone and throwing it with high trajectory. 
This is called hainchin. 

HAINING, a fenced place. Hodgson MS. 

HAIR, a small quantity of anything, as " a hair of salt," " a 
hair of meal." Bvockett. 

HAIRN, the brain. Nearly out of use except by old people. 

HAIR-TEEMSEY, a hair timse; a fine sieve with a grating 
of hair cloth, used in households for sifting fine flour. 

hairy caterpillar. The term is sometimes applied to a showy, 
helpless character. See OOBIT. 

" It was an hairy oubit, sae proud he crept alang, 
A feckless hairy oubit, and merrily he sang." 

Charles Kingsley, The Oubit. 

HAIVERIL, a loose talker. See HAVERIL. 
HAIZY, hasty, excitable. (? Hasty.) 
HAKE, to sneak or loiter. Ray. 
HALE, to pull or draw. See HAAL. 
HALE, whole. See HEYEL. 

HALE, the goal at football. To hale is to drive to goal. To 
kick hale is to win the game. 

" At Rothbury, the custom of football-play on Shrove Tuesday had 
been observed from time immemorial until the year 1867. The hale or 
goal of the Thropton men was the bridge over the Wreigh at 
Thropton." D. D. Dixon, Shrove-tide Customs, p. 3. 

HALF-A-TRAM, one of two that manage a colliery tram. 

HALF-COCKED, half-drunk. 

" HalJ-cock'd and canty hyem we gat." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 82. 

HALFERS, a cry amongst children claiming half of anything 
that has been given or found. When an article has been 
lost, a lad guards against the claim for average by calling 
out, " Ne halfers ; lossie, findie, seekie, keepie." If he finds 
it after this he is supposed to be its undivided owner. 


HALF-HECK, the lower half of a door. 

HALF-LANG-PLOO, a plough of medium length. A " lang- 
ploo " is a plough with a long mould board. A " short-ploo " 
is a short metalled one. A half-lang is between the two. 

HALF-MARROW, one of two boys, of about equal age, who 
manage a coal mine tram. 

.HALF-NABS, good for nothing. Compare HABNAB. 

HALF-NOWT, little or nothing. " Half-nowt cheese," in the 
Pitman's Pay, is the description of the cheapest kind of that 
article as sold by hawkers or street vendors. 

HALF-ROCKED, applied to a male person of rather weak 
mind ; the imputation on his infirmity is that he had not been 
properly attended to in his cradle. 

HALF-SHAFT, the water shaft in a colliery. Compleat Collier, 
1708, p. 21. 

HALF-SHOON, old shoes with the toes cut off. 

HALF-WARK, half through the day's work ; the middle of a 
shift ; half-time employment through bad trade. 

HALF-WAXED, half-grown. " A half-waxed lad " is a lad in 
the stage between boyhood and manhood. " A hobbledehoy 
nouther a man nor yit a boy." 

HALF- YARD COAL, "which is so-called, it being of about 
that thickness, but is generally good coal, and better than the 
three-quarter coal, yet being so low to work in (or but of that 
small thickness), it is scarce worth while to work it." J. C., 

Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 16. 

H ALLAN, the young of the coalsay, or coal-fish, in their 
second stage of growth, when they are about five inches in 
length. See COALSAY. 

HALLAN, HALLEN, HOLLIN, the partition or screen 
between the door and the fire-place, frequently made of 
wicker-work, and plastered with clay, extending from the 
front door of a cottage to within the width of a door of the 
back wall. (Obs.) 

H ALLEN-SHAKER, an impudent, presuming beggar. (Obs.) 


HALLIDAY, holiday. 

HALLIG1T, HALLIGATE, a romp, a hoyden. 

HALLINES, or HALINESS [N.], a Sunday holiday walk. 
Pronounced in three syllables. 

HALLINGS, tapestry. (Obs.) 

HALLION, a contemptible person, a clumsy fellow. 

H ALTON SHIELDS. " ' Like the man at Halton Shields' 
was a saying that was common a while ago. This celebrated 
personage set off on a journey, and after travelling laboriously 
all night, found himself at his own back door next morning." 
Dr. Bruce, Handbook to Roman Wall, 1884, p. 57. 

-HAM, Anglo-Saxon ham. This word occurs about thirty-seven 
times as an ending to place-names in Northumberland. Nine 
of the hams are prefixed with " ing," giving the termination 
of -ingham. They are Belling/bw, Belting^w, Edling/^w, 
Egling/kiw, EllingAtfw, Eltring#0w, Ovingham, Whitting/Mwz, 
and Chillmgham. All these, except the last one, are spoken 
as injam. [Qvinjam, lE>e\\injam, &c.] In three cases there are 
hams and "tons" with identical prefixes, namely: ILllmgham, 
Ellington, WhittingA^w, Whittington, Ovingham, Ovington. 
In later spellings, ham has in cases become " comb." Thus 
Wink-tez-lee is Wincomblee, and Yek-ham (or Oak-ham) is 
now Acomb. 

" When I heard, along the Roman Wall, such names as 
and Oving/taw sounded with a soft g, surely, I said in my heart, here are 
folk who are Westsaxonibus ipsis Westsaxonicres." Freeman, English Towns 
and Districts, p. 448. 

HAME [N.], home. See HEYEM, HYEM. 

HAME-STICKS, HYEM-STICKS, the arms that hold the 
traces to the collar in a horse's gear. 

HAMMER, to strike in a fight, to beat in fighting. To 'hammer 
and to " pay " both mean the same thing to give a thorough 
drubbing or beating to an adversary. 

HAMMER-AXE, an implement having a hammer on one side 
of the handle and an axe on the other. Bvockett. 

HAMMER-CLAAD, like the claws of a nail hammer. A tail 
coat is still called a " hammer-claad cwoat." This " taily cwoat," 
formerly common, is now rarely seen in outdoor wear. 


HAMMER-DRESSED, stone faced with a pick or pointed 

HAMMER-HEEL, the portion of the face of a hammer next 
the hand. 

HAMMER-NOSE, the portion of the hammer face opposite to 
the "heel." When a hand hammer is held up by the helve, 
and the flat disc of its " face " placed opposite to the observer, 
the upper portion of the disc is the nose, and the lower, or 
portion towards the helve, is the "heel/' The pointed end 
of the hammer head is called the " peen." 

HAM MY, a sheepish or cowardly person. In cock-fighting, a 
hammy was a bird not of the game breed ; one that fought and 
ran away. 

HAMSHACKLE, to fasten the head of an animal to one of its 
hams or forelegs. Brockett. 

H ANCLE, a great many. Bwckett. See HANTLE. 
HAND, HAN. " To put hand to paper "to write. 

HAND, the fore upright of a gate. "Hand and bar" front 
and back uprights. See HAR. 

HAND, HAN, neighbourhood. " Belford hand," " Ooler hand." 
HAND-A-WHILE, now and then. 
HANDBRAED, handbreadth. 

HANDBUN, handbound ; also used to express a great want of 
anything. An old bird fancier named Dick Cubbert (Cuthbert) 
when asked how he was getting on, replied, " Middlin ! Aa's 
fair handbun for the want o' a Jack" (jackdaw). 

HANDED. " Weel handed "clever at particular work. 

HAND-HATS, a kind of glove made of thick felt, covering 
only the palm of the hand and the fingers. 

HAND-PUTTER, or BARROWMAN, in a colliery, one who 
" puts" without the assistance of a pony. 

HANDSPYAKES, handspikes ; pieces of wood with handles, 
used for carrying coffins from the hearse to the church, and 
from the church to the grave, in country places. Compare 


HANDSTAFF, the handle of a flail. The moveable end is 
called the " soople " or " swingle." 

HANDSTURN, a turn of work. 

HAND-TIED, unable to leave a job you are engaged in, 

HAND-WAVE, to " streek " a measure of corn with the hand by 
waving or passing the fingers over it to leave good measure. 

HANDY, a hand-basin ; also a small " skeel " used for baling or 
for laving water from a well. 

HANDY-DANDY, a child's game. 
HANG. See HING and following words. 

HANG, a snare for catching rabbits and hares ; a noose made 
of very fine wire or hair. 

H ANG- A-BAAK, a gallows bird, one ripe for the gallows ; for 
hanging from a balk. 

HANG-CHOICE, no difference. 

HANGER, HINGER, a hinge-pin for a gate; as generally 
used on field or garden gates. 

HANGEREL, a piece of wood, with a bend in the middle, and 
notches on the upper side at each end. It is used for 
suspending a pig or other animal after it is killed. 

HANG-GALLOWS, a lazy, good-for-nothing fellow. 
Compare HANG-A-BAAK. 

HANG-LOCK, a padlock; still used, but probably obsolescent. 
HANGY-BANGY, a big lazy fellow, a good-for-nothing. 
HANK, a habit. Brockett. The same as HANT. 
HANKELT, hobbled, entangled. 

HANKER, to hesitate in speech, to speak with an impediment. 
HANKLE, to entangle, to ravel. 

HANNIEL, a lout; a loose, idle, or perverse fellow; a good- 


HAN-SHECKLES, handcuffs. 

HANSHUN, a wicked grunt ; a savage way of feeding like a pig. 

HAN-SPAN, very heartily. 

HANT, a habit. 

HANT, to haunt, to accustom, as a pigeon to its dovecot. 

HANTLE, a quantity, ever so much, ever so many. 

HANTY, wanton, unruly; spoken of a horse or the like, when 
provender pricks him. Ray, Collection of North-Country Words, 

HAP, an overcoat, or coverlet, or any extra article of clothing 
or bed covering. " Put a hap on the bed " put an extra 
covering on it. An ancient Scottish proverb says, " Hap and 
a halfpenny is warld's gear enough." 

11 Becaus their fatheris purelie can begin 
With hap, and halfpenny, and a lamb's skin." 

The Thrie Tailes of the Thrie Priests of Peebles. 

HAP, to heap up, to cover. " They happed up the taties an' 
tornips wi straa." " He had his fyece happed wiv a greet 
comforter." "Hap weel up; it's a caad neet." 
" Gae hap him up i' his lang hame." 

Poems, T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, P- 62. 

HAP, to bechance. " Aa'll be there o' Monday as it haps" 

HAPPIN, a coverlet. There is a very similar word, hippen. 
An impatient audience in the theatre expresses its disgust at 
the delay in raising the curtain by cries of " Hoist the hien: 1 

HAR, the upright pieces of a gate known as the back har and 
the fore har. Middle English herre, a hinge. 

HAR, moist, damp. 

HAR, a sea fret, a drizzling rain or fog. 

HAR, an army. HARSHIP, or HEARSHIP, an armed raid. 
Centers into the names of several places in Northumber- 
land as //^low-hill, Harbottle, Herpzth (the name of a road 
dividing the township of Ray and Kirkwhelpington). Hcrfieth 
and Urpeth are apparently synonymous words 


HARBERANCE, harbourage, good shelter. " Thor's a lot 
o' rattins this year ; the rough stubbles is been a grand 
harberance for them." 

HARD, a firm foreshore, used for beaching vessels. 
HARD (p.k. of hear), heard. " Aa hard ye wor comin." 
HARD-CORN, wheat and rye. 

HARDEN, a coarse cloth made from tow or hemp. Also 
applied to the tarred tow or oakum used for caulking the 
seams of ships. See HARN. 

HARDEN, as "the market hardens" that is, things grow 
dear. Ray's Collection of North- Country Words. 

HARD-HEEDS, knapweed, Centaurea nigra, Linn. Called also 

HARDISH, pretty hard. 

HARDLIES, hardly, scarcely, barely. " He'd hardlies getten 
there when it happened." " Ye's hardlies catch the train, aa 

HARDY, HARDEY, a fixed, shouldered chisel, placed upright 
in a square hole in the blacksmith's anvil, upon which he 
cuts hot iron. 

HARDY NUT, a boyish game played with beech nuts pierced 
with a hole for a string. Each alternately aims a blow at his 
opponent's nut so as to break it. 

HAREHOOND, the plant horehound, Marrubium vulgare, Linn. 
It is found in waste places on rocks and links at Bamborough, 
Alnwick, Cullercoats, and Hexham island. 

HARE-SHED, a hair lip. 

HARISHER, a large quantity; used to express number in 

HARL, HAURL, an implement for cleaning mud from the 
roads. A manure scraper, a col. Col, drag, hack and harl 
are the names of various implements used in drawing or 
scraping mud or litter. 

HARL, to drag, to rake. "To harl the road" to rake the 
mud off the road. 


HARLE, "in angling, is the feathery part on each side of the 
pen of a feather, and is particularly applied to that of the tail 
feathers of a peacock when employed in giving an iridescent 
appearance to the bodies of artificial flies, in which case it is 
called ' peacock hark.' " Hodgson MS. 

HARLE, a heron or a heronry (?). Little Hark and West 
Hark, townships in Northumberland, and Kirk Hark, parish 
in the same, give examples of harle, but whether related in 
any way to this word is doubtful. 

HARM, to repeat mockingly. " Divvent harm maa words." 

HARN, HAREN, HARDEN, a coarse hempen cloth. The 
name is sometimes applied to a coarse thread. 

HARNESS-CASK, a receptacle on board ship where the 
meat, after being taken out of the pickle cask, is kept ready 
for use. It is an upright cask with straight, tapering sides, 
narrowing to the top, which closes with a hinged lid and 

HARNS, brains. HARN-PAN, brain-pan. 
HARRIN, HARRN, HEERIN, the herring. 

HARRIN-GYTE,the herring spawn found adhering to herring 
nets during fishing operations. 

HARRISH, harsh. 
HARRISH, to ravage. 

HARROW. The terms used in connection with a harrow are 
as follows : Harrowbreeth, the breadth of a harrow as shown 
by the mark on the land over which it has been dragged ; 
harrow-bulls, the longitudinal beams of a harrow which contain 
the teeth; harrow-sheth, the transverse framework; harrow- 
sHaikh, the shackle by which a pair of harrows are linked 
together; harrow-tree, the piece of wood by which the harrow 
is yoked. Attached to this is the double-tree, and to this are 
attached the single-trees to which the horses are yoked. 

pvr A TT, A T ? A RYGAD ' HARRYGOAT [Hexham], 
HARRYGAUD, HADDIGAUD, a blackguard sort of 
person. Brocket*. Compare HALLIGIT. 

" A rigsby, a wild girl."-Ray's Collection of North-Country Words, 1691. 


HARTHSTAFF, a blacksmith's tool for drawing scar from 
the fire. 

HASH, a sheep's lights boiled, then minced small and stewed 
with onions. 

HASH, a sloven ; one who talks hash or nonsense. 

HASH, to bruise. To hash corn means to partially grind it. 
Hashed oats are in common use for feeding purposes. The 
word is also used to denote injury to animals, as " The horse 
was gye sair hashed." 

HASHY [N.], wet, sleety. Applied to the weather. " Eh ! 
what a hashy day." Slushy, dirty. After snow begins to melt 
upon the ground it is, more especially if rain be falling, hashy 
walking. The sea agitated by short turbulent waves is 
termed hashy. 

HASK, the throat. "Pap o' the hask" the uvula. See HASS. 

HASK, roughened, dried-up. Dry and parched. A hask wind 
is keen and parching. Hask lips are parched lips. Hask is 
als applied to the sense of feeling when anything from its 
touch appears unpleasantly dry or hard. Hask coal is very 
hard, brittle coal; or coal that is "winded" or woody in 

HASS, HAUSE, the neck, the throat, the windpipe. 
HASS-BAND, HAUSE-BAND, a necklet or collar. 

HASS-PIPE, a hause-pipe on board ship. The wide hole 
through which the cable or hawser is run out. 

"So called because made in the 'neck' of the ship." Prof. Skeat, 
Concise Etymological Dictionary. 

HASTENER, a semi-circular tin screen placed behind meat in 
roasting before the fire, to keep the cold air off and hasten the 
cooking by reflected heat. 

HASTY PUDDING, HYESTY PUDDIN, oatmeal porridge. 

HAT, p.t. of hit ; p.p. hutten or kitten. Hat and hut are used in 
thep.t., as " Aa hat him ; he hut me." 

" Firing right manfully at her, 
He hat her betwixt the two lugs." 

The Hare Skin. 


HATCH, a gate. " Near a wicket or hatch at Cockmount 
Hill." Compare HALF HATCH. 

HATHER, HADDER, common heather, Calluna vulgavis. 
Called also ling. See HEATHER. 

"In this North Country groweth plenty of hadder or ling." Grey, 
Chorographia, 1649. 

" Erica, which is called in the North of England hather and ling. The 
highest heath that ever I saw groweth in Northumberland, which is so 
high that a man may hide himself in it." Turner's Herbal. 

HATTER, to shake up, as on a rough road. " He wis sair 
kattevt" is said of a person who has had a bad time of it in his 
circumstances generally. 

HATTY, a game at leap-frog where each boy leaves his cap on 
the back as he leaps over. The boy who " makes the back " 
is called hatty. If a boy causes a cap to slip off as he leaps 
he becomes hatty. 

HAUD, to hold. See HAD. 

HAUGH, HAAF, an alluvial flat or stretch of low-lying land 
on a riverside ; Derwent haughs, Dilston haughs, Wide-hatigh. 
The termination occurs forty-four times in Northumberland 
place-names. Haugh is rarely found south of the Wear. 

HAUNCH, to speak sharply. " He fair haunched at me." 
Also to snarl. " The dog haunched at me." 

HAURL, a col or drag, such as is used for scraping a road. 
It is a kind of scraper with a long handle. See HARL. 

HAUSE, the neck, or throat. See HASS. 

HAVER, oats, A vena sativa, Linn. Havermeal, oatmeal. Haver- 
kist, an oatmeal chest. Haver-cake, or haver-nettle, an oatmeal 
cake. A haversack was known to the ragged and tanned 
Borderer in righting trim, as it is to the modern soldier. To 
the Borderer, however, it was the oatmeal sack. 

HAVER, or HAVERS, nonsense. " A havers "an incoherent 
or garrulous person, or a rambling or wandering story. 

HAVERIL HAVREL, or HAIVERIL, a garrulous person, 
ougntless gossip, a noisy person with little sense. 



HAWK [N.] , an implement or hand-tool for filling manure. 
A " teeming" hawk, an implement for unloading manure. 
See HACK. 

HAWKIE, a white-faced cow. Also a general pet-name for 
the cow. 

" Ca Hawkie, ca Hawkie,, 
Ca Hawkie through the watter. 
Hawkie is a sweir beast, 
And Hawkie winna wade the watter." 

Old Song. 

HAWK-WEED, the various kinds of the plant family 

HAY, a place fenced round. 

"Hays or inclosures." Hodgson's Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. iii., p. 89. 

HAY-CHAT, the whinchat, Pratincola rttbetra, Linn. 

HAZE, to drizzle, to be foggy. Brockett. 
" It hazes, it mizzles small rain." Bailey. 

HAZE-GAZE, a show in the sense of an exhibition of oneself. 
A country cousin makes a hase-gaze by staring about in the 


HAZEL, HAZLE, sandstone generally of a kind too hard to 
work freely under the chisel, or a tough mixture of sandstone 
and shale in a pit. 

" Strong red hazel freestone mixed with coal spar." Borings and 
Sinkings, A.B., p. 159. 

" The sandstones denominated hazles have a highly crystalline and 
metamorphic appearance." Richard Howse, Nat. Hist. 'Irans., vol. x., 
1890, p. 275. 

HAZEL-OIL, chastisement with the rod, a severe beating. 

HE, HEH, HAE, HEV, to have. As an auxiliary verb, have 
is generally shortened to a mere v sound. " Aa'w been 
there." When emphasis is required the aspirated form is 
used. See HEV, HEZ. 


HEAD, an eminence ; as Greeuhead, at the watershade between 
the Irthing and the Tippalt. 


HEAD SUNDAY, the Sunday after Old Midsummer Day. 

HEAN, HEEN, the part of a plough which grips the sheth. 
Called also the little heel. 

HEAP, HEUP, a wicker basket, a dry measure somewhat 
correspondent to the beatment.Brockett. See reference under 


" Quarter of a pec\t."Halliwell. 

HEAP, a term applied to a slovenly woman, usually in 
combination with some other descriptive word, as 

" She's just a gannin heap o' muck." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, 

pt. i., v. 59. 

HEAP-KEEPER, the man who overlooks the cleaning of coals 
on the surface. Mining Glossary of Newcastle Terms, 1852. 

HEAP-STEED, HEAP-STEAD, the platform at a pit's 
mouth elevated above the surface level to allow the coals to 
be tipped over screens into waggons. The tubs are landed 
on the heap-steed and run to the screens. 

HEARN (the same as harn or harden"), a coarse cloth. 
HEARSE, hoarse. 

HEARTGROUEN (heart-grown), having spinal-curvature. 
High-shouldered, short-necked people, with a broad chest 
and slightly round-shouldered whilst the other parts of the 
body are not in due proportion are said to be heartgrouen. 

HEART-HYEL, in good health. "An' hoo are ye?" "Oh, 
grand just heart-hyel" Heart-hyel is the equivalent of hearty, 
relating to the spirits. Hyel is also used when the bodily 
health is meant, as meat-hyel that is, in good bodily health. 
" Hoo are ye ?" " Oh, fine, a'am mea.t-hyel." 

" Hyel is English hale, which is simply from the Old Northumbrian 
hal, the equivalent of Anglo-Saxon hal (whole)." Note by Professor Skeat. 

HEART-O'-THE-HEARTH, the self-heal, a plant of many 
virtues, Prunella vulgaris, Linn. Everywhere common in grassy 
places. It has a range in altitude 1,500 feet on Cheviot and 
i, 800 feet above Allenheads. It is also called prince's feathers. 

HEARTS, wood sorrell, Oxalis acetosella, Linn. Hearts, from 
the shape of the leaf. It is also variously known as 
clover, ciickoo's meat, gowk's meat, and sour clover. 


HEART-SCAD, grief, vexation ; the heartburn. Brockett. 

HEARTY. Meal that swells much on being saturated with 
water is termed heayty. 

HEAT, a charge in a puddling or a ball furnace, a pile in a 
furnace ready for the forgeman, or a bar in a blacksmith's 
fire ready to weld. " Sittin' doon atween heats" that is, in 
the interval between the completion of one heat and the 
preparation of another. 

HEATHER, the northern name for heath generally. In 
Coquetdale and various other parts of Northumberland, when 
the word is used in a restricted sense, it is applied to the 
common heath (Calluna vulgaris) only. Calhina vulgaris is the 
Erica vulgaris of the earlier botanists, and is sometimes called 
bee-heather. Erica tetralix and Erica cinerea are also known as 
heather, but when spoken of distinctively are (in the above 
district, at least) invariably designated ling. The Calhina 
vulgaris is also called he-heather and heath. Erica cinerea and 
Erica tetralix are called she and bell-heather. See LING. 

HEATHER-BL EATER, the common snipe, Gallinago 
scolopacinus. It is also called mire-bleater and gutter -snipe. 

"A common resident, breeding on the marshy moorland of both 
counties. The neighing or bleating of the snipe results from the action 
of the wings." John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and Durham. 

HEATHER-BUZZOM, a besom made of heather. 

HEATHER-COCK, the ring ouzel, Turdus torquatus. Called 
also ring blackbird. 

HEATHER LINTY, the mountain linnet, Cannabina flavirostris. 

HEATHER-WHIN, the needle genista, Genista Anglica, Linn- 
it is also called moor-whin and moss-whin. 

HEAZE, to wheeze. 

HEAZY, wheezy in breathing. 

HECK, a rack ; the food rack of horses and beasts. 

HECK, HECK-DOOR, the inner door between the entry, or 
lobby, and the house or kitchen. A half-heck is a door having 
an upper and lower half. The lower half is generally the 
portion closed by day. Compare HATCH. 


HECK, turn to the left ; the command to a horse. 

HECK, in husbandry, is to proceed in forming a rig by turning 
the horses to the left hand after it has been half finished 
by turning to the right. The first operation to the right is 
called "to gether" ; the second operation, by turning to the 
left, is called to heck or " felly oot " the rig. 

HECK-BERRY, the bird cherry, Prunus padus. See HACKER- 

HECKBOARD, the loose and removable boa*rd at the back of 
a cart fixed to the " shilvins." It is fit in, and thus completes 
the square form of the cart. 

HECKLE, an angler's fly. "The bonny reed heckle," usually 
made from the red feathers of a cock. Another artificial fly 
is the black heckle or blaewing. See HACKLE. 

HECKLEBARNEY, the shades below. " Can to hecklebarney 
wi' ye!" 

HECKLER, a bad tongued woman ; a boy's top when it spins 
unsteadily ; a good eater ; one with a good .appetite. 

HED (a variant of had), p.t. of have. 
HEDGEHOG, to break and turn up the ends of wire rope. 
HEDGE-KNIFE, a hedging bill. 

HEDGE-RUT, hedge root. To sit in the hedge-rut is to sit 
under the shelter of a hedge. 

HE ?i G j Y> the hedge s P arrow > Prunella modularis. It is also 
called spowey and smotty. 

HEE, high. HE-EST, highest. Hee-up, high up. Healey, a 
place-name occurs more than once in Northumberland. It 
is probably high lea (hee ley). 

/*"* ln Newcastle ^ also used to describe the 

a stree ' as " Heed ' the side -" Jt is als 


HEEDLAND, HEEDRIG, the rig or ridge at the termination 
of both ends of the longitudinal rigs, or sometimes across 
the middle of a field in like fashion, when the field is divided 
into two sheths or divisions. The heedland or heedvig is the 
margin on which the horses turn with their implements when 
cultivating the soil. This portion is necessarily cultivated 
after the rest of the field is finished. 

HEEDS-AN-THRAAS, heads and tails ; head to head and 
tail to tail, as herring are packed. 

HEED-SHEETS, the fore deck of a keel on which the keelmen 
work their long oar. 

HEEDSMAN, the name in North Tynedale for the head or 
chief of a " grain " or clan. 

HEEDSMAN, an elder lad, a putter. The heedsman was a lad 
of sixteen or seventeen, the elder of two engaged to put a 
tram where a single hand was not strong enough to put it 
without assistance. This arrangement was called a " tram 
of lads," and the younger lad was called a "foal," or, 
familiarly, a " foally." One of these was yoked in front to 
the tram by short ropes or " soams." Sometimes the heedsman 
was thus yoked whilst the "foally" put behind, and in other 
cases the positions were reversed. See FOAL. 

HEED-TREE, HEAD-TREE, a piece of wood about a foot 
long set across the head of an upright prop to support the 
roof in a pit. Compare CROWN-TREE. 

HEED-WARK, the head-ache. A wark is distinguished from 
a mere aching sensation, inasmuch as it is always applied to 
an inward pulsating or working pain. 

HEEDWIS, HEAD-WAYS, the ways in a pit driven with the 
" cleat " of the coal. " Winning heedwis " are exploratory 
headways, and when two such are driven together they are 
called " fore " and " back " headways. Compare BORD. 

HEEDWIS, in a forward direction, onward. ( 

HEEDWIS-COURSE. When a set of headings or walls in a 
pit extend from side to side of a set of "boards" they are 
said to be driven headways course. 


HEEL, the rear point of a plough-sock is called the heel, so 
also is any rear projection, such as the bearance for a lever. 
In a plough, the little-heel, sometimes called the hean, is 
the part gripping the sheth. The last or extreme end of a 
thing is called its heel. The heel of a loaf is the last piece of 
the outside crust that is left. Heel of the evening the latter 
part of the evening. 

HEESTERIN, a handle for hoisting or lifting. (Obsolescent.) 

HEEZE, to rock with a swinging movement, to hoist, to 
elevate. " Aa gat sic a heezin on the shuggy-shoe." The 
familiar lullaby "Rock a by baby" was always rendered 

" Heeze a ba babby on the tree top ; 
When the wund blaas the credle will rock." 

HEFFER, to laugh vulgarly. 

HEFFERIN, laughing in an imbecile fashion. 

HEFT, to hold back, to hold to a place, or to each other. To 
heft is to let a cow's milk increase for two or three days till 
her udder gets large and hard, as is done with milk cows 
taken to market. In that state they are said to be hefted. 
Another sense of the word is to become accustomed to and 
settled in a place ; generally applied to sheep and cattle. To 
heft, to keep stock upon a certain pasture until accustomed to 
go there. 

HEG, to rue, to repent of doing a thing. See HEN. 

HEGH ! or HUH ! the stroke groan uttered by a blacksmith, 
or the expiration which emphasizes the delivery of a blow. 
Two men were engaged in working a heavy pavior's mell. 
One of them was asked if he did not find it very heavy work. 
" Yis," he replied, " it tyeks the two on us aal wor time. Me 
mate dis the mell an' aa de the huh /" See BLACKSMITH-OF- 


HE-HOLLY, HE-HOLLIN, the holly, Ilex aquifolium, with 
pricks on the leaves. When the leaves are without prickles 
it is called she-hollin. See HOLLIN and SHE-HOLLIN. 

HELL, HELLE, to pour out in a rapid manner. Brockett. 
See HAIL, 2. 


HELM, the top (crest) or head of a thing. " Helm o' the hill," 
as it used to be invariably called, is a considerable eminence 
on the old post road a few miles south of Felton. It 
commands a most extensive view on all sides, and appears as 
if it had been in olden times of some importance, for which 
its commanding situation eminently qualifies it. The helmwind 
is the phenomenon so familiar on the Cumberland border of 
South- Western Northumberland. It rushes with the greatest 
violence over the ridge of the Pennine range. 

HELSUM, wholesome, healthsome. 

HELTER-FOR-HELTER, an even " swap " or exchange of 

HELTERSHANK, the rope from the "halter-heed" to the 
balance weight that hangs below the manger, and runs 
through an iron ring therein fixed. 

HEMMEL, a cattle shed. An outbuilding on a farm ; formerly 
made of upright posts, with whin or broom interlaced, and a 
thatched roof; chiefly used in winter and the lambing season. 
The permanent hemmel, which forms a conspicuous feature in 
Northumberland farm buildings, is surrounded by a fold 
yard, and has in front an arcade of massive masonry, 
frequently surmounted by a granary. The hemmel-eye is the 
archway or orifice giving access to the covered arcade. 
Four inhabited and four uninhabited place-names in Northum- 
berland occur in combination with hemmel. Example, Red 

HEMP, HEMPY, a boisterous or mischievous boy. 

HEN, to rue. " He seun kenned on't " he soon gave it up, or 
tired of doing it. 

roost, the balk or pole on which hens roost. 

HEN-FLESH [N.], the condition of the pores of the skin as 
they stand up through extreme cold. " Goose's-flesh " is 
also used as a term for this condition of the skin. Compare 

HENGE, HAINCH, to throw underhand. 

" To throw stones by bringing the hand along the haunch." Jamieson. 



HEN-HARRIER, or GREY GLED, the Circus cyaneus, Linn. 
It formerly bred on the Newcastle Town Moor. 

" It has now almost succumbed to the zeal of the gamekeeper. I have 
not seen a single individual for several years." John Hancock, Birds of 
Northumberland and Durham, p. 19. 

HENNA, HENNIT, have not. 

rattle, Rhinanthus christa galli, or cock's crest rhinanthus. 
The form of hen-penny has been further changed to penny-wort, 
another name for the plant. Goivk's siller and gowk's sixpences 
are also terms for the capsules and the seeds of the plant. 
The rattle of the seeds gives the name of yellow rattle to it. 
The term gowk is said by Dr. Johnston to be given because, 
like a fool, it is unable to conceal its wealth through this 
rattling of the seed. Botany of Eastern Borders, p. 156. Gowk 
may, however, also allude to the profitless character of this 

HEN-PEN, sweepings from the fowl house of great manurial 

HENS, HENS-KAIMS, the spotted orchis, Orchis maculata, 
Linn. Variously known also as adder-grass and deed-man's- 

HEN-SCARTINS, " Hen-scrattings, long pencilled clouds, said 
to indicate rain or wind." Brockett. Called also mare's tails. 

HEP-TREE, briar rose. See HIP, i. 

HERD, HIRD, HERID [N.], HARD [S.I , a shepherd, a 
cattle keeper. The passage, Ezekiel xxxiv., v. 10, " I will 
require my flock at their hand," is translated into Northum- 
brian of the fourteenth century, in the Pricke of Conscience, as 
" Lo, I sal aske my flok of shepe 
Of the hird that had tham under his hand." 

Edition Morris, 1. 5,890. 

And the passage " There shall be one fold and one shepherd" 
is given in the same poem 

" Alle folkes to fald sal falle, 
And a hirde sail be to kepe tham alle." 

Ibid, 1. 4,637. 

HERD'S-MAUD [N.] , a chequered plaid worn by shepherds. 
This has a triangular corner wherein the shepherd carries 
weak lambs, or any food he requires. It is called the maud 


HEREAWAY, hereabout, in this neighbourhood. 

Ardea Cinnerea, Linn. The ash-coloured heron or hernshaw. 

HERSELL, a lot or group of sheep. In Northumberland, a 
whole flock is often divided in two, three, or more hersells, 
each attended by its own distinct shepherd. See HIRSEL. 

HET, an exclamation of impatience. " Het ! haud yur tongue." 
Hets and houts are variants of the word. 

HET, p.t. of the verb to heat ; p.p. fatten. 
HET-HIVE, an eruption or small boil on the skin. 

HET-PINT, warmed ale with spirit in it.Brockett, third 

HETTER, eager, earnest, keen, bitter, cross, ill-natured. 
HalliwelVs Dictionary and Ray's Collection. 

HETTLE, hasty, fiery, hot-tempered. "Hetth tongued "hot 
spoken, irascible. 

HETTLE, probably to act in haste or anger. A pitman, 
charged with throwing his lamp down the pit shaft, said "He 
nobbut fattled it away, an' it stotted off the flat sheets an' 
doon the shaft." 

HEUDIN, the hooding, a piece of cow-hide lashed on to the 
end of the " soople " or " swingle " of a flail in the form of an 
eye. A piece of leather called a " couplin " passes through 
the " heudin " and connects the movable arm, or " soople," 
with the handstaff. The word is also given as hunden. 

HEUGH, a precipitous hill, a cliff, a cleft or dell with steep 
sides, but without a stream in it. The word enters into the 
names of twenty-four places in Northumberland. J. V. 
Gregory, Archaologia Mlicma, vol. ix., p. 66. Redheu^h, at 
Tarset Linn, and at Gateshead, Painter Heugh, in Newcastle, 
Robsheugh, Stamfordham Heitgh, Ratcto^A, and Brokente^A, 
are all local examples of these steep acclivities. 

HEUGHN, the upper end of a keel's mast. The pronunciation 
is like huun a long soft u. 

HEUK, HEUCK, a hook. See HYUK. 


HEUK, HEUK-BANE, the hip-bone. 
HEUK-FINGERED, light-fingered, thievish. 
HEUK-NEBBED, hook-nosed. 

HEUL, an extravagant person in anything. See HifEL, 2. 
HEUP, a measure of a quarter peck. See HEAP, i. 

HEV, the emphatic form of the verb have. Used also when the 
word following begins with an open vowel or h mute. 

HEW, to work coal. 

HEWER, a pitman who works coal. 

HEWL, HEWEL, a headstrong, ungovernable person. See 
HUEL, 2. 

HEWLISH [S.] , reckless, lavish. See HUEL. 
HEWLY, slowly, softly. 
HEYEL [S.] , HYEL [T.], whole. 

HEYEL-WATTER, HYEL-WATTER, a heavy rain. See 

HEYEM [S.], HYEM [T.] , home. "Theyhed sic a hyem- 
comin as nivver was." is home made ; of rude 

HEYEMS, HYEMS, or HYEMSTICKS. The bent sticks or 
irons which go round a horse's collar. The hamesticks, from 
ham, the bend of the leg, are two pieces bent like the ham. 

HEZ, has. " He hez nowt." 

HEZZLE, hazel. A hezzle is either a walking stick or a rod 
used for punishment. Hence hezzle, to castigate. 

HEZZLE-SCOWB, a strong hazel wand of some three or four 
years' growth, used in making " crab-creeves " (traps for 
crabs). A "creeve" has a lattice woodwork bottom, and 
into holes burnt along the sides the scowbs are inserted, and 
bent over, arch fashion, and then covered with a net. See 

HEZZLE- WAN, a hazel wand or shoot of hazel. 


HICK, to hesitate. " He kicked at forst, but they gat him to 
gan on." 

HICK, to cry intermittently. " What a discontented bairn 
that is; it's constant kickin on." A child pretending to cry 
is said to kick. 

HICKORY-FYECED, pock-marked, ill visaged. 

HICKUP-SNICKUP, the hiccough. 

HIDDY-GIDDY, hither and thither, topsy-turvy. (Obs.) 

HIDLINS, secretly, clandestinely, applied to anything done 
by stealth. Brockett. (Obs.) 

" Hidel, a place of protection, a sanctuary." Bailey. 

HIE, turn left ; used by the driver of a horse. Hup is turn to 
the right. See HYE. Compare HITE and HECK. 

HIKE, HEYK, to swing, to sway with a rising and falling 
motion. A nurse hikes her child when she tosses it up and 
down in her arms. Hodgson. To lift suddenly with a jerk. 
When a cart jolts, or a boat rises and falls, it is said to hike. 
Compare HEEZE. 

HIKE, a swinging gait. 
HI KEY, a swing. 
HILL-OAT, the Avena nuda. 

HIM, used for the nominative singular he. "Him an* me's 

HINCHY-PINCHY, a game in which the play is begun 
gently, and gradually increased in intensity. Boy : " Aa'll 
play ye at kincky-pinchy." Strikes gently his companion, who 
returns the blow, until it becomes a fight. The term is also 
employed in games of leaping, where the first player gives an 
easy leap, and each succeeding player exceeds the leap of his 
predecessor, until the game is left in the hands of the best 

HIND, a farm servant hired by the year at so much per week. 
Hinds formerly had "corn wages," and were mostly paid in 
kind by the produce of the farm, which included the pasturage 
of a cow. Money wages are now general. At present 
sixteen to eighteen shillings per week, with house free, coals 


carted, a garden, and generally some potatoes planted on the 
farm or "found" for him. Sometimes a cow is kept or 
"found," and in this case something like five shillings per 
week is deducted from the wage. This custom, however, is 
falling into disuse. At the hiring a stipulation is often made 
by the farmer that the hind must furnish a female field- 
worker at a stipulated price per day, with extra wage in 
harvest time. This extra hand is called a " bondager." The 
"bondager" is either the hind's wife or grown-up daughter, 
or else, but that rarely, an extra hand employed specially. 
At Alnwick, a good " bondager," strong and useful, is held in 
more estimation by farmers than a man. The women do 
nearly every kind of man's work on a farm, except ploughing ; 
and a good deal more hard work falls to their share than to 
the hind's. 

HIND-BERRY, a raspberry, Rubus idwis, Linn. The place- 
name Hindley probably takes its name from the plant. 
Broomley, Farnley, Slaley, and Lingey-field are similar 
examples of places with plant-names. 

HINDERSOME, hindering, impeding. "The bad weather's 
very hindersome for the harvist." 

KING, to hang. 

" 'Fore the fire aw kings the beef." J. P. Robson, Wor Mally Turned 

KING, to incline or dip ; a pit term. 

HINGER, a loop at the end of a whip shank on which the 
whip is hung. 

KING-LOCK, a padlock. 

HING-ON, to start to draw coals. Hingtr-on, an onsetter in a 
pit. "To king i' the britchen " is to shirk work, like a lazy 

HINNEY-HOW, or HINNEYS-HOW ! An exclamation of 
surprise. Halliwell. 

HINNY, a term of kindly regard, generally applied to women 
and children. Like the word canny, this is one of the choicest 
of our local terms, and they are often used together, as 
" canny himiy" 

" Where hest te been, ma canny hinney? 

An' where hest te been, ma bonny bairn ? 
Aw was up and down seekin' for ma hinney 
Aw was thro 1 the toon seekin 1 for ma bairn." 


It is applied m the purest and most lovable sense to sweet- 
heart, wife, or bairn. 

" The kye are come hame, but I see not my hinnie ; 

The kye are come hame, but I see not my bairn, 
I'd rather lose all the kye than lose my hinnie ; 
I'd rather lose all the kye than lose my bairn." 

Old song, The Kye's Come Home. 

HINT, the rear, the back, the hindermost, the very last. 

HIP, the fruit of the wild rose. Dog hips are the fruit of the 
Rosa canina, and cat hips (or cat heps] the fruit of/?. Spinosissima. 
Compare HAA. 

HIP, to hop. Compare HITCK, 2. 

HIPPEET, HIPPIT, the condition experienced when the 
muscles of the thighs have been over-strained and become 
painful from much stooping at work. The sufferer is said to 
be "a' hippeet." 

HIPPIN, a napkin for the hips of an infant. Also often applied 
to the curtain of a theatre. " Hoist the hippin " is the common 
cry of an audience impatient of the delay in starting a 

HIPPIN-STONES, stepping-stones across a stream. To hip 
is to hop, and the action of crossing by stepping-stones is 
hippintor hoppin from one to the other. 

" Hope came Mppynge after." 

Piers Plowman, p. 351. 

HIPPLE, to limp. Compare HIRPLE. 
HIPPLETY-CLINCH, a lame or halting person. 

HIPPY-BEDS, a child's game, played by hopping or hippin 
over "beds" chalked out and kicking a broken crock, or 
" playgin," over the chalk marks with the foot on which the 
player hips. The game is also called hitchey-dabber. 

HIP-STEP-AND-LOUP, hop, step and jump. The game is 
also called hitch-step-and-loup. 

HIPSY-DIPSY, a castigation, a skelping. 
HIRDY-GIRDY, a disorderly noise, a disturbance. (Obs.) 

HIRING, a fair for servants, male or female, where they stand 
to be hired. 

HIRPLE, to walk lamely or with effort. 


HIRSEL, the general sheep stock belonging to a hill stock- 
farmer. The shepherd's portion, grazed on the farm, as his 
pay for looking after the whole, is called a "pack." The 
"pack" is distinguished by branding the letters vertically or 

"As bonny a Mrsel o' sheep they war as ivver aa saa i' me life." 
A Northumberland Shepherd. 

"The term is also applied to a great assemblage of cattle or people, 
or to a quantity of any other thing ; as a great hirsel of wood or of corn 
stacks." Hodgson MS. 

HIRSEL, to move about on a seat. "Hirsel alang " move 
along the seat. This is done by a jerky movement which is 
called hirsellin. "Hirsel aboot" to move restlessly about on 
a seat. 

HIRST, HURST, as in Longhirst, enters into the names of 
three parishes and townships, and into that of eleven other 
inhabited places in Northumberland. A hurst is a wood, 
but its special meaning in Northumberland place-names is 
probably a "scrub," "thicket," or, as it is generally called, 
"rammel " that is, natural or self-sown wood. 

" Scroggy hirsts of hazel." Hodgson's Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., 
p. 100, note. 

HIRTLE, to hurry. 

" The clud's gan hirtlin alang the hill side." A Cheviot Shepherd. 

HIT, it. " That's hit, noo." This is in common general use, 
and is a survival of the older form of the word, " Middle 
English hit. Anglo-Saxon hit, neuter of he. The old genitive 
case was his, afterwards it, and finally (xvii. century) its." 
Prof. Skeat, Concise Etymological English Diet. 

HIT^the principal actor in certain games. This is sometimes 
decided by a race to the playground, all crying out as they 
run, "Last there's hit." The boy who is hit has either to 
catch the others, give a back, or whatever may be required 
in the game. In the progress of a boys' game the inquiry is 
frequently heard, "Whe's hit?" meaning who is the player. 

HITCH, a small dislocation of the strata which does not exceed 
the height of the coal seam. Hitch is also the term applied 
by sinkers and miners to the inferior or broken coal and 
stone found on approaching a hitch or trouble. Compare 

HITCH, a chest. See HUTCH. 


HITCH, to hop on one leg. The word is often used indifferently 
with hip. See HIP-STEP-AND-LOUP. 

game. See also HIPPY-BEDS. 

HITCH-NAIL, a strong nail, sometimes called a pit-hitch nail. 
It is about two inches long, with a flat point and a rose head. 

H ITCHY, coal or stone that is broken as if by a hitch or 
trouble. ' See HITCH, i. 

HITE, as in the phrase, " She wou'd neither Hyte nor Ree," 
means one side or the other. G. Stuart, Joco-Sevioiis Discourse, 
1686, p. 28. See HIE, 2, and HYE. 

KITTEN, or HATTEN (the p.p. of kit), to strike. " He gat 
kitten wiv a pantile." 

HITTY-MISSY, anyhow, at random, or haphazard. 

HIVE, an inward feeling of enlargement. There are "chest 
hives," " bowel hives" &c., descriptive of an inward heaving 
or swelling. Hives are not usually outward eruptions, but 
when so they are commonly called het hives hot heaves or 
hot spots. The term hives is also applied to a species of 
chronic diarrhoea, or feeling of such in the bowels, common 
in children. 

HIVEN, ivy. 
HOAF [W.-T.] , half. 

HOAFY, HOVEY, HOVE, the call to a cow. " Hovey ! hove ! 
hove /" the milkmaid says to the cow, advancing with her 

HOARN, horn. " H cam-mad" is expressive of that state of 
passion of a person outrageously vexed. No doubt the "horn 
mad" of Shakspere with the Northumberland pronunciation. 

HOAST, HOIST, a cough. Compare KINK-HOAST. 

specially the market house attached to an inn. The inns 
where farmers put up in coming to market have oast-hooses 
attached. They are the waiting rooms used by wife and 
daughters, and the reception place for parcels or goods sent 
in by tradesmen to go by the farmers' carts. 


HOASTMEN, one of the Incorporated Companies of Newcastle 
Freemen. The term hoastman has long ceased to describe the 
profession of coal-shipper or " engrosser " of the commodities 
enumerated in the charter of incorporation. The "coal- 
fitter " (briefly "fitter") now disposes the sales of coals raised 
in the collieries which he " fits." The Company of Hoastmen 
remains simply the premier Incorporated Company of New- 
castle, and election to its membership is a much coveted 

" An Act of Henry the Fourth, in his fifth year, cap. 9 (1404), appoints 
' hosts ' to receive foreign merchants in England. Locally, the stranger 
arriving in the port of Tyne to buy coals was named ' the oaste,' and the 
person of whom he purchased, the oastmen or hostman." Welford's 
History of Newcastle, under date 1516, p. 47. 

HOB, the iron pin at which quoits are aimed in playing the 
game. Compare GAITER, RINGER. 

HOB, a greenhorn. " De ye tyek us for a hob ?" do you take 
me for a greenhorn ? 

HOBBIE, the name of Robin or Robert. 

HOBBINS, rank grass, thistle, left in a pasture by cattle. 

Halliwell's Diet. 

HOBBIN-STOB, an iron last. 

HOBBLES, HOPPLES, two straps with chain between used 
for hobbling a horse. 

HOBBLY, rough, uneven. 

HOBBY, the tool held by a "holder-up" to press and keep a 
rivet in its hole whilst its end is being hammered up by the 
rivetter. "Stob," an article used for a similar purpose in 
shoemakmg. Compare HOBBIN-STOB. 

HOBBY JACKSON. "This is when a person coming from 
the pit is carried over the pulleys." OW note. 

HOB COLLINGWOOD, the name given in Newcastle to the 
lour ol hearts in the game of whist. Old ladies, in general, 
look upon it as proverbially unlucky. Proverbial Folk-lore of 
Newcastle, M. A. Denham, 1855. (Obs.) 
" It is the term in Teviotdale also." Jamieson, 


HOBTHRUSH, a local boggle. "The hobthrush of Elsdon 
Moat" was a browney or sprite who performed drudgery of 
all kinds during the night season. As he wore a tattered 
old hat a new one was placed for him in his accustomed 
haunt. Instead of propitiating hobthrush, this action broke 
the spell ; and the sprite disappeared, uttering a piteous cry : 
"New hat, new hood, kobthrush'll do no more good." 

HOCKER, to ride. 

HOD, hold, for had (hold). " Aa canna get hod on't." In 
W.-T. the form is hode or hoad. See HAD. 

HODDY, the call to a goose. 

HODGE, to shake, to wriggle, as in "hodgin' an' laughin'" ; to 
rise and fall gently with a swinging motion. See HOTCH. 

HOE in place-names is "high heugh," as Cambhoe. Hodgson 
MS. This word seems to be confounded with how, which 
has a contrary meaning. See How, 2. 

HOFF, HOUGH, to throw a ball or missile from below the 
hough or thigh. See HOUGH. Compare HENGE. 

HOFFLE, a stake on which salmon nets are dried. In a row 
of hoffle stakes one is higher than the others, and is called the 
bosom-hoffle. See BOSOM. 

HOFFLE, HOUFLE, to shuffle, to walk haltingly, to limp. 

HOG, HOGGET, HOGGEREL, a young sheep between the 
age of its weaning and its first clipping. 

HOGAMADOG, the huge ball of snow made by boys in rolling 
a snowball over soft snow. 

HOGAMANAY, HOGMANAY, the New Year's offering for 
which children beg. In North Northumberland the hogmanay 
is a small cake given to children on Old Year's Day ; or the 
spice bread and cheese, with liquor, given away, on the same 

HOGGER, the receptacle at the top of a delivery pipe of a 
pump to receive the water before its discharge into the 
conduit. A spout and pipe lead away the discharged water. 
This arrangement is sometimes called a collar -lander. Compare 


HOGGERS, footless stockings worn by pitmen at work. 
Hoggers were sometimes used for riding stockings instead of 
gaiters by country people ; and they are variously called 
looags, scoggers, hoggers, and gamashers. 

HOGG-REEK, the light fleecy patches of mist which float 
away on hillsides with the rising sun. From the resemblance 
to the fleece of the "hog" or young unshorn sheep. 

HOGMAGOGE. This curious word appears in the Newcastle 
municipal accounts in October, 1591. " Paide for keeping 
Hcgmagoge this year, 6s. 8d." This is the name of the play 
annually performed by the Merchant Adventurers' Company 
of Newcastle on " copycristy " day. 

HOGO, a bad smell. A very common expression is "The meat 
is hogo." 

HOIST, a cough. See HOAST. 

HOIT, HOUT, a contemptible person. " Ye greet lazy hoit." 

HOKY-POKY, hocus-pocus, a cabalistic expression for any- 
thing humbuggingly mysterious. More frequently hanky- 

HOLDER-UP, the workman who holds up " a set," or "hobby," 
against the head of a hot rivet, at one side of a plate, whilst its 
red-hot end is being clinched up by the rivetter at the other. 

HOLE, to perforate, to drill a hole, to excavate a passage-way. 

HOLERS, in a colliery, men employed in kirving where getters 
and fillers are employed. 

HOLEY-STONE, a stone having a perforation in it, a hole 
through it. The stone must be found already perforated, or 
it has no virtue. These are very commonly hung behind 
house doors as charms. A sanctity or superstition appears 
to have been attached to stone implements with holes. They 
were supposed to have been perforated by snakes. Compare 

" Holed stones are hung over the heads of horses as a charm against 
diseases. Horses that sweat in their stalls are supposed to be cured by 
the application of this charm. The stone must be found naturally holed. 
If it be made it has no efficacy." Hodgson MS. 


HOLING-ABOUT, driving in a pit with bratticed air after a 
seam of coal has been won, in order to establish the air 
communication between the downcast and upcast shafts and 
to form off the shaft pillars and walls. 

HOLLERS, HULLERS, a great number. See HULLER. 

KOLLIN, HOLLAND, the native holly, Ilex aquifolium. In 
N. Northumberland, he-hollin and she-hollin are discriminated. 
The latter is the kind without prickles, and is used for fortune 
telling. Hollin-bus is a holly tree. Hollin is a survival of the 
Middle English form of the word. In the modern form holly 
an n has been dropped. (See Professor Skeat's Concise 
Etymological Dictionary, under holly.) See SHE-HOLLIN. 

HOLLOW-MEAT, any kind of edible fowl. 

HOLM, flat, damp land by river sides, especially fields and 
tracts of rich land that rivers wind around or make insular. 
Hodgson MS. It occurs in nine place-names in Northumber- 
land ; but in four cases out of the nine the description of a 
river island, or a meadow near water, is not applicable. 
J. V. Gregory, Archaologia A? liana, vol ix., p. 66. Except in 
the names of places, the word is obsolete in Northumberland. 
Compare EALES, HAUGH. 

HOLT, a wood, a covert. Mr. J. V. Gregory (Place-Names in 
Northumberland) gives it as twice occuring in Northumberland. 
It is pronounced hot, as Birk-hot for ~Birk-holt. 

HOLY-BIZEN, a conspicuous show, a spectacle. Applied to 
an idolized and over-dressed person who is thus rendered too 
conspicuous. " Yor myekin a fair holy-bizen on that bairn." 
It is also used menacingly : " Aa'll myek a holy-bizen on ye, 
ye slut." See BIZEN. 

HOMECOME, arrival at home. 

HOMIL, to humble or remove the awns from barley. See 
HUMEL, 2. 

HOMILT, hornless. " A homilt coo." See HUMEL'D. 

HOMLICK, the common hemlock, Conium macitlatum, Linn. 
But applied generally to all the hollow-stemmed umbelliferous 
plants. "It's hollow as a homlick." Humlick and whumlick 
are also names by which this is commonly known. See 


HONEY-POTS, a child's game. 

HONOUR-BRIGHT, BET- WATT ! a protestation of honour 
often made use of by the common people in Newcastle. It 
originated with, and is still retained in commemoration of, a 
late well-known Newcastle worthy. Proverbial Folk-lore of 
Newcastle, M. A. Denham, 1855, p. 6. 

HOO, the invariable pronunciation of how. "Hoo are ye, the 
day, lad?" 

HOOANIVVOR, however. 

HOOD, the shelf at the side of a fireplace. See HUD. 

HOODS, HOOD-SHEAVES, two sheaves placed on the top 
of a stook of corn to throw off the rain. Compare HUD. 

HOODY, the hooded crow, Corvus comix. Linn. Called also the 
grey-backed craa and the corby. 

HOOLAKIN, a kind of dance, a reel in great favour in North 

HOOLET, an owl. Hoolet-een large, starey eyes. The barn 
owl (Strix flammed) is called hoolet, gilli hoolet, white owl, and 
screech owl. The tawny owl (Syrmum aluco) is called brown owl, 
hoot owl, and Jenny hoolet. The short-eared owl is called mouse 


HOOLY, softly, gently. See HEWLY. 
HOOND, a hound, a dog; a low, mean fellow. 
HOOND-THE-TYKE, to put the law in execution. 

HOOND-TRAIL, DOG-TRAIL, a drag hunt. There was a 
hoond-trail at Alwinton Races in Upper Coquetdale each year 
until the last race there in 1853. 

HOONY, houndy, gaunt, ghostly. 

HOOSE, a house. Also to house, to put into shelter, but in its 
verbal form always spoken as hooze. See HOUSIN. 

HOOSED, gone within doors into the house. " Have you seen 
the clergyman ?" No ; he mun be koosed." 

HOOSEN, houses. 


HOOSIVVER, HUSIVVER, however, any way. 


expression of impatience. Sometimes hoot-toot t or otherwise 


HOO-TREE, the top framing of a coal waggon. 

HOOZLE, a socket. See HOUSEL. 

HOPE, a smaller opening branching out from the main dale, 
and running up to the mountain ranges as the burns branch 
out, or are tributaries to the main stream. W. M. Egglestone, 
Weardale Names of Field and Fell, p. 50. The upland part of a 
mountain valley. The inch ordnance map of Northumberland 
gives seventy-three place-names having this termination. In 
the county of Durham forty such occur. 

HOPPELT, hobbled, as the legs of animals when fastened 
together to prevent them from straying. When a person is 
entangled, he invariably says he's "getten happeH." See 

HOPPER, a dancer one that dances at a country dance. 

HOPPER, a large boat or keel used on the Tyne and Wear for 
carrying out to sea mud and sand dredged from the river beds 
or refuse material from factories. 

HOPPER, a seed basket used in sowing corn. 

HOPPER-GAWED, corn badly sown. When every "cast" 
or handful is distinctly marked it is termed hopper-gawed. 

HOPPIN, an annual festival, at which shows, roundabouts, 
and stalls of all descriptions attract the holiday-makers. In 
Newcastle the Easter hoppin was the most famous. But the 
hoppin of present day memory was but a relic of a former 

HOPPLE, to hobble, to trot. 

HOPPLE, HOBBLE, to tie the legs of an animal so as to 
prevent its straying ; to encumber with anything that hinders 
progress. Hopples, the rope, strap, or shackles used in 

HOR, her. 


HORL, to whirl, to wheel, to trundle. " Where ye gan ti horl 
yor gords ?" Where are you going to trundle your hoops ? 

HORL-BARRA, a wheelbarrow. 

HORN, a corner. It occurs in the place-names Wood/wm, 
Harnham or Hornham, and other places. 

HORNEY, HORNEY-TOP, a boy's top made from the tip of 
a cow's horn. Brockett. 

HORNEY, a delusion, a hoax. "Fair homey" fair play. 

HORNEY- WAYS, equivalent to the cant phrase of "over the 
left " that is, " I believe the statement the homey-ways" 
meaning that it is a hoax or an imposition. 

HORNY-TRAM, in a pit, a tram with four or more upright 
arms of iron used for conveying rails, props, &c. 

HORSE, the frame with a cross-piece atop, against which cut 
boards are rested in a timber yard. 

HORSEBALK, a portion of the roof or floor of a pit which 
obtrudes into the coal. Called also a roll and a balk. 

HORSE-BAZE, wonder. According to Halliwell this is a 
Northumberland word, but see HAZE-GAZE. 

dealer of the tinker kind. 

HORSE-DAISY, the dog daisy or large white daisy. 

HORSE-FETTLER, the man who has care of the horses in a 

HORSE-GAN, the circular track for horses when driving a 
threshing machine. See GIN-GAN. 

HORSE-HOLE, at a colliery, an entrance into the shaft, level 
with the surface, where horses are netted and put in, or landed 
when drawn out ; timber and rails are also put in at the same 
place. But formerly applied to a passage way hewn out of 
the coal inbye at the flat for the purpose of bringing the horse 
round from the head of the flat to the outbye end, instead of 
passing by the side of the tubs as at the present day. John 
Rowell, in Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, September 12, 1891. 


HORSE-HOOF, the colt's-foot, Tussilago farfara, Linn. 

HORSE-KEEPER, the person in a pit who attends to the 
feeding and grooming of the horses and ponies. See HORSE- 


HORSE-LOUSE, the wood-louse, church-louse, or millepede. 
HORSE-MINT, wild mint, Mentha hirsnta, Linn. 

HORSE-NET, a net for lowering horses into and drawing 
them out of a mine. 

HORSE-NOBS, HORSE KNOTS, knap weed. The Centaurea 
nigra of the hedgebanks and meadows, or the Centaurea cyanus, 
which is an occasional weed in cultivated fields in Coquetdale, 
&c., and is also grown in gardens. Another name for this is 
hard -heeds. 

the stone steps formerly set at or near a house door to enable 
a person to mount on horseback. Also called a crupper, or 
crupple-styen, and a mount. 

HORT, (p.p., horten), to hurt. "He's horten his heed." 

HORTER, HURTER, the shoulder of the axle against which 
the nave of the wheel knocks. Brockett. 

HORTLE, to crouch as in pain. Compare HIRTLE. 

HORTSOME, hurtful. 

HOST. See HOAST and following words. 

HOTCH, to shake with laughter. "Aa fairly hatch* t agyen." 
To shake up, especially to shake lead ore together in a buddle 
or bucket in the process of washing and sifting it. The 
bucket containing the ore is suspended from a long lever by 
which a boy jerks or hatches it in the water. 

HOTCHIN, swarming. "Hotchin wi' maggots." "The place 
is fair hotchin wi' rabbits." 

HOTTER, to jolt or shake up, as in a conveyance over a rough 
road. A variant of hatter. 

HOTTER [S.] , to halt in the gait, to walk lamely. 


HOTTERIN, swarming. "The dog wis fair hotterin o' fleas." 
Compare HOTCHIN. 

HOTTERY, jolting. "This is a tarrible hottery cairt." Also 
tottering in walking. 

HOT-TROD, a wisp of straw or tow mounted on the top of a 
spear and set on fire and carried through the Border country. 
Its display was the signal for every man to arm and follow 
the pursuit on the track of a marauder, the "war path" of 
the Borderers. Compare TROD. 

HOUGH, the back of the knee where the hough sinews are. 
Very familiar in the common invitation "cruck yor hough," 
equivalent to sit down or bend your legs. 

HOUGH, HOGH, hollow. " A hough belly." See How, 3. 

HOUGH-BAND, a band tied round the hough to prevent an 
animal straying. (Obs.) 

ravenous. (Obs.) 

HOUGHER, one of the inferior officers, appointed by the 
Corporation of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He was called also 
Whipper and Hougher. "He is called hougher from the power 
he is said to have had formerly of cutting the houghs, or 
sinews of the houghs of swine that were found infesting the 
streets of the town." Brand's History of Newcastle, vol. ii., 
I ?89j p- 365, note. The hougher was still in 1827 a regular 
officer of the town with a yearly salary of \. 6s. 8d. 

HOUGHLIN, HOUFFLIN, shuffling, limping. See HOFFLE, 
2, and HAFFLIN. 

HOUKA, an aromatic plant (Meum athamanticum) found "on 
the basaltic ridge a quarter of a mile north of the village of 
Throckrington." Natural History Transactions, 1867, vol. ii., 
p. 1 80. See SPEKNEL. 

HOULD, hold ; a variant of had. The word is familiarly used 
as the imperative order equivalent to " stop instantly." 
Compare the use of AAD, OULD, CAAD, and COULD. 

HOULTERED, shattered. In a pit, when a shot has fissured 
the stone, the cracked and shattered place is said to be 



HOUSE-BOTE, an allowance of timber out of the lord's wood 
to support or repair a tenant's house, Bailey. And to burn 
in the house. Blackstone in Todd. (Obs.) 

HOUSEL, HOUZLE, HOOZLE, the eye or hole where a 
shaft is inserted in a hoe or other implement. 

HOUSIN, a capability of holding much, as, " He has a good 
housin for drink." 

HOUT ! or HOUTS ! an exclamation of impatience or dissent. 
See HOOT ! HUTS ! and HETS ! 

HOVE, HOVEN (p.p. of heave), swollen up. The act of swelling 
with suppurating secretion is called "beeldin." When the 
bowels of cattle or sheep are distended the animals are said 
to be hoven. Bread that is unduly raised by fermentation and 
so swelled up is hoven. 

HOVE, HOVEN (p.t. and p.p. of heave), threw and thrown 
away. "Hoven away" also denotes anything sold too cheap 
that is, thrown away, given away. 

HOVER, to wait. 

"Hover, English. A frequentative of Middle English houen (hoven), to 
stay, tarry, wait, originally to dwell, a verb formed from Anglo-Saxon 
hof, a house, a dwelling." Prof. Skeat, Concise Etymological Dictionary. 

HOW, a hoe ; HOW, to hoe. 

HOW, a hollow, a depression. The how of the neck is the 
hollow at the back of the neck. 

HOW, HOUGH, HOGH, hollow, deep; used in conversation. 
It is also applied to place-names, as in Howstonemouth near 
Rochester, Howford on the Tyne. Howden similarly appears 
to be from the same word, hollow dene. How-foor, the lowest 
open furrow. How-drill, the hollow between two drills in a 
field. How-backt, sunken in the back. A how or hough belly, 
a hollow or deep belly. 

HOW ! a salutation. It is used alone, or in the very common 
salutation "How there, marra ?" or "How there, lads?" the 
emphasis being invariably on the exclamation how. The 
ordinary formula of the salute is "How there, marra ?" with 
the reply, interrogative, of " What cheer, hinney ?" 

" Ki Geordy, how, where are ye gannin'?" Bob Cranky' s 'Size Sunday, 

HOW, to hurry away. 


HO WAY ! come away. Howay, in a pit, means lower the cage, 
down, or quicken its movement if it is already being lowered. 
In North Northumberland the call "haway!" is given to the 
farm hands by the woman-steward at starting or yoking time, 
so that all the women start together. 

HOW-DEE-DOW, the equivalent of namby-pamby. A girl in 
the lower grade of life apeing gentility is thus described: 
"She's turn't oot a reg'lar faw-de*-dow" 

HOWDON-PAN-CANT, an upset, a tilt over. 
HOWDY, a midwife. 

HOWDY-HORSE, a pit horse kept on the surface for use in 
case of emergency. 

HOWDY-MAW, the conclusion of the day's labour; the last 
corf. G loss, to Pitman's Pay, 1843. 

HOWF, the hock of an animal, the lower part of the thigh in 
man. See HOUGH. 

HOWF, a meeting place for converse or gossip. 

HOW-FOOR, hollow furrow, the track of the plough. See 
How, 3. 

HOWFSENNEN, the hock sinew, the sinew of the lower back 
part of the thigh. 

HOW-HOW, equivalent to a charwoman. Compare How- 

HOWK, an excavation. " What a howk they've myed there." 
It is also used for the dint or impression caused by a heavy 

HOWK [N., S., and T.] , HOAK [W.-T.] , to dig up, to 
excavate. " Are ye on howkin taties ?" " If ye howk mair 
anunder't ye'll fetch the waal doon." 

HOWKS, or HAAKS, a disease of the eye. See HAAK. 

HOWKY, a cant name given to a pitman, meaning a digger or 

HOWL, empty. "Howl kite" or " howl keslop" an empty 


HOWL-O'-WOUNTER, the hollow or lap of winter that is, 

HOWM, a depression, a hollow. Compare How, 2. 

HOWSTICAAD, extended, is " How is't ye caa'd ?" The word 
is interpolated when the correct name of anything has slipped 
the memory. " Bring us yor howsticaad " means " Bring me 
your what d'ye call it." 

HOWSTROW, HOG'S-TROU, a confusion, an untidy scene, 
a chaotic litter. At Winlaton the word is hogstrou, which 
appears to point to a pig-trough as the origin of the term. 

HOWTHERY, untidy, slovenly. " She myeks oney a howthevy 
kind o' wife." 

HOWTHERY-TOWTHERY, the essence of untidiness, 

HOWTS, an expression of impatience. Sometimes the form 
" howts shaff " is heard. 

HOXTER, one given to hoaxing people. An impostor. 

HOY, to throw, to heave up. To hoy a stone is to throw a 

HOYT, a lazy fellow. See HOIT. 
HOYTIN, riotous and noisy mirth. Bvockett. 

HUBLYSHEW, HUBLYSHOO, a tumult, a crowd of 
disorderly persons. 

" Hobleshof, a great confusion." Halliwell. 

HUCK (the strong p.t. of howk), dug. "He huck up the rose 

HUD, HOOD, the "hob" or the shelf at each side of a 
fireplace on which pans and kettles can be placed when " on 
the boil." They are allowed to simmer on the hud. 

HUD, a lime-hod. 

HUDDLE [N.] , a hurdle. 

HUDDOCK, HUDDICK, the cabin in a keel. 



HUE, the widgeon, Manca Penelope. 

HUEL, HU-WUL, HYUL, the hull, outer skin or shell of a 
nut, of grain, or of a pea. A pea-te/ or pea-swad is a 
pea-pod. See HULL. 

HUEL, HEUL, HEWL, HEWEL, an out-of-the-way person, 
one that acts in a headstrong and extraordinary manner. 
Compare HEWLISH. 

HUEL, a delicate or ailing person, especially one who is 
nervously morbid or "hipped." An expostulation to one 
talking too freely in presence of an invalid is " Had yor 
tongue : he's nobbut a huel" 

HUELLY, delicate, sickly ; hence of a complaining character, 
like an invalid. 

HUFF, to affront, to offend. 

" The old sense is to puff, blow hard ; hence to bluster, vapour. To 
hu/at draughts simply means ' to blow' ; it was customary to blow upon 
the piece removed." Professor Skeat, Concise Etymological Dictionary. 

A huff is still accompanied by a puff on the piece 

HUG, to carry with laboured effort. The term is applied to 
the action requiring a strong embrace, as in carrying a box 
or other heavy weight. 

HUGGER, a line of cleavage in coal, a "back" or "cleat." 
HUGIOUS, prodigious, vast, enormous. 

HULE. To play hule is to injure, to disorganise. " He's 
played hule wi' the hyel consarn "he has upset all the 
arrangements. Compare HUEL, 2. 

HULE, a husk or pod. See HUEL, i. 

HULE-DOO, HE-YUL-DOO, YULL-DOO, a figure made in 
gingerbread or dough, rolled out flat, and cut out with head, 
arms, and body. The arms are laid as if the hands touched 
in front, and two eyes made of currants are inserted. See 

HULK [W.-T.] , a cottage or small house. The word is from 
Middle English hulke, Anglo-Saxon hulc, a hovel, and is quite 
distinct from hulk, a heavy ship. 

HULL, a crib in which animals are fattened. "A swine hull." 
"A duck hull." 



HULL, HYUL, to remove the hull or outer case, to shell. 
"She's hyullin' the peas." See HUEL, i. 

HULLER, HOLLER [N.], to heap on indiscriminately. 
"A greet huller" a large quantity. 

HULLY, the perforated box in which fishermen keep lobsters 
and crabs in a live state. 

HUMEL, HOMIL, to break off, to break down. In breaking 
stones for macadamised roads, to humel means to break 
the lumps into smaller sizes preparatory to their being made 
the requisite size by a smaller hammer. Humlin barley 
is breaking off the awns, or horns, with a flail or other 
instrument. See HUMELER. 

HUMELER, HUMLER, HUMBLER, a contrivance used 
for taking the awns off barley. 

HUMELER-MEL, HUMBLER-MELL, a wooden mallet 
for breaking clods. 

HUMELIN-HAMMER, a heavy hammer used in stone- 
breaking to break the stones down before the small road- 
metal hammer is used. 

HUMELT, broken small applied to stones which have been 
broken for the first time prior to their being napped into the 
diamonds used for road metal. 

" Humeldor homilt, is hornless; without horns." Hodgson MS. 

common hemlock (Conium mactilatum) or any of the hollow- 
stemmed umbelliferce. The sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata, Linn.) 
is called sweet humlick. It was formerly cultivated among the 
simples in old gardens. 

HUMMA [N.] , a pinch, a very small quantity. 

HUMMING, strong, heady. 

" An earthen pot with humming beer 
Stood on a little table near." 

Ed. Chicken, The Colliers Wedding, 1735. 

HUMP, the temper. " He's getten his hump up "that is, he 
has got his temper roused. 

HUMPH [N.] , a hump ; a bad smell. Humphy-backeet, hump- 


HUMPHY [N.], stinking. 

HUND, to hound on, to encourage. A shepherd is said to hund 
his dog when he directs it. See HOOND. 

HUNDEN, the leather straps or thongs joining the two sticks 
of a flail. See HEUDIN. (Obsolescent.) 

HUNDER, to hinder. 

HUNDRED-LEAVED GRASS, the yarrow or milfoil, Achillea 
millefolium, Linn. It is also called thousand -leaved clover and 
wild pepper. 

HUNDRED-FALD, the yellow bedstraw, Galium verum. 
HUNK, a large, mis-shapen piece. " A hunk o' breed." 
HUNKERED, elbowed, bowed, crooked. Brockett. 
HUNKERS, haunches. 

HUNTLANDS, hunting grounds. 

" The huntlands of Tindale are often spoken of in ancient deeds and 
grants. A large proportion of these lands are Huntlands to this day, as 
far as regards grouse and black game ; but goodly flocks of Cheviot sheep 
have replaced the red deer and roe that formerly tenanted these wastes." 
Dr. Charlton, North Tynedale, 1871, second edition, p. 15. 

HUNTSUP, an old pipe tune. 

HUP [N.], the call to a horse in driving, equivalent to right 
turn. Wo-hup is used when it is necessary to stop and then 
turn to the right, as in ploughing. Heit, hye. heck, and hup are 
all terms of identical meaning. Hup-howay! is a common 
drover's cry in urging on his cattle. 

HURCHIN, HURCHEON, the hedgehog. 
HURDIES, the loins, the buttocks. 
HURDY, a mischievous or abandoned person. 

HURPETH, at Hartburn, one of the names for the Roman 
road which branches from Watling-street, called at various 
parts of its track Devil's Caasey, Cobb's Causey, Hurpath, 
Kemmell's or GammelPs path. See HAR. 

HURROCK, a pile of loose stones, a heap of rubbish or other 
loose material. Compare RUCKLE. 


HURRY-BURRY, hurly-burly, noise, confusion. 
HURST, a copse or thicket. See HIRST. 

HURTEN, HORTEN, injured. The p.p. of hurt, but used in 
various expressions, as " He's hurten his hand," " Aa couldn't 
sleep, me heed wis horten that badly." 

HUSBAND-LAND. The husbands of land, mentioned so 
frequently in deeds respecting Northumberland, contained 
twenty acres, and at times twenty-four or thirty. 

HUSH, a great rush of water. This is produced artificially 
in mining districts so as to bare the surface of the rock in 
order to discover indications of ore in the face of a hill side. 

HUSH, great plenty. 

HUSSELY-FARRANT, strange, ill put together, uncommon- 

" Hustle -j 'arrant, one who is clothed in a tattered garb." Jamieson. 

HUT, a heap. A muck hut is a heap of manure. " A hut of 
turnips " a heap of turnips. 

HUT, to pile in heaps. " Wor busy huttin wor tormits." 

HUTCH, an ark or treasure chest, specially applied to the 
town treasure chest, which was called " the toon hutch." 

" In 1713, there remained a balance of 2,152. 133. od. in the Hutch or 
town s treasury." Mackenzie's History of Newcastle, 1827, p. 641. 

At Morpeth " each of the aldermen keeps a key of the town's or 
corporation's hutch or box, on which there are seven different locks, and 
in which box is contained all the cash, books, papers, and records 
belonging to the borough, so that without the consent of the seven 
aldermen this box can never be opened." Mackenzie's History of 
Northumberland, 1825, v l- ij-' P- I 93> note. 

The Morpeth hutch now stands in the town clerk's office. 
HUTHER, whether. 

HUT-ON, to keep on a peevish, continuous complaining. 
HUTS ! an exclamation of impatience. See HOOT, HOWTS. 

HUTTEN, the p.p. of hit. " He'd fatten him afore he'd ony 
chance ti fend." Hut is used as an occasional p.t., but hat 
is the common form. "He hat him fair atwix the ees." 


HUTTOCK, a pile of corn sheaves, made of twelve sheaves, 
ten of which are set upright, two and two together, whilst 
two are laid on the top as hood or covering sheaves. A stook 
consists of twelve or more upright sheaves and two hood 

HUVE, a hoof. 

HUZ, us. Like the aspirate in hit (it), huz represents the 
survival of an ancient form. It is in common constant use. 

HUZZY, a woman of any age. It is a mistake to say that 
huzzy is a term of reproach. It is only this when a qualifying 
adjective makes it so, as " An ill-demised huzzy" " A bad 
huzzy" Huzif is housewife, and huzzy the short pronunciation 
of the word housewife. 

HWICK, quick, alive. The word illustrates the change from 
the initial k sound heard in quick to the aspirated softer sound 
of hw. " A Northumbrian countryman still deems it necessary 
to call a thorn hedge a which (i.e. quick) hedge by way of 
distinction " from a stockade or dead hedge. Bates, Border 
Holds, p. 224, n. 

HWICKENS, QUICKENS, the underground stems of 
creeping grass and the many weeds which a farmer clears 
out of the soil. 

HWICKS, quicks, young sprouting hedge plants. 

HWOLE, a hole ; HWOLEY, holey. It is difficult in 
ordinary spelling to convey the sound of these words. The 
aspirate is much prolonged and the sound becomes some- 
thing like hoo-wul. 

HYE, a call to horses, meaning "left turn." Wo-hye means 
" stop ! left turn," the opposite direction to wo-hup or wo-gee, 
which means " stop ! right turn." 

HYELL [T.] , whole. 

HYELL, whole coal, as distinguished from coal that has been 
partly worked. 

HYEM, home. " Gan away hyem, ma man." 
HYEMLY, homely. 
HYEMMELT, tame looking. 


HYEMS, the two pieces of crooked wood or bent iron hinged 
at the bottom and held together with a strap atop. They are 
passed round the collar of a horse, and are furnished with an 
eye in each side to which are attached the chains to draw the 
load. See HAMESTICKS. 

HYEMSPUN, homespun. 
HYEST, haste. 

HYUK, a hook, also a sickle. A "cruck" is bent to a right 
angle ; a hyuk is bent round like a loop. See HEYUK. 

HYUL, a hull or casing. See HUEL, i, and HULL, 2. 

HYUL-DOO, a figure made of gingerbread. This word is 
sometimes spelt yule-dough, and is described as a "Christinas 
cake," or rather a little image of paste studded with currants 
and baked for children at this season of the year. 

HYUP, to hoop a cask. 

I', in ; used before a consonant. Before a vowel it becomes iv. 
" Where f the warld are ye gannin ? Aa's iv a horry, ye 
see." See also the usage ofwi, wiv, he 1 , hev,gi' t give, bi, biv, fre, 
frev, ti, tiv, where the same rule of speech is observable. See 
IN iv and Iv. 

ICCLE, IKIL, an icicle. See ICESHOGGLE. 

ICE-CREEPER, a contrivance fixed below the instep of a 
boot, for walking securely in slippery weather. It is made 
of a single piece of sheet iron, two pieces of which are turned 
up at the sides to form ears, whilst four points are turned 
down so as to touch and grip the surface of the ice below the 
foot. This little contrivance has long been made and worn 
in Winlaton. 

" Shod with this little article the most timorous pedestrian might 
almost walk down an iceberg." Newcastle Daily Chronicle, December 29, 

ICESHOGGLE, an icicle 

IDLE, immoral. " An idle huzzy." 

IDLENESS, wantonness, wickedness. 

IFFY, the shortened form of the Christian name Euphemia. 


ILK, ILKA, each, every. Chiefly now used in N. Northumber- 
land and Redesdale. Ilk and ilka are sometimes regarded as 
specially Scottish forms, but they are frequently heard South 
of the Tweed. Nor have they been introduced by Scottish 
immigrants, for they appear, like the form wkilk, common 
throughout the kingdom of Northumbria in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. The Pricke of Conscience, written by 
Richard Rolle, of Hampole, near Doncaster, some few years 
before A.D. 1349, contains examples of both ilk and whilk. 

ILL, a disease. The "milk ill" and the "quarter ill " are 
diseases common among sheep. The " loupin ill" is a curious 
disease which attacks sheep, pigs, and other animals, and 
causes them to leap up and stagger. 

ILL-DEMISED, malevolent. 

ILL-FYECED, of evil countenance. 

ILL-HUNG-ON, dissatisfied at or with any occurrence. 

ILL-THROVEN, ILL-THRUVEN, any living creature 
whatever having an unhealthy or evil appearance. It is a 
common term of contempt. 

" He's an awd ill-throvjn thief." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay. 

ILL -TWINED, peevish, bad tempered. 
ILL-WULLANT, unwilling. 

IMP, a mischievous child. Used invariably in a scolding 
sense. "What are ye dein, ye little imp?" The word 
originally meant "a scion, shoot, graft, figuratively offspring, 
a child." (Wedgwood.) The old sense of something grafted 
on survives in " Imp, an addition to a beehive " (Brockett) 
and in " Imp, one length of hair twisted, as forming part of a 
fishing line ; as, ' Whether will ye put five or six hairs in the 

IMPARFIT, imperfect, but always used to denote a dirty, 
untidy woman. 

IMPRUVE-UPON, to approve of. 

-IN, the usual printed termination of the present participle of 
verbs. In Central Northumberland the sound is een ; in other 
parts it is a mere n sound preceded by a short sharp e or a. 
The termination ing for the present participle is never heard. 


Thus we have biudeen and bindX for binding ; fmdeen and 
find'w, for finding ; sitt^w and sitt'w, for sitting ; hitt^w and 
hit'w, for hitting; and so on. The Anglo-Saxon form was 
end-e ; thus bindend-e, binding. This in Northern Middle 
English (thirteenth to fifteenth centuries) became and ; thus 
bindand The form was afterwards (about A.D. 1300) corrupted 
into ing-e, the Modern English ing, as heard in binding. (See 
Prof. Skeat's Principles of English Etymology, p. 250.) The 
participial termination and was still found in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. It will be thus seen that our 
forms een and an or ' are survivals of the archaic form of the 

" The sound of ing is absolutely never heard in the popular 
Northumbrian, except in accented syllables, such as bring, king, ring : 
making is instinctively pronounced makan or makun." Ralph Carr, 
On the Present Participle in the Northumbrian Dialect, in the History of the 
Bwks. Naturalists' Club, vol. iv., 1856-62, p. 364. 

" His glittered armour shined far away." 

Spenser, Faerie Queen, Bk. I., canto vii., 29. 

IN, a meadow by the water side. See INGE. 

IN AA, also, too. "Him an' his brother wis there in aa." In 
is the common sound of the abbreviation of and. See AN' AA. 

INATWEEN, between. " Ye'll find him inatween the cairt an' 
the barn." 

IN-BYE, INBYESIDE, within. In the workings of a pit, any 
way inward from the shaft. A common inquiry at a house 
door is "Is thee fether in-by > hinney ?" that is, within the 
house. In-by also means near, as distinguished from "oot-by," 
afar off. In the fields a man "oot-by" is a way off, and in-by 
he is about the premises. An in-by is also an inner room. 

INCENSE, to cause to understand. See INSENSE. 

INCLINE, INCLINE-BANK, an inclined plane on a rolley- 
way or on an underground roadway. 

INCOME, an ulcer ; something that has come in from an out- 
side cause as distinguished trom a "gathering" caused by 
internal bad blood, which is called "bred-venom." Compare 

INCOMING, coming next in order. " The incoming week." 
INCOURISH, to encourage. 


INDICTED, addicted. 

INFANGENTHEOF, INFANGTHEFE, a privilege to pass 
judgment upon any theft committed within the jurisdiction 
of the lords of certain manours by their own servants, as 
utfangthefe signify'd the like liberty when theft was 
committed by a stranger. Moderne World of Words, 1696. 
(Obs.) Compare FANG. 

ING. This occurs in place names, and in Northumberland it 
is often followed by ham or the prevalent ton, as in Walh'wgton, 
Bavington, Ovingham, Belhwgham. Where the place takes 
its name from a family the affix ing means " son of." topping 
thus means the son of Eoppa, and Oving the son of Offa, and 
so on. Twenty-six places in Northumberland end in ing, 
twelve in ingham, and forty-eight in ington. J. V. Gregory, 
Archaologia JEliana, vol. ix., p. 66. The numerous ingions 
and inghams of Northumberland may have been imported in 
their present form by Anglian settlers. Further comparison 
with Continental place-names is much to be desired. See 
also INGE. 

INGANNIN, ingoing. " He fell doon just at the ingannin o' 
wor entry." 

INGATE, the way in ; specially applied to the way into a mine 
at the bottom of a shaft, or at any point in a shaft where the 
cages are stopped to enter a seam ; or to the way by which 
the air enters the workings of a pit. 

INGE, ING, a meadow or pasture. In place-names, Ingo 
(anciently Inghou) Angertou, in Hartburn, Angerton, in 
Blenkinsopp, and Ingram are conjectured to belong to the 
same root. 

INGRAM, ignorant. A humorous perversion of the word. 
INGRATSOW, ungrateful. 

INGRINDEET, ingrained; as when particles of dirt become 
fixed in the pores of the skin from work or from neglect of 

INHARIST, to enhance, to increase in cost or price. 

IN HIM (pronounced in 'im). There is a very curious old 
saying current, "It's in 'im 'at ails him" something within 
him that ails him, some mental or occult trouble that is going 


IN IV, in. " Yor in iv a greet horry." 
INKHORN, an ink-bottle. Still in general use. 
INKLE, INCLE, an inferior kind of tape. 

INK-STANDISH, an ink-stand. (Halliwell as ink-standage.) 
The word appears as standish in the church books of St. 
Nicholas', Newcastle, where the entry, " Paid for a bottle for 
the standish" occurs. See STANDISH. 

INLUTE, a wooden bar in a boat. See INWIVER. 
INSENSE, to drive an argument or persuasion into a person. 

INSIGHT, household goods. 

" Lord of Mangarton complains against Cuddie Taylor, and others, for 
two hundred kine and oxen, insight 20 sterling." W. Hutton, History of 
Roman Wall, 1802, p. 74. 

INSPRESS [N.J, household goods, linen, furniture. In 
common use at Spital, more particularly amongst old people. 
Compare INSIGHT. 

IN STROKE, the entry from one mining royalty into another. 

INSTROKE-RENT, a rent charged by the lessor of a royalty 
for allowing a lessee whose pit is in another royalty to break 
the barrier between the two. 

INTAK, land taken in. The Town Moor at Newcastle has 
intaks, where portions of the land are fenced in and let for 
stated periods. In mining, the ingoing airway. 


"A sort of Thieves heretofore frequent on the Borders of Scotland, 
and so call'd from their being the Receivers of such Pillage or Booty as 
their Accomplices, nam'd Out-partners, us'd to bring in." The Moderne 
World of Words, 1696, ed. 1706. 

INTI, INTIV, into. The v is used when the word precedes a 
vowel or a mute aspirate. Compare INTIL. 

INTID, into it. "Are ye comin oot o' the hoose or gan intid?" 

INTIL, into. " Put them in till a poke." The use of this, like 
the use of other particles, is decided by euphony. See 

INTI-THE-HOOSE, the upstroke of a pumping engine. 


INTIV, into. Used when the next word begins with a vowe 

INUNDER, under, below. See ANUNDER. 

INWIVER, IN WAVER, a bar of wood put inside of a cob 
for the seats or thofts to rest upon. Within recollectic 
no fishing boat was without a "holey-stone" suspended fro] 
the inwivev. 

IRON-BALLS, nodules of iron, or " cat-heads." 

IRONS, spurs. 


IS, used as the first person singular of the verb. " Aa is " < 
's "I am. " Is aa reet, or is aa not ?" 

ISBIL, Isabella. 

ISCA ! ISCA ! a Northumbrian shepherd's call to his dog.- 


IS'T, is it. Is't is used in the strong affirmative sense thus- 
" Is't fower o'clock yit ?" "Aye is't " yes, indeed it is. 

IS TA, art thou. Used only in addressing a person young< 
than the speaker or one most intimate. 

ISTEED, instead, in place of. 

IT, or AT (or, as a final, t or d only), that. It is used when a 
assertion is repeated, to give it increased force, as -'Aa'l te 
yormuthor; it will aa." 

IT, the person in a game who is in or has the innings. " No 
you're it (or hit)] gan on wi' ye." See HIT. 

IV, in; used before a vowel. See I', which is used before 
word beginning with a consonant. 

IVIN, the North-country name for ivy. See HIVIN. 

IVY OWL, the tawny owl, Symium aluco, L. Known also i 
Jenny -hoolet and wood owl. 

IVY-TOD, an ivy bush. 

IZLE, a live ember of wood. The embers of a fire. 


IZZARD, the letter z. 

JAA, JAW, a wave or a breaker. 

JAA, the jaw. 

JAA, talk, conversation, impertinent talk. 

JAABATION, a jobation, a rigmarole and scolding discourse. 

JAA-BLADES, the jaws, the chafts. 

JAA-BREAKER, a long and high-sounding word. 

JAAK or JACK, the jackdaw, Corvus momdula. Called also 
jack-cvaa and jack-jaa. 

JAAP [S. and T.] , JAUP [N.], JAIP, JOPE [W.-T.] , to 
smash by a sudden blow, as when two eggs are knocked 
together. The word occurs in old writing as jaip. Compare 

"I'll garr thy harns jaip again" ("beat out all thy brains," in the 
margin). G. Stuart, Joco-Senous Discourse, 1686, p. 44. 

JAB, a sharp thrust, a prick, or peck. 

JACK, an old name used when gins were doubled for sinking. 
Where two were in use together, one of them, to prevent 
mistakes, was usually called a jack. 

JACK, a coat of armour made by sewing iron plates within a 
riding coat. The word occurs frequently in the Musters for 
Newcastle and Northumberland in 1539, &c. 

JACK, a jackdaw. Sometimes called a jack-jaa or jack-cvaa. 
See JAAK. 

JACK-A-LEGS, a large, single-bladed clasp-knife, generally 
with a broad and square-ended blade. These formidable 
knives were much in vogue among Tyneside keelmen half a 
century ago. 

" Jack-a-legs, a large knife with a joint, so as to be carried in the 
pocket. Generally supposed to have obtained this name from Jacques 
a Liege, a famous Flemish cutler." Brockett. 

JACKALALLY, a foolish person. 

JACKANYEPS, JACKANAPES, small rollers between the 
rope rolls and pulleys of a whim on which a pit rope runs. 


small bag of a pig's intestines. Compare JAWDY. 

JACK-BAAL, a boys' game resembling " rounders." 

JACKET, to flog or thrash. "A good jacketing" a sound 

JACK-JAA, a jackdaw. See JAAK. 
JACK-MAN, the game of "follow my leader." 

JACK-NECK, the top or ridge tile of a sandstone roofing slate. 
It is a squared slate about fifteen inches deep by eight inches 
wide, with a deep notch cut on each side near the upper end. 
Jack-necks are arranged alternately on each side of the roof 
ridge, laid on with each notch fitting into its neighbour, and 
so cut in size that, when fitted close, they form a continuous 
self-supporting ridge with a cock's comb-like apex. The 
Rev. W. Featherstonhaugh, Proceedings of Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries, vol. v., p. 98. 

JACK O' LATTIN, a bright spot of reflected light, such as is 
produced by a small mirror or a tin or " lattin " reflector. It 
is played by boys as a practical joke to startle the passer-by. 

JACK-ROLL, JACK-ROWL, a winch, consisting of a cylinder 
of wood with a handle at each end, such as is seen in old 
draw wells. It is used in shallow shafts for winding and in 
other places where hand power only is available. 

JACK-ROLL ROPE, the rope used on a jack-roll. 

goose grass, Galium aparine. 

JACKS, large fissures or cracks in the roof of a mine. 
JACK-SNIPE, a small snipe. 

JACK-STRIKE-UP- A-LIGHT, a boys' game, played at night. 
It is a kind of nocturnal " fox and hounds." The " fox," after 
getting away, strikes a light, generally with flint and steel, at 
short intervals, and the chase is continued until the " fox " is 

JADE, a worn-out horse, a useless woman. 
JAG, to prick, to peck. Compare JAB. 


JAG, a small watery blush. See WATER JAG. 

J AGGER, a goad used for urging on a donkey. Seldom seen 
now. Also a staff with an iron prong used for lifting turnips. 
See also STEEKER. 

JAGGER-GALLOWAY, a pony with a peculiar saddle for 
carrying lead, &c. Brockett. (Obs.) 

"The Derbyshire jagger is one who carries ore from the mine to the 
smelting mill." Grose. 

JAIBLE, to shake water to and fro in a vessel. Brockett. 
JAIP, to dash, to smash. See JAAP. 
JAISTERIN, swaggering, gesturing, gesticulating. 
JAMB-STYENS, the jambs of a doorway or of a fireplace. 
JANIC, fair, honest, genuine. See JENICK. 

JAP, to splash. Japeet [N.] , spotted all over with any wet 
adhesive substance. Compare JAAP, JAUP, and JAA, i. 

JAP [N.] , the strong jU. of jump. " He jap the burn." 

JARBLE, to wet, to bedew ; as by walking in long grass after 
dew or rain. Brockett. 

JAR-HANDLES, a colloquial name for large or prominent 

JAR- WOMAN, an occasional assistant in the kitchen a sort 
of charwoman. Brockett. 

JASAY, JASEY, worsted. Worsted was always pronounced 
wusset or wusted, but it was better known by the name oljasey 
or ja-say. A worsted wig was formerly called, for brevity, a 


JASAY-NEET-CAP, JASEY NET CAP, a knitted cap made 
of worsted material, not unlike the conventional smuggler's 

jaundice. In early literary forms of the word it occurs as 
iaunis, the d being excrescent. 

JAUP [N.] , a splash or smut of mud or dirt of any kind 
adhering to any article. A spurt of water. 

"The sound of water agitated in a narrow or irregular vessel." Brockett. 


JAUP, to move liquid irregularly, to splash. Compare JAA, i, 
JAAP, and JAP. 

JAVEL, a gaol. The term is obsolete in colloquial language, 
but survives in the " Javel Group," the name of the lane or 
watering place between the Close and the river at Newcastle. 

JAWDY, the first stomach of an animal. The "chawdron" 
used by Shakspeare in the witches' scene in Macbeth may be 
synonymous. The term is applied to the edible entrails of 
the pig, ox, and sheep, especially to the large bag of a pig. 

JAY-LEGGED, small or feeble in the legs. Query, for jee, or 

JAY-PIOT, the jay, Garrulus glandavius. A magpie is called a 
piot or planet. 

JEAT, JEAD, JIT, cannel coal, bituminous shale, jet. See 

JEE, the word to a horse, meaning turn to the right. Jee-wo 
stop ; turn right. 

JEE, JEE-Y, bent, atwist, crooked, disorganised. 

JEEBAL, JIBBLE, or GEEBAL, a sickle mounted on the 
end of a pole, and used in fields as a "thristle cutter" for 
cutting down thistles. See GEEBALL. 

JEELYCO, the wood angelica, Angelica sylvestris, L. Called 
also ground-ash. 

JEEPS, a severe beating a sound thrashing. Brockett. 

JEEST, a joist. 

JEEST, just, nearly, close. 

JEMMISEES, hinges. Jimmies is still the term applied to a 
pair of hand-cuffs, which are hinged to admit, and then 
close round, the wrists. 

JENICK, JENIC, JANNOCK, JANIC, genuine, honest. 
JENK, to jink, to play a tune smartly, to rollick. 


JEN KIN, a passage driven in a pillar of coal ; or a slice taken 
off a pillar. A loose-jenkin is a similar place driven along the 
side of a pillar, and open to the bord along that side. To 
jenkin means to reduce the size of a pillar. The attenuated 
pillar thus left is called a " stook " 


whitethroat, Curruca cinerea. It is variously called white-kitty, 
cut-throat, lady -lint-white, and what-e-whey-bird, or whushie-whey 
beard (hear the Border). 

"This is the commonest of our warblers, and is very generally 
distributed." John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and Durham, p. 72. 

JENNY-FLUCKER, a flounder. 

JENNY-FOSTER, the long-tailed duck, Harelda glacialis, L. 

JENNY-HOOLET, the tawny owl. Hoolet, only, is most 
frequently heard in North Northumberland, where the prefix 
Jenny is not common. 

JENNYPER-BUS [N.] , the juniper, Juniperus communis. See 


insect called daddy-long-legs or Harry-long-legs, Tipula 
orelaela, L. Jenny -spinner, a teetotum. 

JENNY-WI'-THE-LANTERN, the will-o'-the-wisp. Also 
called Kitty -wi 1 -the -wisp. 

JENNY-WREN, JENNY-RAIN, the wren, Troglodytes parvulus. 

JESP [N.] , a gap, hole, or flaw in a texture. Spots of dirt and 
signs of wear are also termed jesps. 

JETHART LA A, Jedburgh justice that is, hang first, try 
afterwards. Elsewhere similar expressions prevail, as at 
Lydford : 

" First hang and draw, 
Then hear the cause by Lydford law ! " 

And at Halifax : 

" Lidford law (from Lidford, a town in Cornwall), a proverbial 
expression, signifying to hang men first, and judge them afterwards ; 
The like is said of Halifax in Yorkshire, probably from the quick 
despatch of justice in criminal causes in those parts." Moderne World of 
Words, 1696. 



TEW, to appear sensible of pain, but always used in the 
negative. " He never jewed it." When an animal indicates 
pain in any member it is said to "mean" it. The phrase 
" He niver jewed it " is used when after any heavy trial or 
grief a person remains undaunted, or when after heavy bodily 
fatigue a person is still fresh. 

JEWKRY-PAWKRY, underhand dealing. See JOOKERY- 


JEW-LIMESTONE, a bed of limestone lying below the whin 
sill in the lead-mining district. Query, dhu, or black, lime- 

JIGGER, applied as a cant phrase to an out-of-the-way person. 
JIGOT [N.] , a leg of mutton. 

JIMCRANK, a cranky contrivance or loose-jointed machine. 

JIMMER, a pair of hinges. See JEMMISEES. 

JIMMER, GIMMER, one of the pairs of a forked branch. 

JIMMIES, hand-cuffs. See JEMMISEES. 

JINIFER, juniper, Juniperus communis, L. See GINIFER. In 
North Northumberland the form is jeniper. Jeniper bus 
juniper bush. Jenipev barry juniper berry. 

JINK, a slip, an escape. The sound of any metallic substance 
when struck. 

JINK, to clink. " They jinked thor glasses." 
JIRBLE, to jumble. Halliwell's Diet. See JAIBLE. 
JIRT [N.] , a dram or small quantity of drink. 
JIRT, to jerk. See JORT. 

JIT [S. and T.] , jet; also a coarse cannel coal. "Black as 
jit" In general use. In North Northumberland jeet, geat. 

JOB, to thrust with a stab, as when a sudden stroke with a 
sharp instrument is given. Compare JAB. 

JOCK AND JOCK'S MAN, a children's game, generally called 
" follow my leader." 


JOGGLE, a "shake" or Z-shaped crease made in any flat 
surface, especially in a bar of iron where it is required to 
make the bar fit close upon a surface. This is seen where a 
flat bar or an angle bar is made to fit the surface of over- 
lapping plates. The overlap makes a step, and the bend 
made to fit the step is called a joggle. 

JOHNEE-DORIES, the fish known as pout and sooter. 
JOIT, a sudden stop. Halliwell's Diet. But see JORT. 
JONAS [W.-T.] , jaundice. See JAUNIS. 

JOOK, JOUK, to duck one's head so as to avoid a blow. An 
old woman gave her son, who had joined the army, much wise 
council as to his conduct and general behaviour ; and added, 
"When thoo sees a cannon baal coming, jook, Jimmy, jook." 
See JOWK and DOOK. 

JOOK, to overreach, to deceive. 

JOOKERY-PAWKRY, hocus-pocus, humbug, something used 
to mystify or mislead. 

JOPE [W.-T.] , to clash together, as paste eggs are struck in 
the endeavour to find out the harder one. See JAAP, JAUP. 

JORT, JIRT, to jerk. 

JOUKINS, grains which fall from the sheaves in carrying them 
into the barn to be threshed. The joukins are the perquisite 
of the carriers of the sheaves. Compare JOOK, i. 

JOWEL, a small rippling wave. 

JOWL, to strike two substances together ; especially to strike 
the wall of a coal-pit by way of signal. It is used to ascertain 
the relative positions of one working party by another. 
Imprisoned pitmen, after an accident in a colliery, are heard 
jowlin to indicate their position to the relief party. 

JOWLIN, the cracking, rending sound heard when the props 
are removed from a mine working. 

JOWLS, the jaws. Compare CHAFFS. 


JUBUS, JUVUS, dubious. 

JUD, the portion of coal at which the hewer is working, kirved, 
nicked, and ready to be brought down. 

JUDD, to butt as a sheep. Brockett. 

JUD-NUT, JUDDY-NUT, two or more nuts united to each 
other. Brockett gives this as dud-nut. See ST. JOHN and 

JUG, to go to rest; as partridges when they roost on the 
ground." Brockett. 

JUMLY, applied to a liquid where a sediment has been 
disturbed. " Jumly coffee." 

JUMLY-BED, a soft bed of peaty moss or bog, which jumbles 
or undulates to the tread. Joggle-bog has the same meaning. 
See also SHOG-BOG. 

JUMP, to meet with ; to agree in conclusion. When a bargain 
has been made, the parties are said to jump if their reckoning 

JUMP, to jerk a hot bar of iron on an anvil, so as to increase 
its thickness by repeated blows, or jumps made by knocking 
the bar itself against the face of the anvil. Or to drill a hole 
with a heavy drilling tool having a chisel point. It is raised, 
or jumped up, and allowed to descend with its own weight. 

JUMPER, a long drilling rod worked by hand. The maggots 
found in cheese and bacon are called jumpers. Jumper is also 
the name of a short jacket. 

JUNK, a sheer descent or precipitous drop in the bed of a river ; 
such as is formed by the edge of a line of rocks where the 
gradual slope suddenly drops down as a step, making a deep 
pool. See CANCH. 

JUNKET, a basket for catching fish. 

JUSTIFY, to execute. On the Borders the execution of 
a rough and ready justice led to somewhat summary 

" Robert Robson was at once and for the terrifying of others justified, 
or executed on the spot." Dr. Charlton, North Tynedale, p. 42. 


JYE, AJYE, wry and awry , crooked. 

JYE, to turn aside. 

" Aa cannaj^ me neck, it's that stiff." Brockett. 

KAA, to drive, to impel, as to turn a wheel, or drive anything 
forward. " Kaa me, kaa thee," or " Kaa me an' aa'll kaa thee," 
a common saying, meaning "Help me and I'll help you," or 
" One good turn deserves another." See CAA, 3. 

KAA ! KEH ! go ! An exclamation denoting impatience or 
contempt. It is often spoken of as gah or gaa, and geh, a 
shortening of " get away." 

KAA-WAA, crooked, twisted, awry. 

KAB, KEB as " go kdb" or " gosh cab," an exclamation. See 

KABBISHIN, a bridle used injiorse-breaking. 

KAFF, chaff. K off-cutter t a straw-cutter, a hay-cutter. Kaff- 
hoose, a compartment connected with a corn-threshing 
machine for receiving the chaff as it leaves the fanners of 
the " dighter," or winnower. See CAFF. 

KAFF, a calf. Kaff-hoose, a house with pens for rearing 
calves. Kaff-yaird, calf-yard ; applied in speaking of the spot 
where a person is born and reared. " Wor canny kaff-yaird" 

KAG, CAG, a keg, a cask. 

" Paide for a cagge of struggen [sturgeon] , 125." Newcastle Municipal 
Accounts, October, 1594. 

KAICKEL, to cackle. " The hen myed sic a kaickelin.'' See 

KAIL, a turn ; so used among schoolboys in their games. 
" It's my kail." Brockett. 

KAIL, cabbage, greens. Brockett. 

"Kail, kale (Celtic). Northern English from Gaelic and Irish cal, 
Manx kail, Welsh cawl. Cognate with Latin caulis." Skeat, Concise 
Etymological Dictionary, third edition. 

4 I2 


KAIL, KYEL, broth. After a marriage ceremony there used 
to be " a race for the kail" from the church to the bridegroom's 
house. Meal kail, broth made with oatmeal. Tatie kail, potato 
soup. Fish kail, the same of fish. Spice kail, broth with 
raisins or currants in it. See KYEL. 

" The first person arriving there is entitled to the kail. This custom 
is disused in this neighbourhood." Note to Collier's Wedding, edition 1829. 

" Your bonny grey mear has lost her tail, 
An' yor aad wife's drown'd wi 1 a pot o 1 het kail." 
R. Surtees, "Life." 

Surtees Society, No. 24, p. 47. 

" Geea ne better kail nor ye can sup yorsel." Proverb. 

KAIL-BLADE, a cabbage leaf. 

"Get a cauld kail-blade .an' lay on yer head." James Armstrong, 

Anither Sang, 1872. 

KAIL-GARTH, a kitchen garden, any cottage garden. 

KAIL-POT, a pot for broth. It is specially applied to any 
pots made of the antique shape which yet survives. The 
body of the pot is almost spherical, the upper portion 
terminating in a broad lip or collar, at the sides of which ears 
for suspension are cast. The pot stands on three feet, like 
spikes. When in use it is suspended by a bow handle over 
the fire, and is familiar as the gipsy kettle. It is still in 
common use in many farmhouses. 

KAIM [N.], a comb, crest, ridge. See CAM, KEYEM, KYEM, 
KAME, and the next word below. 

KAIMS, ridges or elongated mounds of gravelly matter, more 
or less irregular in shape. The words comb, kayme, and cam 
in such place-names as Comb-hill, Kayme- ford, Caw-hill, are 
all variant forms of kaim, that is comb, a crest or ridge. 
Comb in Acomb, Wmcomblee, etc., is a misspelling for ham as 

KAINGY, KEENGY, cross-tempered, irritable, uneasy as 
when one is suffering. 

11 The kaingy awd cat left the lad but a shillin." 

J. P. Robson, " The Kittlin Legacy." 

Bards of the Tyne, 1848, p. 56. 

KAIRN, KIRN, a churn. A crooked sixpence is sometimes 
put into the kairn to avert witchcraft. 


KAIRN, KIRN, to churn. 

"Butter guid as ere was kiyn'd." 

T. Donaldson, Poems, 1809, p. 79. 

KAIRN-BABBY, or KAIRN-DOLLY, the kirn-baby. See 

KAIRN-MILK, butter-milk. 
KAIRN-SUPPER, the kirn or harvest supper. 

KAI STOCK, a cabbage stalk ; probably a shortened form of 
kail-staak. See CASTOCK. 

KALENDER, a colander. 
KALL, a waterfall. See CAAL, 3. 

KALLUST, callous, hard. A hard lump in the flesh is called 
a runched or kallust place. 

KAME, KAIM, a comb. See CAM and KAIM, i. 

"There the muircock he becks in his wild mossy hame; o'er the tops 
of the heather ye ken his red kame. 1 " James Armstrong, Wild Hills o' 
Wanny, 1879. 

KAMMEL, probably soft slate. Compare CAM and CALM 

" Blue kammel, 2 feet 3 inches." Borings and Sinkings, L.R., p. 76. 

perverse, unmanageable ; as "a kamsteery horse." See 

" Ses Willy Dean to loyal Tom, 

Yor words is awl a joke, man ; 
For Geordy winna he' yor help, 
Yo'r sic kamstarie folk, man." 

Song, The Pitman's Revenge, 1804. 

KARS, KERSE, cress. WATTER-KARS, water-cress ; also 
called well-karses. 

KASILTY, CASILTY, in doubtful health or condition; 
applied to sheep, etc., when their strength is precarious. 
"Some o' the lambs is nobbut casilty" 

" Kazzardly, adj., cattle subject to die; hazardous, subject to casual- 
ties." Ray's Gloss., E.D.S. 


KAVEL, the ballot by which the working places in a pit are 
fixed ; also the strips of tillage land in the common fields. 
Casting kavels casting lots. See CABLE, CAVEL, KEVEL, and 

KAYRT, a cart. See CAIRT. 

" Nickel Urn was driving away and whistlin in his kayrt leyke a nighten- 
gal." Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, edition 1850, p. 14. 

REACH, a heave up. 

" O ! the blue, the bonny, bonny blue, 
And I wish the blue may do weel, 
And every auld wife that's sae jealous o' her dochter 
May she get a good heach i' the creel." 

Song, The Reach i' the Creel. 

READ, RAED, a sheep's louse. The muck that infests sheep. 

REAHM, a comb. See RYEM. 

" Aw's warn a keahm hessint been in't this twe months." Thomas 
Bewick, The Howdy, etc., edition 1850, p. 10. 

REAV, to bounce and bang about. " He gans keavin aboot, 
dingin iverybody ower." See RYEV. 

REAVE, a large, awkward foot. " The heaves o' Lorbottle," a 
jocose saying used against the Lorbottle folks, who were 
alleged to have huge, shapeless feet. Compare RYUTS and 
REVEL, 3. 

REB, to drop a dead lamb. When a lamb dies in birth it is 
called a fobbed lamb and tbe mother a fobbed yow. On these 
occasions the skin of the fobbed lamb is flayed and put upon 
a strange lamb. This is brought to the foster mother to be 
suckled, who, smelling the skin of her own progeny, allows 
the stranger to approach her and take her milk. 

REB, to turn in the knees or toes in walking. " The little 
bowdykite wis gan alang fobbin his feet." 

REB, an exclamation. "Go fob, gan oot ma road." See 

Go CAB. 

REBBUCR, a cheese. Brockett. 

REB-HOOSE, the shelter erected for the young lambs in the 
lambing season. The keb-hottse is divided by small stalls or 
partitions called " perricks.'' 


KECKLE, KOCKLE, to cackle, to laugh, to chuckle boast- 
fully, to make a noise in the throat when swallowing. 

KECKS, KEX, hollow-stalked plants in general, but especially 
the cow-parsnip, Herackum sphondylium, L. "What a smell 
thor is ; what are ye deein ?' " Aa's oney boilin' kecks for the 
pigs." See COW-KEEKS. 

KEDGE, to fill oneself with meat. Ray. 
KEDGE-BELLY, a large protuberent stomach, a glutton. 

KEED-UP, get up ! Generally addressed by a driver to his 

KEEK, the soup formerly served out to poor people. 

"Did ye no knaa that he was browt up on keek?" J. L. Luckley, 

Alnwick Language. 

KEEK, a peep, a prying glance. 

" Tom Cavers and me, fra West Moor, 

On a kind of a jollification, 
Yen day myed what some folks call a tour, 
For a keek at the state o' the nation." 

R. Gilchrist, d. 1844, Collier's Keek at the Nation. 

KEEK, to look at, to peep, to pry. ''Just keek through the 
spy-glass." " Keekin by " looking round a corner. 

" Chaps that can tell what's i' yor heed, 
Wi keekin at the nobs without." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. go. 

" Forst aa keek'd this way, then aa keek'd that way ; then aa torns half 
roond an 1 tries to keek ower me showlder." His Other Eye, 1880, p. 2. 

" We'll keek into the linty's nest." James Armstrong, Charms of the 

KEEKER, an overlooker at a pit, whose business it is to 
examine the "coals as they come out of the mine. 

KEEKERS, the eyes. A cant term. 
KEEK-HOLE, a peep-hole. 

KEEKIN-GLASS, a looking-glass. 

" There's blythesome Tibby Richison, she is a bonny lass; 
The water-trough, where oft aw drank, may serve as keeking-glass." 
" Robin Spraggon's Auld Grey Mare." 

Northumbrian Minstrelsy, 1882, p. 135. 

KEEK-KEEK, the word used by children in playing hide-and- 


KEEL, to cool. " Keeling the pot " is a game played amongst 
children in Northumberland. 

11 A girl comes in exclaiming, ' Mother, mother, the pot's boiling ower.' 
The answer is, ' Then get the ladle and keel it.' The difficulty is to get 
the ladle, which is ' up-a-height,' and the ' steul ' wants a leg, and the 
joiner is either sick or dead." Bvockett. 

" For na licour sal thai fynd to fele 
That thair threst mught sleke and thair hertes kele." 

" The Pricke of Conscience" 

Morris, 1. 6,763. 

KEEL, soft, red, ochraceous shale, used for marking sheep, 
and for making the large red pencils used by joiners. 

" Aw paints wi' chalk an' keel my feyce." 

J. P. Robson, Billy Purvis's Bundle, 1849. 

KEEL, a large cargo-carrying boat. The keel on Tyne and 
Wear was formerly used for the conveyance of coal from the 
dykes, or staiths, in the upper and shallower reaches of the 
river, to the collier ships at their various berths in the harbour. 

" Weel may the keel row 
That my laddie's in." 

Song, The Keel Row. 

KEEL, a measure of coals, equal to eight Newcastle chaldrons 
or twenty-one tons four hundredweight. The carrying capacity 
of vessels is frequently stated in keels. " She carries twenty- 
five keels." 

KEEL-BULLY, a mate or comrade on board a keel. 

" Keel-bullies is a term used for this species of watermen ; bullies is also 
a common appellation among the people concerned in the coal works for 
brothers." Brand's History of Newcastle, 1789, vol. ii., p. 262, note. 

KEEL-DEETER, KEEL-DIGHTER, a keel tidier or cleaner. 

" The wives and daughters of the keelmen were, in old times, called 

' keel-deeters,' because they had the privilege of ' dighting,' or sweeping up, 

and taking away the sweepings for their pains." R. J. Charleton, 

Newcastle Town, 1885, p. 327. 

KEELER, an ancient name for a keelman. 

" The men who serve in the barges who are called heelers." Tynemouth 
Chartulary, A.D. 1322. Gibson's Monastery of Tynemouth, vol.i., p. 139. 

KEELMAN, one of the crew of a keel. 
KEELY, KEELEY, a keelman. 

KEELY-HAAK, the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, L., the commonest 
falcon in the North of England. Its note " keely-keely " gives 
it the name of keely-hawk. 


KEELY-VINE, a pencil, originally a pencil made from keel, 
but applied generally to " vines" or pencils. A preacher, 
annoyed by seeing a shorthand writer at work below him, 
proceeded in his sermon till he had delivered a very emphatic 
sentence, when he leaned over the pulpit and said, " Man wi' 
the keely-vine ! put that doon." 

KEEN, a crack in the skin caused by frost ; an oblong slit in 
bark, wood, earth, stones, strata, or ice. Hodgson MS. 
" Keen, caustic applied to wens or ulcers." Brockett 

KEEPIN-HOGS, sheep which are kept on to the second or 
third year before they are fattened for the market. 

KEEPIN-PIGS, pigs suitable for keeping in order to fatten 

" For sale Eight Keeping Pigs.'' Advt., Newcastle Daily Journal, April 8, 

KEEPS, the parts that hold down an axle in its bearing on the 
cod. The catches which fall out after the passage of a cage 
in a pit and support it till ready to be lowered, when they are 
withdrawn by a lever. See KEPS. 

KEEP-THE-POT-BOILIN, to play at a game in which each 
keeps his turn in rapid succession. 

KEEP-WALL, an old term for the Roman Wall. 
KEERN, a grain of corn. " A keern o' wheat." 
KEG-MEG, CAG-MAG, meat of inferior quality. 
KEID, KYED, fastened with a key. See KYE, 2. 
KEIL, a large hay-cock. See KYLE. 

KELD, the smooth part of a stretch of water. A slight rough- 
ness on the surface of water is called a "lepper," and a 
" caal " when roughened by the wind. 

"The watermen about Heworth Shore call the smooth, oily, and 
unrippled parts of the surface of the Tyne by the name of kelds." 
Hodgson MS. 

KELD, to thump Northumberland. Halliwell. Compare KELK. 
KELE, WILD-KELE, wild kale, Brassica okracea, L. 
KELK, KELKER, a severe blow. 


KELK, to strike strongly. 

KELK, the roe or milt of a fish. 

KELKS, plants with hollow stalks. See KECKS. 

KELT, a salmon that has just spawned, an unclean fish. 

KELTER, money, condition. " In good falter " in good form. 

KELTY, to give one falty, " to persuade one to it, tho' 
unwilling." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, margin, p. 32. 

KEMB, a stronghold a term used by the Borderers. Brockett. 
Compare KAIMS. 

KEMMEL'S-PATH, GAMMEL'S-PATH, the name of the 
northernmost portion of the Roman Watling Street which 
leads from High Rochester (Bvemenium), crosses the head of 
Coquet at Chew Green camp (Ad Fines], and thence passes 
into Scotland. (See Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. iij., vol. ij., 
pp. 208-211.) It is also spelt Campespeth, Kemylpethe, and 

KEMP, an impetuous youth. Compare HEMP. 

KEMP, to contend or race in shearing corn. The use of 
reaping machines has put an end to this competition, or 
nearly so. 

" The stormy kemp, or emulous struggle for the honour of the ridge 
end." Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div., vol. ij., p. 372. 

KEMPIN, a contest between reapers in the harvest field. 

KEMPS, fighting cocks, the stems and seed heads of the 
Plottage lanceolata. They are called by children famps or 
" soldiers," and are used to kemp or fight with. One holds 
out a stalk and his opponent strikes, the object being to 
decapitate the adversary. 

KEMPS, hairs amongst wool. 

KEN, to know, to be acquainted with. Compare KNAA. 

11 He kens the bauds on Tosson hills, he kens the holes at Rae ; there's 
no' a den roun' the kailstone but he kens weel, I trow, an' a' the holes on 
Lanston he kens them thro 1 and thro'." James Armstrong, Kielder Hunt. 


KENGUD, a mark left on the face from a blow. 

KENNER ! An expression used at a pit, signifying time to 
give up work, shouted down the shaft by the banksman where 
practicable, and conveyed into the workings from mouth to 
mouth. Greenwell's Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1849. 

KENNIN, a measure; half a bushel that is, two pecks. In 
the Inventory of Norham Castle, 1344-5, it is spelt kenine. 

KENSPECKLE, KENSPECKLED, conspicuous, well- 
known, easy to be recognised. " Thon chep wi' the white 
hat's kenspeckle eneuf." 

" By Jove, it's ' Burnt Tom,' the very fox that beat the dogs so often 
last year. Yonder he goes, with the beauties at his kenspecklt brush." 
James Armstrong, North Tyne Hounds, 1879. 

KENT [N.] , a pole used for leaping and for setting a boat. 
Compare POWEY. 

" When the stream is of equal depth, a kent or pole is used." 
Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div. t vol. ij,, p. 175. 

" Quante, or sprete, rodde. Whante, or qvante, long sprete or rodde." 
Prompt. Parvulorum. Quont, a pole to push a boat onwards (E. Anglia 
and East Sussex). Quant, a walking stick (Kent). Way." Note to above. 

KENT, to propel a boat with a kent. 

" A man had just been kented over the Tweed." Richardson, above. 

