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Latest Editions always on hand and mailed to any address on receipt 
of price, illustrated with numerous Maps, Plans, Panoramas, 
and Views. 12mo. Cloth. All, PRICES NET. 

UNITED STATES, with an Excursion into Mexico, with 17 Maps 

and 22 Plans, $8.60 

CANADA, with Newfoundland, and an Excursion to Alaska, with 10 

Maps and 7 Flans $1.60 

ALPS (EASTERN), including the Bavarian Highlands, Tyrol, Salzburg, 

etc., with 40 Maps, 9 Plans, and 7 Panoramas, .... $8.00 
AUSTRIA, including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia and Bosnia, 

with g ft M«"« ""* »* Puna. , _._ 


&*•<• tf 3 

NORWAY, SWEDEN, and DENMARK, with 28 Maps, 16 Plans, and 3 Pano- 

ramas, ••••■**"* "*. ■»» 
PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 17 Maps, 44 Plans, and a Panorama ol 

Jerusalem. ' n ' ' , * 8,8 *' 


Maiis and 38 Plans ♦•••ou 


French, and 

German, Ital 



B8, English, French, 


Ave., New York, 


Money Table. 

(Comp. p> xi.) 
















l 1 /* 




































































— . 













(Comp. p. vi.) 


























































































. pin.*" 189 5 



.NOV ?i IS6I / 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all. 1 


T> object j>f ftva^  
Bunft, «W . w* £*™ 
revised and partly le-wrffi^ 
ing the most interesting Me 
countries, with a few n ote 
customs of the inhabitantsi 
books, it is based on person 
described, the chief places i 
His efforts to secure the a 
W rk have been 91I p p i emen 
eral gentlemen, NorwHoiar 

ellersmajfavo^y™ ^ 

pS ^- J;i lllB ^wn rapid: 
public, aiod a number of ne 
routes with corresponds 
opened. The most Import 
the nreaeat edition. 

The preaent volume, 1 
be used either as a whole, 
for the convenience of tr'a 
volume without falling t° 
Introductory Pan pp . i-1: 
as Trondhjaru, pp i to 8€ 
hjem,pp.87to210;[4)N. ' 
pp.249 to 342; (6| bento*? 
to410; (8) Grammars, at tl 

On the Maps and V^-*- 1 
care, and he believes tn' 
ordinary travellers. rt 

In the letter-press I** 
Eoglish feet, in the m*P» 
iSorw. ft- = 1.029 Eogl 
Dihtamcbb are given »! 
md boats are now calcii 
n vi) The POPUtATJOi- 
Sertrecent official sonr< 


4»t handbook are «3i»nmerated both the first-clas hotel, 
^oW^MWmvretemoDs. Those which the Editor 
fiw^«ro eapepiBMe, or from an examination of 
^MmisVoUV-biUs sent him by travellers of different 
Brf*«i betteveB to be most worthy of commendation, 
©noted by asterisk: a. It should, however, be borne in 
i. tbat hotels are liable to constant changes, and that the 
.ttnent experienced lay the traveller often depends on 
iwtnatances which can neither be foreseen nor controlled. 
.though prices generally have an upward tendency, tbe 
erage charges stated in the Handbook will enable the tra- 
iller to form a fair estimate of his expenditure. 

To hotel-keepers , tradesmen, and others the Editor begs 
• intimate that a character for fair dealing towards tra- 
ilers forms the sole passport to his commendation, and that 
Ivertisements of every kind are strictly excluded from his 
andbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned against persons 
^presenting themselves as agents for Baedeker's Handbooks. 

Abbreviation!. instances. 

8.. E., W. = north, northern] 

Ft. = English feet. 

ou to, southern s cut, eutern j west, 

Com., Kom. = "Ncirges Communi- 

cntioner" and "Sveriges Kommuni- 

= En 6 lisb mile, unless Ibe con- 

kationer" respectively. 

rary Is sin ted (see Table opposite 

E., B., D., 8., A, = room, breakfast, ^ aea _ ml]e _ 

R. also = Houte'. 

.'= Kilometre (see Tsule" oppos- 

Rr., g. = crowns and *re In Norway. 
0. = ore, the Swedish form of <sre. 

As the metrical system has been .looted in both Norway and Sweden, 

DiituoBi are usually given in kilometres, though the old reckoning 

miles in still common In some parts of Norway, one Norwegian mile 

T Engl. M.) being reckoned as 3 hrs\ walking or 3 In', driving. On 

Iway-rnutes the distances are generally reckoned from the starting-point, 

ile on high-roads the distances from station to station are given as more 

On tbe steamboat-routes the distances are given approximate!; in Nor- 

glan sea-miles (8. M.) or nantlcal miles. A Norwegian nautical mile is 
lal to fonr English knot» or nautical miles (about V/t Engl. statute*.), 
1 the steamers are usually timed to travel from 2 to 2>/> Norwegian 

utlcnl miles per honr. The ordinary tariff la 10 ». per nautical mile, 

no charge is made for deviations from the vessel's direct course. 

Asterisks (') are used as marks of commendation. 


_^vDomw»\n the Q-ndbrandsdal over the Dovrefleld ^ 

e t*Wtt(J»nai»Jom> 70 

a -ta Wrtiaftania, to Troxidbjem by Railway ...'.'*" 73 
-t»to Christiana \>y Hallway to Chariottenberg find 

^oolAoli^ 78 

gro* 11 0Wrtta»S» to Gotenbnrg by Railway 79 

from OhristianU to Gotenbnrg by Sea gj 


. From Christian=and to Stavanger by Sea. The Stavanger 

Fjord 89 

. From Stavanger by the SnldaUvand to Odde on the Har- 

danger Fjord 95 

I. From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea 97 

1. The Hardanger Fjord 100 

I. Bergen 112 

. From Bergen by Voesevangen to Elds on the Hardanger 

Fjord, or by Stalhelm to Gudvangen on the Sogneflord . 119 

!. The Sognefjord 125 

i. Jotnnhelm 139 

. From Bergen to Aalesnnd and Molde by Sea 165 

■. From Vadhelm on the Sognefjord overland to Aaleimid 

and Molde 167 

I. Molde and the Moldefjord. The Komidal. The Etkladal . 190 

'. Prom Molde to Ttondhjem 199 

I. Trondbjem and its Fjord 202 

Northern Norway. 

'. From Trondhjem to Bode 215 

. The Lofoten Islands 224 

. From Bod VtoTroma* 229 

. From TromW to the North Cape 235 

. From the North Oape to Vadae 241 

. Syd-Varanger 246 

, From the Altenfjnrd to Karaajok 246 

. From the Altenfjord to Htparanda In Sweden 247 


, Malmtf and Southern Shane 260 

. From Malmo (0 Nasajo (and Stockholm) 263 

. From Alfvesta to Karlikrona and Kalmar. (lland . . . 266 

From Oakarahamn to Niasjo 268 

. From (Copenhagen) HeUingborg to Gotenbnrg .... 269 

. Gotenbnrg , "''" 


Route Page 

43. From Gotenburg to Katrineholm (Stockholm) 271 

44. From Nassjo to Jonkoping and Falkoping 273 

45. From Jtinkdping to Stockholm by Lake Wettern and the 
Eastern G5ta Canal 274 

46. From Nassjo to Stockholm 278 

47. From (Ohristiania) Charlottenberg to Laxa (Stockholm) 282 

48. Stockholm 285 

49. Environs of Stockholm 309 

60. From Stockholm to Upsala 317 

51. The Island of Gotland 322 

52. From Stockholm to Westerns and Orebro 326 

53. From Kolback and Walskog to Flen, Nykoplng, and Oxelo- 
snnd 329 

64. From Gotenburg to Falun. Lake Silflan 331 

55. From Upsala to Gefle. From Gefle to Rattvik 334 

56. From Stockholm via Upsala to dstersund and Trondhjem 336 

57. The Swedish Nonland 339 


58. Copenhagen and its Environs 343 

59. From Copenhagen to Helsingor and Helsingborg .... 361 

60. From Copenhagen to Hamburg by the Danish Islands 

and Slesvig 364 

61. From Odense to Svendborg, Langeland, Laaland, Falster, 

and M*en 367 

62. From Fredericia to Frederikshavn. Jutland .. 369 

63. From Aalborg on the Limfjord to Thlsted and via Viborg 
toLangaa 373 

Index 374 

Plans and Maps. 

Comp. the Key Map at the End of the Book. — The marks (•, ••, o, oo, 
etc.) on the margins of the Special Maps indicate the points where they join 
the adjacent Special Maps. 

Plans: 1. Christiania (1 : 20,000). — 2. Drammen, with En- 
virons (1 : 20,000). — 3. Stavanger (1 : 15,800). — 4. Bergen, 
with Environs (1 : 24,000). — 5. Aalesund (1 : 17,600). — 6. Molde 
(1 : 80,000). — 7. Trondhjem, with Environs (1 : 50,000). — 
8. Fredrikshald (1 : 15,000). — 9. Sarpsborg (1 : 26,100). — 
10. Gotenburg (1 : 21,500). — 11. Malmb (1 : 30,000). — 12. Lund 
(1 : 20,000). — 13. Stockholm (1 : 15,000). — 14. VpsalaCi : 20,000). 
— 15. Wiaby (1 : 15,000). — 16. Copenhagen (1 : 34,000), Inner 
town (1 : 20,000). 

Maps. 1. General Map of 8. Norway (1 : 2,000,000): before 
the title-page. 


_^ji»P of the Environ* of t%rltttmia (I : 80,0001  n 20 
5X»V>tft« KUtrirt between Cftm,,.,™, kU/.U^', mi 

j»4a? it North Ttltmarken (1  500,0001 : p 24 
-^AftPot South T^m-arfcenCl; 600,000): p.' 32.' 
-I!*?- * 8rt Jortedal, Grotlid. Oeiranger, and Taflord Seaion 

I.-Mapof theSlammoer fjord and its Branches (i =500,000); 

ft. Map of the Outer Hardanjer F^ord (1 : 600,000) : p. 97. 
9. Map of the Inner Ha.rda.nger fjord (i : 500,000) : p. 102. 

10. Map Of the District from Bergent oVose (1:600,000): p. 120. 

11. Map of the Central Part of the Soffnefford (1:600,000): 

12. Map of the Inner Sognefjord (1:500,000): p. 134. 

13. Map of Jotunheim (1:500,000): p. 140. 

14. Map of the Horunger (1 1 200,000): p. 146. 

15. MApotfiieSordfjordandthtSouthernSendmerefi: 500,000): 
p. 172. 

16. Map of the Northern Sendm&re and the Molde ("or Bomsdals) 
F^ord (1:600,000): p. 192. 

17. 18. Map of the NorVi- West and North Coast of Norway 

1st Sheet: Trondhjem-TorghatUn, Bode- Lofoten: p. 212. 
2nd Sheet : Trom*e to North Cape, North to Vadse • 
p. 228. 

19. Map of the Shorts of the Sound (1 : 500,000) : p. 250. 

20. Map of the Estuary of the G5ta-Elf(l : 100,000): p. 265 

21. Hap of the TroUhdtta Falls (1 : 24,000): p. 266. 

22. Map of the Environs of Stockholm (I : 100,000): p. 308. 

23. Map of the DJuraord near Stockholm (1 : 26,000) : p. 309. 

24. Map of the Saltsjd from mtna to Waxhalm, to the E. of 
Stockholm (1 : 100,000): p. 312. 

25. General Map otDenmark and Sltsvig (1 : 240,000): p. 343. 

26. Map of the Vyrehavt near Copenhagen (1 : 70,000) : p. 360. 

27. General Map of 8. Sweden (1:2,000,000): after the Index, 

28. Key Map of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, showing the 
Maps of the Handbook : after the Vocabulary. 

le (p. 63), the Skfnegg (p. 153), and 


™ Norway 

(which la *■ 
la on the 

***veV\eT» a^ 

is easWy \« 

V» the rem 

deliver? or— 

to Any do\i»^ 
muk. lO 0. 


**^J tfiWHH riaaBBB, of which the chief are those open ton 
■Oasi *»^ t o * ?. *»„ tfcosa *»pen from 8 to 1 and from 3 to 9, >Bd 
^e» ranaS W> 11 *o«i from 4 to 7 o'clock, Indicated io the 
,f "wotgeBCommTmicatloner" {the time-tables mentioned it 
w 1l l ^ MdT a respectively. Kallway telegraph-stationi., 
afced tv T* ot IS, u« open from 8 to 12 and from 2 or 4 to 
Ado*. 'Hliiit atatinns are open in summer or during the Ashing 
■on only. 
TSonwaaim T»sOT. witMn Norway: 60 a. for ten words, and B g. 

each, word more. — Foreign telegrams (minimum SO ».): to Sweden 
is.. In addition to which toe* word t» charged 10*.; to Denmark 90s,, 
• 10 *. for eaeh word.; to Great Britain 96». pea word, to the D B.A. 
:t. SB*, lo 2kr. 6». pet word. 

Swbdjbh T*bifp. Within Sweden: 60 o. for ten worda, and S 6*. for 
h word more. — Foreign teleerams: to Norway or Denmark SOS. for 
b words, 10 B. each word mora; to Great Britain 1 kr. 90 6. for three 

Telephones ale very general throughout the country, and are of 
iportance to the tourist, especially in Norway, as they afford a 
lans of securing rooms, etc., In advance. Travellers, however, 
>uld refrain from telephoning unless they are quite sure of occupy- 
g the rooms ordered at the specifled time ; otherwise the attention 

present paid to telephone-orders will probably be discontinued. 
ib usual charge for the use of a telephone Is 30 ».; in Stockholm, 106, 

Season. Steamboat Lines between Grout Britain and Norway, 
Sweden, and Denmark. Yachting Cruises. 

Season. The best season for travelling, both in Norway and 
reden, is from the beginning of June to the middle of September; 
t July and August are the best months for the higher moan tains, 
isre snow is apt to fall both earlier and later. For a voyage to the 
irth Oape (RB. 29-33), for the sake of seeing the midnight ann, 
e season is from the middle of June to the end of July. August 
often a rainy month in the eastern districts of Norway, while 
i wet season sets in later on the west coast. An energetic tra- 
iler may see the chief points of interest in Norway and Sweden 
2 1 /j-3 months, but an exhaustive tour cannot be accomplished 

Steamboat Lines. The following particulars as to the chief 
les of steamers between British and Scandinavian ports refer to 
s summer-arrangements (May to August inclusive) ; bnt travellers 
 recommended in all cases to obtain precise Information from 
i agents or advertisements of the various steamship-companies. 
e fares quoted include the oharge for provisions on the voyage 
cept where it is otherwise stated. 

Sts*msss To NoawAr. 

To Ohrlatiania. (1). From London, '1 


claw). — (2). From SuU, ( Wilson Line' every Frld. in 16 art. (fares, etc., 
same as from London). — (8). From Newcastle-on-Tyne, every Frid., 8S. 
'Sterling' and *Odin" (32. 3s., return 52. 5*.; food extra). — (4). From Orange- 
mouth, every Wed. (22. 10*., If. 10s.; food 5s. Qd. per day). 

To Ohri*tiana*nd. Nearly all of the above-mentioned steamers. Also : 
from Leith, 'Leiih, Hull, and Hamburg Go/ every Thurs. in 34 hrs. (3/. 
3s. ; return 52. 5s.) i returning on Friday. 

To Bergen. (1). From Hull, 'Wilson Line' every Tues. in 88 hrs. (4/. 
10»., 3/., return 72., 42. 10s.), returning on Saturday. — (2). From Newcastle, 
( Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Cos/ every Tues., Thurs., £ Sat. in 40 hrs. 
(1st cl. 42., return 62.). — These steamers, except 'the Tues. boat from 
New-castle, touch at Stavanger (same fares). 

To Trondhjem. (1). From Hull, * Wilson Line* every Thurs. in 
66 hrs. (62. 10s. , 42. 4«., return 92. Ids., 62. 6s.), returning the following 
Thursday. — (2). 'From Newcastle, ( Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Cos.* every 
Tues., via Bergen (see above; fare from Bergen 32 kr., return 48 kr., food 
b l /t kr. per day). 

Stbambbs to Sweden. 

To Gotenburg. (1). From London (Tilbury), ( Thule Line* every Frid. 
(returning every Thurs.) in 40 hrs. (31. 3*., 22. 2t.; food extra); return- 
tickets (52. 6s., oJ. 3s.) are available also via Granton (see below) or by the 
Wilson Line via Hull. — (2). From Hull, 'Wilson Line' every Sat. (returning 
every Frid.) in 36-40 hrs. (same fares; food 6s. 6tf., is. Qd. per day). — 
(3). From Grimsby, 'Wilson Line' every Tues. (returning the following 
Tues.) in 86-40 hrs. (same fares). — (4). From Granton (Edinburgh), ( Thule 
Line' every Frid. (same fares). 

To Malmo. From Grimsby, 'Wilson Line* every Wed., returning every 
Thurs. (81. 8s., 22. 2s., return 52. 5s., 82. 3s.; food 6». %d\, 4s. 6<f.). 

To Stockholm. From London, via Malmo, 'Stockholm Steamship Go.', 
about every ten days. 

Stbambxs to Dbnmabk. 

To Copenhagen. (1). From London, 'Bailey and Leetham Line* every 
Sun. in about 3 days (22. 10s., 12. 10i.; food extra). — (2). From Hull, 
'Wilson Line' every Frid. or Sat. in 60 hrs. (1st cl. 22. 10s., excl. food; 
2nd cl. 12. 5s., incl. food); 'Bailey and Leetham Line 1 every Sun. in about 
3 days (1st cl. 22. 10s., food 6s. per day). — (3). From Leith. 'James Carrie 
* Go.', via Christiansand, every Thurs, in 54 hrs. (32. 8s., 12. lis. 6d., 
1st cl. return-ticket 52. bs.)\ returning every Thursday. 

To Esbjerg. (1). From Harwich, 'United 8.S. Co. of Copenhagen' every 
Hon., Thurs., * Sat (returning Tues., Wed., 6 Sat.) in 90 hrs. (12. 10s., 
15s. 6d., 1st cl. return-ticket 22. 5s.; food 5s. per day in the 1st cl., and 
2s. 6d. per day in the 2nd cl.). — (2). From Grimsby, 'United S.S. Co. of 
Copenhagen' every Hon. (returning every Frid.) in 30 hrs. (12. 10s., 15*. 6dL; 
1st el. return-ticket 22. 16s. 3d. ; food extra). 

The majority of travellers will probably find the excellent 
steamers of the * Wilson Line' (Thos. Wilson, Sons, & Co., Hull) or 
of the 'Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Cos.' (P.H. Mattkiessen&Co., 
25 Queen St., Newcastle ; Jiff. Berg-Hansen, Christania) the most con- 
venient The last-named company (or, rather, combined companies) 
also maintains an excellent service between Norway and Hamburg, 
for which return-tickets from Newcastle are also available. Esbjerg 
(p. 373) has direct railway-connection with Copenhagen and with 
Gotenburg via Fredericia and Frederikshavn (R.62). The Dutch mail- 
steamers plying every Thurs. from Rotterdam to Stavanger (48 hrs.) 
and Bergen (58 hrs. ; fare 40 fl., return 6011.) may also he mentioned. 

Yachting Cruises. Large and comfortable excursion-steamers. 

.III. ^JLAtf 0* TOUR. 

comton auA innnemeiil of their passengers , and follow , 
t V» ot «S aX, an \nc\QBi-we charge, full details of which may be 
s a. f™ 11 *i« various igonts. These so-called yacBts undoubt- 
atfel ** mttt eomfoTt Bible means of visiting some of the finest 
ftcW of Norway. They penetrate into the chief fjords, and the 
acngers have opportamtiiss from time to time of making ei- 
s\on6 on land. But this method of visiting Norway inevitably 
sses many of the peculiar beauties of the country, A prolonged 
ddence on board one of these floating hotels Is apt tb prove mono- 
aous and enervating, and is certain to leave the passenger's mind 
most a blank with regard to the trae charms of Norwegian travel. 
ib complaint sometimes heard, that even the grandest scenery in 
irway is somewhat monotonous, Is rarely made by any but tourists 
. these pleasure-steamers who have not had time to become prop- 
ly acquainted with the country. 

III. Plans for Independent Tours in Norway and Sweden. 
'.Tourist Offices . 

Tourists who content themselves with a Yachting Cruise along 
e coast have, of course, their travelling-plan determined by the 
ogramme of the steamer. Host travellers, however, will find It much 
ore satisfactory to form plans for independent tours for themselves, 
d we therefore give a few specimens below, which may easily be 
;eredwlth-the help of the Handbook or extended by the Inclusion of 
cursions from the main track, etc. The Dnest scenery in Norway 
is on tie west coast, the chief points being the Hardanger Fjord, 
gnefjord, Nordfjord, Sendmsre, Molde, and Romsdal. The Jotnn- 
im, to the E. of the Sognefjord, is recommended to the attention 
mountaineers. The voyage to the Norrland, the ehief attraction 
which is the Lofoten Islands, is also very fine. The beautiful 
vns Of Christiaiiia and Stockholm are well worthy of a visit. 

