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PASSAGES, 1576-1611 




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1576-161 i 




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rilHE aim of the present series is to illustrate the 
history of geographical discovery by means of 
select voyages and travels. These are usually written 
by the discoverer himself, or by an eye-witness who 
accompanied him on his journey. Apart from the 
results achieved, they are full of interest, since they 
tell the story of man's bravery in feeling his way over 
an unknown world. 

The English voyages of the sixteenth century (some 
of which will be given in this series) record, moreover, 
the deeds of the seamen who laid the foundation of 
Britain's sea-power and of her Colonial Empire. 

It is hoped that these books may be of service in 
schools, used either as Readers, or as an aid to the 
teaching of Geography. Spelling and punctuation 
have been modernized wherever necessary, though 
archaic words have been kept. 

P. F. A. 


May 1915. 






FROBISHER: FIRST VOYAGE (1576)' . . . . . 1 

FROBISHER: SECOND VOYAGE (1577) , . . . 10 

DAVIS: FIRST VOYAGE (1585) . . ... 48 

DAVIS: SECOND VOYAGE (1586) . . . . 62 






NOTES , 202 



(This and the other illustrations to Barents are from 

De Bry's India Orientalis, 1599. They are copies from 

the original edition of De Veer Amsterdam, 1598 but 

are better finished.) PAGE 


AS KNOWN NOW ....... X 


(From Holland's Heroologia, 1620.) 



WILLIAM BARENTS . . . . . . . .115 

(From de Vries's Oud-Holland. Originally a vignette 

in a chart published in Amsterdam between 1613 and 



DISCOVERIES . . . . . . . .119 


WITH HIM . . . . . . . . 120 



US WERE NEARLY LOST . . . . . .125 







AND GOODS TO THE SEA ...... 159 



a 5 

The only Passage (Bering Strait) and its approaches as known now 

(From Dr Bruce'a Polar Exploration, by kind permission of Messrs 
Williams and Norgate) 


Venice, the seaport closest to the centre of Europe, 
had gradually pushed her trade farther and farther 
across the Mediterranean, until in the fifteenth century, 
after the crushing defeat of Genoa her only serious 
rival she was not only mistress of the Adriatic, but 
the commercial capital of the world. Her trade routes 
extended as far as the Sea of Azof, along the coasts of 
Asia Minor and Syria, and to Alexandria, whence her 
ships brought back the merchandise that had travelled 
from the East along the great caravan routes that 
stretched either from Suez to Alexandria, or from 
Ormuz (at the entrance of the Persian Gulf), to Beyrout 
or Aleppo. With this merchandise and the produce of 
the Mediterranean she traded by land with central 
Europe, and by sea to the west as far as England and 
Flanders. Her splendour is thus described by the poet 
Petrarch : " From my windows on the Riva degli 
Schiavoni, I see vessels as large as my house with 
masts taller than its towers. They sail to all parts 
of the world, and brave a thousand dangers. They 
carry wine to England ; honey to the Scythians ; 
saffron, oil, linen to Assyria, Armenia, Persia and 
Arabia ; wood to Egypt and Greece ; they return laden 
with merchandise to be distributed all over Europe. 
Where the sea ends, their sailors quit the ships and 
travel on to trade with India and China ; they cross 

xii Introduction 

the Caucasus and the Ganges, and reach the Eastern 
Ocean 1 ." 

From early in the fifteenth century Portuguese 
sailors, inspired by their Prince Henry, had been trying 
to find a sea-route to India, and though progress was 
very slow, their ships gradually crept down the coast 
of Africa, until in 1486 Bartholomew Diaz rounded the 
Cape of Good Hope. This was a deadly blow to 
Venetian prosperity, as goods could be brought far 
more cheaply from the East by sea than by land, 
especially because exorbitant duties were exacted from 
the caravans by the Mohammedan rulers of Syria and 
Egypt. Ten years later Vasco da Gama sailed round 
the Cape, and reached Calicut on the west coast of India. 
The Portuguese then established themselves at Goa on 
the same coast, seized Ormuz (one of the centres of 
the trade with Venice), and in 1521 the Moluccas or 
Spice Islands, and for fifty years held the monopoly of 
trade with the East. 

Christopher Columbus and his brother Bartholomew, 
natives of Genoa, had after many voyages settled in 
Portugal, about the year 1470. Ignorant of the 
existence of America and the Pacific Ocean, Columbus 
was convinced that a much nearer route to China and 
India could be found by sailing westwards. As the 
Portuguese king would not grant him the assistance 
he needed for the voyage, he went to Spain and after 
years of waiting obtained all he asked from Ferdinand 
and Isabella. In 1492 he set sail and discovered 
islands lying as he supposed off the coast of Asia, and 
still known as the West Indies (the Indies reached by 

1 Quoted from The Venetian Republic by Horatio Brown (J. M. 
Dent and Co.). 

Introduction xiii 

the westward route). In 1493 the Pope, Alexander VI, 
issued a Bull which practically divided all the world 
outside Europe between Spain and Portugal, and then 
followed the gradual discovery of the American con- 
tinent by Spanish and Portuguese fleets, the conquest 
of Mexico and Peru by the Spaniards, and the voyage 
of Magellan's ship the Victoria (the first voyage round 
the world) across the Pacific, by way of South America, 
proving the existence of another great ocean besides 
the Atlantic which lay between Europe and the East. 

Other nations determined to obtain a share of the 
wealth that was pouring into Spain and Portugal from 
their new colonies. The French established themselves 
in Canada, and the English and Dutch made attempts 
to discover a way to the East, either by rounding the 
coast of North America, which tapered, it was believed, 
to a cape like Africa and South America (The North- 
West Passage), or by sailing round Norway and along 
the coasts of Russia and Siberia (The North-East 

In the reign of Henry VII, another Genoese, John 
Cabot, who had settled in Bristol, had tried the north- 
west route, and had re-discovered Newfoundland and 
explored part of the coast of North America. In 1553 
Sir Hugh Willoughby was lost in attempting the 
North-East Passage, but Richard Chancellor, his pilot, 
reached Archangel in another ship, and travelled over- 
land to Moscow, opening a trade between England and 
Russia. For a time, owing to the success of this trade, 
no further attempt was made towards the north-east, 
and attention was again directed to the north-west. 

In 1576 Martin Frobisher started on his first 
voyage, and discovered the passage into Baffin Land, 

xiv Introduction 

now known as Frobisher Bay. In his two subsequent 
voyages, practically nothing was done in the way of 
discovery. They were indeed scarcely intended for 
anything more than a mining adventure. 

John Davis, a Devonshire man, a friend of the 
Gilberts and their half-brother Sir Walter Ralegh, 
and one of the most capable navigators of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign, accomplished far more than any of 
his predecessors in the way of discovery during his 
three voyages of 1585-7. But his failure to find a 
passage led to renewed attempts on the part of the 
Dutch as well as the English towards the north and 
north-east, though already one important expedition, 
under Pet and Jackman, had been sent out in 1580 
in the latter direction by the Russia or Muscovy 
Company, and had been driven back by the ice in the 
Kara Sea, with the loss of Jackman and his ship on 
the return journey. 

In 1594 the Dutch, who had before made several 
attempts in the same direction, sent out three ships 
accompanied by a small fishing boat, two of them 
to follow the previous route by the south of Novaya 
Zemlya, and one, of which Barents was commander, 
together with the small boat, to attempt a passage 
round the north of the island. After reaching, with 
enormous difficulty, the Orange Islands, he was obliged 
to turn back, falling in on his return journey with 
the other ships which had been unable to cross the 
Kara Sea. The following year a larger expedition, with 
Barents as chief pilot, had no more success. In spite 
of this, two ships again set out next year, 1596, carrying 
Barents as pilot. They discovered Spitzbergen, and 
separated. Barents's ship (commanded by Heemskerck) 

Introduction xv 

then sailed for Novaya Zemlya, and after rounding the 
north of the island, was ice-bound on the east coast. 
Here the crew built a house and remained for ten 
months, in the hope that the ice would break up. 
Summer came, and as the ship was still fast, they 
embarked in two open boats, and after a voyage of 
nearly 1700 miles reached Kola, and found Dutch 
ships there, one of which took them back to Holland. 
Barents and four others had died, but twelve out of 
the ship's company of seventeen reached home in 

This voyage, told in vivid detail by De Veer, who 
accompanied Barents, is a very memorable one. For 
the first time on record men had wintered far within 
the Arctic zone. It had too a romantic sequel, when 
nearly 300 years afterwards the relics of the winter 
house were discovered. Barents is " perhaps the most 
hardy and capable navigator ever produced by Hol- 
land 1 ." 

To return to English attempts. Hudson in 1607 
tried a new route to the north across the Polar Sea, 
and again next year the old route to the north-east 
by Novaya Zemlya. In 1609 he was employed by the 
Dutch East India Company, and after a vain attempt 
to pass Novaya Zemlya, he sailed westwards and 
explored part of the American coast, and the river 
which now bears his name, and on which New York 
stands. In 1610, at the expense of some London 
merchants, he set out on his last voyage, to attempt 
the North- West Passage. Sailing up the strait and into 
the bay, which are now named after him, he was 

1 Heawood, A History of Geographical Discovery in the 17th and 
18th centuries (Cambridge University Press). 

xvi Introduction 

abandoned by his mutinous crew, and nothing more 
was ever heard of him. 

In 1616, after several previous voyages, Baffin made 
considerable discoveries in the bay which bears his 
name. The attention of both English and Dutch was, 
however, turning to the whale fishery, which the voyages 
of Barents and Hudson had opened up, and little was 
done in the way of exploration for many years. It 
was not until 1728, when Peter the Great sent out 
Bering for this purpose, thai> it was actually proved 
that Asia was separated from America. He did not, 
however, attempt the North-East Passage, but sailed 
north from Kamtchatka, where he had built two ships. 
In a subsequent voyage (1741) he proved that the water 
that separated the two continents was a narrow strait. 
Early voyages had been mainly for commercial reasons, 
but Bering's were conducted in the cause of science. 
Of later expeditions in the same cause, the most famous 
are those of Sir John Franklin between 1819 and 1847, 
but it was not until 1850-54 that M'Clure accomplished 
the North- West Passage, nor until 1878-79 that a 
Swedish explorer, Nordenskiold, succeeded in the North- 
East Passage, along the north coast of Siberia. 

NOTE. Frobisher's and Davis' s Voyages are taken from Hak- 
luyt's Principal Navigations, etc. and are given nearly complete. 
Prickett's Narrative of Hudson's Last Voyage is from Purchas's 
Pilgrims, omitting the earlier and less interesting portion. Barents' s 
Third Voyage is from a translation by W. Phillip published in 1609. 
I have abridged this considerably, and have used for the purpose, 
with the kind permission of the Hakluyt Society, the 2nd edition 
of De Veer issued by them in 1876. This contains many valuable 
corrections to Phillip's translation, a few of which I have incor- 
porated in the text, while others will be found in the notes. The 
extracts from Carlsen's log-book are from the same source. . 



327. Alexander the Great reaches India. 
55. Julius Caesar visits Britain. 

861. The Vikings (under Naddod) discover Iceland. 
877. Gunnbiorn discovers Greenland, which is colonised a few 

years later by Eric the Red. 

1000. Leif Ericson discovers Labrador (Helluland), Newfoundland 
(Markland) and Nova Scotia (Vinland). Colonies are 
founded, but afterwards abandoned. 

1260-1271. Niccolo and Maffeo Polo (Marco Polo's father and 

uncle) go on a trading expedition through Asia to China. 

1271-1295. Marco Polo goes with them on a second journey to 

the Court of Kublai Khan, and thence is sent as an envoy 

to Cochin China, India, etc. 

1418-1460. Prince Henry of Portugal (Henry the Navigator) 

encourages discovery. 
1420. Zarco discovers Madeira. 

1455. Cadamosto reaches the Senegal and Cape Verde. 
1484. Diego Cam discovers the Congo. 
1486. Bartholomew Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope. 

1492. Columbus discovers the West Indies. 

1493. Columbus (2nd voyage) discovers Jamaica. 

1497. Vasco da Gama reaches India by the Cape. On the way he 
sees Natal (Christmas Day), and Mozambique, and lands 
at Zanzibar. 

1497. John Cabot re-discovers Newfoundland. 

1498. Columbus (3rd voyage) discovers Trinidad and the Orinoco. 

1499. . Amerigo Vespucci discovers Venezuela (though great doubt 

is now cast on the accuracy of his statements). 

1500. Pedro Cabral discovers Brazil. 

xviii Important Dates 

1511. Serrano reaches the Moluccas (the Spice Islands). 

1513. Balboa crosses the Isthmus of Panama, and sees the Pacific. 

1519. Cortez conquers Mexico. 

1519. Magellan starts on the first voyage round the world. 

1520. Magellan sails past Monte Video, Patagonia, and Tierra del 

Fuego, through his strait, and across the Pacific. 

1521. Magellan discovers the Ladrones, and is killed on the 


1522. Sebastian del Cano, in Magellan's ship, Victoria, reaches 


1531. Pizarro conquers Peru. 
1534. Cartier explores the St Lawrence. 
1541. Orellana explores the Amazon. 

1553. Sir Hugh Willoughby attempts the North-East Passage, 

and sees Novaya Zemlya. 

1554. Chancellor, Willoughby's pilot, reaches Archangel, and 

travels thence to Moscow. 

1558. Jenkinson travels from Moscow to Bokhara. 
1576. Martin Frobisher discovers his bay. 
1577-1580. Drake sails round the world the first Englishman 

who does this. 

1586-88. Cavendish sails round the world. 
1586. Davis sails through his strait. 
1596. Barents discovers Spitzbergen. 
1605. Torres discovers his strait. 
1608. Champlain discovers Lake Ontario. 
1610. Hudson sails through his strait into his bay. 

1615. Lemaire rounds Cape Horn (Hoorn, named after the town 

to which his ships belonged). 

1616. Baffin discovers his bay. 

1642. Tasman discovers Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) and 

Staaten Land (New Zealand). 
1699. Dampier discovers his strait. 
1768-71. Cook (1st voyage) discovers New Zealand and east coast 

of New Holland (Australia). 

1770. Bruce discovers the source of the Blue Nile. 
1776-79. Cook (3rd voyage) discovers the Sandwich Islands. 
1785-88. La Perouse explores N.E. coasts of Asia, the China and 

Japan Seas, and discovers Saghalien. 

Important Dates xix 

1789-93. Mackenzie discovers his river and British Columbia. 
1792. Vancouver explores his island. 

1796. Mungo Park reaches the Niger. 

1797. Bass discovers his strait. 

1799-1804. Humboldt explores South America. 

1801-4. Flinders surveys the south coast of Australia. 

181 9-22. Franklin, Back and Richardson attempt the North- West 

Passage by land. 

1819. Parry discovers Lancaster Sound. 
1822. Denham and Clapperton discover Lake Tchad. 
1828-31. Sturt traces the Darling and Murray Rivers. 
1829-33. Ross attempts the North- West Passage, and discovers 

1840-42. Ross explores the Antarctic, and discovers Victoria 

Land, and the volcanoes Erebus and Terror (named 

after his ships). 

1845-47. Franklin's last voyage. 
1849-56. Livingstone explores the Zambesi, and discovers the 

Victoria Falls. 

1850-54. M'Clure succeeds in the North- West Passage. 
1858. Burton and Speke discover Lake Tanganyika, and Speke 

discovers Victoria Nyanza. 

1858-62. Stuart crosses Australia from south to north. 
1858-64. Livingstone explores Lake Nyasa. 
1864. Baker discovers Albert Nyanza. 
1873. Livingstone discovers Lake Moero. 
1874-5. Cameron crosses equatorial Africa. 
1876-7. Stanley explores the Congo River, and opens up Centra 


1878-79. Nordenskiold succeeds in the North-East Passage. 
1887-89. Stanley's expedition to rescue Emin Pasha. He dis- 
covers the Pigmies, and the Ruwenzori (the Mountains 

of the Moon). 
1893-97. Nansen's voyage across the Arctic Ocean in the Fram. 

He reaches farthest north (86 14'). 
1909. Peary reaches the North Pole. 

1911. Amundsen reaches the South Pole. 

1912. Scott reaches the South Pole. 

Sir Martin Frobisher 


Our General, Captain Frobisher, being persuaded of 
a new and nearer passage to Cataya than by Capo 
de Buona Speranga, which the Portugals yearly use, 
began first with himself to devise, and then with his 
friends to confer, and laid a plain plot unto them that 
that voyage was not only possible by the north-west, 
but also he could prove easy to be performed. And 
further, he determined and resolved with himself to go 
make full proof thereof, and to accomplish or bring 
true certificate of the truth, or else never to return 
again, knowing this to be the only thing of the world 
that was left yet undone, whereby a notable mind might 
be made famous and fortunate. But although his will 
were great to perform this notable voyage, whereof he 
had conceived in his mind a great hope by sundry sure 
reasons and secret intelligence, which here for sundry 
causes I leave untouched ; yet he wanted altogether 
means and ability to set forward, and perform the 
same. Long time he conferred with his private friends 
of these secrets, and made also many offers for the 
performing of the same in effect unto sundry merchants 
of our country, above fifteen years before he attempted 
the same, as by good witness shall well appear (albeit 
some evil willers, which challenge to themselves the fruits 
of other men's labours, have greatly injured him in the 

A. p. 1 

2 Frobisher. First Voyage 

reports of the same, saying that they have been the 
first authors of that action, and that they have learned 
him the way, which themselves as yet have, never gone). 
But perceiving that hardly he was hearkened unto of 
the merchants, which never regard virtue without sure, 
certain, and present gains, he repaired to the Court 
(from whence, as from the fountain of our common 
wealth, all good causes have their chief increase and 
maintenance), and there laid open to many great 
estates and learned men the plot and sum of his device. 
And amongst many honourable minds which favoured 
his honest and commendable enterprise, he was specially 
bound and beholding to the Right Honourable Ambrose 
Dudley, Earl of Warwick, whose favourable mind and 
good disposition hath always been ready to countenance 
and advance all honest actions with the authors and 
executers of the same. And so by means of my lord 
his honourable countenance he received some comfort 
of his cause, and by little and little, with no small expense 
and pain, brought his cause to some perfection, and 
had drawn together so many adventurers and such sums 
of money as might well defray a reasonable charge to 
furnish himself to sea withal. 

He prepared two small barks of twenty and five-and- 
twenty ton apiece, wherein he intended to accomplish 
his pretended voyage. Wherefore, being furnished with 
the foresaid two barks, and one small pinnace of ten ton 
burthen, having therein victuals and other necessaries 
for twelve months' provision, he departed upon the said 
voyage from Blackwall, the 15 of June, anno Domini 

One of the barks wherein he went was named 
the Gabriel, and the other the Michael ; and sailing 

Frobisher. First Voyage 



4 Frobisher. First Voyage 

north-west from England upon the 11 of July he had 
sight of a high and ragged land, which he judged to 
be Frisland (whereof some authors have made mention), 
but durst not approach the same by reason of the great 
store of ice that lay alongst the coast, and the great mists 
that troubled them not a little. Not far from thence 
he lost company of his small pinnace, which by means 
of the great storm he supposed to be swallowed up of 
the sea, wherein he lost only four men. 

Also the other bark named the Michael, mistrusting 
the matter, conveyed themselves privily away from him, 
and returned home, with great report that he was 
cast away. 

The worthy captain, notwithstanding these dis- 
comforts, although his mast was sprung, and his top- 
mast blown overboard with extreme foul weather, 
continued his course towards the north-west, knowing 
that the sea at length must needs have an ending, and 
that some land should have a beginning that way ; 
and determined, therefore, at the least to bring true proof 
what land and sea the same might be so far to the 
north-westwards, beyond any man that hath heretofore 
discovered. And the 20 of July he had sight of a 
high land which he called Queen Elizabeth's Foreland, 
after her Majesty's name. And sailing more northerly 
alongst that coast, he descried another foreland with 
a great gut, bay, or passage, dividing as it were two 
main lands or continents asunder. There he met with 
store of exceeding great ice all this coast along, 
and coveting still to continue his course to the north- 
wards, was always by contrary wind detained over- 
thwart these straits, and could not get beyond. Within 
few days after, he perceived the ice to be well consumed 

Frobisher. First Voyage 5 

and gone, either there engulfed in by some swift currents 
or indrafts, carried more to the southwards of the same 
straits, or else conveyed some other way : wherefore 
he determined to make proof of this place, to see how 
far that gut had continuance, and whether he might 
carry himself through the same, into some open sea on 
the back side, whereof he conceived no small hope, and 
so entered the same, the one and twentieth of July, and 
passed above fifty leagues therein, as he reported, having 
upon either hand a great main or continent. And that 
land upon his right hand as he sailed westward he judged 
to be the continent of Asia, and there to be divided 
from the firm of America, which lieth upon the left 
hand over against the same. . 

This place he named after his name, Frobisher 's 
Straits, like as Magellanus at the south-west end of the 
world, having discovered the passage to the South Sea, 
(where America is divided from the continent of that 
land, which lieth under the South Pole) and called the 
same straits, Magellan's Straits. 

After he had passed 60 leagues into this foresaid 
strait, he went ashore, and found signs where fire 
had been made. 

He saw mighty deer that seemed to be mankind, 
which ran at him, and hardly he escaped with his life 
in a narrow way, where he was fain to use defence 
and policy to save his life. 

In this place he saw and perceived sundry tokens 
of the peoples resorting thither. And being ashore upon 
the top of a hill, he perceived a number of small things 
fleeting in the sea afar off, which he supposed to be 
porpoises or seals, or some kind of strange fish ; but 
coming nearer, he discovered them to be men in small 

6 Frobisher. First Voyage 

boats made of leather. And before he could descend 
down from the hill, certain of those people had almost 
cut off his boat from him, having stolen secretly behind 
the rocks for that purpose, where he speedily hasted 
to his boat, and bent himself to his halberd, and 
narrowly escaped the danger, and saved his boat. 
Afterwards he had sundry conferences with them, and 
they came aboard his ship, and brought him salmon 
and raw flesh and fish, and greedily devoured the same 
before our men's faces. And to shew their agility, 
they tried many masteries upon the ropes of the ship, 
after our mariners' fashion, and appeared to be very 
strong of their arms, and nimble of their bodies. They 
exchanged coats of seals' and bears' skins, and such like, 
with our men ; and received bells, looking-glasses, and 
other toys, in recompense thereof again. After great 
courtesy, and many meetings, our mariners, contrary 
to their captain's direction, began more easily to trust 
them ; and five of our men going ashore were by them 
intercepted with their boat, and were never since heard 
of to this day again ; so that the captain being destitute 
of boat, bark, and all company, had scarcely sufficient 
number to conduct back his bark again. He could now 
neither convey himself ashore to rescue his men (if he 
had been able) for want of a boat ; and again the subtle 
traitors were so wary, as they would after that never 
come within our men's danger. The captain, notwith- 
standing, desirous to bring some token from thence of 
his being there, was greatly discontented that he had 
not before apprehended some of them ; and therefore, 
to deceive the deceivers, he wrought a pretty policy. 
For knowing well how they greatly delighted in our toys, 
and specially hi bells, he rang a pretty lowbell, making 

Frobisher. First Voyage 7 

signs that he would give him the same that would 
come and fetch it. And because they would not come 
within his danger for fear, he flung one bell unto them, 
which of purpose he threw short, that it might fall into 
the sea and be lost. And to make them more greedy 
of the matter he rang a louder bell, so that in the end 
one of them came near the ship side to receive the 
bell. Which when he thought to take at the captain's 
hand, he was thereby taken himself ; for the captain, 
being readily provided, let the bell fall, and caught the 
man fast, and plucked him with main force, boat and all, 
into his bark out of the sea. Whereupon, when he found 
himself in captivity, for very choler and disdain he 
bit his tongue in twain within his mouth : notwith- 
standing, he died not thereof, but lived until he came 
in England, and then he died of cold which he had taken 
at sea. 

Now with this new prey (which was a sufficient 
witness of the captain's far and tedious travel towards 
the unknown parts of the world, as did well appear 
by this strange infidel, whose like was never seen, read, 
nor heard of before, and whose language was neither 
known nor understood of any) the said Captain Fro- 
bisher returned homeward, and arrived in England, 
in Harwich, the 2 of October following, and thence 
came to London 1576, where he was highly com- 
mended of all men for his great and notable attempt, 
but specially famous for the great hope he brought 
of the passage to Cataya. 

And it is especially to be remembered that at their 
first arrival in those parts there lay so great store of 
ice all the coast along, so thick together, that hardly 
his boat could pass unto the shore. At length, after 

8 Frobisher. First Voyage 

divers attempts, he commanded his company, if by any 
possible means they could get ashore, to bring him 
whatsoever thing they could first find, whether it were 
living or dead, stock or stone, in token of Christian 
possession, which thereby he took in behalf of the 
Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, thinking that thereby 
he might justify the having and enjoying of the same 
things that grew in these unknown parts. 

Some of his company brought flowers, some green 
grass ; and one brought a piece of black stone much 
like to a sea coal in colour, which by the weight seemed 
to be some kind of metal or mineral. This was a thing 
of no account in the judgment of the captain at the 
first sight ; and yet for novelty it was kept in respect 
of the place from whence it came. 

After his arrival in London, being demanded of 
sundry his friends what thing he had brought them home 
out of that country, he had nothing left to present them 
withal, but a piece of this black stone. And it fortuned 
a gentlewoman, one of the adventurers' wives, to have 
a piece thereof, which by chance she threw and burned 
in the fire, so long, that at the length being taken forth, 
and quenched in a little vinegar, it glistered with a 
bright marquesite of gold. Whereupon, the matter 
being called in some question, it was brought to certain 
goldfiners in London, to make assay thereof, who gave 
out that it held gold, and that very richly for the 
quantity. Afterwards the same goldfiners promised 
great matters thereof, if there were any store to be found, 
and offered themselves to adventure for the searching 
of those parts from whence the same was brought. 
Some that had great hope of the matter sought secretly 
to have a lease at Her Majesty's hands of those places, 

Frobisher. First Voyage 9 

whereby to enjoy the mass of so great a public profit 
unto their own private gains. 

In conclusion, the hope of more of the same gold ore 
to be found kindled a greater opinion in the hearts of 
many to advance the voyage again. Whereupon pre- 
paration was made for a new voyage against the year 
following, and the captain more specially directed by 
commission for the searching more of this gold ore than 
for the searching any further discovery of the passage. 
And being well accompanied with divers resolute and 
forward gentlemen, Her Majesty then lying at the Right 
Honourable the Lord of Warwick's house in Essex, he 
came to take his leave, and kissing Her Highness' hands, 
with gracious countenance and comfortable words 
departed toward his charge. 


A true report of such things as happened in the 
second voyage of Captain Frobisher, pretended for 
the discovery of a new passage to Cataya, China, 
and the East India, by the north-west. Ann. Dom. 

Being furnished with one tall ship of Her Majesty's, 
named the Aid, of 200 ton, and two other small barks, 
the one named the Gabriel, the other the Michael, 
about 30 ton apiece, being fitly appointed with men, 
munition, victuals and all things necessary for the 
voyage, the said Captain Frobisher, with the rest of 
his company, came aboard his ships riding at Blackwall, 
intending (with God's help) to take the first wind and 
tide serving him, the 25 day of May, in the year of 
our Lord God 1577. 

The names of such gentlemen as attempted this 
discovery, and the number of soldiers and mariners in 
each ship, as followeth. 

Aboard the Aid, being Admiral, were the number of 
100 men of all sorts, whereof 30 or more were gentlemen 
and soldiers, the rest, sufficient and tall sailors. 

Aboard the Gabriel, being Vice-admiral, were in all 
18 persons, whereof six were soldiers, the rest mariners. 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 


Aboard the Michael were 16 persons, whereof five 
were soldiers, the rest mariners. 

Aboard the 
Aid was 

Aboard the 
Aid was 

f General of the whole f 

company for her -j Martin Frobisher 

His Lieutenant 
His Ensign 
Corporal of the shot 

The rest of the 

fThe Master 
I The Mate 
1 The Pilot 
I The Master Gunner 

Aboard the ( Captain 
Gabriel was ] One Gentleman 
I The Master 

Aboard the /"Captain 
Michael was -j One Gentleman 
I The Master 

George Best 
Richard Philpot 
Francis Forder 

Henry Carew 

Edmund Stafford' 
John Lee 
M. Harvie 

< Mathew Kinersley 
Abraham Lins 
Robert Kinersley 
Francis Brakenbury 

^William Armshow 

[Christopher Hall 
I Charles Jackman 
| Andrew Dyer 
[Richard Cox 

f Edward Fenton 
J William -Tamfield 
[William Smith 

( Gilbert Yorke 

-[ Thomas Chamberlaine 

[ James Beare 

On Whitsunday, being the 26 of May, Anno 1577, 
early in the morning, we weighed anchor at Blackwall, 
and fell that tide down to Gravesend, where we remained 
until Monday at night. 

On Monday morning, the 27 of May, aboard the 
Aid, we received all the communion by the minister 
of Gravesend, and prepared us as good Christians 
towards God, and resolute men for all fortunes ; and 
towards night we departed to Tilbury Hope. 

12 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

Tuesday, the 28 of May, about nine of the clock at 
night, we arrived at Harwich, in Essex, and there stayed 
for the taking in of certain victuals until Friday, being 
the 30th of May, during which time came letters from 
the Lords of the Council, straightly commanding our 
General not to exceed his complement and number 
appointed him, which was one hundred and twenty 
persons. Whereupon he discharged many proper men, 
which with unwilling minds departed. 

He also dismissed all his condemned men, which he 
thought for some purposes very needful for the voyage, 
and towards night upon Friday the one and thirtieth of 
May we set sail, and put to the seas again. And sailing 
northward alongst the East coasts of England and 
Scotland, the 7th day of June we arrived in Saint 
Magnus Sound, in Orkney Islands, called in Latin 
Orcades, and came to anchor on the south side of the 
bay ; and this place is reckoned from Blackwall, where 
we set sail first, [cipher] leagues. 

Here, our company going on land, the inhabitants of 
these islands began to flee as from the enemy. Where- 
upon the lieutenant willed every man to stay together, 
and went himself unto their houses to declare what 
we were and the cause of our coming thither. Which 
being understood, after their poor manner they friendly 
entreated us, and brought us for our money such things 
as they had. And here our goldfiners found a mine of 

Orkney is the principal of the Isles of the Orcades, 
and standeth in the latitude of fifty-nine degrees and 
a half. The country is much subject to cold, answer- 
able for such a climate, and yet yieldeth some fruits, 
and sufficient maintenance for the people contented so 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 13 

poorly to live. There is plenty enough of poultry, store 
of eggs, fish, and fowl. For their bread they have oaten 
cakes, and their drink is ewes' milk, and in some parts 
ale. Their houses are but poor without and sluttish 
enough within, and the people in nature thereunto 
agreeable. For their fire they burn heath and turf, the 
country in most parts being void of wood. They have 
great want of leather, and desire our old shoes, apparel, 
and old ropes (before money) for their victuals, and yet 
are they not ignorant of the value of our coin. The 
chief town is called Kyrway. In this island hath been 
sometime an abbey or a religious house, called Saint 
Magnus, being on the west side of the isle, whereof this 
sound beareth name, through which we passed. Their 
governor or chief lord is called the Lord Robert Steward, 
who at our being there, as we understood, was in 
durance at Edinburgh, by the Regent's commandment 
of Scotland. 

After we had provided us here of matter sufficient 
for our voyage, the 8 of June we set sail again, and 
passing through Saint Magnus Sound, having a merry 
wind by night, came clear and lost sight of all the land, 
and keeping our course west -north- west by the space 
of two days, the wind shifted upon us, so that we lay 
in traverse on the seas, with contrary winds, making 
good (as near as we could) our course to the westward, 
and sometime to the northward, as the wind shifted. 
And hereabout we met with three sail of English 
fishermen from Iceland, bound homeward, by whom 
we wrote our letters unto our friends in England. 
We traversed these seas by the space of 26 days 
without sight of any land, and met with much drift- 
wood, and whole bodies of trees. We saw many 

14 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

monstrous fishes and strange fowls, which seemed to live 
only by the sea, being there so far distant from any 
land. At length God favoured us with more prosperous 
winds, and after we had sailed four days with good 
wind in the poop, the 4th of July, the Michael, 
being foremost ahead, shot off a piece of ordnance, 
and struck all her sails, supposing that they descried 
land, which by reason of the thick mists they could 
not make perfect. Howbeit, as well our account, as 
also the great alteration of the water, which became 
more black and smooth, did plainly declare we were 
not far off the coast. Our General sent his master 
aboard the Michael (who had been with him the year 
before) to bear in with the place to make proof thereof ; 
who descried not the land perfect, but saw sundry huge 
islands of ice, which we deemed to be not past twelve 
leagues from the shore, for about ten of the clock at night, 
being the fourth of July, the weather being more clear, 
we made the land perfect, and knew it to be Frisland. 
And the height being taken here, we found ourselves 
to be in the latitude of sixty degrees and a half, and 
were fallen with the southermost part of this land. 
Between Orkney and Frisland are reckoned [cipher] 

This Frisland sheweth a ragged and high land, 
having the mountains almost covered over with snow, 
alongst the coast full of drift ice, and seemeth almost 
inaccessible ; and is thought to be an island in bigness 
not inferior to England, and is called of some authors, 
West Frisland, I think because it lieth more west than 
any part of Europe. It extendeth in latitude to the 
northward very far as seemed to us, and appeareth by 
a description set out by two brethren Venetians, 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 15 

Nicholas and Antonius Zeni, who, being driven off from 
Ireland with a violent tempest, made shipwreck here, 
and were the first known Christians that discovered this 
land, about 200 years sithence ; and they have in their 
sea-cards set out every part thereof, and described the 
condition of the inhabitants, declaring them to be as 
civil and religious people as we. And for so much of 
this land as we have sailed alongst, comparing their card 
with the coast, we find it very agreeable. This coast 
seemeth to have good fishing : for we, lying becalmed, 
let fall a hook without any bait, and presently caught 
a great fish called a halibut, which served the whole 
company for a day's meat, and is dangerous meat for 
surfeiting. And sounding about five leagues off from 
the shore, our lead brought up in the tallow a kind of 
coral, almost white, and small stones as bright as 
crystal : and it is not to be doubted but that this land 
may be found very rich and beneficial if it were tho- 
roughly discovered, although we saw no creature there 
but little birds. It is a marvellous thing to behold of 
what great bigness and depth some islands of ice be 
here, some seventy, some eighty fathom under water, 
besides that which is above, seeming islands more than 
half a mile in circuit. All these ice are in taste fresh, and 
seem to be bred in the sounds thereabouts, or in some 
land near the pole, and with the wind and tides are 
driven alongst the coasts. We found none of these 
islands of ice salt in taste, whereby it appeareth that 
they were not congealed of the ocean sea-water, which 
is always salt, but of some standing or little -moving 
lakes, or great fresh waters near the shore, caused 
either by melted snow from tops of mountains, or by 
continual access of fresh rivers from the land ; and 

16 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

intermingling with the sea- water, bearing yet the 
dominion, by the force of extreme frost may cause 
some part of salt water to freeze so with it, and so seem 
a little brackish ; but otherwise the main sea freezeth 
not, and therefore there is no Mare Glaciale, or Frozen 
Sea, as the opinion hitherto hath been. Our General 
proved landing here twice, but by the sudden fall of mists 
(whereunto this coast is much subject) he was like to 
lose sight of his ships, and being greatly endangered 
with the driving ice alongst the coast, was forced aboard, 
and fain to surcease his pretence till a better opportunity 
might serve. And having spent four days and nights 
sailing alongst this land, finding the coast subject to 
such bitter cold and continual mists, he determined 
to spend no more time therein, but to bear out his 
course towards the straits called Frobisher's Straits, 
after the General's name, who being the first that ever 
passed beyond 58 degrees to the northwards, for any- 
thing that hath been yet known of certainty, of New- 
foundland, otherwise called the continent or firm land of 
America, discovered the said Straits this last year 1576. 
Between Frisland and the Straits we had one great 
storm, wherein the Michael was somewhat in danger, 
having her steerage broken, and her top -masts blown 
overboard ; and being not past 50 leagues short of the 
Straits by our account, we struck sail and lay ahull, 
fearing the continuance of the storm, the wind being 
at the north-east, and having lost company of the barks 
in that flaw of wind, we happily met again the 17th day 
of July, having the evening before seen divers islands 
of fleeting ice, which gave an argument that we were 
not far from land. Our General, in the morning, from 
the maintop (the weather being reasonable clear) 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 17 

descried land ; but to be better assured he sent the two 
barks two contrary courses, whereby they might descry 
either the south or north foreland, the Aid lying off 
and on at sea, with a small sail, by an island of ice, 
which was the mark for us to meet together again. 
And about noon, the weather being more clear, we 
made the north foreland perfect, which otherwise is 
called Hall's Island, and also the small island bearing 
the name of the said Hall, whence the ore was taken 
up which was brought into England this last year 1576, 
the said Hall being present at the finding and taking 
up thereof, who was then master in the Gabriel with 
Captain Frobisher. At our arrival here, all the seas 
about this coast were so covered over with huge 
quantity of great ice, that we thought these places 
might only deserve the name of Mare Glaciale, and be 
called the Icy Sea. 