KEP, to catch in falling, or to catch and retain at one and the 
same time. 

" This place (Kepier) takes its name from the Yare or Wear, the dam, 
which there was built across the river, and which contained the trap for 
kepping (catching) the fish." Rev. Canon Green well, Transactions of 
Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, vol. vi., p. 9, note. 

KEP, to intercept, to meet. " Aa kept 'im comin thregh (from) 
the market." 

KEP, KEPEET [N.],/.*. of keep; p.p. keppen. 
KEPPER, a spawning fish or kipper. 

KEPPIN-POST, the gate post at the side where the chain, 
which fastens the gate, is looped. It is the " catching post." 
Its counterpart, the post on which the gate hinges, or from 
which it hangs, is called the " hingin-post." 



KEPPY-BAA, a hand ball, a ball made to catch, or kep. A 
rebounding ball is called a " stotty-baal," but a keppy-baal is 
generally made of segments of leather, sewn together and 
stuffed with sawdust or "chisel" (bran), and frequently 
"crulled" with coloured wools. Keppy-baals are generally 
the " play lakins " of girls. They are thrown up and caught 
in the hand to a child's rhyme : 

" Keppy-baa, keppy-baa, corban tree, 
Come doon the lang lonnin, an' tell ti me 
Hoo many 'ear aad aa he' ti be." 

Each time the ball was kepped counted for a year, and if the 
kepper was clever she was sometimes promised patriarchal 

KEPS, the catches or rests at the top of a pit shaft on which 
the cage is caught and rested whilst the tubs are being 
changed. This word is often written keeps, but its spoken 
form is keps. 

KERB, to cut. A variant of kirve. 
KERN, a churn. See KAIRN. 

KERN, the finish of harvest. " To get their kern " is the term 
used when shearers talk of finishing the harvest. The "last 
cut " of corn was the object of a struggle among the shearers. 
It was made into the form of a large doll, dressed with 
ribbons, and called the kern-doll, kern-babby, corney-doll, or 
melt-doll. It was borne in triumph at the head of a procession. 
The last business, before leaving the fields, is to " shout the 
kirn" when a verse is repeated, such as the following from the 
Wansbeck : 

" Blessed be the day our Saviour was born ; 

For Master 's corn's all well shorn, 

And we will have a good supper to-night, 
And a drinking of ale, and a kirn ! 

A him ! ahoa ! " 

All uniting at the close in a simultaneous shout. In Glendale 
a somewhat abbreviated version of the harvest rhyme is in 
use : 

" The master's corn is ripe, and shorn, 

We bless the day that he was born. 

Shouting a kirn ! a kirn ! ahoa ! " 

In South Northumberland the rhyme used was : 

" Our master kind has cut his corn, 
God bless the day that he was born. 
Many years yet may he live, 
Good crops of corn to cut and sheave." 


KERN-SUPPER, the feast at the finish of the harvest. See 

KERSE-CROSS, chris-cross. 

KERSEN, KORSEN, KIRSEN, to christen. 


KERSTY, the Christian name Christiana. 

KERVE, to cut. See KIRVE and KIRVIN. 

" Avoutrie kerveth atwo and breketh at wo hem that first were made 
on flesh." Persones Tale, p. 104. 

KESLUP, KESLOP, the stomach. 

41 Taut i' the Keslop snug an' tight." 

T. Donaldson, Poems, 1809, P- 106. 

" * Kittle your keslop ' a Newcastle trope for chastisement. ' Warm 
your keslop ' a metaphor for a hot-pot." Brockett. 

KESSEN, the p.p. of cast. Sometimes the form is cassen. See 

KESSLE, the stomach. ' 

KEST, the p.t. of cast. In general use. " He kest his claes ower 
syun an' gat caad." 

" That infernall Monster having kest 
His wearie foe into that living well." 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, bk. i., canto xi., stanza 31. 

KET, stinking, unhealthy, diseased. But applied also to the 
carcases of animals dying a natural death, and dressed for the 
market without being bled as ket meat or deed ket. "Ah, 
kitty ket ! " an exclamation of disgust on sniffing a bad smell. 

" Ket, putrid meat, chiefly that of horses given to hunting hounds." 
Hodgson MS. 

KETMENT, a dirty mixture, any sort of filth. Brockett. 

KETTLE, a feast at which salmon is the chief item on the bill 
of fare. Kettles are often held in pic-nic fashion on the Tweed 
or on the coast, and the board is spread before the fish is caught. 

KETTLE, a pot-hole or circular hole, scoured out in a rocky 
river bed by the swirling action of pebbles which have lodged 
originally in a crevice. From their resemblance to the form 
of cauldrons, these holes are known as pot-holes or kettles. 
" The Kettles " is the name of a tract of land, which abounds 
in pot-like cavities, near Wooler. 


KETTLE-BOILER [N.], an egg-ended steam boiler. 

KETTY, disgusting, nasty. "A ketty butcher" one who is 
supposed to deal in diseased meat. See KET. 

" ' A hefty cur' a nasty, stinking fellow." Ray's Glossary, E.D.S. 

KEUSTRAN, a " fulsom sloven." (Obs.) 

KEVEL, KYEVEL, a lot, a strip of tillage land in.the common 

" We'll cast hevels us amang, 
See wha the man may be 
The kevel fell on Brown Robyn, 
The master man was he." 

Robin Hood. 

" Compare Icelandic kefli, a bit of round stick. The sense of ' lot ' 
arose, I think, from the practice of drawing ' cuts 'that is, each person 
drew a bit of stick from some one's fist, and he who drew the shortest 
was successful." Note by Professor Skeat, May 27, 1891. 

KEVEL, KEVIL, KYEVEL, a sound like the blow from a 

" She cowped him ower the kail-pot with a kevil." 

" Sawney Ogilby's Duel." Bell's Rhymes, 1812. 

KEVEL, KYEVEL, a stone hammer, the common gavcL See 

KEVEL, KYEVEL, to break with a hammer, to make a noise 
like the sound of a heavy blow. " Kevellin sty ens " breaking 
stones for macadam. 

KEX, hemlock, the cow parsnip. See KECKS. 
KEYEM [S.] , a comb. See KYEM. 

KEY-LOKE, an armful of hay put on each corner of a cart in 
loading it. 

KEYS, the fruit of the ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior, L. A bunch 
of these keys carried in the hand was supposed to be a charm 
against witchcraft. 

KI, KIV, quoth. Either form is used, as euphony suggests. 
This is one of the many instances of modified particles, which 
are affected by the open sound following them. TV 'and tiv, 
wi' and wiv, he and hev, U and biv, all follow a similar usage. 
Ki Geordy, " How ! where are ye gannin ? " 

J. Selkirk, " Bob Cranky's 'Size Sunday." 

Allan's Collection, p. 318. 
Kiv aw, " Lass, thou's myed to maw fancy." 

The same. 

" Kih she, yeh may say what yeh leyke, but Aze suer aw's reet." 
Thomas Bewick, The Howdy. The Teyne-Seyde Dialect Sixty Years Seyne, 
reprint 1850, p. 9. 


KIBBLE, a small tub, containing about twenty gallons, used 
in a pit for sinking purposes, or for conveying rubbish from 
one place to another, in which case it is run on a tram. 

KIBBLE, to thrash. " If aa catch ye, aa'll kibble ye weel." 
From kevel, a stick. See KEVEL, 4. 

KICK, the top of the fashion in other language, quite the go 
just the thing. Brockett. Compare KICKMASHAW. 

KICKMASHAW, extravagant, foppish. 

" He has long been thought odd, for his kickmashaw airs." 

R. Gilchrist, d. 1844, When Sir Tommy was made an Oddfellow. 

"Kickshaw, a dish in French cookery; applied metaphorically to a 
fantastic coxcomb." Halliwell. 

KICK-UP, an apparatus at a pit bank, made like an iron 
cradle, by which a tram is tipped upside down and emptied 
on to the screen. 

KICK-UP, any kind of disturbance, as a house cleaning or a 

KIDDY, a son, a native or familiar. 

" Show what noted kiddies fre Newcastle toon hes flit." 
W. Armstrong, " Newcastle Worthies," 

Marshall's Songs, 1825, p. 196. 

KIDGEL, a cudgel. To "tyek up the kidgels" is to stand in 
defence of an argument. 

KIDNEY-IRONSTONE, ironstone nodules. 

KILL-COW, a matter of consequence ; a serious affair ; as 
" Ye needna mind, I'm sure it's nae sic great kill-cow." In 
reference most probably to a blow that is sufficient to knock 
down or kill a cow. Jamieson. 

KILLEN, p.p. of killed. 

KILLIN-STYUL, a killing-stool. It is made with four legs 
and with handles at the ends, like a handbarrow. Pigs, etc., 
after being killed, are laid on the Mllin-styul to be dressed or 

KILLOGIE, a small recess in the fire-hole of an oat drying 
kiln, where the fire is usually fed with the " sheelin-seeds," or 
outer husks of the grain. 



KILLY-COUPER, an upset heels over head. 

" Killicoup, a somerset. Killie is a plank or beam placed on a wall so 
that one end projects a good way further than the other. A child then 
places himself upon the long end, while two or three press down the 
short end, so as to cause him to mount." Jamieson. 

KILLYMAUKEE, a blue, freckled variety of potato, once very 
common in N. Northumberland. It resembles the forty-foal. 

KILT, to gather up, to tuck up. Applied to the action of a 
horse in gathering up his heels to kick, or to the gathering up 
of a woman's dress. Formerly to hoist up or hang. 

KIN, if. Compare GIN. 

"Shouting as kin yen was deef." Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, 
edition 1850, p. 12. 

KINCH-PINCH, "time" cried in a contest. "To cry kinch- 
pinch" is to call for breathing time. This is a quite recent 
introduction in boys' play. The form was originally king's 


KIN-COUGH, hooping-cough. See KINK-HOAST. 

KINE-GATE, KINE-GEAT, KYE-GATE, the plural forms 
of cow-gate ; stint or pasturage for cows. 

11 Thomas Riddell shall have four kine-geats to go and depasture in the 
said four closes." Award of 1605.- Richard Welford, History of Newcastle, 
vol. in., p. 369. 

KJNEY, sly. " He just teuk a kiney leuk." 

KING-CUP, the marsh marigold, Caltha palustris, L. Called 
also watter-gollan. 

KING'S-CUSHION, a sort of seat made by two persons 
crossing their hands, on which to place a third. Brockett. A 
child's game. 

KING'S-HOOD, the wood geranium, Geranium sylvaticum, L. 

KING'S-SPEECH, a truce called in a boys' game. When an 
adjustment or stoppage is desired during the course of a game, 
the one who desires a truce calls out " King' s-speech an' 
barley bay." The formula secures .him immunity, and he 
cannot be caught out till play is resumed. 

"There is another common expression in boyish sports, which, if 
confined to the North, I should be inclined to connect with Border 
recollections. It is the cry of 'kings-speech,' or ' king's-play ' (now 
1 queen's-play ' in Newcastle) which, the moment it is heard from either 
party, is a stopper to all the advantages common to the game in neglect 
of any rule, and a signal for five minutes' truce. The game of Scots and 
English need hardly be mentioned as another instance." W. H. D. 
Longstaffe, Observations on Martial Mottoes. Richardson's Reprint of 
Denham's Slogans, p. 27. 


KINK, to catch the sides, as in a spasm with violent laughter. 

" Wey, smash maw skin, aw kink'd an' laft, 
When roond an' roond she swaggerin' waft." 

J. P. Robson, Wov Molly torned Bloomer. 

" It is spoken of children when their breath is long stopp'd through 
eager crying or coughing." Bailey, from Ray. 

KINK-HOAST, KIN-KOUF, the hooping-cough. See KIN- 

KINLIN, kindling, light fuel for fire-kindling. 
KIP, to thrash with a stick. 
KIP, an overgrown calf. Bwckett. 

KIRK, a church. This Northern form of the word obtains in 
North Northumberland ; but on Tyneside chorch is frequently 
heard, like the duplicate forms Ust and chist (chest). The 
harder form of the word is found in the Pricke of Conscience 
"Haly kirk" lines 2,132 and 3,684. 

KIRKEET [N.] , churched. 
KIRK-FOLK, church attenders. 
KIRK-GARTH, KJRK-YERD [N.] , a churchyard. 
KIRK-HOLE, a grave. Bvockett. 

KIRKMAISTER, a churchwarden. The churchwardens of 
All Saints', Newcastle, are so styled in an indenture dated 

KIRN, a churn. See KAIRN. 

KIRN, the finish of the harvest. See KERN and following 

KIRN-BABBY, KIRN-DOLLY, the last handful of corn cut, 
dressed up to resemble a female figure. See KERN. 

KIRN-STAFF, the old-fashioned staff used like a piston-rod in 
the antiquated vertical churn. 

KIRN-SUPPER, a supper and dance to celebrate the end of 
harvest. See KERN-SUPPER. 

KIRSEN, KIRSTEN, to christen. 
KIRSEN, the name Christiana, 


KIRSP, crisp. 
KIRSTY, Christopher. 

KIRVE, KERVE, KERB, to cut. Specially applied to the 
first operation in hewing coal. 

KIRVIN-AND-N1CKIN, in coal mining, the preparatory 
operations for bringing down thejud or top. A nick is made 
down each side of the coal " face," and these deep grooves 
are called the nickins ; then a deep wedge-shaped groove is 
carved or cut at the floor level called the kirvin. 

" For what he gat was very sma 1 , 
Frae out the kirvins and the nickins.'' 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii. f 1827, v. 37. 

RISEN ED. Children are said to be kisened when from a 
weakness or being pampered they loathe their food Hodgson 

KISENT, KIZZENT, dried up with drought or over-cooking. 

KISSING-BUSH, a Christmas tree ; so called in former times. 

" At York and Newcastle-upon-Tyne this ancient token of a mirthful 
and, I hope, innocent custom, is still to be seen at Christmas. The bush 
is formed of mistletoe, evergreens, ribbons, and oranges." M. A. 
Denham, 1858, Folk Lore, Tract x., pt. iv. p. 17. 

KIST, CIST, a box or chest. A " deputy 's hist" is the chest 
used by the deputy in a coal pit, wherein he keeps his tools, 
plate nails, brattice nails, and other requirements. " Coffin 
kist" a hearse. Prehistoric burials are sometimes found in 
regularly made boxes of stone, four or more of which are set 
on edge, whilst one or more form a close cover or lid. These 
are known as kists by Jhe country people and as cists by the 

KIST-LOCKER, the small compartment^at one end of a chest, 
for holding valuables etc. 

KIT. a small wooden tub, bucket, or pail. Formerly applied 
also to a small barrel used for packing pickled salmon. 

" Kit, a small wooden vessel, in which Newcastle salmon is sent up to 
town." Todd. 

KIT, the stool on which a cobbler works, including all his tools. 


KIT, the entire number or quantity of a set of persons or things. 
" Tyek the hyel kit on them if ye like." 


KITCHEN, a dainty of any kind, such as butter, cheese, jam, 
etc., laid on and eaten with a slice of bread. " We hed bare 
breed an' ne kitchen" 

" Bessie's butter 's made me up ; 
It kitchens roots sae fine." 

T. Donaldson, Poems, Glanton, 1809, p. 79. 

KITCHEN, a tea-urn, Brocket*. 

KITCHEN, to serve out with care, to save in serving victuals. 
" We mun kitchen the broth, or it'll not gan roon'." 

KITE, KYTE, the stomach, the belly. 

KITH, acquaintance. " He's 'nee kith o' wors." In the 
common phrase " Kith and kin," acquaintances (kith) appear 
to be distinguished from relatives (kin). 

KITH, KYTHE, the appearance of growth. See KYTHE. 
" The tender shoots or blades of herbs or trees." Hodgson MS. 

KITICANS, gaiters. "What a swell! wiv eez white hat an' 
kiticans." See CUTE-SKINS. 

KITTLE, to kindle, to bring forth young. " Wor cat's kittled 

KITTLE, to tickle, to touch lightly. " Kittle the coal" stir 
the fire. 

KITTLE, delicately balanced, easily upset, precarious. "A 
kittle horse." " Kittle cattle." " A kittle job." " Kittle as a 
razor." "Kittle weather." 

KITTLE-BOARD, the plate in a trap on which bait is placed 
and on which the animal sets its foot, releasing the catch 
which holds the spring down. 

KITTLE-BUSY, officious, interested about trifies.Brockett. 
KITTLISH, uncertain. See KITTLE, 3. 
KITTLY, easily excited to laughter by tickling. 

KITTY, a straw filled with gunpowder. Used as a fuse for 
blasting in mines. 

KITTY, a lock-up, a prison. 

"At the cummyng yn of the same priory is a gatehouse. ... In 
the northe syde of the same gatehouse ys there a prison for offenders* 
within the towne called the kydcott" Pollard's Survey of Bridlington 
Priory (dr. 32 Hen. VIII.). 


KITTY, little. " Aa'll gie ye a kitty bit o' breed." Compare 

KITTY-CAT-AN'-BUCK-STICK. a game played by boys. 

KITTY-CROP, a closely cut or cropped head. Jocularly used 
in allusion to the close crop given to a felon on entering the 
kitty or prison. 

KITTY-FINGER, the little finger. 

KITTY-PEARTY, the name applied to a bright little bairn 
meaning "little pert one "always used in an approving sense. 

KITTY-WI'-THE-WISP, the will-o'-the-wisp. Also called 

Jenny -wi'-the-lantern. 

JENNY-WRAIN, the wren, Troglodytes parvulus. Sometimes 
called (but rarely) tomtit. 

KIVER-AWA ! An exclamation familiar at the drill of the 
Loyal Newcastle Associated Corps of Volunteer Infantry, 
1804. See the song " Kiver awa!" in Bell's Rhymes, p. 14. 
Also the following: 

" 'Twas worth a crown to hear him, too, 
Exclaiming ' Kiver awa / '" 

J. Shield, " Blackett's Field." 

Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 13. 

KIZZEN, KISON, to parch or dry up, as in overcooking. 
" She's Uzzened the pot." Bacon or ham when overcooked is 
said to be kizzencd. 

" Pampered and sickly children, whose appetite loaths their food, are 
said to be kisoned." Hodgson MS. 

KLICK, a peg or knob for hanging anything upon. See CLECK. 

KLICKER, one who stands at the door of a shop, especially at 
the door of a shoe shop, to catch and bring in customers. An 
occasional advertisement still reminds of the common use of 
the word by the formula, " Wanted, a good klicker." 

KLICK-HOOK, a large barbed hook for landing salmon 
used in poaching. See CLEEK. 

KNAA, KNAW, to know. " Thoo knaas aa like te he' thee 
near." Ken means to be acquainted with a person or thing 
from observation or from outside view. Knaa refers to mental 


KNAAIN, knowing, cunning. " He a Unaain chep" a wide- 
awake fellow. An old meaning of knaain is acquaintance. 

" Thar thai fand nan o thair knaing." Cursor Mundi (dr. A.D. 1320). 
Visit of the Wise Men. 

KNAB, or NAB, a hill. " Calder's Knob " in Old Bewick. 

KNACK, to speak finely. And it is used of such as do speak 
in the Southern dialect. Ray's Collection of North-Country 

KNACK, to crack together, as a finger and thumb are cracked, 
or as the heels are knocked together in dancing. Knack-knees 
are knees knocking against each other. 

" The pipes scream out her fav'rite jig, 
She knack' d her thumbs and stood her trig." 

E. Chicken, The Collier's Wedding, 1735. 

KNACKERS, the two bones or pieces of hard wood charred at 
the ends, used like castanets. These -were in common use 
long before the "bones" and "tambourine" of Christy 
Minstrels were heard of. 

KNACKET [N.], KNACKEY [T.] , the same as knacky or 

KNACK-REEL, a contrivance for winding yarn off the 
"broaches" into "cuts." It knacked, or clicked, at each 
" cut." Previous to the introduction of the knack-reel, about 
fifty or sixty years ago, the yarn was wound on another 
system, and was counted by the tick of a clock and with 
this rhyme : 

" That's one, 

That's not one, 

That's one oot, 

That's one off." 

Twenty "cuts" a day (120 threads or revolutions of the 
winding reel) was considered a big day's work. 

KNACKY, clever, cunning, s^mart. Used in a disparaging" 
sense, as when a self-conceited person is showing off his 

KNAPPIN-HAMMER, a small hammer, sixteen to twenty 
ounces in weight, used in breaking stones to lay on the 
: highways. 

KNAR, rugged. The word occurs in Knaresdale and in two 
other place-names in Northumberland* 


KNAW, to know. See KNAA. 

KNED, the strong p.t. of knead. "Kned-kyek" a cake richly 
kneaded with lard or butter. 

KNEDDIN, butter or fat used in making cakes. 

KNEEIZER-BREECHES, breeches reaching to the knee, and 
there fastened with buttons, buckles, or strings. They are 
now rarely seen. 

KNIFLE, to steal, to pilfer, to cut away in portions almost 

KNITTIN-SHETH, a sheath for holding knitting needles 
when knitting. It was stuck in the girdle. 

KNOCKER-AND-ROULER, a mangle used for small articles 
of dress or wear. It is extemporised by using a bake-board 
and a rolling-pin for the purpose. 

KNOCKET [N.] , a farm servant's meal, 9-30 to 10 a.m. See 
OCKET, i. 

KNOCKIN-MELL, a mallet formerly in general use for beating 
the hulls off barley. 

KNOCKIN-TROW, a stone trough, or mortar, used in creeing 
or hulling barley. The barley was prepared for the pot by 
steeping it in water in the knockin-trow, and then by beating it 
with the knockin-mell till the husks came off. 

KNOCKLE, the knuckle. 

KNOCK-OFF-HEUK, a detaching hook, by which a set of 
wagons in motion, or a cage in overwinding, can be instantly 
detached from the rope. 

KNOCK-STONES, loose surface stones in a ploughed field. 
KNOLLER, a heavy blow. 

KNOOL, to assuage, " Aa'll tyek summic ti knool the pain." 
See NOOL. 

KNOOLED, broken down, dispirited, of troubled countenance 
or expression. "A knooled dog" is one that is cowed and 

KNOT-BERRY, KNOUT-BERRY, the cloudberry, Rubus 
chamcemovus, L. See NOOPS. 

KNOT GRASS, haver grass or oat grass, A vena elatiov, L. 


KNOTTY-TOMMY, an ill-made crowdy; full of knots. The 
coagulations or knots in porridge are also called by the same 

KNOUT-BERRY, the cloudberry. See KNOT-BERRY. 

KNOWE, a parting in the coal (a back or knowe) which sets the 
coal down with little trouble after the kirving and nicking of 
the jud have been completed by the hewer. 

" A back or know myeks hewers glad." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 64. 

KNOWE, KNOWL, a knoll, a rounded hillock. Twenty- 
eight place-names in Northumberland end in knowe. The 
Waal Knowk, or Wall Knoll, in Newcastle, is the rising knoll 
east of Pandon Dene, on which the mediaeval Town Wall and 
the yet more ancient Roman Wall alike crested the hill, 

KNUPES, the cloudberry. See NOOPS and KNOT-BERRY. 

KNURL, a dwarf Northumberland. Wright's Provincial Diet. 

" Knor, or knunr, a short, stubbed, dwarfish man ; a metaphor from a 
knot in a tree. In the South we use the diminutive knurle in the same 
sense." Grose. 

KOCKLE, to cackle. See KECKLE. 
KOO-KOO, the call of the'cushat or wood pigeon. 

KOPE, the call to a horse. In Chaucer's Reeve's Tale the 
clerkes run up and down shouting after their horse "Keep! 
keep!" (line 4,099). In Northumberland "Kope! kope!" is 
called to horses when grazing, to fetch them to bridle. 

KOP-STYEN, COP-STYEN, the cap, or coping stone of a 

KOTTY, QUOTTY, a short coat. 

KOW, a boggle, 'or local apparition, as "The Hedley kow." 

" A lonely part of the road where the kow used to play many of his 
tricks." S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, p. 101. 

KRAKE, to croak, to complain. 

KRIBLE, or CRIBLE, to curry favour with a superior. 


KURTCHER, KORSHER, a kerchief. This is still the 
common form of the word. 

"Two night kurtchers, 2s. ; two hand kurtchers, 35." Will of John 
Hutton. Februaiy 20, 1612. Welford's History of Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 195. 


KWOAL [S.] , KWOL [N.] , the pronunciation of coal. 

KWOAT [W.-T.], KWOT [N.], coat. 

" His hands in his kwoat pockets." Thos. Bewick, The Howdy, edition 
1850, p. 10. 

KWOLLY [N.] , a colley dog. 
KWOT-HOOSE, a cottar's house. 

KWOTTER, a cottar, the occupant, under a farmer, of a bondage 
house. The house is let under conditions of service to be 
rendered by the tenant, in return for which the terms generally 
include rent and coal leading free, together with an allowance 
of potatoes to the kwotter. 

KYE, kine. Kye-gates' (pi. of cow gate), pasturage for cows. 
See KINE. 

KYE [N.], to fasten with a key or wedge. Kyed-up, wedged 
up, as a rail is keyed in a railway chair. 

KYED, CADE, a sheep louse. See KEAD. 
KYEDGY, wanton, lascivious. 
KYEK, cake. 
KYEK-TOASTER, a cake-toaster. 

KYEL, broth, kail. At the time described in The Pitman's Pay 
it was not uncommon to mix raisins with the broth ; this was 
known as spice-kyel. See KAIL, 3. 

*' - " Then helter-skelter in we bang ; 

_ . . , The dinner waits we snuff the smell ; 

And a' sharp set, we warrent lang 
In dashin' in amang the kyel." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 84. 

KYEM, a comb; to comb. Used metaphorically, as " Aa'l 
kyem yor toppin " I will punish you. A comb is generally 
called " a reddin kyem" that is, a tidying comb. In North 
Northumberland, kaim; in South Northumberland, keyem or 
keahm ; on Tyneside, kyem. See KAIM, and compare KAIMS. 

KYEPS, ears of corn broken off in threshing. See CAPES. 


KYEV, to toss or paw the ground. Kyavin, the action of a 
horse, stamping with the foot and throwing up the dirt. See 

KYEVEL, a lot drawn in ballot. It is also applied to one's lot 

"The coal in some parts of the pit is softer and more easily wrought 
than in others, and, to prevent quarrelling and partiality, that to be 
hewn is divided into lots ; the colliers draw their lots once a quarter. 
This is called kyeveling, and the place or lot assigned to each man is 
called his kyevel." Dr. R. Wilson, Transactions of Tyneside Naturalists' 
Field Chib, vol. vi., p. 203. 

" What aw felt 

When Sail was for ma kyeval drawn ; 
Nay, a* ma joy's not to be telt, 
Sic happiness aw'd never knawn." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. in., 1829, v. 66. 

KYEVEL-HAMMER, a heavy hammer used by stone-breakers 
to break up the large blocks of road metal. The operation is 
termed kyevellin. Compare HUMELIN-HAMMER and KEVEL, 2 
and 3. 

KYLE, KYLEY, a large hay-cock ; used in doubtful weather. 
It contains about as much hay as a man can fork in two lifts. 
A small hay-cock is called a foot-cock. 

KYLE, a wedge. " Is thor a kyle i' this mell, Bob ? " 

KYLEY, KYLA, a kyloe, one of the small breed of Highland 

" They've stock'd us with Highlanders' horses. 
Like kyleys for madness and size." < .y. 

Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 175. 

KYTHE, to tell of, to show, to discover, to manifest oneself. 
The p.p. of this was kyd. It occurs frequently in the Pricke of 
Conscience (A.D. 1349). 

" They salle be knawen and kyd known and discovered." Line 7,138, 


" Aw'll nit believe but there's fairies, though they dinnit kythe to een 
like ours." Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div.,vo\. ii., p. 136, 1. 6 

" And aye she eyed the grey sloth-hound, 

As he windit owre Deadwater Fell, 
Till he came to the den wi' the moss inbound, 
An' O but it kythed a lonesome dell." 

Hogg, Sir David Graeme. 

KYTHEN, the knot of sand thrown up on a receding tide by 
sand worms. The worm thus discovers its position to the 
_ fishermen, who then and there dig them up for bait. See 
KITH, 2. 


KYUD, the cud. " The coo's chowin' the kyud." 

KYUTS, CYUTS, CUTES, the feet. Used derisively. 
" Tyek them greet kyuts o' yors oot o' the way." Compare 

LAA, LAW, liberty, freedom. When a bird is allowed to fly 
a distance before being shot at it is termed " Givin't law." 

LAA, low. " He wis varry laa doon " he was in very low 
spirits. In South Northumberland no difference is heard in 
the sound of laa (law) and laa (low). See LAIGH. 

" Outher heghe or laghe " (outher hee or laa either high or low). 
The latter word rhymes with waghe (waa wall). Hampole, Pricke of 
Conscience, edition Morris, 1. 6,620. 

LAA, LAW, LAWE, a roundish hill. See LAW. 

LAATER [T.] , all the eggs laid by a fowl at one time, or all the 
pigs in one litter. The word is probably from the same root 
as laa t that which is laid. It occurs in Northumberland as 
looter, lawter, lafter, and louter, and in Scotland as lachter. See 

LAAYOR, lawyer. 

LAB, to devour by pecking or plucking. " The cushats is 
labbin the young bagies " the pigeons are pecking the young 
turnips, or plucking large pieces out of their leaves. Ducks 
lab in feeding upon vegetables. 

LABBER, to dabble and splash in water. 

" They'll labber in our swine troughs." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serions Discourse, 1686, p. 34. 

" I stripped and had a good labber in the Coquet." 

James Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879. 

LAB-BOARD, a lap-board, such as tailors use to lay the seams 
on which they iron with their " goose." 

LAB1E, LABBY, a large irregular piece. 

" With knives as keen as Hector's sword, 
They cut each man a labie." 

Genuine Tom Whittle, 1815. 

LABIES, a store, plenty, abundance. From lay-by. Bwckett. 
LACE, to mix spirits with tea. See LYECE. 

LACKITS, small sums of money odd things generally. 
Brockett. (Obs.) 


LAD, a sweetheart. " She wis gan a waak wiv her lad" Also 
an unmarried farm servant. " Sarvin-/^5 hez getten good 
weyges thor hirin." Compare LADS. 

LADE, LODE, an aqueduct or channel which carries the water 
to a mill. The word occurs in place-names, as in West-lade, 
on the Tweed. Weetslade, or Weetsleet, is also the name of 
a township in the parish of Longbenton. 

" Unum ductum aquae nomine West-lade" (a water-channel by the name 
of West-lade). Dugdale, Monasticon, 308. 

''Lode, a vein of ore, a water-course." Skeat. 

LAD-O'-WAX, a strong, mettlesome fellow. " Howay, lads-o'- 
wax /" a common exhortation to rally for a charge or a fresh 

LADS, a following ; a company of comrades not necessarily 
young men. " Haaks's lads" " Backworth lads," &c. See 
also LAD. 

" Hey, Willie Ridley, winna ye stay ? 
Featherston's lads ha' gotten the day." 

R. Surtees, Life. Surtees Society, No. 24, p. 47. 

LADS-ALIVE ! an exclamation. Like man-alive ! this is a 
frequent preface to a sentence. 

LADS'-LOVE, southernwood, Artemisia abrotaneum. 

LADY. See LEDDY, LYEDDY. The word is found in many- 
plant names. Ladies' fingers, the purple foxglove, Digitalis 
purpurea ; also the woodbine. Ladies' purses, a name for shep- 
herds' purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris. Ladies' mantle, the common 
alchemil, Alchemilla vulgaris, L. Ladies' thimbles, the harebell, 
Campanula rotundifolia, L. Ladies 1 garters, or gardeners' garters, 
ribbon grass, Phalaris arundinacea, L. Lady's hair, or dotherin' 
dicks, the quakegrass, Briza media, L. Lady's soap, thus called 
at Rothbury, Conferva rivularis, a silky green weed which 
abounds in streams during a continuance of dry weather in 
summer. The ladies, in all these plant names, are no doubt 
the " little ladies " or fairies. 

" Fairies use flowers for their charactery." Merry Wives of Windsor, 
act v., sc. 5. 

LADY-LINT-WHITE, one of the names for the little warbler 
the whitethroat, Curruca cinerea. Compare JENNY-CUT-THROAT. 

' In appearance and attitude not unlike linnets, hence their popular 
name, Lady Linty White. 1 ' Dr. James Hardy, History of Bwks. Nat. Field 
Club, vol. x., p. 561. 


LAEV-LUGGED, having ears hanging over the eyes, as in 

LAFTER, LAWTER [T.] , LOUTER [N.], the whole 
decking of eggs laid by a hen. " She's sittin on the laftev" 
" Aa hevn't a neebor '11 len us a lafter of eggs," said a farmer's 
wife. Louior [N.] is also applied to a litter of pigs. " The 
soo hes a good loutor o' pigs." The Scottish form is lachtev. 

LAGGIN, the projecting part of the staves at the bottonr part 
of a cask or other hooped vessel. The pendant part of the 
hay in a stack, corresponding with the eaves of a house. 
Brockett. The cavity round the bottom of a hay-stack boiler. 

"The angle between the side and bottom of a wooden dish." 

Northumberland. Wright's Glossary. 

L AID-IN. When a colliery has ceased working from being 
exhausted, or from any other cause, and is dismantled, it is 
said to be laid-in. Gnenwell's Glossary, 1888. Works of any 
kind when permanently stopped are also said to be laid-in. 
Hence the end of all things, death. 

LAIDLEY, loathsome. 

" Word went east and word went west, 

Word is gone ower the sea, 
That a laidley Worm in Spindleston Heugh 
Would ruin the North Countree." 

Rev. R. Lamb, Ballad of the Laidley Worm. 

LAID-OUT, put to one side. When a corf or tub contains an 
excess of small coal or stones, it is forfeited, or laid-out. 

LAIGH [N.] , low. See LAA, 3. 

" She whispers laigh down till hersel." 

Poems, G. Donaldson, 1809, p. 70. 

LAIGHLY, lowly. 

"Shelaighly baiking" (lowly bowing) " made her Honour. " G. Stuart, 
Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 50. 

LAIGISHIN [N.] , a large, cumbersome quantity. " She teuk 
sic a laigishin o' things away wuv her as aa nivver seed " (said 
of a bride whose outfit had been unusually extensive). 

LAINCH, a long stride. 

" What a lainch he. has got how he lainches out his legs." Brockett. 

LAINCH, to lash out, to strike out. " The coo lainched oot wiv 
her foot. 


LAINGER (g sounded hard), to saunter idly, 
LAINGERIN, lingering. 

LAIR, mud, " sleek," quicksand, or any soft and yielding 
surface. In place-names, lair probably occurs in Learmouth, 
Learchild, Leyrbottle (now Lorbottle), Dinmont Lairs, and 
other places. 

LAIR, LARE, to smear with mud ; to sink in mud. " He was 
laired iv a bog " stuck fast in a mire. ..; ; ; ';* >* 

LAIR, the interior fat of a pig melted. 

LAIRD, a landowner residing upon and cultivating his own 

land. The term used to be especially common in North 

Cumberland, and formerly in North- West Northumberland. 

. Laird is sometimes applied simply to denote a person of some 


"Doddington Moors were held by small proprietors, of whom thete 
were thirty and mo're who were called 'lairds'; and who, besides 
possessing their cultivated lands, enjoyed the right of common over 
those wild moors." George Tate, in History of Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Club, vol. v., p. 153. 

"An what did they toak about? Wey, they spak about Weylam 
Engine, the lairds oh. Ryton, an of the great Swire's deeth ith nwoarth 
tKe other day." Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, edition 1850, p. 13. 

" Ye're like the laird o' Butterbura, 'Whatever is, is right.' " M. A. 
Denham, Folk Lore, 1851, p. 6. 

LAIRDED, LAIRED, LARED, stuck in the mud, caught in 
a bog, or stuck fast in any way. See LAIR, 3. 

LAIRK, a fold, a wrinkle. See LORK. 
LAIRN, LARN [T.] , to teach, to learn. 
LAIRSTONE, a tombstone. See .LARESTONE. 
LAIR-WHOLE, a bog-hole. 

LAIRY, miry. See LAIR, 3. 

" They run me to the lairy bog, and round about the lea." Robin 
Spraggon's A-uld Grey Mare. 

LAITH [N.J, LEATH [S.], loth, unwilling. " Aa wad be 
' laith ti gan win him." In South Northumberland it is 
pronounced in two syllables, lee-yaith. 


LAIVE, rest, remainder. See LAVE. 

LAKE, LAIG, a cry in driving geese. Seefye-lake, under the 
word FYE. 

WAKE, the wake, or watch, held over a corpse between 
the time of death and the funeral. The Northumberland 
pronunciation is lyik-waik, which is hardly represented in 
the commonly spelt form lake. 

"It is customary among the lower classes in Northumberland for 
several of the friends and neighbours of the deceased to sit up each night 
in the same room with the body until it be interred." S. Oliver the 
Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 91 and note. 

"Auld Lucky's former companions come to baud her lay-quake." 
Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div., vol. iij., p. 69. 

" Liche wake, a custom anciently used, and still practised in some 
places, of watching the dead every night till they are buried." Bailey's 
Dictionary, second edition, 1724. 

LAKIN, or PLAY-LAKIN, a plaything. Lake, to play, is not 
heard in Northumberland, but lakin, a plaything, is used with 
the prefix play, forming the pleonastic word play- lakin, suggestive 
of an imported or unfamiliar term. 

" Leikin, a sweetheart, Northumb. ab Ang.-Sax. lician, placere." 
Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS., 1033, quoted Way, Promptorium, p. 285, note i. 

L ALEEKIN, boisterous. " That dog's a greet laleeUn animal." 
LALEEKS, play, frolic. " Run away oot and get your laleeks." 

LAM, to beat severely, to strike black and blue. " He lams his 
wife." " He's getten a good lammin." 

11 Lam-pay, to correct ; principally applied to children to beat with a 
ferula. "Brockett. 

LAMB-HOG, a young sheep between the age of weaning and 
its first clipping. See HOG. 

LAMBS' TAILS, the catkins of hazel. 

LAMB'S-TONGUE, the common plantain, Plantago lanceolata, 

LAM-LAKINS, the flowers of the Arum maculatum. See BULLS- 

LAMMAS, to run away in alarm, to disperse at a signal. 
" Lammas, lads ; lammas /" 



LAMP [N.] , to walk with a long stride. " A lampin walker " 
one who goes up and down in his walk owing to the length of 
his stride. 

LAMP, a fire of coals burnt in a suspended iron grate or frame. 
The lamp in the rear of the early railway trains was a coal 
fire of this description. It is sometimes called a fire-lamp, 
and may yet be seen in use about colliery railway cabins. 

LAMPET, a limpet. 

LAMPY, having a striding gait. See LAMP. 

LAND, unploughed earth. The term is used in ploughing, 
where the left or near side that is, the side on which the 
earth is yet unploughed is called the land side. Giving a 
plough too much or too little land in the beam is when it is 
set too much to the right, or vice versa. In Scotland they say 
"mairjmT' for "more land." 

LANDER, LAANDER, a gutter or channel for water. See 

LANDIN, LAND-END, the end of a ridge or of a furrow in 
ploughing, or of a drill in drilling, hoeing, little-ploughing, or 
scuffling, where it meets the heedrig or the end of a rig in 
harvesting. To " go to a landin " means once across the full 
length of a furrow. To go to the far end and return again is 
to " gan time aboot." 

LAND-LARK, the common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos, L. 

LANDRY-BOX, a box at the top of a set of pumps into which 
the water is delivered. 

LANDS ALE, coals sold to the country in the neighbourhood 
of the pit, as distinguished from coals sold for shipment or 
delivery by rail to a distance. A landsale colliery is one doing 
a home trade in house coals which are loaded into the carts 
on the spot. 

LAND-SERJEANT, one of the officers of the Border watch, 
under the Warden of the March. To the land-serjeant was 
committed the apprehending of delinquents and the care of 
the public peace. (Obs.) 

LANG, long; the comparative is langar, usually pronounced 
lang-ar, or lang-or. 

" Whether he lyf lang or short while." Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 
Morris, 1. 632. 

" Here-on wille I na langer duelle." Hampole, 1. 927. 



LANG, to long. " Lang sair "greatly desire. 

" Aw langed for some oh the collops." Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, 
edition 1850, p. 13. 

" But now we can tauk about mairage 
An' lang sair for wor weddin day." 

W. Mitford, Pitman s Courtship, 1818. 

LANG, occasionally used for along. " He wis 'lang win aad 
Bob at the time." 

LANG-CAIRT, the long cart used by farmers for leading corn, 
hay, etc. It is fixed rigidly to the frame and shafts, and in 
this respect is distinguished from the short or " cowp-cairt," 
which can be tilted up to discharge its load. Compare 


LANG-CANDY, an abortive attempt, an effort resulting in 
complete failure. 

LANGISH, longish, somewhat long, tedious. 

LANG-LANDIN, a long single journey in field employments, 
extending from heedrig to heedrig. A double journey is 
called " a time aboot." 

LANG-LAST, at length, in course of time. 

L ANGLE, LANGIL, to hobble or fetter an animal by tying a 
fore and hind leg together. 

LANG-LEG'D-TYELLIOR (long-legged tailor or jenny- 
spinner), the insect daddy-long-legs, Tipula orelacla, L. 

LANG-LENTH, full length. " He fell down his lang-lenth on 
the slidey." 

LANG-LOANING-CAKE, a cake made for schoolboys on 
their return home at the vacation. Brocket! . 

LANG-NEB, a prominent nose or beak. Hence applied to 
any impertinent intrusion. " Keep yor lang-neb oot o' this." 

i LANG-PLOO, a long-metalled plough, principally used for 
ploughing lea. A " half-lang-ploo " is a moderate sized metal 
plough for general use. Plough is pronounced ploo, and in 
South Northumberland ploo and pleuf. See PLEUF. 

LANG-QUARTERED, applied to shoes made with the 
" quarter," or upper part, lengthened so as to leave an 
unusually long open space towards the toe, with a corre- 
spondingly short " vamp," in order to display the stocking in 


LANG-SAIDLE [N.], LANG-SETTLE [S. and T.], along 
settle, or long seat, with a back to it. In an open room, such 
as a kitchen or common living room, a lang-settle was made 
with a " brattish " at the back to keep off the draught. To 
" si' doon ahint the brattish " is thus to set oneself on the 

LANG-SIDE, alongside, parallel. 

LANGSIDEET, long-sided, long-ribbed, long-bodied. 

LANGSYNE, long since, long ago. 

winded, talkative. 

LAN KEY, a native of Lancashire. 

LANTERED, hard pressed, distracted, harassed. The word 
is from the game of loo, in which the loser is said to be 
lantered. A gardener with a small garden, and with too many 

Elants upon a given space, says they are too " clumpert," as 
e is lantert for room. 
" Lantered, hazarded Northumberland.' 1 Halliwell. 

LAP, LUP (the/.*, forms of loup), to leap. 

LAP-BANDER, that which binds closely one thing to another. 
A tremendous oath is frequently called a lap-bander. Brockett. 

LAPSCALLION, a harum-scarum or dare-devil character. A 
variant of rapscallion. 

LARE, LEAR, learning, education, letters. 

" For aw'd picked up some bits o' late, 
Wi 1 tendin close the skuil at neets." 

Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 100. 

" Alle the clerkes that ever had wytt. 
That ever was or that lives yhitt, 
Couth noght telle ne shew thurgh tare, 
How mykel sorow and payne er thare." 

Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 

A.D. 1349, edition Morris, 1. 6,467. 

" This is still a Scoto-Northumbrian word. Old Betty Hill said about 
her sick niece, I land her lessons twice a day, but she's varra hard at 
l ea y? "Hodgson MS. 

LARE, to learn, to teach. Land, learned. 


LARESTONE, a tombstone. 

" Latten on the larestones, 55." [that is, brass on the tombstones.] 
Property of the Monastery of the White Friars in Newcastle, 1538. Richard 
Welfotd, History of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 239. 

"James Cole, for his Ant Jane Cole her larrestone, 35. ^."Gateshead 
Accounts. Archceologia Mliana, vol. viii., 1880, p. 235. 

" The Ancient Chapel of Hayden (Haydon Bridge) has an aisle on its 
south side with very old lair stones built up in its walls." Hodgson, 
Northumberland, vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 382. 

LARICK, larch fir. 

LASHER, a thing of great size and weight. 

LASHINS, lavish quantities. " Thor wis lashins o' meat and 
drink at the dinner." Tongue-lashing, invective. 

LASS, a female sweetheart, a maid-servant. Compare LAD. 

LAST-BAT-POISON, a game at tig, played as school children 
arrive at the parting of their ways in going home. The object 
is to give a " bat " without being touched again, and the 
player on touching and running off calls out " Last -bat -poison." 

LASTY, LESTY, lasting, enduring. Coals that burn long and 
well are lasty. Anything that wears well is lasty. 

LAT, a lath. " Lat an' plaster." 

" 1631, paid for spares, latts, and daubing of a chimney in the 
Almeshouse, 8s. id." Gateshead Church Books. 


LATHOR, LETHER, a ladder. 

" 1694. For making three lathers out of one old broaken lather, 6s." 
Churchwardens 1 Books, St. Nicholas, Newcastle. 

LAT-RIVER, a lath render. 

LATT-BROD, a lath nail. (Obs.) 

" 1648. Itt. pd. for 400 of latt brodds, is." Gateshead Church Books. 

LATTEN, LATTIN, brass, or any kind of very thin sheet 
metal. The word is not local, but is common everywhere 
in old writings. It is now obsolete, except in its application 
to very thin iron sheets (from 24 wire gauge and thinner), 
which are called by the trade term lattin sheets, or lattins. 

"A lamp of latten, isd. The latten on the larestones, 53. Three old 
latten basons; 6 lavers of latten." Inventory of Monastery of the White 
Friars, Newcastle, in 1546. Richard Welford, History of Newcastle in XVI. 
Century, p. 239. 


LATTISH, a lattice. 

LAUGHING-GOOSE, the white-fronted goose, Anser albifrons. 

LAVE [N.] , the rest, the remainder. " Put him in amang the 


LAVEROCK, the skylark, Alauda arvensis. 

" Lark is but this word contracted." Ray, Glossarium Northanhymbricum. 

LAVROCK, a leveret. [Harbottle.] 

LAVY, the guillemot, Una troile, L. Called also wullemot, 
willock, and scoot. 

LAW, a roundish hill or eminence. The word enters into one 
hundred and fourteen place-names in Northumberland, eight 
of which are parishes or townships, sixty-two other inhabited 
places, and forty-four uninhabited. Low, another form of law, 
occurs, beside, in five other place-names as in Har/ozdiill. 
" The Law" opposite to Holy Island, and " The Lawe" at 
South Shields, are examples of the use of the word in a 
distinctive manner. 

" Anglo-Saxon hlaw, hlcew, a hill ; properly, a slope." Skeat, Concise 
Etymological* Dictionary, under Low, 3. 

LAWING, reckoning. (Obs.) 

" I'll pay the lawing." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 62. 

LAWTER, LAUGHTER, a brood, a decking, a clutch. A 
turkey or a hen is said to have laid her lawter when she has 
as many eggs as she can hatch. See LAATER, LAFTER. 

LAY, a piece of iron welded to the worn edge or point of an 
implement. When a plough kooter (coulter) or sock becomes 
worn, it is necessary, in order to repair it, to wall (weld) a 
piece of iron on to it. This is called a lay, and the process is 
called " layin a sock " or " layin a kooter." Implements which 
have undergone this repairing process are said to be " new 
layed." Edge-tools are similarly renewed by layin. 

LAY, to salve or besmear sheep with ointment. 

"Laid wool is wool of a sheep that has been smeared or laid with 
salve." Hodgson MS. 

LAY, to mix dough for bread making. "Lay the breed" 
to mix the flour with the yeast, to make the dough. 


LAY, to allay, to retard. 

"Then snuffs and sneers 
Suin stop yor gob, and lay yor braggin." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 47. 

LAYING-STOOL, a stool of a peculiar form used by butchers, 
on which sheep or pigs are laid when killed or being killed. 

LAYLOC, lilac. 

LAYNE, to conceal. (Obs.) 

LAY-ON, to put into the way, as in the phrase " Aa laid him 
on for a good thing" put him into the way of obtaining a 
good thing. 

LAY-POKE, the abdomen of a duck, hen, goose, &c. Compare 

LAZY-BEDS, potatoes planted by cutting a trench, placing 
the " sets " therein and covering them up level with the soil 
taken from the next trench, thus leaving the soil fast between 
the rows. They are well named lazy-beds. 

LAZY-BYENS (lazy bones), a lazy fellow. 

LEA, LEE, LEY, grass or pasture ground, either the open 
unploughed field or land that has been cultivated and after- 
wards allowed to go back to grass. Leeland is contrasted 
with hieland, as lea or meadow land with the wilder uplands. 
" Riving lea "ploughing lea land. In place-names ley occurs 
about a hundred and twenty-five times, and the forms lea and 
lee occur about fifty-five times in Northumberland. Gregory, 
Archaologia sEliana, vol. ix., p. 67. x 

" Ploughing lea means ploughing for the first time over such land as 
has been for some years lea that is, in grass or pasture." Hodgson, 
Northumleyland, pt. ii., vol. i, p. 304, note, 

" They hackit off his hands and feet 
And left him lying on the ka." 

Border bairad, Death of Parcy Reed. 

" I'm a North countryman, in Redesdale born, 
Where our land lies lea, and grows ne corn." 

Border song, Denham's Folk-Lore, 1851, p. 3. 

LEADAGE, cartage. 

LEADIN-BELT, a leather strap with a chain attached. 

LEAL, faithful, honest. See LEIL. 



LEAM, LEMING, terms very commonly applied to ancient 
roads or places situated on such roads as the Learn Lane 
leading from South Shields to Gateshead Fell, in the county 
of Durham. The two learns in Redesdale are on the side of 
the Roman Watling Street. 

LEAM, LEAMER, to separate, as a ripe nut separates from 
its husk. 

" Well known to every schoolboy in the North of England the terms 
* a brown learner ' or ' it learns well,' as applied to a hazel nut when it 
becomes brown and mealy ended, ripe and ready to fallout of its husk." 
Hodgson, Arch&ologia, JEliana, vol. ii., p. 132. 

LEAP, to parboil. See LEEP. 

LEAPYT, a lappet, a covering. 

" Bring him a shive oh butter an breed ; cut him a good counge, an 
strenkle a leapyt ov sugar ont." Thomas Bewick, The Howdy. 
Teyne-Seyfo Dialect Sixty Years Seyne, edition 1850, p. 10. 

LEASH, LEESH, a lash, a thong for a whip, a smart blow 
from anything. 

LEASH, LEESH, to whip. " Leesh yor horse up, man." To 
flick with a whip, a thong, or anything of the kind. 

LEASHER, a long leathern thong used by boys to whip their 
tops. J. L. Luckley, Alnwick Language. 

LEAT, a thin, compact layer, a lamination. The sections of a 
long stack, built one after another, are called leats. Compare 

LEATH, LAITH, loath, unwilling. " Aa wis leath (lee-ath) ti 

LEATH E, a barn, a grange, a walled house for storing hay, 
corn, and cattle in winter. Hodgson MS. (Rare or obs.) 

LEATHERER, a person of strength or stature. 
LEATHER-PLATER, a sorry hack, a poor horse. 
LEATHERTY-PLATCH, a clumsy, noisy dancer. 
LEATHER-WING, the common bat. 

LEAVY, LEAFY, that is, in thin folds or leaves. The term is 
constantly used by sinkers. 


LEAZES, stinted grass pastures, "hained" from Lady Day to 
Lammas for the hay crop. Lease originally means to glean, 
to gather. The Leazes in Northumberland have all been grass 
pastures, or Lammas meadows, reserved for hay at stated 
times each year. They have commonly a distinguishing 
prefix, as Shaftoe-L^^s at Hexham, Waddow-L^^s at 
Corbridge, Heather-L^^s at Warkworth, and Castle-L^^s 
at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

" He schal go yn, and schal go out ; and he schal fynde lesewis." 
Wycliffe's version (A.D. 1383), John x., v. 9. 

"Two selions, called Two Leasses, in Gesmpnde Field." Conveyance 
dated 1556. Archaologia JEliana, vol. i., new series, p. 32. 

" My two winde mills, called the Easter and Wester Mills, with a close 
perteyninge to the Easter Mill, and fower leazes whereupon the Wester 
Mill doth stande." Will in same, p. 42. 

" Two garths, with three riggs or leazes." The same, p. 43. 

"The stinted pasture called The Leazes, alias Waddow Leazes." 
Enclosure Award of Corbridge, 1779. 

LECKY, leaky. Applied to the weather when rain falls in 
intermittent showers. " A lecky summer." 

" To leek on, to pour on." Bailey's Dictionary. 

" A lecky May, plenty o' hay ; 
A lecky June, plenty o' coorn." 

LED, spare, extra. A led tub or corf means a spare one, for 
the barrowman to leave empty with the hewer whilst the full 
one is being put to the flat or crane. 

LEE, a watery fluid discharged from badly healing wounds. 
" To run lee, to discharge lee as above." Brockett. 

LEEDS, shallow, tapering troughs, lined with lead for the 
purpose of cooling milk and allowing the cream to rise. 

LEEDEATER, indiarubber. Originally used for rubbing out 
lead-pencil marks. 

" A blether aw call it, by gocks, aw am reet, 

For o' silk, dipt iv leedeater melted, its myed." 

W. Midford, Bob Cranky's Account of Mr. Sadler's 
Balloon, September i, 1815. 

LEEK-TAILS, the leaves of a leek. 

LEE-LAA-LET ! alight. " Lee-laa-let, ma bonny pet," an 
imperative and duplicated form used by children when 
chasing a butterfly. 


LEEP, to parboil. To leep meat is to boil so as to preserve it. 
To leep salmon is to parboil it so as to prevent its falling. 
Gooseberries are leeped in like manner, and then bottled for 

" To leep onions." Hodgson MS. 

LEESH, LEISH, LISH [N.] , LEESHIN, lithe, full of 
youthful vigour. " He's a leeshin chep." 

" See the lish yald shepherd lads how Monkside heights they climb." 
James Armstrong, The Kielder Hunt, 1879. 

LEETNIN, daybreak. 
LEET-SHIP, a vessel in ballast. 

LEE-WAJTER, LEY- WAITER, the thin watery exudation 
which flows from a wound after the bleeding has ceased. 
See LEE. 

LEGLEN, a milking pail. 

" Ilk ane lifts her leglen an hies her awa." 

Old Song on the Battle of Flodden. 

LEIGHTON, a garden. Only found in Northumberland in 
place-names, as Green Leighton, &c. 
" Litten, a garden." Bailey. 

" Leighton is equivalent to leek-town, Anglo-Saxon for garden. Anglo- 
Saxon had a habit of not enduring the combination ct. Thus Latin 
rectus is in A.-S. riht, in English right. The c (k) became a guttural before t. 
Hence, in leac-tun, a leek-town (town = enclosure), the c became guttural ; 
hence we also find the spellings leah-tun, leh-tun. The last is precisely 
Leighton if you pronounce the gh as German cA." Note by Professor Skeat. 


LEISH, lithe, fresh, vigorous. See LEESH. 

LEISTER, a salmon spear used by poachers, made like 
Neptune's fork, but with three, four, or five barbed teeth. 

LENARD, LENART, the linnet, Canndbina linota. It is 
variously known as the brown, grey, red, or rose lenart. The 
mountain linnet, C. flavivostvis, is called the twite or heather 
linty. " Trig as a lennard" a common proverb, meaning as 
sprightly and neat as a linnet. See LINTY. 

LEP, to lade or lift water, as in baling a boat. See LYEAP. 

" We used to say that there had been as many ladles made at 
Crowley's as would lep the sea dry.' " Newcastle Daily Chronicle, 
April 26, 1886. 


LEPPER, LIPPER, small waves on the surface of water. 

LETCH, a long, narrow swamp in which water moves slowly 
among rushes and grass. Frequent in place-names as 
Chad-letch, Queeris-letch, etc. 

" A swang, or marshy gutter." Bailey, General View of Agriculture of 
the County of Durham. 

" They soon came to the place Dandy Dinmont named (Withershin's 
latch), a narrow channel, through which soaked, rather than flowed, a 
small stagnant stream, mantled over with bright green mosses." Guy 
Mannering, chap, xxiii. 

"Letch is doubtless allied to the verb to leak. The idea is a swamp 
into which water leaks slowly." Note by Professor Skeat. 

LEUF, LYEV, LEEF, LUFE, LOOF, the palm of the 
hand. To " greesh the lyev" (grease the palm) is to give 
a person a gratuity. 

" If ye'll scart maw leuf, I'll claw yur elbow." Newcastle proverb. 

LEUNGIE, the flank, or buttock. Another spelling of loin. 

LEVEL, an adit or drift, a gutter in a mine for the water to 
run in. The level -foreheed is the inner end of a drift or level, 
and the level-sole the floor of the same. Level-free means 
drained by means of an adit or free-level. 

LEVER, a roof beam of naturally curved timber, being one of 
the couples or principals used in supporting a roof. These 
roof beams do not rest upon the wall-plates of the house : in 
this differing from the tie-beam of building construction. 
They are still to be seen in thatched houses. An outward 
thrust is obviated by carrying the principals down to the 
ground, where they form a roof support quite independent of 
the wall. (See sketch in the Proceedings of the Newcastle Society 
of Antiquaries, 1885-6, vol. ii., p. 169.) 

LEWED [N.] , drawn, dragged. " He lent me his dog at the 
New Year ; an' there a'm lewed in ti pay license." 

LEY, grass land. See LEA. 

LIARED, dappled or streaked. See LYERED. 

LICK, a sword cut, a sharp blow with the fist or with a stick. 

LICK, a small quantity. "A lick and a promise" a very 
small beginning or attempt at anything. Compare LOAK. 


LICKLY, likely, probable. 

" Lickliest, likeliest." Brockett. 

LICKORSTICK, a stick of licorice; otherwise called lickorish. 

LIE, in the combination lie-in, to sleep longer than intended. 
Also, to lie-on, used in the sense of being incumbent or 
necessary. " It lies him on't." Lying-time the time worked 
between the date on which the pay-bill is made up and the 
date of the pay-day. 

LIE-LOACH, LIE-LOTCHER [Alnwick] , the loach. Called 
also in the north of the county a meggy-lotchie, and in other 
parts lyed-heed and Her. 

LIFEY, LIFF [N.], lively, full of life, high spirited. " We 
went a' clean away liff," said by a shepherd describing the 
parting of some friends, probably after a glass. 

LIFT, a broken jud in a mine. 

" A place driven along the side or end (open to the goaf) of a pillar of 
coal." Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

LIFT, a set of pumps in a pit. 

LIFT, the sky. " The lift's varry drummly like." 

LIFT, to steal, applied formerly to cattle stealing or "shifting" 
in Border forays, but now constantly used in speaking of the 
removal of cattle or goods which have been purchased. 

" Aa've selt the stots to , an' he hes ti' lift them the 


LIFT, to raise a corpse from the bier in order to carry it for 
burial. Funeral notices frequently conclude by the words, 
" Lift at [such and such] o'clock." The time stated is the 
hour at which the funeral moves from the house. 

LIFT, to rise up, to heave, as the floor of a coal mine is said to 
lift in a "creep." 

LIFTIN, heaving or moving with life. "His claes wis liftin 
wi' varmin." 

LIGGY, a ball, originally of lignum vitae or other hard wood, 
and cris-crossed with lines, used in playing the game of 
" trippet-and-quoit." It was covered with whiting to make 
it more conspicuous when driven by the player. White 
earthenware balls are substituted for wooden ones, but 
they are still called liggies. 



LIGHTERS, travellers alighting at an inn. 

11 The Queen's Head Inn was a great house for lighters " that is, was 
much frequented by farmers. Note by Mr. G. H. Thompson, Alnwick. 

LIGLY, likely. See LICKLY. 

" The maner goeth downe and decayeth, and all the houses about yt ; 
the woods are clene destroyed and Ugly to be in hast." Plumpton 
Correspondence, p. 129. Wright's Glossary. 

LIG-MA-LAST, a loiterer, the last. Brocket*. 

LIG-O-BED, one who lies long in bed the slug-a-bed of 
Shakspere. Brockett. 

LIKE, becoming, to the purpose. " It wad be mair like if ye 
went yorsel." Compare MACKERLIKE. 

LIKE, likely. " It's like to rain." " He wis as like as not." 
The word is used also in a stronger sense, which is equivalent 
to "must needs" thus, "Will yor Bella gan the morn?" 
"Aye, she's like, noo, aa wad think" that is, she ought 

LILACS, LYLAX, LYLICKS, a mixture of linseed, wheat- 
meal, and a little milk boiled together as feeding for calves 
when they are put out to grass at first. Formerly farmers 
reared all their calves on this food. 

LILLY-LEUDS ! an exclamation. " Lilly-lends! what a job." 
" Lilly-wuns ! Lilly-wunters! exclamations of amazement." Brocket*. 

LILLY-LOW, LILLY-LEE, a grassy slope. Lilly-low is a 
field-name, probably identical with lilly-lee. In the common 
fields at Corbridge, the name High-lilly-lows occurs. Lilly- 
low, elsewhere defined as a " little bla^e," is not so used in 

" Hide me by the bracken bush, 
That grows on yonder lilye-lee." 

Battle of Otterbourne. 

11 Swift was the Cout o' Keeldar's course, 
Alang the lily -lee." 

The Cout o' Keeldar. 

"The slopes were grassy, the ' lilly-lee ' of the ballad." Description of 
Otterburn, Dr. James Hardy. History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, 
vol. ix., p. 464, 

LIM, a mischievous boy or girl. " A perfect Urn " (a complete 
mischief) is a common expression in Coquetdale. 

"Not, probably, allied to limmer, but an independent word. It is 
understood to mean ' a limb of Satan,' and to be the same as limb." Note 
by Professor W. W. Skeat. 


45 1 

LIMERY [N.] , a lime kiln. 

LIMMER, LIMBER, supple, applied to a pliable rod ; 
treacherous. " A limmer thief." Used also jocosely, as in 
speaking to a wild and lively girl, and as in the phrase 
"A Ummev loon" a wag. 

" Then the limmer Scottes hared me, burnt my guddes, and made 
deadlie feede on me and my barnes." Bullein, Dialogue, 1564. Early 
English Text Society, p. 6, 1. 27. 

"June ii, 1566. In the court ecclesiastical, sitting at Durham, Robert 
Billy and his wife appeared against Katherine Blithman, who had called 
Billy ' hold eeyd lymber theiff.' "Richard Welford, History of Newcastle 
in the XVI. Century, p. 405. 

LIMMERS, the shafts of a cart, 
a shaft or Ummev. 

Limmer-end the front end of 

LINE, LYN, flax. Lyn halvhe," in old deeds, is a haugh 
where flax is grown. 

LINE, to sound or plumb with a line. To survey ; a colliery 

" I measure as they line or sound for the depth of a river." J. C., 
Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 32. 

LING, the heaths Erica tetvalix and Erica cinerea, L. Also the 
cotton grass, Eriophorum vaginatum, L. In the Northumbrian 
moorlands ling is never applied to the common heath, Calluna 

" In the districts of Redesdale, Upper Coquetdale, and Alndale. 
Calluna vulgaris is commonly known as 'heather' (bee heather), whilst 
Erica tetralix and Erica cinerea are both known as ling. In early spring, 
the flocks in the Cheviots md the hills of Upper Coquetdale and 
Redewater feed upon the tender blades of the hare's tail cotton grass 
(Eriophorum vaginatum), and although this plant belongs to the sedge 
tribe, yet it is called 'silky ling 1 by the shepherds in those parts." 
D. D. Dixon, Rothbury, in Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, December 29, 1888. 

LINGEL, a shoemaker's wax-end and sewing thread. The 
lingel-end, or wax-end, is the point of the waxed thread. It 
is tipped with a birce (hog's bristle), so that it can be pushed 
through the elshin (awl) holes in the leather. " Stripping 
the deed " is a term used by shoemakers for the act of 
removing the birce from a sewn-up thread in order to use it 
over again in preparing a new wax-end. 

LINGELT-LEUKIN, slim in general appearance. 
LINING, dialling or surveying underground. 

LINKS, accumulations of blown sand, forming sandhills over- 
grown with " bents." Blyth .Links, Whitley Links, and the 
Links at Holy Island. 


LINN a deep pool at the base of a waterfall. The name 
occurs in Routing Linn, Hareshaw Linn, Low Lynn, Lin- 
briggs, Lwsheels, Liwhope, Lwmouth, and Lwhead. The 
word is sometimes used to describe a cascade. 

' We had expected a waterfall at the Linn above Linnbrig, but it is 
only a rapid, occasioned by the river rushing through a clett ; but the 
pool is there the true linn, in the original acceptance of the word dark 
and bottomless." Dr. James Hardy, History of Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Club, vol. v., p. 386. 

Between shady banks, the West Allen, in winter, rushing over 
foaming lins and a stony bed, raises her voice to the roar of the 
storms." Hodgson, Northumberland, vol. Hi., pt. n., p. 106. 

LIN-PIN, a linch-pin. 

LI.NTY, flaxen. 

"O'er her fair shoothers her linty locks flee." James Armstrong, 

Lizzy o 1 the Glen, 1879. 

LINTY, the willow wren, Phyllopneuste trochilus. Linty is some- 
times applied to the name of the lesser whitethroat, Curruca 
garrula. The linnet (CannaUna linota) is also called linty or 


" The linty and the linty white, 
The laverick and the lark, 
The gooldy and the goldspink ; 
Hoo many bords is that ?" 

Northumberland guessing story. 

LINTY-WHITE, the linnet. See LINTY. 

LIPPEN, to trust, to depend on. " Aa canna lippen him " 
cannot trust him by himself. " Aa darna lippen on't " dare 
not depend upon it. 

" Lippen to me, but look to yourself." Newcastle proverb. Brockett. 

LIPPER, LEPPER, lapping waves on the surface of water 
when agitated by the wind. See LEPPER. 

LIQUORY-KNOTS, the bitter vetch, Orobus tuberosus, L. The 
seeds are called mouse-peas. 

'LISHAW, the common name for Elishaw, a farmstead near 
Otterburn, which occurs in the phrase " He'll be left on the 
haughs anunder 'Lishaw if he dissent hurry on " that is, left 

" The haugh behind Elishaw is the recipient of the floating rubbish 
that the Rede carries off from the upper country during floods. Hence 
it is said when anything is amissing in that district, ' You'll find it in the 
haugh anunder Elishaw.' " Dr. James Hardy, History of Berwickshire 
Naturalists' Club, vol. ix., p. 470. 


LISK, the hollow between the abdomen and the thigh. 
LISSEY, easy, restful after suffering. 

LIST a respite from pain. When a person is suffering great 
pain and it leaves him for a time, he is said to have " getten 
a list* See LISSEY. 

LIST, vigour, energy. " Aa henna the list to dee'd " that is, 
not the energy. 

LISTIN, the list, or selvedge of a web of cloth. Compare 


That dog's gan varry listy 

LISTY, full of "go" or energy, 
on his legs noo." 

LITH, to listen. Lithnin-listeners eaves- droppers. (Obs.) 
" To Lithin, to hearken." Bailey. 

LITHICS, the farina of oatmeal macerated in water and 
carefully strained. The fine flour of the meal only is allowed 
to pass the strainer along with the water. This is then boiled 
to a jelly, and forms a common infants' food in Northumber- 
land. Compare LILACS. 

LITHING, the beating of a little flour and water finely 
together and putting them into broth to lithe and thicken it, 
and [make it] more agreeable to sup. Hodgson MS. 

" Lithe the pot "that is, put oatmeal into it. Bailey, quoting Ray. 

LITSTER, a dyer. (Obs.) 

" Dec., 1583. Roger Gray, litster"St. Nicholas' Register. Brand, ii , 
p. 320, note. 

"To lit, to colour or dye." Bailey. 

LITTLE- A-DOW, worthless Northumberland. Halliwell's Diet. 

LITTLE-GOOD, the sun spurge, Euphorbia helioscopia, Linn. 
Common in cultivated fields. 

LITTLE- PLOO, a small plough used for cleaning turnips in 

LITTLIE, a smaller person than others. In a race or contest, 
the exertions of a vigorous little fellow are always hailed 
encouragingly with the cry of " Gan on the littlie." 

LIVER, active. (Obs.) 

" Again speaks out a Lyver-\ad, a trusty Trojan." G. Stewart, Joco- 
Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 39. 


LIVOR, LIVER, to deliver, to get clear of. In general use in 

" Livery, delivery. Still used as a law term" Wright's Glossary. 

LIZZY-RUN-THE-HEDGE, the goosegrass, Galium aparine, 
Linn. Also called Robin-run-the-dyke and tongue -Uooder. 

LOACH, a leech. Lie-loach, the river fish, loach. 
" Lop-loach, the leech used by surgeons." Brockett. 

LOAD, as much merchandise as can be carried on the back of 
'a pack-horse or "galloway." A load of lead was a weight 
of two cwts. of ore carried on the backs of "galloways" from 
the mine to the smelt mill. A load of potatoes is twenty 
stones (280 Ibs.). Compare POTHER, a cartload. 

"There are to this day little collieries, . . and by a load is still 
meant in several of them, not any relation to the quantity that can be 
dragged by a horse in a cart, but as much as he could carry on his back 
in those times when the want of roads precluded the employment of 
wheel-carriages." T. John Taylor, Archeology of the Coal Trade, 1852, 
P- 157- 

LOAD, a crowd of people. Used in an extended sense where 
a large quantity of anything is spoken of. "Loads o' meat 
and drink." "Loads o' money." " Loads o' time." Heaps is 
similarly used. 

LOAD, used as a p.p. for loaden. " Wor just load" just loaded. 

LOAK, LORE, LOCK, a small indefinite quantity. Also 
applied to a small quantity of meal, sand, sugar, etc. A look 
of anything is a larger quantity than a " pickle," which is a 
minute portion. A handful of hay, thrust in for packing, is 
called a key-loak. 

LOAK, the miller's ladle, with which he took multure out of 

LOAK, LOKE, a lock or sluice in a mill dam. Brockett. 
LOAN, LOANIN, a bye road, a "lonnin." See LONNIN. 

LOAN, LOWN, LOANIN, LONEING, a sheltered place 
where cows were gathered to be milked The milking place 
is generally called " the coo loan." 

" I have heard a lilting at our ewes' milking, 

Lasses alilting before break of day ; 
But now there's a moaning on ilka green loaning, 
That our braw forresters are a' wede away," 

Battle oj Flodden Field. 


LOAN, to bring cows to their milking place. 
LOBBER, to boil violently. 
LOBSTROPLOUS, obstreperous, loud, noisy. 

LOB-UP, to shoot one marble at another without a ricochet. 
Lob in some dialects is the name of a large taw. 

LOCK, LOCK-HOLE, a cavity, or " shake," in a vein of lead 

LODDLE, soft, spongy ground. 
LOFT, to throw a high ball or bowl, 

LOFTING, a competition at throwing a ball or stone, the 
object being to make the highest throw. 

LOGGER, to walk with a lax gait or in a loose-jointed, swaying 
fashion. Compare SLOGGER, 2. 

LOGGERHEED, the large tiger moth. 
LOGGERIN, encumbered with. 
LOGWATER, still water. Brocket*. 
LOKE, a small quantity. See LOAK, i. 

LOLLOCK, LOLLOP, a lump ; as a lollock of fat. Brocket*. 
Compare DOLLUP. 

LOLLY, LOLLER, the tongue. 

LONNIN, a lane, a narrow road. Lonnin-end, Loaning-end, a 
road end. Compare LOAN, i and 2. 

" Those who have to pass the three loaning-ends, where a suicide has 
been buried." Popular Superstitions. Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div. t 
vol. i., p. 33. 

LOOAGS, LOUGS, LOAGS, footless stockings drawn over 
the legs during snow. 

LOOF, the palm of the hand. See LEUF. 


LOOK, to weed wild herbs out of gardens or corn-fields. 
Hodgson MS. 

LOON, the red-throated diver, Colymbus septentrionalis, Linn. 
Also the great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus, Linn. 

LOONDER, a heavy blow. 

LOONDER, to thrash. 

LOOSE. See LOWSE and following words. 

LOOSE (pi., looses), a louse. "There's a loose upon yor 
shoother" a game played by children in a ring. 

LOOT, the strong p.t. of to let, to permit, to allow. 
" He loot the seek faa doon the stairs." 

LOP, to curdle, applied to milk that curdles without the 
application of an acid. Hodgson. See LOPPERED. 

LOP, a flea. 

LOP-LOACH, the leech used by surgeons to draw blood. 
Bailey's Agriculture of County Durham. 

LOPPEN (the p.p. of loup), leaped. See LUPPEN. 

LOPPER, an eruption on the skin. Also a thick growth of 

LOPPERED, LOPPERT, coagulated. Loppert milk," 
" Loppert blood." Hence mixed up, confused. 

LORD AN, a blockhead, a lazy fellow. (Obs.) 
LORDY, LURDY, lazy, sluggish. See LORDAN. 

LORENS, laziness. 

" From Lawrence. ' Lazy Lawrence ' is a proverbial name for an idler 
in many parts of England." Note by Professor W. W. Skeat. 

LORK [N.] , LORCH [T.] , to lurch, to lie in wait. 

LORK, LIRK, LAIRK, a fold in a piece of cloth or in a dress ; 
a wrinkle. Lorky, wrinkled or folded. 

LORRIE-UP, a br&w\.Halliwell. 


LORTY, dirty. This is given in HalliwelVs Dictionary and 
Wright's Glossary as a Northumberland word, but it is, 
apparently, the same as dovty. 

LOUGH, LOWF [N.], LOWE, a lake. Harbottle lough, 
Sweethope lough, Black lough, Keemer lough, Whitfield lough, 
Fallowlees lough, and Newham lough. The survival of this 
Irish word, which extends from Holy Island over Northumber- 
land and across North Cumberland, is remarkable, especially 
as all the lakes are of small consequence. 

"The Loughs or Lowes, or lakes of the Huntland of Tindale, from 
which the Forest of Lowes derives its name, are five in number Grindon 
lough, south of the Wall ; and Craig lough, Little-tow;, Greenley, and 
Bromley loughs, all a little north of the Wall." Hodgson, Northumberland 
vol. iii., 2, p. 327, note. 

LOUGS, stocking legs worn as a protection in riding. See 

LOUNDERIN, LOONDERIN, a beating or thrashing. See 


LOWP, LOUP, a leap ; to leap (p.t. t lap and lup ; p.p., loppen 
and lupperi). Pole-loup a pole leap. Runnin-hee-/0w/ a 
funning high leap. A dog-loup the narrow passage between 
two adjoining but detached houses. " The Dog Loup Stairs " 
at Newcastle were demolished in 1893. A. paddock-/0w/> a 
summersault turned by two boys, each of whom lays hold of 
the feet of his comrade. The two then roll round and round, 
and are thus supposed to imitate the leap or movement of a 
paddock (frog,) 

LOUPIN-ILL [W.-T.] , a disease. The name is expressive of 
the symptoms of the disease, in which the animal leaps or 
rears up, staggers, and very often expires. 

LOUPIN-ON-STYEN, leaping on stone; the familiar mounting 
stone placed near a house door to assist a person in getting 
on horseback. In some cases a boulder stone serves the 
office ; in others, a single stone is hewn into the form of steps. 

LOUPIN-STYEN, a stone over which a bride is compelled to 
leap on leaving the church. See PETTING-STONE. 

LOUPIN-THE-WELL, an ancient custom formerly imposed 
at Alnwick on candidates for the freelage of the town, who 
were obliged to go through the Freeman's Well, a dirty, miry 
pool on Alnwick Moor. 


LOUP-THE-LANG-LONNIN, the game of leap-frog, played 
by a row of boys, who stand with bent backs in a long row, or 
lonnin. A player begins at the rear, and rapidly loups back 
after back till clear of the lang-lonnin. Here he takes a pace 
or two forward and " makes a back," whilst the hindmost lad 
comes on and does the same. The lonnin is thus always 
moving forward. 

LOWPY-BACK, the game of leap-frog. 

LOWPY-DYKE, applied to sheep when given to leap over 
fences. Also, metaphorically, to the character of a person 
who has lost self restraint, and equivalent to the colloquial 
expression to " kick over the traces." 

LOUTER, a brood of chickens. See LAFTER. 
LOW, an eminence. See LAW. 

LOW, a flame, a light. "Piece o' low" part of a candle. 
"Trying the low" in a pit, is the operation of trying the 
presence of explosive gas by its effect upon the light carried. 

LOW, a lake. The tidal stream at Goswick is called Goswick 
Low. See LOUGH. 

LOWEN, LOWIN, LOWND, calm, still. Applied to the 

LOW-ROPE, a piece of tarry rope or spun yarn used as a 

LOWSE-GANG, a squad of railway men employed in relaying, 
loading and unloading rails and permanent way plant, or as 
emergency men in time of accident. 

LOWSE-I-THE-HEFT, loose-in-the-heft, a disorderly person, 
a vagabond uncertain in his haunts. Bvockett. See HEFT. 

LOWTER, a setting of eggs. See LAFTER. 
LOZEN, a pane of glass. 

LUCKEN-GOWAN, or GOWAN, the mountain globe flower, 

Troilus Europceus. 

LUCK-PENNY, the money given back to the purchaser, for 
luck, on conclusion of a bargain. 


LUCKY, an old dame. " Old Lucky" is often the appellation 
in North Northumberland of a farmer's mother or old wife. 

LUCKY, large, wide, easy. Country tailors generally receive 
directions to make their customers' clothes " brave and 

lucky." Bvockett. 

LUCKY-BYEN, a small bone found in a sheep's head, which 
people put in their pocket under the impression that good 
luck will attend them while they carry it. 

LUCKY-STYEN, a small stone having a hole through it. The 
lucky-stone is always hung on the inside of the door by a string 
passed through its perforation. Compare ADDER-STYEN, 

LUG, LUG-WORM, the thick, hairy sand worm, Lumbricus 
marinus, used for bait by the north-east coast fishermen for 
white fish. 

LUGGISH, stupid, asinine. 

LUGGY [N.] , a small wooden dish, with one handle only, out 
of which children used to sup their porridge. See COG, 2. 

LUM, a chimney. The chimney at the top of an upcast shaft 
in a colliery. Lww-sooper, a chimney sweep. 

LUNDER, to cuff. (Obs.) 

LUNGISTER [N.] , a meat pudding composed of chopped 
entrails (heart, liver, etc.) of the pig. 

LUNT [N.] , on fire, alight. 

LUP, LAP, leaped. (The preterite of loup.) See LAP, i. 

LUPPEN, LOPPEN, leaped, burst forth (p.p. of loup, to leap). 
Wheat raised out of the ground by frost is termed luppen ; or 
a hoop on a barrel broken by the same means is also luppen. 
A cabbage that has burst open is in like manner called a 
luppen cabbage. 

LURRY, to lug or pull (Northumberland}. HalliweWs Diet. 
LUSH-MA-LAVEY, LUSHY-GALAVY, wastefully, lavishly. 

LUTE, to lie hid. In use in Northumberland, according to 
Kennett, HalliwelVs Diet. 


LYARD, dappled, streaked. See LYERED. 
LYED-HEED, the loach. See LIE-LOACH. 

LYER, a long, clean thorn which in hedge-cutting is nicked at 
the root and bent down till it lies close to the ground. It is 
trained into position across a thin or gappy part of a hedge 
and held there by a forked branch till its shoots fill up the gap. 

streaked, intermixed with lines or streaks of contrasting colour 
or substance. 

LYERY, from the above, abounding with lean flesh, especially 
on the buttocks. 

LYIN-MONEY, an allowance paid to putters when stopped 
working during their shift through breakages or want of 
waggons. Also the money kept in hand by the owners that 
is, the week's money between the baff Saturday and the 
pay-day. See LIE. 

LYIN-TIDE, overtime or extra time occupied in discharging a 
loaded keel, and on which demurrage is due. 

LYKE-WAKE, a wake. See LAKE-WAKE. 

LYPE, natural endowment. A horse with good action is said 
to have " the lype of going." 

MAABAG, MAWBAG, the maw or stomach of an animal. 
MAAD, MAUD [N.] , a shepherd's plaid. 

MAAK, MAWK [S. and T.] , MOAK [W.-T.] , a maggot. 

" Where mawks and caterpillars soora." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i, 1826, v. 58. 

MAAKIN, moving with maggots. 

MAAKY, maggoty, decomposing. "A maaky salmon" an 
unclean salmon. 

MAAKY-FLEE, the blue-fly, or blow-fly (Musca vomitoria), 
which deposits the ova from which maggots are hatched. 
Meat having eggs thus deposited is said to be "fly-droven." 

MAALIN, a dirty lass. See MALIN. 


4 6t 

MAANDER, to maunder, to wander in talk, to walk about in 
an aimless way. 

MA AS, MAWSE, marsh mallow, Malva wioschata, L. The herb 
is still used medicinally as a poultice to allay swellings, etc. 
The seeds are called " cheeses " by children. 

MABLIN, a mason's small hammer, having a hammer face at 
one end and a chisel point at the other. 

MACARONI-GIN, an old term for a kind of colliery gin. 
" Dandy," " Whimsey," etc., are similar fantastic names 
applied to newly-introduced contrivances. See WHIM-GIN. 

" There is a sort of gins called ' whim-gins,' and a kind known by the 
name of 'macaroni-gins.'" Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., 1789, 
p. 684. 

MACKERLIKE [N.] (comparative form of mack-like), much 
more becoming, much more to the purpose. " It wad leuk 
mackeylike if ye war ta cairy th' waiter for the laddy, poor 
beggar!" SeeiLiKE. 

" Mackerley, shapely, fashionable." Halliwett. 

MACKET, MACKER, MAWKRE, a black, coaly band, or 
inferior coarse coal. See BADGER, i. 

MADDLE, to wander, to talk inconsistently. Brockett. See 

MADDOCK-HOE, a tool used in clearings for stubbing up 
such roots as furze, etc. It has an axe at one end and a hoe 
at the other. 

MADPASH, a person disordered in the mind, a madbrain. 

MAE, MAY, more in number. " The mae pairt on them wis 
gan back agyen. 

" Besides us, many me men haue gud lucke." Bullein, Dialogue, 1564, 
Early English Text Society, p. 9, 1. 21. 

MAGENIKEN, a genius. Query, for magician (?). 
MAGES, the hands. Halliwell. See MEAG. 

MAGGY, the magpie, Pica caudata, L. Called also plot and 

MAGRIM, a difficulty. "That's the wagriml" you exclaim 
if you suffer a mishap that is difficult to be rectified. 


MAIDENS, the two upright standards which supported the 
driving wheel of a spinning wheel. The term maiden was also 
applied to a little tripod with a fixed vertical spindle at the 
top. The bobbin, or "pirn," taken from a spinning wheel, ran 
loosely on the spindle and allowed the thread to be wound 

MAIDENS-HAIR, the large sinews of a bullock when boiled. 
Also the plant crosswort, Galium cruciatum, Withy. See 

MAIDEN-WAY, a Roman branch road which leaves the main 
way near Kirby Thore, after it has descended the pass of 
Stainmore, in Westmoreland. Slanting along the western 
side of the Pennine Range under Cross Fell it grades up the 
slope to the water shade, and then descends to the Gildersdale 
burn and enters Northumberland. 

MAIK, MAKE, a match, a peer, an equal, a companion, consort, 
mate. Maikless, or wakeless, without equal, matchless. (Obs.) 

11 The De'il has not their maiks beside." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1656, p. 67. 
" Many wedows with wepyng tears 
Cam to fach ther makys a way." 

Chevy Chase. 

MAIK [N.] , MEG [S.] , a halfpenny. A cant term. 
MAIL, rent. See BLACK-MAIL. 

MAIL, to discolour, to spot (Northumbeyland). (Kennett, MS. 
Lansd., 1033.) HalliwelVs Diet., under mail, 6. Compare 

" Mailed, full of specks, or speckled, as the feathers of hawks, partridges, 
&c., or as the furrs of some wild beasts are." New World of Words, 1706. 


MAILIN [N.] , the outfit for a bride. 

MAI MY, diminutive of the Christian name Mary. 

MAIN, in games, a pool, or sweepstake, as " A quoit main" etc. 

MAIN, applied to more important beds, as main post, high main 
seam, low main seam. 

" Coalowners had not yet discovered (A.D. 1512), or found means to 
win the deep strata of this fossil, or what is styled in the language of the 
trade, 'the main coal.'" Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., 1789, 
p. 263, note. 


MAIN-ENGINE, the surface pumping engine at a pit. 

MAINS, demesne lands ; that is, domain lands ; lands held under 
a lordship. The word occurs in the names of many farmsteads, 
as Lawson Mains, at Byker ; Hallington Mains, &c. 

" A farm, or fields, near a house, and in the owner's occupation." 


MAINSTAY, the chief support of a household. " The lad's his 
mother's mainstay." 

MAIN SWORN, foresworn or perjured. New World of Words, 
1706. See MANSWORN. 

MAINYFAST, manifest, palpable. " He's a mainyfast leear " 
a palpable liar. 

MAIRCH-DYKE, a boundary between estates or farms. 
Compare MARCH. 

MAIRCH-STANES |W.-T.] , boundary stones. Compare 

MAIRT, a derisive term for a tall person. " Ye greet muckle 


MAIRT, MART, a bullock bought by two or more persons. It 
was afterwards killed and divided amongst the purchasers, a 
portion of each man's share being generally pickled for winter 

"There is an annual fair called the Town Fair, on November 22nd, 
for fat cattle, called here Marts, from the time of Martinmas." 
Mackenzie, History of Newcastle, p. 719. 

" Martlemas was the customary time (November nth, the feast of St. 
Martin) for hanging up provisions to dry, which had been salted for 
winter provision ; as our ancestors lived chiefly upon salted meat in the 
spring, the winter-fed cattle not being fit for use." Nare's Glossary. 

MAISLED, MAISELD, MAISELT, mixed, confused in mind. 

MAISLIN, a blockhead, a stupid, a simpleton. 

" Like maislins they stared, wide gyepin' wi' wonder." Robert Gilchrist, 
The Skipper's Erudition, 1824. 

MAISON-DIEU, a hospital. (Obs.) 

" 1412. June roth. . Date of royal license to Roger Thornton to found 
and endow the Maison Dieu of St. Katherine, or Thornton's Hospital, on 
the Sandhill, Newcastle." Kichard Welford, History of Newcastle, vol. i. f 
p. 249. 

" Maison-dewe. Till within the last few years, there was ancient hospital 
at Newcastle so called." Halliwell. 


MAISTERMAN, the master, the husband. " The maisterman 
com by at the time." " Ye'll he' ti' see the maisterman hesel." 

MAISTLINS, for the most p&rt.Brockett. 

MAKE, an equal, one that is matched or mated with another. 
See MAIK. 

MAKE I, MAKE A, the cry to a flock of wild geese. As the 
flock fly overhead the children shout to them in chorus, 
" Wily geese, wily geese, make I, make A ! " Wild ducks 
usually fly in a formation like the letter V or A. The call to 
the geese is to induce them to change from a straight line to 
A, like the ducks. 

MAKIN, making for, advancing. " The tide is makin." 

" They were makin at us wi' sticks." S. Oliver, Rambles in 
Northumberland, 1835, P- I 5&- 

MAKIN, a fool, a simpleton. Hodgson MS. 

MAKINS, the small coals hewn out in kirving and nicking ; or 
the slack and dirt made in drilling a hole in the coal. 

MALADDY [N.], intoxicated and cutting capers. When a 
person is in this condition he is said to be maladdy, or mayladdy. 

made with clouts fastened to a long stick ; used for cleaning 
out the brick oven after the wood ashes have been raked out. 
Myeln is also applied to a dirty, slatternly person as in the 
epithet, " Ye dorty myeln" said of an untidy girl. 

" Mall, Moll, the kitchen wench, and applied to the oven clout on a 
principle similar to that which gives the name of Jack to an implement 
used for any familiar office; boot-jack, roasting-jack, &c." Wedgwood's 

" Malkin, that is little Maid or Maud, i.e., Matilda." Professor Skeat, 
Principles of English Etymology, pt. i., p. 223. 

MALLED, the whiting-pout, or bib-fish, Gadus luscus, L. 

MALLY, MAWLEE, the Christian name Mary. " Wor 

"Oh, Mawlee ! Oh, Maw-aa-aw-lee ! how way hehaym." Thomas 
Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 12. 

MALT-CUMMINS, the sprouted shoots from malt, used for 
feeding cows. 


MAN, a husband. " Hor man wasn't win hor at the time." 
" Bessie's man" etc. 

MAN [N.] , must. " Aa man away noo ; aa've stopt ower lang." 

MANADGE, the method of selling goods on credit, to be paid 
for by instalments, weekly or otherwise. 

" She lays oot punds in Manadge things, 
Like mony a thriftless, thoughtless bein 1 ." 

Thos. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 60. 

MANADGE-MAN, an itinerant vendor of goods on credit for 
household requirements. Sometimes called in Newcastle a 

"Scotch draper." 


MAN-BODY, a male person. " There wis nee man-body i' the 
hoose at the time." 

MAND, a basket. See MAUND. 

MAN-DOOR, in a pit, a door placed in a stopping, just 
sufficiently large to allow the body of a man to pass through. 
Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

MANG, among. 

" Like a napple tree mang the trees o' the wood." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang o' Solomon, 

Northumberland version, ch. ii., v. 3. 

" He's foremost mang the mony 
Keel lads o' Coaly Tyne." 

Thos. Thompson, d. 1816, New Keel Row. 

MANG, feeding stuff for dogs or pigs; generally oats or barley 
ground undressed, or barley meal in contradistinction to barley 

MANG [W.-T.] , to touch with the hand. "Tyek the piece o' 
cyek ye mangd forst." Compare MEAG. 

MAN-HOLE, a place of refuge in a pit to allow the workmen 
to stand clear of the passing sets of tubs. Man-hole in a boiler 
is a hole covered by an oval plate, removable so as to give 
access when scaling or repairing is necessary. The removable 
plate itself is called a man -hole -door. 

MANISH, to manage. " Div ee think ee can manish that 

" At as hard a pace as he could manish." Geordy's Last, 1878, p. u. 


MANISHMINT, management. It also means, by extension, 
culture, nourishment, and even the pabulum itself. " He's 
put a deal o' manishment into the land." Here the word is 
applied to the manure itself. 

MAN KEEN, man-keen. Cattle are termed mankeen when they 
attack human beings. 

MAN KIN, the joint of sheets, or pieces, of a fishing net. 

MANNA, MUNNA, must not. " Ye manna let him gan." " Ye 
munna stor." The forms mannit and munnit are also used, 
generally when the word following them begins with a vowel. 
" Ye munnit abuse the lad." " Ye munnit ax me nowt." But 
when a consonant follows, then munna is used. " Ye munna 
dee'd," "Ye munna be seen," etc. 

MANNY, a young man, a small man. A familiar term for a 

" The curtain flew up, and a lady did squall 
To fine music play'd by a cockney bit manny." 

R. Emery, b. 1794, d. 1871, Baggy Nanny, 

Allan's Collection, p. 132. 
" HeVquite zmanny noo." 

Geordy's Last, 1878, p. 18. 

" She guessed it belanged tiv her manny." 

James Horsley, Geordy and the Sovereign, 1883. 

MANSWORN, perjured. (Obs.) 

" Any brother calling another ' Scot,' or ' mansworn,' in malice, to 
forfeit 6s. 8d., without any forgiveness." Ordinary of Incorporated Company 
of Weavers in Newcastle, August 31, 1527. 

MAP-NAIL, a nail made for securing the head of a mop, from 
four to six inches long, with a broad flat head. 

MARCH, the border of a country ; here applied to the line or 
mark dividing England from Scotland. The boundary line 
was in the charge of the several wardens of the East, the 
Middle, and the West Marches. The warden of the Middle 
Marches resided commonly at Harbottle Castle, and had 
jurisdiction over Tynedale and Redesdale. March also means 
any kind of boundary, as march dyke, march stain. 

" Sir Henry Perssye laye at the Newe Castell, 

I tell you withouten drede : 
He had byn a March-man all hys dayes, 
And kept Barwyke-upon-Twede. ' 

Battle ofOtterburn. 
" Tivydale may carpe off care, 

Northombarlonds may mayke great mon, 
For to we such captayns, as slain wear thear, 
On the march perti shall never be non." 

The Hunting of the Chyviat. 


MARCHERS, or LORD'S MARCHERS, Noblemen, who in 
Times past, inhabited and secur'd the Marches of Wales and 
Scotland, ruling as if they were petty Kings, with their 
private Laws, which were abolished by Stat. 27, H. 8." 

A New World of Words, 1706. 


" Then Petticoat Robin jumpt up agyen, 
Wiv's gully to mercykree huz a* ". 

Swalwell Hopping. Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 47. 

MARE-STEYNS, boundary stones. See MERE-STONES. 

MARLED, variegated, mottled v like marble ; applied to some 
kinds of leaves and to stones, etc. 

MARROW, MARRA, a comrade, a close friend, a workfellow, 
one of a pair of things, an equal. " We've been working 
marrows for the last six months." " Aa've getten yen byut on, 
but aa canna find the marra ti'd." " The stockins isn't 
marras." An odd thing of a pair is called marrowkss. 

" Newcassel "ill nivor find owt like its marrow " (find anything like its 
equal). Joe Wilson's Songs. Allan's Collection, 1890, p. 185. 

" Ev'ry of them beside her Marrow 
Walks e'en as strait as ev'r was arrow." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1-686, p. 12. 

" As me and my marrow was ganning to wark." 

The Collier's Rant. Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 35. 

" Ho ! marrows, 'tis the caller cries ; 
And his voice in the gloom of the night mist dies." 

Edward Corvan, d. 1865, The Caller. 

MARROW, MARRA, to pair, to match, to equal. "Aa've 
tried ti marrow the colour." 

" Nowt could marrow this." Geordy's Last, 1878, p. 12. 

" Smash ! if their Newcassel lyedys 
Cou'd marrow the curls o 1 thy brow." 

W. Midford, Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 

MART. See MAIRT, 2. 

MARVEL, marble. Also a playing marble used by boys. Of 
marvels, a " commony " is made of common earthenware 
unglazed ; a " styeny " or " muggy " is glazed and resembles 
stone ; a " bullocker " is a very large marvel, usually made of 
white glazed " pot"; a "tar " is less in size than a " bullocker," 
but larger than the ordinary-sized marvel; an " ally " is made 
of alabaster. 

" His legs is like pillors o' marvel." J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang o' 
Solomon, Newcastle version, ch. v., v. 15. 


MARYGOWLON, the corn-marigold. Compare GOWLAN. 

" In the vicinity of Newcastle this plant is entitled the marygowlon."- 
James Hardy, Buttercups and Daisies. History of Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Club, vol. ii., p. 13. 

" The mangold, the flower of the Virgin," so specified in Roman Catholic 
times, "from a fancied resemblance of the florets of its disk to the rays 
of glory round the Virgin's head " (Forster). The same, p. 15. 

In the neighbourhood of Wooler the name mary-gowlon is given to the 
common daisy (Bellis perennis) ; " perhaps a corrupt substitution for 
may-gowan." The same, p. 18, note. 

MASH, a mason's large iron hammer. 

MASK, to infuse. " Wor aad wife's ganna mask the tye (tea). 
Maskeet (p.t.), infused. 

" In the brew-house a brewing lead, a maske fatt, a guyle fatt." 
Monastery of White Friars in Newcastle. R. Welford, History of Newcastle 
in XVI. Century, p. 240. 

MASKIN, a sufficient quantity of tea, coffee, camomile, etc., 
for an infusion. 

MASSLINJEM, MASSELGEM, maslin, wheaten meal and 
rye meal mixed for brown bread. The grain is often grown 
together and mixes in threshing, and is generally baked with 
leaven. Masseljam is frequently used to describe any work 
that has been done in an imperfect manner. " Thoo's myed 
reg'lar masseljam on't this time/' 

MASSY, massive, huge, great in self-conceit. Applied to a 
" sonsy " person or to one with high notions. " He's a massy 

MASTER SHIFTER, an official who has responsible charge 
underground of a mine or portion of a mine in his shift during 
the absence of the overman or back overman. 

MASTER WASTEMAN, an official in a colliery who, under 
the direction of the manager or under-manager, has charge of 
the ventilation of the mine on the out-bye side of the working 
headways, including both intake and return air courses. 

MASTIS, a mastiff dog. 

MATCHY, a piece of touch-paper that is, soft brown-paper 
steeped in a solution of saltpetre, and used in obtaining a 
light from a flint and steel. Still carried by old men in the 
fields. Compare FRIZZLE. 


MATTELT, mottled or speckled. 

MATTENT, malted. The flour obtained from wheat that has 
sprouted, tastes sweet when baked, and is said to be mattent. 

from the flour of wheat that has sprouted. Matter ed-breed 
sticks to the knife when cut, in consequence of inferior flour 
used in its composition. 

MATTY [N.] , the mark used at quoits or at pitch-and-toss. In 
South Northumberland and on Tyneside the quoit pin is 
called a hob, and the mark used in pitch-and-toss is called mot. 

MAUD, a plaid. See HERD'S-MAUD and MAAD. 

MAUDLINS, the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, commonly 
called the Maudlins. R. Welford, History of Newcastle in XVI. 
Century, p. 436. A seam of coal is called the maudlin seam, 
probably from the circumstance that it was first worked 
extensively on the hospital property. 

MAUM, MOUM, soft and mellow. Still used in Northumber- 
land. New World of Words, 1706. 

'* To ma im a crust of bread is to soften it in water." Brockett. 

MAUMY, mellow and juiceless. 
MAUND, a basket. 

Coals were brought down to the Tyne for shipment in wains, or " were 
carried (A.D. 1600) in maunds, or panniers, holding two or three pecks 
each, on the backs of pack-horses." Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., 
1789, p. 273. 

MAUP, to mope, to wander about in a thoughtful manner. 

MAVIES, it may be, perhaps. See MEVVY, MAYBIES. 

MAVIS, the song-thrush, Turdus musicus, L. So called near the 
Border. Also known in various parts of Northumberland by 
the names of thrissel-cock and grey-bird. 

" Merry it is in the good greenwood 
When the mavis and merle are singing." 

Lady of the Lake, iv., 12. 




MAWKRE, a black, coaly band. See MACKET. 

MAWS, the maws mallow or marshmallow, Malva moschata, L. 
It is also called mashmallis, and is gathered for poultices. See 

MAWZY, a speckled hen. 

MAY, the blossom of the hawthorn. On the first of May young 
people go out into the fields, before breakfast, to wash their 
faces in May dew. May-cats : kittens born in May, are 
considered unlucky. It is the common practice to drown 

" Haddocks are never good 
Till they've had the May flood." 

"I have more than once been disturbed early on May morning at 
Newcastle by the noise of a song, which a woman sang about the streets, 
who had several garlands in her hand, and which, if I mistake not, she 
sold to any who were superstitious enough to buy them. 
1 Rise up maidens ! fy for shame, 
I've been four long miles from name ; 
I've been gathering my garlands gay, 
Rise up, fair maids, and take in your May.' 

There is no pleonasm : it is singly, as the French have it, your May." 
Brand, Popular Antiquities, 1777, p. 262. 

" Nivver cast a cloot till May be oot." 

Old Saw. 

MAYBIES [N.], may be, perhaps. " Maybics aa wull gan." 
Mevvies is not used in North Northumberland. See MEBBY. 

MAY-LIKE, perhaps. " May-like ye'll be comin' o' Thorsday." 

MAY- WEED, " a seaweed (a species of * fucus ') used as manure 
in Northumberland." James Britten, Old Country and Farming 
Words. E.D.S. 

MAZER, a wonderment, an eccentric person. " He's a reg'lar 
mazer, noo." 

" About hewin thoo hes shaved me clean, 
Ne doot thou thinks't a mazer." 

James Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879, p. 163. 

" Lads, what a mazir aw found it." 

R. Elliott, Jack Robson's Courtship. 

" She's a mazer that neybor abuv." 

Joe Wilson, Allan's Collection, 1890, p. 204. 



ME, used instead of I when it forms a compound subject to a 
sentence. " Me an hor's faalen oot." " Me an him wis there 
togither." " Tom an' me's cousins, ye knaa." Where the 
simple first personal pronoun is the subject me is never used : 
it is invariably aa (I). When emphasized, as in " It wasn't 
me," the sound is heard as mee-uh or mee-ah. 

" As me an my marrow was ganning te wark." 

The Collier's Rant. 

MEAD, a meadow. This word, now used chiefly in poetical 
descriptions, is still in common use in Northumberland. " The 
beeses is i' the mead." 

MEAG, MYEG, MAEG [S.] , MEG [N.], a hand; generally 
applied in an uncomplimentary sense. Thus : " A dorty 
meag." " Keep yor clarty megs off the butter." 

MEAG, MYEG, to handle, to finger. " Whae's gan ta eat that 
eftor a' yer myegin ?" 

MEAL, the flour of oats, barley, or peas, as distinguished from 
that of wheat, which, by way of eminence, is called flour. 
Jamieson. ** Nouther seeds nor meal" neither one thing nor 
another is a common proverb. 

MEAL, MYEL, MAIL, MEALIN, as much as a cow gives at 
one milking. Meal originally meant a fixed time. Miss-meah 
to milk a cow one meal and neglect to do so for a meal or two 
after ; and to thus intermit until the udder becomes dry. 

MEAL-ARK, a meal-chest. 


" Oatmeal in crowdies and hasty-pudding (provincially meal-kail] for 
breakfast." Mackenzie, History of Northumberland, vol. i., p. 201. 

MEAL-O'-MEAT, a meal of any kind of meat. A very common 
plea urged by a beggar is the expression, " Aa hevn't had a 
meal-o'-meat thi day, hinny." 

MEAL-SKEP, a small receptacle for meal. A coa.l-skep is a 
coal-scuttle ; a bee-skep is a bee-hive ; and a skep may be 
either a basket, a box, or other kind of receptacle. 

MEALY, the colour described as a pale yellowish white ; the 
colour of oatmeal. 

MEAN, to bemoan, to express pain, as an animal does when 
hurt. Also used in the sense of to be pitied, to be sympathised 
with when human beings are referred to. " She is much to 
mean " much to be pitied. 




ME A NY, a company of followers. " Siccan a funeral as aa 
nivver saa ; what a meany was there ! " See MONY. 

" Then the Perse owt of Bamborowe cam, 
With him a mightye meany" 

Chevy Chase. 

HEAR, the slide on which casks are discharged. It consists 
of two timbers, braced apart like the sides of a ladder, 
between which the belly of the cask is held as it is slidden 
down lengthwise. 

MEAR, a piece of timber that can be fixed so as to lengthen 
the leverage of the large gavelock used in quarry work. 

MEAR-STYENS, land-mark or boundary stones. See MERE- 

MEAT-HEAL, in good bodily health, having just eaten. 
" He's beath meat he-al and druk he-al ; thor's little or nowse 
the mitter wuv him." Compare HEART-HYEL. 

MEATHEW, mildew. " The wheat was all meathewed." 

MAVIES [N.] , may be, perhaps. " Aa'll mebby be there the 

t morn." " Mebbies aye; mebbies not" a phrase often used 
ironically, expressing incredulity. " Ye say se ; mebbies aye, 
mebbies not." 

" A house-fuh of bayrnes an' mebbies but a tehuhm cubbard for them." 
Thomas Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. u. 

" We mebby may be awd worsels." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 99. 

MEDDLE, to mix, to compound. " He'll nowther meddle nor 
meyk" neither mix nor shape. 

MEETIN, the service at a chapel or Nonconformist's place of 
worship. " We'd a gran sarmon at the meetin thi day." 

MEETINS, the place midway down a pit shaft, or a rope 
incline, where the full and empty tubs pass each other on 
their way out and in. 

MEEZURE, MEEZER, a measure, a boll used for measuring 
corn. The phrase, " Aa hev yor meezer" implies "I've got 
all your good and bad qualities noted." 

MEEZERIN-STICK, a stick used in planting garden potatoes 
by measuring each drill off and setting the line to it. 


MEG, the hand ; a halfpenny. See MEAG and MAIK, 2. 

MEGGY-LOTCHY [N.] , the freshwater loach. See LIE- 

MEGGY-MONYFEET, the chocolate-coloured centipede. The 
form is also meg -o'-mony- feet. 

MEISSLE, MICELL, to disappear gradually. It's micelVd 

"To waste imperceptibly." Jamieson. 

MELDER, the portion or batch of corn taken at a time to a 
mill to be ground, or the meal from one batch of corn. 

MELL, a mallet used by masons and carpenters. Mall, a large 
wooden hammer with a long handle (shank). 

MELL, middle. 

"The mell-door, the middle door of the passage or entrance of a 
house." Hodgson MS. 

" The mill on't was flagged." 

J. P. Robson, Sang o' Solomon, 

Northumberland version, ch. iii., 10. 

MELL, mild ; applied to the weather. " A well day." 

MELL, to meddle. " Ye'll get wrang if ye .mil wi'd." 
Compare MILL. 

" You shou'd consider'd wha ye mll'd with." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious 
Discourse, 1686, p. 35. 

MELL, to pound, to bruise ; from the instrument used. 


MELL-DOLL, or KIRN-BABBY, an image gaily dressed like 
a female child, and carried by a woman on a pole, in the 
midst of a group of reapers, as they go dancing and screaming 
to and from the fields on "a shearing out day." These 
parties generally consist of women ; but after the day's work 
is done, the mell-doll, perhaps meaning the meal-doll, graces the 
board where the swains partake with their female partners in 
reaping in a plentiful meal, and the evening concludes with 
mirth, music and dancing. Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., 
vol. ii., p. 2, note. See KIRN-BABBY, KERN 2, and following 


MELL-SUPPER, formerly the great festival of harvest home. 
The mell-doll was set up, and eating, drinking, and jollity 
were entered upon by all the farm hands, under the presidency 
of the " maister-man." 

' Nee mair at mell or merry night 
The cheering bagpipes Wull shall blaw." 

Robert Roxby, Lay of the Reedwater Minstrel, 1809. 

MELT [N.] , a cant word for the tongue. " Had yor lang 
melt, yor aye gan moothin aboot." 

MENFOLK, men in general. " What dis menfolk ken aboot 
sic things ?" " They ken mair nor womenfolk thinks on." 

MENG, to mix. Menged tar, a composition of tallow and tar 
for greasing carts. Meng corn, mixed corn. 

Leuciscus phoximis> L. Mennem hyeuks and mennem tackle are 
used in trout fishing. 

" Thor's some like mennims, some like worms." J. Harbottle, The 
Fishiri Club, 1884. 

MEN ON ! a call from the onsetter to the banksman or 
brakesman, meaning that men are in the cage to be drawn up. 
" Men to ride ! " a similar call or signal, meaning that men 
are coming up in the next cage. W. E. Nicholson, Glossary 
of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

MENSE, credit, reputation, honour, manliness, good manners, 
discretion, decency ; a most comprehensive word. " He hez 
nowther sense nor mense" said of one without sense or decency. 
"He's a mense ti the family" one who adds repute to his 
circle. To " save one's mense" is to save one's reputation or 
credit either for personal courage, for hospitality, for good 
manners, or for any of the personal or domestic virtues. 
" Twad leuk mair tiv his mense to gan an muck the byre." 

George Chatt, Old Farmer, 1866. 
" Never a soul had the mense to come near." 

Sawney Ogilby's Duel. Bell's Rhymes, 1812. 
" Blenkinsopp's laird leuk'd ower the wa', 
He was the wiser man o* the twa, 
For he saved his mense, and his banes an a' !" 

R. Surtees, Life. Surtees Society, p. 47. 

MENSE, to become, to grace, to adorn. 

11 bonny church ! ye've studden lang, 
To mense wor canny toon." 

Robert Nunn, d. 1853, St. Nicholas' Church. 


MENSEFUL, gracious, comely. " We'll set oot the best ware 
for the tea ; it'll be mair menseful like." 

MENSEFUL-PENNY, the money spent at an inn in return 
for the use of the house as a place of resort, when the country 
folk come into the town. 

MENSELESS, ill-bred, rude, uncivil, heartless. 

MENSION, MENCON, a boundary ditch, march, or division. 

" The march and uttermost bounder between England and Scotland 
stretcheth and goeth by an old mension of a dycke called the Marche 
dyke, between the fields of the town of Mildrom and Scotland unto a 
calsey called Chapman dean." Hodgson MS. (Reference wanting.) 

" Westwarde by an old mencon of a dyke." Survey of Tuggal, 1567. 
Bateson, History of Northumberland, vol. i., p. 352. 

" Ye mencyon of an olde dike." The same. 
MERE, MIER, a boundary. 
MERE-STONES, mete or bounder stones. Compare MAIRCH- 


" From thence by mere stones set up in the Langstrother to the dyke of 
Grensyde." Metes and Bounds of the Ville of Carraw. Hodgson, 
Northumberland, vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 397. 

MER-FIRE, the luminous appearance of the sea at night. 
Compare WILD-FIRE. 

MERRY NEET, MERRY MEETIN, a festive entertainment, 
followed by music, dancing, and "gam" (or fun and games). 
These neets generally " came off" in the house of an indigent 
couple or woman, and the entrance fee was an indirect 
charitable donation. 

MESE, to mitigate, to soothe. 

" Whae's this kens my name sae weel, 
And thus to mese my waes does seik ?" 

Jock o' the Side. 

MESSIT, MESSAN, a half-bred little dog. " The best watch 
is a messit-dog in iv a hoose." 

MET, a measure. At quoits or at pitch-and-toss, when a dispute 
arises as to the throw that lies nearest to the hob or mot, a 
small stick or a piece of straw is taken to measure the 
distances. This is called a met. To met, to measure. " Aa's 
in, aa tell ye ; aa'll met ye for'd." 


METAL, argillaceous stone. Metal is variously described as 
soft, or strong, or slaty, according to its degree of hardness, 
and is spoken of as grey, blue, dark, and black-metal, as it 
varies in shade. When grit is prevalent it is called metal-stone. 
Metal is also the common name for road-making material when 
broken as macadam. 

" Locally, shale is called Plate or Metal." Professor Lebour, Geology of 
Northumberland and Durham, second edition, 1886, p. 40. 

METAL-COAL, coal containing pyrites. It is peculiarly liable 
to spontaneous ignition. 

METALLY, partaking of the] nature of shale. 

METAL-RIG, the curved ridge of thill stone occupying the 
face of a board or excavation in a coal pit, caused by the 
pressure of the superincumbent strata. Brockett. 

METTER, a person legally authorised to measure (Newcastle). 

MEVVY, MEVVIES, MAVIES, may be, perhaps. " Mevvy 
not." " He's mevvies not se fond as ye think." See MEBBY. 

MEW, to stir up hay or straw. 

MEYUN [S.] , MYUN [T.] , the moon. It is unlucky to see 
the new moon for the first time through glass. Money in the 
pocket is immediately turned for luck on seeing it. Women 
accompany this with three curtsies to the myun. " We'll he' 
bad weather, aa doot ; the myun's on ov hor back " said when 
the crescent lies aslant. " It's gan ti be wet ; the myun 
winna had in "said when the horns point so as to give the 
appearance of a tilted barrel in such a position as not to hold 
in water. A " burgh " is the wide halo of rings seen in 
a damp atmosphere. It portends foul weather. 

MEZEL, MIZZLE, to drizzle. " It's mezelin' on o' rain." 

MEZEL-THRUSH, sometimes called mezeltoe-thrush, the missel- 
thrush, Turdus viscivorus, L. It is variously called missel-Dick, 
stormcock, and red-rumped thrush. 

MEZZUR, a bushel. See MEEZURE. 

MICKLE, MUCKLE, much, great. See MUCKLE. 

" Ye byeth ha'e mickle yet to learn." Thos. Wilson, The Pitman's Pay, 
pt. iii., v. 49. 

" The mykel se," the great sea. Pricke of Conscience, 1. 6,319. 
11 Here may men se mikel of man's wretchednes, and mykel mare yhit 
may men telle." The same, 1. 924. 


MIDDEN-CROW, the carrion crow, Corvus corone,L. Brockett. 
Called also black-neb. 

MIDDENSTEED, a dung heap, an ash or refuse heap. 
Midden-bottom, the site on which a manure heap has stood. 
Midden-hole, the porthole through which ashes are shot. 

" Midden, a contemptuous term for a female, conjoining the ideas of 
insipidity, inactivity, and dirt." Brockett. 

"Across the meidow rigs his scythe wad foremost gan, 
An' in the midden-steed he was a mighty man." 

George Chatt, Old Farmer, poems, 1866, p. 87. 

MIDDERN, the midriff, or diaphragm. 

MIDDLE-LIMMERS, limmers, or shafts, that are attached 
to the yoke-hole in the centre of a tub-end. Nicholson, 
Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

MIDGE-GRASS, the soft-grass, or Holcus lanatus, L. See PRY. 

MIDGY, a candle lantern closed at back and sides only : used 
by putters and drivers in a pit. See MISTRESS. 

MIDGY. a midget, a gnat. " Bitten aal all ower wi midgies" 
Midgy's-ee, a minute thing. 

MIDSUMMER. It was a custom to make a large bonfire on 
Midsummer Eve. This was surrounded by dancers and 
merrymakers ; and, as the flames died down, couples who 
wished to be lucky jumped over the embers. This custom 
still (1893) exists at Whalton. On " Head Sunday " or 
Midsummer Sunday that is, the Sunday after old Mid- 
summer Day, it was the custom for great crowds to resort to 
certain " Holy Wells." 

" On the Sunday following the 4th of July, that is about Midsummer 
Day, according to the Old Style, people assembled (strange to say) even 
this last year (1877) to celebrate the old Midsummer Sunday at the Bore 
Well. Within my own recollection the yearly pilgrimage to Gilsland 
Wells on the Sunday after old Midsummer Day took place." The Rev. 
G. Rome Hall, Archceologia &liana, vol. viii., p. 60, etc. 

MIDSUMMER-MEN, the rose root, Sedum rhodiola. 
MIER, a boundary. See MERE. 

MIFFEY, petted, capricious. Sometimes applied to plants 
when set in the ground unseasonably. " Th'or miffey just 
noo" that is, liable to fail if transplanted. 


MILD, soft, easy to work. It is applied not only to metals, as 
mild steel, etc., but to stone and other substances. Mild post, 
soft stone. Mild limestone, easily wrought limestone, etc. 
The term opposed to it is strong, which means hard, intractable. 

MILES, the goosefoot, Chenopodium album, L. It grows in rich 
land and frequently on midden heaps, and is hence also known 
as muckweed. See FAT HEN. 

MILKER, a cow that gives milk ; not the person who milks 
the cow. 

" She's a top milker." Brockett. 

MILK-ILL, a disease among ewes. Compare ILL, QUARTER-ILL, 

MILK-SILE, a milk-strainer; usually a wooden bowl having 
a perforation in the bottom covered with fine hair-cloth or 
fine gauze. 

MILKUS, a milk house, a dairy. 
MILKY-THRISSEL, the milk thistle, Carduus marianus. 

MILL, a mix up. When a number of mason's tools have been 
sharpened they are brought out from the smithy and thrown 
down in a heap. This is called a mill. The tools are one by 
one picked out of the mill and sorted by the distinctive marks 
of each mason. Compare MELL, 3. 

MILLED, intoxicated, mixed up. Wright and Halliwell both 
quote this as a Newcastle word. 

" Fairly mill'd, gan dancin hyem 
The reel of Tullygorum." 

T. Wilson, Oiling of Dick/ s Wig, 1826. 

MILL-EE, MILL-EYE, flour unsifted, as it comes from the 
millstones. Mill-eye, the orifice through which the flour is 
discharged from the outer-casing which surrounds a pair of 

MILLER'S-THUMB, the sea fish, Armed bull-head of Yarrell, 

Aspidophorus cataphmctus, Jenyns. 

MILL-REEK, a disease to which lead workers are subject. 
Brockett. The fumes rising from the smelt mill. 

MILL-TROU, the spout carrying water to a mill wheel. 
Compare LADE. 


MIM, affected, prim. 
MIM-MOOTHED, close-mouthed, quiet. 

MIN, MUN, must. " Aa min be careful." " Aa mun be on the 
leuk oot." 

MIND, to remember, to remind. "Mind me on" bid me 
remember. In its imperative form it means "be sure." 
" Mind ye dinna stop ower lang." It also means "beware." 
A notice board at Pelaw Staith reads (1888) "Mind the 
waggons." To "have a mind" or "have a good mind" is to 
feel disposed. " Aa've a good mind ti clash yor jaa, ye young 

" About fifty year syne, I mind o' seein trouts that thick i' the Thrum, 
below Rothbury, that if ye had stucken the end o' yor gad into the water 
amang them, it wad amaist ha'e studden upreet." S. Oliver, the 
Younger (Chatto), Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 69. 

" Mind think me on when at the toon." Pitman's Pay, pt. i., v. 98. 

"Dinna stor maw luve till 'he hes a mind." J. P. Robson, Sang o' 
Solomon, Northumberland version, ch. ii., v. 7. 