Three or Four Weak* from Ohrlstiania (Five of St. Weeki including 
the Voyage to the North Caps or a Trip through Sweden). 

tMtaHta and its neighbourhood (R. 9) 1 

im Chris [inula by railway to Skim via Drammen (R. 5) . . . 1 

Dm Sliien to Dalai by steamer, and thence by carriage to Odde, 

'la llauktli, Reidal, and Btliatat (B. 6) 3 

cursion to the Bardangmr Fjord from Odds (p. 106), and from 

c« I JSidfjord (p. 109); tu Bfrgmbj steamer (K. 19) 4 

le Beautiful route from Eidt to Vossevaugen via Stjtrttl (p. 123) 
hould be chosen by those who have already teen Bergen or who 

no Bergen by railway to Voi$nia*ft», and thence drive to Slat- 
uimtUei and 10 Qudtangen (p. 132) 


.V*^ *%»-<*■ to FolM* <*= 

j rIU g VW» t -»^" f^nUh «.oA iWunlmnoll 
EKOrtiW .^- ^> Orotu, & n a thenoe a.ow«» 
* m * J , M ™.. a}**™"» to HmOfylt (p- ±S 

Hmw^il^' »r Bte fcmar to Molds. JCoi-rf 
-»*Ia^ I 5~ ""* «=»■* either proc*' 

MionT^'^V); m ..turn by **«.-> 

"£r^£ aw«*o-i-; to- «*. 

**" Q ° Wt ** i ^»^ by lillway (it. 88)'or'»l««nor 

H. A Twt»i*l»t from Ofai 

^ 57 " D ^T*-»tiani« Uuuusb tbe ►'a*'"'* to 

WM»»-V>A . 7^ " " 

From Lie ~~^& A»lt»-ien toy steamer to Bo**"'*™* - 

grom l^g t. walk to CTrf* Cp- iJS", - * ^£1? 
Mm .-=»3=ld B direst) to F« i W*2*0*- l0 ?f f. 
Prow ^" -* » Oy ateamer to CM*. =* 6 j"£*S£" ' 
Yioitt C» -^«b by iteuur to Bergen. Berv-t 

m. ih« e w..k. *»—_*!*; 

„ „ «=S*»rlati»iiia thrnueb the Fa**"** , '•ft* 
Tn>*^*rtien C e « i„ orocedina mute to ► r °*" ! S^. 
*aV "^0>Mst,ngen by railway to Bergen- ,-* ' 
■StOT»> Dttgen. to Yadltiim on ibe Bogii^fJora  

, 17, Thne.'weeka on the W""^ *£ 

— ■"- by "team 
ie StildaU 

•&*£* ta Odde (a. 
&HW*', from Odds 

«-<•■ 'KSrarf. 

15*5 V""™ er to tii'on the EiA/J° rll! 

■^"-..iDJIlsnce by ateamer to BaOtolme" » n ° 
-SB FjwlaodsGord b, sle i m er to Forf***",^ 
f^, FidlietiQ by overUiiJ ^ate via ** rd *-< J.Zfi<. 
F &«W, feU«y«, Jrwaajjiitai, »i J«r w " W 


^t^ssioin. Those who have demoted allistvislt t« 

■0- 'V lV Y * e » O* «»e country, may well spend one or more 

«** ^s? 71 * tne exploration of particular districts. The 

JQ.V0 1 * ^Ztt*^ " Pomt *"» cowering long distances between point 

V # ie "<* ^^» t61: "*tt. bo the enjoyment of the districts visited. 

Vt> B ( 6<*'^»*' ■?*** tourist offices of Jtf«#M. T. Coofc# Son 

&\& JtJ-**Zje ^ SD "»>lnLondon, and those of T. Bennett and 

l » i Lj(* B G**^^t» TlSttMlU «d Bergen, Issue railway, steamboat, 

(^st*-^^, * nd hotel w«Pone 
•"'e B^lrtA***^-"^**** *** received hack ander deduction of 10 per 
°' totfa »**** f^» "ystem saves trouble at a corresponding 
9*'*.. ®rZ <-.<»***' a £,nce - As a general rule ft is adrisable not to 
< .^t^J before leaving 1 London, but to wait until 

1 ' 0tl is reached. 'The Norway Tonrfsf s Weekly 

'' c^jTiUina information of considerable Importance 
l\«t**^ b ^ Beyer at Bergen, and is to be seen at 

»»■*' ^^^ conveyuiees. Walking Tonrs. 

jot jr« r1, * T appear In 'tforgei Comrntimttationcr' fpron. 

SSS^KJSS VS.™™«S«™^-'*(K» oA both pnwlsas/' weekly i°n 
com" wJ°^oI ibeae, however, Is very satisfactory! and travel I era In 
S* mi*. * .romnwnded to obtain Jttn/er-i IbarMi' 7¥m«-fl»WM «/ (** JV»r- 
??!*;*«.? "S *.„ sishmti, ■bk' DUignca (published fOrtjUfWlTi 60 ».) or 
£•*»» £K3B«anoB i»ned by.tW«|;p. 10). Beyer', time-fbles will be 
fb« »"" l ',o« from Berger. on receipt of id. In British .tamps, NOW be 
«"** , J^»ta"ao*Lea C hI,d.,3Chs r ii 1 gCrosa, London, tie 'Sommer- 
io" 1 "^ the various fjord steamboat linei may to obtained at Stavanger, 
Soot^' "l^ono, „d Molde. Among other time-tables may be mentioned 
B * T ^S2l»«-A'»^»* (Berlin) and the RbhIUU for KotytrigH Dantnari (t*>- 
»»S, which travellers to or from Germany will find u.efol. 
pW Observe that many of the summer time-tables, eapeeinlly those of the 
[lord steunare, hold good till the end of Aiignst only. 

Steamboat* (Norw. Damptkibe, 8w. inab&tar). The regular 
Norwegian coasting trafllr, is almost entirely in the hands of the 
Bergen*** sni the Nordenfjeldikc Dtimpskibt-Seltkab, which have 
a common tims-tible. The headquarters of the former are at Bergen, 
those of the latter at Trondhjem. (Agents at Cbriatiania and New- 
castle, see p. xlil.) The smaller steamers plying on the Norwegian 
fjords are comfortable enough daring the day, but their sleeping 
accommodation is poor, and on market-days they are apt to ** 0Ter - 
crowded. The same remark applies to the smaller coasting steamers 
on the Baltic and au the Swedish canals. 

Host travellers will, of course, travel in the first cabin. Those 
who are about to spend one or more nights on board should at 
osee secnre their berths ftojtn) fn , Bt . tar0()m (m at) W P*™ 1 
application to the steward. Otherwise theTmaTV™ W P . P 
with sofa, in the dining-saloon, with the additional "*»*»**■«• 
of having to qsit their coaches before eariy breakfast (6 •.->• Tbm 
Baiduie's Korwey ind Sweden, ath Edit * 


are always A separate ladies' cabin and a smoking-room. A passenger 
travelling with his family by mail-steamer pays full fare for himself, 
hut 1b usually en/fc:Ll;led to a reduction ('Moderation'; pron. 'mod- 
eraBhoont') of 50 per cent on the fare (but not on the cost of food) 
for each of th© oilier members of the party. But this arrangement 
aoeanot hold grood for the large tourist-steamers or for all the $ord- 
steamers. On most of the steamboats return- tickets, available for a 
month or more, are issued at a fare and a half, without any other 
reduction. TJb.^ captains and mates usually speak English. The 
traveller should ~k>o careful to look after his own luggage. * 

The food is ^onerally good and abundant, though a little mono- 
tonous. Vegeta.l>les are rare, and tinned meats, salt relishes, and 
cheese always x> preponderate at breakfast and supper. The tariff in 
tue Bergen and IC^oxxLenfjeld steamers, which is a little higher than 
m the smaller vessels, is as follows : — food per day, including ser- 
vice, 5y 2 kr. 5 or, separately, the charge for breakfast is li/ f kr., for 
dinner (at 2) ^ Itr. 40 s., supper (>t 7. 30 ) ±l ^ kr . attendance 50*. ; 
cup of tea or oo:fiF«3e with biscuit or rusk (Kavringer) in the morning 
00 sr. ; gma u cup of coffee after dinner 20 0. ; beer 40 e. per bottle, 
25 0. per half— ~*>o**le ; Bordeaux li/ 4 kr. peT half-hottle. No spirits 
are procurable - Tlie account should be paid daily, to prevent mis- 

takes. The ste^rard expects a fee proportioned to the length of the 
voyage and ***** »« TVlce8 ™dered. 

Bailway* C :csr<>rl T: Je ™}> an *r, Sw. jemvdgary Most of the rail- 
ways are sim«« *° *££ a * e ° ^*f™*°™ oowtHes ; but in Nor- 
wav and Svret^**** , *!?™*L Z* al na ™w-gauge lines (3i/ 3 ft0, 

ways observe ^^ O -T011»b. us^alU fiee! e *L ™t^w .°k Greeniwicl1 
«•/» „ atta .£c^ *- ^*„<r« -wlrt. vl ee J> exoept-what the passenger 

^••-Ef^M "^^ g t»ta« r^ m> m ™* be booked. The averse 
speed of »® « 2/ r 2 .-<2* Mgu M that of the mixed trains (blcndedl 
»nSUt°agw\^^ *^> ,UB<£k?t£P %; per honr - AU «m> trains hare 
Tog , *l a » da 'Z*L&<2» / B J?, *^8* ' ro^pi) and ladies' compartments 
smoking" **/* ^•"J"**'^ ^^^-tiokets are n^ ™l£l £Vl 

*****- *&^^jsr££s; *o a od Swe , den and •* the p^cipai 

T* e *^>*^*I S are often ^ **° i ndn0tex P eMly °5 but those 
station l * ^-H° e „ r no attendance £??**?• W * «emselve*, 
on tl*« *!Sc l***> e ^»« ° r 'upper' j^ 8 «*'«tthe nsual cHarge 

obtsv** 1 *^!,** ** airtK- * ' *° *"° w tame (generally 

only */*"'"' 


aWKiiioiin. ~— j j , ern "0i ir« often Tory rougb, wi 

^SMwrtf™  , ped nehindthe traveller, on the 
*" SmUS JL3?.. 81 "! "• «M w»o .ometlme. 
'he rein, « j^-3! I. hU '***» ""d the traveller ami 

ei «nere. As the ponies, ate often overdriven 

insdeqnste ten,™ T ° hlr,(B of *-o«- P«« En B'- mile 1 

'«'. to™ ,,'! " J™"". " » n.f.lron tbi. aecoont al.o 
* ll «»edfor ew .tn rniB "Mu nun., and sometime, more, ah 
"•"on. js ^"■WMhmtto. A frequent inacrlption In th< 

"™mw,. ,Z ,1f -, .T" r t'-"' be •" >od ,0 "" h0 ™ 
from tire 'Onf ,7! K WnBttlon will receive a good el 
be more cheerfnii * n<oe " rt v« .Utton. and will in eoiue 
In Norrsy win fl '7, and 0ulokl V """ed. In every case the t, 
in Mrthin. a™™ , * Mconnl n>°« In politeneas and civil! 

°» «• 3K f ' ai ""«nal manner. 
ftlders fa £ '" *° "oeghfares throngh Teleroarken fR. ( 
a,or t movement *??., * 0D dbrnndsd.I (R. 10) it ia often 
or » Trait t t * tfriage f Peon, A"<st«cAooon, or £t 

wo «, in order' ,"" 0pe " f0D t-"beeler) and horae. for the 
J" "«* >■ no rii™;" ''•''»■ " »• overtaxed ■«•■*»"■ j 
in I the rr.rnll.r ^ 0U M t° the amoont of lnggage accoro 
■"'« « .««,!;»■ p ' ")■ Carriage, may be obtained on 
-tod S« M T °»""<*e«™Tvl0. — On »»■• •><«« 
""' >.i.r Z2 J* ■""■J»ne. of . „,.,. comfortable deecrl 
ffli »heliiredat. n ti »" the ordinary vehicle, of the conntry; 
Tt,e WydMia,^ "'Messrs. Cook', office.. „ 

"»), orirnTS^tP™. ■ta.h.o'net, which are nmllT 
:»» «alS "t" ""»• Ptoprieto" ... bo—J » , ™ ' 
'-"Ingl.lj ,,"'™'"' "quired, an, .Hunted *t intm. 
«'«« •»,'.„' °» "W I- a .hort one and tie bor.. rood 
""„«- •Mo.**;,,*™ "" to the n.r. .•.«•» » •" , " ,! ' 

te " •>• Si, "~" '" '•*«"«■■  S"* T/..S bonr, 
aTe 'ler waiting for more th an '* '. 

oohvwmwjbb. a , „«»^ be . 

* Paste #***£*■-»«••), or usually ^eiWP* 1 ** 0> ^n«™ 
B»fl- e „r»*« ln J»* «■- *»-»»«s of stations, no* »"*' flttf&r), *«»" r «£«?* 

«^^'a£«*&S»- -*« proXe Horses on «?«£*, station*. In.tty 
^ e *v5h a* e ^««. **«» tSuto', 'send *rf> ** *^esi« to **? '«*'. 
^SfW*"' H*£&S._T* traveller, byway of *«***«"• ften *• k«P* 

S'»*>V <^ low, but the *™ l \ e * a ^* T 6 eiUtag *»*«* 
^r*«!« 9 *^s. Tll e«e delays ate obviate* JT«» remark 

ttittne tot *»™£ieO *« stations of this class, and tb* s*m 
previous tne*»^^. t _. stl]ltlonB . The « F orb»d' nrart a rriv e v 
a^pWeB to '^°7 ote t^e *l me at which horses are required, or bette 
tSiee hours * e *Ta»y, a.nd should therefore l>e dispatched two or 
on the pre^o* ^na.. it i 8 usually sent Tt»y letter or post-""*. » 
by r t„v ayB ^reSW «*e traveller on the same route +. T*f <*££ 
ta d ?or*t££> »*▼ »1«» "1th advantage send <ForW> to'*-* 

stations Those wno -wish to make an early start should invana / 

° rd ei'thos^:y r dsiliep're^rioii8day; in country inns the OpvartningifW 

Cp. xxiin will take the* order. Delay on the journey may be avotae 

ejje^ming the c Q*vt* before arriving at a station that the trav- 

e ! in tends to proceed, at once ('jeg r>il strax reise viderc). 
eng^V*5°**fir other regulations, it may be mentioned that each pas** 
soi) S tr* L ^ rT * ^y one horse is allowed 64 lbs. of luggage. If two per- 
half, t^** 1 to^ertner in a Stolkjarre, for which they pay a fare and » 
8*ge a i*?y »*"» each allowed 24 lbs. of luggage only. For extra lug~ 
8k *ffet> . **on«.:i venicles must he hired. In hilly districts the 'SkydB- 
** i8t *n c t* Xe * * 5rd *l' 1 * eli **ly authorised to charge for more than the actual 
.fWor^' Every station- master is bound to keep a JOo&bog (Skyds- 
"^m^"" *>*>o^, in which the traveller enters his orders and records 
proc **iX f lal ***» A* he has any to make. Travellers are entitled to 
^e +^ OTder in which their names are entered in this boofc- 

f . °o^ . f* rf:flr ***" charges is lower for 'slow' stations than for * fast' 
iSK^tiLES* **\p former difference between 'fast' stations with or- 
to« oTvlL *^™ :rast ' 8tatlon8 witn ^sed charges was abolished in 

*at? e ^eiJ^^S3^£Tf ° f ^ e ;. Da ^ 0g,l8 ^ lw * y8 en *eredthe distance 
f*r! ' 8 ° tZ -^ station in each direction, whether by road or hy rowing 

******* *™<*«^ S ^IrnlT 6 ^ ^ leS (p ? ntea ° n yellow paper). 

stations the station-master is entlfi^ T * , I 

« *&**&*&<**-& *s^ «z^^*s<Z<Mel, or message, may be express*** - 

rt£? r Joi *Z*£-Z-^Z-Z-rJ£w ' C name thc station) beslilles £T SSfJ? ^ follows: - 

t>*o s< ffe~jr^^£**<*~m€<*dagen) Klokken et (to, Jr7etc r"2^«^«» <*e»a *©' J„ tf :, 

d^ ^^^^^L^^f ^^ for m p <"°» U w ££m£?>~ *«"»™« au : ;"^ 

s *K«-atiiTe. 

Tariff for Posting ('Land-Skyds') in Norway. 

From Fast Stations 



For one person 



{plus 1 

per Kil. 

for the 





iole or 



Two persons 







From Slow (or 'Tilsigelse 1 ) Stations 

{plus 200. per horse for 'Tilsigelse'; 

comp. p. xx) 

For one person 



(plus 1 0. 

per Kil. 

for the 




with car- 

iole or 


Two persons 



























o 45 




J. 95 

2 t 25 







Kr. 0. 

o. 17 




1. 19 




3 06 







O.68 , 

1. 13 






3 • *5 


3- 60 







5 -40 


Kr. 0. 








4 08 





I. OO 



I .60 

J. 70 


2. IO 


























, I.80 


i 1-95 


2. IO 







2. 16 








2 . 64 











I 80 

2. l6 






3-9 6 

lartff for B*»*s ('Baad-Skyds) in Norway. 

V % 

\ \ 




1 ! 


« ; 


"EtomTvit fctat5.oiis 

$ mwi 

and sail 

$ men 



an,d sail 

4 men 


and sail 

















1. 12 












Kr. 0. 
1. 12 
2- 80 


5 04 


6 72 






From Slot* Stations 

(plus 7 0. per rower and 60. per 
boat for 'TilsigeJse.J 

2 men 


and sail 








4 08 


4-5 6 



3 men 


and sail 




1 02 




3 40 





5 44 


8 50 

4 men 

and sail 


I 44 







8 64 

9 12 



ting it ready. Strictly speaking the fare may be exacted before the 
hirer starts, but it is usually paid at the end of the stage, when 
the 'Gut' receives a gratuity of about l l fo 0. per kilometre. The 
'Gaardskarl', or man who helps to harness the horses, does not 
expect a fee. Nothing should be given to the peasant children who 
sometimes officiously open gates. At slow stations the station- 
master may dismiss the horses if the traveller who has ordered 
them is more than 2 4 /2 hours late , and after the first hour of wait- 
ing he may exact 'Ventepenge' or waiting-money (amounting, for 
I-2V2 h*s., to the fare for 3-10 Kil.). Tolls, ferries, and similar 
dues are paid by the traveller. 

Rowing-Boats. For the conveyance of travellers by boat (Baad- 
skyds or Vandskyds) the regulations are similar, but on all the 
principal routes steamers now ply. Those who have a guide with 
them may employ him as a rower, and thus dispense with one of 
the usual crew. Each rower (Rorskarl) generally rows or 'sculls' 
with two oars. A boat manned with two rowers is therefore called 
a Firring, or four-oared boat, one manned with three rowers a Sex- 
ring, and with four rowers an Ottering. For short distances a 
Firring generally suffices. The tariff is determined by the size of 
the boat and not by the number of persons (see Tariff on yellow 
paper, which is referred to in the Handbook by the letters A, B). 
The Tilsigelse fee is 7 0. per man and 6 0. per boat. As the fares 
are very unremunerative, the traveller should add a liberal gratuity. 

Walking Tours. Neither Norway nor Sweden is suitable for 
long walking excursions, as the distances are too great , and the 
points of interest too far apart. A few districts in the Swedish 
Norrland (R. 67) have, however, recently been made accessible to 
pedestrian tourists. In Norway, though there is no lack of short 
excursions which can be made on foot only, practically the only 
opportunities for walking-tours of several days or of considerable 
mountain-ascents are to be found in the region to the N. of the 
Sognefjord, Laerdal, and the upper Valders as far as the Sundal, or 
over the passes to the Hardanger Ford or Sognefjord. The footpaths 
aTe, as might be expected, far inferior to those among the Alps. 
On very hilly roads, walking is quicker than driving, in which case 
a cariole or cart may advantageously be hired for luggage only. 

V. Luggage. Equipment. Tourist Clubs. 

Luggage. Travellers who intend to make the whole of their tour 
in Norway and Sweden by railway and steamboat need not limit 
their luggage, but those who intend travelling by cariole should not 
take more than 30-40 lbs., packed in a small and strong box and a 
carpet-bag, to which may be added a wallet or game-pouch for 
walking excursions. A soft or compressible portmanteau is not 
recommended, as the 'Skydsgut' always sits on the luggage strapped 

«c^. -*^r ^.no rt «>a Be w\W, *^ w^ "^osf ,"*»> *«,? * tabl es, or »„ 

•5Cs£ j£» io ^ w ^ w-" «&5 is-- iK^fi t?^ 6 " ^S 

-m» «. po.dl.le, «„,;"" d '»« M ,!„., «>. g „ "» No„7" "= °ft. 

**• "«**• 9O0O n.„i£ 

v VI. Sot* 

1»««1« ere ,.„u *" "" ™» 1« 

™* w.,S ,I,"J'"' eln * "r •" 

""taw.™.';,™™- »•»>■»' 

a M»aring to th. oi numerona 

«•. fiom e h n ° e I* not bjmVoIu 

A." 8 *0o(,' nf Z^^t^tneV'lfe fai 

oropean com 

a rule, ever) 

or 'olat Kt; 

, tfa thoStredli 

l Y the mamiei 

b there In no 

aj 'id, as the pi 

ading to me] 

fcS^**SJ™ ""■•■lo'nknown It 
^9».'°' Bf 'eiI!* ,e vari ° ua rellf 
V, K»l«.,fc k >'».l'or.tto»l.n 


In'" 1 *"'', . "°«'»«" 1 )™' 

>2, >lN. S«sO. «■'« 
"».?'» °">»" lrf »'" 4 " 



Nokwigian. English. Swkdish. 

Kobwxoian. English. Swedish. 






































Roast veal 












Boast mut- 


j Poteter 
\ KartoJUr 


Potatis, Po- 











Boast veni- 



> Pancakes 



Ost (short) 




Boast rein- 













Red wine 






White wine Hvidtvin 




01 (short) 


01, bier. 