This north foreland is thought to be divided from 
the continent of the northerland, by a little sound called 
Hall's Sound, which maketh it an island, and is thought 
little less than the Isle of Wight, and is the first entrance 
of the straits upon the norther side, and standeth in the 
latitude of sixty-two degrees and fifty minutes, and is 
reckoned from Frisland [cipher] leagues. God having 
blessed us with so happy a land-fall, we bare into the 
straits, which run in next hand, and somewhat further 
up to the northward, and came as near the shore as we 
might for the ice; and upon the 18th day of July, our 
General, taking the goldfiners with him, attempted to 
go on shore with a small rowing pinnace, upon the 
small island where the ore was taken up, to prove 
whether there were any store thereof to be found, 
but he could not get in all that island a piece so big 

A. p. 

18 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

as a walnut, where the first was found. But our 
men, which sought the other islands thereabouts, found 
them all to have good store of the ore : whereupon our 
General with these good tidings returned aboard about 
ten of the clock at night, and was joyfully welcomed 
of the company with a volley of shot. He brought 
eggs, fowls, and a young seal aboard, which the company 
had killed ashore ; and having found upon those islands 
gins set to catch fowl, and sticks new cut, with other 
things, he well perceived that not long before some of 
the country people had resorted thither. 

Haying therefore found those tokens of the people's 
access in those parts, and being in his first voyage 
well acquainted with their subtle and cruel disposition, 
he provided well for his better safety; and on Friday 
the 19th of July, in the morning early, with his best 
company of gentlemen and soldiers, to the number of 
forty persons, went on shore, as well to discover the in- 
land and habitation of the people, as also to find out some 
fit harbour for our ships. And passing towards the 
shore with no small difficulty by reason of the abun- 
dance of ice, which lay alongst the coast so thick 
together that hardly any passage through them might 
be discovered, we arrived at length upon the main of 
Hall's greater island, and found there also, as well as 
in the other small islands, good store of the ore. And 
leaving his boats here with sufficient guard, we passed 
up into the country about two English miles, and 
recovered the top of a high hill; on the top whereof 
our men made a column or cross of stones heaped up 
of a good height together in good sort, and solemnly 
sounded a trumpet, and said certain prayers kneeling 
about the ensign, and honoured the place by the name 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 19 

of Mount Warwick, in remembrance of the Right 
Honourable the Lord Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick, 
whose noble mind and good countenance in this, as in all 
other good actions, gave great encouragement and good 
furtherance. This done, we retired our companies, not 
seeing anything here worth further discovery, the 
country seeming barren and full of ragged mountains, 
and in most parts covered with snow. 

And thus marching towards our boats, we espied 
certain of the country people on the top of Mount 
Warwick with a flag wafting us back again and making 
great noise, with cries like the mowing of bulls, seeming 
greatly desirous of conference with us. Whereupon the 
General, being therewith better acquainted, answered 
them again with the like cries, whereat, and with the 
noise of our trumpets, they seemed greatly to rejoice, 
skipping, laughing and dancing for joy. And hereupon 
we made signs unto them, holding up two fingers, 
commanding two of our men to go apart from our 
companies, whereby they might do the like. So that 
forthwith two of our men and two of theirs met together 
a good space from company, neither party having 
their weapons about them. Our men gave them pins 
and points and such trifles as they had. And they 
likewise bestowed on our men two bow cases and such 
things as they had. They earnestly desired our men 
to go up into their country, and our men offered them 
like kindness aboard our ships, but neither part (as it 
seemed) admitted or trusted the other's courtesy. 
Their manner of traffic is thus : they do use to lay down 
of their merchandise upon the ground, so much as they 
mean to part withal, and so looking that the other 
party with whom they make trade should do the like, 


20 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

they themselves do depart. And then, if they do like 
of their mart, they come again, and take in exchange 
the other's merchandise : otherwise, if they like not, they 
take their own and depart. The day being thus well 
near spent, in haste we retired our companies into our 
boats again, minding forthwith to search alongst the 
coast for some harbour fit for our ships. For the present 
necessity thereof was much, considering that all this 
while they lay off and on between the two lands, being 
continually subject as well to great danger of fleeting 
ice, which environed them, as to the sudden flaws which 
the coast seemeth much subject unto. But when the 
people perceived our departure, with great tokens of 
affection they earnestly called us back again, following 
us almost to our boats. Whereupon our General, taking 
his master with him, who was best acquainted with their 
manners, went apart unto two of them, meaning, if they 
could lay sure hold upon them, forcibly to bring them 
aboard, with intent to bestow certain toys and apparel 
upon the one, and so to dismiss him with all arguments 
of courtesy, and retain the other for an interpreter. 
The General and his master being met with their two 
companions together, after they had exchanged certain 
things the one with the other, one of the savages, for 
lack of better merchandise, cut off the tail of his coat 
(which is a chief ornament among them) and gave it 
unto our General for a present. But he presently, upon 
a watchword given with his master, suddenly laid hold 
upon the two savages. But the ground underfoot being 
slippery with the snow on the side of the hill, their 
handfast failed, and their prey escaping ran away and 
lightly recovered their bow and arrows, which they had 
hid not far from them behind the rocks. And being 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 21 

only two savages in sight, they so fiercely, desperately, 
and with such fury assaulted and pursued our General 
and his master, being altogether unarmed, and not 
mistrusting their subtlety, that they chased them to 
their boats, and hurt the General in the buttock with an 
arrow ; who the rather speedily fled back, because they 
suspected a greater number behind the rocks. Our 
soldiers (which were commanded before to keep their 
boats) perceiving the danger, and hearing our men 
calling for shot, came speedily to rescue, thinking there 
had been a greater number. But when the savages 
heard the shot of one of our calivers (and yet having 
first bestowed their arrows) they ran away, our men 
speedily following them. But a servant of my Lord of 
Warwick, called Nicholas Conger, a good footman, and 
uncumbered with any furniture, having only a dagger 
at his back, overtook one of them, and being a Cornish- 
man and a good wrestler, showed his companion such 
a Cornish trick, that he made his sides ache against the 
ground for a month after. And so being stayed, he 
was taken alive and brought away, but the other 
escaped. Thus with their strange and new prey our 
men repaired to their boats, and passed from the main 
to a small island of a mile compass, where they resolved 
to tarry all night ; for even now a sudden storm was 
grown so great at sea, that by no means they could 
recover their ships. And here every man refreshed 
himself with a small portion of victuals, which was laid 
into the boats for their dinners, having neither eat nor 
drunk all the day before. But because they knew not 
how long the storm might last, nor how far off the ships 
might be put to sea, nor whether they should ever 
recover them again or not, they made great spare of 

22 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

their victuals, as it greatly behoved them. For they 
knew full well that the best cheer the country could 
yield them was rocks and stones, a hard food to live 
withal, and the people more ready to eat them than 
to give them wherewithal to eat. And thus keeping 
very good watch and ward, they lay there all night 
upon hard cliffs of snow and ice, both wet, cold, and 

These things thus happening with the company on 
land, the danger of the ships at sea was no less perilous. 
For within one hour after the General's departing in 
the morning, by negligence of the cook in over-heating, 
and the workman in making the chimney, the Aid was 
set on fire, and had been the confusion of the whole if, 
by chance a boy espying it, it had not been speedily 
with great labour and God's help well extinguished. 

This day also were divers storms and flaws, and 
by nine of the clock at night the storm was grown 
so great, and continued such until the morning, that it 
put our ships at sea in no small peril. But God being 
our best steersman, and by the industry of Charles 
Jackman and Andrew Dyer, the master's mates, both 
very expert mariners, and Richard Cox, the master 
gunner, with other very careful sailors, then within 
board, and also by the help of the clear nights, which 
are without darkness, we did happily avoid those pre- 
sent dangers. Whereat since we have more marvelled 
than in the present danger feared ; for that every man 
within board, both better and worse, had enough to 
do with his hands to haul ropes, and with his eyes 
to look out for danger. But the next morning, being 
the 20 of July 5 as God would, the storm ceased; 
and the General, espying the ships, with his new captive 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 23 

and whole company came happily aboard, and reported 
what had passed on shore. Whereupon all together 
upon our knees we gave God humble and hearty thanks, 
for that it had pleased Him from so speedy peril 
to send us such speedy deliverance. And so from this 
northern shore we struck over towards the souther- 

The one and twentieth of July, we discovered a 
bay which ran into the land, that seemed a likely 
harbour for our ships. Wherefore our General rowed 
thither with his boats, to make proof thereof, and 
with his goldfmers to search for ore, having never 
assayed anything on the south shore as yet. And 
the first small island, which we landed upon, here 
all the sands and clifts did so glister and had so bright 
a marquesite, that it seemed all to be gold ; but upon 
trial made, it proved no better than blacklead, and 
verified the proverb : All is not gold that glistereth. 

Upon the two and twentieth of July we bare into 
the said sound, and came to anchor a reasonable breadth 
off the shore. And this was named Jackman's Sound, 
after the name of the master's mate, who had first 
liking unto the place. 

Upon a small island, within this sound, called 
Smith's Island (because he first set up his forge there) 
was found a mine of silver, but was not won out of 
the rocks without great labour. Here our goldfiners 
made say of such ore as they found upon the norther- 
land, and found four sorts thereof to hold gold in good 
quantity. Upon another small island here was also 
found a great dead fish, which, as it should seem, 
had been embayed with ice, and was in proportion 
round like to a porpoise, being about twelve foot long, 

24 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

and in bigness answerable, having a horn of two yards 
long growing out of the snout or nostrils. This horn 
is wreathed and straight, like in fashion to a taper 
made of wax, and may truly be thought to be the 
sea-unicorn. This horn is to be seen and reserved as 
a jewel by the Queen's Majesty's commandment, 
in her wardrobe of robes. 

Tuesday, the three and twentieth of July, our 
General with his best company of gentlemen, soldiers 
and sailors, to the number of seventy persons in 
all, marched with ensign displayed upon the continent 
of the southerland (the supposed continent of America). 
Where, commanding a trumpet to sound a call for 
every man to repair to the ensign, he declared to the 
whole company how much the cause imported for 
the service of Her Majesty, our country, our credits, 
and the safety of our own lives, and therefore required 
every man to be conformable to order, and to be 
directed by those he should assign. And he appointed 
for leaders, Captain Fenton, Captain Yorke, and 
his Lieutenant, George Best. Which done, we cast 
ourselves into a ring, and all together upon our knees, 
gave God humble thanks for that it had pleased 
Him of His great goodness to preserve us from such 
imminent dangers ; beseeching likewise the assistance 
of His Holy Spirit, so to deliver us in safety into our 
country, whereby the light and truth of these secrets 
being known, it might redound to the more honour 
of His Holy Name, and consequently to the advance- 
ment of our common wealth. And so, in as good sort 
as the place suffered, we marched towards the tops of 
the mountains, which were no less painful in climbing 
than dangerous in descending, by reason of their 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 25 

steepness and ice. And having passed about five miles, 
by such unwieldy ways, we returned unto our ships 
without sight of any people, or likelihood of habitation. 
Here divers of the gentlemen desired our General to 
suffer them, to the number of twenty or thirty persons, 
to march up thirty or forty leagues in the country, 
to the end they might discover the inland, and do 
some acceptable service for their country. But he, 
not contented with the matter he sought for, and 
well considering the short time he had in hand, and 
the greedy desire our country hath to a present savour 
and return of gain, bent his whole endeavour only 
to find a mine to freight his ships, and to leave the 
rest (by God's help) hereafter to be well accomplished. 
And therefore the twenty-six of July he departed 
over to the northland, with the two barks, leaving the 
Aid riding in Jackman's Sound, and meant (after 
he had found convenient harbour, and freight there 
for his ships) to discover further for the passage. 
The barks came the same night to anchor in a sound 
upon the northerland, where the tides did run so 
swift, and the place was so subject to indrafts of ice, 
that by reason thereof they were greatly endangered ; 
and having found a very rich mine, as they supposed, 
and got almost twenty ton of ore together, upon the 
28 of July the ice came driving into the sound where 
the barks rode, in such sort that they were there- 
with greatly distressed. And the Gabriel, riding astern 
the Michael, had her cable galled asunder in the hawse 
with a piece of driving ice, .and lost another anchor ; 
and having but one cable and anchor left, for she 
had lost two before, and the ice still driving upon her, 
she was (by God's help) well fenced from the danger 

26 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

of the rest, by one great island of ice, which came 
aground hard ahead of her. Which if it had not so 
chanced, I think surely she had been cast upon the 
rocks with the ice. The Michael moored anchor 
upon this great ice, and rode under the lee thereof : 
but about midnight, by the weight of itself, and 
the setting of the tides, the ice brake within half the 
bark's length, and made unto the company within 
board a sudden and fearful noise. The next flood 
toward the morning we weighed anchor, and went 
further up the straits ; and leaving our ore behind 
us which we had digged, for haste, left the place, by the 
name of Beare's Sound, after the master's name of 
the Michael, and named the island Leicester's Island. 
In one of the small islands here we found a tomb, 
wherein the bones of a dead man lay together, and 
our savage captive being with us, and being demanded 
by signs whether his countrymen had not slain this 
man and eat his flesh so from the bones, he made 
signs to the contrary, and that he was slain with wolves 
and wild beasts. Here also was found hid under 
stones good store of fish, and sundry other things 
of the inhabitants ; >as sleds, bridles, kettles of fish 
skins, knives of bone, and such other like. And our 
savage declared unto us the use of all those things. 
And taking in his hand one of those country bridles, 
he caught one of our dogs and hampered him handsomely 
therein, as we do our horses, and with a whip in his hand, 
he taught the dog to draw in a sled as we do horses 
in a coach, setting himself thereupon like a guide : 
so that we might see they use dogs for that purpose 
that we do our horses. And we found since by ex- 
perience, that the lesser sort of dogs they feed fat, 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 27 

and keep them as domestical cattle in their tents 
for their eating, and the greater sort serve for the 
use of drawing their sleds. 

The twenty-ninth of July, about five leagues 
from Beare's Sound, we discovered a bay which, being 
fenced on each side with small islands lying off the 
main, which break the force of the tides, and make 
the place free from any indrafts of ice, did prove a 
very fit harbour for our ships; where we came to 
anchor under a small island, which now together 
with the sound is called by the name of that right 
honourable and virtuous lady, Anne Countess of 
Warwick. And this is the furthest place that this 
year we have entered up within the straits, and is 
reckoned from the Cape of the Queen's Foreland, 
which is the entrance of the straits, not above 30 
leagues. Upon this island was found good store of 
the ore, which in the washing held gold to our thinking 
plainly to be seen : whereupon it was thought best 
rather to load here, where there was store and indifferent 
good, than to seek further for better, and spend time 
with jeopardy. ' And therefore our General setting 
the miners to work, and shewing first a good precedent 
of a painful labourer and a good captain in himself, 
gave good examples for others to follow him : where- 
upon every man, both better and worse, with their 
best endeavours willingly laid to their helping hands. 
And the next day, being the thirtieth of July, the 
Michael was sent over to Jackman's Sound, for the 
Aid -and the whole company to come thither. Upon 
the mainland, over against the Countess's Island, 
we discovered and beheld to our great marvel the 
poor caves and houses of those country people, which 

28 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

serve them (as it should seem) for their winter dwellings, 
and are made two fathom under ground, in compass 
round, like to an oven, being joined fast one by another, 
having holes like to a fox or cony bury, to keep 
and come together. They under-trenched these places 
with gutters, so that the water, falling from the hills 
above them, may slide away without their annoyance : 
and are seated commonly in the foot of a hill, to 
shield them better from the cold winds, having their 
door and entrance ever open towards the south. From 
the ground upward they build with whales' bones, 
for lack of timber, which bending one over another, 
are handsomely compacted in the top together, and 
are covered over with sealskins, which, instead of 
tiles, fence them from the rain. In which house 
they have only one room, having the one half of the 
floor raised with broad stones a foot higher than the 
other, whereon strawing moss, they make their nests 
to sleep in. They defile these dens most filthily with 
their beastly feeding, and dwell so long in a place 
(as we think) until their sluttishness loathing them, 
they are forced to seek a sweeter air, and a new seat ; 
and are (no doubt) a dispersed and wandering nation, 
as the Tartarians, and live in hoards and troops, 
without any certain abode, as may appear by sundry 
circumstances of our experience. 

Here our captive being ashore with us, to declare 
the use of such things as we saw, stayed himself 
alone behind the company, and did set up five small 
sticks round in a circle one by another, with* one 
small bone placed just in the midst of all : which 
thing when one of our men perceived, he called us 
back to behold the matter, thinking that he had meant 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 29 

some charm or witchcraft therein. But the best 
conjecture we could make thereof was, that he would 
thereby his countrymen should understand, that for 
our five men which they betrayed the last year (whom 
he signified by the five sticks) he was taken and kept 
prisoner, which he signified by the bone in the midst. 
For afterwards when we shewed him the picture 
of his countryman, which the last year was brought 
into England (whose counterfeit we had drawn, with 
boat and other furniture, both as he was in his own, 
and also in English apparel), he was upon the sudden 
much amazed thereat; and beholding advisedly the 
same with silence a good while, as though he would 
strain courtesy whether should begin the speech 
(for he thought him no doubt a lively creature) at 
length began to question with him, as with his com- 
panion ; and finding him dumb and mute, seemed 
to suspect him, as one disdainful, and would with 
a little help have grown into choler at the matter, 
until at last, by feeling and handling, he found him 
but a deceiving picture. And then with great noise 
and cries, ceased not wondering, thinking that we 
could make men live or die at our pleasure. And 
thereupon calling the matter to his remembrance, 
he gave us plainly to understand by signs, that 
he had knowledge of the taking of our five men the 
last year, and confessing the manner of each thing, 
numbered the five men upon his five fingers, and pointed 
unto a boat in our ship, which was like unto that 
wherein our men were betrayed : and when we made 
him signs, that they were slain and eaten, he earnestly 
denied, and made signs to the contrary. 

The last of July the Michael returned with the 

30 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

Aid to us from the southerland, and came to anchor 
by us in the Countess of Warwick's Sound, and reported 
that since we departed from Jackman's Sound there 
happened nothing among them there greatly worth 
the remembrance, until the thirtieth of July, when 
certain of our company being ashore upon a small 
island within the said Jackman's Sound, near the 
place where the Aid rode, did espy a long boat with 
divers of the country people therein, to the number 
of eighteen or twenty persons. Whom so soon as our 
men perceived, they returned speedily aboard, to 
give notice thereof unto our company. They might 
perceive these people climbing up to the top of a hill, 
where, with a flag, they wafted unto our ship, and 
made great outcries and noises, like so many bulls. 
Hereupon our men did presently man forth a small 
skiff, having not above six or seven persons therein, 
which rowed near the place where those people 
were, to prove if they could have any conference with 
them. But after this small boat was sent a greater, 
being well appointed for their rescue, if need required. 
As soon as they espied our company coming near 
them, they took their boats and hasted away, either for 
fear, or else for policy, to draw our men from rescue 
further within their danger : wherefore our men 
construing that their coming thither was but to seek 
advantage, followed speedily after them. But they 
rowed so swiftly away that our men could come nothing 
near them. Howbeit they failed not of their best 
endeavour in rowing, and having chased them above 
two miles into the sea, returned into their ships again. 

The morning following, being the first of August, 
Captain Yorke with the Michael came into Jackman's 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 31 

Sound, and declared unto the company there, that 
the last night past he came to anchor in a certain 
bay (which sithence was named Yorke's Sound) about 
four leagues distant from Jackman's Sound, being 
put to leeward of that place for lack of wind, where 
he discovered certain tents of the country people ; 
where going with his company ashore, he entered 
into them, but found the people departed, as it should 
seem, for fear of their coming. But amongst sundry 
strange things which in these tents they found, there 
was raw and new killed flesh of unknown sorts, with 
dead carcasses and bones of dogs, and I know not what. 
They also beheld (to their greatest marvel) a doublet 
of canvas made after the English fashion, a shirt, 
a girdle, three shoes for contrary feet, and of unequal 
bigness, which they well conjectured to be the apparel 
of our five poor countrymen, which were intercepted 
the last year by these country people, about fifty 
leagues from this place, further within the straits. 
Whereupon our men being in good hope that some 
of them might be here, and yet living, the captain, 
devising for the best, left his mind behind him in writing, 
with pen, ink, and paper also, whereby our poor captive 
countrymen, if it might come to their hands, might 
know their friends' minds, and of their arrival, and 
likewise return their answer. And so without, taking 
anything away in their tents, leaving there also looking- 
glasses, points, and other of our toys (the better to 
allure them by such friendly means) departed aboard 
his bark, with intent to make haste to the Aid, 
to give notice unto the company of all such things 
as he had there discovered : and so meant to return 
to these tents again, hoping that he might by force 

32 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

or policy entrap or entice the people to some friendly 
conference. Which things when he had delivered 
to the whole company there, they determined forthwith 
to go in hand with the matter. Hereupon Captain 
Yorke with the master of the Aid, and his mate (who 
the night before had been at the tents, and came 
over from the other side in the Michael with him), 
being accompanied with the gentlemen and soldiers 
to the number of thirty or forty persons, in two small 
rowing pinnaces made towards the place, where the 
night before they discovered the tents of those people, 
and setting Charles Jackman, being the master's 
mate, ashore with a convenient number, for that 
he could best guide them to the place, they marched 
over land, meaning to compass them on the one side, 
whilst the captain with his boats might entrap them 
on the other side. But landing at last at the place 
where the night before they left them, they found 
them with their tents removed. Notwithstanding, 
our men which marched up into the country, passing 
over two or three mountains, by chance espied certain 
tents in a valley underneath them near unto a creek 
by the seaside; which because it was not the place 
where the guide had been the night before, they 
judged them to be another company, and besetting 
them about, determined to take them if they could. 
But they, having quickly descried our company, 
launched one great and another small boat, being 
about sixteen or eighteen persons, and very narrowly 
escaping, put themselves to sea. Whereupon our 
soldiers discharged their calivers, and followed them, 
thinking the noise thereof being heard to our boats 
at sea, our men there would make what speed they 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 33 

might to that place. And thereupon indeed our 
men which were in the boats (crossing upon them 
in the mouth of the sound, whereby their passage 
was let from getting sea room, wherein it had been 
impossible for us to overtake them by rowing,) forced 
them to put themselves ashore upon a point of land 
within the said sound (which upon the occasion of 
the slaughter there, was since named The Bloody 
Point). Whereunto our men so speedily followed, that 
they had little leisure left them to make any escape. 
But so soon as they landed, each of them brake his 
oar, thinking by that means to prevent us in carrying 
away their boats, for want of oars. And desperately 
returning upon our men, resisted them manfully 
in their landing, so long as their arrows and darts 
lasted ; and after gathering up those arrows which 
our men shot at them, yea, and plucking our arrows 
out of their bodies, encountered afresh again, and 
maintained their cause until both weapons and life 
failed them. And when they found they were mortally 
wounded, being ignorant what mercy meaneth, with 
deadly fury they cast themselves headlong from off 
the rocks into the sea, lest perhaps their enemies 
should receive glory or prey of their dead carcasses, 
for they supposed us belike to be cannibals or eaters 
of man's flesh. In this conflict one of our men was 
dangerously hurt in the belly with one of their arrows, 
and of them were slain five or six, the rest by flight 
escaping among the rocks ; saving two women, whereof 
the one being old and ugly, our men thought she 
had been a devil or some witch, and therefore let her 
go. The other, being young and cumbered with a 
sucking child at her back, hiding herself behind the 
A. p. 3 

34 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

rocks, was espied by one of our men, who supposing 
she had been a man, shot through the hair of her head, 
and pierced through the child's arm. Whereupon 
she cried out; and our surgeon meaning to heal her 
child's arm, applied salves thereunto. But she, not 
acquainted with such kind of surgery, plucked those 
salves away ; and by continual licking with her own 
tongue, not much unlike our dogs, healed up the 
child's arm. And because the day was well near spent, 
our men made haste unto the rest of our company, 
which on the other side of the water remained at 
the tents; where they found by the apparel, letter, 
and other English furniture, that they were the same 
company which Captain Yorke discovered the night 
before, having removed themselves from the place 
where he left them. 

And now, considering their sudden flying from our 
men, and their desperate manner of fighting, we began 
to suspect that we had heard the last news of our 
men, which the last year were betrayed of these people. 
And considering also their ravenous and bloody 
disposition in eating any kind of raw flesh or carrion, 
howsoever stinking, it is to be thought that they had 
slain and devoured our men : for the doublet which 
was found in their tents had many holes therein, 
being made with their arrows and darts. 

But now the night being at hand, our men, with 
their captives and such poor stuff as they found in 
their tents, returned towards their ships. When, being 
at sea, there arose a sudden flaw of wind, which was 
not a little dangerous for their small boats; but, as 
God would, they came all safely aboard. And with 
these good news they returned (as before mentioned) 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 35 

into the Countess of Warwick's Sound unto us. And 
between Jackman's Sound, from whence they came, 
and the Countess of Warwick's Sound, between land 
and land, being thought the narrowest place of the 
straits, were judged nine leagues over at the least : 
and Jackman's Sound, being upon the southerland, 
lieth directly almost over against the Countess's 
Sound, as is reckoned scarce thirty leagues within 
the straits from the Queen's Cape, which is the 
entrance of the straits of the southerland. This cape 
being named Queen Elizabeth's Cape, standeth in the 
latitude of 62 degrees and a half to the northwards 
of Newfoundland, and upon the same continent, for 
anything that is yet known to the contrary. 

Having now got a woman captive for the comfort 
of our man, we brought them both together, and every 
man with silence desired to behold the manner of 
their meeting and entertainment, the which was 
more worth the beholding than can be well expressed 
by writing. At their first encountering they beheld 
each the other very wistly a good space, without speech 
or word uttered, with great change of colour and 
countenance, as though it seemed the grief and disdain 
of their captivity had taken away the use of their 
tongues and utterance. The woman at the first very 
suddenly, as though she disdained or regarded not 
the man, turned away and began to sing, as though 
she minded another matter : but being again brought 
together, the man brake up the silence first, and with 
stern and staid countenance, began to tell a long 
solemn tale to the woman. Whereunto she gave good 
hearing, and interrupted him nothing, till he had 
finished; and afterwards, being grown into more 


36 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

familiar acquaintance by speech, they were turned 
together, so that (I think) the one would hardly have 
lived without the comfort of the other. 

On Monday, the sixth of August, the lieutenant 
with all the soldiers, for the better guard of the miners 
and the other things ashore, pitched their tents in 
the Countess's Island, and fortified the place for their 
better defence as well as they could, and were to the 
number of forty persons, when, being all at labour, 
they might perceive upon the top of a hill over against 
them a number of the country people wafting with 
a flag, and making great outcries unto them, and were 
of the same company which had encountered lately 
our men upon the other shore, being come to complain 
their late losses, and to entreat (as it seemed) for 
restitution of the woman and child, which our men 
in the late conflict had taken and brought away. 
Whereupon the General, taking the savage captive 
with him, and setting the woman where they might 
best perceive her, in the highest place of the island, 
went over to talk with them. This captive, at his 
first encounter of his friends, fell so out into tears 
that he could not speak a word in a great space; but 
after a while, overcoming his kindness, he talked 
at full with his companions, and bestowed friendly 
upon them such toys and trifles as we had given him : 
whereby we noted, that they are very kind one to 
another, and greatly sorrowful for the loss of their 
friends. Our General, by signs, required his five men 
which they took captive the last year, and promised 
them, not only to release those which he had taken, 
but also to reward them with great gifts and friendship. 
Our savage made signs in answer from them that 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 37 

our men should be delivered us, and were yet living, 
and made signs likewise unto us that we should write 
our letters unto them. For they knew very well the 
use we have of writing, and received knowledge thereof, 
either of our poor captive countrymen which they 
betrayed, or else by this our new captive, who hath 
seen us daily write and repeat again such words 
of his language as we desired to learn. But they 
for this night, because it was late, departed without 
any letter, although they called earnestly in haste 
for the same. And the next morning early, being 
the seventh of August, they called again for the letter ; 
which being delivered unto them, they speedily departed, 
making signs with three fingers, and pointing to the 
sun, that they meant to return within three days; 
until which time we heard no more of them ; and about 
the time appointed they returned, in such sort as you 
shall afterwards hear. 

This night, because the people were very near 
unto us, the lieutenant caused the trumpet to sound 
a call, and every man in the island repairing to the 
ensign, he put them in mind of the place, so far from 
their country wherein they lived, and the danger 
of a great multitude, which they were subject unto, 
if good watch and ward were not kept. For at every 
low water the enemy might come almost dryf oot 
from the main unto us; wherefore he willed every 
man to prepare him in good readiness upon all sudden 
occasions. And so, giving the watch their charge, the 
company departed to rest. 

I thought the captain's letter well worth the 
remembering, not for the circumstance of curious indit- 
ing, but for the substance and good meaning therein 

38 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

contained, and therefore have repeated here the same, 
as by himself it was hastily written. 

The form of Master Martin Frobisher's letter to the 
English captives. 

' IN the name of God, in whom we all believe, 
who (I trust) hath preserved your bodies and souls 
among these infidels, I commend me unto you. I 
will be glad to seek by all means you can devise for 
your deliverance, either with force, or with any com- 
modities within my ships, which I will not spare for 
your sakes, or anything else I can do for you. I 
have aboard, of theirs, a man, a woman, and a child, 
which I am contented to deliver for you, but the man 
which I carried away from hence the last year is dead 
in England. Moreover, you may declare unto them, 
that if they deliver you not, I will not leave a man 
alive in their country. And thus, if one of you can 
come to speak with me, they shall have either the 
man, woman, or child in pawn for you. And thus 
unto God, whom I trust you do serve, in haste I leave 
you, and to Him we will daily pray for you. This 
Tuesday morning, the seventh of August, Anno 1577. 

Yours to the uttermost of my power 


I have sent you by these bearers, pen, ink, and 
paper, to write back unto me again, if personally 
you cannot come to certify me of your estate.' 

Now had the General altered his determination 
for going any further into the straits at this time, 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 39 

for any further discovery of the passage, having taken 
a man and a woman of that country, which he thought 
sufficient for the use of language; and having also 
met with these people here, which intercepted his 
men the last year, (as the apparel and English furniture, 
which was found in their tents, very well declared) 
he knew it was but a labour lost to seek them further 
off, when he had found them there at hand. And 
considering also the short time he had in hand, he 
thought it best to bend his whole endeavour for the 
getting of mine, and to leave the passage further to be 
discovered hereafter. For his commission directed him 
in this voyage, only for the searching of the ore, and 
to defer the further discovery of the passage until 
another time. 

On Thursday, the ninth of August, we began to make 
a small fort for our defence in the Countess's Island, 
and entrenched a corner of a cliff, which on three 
parts, like a wall of good height, was compassed and 
well fenced with the sea. 

Saturday, the eleventh of August, the people shewed 
themselves again, and called unto us from the side 
of a hill over against us. The General (with good 
hope to hear of his men, and to have answer of his 
letter) went over unto them, where they presented 
themselves not above three in sight, but were hidden 
indeed in greater numbers behind the rocks ; and making 
signs of delay with us, to entrap some of us to redeem 
their own, did only seek advantage to train our boat 
about a point of land from sight of our company. 
Whereupon our men, justly suspecting them, kept 
aloof without their danger, and yet set one of our 
company ashore, which took up a great bladder which 

40 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

one of them offered us, and leaving a looking-glass 
in the place, came into the boat again. In the mean- 
while, our men which stood in the Countess's Island 
to behold, who might better discern them, than those 
of the boat, by reason they were on higher ground, 
made a great outcry unto our men in the boat, for 
that they saw divers of the savages creeping behind 
the rocks towards our men ; whereupon the General 
presently returned without tidings of his men. 

Concerning this bladder which we received, our 
captive made signs that it was given him to keep 
water and drink in ; but we suspected rather it was 
given him to swim and shift away withal, for he and 
the woman sought divers times to escape, having 
loosed our boats from astern our ships, and we never 
a boat left to pursue them withal, and had prevailed 
very far, had they not been very timely espied and 
prevented therein. 

After our General's coming away from them they 
mustered themselves in our sight, upon the top of 
a hill, to the number of twenty in a rank, all holding 
hands over their heads, and dancing with great noise 
and songs together. We supposed they made this 
dance and shew for us to understand, that we might 
take view of their whole companies and force, meaning 
belike that we should do the same. And thus they 
continued upon the hill tops until night, when hearing 
a piece of our great ordnance, which thundered in the 
hollo wness of the high hills, it made unto them so 
fearful a noise, that they had no great will to tarry 
long after. And this was done more to make them 
know our force than to do them any hurt at all. 

On Sunday, the 12 of August, Captain Fenton 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 41 

trained the company, and made the soldiers maintain 
skirmish among themselves, as well for their exercise, 
as for the country people to behold in what readiness 
our men were always to be found; for it was to be 
thought, that they lay hid in the hills thereabout, 
and observed all the manner of our proceedings. 

On Wednesday, the fourteenth of August, our 
General with two small boats well appointed, for 
that he suspected the country people to lie lurking 
thereabout, went up a certain bay within the Countess's 
Sound, to search for ore, and met again with the country 
people ; who so soon as they saw our men made great- 
outcries, and with a white flag made of bladders 
sewed together with the guts and sinews of beasts, 
wafted us amain unto them, but shewed not above 
three of their company. But when we came near 
them, we might perceive a great multitude creeping 
behind the rocks, which gave us good cause to suspect 
their traitorous meaning : whereupon we made them 
signs, that if they would lay their weapons aside, 
and come forth, we would deal friendly with them, 
although their intent was manifested unto us. But 
for all the signs of friendship we could make them, 
they came still creeping towards us behind the rocks 
to get more advantage of us, as though we had no eyes 
to see them, thinking belike that our single wits could 
not discover so bare devices and simple drifts of theirs. 
Their spokesman earnestly persuaded us with many 
enticing shews, to come eat and sleep ashore, with 
great arguments of courtesy ; and clapping his bare 
hands over his head in token of peace and innocency, 
willed us to do the like. But the better to allure our 
hungry stomachs, he brought us a trim bait of raw 

42 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

flesh, which for fashion sake with a boat-hook we 
caught into our boat : but when the cunning cater 
perceived his first cold morsel could nothing sharpen 
our stomachs, he cast about for a new train of warm 
flesh to procure our appetites. Wherefore he caused 
one of his fellows, in halting manner, to come forth 
as a lame man from behind the rocks ; and the better 
to declare his kindness in carving, he hoised him upon 
his shoulders, and bringing him hard to the water 
side where we were, left him there limping as an easy 
prey to be taken of us. His hope was that we would 
bite at this bait, and speedily leap ashore within 
their danger ; whereby they might have apprehended 
some of us, to ransom their friends home again, which 
before we had taken. The gentlemen and soldiers had 
great will to encounter them ashore, but the General 
more careful by process of time to win them, than 
wilfully at the first to spoil them, would in no wise 
admit that any man should put himself in hazard 
ashore, considering the matter he now intended was 
for the ore, and not for the conquest. Notwithstanding, 
to prove this cripple's footmanship, he gave liberty 
for one to shoot. Whereupon the cripple, having a 
parting blow, lightly recovered a rock, and went away 
a true and no feigned cripple, and hath learned his 
lesson, for ever halting afore such cripples again. But 
his fellows which lay hid before, full quickly then 
appeared in their likeness, and maintained the skirmish 
with their slings, bows and arrows very fiercely, 
and came as near as the water suffered them : and 
with as desperate mind as hath been seen in any men, 
without fear of shot or anything, followed us all along 
the coast ; but all their shot fell short of us, and are 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 43 

of little danger. They had belayed all the coast 
along for us, and being dispersed so, were not well 
to be numbered, but we might discern of them above 
an hundred persons, and had cause to suspect a greater 
number. And thus without loss or hurt we returned 
to our ships again. 

Now our work growing to an end, and having, 
only with five poor miners, and the help of a few gentle- 
men and soldiers, brought aboard almost two hundred 
ton of ore in the space of twenty days, every man 
therewithal well comforted, determined lustily to 
work afresh for a boon voyage, to bring our labour 
to a speedy and happy end. 

And upon Wednesday at night, being the one and 
twentieth of August, we fully finished the whole 
work. And it was now good time to leave, for as the 
men were well wearied, so their shoes and clothes 
were well worn, their baskets' bottoms torn out, their 
tools broken, and the ships reasonably well filled. 
Some with over-straining themselves received hurts 
not a little dangerous. And about this time the ice 
began to congeal and freeze about our ships' sides 
a-night, which gave us a good argument of the sun's 
declining southward, and put us in mind to make more 
haste homeward. 

Thursday, the 22 of August, we plucked down our 
tents and every man hasted homeward, and making 
bonfires upon the top of the highest mount of the 
island, and marching with ensign displayed round 
about the island, we gave a volley of shot for a farewell, 
in honour of the Right Honourable Lady Anne, Countess 
of Warwick, whose name it beareth : and so departed 

44 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

The 23 of August, having the wind large at west, 
we set sail from out of the Countess's Sound homeward ; 
but the wind calming we came to anchor within the 
point of the same sound again. 

The 24 of August about three of the clock in the 
morning, having the wind large at west, we set sail 
again, and by nine of the clock at night we left the 
Queen's Foreland astern of us, and being clear of the 
straits, we bare further into the main ocean, keeping 
our course more southerly, to bring ourselves the 
sooner under the latitude of our own climate. The 
wind was very great at sea, so that we lay a-hull all 
night, and had snow half a foot deep on the hatches. 

From the 24 until the 28 we had very much 
wind, but large, keeping our course south-south-east, 
and had like to have lost the barks, but by good hap 
we met again. The height being taken, we were 
in [cipher] degrees and a half. 

The 29 of August the wind blew much at north- 
east, so that we could bear but only a bunt of our 
foresail, and the barks were not able to carry any sail 
at all. The Michael lost company of us, and shaped 
her course towards Orkney, because that way was better 
known unto them, and arrived at Yarmouth. 