MINDED, of the mind, disposed to. " Aa wis minded to gan, 

but ," that is, of the mind to go, or thought of going. 

" Inward minded" said of a person of a reserved disposition. 

MINDEN, a forward girl. " Di ye hear me, sirrah mindenP" 
spoken in admonishment to a wayward girl. 

MINNY, the pet or familiar name for mother. 

" When Nell had laugh 'd and minny cried." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., V. 44. 

" Maw faix ! it seems a canny sprout, 
As big maist as its minny." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry. 

MINT, to hint. " He nivvor even minteet it ta me." " She 
didn't dee'd reet oot ; she oney minted at it." To make a 
feint. " Aa wasn't gan ti hit him ; aa oney minted at him." 
To " myek a mint " is to make an attempt at doing. 

" Mint, to aim at, to wish for, to have a mind to." Todd. 

MINT-DROPS, red campion, Lychnis diurna. 

MINTY-LEUKIN [N.] , weedy in appearance. " Them taties 
's gye minty-lwkiu' ; thor no' thrivin'." 

MIRD, a muddle. " The creature made a complete mird of it." 


MIRE-BLEATER, MIRE-DRUM, the bittern, Botaurus 
stellaris, L. Now a rare, casual visitant. 

" It appears to have been pretty abundant in the marshy regions of 
Northumberland, before the moorlands were so extensively drained and 
cultivated." John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and Durham, p. 128. 

MIRE-SNIPE, the common snipe, Gallinago scolopacinus. Also 
called heather-bleater and gutter-snipe. 

MIRK, dark. " Aa canna see, it's se mirk." " It's a mirk 

MISCA, to miscall, to call amiss, or say hard things to anyone. 
" Gude mornin', maidens ; God forgi' me, if aw misca ye." 
(Old farmer's salutation to his female workers.) 

MISCHANCY, mischievous, generally applied to a horse or 
other animal that is constantly getting into scrapes. Brockett. 

MISDOOT, to doubt, to suspect. 

"Ye mevies misdoot me but just take a trial." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Wonderful Tallygrip. 

Bards of the Tyne, p. 20. 
" Aa nivvor can misdoot him, 
Sic brave ways he hes aboot him." 

A New Song tiv an A ad Teun. 

MISERD, MYSART, a miser. 

MIS KEN, to be ignorant of, to forget, to disown. 

" Miskenn I tell'd ye." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 14. 

" Misken'd her-sel " (forgot herself). The same, p. 25. 

" Thou aylways has miskenn'd (disowned) thy betters." The same, p. 44. 

MISLEARD, MISLEERT, ill-bred, ignorant. 

" Nay, hald a cast, I trow ye jear'd. 
Think ye that I'll be sae mislear'd ? " (ill-bred) 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. u. 

MISLEST, to molest. 

MISLIPPEN, to disappoint, to neglect. 

" Our maister will be out o' patience 
If \vemislippne his occasions." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 32. 

MISLUCKET, unlucky. " We've been varry fortinit wi' the 
powltry, but mislucket wi' the geese." 

MISMARROW, to mispair, to mismatch. 



MISMEAVE, to trouble, to disturb. 

" This shall not in the least mismeave our mind." W. Kelly, Teetotallers 
of the Tyne, 1854, P 2 9- 

MISSENS, anything missing. "Here's a missens here" said 
of a room from which furniture has been removed Brockett. 

MISTACHED, MISTETCHED, ill-taught, having learned 
bad habits. "He's a mistetched yen." "A dangerous horse 
is termed mistached." 

MISTOR, sir. The word is used in a sense different from the 
title of Mr. It is used by a superior to an inferior or in a 
tone of reproof as, " Noo then, mistor, what are ye deein wi' ma 
box ?" An employer is always the maister or the maister- 

MISTIME, to put out of the regular habit of life, 
sair mistimed, an' hed little sleep for a week." 

Aa wis 

MISTRESS, a pit lantern used by drivers in the main airways. 
It is simply an oblong box wanting the front side, which is 
left unglazed and open. It is also called a midgy. 

MIT, a mitten. 

MIXTY-MAXTY, MIXTER-MAXTER, a confused mixture. 
MOAK, MOKE [W.-T.] , a maggot. See MAAK. 
MOCKING-BIRD, the sedge warbler, Calamodyta phragmitis. 

MOIDART, confused in mind, distracted. " What wi' this an' 
what wi' that, aa's fair moidart" 

MONE, a man. [Holy Island.] 

MONKEY, a pert, vexatious child. " Come here, ye monkey. 1 " 
" Ye clarty monkey, ye." 

MONKEY, fantastic. " Let's he' nyen o' them monkey tricks 

MONYFADS, MUNNYFADS, one of the stomachs of a 
ruminant ; meaning many folds. 

MOOLER, to crumble, to moulder, to decay ; as to mooler the 
soil, to mooler a piece of bread. " The frost'll seun mooler the 
clods doon." 


MOOLS, MOOLD, mould, earth. See MOUD and following 


" They dug his grave but a bare foot deep, 

With neither pick nor spade 
That the dew of heaven might fall and dreep 
On the mools where he was laid." 

R. Surtees, Barthram's Dirge. 

'' The bairn down in the wools, my dear, 

O saft and saft sleeps she ; 
I would the mools were ower my head, 
And the young bairn just wi' me, my love, 
And the young bairn just wi' me." 

A. C. Swinburne, The Tyneside Widow, 1888. 

MOOLY, MOOLDY, mouldy. " A bit mooly cheese." 

MOONGE, a complaint, a moan. " Aa've sitten here wivoot 
ivver a moonge." It is especially applied to the low grunt of 

MOONGE, to grumble, to complain sulkily. u Ye manna mind 
wor wife ; she's aye moonge-moongin on aboot nowt." 

MOONGIN, moaning as a cow in pain ; grumbling. "Jack's 
bad to please ; he's elwis gan moongin aboot." " What are ye 
moongin at ? " See MOUNGE. 

MOONT THE KITTY, a game like leap-frog, but played by 
lads in sides. 

MOONY, the bird goldcrest, Regulus cristatus, Fleming. 

MOOR-BAND, a conglomerate rock, apparently of volcanic 
origin. Roots of plants touching it die quickly ; especially is 
this the case with the hawthorn, which will not grow upon 
soil containing moor-band. 

11 Moor Gravels, little known and not very comprehensible deposits. 
They are very widely but irregularly distributed over Western and 
Central Northumberland. Professor Lebour, Geology of Northumberland 
and Durham, second edition, 1886, p. 22. 

MOOR-EVERLASTING, the plant cat's-ear, GnapJialimn 
dioicum, L. 

grouse, Lagopus Scoticus. Called also the gorcock. 

MOORGRIEVE, the overseer or custodian of the pasture or 

MOORHEN, the female of the red grouse. 



MOORTEEK, a parasite found adhering to dogs. It is large 
and hard- shelled, and remains firmly fixed to the skin. 

MOOR-WHIN, the needle genista. See MOSS-WHIN. 

MOOSE-HAAK, mouse-hawk, the short-eared owl, Otus 


MOOSE'S PEAS, MOUSE'S PEAS, the tufted vetch, Vicia 
cracca, L. 

MOOT, the moult, to moult. 

" Like ony chicken efter moot, 
When its awd coat it fairly casses." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 5. 

MOOT, a meeting. Moot-hall, Newcastle. Ward-mote, a 
meeting of the principal inhabitants of a ward. 

"The proper sense of moot is 'meeting,' as in moot-hall, hall of 
assembly ; hence to moot is to discuss at a meeting, and a ' moot point ' 
is one reserved for public discussion." Skeat, Concise Etymological Diet. 

MOOTERIN, mouldering, decaying. 

MOOTH, damp and warm ; applied to the weather. " It is a 
mooth neet " a state of weather after a farmer's heart. 

generally entering upon the crop of a coal. 

MOOTH-POKE, a nose-bag for a horse. 
MOPPY, a rabbit. 

MORN, MOO-RN, morrow, morning. "He'll be there the 
morn " not necessarily to-morrow morning. " Are ye gan the 
toon the morn ? " " Ay ; the morn at efterneun." " The morn's 
mornin " first thing to-morrow morning. " Aa'll be there 
the morn's mornin, aall be well." 

MORT, the death of a beast of chase. Mort and morth are 
commonly used in the phrase " Aa'vegetten a morto 1 caad" 
that is, a severe cold. See MURTH. 

"They hunted high, they hunted low, 

By heathery hill and birken shaw ; 
They raised a buck on Ropken Edge, 
And blew the mort at fair Ealylawe." 

Death of Parcy Reed. 


MORTAL, or MORTAL-CLAY, drunk. " He cam in mortal:' 
"When aa saa him he wis mortal-clay:' 

MOSS, the first shoots and the flower stalks of the cotton 
grass, Eriophorum vaginatum. See LING. 

MOSS, a peat-bog, a place where peats are dug; peat. 

MOSSCHEEPER, the meadow pipit, Anthus pratensis, L. 
Called also grey-cheeper, titlark, titlin, cuckoo's titlin, and syeuty- 

"A resident, and abundant everywhere." John Hancock, Birds of 
Northumberland and Durham. 

"Trill thy sweet lay, thou wee mosscheeper." 

Jas. Armstrong, Friar John, 1879. 

MOSS-HAG, PEAT-HAG, a rough projecting mass of peat 
in the form of an escarpment on the face of the moor, or on the 
sides of the water channels which intersect the surface in places. 

MOSSTROOPER, the Border trooper of old time, who was 
accustomed to traverse the wide and trackless mosses of the 
march lands. 

" In 1662, lewd, disorderly, lawless thieves and robbers, commonly 
called moss troopers, infested the Borders, residing in large wastes, heaths, 
and mosses, who through secret ways escaped from one kingdom to 
another to elude punishment." History of the Roman Wall, W. Hutton, 
1802, p. 102. 

''Moss-troopers; that is, thieves and robbers, who, after having 
committed offences in the Borders, do escape through wastes and 
mosses." Statute 13 and 14, Charles II., c. 22. Quoted in Todd. 

MOSS-WHIN, the needle genista, Genista anglica, L. Called 
also moor-whin and heathers 

Frequent on heaths, ascending to Gunnerton Crags, Alwinton, and 
Ross Castle Moor, near Wooler." New Flora of Northumberland and 
Durham, p. 148. 

MOT, the mark usually a white speck or piece of boody 
aimed at in the game of pitch and toss. Compare MATTY. 

MOTE-HILLS, the names at Elsdon, Wark, Haltwhistle, 
Harbottle, etc., of hills with earthern ramparts. Near Ryal 
a hill is called the Moot-law. Assizes were held on the 
mote-hill at Wark, North Tyndale, in 1279 and in 1293. 

" The inhabitants of Redesdale and Tindale, accustomed to have their 
disputes settled, and themselves to sit as jurymen, upon the mote-hills 
at Harbottle or Elsdon, and at Wark or Haltwhistle." Hodgson, 
Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i, p. 3. 

"As in the case of dike, the same word means either the trench cut 
out or the embankment thrown up, or both together." Prof. Skeat, 
under moat, Concise Etymological English Dictionary, third edition. 



MOTHER-FEW-CLAES, the little grebe, Podiceps fluviatilis, 
Brisson. Called commonly the dab chick or dob chick. 

MOTHERGATE, in a pit, the continuation of the rolleyway 
into the workings ; or the place in the workings that 
will at a future period be converted into a rolleyway. 
W. E. Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

MOTHERS, mother liquor, the uncrystallizable residuum left 
in the bottom of a salt-pan in salt works or of a crystallizing 
pan in alkali works. 

MOTHER'S-NEET-CAP, the snapdragon. 
MOTHER-WUT, mother wit, natural shrewdness. 
MOU. See Mow. 

MOUD, to spread or scale mole heaps. 

" 1651. Item paid the fiddler when the feildes were mouded in 1650." 
Gateshead Church Books. 

" Paid for pipeing to the mowders when they skailed the Town Fields, 
2S." The same, 1655. 

Talpa vulgaris. " Tell Jack the moudy to come o' Monday." 
Moudy, a mole catcher. 

" I knew him by the trade, 
He had a moudie poke and spade." 

T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, 

The Molecatcher's Lamentation. 
" Rejoice, ye cats, an' foumerts too, 
Ye moudiworts, an' a' your crew." 

The same. Elegy on a Favourite Bitch. 

MOUDY-BOORD, the mould-board of a plough. 

Sometimes applied to the 

MOUDY-RATTAN, the mole, 
shrew mouse. 

MOUDYWART, a mole-hill. 

oot them moudy warts." 

" Bella, hinny, gan an' spreed 

MOULTIN [W.-T.] a malt-kiln. 

MOUNGE, MOONGE, to lament, to grumble to oneself. 


" ' What, is ye gyen ? ' Bold Archy said, 
And moungin scratched his head." 

R. Gilchrist, Bold Archy. 



MOUNT, MOONT, a horse block. Compare HORSE-STYEN, 

" Almost every house had outside steps, or ' mounts ' as they were 
called, to enable the wife or daughter to mount the pillion on which they 
travelled, under the guidance of master or brother, to market or fair."- 
Rev. J. W. Dunn, History Bwks. Naturalists' Club, vol. v., p. 417. 

MOUNTAIN-FLOWER, the wood geranium, Geranium 
sylvaticum, L. 

MOUTER, MOOTER, multure, the miller's wages taken in 
kind ; as a quart for grinding a bushel, or a bushel for 
grinding a quarter. Two different multures were formerly 
used the " gowpenful," that is, two handsful ; and the 
"handful," a term which explains itself. In more recent 
times the mooter allowed was more clearly denned, though 
each mill had its own scale of charges. The miller's portion 
is also called a mootevin. 

" Sometimes he took his gowpins, sometimes he took bis hat, 
Sometimes he took the mouter dish to where the toll was pat." 

Robin Spraggon's Auld Grey Mare. 

MOUTER-DISH, a round, concave, wooden dish, about seven 
inches in diameter. 

" Now, sir, this is what we ca' the Moutar dish, an' that's a Kenning 
there, ye see ; we measure a' the corn wi 1 that." Richardson's Table 
Book, Leg. Div., vol. i., p. 216. 

MOVED-OFF-THE-BOARD, settled and done for. When 
any question has been discussed and arranged, it is said to 
have been moved-off-the-board. 

MOW, MOU, a pile of cut corn. A stack carried to a barn 
before threshing is built up in divisions called mows, generally 
occupying the breadth between two roof principals. 

MOW, MOU. To "mou the stree," to build up the straw at 

MOW, MOU, the mouth. 

11 What goes to the mou myeks the coo." Proverb. 

In derision wry'd her mow." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, 
p. 27. 

MOW, to gesticulate with the mouth. Compare MOWES. 

"Mumping and Mowing, making Faces." (" Looking as if they would 
bite," says the margin.) G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 42. 


MOWBAND, to comprehend, to make out. " Aa canna 
mowband that." To pronounce. " Aa couldn't mowband it at 
aall." It means literally to get the mouth about, as in the 
expression, " Wait a bit ; thoo canna mowband that big word 


MOW-DARGUE, a day's work in mowing. See DARG. 

" Each tenant is to perform yearly a mow-dargue (day's work) and 2 
shear dargues and one catch yearly from Thirlwall Castle to Newbigin." 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii,, vol. iii., p. 144. 

MOWES, IN MOWES, in jest. (Obs.) 

" It was in mowes that I did speer." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 14. 

"Moe or Mowe, a distortion of the face made in ridicule." Naye's 

MOWSENT, MOWSEND, fusty, mouldy, not sweet ; musty, 
damp-smelling. " That smells a' mowsent." 

MUCE, a narrow passage for game. Compare SMUT-HOLE. 

"The trap into which the rabbits are led by a very narrow muce." 
George Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 217. 

" Musit, a small gap in a hedge. (F.) Old French musette, ' a little 
hole ' ; Cotgrave. Diminutive of Old French musse, a secret corner, from 
F. musser, to hide." Professor Skeat, Concise Eng. Diet. 

MUCK, manure. 

" Wor Barrasford land's muck for Humshaugh." North Tyne saying. 

MUCK, messy. " He wis in a muck sweat." " Aa's muck wet." 
Compare MUCKY. 

MUCK, to clean up manure or refuse. '" Had-away, muck 
the byre, lad." To apply manure to land. "That land's aa 
winter muckeet." It also means to make a mess. 

" He mucks in our mickle meal-chest." 

Tweedside. Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 252. 

MUCK-HACK, a many-pronged fork with the grains bent 
round. With it, the muck, or farm litter, is dragged out from 
the stable or byre to the muck heap. 

MUCK-HEAP-LIE-ON, a higgledy-piggledly heap. Also a 
game played by children, who pile themselves on the top of 
each other, shouting as they do so, " Muck-heap-lie-on." 



MUCKHUT, a term of opprobrium, generally applied to a dirty 
woman. " Get away, ye greet muckhut." Hut is a heap. 
Muck-heap or heap of muck is used in the same sense as muck- 
hut. " She's just a gannin heap o' muck" 

MUCKLE, much, great, large. " Gaan aboot like a muckle soo." 
It is often used as a duplicative term to express something 
extraordinarily impressive, as " He's a greet, muckle, big 
chep." See MICKLE. 

*' It gav us muckle grief." Geo. Chatt, Poems. Old Farmer, 1866, p. 86, 

"Like vunto greate stinkyng mucle medin hilles." Bullein, Dialogue, 
1564. Early English Text Society, p. 9, 1. 12. 

MUCKLEDEUM, bigness, size. (Obs.) 

" The muckledeum of ha.'fe a crown." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 60. 

MUCK-WEED, the weed goosefoot. See MILES. 

MUD, a headless nail used by shoemakers for the soles of boots 
and shoes. 

MUDGE, to stir, to move, or shift. " You must not nudge." 
" I have never mudged." " Aa canna mudge 'd ; it's ower 

MUFFATEES, cuffs of wool or fur, worn on the wrists in cold 

MUG, a breed of sheep of very inferior kind, once prevalent in 
the low parts of Northumberland. 

" Called Mugs, from the wool growing in their very eyes." George 
Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 156. 

MUG, the mouth. 

MUG, a fool. " Wadn't he he' been a mug if he'd gyen, noo ? " 

MUG, to thrash. " Aa'll mug ye if ye taak like that." 

MUGGER, originally a travelling hawker of mugs and earthen- 
ware, but often applied to the whole tribe of itinerant hawkers 
indiscriminately. " Tinklers an' muggers." Mugger's cairt, 
a special kind of cart upon which a cover or hood can be 
placed as a shelter to the occupants. Muggerishlike, having 
the appearance of a mugger t dirty in person and of a raga- 
muffin type. There is a common saying descriptive of hard 
work, " Aa's sweetin like a mugger's cuddy." 


MUGGERT-UP, worn out, completely exhausted. " Aa's fair 


MUGGY, a small marble made of glazed earthenware. 
MUGGY, the lesser whitethroat, Cttrraca garrula. 

MULE, a mongrel boat that is, between a coble and a fishing 
boat, with a sharp bow at both ends. Used exclusively for 
herring fishing. It is similar to the coble used for white 
fishing along the Northumberland coast, but with this 
difference, that it is much larger and has a sharp stern, 
similar to the stem, but not so much raised. It has only been 
introduced in late years, being found more suitable than a 
keel boat for a flat, sandy beach, as it draws less water. 

MULL, crumbled particles, crumbs. See MULLER. 

" The fragments and dust of a stack of peats are called peat mull. 
Oat bread, broken into crumbs, is called mullen bread." Hodgson MS. 

MULLER, to crumble. " Yor mullerin the breed." "Mullert 
breed," crumbled bread. 

" Muller is the same as ' moulder,' to crumble. Mulled ale is a 
corruption of muld-ale or mold-ale, a funeral ale or feast. Middle English, 
molde-ale, a funeral feast ; from molde, the earth of the grave, and ale, a 
feast (as in bride-ale). The sense being lost, mulled was thought to be a 
past participle, and a verb to mull was evolved from it." Skeat, Concise 
Etymological English Dictionary, under mould. 

MULLERS, mould, earth, and small clods. 

MULLOCK, a muddle, a mess. "He's myed a mullock o' his 

" Mullock, dirt or rubbish." Bailey. 

MULLS, the lips of a sheep ; or, in contempt, of a man. 
"Aw'll slap yor mulls." Brockett. 

"Mulls, of Scandinavian origin. Icelandic muli, the snout of a beast, 
mouth. So too the German maul, mouth, has a rather depreciatory 
sense." Note by the Rev. Professor W. W. Skeat. 

MUMLERS [N.], mummers. 

MUMMLER, an agricultural implement for breaking down the 
rough surface of the field. 

MUMP, to eat with closed lips. Old people often say"Mumpin 
an' eatin." 

" Mump, to bite the lip like a rabbit, to spunge upon, to beg." Bailey. 



MUN, must. " Aa mun he'd " must have it. 

" He with baith hands mun play." G. Stuart, Newcastle, Joco-Serious 
Discourse, 1686, p. 28. 

" Aa mun he'd swapped." 

His Other Eye. Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 541. 

MUNCH, a meal, something to eat. 

" Wiv a' the stravaging aw wanted a munch." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 

MUNNA, MUNNET, must not. " Ye munna gan that way." 
" Ye munnet eat .ony." The form manna is also used. 

MURDERING-PIE, the ash-coloured shrike, or butcher bird, 

Lanius excubitor L. Brocket*. 

.MURN [N.], MORN [T.], to mourn. 

MURTH, MORTH, MORT, death, or the deadly suffering 
experienced from exposure to intense cold. 

" ' What ails Frank, Robin ? ' 'He had bidden ower lang i' the water 
when he was out fishin', and he has getten amurth of cauld.' " S. Oliver, 
Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 70, note. 

MUSH, anything mashed up. A soft, yielding substance, such 
as a wet, clayey road, or half-melted snow. " The streets wis 
aall mush" 

11 Strang and houghs stewed down to mush, are gobbled up biv every 
slush." R. Emery, Steam Soup. Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p, 67. 

SCALP, layers in the coal measures. See SCALP. 

" Seldom more than a few inches in thickness, consisting almost 
entirely of the shells of Anthracosia a genus of molluscs allied to the 
mussels of our rivers." Prof. G. A. Lebour, Geology of Northumberland 
and Durham, second edition, 1886, p. 42. 

MUSHY, mashed down, spongy. " A mushy bog." Mushy coal 
is soft coal having the appearance of being crushed or mashed 
to a pasty condition. 

MUSHROOM-HITCH, an inequality in the floor of a mine, 
occasioned by the projection of basaltic or other stony 

MUTCH, a woman's cap. " Ye've toozlt a' me mutch, lad ! " 



MUTCHKIN, a measure of a pint. This word appears to have 
been used on the English side of the Border in former times, 
for in the Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p, 15, the landlady at 
Durham asks her Northumberland guests " Will ye take a 
Mutch-kin o' Wine ? " The margin explains it as pint. 

MYED-ON, caressed. " He's muckle myed on." 
MYELN, a dirty lass; an oven clout. See MAILIN. 

MY JOES ! an exclamation. 

" My joes I fear 
Yon is a parlish ingeneer." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 71. 

NA, no (negative adverb). The a very short, as in #, pat, hat, 
etc. "Are ye gan win us?" " Na." " Adna" I do not. 
"Aa henna" I have not. "Aa winna'' I will not. "Ye 
munna" you must not. " He shanna " he shall not. " Aa 
canna " I cannot. 

N ABBLY. A nabbly clod is one the size of an apple. 

NACK, to crack together two hard or resounding surfaces. See 

" He nacks his heels, an' round he wheels, an' gies his thooms a 
crack." James Armstrong, Fair Joan, 1879. 

NACKEREL [N.], an acorn. 

NACKET [N.], NACKEY [T.] , conceitedly clever. "Yor 
not nackey" is often said to a self-important person who 
endeavours to show off to advantage. See KNACKET, 

NACKIT [N.], an insignificant person. "He's oney a little 
nackit of a thing." Keh, ye little nackit!" said to a child. 

NACKS, or GNACKS, a disease among poultry, which is 
supposed to be cured by drawing a quill feather from the 
fowl affected, pushing the quill through the nostrils, and 
drawing the feather through them. 

NAF, the nave or hub of a wheel. See NATH. 
NAFFIN, trifling, frivolmg. " They were just naffin on." 
NAFGAR, an auger. 


NAG, to worry with fault-finding. " What are ye naggin on 
at ? Yor elwis nag-naggin on aboot something." 

NAG, a sour taste. 

NAGGY, querulous, irritable in talk. 

" If aw be naggy, Nanny's smile 
Suin myeks me blythe as ony lark." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 76. 

NAIG, NAIGIE, a nag. To " take Shanky's naigv" to go 

44 Hev a aw Landlord hanck your naig a while, 
For I ha' ridden full lang twa mile 
Out of my Gate, to overtake ye." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Senous Discourse, 1686, p. 9. 

NAIGLET, the tin or other tag on the ends of bootlaces. 
N aiglet -holes, the lace or eyelet holes in a boot front. 

NAIL, to arrest, to take possession of, to steal. Also to strike 
effectually, to stun. " He up wiv his nief an' naiVd him." 
" That nails her," said of a shot that has hit the mark. 

NAILER, a sharp blow, an effectual stroke or repartee that 
settles an adversary in argument, a dilemma. " That's a 
nailer for him." In this sense compare CLAGGER, CLANKER. 

" With brickbats he got many a nailer." 

Newcastle in an Uproar, 1821. 

NAN, NANCY, the Christian name Ann. Nancy pretty, 
London pride. See NANNY and NONE-SO-PRETTY. 

NANK, the great northern diver, Colymbus glacialis, L. 

NANNY, the name Ann. The term is usually applied to 
elderly females of that name. Nanny-goat, a she-goat ; Billy- 
goat, a he-goat. 

NANNY, or CANNY-NANNY, a stingless humble bee or 


NANNY-RING-TAIL, the redstart, Ruticilla Phoenicia, L. 
Called also Bella-ring-tail and red-tail. 

NAPPE RN, an apron. Brockett. 


NAPPY, having a nap on or a frothy surface. Applied to ale. 
" Dry drams and sneakers, nappy ale 
Shall waft us with delusive gale." 

Tom Whittell, On Mr. Bowmer, 1815. 
" Spirits strong and nappy beer.' 1 

R. Gilchrist, Bold Archie Drownded, 1824. 

Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 181. 
" Their cares are all in nappy drowned." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 8. 

NAR [N.], near. The nar side in driving, the left or near 
side. Nar'd, near it. " Aa wis gye nar'd there." 

NARKT, annoyed. " He wis very narkt at what he say'd." 

NARR, to snarl, to find fault in a growling manner. " She'll 
be aye narv-navrin at him." 

NARRA, narrow ; applied to very thin people. " He's as 
narra as a drink o' waitor." Narrin, narrowing, reducing the 
width in knitting. Narrish, somewhat narrow. 

NARROW-BORD, in a pit, an excavation of the same length 
as a wide board, but driven two yards wide. G. C. Greenwell, 
Glossary of Coal Trade, 1888. 

NARROW-WORK, excavations, varying from six to ten feet 
wide, for which so much per yard is paid in addition to the 
score (hewing) price. Narrow places are driven for the 
purpose of ventilation or for passages. W. E. Nicholson, 
Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

NASH, NAISH, tender, like coal when it is soft, crumbly, 
powdery. " Hard or nesshe" hard or soft. 

NATE, to use, to make use of Northumberland. Halliwell. 

NATH, the nave of a wheel. " Byeth wheels cam ti bits ; an' 
nath, spyeks, an' fellies wis aall lyin' iv a heap. Compare NAF. 

NATTER, to talk or gossip in an- unfriendly way; to scold 
continuously. " What are ye nattrin on at ? " 

NATTERIN, NATTERY, peevish, ill-tempered in speech. 
" He's a natterin body." " A nesty, nattery aad chep." 

NATTLE, to make a noise like that of a mouse gnawing a 
board. Hodgson MS. "What are ye nattlin there?" what 
are you clattering or knocking together ? In a pit, nattle is a 
crackling noise made in a creep, louder than a " fizzelin." 


NATTLEY-GROUND, gravelly ground. Brocket. 
NATTLING STONES, polishing stones. Brocket*. 
NAUP, to beat, to strike. Brocket*. 
NAYSAY, a refusal. " He waddent be said naysay." 
NEAF, the fist. See NEIF. 

NEAP, new. " She's gi'en us some claes an' thor quite neap " 
as good as new. See the expression nip for new, under NIP, 2. 

NEAR (a near), a kidney. 
NEAVES (pi. ofneif), hands. 

NEB, the bill of a bird, a nose, a prominent headland, a point 
of a thing (nib). " Wet yor neb " take a drink ; the nose 
being supposed to enter the pot in the process. The 
prominent feature often gives a name to the entire face. 
" Ugly neb" ugly face. "Cock yor neb" hold up your 

" Half-an-inch afront o 1 their beut nebs " (boot points). D. D. Dixon, 

Shrovetide Customs at Rothbury. p. 5. 

NEB, to put one's nose into a discourse or argument in an 
impudent way. " He com nebbin up, as if he hed ony business 
wi'd." " The jackanyeps nebbed alangside." Hence nebby or 
nebsy, having a sharp, impertinent, and ill-natured manner. 
" A clarty, nebsy body." 

NECK, forwardness, impudence. " What a neck ye hev efter 
aa' !" A cant term. 

NECK, the part of a blacksmith's fire at the end opposite to 
the blast. 

NECK, to catch, to steal. 

" And devil a thing cud be left on the deck, 
But Geordy, as sure as a gun, wad it neck." 

Geordy's Disaster. Allan's Collection, 1863, p. 165. 

' neck-kerchief. See CURCHOR. 

f NED-CAKE, KNED-CAKE, cake kneaded with butter, 
dripping, or lard, and generally baked on the girdle. See 


NEDDER, an adder. See NETHER, i. 


NEDDIN, KNEDDIN, butter, dripping, lard, etc., used in 
making pastry. 

NEDDY, an eddy. Compare NEDDER. 

NEEDFA, NEEDFU, needful. "Not nice, but needfa" 
(Northumberland saw) said of a man who has married a 

NEED-FIRE, fire obtained by rubbing two pieces of dry wood 
together. Called also forced-fire. It was formerly raised in 
one village and hurriedly carried on from village to village in 
the district, each kindling their flame from the other. The 
practice continued in use near the middle of this century. 

" When the murrain broke out among the cattle, about eighteen years 
ago, this fire was produced by rubbing two pieces of dry wood together, 
and carried from place to place all through the district, as a charm 
against cattle taking it. A fire was kindled, and the cattle driven into 
the smoke, and they were kept there for some time. Many farmers in 
this part of the country, I am informed, had the 'need-fire.''" The Rev. 
J. F. Bigge, Transactions of Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, 1860-62, vol. v., 
p. 94. 

"To work as though one was working for 'need-fire, 1 is a common 
proverb in the North of England." M. A. Denham, Folk Lore, p. 5. 

NEEDLER, a keen, active, thrifty person^a niggard. 


NEEF, the fist. See NEIF. 

NEEP, a turnip. Compare BAGIE. 

" I'm ay sae thrang, 
Wi hoeing neeps and minding cattle." 

Poems, T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, p. 162. 

NEEP-SHAW, a turnip top. 

" A neep-shaw, or docken, or aucht that is green.'* James Armstrong, 
Another Sang, 1872. 

NE'ER-DI-WEEL, a never-do-well, a scapegrace. 

NEEST, NEIST, next. To take anything " neest the heart " is 
to take it on an empty stomach. 

" Tyek the physic neest the heart i' the mornin." Dr. Embleton MS. 

" And there's ne knawin what neist they'll de, 
Folks are now a' se cliver." 

T. Wilson, Captains and the Quayside, 1843. 

NEET-COAL, a coal put on at night to. keep the fire burning. 


NEETFAD, nightfold, a fold for cattle, etc., to rest in at night- 

NEEZE, to sneeze. "Thor's somebody neezin heavy." "Aa've 
neezed three times even runnin." " Houts, he's elways neezin." 
" His neesings flash forth light." Job 41, v. 18, revised version. 

" The whole quire hold their hips and laffe ; 
And waxen in their mirth, and neeze and swear." 

Midsummer Night's Dream, act ii., sc. i. 

NEGLET, the tag on a lace. See NAIGLET. 

NEIBOR-RAA, seated near together. Where a party of 
friends are sitting together one is asked to join them by the 
invitation, " Come into neibor-raa." 

NEIF, NIEF, NEEF, NEEVE [N.] (pi. neaves), the hand. 
" Gethered wi' the nief." A double-nief, a fist. " He hit us 
wiv his double-;^/ " (closed hand). 

" By my faicks ! it's been built up by Adam's aun neaves." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 
Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 48. 

" Give me your neif, Monsieur Mustard-Seed." 

Midsummer Night's Dream, iv., i. 

a handful, as much .as can be grasped in one hand. 
A "gowpen" is a measure made by placing both hands 
together with the palms held upward like a scoop, and is 
contrasted with a nief -fid. " He tyuk a neaf-fu oot, an' thowt 
aa didn't see him." " A nief-ful o' glar " clarts (mud). 

" Here's Wheat-meal and Sewet, we'll have a Poak-Pudding. 
Put a neef-fow of Prunes in't, an' make it a geud ane." 

G. Stuart, Newcastle, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686. 

NELL-KNEED, knock-kneed. 

NENST, over against. See ANENST and FORNENST. 
" The cash was paid nenst his year's rent." Brockett. 

" Then on we went, as nice as owse, 
Till 'nenstau'd Lizzy Moody's." 

T. Thompson, d. 1814, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry. 
Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 52. 

NESS (pi. nesses), a nest. " We fun' fower nesses i' the lonnin." 

NETHER, an adder. " If ye fetch't a switch ower the back 
the nether' s deun for." 



NETHER, lower. In common use colloquially, and frequent 
in place-names, as Nether Witton, etc. 

NETHER [N.] , to blast and bite, as by frost or a bitter wind. 
" How the frost hes nethert the bagie-shaws (turnip tops)." 

NETHERIN [N.], biting, blasting, shrivelling. "A netherin 
wund." See ETHERISH. 

NETHERY [N.], ill-natured, witheringly sarcastic, 
dinna ken what ails wor maister ; he's awfa nethery." 


NET-STUCKEN, stakes driven into the ground, on which nets 
are stretched to confine sheep to one part of a field. 

NETTEET-ON, enclosed by nets. Applied to sheep when 
netted upon a " brick " (or break) in a crop of growing 

NETTLE-BROTH, broth made from nettles. Ale (nettle-beer) 
is also brewed from the plant. In North Northumberland 
pigs are largely fed in summer on nettles and on the leaves of 
the common dock. On receiving a sting from a nettle a 
dock leaf is immediately rubbed on the part, and the cure is 
effected by repeating rapidly the words, " Nettle oot ; dockin 

a cow that has had a calf within the year. Bvockett. 

NEUK, NYUK, NUICK, NUIK, a nook, a corner, being 
either an interior or exterior angle. The chimley netik, or 
neuk simply, is the chimney corner. A dike neuk, or waa neuk, 
is the nook of a fence or wall. In the working place of a pit 
the neuk is the angle made by the face of the coal and the 
side of the bord. The corner angle of a pillar of coal is also 
called the pillar neuk. The one is an interior and the other 
an exterior angle. Compare SNOOK. 

" Hidden ahint some awd wa' nuik, 
Where like a conjuror he'd sit." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 45. 

NEVEL, a blow with the fist. 

" He got on the lug such a nevel, 

That down he came all his long length." 
H. Robson, Collier's Pay week. 

Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 112. 

" A lurden nevvil," a heavy or severe blow (Berwickshire). Jamieson, 
under lurden. 

"Ye'll fin him roon the 
en nee-oo. 


NEW, freshly. The word is constantly used in combination 
and adverbially. "New done up." "New painted." " He's 
new come" just come. " New layed" newly repaired with 
an added piece of material. "New sitten doon" just sitten 
down. "New pairted" just parted. "Ye'll fin' 
corner: him an' me's new pairted." New is spok 

NEWCASTLE CLOAK, a tub put over the head of a drunkard 
and worn like a garment. See DRUNKARD'S CLOAK. 

" The common drunkard was led through the town as a spectacle of 
contempt, covered with a large barrel, called a Newcastle Cloak, one end 
being out, and the other having a hole through it of sufficient size to 
allow the offender's head to pass through, by which means the vessel 
rested on the shoulders." M. A. Denham, Proverbial Folk Lore of 
Newcasth-upon-Tyne, 1855, p. 6. 

NEWCASTLE HOSPITALITY that is, roasting a friend to 
death ; or, according to a more popular colloquial phrase, 
" killing a person with kindness." The saying, no doubt, 
alludes to the ancient drinking customs of Newcastle and 
Northumberland customs now, happily, to a great extent, 
laid aside. M. A. Denham, Folk Lore of Northumberland , 
Tract xii., No. 5, 1855, p. 77. 

NEWCASTLE ROADS, railways, called long after their 
introduction by no other name than that of the " Newcastle 
Roads." T. John Taylor, Archeology of the Coal Trade. 
Memoirs Archaeological Institute, Newcastle, 1852, p. 150. See 

" These early railways, known in other parts of the kingdom as the 
'Newcastle Roads,' consisted of wooden rails about four inches square, 
laid upon sleepers. Such was the first appearance (probably about 1660) 
of those lines of railway which have subsequently, and by gradual steps, 
been improved into their present form, though still retaining the original 
name given to the wooden rail." Ibid, pp. 180-1. 

NEWCASTLE'S WHITECOATS, a regiment raised by Sir 
Robert Clavering in the cause of Charles I. 

" These Border men, who formed part of the ' Loyal Duke of 
Newcastle's ' army, were known wherever they went as ' Newcastle's 
Whitecoats,'. from the colour of their jerkins." D. D, Dixon, Vale of 
Whittingham, 1887, p. 34. 

NEW-CHAPEL-FLOWER, the broom rape, Orobanche major, 
L. Not unfrequent, parasitic on broom. 

It is " so rare an herbe in Englande that I never saw it in all Englande, 
but in Northumberland, where it was called New Chapel Floured Turner, 
Herbal, 1548. 

Sixteen localities enumerated. Nat. Hist. Trans, of Northumberland and 
Durham, vol. ii., 1867, p. 220. 



NEW-LAND-HAY, clover hay. Hay from a new-sown 
pasture, as "old land hay" is hay from a permanent grass 

NEWRIS-DAY, New Year's Day. 

NEW-UN, a fresh, vigorous person. 

" And Peel, as drunk as he can stand. 
Reeling and dancing like a new-un." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., v. 5. 

" But, man, they say she liked a drop, 
An' drunk gin like a new-un." 

J. P. Robson, Hamlick, Prince of Denton. 

NIBS, the two small handles which are fastened to the long 
handle, shaft, or sned of a scythe, and held by the mower at 
work. See SCYTHE. 

NICELY, well in health. 

" Hoo are ye thi day ?" " Oh, aa's 

OOT-DAY, the 6th of December, on which the schoolmaster 
found the school door locked in his face and barricaded with 
forms to prevent his entrance until the scholars within 
obtained from him in writing a list of holidays for the ensuing 
year. The custom is almost obsolete. 

" Scholars on St. Nicholas day used to elect three out of their number, 

one .of whom was to play the bishop, the others to act the part of deacons. 

. The bishop was escorted by the rest of the boys in solemn procession to 

church, where, with his mitre on, he presided during the time of Divine 

worship." Brand, Popular Antiquities, 1777, p. 363. 

Edward the First, in 1299, lodged at Heaton, and heard a boy-bishop 
" saying the vespers of St. Nicholas before the king in his chapel at 
Heton near Newcastle-upon-Tyne." Wardrobe Accounts quoted in Boyle 
an I Knowles's Ve tiges of Old Newcastle and Gateshead, p. 136. 

NICK, a notch, a niche, a slit, a groove, a gap, a very narrow 
fissure. It is a common practice to mark the ownership of a 
stick, etc., by a peculiar series of nicks cut on the surface, or 
of a sheep by a "lug mark " or nick in the ear. The small 
grooves on the periphery of the driving wheel of a spinning 
wheel and on the pirn are called nicks. Hence the proverbial 
expression, which means steady and uninterrupted progress 
in life or work, when one is said to " Keep the wheelband i' 
the nick. 4 " The great basaltic escarpment in South Tynedale 
appears like a huge ridge in which a regular succession of 
gaps have been made. From some aspects the points of the 
ridge stand up with the regularity of the teeth of a saw, and 


the depressions or gaps between the tooth-like points give the 
name to the phenomenon. The gaps are called nicks, and the 
ridge is called "the nine-w^s." See NICKIN. 

" Along the line of the Roman Wall the outline is broken by gaps, 
locally called nicks, in the rock, which there appears an alternate 
succession of lofty cliffs, steep and rugged, with deep hollows between." 
James Tate, History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. vi., p. 198. 

NICK, to notch, to make a fissure, to cut a vertical niche or 
nickin from roof to floor in the face of the working bord in 
a colliery. When a miner is going to make a jud or top 
in his bord in the whole (or hyel) he corves . some coal out 
at the bottom of the seam and then nicks it up the side to 
make it ready for blasting or wedging. This is done to the 
depth of two or three feet. 

NICKER, NICHER, the neigh of a horse; immoderate or 
startling laughter. 

" Then there wis sic a queer eiry nicher, as o* some hundreds o 
creatures laughin." Richardson, Table Book, Leg. div., vol. ii., p. 137. 
" And then he set up a great nicker." 

Newcastle Fair, October, 1811. 

Bell's Rhymes, p. 89. 

NICKER, NICHER, to neigh, to laugh hoarsely. To " nicker 
and laugh," " nicker and sneer," are common phrases applied 
to the act of laughing rudely and contemptuously. 
" Ye'll see how they'll nicker and torn up their tails." 

T. Wilson, Stanzas, etc., 1824. 
" The keel bullies nick'rd, but on Mally toddled." 

R. Emery, d. 1874, Mally and the Prophet. 

Bards of the Tyne, p. 254. 

NICKIN, in coal mining, the vertical fissure worked by a 
hewer in the side, or neuk, of his working place after he has 
formed a kirvin along the bottom of the face. See NICK, 2. 

NICK-NYEMS. In former times many persons were known 
only by their nick-name (eke-name), and hence our local 
literature abounds in references such as Jimmy Leuk-up, 
Cuckoo Jack, Hairy Nanny, Billy-stole-the-dog, Cull Bill, 
Bobby the Bone-Picker, Humpy Dick, Black Scotch Peg, 
Tatie-Bet, Slush Tom Carr, Blind Willy, Daft Willy, 
Liverlip Bet, Preacher Willy, Squintin Meg, Oyster Mally, 
Pussey Willy, Lowsie Donald, Timber-toe John, Cuddy 
Willy, Honour Breet, Bed Watt, Kill-puddin-Joe, Tripy 
Atkin, Buggy Jack, Hairy Tom, Trimmel-leg Jack, Geordy- 
Black-Doup, Willy-with-the-war-hand, Tom-the-joy, Tom- 
my-Tally, Geordy-the-Whanger, etc. The practice is by no 
means extinct, nor is it confined to low people. 


NICK-STICK, a stick on which nicks, or notches, were cut in 
order to keep a reckoning. This old-fashioned account- 
keeping has not yet wholly died out. " She has lost her 
nick-stick " is still an expression used when a person has lost 
her reckoning of time. 

' My mother relates how, in her young days, an illiterate steward, on 
a farm near Belford, kept the bondagers' days' works by means of a 
nick-stick." Note by Mr. J. Avery, November, 1891. 

NICKY-NACK, a boy's guessing game. See NIEVY-NIEVY-NICK- 


NIDGE, to squeeze, to bite. 

NIEVY-NIEVY-NICK-NACK, a game of guessing the hand 
(or nief) in which an article is hid. This game is sometimes 
called niwmy-nimmy-nack-nack and nicky-nicky-nack-nack. A 
coin or other small article is placed in the kef of one hand and 
passed behind the back. It may be changed into the other 
hand or not, and when the two hands are brought to the front 
again the player repeats : 

" Neevy, neevy, nick, nack, which wull ye tak ? 
The reet or the wrang ; aa'll gie y' it if aa can." 

If the guess be correct the nick-nack becomes the property of 
the successful player. Another version is : 

11 Nicky, nicky, nack, which hand de ye guess ? 
The reet or the left or the bonny bord's nes." 

Yet another goes thus : 

" Neavy, neavy, knick, knack, which hand will ye tak ? 
Tak the reet, tak the wrang; aa'll beguile ye if aa can." 

NIFFNAFF, to take finical pains ; to trifle. " He niffnaffed on 
at the job." Hence a niffy-naffy body, a finikin person ; and 
niffnaffs, small, inconsequential things, 

NIGGARTS, side pieces of iron or firebrick used to contract 
the fire space in a fire grate. 

NIGH, NIGH-HAND (adv.), nearly, just about. " Aa wis 
nigh lossin me hat." " It's nigh sixty 'ear sin syne." Nigh- 
hand is often used in the same sense. " He wis nigh-hand 
lossin his job." It also means near, as in " He nivver com 
nigh-hand us," "It's a lonesome pleyace ; not a hoose nigh- 
hand" To " gan through by the nighest " is to do anything in 
a hurried and slovenly manner. 

11 Nighest-about," the nearest way. Brockett. 


NIGHT-HAWK, the nightjar, Caprimulgus Europceus. Called 
also the goatsucker. 

NIGHT-SHIFT, men who relieve the day-shift in carrying on 
continuous work where shifts or relays are employed. 

NIM, to take by stealth, to filch. New World of Words, 1706. 

NIM, lightly, gracefully. 

" The ladies they ride nim, nim, nim ; 
The gentlemen they ride trim, trim, trim ; 
The farmers they ride trot for trot ; 
An' the hinds they ride clot for clot ; 
But the cadgers they ride creels an' aa, creels an' aa." 

Old Nursery Rhyme. 

NIMMEL, a thief. (Obs.) See NIM, i. 

" This Swindger at Saint Barthol's Fair 
Where aw the Nimmers do repair." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 59. 

NINE-EYED EEL, the sea-lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, L. 
Also the river-lamprey, P. fluviatilis, L. 

NI-NI, an exclamation of surprise and pleasure on seeing a 
very fine thing. It is mostly a children's word. 

NIP, in mining, the thinning out of a seam of coal where the 
deposit has become attenuated ; also, the crush or squeeze 
of coal pillars produced by a creep or by any severe pressure. 

NIP, a pinch given to a person on his first appearance in a 
new suit of clothes. It is always followed by the exclamation 
" Nip for new !" Nip is also a small quantity of anything, as 
a nip of cheese a pinch of cheese, such as might be taken 
between finger and thumb ; a nip of spirit a small wine- 
glassful. Compare NEAP. 

NIP, a hurried departure. 

" He seun teuk his nip." R. Thompson, Nanny's Advice, 1886. 

NIP, to slip away suddenly, to go off hurriedly. "Just nip 
away afore he sees you." To take up suddenly or quickly. 
" He nipped up his crowdy in a jiffy." 

NIP-CHEESE, a stingy person. Probably from the act of 
nipping or abruptly removing the cheese from the table before 
the eaters have done, in order to economise the dish. 

"Nip-cheese, a miserly person. Various dialects sometimes called a 
nip-squeeze or a nip-farthing." Halliwell. 
"Nip-screed is identical." Brockett. 


NIPPER, a super-excellent thing. " Thame boots is a pair 
o' nippers" 

NIPPY, tight, scrimp in fit, hence greedy. " He's that nippy 
he canna gi' ye full weight." 

NITHERED-UP, shrunk together. " Aa's just nithered-up wi' 
the caad." 

NITTY, small, neat. " A bit nitty bairn." 

NOBBUT, NOBBIT (adv.), only. " A&'snobbut badly thi day.' 
" Thor wis nobbut him an' me there." " Aa'd nobbut left him 
a minute." 

"Nobbit guess what's been rumored aboot." Robert Elliot, A Pitman 
gan ti Parliament. 

" Thou'll drive me daft, aw often dread, 
For now aw's nobbit verra silly." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 42. 

NODDLE, to nod, to shake as from old age. 

" She'll noddle her head." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 3. 

NOG, a knob, or projection like the stump of a branch. 
Compare SNAG. 

14 A tree they cut, with fifteen nogs on each side, 
To clim up the wa' o' Newcastle toun." 

Ballad, Jock o 1 the Syde. 

NOGS, square bits of wood piled to support the roof of coal 
mines. Bainbridge, Treatise on Law of Mines, 1856. 

NONE-SO-PRETTY, the plant London pride, Saxifvaga 
umbrosa. It is spoken as nyen se pretty or Nancy pretty. 

NONSKYEP, a longing or hankering after change. Gloss, to 
Pitman's Pay. (Obs.) 

" This spreed o 1 lare sets high and law, 
A nonshyep efter owse that's new." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 87. 

NOOB, a knob. " We want a pair o' draars wi' china mobs" 

NOODLE, a yeomanry cavalry or infantry man. 
" You're going to be a noodle bold 

A valiant volunteer 

You blue tail bumbler, cock tail tumbler, 
Dare not go to war." 

J. B. Gilroy, The Noodle. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 108. 
" For he wad be a noodle, a sowjer-like noodle, 
For he wad be a noodle, the greet slavering cull." 

E. Corvan. Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 394. 


NOOK. On the Northumberland coast this word occurs in 
Blyth Nook, formerly written Blyth's Nook, and in Ebb's Nook, 
near Beadnel. These probably refer to the projecting beak- 
like headlands at these places. See NEUK and compare SNOOK. 

NOOL, to benumb, to subdue. 

" Noo give us sumthin' to nool this pain." Embleton MS. 

NOOLED (adj.), subdued, broken-spirited, dazed. It is applied 
to a person whose appearance indicates fear or over-anxiety. 
" The man's fair nooled like." " The poor bairn's fairly nooled; 
he hardly daur speak." It is also applied to an animal that 
has had its spirit broken by hard usage, or that has a cowed 
look through being conquered in fighting with its kind. " A 
poor nooled dog." " He's a nooled -leukiri beast." In Scotland, 
snooled is a similar word. See KNOOLED. 

NOOPS, KNUPES, the fruit of the cloudberry or mountain 
bramble, Rubus chamcemoms, L . See KNOT-BERRY. 

"The noops grow in plenty round the fell foxe's den." The same, 
Streams o' the West. 

"I was up in good time, and pulled a fine lot of noops, or cloud 
berries." The same, Crossing the Cheviots. 

"Noops, a. word equivalent to knobs or knops." Simpson, History of 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. vi., p. 303. 

" The little hills the humble knupes produce, 
Which cure the scurvy with their wholesome juice." 

Cheviot, a poetical fragment, by R. W., 1712-14. 
" Where red noops grow an' moss-roses blow, 
It's there the comely lassie strays." 

Jas. Armstrong, The Flower o' Kielder, 1879. 

NOPE, to beat. 

NOR, than. 

" Warre nor his sel." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 6. 
" Far nicer nor wine." J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang o 1 Solomon, 
ch. i., v. 2. 

" Aw heard ne mair 
Nor aw could frae St. Nicholas's steeple." 

Thos. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 

NORRATION, a long and confused noise, a wordy disturbance. 
" Whee's myekin all that narration, aa wonder ?" " Aa hard 
a greet norration, an' sure eneuf the place was aa' afire." It 
also means a long yarn or discourse. 

" A Cockney chep showed me the Thames' druvy feace, 

Whilk he said was the pride o' the nation, 
And thought at their shippin' aw'd maek a haze gaze, 
But aw whop't ma foot on his novation." 

T. Thompson, Canny Newcastle. 

Allan's Tyneside Songs, p. 48. 


NORRID, NORRIT, northward ; sea term. See NOTHARD. 
NORTHERN GAD, a spear. (Obs.) See GAD. 

NORTHUMBERLAND PIPES, the small pipes, peculiar to 
the county of Northumberland. They are played with a pair 
of bellows, which are " oxtered " in the right arm. There 
were formerly four, but are now three drones and a chanter. 
In the three-drone pipe the largest and smallest drones are 
tuned in octave, whilst the intermediate drone is tuned in 
fifth above the lowest drone ; they thus sound the notes 
G, D,'G, or their equivalents. The chanter is closed at the 
end; and, in playing, each hole is covered except the one 
which sounds; the lifted finger has consequently to be put 
down and another fing'er raised, in order to produce the 
succeeding note ; hence the staccato effect which gives a 
peculiar, character to the pipe tunes. In A Joco-Serious 
Discourse, 1686, pp. 23-24, the following technical terms 
relating to the pipes are mentioned : " The chanter, the baggs, 
the bellows, the flaps, the reeds, the drones, the wind-fald, 
the bellows'-stockead, the joints, the bunch of ribbons on 
the drones." The writer adds : " The piper at a wedding has 
always a piece of the bride's garter ty'd about his pipes." 

provincialism, Lord Northumberland's Arms, has for the last 
two hundred years been synonymous with a black eye. We 
may doubt whether the notion arose in the black and red 
which filled the spectacles-like badge of Percy or in the 
fusils. Old Heraldry of the Percies. Longstaffe, in Archaologia 
/Eliana, vol. iv., new series, p. 164. 

NOSE, a promontory. Culler Nose, near Craster. In Mr. 
Gregory's list, the form ness, in this connection, appears only 
once (Sharpness Point) in Northumberland. Compare NOOK 
and SNOOK. 

NOSEPIKE, the part of a work-horse's bridle that passes 
over the nose above the bits. A riding or carriage horse has* 
no nosepike. 

NOSE-TIRRELS, the nostrils, the perforations of the nose. 

"Blowen into the nose thrilles that it may make a man sneeze." 
Earth MS., 286, 6. 

" Nose-tirrel, in very common use with a deep accent on the tirrel." 
Note by Mr. M. H. Dand. 

NOSE-WISE, pryingly acute. Brocket*. 


NOTABLE (pron. not-able), honest. " She's a notable woman." 

NOTOMY, ATOMY, an emaciated or excessively thin person, 
a skeleton. 

" Poor thing ! She's gyen tiv a fair notomy " that is, a complete 
anatomy or skeleton. Dr. Embhton MS. 

NOUT, NOWT, oxen, neat cattle. Nout is both singular and 
plural ; but when a single animal is spoken of it is not 
uncommon to say " a nout beast." 

" The street " (in Newcastle) " that is called the M>/-market." Lease, 
Richard Welford's History of Newcastle and Gateshead XIV. and XV. 
Centuries, p. 360. 

"When the theves of Tyndaill perceved the Scotts were at rest, they 
stale the nowt from the Scotts." Heron of Chipchase to Sir John Forster, 

" They separate for the fair (Ovingham), there to ettle how muckle per 
heed they can git for their nowte an swine." Richardson, Table Book, 
Leg. Div., vol. iii., p. 199. 

NOUT-FOOT, a neat's foot. Nout-foot oil. Nout-foot jilly. 
A boiled nout-foot is a common accompaniment to the sheep's 
trotters and the minch-meat of the tripe-wife's stall. 

NOUT-GELD, horn tax. Nout, a beast, and geld a tribute or 
tax. In old rentals " cornage " is translated " newtgeldt." 
Mackenzie, Hist, of Northumberland, vol. i., p. 61, note. See 

NOUT-HARD, a neat herd. 

" Paid to Mr. Marmaduke Thirlekill for the half yeares rent for the 
nowtardshipp of this towne, duee att Candlemas laste paste, 26s. 8d." 
Newcastle Municipal Accounts, March, 1592. 

Will of Marmaduke Thirkild, Esq., 6 Feb., 1595, " his office of keeper 
of beasts, called the Nowtershipp of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne." 
Archcsologia JEliana, vol. i., N.S., p. 32. 

NOWT, NOWSE, nothing. Nowt and nowse are indifferently 
used ; so are the similar forms of owt and owse, anything. 

"Aw so nowse he was leukin at." Thomas Bewick, The Howdy, 
ed. 1850, p. 10. 

" A man may spare, and be always bare, 

If his wife be nowt, if his wile be nowt. 

But a man may spend, and a man may lend, 

If his wife be owt, if his wife be owt." 

Old Northumberland Saw. 
" Ise help thou to tie up thy sugar, 

At neets when frae wark aw get lowse ; 
An' wor Dick, that leeves ower by High Whickham, 
He'll myek us broom buzzoms for nowse." 

W. Mid ford, Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 



NOWT-A-DO, a useless, good-for-nothing fellow. Nout-at-o, 
nothing at all. Compare DONNAT. 

NOZZLE, to seize by the nose. 

" He nozzVt a rabbit or twa." James Armstrong, Wee Piper, 1879. 

NUCH, to tremble Northumberland. Halliwell. 

NUENTY, NUNTY, mean, shabby, scrimp, scanty. Brockett. 

NUMBED, unhandy, clumsy. Applied to persons, 
numbed woman she is ! " 

"What a 

NUMBY, NUMMY, a numskull. "Co'by! ye numby." 

NUMERALS. The cardinal numbers are yen, twee (tway, 
twa), three, fower, five, six, sivin, aight (eit), nine, ten, 
iliven, twoalve and twal, thorteen, fowerteen, etc., twenty, 
yenan'twenty, etc. The ordinal numbers are forst, second, 
thord, fowert, fift, sixt. sivint (or seevent), eith, nint (neint), 
tent, ilivent, twelt, thorteent, fowerteent, twonteit. 

NUNDER, under; shortened form of anundev. "It's nunder 
the tyeble." 

NUT-BUSS, a hazel bush. Nut-tree, the hazel tree. 

NUT-CRACK-NEET, the eve of All-Hallows, October 3 ist. 
The anxious lover on this night places two nuts side by side 
in the fire. One is his or her own representative, and the 
other that of the loved one. If the two burn quietly together, 
the augury of a happy wedded life is inferred. If, on the 
contrary, the nuts crack and fly apart, it omens ill for the 
future of the couple. Snack-apple and duck-apple also 
accompany the diversions of this evening. 

NUTTY, the Christian name Ursula. 

OAD-FARRANT [W.-T.] , old-fashioned. See AAD-FARRAND. 

" Betty Kell was the wisest body there. Sheed seen a vast o' the 
warld, and is an oad farmnt body." Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, 
ed. 1850, p. 14. 

OARS, a cant term for the arms. " Drop swingin yor oars, 

OAST, fresh curdle for cheese, and so called when it begins to 
scum over the whey. 


OAST, to frequent an inn ; as, " He oasts at the Half Moon." 
Brockett. See OAST-HOOSE. 

OASTE, the name given to the mariner or stranger who came 
to buy coals at Newcastle. The vendors of coal, etc., were 
the Incorporated Company of Hoastmen, and their clients or 
customers were oastes. The " seal of the fraternity of the 
Ostmen of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne " represents an 
oaste advancing, hat in hand, to meet the coal merchant. The 
Hoastman extends his right hand to grasp that of the oaste, 
with the salutation " Welcome, my oste" (Obs.) 

" It appears from the earliest entries in the books of this society (the 
Merchant Adventurers), that the stranger arriving at the port of Tyne to 
buy coals is called 'the oaste' " Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., 
1789, p. 270, note. 

OAST-HOOSE, the room for goods attached to the inn at the 
market town where a farmer puts up. The oast-hoose is at 
once a meeting place, a receptacle for goods and parcels of 
every description, and a convenient waiting-room for any 
passengers who may have to accompany the farmer's return 
carts or conveyance from market. 

OAT-SEED-BIRD, Ray's wagtail. Called yalla-wheag-tail. 

OCKERIL, a little cabin or resting place where the men at a 
rolling mill had each his own seat for resting and eating 
chance meals between heats. 

OCKET, a chance meal taken in the field or between spells of 
work. This word is commonly called an ocket but spoken as 
if it were a knocket. 

ODD-LADDY, a boy kept on farms to do odd (that is, 
occasional) jobs, such as carting turnips, manure, etc. The 
horse he drives is called the o^-horse ; his cart the o^-cart, 
etc. This boy is frequently known as the turnip Dicky. 

ODDLIKE, ODDISHLIKE, odd-looking. " Th' aad meer 
hes an oddlike leuk gan i' the field her lyen. 

ODDMENTS, odds and ends ; applied also to the sundry edible 
portions of a goose or a pig. 

11 The odments, tee, beat boil or fry, 
Provided geussy be a good'en." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 28. 



O'ERHIE, to overtake. 

" By auld grey stell and mossy stane, 
There I o'erhi 

o'erhied the Scottish lassie.' 

James Armstrong, The Scottish Lassie, 1879. 

OFF, used in the sense of from. " Aa'l borrow'd 0/ye." Often 
duplicated with of as off-of. " The hat blew off-of his heed." 
Compare ON ov. 

OFF-GATE, an exit. 

" Several truncks and coale staithes, with on-gates and of-gates to and 
from the sand which adjoins on to the said waggon- way." Article of 
Agreement, 2oth March, 1704, between Richard Young, of Newcastle, and John 
Atkinson, of Cullercoats, etc. 

OFF-HAND, instantly. 

" Off-hand I ran into the town." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, 
p. 58. 

term applied to all colliery workmen, except hewers and 
putters. W. E. Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

OFFINS, often. Compare OFTER. 

" Braying cuddies offins tells the comin spate an shooer." J. P. Robson, 
Maa Gud Wishes tiv aa Men, 1870. 

OFF-PUT, delay, one that puts off time. " Ye'r jeest an off-put 
o' time, laddy." Also a snatch or hasty meal, as a lunch, an 
" ocket," or an intermediate "put off" meal. Offputtin, 
putting off, procrastinating, dallying. " He's varry off putt in." 

OFFPUTTER, the loader of coals into a vessel at a staith or 
spout. The agent of a colliery at the shipping quay, called 
the staithman or off-putter. 

" In order that the keels used on the River Tyne may be fairly and 
justly loaded, no person shall be capable of acting as off-putter or off-putters 
at any coal staith upon the said river until he shall have taken and 
subscribed an oath to the effect following : ' I, A. B., do swear, That I 
will faithfully and according to the best of my skill, knowledge and 
judgment, execute and perform the duty of off-putter at the staith of 
, &c.' " River Tyne Skippers' andKeelman's Act, 1788. 

OFF-SIDE, the far or right hand side of a horse or other 

OFFTAKE, a place for taking rods off in deep borings. 

" Sunk to 15 fathoms for offtake" Boring at Callerton. Borings and 
Sinkings, C.E., p. 3. 

OFF-TAKE, a deduction from a workman's wage. 


OFFTAKE-DRIFT, a drift driven from low ground into a 
shaft, called a delivery or offtake drift. Green-well, Gloss, of 
Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

OFFTAKE-JOINT, the joint by which the pump bucket is 
fastened to the spears or rods. Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms, 

OFTER, oftener. " He gans ofter ti the public nor's good." 
This is the common form in use. 

OGLE, the eye. A cant word. 

" Chorus, this time to mark our disapprobation of the pugnacious 
fishermen for closin' the ogle o* the unfortunate monkey." E. Corvan, 
Fishermen Hung the Monkey. 

OH [W.-T.] , on. 

" Sit doon, Andra, oh the trou steahyn." Thomas Bewick, The Howdy, 
etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

OILING-THE-WIG, a cant term for drinking to intoxication. 

" We gi'e wor wigs an oilin'." 

T. Wilson, Carter's Well. 

" His wig was oil'd completely." 

T. Wilson, The Oiling of Dicky's Wig. 

OILY, an oilskin coat, made of material waterproofed with 
linseed oil. Oilskins, the entire suit ; the coat and trousers 

OLD-LAND-HAY, hay from a permanent pasture which has 
been " hained " for the crop. 

OLD-MAN, ancient workings, which are met with in collieries 
and metalliferous mines. See AAD-MAN. 

OLLER, the alder tree. Plentiful in the natural forests of 
Northumberland where it was used for the small buildings 
of the husbandmen in olden times. It is the Alnus glutinosa of 
Linnaeus, and is found growing in some North of England 
parts as high as 1,150 feet above the sea. See ALLER, 

" The wood is preferred for making the soles of the clogs in common 
use by the hinds of Northumberland ; and fl//^-burs or knots the turner 
makes into snuff boxes." Johnston, Botany of the Eastern Borders, p. 179. 


ON (prep.), of. "What are ye fear'd on ?" " Thor wis mair 
nor fower on us." " Some on us is gannin." In constant use. 

" They wade thinke ne shame on me." Bullein, Dialogue (Redesdale 
beggar speaks), 1564. E. E. Text Society, p. 6, 1. 31. 

11 The gentleman whilk I spoke on." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 45. 

" We called in at the sign o' The Cannon, 
For byeth on us turned very dry." 

Song, The Politicians, 1816. 

ON, busy, engaged in. " He's on plooin." " He's on threshin." 
" The maistor's on win a big job yenoo." 

ON COME, anything that comes on, as a fall of rain, snow, etc. 
" He gat away afore the oncome catcht him." 

ONCUD, in the dumps, in a passion. Compare UNKED. 

ON-END, in succession, successively. 

ON-GATE, the road or way on to a place. See OFFGATE. 

ON-GOINGS, conduct, doings, merriment goings on. 


ON-OV, ON-IV, on. On ov, as an intensitive, resembles the 
usage off-of for from off or of simply. Other prepositions 
are in like manner duplicated, as " In iv a hurry." " He went 
aboot win iv a queer hat " win iv for with. " It wis gi'en him 
bin iv a cadger chep " bin iv for by. " He got it fren iv an 
aad acquaintance " fren iv for from, etc. But this lengthened 
form is comparatively rarer than the shortened particles iv, 
wiv, biv, frev, tiv, etc., for the usage of which see under their 
several heads. Compare ONTA. 

" Andra weypt his nwoase on ov his kwoat kuff." Thomas Bewick, 
The Howdy, ed 1850, p. 10. 

ON-PUT, the overlay of beds, etc., above an out-crop. Thus, 
" The on-put of the hill " and " The on-put of the beds." An 
on-put seam of coal. 

ONSET, a small portion of yeast retained to furnish a fresh 

ONSET, to set on, to place a colliery tub in position for 


ON SETTER, the man in control at the bottom or at an inter- 
mediate working seam in a pit shaft. With his assistants 
he clears the cage of empty tubs on its descent, and pushes 
in full tubs in their place. He is responsible for signals to 
bank to move the cage, and for regulating the ascent of men. 
When corves were in use he was called the "hinger on." 

ONSTEED, a steading or group of farm buildings. The 
onsteed is the group of on-buildings used as stables, hemmels, 
byres, granary, barn, milkus, etc. The dwelling itself is 
called in South Northumberland " the hoose " ; in North 
Northumberland "the ha'." 

" The farms in Northumberland are of considerable extent, and the 
farm-houses (or onsteads, as they are called) are scattered over the face of 
the country at the distance frequently of two or three miles from each 
other, and from the villages and towns. In these onsteads the farmer 
resides like the feudal barons of old, surrounded by their vassals and 
dependents." Mackenzie, History of Northumberland, 1825, vol. ii., p. 52. 

ON'T, literally of it, but constantly used in Northumberland for 
the personal pronoun its. In speaking of a horse, instead of 
its head, its foot, its shoulder, or its tail, the expression is : 
" The heed on't, the foot on't, the shoother on't, the tail on't." 

ONTA, ONTI V, on to, upon. '" Get onta the cuddy." " Bang 
onta the horse an' ride for the doctor." " He gat through the 
roof ontiv a ledge." " He stept ontiv a coggly plank." 

ONY-GATE, in any way, in any place. " Aa canna find it 

OOBIT [N.] , the hairy caterpillar ; a hairy worm. Also 
known as hairy Hubert and ooly-bear. Oobit is also a term of 
reproach to an unkempt, ragged person. " Get away, ye 
clarty oobit ! " 

OOL, OO [N.] , wool ; OOLEN [N.] , woollen. The town of 
Wooler is known in speech as Ooler. 

OOLY-BEAR [N.] , the large hairy caterpillar. See OOBIT. 

OOSE, juice. 

" Two whole fat beeves are barbecu'd, 

So go and cram your gorges there, 

Your mouths will water at the sight ; 

The oose your unshaved chops run down." 

The Newcastle Swineherds' Proclamation, 1821. 


OOSLY, OUSLEY, OOZELY, miserable, broken-down, poor- 
looking. " He's a little ousley leukin' chep." Applied to an 
animal that is ill-thriven and unkempt. " It's an oosly beast " 
(spoken as a, noosely beast). 

OOT, to blurt out, to draw or bring out. " Afore aa hed time 
ti speak he oots wi'd." " He oots wiv his knife, an' cut the 

OOTBYE, OOTBYESIDE towards the bottom of the shaft of 
a pit. "Gan' ootbye" means going in the direction of the 
exit, as distinguished from " gan' inbye" Ootbye also means 
outside, in the open air. "Me fether's just ootbye" out- 
side the house, in the fields. " The lads is aal away ootbye " 
out of the village or farmstead, but not far off. In bye and oot 
bye also distinguish between near and far. If people speak of 
anything taking place near at hand, they say that it occurred 
in bye, and in speaking, say, of rough weather on the distant 
hills, they would say " It's varra caad oot bye." It is also 
applied to an out-of-the-way man, as " He's an oot bye kind o' 
chep." An oot-bye is also an outer room. 

" The cottage is a good specimen of an inferior farm house, the room 
at the entrance of which was, and still continues in many places to be, 
a byer in winter and a bedroom in summer, and is called the out-bye : the 
in-bye, or inner room, to the left of the out-door, was the dwelling of the 
family." Hodgson's History of Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 189, note. 

OOT-GANNIN, outgoing. 

OOTLANDISH, foreign. 

" By the term outlandish is signified an inhabitant of that portion of 
the Border which was formerly known by the name of the ' Debateable 
Land,' a district which, though claimed by both England and Scotland, 
could not be said to belong to either country. The people on each side 
of the Border applied the term ' Outlandish ' to the Debateable residents." 
Dr. Bruce, Note to The Outlandish Knight. Northumbrian Minstrelsy, 
p. 50. 

" The ' Appetite,' Geordy ! Smash, dis thou hear that ? 
The verry ootlandish cull nyem we forgat." 

R. Gilchrist, The Skipper's Erudition, 1824. 

OOTLANDISHMAN, a foreigner, a stranger. 

" They'll see mountey banks, rope-dancers, jugglers, and quacks, 

Outlandishmen, tee, with their bear and their fiddle, 
And showmen wi' nice penny-shows o' their backs, 
Gawn the fuils and the flats i' Newcassel to diddle." 

T. Wilson, Stanzas on a Line of Intended Road, 1825. 

OOT-O-GYET, out of the road, away from mortal ken. " He's 
tyen his nip away oot-o-gyet someway." 


OOT-ON, out of. " Thor wis oney three gude yows oot on the 
lot." Oot on is generally spoken rapidly as if it were one 
word. " He mun be gyen oot-on his heed." " He had nee 
chance, he wis clean oot on't." 

OOT-OWER, across, beyond, or, on the other side of a hill. 


OOTRUG, the back undercurrent of the sea caused by the 
wash of the waves against the shore. A floating object is 
often kept off the shore by the ootrug. 

OOTSHOT, the projection of the stories of old timber-framed 
houses ; projecting. " An ootshot-wunda " a bow-window. 

OOTWALINS, OOTWAILINS, the refuse or small of any- 
thing waled out and separated from the bulk. In a heap of 
potatoes the small ones picked out are the ootwailins. 

OPEN-GRATED, open-gritted or open-grained. Applied to 

" Open-grated post." Borings and Sinkings, L.R., 282. 

OPPEN-CAST, OPENCAST, veins or beds of stone or coal 
worked at the top or bottom of an open cutting. 

OPPEN-OOT, to abuse, to reprimand. Oppened-oot, showing 
the natural disposition. 

OR, before, ere. " It'll be lang or aa gan agyen." " Or ivver 
aa wis awar." " He'd gyen away or aa gat there." " Aa 
canna be there or Monday neet." " Wait or aa come." 

OR, than. " Aa wad raather thoo went or me." 

OTHER-SOME, others. In constant use for some others. 

" It happened at good Christmastide, 

When we play'd at the cards, 

That some of us were gentlemen, 

And other some were lairds." 

" Some drink, and other some find fault." 

E. Chicken, The Collier's Wedding, 1835. 

OTHER TOW TO TEAZE, something else to do. Tow to 
teaze, employment of any kind. 

" I thought we 'ad other tow to feeze." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse 
1686, p. 31. 

" Ye should na hae sic tow to tease t sae far fra hame." T. Wilson, 
On Seeing a Mouse, 1842. 


OUBIT, the hairy worm. See OOBIT. 

OUSEN, oxen. Ousen were used in ploughing in Northumber- 
land in living memory. 

" The author and his brother, in partnership, at this time (1801) employ 
about 150 oxen in the draught." George Culley, Live Stock, p. 85. 
" I have yokes of onsen, eighty and three." 

Ballad, Jock o' the Side, 1784. 

OUT, spoken invariably as oot in the following words. Compare 
OOT, etc. 

OUTBURST, the edge of a stratum at its crop or crow. 
" Coming to the outburst." See OUTCROP. 

" There is an Outburst or an appearance above ground of some vein of 
coal." J.C., The Comphat Collier, 1708, p. 10. 

" The main coal as traced from its outburst to the dyke." Borings and 
Sinkings, C.E.. p. 101. 

OUTBURST, the sudden discharge of a large volume of 
inflammable gas in a coal mine. 


OUTCROP, the edge of a stratum at the surface ; that is, at 
the crop. This localism is now a recognised scientific term. 
Compare OUTBURST-, i, and BASSET. 

OUTED, came out. "It suin outed" became commonly 

OUTERLY, from without. When the wind blows from the 
sea it is termed outerly. 

OUTLAY, the height to which the top of a winning pit is 
raised above the surface of the ground. Commonly called 
the outset. It is elevated so as to make a tip for the material 
raised from the pit, generally from twelve to twenty feet. 

" Outlay from the swarth five feet, metal from the swarth four feet." 
Borings and Sinkings, C.E., p. 79. 

OUT-OF-THE-HOUSE, the down stroke of a pit pumping 

OUT-PARTNERS, OUT-PARTERS, a sort of thieves about 
Riddesdale in Scotland [sic] that ride about to fetch in such 
Cattel, or other things as they can light on ; and make 
Matches for robbing of Men and Houses. The Modeme World 
of Words, 1696, ed. 1706. (Obs.) See INTAKERS. 

"Thieves and felons, called intakers and out-partners, dwelling within 
the franchise of Redesdale, where the king's writs runneth not." 
Complaint, A.D. 1421. Hodgson, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 60. 


OUTPUT, the quantity or weight of anything produced in a 
given time. 

OUTRAKE, a going forth, an expedition. (Obs.) Compare 

" The enclosure surrounding a piggery." Brockett. 

11 1 have now in Lough-leven been 

The most part of these years three, 
Yet have I never had noe outrake, 
Ne no good games that I cold see." 

Percy Reliques, Northumberland Betrayed by Douglas. 

OUTSET, the height of the elevation at the mouth of pit 
measured from the surface of the ground. Called also the 
outlay. See OUTLAY. 

" From the outset to the soil depth one fathom." Borings and Sinkings, 
F.K., p. 252. 

" Outset, one fathom and two feet to brown and blue clay." The same, 
p. 147. 

OUTSET, to outset water is to put in a column of tubbing, 
behind which a feeder of water will rise to its level, and 
require no further dealing with. Greenwell's Gloss, of Coal 
Trade Terms, 1888. 

" Outset crib two feet." Sinking at Cowpen. Borings and Sinkings, 
C.E., p. 140. 

OUTSHIFTS, in mining, shifts worked by sinkers outside the 
shafts, for which a less wage is paid. Nicholson. 

OUTSTROKE-RENT, a payment for the privilege of breaking 
the barrier in a colliery, and working and conveying under- 
ground the coal from an adjoining royalty. Gloss, of Coal 
Trade Terms, 1849, under rent. Instroke is the passing out of a 
working royalty into another royalty. Outstroke is the act as 
regarded by the lessor of the entered royalty. 

OVER. Always spoken as ower. The words following which 
begin with over must be so understood. See OWER and 
following words. 

OVERCAST, an arrangement carried overhead, specially 
applied to an air-crossing in a pit. Called also overgate. See 


OVERGATE, an air-way overhead in a pit. where one air- 
course is carried by a bridge over another. When an 
air-crossing is made in the floor it is called an undergate or 


OVERINGS, the top framing of a waggon. 

OVERLAP, OVERLAP-FAULT, a fault where one portion 
of a seam of coal has been pushed on top of the other. 

OVERMAN, a colliery official, under the direction of the 
manager or under-manager of a pit, having the daily super- 
vision and responsible charge underground of the mine or 
portion of the mine. He is sometimes appointed to act as 
under-manager. In his absence the responsible charge falls 
upon the back-overman, whose duties are similar to those above 
specified, and who in addition ascertains either that all the 
men and boys under his charge are safely out of the mine, 
or in case any of them must remain that they are left in 
charge of a responsible official. 

OVERMAN-OF-THE-TREE, an official formerly known in 
collieries. (Obs.) 

" One of these two men that guides the Sledges, on the Banck or 
surface of the earth is called the Overman of the tree, or chief banck's 
man." J. C., The Compleat Collier, 1708. p, 37. 

OVERSEA-LINNET, the snowflake, Plectrophanes nivalis, L. 
Variously called snow bunting and cock 0' the north. 

OVERSET, ill from fatigue or hard work. Particularly applied 
to a horse which sickens and refuses its food from over- 
fatigue. Hodgson MS. 

OVERWIND, to draw the cage in a pit up to or over the 
pulleys, W. E. Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

OVERWORKINGS, the excess beyond the quantity of coal 
fixed as the standard to be annually worked from a royalty. 

OWAYSEES [W.-T.], in all ways. " Aa's tried eet iv 


OWE, OU, AA. "Whee's owe the hat?" " Whee's aa the 
hankersher?" " Whee's owe " meaning whose is, to whom 
belongs, or who owns. 

OWER, too. " He hes far ower much ti say for hissel." 
" Them shoes is far ower little for us." " He gat there ower 
suin." " Ower clivvor." " Ower sharp." " Ower big." 
" Ower wise." " Ower mickle " (much). Ower, owre, over 
across. " Ower by" (with emphasis on the by) means just 
across, as across the road or street and not far away. " Aa's 
just gan owev by, anil be back thereckly." To u come ower " 


a person is to cozen or get the better of. " Ye'll not come ower 
mi i' that way." "Come owev" used intransitively, means 
to come to mind, to come into one's recollection. 4< Aa laft 
mysel ti deed ivvery time it cam ower us agyen : sic a joke it 

" Folks say he's not ower wise." 

E. Corvan, Fire on the Kee. 

Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 423. 

" As aw cum owre the Bwoat hill." 

T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. u. 

OWERBEER, to overbear. " The maistor's a varry owerbeerin 
sort o' man." 

OWERCHAIRGE, overcharge, to overcharge. " The gun '11 
burst if ye owerchairge hor." 

OWERCOME [N.] , overplus, surplus. 

OWERCOUP, to transfer grain from one bag to another. The 
act of inverting a bag so as to pour down its contents is called 


OWERDYEN, overdone, overcooked. 

OWER EAT, to eat to surfeit, to gorge with food. Rooks are 
said to be fattest when food is scarcest, as they " owereat 
thorsels " when they have too much food. The same is said 
of lean children who have a good stroke (appetite). 

OWERFAA-WHEEL, an overshot water-wheel. 

OWERGAFFEN, overcast, clouded. Of an overcast sky after 
sunshine it is said " W'or ganna hae rain ; the day's a* 


OWER-GATHIN, fainting. An old farm steward made use 
of this expression on being bled in the arm by a doctor : 
" Stop, aa'm ower-gatkin." 

OWERHEED, overhead ; above one's head or over the head. 
" The lift owerkeed." " Owerheed i' watter." 

OWERLOUP, an overleap; applied to the intrusion and 
trespass of cattle and to a sudden lapse in conduct. 

OWERTUNE, the musical refrain of a melody. 


OWER-WORD, a phrase repeated over and over, the chorus 
of a song. 

11 And aye the ower-word o' the thrang 
Was ' Rise for Branksome readilie !' " 

Jamie Telfer. 
" And first he sang a low, low note, 

And syne he sang a clear ; 
And aye the o'erword o' the sang 

Was ' Your love can no win here.' " 

The Gay Goss-Hawk. 

OWMERS, OMUS, dues, alms. See AAMUS. 

" Gives his wife his house, with cellar and parlour and packing loft, 
with back syd, garden, and orchard, with the rest of my houses in 
Newcastle, my wheitt rent in Gateshead, the owmers within the parish of 
Gateshead, and both my salt-pans in Willington fields. To Henry, his 
son, the owmers after his mother's death." Will of Oswald Chapman, 
1566. Richard Welford, History of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 407. 

" When a newly-born infant is taken out on its first round of visits, 
it is customary at whatever house it calls to receive its omus, namely, 
bread, salt, and an egg." Wm. Lee, Northumbrian Customs. Newcastle 
Weekly Chronicle, Nov. igth, 1887, p. ii., col. 4. 

OW'RANCE, command or direction. 
OWRELAP, a relapse. 

OWSE, OWT, anything. " If ye de owse mair ye'll spoil'd." 
" They nivver i' thor lives gal owse better." " Owse much " 
anything considerable. The negation of owt is nowt and 
similarly owse and nowse are opposites for aught and naught. 

" Aw hardly ken'd what for to say ; 
But says aw, Div ye fin owse the warse ?" 

W. Midford, The Masquerade, 1818. 

" Wi' hearts, poor things, it now was clear, 
Ower full by far owse much to say." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. in., 1829, v. 62. 

OX-EYE, or OXEY-EYE, the blue titmouse, Parus caruleus. 
Variously called bluecap, bluebottle, and torn-tit. Ox-eye is also 
applied to the great titmouse, Parus major. Called also oxey-eye. 

OXTER [T.], OAXTER [N.], the arm-pit. O*^-holes, the 
arm-holes in a waistcoat. 

" When this master of minstrelsy oxtered his blether " that is, put the 
bladder of his pipes under his arm. Northumberland Minstrels' Budget. 

OYSTER-SCAUP, SCAPPY, an oyster bed. The Scappy 
at Holy Island was at one time an oyster bed. Of late 
years a scaup has been formed in Budle Slake, near Belford. 
Compare MUSSEL-SCALP and see SCALP. 



PAAP, PAWP, a pap. Also a projection from the roof of a 
house. Brockett. 

PAA-PRENT, used derisively for a smudge or hand print ; 
literally paw print. 

PAAT, to paw or claw with the hand. " Divent paat on wi'd, 
or ye'll spoiFd." 

" Paut, to walk heavily, or in an awkward, clumsy manner, to paw, to 
kick. Pant a stroke on the ground \vith the foot." Brockett. 

PAAT-POKE, a very slow person. 

PACK, the shepherd's portion in a hirsel, or flock of sheep, 
grazed on the farm as his pay for looking after the whole 
herd. The pack is known from the hirsel by the marking 
letters being placed crosswise, whilst in the hirsel they are 
put on straight. 

PACK, in sporting, a flock or flight of wild ducks. 
PACK, the stomach ; a cant word. " Fill y or pack." 

PACK, PACKT, intimate, friendly, warm in friendship or love. 
Very docile animals are said to be pact. "Aa wis diggin' the 
garden, and the robin kept at me foot aall the time ; aa nivver 
seed sic a packt bord." Heard at Winlaton, 1891. 
" Thepackest thing and the best will'd, 
The gentlest Bird that ever Bill'd." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 30. 

PACK-SACK, the sack slung across a horse. Poultry were 
thus carried to market. 

PACK-WALLS, pillars in a colliery built up of stone obtained 
in the mine, the large stones being placed on the outside, and 
the middle filled up with the smaller ones. W. E. Nicholson, 
Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms , 1888. 

PACKY [N.] , dainty, over nice. See PAWKY. 

PAD, a saddle made of coarse material stuffed with straw. 
This originally was the pad across which was slung the pack 
or burthen of a horse. See SODS* 

" Spraggon sets the pads upon my back sae early in the morn, 
And rides me down to Felton without either hay or corn." 

Robin Spraggon' s Auld Grey Mare. 

PADDA-PIPE, or PADDOCK-PIPE, the Equisetum limosum, 
common in pools where frogs abound. Applied also to the 
cornfield horsetail, Equisetum arvense, and to the equisetacea 
generally. See PADDOCK. 


PADDA-RED, green slime, formed on stagnant pools in warm 

PADDLE, PATTLE, SPATTLE, a small spade, such as 
mole catchers use ; also used for scraping earth from ploughs, 
when it is called a plough pattle ; also used by farmers as a 
walking stick for cutting up docks, thistles, etc. Hodgson MS. 
A baker's "peel" is called a paddle, so is the long, straight 
garden hoe. Paddles were used until a few years ago by most 
householders for cleaning the flagstones in front of their 
doors by scraping off any mud or snow. They had a long 
handle which terminated in a flat hemispherical plate of 
iron the head or paddle of the implement. (Obsolescent.) 
" 1631. Paid for zpatle for ye church, is." Gateshead Church Books. 

PADDOCK, PADDICK, PADEEK [N.] , a frog. Paddock- 
peul, a stagnant pool. . Paddock beds, the spawn of frogs. 
Called also pud-redd, toad-riddins, and toad-redd. Paddock-styuls, 
toad stools, or fungi generally. Paddock-loup, the game of 
leap frog ; also a boy's game in which two boys take hold 
each of the other's toes and roll over each other head 
foremost in a kind of somersault. A "tyed" is always 
distinguished from a paddock. 

PAD-ROAD, a beaten path. 

PAG, to pack tightly, to stop up ; to choke, as a pipe is choked. 
" The wettor pipe's getten pagged up wi summat." 

PAIDLE, the fish called lump-sucker, Cyclopterus lumpus, L. 
The male and female of this fish are called cock and hen paid les. 

PAIR, a deceptive fellow. 

PAIR, to thrash. Compare PAY. 

"We'll paik their hides" ("Bang their coats" in the margin). 
G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 43. 

PAINCHES, the paunch, tripe. "That'll warm yor painches 
for ye." Tripe-wife or painch-vtife, a tripe seller. To "keep 
the painches waggin " to continue at severe and incessant 
toil ; from the wagging or shaking of the bowels during 
excessive exertion. 

" Oh dear, oh dear, what wonderful changes 
Near where the chapel stood they are now selling painches; 
Where the nuns were learning the road to heaven, 
The tripewives now are making a living." 

J.N., Newcastle Market. 
" When yence yor feet are i' the geers, 
Ma soul, they keep yor painches waggin 1 ." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, i., 47. 


PAINS, rheumatism. This term ("the pains") is universal 
among the labouring classes for this complaint, with which, 
especially in the high districts, they are much afflicted ; and 
have therefore very appropriately called it " the pains," as if it 
was the concentration of all the aches and agonies that could 
rack and torment the human joints and sinews. Hodgson MS. 
" He's just fair crippled wi' the pains." 

PAINTER (pron. penter), an eminence, the end or shoulder of a 
ridge. The word occurs in Painter Heugh in Newcastle, and 
in Painter Hill, the high ground immediately below the Parish 
Church at Alnwick. 

PAIR, a set of anything, not limited to a brace. " A pair of 
stairs." " A pair (for chest) of drawers." " A pair of cards." 
" A pair of gears." " A pair o' pipes." All these terms are 
in common general use. 

PAIROCK, PAIRK, an enclosure, as the fields near a farm 
house. The word park occurs twenty-six times in place- 
names in Northumberland. Broompark, etc. Pairock, parrick, 
to shut up ewes with their lambs in a paddock to induce 
them to suckle. Hence perricked or panicked. Pairocks, 
parricks, the small stalls or partitions in a lambing or keb- 
house ; a place of protection or shelter. 

PAIR-O'-GEARS, two upright props or spars with a cross 
piece at the top, for the support of a pit roof, or for forming 
wood bridges, staiths, etc. Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms, 
1852. These are sometimes called a "gallows timber." The 
cross piece at the top is the " crown tree." 

PAIRT (adv.), some, a considerable number, a fair quantity. 
" Thor wis pairt folk at the meetin' last Sunday." " He'll 
fash afore he's dyun wi'd." 

PAISE, PAIZE, to weigh up, as with a crowbar. "Paise-up 
that flagstone." " Paise open that lock." Peise, to weigh. 

PALEY, PAILLY, poor in size and physique. " They are a 
pailly lot." Applied to the poorest of a flock of lambs after 
the "tops," "first shots," second, third, and even fourth 
" shots" have been drawn out. 

PALMS, willow catkins, used on Palm Sunday. 

" When the plovers abandon the sea 

For the heather on Hareshaw's high fell, 
The glossy palm gilds the saugh tree, 
And the wild re as bloom in the dell." 

Robert Roxby, Poetic Epistle, 1845. 


PAN, a salt pan. The word frequently occurs in place-names, 
as in Howdon Pans, Hartley Pans, etc., so named from the 
salt industry formerly existing at the places. 

" In the North there is salt made at the Sheles, by Tinmouth Castle. 
I Bullein, the author hereof, have a pan of salt upon the same water. 
At Blith, in Northumberland, is good salt made, and also at Syr Ihon 
Delaval's panes." William Bullein, Book of Simples, 1564. 

PAN, to correspond, to tally, to unite. Border idiom from pan, 
a cross beam in the roof of a house, closing with the wall. 
Jamieson. To close, to join together, to agree. (Obs.) See 

" Weal and women cannot pan, but wo and women can." Proverb. 

The Pancake bell is the church bell rung at noon on Shrove 
Tuesday. The afternoon of the day was formerly claimed 
as a half-holiday by Newcastle apprentices, and football 
contests formed the chief occupation on these occasions. 
At many places the latter observance is still maintained, and 
the contending parties represent two sections of villagers or 
townsmen, as the " doon-streeters " against the " hee tooners," 
etc. Shrove Tuesday is also called Fastens or Pasterns E'en, 
or Even. 

" 1806, pancake bell, is." All Saints' Churchwardens' Book, Newcastle. 

PANDER, to wander or loiter about in a silly, purposeless 
manner. " He gans panderin aboot." 

PANDERLYET, a late, loitering visitor. 

PANDY, a slap on the hand for punishment. " Hoo many 
pandies did the skyulmaister gi' ye ?" 

PANEL, PANEL-WORK, one of the divisions or districts 
into which a colliery is divided. Also called by the miners 
a sheth of bords. 

" It occurred to Mr. Buddie that a great improvement might be effected 
by dividing a colliery, in the course of the first working, into districts, or 
panels, surrounded on all sides by barriers of solid coal. Panel-work, as 
it was termed, was first introduced at Wallsend in the year 1810." 
R. L. Galloway, History of Coal Mining, 1882, p. 149. 

PANELS, the several strata composing a bed of stratified 
rock, chiefly used with reference to the bands of a limestone, 
as, " Blue limestone with strong panels." 


PANG, to stuff-fall, to thrust or force. " The man panged this 
poor cheese on us." Compare PAG. 

11 Wi 1 flesh we gaily pang'd wor hides." 

W. Midford.A'.F.Z., 1814. 

PAN-PIECE, a heavy beam thrown across an opening in the 
outer wall of a building ; a mantel-piece or " breast summer." 
In Scotland the purlins of a cottage roof are called pans. 
Jamieson, under pans. 

"Pan, in our stone houses, is that piece of wood that lies upon the top 
of the stone wall, and must close with it, to which the bottom of the 
spars are fastened." Ray. 

" 1648, June loth, for the pann pieces for sawing and charges to lay 
them vpon the new key, 3 35. 6d." Embleton, Barber Surgeons of 

PAN SHEET [N.] , in a state of excitement or sudden passion. 

PAN-SODDY, PAN-PUDDIN, a baked pudding. 
" My head swam round whene'er aw thought 
Upon a fat pan-soddy" 

R. Gilchrist, d. 1844, A Voyage to Lunnin. 

PANT, a public water fountain. At these standing pipes, or 
pants, water used to be sold at a farthing a skeel ; hence the 
name of ** fardin pant." 

" Paide to Sandrs. Cheisman in parte of paymente of 22!. 33. 4d. for 
the buildinge of a sufficiente pannte in Sandgate 403." Newcastle 
Municipal Accounts, September, 1593. 

" 1661, Julie. Paid Mr. Blackett, sherriffe, for a ton of wine which 
used at the coronation when the pant ran wine, 22!." Newcastle Municipal 

" If a fresh inhabitant ot the village of Stamfordham takes a good 
drink at the pant, he will reside a long time in the village." Rev. J. F. 
Bigge, Superstitions at Stamfordham. Transactions of Tyneside Naturalists' 
Field Club, 1860-62, vol. v., p. 92. 

14 Then to the Pant, open'd the Spout, 
Hey-dash, the Claret-wine sprang out." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 18. 

PAN -WOOD, small coals which were used chiefly in 
evaporating sea-water in salt pans. (Obs.) 

P AP-O'-THE-HASS, the uvula. 

PARISH, PERISH, to spend lavishly ; hence the phrase " to 
parish the pack " that is, to spend the whole stock-in-trade, 
to spend everything, as in a drinking bout. 

" Bob Cruddace, ah, poor soul ! he's deed he had a cliver knack 
O' kepping beer, aye three yards off, when he 'Parish'd the pack !' " 

W. Armstrong, Newcastle Worthies. 
" Aw kens how to perish the brass that aw gets." 
J. P. Robson, Pitman's Draw. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 312. 



PARKIN, the frame or stand on which oak bark is placed to 
dry before stacking. 

PARNICKETY, particular, fastidious. " He's a varry 
parnickety body." 

PARPIN, a mason's term for a wall of a single stone in thickness. 

PARREY, a sudden, heavy fall of rain. 

".It came a heavy parrey of rain." Hodgson MS. 

PARROT-COAL, a kind of cannel coal. 

" So called because when on fire it splits and cracks up with a 
chattering noise, like a parrot talking." Gresley's Glossary, 1883. 

" It admits of being polished, and is often turned into punch-bowls, 
salt-cellars, toys, &c." Impartial History of Newcastle, 1801. 


PARTING, an offtake or branch road. 

PARTING, a thin deposit, separating or parting two strata. It 
is a regular deposit, but thinner than a " band " or " girdle." 
Partings are described according to their composition or with 
reference to their thickness or character, as a " thready " or 
" seamy partings" when they present mere films of substance ; 
" cashy partings "" when they are soft ; " scary," " seamy," or 
"scaly" when they appear to be flaked or finely laminated. 
In all cases they suggest that the superimposed stratum is 
separated from th^t below by a mere parting of other material. 

PASH, a heavy fall of snow or rain. 

PASH, a soft, decayed substance. " Rotten as pash " is a 
common saying. Pash is to dash, smash, bruise and both 
pash and mash are applied to substances that have been 
pounded and mixed to a pasty condition. 

PAST, the starting point of a race, the line drawn in a boys' 
game. " Toe the past" toe the line. 

PAST. To be " past oneself " is used commonly to describe 
any distracted condition of mind. " Thor myekin sic a noise 
aa's fair past mesel." " Aa waddent put it past him" should 
not think it beyond him. " Wor Tom's a queer un ; aa 
waddent put it past him if he gat here thi neet, that aa 
waddent." " It's past a joke." " Aa's past eatin." 


PASTE-EGGS, PYEAS-EGGS, Easter eggs, boiled hard 
and dyed various colours. The " boolin " and "jaapin"of 
eggs at Eastertide is a most ancient and well observed 
custom among the young folks of Northumberland. Paste-egg 
Day is the common name for Easter Sunday. 

" To please the pit laddies at Easter, a dish full o' gilty paste eggs." 
W. Midford, Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 

" Eggs, stained with various colours in boiling, and sometimes covered 
with leaf gold, are at Easter presented to children at Newcastle, and 
at other places in the North. They ask for their paste eggs, as for a 
fairing, at this season." Brapd, Popular Antiquities, 1777, p. 310. 

PASTIE, a hand. A cant term. The hands are similarly 
called daddies, meags, paas t oars, etc. 

PAT, POT, p t. of put. The forms of the verb are : Pres., put ; 
past., pat or pot ; p.p., putten. 

" Aw pat on my blue coat." 

Bob Cranky' s 'Size Sunday. 

Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 88. 
41 Pat by wor gcer an' moor'd wor keel, 
Then went an* drank wor can." 

Keel Row. 

PATE, PAIT, a brock or badger. (Obs.) 

" 1649-1650. It. p d to John Newton fo r A payte Heade, 6d. To 
Anthony Sewertis for 3 paite heades is. 6d." Ry ton Church Books. 


PAUGHTY, insolent, Compare PAWKY. 

" Have I brought the uppaughty Quean 
Like Bird to pick out mine own e'en ?" 

G. Stuart, Joco-Sevious Discourse, 1686, p. 26. 

PAULER, PAALER, a staggering blow, a rude shock, an 

"Paul, or Pall, to puzzle, to put to a stand." Brockett. 

" A collier cam" on, quick as thowt, 
Maw sarties! but he got a.pauler." 

W. Midford, 1818, The Masquerade. 

PAULING-HOUSE, a cart shed. (Obs.) 

" 1627. Reed, of Timothy Hutton for this yeare's rent of the paulling- 
house, is. 4d." Gateshead Church Books. 

PAW-HOGGER. apparently a nonce word, meaning with 
hoggers on the paws that is, gloves. "Pawhogger luggish," 
genteel baggage ; a term of contempt for gentility. 

" The Skipper swore the pawhogger luggish was called Empty Kite." 
R. Gilchrist, 1824, The Skipper's Erudition. 


PAWK. "Pawk off," to remove. 

" He quickly had it by the nose an' pawk'd it off." R. Emery, d. 1871, 
The Owl. 

" The canny old chapel's pawk'd off in a pet." 

R. Gilchrist, Song of Improvements, 1835. 

PAWKY, PAAKY [S.] , PACKY [N.], saucy, conceited, 
dainty. " She's a paaky hussy." " She's a prood, paaky 
thing, that lass." Applied also to over-fed animals. A 
work horse with little work and much food becomes paaky. 

PAY, to beat, to thrash. " Aa'll pay yor hide." " He pays his 
wife." To overcome in a conflict or in a contest for 
supremacy. " Aa can pay that chep easy." 

" At schule he payed Tinley, of Shields, the greet dandy." Bards of the 
Tyne, p. 224. 

PAYS, punishment by slapping. " If ye dinna stop, bairn, 
ye'll get yor pays, aa can tell ye." 

PEACHY, the lesser redpole, Linaria mfescens. 
PEACE, a small hut or shelter. 

PEAL, applied by fishermen very vaguely to the young of 
the bull trout (Salmo eriox, L.), and often by mistake to 
other species of salmonidae. Richard Howse, Natural History 
Transactions, vol. x., 1890, p. 370. 

PEAL, to appeal, a shortened form. Hence pealers, appealers, 
applicants. Brockett has "Peelers, two or more proposals for 
a farm, contract, etc., being alike, are peelers." Compare 

PEA-MORNIN, a holiday formerly made among young men 
and lads at the pits when the peas came to maturity. See 

PEARLY, PERLEY, small and round. A pearly clod is a 
small, round, hard clod. 

PEART, pert, lively, forward ; also improved in health or 
appearance, said of animals generally. " It leuks a vast 
peavter" Sharp, violent. " Aa hard some brattles o' thunnor, 
aye, they war peart yens ! " said of a storm, March, 1890. 

PEAS, a description of small .coals, so called from their size. 

PEA-SWAD, a pea-shell, the pod which contains the peas. 
Compare PESKIT. 


PEA-SWAP [N.] (pron. pee-ah), the succulent, half- formed 
pea-pod and pea. " Swaps is sweet " is a common saying. 

PEAT-HAGS, the old, rough, projecting margins of peat pits 
after those pits have grown up again ; projecting masses of 
peat on a peat moor ; portions of peat on high moors left by 
edges of water gutters. 

PECK, a measure of capacity. At Alnwick and Wooler the 
peck is equal to one-third of a bushel Winchester. At 
Newcastle a peck of barley and oats'is equal to five forpits 
or quarterns. In mining, peck, a measure containing 1,209 
cubic inches. Peck, a considerable quantity, used generally. 
She's getten a peck o' troubles." " Pecks o' dort." 


PEEDEE, or P.D., the boy on board a keel. The crew of a 
keel consisted of the skipper, two bullies, and the pee-dee, who 
was generally a boy from twelve to fourteen years old ; hence 
applied occasionally to anything diminutive in size, as a peedee 
marble, the smallest sized boys' playing marble. 

"Pedee, an ordinary foot boy, a drudge: as, 'What, must I be your 
iedee upon all occasions?'" New World o] Words, 1706. 

" He started life a keel P.D. 
Spent fifty years upon the quay ; 
And now, may bliss the portion be O'Faddy." 

Thomas Wilson, A Keelman's Tribute to a Friend, 1843. 

" Three o' the bullies lap oot, 

And left nyen in but little Pee Dee ; 
Who ran about stamping and crying 

' How ! smash, Skipper, what mun a' dee ?' " 

The Little Pee Dee. 
PEEL, a tower. See PELE. 

PEEL-AN'-EATS, potatoes cooked and served with their 
skins on. They are peeled as they are eaten at table. 

PEELED GRAIN, a tree branch stripped of its bark. 

PEELIN-HIS- WANDS that is, preparing to make a basket. 
Thence applied to anyone entering on a new occupation ; on 
the arrival of the first child, etc. 

PEEL OFF, to appeal off, to get rid of. A happy man was 
he who could peel off from the militia. See PEAL, 2. 


PEEN, the peen end of a mason's hammer is the sharp end. 
The peen of a blacksmith's or engineer's hand-hammer is the 
pointed end, usually blunt pointed. In holding a hammer in 
the hand with the head upward, the peen is the narrow end 
and the "face" is the full end. In this position the upper 
part of the face is called the " nose " of the hammer ; it is the 
portion of the face furthest from the workman's hand. The 
lower (or nearer) portion of the face is called the " heel." 
The handle is called the " helve " or " shank." 

PEENGE, to utter low, fretful cries. " What's the bairn 
peengin aboot, Bessy ?" Peenged,peengy, delicate, complaining, 
petulant. " She was a peengcd sort of a body " complaining 
and bad-tempered from sickliness or ill-health. Starved or 
shrunk with cold and poor health. " The bit bairney's but 
peengv, poor thing ! " Peengin, petulant from ill-health. " It 
was a bit poor peengin bairn." 

PEESWEEP, the peewit or lapwing, Vanellus cristatus. It is 
also called the tyufit or tufit. 

PEEWIT GULL, the black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus, L. 
Also called sea crow and pick-i'-ma. 

PEG, Margaret. "Aad/^g" thin or skim milk cheese, a 
very tough, poor edible. 

PEGGY, an earthenware bottle. See PIGGY. 

PEGH, to puff, to pant, to strain with exertion. 

" Tony e'en blew up again, 
And- blew as if't had been his last, 
And pegh't and grain'd at ilka blast." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 45. 


PELE, PEEL, a four-square tower, used formerly for defence. 
The forms P^/-tower, P^/-castle, and Peel-house are also 
frequently used, when speaking generally. The strongholds, 
nowadays called Peles, are scattered over Northumberland, 
and present a similarity of type in construction and arrange- 
ment. The ground floor consists of an apartment which is 
vaulted in full semicircular form. The entrance to this is 
strongly guarded by an oaken door, protected by a grill of 
flat iron bars fastened to its outer side, and moving with the 
door. A newel stair, or in some cases a straight stone stair 
in the thickness of the wall, leads to the upper storey ; here 


is the chief apartment, and above it is a second room. Each 
of these occupy the entire area within the walls. This area 
is often not more than ig| by 13! feet. The tower has battle- 
ments, and the angles are sometimes finished with turrets, 
which are machicolated. For the origin of the term see the 
treatise, Peel : Its meaning and derivation, by George Neilson, 
Glasgow, 1893. 

"At the present day the word ' pele' is employed by natives of 
Northumberland to denote, strictly speaking, a small tower of rough 
masonry with a high pitched roof." C. J. Bates, Border Holds of 
Northumberland, p. 60. 

" Within my own recollection almost every old house in the dales of 
Rede and Tyne was what is called a Peel house, built for securing its 
inhabitants and their cattle in moss trooping times." Rev. Anthony 
Hedley, 1822, Archceologia JE liana, vol. i.. p. 243. 

" The pele-towers of the Borderland are essentially castles. They 
show the type of the Norman keep continued on a small scale to a very 
late time. From the great keep of Newcastle to the least pele-tower 
which survives as a small part of a modern house, the idea which runs 
through all is exactly the same. Northumberland has much to show 
the traveller in many ways, from the Roman Wall onward, but the 
feature which is specially characteristic is that it is the land of 
castles." Freeman, English Towns and Districts, 1883, p. 317. 

PELL, hard, strong. " Pell clay." 

PELSH, weak or silly by sickness, or constitutionally weak. 
" She's varry pelsh, poor body." Applied also to cattle when 
thin or ailing and weakly. It is also used when speaking of 
one who does work in an indifferent manner from lack of 
strength. ' He's oney a pelsh 'un." 

PELT, to hurry along. Full pelt full speed. " He cam peltin 
doon." " He ran full pelt" 

" To the Moor he did pelt." 

Edward Corvan, He Wad Be a Noodle. 

PENCIL, shale, or "plate" of a somewhat compact nature, 
used for coarse slate pencils. 

PENNING, stones paved to form a watercourse. In mining 
applied to spouting for the same purpose. 

" The penning was swimming about on the top of the water." R. Scott, 
Ventilation of Coal Mines, 1868, p. 55. 

PENNY-BRICK, a small roll of bread. Compare BAP. 

PENNY-DOG, a person that dogs another's steps. "He 
follows me like a penny-dog." 


PENNYMEN, a bird term applied to the smaller waders. See 

PENNY-PACKING-DAY, the last day of the fair, when the 
dealers were packing their goods, and were supposed to sell 
cheaply to save the further trouble and expense of carrying 
away their unsold things. Like the toy fair itself, the term 
is almost obsolete. 

PEN NY- PAY, to pay a mechanic separately for each job in 
contradistinction to contracting. Generally used in dealings 
with the country blacksmith. 

PENNY-STANE, a quoit. There is a pennystane quarry near 

" Pennystanes, from which the quarry derives its name, were trimmed 
flat stones used as quoits before iron ones were frequent." W. W. 
Tomlir.son, Guide to Northumberland, 1888, p. 330. 

PENNYWILK, the winkle or edible sea snail. See WILKS. 

" A'll supply ye wi' flat-fish, fine skyet, or fresh ling, 
An' sometimes pennywilks, crabs, an' lobsters aw bring." 
Edward Corvan, Cullercoats Fish-lass. 

Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 406. 

PENS, the short ribs. 

PENTAS, the Penthouse. 

" An upper apartment of the old Town House on the Sandhill, New- 
castle a place of many windows and of much good cheer." R. Welford, 
History of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 384. 

PEN-WET, wet received into a stack below the eaves. 

PESANT, a stern, hard-hearted miser. 
" She's a very pesant" Hodgson MS. 

PESEN, the roe or spawn of fish. Literally peas, from the 

PESKIT [W.-T.] , a peascod, peas in the pod. Compare PEA- 


PETER- WAGGY, the familiar toy in which the arms and legs 
of a grotesque figure are thrown up when a string is pulled. 


PETH, a path ; especially one that is steep and narrow. 
The word occurs in more than nine place-names in 
Northumberland, as in Mor/>tfA, and Kemmell's or Gamel!' s 
path, near the head of Coquet. In a document of 1249 this is 
spelt Campasfieth. " The Peth" also occurs alone. 

PETHER, PETHAR, a pedlar. 

" From the top of Pilgrim Street to Pilgrim Gate, it is named 
Northumberland Street, part of which was called Pedlar or Pethar Row, 
from its being built by a succesful man of business whose younger days 
were spent as a pedestrian merchant, and who, getting forward in life, 
built a number of these pleasant houses, which still go by that appellation, 
with fine, small gardens adjoining.'' Impartial History of Newcastle, 1801, 
p. 127. 

PETTING-STONE. A custom prevails at Bamburgh and 
other places, on the occasion of a wedding, for the bride to be 
lifted over a stone, called the petting-stone, at the church gates 
after the ceremony. It is generally commuted bv a money 
payment. There is a stone in the churchyard at Holy Island 
where the same ceremony is practised. It is the socket-stone 
of a Saxon cross. At Ford, a " paten-stick " was used. It 
was placed before the church door when the bride and bride- 
groom came out, and the newly-wedded ones had to u loup " 
it, or else pay the usual fine. A similar custom prevailed in 
many Northumberland villages. Compare BALL MONEY. 

" Being here (at Shilbottle) one day while a pitman's wedding was 
going on, we were amused with the custom of lifting the ladies over a 
heap of stones laid in the middle of the footpath." Correspondent in 
Alnwick Mercury, July 15, 1861. 

"During the wedding ceremony, certain of the young men of the 
village would place a large stone between the gate posts of the church- 
yard. On the bride and bridegroom making their appearance, they were 
seized, one at each arm, and jumped over the stone. If this acrobatic 
feat was safely performed, it was held to be a good omen." G. Atkinson, 
Weekly Chronicle, September 7, 1889. 

PEUST, snug, comfortable. See PIEUST. 
PHOSY, FOSEY, frost bitten ; applied to turnips. 

PHRASE, PHRASY, a disturbance. See FRASE, FRASY and 

PIANET, a magpie. At the Teams, Gateshead, the public- 
house with the sign of the Magpie is yet called " The Pianet" 
See PIOT. 

"This name is retained in Scotland, Dr. Johnson says; and in 
Northumberland he might have added, where it is called pyanot." 


PICIMA, the black-headed gull, Lams ridibundus. Also called 
sea crow. See PEEWIT GULL. 

PICK, the tool used by a coal hewer. It is about eighteen 
inches long ; sharpened at both ends ; now usually of steel 
throughout, weighing from three pounds upwards. Through 
an eye or socket in the centre is fixed a handle of ash or 
hickory, two and a half feet in length. 

PICK, a steep ascent. " A heavy 'pick." 

PICK, pitch. " Pick an' tar meng'd together." Pick, black as 
pitch. " Pick dark." "Pick black." " Pick night." 

PICK, to pitch, to throw. " Just pick here, look ye." It is 
generally used in games. 

PICK, to cast prematurely. "The mear hes picked her foal." 
"The new coo hes hed a misfortin she's pick'd her calf." 

PICKATREE, the green woodpecker, Gecinus viridis, L. 

PICKER, an implement used for picking turnips. It is called 
a " tormit " picker, or picker simply. It is usually made from 
a broad-bladed sickle, the back rib of which is forged and 
drawn over in hook form to a fine point. The pointed hook 
is used for "ruttin up" the turnips, whilst the blade is used 
for "shawin" the tops, when the turnips require to be 
gathered and stored. For pulling turnips only, a two- 
pronged curved-in picker is used. A third form of picker is 
used for lifting out the shells of turnips which have been 
eaten hollow below the surface by sheep ; it has a point at 
nearly a right angle from the shank, and is called a "dyeuk- 
neb " (duck-bill) picker. 

PICK-FORK, a pitch-fork. 

PICK-HOLE, a wound made by the point of a pick. A miner's 

PICKLE, a grain of corn. " If ye'll coont that heed o' barley, 
ye'll find as much as eighty pickles on't." 

PICKLE, a few, some, a small quantity. " Gi's a pickle mair." 
" Aa've just bowt a pickle o' yaits." [Heard at Wooler, 1888.] 
" A pickle nuts." " A pickle watter." 

PICKLE, to provide, to make shift. The word occurs in the 
phrase, " Pickle i' yor aan poke neuk " do for yourself. Said 
to a beggar, it is equivalent to an emphatic refusal and an 
exhortation to the suppliant to shift for himself. 


PICK-MONEY, PICK-PENCE, the money paid by the hewer 
to the " pick sharper." 

PICK-SHARPER, the smith who sharpens the picks for the 
hewers of a colliery. 

" The hewer finds his own picks, but has them sharpened and set out 
for him by the colliery smith (called the pick-sharper] employed for the 
purpose, paying to him in return id. per fortnight." Greenwell, Glossary 
of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

" The sum varies from id. to 2d. per week." Nicholson. 

PICTOR, a picture. It is considered unlucky to " hing a pictor" 
over a door. 

41 Pictur, a covering of sheet iron, or brattice deals, hung from the roof 
and shaft framing to protect the onsetters from the dripping of water at 
the shaft bottom." Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

Also " a similar cover to protect the hewer from water which falls 
from the roof in wet working." Greenwell, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 

PICTS' WALL, the Roman Wall extending from the Solway 
to Wallsend. 

" Till quite recently our Wall always appeared on the maps as the 
Picts' Wall, the Vallum sive Murus Picticus of Camden, a designation borne, 
not on account of its having served as a defence against the Picts (as the 
Saxon shore may have been so termed from its liability to the incursions 
of piratical Saxons), but because it was popularly held to have been the 
uncanny work of that mysterious race." Cadwallader J. Bates, Border 
Holds of Northumberland, p. 323. 

PIE, a prize or find. It is also used when something is found 
to turn the laugh against an antagonist. " It wis grand pie 
tiv us." 

PIE. "to put in the pie"; also called " odd man " and "last 
man out," a process resorted to in choosing sides in games or 
in deciding who is " hit." One of the players lends his cap, 
and each of the others stands round with one finger in the pie. 
One of them then recites a rhyme, touching the fingers in 
succession as each word is repeated. He whose finger is 
touched at the last word stands aside. The process is 
continued until one only is left in, and he, being last man, 
is "hit." The following is the formula which is usually 
repeated on the occasion : 

" Onery, twoery, tackery, tivven, 
Alaboo, clackaboo, ten or iliven, 
Peam, pam, musky Tom, 
Tweedle-um, twaddle-um, twenty-one." 


PIE-BAAL, a game resembling the game of rounders. In pie- 
baal, however, the ball is always struck with the hand. 

PIECE, a piece of bread, or some other edible, carried in the 
pocket, to be eaten outside the house when at work. " He' ye 
getten y -or piece wi' ye ? " Piece, a little while. Piece, a term 
applied to a woman reproachfully or contemptuously. " She's 
a bonny piece that'n is." Sometimes "piece 0' goods" is used. 
11 Nice piece 0' goods she is, aa's sure." 
" Stay a piece" Brockett. 

PIEUST, PIUST, PEUST, PUEST, in comfortable circum- 
stances, snug and self-satisfied in mind, body, and estate. 
" He wis leukin' pieust" " He's a pieust little fellow." 
Pieust, a groaning sound made by cattle when they are 
lying full and comfortable. Pieusty, pyusty, dainty as to food. 
" If thoo canna eat that, thoo mun be pyusty." 

PIG, brown, coarse earthenware. 

a pig-stye. 

PIGEON-DUCKET, a pigeon cot. 

PIGEON'S MILK. " To send one for pigeon's milk " is to 
send on a fool's errand. 

11 Gan this tother gayt, lad ; 
Some Pigeon's milk thou's fetch us, Dick, 
An' prove thou hes a payte, lad." 

J. P. Robson, Pigeon's Milk. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 113. 

PIGEON-WAAK, a boys' game. The "pigeon" is blind- 
folded, and stands with legs astride. The other players 
throw their caps between the straddled legs and shout 
" Pigeon waak." The blinded pigeon walks accordingly, and 
endeavours to touch a cap with his foot in his forward 
progress. A lad whose cap is touched becomes " pigeon " 
in turn. 

PIGGIN, an earthenware pitcher. Applied also to a small 
wooden vessel with staves, and sometimes to a small iron 

PIGGY, PEGGY, an earthenware bottle filled with hot water 
and used as a foot warmer in bed by delicate people. A 
traveller reported that in Northumberland the people slept 
with the pigs for warmth. He had been asked if he would 
have a piggv in his bed. 


PIG'S-BOAT, the receptacle in which pig's meat is kept. 
Pig's-kit, the trough from which a pig feeds. Hence applied 
to a messy condition in eating. " Ye he' the tyebel like a 

PIKE, a pointed hill. Dodd, in contrast, is a truncated hill. 

"Pike occurs twenty times in Northumberland place-names." J. V. 
Gregory, Archaologia JEliana, vol. ix., p. 68. 

" Pike, crag, law, head, know, dod, edge, rig predominate in the 
nomenclature of the Redesdale eminences." Dr. James Hardy, Hist, 
of Bwks. Nat. Club, vol. ix., p. 452. 

PIKE, a pointed or peaked pile of hay made up, like a 
temporary stack, in the hay-field till it can be carted to the 
farm-yard. A pike contains about one cart-load of hay. 
Piker, a builder of hay pikes. 

PIKER, the nose. A cant term. " Had up yor piker." 

PIKE-HANDLES, wooden staves used for a bier at funerals. 

" Before the parish (of Elsdon) had a hearse, their dead were carried 
to the grave on a bier of poles, which they called pike-handles, and were 
the perquisite of the rector." Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., 
p. 92, note. 

PILE, a single fibre, a single stalk of straw. When cows or 
horses eat up their fodder clean it is said, " They haven't left 

PILEY, PILED, mottled or speckled with small "pies." 

" Thomas Currey of the Hight in the same county charged wth. the 
felonious stealeing of a Dunn mare and a black pyled gray foale the 
proper goodes of Lyonell Shipley of the Snape." Hodgson, Calendars, 
1628. Anhaologia JEliana, vol. i., p. 151. 