Beer is the usual Scandinavian beverage (halv Flask or halfva 
butelj, 20-25 *.), but good Bordeaux and other wines are generally 
to be had at the larger inns and on hoard the steamers. Spirits are 
never sold at the hotels or on hoard the steamers, hut may be pur- 
chased at the shops in the towns. Drunkenness, which used to be 
a national vice, has been greatly diminished by recent — 

Liquor Laws. In Norway, where the liquor-traffic was formerly al- 
most entirely free, the consumption of raw spirits amounted in 1833 to 
28 quarts per head of the entire population. Owing to the raising of the 
duty and to the efforts of temperance societies the quantity was reduced 
in 1843 to 177s pints per head, and in 1871-73 to about 9 pints per head 
per annum. In 1874 and 1875 the average consumption rose to nearly 12 
pints for each person per annum, but the recent introduction of a 'per- 
missive bill 1 has again caused a great reduction and produced most bene- 
ficial results. By the laws of 9th June, 1866, 3rd May, 1871, and 22nd May, 
1875, the authorities of each district may, by a majority, refuse to grant 
any license for the retail sale of spirits within their district, or they 
may grant a monopoly of the spirit-trade to a company which is bound 
to pay the whole of its profits to the. municipality, after deduction of 
expenses and 5 per cent interest. The former option has been exercised 
in many country-districts, with the result that drunkenness is now al- 
most unknown and that poverty, crime, and disease are greatly dimin- 
ished. The other alternative has been adopted in many of the larger 
towns, such as Bergen and Chris tiansand, with the result that drunken- 
ness and crime are much less frequent than formerly, and that a consid- 
erable revenue is yielded to the municipality for the support of the lm> 
provident classes. The sale of spirits is entirely prohibited on Sundays 
and saints* days, and also on Saturdays and the eves of festivals after 
5 p.m. — The laws restricting the sale of wine and beer are similar, 
but much less stringent. 

In Sweden the leading statute regulating the retail spirit-trade was 
passed on 24th August, 1877, partly in consequence of the success which 
for several years previously had attended the 'Gothenburg licensing sys- 
tem 1 . Its provisions are similar to those of the Norwegian statutes, and 
by § 3 it is further provided that food shall always be sold at spirit-shops. 
By §§ 10, 14 it is enacted that the authorities of a district may either 
sell one or more licenses, in accordance with the requirements of th« 
place, by auction to the highest bidder, or to a company which shall 
pay the whole of its surplus profits to the municipality, or they may by 
a majority refuse to grant any license for the retail sale of spirits. Again, 


fey $ J/e% **^*- i c «n«e will ta 

ani«»trft4j^^> pay dn*irnl er «nfe4i <o «ar «>«• *« » to™, except on Ws 

Kan*Z<Z r"2*S* <ltiai£< «J»7 0* a ^ .*"« {>J5 n,, j r S!l^^#- a* the rate of 28 #. per 
«S+£~ ****£- ftl?^ 0/ ^fctoffl 2C J2.*«SS*lo- elsewhere, or at the 
**i* °^ **^ **i* * **»»" 0fa»iJ? ld for c€> ^% fSF ***« premises. The mini- 

«0*!**»~«r _^«1 i. "r* 1 * 01 thttanm. JB^r S &** J**** ^~-l«r of the authorities. 

£T**y, and in £!L " .r 1 *' ""»- -By 9 **E* ~%. or&er of the authorities, 

**X*&mym ma! lZ B * J be ? **T ** ^""^fkrrf ***** municipali ty of Stock- 

*oY»* mai i" a Yj/e8tfvaJ5. -^ j a J o*U>l9*r9 /££*<>**> license to retail spirits 

«&a>w iixmt ^£r ^^ <<> th*t it Cr°* lie ^S»«*S.«*^ 1> y decrCMed - 

CagZ r "^enaew and crime **▼« ° ^ ot are to be f<mnd ln 

th * W* **£ * ,2DM * M*A0irn in ^J^SS** specialties is Swedish 
P«nch, * * f ^edigi towns. On* *%■,«!■. lemon-juice and sugar, 
WaT ^^nre of rum or »^^ t r ^-^Oa. per glass) With ice 
in «„ a lin*^ 7^ Aiintoe**- K.**** _~»-v wholesome beverage. 

SL? ,Uner ** ^- *P d K?f to«* **°* X£o%ma only. - OaM. and 
Beet o tt dr « • U » palatable, *, *» r, 5E«ISly« from 8.30 a.m. to 

''"Hi. «* frequently cloS orimitWe as a rule. The 

k.»iTr** *» 1*"«, j *,ti. »* e " ro ^» gentlemen only. 

*aft-hou Be8 il°^»y and S*e de » s aT o »t g« 

D **• fjord* »» d la 

Q — rt. 0P° r .^v in Norway and Sweden 

«/i . T «f all , ,t„n off «**^: indeed stlU obtolnaWe, 

w / e **». » ^^Ods h»« f * X „ fl»ki»« VL such as tke Woiwen-Kv 
aw» y at hi^K^^Uent ^^^^a* ^.t^y to wealthy Englishmen. 

prenl^*-**^ *«t onion* le ^»y ^"iJ^efit waters ('FMevand') 

»nd 2, attd «^3, ^^tdship*- iv^rrM**-**^^ . 10), the Memsje and 
J^l^' e »» *f^ ? 1 *«»» we tb« ^ Ttf J^ 8 ® 1 * •« in Sweden (R. 56), the 
fc^ ** £** ^fltato I'-^iS ^^f^o ^e Siljan in Sweden 

Iti,^°k- **»dVDy otl * e ^ - ti ng in Norway and Swe- 

den. Th.T5 ac »»lt >, .„ jrood *{i"gd»l »«U afford reindeer- 

ahoottng "^^t*^?^ *o oWJ» * l** 3 *^ Bardanger Vidd^ near 
the Boig H ^ hi «l» Sf enclosing *P a °*i^ad; and wild-fowl aboond 
to manv 5' 1e^i y » l8 ° ^5 t» ^* p fw ** the Packless forests 

*«t Place ^ U ft^ l * ,ld ' ana *ifS« wl *i forest districts, where the 
bestmn.f . **»<>«,* ^51* Beriona «»*„ »»* * me nt, and hy a Norwegian 

WlS&oSUlw! * Ke mOTl,l t a io «° v °f^ ^rom 200 to 1000 kroner. 
Awin .v 77 » li^* 1 »>>!«, DeloDfif*^.^, oOf** permission Is obtained to 
A «*n> though *^»*b« to'snoot *^a ^* e& P 




the l 2 , opoorm? , ^ ere * 8 an excellent new ordnance map, called 
blnal on ^fi^ka Corp9et%s Karta ofver Sveripe* (water coloured. 

8^ exL^ ° f * : 100 ,000. In 1895 «"*• ** d •»•«* *° 

eood m™. ^** on ^e N. to Lake Wenern and Gefle. — Other 
toeeplatL the 'Oeneralkariabfvtr Sveri 9 e> (1 : 1,000,000), i» 
the l Karta V* ^ich the * wo southernmost naive heen issued •, and 
1 -500 00ft i£ er ^ tw '^'» hy Selander, in 14 aheeta on a scale of 
&ottn« L&t'rF 9 * N ' Sw eden may ne mentioned the 'Karta bfvet N€»tt- 
un [1 : 200,000; in 46 sheet*) now in course of publication. 

a f ew u ?** p' the numerous books treating of Norway and SwedLen 
Annu • and accessible works are mentioned here : — 
BroTZ 6 Stati 8tiqut de la Norvlgt (official, pnb. at intervals} - 
Bffi?J n nnme de Norvege, etc., 2nd ed., 1878. 
bunl S X " The No™ Folk, etc., New ^ork, 1857. 
j£L l* U ' P * *•> Land of the Midnight Sun, *X vols., 188 ± . 
*«**, J. 2)., N 0rway and its Glaciers, Edin., 1853. 
LlJr C, » Sket ches in Holland and Scandinavia, Lond., 1885. 
r !? ' Scan dina7ian Adventure, Lond., 1864. 
K/« Iwe « ian Pictures, 1885. , 48to 

•K??' *' Oxoniftn ™ Thelemarken, ^ vols., Lond., 1868. 
^^W'.TenYears in Sweden, Lond., 1865. 
J*«i «•« £ c, Denmark and Iceland, Lond., IBM. 
?*£*»*. T., GamleNorge, Lond., 1879. 

***fcr, Viridarium Norvegiannm C* dmiral>le accoua * o* „ 
flora). «tas 

5°^ O.M., Norway in June, Lond., 1889. 
£W>r, Bayard, Northern Travel, Lond., 1WH. 
S^. W. W., Sweden and the Swedes, Lond., 1»^. 
i«* in Norway', by Two of them, Lond., }™*',. 
pf*, J. tf, An American in Norway, Lond., 188D. 
l**cm, Norsk, Lapp, and Finn, ±881. 
Z 0od > Kound about Norway, Lond., *»«*• , QQfl 
^ 00rf , C. TF., Under Northern Skies, Lond., 1886. 

IX. Names and ****** Meanings. 

DJ J 1 * 6 •PeWng and pronunciation o£ the names of Seandi- 
fe i8 ^ry Variable. In Sweden ^* ™?SS£« «* ° «* ^**n 
Z« ? * ** *, in Norway usually <* •»"» ^the v* d 5 al "> o^* 1 *" 
l£j«* [being sometfmes used ***««£* £ %«-«* ^r, 
cW' A * ain in Norway aa, ««*, <>«*> * n « .!, **«L*enily i* *lie 

Sf V Ml1 '- The ™* els "» "' *** Gaining n^ i* k«W* or 
S?3>*. thalr pronunciation ^£^^*| T itoffi^r 


nation wifclk other consonants or at tlae «n.a. of a word is usually mute, 
and therefore often omitted (as AT«^«*« for Medheia, Haukeli foi 
Haukelid, Orotli for Qrotlid, etc.)- JL.**»tly, ? and jfe f w hen hard, are 
often U8&a. indifferently, as A^er«fc«A« or -4*cr^ u , y Egersund ot 
Ehcrsund* Vig or Vifc. The article e** or «* (see grammar in *** 
appendix} i B often added in common speech to names which &ppe** 
in the naap without it (nroolever*, JKrogUv, etc J. In Danish or 
Norwegian the letter id does not occur, put in Swedish v and w 
are constantly interchanged, the latter having lately come inolfc 
into vogue. 

In both countries the traveller -will often he struck hy the 
primitiveness of the nomenclature, many names signifying merely 
'the creel*', 'the promontory', *tne lake', 'the end of the lake', 
'the river', 'the river-valley', 'the valley-river'. Farm-houses again 
are usually named after their proprietors, and the converse is 
often the case. The following is a list of several common Norwe- 
gian words (jx and being placed last in the alphabet) : — 

ActMc, O*, probably con- £ide t isthmus , neck of Hyl, Hel^ hollow, basin. 

traded from Aaker or land. JT»r*«, church. 

^±ffer y field, cultivated Elv, river. Kl**<> ©liff. 

land. i^cere, ebb-tide, the beach Kv « m ? Qww»» ravine. 

A «»•» from Aa y river. exposed at ebb-tide. Z,^*ay, Log, Laug, Loug, 

■»«■*■» ridge. Fjeldy mountain. yivex. 

» ^L se ^.5 fre * /yord, bay, arm of the sea 7W**"*> grove, thicket. 

£e***e, hill. Fo , wa terfall. **• £!Sjte, hamlet, garden. 

^"^* Slaeier. Gaord. farm- house (En E i j3w*i fte14 - 

£~, Ar, «Gaard\ hamlet. <yara<). gl * ftlT Aba, plain, dale. 

» * * own » village. (jfaw, rocky slope. Uvii*, Merle, forest-, also 

»f *, Parish, district, Orcend, group of chalet- a 'inountain-traotf. 
7)«V* ^V #«"?< iro, ¥' Yxin ' *r£s, * 08e > promontory. 

~~*» vallev - „ JT«€, #«ta, barren height ^Kl*, mountain-top, 

oS£L co «* er > ^ge, ridge. 2f«li«, alab^ock, cliff 6 * 1 *- ^^fiaM. . 

wf5L* tongue of land, £tm<f, strait, ferry. JZaA* Vatn. water, lake. 

O^F ^^ On i ory \ I*** 1 (Eng * 4th ^aite'v VZZff, meadow, pasture. 

7»?« J^°^ tn » ^^ clearing. Ue ) £2*f contracted genitive 

PZ€*<* 9 hamlet, clearing. Tind, peak. '^LV *Vand\ 

^JffS e y^\ d :> P ar8 onage. 2?<*rt», 3y«rn, or .flfte^ _-2r F», creek. 
^l^l! Cnalet v' m . oi:uktain - mountain-lake, ^tS?' |2#* W»»7 *!<**• 
**Sf' "5?' cowherds' hut. Tuft, Tomt, site of hoSL* £? island. 
M^M^f*  V P 10 ,* / 5 ! ^ 11 * 1 ®^^!!^ *£» ^^peninsula, tongue 

^*c*&&c*ir, storehouse. and Scotch provi^l- . ^* Viand. 

fl~l* **"' 8 / e tfil **«*- *toft\ 'toomf. 1 * Clal °i lyr, alluvial or 

**«*«* , wooden *«>*••. p". ™bble, loose atonea gravelly 8oU » tongue 
r > nut - ^<w^i i>»7. harbour. ** Jf land. 

— . ^^ — — 

l*f any places nave two or more names n« «sually applying to 
tlko church, another to the principal 'gaard° f +hird to the posting- 
station, and so on the number of names bein* sometimes in an in- 
verse ratio to the importance of the place 

\ the Pby-ioal Geography of Scandinavia 

Nation, aeologieal Formation. Coat Lia.. 

Sandiaavia, the largest peninsula i n Enrn*« 
kingdom of Norway on tne ^W. andN.^g Sw/a™ l* cin * the 
S, and part of Russia to tlie N.E., is about 296 SnS th f E * and 
in area. I* extends from S . S . AV. to N.N E w~ *JiP' 80 *- M. 
71*11' N. latitude, -being upwards of JJOOBnrfii- 67 ' tnd 
Between the Gulf of Bothnia and the N.W. coast it?i" i i n Ien £th. 
MOSngl. M., and towards the S. it gradually in 8 about 

at the point where the Tron dnj ems-Fjord forms .i**! 68 ' tnou 6*a 
it narrows to 160 M. Farther to the S., in laH# !f P S5 enttt, °n 
Cnriatiania and Upsala), the width increases to 4$i vt ^ hat of 
which Norway forms a rounded peninsula ending • n ' De y° n d 
n«B (58° 59 '), while the S- part ©f Sweden w pe Linde *- 
inaula to the S.E. of the Onristiania Fjord md n 8 n MOtller pen " 
and terminating in the promontory of FalsterW5^* 9n> na ™^ n *» 
penhagen. The entire coast-line of the peninsula S!^ near Co- 
its innumerable indentations, measures 2060 M i , e & aro, * n g 
part between Cape Lin desnaes and Vads* alone m*.., J en ^ th » the 
The peninsula contains no distinctly connected mo/ 1 ? 6 ° M ' 
like those in most other countries, hut mainly con«w * anges 
part of a ^ast elevated plateau, descending abruptly #? X U * W - 
fjords and sloping gradually down to the plains of I J a We8t *m 
Gulf of Bothnia on the E- side. Koughly speaking £ n and the 
parallel with the W. coast , about 60-60 Engl Mi *t drawn * 

the boundary of the mountain plateau, the W. niariri /*' marki 
deeply indented with innumerable bays and creek* ™ hich i» 1 

with a belt of countless rocky islands. The latter * « frin * ed / 

8kjar £Sw. aJcar\ and the island-belt as the SkjceroLJj , A° Wn as 
To different parts of the mountain-plateau are aunTf^ (8 * ar 9&d). 
of Fjeld C'felV), H«dar C^© 1 ^* 8 ^ «tf Rto^T nam <* 
expanse*), and in the N. part of the peninsula KjeUr^ 1 barr en 
ranges^ and from it rise at intervals rounded and n mo * ntain - 
poiivted peaks of considerable height. occasionally 

The fountains are composed almost entirely of pri m »™, . 1 

presenting nearly the same form as when originally sWdiifiL 8 J 
are TM*\y overlaid with more recent formations, so that for th 
ologtet they possess the charm of the most hoar antiquity tk* 6 ~ 
primary rocks consist of granite, gnef u, mica, hornblende J£? 
quamte, clay-sUte, limestone, and dolomite, disposed in strat?' 5 

conesponding *ith which are occasional well-defined layers of 
latex Jlate-forniationB and particnl ariy of limestone. At place* 
notably in the Romtidal, or ValJ ey of ! he Raum*, the gneiss , thi < 

££5 % J . v 8 ? rookg » towers in ^ imposing pinnacles, 50Oo!! 
6000 ft. in height, unencumbered by *ny la*«* formations. Th at 


aioide/jor,, ^fev, 

sea oxi eafit * fk '. 

^-i sea on ea C 4 

valley extendi from t=._ 

pure gneiss rock, »hio.T . - s/ , ■-,. ^ 

ell*., -1000-3000 ft. -^.:-=" *f i «'** * ' ft<* r5° Ih"„ 

the Gudbm.dBdalde»*=.e=M d * n «' *" W "•.<■. *V i^ 

rock-scenery, and in tH« purity ? *U l MjZ*\£* »£*»** * 

Stern Nevada in Mlforoi*- *<* V*o„ J„ '"Og^ £ 

Abont the year 1 43-iO rocks c/ t ie S«>£?SS 

■Wered by geologist.. n e« tie *« Sy ^ *>«<.' 

sits of that period hw*= since been &*„**« *.*** fc ? <*ft 

land, the island of <? otZand, .Berjeodai^ l^ ** B 

den, and also on the banks of Lain jgS ^ „£•« » e 

■Sii/t in Norway, but nowhere of great *xi *** '«!, So 

basin in the peninBula i« that of the S( **»t. ' 1-iT 1 G k 

of 2570 Engl. aq. M. in area. **• ,* O**- 

One of the most Instructive section 8 ** at sJT^nw 

by toe rente from Snudavall in Sweden t P? t^ U ) Df fa a 

and Trend hf em in (forway. The primj t Y st e ' " ' * ,s *e 
Jemtland are first replaced by Ifmest 0Q **e 

bank of the late, nh.ere the Silurian fo ^  a ^ej 

stretch westwards to the great mountain i.** 1 *!} ?" s J< i 

 the great mountain ^*ti 
Norway. On tMa route rises Areakutan t ? c kk. 
Sweden (p. 338), part of the base of which ft « J,, 
belongs to the Silurian formation, whi) e °«* t» 
,i.K„. nf ouartiite, liorneblende. mioa-i).. *« >. 