The 30 of August, with the force of the wind, 
and a surge of the sea, the master of the Gabriel and 
the boatswain were stricken both overboard, and 
hardly was the boatswain recovered, having hold 
on a rope hanging overboard in the sea ; and yet the 
bark was laced fore and after with ropes a breast high 
within board. This master was called William Smith, 
being but a young man and a very sufficient mariner. 
Who being all the morning before exceeding pleasant, 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 45 

told his captain he dreamed that he was cast overboard, 
and that the boatswain had him by the hand, and 
could not save him. And so, immediately upon the 
end of his tale, his dream came right evilly to pass : 
and indeed the boatswain in like sort held him by one 
hand, having hold on a rope with the other, until 
his force failed, and the master drowned. The height 
being taken we found ourselves to be in the latitude 
of [cipher] degrees and a half, and reckoned ourselves 
from the Queen's Cape homeward about two hundred 

The last of August, about midnight, we had two 
or three great and sudden flaws or storms. 

The first of September the storm was grown very 
great, and continued almost the whole day and night, 
and lying a-hull to tarry for the barks our ship was 
much beaten with the seas, every sea almost over- 
taking our poop, so that we were constrained with 
a bunt of our sail to try it out, and ease the rolling 
of our ship. And so the Gabriel not able to bear 
any sail to keep -company with us, and our ship being 
higher in the poop, and a tall ship, whereon the wind 
had more force to drive, went so fast away that we 
lost sight of them, and left them to God and their 
good fortune of sea. The second day of September 
in the morning, 'it pleased God of his goodness to send 
us a calm, whereby we perceived the rudder of our 
ship torn in twain, and almost ready to fall away. 
Wherefore, taking the benefit of the time, we flung 
half-a-dozen couple of our best men overboard, who 
taking great pains under water, driving planks, and 
binding with ropes, did well strengthen and mend 
the matter who returned the most part more than 

46 Frobisher. Second Voyage 

half-dead out of the water, and as God's pleasure 
was, the sea was calm until the work was finished. 

The seventeenth of September we sounded, and had 
forty fathom, and were not far off the Land's-End, 
finding branded sand with small worms and cockle- 
shells, and were shot between Scilly and the Land's-End ; 
and being within the bay, we were not able to double 
the point with a south- and-by-east way, but were 
fain to make another board, the wind being at south- 
west and by west, and yet could not double the point 
to come clear of the Land's-End, to bear along the 
Channel: and the weather cleared up when we were 
hard aboard the shore, and we made the Land's-End 
perfect, and so put up along Saint George's Channel. 
And the weather being very foul at sea, we coveted 
some harbour, because our steerage was broken, 
and so came to anchor in Padstow Road, in Cornwall. 
But riding there a very dangerous road, we were 
advised by the country to put to sea again, and of the 
two evils, to choose the less, for there was nothing 
but present peril where we rode. Whereupon we plied 
along the Channel to get to Lundy, from whence we 
were again driven, being but an open road, where 
our anchor came home ; and with force of weather 
put to seas again, and about the three and twentieth of 
September arrived at Milford Haven, in Wales, which 
being a very good harbour, made us happy men, that 
we had received such long-desired safety. 

About one month after our arrival here, by order 
from the Lords of the Council, the ship came up to 
Bristow, where the ore was committed to keeping 
in the castle there. Here we found the Gabriel, one 
of the barks, arrived in good safety, who having 

Frobisher. Second Voyage 47 

never a man within board very sufficient to bring 
home the ship, after the master was lost, by good 
fortune, when she came upon the coast, met with a 
ship of Bristow at sea, who conducted her in safety 

Here we heard good tidings also of the arrival of 
the other bark called the Michael, in the north parts, 
which was not a little joyful unto us, that it pleased 
God so to bring us to a safe meeting again; and we 
lost in all the voyage only one man, besides one that 
died at sea, which was sick before he came aboard, 
and was so desirous to follow this enterprise that 
he rather chose to die therein than not to be one 
to attempt so notable a voyage. 


The first voyage of Master John Davis, undertaken 
in June 1585, for the discovery of the North-west 
passage. Written by Master John Jane, merchant, 
sometime servant to the worshipful Master William 

Certain honourable personages and worthy gentle- 
men of the court and country, with divers worshipful 
merchants of London and of the west country, moved 
with desire to advance God's glory and to seek the 
good of their native country, consulting together 
of the likelihood of the discovery of the North-west 
passage, which heretofore had been attempted, but 
unhappily given over by accidents unlocked for, 
which turned the enterprisers from their principal 
purpose, resolved after good deliberation, to put down 
their adventures to provide for necessary shipping, 
and a fit man to be chief conductor of this so hard 
an enterprise. The setting forth of this action was 
committed by the adventurers especially to the care 
of Master William Sanderson, merchant of London, 
who was so forward therein, that besides his travail, 
which was not small, he became the greatest adventurer 
with his purse ; and commended unto the rest of the 
company one Master John Davis, a man very well 
grounded in the principles of the art of navigation for 
captain and chief pilot of this exploit. 

Davis. First Voyage 49 

Thus therefore all things being put in a readiness, 
we departed from Dartmouth the seventh of June, 
towards the discovery of the aforesaid north-west 
passage, with two barks, the one being of 50 tons, 
named the Sunshine of London, and the other being 
35 tons, named the Moonshine of Dartmouth. In 
the Sunshine we had 23 persons, whose names are 
these following : Master John Davis, captain, William 
Eston, master, Richard Pope, master's mate, John 
Jane, merchant, Henry Davy, gunner, William Crosse, 
boatswain, John Bagge, Walter Arthur, Luke Adams, 
Robert Coxworthy, John Ellis, John Kelley, Edward 
Helman, William Dicke, Andrew Maddocke, Thomas 
Hill, Robert Watts, carpenter, William Russell, Christo- 
pher Gorney, boy : James Cole, Francis Ridley, John 
Russell, Robert Cornish, musicians. 

The Moonshine had 19 persons: William Bruton, 
captain, John Ellis, master, the rest, mariners. 

The first of July we saw a great store of porpoises. 
The master called for an harping iron, and shot twice 
or thrice : sometimes he missed, and at last shot 
one and struck him in the side, and wound him into 
the ship. When we had him aboard, the master said 
it was a darlyhead. 

The 2 we had some of the fish sodden, and it did 
eat as sweet as any mutton. 

The 3 we had more in sight, and the master 
went to shoot at them, but they were so great that 
they burst our irons, and we lost both fish, irons, 
pastime, and all. Yet nevertheless the master shot 
at them with a pike, and had well nigh gotten one, 
but he was so strong that he burst off the bars of the 
pike and went away. Then he took the boat-hook and 

A. P. 

50 Davis. First Voyage 

hit one with that, but all would not prevail, so at 
length we let them alone. 

The 6 we saw a very great whale, and every day 
we saw whales continually. 

The 16, 17, and 18, we saw great store of 

The 19 of July we fell into a great whirling 
and brustling of a tide, setting to the northwards ; 
and sailing about half a league, we came into a very 
calm sea, which bent to the south-south-west. Here 
we heard a mighty great roaring of the sea, as if it 
had been the breach of some shore, the air being so 
foggy and full of thick mist, that we could not see 
the one ship from the other, being a very small distance 
asunder. So the captain and the master, being in 
distrust how the tide might set them, caused the 
Moonshine to hoise out her boat and to sound ; but 
they could not find ground in 300 fathoms and better. 
Then the captain, master, and I went towards the 
breach to see what it should be, giving charge to our 
gunners that at every glass they should shoot off 
a musket-shot, to the intent we might keep ourselves 
from losing them. Then, coming near to the breach, 
we met many islands of ice floating, which had quickly 
compassed us about. Then we went upon some of 
them, and did perceive that all the roaring which 
we heard, was caused only by the rolling of this ice 
together. Our company, seeing us not to return accord- 
ing to our appointment, left off shooting muskets 
and began to shoot falconets; for they feared some 
mishap had befallen us. But before night we came 
aboard again with our boat laden with ice, which 
made very good fresh . water. Then we bent our 

Davis. First Voyage 51 

course toward the north, hoping by that means to 
double the land. 

The 20, as we sailed along the coast, the fog 
broke up, and we discovered the land, which was 
the most deformed, rocky, and mountainous land 
that ever we saw. The first sight whereof did shew 
as if it had been in form of a sugar-loaf, standing to 
our sight above the clouds ; for that it did shew over 
the fog like a white list in the sky, the tops altogether 
covered with snow, and the shore beset with ice a 
league off into the sea, making such irksome noise, 
as that it seemed to be the true pattern of desolation ; 
and after the same our captain named it, The Land of 

Upon Thursday, being the 22 of this month, 
about three of the clock in the morning, we hoised 
out our boat, and the captain with six sailors went 
towards the shore, thinking to find a landing place ; 
for the night before we did perceive the coast to be 
void of ice to our judgment, and the same night we 
were all persuaded that we had seen a canoa rowing 
along the shore ; but afterwards we fell in some doubt 
of it, but we had no great reason so to do. The captain 
rowing towards the shore, willed the master to bear 
in with the land after him, and before he came near 
the shore by the space of a league, or about two miles, 
he found so much ice that he. could not get to land 
by any means. Here our mariners put to their lines 
to see if they could get any fish, because there were 
so many seals upon the coast, and the birds did beat 
upon the water ; but all was in vain. The water about 
this place was very black and thick, like to a filthy 
standing pool. We sounded and had ground in 120 


52 Davis. First Voyage 

fathoms. While the captain was rowing to the shore, 
our men saw woods upon the rocks, like to the rocks 
of Newfoundland ; but I could not discern them. Yet 
it might be so very well : for we had wood floating 
upon the coast every day, and the Moonshine took 
up a tree at sea, not far from the coast, being sixty 
foot of length and fourteen handfuls about, having 
the root upon it. After this the captain came aboard, 
the weather being very calm and fair we bent our 
course toward the south, with intent to double the 

The 23 we coasted the land, which did lie 
east-north-east and west-south-west. 

The 24 7 the wind being very fair at east, we 
coasted the land, which did lie east and west, not 
being able to come near the shore by reason of the 
great quantity of ice. At this place, because the 
weather was somewhat cold by reason of the ice, 
and the better to encourage our men, their allowance 
was increased. The captain and the master took order 
that every mess, being five persons, should have 
half a pound of bread and a can of beer every morning 
to breakfast. The weather was not very cold, but 
the air was moderate like to our April weather in 
England. When the wind came from the land, or the 
ice, it was somewhat cold ; but when it came off the 
sea, it was very hot. 

The 25 of this month we departed from sight of 
this land at six of the clock in the morning, directing 
our course to the north-westward, hoping in God's 
mercy to find our desired passage ; and so continued 
above four days. 

The 29 of July we discovered land in 64 degrees 

Davis. First Voyage 53 

15 minutes of latitude, bearing north-east from us. 
The wind being contrary to go to the north-westwards, 
we bare in with this land to take some view of it, 
being utterly void of the pester of ice and very temperate. 
Coming near the coast, we found many fair sounds and 
good roads for shipping, and many great inlets into 
the land, whereby we judged this land to be a great 
number of islands standing together. Here having 
moored our bark in good order, we went on shore 
upon a small island to seek for water and wood. Upon 
this island we did perceive that there had been people : 
for we found a small shoe and pieces of leather sewed 
with sinews, and a piece of fur, and wool like to beaver. 
Then we went upon another island on the other side 
of our ships ; and the captain, the master, and I, being 
got up to the top of an high rock, the people of the 
country having espied us, made a lamentable noise, 
as we thought, with great outcries and screechings. 
We, hearing them, thought it had been the howling 
of wolves. At last I halloaed again, and they likewise 
cried. Then, we perceiving where they stood, some 
on the shore, and one rowing in a canoa about a small 
island fast by them, we made a great noise, partly 
to allure them to us, and partly to warn our company 
of them. Whereupon Master Bruton and the master 
of his ship, with others of their company, made great 
haste towards us, and brought our musicians with 
them from our ship, purposing either by force to rescue 
us, if need should so require, or with courtesy to allure 
the people. When they came unto us, we caused our 
musicians to play, ourselves dancing, and making 
many signs of friendship. At length there came 
ten canoas from the other islands, and two of them 

54 Davis. First Voyage 

came so near the shore where we were, that they 
talked with us, the others being in their boats a 
pretty way off. Their pronunciation was very hollow 
through the throat, and their speech such as we could 
not understand : only we allured them by friendly 
embracings and signs of courtesy. At length one of 
them, pointing up to the sun with his hand, would 
presently strike his breast so hard that we might 
hear the blow. This he did many times before he 
would any way trust us. Then John Ellis, the master 
of the Moonshine, was appointed to use his best policy 
to gain their friendship ; who struck his breast, and 
pointed to the sun after their order. Which when 
he had divers times done, they began to trust him, 
and one of them came on shore, to whom we threw 
our caps, stockings, and gloves, and such other things 
as then we had about us, playing with our music, 
and making signs of joy, and dancing. So the night 
coming, we bade them farewell, and went aboard our 

The next morning, being the 30 of July, there came 
thirty-seven canoas rowing by our ships, calling to us 
to come on shore. We not making any great haste 
unto them, one of them went up to the top of the 
rock, and leapt and danced as they had done the day 
before, shewing us a seal's skin, and another thing 
made like a timbrel, which he did beat upon with 
a stick, making a noise like a small drum. Whereupon 
we manned our boats and came to them, they all 
staying in their canoas : we came to the water side 
where they were, and after we had sworn by the sun 
after their fashion, they did trust us. So I shook 
hands with one of them, and he kissed my hand, 

Davis. First Voyage 55 

and we were very familiar with them. We were 
in so great credit with them upon this single acquaint- 
ance, that we could have anything they had. We 
bought five canoas of them : we bought their clothes 
from their backs, which were all made of seals' skins 
and birds' skins ; their buskins, their hose, their gloves, 
all being commonly sewed and well dressed : so that 
we were fully persuaded that they have divers artificers 
among them. We had a pair of buskins of them full 
of fine wool like beaver. Their apparel for heat was 
made of birds' skins with their feathers on them. 
We saw among them leather dressed like glover's 
leather, and thick thongs like white leather of a good 
length. We had of their darts and oars, and found 
in them that they would by no means displease us, 
but would give us whatsoever we asked of them, 
and would be satisfied with whatsoever we gave them. 
They took great care one of another : for when we 
had bought their boats, then two other would come 
and carry him away between them that had sold us 
his. They are very tractable people, void of craft 
or double dealing, and easy to be brought to any 
civility or good order : but we judge them to be 
idolaters and to worship the sun. 

During the time of our abode among these islands 
we found reasonable quantity of wood, both fir, spruce, 
and juniper ; which, whether it came floating any 
great distance to these places where we found it, 
or whether it grew in some great islands near the 
same place by us not yet discovered, we know not ; 
but we judge that it groweth there further into the 
land than we were, because the people had great store 
of darts and oars which they made none account of, 

56 Davis. First Voyage 

but gave them to us for small trifles, as points and pieces 
of paper. We saw about this coast marvellous great 
abundance of seals sculling together like sculls of small 
fish. We found no fresh water among these islands, 
"but only snow-water, whereof we found great pools. 
The cliffs were all of such ore as Master Frobisher 
brought from Meta Incognita. We had divers shows 
of study, or Muscovy glass, shining not altogether 
unlike to crystal. We found an herb growing upon 
the rocks, whose fruit was sweet, full of red juice, 
and the ripe ones were like corinths. We found also 
birch and willow growing like shrubs low to the ground. 
These people have great store of furs, as we judge. 
They made shows unto us the 30 of this present 
(which was the second time of our being with them), 
after they perceived we would have skins and furs, 
that they would go into the country and come again 
the next day with such things as they had. But this 
night the wind coming fair, the captain and the master 
would by no means detract the purpose of our discovery. 
And so the last of this month about four of the clock 
in the morning in God's Name we set sail, and were 
all that day becalmed upon the coast. 

The first of August we had a fair wind, and so pro- 
ceeded towards the north-west for our discovery. 

The sixth of August we discovered land in 66 
degrees 40 minutes of latitude, altogether void from 
the pester of ice : we anchored in a very fair road under 
a brave mount, the cliffs whereof were as orient as 
gold. This mount was named Mount Raleigh. The 
road where our ships lay at anchor was called Totnes 
Road. The sound which did compass the mount 
was named Exeter Sound. The foreland towards the 

Davis. First Voyage 57 

north was called Dyer's Cape. The foreland towards 
the south was named Cape Walsingham. So soon 
as we were come to an anchor in Totnes Road under 
Mount Raleigh, we espied four white bears at the 
foot of the mount. We supposing them to be goats 
or wolves, manned our boats and went towards them ; 
but when we came near the shore, we found them to 
be white bears of a monstrous bigness. We being 
desirous of fresh victuals and the sport, began to 
assault them, and I being on land, one of them came 
down the hill right against me. My piece was charged 
with hailshot and a bullet : ' I discharged my piece 
and shot him in the neck ; he roared a little, and took 
the water straight, making small account of his hurt. 
Then we followed him with our boat, and killed him 
with boar-spears, and two more that night. 

The 7 we went on shore to another bear which 
lay all night upon the top of an island under Mount 
Raleigh, and when we came up to him he lay fast 
asleep. I levelled at his head, and the stone of my 
piece gave no fire : with that he looked up, and laid 
down his head again. Then I shot, being charged 
with two bullets, and struck him in the head: he 
being but amazed fell backwards. Whereupon we 
ran all upon him with boar-spears, and thrust him 
in the body : yet for all that he gript away our boar- 
spears, and went towards the water; and as he was 
going down, he came back again. Then our master 
shot his boar-spear, and struck him in the head, 
and made him to take the water, and swim into a 
cove fast by,, where we killed him, and brought him 
aboard. The breadth of his forefoot from one side 
to the other was fourteen inches over. They were 

58 Davis. First Voyage 

very fat, so as we were constrained to cast the fat 
away. We saw a raven upon Mount Raleigh. We 
found withies also growing like low shrubs, and flowers 
like primroses in the said place. The coast is very 
mountainous, altogether without wood, grass, or earth, 
and is only huge mountains of stone ; but the bravest 
stone that ever we saw. The air was very moderate 
in this country. 

The 8 we departed from Mount Raleigh, coasting 
along the shore, which lieth south-south-west, and 

The 9 our men fell in dislike of their allowance, 
because it was too small as they thought. Whereupon 
we made a new proportion : every mess, being five 
to a mess, should have four pound of bread a day, 
twelve wine quarts of beer, six Newland fishes ; and 
the flesh days a gill of pease more. So we restrained 
them from their butter and cheese. 

The 11 we came to the most southerly cape 
of this land, which we named The Cape of God's 
Mercy, as being the place of our first entrance for 
the discovery. The weather being very foggy we 
coasted this north land. At length when it brake 
up, we perceived that we were shot into a very fair 
entrance or passage, being in some places twenty 
leagues broad, and in some thirty, altogether void 
of any pester of ice, the weather very tolerable, and 
the water of the very colour, nature, and quality of 
the main ocean, which gave us the greater hope of 
our passage. Having sailed north-west sixty leagues 
in this entrance, we discovered certain islands standing 
in the midst thereof, having open passage on both 
sides. Whereupon our ships divided themselves, the 

Davis. First Voyage 59 

one sailing on the north side, the other on the south 
side of the said isles, where we stayed five days, having 
the wind at south-east, very foggy and foul weather. 

The 14 we went on shore and found signs of people, 
for we found stones laid up together like a. wall, and 
saw the skull of a man or a woman. 

The 15 we heard dogs howl on the shore, which 
we thought had been wolves, and therefore we went 
on shore to kill them. When we came on land the 
dogs came presently to our boat very gently, yet we 
thought they came to prey upon us, and therefore we 
shot at them, and killed two : and about the neck of 
one of them we found a leather collar, whereupon we 
thought them to be tame dogs. Then we went farther, 
and found two sleds made like ours in England : the 
one was made of fir, spruce, and oaken boards sawn 
like inch boards : the other was made all of whale- 
bone, and there hung on the tops of the sleds three 
heads of beasts which they had killed. We saw here 
larks, ravens, and partridges. 

The 17 we went on shore, and in a little thing made 
like an oven with stones I found many small trifles, as 
a small canoa made of wood, a piece of wood made 
like an image, a bird made of bone, beads having 
small holes in one end of them to hang about their 
necks, and other small things. The coast was very 
barren without wood or grass : the rocks were very 
fair like marble, full of veins of divers colours. We 
found a seal which was killed not long before, being 
flean, and hid under stones. 

Our captain and master searched still for probabilities 
of the passage ; and first, found that this place was 
all islands, with great sounds passing between them. 

60 Davis. First Voyage 

Secondly, the water remained of one colour with 
the main ocean without altering. 

Thirdly, we saw to the west of those isles three 
or four whales in a scull, which they judged to come 
from a westerly sea, because to the eastward we 
saw not any whale. 

Also, as we were rowing into a very great sound 
lying south-west, from whence these whales came, upon 
the sudden there came a violent counter-check of 
a tide from the south-west against the flood which 
we came with, not knowing from whence it was main- 

Fifthly, in sailing twenty leagues within the mouth 
of this entrance we had sounding in 90 fathoms, fair 
grey oozy sand, and the further we ran into the west- 
wards the deeper was the water ; so that hard aboard 
the shore among these isles we could not have ground 
in 330 fathoms. 

Lastly, it did ebb and flow six or seven fathom 
up and down, the flood coming from divers parts, 
so as we could not perceive the chief maintenance 

The 18 and 19 our captain and master determined 
what was best to do, both for the safeguard of their 
credits, and satisfying of the adventurers, and resolved, 
if the weather brake up, to make further search. 

The 20 the wind came directly against us : so they 
altered their purpose, and reasoned both for proceed- 
ing and returning. 

The 21, the wind being north-west, we departed 
from these islands ; and as we coasted the south shore 
we saw many fair sounds, whereby we were persuaded 
that it was no firm land but islands. 

Davis. First Voyage 61 

The 23 of this month the wind came south-east, 
with very stormy and foul weather : so we were con- 
strained to seek harbour upon the south coast of 
this entrance, where we fell into a very fair sound, 
and anchored in 25 fathoms green oozy sand. Here 
we went on shore, where we had manifest signs of 
people, where they had made their fire, and laid stones 
like a wall. In this place we saw four very fair falcons ; 
and Master Bruton took from one of them his prey, 
which we judged by the wings and legs to be a snite, 
for the head was eaten off. 

The 24 in the afternoon, the wind coming some- 
what fair, we departed from this road, purposing by 
God's grace to return for England. 

The 26 we departed from sight of the north land 
of this entrance, directing our course homewards until 
the tenth of the next month. 

The 10 of September we fell with The Land of 
Desolation, thinking to go on shore, but we could 
get never a good harbour. That night we put to 
sea again, thinking to search it the next day ; but 
this night arose a very great storm, and separated 
our ships, so that we lost the sight of the Moonshine. 

The 13 about noon (having tried all the night 
before with a goose wing) we set sail, and within two 
hours after, we had sight of the Moonshine again. This 
day we departed from this land. 

The 27 of this month we fell with sight of England. 
This night we had a marvellous storm and lost the 

The 30 of September we came into Dartmouth, 
where we found the Moonshine, being come in not 
two hours before. 


The second voyage attempted by Master John Davis 
with others, for the discovery of the North-west 
passage, in Anno 1586. 

The 7 day of May I departed from the port of 
Dartmouth for the discovery of the North-west pas- 
sage, with a ship of an hundred-and- twenty tons named 
the Mermaid, a bark of 60 tons named the Sunshine, 
a bark of 35 tons named the Moonshine, and a pinnace 
of 10 tons named the North Star. 

And the 15 of June I discovered land in the lati- 
tude of 60 degrees, and in longitude from the meridian 
of London westward 47 degrees, mightily pestered 
with ice and snow, so that there was no hope of 
landing. The ice lay in some places ten leagues, in 
some twenty, and in some fifty leagues off the shore, 
so that we were constrained to bear into 57 degrees 
to double the same, and to recover a free sea, which 
through God's favourable mercy we at length obtained. 

The 29 of June after many tempestuous storms we 
again discovered land, in longitude from the meridian 
of London 58 degrees 30 minutes, and in latitude 64, 
being east from us. Into which course, sith it please 
God by contrary winds to force us, I thought it very 

Davis. Second Voyage 63 

necessary to bear in with it, and there to set up our 
pinnace, provided in the Mermaid to be our scout 
for this discovery ; and so much the rather, because 
the year before I had been in the same place, and 
found it very convenient for such a purpose, well 
stored with float-wood, and possessed by a people 
of tractable conversation : so that the 29 of this month 
we arrived within the isles which lay before this 
land, lying north-north-west, and south-south-east, 
we know not how far. This land is very high and 
mountainous, having before it on the west side a 
mighty company of isles full of fair sounds, and harbours. 
This land was very little troubled with snow, and 
the sea altogether void of ice. 

The ships being within the sounds, we sent our 
boats to search for shoal-water, where we might 
anchor, which in this place is very hard to find ; and 
as the boat went sounding and searching, the people 
of the country having espied them, came in their 
canoas towards them with many shouts and cries. 
But after they had espied in the boat some of our 
company that were the year before here with us, 
they presently rowed to the boat, and took hold on 
the oar, and hung about the boat with such comfortable 
joy, as would require a long discourse to be uttered. 
They came with the boats to our ships, making signs 
that they knew all those that the year before had been 
with them. After I perceived their joy and small 
fear of us, myself with the merchants and others 
of the company went ashore, bearing with me twenty 
knives. I had no sooner landed, but they leapt out 
of their canoas and came running to me and the rest, 
and embraced us with many signs of hearty welcome,. 

64 Davis. Second Voyage 

At this present there were eighteen of them, and 
to each of them I gave a knife. They offered skins 
to me for reward, but I made signs that they were 
not sold, but given them of courtesy ; and so dismissed 
them for that time, with signs that they should return 
again after certain hours. 

The next day with all possible speed the pinnace 
was landed upon an isle, there to be finished to serve 
our purpose for the discovery. Which isle was so con- 
venient for that purpose, as that we were very well 
able to defend ourselves against many enemies. During 
the time that the pinnace was there setting up, the 
people came continually unto us, sometime an hundred 
canoas at a time, sometime forty, fifty, more and less, 
as occasion served. They brought with them seal 
skins, stag skins, white hares, seal fish, salmon peel, 
small cod, dry capelin, with other fish, and birds such 
as the country did yield. 

Myself still desirous to have a further search 
of this place, sent one of the ship-boats to one part of 
the land, and myself went to another part to search 
for the habitation of this people, with straight command- 
ment that there should be no injury offered to any 
of the people, neither any gun shot. 

The boats that went from me found the tents 
of the people made with seal skins set up upon timber, 
wherein they found great store of dried capelin, being 
a little fish no bigger than a pilchard : they found 
bags of train oil, many little images cut in wood, 
seal skins in tan-tubs, with many other such trifles, 
whereof they diminished nothing. 

They also found ten miles within the snowy moun- 
tains a plain champaign country, with earth and grass, 

Davis. Second Voyage 65 

such as our moory and waste grounds of England 
are. They went up into a river (which in the narrowest 
place is two leagues broad) about ten leagues, finding 
it still to continue they knew not how far. But I 
with my company took another river, which although 
at the first it offered a large inlet, yet it proved but 
a deep bay, the end whereof in four hours I attained ; 
and there leaving the boat well manned, went with 
the rest of my company three or four miles into the 
country, but found nothing, nor saw anything, save 
only gripes, ravens, and small birds, as larks and 

The third of July I manned my boat, and went 
with fifty canoas attending upon me up into another 
sound, where the people by signs willed me to go, 
hoping to find their habitation. At length they made 
signs that I should go into a warm place to sleep. 
At which place I went on shore, and ascended the top 
of a high hill to see into the country, but perceiving 
my labour vain, I returned again to my boat, the 
people still following me and my company, very diligent 
to attend us, and to help us up the rocks, and likewise 
down. At length I was desirous to have our men 
leap with them, which was done, but our men did 
overleap them : from leaping they went to wrestling. 
We found them strong and nimble, and to have skill 
in wrestling, for they cast some of our men that were 
good wrestlers. 

The fourth of July we launched our pinnace, and 
had forty of the people to help us, which they did 
very willingly. At this time our men again wrestled 
with them, and found them as before, strong and 
skilf ul, This fourth of July the master of the Mermaid 

A. P. 5 

66 Davis. Second Voyage 

went to certain islands to store himself with wood, 
where he found a grave with divers buried in it, only 
covered with seal skins, having a cross laid over them. 
The people are of good stature, well in body proportioned, 
with small slender hands and feet, with broad visages, 
and small eyes, wide mouths, the most part unbearded, 
great lips, and close toothed. Their custom is, as 
often as they go from us, still at their return to make 
a new truce, in this sort. Holding his hand up to the 
sun, with a loud voice he crieth " Iliaout," and striketh 
his breast : with like signs being promised safety, 
he giveth credit. These people are much given to 
bleed, and therefore stop their noses with deer's hair, 
or the hair of an elan. They are idolaters and have 
images great store, which they wear about them, 
and in their boats, which we suppose they worship. 
They are witches, and have many lands of enchant- 
ments, which they often used ; but to small purpose, 
thanks be to God. 

Being among them at shore the fourth of July, 
one of them, making a long oration, began to kindle 
a fire in this manner. He took a piece of a board 
wherein was a hole half through : into that hole 
he puts the end of a round stick like unto a bedstaff, 
wetting the end thereof in train, and in fashion of 
a turner with a piece of leather, by his violent motion 
doth very speedily produce fire. Which done, with 
turfs he made a fire, into which with many words 
and strange gestures he put divers things, which 
we supposed to be a sacrifice. Myself and divers 
of my company standing by, they were desirous to 
have me go into the smoke. I willed them likewise 
to stand in the smoke, which they by no means would 

Davis. Second Voyage 67 

do. I then took one of them, and thrust him into 
. the smoke, and willed one of my company to tread out 
the fire, and to spurn it into the sea, which was done 
to show them that we did contemn their sorcery. 
These people are very simple in all their conversation, 
but marvellous thievish, especially for iron, which 
they have in great account. They began through 
our lenity to show their vile nature. They began to 
cut our cables : they cut away the Moonshine's boat 
from her stern : they cut our cloth where it lay to 
air, though we did carefully look unto it : they stole 
our oars, a caliver, a boar-spear, a sword, with divers 
other things. Whereat the company and masters being 
grieved, for our better security desired me to dis- 
solve this new friendship, and to leave the company 
of these thievish miscreants. Whereupon there was 
a caliver shot among them, and immediately upon 
the same a falcon, which strange noise did sore 
amaze them, so that with speed they departed. Not- 
withstanding, their simplicity is such, that within 
ten hours after they came again to us to entreat peace ; 
which being promised, we again felLinto a great league. 
They brought us seal skins, and salmon peel ; but 
seeing iron, they could in no wise forbear stealing. 
Which when I perceived, it did but minister unto me 
an occasion of laughter, to see their simplicity, and 
I willed that in no case they should be any more hardly 
used, but that our own company should be the more 
vigilant to keep their things, supposing it to be very 
hard in so short time to make them know their evils. 
They eat all their meat raw: they live most upon 
fish : they drink salt water, and eat grass and ice 
with delight. They are never out of the water, but 


68 Davis. Second Voyage 

live in the nature of fishes, save only when dead sleep 
taketh them, and then under a warm rock laying his 
boat upon the land, he lieth down to sleep. Their 
weapons are all darts, but some of them have bow 
and arrows and slings. They make nets to take their 
fish, of the fin of a whale. They do all their things 
very artificially : and it should seem that these simple 
thievish islanders have war with those of the main, 
for many of them are sore wounded, which wounds 
they received upon the mainland, as by signs they 
gave us to understand. We had among them copper 
ore, black copper, and red copper. They pronounce 
their language very hollow, and deep in the throat. 

The seventh of July, being very desirous to search 
the habitation of this country. I went myself with 
our new pinnace into the body of the land, thinking 
it to be a firm continent ; and passing up a very large 
river, a great flaw of wind took me, whereby we were 
constrained to seek succour for that night. Which 
being had, I landed with the most part of my company, 
and went to the top of a high mountain, hoping from 
thence to see into, the country : but the mountains 
were so many and so mighty as that my purpose pre- 
vailed not. Whereupon I again returned to my pinnace, 
and willing divers of my company to gather mussels 
for my supper, whereof in this place there was great 
store, myself having espied a very strange sight, 
especially to me that never before saw the like, which 
was a mighty whirlwind taking up the water in very 
great quantity, furiously mounting it into the air. 
Which whirlwind was not for a puff or blast, but 
continual, for the space of three hours, with very little 
intermission. Which sith it was in the course that I 

Davis. Second Voyage 69 

should pass, we were constrained that night to take 
up our lodging under the rocks. 

The next morning the storm being broken up, 
we went forward in our attempt, and sailed into a 
mighty great river directly into the body of the land ; 
and in brief, found it to be no firm land, but huge, 
waste, and desert isles with mighty sounds, and inlets 
passing between sea and sea. Whereupon we returned 
towards our ships, and landing to stop a flood, we 
found the burial of these miscreants. We found of 
their fish in bags, plaice and capelin dried, of which 
we took only one bag and departed. The ninth of 
this month we came to our ships, where we found 
the people desirous, in their fashion, of friendship 
and barter. Our mariners complained heavily against 
the people, and said that my lenity and friendly 
using of them gave them stomach to mischief : " For 
they have stolen an anchor from us : they have cut our 
cable very dangerously : they have cut our boats from 
our stern ; and now, since your departure, with slings 
they spare us not with stones of half a pound weight : 
and will you still endure these injuries ? It is a shame 
to bear them." I desired them to be content, and 
said, I doubted not but that all should be well. The 
10 of this month I went to the shore, the people 
following me in their canoas. I tolled them on shore, 
and used them with much courtesy, and then departed 
aboard, they following me and my company. I gave 
some of them bracelets, and caused seven or eight 
of them to come aboard, which they did willingly, 
and some of them went into the top of the ship ; 
and thus courteously using them, I let them depart. 
The sun was no sooner down, but they began to practise 

70 Davis. Second Voyage 

their devilish nature, and with slings threw stones 
very fiercely into the Moonshine, and struck one of 
her men then boatswain, that he overthrew withal. 
Whereat being moved, I changed my courtesy, and 
grew to hatred. Myself in my own boat well manned 
with shot, and the bark's boat likewise, pursued them, 
and gave them divers shot, but to small purpose, by 
reason of their swift rowing : so smally content we 

The 11 of this month there came five of them 
to make a new truce. The master of the Admiral 
came to me to show me of their coming, and desired 
to have them taken and kept as prisoners until we 
had his anchor again. But when he saw that the chief 
ringleader and master of mischief was one of the 
five, he then was vehement to execute his purpose, 
so it was determined to take him. He came crying 
" Iliaout," and striking his breast offered a pair of 
gloves to sell : the master offered him a knife for them. 
So two of them came to us : the one was not touched, 
but the other was soon captive among us. Then we 
pointed to him and his fellows for our anchor, which 
being had, we made signs that he should be set at 
liberty. Within one hour after he came aboard the 
wind came fair, whereupon we weighed and set sail, 
and so brought the fellow with us : one of his fellows 
still following our ship close aboard, talked with 
him and made a kind of lamentation, we still using 
him well with " Iliaout," which was the common 
course of courtesy. At length this fellow aboard 
us spake four or five words unto the other and clapped 
his two hands upon his face, whereupon the other 
doing the like, departed as we suppose with heavy 

Davis. Second Voyage 71 

cheer. We judged the covering of his face with his 
hands and bowing of his body down, signified his 
death. At length he became a pleasant companion 
among us. I gave him a new suit of frieze after 
the English fashion, because I saw he could not endure 
the cold, of which he was very joyful. He trimmed 
up his darts, and all his fishing tools, and would make 
oakum, and set his hand to a rope's end upon occasion. 
He lived with the dry capelin that I took when I was 
searching in the pinnace, and did 'eat dry Newland 

All this while, God be thanked, our people were 
in very good health, only one young man excepted, 
who died at sea the fourteenth of this month, and the 
fifteenth, according to the order of the sea, with praise 
given to God by service, was cast overboard. 

The 17 of this month being in the latitude of 
63 degrees 8 minutes, we fell upon a most mighty 
and strange quantity of ice in one entire mass, so 
big as that we knew not the limits thereof, and being 
withal so very high in form of a land, with bays and 
capes and like high cliff-land, as that we supposed 
it to be land, and therefore sent our pinnace off to 
discover it : but at her return we were certainly 
informed that it was only ice, which bred great admira- 
tion to us all considering the huge quantity thereof, 
incredible to be reported in truth as it was, and there- 
fore I omit to speak any further thereof. This only 
I think, that the like before was never seen : and in 
this place we had very stickle and strong currents. 

We coasted this mighty mass of ice until the 
30 of July, finding it a mighty bar to our purpose. 
The air in this time was so contagious and the sea 

72 Davis. Second Voyage 

so pestered with ice, as that all hope was banished 
of proceeding ; for the 24 of July all our shrouds, 
ropes, and sails were so frozen, and compassed with 
ice, only by a gross fog, as seemed to me more than 
strange, sith the last year I found this sea free and 
navigable, without impediments. 