"They praise lang Wilson's///^ cock." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, ed. 1872, p. 6. 

PILLAN, a small green-coloured sea crab, used as bait. 

The shell of the crab is very tender ; " the fishermen peel off the shell 
before they bait their hooks with them." Brockett, under pullen. 

"I threw my hook (baited with a bit of pillan, or peeling, crab) into the 
main sea." Newcastle Magazine, No. i, January, 1823, p. 21. 

PILLAR, an oblong or square mass of coal contained between 
two boards and two headways courses, and left during the 
first working for the support of the roof. In " broken " or 
pillar working a passage is driven through the pillars, which 



are then said to be "jenkined." What is then left of the 
pillars are called "stocks," and when these are taken away 
the roof collapses on the worked out " waste." 

" Sufficient pillars ('columnar vel pillers') shall be left to support the 
roof." Lease from Queen Elizabeth to Sir Nicholas Tempest of Coal Mines in 

" In this district the method of working, which has been established 
from time immemorial, is that known as the board-and-wall system, 
pillars being left for the support of the roof. As the depths augmented, 
larger pillars of support were necessarily required, and a proportionate 
sacrifice of mine occurred. Then began the system of robbing the pillars ; 
or, in other words, of taking away such portions as it was thought could 
be safely removed." T. J. Taylor, Archeology of the Coal Trade, 1852, 
pp. 167, 198. 

PILLARING, erecting artificial supports for the roof of a 
mine. See PACK-WALL. 

" The building up of stone fallen from the roof by the side of any way 
required to be left open." Greenwell. 

PILLION-STYEN, a step placed at the door to enable a rider 
to get on horseback. It is variously termed horse and hor sin- 
stone, mount, and loupin-on-stone. 

PILLOW-SLIP, a pillow-case. 

PIN, humour, temper. 

" A jug o 1 Geordy's maut an' hop 
Suin put us in a merry pin." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 68. 

PINCH, PINCHBAR, an iron crowbar or lever. Called also 
a gyevlik or gavelock. 

PINCH, to work with a lever or a crowbar. "Pinch the styen 
off the cairt." Compare PAISE. 

PINCH-GUT, a penurious person a covetous, miserable 
wretch, as if pinched. Brockett. Pinch-pot or Nanny. pinch-pot 
is used in the same way. " She's a reg'lar Nanny pinch-pot, 
that'n, noo." Pinchy, parsimonious. " They war that pinchy 
they hardly hed eneuf to eat." Nippy is used in the same 

PIND, to put in the pound. 

" They've pinded some." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 35. 

PINER, a wounded bird that has grown thin and weak. 
PINED, dried. " Pined hazel rods " were used for corf making. 

PINE-OUT. Weather that has been long unsettled and 
promises to be fine is said to pine-out. 


PIN-FAD, PUN-FAD, a pinfold. 

PINING, a disease to which sheep are subject. 

PINK, an old-fashioned type of collier vessel, familiar on the 
Tyne until about the middle of the present century. The 
stern was " cat-built," falling off to a point almost as sharp 
as the narrowing at the bow, and on the top of this stern a 
square erection, forming a high poop, was built. 

PINK, the Mayflower, Cardaminepratensis, L. ; often called pinks 
and spinks. Also the Dianthus deltoides, L., which is known as 
the wild pink. 

PIN KEY, small. The duplicated form pinkey-wee is often used, 
especially in child talk. 

" A bussy-tail'd />wfo}' wee Frenchman." W. Midford, The Masquerade. 

PINLOWE, probably a "pingle" or small enclosure. (Obs.) 

" i653receved of Wm. Johnson for pinlowes three horsses depasturing 
upon Gaitshead ffell 2oth June, 1653 oo. 15. oo." Gateshead Church 

PINNEL, sandstone with pebbles in it; a kind of conglomerate. 

PIN-WELL, a well where deposits of votive offerings are made. 

These in latter days are reduced to nothing more precious 

than pins. 

" A curious custom was long observed in connection with a well at the 
foot of Horsedean, near Wooler. On May-day a procession was formed, 
and marched from the town (Wooler) to this spot, where a halt was 
called, and each of the processionists dropped a crooked pin into it, at 
the same time 'wishing a wish.' Though the formal procession on May- 
day morning is no longer acted, the custom is still kept up by young 
people." James Hall, Guide to Glendale, 1887, p. 9. 

' About a mile west of Jarrow, there is a well still called Bede's Well, 
to which, as late as the year 1740, it was a prevailing custom to bring 
diseased children; a crooked pin was put into the well, which was lewed 
dry between each dipping of the patient. But on every midsummer-eve 
there was a great resort of neighbouring people, with bonfires, music and 
dancing, to St. Bede's Well." Impartial History of Newcastle, 1801, p. 567. 

PIOT, PYET, PIANET, a magpie. The jay is also called the 
j&y-piot, from its resemblance no doubt to the common magpie. 
Tyel-piot, a tell-tale. Of the plot it is common to say : 
" Yen's sorry ; Twee's morry ; 
Three's a wedding ; Power's deeth ; 
Five's hivin ; Six is hell ; 
And Sivin's the deel's aan sel." Old Saying. 

PIPE or COAL-PIPE, a thin seam of coal. Also the 
carbonized remains of plants frequently found in irregular 
thin patches. Pipe vein, a lead vein lying between strata, as 
distinguished from one which intersects them. Pipey or coal- 
pipey, streaked with thready layers of coal. 


PIPE-STOPPLE, the tube of a tobacco pipe ; usually applied 
to the broken piece of a clay pipe. " Fairy pipes " are 
ancient pipes having very small bowls. 

PIRN [N.] , a pin, a bobbin. 

PIRN, PURN, a twitch used for horses. 

PIRTLE, a short stick used for stirring porridge. Compare 

PIRTLE, PORTLE, to poke. " Thor's an eel anunder that 
styen ; aa'll get a stick an' portle him oot." See POWTLE. 

PISTOL-FOOT, a lame foot ; a stiff limb owing to injury of 
some kind. 

PIT, a colliery. The word has also special application to the 
well sunk from the surface to the coal seams. Pit-bar, a 
frame bar of wood to support the boards used in sinking 
through loose stuff. Pit-does, the working clothes of a pit- 
man. Pit-crocket, the low seat used by a coal hewer. Pit- 
heap, the deposit of coal and other excavated material near 
the mouth of a pit. Pit-hitch-nail, a strong pit nail. Pit-hole, 
an old disused pit-shaft. (A pitfall is called a "day fa'.") 
Pitman, a collier. Pit-prop, a short piece of round timber used 
as a support in the roof of a mine. Pitmatics, a jocose term 
for the technicalities of colliery working. Pit -single-tack, pit- 
double-tack-nails, very strong nails, three and a half and four 
and a quarter inches long respectively. Pit-spar-nail, a nail 
five and a half or six inches long. Pittage, the cost of working 
coal. (Obs.) Pit-winkle (probably for pit-pinkie ; seejamieson, 
under pinkie), an extremely small candle, thirty or forty in the 
pound, formerly used by pitmen in the mine. 

PITCH-AN'-TOSS, a gambling game, formerly in general use 
in the district. The players, who are called a " school," 
place a bit of white "boody" (the "mot") in position. This 
is aimed at by each in succession, the first player having the 
choice of the place (" the past ") from which to pitch. Pence 
or halfpence are used as the quoits. The player whose coin 
lies nearest to the "mot" then picks up the whole of the coins, 
and, laying them on his hand, tosses them up with a spin. 
All that come down lying head up become his own ; the 
tails pass on to the next player, who tosses again, leaving the 
tails for the next in succession. The process is repeated till 
all the coins are disposed of. 


PITCHER, a piece of tile or slate used in playing "holey," a 
game of marbles. The player wins all marbles which he 
drives into the hole with a stroke of his pitcher, also any that 
may have been tipped by the pitcher in the throw. 

PITCH-UP, to give up, to abandon. " A've pitcked-up the 

PITHEN, to break the spinal cord of an animal in order to 
destroy sense of pain. A practice adopted by butchers, 
especially when killing sheep. 
" To pith." Webster's Diet. 

PLACE THE WARK, to arrange each man's labour for the 
day in a pit, and of a certain number of scores of corves to 
arrange how many each man is to hew and how many each 
tram is to put. Placing the work is an operation performed 
by the deputy. 

PLACK, a small piece of money. 

11 Ya peur Plack." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 48. 
" Farder, It is ordained, that the Clerk shall have noe mair, but ane 
penny Sterling, or Plack, for his Precept." Leges Marchtarum, 1705, p. 200. 

" Tho' he no worth aplack is, 
His awn coat on his back is." 

T. Thompson, New Keel Row. 

PLAIGAN, PLAYGIN, PLACAN, a piece of broken earthen- 
ware or crockery used by children to make "babby hooses." 

PLANE, in a pit, a main road either level or inclined, along 
which coals, etc., are conveyed by engine power or by 
gravity. Greslefs Glossary, 1883. 

PLANTIN, PLANTEEN [S.] , a plantation of small trees or 
a "setting" of cabbages, etc. "He's gyen aback o' the 
plantin " gone behind the plantation. 

PLASH, a downpour of rain. Also called a pash when snow or 
sleet is spoken of. Compare BLASH. 

" If the oak before the ash 
Then we're sure to have a plash. 
If the ash before the oak, 
Then we're sure to have a soak." 

Weather saw. 

PLASH, to splash or spatter ; to sound as a stone falling in 
waler. "What's that plashin?" "Plashin wet" soaked 
with wet. 


PLASH, to leave work unfinished. " Aa'll he ta plash them" 
said by a shoemaker on leaving work unfinished at the end of 
the week. 

PLAT, a flattened cake of any substance ; usually of a soft, 
clayey kind ; as a "plat o' clarts," etc. A small quantity is 
called a "spark." 

PLATCHY-FOOTED, having a flat-footed style of walking. 

PLATE, shale ; a laminated, argillaceous stratum. Usually 
described, according to its appearance, as blue plate, black 
plate, grey plate, etc. Called indifferently plate or "metal"; 
and sometimes, from its ordinarily blue cast of colour, known 
as "blue stone." Platy, containing layers of shale. Sand- 
stone, when intermixed with shale beds or partings, is called 
platy freestone or platy post. Plate bricks, bricks made from 
shale or plate. 

PLATE-NAILS, or TRAM-PLATE NAILS, strong, round 
nails, with flat points, having a countersunk head, flat or 
rounded on the top, and measuring two inches or two and a 
half inches long; used for nailing down the "plates" the 
rails to the sleepers in an underground tramway. A plate - 
nail is driven through a hole in the plate, which is counter- 
sunk to receive the head of the nail. 

PLATER, the man who has charge of putting on ship-plates. 

PLATE-RAIL a wrought-iron tram rail, in section like an 
unequal angle-iron, the base being three inches wide by half 
inch thick, the enclosed angle slightly obtuse and with short 
heel projecting so as to give greater support to the side on 
which it is laid. The upper side, standing two inches higher 
than the plate, served as flange or guide to the tram wheels, 
which were themselves plain discs without any flanges. See 

PLATES, sometimes called tram-plates, the rails on which 
colliery trams are run. The rails used on our railway lines 
are still known by the workmen as plates, and platelayer has 
become the general term for the man who lays and maintains 
the lines. 

" God bless the man wi' peace and plenty, 

That furst invented metal plates ! 
Draw out his years to .five times twenty, 

Then slide him through the heevenly gates." 

Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v. 70. 


PLATTER, SPLATTER, a splashy mess. Both forms are 
in use. 

PLAY, the cessation of work. When work is stopped for a 
period the men are said to play. 

PLAYLAKE, PLAYLAKIN, a toy, a plaything. " Here's a 
nice playlakin aa've brout ye." Playlakin, idling, spending 
time in play instead of work. 

PLAY-PA, PLAY-PEW, PLAY-PEEP, to offer resistance. 

" 'He ne'er played pauw,' he did not so much as stir. Transferred to 
one who cannot make the slightest exertion. To play one's Paws, to act 
the part which belongs to one." Jamieson, under Paw. 

" Peep, a feeble sound. To play peep, to utter such a sound : ' He darna 
play peep, 1 he dares not let his voice be heard." Jamieson, under Peep. 

" His neck in twa the Armstrangs wrang, 

Wi" fute or hand he ne'er played pa I 
His life and his keys at anes they ha'e taen, 
And cast his body ahint the wa'." 

Jock o' the Syde. 

" Though crook'd, se crabb'd and fierce was she, 
Nyen durst play peep agyen her power." 

T. Wilson, Polly Teohnic, 1840. 

PLEEN, to complain. " Hoots: yor elwis pleenin aboot some- 
thin' or another." 

" They pleen o' hunger if it comes a week o" wet ; 
Aw wonder what they de wiv aa the brass they get." 

Geo. Chatt, Old Farmer, poems, 1866, p. 87. 

PLEET, a fold. In Spenser the form is plight. Compare the 
local forms neet, reet, seet, leet, breet, etc., for night, right, sight, 
light, bright. 

" Purfled upon with many a folded plight.' 1 Faerie Queen, 2, iij., 26. 

PLENISHIN, household furniture. " Thor's a cairt load o' 
plenishin gyen by." 

PLET, to plait ; a plait. " She had her hair deun i' plets" 
"Plet maa hair for me." The terms " three-a-//^," " fower- 
a-plet," " five-a-plet," etc., refer to plaits of three, four, and 
five strands respectively. To plet in walking is to lift the legs 
awkwardly. " He plets his feet " throws one over the other 
in walking. To clinch, or double over the point of a nail on 
the inside to prevent its withdrawal. "Aa want a hunder 
nails ; the kind that' 

PLET-ROPE, a rope of hay, a plaited rope. See BURDEN- 



PLEUGHT, PLOUTE, a long walking-stick. 

"Jack Roe was sittin' wiv his leg pletted cure his yekpleught, warmin* 
hissel." Thomas Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. n. 

" A ploute a long walking-stick, generally used (with the thick end 
downward) by foot-hunters." Brocket*. 

PLASH, SPLISH-SPLASH, in a splashing manner. 

" Here cums little Andra Karr, plishplash throw the clarts." Thomas 
Bewick, The Howdy. 

" She held her breathe wyth anxious care, 

And thought it all a dreame ; 
But an eiry nicher she heard i' the linne, 
And a plitch-platch in the streime." 

James Telfer, 1824, The Gloamyne Buchie. 

PLOAD, PLODE [N.] , to wade. 

11 Fither '11 hammer ye for pleading i' the broad witter." J. L. Luckley, 
Alnwick Language. 

PLOAT, PLOTE, PLOT, to pluck out the feathers of a bird ; 
also to fleece a dupe. At the first fall of snow, children sing 
in chorus : 

" Keelmen keelmen, ploat yor geese ; 
Caad days an 1 winter neets." 

Newcastle Rhyme. 

" The aad wives i' the east they're plotin their geese, 
An' sendin a 1 the white feathers ti me." 

West Tyne version. 

" The folk i 1 the eas' is plotin their geese, 
An 1 sendin their feathers ti huz." 

Alnwick version. 

"The aad wives i' Scotland is ploatin thor geese, 
An' sendin thor feathers here." 

Northern version. 

PLOAT, PLOT, to apply hot water. To dip a finger in hot 
water in order to ease the pain caused by a bruise. 

" To plote a pig is to pour scalding water upon it, which causes the hair 
to come off, and makes it easier to scrape." Brockett. 

PLODGE, to wade in water with shoes and stockings off. 
Compare PLOWD, PLOAD. 

"Where oft we've plodg'd wivoot wor shoes." James Horsley, The 
Craw's Nest, 1889. 

" Yen day she plodg'd to catch a duck." 

J. P, Robson, Hamlick. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 148. 


PLOO, PLEW [N.] , PLUF, PLEUF [S.] , a plough ; PLOO 
[N. and S.] , to plough. A lang ploo is a long metalled plough 
used principally for plouging lea. A half-lang ploo is a 
moderate sized one for general use. A drill ploo is used 
for raising and splitting drills and potato raising. A little 
ploo, or ribbin ploo, is used for "ribbing" land for seed sowing 
and for working and cleaning the land amongst drill crops. 
Ploo-bridle, the head of a plough. Ploo-cootev (or coulter), the 
knife-shaped cutter which is fixed into the beam in front. 
Ploo-paddle, or ploo-spyed, the little spade used for scraping the 
earth from a plough. Ploo-stilts, the shafts which carry the 
handles. Ploo-shun, the plough shoes or race clouts that is, 
the two bars of iron on the bottom of a plough. Ploo-sock, 
the share or pointed end of a plough ; it is fitted on to the 
ploo-sheth, and is removable so that it can be fettled or 
sharpened. Ploo-tail, the rear of a plough. Ploo-day, a day 
given gratuitously to a farmer who has newly entered on a 
farm. The neighbours on all sides send in their teams and 
ploughs to help in the first ploughing. The horses are decked 
with rosettes and gaily-coloured ribbons for the occasion, 
and the hinds are entertained to a substantial dinner by the 
farmer. See BOON -DAY. 

PLOOK, PLUKE, a pimple ; plooky or plooky-fyess'd, pimpled, 
blotchy on the face. 

PLOP, to drop or plump into water. " He plopt ower heed." 
The sound made by a stone falling into water, or the drop, 
drop of water is called a plop. 

PLOTING-HOT, scalding hot. Brocket*. See PLOAT, 2. 

PLOUGH, a custom variously called full-plough, fool-plough, 
white-plough, stot-plough. 

PLOUTE, a long walking-stick. See PLEUGHT. 

PLOUTER, to wade through water or mire ; to be engaged in 
any dirty work. Brockett. Plouterin> going clumsily or lazily. 
See PLUT. 

PLOWD, to wade, especially to wade in mire. Plodge is 
generally used for wading in water ; plowd for wading in mud. 
"He's been plodgin i' the wetter aall day." " Leuk at him 
plowdin through the clarts." 

PLOY, a game, a prank, a lightsome employment. 


FLUFF, to puff, to emit a short, sharp blast from the mouth. 
Pluffin peas is the act of blowing peas out of the mouth by a 
short, sharp blast. Pluffer, a tube used as a pea-shooter. 

PLUG AND FEATHER, a long wedge driven between two 
other wedges with their thick ends placed in an opposite 
direction. It is also called stob, stock, or stook and feather, or 
fox wedge. The plug and feather was introduced into coal 
mining by Mr. G. C. Greenwell in 1869. It had been from 
early times used in lead mining. See Archaologia ALliana, 
vol. i., p. 185. 

PLUGMAN, the man in charge of a pit pumping engine. 

Mining Glossary, 1852. 

PLUM, solid, heavy, sad as bread or land. 
PLUNGER-LIFT, the set of pipes attached to a forcing pump. 

PLUT, FLUTTERS, a term of contempt. " She's a greet 
useless plut " (said of an ungainly, slovenly, and dirty woman). 
" A windy plut," a noisy, useless person. Plutterin, plouterin, 
going on clumsily and lazily. See PLOUTER. 

POA-POA, the call to a turkey. 

POCK-ARR, a scar caused by small-pox. Pock-brocken, pock- 
fretten, pock-markeet , marked by small-pox. 

" Aye, but he's a bonny lad, 

As ever ye did see, 
Tho' he's sair pock-bracken, 
An' he's blind of an e'e." 

Song, The Waggoner. 

POCK-MANTEL, PORTMANTLE, a portmanteau. 

POD, a complaint to which young rabbits are liable. Pod-belleet, 
pot-bellied. See POD-KITE. 

POD-KITE, a big belly, a glutton. See KITE. 

PODLIE, PODLER, names by which the young of the coal- 
say fish are known at various stages of growth, podlie being 
the very young, and podler a more advanced stage. See 

PO-HEED, POW-HEED, a tadpole* See POW-HEED. 


POIND, a silly, inactive person ; as " Hout ! he was aye a 
puir poind a' his days." Jamieson. Poind occurs in the name 
applied to one of two monoliths which stood near Shafto 
Crags. They were known as the "poind and his man." One 
only of these now remains. 

POINT-SKEETS, guides or conductors in a pit shaft, 
terminating below the opening at bank and above the 
opening at the bottom of the shaft where the tubs are 
changed. W. E. Nicholson, Gloss, of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

the rowan tree or mountain ash, Pyrus aucuparia. See 

POKED, offended. 

" He was sare poked.' 1 Brockett. 

POKE-HORSE, a pack horse. Lead ore was formerly trans- 
ported from the mine to the smelt mill in pokes, carried by 
galloways on the top of a wood saddle. 

41 Bring all the Poke-horses that trespasse upon the ffell into the comon 
pinefold." Gateshead Church Books, 1669. 

POKE-PUDDIN, a pudding boiled in a bag. " Mair poke nor 
puddin; mair cloot nor dinner " is a proverb which expresses 
the formula "more show than substance." 

" Here's Wheat-meal and Sewet, we'll have a Poak-puddin, 
Put a neef-fow o' Prunes in't and make it a geud ane." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 4. 

POKY, inquisitive. " He's a poky chep that." " He's an aad 
farrant, poky bit lad." 

POLIN, a sharp-pointed stake, driven above the head-tree, in 
lead mining, where the roof is of a soft or loose nature. 

POLLARDS, spoilt grain ground for pig feeding. 

PONY-PUTTER, in collieries, the lad who brings the tubs 
from the working places to the flat with a pony. Nicholson. 

POODLER, the coalsay, or coal-fish, when about three months 
old. In Loch Fyne they are called saith, and at Whit by they 
are known as billets. See COALSAY. 

11 They increase by September to one foot in length, and are then 
called poodlers." Rambles in Northumberland, etc., Stephen Oliver, the 
Younger (Mr. Chatto), 1835, p. 23. 


POOEY, PUOY, PUY, POWEY, POY, the pole used by keel- 
men to " set " or push the keel along. Standing at the bow 
of the keel, the man rapidly thrusts his pooey down to the 
bottom of the river, where a small fork holds it in the sand. 
He then lays the upper end against his shoulder, and puts his 
whole strength into play. As the keel moves under him the 
keelman steps along the side, pushing continuously with his 
shoulder until he passes to the stern of the vessel, where he 
instantly recovers his upright position, and at the same 
moment jerks his pooey from its "had" on the river bottom, 
and walks rapidly to the bow again to repeat the same 
operation. In North Northumberland, kent is the name for a 
boat propelling pole. On the Tyne, a very long pooey and a 
shorter one were used to suit the varying depth of water. 

" Poy, the pole used by rope dancers to stay themselves with." New 
World of Words, 1706. 

" Next comes a skipper bold, he'll do his part right weel ; 
A clever blade, I'm told, as ever poy'd a keel." 

Sword Dancers' Song. 
Richardson's Table Book, Leg. Div., vol. i., p. 210. 

POOKED, having a protuberance or bag under the jaw ; the 
symptom of a disease in sheep. 

POOMER, POONCER, a bouncer, anything large or inflated. 
Hence applied to an untruth. "That's a poomer, onnyway." 
" Ma wordy, that's zfooncer" (said of a huge trout). 

POOR-ROBIN, the flower red bartsia, Bartsia odontites. 
POOSE, to push or thrust. See POWSE. 

FOOT [N.], an unfledged bird. " Thor's five raa foots? the 
nest." On Tyneside they are called raa gorlins. The coot 
(Fulica atra, L.) is called the bell- foot or bald-poot. Compare 

POOT, little, insignificant. Applied to persons. " He's a little 
black foot." 

POOTHER, to dust. " He wis a' foother'd ower wi' meal." 
Used also as a cant term. To "pepper" or discomfit an 
adversary in a conflict. " We ga them a fine pootherin' " (said 
at a snowball contest). 

POP, a fop. Popfish, foppish. 

POPPLE, the corn-cockle, Lychnis githago, L. 


POPPLE, to pop or drop. 

11 His een was like to 've poppled out." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 45. 

POR, a poker. 

PORDY, PURDY, big bellied. " Whattan sort of a chep was 
he, Jack ? " " Oh, a little purdy body." 
" A Purdy, brosten kited fellow." Hodgson MS. 

PORKY, plump in the person. " A porky body " is a fat, podgy 

" What ? the porky gentleman." Brockett 

PORTER, a bar used as a handle or carrier, on which a smith 
welds a heavy piece of work, when much manipulation is 
required to be done to it. 

PORTER-POKEMAN, a grain porter, whose work it is to 
carry grain from the ship to a cart on the quay, or from the 
cart into warehouse. 

" He's a porter-pokeman, workin' on the quay." R. Nunn, Jocker. 
" The brawny porter-pokemen, bending under the sacks of grain, are seen 
steadily walking the springing planks laid from the deck to the quay 
edge." R. J. Charleton, Newcastle Town, 1885, p. 313. 

POSEY, decorated with floral patterns. "Aposey sampler." 

11 The pitmen's holiday waistcoats (called by them posey jackets) are 
frequently of very curious patterns, displaying flowers of various dyes." 
Mackenzie, History of Northumberland, p. 209. 

POSICAL, whimsical. 

POSS, to wash clothes. The clothes are put into a poss-iub, 
which is a strong forty or fifty gallon barrel, with an open 
end. It is partly filled with hot water, to which soap is 
added ; and the dirty clothes being put in are passed. This 
operation is performed with a poss-slick, a piece of timber 
with a heavy foot and stalk. 

POSSET. "Eating the posset" a custom formerly observed 
at wedding festivals. 

" In to the (bridal) chamber was brought a bowl containing a portion 
of broken white bread soaked in white milk instead of wine, into which 
the marriage ring was dropped ; the bride and bridegroom tasted the 
contents first, then the bowl was assailed by the lasses and lads ; and 
whoever ' fished ' up the ring was accounted to have the best chance of 
being first married." Richardson's Table Booh, Legendary Division, 
vol. i., 1842, p. 344. 

" The posset made she catch'd the bowl 
Where currant cakes in ale did roll." 

The Collier's Wedding. 


POSSY, short and fat, thick set, protuberant ; applied to the 

" Powsey, fat, decent-looking, respectable in appearance." Brockett. 

POST, sandstone of very firm, fine, compact grain ; but applied 
also to any distinct, massive bed. *' Grindstone post," the 
stratum from which Newcastle grindstones are obtained. 
Post-dyers, nodules in a bed of sandstone. 

"A number of limestone bands, or posts, will be found at the head of 
Sills burn." Hugh Miller, Geological Survey Memoir on Otterburn. 

POT, earthenware. " A pot dolly," an earthenware or porcelain 
doll. "Them figures is made o' pot." "Pot door-handles," 
etc. Pottie, a marble made of fine clay, like porcelain. 

POT, the heading written at the top of the game called "beds," 
or, locally, " hitchey dabber." It looks like a transposition 
of " top," as it is the top bed. To achieve it is to get " pot," 
and subsequent steps in the game count " one o'pot" " two 
o'pot," and so on. 

POTATO-POT, TATY-POT, a joint of meat baked in the 
oven on the top of a dish of potatoes. A favourite dish in 

POT-BAINEY, tripe minced and seasoned. This used to be 
sold in the streets by measure, and the familiar cry of the 
street vendor was : "Fine black puddins, hinney ; nice pot- 
bainey." It is also called minch-meat. 

POT-CLEPS, POT-KELPS, pot-hooks, or hooks used for 
suspending pots over the kitchen fire. 

POT-DAY, the day on which the pot with its broth was set on 
the fire. 

" On pot-days, of which Sunday is always one, flesh, broth, dumplings, 
and a profusion of vegetables form a kind of family feast." Mackenzie, 
History of Northumberland, vol. i. f 1825, p. 201. 

POT-HOLES, circular holes in a rocky stream bed, worn out 
by the swirl and scour of pebbles or gravel driven violently 
round and round in a depression of the rocks during floods ; 
also the sinking lines on limestone hills. " Swally-hole " is 
the common name for the circular depression found along the 
line of outcrop of a limestone stratum. 

POT-METAL, cast-iron. 



POT-PIE, or SEA-PIE, beef cut up into squares, encased in 
dough and boiled in a pot. 

POT-STONES, cone-shaped masses of stone, met with in the 
roofs of mines. See CAULDRON-BOTTOMS. 

POTTINGER, a coarse earthenware pot, with a handle. 
Brockett. Old fashioned surgeries and apothecaries' shops 
had these pots, which were highly glazed and perforated 
through the handle. 

POUCE, nastiness. Compare POUSOWDY. 
" Poucy, untidy, all in a litter." Brockett. 

POUSOWDY, hotchpotch, disorderment, a heterogeneous dish 
in cookery. 

POUT-PUNCH, in mining, a tool used by the deputies in 
drawing timber out of a dangerous place. It is either used 
as a ram to knock the props down, or to draw them out after 
they have been knocked down. Greenwell, Gloss, of Coal 
Trade, 1849. 

POVERTY-ENGINE, the tea kettle. So called from the 
increasing use of tea in place of milk and oatmeal. 

POW, to move with difficulty. " He can hardlies pow " 
hardly put one foot before the other. 

POW-HEED, a tadpole. Also the bird reed bunting, variously 
called Hack bunting, coal hood, and rasher cap. See PO-HEED. 

POWLED-OFF, made drunk. 

" If there's ony left that sees 

When Willy's tap runs thinnish, 
Let them be powl'd off at The Keys, 
Or at the Black Horse finish." 

T. Wilson, Oiling of Dicky's Wig. 

POWSE, to strike. Compare POOSE. 

" Peg powsed thor jaws and myed them squall." J. P. Robson, The 
Horrid War i' Sandgyet, 1851. 

POWT [N.] , a pullet. See Poor. 


POWTLE, POWTEL, PORTLE, to poke. What are ye 
powtellin at?" To " powtel about a burn side "is to poke in 
order to start trouts from their hiding places. To poke 
searchingly or playfully about any loose substance. Young 
pigs enjoy themselves when powtellin among loose straw. 
To powtel a fire is to stir the ashes out of it. 
"Then neist it raised its note and sang, 

Sae wytchingly and sweet ; 
The moudies powtelt out o' the yirth 
And kissed the singer's feet." 

The Gloamyn Buchte. 

POWTLE, to work feebly. Wright. Powtil in Halliwell. 
PREEK, to adorn. " She's a' f reeked up wi' ribbons an' laces." 

PREEN [N.'J , a pin. " Thor's a' preen on the floor." Preen-cod, 
a pincushion. See COD. 

PREESE, FREEZE, to press inwardly from pain in the 
region of the bowels, as when one strains. See THREAST. 

PRESSER, a press or clothes closet ; usually a large movable 
cupboard. Presser-bed, a press-bed, a folding-up bed, made to 
imitate a presser when closed. 

PRESSGANG, a group of romping children. 

PRICK, to ride, to gallop. (Obs.) 

" August 7, 1522. Twenty Scots pricket at the horse at Alwinton and 
were attacked by fourteen Englishmen." Letter of Philip Dacre, from 
Harbottle Castle, 

PRICKER, a thin pointed rod made of yellow metal, and 
used for placing and adjusting a blasting cartridge, which 
it perforates and remains embedded in till the stemming 
has been tamped round it. When withdrawn, it leaves 
a touch hole through which the cartridge is fired. A 
" stemmer," also of yellow metal, is a complimentary tool 
which accompanies a pricker. Hence "pricker and stemmer" 
are usually spoken of together. 

PRICKING, a thin layer of soft coaly shale, often found 
between the bottom of a seam of coal and the regular floor. 
It is used to " prick " in in kirving and is advantageous to 
the hewer." Greenwell. 

PRICKY-BOARD, a nice point. " When it comes to pricky- 
board." " He'll no' come up to pricky-board" that is, will not 
stand testing. 


PRIG, to cheapen in bargaining. " He's be sure to prig doon 
yor price, mind." 

PRIME, to pour water into a pump bucket to make it lift. 
When a pump bucket becomes dry and leaky and fails to 
induce suction, it is said to have lost ilsprimin. 

PRINCE'S-FEATHERS, the self-heal, Prunella vulgaris, L. 
It is very common in grassy places. It is also called heart o' 
the y earth. 

PRINKLIN, the stinging sensation caused by interruption of 
the circulation in a part of the body, as when the place is 
said to "go to sleep." 

PROD, a stick to drive anything out of its hiding place or hold, 
as fish from under a stone. Hodgson MS. A thrust with the 
point of a stick. " Aa gav him a prod i' the back." Prod, a 
small piece of bread or cheese, as much as can be stuck on 
the point of a knife. " Gi's just a prod o' yor cheese." Prod, 
to stick, stab, or wound ; also to probe. Hodgson MS. 
See PROG. 

PROG, the prickle of a thorn, whin, etc. 

PROG, PROGUE [N.] , to prick. " Aa've prog'd me thoom 
wuv a needle." A child's game is called * a pin ti' prog in." 
A few pictures or coloured papers are placed at random 
within the leaves of a book, the owner of which charges one 
pin for each chance at the game. The pin is progged in 
between the leaves by the player. Progger, a butcher's 
stabbing knife. Proggk, a prick, a prickle, as the spine of a 
hawthorn, thistle, etc. Proggle, to prick, a variant of prog. 
Proggly, prickly. "The whin busses wis proggly gan through, 
aa can tell ye ! " 

"The gully, the progger, and steel." W. Midford, Hangman and the 
Calf, 1849. 

"Thro 1 puils, 'cross progly ditches." J. P. Robson, Hamlick. 

PROOD, proud, bold. 

"A seam of coal is said to be proud when its section is higher than 
ordinary." Brockett. 

PROP-MELL, a mell, or maul, used in setting up or with- 
drawing pit props in a mine. 

PROVE, PREAVE, to ascertain the position of a seam of 
coal when it has been thrown downwards or upwards by a 
slip ; or (to ascertain) the nature of the strata in a district 
by boring or sinking. Gveenwell. 


PRY, PRYE, a name given to several grasses. When "spret" 
gets old and hard, the bottom only is eaten by sheep, and it 
is called pry. The Poa trivialis, or rough-stalked meadow 
grass, also called forked grass, the Holcus lanatus, or midge 
grass, and the Carex panicea, with other species of Carex, are 
all of them included as pry grasses. Sir W. Elliot, Hist, of 
Bu>ks. Nat. Club, vol. viii., p. 454, note. 

PRY, the woody variety of coal in the Shilbottle seam. 

PUBBLE, full, plump ; usually spoken of corn or fruit ; in 
opposition to fantome. Brockett. 

PUDDIN, in the game of see-saw the undue displacement of 
the balance. " Gi's a bit mair puddin " means let me have a 
longer leverage. "To give the craa a puddin," to fall 
suddenly in worldly position or estate. See PUTTY. 

PUDDIN-WIFE, a professional or expert pudding maker. 
At pig-killing it was formerly usual to call in the services of a 
puddin- wife, who had skill in dressing the various edible 
portions of the " innards " of the pig. 


PUD-REDD, the spawn of frogs and toads. 
PUFFY-DUNTER, a porpoise. 

PULIN, in a poor, weakly way ; said of the health or of any- 
thing that is indifferent. " It's pulin on " applied to rain 
that is said sometimes to be "spittin," not falling in regular 
and heavy showers, but in continuous dribble. " He' ye had 
ony snow i' yor pleyce ?" " Wey it's oney been pulin on." 

PULKE, probably the same as bulk, a partition. See BULK. 

"The standing pulke in the hall." Will of Alice Carr, May 31, 1596. 
Richard Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 105. 

PULL, to row. Pull, a row in a boat. Puller, a boat rower, 
an oarsman ; but usually applied to a professional rower. 
" Noo there's Bob Chambers and Harry Clasper, 
Nee two in a boat they can pull faster." 

George Ridley (d. 1864), Blctydon Keelman. 
" He oft wad steal a boat away, 
And gan an hev a pull.'' 

George Ridley, Chambers. 


PULLER-BACK, a short rope passed from snout to snout of 
a tram (in a pit) and used in that position as a handle when 
off the road. 

PULLY-HAAL, to pull by main force. Pully-haaly, a struggle, 
a scrimmage. " Thor wis a reg'lar pully-haaly" 

" Aa the rest on uz pnlly-haulin and kicking till the baa gat clear oot 
amang them." D. D. Dixon, Shrovetide Customs at Roth bury. 

PUNCH-PROP, in mining, a short prop set upon the top of a 
crowntree, or balk, where the roof has coved or fallen and 
does not bear evenly on the crowntree. Also a short prop 
about fourteen or fifteen inches long, placed by a hewer under 
his sump or back end, when there is any danger of its 
dropping down before he has got it kirved sufficiently far. 

" Punch, thick and short, as ' a punch creature.' " Jamieson. 

PUOY, a keelman's pole. See POOEY. 

PURL, to play a marble by holding it between the tip of the 
forefinger and the thumb. It is done as a preliminary to 
certain games in order to settle precedence. By purlin the 
marble nearest the mark a player obtains first turn. Or he 
" wins the purl " when marbles are played for in this way. 
The game is called purley. Purl, to twist between finger 
and thumb. Horsehair is purled thus in making snares for 
bird-catching in winter. Compare SHIRL. 

" Purlicue, the space enclosed by the extended fore-finger and thumb. 
A ' Spang and a purlicue ' is a measure allowed in a certain game at 
marbles. " Brockett. 

PURR, the dunlin, Pelidna cinclus, L. It is also called stint and 
sea-lark, the latter name being also applied to the ring dotterel. 

PURSE (pronounced parse), a fragment of coal that has cracked 
and flown from the fire-grate. If it is of rounded shape and 
clinks as it cools it is supposed to be a purse with money in 
it, and it augurs fortune to the person who picks it up. If, 
on the contrary, it is an oblong splinter and emits no sound, 
it is a " coffin," and portends evil. 

PURY, a foot-stalk or projecting spur used to steady or stand 
a vessel upon. There are three purys at the bottom of a yetlin 
for it to stand on. 



PUT, to palpitate, to throb ; as in the sensation when an 
abscess is forming and the pulsations are felt in the inflamed 
part. " Me hand's putting an' aa's flaid it's gan ti beeld." 
"A puttirf pain" pain felt at each pulsation. Put, to 
vegetate, as when a plant begins to show the first sign of 
buds. "Aa see it's aall reet ; it's puffin" Put, to push, to 
thrust forward. To put a stone is to thrust it forward. In 
doing this the hand is held up over the shoulder and the 
stone is laid on the flat palm. A slight bending of the knees 
and a quick recovery of the upright position enables the 
thrower to put the stone forward with great force. To put a 
tram is to propel it. To propel a keel with a powey is called 
to put or to set. To put the door or to put to the door is to 
push it close. "Put the door." " See that the door's put to." 
Put-back, to thrust or hold back. Put-down, to put to death. 
A horse or dog are said to be put-down they are not said 
to be killed or destroyed. To put oneself doon is to commit 
suicide. Put-on, dressed. To put-on, in mining, is to overlie. 
The on-put is the overlay of beds, etc., above an outcrop. See 
ON-PUT. Put-out, to crop out. "The limestone puts-out." 
Put-ower, to tide over, to survive. " Aa'll try to put-ower till 
Christmas." "He'll not put-ower the neet " (said of one in 
the last extremity). Put-pay, the payment of the fortnight's 
wages delayed until after the usual day. Nicholson. Putter, 
in mining, the man who conveys coal from the hewer to the 
flat. The putters put or push the tram forward from behind. 
Putter has become applied to anyone who conveys the coal 
from the face to the flat or station whence it is hauled by 
engine-power. Hence hand-putter and pony-putter, the latter 
being the lad who drives where ponies are used in bringing 
out the coal from the working place to the flat. Putters are 
also called barrowmen. Put-through, to get through with effort. 
" If aa oney put-through this job aa'll be reet eneuf." Puttin- 
hewer, in mining, a young hewer who is liable to be called 
upon to put if necessary. Puttin -ponies, ponies ten or eleven 
hands high, used in substitution for putters or barrowmen. 

"I have heard of Iron Frames that have been used to put back these 
Quick Sands." J.C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 21. 

" May, 1589. Alice Stokoe, the 13 May buried. She was servant to 
Thomas Hodgson, butcher, and did put down herselfe in her maistor's 
house in her own belt." Brand, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. i., p. 674. 

" 1564. This yeare Partrage was put downs for coyninge fals monnye in 
the Great Innes in Pilgrame Streat." Can MS. R. Welford, Hist, oj 
Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 397. 

" He likes to see ye wesl put on." James Horsley, A New Start for '81. 


"He trusted to put ouer this (illness)." Deposition in 1562. Richard 
Welford, Hist, of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 379. 

" Quick-Sands (if not too thick) are often put through by Deals or 
Timber." J.C., Compkat Collier, 1708, p. 21. 

" They put the full Curves of Coals." 

J.C., Compkat Collier, 1708, p. 36. 

" Ev'ry man and mother's son 
Lay down the pick and start to put." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827, ii., v. 47. 

" Every day, for mony a pay, 
Aa've hewed and putten twee and twenty." 

The same, i., 52. 

"A heedsman, then, they myed me suin, 
And efter that a.pitttin-hewer." 

The same, ii., v. 72. 

PUTTY, leverage, the balance or trim put out. In carrying a 
weight with a pole, shoulder height, should the balance be 
unduly pressed on one side, the labourer will say to the one 
with the longer purchase, " Ye've ower much putty on." See 

PUZZEN-BARRIES, poison berries. Berries of the woody 
nightshade ; also commonly applied to the berries of the 
mountain ash, which are popularly supposed to draw the 
entrails together. See REDDENS. 

PUZZLY-O'S, a child's game, called also " *'s and 0's." The 
object is to get three o's in line between or along the limbs 
of a cross. The player begins with marking an 0, and the 
opponent places an x in front of it ; and thus the play 
continues, each marking alternately, until three 0's are 
brought in line, or until all the nine spaces are filled. In 
the former case o has won ; in the latter x has prevented o, 
and has himself won. 

PYESSY-NEW, new at the Easter time. On Easter Sunday 
(Paste or Pyest-egg Day) some new article of clothing must 
be worn, otherwise the birds in flying overhead will testify 
against the wearers of pyessy-aad by spattering the clothes of 
the offender. 

PYIN, prying, looking about with a sneaking curiosity. " He 
went pyin a boot." 

PYREY, springy ; applied to a bed of stone from which 
water springs ; as "pyrey post," etc. 

QUADDLE, to boil and bubble, as water or broth. " The 
pot's qnaddlin on the hud." 


QUARL, QUAREL, a flag or tile, usually square, made of 
burnt fire-clay. Under the term "brick" are included sizes 
up to twelve inches long by six inches wide. Above this 
area it is called a quarl or tile. 

QUARRY-BRAE, the descent to a quarry. Quarry-fyess, the 
quarry face; its perpendicular side. Quarry-hole, a disused 
quarry. Compare PIT-HOLE. Quarry -post, sandstone suitable 
for building purposes. 

QUARTER-ILL, a disease among cattle, especially among 
young cattle, affecting them in one limb or quarter. It is 
generally fatal. At the birth of a calf, salt is sprinkled on 
its back, and an egg shell and all thrust down its throat. 
Sometimes a sort of invocation or incantation is mumbled 
over a newly-calved calf, the last few words being : " And 
may thoo ken nee mair o' the quarter-ill nor aa ken whether 
thoo's a bull or a quey." 

QUAY, the raised terrace' at the side of a street ; as in High 
Street, Gateshead. These quays have nearly all gone in 
modern street improvements; but " Perkin's Quay" and 
" Busyburn Quay " yet remain. 

QUAYSIDE-UMBRELLA, a swill or kind of basket, formed 
of unpeeled willows, which is generally carried on the head 
of a certain class of females. When the weather is wet 
and the basket empty, they invariably wear it topsy-turvy : 
hence its proverbial Newcastle name. Proverbial Folk Lore of 
Newcastle, by M.A.D., 1855, p. 12. 

QUEEN, QUINE, a woman. It is used in complimentary 
manner in the following forms : " A good leukin queen " a 
young woman of prepossessing appearance ; " She's a j^awl, 
spankin queen" a strong, active girl; "A sonsy queen" 
a plump damsel. By inversion, queen is used sometimes as a 
term of opprobrium. " She's a queen, noo, an' nee mistake." 

"Thou old wizzen-kited quine." 

W. Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854, 

QUEEN-OF-THE-MEADOW, meadow sweet, Spiraa ulmaria. 

QUEEN'S-CUSHION, a method of carrying a person; 
commonly practised in a children's game, but not unfrequently 
used in ambulance work. 

"Of two persons each grasps his right wrist with his left hand, and 
with the other lays hold of his neighbour's wrist, so as to form a seat of 
four hands and wrists conjoined. On these the person to be carried 
seats himself, or is seated by others, putting his arms, for greater security, 
round the necks of the bearers. "Jamieson. 


QUEEN'S-HEED, a postage stamp. 

QUEEN'S-PLAY, the truce called in boys' play. See KING'S- 


QUELL, probably a muffle. 

1490. " Robert Postell, for a qweyll to the little bell, 6d." Accounts of 
Churchwardens oj Gateshead. Richard Welford, Hist, of Newcastle in XIV. 
and XV. Centuries, p. 397. 

QUEY, QUY, a young cow that has not had a calf. A calf is 
either a bull or a quey. The spelling of this word with an 
initial q is similar to the old Northern usage found in quhile 
for while, quhen for when, quilk for whilk, quig for whig, quhair 
for where, words now spoken with an aspirated w (hw). See 

" Stealeing of two kine and two quies." 1628. Archaologia JEliana, 
vol. i., p. 157. 

QUICK, alive, alert. See WHICK. 

QUICKENS, the roots of weeds, especially those of the couch 
or twitch-grass, Triticum repens, Linn. The latter is also 
known as fanny-grass and wrack. See WHICKENS. 

QUICKEN-TREE, the mountain ash. See ROWAN-TREE. 

QUICKS, young hawthorn plants for planting hedgerows. 
Usually known as whicks. 

QUIG, QUICK, a Nonconformist. The term whig or quig 
was thus formerly applied in Newcastle. See WHIG. 

" Henry Hutson buiried in the Quick's buring plas in Sidgatt, 22nd 
Jan., 1704." 1708. "Quigs buring p\as."Archaologia JEliana, vol. xiii., 
pp. 240-1. 

QUOIT, the ball used in the game of " trippet and quoit" It 
was formerly made of wood, of lignum vitae by preference ; 
and hence usually called a liggv. Balls made of white glazed 
earthenware are now used, and still retain their name of 
liggies. See TRIPPET. The game of quoits itself, in which 
circular iron rings are pitched at a " hob," is also known in 
Northumberland as " horse shoes," from the circumstance 
that old shoes are often used as substitutes for quoits. 

QUOT, quit, let go. " Quot yor had "let go your hold. 
QUOT, a coat. See KWOAT. 



RAA, a row of houses. " Frenchman's Raa" " Quality Raa" 
" The Pit Raa" " The Back Raa" etc. 

[W.-T.] , RAA-POOT [T.] , terms for a young bird in the 
nest without feathers. 

RAB, the broken and shivered stone in a quarry. 
" Raab, a mass of rock fallen from a cliff." Jamieson. 

RABBLEMENT, a tumultuous crowd, a mob. Often used 
contemptuously in speaking of people. " Wad ye hev onny- 
thing te de wi' sic rabblement as thor ? " 

RACE, a range or series. "A race of pits." 

RACE-CLOUTS, the iron plates on the bottom of a wooden 
plough. Hodgson MS. 

RACK, WRACK, sea-weed, field weeds. "Rack heap "a 
weed heap. Sea- weed is also called sea-ware. The Laniinaria 
digitata is specially known as May-weed. Compare WASSAL. 

RACK, a track. "A cart rack" the trace or wheel marks of a 
cart. "A sheep rack" the path made by sheep along the 
hillsides. Compare RAKE, i. 

RACK, RATCH, a streak of colour, a streak of drifting clouds, 
a straight line or reach of navigable river. " Bill rack," 
" Hebburn rack" " The Lang rack" are reaches of the Tyne. 

" The keelman's dues tiv iv'ry rack, 
What they sud hev for coals browt back, 
And lyin' tides, just tiv a plack, 

Knew Faddy. 
T. Wilson, Keelman's Tribute, 1838. 

RACK, RACK-RIDER, the name in Redesdale for the 
brandling trout. 

"There are a good many brandling trouts or pars called racks in this 
part of the country caught in the Reed." Rambles in Northumberland, 
1835, p. 131. 

or chain and hook for suspending pots over a fire. Compare 


RA CKET, a stress, a struggle as in violent exertion. 

" This was wark for tryin mettle; 
Here every tuil his level fand. 
Sic tussels nobbit pluck could settle, 
For nowse less could the racket stand." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v. 63. 

RACKLE, rash, violent, headstrong. 

" Eneugh like this aw've heerd thro 1 life ; 

For ev'rybody hez a plan 
Te guide a rackle, ram-stam wife, 
Except the poor tormented man." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., v. 66. 

RACKLE, a loose heap. " He's oney a rackle o' byens." See 

RADGY, lewd, wanton. 

RAE, the wild roe. 

"'As wild as the rae' is a well-known Border phrase." Dr. Hardy, 
Bwks. Nat. Club, vol. ix., p. 454. 

RAFF, miscellaneous, odd-and-end, unclassified. 

" 3d. for every last of flax, hemp, pitch, tar, or any other goods or raff 
wrires, rated by the last." Charter to Trinity House, Newcastle. Welford, 
Hist, of Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 175. 

RAFF, timber, especially in boards and kinds ready for use. 
Raff-yaird timber yard. Raff -mar chant limber merchant. 

RAFF, dissolute or idle people, riff-raff. 

"'Raff,' abundance, a great quantity, a great number. 'A raff of 
fellows,' a great many men." Brockett. 

" His better half, all fire and tow, 
Called him a slush his comrades raff." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 39. 

RAFFETY, irregular, applied by sinkers to stratified deposits, 
as "Raffety brown post." Compare SCAFFY. 

RAFFLE, to entangle, to bamboozle. Compare ROPPLE. 

" Pee-dee ran to clear the anchor, 

It's raffled,' right loudly he roared." 

Song, The Little P.D., 1805. 
" 'Twad raffle a magistrate." 

Newcastle saying. 

RAFFLING, idle, worthless, dissolute. It is especially applied 
to one who raffles or confuses everything he takes in hand. 
"A raffling chap." Brockett. 


RAFFS, long, coarse straws. Raffy, coarse in texture and large 
in bulk. "Lang vaffy strayed yets thame" (said of oats bulky 
and coarse in the straw). Anything light and " fozy " is said 
to be vaffy. 

RAG, to tease, to vex. A harmless old man in Coquetdale 
warned a company of companions, who were teasing him, 
thus: " Divvent rag us when aa's i' drink, or aa'll mebby 
hort some on ye." Also to rate soundly, to scold. Raggin, 
a scolding. " He gat a rare raggin ower the job." 

RAG-AND-CHAIN-PUMP, or RAG-PUMP, an old and 
obsolete form of mining pump. The ordinary form of this 
consists of an endless chain which in its upward movement 
travels in a pipe. At short intervals circular iron plates are 
attached and carry up a stream of water before them. 

" Sometimes a bunch of rags was substituted for plates, when it took 
the name of the ' rag-and-chain-pump .' " Galloway, Hist, of Coal Mining, 
1882, p. 55. 

RAG-BACCY, shag tobacco. Formerly a general term ; now 

" We went to the grocer's to get some rag baccy." 

R. Emery, Pitman's Ramble, 1842. 

RAGEOUS, raging. (Obs.) 

" The Rageous Pangs that I ha' tane, 
Wou'd e'en have bursi'n a Heart o' Stane ! " 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 30. 

RAGGY, ragged. Raggy -backs, long-horned Lancashire and 
Irish cattle. Sometimes applied as a sarcastic name for 
people who are not well off. 

RAGLINS, the slender ceiling joists of a building, which carry 
the lattice for plaster-work near the roof. 

RAG-WELL, a well resorted to by invalids in former days. 
A piece of underclothing was put into it, and if it floated the 
pilgrim understood that his recovery was at hand. 

" Near Newcastle, on the road to Benton, in my younger years, I have 
often observed a well with rags and tattered pieces of cloth hung upon 
the bushes around it. It is known, I presume, still by the name of 'The 
Rag Well."' Gentleman's Magazine, 1794, pt. i., p. 592. 

RAID, RODE, an inroad, a Border foray. A " Warden raid" 
an inroad commanded by one of the Wardens of the March 
in person. 

" A great rode that the Scottes made upon Tynedale and Ridsdale, 
\\herein they took up the whole country, and did very neare beggar them 
for ever." Cavty to Lord JSurghley, July 2, 1595. 

" He ne'er again shall ride a raid." 

Old Ballad, The Fray o' Hautwessel 


RAILWAY, formerly written as two words, and originally a 
way, made by laying down upon sleepers (dormants) two 
parallel wooden rails, each about four inches square. 

"They were probably invented in this district between the years 1632 
and 1649, and were known in other parts of the kingdom as 'Newcastle 
Koads.' For long after their introduction they were knpwn by no other 
name. In the term railway, or, as the early writers on the subject put it, 
rail-way, the original name of the wooden rail is retained." Taylor, 
Archeology of the Coal Trade, 1852, pp. 150-80. 

"The length of the rail-way on which the waggon runs is 864 yards." 
Impartial History of Newcastle, 1801, p. 610. 

RAIM, to talk or call fretfully and persistently. "What are 
ye raimin on at ? " " He just raimed away like one oot iv his 
heed." Raimin, talking in a wearisome fashion, or with 
childish repetition, on any subject ; as, " He wis raimin on 
aboot it aal the time." 

RAIN. It is common to hear children calling in chorus during 
a heavy shower : * Rain, rain, gan away ; come another 
summer's day." 

" Happy is the corpse that the rain rains on." 

Northumberland saying. 

RAIN-BIRDS, RAIN-FOWL, popular names for wood- 
peckers. Brockett. 

RAINDERINS, renderings, the skimming parts left after 
melting and clarifying lard. 

RAIR, an outcry, an uncouth shout. 

" Robin ta Bobbin he cock't up his bow ; 
An' shot at a woo'cock ; but hat an aad yow. 
The yow gav a blare, an' Robin a rair ; 
An' wis nivver seen mair at Stainshabank fair." 

West Tyne rhyme. 

RAIR, to roar, to yell, to cry loudly. " Whativver is he rairin 
there at ? " Also applied to the roaring or cry of an animal. 
Of a cow it is said, " She's rairin for her tormits." 

" Skreem'd, and rair'd beyond all ayme." G. Stuart, Joco-Scvious 
Discourse, 1686, p. 26. 

" What make ye thus to rant and rair." 

T. Donaldson, Glanton, Poems, 1809, p. 146. 

RAISE, to rouse, to vex, to madden. " He was that raised he 
wad a fair killed us if he'd getten a had on us." Raising-the- 
devil, walking three times round a church backwards. 
Hodgson MS. It means, literally, to vex the devil. 


RAITHER [N. and S.] , RETHER [T.] , rather, somewhat. 
"Raythev wiv a vayther" a colloquialism expressing a faint 
smirch or taste of anything. "It's raithev wiv a r ait her ; if 
onything wiv a smatch of onion aboot it." 

RAKE, a right of pasture, a "stray" for cattle. Sheep-rake, a 
sheep-walk. Compare RACK, i, and GATE, 3. 

" It pays 135. 46. to Mr. Forster yearly for what is call'd a Rake for 
their cattle in Tuggle Moore." MS. Survey, Lower Brunton, 1724. 

"Two brode waies or rakes commonly used occupied and worne with 
cattal brought out of Scotland " (no date). Hodgson MS. 

RAKE, a set journey or errand. " He went twee rakes wi' the 

RAKE, RAKE-VEIN [W.-T.] , in lead mining, the great or 
leading vein of ore, found perpendicularly, or with more or 
less ' hade ' or slope in the rock fissure. 

RAKE, to range. " As it will be rain, the cows do not rake to- 
day to the hills." 

" She's lang legg'd and mother-like, A you hinney burd ; 
See, she's raking up the dyke, A you a.'' 

Song, A you A . 
" She was raking up and down." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 30. 

RAKE, to rake a fire, to heap small coals on the fire, that it 
may burn all night, practised in the North, where coals are 
cheap, a kitchen fire being rarely suffered to go out. Grose. 
It is really to rake the pile of small coals forward from the 
step at the back of the fire, where they are usually thrown. 

RAKER, the leading galloway in a train of pack-horses. The 
horse that showed the road or rake to the string that followed 
in single file. When the galloways were ready, they each 
sagaciously endeavoured to get first at the start so as to get 
the raker's place. Lead was formerly brought over the fells 
by these trains of galloways to be smelted on Deel's Watter 
and in Allendale. 

"Rag or Rake is a company or herd of young colts." New World of 
Words, 1706. 

RAM, foul, fetid, rank. " Me pipe's varry ram." "As ram as 
a fox." " Begox, but it smells ram" Compare RAMSH. 

" A northern word ; and, indeed, a common low expression in other 
parts." Todd. 

"It is probable that the word is a special application of a general 
term signifying originally the male of animals." Wedgwood. 


RAMBLE, RAMELL, earthy or stony material without 
cohesion and without regularity of texture. Or a loose, 
friable deposit of shale that shivers in working and becomes 
mixed with adjacent beds. Ramblin-slones, rumble-stones, 
riimmle-siyens, loose stones. Compare TUMBLERS. Rambly, 
rammely, of the nature of ramble crumbly, disintegrated, 
gravelly. Rambly clay, clay mixed with gravel. Rambly post, 
rambly stone, shattered or disintegrated stone. 

RAM EL, small tree branches, Ramel-wood, the natural forest. 

" There growyth many allers and other rameM-wood." Survey of Cheviot, 
Cott. MSS. Hodgson, pt. iii., vol. 2. 

RAMLIN-LAD, a tall, fast-growing, rambling youth ; a sort of 
hobblety-hoy. Brockett. 

RAMMELY, tall and rank. Brockett. 

RAMMER, a cant term for a huge, uncouth thing. "It's a 
rammer " extremely large. A pooncer or pooser, a poomer, a 
whapper, a lasher, are similarly used. 

RAM MY, a horn or other kind of spoon. 

RAMP, a strain, a severe wrench. " He thout the horse'd 
gien hissel a ramp." Ramp, to sprain, to tear violently 
(p.t. ramped, rampeet, or rampit). "Aa slip'd an' ramfd me 
anclet." " Aa've rampeet a' me back wi' loupin'." 

" The hunds an' hunters then cam up, 

The howkin it began ; 
Then Andra Robson rampit oot 

Sic thunnerin stanes in blocks; 
He ript the haggs and splet the craggs, 
For that Tarsettearian Fox" 

James Armstrong, The Tarsettearian Fox, 1879. 

RAMP, to eat with a gnashing sound. " He wis rampin an' 
eatin tormits." 

RAMPAGE, the act of tearing about in a towering passion, 
as in the phrase " He's on the rampage." " He turns every- 
thing topsy-turvy in his rampage." To rampage, to act in a 
fury. Rawpagious, going about furiously. 

RAMPER [N.] , the lamprey. 

RAMPS, the broad-leaved garlic or ramsons, Allium ursinum, 
Linn. Called also wild leeks. This plant is very common in 
woods and thickets, and when eaten by cows it imparts 
its concentrated taste of onion to the milk. Hence the 
description of " rampy milk" or "rampy butter." 

" Eat Leekes in Lide, and Ramsons in May, 
And all the year after physitians may play." Old proverb. 


RAM-RACE, a charge at full tilt. 

"The bull took a ram-race at the unfortunate man." Rambles in 
Northumberland, 1835, p. 218. 

RAMSCOOTER, to drench with water from a squirt or 
syringe (scooter). 

RAMSH, rank, foul. See RAM. 

" Ramish, that smells rank, like a ram or goat." Bailey, 1724 ed. 

RAMSHACKLE, RAMSHACKLE, to rummage. " Whees 
ramshackled a' thor, an' thraan the things tops-a-torvy ?" 
Also working loose, as a cranky machine does. " Ye nivver 
saa sic a ramshackle aad ingin i' yor life. It wis for aall the 
world like a scrap heap clatterin' an' jinglin." Higgledy- 
piggledy, disorderly. "A ramshackle house" a tumble-down, 
ruinous house. 

RAMSTAM, or RAMSTRANG, headlong, obstinate, stiff- 

RANDIBO-HOUSE, a questionable house. From rendezvous- 
house ; that is, a house where the press-gang put up. 

RANDY, a disorderly, scolding, quarrelsome woman. " She's 
a reg'lar randy." 

RANEY, a Christian name, probably for Rennie or Renwick. 

" There wis Will, an 1 Mat, an' Jack, an' Tom, an' Raney, an' Gwoardy, 
an' Roger, an' Fen wick, an' Jerry, an' Nanny, an' Peggy." Thomas 
Bewick, The Howdy, etc., 1850, p. u. 

RANGE, RENCH, to rinse. " Range oot that pot." " Range 
yor mooth oot." Compare SIND. 

RANK, to mark with lines, to scratch. To " rank a table " is 
to scratch it. Hodgson MS. 

RAMEL-TREE, a tree branch stripped of its bark, but 
otherwise undressed and unsquared (a peeled grain), yet to 
be seen in old cottage chimneys. The rackans, or pot-hooks, 
were hung upon it. In some arrangements, a second beam 
or tree is placed at right angles, one end resting on the centre 
of the rannel-baak and the other on a stone in the gable wall. 
This was called a " rackan-tree," and from it the pot-hook 
was suspended. 

"The cross piece of wood in a chimney, upon which the rackans 
or pot-hooks are hung, is called the randle-balk." Archaologia JEliana, 
vol. iv., p. 129, note. 


RANT, a lively song with chorus. "The Collier's Rant " is 
an ancient song with the " owerword " at each verse, " Follow 
the horses, Johnny, my lad, oh !" 

RANTY-TANTY, a troublesome weed in cornfields. Brocket*. 
RAP, to signal to the breaksman at a colliery. See RAPPER. 

RAP-CHAFTS. "At rapchafts "-having nothing to eat. "We 
were fairly at rapchafts" that is, we had not a bit of food in 
the house. The term means to rap (or knock) the chafts 
(jaws) together without any food between them. 

RAPE, REAP, a rope. Wine-rape, a wain rope ; used for 
tying down hay, straw, and corn on a cart. See Tow. 

" The Halter lang they canno' Scape ; 
They'll hang themsel's gi' them but Raip." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 43. 

RAPPER, a knocker, also a lever at the top of a shaft or 
inclined plane, to one end of which a hammer is attached, 
and to the other a line or rapper-rope, communicating with 
the bottom of the shaft or incline. Its use is to give signals 
when everything is ready at the bottom for drawing away. 

RAPPERDANDIES, the common bilberry, Arbutus uva-ursi,L. 

RAPSCALLION, LA.PSCALLION, a rascallion, a wild, 
reckless fellow ; a waistrel or worthless man. 

RASH, fresh, vigorous. " Hoo are ye ? " " Aye, man, rash." It 
is applied to old people who have preserved their youthful 
vigour. " She's myest siventy, but she's iherashest i' the hoose 

RASH, RASHER, RESHER, a rush. Applied to the Juncus 
conglomerattis, Juncus effusus, and Juncus glaucus, all common in 
Northumberland, the Juncus effusus being commonest. " Streit 
as a rasher" is a proverbial expression. Various articles 
are made for [playthings by plaiting rashers. They are known 
as rasher-caps, rasher-baskets, whips, etc. Bull-resher, the 

" His breeches and his jacket clad a body rasher stright." R. Gilchrist, 
Bold Archy, 1824. 

"The pith was wont to be a wick for the 'cruizy' or lamp of the 
spectacled o]d dame." Johnston, Botany of Eastern Borders, p. 199. 

RASHER-CAP, the reed bunting, Cynchramus schceniclus, L. 
Called also black-headed bunting, reed-sparrow, black-bunting, coal- 
hood, and pow- heed. 


RASPER, an impudent, over-reaching fellow. 

RAT, or WRAT, a wart. The popular local remedies are 
very curious. 

' The most efficacious ways of curing warts : (i) Take a large black 
snail, rub the wart well with it, then throw the snail against a thorn 
hedge till it is impaled, and there let it die. (2) Count the number of 
warts, put as many pebbles in a bag as there are warts, throw the bag 
away ; whoever picks up the bag will get the warts. (3) Steal a piece of 
meat, rub the warts with it, throw it away, and as it rots so will the 
warts. (4) Make as many knots in a hair as there are warts, throw it 
away, a cure follows. (5) Rub the wart with eel's blood." Rev. J. F. 
Bigge, Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club., 1860-2, vol. v., p. 89, 

RATCH, a reach, a straight piece of navigation or navigable 
water. Also a streak. "The meer hes a white ratch doon 
hor fyess." See RACK. 

RATCH, to beat up against a head wind by alternate " boards." 

RATCH, to scratch searchingly, to ferret about in quest of 
anything. " What are ye ratchin i' me box for ? " 

RATHERLINGS, for the most part. Brocket*. (Obs.) 

RAT-RHYME, RAT-RAIM, a monotonous doggerel rhyme. 

"Ratt-rime, anything metrical repeated by rote." Jamieson. 

"The fanciful idea that rats were commonly rhymed to death, in 
Ireland, arose probably from some metrical charm or incantation used 
there for that purpose." Nares. 

RATTAN, RATTEN, RATTON, a rat. The barn's full o' 
rattans." " Aa divvent care for a moose ; but aa's aaful flaid 
on a rattan." 

RATTAN-TAILS (rat-tails), the seed stems of the greater 
plantain, Plantago major. Much sought after by those who 
keep cage birds. This plant is also known as waybredf, way- 
bret, wayfron, wayborn, and spikes. 

RATTEN-RAW, ROTTEN-ROW, in place-names, appears 
in Redesdale, where it is applied to a "Tinkler's Raw" of 
cottages. It is also applied to several other similar raws in 
Northumberland as in other counties. (See Hist, of Bwks. 
Nat. Club, vol. viii., p. 446, note.) " Rattenraw burn will not 
make a crowdy after May-day." The saying arose from the 
poverty of the inhabitants. Ratten Rawe (now Cross Street) 
is given in Bourne's map of Newcastle, 1736, as the row or 
road from the West Gate to Black Friars Monastery, past 
what is now Charlotte Square. 


RATTLER, a child's rattle ; a talkative woman. 


rattle-headed, headstrong, unstable, or frolicsome person. 
"He's a reg'lar rattle-scaap ; he's elwis up te some trick or 

RAVEL, RA1VEL, REAVEL, to talk incoherently or in an 
involved and wandering way. " Ravelin an' taakin." An 
intricate or difficult task is said to be a " ravelled hank " in 
allusion to the ravel of a tangled skein. " Thoo's getten a 
ravelled hank this time." A loose bit of thread. " Stop till 
aa tyek that raivel offyor cwot." Ravellitt, wandering about 
without apparent purpose. " He was ravellin aboot like a 
drucken body." 

RAVEL-TREE, RAVEL-STICK, the cross beam in a byre, 
to which the cow stakes are fastened. 

RAX, a severe strain, an internal injury caused by a wrench. 
Rax, to reach, to stretch out, to enlarge. To rax oneself is 
to stretch out one's arms after sleep or long sitting. To rax 
cloth or a coat. " See what a way this '11 rax oot ; it '11 rax 
a yard afore it '11 rive an inch." " They'll rax an' run up like 
Tommy Yarrow's breeches" (Hexham proverb), applied to 
anything very elastic. Tommy Yarrow was a celebrated 
maker of leather breeches, which he asserted to be capable 
of stretching or shrinking to meet the wearer's requirements. 
To rax the belly-rim is to strain so as to produce hernia. 
" To rax oot," to clear up applied to the weather. 

RAZOR-BACKEET, sharp-backed ; as a very lean horse with 
an acute backbone. Razor -jy ess, a sharp-featured person, 
especially one that is close fisted and greedy. 

REAN, the furrow or the terraced slope between two strips of 
plough land. See REEN. 

REAP, RIP, a small portion pulled from a sheaf or stack. 
Reap-snare, a snare for birds, consisting of hair noozes baited 
with a reap of oats, set up on a pole. 

REARD, REERD, riot, confusion. 
REAST. See REEST and following words. 


REAVE, REIVE, to rob applied specially to the Border 

" The limmer thieves o' Liddesdale 
Wad na leave a kye in the hail countrie ; 
But an we gie them the caud steel, 
Our gear they'll reive it a' awaye." 

The Fray o' Haiitwessell. 

REAVERS, the wight riding Borderers. 

" Gud honast men and true, savyng a little shiftyng for their living'; 
God and our leddie help them, silie pure men."Mendmis. Bullein, 
Dialogue against the Fever Pestilence, 1578. 

born ; the youngest member of a family. It is applied to the 
youngest or smallest of a Jitter of pigs, or to the youngest in 
a herd of calves ; but it is especially applied to the youngest 
member of a family. The recklin of the house is looked upon 
with special tenderness. 

" There lay the reckling, one 

But one hour old." 

Tennyson, Lancelot and Elaine. 

RED, RID, to tidy, to set out in order. " Get the hearth red 
up." " Aa'll red up the hoose." " When ye come back aa'll 
he' them red oot for ye." A redd-in kaim, the common name 
for a large comb, used for reddin or tidying the hair. To red 
puddings is to take the fatty matter from the puddings or 
intestines used for sausages or black-puddings, etc. By 
inversion, "A fine red up" is sometimes used to indicate a 
scene of disorder. Reddin, in mining, clearing away and 
tidying stones after blasting or after a fall. Redder, a shift- 
man at a colliery employed in reddin. 

" In this neighbourhood between Keilder and Larriston the precise 
boundaries of each kingdom are ' ill to red.' "Rambles in Northumberland, 
1835, p. 163. 

RED, REDD, R1DDINS, the debris removed from the top of 
a quarry ; rubbish. " A cairt load of redd." 

" Some quarrymen were clearing the redd from the bank top of a 
quarry." D. D. Dixon, Hist. Bwhs. Nat. Club, vcl. 10, p 544. 

RED, REDD, RIDDINS, spawn. The fish were lying on 
their red in the stream." Pud-redd, the spawn of Irogs or 
toads. Tyed-reddy the spawn of toads. 

RED, counsel. See REDE. 


RED-COLE, Armoracia rusticana, Rupp. 

" This kinde groweth in Morpeth in Northumberland, and there it is 
called Redco. It should be called after the old Saxon englishe Rettihcol, 
that is, Radishe colle." Turner, Names, Britten and Holland, E.D S., 
1886, 399. 

REDDENS, the berries of the mountain ash. 

REDE, counsel, advice. " Short rede is good rede "Proverb. 
The proverb is specially associated with the death of Walcher, 
the first Bishop of Durham appointed by William the 
Conqueror. At Gateshead the bishop had met the leaders 
of the people, and on retiring to the church the cry was 
raised, " Short rede, good* rede, slay ye the bishop." The 
church was thereupon set on fire, and the bishop was slain. 
" A.D. 1080. The Northumbrians perpetrated this in the 
month of May." A. S. Chronicle.' 1 

RED-RUMPED THRUSH [N.], the missel thrush, Turdus 
viscivorus, L. It is also known as missel dick and storm cock 
in Northumberland, felty fleer and big mavis in Berwickshire, 
scricket in South Durham. 

REDSHANK, the spotted persicaria, the Polygonum persicaria, 
L. Also the Polygonum amphibium, L. See REED WILLY. 

REDTAIL, the redstart, Ruticilla phcenicura, L. Called also 
Nanny ring-tail and Bella ring-tail. See START. 

REE, to turn. Hie or hite is left turn, when spoken to a horse ; 
ree is right turn. Also to turn corn in a " wite " for the 
purpose of sifting out the husks or capes. It is done by 
giving a rotary motion to the " wite " with the hands. 

REED, the pronunciation of red. Reedhet, red-hot. Reed leed, 
red lead. Reedish, redish. Reed-rud, red chalk used for 
marking sheep, etc. Reed-watter, chalybeate water. Compare 

" His heels poppin 1 out ov his clogs every step, leyke twe little reed 
tatees." Thomas Bewick, The Howdy, ed. 1850, p. 10. 

REED, a stomach. To make rennet, for cheese-making, a 
calf's reed was boiled. 

REED- WILLY, the Polygonum amphibium, L. It is common 
in cultivated fields, where it grows freely, but is never 
observed to flower. 

REEF, a cutaneous eruption. REEFY, scabby. Brockett. 


REEK, a blow, a whack. " Aa fetcht him sic a reek alang the 

REEK, smoke, vapour. " Chimley nek " smoke from the 
household fire. " Baccy reek " tobacco smoke. Reek, to 
emit smoke. " The chimley's reekin badly." Reek-penny, a 
modus formerly paid to the clergy in many parts of 
Northumberland and Durham for tithe of fire-wood. Called 
also smoke-penny and hearth-penny. Hodgson, Northumberland, 
pt. ii., vol. ii., p. 356, note. Reeky, smoky, steamy. 
" Hidden in a reeky cloud." Pitman's Pay, ii., 36. 

" A reeky hoose an' a scouldin wife 
Is twee o' the warst things o' this life." 

Old Rhyme. 

terraced strip of land on steep hillsides showing signs of 
having been under tillage in former times. Furlongs in the 
open field system were divided into strips, each of which was 
separated from its neighbouring strip by a piece of unploughed 
turf, called a " balk." But when a hillside formed part of the 
open field the strips were almost always made to run, not 
up and down the hill, but horizontally along it ; and in 
ploughing, the custom for ages was always to turn the sod of 
the furrow down hill, the plough consequently returning one 
way idle. The result was that the strips became in time long, 
level terraces one above the other, and the "baaks"or "balks" 
between them grew into steep, rough banks. These banks, 
elsewhere known as " lynches" or "linces," are called reens in 
Northumberland ; and the word is often applied to the 
terraces themselves. (See Seebohm, The English Village 
Community, 1884, pp. 5, 381.) The term reen in modern use 
is also applied, generally, to any division between field strips, 
other than the unploughed "balks." The water channel 
between "rigs" is thus sometimes called a reen or "open 

" Even to this day, all over the North, ' rigs and reins, 1 in the language 
of husbandmen, mean ridges and furrows ; but furrows, in this 
acceptation, does not signify the ' fures,' or furrows, which the plough 
makes as it passes up and down to form a ridge, but the channel which, 
in the town-field husbandry, occupied the place of the balk, or 'reygne.' " 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. iii., vol. ii., p. 401, note. 

REEST, REAST, REIST, a dead stand made by an animal. 
" The cuddy's tyun the reest " that is, it has become 
immoveable. Reest, to decline to work, as a horse does. 
When a horse stops and declines to start again it is said 
" He has reesteet" If the habit becomes habitual, the horse 


is a reestev or a reesty horse. Reesty is also applied to a man 
of stubborn self-will who refuses to comply with a request. 
Or a person, overburdened and unable to resume his journey, 
says, " Ho'way gie's a han' ; aa've reesteet." 

" The boggle made the horse take the reist, or stand stock still. 
W. Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, p. 38. 

REEST, to become rancid. Reesteed or reesty bacon rancid 

thin piece of iron fastened under the lower edge of the mowdy- 
boord (mould-board) of a plough, which is on the "far" or 
right hand side of the plough. The corresponding piece 
of iron fixed on the bottom of the " near " side of the plough 
(on which it slides) is called the " sole-cloot." 

REESTED, salted, dried, and roasted; applied to fish, 
particularly to herrings. Not the same as REEST, 2. See 

REESTLE, to rub. " What are ye reestlin yor back agyen the 
waa for ? " 

REET, right, in all senses of the word. "Not reet iv his 
heed" daft, foolish, imbecile. "He's reet sarred " right 
served ; that is, he has got his deserts. Reet in the sense of 
straight, direct. " He hit him reet there." " Reet ower " 
right over. " Reet endwis " or "reet on end" right on end, 
straight forward, or without stopping. Reet, reeten, to put 
right or straight, to adjust. " Here, lad, just reet up this 
place o' yors." "Reeten the claes " sort up and fold the 
clothes. " Aa'll see the poor body reeted " see justice done. 
" As reet as a trivet." Proverb. 

" Hump backs are a' reeten'd, cruick'd legs, tee, are streeten'd." 

Geddes, Ikebo. Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 315. 

REET, a wright. Cairt-reet a cartwright, mill-reet a mill- 
wright ; seldom used without a qualifying word prefixed. 

REETHAND-MAN, a trusty assistant, a favourite workman. 

REETIN-CRUCK, a crook or pot hook, so made that it can 
be reeted or adjusted to suit different heights. Compare 

REEVE, the chief officer in the ancient borough of Wark- 
worth. He is to this day usually styled the "borough-ra:^" 
or " port-reeve " at that town. Compare MOORGRIEVE. 


REFARD, to defer, to put off. " Aa'd rayther refard it." 
" Aa'll no buy yen thi day ; aa'll refard it." The d here is 
intrusive " refar-d-it" 

places of refuge from the passing sets of trams in a coal mine. 

REGULATING-SCALE, REGULATOR, in mining, a docr- 
way with two sliding lattice frames, one of which slides open 
past the other, so as to regulate the passage of a scale of air. 
It is also called a sliding scale and slide, regulator. See SCALE, 

" An ordinary door with a sliding shutter in it to allow a portion of air 
to pass, is called a regulating door." Green well, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

REIF, plunder, robbery, taking by violence. See REAVE. 


REISE, waste ground covered with coarse grass. (Obs.) 

REIST. See REEST and following words. 


REMEED, resource, remedy. (Obs.) 

" Clear the boat, my lads, with speed, 
I fear 'twill be our last remeed." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 62. 

"It's ever, alas ! but what remeed." 

B. Rumney, Ecky's Mare. 

RENK, or RANK, a standard measurement of length 
employed underground, being sixty or eighty yards, 
measured off periodically by an overman. 

" The renk is measured by the overman in the middle of the fortnight, 
and the score price for putting for that fortnight calculated thereon." 
Green well, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

REPLY, supply. This form is adhered to by old people who 
talk of " gettin in a fresh reply of coals," or flour, etc. 

REPROVE, to eructate, as in the action of indigested food 
when it disagrees with the stomach, and is thus said to 
reprove one. 


RESET, RESETT, to harbour an outlaw. In times of Border 
lawlessness, fugitives were reset from the opposite side. The 
Border laws enact penalties for resetting. At the dispersion 
of the Borderers, several Scots had been reset, and were 
mingled with Redesdale and Tynedale men, as their names 
show. Many of the Scottish names on Tyneside date from 
this period. (Obs.) 

RESHER, the rush plant. See RASHER. 

REST, an instrument used in boring, for supporting the 
weight of the rods upon the boring-box whilst screwing and 
unscrewing the rods. Nicholson, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

RETURN, the current of air or the air course in a pit as it 
returns, after being conducted through the mine, to make its 
exit by the upcast shaft. 

REVED, wired, or turned in the edge. Applied to a fine edge 
tool when it has been so thin whetted that the edge turns like 
steel \eaL-Hodgson MS. 

RHYME, to reiterate, as " He rhymed on about so and so." 
Compare RAIM. 

RIB, a seed furrow. Ribbeet, furrowed for seed. Ribbin-ploo, a 
small plough used for seed-furrowing. 

RIBBIN, pummeling, or punching in the sides. A sound 
thrashing is often called " a good ribbin." 

RICE, RISE, twigs, as tree tops or brushwood, used for 
fencing, etc. These, when withered, are called deed-rice. 
When tall hedges are cut down a rice is generally run along- 
side. It is made from the lopped branches, and serves as a 
protection to the young shoots as they break forth from the 
old stumps. A " stake and rice fence " is made by driving 
stakes into the top of an earthen dike about eighteen inches 
or two feet apart and then interweaving rice or thorns with 
the stakes. The rice is secured by a " yeather," which is of 
saugh, hazel, or any straight pliant wood. A hedge mender 
is called a styek-and-ricer. The brushwood used to bed in 
with stones in the weiring of rivers is called rice, and the 
term is applied to this material generally. Rice-knife, a light 
slasher with a hooked point, used for cutting hedges. 

"Paid for stakes, and rise, and earth laying about 2 tree rootes in ye 
church yard." Gateshead Church Books, 1631. 


RICK, a pile, as a " rick of stones." 

" Over the hill by two little cairns of stones to a great cairn of 
stones on the top of Hareup Hill, then down the hill to a little nek 
of stones." Bounders of Old Bewick, 1680. Hist. Bwks. Nat. Club, vol. 
v., p. 255. 


RICKLE, RICKEL, a loose heap. A tumble-down, dilapi- 
dated house or other building is called a " rickel of a place." 
To rickel is to gather into a loose heap. A very thin person 
is figuratively said to be a " rickle o' banes." The word has 
also the forms rackle and ruckle. Ricklet, a hay-pike that is, 
a small rick of hay. Rickley, loose, unstable, ricketty. 

RID, speed. 

" Make rid " make speed, hasten. Hodgson MS. 

RID, to tidy. " Just rid up the fireside, hinney." See RED. 
Rid, to clear ground. See RIDING. 

RIDDINS, RIDDING-STONE, loose stones, the waste heaps 
from quarries, also the baring or loose material above the 
stone head. See RED, 2. 

"The soil and diluvial matter on the tops of quarries is very commonly 
called the ridding or rid-work." Hodgson, Hist, of Northumberland, pt. ii., 
vol. i., p. 94, note. 

RIDDINS, spawn. See RED, 3. 

RIDDLE, a sieve of large mesh. Riddle-cake, a leavened 
oatmeal cake. After rolling and shaping, it is put on a riddle, 
and then baked on an iron girdle till enough. It is hung for 
use on open flat rails between the beams of the house to keep 
it crimp and dry. Hodgson MS. 

" Alice, wife of Robert Swan, of St. Nicholas' parish, Newcastle, was 
brought before the court for practising the ancient art of divination by 
riddle and shears that is, attempting to discover a culprit or lover by 
holding a sieve in a pair of scissors or shears, muttering some mystic 
invocation, and watching the trembling, nodding, or turning of the sieve 
as the names of suspected persons are uttered." Welford, Hist, of 
Newcastle, vol. ii., p. 442. 

", a ceremony formerly performed on the Eve of St. 
Mark (April 24th), when it used to be customary to riddle or sift the 
ashes of the hearthstone, in the belief that if any of the family were 
destined to die within the year, the mark of the individual's shoe would 
be impressed on the ashes." Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, p. 108. 

RIDE, to ascend or be drawn up a pit shaft, to go to bank. It 
does not apply to the reverse process. The ascent and 
descent were formerly done by " riding loop." The men put 


one leg through a loop in the chain and held on by one hand 
above. "Ride away!" a call from the banksman to the 
onsetter or men working in the shaft, meaning that men can 
get into the cage and be drawn up. 

RIDE-AND-TIE, a common practice in going over the fells, 
by which two travellers use a single horse for the journey. 
One of them mounts and rides two or three miles ahead, and 
either tethers or " hopples " the galloway and walks on. 
When the second traveller arrives at the spot he takes the 
horse, rides on, and passes his companion a mile or two, and 
ties again, and so on. 

RIDER, the term for a commercial traveller before the 
invention of railways, journeys being formerly made on horse- 

" He got employment as arider to a draper in the North of England." 
Monthly Chronicle, vol. i., 1887, p. no. 

RIDER, mineral matter of various composition, often soft 
clayey shale, found between the edges of strata at a hitch. 
This material is also called the gowk of the trouble. Also the 
vein stone or " druse," a hard crystalline matter, found in the 
lode of a lead mine. 

" Called a rider, perhaps, from its riding, or being suspended in the 
vein, or separating it longitudinally into two or more divisions." 
Westgarth Forster, Section of Strata, second edition, 1821, p. 213. 

RIDE-THE-WATTER. Heard in the saying, " That chep's 
no ti ride the waiter on " not to be trusted. 

RIDING, a ridding or clearing in land. The term occurs in 
place-names, as Riding (now spoken with * long, as in ride), a 
township in Bywell, Riding Mill, Hardru/tMg, The Riding, etc. 

"A new assart (in Urpeth) called the Rydding." 1365, The Boldon 
Buke, Surtees Society, ii., p. 191. 

" The Ridings in the parish of Bywell are called in the Baliol charters, 
' increment,' a word of the same force as our modern term, intake, that is, 
a place taken in or inclosed from a common or lord's waste." Hodgson, 
Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 94, note. 

periodical ceremony still performed, but in former days 
attended with observances peculiar to each locality. See 

"Yearly in the month of May the Bounders of the said town are rode, 
or perambulated, by the Borough Greave and Freemen. And at such 
times freeholders are admitted Freemen, which is done by some of their 
body taking hold of the arms and legs of the persons who are to be 
admitted, and dashing their buttocks against certain stones in the course 
of riding or perambulating the said bounders." Case respecting School- 
house at Warkworth, May 23rd, 1767. 


RIDING-THE-FAIR, the custom, still maintained, of 
proclaiming the fair. 

RIDING-THE-STANG, carrying a man astride a pole (stang). 
It is, in most parts, an ignominious punishment inflicted on 
a faithless husband. But, among the pitmen of former times, 
it was customary to make a man vide the stang as a triumph. 
The bridegroom was thus bore along by his fellow-pitmen. 

" Weel ! efter a' was dealt and duin, 

As was, thou knaas, the custom then, 
They myed me ride the stang, as suin 
As aw show'd fyece at wark agyen." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 95. 

RID-WORK, the baring for a quarry. See RIDDINS. 

RIG, RIGG, a ridge. About seventy-three place-names in 
Northumberland end in rig or rigg t and twenty-nine have the 
termination ridge. In stratification a rig is the upward fold 
of a series of beds; the downward fold or "dish" being 
called a "trow" (trough). Rig, a strip of land raised in the 
centre and forming a ridge. Rigs are produced by ploughing 
up and down alternately. The open channel that divides rig 
from rig is called a " foor," and the system is known as rig- 
and-foor. Rig -and- fur, applied to materials that are made 
with ribs and furrows, as stockings or corduroy, etc. To 
rig -and- fur, to cause furrows or wrinkles. 

" 1627. Paid to Mr. John Cole for 3 riggs in the strong fflatt belonging 
to Saltwellside, payable everie third yeare, 01.00.00." Gateshead Church 
Books. . 

" Sam-casts, rigs, buts, and doles of land." Hodgson, Northumberland, 
vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 90, note. 

" Care is an awd, ill-throven thief, 

O, hang him, hinnies, i* yor lyaces ! 
For wi' his blear e'ed titty grief, 
They rig-and-fur yor bonny fyaces." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 23. 

RIGGELD, partly dry. See RISSOLT. 
RIGGIN, clothing, clothes. 

RIGGIN, the ridge of a roof, the rafters ; the ridge or back- 
bone. Riggin-stone, the ridge-stone of a house. Rig gin-tile, a 
ridge tile. Riggin-tvee, the ridge-beam of a house. 

" He sticks up his riggin like a puzzon'd rattan." Proverb. 

" Ye may like the kirk weel eneuf an' not elways be ridin on the 
v iggin . ' 'Proverb . 


" His purse consisted of a stocking, which with its contents were 
fastened to the rigging-tree of the roof of the house " Forster, History of 
Corbridge, 1881, p. 44. 

" Hail and rain pour'd down amain 
Without the heath-rooft biggin, 
And winds loud blew, wi' fury flew, 
And threat to tirl its riggin." 

Lewis Proudlock, Cuddle and his Crawin' Hen. 

RIGGIT, RICKET, RECKET, an animal that has been 
imperfectly castrated. 

RIM, the circumference of any round thing. The rim of a road, 
the materials which form it, and when these are worn down 
to the earth, then the rim of the road is said to be cut, as the 
rim of the belly is said to be broken when its muscles are 
lacerated or violently sprained. Hodgson MS. Rim occurs 
in place-names Rimside Moor, between Framlington and 
Whittingham; Rimside, a limb of Dardun, the western limit of 
the Simonside range. Rim Howlan, the name of a craggy 
ravine adjoining the seashore near Birling. 

RIME, to murmur. A variant of raim. 

RIME, to enlarge a hole in a piece of metal by turning round 
in it a tool with sharp cutting or scraping edges. Rimer, an 
implement for clearing the bore of gun barrels. A tool for 
enlarging a hole in metal. 

RIMER, a thinly sprinkled quantity, as a thin layer or patch 
of coal. 

"Dark blue thill and rimers of coal." Borings and Sinkings, L.R., p. 66. 

RIN, a small stream. See RYN. 
RIND (i long), rime, hoar frost. 

RING, an arrangement round a shaft to collect the waste 
water. Ring-crib, a crib, or section of tubbing in a shaft 
arranged with an open top to collect falling water. 

RING-BLACKBIRD, the ring ouzel, Tuvdus torquatus, Linn. 
Called also heather cock. 

RINGER, a quoit played so as to fall with the "hob" through 
it. The hob or pin is thus encircled by the quoit. "He 
played ringers ivvory time." 

RINGLE-EYED, wall-eyed. The pupil of the eye in a dog, 
etc., that is ringle-eyed is surrounded by a whity ring. 



RINGSES, rings, circles. A term applied to several 
prehistoric circular camps in Northumberland. 


RIP, to rupture. 

" I' the road a styen tripp'd me it lyem'd for it ripp'd me." 

J. P. Robson, Maw Wonderful Wife. 

RIP, a handful of corn. Compare REAP. 

RIPE, to grope in search, using force. Applied especially to 
the clearing out of a person's pocket. Coroner (addressing a 
Newcastle witness) : " Did you take any steps to resuscitate 
the deceased ?" Witness (promptly) : " Yes, sor, we riped 
'ees pockets." 

" A shilling aw thought at the play-house aw'd ware, 
But aw jumped there wi 1 heuk-fingered people ; 
Me pockets gat riped, an* aw heerd them ne mair 
Nor aw could fra St. Nicholas' steeple." 

T. Thompson, Canny Newcastle. 

RIPER, an iron prong used for clearing dirt and dust out of 
the oilholes in machinery. 

RIS, RIZ (p.t. of arise), arose. " Aa riz aboot five i' the 

" Hodge went ta bed that neet, but nivver ris ne mair." George Chatt, 
Old Farmer Poems, 1866, p. 87. 

RISP, to rasp, to grate. A broken bone is said to risp when it 
grates. Rispi*, crepitation in the surgical sense. 

RISP-GRASS, long rough grass, such as grows on marshy 
land. It is sometimes called sprat or sprot, which is also the 
name for rushes. 

RISSOLT, partly dried ; applied to clothing or to clothes 
from the wash. " Th'or not dry ; but weel rissolt." After a 
slight frost and wind, clothes are said to be " gay weel 
rissolt " well on the way to being dry. See RIZZLE. 

RIT, to cut a mark out with a spade. To score or mark. 
"The ice is aa ritten wi' them skatin on't." 

RIT-TIT-O, a child's game, played by drawing a figure like an 
o on a slate and intersecting it with lines. The enclosed 
spaces are numbered from one upward ; and the game is to 


touch blindfold with a pencil the highest possible figures. 
The winner is the player who in so many trials counts 
the greatest score. On each trial the following formula is 
repeated : 

"Rit-tit-o; here we go, 
The jolly beggars all in a row, 
If I miss I pitch upon this." 

RIVE, a rent. " He's getten a big rive in his cwoat tail." 
Rive, to tear, to rend, to tear asunder as in the manner of 
splitting wood. (Pt.ten. rove, rave, and reav ; p.p. roven and 
riven.) Applied to voracious eating. " He rives an' eats like 
yen famished." Also to plough ; especially to plough up old 
or virgin pasture land. " He's on rivin lea." 

" Edward Dobson for riving out of twoe ridges of land further than his 
neighbors ; culpable 4d." Court Rolls at Ulgham, 1619-1653. 

RIZZIM, RIZM, a stalk of corn, a blade of grass. " Thor 
isn't a rizm on't " said by a hind, who meant there was not a 
blade of grass on the place. 

" I had this word from Thomas Neal, an old husbandman, who said' 
when out of straw, that we had not a rizm." Note by Mr. M. H . Dand. 

" Rizome, the head of the oat." Halliwell. 

RIZZLE, to harden by heat, to make crisp. 

II Anything, such as straw, is said to be nzzling, when it is free of 
moisture, quite dry, rustling.'' Jamieson. 

RO, ROA, ROW, [W.-T.] , raw, as meat that is under-cooked. 
Rouh (rough) is another word. Row-fitted barefooted, the 
feet being red and raw with exposure. Ro gorlin [W.-T.] , 
a raw or unfledged bird. See RAA GORLIN. 

II 1 had better bee hangad in a withie or in a cowtaile, than be a 
rowfooted Scot." Bullein, Dialogue, 1564. E. E. Text Soc., p. 6, 1. 21. 

RO, ROWE [W.-T.], to roll. Ro up to roll or wrap up. 
" Roive up the web an' wap't i' pyeper." 

ROACH, to roughen or make uneven. " Me gear hes getten 
reached bi the shot " (said by a miner who was charging a 
hole, when the powder exploded and damaged his tools). 

ROAFY [W.-T.], Ralph. 

"Roaffie's staggarth "Ralph's stack garth. Thomas Bewick, The 
Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

ROAK, ROQUE, to grope, to peck at. 

" Roqueing at a mine." W. Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854, P- : 9- 


ROAK, a fog, a mist. Rooky [W.-T.] , foggy. See ROUK. 
ROAN, a clump- of whins. Halliwell. See RONE. 

ROB, a term in coal mining. 

" The partial working of pillars in fiery collieries was commenced in 
the Tyne collieries below bridge in 1795. The process was called 
'robbing the pillars.'" Greenwell, Gloss. Coal Trade, 1888. 

ROBBER, a spike of thistle down. 

ROBIN-GRAY, a hat once fashionable with ladies. 

" But when her Robin Gray she gat, 
She carried heart and a 1 tegether." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 13. 

ROBIN-RUN-THE-DYKE, the goose-grass, Galium aparine, 
L., so called from its habit of growth. Known also ^ as 

Lizzy -run-the-hedge, grip-grass, bluid-tong^le ) tongue-bluiders, clavers, 
and clivers. 

ROCK, a distaff. To " spin off a rock" to finish off the 
quantity of material on the rock. 

" Now it will be twelve o'clock 
And more ; for I've spun off my rock. 1 ' 

E. Chicken, Collier's Wedding, 1735. 

ROCK-BRAKE, the parsley fern, Allosorus crispus. 

ROCK-COD, the young of the cod-fish when of a red colour ; 
which it assumes after lying some time among weedy rocks. 
J. Johnston, Hist. Bwks. Nat. Field Club, vol. i., p. 173. 

ROCK-LARK, the rock pipit, Anthus obscurus, Pennant. The 
tree pipit is locally called field lark. 

ROCK-PIGEON, the rock dove, Columba livia, Brisson. Known 
also as the wild pigeon. 

" This is a resident, and undoubtedly the true stock dove from which 
the domestic pigeon is derived." John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland 
and Durham, p. 85. 

ROCK-SALMON, the colesay. 

ROCK-SAMPHIRE, the marsh samphire, Salicornia herbacea, 
L. Frequent all along the coast in damp places, and formerly 
sold at Newcastle and at Berwick for pickling. 

ROCK-STAFF, the lever or long handle by which a black- 
smith works his bellows. The cross or pivot on which it 
works is called the " roller." 


RODDAMS, the turbot, Rhombus maxiwiis, L. Called also the 
turbrat and brat. 

ROGGLE, to shake, to jumble, to shake often, to go on shaking. 

ROGUE-STOB, or WHIPPING-STOB, the ancient whipping 
post. (Obs.) 

" 1633. It. pd to John Marlay for Irons mending to the whipping 
stole t is." 

" 1634. Pd for whipping of six rogues, as. 1636. pd for the scokes 
and a new Iron to the rogue stob, is. 4d." Gateshiad Church Books. 

ROGUE-MONEY, an assessment for defraying the expenses 
of apprehending offenders, subsisting them in jail, and 
prosecuting them. (Obs.) 

" 1631. By Vertue of a warrant granted for to Collect 4d of ye for 
* Rogue money, 01. 04. n. Paid to Raynold ffawcett 26th June [1631] for 
Rogue money, 01. 02. oo." Gateshead Church Books. 

ROLL, in mining, a depression or sag in the roof. Sometimes 
called a horseback and a balk. 

ROLLER, the cross or pivot in blacksmith's bellows on which 
the handle works. See ROCK-STAFF. 

ROLLEY, a carriage of larger size than a tram, formerly used 
in the underground conveyance of coal. " A railway volley" 
a large, flat, four-wheeled waggon, used for the street delivery 
and carriage of merchandize. Rolleyway, the underground 
horse-road in a pit. Rolleyway-man, the man who lays and 
repairs the rolleyway. Mining Gloss. Newcastle. Terms, 1852. 
He also re-rails tubs that may run off, and conducts the 
regular working of the underground lines. 

" The coal was conveyed away (from the hewers) in corves placed on 
trams, running on a narrow railway to the crane, where they were 
transferred to rolleys, and drawn by a horse to the shaft. The volley, 
which is drawn by a horse, is similar in construction to the tram, but 
larger." Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 41. 

RONE, a rank or thick growth, as a " rone of thistles," a "rone 
of whins or weeds." 

ROOD, of wall building in Northumberland = seven yards. 
ROOF, REUF, the stratum immediately above a coal seam. 
ROOF-TREE, a ridge beam. Called also riggin-tree. 
ROOK [N.] , fog, mist. See ROUK. 
ROOK, a ruffian. " He was a rook." See ROUH. 


ROOMING-DOWN, extending the bottom of a bore hole. A 
term used by sinkers. 

ROONDY, large, applied to coal. 

" If the coals be hewed or wrought pretty round, and large coals." 
J. C., Compkat Collier, 1708, p. 38. 

" Coal, co-al, roondy co-al !" Street cry in Newcastle. 

" Lumps o' roondy-coal cum doon pell-mell." R. Harrison, Geordy 
Black, 1872. 

ROOP, a hoarseness in the throat. Roopy, roopeet, hoarse, 
thick of speech. "He's sair roopeet" " Aa's that voopy aa 
can hardly taak." 

ROOSTER, a low lying, boggy piece of land. " Thor's a nest 
o' greys doon i' the rooster there." Shepherd at Woodburn. 

ROOZE, ROOSE, to salt herrings slightly. " Thor roosin 
harrin." See REESTED. 

ROOZE, to rouse. " Rooze up, there; ye greet lazy lubbart." 
Roozer, a big lie. 

ROPE-ROLL, a drum or cylinder on which a rope is wound 
by a winding engine. See JACK-ROLL. 

ROPPLE, confusion, as ropes so intertwisted as to be very 
difficult to unravel. Roppled, ravelled. " That twine's getten 
a' roppled" The term is also applied to a young man growing 
too rapidly. " Hoo he's roppled up." Compare RAFFLE. 

ROSAL, resin. See ROZZEL, i. 

" 1655, pd. for rosall and frankinsence for ye Church, is." Gateshead 
Church Books. 

ROSE, a tuft of bristles on a pig. 

ROSE-BENT, or STOOL-BENT, the heath rush, Juncus 
squarrcsus. See BENT and STOOL-BENT. 

ROSE-LENART, ROSE-LINTIE, the male linnet, Canna- 
Una linota, Gmelin. The lenart is variously called brown, 
grey, red, and rose. 

ROSEY [N.] , a rose. Rosey-bus, a rose tree. 

ROT-GRASS, the butterwort, Pinguicula vulgaris, L. So 
called because it is reckoned prejudicial to cattle. In 
Scotland the midge grass is called rot-grass because it is said 
to give origin to the rot. Dr. Hardy, Botany of Eastern 
Borders, pp. 164, 213. 


ROTTEN-SHEEP, a term applied in the children's game of 
" honey pots " to those who fail to stand the ordeal. 

ROU [W.-T.] , cold, bleak, and damp ; especially applied to a 
place or to the weather raw. Brockett. See RAA and Ro. 

ROUGHED, wrinkled (Northumberland). Halliwell. Compare 

ROUGH, RUFF, to trump at cards, to beat. 

ROUGH, as a "rough house," a house abundantly supplied 
with provisions. 

ROUGINS, the aftermath or second crop of hay or clover. 
Compare FOG. 

ROUH, rough. Pronounced with a deep accent without 
sounding the g. 

ROUK, ROWK, ROOK, ROAK, a mist, a fog and the drizzle 
accompanying it. " Vender's a rook on the law." 

ROUKY, ROOKY, damp and foggy. "A rouky day." It's 
varry rooky weather." Of a continuous damp condition of 
the weather it is said, " It's roukin on." 

ROUNDER, a boring tool used for breaking or cutting off any 
projection which may have occurred in the hole. 

ROUNDGE, a great noise, a violent push or stroke 
(Northumberland). Halliwell. 

ROUNGIN, big, heavy. " A great roungin fellow." 

ROUT, ROWT, written for wrotit wrought or worked. 

"They shud nobbit get paid fur the wark thit they've rowt." Robt. 
Elliott, Pitman Can te Parliament. 

ROUT, ROWT, to bellow, to roar. "Routing- Linn "the 
roaring Linn. 

" Sax poor ca's stand in the sta' 
A' routing loud for their minnie." 

Ballad of Jamie Telfer. 
" The weary wind began to rise, 
The sea began to rout." 

The Lawlands o" Holland. 

ROUTH, plenty, abundance; especially applied to rank grass 
or corn. Brockett, Compare FOUTH and ROUGH, 2. 


ROVE, an iron washer used for riveting on to the end of a 
seam-nail or a bolt. See SEAM-NAIL. 

ROVERS, in shreds, disheveledness. " A' ti rovers "gone all to 

ROVIN, wild, windy, as a rovin night said when the clouds 
are careering through the sky. 

ROWAN, ROWN, the roe of a fish. 

mountain ash, Pyrus aucuparia, Gaertn. See WHICKANTREE, 

"Used as a preventative against witches. In every gap ot their 
hedges a piece of it may be found, for according to old tradition where 
you have a stang of it nothing can trespass upon you." Hodgson MS. 

" The rowan-tree, so called from its berries closely resembling the 
* rowan ' or roe of a fish, was also called witch-wood, witch-bane, quick- 
bane, quicken, wicken, wiggan, witchen, wiggy, etc." W. Brockie, 
Legends and Superstitions, p. 117. 

" If your whipstick's made ofrown, 
You may ride your nag through any town." 

11 Woe to the lad 
Without a rowan-tree gad." 

Old sayings. 

ROWK. SeeRouK. 

ROWLY-POWLY, the act of rolling over and over ; also a 
game of chance played at fairs by rolling a ball, made with 
several numbered facets, in a bowl. The thrower of the 
highest number wins the prize of gingerbread or other 
confection stuff. 

" My goods must go come try 
A throw at rowly-powly." 

W. Stephenson, d. 1836, The Itinerant Confectioner. 

ROWORGIN, an organ (Northumberland). Halliwell. 
Probably a nonce word for a street organ. (Obs.) 

ROYNE, to grumble or growl. Brockett. 

ROZZEL, ROSAL, resin. To resin a fiddle bow. " Noo 
fiddler, rozsel up, an' set yorsel away, man." 


ROZZEL, ROSEL ROSIN, to warm, to bask over a fire. 
" Rosel yor shins." " Howay, an' vozzel yor keslup." Applied 
also to the effect produced by drink. " Weel rozzelt " 
flushed with drink. " Aa'll rozzle yor hide for ye " I'll 
warm your hide ; that is by a sound beating. 
" We stagger'd off to the Hauf Meun, 
To rozzel wor nobs wiv a glass." 

W. Midford, The Masquerade. 
" Whe should pop in but the landlord, se handy ; 
An' he rosin'd wor gobs wiv a glass o' French brandy." 

R. Emery d. 1871, The Pitman's Ramble. 

ROZZELT, ROZZELED, fermented ; an apple that has 
begun to ferment is called a vozzel'd apple. 

RUB (p.t. vubeet) [N.], to rob; RUBBER, a robber. To 
"nibe his buttons" to challenge him to fight. Among boys 
this is done by the challenger rubbing his hand down the 
waistcoat buttons of his adversary. 

RUBBIN-STYEN, soft stone, of various colours, used for 
rubbing over door-steps, window-sills, and the stone floors of 

RUBSTONE, a mower's sharpening stone, made of fine-grained 

" And whereas the town is an ancient town, and the Mayor and 
burgesses, time out of mind of man, have had a certain guild or fraternity, 
commonly called the hostmen, for the loading and better disposing of 
sea-coals and pit coals, grindstones, rubstones, and whetstones, in and 
upon the river and port of Tyne." Charter of Elizabeth. Welford, 
Hist, of Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 141. 

RUCK, a rick. Compare RICK, RICKLE. 

" Two ruckes of herdcorne at Yetlenton, and iiii. boules and a bushell, 
2os." Will of Robert Clavering of Callally, Nov. 30, 1582. D. D. 
Dixon, Vale of Whittingham, p. 38. 

RUCKLE, to rumple, to crease. Brockett. 
RUCT, to eructate, as a cow does. 

RUCTION, RUMPTION, RUPTION, a turmoil, as in 
cleaning ; a disturbance, a row. " Thor's nee sittin doon i' 
the hoose wi' sic a ruction gan on." 

RUD, to redden. Rud, ruddle, red paint or red ochre used for 
marking sheep. 

" Ther's some will ca 1 me Parcy Reed, 

And speak my praise in tower and toun ; 
It's little matter what they do now, 
My life bluid rudds the heather brown." 

Death of Pany Reed. 


RUDGE, to push about. See RUSH. 

RUE-BARGAIN, something given to be off an agreement ; a 
bargain repented of. Brockett. 

RUE-SAIR, to feel sore, but oftener used in the negative. 
" He nivver rued saw " never regretted seriously. 

RUG, to tug, to pull, to drag with violence. A ntggin pain at 
the stomach is a gnawing, dragging pain. " He wis ruggin 
her hair." The back- wash or under current of the sea beach 
is called ootntg. Rug an' rive, to pull or drag, and tear. 

" Like the butter o 1 Halterburn ; it would neither rug, nor rive, nor cut 
wiv a knife it was confounded." Proverb. 

common sense. " He hes nee rutnmelgumption aboot him." 
Hence nungumptious, shrewd, sharp, witty. 

" Had'st thou in thee the least Rumgumption, 
Thou'd scorn aw sik lyke Presumption." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 26. 

" Aw knaw that the Cockneys crack rumgumshus chimes, 
To myek gam of wor bur and wor "parel." 

T. Thompson, Canny Newcastle. 

RUMMLE, to rumble. " A vutmnlm soon' like thunnor." 

trench filled up to the surface with loose stones to admit of 
percolation. See RUMMLE-STYEN. 

RUMMLE-DUSTY, a great, awkward woman ; a reckless, 
careless person. 

Generally called tumbler or tumbling-stone. See RAMBLE. 

" Blue clay and rumble stones one fathom." Borings and Sinkings, L.R., 
p. 301- 

RUMPLE, the rump. " Rumple byen " rump bone. 

RUMPTION, a confused noise, a row, a confusion. See 

RUN, RUND, the selvedge of woollen cloth, list. Brockett. 
Run, the lengthwise course or the grain of anything. " Ye'll 
he' ti cut the claith bi the run o' the stuff." 

RUN, a set of tubs in a pit. Nicholson, Ccal Trade Terms, 1888. 


RUN-A-REEL, to go wrong. (Obs). 

" There's nothing there cou'd run-a-nel, 
If Maistress Property were weel." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 25. 

RUNCH, wild radish, Raphanus vaphanistrum, L. 

" The weeds in the corn are runches, Raphanus raphanistrum, and not 
wild mustard, Sinapis arvensis." Dr. James Hardy, Hist, of Bwhs Nat. 
Club, vol. ix., p. 233. 

RUNCHED, lumpy, swollen and hard. See KALLUST. 

RUNCHY, large, raw-boned. " A nmchy beast " a large, 
long animal. 

RUNG, a round staff, the spoke of a wheel, the round wood 
bars in the sides of a cart, the step of a ladder. In a ladder 
the two longitudinal or side pieces are sometimes called the 
sheth, whilst the cross spokes are called the nmgs. Rung- 
wheel a wheel made with rungs, which are driven by the 
cogs of a wheel geared into it. The "cog and rung gin " was 
thus worked. 

" Drawing a rung out from the side (of the cart) he dismounted and 
gave battle to the intruders." Richardson's Table Booh, Leg. division, 
vol. i., p. 253. 

RUNKLED, wrinkled, crumpled. 
RUNNELL, pollard wood. Brocket*. 

RUNNER, an arrangement in boring. 

" Small braceheads called topits to which to attach the rope by a 
runner, for drawing the rods." Greenwell, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

RUNNER, a small stream. Compare RYN. 

RUNNIN-BAAK, RUNNING-BALK, a beam set lengthways, 
as distinguished from a cross beam. A balk set in the 
direction of a drift in a mine, at its side instead of across it, 
to form a support for the cross balks. In Teviotdale the 
balk forming^ the wall-plate of a building is called a rannle- 
bauk, and on it the couples or roof principals rest. 

RUNNIN-FITTER, a coal fitter's out-door clerk ; formerly a 
personage well known on the quay and river. 

RUN-RIG, the open field system of cultivation and tenure, 
before enclosures were made. 

" Lands are said to be tunrig where the alternate ridges of a field 
belong to different proprietors, or are occupied by different tenants." 
Jamie son. 


RUNT, a small sized ox or cow. A dwarfish person. Runt, a 
stalk dried or hardened. " A wizened kail runt." Applied 
thus to persons. "An aad runt" an old wizened person. 
Runties are common clay marbles. They are simply made of 
dried and lightly burnt clay. See COMMONY. Compare 


RUN-TH'-CRUNTLE, to run foul of anything. See 

RUN-THE-RIG, to take a mean advantage. 

" O'er him there should none run the rig." 

Henry Robson, The Collier's Pay Week, 1801. 

RUNTY, undersized. " A runty little chep." See RUNT and 

RUSH [N.] , a rash or eruption on the skin ; also diarrhoea. 

RUSH, a small patch of underwood (Northumberland.) 


RUSH, a push ; to push. " Gi's a bit rush, will ye ?" " Aa'll 
rush it up for ye." 

RUSHER, made of rushes. See RASHER. 
RUSHER-CAP, the marsh titmouse, PceciU palustris t L. 

RUSSLE, RUSTLE, to wrestle. " Thor's gan to be a russlin* 

RUSTY-COALS, coals discoloured by water or exposure to 
the air. 

RUT, a root. "Rutect oot" rooted out. " They're on ruttin 
an' shawin tormits " rooting up and topping turnips. Rut- 
grown, grown on its own root ; applied to sticks so grown as 
distinguished from " sookers." 

RUT, to poke about in search. " What are ye ruttin on amang 
the cinders for ?" 

RUTHER, a rudder. Rulher-st&ff, a tiller. 

" Brave lads, let not your courage fail, 
For, thanks to God, our Ruther's hail." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 71. 

RUTTLE, the sound heard in gasping for breath, especially in 
the dying. 


RYE, in place names, occurs in Rye Hill, near Rothbury, and 
in Newcastle ; Ryal, Riall, or Ryall, near Stamfordham ; 
and Great and Little Ryle, townships near Alnwick. 

RYN, a very small stream. 

" Out of the southest parte of the said mountayne (Cheviot) springeth 
and descendeth a lytle ryn, called Colledge." Survey of Cheviot, 1542. 
Coll. MS., Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. iii., vol. ii. 

S. The letter, sounded as z, is used for the verb to be in all 
persons of the singular present indicative when following the 
personal pronoun. " Aa's a clever chep, aa's sure." " Thoo's 
mevvies flaid." In other positions the full form is used. 
" Is aa not ? " ." Is them taties good 'uns ? " S is also used 
for shall. " There's be nowse aa winnot de." " Ye's get aall 
aa have." " We's be gannin." It is also used for have in all 
persons of the present indicative. " Aa's deun'd." "Thoo's 
helped us." In the third person, as in ordinary colloquial 
English, "He's gyen." It is also the common representative 
of s, used colloquially for me. " Come, tell's o' whe was 

SAAT, SAT, SAUT [N.] , SOAT [W.-T.] , salt. On Tyneside 
the / is sounded, the vowel preceding being shortened as in 
the German salz, the a being very short. At a christening 
the first person met on the way to church is presented with a 
parcel containing salt and currant cake. It is unlucky to 
meet a woman first. When a child's tooth comes out it is 
sprinkled with salt and put into the fire, the person who has 
lost it repeating an incantation, " Fire, fire, burn tooth, and 
give me another. Not a black one, but a white one. Not a 
cruck'd one, but a strite one !" Or else " Fire, fire, burn 
byen, God send ma tuith agyen." Salt is often put on a 
cow's back immediately after calving. The custom of placing 
on the breast of the corpse a table plate containing salt is 
still very generally observed ; and the females who attend on 
such occasions say that it prevents the body from swelling. 
Salter, Sauter, a salt maker. Also " one who deals in salt or 
salt fish." Bailey. (Obs.) Salter's-way, S alter' s -track, Salter's- 
nick, names of roads and trackways along which cadgers with 
salt formerly travelled. Salt-grass, sat-grass, grass-covered 
flats by the sea-side. Salt-kit, a salt box. 

SACKIT, SEKKIT, a stupid. " Ah ! ye sackit, ye mind what 
y'or deein." Applied to a horse when he makes a stumble ; 
or used as a reproachful term to a child. 


SACKLESS, innocent, blameless. In this sense probably 
obsolete. Now used, however, for useless, silly, stupid ; 
hence awkward in any kind of handicraft or work. Also a 
helpless or clumsy person. " He's a greet sackless" or "He's 
a greet sackless cuddy." 

11 It was laied to his charge, the drivyng of kine hem to his father's 
byre. But Christe knoweth he was sackless." W. Bullein, 1564, Dialogue, 
E.E. Text Society, p. 7. 

" He raun be a sackless dog, 
Far warse than ony dandy." 

T. Wilson, 1826, Oiling of Dicky's Wig. 

SACK'S-MOOTH. When a miller formerly returned the 
price of the corn by the man who delivered it, he figuratively 
said he "sent it in the sack-mooth" 

SAD, severe, bad. " Aa've hed a sad tew wi'd." " He's a sad 
lad that." " He's iv a sad way." Sair is similarly used. 

SAD, solid, heavy, dense, compact. It is commonly applied 
to Dread that has not risen or to potatoes that are soapy in 
appearance when cooked. " The breed's sad as leed." 

" The ballast there lay safe and sad, and that neither the wind could 
ever blow it off, nor the rain nor waves could wash it into the river." 
Gardiner, edition 1796, England's Grievance Discovered, p. 95. 

SADDLE-BACK, a balk or species of hitch in the coal strata ; 
described as the roof of the seam coming down into the 
coal without any corresponding depression of the thill, thus 
causing a nip. It is also called a horse-back. 

BOARDS, the platform at the pit bank on which the men 
and tubs are landed from the cage. 

SADEET [N.] , compacted, settled down. A newly-built stack 
of hay or corn is not covered with its thatch until it has 
"getten sadeet." 

" To sad, to become solid." Jamieson. 

SAE, so ; a common spelling. The usual pronunciation is see, 
seea, and soowak. 


SAF, SAFF [W.-T.] , meat from an animal that has died a 
natural death. Hog-saff is mutton of this description. 


SAFE, sure, certain. " He's safe to do it." " He's safe to be 
there." " Safe as deeth." 

clay, a soft clayey shale, often worked with a coal seam, of 
which it usually forms the thill. The potter's vessel, in 
which his pots are enclosed during the process of firing in 
the kiln, is called a sagger. The clay of which it is usually 
made is hence called sagger-clay. 

" Generally forming the floor of coal seams, we find a number of 
deposits of more or less siliceous clay, known as under-clay, seggar-clay, 
or thill, and often used as fire-clay." Professor Lebour, Geology of 
Northumberland and Durham, second ed. 1886, p. 45. 

SAIM, SAEM, SEEYEM, pig's lard. But applied sometimes 
to fat in general. " He's myest seyirfd up " almost choked 
with fat. 

SAIN, used in the following sentence. (Obs.) 

" God safe us, and sain us fra ony sike matter." G. Stuart, Joco- 
Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 6. 

" To 5am, to make the sign of the cross, to bless, God being the agent, 
etc." Jamieson. 

SAINT. The practice of abbreviating the name of a saint is a 
very ancient one. Locally, we have St. Paul reduced to 
the proper name of Sample, and in place-names St. Helen 
rendered as Sintlin, and St. Anthony as Stanton and Stantlin 
(St. Anthony's-on-the-Tyne). In Hollar's map, dated 1654, 
St. Anthony's appears as St. Tantlins. 

ST. AGNES'S FAST, Jan. 21. To procure a sight of a 
future husband. Eat nothing all this day till going to bed, 
boil as many hard eggs as there are fasters, extract the yolk, 
fill the cavity with salt, eat the egg, shell and all, then walk 
backwards to bed, uttering this invocation to the saint : 
" Sweet St. Agnes, work thy fast ; 
If ever I be to marry man, 
Or man be to marry me, 
I hope him this night to see." 

I add another receipt for the same object. Eat a raw red 
herring, bones and all. There can be no doubt that dreams 
and visions will be the result. Men sometimes try this plan 
to see a future bride. Bigge, Superstitions at Stamfordham. 
Trans. Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, 1860-62, vol. v., p. 96. 
A simpler form of incantation is used by girls who on going 
to bed place their shoes on the floor at right angles to each 
other, and repeat the following : 

" I place my shoes in form of a T, 

Hoping my true love to see ; 

Not dressed in his best array, 

But in the clothes he wears every day." 