;^ B <y 

slating of quartatte, horneblende, uaica-sl a , *e „ J*Hft, 

ftronln it «U the way to the summit. J ' > <C-««r» I w !?M 

imoat entirely , or clothed" °hfy *W <6es„ a «e * P( *de 

^inKly 90m1,r6 ILnd dreM * "Ppearao"' «t * liefr****^^^ 
i^*Sa * aa,ns "* ° ften We » wooded °" 4 **l* u fe«" ", 
intervenWB Md wi „, TaBt «, b „ J,>.\>*; 

of Belsfng Mt . Ontheisland of^J; V^ aT Sa «* 

*a t c"* 7 ' J^e° Urger **» <">■" an^ 3*8 It). ? ' °'»J'-b. * tin ° 


andGeflewUK * *™ *° De made on ™ e roekB tit Ktlm^ 

^e German n.l T ^ mfl «we the retrocession of the sea, feZ 

Spitsbergen \Sl ? I ' Th ™S*°** a ▼«* tract, extending fro* 

* * gradual ^ latitude 62 °> the whole country is ascertained 

n «« Hamm^l!i .?' 0r Ae 8ea *° be 'eceding. In the Altenfjord 

Present sea l i e Me ancient coast-lines 620 ft. above the 

*& &e wav* * and 0theM & rad i* all y decreasing in height extend 

it8e K it is wn irondh J em a » d still farther S., while at IZVofKtt/^ 

10 00year 8 At t 2 nticated **<* * h « coast has risen 20 ft. withi n j 

is even said t t 0fne "» at tlie head of the Gulf of Bothnia, the ground 

farther to the S 6 . riSen ^ ft ' in a centur y 5 in tne &<***<* Elands 

served j wa yg 'V* rise °f 3 ft. within the same time has been ob- 

tne S. of Karl k f ^ r0na no ©nange of level has been detected. To ' 

land or encro J° na > on tfle other hand, a gradual depression of the ( 

ca Iculation 8 a ent of the sea appears to be taking place. These 

ments made at 6 ^, ro ^ a ^y n °t very trustworthy, but careful measure s 

P roy ed that the en Afferent places between 1839 and 1865 

c ^ristianiaduri aVera * eri8e of the coast - line between Maas* and j 

fte most eminent that P eriod waB * ^o *- According to Kjtrulf, 

coast has taken i ° f tie Norwegian geologists, the elevation of the 

u *ffl generally* 6 fltfall y» a8 several facts tend to prove. Thus 

Qords there are obser ved that in all the Norwegian valleys and j 

8 *dden and wen*!** 6 ** 1 di8tinct terraces, between which there is a j 

th eir heaps of dAK^ flned dl P» and that the old coa8 *- lines , with f 

angle of 25-30^ a ' descend abruptly at their lower ends at an 

levels on the roct in lt wil1 be notlced that the dlff erent water- j 

or burrow each * re marke d by a kind of disintegrated pathway 

^tact and unwo 8eparated from lt8 neighbour by a comparatively 

With regard  8Urface - 
8erv e that all fh e G1 »©iers of Norway, the traveller will ob- 
67 °- The Wa ! ^° 8t im Portant are situated to the S. of latitude 
61 ° and 62° 51 Vi the Jo ^dalsbrcp Q>- 126 )> ^^ between lat. 
Eu *ope. In 'form 7 Bgl * 8q * M - in area » and the lar S e8t £ lacie r in 
number of off.* * Gambles an enormous roof, from which a 
A similar iT d **cend to within 150-200 ft. of the sea-level. 
*° *• 8. «f i J"SSJ ie ls that of the FotfXf*"* (p. 102) , a little 
«w«nfp v%£ J™ » a nd another of ▼«** extent is that of Svar- 
**•«■ form* i tbe Arotic Circle. The upper parts of these 

an *MH>w nnh v ,eaBdMttl y level expanses of dazzling i«e 
^cation* / ° n by mowdnes or crevasses, except where thei r 
the «». SI ? ** lnt <> ** valleys, or by peaks rising ab OVe 
*Ae*e plateaux of ice correspond with the mountain 



o*° . m ' ..«-ri 

-\l« to >!««»»*' «V® a o**f^ti8 traces s& ix /r*>*5 

tie coaTt-me »«««<U -, »• ?V* W «* ^fcV,!£** 
over e, ery &tt ol the c<nmtrt ' i ,*V» 3*000 **em t? ^r^g * 
friction ^ * tottM eood cnV£-*.**° «A»de« « **!Les «££,%* 
material for brick-ma-hing. **f t* e * m any , «fSSS» «**2* *°» 
first dep 08tte a. in 8. Sweden »**,. <**£n, •*»•«£ V«\2l»** 
course , axld Ae y abound i* *f * »ndrW n, Co£i i» 1*** 
few feet only Del<m tKe «nrf*c e J»v0V an »»* V 10 * of 

together *rith „and, muA , and ^"a-**'* 8 " ' t»oe* ^ 

185 ft. l n height, callea. Atar i» ^ e tjo* 4 *' oco**-.a» 

»nd Scotland as escars axid.ktf» e in »ninetft*^ n iatlo»* ot th^» x t o 

^The coast is indented «** S^ e%tf^c»*tet«' *£. 
which ha^e minor ram L iftcatto» f *>ipen'»' 8 . . kf£ a \e *?SV**\ 
the precipitous W. coast ol <• ^d- <>» *^«» f ft » a ' ^Tco***^ 
from the Strait of Jnan de ¥*<»>' S °° * f Gre ? Aa» A X fiO" **?& 
the S. of tne i B iand of Ohiloe, •* co**" £ 9 o< 1?*£ *° otv 3 " ^** 
numerous fjords on the W. an9-j& e K- c0 »***e ** * oti£?eV ^at, 
bergen, ITovaja Sem\Ja, and on ** tKo r» 6 °* e t»W £ ^fth«°,?t*e 
and Irelar* a. . "* All theW fjord-fc*>»Ve? « e » e e y <>££,» ^££0* X**' 
the equator, and at the same ti ^. w* 61 ?. " e i& a \>**T*e« ft ' a V* 
the rainieat regions of the counts® t » e ix Z.\oV& Ah© *%,o» e *' th« 
of Scandinavia was prohahly »1 90 ve e o»«* "® »it» °* »ti«f a \>S . e }t 
to which the numerous inland l *!f ltf »i»l 4e £,a.lW mW*° \, t^ oO **• 
gradually \>een filled up hy the ^ oTll d •£*, t,e »* W **£>* 

the rainiest regions of tne covin** 1 «* one *?mo&* 1 tU© ^l*©* *' *> e 
of Scandinavia was prooaoly al»°J * o^ e /® B itd <>* eti^V^ & jr 

gradually T>^^ n Mled up T>y «h» ^d ^ ^ e g?1££ 4^> 
the fjords l^.a.^e \>een formed, a* ^ r fteetj 9 ^e & ^ *!ule e ^L »^ 
the erosive **.ctrion of ice and *»*2f> «* ■* *• ^o X ^sX V*?Ltt A « ** 
fact that ^.l^Cfey are often mucU d ® Aa^ e » to * e ^tW ^ &ni&t 
mouths. Tne Sognefjord, for e^ ta thet ge?** ^ ' *j >i^ 
deep at places. Tne fact appeat*^** are ^i^t^ V»"d> 
existed hefore tne glacier eta- ^ in ^ 0^ e ^ ^ ^^ 

deep, and wltn tne exception * untai 9 ^ 4 ^^th e 

at right angles to tne axis of th© ^\e ftV 0« to 

fiords usually extends a str\p °^ lla Uo^* _ f * * A°**t&ZW**' 

has attracted a consideral>le?o^ TO n^ el *?Iir^% V e V^ 1 % °[ 
Tne immenge and intricate ! ^o^ f ^e ^^ ^ ^ 
riMr^&r^^ or island-belt, ^J&&rt?^&^£^ 

coasting steamers, .^PJ^ds- Jg* °* '(^^ & J^ 
val^ »r« to the Arctic Ocea« ne»t ^A^ ^ S£ ^ j»tP^ 

vian coast from ^Vadser to » A *? , "° t th* ^Atist^ B*fr*?T. a x#A 
«e in the Arctic Occam w*** 1 ^Sti» ^^^eT «*Jf55**' 
the X-oZdU»>rj<~rd CO*/* ), o* *•?« ^"Jitlen^tue ^'* 

59°), -.«d oppositethe ^^a***^* 8 * 
H'ithin tfce Areti^ ^f 01 ®*^ * e rf«»* ** 

Kaaff&i Anae, Varn*, RinpvculajeF, M*d Hvale ; between 
**•*' Mid. the mainland it the ZVowa#er , witl* the town of that 
nane; then Senjtn and the Kerteroote** and Uofbten Islands. Of 
to Unnamed group the first is the JTsftcsVr, tiie largest island in 
Amy (870 E»6*. »q- M.), to the 8. of wlnieJs there are others of 
constable size- All these islands, pajrtfeul&rly those near the 
Arctic Circle, ** e mountainous, and many a£ tliem present strik- 
ingly ^ictureBCttte forms. Among the finest are the -Bestmandss, 
Tkrenen LoW**<*€n, Alstons with the 'Sever* Sisters', and the sin- 
gato Torehtf****! all of which are desveribed in the Handbook 

The mat resource of the busy coasvt-p©p**»*l° n Is the Cod 
liitey, besides which the Rifting, Oy**er 9 and J^obster Fisheries 
and. Seal Bvunting yield a considerable rowenne. The ***** flshing- 
fcaaks of the frofoton Islands are mentioned. sX P^-— 0, ^ose 
Meiies support a population of no less than iOO, OOO ^onls. The 
annual yield of the ood-flshery is estimated at 1,300,000*., and 
fat of the seal-hunting (Phoca vitulina) at 55, 6001., while about 
a million and a half of lobsters are annually exported to England 
alone. Herrings formerly abounded near Stavansjer, bnt disap- 
peared from 1784 to 1808, during which period cod were abundant 
ia that neighbourhood. In 1808 the cod in their turn disappeared 
and the herring returned, bnt since 1869 the mrmer hare again 
been found in their eld hannts. The shoals of cod and herring are 
usually attended by a kind of whale (Baisnoptsra tnusculusj, which 
was formerly supposed to prey on the latter, hut this is ascertained 
te he erroneous. The oyster-nshcry is chiefly carried on on the 8. 
coast near ffapnv, and on the W. coast hear Finnoo* in Ssnd- 
norland, near Lindaas in Nordhorland, near Vesta** in theKoms- 
dalsfjord, by the Bja*e, and near Viften in the Namsdal. The sal- 
mon-fishery i 8 aUo of considerable importance. Among ™ m °*t 
fcmous rlrers are the Drcmmens-Elv, the NumedaUlaag, theUngnc- 
®t, in Jaderen, the Suledal*-Eto in Ryfylke, the Rauma *»**>"*<* 
ia the Romsdal, the Oula near Trondhjem, the Nvmsen in tne iHams- 
Aal, and the Alten-Mv and Tana in Finmarken. ^ m __ rp<1 

These Yainable resources of the coast-districts, ™"*g**^* 
which the OpUmd or inland districts ofTer little or ^ »*^™ n * 
«*tl«i 8 , have also given rise to the important ^^SSal TOfe« 
Norway the foundation of which was laid by the P* ra »£ ™*W 
(i*habiU* of <Viker> or creeks), whose '-J^^^rS** 
Constantinople, and who discovered Iceland, y T °\_ nf .^ n som* 
America CTinland'; 500 years earlier than <*E"2X*£^K 
of the fjords still exist the tnmuli of these e9Xt \ Mtk their vessels 
Jjoaetimes caused themselves to be buried along ;** thoge of Great 
The commercial fleet of Norway now ranks next tl< iing purposes 
Britain and the United States. Timber for ship" 
is akndant. c 

Babdkkkr's Norway and Sweden. 6th Edit. 

. xxxr 

■tta&A»a*l, rtreteh the gneiss mottstains of the Konig d „ 
mentioned. The mountains to the 8 of the Romsdtl *> *be*dy 

rTi ,** ** Lan »««W«, -which fnelnde the -^>' t * A *6^J^*i lr 
Lodaldtaupe and. extend to the Borunaerfjeld *nd the JL * " e 
Mountain., To the last-named ««mTbelW. tie j&" 

m the GoWtepto (p. M o_) f Md IIUOIIIlded 0y roct» of the tr«n* 

T? Pe 5*i' J «*er *° **• S. he the extensive Za*« Ojende, 

M ? > * n * B V»4m, enclosed by imposing moan tains, belonging 

7~? the Honmget to the easily digintegrated 'gabbro' formation, 

, Tem "»»We for picturesqueness of form. AM these mountains 

™LT7 t ^ Perpetual snow, except the highest and most 

pteratpiton. j^ n which the snow cannot lie. southern mountains of Norway, which also run from N.E. 
S»u« ■'••? ^undod by the Sognefjord on the N.W., by the 
C'^^'lon the 8.W., and by a line drawn on the K side 
the hS? FUl9 S? ld *° Christ ania. Between the Sognefjordand 
2e &** ■*«* «w the isolated plateanx of the Vossetkovl, 

of the ££*•*■" F * ld *• wparated by the inn ermo.t branch 

d ^r«J?T* dn with MTe ral peaks. To the S.B. of *he Har- 
300o4S5ft '• ta * )he8 the extensive Sardanger ***£"£**£% 

«*ion of jS?** *° *he E. are the deep ▼alleys 01 «» f 

* n^TS*-* ** frequentfy *»*" e e c * £* °*he Abo^ 

^ to th« w tte wl >ole 0/ this mount»m-«e« lon ^ ^ ume _ 

*^#o«^\ of tAeHallingdal. farther *» "ff Awards the 8., 

beyond *$**> «d Fatter* vaUeys , de8 °^r^ transverse val- 

%«. contain? * e *8*i n meet * ith * nllII W«iway (sue* as flode- 

*»** e» th„i* *• most fertile land i» »«£ Tyrlfjord). The 

n>onntai„g X **ndgfj or d and Bingerike on * terg an d La"TJk- 

Ani »n« ttei, , 6n degcend to the pl»i» ° f •»*£ x*W«M to T*>- 

^ ken > "id a*.*™ «e the Ga«-t« »«* ^eenLakeKrsderen 

5:> d i. ,8 ° UtedJVOr ^ W ' riB a E next enter «• 

5^°0 extending toward. ^£&J$S£Z 



e the isolated Kinnekulle on Lake Wen«iai, the HetHe- 
tenncber&y and tlie Omberg. 

ediBh. islands of Gotland and Oland contain no hills 
Zfc. in. height. 

^■apaiatively late geological formation is the Swxsisu 
s. <i riding from the Skager-Raek through Lakes Weaem 
^xn to Lake Malaren, the land to the S. of which was 
mce an island. These lakes are believed to have once 
-waterway to the Gulf ef Finland, which again was pro- 
— ected with the White Sea, and this theory is home 
fact that a kind of crayfish found in the White Sea 
enern does not exist in the Atlantic ©r in the Baltic, 
n canal - route connecting these lakes is described in 

t?™™ SS 7" ° f *••"«*« « A**, *r*d intersected hy 
r X *?* fl lon * lake *> at the months ef which lie a 

±™o?t*£?I** UV ? OTt ?* * y tite t^^er-trade. One of 

AWSS^ "W"> CP. 3S3), 

TtaL+H" »«^ rT/ no ^8. ±5elow Falun that river joins 

o1Ie" n ^i TOlted WaterS *>* m * *** cataract at 

^ X^^-^;^ e ^^ ers * ae *"** important are the 

(v. 34^ Tif fas?* flf^' tne ^^-^rC^ ^41), and the 

bTthe pialleTrivtr K^l lo *S*«* of all, is connected hy a 

^ aerie? of lakes Xn^^ *. M ° &t ° f ***•• ****» m ***«■ 

^11 among the mtuntatnt I ra * id * ™* waterfalls. The 

enn has not power to «^ descending into the valleys 

i^re swamps, the overflow^V^^V^ formB tbeBO lake « 

IX it reaches the - sea tEI Walcn descends from fcasin 

Ty navigable for some* diatit* e « endB of * neBO *i*ers 

jEHf and the Lnle-Elf. ailUlmce « Steamboats ply en the 

Climate and Vnrnt.*.- 
^*™*. ^dg lnK from thT£ °* U 

, :P *°™ 8,lU i les ' °n e ^,«ifl KreeB of latitude ^itbin 
-V severe and inclement w^ Ipeot «"> climate to 

in Deria>wx^ mp 1 \ Res upon it t„ £ Ke A «antic and 
= »lmost „«1 l ? the Arctic llVt^ * he 8ame ^titude in 

i*«es. As we ^ n ^er fre^l. erU ' tie water 

*le winter.' t* e te «*I»era*£ cL T t °J E -> *nd « some 
equable at S ^ 0ni « «.»« 8*™*°*^* the cll =»ate 

y xa 3 4-7»F allr t If**.™?**, where the 

r - , and that of July 55.4° ; 


difference 20.7°. At SM/hoUg^ on the otker hand, the meAn . 
fewtnre o! January i* 2^o°, and that of July 63.6° ; dhSL ' 
W°. Th» difference l!b . itiU greater in many place* farther^?*? 
I M m at Joclcmoefc (66° 36' N. lat. ; 925 ft. ahove tie sea) ' w° 
to January temperature is 3.2°, that of July 5T. 92°, and the differ 
wwe 54.90°. The tract lying between the Varanger fjord and the 
(htf of Bothnia, the interior of Finmark en and l-apland, and the 
southern mountain* above the height of 2300 ft. , all have an an- 
nual mean temperature below the freezing 1 point. Some of the 
other isothermal lines are cnriona. Thus the line which marks a 
mean January temperature of 32° Fahr. runs from the Lofoten 
Islands southwards, passing a little to the E. of Bergen and through 
the inner part of the Stavanger I^jord. It then turns to the S.E. 
to . C *P* Lindesnas, and thence to the N.JE. towards the Christia- 
na Fjord, and southwards to Gotenburg and Copenhagen. The 
toe marking a mean January temperature of 23° passes through 
M»mmerfeBt, Saltdalen, R*ros, Christian ia, and TJpsala. Xd the ,' 

aeptn of winter, therefore, the Lofoten Islands are not colder than ' 

Copenhagen, nor Hammerfest than Ohristiania. Again, while the ," 

mean temperature of the whole year at the North Cape is 35.6°, it ' 

La r eher at Gstersund in Jemtland, 552 Engl. M. f art h er I 

l ' La8tlv , while the climate on the W. coast is comparatively 
eqaaoie throughout the year, that of the B. coast and the interior I 

Rom.?. "**** is made np of a long, severe winter and a short and | 

Retimes oppressively hot summer. The average temperature of 
hat B o? 5 3l /2-7° warmer than the air, being of ««~ lower i than 
M nf ^ alr in wrnnier and higher in winter The healthiest 
SaA the * enins ^ *• probably the island of Kim, where the 
is 19 ? te i8 °^7 12 per thousand. The average rate for Norway 

*Ci? a T en 2° *•' airway less rain falls than on the 
^t fa£h^ e ta WS between Gene and Goten- 
bT »g. ThV * H the ^ a *f 8 * Tai o *X U 20.28 inches, that of 

?ot!enbi: 2 8 e i a 8 t ^&^^* i * Mia *^ Aa * U8t 
18 the rainL* ' and *£ 2 ^«cially in the N. provinces. 

I *»**w^ m <** hln SW ?^ uNr^t Florl, where it sometimes 

^acheTon q/. m \ Ximum ^ or! the S. coast the average is 

Wlo ? ' mclle8 P er an w m 5 °? to the S. and N. of Flore 

*i>d An! g ln 8weden and tne *• „l^irhhourhood of the Roms- 
^ltt gn8tfw theW. coast. In the ' £ e ^ D ? n Dei0 re Pecembe^. 

Hail lL X T y 8eaaon doe9 n0t * wLiy The latter, however, 
1 and thunderstorms are rare in Norway. f r th 

£ l^ 68 ^ ™ le »* ° B the ^'^^bSS -Hhin the la.* 
^ churoh e8 Uve been destroyed oy ^S M 


150 years. The following table showo tlie mean temperature 
average rainfall in different parts of Norway : — 


Varde . 
\Ifyborg . 


\ Alien . . . 

jAndences . 
\Bod0 . . . 
\Rctnen . 
\Br0n0 . . 

Yttereen- . 


70° 22' 
70° 2' 
71° 6' 
[69° 58' 
|69° 39' 
69° 20* 
67° IT 
66° 12' 
65° 28' 
63° 49' 
63° 7' 





Dovre . 

Reros . 

Flore . 





Mandal. . 



Am I^rbsstjub. The pressure of the air in January is greatest 
in the interior of N. Norway and lowest in Fininarken. In July it 
is highest on the W. coast and lowest in the interior. The pre- 
vailing grinds in winter are accordingly land-winds, which are fre- 
quently diverted towards the N. and follow the line of the coast. 
In summer, on the other hand, W. andS.W. winds prevail, blow- 
ing towards the region where the air-pressure is lowest, also fre- 
quently following the line of the coast towards the N., and rarely 
imping 111 ^ on the coas * at a right angle. The most prevalent wind 
blows from the S.W., and on the coast is usually accompanied with 
dull weather, but this is less the case in the interior. The most* 
violent storms, which prevail chiefly in winter, come from the same 
quarter. Tlie mountains form a boundary between two distinct 
o7-iiri»*43 s » tlie w - wind being the dampest on the W. coast and the 

dries* ixl the lnteri0r - 

rpfxG Vegetation, as might be expected from the climate and 

th *jreologi cal features of the peninsula, is generally poor, hut the 

flora, i* unusually rich for so northern a region. Ahout 25,758 

-fcnirl ***** M * are covered ^th forest , chiefly pines , the wood of 

W^i is valllaWe 0Win S to the closeness of the rings which 

ih *fc i*» annual growth. Next in frequency are the oak , the 

b* j-l* t:he elm ' and the heech. Other trees occur also, hut 

^ V*W *** e forests. The beech , which suffers more from cold than 

t*° ^^.Jc , **** doeB not require so high a mean temperature, rarely 

» ir& *** ^ eden N * of Kalmar, while the oak is found as far N. 