Our men through this extremity began to grow 
sick and feeble, and withal hopeless of good success : 
whereupon very orderly, with good discretion they 
entreated me to regard the state of this business, 
and withal advised me, that in conscience I ought 
to regard the safety of mine own life with the preserva- 
tion of theirs, and that I should not through my over- 
boldness leave their widows and fatherless children 
to give me bitter curses. This matter in conscience 
did greatly move me to regard their estates : yet 
considering the excellency of the business, if it might 
be attained, the great hope of certainty by the last 
year's discovery, and that there was yet a third way 
not put in practice, I thought it would grow to my 
great disgrace, if this action by my negligence should 
grow into discredit. Whereupon, seeking help from 
God, the fountain of all mercies, it pleased His divine 
Majesty to move my heart to prosecute that which 
I hope shall be to His glory, and to the contentation 
of every Christian mind. Whereupon, falling into 
consideration that the Mermaid, albeit a very strong 
and sufficient ship, yet by reason of her burthen 
was not so convenient and nimble as a smaller bark, 
especially in such desperate hazards : further, having 
in account her great charge to the adventurers, being 
at 100 the month, and that in doubtful service : 
all the premises considered with divers other things, 

Davis. Second Voyage 73 

I determined to furnish the Moonshine with revictualling 
and sufficient men, and to proceed in this action as 
God should direct me. Whereupon I altered our 
course from the ice, and bare east-south-east to recover 
the next shore where this thing might be performed. 
So with favourable wind it pleased God that the first 
of August we discovered the land in latitude 66 degrees 
33 minutes, and in longitude from the meridian of 
London 70 degrees, void of trouble, without snow 
or ice. 

The second of August we harboured ourselves 
in a very excellent good road, where with all speed 
we graved the Moonshine, and re victualled her. We 
searched this country with our pinnace while the bark 
was trimming, which William Eston did. He found 
all this land to be only islands, with a sea on the east, 
a sea on the west, and a sea on the north. In this 
place we found it very hot, and we were very much 
troubled with a fly which is called mosquito, for they 
did sting grievously. The people of this place at 
our first coming in caught a seal, and with bladders 
fast tied to him sent him unto us with the flood, so 
as he came right with our ships, which we took as 
a friendly present from them. 

The fifth of August I went with the two masters 
and others to the top of a hill, and by the way William 
Eston espied three canoas lying under a rock, and 
went unto them. There were in them skins, darts, 
with divers superstitious toys, whereof we diminished 
nothing, but left upon every boat a silk point, a bullet 
of lead, and a pin. The next day, being the sixth 
of August, the people came unto us without fear, 
and did barter with us for skins, as the other people 

74 Davis. Second Voyage 

did. They differ not from the other, neither in their 
canoas nor apparel, yet is their pronunciation more 
plain than the others, and nothing hollow in the throat. 
Our savage aboard us kept himself close, and made 
show that he would fain have another companion. 
Thus being provided, I departed from this land the 
twelfth of August at six of the clock in the morning, 
where I left the Mermaid at an anchor. The fourteenth, 
sailing west about fifty leagues, we discovered land, 
being in latitude 66 degrees 19 minutes : this land 
is 70 leagues from the other from whence we came. 
This fourteenth day from nine o'clock at night till 
three o'clock in the morning, we anchored by an 
island of ice, twelve leagues off the shore, being moored 
to the ice. 

The fifteenth day at three o'clock in the morning 
we departed from this land to the south, and the 
eighteenth of August we discovered land north-west 
from us in the morning, being a very fair promontory, 
in latitude 65 degrees, having no land on the south. 
Here we had great hope of a through passage. 

This day at three o'clock in the afternoon we again 
discovered land south-west and by south from us, 
where at night we were becalmed. The nineteenth 
of this month at noon, by observation, we were in 
64 degrees 20 minutes. From the eighteenth day at 
noon unto the nineteenth at noon, by precise ordinary 
care, we had sailed 15 leagues south and by west, 
yet by art and more exact observation, we found our 
course to be south-west, so that we plainly perceived 
a great current striking to the west. 

This land is nothing in sight but isles, which in- 
creaseth our hope. This nineteenth of August at 

Davis. Second Voyage 75 

six o'clock in the afternoon, it began to snow, and 
so continued all night with foul weather, and much 
wind, so that we were constrained to lie at hull all 
night five leagues off the shore. In the morning being 
the twentieth of August, the fog and storm breaking 
up, we bare in with the land, and at nine o'clock 
in the morning we anchored in a very fair and safe 
road and locked for all weathers. At ten of the clock 
I went on shore to the top of a very high hill, where I 
perceived that this land was islands : at four of the 
clock in the afternoon we weighed anchor, having a 
fair north-north-east wind, with very fair weather : at 
six of the clock we were clear without the land, and so 
shaped our course to the south, to discover the coast, 
whereby the passage may be through God's mercy found. 
We coasted this land till the eight and twentieth 
of August, finding it still to continue towards the south, 
from the latitude of 67 to 57 degrees. We found 
marvellous great store of birds, gulls and mews, 
incredible to be reported. Whereupon being calm 
weather, we lay one glass upon the lee, to prove for 
fish, in which space we caught 100 of cod, although 
we were but badly provided for fishing, not being 
our purpose. This eight and twentieth having great 
distrust of the weather, we arrived in a very fair harbour 
in the latitude of 56 degrees, and sailed 10 leagues 
into the same, being two leagues broad, with very 
fair woods on both sides : in this place we continued 
until the first of September, in which time we had 
two very great storms. I landed, and went six miles 
by guess into the country, and found that the woods 
were fir, pine, apple, alder, yew, withy, and birch : 
here we saw a black bear. This place yieldeth great 

76 Davis. Second Voyage 

store of birds, as pheasant, partridge, Barbary hens or 
the like, wild geese, ducks, blackbirds, jays, thrushes, 
with other kinds of small birds. Of the partridge and 
pheasant we killed great store with bow and arrows : 
in this place at the harbour mouth we found great 
store of cod. 

The first of September at ten o'clock we set sail, 
and coasted the shore with very fair weather. The 
third day being calm, at noon we struck sail, and let 
fall a kedge anchor, to prove whether we could take 
any fish, being in latitude 54 degrees 30 minutes ; 
in which place we found great abundance of cod, so 
that the hook was no sooner overboard, but presently 
a fish was taken. It was the largest and the best 
fed fish that ever I saw, and divers fishermen that were 
with me said that they never saw a more suavle or 
better scull of fish in their lives : yet had they seen 
great abundance. 

The fourth of September at five o'clock in the 
afternoon we anchored in a very good road among great 
store of isles, the country lowland, pleasant and very 
full of fair woods. To the north of this place eight 
leagues, we had a perfect hope of the passage, finding 
a mighty great sea passing between two lands west, 
the south land to our judgment being nothing but isles. 
We greatly desired to go into this sea, but the wind was 
directly against us. We anchored in four fathom fine 
sand. In this place is fowl and fish mighty store. 

The sixth of September having a fair north-north- 
west wind, having trimmed our bark we purposed to 
depart, and sent five of our sailer's young men ashore 
to an island, to fetch certain fish which we purposed 
to weather, and therefore left it all night covered 

Davis. Second Voyage 77 

upon the isle. The brutish people of this country 
lay secretly lurking in the wood, and upon the sudden 
assaulted our men : which when we perceived, we 
presently let slip our cables upon the hawse, and under 
our foresail bare into the shore, and with all expedition 
discharged a double musket upon them twice, at 
the noise whereof they fled. Notwithstanding, to our 
very great grief, two of our men were slain with their 
arrows, and two grievously wounded, of whom at 
this present we stand in very great doubt. Only one 
escaped by swimming, with an arrow shot through his 
arm. These wicked miscreants never offered parley or 
speech, but presently executed their cursed fury. 

This present evening it pleased God further to in- 
crease our sorrows with a mighty tempestuous storm, 
the wind being north-north-east, which lasted unto the 
tenth of this month very extreme. We unrigged 
our ship, and purposed to cut down our masts. The 
cable of our sheet-anchor brake so that we only expected 
to be driven on shore among these cannibals for their 
prey. Yet in this deep distress the mighty mercy 
of God, when hope was past, gave us succour, and sent 
us a fair lee, so as we recovered our anchor again, 
and new moored our ship : where we saw that God 
manifestly delivered us ; for the strands of one of 
our cables were broken, and we only rode by an old 
junk. Thus being freshly moored a new storm arose, 
the wind being west-north-west, very forcible, which 
lasted unto the tenth day at night. 

The eleventh day with a fair west-north-west 
wind we departed with trust in God's mercy, shaping 
our course for England, and arrived in the West country 
in the beginning of October. 


The third voyage north-westward, made by Master 
John Davis, gentleman, as chief captain and pilot 
general, for the discovery of a passage to the isles 
of the Moluccas, or the coast of China, in the 
year 1587. Written by Master John Jane. 


The 19 of this present month about midnight we 
weighed our anchors, set sail, and departed from 
Dartmouth with two barks and a clincher, the one 
named the Elizabeth of Dartmouth, the other the 
Sunshine of London, and the clincher called the Helen 
of London : thus in God's name we set forwards 
with the wind at north-east a good fresh gale. About 
three hours after our departure, the night being some- 
what thick with darkness, we had lost the pinnace : 
the captain imagining that the men had run away 
with her, willed the master of the Sunshine to stand 
to seawards, and see if we could descry them, we 
bearing in with the shore for Plymouth. At length 
we descried her, bare with her, and demanded what 
the cause was : they answered that the tiller of their 
helm was burst. So shaping our course west-south- 
west, we went forward, hoping that a hard beginning 
would make a good ending, yet some of us were doubtful 
of it, falling in reckoning that she was a clincher ; 
nevertheless we put our trust in God. 

Davis. Third Voyage 79 

The 21 we met with the Red Lion of London, 
which came from the coast of Spain, which was afraid 
that we had been men-of-war; but we hailed them, 
and after a little conference, we desired the master 
to carry our letters for London directed to my uncle 
Sanderson, who promised us a safe delivery. And 
after we had heaved them a lead and a line, where- 
unto we had made fast our letters, before they could 
get them into the ship, they fell into the sea, and so 
all our labour and theirs also was lost ; notwith- 
standing they promised to certify our departure at 
London, and so we departed, and the same day we 
had sight of Scilly. 


The first six days we had fair weather : after that 
for five days we had fog and rain, the wind being 
south. The 12 we had clear weather. The mariners 
in the Sunshine and the master could not agree : 
the mariners would go on their voyage a-fishing, 
because the year began to waste : the master would 
not depart till he had the company of the Elizabeth. 
Whereupon the master told our captain that he was 
afraid his men would shape some contrary course 
while he was asleep, and so he should lose us. At 
length after much talk and many threatenings, they 
were content to bring us to the land which we looked 
for daily. 

The 14 day we discovered land at five of the clock 
in the morning, being very great and high mountains, 
the tops of the hills being covered with snow. 

The 16 we came to an anchor about four or five 
of the clock after noon. The people came presently 

80 Davis. Third Voyage 

to us after the old manner, with 'crying " Iliaout " and 
showing us seals' skins. The 17 we began to set up 
the pinnace that Pearson framed at Dartmouth, with 
the boards which he brought from London. 

The 18 Pearson and the carpenters of the ships 
began to set on the planks. The 19 as we went about 
an island, were found black pumice stones, and salt 
kerned on the rocks, very white and glistering. This 
day also the master of the Sunshine took of the people 
a very strong lusty young fellow. 

The 20 about two of the clock in the morning, 
the savages came to the island where our pinnace 
was built ready to be launched, and tore the two 
upper strakes, and carried them away only for the 
love of the iron in the boards. While they were about 
this practice, we manned the Elizabeth's boat to go 
ashore to them. Our men being either afraid or amazed, 
were so long before they came to shore, that our captain 
willed them to stay, and made the gunner give fire 
to a saker, and laid the piece level with the boat 
which the savages had turned on the one side, because 
we should not hurt them with our arrows ; and made 
the boat their bulwark against the arrows which we 
shot at them. Our gunner having made all things 
ready, gave fire to the piece, and fearing to hurt any 
of the people, and regarding the owner's profit, thought 
belike he would save a saker's shot, doubting we should 
have occasion to fight with men-of-war, and so shot 
off the saker without a bullet. We looking still when 
the savages that were hurt should run away without 
legs, at length we could perceive never a man hurt, 
but all having their legs could carry away their bodies. 
We had no sooner shot off the piece, but the master 

Davis. Third Voyage 81 

of the Sunshine manned his boat, and came rowing 
toward the island, the very sight of whom made each 
of them take that he had gotten, and flee away as 
fast as they could to another island about two miles 
off, where they took the nails out of the timber, 
and left the wood on the isle. When we came on shore, 
and saw how they had spoiled the boat, after much 
debating of the matter, we agreed that the Elizabeth 
should have her to fish withal : whereupon she was 
presently carried aboard, and stowed. 

Now after this trouble, being resolved to depart 
with the first wind, there fell out another matter 
worse than all the rest, and that was in this manner. 
John Churchyard, one whom our captain had appointed 
as pilot in the pinnace, came to our captain, and Master 
Bruton, and told them that the good ship which we 
must all hazard our lives in, had three hundred strokes 
at one time as she rode in the harbour. This disquieted 
us all greatly, and many doubted to go in her. At 
length our captain, by whom we were all to be governed, 
determined rather to end his life with credit, than to 
return with infamy and disgrace, and so being all 
agreed, we purposed to live and die together, and 
committed ourselves to the ship. Now the 21, 
having brought all our things aboard, about eleven 
or twelve of the clock at night we set sail and 
departed from those isles, which lie in 64 degrees 
of latitude, our ships being all now at sea, and we 
shaping our course to go, coasting the land to the 
northwards upon the eastern shore, (which we called 
the shore of our merchants, because there we met 
with people which trafficked with us) ; but here we 
were not without doubt of our ship. 

A. P. 6 

82 Davis. Third Voyage 

The 24 being in 67 degrees and 40 minutes, we 
had great store of whales, and a kind of sea-birds 
which the mariners call cortinous. This day about 
six of the clock at night, we espied two of the 
country people at sea, thinking at the first they had 
been two great seals, until we saw their oars glistering 
with the sun. They came rowing towards us, as fast 
as they could, and when they came within hearing, 
they held up their oars, and cried " Iliaout," making 
many signs ; and at last they came to us, giving us 
birds for bracelets, and of them I had a dart with a 
bone in it, or a piece of unicorn's horn, as I did judge. 
This dart he made store of, but when he saw a knife, 
he let it go, being more desirous of the knife than of 
his dart. These people continued rowing after our 
ship the space of three hours. 

The 25 in the morning, at seven of the clock, we 
descried 30 savages rowing after us, being by judg- 
ment 10 leagues off from the shore. They brought 
us salmon peels, birds, and capelin, and we gave them 
pins, needles, bracelets, nails, knives, bells, looking- 
glasses, and other small trifles ; and for a knife, a nail 
or a bracelet (which they call ponigmah), they would 
sell their boat, coats, or anything they had, although 
they were far from the shore. We had but few skins 
of them, about 20, but they made signs to us that 
if we would go to the shore, we should have more 
store of chichsanege : they stayed with us till 1 1 of 
the clock, at which time we went to prayer, and they 
departed from us. 

The 28 and 29 were foggy with clouds, the 30 day 
we took the height, and found ourselves in 72 degrees 
and 12 minutes of latitude both at noon and at night, 

Davis. Third Voyage 83 

the sun being 5 degrees above the horizon. At mid- 
night the compass set to the variation of 28 degrees 
to the westward. Now having coasted the land, which 
we called London Coast, from the 21 of this present, 
till the 30, the sea open all to the westwards and 
northwards, the land on starboard side east from us, 
the wind shifted to the north, whereupon we left that 
shore, naming the same Hope Sanderson, and shaped 
our course west, and ran 40 leagues and better with- 
out the sight of any land. 


The second of July we fell with a mighty bank 
of ice west from us, lying north and south, which 
bank we would gladly have doubled out to the north- 
wards, but the wind would not suffer us, so that we 
were fain to coast it to the southwards, hoping to 
double it out, that we might have run so far west 
till we had found land, or else to have been thoroughly 
resolved of our pretended purpose. 

The 3 we fell with, the ice again, and putting off 
from it, we sought to the northwards, but the wind 
crossed us. 

The 12 we coasted again the ice, having the wind 
at north-north-west. The 13 bearing off from the ice, 
we determined to go with the shore and come to an 
anchor, and to stay five or six days for the dissolving 
of the ice, hoping that the sea continually beating it, 
and the sun, with the extreme force of heat which it 
had, always' shining upon it, would make a quick 
dispatch, that we might have a further search upon 
the western shore. Now when we were come to the 


84 Davis. Third Voyage 

eastern coast, the water something deep, and some 
of our company fearful withal, we durst not come 
to an anchor, but bare off into the sea again. The 
poor people seeing us go away again, came rowing 
after us into the sea, the waves being somewhat 
lofty. We trucked with them for a few skins and 
darts, and gave them beads, nails, pins, needles, and 
cards, they pointing to the shore, as though they would 
show us some great friendship : but we little regarding 
their courtesy, gave them the gentle farewell, and so 

The 19 at one o'clock after noon, we had sight of 
the land which we called Mount Raleigh, and at 12 of 
the clock at night, we were thwart the straits which 
we discovered the first year. The 20 we traversed in 
the mouth of the strait, the wind being at west, with 
fair and clear weather. The 21 and 22 we coasted the 
northern coast of the straits. The 23 having sailed 
threescore leagues north-west into the straits, at two 
o'clock after noon we anchored among many isles in 
the bottom of the gulf, naming the same The Earl of 
Cumberland's Isles, where riding at anchor, a whale 
passed by our ship and went west in among the isles. 
Here the compass set at 30 degrees westward variation. 
The 23 we departed, shaping our course south-east to 
recover the sea. The 25 we were becalmed in the 
bottom of the gulf, the air being extreme hot. Master 
Bruton and some of the mariners went on shore to 
course dogs, where they found many graves, and train 
spilt on the ground, the dogs being so fat that they 
were scant able to run. 

The 26 we had a pretty storm, the wind being at 
south-east. The 27 and 28 were fair. The 29 we were 

Davis. Third Voyage 85 

clear out of the straits, having coasted the south shore, 
and this day at noon we were in 62 degrees of latitude. 
The 30 in the afternoon we coasted a bank of ice, which 
lay on the shore, and passed by a great bank or inlet, 
which lay between 63 and 62 degrees of latitude, which 
we called Lumley's Inlet. We had oftentimes, as we 
sailed alongst the coast, great ruts, the water as it were 
whirling and overfalling, as if it were the fall of some 
great water through a bridge. 

The 31 as we sailed by a headland, which we named 
Warwick's Foreland, we fell into one of those over- 
falls with a fresh gale of wind, and bearing all our 
sails, we looking upon an island of ice between us 
and the shore, had thought that our bark did make 
no way, which caused us to take marks on the shore. 
At length we perceived ourselves to go very fast, 
and the island of ice, which we saw before, was carried 
very forcibly with the set of the current faster than 
our ship went. This day and night we passed by a 
very great gulf, the water whirling and roaring as 
it were the meetings of tides. 


The first of August having coasted a bank of ice 
which was driven out at the mouth of this gulf, we 
fell with the southermost cape of the gulf, which 
we named Chidley's Cape, which lay in 61 degrees 
and 10 minutes of latitude. The 12 we saw five 
deer on the top of an island, called by us Darcey's 
Island. And we hoised out our boat, and went 
ashore to them, thinking to have killed some of them. 
But when we came on shore, and had coursed them 

86 Davis. Third Voyage 

twice about the island, they took the sea and swam 
towards islands distant from that three leagues. 
When we perceived that they had taken the sea, 
we gave them over, because our boat was so small 
that it could not carry us, and row after them, they 
swam so fast : but one of them was as big as a good 
pretty cow, and very fat, their feet as big as ox feet. 
Here upon this island I killed with my piece a gray 

The 13 in the morning we saw three or four white 
bears, but durst not go on shore to them for lack of 
a good boat. This day we struck a rock seeking for 
an harbour, and received a leak : and this day we were 
in 54 degrees of latitude. 

The 14 we stopped our leak in a storm not very 
outrageous, at noon. 

The 15 being almost in 52 degrees of latitude, 
and not finding our ships, nor (according to their 
promise) any kind of mark, token, or beacon, which 
we willed them to set up, (and they protested to do 
so upon every headland, island, or cape, within twenty 
leagues every way off from their fishing place, which 
our captain appointed to be between 54 and 55 degrees) , 
this 15, I say, we shaped our course homewards for 
England, having in our ship but little wood, and 
half a hogshead of fresh water. Our men were very 
willing to depart, and no man more forward than 
Pearson, for he feared to be put out of his office of 
stewardship ; but because every man was so willing to 
depart, we consented to return for our own country : 
and so we had the 16 fair weather, with the wind at 

The 17 we met a ship at sea, and as far as we 

Davis. Third Voyage 87 

could judge it was a Biscay an. We thought she went 
a-fishing for whales; for in 52 degrees or thereabout 
we saw very many. 

The 18 was fair, with a good gale at west. 

The 19 fair also, with much wind at west and by 

And thus, after much variable weather and change 
of winds, we arrived the 15 of September in Dart- 
mouth, anno 1587, giving thanks to God for our safe 


PASSAGE) 1610 


[Sailing in one ship only, the Discovery, about the 
middle of April, 1610, they reached Greenland early 
in June, touching at Iceland on the way. From 
Greenland they sailed to the west, reached Hudson 
Strait towards the end of June, and entered Hudson 
Bay (called by Hudson "The Bay of God's Great 
Mercies") close to Cape Wolstenholme in the beginning 
of August. For three months they explored the 
southern part of the Bay, and there they were obliged 
to winter, the ship being frozen in by November 10. 
They had a scanty supply of provisions; there had 
already been signs of mutiny, and Hudson had dis- 
placed his mate Robert Juet and the boatswain 
Clement, appointing in their stead Robert Bylot 
(who became afterwards a well-known Arctic explorer) 
and William Wilson.] 

1 It should be borne in mind, in reading Prickett's narrative, with its 
hazy geographical details, that it was written with a view to white- 
washing the mutineers, who had saved his life for this purpose, rather 
than to giving an account of the voyage. Dead men tell no tales, arid 
so he throws part of the blame for the mutiny on Hudson himself, but 
the greater part on Greene and the others who had never returned . The 
survivors, including himself, are free from guilt. 

Hudson. Last Voyage 


We were victualled for six months in good propor- 
tion, and of that which was good : if our master would 
have had more, he might have had it at home and in 
other places. Here we were now, and therefore it 
behoved us so to spend, that we might have (when 

Hudson Bay and its approaches 

time came) to bring us to the capes where the fowl 
bred, for that was all the hope we had to bring us 
home. Wherefore our master took order, first for 
the spending of that we had, and then to increase it, 
by propounding a reward to them that killed either 
beast, fish, or fowl, as in his journal you have seen. 

90 Hudson. Last Voyage 

About the middle of this month of November, died, 
John Williams, our gunner. God pardon the master's 
uncharitable dealing with this man. Now for that 
I am come to speak of him, out of whose ashes (as it 
were) that unhappy deed grew, which brought a scandal 
upon all that are returned home, and upon the action 
itself, the multitude (like the dog) running after the 
stone, but not at the caster: therefore, not to wrong 
the living nor slander the dead, I will (by the leave of 
God) deliver the truth as near as I can. 

You shah 1 understand that our master kept (in 
his house at London) a young man, named Henry 
Greene, born in Kent, of worshipful parents, but by 
his lewd life and conversation he had lost the good will 
of all his friends, and had spent all that he had. This 
man our master would have to sea with him, because 
he could write well. Our master gave him meat, and 
drink, and lodging, and by means of one Master Venson, 
with much ado got four pounds of his mother to buy him 
clothes, wherewith Master Venson would not trust 
him ; but saw it laid out himself. This Henry Greene 
was not set down in the owners' book, nor any wages 
made for him. So Henry Greene stood upright, and 
very inward with the master, and was a serviceable 
man every way for manhood : but for religion he 
would say, he was clean paper, whereon he might 
write what he would. Now when our gunner was 
dead, and (as the order is in such cases) if the company 
stand in need of anything that belonged to the man 
deceased, then is it brought to the mainmast, and 
there sold to them that will give most for the same. 
This gunner had a gray cloth gown, which Greene 
prayed the master to friend him so much, as to let him 

Hudson. Last Voyage 91 

have it, paying for it as another would give. The master 
saith he should, and thereupon he answered some, 
that sought to have it, that Greene should have it. 
and none else, and so it rested. 

Now out of season and time the master calleth the 
carpenter to go in hand with a house on shore, which 
at the beginning our master would not hear, when it 
might have been done. The carpenter told him, that 
the snow and frost were such, as he neither could nor 
would go in hand with such work. Which when our 
master heard, he ferreted him out of his cabin to strike 
him, calling him by many foul names, and threatening 
to hang him. The carpenter told him that he knew 
what belonged to his place better than himself, and 
that he was no house carpenter. So this passed, and 
the house was (after) made with much labour, but to 
no end. The next day, after the master and the 
carpenter fell out, the carpenter took his piece and 
Henry Greene with him ; for it was an order that none 
should go out alone, but one with a piece, and another 
with a pike. This did move the master so much the 
more against Henry Greene, that Robert Bylot, his 
mate, must have the gown, and had it delivered unto 
him. Which when Henry Greene saw, he challenged 
the master's promise ; but the master did so rail on 
Greene, with so many words of disgrace, telling him 
that all his friends would not trust him with twenty 
shillings, and therefore why should he ? As for wages 
he had none, nor none should have, if he did not please 
him well. Yet the master had promised him to make 
his wages as good as any man's in the ship; and to 
have him one of the Prince's guard when we came 
home. But vou shall see how the devil out of this 

92 Hudson. Last Voyage 

so wrought with Greene, that he did the master what 
mischief he could, in seeking to discredit him, and to 
thrust him and many other honest men out of the ship 
in the end. To speak of all our trouble in this time 
of winter (which was so cold, as it lamed the most of 
our company, and myself do yet feel it) would be too 

But I must not forget to shew how mercifully God 
dealt with us in this time. For the space of three months 
we had such store of fowl of one kind (which were 
partridges as white as milk), that we killed above an 
hundred dozen, besides others of sundry sorts : for all 
was fish that came to the net. The spring coming, this 
fowl left us : yet they were with us all the extreme cold. 
Then in their places came divers sort of other fowl, as 
swan, geese, duck, and teal, but hard to come by. 
Our master hoped they would have bred in those 
broken grounds, but they do not; but came from the 
south, and flew to the north, further than we were 
this voyage. Yet if they be taken short with the wind 
at north, or north-west, or north-east, then they fall 
and stay till the wind serve them, and then fly to the 
north. Now in time these fowls are gone, and few or 
none to be seen. Then we went into the woods, hills, 
and valleys, for all things that had any shew of sub- 
stance in them, how vile soever: the moss of the 
ground, than the which I take the powder of a post to 
be much better, and the frog (in his engendering time 
as loathsome as a toad) was not spared. But amongst 
the divers sorts of buds, it pleased God that Thomas 
Woodhouse brought home a bud of a tree full of a 
turpentine substance. Of this our surgeon made a 
decoction to drink, and applied the buds hot to them 

Hudson. Last Voyage 93 

that were troubled with ache in any part of their 
bodies; and for my part, I confess, I received great 
and present ease of my pain. 

About this time, when the ice began to break out 
of the bays, there came a savage to our ship, as it were 
to see and to be seen, being the first that we had seen 
in all this time: whom our master entreated well, 
and made much of him, promising unto himself great 
matters by his means, and therefore would have all 
the knives and hatchets (which any man had) to his 
private use, but received none, but from John King, 
the carpenter, and myself. To this savage our master 
gave a knife, a looking-glass, and buttons, who received 
them thankfully, and made signs that after he had 
slept he would come again, which he did. When he 
came he brought with him a sled, which he drew after 
him, and upon it two deer skins and two beaver skins. 
He had a scrip under his arm, out of which he drew 
those things which the master had given him. He 
took the knife, and laid it upon one of the beaver skins, 
and his glasses and buttons upon the other, and so 
gave them to the master, who received them ; and the 
savage took those things which the master had given 
him, and put them up into his scrip again. Then the 
master shewed him an hatchet, for which he would 
have given the master one of his deer skins, but our 
master would have them both, and so he had, although 
not willingly. After many signs of people to the 
north and to the south, and that after so many sleeps 
he would come again, he went his way, but never came 

Now the ice being out of the sounds, so that our 
boat might go from one place unto another, a company 

94 Hudson. Last Voyage 

of men were appointed by the master to go a fishing 
with our net. Their names were as folio we th : William 
Wilson, Henry Greene, Michael Perce, John Thomas, 
Andrew Moter, Bennet Mathewes, and Arnold Lodlo. 
These men, the first day they went, caught five hundred 
fish, as big as good herrings, and some trouts. Which 
put us all in some hope to have our wants supplied, 
and our commons amended ; but these were the most 
that ever they got in one day, for many days they 
got not a quarter so many. In this time of their 
fishing, Henry Greene and William Wilson, with some 
others, plotted to take the net and the shallop, which 
the carpenter had now set up, and so to shift for 
themselves. But the shallop being ready, our master 
would go in it himself to the south and south-west, 
to see if he could meet with the people; for to that 
end was it set up, and (that way) we might see the 
woods set on fire by them. So the master took the 
seine and the shallop, and so much victual as would 
serve for eight or nine days, and to the south he went. 
They that remained aboard were to take in water, 
wood, and ballast, and to have all things in a readiness 
against he came back. But he set no time of his return, 
for he was persuaded,. if he could meet with the people, 
he should have flesh of them, and that good store : 
but he returned worse than he went forth. For he 
could by no means meet with the people, although 
they were near them, yet they would set the woods on 
fire in his sight. 

Being returned, he fitted all things for his return, 
and first delivered all the bread out of the bread room 
(which came to a pound a piece for every man's share), 
and delivered also a bill of return, willing them to have 

Hudson. Last Voyage 95 

that to shew, if it pleased God that they came home : 
and he wept when he gave it unto them. But to help 
us in this poor estate with some relief, the boat and 
seine went to work on Friday morning, and stayed 
till Sunday noon: at which time they came aboard, 
and brought fourscore small fish, a poor relief for so 
many hungry bellies. Then we weighed and stood 
out of our wintering place, and came to an anchor 
without, in the mouth of the bay: from whence we 
weighed and came to an anchor without in the sea, 
where our bread being gone, that store of cheese we 
had was to stop a gap, whereof there were five, whereat 
the company grudged, because they made account of 
nine. But those that were left were equally divided by 
the master, although he had counsel to the contrary : 
for there were some who having it, would make haste 
to be rid thereof, because they could not govern it. 
I knew when Henry Greene gave half his bread, which 
he had for fourteen days, to one to keep, and prayed 
him not to let him have any until the next Monday : 
but before Wednesday at night he never left till he had 
it again, having eaten up his first week's bread before. 
So Wilson the boatswain hath eaten (in one day) his 
fortnight's bread, and hath been two or three days 
sick for his labour. The cause that moved the master 
to deliver all the cheese, was because they were not 
all of one goodness, and therefore they should see that 
they had no wrong done them ; but every man should 
have alike the best and the worst together, which was 
three pounds and a half for seven days. 

The wind serving, we weighed and stood to the 
north-west, and on Monday at night (the eighteenth 
day of June) we fell into the ice, and the next day, the 

96 Hudson. Last Voyage 

wind being at west, we lay there till Sunday in sight 
of land. Now being here, the master told Nicholas 
Simmes that there would be a breaking up of chests 
and a search for bread, and willed him, if he had any, 
to bring it to him, which he did, and delivered to the 
master thirty cakes in a bag. This deed of the master 
(if it be true) hath made me marvel what should be 
the reason that he did not stop the breach in the begin- 
ning, but let it grow to that height, as that it overthrew 
himself and many other honest men: but "there are 
many devices in the heart of man, yet the counsel of the 
Lord shall stand." 

Being thus in the ice on Saturday, the one and 
twentieth of June, at night, Wilson the boatswain and 
Henry Greene came to me lying in my cabin lame, 
and told me that they and the rest of their associates 
would shift the company, and turn the master and all 
the sick men into the shallop, and let them shift for 
themselves. For there was not fourteen days' victual 
left for all the company, at that poor allowance they 
were at, and that there they lay, the master not caring 
to go one way or other : and that they had not eaten 
anything these three days, and therefore were resolute, 
either to mend or end, and what they had begun they 
would go through with it, or die. When I heard this, 
I told them I marvelled to hear so much from them, 
considering that they were married men, and had wives 
and children, and that for their sakes they should 
not commit so foul a thing in the sight of God and 
man, as that would be; for why should they banish 
themselves from their native country ? Henry Greene 
bade me hold my peace, for he knew the worst, which 
was, to be hanged when he came home, and therefore 

Hudson. Last Voyage 97 

of the two he would rather be hanged at home than 
starved abroad: and for the good will they bare me, 
they would have me stay in the ship. I gave them 
thanks, and told them that I came into her, not 
to forsake her, yet not to hurt myself and others 
by any such deed. Henry Greene told me then, 
that I must take my fortune in the shallop. " If 
there be no remedy," said I, "the will of God be 

Away went Henry Greene in a rage, swearing to 
cut his throat that went about to disturb them, and 
left Wilson by me, with whom I had some talk, but to 
no good ; for he was so persuaded, that there was no 
remedy now but to go on while it was hot, lest their 
party should fail them, and the mischief they had 
intended to others should light on themselves. Henry 
Greene came again, and demanded of him what I said. 
Wilson answered : " He is in his old song, still patient." 
Then I spake to Henry Greene to stay three days, in 
which time I would so deal with the master that all 
should be well. So I dealt with him to forbear but two 
days, nay twelve hours. " There is no way," then say 
they, "but out of hand." Then I told them, that if 
they would stay till Monday, I would join with them to 
share all the victuals in the ship, and would justify it 
when I came home ; but this would not serve their turns. 
Wherefore I told them it was some worse matter they 
had in hand, than they made show of, and that it was 
blood and revenge he sought, or else he would not at such 
a time of night undertake such a deed. Henry Greene 
(with that) taketh my Bible which lay before me, and 
sware that he would do no man harm, and what he 
did was for the good of the voyage, and for nothing 

A. p. 7 

98 Hudson. Last Voyage 

else; and that all the rest should 'do the like. The like 
did Wilson swear. 

Henry Greene went his way, and presently came 
Juet, who, because he was an ancient man, I hoped to 
have found some reason in him ; but he was worse than 
Henry Greene, for he sware plainly that he would 
justify this deed when he came home. After him came 
John Thomas and Michael Perce, as birds of one feather ; 
but because they are not living, I will let them go, as 
then I did. Then came Moter and Bennet, of whom 
I demanded, if they were well advised what they had 
taken in hand. They answered, they were, and there- 
fore came to take their oath. 

Now, because I am much condemned for this oath, 
as one of them that plotted with them, and that by 
an oath I should bind them together to perform what 
they had begun, I thought good here to set down to 
the view of all, how well their oath and deeds agreed: 
and thus it was: "You shall swear truth to God, 
your prince and country : you shall do nothing, but to 
the glory of God, and the good of the action in hand, 
and harm to no man." This was the oath, without 
adding or diminishing. I looked for more of these 
companions (although these were too many), but there 
came no more. It was dark, and they in a readiness 
to put this deed of darkness in execution. I called to 
Henry Greene and Wilson, and prayed them not to 
go in hand with it in the dark, but to stay till the morn- 
ing. Now, every man (I hoped) would go to his rest, 
but wickedness sleepeth not ; for Henry Greene keepeth 
the master company all night (and gave me bread, 
which his cabin-mate gave him), and others are as 
watchful as he. Then I asked Henry Greene, whom 

Hudson. Last Voyage 99 

he would put out with the master ? He said, the car- 
penter, John King, and the sick men. I said, they should 
not do well to part with the carpenter, what need 
soever they should have. Why the carpenter was in 
no more regard amongst them was, first, for that he 
and John King were condemned for wrong done in 
the victual ; but the chiefest cause was, for that the 
master loved him, and made him his mate upon his 
return out of our wintering place, thereby displacing 
Robert Bylot; whereat they did grudge, because he 
could neither write nor read. And therefore (said they) 
the master and his ignorant mate would carry the ship 
whither the master pleased: the master forbidding 
any man to keep account or reckoning, having taken 
from all men whatsoever served for that purpose. 
Well, I obtained of Henry Greene and Wilson that the 
carpenter should stay, by whose means I hoped (after 
they had satisfied themselves), that the master and 
the poor man might be taken into the ship again. Or, 
I hoped, that some one or other would give some notice, 
either to the carpenter, John King, or the master; for 
so it might have come to pass by some of them, that 
were the most forward. 

Now, it shall not be amiss to show how we were 
lodged ; and to begin in the cook room there lay Bennet 
and the cooper lame : without the cook room, on the 
starboard side, lay Thomas Wydhouse sick; next to 
him lay Sidrack Funer lame; then the surgeon, and 
John Hudson with him ; next to them lay Wilson the 
boatswain, and then Arnold Lodlo 'next to him: in 
the gun-room lay Robert Juet and John Thomas ; on the 
larboard side lay Michael Bute and Adria Moore, who 
had never been well since we lost our anchor; next 


100 Hudson. Last Voyage 

to them lay Michael Perce and Andrew Moter. Next 
to them, without the gun-room, lay John King, and 
with him Robert Bylot; next to them myself, and 
next to me Francis Clements. In the midship, between 
the capstan and the pumps, lay Henry Greene and 
Nicholas Simmes. This night John King was late 
up, and they thought he had been with the master ; 
but he was with the carpenter, who lay on the poop, 
and coming down from him was met by his cabin-mate, 
as it were by chance, and so they came to their cabin 
together. It was not long ere it was day : then came 
Bennet for water for the kettle. He rose and went into 
the hold. When he was in, they shut the hatch on him 
(but who kept it down I know not) ; up upon the deck 
went Bennet. 