SAINT CUTHBERT'S BEADS, fragments of encrinital 
columns, the joints of the fossil radiate animal, washed from 
the mountain limestone beds. They are strewn along the 
beach by the action of the sea upon the outcrop of the 
stratum, in which they are plentiful, and look very like beads 
which have been turned in a lathe. The central hollow gives 
further appearance of similarity. On the north-east side of 
Holy Island they are picked up among the rocks, and were 
formerly regarded with veneration as being the handiwork of 
the saint : 

11 Fain St. Hilda's nuns would learn 

If, on a rock, by Lindisfarne, 

Saint Cuthbert sits, and toils to frame 

The sea-borne beads that bear his name." 

Marmion, canto 2, xvi. 

ST. CUTHBERT'S DUCKS, the eider ducks. 

11 For centuries they have been known as St. Cuthbert' s ducks. He 
lavished upon them special marks of kindness and affection. They were 
frequently his sole companions during the long hours of his solitary 
nights, clustering round him when he watched and prayed on the rocks 
which surrounded his home. They obeyed his every word, and became 
so tame and familiar with him that they would allow him to approach 
them at all times without fear and caress them with his hand." Rev. 
Prov. Consitt, Life of St. Cuthbert, 1887, p. 82. 

ST. JOHN, the name applied to two hazel nuts which have 
intergrown with each other. See CLUD-NUT. 

ST. MARY, three hazel nuts grown into each other. When 
any one is fortunate enough to find a St. Mary he wears it 
in his cap as a great prize. 

SAIR, SARE, SAE (adj.), sore. " A sair place "a sore, 
wound, or painful spot. Sair is also constantly used for 
severe, painful. " Sair tews " severe exertion or distressing 
trouble. " Aa hed sair tews ti' catch the train." "We've 
hadden sair tews ti' get hyem." " Bairns is sair tews, bliss 
them !" " Aa've had a sair day win him." "A sair heed " a 
headache. " A sair bairn " an incorrigible child. Sairish, 
somewhat sore, somewhat troublesome. 

" Seke and sare." Pricks of Conscience. 

" It raised sore tews in Ratcliffe's breast." 

Sheldon, Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, p. 406. 

SAIR (adv.), sorely. "Sair fashed" (troubled or bothered). 
"Sair hindered." "Sair changed." " Sair sowt efter." "Sair 
missed " greatly missed. " Sair hadden "badly held, 


or in a distressed condition of health. " S^wV-earnest " 
really earnest. " Sair-off" failed in strength. " Poor aad 
man, he's sair-off noo." 

"God helpe, the warld is sare chaunged." Bullein, 1564, Dialogue, 
E. E, Text Society, p. 8, 1. 10. 

" Sair fail'd, hinny, sair fail'd now, 
Sair fail'd, hinny, sin' I kend thou." 

Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 257. 

SAIRY, SARIE, SAYREY, sorry, indifferent, poor. " Sairy- 
man " equivalent to the expression "poor fellow." "His 
bit sairy duds" (poor clothes). 

"Now I have neythyng but this sarie bagge and this staffe." 
W. Bullein, Dialogue, etc., 1564. 

" Aw wonder how thee fayther gets yeh o fed, sayrey man." Thomas 
Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. u. 

SAITH, the young of the coalsay fish in its larger stage of 
growth. See COALSAY. 

SAL, shall. In very frequent use. 

" Twee Blackeys sal mense the dor cheek." 

W. Midford, The Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 

SALLY, to sway a boat or ship, in play, from side to side. In 
a boat it is done by standing on a seat, with legs astride, and 
alternately resting the weight on each leg so as to sway the 
boat. Formerly, at the launch of a wooden ship, it was 
customary for the apprentices from the yard to be on deck, 
and, when the vessel was launched, to sally her. This was 
done by a rush or sally to one side, which caused a lurch. A 
rush back again brought her over to the other side, and this 
continued, the displacement of the weight on deck causing 
an alternate swing from side to side. 

SALLY NIXON, the term in alkali works for the sulphate of 
soda resulting from the decomposed nitrate of soda in " nitre 
pots." ^ The name is probably a corruption of salis natron, an 
alchemist's term. 

SAMCAST, a wide ridge of land. A samcast is about six yards 
wide. An ordinary " rig " is about three yards wide. 

" Land that has been anciently tilled and not ploughed within the last 
century is in samcasts." Hodgson MS. 

" The great intermixture of samcasts, rigs, buts, and doles of land gave 
a very primitive appearance to the whole ; and, indeed, evidence and 
ocular proof of very early colonization." Hodgson, Northumberland, vol. 
iii., 2, p. 90, note. 

SANDBACK, the chimney swallow, Hinmdc rustica, L. 


SAND-BRAYER, SAND-BEATER, a heavy stone or flat 
iron for pounding the soft sandstone used in scouring and 
colouring door-steps. 

SANDEET, SANDBLIND [N.'J , dim in sight, near-sighted- 
applied to men or animals. 

Sandgate, the eastern suburb of Newcastle, inhabited chiefly 
by keelmen in former times), facetious terms applied to a 
tobacco pipe lighted by being thrust in the fire till it is 
nearly red-hot. Sandgate -rattle, a step-dance. See SHUFFLE. 

SANDSCRAWLER, the sand martin, Cotyk riparia, L. 

SAND-STREEK, the lowest stretch of planking, or garboard 
strake, next the keel of a vessel. 

SANDY, the meadow pipit, Anthus pratensis, L. It is also 
called the mosscheepev and syety-Wull (sooty Will). In Holy 
Island the sandy is the sanderling, the small wader, Calidris 
arenaria, L. 

SANG, a song. To "myek a sang" to make a great outcry. 
" What a sang yor myekin' aboot nowt." 

SANG! an exclamation; spoken as " Maa sang!" or " Ba 
sang ! " Sankers ! a similar exclamation. 

SAPPY, moist, juicy, wet. "A sappy crack" a gossiping 
talk over a glass. " Sappy drinkin " heavy and protracted 
drinking. " A sappy day " a wet day. " The grund's varry 
sappy." It is also used to describe the sudden thump in a 
fall. " By gosh ! aa got a sappy tummel." 

" Aa'll tell thou mair when aw come back, 
For then we'll hev a sappy crack." 

T. Wilson, Opening Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, 1838. 


SARK, a shirt, a chemise. The various parts of the garment 
are known as the sark-tB.i], sark-sleeve, sark-bieest, etc. 

" When I cam to Walker wark, 
I had ne coat nor ne pit sark." 

Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 36. 

SARKIN, the cleading of wood laid on the rafters of a house 
when a strong and tight roof is required. The slates are laid 
over the sarkin. 


SARRA, to serve. " When aa sarra'd me time " (apprentice- 
ship). To " sarra the seed " serve out the seed. To " sarra 
the swine" serve out food to the swine. "It sarra'd him 
reet "served him right. 

" I've sarrit my king seven years, 
And I'm now luikin 1 out for a pension." 

W. Midford, Local Militia Man, 1818. 

SARSE, SES, CIRSE, a circular sieve for straining butter- 
milk. See SES. 

SARTIES, the pronunciation of the exclamation of certies ! 
" Maa sarties ! but y'or myekin' a bonny gan on." 

SARVOR, a server, a small tray or salver. 

SAT-COLLOP [N.] , salt collop. Anything not of a bulky 
description purchased for a big price is termed a sat-collop. 

SATPOKE, a glove in which the thumb only stands out, the 
rest of the hand and fingers being all contained in a single 
undivided poke or bag. 

SATTER [N.] , a term used by children, expressing contempt. 
A turkey-cock is teased and irritated by the whistling and 
shouting of boys, who repeat : 

" Bubbly Jock, Bubbly Jock, Bubbly Jock the satter. 
Yor faithor's deed, yor mother's deed; ye canna flee nae fawthor." 

SATTIN [N.], a salting, a thin sprinkling. Of a field that 
has been thinly strewn with lime or manure, where an 
insufficient quantity has been used for its requirement, it is 
said to " hev only getten a sattin" 

SATTLE, to settle, to take a seat. " Dinna gan stravaigin 
aboot ; come an' sattle." Sattle, a seat, a settle. Lang 
sattle, a long seat, like a form, with a back and arms. 


SATURDAY'S-STOP, the space of time in which of old it was 
not lawful to take salmons in Scotland and the North of 
England ; that is from Evensong on Saturday till sun rising 
on Monday. New World of Words, 1706. (Obs.) 

SAUF, the willow. See SAUGH. 


SAUFEY-MONEY, blackmail levied by the rievers of 
Tyndale and Redesdale. The Scottish form is sanghie, the 
sum given for salvage. (Obs.) 

"Safer, the reward given for the safety of anything." Jamieson. 

" Many of the inhabitants of Northumberland and Durham, who were 
more especially liable to be plundered by those mauraders, paid them 
sattfey -money, or blackmail, in consideration that the said thieves should 
not steal their cattle, and that they should assist the payers in recovering 
their property, in the event of their being robbed by any other thieves 
from the same dale." S. Oliver, jun, Ramblss in Northumberland, 1835, 
p. 132. 

SAUGH, SAP, SAUF, SAUGH-TREE, the willow. The 
term saugh is applied to willows generally, and not only to the 
Salix caprea and the Salix alba. The Salix cinerea is known 
as the grey saugh. The willow catkins are called palms. 
Compare WITHY. Saughy, abounding with willows. See 
also SEALY, SELE. 

" They made a bier of the birken boughs 
Of the saw/ and the espin grey." 

R. Surtees, Barthram's Dirge. 

" The glossy palm gilds the saugh-tree." 

R. Roxby, Poetic Epistle, 1845. 


SAVERNEY, saffron. 

" As yalla as a sxverney." Northumberland saying. 

SAW-BILL, the goosander, Mergus merganser, Linn. See 

SAYBEE [N.] , a shallot onion, A Ilium ascalonicum, Linn. 
" Ingins and saybees " onions and shallots. 

SCABBLE, to dress the face of a building stone by a series of 
blows from a chisel-pointed hammer ; the stone being laid on 
its " bed " and the hammer strokes given down its face. The 
tool used for the purpose is variously called a "scaplar" 
or " scabbier," a " wasp," a " whass," and sometimes a 
" bitch and pups." It is a hammer with a chisel point let 
into either end. 

SCABBY, applied in coal mining to the roof of the mine. A 
scabby-iQoi is when the coal does not part freely from the stone 
at the top. 

" A seam of coal is said to have a claggy top when it adheres to the 
roof, and is with difficulty separated. It most frequently occurs when the 
roof is post or sandstone rock, and is uneven or scabby, Green well, 
Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 


SCABBY, shabby. " A scabby fellow" a shabby or mean man. 

SCAD (p.t. scadded and scaddeet ; p.p. scadden), to scald. 
Scaddin het, scalding hot. Scadded peas, boiled or scalded 
peas. They were formerly eaten out of a large bowl, and the 
one who obtained the last pea was supposed to be first 

SCAFFOLD, in mining, the platform at the top of a winning. 

SCAFFY, irregular in character ; applied to a deposit of clay, 
as "raffety " is applied to a deposit of stone, and suggesting 
worthless or refuse stuft. 

" Blue scaffy clay." Borings and Sinkings, L. R., p. 219. 

SCAIRSH, scarce. SCAIRSHLY, SCARSHLY, scarcely. 

" When wark is scairsh and leevin dear." 

T. Wilson, The Market Day, 1854. 

SCAITH, harm. See SKAITH. 

SCALE, SKAIL, to disperse. Manure is dropped on land 
from a cart in isolated little heaps which are subsequently 
scaled, that is, scattered evenly over the surface. Mole heaps 
are similarly treated, the cast-up earth being scattered 
broadcast. The latter requirement occurs as a clause in 
certain farm leases. Scale is also applied -intransitively to 
the dispersal of a company of people, especially to the 
separation of a congregation from a church or chapel. Scale, 
in mining, the dispersal of the ventilating current by its 
escape through the crevices in doors or brattice ; or a scale of 
air, a portion abstracted from the main current and allowed 
to escape through a door or stopping for the purpose of 
ventilating a waggon or rolley way, etc. See REGULATING 

" An aad poke is aye scalin." Newcastle proverb. 

" They are also required to scale, mole, and dress the Cow Hill, Moor, 
and Leazes." Mackenzie, Hist, of Newcastle, p. 713. 

" 1627. Paid the Wayte for goeing a day with the scaylers in the 
Towne ffeilds, Sd. Paid the Bellman for giveing warneing about the 
Towne to scale the Towne ffeilds, 2d. 1628. Payd to the piper for 
goinge to the towne ffeilds withe scallers, and the bellman for going twis 
about the town, is." Gateshead Church Books. 

" Our men lap on horsebak againe, and chaced the said Scottes 
notwithstanding a parte of the said Scottes kept themselfes to geders, 
and (when our men were skaled in the said chace) set upon the hynderende 
of our said chace." Dacre to Wolsey, July 8, 1524, in Dr. Charlton's 
North Tynedale, second edition, p. 46. 


SCALE, a wooden shovel, with three flat points at the bottom, 
used for scattering mole hills. 

SCALE- A WAY a disorder, a whitlow; a rash in children. 


scattering or stampede, also the noise or commotion made by 
a dispersing crowd. " Thor wis a bonny scalebreak amang 
them when the soulgers cam." 

SCALE-DISH, a thin dish used in the dairy for skimming 
milk. Brockett. 

SCALE-DRAKE, the shieldrake Tadorna Belonii, Ray. Called 
also bandganner, skell, and skellduke. See SKELL. 

SCALLION, a young onion in the stage of growth before the 
bulb has formed. 

SCALLOP, to work coal in the mine entirely by the hand, 
without the use of gunpowder. Brockett. See SKELP, 2. 

SCALP, SCAUP, SCARP (the I in scalp not sounded), a bare 
piece of ground. The shore bared at low tide, where vessels 
are beached for examination and repair ; but especially 
applied to bare oozy flats, suitable for the growth of mussels 
and oysters. A thin fossiliferous bed composed chiefly of 
shells. See MUSHEL. The flat shore between Low Lights 
and Tynemouth is called the Mussel Scalp. An oyster scaup 
has been formed of late years in Budle-Slake, near Belford. 
The Scappy, at Holy Island, was at one time an oyster 

" The most interesting objects on this hill (Chatton Law) are some 
curious and mysterious sculpturings on the scalp of rocks protruding 
from beneath the soil." J. E. Boyd, Hist. ofBwks. Nat. Club, 1862, p. 337. 

" On the scalp of the rock where it dips into the hill, four figures are 
traceable." Geo. Tate, Same, vol. v., 1863, p. 151. 

"Whereas the Ship called the John and Margaret, late belonging to 
Bryan Miller deceased, and now lying upon the Scalp against Mr. 
Jennison's Key, North Shields, in order to be sold by the widow, etc." 
Advertisement, Newcastle Courant, No. 115, September i, 1722. 

SCALY, resembling shale. A scaly parting in a stratum is a 
band of shale-like material, and is distinguished from a 
" shivery " parting. Scaling post, schistose sandstone. 


SCAM, SCAME, a stain, a stigma, a blot, a mark, a blur. It 
is constantly used as a term for the impurities in rocks and 
minerals. Seamy, stained, or having stigmas, blots, or patchy 
marks. A dog which has the hair off in patches, or a sheep 
which has lost patches of its wool, is called seamy. Paper 
having portions of the surface abraded is also called seamy. In 
mining, seamy post is sandstone having a patchy appearance 
from the inter-mixture of foreign substances, such as mica, 
arranged in very thin layers. Coal also is called seamy when 
it presents the appearance of impurities, such as deposits of 
lime or other matter, intermixed with its texture. Or, again, 
shale that shows intercalations of other substances in a 
patchy form is called seamy metal to distinguish it from a 
stratum having a homogeneous character. Seamy is also used 
as a term of contempt. " Ye seamy beggar." 

SCAM [N.], to stain. " Th' bairn spilt the tye on th' 
tyebelclaith an' scam'd it a'." " Sair seam'd" badly stained. 

SCAMMLE, to scramble. At weddings it is customary to 
seammle money after leaving the church. See SCRAMMLE. 

SCANT, scarcity, scantiness, poverty. 

" To fight your way 
Through scant, and want, and misery." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1829, pt. iii., v. 50. 

SCAPLAR, a mason's pick. See SCABBLE. 

SCAR, a rough, bare precipice. Compare CAR. ' 

" Scar, an old word, signifying a steep rock ; whence Scarborough 
Castle in Yorkshire took its name." New World of Words, 1706. 

" At the head of Redesdale there are some scars, consisting of huge 
masses of disjointed and fallen rocks." Hodgson Northumberland, pt. ii., 
vol. i, p. 135, note. 

SCAR, a piece of furnace slag, scoria, or clinker. 

SCARE, a thin, filmy patch of limited, irregular area, found 
in stratification. A "parting" is a very thin continuous 
stratum ; a scare is a similar, very thin stratum, which is not 
continuous, but occurs like a patch. Scares of coal, streaks 
or little scars of that material. They are also called coal- 
pipes. Scares of metal, patches of shale. Scares of brass, 
patches of iron pyrites. The word is also used to describe 
the condition of anything irregularly marked. Badly washed 
clothes, having imperfectly cleansed and patchy marks left 


on them, are said to be scared or " gaited " [N.] Also the 
patchy occurrence of any mineral, as in the expressions, 
" Courses of sand sometimes scared with coal," " Thill scared 
with black stone," " Leaf clay scared with sand," " Metal 
scared with post," etc. Compare SCAM. 

SCARE, the edge of a " scarf" when it is visible in consequence 
of imperfect welding in a forged piece of iron. 

SCARF, the weld in a chain, etc. ; so named from the two 
united ends being scarfed or tapered so as to overlap each 

SCARP, a bare piece of ground. See SCALP. 

SCARRY, easily scared or frightened. " That's a scarry horse 
o' yors." 

SCARRY, marked with scares. See SCARE, i. 

SCART, SCAR [W.-T.] , SCRAT [T.] , to scratch. " Scart 
the lug " to scratch the ear, as one does when puzzled and 
in a dilemma. " Aa'll gar ye scart where it's not yuccy" 
make you scratch where it is not itchy ; that is, shall whip or 
smack you. " Scart on " to scratch the surface merely, 
applied to finicking, temporizing, as distinguished from real 
earnest, work. 

" The hounds did scrauch an' shoot an'soiraboot." James Armstrong, 
Wanny Blossoms, 1879, p. 129. 

" Aw'm nyen o' yor scarters and clawers : 
Nyen handles the pick like Bob Cranky." 

Selkirk, Bob Cranky's 'Size Sunday, 1807. 

SCARTINS, poor penmanship, any kind of markings or 

SCATHERED FEET, feet injured from water and small coals 
in the shoes. 

" It was, ne doot, a cooin sect 

To see them hirplin cross the floor, 
,\Vi" anklets shaw'd and scattered feet, 
Wi' salve and ointment plaistered o'er." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 16. 

SCAUP, a bare place. See SCALP. 

SCAUP-DUCK, the Fuligiila marila, L. Called covie and scaup. 
It is probably called from its haunt on the Scaups or Scalps. 


SCEMP, SKEMP, scrimp, short measure. 

SCHOOL, SKEEYUL, a company assembled to carry on the 
gambling game pitch and toss. Schoolin, pitch and toss. 

" A species of pitch and toss, called scouling, is their great gambling 
game," Dr. Wilson, Coal Miners. Transactions oj Tyneside Field Club, 
vol. vi , p. 206. 

" Scole, of pleyynge gamys, or werre, or other lyke." Promptorium 
Parvulorum, 1440. 

SCLAT, SKLATE-STYENS, the Northumberland slates, 
made of a schistose sandstone which readily splits into large 
flags. They were regulately used on old roofs, pinned to the 
rafters with mutton bones or oak trenails. 

SCLATE, shallow, as a sclate dish. Brocket. 

SCLATER, a wood louse. 

"Sclaters were crawling on the paved floor." Dr. Johnston, on Holy 
Island. Hist, of B whs. Nat. Club, vol. vii., p. 32. 

SCLOOT, to squint. Brocket*. 

SCOB. See SCOUB, i. 

SCON, to strike, to inflict punishment. Brockett. 

SCONCE, a fixed seat on one side of the fireplace in the old, 
large, open chimney ; a short partition near the fire upon 
which all the bright utensils in a cottage are suspended. 


SCONE, a thick cake of wheaten flour baked on a girdle. 
SCOOL, to scowl. Generally applied to a horse. 
SCOOR, diarrhoea in sheep and cattle. 

SCOOR, to clear out a ditch, to earth up a dyke or fence by 
digging a channel along its foot and building and squaring 
up the earth so removed on its sides and top. The channel 
left at the foot is called the scoorage. 

SCOOR, to thrash with a whip. 

SCOOR, to scour, to clean by rubbing. 

" 1683. For scooreing ye Eagle, is. od." (Scouring the brass eagle 
used as a lectern.) Churchwarden 's Accounts, St. Nicholas', Newcastle. 


SCOOT, the guillemot, Una troile, L. So-called near Spittal. 
It is also known as the willock and wullemot. 

SCOOT, to squirt. " See hoo the waiter's scootin oot o' that 
hole." Scooter, a syringe, a squirt. 


of wood put through the dewlap of a beast from which a 
charm is suspended as a defence against the " quarter-ill." 

SCORE, a standard number of tubs of coal upon which hewers' 
and putters' prices for working are paid. A score in Durham 
consists of twenty-one tubs of seven hundredweights each ; in 
Northumberland of twenty tubs. The rate of wages per score 
is called the score price. 

SCOTCH, a chock or block of wood placed in front of a waggon 
wheel on the rail to stop or block it. A "sprag" is a block 
of wood made to be thrust in between the spokes of a wheel 
to act as a brake. 

"'To scoat or scotch a wheel. 1 'To Shatch a wheel.'" New World of 
Words, 1706. 

" To skid a wheel, to stop the wheel of a coach or cart with a hook at 
the descent of a hill." The same. 

SCOTCH-AND-ENGLISH. The children of this day upon 
the English Border keep up the remembrance (of the ancient 
feuds) by a common play called Scotch and English or The Raid. 
The boys of the village choose two captains out of their body. 
Each nominates, alternately, one out of the little tribe. They 
then divide into two parties, strip, and deposit their clothes, 
called "wad," in two heaps, each upon their own ground, 
which is divided by a stone, as a boundary between the two 
kingdoms ; each then invades the other's territories ; the 
English crying, "Here's a leap into thy land, dry-bellied 
Scot." He who can, plunders the other side. If one is 
caught in the enemy's jurisdiction, he becomes a prisoner, 
and cannot be released except by his own party. Thus one 
side will sometimes take all the men and property of the 
other. History of the Roman Wall, W. Hut ton, 1802, p. 86. 
The game was still played in Newcastle within the writer's 



SCOTCH-DYKE, an ancient military work, said to stretch 
from Thorn Gate, in West Allendale, northward by Catton 
Beacon, and across the Roman Wall at Busy Gap. Compare 

SCOTCH MIST, a wet fog, a sea fret. 

" Such a thick Scotch mist cam on, 
They could not see their way, man." 

W. Armstrong, d. 1833-4, The Skipper's Mistake. 

" A Scotch mist will weet an Englishman to the skin." 

Hislop, Proverbs of Scotland. 

SCOTCH STREET, the common road by Elsdon from 
Scotland to Newcastle. It was generally a mere trackway, 
though in some boggy places it is paved ; and, until the 
making of the Ponteland road, was in regular use. It was 
also called the Salter's Way. Hodgson, Northumberland, 
pt. ii., vol. i., p. 349, n. 

SCOUB, SCOWB, a sapling or "sooker" of willow or hazel. 
Scoubs, in thatching, were short rods of hazel or other tough 
wood, sharpened at each end and then bent into the form of 
staples. They were put over the "temple rods" on the 
(hatch, into which they were thrust, the sharp ends of the 
scoubs penetrating to the flag, or turf flake, below and thus 
holding down the surface of the thatch securely. Scoubs, in 
fishing, the bent hazel rods used in making " crab-creeves " 
(crab-traps). " A scob at the needle," a phrase applied to a 
bad sewer. [Wooler.] 

SCOUB, a winter onion that is, the ordinary garden onion 
sown in autumn and transplanted. 

SCOUDER, SCOWTHER, to singe, to burn. " Thoo's 
scoutherin a' the breed." 

41 To mismanage anything in cooking ; to scorch it." Hodgson MS. 



SCOUT, a high rock or projecting ridge. Bvockett. 

SCR AB- APPLE, the crab apple, Pyrus mains, L. Called also 


"Scrab apples, a name given by Alnwick boys to fir cones with which 
they used to pelt each other in front of the castle on July fair Sunday. 
Origin of the custom unknown. They're gan to put doon the fair, so 
we'll hae nae mair fun firin' scrab apples."' J. L. Luckley, Alnwick 


SCRAFFLE, a scramble or struggle, as in the act of scratching 
and feeling with the hands in an attempt to find or clutch a 
thing. When money is scrambled and the effort to obtain a 
share is a matter of difficulty there is said to be a scraffle. 
To scramble along or climb up with great effort ; to struggle 
with hands and feet. Applied to a man's circumstances, to 
struggle for a livelihood, to contend against bodily infirmity. 
" Hoo are ye thi day, lad?" " Aa's middlin tidy, hinny ; 
just scrafflin on " just managing to get on with great effort. 
"When they scammelt the money at Bob's weddin, thor 
wis sic a scrafflin for'd as aa nivver seed." 

"Aw graped my way out i" the dark, 
An' down the stairs aw scraffleVd." 

W. Stephenson, Punch and Toby. 

SCRAMMLE, a scramble, to scramble. 

" The bride kyek neist, byeth sweet and short, 

Was toss'd in platefuls ower the bride ; 
The lads and lasses scrammel'd for't 
Wi' airms and mouths stretch'd far and wide." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 83. 

SCRAN, food. 

" Sae weel she ettles what aw get, 
Sae far she a'ways gars it gan, 
That nyen can say we are i' debt, 
Or want for owther claes or scran." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 80. 

SCRANCH, SCRUNCH, to grind with a crackling noise 
between the teeth. " Scranchin the teeth." 

SCRANCHIM, SCRANCHUMS, gingerbread baked in very 
thin cakes, which scranch or crackle in eating. Another name 
for these is brandy snaps. 

" Bring pockets like a fiddle bag, 
Ye'll get them cram'd wi' mony a whag 
Of pepper-kyek an' scranchim, O." 

Song, Wreckington Hiring. 
Marshall's Collection, 1827, p. 178. 

SCRANKIT, shrunken, diminutive. 

" In that small scranhit scrap of human mould 
Their orator, par excellence, behold." 

W. Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854, P- 2I - 

SCRAPER, a fiddler ; a fiddle stick ; an instrument for bringing 
the dust out of a drill hole ; a piece of bent hoop iron used tor 
taking the wet off a horse. A very common term for a greedy, 
acquisitive person. 

" Some wicked wag his scraper, greas'd, 
And stole his rosin (ill betide him !) " 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., v. 7, 


SCRAT, a scratch. To dig about with a small stick or piece 
of iron, as rag collectors do in dust heaps. "To scrat for a 
leevin " to gain a precarious subsistence. See SCART. 

SCRAT, a mean, penurious, or contemptible person. 

SCRAUGH, SCRAUCH, to give mouth, like a dog. To cry 
hoarsely. The scraugh of a heron. 

SCREAMER, the swift, Cypselus apus, L. Called also the black 
martin. See SQUEALER. 

SCREASED [W.-T.] , creased, crumpled, crushed. " Aa wis 
sair screased i' the crood." A variant of scrushed, which see. 

SCREECH-OWL, the barn owl, Strix flammea, L. Variously 
called howlet, white-owl, or gilli-howlet. 

SCREED, a writing, a document. " He hesn't a screed ti'show 
for't." " He signed the screed." A part or portion. " Just 
sing us a screed o' yen o' yor sangs, Tom." A harangue ; a 
wearisome discourse. " A lang screed o 1 a sarmon." A long 
drink. A narrow strip of land; a narrow strip of material. 
" Teer us off a screed o' that ti' myek a garten." To tear, to 
rend. "Screed off that piece o' flannen." Compare SCRIBE. 

SCREEN, SKREEN, a large spout usually placed over the 
railway leading from a colliery. The bottom of the screen is 
perforated with gratings by which small coal is separated 
from large. The terms screened and unscreened coal indicate 
whether such a separation has been made or not before 
putting the coal on rail. Screens were introduced about the 
year 1740 by Mr. W. Brown. They were at first made very 
narrow, but were enlarged towards the year 1770. T. J. 
Taylor, Archeology of the Coal Trade, p. 195, n. Screener, screen- 
man, the man at a colliery who fills railway waggons from the 
screens. He sees that the coal is clean as it passes out of the 
screen, and he "wales" out impurities. 

SCREENGE, to crackle, as ice when it gives to the tread. 
When ice is too weak to walk or skate on it is called "bendy- 

SCREMERSTON CROW, the hooded crow, Corvus comix, L. 
It is known as hoody, grey-backed crow, and corby. 

Locally called Scremerston crows, "because they frequent the coast 
thereabout in winter and spring." Dr. Hardy, Denham Tracts, vol. i., 
P- 35- 


SCRETHY-HOLE, a lair. 

"The todde he cam frae the screthy holes.'' James Telfer, 1824, The 
Gloamyn Buchte. Minstrelsy of the English Border, p. 188. 

SCRIBE, handwriting. " He disna knaa hoo ti myek the scribe 
o' a pen." "Just gi'z a bit scribe off yor han' to show whe aa 
is." A narrow strip of any material. Compare SCREED. 

SCRIBE, a long and narrow strip of arable land, of about two 
hundred yards in length by ten to fourteen feet in width, in 
the Common field at Newtown, Warkworth. In that town 
each freehold burgage had attached to it a half acre in 
Heather Leazes, or at the Moor ; also a ten and a scribe in 
Newtown, the foregoing being freeholds. To each burgage 
was attached a half acre of arable land in Newtown, and a 
half acre of old grass in New Close or in Gilden, held of the 
lord during pleasure. In February, 1892, scribes and tens at 
Newtown belonging to the late Colonel George Forster were 
put up for sale. The conditions of sale describe three scribes 
as containing two roods and two perches. Each scribe thus 
averages 8a6J square yards in this case over one-filth of an 
acre each. 

SCRIEVE, to write or mark on timber with a cutter called a 
scriever or scrieve knife. 

SCRIMP, to narrow, to shorten, to scant. " Nicely scrimpt " 
not over-cooked. " Scrimp meals" scanty meals. Scrimpy, 
scanty, miserly. " The aad miser's as scrimpy as can be." 

SCROG, SCROGS, rough brushwood or underwood. "He 
went lowpin ower the scrogs." It occurs frequently as a place- 
name. " The Scrogs" "Whittle Scrogs," etc. Scroggy, rough, 
unridded, left with the natural growth of brushwood. 

" Brown and heathy knolls, rocky brows, scraggy hirsts of hazel and the 
sloe thorn." Hodgson, Description of Woodside, Redesdale. Northumber- 
land, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 100, . 

" Call at Scrogg House, round Byker fields, 
And back by Walker quay." 

Song, Lass of Wincomblee. 

SCROGGY [N.], a crab apple. " Scroggv jelly" crab apple 
jelly. " Scroggy bus " a crab tree. See SCRAB. 

SCROUNGE [N.] , to crush or squeeze together, as in a 
crowd. "What are ye scroungin us for? Is there no' room 
aneuf thonder ? " Compare SCRUSH, SCRUDGE. 


SCROW, a crowded or confused state. " Thor'll be a bonny 
scrow on when the train comes in." " Next week she'll be 
cleanin' the hoose, an' we'll be aa'll in a scrow." 

SCROWS, the small shrimp-like insect found in fresh water 
pools. Bvockett. 

SCRUDGE, a crush, a packed crowd ; a variant of scntsh. 
Also a niggardly fellow. " He's an aad scmdge." To crowd 
or crush together ; to pack. 

"Ye nivver see'd the church sae scrudg'd, 

As we war there thegither, 
An' gentle, semple, throughways nudg'd, 
Like burdies of a feather." 

T. Thompson, Jemmy Joneson's IV hurry. 

SCRUFF, scurf. SCRUFFY, scurvy. 

SCRUFF, the nape of the neck. " He tyuk him bi the scru/o' 
the neck." It refers either to the neck itself or to the coat 

SCRUFFLE, a scuffle ; to scuffle. " He lost his hankesher i 1 
the scvuffle" Compare SCRAFFLE and SCUFFLE. 


SCRUMFISH, to suffocate. A not infrequent variant of 

SCRUNSH, to crunch. See SCRANCH. 

SCRUNTS, the stumps of cabbage stalks. See RUNT, 2. 

SCRUNTY, poor, bare, barren, poverty-stricken ; small, mean, 
contemptible. Applied to persons, it means diminutive, under- 
grown, or ill-thriven ; or to characters, miserly, hardfisted. 
44 Lyuk what a little scrunty bit he's gi'en us." " He's a poor, 
sitten-on, scrunty body." Compare RUNTY and RUNT. 
Scrunties, small playing marbles, made of common clay. 
Called also commonies and runts. 

" Mushrooms, at Bellingham, were found on a scrunty, heathery bit 
of land, where you would not expect them to grow under any cir- 
cumstances." Hexham Courant, June, 1890. 

SCRUSH, a crush, a crowd. To crush, to crowd upon. 
" Whe are ye scrushin ? " 

" There was scrushin, an' pushin, sic a mixture o* folks." E. Corvan, 
d. 1865, The Rise in Coals. 


SCRY, the rousing of the country, or hue-and-cry, in time of a 
Border foray. (Obs.) 

" They found the flood too high to ford ; the gates of the bridge (at 
Haydon Bridge) shut against them ; and, as they fled on foot, they 
heard the deep opening mouth of the bloodhound, that made the welkin 
tremble, and the scry of the country people, headed by the bailiff of 
Hexham and the constable of Langley, pursuing them in hot-trod close 
at their heels." Hodgson, Northumberland, iii., 2, p. 380. 

" On St. James's even, the 24th day of July, came Liddisdale men to 
the barony of Langley, to the number of six score. At six o'clock in the 
morning the scry rose through the country, and them that was next went 
forward in all haste." Letter, temp., Henry VIII. Hodgson, above, p. 386. 

SCUDDOCK, a small coin or something of smallest value. 

" Aw wonder whe wad cared a scuddick." 

W. Oliver, d. 1848, The Lament. 

" Aw'd getten the brass, every scuddoch." 

E. Corvan, d, 1865, Astrilly's Goold Fields. 
A llan 's Collection , 1 89 1 . 

SCUDGY, a rough apron. 

SCUEVE, to shift and screw about with the feet. " Y'or 
elwis scuevin on wi' yor feet." See SCUIFF. 

SCUFFLE, to shuffle. " Scuffle the cairds." 

SCUFFLER, SCRUFFLER, a horse-hoe for cleaning drill 
crops. It is furnished with four or five strong iron hoes or 
shares. Each hoe is called a scuffler foot. Scuffle, to clean 
with a scuffler ; applied to crops. 

SCUFTER, to bustle, to hurry. " He scuftered off to catch 
the train." 

SCUFTER, a policeman. A cant word formerly common in 
Newcastle ; now probably obsolete. 

SCUIFF, SKUIFF, SCUEVE, to knock one leg against the 
other in walking. " A scuiffin walker." 

" To scttfi, to graze, to touch lightly." Jamieson. 

SCUIL, SKEYUL, SKYUL, a school, a shoal of fishes. 
" A scuil o' harrin," " A scuil o' porpoises," etc. 

SCUM, a darkening gloom over the sky. 

SCUM, to strike in the mouth. " Aa'll gie ye a scum on the 
gob " a blow on the mouth. 

" Come England's foes, a countless crew, 
Ye'll gie thor gobs ascummin." 

R. Gilchrist, d. 1844, A Voyage to Lnnnin. 


SCUMFISH, to choke, to smother. " The chimley's been 
smokin' till aa's fair scumfished." tl Yen on them wis scumfished 
wi' the stythe." 

" 1699, J une 2. Katherine, daughter to George Errington, taylor, 
scumfish d in a pan of water." St. Nicholas' Church Books, Newcastle, p. 18. 

SCUNCH, the cheek or aperture left in a wall for receiving 
the frame of a door or window. 

SCUNNER, aversion, disgust, contempt. A youthful bride- 
groom, on being asked by the clergyman if he would take this 
woman to be his wedded wife, declined to do so ; and, on 
being asked his reason, said he had " tyen a scunner at her." 
" She's gotten the scunners " taken the pet or got huffed. 
Scunner, scanner, to shrink, to flinch, to recoil in aversion or 
contempt. " When he saa'd he scunnered at the verra seet 
on't." " He nivver scunnart" never flinched. "He did not 
scunner " did not observe or pay attention to. 

11 He didn't scunner me at all ; 
Nowse mindin' then but Nelly's jawin'." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 41. 
" They scunner self-denial." 

W. Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854, p. 26. 

SCURRY, to hurry. 

" Scurry in ower the hills." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang o" Solomon, 

Northumberland version, ch. ii., v. 8. 

SCUTTLE, a scoop or baler for water, or a vessel for holding 
coals at the fireside. 

SCUTTLE, a hat or bonnet of any kind ; a cant word. 
SCUTTLE, SCUTTOR, to hurry off precipitately. Compare 


" To scud, or scuddle away, to scamper or run away all of a sudden." 
New World of Words, 1706. 

" Away she skuttors in hor coach." 

J. P. Robson, The Tip Top Wife, 1870. 

SCYTHE, SITE ; the Scythe, in its old form, consists of the 
blade, which is fastened to a long, light pole called a sned, 
and stiffened at the angle, where blade and sned meet, by the 
grass-nail. The grass-nail also prevents the throat of the 
scythe from being choked. The handles projecting from the 
sned are called nibs, and at the further end, on the mower's 
left, is the strickle, which acts at once as sharpening stone 
and counterpoise to the blade. Scythe-stitch, a twitching of 
the muscles of the arms, caused by using the scythe. 



" For his hair is brown, and se is thine, 
Your eyes are grey, and se are mine, 
Thy nose is taper'd off se fine ; 

Thou's like thy daddy, Johnny." 

E. Nunn, Sandgate Wife's Nurse Song. 

Fordyce's Collection, 1842, p. 243. 
" Oh ! hinny Nan, noo lizen me, 
An' thou shall hear what's gliffed me see.'' 1 

Lament for the Clock Fyece. 

Allan's Collection, 1863, p. 2. 

SEA,, SOO, SOA, a water bucket. Called also a water-sea. 

SEA-CAT, the wolf fish, Anarrhichas htpus, Yarrell. 

SEA-COAL. Coals in London were originally borne from 
Newcastle by sea, and were distinguished from charcoal by 
the designation of sea -coal. 

SEA-CRAA, the black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus, Yarvell. 
Called also peewit gull and picima. 

SEA-DEVIL, the common angler or fishing frog, Lophius 
piscatorius, Yarrell. 

SEA-FRET, SYE-FREET [N.], a damp fog from the sea. 
Applied also to a temporary thaw occasioned by the salt 
vapour during the rising tide. In North Northumberland 
sye-freet is a short interval of thaw between frosts "fresh" 
weather of short duration. 

SEA-GULL, SEA-MEW, the common gull, Lams canus, L. 

SEA-HAWK, the skua, Stercorarius catarractes, L. Also known 
as a dirt bird. 

SEAL, the foot-print of the otter. 

SEAL, a willow tree. SEALY, abounding with willows. See 

SEA-LARK, the ring dotterel, Charadrius hiaticula, L. Also 
the dunlin, Pelidna cinclus, L. See PURRE and STINT. 

SEALING-LINK ; woodwork with sealing-link is that in which 
one board is groven in another. Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, 
vol. ii., p. 513. 


SEAM, a stratum of coal. Each seam has its distinctive name. 
In the Newcastle district the most important are called the 
main seams, as " high-main," or first important seam met with 
on descending from the surface ; and "low-main," the seam at 
a lower depth in the series. Seams are also- distinguished by 
their thickness, as " five-quarter coal," " three-quarter coal," 
the quarter here meaning nine inches or quarter of a yard. 
Proper names, too, have been applied, either from the owner 
of the royalty, or as indicating the name of the coal owner 
who first wrought a particular seam, as Harvey seam, 
Townley seam, Beaumont seam, etc. The last-named is often 
called the " engine seam," with curious emphasis on the 
" gine " not otherwise given. Place-names are also applied 
as probably indicating the spot where such seams were first 
extensively wrought, as Busty bank, etc. See BROCKWELL. 

SEAM, SEYME, SEEM, a quantity of goods equivalent to 
a load that is, the load commonly carried by a pack horse. 
In old charters " seyme of salmon" is thus specified. A "seam 
of wood" is a horse load; of corn, eight bushels; of glass, 
120 Ibs. (Obs.) 

SEA-MICE (pronounced sigh-mice], the small waders; the 
sanderling, Calidris arenaria,.L. ; the stints, Pelidna cinclus and 
P. mimita ; the dotterils, Charadrius morinellus and C. hiaticida, 
etc. They are also called pennymen near Bamburgh. 

SEA-MINNOW, the young of the coal-fish, Merlangus 
carbonarius, Yarrell. See H ALLAN, i. 

SEAM-NAIL, a riail without a point, from one to one-and-a- 
quarter inch long, on to which a rove is rivetted. 

SEAMY, thin, thready; applied to thin deposits found as 
partings between strata. 

SEA-PARROT, the puffin, Fratemtla arctica, L. Called also 
conlterneb and Tommy Norvie. A resident ; frequent on the 
coast all the year. It breeds on the Fame Islands. 

SEA-PHEASANT, the pintail duck, Dafila acuta, L. 
SEA-PIE, a term for pot -pie, which see. 

SEA-PIN ER, a cold wind, without rain, blowing from the sea 
for several consecutive days. Pine, to dry, to desiccate. The 
north-east wind is a finer, drying up everything in its path. 
Its effect in retarding vegetation is a marked characteristic, 


SEA-PIOT, SEA-PYET, the oyster catcher, Hacmatopus 
ostralegus, L. This is a resident in our district, and is 
abundant by our sea shore. Piot, a magpie. 

SEARCE, to sift or strain through a sieve. See CIRSE, 

SEA-ROARER, a large whelk. So-called from the sound 
when placed on the ear. 

SEA-SALE, coals that are shipped. Compare SEA-COAL and 

SEA-SOW, the ballan wrass, Labrm maculatus, Block. 

SEA-SWALLOW, the common tern, Sterna hirundo. Called 
on the coast the sye-swallow, and sometimes teenn. 

SEAT, silt. " The cuttin' wis made through nowt but black 


SEAT-AND-SADDLE, the equipment of a horse for a man 
and woman. The seat was the pillion for the woman, which 
was fastened behind the saddle. 

SEATH, SAITH, the coal-fish, Merlangus cavbonarius, at an 
advanced stage of its growth. See COALSAY. 

SEAVES, SIEVES, SEVES, rushes. Hodgson MS. Candle- 
sieve t a rushlight. 

" Seavy ground, such as is overgrown with rushes." Bailey, Dictionary. 

SEA-WARE, sea-weed. Called in North Northumberland 
rack or wrack. The stick-like stems are called ware-wassal, 
belks, or bans, and their tops may-tops. Compare MAY-WEED 
and WASSAL. 

SEC, SIC, such. Sometimes the form is seckin. " Seckin a 
stoor thor wis on " such a disturbance or dust there was 
going on. " At seckin a time." See Sic. 

SECOND-WORKING, working pillars in a coal mine ; called 
also broken working. The pillars are left after the first 
working to support the roof. 

SEE, so. Compare SE. 

"Aw thout aw wad dih see tee, see aw stept up an' began ih maw 
turn," Thomas Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 14. 


SEE- AN '-SEE, so-and-so, used for an anonymous person, or 
for the expression of indifferent health or bodily condition. 
" If ye ax see-an'-see ye knaa whe he'll tell ye." " Hoo are 
ye thi day ? " " Just see-an'-see." 

SEED, saw, seen. Used as p.t. and p.p. of the verb to see. 
" Aa seed it mesel." 

11 Like a flock o' goats that's seed frae Gilead." 

Robson, Sang o' Solomon, Newcastle version, ch. 6, v. 5. 

SEED-POOR, a furrow with a good "comb" on either side, 
ready for the reception of the seed before harrowing-in 

SEEDIN, applied to cows and other animals when the milk 
is rising prior to their giving birth. 

SEEDS, oat husks. " It's nowther seeds nor meal " neither 
one thing nor the other. 

SEEK, to bring or carry anything. " Hadaway seek the milk." 
" Aa's gan ti seek the watter in." Seekin is also used in the 
sense of going round to beg for help. " She'd been oot seekin 
aal day " asking for charity. 

SEEK, sick. " Seek ti deed " sick to death. Seekness, sickness. 
Seekenin, sickening ; also childbed. 

SEEL, a saddle or pillion. 

" The hinds of Longhirst grange awoke, 

And looked towards Morpeth town ; 

When a knight with a lady on his seele, 

Like the wind came rushing down." 

F. Sheldon, Lord Hepburn. 
Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, p. 97. 

SEEM, to beseem, to suit in appearance, to become. " He 
seems that, noo " (said of a man with a new hat). With the 
qualification ill it means the opposite. " Mother says aa 
ill-seem a dorty face" (said by a servant who was told how 
well she looked when she was cleaned up). 

SEEM, a load. See SEAM, 2. 

SEEMLY, seemingly, apparently. " He wis seemly gannin 
north when aa saa him." 

SEEP, to percolate slowly ; an occasional form of sipe. 


SEER, sure. " Aa's seer on't " sure of it. " Aa's sartin 
seer " quite sure. 

" Yer maist seer to get lost." James Armstrong, Crossing the Cheviots, 

SEERSER, SEESER, SISSOR, a milk sieve, made of a rim 
of wood about six inches in height, bent into a short cylinder 
about a foot in diameter. A hair cloth allows the " churn 
milk " to pass whilst the particles of butter are retained. It 
is also called cirse and ses. Compare SILE. 

SEESTA, SEESTHA, SITHA, look! see! an exclamation, 
meaning " seest thou ? " It is commonly used as a mere 
pause in a sentence. " When aa cam in, seesta, thor wis 
nowt inside." 

" Finer, seeste, ne'er were bred." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 99. 

SEET, sight. Light, night, right, bright, dight, are (in S., T., 
and W.-T.) similarly leet, neet, reet, breet, deet. 

SEET [N.] , soot. 

SEG, a sedge, but, specially, the yellow iris, or fleur de lis, 
Iris pseudacorus, L. S^-bus, a bush or clump of segs. Segs 
are tied up in bundles and used as floats by boys learning to 
swim. " Aa larned ti' soom on a bundle o' segs. A partially 
castrated bull, usually called a bull-s^. Compare RIGGET. 
An easy-going, lazy person. Seggy, soft-natured, easy-going. 
A fat, lazy woman is called a " greet seg." 

SEG, to sag or bend down, as a slack rope or chain, or as a 
plank bridge when weighted. 

SEGGAR, SEGGAR-CLAY, the stratum of clay which 
frequently forms the " thill " or floor of a coal seam. See 

SEINDLE, seldom. (Obs.) 

" But seindle now ye can her see." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 28. 

" For sailors sei'idle pray, but when 
There is nae help fra mortal men ! " 

The same, p. 70. 

SEIT, comparison, as " there's nee seit" 

SEKKIT, a reproachful term used to a child. See SACKIT. 


SEL, self. Used in all the combinations of the word ; as mesel, 
thasel, kissel, for myself, thyself, and himself, and worsels, yorsels, 
thorsels, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. For kissel (hiz-sel), 
the form "his aan sel" is frequently used. "He did it his aan 
sel" For itself, " the sel on't " is the common form. u The 
bairn can gan bi the sel on't noo." In North Northumber- 
land the diminutive form selly is used. 

" Since he's gyen Shields hezzent luik't like the sel on't." John 
Morris, Canny Shields, 1849. 

11 Selly' s a queer dog." Old saying. 

SELE, a marshy water-course, a stream creeping through reeds 
and rushes. Brockett, third edition. Compare SEAL. 

SELION, a strip of ploughed land. (Obs.) 

" A ridge of land which lies between two furrows." Bailey, Dictionary, 
second edition. 

" 12 selions of land as they separately lie without the walls of the town 
in the Castle-field (the Leazes), and 24 selions without the said town in 
the Welflatte, in Elstwyk field." -Deed of A.D. 1491. Archceologia JEliana, 
vol. i., p. 31. 

" In the flat town fields the samcasts, sellions, ridges, and other 
descriptions of doles were divided by a rhyn, or rain (rein), a balk or 
stripe of unploughed land." Hodgson, Northumberland, in., 2, p. 402, n. 

SELL, a porpoise (Northumberland). Halliwell. 

SELLEN, sold. The common form of the p.p. " Aa wadn't 
a sellen the horse for owt like that." See SELT. 

SELM, SELLEM, a bar of a gate. Compare ELLEMS. 
SELT, SELD, sold; the p.t. 

SEMMENT, SEMMINT, supple, wiry, energetic. " He's a 
semment body " a tough, wiry fellow. 

SEND, impetus. " It cam wi' sic a send." 

SENNEN, SINNEN, SENON, a sinew. " He cut yen o' the 
senons o' his leg wi' the adge." See HOWFSENNEN. 

SERVE, gas is said to serve when it issues more or less 
regularly from a fault, slip, etc., in a coal mine. Serve, in a 
game, is to bowl or throw to a player. 

SES, a circular sieve for straining butter-milk. See SARSE, 


SESS, an exaction, a levy, an assessment. 

" We'll pay, and ne'er complain, 
The Jail-Ctfss, Mr. Mayor." 

The Newgale Street Petition. 

Marshall's Collection, 1827, P- 82. 

SET, a tool used in rivetting. See HOBBY. A train of coal 
tubs or waggons. " Teum set" a set of empty tubs. A column 
of pump-trees, with buckets, etc., complete. The spontaneous 
giving way of coal in a mine for want of support, or the 
loosening of it preparatory to its falling down. A difficulty, 
a trouble, a fuss, a disturbance. " We hed sic a set wi'd." 
" Aa'd sic a set ti get there." " What a set yo'r myekin aboot 
it." " They had sic a set on i' the street as ye nivver seed." 
A bend or inclination from a straight line. " The poker's 
getten a set" " The door winna shut close ; it'sgetten a. set." 
Of a wall it is usually said it has a "set in" or a "set out," 
according to the direction of its deviation from a right line. 

" The doors admit the set to pass through the one before the other is 
required to be opened." R. Scott, Ventilation oj Coal Mines, 1868, p. 10 

" S^-rider, a lad who goes with a set of tubs on an engine plane in a 
pit." Nicholson, Glossary, 1888. 

SET, to fill a tub in a pit unfairly, as when the large coals are 
built up and left intentionally hollow in the tub or corf, and 
the top carefully filled over in order to get full payment for as 
small as possible a quantity of coals. This fraud can only be 
practiced where the hewers are paid by measure ; in place of 
which payment by weight is now most generally substituted. 
Greenwell, Glossary of Coal Trade, 1849. A tub thus filled was 
also said to be cundied. See SET-GOT. To suit, to fit, to 
become, as in the expression, " It sets him weel" (said of a 
coat or garment tried on). To accompany. " If ye'll wait till 
aa get me top coat on, aa'll set ye doon the road." " Aa went 
ti set me lass hyem." " Did ye come bi yorsel ?" " No, Jack 
set us ti the lonnin end." " Aa wad setten ye, had ye ax'd us." 
To propel a keel by thrusting it along with a puoy. " He'll 
set or row se tightly." 

'* Aa was settin the keel, wi' Dick Stavers an 1 Mat, 
An' the Mansion-hoose Stairs we were just alangside." 
J. Shield, My Lord 'Size. 

Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 22. 

SET, to cause ; used in the phrase, "What set ye ti gan 
there?" "What set ye ti think it wis me?" "What set 
onybody ti cum on sic a day as this?" 

Wi' lad ! what's set te here se lyet, 
Draw in a seat and crook thy hoff." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 25. 


SET, generally used in combination, as " set away," "set off," 
"set up," " set doon," to put in motion. " You'll set the roof 
doon" cause the roof to fall. " Set up " the order to draw 
up. "Set the gob up " talk impudently. " If ye set yor gob 
up ti me, aa'll clash yor jaa for ye." " S^-away " to set in 
motion. " S^-away, there ! " a call from the banksman in a 
colliery to the onsetter to send the cage going down away 
empty, as men are going down in the one then running 
up. " Set the set away" start away the train or set of tubs. 
" Set yorsel away, man " (said to a competitor in a game or 
encounter). "Set away" also means to dismiss. "He's a 
poor, useless body, but aa's gan ti set him away." 

SETAFOOT, a schoolboy game in mimicry of Border warfare, 
the foray, the raid, the capture, the release, and the pillage. 
Wright, Glossary. (Obs.) 

SET-IN, to join with others in work. 

" One of the band (of bellringers) observed, that all hands were there, 
the clock had struck ten, and they had better set in." 1830. Richardson, 
Table Book, Leg. div., vol. ii., p. 147. 

SET-IN, SETTEN-IN, ingrained, as dirt in the pores of the 
skin after work. 

SET-OOT, set aside, forfeited. When a corf was slack that 
is, not sufficiently filled, the banksman called down, " This 
corf's set oot." " Aye, aye, lad," replied the onsetter. The 
hewing price of a set-oot corf was deducted from the hewer's 
wages at the pay. 

SET-OOT, in husbandry, to commence the formation of a rig. 
A rig, in ploughing, is commenced with "the settin," the 
horses being guided to poles measured off to the required 
width of the rig. This is called the settin-oot. 

SET-POT, a seated or fixed pot, with a fire and special flue. 
The common wash-house arrangement. 

SET-RIDER, a lad who goes with a set of tubs on an engine 
plane. Nicholson, Glossary, 1888. 

SETS, SETTERS, a posing or difficult task or problem. 
' Aa'll gi' ye yor sets, noo." This may refer either to a matter 
of endurance or skill, or to the solution of a riddle, etc. 

SET-TEE, to set to, to begin in earnest. 

" If aa'd oney set-tee forst thing as aa intended ti dee." 

James Horsley, A Carriage at the Door. 


SETTEN, the p.p. of sit. Sitten and setten are both used, 
apparently with indifference. 

SETTEN-ON, unwaxed, ungrown, of diminutive stature. Also 
applied to puddings, etc., when burnt in cooking, or 
"bishopped," "The taties is settin-on, aa fear." See SITTEN. 

11 Poor setten-on bodies are lengthened." 

Geddes, Ikeybo. Bards of the Tyne, 1849. 

SETTER, ONSETTER, the man who sends the coal from 
the bottom of the shaft. 

SETTER, an officer on the Border, who, with a searcher, was 
responsible for setting the appointed watch. Two watchmen 
were at their posts by night and one by day with setters and 
searchers of the same. At Haltwhistle, Bellister, at the fords, 
passes, and other points on the Tyne, this arrangement was 
elaborately organized. (Obs.) 

SETTERS, the large pieces of coal set round the sides of a 
coal cart, in order that a heavier load of smaller coals may 
be piled up in the centre. Compare SET. 

SETTING-STONE, a whetstone. Called also settling and 
sadling- stone. 

SETTLE-BOARDS, SADDLE-BOARDS, the portion of the 
heapstead at the top of a pit shaft, and between it and the 
screens. It is covered with iron or metal sheets for the easy 
passage of the tubs to and from the screens. Greenwell, 
Glossary of Coal Trade, 1849. See FLAT-SHEETS. 

" Draw me to bank to the settle-boards of ease, there shall I rest on the 
heap of plenty." Collier's Letter to his Sweetheart. 

SETTLING, sediment. 

SEUGH, SHEUGH, SOUGH, a small stream or open gutter 
running through land. A surface drain. ' Aa've been howkin 
a seugh to wise the watter away fre' the yet" cutting a 
drain to conduct the water away from the gate. 

" A better never lap a dyke 
Nor ever clear'd a sheugh or syke." 

Poems, T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, p. 173. 

SEUT, soot. See SYUT. 

SEW (see-oo), the strong p.t. of sow. " He sew the onion seed 
last week." 


SEWANT, the plaice, Platessa vulgaris, Yarrell. 

" Behold some others ranged all along, 
To take the seivant, yea the flounder sweet." 

Dennys' Secrets of Angling (Eng. Garner, i., 171.) 

SEWER, sure, certain. " He's sewer on't." See SEER. 

SEYEM [S.] , SYEM [T.] , same. 

SEYEP [S.] , SYEP [T.] , soap. 

SEYME, a load. See SEAM, 2. 

SEYPE, to ooze or drain off slowly. See SIPE. 

SEYUN [S.], SYUN, SUIN [T.] , soon. 

SEYUT [S.] , SYUT [T.] , soot. 

SH, the alleged pronunciation, sh for ch, as Shatton for Chatton 
and Shillingham for Chillingham, is probably a rustic joke. 
If it ever existed, it may have been a mere family peculiarity 
perpetuated in sayings such as, " There's as good cheese in 
Chillingham as ever chafts chowed," "The children o' 
Chillingham gied to the children o' Chatton a chair to sit on." 
These are mere catch phrases, and are common to both 
sides of the Border, with variations in the place-names to 
suit. (See Dr. Hardy, Denham Tracts, 1892, p. 272.) Compare 

SHAB, to sneak off. Compare SNOOVE. 

" Nelson and he together, 
The springy French did lether, 
And gar'd them shab away." 

T. Thompson, New Keel Row. 

Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 6. 

SHABBY. Applied to health when indifferent. " He's varry 
shabby thi' day." 

SHAB-RAG, SHAG-RAG, a mean person. Brocket*. 

SHAD, an open field. See SHADE, 2. 

" He raced through reise and shad." 

Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, p. 421. 

SHAD, shallow. " Shad watter." See SHOD. 
SHADE, a shed. " Cairt shade," a cart shed. 

SHADE, a detached portion. "Shades of ice" detached pieces 
of ice floating loosely about. 


SHADE, SHED, the parting where the hair of the head falls 
on either side. A water shade is in like .manner the crest of 
land where streams part to one side or the other. Compare 
DEAL. To part, to divide, " Get the reddin kyem an' shade 
yor hair " get the tidying comb and part your hair. 

SHAFFLE [T.] , SHAUGHLE [N.] , to shuffle in walking. 
Hence to do anything in a clumsy or feckless manner ; and 
from this a shaffle means an awkward effort, and shaffly 
ineffectual struggling. " He com shafflin alang wivhis stick." 
" He's oney myed a poor shaffle on't, onyway." " A poor 
shaffly body 'at he is." 

SHAFT, a pit sunk from the surface ; a vertical sinking, as 
distinguished from a " drift " or horizontal way into a mine. 
Downcast shaft, that by which air enters the mine. Upcast 
shaft, that by which it passes up, after traversing the workings 
of the colliery. Shaft frame, the elevated framework of wood 
or iron at bank. Shaft framing, the square framing at the 
top and bottom of the shaft into which the cage runs at the 
openings where the tubs are changed. Shaft man, a person 
employed to keep the shaft in repair. Shaft pillars or shaft 
walls, strong pillars of coal left round the bottom of a pit 
shaft. Shaft rent, rent charged for the privilege of drawing 
up the shaft the coal worked from another royalty by 

SHAFT, the handle of a pick, hack, shovel, or mel. The 
handles of besoms, brushes, etc., are called "shanks," and of 
hand-hammers "helves." These distinctions preserve with 
accuracy the characteristics of each of the articles above- 
named ; the long smooth shaft, the rougher " shank," and the 
short "helve." 

SHAG, a covering of long hair. Shag hat, a hat with a very 
long-haired, rough nap ; formerly much in vogue among 
pitmen and keelmen. Finely cut tobacco was formerly 
known as " rag baccy," not shag. 

" Winlaton Shags; the good folks of Winlaton are so-called, but why I 
know not." Denham Tracts, edited by Dr. Hardy, p. 68. See SHAGGY. 

" (The dog's coat) was ay a glossy raven black, 
It a' her days upo' her back, was like a shag." 

T. Donaldson, Glanton, Poems, 1809, p. 177. 

" My good shag hat ne mair aw 11 wave." 

R. Gilchrist, Lamentation on Death of 
Captain Star key, 1824. 

SHAG, a piece broken off. Compare SHADE, 2. 

" Shags of cole.'' Bartholomew, 208. " Of oaten bread, of tobacco.'' 
Hodgson MS. 


SHAGGY, term of contempt. " It's ye, ye shaggy, ye, 'at did it." 
SHAIKLE [N.] , a shackle. See SHECKLE. 

SHAKE, a thickening or "belly" in a vein of lead ore, as 
where two lodes intersect each other and form a large thick 
deposit of ore ; or the cavity sometimes found in such places. 
Compare LOCK. 

SHAKE-CAP, a well-known game. 

SHAKE-DOWN, SHAKEY-DOWN, an extemporized bed, 
made by spreading a bed-tick and bedclothes on the floor. 

SHAKES. Used in the common expression " He's nee greet 
shakes, onyway " not a person of character or reliability. 

SHAK-HOLES, soft quaking spots on the moors, generally 
over a hidden spring. Compare SHOG-BOG. 

SHALLY-WALLY, shallow-brained ; a term of contempt. 

Brockett. , 

SHAM-DOOR, in mining, a door half closed, or with a deal or 
two left off ; a kind of trellis to partially stop the air. 
Nicholson, Glossary, 1888. 

riot, a row, a fight. 

" Farewell, Tyne brig, and cannie kee, 
Where aw've seen monny a shungy, 
Blin Willy, Captain Starkey tee, 
Bold Archy, and greet Hangy." 

R. Gilchrist, A Voyage to Lunnin, 1824. 

SHANK, a stem, the handle of a rake, besom, or fork. Pipe 
shank, the stem of a tobacco pipe. Buzzom shank, the handle 
of a besom. Anchor shank, the body or stalk of an anchor. 
As a cant term, applied to the legs. ** The mear plys her 
shanks weel " (said of a mare with good action). Collar shank, 
a rope to fasten up work horses in the stable. Shank-by en, 
the shin bone. Shank of a hill, the projecting part of a hill, 
or the narrow ridge, which, like a stem, joins the mass to the 
level ground. Compare SHIN. The handle of a blacksmith's 
hand hammer is called a helve, not a shank. S hanky -nagie, 
shank's nag, on one's own shanks. To take shanky-nagie is to 

" His wrist was like an anchor shank.'' R. Gilchrist, Bold Archy 
Drownded, 1824. 

" The Shanks of Keuntry Peasants." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 24. 

" I on shanky-nagie away straight did rattle." 

Newcastle in an Uproar, 1821. 


SHANNA, SHANNIT, the forms of shall not. Ye winna, 
munna, shanna gan " you will not, must not, shall not go. 

SHAPE, an attitude, set pose, or position. " Aa's tired o' 
sittin i' this shape se lang " (said by a Tyne keelman whose 
portrait was being painted). 

SHAPE, SHEP [S.] , SHAP [N.] , to put oneself into position 
to start ; to show promise. " He's a clivver lad ; he shapes 

" Gif it happens that any schapes for to ride." Indenture of 1324. 
Acta Regia, vol. i., p. 395. 

" Maw sons they shape to follow maw varra footsteps throo." George 
Chatt, Old Farmer, Poems, 1866, p. 88. 

" McGregor plays weel, Lambert weel can fling her ; 
But Harle shapes like this when puttin on a ringer." 

E. Corvan, d. 1865, Wor Tyneside Champions. 

SHARD, a potsherd. 

"A broken piece of any brittle or fragile substance. Within my 
recollection, many, in the lower parts of Newcastle, used to resort to the 
Quayside and other places, where they gathered up coals with the half 
of a wooden dish, called a shard. I have been told that it was not 
unusual for two of them to purchase a new dish, and split it for the 
purpose of making these shards.'' Brockett. 

SHARE [S.j, SHARAN, SHAIRIN [N.], cow dung. 
" Cow sharn in Northumberland." Hodgson MS. 

SHARE, a slice. The skate fish is usually dressed for sale 
and cut into slices or shares. 

" Here's bonny skyet, ha'penny a share, hinny." Street cry in Newcastle. 

SHARP, to sharpen ; to point the tips and heels of horse shoes 
in frosty weather. A horse thus shod is sharpeet. Shavpin- 
styen, a sharpening stone, a whetstone. 

11 Get his gear sharped at the smiddy." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 86. 

SHARP, cutting, cold ; applied to the weather. 

SHARPS, the finest quality of bran. See TREET, CHIZZEL, 

SHARP-SET, quickly seated. 

' The dinner waits ; we snuff the smell ; 
And a' sharp set, we warrent lang 
In dashin' in amang the kyel." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 84. 


SHAUGHLIN [N.], SHAFFLIN [T.] , shuffling. See 

SHAVE [N.] , a pulley wheel. See SHEAVE. 

SHAVE-APPLE, SHAVEY, names for the chaffinch. See 

SHAVER, a wag. "What a queer shaver he is." Young 
shaver, a small, pert boy. 

SHAW, a shady wood. Frequent in place-names, as in 
Hares/wo;, Henshaw, Longshaw, Stagshaw (Stainshaw), etc. 
Birken shaw, a birch covert or thicket. " Thor's queer 
folk i 1 the shaw" a common saying, which means that 
mysterious beings (fairies) inhabit the thickets. 

"A shaw of birch and alder trees." Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., 
vol. i, p. 84. 

" Callaly Castle built on the height, 
Up in the day and down in the night ; 
Builded down in the shepherd's Shaw, 
It shall stand for aye and never fa'." 

Popular rhyme. 

SHAW, the green top or stalk of a plant. " Tatie shaw" a potato 
stalk and leaf. " Neep shaw" a turnip top. 

SHAW, to shave, to cut off, to abraid. " Shawin tormits," cutting 
off turnip tops. A shawed ancle or foot, an ancle or foot 
having the skin abraided. 

" It was, ne doubt, a cooin seet, 

To see them hirplin 'cross the floor, 
Wi' anklets shawed and scather'd feet, 
Wi' salve and ointment plaister'd o'er." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 16. 

SHAW r M, to warm oneself by thrusting a portion of the body 
close to the fire. 

SHEAF, a sheet of glass measuring a square foot. (Obs.) 

"'Bought at Hartlepool fourteen sheif of glass, at is. the sheif, 145.' 
' Thirty-six sheif of glass at is. a sheif, il. i6s.' ' 26 feet of glass at is. 
the foot. 1 " Welford, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., pp. 358, 360. 

SHEAKLE, a shackle. See SHECK.LE. 

temporary huts or shelter-places. (The d is not sounded in 
shields.} These sheets were built of sods and covered with 
poles carrying roofs of turf or moor rushes. The cattle or 
sheep shelters are distinguished as " beelds" and "stells." 


The term shields is applied to fixed habitations or towns 
occupying the sites of earlier temporary huts. It is from this 
circumstance that the important towns North and South 
Shields derive their names. They were originally the sheels 
of the fishing populations at the mouth of the Tyne. The 
term occurs in more than ninety place-names in Northumber- 

" All over the wastes (as they call them), you would think you see the 
ancient Nomades ; a martial sort of people, that from April to August 
lie in little hutts (which they call sheals and shealings) here and there 
among their several flocks." Gibson's Camden, A.D. 1610. 

" In Kidland the shepherds erected shielings, or huts for their temporary 
accommodation in summer, and on the approach of winter returned to 
their own houses." S. Oliver the Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 
1835, p. 88. 

" To many of the fisheries on the Tweed is attached a building, called 
a shiel or shield, in which the fishermen at certain seasons keep their nets, 
etc., and use as a dwelling." R. Weddell, Archaologia JEliana, vol. iv., 
P- 303- 

SHEAR, to reap corn. Shearer, a reaper. Compare BANDSTER, 

" Wor maistor's corn is well shorn, 
Bless the day that he was born." 

Harvest rhyme. 

SHEAR-BACK, to enlarge a pit or other excavation by 
cutting or dressing back with hacks or picks. Nicholson, 

Glossary, 1888. 

SHEAR-DARG, a day's work in reaping. See DARG ; and 
compare BOND-DARG, and BOON-DAY. 

SHEAR-GRASS, long, coarse grass, triticwn repens, L. 

" It is called in Northumberland sheare-grass, because it cutteth mennes 
handes that touch it." Turner, Herbal, 1548. 

SHEAR-LEGS, shears; two or three long spars lashed or bolted 
together, or with a crowntree at the top, and spread out at 
the base like the letter A, or like a large tripod ; used for 
lifting, boring, or masting purposes. 

SHEARLING, SHEARING, a sheep at the time of its clipping. 

" Every time they are shorn, they add a year to their age, and are 
called two-shear, three-shear, etc., according to the times they have been 
clipped or shorn, and this holds good of all other sheep; for the age of 
sheep is not reckoned from the time they are lambed, but from the time 
of shearing ; for although a sheep is generally fifteen or sixteen months 
old when first shorn, yet they are not called shearings until once clipped, 
which is understood to be the same as one year old." George Culley, 
Live Stock, 1801, p. 20. 



SHEATHING, in mining, thin deals placed between the joints 
of tubbing in a shaft. Nicholson. 

SHEAVE, SHAVE [N.] , a pulley wheel. Applied to a pulley 
of any kind, as a belt sheave, a rope sheave, etc. 

" i Cast-iron sheave. 1 ' Inventory of Wallsend Colliery, 1848. 

SHECK, to shake. " Hand shekkin" a quarrel, or inclination 
to interfere in one. 

a shackle ; the iron eye around which the end of a rope is bent 
and spliced so as to form a loop for the attachment of a chain 
or hook. The end link of a chain, made horse-shoe shape, 
with a screw bolt through eyes at its open end by which it 
can be attached or detached. The sling that fastens the 
double-tree to a plough-head or bridle. A cattle tie. "The 
sheakle meakers o' the Woodside " a term of reproach to the 
natives of the township of that name, in the parish of Elsdon. 
Hand sfcrf&m, rough usage. 

" Woodside abounds in natural wood, and the facility with which it 
can be obtained has induced the custom of twisting birch twigs in a 
peculiar manner, to serve instead of hempen bands for the purpose of 
tying up cattle. These are called sheakles." Denham, Folk Lore of 
Northumberland, etc., 1858, p. 50. 

SHECKLE-BYEN, the shackle bone, the wrist. 

SHECKLE-CRAA, SHACKLE-CROW, an iron lever with 
a ring or loop at the end, used for drawing bolts from wood. 

SHED, to divide, to part. " S/^d yor hair." See SHADE. 
SHEEL, a temporary dwelling. See SHEALS. 

SHEEL, a peascod. To divest of the husk or shell. See 
SKILL. Sheet-barley, barley shelled ; that is, with the husks 
taken off. Sheelin-seeds, the husks of kiln-dried oats. See 

SHEELY, the chaffinch Fringilla Calebs, L. Known variously 
as sheel-apple, apple-sheely , apple-sheeler, shell-apple, shave-apple, 
shavey, and (rarely) skiff (t. The word "chaff" in chaffinch 
may be compared with SHEEL, 2, and its connoted words. 

SHEEN, shin. Aa'll rap yor sheens" 
SHEEN [N.] , shoes. See SHOON. 


SHEEP-TROW, a sheep trough. Sheep-rake, a sheepwalk. 
Sheep-rot, the plant marsh-pennywort, Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L. 
Sheep-steU^ a shelter wall or enclosure for sheep. Compare 

SHEETING, the slope or waterfall of a mill dam. Bvockett. 
SHE-HEATHER, the Erica cinerea, L. See HEATHER. 

SHE-HOLLIN [S.] , the upper leaves of the holly tree 
having no prickles. The prickly leaves are called he-holly 
in contradistinction. The leaves of the she-holly possess the 
virtue, if gathered on a Friday at midnight, of revealing 
in dreams a future husband or wife. The gatherer must 
preserve unbroken silence until next day at dawn, and must 
collect it in a three-cornered handkerchief. Nine leaves must 
be selected, and tied with nine knots inside the handkerchief, 
and then placed underneath the pillow. See HOLLIN and 
compare HE-HOLLIN. 

SHELL, a growing turnip when half-eaten on the "brick" by 

SHELL, a pump bucket or clack before it is grathed. Called 
bucket shell or clack shell. Green well, Glossary, 1888. 



SHELLY, like shale. " Shelly stone," "shelly metal," etc. 

SHELPIT, SHILPIT, SHILPY, pale, sickly, nerveless, 
poorly, ill. " Yo'r leukin varry shelpit thi day are ye weel 
eneuf ? " " He's a peeur shilpy thing" (said of a person pale 
and starved in appearance). It is also applied to drink that 
is weak, thin, and insipid-looking in colour. 

SHELT, a portion of a field ploughed by itself. Britten, 
Farming Words, E.D.S. Compare BRECK, 2. 

SHELTY, a Shetland pony. 

" Pasture for their Shelties and asses." S. Oliver, Rambles in 
Northumberland, 1835, p. 249. 

" There were no carts in our part of the country (between Corbridge 
and Woodburn) about sixty years ago ; all the corn and other goods to 
be consumed were brought on the backs of Shelties little shaggy ponies, 
not much bigger than a calf." Richardson, Table Book, 1845, Legendary 
div., vol. iii., p. 305. 


SHEM, SHYEM [T.] , SHEYEM [S.] , shame. S hem, to 
outdo, to put to shame. Shem a ma I (shame be to me), an 
exclamation. Shem an' a bizen, a disgraceful object. " She's 
a shew an' a bizen" Shem bin ye^ ! (shame upon you), an 
exclamation. See BIZEN. 

" Shem astarn, not one." Brockett. 

" God shilde you from all doole and shem." Bullein, Dialogue Against 
the Feuer Pestilence, 1564. E. E. Text Society, p. 5, 1. n. 

" When we war drest, it was confest, 
We shem'd the cheps frae Newcassel, O." 

J. Selkirk, Swalwell Hopping. 

SHEP, to set oneself in position. See SHAPE and FRAME, i. 

SHEPHERD'S PANSY, the yellow mountain pansy, Viola 


SHEPPINS, scraps or cuttings of cloth. "The tyeleor's 


SHERRYMOOR, a disorderly crowd, a tumult. " It was a 
fair sherrymoor" quite a hustling crowd. The allusion is to 
the battle of Sheriff-moor in the rising of 1715. 

" The Bishop, though a patient man, 

And slawly mov'd tiv anger, 
Could, when the Sherry Moor began, 
Restrain his wrath ne langer." 

T. Wilson, Captains and the Quayside. 

SHETH, a sheath. "A foreign sailor wiv a gully iv a sheth 
biv his side." " Knittin sheth" the sheath worn within the 
apron string by women when knitting. The right hand 
needle rests firmly in the sheth as the knitting proceeds. 
It is sometimes made by tying a small bundle of straws 
together, or by a quill sewn into a fabric ; but the old " knittin 
sheth " was a small piece of fine grained wood, perforated for a 
distance of a few inches with a hole large enough to admit a 
knitting needle. These sheths were often of curious shapes 
and elaborately carved. 

SHETH, a group of parallel rows which stand at right angles 
to similar adjoining or intersecting rows. In the unenclosed 
town fields a group of parallel strips of ploughed land, which 
adjoined a similar group lying at right angles, formed a sheth. 
Hence the field names " Upper Sheth" " Low Sheth" 
"North Sheth," "South Sheth," "High Headland Sheth" 
etc. The arrangement was necessitated by the lie of the 
ground, the strips being made to allow of draining in the 
direction of the ploughing. * * Waggon sheth, "the group of ribs 


forming the framework. " Tram sheth" the cross ties in a tram 
which connect the soles or main framework. " Plough sheth" 
the body or central part of a plough, to which all the other 
portions are fitted. Sheth, in a ladder, the broader steps, 
introduced at intervals, between the rungs, to bind the 
structure together. " Harrow sheth" the cross bars of a harrow, 
intersecting the "bulls" or longitudinal bars which run in the 
direction in which a harrow is dragged. " Sheth of boards," a 
group of cross workings in a coal pit. If we take the harrow 
as an illustration, the intersecting framework will give an 
apt example of the galleries of a coal mine worked on the 
pillar system. The bulls of the harrow represent the heedwis 
(headways) of the mine, and the sheth represents the boards 
in the pit. When a panel or division of a colliery is referred 
to, the group of parallel excavations which have been driven 
at right angles to the cleavage of the coal (the boards) are 
spoken of as a " sheth of boards." Hence shething, in mining, 
is coursing or conducting the air backwards and forwards 
through a sheth of boards, the headways being closed for this 
purpose either by sheth stoppings (sheth walls), or, where in 
use as going headways, by sheth doors. 

SHEUGH, a ditch. See SEUGH. 

SHEUGH, to " lay " or place trees or plants temporarily in a 
hastily dug hole. They are thus treated in order to protect 
the roots until time allows for planting them properly and 

SHEYEM-FYEC'D, shamefaced, or modest. It is sometimes 
used ironically by inversion for the opposite quality. " Gan 
away, ye shyem-fyec'd huzzy, ye" (said to a graceless woman). 
See SHEM. 

SHIE, SHY, to throw with an aim. " Whe are ye shyin them 
styens at ?" " Shie a clot at him." 

" The chep, astonished at the cry, 
Tuik up a styen and myed a shy." 

Song, Where are ye gawn o' Sunday ? 
Allan's Collection, p. 7. 

SHIELDS, a shelter place. See SHEALS. 

SHIELDS CAPON,. a haddock salted and dried and eaten 
with egg sauce. 

SKIFFLE, SHIVVLE, to shuffle. " Hi, skiffle up on that 
form there." 


SHIFT, the time of working for one day where sets of men 
(shifts) relieve each other. In a colliery the first period of 
working is called the fore-shift and the next the back- 
shift, and the hewers themselves are similarly called the fore 
or back-shift according to their rotation in starting work. In 
factories, where continuous work is maintained, there is a day- 
shift and a night-shift ; and at the end of the week a double- 
shift or a shift of twice the ordinary duration is sometimes 
worked, so as to turn the night men of one week into the day 
men of the next. A short-shift is a day's work of fewer than 
the ordinary number of hours. Shift is applied to the relays 
worked by horses. 

" Four shifts of horses, at two at a time ; and indeed you should have a 
spare shift, or two horses more ready." J. C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 33. 

" Like miners, faith, we'll try a shift, 
An' work by turns." 

T. Donaldson, Glanton, Poems, 1809, p. 132. 

SHIFT, to remove with goods and chattels from one house to 
another. Shift, a removal. Shift was in former times 
applied to the process of removing and appropriating other 
people's goods. To drive off forcibly. 

" I was borne in Redesdale, in Northumberland, and came of a wight 
ridyng sirname called the Robsons, gud honast men and true, sauyng a 
little shiftyng for their liuing. God and our Leddie helpe them, silie 
pure men !" Bullein, Dialogue, 1564, E. E. Text Soc., p. 6, 1. 16. 

" Hoo mony on us will it tyek te shift them cheps?" Stephenson, 
Hawks' 1 s Men. Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 546. 

" Wey, we mun shift, howiver sair 
It pains the hated word to nyem." 

" Then let me here in quiet end maw life, 
Without a shiftin day." 

T. Wilson, The Shifting Day, 1852. 

SHIFTER, SHIFT-MAN, a man who prepares the working 
places at night in a colliery for the men who come in at next 
shift. His work is of various kinds, such as timbering 
rolley-ways, taking up bottom stone, or taking down top 
to make height where necessary, setting doors, building 
stoppings, redding falls, and stowing away stone. Shifters 
work by the day or shift, as distinct from hewers, who work 
by the ton or yard. 

11 Aw gat, at forst, a shiftor place, 
And then a deputy was myed." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. Hi., 1829, v. 99. 

are on turn for removal from one working place in a colliery to 


SHIFTING-MONEY, an equivalent formerly paid to a 
workman removing from one colliery to another in lieu of 
being removed (that is, having his furniture led) by the cart 
of the company to which he was removing. Abolished many 
years ago. Nicholson, Glossary. 

SHIFTING THE FLAT, in a colliery, removing the flat, 
or station, nearer to the working places. Nicholson. 

SHIFT-WORK, work paid for by the day or shift ; also the 
work of a shifter. 

SHIFTY, unreliable. Usually applied to one who promises 
fair but fails to perform. " He's a reg'lar shifty body that." 

SHILFA, a name for the chaffinch. See SHEELY. 

SHILL, SHEAL, SHELL, to separate the outer case, pod, 
or husk from peas or oats. 

"Shyllynge, of coddyd cornys, as benys, peson, and other lyke." 
Promptorium Parvulorum, 1440. 

SHILL-CORN, the obstruction in a pore of the skin of the 
face, by which the pore is enlarged and filled with solidified 
matter, the black head forming a minute spot. 

SHILLIN-HILL, an eminence used for winnowing grain, 
where the wind was utilised for separating the chaff. Shillin- 
seeds, the husks of kiln -dried oats, used for packing and 
preserving bacon in chests. 

"A shilling-hill, as a place to deet or winnow the groats of oats from the 
husks that had been shilled off them, before machinery was invented for 
the purpose, was not an uncommon appendage to a mill." Hodgson, 
Northumberland, vol. iii, pt. ii, p. 118, n. 


SHILVINS, the upper frame at the sides of a " coup " cart, to 
which sideboards (additional rails or boards) are temporarily 
fixed and held by two iron loops. Also a long wide wooden 
frame, placed on a " long" cart when it is required to carry a 
large load of hay or straw. 

SHIN [N.] , the slope of a hill. Compare shank of a hill, under 

SHIN, or SHIN YOR SIDE, the call to a player, in the game 
of shinny, who has trespassed too far into the line of his 
opponents. See SHINNY. 


SH1NDERS, cinders. See SHUNDERS. 

SHINE, to show a light or lamp or throw its light on any 
object. Used transitively. "Shine a low here, will ye ?" 

SHINNY, a game at ball, in which an equal number of 
opponents on two sides play with sticks, curved at the ends, 
called shinny sticks. Two goals or " pasts " are marked off, the 
players on one side driving the ball to the end of the field 
where their past is situated, and those on the adverse side 
driving it towards the opposite goal. When the players of 
one side are successful in landing the ball within their past 
they cry out " Hail." As the sides face each other they 
strike in opposite directions, and the risk to the shins of 
opponents who advance too far from the line during a melee 
is considerable. At these times the players call out " Shin " or 
" Shin yor sides." Hence the term shinny is popularly derived 
from the risk of broken shins which attends the game. Grose 
says the game is called shinney-hah in Northumberland, but 
this term is obsolete. 

SHIN-SPLINTS, a kind of greave or leg armour worn on the 
shins by trimmers, etc., to protect the legs in working. 

' I lost a' my shin-splints among the great stanes." 

The Collier's Rant. Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 35. 

SHIPBROKEN, shipwrecked. (Obs.) 

" 1640. Given to a poore seaman that was shippbroken, 40!." Gateshead 
Church Books. 

SHIPPEN, a cow-house. Byre is the more usual term. 
SHIRE, thin, scanty (Northumberland).- Halliwell. 

SHIRE, to pour off a liquor so as to leave the sediment 
(Northumberland) . Halliwell. 

SHIRES. In Northumberland, the three shins, Norham- 
shire, Islandshire, and BedlingtonsAzV^, are detached portions 
of the patrimony of Saint Cuthbert. They were formerly 
included as parcel of the Palatinate of Durham. "The Shire" 
is the common appellation of Hexhams/wV^, which included 
the parishes of Hexham, Allendale, and St. John Lee. It 
was held as a franchise by the Archbishops of York and was 
a county palatine, as affirmed by the King's Council, 2ist 
Edward I. It was united to Northumberland in i4th 
Elizabeth. Besides these there are Bamboroughs^m?, and 
the Shire Moor, near Backworth. 


SHIRL, to slide along. In driving forward a plough, the 
ploughman is said to shivl the clods. To slide, as distin- 
guished from to jerk, a marble. Shirlin, in the game of 
marbles, is the act of sliding the marble, which is loosely 
held for the purpose by the thumb and forefinger. Compare 

SHITHER, to shiver, to shudder. Shitherin, shuddering 
[Belford and Northward] . To shake violently as a terrier 
shakes a rat. " Aa gat him bi the scruff o' the neck an' gav 
him a good skitherin" 

SHITHERY, shivery, as in the sensation of cold in the skin. 
" Aa's aal shithery." " Aa'm a' iv a shither." 

SHIVE, a slice. 

" Myeak heast, lass, an' bring him (poor fella) a skive of butter and 
breed." T. Bewick, The Howdy. 

SHIVER, a splinter, a flake of stone. Shiverins, Shivereens, very 
small fragments. "It's gyen aall te shivereens," equivalent to 
the colloquial " all to smithereens." See SMITHERS. 

" Shivers or Splints of the whin or hard stone." J. C., Complecit Collier, 
1708, p. 23. 

" Grey and black shivers mixed with coal." Borings and Sinkings, 
No. 214. 

SHIVER, shale. 

" Shale, shiver, or argillaceous slate ; for the same substance is known 
by these names." S. Oliver the Younger, gambles in Northumberland, 
1835, p. 42. 

SHIVERIN BOOT, a shivering fit. See BOUT, i. 

SHIVERY, friable, broken, or disintegrated ; applied to strata. 
" Grey shivery post." Borings and Sinkings, F.K., p. 91. 

SHOAD-ORE [W.-T.] , lead ore found on or near the surface, 
where it has resulted from disintegration. It is found in 
all sizes from masses down to the size of peas and grains, 
usually in or near the beds of streams. To " go a sheading " 
is to go prospecting for shoad-ore. 

SHOCK, a pile or stock of sheaves. " Rows of shock and 
gait " stooks and gatens. Compare STOCK and GATEN. 

SHOD, SHOAD, SHAD, shallow ; the shallow part of a river 
at the head of a stream. 

" Schold, schalowe, note deipe."Promptorium Parvulorum, 1440. 


SHOE, an iron plate flanged at the sides to fit upon a colliery 
guide-rod. It is attached to the cage, and slides on the 
guide so as to keep the cage perfectly steady in its ascent or 
descent in a pit. Shoes, fragments of the stalks of hemp or flax 
which adhere to the fibres and cause obstruction to the spinner 
of the yarn. In North Northumberland the pronunciation is 
shough, a shoe ; shough'd, shoed. Shoughin- hammer, a smith's 
shoeing-hammer. Compare SHOON. 

SHOEHORN, a helper on. One employed to bid for the 
sellers at sales. Hodgson MS. 

SHOE-THE-COBBLER, a trick played upon a slider on 
the ice. A lad follows another on a slide, giving himself a 
quicker start than the one in front of him, and, as he closes 
with his predecessor, he throws out one foot quickly so as to 
collide with the other's heels and cause an upset. This feat 
is called shoeing -the -cobbler. 

SHOE-WHANG, SHOUGH-WHAING [N.], a boot lace, 
a shoe tie. Usually called a whang or whaing simply. 


SHOG-BOG, a yielding or quaking bog, a green place, elastic 
and treacherous to the foot, such as is common on the moors. 
The shog-bogs are not always to be trusted. Hence the 
common saying, " Aa've laired mesel deeper i' the shog-bog " 
got into more and more trouble. Used to describe a futile 
effort of any kind. Compare SHAK-HOLES. 

SHOGGIN, quivering, yielding. "Shoggin wi' fat," excessively 

SHOON, SHUN, SHOUN, SHEEN [N] , shoes ; the common 
plural forms. "He' ye no an aad pair o' shoon ti gi' us?" 
Beggar's petition. 

"Item, paid for a payre of shone, i6d." Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 

" Ma nice lang quartered shoon se clean." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 3. 

SHOOT, to shout. Landed proprietor : " Hullo, are you 
aware that there's no shooting here ?" Poacher (caught in 
the act) : " Shootin, sor ? aa's nivver oppened me mooth." 
Shoot, to fire a gun, to discharge a shot, is invariably 
pronounced shut. See SHUT, 3. 


SHOOTHER, to shoulder. Shoother, Shouther, a shoulder. 
" We'll stan' shoother ti shoother." 

" Aw'll shoother me gun." J. P. Robson, The Rifleman, 1870. 

" O'er her fair shoothers her linty locks flee." James Armstrong, Lizzie 
o 1 the Glen, 1879. 

SHOOTHER-CLEEK, the hook on the "limmer" or shaft of 
a cart to which the shoother -chain is attached. The shoother- 
chain is the chain connecting the "hyemstick" upon the 
horse's collar with the " shoother cleek-yoke." 

partner or marrow in any work that requires the joint 
exertions of more than one man. Brockett. 

SHOOTIN, SHOOTIN-OOT, the common name for childbed. 

" What's the mayteer, sez the mistress ? Is thee muther shoutin oot ?" 
T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

SHOOTIN-LOAF, a spice loaf made for and served to the 
gossips at childbirth. See GROANIN. 

SHORE [T.] , a sewer. " Common shore." See SIRE. 

SHORE, to stop, oppose, or direct in turning, as to shore sheep, 
for instance. It has the same meaning as weer. "Ye'll spoil 
the dog if ye shore him that way." See WEER. 
" Shore, to threaten. ' It shores rain. 1 " Brockett. 

SHORK [N.] , to make a gurgling noise. This term is best 
explained by the noise a person's shoes make when walking 
with them full of water. When a person has wet feet he 
says, " Me shoughs (shoes) is shorhin" Compare SLORP. 

SHORROW, the shrew or field mouse. 

SHORT, a shirt. In Northumberland ir and ur are always 
spoken as or as first forst, sir sor, burst borst, burn bom, etc. 

SHORT, easily broken, as when anything breaks short off in 
the hand. $hprt bread, a Scottish cake, easily broken. It is 
richly kneaded with butter, and stuck with comfits. Short is 
applied to wrought-iron that fractures with a slight blow. If 
it does this when cold it is called "cold short" ; if when hot it 
is "red short." The presence of phosphorus or other impurity 
is generally indicated by these terms. 

"A portion of pea-meal is mixed with the barley, and the cakes made 
of this mixture are not so short as those made of barley alone." S. Oliver 
' Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, P- J 6o. 


SHORT, abrupt, ill-tempered. " He was quite short wi' me." 
"Taken short," taken abruptly or unaware. 

SHORTWORKINGS, or SHORTS, the quantity of coal that 
falls short of that allowed to be worked annually by the 
certain rent of a royalty. See OVERWORKINGS. 

SHOT, a sum to be paid. In ancient tenures certain taxes are 
specified as " Kirk-shot," "Acre-shot," etc. The reckoning at 
a tavern is here, as elsewhere, called the shot. 
"We boos'd away till the break of day, 
Then asked what shot we had to pay." 

Song, Till the Tide comes in. 

Marshall's Collection, 1827, p. 70. 

SHOT, SHOTTEN, rid of, clear of. "Get shot of" get rid 
of a thing. " If aa wis oney fairly shot on't." " We'll be 
glad to get shotten on ye." 

SHOT, a blast, a charge or cartridge of gunpowder. A slight 
cold is called a shot. " Aa've gettin a shot o' caad i' me eye." 
Compare FAST SHOT and STANDING BOBBY, also SHUT, 3. 

SHOT, a young pig. 

" In the northern parts pigs are frequently called shots after being 
weaned." George Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 20. 

SHOT, a throw and haul in net fishing. Shot-and-shot-about, 
alternate casting ; a term applied in net fishing for salmon. 

" If the starting or landing place of a net belonging to one fishery 
is so close to another fishery, that nearly the whole of the net of the former 
is at one time within the boundary of the adjoining fishery, this is 
called shot-and-shot-about. The owners of fisheries on opposite sides of 
the river are also entitled respectively to their shot-and-shot-about." 
R. Weddell, Archtzologia ^Eliana^ quarto series, vol. iv., p. 317. 

SHOTS, beasts or sheep left out after prime animals are 
selected. The portions of a flock of sheep or lambs rejected 
by a buyer, who has liberty to select the " tops," or best of 
the flock. The process of selection may go on until " first 
shots," " second shots," " third shots," and even " fourth shots " 
have been disposed of. Compare PALEY. 

SHOT-STICK, a round stick on which a paper cartridge case 
is rolled. 

SHOULE, a shovel. See SHUL. 

SHOUN [W.-T.], shoes. See SHOON. 

"Maws/town hes been mendin at the cobler's this month an mare." 
T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 12. 


SHOUTHERS, shoulders. See SMOOTHER. 

" Jack Roe was leanin on the hudsteahyn, wie his braid shouthers." 
T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

SHOVER-IN, an assistant banksman at a colliery, employed 
to push the empty tubs into the cage. Nicholson, Glossary, 


SHOW, appearance, indication. By the show upon a candle or 
in a safety lamp the presence of fire-damp in a colliery is 
indicated. A lamp shows when the flame becomes elongated 
or unsteady, owing to the mixture of inflammable gas with 
the air, or a candle when the pale blue "top" or lambent 
flame appears above its ordinary flame. 

SHRIEKER, the black-tailed god-wit, Limosa tfgocephala, L. 

" A rare casual visitant." J. Hancock, Birds of Northumberland and 
Durham, p. 101. 

SHUFFLE, a movement in a step-dance executed by tapping 
the heels on the floor. The double -shufflf, or Sandgate-rattle, 
an advanced stage in which two taps of the heels are given 
at each step ; cut-and-shuffle, a variation of the dance. Step- 
dancing was, not many years ago, a general accomplishment 
among the young men who assembled at street corners to 
wile away their time. See CUT, 4. 

SHUG, to sway violently, as trees in a violent gale of wind. 
To urge to its utmost speed, as a horse, etc. To shove. 
''What are ye shuggin at?" 

SHUGGY, to shug or sway. A variant form of the foregoing. 

SHUGGYSHOE, SHUGGYBOAT [N.], a large swing 
constructed like a boat with seats across ; common at 
hoppins and fairs. To shuggvshoe is to sway or swing, or, as 
it is usually expressed, " to hike." 

" As we pushed off, loak ! a' the quay 

To me seemed shuggy-shooin, 

An' tho aw'd niver been at sea, 

Aw stuid her like a new-un." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry. 

SHUL, SHOUL, a shovel. In daily use. " Len's yor shut." 
" Hadaway, get a shut o' yor aan." Shul-shank, a shovel 
handle. Shtil-heed, the blade of a shovel. Shul, shoul, to 
shovel. " Aa'll shitl the coals in for threepence." Shul-byen, 
the shoulder blade : i.e. spade bone, from its shape. Shul-mn, 
the ground surface traversed by the blade of a shovel in 


lifting and filling stones, etc., from a heap. If the surface is 
hard and even it is a "good shut-run" ; if soft and uneven, a 
"bad shul-run" 

" 1592. Aug. Paide for a shoule to the fier, 2S." Newcastle Municipal 

" 1626, March the 6th. It. paid ffor a shulle to the bellmane, 8d." 
Gateshead Church Books. 

" For puttin, or hewin, or handlin a shul, 
A'm iz strong iz a bull, ye cull." 

E. Corvan, d. 1865, The Jolly Keelman. 
Allan's Collection, p. 55. 

SHUNDERS, SMIDDY SHUNDERS, cinders, smithy ashes. 

SHUNT, to settle an adversary by thrusting him aside. 
"Aa'll seun shunt the likes o' him." The modern cant word 
shunt, to avoid, is said to be derived from the railway term, 
but in the older sense it is still in common use. 

" To shunt, a country word for to shove." New World of Words, 1696. 

SHUT, a weld, the junction, by welding, of two pieces of iron. 
" Broken at the shut." " A flaa i' the shut." 

SHUT, to slide or shoot; as "shut up" or " shut down the 
window " if it be a sash, or " shut back " if it be a horizontal 
slide. In a trial in Northumberland for a burglary at Billy 
Mill, where the house was entered by a slide casement, 
neither the judge nor the counsel could understand a 
principal witness against the offenders when he stated that 
" they shut the window open." They thought he forswore 
himself. It was a slide. Hodgson MS. " Shut the bolt" 
shoot the bolt. 

SHUT, to shoot \ p. shot; p.p. shutten. Also to put out nets 
for fishing. Each haul is called a shot. Shutter, a sportsman. 
" He's a bonny shutter, yon chep ; myest shot his fethor." 
Shuttin, blasting. Shuttin-fast, or shooting-fast, blowing down 
coal with gunpowder, without nicking, by which the coals 
are produced in a very inferior condition. Greenwell, 
Glossary, 1888. 

" Paid to Ro. Heslopp for mendinge a muskett, the locke being brokin, 
which was in shutin when my Lord President cam, 2s." Newcastle 
Municipal Accounts, October, 1593. 

" And what was still warse, and to save their awn mutton, 
Young Tinley tell'd Jackson they had a' gone Si-shuttin." 

Battle on the Shields Railway, 1839. 
"To see them shut, then run, then shut ; 
And then fall doon or lie still ; 
O wuns 1 it's better than a play, 
The bonny Wallsend Rifle." 

Song, The Wallsend Rifle Corps. 
(Time of Bonaparte.) 


SHUT, diarrhoea in cattle. 
SHUTHER, to shudder. See SHITHER. 

SHUT-OFF, to cut off. A joiner planing a piece of wood, if 
more is to be taken off, says, " Aa'll shut a bit mair off." 

SHY, unwilling, slow, backward. " Yo'r varry shy wi' that 
baccy o' yors " unwilling to produce and share it. "The 
folks is varry shy o' tornin up thi day" (said of a slow 
gathering attendance). 

SHYEM, shame. See SHEM. 

SIB, intimate, friendly, near akin, blood relation. " Thor 
varry sib together." The phrase, " They are too s?&," 
applied to cattle, is used to describe breeding in-and-in ; but 
only when the quality or constitution of the progeny has 
deteriorated from the parent stock. 

SIC, SEC, SICCAN, such. 

"Siccan a fight as we had I ne'er saw in a* my days !" S. Oliver the 
Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 156. 

" I was at New Castle, where I trow ye ha' been, 
I saw syke a Sight there, as ne'er yet was seen." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686. 

" What a runnin theyres meyhd at sic ateyme." 

T. Bewick, The Howdy, 1850. 

SICCANLIKE, SIC-LIKE, such like, similar. " He wis far 
ower fond o' gannin' wi' boozy Bob an' siccanlike raff." 

11 Aw so Jenny Gardner an' sum mare sic-leyke fwoak.'' 

T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. n. 

SICCANSO, SIC-AN'-SO, similar, identical. 

SICKER [N.], sly, inward minded. It is frequently prefixed 
by " gey." " He's a gey sicker yen." Sickerly, surely. 

SICKET, SIKET, SECRET, a small syke, a small brook, a 
rivulet. Diminutive of syke. 

SIDDELL, a schedule. 

" A dumplin, like a sma' coal heap, 

A puil o' spice-kyel i 1 the middle, 
Wi' pies and puddins, wide and deep, 
About made up the savoury siddell." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 109. 


SIDDLE, to slope, to dip downward. " Just ayont, the seam 
o' coal begins to siddle" The downward inclination of a 
stratum is called the siddle. The sloping side of a declivity 
in a field is called the siddlins. " He wis plewin on the 
siddlins" The term sidhns is also applied to the side of a rig. 
To a ploughman it is the slope below his furrow, the fall of 
the ground from him. The general direction of the strips in 
open-field tillage lands was regulated by the siddle of the 
ground to admit of natural drainage. Compare FALLS and 

" Sidlini, the term in records for sidelings or balks between or on the 
sides of the ridges of ploughed lands." New World of Words, 1706. 

SIDE, a scythe. 

SIDE, long ; also steep. " Aa'll tyek some o' this check ; 
say, a yard side." In Newcastle, Percy Street was formerly 
known as Side Gate or S^gate that is, long street. The 
Side is still the name of the long and steep acclivity which 
connected the lower with the upper town of Newcastle. 
The evident meaning has led to its application in other 
places where similar steep bank-sides are characteristic. 
Gateshead (gate's heed, or head of the road) is thus, not 
infrequently, called Gates^ ; and Conside is a common form 
of Consett. Side, as denoting extent, is constantly used 
in the expression " the country-s^," meaning either the 
adjacent district or the people living in a certain district. 
" The hyel country-s^ wis at the funeral." Side occurs in 
combination no less than eighty-five times in Northumberland 
place-names. Corsenside, Catchers^, Woodsufc, etc. See 
Gregory, Archatologia sEliana, vol. ix., p. 69. 

" My coat is very side," that is, very long ; also proud ; also steep. 
(North Country.) Bailey, Dictionary, second edition, 1724. 

" Stepnesse, or sydenesse of a roof." Promptorium Parvulorum, Way, 
p. 474. 

SIDE, to put in order, to tidy. To "side up the hoose," to 
"side the room," is to put everything in its proper place. 
Hodgson MS. 

SIDEBOARDS, removable boards at the side of a " coup " 
cart, used to increase its capacity. They are fitted with 
projecting legs of iron which slide into two loops fixed in the 
" shilvins " of the cart. 

SIDEBONE, a disease in the hoof of a horse. 


SIDE-OVER, in coal mining, is to drive headways course, that 
is to drive in a line with the cleat, through a pillar of coal 
when working the broken. 

SIDE-WEFER, SIDE-WAVER, loose material at the sides 
of a cutting in stone or coal ready to fall down if left 

" A side-wafer, or a frame of stone, most dangerous to look at, as it 
appeared ready to drop." R. Scott, Ventilation of Coal Mines, 1868, p. 28. 

" The sides of the shaft, where the strata were tender, had given way ; 
large side-wefevs had slidden off, and others were hanging dreadful to pass 
by." The same, p. 31. 

SIDE-WIPE, a blow on the side of the face ; applied meta- 
phorically to a home thrust in an argument administered 

SIDING, a doubled portion of a tramway where the empty 
and full sets of waggons have to pass each other ; a bye-way 
in a pit. 

SIDLINS, a declivity, the side of a sloping bank. See SIDDLE. 

SIE, a drop. " Not a sie left " (said of a liquid when it has all 
evaporated or been spilt). 

SIGH, to become larger. 

" The shoon are ower little, but they'll sigh out." Brockett. 

SIGHT, a quantity. See SITE. , 

SIKE, such. See Sic. 

"Ti sike time is the day daas." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Sang o' Solomon, 

Northumberland version, ch. ii., 17. 

SIKE, a small branch stream or drain. See SYKE. 

SIKES, SYEKS, an exclamation. " Sikes alive! man, what's 
the mettor wi ye ?" 

" Syeks man, aw hope ye hevvint seen sum sporrits or bo-boggles. 1 ' 
James Horsley, The Bacon Scare. 

SIKET, diminutive of syke. See SICKET. 

SILE. " Herring sile" either the spawn of herrings or very 
small herrings. 


SILE, to strain through, to trickle. A strainer. See MILK SILE. 

" When he read the three first lines, 

He then began to smile ; 
And when he read the next three lines, 
The tears began to sile." 

Ballad, Lord Dev went water's Good-night. 

SILL, a stratum. The word is of special application to the 
great basaltic outburst traversing the county, which is called 
a whin sill, because sometimes seen, like a stratum, intercalated 
among stratified rocks. Sills-burn, a rivulet in Ridsdale, so 
named, probably, from the strata through which it runs 
appearing bare in various parts of its course to a considerable 
depth. In the plural it denotes the strata in general. " The 
sills are lying flat." 

" The Grindstone Sill or Post." Lebour, Geology of Northumberland and 
Durham, second edition, 1886, p. 44. 

" 'Seven beds, or sills, of coal.' ' Sandstone and shale sills or beds. 1 
1 The slate sill. 1 ' The grindstone sill.' " Mackenzie, Hist, of Northumber- 
land, 1825, vol. i., p. 95, . 

SILL, till or until. " Keep on at that job sill aa set thoo 

SILLER, silver. 

" A sillerless man gans fast through the market." Newcastle proverb. 

SILLY, pure, innocent, young, inoffensive. A term of 
affectionate pity, often applied kindly in speaking of 
children. " The bit bairn's asleep noo, silly thing." 

" When we were silly sisters seven, sisters we were so fair." 

Old Ballad, Fair Mabel of IVallington. 

SILLY-HUE, SILLY-HOW, a caul, or membrane, which 
some infants have over their faces when they are born. The 
silly-hue is usually preserved, and is believed to sympathise 
with the person whose face it covered, so as to be dry when 
he is well and moist when he is ill, at whatever distance he 
. may be absent from it. Silly means child's, or childish. 
Hodgson MS. 

"In my fantasie it is happy to the Huntman when he have nethyng 
of the Catte but the sillie skinne." Bullein, Dialogue, 1564. E. E. Text 
Society, p. 9, 1. 25. 

SIN, SINE, SEN, since. Sin'd, since then. " It's mair nor a 
fortnith sin'd." 

" Sair fail'd, hinney, sin I ken'd thou." 

Old song. 

" About twelve weeks sine, man, it was a fond trick, 
The keelmen tuick't intiv their heeds for to stick." 
Song, The Keelmen' s Stick. 

Marshall's Songs, 1823, p. 10. 


SIND, to wash out by rinsing. "Just sind oot the coffee pot, 
hinney." Compare RANGE. 

SINDER, to put asunder. Sindry, asunder. "Somebody's 
pull'd th' aad mop swdry." 

SINDRY, sundry, various, several. "Aye; aa've seen 'm catch 
sindry troot." 

SINE, to " sine a cow " the same as to let it go dry, or to 
disperse its milk. Hodgson MS. 

SINE, afterwards. " Forst creep ; sine gan." See SYNE. 
SING, to singe. Sung is the imperfect tense. 

SINGIN-HINNY, a richly kneaded currant cake, rolled out 
thin, and baked on a girdle. It is served up hot, sliced and 
buttered. It is an especial favourite in Northumberland, 
and is an indispensable item at every homely festival. It is 
called sometimes a spiced fizzer and a small-coal fizzev. 

" Hing on the girdle ; let's hev a singin-hinny." 

Song, Ma' Canny Hinny. 

SINGLE, the small bundle of corn gathered and tied up by a 
gleaner. Gleaning is often described as " gatherin singles " 
or as singlin. Single is always pronounced sing-l, and singlin, 
sing-lin. Singles are bundled and carried home on the 
"gatherer" and afterwards " bittled." 

SINK ! an oath. " Od sink ye ! " etc. See EXCLAMATIONS. 

SINKERS, men whose special work is to sink pit shafts or 
wells. The work is under the direction of a master sinker. 
Sinkin, a shaft or "winning." Sinking-set, a set of pumps 
used in sinking a pit shaft. 

" Well, honest sinker, now thou hast coaled the pit, take thy wages, 
and the labourers too, with what thou sayest is customary to drink." 
J. C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 32. 

SINNEN, a sinew. See SENNEN. 

SIN-SYNE, SINSINE, since then, since that time, since the 
last time. " The last time aa saa ye wis at Newcassel ; 
aa've ne'er seen ye sin-syne" 

" 'Tis mair than forty years sin syne." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 19. 

SIPE, to leak, to ooze out, to flow slowly through a crevice. 
Hodgson MS. Also to drain off gradually, or to the last drop. 


SIPIN, a percolation. Sipins, the droppings from a leaky cask 
or vessel. 

" Sandy gravel, with a small siping of water." Borings and Sinkings, 
F. K., p. 19. 

SIPPLIN, a sapling. 

"Young plants or sippleings, as we here call them, of oak, ash, or 
aller." J. C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 35. 

SIRE, a sewer, a runner of water. See SHORE. 

SIRPLE, to sip. 

"To sip often ; to drink by little at a time. A horse is said to sirple 
when he drinks fastidiously and sparingly." Brockett. 

SIRRAH, SURRAH, a term of address; used only to a 
younger person or to an inferior animal. " De ye hear 
me, sirrah?" (said by a shepherd to his dog). It is 
applied to either sex indifferently. "Sirrah, minden ! " used 
in expostulatory speaking to a forward girl. 

SISTA ! equivalent to " see you !" an interjection. See SEESTA. 

SIT, to fit, or the fit of a garment. " The coat sits him weel." 
" Aa dinna like the sit o' yor goon ; it wants a tuck anunder 
the oxter." 

SIT. To " sit a biddin "is to refuse to obey a command. To 
" sit the market," to expect too much and thereby lose an 
opportunity. "I doubt she has sat her market" (said of a 
girl too particular in her choice and therefore not likely to 
be married). To sit-on, to stick to the cooking utensil. 
" The dumplin's sitten-on " stuck to the bottom of the pan. 
Sitten-on, not properly grown, A youth of stunted growth 
is called "A bit sitten-on creetur." See SITTEN. 

SITE, SEET, SEGHT [N.], a large number; a great 
quantity of objects seen at once. " Thor wis a site o' folk at 
the funeral." " He lost a site o' brass." Also chance or 
probability, as " Thor's nee seght o' them comin the neet." 

SITFAST, a hard substance which sometimes forms in a 
wound and prevents it from healing. " He'd a sitfast in iv 
his hand." 

SITH, SITHENS, since. (Obs.) 

"Before him Sir William Johnson, .Sir John Sadler, and Sir Thomas 
Langton, priests, deceased, did occupy the said house and waste (lying 
in the Darne Croke) sithens the said suppression." Property of the 
Nunnery of St. Bartholomew. Welford, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., p. 494. 


SITHA, see thou, see you ; used as an exclamation, often 
interrogatively for " do you see ?" " When he cam, sitha, aa 
didn't ken whe it could be." See SEESTA. 

SITHORS, scissors. The th sounded heavy as in withers. 

SITTEN, SETTEN, the p.p. otsit. Sitten-on, small, ill-thriven. 
"A sitten-on thing." "A sitten-on creatur" (applied to a 
diminutive person). " Black szYfcw," near the time of incubation, 
applied to eggs under a hen when the birds are in the shell. 

" When a dumpling, hasty pudding, potatoes, etc., have sitien on to 
the bottom of the pan in which they are boiled they are said to be 
bishopped." S. Oliver the Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, 
p. 131, n. 

SITTIN-UP, keeping watch at night ; a custom yet observed 
with a corpse from death to the burial. See LAKE WAKE. 

SKAIDLY, of a pilfering habit. See SKYEDLY. 
SKAIL, to disperse. See SCALE. 

SKAITH, harm, injury. 

" One doth the skath, and another hath the scorn." Proverb, Ray's 
Glossary, E.D.S. 

" Wa's me that ever I was born, 
For I'se get baith theskaith and scorn." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 49. 

" The bits o' good we de 
The verra happiest moments gie us, 
And mun, aw think, still help a wee 
At last frae awfu" skaith to free us." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 100. 

SKARN, SHAREN, dung of cows. See SHARE. 

" A hungry dog will eat a skarny pudding." Northumberland proverb, 
Hodgson MS. 

SKEADLICK, a sneaking low animal or person. See SKYEDLY. 

SKEAR, SKEER, SKERR, a term applied to some coast 
rocks, as in Green Sheer, Hadstone Sheers, etc. Probably 
another form of scar. See SCAR and compare CAR. 

SKECKY, SKEKIE, mettlesome, ready to start at an object ; 
applied to an animal. " That's a skecky mear " (said of one 
that shies at anything). The word was variously used as a 
not uncommon epithet applied to men. Its signification may 
have been descriptive of a proud, disdainful mien, or of a 
pugnacious character. Mr. Thomas Forster, of Alnwick and 


Warenford, who died at Alnwick in 1813, a gentleman of 
eccentric habits, was known as the " Skecking Laird." Only 
a few years ago, a workman named Forster, a relative of the 
above Forster, died at Alnwick. He was usually* called the 
skecker by his comrades in the shop. A policeman at Wark- 
worth was known as " Old Skeck." 

SKEDADDLE, to disperse in flight, to retreat precipitately. 
The American War familiarized this term in 1862 ; but it 
had been commonly used on Tyneside long before. 

" The word skedaddle was constantly used in Winlaton in my youth, 
between fifty and sixty years ago." Note by Mr. Isaac Jeavons, 1891. 

11 In Dumfriesshire it was currently applied to the wasteful overflow 
of milk from an ill-balanced milk pail." Mackay, Dictionary of Lowland 
Scotch, 1888. 

SKEEL, a vessel containing about six gallons, constructed of 
straight wooden staves, hooped with iron, one of the staves 
being made longer than the rest and carved so as to form a 
handle. The diameter of the skeel is greatest at the bottom ; 
the taper towards the top giving steadiness to the vessel 
when it is filled and balanced on the head, where it is always 
carried when full. A " weeze " or " skeen " forms a circular 
pad for the head in carrying water ; whilst a flat board or 
wooden trencher, called a " stiller," floats on the surface to 
prevent splashing over the edge. 

" 1652. A stoole for the skeeles." Gateshead Church Books. 

SKEEL, SKILL, approbation, regard, good opinion. " Aa 
he' nee skeel o' that chep " no good opinion of that man. 

SKEEL, to shell, to take the shell or husk off corn. 
Hodgson MS. 

SKEELY, skilful, adept, sagacious. 

SKEEN, the round pad which a maid puts on her head in 
carrying a skeel. Weeze is the more general name. 

SKEERY, shying, easily scared. " The horses were skeery." 
See SCARRY and compare SKECKY. 

SKEET, SK1TE, SKEATE, to skate, to slip, to skid, to 
glance off as a flat stone does when thrown on the surface of 
water. " Aa'll sheet ye," a challenge to the game of ducks 
and drakes. 


SKEETS, the shaft timbers in a pit on which the cage is 
guided. " Skeetin-dyels," deals erected to fend off a kibble or 
bucket in a shaft. 

SKEG, the stump of a branch. Brockett. 

SKEIR-WARE, the marine algae, Fucus serratus and Fuciis 
nodosus. See WARE, 2. 

SKELF, the old Northumbrian mode of pronouncing shelf. 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. Hi., p. 195, n. Compare 

SKELL-DUKE, SKELL, the shieldrake, Todovna Belonii, Ray. 
Also called the scaledrake and bandganner. 

" It breeds in rabbit holes on the sandy links by the seashore between 
Holy Island and Bamborough." John Hancock, Birds of Northumberland 
and Durham, p. 150. 

SKELLET, an iron pot with feet, like a " yetlin," but differing 
from a yetlin in having a straight, instead of a bow, handle. 

SKELLY, squinting. Skelly, to squint. From the effort 
required by an inexperienced observer, the telescope is 
facetiously called a shelly scope. Similarly, a kaleidoscope is 
humorously called a " gleediscoup " ; gleed, asquint. 

" She struck me wi* surprize while she skelly'd wiv' her eyes." 

W. Midford. The Pitman's Skellyscope, 1818, p. 53. 

" Wiv her snipy beak, an' shelly een." 

Robson, Lovesick Collier Lass. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 170. 

SKELLY, the small river fish dare or dace, Leuciscus vulgaris, 

SKELP, a sharp slap. "Aa'll gie ye a skip o' the lug." To 
slap smartly with the flat hand ; to thrash soundly ; to make 
or cause any very rapid movement ; in mining, to use the 
pick in pulling down or hewing coal, instead of kirving, 
nicking, and wedging, or bringing it down with powder. 

" I canno tell a 1 , I canno tell a' ; 
Some gat a skelp, and some gat a claw; 
But they gar'd the Featherstons haud their jaw, 
Nicol, and Alick, and a'." 

Surtees, Death of Featherstonhaugh. 

Border Minstrelsy, fifth ed., 1821, vol. i., p. 241. 

" Wor tongues becam' ne cripples noo, 
The words cam 1 skelpin rank and file." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 70. 


SKELPIN, a cant term applied to anything very large. 
" She's a skelpin lass." Skelper is similarly used. " It's a 
skelper, noo." 

SKELPIN-THE-HIDE-AND-TALLOW, carousing till the 
value of hide and tallow are consumed ; a custom observed 
when a "mairt" had been found to weigh more than had 
been anticipated. (Obs.) 

SKEM, SKEMMY, a term of contempt. "He's a reg'lar 
skem." Also the blue rock or any other common breed of 

"For there's a chep that skemmies breeds." 

Robson, Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 113. 

SKEP, SKIP, a basket of wicker work, rushes, or straw, used 
for carrying agricultural produce. " Bee-skep" a beehive made 
of straw. The word is applied generally and may be used as 
the name of any handy receptacle. A coal skep is a coal 
scuttle. A meal skep is the dish in which oatmeal is kept. 
The skep was formerly a measure of varying quantity in each 
locality. It sometimes contained twelve bushels, of sixteen 
gallons to the bushel and upwards. 

SKEULIN, schooling, knowledge. See SKYUL. 

" What dis a plewman want wi' skeulin, aw wad ken ?" 

Geo. Chatt, Old Farmer, poems, 1866, p. 86. 

SKEW, the roof line of a gable. " Skew-blocks," the corbelled 
blocks on which the water-tabling of the gables rest. To 
throw aside. " Divvent skew the things aboot that way." 
" Skewin a stone" is the art of throwing a flat stone with 
"side" on it, so that it cuts the air and holds a straight 

SKID, to slide. The wheels of a locomotive skid when they 
revolve without biting or adhering to the line. A waggon 
wheel is skidded or caused to slide by chaining or spragging it. 

SKIDDER, the common skate, Raia batis, Yarrell. 

SKIMMERIN, shimmering. " Skimmerin clean" polished and 
shining clean. 

" Lac't (laced) about wi' shimmering- tinsel." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious 
Discourse, 1686, p. 24. 