°*^S £- ft &* Xn Norwa y> on the other hand, the beech extends to a 

5 "- jy &y o» d Bergen, and the red heech even occurs at Trond- 

[>in « j**gb,t Laurvik , i n latitude 59-59y 2 °, the heech is found in 

,en ?^^ rd hle plantations. . — The apple-tree (Pyrus mains) occurs 

as far as 66° ^a, v 

***°°««*e 8 ftS* 6 • "Me currants fittoe. ni^«m «*„***> to &« 
«»PWrieB (&lZ l f r0 " Ularia J> strawberries r*V^,*-t£* ' 
"^^ oe«X* "««*M «•<! *he common MH>«W?3* C 1 /' 

°e«M up to 7 o * °P to a height of 1950 ft. ; -Owfe* **r AT. J 
and a Bot *ni gto A, and * n «»e S. to » height of 2050 ft. * *«d o a „ 
inri Xel Blytt I S.' ewed to *«» instructive work* of So? " 6 the 
Vptteant ."J"". «}e cultivated land in Norway o Co ,,* a ebeIer 
f,**«ittSin V10 WBB«l. sq. M., hut in Sweden JgWg. th a 

on^? on te wiBf. M * substitute for corn. It is kept i a of «°»el, 
& y ffli *ed w£. and ^ed down to a pnlp for use, £**»«i 
£,£**' *owLT V " « nd made into Fladbred. £*» fre- 
D «% Hon, £* th e 'fl»t bread » ja usustlly made of J? h tie 8. 

toL^^L*.?* 8 " 1 * 1 their bread with reindeer-^ "»* 
* * Weventive of "** *«^«<tt«"» afrii***"* > wWc » is behaved 

'he fl* r 2 *° «Ben 5*°.' aa * barley takes «at»otly the same «„. 
C S^5 *S t^" C7 ° ° ». 1*0 - ** Christian,. ^ 
»eedi5 the ArcH?j M ls now generally believed that the We «t 
«wB|»,r 6ve '. if w w wmpensates for the lack of warmth. Tim 
*«*». ed > »nd d^ Bght /roin » warmer climate reqnireg to be 
^Medln 80 *•* the „ S » 0t y 1 * 1 * a * ood or °P nn<A1 *?",! two 0r 'iww 
Thet yea ». to of * bsd h » ]rre8 * mre Mt tot several 

to ee» »i./? Tel lep wn , 

*»» tk« h °«cur V. * lso obwrve that the leaves of most of the 
*»hto?* ' trees „o !v e n orthern districts of Norway are Urg er 
* W of *a B iM tb , e B «»e kind in the southern regions. Thus 
to W ^rtanV *" d Plane-trees ^««" platanoides and p. eudo . 
•nrfc?^ 6 «*e; t ?r? d ^n 1 Chri.tiania to Trorns*- have been fonnd 
*<• th« » "^eir Z. n 8iz e, while the trees themselves become 
*£& «***£?*• This "af development is also -^hnted 
*• co U * to kao» "^ of the sunlight in summer. It would. De 
•> of & wha * effects the protracted light produces 0n 
I 10 ' ye t be 6 *^»»d the flavour of fruits, hut these poi ntg 

^C^onlfW'acompriBes most of the doI _E£ fc m i£ «*«" 
AuoJN, and . Gre « Britain , besides many ^"° t i c "ti^°^ 
Sftt*^ ^ber of others peculiar to *^« f^e^^f- 
»H> ^C ? St c b«acterxstic ot the f®«"»*'£rf', «id^" 
of t} ^u,J, an exceedingly useful « n * , f"^& < H W i£« 
6 aomadio Lapps, and the lemm"»# ' **« 


at, somewhat n»*«. ♦**>„ 

4 to the wlndwr. *»WliW * v ^ 
Mill Ma)inoD in Amontr £% 
intton C M !OM ioiiJk to «'rP a * l Vfa^» v 

■« I" He hands'*" 1 <* ?6 Z°' ktllit. %£* lT« 
" e . next to wJ « «T*^ »* 

*««h come the i * 7^ «fe»j 

" ™.? de '-««c«' '».r»«i 

*e J ^O the V aut ' ' a "iM W0 »7 ™ <»e wild- 
M "*» la „ V™'" <»«*. it ";'»»i wild, 
m, , " B "Jl Q g a ^ngiderjy ' ls gathered ia tlxa 
itc„ «e»„i avenue. 

,t<o H **!3Hr ttfi ° f fte Ttrrarrfan .took 

/Vlr «0 1 ^ W ye . ^ J*? Jle !»»• now number 

Iweden, and ST Filln . .boot 

ie aon Soli»n typ0] ^ith high 

JJ ""Tow eyes, blunt »™r», 

" ans "e now by far the »«v- 

entally. The nftmoH usually 

t selves. The Lappa ('nomao.*") 

'« ad the Finos ('fen-dweUen' J 

' v "h the Lapps have been well- 

'6, r In do-Germanic stock , and 

1 ( n the peninsula- before the 

, rd to their language, see the 

a t»u -■ me voiuu""- — Tn e total population of 

**VL *»«« 2,000,000, that of Sweden atoout 

a A t , D al („-..««. which is slow, owing to the 

>y 00 pat annum- 

**• ^<iM * f Sweden and Norway 

^^vS*T*^°»VZ lU VZ a l Uiti ° a ia Scandinavia 

■«>• Cn&e im Wettor.* f!" Ce M Den °>"* and N. Ger- 
^^*W a»4 Cattle t8 . indlC8te *•' the y Possessed flxed 
^S^TOobafclyof hJ!' J? d T ere « c « n »inted with the art of 

^"IhaoB irluffl ?£ V ThlB e P° ch waB "«cceeded by the 
**•« 1» W>1« »« J*  . lm P» en| ents and ornaments in bronze and 
a « native. twT j im P° rted . and afterwards manufactured by 
and the «,mT? *"• A -«»lenltnre was now regularly practised, 
Tke tombs rf t v estl ? »nln>«l« were used as at the present day. 
sometime. wT* S* 110 * sometimes contain cinerary urns , and 
Period til »rni.^ nC0MUmed - Dnrin 8- this and the preceding 
Wffiffl^ 8 , eem8 t0 hav ° boen confined to Sktne and 
1-egiM the w pL Mtly ' **"" «"> «=»e of the hirth of Christ, 
SfZ T*Z*?T> When *• »«e of that metal wh intro- 
"**&b£2? Europe At the same time silver and glass 

Dn,r*l 5 m octt,1 W«ny 'ound. 

dead wer 7 8 »„ J eri0d als0 ^ stents of tombs prove that the 

«iaer J nZ A ti' me8 ***** Md sometimes buried in coffins. The 

•tier cnZi!t« Ji 8U J / ° f J 8 "****, rarely of bronze. Among 

«d weanon. c have teen f <mnd in tne tombs are trinkets 

To ttis Deri«i 8 °, me , 0f , wnich . *»*« to have been purposely broken. 

ch «»cter difc • ° beIon * the earf ier Runic Inscriptions, in a large 

0,6 •Mite W !? A r ? m th ** after »ards used. Quito distinct from 

*« to Sweden l'*' 8 1™ W the l *™» IboH PbWOP, which be- 

fte War 700 ? A bont the year 8 M or 600, and in Norway about 

fte taOU^J- D< Tie Knni « inscriptions of tins period are m 

to ae„?v!I Cllar »«'er, and the W n "* had by this time attained 

wh «e £ nar SWae development TZ t ased by *• **' MSB., 

^ZtZ ™*«&*P e^bt evidence of a new and in- 

To »i. "** 8tin oarbaroug «*««• of cnlture. 
mh hat race tJ,- • i v, *** . —*ia. during the first 

t ^ d « a «X 1 M ^i ! 8 be,0 Cd IB »»°^tb. ^ That^e 
^ 0f *efoL!,- re 0f the a borLnal ^"^fferent race ia most 
^„2 T Wla * Periods w ew *ieft by » d if[cn show a gradual 
>«o B ^V^ouities have WnVoond ^ a, and it ia well 

e, « Of flaJ^' «*« inhahifc.ii*.. . t: <3 t»* r - - and later iron 

b « of <xi , **« also hi ' * during '"f t be ol i„_Saxon, B M . 
^ le >, comt 6 " "Gained *«f* , i^^i'hyft. 
^dSavt 1 " 1 Go ^ 01 l *° Scandi»» v **"^rard» factor, oon- 

" 8 nbstunted fox i* * b 

,„ It therefore eeeuae *» ^o t e atlier, *£« 
» Anglo-Saxons- 
*o.le»l ^V g fGem^ race, «* ^"g 

^ xti the S. 01 ow dilia vians- x ^. nMt ^ jt ) the 

^r^weden , tlie Dow ox ^t^S .irlke i» Norway, 

^atWes' o£ Bo-^XX^ « ^ 
*h«lruoi ox Adalrygir, •» a -.*^f. 1 T_ of out era, th« 

I'TkTexefore , as ^^^ears to Have *•£ 

..soi Sweden and IHorway a P£ , t tlie name* 

«clT To tliis also points tbe * a «* ™* e ntly i» 

^xgundians, and Gotbs still occur W ^ 

S?Bygi« ^«* e a Noi r gian £t' than once , and 
^olJcBoxgnndaxliolm^ »««™f 2SlW^» 
Gotland and the island of T ^ tla £~°f OX e more &an 
.Tle&by Gotbs or Jutes. It is therefore id 
*ie pictuxeso^e mytb of tbe ™*g^*£ of Odin 
*x<linavians from Asia undex tbe leadership 
foundation in fact. a^««flinaVia begins 

M t certain tbat tbe bistoxy of Scandinavi part of 
- iron period. At tbat time tlie s°^* n £°f£ was 
S to nave belonged to tneDanes. Far ^ r . g- 

i.T>e of the aotar, to wbom belonged tbe attjat , ^ 
» , vriiile Gotland appears to nave been occup*"^ 
*rihe. Still fartber N. were tbe S-uear, «°^JJ riei 
^imanland, Sodermanland, andNexilte. ^J 6 *" wle 
.Tid the Svear were separated by dense ™ ie *V efita 
e also separated from the Woiwegian txl Inelo- 

^Tenern and tlxe Gota-Elf . Beowulf, tne famous m 
oem, dating from about tne yeax 700, ^^^{JL 
Lieady existing kingdom, and also speaks of tne< aw 
-the Ootar and Svear, wbich, nowever, by theVKn cen . 
united , the Svear , ox Swedes , being & * 10 ***: 
oem refers to 'Norvegr' and l Noxdmenn\ i.«- N0TV * 
r-fchmen , b\xt tbxo^WB no light on their nistory. 
cextain tbat tlxe consolidation of Hox^ay toolt niaw 

**\tai*ifr*^0*- xj 1 ^ ark and Sweden, and don biles* after 
■vyimmittoS^/IM ot «*1° mythical P^iod must be relegated 
fc?ite^e»*° otthe *£!! e 5 rly Yn S lin gar kings, beginning 
*Ka Olof T«*elj«t ti(m . «ee-hewer' ; bnt they are probably not 
wtthout8omelouti& a * ' , 1Il «*ct, and ft is at any rate certain that the 
migrations aad V itat1 f:i ex P«dition» of the Northmen, which soon 
affected the whole of the north of Europe, began about this time 
(7th-othcent. A.. "DO* T * e Predatory campaigns ot the Danish King 
Hugleiki, which aie mentioned both in the Beowulf and by Frankish 
chroniclers, are doubtless a type of the enterprises ot the vikings 
(from File, 'creek'), which continued down to the 11th century. The 
Swedes directed their attacks mainly against Finland , Kurland, 
Esthonia, and Russia, which last derived its name and its political 
organisation from Sweden ; the Banes undertook expeditions against 
France and England, and the Norwegians chiefly against the north 
of England, Scotland, the Orkney and Shetland Islands , and the 

Norway before the Union* 
From the semi-mythical Ynglingar and Olaf Traetelje, who ig 
said to have flourished about the middle of the 7th cent., Half dan 
St>arte, king of a part of Norway corresponding with the present 
Stift of Christiania, professed to trace his descent. His son Harald 
Haarfager ('fair-haired'), after several severe conflicts, succeeded 
in uniting the whole of Norway under his sceptre after the deci- 
sive battle of the Hafrsfjord near Stavanger in 872. The final 
consolidation of the kingdom, however, was not effected until a 
century later. The kingdom was repeatedly attacked by the petty 
kings who had been banished, while great numbers of the pea- 
santry, to escape the burdens of taxation, emigrated to the Orkney 
and Shetland Islands, to Iceland, and even to the Hebrides. In 
tnis weakened condition Harald transmitted the crown to his fa- 
vourite son Eirfkr Blddox, whose exploits as a viking had gained for 
ton the sobriquet of 'bloody axe'. After having slain several of 
Ms brothers, Eric was expelled about the year 935 by Haakon the 
Good, who in his turn was defeated and slain hy Eric s sons at 
the battle of Fitjar in 961 Among the sons of Eric, several of 
whom were put to dea*h by thrown suhjects, the mo t 
guishedwasJforaM OraafeldXho was, however, a ; length defeated 

Mass? Lad V? *^^ 

a JmXS sS g *-2Kd pelves on ^fjords 
and in +i»* i£ . * 8tl1 * maintain**** f support from the 
K*&rtV?S mt0ttbee0 ™t*y> trU8tl Ta?l8 of I^de, who ruled 
<^er T^K n »f De nniark . T*« ' "^a Nordme're, acknow- 
ledged^. ' Hel 8 el »nd, N»rodftle« , , •» until H ; akon j ar i 

*•* of w, r w eg,8nce to the Woe* °G e riM»y *» succeeded in 


configuration peculiar to Norway, and on a small scale they afford 
an idea of the character of the glaciers which once coTered the 
whole country. Of that glacier period numerous traces still exist 
in Scandinavia. Striated rocks are everywhere observable, from 
the coast -line upwards; the debris of moraines is distributed 
oyer every part of the country ; and the soil formed by glacier- 
friction now forms good cultivable land and affords abundant 
material for brick-making. Erratic Blocks seem to have been 
first deposited in S. Sweden by the glaciers on their southward 
course, and they abound in N. Germany, sometimes lying a 
few feet only below the surface of the soil , sometimes clustered 
together with sand, mud , and gravel, and rising into hills of 70- 
185 ft. in height, called Asar in Sweden , and known in Ireland 
and Scotland as escars and kames. 

The coast is indented with innumerable Fjords, most of 
which have minor ramifications. Similar indentations occur in 
the precipitous W. coast of N. America, extending northwards 
from the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and on the S. American coast, to 
the S. of the Island of Ghiloe, and on a smaller scale there are 
numerous fjords on the W. and E. coasts of Greenland, in Spitz- 
bergen, Novaja Semlja, and on the W. coasts of Iceland, Scotland, 
and Ireland. All these fjord- formations cease within 40-50° from 
the equator, and at the same time they generally correspond with 
the rainiest regions of the countries where they occur. The E. coast 
of Scandinavia was probably also at one time indented with fjords, 
to which the numerous inland lakes once belonged, but which have 
gradually been filled up by the alluvial deposits of the rivers. That 
the fjords have been formed, as would naturally be supposed, by 
the erosive action of ice and water, seems to be disproved by the 
fact that they are often much deeper than the sea beyond their 
mouths. The Sognefjord, for example, is no less than 4100 ft. 
deep at places. The fact appears rather to be that these basins 
existed before the glacier era. They are generally narrow and 
deep, and with the exception of those in E. Finmarken , they lie 
at right angles to the axis of the mountains. On the banks of the 
fjords usually extends a strip of fertile and sheltered land which 
has attracted a considerable population. 

The immense and intricate archipelago of the ShjsBrgaard 
(skdrgard), or island-belt, which affords admirable shelter to the 
coasting steamers, accompanies nearly the whole of the Scandina- 
vian coast from Yadse to Haparanda. The only considerable inter- 
vals are in the Arctic Ocean near the North Cape, off the mouth of 
the Foldenfjord (6472°), off Jaderen and Lister (between 58° and 
59°), and opposite the coasts of HaUand and Sk&ne in Sweden. 
Within the Arctic Circle are a considerable number of large islands, 
the Kvals, on which Hammerfest is situated, the Seildnd, Sere, 


•wa in «» n**, Kfi . Kil ° TOia ' 0n the com t of Pomeranf a 

tW* te Twtf^ft Swi^ 7 **! D0W Partitioned between the 
tangi ot Itasttflt. S-ei* 6Bf who <*"*©<* most of their rights to 

the felt lite «i& ^ \l ' Bon8 of Haakon JLadeJarl . The kingdom. 
however , wsa %*** r^^aanently re-united hy «t. Olaf, son of 
Harold Gfrenrfci, *™* * descendant of Harald JHaarfager. After 
bating \>eem engaged in aeveral warlike expeditions, and having 
been baptised eithei in England or in Normandy , he returned 
to Norway in 1014 to assert Mb claim to the crown. Aided by 
his tie? father Sifud Syr, King of Ringerike, and by others of the 
minor inland Kings, he succeeded in establishing hie authority 
throughout the whole country , and thereupon set himself energet- 
ically to consolidate and evangelise his kingdom. His severity, 
however, earned much discontent, and his adversaries were sup- 
ported by Canute , King of England and Denmark , who still 
asserted his claim to Norway. Canute at length invaded Nor- 
way and was proclaimed king, while Olaf was compelled to seek an 
asylum in Russia (1028). Having returned with a few followers to 
regain his crown , he was defeated and slain at Stiklestad near 
Levanger on 28th July, 1030. Canute's triumph , however, was 
of brief duration. He ceded the reins of government to Haakon 
Jarl ErUc$9m, and after the death of the larl to hie son Svejn and 
the English princess Adgifu , the mother of the latter ; but a 
reaction speedily set in, stimulated chiefly hy ** e ™ monr of 01ar * 
sanctity, which found ready credence and ^* B formally declared 
by a national assembly. Olaf s son Karaus, who had been left by 
his father in Russia, was now called to the throne , and Svejn was 
obliged to flee to Denmark (1035) The sway of Magnus was at 
first harsh, hut he afterwards succeeded in earning for himself the 
^Vfil^ ^ In »™>rdance with a treaty with Hardicanute 
m 1088, he ascended the throne of Denmark »* ter * n ! D » ni8 ^ 
monarch's death in 1042, hut his right was disputed by Svend 
flaw***, fn 1046 he assumed as co-regent the turbulent Har ? ld 
tiigurdtmn, step-brother of St. Olaf, who succeeded ^ m a on Ms 
death in 1047. After a series of violent conflicts with Svend, 
Harald was obliged to renounce his pretensions *? ^fJfJJEJ** 
Denmark, but on Harald's death at the Battle of Hastings (1066) 
the hostilities between Norway and Denmark hroke ou tane^ 
Harald was succeeded hy Olaf Haraldss*», who in Vf 00 ™***** 
into a new treaty with Svend of Denmark at Kong^ eUe ' **e*ehy 
the independence of Norway was finally established. , 

Olaf, who was surnamed Hinn Kyrri, or ***• *£ l0 kingdonT 
devoted his attention to the internal organisation ox «, 





d several of the Norwegian towns began to attain MF^ZL 
»*irLngssalr (near Laurvik) and the neighbouring Tm&&% *^? I 
existed; mdaroB (afterwards Trondhjem) i 8 sa i d t0 hare been 
founded by Olaf Ttyggvason, Sarpsborg by St. Olaf, and 0*°** 
jlarald Hardraade \ but the foundation of Bergen and se^ett-V ow* 
tovrns, probably including Stavanger, is attributed to Olaf £**?£ 
-0.1s court was famed for its magnificence and the number of i ^ 
dignitaries , and at the same time he zealously promoted the in- 
terests of the church. While Olaf s predecessors had employ 
jniBsionariea, chiefly English, for the conversion of their subjects, 
l*e proceeded to establish three native bishoprics and to ereci 
cathedrals at Nidaros, Bergen, and Oslo, making the dioceses as 
far as possible co-extensive with the three provinces in/^J 
^ftf (Thing) we 5 e ***• His warlike son Magnus, Barf* 
£1093-1103), so sumamed from the dress of the Scottish Highland 
ers which he had adopted , did not reian long enough seriously 
to interrupt the peaceful progress of hU country , and the three 
sons of Magnus, 0ystein fd. 1122^ c- j(a 11301, and Olaf 
C d. 1115), thereafter pxocLaed S^^J tne & of their 
grandfather. Sigurd was surnamed ^ZLarer P Jerusalem fater') 
trom his participation in one of th € ^ 0^X^1107-11). The 
same devotion to the church also i a 1 TthiB neriod to * he 
foundation of the bishopric of St L ** A«t Several mon- 

asteries (those of SaL» it? *L at ^ avan « er » and ° , Trond* 

hjem, Munkelif ft Bereen ™h *£******> Nidarholm near Tron^ 
troduction of the C oZL ^^ near Skien), and to the in 

known in Scot X Zltnll?^^^ of tUheB *^S&- 
deuce to the cWch JC?J ?*i* me »»nre which secured *»*£•* 

6 ^ ^afS'l d / ath ^'"^wion to the throne w imputed 

*»»! ii , "• a8 ' in accordance with the custom of the 

•C?* . al ?,. rel «ions i» equal p7oT na utty to the deeeawd, 

*** lt% lee lm * te Or 3 not > e ^'«>yed Slights. The confwiou 

/ c OW A Tffn^«?- ated , by *? e int *°duoUon C* 1129 ) of ^TT 

i^So ^ eU ^* claimant* whose legitimacy was challenged to «*- 

>V. Ul / r °1 eal th «Practfcai I ?e»|.Te 

»S * *" *°Z ? * re *iL» 81< >»<' of adventurers of aU kinds. Oonfliett 

•>* 4>» a between ITarald & iUi , a natma \ gon of Magaw Barefoot 

;° i^^w^^'f-ff**/ between «*«««* Slembedegn, who cUlmed 

*%>\« brother of Sarald, ^a j t and ^^.-d Afunn, mm of 

*» o* >' * Ild * f terw»rds between yHoi and Baakon Htrdtbred, * 

ti * Si^ord Munn. All thege pretenders to the throne perished 

^i-Jf hoixt0O of tnis civil War# j j wag de feated and »Utahy 

0< » in 1161, whereupon Ms partisans electe-d as their king 


M m u*ming*8en,*yo was the son of a daughter of Sigurd Jorsala- 
farer. Haakon m his turn haying fallen in battle, his adherents 
endeavomdtonndaBuccesBor, hntErling, the father of Magnus 
IzT title was defectiye, succeeded in obtaining the support of 

T by the ceBBion of Vigen, and also that of the church. 
« Jk ^ T 6 the olmrcl1 had flrml y established, her power in the 
STt -^ "* Ae 8ee8 o£ Swe den and Norway had been under 
tne jBnsdiction of the archbishops of Hamburg and Bremen , hut 
Nn«/ - an ^ ehie P i8C0 P»l we was erected at Lund in Shine. The 
EnZn gl ^ B ' however i desiring an archbishop of their own , Pope 
mSt 6 * 86nt Card,,lai JWolai JSreafcespcare to Norway for the 
timr 8e <^ erecting a new wchbiBhopric there , and at the same 
on'*Y v? biBh <>pric was erected at Hamar. The new archbish- 
iLn T a tion also exten *ed over the sees of Iceland , Green- 
•sd liiTi. a ? e,f the 0rkne y 8 » *he Hebrides, and the Isle of Man, 
ErW t ,?T artere were established at Trondhjem. In 1164 
a JfnT mduced Archbishop EyBtein to crown his son Magnus, 
&?1«TJ W ¥ ch *** never ? et t» k «n Plac© ln Norway, and at 
inclndTn ^ 5 e en « A « ed t0 m »ke large concessions to the church, 

Sm^ 1 *? g *° a T<d6e in the election of future kings. 
adiS?* b L the clmrch ' Personally popular, and a meritorious 
his mm i! ^P™ had at nrst no difficulty in maintaining 
to th e «L I ^ Mfl *i tle and the **&* privileges he had accorded 
* thechiuea did not long remain unchallenged. 

there^.A\ era } "^J™"*™ against Magnus had been quelled, 

feet? 5? ^55? 0f the birch ^Weh they used to protect their 
at^TEL!? 1 * 77 v ^°»« a * their chief Sverre, a natural son f 
ohSl??^ who had been bought ap as a priest, and who soon 
tW 1 ? hi f 86Uby hi8 ««*T andVrudence. In 1179 Erling 

diS a * 68am , e ? te in ^^al battle of Fimreite in the 8 0gn 

cEL ?I ene * right to the cro ™ , however , was immediately 

of th«T„ v 7 v n6W P rotend ers, and he incurred the hitter hostility 

n tm 1 ^^ goring the concessions granted to it by Magnus. 

tL l^^ 1 ** 10 * Eric ' Vein's successor, fled the country, and 

eTe«?v g h and h i B f0ll0WerB *« excommunicated ; but though 

5?2f T ed * y 8e ™*l hostile parties, partionlarly the Bagl er 

^eepucopal party, from Bagcdl, <baculus\ a pastoral statf), Sy erre 

fd IffiW* in im ' H ° ™ Bucceeded hy ^ *°» *«?*<>*> 

d 19?$ 7 ? ttWorm **■»*■•» (d. 1204), and hy 1*9' *?"'*«•*« 

«« 1 \ under whom <** hostilities with the church still con- 

£aed. For a time, however, peace was re-estahUshed by Haak 0ll 

5&F ( . 12 , 17 ' 63) ' & ^ d *<>» ^Sverre, under ^hom W 
attained a high degree of prosperity. His father-in-la^ Skule J ATl 
bmherofKinglnge, on wWhe conferred the title o^uke,^ d 
« moat serious opponent, but on the death of the duke in l^U the 


Gotland rise the isolated Kinnekulle on Lake Wenern, the Halle- 
bcrg, the Hunneberg, and the Omberg. 