In the meantime Henry Greene and another went 
to the carpenter, and held him with a talk, till the 
master came out of his cabin (which he soon did); 
then came John Thomas and Bennet before him, 
while Wilson bound his arms behind him. He asked 
them what they meant? They told him he should 
know, when he was in the shallop. Now Juet, while 
this was a doing, came to John King into the hold, 
who was provided for him, for he had got a sword of 
his own, and kept him at a bay, and might have killed 
him, but others came to help him : and so he came up 
to the master. The master called to the carpenter 
and told him that he was bound, but I heard no answer 
he made. Now Arnold Lodlo and Michael Bute 
railed at them, and told them their knavery would 
show itself. Then was the shallop haled up to the 
ship side, and the poor, sick, and lame men were called 
upon to get them out of their cabins into the shallop. 

Hudson. Last Voyage 101 

The master called to me, who came out of my cabin 
as well as I could to the hatchway, to speak with him ; 
where, on my knees I besought them, for the love of 
God, to remember themselves, and to do as they would 
be done unto. They bade me keep myself well, and 
get me into my cabin, not suffering the master to 
speak with me. But when I came into my cabin 
again, he called to me at the horn, which gave light 
into my cabin, and told me that Juet would over- 
throw us all. "Nay" (said I), "it is that villain 
Henry Greene," and I spake it not softly. 

Now was the carpenter at liberty, who asked them 
if they would be hanged, when they came home : and 
as for himself, he said, he would not stay in the ship 
unless they would force him : they bade him go then, 
for they would not stay him. " I will " (said he), " so 
I may have my chest with me, and all that is in it." 
They said he should, and presently they put it into 
the shallop. Then he came down to me to take his 
leave of me, who persuaded him to stay ; which if he 
did, he might so work that all should be well. He said 
he did not think, but they would be glad to take them 
in again. For he was so persuaded by the master, 
that there was not one in all the ship, that could tell 
how to carry her home. " But " (saith he), " if we must 
part, which we will not willingly do " (for they would 
follow the ship), he prayed me, if we came to the capes 
before them, that I would leave some token that we 
had been there, near to the place where the fowls bred, 
and he would do the like for us : and so (with tears) 
we parted. Now were the sick men driven out of 
their cabins into the shallop; but John Thomas was 
Francis Clements 's friend, and Bennet was the cooper's, 

102 Hudson. Last Voyage 

so as there were words between them and Henry 
Greene, one saying that they should go, and the 
other swearing that they should not go, but such 
as were in the shallop should return. When Henry 
Greene heard that, he was compelled to give place, and 
to put out Arnold Lodlo and Michael Bute, which 
with much ado they did. 

In the meantime, there were some of them that 
plied their work, as if the ship had been entered by 
force, and they had free leave to pillage, breaking up 
chests and rifling all places. One of them came by 
me, who asked me what they should do. I answered, 
he should make an end of what he had begun ; for I 
saw him do nothing but shark up and down. Now 
were all the poor men in the shallop, whose names are 
as followeth: Henry Hudson, John Hudson, Arnold 
Lodlo, Sidrack Funer, Phillip Staffe, Thomas Wood- 
house or Wydhouse, Adam Moore, Henry King, 
Michael Bute. The carpenter got of them a piece, 
and pow<Jer, and shot, and some pikes, an iron pot, 
with some meal, and other things. They stood out of 
the ice, the shallop being fast to the stern of the ship, 
and so (when they were nigh out, for I cannot say 
they were clean out) they cut her head fast from the 
stern of our ship, then out with their top-sails, and 
towards the east they stood in a clear sea. In the 
end they took in their top-sails, righted their helm, 
and lay under their foresail, till they had ransacked 
and searched all places in the ship. In the hold they 
found one of the vessels of meal whole, and the other 
half spent (for we had but two). We found also two 
firkins of butter, some twenty-seven pieces of pork, 
half a bushel of peas; but in the master's cabin we 

Hudson. Last Voyage 103 

found two hundred of biscuit cakes, a peck of meal, 
of beer to the .quantity of a butt, one with another. 
Now it was said that the shallop was come within 
sight, they let fall the mainsail, and out with their 
top-sails, and fly as from an enemy. 

Then I prayed them yet to remember themselves: 
but William Wilson (more than the rest) would hear 
of no such matter. Coming nigh the east shore they 
cast about, and stood to the west and came to an island, 
and anchored in sixteen or seventeen fathom water. 
So they sent the boat and the net ashore to see if they 
could have a draught; but could not for rocks and 
great stones. Michael Perce killed two fowl, and 
here they found good store of that weed, which we 
called cockle-grass in our wintering-place, whereof 
they gathered store, and came aboard again. Here 
we lay that night and the best part of the next day, in 
all which time we saw not the shallop, or ever after. 
Now Henry Greene came to me and told me, that it 
was the company's will, that I should come up into 
the master's cabin and take charge thereof. I told 
him it was more fit for Robert Juet : he said he should 
not come in it, nor meddle with the master's card or 
journals. So up I came, and Henry Greene gave me 
the key of the master's chest, and told me then that 
he had laid the master's best things together, which 
he would use himself, when time did serve : the bread 
was also delivered me by tale. 

The wind serving, we stood to the north-east, and 
this was Robert Bylot's course, contrary to Robert 
Juet, who would have gone to the north-west. We 
had the eastern shore still in sight, and (in the night) 
had a stout gale of wind, and stood afore it till we 

104 Hudson. Last Voyage 

met with ice, into the which we ran from thin to thick, 
till we could go no further for ice, wh\ch lay so thick 
ahead of us (and the wind brought it after us astern), 
that we could not stir backward nor forward; but so 
lay embayed fourteen days in worse ice than ever we 
met to deal withal, for we had been where there was 
greater store, but it was not so broad upon the water 
as this; for this floating ice contained miles and half 
miles in compass, where we had a deep sea, and a tide 
of flood and ebb, which set north-west and south-east. 
Here Robert Juet would have gone to the north-west, 
but Robert Bylot was confident to go through to the 
north-east, which he did. At last, being clear of this ice, 
he continued his course in sight of the eastern shore till 
he raised four islands, which lay north and south ; but 
we passed them six or seven leagues, the wind took us 
so short. Then we stood back to them again, and 
came to an anchor between two of the most norther- 
most. We sent the boat ashore, to see if there were 
anything there to be had, but found nothing but 
cockle-grass, whereof they gathered store, and so 
returned aboard. Before we came to this place, I 
might well see that I was kept in the ship against 
Henry Greene's mind, because I did not favour their 
proceedings better than I did. Then he began (very 
subtly) to draw me to take upon me to search for 
those things, which himself had stolen: and accused 
me of a matter no less than treason amongst us, that 
I had deceived the company of thirty cakes of bread. 
Now they began to talk amongst themselves, that 
England was no safe place for them, and Henry Greene 
swore the ship should not come into any place (but 
keep the sea still), till he had the King's Majesty's hand 

Hudson. Last Voyage 105 

and seal to show for his safety. They had many devices 
in their heads, but Henry Greene in the end was their 
captain, and so called of them. 

From these islands we stood to the north-east and 
the easter land still in sight : we raised those islands, 
that our master called Rumney's Islands. Between 
these islands and the shallow ground to the east of 
them, our master went down into the first great bay. 
We kept the east shore still in our sight, and coming 
thwart of the low land, we ran on a rock that lay under 
water, and struck but once; for if she had, we might 
have been made inhabitants of that place; but God 
sent us soon off without any harm that we saw. We 
continued our course and raised land ahead of us, 
which stretched out to the north. Which when they 
saw, they said plainly that Robert Bylot by his 
northerly course had left the capes to the south, and 
that they were best to seek down to the south in time 
for relief, before all was gone ; for we had small store 
left. But Robert Bylot would follow the land to the 
north, saying that he hoped in God to find somewhat 
to relieve us that way, as soon as to the south. I told 
them that this land was the main of Wolstenholme 
Cape, and that the shallow rocky ground was the same 
that the master went down by, when he went into the 
great bay. Robert Juet and all said it was not possible, 
unless the master had brought the ship over land, and 
willed them to look into the master's card and their 
course, how well they did agree. We stood to the east 
and left the mainland to the north, by many small 
islands into a narrow gut between two lands, and there 
came to an anchor. The boat went ashore on the 
north side, where we found the great horn, but nothing 

106 Hudson. Last Voyage 

else. The next day we went *to the south side, but 
found nothing there save cockle-grass, of which we 
gathered. This grass was a great relief unto us, for 
without it we should hardly have got to the capes 
for want of victual. The wind serving, we stood out, 
but before we could get clean out, the wind came to 
the west, so that we were constrained to anchor on 
the north side. 

The next day we weighed and doubled the point 
of the north land, which is high land, and so con- 
tinued to the capes, lying north and south, some five- 
and-twenty or thirty leagues. To the north we stood, 
"to see store of those fowls, that breed in the capes, and 
to kill some with our shot, and to fetch them with our 
boat. We raised the capes with joy and bare for them, 
and came to the islands that lie in the mouth of the 
strait; but bearing in between the rocky isles, we 
ran on a rock that lay under water, and there stuck 
fast eight or nine hours. It was ebbing water when 
we thus came on, so the flood set us afloat, God guiding 
both wind and sea, that it was calm and fair weather : 
the ebb came from the east, and the flood from the 
west. When we were afloat we stood more near to 
the east shore, and there anchored. 

The next day, being the seven and twentieth of 
July, we sent the boat to fetch some fowl, and the ship 
should weigh and stand as near as they could ; for the 
wind was against us. They had a great way to row, 
and by that means they could not reach to the place 
where the fowl bred; but found good store of gulls, 
yet hard to come by, on the rocks and cliffs; but with 
their pieces they killed some thirty, and towards night 
returned. Now we had brought our ship more near 

Hudson. Last Voyage 107 

to the mouth of the straits, and there came to an anchor 
in eighteen or twenty fathom water, upon a reef or 
shelf of ground. Which after they had weighed their 
anchor, and stood more near to the place where the 
fowl bred, they could not find it again, nor no place 
like it : but were fain to turn to and fro in the mouth 
of the strait, and to be in danger of rocks, because 
they could not find ground to let fall an anchor in, 
the water was so deep. 

The eight and twentieth day, the boat went to 
Digges's Cape for fowl, and made directly for the 
place where the fowl bred, and being near, they saw 
seven boats come about the eastern point towards 
them. When the savages saw our boat, they drew 
themselves together, and drew their lesser boats into 
their bigger : and when they had done, they came 
rowing to our boat, and made signs to the west, but 
they made ready for all assays. The savages came 
to them, and by signs grew familiar one with another, 
so as our men took one of theirs into our boat, and 
they took one of ours into- their boat. Then they 
carried our man to a cove where their tents stood, 
toward the west of the place where the fowl bred: so 
they carried him into their tents, where he remained 
till our men returned with theirs. Our boat went to 
the place where the fowl bred, and were desirous to 
know how the savages killed their fowl. He showed 
them the manner how, which was thus : they take a 
long pole with a snare at the end, which they put about 
the fowl's neck, and so pluck them down. When our 
men knew that they had a better way of their own, 
they showed him the use of our pieces, which at one 
shot would kill seven or eight. To be short, our boat 

108 Hudson. Last Voyage 

returned to their cove for our man and to deliver theirs. 
When they came, they made great joy, with dancing, 
and leaping, and stroking of their breasts: they 
offered divers things to our men, but they only took 
some morses' teeth, which they gave them for a knife 
and two glass buttons : and so, receiving our man, they 
came aboard, much rejoicing at this chance, as if 
they had met with the most simple and kind people 
of the world. 

And Henry Greene (more than the rest) was so 
confident, that by no means we should take care to 
stand on our guard : God blinding him so, that where 
he made reckoning to receive great matters from these 
people, he received more than he looked for, and that 
suddenly, by being made a good example for all men, 
that make no conscience of doing evil ; and that we 
take heed of the savage people, how simple soever 
they seem to be. 

The next day, the nine and twentieth of July, they 
made haste to be ashore, and because the ship rid 
too far off, they weighed and stood as near to the place 
where the fowl bred, as they could ; and because I was 
lame, I was to go in the boat, to carry such things as 
I had in the cabin, of everything somewhat; and so. 
with more haste than good speed (and not without 
swearing), away we went, Henry Greene, William 
Wilson, John Thomas, Michael Perce, Andrew Moter, 
and myself. When we came near the shore, the people 
were on the hills dancing and leaping : to the cove 
we came, where they had drawn up their boats : we 
brought our boat to the east side of the cove, close 
to the rocks. Ashore they went, and made fast the 
boat to a great stone on the shore. The people came, 

Hudson. Last Voyage 109 

and every one had somewhat in his hand to barter; 
but Henry Greene swore they should have nothing 
till he had venison, for that they had so promised him 
by signs. 

Now when we came, they made signs to their dogs 
(whereof there were many like mongrels, as big as 
hounds), and pointed to their mountain and to the 
sun, clapping their hands. Then Henry Greene, John 
Thomas, and William Wilson stood hard by the boat 
head ; Michael Perce and Andrew Moter were got up 
upon the rock a gathering of sorrel. Not one of them 
had any weapon about him, not so much as a stick, 
save Henry Greene only, who had a piece of a pike in his 
hand : nor saw I anything, that they had, wherewith to 
hurt us. Henry Greene and William Wilson had looking- 
glasses, and Jews' trumps, and bells, which they were 
showing the people. The savages standing round 
about them, one of them came into the boat's head 
to me to show me a bottle : I made signs to him to 
get him ashore, but he made as though he had not 
understood me, whereupon I stood up and pointed 
him ashore. In the meantime another stole behind 
me to the stern of the boat, and when I saw him 
ashore, that was in the head of the boat, I sat down 
again ; but suddenly I saw the leg and foot of a man by 
me. Wherefore I cast up my head, and saw the savage 
with his knife in his hand, who struck at my breast 
over my head: I cast up my right arm to save my 
breast; he wounded my arm, and struck me into the 
body under my right pap. He struck a second blow, 
which I met with my left hand, and then he struck 
me into the right thigh, and had like to have cut off 
my little finger of the left hand. Now I had got hold 

110 Hudson. Last Voyage 

of the string of the knife, and had wound it about my 
left hand, he striving with both his hands to make 
an end of that he had begun: I found him but weak 
in the grip (God enabling me), and getting hold of 
the sleeve of his left arm, so bare him from me. His 
left side lay bare to me, which when I saw, I put his 
sleeve off his left arm into my left hand, holding the 
string of the knife fast in the same hand; and having 
got my right hand at liberty, I sought for somewhat 
wherewith to strike him (not remembering my dagger 
at my side), but looking down I saw it, and therewith 
struck him into the body and the throat. 

Whiles I was thus assaulted in the boat, our men 
were set upon on the shore. John Thomas and 
William Wilson had their bowels cut, and Michael 
Perce and Henry Greene, being mortally wounded, 
came tumbling into the boat together. When Andrew 
Moter saw- this medley, he came running down the 
rocks, and leaped into the sea, and so swam to the boat, 
hanging on the stern thereof, till Michael Perce took 
him in, who manfully made good the head of the boat 
against the savages, that pressed sore upon us. Now 
Michael Perce had got an hatchet, wherewith I saw 
him strike one of them, that he lay sprawling in the 
sea. Henry Greene crieth " Cor agio" and layeth about 
him with his truncheon. I cried to them to clear the 
boat, and Andrew Moter cried to be taken in. The 
savages betook them to their bows and arrows, which 
they sent amongst us, wherewith Henry Greene was 
slain outright, and Michael Perce received many wounds, 
and so did the rest. Michael Perce cleareth the boat, 
and puts it from the shore, and helpeth Andrew Moter 
in ; but in turning of the boat I received a cruel wound 

Hudson. Last Voyage 111 

in my back with an arrow. Michael Perce and Andrew 
Moter rowed the boat away ; which when the savages 
saw, they ran to their boats, and I feared they would 
have launched them to have followed us, but they did 
not, and our ship was in the middle of the channel 
and could not see us. 

Now when they had rowed a good way from the 
shore, Michael Perce fainted, and could row no more. 
Then was Andrew Moter driven to stand in the boat 
head, and waft to the ship, which at the first saw us 
not, and when they did, they could not tell what to 
make of us ; but in the end they stood for us, and so 
took us up. Henry .Greene was thrown out of the boat 
into the sea, and the rest were had aboard, the savage 
being yet alive, yet without sense. But they died 
all there that day, William Wilson swearing and cursing 
in most fearful manner. Michael Perce lived two 
days after, and then died. Thus you have heard the 
tragical end of Henry Greene and his mates, whom 
they called captain, these four being the only lusty 
men in all the ship. 

The poor number, that was left, were to ply our 
ship to and fro in the mouth of the strait; for there 
was no place to anchor in near hand. Besides, they 
were to go in the boat to kill fowl to bring us home, 
which they did, although with danger to us all. For 
if the wind blew, there was an high sea, and the eddies 
of the tides would carry the ship so near the rocks, as 
it feared our master, for so I will now call him. After 
they had killed some two hundred fowl, with great 
labour, on the south cape, we stood to the east ; but 
when we were six or seven leagues from the capes, the 
wind came up at east. Then we stood back to the 

112 Hudson. Last Voyage 

capes again, and killed an hundred fowl more. After 
this the wind came to the west, so we were driven to 
go away, and then our master stood (for the most) 
along by the north shore, till he fell into broken ground 
about the Queen's Foreland, and there anchored. 
From thence we went to God's Mercies, and from thence 
to those islands, which lie in the mouth of our strait, 
not seeing the land till we were ready to run our bow- 
sprit against the rocks in a fog. But it cleared a little, 
and then we might see ourselves enclosed with rocky 
islands, and could find no ground to anchor in. There 
our master lay a-try all night, and the next day, the 
fog continuing, they sought for ground to anchor in, 
and found some in an hundred and odd fathoms of 
water. The next day we weighed and stood to the 
east, but before we came here, we had put ourselves 
to hard allowance, as half a fowl a day with the pottage ; 
for yet we had some meal left, and nothing else. Then 
they began to make trial of all whatsoever. We had 
flayed our fowl, for they will not pull ; and Robert 
Juet was the first that made use of the skins by burning 
of the feathers : so they became a great dish of meat, 
and as for the garbage, it was not thrown away. 

After we were clear of these islands, which lie out 
with two points, one to the south-east and the other 
to the north, making a bay to the sight, as if there 
were no way through, we continued our course east- 
south-east and south and by east, to raise the Desola- 
tions, from thence to shape our course for Ireland. 
Thus we continued divers days ; but the wind, coming 
against us, made us to alter our course, and by the means 
of Robert Juet, who persuaded the company that 
they should find great relief in Newfoundland, if our 

Hudson. Last Voyage 113 

countrymen were there, and if they were gone before we 
came, yet should we find great store of bread and fish 
left ashore by them ; but how true, I give God thanks 
we did not try. Yet we stood to the south-west and 
to the west, almost to fifty-seven degrees ; when (by 
the will of God) the wind came up at south-west. 
Then the master asked me, if he should take the benefit 
of this wind, and shape his course for Ireland. I said 
it was best to go, where we knew corn grew, and not to 
seek it, where it was cast away and not to be found. 
Towards Ireland now we stood, with prosperous winds 
for many days together. Then was all our meal spent, 
and our fowl reasty and dry; but (being no remedy) 
we were content with the salt broth for dinner and the 
half fowl for supper. Now went our candles to wrack, 
and Bennet, our cook, made a mess of meat of the bones 
of the fowl, frying them with candle grease till they 
were crisp, and, with vinegar put to them, made a 
good dish of meat. Our vinegar was shared, and to 
every man a pound of candles delivered for a week, 
as a great dainty. Now Robert Juet (by his reckoning) 
saith we were within sixty or seventy leagues of Ireland, 
when we had two hundred thither. And sure our 
course was so much the longer through our evil steerage ; 
for our men became so weak, that they could not stand 
at the helm, but were fain to sit. 

Then Robert Juet died for mere want, and all our 
men were in despair, and said we were past Ireland, 
and our last fowl were in the steep- tub. So our men 
cared not which end went forward, insomuch as our 
master was driven to look to their labour, as well as 
his own; for some of them would sit and see the fore- 
sail or mainsail fly up to the tops, the sheets being 

A. P. 8 

114 Hudson. Last Voyage 

either flown or broken, and would not help it them- 
selves, nor call to others for help, which much grieved 
the master. Now in this extremity it pleased God 
to give us sight of land, not far from the place our 
master said he would fall withal, which was the 
bay of Gal way, and we fell to the west of the Durseys, 
and so stood along by the coast to the south-west. In 
the end there was a joyful cry, "A sail, a sail," towards 
which they stood. Then they saw more, but to the 
nearest we stood, and called to him; his bark was of 
Fowey, and was at anchor a fishing. He came to us, 
and brought us into Bere Haven. From Bere Haven 
we came to Plymouth, and so to an anchor before the 
castle ; and from Plymouth, with fair wind and weather, 
without stop or stay we came to the Downs ; from 
thence to Gravesend, where most of our men went 
ashore, and from thence came on this side Erith, and 
there stopped. Where our master Robert By lot came 
aboard, and so had me up to London with him, and so 
we came to Sir Thomas Smith's together. 

William Barents 

Keproduced, by kind permission of the publisher, from Dr A. D. de 
Vries's Oud-Hottand (Binger, 1882). Originally a vignette in a chart 
published in Amsterdam between 1613 and 1615. 



ANNO 1596 


In the beginning of this year, there was two ships 
rigged and set forth by the town of Amsterdam, to sail 
that voyage. In the one, Jacob Heemskerck Hen- 
drickson was master and factor for the wares and 
merchandise, and William Barents chief pilot. In 
the other, John Cornelison Rijp was both master and 
factor for the goods, that the merchants had laden in 

The 5 of May all the men in both the ships were 
mustered, and upon the tenth of May they sailed from 

The first of June we had no night, and the second 
of June we had the wind contrary; but upon the 
fourth of June we had a good wind out of the west- 
north-west, and sailed north-east. 

And when the sun was about south-south-east (half- 
past 9 a.m.), we saw a strange sight in the element : for 
on each side of the sun there was another sun, and two 
rainbows that passed clean through the three suns, and 
then two rainbows more, the one compassing round 
about the suns, and the other cross through the great 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 117 

roundel ; the great roundel standing with the uttermost 
point elevated above the horizon 28 degrees. 

The fifth of June we saw the first ice, which we 
wondered at, at the first thinking that it had been 
white swans ; for one of our men walking in the fore- 
deck on a sudden began to cry out with a loud voice, 
and said that he saw white swans : which we that were 

A wonder in the heavens, and how we caught a bear 

under hatches hearing, presently came up, and perceived 
that it was ice, that came driving from the great heap, 
showing like swans, it being then about evening. 

The ninth of June we found the island, that lay 
under 74 degrees and 30 minutes. 

The 12 of June, in the morning, we saw a white 
bear, which we rowed after with our boat, thinking to 

118 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

cast a rope about her neck; but when we were near 
her, she was so great that we durst not do it, but 
rowed back again to our ship, to fetch more men and 
our arms, and so made to her again with muskets, 
arquebuses, halberts, and hatchets, John Cornelison's 
men coming also with their boat to help us. And so 
being well furnished of men and weapons, we rowed 
with both our boats unto the bear, and fought with 
her, while four glasses were run out, for our weapons 
could do her little hurt; and amongst the rest of the 
blows that we gave her, one of our men struck her into 
the back with an axe, which stuck fast in her back, 
and yet she swam away with it; but we rowed after 
her, and at last we cut her head in sunder with an 
axe, wherewith she died. And then we brought her 
into John Cornelison's ship, where we flayed her, 
and found her skin to be twelve foot long. Which 
done, we ate some of her flesh; but we brooked it not 
well. This island we called the Bear Island. 

The 13 of June we left the island, and sailed north 
and somewhat easterly. 

The 19 of June we saw land again. This land was 
very great, and we sailed westward along by it. 

The 21 of June we cast out our anchor at 18 
fathom before the land; and then we and John 
Cornelison's men rode on the west side of the land, 
and there fetched ballast : and when we got on board 
again with our ballast, we saw a white bear, that swam 
towards our ship. Whereupon we left off our work, 
and entering into the boat with John Cornelison's 
men, rowed after her, and crossing her in the way, 
drove her from the land ; wherewith she swam further 
into the sea, and we followed her. And for that our 

120 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

boat could not make way after her, we manned out 
our scute also, the better to follow her : but she swam 
four miles into the sea; yet we followed her with the 
most part of all our men of both ships in three boats, 
and struck oftentimes at her, cutting and hewing her, 
so that all our arms were most broken in pieces. During 
our fight with her, she struck her claws so hard in our 

How a bear came unto our boat, and what took place with him 

boat, that the signs thereof were seen in it; but as 
hap was, it was in the forehead of our boat : for if it 
had been in the middle thereof, she had (peradventure) 
overthrown it, they have such force in their claws. At 
last, after we had fought long with her, and made her 
weary with our three boats, that kept about her, we 
overcame her, and killed her : which done, we brought 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 121 

her into our ship, and flayed her, her skin being 13 foot 

After that, we rowed with our scute about four miles 
inward to the land, where there was a good haven and 
good anchor ground, on the east side being sandy. 
There we cast out our lead, and found 16 fathom deep, 
and after that 10 and 12 fathom; and rowing further, 
we found that on the east side there was two islands, 
that reached eastward into the sea: on the west side 
also there was a great creek or river, which shewed 
also like an island. Then we rowed to the island, that 
lay in the middle, and there we found many brent 
geese, which we saw sitting upon their nests, and drave 
them from them, and they flying away cried : " Rot, 
rot, rot." And as they sat, we killed one goose dead 
with a stone, which we dressed and ate. and at least 
60 eggs, that we took with us aboard the ship; and 
upon the 22 of June we went aboard our ship again. 

Those geese were true brent geese, such as come 
into Holland about Wieringen, and every year are 
there taken in abundance, but till this time it was 
never known, where they laid and hatched their eggs ; 
so that some men have taken upon them to write 
that they grow upon trees in Scotland, that hang over 
the water, and the fruits, which fall from them down 
into the water, become young geese and swim away; 
but those, that fall upon the land, burst in sunder 
and are lost. But this is now found to be contrary, 
and it is not to be wondered at, that no man could 
tell where they breed their eggs, for that no man, that 
ever we knew, had ever been under 80 degrees, nor 
that land under 80 degrees was never set down in any 
card, much less the brent geese that breed therein. 

122 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

The first of July we saw the Bear Island again, and 
then John Cornelison and his officers came aboard of 
our ship, to speak with us about altering of our course ; 
but we being of a contrary opinion, it was agreed that 
we should follow on our course, and he his : which was, 
that he (according to his desire) should sail unto 80 
degrees again; for he was of opinion, that there he 
should find a passage through, on the east side of the 
land, that lay under 80 degrees. And upon that agree- 
ment we left each other, they sailing northward, and 
we southward because of the ice, the wind being east- 

The second of July we sailed eastward, and on 
the 17 we saw the land of Nova Zembla. Then we 
altered our course, and sailed north-east and by north, 
and on the 19 we came to the Cross Island. There 
stood two 'crosses upon the land, whereof it had the 

The twentieth of July we anchored under the island, 
for we could get no further for the ice. There we put 
out our boat, and with eight men rowed on land, and 
went to one of the crosses, where we rested us awhile, 
to go to the next cross ; but being in the way we saw 
two bears by the other cross, at which time we had no 
weapons at all about us. The bears rose up upon their 
hinder feet to see us (for they smell further than they 
see), and for that they smelt us, therefore they rose 
upright and came towards us, wherewith we were not 
a little abashed, in such sort that we had little lust to 
laugh, and in all haste went to our boat again, still 
looking behind us to see if they followed us, thinking 
to get into the boat, and so put off from the land : but 
the master stayed us, saying, "He that first begins to 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 123 

run away, I will thrust this boat-hook " (which he 
then held in his hand) "into his ribs, for it is better 
for us " (said he), " to stay all together, and see if we 
can make them afraid with whooping and holloaing.'* 
And so we went softly towards the boat, and got away 

Map of Novaya Zemlya, showing entrances to Kara Sea 

glad that we had escaped their claws, and that we 
had the leisure to tell our fellows thereof. 

The 5 of August we set sail again towards Ice 
Point, and on the 7 we had a west-south-west wind, 
and sailed along by the land, south-east and south-east 

124 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

and by east, and saw but a little ice, and then passed 
by Cape Comfort, which we had much longed for. 

The 16 of August ten of our men entering into 
one boat, rowed to the firm land at Nova Zembla, and 
drew the boat up upon the ice; which done, we went 
up a high hill to see the situation of the land, and found 
that it reached south-east and south-south-east, and 
then again south, which we disliked, for that it lay so 
much southward : but when we saw open. .water south- 
east and east-south-east, we were much comforted 
again, thinking that we had won our voyage, and 
knew not how we should get soon enough on board, 
to certify William Barents thereof. 

The 19 of August it was indifferent good weather, 
the wind blowing south-west, the ice still driving, and 
we set sail with an indifferent gale of wind, and passed 
by Cape Desire, whereby we were once again in good 

The 26 of August there blew a reasonable gale 
of wind, at which time we determined to sail back 
to Cape Desire, and so home again, seeing that we 
could not get through by the way towards the Wey- 
gats, although we used all the means and industry we 
could, to get forward ; but when we had passed by the 
Ice Haven, the ice began to drive with such force, that 
we were enclosed round about therewith, and yet we 
sought all the means we could to get out, but it was 
all in vain. And at that time we had like to have lost 
three men, that were upon the ice to make way for the 
ship, if the ice had held the course it went ; but as we 
drove back again, and that the ice also, whereon our 
men stood, in like sort drove, they being nimble, as 
the ship drove by them, one of them caught hold of 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 125 

the beak head, another upon the shrouds, and the 
third upon the great brace that hung out behind, and 
so by great adventure, by the hold that they took, they 
got safe into the ship again, for which they thanked 
God with all their hearts: for it was much likelier 
that they should rather have been carried away with 
the ice, but God, by the nimbleness of their hands, 

How our ship stuck fast in the ice, whereby three of us were 
nearly lost 

delivered them out of that danger, which was a pitiful 
thing to behold, although it fell out for the best, 
for if they had not been nimble, they had surely died 
for it. 

The same day in the evening we got to the west 
side of the Ice Haven, where we were forced, in great 

126 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

cold, poverty, misery, and grief, to stay all that winter ; 
the wind being then east north-east. 

The 27 of August the ice drove round about the 
ship, and yet it was good weather; at which time we 
went on land, and being there, it began to blow south- 
east with a reasonable gale, and then the ice came with 
great force before the bow, and drove the ship up four 

How the ice heaved up the fore part of our ship 

foot high before, and behind it seemed as if the keel 
lay on the ground, so that it seemed that the ship 
would be overthrown in the place. Whereupon they 
that were in the ship put out the boat, therewith to 
save their lives, and withal put out a flag, to make 
a sign to us to come on board: which we perceiving, 
and beholding the ship to be lifted up in that sort, 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 127 

made all the haste we could to get on board, thinking 
that the ship was burst in pieces, but coming unto it, 
we found it to be in better case, than we thought it had 

The 28 of August we got some of the ice from it, 
and the ship began to sit upright again; but before 
it was fully upright, as William Barents and the other 
pilot went forward to the bow, to see how th6 ship 
lay, and how much it was risen, and while they were 
busy upon their knees and elbows to measure how 
much it was, the ship burst out of the ice with such a 
noise and so great a crack, that they thought verily 
that they were all cast away, knowing not how to save 

The 29 of August, the ship lying upright again, we 
used all the means we could, with iron crowbars and 
other instruments, to break the flakes of ice that lay 
one heaped upon the other, but all in vain ; so that we 
determined to commit ourselves to the mercy of God, 
and to attend aid from him, for that the ice drove not 
away in any such sort, that it could help us. 

The 30 of August the ice began to drive together 
one upon the other with greater force than before, 
and bare against the ship with a boisterous south-west 
wind and a great snow, so that all the whole ship was 
borne up and enclosed, whereby all that was both 
about and in it began to crack, so that it seemed to 
burst in a hundred pieces, which was most fearful 
both to see and hear, and made all the hair of our heads 
to rise upright with fear; and after that, the ship 
(by the ice on both sides, that joined and got under the 
same) was driven so upright, in such sort as if it had 
been lifted up with a wrench or vice. 

128 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

The 5 of September it was fair sunshine weather 
and very calm ; and at evening, when we had supped, 
the ice compassed about us again, and we were hard 
enclosed therewith, the ship beginning to lie upon the 
one side and suffered much, but by God's grace it still 
remained tight, wherewith we were wholly in fear to 
lose the ship, it was in so great danger. At which 
time we took counsel together, and carried our old 
foresail, with powder, lead, pieces, muskets, and other 
furniture on land, to make a tent or hut about our 
scute, that we had drawn upon the land ; and at that 
time we carried some bread and wine on land also, 
with some carpenter's tools, therewith to mend our 
boat, that it might serve us in time of need. 

The 6 of September it was indifferent fair sea- 
weather and sunshine, the wind being west, whereby 
we were somewhat comforted, hoping that the ice 
would drive away, and that we might get from thence 

The 7 of September it was indifferent weather 
again, but we perceived no opening of the water, but 
to the contrary we lay hard enclosed with ice, and no 
water at all about the ship, no, not so much as a bucket- 
ful. The same day five of our men went on land, 
but two of them came back again; the other three 
went forward about eight miles into the land, and there 
found a river of sweet water, where also they found 
great store of wood, that had been driven thither, and 
there they found the footsteps of harts and hinds, as 
they thought, for they were cloven footed, some greater 
footed than others, which made them judge them to 
be so. 

The 11 of September it was calm weather, and 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 129 

eight of us went on land, every man armed, to see if 
that were true, as our other three companions had said, 
that there lay wood about the river; for that seeing 
we had so long wound and turned about, sometime in 
the ice and then again got out, and thereby were 
compelled to alter our course, and at last saw that we 
could not get out of the ice, but rather became faster, 
and could not loose our ship as at other times we had 
done, as also that it began to be near autumn and 
winter, we took counsel together what we were best to 
do according to the time, that we might winter there 
and attend such adventure as God would send us. And 
after we had debated upon the matter, to keep and 
defend ourselves both from the cold and the wild beasts, 
we determined to build a shed or house upon the land, 
to keep us therein as well as we could, and so to commit 
ourselves unto the tuition of God. And to that end we 
went further into the land, to find out the convenientest 
place in our opinions to raise crur house upon, and yet 
we had not much stuff to make it withal, in regard 
that there grew no trees, nor any other thing in that 
country convenient to build it withal. But we leaving 
no occasion unsought, as our men went abroad to 
view the country, and to see what good fortune might 
happen unto us, at last we found an unexpected 
comfort in our need, which was that we found certain 
trees, roots and all, (as our three companions had said 
before), which had been driven upon the shore, either 
from Tartaria, Muscovia, or elsewhere; for there was 
none growing upon that land. Wherewith (as if God 
had purposely sent them unto us) we were much com- 
forted, being in good hope that God would show us 
some further favour; for that wood served us not 
A. P. 9 

130 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

only to build our house, but also to burn and serve us 
all the winter long; otherwise without all doubt we 
had died there miserably with extreme cold. 

The 15 of September, in ^the morning, as one of 
our men held watch, we saw three bears, whereof the 
one lay still behind a piece of ice, and the other two 
came close to the ship, which we perceiving, made our 
pieces ready to shoot at them; at which time there 
stood a tub full of meat upon the ice, which lay upon 
the ice, to freshen, for that close by the ship there 
was no water. One of the bears went unto it, and put 
hi his head to take out a piece of the meat, but she 
fared therewith as the dog did with the pudding; for 
as she was snatching at the beef she was shot into the 
head, wherewith she fell down dead and never stirred. 
The other bear stood still, and looked upon her fellow ; 
and when she had stood a good while, she smelt her 
fellow, and perceiving that she was dead, she ran 
away, but we took halberts and other arms with us 
and followed her. And at last she came again towards 
us, and we prepared ourselves to withstand her, 
wherewith she rose up upon her hinder feet, thinking 
to ramp at us; but while she reared herself up, one 
of our men shot her into the belly, and with that she 
fell upon her fore-feet again, and roaring as loud as 
she could, ran away. 

The 17 of September thirteen of us went where 
the wood lay with our sleds, and so drew five and five 
in a sled, and the other three helped to lift the wood 
behind, to make us draw the better and with more ease ; 
and in that manner we drew wood twice a day, and 
laid it on a heap by the place where we meant to build 
our house 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 131 

The 25 of September we raised up the principals 
of our house, and began to work hard thereon. 

The 26 of September we had a west wind and 
an open sea, but our ship lay fast, wherewith we were 
not a little grieved; but it was God's will, which we 
must patiently bear, and we began to make up our 
house: part of our men fetched wood to burn, the 

How we built a house of wood, wherein to keep ourselves 
through the winter 

rest played the carpenters and were busy about the 
house. As then we were sixteen men in all, for our 
carpenter was dead, and of our sixteen men there was 
still one or other sick. . 