SKIN, to flog violently. " Aa'll skin ye if aa get ahad on ye." 
Skinnin, a thorough thrashing. 


SKIN-ABYUN-SKIN, to trump over your adversary's cards. 

SKINCH ! the cry for parley in a boys' game. This appears 
of late years to have superseded the old form, " King's 
speech," shouted out when a truce is called in a game. 

SKIN-FLINT, a mean person, a miser. Skinny-flint, a thin, 
lean, or bony person. 

SKINTY, very small. Skinty bit, a very small piece. 

SKIP-JACK, a child's toy made of the merrythought bone of a 

SKIPPER, the leading hand on board a keel. The crew of a 
keel consisted of three men and a boy ; the men known as 
" bullies," their senior called skipper, and the boy " peedee." 

" May i6th, 1618, an information was made in the Star Chamber 
against several hostmen and skippers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne for 
adulterating coals." Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., p. 278. 

" An Act of Parliament, 1788, for establishing a permanent fund for 
the relief and support of skippers and keelmen employed on the river 
Tyne." Mackenzie, History of Newcastle, p. 550. 

SKIRL, SKREEL, to cry excessively. A continuation of 
childish rage and grief. Hodgson MS. 

SKIRL-NEAK'T, stark naked. A common expression in 
Coquetdale ; usually applied to children. It is also the 
name of a place near Wooler. 

SKIRVAL, the two pieces of wood acting as a keel in cobles. 

SKIS-THURSDAY, our Lady-day in Lent. Books of Ship- 
wrights 1 Company, Newcastle, 1630. Brand, vol. ii., p. 343, n. 

" Skirisfurisday , Skyirthurisdaye, the Thursday before Good Friday. 
Called, in England, " Maundy Thursday." Jamieson, Scottish Dictionary. 

SKITE, a kite. See SKYET. 

SKITE, a forcible slap. " Aa gav him a skite o' the lug." 

SKITE, to throw or to shoot with a jerk, as in throwing a flat 
stone that tips along the face of a pond. " Aa can skite a 
styen farther nor 'ee." "The styen hit the top o' the waal 
an' skited reet off." To fly hastily. See SKEET. Compare 

SKITE, SKYTE, to squirt. See SCOOT. 


SKITTLE, to run about without aim. "He gans skittlin 

SKIVE, to shave or pare leather. Shoemaker : " Hoo did ye 
come to spoil them soles that way?" Apprentice: "Aa 
skived them, sor." 

SKLENDER, slender. Occasionally used by old people. 

SKLENT, to slant, to glance. "The styen sklented off as it 
fell." "The sun's sklentin" "He sklented oot o* the side o' 
his ee." 

SKOGGER, the leg of an old stocking, applied to keep snow 
out of shoes. Hodgson MS. A variant of hogger, which see. 

SKOUT, the auk is so-called in Northumberland. See 
Pennant, Tour in Scotland, ed. 1790, i., 48. Halliwell. (Obs.) 

SKREEN (a form of spelling screen, which see), the arrange- 
ment for sifting or screening coals at a pit. 

" Small coal skreening apparatus with gangway, &c., complete." 
Inventory of Wallsend Colliery, 1848. 

SKREENGE, SKRINGE, to squeeze violently. Brockett. 

SKRIEGH [N.] , a shriek. See next word. 

" The owlet gave an eerie skriegh." 

Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, p. 406. 

SKRIKE, to shriek ; a shriek. " The skrikes on her wis aaful ti 

SKUDDY, naked. 

SKUG, a shelter. To seek covert or shelter. 

SKUMFISH, to suffocate. 

" Wood embers, the snuffing of a candle, sulphur, &c., have skumfishing 
effluvia in close rooms." Hodgson MS. 

11 She thout she wad ha' been skumfeesht wi' the steyth." 

T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 15. 

SKUNNER, to flinch from. "She nivver skunnered it." See 


SKUTTOR, to hurry off. Compare SKITTLE, SCUTTLE, 3, and 
SKITE, 3. 

11 Away she skuttors in hor coach." 

J. P. Robson, The Tip Top Wife, 1870. 

SKYBELT, a lazy, useless, ne'er-do-well. 

thievish, pilfering propensity. Applied especially to a 
sneaking, voracious dog or cat, and occasionally to men of 
similar disposition. " That's a skyedly beast." " A skaidly 
tyke." " Greyhoonds is myestly aall on them skeyedly" 

SKYEL, to disperse. See SCALE, .1, and SCALEBREAK. 
SKYEL, to scale. Skyels, scales of a fish. 

SKYET, a kite. 

"Paper skyets, penny pies, an* huil-doos." 

W. Midford, The Pitman's Courtship, 1818. 

SKYET, SKYEAT, a skate fish. See SKIDDER. 

" Here's yor bonny skyet, ha'penny a share, hinny." 

Newcastle street cry. 

SKYLARK, to play pranks. 
SKY-SCRAPER, a niggardly person. 

etc., a school. A group of gamblers at pitch and toss is called 
a skyul. 

SLAB-DASH, SLAP-DASH, to whitewash, to paint roughly, 
to stencil in colours on a plaster wall ; a method of decoration 
much used before the introduction of cheaper wall papering. 
An imitation of marble was sometimes made by splashing on 

SLACK, small or dust coal. 

SLACK, a hollow, a depression on the surface of the ground. 
" Ye come ti where thor's a slack i' the road." " The snow's 
still lyin i' the slack" 

SLACK, impudent, loose, or idle talk. " Had yor slack " hold 
your tongue. 

Says he " Read this, and haud yor slack." 

J. P. Robson, Skipper's Almanack. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 152. 


SLACK, insufficient in quantity or volume. " The air's slack 
here." " He sent up two tubs slack" that is, insufficiently 
filled. Not busy, or in indifferent employment ; the opposite 
of "flush." "Are ye very thrang thi day?" "No, hinney, 
trade nivver was se slack.' 1 Listless in bodily condition, 
as in hot weather. " Aa feel that slack aa cud lie doon." 
Inadequately heated. " Put mair coals on, the oven's getten 

SLACK- WATTER, smooth water, where the current is not felt. 

SLAB, SLAY, the sloe; fruit of blackthorn, Pmnus spinosa, L. 
11 Slay bus," a sloe bush. 

" When the slae tree is white as a sheet, 
Sow your barley, whether it be dry or weet." 

Old saying. 

SLAFE, narrow, mean looking ; said of cattle. 

SLAG, a thin bed or band of coal mixed with lime and iron 
pyrites, generally known as brat. Probably called slag from 
its apparent resemblance to that substance. 

SLAGER, SLAIGER, to besmear, bedaub. To make a mess 
in doing anything. " He slaiger'd the paint ower the hyel 
place." Compare SLAIRG. 

SLAIN, rust or smut in grain. " Thor's a lot o' slain amang 
that wheat." 

SLAIRG, soft, wet mud, " clarts." Compare SLAGER. 

SLAISTER, a mess, a slovenly way of doing things. Also a 
sloven. " He's a reg'lar slaister." To bedaub, to do anything 
in a dauby or untidy fashion ; to walk with an awkward and 
slovenly gait. To slaister a person is to mess him by giving 
him a thrashing. The word seems always to denote some 
form of mess caused either by want of skill or want of 
tidiness. " Them painter cheps gets badly endwis, an' 
they've been slaisterin on for a week at the job." " He cam 
slaisterin alang an hoor ahint the time." Slaistrel, a sloven. 
" Clean the yaird up, ye greet slaistrel, ye." 

SLAKE, a large mud flat composed of sleek (ooze), alternately 
covered and left bare by the tide ; as Jarrow Slake on the 
Tyne, Fenham Slakes, the flats near Holy Island. In 1670, 
the forms Jarrow-s/zfo and Jarrow-S/yfo occur. Brand, vol. ii., 
p. 27. Slakes are formed where the absence of rapid currents 
allows the deposit of fine sediment. 


SLAKE [N.] , species of seaweed, Entevomorpha. The entero- 
morpha fill the bed of the lower part of the Tweed during the 
summer, and are well-known to our fishermen under the name 
of slake, for, by clogging his nets, they offer a serious obstacle 
to his work. Johnston, Botany of the Eastern Borders, p. 287. 
Compare SLAUKE. 

SLAKE [N.] , a habitual drunkard. Known also as a slush- 
bucket and a slush. 

SLAKE, to smear, to wet, to bedaub. 

SLAP, to enter at a breach or opening. 

" They're looking where to find a gapp 
And, if they find it, in they'll slapp." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 35. 

SLAPPING, tall, strong, strapping. See STRAPPER and 

" Stopper, any large object." Brockett. 

SLATE, a stratum that splits or slices easily. The fine- 
grained and thinly laminated sandstone used for roofing in 
old houses is also called slate, and the large slabs into which 
it is dressed are known as Northumberland Slates. The beds 
from which it is obtained are called slate-sills. 

" There are three varieties of coal ; the slate or common coal, the 
Cannel or Splint Coal, and the Coarse, also called Splint Coal." 
Mackenzie, History of Northumberland, 1825, vol. i., p. 82. 

SLATE, to thrash a person. It means to damage an antagonist 
effectually, as with a stroke. 

Also " to set a dog loose at anything ; as sheep, swine, &c." Brockett. 

SLATTERY, wet, rainy. " A slattevy day." 

SLATY, like shale ; where other and harder deposits alternate 
with a seam of coal a slaty coal is the result. 

" The Stone-Coal is subject to be a little Slaty, as I am told." J. C., 
Compleat Collter, 1708, p. 19. 

SLAUKE, the sea- weed green laver, Ulva lactuca and U. 
latissima, L. The edible sea-weed, which continued to be 
sold in Newcastle for food or pickling, is the purple laver, 
Porphyra laciniata or P. vulgaris, Ag. At the weekly " Rag 
Fair " in Sandgate it was a regular article of sale, collected 
by the Irish who lived in the low parts of the town. 

" It is called in Northumberland slauhe : whyche in lent the poore 
people sethe, and that with lekes and oyniones. They put it in a poot, 
and smoze it, as they call it, and then it looketh blake, and then put 
they oyniones to it, and eat it." 'liitner, quoted Johnston's Botany of 
Eastern Borders, p. 286. 


SLAVERIN, slavering. Applied as a term of contempt 
equivalent to boobyish, as " slaverin hash," " slaverin cull," 
" slaverin, or slaver-haggish." 

" Henry Hedley is likewise fined for calling Wm. Johnson, one of the 
Stewards, slavering hash, and deniing to meete 35. 4d." Books of the 
Bricklayers' Company, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Nov. 28th, 1665. 

" Wor Geordy, one day the greet slaverin cull 
He wad be a noodle, and act like a full." 

Ed. Corvan, d. 1865, He wad be a Noodle. 

Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 394. 

SLAY, the sloe. Usually written slae, which see. 

SLECK, smooth river mud. A slake is a large expanse of 
sleek. "Sludge" is wet, muddy deposit, but not necessarily 
fine and smooth as sleek. . 

" Sleek or soft and smooth earth, deposited in silent corners of rivers 
in a flood. Jarrow Slake, especially in the Salt Meadows by the side of 
the Don, contains an almost inexhaustible quantity of fine sleek clay, 
well adapted for making a ware similar to the terra cotta of the 
ancients." Hodgson MS. 

SLECK-TROW, the trough containing the water in which 
smiths cool their tongs and temper steel. 

"Slake, to quench ; and trow, trough." Hodgson MS. 

" When the time for parading nigh hand grows, 
A' wesh thirsels clean i' the sleek trows; 
Fling off their black duddies, 
Leave hammers and studdies, 
And to drill run the bonny Geatsiders." 

J. Shield, Bonny Geatsiders. 

(Volunteer song of 1805.) 

SLED, a sledge. " Drees," or sleds, were in use for many 
purposes where wheeled vehicles are now generally adopted. 
They are still used for heavy weights where roads are not 
available. Skdder, the former name for the under-banksman 
at a colliery. 

"The sled, on which the Corves were drawn previous to the 
introduction of wheels and rails, is still used occasionally in leading to a 
stow board." Nicholson, Glossary Coal Trade terms, 1888. 

SLEE, sly, astute, crafty. " On the slee "stealthily. 

SLEEKIT [N.] , smooth skinned or smooth furred. " A sleekit 

SLEEP, applied to a peg top, which in spinning appears to 
become quite motionless. It is then said to sleep. 

SLEEPERY [N.], sleepy, drowsy. 


SLEEPIN MAGGIE, the red meadow clover, Trifoliumpratense, 
Linn. Britten and Holland, English Plant Names, E.D.S. 

SLEEP-THE-CAALER, to sleep in ; literally to sleep on 
after the callev has roused the slumberer. 

SLEET, sleight, dexterity. "Sleet o' hand." 
SLEICHER, a skulker, a sneak. 

SLENT, slant, oblique. " It's on the slent" aslope. Slenty, 
aslant. See TOPS. 

SLEUTH-HOUND, SLOO-HOOND, a bloodhound. (Obs.) 
" Sleuth, the track of man or beast as known by the scent." Jamieson. 

" Paide for a sloohound and a man which led him, to go make enquirie 
for James Watson, 53." Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 1.592, Aprill. 

" Paide for the charges of a bitch and a dogg ; one from Denton, and 
one other from Chester [le Street] , to followe the sents and trode of 
those which broke the towne chamber dore paid to the man of Chester 
for his bitch, 203. ; his owne paines, 2s. ; paid him of Denton, for the 
dog, IQS. 325." The same, anno 1595. 

" In 1616, a commission was sent to Sir Wilfrid Lawson and Sir Wm. 
Hutton, stating that horrid disorders daily increased in the Borders, 
and that slough-dogs should be provided, according to the King's 
proclamation." W. Hutton, History of Roman Wall, 1802, p. 100. 

" Sharp is the sturdy sleuth dog's fang." 

Ballad, The Fray o' Plautwessell. 

SLEW, SLUE, to turn or swing anything round, as the jib of 
a crane slews its load. " He slewed him reet roond aboot." 

" The more or less north-easterly strike prevalent in the strata 
throughout the southern part of Northumberland undergoes a powerful 
twist or slew along the west side of Coquetdale." Hugh Miller, Geology 
of Otterburn and Elsdon. Geological Survey Memoir, 1887, p. 16. 

SLICE, a small square shovel used by a blacksmith for putting 
coals on to his fire. 

"Slyce, spatula." Promptorium Parvulorum. 

SLICK, SLEEK, smoothly, cleverly. 

" Sae neat and slick he twirls the stick." 

James Armstrong, Wanny Blossoms, 1879, p. 29. 

SLICKENED, polished. Used to describe the appearance 
found on the planes of bedding where a fault in the strata 
has occurred. Slickenside, the polished rock surface caused 
by two sides of a fault rubbing the one against the other 
during upheaval or subsidence of the rocks. 


SLICK-STONE, SLEEK-STONE, a polishing stone, or a 
piece of solid glass with which floors were formerly rubbed 
to give them a glossy appearance. Slickstones were sometimes 
made with a stalk or handle. (Obs.) 

SLIDDEN (p.p. of slide), slipped. 

" The celebrated figure, called Robin of Risingham, which was cut 
in high relief upon a huge block of sUdden sandstone." Hodgson, 
Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 165, n. 

SLIDDER, to slide with jerks. " The winder sliddered doon." 

SLIDDER, SLIDDERY, unstable, slippery, smooth. 
" My tongue is grown sae slip and slidder." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 20. 

SLIDE, in mining, the moveable brattice end in a board, 
which is made so as to be drawn across the tramway to the 
opposite side, in a sloping direction, for the purpose of 
throwing the air up the board at nights, when the pit is not 
working. Slide-regulator, Sliding -scale, in mining, a framework 
made with two sliding latticed panels, sliding past each 
other, and thus opening or closing to regulate the scale of air. 

SLIDES, cage guides fixed in a pit shaft. See SKEETS. 
SLIDEY, a slide on ice. " Howay, lads, let's breed a slidcy." 

SLIME, or SLUDGE, a mixture of sand and soft lead ore in 
process of washing. See SLUDGE, i. 

SLINE [W.-T.] , a joint in stratified rocks. Also called a back. 

SLING, or PLOO-SLING, the swivel and hook attachment 
by which the double-tree is slung from the plough head, 
or "bridle"; and the similar attachments by which the 
"swingle-trees" are again, in turn, connected with the 
double-tree. Sling, a chain with loops used for putting round 
heavy weights in lifting. 

SLINGE, to slink, to sneak. Compare SLEICHER. 
SLINGY, a lazy, useless fellow. 

SLINKY, of a slinking, deceitful character. " He's a slinky 
fella " that is, a schemer in evading his work. 


SLIP, SLIP-DYKE, a dislocation of the strata in a pit where 
a portion of the strata have apparently slipped down. A 
" whin-dyke " is where an intrusion of basalt has occurred. 
Where the fault is slight, and the elevation or depression 
amounts to a few inches only, it is called a " hitch." In 
the language of the workmen all these disturbances are 
expressively classed under the name of "troubles." 

" The small slips, hitches, and troubles so constantly met with in 
collieries." Lebour, Geology of Northumberland and Durham, second ed., 
1886, p. 134. 

SLIP, an outside covering, a child's pinafore. Pillow slip, a 
pillow case In general use. Slip was formerly used for a 
scabbard, sheath, etc., and the maker of such things was 
called a slipper, a term now obsolete. 

" 1580, Nov. 16. Elizabeth, wife of George Heslop, sword-slipper." 
Interments, St. Nicholas' Church, Newcastle. 

SLIP, a slight or slim person, a growing girl. " A bit slip iv a 
lass " a young, slender girl. 

SLIP, a hank of yarn consisting of twelve " cuts." Compare 

SLIP, glib. See quotation under SLIDDER. 

SLIP, to run or walk hastily. " Aa'll slip doon an' see hoo 
he's gettin on." " Just slip ower an' tell Bob he's wanted." 

SLIPE [N] , slippery. Slippy, slippery. " Aa canna waak, 
the flags is that slippy.'" 

SLIPPY, quick. " Leuk slippy noo "that is, be quick. 

SLIPPY BACKS, vertical planes of cleavage occurring every 
four or five inches in a seam of coal. Gresley's Glossary, 1883. 
See BACK, 3. 


SLIPS, flat iron bands encircling the wood of a swingle-tree 
at each end and in the centre, to which S shaped links are 
attached to connect with the plough or other implement at 
one side and with the horse gear at the other. 

SLITHER, a slide. " Hi, lads, let's hev a slither:' Slither, to 

" She slithered away, like the snaw i' the street." 

J. P. Robson, The Kittlin Legacy, 1849. 


SLITTEN, the p.p. of slit. "His coat wis slitten fre the nape 
o' the neck to the boddom." 

SLIVER (* long), a thin strip, especially a thin lath or tongue, 
let in between two grooves, in order to make an air-tight 
joint. A cross-piece on top and bottom of a cart heckboard. 
The can for receiving yarn as it is spun. 

SLOACH, to drink in a vulgar, greedy way. Also a fellow 
drinking more than his share. " He's a greet muckle sloach." 

SLOAT, the neck in a carcase of beef. " Aa want twee pund 
off the skat ti myek a pie." 

SLOCKEN, to slake lime by mixing it with water, to slake or 
appease thirst with drink. " Aa've sic a drooth aa canna 


" 1654 Paid for making the church cleane, the pewes, &c., after the 
lime was slockned in the quire, 8d." Church Books of St. Nicholas, 

SLOG, to strike with great force. Used in describing the 
blows given with a sledge-hammer. " They slogged away at 
the anchor shank." See SLUG. 

SLOGAN, SLUGHORN, a gathering cry for war, the shout 
raised at the attack, or the watchword of a clan. See YET- 

"Then raise the Slogan with ane schout, 
Fy, Tindall to it ! Jedburgh's here." 

The Raid of Reedswire. 

SLOGGER, to hang loosely or to become loose through work, 
to fit loosely or untidily. Stockings or clothes that fall slack 
are said to slogger. The part in a machine that shakes or 
works in a loose manner is said to slogger. A pair of loose 
slippers down at heel are also said to slogger. A loose, 
undress jacket is called a " sloggerin jacket." S loggers, loose 
trousers ; a person disorderly in dress. 

SLOGGERY, loose, shaky. " Dinna had it sloggery like that " 
(said to one who had a loose, irresolute hold of an article). 
" The crank's workin a' sloggery." 

SLONK, a depression in the ground, like a "swallow hole.'' 
Compare SLUMP. 

SLONKY, long and lanky. 
SLOOM, a doze. See SLUM. 


SLORP, to make a sucking noise with the mouth as in taking 
food with a spoon or in drinking. " He slorped his tea." 
Intransitively applied to boots or shoes when they make a 
similar sound. "Them shoes slorps at the heels." "Slorpin 
an' eatin " drinking noisily with the mouth full of victuals 
or like a glutton. "Slorpin an' greetin" crying and making a 
sobbing sound. "Slorp 0' Tuggal," a Northumberland saying ; 
applied to a person having a slovenly appearance in the feet. 
By "Slorp o' Ttiggar* is meant a clog and a shoe, or a similar 
incongruity on the feet. Tuggal is a township in the parish 
of Bamburgh. 

SLOT, a door bolt. To "slot the door," to shoot the bolt of a 

" Two slotes for the dining chamber door." Account of 1560, Welford, 
History of Newcastle in XVI. Century, p. 358. 

SLOT, to cut a groove in anything. 

SLOTHER, a thick fluid. Compare SLUTHER, i. Slothery, 
messy, slatternly. 

SLOWF (the pronunciation of slough), a miry place. 

SLOWPEY, a slop garment, a kind of smock frock. Called 
sometimes a smokey. 

SLUDGE, soft, wet sediment or mud. Sludge-cock, a cock 
for draining off the sediment from a steam boiler. Compare 
SLECK. Sludger, a tool which screws on to the end of a 
bore-rod to extract the sludge. It is of cylindrical shape, 
having an auger-like screw at the bottom and a clack or 
valve to retain semi-fluid material. It differs from a 
" wimble," which is used where the triturated matter is in a 
dry condition, in having the retaining clack. Sludge-ore, the 
ore of lead so finely pulverized that it cannot be submitted 
to a stream of water without loss. It is deposited in 
receiving tanks and then carefully treated. Also called 

SLUG, SLOG, to strike violently, to overcome in a fight. 
" Touch us, if ye dar, an' aa'll slug ye." A slug or a sluggin 
is a dire beating. 

" Gi'e them every yen a slug." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. Hi., 1829, v. 34. 


SLUM, SLOOM, a light sleep. " Aa've getten nowther sleep 
nor slum." Slummin, dozing. See DOVER. 


SLUMP, a bog or wet hole. See SUMP. 

SLUMP, to slip, to fall plum down into any wet or dirty 
place. Ray, Glossary, E.D.S., B. 15. 

" Newcassel hes fairly slump't into disgrace." 

R. Gilchrist, 1835, Song of Improvements. 

Bards of the Tyne, p. 416. 

SLUSH, melting snow or soft wet mud. Slush, Slushbucket, a 
drunken fellow, a gluttonous eater and drinker. Slush-coal, 
Sluice-coal, soft, messy, or pulverized coal. Slush-kit, a half 
barrel in which grease produced in cooking, etc., is stored. 
Slushy, sloppy from half melted snow. " The road's varry 

SLUTHER, slough or muddy deposit. Compare SLOTHER. 

41 The shoes had got loosened and had stuck in the tenacious clay of 
the sluther or slough." Simpson, History of Bwhs. Nat. Club, vol. vi., 
p. 312. 

SLUTHER, to huddle in a disorderly manner. " She sluthered 
the things together." Sluther -ma -giillion, a great, loose, untidy 
sort of fellow. "He's a greet sluther-ma-gullion." Elsewhere 
the form is slubberdegullion. See Hudibras i, iii., 1. 886. 

"Slutherment, Sludderment, dirt, filth, nastiness." Brockett. 

SMAA, SMAAL, small coal ; coals that pass through the 
screen bars before their further separation into nuts, etc. 
Small-leader, a leader of small coals, a lad employed to "put" 
small coals from the hewer to a " stow-board." GreenwelL 

SMACK, flatly, suddenly and with a resounding blow. 

" The bairns lap ower the bed wi' fright 
Fell smack upon the floor, man." 

W. Midford, X. Y. Z. at Newcastle Races, 1814. 

SMAIRG, to besmear. Compare SMOOR, 2. 

SMALLY, very small, of stunted or immature size. " He's 
oney a bit smally body onyway." "The tormits is smally thi 

SMART-MONEY, money paid weekly by masters to persons 
who have received an injury at their work. 

11 Men who are injured while at work in the pit get a weekly allowance 
of five shillings from the owners of the colliery. This is called smart 
money." Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, vol. vi., p. 206. 


SMASH ! a characteristic expletive. It is used in many 
combinations, and is expressed to give vigour or emphasis. 
" Smash ! Jemmy, let us buss, we'll off, and see Newcassel 
Races." Also spoken as Odsmash ! Adsmash ! Gad smash me 
sark ! Smash me hart ! or Deel smash me hart ! 

SMASHER, a pasty or tart made of fruit. A " grozer 
smasher,'' a round standing pie made of " grozers " (goose- 

SMASHER, a cant word for anything of huge or gross 

SMATTER, to smash. Smatterin, a complete smash up. 

" Wor Ralph '11 smatter a 1 their ribs, he is se strang, begox !" 

R. Emery, Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 281. 

11 Aw own that aw was fairly deun and smatter' d very sair." 

The same. 

SMEEDE, smooth. " Smeede letch." This often occurs in 

SMEETH (the th as in seethe), to smooth. 

SMIDDUM, small particles of lead ore which have passed 
through a sieve, collected in a tub or cistern, in the process 
of washing the refuse ore. 

SMIDDY, SMITTY, a smith's shop; applied also to a small, 
snug house or location ; and again, by inversion, to a 
common or mean-looking place. " Ye've a warm smiddy doon 
i' the huddock there." " It's oney a poor smiddy, onyway ; 
aa wadn't he' sic a hoose." Smiddy shunders, smithy cinders. 

SMITTY GUM, SMIDDY COOM, .the scale which falls off 
iron when it is worked hot. Compare COOM. 

SMIT, to infect. 

"Thei were afraied of eche other for feare of smityng." Bullein, 
Dialogue, 1564, E. E. Text Society, p. 8, 1. 19. 

SMITHERS, SMITHEREENS (the th as in wither), 
splinters, minute fragments. " He's broke the pot aal ti 
smithers" * It's gyen aal ti smithereens." See SHIVER, i. 

SMITH OF KIND, one who is the seventh in descent from 
an unbroken line of blacksmiths father and son. See 


SMITTAL, SMITTLE, infectious, catching, venomous. It 
is also applied in describing either a likely place to catch a 
fish or a likely bait for catching. " It's a smittal spot for a 
salmon." " That's a smittal flee for a troot." 

"The toad is very smittle, in plain English venemous." W. Brockie, 
Legends and Superstitions, p. 142. 

" It's smittal when owt o' that kind's started." 

Geordy's Last, 1878, p. 7. 

SMOCK-RACE, a race formerly common at the hoppings in 
which girls competed, the prize being a new smock or 
chemise. (Obs.) 

SMOKEY [N.] , a kind of smock-frock. See SLOWPEY. 
SMOKEY, the hedge sparrow. See SMOTTY. 
SMOOR, to smother. 

SMOOR, to smear or daub (Northumberland). Grose. 
Compare SMAIRG. 

SMOOTHY (the th sounded as in thin), dank, damp, and 
warm. The close and moist condition of the atmosphere 
frequently experienced in autumn. " It's a smoothy day." 

SMOTTY, the hedge sparrow, Prunella modularis, L. Called 
also hedgy, spowey, smokey, bluey, field-sparrow, fieldy, etc. 

SMOUT, SMOOT, a hole made and frequented by hares or 
rabbits in a fence. See SMUT-HOLE. 

SMOUT, a smelt; anything small. 

SMOZE, a method of cooking. See quotation under SLAUKE. 

SMUDGE, to laugh in a suppressed manner. To "smudge 
and laugh " is to laugh inwardly. Also to smoulder as a 
fire of field weeds does. See SMUSH. 

" She smudgin said, 
Aw fancy ye mun ha'e yor way." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v - 7 2 - 

SMUSH, to burn without flame or any appearance of fire 
except smoke. Hodgson MS. 

SMEYUT-HWOLE, SMOUT, the run or track of a hare 
through a hedge ; a tiny hole in a rabbit burrow ; not the 
main entrance. 


SNAA, snow. On a fall of snow it is said that geese are being 
" ploated," and the following doggerel is sung by children as 
they dance and catch the feathery flakes : 

" Keelmin, keelmin, * ploat ' yor geese ; 
Caad days an winter neets." 

This legend of the snow is a very widely diffused one, and in 
Hesse, when it snows, they say, " Mother Hulda is making 
her bed" ; this, as it is shaken up, causes the feathers to fly 
about. See various sayings under FLOAT. Snaa-bmsh [N] ., 
melted snow. " The snaa-brash has ruined me shoes." See 
SLUSH. Snaa-read, Snaa-wreath, a snow-drift. 

SNAB, the projecting part of a hill. 

SNACK, a snap of the jaws, a slight or snatch meal. See 

SNACK, to snatch, to snap, as a dog does. " She snacked it up 
afore aa could rich't wi' me hand." A snackin horse, one 
that bites. Snack-apple, the game of snap apple. Snacky, 
snappy, ill-tempered. 

SNAFFLE, to take unfairly ; to steal. 

" The brawls aboot a lyin-tide 
Or snaffled torns (far warse te bide)." 

T. Wilson, Keelman's Tribute, 1839. 

SNAG, to hew or cut roughly with an axe. Brockett. Compare 
NOG and SNED, 2. 


SNAKE-BIRD, the wryneck, Yunx torquilla, L. Called also 
cuckoo's maiden and cuckoo's mate. 

SNAP, a small gingerbread cake. When made very thin and 
baked brittle they are called brandy snaps or scranchem. 

SNAP, a small pick used by lads employed to separate the 
brasses from the coal. 

SNAPPY, querulous, ready to catch at trifles. 

SNAP-UP, to catch up hastily, to lay hold of in haste. "When 
aa gat there the pick on them had aall been snapped up." " He 
snapped us up afore aa could say a word." 


SNARL, a slip-loop used for catching rabbits or hares. It is 
made of fine wire and set in the run of the animal. Hence 
"te snarl rabbits." Snarl, Snot-snorl, a ravelled, knotted skein. 
The kink in a rope is caused by the snarl or sharp bend of a 

SNARLY, crabbed in temper, cross. 

"Just pinched to deeth, they're tarn and snarly, 
A' yammerin on frae morn till neet." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 50. 

SNASH (used for snack), to snap as a dog. See SNACK, 2. 

" Dogs ha' snasht their Haunches." 

G. Stuart, Joco-sevious Discourse, 1686, p. 67. 

SNECK, the lift latch or light fastening of a door or gate. 
The sneck is lifted from outside either by a flat thumb plate 
and lever, or simply by putting the finger through a hole in 
the door, or else by a piece of string passed from the latch 
through a gimlet hole to' the outside. Sneck-bow, a cross-bow. 
The string is held in a notch and liberated by a sueck 
arrangement in discharging the bolt or dart. Sneck-hole, the 
hole for inserting a finger to lift the sneck. Sneck-key, a door- 
key for lifting the latch. Sneck, a cant name for the nose ; 
probably so-called from the resemblance of the projecting 
catch of a sneck to a nose. Sneck, to fasten the latch or hand 
catch of a door. Sneck-draan, long-nosed or visaged, hence 
applied to narrow-minded or mean people. 

" 1560. James Trughet, for making five bands, four hooks, and four 
snecks of his own iron, is." Welford, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., p. 358. 

"A skin-flint, sneck-drawn dog." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1820, v. 53. 

SNED, the pole of a scythe. The small projecting handles on 
the sned are called " nibs." 

.SNED, to cut off or lop the branches of a tree or the tops of 
turnips. After a tree is cut down it is snedded, or divested of 
all its branches. Used figuratively, to rate, to scold. " I did 
sned him" snubbed and scolded him. "He ga the dog a 
good sneddin " reproved and scolded him. Snedeet, cropped 
or pruned bare. "Them busses is snedeet" trimmed bare. 
" Sneddin tormits," lopping turnips so as to leave the clean 
bulb only. 

SNEESHON, a pinch of snuff. (Obs.) 

" I drew my box, and teuk a sneeshon." 

G. Stuart, JocorSerious Discourse, 1686, p. 13. 


SNEEVLE, to snivle, to snuffle, to talk through the nose. 
Sometimes . applied contemptuously to a wheedling and 
insincere person. " She's a poor smevlin thing." 

" Synvelard, or he that spekythe yn the nose." Promptorium. 

SNELL, sharp, keen ; applied to the weather. " It's gey snell 
thi' day." "She blaas snell thi' day ; wes' he' snaa, aa think." 

" And ance it fell upon a day, 
A cauld day and a snell." 

The ballad of Tarn Lin; 

SNEUD, SNUD, SNOOD, in river fishing, the short pieces of 
twisted hair or cord to which the hooks are attached in a 
fisherman's line. In sea fishing the sneud is the short line 
which carries the hook. It is spliced on to the " back " or 
long deep-sea line, and the hook is attached to it by a u wip " 
or line of hair. .In net fishing, the sneuds or snuds are the 
cords which fasten the bosom of the net to the hauling ropes. 
Compare SNUD and TAWM. 

SNEUL, a hang-dog looking person. See NOOL and NOOLED. 
SNEULLS, the internal lining of a sheep's .nostrils. Brockett. 

SNIBBLE, a bar used for scotching tram wheels on inclined 
roads. See SPRAG. 

SNIBLET, the small piece of turned wood on the end of a cow 
tie, which is slipped through an eye at the other end. 

SNIFTER, SNUFTER, to snift, snuffle, or snort, as one does 
with a cold in the head. 

SNIPE, the beak of a bird, a snout. It is sometimes used 
sarcastically for a man's nose. 

SNIPPY, SNIVY, mean, covetous. Brockett. 

SNIRRELS, the nostrils (Northumberland). HalliwelVs Diet. 

" Snirle, an iron instrument for holding a bull by the gristle of the 
nose. ' ' Brockett. 

SNIRT, to break off the angle of a hewn stone; to flake off 
a piece of stone with a lever or with the application of 

SNOAK, to smell and sniff as a dog does. See SNOWK.. 

" There thou's lyin like a hog, 
That's happy snoakin in a bog." 

J. Rowell, The Caller. 


SNOB, a shoemaker. The Castle Garth at Newcastle was 
tenanted almost exclusively by snobs and " stangies " (shoe- 
makers and tailors). 

" Now run away amang the snobs 
An' stangies i' the Garth, man." 

R. Emery, The Owl, 1826. 

SNOB, to take or catch. " Aa'll snob her "that is, a rabbit, 
hare, etc. 

SNOD, trim, spruce, neat. Applied to character, it means 
clever, careful, tactful. "He's gey snod," " He's a gey 
snod gannin chep," or " He's a snod fellow," all represent a 
safe man. Hence to keep a matter snod is to keep it to 
oneself to keep a discreet silence with regard to it. It is 
sometimes used in slight disparagement, as when the virtue 
of being " gey snod " suggests the use of it for self-advantage. 

" I'll shave and look bonny, 
And go to my honey, 
As snod as you like." 

T. Whittle, Humorous Letter. 


SNOOD, a fillet or ribbon worn by maidens. See SNUD. 

SNOOK, a beak-like, projecting headland; as "The Snook," 
at Holy Island, and " The Snook" near Sea Houses, etc. 
Compare nook, which has the same meaning in Ebb's Nook, 
Blyth's Ncok, and is probably the same word. 

SNOOT, a snout, the nose, the peak of a hat. 

SNOOVE, to snuff and smell, to crouch. " The dog cam 
snoovin near." 

11 My husband snooves awa from fight, 
For greed of yellow gold." 

Young Ratcliffe. 
Minstrelsy of English Border, 1847, P- 44- 

SNORE-HOLES, the holes in the wind-bore at the bottom of 
a pump to admit the water. 

SNORK, to snort as a horse does. 

SNOT, the burnt wick or snuff of a candle. Snot, to snuff or 
trim a candle. " Snot the candle, will ye ? " 
" Snytyttge of a nose or candy 1." Promptorium. 

SNOT-SNORL, a kink or twisted bend in a rope or line. 
" The rope's a' run inti snot-snorls." See SNARL. 


SNOTTER, mucus from the nose, a wasted candle, a candle 
that has " sweeled." See SNOT, i. Snotter, to snivel, to 
blubber ' to bubble and cry," as it is called. Snotter-box, 
the nose, a cant word. Snotter -clout, a pocket handkerchief. 

" For dishclout serves her apron nuik, 
As weel as snotter clout and duster." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 59. 

SNOTTY, snobbish, contemptible, imbecile. 

" Ye snotty dog, put in your tram, and dinna stand there squeekin like 
a half ringed hog." T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 33. 

SNOW BUNTING, the snowflake, Plectrophanes nivalis, L. 
Called also cock-o'-the-north and oversea linnet. 

SNOWK, SNOAK, the peculiar sneezing sound made by dogs 
burrowing in search of rats, etc. ; to sniff, as a dog or other 
animal does. 

SNUD, SNUDGE, SNOOD, a fillet or ribbon formerly worn 
by maidens. See SNEUD. 

"Snodde (in old records) a smooth roll or bottom of thread, silk, &c., 
from the Saxon word Snod, a fillet or hair-lace, us'd by women to smooth 
up their hair, which in the North Parts of England is now call'd a snude, 
and in Scotland a snod." New World of Words, 1706. 

SO [W.-T.] , saw. 

" Aw 50 nowse he wis leukin at." 

T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

SOA, a vessel for carrying water. See Soo. 

SOAK, a small spot of marshy ground in which a spring rises, 
or which is kept moist during the winter by the action of 
water. Brockett. 

SOAKY, fat and lazy. 

SOAM, SOWM, SOOM, a chain or rope trace. The plough 
trace is called a sowm-cheyn (soam-chain). The tram in a 
colliery was formerly hauled along by a soam, a rope trace a 
fathom long, hooked at one end to the tram and spliced 
round a piece of wood at the other by which a hold for the 
hand was obtained, 

SOAP, a fire-brick resembling a bar of soap, measuring nine 
inches long by two and a half inches square. It is also 
known as a closer. 


SOAT [W.T.] , salt. 

" Crowdie an" milk, or taters an' soat." 

T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. n. 

SOB, to lull, to grow calmer, as " The wind has sobbed." 

SOBBLE, to belabour, to thrash in a stand-up fight. " Sobblin 
blows," heavy blows with the fist. 

" Aw'll sobble thy body." 

J. Selkirk, d. 1843, Bob Cranky's 'Size Sunday. 
Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 26. 

SOCK, a ploughshare that is, the front, pointed, and cutting 
part of a plough immediately behind and below the " cooler" 
(coulter). It fits on to the plough " sheth." In shape it 
resembles one half of a socket arrow-head ; the feather (called 
the sock-feather) being on the right or cutting side. The angle 
of the socket on the same side is called the " little heen." 
Sock-mould, the rough forging from which the sock of a plough 
is shaped and finished on the anvil. The sock-mould is made 
by a forgeman under a forge hammer. The sock is completed 
by the blacksmith. 

SOCKIE, a sloven. Northumberland. Hdliwell. 

SOD, SODDS, a rough saddle ; originally a sod of heather, 
or a sod or piece of turf merely ; thence applied to an 
extemporized saddle of cloth or skin stuffed with straw. 
Compare PAD. 

" He was allowed to get her safely mounted behind him on a well girt 
pillion or sodds." W. Brockie, Legends and Superstitions, 1886, p. 39. 

SOD, a sot, a clumsy fellow. ' He's a greet sod.' 1 

SODDY, battered and mauled. 

" His body was soddy, and sore he was bruised, 
The bark of his shins was all standing in peaks." 

Sawney Ogilby's Duel. 
Northumberland Garland, p. 208. 

SODGER [N.], the scarlet ladybird. When one of these 
beetles is found in spring time it is picked up and thrown 
high in the air, whilst the following couplet is repeated : 
" Reed, reed scdger, fly away, and make the morn a sunny 

SODS, soap suds. 

SOE, a water bucket. See Soo. 


SOFT, SOFTISH, applied to damp or foggy weather. 
11 Here's a soft. day." " We've hed nobbut softish weather aall 
the week." Applied also to a simpleton. Soft dud, one who 
is weakly and is easily tired. " Eh man, ye are a soft dud" 

SOGGIE, full of flesh Northumberland. HalUu-tlL 

SOIL, the fry of the colesay or coal-fish, Mcrlangus carbcnamts, 
Yarrell. See HALLAN and POODLER, 

SOLDIERS' FEATHERS, the meadow cat's tail grass, 
Phleiim pratense, L. Also called Timothy grass. Johnston, 
Botany of Eastern Borders, p. 211. 

SOLE, the bottom framing of a waggon, that part to which the 
bearances for the wheels are attached, and into which the 
"sheths" are inserted. The threshold. " Window-so/^," the 
sill of a window. Sole is applied generally to any floor-like 
surface. The field has a good sole when it is even or level. 
The sole-cloot in a plough, the flanged piece of iron fixed on the 
bottom of its near or left side. Compare REEST-CLOOT. 

SOLIDS, in mining, the solid rock as distinguished from soil, 
moss, drifts, etc. " The borehole never reached the solids" 

SOLITARY SNIPE, the great snipe, Gallinago major, Gmelin. 
Called also the double snipe. 

SO-LONG ! a parting salutation, equivalent to " Good-bye for 
the present ! " 

SOLVAGEE, SOLVAGEE-STRAP, a sling made of rope 
yarns bound round with "serving." It is used for lifting fine 
building stone, etc., its softness preventing abrasure of the 
surface which it surrounds. 

SOME, somewhat. "She's some better thi day." Some is also 
used in " fowersomc," " threesome " and "twosome" for four, 
three, and two people or things in company. 

SOMMERING, SUMMERING, a summer pasture in the 
uplands. See SUMMERING. 

SONNY, SUNNY [N.] (diminutive of sow), a familiar term for a 
fellow. "Well, Jack, what fet, sunny?" a familiar salutation. 


SONSY, lucky, good looking, jolly, pleasant. 
" Better be sonsy than soon up." Newcastle proverb. 

" Aw cannot help remarkin here, 
How verra different things are now ; 
We want that sonsy hearty cheer, 
That we on sic occasions knew." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 86. 

SOO, SOE, SOA, SEA, a water bucket. (Obs.) 

" So, soa, a tub with two ears to carry on a stang." Ray. 

" Paid for ij shols (shovels) and a soo for to carry water withal xi d." 
Mariner's Company Accounts, 1540. 

SOOK, a take in, a betrayal. Usually applied to a practical 
joke. " What asook!" 

SOOKER, a sapling or shoot from the remains of a cut tree. It 
is distinguished from a young tree, the latter being " rut- 
grown " ; as a " rut-grown esh," oak, etc. 

SOOKIES [N.] , certain kinds of clover. White sookies, the white 
clover, Trifolium vepens, L . Wild sookies, the Trifolium medium, L . 
Called also cow grass. The flowers are also called sticklers, and 
are sucked by children for their sweet taste ; hence the name. 

SOOKIN-TURKEY [N.] , a term of contempt for a childish, 
peevish person. 

SOOM, the air-bladder of a fish. 
SOOM, a trace rope. See SOAM. 

SOOM, SOUM, to swim. 

11 Aw sooms an' aw dives like a duck." 

Collier's Farewell. Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 457. 

SOOPLE, SOUPLE, SWIPPLE, the loose, swinging arm of 
a flail. 

SOOPLEJACK, SpUPLEJACK, a supple switch or cane. 
In the game of trippet and quoit a sooplejack was spliced to a 
" buck " or wooden head. 

SOOTER, the fish, whiting-pout, Morrhua lusca, Yarrell. 

SOOTH, south. Soothmast, southermost. Soother-like, Soother- 
lik, like a southern ; swarthy. Bvockett, under Southerlick. 

SOOTHER, SOUTHER, solder. "Sootherin iron," a plumber's 
soldering iron. 


SOOTY, applied to dull, dusty, soft coal often found near a 
hitch. Greenwell. 

SOOTY-WILLY, SYETY-WULLY, the meadow pipit, Anthus 
pratensis, L. See MOSSCHEEPER. 

SORROW, a maw. Sorrow, a disobedient child. "Ye little 
sorrow, ye." Sorrow-a-bit, not a bit, not a piece. 

SORT, a quantity, a rather small number of things. " Hev 
'ee seen ony lennarts ?" "Aye, thor's a sort flyin." Compare 

SOSS, puddle, anything foul or muddy. " The beer's as thick 
as soss." Brockett. 

SOSS, a heavy fall ; the sound made by the fall of a soft body. 
" The poor creature fell to the ground with a soss." Soss, 
plump down. " He cam doon soss." 

SOSS, to lap like a dog. Soss, a call of dogs to their meat. 


SOTTER, a cluster of pustules or pimples. " A setter o' scabs." 

SOTTER, the noise of the steam bubbles in boiling pottage. 
Hodgson MS. Sotter, to gurgle in boiling. " It's sotterin an' 

SOUGH, SOUF, the sound or sigh of wind as heard in passing 
through trees or a crevice. The phrase, " Keeping a calm 
sough," means being careful of what you say. 

" Hear ye the sough o' the wind, gude man ? " 

Ballad, The Ill-matched Pair. 

SOUGH, SOUGHEAD, an adit level for draining a coalmine. 

11 Horizontal tunnels which were variously termed adits, watergates, 
soughs, surfs, &c." Galloway, History of Coal Mining, 1882, p. 25. 

SOUR-CAKE, a cake made of rye, which was leavened until 
it gained a considerable degree of acidity, and made up about 
an inch and a half or two inches thick, and baked on a girdle. 

SOUR-DOCKEN, the small dock, Rumex acetosa, L. Often 
chewed for its pleasant acid taste. 

SOUR-MILK, buttermilk. 


SOUSE, the ear; properly that of a pig. Hence souse, a dish 
composed of pig's ears, etc., fried. Brochtt. 

SOW [N.] , a long stack. " A bean sow" a stack of beans thus 

SOW- AN '-PIGS, a mason's hammer with five or six points let 
into the end, used in flat dressing the face of a stone. Where 
one chisel point only is let into each end the hammer is called 
a "bitch and pups," and in this form it is used for what is 

, technically called "scabbling" the surface. 

SOWANS, SOWENS, a dish made from the seeds or inner 
husks of oats, which are soaked in water till they begin to 
turn sour. The water is then strained off and they are 
steeped again in fresh water. This process is repeated a 
third time, and then the sowens are boiled and ready to eat. 
Fish liquor with a little salt is often used in preparing this 
dish. It is common in Scotland, Northumberland, and North 
Cumberland. In some parts it goes by the name of chimins 
and is differently prepared. 

SOWIE-SOWIE, the call to sheep. 

SOW-KILN, an ancient limekiln, formed by scooping out a 
circular hollow on a hill side with one side of the circle open 
to the fall of the hill. To retard combustion, sods were laid 
over the charges of limestone and fuel. No masonry or 
building was used in this primitive kiln, which was also 
called a bole. Compare BOLE-HILLS. 

SOWM-CHEYN, a chain used in horse harness. A plough 
chain. See SOAM. 

SOWNEY, wet, damp, raw. 

"Sowmcy, oppressively close and damp." Nicholson, Folk Speech of 
East Yorkshire, 1889. 

SOWS-BRANKS, SWINE-BRANKS, an arrangement of 
sticks strapped across the necks of swine to prevent their 
passage through a hedge gap. 

SOW-SILLER, money unworthily procured. 
SOW-THRISTLE, the sow thistle, Sonchus oleraceus, L. 

SPAAD, to stretch, or spread, or splay out. Applied to the 
chevrons of a roof in which the tie-beam is set too high to 
counteract the outward thrust. " Aa doot she'll spaad" See 


SPADES, the Polygonum convolvulus, L. Called spades from the 
shape of the leaf. Johnston, Botany of the Eastern Borders, 
P- 173- . . 

SPADGER, SPAG, SPRUG, SPUG, various names for the 
house sparrow, Passer domesticus, Brisson. 

SPAE, to interpret, to foretell. 

" She'll tell ye a lot o' nonsense ta begin wi', an" spae yer fortune by 
,. yer ban!." James Armstrong, Crossing the Cheviots, 1879. 

SPAIL [N.] , a chip, a splinter of wood. See SPYEL. 

SPAIT, SPATE (pron. 'speyet) [S.] , SPYET [T.] , a flood, a 
sudden fresh on the river. See SPEAT. 

" Tears in spa-its fa' fast frae her e'e." 

Ballad, Jock o 1 the Syde. 

SPAK-UP, replied. "A man spak-up." ' Aa spak for ye " 
. interceded for you. 

SPALDER, to spread abroad loosely. To splay out, as beams 
do that are not " tied " at the bottom. Spaldert, thrust apart. 

SPAN, a newly-weaned, and thus an ill-tempered child. " Aa 
nivver saa sic a span as that bairn is." Compare SPEAN. 

SPANCEL, a fetter, especially a rope to tie a cow's hinder 

SPANE, to wean. See SPEAN. 

SPANG, a bounding leap ; to bound, to leap with a spring. 
" He garred it spang alang." " He spanged ower the yett like 
a three 'eer aad." " He gans spangin aboot " goes bounding 

SPANG-AND-PURLEY-Q, a mode resorted to by boys of 
measuring distances, particularly at the game of marbles. 
It means a space and something more. Brockett. 

SPANGHEW, to strike with violence, to beat severely. To 
spanghew toads, etc., is to set them on a flat stick, balanced 
across a fulcrum, and to strike the end so as to jerk the 
victim high into the air. A cruel boys' trick. 

"'Then aw spang-hew'd him weel, the gobby young cull, 
But he danced like an imp full o' glee." 

E. Corvan, d. 1865, Astrilly's Goold Fields. 


SPANGLES, spots of white spar found embedded in stratified 
rocks. See SPARKLE. 

SPANG-NEW, brand new. Compare SPLEET-NEW. 
SPANISH-JUICE, liquorice sticks. 

SPANKER-EEL, the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, Yarrell. 
Called also tamper and ramper-eel. 

SPAN NY, ill-natured, spiteful. " A poor spanny sort o' a 
bairn." See SPAN. 

SPAR, any rock substance with a crystalline appearance. Coal 
is thus, when it occurs in bright particles, called "coal spar." 

SPAR, a contention ; applied to a wrangling argument. 
" Them twee nivver meets but thor's a spar atwixt them." 
Spar, to argue, to dispute. Compare SPURN. 

SPAR, a rafter. In old houses these are often unsquared poles 

SPAR, SPARE, SPEAR, to bar or fasten a door. " Spare the 
yett," "Spare the door*," are still in common use. The term 
originates in the heavy oaken beam, bar, or spar used for the 

SPARBILL, a small, square, headless nail, used in the soles 
of boots and shoes. Sparrow-bills, the large kind of similar 
nails, used for heels of boots, are known as bills simply. 

SPARE, in mining, a wooden wedge, six to eight inches long 
by six inches broad, and from one inch thick tapering on one 
side to the end. Used in cribbing or tubbing, and driven in 
between a " baff-end" and the crib or tubbing plates. 

SPARK, a small spot of mud. " Thor's sparks aall ower yor 
claes." Spark, to spatter with spots. " The coach gan past 
sparkt us." 

SPARKLES, small specks of spar or glittering material in 
stratified rocks. Also called spangles. 

" Black stone with sparkles of coal at top." Borings and Sinkings, L.R., 
p. 79. 

SPARLIE, peevish. Halliwell. Compare SPANNY. 
SPARLIN, the smelt, Osmerus eperlanus, so-called in Newcastle, 


SPARROW-DRIFT, very fine or dust shot. 

SPART, SPRET, the rush. "The grun's varry sparty here 

"Spret, spretty-grasses, a general term for the succulent products of the 
meadow or bog land, but chiefly for the different rushes (juncus) which 
are cut for bog hay." Sir W. Elliot, Hist, of Bivks. Nat. Club, vol. viii., 
P- 453. * 

" There is not much danger of lairing where sprats grow abundantly." 
Johnston, Botany of Eastern Borders, p. 199. 

SPARTLE, a wooden spatula about the size and shape of the 
flat hand, used by thatchers for raising up old thatch in order 
to insert fresh wisps in repairing the roof. 

SPATCHEL, SPETCHEL, turf used in bedding stone. A 
"stone and spetchel" dike is one made of stones laid in 
horizontal rows with a bed of thin turf between each of them. 
Hodgson MS. 

SPATE, SPEAT, a sudden flood in a river. A heavy shower 
of rain. See SPEAT. 

SPATTLE, a plough spade. See PADDLE. 

SPAUGHT, a fellow almost at his growth. (Obs.) 

" Sir, here's a spaught that came fra Taunton." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious 
Discourse, 1686, p. 42. 

SPAULD, a limb. 

" We killed a ewe last night, an' dye, she was a rook ! she ran out of 
the house after feyther had the spaulds cut off her." Richardson, Table 
Book, Legendary Div., vol. i., 1842, p. 107. 

SPAULINS, the smaller pieces filling in the core of a dry wall. 
SPEACE, the curlew. [Holy Island.] See WHAUP. 
SPEAL, a chip of wood. See SPYEL. 

SPEAN, SPYEN, SPANE, to wean, to deprive of the mother's 
milk. " The bairn was spean'd last week." Speaned, weaned. 

" Young corn is said to be speaned when the saccharine, milky juice 
of its grain is exhausted, and it is obliged to depend on the nutriment 
collected by its own roots." Brockett. 

SPEAR, a spar, a wooden bar ; in mining, a pumping rod, 
made of Memel or pitch pine, etc. " Wet-spears " are those 
which, working within a column of pumps, are constantly 
immersed in water. " Dry-spears " are those which pass down 


to the top of each set. Greetiwell. Spear-plates, flat plates of 
iron used for joining the ends of two spears together. The 
spear is connected with the bucket by an iron rod called the 
" bucket-sword." Compare SPARE. 

SPEAT, SPEET, SPAIT, SPATE, a sudden freshet or river 
flood ; a heavy torrent of rain. " It com on a reg'lar speat o 
rain just efter we left." 

"The word speet, meaning a spout, or torrent, or, as they say, a great 
downpour of rain, is an old Northumberland expression, which Turner, 
after long absence from the county, had not forgotten ; for he mentions 
a kind of cress which grew ' in such places as great heapes of stones are 
casten together wyth the myght of a great spat or floode,' in the river 
Wansbeck." Herbal, second part, "Collen," 1562 (for 1568), fo. 35. 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 112, n. (See also pt. ii., vol. ii., 
p. 460, col. ii.) 

SPECKLED-DIVER, the young of the red-throated diver, 
Colynibus sepientrionalis, L. The adult 'bird is called the loon or 

SPEEL, SPEAL, to climb, to mount, to move with agility. 
" He speeled the tree like a cat." 

" Ower his arm hung a basket thus onward he speels ; 
And enter 'd Newcassel wi' Cap at his heels." 

W. Midford, Cappy, 1818. 

SPEETHE, the common godwit, Limosa rufa, Brisson. 

SPEIR, SPEER, to ask, to inquire. " He speered aboot it afore 
ye cam." 

"Ye speer the gate ye kenn right-weel." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious 
Discourse, 1686, p. 14. 

SPEKNEL, an aromatic plant, Mettm athamanticum, Jacq. 
Called also houka. In Baker's Flora, 1868, it is said to have 
been then recently gathered near Thockrington. 

" I neuer sawe thys herbe in Englande sauynge once at Saynte 
Oswaeldes [near Hexham] , where as the inhabiters called it fpeknel" 
Turner, Herbal, 1548. 

" I saw it also growyng in Newcastel in a gardin in greate plenty, 
where as I learned that it was called spicnel." The same, edition of 1551 

SPELK, a small splinter. " Aw've getten a sfelk i' my hand." 
Applied, like lath and similar words, to describe a very thin 
person. " Nobbut a bit spelk ov a chep." " He's shrunk tiv 
a spelk" See SPILE and SPYEL. 

" Spelk, in Northumberland, a sfelck is any swath, or roller, or band." 
Kennett MS., quoted Ha lliwell. 


SPENCE, an inner apartment, a country parlour. Brocket*. 
In a house of two apartments, the outer or "but" end was 
the kitchen or general living room; and the "ben" end was 
the spence. 

SPENCER, a corner. In a keel it is applied to a corner of the 
sheet or sail ; also to a corner in the huddock or cabin. 

SPENDERLY, spindly, slim, slender. " He's a little spenderly 


SPICE, gingerbread, or the admixture of currants with 
any food. Spice-cake, currant cake. Spice-dumplin, currant 
dumpling. Spice-kail, broth with currants in it. Spice-loaf, 
rich, Christmas loaf. Spice-nuts, gingerbread nuts. Spice-wig, 
a tea-cake with currants. Spicy-flzzer, a cake almost black 
with currants, baked upon a girdle. 

" Spiced, wigs prevail on Sunday, and the singing hinney makes its 
appearance on grand occasions." Wilson, Coal Miners of Durham and 
Northumberland. Trans. Tyneside Field Club, vol. vi., p. 206. 

"A good specye suet keayk." 

T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 13. 

SPIDERT, SPYTHER, a spider. 

" It is very unlucky to kill a spider. On the other hand, if a spider 
happens to get upon your clothes, it is lucky to let it crawl all over you 
and get away safe. Even to shake it off is a mistake." Brockie, Legends 
and Superstitions, 1886, p. 139. 

SPILE, a wooden pile, a splinter of wood. To drive foundation 
piles. Spile-driver, a pile-driver. "Thor's a spile run into ma 
finger." The peg used in ale casks. A spile-wedge is a half- 
wedge, that is, a wedge tapering on one side only. Compare 

SPINK, the goldfinch or gold spink, Carduelis elegans, Stephens. 

" A casual visitor in our district, met with only occasionally, in autumn 
and winter." Hancock, Birds of Northumberland, p. 52. 

SPINKS, the lady smock or meadow bittercress, Cardamine 
pratensis, L. Called also pinks, bog spinks, and cuckoo flower. 

SPINNEY-WYE, a boys' game in which a "side" goes out 
and seeks concealment ; the pursuers then start forth, calling 

out " Spinney '-wye ." 


SPINNLE, SPINEL; in spinning terms four hanks make a 
spinnle, and twelve cuts are a hank or " slip," and so many 
threads make a cut. These terms are now unknown save to 
old people. A spinning-wheel is a curiosity. 

SPINNLE, to grow spindley, to shoot upwards more rapidly 
than the strength of stem can support. Spinnelt, overgrown, 
grown tall and weakly, like a plant for want of light. Compare 

SPIRE, to attenuate. A tree or plant which shoots out in 
length and not proportionately in breadth is said to spire. 

" To spire, to grow up to an ear as corn does." New World of Words, 

SPIREY, SPIRY, SPIRIN, dry and cold^pining, ungenial. 
4< A spiry wind," a wind that dries the moisture up rapidly. 
" Spiry weather." " The rose tree 's deed. Ye see aa planted 
it i' spiry weather." " It's a fine spirey day." " What spirin 
weather ; thor's not a bit o' spring on the grass, an' thor's 
nowt grouin." 

11 March weather is often spyry (that is) harsh, angry, and ungenial." 
Hodgson MS. 

SPIT, a tool used by drainers, in form like a long and very 
narrow spade. Hence the depth of a drain cut is described 
as one spit or two spit deep. 

SPIT, or SPIT AN' IMAGE, likeness. Applied either to a 
person or thing. " He's the varry spit an 1 image on his fethor." 
" The twee boxes wis one just the spit an' image o' the tother." 

SPIT, to drizzle intermittently. Spittin t falling in occasional 
drops or driblets ; applied to rain or snow when it falls in 
intermittent drops or flakes. " It's spittin on." 

SPIT, spittle. In the boys' game of " bedstocks " a capture is 
immediately followed by the captor spitting over the head of 
his prisoner, after which no escape is attempted until the 
bay is reached. 

" Boys have a custom (inter se) of spitting their faith, or as they also 
call it here, their saul ' (soul), when required to make asseverations in a 
matter of consequence. In combinations of the colliers, &c. , in the North, 
for the purpose of raising their wages, they are said to spit upon a stone 
together, by way of cementing their confederacy. We have, too, a kind 
of popular saying, when persons are of the same party, or agree in 
sentiment, ' They spit upon the same stone.' " Brand, Observations on 
Popular Antiquities, Newcastle, 1777, p. 101, n. 

SPLAICE, SPLAYS, the plaice, Platessa vulgaris, Yarrell. 


SPLAIRGE, to splatter. Halliwell. 

SPLATTER, PLATTER, a splash and splutter. 

" Then he jumped on to fetch her, my eyes ! what a splatter, 
Ne grunstan wes there, for he fund it wes waiter." 

W. Armstrong, Floatin Grunstan. 

Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 219. 

SPLATTER-FYECED, platter-faced. Compare DISH- 


SPLAUTCH, to let a soft substance fall heavily, applied to 
its impingement with the floor. Halliwell. 

SPLEET-NEW [N.] , brand new. 
SPLET-LINK, a split-pin or cotteril. 

SPLET-RASIN, a niggardly person. Often applied to a small 
dealer so exact in his transactions as to split a raisin in order 
to give exact weight. 

SPLINT, a defence for the leg. See SHIN-SPLINTS. 

SPLINT, SPLENT [N.] , a splinter, a flake of stone. A hard, 
stony coal ; a bituminous shale, intermediate between cannel 
coal and common coal. 

SPLISH-SPLASH, in a splashing manner. " Dinna come on 
splish-splash like that." Splishy -splashy, wet, dropping and dank 
with rain. See PLISH-PLASH. 

SPLIT, a division of the main ventilating current in a pit. 
" Splitting the air," dividing the air in a mine into different 
portions, each ventilating a separate district. 

SPOACH (often spoken as sproach), to pick up unconsidered 
trifles. "He's elways gan spoachin aboot." Spoacher, a 

SPOONE, SPONNE, SPUNE, probably sarking for a roof. 

"'1606. Itm. paied for my pt of iiii hundrethe and a half of spoone 
viis. vid.' ' Itm paied for caryeing the spune in to the churche iid.' 
Itm. paied for caryeing the spune in to the church and pylling it iid.' 
For layinge on of the sponne vs.' 'For 120 sponne xiiiis.' Nayles to 
lay on the sponne with is.' " Ryton Church Books. 

SPOUT, SPOOT, a large shoot for shipping coal. Coal 
loading places are called the staiths or the spouts. 


SPOWEY, the house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Known also 
as spadger, spag, spmg, and spug. 

SPRACKLE, to climb, to clamber. Brocket*. 

SPRAG, a short, strong bar of wood. A sprag is used instead 
of a break in a wheel. It is also the name of a short prop 
used by pitmen for keeping up the coal during the work of 
kirving. To insert a wedge or chock. To spmg the jud in a 
coal mine is to wedge it up securely. To sprag a waggon is 
to insert a chock through the wheel spokes till it projects and 
jams against the frame of the waggon, and thus stops the 
revolution of the wheel. 

SPRAG, lively, active, ingenious. Brockett. See SPRUNT. 

SPRAT, SPROT, the rush. See SPART and RISP-GRASS. 

"Spreats, sprats, such long grass as is grown in watery places." 
Hodgson MS. 

SPRAT-BARLEY, a kind of barley with a flat ear and very 
long beards, Hordeum vulgare, L. See BATTLE-DOOR and BEAR. 

SPRECKLED, speckled, spotted. Spreckley t spotted. " A 
spreckley hen." 

SPREED, to spread. A spreed, an entertainment, literally a 
spread board. 

SPREET, the boom, a long pole used to spread or stretch the 
sail of a wherry. 

SPRENT, the eyes into which the bolt of a chest-lock passes 
when locked. Also " the steel spring on the back of a clasp- 
knife.' ' Halliwell. 

SPRENT, to sprinkle, to splash. " Yo'r sprentin the watter aal 
ower the place." 

SPRING, a dance tune. 

" Take a Spying of thine awn Fiddle." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse t 
1686, p. 27. 

SPROACH, to seek or hunt about. See SPOACH. 

SPROWL, to tramp down. 

SPRUG, SPUG, the house sparrow. See SPADGER. 


SPRUNT, SPRY, smart, spruce. 

" Thou can get on thee sister's shoun and ony thing else of her claiths ; 
and mheyk thee sell leuk varra sprunt wouth them." T. Bewick, The 
Upgetting, edition 1850, p. 13. 

SPUNK, a spark, a match, touchwood. " Thor's not a spunk i* 
the grate." " Gi's a spunk" give me a match. Spunk was 
specially applied to the thin splint of wood tipped with 
sulphur, formerly used to obtain a flame from tinder, and 
till recently sold on market days in Newcastle by street 

SPUNK, a poor diminutive person. " He's a wee spunk o' a 

SPUNK, pluck, stamina, energy. " He hes nee spunk at a'." 
SPURGIN-LAUREL, the spurge laurel, Daphne lanreola, L. 

wheel rut. " Cairt spyrrins" cart ruts. " Keep oot o' the 
spurlin " (addressed to a cartman, cautioning him to keep out 
of the ruts). " Clip the spurlin" keep clear of the old ruts 
by driving the horse with his feet upon each rut alternately, 
so that the wheels may close and level the ruts again. 

SPURN, a contention, a fight. (Obs.) 

" This was the hontynge off the Cheviat ; 

That tear began this spurn : 
Old men that knowen the grounde well yenoughe, 

Call it the Battell of Otterburn. 
At Otterburn began this spume, 
Uppon a monnyn day." 

Chevy Chase. 

SPURT, a short-lived commotion. 

" A bit of spurt was mhead about them for a whyle after they deed ; 
deeth cam to them at last, an' they, leyke other fwoak, were seun 
forgotten." T. Bewick, The Upgetting, edition 1850, p. 14. 

SPYAIN, SPYEN, to wean. See SPEAN. 

SPYEL [S.] , a chip or splinter of wood. " Aa's just getten a 
few spyels for the mornin's fire." Spyels or spails are usually 
chips from an axe cut. Spyel-basket, a basket made of wooden 
spails, oak preferred, for carrying food to cattle on a farm. 

SPY-FARLEY, a marvel-monger, one who sees and retails 
wonderful tales ; an inquisitive person. " He's a spy-farley" 

SPY-GLASS, SPYIN-GLASS, a telescope. 


SQUAAK [S.], SQUACK [N.], to cry out. In playing 
"Hunt the hare" boys shout : "Squack, squeak, or squallow ; 
else the dogs '11 no' follow." 

SQUAB, a crab apple. The tree, Pyvus mains, L., is called a 
squab tree or scrab-apple tree. 

SQUAB, a young nestling crow. 

SQUAB, SWAB, a soft stuffed cushion or stool. 

SQUEALER, the swift, Cypselus apus, L. Called also the 
screamer and black martin. 

SQUINCHES, the quinsy. 

SQUINSHER, an extinguisher for a candle. 

SQUINT, a peep, a glimpse (not associated with obliquity or 
defect of vision). " Tyek a squint." " Let's hev a squint at 
the papers." 

STA, STOW, to surfeit. Start d, surfeited. " We gat hard 
dumplin till we war staa'd on't." " A'm fairly start d o' broth." 

STA, STAA, STAW, an annoyance, a nuisance. " He's a 
fair staw." 

STAA, STAW, a stall. " Put the powney inti the staa." 
Staa-fed, fed by hand ; hence pampered. " He's staa-fed or he 
waddent be see saacy." 

STAAP, STAUP, to stamp the feet, to walk in an ungainly 
fashion. " What are ye deein, staapin an' kevellin on there ?" 
" He staups an' stares aboot." Compare STEBBLE. Staapin, 
awkward in gait. " What a staapin waaker that lass is." 

STACKER, to stagger. Stackery, unsteady. " Stackerin like a 
drucken man." 

" Up stackend Larty for a blow." 

J. P. Robson, Hamlick, Prince o' Denton. 

STACK-TOPPIN, the ornamental terminal of plaited straw 
which surmounts a corn stack. 

STAFF-ENDS, the ends of the ropes of a fishing net. 

STAFF-HERD, to depasture. 

" It is agreed, That if it shall happen the cattel or sheep of the one 
Realm to be staff-herded, or to remain depasturing upon the ground of the 
opposite Realm," etc. Treaty dated 1563. Leges Marchianim, 1705, 
p. 138. 


STAG, STAIG, the young of a male animal. Applied to a 
year's old stallion, to a young unbroken horse, to a young 
righting cock, and to a gander. A gelded bull is also called a 
staig. See STEG. 

STAGARTH, a stack garth or stack yard. 

" O th 1 way fra our hoose te Roaffi's staggarth deyke." 

T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

STAGING, standing quite upright. Northumberland. 


STAGNATIT, dumbfounded. 

11 Stagnate, to astonish. ' I'll stagnate her wi' my story.' " Brockett. 

" Kame Wully stood stagnatit." 

J. Armstrong, Tarsetearian Fox, 1879. 

STAIG-WIDDY, a man whose wife has become invalided or 
laid aside from any cause. 

STAIRS, A. PAIR OF, a staircase with two landings. A 
pairs of stairs is often spoken of, however, when only a straight 
flight of steps is meant. Compare the expressions, "pair of 
drawers" for a chest of drawers ; "pair of cards,'' a pack of 
cards; "pair of bellows'" for a bellows; and the old form, 
"pair of organs" for an organ. 

" Stair-heed, the landing of a staircase." Brockett. 

STAITH (pronounced steeth), an elevated platform at the 
waterside from which coals are shipped by a spout or drop. 
Also called a dyke. Staithman, Steethman, the man who 
overlooks the shipping of coals ; sometimes called the 
offputter. He takes account of all coal shipped and of the 
arrangements necessary for the despatch and arrival of the 
trains of coal waggons at the staith. 

STAKE. See STYEK and following words. 

STALE, a march in order of battle. (Obs.) 

"'I come wt a stale to a place called the Dungyon a myle from 
Jedworth.' ' My brother Sir Cristofer wt two thousand horseman and 
three hundred futeman with bowes for savegard of the host in strayts 
come in a stale to Dykerawa.'" Thomas Dacre to Henry VIII., 1513. 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 160, n. 

STALL, to choke Northumberland. Wright's Gloss. See STA. 
" Staul, Stall, to fill to a loathing, to surfeit." Brockett. 

STAMP, a hole made with a pick for the insertion of a wedge 
in a bed of coal or stone. 


STANCHEL, STAINCHEL, a stanchion. An iron window 
bar, hinge hook, or iron let into stone. 

" Paide for 4 iron stanchels, with hookes on them for the hinging of the 
semynaries 4 quarters of 4 yattes, 33. 2d." Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 
August, 1592. 

" Paide for fier and coles for melting the lead to set the iron stanchels 
of the yate fast, 8d. M The same. 

" 1643. Pd. for a band for the Ankeresh dore and a stanshatt for the 
windowe and sodering and nayles, 2S." Gateshead Church Books. 

STAND, STAN, to cost, to run or reckon up to. 

" These ten horses must at least in these parts stand you in six or seven 
pounds a piece.' 1 J. C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 33. 

STANDAGE, a reservoir or space for water to accumulate in 
a pit during the suspension of a pumping engine from work. 

STANDEE, the former name for a pillar or support of coal. 

" He shall so work the mines as he leave standers for the upholding of 
the grounds thereof." Award 2ist October, 1605. Wei ford, History of 
Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 170. 

STANDING in the following words is always pronounced 
stannin. Standing -Bobby, Standing-shot, or Blown-out-shot , a 
blasting charge of gunpowder which has exploded in its place 
but has only resulted in blowing out the stemming of the 
charge instead of blasting the coal or stone. See also FAST- 
SHOT. Standing-corf, the first corf a hewer produces. Standing- 
fire, ignition of the solid coal in a pit. Standing -gauge, a lath 
or piece of wood cut to a certain size to work to. Standing- 
lift, as much as a man can lift straight up from the ground. 
Standing-lowe, a* candle left in a position in a pit so as to be 
beyond the reach of accident. Standing-pie heel or Stannin-pie 
heel, the bottom crust of a standing pie. It is esteemed a 
delicacy from being saturated with the gravy. Standing-set, 
in mining, the fixed, as distinguished from the adjustable, or 
sinking, set of pumps. In sinking with pumps when the 
sinking-set has become of sufficient length, the top standing-set 
is placed in a cistern and pumps to bank the water delivered 
into it by the sinking-set continued downwards with the 
sinking. Greenwell. Standing-set bunion, the beam on which 
rests the cistern above-mentioned. Standing-stone, an unhewn 
monolith set up in pre-historic times. Many of these occur 
in Northumberland. "Standing Stone" is the name of a house 
near Matfen, so-called from a neighbouring monolith. 

STANDISHER, STANDART, one of standing. The ''Old 
standishers " old inhabitants. 


STANG, STING, a pole, a post, a piece of timber, a shaft, a 
rai], the side piece of a ladder, a stump. " Cairt stangs," the 
beam and "limmers" or shafts of a cart. "Gap stang," a 
loose rail laid across a gap in a hedge, serving the office of a 
gate. The pole of the old "drees" used in Northumberland 
was called a stang. " The stang of a tyuth " the stump of a 

"Feb. loth, 1668. John Bolam for not carrying Clem. Browne to 
church, but giving the stang to another fined 135. 46." Smiths' 
Company of Newcastle. Brand, vol. ii., 1789, p. 319, n. 

STANG, STANK [W.-T.] , a sting. "The stang o' a bee." 
Also a sharp shooting pain, especially the sudden spasm of 
pain felt in toothache. Stang, to sting, to prick. Stang, stob, 
and steek are all used for the action implied by thrusting in a 
pointed instrument. Compare STANGY, a tailor ; STOB-MAT, 
and STEEK, 2. 

STANGER, STANG-FISH, the lesser weever, Trachinus 

vipera, Cuvier. 

" The fishermen consider the wound inflicted by the dorsal spines of 
this little fish dangerous, and bathers are often injured in the foot by 
treading on the raised spine of the fish lying buried in the sand." 
Howse, Nat. Hist. Trans., vol. x., 1890, p. 347. 

STANGIN-ETHER, the dragon fly. See FLEEIN-ETHER. 

STANGY, a tailor. Formerly a common term in Newcastle, 
where the shoemakers and tailors, congregated within the 
Castle Garth, were always called " snobs and stangies." 

" Noo run away amang the snobs 
And stangies i 1 the Garth, man." 

R. Emery, The Owl, 1826. 

STANK, an embankment lor damming back water. Stank, to 
build a weir or dam. " To stank the water course." " Hawden 
Stank," a place of meeting on the Borders in former times. 
" Stank Well," a place-name near Harlow Hill. " The 
S tanks," a pool behind the walls at Berwick. " Stank Tower," 

" Theyr was a great stank cast of other syd " (of the Roman Wall) 
Sir Christopher Ridley, letter A.D. 1572, quot Hodgson, Northumberland, 
vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 273. 

"The stank or wear of their water mill." The same, vol. ii., pt. ii., 
p. 309, n. 

STANK, to sigh, to moan, to gasp for breath. Brockett. 


STANNERS, margins of river beds covered by flood deposits 
of stones and gravel. " The S tanners " occur on the west side 
of the Coquet at Warkworth and on the south side of the 
Tyne at Corbridge. "High" and " Low Stanners" are two 
parcels of unenclosed ground on the Wansbeck. " Stanners- 
burn," a hamlet in North Tynedale. " Stannerton," the local 
name for the village of Stamfordham. 

STAP, a cask stave. " A'll tyeak a stap oot o' yor bicker" 
lessen your allowance. " Bicker," a wooden crowdy bowl, 
originally built up of staps. " He's gyean a' te staps " the 
ultimate condition of a drunkard or a spendthrift ; that is, he 
has gone all to pieces like a broken barrel. 

STAP. See STOP, i. 

STAPLE, STAPPLE, STAPEL, a well, a small pit-shaft, 
an underground pit or a shaft within a pit, sunk from one 
seam to another. A " blind pit " or staple is often thus sunk 
within a mine itself to connect two seams, or for exploratory 
purposes where a slip-dike is encountered. " Counter-balance 
staple" a small pit sunk from the surface for a balance weight 
to work in. A "jack-head staple" is sunk for the jack-head 
or high set of pumps to work in when the pumping engine 
has a back beam. 

" With sinking staples and driving drifts, 
You're often put to all your shifts." 

John Adley, song, The Coal Trade, 1818. 

STAR, the pupil of the eye. "A star in the eye," a cataract. 
STARE, STARN, a star. 

STAR-GRASS, the woodruff, Aspemla odorata, L. Gathered 
by housewives, dried, and laid in linen chests for its sweet 
scenting properties. 

STARKEN, to become stiff in consistency, to cause to stiffen. 
Starch is mixed till it starkens. To starken an egg is to boil 
it till it stiffens. Starkent, strengthened ; a term used by 
shepherds for young lambs that are becoming strong enough 
to skip about. " Th'or gettin starkent a bit, an' beginnin ti 
play." See STORKENED. 

STARKIN, quick ; as, " He's going at a starkin pace." 

STARN, a particle, a very little quantity. " He cannot see 
a starn " cannot see even a little (said of a person who 
sees badly or not at all). "Not a starn" not a little bit. 
Compare STIME. 


STARRISH, powerful ; as medicine that is too much for the 
strength of the patient. Brockett. 

START, the lever or beam to which the horse is yoked in a 
threshing machine or a colliery gin. " Double start gin," one 
with two yokes or levers. " Single start gin," one with a 
single pole. When the beam is overhead the yokes which 
depend are called starts. When the horse is yoked in front 
(not under), then the beam itself is called the start. Compare 
STEEL, i. 

STARTIN-MONEY, money paid to a hewer when called upon 
to " put," conditional upon putting at least a score of tubs of 
coals. Nicholson, Glossary of Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

STATION, in a colliery, a place where a caution board has 
been fixed. Beyond it no person is allowed to take a candle, 
lantern, naked light, tobacco pipe, or material or apparatus 
for obtaining a light. The term is also applied to the place 
where tubs are taken by the horses from the barrowman or 
putter. Compare FLAT and CRANE. 

STAUP, the stave of a cask. See STAP. 
STAUP, to walk awkwardly. See STAAP. 

STAVIES, STOVIES, potatoes cooked in a "yetlin" over the 
fire. " Hey ! lass, is the stavies no ready yit ?" See STOVE. 


STAY [N.] , steep. Compare STEE. 

" Set a stoot heart tiv a stay brae." Proverb. 

STEAD, a place. See STEED. 
STEADLE, a hay-fork. See STEEL, i. 

STEADLE, STEIDEL, STYEDDLE, a portion of a stack 
begun and left unfinished on account of wet or other causes ; 
or the part left standing after a portion has been carried into 
the barn. 

" StadMe, the bottom of a corn or haystack, a mark left in the grass by 
the long continuance of the hay in bad weather." Bvockett, 

STEAHYN [W.-T.] , a stone. See STONE. 

STEALY-CLAES, a boys' game similar to " Scotch and 


STEAR, a stir, a confused bustle. Steary, probably a related 

" The clerk made a great bustle and stear." 

The Midford Galloway's Ramble. 

Northumberland Garland, 1793, pt. ii. 
" She laid on whisky -whasky, and held like a steary." 
Sawney Ogilby's Duel. 

Northumberland Garland, p. 208. 

STEAVE, STEEVE, firm, stout. " A steeve fellow." Steavin, 
strong, stiff. " Tell muthor te myek us a good steavin fat 
crowdy." Compare STIVE, i. 

STEBBLE, STEVEL, to stagger, to go about with an 
uncertain step or in an awkward fashion. See STEVEL. 

STECH, to fill to repletion. Compare STIVE, 2. 
" May ye ne'er want flesh an' kail 
To stech your wame." 

Donaldson, Poems, 1809, p. 127. 

STEE, a ladder used as a stair- in farm houses. The servants' 
attic rooms in old houses are usually reached by a stee from 
the kitchen. 

" The means of communication is by a short ladder or stee, as it is 
styled in those parts (Tindale), usually occupying a prominent position 
in the midst of the floor." Richardson, Table Book, Leg. Div., vol. ii., 
p. 252. 

STEED, STEDE, STEAD, STID, place, a dwelling place. 
" Dunston Steads." Stead, in place-names, is synonymous 
with biggin. Thus Newstcad, near Bamburgh, occurs as 
" Novum Locum qui dicitur Newbigginge" in a charter dated 
A.D. 1230. Nostell Cartulary, folio 121 b (Batesori). Forty- 
three place-names occur in Northumberland with stead in 
combination. Steedin, Steading, a building ; the same as 
steed, but generally applied to a group of farm or other 
buildings, or to a hamlet. Steed is in constant use in such 
expressions as "door -steed," doorway ; "fire-steed," a fireplace ; 
"farm-steed" or " ste^-hoose," a farm place (or building); 
" on-steed," a place built on (to a main building) ; " midden- 
s'," the place for a midden or ash-pit; " heap-steed," the 
place where a pit heap stands. A "steed (or stead) horse " is 
a horse employed upon a pit '* heap-steed. 1 ' 

STEEK, STICK, a strike or labour dispute. 

"Aug. 30, 1768, mention occurs of what is called a stick in the 
language of tlie coal trade, that is, a combination among the keelmen of 
Newcastle." Brand, History of Newcastle, vol. ii., 1789, p. 309, n. 

" The pitmen about to make a stick for higher wages," 1825. 
Mackenzie, History of Northumberland, vol. i., p. 209. 

" Strike, a more general cessation from labour than implied by stick." 
Greenwell, Glossary, 1849. 


STEEK, STEAK, STREEK, STIK, a stitch in sewing, a 
loop in knitting. " He let down the steeks in the stockings " 
undid the loops on the needles. " To keep steeks," to be able 
to compete; a comparison taken from tailors sewing together. 
Steek, Stick, to stab, to prick, to stick or push in. " To stick a 
pig," to cut its throat. 

"Wight-Wallace could hardly have with her kept steaks" 
T. Whittel, Sawney Ogilby's Duel. 

Northumberland Garland, 1793, p. 208. 

" A steek in time saves nine." Proverb. 

" Ahint their lugs, the Custom's sparks 

Ye see ne langer steekin 
Their idle pens." 

T. Wilson, Captains and the Quayside. 

STEEK, to shut, to fasten. " Steek the yet" shut the gate. 
" Steek the heck " fasten the door. Compare SPARE. 

" Steek the stable door when the steed's stowen." Newcastle proverb. 

STEEKER, a staff with an iron prong at the end, used for 
lifting turnips, etc. See JAGGER. 

STEEK-HAUD ! [N.] , take hold. Used to a dog in egging it 
on to fight. 

STEEKIN O' CLAY, a thin strake or infiltration of clay in a 
rock fissure. From this a candlestick is often improvised by 
using a soft piece of clay. 

STEEL, the handle of a rake; a common term in Allendale. 
The tiller or handle of a rudder was formerly called a steel or 
" start " ; and steel was formerly applied to the body of an 
arrow or shaft made of wood. 

STEEL, a steel-yard or weighing lever. 

" Never weigh honour on the steel." 

Seton's Sons. Minstrelsy of the English Border, p. 22. 

STEEL, the name applied to several rocks on the sea coast of 
Northumberland, as the "North" and "South Steel" at 
Coquet Island, etc. It also occurs in many inland place- 
names, as "Steel" or "The Steel" in Hexhamshire, at the 
extremity of the long point or tongue of land formed by the 
junction of the Rowley Burn with the Devil's Water. 

" Steel, in Liddesdale, the lower part of a ridge projecting from a hill, 
where the ground declines on each side." Jamieson. 


STEEL MILL, a disc of steel revolved by a set of multiplying 
gear turned by a handle. See quotation. 

" As the fire-damp would have instantly ignited at candles, they 
lighted their way by steel mills, small machines which give light by 
turning a plain thin cylinder of steel." The Felling Explosion, 1812, 

" Mr. Spedding, about the year 1760, devised the steel mill'' Taylor, 
Archeology of the Coal Trade, p. 203. 

STEEPIN, very wet ; applied to a rain which steeps every- 
thing. Brockett. 

STEEPLE, to raise up the fore part of the plough by pressing 
down the stilts. 

STEER, a young ox. Compare STIRK and STOT. A " stot '' 
was an unbroken ox ; a steer one broken to the yoke. 

" At three, he is called a three-year-old steer ; and at four he first takes 
the name of ox or bullock." George Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 17, 
and n. 

STEER, strong. " The parson hes a varry steer voice." 

" A knicht full stell was he and steer. 1 ' 

Halidon Hill. Minstrelsy of English Border, p. 39. 


STEG, a gander. The month of incubation is called the 
" steg month." "A fond steg" applied to a stupid fellow. 
Compare STAG. 

"The Elsdon folks, like diein stegs, 
At ivvery stranger stare ; 
And hather broth an' curlew eggs 
Ye'll get for supper there." 

Geo. Chatt, 1866, At Elsdon, p. 53. 

STELL, STILL, the water channel running through a marsh. 

" The members proceeded to Morden Carrs, where some rare plants 
and mollusks were obtained in the stells." Greenwell, Trans. Tyneside 
Nat. Field Club, vol. vi., p. 24. 

STELL, an enclosure for cattle ; generally a circular wall with 
a narrow opening at one side. " A caud stell." "Justweeor 
the gimmers doon intil the stell." 

STELL, the deeper part of a river where net fishing for salmon 
can be carried on. There are several stells on the river 
Tweed, as Abstell, Sandstell, Ellstell, Cutwaters^//, and 


Hallows^// (the last referred to in a writ of Bishop Flambard 
between 1099 and 1128 as Haliwareste//*). The abbot and 
convent of Dunfermline in 1480 claimed the fishing place 
called the Aldstelle on the Tweed given to them by David I. 
" S&//-net," a Tweedside fishing net. 

" Our present modes of fishing (excluding ' stake nets,' which are 
only of very recent origin) are by stell nets, wear, shot, and ring or bob 
nets. The wear shot net is rowed by means of a boat into the river in a 
circular form, and is immediately drawn to the shore. The stell is a net 
of a similar shape, and is likewise rowed into the river, but in a semi- 
circular shape." Weddell, Anhaologia JEliana, vol. iv., qto., p. 302. 

STELL, hard visaged, grim. See quotation under STEER, 2. 
STELLIN, STELLING, a cattle fold. See STELL, 2. 
STEM, to put a vessel on loading turn. See TURN. 

STEM, to tamp or fill the drill hole with clay or soft shale 
after the powder has been put in for blasting ; also to dam a 
stream of water. Stemmer, a brass or yellow-metal rod for 
ramming down the clay, etc., in a blast hole. It is used 
along with a pricker. Stemming, the stuff beaten down upon 
a charge of powder in a blast hole. Stemming -gear, the set 
of tools used for the purpose. 

STEM MEN, strength, pith, soundness of constitution. (Qy. 

STEND, a stick used by butchers to keep the breast of a 
carcase open. 

STEND, to stride, to walk with long strides. Brocket*. " To 
stend away," to step out, to walk away quickly. 


STENKRITH, the rush of water in a narrow channel 
Northumberland. Halliwell. 

STENT, STINT, an allowance of pasturage limited to the 
grazing of three sheep or one horse. Also a piece of work 
to be accomplished within a given time. The freemen of 
Newcastle are the stint holders of the Town Moor and Castle 
Leazes. A stent for cows formerly formed part of the hind's 
wages. Shepherds and hinds were principally paid in 
"kind." Men who could afford it were allowed to have two 
cows kept (with the usual allowance of corn) with pasturage 
in summer and hay and straw in winter. When found 


inconvenient by the farmer to have two cows, and one 
only was kept, then the hind was allowed a money payment 
in lieu of the keep, or stent, of one cow. This averaged $ 
yearly, and was called a " deef stent." Compare DEEF-STENT. 
Stent, to stint, to limit. " Aa's stented tiv an oor at dinner." 

STENTON, STENTIN, a passage between two headways in 
a pit through which the air circulates until another is holed 
further in-bye. Stenton-wall, the pillar of coal between two 
winning headways. Glossary Neivcastle Mining Terms, 1852. 

" Stentings are openings between two parallel headways, for the same 
use as walls." Mackenzie, Hist, of Northumberland, 1825, vol. i., p. 91. 

STEP, a walk; to walk. "Step over to Gateshead." Also a 
dance. * Let's hev a step." 

" Aw'll tyek a step ower te the Wear, 
And call at Tyne as aw come back." 

T. Wilson, The Shifting-day, 1852. 

STETCHELLED, crammed full. See STECH. 

STEUK, stuck, transfixed. 

" Dinna sit there leyke steuke and sit and say nowse" do not sit there 
as if transfixed. T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 13. 

STEVEL, STEBBLE, to stumble in walking, to stagger. 
" We stevell'd to the cabin." 

" Muzzy cheps as leyt frae town they stevel." 

T. Wilson, Oiling of Dicky's Wig, 1826. 

STEW, fuss, commotion, disorder, distraction. " She's hevin 
the whitewashers, an' sic a stew thor's on." " He wis iv a 
bonny stew " in great perturbation. 


STICKLER, an apron or " slip " worn by women to protect 
their gowns or dresses. 

STICKLER, a knotty point ; a thing difficult to solve. 
" That's a stickler" 

STICKLY, pen-feathered, starting up; as " Stickly i' the 

STICK-STACK, a stack of firewood. 

STICKY, having woody-fibre in sticks or layers ; stringy. 
Applied to vegetables, as celery, etc., when fibrous and 


STICKY-GRASS, the cock's-foot grass, Dactylis glomerata, L. 
Called also fox -foot. 

" As the leaf feels rough, and does not draw smoothly across the back 
of their little hands, children call the grass Stickey-grass ; and they use it 
to bleed each other in the tongue." Johnston, Botany of Eastern Borders, 
p. 216. 

STICKY-STACK [N.] , a game played with a wood pin, the 
object being by running up the cut side of a haystack to 
stick it highest. See also TWIKES. 

STIFE, a choking fume. A variant of stythe. 
STILL-AN-ON, notwithstanding, nevertheless. 

STILLER, a float placed on the surface of the water in a 
skeel to prevent the contents from labbering over when the 
vessel is carried on the head. The stiller is commonly a flat 
piece of board. Sometimes a wooden trencher or a wooden 
bowl is used. 

STILLING, the walling of a pit shaft within the tubbing 
above the stone head. Gresley, Glossary, 1883. 

yard for weighing goods, still in common use by butchers and 
travelling vendors. 

STILTCHIN, narrow-minded, mean. 

STILTS, the shafts of any implement terminating in a pair of 
handles. "Plough stilts," the wood or iron shafts attached 
to the body of the plough and terminating in the stilt handles. 
The shafts of a wheelbarrow and of other implements are 
known as stilts. 

" I'll leave to him my hind legs to be stilts unto his plough." 

Robin Spraggon's Auld Grey Mare. 

11 Her stilts she was not able to handle." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 48. 

STIME, a particle. " Aa canna see a stime" "They hadn't 
a stime o' breed i' the hoose." Compare STARN. 

STING, a post, a pole. See STANG, and compare STOB. 

STING, to cover or thatch a stack with straw or rushes. To 
repair thatch by thrusting portions of straw into the old part 
with a sting or forked instrument made for that purpose. 
" To sting, to thatch " (Whelpington). Hodgson MS, 


STINKIN TOMMY, the common rest harrow, Ononis 
arvensis, L. 


STINT, the dunlin, Pelidna cinclus, L. Called also sealark. 

" A resident, and the commonest of our sandpipers." Hancock, Birds 
of Northumberland, etc., p. 117. 

STIRK, STORK, a young beast, ox, or heifer. Stirk is 
common gender, but formerly was applied to the male animal 

" He is called a bull calf until turned of a year old, when he is called 
a stirk or yearling. When castrated or gelt he is called an ox, or stot- 
calf, until a year old, when he is called a stirk, stot, or yearling." 
George Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 17. 

STITCH, an acute, sudden pain. " Aa've getten a stitch i' me 

STITCHES, leathern thongs used to fasten the weights on the 
bottom of salmon nets. 

STITCHES, narrow ridges of land. Brockett. 

STITCH-STICK, a stick generally semicircular in section ; 
used in fastening the stones on the " ground-rope " of a 
salmon net. 

STITE, STEIT, ASTITE, as soon, just as well. " Stite 
ye as me." " A fellow like me may stite myek up a sang." 

" Aw meet steit 
Ha'e day about alang wi' others." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt ii., 1827, v. n. 

STIVAT, STIVET, a stiff, useless, stupid person. " An aad 
stivat." " Hadaway, thoo greet stivat, thoo." 

"No stivet e're lived was so much misused." 

Sawney Ogilby's Duel. 
Northumberland Garland, 1793. 

STIVE, strong, muscular. Brockett. See STEAVE. 

STIVE, to stuff. Compare STECH. 

" Set on the pot wi' flesh an' kail, 
To stive his wame." 

T. Donaldson, Glanton, Poems, 1809, p. 160. 

STOB, a short post, a stump, a stake, a gibbet, a short upright 
fender placed on the kerb of a street to ward off vehicles from 
a footpath, or the same placed in a lane to prevent cart traffic. 


" Rogue-stob," the name of the now obsolete whipping-post. 
" Stob -fence," a stake fence. " Stob-me\\," a heavy hammer 
for driving posts into the ground. "Stob-mill," a windmill 
pivoted upon a central post. " Stang " or " sting " is usually 
applied to a pole of considerable length ; stob generally to 
a truncated or short pole or post. By oblique application 
stob is applied to persons of an obstinate, stupid character. 
"He's a greet fond stob" or "He's as fond as a stob" See 

" Spicer Lane still retains the old stone projecting stobs against the 
bases of the houses all along." Charleton, Newcastle Town, 1885, p. 318. 

11 In former times, a pilgrimage was sometimes made from this place to 
Winter's Stob, or gibbet, for a piece of the wood to rub the tooth with" 
in toothache. Bigge, Superstitions at Stamfordham. Trans. Tyneside Nat. 
Field Club, 1860-62, vol. v., p. 90. 

STOB, a pointed, wooden stick for thrusting apart the seams 
of canvas in order to push cuttings of cloth through the 
interstices in making "stob mats." 

STOBBY, stubbly, unshaven. 

STOB-FEATHERT, unfledged; applied to a bird with 
feathers not yet out of sheath. 

STOB-MAT, a hearthrug or mat made of cloth cuttings often 
of various colours. See STOB, 2. 

STOCK, the side frame of a bed. 

" Then up aw scrammels ower the stocks." 

J. P. Robson, WorMally. 

STOCK-AND-FEATHERS, a tool formerly used by lead 
miners, particularly in wet situations, where gunpowder was 
difficult of use. See a drawing of the tool, Archaologia A? liana, 
vol. i., p. 185. Also known as stook and feathers, stob and feathers, 
plug and feathers, and fox wedge. 

STOCKIN-THRAWIN, a custom at weddings, now obsolete 
The bride was attended by her tire women, who removed the 
stocking from her left leg and returned with it to the 
assembled guests. It was thrown among them, and luck fell 
on the person on whom it lighted, for it was supposed to 
indicate the one next to be married. Compare THRAAIN THE 

STOCKY, the stockdove, Columba anas, Yarrell. 

STODGY, thick-set, strong ; often applied to men of short 
stature, but of compact and strong body. 


STOMACH. To take anything " next the stomach" is to take 
it fasting. 

STONE. A stone of wool in Northumberland was twenty- 
four or eighteen pounds. Britten, Farming Words, E.D.S. 

STONE forms, STANE [N.] , STEEYEN [S.] , STEEN, 
or STEAHYN [W.-T.] , STYEN [T.] . " Filterin styen," 
a water filter made of porous sandstone. " Glent sty en" a 
curbstone. " Hud styen" the jamb of a fireplace. " Knock 
styens" loose surface stones in a ploughed field. " Lair, or 
lare, styen," a tombstone. " Mere styen," a boundary stone. 
"Trou styen," a stone trough. "ThrufTsz^w," a tie-stone in 
a wall, a grave cover. Stone, Styen, to gather stones off arable 
land. "They've been on styenin the field." "Sz-y^caad," 
cold as stone. Stone-canch, in mining, the canch or step formed 
by a bed of stone or by a stratum which is being worked along 
with a seam of coal. When two strata are worked alternately 
the miner gets forward with the coal working, and a canch of 
stone is left. See CANCH. Stone-claker, Stane-chacker, the stone- 
chat, Pratincola mbicola, L. The whinchat, Pratincola rubetra, 

L., is also known as stane-chacker in North Northumberland. 
Stone-coal, originally pit coal, as distinguished from charcoal. 
Also coal traversed by a band of stone. Styen-deed, dead as a 
stone. Styen-deef, stone deaf. Stone-dike, Styen-dike, a stone 
wall. Stone-and-spitchil-dyke. See SPATCHEL. Stone-dike, in a 
colliery, the interruption of the coal seam by the occurrence 
of a "wash" ; that is, a denudation of the seam by the action 
of water, the valley so produced being filled up with river 
detritus. Also called a balk. Compare STONE ROLL. Stone- 
drift, an excavation in a colliery which is driven through the 
strata adjacent to the coal. These drifts sometimes connect 
one seam with another or carry the working on through a 
fault to the coal beyond. Stonegate, Stanegate, the stone or 
paved road. The ancient road between Newcastle and 
Carlisle was called the " Carelgate," and, in going westward, 
it entered upon a portion of the paved Roman Street, which 
it followed from Fourstones. This is the Stanegate. Stone- 
head, the first stone reached after sinking through the loose 
deposits of the surface. Stone-men, men employed in a 
colliery in driving stone drifts (or in) taking up bottom, or 
taking down top stone to make height for horses, etc. 
Nicholson, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. Styen nyekt, stark naked. 
Stone plover, the great plover, (Edicnemtis crepitans, Temminck. 
Stone-putter, a person employed in a colliery in "putting" 
stones from a drift or canch to a stow-board. Nicholson, 
Coal Trade Terms, 1888. Stone-roll, an occasional phenomenon 


in a coal seam, where a channel has been cut in the coal 
by a powerful current action, and the " roll " of denudation 
thus made has been filled by a deposit of solid sandstone. 
Compare STONE-DIKE. Stoney, Styeny, a hard, glazed marble 
used in boys' play. The softer playing marbles are called 
commonies and muggies. Stoney, Styeney, Stone-naig, an entire 
horse. Stoney-rag, Steamy-rag, lichen. This is often used for 
dyeing eggs at Easter. 

STOOK, a pile of corn sheaves consisting of twelve sheaves 
set together, six on each side, with two hood sheaves on the 
top. The stock is made when the corn is of ordinary or 
moderate length. When it is short a "huttock" is made, 
with ten sheaves set two and two, five on a side, having two 
hood sheaves, one at each end, to cover them. The length 
of the straw in these covering sheaves regulates the making 
of a stook or a " huttock " according to the number of sheaves 
that can be covered by the two hood sheaves. When the 
corn is very tall sometimes as many as fourteen sheaves 
are put together and two hood sheaves. Hodgson MS. The 
line in which they are set is taken from the shadow of the sun 
at one o'clock p.m. A " gaitin " is a single sheaf set up on 
its end alone to dry. Two stocks of twelve sheaves each go to 
make a thrave. Wheat was stocked^ oats and barley were 
" gaitined,'' but barley was often laid in " braid-band " ; that 
is, spread thinly over the band and so left to dry. / 

STOOK, the remains of a pillar of coal after it has been 
" jenkined." 

" They jenkin a' the pillars down, 
And efter tyek the stocks away." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 14. 

STOOL, the shank of a rake or fork for hay. Hodgson MS. 
See STEEL, i. 

STOOL, STYUL, to sprout out. 

" Wheat when it shoots vigorously out into many stems is said to 
stool well." Hodgson MS. 

STOOL-BENT, or ROSE-BENT, the heath rush, Juncus 
squarrosus, L. See SPRATS, RISP-GRASS, and BENT. 

" Spreats and stool-bent in moist places always indicate the spot where 
the pedestrian may be sure of firm footing." S. Oliver, Rambles in 
Northumberland, 1835, p. 165. 

STOOND, a violent pain, especially the stun felt on receiving 
a severe blow, or the pang from an aching tooth. Stoond 
(intransitive), to ache, to pain. "Aa jammed me hand 


yisterday, an' it's stoondin yit." (Transitive) to bruise, to 
crack (as in stonebreaking). " He stoonded it, but didn't brik 
the styen." When a stone is shattered it is said to be 

STOOP, a fixed post, a support, a small keg, a drinking 
tankard. See STOUP, i and 2. 

STOOR, STOUR, a tumult, a great disturbance with fuss 
and noise ; dust in motion. Stoory, dusty. 

" When aa cam hyem sic a stoor wis on." 

His Other Eye, 1880, p. 5. 

" Two veterans still, midst dust and stour, 
Conned o'er the days when they were young." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 9. 

STOORDED, STOURDED, silly ; said of sheep that suffer 
from the "sturdy," and look dazed and sickly in consequence. 
"That yane's stoorded, aa doot ; he leuks tarrible douthord 
like." See STURDY. 

STOORY, beer sweetened and then heated by the immersion 
in it of a red-hot poker ; or ale warmed and mixed with a 
little oatmeal and sugar. 

STOOTHIN, a lath and plaster partition formed of wooden 
uprights with laths nailed across on which plaster is laid. 

STOP, S*TAP, to push, to thrust, to stuff. Stop in, to thrust in. 
" Stop in the poker." "Stop the key i' the door." Stop oot, to 
thrust out. 

"Stop them well wi' straw." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 43. 
" They'll aiblins stap you i' the fire." 

T. Donaldson, Glanton, Poems, 1809, p. n. 

" Had up the low, lad, deil stop out thy een." 

The Collier's Rant. Northumberland Garland, 1793. 

STOP, to stay, to dwell. "Where are ye stoppin?" where 
are you staying? " Whe are ye stoppin wi?" with whom 
are you living? 

" O aw cum oot iv Heaton the place ye weel knaw, 
Maw wife she stops there, an' maw bairns an' a'." 

Pitman's Ghost. Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 405. 

STOPPIN, STOPPING, walling put into any passage in a 
pit to block it up so as to carry the air forward. Mining 
Glossary, Newcastle Terms, 1852. 

" This care of the air must be taken in general, that it be not too 
much dispersed, or too much liberty given for want of stoppings.*' 
J. C., Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 46. 


STOPPLE, a tube of small bore. " Pipe stopple? the tube of a 
tobacco pipe. 

" If he hadn't bad teeth he wad eaten the stopple." 

W. Armstrong, d. 1833-4, The Glister. 

set up. Newly-hatched chickens are often kept under 
cover for a day or two until they are " weel storkened" 
" A storkened lad " stout, but not yet come to his full 
strength. See STARKEN. 

"Stnrken, to grow, thrive." Ray, North Country Words, E.D.S. 

STORKENIN, STORKNIN, food. "A good supply of 


STORM. When a snow-storm continues intermittently from 
day to day it is called a " feeding-sforw," the snow on the 
ground being fed by repeated falls. At "kittle" times in the 
farmer's operations the occurrence of a snow-storm receives 
a special name; hence the "lambing storm" the "peewit- 
stovm" or " teufit-sfonw." 

STORM-COCK, the missel-thrush, Turdus viscivorous, L. This 
bird is also known as the missel-dick, mezzle-thrush, mezeltoe- 
thrush, and in North Northumberland as the red-rumped thrush. 

STOT, a castrated ox of any age up to the second year, and 
unbroken to the yoke. See STEER, i. 

" One cow three stottes & two quies the goodes of Sr Arthure Grey, 
Knight." Calendar of Prisoners in High Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
1628. Archciologia SEliana, vol. i., p. 158. 

STOT, to rebound. " The hailstones wis stottin off the hoose- 
tops." " Hoo high will yor baal stot?" Stotty-ba\ Stotty-baal> 
a stotting or bouncing ball. Compare KEPPY-BA'.' 


STOTTERIN, tottering, staggering. " He's elwis gan stotterin 
aboot some way or other." 


STOUP, STOOP, a drinking tankard or pot. Stotips were 
anciently made of wood staves. Small kegs or barrels were 
also called stoops. Compare STAP. 


STOUP, STOOP, the post of a gate. Hodgson MS. A stay 
or support. Said of a grown-up girl, "She's a greet stoup 
tiv her mother" or " That aadest lassie '11 be a greet stoup to 
Peggy noo." Used also for a stupid or obstinate person ; that 
is, one who is as immovable as a post. " Ye greet stoup, ye! " 
Compare STOB. 

" 1653, paid for two quarts of beare bestowed on John Willowbie's 
men and Tho : Comptons when they brought 14 greate stoupes to be set 
at the two dung middings, 4d." Gateshead Church Books. 


STOUTHE, theft. Compare STOWEN. 

"Jan. 14, 1524: Northumberland is in good order, and no hurt has 
been done by stouthe nor reif since you left." Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, 
vol. ii., p. 81. 

STOW, to surfeit, to sicken. " Dinna stow him on't." See 

STOW ! (imperative), stop. "Stow that, now ! " 
11 Stow, to crop, to lop, to cut off." Brockett. 

STOW, in mining, to pack waste material in order to dispose 
of it in disused parts of the mine, or to pack up stone in 
hollows behind walling and above arches so as to make a 
compact structure. Stow-board, in mining, a worked out 
"board" used for stowing away stone and waste (spoil or 
"deeds") from the mine. Stower, a shifter, a workman in a 
pit who stows or packs up stone. Stow-tub, in a pit, a small 
tub or kibble in which stones are led away to the stow-board. 

" The packing is done by a class of men called stowers." Newcastle 
Daily Chronicle, November 23, 1886. 

STOWEN, stolen. " Goods owther strayed or stowen." 

STOWER, STOUR, STOOR, a hedge-stake or a post. Ye 
better put a stower in, or the beas'll be through the dike." 
" Dike-stower" a stake driven into a sod-dike. These stakes 
are placed at close intervals, and woven through and through 
with "rice" forming " rice- and- stower." " Gate-stoor," a 
gate-post. Compare ESTOVER and STOUP, 2. 


[W.-T.] , straw. At a hiring, the hinds who are waiting for 

an engagement are distinguished by their having a small 

piece of strae in the mouth. " Sra#-wisp," a handful of straw 


used to light a fire ; or a straw-rope put round the ankle in 
dirty weather. " Sfow-deeth," a death on straw that is, in 
bed, as opposed to a death by violence. " Stfra-rape," a rope 
of straw. 

11 An old practice in money lending was to give a ' straw bond.' This 
was a number of straws bound together lengthwise, and then divided 
with a knife ; the lender and the borrower keeping one half. The 
practice existed in the latter part of last century." G. H. Thompson, 
Hist, of Bwks. Nat. Club, vol. ix., p. 180. 

STRABBLE, anything that hangs long, loose, and straggling. 

" Down his frosty chin in thousands float 
The strabbles of mine ancient billy goat." 

W. Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854, p. 15. 

STRAIK, STRAKE, a stripe, a streak, a stretch of anything. 
The lines or stretches of planking or plates in a ship are 
called stmkes, the lowest one next the keel being the "sand 
strake." See STREEK. 

STRAIK, STRAKE, STRICKLE, a scythe sharpener, made 
of a flat or square piece of wood, rounded at the handle, and 
about twelve to twenty-two inches in length. The squared 
part is dinted to make a holding surface, and this is covered 
with grease or tallow, and then powdered over with sharp, 
coarse sand, or coarse emery. See STREEK, i. 

STRAIKIN, coarse linen formerly used for shirt-making. 

" Paide for the borde wages of a boy which was cutt of the stone, four 
shillings. Paide for a straikin short to him and for sewing ytt, sixteen 
pence." Newcastle Municipal Accounts, 1593. 

11 A shirt of straykinges." The same. 

STRAMP, an iron plate worn by drainers on the sole of their 
clog to bear the thrust of the spade while digging. 

STRAMP (p.t. strup), to tramp, to trample upon. " Dinna 
stramp ower the clean floor." " He strup on me taes." To 
stramp an article, to put the foot on it so as to conceal it by 
treading it into the soft ground. 

STRAMP-STREENER, one who cures sprains, etc., by 

" A person skilled in this art, stamps with the foot on the part affected, 
and after the first pang it is said to be painless. W. R., of Belsay Lake 
House, stramped, for sprain, the arm of J. T., and cured her. The limb 
ought afterwards to be bound up with an eel's skin." Bigge, Superstitions 
at Stamfordham. Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, 1860-62, vol. v., p. 90. 


STRANGERS, the filmy scales of soot on grate bars, observed 
in winter evenings without a candle, which are said to indicate 
the probable arrival of strangers. Hodgson MS. 

STRAP, a cluster, a bunch ; especially applied to red or white 

STRAVAIG, a stroll. " Let's hev a stravaig aboot the toon." 
Stravaiger, an itinerant. Stravaig, to stroll, to wander about. 
"The faws went stravaigin wi' their cuddies" the gipsies 
went strolling with their donkeys. 

STREAMERS, the aurora borealis. Called also in South 
Northumberland Lord Darwentwatter's leets. 

" The eiry blood-hound howl'd by night, 
The streamers flaunted red." 

The Cout of Keeldar. 

STREAMERS, minnows at spawning time. These fish 
congregate in great numbers in the shallow, gravelly 
streams to deposit their ova. 

STRECK, self-complacent, vain, conceited. " That lad's some 
streck o' his new claes." 

STREEK, STRICKLE, the strike or straight roller used for 
passing over the top of a measure of corn in order to strike or 
level it evenly. Also applied occasionally to the measure of 
corn itself, a streek being understood for a bushel. " Streeked 
measure," exact measure as distinguished from " heaped 

STREEK, STREAK, STRECK, to stretch or lay out. 
Streekin-board, a stretching board, used for laying out a corpse. 

" When a person is dying, the neighbours are called in during the 
expiring moments, and continue to assist the family in laying out, or 
streaking the corpse, which is placed on a bed, hung around and covered 
with the best linen the house affords. It is also customary to set a 
pewter plate, containing a little salt, upon the breast of the departed, 
and also a candle in some particular place. The looking-glass is covered 
and the fire extinguished where a corpse is kept ; and it is reckoned so 
ominous for a dog or cat to pass over it that the poor animal is killed 
without mercy. The coffin is left unscrewed till the time of burial." 
Mackenzie, Hist, of Northumberland, 1825, vol. i., p. 205. 

STREET, a high road. The Stamfordham road is called " The 
Street." (Hodgson MS., 1814.) The old Newcastle and 
Carlisle pack-horse road was called " Hee Street" or " Carel 
Gate." The road at West Glanton is " Deer Street," and at 
Callaly "The street way." The Watling Street traverses the 
county from Ebchester to the Border. 


STRENKLE, to sprinkle. 

" Bring him a shive oh butter an' breed ; cut him a good counge, an* 
strenkle a leapyt ov sugar on't." T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, 
p. 10. 

" Strenkelynge, or sprenkelynge, Aspersio." Promptorium Parvulorum. 

STRESS, a distraint, a distress warrant. (Obs.) 

" 1631. Rec. for a gun of Robert Branlinge that ye ould church- 
wardens tooke for a stresse, 2s."Gateshead Church Books. 

STRETCHER, the bar which keeps the chains apart between 
the horses in ploughing. 


STRIDDLE, to straddle, to stride across. A useless person is 
described as " gan striddlin aboot." " Striddle-legs," astride. 

" He sat down stridelegs on a stone." 

J. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, Poems, p. 150. 

STRIKE, full to the top. A measure when filled with wheat 
or other measured commodity was streeked across the top 
with a level or strickle. This was streeked or strickle 
measure. Compare STRAIK, 2, and STREEK, i. 

"In former agreements between coalowners and workmen, it was 
stipulated that the specifiid coal tubs should be filled strike or wood- 
full." Green well, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

STRIKE, to land a kibble on to the scaffold at the top of a 
sinking pit. Nicholson, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

STRIKE-OUT (intransitive), to appear on the skin as an 
eruption. Strucken-oot, covered with a skin eruption. 

STRIKER, the assistant to a blacksmith who wields the 


STRIP-THE-DEED, to take a birse from a shoemaker's 
thread when the length has been used up, so as to put it 
upon a new lingle. The " birse" is the strong bristle which 
forms a point stiff enough to pass through the stitch holes 
bored in the leather. 

STRITER, STRIGHTER, a hind who "sets out" land. 
STROANIN, the groaning and straining of a horse. 


STROKE, an appetite. " The bairns hes a gran' stroke" 

STRONG, hard. Applied in mining in opposition to mild. 
" Strong post," " Strong grey metal," etc. 

STROONGE, STROONCH, STRUNGE, cold and stern in 
mien or outward bearing. " Stroonge man," an obstinate, 
sour, reserved man. 

STROOP, the spout of a vessel. " Kettle stroop." " Stroopit 
pot," a spouted pot. A mischievous child is often called a 
" little stroop." 

STROTHER, STRUTHER, a marsh or swamp where rushes 
grow. Hodgson, Northumberland, vol. iij. pt. ii. p. 326, n. 
"The Strothers" is of common occurrence as a field-name, 
and strother is still in use as the term for a bog in North 
Tindale and Tarset. Hodgson MS. It also occurs in Beadnel 
Strother, Longstr other, and in about ten other place-names in 

STROW, litter, confusion. " What a strow ye hev o' the floor." 
" The hoose is iv a fair strow" Compare HOWSTROW. 

STRUM, STRUM-BOX, a perforated cover to protect the end 
of a suction pipe. 

STRUM, a low musical note like the tap of a drum. 

" Gurlin thro' the glens o' Reed 
Wi' a weird and eerie strum, 
When round yon auld cot 

The winter winds they come." 

James Armstrong, Aid Crag, 1879. 

STRUNT, a pique, a pet. "He's teyun the strunts" taken 
the pet. Stninty, petted, easily piqued, as " He's a varry 
strunty chep." 

STUBBLE-FOOR, a stubble field once ploughed. After a 
grain crop, the field, when ploughed in the autumn, is said 
to be "lying in the stubble- foor." When the cross or second 
furrow for root crops has been made it is no longer so 
designated. Stnbble-wund or Stubble-wun ; when a company 
of reapers get to the end of their ridge or "land" before 
those that are prior in order they are said to be stubUe-wund 
or to stubble-wtm them. 

STUBBS, old horse-shoe nails. 


STUCKIN, STUCKEEN, a pole, a small stake or post 
inserted at a gap in a hedge. " Net-stuckins," the stakes used 
for drying nets on. 

STUDIMENT, a prop, a support ; also stability. " He lashed 
it wiv a rope to gi'd studwnent." 

STUDY, an anvil. 

STUMP, a blockhead. " He's a reg'lar stump" See STOB. 

STUMP-AN'-RUMP, wholly, entirely. " The dog's eaten the 
meat up stump -an' -rump." 

STURDY, STOORDY, a disease in the head of animals caused 
by entozoa in the brain. It is cured by trephining and 
removing. To a stupid person the advice is often tendered, 
" Get bored for the sturdy" See STOORDED. 

" Tak' my advice, noo, and mind what I say, 
Get boor'd for the sturdy, and do not delay." 

James Armstrong, Anither Sang, 1872. 

STY ! a cry used to drive pigs out of mischief. 

STYEAVE, to fray by heavy blows. By hammering at an 
iron bolt the end becomes styeaved up. 

STYEK-AND-RICE-FENCE, a fence formed by driving 
stakes into the top of an earth dyke about eighteen inches or 
two feet apart, and then winding thorns round them, which 
are secured by a " yeather " made of saugh, hazel, or any 
pliant wood. " He's a good styek-arf-ricev" a good hand at 
this work. Styek-and-yeather, to form a fence as above. 


STYTHE, STIFE, any very choking fume or smoke. It is 
especially applied to the gases productive of, or resultant 
from, a colliery explosion. 

" Through smoke, and styth, and swelterin heat." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 23. 

STYUK, a stock, a simpleton. " Thoo greet styuk" Compare 
STOB, and STOUP, 2. 

STYUL, to spread out or thicken, as young corn when 
sprouting and separating into several stalks as it grows, 
" It styuls weel." See STOOL. 


SUCH-AND-SO, equivalent to the cant expression " So-so." 
" She's oney such-an'-so " of doubtful character. 

SUCKLERS, white clover. See SOOKIES. 

SUDDLE, SUTTLE, to soil, to tarnish, to sully. Brockett. 

SULPHUR, fire-damp in a pit. (Obs.) Sulphur -well, a spa 
well. Sulphury, in mining, any rock mixed with iron pyrites. 
Sulphury, Sulphvy, sultry. 

11 A misapprehension for sultry, from a notion that, in hot sultry 
weather, with thunderstorm, there is a smell of sulphur in the 
atmosphere." Embleton MS. 

SUMMER, a main beam in a building. " Brest- summer," a 
chimney beam or chimney-piece. Compare PAN-PIECE. 

SUMMERING, depasturing sheep on the uplands. Summerings, 
Sommerings, pastures on the moors ; so-called from their being 
occupied only in the summer months. 

" September 13, 1664. Item. I give and bequeath unto my sonne 
William Widdrington and his assigns, the lease and interest of all my 
summering grounds in the parish of Symonburne, wch I hold of the Rt. 
Honble the Earle of Northumberland." Will of Sir Henry Widdrington, 
of Cheeseburn Grange. 