The Swedish islands of Gotland and Oland contain no hills 
above 210 ft. in height. 

Of comparatively late geological formation is the Swedish 
Basin extending from the Skager-Rack through Lakes Weaern 
and Wettern to Lake Malaren, the land to the S. of which was 
probably once an island. These lakes are believed to have once 
formed a waterway to the Gulf of Finland, which again was pro- 
bably connected with the White Sea , and this theory is borne 
ont by the fact that a kind of crayfish found in the White Sea 
and Lake Venern does not exist in the Atlantic or in the Baltic. 
The modern canal -route connecting these lakes is described in 
RR. 44-47. 

The coast to the N. of Stockholm is flat, and intersected by 
numerous rivers and long lakes, at the months of which lie a 
number of towns chiefly supported by the timber-trade. One of 
the most important lakes is the picturesque Siljan (p. 333), 
through which the Oster-D<tlelf1kow&. Below Falun that river joins 
the Wester-Dalelf, and their united waters form a flue cataract at 
Elfkarleby. Of the many other rivers the most important are the 
picturesque Angerman-Elf (p. 339), iheLule-Elffe. 341), and the 
Tome-Elf (p. 342). The last, the longest of all, is connected by a 
branch with the parallel river Kalix. Most of these eastern rivers 
are rather a series of lakes connected by rapids and waterfalls. The 
heavy rainfall among the mountains, descending into the valleys 
where the sun has not power to evaporate it, forms these lakes 
and extensive swamps, the overflow of which descends from basin 
to basin till it reaches the sea. The lower ends of these rivers 
are generally navigable for some distance. Steamboats ply on the 
Angerman-Elf and the Lule-Elf. 

Climate and Vegetation. 

Tbmperatttre. Judging from the degrees of latitude within 
which the peninsula lies , one would expect the climate to 
be uniformly severe and inclement, but this is only the case on 
the E. coast and among the central mountains. The climate of the 
W. coast is usually mild, being influenced by the Atlantic and 
the Gulf Stream which impinges upon it. In the same latitude in 
which Franklin perished in the Arctic regions of America, and in 
which lies the almost uninhabitable region of E. Siberia, the water 
of these western fjords of Norway never freezes except in their 
upper extremities. As we proceed from W. to E., and in some 
degree even from N. to S., the temperate character of the climate 
changes, and the winters become more severe. The climate is 
perhaps most equable at Skudesnas, near Stavanger, where the 
mean temperature of January is 34.7°Fahr., and that of July 55.4°: 

XI. HISTORY. xlix 

*Uat wafl predated ***** Anally ftceomplisbing hit object 
^*»V«tert»« Archbishop Jon Raudi at th© diet offrosten 
P% lUtoea. directed Mb attention to the> amendment of the 
lw * ; 1* I^b, code called Jarnsida ('iron side*} waa completed, 
and in 1^7^-4 a neir code was promulgated, at th.e Frostuthing, 
*fc«h seems to have been immediately adopted hy the other 
districta. In 1<X76 a new municipal law was introduced at Bergen 
and soon afterwards into the other towns also ; and lastly the 
J<fn«6<fo a collection of the laws of the mainland , was compiled 
"> 1280 and promulgated in Iceland. From these oodea ecclesias- 
tical law was excluded. Though each of them hears a distinctive 
n »™, *uch as 'Law of the Froatuthing', 'Town X-aws ol Bergen , 
etc., and is somewhat modified to snit the requirements of the 
Strict or town which adopted it, they snhstantiaiiy rormed a 
a ^ngle code for the whole kingdom. The whole conntty wm now 
^abject to the jurisdiction of the four diets, with th e oxc ®5 T^ 
^elgeland, Jemtland, and Herjedalen , which still * OT ™^***- 
>?endent districts. Meanwhile King Magnus ©o" 01 ^* *,^^,^ • 
-with the church at Bergen in 1273 and another at . 1 f n ^ r * » 
-1277, and at the same time sanctioned an e° cle81 / 8 *„L^ 
drawn up by Archbishop J6n , wherein he re™™?*****!* * 
ot« ecclesiastical causes and over the election of £J°J*™ r »* n " 
other interesting code of this period was the &*** f *f? " n " * of 
sonants', probably 1274-77), which affords an insigr** mto the 
early condition of Norway. „^— ,*a i»v his ««„ J 

Magnus Lagabeter died in 1280 and was **\°T*J* £1?°* 
Eric XagnussL (d. 1299), who was succeeded +y™™*** ,' 

HsakonSgnusaei (d. 1319). Under these ^f foVconsh I 
cesrions of Magnus to the church formed the »*J«°* !5l 8ecn *, 
dispute, and it was not till 1458 that they ^ere Anally ^'ed 
to the hierarchy by Christian IV. In their secular ^*™ in f ^ ta{ 
however, the sons of Magnus experienced less dim *J Te 1ud| 
the functions of the Legthing or diets had been deliver ^j - 
cial, and legislative, and those of the king exeC **7 cal form. The 
constitution gradually assumed a more mona * cn he d i e ts to offl- , 

first step was to transfer the judicial P°* eT * °* ™ nn f 'lawyers'! ' 

cials appointed by the king himself. The ^J^ en n el l eot ed and 
h ad originally been skilled «"^ ** ^ e * M ^ wards it was « 

aid by the peasantry, but from the 13th cent. ^ ^ ^ • 
customary for the king to appoint them, and ™**J> M h 

judges of all suits in the first instance. In the * econu but it 8 Wa ^ « 

instance the diet was Btill nominally the J u< ?£ e » of the ki n g» s ' 

presided over by theLegmann and attended by ot ner s cageg Jn 

officials. The king himself also asserted a right ^ t0 de ~^ fleBt men \ i 

the last instance , with the aid of a 'council of the Bg f orme ^ 

The four ancient diets were thus in the course of ttn *? enll . 
into ten or twelve minor diets, presided over by L*S 
Basdxkkb's Norway and Sweden. 6th Edit. 

^ <MO»**^*r. 


female, ^ic1> A» «« ?» . & C 0»» l .„ otO^M-**^}**** 

The *o*uV.««n U — «»rtSf ■££» -*$S>&* £* 

hably the alwrigtari inhahiteutt o* tf e ^ *e v <y* »* ^ 

to the Ugrlan race. Theto \m&*\ yj °*Z the lfT e ? %**!» £,e*~ 

(akin to Hungarian), and aie t& \t» * 6 a'«»i ** «*«'— -o* i.« »*1" 

have been identical 
about 24,000 only 
22,000 aoula. — 
and yellowish 
perior race 

ftwM* of Ohri»t r«„* J»*«thi *>!?**** < \v»* „„, V»* 

*** Sweden ^**^o^ ft o* ;V*^ 

n -^ ^r X **^T rj^f Sw «tea and Sox-way. 

.* '- -^ ^ <^ ^^^l^^^"* 1 ® ea rliest antiquities in Sr»n,u 
W£J^**Z U*£X **« same race as Denmark andT « 
SSirt«^ ^-SiY O* i, ' ^f nd Were painted with the art of 

im» *» ♦wn^^wf 6 ™: TklB e P° cl1 wa * Bucceeded by the 
Loan*** 10 *** *«? implementB and ornaments in bronze and 

eiento^ werr€ * , imported, and afterwards manufactured by 
ftettllia the«*** cnre »- Agriculture was now regnlarly practised 
md fcc »« fte a.o xnestic animals were used as at the present day! 
Tlte tomto of tjb-i^ peTiod sometimes contain cinerary urns , and 
gometimea bo»e» ^consumed. During this and the preceding 
neriodthepopixl*** 101 * seems to have been confined to SkSne and 
Vertet-Gotlana.. lastly, atoout the time of the birth of Christ 
begin* *** Inowr I*krioi> , when the use of that metal was intro- 
duced from Oeirtnral Europe . At the same time silver and glass 
m akethefr*W eM,ance > aild Roman coins and 'bracteates' forna- 
meutal ftisto of xnetal) are occasionally found. 

During this period also the contents of tombs prove that the 
dead were sometimes burned and sometimes buried in cofflng. The 
cinerary urns axe usually of terracotta, rarely of bronze. Among 
other curiosities -which have been found in the tombs are trinkets 
and weapons, aome of which appear to have been purposely broken 
To this period also belong the earlier Runic Inscriptions, in a large 
character differing from that afterwards used. Quite distinct from 
the earlier part of this era is the X.ateb Ibon Period which be- 
gan in Sweden about the year 500 or 600, and in Norway about 
the year 700 A. D. The Runic inscriptions of this period are in 
the smaller character, and the language had by this time attained 
to nearly the same development as that used by the later MSS 
while the native workmanship exhibits evidence of a new and in- 
dependent, though still barbarous stage of culture. 

To what race the inhabitants of Scandinavia during the first 
and second of these periods belonged is nncertain, but it is sup- 
posed that they were of the aboriginal Finnish stock. That the 
relics of the following periods were left by a different race is most 
probable, as no antiquities have been found which show a gradual 
transition from the bronze to the early iron period, and it is well 
ascertained that the inhabitants of the S. parts of the peninsul a 
were of Germanic origin, both during the earlier and later iron 
periods. It has also been ascertained that the older Runic alpha- 
bet of 24 letters, common to Scandin* v i* n > Anglo-Saxon , Bur- 
gundian, and Gothic inscriptions was afterwards modified by the 
Scandinavians, who substituted for it the smaller character, con* 




„ „«u **£S- T i* to » w *"%*»■• "V. «•»" .»• 
IJB i.. *■ i«i"», aural™, .«»*„» •? '"„< « V*" •"Ji 

««?.£. aire. _^t?:^£.3Ski%2sS 

8 a 


XI. history. 

much later than that of Denmark *** f *e<j - ,„... 

toe picturesque stories of the eariy 'n^ . . to-iAi-- 

with Olaf 3M*. or the *»«^£s fc^^rfSS^ 

mthoutsome foundation in fact jnAitU at anrr ; te certain that the 

■Jgtttuni and piratical expeditions of fte North whlcft ^ 

affected the whole of the north of E ttrop b about thig fl 

Pth-8thcent.A.DO. The predatory ca mpai ' gIlg * f the Dani6n K ing 

Hngleikr, which are mentioned hoth in th e Beowulf and by Frankish 

chroniclers, are douhtless a type of the enterprise* of the vikings 

Irrom Vik, 'creek'), which continued down to the 11th century. The 

Swedes directed their attacks mainly against Finland , Kurland, 

Jwthonia, and Russia, which last derived its name and its political 

organisation from Sweden ; the Danes undertook expeditions against 

liv?J*\ ^^l an ? ** 6 * orwe #ans chiefly against the north 

Hehride? n y and Shetland l8lands ' and the 

Korway before the Union. 

sal«^?' the - Sem f"^ th L Cal Y ? gIin e« and Olaf Trartelje, who is 
S«l; v fl ? n8hed *}?** the Middle of the 7th cent., Half dan 
Stmnfoi n ^ . fa . part0 5 Nor 7 ay corresponding with the present 
Ha^? r J^ an l a % pr ^ e88e . d t0 tra <* his descent. His son Harald 
h?Z5? er ( falr " aai red'), after several severe conflicts, succeeded 
TuTl ?} the whole of Norwa y U1 »aer Mb sceptre after the deci- 
m Lt • ° f JH Hafr8f J° rd ^ar Stavanger in 872. The final 
consolidation of the kingdom, however, was not effected until a 
century later. The kingdom was repeatedly attacked by the petty 
* 8 wl *o had been banished, while great numbers of the pea- 
ana Hi! « 6BCape the burdens of taxation, emigrated to the Orkney 
thia ae * land Islands, to Iceland , and even to the Hebrides. In 
vnmJ ened condi *ion Harald transmitted the crown to his fa- 
J* n * e 8(m Eirter Blddox, whose exploits as a diking had gained for 
vf™ , tne L 8 obriquet of bloody axe' After having slain several of 
is brothers Eric was expelled about the year 935 by Haakon the 
the LT h ° ] n his turn Wa * defeated and slain hy Eric's sons at 
^battle of Fitjar in 961. Among the sons of Eric, several of 
Jui 8 ?7 ereputtodejrth °7 their own suhjects, the most distin- 
ht e \^r HarM ^Wwho was, however, at length defeated 
7 the Jarl (earl) of Lade in I Strict of Trondhjem, with the 
t^ Hara1 ^ At this period 

» ^mher of petty kln J £/.** ° f .£!?ned themselves on the fjords 
^^i^^^^^^t^Mng ^r support from the 
h *& of Sweden an Vn C( ^^^ %?1 Jarls of Lade, who ruled 
> Trondhjem C d ? e **ark. T * V and NordmeVe, acknow- 

until Haakon Jarl 

*S£ 2» " ii J£» 0< SSS-*. On the out- 
*«* 1 war bSwfr D *° the * ine & Germany he succeeded in 

xliv XI. HISTORY. 

mowing off tt. DauUh y <*e l>ut did »*££ ^J^ 
king. Haakon was at length slam by one 01 »» «J *Jr*™\ g 

an Erection of the peasantry (W^5l?£2S ^7S 
vason, a descendant ^ Ha ^»ger , ehtainea F o i 

kingdom, together with the fjords and inland ^™irtS » new 
helonged to Haakon. With the accession of Olai begins & new 

era in the history of Norway. moribund 

In the 10th century Paganism in the north was ^^£** 

condition. Based on the dual system of a worldo ^/^Sad 

Gorteimrj and a realm of giants (Vtgardr ,/<***"T> i* ,X£ion 

mankind fMidgardr, Mannheimr) as a kind of object of contention 

oe^we^n the two. All alike partook equally of the joys »d^s 

of life of sin , and even of death. The period of the ^kings, 

however, to the close of which we owe the Eddas, mortally aU«ed 

the tenets of the old religion. As victory was their great object, 

W^Tevated Odin, , the god of victory , to the »*■*»££ 

their naJtheon, while Thor, the god of thunder had hitherto 

re^Lnupreme. The bards depict in glowing colours the halls 

of Odin which become the abode of heroes slain in war. But as 

the umdi had been in many respects lowered to the rank of men, 

we gods Jiaa Relieved to have their destinies swayed by 

fate TnSy followed that they were not themselves the 

(Win - hut at most the intermediate artificers and administrators 

of ItS?' They therefore failed to satisfy the religious wants of 

mpn ^ hesan to speculate as to the true and ultimate Creator 
men who hegan w^ ^ ^^ ^ d ^ Chrigtiallity 

be ff an ^ daw* on the benighted north. The vikings came into 
fwS ? intact with Christian nations, and Christian slaves were 
W« 6n *w hrought to Norway and Sweden. Many of the Northmen 
nrof! 611 i y to be converted , but either retained many of their old 
LrCa ! e ^r.s or speedily relapsed into them. A few, however, 
en?K r8tl *. Ae new religion zealously, and it is to them that the 
embraced *£| of tae peninsula was due. The first Christian 
mm/ C ^ I1 Ir*8 Haakon the Good, who had been brought up by King 
A tl TV trx England, and been baptised there ; hut his attempts 

to o ? M a -people were violently opposed and met with no success, 

"convex-* "^ggrio w ho had also been converted in England, showed 
ue son0 01 : -■=- c J iriBtUllit y and under Haakon Jarl heathenism 
mie zgbX *°= the a8cendanfc . At length when Olaf Tryggvason, 
whn ^ g 5 in i«o become a Christian, ascended the throne, he brought 
«o nad »J» V from England and Germany to Norway and succeed- 
ed ^^^^jising Norway, Iceland, the Orkney and Shetland 
IslJ* e ^„/the Faroes, partly by persuasion , and partly by inti- 
iftirf d8 ' £. t>v "bxihery. Iceland, however, had already heen partly 
* a atiori or ujr Uorvaldr Vidforli, a native missionary, aided by 

thr^ rted „ toislrop Friedrich. 
116 Qerm ^* J,* riTedtey ('double beard') of Denmark now attempt- 


tap of Denmark and Sweden, who ceded m©»* ° £- D " «*ht» t« 
*eJ«U Eric M d 8^ ja , BOM of H ™kon I,.aeJ«rl- ™kt« gdoni 
*m« , in soon permanently re-united *>y ■*V# m . e V *? of 
»«« e«n*(, « d a descendant of H»r»ld S**'^- After 
*h| I been engaged in WTer.1 warlike exp*****^" ' B * "1*^W 
J- Wttsed either in England or in NoHn*»*^_ *•  Jtaas* 

*2T^£ 1014 *° »"«** hi. Zm to the **<tta*** * 
*» »tef fcther «JTOdSyr, King of Mnrerike, »» d ^w. ! .J* the 

-» «-* King., hV mm^m rKt-ti^'-fJiS,^?"*^ 

4mgh.ut the whole country, and thereupon ?****%£? ESS*- 

&«». v . , «"ag», ae succeeded in e»t»Di 1B "»"T n , Mlf " 7 '"' 
««w«fcout the whole country, and thereupon *et fcl '^?. *" er «f t " 
•«% to consolidate and evangelise hi. kingdom . ,£« . Yer,t5r > 
lSft WB «*nwoh discontent, and hi" *«▼«****£* *ere sup. 
jotted h y Canute Kin* «* «h«-i _". j n e iini tf|[ ' who still 
UMrtaa v J; . ' *" n S °* England and *' e "T», invaded »„. 

< brief duratSn ^'JES?'* ***** tt'^i^ *» H «« fe °» 

**ETS£L^J£,^ 0f the3arl ? *e Utter; bnt a 
"^•jUtoSV^ff^'i £? mother *1 A rumour of Olafs 
'««%, *ffih 2! "?' rtl . mnU ^ chiefly by the ^^ „ declared 

*» » "•&JKLJ5? 4 "Sf^"**? »» d ^ JfcSdVin left by 
m S* to fle^T*A WM TrUSjf *«"> ** r<m *; Magnus ™ « 

«««<* the «!?? •fte'wsrds succeeded in ••« uB » 1 2? H»'dicanute 
ta MB, he „ ' , In »««o* dwlce ^Ith a treaty w»«i ^ p snUh 

m °»«4 , s aJST 4 ®/ the ibrone °* DenfflM", r*t*«d by *>«nd 
Rt^ " *?•* in 1042. but bis w^* «*« dispntea "7 » 

%«*«»* ™ lu *oke assumed as eo-r©gent the *«f D X liim on his 
*^ 1.1047 P ~?T ther •* St0 } tf » -**> rocoeede d» fl 
H «»14 wiHm- After * ,eri * B of ▼talent conflicts ^ <jWWn J 
»«nm»k w lge4 «o renoance his pretensions to *f _ 8 f 10661 

*• *«li«« kl" HMaW '« *••* at th « Battle otB t B ont »new. 
H «sM wuTr** 8811 Norw*y »nd Denmark brok« ^^g entered 
tato , „«, J. B ?«**Jed by Olerf HantlcbMem, who in *^%»hereby 

md Of Denmark at Konrsh el ' 

,_eef« v > no, w 
. le kingdom, 

^, a I>ed Ly OWHwaldswn, who i» ^ 
^wdciwnZ y ^ith Srend of Denmark at Kongsli© 1 ^ 

OW Th« of Norway was Anally efltabliahed- 
^v«tod bi 8 atPJ1 W||B Bnrnamed Hinn Kyrri , or Hhe V* ~ 
^ n *$on to the internal organisation of ** 


tfaynusBMmpMm*^* ** 8 *^ 6 * ^ o f adaughterof Signrd Jorsala- 
foei. Haakon in **» turn naming fallen in battle, his adherents 
eadeaTouied to find a successor, "but Erling, the father of Magnus, 
whose title *as defective, succeeded in obtaining the support of 
Denmark by the cession of Vigen, and also that of the church. 