The 27th of September it blew hard north-east, and 
it froze so hard that, as we put a nail into our mouths 


132 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

(as, when men work carpenters' work, they use to do), 
there would ice hang thereon when we took it out again, 
and make the blood follow. The same day there came 
an old bear and a young one towards us as we were 
going to our house, being all together (for we durst not 
go alone), which we thought to shoot at, but she ran 

The 29 of September, in the morning, the wind 
was west, and after noon it blew east, and then we 
saw three bears between us and the house, an old one 
and two young; but we notwithstanding drew our 
goods from the ship to the house, and so got before 
the bears, and yet they followed us. Nevertheless we 
would not shun the way for them, but holloaed out 
as loud as we could, thinking that they would have 
gone away; but they would not once go out of their 
footpath, but got before us, wherewith we and they 
that were at the house made a great noise, which made 
the bears run away, and we were not a little glad thereof. 

The 5 of October we brake up the lower deck of 
the fore-part of our ship, and with those deals we covered 
our house, and made it slope overhead that the water 
might run off. 

The 8 of October, all the night before it blew so 
hard and the same day also, and snowed so fast that 
we should have smothered, if we had gone out into the 
air; and to speak truth, it had not been possible for 
any man to have gone one ship's length, though his 
life had lain thereon; for it was not possible for us 
to go out of the house or ship. 

The 11 of October it was calm weather, the wind 
being south and somewhat warm, and then we carried 
our wine and other victuals on land; and as we were 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 133 

hoising the wine overboard, there came a bear towards 
our ship that had lain behind a piece of ice, and it 
seemed that we had waked her with the noise we made ; 
for we had seen her lie there, but we thought her to 
be a piece of ice ; but as she came near us, we shot at 
her, and she ran away, so we proceeded in our work. 

The 12 of October it blew north and somewhat 
westerly, and then half of our men slept in the house, 
and that was the first time that we lay in it; but we 
endured great cold because our cabins were not made, 
and besides that we had not clothes enough, and we 
could keep no fire, because our chimney was not made, 
whereby it smoked exceedingly. 

The 19 of October the wind blew north-east, and 
then there was but two men and a boy in the ship, at 
which time there came a bear that sought forcibly to 
get into the ship, although the two men shot at her 
with pieces of wood, and yet she ventured upon them, 
whereby they were in an extreme fear; and each of 
them seeking to save themselves, the two men leapt 
into the hold, and the boy climbed up the fore-rigging 
to save their lives. Meantime some of our men shot 
at her with a musket, and then she ran away. 

The 20 of October it was calm sunshine weather, 
and then again we saw some open places of water in 
the sea, at which time we went on board to fetch the 
rest of our beer out of the ship, where we found some 
of the barrels frozen in pieces, and the iron hoops 
that were upon the spruce -beer barrels were also 
frozen in pieces. 

The 21 of October it was calm sunshine weather, 
and then we had almost fetched all our victuals out 
of the ship. 

134 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

The 24 of October we drew our boat home to 
our house, and turned the bottom thereof upwards, 
that, when time served us (if God saved our lives in the 
winter time), we might use it. And after that, per- 
ceiving that the ship lay fast and that there was nothing 
less to be expected than the opening of the water, 
we put our anchor into the ship again, because it 
should not be covered over and lost in the snow, that 
in the spring time we might use it : for we always trusted 
in God that he would deliver us from thence towards 
summer time either one way or other. 

Things standing at this point with us, as the sun 
(when we might see it best and highest) began to be 
very low, we used all the speed we could to fetch all 
things with sleds out of our ship into our house, not 
only meat and drink, but all other necessaries; at 
which time the wind was north. 

The 26 of October we fetched all things that were 
necessary for the furnishing of our scute and our boat ; 
and when we had laden the last sled, and stood ready 
to draw it to the house, our master looked about him 
and saw three bears behind the ship, that were coming 
towards us, whereupon he cried out aloud to fear them 
away, and we presently leaped forth to defend ourselves 
as well as we could. And as good fortune was, there 
lay two halberds upon the sled, whereof the master 
took one, and I the other, and made resistance against 
them as well as we could ; but the rest of our men ran 
to save themselves in the ship, and as they ran, one of 
them fell into a cleft of ice, which grieved us much, 
for we thought verily that the bears would have ran 
unto him to devour him; but God defended him, for 
the bears still made towards the ship after the men, 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 135 

that ran thither to save themselves. Meantime we 
and the man that fell into the cleft of ice took our ad- 
vantage, and got into the ship on the other side ; which 
the bears perceiving, they came fiercely towards us, 
that had no other arms to defend us withal but only 
the two halberds, which we doubting would not be 
sufficient, we still gave them work to do by throwing 
billets of firewood and other things at them, and 
every time we threw, they ran after them, as a dog 
useth to do at a stone that is cast at him. Meantime 
we sent a man down under hatches to strike fire, and 
another to fetch pikes; but we could get no fire, and 
so we had no means to shoot. At the last, as the bears 
came fiercely upon us, we struck one of them with a 
halberd upon the snout, wherewith she gave back 
when she felt herself hurt, and went away, which the 
other two, that were not so great as she, perceiving, ran 
away; and we thanked God that we were so well 
delivered from them, and so drew our sled quietly to 
our house, and there showed our men what had hap- 
pened unto us. 

The 26 of October the wind was north and north- 
north-west, with indifferent fair weather. Then we 
saw open water hard by the land, but we perceived 
the ice to drive in the sea still towards the ship. 

The 27 of October the wind blew north-east, and 
it snowed so fast that we could not work without the 
door. That day our men killed a white fox, which 
they flayed, and after they had roasted it, ate thereof, 
which tasted like coney's flesh. The same day we set 
up our dial and made the clock strike, and we hung up a 
lamp to burn in the night time, wherein we used the fat 
of the bear, which we melted and burnt in the lamp. 

136 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

The 3 of November the wind blew north-west 
with calm weather, and the sun rose south and by 
east and somewhat more southerly, and went down 
south and by west and somewhat more southerly; 
and then we could see nothing but the upper part of 
the sun above the horizon, and yet the land, where we 
were, was as high as the mast of our ship. 

The 4 of November it was calm weather, but then 
we saw the sun no more, for it was no longer above 
the horizon. Then our chirurgeon made a bath, to 
bathe us in, of a wine pipe, wherein we entered one after 
the other, and it did us much good and was a great 
means of our health. The same day we took a white 
fox, that oftentimes came abroad, not as they used 
at other times ; for that when the bears left us at the 
setting of the sun, and came not again before it rose, 
the foxes, to the contrary, came abroad when they were 

The 5 of November the wind was north and some- 
what west, and then we saw open water upon the sea, 
but our ship lay still fast in the ice ; and when the sun 
had left us, we saw the moon continually both day and 
night, and it never went down, when it was in the 
highest degree. 

The 11 of November it was indifferent weather, 
the wind north-west. The same day we made a 
round hoop of cable yarn and like to a net, to catch 
foxes withal, that we might get them into the house, 
and it was made like a trap, which fell upon the 
f oxes as they came under it ; and that day we caught 

The 12 of November the wind blew east, with 
a cloudy sky. That day we began to share our wine ; 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 137 

every man had two glasses a day, but commonly our 
drink was water, which we melted out of snow, which 
we gathered without the house. 

The 13 of November it was foul weather, with 
great snow, the wind east. 

The 20 of November it was fair still weather, the 
wind easterly. Then we washed our shirts, but it 
was so cold that, when we had washed and wrung them, 
they presently froze so stiff that, although we laid 
them by a great fire, the side that lay next the fire 
thawed, but the other side was hard frozen; so that 
we should sooner have torn them in sunder than 
have opened them, whereby we were forced to put 
them into the seething water again to thaw them, it 
was so exceeding cold. 

The 21 of November it was indifferent weather 
with a north-east wind. Then we agreed that every 
man should take his turn to cleave wood, thereby to 
ease our cook, that had more than work enough to do 
twice a day, to dress meat and to melt snow for our 
drink; but our master and the pilot were exempted 
from that work. 

The 22 of November the wind was south-east, 
and it was fair weather; then we had but seventeen 
cheeses, whereof one we ate amongst us, and the rest 
were divided to every man one for his portion, which 
they might eat when he list. 

The 23 of November it was indifferent good 
weather, the wind south-east, and as we perceived that 
the foxes used to come oftener and more than they 
were wont, to take them the better we 'made certain 
traps of thick planks, whereon we laid stones, and 
round about them placed ends of spars fast in the 

138 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

ground, that they might not dig under them; and so 
got some of the foxes. 

The 28 of November it was foul stormy weather, 
and the wind blew hard out of the north, and it snowed 
hard, whereby we were shut up again in our house, 
the snow lay so closed before the doors. 

The 29 of November it was fair clear weather 
and a good air, the wind northerly; and we found 
means to open our door by shovelling away the snow, 
whereby we got one of our doors open ; and going out 
we found all our traps and springes clean covered over 
with snow, which we made clean, and set them up 
agam to take foxes; and that day we took one, 
which as then served us not only for meat, but of 
the skins we made caps to wear upon our heads, 
therewith to keep them warm from the extreme 

The 3 of December we had the like weather, at 
which times, as we lay in our cabins, we might hear 
the ice crack in the sea, and yet it was at the least 
two miles from us, which made a huge noise, and we 
were of opinion that as then the great hills of ice, 
which we had seen in the sea in summer time, brake 
one from the other. And for that during those two or 
three days, because of the extreme smoke, we made 
not so much fire as we commonly used to do, it froze 
so sore within the house, that the walls and the roof 
thereof were frozen two fingers thick with ice, and also 
in our cabins where we lay. All those three days, 
while we could not go out by reason of the foul weather, 
we set up the glass of twelve hours, and when it was 
run out, we set it up again, still watching it lest we 
should miss our time. For the cold was so great that 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 139 

our clock was frozen, and might not go, although we 
hung more weight on it than before. 

The 6 of December it was foul weather again, 
with an easterly wind and extreme cold, almost not to 
be endured; whereupon we looked pitifully one upon 
the other, being in great fear that, if the extremity of 
the cold grew to be more and more, we should all die 
there with cold, for that what fire soever we made, it 
would not warm us: yea, and our sack, which is so 
strong, was frozen very hard, so that when we were every 
man to have his part, we were forced to melt it over 
the fire, which we shared every second day about half 
a pint for a man, wherewith we were forced to sustain 
ourselves ; and at other times we drank water, which 
agreed not well with the cold, and we needed not to 
cool it with snow or ice, but we were forced to melt it 
out of the snow. 

The 7 of December it was still foul weather, and 
we had a great storm with a north-east wind, which 
brought an extreme cold with it; at which time we 
knew not what to do, and while we sat consulting 
together what were best for us to do, one of our com- 
panions gave us counsel to burn some of the sea-coals 
that we had brought out of the ship, which would 
cast a great heat and continue long ; and so at evening 
we made a great fire thereof, which cast a great heat. 
At which time we were very careful to keep it in, for that 
the heat being so great a comfort unto us, we took care 
how to make it continue long; whereupon we agreed 
to stop up all the doors and the chimney, thereby to 
keep in the heat, and so went into our cabins to sleep, 
well comforted with the heat, and so lay a great while 
talking together. But at last we were taken with a 

140 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

great swounding and dizziness in our heads, yet some 
more than other some, which we first perceived by a sick 
man and therefore the less able to bear it, and found 
ourselves to be very ill at ease, so that some of us 
that were strongest started out of their cabins, and 
first opened the chimney and then the doors, but he 
that opened the door fell down in a swound upon the 
snow. Which I hearing, as lying in my cabin next to 
the door, started up, and casting vinegar in his face 
recovered him again, and so he rose up. And when 
the doors were open, we all recovered our healths again 
by reason of the cold air; and so the cold, which 
before had been so great an enemy unto us, was then 
the only relief that we had, otherwise without doubt 
we had died in a sudden swound. After that, the 
master, when we were come to ourselves again, gave 
every one of us a little wine to comfort our hearts. 

The 8 of December it was foul weather, the wind 
northerly, very sharp and cold, but we durst lay no 
more coals on, as we did the day before, for that our 
misfortune had taught us that, to shun one danger, we 
should not run into another. 

The 9 of December it was fair clear weather, the 
sky full of stars; then we set our door wide open, 
which before was fast closed up with snow, and made 
our springes ready to take foxes. 

The 10 of December it was still fair starlight 
weather, the wind north-west. Then we took two 
foxes, which were good meat for us, for as then our 
victuals began to be scant and the cold still increased, 
whereunto their skins served us for a good defence. 

The 19 of December it was fair weather, the wind 
being south. Then we put each other in good comfort 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 141 

that the sun was then almost half over, and ready to 
come to us again, which we sore longed for, it being 
a weary time for us to be without the sun, and to want 
the greatest comfort that God sendeth unto man here 
upon the earth, and that which rejoiceth every living 

The 20 of December before noon it was fair clear 
weather, and then we had taken a fox; but towards 
evening there rose such a storm in the south-west, with 
so great a snow, that all the house was enclosed there- 

The 21 of December it was fair clear weather, 
with a north-east wind. Then we made our door 
clean again and made a way to go out, and cleansed 
our traps for the foxes, which did us great pleasure 
when we took them, for they seemed as dainty as 
venison unto us. 

The 26 of December it was foul weather, the 
wind north-west, and it was so cold that we could not 
warm us, although we used all the means we could, 
with great fires, good store of clothes, and with hot 
stones and balls laid upon our feet and upon our 
bodies, as we lay in our cabins ; but notwithstanding all 
this, in the morning our cabins were frozen white, which 
made us behold one the other with sad countenance. 
But yet we comforted ourselves again as well as we 
could, that the sun was then as low as it could go, 
and that it now began to come to us again, and we found 
it to be true ; for that the days beginning to lengthen, 
the cold began to strengthen, but hope put us in 
good comfort and eased our pain. 

The 27 of December it was still foul weather 
with a north-west wind, so that as then we had not 

142 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

been out in three days together, nor durst not thrust 
our heads out of doors; and within the house it was 
so extreme cold, that as we sat before a great fire, and 
seemed to burn on the fore side, we froze behind at 
our backs, and were all white, as the countrymen use 
to be, when they come in at the gates of the town in 
Holland with their sleds, and have gone all night. 

The 28 of December it was still foul weather, 
with a west wind, but about evening it began to clear 
up. At which time one of our men made a hole open 
at one of our doors, and went out to see what news 
abroad, but found it so hard weather that he stayed 
not long, and told us that it had snowed so much, that 
the snow lay "higher than our house, and that, if he had 
stayed out longer, his ears would undoubtedly have 
been frozen off. 

The 29 of December it was calm weather and a 
cloudy sky, the wind being southward. That day 
he, whose turn it was, opened the door and digged a 
hole through the snow, where we went out of the house 
upon steps, as if it had been out of a cellar, at least 
seven or eight steps high, each step a foot from the 

Anno 1597 

After that, with great cold, danger, and disease, 
we had brought the year unto an end, we entered into 
the year of our Lord God 1597, the beginning whereof 
was in the same manner as the end of anno 1596 had 
been; for the weather continued as cold, foul, and 
snowy as it was before, so that upon the first of January 
we were enclosed in the house, the wind then being 
west. At the same time we agreed to share our wine, 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 143 

every man a small measure full, and that but once in 
two days. And as we were in great care and fear that 
it would be long before we should get out from thence, 
and we having but small hope therein, some of us 
spared to drink wine as long as we could, that, if we 
should stay long there, we might drink it at our need. 

The 5 of January, when we had toiled all day, 
we remembered ourselves that it was Twelfth Even, 
and then we prayed our master that we might be 
merry that night, and said that we were content to 
spend some of the wine that night, which we had spared 
and which was our share every second day, and whereof 
for certain days we had not drunk; and so that night 
we made merry and drew for king. And therewith 
we had two pound of meal, whereof we made pancakes 
with oil, and we laid to every man a white biscuit, 
which we sopped in wine. And so, supposing that we 
were in our own country and amongst our friends, 
it comforted us as well as if we had made a great 
banquet in our own house. And we also distributed 
tickets, and our gunner was king of Nova Zembla, 
which is at least eight hundred miles long and lieth 
between two seas. 

The 16 of January it was fair weather, the wind 
northerly ; and then we went now and then out of the 
house to stretch out our joints and our limbs with going 
and running, that we might not become lame; and 
about noon time we saw a certain redness in the sky, 
as a show or messenger of the sun, that began to come 
towards us. 

The 23 of January it was fair calm weather, with 
a south-west wind. Then four of us went to the 
ship and comforted each other, giving God thanks 

144 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

that the hardest time of the winter was past, being in 
good hope that we should live to talk of those things 
at home in our own country; and when we were in 
the ship, we found that the water rose higher and 
higher in it, and so each of us taking a biscuit or two 
with us, we went home again. 

The 24 of January it was fair clear weather, with a 
west wind. Then I and Jacob Heemskerck, and another 
with us, went to the sea-side on the south side of Nova 
Zembla, where, contrary to our expectation, I, the first 
of all, saw the edge of the sun; wherewith we went 
speedily home again, to tell William Barents and the 
rest of our companions that joyful news. But William 
Barents, being a wise and well experienced pilot, would 
not believe it, esteeming it to be about fourteen days 
too soon for the sun to shine in that part of the world ; 
but we earnestly affirmed the contrary and said we 
had seen the sun. Whereupon divers wagers were 

The 25 and 26 of January it was misty and close 
weather, so that we could not see anything. Then 
they, that laid the contrary wager with us, thought 
that they had won; but upon the twenty-seven day 
it was clear weather, and then we saw the sun in his 
full roundness above the horizon, whereby it manifestly 
appeared that we had seen it upon the twenty-four 
day of January. 

The 26 of January in the evening the sick man, 
that was amongst us, was very weak, and felt himself 
to be extreme sick, for he had lain long time, and we 
comforted him as well as we might, and gave him the 
best admonition that we could, but he died not long 
after midnight. 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 145 

The 27 of January it was fair clear weather, with 
a south-west wind. Then in the morning we digged 
a hole in the snow, hard by the house, but it was still 
so extreme cold that we could not stay long at work, 
and so we digged by turns, every man a little while, 
and then went to the fire, and another went and 
supplied his place, till at last we digged seven foot 
depth, where we went to bury the dead man. After 
that, when we had read certain chapters and sung some 
psalms, we all went out and buried the man; which 
done, we went in and broke our fasts. And while 
we were at meat, and discoursed amongst ourselves 
touching the great quantity of snow, that continually 
fell in that place, we said that, if it fell out that our 
house should be closed up again with snow, we would find 
the means to climb out at the chimney. Whereupon our 
master went to try if he could climb up through the 
chimney and so get out, and while he was climbing, 
one of our men went forth of the door to see if the 
master were out or not, who, standing upon the snow, 
saw the sun, and called us all out; wherewith we all 
went forth and saw the sun in his full roundness a little 
above the horizon. And then it was without all doubt 
that we had seen the sun upon the 24 of January, 
which made us all glad, and we gave God hearty thanks 
for his grace shewed unto us, that that glorious light 
appeared unto us again. 

The 5 of February it was still foul weather, the 
wind being east with great store of snow, whereby 
we were shut up again into the house and had no other 
way to get out but by the chimney, and those, that 
could not climb out, were fain to help themselves within 
as well as they could. 

A. P. 10 

146 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

The 12 of February it was clear weather and very 
calm, the wind south-west. Then we made our traps 
and springes clean again. Meantime there came a great 
bear towards our house, which made us all go in, and 
we levelled at her with our muskets, and as she came 
right before our door, we shot her into the breast clean 
through the heart, the bullet passing through her body 
and went out again at her tail, and was as flat as a 
counter. The bear feeling the blow, leapt backwards, 
and ran twenty or thirty foot from the house, and there 
lay down, wherewith we leapt all out of the house 
and ran to her, and found her still alive. And when 
she saw us, she reared up her head, as if she would gladly 
have done us some mischief; but we trusted her not, 
for that we had tried her strength sufficiently before, 
and therefore we shot her twice into the body again, 
and therewith she died. Then we ripped up her belly, 
and taking out her guts, drew her home to the house, 
where we flayed her and took at least one hundred 
pound of fat out of her belly, which we melted and 
burnt in our lamp. This grease did us great good 
service, for by that means we still kept a lamp burning 
all night long, which before we could not do for want 
of grease; and every man had means to burn a lamp 
in his cabin for such necessaries as he had to do. The 
bear's skin was nine foot long, and seven foot broad. 

The 13 of February it was fair clear weather with 
a hard west wind, at which time we had more light in 
our house by burning of lamps, whereby we had means 
to pass the time away by reading and other exercises, 
which before (when we could not distinguish day from 
night by reason of the darkness, and had not lamps 
continually burning) we could not do. 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 147 

The 18 of February it was foul weather with much 
snow and very cold, the wind being south-west; and 
in the night time, as we burnt lamps and some of our 
men lay awake, we heard beasts run upon the roof of 
our house, which by reason of the snow made the 
noise of their feet sound more than otherwise it would 

How we shot a bear, wherefrom we got a good hundred pounds' 
weight of grease 

have done, the snow was so hard and cracked so much 
that it gave a great sound, whereby we thought they 
had been bears ; but when it was day, we saw no footing 
but of foxes, and we thought they had been bears, for 
the night, which of itself is solitary and fearful, made 
that which was doubtful to be more doubtful and 
worse feared. 


148 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

The 22 of February it was clear fair weather with a 
south-west wind. Then we made ready a sled to fetch 
more wood, for need compelled us thereunto; for, as 
they say, hunger driveth the wolf out of the wood. 
And eleven of us went together, all well appointed with 
our arms; but coming to the place where we should 
have the wood, we could not come by it, by reason it 
lay so deep under the snow, whereby of necessity we 
were compelled to go further, where with great labour 
and trouble we got some; but as we returned back 
again therewith, it was so sore labour unto us that we 
were almost out of comfort, for that by reason of the 
long cold and trouble that we had endured, we were 
become so weak and feeble that we had little strength, 
and we began to be in doubt that we should lose our 
strength, and should not be able to fetch any more 
wood, and so we should have died with cold; but 
the present necessity, and the hope we had of better 
weather, increased our forces, and made us do more 
than our strengths afforded. And when we came near 
to our house, we saw much open water in the sea, 
which in long time we had not seen, which also put 
us in good comfort that things would be better. 

The 3 of March it was fair weather, with a south- 
west wind ; at which- time our sick men were somewhat 
better, and sat upright in their cabins to do some- 
thing to pass the time away, but after they found 
that they were too ready to stir before their times. 

The 4 of March it was fair weather with a west 
wind. The same day there came a bear to our house, 
whom we watched with our pieces as we did before, 
and shot at her and hit her, but she run away. At 
that time five of us went to our ship, where we found 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 149 

that the bears had madfe work, and had opened our 
cook's cupboard, that was covered over with snow, 
thinking to find something in it, and had drawn it 
out of the ship, where we found it. 

The 11 of March twelve of us went to the place 
where we used to go, to fetch a sled of wood, but still 
we had more pain and labour therewith, because we 
were weaker; and when we came home with it and 
were very weary, we prayed the master to give either 
of us a draught of wine, which he did, wherewith we 
were somewhat relieved and comforted, and after that 
were the willinger to labour, which was unsupportable 
for us, if mere extremity had not compelled us there- 
unto, saying oftentimes one unto the other, that if 
the wood were to be bought for money, we would give 
all our earnings or wages for it. 

The 3 of April it was fair clear weather, with a 
north-east wind and very calm; then we made a staff 
to play at golf, thereby to stretch our joints, which 
we sought, by all the means we could, to do. 

The 6 of April it was still foul weather, with a 
stiff north-west wind. That night there came a bear 
to our house, and we did the best we could to shoot at 
her, but because it was moist weather and the powder 
damp, our piece would not give fire, wherewith the 
bear came boldly toward the house, and came down 
the stairs close to the door, seeking to break into the 
house ; but our master held the door fast to, and being 
in great haste and fear, could not bar it with the piece 
of wood that we used thereunto; but the bear seeing 
that the door was shut, she went back again, and 
within two hours after she came again, and went round 
about and upon the top of the house, and made such 

150 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

a roaring, that it was fearful to hear, and at last got 
to the chimney, and made such work there, that we 
thought she would have broken it down, and tore the 
sail, that was made fast about it, in many pieces with a 
great and fearful noise; but for that it was night we 
made no resistance against her, because we could not 
see her. At last she went away and left us. 

The 15 of April it was fair calm weather with a 
north wind; then seven of us went aboard the ship 
to see in what case it was, and found it to be all in one 
sort; and as we came back again there came a great 
bear towards us, against whom we began to make 
defence ; but she perceiving that, made away from us, 
and we went to the place from whence she came, to see 
her den, where we found a great hole made in the ice, 
about a man's length in depth, the entry thereof being 
very narrow, and within wide. There we thrust in our 
pikes to feel if there was anything within it, but 
perceiving it was empty, one of our men crept into it, 
but not too far, for it was fearful to behold. After that 
we went along by the sea side, and there we saw that 
in the end of March and the beginning of April the 
ice was in such wonderful manner risen and piled up 
one upon the other, that it was wonderful, in such 
manner as if there had been whole towns made of ice, 
with towers and bulwarks round about them. 

The 16 of April it was foul weather, the wind 
north-west, whereby the ice began somewhat to break. 

The 17 of April it was fair clear weather with a 
south-west wind; and then seven of us went to the 
ship, and there we saw open water in the sea, and then 
we went over the ice hills as well as we could to the 
water, for in six or seven months we had not gone so 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 151 

near unto it; and when we got to the water, there 
we saw a little bird swimming therein, but as soon as 
it espied us, it dived under the water, which we took 
for a sign that there was more open water in the 
sea than there had been before, and that the time 
approached that the water would be open. 

The 29 of April it was fair weather with a south- 
west wind. Then we played at golf, both to the ship 
and from thence again homeward, to exercise our- 

The 30 of April it was fair weather, the wind 
south-west; then in the night we could see the sun in 
the north, when it was in the highest, just above the 
horizon, so that from that time we saw the sun both 
night and day. 

The 1 of May it was fair weather with a west wind ; 
then we sod our last flesh, which for a long time we had 
spared, and it was still very good, and the last morsel 
tasted as well as the first, only it had but one fault, 
which was that it would last no longer. 

The 2 of May it was foul weather with a storm 
out of the south-west, whereby the sea was almost 
clear of ice, and then we began to speak about getting 
from thence, for we had kept house long enough there. 

The 3 of Mayat was still foul weather with a south- 
west wind, whereby the ice began wholly to drive away, 
but it lay fast about the ship. And when our best meat, 
as flesh, barley, and other things, began to fail us, which 
was our greatest sustenance, and that it behoved us 
to be somewhat strong, to sustain the labour that we 
were to undergo when we went from thence, the master 
shared the rest of the pork amongst us, which was a 
small barrel with salt pork in pickle, whereof every 

152 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

one of us haoLtwo ounces a day, which continued for 
the space of three weeks, and then it was eaten up. 

The 4 of May it was indifferent fair weather, the 
wind south-west. That day five of us went to the ship, 
and found it lying still as fast in the ice, more than 
before; for about the middle of March it was but 75 
paces from the open water, and now it was 500 paces 
from the water and enclosed round about with high 
hills of ice, which put us in no small fear how we 
should bring our scute and our boat through or over 
that way into the water, when we went to leave that 

The 9 of May it was fair clear weather with an 
indifferent wind out of the north-east; at which time 
the desire, that our men had to be gone from thence, 
still more and more increased, and then they agreed 
to speak to William Barents to move the master to go 
from thence, but he held them off with fair words; 
and yet it was not done in a mutinous manner, but to 
take the best counsel with reason and good advice, for 
they let themselves easily be talked over. 

The 20 of May at noon we spake unto the master, 
and told him that it was time to make preparation to 
be gone, if he would ever get away from thence ; where- 
unto he made answer that his own life was as dear unto 
him as any of ours unto us, nevertheless he willed us 
to make haste to prepare our clothes and other things 
ready and fit for our voyage, and that in the meantime 
we should patch and amend them, that after it might 
be no hindrance unto us, and that we should stay till 
the month of May was past, and then make ready the 
scute and the boat and all other things fit and convenient 
for our journey. 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 153 

The 22 of May it was fair weather with a north- 
west wind; and for that we had almost spent all our 
wood, we brake the portal of our door down and 
burnt it. 

The 28 of May it was foul weather with a north- 
west wind ; after noon it began to be somewhat better. 
Then seven of us went unto the ship, and fetched such 
things from thence as should serve us for the furnishing 
of our scute and our boat, as the old foresail to make 
the sails for our boat and our scute, and some tackles 
and other things necessary for us. 

The 29 of May, in the morning, it was reasonable fair 
weather with a west wind. Then ten of us went unto 
the scute to bring it to the house to dress it and make 
it ready to sail, but we found it deep hidden under the 
snow, and were fain with great pain and labour to dig 
it out ; but when we had gotten it out of the snow, and 
thought to draw it to the house, we could not do it, 
because we were too weak. Wherewith we became 
wholly out of heart, doubting that we should not be 
able to go forward with our labour; but the master 
encouraging us bade us strive to do more than we were 
able, saying that both our lives and our welfare con- 
sisted therein, and that if we could not get the scute 
from thence and make it ready, then he said we must 
dwell there as burghers of Nova Zembla, and make our 
graves in that place. But there wanted no good will 
in us, but only strength, which made us for that time 
to leave off work and let the scute lie still, which was 
no small grief unto us and trouble to think what were 
best for us to do. But after noon, being thus comfort- 
less come home, we took heart again, and determined 
to turn the boat, that lay by the house with her keel 

154 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

upwards, and to amend it and heighten the gunwales, 
that it might be the fitter to carry us over the sea; 
for we made full account that we had a long, trouble- 
some voyage in hand, wherein we might have many 
crosses, and wherein we should not be sufficiently 
provided for all things necessary, although we took 

How we made ready to sail back again to Holland 

never so much care. And while we were busy about 
our work there came a great bear unto us. Where- 
with we went into our house and stood to watch her 
in our three doors with arquebuses, and one stood in 
the chimney with a musket. This bear came boldlier 
unto us than ever any had done before; for she came 
to the nether step that went to one of our doors, and 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 155 

the man that stood in the door saw her not, because 
he looked towards the other door. But they that 
stood within saw her and in great fear called to him, 
wherewith he turned about, and although he was 
in a maze he shot at her, and the bullet passed clean 
through her body: whereupon she ran away. Yet it 
was a fearful thing to see, for the bear was almost upon 
him before he saw her, so that if the piece had failed 
to give fire (as oftentimes they do) it had cost him his 
life, and it may be that the bear would have gotten 
into the house. The bear being gone somewhat from 
the house, lay down. Wherewith we went all armed 
and killed her outright, and when we had ripped open 
her belly we found a piece of a buck therein, with hair, 
skin and all, which not long before she had torn and 

The 30 of May it was indifferent fair weather, 
not very cold, but dark, the wind west. Then we 
began to set ourselves to work about the boat to amencl 
it, the rest staying in the house to make the sails and 
all other things ready that were necessary for us. But 
while we were busy working at our boat, there came 
a bear unto us, wherewith we were forced to leave 
work ; but she was shot by our men. Then we brake 
down the planks of the roof of our house, to amend our 
boat withal, and so proceeded in our work as well as we 
could ; for every man was willing to labour, for we had 
sore longed for it, and did more than we were able to do. 

The 31 of May it was fair weather, but somewhat 
colder than before, the wind being south-west, whereby 
the ice drave away, and we wrought hard about our 
boat. But when we were in the chiefest part of work, 
there came another bear, as if they had smelt that we 

156 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

would be gone, and that therefore they desired to taste 
a piece of some of us ; for that was the third day, one 
after the other, that they set so fiercely upon us. So that 
we were forced to leave our work and go into the house, 
and she followed us ; but we stood with our pieces to 
watch her, and shot three pieces at her, two from our 
doors and one out of the chimney, which all three hit 
her, whereby she fared as the dog did with the pudding. 
But her death did us more hurt than her life, for after 
we ripped her belly, we dressed her liver and ate it, 
which in the taste liked us well, but it made us all sick, 
specially three that were exceeding sick, and we verily 
thought that we should have lost them, for all their 
skins came off from the foot to the head. But yet they 
recovered again, for the which we gave God hearty 
thanks ; for if as then we had lost these three men, it 
was a hundred to one that we should never have gotten 
from thence, because we should have had too few men 
to draw and lift at our need. 

The 3 of June, in the morning, it was fair clear 
weather, the wind west; and then we were somewhat 
better, and took great pains with the boat, that at 
last we got it ready, after we had wrought six days upon 
it. About evening it began to blow hard, and there- 
with the water was very open, which put us in good 
comfort that our deliverance would soon follow, and 
that we should once get out of that desolate and 
fearful place. 

The 4 of June it was fair clear weather and indifferent 
warm ; and about the south-east sun (half past 7 a.m.) 
eleven of us went to our scute where it then lay, and 
drew it towards the ship. At which time the labour 
seemed lighter unto us than it did before, when we took 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 157 

it in hand and were forced to leave it off again. The 
reason thereof was the opinion that we had, that the 
snow as then lay harder upon the ground, and so was 
become stronger, and it may be that our courages were 
better to see that the time gave us open water, and that 
our hope was that we should get from thence. And so 
three of our men stayed by the scute to build her to 
our minds ; and for that it was a herring scute, which 
are made narrow behind, therefore they sawed it off 
behind, and made it a broad stern and better to brook 
the seas. They built it also somewhat higher, and 
dressed it up as well they could. The rest of our men 
were busy in the house to make all other things ready 
for our voyage, and that day drew two sleds with 
victuals and other goods unto the ship, that lay about 
half way between the house and the open water, so that 
after they might have so much the shorter way to carry 
the goods unto the water side, when we should go away. 
At which time all the labour and pains that we took 
seemed light and easy unto us, because of the hope 
that we had to get out of that wild, desert, irksome, 
fearful, and cold country. 

The 11 of June it was foul weather and it blew 
hard north-north-west, so that all day we could do 
nothing, and we were in great fear lest the storm would 
carry the ice and the ship both away together (which 
might well have come to pass) ; then we should have 
been in greater misery than ever we were, for that our 
goods, both victuals and others, were then all in the 
ship ; but God provided so well for us, that it fell not 
out so unfortunately. 

The 12 of June it was indifferent fair weather. 
Then we went with hatchets, halberds, shovels, and 

158 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

other instruments, to make the way plain where we 
should draw the scute and the boat to the water side, 
along the way that lay full of knobs and hills of ice, 
where we wrought sore with our hatchets and other 
instruments. And while we were in the chief est of 
our work, there came a great lean bear out of the sea 
upon the ice towards us, which we judged to come out 
of Tartaria, for we had seen of them 80 or 120 miles 
within the sea. And for that we had no muskets, but 
only one which our surgeon carried, I ran in great haste 
towards the ship to fetch one or two, which the bear 
perceiving ran after me, and was very likely to have 
overtaken me ; but our company seeing that, left their 
work and ran after her, which made the bear turn 
towards them and left me. But when she ran towards 
them, she was shot into the body by the surgeon, and 
ran away ; but because the ice was so uneven and hilly, 
she could not go far, but being by us overtaken, we 
killed her outright, and smote her teeth out of her 
head, while she was yet living. 

The 13 of June it was fair weather. Then the 
master and the carpenters went to the ship, and there 
made the scute and the boat ready, so that there rested 
nothing as then, but only to bring it down to the water 
side. The master and those that were with him, seeing 
that it was open water and a good west wind, came 
back to the house again, and there he spake unto 
William Barents (that had been long sick), and showed 
him that he thought it good (seeing it was a fit time) 
to go from thence, and so willed the company to drive 
the boat and the scute down to the water side, and in 
the name of God to begin our voyage to sail from Nova 
Zembla. Then William Barents wrote a letter, which 





160 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

he put into a musket's charge and hanged it up in the 
chimney, showing how we came out of Holland to sail 
to the kingdom of China, and what had happened unto 
us being there on land, with all our crosses, that if any 
man chanced to come thither, they might know what 
had happened unto us, and how we had been forced 
in our extremity to make that house, and had dwelt 
10 months therein. And for that we were now forced 
to put to sea in two small open boats and to undertake 
a dangerous and adventurous voyage in hand, the 
master wrote two letters, which most of us subscribed 
unto, signifying how we had stayed there upon the land 
in great trouble and misery, in hope that our ship would 
be freed from the ice and that we should sail away with 
it again, and how it fell out to the contrary, and that 
the ship lay fast in the ice ; so that in the end, the time 
passing away and our victuals beginning to fail us, we 
were forced, for the saving of our own lives, to leave 
the ship and to sail away in our open boats, and so to 
commit ourselves into the hands of God. Of which 
letters each boat had one, that if we chanced to lose 
one another, or that by storms or any other misadven- 
ture we happened to be cast away, that then by the 
scute that escaped men might know how we left each 
other. And so, having finished all things as we de- 
termined, we drew the boat to the water side and left a 
man in it, and went and fetched the scute, and after 
that eleven sleds with goods, as victuals and some wine 
that yet remained, and the merchants' goods, of which 
we took every care to preserve as much as was possible, 
viz., six packs with fine woollen cloth, a chest with linen, 
two packets with velvet, two small chests with money, 
two dry fats with the men's clothes and other things, 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 161 

13 barrels of bread, a barrel of cheese, a flitch of bacon, 
two runlets of oil, six small runlets of wine, two runlets 
of vinegar, with other packs belonging to the sailors; 
so that when they lay all together upon a heap, a man 
would have judged that they would not have gone into 
the scutes. Which being all put into them, we went 
to the house, and first drew William Barents upon a 
sled to the place where our scutes lay, and after that 
we fetched Nicholas Andrewson, both of them having 
been long sick. And so we entered into the scutes and 
divided ourselves into each of them alike, and put into 
either of them a sick man. Then the master caused 
both the scutes to lie close one by the other, and there we 
subscribed to the letters which he had written. And 
so committing ourselves to the will and mercy of God, 
with a west -north- west wind and an indifferent open 
water, we set sail and put to sea. 