SUMP, SUMPH, a puddle hole, a pool, a hole with water. 
A bathing pool in the river Aln below Alnwick is called 
" The Sumph." Sump, in mining, the well into which 
drainage is run, forming the standage from which the pump 
draws ; or the deepest part of a collection of water from 
which it can be baled or pumped. Sump, that portion kept 
a yard or more in advance of the drift or pit, in driving a 
stone drift or sinking a pit, to enable the gunpowder or other 
explosive to act with greater advantage upon the parts left. 
Greenwell, Coal Trade Terms. Sump, the part of a wide board 
which is first-kirved, nicked, and shot down. Nicholson, 
Coal Trade Terms, 1888. Sumper, a large tool used in drilling 
holes in quarries. Sumph, a secondary shaft in a mine. 
Brockett. A lead mining term. Sumph, a dull, stupid person. 
" He's a reg'lar sumph." Sump-shot or S limping -shot, a charge of 
powder for bringing down the sump or for blowing the stone 
up in a sinking pit. The hole for this shot is drilled at an 
angle more or less acute, so that on a vertical face of wall its 
explosion blows out the lower portion of the face, making a 
cavernous recess below, and rendering the bringing down of 
the top comparatively easy. In sinking a shaft a sumping-shot 
is used, the hole being drilled at an angle less than a right 


angle, and the explosion blows a portion of the stone upward. 
Sump, saturated with rain or moisture. " He cam in sump 
wet." Sumpy, wet, marshy, as " Sumpy ground." "The sand 
was sumpy." " It's a varra sumpy road." 

"It is a very good caution, even in a coaled pit, to put down a bore 
rod, about a fathom, for a sump." Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 14. 

SUN-CHEEK, the south face of a lead vein. 

SUNCKAT, SUNCKET, somewhat. (Obs.) See SUNKET. 

"I's sunckat beuk-learn'd." G. Stuart, Newcastle, 1686, Joco-Serious 

" Now ye leuk sunckat like your sel'." The same, p. 50. 

SUNDAY-STONES, banded deposits of sulphate of barium, etc., 
found in certain colliery water pipes. The coal dust produced 
during the daily working of the mine causes a discolouration 
in the deposit in course of formation. But on Sunday this 
cause is in abeyance. Hence a polished section of the 
material exhibits the deposits separated by distinctive bands 
which indicate the days of rest and give the name Sunday- 
stone to the material. 

SUNDERLAND, place-name, land lying to the south of a 
particular place. "North Sutherland" is spelt in early 
charters Stttherlannland, that is, no doubt, land south of 
Bamburgh. The prefix " North " was probably a later 
addition made so as to distinguish the smaller place on 
the coast of Northumberland from the large town on the 

" Sunderland-fitter, a jocular term at cards for the knave of clubs." 

SUN-DOG, an isolated spot of prismatic colours, usually seen 
well up in the northern parts of the sky. It is considered by 
the fishermen of the north-east coast as a sign of approaching 
storm. When the lower portion or stump of a rainbow is left 
visible it is called a " weather-pillar," " weather-gaa," and 
"weather-bleat." It also is an indication of wet and storm. 

SUNG (the p.t. and p.p. of singe), singed. " Somebody's ower 
near the fire ; thor claes is sung." 

SUNK, a straw pad formerly used for a pack saddle. Compare 
SOD and PAD. 

SUNKET, a small number, a small quantity. See SUNCKAT. 

" Ducks, turkeys, and pigeons in sunhets are seen." 

Song, Framlington Fair. 


SUOAK, to snuff the air. Halliwell. See SNOAK. 

SURF, an ancient name for an adit or horizontal tunnel for 
draining a mine. See SOUGH, 2. 

SURFEIT, SURFET, explosive gas, or the gases resulting 
from an explosion. 

"An ignorant man, by his ignorance may be burnt to death by the 
Surfet, which is another dangerous sort of bad air, but of a fiery nature 
like lightning, -which blasts and tears all before it, if it takes hold of the 
candle." J. C., Comphat Collier, 1708, p. 23. 

Surfeit, in mining, the pressure exercised by pent up gas of any kind 
easing itself off with some force, frequently rending the roof, sides, or 
floor of the seam ; this often takes place without any sudden outburst of 
gas." Green well, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

SURHED. To surhed a stone is to set it edgewise, contrary to 
the posture it held in the quarry. Halliwell. 

SWAB, SQUAB, a soft cushion. See SQUAB. 
SWABBY, fat, corpulent. 

SWAD, SWOD, coarse coal or black stone when it occurs 
at the bottom of a seam of coal. When at the top it is 
called brat. Compare BRAT, 5, and SLAG. 

SWAD, a pod. " A pea-swad." " A bean-swad." Compare 

SWAGE, SPRAINTS, excrement of the otter. 

SWAGE, to form the groove in a horse-shoe in which the nails 
are fixed. To form any groove in iron. The tool by which 
grooves are formed in iron is a swage. 

SWAIR, square. 

" Great swair oak trees, strongly bound and joined together with great 
tenons of the same." Bowe's Survey of North Tynedale, 1542. 

SWALE, SWALL, a plank of wood. (Obs.) 

" 1640. Paid John Cock for 12 swalls for formes for the church, ics." 
Gaetshead Church Books. 

" 1648. It. paid for 20 swalls to be scaffolds, one shilling." Embleton, 
Barber Surgeons. Archaologia JEliana, vol. xv., p. 252. 

SW ALLEY, S WELLY, in coal mining, a gradual depression 
or dish in the strata. In the bottom of the dish the seam of 
coal is usually thicker. Gnenwell. See SWELLY. 


SWALLOW-HOLE, SWALLEY-HOLE, a depression or 
a hole where water disappears underground. Swalley -holes 
frequently extend over and follow the outcrop of a stratum 
of limestone on the moors. See WATERFALL-HOLES, WATER- 

"From the lake of Grindon, in Northumberland, a small burn issues, 
and flows about two miles in a westerly course, when it is suddenly lost 
in a fissure of its rocky passage in the limestone, popularly known as a 
Swallow-Hole." Denham, 1858, Folk Lore, tract x., pt. iv., p. 18. 

SWALLOW T -TAILED-SHELDRAKE, the long-tailed duck, 
Harelda glacialis, L. It is also called coal-and-candle-light and 
Jenny Foster. 

SWAMISH, SWEAMISH, shy, awkwardly bashful. Brockett. 

SWAMP, hollow sounding, empty. " A swamp belly." Compare 

SWANG, a rich, flat piece of ground at the foot of a declivity, 
and liable to be flooded. Sometimes applied to wet, rushy 
land through which water runs slowly. "TheSwang" at 
Sheriff Hill was a grassy flat lying between two slopes ; a 
favourite resort for bowlers before the enclosure of the 

SWANKY, a tight, strapping young fellow or girl. 

" At e'en at the gloamin, nae swankies are roamin." 

Flowers of the Forest. 

SWANKY, small beer. 

SWAP, an immature and partially-filled pod. Applied to pea 
pods. "Swaps is sweet " a common saying. 

SWAP, to slam. 

" To swap the door, in common language, is as much as to say, shut it 
violently." Mackenzie, Hist, of Northumberland, vol. i., 1825, p. 149, n. 

SWAPE, the long oar formerly used at the stern of a keel on 
the Tyne. The keel was rowed by a single oar at the bow, 
which was worked by two "bullies" and the "peedee" 
usually upon the port side of the vessel ; whilst the swape was 
worked by the skipper at the stern to steer the course 
required. The swape was thus the stroke oar. 
" Sweype, or swappe, or strok." Promptorium Parvulorum. 
" They call the great oar, used as a kind of rudder at the stern of the 
vessel, the swape." Brand, Hist. of.Newcastle, vol. ii., 1789, p. 261, . 


SWAPE, a rope laid transversely to prevent the ropes extending 
from the top of a stack to the eaves from having their position 
altered by the wind. 

SWAPE, an instrument used in spreading manure. Brockett. 

SWAPE-CHURN, an old upright churn, which was wrought 
by a lever and a half revolving axle. 

SWAPES, curved plates used for laying the railway in a mine 
at a sharp turn. 

SWARBLE, to climb up the bole of a tree by the muscular 
action of the arms, thighs, and legs ; to swarm. Brockett. 

SWAREY, useless, worthless. " A swarey Jack," a useless 
fellow. Brockett. 

SWARFE, to faint, to swoon. Brockett. 


SWARM, to mount a tree by embracing it with arms and legs. 

SWARTH, sward, the surface of grass land. In sinking a pit, 
the stonehead, or stratified rock, is said to be so much below 
the swarth ; the swarth being here the surface of the alluvial 
or surface deposits. 

SWAT, to squat, to crouch for concealment. "Swat doon." 
" He swat doon on the grund." " D'ye see yon hare lyin 
swateet ?" Compare CLAP, 2 and 3. 

SWAT, squat, short. Compare SWEETISH. 

SWATCH, a sample, a piece of anything cut off as a sample. 

11 Here's just a swatch of pitman's life, 
Frae bein breek'd till fit to marry." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 78. 

SWATCH, SWATH, to swathe, to swaddle. Brockett. 

SWATTLE, to tipple, to guzzle. Compare WATTLE. Swattkr, 
a guzzler, a drunkard. 

" At the sign o' the Coach they byeth caa'd it befel, 
To mourn their hard case an 1 to swattle some yell." 

R. Gilchrist, The Skipper's Erudition. 

" Thou sweet tongued swattler." 

W. Kelly, Teetotallers of the Tyne, 1854. 


SWEARLE, or SWEEVEL-EYE, an eye with a particular 
cast. Brockett. 

SWEATREE, a contrivance formerly used for moving stones. 

" One sweatree with two rollers, for taking and laying down lair- 
stones." Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. Hi., p. 298. 

SWEE, out of the perpendicular. Halliwell. Compare SWIN. 

SWEE, a children's see-saw or cross-plank. Swee, Swey, 
Sweigh, to see-saw. 

SWEED, SWEETH, a swathe, a row of mown grass as left 
by the scythe. 

SWEEL, a gust of wind. " The wind cam wi' sic a sweel 
roond the corner." 

SWEEL, a swivel. 

SWEEL, a flat, shallow basket. See SWILL. 

SWEEL, to blaze, as a lighted candle does in a wind, or as a 
torch of tar does. Hodgson MS. Also to melt and gutter 
like a wasting candle. 

" The unsnuffed lights are now burnt low, 
And dimly in their sockets sweelin." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 2. 

SWEEL, to roll about with laughter. " He sweeled an' laughed 
at it." 

SWEEPLE, a cudgel or short stick. See SWIPPLE. 

14 He teuk a Sweeple up in 's neef." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 43. 

SWEER, SWEIR, unwilling, loth, obstinate. "He's sweer ti 
pairt win his money." " He wis sweer ti gan." * The beast 
wis deed sweers ti move." 

" Yet sweer is she to don the dress 
That's fitting for a bride." 

Robert White, Lady Jean, 1842. 

SWEETISH, SWATISH, squat, low. See SWAT. 

"A round hill, probably natural, as some of the ground below is 
thrown into undulations of a sweetish form." Minutes of a Journey, Rev. 
J. Hodgson, 1814. 


S WELLY, SWALLY, a gradual depression or "dish" in a 
stratum by which it is swelled or thickened out over a limited 
area. A small basin or arch in the strata produced by 

" Swellies, or local thickenings of coal ancient coal-measure miniature 
valleys, in fact." Lebour, Geology of Northumberland and Durham, second 
ed., 1886, p. 52. 

SWEORD, a sword, also a stalk of the yellow iris or segg. 

SWERLE, to roll from side to side in walking. Brockett. See 

SWIDDER, to doubt, to hesitate. Brockett. Swidders, doubt, 
hesitation. Brockett. See SWITHER. 

SWIGGY, a swing. Compare SHUGGY and SHUGGY-SHOE. 

SWILL, SWEEL, SWULL [N.], a large open basket used 
for carrying clothes, potatoes, etc. The ordinary swill is a 
very wide and shallow basket, round or oval in shape. 
" Like whulps iv a swull " like a litter of whelps in a swill 
a common saying expressive of a mixed up condition. Swills, 
carried on the head, and reversed in wet weather, were 
facetiously called in Newcastle Quayside umbrellas. 

" There was scrushin, an pushin, sic a mixture o' folks, 
Wi' sweels, pillow slips, cuddy cairts, an' lang pokes." 

E. Corvan, d. 1865, The Rise in Coals. 

SWILL, to rinse or wash out. Brockett. Swillins, rinsings, 

SWIN, SWUN, to cut diagonally or taper wise, to gore. "Are 
ye swinnin the end ? " is an enquiry made of a dressmaker as 
she cuts her stuff to an angle to make the gore. See GORE. 

SWINE-BRANKS, an arrangement of sticks strapped across 
the necks of swine to prevent their passage through hedge 



SWINE-SAIM, hog's lard. 

SWINE-THRISSEL, the sow-thistle, Sonchus oleraceus, L. 

SWING, a long and strong rope by which a fishing-boat rides 
attached to the fleet of herring nets when let out at sea. 


SWINGLE-TREE, SWINGLER, a single-tree or draught 
bar in horse gear. 

SWINNEY, small beer Newcastle. Halliwell. (Obs.) 

SWIPE, to drink off to the very bottom. Swipes, dregs. 

SW 7 IPPLE, SWUPPLE, SWINGLE, the part of a flail 
which strikes the straw in threshing. 

SWIRE, the hollow or declination of a mountain or hill, near 
the summit. Like the term " neck of land," the swire is 
the lower neck which connects the higher eminences in a 
chain of hills. The word occurs in Reed-swire, between 
Carter Fell and Hound-law ; in Acobe-swire ; and in White- 
swire in Northumberland. 

SWIRLE (pronounced sworl and sworel), an eddying blast of 
wind, a whirl of water in a stream or pool, a curl or turn in 
the hair. 

" Applied to express the gliding of a small runner of water and to the 
motion of a snake or asp as it glides from its basking place into a 
thicket." Hodgson MS. 

"The Swirle. a small runner that emptied itself into Sidgate" (now 
Percy Street, Newcastle). M. Phillips, Archaologia JEliana, vol. xiij., 
p. 234. 

" A runner of water, called anciently the Swirle, at present, vulgarly, 
the Squirrel, divides Sandgate, near the middle." Impartial Hist, of 
Newcastle, '1801. 

SWIRT, to squat as a hare. See SWAT. 

SWITCH, to go quickly. " He switched past like a shot." 
" He wis gan at a switchin rate." 

SWITCHIN, large. 

" Twe cheps, wi wings se switchin." 

R. Emery, Pitman's Dream II. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 188. 

SWITH, SWISH, an exclamation, imitative of the sound of a 
sudden, swift stroke. 

" The farmer returning from market, he wades 
Thro" glaure, and follows a light that he nears, 
When smith in a bog hole he's owre to the ears." 
The Ladye of Barmoor. 
Minstrelsy oj the English Border, p. 54. 


SWITHER, SWUTHER, a perplexity ; a palpitating, nervous 
state ; a faint. Compare WHITHER, WITHER. 

" It set ma heart a pitty-pat, 
And put me in a fearful swuther." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 13. 

SWORD, the connecting rod between the treadle and the crank 
of a spinning-wheel. The iron rod, in a mine pump, which 
connects the spears with the bucket ; called the " bucket- 

SWORD-DANCERS, companies of men, in fantastic dress, 
who annually perform. They are armed with " wafters," 
which are held aloft and woven into intricate forms in the 


SW T UN, aslant, off the perpendicular. See SWIN. 

SWUTHERIN, strong. "A swutherin fellow." Compare 

SYEKS ! SYKES ! an exclamation, varied as " Syeks alive ! " 
" For a' syeks I " etc. See SIKES. 

SYEUT, soot. Syeuty, sooty. 

SYEUTY-WULLY, the meadow pipit. See MOSS-CHEEPER. 

SYKE, SIKE, a small rill, the feeder of a burn. As burns are 
the tributaries of rivers, so, in turn, are sykes the tributaries 
of burns. They are thus the uppermost ramifications of the 

" The mill in the Castle Leazes, commonly called Chimley Mill, upon 
the syke or rivulet." Bourne, quoted Mackenzie, Hist, of Newcastle, 
p. 711, n. 

" When aw was young and lusty, 

I could loup a dyke ; 
But now aw'm awd and stiff 
An' can hardly step a syke." 

Song, Sair Fail'd Hinny (old version). 

SYLES, the principal rafters of a building. 

SYMMONS, SIMMONS, a red deposit from chalybeate water 
foutid in old colliery workings. From its resemblance to rusty 
iron it is also known as reed and canker. 


SYNE, thereupon, afterwards. 

11 Simey Haa gat lam'd of a leg, 
An' syne ran wallowin hame." 

Surtees, Ballad of Feather stonhaugh. 

TA, TE, TI (the vowel very short), to, as sign of the infinitive, 
or as a preposition where the word following begins with a 
consonant (otherwise tiv, til, or tin are used). Te is also used 
occasionally for the, as " te-morn " or " the morn," to-morrow. 
Ta or te is also used for tkou. " What thinks ta?" " Seesfo ? " 
(literally, seest thou ?), used in query, or as a mere interjection. 

" What canny little weyges we used ta hae ta pay." 

George Chatt, Old Farmer, 1866. 

TA, TAE (pronounced toy), TO, TONE [N.], TEYEN [S.], 
TYEN [T.], the one as distinguished from the other. 
Compare TEAN. 

" The ta side seem'd merry, the t'other side moan'd." G. Stuart, 
Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686. 

" For the trespasse thou hast me done, 
The tone of us shall dye." 

Battle of Otterburn. 

TAAM, TAWM, TOWM [W.-T.], a rod line of hair for 
fishing. Compare WIP. 

TAAM, to doze, to go to sleep. " He'll syun taam ower." 
Compare DWALM and following words. 

TAAS, TAWSE, a broad leather strap, having one end slit 
into five " toes " or fingers ; used for smacking children. 

TAB, the end of a strap outside the buckle. A flap of anything, 
a tatter, a torn piece of garment. 

TAB, part of the entrails of a sheep and pig. 

TACK, a small prop of coal, sometimes left in kirving a jud, 
to support it until the kirving is finished, excepting knocking 
out the tack. A punch prop or sprag is sometimes used for 
the same purpose. Green well, Coal Trade Terms, 1849. Tack, 
a temporary stitch. Tack, a lease. Tacksman, the holder of a 

" The fishermen receive from the tacksman 6d. per stone." Johnston, 
Holy Island. Hist, of B whs. Nat. Club, vol. vii., p 36. 


TACKETY, nailed with tackets. "Tackety byuts." 

TACKLE, to accost. Also to undertake a job ; generally 
suggesting a difficulty to be overcome. " Aa'll tackle that job 
the morn." And to engage in conflict with an antagonist. 

TAFFY (toffy), candy made from a mixture of butter, or 
dripping, and sugar, baked till quite hard. Claggum is the 
same, but with treacle as the ingredient instead of sugar. 

TAGAREEN, marine stores. A " tagareen man" has a floating 
shop which he rows about the tiers of ships, announcing his 
presence by a bell. His dealings are carried on by barter or 
cash, as may be convenient ; and old rope, scrap-iron, or 
other similar unconsidered trifles, are exchanged for the 
crockery or hardware with which the boat is stocked. 

TAIGELT, encumbered, hindered, delayed. 

" To taigle, to tarry ; to delay ; to procrastinate. ' Now dinna taigle.' " 

TAIL, TAIL-END, the rear extremity in the following terms. 
* Cairt-fotf," the rear of a cart. " 7^7-bord," the back board 
of a cart. " Tail-crab," the capstan on which the spare rope 
of a crab is wound. ' Tail-end," the shallow end ot a pool of 
water. " Trt*7-pipe," the suction pipe of a pump. " Tail o' the 
week," the latter end of the week. " Tail-rope" the rope by 
which the empty set of tubs are drawn back into a mine, the 
rope which hauls put the full tubs being distinguished as the 
" main-rope." 

TAILOR'S MENSE, a small portion left by way of good 
manners. Brockett. 

TAISTREL, TYESTRAL, a sour-tempered churl, a rascal, a 
villain, a loose fellow, a contemptible person. Often, like the 
word villain, used playfully in speaking of an ill-mannered 
boy or of a person given to play pranks. 

TAIT! an exclamation of remonstrance. "Tait! man alive, 
ye manna de that." 

TAIT, TATE, TYET, a small quantity ; a small wisp or lock 
of grass, hay, straw, etc. " A tait of straw," a handful. 


TALLY, to keep count of goods. In delivering cargoes, one of 
the porter-pokemen usually " keeps tally." The number of 
bricks, or cheese, or bundles is counted as they are passed 
from hand to hand, the last man but one repeating the 
figures aloud. If the articles are counted singly they are 
called out up to the nineteenth ; but instead of calling out 
"twenty" the word tally is substituted; thus "eighteen, 
nineteen, tally." The score is then marked by a simple 
line drawn with a piece of chalk. After four strokes are 
made, the fifth is drawn through them diagonally from left to 
right, like the cross-bar of a field gate, and the symbol one 
hundred is thus indicated. In counting articles that can be 
lifted in groups the tale is thus made" five, ten, fifteen, 

TALLY, to crimp with a " tallyin-iron." Tallyin-iron or Tally- 
iron (probably " Italian" iron), a hollow, round cast iron about 
an inch and a half diameter and nine inches long, one end 
open to receive a heater ; the other smoothly rounded. It is 
mounted on a stand and used to make the series of wavy 
folds in women's caps. A smaller iron is known as a 
" piping iron." 

" 'Twad ha'e dune yor een good, iv a Satturday neet, 

To've luik'd at wor kitchen se canny ; 
The pan-lids, an' tallys, an' snuffers, se breet, 
Luikin doon frae the shelf on thor Nanny." 

J. P. Robson, Nanny Jackson's Letter. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 236. 

TALLY-I-O THE GRINDER, the owerword of a song or 
rhyme. It is referred to in Swalwell Hoppin, where "The 
kilted lasses fell tid pell mell, wi Tally-i-o the Grinder, O." 
A child's song in Newcastle used to have this refrain : 

" Aa went ti' France ti' see the dogs dance; 
When aa cam back the ship was launch 'd, 

Tally-i-o the grinder." 

TAM-THOOM (Tom-thumb) [N.], the blue titmouse, Parus 
c&ruleus, L. 

TANG, the part of a knife or other instrument which runs up 
into the handle, the pointed end of a shoe-lace, the tongue or 
projection of a thing. 

TANG, TANGEL, TANGLE, sea-weed ; applied to sea-weed 
generally; and especially to Laminaria digitata, L. "He's 
getten fower cairts o' tangel led for manner" (manure). 


TANG, to make a noise by striking a metallic surface. 
Countrymen tang bees when swarming by beating on shovels, 
tea-trays, or tin vessels, to induce the swarm to settle. 

TANG, TENG, to sting. 

" Tang, Teng, a sting, an acute pain." Brockett. 

TANG-O'-THE-TRUMP [N.] , the tongue of a Jew's-harp. 
Used figuratively for the active partner in a commercial firm, 
or the principal person, or chief spokesman, in any out- 
breaking of popular violence. Brockett. 

TANK, TANK-WASTE, the insoluble sediment from the 
dissolving tanks in alkali works. 

TANKLET [N.], an icicle. See ICE-SHOGGLE and TINKEL- 


TANKLIN, dangling. 

" He toss'd the grey gyus ower his back, 
An 1 her neck it hung tanklin doon, O." 

Old rhyme. 

TANNERS, roots, as the tanners of a tooth, corn, etc. 

TANSY, the village feast held on Shrove Tuesday. 

" The fund was expended in refreshments for the (football) players 
after the game was ended, consisting of hot ale and cake, ad libitum, the 
feast being followed by a dance. This feast the villagers (of Rothbury) 
called ' The Tansy: " D. D. Dixon, Shrove-tide Customs, p. 4. 

TANSY-CAKE, a girdle-cake flavoured with tansy. Tansy- 
pudding, a pudding made of flour and eggs and seasoned 
with tansy. It is still occasionally met with. Tansy-tea^ an 
infusion of the herb. 

TANT, tall, high in the mast ; a sea term. 

" The Quayside always was too big, 

As scullers have attested ; 
Tant ships that come with rampant rig, 
Against its sides are rested." 

R. Gilchrist, New Song for Barge Day, 1835. 
Bards of the Tyne, p. 397. 

TANTER, to quarrel. Brockett. 

TAPE, authority. " He hes the tape " (applied to a farm 
worker who has instructions from his superior to order his 
fellow- workmen). 


TAPPET, a piece put on a shoe. 

TAPPY-LAPPY, running blindly at top speed or rushing 
aimlessly and furiously. " The twee boxers went ti'd tappy- 
lappy, like a lowse winda shutter flappin i' the wind." 

"Aw so oad Mary commin tappy-lappy our the Stobcross Hill." 
T. Bewick, The Howdy, 1850, p. 10. 

TAR, a taw, the medium size of marble used to shoot or fire 
with in boys' games. It is smaller than a " bullocker " and 
larger than an ordinary sized marble. See ALLEY, BULLOCKER. 

TAR. " Set on tar" to relieve any one who has got into low 
water and enable him to go on again. 

TARN, fierce, crabbed. 

" Just pinch'd to deeth, they're tarn and snarly." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1857, v - 5- 

TARRIBLE, terrible. Used constantly as a mere adverb of 
degree. "It's a tarrible wet day," "He's tarrible slaa win his 
wark," " It's a tarrible bad job," " Thor's a tarrible site o' 
weeds i' that crop," etc. 

or rallying cry of North Tyne men. 

" Upwards of fifty years ago the old people used to relate how, in 
their early days, young men from the districts beyond Bellingham came 
to Stagshawbank in groups or clans for no other purpose than to provoke 
a fight, which they never failed to do. When the well understood battle 
cry of 'Tarset and Tarraburn, yet { yet, yet !' resounded through the fair, 
then dogs and human beings joined in a scene of wild confusion." 
R. Forster, History of Cartridge, 1881, p. 45. 

TASH, a moustache. " Him wi' the task." 

TAT, to mat together. " In tats" in clumps or matted masses. 

TATH, to manure. A tuft grown where dung has been 
dropped. Tathing, manuring by the droppings of cattle fed 
on a piece of land. 

" Tath, rich soft grass without seed stalks." Hodgson MS. 

TATIE (a long), TETTY, a potato. Taties-an'-ddb, potatoes 
boiled in their skins. Tatie-apple, the fruit and seed of 
the potato. Tatie-boggle, a scare-crow. Tatie-champer, a 
potato masher. Tatie-garth, a potato garth. Tatie-graip, a 
fork with flat prongs, used for digging potatoes. Raa-tetty, 
an uncooked potato carried in the pocket as a cure for 


rheumatism. "Just the tatie" just the thing, exact, suitable. 
"He's not the tatie" not to be trusted. Tatie-pit, a long 
ridge or conical heap of potatoes, carefully thatched with 
straw or dried fern, and covered with soil to exclude frost. 
Tatie-lot, a thousand yards of potato drill allotted to a hind, 
one of his " conditions " or wage payments. 

malion, a ragged person. Often applied jocosely to one who 
wears a much-torn dress. 

TATTERY, frayed out. " She had on an aad tattery goon." 

TATTY, matted, tangled. " What a tatty heed Nanny hes." 
Ragged. Tatty -Jack, a sheep with a ragged and tattered 

TAUNTRIL, bold, impudent. 

"To turn thy tauntriVs tail on me." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 26. 

TAVERN, probably to erect a cottage (taberna) and apportion 
a piece of land with the same. Cot or cwot-lands are cottage 
allotments. (Obs.) See quotations below. 

" 1580. Regality of Hexham. Six score copyholders unfurnished, 
are bound by their copies to find horse and armour, ' who taverne their 
land,' and give it by will as though they were freeholders." Bain, 
Border Papers, vol. i., p. 22. 

" When any Inhabitant here hath gotten anye Interest in a Tent beinge 
scant sufficient for the menteignaunce of one pson yf he chaunce to dye 
having two sonnes he devydeth the said Tent betwixt them bothe and 
thus the taverninge of the Queynes land ys hinderance for kepinge of 
hors and armor." Berwick, 1575. Letter, Sir John Forster. Rec. Off. 
Foreign, Eliz., vol. cxxxiv., No. 153 Quoted, Creighton's Northumbrian 
Border, App. iij., p. 35. 

TAWPY, TAUPY, TAPPY [N.] , a headstrong, untidy girl ; a 
rollicking, garrulous young woman ; a foolish and sluttish 
woman. " She's a reg'lar tawpy." " She's a greet tappy, an' 
a canny bit throwother ti boot." 

TE. See TEE. 

TEA-CAKE, or WIG, a sweet cake with kneading, raised 
with yeast. 

TEAKERS, a running of watery matter from a sore 
Northumberland. Halliwell. See TEICHER. 


TEAN, TYEN, one of two, as opposed to tother " What wi' 
the tean, and what wi' the tother." See TA, 2. 

TEAND, TEIND, tithed. 

" Robert Lewin, of Newcastle, Nov. 26, 1562, bequeaths to his wife the 
teand corn of Ravensworth, etc." Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. ij., 
P- 377- 

TEASER, a care, an annoyance, a difficult problem. " That's 
a teaser for ye, noo." 

TEASER, a fireman at a glass-house furnace. The glass- 
house teasers wore broad-brimmed felt hats, with arm-guards 
and greaves of the same material, to protect them from the 
scorching fires. They also wore " hand-hats" of thick felt, to 
enable them to hold the long iron teasing pokers, etc. 

" You must have furnacemen to teaze and rouse the fire." John Adley, 
The Coal Trade, 1818. 

TEAVE, TYEAV, to walk heavily through dirt or snow. 
" Tired wi' teavin through the snow." Hodgson MS. 

TEE, the letter T, as in the expression " It fits him tiv a tee." 
This is probably short for tittle. 

TEE, to, too, also. " Buckle tee" to buckle to or start work 
in earnest. 

" We'd lots o' bonny lasses, fe." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 30. 

TEEDY, cross, peevish, fretful, tedious to do with. " She's 

varry teedy wiv her bit teeth, poor thing." " As teedy as a 

TEE-FAA, TEEFALL, a buttress, a sloping support, a 
lean-to roof. See TUEFOLD. 

" Tee/all, a mode of building in the penthouse form, common in 
Northumberland." Halliwell, 

TEEL [N.], a blue, marly clay, commonly called blue teel, one 
of the unstratified clays of the boulder-clay formation. See 

TEELYTOON, a teasing, fretful, wearisome child. 


TEEM, to pour out, to empty. In loading ships with coals 
the contents of the waggons are said to be teemed down 
the loading spouts. Teemin bye, or teemin ower, is laying 
coals aside at bank instead of sending them away in 
waggons. In a heavy downpour of rain it is said to " teem 
an' rain." Teemer, the man at a coal shipping staith who 
lets the coals out of the waggons. Teemin-hack, a fork 
with teeth set at right angles to the shaft, used for hauling 
stable manure out of a cart in the field. " Teemin muck," 
emptying manure from a cart with a teemin-hack. " Teem the 
waiter oot o' that pail." Compare TYUM. 

TEEM, to strike out a bolt from a bolt hole with the aid of 
another bolt. 

TEEM [N.] , thin. " He's varry teem leukin." 

TEEN, grief. 

" Weel be wi' you, a 1 birdies, and teen and tears wi' me." 

A. C. Swinburne, The Tyneside Widow, 1888. 

TEEP [N.],atup. 

TEER, TEAR, to work at high speed, to run quickly, to eat 
voraciously. " He's tearin through wi'd." " He cam tearin 
alang." " He'll tear through his bait." " Tearin an' eatin." 
11 A teerin fella," a headstrong, swearing, tearing man. 

TEER WAR, a signal that men are ready at the bottom to 
ascend the pit. Mining Gloss. Newcastle Terms, 1852. 

TEESICKER, TEEZIKER, an overpowering quantity. 
When a man has got a task that overtaxes him, or an over- 
dose of medicine or too much drink, it is said, "He's got a 

TEETHRIFE, toothsome. 

TEHEYTEED, tatted, matted (as when the hair is in matted 
and combined locks), unkempt. 

" His teheyteed hair stannin up." 

T. Bewick, The Howdy, ed. 1850, p. 10. 

TEHUHM, empty. See TYUM. 

TEICHER, TEIGHER, to ooze from the skin. It is 
generally used in the participial form, teicherin (pronounced 
tie-heerin). A newly-broken skin on which matter is just 
forming is said to be teicherin, as when maggots are on the 
skin of a sheep, or when a watery humour issues from a 
wounded place. 


TELLERS, the successive strokes on a church bell, rung to 
tell the sex and age of a person just deceased. It is usual at 
village churches to knell the sex of an adult by nine strokes 
for a man, or six strokes for a woman, repeated on each of 
three bells. For a child three strokes are given and similarly 
repeated. Then follow a number of strokes on the treble 
bell to indicate the age, each stroke counting one year. In 
some places the age is given first. 

" The length of the toll gives the age of the departed ; this is followed 
by the tellers, nine strokes for a man. Hence the proverbial expression 
4 Nine tailors (tellers) make a man,' &c." R. Blair, Proceedings Newcastle 
Society of Antiquaries, vol. iv., p. 302. 

TIT, a tell-tale. Telly, talkative, and pie or piot, a magpie. 
" Telly pie-tit, yor tongue shall be slit, an' aall the bairns i' wor 
street shall hev a little bit," is the children's rhyme shouted 
after a tale-bearer. 

TEMPLE RODS, long hazel rods used in holding down 
thatch, the ends being held down by "scoubs." 

TEMSE, a sieve. See TIMSE. 

TEN, a piece of arable land in the common field. To each 
freehold burgage at Warkworth was attached one ten and 
one " scribe " of land in Newtown. The tens measure from 
eighteen yards long by eight and a quarter yards wide, or 
about five perches upwards, to six and a half perches in area. 
Their size has varied by gradual encroachments upon road 
or waste lands as circumstances permitted. See SCRIBE. 

TEN, a measure of coals upon which the lessor's rent or 
royalty is paid. In the seventeenth century the term meant 
ten score bolls, barrows, or corves of coal. It now means 
usually about fifty-one and three-quarter tons, but varies in 

TENDER, in a pit, the former name for a small rapper or 
signal rope. 

TENDER, friable, as coal that is easily broken. Also a soft 
or crushed condition of strata. " The top's varry tender t 

TENNEL, to die away ; applied to trees. Brockett. 

TEN-O'-CLOCK, a light repast taken at that hour in the field, 
especially at harvest-time. " He' ye had yor ten-o' -clock yit ? " 
" Fower-o'-clock," the same at four p.m. 


TENPENNY-NAIL, a strong nail ; probably so-called from 
its weight (ten pennyweights). 

TENT, care ; in the expression to " Tyek tent" To tend, 
guard, take care of, take heed to. 

"When Foxes preach tent well your Geese." G. Stuart, Joco-Senous 
Discourse, 1686, p. 64. 

" Yon yauld lad 
That tents his flocks on the mountain side." 

James Armstrong, Fair Joan, 1879. 

TENTALE, rent paid to the lessor of coal at so much per ten 
of coals. See TEN, 2. 

TETHER-GRASS, the Galium aparine, L. 

TEUF, tough, tedious, difficult. " A teuf job." Teufish, in 
good condition, strong, tough. 

" He stares i' maw fyece an' says ' How d'ye de ? ' 
1 Aw's teufish,' says aw, ' Canny man, how are ye ? ' " 

T. Moor, The Skipper's Dream. 

TEUFIT, TUIFIT, the peewit, Vanellus cristatus, Meyer. 
Called also peesweep, lapwing, and crested lapwing. " Teufit 
Hill " is the name of a farm near Ponteland. Teufit-land, 
Tuifit-land, cold, damp, bleak and barren ground. So-called 
from being the common haunt of the peewit. 

TEW, a laboured effort. " Aa'd a hivvy tew ti get here." It is 
as frequently used in a plural form, as u sair tews" excessive 
exertions. *' Man, we'd sair tews amang us to manage wor 
keel." " We reached the Moor wi' sairish tews." Tew, Tue, 
to toil and struggle with a difficult undertaking ; to work 
laboriously and continuously ; to suffer distress through work 
or rough handling ; to crush and crumple a dress. *' Aa've 
tew'd at the job till aa's paid" (beaten). "Tew'd ti deed," 
"Tew'd ti bits" overcome with exertion. " Tewin on" 
struggling on. "Me goon wis aal tew'd" my dress was all 
rumpled and crushed. 

TH. In Northumberland the initial Th is always retained, 
and is never shortened to a mere T'. The medial th often 
becomes d ; thus hather and hadder (for heather), slither and 
slidder (to slide), weather and wedder (a sheep), are 'almost 
equally common. 

THACK, THAK, thatch, " Thack hoose "a thatched house. 


THAE, THEE, those, that. ''What's a' thae smeyuk 
thonder?" "Thee kye," "Thee folk," etc. Compare THAME 
and THOR. 

THAIRM, THARM, catgut, fiddle-strings. "As dry as 

" Lovingly plied hair and thairm together" (that is, played the fiddle). 

Northern Minstrels' Budget. 

THAME, them, those. 

" Thame days the sarvin lads was train'd to de yen's biddin." Geo. 
Chatt, Old Farmer, 1866. 

THARF, THARFISH, lumpish, heavy-countenanced, 
forbidding. Applied to substances it means " sad," heavy, 
like liver in texture. Tharfly, slowly, reluctantly. " She's 
gan varry tharfly " (said of a clock that appeared to be ready 
to stop at any moment). " He spoke tharfly aboot it " spoke 
with hesitance or reluctance. 

unleavened cake made of barley-flour and wheat-meal with 
milk, rolled out very thin, and hung over the fleaks in the 
kitchen or baked on a girdle. A thicker tharf-cake was 
sometimes made of hinder-end wheat, pea-meal, and dressed 
" chisel," baked in the oven. 

" They had twoalve bayrnes, an' brout them o up ti men and women, 
an' tho' they never gat owse better than thaaf-keahyk, crowdie, an* milk, 
or tatees an' soat, they war as reed-cheekt an 1 thriven, an' leuked better 
than the swire's bayrnes, or ony gentlemen's on Teyneside." T. Bewick, 
The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. n. 

THAT (adverb), so. 

" 'Twas an awful dark neet, aw mind ; that dark we couldn't see 
what we wor taakin aboot." E. Corvan, The High Level. 

"Trouts that thick i 1 the Thrum below Rothbury." Rambles in 
Northumberland, 1835, p. 69. 

THE, THI (e or * short), is heard in " Jfo-day," to-day; 
"the-mom" or " the -morn's morn," to-morrow; "tffo-neet," 
to-night; "the-noo" or "ye-noo," now, just now; "ffo-reckly" 
or " z^-recklies," directly, instantly ; "//^-gither," together. 

THEAK, THEEK, THAKE, THAK, thatch ; also to thatch. 
Thak-nails, pins or stobs for fastening down thatch. Called 
also strabrods. Compare SCOUBS. Theaker, a thatcher. 

THERE-OR-THEREABOUTS, just about, approximately. 


THIEF AND REAVER BELL. At the time of sounding 
the curfew on the evening of the day on which each fair was 
proclaimed, the great bell of St. Nicholas was rung, and 
called by the common people the thief and reaver bell. It was 
meant as announcing that the fair had begun, all people 
might freely enter the town and resort to it, no process being 
issued from the mayor's or sheriff's courts without affidavits 
being made that the party could not at other times be taken. 
Richardson, Newcastle Municipal Accounts, p. 90. 

THILL, the floor of a coal seam. On this, flat deals of beech 
wood were formerly laid to form the " ways " for the sleds or 
trams. A " holey thill " was one of these tramways when 
worn into holes by the passage of the trams. The under- 
layer of a coal seam frequently consists of a thin bed of fire- 
clay ; hence thin strata of that material are called thill, 
irrespective of their position with regard to a seam of coal ; 
or any stone partaking of the nature of indurated clay is 
called thilly. Thus " thilly metal," " metal thill" " limestone 
thill" " sand thill," " stone thill," " thill stone," etc. 

"The Thill, or bottom under the coals you would work." J.C., Compleat 
Collier, 1708, p. 14. 

" The thills or underclays of coals." Lebour, Geology of Northumberland, 
etc., second ed., 1886, p. 12. 

THINK-ON, to remember, to recollect, to remind. " Aa didn't 
think-on." " If aa'd oney thouten-on." 

" Thou mun think on of onions tee." 

T. Wilson, Market Day, 1854. 

THINK-SHYEM, to feel ashamed or abashed. " Wey, man, 
ye should think shy em!" Thinksta, thinkest thou ; common 
colloquial form, generally used interrogatively for " don't you 
think?" "It'll be as well to de'd, thinksta?" "What 
thinksta t noo?" 

THIRL, to bore, or drill, or perforate with a light, swift- 
moving instrument, and hence also intimately to penetrate 
the affections. Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol iii., 
p. 149, n. Thirlins, passage-ways in coal mines.- An old 

THIRLAGE (used by metathesis for thralage), thraldom, 
bondage. A common expression in Northumberland. 
Hodgson MS. Compare THRALAGE. 

" Thirlage to this day means that service of certain lands, the tenants 
of which are bound to take their corn to grind at the lord's mill." 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. iii., p. 149, n. 


THIRLWALL, one of the names given to the Roman Wall in 
former times. 

THIRST, a thrust. See THRUST. 

THIVEL, THYBEL, a round stick, usually of willow, peeled 
or barked ; about fifteen inches long and three-quarters of an 
inch in diameter ; used to stir porridge. It is also called 
a porridge pirtle. 

THOCK, to breathe heavily or pant with exertion. 

" Here cums little Andra Karr, plishplash throw the clarts, thockin and 
blowin." T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

THOFT, the thwart or seat athwart a boat. 

THOLE, to bear, to endure. " Aa canna thole nee langer." 
To wait enduringly, to wait for, to defer, or deny oneself of a 
requirement. " No, thank ye ; aa think aa can thole." Used 
also in rallying one whose person or character requires 

" We can aa thole amends." 

Northumberland proverb. 

" He that hath a good crop may thole some thistles." 

Newcastle proverb. 

THON, THONDER, yon, yonder. " Whe's thon ?" or 
*' Whe's thon chep?" who is yon man? " De ye see thon 
hoose ower there ? " 

" Thonder he comes." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Song of Solomon, 

Northumberland version, ch. ii., v. 8. 

THOO, thou ; sometimes shortened to tu or ta. Thoo'll, thou 
wilt. Thoo's, thou art or thou shalt. Thoo is only used by 
intimates, or by a superior or senior to an inferior. Used in 
any other way it expresses the greatest possible contempt for 
the person addressed. 

" That no man of the said fellowship use any unfitting or any vile 
words of occasion of any strife or debate, as to thowe or belie one another, 
or draw any dagger, &c." Saddler's Ordinary, A.D. 1533. Welford, Hist, 
of Newcastle, vol. ij., p. 136. 

" Mendicus : ' God save my gud maister and maistresse, the barnes, and 
all this halie houshade. Our Father whiche art in heaven, hallowed bee 
your names, your kyngdome come, your willes be doen in earth,' &c. 
Civis : ' Methinke I doe heare a good manerly Beggar at the doore, and 
well brought up. How reverently he saieth his Pater noster ! He thous 
not God, but yous him. 1 " Bullein, Dialogue, 1564, E. E. Text Society, 

p. 5- 

41 Wour dance began awd buck-tyuth'd Nan,' 
An' Geordy thou'd Jen Collin, O." 

J. Selkirk, Swalwell Hopping, 1807. 


THOOM-ROPE, a short straw-rope, extemporized by twisting 
it on the thumb of the right hand whilst the length required 
is drawn evenly through the left hand. It is used for securing 
bottles of straw as they are brought from the stack. 

THOOTLE, to endure, to wait. " Aa canna thootle na 
langer " cannot be put off any longer. 

THOR, THIR, THUR [N.], THAE, THEE, those. 
" What's a' thor" what are all those ? " Some o' thor days." 
Thor, thors, their, theirs. Thorsels, themselves. Th'or, they 

"Tell thor greet folks what we're thinkin aboot." Robert Elliott, 
Pitman gan ti Parliament. 

THOUT, a thought, a small quantity of anything. " Aa thont 
much " was ashamed or bashful. 

THOWEL, a thole-pin. See THYEA. 
THOWLESS, wanting in energy, useless. 

THRAA, the throw or amount of vertical displacement of a 
stratum occasioned by a fault. Doonthraa, the low side of a 
fault. Upthraa, a rise hitch or elevated side of a fault ; 
applied when this is smaller than an " upcast." 

THRAA, to turn by force, to twist. A fowl is strangled by 
"thraain an' reein " its neck. " Thvaa the key" turn the 
key in its lock. " Thvaa the mooth " to twist the mouth, to 
make a wry face. Deed-thraa, death throe, the last agony. 
Thraa-cruck, a crank with a hooked end, used for twisting straw- 
ropes. An old sickle is sometimes made into an extemporized 

KYEK. Customs formerly in vogue at weddings. When 
the bride returned from church and had arrived at her new 
home, she was lifted down from her horse before the door and 
some cake was thrown over her head for luck. Sometimes 
the plate was also thrown along with the cake. At a later 
stage the bride's stocking, taken off the left leg, was thrown 
by her over her left shoulder among a waiting party of lads 
and lasses. The one on whom it fell was to be the next 
married of the company. 

THRAIL, a flail 


THRALAGE, thraldom, bondage, pecuniary difficulty. Some- 
times written thirlage. 

THRANG, busy. " Are ye thrang the day ? " 

" As thrang as Throp's wife when she hanged hersel wi' the dish- 
cloot." Old saying. 

THRAVE, THREAVE, a measure of corn or straw; applied 
also as the term for a portion of tillage land (query, as much 
as produced a thrave of corn). A thrave of straw equals two 
stooks of twelve sheaves each, that is twenty-four sheaves, 
ninety-six pounds in weight. 

" 1571. Thos. Cuthbert of Howick deposes that a thrave of wheit 
would be but a keninge of corn for that ever a thrave wold be but 
a kening of corne of no [sic] grain." Depositions at Durham Consistory 

" Item, taken by the Scottish Army, A.D. 1643 (at Nafferton in 
Northumberland), Imprimis, of hard corn seventeen score thraves, at two 
thraves a boll, &c. Item, of oats twenty-three score thraves and seven 
odd, at two thraves a boll." Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., 
p. 219, n. 

THREAD, a horizontal parting in a stratum. Thready, filmy, 
in thin layers. 

" White post, or freestone without threads or facings." R. Scott, 
Ventilation of Coal Mines, 1868, p. 35. 

THREAP, THREEP, THREPE, to aver with pertinacity; 
especially used in speaking of persistence in a false accusation 
or assertion. "He threaped doon through." "He threaped 
doon thump." " He threaped a lee i' me fyess." 

"To threap or threap down (North-Country word), to affirm positively, 
to persist in a thing obstinately." New World of Words, 1706. 

" Yet still aw cannot help but wonder, 
When aw's threep't out o' what's se clear." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 38. 

" debateable lands " on the Border ; the term for land the 
ownership of which is disputed. 

" All the claymers and chalongours of the landez callid Eatable landez 
or Threpe landez." Truce of 1449, Rymer's Collection, vol. xii., p. 244. 

" Threapvfood, as its name imports, had once been debateable land." 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. iii., p. 369. 

"Part of Wooler Common is still undivided, owing to disputes 
respecting it. It is called Threap-ground.' 1 Denham, Folk Lore of 
Northumberland, etc., 1858, p. 55. 

From Dead Water, North Tynedale, " a long tract of land stretches 
southward, which was formerly Debateable Land, or Threap Ground ; but 
which, in 1552, was divided by agreement between the proper officers of 
both nations," Mackenzie, Northumberland, 1825, vol. ii., p. 257. 


THREAST, THRIST, a thrust, especially applied to the 
internal sensation of pain in the bowels felt on pressure. 
" Aa feel a thrist." See PREESE. 

THREE-HOLE-TEAZER, a game at marbles, played with 
three holes scooped in the ground. 

THREE-QUARTER-COAL, a seam of coal about three- 
quarters of a yard in thickness. Three-quarter-man, a well- 
grown, strong lad. In collieries, the trams were formerly 
dragged along by a boy who held two "soams" in his hand 
and pulled, whilst a stronger lad " put " from behind. The 
boy in front was called a "foal," "foaley," or " quarter-man," 
and if there were disparity between the two the stronger lad 
behind was known as a three-quarter-man. If the two lads 
were of an equal strength they were called "half-marrows." 

"The 3 Quarter Coal about 3 Quarters thick or more, all which are 
foul or bad Coals, and not worth much." Compleat Collier, 1708. 

THREESOME, three together. Threesome reel, a reel danced 
by three persons. So also twosome and fowersome. 

THREE-THRUMS, the purr of a cat. " D'ye hear pussy 
singin t hree -thrum s P " See THRUM. 

THREEVELESS, sleeveless, useless, bootless. " A threeveless 
errand," one where the messenger is sent with " his fingers 
in his mouth" with insufficient information, and consequently 

THREGH, THRE [N.] , from. A variant of fve\ " Aa kept 
'im comin thregh the market " met him coming from the 
market. 9 

THRIBBLE, THREBBLE, threefold. "Ye've paid just 
thribble as much for'd as ye owt." 

THRIFT-BOX, an earthenware, tin, or wooden receptacle for 
children's savings. 

THRIMMEL, THRIMLE, to squeeze out between finger and 
thumb, as money is dealt out ; especially to finger in a 
niggardly manner, to dole out or pay with careful or reluctant 

" He thrimmel'd out what he'd to pay." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., v. 67. 

" The parish now, wi' miser's care, 
Mun thrimmel out some sma' relief." 

The same, pt. iii., v. 53. 


THRIMMEL, to catch fish by clutching them in the hand. 
To guddle, to gump, to tickle, or to kittle, are similar terms 
applied to the operation. 

THRIMPT, pressed closely. 

" His hands in his kwoat pockets, beayth thrimpt owr his thees." 
T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

" Monny oh them thrimped in." The same. 

THRISSEL, THRISTLE, a thistle, any plant of the genus 
carduus. " Queen Anne's thrissel" Carduus nutans. "Milky 
thrissel," the C. Mariamis. " Bog thrissel" the C. Palustris. 

"Old Sandy Armstrong, a cunning buffoon, walking in the woods at 
Capheaton, and laying his hands upon a large holly tree, exclaimed, 'Ah, 
what a muckle thristle.' " Raine, Life of Hodgson, vol. ii. 

Turdus musicus, L. Called also grey bord and (on the Border) 

THRIVEN, well nourished. They leuked reed cheek'd an' 

THRODDEN, to make grow, to thrive. Hence throdden and 
throddy, plump, fat, well thriven. Brockett. 

THROF, froth. 

" Throf, a curious metathesis for froth, peculiar, it is believed, to this 
northern district." Embleton MS. 

THROPPLE, the wind-pipe properly, but commonly used for 
the neck, the throat. " Let's wet wor thropples " let us 
drink. Thropple, to throttle, to grasp by the throat. 

through stone, a bond or tie-stone going through the entire 
thickness of a wall. Probably confounded with through, from 
side to side, and thruff, a stone coffin or grave slab ; the gh 
having usually the sound of /in the dialect. See THRUFF. 

THROUGH-GAN, a thorough reprimand or taking to task. 
To take a person through-hands, to reprimand or examine a 

THROUGH-GYET, a season of difficulty. " What a through- 
gvet that man's had." 


THROUGH-OTHER, badly arranged ; a place or person 
without a plan ; hence applied to an aimless and confused 
condition of mind. " A varry through-other place this, mistor." 
" He's a through-other body." 

THROUGH WAYS, through-and-through. 
11 Gentle, semple through-ways nudged, 
Like burdies of a feather." 

T. Thompson, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry. 
Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 51. 

THRUFF, originally a stone coffin. Now applied either to the 
long stone slab laid on a grave or to the so-called " table " 
tombs, once common in churchyards. See THROUGH. 

" Roger Headley of Newcastle desires to be buried in St. Nicholas' 
Churchyard, nigh unto the throughe within the churchyard on the south 
side." Will, 1561. Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. ii., p. 369. 

THRUM, to purr. " The cat's happy ; d'ye hear hor thrumminP " 
" The Thrum " is the name at Rothbury for the narrow rocky 
channel of the Coquet. " To thrum " is to drum, to make a 
drumming noise, and the common saying at Rothbury, " It's 
gan to be bad weather; hear hoo the Thrum's roarin," 
suggests that the name originates from the thrum or sound 
made by the cascade. Strum and thrum both mean making a 
noise. Thrum, the thread end of a weaver's warp. Thrums 
or waste ends of threads were sold as ties for bags, 
puddings, etc. " We'll never care a thrum." Thrummy Cap, 
the name of a well-known local sprite, who was supposed to 
wear a cap or bonnet made of parti-coloured thrums, or 
weaver's ends. He haunted especially the cellarage of old 

THRUNTY, short, thick-set and sturdy. " A thrunty bairn," 
a healthy, well-conditioned child. 

THRUSH, a traditional sprite or boggle. See HOBTHRUSH. 

THRUSSEN (p.p.), thrust. It is used intransitively in the 
expression " The buds hes thrussen oot " the buds have 

THRUST, THIRST, the crushing down of the roof in a 
colliery when support has been too far worked out. 

THUD, a dead, heavy blow ; also the sound caused by a 
dead blow ; applied also to the dull and heavy report made 
by the rending of the strata far overhead when the coal has 
been extracted. Greenwell, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 
" Ye wad thought his feet was myed o' styen, 
He gaw sic thuds wi' dancin, O." 

Song, Wreckington Hiring. 


THUMB. To avoid the power of the evil one it was formerly 
the custom to clasp the hand over the thumb. This prevailed 
all over Northumberland. The power of the rowan tree was 
imperfect without this added precaution. Even the thumbs 
of the dead were carefully doubled within the hand in order 
to avert the evil spirits. 

THUMPIN, large, hearty. 

" Here's thumpin luck to yon toon, 
Let's have a hearty drink upon't." 

W. Watson, Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. no. 

Papaver rhceas, L. See COCKENS. 

THWARTNER, a name formerly given to the Roman Wall. 
THWART-SAW, a cross-cut saw. Brocket*. 
THYEA [N.] , the thole-pin of a boat. 

TID, to it. INTID, into it. OOTIND, out of it. 

" The kilted lasses fell tid pell mell." 

J. Selkirk, Swallwell Hopping. 

DAY. The Vulgar here in the North give (these) Names to 
Sundays in Lent, the first of which is anonymous. I suspect 
that the three first are Corruptions of some part of the 
antient Latin service on these days, perhaps the beginnings of 
Psalms, &c. " Te Deum," "Mi Deus," " Miserere mei." 
Brand, Popular Antiquities, 1777, p. 328. See CARLIN SUNDAY 

TIEHEERIN [N.], discharging matter from a wound. See 

TIE-POT, TIE-TOP, a garland. Brockett. 

TIFFLE, to employ the fingers much about anything. 


" To entangle, to mix and knot threads together, to ruffle." Brockett. 

TIG, a sharp blow or bat. Tiggy, the game of tig. See 

TIGHT. " As tight " just as soon. See TITE, ASTITE, STITE. 
TIL, to. See Tiv. 


TILL, TEEL [N.], hard shale, platy or splitting into plates 
in the lines of the stratification. Also boulder-clay. See 

TILLER, a waggon break ; called also a convoy. 

11 A strong crooked lever of wood, called a Convoy, or Tiller, is applied 
to both the hind wheels of the waggon which regulates its velocity." 
Mackenzie, Hist, of Northumberland, 1825, vol. i., p. 148. 

TIME, apprenticeship or time of engagement to serve. " Aa 
sarved me time tiv a shoemaker." Time, the journey once 
across a field in agriculture. Time-aboot, a double journey in 
field work, extending from heedrig to heedrig and back again. 

TIMMER, TIMMOR, timber. " Cross timmors," the cross 
beams of a building. Applied to personal qualities it means 
size, strength. " He's no' the timmer o' that man." Support, 
food, victuals are called belly-timmer. Timmer -leader, the man 
who leads or conveys timber, etc., to the working places in 
a pit. 

TIMMERSOME, timorous. Brockett. 
TIMMER-TYUN, a poor, thin voice. 

TIMSE, TEMSE, a sieve. A square timse, with a fine hair 
bottom, was formerly used for sieving flour or meal. Timse- 
sticks, the small frame supporting two laths or sticks on 
which the timse slides. The timse-sticks were placed on a 
table or sometimes fixed on the meal ark. Timse-breed, bread 
made from flour thus sifted. The dressing of flour and meal 
was formerly done largely in the house. 

TIN, to. See Tiv. 
TINE, to lose. 

" For to tine the gear and Simmy too, 
The ane to the tither's nae relief." 

Ballad, The'JFray o' Hautwessel. 

TINE, to shut, to enclose. Brockett. 

TING, urticaria, a quick and fatal disease in cattle, formerly 
very prevalent, and still not uncommon. In this disease the 
blood is found curdled or coagulated at death. 

TINGAL, a patch of wood put over a rent in a coble to 
prevent it leaking. 


TINKEL-TANKEL, an icicle. [Alnwick] . See ICE-SHOGGLE. 
TINKER, the ten-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus pungitius, L. 

TINKLER, a tinker, an itinerent vendor of earthenware, a 
gipsy. See CRAMER, MUGGER. 

" A stalwart tinkler wight was he, 
An' weel could mend a pot or pan." 

Roxby, Reedwater Minstrel, 1809. 

TINNEL, to die away ; applied to trees. Brockett. 
TINT, went. 

" Safe ower the bar a-heed we tint 

The day was fine an' sunny ; 
An' suen we left afar behint, 
Wor land o" milk an' honey." 

R. Gilchrist, d. 1844, Voyage to Lunnin, 1824. 

TINT (p.p.), lost. See TINE, i. 

" It had tint its companion." 

Sheldon, Minstrelsy of the English Border, p. 180. 

TIN'T, to it. " He went on tin't." 

TINY-TINY, the proclamation when anything is found. The 
claimant answers " miney-miney." See TINE, i. 

TIPPED, TIPT, tipsy. 

TIPPLE, to topple, to throw over, to fall over; to touch 
lightly. The game of trippet and quoit is played either as 
" farrest batter" or "tippler saves." Brockett. 

TIPPY, smart, fine, modish, tip-top. " Tippy Bob." Brockett. 
TIP-TAP-TOE, a child's game, played on a slate. 

TIRL, to strip off, to tear off, to produce a noise like the sound 
of tearing or flaying anything. To " tirl the bed-claes," to 
strip off the bed-clothes. To " tirl a stack," to unthatch it 
preparatory to threshing the corn. Slates are said to "come 
tirlin doon " when they are stripped off in a gale. " Tirled 
heels up," suddenly overturned or turned inside out. To 
" tirl at the door," to " tirl at the pin," to make a tearing or 
grating noise on the "pin " or door handle with a "titling 
ring." Doors were formerly provided with a long, notched, 


iron handle on which a loose iron ring was hung. Instead of 
rousing the house with a knock, the caller tirled the ring up 
and down the notches of the " tirling pin," or handle, and 
produced the sound from which the apparatus took its name. 

"Winds loud blew, wi' fury flew, 
And threat to tirl the riggin." 

Lewis Proudlock, Cnddie and his Crawing Hen. 

" When she came to Lord Beichan's gate, 
She tirled softly at the pin." 

Lord Beichan. Northumberland Minstrelsy, p. 67. 

TIRSE, to truss. " He's tirsin hay." 

TITE, soon, lief, willing ; usually joined with as. In the 
comparative form titer is used. " Titer him nor me" sooner 
or rather him than myself. See ASTITE, STITE. 

TITLARK, TITLIN, the meadow pipit, Anthus pyatensis, L. 
It consorts with the cuckoo, and is sometimes called cuckoo's 
titlin hence the phrase " gowk and titlin" used to describe 
an incongruous pair or association of any kind. The bird is 
also known as mosscheeper, syety Wull (sooty Will), and Sandy. 

TITTY, sister. 

" Care wiv his bleer-e'ed titty Grief." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 23. 

TIV, to ; used when a vowel follows. The alternative forms of 
the preposition are ti (before a consonant), and tiv, til, or tin 
(when followed by a vowel or mute aspirate). Tiv is some- 
times used for until. " Deeth winna come tiv he's ready." 

11 Aw waddent let him gan tiv aw browt him ti maw muthor's hoose." 
J. G. Forster, Song of Solomon, 

Newcastle version, ch. iii., v. 4. 


" Whereas there is a reckoning of 400!. between me and my son, 
William Brandling, I will that he shall have zool. of it as towcher and 
marriage money, which I gave him with my daughter Anne." Will, 
1569. Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. ij., p. 433. 

" It's no your Tougher I account, 
Tho ye're nae warse for having on't." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 30. 

TOD, DODD, a fox. Tod-hole, a fox hole. Tod's-tail, common 
club moss, Lycopodium clavatum, L. Tod occurs in place-names, 
as Tod burn, township in the parish of Long Horsley ; 
Todridge, township in the parish of Hartburn ; also a hamlet 
near Bingfield, etc. See DODD, 2. 


TODDLE, to walk quietly. Aa'll just be toddKn." 

TOD-LOWREY, an expression used to frighten children. 
" My word, here's Tod-lowrey comin." Brockett. 

TOFT. It appears most probable that it was a piece of 
ground on which the cottage and offices of a servile holder 
stood, perhaps including a small garden. It may have got 
its name from the clump of trees amongst which each cottage 
was placed. It is generally found in conjunction with croftum, 
the one the home and garden, the other a small close 
adjoining. Greenwell, The Boldon Buke. 

" One burgage, one toft, and a croft in Aydenbrigges." Inquest at 
Cartridge, 10 January, 1583. Harleian MS., 759, p. 43. 

TOKEN, a disc or strip of metal or leather having a distinctive 
mark or number on it. In a colliery each hewer attaches his 
token to the corf or tub of coals as it is hewed and sent 
out-bye, in order that his work may be identified and duly 
reckoned to his credit on its arrival at bank. Token-cabin, the 
office on the heapstead where the tokens are examined and 
sorted by an account-keeper called a token-man, whose 
assistant, called a token-lad, removes each token from the tubs 
as they are teemed by the banksman. 

TOM-AND-JERRY, a catcall. 

TOM CANDLESTICK, an upright pole, etc., with pincers at 
its head to hold rush candles. Hodgson MS. 

TOMMIES AN' BESSIES, the country name given to the 
Christmas sword-dancers. 

TOMMY, a little loaf. Brockett. 

TOMMY-ALLANS, the Sclavonian grebe, Podiceps auritus, L. 
A not uncommon winter visitant. 

TOMMY-LODGER, a loach. Called also lie loach, Meggv lotchy, 
and beardy loach. 

TOMMY-NORIE, the puffin, Fratercula arctica, L. Called 
also coulter-neb and sea-parrot. It is also called Tommy-noddy, a 
name which is commonly applied to people of abnormal 
appearance and of dwarfish stature. " Tommy -noddy ; big 
heed an' little body" a street-boy's gibe. 

TOM -TIT, the blue titmouse, Parus caruleus, L. Also called 
blue-bottle, blue-cap, and ox-eye. 


TOM-TROT, a toffy made with treacle. See CLAGGUM. 

TONGUE-BLUIDERS, a name for Galium aparine, L. Also 
called Robin-run-the-dyke, Robin (or Lizzie) run-the- hedge, grip- 
grass and tether-grass. 

TOOBERIN [N.] , a beating, a shaking. " Aa'll gie yea good 

TOON, a town ; but constantly applied to a steading or group 
of farm buildings with the adjacent cottages. Toon-gate, the 
village street. Toon-heed, Toon-foot, the upper and lower 
extremities of the village street. The suffix -ton in place- 
names is prevalent in Northumberland ; and little less so in 
the county of Durham. In Northumberland it occurs nearly 
two hundred times. In forty-eight of these the form is 
-ington (Wallington, Ovington, etc.). 

TOOT, to look out. Tooting-hole, a spyhole or loophole. See 

TOOTLE, to play the flute, to play a tin whistle. 

TOOZLE, TOWZLE, to rumple or ruffle. " He toozled a' me 
hair." Toozy, Towzy, in disorder, shaggy and unkempt. 

TOP, in mining, the portion of coal that has been kirved and 
nicked and is ready to be blasted or wedged down. Top, the 
blue flame above a candle or lamp, variously called the top, 
cap, or show, whose appearance indicates the presence of 
fire-damp in the mine. Top, in spinning, the quantity of flax 
put on to the " rock " at a time. 

" If ma top comes badly doon." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 75. 

TOPIT, the instrument which is screwed into the top length of 
a set of boring rods, under which is fixed the runner for 
lifting the rods with the jack-roll. Nicholson, Coal Trade 
Terms, 1888. 

TOPPER, a story that excels, anything superior. See CAPPER. 

TOPPIN, the top knot or the tuft of hair on the top of the 
head ; also a wig. 

" Stolen or taken out of a stable in the Walk Knowles, &c.,a dark Bay 
Gelding (having), a black main, a toppin Part long, Part short Hair, &c." 
Advertisement, Newcastle Courant, December i, 1722. 

" Her toppin pinned and padded neat." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 12. 


TOPS, the best sheep or lambs in a flock. Compare SHOTS. 

TOPS. In playing with peg-tops, if the top spin aslant and 
roll away it is called " slenty." The player next in turn is 
entitled to take " slenty one" that is, the top being laid in 
the ring or "boorey," one shot at it is taken. If the top 
fails altogether to spin it is called " deedy-three," three 
successive shots being allowed, the object being to peg it and 
split it. " Ivverlastin " is when a top fails to roll clear of 
the ring after spinning, when it must lie till it is either split 
or knocked out of the " boorey." " Hangy-nine " is the 
penalty of nine shots incurred when the top has become 
entangled or hung in its string. " Missy-boorey-ten " means 
ten shots for missing to spin within the boorey. 

TOP-SAWYER, TOP-SAAYOR, the man who stood on the 
log and guided the cut when sawing was done by hand in a 
saw-pit. The bottom-sawyer, or man in the pit below, simply 
pulled down the saw, and wore a mask to save his eyes from 
the falling sawdust. The head or chief in any kind of 
business is from this sometimes called a top-sawyer. 

TOPSMAN, the head man or manager, the chief hind or 
bailiff. (Brockett.) The head man in charge of a drove of 

" Cattle came periodically in droves, or drifts, sometimes extending a 
distance of two miles. They were always under the charge of one man 
who was called a topsman, and who had a pony to ride on." Forster, 
Hist, of Cartridge, 1881, p. 100. 

TOP-TAILS, head over heels. " He was tossed top-tails over 
the seat." 

TOP-WATTER, water percolating through the roof of a 
coal mine. 

TOR. a conical hill. Kirknewton Tor is the chief of Newton 

" The towering peaks of the Tors, conical hills, the highest being 1,762 
feet above sea level." James Hall, Guide to Glendah, 1887, p. 69. 

TO REETS, right, straight. " Put to nets" put right or 
mended. " Keep to reets " to keep orderly. 

" Noo Peg, maw bit wife, had kept a' things to reets." 

J. P. Robson, d. 1870, Bob Stacker's Secret. 
Bards of the Tyne, p. 212. 

TORFEL, TORFLE, to founder, to die, to fall. Brocket*. 
'To pine away, to die; to relapse into disease." Jamieson, 


TORMIT, a turnip. Tormit -brick, a break or partition in a 
turnip field netted off for sheep. Tormit -mornin, one of the 
holidays or " gaady-days" formerly kept by pit lads. Tormit 
shaw, a turnip top. See GAADY-DAY. Compare NEEP and 

TORN-THE-TYENGS, to turn the fire-tongs. In setting out 
on a journey one of the family turns the fire-tongs for luck. 

TOSH, a projecting or unseemly tooth ; a tusk. Brockett. 
TOSSELL, TOSSLE [N.] , to rumple. See TOOZLE. 

TOTE, all, whole. " The whole tote" 
" Tote and whole." Hodgson MS 

TOTY, TOATY, bad tempered. 
" A totey body. 91 Hodgson MS. 

TOUCHOUS, TOUCHIS, irritable, touchy, easily offended. 
" Mind hoo ye speak tiv him, he's varry totichis." 

TOUCHY, touchpaper. Called also matchy. It is still carried 
by old hinds, and ignited by using a frizzle and flint for 
lighting pipes in the fields. 

TOUGHT, a struggle, an altercation. " We hed a sair tought" 
TOUT, to spy, to look out. See TOOT. 
TOUTED, followed or pursued. Brockett. 

TOVE, to make a dense smoke. Tovin, making a great smoke 
by burning briskly. " Here he comes, tovin an' smyukin," said 
of a man smoking a pipe. 

TOW [N.] , a small rope or painter. Tow to tease, employment. 

" His horse ; 

A better never hang i' leather, 
Nor ever drew i' tow or tether, 
'Tween Tyne and Tweed." 

Poems, T. Donaldson, Glanton, 1809, p. 63. 

TOWEN, TOWN, to subdue, to tame. 

" To tame, especially by beating ; as to towin, or town, an unruly 
horse. ' ' Jamieson . 

"Aw think, says Dick, aw wad her towen, 
And verra suin her courage cuil." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 64. 



TOWLING, whipping and teasing horses. A former practice 
among boys at Newcastle Horse Fairs. Bwckett. 

TOWT, TOWTCH, old rope, oakum made of old rope yarns 
teased out. Also pieces of spun-yarn or a single strand of 
tarred rope cut into convenient lengths and used as lashings. 

" Their physic, they say, in a trice, 
Snaps ev'ry disease like a towt ; 
But the best on't a' is their advice 
Ye can get it free gratis for nowt." 

Quack Doctors. Ross, Songs of the Tyne, p. 8. 

TOW-WUDDY, the piece of chain by which harrows are 
trailed. In Scotland this is called trodwiddie, and the back- 
band or chain of a cart-horse is called a ngwiddie. The 
" widdy " or willow was in former times used instead of rope. 

TOYTE, to totter as in old age. 

TRADGY, a boys' game at ball, otherwise known as rounders, 
and formerly called pie ball locally. 

TRAICKLE-WOW, treacle beer. 
TRAIGLES, slovenly, untidy work. 

TRAIK, TRAKE, a walk, a set journey. "He hed a lang 
traik efter them." Compare RAKE and OUTRAKE. 

TRAIK, TRAKE, the carcase of a sheep that has died a 
natural death. It is also known as fa' en meat (fallen meat) 
and saf. Traik is a general term for all dead mutton, as 
distinguished from butchered mutton ; it is often salted and 
used for food. " Braxy," on the contrary, refers to death 
from a specific disease. 

TRAIK, to look languid as in bad health, to appear pale and 
consumptive looking. Traiky, unwell, in declining health. 
" To drop the wings as do poultry out of health." Brockett. 

TRAIL-JUD, in mining, an excavation made narrow at first 
and then increased to the required width afterwards. 

"Drive forward three or four yards narrow, and then take offajud 
sideways to make the board the proper width." Greenwell, Coal Trade 
Terus, 1888. 

TRAIL-POKES, TRAIL-WATTLES, a very slow person. 


TRAM, the sledge or carriage on which corves or tubs were 
formerly carried. Trams and tubs are now made in one. 
Sometimes tram was applied to the two lads in charge of it 
called a "tram of lads." "Half a tram," the work of one 
putter where two are engaged on a tram. Horney-tram, a tram 
having 'four iron horns and used for conveying pit-props, etc. 
Tram-plate, an angle-shaped rail on which trams were run 
before flanged wheels became general. Trams [N.], cart or 
barrow shafts. Tramway, originally a tramway of timber ; 
describe I as " square wooden rails laid in two right parallel 
lines, and firmly pegged down on wooden sleepers. The tops 
of the rail are plained smooth and round, and sometimes 
covered with plates of wrought iron. About the year 1786 
cast iron railways were introduced as an improvement 
upon the tram or wooden rail- way." Mackenzie, History of 
Northumberland, 1825, pp. 146-7. 

" The wages for the barrow-men is usually about twenty pence, or two 
and twenty pence a day for each tram (that is to say) for putting so many 
loaden corves, as are carried on one sledge, or tram in one day to the pit 
shaft." 1708. J. C., The Compleat Collier, p. 39. 

" Weill batterit with a barrow tram." 

Dunbar, d. 1530, Maitland Poems, p. 93. 

" There is my horse, and there is my tram ; 
Twee horns full of grease will make her to gang." 
Old song, The Collier's Rant. 

Northumberland Garland ', 1793. 

" Trams now a 1 run on metal ways." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 67. 

TRAM, to take a conveyance. 

" Liddell, why he from Durham came, 

Can tell yon best himsel, 
But home again he'd better tram, 
Or, we'll send him to hell." 

Northumberland election squib, 1826. 

TRAMP, the part of a spade on which the foot is placed to 
thrust. Tramp-clog or Tramp, an iron plate worn by drainers 
as a guard to the boot in digging. It is a piece of iron plate 
fastened by straps and buckles to the instep of a boot sole, 
and used as a guard where the spade is trodden in digging. 

TRAM PER, a person who earns his livelihood by tramping 
and selling things he carries about. A beggar. Hodgson MS. 

TRANCE, a passage in a house. 

" A trance or passage into a house." Westgarth Forster, Section of Strata, 
second ed., 1821, p. 242. 


TRANSLATOR, a Castle Garth cobbler. Worn boots and 
shoes were bought and cobbled, or translated, into wearable 
articles by those now nearly obsolete craftsmen, whose shops 
lined the Castle Garth Stairs in Newcastle, and divided the 
Black Gate shops with those of the old clothiers. 

" But man, when the Garth aw espied, 

Aw was nowther to had or to bin, man ; 
For translators and tailors aw cried, 

But the devel a yane aw could find, man." 

Song, The High Level Bridge. 

TRAP-DOOR, an air-door in a >pit. Trapper, a boy who opens 
and shuts the air-doors in a pit. 

" In the olden time, the early years of a pitman's life that is, from 
the time of his taking his seat behind the door until he took up the picks 
to hew or in other words, from his being a trapper at six years of age 
until he became a hewer at about twenty were nearly all spent ' belaw,' 
with frequently only very short intervals for rest." T. Wilson, Pitman's 
Pay, preface, 1843. 

TRASH, to wear out with overwork, to fatigue excessively. 
" Ye'll trash the life oot on't." " Aa's trashed ti deed " 
fatigued or worn to death. 

TRAVEL, to walk in a pit. A travelling-road or travelling- 
board, a road provided for the workmen in a colliery to go 
to and from their work without going on to the engine plane. 
Travelling-money is an allowance sometimes paid when the 
working places are a great distance from the shaft. 
Nicholson, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

TREE-CREEPER, the creeper, Certhia familiaris, L. This 
bird is a resident, found throughout the district wherever 
wood prevails. Hancock, Birds of Northumberland, etc., p. 30. 

TREED, an injury caused by trampling. When a horse has 
injured himself by setting one foot on another he is said to 
have " getten a treed." Treed-road, a beaten path. 

TREE-POT, a flower-pot. 

TREET, the second quality of bran. The finest quality is 
called "sharps " and the coarsest " chizzel." See CHISEL, i. 

TRENAIL, tree nail, a wooden nail or pin. Used in building 
old frame houses and ships. The trenails of a cart are the 
wooden " stours " round its sides. A " bolt " is made of metal, 
and is distinguished from a trenail. 

TRESSES, the frame of a table. " The tyebl tresses." 



TRET, (p.t. of treat; p.p., tretten), treated. This strong form 
is always used. " The bairn had been badly tretten." 

" They'll myek the cheps 'mends for the way they been tret." 

Battle on the Shields Railway. Bards of the Tyne, 1849. 

TREWES, truce. "Days of trewes," on the Border, were 
those when the commissioners of both kingdoms met for 
the redress of grievances, during which time a truce was 
observed. The articles agreed upon were styled " the laws 
of trewse." (Obs.) 

TRICK-HOLE, a trap filled with water or mud and concealed 
by a layer of turf supported by small twigs. A boys' game 
is to place this in the path of an unwary passer. 

TRIFLED, beaten down with wind or rain ; applied to grass 
or grain. " The corn's that trifled thor's nee gettin't cut." 

TRIG, the starting line in a race, which may be either a 
stretched cord, a stick, a post, or an imaginary boundary. 
" Toe the trig " keep your toe on the starting line. " Come 
back ti the trig " is shouted when a false start has been 
made. To " stand her trig" to " stand his trig" to stand 
ready to begin either at a social dance or on the bowling 
course. Trig, neat, spruce, true, reliable. Trig, to brace up, 
to tighten. A contracted sinew is said to be trigged. A nut 
screwed up until it is quite tight is also said to be trigged. 
" Trig as a lennard " (spruce as a linnet). Newcastle proverb. 

" Hail, rain, or blaw, 'mang sleet or snaw, ye'll 

find wor boolin men 
Watchin the trig." 

Ed. Corvan, Tyneside Champions, 1862. 

Allan's Collection, 1891, p. 431. 
" My loyalty's trig." 

T. Thompson, Canny Newcastle. 

" Your courage is trig," 

R. Emery, Sandgate Pant. 

Allan's Collection, 1891, pp. 49-299. 

TRIM, to castigate. " Aa'll trim yor jacket for ye." 

TRIM, to cast in and level the coals as they are loaded at the 
hatchway of a ship. Trimmer, the man who trims or spreads 
the coals in a ship's hold as they are shot in from the drop or 

"A set of men called trimmers, who with shovels and rakes distribute 
the coal, or trim the cargo." Greenwell, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

TRIMMING, hair dressing. The term occurs throughout the 
books of the Company of Barber Surgeons at Newcastle. 


TRINCKUMS, odds and ends, trinkets (?). 

" He laid his trinckums on the table." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 60. 

TRINKLE, TRINDLE, TRINNEL, to trickle; applied to 
the action of stones or earth in running down steep planes. 
To throw any material in heaps so as to separate or examine 
it as it gravitates in this manner. 

" I employed two steady men to dig and trindle the earth adjacent." 

Archceologia jfEliana, vol i., p. 100. 

TRINNILIES, small coals, but not dead small. Compare 

TRIPET, an iron grating placed on the top of (and across) the 
kitchen fire for pans to rest on. A trivet. 

TRIPPET, a trap or piece of wood made with a shallow 
pocket at one end for a ball, pointed at the other, and set up 
at an angle, so that on being tripped or struck the ball is 
jerked up in the air. Trippet- and -quoit, the game in which 
it is used, played with a ball or quoit, called a "liggy," 
originally a ball of wood. The player holds in his hand a 
flexible hazel-stick or cane, to the end of which is spliced a 
heavy wooden head called a " buck." The trippet is tapped 
smartly, when the quoit or ball springs into the air, and is 
struck in its descent, the object being to drive farthest. The 
distance is measured by paces or by the number of rigs 
across which the quoit or liggy has been driven. 
" On cock-fight, dog-fight, cuddy-race, 
Or pitch-and-toss, trippet-and-coit, 
Or on a soap-tail'd grunter's chase, 
They'll risk the last remaining doit." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 28. 

TRIVEETCH, TRIBEETCH, a partition between two stalls 
in a stable. Triveetch-post, the post at the rear end of a stall. 

TROD, a beaten path, a track. The treading part on a stair. 
The bearing or wearing rim of a flanged wheel, which is said 
to measure so many inches "in the trod" ; that is, so many 
inches diameter not including the flange. See HOT-TROD. 

" They may lawfully follow their (stolen) goodes either with a sleuth 
hounde the trodde thereof, or ellse by such other meanes as they best can 
advyse," Sir Robert Bowes, 1551. 

"A.D. 1563. Parties grieved to follow their lawful trade with hound 
and horn, with hue and cry, and all other manner of fresh pursuit, for 
the recovery of their goods spoiled." Nicholson, Leges Marchiarum, 
p. 127. 

" This path, or trod as it is locally called." Newcastle Daily Chronicle, 
September 2, 1887, p. 6, col. i. 


TROKE, to truck, to negotiate with, to be on familiar terms. 
" He winna troke wiv him " will have no dealings with him. 

TROLLY-BAGS, a part of tripe. " Tripe and trolly-bags." 
" There's Sandgate for aud rags, 

A you, hinny burd ; 
And Gallowgate for trolly-bags, 

A you a." 
Old nurse song. Allan, Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 30. 

TROON, TRUNE, TROWEN, a mason's or bricklayer's 

TROONS, TRONES, weighing scales, steelyards ; sometimes 
applied to the common spring-balance. " Bring the tvones an' 
let's wee (weigh) this cabbish." 

TRONER, an official weighman formerly appointed in 

TROOTENS, small trout. "Bye! what a lot o' trootens." 

TROUBLE, a fault or hitch in the strata of a pit ; also any 
break in the subterranean continuity of a bed. Hugh Miller, 

Geol. Survey Memoir, 1887. 

" Troubles may be denominated dikes of the smallest degree, for they 
are not a real break, but only an approach towards it which has not 
taken a full effect. The strata are generally altered by a trouble from 
their regular site to a different position." Brand, Hist, of Newcastle, ii., 
p. 680, n. 

TROW, TROU, a trough ; also a dish or depression in 
stratified rocks. Sleck-trow, a blacksmith's stake-trough. 
Trow-styen or trow-steahyn, a stone water-trough usually set 
under a pump or pant. Compare, in opposition to trow, 
the pronunciation of " b rough "= broof, " plough " = pleuf, 
1 ' through " = thruff. 

" Sit doon, Andra, on the trou steahyn." T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., 
ed. 1850, p. 10. 

TROWS, a double boat, consisting of two single, narrow, flat- 
bottomed boats, each about ten feet long, fourteen inches 
extreme breadth, and twelve inches deep, united at the stem 
and diverging by an angular curve towards their sterns, 
which are braced together at the top by a piece of flat board. 
The trows is or was used in the North Tyne in spearing 
salmon in parts of the river where they cannot be taken with 
a net. One man usually guides the trows with a pole or bang, 
whilst another stands with one leg in each trow, holding a 
leister in his hand ready to strike the fish. S. Oliver the 
Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 154. 


TRUNKS, small hoop nets for lobster catching. Each net is 
about a foot deep, and its mouth is kept extended by a hoop 
or ring of the same diameter. The ring is hung horizontally 
and the net is suspended just clear of the ground. A piece 
of fish, generally a piece of sand-dab, is placed in the net as 
bait. S. Oliver the Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, 
p. 210. 

TRUNK-STAITH, a coal-spout at a shipping place. In 
former times a coal-staith was called a "dyke," or trunk if a 
shoot or spout was used, and a "drop" if the waggon was 
lowered and discharged over the ship's deck. 

"When the waggons are emptied into a keel or vessel by a spout, it is 
called a trunk-staith." Brand, Hist, of Newcastle, 1789, vol. ii., p. 256, n. 

TRUP, TRUPPEN (pret. and/./, of tramp), trampled. 

TRUSSING-COFFER, a pack saddle ; probably of the kind 
that we now call a portmanteau. (Obs.) 

" 1437. Some thieves had entered a chamber in the inn of John 
Thornton, of Newcastle, where John Bonner, of Berwick, was lodging, 
and stole two chests, commonly called trussing-coffers, containing twenty 
marks in gold and more, and various obligations, &c., belonging to 
Bonner." Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. i., p. 298. 

TRYIN THE CANDLE, judging by its appearance in a 
mine as to the proportion of gas present in the air. 
Nicholson, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. See TOP. 

TRYST, TRIST, a place of meeting, a concourse of people, as 
at a fair or cattle sale, etc. ; to appoint a meeting place. 

" At Alnwick there was a try sting tree by the side of the high carriage 
road, from the bridge at Filberthaugh to Hulne Abbey. In 1624 this 
tree gave its name to the wood in which it stood, which in a plan of that 
year is called ' the Trysting Tree Wood.' " Dickson, 1857, Hist, of B whs. 
Nat. Club, vol. iv., p. n. 

At the base of the cliffs, "where we were trysted to meet" the other 
party. The same, vol. vi., p. 180. 

TUB, originally a mining bucket, now specially applied to the 
open-topped box of wood or iron, mounted on wheels, in 
which coal is brought from the face to the surface. It has 
supplanted the old " corf," which was a basket carried on a 
tram. The tram and tub are now, in most cases, a single 
structure. The tub, containing twenty-four pecks, has an 
inside measurement of three feet in length, thirty inches in 
width, and twenty-six in depth. Tub-loaders, hewers who 
hew and fill the empty tubs at times when the pit is not 
drawing coals. 

"As to drawing of water, we generally draw it by tubs or buckets." 
J. C., The Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 28. 


TUBBER, a cant name for a cooper. Brockett. 

TUBBING, the circular water-tight casing in a shaft by 
means of which water is tubbed or held back in the water- 
bearing strata cut through in sinking. 

TUBBY-KIT, a small tub, a butter tub, or other small " kit." 

TUBE, the upcast from a pit carried from the shaft, from a 
few fathoms below the surface, into a separate outlet, 
surmounted by a high chimney. It is also called a cube or 

TUCK, the fish, father-lasher, Coitus bubalis, Yarrell. 
TUCKS, the posts used for holding weiring at a river side. 
TUE. See TEW. 

TUEDIAN, characteristic of the Tweed, a term proposed 
in 1856, by Mr. George Tate, of Alnwick, as a name for the 
lower part of the carboniferous limestone series of rocks on 
the south side of the Border that part of the series between 
the productal and encrinital limestones and the Upper Old 
Red Sandstone. Sections of this group of rocks occur in 
Northumberland at Garmitage Bank and Crawley Dene, six 
to nine miles west of Alnwick ; also in Biddleston Burn and 
below Linn Brig on the Coquet. 

TUEFOLD, TWOFOLD, a small outhouse. See TEE-FAA. 

" ' 1664. Reed, of Mark Hobson for a year's rent for a Tuefold, 2s. 6d.' 
1 1673. Paid for draweing of one Lease for Edward Wilson for the 
Twofold aback of the church, as. 6d." ' Churchwarden's Books, St. Andrew's 
Church, Newcastle. 

TUFT, a bed of fine-grained, siliceous stone, like ganister, 
which occurs in the carboniferous series below the Great 
Limestone. It is also known as water sill. 

TUG, to rob, to destroy. " To tug a nest." Brocket. 

TUIL, a tool, a simpleton. See TYUL. 

" This was wark for try in mettle, 
Here every tuil his level fand." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1827, pt. ii., v. 68. 

TUING, hard-working, energetic. See TEW. 

" By Jove ! thou is a tuing sow." 

E> Chicken, Collier's Wedding, 1729. , 


TUMBLER/TUMLER, a boulder, a detached block of stone. 
Tumbler beds, strata of loose material. The upper portion of 
the Great Limestone (in the mountain or carboniferous 
limestone) is called the tumbler limestone or tumbler beds, from 
its loose condition. Tumbling stones, loose, broken stones. 

" About sixteen feet of the upper part of the Great Limestone is called 
the Tumbler beds." Forster, Section of Strata, 1821, p. 103. 

" There was a space of about twelve inches between each, filled up 
with tumbling stones, apparently to support the flags." Archceologia, jEliana, 
vol i., p. 101. 

TUMBLER, TUMLER, a falling catch. 

TUNDER, tinder, Tunder-box, tinder-box. The tunder was 
made by burning shreds or cuttings of linen. These burnt 
particles glowed when a spark was struck among them, and 
by blowing the glow spread rapidly. A " spile " tipped with 
sulphur was then thrust into the glowing embers and a flame 
was thus obtained. These " spiles," tied in bundles and 
ready tipped for use, were regularly sold and hawked in 
Newcastle till after the middle of the present century. 

TURBLIN, slender, weak. 

TURBOT, the common name for halibut on the Northumber- 
land coast, Hippoglossus vulgaris, Flem. 

TURBRAT, the turbot, Rhombus maximus, L. Called also 
rod dams. 

TURF-GRAFT, a turbary or peat digging place. 

"All their landes att the Gatehouse, par. Bellingham with all 
sommeringes and sommering places, turfegrafts, &c." Bellingham Deeds, 
A.D. 1624. Avchceologia, JEliana, vol. vi., p. 151. 

TURN, TORN, the order in which vessels are arranged to 
load at a coal-staith. Turn-book, a book formerly kept for the 
purpose at the Turn Office in Newcastle. Turn Act, an act 
passed in May, 1810, for regulating the loading of ships with 
coals at Newcastle. 

" The sailors riding for their turns was one of the most laughable 
scenes that can be imagined." T. Wilson, Captains and the Quayside, 
1843, n. 

TURNING AWAY, commencing an excavation in a mine. 
TURNS, curved plates, used at a branch-off tramway. Compare 


TURNTHRAA, a lathe. 


TURSE, a truss of hay, etc. 

TUSHALAN, the colt's foot, Tussilago favfara, L. English 
Plant Names. It is also called dishalagie ; like " tushalan," a 
mispronunciation of tussilago. Its general name is foal-foot. 

TUTHILL, TOTE-HILL, an eminence. Of frequent 
occurrence in place-names. The Tuthill-stairs in Newcastle 
ascend the eminence (called Tout-hill in Bourne's map, 1736) 
from The Close to Clavering Place. A field on the farm at 
Ulgham Grange is call the Tyut-hill. In old formal gardens 
a tout-hill was an artificial mound formed for the purpose of 
commanding a prospect. The word has nothing to do with 
toot, to wind a horn. It is the same as toot, to peep, to spy. 

"In a field, a little to the north-east of Hartington, there is a small 
conical hill, apparently natural, but artificially terraced, which is called 
the Tote-hill." Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii, vol. i., p. 286, n. 

together. In S. Northumberland two is twee-yh, on Tyneside 
twee, in N. tow. Tweefad, twofold. 

11 It wad ha'e gar'd ye split your sides till hae seen a twae-some, when 
they grappled, rowlin ower and ower i' the water." S. Oliver the 
Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, P- 156. 
" Sair these twosome did regret 
For canny Billy's death, man." 

Robert Nunn, Luckey's Dream. 

Allan's Tyneside Songs, 1891, p. 327. 

TWANG, a sudden paroxysm of pain ; a pang. A quick pull, 
a sudden seizure ; a tweak or twitch. A slightly unpleasant 
taste. Brockett. 

TWANK, to punish with a strap or cane. T wanks or twankin, 
' a punishment. 

TWIKES, TWIKEY, a game played with pointed stakes 
called twikes. The game is played by throwing a twike, 
which sticks into the turf. The opponent has to dislodge 
his adversary's twike and at the same time to fix his own 
into the soil. In another form of the game each player 
selects his home or base at ten or twelve yards' distance 
from a central spot. They then stand in the centre, and 
proceed to throw their pointed twikes until one fails to stick 
into the ground. The misser must then run to a fixed spot, 
whilst his companions commence to dig up the turf from his 
base, and to carry it to their own. At the end of the game 
each player has presumably a hole and a heap of this 
acquired turf at his base, and if the turf when laid down 
fails to completely fill the' hole a fine is inflicted. A similar 
game in some parts is called sticky-stack. 


TWIKLE, to walk awkwardly, as if with a twist in the legs. 

TWILL, TWULL [N.], a quill, a quill-pen, a spool to wind 
yarn on. 

TWILT, TWULT [N.] , a quilt. Twitt, to quilt, to stitch 
over a quilt. Twilted, quilted. " Her fine twitted petticoat." 
Twitting frames, the stretching frames used in quilting. 
Twitter, a quilt maker. 

TWIN, to part in two, to divide, to separate one from the 
other. In constant use. 

" The Lawlands o' Holland hae twinn'd my love and me." 

Old ballad, The Lawlands o' Holland. 
" Then out he drew a Gully-knife ; 
With that he twinn'd me and my Life." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 58. 

TWINE, to twist the mouth, to cry petulantly as a child does. 
Twisty -twiney, a constantly crying child. Hence twiney, 
applied to an invalid. " She's but twiney, poor body " that 
is, in a peevish, complaining condition through bodily 

"What afyece, begok! 

Had buckle-mouth'd Jock 
When he twined his jaws for the baccy, O." 

J. Selkirk, Swalwell Hopping. 

TWINER, a hook-shaped instrument used for twisting straw- 
ropes. See THRAA-CRUK, s.v. THRAA, 2. 

TWINEY, a rope maker, " He waaks backwards like an aad 
twiney gan doon the grund." 

TWINTER, two winters ; applied to a two-year-old steer in 
some places, but usually to a two-year-old ewe. 

" For sale, gimmer twinters." Auctioneer's advertisement, 1887. 

TWIST, the junction of the inside of the thighs of a sheep. 
George Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 104, n. 

TWIST, griping, twitching in the bowels, heartburn. 

Hodgson MS. 

TWIST, to cry. See TWINE. 
TWISTER, a puzzle, a difficulty. 


TWITCH, a short staff having a loop of cord at the end. 
This is passed over the upper lip or nose of a horse and 
twisted until it becomes tight, and by it the horse is held 
during an operation. 

TWITCH, in lead mining, the condition of a vein when the 
two sides or cheeks come close together, leaving little or no 
space between, and consequently causing a diminution or 
failure of the lode of ore. 

"The twitch, when the sides of the vein come together is either total or 
in part. Some of these twitches carry a small rib of solid ore right 
through." Westgarth Forster, Section of Strata, second ed., 1821, p. 236. 

BELL, an earwig. The names codgv-bell and forky-tail are 
also used in N. Northumberland. 

TWITCH-UP, to truss up a bundle of hay or other material. 

TWITE, the mountain linnet, Cannabinaflavirostvis, L. Called 
also the heather -linty. 

TWIZLE, to plait, to twist or double by twisting. In place- 
names Twizell is a township in the parish of Morpeth, and 
Twizel or Twisel a township in the parish of Norham. 
"She twizles her hair." Hodgson MS. 

" Hzu-twysle (now Haltwhistle), at the junction of Hautwysle Burn 
with the Tyne, possibly derives its name from the twizle of the two 
streams at that point. Twyford, at the junction of the North and South 
Tyne, has the same meaning." Hodgson MS. 

TWYEE, or TWYEE-AH-HA ! the call to a horse when 
coaxingly addressed. 

TYED, a toad. Tyed-riddins, Tyed-red, the spawn of frogs or 
toads. Tyed-styul) Paddock- sty ul, a toad-stool. 

TYEK, a take or sudden painful sensation, sometimes called a 
catch. " Aa've getten a tyek i' me side." 

TYEK, to take (pret., teuk or tyuk ; p>p>, tyen). Tyek doon, to set 
down, to rate soundly. Tyek efter, to take after, to show a 
likeness of. " He tyeks efter the fethor." Tyek had, to take 
hold. Tyek her bye, take it to one side or put it away. A call 
from the banksman to the breaksman meaning that the cages 
are no longer required, and may be removed to any part of 
the shaft most convenient to the breaksman (Nicholson). Tyek 
off, a caricature. Tyek off, to shorten. " The days hes begun 
ti tyek off." Tyek off, Tyek yorsel off, Tyek yor kite, begone, go 


away. Tyek on, to become attached to, also to manifest 
concern or grief. " Bella an' him's tyen on:' " She did tyek on 
badly when she lost the bairn." Tyek tent, to take care, to 
use foresight. Tyek through hands, to reprimand. Tyek time, 
to wait. " Tyek time, till aa fetch ye the galloway." Tyek up, 
to improve. " The weather '11 tyek up yit." Tyek is some- 
times, but rarely, spoken on Tyneside as check. 

TYEL-PIOT, a tale-bearer. 

TYEN, TEAN, one, in opposition to tother See TEAN, TA, 2. 

" The tyen was like Hob Fewster's cowt." 

Pitman's Ramble. 

TYET, a wisp or handful of grass, straw, etc. See TAIT, 2. 

TYUK, TUIK, took. Pret. of tyek, but used in the sense of 
struck. " He tyuk him sic a bat." " Ane tuik him on the 

TYUL, trouble, worry. " Y'or oney haddin him a tyul " only 
holding him a tease. To " had a fash " is to give one 
trouble. To had a tyul is to cause worry, trouble. Tyul, 
a tool, a simpleton. Had tyul, a hindrance, an annoyance. 

TYUM [T.], TOOM, TEEYUM [S. and W.-T.] , empty. 
Tyum set, an empty train of tubs. Tyum tail, returning without 
making a furrow ; a ploughman's term. 

" A tyum porse myeks a blate marchant." Newcastle proverb. 

"A house-fuh of bayrnes, an' mebbies but a tehuhm cubbard for 
them." T. Bewick, The Howdy, ed. 1850, p. ir. 

" Te Staincheybank and Hexham fairs, 
Where there's galore o' temptin wares, 
Te myek the pocket tyummer." 

T. Wilson, Opening of Railway, 1838. 

TYUP, TUP, a ram. Shearlin tyup, a ram once shorn. 
Tyup, the head of a forge hammer or of a heavy rammer. 
Tyup, the name formerly given to the last basket, or corf, 
sent up out of the pit at the end of the year. It originated in 
the ceremony called " Bussin the tyup," which accompanied 
" sendin away the tyup" for the last time before the beginning 
of the holidays, or " gaady days," then customary at Christ- 
mas as well as when the binding time was over. The tyup 
was a ram's horn, used as token all .through the year, and 
sent up with every twentieth corf, or the last in every score. 
But, before laying the pit in for holiday time, it was usual to 
draw all the corves to bank to be dried and fettled. The last 


corf was half filled with clay, and on this the tyup was laid, 
whilst as many lighted candles as possible were stuck into 
the clay. The tyup thus " bussed " was sent away to the 
surface as an expression of rejoicing, and its ascent in the 
shaft was eagerly watched. 

TYUTH-AN-EGG, tooth and egg, a humorous perversion of 
the name of the alloy known to metallurgists as tutenag, 
composed of thirty parts of copper, thirty-one parts of zinc, 
and nineteen parts of nickel. It was formerly much in vogue 
for showy ornaments ; and in later times was used in the 
manufacture of tea-pots. Hence the name " a tynth-an' -egg 

" Ma breeks o' bonny velveteen, 

Ma stockins clock'd a' up the leg, 
Ma nice lang-quartered shoon se clean, 
And buckles, reel tyuth-an'-egg." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 3. 

UG, a feeling of nausea, an object of disgust, a bad or grotesque 
appearance. " What an ug yeVe myed yorsel ! " Ug, to feel 
abhorrence or disgust ; also to cause disgust or nausea. 
" He was ugged wi' eatin the stuff." Ugsome, frightful-looking, 
disgusting. " He's an ugsome body." Applied familiarly to 
any nasty, disgusting habit, as when a child is reproved: 
" Leave off that, it's ugsome." 

UGLY, a sunshade. See BONGRACE. 
UKEY, itchy. See YUCK. 

UM-HUM, a murmur of assent. Close the lips and try to say 
urn-hum, or uh-hu, and you have this very curious localism. 
This is a shibboleth by which a Northumberland man 
frequently discovers himself to a stranger. 

UNAXED, uninvited, unbidden. 

" Thame 'at comes unaxed sits unsarved." Proverb. 

UNBEKNAAN, UNBEKENT, without the knowledge of. 
" He did it unbeknaan tiv us " without our knowledge, without 
our knowing about it, 

UNBETHINK, to bethink, to call to mind, to remember. 

" When I unbethink me of thea frights and fears 
This peur auld gray-beard hings dreeping wi' tears." 

Joco-Smous Discourse, 1686. 


UNBOWSOME, unable to bend or stoop down. Applied to 
corpulent people or others who are stiff in the back or unable 
to stoop down. " He's byeth ungainly an' unbowsome." 

UNC, UNK, strange. " What he' ye unc at Rotbury ? " See 
UNKED and UNCO, i. 

UNCANNY, supernatural, ungentle, rude. " She hes an 
uncanny way win her." " An uncanny fall." " An uncanny 

' _ -%" 

" Both Tarsett and Dally Castle were said to be haunted by something 
uncanny" S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 158. 

UNCO, UNKA, UNCUTH, UNCOUTH, unknown, strange, 
uncommon. " It was an unco seet." At the flitting term 
(May 12) it is often remarked: " Ther'll be mony a yen iv 
an unka place thi neet." Compare UNC, UNKED. 

"But yet it was an uncouth thing" (an unknown thing). G. Stuart, 
Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 22. 

11 Uncos, Unkits, Unltids, news, strange things." Brochett 
UNCO, very. " He was unco lang i' comin." 

UNCRUBEET [N.] , uncurbed, unrestrained, uncropped. 
" The hedge is uncrubeet " untrimmed. 

UNDERCAST, UNDERGATE, in mining, an air crossing 
made in the floor. An " overgate " or "overcast" is one 
made overhead. Greenwell, Coal Trade Terms, 1888, word 

UNDER-EASING, the under slates of the double row of slates 
usually laid at the eaves of a roof. 

UNDERLEVEL DRIFT, a drift driven from a pumping pit 
to unwater dip workings. 

"An underlevel drift is driven perfectly level in the stone beneath the 
seam, between the lowest point of the standage and a point above the 
bottom of the sump." Greenwell, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

UNDER-RUG, the backwash or outward under-current near 
rocks against which the waves beat. Called also ootrug. 

UNDER-THE-TOP, the place in a coal mine where, in 
consequence of a bad "roof," a part of the coal is left cut 
in the form of an arch, 


UNDERTHOOM, clandestinely. Almost similar to under - 
kandeet, but usually applied to circumstances of more trifling 
nature. " She's a cunnin bairn that ; she's aye workin under- 

UNDERVIEWER, one immediately under the viewer at a 
colliery, who has general superintendence underground, and 
to whom the overmen and deputies report. He is the 
responsible manager of a colliery in the absence of the 

UNDOOTFA, doubtful. 

UNFAA, a severe cold, attended with stiffness in the joints 
and general soreness over the body. A complete prostration 
from cold, a cold shivering fit, often accompanied by feverish 
symptoms. " She's tyen an unfaa." 

UNFEARY, infirm, feeble, weak. 

" Sawney grew weary, and fain would been civil, 
Being auld, and unfeary, an' fail'd of his strength." 

Sawney Ogilby's Duel. 
Northumberland Garland, 1793, p. 207. 

UN FEEL [W.-T.] , unpleasant, uncomfortable; applied 
generally to the state of the weather. 

UNHANK, to uncouple. 

UNITH, not easily, hardly, scarcely. Nares. 

1613. " A great and admirabi funerall for old Mr. Selbie at Newcastle. 
Ther wer assembled in the church 1,000 at leest in myn opinion, for the 
church could unith conteyn all without thronge." Welford, History of 
Newcastle, vol. iii., p. 200. 

UNKED, UNKET, strange. A form of uncuth. "Keep off 
that bullock, bairns ; he kens yor unked " (said in warning to 
some children). Compare UNCO, i. 

UNKEMPT, UNKAIMED, uncombed ; hence applied to a 
generally untidy appearance. 

UNLISTY, listless. Embleton MS. 

UNMACKLY, ill-shapen, clumsy in appearance. Brockett. 

UNRESTLESS, restless. A very common expression in 
speaking of a patient. " He's had a varry unvestless neet." 

UNSCREENED, applied to coals sent away without having 
the small coal screened out. 


UNSE, OONCE, an ounce. 

UNSEL, a self-willed, naughty, worthless person ; generally 
applied to a child. 

UNSNECK, to unlatch a door. 

UNSONSY, unlucky, unfortunate. Compare SONSY. 

" They're unsonsy that mells with th' Almighty's Anointed." G. Stuart, 
Joco-Sevious Discourse, 1686, p. 6. 

" Unsoncy yance, unsoncy aye" unfortunate once, unfortunate always. 
The same, p. 43. 

UNTHANK, in place-names, occurs at least three times in 
Northumberland ; as a township at Alnham, and again in 
the extreme south-west of the county, near Haltwhistle. 
Query, land not thenked or hedged ? 

UP, to lift up, to take up. " He ups wiv a stone an' hat him." 
" He up'd wiv his nief.". 

UP-A-HEET, aloft. 

" The fiddler up-a-heet." 

Song, Wrechenton Hopping. 

UPBRAID, to retch, to vomit. See BRAID, 2. 

UPCAST, a fault, dyke, rise hitch, where the further strata 
are thrown upward. Upcast, Upkest, the shaft up which the 
return air passes after it has coursed through the pit. 

UPCAST, UPKEST, to upbraid, to reproach, to bring up as 
an example. 

11 Yor elwis upcastin yor greet cosin Jim, just as if thor wis nebody 
ekwil te him." R. Elliott, Jack Robson's Curtship. 

UPCASTING, a rising of the clouds above the horizon ; 
especially as threatening rain. Brockett. Compare WEATHER- 

UPEND, to lift up on to the end, to hoist end up, to set erect. 
" Upend the leather." " Upend the bar'l." 

UPGETTIN, the reception held on the recovery of a matron 
after childbirth. 

"There was sic clatterin an sic din when they o gat fairly startet. 
There was the skeulmaister's weyfe, the howdy, Tibby Bell, Jenny the 
gardner, an Betty Kell, an Mary Nicholson, an some aw dident ken. 
An there was posset, a good speyce suet keayk, an honey, an bacon 
collops, and frummety." T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 12. 


UPHAD, to maintain or uphold by argument. " He uphadded 
the varry opposite." " He's a real good chep, aa'll uphad i' 
spite o' ye." 

UPON, engaged in. " What are ye upon ?" Compare ON, 2. 

UPPUTTIN, accommodation, convenience. "They hae ne 


UPSIDES, on equal terms; abreast of, even, quits. " He 
thinks he's deun the trick ; but aa'll be upsides win him, ye'll 

UPSTANNIN, standing. In mining, applied to old workings 
where the roof has not fallen. Upstannin wage, a standing 
wage paid continuously whether work is done or not. 
Upstannin wages, a term in harvest when a labourer hires 
to be paid full wages whether prevented from working by 
rain or not. 

UPTAK, UPTYEK, understanding, intelligence, perception. 
" He's slow i' the uptak." " Gleg i' the uptak "quick in 

UPTHROW, a rise-hitch smaller than an upcast. Greenwell, 
Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

URE, UTHER, the udder of a cow or sheep. 

US, used for me. " Wiv us " with me. " Tiv us " to me. 
"He gov s ne answer." Sometimes shortened, as, " What'll 
ye gi's ? " When "us" is intended the word is huz. " He's 
been wi huz aall neet." 

USSEL, the short cords in a herring-net that attach it to the 

VACANDELL, VANCANDELL, vicontiel, or sheriff's rent. 

"Dilston, Dec. 12, Ralphe Reed, the Vancandell rent of Dilston, due 
at Michaelmas, being the yeare Francis Bower, Esqr., was sheriffe, 
6s. 6d." Radcliffe Household Book, 1681-1682. Anhaologia JEliana, vol. i., 
new series, p. 107. 

" One yeare Vacandell." The same, p. 106. 

VAGUING, idling. " Stravaigin " is the act of walking about 


VAIRGE, a barge. Vairge Day, barge day, commonly known 
as Barge Thursday, from the procession of barges held on 
Ascension Day on the Tyne. 

" When the Mayor's vairge, an' whurries, an' keels i' thor pride, 
Was seen biv glad croods, thro' maw arches to glide." 

J. P. Robson, Old Tyne Bridge. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 104. 
" Suin aftor, 'twas on the Vairge Day." 

W. Midford, Local Militia-Man, 1818. 

VANTISH, advantage ; but in mining possibly ventage or 
aperture is meant. 

"In mining the 'jud, 1 a portion of the seam of coal kirved, nicked, 
and ready for blasting, is called vantish." Greenwell. 

^Vantage or Sump, the side of a 'board' which has been kirved, 
nicked, and shot down, the remaining half being called the back-end." 
Nicholson, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

VARRA, VARRY, very. Used frequently as an intensitive 
word, as in the expressions, " He wis wrout ti the varra 
byen." " It cut through the varra leather intiv ee's thee." 
" Yen neet aw cam tiv Elsdon, 

Sair tired efter dark ; 
Aw'd travell'd mony a leynsome meyle 
Wet through the varra sark." 

Geo. Chatt, At Elsdon, poems, 1886, p. 53. 

VAST, a great deal, a quantity. " Sixpence did not seem a 
vast" " Thor wis a vast o' folk i' the chepil." " Aa's a vast 
better thi' day." 

" How way hehaym wouth th'; thou theayks a vast oh caaling on." 
T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 12. 

V-BOB, a spear or beam working with a pumping engine ; 
so-called from its shape. 

VEND, a regulation which formerly existed in the coal trade 
of Tyne through which a limited sale was arranged for each 
colliery by the trade, who conducted the " management of 
the Vend.' 1 It is now applied to the whole quantity sent 
from a colliery. 

" They were not hampered then wi' vends ; 
The turns were ready ; nyen need wait." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 115. 

VENNEL, VENAL, an alley, a lane, also a drain, an open 
paved runner ; still in common use in country places. Vennel 
in Newcastle was a chare or narrow thoroughfare. 

"A vennel called Bower Chare." Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. i., 
P- 383- 

" 1588. A vennel called the Heade of the Broade Chaire." Local 
Muniments. Archaologia Mliana, vol. i., new series, p. 41. 

"1641. Paid Strother for making cleane the common vennell before 
Widdow Wilson's doore, is." Gateshead Church Book. 


VENOMLESS [N.] , venomous. 

VENT, in otter hunting, the rising to the surface of the otter 
for breath, when it is said to " give vent." 

VESSEL, a waggon or tub used in the groves or lead mines in 
Allendale and district. 

VIAGE, VAGE, a journey either by land or by water. * 
11 Stoney Viage" a place-name on the old pack-horse road 
near By well, where probably the " stoneys " or galloways, 
used as pack-horses, completed a stage or viage. 

VIEWER, the chief manager of a colliery. 

"And now I must leave you to your Viewer, or Head Under-over 
Man, who is to take charge of a regular working of the colliery." J. C., 
Compleat Collier, 1708, p. 31. 

" Officials and men have each their distinct duty, clear and 
unmistakable. They rank much in the following order : Viewer, 
under-viewer, overman, back overman, deputy, hewers, ' off handed 
men,' putters, drivers, and boys. The viewer is supreme, and the 
under-viewer sees that his orders are carried into effect." Wilson, 
Coal Miners of Northumberland, etc. Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, 
vol. vi., p 203. 

VIEWLY, VIEWSOME, comely, of fair appearance. " It's 
nowther viewly nor useful" (said in reference to a local 

VINE, a lead-pencil. " Len' us yor vine." See KEEL, 2, and 

VIRIDEN ; possibly viride, a robe. (Obs.) 

" Unam robam de Viridi." Blount. 

" 1502. A viriden, or ten shillings in lieu thereof." Welford, Hist, of 
Newcastle, vol. iij., p. 2. 

VOIDER, a kind of table basket for dishes, plates, knives, 
etc., taken away from the table ; a basket for soiled clothes. 

"A butler's tray." Brockett. 

" 1707. Paid for a voider for ye sirplices, is. 2d. :> Boyle, Church of 
St. Nicholas, Newcastle, p. 94. 

VOKY, damp, moist, juicy. Brockett. " The aad body used 

elways to put the loaves o' breed on the floor to keep them 

voky." Bread made of maslin is called " voky breed," from its 

moist character. " He always oiled his flute to keep't voky" 

" Voky is also used in the sense of gay, cheerful." Brockett, 


W A ADEN, young and active, vigorous in limb. "A waaden 
lad." Hodgson MS. This word is variously spelt waden, 
wanden, waudon, and waddin. " He's a bang, yawl, waddin 
chep " (said of a person who is able, powerful, and swift of 

WAD, a pledge. The term is used in the game of " Scotch 
and English," where the clothes of the competitors are 
deposited as wad. See SCOTCH AND ENGLISH. 

WAD, to wager. 

" I'se wad a pund, when night comes round, 
That, creel for creel, we bang em a' ! " 

Doubleday, song, Up the Wreigh. 

WAD, would. WADDENT, would not. 

" Across the meadow rigs his scythe wad foremost ean." Geo. Chatt, 
Old Farmer. 

WADDLE, to bargain. Waddler-wife, a woman who kept a 
servants' register office. (Obs.) 

WADGE, a wedge or slice of bread. 

WAE, WEE, WAESOME, sad, sorrowful. 

" I'm wae for to see the' left oot i 1 th' cauld." 

James Armstrong, Northumbrians Pride. 

" O can sic waesome news be true ? " 

R. Gilchrist, Bold Archy. 

WAEDEUM, WEDOM, sorrow, woe. (Obs.) 

" I have nething but wedom, weladie, wees me ! " 

W. Bullein, Dialogue Against the Feuer Pestilence, 1564. 
E. E. Text Society, p. 7. 

" Their waedeum seem'd vanish't." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse. 

WAES ME ! WEES ME ! woe is me ! a common exclamation 
equivalent to " dear me ! " as usually heard. " Waes me ! but 
the lad's gyen off wivoot us." 

WAFF, a puff or rush of wind. " The waffs' the train "the 
rush of air caused by a passing train. " To waff oot a 
cannel " is to put out a candle with a waff caused by a 
rapid movement of the flat hand or of some fan-like article. 
Waff is also a passing view, a glimpse. " Aa just gat a waff 
on him " got a glimpse as he passed rapidly. When a 
person is dying his waff or apparition is believed to appear 
to near relations or to friends at a distance, sometimes in 


remote places. The apparition is a portent that the person 
thus seen is about to die. A man is said to have spoken 
to his own waff without receiving an answer, and to have 
died next day. See Rambles in Northumberland, p. 96 ; Trans. 
Tyneside Field Club, vol. v., p. 93 ; Brand, Popular Antiquities, 
1777, p. 99. Compare DEETH-HEARSE. Waff, applied to a 
scent or smell, is equivalent to a whiff. "A waff o' caad " 
a passing cold or chill. " Waff, the movement of a large 
flame from side to side." Halliwell. A waif or vagrant is 
called a waff. 

WAFF, the bark of a puppy. A dog " woughs," but a puppy 

" The elder folke and well growne barked like bigge dogges, but the 
children and little ones waughed as small whelpes." Holland's Camden, 
ij., 1 88. Quoted Davies' Gloss. 

WAFF, WAUF, sick, dizzy, especially as in the sensation of 

" The hey kin made me vurry wauf, 
Me heed turned duzzy, vurry." 

T. Thompson, 1823, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry. 

WAFFLE, to waft about, to waver, to walk hesitatingly, to 
act with indecision. " He waffled his hankerchor." " He 
waffled on." " A poor wafflin body." Waffler y an undecided 
or changeable person, a man unsteady in his gait or drunk. 
Waffley, inconstant, unreliable. Waffy, weak, tottering. 
" Aa's varry waffy thi' day " a common expression used by 
invalids. " A waffy smell," a sickly nauseating smell. 

" Here wafflers needn't mind their steps." 

T. Wilson, Oiling of Dicky's Wig, 1826. 

WAFFLER, the green sandpiper, Totanus ochropus, L. 
" So called from its undulating odd flight." Brockett. 

WAFTERS, swords made with blunt edges for performances. 
The swords used by Northumberland sword-dancers are of 
this character, with handles at each end. 

WAG, truant. " Play the wag," to play truant from school. 

WAG, to shake hands, to wave, to swing backwards and 
forwards like a pendulum, to beckon. " Wag the tongue," to 
chatter, to prattle continuously. " Wag at the waa," a 
Dutch or caseless clock in which the weights and the wagging 
pendulum are visible. ''Let's wag hands." "Yor dress's 
waggin ahint." " The fellow wagged his hat." " The fiddler's 
elbow wagged a' neet." 


WAGGLE-GULL, the young of the greater black-backed 
gull, Lavus marinus, L. 

WAGGY, the pied or common wagtail, Motacilla Yarrellii. 
Gould. Called also waiter waggv. 

WAIGLE [N.], to stagger along unsteadily, as in carrying a 
heavy load. " Aa could hardly waigle wi' the poke." " Tyek 
care, Tom, yor waiglin " (said to a man walking out of step in 
carrying a heavy weight with a mate). Waigly, unsteadily. 

WAIN MAN, the collector of tolls on wains. Wain-money, tolls 
collected from wains. (Obs.) 

" 1626. Ite Recaved of the hie ward ffor wane money, i6s." Gateshead 
Church Books. 

WAIRN-IN, to caution, to warn. "He wes wairn'd-in" 
told or warned beforehand. 

WAIRSH, WAIRCH [T.] , WAIRESH [N. and S.] , 
WEARSH [W.-T.] , insipid, wanting flavour, as food 
without salt. Applied figuratively to a low, weakly, or 
delicate condition of body. Of a frail-looking man it is 
said, "He's varry wairsh like." "A wairsh tyest i' the 
mooth " a sickly taste experienced by an invalid. In 
constant use. Compare WELSH. 

" Werish (old word), unsavoury." New World of Words, 1706. 

" Life wad be varra wairsh without the lasses." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iij., v. 6. 

WAIT, WE-YET [S.] , WYET [T.] , WEET [N.] , equivalent 
to "surely" or " is'nt it so?" a very common exclamation. 
" Wait ye war, noo ?" surely you were, now ? " Wait 
was't " indeed it was, or truly it was. " Wyet will he " 
doubtless he will. " Ye're no gaun there thi day, weet ? " 

" Ki Geordy, ' We leeve i' yen raw, wyet, 
I' yen corf we byeth gan belaw, wyet." 