Meanwhile the chmch had firmly established her power in the 
north. At first the sees of Sweden and Norway had been under 
the jurisdiction of the archbishops of Hamburg and Bremen , but 
in HOB an archiepiscopal see was erected at Lund in Skane. The 
Norwegians, however , desiring an archbishop of their own , Pope 
Eugene II. sent Cardinal Nicholas Brcakespeare to Norway for the 
purpose of erecting a new archbishopric there , and at the same 
time a fifth bishopric was erected at Hamar. The new archbish- 
op's jurisdiction also extended oyer the sees of Iceland , Green- 
land, the Faroes, the Orkneys, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Man, 
*nd Ms headquarters were established at Trondhjem. In 1164 
ErUng Jarl induced Archbishop Eystein to crown his son Magnus, 
a ceremony which had never yet taken place in Norway, and at 
the same time he engaged to make large concessions to the church, 
lariating a right to a voice in the election of fntnre kings. 

Supported by the church, personally popnlar, and a meritorious 
administrator, Magnus had at first no difficulty in maintaining 
Ms position, but his title and the high privileges ne had accorded 
w> we i church did not long remain unchallenged. 

After several insurrections against Magnus had been quelled, 
ttoe i arose the formidable party of the Birkebeiner ('birch-legs , so 
wiled trom the bark of the birch which they used to protect their 
^0, who in 1177 chose as their chief Bverre, a natural son of 
Sjgurd Munn, who had been brought up as a ******* **££& !££ 
^nguished himself by his energy andVudence. to"™™** 
^defeated and slain by Sverre at Nidaros, and to"** 1 ™ 

te'^T ir^ thenavalb t ttle of rTai-eft 

•raot. Byerre's right to the crown, however, *"?,?*„ v«.»im~ 
J»W b , M w pretender., and he incurred ttoe Mtte hostility 
?*■ •*»* by ignoring the concessions granted to it >by] ««*«"». 
J llWAx.M.ijho^Erio^Ey.tein'. success^, ^ &™*£* 
ZA mA M 8 *> n <™»™* excommunio«te* - ?,theB«of«. 
r*^ 1 ? Massed by seyeral hostile parties, P«* iott :,i «Ltf1 Srerrl 
^"opsl party, temAv.ll, <b£ul».' .P« w Sh«S 

fi M«fc ***•"•• *»w*««i»(4. 1204), and *X«reh still oon- 
to«r^ ,md ? whom the h< >» tt Uties with tl»« 5,^ e d by Haakoa 
™Md. For a time, however, peace was ie-e»*» 1> Y*, -*hom Norway 

h^T i^ de « ree of P*o»perity. His fa* er 7i£, of duke, proved 
&.° ,K ngIn8e ' ° n whom *• Stored the titl| <£ & ln 1240 th e 
■» most wnons opponent, bat on the death of t* e *™ 


xi. ma** 1 ' 

A tf e* rights w«» ^Oo^, , 
cWil YTwa at length tetminatea. importafl t °?**«* * *■ «wwnb 
conferred on ta© church, but of »* fche clergy beiUfc «r thin Aom 

bestowed by Magnus ErUnga*/?' The k mg ala*> „ ^ ««Med 

from a 8 We in the election of **** SiB ce the jt^? eB ? ad t6e 

la^s and sougnt to extend his ^^d been **«^L£^ 
tton of Iceland (874-930) the i^-aded the natw£*^* eB ? i *«* 
shortly before his death Uo»/^exed ^ Ww/^STr 
ledge hi 8 sup rf>laacy . In 1261 *^f ° ^o* cent. **d *' J* Ich 
had been oolontied by Icelanders *» »• ^w at lem«f *» w <w»- 
ly enjoyed in^^ j ^ *bat, nominally »*oagt Ai« «way 

hjem, iaclulte. n J* nd Shetland IaHads, the Faroe,, *e 
Hebrides, ,^f*5 , 0r kney »» d ° u oUim to the Hebrides beiu g 
disputed bv Al« l 816 of "fiJtaJ, he awemDled a fleet for thf 
purpose of^SS^m- of %Tto the Orkney Islands, where 
he died in l&T °f lt ' «* *"* f«l by hi» «° n Ha g?£ u L <V<a>Mtr 
C'betterer of W n He w « * ttcM !5~tv ofPerth in 1266 renounced 
his claims *»«*,# wb -<> by * be 7 •„ return for a small payment 
from AuLndt 6 ^ eb 'We 8 and M»n >*** gCdish frontier* long a 
subject of disnl* n his reig»> , «^.fl and the relations between 
ohnroa and sut „' W * 8 ^"^ d * ™„« Mtisfaetory footing. 

Co >««t«ti^ ^ re PWed on » i" ^ y^ay was dirided into 

four largTfc** ** an early **■*?%?* **— <" l***** 

fLeffthinffj, . 8 5? *" > ea«st presided •T?*.^ at i T e functions. The 

ei * i « ^«ir or wi «* judiei»l and W» representatives to 

^/*«*££ E**«uJ of Trondhjem^^^^e ^ tke 

*»*» »nd to thesA n »«a«dfrom W^Hdj*^, Nomdolen, 

fordm** .„*"« ^e* e .forwards added #»» F u ol Galen, 

£*£ ^ and^* °* JH«i AW* '^faddid. The district 
tfi '*? Wea£ t f °i**«*"w™ were "ft^^n , which after «>e 
time of St. oia/J **«Mre bad a Thing of its ° w ^[ *)*, Boroarthmg ; 
bat from th< ,&?«** *•* %a™sborg »*d was called. ^ ^ ^ 

fl*"«y tie rno,,":' . T ^»»o.,wt*. V**t« oW ' . -«d Baton* held a 

, * £ 'd«vold ^.f < **<*»,-.ii.<«o afterward* n j" though aeparate 
* fm tiat o/v, „!!^*^r^nxoled. This JM*. » ^ ^ <ie- 

"XI. HISTORY. X l lx 

IMlUw*"**** ^t^ented from UnavTly accomplishing Ms object 
If the profc««* of Archbishop J6n Ra.u Ai at the diet of Froaten 
W ff 2t^S} feli directed Mb attention to tlio amendment of the 
m h ^-^V ? a cod © called Jamsida ('iron side*) wm completed, 
oiiiW!*-'*" - **^ » new code was promulgated at the Frostu thing, 
ltofc ws^* 3 * 1 * to have been immediately adopted by the other 
****. 7 ^76 a new municipal law was introduced at Bergen 

&WC2^ aft *tward8 into the other towns also ; and lastly the 
>ft**to * a Section of the laws of the mainland , was compiled 
dMO ** d Promulgated in Iceland. From these oodea ecci e8 iaa- 
W\ \vrii was excluded Though each of them hears a distinctive 
>, **ch as 'Law of 'the Frostnthin*', 'Town X-aws of Bergen*, 
*nd is somewhat modified to suit the requirements of the 

*fc, *nd is somewhat modified to suit the requirements of the 
district or town which adopted it , they substantially formed a 
angle code for the whole kingdom. The whole country Wag now 
JJ^ject to the jurisdiction of the four diets, with the exception of 
Belaud, Jemtland, and Herjedalen , which still *>rmed inde- 
^dent districts. Meanwhile King Magnus concluded ^a Concordat 
*» the church at Bergen in 1*73 and another ^ at Tensb^ in 
^77, and at the same time sanctioned an « c ^ e " M *}«al code 
™™«P by Archbishop Jon, wherein he f^ 000 ^^ 1 ^trol 
*» ecclesiastical causes and over the election of P* el »tes. A n- 
°*er intereBting coTe of this period was the ^'ff*™ C'Uw of 
Rants', probably 1274-TD, which affords »n insight i nto the 

Z^U^^lLa in 1280 and was «^J* * « 

2* ^wwn (d. 1299), who was succeeded . ty his brother 

dl«»»* ™ Magnns to the ehurch formed the B "~ J ^-.ii, vu «»nt 
to ft' 4nd U ™ «»t till 1458 that they ~«£ JEdSE?" 4 
» *> Aieraiehy by Christian IV. In their » ecW l^ c ^ At f , on ! 
tourer, the sons of Magnus experienced lea* ^"nberatire ,„,,T 
ft, toctioia. of the L*gthin* or diets had * ee »^.f 4 e only, but t ll 
*!,•* legMatWe, and those of the king exec»« form Vk 

wart*** 1011 gwinally assumed a more « n ° na V*lie diet « to oiw 
tot ,tep yras to transfer the judicial power* <>*„„ («lawy^T« 
Mi »OT°"rtwl by the king himself. The *^fi», tt , elected ™i 
Vl4 enginally been skilled assessors at the <"«* onw «rds it tf 
yldKY the peasantry, but from the 13th « e Jf** became the Jiff 
...Wary for the king to appoint them, »»«* **f Second or hi'v" 1 " 
jaijei of all suits in the first insta 0oe la * be VL e , but it ** r 
iMtoce the diet „aa still nomdv tfee ^tl^e °f the kia ^« 
jreitted oyer by theLegmann and attended W f ** decide ca 8e8 5* 
•Mdt. .The king himself also uh££1 rf***- *tfee **— t n^. n 
£ l £ tmt r *. ^th the aid of » i!* n cil °£ tftne transto,^ 
The four ancient diets were thus in tvf ^«r»® ° T*S«* enn - 
M> ten or twelte minor diets, presto *«* ™ ** * d 

■HMO* Norw . y ^ 8weden- e ^^ it . 

XJ. miSTOItY. 


the Scandinavian courts were also generally Icelanders. To jy 
vegian authorship are traceable compara timely few literary wo***" 
the moat important being juridicaJ. compilations f the 'Kit*,' 
Hinof , which affords an insight into tine court-life and eonun ** 
cU\ transactions of the 13th cent. , tne 'AneJtdoton Sverrerr**" 
polemic in favour of the orown asjevtnsvt tne church, several ballad* 
of the earlier Edda , and a number of romances translated fwf 
English and French. This poverty of tne literature of the main- 
land is doubtless to be accounted, for l>y the fact that it was con- 
stantly harassed by -wars and intestine troubles at this period" 
vhile Iceland was in the enjoyment o£ peace. While, moreover' 
in Norway the clergy held themselves aloof from the people and 
from secular pursuits, and the nobles were busily engaged i n 
fashioning their titles, their manners, and their costumes on the 
model of those of their more civilised neighbours, the Icelanders 
of all classes retained their national coherence in a far higher 
degree , all contributing with equal zeal to the patriotic task of 
extolling their island and preserving its ancient traditions. 

Sweden hefore the Union. 

With regard to the early nistory of Sweden there exist no 
chronicles similar to those of the Icelanders and Norwegians. It 
J is ascertained, however, that the country was partly evangelised 

in the VHh cent, by Afwkcwr (d. 865) and other German missionaries, 
and by his successor Bimbert (d. 888). Archbishop Unni after- 
wards preached the Gospel in Sweden, where he died in 936, and 
after the foundation of several bishoprics in Denmark about the 
middle of the 10th cent., Sweden was visited by several other 
German and Danish missionaries. The secular history of the 
country i B involved in much obscurity , from which , however, it 
to some extent emerges when it comes into contact with that of 
Norway ah™,* the end of the 10th century Olaf Skotkonung 
0**hutarv kWl took part in the battle of Svold against Olaf of 
Norway J^T™ the subsequent dismemberment of that country. 
** w aa * JJ, Jds compelled by bis own peasantry to promise to 
com* t ■*" !?*!* <*t Olaf and on his failure was threatened 
2 1° % *T ^asthen obliged to assume his son Onund 
W& deposition. *Ae j» ^^ ^ eace ^^ Norway aD(mt the 

{ to wyxe« e1lt ' *? A^rtrxA are said to have been the first Chris- 

\ * %>tf- 01af * nd A°JT 5nund was succeeded by his brother 

\ V* king* of ?T e 2? i^t of his royal house, on whose death 

^5fd. I 056 )' tUe . fLLeGbtar, who were now inclined 

i •»**• "? ^TaS the more northern and less cWllised 

' WW , ; of Christianity ana w u Emund had been in- 

\ to <<*' w« ***** but his* BSlr StenMXapval^ 

\ S*e* ' 7 about reli^on ^™™ e&nly opposed by ***7*". °» 

^e &»* 



-atbea W» successor **» E . w »s 

ChriBtiMi and the pagan parties. W ^^yj^prie .iLa-> ' j, lB 
MWtoiCilOa), forhade heathen saw ^ ]nge „4taiiM»f "305 
brother-in-law Blot-Bvtn U » rival JJ"^ ph j, ip (d . »-0»*_* .,„ nB 
anil anR^AflHDra. Jnoe 1 

nmtedtHOS), foth.d. heathen »>" tat ,„ g , and Ira »«f f 30 j, 
b.olh.Mn-l.. M„,-S.o; u '*■} 5o5'„a «i»(»- •'"' ..«n. 
and snwessors.lTaiK II. (d. about 11*J These ^ o6 M 

aueoeeded i» maintaining a* «Sn.gde»- »" l Sr?wS.e« 

.l„«o.Voi.ofl H.BTBannrMSOttheK' 11 . ._, ..„„ittedt>i"' 

sueoeeded i» maintaining a* «Sn.gde»- »" l Sr?wS.e« 
>.>n»l against Magnus Barfod cW™ ;„„„,. often » u ° 
honourably at Kongahelle (1101), but M , mpun Uj- „. n d- 

the Soiw.giau. lo inT.4. ftelr »rt«W" A M „, » d <J M t 
On ft. ol Philip, «M""i*,"o} Bni in """'"Tioted- 
»on ol Stenhilason, assumed ft. title " w ho bad been e,B Eric 
was defeated and slain In 1134 hy to****' nelt opposed 8v«w- 
king two yews previously. 3^"* ft. Srear, ■°*£1 1 .« a nd 
Jedvurdsaon, who was proclaimed king <" n d the H1 *T, OI ie. 
l„>, death in 1166 tM.Mo, —J"} 'J^lon. IS.",*" • 
aur.em.d the 'Saint, ohtain.d "» 4i ™t.5,u,ple of Sj™aSu-» 
Brio, a ...lous ohurehm.n, »««» 4 "° „d and ""^SSi W 
Chri.tian pi... of worahip, and » MJJ „,„i.d and •>» 
lh« S.W. part of Finland. In 1160 he «' * 4 , lal m t« »• «" & ,, 
•ft "■»«*•'»»,  D"!-" P' 1 ""' Sated and '"KJ2*. » 
and who ,n «., following yea, •» «™ „ B"S«»* 
-Soerkeraaon. The latter in hie tnm was a '*' eB of s* e "^ 
1167, and ,„, .out... between th. **K "»~«"f, l" „d 
Erie laated down to 1222. Erie died >. UJJJ „f fl>. \»?f, U p- 

tt.l„,„, h ,,„i 11 ,„ma,.h.mnP«>*fft,on. «™>f,,„. 

S2-sr ? s ^,^r«ura.^^gr. 

U wild — . ^ JST_»-—_ 

%',n:°rT" «"<* Sl " Sl -'. , :L'.°0.t.«-O»«»»'' 11 Se'f 
J*a>*Xs Dad <>z King S,eiaerabishOt0l for the *« 

J*a>*Xs Pod .r King S,eiaerabishOt0l for the d"L, 

4.°,?' W«if» at Linking. »„i.»d.ui»"V,, 

fc.ia time the -fonw»* B , t powei, ► tit i,. 


the title 

•=!». B-.d» '»' j tahon P»"„ and »«• 
y«al famOlea •' s " eo 


mwli. In 1^30 an attempt to dethrone Erilt was made by g nut 
Jonuon, a distant cousin of Birger , tout Knut waa defeated and 
bUUl in 1^34, and Ms eon ▼»& executed as a. rebel in 1248. n e 
position oi the family , however, remained ul naffe c tod . £irg« r Jarf 
a nephew ot BirgerBrosa, married. Ing^ebor^ , tlie kind's sister' 
while Eric himself married a member ojT tlae Folhnngai family 
(l'US). Biigei now became the real ruler- ox* Sweden, the terri- 
tory of which he extended by new conquests ±n ^Finland. On the 
death of Eric, the last scion of the house of St. Eric, without 
ww in 1250, Woldemof, Birger's bod, was proclaimed the success- 
or of his uncle. During Birger's regency tlao country prospered, 
Ht on his death, in 1266 hostilities broJko out between his sons. 
TKe veak and incapable Waldemar was dethroned by his brother 
*ft*w» (1275), ^bose vigorous administration resembled that of 
Ma father, and who maintained friendly relations with the Hanse- 
»tic League. He also distingnished himself as a lawgiver and an 
upholder of order and justice, and earned fox laimself the surname 
of Ladttl « ('barn-lock\ i.e. yindicator of the rights of the 
peasantry! ' 

hi 1290 Magnus was succeeded by his son Birger Magnu*^ 
7*8 whose minority the government was ably conducted by 
fjTw ***&* £***><>», but serious quarrels «^™"* *»?• 
1 et 7 e ^ Ma «™ and his brothers, the dixlue* ISr** ^/"a?*" 

■wAd was executed by the king's order. fil . OOI1 ^ rw ? rd ?' 
^ever, the dukes returned and obteined P^*" 10 *,^ *£• 
S , AftW Beyeral vicissitudes, peace was &1*}™*™* ** 
1318 *? diYided **<"* *• others in 1310 and a|r»xn in 1313. l n 

w «wMoia Stnno. »* tt i. /-„ 3171 while Mag 1 " 18 . B «ger's 

•W, ttm t.t«- ?' of Ups * U ^ > L 5«,t attempts to unite 
tta «» ^ keu Prisoner »nd executed. The fl»* !,-„, of M»«i,!! 
Erit ,UTUn kingdoms were nude in the rex«n of Magnus 

££** was dWided into districts, called ^^JaaH ('h tt °! 
J3l?»» MA of which was suhdMded i»*°^Tits diet or 

gj/VH Presided o^er fcy a Zapman, and each n ™" r «p r ononnc 6l 
ofS^' Ir who '' e president wm called a -Do^'^iW deto»I 
•ttwti" Bf'otoMfiMng- The Landsthing e * e *ode of 1«». 
W^ J-WW Unctions, and each had its o^Jl^e. Thing 0]t 
C of n Wnon * ««>»* d^ts was enjoyed hy the *£»■**' *"*» 

7 flere wtary, kings were first elected. A*** 7 

11V x *. mSTOB* nd to proceed 

each new king had ^ the l**f' *° in order' * 

on the 'Eriksgata', , a « wea * to obeerr* die tB, Thl ng 

procure confirmation ofhh??? *° D f«ola*i«"» s of !£oVinci»l l»f 
were even binding o n th 7 * ltIe - Be *# As * be I' l3tb »o d »J 
differed, attempts to CO fl% kln * himSe ' made » * h *Jud»tion ° f 
the beginning of t £ c ° d »fy them ~f « ££ the c ° n *£jed. T,,e 
the kingdom thes e 7. _ 14 * «ent., bat ^*J ny obHW r ** e pre pon- 

chief difference betlS^, ^J^SS" *** V X * n "*£ 
derance of the arf 8to :? e * Sw eden »*»** for mer. F ^ e d of the 
period, moreover, j**"** element in ** e ld diets c0 ^Cprietors, 
higher' officials, «£*>* °een ™ual to J^« de * prop* ^ g , 

and to these aftet 1 M ? ns . P rel »tes, »» V*5*were added w^^ 
mean. This ari«* elo8e of *e l3tn cent. * ge a Dr *"* erV e 

him in the fleW >ho Emitted to it »» **"*£, exemption A9 
taxation „ tw ' 00nf ewing on them the ^L the ^f^nd. 
no one, hot,™ * nJo '' ed °7 his oourtie™ »» d bj^ conld atten 
fw d\eTS ? *»<*4«nee with- » ™ *■££*& he *£r the 
th « real D o» *' . 0u * a Emmons from the * in « W . rig ht to alter w 
laws witTthT ? . hiB °~* hands and reserved » «« iod the ^ 

m « «&*V f *»» diet. »«»» " ?f JadS» i\ ll,tt «» 
*»d fromt^^f^oftMng had been the sole jaa^ d9 the y were 

Prosed by tJ, r8t h f lf °f «"> I 4 * cen \£! tin*. At *•, the 

time the kin* « People, >> ut ^inted ^.^J^dgments to the 

last instant* Pressed a rieht of reviewing all J~7Li C d without 

**• cons^ 6 - No ta« 8 oo^be exacted or trooP» 1^ cug *,n- 

**y as eartV* tte P ?**** diets, and it therefore n* meTO en**y 

troops. *\ M the 13th cent for the kings to ^J^eflned, >«* 

less extengit* 6 P ri,i,e «es of the church «» !'!}«he» w«« c"" 1 " 

pufeoxy, 1*>e than in lNTor^ay. The payment of tl * n blBno p B was 

/e«ted i' n *** in 1248 ana 1250 the right to elect bi * {toja 

***ing oath?* chapters, while all the clergy ™re V* he ce libaoy 

°f th * <>l£l °* ocular allegiance. At the same period «■ ^ ih0 

clergy ^* r «* was declared compulsory. As early » jBdlo tion 

only , * .declared amenable to the ecclesiastical j gmBin on 

'Vmen b ** *tt some cases the chnrch-courta couia e» . lglst ive 

/°r e » in *?**• them. On the other hand the 8 »P. rero ,V d parishes 

eryoy ed ^^^ioh matters still belonged to the s****' " a right of 

^* fr on a ».J: ,l « *iitht of electing their pastor when no expre» 