The 14 of June, in the morning, the sun easterly, 
we put off from the land of Nova Zembla and the fast 
ice thereunto adjoining, with our boat and our scute, 
having a west wind, and sailed east-north-east all that 
day to Island Point, which was 20 miles; but our 
first beginning was not very good, for we entered fast 
into the ice again, which there lay very hard and fast; 
which put us into no small fear and trouble. And being 
there, four of us went on land, to know the situation 
thereof, and there we took four birds, which we killed 
with stones upon the cliffs. 

The 15 of June the ice began to go away; then we 
put to sail again with a south wind, and passed along 
by the Head Point and Flushing Point, stretching most 
north-east, and after that north, to Cape Desire, which 
is about 52 miles, and there we lay till the 16 of June. 

A. P. 11 

162 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

The 16 of June we set sail again, and got to the 
Islands of Orange with a south wind, which is 32 miles 
distant from Cape Desire. There we went on land 
with two small barrels and a kettle, to melt snow 
and to put the water into the barrels, as also to seek 
for birds and eggs to make meat for our sick men. 
And being there, we made fire with such wood as we 
found there, and melted the snow, but found no birds ; 
but three of our men went over the ice to the other 
island, and got three birds, and as we came back again 
our master (which was one of the three) fell into the 
ice, where he was in great danger of his life, for in that 
place there ran a great stream; but by God's help he 
got out again and came to us, and there dried himself 
by the fire that we had made ; at which fire we drest the 
birds, and carried them to the scute to our sick men, 
and filled our two runlets with water, that held about 
eight quarts apiece. Which done, we put to the sea again 
with a south-east wind and drowsy mizzling weather, 
whereby we were all dankish and wet, for we had no 
shelter in our open scutes, and sailed west and west 
and by south to the Ice Point. And being there, both 
our scutes lying hard by each other, the master called 
to William Barents to know how he did, and William 
Barents made answer and said, "Well, God be thanked, 
and I hope, before we get to Warehouse, to be able to 
go." Then he spake to me and said, " Gerrit, are we 
about the Ice Point? If we be, then I pray you lift 
me up, for I must view it once again." At which time 
we had sailed from the Islands of Orange to the Ice 
Point, about 20 miles ; an<i then the wind went round 
to the west, and we made our scutes fast to a great 
piece of ice, and there ate somewhat. But the weather 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 163 

was still fouler and fouler, so that we were once again 
enclosed with ice and forced to stay there. 

The 17 of June, in the morning, when we had 
broken our fasts, the ice came so fast upon us, that it 
made our hairs stand upright upon our heads, it was 
so fearful to behold. By which means we could not 
save our scutes, so that we thought verily that it was 
a foreshowing of our last end ; for we drave away 
so hard with the ice, and were so sore pressed between 
a flake of ice, that we thought verily the scutes would 
burst in a hundred pieces, which made us look pitifully 
one upon the other, for no counsel nor advice was to 
be found, but every minute of an hour we saw death 
before our eyes. At last, being in this discomfort 
and extreme necessity, the master said, if we could take 
hold with a rope upon the fast ice, we might therewith 
draw the scute up, and so get it out of the great drift 
of ice. But as this counsel was good, yet it was so full 
of danger, that it was the hazard of his life, that should 
take upon him to do it; and without doing it, was it 
most certain that it would cost us all our lives. This 
counsel (as I said) was good, but no man (like to the 
tale of the mice) durst hang the bell about the cat's 
neck, fearing to be drowned; yet necessity required 
to have it done, and the most danger made us choose 
the least. So that being in that perplexity, 1 being 
the lightest of all our company, took on me to fasten 
a rope upon the fast ice; and so creeping from one 
piece of driving ice to another, by God's help got to 
the fast ice, where I made a rope fast to a high ho well, 
and they that were in the scute drew it thereby unto 
the said fast ice, and then one man alone could draw 
more than all of them could have done before. And 


164 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

when we had gotten thither, in all haste we took our 
sick men out and laid them upon the ice, laying clothes 
and other things under them, and then took all our 
goods out of the scutes, and so drew them upon the 
ice. whereby for that time we were delivered from that 
great danger, making account that we had escaped 
out of death's claws, as it was most true. 

The 18 of June we repaired and amended our 
scutes again, being much bruised and crushed with the 
racking of the ice, and were forced to drive all the nails 
fast again, and to piece many things about them, 
God sending us wood wherewith we molt our pitch, 
and did all other things that belonged thereunto. 
That done, some of us went upon the land to seek for 
eggs, which the sick men longed for, but we could find 
none; but we found four birds, not without great 
danger of our lives between the ice and the firm land, 
wherein we often fell, and were in no small danger. 

The 19 of June it was indifferent weather, the 
wind north-west and west-south-west, but we were still 
shut up in the ice and saw no opening, which made us 
think that there would be our last abode, and that we 
should never get from thence; but on the other side 
we comforted ourselves again, that seeing God had 
helped us oftentimes unexpectedly in many perils, and 
that His arm as yet was not shortened, but that He 
could help us at His goodwill and pleasure, it made us 
somewhat comfortable, and caused us to speak cheer- 
fully one unto the other. 

The 20 of June it was indifferent weather, the 
wind west, and when the sun was south-east, Nicholas 
Andre wson began to be extreme sick, whereby we 
perceived that he would not live long, and the boatswain 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 165 

came into our scute and told us in what case he was, 
and that he could not long continue alive. Whereupon 
William Barents spake and said, "I think I shall not 
live long after him " ; and yet we did not judge William 
Barents to be so sick, for we sat talking one with the 
other, and spake of many things, and William Barents 
looked at my card which I had made touching our 
voyage. At last he laid away the card and spake unto 
me, saying, " Gerrit, give me some drink; " and he had 
no sooner drunk, but he was taken with so sudden a 
qualm, that he turned his eyes in his head, and died 
presently, and we had no time to call the master out 
of the other scute to speak unto him ; and so he died 
before Nicholas Andre wson. The death of William 
Barents put us in no small discomfort, as being the 
chief guide and only pilot on whom we reposed our- 
selves next under God ; but we could not strive against 
God, and therefore we must of force be content. 

The 21 of June the ice began to drive away again, 
and God made us some opening with a south-south-west 
wind; and when the sun was north-west, the wind 
began to blow south-east with a good gale, and we 
began to make preparations to go from thence. 

The 22 of June, in the morning, it blew a good 
gale out of the south-east, and then the sea was reason- 
able open ; but we were forced to draw our scutes over 
the ice to get unto it, which was great pain and labour 
unto us. For first we were forced to draw our scutes 
over a piece of ice of 50 paces long, and there put 
them into the water, and then again to draw them up 
upon other ice, and after draw them at the least 300 
paces more over the ice, before we could bring them 
to a good place, where we might easily get out. And 

166 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

being gotten unto the open water, we committed 
ourselves to God and set sail, the sun being about 
east-north-east, with an indifferent gale of wind out of 
the south and south-south-east, and sailed west and west 
and by south, till the sun was south ; and then we were 
round about enclosed with ice again, and could not 
get out, but were forced to lie still. But not long after, 
the ice opened again like to a sluice, and we passed 
through it and set sail again, and so sailed along by 
the land, but were presently enclosed with ice; but 
being in hope of opening again, meantime we ate 
somewhat, for the ice went not away as it did before. 
After that, we used all the means we could to break 
it, but all in vain ; and yet, a good while after, the ice 
opened again, and we got out and sailed along by the 
land, west and by south, with a south wind. 

The 23 of June we sailed still forward west and 
by south till the sun was south-east, and got to Cape 

The 25 of June it blew a great south wind, and 
the ice whereunto we made ourselves fast was not 
very strong, whereby we were in great fear, that we 
should break off from it and drive into the sea; for 
when the sun was in the west, a piece of that ice brake 
off, whereby we were forced to dislodge and make our- 
selves fast to another piece of ice. 

The 26 of June it still blew hard out of the south, 
and broke the ice, whereunto we were fast, in pieces; 
and we thereby drave into the sea, and could get no 
more to the fast ice, whereby we were in a thousand 
dangers to be all cast away. And driving in that sort 
in the sea, we rowed as much as we could, but we could 
not get near unto the land : therefore we hoised up 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 167 

our foresail, and tried to do it with our sails. But our 
foremast brake twice in pieces, and then it was worse 
for us than before ; and notwithstanding that there 
blew a great gale of wind, yet we were forced to hoise 
up our main-sail. But the wind blew so hard into it, 
that, if we had not presently taken it in again, we had 
been capsized, or else our boat would have been filled 
with water. For the water began to leap over board, 
and we were a good way in the sea, at which time the 
waves went so hollow that it was most fearful, and 
we thereby saw nothing but death before our eyes, 
and every twinkling of an eye looked when we should 
sink. But God, that had delivered us out of so many 
dangers of death, holp us once again, and contrary 
to our expectations sent us a north-west wind, and so 
with great danger we got to the fast ice again. When 
we were delivered out of that danger, and knew not 
where our other scute was, we sailed four miles along 
by the fast ice, but found it not. Whereby we were 
wholly out of heart and in great fear that they were 
drowned; at which time it was misty weather. And 
so sailing along, and hearing no news of our other 
scute, we shot off a musket, which they hearing shot 
off another, but yet we could not see each other. Mean- 
time, approaching nearer to each other, and the weather 
waxing somewhat clearer, as we and they shot once 
again, we saw the smoke of their pieces ; and at last 
we met together again, and saw them lie fast between 
driving and fast ice. And when we got near unto them, 
we went over the ice and holp them to unlade the 
goods out of their scute, and drew it over the ice, and 
with much pain and trouble brought it into the open 
water again ; and while they were fast in the ice, they 

168 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

had found some wood upon the land by the sea side; 
and when we lay by each other, we sod some bread 
and water together and ate it up warm, which did us 
much good. 

The 28 of June, when the sun was in the east, 
we laid all our goods upon the ice, and then drew the 
scutes upon the ice also, because we were so hardly 
pressed on all sides with the ice, and the wind came 
out of the sea upon the land, and therefore we were in 
fear to be wholly enclosed with the ice, and should not 
-be able to get out thereof again. And being upon the 
ice, we made a tent of our sails, and lay down to rest, 
appointing one of our men to keep watch. And when 
the sun was north there came three bears towards 
our scutes, wherewith he that kept the watch cried, 
" Three bears ! three bears ! " At which noise we leapt 
out of our boats with our muskets, that were laden with 
hail-shot to shoot at birds, and had no time to discharge 
them, and therefore shot at them therewith. And 
although that kind of shot could not hurt them much, 
yet they ran away ; and in the meantime they gave us 
leisure to load our muskets with bullets, and by that 
means we shot one of the three dead. Which the other 
two perceiving, ran away, but within two hours after 
they came again; but when they were almost at us 
and heard us make a noise, they ran away. At which 
time the wind was west and west and by north, which 
made the ice drive with great force into the east. 

The 29 of June, the sun being south -south -west, 
the two bears came again to the place where the dead 
bear lay, where one of them took the dead bear in his 
mouth, and went a great way with it over the rugged 
ice, and then began to eat it. Which we perceiving, 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 169 

shot a musket at her, but she hearing the noise thereof, 
ran away, and let the dead bear lie. Then four of us 
went thither, and saw that in so short a time she had 
eaten almost the half of her; and we took the dead 
bear and laid it upon a high heap of ice, so that we 
might see it out of our scute, that if the bear came 
again we might shoot at her. At which time we found 
out the great strength of the bear, that carried the 
dead bear as lightly in her mouth, as if it had been 
nothing; whereas we four had enough to do, to carry 
away the half dead bear between us. Then the wind 
still held west, which drave the ice into the east. 

The 1 of July it was indifferent fair weather, with 
a west-north-west wind; and in the morning, the sun 
being east, there came a bear from the driving ice, and 
swam over the water to the fast ice, whereon we lay ; 
but when she heard us, she came no nearer, but ran 
away. And when the sun was south-east, the ice 
came so fast in towards us, that all the ice, whereon 
we lay with our scutes and our goods, brake and ran 
one piece upon another ; whereby we were in no small 
difficulty, for at that time most of our goods fell into 
the water. But we with great diligence drew our scute 
further upon the ice towards the land, where we thought 
to be better defended from the driving of the ice. And 
as we went to fetch our goods, we f$ll into the greatest 
trouble that ever we had before ; for that we endured 
so great danger in the saving thereof, that as we laid 
hold upon one piece thereof, the rest sunk down with the 
ice, and many times the ice brake under our own feet. 
Whereby we were wholly discomforted and in a manner 
clean out of all hope, expecting no issue thereof; in 
such sort that our trouble at that time surmounted all 

170 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

our former cares and impeachments. And when we 
thought to draw up our boat upon the ice, the ice 
brake under us, and we were carried away with the 
scute and all by the driving ice ; and when we thought 
to save the goods, the ice brake under our feet, and 
with that the scute brake in many places, especially 
that which we had mended, as the mast, the mast 
plank, and almost all the scute, wherein one of our 
men that was sick and a chest of money lay, which 
we with great danger of our lives got out from it. For 
as we were doing it, the ice that was under our feet 
drave from us and slid away under the other ice; 
whereby we were in danger to burst both our arms 
and our legs. At which time, thinking that we had 
been clean quit of our scute, we beheld each other 
in pitiful manner, knowing not what we should do, 
our lives depending thereon. But God made so good 
provision for us, that the pieces of ice drave from each 
other ; wherewith we ran in great haste unto the scute 
and drew it to us again in such case as it was, and 
laid it upon the fast ice by the boat, where it was in 
more security; which put us unto an exceeding and 
great and dangerous labour, from the time tha,t the 
sun was south-east until it was west-south-west. And 
in all that time we rested not, which made us extreme 
weary and wholly out of comfort ; for that it troubled 
us sore, and it was much more fearful unto us, than at 
that time when William Barents died: for there we 
were almost drowned, and that day we lost (which was 
sunk in the sea) two barrels of bread, a chest with linen 
cloth, a dryfat with the sailors' clothes, our astrono- 
mical ring, a pack of scarlet cloth, a runlet of oil, and 
some cheeses, and a runlet of wine, which bunged 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 171 

with the ice, so that there was not anything thereof 

The 2 of July, the sun east, there came another 
bear unto us, but we making a noise, she ran away; 
and when the sun was west-south-west it began to be 
fair weather. Then we began to mend our scute with 
the planks wherewith we had made the bottom boards ; 
and while six of us were busied about mending of our 
scute, the other six went further into the land, to seek 
for some wood, and to fetch some stones to lay upon 
the ice, that we might make a fire thereon, therewith to 
melt our pitch, which we should need about the scute, 
as also to see if they could fetch any wood for a mast ; 
which they found with certain stones, and brought 
them where the scutes lay. And when they came to 
us again, they shewed us that they had found certain 
wood, which had been cloven, and brought some wedges 
with them, wherewith the said wood had been cloven ; 
whereby it appeared that men had been there. Then 
we made all the haste we could to make a fire, and to 
melt our pitch, and to do all other things that were 
necessary to be done for the repairing of our scute, 
so that we got it ready again by that the sun was north- 
east ; at which time also we roasted our birds and made 
a good meal with them. 

The 3 of July, in the morning, the sun being east, 
two of our men went to the water, and there they found 
two of our oars, our helm stick, the pack of scarlet 
cloth, the chest with linen cloth, and a hat that fell 
out of the dryf at ; whereby we guessed that it was 
broken in pieces. Which they perceiving, took as much 
with them as they could carry, and came unto us, 
showing us that they had left more goods behind them. 

172 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

Whereupon the master with five more of us went 
thither, and drew all the goods upon the firm ice, that 
when we went away we might take it with us; but 
they could not carry the chest nor the pack of cloth 
(that were full of water), because of their weight ; but 
were forced to let them stand till we went away, that 
the water might drop out of them, and we might after- 
wards fetch them, as we did. The sun being south-west, 
there came another great bear unto us, which the man 
that kept watch saw not, and had been devoured by 
her, if one of our other men from out of the boat had 
not espied her, and called to him that kept watch to 
look to himself, who therewith ran away. Meantime 
the bear was shot into the body, but she escaped ; and 
that time the wind was east-north-east. 

The 10 of July, from the time that the sun was 
east-north-east till it was east, we took great pains and 
labour to get through the ice ; and at last we got through 
and rowed forth, until we happened to fall between two 
great fields of ice, that closed one with the other, so that 
we could not get through, but were forced to draw the 
scutes upon them, and to unlade the goods, and then to 
draw them over to the open water on the other side ; and 
then we must go fetch the goods also to the same place, 
being at least 110 paces long, which was very hard for 
us .; but there was no remedy, for it was but a folly for 
us to think of any weariness. And when we were in 
the open water again, we rowed forward as well as we 
could, but we had not rowed long before we fell between 
two great fields of ice, that came driving one against 
the other; but by God's help and our speedy rowing 
we got from between them, before they closed up ; and 
being through, we had a hard west wind right in our 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 173 

teeth, so that of force we were constrained to make 
towards the fast ice that lay by the shore, and at last 
with much trouble we got unto it. And being there, 
we thought to row along by the fast ice unto an island 
that we saw before us; but by reason of the hard 
contrary wind we could not go far, so that we were 
compelled to draw the scutes and the goods upon the 
ice, to see what issue God would send us. But our 
courages were cooled to see ourselves so often enclosed 
in the ice. being in great fear that by means of the long 
and continual pains (which we were forced to take) we 
should lose all our strength, and by that means should 
not long be able to continue or hold out. 

The 1 1 of July, in the morning, as we sat fast upon 
the ice, the sun being north-east, there came a great 
bear out of the water running towards us; but we 
watched for her with three muskets, and when she 
came within 30 paces of us, we shot all the three muskets 
at her and killed her outright, so that she stirred not 
a foot, and we might see the fat run out at the holes 
of her skin, that was shot in with the muskets, swim 
upon the water like oil. And so driving dead upon 
the water, we went upon a field of ice to her, and putting 
a rope about her neck, drew her up upon the ice and 
smit out her teeth; at which time we measured her 
body, and found it to be eight foot thick. Then ye 
had a west wind with dirty weather; but when the 
sun was south, it began to clear up. Then three of our 
men went to the island that lay before us, and being 
there, they saw the Cross Island lying westward from 
them, and went thither, to see if that summer there 
had been any Russian there, and went thither upon 
the fast ice that lay between the two islands; and 

174 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

being in the island, they could not perceive that any 
man had been in it, since we were there. There they 
got 70 burrow-ducks' eggs, but when they had them, 
they knew not wherein to carry them. At last one of 
them put off his breeches, and tying them fast below, 
they carried them between two of them, and the third 
bare the musket; and so they came to us again, after 
they had been twelve hours out, which put us in no 
small fear to think what was become of them. They 
told us that they had many times gone up to the knees 
in water upon the ice between both the islands, and 
it was at least 24 miles to and fro that they had gone ; 
which made us wonder how they could endure it, seeing 
we were all so weak. With the eggs that they had 
brought, we were all well comforted, and fared like 
lords, so that we found some relief in our great misery ; 
and then we shared our last wine amongst us, whereof 
everyone had three glasses. 

The 18 of July, about the east sun, three of our 
men went up upon the highest part of the land, to see 
if there was any open water in the sea. At which time 
they saw much open water, but it was so far from the 
land, that they were almost out of comfort, because 
it lay so far from the land and the fast ice, being of 
opinion that we should not be able to draw the scutes 
and the goods so far thither, because our strength 
failed us more and more, and the sore labour and pain, 
that we were forced to endure, more and more increased. 
And coming to our scutes, they brought us that news; 
but we, being compelled thereunto by necessity, 
abandoned all weariness and faint-heartedness, and 
determined with ourselves to bring the boats and the 
goods to the water side, and to row unto that ice, where 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 175 

we must pass over, to get to the open water. And when 
we got to it, we unladed our scutes, and drew them 
first over the ice to the open water, and after that the 
goods, it being at the least 1000 paces. Which was so 
sore a labour for us, that, as we were in hand therewith, 
we were in a manner ready to leave off in the middle 
thereof, and feared that we should not go through 
withal. But for that we had gone through so many 
dangers, we hoped that we should n'ot be faint therein, 
wishing that it might be the last trouble, that we should 
as then endure; and so with great difficulty got into 
the open water about the south-west sun. Then we 
set sail till the sun was west and by south, and presently 
fell amongst the ice again, where we were forced to 
draw up the scutes again upon the ice ; and being upon 
it, we could see the Cross Island, which we guessed 
to be about four miles from us, the wind then being 
east and east-north-east. 

The 19 of July, lying in that manner upon the 
ice, about the east sun seven of our men went to the 
Cross Island, and being there, they saw great store of 
open water in the west ; wherewith they much rejoiced, 
and made as great haste as they could to get to the 
scutes again ; but before they came away, they got a 
hundred eggs, and brought them away with them. 
And coming to the scutes, they showed us that they 
had seen as much open water in the sea as they could 
discern; being in good hope that that would be the 
last time, that they should draw the scutes over the 
ice, and that it should be no more measured by us, and 
in that sort put us in good comfort. Whereupon we 
made speed to dress our eggs, and shared them amongst 
us; and presently, the sun being south-south-west, 

176 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

we fell to work, to make all things ready to bring the 
scutes to the water, which were to be drawn at least 
270 paces over the ice ; which we did with a good 
courage, because we were in good hope, that it would 
be the last time. And getting to the water, we put to 
sea, with God's help, with an east and east-north-east 
wind and a good gale, so that with the west sun we 
passed by the Cross Island, which is distant from Cape 
Nassau 40 miles. And presently, after that, the ice 
left us, and we got clear out of it; yet we saw some 
in the sea, but it troubled us not. And so we held our 
course west and by south, with a good gale of wind 
out of the east and east-north-east, so that we guessed 
that between every meal-tide we sailed 72 miles ; 
wherewith we were exceedingly comforted, giving God 
thanks, that He had delivered us out of so great and 
many difficulties (wherein it seemed that we should 
have been overwhelmed), hoping in His mercy, that 
from thenceforth He would aid us. 

The 20 of July, having still a good gale, about 
the south-east sun we passed along by the Black 
Point, which is 48 miles distant from the Cross Island, 
and sailed west-south-west; and about the evening, 
with the west sun, we saw the Admiralty Island, and 
about the north sun passed along by it, which is distant 
from the Black Point 32 miles. And passing along 
by it, we saw about two hundred sea-horses lying upon 
a field of ice, and we sailed close by them and drave 
them from thence, which had almost cost us dear; 
for they, being mighty strong and of great force, 
swam towards us (as if they would be revenged on us 
for the despite that we had done them) round about 
our scutes with a great noise, as if they would have 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 177 

devoured us; but we escaped from them by reason 
that we had a good gale of wind, yet it was not wisely 
done of us to wake sleeping wolves. 

The 28 of July it was fair weather, with a north- 
east wind. Then we sailed along by the land, and with 
the south-west sun got before St Laurence Bay, or 
Sconce Point, and sailed south-east 24 miles; and 

True portraiture of our boats, and how we nearly got into 
trouble with the sea-horses 

being there, we found two Russians' lodgies or ships 
beyond the Point, wherewith we were not a little 
comforted to think that we were come to the place 
where we found men, but were in some doubt of them 
because they were so many, for at that time we saw 
at least 30 men, and knew not what sort of persons 
they were. There with much pain and labour we got 

A. p. 12 

178 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

to the land, which they perceiving, left off their work 
and came towards us, but without any arms; and 
we also went on shore, as many as were well, for 
divers of us were very ill at ease and weak by reason 
of the scurvy. And when we met together we saluted 
each other in friendly wise, they after theirs, and we 
after our manner. And when we were met, both 
they and we looked each other stedfastly in the face, 
for that some of them knew us, and we them to be 
the same men, which the year before, when we passed 
through the Weygats, had been in our ship. At which 
time we perceived that they were abashed and wondered 
at us, to remember that at that time we were so well 
furnished with a great ship, that was exceedingly 
provided of all things necessary, and then to see us so 
lean and bare, and with so small scutes into that country. 
And amongst them there were two, that in friendly 
manner clapt the master and me upon the shoulder, 
as knowing us since the former voyage; for there was 
none of all our men that was as then in the Weygats, 
but we two only; and they asked us for our crable, 
meaning our ship, and we shewed them by signs, as well 
as we could (for we had no interpreter), that we had lost 
our ship in the ice. Wherewith they said, "Crable pro 
pal ? " which we understood to be, " Have you lost your 
ship ? " And we made answer, " Crable pro pal" which 
was as much as to say that we had lost our ship. And 
many more words we could not use, because we under- 
stood not each other. Then they made show to be 
sorry for .our loss, and to be grieved that we the year 
before had been there with so many ships, and then 
to see us in so simple manner, and made us signs that 
then they had drunk wine in our ship, and asked us 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 179 

what drink we had now. Wherewith one of our men 
went into the scute and drew some water, and let them 
taste thereof; but they shaked their heads, and said, 
"No dobbre" that is, "It is not good." Then our 
master went nearer unto them, and shewed them his 
mouth, to give them to understand that we were 
troubled with the scurvy, and to know if they could 
give us any counsel to help it. But they thought we 
made show that we had great hunger, wherewith one of 
them went unto their lodging and fetched a round rye 
loaf weighing about eight pounds, with some smoked 
fowls, which we accepted thankfully, and gave them in 
exchange half a dozen of biscuits. Then our master led 
two of the chief of them with him into his scute, and 
gave them some of the wine that we had, being about 
a quart, for it was so near out. And while we stayed 
there, we were very familiar with them, and went to 
the place where they lay, and sod some of our biscuit 
with water by their fire, that we might eat some warm 
thing down into our bodies. And we were much 
comforted to see the Russians, for that in thirteen 
months' time since that we departed from John Cor- 
nelison, we had not seen any man, but only monstrous 
and cruel wild bears ; so that as then we were in some 
comfort, to see that we had lived so long, to come in 
company of men again. And therewith we said unto 
each other, " Now we hope that it will fall out better 
with us, seeing we have found men again," thanking 
God with all our hearts, that He had been so gracious 
and merciful unto us, to give us life until that time. 

The 29 of July it was reasonable fair weather, 
and that morning the Russians began to make prepara- 
tion to be gone and to set sail; at which time they 


180 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

digged certain barrels with train oil out of the shingle, 
which they had buried there, and put it into their 
ships. And we not knowing whither they would go, 
saw them sail towards the Weygats : at which time also 
we set sail and followed after them. But they sailing 
before us, and we following them along by the land, 
the weather being close and misty, we lost the sight 
of them. 

The 31 of July we rowed to an island, and there, 
to our great good, we went on land, for in that island 
we found great store of leple leaves, which served us 
exceeding well ; and it seemed that God had purposely 
sent us thither, for as then we had many sick men, 
and most of us were so troubled with the scurvy, 
and were thereby become so weak, that we could 
hardly row, but by means of those leaves we were 
healed thereof : for that as soon as we had eaten them, 
we were presently eased and healed ; whereat we could 
not choose but wonder, and therefore we gave God 
great thanks for that and for many other His mercies 
showed unto us, lay His great and unexpected aid, lent 
us in that our dangerous voyage. And so, as I said 
before, we ate them by whole handfuls together, 
because in Holland we had heard much spoken of their 
great force, and as then found it to be much more 
than we expected. 

The 1 of August the wind blew hard north-west, 
and the ice, that for a while had driven towards the 
entry of the Weygats, stayed and drave no more, but 
the sea ran very high, whereby we were forced to 
remove our scutes on the other side of the island, to 
defend them from the waves of the sea. And lying 
there, we went on land again to fetch more leple leaves, 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 181 

whereby we had been so well holpen, and still more and 
more recovered our healths, and in so short time that 
we could not choose but wonder thereat; so that as 
then some of us could eat biscuit again, which not long 
before they could not do. 

The 2 of August it was dark misty weather, the 
wind still blowing stiff north-west; at which time our 
victuals began to decrease, for as then we had nothing 
but a little bread and water, and some of us a little 
cheese ; which made us long sore to be gone from thence, 
specially in regard of our hunger, whereby our weak 
members began to be much weaker ; and yet we were 
forced to labour sore, which were two great contraries ; 
for it behoved us rather to have our bellies full, that 
so we might be the stronger to endure our labour ; but 
patience was our point of trust. 

The 3 of August, about the north sun, the weather 
being somewhat better, we agreed amongst ourselves 
to leave Nova Zembla and to cross over to Russia. 

The 4 of August we saw the coast of Russia 
lying before us, whereat we were exceeding glad. 

The 5 of August, lying there, one of our men went 
on shore, and found the land further in to be green and 
full of trees, and from thence called to us to bid us 
bring our pieces on shore, saying that there was wild 
deer to be killed, which made us exceeding glad, for then 
our victuals were almost spent, and we had nothing but 
some broken bread, whereby we were wholly out of 
comfort, and some of us were of opinion that we should 
leave the scutes and go further into the land, or else 
(they said) we should all die with hunger, for that many 
days before we were forced to fast, and hunger was a 
sharp sword which we could hardly endure any longer. 

182 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

The 6 of August the weather began to be somewhat 
better; at which time we determined to row forward, 
because the wind was against us, so that we might 
get out of the creek, the wind being east-south-east, 
which was our course as then. And so, having rowed 
about twelve miles, we could get no further, because 
it was so full in the wind, and we altogether heartless 
and faint, the land stretching further north-east than 
we made account it had done. Whereupon we beheld 
each other in pitiful manner, for we had great want 
of victuals, and knew not how far we had to sail, before 
we should get any relief; for all our victuals was almost 

The 7 of August, the wind being west-north-west, 
it served us well to get out of that creek, and so we 
sailed forward east and by north till we got out of the 
creek, to the place and the point of land, where we first 
had been, and there made our scutes fast again; for 
the north-west wind was right against us, whereby 
our men's hearts and courages were wholly abated, to 
see no issue how we should get from thence ; for as 
then sicknesses, hunger, and no means to be found 
how to get from thence, consumed both our flesh and 
our blood; but if we had found any relief, it would 
have been better with us. 

The 8 of August there was no better weather, 
but still the wind was against us, and we lay a good 
way one from the other, as we found best place for us; 
at which time there was most sorrow in our boat, in 
regard that some of us were exceeding hungry, and 
could not endure it any longer, but were wholly out 
of heart, and wishing to die. 

The 9 of August it was all one weather, so that, 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 183 

the wind blowing contrary, we were forced to lie still 
and could go no further, our grief still increasing more 
and more. At last two of our men went out of the 
scute, wherein the master was ; which we perceiving, two 
of our men also landed, and went all together about 
four miles into the country, and at last saw a beacon, 
by the which there issued a great stream of water, 
which we thought to be the way, from whence the 
Russians came between Candinaes and the firm land 
of Russia. And as our men came back again, in the 
way, as they went along, they found a dead seal, 
that stank exceedingly, which they drew with them 
to our boats, thinking that they should have a dainty 
morsel out of it, because they endured so great hunger ; 
but we told them that without doubt it would kill us, 
and that it were better for us to endure poverty and 
hunger for a time, than to venture upon it ; saying 
that, seeing God, who in so many great extremities 
had sent us a happy issue, still lived and was exceeding 
powerful, we hoped and nothing doubting that He would 
not altogether forsake us, but rather help us when we 
were most in despair. 

The 10 of August it was still a north-west wind, 
with misty and dark weather, so that we were driven 
to lie still; at which time it was no need for us to ask 
one another how we fared, for we could well guess it 
by our countenances. 

The 11 of August, in the morning, it was fair 
calm weather, so that, the sun being about north-east, 
the master sent one of his men to us, to bid us prepare 
ourselves to set sail, but we had made ourselves ready 
thereunto before he came, and began to row towards 
him. At which time, for that I was very weak and no 

184 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

longer able to row, as also for that our boat was harder 
to row than the scute, I was set in the scute to guide 
the helm, and one that was stronger was sent out of 
the scute into the boat to row in my place, that we 
might keep company together ; and so we rowed till 
the sun was south, and then we had a good gale of 
wind out of the south, which made us take in our oars ; 
and then we hoised up our sails, wherewith we made 
good way. But in the evening the wind began to blow 
hard, whereby we were forced to take in our sails and 
to row towards the land, where we laid our scutes close 
to the strand, and went on land to seek for fresh water, 
but found none. And because we could go no further, 
we laid our sails over the boats to cover us from the 
weather; at which time it began to rain very hard, 
and at midnight it thundered and lightened, with more 
store of rain, wherewith our company were much 
disquieted, to see that they found no means of relief, 
but still entered into further trouble and danger. 

The 12 of August it was fair weather; at which 
time, the sun being east, we saw a Russian lodgie come 
towards us with all his sails up, wherewith we were 
not a little comforted, which we perceiving from the 
strand, where we lay with our scutes, we desired the 
master that we might go unto him to speak with him, 
and to get some victuals of them ; and to that end 
we made as much haste as we could to get the boats 
into deep water, and sailed towards them. And when 
we got to them, the master went into the lodgie to ask 
them how far we had to Candinaes, which we could 
not well learn of them, because we understood them 
not. They held up their five fingers unto us, but we 
knew not what they meant thereby; but after, we 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 185 

perceived that thereby they would show us, that there 
stood five crosses upon it; and they brought their 
compass out, and showed us, that it lay north-west from 
us, which our compass also showed us, which reckoning 
also we had made. But when we saw we could have 
no better intelligence from them, the master went 
further into their ship, and pointed to a barrel of 
fish that he saw therein, making signs to know whether 
they would sell it unto us, showing them a piece of 
eight reals. Which they understanding, gave us 102 
fishes, with some cakes, which they had made of meal, 
when they sod their fish. And about the south sun 
we left them, being glad that we had gotten some 
victuals ; for long before we had had but four ounces 
of bread a day with a little water, and nothing else, 
and with that we were forced to comfort ourselves 
as well as we could. The fishes we shared amongst 
us equally, to one as much as another, without any 

The 13 of August, sailing with a good wind, about 
midnight there rose a great storm out of the north, 
wherewith we stroke sail and made it shorter; but 
our other boat, that was harder under sail (knowing 
not that we had lessened our sails), sailed forward, 
whereby we strayed one from the other, for then it 
was very dark. 

The 14 of August, in the morning, it being in- 
different good weather with a south-west wind, we 
sailed west-north-west, and then it began to clear up, 
so that we saw our other boat, and did what we could 
to get unto her. but we could not, because it began to 
be misty weather again; and therefore we said unto 
each other, "Let us hold on our course: we shall find 

186 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

them well enough on the north coast, when we are 
past the White Sea." 

The 15 of August we saw the sun rise east-north- 
east, whereupon we thought that our compass varied 
somewhat; and when the sun was east, it was calm 
weather again, wherewith we were forced to take in 
our sails and to row again, but it was not long before 
we had a gale of wind out of the south-east, and then 
we hoised up our sails again, and went forward west 
and by south. And sailing in that manner with a 
good forewind, when the sun was south we saw land, 
thinking that as then we had been on the west side 
of the White Sea beyond Candinaes; and being close 
under the land, we saw six Russian lodgies lying there, 
to whom we sailed and spake with them, asking them 
how far we were from Kilduin. But although they 
understood us not well, yet they made us such signs, 
that we understood by them that we were still far from 
thence, and that we were yet on the east side of Can- 
dinaes. And with that they stroke their hands together, 
thereby signifying that we must first pass over the 
White Sea, and that our scutes were too little to do it, 
and that it would be over great danger for us to pass 
over it with so small scutes, and that Candinaes was 
still north-west from us. Then we asked them for 
some bread, and they gave us a loaf, which we ate 
hungerly up, as we were rowing; but we would not 
believe them that we were still on the east side of 
Candinaes, for we thought verily that we had passed 
over the White Sea. And when we left them, we rowed 
along by the land, the wind being north; and about 
the north-west sun we had a good wind again from 
the south-east, and therewith we sailed along by the 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 187 

shore, and saw a great Russian lodgie lying on the 
starboard from us, which we thought came out of the 
White Sea. 

The 16 of August, in the morning, sailing forward 
north-west, we perceived that we were in a creek, and 
so made towards the Russian lodgie, which we had 
seen on our starboard, which at last with great labour 
and much pain we got unto ; and coming to them about 
the south-east sun, with a hard wind, we asked them 
how far we were from Zembla de Cool or Kilduin ; but 
they shook their heads, and showed us that we were 
on the east side of Zembla de Candinaes, but we would 
riot believe them. And then we asked them for some 
victuals, wherewith they gave us certain plaice, for 
the which the master gave them a piece of money; 
and we sailed from them again, to get out of that hole 
where we were, as it reached into the sea. But they 
perceiving that we took a wrong course, and that the 
flood was almost past, sent two men unto us, in a 
small boat, with a great loaf of bread, which they 
gave us, and made signs unto us to come back to 
their ship again, for that they intended to have further 
speech with us and to instruct us. Which we seemed not 
to refuse, and desiring not to be unthankful, gave them 
a piece of money and a piece of linen cloth; but they 
stayed still by us, and they that were in the great 
lodgie held up bacon and butter unto us, to move us 
to come aboard of them again, and so we did. And 
being with them, they showed us that we were still 
on the east side of the point of Candinaes. Then we 
fetched our card and let them see it, by the which they 
showed us that we were still on the east side of the 
White Sea and of Candinaes ; which we understanding, 

188 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

were in some doubt with ourselves, because we had so 
great a voyage to make over the White Sea, and were 
in more fear for our companions that were in the 
boat, as also that having sailed 88 miles right across 
the sea, we had gotten no further, but were then 
to sail over the mouth of the White Sea with so 
small provision. For which cause the master bought of 
the Russians three sacks with meal, two flitches and 
a half of bacon, a pot of Russia butter, and a runlet of 
honey, for provision for us and our boat, when we should 
meet with it again. And for that in the meantime 
the flood was past, we sailed with the ebb out of the 
aforesaid creek, where the Russians' boat came to us, 
and entered into the sea with a good south-east wind, 
holding our course nort h- north- west ; and there we 
saw a point that reached out into the sea, which we 
thought to be Candinaes, but we sailed still forward, 
and the land reached north-west. In the evening, the 
sun being north-west, when we saw that we did not 
much good with rowing, and that the stream was 
almost past, we lay still, and sod a pot full of water 
and meal, which tasted exceeding well, because we 
had put some bacon fat and honey into it, so that we 
thought it to be a festival day with us ; but still our 
minds ran upon our boat, because we knew not where 
it was. 