J. Selkirk, d. 1843, Bob Cranky's 'Size Sunday. 

WAITER-ON, a person who attends as banksman at a 
sinking pit, or who attends to the signals and other work 
about the shaft top in the absence of the banksman. 
Nicholson, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 



WALE, WEYEL, WYEL, the choice, pick, or best of 
anything. " The wale of the brave," the bravest of the brave. 
" The wale of the family," the best of the family. Wale, to 
sort, to pick out. "They're on walin taties" busy sorting 
potatoes, by separating them from the soil, sorting large 
and small and bad from good. " Wale me an orange " pick 
out an orange for me. To " wale one's way," to pick out 
one's way, as in darkness or perplexity. Waters, coal sorters, 
who pick out stones, pyrites, etc., from coals. 

" Through and through the bowl they wyell, 
P"or raisins how they stretch and strive." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iij., 1829, v. 112. 

WALK, WAAK, to take charge of, to watch over and bring 
up a young animal. Applied to the rearing of pups, young 
game cocks, etc. 

WALKEET, WACKEET, WAUKED, matted, entangled; 
a very common term for long hair that has matted or 
" tatted " and has to be cut out. 

WALKER, a fuller. Walk-mill, a fulling mill. The word is 
obsolete, except in place-names which retain the name of 
this industry. 

" 1465. Thomas Stephenson, walker, and John Cook, mason, both of 
Gateshead." Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. iij., p. 354. 

" Fullers and dyers, called anciently walkers." Brand, vol. ij., p. 320. 

WALKRIFE, WAKERIFE, watchful, wakeful. Compare 

" It acts as a composer even upon the most wake-rife student who is 
anxious to read." S. Oliver the Younger (W. A. Chatto), Fly Fishing, 
1834, p. 76. 

WALL, in mining, a passage or opening made between each 
board in a colliery. Walling-crib, a crib or circle of masonry 
or walling material faced round a shaft where the strata are 
without sufficient cohesion to form the plane of the sides. 

" Wall, the end of a pillar ; the distance between two boards." 
Nicholson, Coal Trade Terms. 

" The holing or communication at the end of a pillar between two 
boards ; several walls in a line form a headways course." Greenwell. 

" Wall-face, the face of a working place." Nicholson. 
WALL [N.], WELL [S.] , to weld. 


WALLER (the a short), to struggle confusedly. " It was a 
teugh job ; but he wallered through." 

"When the baa gat inti the burn, the tummellin and the walkrin 
aboot, sometimes ower heed an' lugs, amang the wetter, was fit te meyk 
ye splet yor sides wi' laughin." D. D. Dixon, Shrovetide Customs at 
Rothbury, p. 5. 

wastrel, a wanderer. The word is sometimes used as a verb, 
as " What are ye w alley -dvaiglin aboot here for ?" 

WALLOP, to move rapidly with a gurgling or rattling noise. 
Applied to the clatter of a horseman or the noise of ebullition 
in boiling, especially the boiling and bubbling of broth or 
porridge. " Howay to yor yetlin here ; the poddish is 
wallopin an' boilin." 

11 He rade and walloped owre the green." 

Black Adam. Minstrelsy of English Border, 1847, p. 417. 

WALLOW, to roll in walking, to walk in a lumbering helpless 
manner. See WANDLE, 2. 

" Symy Haw gat lamed of a leg, 
And syne ran wallowing hame." 

R. Surtees, Ballad of Feather stonhaugh. 

WALLOW, weak, insipid, tasteless. Wallowt, withered. 
Compare WELSH. 

11 When first she looked the letter on, 

She was baith red and rosy ; 
But ere she read a word or twa, 
She wallowt like a lily." 

Young Ratcliffe. 
Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, P- 4 8 - 

WALLY ! an exclamation. 

" O Wally ! Tony, what is that ?" G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 62. 

WALLY, jolly, merry, happy. Schoolboys out for a day's 
holiday are said to be having " a wally time on't." 

WAMBLE, WAMMEL, to turn topsy-turvy, to turn over and 
over, to spin a coin, to wriggle or twist about like a worm, 
to sprawl or toil in walking. " The bord wammelt ower an' 
ower as it fell." " He wammelt his shillin." " Aa'd a sair 
set ti wammel up the hill." " He wammelt up the stairs wi' the 
seek o' floor on iv his back, onyhoo." " He went wammelin 
aboot." Compare WANDLE, 2. 


WAME [N.] , WYEM [T.] , the stomach, the belly. Wame-tow, 
a belly-band or girth. Brockett. 

" Provision baith for Back and Warned 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 34. 

" Aw hammer on till efternuin, 
Wi' weary by ens and empty uyem." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i., 1826, v. 49. 

WAME, WAIM, the entire salmon roe. 

" It is either cured entire that is, as it is taken from the fish in the 
form of what is provincially termed the waim; or it is reduced into a 
paste ; or else it is converted to single particles, termed beads." 
Armstrong, Curing of Salmon Roe. 

WAMEREL, a restless or wayward person. A restless child 
is addressed as " a young wamevel" " Whatever ails thee thi 
day ? Nowse can aa dee ti keep thee quiet, thoo wheengin 
wamerel" (nurse to a child). 

WAMPISH, to entangle ; said of a rope that has become 
mixed together and ravelled. " Man ! it's a' wampisWd" 
Wampisht, intricately interlaced. " Aall the pairts wis 
wampisht together" (said of an iron gate of intricate design). 

WAN, a wand, an osier. " He's oney peelin his wans y it" 
only making essay yet. 

WANCHANCY, unlucky, evil boding, ill betiding. (Obs.) 

" Applied in Northumberland to a mischievous boy or girl." Brockett. 

" He spurr't up a rise, and saw wi' surprize, 
A horseman in black abreast o' him ride, 
A wanchancy face, and a pair o' redde eyes, 
Tho' Mordyngton raced, yet he kept at his side." 

Mordyngton's Chase. 
Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, p. 73. 

WANDED, WENDED, plaited, interlaced, interwoven. "The 
gate's wanded wi' thorns, so nowt can get in." 

" Her bongrace was of wended straw." 

Song, The Northumberland Bagpipes. 

WANDLE, WANNEL, nimble, handy. " A wandle man is an 
ingenious and handy man who is active, and can turn his 
hand readily to any useful purpose." Hodgson MS. 

WANDLE, WANNEL, to walk with weariness or painful 
effort. " Aa can hardlies wannel hyem." 

" Her stilts she was not able to handle, 
But e'en as weak as she could u'andle." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Sericus Discourse, 1686, p. 48. 


WANDY, long and flexible ; like a wand. Brockett. 

WANKLE, WANKELLY, changeable, precarious. W'or 
hevin a varry wankle harvest this 'eer." " Man, it's wankle 
hay weather !" " The weather's wankelly the noo." A man 
who is not to be depended upon is said to be a wankle. " He's 
rether a wankle, that yen." An undertaking too precarious 
is said to be "ower wankle. }1 It is also applied to a feeble 
bodily condition, as " She leuks nobbut wankle." 

" Your Wankle Leggs canno" support ye." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 50. 

WANTS, need ; the plural form is general. " Aw's i' wants of 
a job." 

" In very great wants." Books of Keelman's Hospital, Newcastle, 1742, 
April 29. 

WARD, WANWAY, a good-for-nothing, profligate, or 
worthless person, a wastrel. Wonweard, unlucky, unfortunate. 
" A wonweard grosser " (said of a grocer who had been 
unfortunate in business). 

WAP, a rap, a sharp blow. " Gie him a wap on the lug." A 
noise, a riotous disturbance, a melee. " What a bonny wap 
y'or kickin up there." " To wap off," to strike or cut off by 
a quick stroke. 

WAP, to wrap, especially to wrap up protectively. " Just 
wap a string aboot it." " Wap't up i' broon paper." " Wap, 
a wrappage, turns of string or line served round a rope or 
other string. Wappin, a wrapping or covering. 

" Wapped up i' shammy leather." 

His Other Eye, 1880, p. 8. 

WAPPER, an exaggerated thing, something huge. " Bah ! 
what a wapper." 

WAPPIN, huge, great. " A wappin tormit." 
WAPPIN, a small hay-cock, commonly called a. foot-cock. 
WAPPY, a wasp. 
WAR, WAUR, worse. War an' war, worse and worse. 

WAR, beware, look out. " War belaa " look out below. 
" War the byul " beware the bowl. " War oot " look out. 
War is also a shortened form of aware. " He set away afore 
aa wis war." " Aa wasn't war o' yor comin." 


WARDAY, a week-day or work day. " Aa've deun'd Sundays 
and wavdays this thorty eer." Probably war (or worse) day. 
Sunday is often spoken of as " the good Sunday." " Aa 
waddent he' minded if he'd dyun'd iv a wavday ; but it was 
the good Sunday, ye see." Compare WAR-HAND. 

WARDED, assigned, set out, awarded by commissioners 
appointed to carry out the division of common lands. 
Warded roads, the roads thus set out. 

WARDEN, a joint in a rope made by overlapping the two 
ends and wrapping them together, as distinguished from a 
spliced joint. 

WARDENS OF THE MARCH, the officers formerly in 
charge of the Border, which was divided into the wardenries 
of east, middle, and west marches. The warden of the middle 
march had two deputies under him, one of whom was 
" keeper " of North Tynedale and the other of Ridsdale. 
There were also two subordinate officers called warden- 
sergeants or land sergeants, whose duty it was to serve warrants 
and apprehend offenders. 

WARD-MOTE, a meeting of the principal inhabitants of a 
ward. Compare MOTE-HILLS. 

The word ward-mote is still in constant use." Richardson, Table 
Book, Leg. Div., 1846, vol. iii., p. 21, n. 

WARE, earthenware. Ware-heft, a composition knife-handle. 

WARE (pronounced way-ar), sea- weed. Called also sea-ware, 
sea-wrack. Ware wassel, belk, or bans is the long stick-like 
substance of the Laminaria digitata. 

" Weir, Waar, Sea-wrack, alga marina. Northumberland." Ray, 
Collection, 1691. 

WARE, to spend. 

" I trow our labour were well wair'd." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 33. 

" A shilling aw thought at the play hoose aw'd ware." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 

WARE-CORN, barley or oats. Distinguished from hard-corn. 

WARE-GOOSE, the Brent goose, Bernicla brenta, Bvisson. Also 
called the black goose. 


WAR-HAND, the left or worse hand. Compare WARDAY. 

" In a rencounter in Ovingham Churchyard, Wm. Surtees. of Broad 
Oak, lost the use of his hand by a spear wound, and acquired the name 
of ' Willie with the war-hand.' This appellation must not be understood 
to have any reference to the man's military prowess or proceedings. 
The hand he had lost was his right ; but his left, his war, or worse, 
hand, remained, and from it he acquired the name by which he was 
distinguished from some other Willie Surtees. These distinctive names 
were common and very characteristic and amusing." Raine, Life of 
Surtees, p. 89. 

WARK, a swathe or breadth of grass or corn cut by a mower 
in one landing or sweep of the scythe. " Y'or tyekin ower 
wide a wark" 

WARK, an uneasy sensation as of an active inward pain. 
Tyeuth-wark, toothache. Heed-wark, headache. Wark, to ache 
in the manner above described. Doctor: "Is it a pain?" 
Patient : " No." Doctor : " Is it an ache ?" Patient : " No ; 
it's warkin." 

" Maw legs were warkin' fit ta brik." 

Geo. Chatt, At Elsdon, poems, 1866, p. 53. 

11 Mony a weary warkin' by en." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay. 

WARK, work. Work-folk, work-people. Wark-set, a difficult 
task. " Ye'll he' yor wark-set there, marra, aa think." Wark, 
a fortification ; applied to places having works or forts, as 
in Warkvfoith. At Wark, in North Tyne, the conspicuous 
feature is the mote-hill where assizes were held in the 
thirteenth century. 

" Were, found in ancient charters signifies a castle." Blount, 
Dictionary, 1717. 

WARKWORTH-TROUT, the bull-trout, Salmo eriox, Yarrell. 
See also WHITTLING. 

WARMpD, WERMpT, WORMIT, wormwood, Artemisia 
absinthium L. This is one of the commonest ballast plants, 
but it is also found far inland. 

WARN, WARND, WARNT, warrant. " Aa's warn" 
I warrant, I suppose. 

"Andra Karr wiv his teheyteed hair aws warn a keahm hes-int been 
int this twe months." T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 
" Aw warnt he hesint brokken his fast to-day." The same. 

WARN, to summon. 

" 1741-2. March 4. Committee being warned, these following were 
absent or short," etc. Books of Keelman's Hospital, Newcastle. 


WARREN-HEED, a mill dam in a stream. Warren-heed in 
the Pont, a few miles below Ponteland, forms the dam for 
Kirkley mill-race. 

WARRICOE, WIRRIKOW, a sprite or local boggle. 
Compare Kow. 

" Where harpie, imp, an* warricoe, 
And goblins dwell." 

T. Donaldson, Glanton, Poems, 1809, p. 37. 

WARRICK, to cramp or fasten with ropes or chains. Warrick- 
screw, the screw used for warricking or tightening the chains 
passed round a waggon-load of round timber. Ropes are 
wavricked by passing one end of a lever through a loop and 
heaving it tight. The end of the lever is then tied down. 

WARSEL, WORSEL, a struggle; to wrestle, to struggle. 

" We've had sic a warsel through." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., v. 55. 

" Had they 

To slave and drudge like lang syne cheps', 
They wadn't worsel out a day." 

The same, pt. ij., v. 69. 

WARSE-LIKE, worse looking. "A warse-like place aa never 

WARSEN, to grow worse. " He's sair warsent" 

WASH, WESH, the detritus, gravel, clay, or water-worn 
stones encountered where a coal seam has been abraided 
and heaped over by a glacial or riverine action in late 
geological periods. Such a wash is found in the Team 
Valley, where the loose material has cut off the strata at 
each side of the valley at a considerable depth from the 

WASP, WHASS, a mason's pick with two flat points. See 


WASSAL, the stems of the sea-weed, Laminaria digitata, Lam. 
Compare MAY-WEED. See WARE, 2. 

" The laminaria sheds its upper part in broken weather, about the end 
of the month of May this, when washed ashore, is known as May-tops. 
The stems themselves become detached from their rocks about October, 
and are locally named belks or wassal." J. Crawford Hodgson, Hist, of 
Bwks. Nat. Field Club, vol. xiv., 1892, p. 115, n. 

WASTA, wast thou ? Used in common speech as " Were 
you ?" is used. 


WASTE, WYEST, in coal mining, old workings and airways. 
Master-wasteman, the man in responsible charge of the wastes. 
Wastemen, men employed in the same. Waste-boxes, boxes in 
which the waste water of the pumping-pit is conveyed from 
the rings. 

WASTLE, a twig, a withy. Halliwell. 
WASTREL, a good-for-nothing fellow. 

WATCH HERE ! the pronunciation of the very common 
salutation " What cheer ! " which is the usual response to 
the equally familiar enquiry, "How there?" 

WATER. Brockett gives "Waiter, or Waeter, the Newcastle 
pronunciation of water" It is spelt Waiter in The Pitman's 
Pay. In combination, however, and frequently in common 
speech, it is shortened to Waiter or Wetter thus, waiter-side, 
wetter-rat, etc. At Rothbury and Alnwick Witter prevails, 
and in the extreme North Waiter and Waitah are the 
common sounds. " Water, as 'The Coquet Water.' The 
Northumbrians use the above expression in a peculiar sense ; 
signifying thereby the district of the country immediately 
adjoining the river bearing that name." Dr. Hardy, Denham 
Tracts, Folk-lore Society, 1892, p. 313. Water-ask, the newt. 
Water-bite, a biscuit or piece of bread provided for eating 
after bathing. This was invariably carried by bathers. 
Water-blast, the rushing out of compressed air through water 
in a mine. Or the sudden eruption of compressed gas from 
the rise workings of a flooded colliery. In lead mining, 
a Water-blast is a stream of water allowed to fall down a 
shaft in order to carry down along with it a current of air. 
Water-blobs, bubbles on the surface of water. Water-brash, 
an eructation of water from a disordered stomach. Water-carses, 
.Waiter-carses, water-cress. Water -clearer, Waiter-clearer [N.], 
the water spider. Water-crow, Waiter-craa, the water ouzel 
or dipper, Hydrobata cinchis, L . Called also waterpiot. Waterfall- 
holes [W.-T.] , the common name for swallow-holes. See 
HOLES. Water-foor, Waiter-foor, a furrow made by the plough to 
drain off surface water. Watergate, a dry stream bed ; also a road 
or passage leading to a watering place. Watergate, the level 
giving access to a mine. Water-goat, a rail across a river to 
serve as a fence. Hodgson MS. Water -golland, the marsh 
marigold, Caltha pahstris, L. It is also called yalla gowan. 
See GOLLAN. Water-jags, chicken-pox ; applied also to any 
watery eruptions on the skin. Water-level, horizontal ; a 


colliery term for a stratum that is not inclined at all. 
Water-measure, the measure formerly in use for sea-borne 
coal. Water-scale, the direction in which a stream runs 
from the water-shade. Water-side, the whole vale through 
which a river runs. Brockett. Water-sill, a bed of fine- 
grained sandstone lying immediately below the great lime- 
stone in the south-west of Northumberland. See TUFT. 
Water-soo, Water-sea, a water-pail. (Obs.) Water-still, a channel 
for water flowing through a marsh. See STELL. Water- 
swallow-holes ; called also Witch-holes, Water-fall, or Swallow- 
holes circular surface depressions caused by the percolation 
of water through limestone. Waiter-tyeble, a water table. 
Waiter -tyeUin, the embanking of a hedge by cutting sods and 
turning them upside down on the roots of the hawthorn 
and trimming the edge downward. \Water-waggv, Watter-waggy, 
Waitery-wagtail, the pied wagtail, Motacilla Yarrellii, Gould. 

" Gar warn the water, braid and wide, 
Gar warn it soon and hastily, 
They that winna ride for Telfer's kye, 
Let them never look in the face o' me ! " 

Jamie Telfer. Border Minstrelsy, vol. i., p. 144. 

" From Hareup Watergate up the Watergate to Hareup Hill then into 
a Watergate to the foot of Hareup wood, &c." Bounders of Old Bewick, 
1680. Hist. ofBwks. Nat. Club, vol. v., p. 255. 

" The drainage of the mines was effected by means of the horizontal 
tunnels, which were variously termed adits, watergates, soughs, surfs, &c." 
Galloway, Hist, of Coal Mining, 1882, p. 25. 

" Water, or Newcastle or Sunderland Measure, is generally reckoned 
double the measure of a London Chaldron, or more." J. C., Compleat 
Collier, 1708, p. 17. 

" Hardun Edge follows the drift road to the Broken-moss, takes the 
water scale of the hills between the two parishes, and ends at Harehaugh." 
Hodgson, Northumberland, pt. ii., vol. i., p. 151, n. 

" Paide for 2 girdes to a water-sea, 2d." Newcastle Municipal Accounts* 
January, 1593. 

" Paid for ii shols (shovels) and a 500 for to carry water withal xid." 
Mariners' Books, Newcastle, 1540. 

" A hollow west of the lake is traversed by a stratum of limestone 
full of water-swallow-holes, but covered with a rich red soil." Hodgson, 
Northumberland, iii., 2, p. 327, n. 

WATLING STREET. The course of the road through 
Northumberland, where it is still used for traffic along its 
almost entire length, is from Ebchester (Vindomom), on the 
south, by Whittonstall, Corbridge (Corstopitum), Stagshaw 
Bank, Portgate (where it intersects the Roman Wall), 
Bewclay (see COBB'S CAUSEY), Risingham (Habitancum), High 
Rochester (Bremenium the starting point of Iter I. in the 
Antonine Itinerary), on to Chew Green (Ad Fines), whence it 
crosses the Border and enters Roxburgh. 


WATTLE, to drink. "To wattle away," to consume in 
drinking. Compare SWATTLE. 

" The girl's mother lost two butter firkins 
They wattell'd away so much cream." 

Thomas Whittle, The Insipids. 

WATTLING, the covering or corving of hazel rods on the 
rafters of a house on which the flags of turf were laid to 
receive the outer covering of straw or heather for thatch. 

WATTY, DAFT- WATTY, an indiscreet or foolish fellow. 
" What are ye deein, ye daft watty ? " 

WAUALL, the claw-like projection a little above the foot of a 
dog. Shepherds usually amputate the waualls of whelps 
which are intended to be kept ; for, if allowed to remain, the 
dog is liable to be caught by the wawll and injured when on 
heathery ground. 

WAUDON, supple. HalliwelL See WAADEN. 

WAUGHT, a large draught. "A waught o' drink." Applied 
also to the deep thrust of a weapon. 

" Stout Heaton cried, ' My laddies up, 

Ilk pay a Scotch thief's hide, 
They'se get a waught o' a Border spear, 
That's wearisome to bide.' " 

Heaton' 's Raid. 
Minstrelsy of the English Border, 1847, P- 37 8 - 

WAUKED, bound or matted together, as a fleece of wool is 
sometimes. See WALKEET. 

WAVE-CHILD, a waif, a foundling. (Obs.) 

" Mantayning a wave child in Dilston, il. 8d." Radclyffe Household 
Books, 1681-2. 

WAW, WOU, to whimper or complain in a whining petulant 
manner. " He's been wawin on till aa's fair sick." Wow is 
also the mew of a cat. " What's the beast wowin for ? " 
" She's wowin to be in." See WOWL. 

WAX, to grow. " He's waxed sair sin aa seed him last." 
" A hoaf-waxed lad " half-grown, a hobble-de-hoy. " He's 
waxin a fine lad." 

WAX-DOLLS, common fumitory, Fumaria officinalis, L, 


WAX-END (pronounced waax-end), the end of a shoemaker's 
waxed thread, tipped with a strong birse, or bristle, to enable 
it to be thrust through the holes bored by the elshin, or awl, 
in the shoe-leather. See LINGEL. 

WAXIN, an exudation from the teats of a mare or cow a few 
days before parturition takes place. 

WAXIN-CHURNELS, growing kernels, or enlarging 
lymphatic glands on the sides of the neck, popularly believed 
to be indicative of the increasing growth or waxing of the 
body generally. 

WAY-BRED, the greater plantain, Plantago major, L. Called 
also rattan-tails, spikes, wayfron. 

WAYGATE, speed, headway. " He myeks little waygate." 

before a tenant quits his farm ; familiar in auctioneers' 

" Where a tenant quits on the i2th of May, he is allowed to have a 
crop of corn from off two-thirds of the arable land ; this is called the 
way -going-crop : the entering tenant has the straw, and leads the crop into 
the stack yard." Bailey and Culley, Agriculture of Northumberland, 1813, 
p. 24. 

WAYLEAVE, leave obtained by payment for a way through 
land for the carriage of coals from the pit. 

"Another thing that is remarkable is their wayleaves ; for when men 
have pieces of ground between the colliery and the river, they sell leave 
to lead coals over their ground." North, Life of the Lord Keeper Guilford, 
vol. i., p. 265. 

WAYS, used for way. " Gan yor ways hyem," "Come yor 
ways here," etc. Wayses, ways. 

" Aa wayses, fore ways, side ways, hint ways." 

His Other Eye, 1880, p. 2. 

WAYS, the travelling roads in a pit. These are distinguished 
variously as travelling-ways, horse-ways, barrow-ways, volley-ways, 
heed-ways (or wis), winning heedways, t yam- ways. 

" The horseway up west, and tramway up north along the westernmost 
headways." Root. Scott, Ventilation of Coal Mines, p. 18, 1868. 

WAYWAND, an out-of-the-way person ; a poor lost creature. 
" Aye, she'll be some poor waywand, aa's warn." 

WAYWARDEN, the surveyor of highways appointed annually 
in each township. 


WE [N.], WI, WIV [S.], with. 

WE, us. ' Haw- way wi we" This is perhaps peculiar to 
Spittal and Tweedmouth. 

WEAKY, juicy, moist. Hodgson MS. 
WEALS, the marks of blows left on the skin. 

WEAR, WEE-AR, to turn, to cause to veer, to guide. " Gan 
an' wear the sheep off them tormits." " He's oot wi' the collie 
weearin the sheep intil the stell." " Wear them sheep inti the 
field there." " The yowes wis ill to weare." 

WEAR-BUIST, WERE-BUIST, a stick placed between cows 
in a byre to prevent their encroaching on each other. 

WEAR, WEER, the landing place and fishing ground at a 
salmon-net fishery. At these places it is necessary to have a 
shelving shore and a bottom cleared of all large stones, etc., 
to allow the free working of the net. Compare YARE and 

WEAR, WEIR, a structure of stone mixed with rice 
(brushwood) for protecting a bank from the wash of a stream ; 
or an arrangement of stakes and wattle for the same purpose. 

WEAR, commonly applied to time in the phrases : " It wears 
late " grows late. " He's wearin up " growing up. " He 
wears well" lasts well, applied to vigour retained in age. 
" A wearin' away," a consumption. 

" Wor bairns are now a' men and women ; 
And wearin' up the warld te knaa." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 119. 

WEAR-SHOT NET, a method of salmon fishing. 

11 The wear-shot net is rowed by means of a boat into the river in a 
circular form, and is immediately drawn to the shore." Archaologia JEliana, 
vol. iv., quarto series, p. 302. 

WEATHER-GAW [N.] , the stump of a rainbow. Sometimes 
called a weather pillar, and, in West-Tyne, a weather-bleat. It 
is looked upon as the precursor of wet and storm. A weather- 
gaw is also a short spell of fine weather, generally a day, 
preceded and followed by storm. " This is a fine day efter 
the storm." " Aye, but aa doot it's a weather-gaw." Compare 



WEATHER-GLEAM, a clear line of light contrasting with 
dark sky above, seen as an after-glow at sunset. Compare 

WEBBIT, a common form answering to well but, why but, 
or but simply. " Webbit, aa winna gan." * Webbit, aa'll see 
forst, noo." 


WEDE, weeded, extirpated. " The flowers of the forest are a* 
wede away." 

WEDGING-CRIB, in mining, the foundation crib in a shaft 
on which tubbing or walling rests. 

WEE, WEENY, diminutive in size, short in time. " Move 
up a wee, bit." "She was just a wee bit thing at the time." 
"Bideaz^." " Ye'll he' ti wait a wee bit langer." "Aa'll 
hev just a weeny bit o' cheese." Weeny is commonly used in 
an affectionate way when applied to a child. Wee thout, a 
very little. 

" If they wad when at roads agyen, 
Myek them a wee thought straiter." 

T. Wilson, Oiling o' Dicky's Wig, v. 64. 

WEED A, a widower, a widow. Men and women are 
indiscriminately called weedas. 

WEEDEEK, WEEDICK, a weed hook, an implement for 
cutting or uprooting weeds in corn. The present form of 
weedeek is a simple chisel point socketted on a long staffer 
shank. The old type of weedeek had a sharp point with a barb 
at one side. It was used with a pulling motion, and thus 
uprooted or cut the weed. 

WEEDY, small, puny. " A weedy thing. 
WEEK, a corner. " The weeks o' the mooth." 

WEEL, WEIL, a whirlpool ; a deep, still part of a river. 
" The Weel " is a deep pool in the Coquet immediately above 
Brinkburn. " Bool's Weal," a similar pool at Warkworth. 
" The weel (or weil) o' the thee " the hollow in the thigh. 

" A weil or wheel, as the word is sometimes written, is a still, deep 
part of a river, where there is mostly an eddy." S. Oliver the Younger, 
Rambles in Northumberland, 1835, p. 56, n. 


WEEL, well. In combination, Weel-handit, clever, expert ; 
especially applied to females. Weel-kerfd, well-known. Weel- 
put-on, well-dressed. Weel-ti-dee, well-to-do. In addition to 
the ordinary adjectival and adverbial meanings of the word, 
weel is used as a kind of benediction. 

" Weel may the keel row, that my laddie's in." 

Keel Row, old version. 
" O weel and weel for a' lovers 

I wot weel may they be ; 
And weel and weel for a' fair maidens ; 
But aye mair woe for me my love, 
But aye mair woe for me. 

A. C. Swinburne, Tyneside Widow, 1888. 

WEELET O' THE FELLOW ! an exclamation. Week me 
on him ! an exclamation expressive of admiration. Weel- 
smon-thee ! an exclamation well betide thee ! 

WEENT, WEENED (p.t. of ween), thought. 

" Perhaps she wemt." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 27. 

WEET, moisture, fine rain. 

" Gowans sweet in the dewy weet." 

James Armstrong, Flower o' Kielder, 1879. 

11 The sleet and misty weet are falling." 

The same, Yarrow. 


WEEZE, WEASE, a circular cushion used on the head by 
fishwives, milkmaids, or water-carriers to protect the head 
from the basket or pail carried upon it. Also a washer or 
packing-ring used in coupling the flanged joints of pipes. 

" A weise is a circular pad, commonly made of an old stocking, but 
sometimes merely a wreath of straw or grass, to save the head from the 
pressure of the pail." S. Oliver the Younger, Rambles in Northumberland, 
p. 106, n. 




WELK. See quotation. 

" A hare turned round to gaze, seated on its haunches, and welking its 
long, soft ears to and fro." Dr. Hardy. Richardson's Table Book, Leg. 
Div., vol. ii., p. 373. 

WELL, any place from which water is obtained. Compare 


WELL [S.] , to weld. " A wellin heat," a welding heat. 

WELLADAY ! a very common exclamation. 

"Alas! alas! and well-a-day." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, 
p. 28. 

" Mendicus : 'I have neythyng but wedom, we ladie, weesme." Uxor: 
' Give God onely thanks. We have no commandment to honor our 
Ladie but Christ onely. 1 " Bullein, Dialogue, E. E. Text Society, p. 7, 
1. 22. 

WELLANEAR, very near, almost. " Wellaneav a twel month 
sin syne." 

WELL-EE, WELL-EYE, a quagmire, the orifice of a well. 

WELSH, saltless, insipid. Compare WAIRSH. 

" Welsh and wallow are synonyma. Broth and water, or pottage 
without salt, are wallow or welsh. A person whose face has a raw, pale, 
and unhealthy look, whom a keen frosty morning pinches, or to whom it 
gives the appearance of misery and poverty, has a welsh and wallow face. 
A welsh day is the same as a sleety day, when it is neither thaw nor frost ; 
but " a wallow day " is when a cold, strong and hollow wind prevails. 
Wallow, applied to the state of the weather, is, I think, only applicable 
in a rugged and mountainous country." Hodgson MS. 

WELT, the ribbed part at the top of a stocking. Hodgson MS. 

WEN TED. Wented milk, milk kept till it be approaching 
sourness. Hodgson MS. It is also called gone milk. 

WENTEN (p.p. of wend), went. Still in constant use. " He 
should he' wenten hissel." 

WESHER, a piece of wood fastened across the bottom of a 
doorway to keep the rain from flowing underneath. 

WESHINS, the contents of a pig's tub, pig's meat, anything 
of a waste kind. "As daft as weshins" is a saying of not very 
obvious meaning. 

WETHEN, WITHEN, twisted or turned round about ; a 
term applicable to corn tossed about by wind and weather. 

WETHER, WEDDER, a castrated ram. 

"They are called wether-lambs, while sucking; then wether-hoggs, until 
shorn or clipped, when they take the name of shearings, &c., until they 
are shorn a second time, when they are young wethers, or two shear 
wethers; then three or four shear wethers or more, according to the times 
they are clipped or shorn." George Culley, Live Stock, 1801, p. 18. 


WEY-WEY, an expression of impatience or regret. " Wey-wey t 
noo, see 'at ye dee'd better next time." 

WHAAP, WHAUP, to whistle, to whine. " Tom's not far 
off, aa can hear him whaapin." " What's thoo whaap-whaupin 
aboot ? " (addressed to a child, or anyone making a tiresome 
or monotonous complaint). 

WHAAP, the curlew. See WHAUP. 

WHAG, a lump, a large piece, a large slice of bread. See 


11 Bring pockets like a fiddle bag, 
Ye'll get them cram'd wi' mony a whag." 
Wreckenton Hiring. 

Marshall's Songs, 1827, p. 178. 

WHAM, in place-names, occurs in South-west Northumberland, 
as W 'hit-wham, Wham-lands. Probably the same as wheam, 
which see. 

WHANG [T.], WHEANG [W.-T.] , WHAING [N.] , a 
large slice ; a strip, especially a strip of hide used as a thong 
or lace. Shoe-whang, a shoe-lace. The end or " heudin " of 
a flail is lashed to the wood with a whang. Whaings, lashing 
or castigation with a leather strap. "To tine the whinger 
for a ha'penny whang " to lose the knife for want of a half- 
penny strap or girdle is an old Scotch proverb. 

" Your milk cheese i' whangs and flaps." 

Song, The Tinker's Wedding. 

" Let them yence get him into their taings weel, 
Nae fear but they'll give him his whaings weel." 
J. Shield, Bonny Gyetsiders. 

Marshall's Songs, 1827, p. 25. 

WHARRY, a quarry. So also Which and White, spoken for 
quick and quite. Compare the old hard sound in quhen, quig, 
and quhair, now spoken in the dialect, as in colloquial 
English, when, whig, where. 

WHASS, a mason's pick with two flat points. Called also 
wasp and scaplar. 

W T HAT-E-WHEY-BIRD, one of many names by which the 
whitethroat, Curruca cinerea, Brisson, is called. This name is 
used near the Border. See WHUSHIE-WHEY-BEARD. 

WHAT-FOR, why, wherefore. Occasionally what-for-because. 

" We a' ha'e wor likins, what-for should'nt Tim ? " 

Tim Tunbelly. Marshall's Songs, 1827, p. 97. 


kind of. " Whatten claes he' ye putten on thi day?" 
" Whatten-a wark he's myekin ! " what a pother he's making. 
" What-like hat had he on ?" 

" Divers men will say, and especially Northern men, to one that doth 
anything unhandsomely, Whaten a Nash it is ! for What an ass it is ; and 
an ass, all men know, hath not a good wit." The Trimming of Thomas 
Nashe, 1597, p. 27. 

curlew, Numenius arquata, L . See WHAAP. 

" Many a cock of sable hue, 
Snipe, whaup, and gor-cock fell." 

Robt. Roxby, Lay of the Reedwater Minstrel, 1809. 

WHEAM, snug, sheltered, impervious to the wind.Brockett. 

WHEE [S. and T.] , WHAE or WHAY [N.] , who. " Whee's 
aa'd ? "to whom does it belong ? Whese or Wheeze, whose. 


WHEEN, a few, a good number. " Aa hevn't seen him these 
wheen days " that is, for several days. " A gey wheen" a 
considerable number. 

WHEEP, to throw anything suddenly and violently round at 
arm's length. 

WHEEPEE-LEEKIE, one who will turn anyway for a trifle. 

WHEIET (why-et) t quiet. Occasionally heard spoken by old 

WHEMMLE, WHAMMLE, WHUMMLE, to turn anything 
completely over, to turn a vessel upside down so as to cover 
up anything. " Whemmle a swill ower the hen " invert a 
basket over it. Hens that persist in "clocking" when not 
wanted to do so are thus treated, generally with success. 

argillaceous and siliceous hazle-stone in the carboniferous 
limestone formation. 

WHEW, to move quickly, the sound of anything in rapid 
motion in the air. The whistling sound made to resemble 
this. Compare WHITHER. 

" The Rabble rowt sae whew'd and whirl'd, 
When Pipe and Shaum together skirl'd." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 43, 


WHEWS, the wigeon, Mama Penelope, L. Also called hue and 


WHICK (the pronunciation of quick), alive, living. " The place 

wis which wi' rabbits." u Owse whick " (anything alive) was 

the button motto of the members of a pack of hounds near 

Felton (de Lisle), who were not particular what species of 

animal they pursued. The word is sometimes applied to the 

life principle. " To put his whick oot," to put an end to his 

life. So also Whick-hedge, Whick-wood hedge or dyke, and 

Whicks, young hawthorn plants for hedging. Whick, the 

quick or live flesh. " Aa've cutten me nail inti the whick" 

Whicken [N.] , a fine prick or thorn, as the spike of a 

thistle, etc., which enters the skin and presses into the flesh. 

" Thor's nowt se queer as folk, especially hwick uns." Old saying. 

" A Northumbrian countryman still deems it necessary to call a thorn 

hedge a whick (that is, quick) hedge by way of distinction " (from a 

stockade). C. J. Bates, Anhceologia Mliana, vol. xiv,, p, 224, n. 3. 

WHIG KENS, underground stems and roots of field weeds 
generally, including those of A vena elatior and Holcus mollis, as 
well as the prevalent couch grass, Triticumrepens, L. Whickens 
are eradicated by a "grubber" or " grub-scuffler," thrown 
in heaps and burnt. They are also called rack or wrack. 
Compare WHICKEN under previous word. 

WHICKEN-TREE, the mountain ash, Pyrus aucuparia, Gaertn. 

WHIG, a preparation of whey. 

" The whey was infused with mint and sage, soured a little with 
buttermilk. It was boiled first, then boiled a little more, cooled and 
clarified, and, when cold, was ready." Hodgson MS. 

WHIG, an old term for a Nonconformist. 

"It is rather curious to be informed by Mr. Brand, that he read a 
public register in St. Andrew's Church Vestry (Newcastle), intimating 
that there was a burying place in Sidgate of the quigs (Whigs). And to 
this day, dissenters, in many parts of Northumberland, are termed 
whigs." Impartial Hist, of Newcastle, 1801. 

" Whigs, the Northumberland reproach for Presbyterians, still in use 
in some inland localities. In Newcastle they and other Nonconformists 
were called quigs." Dr. Hardy, Denham Tracts, English Folk-lore Society, 
1892, p. 351- 

WHIGGIN, or SWIGGIN, the condition of prostration from 
over exertion or from unduly taxing the strength. " That 
load's gi'en him a whiggin," 


WHIGS-ON-THE-GREEN, fighting or rioting. A village 
rowdy is often said to cause whigs-on-the-green. 

WHILES, at times, sometimes, now and then, ever and anon. 
" Aa whiles meet him i' the mornins." 

" So we staggered alang fra the toon, mun, 
Whiles gannin, whiles byeth fairly doon, mun." 

J. Selkirk, Bob Cranky's 'Size Sunday. 

WHILK, which. Now obsolete on Tyneside, but formerly 
common and still used in remote parts of Northumberland. 

" In whilk ne share nor lot have we." 

Pitman's Pay, pt. i., v. 55. 

WHILT, an indolent person. " An idle whilt."Brockett. 

WHIM-GIN, a winding-engine worked by horses. When the 
older " cog-and-rung-gin," which worked directly over a pit 
shaft, was superseded, the new engine was called a whim, a 
whimsey, or whim-gin. See GIN 2, COG-AND-RUNG-GIN. Whim- 
wham, frivolous. Whimsey, a new conceit, a whim. 

" In a whim-gin the ropes run upon two wheel pullies over the shaft 
The roller is at some distance, and the circular track of the horses is not 
round the shaft " (this was the manner of the earlier gin). Brand, 
History of Newcastle, vol. ij., 1789, p. 684. 

" Seun as we parted 
Another whimsey straight up started." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 9. 

WHIN, WHUN-STYEN, basalt, or any compact and intensely 
hard rock that clinks under the hammer. Whin-dyers, nodules 
of hard stone. Whin-dyke, an intrusion of basalt intersecting 
stratified rocks. Whinny, exceedingly hard, as whinny post, etc. 
Whin-roll [North Tynedale] , a basalt dyke. Whin-sill, the 
great basaltic dyke which traverses Northumberland. It 
is so-called because sometimes seen like a stratum or sill, 
intercalated among stratified rocks. 

' Whin, the hardest sort of stone met with in the earth." J. C., 
Combleat Collier, 1708, p. 12. 

"In the Newcastle coal-field the term whin is applied to many of the 
strata; these strata, so named, are, however, not whin (that is, basalt), 
but are sandstones of the hardest kind." Forster, Section of the Strata, 
1821, p. 44, n. 

WHIN, WHUN, furze or gorse, Ulex Euvopceus, L. Compare 

" When the whin's not in bloom kissin's not in fashion." 

Old saying. 


WHINGE, WHEENGE, to whine as a hurt or restless dog 
does, or as a child in petulant crying. A dog is said to 
whinge, a calf to blair. " Keep quiet, thoo whingin, peengin 
wammerel " (said to a fretful child). 

" I blair'd and whindg'd lyke ony man, 
And down my cheeks the salt tears ran." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 58. 

WHINK, a short, sharp cry. " He was whiles gi'in a whink 
o' a greet." Whinkin, giving mouth that is, giving the 
peculiar short yelp as a dog does when close to its game. 

" Whink, the bark of a collie, when, from want of breath, he is unable 
to extend his cry ; or his shrill impatient tone, when he loses sight of the 
hare he has been in pursuit of." Jamieson. 

WHINNY, insinuating speech. Literally the sound of 
recognition made by a horse ; but applied to any coaxing, 
wheedling request addressed to a person. 

"Aw ken'd what they were by their whinnie" 

T. Thompson, Canny Newcastle, 

WHIPE, to bewail, to weep. 

" Come, dinna, dinna whinge an 1 whipe, 
Cheer up, maw hinny ! leet thee pipe." 

J. Shield, d. 1848, Bob Cranky s Adieu. 

WHISHT, hush! be quiet. "Had yor whisht" hold your 
tongue, cease making a noise. 

WHISKERS, bunches of straw in the " maidens " of the great 
spinning-wheel. They formed the bearings of the spinning- 
spindle, and were lubricated with oil. Also an extemporised 
knitting-sheath made by tying together a small bundle of 

WHISKET, a little basket. 

" Whishet, a basket, a skuttle, or shallow ped." Ray, Glossary, 1691. 

11 A whisket, a whasket ; buy a penny basket." 

Children's rhyme, Newcastle. 

WHISKEY, a one-horse conveyance, a light gig. 

" Then ower the land we'd a whiskey, 

Which went twice or thrice in a day, 
Which used to take all the fine gentry, 
And quite in an elegant way." 

Changes on the Tyne. 

Bards of the Tyne, 1849, p. 215. 


WHITE, WHEIT, quite. Compare which for quick, whicken 
for quicken. 

" When wheit duen ower, the fiddlers went." 

Swallwell Hoppin. Bell's Rhymes, 1812, p. 47. 

WHITE, to whittle, to shave or chip off small flakes in 
finishing an article with a knife or pick. In finishing off a 
grindstone, quarrymen say they are whitin it. " He wis 
whuttlin an' whitin at a stick." " Give him a stick ti white, 
an' he's aal reet." Whitins, chips or whittlings. 

WHITE, WHEYTE, to requite. (Obs.) 

"God wheyte her, for ill-behavin' se ti maw bayrne." 

T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 15. 

WHITE-GOULANS, the generic name in Northumberland for 
the flowers known as big daisies. 

WHITE-HEFT, cajolery, knavery. 

" The loss o' the cotterels aw dinna regaird, 
For aw've getten some white-heft o' Lunnun." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 

WHITE-HODDY, the farm call to geese. 

WHITE-KITTY, the whitethroat, Curruca cinerea, Brisson. See 

WHITELAW, place-name, a white hill with a roundish head. 
Hodgson, Northumberland, iii., 2, p. 77. 

WHITLEY, in place-names, blanch or white land, that is, 
dry, open, pasture ground, in opposition to wood-land and 
black land growing heath. Hodgson, Northumberland, iii., 2, 
P- 77- 

WHITE-NEBB'D CRAA., the rook, Corvus frugilegus, L. 
The base of the rook's bill is covered with a rough scabrous 
skin ; whence the distinctive name white-neb, in contrast with 
black-neb, by which the carrion crow is known. 

WHITE-OAST. To ride white oste, to ride as a peaceable or 
unarmed traveller. (Obs.) See OASTE. 

" And gif it happens that any gretter, au (th)ir of the ta Rea(l)ume, 
or of the tothir, schapes for to ride white oste." Indenture, isth March, 

WHITE-OWL, the barn owl, Strix flammea, L. Called also 
scveech owl and howlet. 



WHITE RENT, quit rent; rent paid in silver or white 
money. (Obs.) 

WHITE-RUMP, the wheatear, Saxicola &nanthe, L. 

WHITHER, WHUTHER, a noise caused by a rushing 
movement. Whither or Whuther, to move rapidly with a 
fluttering sound. " Dinna whither ower the leaves o' the beuk 
like that." See SWITHER and WITHER." 

Whuthenng, a throbbing or palpitation at the heart." Brockett. 

WHITLING, WHUTLIN, the young of the bull trout in its 
first year. 

11 It has probably obtained the name from its light, silvery appearance, 
and from its having no red or dark spots on its sides, as other trouts 
have.'' S. Oliver, Fly-Fishing, 1834, P- 68. 

The term is preserved in the very common expression " To 
run like a wkutreek," descriptive of something going fast upon 
its legs. The old forms of the word are whit-rat and 
whytratche, the latter probably being from the white under 
stripe or " ratch " which characterises the weasel. 

" Whitrack skin, a purse made of the skin of a weasel, Moray." 

WHITTER, a low, plaintive, murmuring noise. 

WHOLE, WHOLE COAL, the portion of a coal seam that 
is being driven into for the first time. 

" Both whole and broken, or pillar workings, were in process." 
R. Scott, Ventilation of Coal Mines, 1868, p. 8. 

WHORL, anything that turns ; applied to the primitive weight 
used in spinning with rock and whorl ; then applied to the 
countershaft pulley of a spinning-wheel. " He's as deef as a 
whorl," a somewhat common expression in Upper Coquetdale. 

WHORL, WHURL, a round knob of wood. Whurls are 
round pieces of wood attached to the points of the horns of 
a dangerous animal. 

WHORL, to hurl, to whirl. Whorl-barra, a wheel-barrow; 
sometimes called a hurl-barra, 


WHOUP, a hope or upland part of a valley (Rothbury). 
There are many hopes in Northumberland, besides those at 
the head waters of rivers, as Alnvtickhope, Amblehope, 
Ulghamhope, etc. The usual pronunciation of hope in these 
cases is up. They are eminences merely, and contrast with 
such altitudes as Hedgehope (2,346 feet), Whickhope Nick 
(1,239 feet), Kilhope (2,206 feet), Sinderhope (969 feet), etc. 

WHULPIN, falling to pieces. "Jeest at the whulpin"on 
the point of falling asunder; said when a heavy load of 
hay, etc., shows signs of loosening and falling to pieces. 

WHUMLICK, hemlock. See HUMLICK. 
WHUMMLE, WUMMLE, a wimble. 
WHUMMLE, to overturn. See WHEMMLE. 

WHUN, WHIN, furze, Ulex Europaus, L. Whun-bus, a furze 
bush. Whun-how, a hoe for stubbing up whins or furze ; it is 
in shape like a carpenter's adze. 

WHUPPY, a straw-rope six or eight feet long used for 
binding bottles of straw. Whuppies are usually doubled so 
that each half twists lightly round the other. They are thus 
put away in bundles ready for use. 

WHUP-STITCH, WHIP-STITCH, to run a series of loops 
or stitches along the edge of material at one insertion of the 
needle. In doing this the needle is rapidly turned over and 
under the edge alternately, producing a temporarily sewn 
edge which prevents fraying of the cloth. 

momentary p*ause, a quick recurring interval. " Aa'll be 
there iv a whup-stitch (or a whup -touch}." 

" She every whup-while wanted Bella." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iii., 1829, v. 117. 

WHUSHIE-WHEY-BEARD, the whitethroat, Curmca cinerea. 
See the same bird under its various aliases, what-e-whey-bird, 
white Kitty, lady -lint-white, cut-throat, Jenny cut-throat. 

WHUSK, the game of whist. 

WHUSSEL-WOOD, whistle-wood; a thin branch of willow 
or other smooth-stemmed wood. It is cut into lengths of 
about three inches, wetted and hammered gently until the 
outer bark slides off entire. It is then hollowed to make a 
whistle and the bark is replaced. 


WHUSSEN-BANK, confusion, topsy-turvy. " This hoose is 
a fair whussen-bank " that is, out of order, everything being 
upside down or in great confusion. 

WHUSSEN-TIDE, Whitsuntide. Whussen- Sunday, Whit- 


WHUTTLE, a whittle or pocket knife. See WHITE, 2. 

WHY, if. " I wad ha' come why I hadn't." 

WHYE, WHIE, a female calf, stirk, or two-year-old. Often 
spelt quey. 

" My son Richard shall give my daughter Isabel the first whey calf 
that God sends him." Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. ii., p. 465. 

WI [T.] , WU, and WE [N.] , WO [W.-T.] , with. In South 
Northumberland and on Tyneside Wi is used when it 
precedes a word beginning with a consonant or a close vowel. 
But when an open vowel or a mute aspirate follows, Wiv or 
Win is the spoken form of with. " Wi me," " Wi them," 
" Wiv ony on ye," etc. " He wis forst wi Bob, then wiv Anty, 
whiles wi wor Bill, and last of a' wiv aad Jack hissel." The 
variant Wuv is sometimes used for wiv. '* Him an' Tommy 
should he' gyen wu wor Geordy, an' not wuv a chep like that." 

WICE-LIKE, winsome, good-looking. "Jack's a wice-like 
chep torned " become a good-looking fellow. Compare 


WICK, a common termination to place-names in Northumber- 
land ; as in Alnwick, "Berwick, T)otwick, TLlswick, Prendwick, 
Walwick, and some twenty-three more places. Here it has 
no connection with wick, a creek or bay. 

" Wick a borough, or village ; but is now scarce made use of, only at 
the end of some names of towns ; as Berwick, Chiswick." New World of 
Words, 1706. 

WID, with it. 

WIDDY, WUDDY, WITHY, a band made of twisted willow 
twigs, a noose, or tying band, the iron ring to which a cow is 
tied in a byre. Widdy or Withy, a hangman's noose. Hence 
the gallows is called " the widdy." Tow-wuddy, a harrow 


chain. Cut-willey, the iron loop on a swingle-tree. Widdy- 
neck, a slender hazel or willow rod sharpened at both ends 
and twisted or bruised in the middle so that it will bend. It 
was used by thatchers. See SCOUB, i. 

" The iron ring uniting the band of a cow and the post to which she is 
tied is called a widdy from its being made of oziers before the common 
use of iron ' As tough as a widdy.' " Hodgson MS. 


a boys' game. Two boys start hand in hand from a "bay," 
and endeavour to touch their opponents. Anyone touched 
must return with them to the bay and join hands with 
the first to make a fresh sally. The numbers thus receive 
constant accessions ; but if the chain of hands be broken, the 
sally has proved a failure, and each outsider endeavours to 
capture and ride in triumph on the back of one of his quondam 
pursuers. The broken and scattered rank is re-formed as soon 
as all have reached the bay, and each fresh sally is begun with 
a chorus : 

" Widdy-widdy-way ; the morrow's the market day ; 
Slyarter, slyarter ; comin away, comin away 1 " 

WIDE-BOARD, an excavation in coal a pillar in length and 
four or five yards in width, usually driven at right angles to 
the cleavage of the coal. Headways is the direction of the 
cleat. Greenwell, Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

WIDE-COAT, an overcoat. Between two places of greatly 
different temperature it is common to say " There's a. wide-coat 
difference atween them." Compare SIDE, 2. 

WIFE, any " staid " woman, whether married or single. 
A woman, if a stranger, is addressed as wife. " Hi, canny 
wife!" or "Hi, canny body!" never as woman simply. 
" Puddm-zw/i?." "Mug an' dubbler-wife." These might be 
either wives or daughters. 

11 So get the weighty prayers 
Of the porters in the chares, 
And the wives that sell the wares, 

Mr. Mayor, Mr. Mayor." 

Quayside ditty, 1816. 

WIG, a tea-cake, a yeasted cake with kneading in it. A " spice 
wig " is one with currants. Tea-cake is the modern name for 
this. The story goes that a Newcastle lass, in service in 
London, enquired where she could get some wigs. Being 
directed to a barber's shop, she astonished the "artiste" by 
asking the price of his " spice wigs" as she wanted half a 
dozen for tea. 




WIGHT-RIDING, of the upper class. (Obs.) 

WILD-FIRE, WUL-FIRE, summer lightning, inflammable 
gas in a mine. Also the glimmer seen on the wheels of carts 
or the shoes of travellers, which in passing over swampy 
moorlands are often seen as if beset with thousands of 
luminous sparkles, or even sheets of flame. This is occasioned 
by breaking in upon the decayed vegetable ingredients 
underneath the surface, which teem with phosphorescent 
matter visible only in the dark, and when thus excited. 
Hardy, Richardson s Table Book, Leg. Div., vol. ii., p. 381, n. 
Compare MER-FIRE. 

WILD-KAIL, WILD-COLE, wild cabbage, Brassica oleracea, 

" Sea cole the same is called in Northumberland this daye wild kole." 
Turner, Herbal, 1548, p. 89. 

WILD-LEEK, the ramsons or broad-leaved garlic, Allium 
ursinum. See RAMPS. 

WILD-PIGEON, ROCK-PIGEON, the rock dove, Columba 
livia, Brisson. 

' This is a resident, and is undoubtedly the true Stock Dove from 
which the domestic pigeon is derived." Hancock, Birds of Northumber- 
land, p. 85. 

WILD-RADISH, the charlock, Raphanus mphanistrum, L. See 

WILK, a periwinkle, the edible sea-shell fish, Turbo 
littoreus, L. 

" Buy boi-ild-wilks buy boi-ild-wilks ? " Newcastle street cry. 

WILLOCK, the guillemot, Una troilt, L. Called also wullemot, 
lavy, and scoot. 

WILLY- WAN, WULLY-WAN, a willow rod. Compare 


WILT, to wither or dry up, as a plant when exposed to the 
burning rays of the sun. 


WILY-COAT, WYLLY, an infant's night-gown. Still so- 
called in Redesdale. Also a petticoat or under-garment. 

11 The sisters shew'd their wyly-coats." 

G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 1686, p. 31. 

WIMPLE, to ripple, to murmur. 

WIN, WUN [N.] , to go or come. " Aa saa him win doon 
the street this minute." "He wan to the hoose." "Aa 
canna win at it " cannot come at it. Win-oot, to get out or 
escape with difficulty. Win in, to gain access. Win to, 
Win tee, to get to. " To win" is especially used in a transitive 
sense in its application to harvesting, quarrying, or mining. 
" To win the hay," to harvest the hay crop. " To win stone 
at a quarry." " To win the coal " that is, to arrive by 
sinking at the beds of coal. A new colliery is thus called 
a winning or new winning. When a " trouble " is encountered 
in a pit, causing the coal to disappear, it is recovered by 
a winning ; that is, by driving a drift. Winning is also applied 
to the headways or board ; that is, the passage driven into 
the coal itself. Winning headways are passages driven in the 
direction of the cleavage of the coal to explore and open out 
the seam. 

WIN (past., Wun ; p.p. Wunnen), to wind. " He'd wunnen up 
the clock an' forgetten ti shut the door on't." Wun up, 
wound up, strung up, or raised to a high pitch of excitement. 
Winban, Wunban, a band of hoop-iron wound round a broken 
or shaken cart-shaft so as to hold the spliced or weak parts 
together, or an iron band put round an injured spoke of 
a wheel. Wind, to draw coals up a pit shaft. Winding- 
engine, a colliery engine for winding coals. Winding-shaft, the 
working shaft of a colliery. 

WIN, with. Used instead of wi when followed by a vowel or 
an h mute and as a euphonious alternative for wiv, which is 
also used in the same way. See Wi. 

" Aw wark i' the keel alang win her father." 

G. Ridley, Blaydon Keelman, 

WINCH, to start or wince. 

" A horse winches or attempts to bite while his saddle is girding." 
Hodgson MS. 

WIND, WUND (short), to talk lengthily or interminably. 
" Aa left him windin on." Windy, Wundy, loquacious. 

" But he'll be guzzlin at the pay, 
And windin on aboot his wark." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, 1826, pt. i., v. 88. 


WINDA-CLAITH, winnowing cloth ; now called a barn-sheet 
since the invention of machinery. 

WIND-BALK, a wind-beam or collar-beam ; a beam stretching 
across the upper part of two roof principals. (Obs.) See 


WINDBORE, the bottom end of a set of pumps in a coal pit, 
cast with round holes, through which the water passes. See 

WINDER, WUNDER [N.] , to winnow. " We'll winder that 
bit wheat an' then we'll be dyun." Winderin -machine, a 
winnowing machine. 

WIND-FALD, WIND-FALL, the valve or clack-piece in a 
pair of bellows. 

WINDOW-SWALLOW, the house martin, Chelidon urbica, L. 
WIND-SHOVEL, a vane or tan. Hodgson MS. 

WINDY, winding or wavy. Applied to strata which assume a 
wavy form, and are hence called windy beds. 

WALLETS, a very talkative person. " Had yor gob ; yo'r 
a fair windy-wallets ! " " He's nowt bud a windy-hash." 

WINE-RAPE, a wain-rope used for lashing down corn, hay, 
straw, etc., on a cart. 

WIN ERE, a long beam. The top winere is the wind-balk or 
collar-beam in a housetop. The side winere is the long beam 
on which frame-houses formerly rested. (Obs.) 

WINKERS, the eyes. A cant term. 

" 'Bout Lunnun then div'nt ye mak sic a rout, 
There's nouse there ma winkers to dazzle." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 

WINNA, WUNN A, WINNET, will not. " Aa winna be fashed 
wi' ye." " He winnet end there, ye'll see." 

" Hey, Willy Ridley, winna you stay ? 
Fetherston's lads ha' gotten the day. 
Where are ye gannin' liltin' away ? 
With a ha, ha, winna you stay ? 
Hey, Willy Ridley, winna you stay ? " 

R. Surtees, Life (Surtees Society, No. 24), p. 47 



WINNELS, reels for winding off hanks or skeins of spun 
material upon clews or balls. Garn winnels were for yarn, and 
were a simple arrangement of a stand and horizontal wheel. 
On this were movable pegs to hold the skein. Line winnels 
were for fine lint thread. From an upright stalk two axles 
were fixed at right angles, and on these the bobbins or pirns 
with the thread were run. (Obs.) 

STREE [W.-T.], the seed stems or long dried stalks of 
grasses. Also known as brent grass. 

" Grass is said to go away into winnel-straes when the culms wither in 
the end of summer, and become dead and useless." Johnston, Botany of 
Eastern Borders, p. 212. 

WINRAA, WUNRAA, a long row of "won" hay raked up, 
ready to be trailed together for piking. 

WINTER, WUNTER, an iron frame made to fit on the bars 
of the kitchen range, on which sad-irons are placed to be 
heated. It is also used for heating or cooking anything 
before the bars of the fire. 

WIP, a hair-line by which a fish-hook is attached to a small 
line called a " snood," which in turn is spliced on to the 
" back" or principal line used in fishing haddocks, etc. 

WIPE, a blow from the flat hand. " Aa fetched him a wipe 
ower the lug." See SIDE-WIPE. 

WIRE-BENT, or BLACK-BENT, the Nardus stricta.L. See 

WIRE-DRAAN, restricted, impeded. A pump is wire-drawn 
when the apertures at the suction end are too small. 

WI' REETS, by right, rightly or more properly. 

" Mony a time the hours spent there 
Should ha'e been gi'en to sleep wV nets." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. iij., 1829, v. 100. 

WIS, WE'S, we will, we shall. 

" We's a 1 be hangid if we stay." 

Surtees, Ballad of Featherstonhaugh. 


WISE, to let, to let in, to let out, to let go, to let off. " Wise 
the dog oot." " Wise oot the horse." " Oppen the yett an' 
wise the coo in." " Aa'll wise ye through the yett." " He wis 
howkin a seugh ti wise the watter away." "He wus the sheep 
oot." " Wise away !" the order given to heave up a winding 
rope. " Wise doon the hyuk" lower down the hook. 
" Wise had o' " leave hold of. " Wise go the reens " let go 
the reins. " Wise off the rope " let go the rope. 

" ' Well, Thompson, I suppose you put half a dozen sheep or so on to 
the Plea Shank ? ' Deed did aa no, sir ; aa just wised on fifty score ! ' " 
See Welford, Life of R. Can Ellison. 

" Whilk amang them can mairch, turn, an' wheel sae ? 
Whilk their guns can wise off half sae weel sae ? " 

J. Shield, Bonny Gyetsiders (Volunteers of 1805). 

WISE, to insinuate, to work into. " To wise into company or 
into favour" that is, cunningly to wriggle into company or 
favour. Hodgson MS. 

WISE-LIKE, sagacious. " That's a wise-like dog o' yors." 

WISE-MAN, a diviner or practitioner who cured diseases by 

11 A boy hurt his hand with a rusty nail, near here; he was instantly 
sent to Winlaton, to see the Wise Man there. His directions were that 
the boy had to take the nail to a blacksmith, to be well filed and 
polished, and to be rubbed each morning before sunrise, and each 
evening before sunset ; by doing this the wound was cured. When 
anyone is cut with a sickle it is taken home and kept well polished, that 
the wound may be healed." Bigge, Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Club, 
1860-62, vol. v., p. 91. 

WISENT, made wise by experience. " He wis oney young 
then, but he's wisent noo." Compare WICE-LIKE. 

WISHY-WASHY, WHIFFY-WAFFY, pale, sickly, delicate, 
thin, weak, insipid. " The broth's oney wishy-washy." 
" A wishy-washy discourse." 

" Aw fand masel blonk'd when to Lunnun I gat, 
The folks they a' luck'd wishy-washy." 

T. Thompson, d. 1816, Canny Newcastle. 

" If thou feels whiffy-wa/y." 

J. P. Robson, Bards of the Tyne, p. 114. 

WIT, knowledge. " Hes he getten wit on't 'at yor here ? " 

WIT (p.t., wote), to know. 

" Gin they wit but what we wote"G, Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse 
j686, p. 5. 


WITCHES-NEEDLES, the plant shepherd's needle, Scandix 
Pecten, L. 

" Some of our country women call the long beaked fruit the DeiVs 
Darning Needle, and others Adam's Needle, from their unlearned conjecture 
that therewith our first parents stitched the primitive robe. I have 
recently heard it called Elshins, i.e., awls ; and the DeiVs elshin." Hardy, 
Hist. Bwks. Nat. Club, vol. vi., p. 159. 

WITCHES-THIMBLE, the purple foxglove, Digitalis purpurea, 
Linn. Called also deed-man's bells. 

WITCH-HOLES, the name in parts of Coquetdale, Redesdale, 
etc., for what are described by geologists as " swallow-holes." 
The percolation of rain-water at the outcrop of a bed of 
limestone dissolves the rock below, and these curious sinkings 
of the surface are the result. See SWALLOW-HOLE, WATER- 

WITCHWOOD, WUTCHWOOD, the wood of the mountain 
ash. Two pieces were tied in form of a cross to guard 
against witchcraft. 

" Witchwood, the mountain ash, called in divers parts of Northumber- 
land the Whicken-tree and Rowan-tree. In the days of yore rowan-tree 
was of paramount importance in Northumberland and elsewhere. 
Almost every mansion and outhouse was guarded with it in some shape. 
Usually the dwelling-house was secured with a rowan-tree pin, that the 
evil thing might not cross the threshold. In addition to the ' bit ' in his 
pocket, the ploughman yoked his oxen to a rowan-tree bough, and with 
a whip attached to a rowan-tree shaft drove the incorrigible steer along 
the ridge. Moreover, the ox not unlikely had his horns decorated with 
red thread, amidst which pieces of rowan-tree were inserted, or a portion 
of the wood hieroglyphed with quaint devices and similarly garnished 
with threads might preadventure be dangled at the tail. Sailors had a 
store of this on board their vessel." Dr. Hardy, Richardson's Table 
Book, Leg. Div., vol. ii., p. 182, n. 

WITE, a large wooden hoop with a sheepskin stretched across 
it like a drum-head. In appearance it is like a large 
tambourine, and it is used as a hand vessel for carrying corn 
and for other purposes. In the old method of winnowing by 
hand the corn was allowed to fall from a wife, and the chaff 
was separated by the wind as it fell. In Scotland the form is 
Wecht; in the Boldon Buke it is spelt Wehit or Wheit. 

WITE, WYTE, blame. " Don't lay the wite on me." 
Hodgson MS. " Whee's wyte was't ? " " It was na maa wyte, 
aa's sure." " He gat the wyte o' deein'd " got the blame 
of doing it. " Aa'll tyek the wite on't." 

WITED, decreed. " It's just been wited that way." (When ed 
forms the last syllable of a word it is generally pronounced 
as eed or eet.) 


WITHER, WUTHER, to rush with violence. Compare 


" She withered about, and dang down all the gear." 
Sawney Ogilby's Duel. 
Northumberland Garland, 1793, p 207. 

WITHERSHINS, the direction contrary to the sun's course. 
Deazil, in the direction of the sun's course. 

"The Keeldar Stone forms at this period a boundary mark on the 
confines of Northumberland and Jed Forest. It is a rough insulated 
mass, of considerable demensions, and it is held unlucky to ride or walk, 
withershins three times round it." M. A. Denham, Folk-lore of Northumber- 
land, etc., 1858, p. 45. 

WITHOUTEN, WITHOOTEN, without. This form is still 
common in colloquial talk. " He wis withouten owther shoe 
tiv his foot or a bite tiv his mooth." 

" Withouten either dread or fears." 

T. Donaldson, An Elegy on a Favourite Stallion, 1809. 

WITHY, a tie made of twisted willow twigs. See WIDDY. 

" I had better bee hangad in a withie, or in a cowtaile, then be a 
rowfooted Scot." Bullein, Dialogue, 1564, E.E. Text Society, p. 6, 1. 21. 

WITTER, water [Alnwick] . " Aa'm gan doon to the broad 
witter." See WATER. 

WIV, WUV, with ; used before an open vowel or a mute 
aspirate. Wiv's, with his. See Wi. 

" Wiv a coal in each hand, ashore then he went." 

W. Armstrong, The Jenny Hoolet. 

WIVER, one of the timbers or wales of a boat on which the 
seats rest. See INWIVER. 

WIVOOT, without. 

" Aa niver can misdoot him, 

Sic brave ways he hes aboot him, 
But O ! it's lone wivoot him, 
That bonny lad o' mine." 

Geordy's Last, 1878, p. 20. 

WIZEN [N.] (i long), the weasand or windpipe. " It's gaen 
doon the wrang wizen" (said of food that has stuck in the 

WIZEN, to shrivel, to dry up, to become wrinkled. " Old 
wizen-kited quine " shrivelled old hag. " The trees hes 
aal wizened." 

WO [W.-T.] , wall. See also Wi. 


WO, WO-HAY, a cartman's order to his horse to stop or 
stand still. Wo-hi and Wo-hick, turn to left or near side. 
Wo-hup or Wo-gee, turn to right or off side. 

WODE, WUD, mad. " Man, yo'r wode /" See WUD. 

WODENSDAY, Wednesday. 

"I can recollect perfectly when it was invariably pronounced 
Wodensday by old country people in Northumberland." Note by Mr. 
M. H. Dand. 

WOE-LEET-O'T ! woe light on't, woe betide it ; an 

WOH [W.-T.] , with. SeeWi. 

"On woh Jemmy Grame, the theaker lad." 

T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 12. 

WOMAN-BODY, a female. "They should get some decent 
woman-body ti leuk efter the bairns an' dee the hoose torns." 
See BODY, i. Womenfolk, women. Compare MENFOLK. The 
terms are in constant general use. 

" Thame days the sarvin lads was train'd to de yen's biddin : 
The wummin foak fill'd muck, an" lasses turn'd the midden." 

G. Chatt, Old Farmer, Poems, 1866, p. 86. 


WOOD-FULL, full to the top exactly ; applied to carts when 
loaded up exactly to the shilvins and no more ; also to coal 
tubs filled just level with the top of the tub. 

WOOD-HEAD, the refuse chips or blocks of whinstone, which 
are unsuitable for paving blocks or other uses. 

WOOD-HORSE, a rack for supporting planks of wood set up 
to be seasoned or ready for the joiners' use. 

" 1646. It. pd. for timber and workmanship for the wood-horss, 
gs. 4d." Gateshead Church Books. 

WOOD-OWL, the tawny owl, Syrnium aluco, L. Known also 
as Jenny hoolet and ivy owl. 

WOOD-PIGEON, the ring dove, Columba palumbus, L. Called 
also cushat and cushy-doo. 

WOOD-WARBLER, the wood wren, Phyllopneuste sibilatrix, 

WOODY, tough. Woody coal, coal which is tough and difficult 
to separate. Woodifu, Wudifu, hard, like wood. " Me teeth's 
gyen, but aa he' woodifu gums." 


WOOSE, juice, or any oozy secretion. See OOSE. 

" A kynde of woose or fome which issueth owte of the hill, and there- 
with theye color or dye theyre wool." Duke of Northumberland's MS., 
dated 1595. The woose in this case was probably a soft ochre. 

WOR, WORS, WUR [N.] , our, ours. The possessive form 
is sometimes spoken with a full vocalization, as at Alnwick, 
where the sound woviz is heard. " It's not yoris ; it's woris." 
A woman, speaking of her husband, frequently uses the 
pronoun wors. "Aa'll see aboot it when wars comes hyem." 
Worsels, ourselves. 

" In defence o' wor country, wor laws, an" wor king, t 
May a Peercy still lead us to battle." 

R. Gilchrist, Northumberland Free o' Newcassel, 1824. 

WORK, to twitch as in pain or in a fit. Workin, moving. 
Specially applied to those movements which appear to be 
spontaneous, as the working of fermentation in beer or bread, 
and the crackling of the roof-stone of a pit previous to falling. 
Workin-barrel, the portion of a pump in which the bucket 
works. Workins, the excavations in a colliery. 

" Workin-place, an excavation in course of being made." Nicholson, 
Coal Trade Terms, 1888. 

" Nan Galley is workin' in fits." 

J. P. Robson, Collier's Farewell, 1849. 

WORM (pronounced wor-rum), a serpent. In Northumberland 
the adder (Viper hems) is called the hag-worm, and the harmless 
Anguis fragilis is called the blind-worm or slow-worm. Worm is 
also the name of the legendary monsters so vividly described 
in old ballads. "The laidley worm" lived on Spindleston 
Heugh a little to the south of W r aren Mills, near Bamburgh. 
The Lambton worm is another of these huge traditionary 
snakes. There is again the worm of Sockburn in the county 
of Durham, and, over the Border, the " Wode Worm of 
Wormiston," near Linton, in Roxburghshire. 
" Word went east and word went west, 

And word is gone over the sea, 
That a laidley worm in Spindleston Heughs 
Would ruin the North countree." 

WORREET, lumpy, knotted, coagulated. Ill-made porridge 
or sauce is said to be wovveet when too little water has been 
used and imperfect mixing or consistency is the result. 

WORRET, WORRIT, to worry. " He set his dog on to 
worret wor cat." " If ye divn't mind, the rabbit '11 get worreted" 
It also means mental worry or annoyance. " He's just 
worretin hissel ti deeth." A scolding, worrying person is 
said to worret-on to keep on worrying. The word is also 
used as a substantive. " Yo'r a fair worret, bairn." 


WORSEL, to struggle. SEE WARSEL. 

WORTH, a place ; like -ham and -ton, applied as a suffix in 
place-names. It was formerly applied to a court or palace, 
to a country house, estate, farm, or village. It also meant 
a place like an island. In place-names it occurs in the 
villages of Heworth, 'E.worth (now Ewart), Backworth, 
"Killingworth, Pegsworth (now Pegswood), and in Waxkworth, 
the fortified and peninsula-like worth. Across the Border, 
Jedburgh appears as Jedwarth and Geddeworth in thirteenth 
and fourteenth century spellings ; and it is still familiarly 
called Jfethart and Jeddart. 

"The moated mound on which now stands the donjon of Warkworth 
Castle, was, in all likelihood, originally occupied by the worth, or palace 
of the Ockings, a line of Bernician princes." Bates, Border Holds, vol. i., 
p. 81. 

WORTS, refuse ; the portions of fodder rejected by cattle or 
sheep. Cattle cribs are worteet that is, cleared of refuse. 

WORTSPRING, skin that is cracked and has risen up at the 
roots of the finger nails. See ANGER-NAIL. 

WOTCHAT, an orchard. Grose. 

WOUGH, the bark of a dog. Compare WAFF, 2. 

WOUNTER, winter. 

"Aw was up at the mistresses suon ee mworning, ith howl oh woimter." 
T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 9. 

WOU V [W.-T.] , with. See Wi. 

" Stannin wouv his jasay neet cap on." 

T. Bewick, The Howdy, etc., ed. 1850, p. 10. 

WOW, very small beer, or other exceedingly dilute drink. 
Traikle-wow, Fardin-wow, a thin treacle beer. 

" "Pis but comparin treacle-wow 
Wi' Willy Almond's stingo." 

T. Wilson, Oiling of Dicky's Wig, 1826, v. 42. 

WOW ! an exclamation. " Eh, wow, but this is a wet day ! " 

" Wow ! but the meeting will be het." 

Ballad, The Fray of Hautwessel. 

WOW, to mew, to complain peevishly. Wowl, to whine or 
whimper. Wowlin or Wow-a-lin, peevish, crabbed, petulant. 



WRACK, weeds ; especially " whickens " and sea-weed. See 
RACK, i, SEA-WARE, and WARE, 2. 

WRAITH, the appearance or apparition of a person about to 
die. See WAFF, i. 

WRANG, wrong. " Wrang iv his heed "deranged. Wrangous, 
Wrangestly, or Wmngously (adverb), wrongfully, wrongly. An 
innocent person when charged with blame is said to be 
" wrangestly chairged." 

" *739-4i January 20. James Porteous fined one shilling for ivrongous 
way of warning. January 21. Pay'd by Dugdale Rhodame, one of ye 
late stewards, his fourth part of ye money wrongously given to Ralph 
Smith." Keelman's Hospital Books. 

WRANGLE-TREE, the cross-bar in the chimney to which a 
crook is attached to hang pots or kettles on for cooking. 

WRAT, a wart. See RAT. 

WRAT (p.t. of write). " He wrat him a letter." 



WRENCH, or RANGE, to rinse. 

WRIST-O'-THE-FOOT, the ankle. 

WROUGHT, WROUT, worked, finished. Wrout oot, worked 
out ; applied to a colliery. Sair wrout, overworked. 

" The Horse Engin serves to draw up the Wrought Coals." Compleat 
Collier, 1708, p. 28. 

WRY, to twist. See REE. 

" Wry about the Neck o' th' Cock!" G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 39. 

WU. For words beginning thus see also under Wi. 

WUD, WODE, foolish, mad. " He's gyen clean wud." " The 
poor creetur's wud." 

WUDDLE, WIDDLE, to do anything slowly or laboriously, 
to work without much result. " He wuddled on mair nor an 
'oor ; an' was only half dyun." "He wuddled on a 1 day an' 
did nowt." To persevere. " It's a lang teedy job, but aw'll 
wuddle through. 



WUDIFU, hard, like wood. See WOODY. 

WUKS ! an exclamation. Compare WUNS. 

WULCAT, a wild cat. 

" Keilder was, till towards the middle of the last century, a great 
place for wild cats, or, as they are called, wulcats." Dr. Hardy, Hist, of 
Bwks. Nat. Club, vol. vii., p. 249. 


WULLEMOT, WULLYMENT, the guillemot, Una troile, L. 

WULLY, a willow. Wully-trcc, a willow tree. Wully bus, a 
willow bush. Wully-wan, an osier. See WAN and compare 

WUMMEL, a wimble or auger used in boring in clay, or a 
scoop screwed on the end of a boring rod to clear out the 

WUN [N.] . See WIN. 

WUN, WONE, to dwell, to stay. Woncd, dwelt. (Obsolescent.) 

" A swinger won'd about the court." G. Stuart, Joco-Serious Discourse, 
1686, p. 28. 

W 7 UNDY-ORGAN, an excessively talkative and untruthful 
person. A nonce word. See WIND, 2, and WINDY-HASH. 

WUN-EGG, wind-egg, a soft egg, an egg without the hard 

WUN-RAA, a windrow, a line of cut hay as it lies raked and 
ready to be put up into kyles or pikes. See WIN, i. 

WUNS, an exclamation. Wuntersful ! and Wuks! are similarly 

" Wuns, Bob ! if I had a son, sic a dancer as thou, dye, if a wud ca' 
the King my cousin !" Richardson, Table Book, Leg. Div., vol. i., p. 314. 

WUN-TEE, fall to. An invitation to sit down to meat. 
" Noo lads, wun-tee /" See WIN, i. 

WUS, WUZ, the preterite tense of the indicative mood of the 
verb wise, to let go. See WISE. 


WUSHT, wist, knew. " Aa nivver wusht till doon it cam." 
WUTHER, to rush violently. See WITHER and compare 


WUTTER, the rod which is put in the tithe stooks of corn. 
Also a leister. 

WUTTERED, barbed. 

WYEBERRIES, the fruit of the red whortleberry, Vaccinium 
Vitis-Idcza, L. This is elsewhere called wine-berry. 

WYEL, WEYEL, to pick out. See WALE. 

WYEM, the stomach, the belly. See WAME. 

WYLLY, an infant's nightgown. [Redesdale.] See WILY-COAT. 

WYTE. See WITE, 2. 

Y, representing a long ee sound, is heard before many words 
beginning with a, 0, and o. The y in these represents a 
dipthongal sound. Thus : Ya, Yea, Yen, Yin, Yane, one. Yence, 
once. Yaith, an oath. Yaits, Yets, Yits, oats. Yak, Yek, oak. 
Yarb, an herb. Yarl, an earl. Yarth, Yerth, Yeard, Yird, earth, 
to earth up. Yearly, Yarly, early. Yeble, Yable, Yeable, able, 
strong. Yecker, Yacker, an acre. Yeckey, an echo. Yed, Yid, 
Yeddy, Addy, dim. of Adam. Yell, whole. Yell, Yill, ale. 
Yemang, among. Ye-nee-oo, Ye-neuf, enough. Yep, an ape, a 
brat. Yearn, earn. Yeryant, errand. Yettle, for ettle. Yore, 
ore. Yow, an ewe. 

YAAD, YAUD, YAD, a work horse or mare. The women 
who gather bait for fishermen are called " baities," and 
sometimes bait-yauds. A ford near Thorneyburn, on North 
Tyne, is known as the " aad yaad ford." 

YAAP, YAUP, YAP, YEP, YIP, a brat, an impudent or 
forward boy, a perverse and wilful animal. Yappy, apt, 
quick. " He's a yappy lad." 

" Aup, a wayward child." Halliwell. 

YAAP, YAWP, to shout, to scream, to talk in a boisterous 
manner. A chicken in its persistent cry for the hen-mother 
is said to be yaapin. 

YAAP, YAWP, hungry. " He's varry yawp." 

YACKEY-YAA, an impertinent fellow. A term of contempt. 
" He's a gobby kind o' a fellow, a reg'lor snort the 



YAITIN, a sheaf set up singly. See GATEN. 

active, powerful, nimble. " A yawl horse." " A yald tyke." 
" Lish,yald, shepherd^lads." " Man, yo'r a. yald un ! " 

YAMMER, incessant talk, especially of a brawling fretful kind. 
Yammer, to whine or complain in a monotonous, peevish 
manner. Applied to dog or man. " The dog yammered oot." 

" What do's th' want yammering and shouting as kin yen was deef ? " 
T. Bewick, The Upgetting, ed. 1850, p. 12. 

" O, Nell ! thoust rung me mony a peal, 

Nyen but mysel could bide thy yammer ; 
Thy tongue runs like wor pulley wheel, 

And dirls my lug like wor smith's hammer." 

T. Wilson, Pitman's Pay, pt. i. f v. 41. 

YAMPH, to bark. " The dog, theyamphin thing, dee't the neist 

YAP [N.] , hungry. Yappish, somewhat hungry. 

YARD-SIDE, one yard long. " Let's he' just a yard-side." 
See SIDE. 

YARDSTICK, YARDWAN, a measuring stick one yard in 
length. It is familiar everywhere in the light wand of the 
draper's shop, and not less familiar in the stout ferruled stick 
with which the pedlar suspends his pack from his shoulder. 
But it is in the colliery that its special significance is under- 
stood. When carried by underviewer or overman it is at 
once a distinguishing wand of office, a convenient walking stick, 
or a rod of punishment to evil-doers of juvenile years, as well 
as a measuring rod for setting off the work in the mine. In 
former times it was of the yet further service of forming a 
useful accompaniment in the descent of the pit, and was used 
to fend off the person from the sides of the shaft. 

"The man descending with one thigh in the loop, and his left arm 
round the chain, with a heavy lantern in his hand, and with the yard-wand 
in his right hand, to guide and keep himself as near as possible in the 
centre of the shaft." R. Scott, Ventilation of Coal Mines, 1868, p. 31.* 

YARE, a wear or structure projecting into the tideway or 
stream used as a fishery. On the Tweed, North F^wick, 
Yardtord, etc. Yare haugh, a haugh on which there is a. yare 
or fishery. (Obs.) 

" Aug. 27, 1345. A yan called the Rutyare, which used to extend to 
the mid-water of Tyne ; another yare, of like extent, called Maleyare, 
near the Redheugh all west of Tyne bridge. A fishery called 
Toulershell, and a yare under Gateshead Park called Helper yare, to a 
third of Tyne water." Welford, Hist, of Newcastle, vol. i., p. 124. 


YARE, lively. Hodgson MS. 

YARK, a heavy blow. 

" The blacksmith's hammer, yark for yark, 
We hear ne langer bangin." 

T. Wilson, Oiling o' Dicky's Wig, 1826. 

YARK, to thrash soundly, to go quickly, to jerk. " Aa'll yark 
yor hide for ye." " He'll yark ye when he gets had on ye." 
" To skelp and yark," to move with rapidity. 

YARK [N.], to stretch to the fullest extent. " Sirrah, yor 
weskit's yarkeet on ye." Yarkin-seam, the lacing part of a boot. 

YARKER, a thing of large size. " It's zyarker, noo.'' Yarkin, 
heavy, large. " Ayarkin tettie." Compare SKELPIN. 

YARNUT, the arnut or earth nut, Bunium fexuoswn, With. 

YARRAGE, YARRIDGE, an edge, a sharp point, a corner. 

YARRELS, the goosander, Mergus merganser, L. Called also 


YATTER, scolding or brawling talk. " Hear what a yattev 
them cheps is myekin." To grumble, to find fault, to speak 
fretfully and foolishly. " She's a clsuty yattrin body." 

YAUD, YAD, a jade or old work horse. See YAAD. 
YAUD, FYE-YAUD, a call to a sheep-dog. See FYE. 

YEARN, YEREN, to curdle. "Send me a cheese, but it 
must not be hard yearned" Yearnin, rennet. Yearnin-bag or 
Yearnin-cloot, a calf's keslup enclosed in a cloth and used for 
curdling milk for cheese making. 

"The plant used in North Tindale to curdle milk for cheese is called 
yearnin grass." Hodgson MS. 

YEATHER, YEDDER, the pliant stick used in fastening 
brushwood, or "rice," in making a " stake-and-rice " fence. 
This kind of fence was formed by driving stakes into the top 
of an earth dyke, about eighteen inches or two feet apart, and 
then winding thorns round them, which were secured along 
the top by a yeather of saugh, hazel, or any straight pliant 
wood. Yedderin or Edderin, making a yedder on a fence. 


YEBLINS, perhaps. Yebble-see, perhaps it may. See AIBLINS. 

YEILD, YEELD, YELD, YELL, not giving milk, not at age 
for bearing. Applied to animals. Yeeld-yows, ewes from 
which the lambs have been weaned. See EILD. 

YELLERISH, YELLISH, weird, dismal, ghostly. The same 
as ellerish, which see. 

" Then raised a yowle sae loud and lange, 
S&eyeUish and sae shrille." 

The Gloamyn Buchte. 

YELLOW PLOVER (yellow in this and following words 
pronounced yalla), the golden plover, Pluvialis apricarius, L. 

YELLOWS, wild mustard, Sinapis arvensis, L. 
YELLOW-TOP, ragwort, Senecio Jacobcea, L. 

YELLOW WHEAG-TAIL, the spring wagtail, or Ray's 
wagtail, Budytes Rayi, Bonaparte. 

YELLOW-WREN, the willow wren. Called also the linty. 

hammer or yellow bunting, Emberiza citrinella, L. Yalla-yowley 
is used occasionally as a cant term for money or coins. A 
very curious antipathy was formerly shown by boys to the 
yellow-hammer. It was superstitiously supposed to taste 
blood from the veins of the evil spirit at stated times. Its 
nest was consequently destroyed when found, and a doggerel 
rhyme was repeated in the act. 

" Half a paddock, half a tyed, 

Yalla, yalla Yorlin, 
Drinks' a drop o' de'il's blood 
Ivvry Monday mornin." 

YELP, to call out. 

" But whisht ! the sairjeant's tongue aw hear, 
' Fa' in, Fa' in ! ' be'syelpin." 

J. Shield, Bob Cranky's Adieu, 1807. 

YELPER, the avocet, Recurvirostra avocetta, L., which frequents 
the sea shores in winter, and makes a shrill noise. Brockett. 

YELT, a young sow. 

YENCE-EERAND, once errand, a journey or errand for a 
special purpose. " He went yence-eerand for'd " went specially 
for it* 


YENOO, now, just now, presently. Yenoo, enough. 

" Aa did feel a prood manyenoo." 

His Other Eye, 1880, p. 4. 

YENSEL, oneself. " Yen should dee'dyensel." 

YERD, YIRD, YEARD, to earth up potatoes. Yeard, a fox 
earth. Yird, earth, ground. 

" Theyird is shook beneath their hoofs." 

Hedgely Moor. 
Minstrelsy of the English Border, p. 138. 

YE'S, YESE, you shall. " Yese come when aa tell ye, mind." 

YET YET YET ! an old Border rallying cry. 

" Muckle Jock Milburn told us that he remembered more than once 
clearing Bellingham fair with the Tarset and Tarretburn men at his back, 
to the old Border cry of 

Tarset and Tarret burn 

Hard and heather bred 

Yet Yet Yet !" 
Dr. Charlton, North Tynedale, second ed., p. 97 

YETLIN, YETELIN, a small cast-iron pot, with a rounded 
bottom, having three projecting feet or "purys." It is a 
miniature kail pot, and is made with a bow handle which 
swivels in a pair of " lugs " (ears). A " skellet " is a similar 
pot, but made with an ordinary straight, instead of a bow, 
handle. Compare ATELIN. 

" Item ij pannys that oone was a zeet pan wyth ij eerys prec. vs. viijd." 
Embleton Church Inventory, A.D. 1431-2. MS., Merton Coll., Oxford. 

YET-SEED-BORD, oat-seed bird, the spring wagtail, Budytes 
Rayi, Bonaparte. Called also yellow wheag-tail. 

YETT, YEAT, YATE, a gate. Yet-stoop, a gate-post. The 
last form, yate, also means a road or street. See GATE, i. 
" Carel yate," the road to Carlisle. "Aa'll wise ye through 
iheyett" let you out at the gate. 

" August, 1592. Paide for carrying the 4 quarters of the semynarie 
preste from yate to yate, and other charges, 2s." Newcastle Municipal 

" Yate in the North of England as often means a street or road as a 
gate or hinged fence upon a road." Hodgson, Northumberland, vol. iij., 
pt. ii., p. 283. 

"As aad as Pandonyett." Newcastle saying. 

YETUN, a giant or supernatural inhabitant of an old castle. 


YEUK, YUCK, to itch. Yucky [S.] , Yooky [N.], itchy. "If 
aa get ahad o' ye, aa'll gar ye scart where yo'rnotyucky" 
(policeman to a boy in Newcastle). 

YEWER, EWER, URE, an udder. 

YITTIES, oats of very short stalk. Diminutive ofyits, oats. 

YOKE, to begin work when engaged with horses. " To gan 
iheyokin off" is to do a day's work without "lowsin." 

YOKEN, a collision caused by the meeting of two trams or 
sets of tubs in a pit going in different directions on the same 

" Sic, then, was the poor putter's fate, 
Wi' now and then a stannin fray, 
Frayokens, cawd pies, stowen bait, 
Or cowpt corves i' the barrow way." 

T. Wilson, Pitman 1 s Pay, pt. ii., 1827, v. 55. 

YOKIN-TIME, the time of starting any kind of work, not 
necessarily connected with the yoking of horses. 

" Howay ! Howay ! the buzzer's blawn, 
It's time for yo kin, every man." 

J. Rowell, song, The Caller. 

YOLLER, to yell discordantly. Dogs when whipped are said 
to yoller. It is also applied to any brawling and shouting 
noise. "They cam' yollerin doon the street." Compare 

YOOL, YOWL, YULE, to yell, to shout out loudly, to howl 
like a hurt dog. 

" For hyem, an' bairns, an 1 maw wife, Nan, 
Aw yool'd oot like a lubbart." 

T. Thompson, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry. 

YOT, a mouthful. 

YOUSTERED, puffed or swollen in the cellular membranes of 
the skin. 

YOW, an ewe. 

" Haud yows, a bye name used in North and South Tyne by a certain 
portion of the natives against their brethren of the hills, the sheep 
farmers on those wild and dreary fells. Haud yauds, a portion of 
Coldingham Moor, where old horses were turned out to graze. ' Haud 
to preserve for stock,' Jamieson, applied to cattle. Haudin cawf, one not 
fed for sale, but kept that it might grow to maturity." Dr. Hardy, 
Denham Tracts, Folk-lore Society, 1892, p. 273. 

YOWK, the core of a stack. See GOWK. 


YOW-NECKED, long and hollow in the neck ; applied to 
various animals. " Ayow-mckeet horse," etc. Compare How. 

YUL, YULE, YEL [N.] , Christmas. Yule-clog, a yule-log. 

YUL-DOO, YULE-BABBY, a baby figure made of a flat cake 
of gingerbread or currant cake, and sold to children. The 
arms are folded across, and two currants are put in for eyes. 
Yul-doos are probably so-called because made from the yule or 
Christmas dough. Yule-cakes, so-called elsewhere, are not 
known in Northumberland. 

YUMMERS, the humours ; irregularities of the circulation. 

" ' It's the yummers 'at's the maiter wiv her.' This expression shows 
how long among the people old medical ideas linger. It has remained in 
the popular mind from the time of the humoral pathology centuries ago." 
Dr. Embhton MS. 

YUVEN, an oven. Yeoveen-styen, oven-stone, the name of a 
dismantled colliery on the Hepple barony, Coquetdale. 

"It's ayuven compared tiv a limekiln." 

Song, Canny Shields. Bards of the Tyne, 1849. 

YUVVERY, fastidious. "He was varry yuvvevy aboot his 
meat " that is, did not "fancy" it, or turned away from it 

ZIG -ZAG, purple clover, Tnfolium medium, L. See COW-GRASS. 



BELKS, the stems of seaweed formerly used by kelp makers. 

" The stems of laminaria locally named belks, or wassal." J. C. 
Hodgson, Bwks. Nat. Club Trans., vol. xiv., 1892, p. 115, n. 

BIN, the wale or upper side of a ship. 

BOLE, a limekiln. Compare SOW-KILN. 

" Lorbottle Lordship in the parish of Whittingham consists of 
sixteen farms and ten cottages, pays Tythe in kind and a modus for 
Hay. Limestone on the ground 7 miles from bole. " MS. Survey of 
Lorbottle, 1724, ex. inf. D. D. Dixon. 

BRENT-GRASS, dried seed-stalks of grass. See WINNEL- 


CANE-FISH, rent for a fishery paid in kind. Also spelt kain. 

CO VIE, the scaup duck, Fuligula mania, L. 

DISGUISED, drunk. (Obs.) 

" 1741, May ist, James Porteous Senr. disguised w th liquor." Keel- 
man's Hospital Books. 

DOG-DRAVES, probably codfish. See Bateson, Hist, of 
Northumberland, vol. ij., article Alnmouth, n. (Obs.) 

DONK, DOUK, a soft clayey substance found in lead veins. 
DRUSE, the crystalline matter in a lead vein. See RIDER. 
FEATHER-POKE, the long-tailed titmouse, Orites caudatus, L. 

FERN-OWL, the nightjar or goatsucker, Caprimulgus Eiwopaus, 
Linn. Called also night-hawk. 

FLEAM, a watercourse. " The mill fleam:' Still in use in 

FLIGHTERIN, fluttering. Applied to falling snow. 

FLIT, to remove household furniture. Flittin, a removal. 
Moonlight flittin, a surreptitious removal. 


FLOAT-ORE, waterworn lead ore found in surface deposits. 

FRACTION, a fracas or row. 

"Oct. 17, 1771, the article concerning making fractions and disturbance 
in the company was read." Keelman's Hospital Books. 

GAITED [N.] , marked with dirt. Applied to badly washed 
clothes, which are said to be gaited or " scared." 

GANG, a collective term for the set of felloes in a cart axle. 
GAVY [N.] , incoherent or rambling in talk. 
HAR-TREE, HAW : TREE, the hinge post of a gate. 

HOPE, p. 385, is frequently applied to mere eminences, and is 
then usually pronounced up, as Amble Hope, Ulgham Hope, etc. 

HORCLE [N.] , to crouch down. " He horded doon ahint the 

HORCLED, laid down. Applied to growing grass or corn that 
has been flattened in the field by rain or wind. 

HOW-WAY, hollowed or sunken way. A term applied to 
certain ancient trackways. 

KAIN, CANE, a rent paid in kind, as kain fish, kain hens, kain 
oats, etc. 

KEACH (pron. kyetch), to drag forcibly. 

" If ye canna get carried through life, ye'll get kyetched through." 

Old Proverb. 

KEAVE [N.] , the pronunciation of the colloquial word cove, a 
fellow. "The heaves o' Lor bottle." 

LEASIN, a lie. " Aa canna had wi' leasins" cannot hold 
with lies. 

LION, the red-throated diver. See LOON. 

LOOT, to stoop, to bend down. " Me back wis stiff an' sair wi' 

LOUGH, a small collection of water or an inlet from the sea. 


MAY-WEED, p. 470. Add after this, Laminaria digitata, Lam. 
May-tops, the upper part of algae used by kelp makers. 
Compare BELKS. 

" The laminaria sheds its upper part in broken weather about the end 
of the month of May, this, when washed ashore, is known as May-tops." 
J. Crawford Hodgson, History of Bwks. Nat. Field Club, vol. xiv., 1892, 
p. 29, n. 

MENSION, MENCON, p. 475. Add, " the track or founda- 
tion of a boundary," etc. The mensions occur when the dike 
has fallen into ruin. Note by Dr. Hardy. 

MOOR-BAND, p. 482. " Mooy-band, usually the wash of 
boulder-clay gravel ; also a residuum of iron ore extracted 
from the boulder gravel and soil." Note by Dr. Hardy. 

PICKET, a hook attached to the end of a small stick. Used 
by fishermen in landing their fish. 

FOOT, a pool or pond. (Obs.) 


[Notes of omissions will be gratefully received, and may be addressed to 
R. Oliver Heslop, The Crofts, Corbridge, R.S.O., Northumberland.] 


Introduction, p. xij., line twenty-four, for autonomy read autonomy. 
Page 6, under ADAM AND EVE, for latiforia read latifolia. 

,, 62, line three, for fructicosus readfruticosus. 

75, under BOG-SPINK, for bitterness read bittercyess. 

174, line eight, for Plectropharses read Plectrophanes . 

,, 207, under CUCKOO-FLOWER, for bitterness read bittercress. 

,, 219, under DARE, for Cyprinus leuciseus read Leuciscus vulgaris, Yarrell. 

,, 228, line four from foot, for Scandiz read Scandix. 

,, 235, line five, for Rhodomenia read Rhodymenia. 

,, 240, line nine from foot, for acteosa read acetosa. 

,, 277, line ten, for bitumenous read bituminous. 

,, ,, line fifteen, last word, for and read which was. 

,, 305, line ten from foot, for throat read mouth. 

,, 336, line two, for Troilus read Trollius. 

ii 343- under GREY-BORD, for Turdus mucicus read T. musicus. 

344, under GREY-LENNART, for Gucelin read Linnceus. 

345, under GRIP-GRASS, after Potentilla anserina read " and to the brome 
grass, Bromus racemosus and B. commutatus." 

,, 349, under GULLMA, for guillemot read " herring gull, Larus argentatus, 

,, 351, under HACK, delete "This implement is probably peculiar to 
Northumberland . ' ' 

,, ,, under HACK-CLAY, for Somersetshire read Cornwall. 

366, under HEART-O'-THE-HEARTH, read Heart-o'-the-earth and omit 
"a plant of many virtues." The "virtues" existed only in 
the fancies of old writers. 

M 37 2 > under HENNY-PEN, for christa read crista. 

> 373i under HERONSHEUGH, for Cinnerea read Cinerea. 

ii 383. under HOLLIN, for N. Northumberland read S. Northumberland. 

,, 387, under HORSE-NOBS, omit " or the Centaur ea cyanus, which is," etc. 

,, 407, under JENNY-SPINNER, for orelaela read oleracea. 

,, 414, under READ, for "The muck that infests sheep" read "The 

Melophagus ovinus." 
under KEAVE, omit the sentence beginning " The heaves o" Lor- 

bottle," etc. 

,, 420, under KEPPY-BAA, line eight, for corban tree read coban tree. 
,, 429, under KNACK-REEL. This is of much earlier introduction than 

here stated. 

ERRATA. 813 

Page 430, under KNOT-GRASS, for A vena elatior, L., read Arrhenatherum aven- 
aceum, Pal de Beauv. 

435, under LADS'-LOVE, for abrotaneum read abrotanum, Linn. 

437, under LAIR, delete the sentence " In place-names, lair probably 
occurs in Learmouih," etc. 

,, 440, under LANG-LEG'D-TYELLIOR, for orelacla read oleracea. 

,, 458, under LUCKEN-GOWAN, for Troilus read Trollius. 

,, 461, under MAAS, read "common mallow, Malva sylvestris, L." 

,, 462, under MAIDENS-HAIR, for Withy read Withering. 

,, 470, under MAWS, read "common mallow, Malva sylvestris, L.," and 
delete " marshmallow," etc. 

,, 478, under MILL, for " Compare MELL, 3," read " Compare MELL, 2." 

,, 490, under MUSH, the quotation should read " Strang knees and 
houghs," etc. 

,, 502, line twelve, for Nimmel read Nimmer. 

,, 504, line seventeen, for The same read James Armstrong. 

,, 513, line thirty-one, for Outlandish read Outlandish. 















[All rights reserved^ 



THIS Bibliography is based upon the List of Works 
published by Professor Wright for the English Dialect 
Dictionary; and the compiler is indebted to Mr. Edward 
T. Nisbet for examination and tabulation, in conjunction 
with Mr. John H. Harbottle, of dialect works in the 
Newcastle Free Library. The list has been further com- 
pared with the private collections of local imprints in the 
libraries of Mr. G. H. Thompson, Alnwick, Mr. Matthew 
Mackey, Junr., Newcastle, and of Mr. Richard Welford, 
Gosforth, to all of whom the writer is greatly indebted for 
personal assistance. Mr. Welford has added to this obli- 
gation by undertaking the onerous task of final revision 
and correction. 


May, 1896. 




ADAMS, T. W. Songs and Sketches. By T. W. ADAMS, 
Leazes Lane, [Newcastle], ismo, 8 pp. Newcastle, n. d. 
[i 880]. (Contains the following local songs : ' The Happy 
Fishwife of Canny Tyneside ' ; ( The Sketches of New- 
castle ' ; 'The Parody of Billy Fine Day'; * Happy Sally 
the Match Lass ' ; ' The Lass that wants to get married ' ; 
< The Rifleman Soldier '; ' The Death of Billy Purvis.') 

I2mo, 36 pp. Newcastle: Pattison & Ross, 1837. (Con- 
tains three poems in Scotch dialect.) 

ALLAN, JAMES. The Life of James Allan, the celebrated 
Northumberland Piper, and other branches of his extra- 
ordinary family. 8vo. Blyth : Wm. Guthrie, 1817. 

The Life of James Allan, the celebrated Northumber- 
land Piper y&c., taken principally from his own relation. 
By ANDREW WIGHT. 3rd ed. Newcastle : Mackenzie 
& Dent, 1818. 

Another edition. 8vo, 384 pp. Blyth : W. Guthrie, 1 818. 

Another edition. Collected by JAMES THOMPSON. 

Illustrated by CRUIKSHANK. 8vo, pp. vi, 480. New- 
castle: Mackenzie & Dent, 1818-1828. (This edition 
also issued in serial parts at 6d. and yd. each.) 


ALLAN, JOHN WILLIAM. North Country Sketches. 
8vo, 227 pp. Newcastle: Gourant Office, 1881. 

ALLAN, THOMAS (editor). Tyneside Songs. By EDWARD 
CORVAN, G. RIDLEY, &c. Illustrated by beautiful engrav- 
ings of the most celebrated buildings in Newcastle, also 
portraits of Ed. Corvan and G. Ridley. i2mo, 96 pp. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne : Thomas Allan, 1862. 

A Choice Collection of Tyneside Songs. By E. CORVAN, 

G. RIDLEY, J. P. ROBSON, R. EMERY, &c. Illustrated by 
beautiful engravings of the most celebrated buildings in 
Newcastle and neighbourhood, to which is added a guide 
to Newcastle. I2mo, 180 pp. Newcastle: Published by 
Thomas Allan, n. d. [1863]. 

A Choice Collection of Tyneside Songs. By WILSON, 

RIDLEY, OLIVER, SHIELD, &c., with Lives of the Authors. 
Illustrated with views of the Town and Portraits of the 
Poets and Eccentrics of Newcastle. i2mo, pp. vi, 373. 
Newcastle: Allan, 1873. 

Tyneside Songs. In two vols. 1874. (Same as the 

1873 Edition, but with the addition of new Titles and 
the omission of the Publisher's Note.) 

Illustrated Edition of Tyneside Songs and Readings. 

With Lives, Portraits and Autographs of the writers, and 
notes on the Songs. Revised Edition [Edited by THOMAS 
ALLAN]. 8vo, pp. xvi, 578. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : 
Thomas & George Allan, 1891. 

(The above is described as a revised and enlarged edition 
of Tyneside Songs (q. v.), published by Messrs. Allan 
in [1872-3] : but it is really an altogether new work, and 
forms by far the most complete collection of local 


ALLENDALE, A Dialogue between two Allendale Miners, 
whirfi^ took place somewhere about forty years ago. By 
an OLD ALLENDONIAN. 4 pp. 1878. (In the dialect of 
the south-western dales of Northumberland.) 

ALNWICK. The Alnwick Journal. 8 vols. 4to. Alnwick: 
J. L. Luckley, 1859-83. (Vol. i, p. 88, et seq. contains, 
'The Alnwick Language,' a Glossary, by Mr. J. L. 
Luckley, and p. 99, et seq. 'On Names of Places in 
Northum berland.') 

The Alnwick Punch. A serial in 1 2 nos., post 8vo, 1 1 2 

pp. Alnwick: J. L. Luckley, 1851-2. 

The 'Alnwick Vocal Miscellany. A selection of the 

most esteemed Songs. I2mo. Alnwick: W. Davison, 

Botanical Rambles, A Flora of Alnwick. 8vo, 112 

pp. Alnwick : J. L. Luckley, n. d. 

Flowers of the Aln. Post 8vo, 28 pp. Alnwick : 

J. L. Luckley, 1840. 

Guide to Alnwick. Alnwick : W. Davison, n. d. 

The Northumbrian Minstrel. A Choice Collection 

of Songs. 3 nos. i2mo. Alnwick: W. Davison, 1811. 

ANDERSON, JAMES. Tyneside Songs, Poems, &c. By 
JAMES ANDERSON. i2mo, 86 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : 
T. Allan, 1875. 

ARCHAEOLOGIA AELIANA. Published by The New- 
castle Society of Antiquaries. 4 vols. quarto, 1822 to 
1825 ; and 18 vols. demy 8vo (New Series), 1857 to 1896. 
(Contain local terms passim, and the special articles 
following: vol. i, p. 242, 4to series, 1823, 'Place Names 
of Northumberland,' by the Rev. A. HEDLEY ; vol. ii, 
p. 189, 4to series, 1832, 'Origin of Anglo-Saxon/ &c., by 
Rev. J. BOSWORTH ; vol. v, p. 172, New Series, 1 86 r , vol. vi, 

B 2 


p. 5, 1865, 'On Corrupt Orthography of Local Names,' 
by R. CARR-ELLISON ; vol. ix, p. 57, 1883, ' Place Barnes of 
the County of Northumberland,' by J. V. GREGORY ; vol. x, 
p. 173, 1885, 'Place Names of the County of Durham,' 
by the same; p. 93, 'The Permian People of North 
Durham,' by R. OLIVER HESLOP ; vol. xiii. p. 72, 1889, ' On 
Certain peculiarities of the Dialect in Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne and Northumberland,' by DENNIS EMBLETON, 
M.D. ; p. 223, ' Notes on the Northumberland Burr,' by 

ARMSTRONG, JAMES. Wanny Blossoms. A Book of 
Song, with a Brief Treatise on Fishing, sketches of 
Border Life, and Fox and Otter Hunting. By JAMES 
ARMSTRONG, Ridsdale, Bellingham. Second Edition. 
I2mo, 172 pp. Hexham: Herald Office, 1879. 

AWDE, ROBERT. Waiting at Table. Poems and Songs. 
i2mo. London, 1865. (Contains the following in 
Dialect : ' My nice young wife an' me ' ; ' Johny and 
his Ghost'; 'My Canny Wife'; 'Jonny and Betty'; 
' The Bachelor in search of a Wife ' ; 'The Old Maid's 

BAGNALL, JOS. Songs of the Tyne. A Collection of 
Local Melodies, comic, satirical and descriptive ; to which 
is added several parodies on the most popular Songs. By 
JOSHUA BAGNALL. i6mo, 3 2 pp. Gateshead: Printed by 
R. Rankin, 38 Bottle Bank, n.d. [1852]. 

BAILEY and CULLEY. General View of the Agriculture 
of the County of Northumberland. By J. BAILEY and 
G. CULLEY. 8vo, pp. xx, 194. London : Phillips, 1805. 
(Appended to this are surveys of the Counties of Cumber- 
land, pp. 195-274, and of Westmorland, pp. 275-361.) 


BAILLIE, REV. JOHN. An Impartial History of the 
Town and County of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and its 
Vicinity. 8vo, pp. viii, 612. Newcastle: Printed by 
and for Vint & Anderson, in the Side, 1801. 

BANKS 0' TTNE (The). A Christmas Annual, 1892, 
1893, 1894, 1895. South Shields: Gazette Office. (Con- 
taining articles by RICHARD WELFOKB, JOHN SHAW, R. O. 
HESLOP, and others ; some in dialect.) 

BELL , JOHN (editor). Rhymes of Northern Sards. Being 
a Curious Collection of Old and New Songs and Poems 
peculiar to the Counties of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, North- 
umberland, and Durham. Edited by JOHN BELL, Jun. 
i2mo, 334 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1812. 

A Garland of Bells, Wherein each rings to its 

proper Tune. i2mo, 24 pp. Printed for John Bell, 
on the Quay, by George Angus, in the Side, Newcastle, 

OF THE. 14 volumes, 1831-1893, and one part, 1894. 
Printed for the Glub by H. H. Blair, Alnwick. 

The papers and proceedings in the series include many 
dialect words throughout. Of special articles, voL iv. 
1856-1862, p. 356, contains 'The present participle in 
the Northumbrian dialect,' by RALPH CARE of Hedgeley ; 
vol. vi, 1869-1872, p. 133, 'On the Stature, Bulk, &c., 
&c., of native Northumbrians/ by GEORGE TATE, F.G.S. ; 
p. 141, ' The Northumbrians between Tyne and Tweed/ 
by RALPH CARR; vol. vii, 1873-1875^. 25, 'Suggestions 
as to Border Dialects/ by Dr. STUART; p. 237, ' On the 
Signification of some Place-Names in North Northumber- 
land ;' and vol. x, 1882-1884, p. 373, ' Names of the Fame 
Islands and of Lindisfarne/ by Ralph Carr-Ellison. 


BEWICK, THOMAS (the wood engraver). The Howdy 
and the Upgetting. Two tales of sixty years sin seyne, 
as related by the late THOMAS BEWICK, of Newcastle, in 
the Tyneside dialect. i2mo, 15 pp. London : Printed for 
the admirers of native merit, 1 850. 

BISHOPRIC GARLAND (The); or, Durham Minstrel. 
Being a choice collection of excellent Songs, relating to 
the above county. iamo, 24 pp. Stockton : Printed by 
R. Christopher, 1784. (Contains thirteen Songs. Second 
Edition, published same year, contains sixteen Songs. 
Third Edition, published 1792, contains twelve Songs. 
See also RITSON.) 

BLAKEY, ROBERT. The Angler's Song Book. Compiled 
and edited by ROBERT BLAKEY. Small 8vo, pp. xv, 276. 
London, 1855. (Contains songs in dialect.) 

and 144 pp. Galashiels, 1880, 1881. 

BORDER GLOSSARY. Alnwick : Printed by W. Davison, 
n. d. (In the Collection of Prince L. L. Bonaparte.) 

BORINGS AND SINKINGS. A Collection published by 
the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers, A B, 1878 ; C E, 1881 ; F K, 1885 ; L R, 
!887; S T, 1894. Published for the Institute by A. 
Reid, Newcastle. (These contain many coal-mining terms.) 

BRAND, JOHN. Observations on Popular Antiquities. 
Including the whole of Mr. Bourne's Antiquitates Vulgares, 
&c. By JOHN BRAND, A.B. 8vo, pp. xx, 433. New- 
castle: T. Saint, 1777. 

The History and Antiquities of the Town and County 

of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Including an account of the 
Coal Trade of that place, and embellished with engraved 


views of the Publick Buildings, &c. By JOHN BRAND, 
M.A., Fellow and Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London. 2 vols. quarto. London, &c., 1789. (Vol. 
ii, p. 261, contains note on terms in use by Keel- 
men, &c.) 

BROCKETT, JOHN TROTTER. A Glossary of North 
Country Words in Use. From an Original MS. in 
the Library of John George Lambton, Esq., M.P., with 
considerable additions. By JOHN TROTTER BROCKETT, 
F.S.A., London and Newcastle. Sm. 8vo, 243 pp. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Printed by T. & J. Hodgson, for 
E. Charnley, 1825. 

A Glossary of North Country Words in Use ; with 

their Etymology, and Affinity to other Languages ; and 
occasional Notices of Local Customs and Popular Super- 
stitions. By JOHN TROTTER BROCKETT, F.S.A., London 
and Newcastle. New edition. Sm. 8vo, 343 pp. New- 
castle-on-Tyne : Emerson Charnley, Bigg Market, and 
Baldwin & Cradock, London, 1829. 

The same. Edited by W. E. BROCKETT. In 2 vols., 

with preface, portrait, and memoir. Vol. i, pp. xxv, 254 ; 
vol. ii, 242 pp. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : E. Charnley, 1846. 

BROCKIE, WILLIAM. The Family Names of the Folks of 
Shields traced to their origin ; with brief notices of dis- 
tinguished persons ; to which is appended a dissertation 
on the origin of the Britannic Race. By WILLIAM 
BROCKIE. ' Aal tegither, like the folks o' Sheels ' (Local 
Proverb). 8vo, 113 pp. South Shields: T. F. Brockie 
& Co., 1857. 

BRUCE and STOKOE. Northumberland Minstrelsy. A 
Collection of Ballads, Melodies, and Small-pipe tunes of 
Northumbria. Edited by J. COLLINGWOOD BRUCE and 


JOHN STOKOE. 8vo, pp. x, 191 and Index v. Newcastle : 
Published by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, 1882. 

BULLEIN, W. A Dialogue bothe pleasaunt and pietifull, 
wherein is a godlie regiment against the Fever Pestilence. 
By Dr. WILLIAM BULLEIN. Printed in London, 1564 (8vo); 
reprinted in 1573 ( 8vo > PP- 216) ; 1578 (8vo). Also 
reprinted in the Early English Text Society's series, 1888. 
That portion of Bullein's work which contains the 
Speeches of the old Ridsdale Beggar is given in the 
Notes to Rambles in Northumberland and on the 
Scottish Border, by Stephen Oliver the Younger ; 
1835, p. 331. In this, an edition of Bullein dated 1569 
is mentioned. 

'BURR' (The Northumberland). See Dialects of the 
Southern Counties of Scotland. By J. A. H. MURRAY. 
Published by the Philological Society. Also references 
to the burr in Hogg's Instructor, 2nd Series, p. 142 ; 
Scot's Magazine, 1804, pp. 179-181, and 1802, pp. 
959, 960 ; Prof. Trautmann, in Anglia, vol. iii, p. ail, 
&c. (Halle, Max Niemeyer, 1880); R. Oliver Heslop, 
art. ' The Northumbrian Burr,' Monthly Chronicle, 1888, 
p. 59 ; Denham Tracts, ed. by Dr. Hardy, vol. i ; 
R. Oliver Heslop, Northumberland Words, Introduc- 
tion. Also, Archaeol. Aeliana, vol. xiii, pp. 72 and 223, 
arts, by D. Embleton and J. V. Gregory. 

CARGILL, JOHN, M.D. The Knights of St. John and 
the Cross ; or, The Raid o' The Auld Musee. Royal 8vo, 
1 6 pp. Newcastle: J. M. Carr, 1875. 

CATCHESIDE, M. The Lambton Worm. Sung in the 
Tyne Pantomime, n. d. 


CHARLETON, R. J. Newcastle Toivn. An account of its 
rise and progress: its struggles and triumphs: and its 
ending. By R. J. CHARLETON. 8vo, pp. iv, 433. London : 
Walter Scott, 1885. 

CHARLTON, EDWARD, M.D. Memorials of North Tyne- 
dale and its Four Surnames. By EDWARD CHARLTON, 
M.D., D.C.L. 2nd ed. 8vo, 101 pp. Newcastle: J. M. 
Carr, 1871. 

CHATER, J. W. Illustrated Comic Tyneside Almanac for 
1862. Written in the Northumberland Dialect ' egzackly 
hoo the Newcassel Foaks tawk.' By J. P. ROBSON, ' an' 
uthor clivvor cheps a' owthor belangin Newcassel, 
G'yetsid, or sum ways else.' I2mo. Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne: J. W. Chater, 1862. 

Illustrated Comic Tyneside Almanac for 1 863, '64, '65, 

'66, '67, '68, '69, and '72, also '75. I2mo. 

The Keelmins Comic Annewalfor 1869/70, '71, '72, 

'73 5 '7 7 > '$3 5 ' gi' es y e ^ ne best bits o' wit an' wisdim be 
the clivvorest cheps aboot Tyneside.' Illustrated by J. L. 
MARCKE and C. H. Ross. i2mo. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : 
J. W. Chater. 

Chater' s * Canny Neivcassel ' Diary and Local re- 
membrancer. 8vo, 154 pp. Newcastle: J. W. Chater, 

CHATT, GEORGE. Miscellaneous Poems. By GEORGE 
CHATT. 8vo, no pp. Hexham : J. Catherall & Co., 1866. 
(Contains the following poems in dialect : ' Bonnie Tyne- 
side,' p. 9 ; ' Cash,' p. 28 ; The Countess of Derwent- 
water's Lament,' p. 79 ; ' Reminiscences of an old Farmer,' 
p. 84. The last is an admirable example of the dialect 
of West-Tyne.) 


CHATTO, W. A. Scenes and Recollections of Fly Fishing, in 
Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland. By 
STEPHEN OLIVER, the Younger, of Aldwark, in Com. Ebor. 
[W. A. CHATTO]. i2mo, pp. 160, Appendix 161-212. 
London : Chapman & Hall, 1834. 

Rambles in Northumberland and on The Scottish 

Border: Interspersed with brief notices of interesting 
events in Border history. By STEPHEN OLIVER, the 
Younger [W. A. CHATTO]. i2mo, pp. vi, 347. London : 
Chapman & Hall, 1835. (The Appendix, pp. 329-347, 
contains an extract from Bullein's Dialogue against the 
Fever Pestilence, 1564, in Redesdale Dialect ; A Rhyme 
called 'News from Newcastle,' 1651, by Wm. Ellis; 
' Charge of the Warden Courte ' from Nicholson's ' Border 
Laws ' ; ' Decay of Horsemen on the Borders,' 1592.) 

CHICKEN, ED WARD. The Collier s Wedding. A Poem, 
by EDWARD CHICKEN. Fifth edition. 8vo, 32 pp. New- 
castle: T. Saint, 1778. 

The Colliers Wedding. i2mo, 24 pp. paper covers. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne : William R. Walker, n. d. (Chap- 

The Collier's Wedding. A poem by EDWARD CHICKEN. 

8vo, pp. xv, 32. (With a preface, notes, and life by 
W. CALL.) Newcastle : T. & J. Hodgson, 1829. 


COLD WELL, T. (junr.) Bella Taylors advice tiv her man 
on Strike. By T. COLDWELL (junr.). A song. Newcastle, 
no date nor publisher. 

COMPLEAT COLLIER (The); or, The whole Art of Sink- 
ing, Getting, and Working Coal Mines, <$sc., as is now 
used in the Northern Parts, especially about Sunderland