The 17 of August, lying at anchor, in the morning 
at break of day we saw a Russian lodgie, that came 
sailing out of the White Sea, to whom we rowed, that 
we might have some instruction from him; and when 
we boarded him. without asking or speaking unto him, 
he gave us a loaf of bread, and by signs showed us, as 
well as he could, that he had seen our companions, and 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 189 

that there was seven men in the boat. But we not 
knowing well what they said, neither yet believing 
them, they made other signs unto us, and held up their 
seven fingers and pointed to our scute, thereby showing 
that there were so many men in the boat, and that 
they had sold them bread, flesh, fish, and other victuals. 
And while we stayed in their lodgie, we saw a small 
compass therein, which we knew that they had bought 
of our chief boatswain, which they likewise acknow- 
ledged. Then we understanding them well, asked them 
how long it was since they saw our boat, and where- 
abouts it was, and they made signs unto us, that it was 
the day before. And to conclude, they showed us 
great friendship, for the which we thanked them ; and 
so, being glad of the good news we had heard, we took 
our leaves of them, much rejoicing that we heard of 
our companions' welfare, and specially because they 
had gotten victuals from the Russians, which was the 
thing that we most doubted of, in regard that we knew 
what small provision they had with them. Which 
done, we rowed as hard as we could, to try if we might 
overtake them, as being still in doubt that they had 
not provision enough, wishing that they had had part 
of ours : and having rowed all that day with great 
labour along by the land, about midnight we found a 
fall of fresh water, and then we went on land to fetch 
some, and there also we got some leple leaves. And 
as we thought to row forward, we were forced to sail, 
because the flood was past, and still we looked earnestly 
out for the point of Candinaes, and the five crosses, 
whereof we had been instructed by the Russians, but 
we could not see it. 

The 18 of August, in the morning, the sun being 

190 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

east, we pulled up our stone (which we used instead 
of an anchor), and rowed along by the land till the 
sun was south. Then we saw a point of land reaching 
into the sea, and on it certain signs of crosses, which, 
as we went nearer unto, we saw perfectly ; and when the 
sun was west, we perceived that the land reached west 
and south-west, so that thereby we knew it certainly 
to be the point of Candinaes, lying at the mouth of 
the White Sea, which we were to cross, and had long 
desired to see it. 

And so, having a good north-east wind (which it 
would not do for us to neglect), we set forward in the 
name of God, and we took our departure when the sun 
was north-west, and all that night and the next day 
sailed with a good wind, and in all that time rowed but 
while three glasses were run out; and the next night 
after ensuing, having still a good wind, in the morning 
about the east-north-east sun we saw land on the west 
side of the White Sea, which we found by the rushing of 
the sea upon the land before we saw it. And perceiving 
it to be full of cliffs, and not low sandy ground with 
some hills, as it is on the east side of the White Sea, we 
assured ourselves that we were on the west side of the 
White Sea, upon the coast of Lapland; for the which 
we thanked God, that He had helped us to sail over 
the White Sea in thirty hours, it being 160 miles at 
the least, our course being west with a north-east 

The 20 of August, being not far from the land, 
the north-east wind left us, and then it began to blow 
stiff north-west; at which time, seeing we could not 
make much way by sailing forward, we determined 
to put in between certain cliffs, and when we got close 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 191 

to the land we espied certain crosses with directions 
upon them, whereby we understood that it was a good 
roadstead, and so put into it. And being entered a little 
way within it, we saw a great Russian lodgie lying at 
an anchor, whereunto we rowed as fast as we could, 
and there also we saw certain houses wherein men 
dwelt. And when we got to the lodgie, we anchored 
there, and cast our tent over the scute, for as then 
it began to rain. Then we went on land into the 
houses that stood upon the shore, where they showed 
us great friendship, leading us into their stoves, and 
there dried our wet clothes, and then, seething some 
fish, bade us sit down and eat somewhat with them. 
In those little houses we found thirteen Russians, who 
every morning went out to fish in the sea; whereof 
two of them had charge over the rest. They lived 
very poorly, and ordinarily ate nothing but fish. At 
evening, when we prepared ourselves to go to our 
scute again, they prayed the master and me to stay 
with them in their houses, which the master thanked 
them for, would not do, but I stayed with them all that 

The 21 of August, after noon, we saw two men upon 
the hills, whereupon we said one to the other, " Here- 
abouts there must more people dwell, for there come 
two men towards us " ; but we, regarding them not, went 
back again to our scute and towards the houses. The 
two men that were upon the hills (being some of our 
men that were in the other boat), perceiving also the 
Russian lodgie, came down the hill towards her to buy 
some victuals of them. Who being come thither unpre- 
pared and having no money about them, they agreed 
between them to put off one of their pair of breeches 

192 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

(for that as then we wore two or three pair, one over 
the other), to sell them for some victuals. But when 
they came down the hill and were somewhat nearer 
unto us, they espied our scute lying by the lodgie, 
and we as then beheld them better and knew them; 
wherewith we rejoiced, and showed each other of our 
proceedings, and how we had sailed to and fro in great 
necessity and hunger, and yet they had been in greater 
necessity and danger, than we, and gave God thanks that 
He had preserved us alive, and brought us together 
again. And then we ate something together, and 
drank of the clear water, such as runneth along by 
Cologne through the Rhine, and then we agreed that 
they should come unto us, that we might sail to- 

The 22 of August the rest of our men with the 
boat came unto us about the east- south-east sun, 
whereat we much rejoiced, and then we prayed the 
Russians' cook to bake a sack of meal for us, and to 
make it bread, paying him for it, which he did. And 
in the meantime, when the fishermen came with their 
fish out of the sea, our master bought four cods of 
them, which we sod and ate. And while we were at 
meat, the chief of the Russians came unto us, and 
perceiving that we had not much bread, he fetched a 
loaf and gave it us, and although we desired them to 
sit down and eat some meat with us, yet we could 
by no means get them to grant thereunto, because it 
was their fasting day, and for that we had poured 
butter and fat into our fish ; nor we could not get them 
once to drink with us, because our cup was somewhat 
greasy, they were so superstitious touching their fasting 
and religion. Neither would they lend us any of their 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 193 

cups to drink in, lest they should likewise be greased. 
At that time the wind was constantly north-west. 

The 23 of August the cook began to knead our 
meal, and made us bread thereof. Which being done, 
and the wind and the weather beginning to be some- 
what better, we made ourselves ready to depart from 
thence; at which time, when the Russians came from 
fishing, our master gave their chief commander a good 
piece of money, in regard of the friendship that he had 
showed us, and gave somewhat also to the cook, for 
the which they yielded us great thanks. At which 
time, the chief of the Russians desired our master to 
give him some gunpowder, which he did. And when 
we were ready to sail from thence, we put a sack of 
meal out of our scute into the boat, lest we should 
chance to stray one from the other again, that they 
might help themselves therewith. And so about 
evening, when the sun was west, we set sail and de- 
parted from thence, and on the 25 we got to the west 
end of Kilduin. 

And when we came there, we found a small house 
upon the shore, wherein there was three men and a 
great dog, which received us very friendly, asking us 
of our affairs and how we got thither. Whereunto we 
made answer, and showed them that we had lost our ship, 
and that we were come thither, to see if we could get 
a ship, that would bring us into Holland. Whereunto 
they made us answer, that there was three ships at 
Kola, whereof two were to set sail from thence that 
day. Then we asked them, if they would go with one 
of our men by land to Kola, to look for a ship where- 
with we might get into Holland, and said we would 
reward them well for their pains; but they excused 

A. p. 13 

194 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

themselves, and said that they could not go from thence, 
but they said that they would bring us over the hill, 
where we should find certain Laplanders, whom they 
thought would go with us, as they did ; for the master 
and one of our men going with them over the hill, found 
certain Laplanders there, whereof they got one to go 
with our man, promising him two reals of eight for 
his pains. 

The 29 of August it was indifferent fair weather, 
and we were still in good hope to hear some good 
news from Kola, and always looked up towards the 
hill, to see if our man and the Laplander came; but 
seeing they came not, we went to the Russians again, 
and there drest our meat, and then meant to go to 
our scutes to lodge in them all night. In the meantime 
we spied the Laplander coming alone without our 
man, whereat we wondered and were somewhat in 
doubt ; but when he came unto- us, he showed us a 
letter, that was written unto our master, which he 
opened before us, the contents thereof being that he, 
that had written the letter, wondered much at our 
arrival in that place, and that long since he verily 
thought that we had been all cast away, being exceeding 
glad of our happy fortune, and how that he would 
presently come unto us with victuals, and all. other 
necessaries to succour us withal. We being in no 
small admiration, who it might be, that showed us 
so great favour and friendship, could not imagine 
what he was, for it appeared by the letter that he knew 
us well. And although the letter was subscribed 
"by me, John Cornelison Rijp," yet we could not be 
persuaded that it was the same John Cornelison, who 
the year before had been set out in the other ship 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 195 

with us, and left us about the Bear Island. For those 
good news we paid the Laplander his hire, and beside 
that, gave him hose, breeches, and other furniture, so 
that he was apparelled like a Hollander; for as then 
we thought ourselves to be wholly out of danger, and 
so being of good comfort, we laid us down to rest. 
Here I cannot choose but show you how fast the 
Laplander went: for when he went to Kola, as our 
companion told us, they were two days and two 
nights on the way, and yet went apace; and when he 
came back again, he was but a day and a night coming 
to us, which was wonderful, it being but half the time, 
so that we said, and verily thought, that he was half 
a conjurer; and he brought us a partridge, which he 
had killed by the way, as he went. 

The 30 of August it was indifferent fair weather, 
we still wondering, who that John Cornelison might 
be, that had written unto us ; and while we sat musing 
thereon, some of us were of opinion, that it might be 
the same John Cornelison, that had sailed out of Holland 
in company with us ; which we could not be persuaded 
to believe, because we were in as little hope of his life, 
as he of ours, supposing that he had sped worse than 
we, and long before that had been cast away. At 
last the master said, "I will look amongst my letters, 
for there I have his handwriting, and that will put us 
out of doubt." And so, looking amongst them, we 
found that it was the same John Cornelison ; wherewith 
we were as glad of his safety and welfare, as he was of 
ours. And while we were speaking thereof, and that 
some of us would not believe that it was the same 
John Cornelison, we saw a Russian joll come rowing, 
with John Cornelison and our companion, that we 


196 William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 

had sent to Kola. Who being landed, we received 
and welcomed each other with great joy and exceeding 
gladness, as if either of us on both sides had seen each 
other rise from death to life again; for we esteemed 
him, and he us, to be dead long since. He brought 
us a barrel of Roswick beer, wine, aqua vitae, bread, 
flesh, bacon, salmon, sugar, and other things, which 
comforted and relieved us much. And we rejoiced 
together for our so unexpected meeting, at that time 
giving God great thanks for His mercy showed unto us. 

The 31 of August it was indifferent fair weather, 
the wind easterly, but in the evening it began to blow 
hard from the land; and then we made preparation 
to sail from thence to Kola, first taking our leaves of 
the Russians, and heartily thanking them for their 
courtesy showed unto us, and gave them a piece of 
money for their good wills; and at night, about the 
north sun, we sailed from thence at high water. 

The 1 of September, in the morning, with the 
east sun, we got to the west side of the river of Kola. 

The 11 of September, by leave and consent of 
the boyard, governor for the Great Prince of Muscovia, 
we brought our scute and our boat into the merchants' 
house, and there let them stand for a remembrance of 
our long, far, and never before sailed way, and that 
we had sailed in those open scutes almost 1600 miles, 
through and along by the sea coasts to the town 
of Kola, whereat the inhabitants thereof could not 
sufficiently wonder. 

The 15 of September we went into a lodgie, and 
sailed down the river with all our goods and our men 
to John Cornelison's ship, which lay about two miles 
from the town, and that day sailed in the ship down 

William Barents. Third Voyage Northward 197 

the river, till we were beyond the narrowest part 
thereof, which was about half the river, and there 
stayed for John Cornelison and our master, that said 
they would come to us the next day. 

The 17 of September, John Cornelison and our 
master being come aboard, the next day, about the 
east sun, we set sail out of the river of Kola, and with 
God's grace put to sea to sail homewards; and upon 
the first of November, about noon, got to Amsterdam, 
in the same clothes that we ware in Nova Zembla, 
with our caps furred with white foxes' skins, and went 
to the house of Peter Hasselaer, that was one of the 
merchants that set out the two ships, which were 
conducted by John Cornelison and our master. And 
being there, where many men wondered to see us, as 
having esteemed us long before that to have been dead 
and rotten, the news thereof being spread abroad in 
the town, it was also carried to the Prince's Court 
in the Hague; at which time the Lord Chancellor of 
Denmark, ambassador for the said king, was then at 
dinner with Prince Maurice. For the which cause we 
were presently fetched thither by the scout and two 
of the burghers of the town, and there, in the presence 
of the said lord ambassador and the burgomasters, we 
made rehearsal of our journey both forwards and 
backwards. And after that, every man that dwelt 
thereabouts went home, but such as dwelt not near to 
that place, were placed in good lodgings for certain 
days, until we had received our pay, and then every 
one of us departed and went to the place of his 

N .2 

- o 

s g 


g a -| 

* i 

o> O Ss 





Although Dutch walrus-hunters and others had 
been near the house where Barents and his companions 
wintered, the spot was un visited for nearly 300 years. 
In 1871 a Norwegian sloop, The Solid, Captain Carlsen, 
reached the coast of Novaya Zemlya. The following 
are extracts from his log : 

"Saturday, Sep. 9 6 o'clock in 

the afternoon, we saw walrus on the ice, boats were 
lowered, and we caught two of them; we also saw a 
house on shore, which had fallen down. At noon we 
observed the latitude 76 12', the distance from shore 
guessed. The house on shore was 16 metres long by 
10 metres broad, and the fir- wood planks, of which it 
was composed, were 1J inches thick by from 14 to 16 
inches broad, and as far as we could make out they 
were nailed together. The first things we saw amongst 
the ruins of the house were two ships' cooking pans of 
copper, a crowbar or bar of iron, a gun-barrel, an alarum, 
a clock, a chest in which was found several files and 
other instruments, many engravings, a flute, and also 
a few articles of dress. There were also two other 
chests, but they were empty, only filled up with ice, 
and there was an iron frame over the fireplace with 
shifting bar. 

"Tuesday, 12. Gale from the S.W. We are 
obliged to return to Ledenaji Bay (Ice Harbour), where 
on the evening of the 9th we had found the ruined 
house. At noon we anchored in the bay, and went 
again on shore and found several things, viz. : candle- 
sticks, tankards with lid of zinc, a sword, a halberd 

200 Appendix to the Third Voyage of W. Barents 

head, two books, several navigation instruments, an 
iron chest already quite rusted. 

"Thursday, 14. Calm with clear sky. 4 o'clock 
in the morning we went ashore further to investigate 
the wintering place. On digging we found again 
several objects, such as drumsticks, a hilt of a sword, 
and spears. Altogether it seemed that the people had 
been equipped in a warlike manner, but nothing was 
found which could indicate the presence of human 
remains. On the beach we found pieces of wood 
which had formerly belonged to some part of a ship, 
for which reason I believe that a vessel has been 
wrecked there, the crew of which built the house with 
the materials of the wreck and afterwards betook 
themselves to the boats. Five sailors' trunks were 
still in the house, which might also have been used as 
five berths, at least as far as we could make out." 

On his return, a Norwegian newspaper published 
an article containing a few further details, which were 
supplied probably by Carlsen himself. He had found 
the house "almost hermetically enclosed by a thick 
layer of ice. All the objects were likewise covered 
by a thick sheet of ice, and this explains the excellent 
condition, in which many of the articles were found." 
Among them were "a few books in the Dutch language, 
which latter makes it almost certain that the relics 
belonged to Barendsz and his companions of the year 
1596. In the centre of the house, where the fireplace 
had probably stood, a great iron frame was found, 
on which two ship's copper cooking pans still remained." 

Probably some of these things (e.g. the engravings) 
were merchandise intended for China of which the 
ship's cargo partly consisted. In 1875 another Nor- 
wegian, Gundersen, visited Ice Harbour and found in 
a chest a manuscript Dutch translation of Pet and 
Jackman's Voyage of 1580, two charts, etc. 

Lastly in 1876, an Englishman, Mr Charles Gardiner, 
in the yacht Glow-worm, landed and spent three days 
in searching the ruined house, and discovered more 

Appendix to the Third Voyage of W. Barents 201 

than a hundred articles under the ice. These consisted 
largely of remains of carpenters' tools, weapons, and 
sailors' materials. There were also a seal, a lead 
inkstand, quill pens, an iron pair of compasses, a 
harpoon, twenty wax candles, three Dutch books, 
two Dutch coins, a measure, and the ship's flag of 
Amsterdam . In one of the powder-horns was the manu- 
script which Barents left behind hung up in the chimney 
a short record signed by Barents and Heemskerck 
legible except for a few words. 

These relics are now in the National Museum at 




The black figures refer to pages and the plain figures to lines. 

1, \. General. The commander of a fleet. His ship was 
the Admiral. 

2. Gataya (or Cathay). Another name for China. Knowledge 
was so vague that these were sometimes thought to be distinct 

Capo de Buona Speranga. The Cape of Good Hope. 

2, 26. pretended. Intended. 

29. He departed upon the said voyage from Blackwall. 
On the way down the Thames they passed the Court, then at 
Greenwich, " where we shot off our ordnance and made the best show 
we could. Her Majesty, beholding the same, commended it, and 
bade us farewell, with shaking her hand at us out of the window." 
(From the account of the voyage by Hall, Master in the Gabriel.} 

4, 3. Frisland. An imaginary land on old charts near the 
east coast of Greenland. Frobisher had really reached South 

5, 15. Frobisher 's Straits. The bay (Frobisher Bay) in 
the south of Baffin Land, to the north of Hudson Strait. 

24. mankind. Masculine, vicious. " A mankind witch." 
Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, n. iii. 

6, 27. come within our men's danger. Get into their 

33. lowbell. A bell used in bird-batting (a method of taking 
birds at night with a net and light). 

8, 24. marquesite. From an Arab word meaning pyrites. 
This mineral sometimes contains a trace of gold. 

26. goldfiners. Gold refiners or assayers. 

Notes 203 


10, 3. Cataya, China. See note p. 1, 1. 2. 

11, 36. Hope. An anchorage. 

12, 10. condemned men. Criminals who were to be landed 
in Greenland with food and weapons. 

19. [cipher] leagues. To keep the course secret, distances, 
etc., were in cipher in the manuscript. 

13, 17. durance. Imprisonment. 

14, 9. account. Reckoning. 

19. Frisland. See note p. 4, 1. 3. 

15,1. Zeni. The accounts of these voyages hi the 14th century 
were probably a 16th century forgery, with the object of proving that 
the Venetians had discovered America a century before Columbus. 

4. sithence. Since. 

5. sea-cards. Charts. 

16, 1. bearing yet the dominion. Keeping still above it. 
11. surcease. Cease. 

17, 8. Hall's Island. Cape Enderby (at the northern entrance 
of Frobisher Bay). . 

19, 11. wafting. Beckoning. 

" In such a night 

Stood Dido with a willow in her hand 
Upon the wild sea banks, and waft her love 
To come again to Carthage." 

Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, v. i. 

24. point. A lace with a tag used for fastening articles of 

21, 12. caliver. A large pistol or blunderbuss. 

16. furniture. Armour. 

23, 16. marquesite. See note p. 8, 1. 24. 

28. say. Assay. 

31. a great dead fish. A narwhal. 

25, 16. northland. Supposed to be part of Asia. See p. 5, 

28, 4. cony bury. A rabbit's burrow. 

29, 12. advisedly. With deliberation. 

14. whether. Which of the two. 

15. lively. Living. 
33, 4. let. Hindered. 

204 Notes 

sea room. Clear space for allowing a ship to turn, etc. 

" Give us but a good ship and sea room, and we think nothing 
of such a squall of wind as that." 

Robinson Crusoe (Golden Treasury Edition, p. 7). 

35, 9. Queen's Cape. Cape Resolution in Resolution Island 
off the southern entrance of Frobisher Bay. 

36, 24. kindness. Natural disposition. 
39, 11. mine. Mineral ore. 

42, 1. for fashion sake. For the sake of custom, or courtesy. 
2. cater. Caterer, one who provides food. 

18. spoil. Plunder. Compare "to spoil the Egyptians." 

43, 1. belayed. Lain hidden. 

46, 5. branded. A mixture of red and black. 

9. board. Tack. 

31. Bristow. Bristol. 


49, 20. harping iron. Harpoon. 

50, 12. breach. Where the waves break. 

21. glass. A sand-glass running out in half-an-hour (used 
until recently in the Royal Navy). 
30. falconet. A light cannon. 

51, 3. along the coast. The east coast of Greenland, north 
of Cape Farewell. 

9. list. The torn edge of cloth. Here "torn cloud." 

13. Land of Desolation. Considered a new discovery, 
distinct from the land seen by Frobisher (which he supposed to be 
Frisland). Longitudes are not given in Frobisher's Voyages, and 
Davis made Frobisher's Strait pass through Greenland, with an 
island to the south. So it appears on the New Map of the World, 
published about 1600. 

53, 5. sounds. Here was Gilbert Sound (64 8' N.), now God- 
thaab, a Danish settlement. 

56, 3. scull. School or shoal. 

7. Meta Incognita. The Unknown Bourne. Queen Elizabeth 
gave this name to the land bordering Frobisher Bay on the south 
(South-east Baffin Land). 

8. Muscovy glass. Mica, which was used in parts of Russia 
instead of glass. 

11. corinth. Now altered to "currant." Named after the 
town of Corinth, and given originally to the small dried grapes 
which came from the Levant. 

Notes 205 

14. present. Present month. 

57, 2. Cape Walsingham. They had crossed the strait and 
reached Baffin Land, north of Cumberland Sound. 

58, 6. bravest. Brave commonly meant "finely dressed." 

16. Newland. Newfoundland. 

20. Gape of God's Mercy. At the north entrance of Cumber- 
land Sound. 

25. entrance or passage. Cumberland Sound. 

59, 30. flean. Flayed. 

61, 10. snite. A snipe, so called from the length of the bill 
or snout. 

24. tried. "To try" is to lie under try-sails (i.e. with very 
little sail set). 

25. goose wing. A sail with only its lower corners set. 


62, 10. land. The southern extremity of Greenland. Here 
Davis divided his fleet, and sent the Sunshine and Northstar to 
seek a passage northward between Greenland and Iceland. After 
harbouring in Iceland, they sailed north-west, reached " two firm 
lands of ice," and then turned back towards Greenland and reached 
Gilbert Sound on August 3rd. Failing to meet the rest of the fleet 
here, as arranged, they left for England on August 31st. On 
September 3rd, in a very great storm, the Sunshine lost sight of 
the Northstar and reached England alone at the end of the month. 

63, 4. same place. Gilbert Sound. There is an error in 
Davis' s longitude. 

64, 16. salmon peel. Young salmon weighing less than 2 Ibs. 
29. train oil. An oil got from the whale. 

65, 11. gripe. (Griffin) Gerfalcon. 

66, 10. Iliaout. "I mean no harm." So interpreted by the 

14. elan. Elk. 

17. witches. Used for the masculine (wizards). 
25. train. See note p. 64, 1. 29. 

67, 12. caliver. See note to Frobisher 2, p. 21, 1. 12. 

18. falcon. A cannon larger than a falconet, about 7 feet in 
length, throwing a 3 Ib. ball. 

68, 7. artificially. Skilfully. 

69, 9. to stop a flood. To wait for the flood tide (which was 
against them) to ebb. 

206 Notes 

10. miscreants. Unbelievers. 

26. tolled. Drew, enticed. 

71, 30. stickle. Rapid. 

72, 25. contentation. Content. 

73, 7. the land in latitude 66 degrees, etc. The American 
shore of the strait. 

13. graved the Moonshine. "To grave" is to clean a ship's 
bottom of weeds, etc., and tar it. 
22. Hood. The flood tide. 

74, 19. a very fair promontory. The Cape of God's Mercy, 
which he had discovered and named on his first voyage. 

75, 3. to lie at hull. To lie-to, i.e. to come almost to a stop 
with head near wind. " To hull" also means to drive without sails 
or rudder. 

9. a very high hill. Probably on Resolution Island, at the 
entrance of Hudson Strait. 

21. lay upon the lee. Heaved-to. 

76, 1. pheasant, partridge. Ptarmigans. 
8. coasted the shore. Labrador. 

16. suavle. Possibly a corruption of swej>el, close packed. 

17. scull. See note p. 56, 1. 3. 

24. two lands west. Hamilton Inlet (Labrador), or the 
strait between Newfoundland and the mainland. 

77, 13. presently. At the present, at once. 

27. junk. An old, worn out rope. 


78, 9. clincher. A clinker-built pinnace (made with the 
outside planks overlapping one another). Two of the ships were 
to go fishing, to help pay expenses. 

79, 28. we discovered land. The west coast of Greenland. 
The south coast had been rounded without being seen. 

80, 8. kerned. Corned, granulated. 

20. saker. An old kind of cannon, eight to ten feet long, 
throwing a 4 Ib. to 7 Ib. shot. 

81, 17. had three hundred strokes. To keep the water out 
of the ship, three hundred strokes of the pump were necessary 
during one watch (four hours). 

82, 12. unicorn. See Frobisher 2, p. 24, 1. 5. 
28. chichsanege. Probably sealskins. 

Notes 207 

83, 4. London Coast. Greenland. 

8. Hope Sanderson. After the London merchant to whom 
the enterprise owed so much (see p. 48, 1. 20) . This was the extreme 
northern point reached. 

shaped our course west. Crossing the gulf now called Baffin 

84, 14. we were thwart the straits. The ice had forced 
them southwards, so that land was not seen until they were about 
the narrow part of Davis Strait. 

27. hot. " This 25 we were becalmed almost in the bottom 
of the straits, and had the weather marvellous extreme hot " 
Davis's Log-book. 

85, 7. ruts. The dashing of waves. 
20. a very great gulf. Hudson Strait. 

26. Ghidley's Cape. Named after John Chudleigh or Chidley, 
an intimate friend of Davis. 

87, 1. Biscayan. The Biscayans were expert whale fishers, 
and from them the English learnt the art. In early times a species 
of large whale frequented the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic, and 
was the most important source of wealth to the ports from St Jean 
de Luz to Santander. This gradually disappeared, and the Basque 
fishermen sailed north for whales to Newfoundland and Spitzbergen. 
When the English began to fish for whales round Spitzbergen, they 
used to enter a number of these men in each fleet. 


89, 6. the capes where the fowl bred. Cape Wolstenholme 
and one opposite on Digges Islands. They were named by Hudson 
after two of the principal merchants responsible for the voyage 
Sir Dudley Digges and Sir John Wolstenholme. 

91, 18. piece. A gun. 

94, 19. seine. A fishing net. 

97,3. they would have me stay in the ship. The mutineers 
had saved Prickett, "as is thought, in hope by Sir Dudley Digges, 
his master, to procure their pardon at their return." 

100, 12. He rose and went into the hold. i.e. John King. 

101, 8. horn. A thin plate of horn, serving as a window. 
12. the carpenter. Philip Staffe, an Ipswich man. 

27. the capes. See p. 89, 1. 6, and note. 

102, 16. John Hudson. Henry Hudson's son, according to 

103, 23. card. Chart. 

208 Notes 

28. tale. Number. 

105, 17. the capes. They had lost their way, and were 
longing to reach the Capes (Wolstenholme and Digges), where they 
had entered Hudson Bay, and where they had found a plentiful 
supply of birds. 

107, 29. a snare. A slip-knot. 

108, 5. morses. Walruses. 

109, 16. Jews' trumps. Jew's-harps. 

111, 29. it feared. Frightened. 
our master. Bylot. 

112, 12. lay a-try. See note p. 61, 1. 24. 

28. the Desolations. South Greenland. 

113, 13. reasty. Generally of bacon: rancid. 

29. steep-tub. A large tub for soaking salt provisions before 

114, 6. the Durseys. Dursey Island, off the west coast of 
Ireland, to the north of the entrance to Bantry Bay. 

12. Bere Haven. In Bantry Bay. 

20. Sir Thomas Smith. One of the principal merchants 
responsible for the voyage. 


116, 10. Barents. Barentsz, a contraction of Barentszoon 
(which was his proper name), meaning son of Barent or Bernard. 

26. cross through the great roundel. Right through the 
great circle (of the former rainbow). 

117, 11. island. Bear Island, sometimes called Cherry 

118, 9. four glasses. Two hours. 

18. brooked it not well. It did not agree with us. 
22. we saw land again. Spitzbergen (though they suppdsed 
it to be part of Greenland). 

120, 2. scute. Any small boat. The smaller boat (the yawl) 
is sometimes referred to by the translator as " the boat " : sometimes 
both are called " scutes." 

121, 12. brent geese. Called also "barnacle" geese. They 
are smaller than a goose, with black and white feathers. 

27. burst in sunder and are lost. A fable which was 
commonly believed in the 16th century until this account was 

Notes 209 

123, 8. Ice Point. The northernmost point of Novaya 

127, 33. vice. A screw or jack. 

128, 29. harts and hinds. "Deer and elks." 

129, 4. wound. Tacked. 

130,30. with more ease. " Three remained behind with the 
wood, to hew it, so that it might be the lighter to draw." 

131, 1. the principals. The beams or principal timbers. 

6. to make up our house. " To close up (the sides) of the 

132, 22. overhead. " Somewhat higher in the middle." 

133, 10. cabins. Cots. 

17. shot at her with pieces of wood. " Threw pieces of fire- 
wood at her." 

29. spruce-beer. Originally a decoction in beer or water of 
the leaf-buds of the spruce fir, used for rheumatism, etc. After- 
wards applied to beer brewed at Dantzic, without these leaf-buds. 

135, 13. no means to shoot. Their firearms had matchlocks. 
31. strike. "We set up our clock, so that it (went and) 

struck (the hour)." 

136, 10. chirurgeon. Surgeon (who was also the barber). 
15, 16. at the setting of the sun. . . .it rose. When the sun 

disappeared and when it came back again. 

23. in the highest degree. At 76 the moon continues 
above the horizon for 7 or 8 days every month. 

139, 23. sea-coals. "Stone or mineral coal": so called to 
distinguish it from charcoal, the usual fuel on the continent. Sea- 
coal was applied originally to coal brought by sea from Newcastle. 

142, 26. disease. Discomfort. 

143, 8. Twelfth Even. "Three Kings' Even." Twelfth- 
night is really on January 5th the eve of the festival of Epiphany 
but since the Reformation it has been kept on January 6th. 

145, 11. broke our fasts. "Ate the funeral meal." 
149, 27. the stairs. The steps cut in the snow. 
151, 13. in the highest. A mistake for "lowest." He 
meant that the sun was on the meridian in the north. 

154, 10. arquebus. An early kind of portable gun, supported 
on a rest, or by a hook on a tripod. 

155, 14. a piece of a buck, etc. "Pieces of seals with the 
skin and hair." 

25. to amend our boat withal. " Wherewith to raise the 
gunwale of our yawl." 

210 Notes 

160, 1. into a musket's charge. "And William Barents 
had previously written a small scroll and placed it in a bandoleer" 
33. dryfats. trunks. 

162, 22. Ice Point. See note p. 123, 1. 8. 

163, 30. ho well. Hummock. 

168, 18. to discharge. To empty and re-load. 

170, 1. impeachments. Hindrances. 

7. mended. " Where we had added to it." 

31. dryfat. See note p. 160, 1. 33. 

33. bunged with the ice. Was stove in by the ice. 

171, 28. helm stick. The tiller of the rudder. 
173, 26. eight foot thick. Eight feet in girth. 

176, 14. between every meal-tide. In every 24 hours. 
26. the Black Point. Cape Negro. 

178, 11. had been in our ship. During the previous 

179, 10. lodging. Like lodgie (p. 177, 1. 8), intended for a 
Russian word for boat. 

22. departed from John Cornelison. At Bear Island, on 
July 1st, 1596. See p. 122. 

180, 33. leple leaves. Scurvy grass. 

181, 16. point of trust. "Patience was our fore-land," 
namely, always before them. 

182, 4. get out of the creek. The mouth of the river 

24. if we had found any relief. " If looking deplorable 
could have helped us." 

183, 9. Gandinaes. Cape Kanin Nos, at the entrance to the 
White Sea. 

21. when we were most in despair. " But help us when 
least foreseen." 

184, 21. Russian lodgie. See note p. 179, 1. 10. 

185, 9. a piece of eight reals. A Spanish dollar. A real 
was a silver coin worth about sixpence. 

186, 1. the north coast. "The coast of Norway." 
11. we saw land. The west side of Tcheskaia Bay. 
16. Kilduin. Kildin Island, off the coast of Lapland. 

187, 10. Zembla de Cool. Zemlya is the Russian word for 
land. Cool is Kola in Lapland. 

188, 20. Stream. Tide. 

189, 9. chief boatswain. The first mate. 

Notes 211 

28. And as we thought to row forward, we were forced 
to sail, because the flood was past. "When we intended to 
proceed on our voyage, we were forced to remain lying there, 
because the tide had run out." 

190, 16. three glasses were run out. An hour and a half. 

191, 11. stoves. Rooms heated by a stove. 

192, 12. drank of the clear water. "Drank of the pure 
article." There is a play on the Dutch word for " clear " or " pure," 
which is applied to spirits as well as to water. 

194, 7. two reals of eight. Two Spanish dollars of eight 
reals. See note p. 185, 1. 9. 

195 ; 1. about the Bear Island. See p. 122. 

3. furniture. Anything that furnishes. Often "armour"; 
here "clothes." 

32. joll. A yawl. 

196, 6. Roswick. A town in West Bothnia (Sweden). 
aqua vitae. Here used for gin. 

20. the river of Kola. The entrance to Kola is a bay, not 
a river. 

22. boyard. A Russian title for a nobleman, or great man. 

197, 21. Prince Maurice. A mistranslation. There is 
nothing about the Hague or Prince Maurice in the original, which 
runs : " where the noble lords, the Chancellor and the Ambassador 
from the most illustrious King of Denmark, Norway, Goths and 
Vandals, were then at table." 

22. the scout and two of the burghers of the town. The 
sheriff and two town-councillors. 

29. every one of us departed, etc. Twelve men (out of the 
original ship's company of seventeen) returned. 



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The Teaching of Geography. By B. C. WALLIS, B.Sc., 
F.C.P., F.R.G.S. Crown 8vo. With 12 illustrations. 33 6d net 

An Introduction to General Geography. By ALEC A. 
GOLDING, B.Sc. Crown 8vo. With 100 illustrations. 43. 

The British Isles. By FREDERICK MORT, D.Sc., M.A., F.G.S., 
F.R.S.G.S. Large Crown 8vo. With 79 illustrations. 33. 

Cambridge Geographical Text-Books. Intermediate. By 
A. J. DICKS, B.A., B.Sc. Crown 8vo. With 62 illustrations and 
20 maps and diagrams. 33. 

A Short Geography of Europe. By A. J. DICKS, B.A., B.Sc. 

Reprinted from The Cambridge Intermediate Geography. With 19 
illustrations. Limp cloth. lod. 

A Geography of the British Empire. By W. L. BUNTING, 
M.A., and H. L. COLLEN, M.A. Royal 8vo. With maps, diagrams 
and 29 illustrations. 33 6d. 

Cambridge County Geographies. General Editor, F. H. H. 

GUILLEMARD, M.D. Each volume gives an account of the history, 
antiquities, architecture, natural history, industries, and physical, 
geological, and general characteristics of the county, and contains 
two coloured maps and numerous illustrations. Crown 8vo. 
is 6d each. 

The Madras Presidency, with Mysore, Coorg and the 

Associated States. By EDGAR THURSTON, C.I.E. Crown 8vo. 
With 100 illustrations, maps, and diagrams. 33 net. 

Elementary Commercial Geography. By HUGH ROBERT 
MILL, D.Sc., LL.D. Revised by FAWCETT ALLEN. Extra fcap. 8vo. 
is 6d net. 

An Atlas of Commercial Geography. Compiled by FAWCETT 
ALLEN. With an introduction by D. A. JONES. Demy 4to, con- 
taining 48 maps and an index. 33 6d net. 

Physical Geography. By PHILIP LAKE, M.A. Demy 8vo. 
With 20 plates, 162 text-figures, and 7 maps. 73 6d net. 

The Surface of the Earth. Elementary Physical and 

Economic Geography. By H. PICKLES, B.A., B.Sc. Crown 8vo. 
With 64 illustrations and 34 maps and diagrams. 2s. 

Cambridge University Press 

C. F. Clay, Manager: Fetter Lane, London 

JAN 31 1917