; e «« o ^^ V^^^iers and royal vassals 

**« es « ^* ^T^^^ers and royal vassals, the barons an* * ni ?"' lA freemen 
4&° ^«3^W^ S r*» ^ V «P^ FobwowA and even simpi « ired . 
e *^^o^ar^ ~ drilling to render military service when .^T, g OC ul g*P- 
^fc^ ^» - i:l *hese and the peasantry there was a wia ® » . ftn al) ^ 

"^" * « tojy of early Swedish Literature U well-* 11 * 

a. msroKY. ~-- 

-a^*l work », 

Kr?S 5TSS*-« «fe,^V.t *"«».' 


lift happy «■«•. At ^?,,„ ° den W»« PTDdenrt; ™' V* 
tie regent Mot. KW*" 1 ^*™- "»«* in laSStti E^*' 

Z%y Brie Menved «* fr***-* H - "* jKKSTM 

Blanche ofHamut, "ere ruled by .in-worthy JK5m21 J"" 
forfeited the resp^t of tteirpwpU A di. J^*™^ «? *0 
Mem (IMS), great innod»t.onBi n the Gnld.l wd Orkldtl n* a < 
md shore all the plague which B-wept away about t-„» k l . 3 *5 
ft* popnlation [1349-50) aggravated the discontent ota i ' i 
weglana, -who in 13M elected Haafc „ AfaimujKon, the mX! W< * 
ofMagnns, regent of Norway, and in 1365 Haakon entered ' * 0[ 
his functions , the province of Vigen and Iceland alone V* 00 
resorted W hif father- In Sweden Magnns consolidated th in 6 
TineUlla-wa and drew up anew municipal code in 1347 w f ro " 
too he wa. overtaken hy many tronblea. The aristocracy "j *«• 
his endeavours to restrain their raeesBee, the people were »» 

S rated hy the unsuccessful issne of his Russian umpiipi fi'Sa" 
, 1350-&1), the plagne intensified their dissatisfaction in I3S" 

and lastly the king was excommunicated in 1358 c UJlt 

Mb failure W pay debts due to the pope. Eric , the king's aon 
took advantage of these troubles and assumed the title of kin» 1 ' 
1358, hot died in 1359. New disasters, however, soon followed* 
In 1360 the Danes regained Shine and in 1361 they took poeaeg ' 
sioa of the islands of Oland and Gotland. In 1363 Haakon mar, j e ^ 
the princess Margaret, daughter of King Waldemar of Denmark 
then eleven years old, a nnion which gave great offence to the 
Swedish nobles, who were farther exasperated by the reconcile 
tioa of Haakon with his father. Magnus no* banished twenty. 
fowothii most obnoxious opponents who proceeded to Meekl eu _ 


T,urg and offered ihe crown to Albert, <*«<>nd son o/de 4uVe *ua 

of Euphemia, a daughter of Duke B»« »^ Sweden 

Albert accordingly came to owe uc » «* «,!,«,.« th* 

n«s and Haakon were defeated at 0"% ne « ^^^tour of 
former was taken prisoner. In 1370-71 a rebellion £*"«** 
Magnua took place in Upper Sweden, and in 1471 Haakon invaded 
tie country with a Norwegian army, *«* P*»«e was shortly after 
wards concluded, and Magnus set at liberty «np»ymentof» heavy 
ransom and on condition that he would not again lay claim to the 
Swedish crown. The death of Maenus in 1374 finally extinguiBhett 
the hopes of those to Kr f unTon. Albert «• »^ ~^SK 
to place himself under the euidance of the powerful ar "tocratic 

^iSffijyjfr FCnSlhl^egian}^ 


of Germans, ^ * e *»wns the dominant jarty iTe an d 

tyrannical. ' E TenVr e J eding - ^ordan*e with&e municipal 
code of Mag^Js Sm» t SWeden i ^Tine burgomasters and cmc 
authorities in ! T i mek > one-half of the du « , Germans; 

* ££ Zli£ C < ^UT^haTilorcMeny owed his unpopularity 
In l^?^ in/ £ for German favourites. .,, ft1lt mole issue, and 

in the S££% ?"■ ° f Denm ^/^^"on^ *"fe~ 

^ V%^«**^ «• ^ '^D^afk ^Norway. 

°larg -i.i,, j "mting the crowns of Den . "£.«* nn ion, hut 
'ittin \ JZ.- 1 * dea *k irf 1387 dissolved this brief _nmon, 

! ie *ag nomin.f j * tlbLe election of a new king, wu . 

^^-totir 11 ' i n ^"^ax/to'^a'ucTes^ 
;° *e t2u. one tzJ.'** ** ^as deemed necessary io Norwe gi»n« 

*«><"'«ted JwH/^r S tke ^r* Tt? nShew , heir to the 
1 , ro *n,but under t), * 0rn - era ™, Mar « a * et ^«nt ascend the throne 
d ?«V ^! " n fL e l th «. c <>^dition that he shouldnot asce 

**• HISTOBY. lvii 

feie in tru*** glared iS* i^o*? 6 ** m "*ader» and pirates. Peace 
r*ut length- ^V leavini ♦* » and Kin * Albert Bet at liberty on 

miUionoi *** co f n c °untry. During the same year Brio 

vNaWtedfCi*** 5 w ^ T i: 6nmark i *nd in 1396 of Sweden also, so that 
&e foree «o^^ w ere now united, and the three kingdoms ruled by 
^^iegen*.iae following year Erie was solemnly crowned 
•kltesi \>y * ** <* the three nation.. Lastly, in 1398, Mar- 
gwt gamed possession of Stockholm , the last stronghold of the 
German partisans of Albert. The union of the three kingdoms 
tow effected, by Margaret, who is sometime* called the 'Northern 
Semuamis\ lasted till the beginning of the 16th cent., when it 
*aa dissolved by the secession of Sweden, but Norway and Den- 
mark remained united down to the year 1814r. 

The Union. 
Though nominally united and bound to make common cause 
against all enemies, the three kingdoms jealously maintained their 
respective forms of government. Margaret ruled over the three 
countries with wisdom and moderation though harassed by many 
difficulties, and on her death in 1412 Kin* Eric assumed the reins 
of government. Eric , whose queen was Philippa , daughter of 
aenrT IV. of England, was a weak, incompetent, and at the same 
time a cruel prince. He wasted large sums of* money in an at- 
tempt to recover Slesvig from the Counts of Holstein, who held it 
as a Danish flef, and who were supported by the Hanseatic League. 

and iS* B f gen WM twice Peered by the Germans (1428 
ana i4zyj, Wtt0 now became masters of that city, and in Sweden 
tne people were most oppressively treated by Brio's Oerman and 
^nish officials. In 1435, after a disastrous quarrel of twenty- 
tnree years, Eric was at length compelled to confirm the privileges 
of toe Hanseatic League and to leave the Counts of Holstein in 
undisturbed possession of Slesvig. Exasperated by Eric's malad- 
ministration, by the debasement of the coinage, and other griev- 
ance^ the Swedish peasantry, headed by KnsyeJjMrekt fa*el- 
brettnon, a wealthy proprietor of mines, rebelled in 1433 and 
compelled Eric and his council to appoint Karl Kwutsson regent 
of the kingdom (1436), shortly after which Engelbrekt was assas- 
sinated. In Norway also the oppressive sway of foreign official 
caused great discontent and gave rise to a rebellion in 1436. Bri c 
in despair retired to the island of Gotland, and in 1438 a number 
of Danish and Swedish magnates assembled at Kalmar, where 
they drew up a new treaty of union, but without affirming th at 
the three kingdoms were thenceforward to be ruled by 0ne 
monarch. Lastly, in Denmark also a rebellion broke out, chiefly 
however, against the nobility and the clergy , and the Danes w ere 
therefore compelled to seek for a new king. 

In 1439 Denmark and Sweden formally withdrew their aii e ^ 



«till retained Norway. 
Ditmarschers, Store was recalled, but Han* gvcvnte Nieleeon Sture 
Stare died in 1503 and was succeeded D J £ ^^ gtitrc the Younger 
(<L 1512), whose successor was his son *** 

^4. 1520). flde a in Denmark and 

King Hans died in 1513, and was * aC ^f Swedes declined to 
Norway hy his son Christian n., whom * n ^mty and learning, 
recognise. He was a man of consideral>l -p^ orwa y and Denmark 
but self-willed, passionate, and cruel. ** ^ e com mercial, min- 
he effected several social reforms, proteete a trict the privileges of 
ing, and Ashing interests, and sought to re» ^ strength of will, 
the Hanseatic merchants. Notwithstanding ^ pother of his 

Christian was ruled by SigbriU, a Dutc hw °jj" » of the latter, and 
mistress DiXwekt (d. 1517), even after the oe» ^ fco treated them 
the hatred of the aristocracy for this wOD ~ ' olir i B tian. In Swe- 
with studied contempt, proved disastrous *JJ tte sture family, 

den the family of Trolle had long been host «« rf u pga i a in 1515 
and when Qustaf TrolU was created arcnr>i*n^p administrator. 

he invited the Danes to aid him in deposing ^^ pesieged 

Christian sent troops to the aid ot the prelate, take n and Trolle 
in his castle of Staket (p. 318), out the castle ^* nagtery . Jn 1518 
deprived of his dignities and confined in a mo - eden without 
Chiistian himself undertook a campaign a £ a * nB « r tf«j<>n V*** a ** 
success, and perfidiously imprisoned Qustaf . j^ third cam- 

other Swedish hostages who had "been sent to **"*" wa e defeated 
paign in 1519 was more succeiiatfnl, and Sten ®*T? ft d# The same 
and mortally wounded at Bogesund in West Go V t ^\ B atrocious 
year Christian gained possession f Stockholm , *j* coronation by 
cruelty and injustice proved Mb ruin. After hi* flec nte their 
Trolle he permitted that prelate and two others to * |1)Ulim i. They 
enemies before an arbitrarily formed ecclesiastics ^^^ executed 
were found guilty of heresy, and on 8th 3t *°^:' B included frw 
along with several other persons. The 8& ** I^Erte Johansson, 
bishops, 13 royal counsellor* and knights, a tm iiar executions 
the father of Vasa. On the following day many al rts of Sweden, 
of so-called Tebels and heretics took place in oi ^°^f gtockholm'. 
though on a smaller scale than the 'Blood-Bath o ^ tne i m p _ 
The exasperation of the Swedes was a «» T *T!i?L peasantry, and 
sition of a new tax and an attempt to disarm * /ijaer. This was 
the discontented populace soon found an a *JV -^ vase, 4 a beam', 
the famous Guatal Vasa (probably so surnamed "zL^ed), who had 
which the fascine in his armorial bearings rese ^ ^ jj&beck in 
been unjustly imprisoned by Christian, hut esca, *L& n hearing of 
1519. In May, 1520, he returned to Sweden, * Bat fc he betook 
the death of his father ** the Stockholm B *°° jjngelbrekt and 
himself to Dalecarlia, wlx ere n former occa8 *°^ xhe rising began 
the Stures had been snp^ orte d by the P ea8an rl^eden. In ^gust 
in 1521 and soon extendi oYe r the whole of o 

maw* 1 *- 


B-.aeO W , M ,«„ oft" m tM ,„b , .n» •' , e te»^ 

veai-ja u 

lp m..a..-T , op o 
^•«o».4 0o 1! oili.8«»(**,.MloO ! '"ri.oo» fl '"; OW SS>V 



« »«t,°°»4»on of ft'Sr.sW» 4 'a M "llo!" 1 io"" 1 J" 

-w^CL *5j*« »*$** « nv6 4 W^ 


'*** an »- In 

ftnmdwri*** m*Iw of the country ** •%**«. 

tawc*, notwithstanding the opposition ** •e^ e » Jfc , «.„, It 

the H«»e merchant* still held oppressive *^ajr in ** °* *Ae w D/w 
Tratthepeawntty were never, as in Denma*^ » tt *L - ** c2li «^*own8 •' 
dom ana compulsory services. They were ?en etall ^ ected to serf-' 
soil they cultivated, while those who were z&eyely * 0wr,ers 0/ the 
entire liberty and were not aseripti gUbcu as in m*ar^* ***!,* ei tf°yed 
tries. In Sweden the compulsory services exiiril>ie ftwm «?' co **ii- 
antry by the lord of the soil were limited in «* ± 5*iT«! P * e * 8 *" 
8 : 12days, and those exigible by the king to 8 daws. While th** 
dm enjoyed Iosb independence than in Norway, 1* attained poi?/ 8 
ical importance and even admission to the supreme council at »!? 
earlier period, owing to the influence of EngeVb>:relt* , tlie 8tut e * 
and other popular chiefs. ' 

During the union Literature made considerable progress i n 
Sweden, while in Norway it languished and neca-me almost ex.. 
tinct. In both countries the education of tlie clergy continued to 
be carried on in the monasteries and cathedral-scn,ool», out towards 
the close of this period universities were founded »* ZJf>sala (1477) 
and Copenhagen (1479), and gave rlBe to the puhlication of _ various 
learned treatises in Latin. Among the religions ^ OT *® ot *J "■ gg- 
iod may be mentioned the revelations of St. BirfJ*** ' J°: 1 «8) 
andthe'OronicaRegniGothorum' of Erict** Ol«* < C* \*Xma«on 

Whilst about the beginning of the 14th cent. *****£%<> increase, 
of Norway became extinct, that of Sweden * e ^^!«icles,hallads, 
conBistingchieny of religious writings, rhyming c *^\? a tional lan^ 
and compilations of laws. In Sweden, moreover, ™* against the 
gnage, though not without difficulty, neld x **^_ ial i y displaced 
Damsh, while in Norway the 'Old Norsk' ^** f***£ to he spoken 
by the tongue of the dominant race, and c °^*^« neaeantry alone, 
in sereral impure and uncultured dialects *>y ** e v 

lj»«rf "Onion. 
Sweden after the Dissolution of t*e ** . 0t christian II., 
the d.L ne f 88Uyof making common catxse *|£ aI1 alliance he- 

me deposed monarMi a/Tv +v 1 i««rAoi»s, Te ^«,-Tr Christian at- 
t^een OustavmVn ° f &**>*>* ^1 T P^^rwas taken pri- 
nted an?J^ a and Frederick V.&1-3*. *K£o*£s made* an 

«oner, and aCpi°5 ° f ?° rWay VS.8S N* e ^^ fl^-^- -* 
ineffectual aft* Fte <*erick's death (l B3 ~-> a ^ xX * S ^ta power. The 
nome Gu8tavn« ?* to restore the * e *>°?£ da-ti^^ ** pTO ceedingB of 

nohUitr had v* succeeded in consoi^ ox^«VJ CB 1,0th 

Christian, 4}** much weakened W *£ *** C *£i<* fell to the 

po*er J ^ th e Reformation de^ve a tJ ^ * °~*£ 

l. 10 f J great ch a ^ et of Westeris L 1 °" r £xT<** x V a** a m 
aasfccal dog^fces in the tenure ?{<*%**** * 
**d ritual were i» tr " 

Lull,, .1 .«»bO »•« J"« "2 i.« ** <^i»* V» o"»/i 

a»i otWmwwtotmB, butted ^"^ly W t »*» j^e " 6 o**' 
autientioiu oldie ueaBttntiy , °» aBe . *. of * b l,,i° ot «<.£ „(# 

1060), l/Sl«H Mimi «*2r,.tw»"l„« l St*"w^f 

Hi. «d..( ,o» Xri. sn. ( fc .«™ "''SiV, '"^.''i 

£•"», Duke of l?mi„a, wlo» » W' l »*£i><>* *• Jl > e" , 'ril» 1 

••bene., of 0Ile , luk Q „„„ »»»",„, «5„g !"V„1>J> *£„• 

» ««7 &-■ ,.. ., 
•id denni±,-„i „„^ Sw»fl» n from T>eO»** ^rt 06 . 

? severed Sweden from *-=--: _oie; ^ "" rl£ 
M. ».r win B...1. <°« SI V*tS» B, *iS« 
pin * t E.tUend, W J*I ol VZW»"X 

*° Sweden tli© 

wirti leonred w iu> b»»v™. u , — 

John WaB n-utmied to a Polish prince" 

-»«u was mailed to a Polish prince" « u ",Ue»» **-_ jflof" ' ,. W»- 
M*d« the Itomlih churoh which taaoh *„% e °* A* tt * K\a% V ° 
After hia death (1592) the religious a^ fl Jv««>l ^-V' 

mttn Ctholio In Poland, where he I-*** \te 1 oU Sl* 01 *e -P 10 ' 
1587. Z>t*X;<s Charlct of S5dermanl-»» a ' it-tl •* a«» *°. jmW«* 

v „,„ Jfi.^ 

8igiam«nd, caused the A»«*?SSm 

tavua Tnea , thereupon assumed tU* 1 J^f5S Oo llte8 *l)oI.-^ te,I ^aiftS*' 

S^, * *l»flB0¥ i tP pP ^ 

■ent mgismnn., caused the &i*0"V^e5> . •*"*(#»«"« eV *" 
eUinud ane^ hy . Bynod at Up B »l» C* ^S^K *° *SV B 
practices ii* fciroduced by John. Afte.^ °* « Q W ^SfiflSV * O^A** 
SigiBmuna. -ve»> trained in 1594 **"^T„* 61 i.iW* M -A/"'" 
promines, li-*- unoU was recalled to **^fe, 3» a %5^£ ft*** 
aigi Bmun d ln«W Sw ed(!n in 15f ,& *S*« »*K * V< 
and compelled to enter i nt o a w^-^^^^o** C 1 ™^**^**' 
breaking faith,h ew>B ftffaiT^ffr W^^ 
was appointe. 3 regent for lif„ f^<** Z. »»* 6 ° 
mund's adherent, with ereat hatBh**^* «**»*■ 





tog the recognition of Ladialau.0, Si £ i8 mund's son duriM tt 
««•* the title of long in 1604. His administration was bene? 
toi to the country, and lie waft a zealous promoter of commerce 
™**g, and agriculture, but hiB w«» wife Russia and Denmark' 
^& were unwished at his death (1611), caused much misery. 
'fliJS* *° n and BiaoceB * or ^ aB Oustavus II. , better known as 
JJ"**** Adolphui, the most able and famous of the Swedish 
rj* 6 - Though seyenteen years of age only , be was at once de- 
««ea major by the Estates. In 1613 he terminated the 'Kalmar 
™" **th Denmark by the Peace of Knarod , and in 1617 that 
*"A ftussis by the Peace of Stolbova , which secured Kexholm, 
in^RoS* **** In 6ermanland to Sweden. By the Treaty of Altmark 
3/0Z9 ^ ohtained from Poland the cession of Livonia and four 
Rattan seaports for six years. At the same time he bestowed 
™^h attention on his home affairs. With the aid of his chancellor 
n T ™end Axel Qxenstjema he passed codes of judicial procedure 
mw rounded a supreme court at Stockholm (16 14- 15), and afterwards 
erected appeal courts at Ibo, Dorpat, and Jonkoping. In 1617 he 
eorgaiiisedthe national assembly, dividing it into the four estates 
Nobles, Clergy, Burghers, and Peasants, and giving it the sole 
F>wer of passing laws and levying taxes. He founded several new 
^Sf favoured the mining and commercial industries, extended 
£ e diversity ° f Upsala, and established another at Dorpat. At 
e same time he strengthened his army and navy, -which he soon 
p°~ 0<3 casion to use. In 1630 he went to Germany to support the 

lim Unt canBe in the TMrt y Yeara ' War > a]ttd •* ter 8everal ^nl- 
Bro a ctories and a 8 lorionB career, which raised Sweden to the 
No* * Port* 10 * 1 && e has ever occupied in history, he fell on 6th 
lis a 163 ^' at the Battte of L »tzen. The war was continued under 
* daughter and successor Christina, under the able regency of 
"^tferna. In 1635, by another treaty with Poland, Livonia 
mart^^a to Sweden for 26years more. War broke outwithDen- 
i*4Gi ln 1643 , hut was terminated by the Peace of Bromsebro 
*J«j46. At length, in 1648, the Thirty Years' War was ended by 
tfce Peace of Westphalia. These treaties secured to Sweden Jemt- 
Uttd and Herjedalen, the island of Gotland , the principalities f 
Bremen and Verden, part of Pomerania with Stettin a na J*e is- 
lands of Rfigen, Usedom, and Wollin, and the * own .^ la ^ar, 
besides a considerable war indemnity and other adva f_ ta S M - ^Ur- 
iH the regency it was arranged that the royal council or cabinet 
abould consist of representatives of the *uprerne ^f^Peal, 
«d T Ul .° f w «. «"> admiralty , **™™^JJ&*£** T i 

wot fovLJl 6 C0nntr 7 was dM ^r^rnSn respectively, ^ M * 
oXX* * l* tondshafdinge and^ For these ana m ^ 
o*er ^ fc i*Jf^^^S country w- u*^ 

xi. histoky. 

1%\"V /v- Aft othet 

«a pnliffhten^ent of Oxenstjerna. "* ^ f(mll 4 

to the ?"^ ASSPem^ coffers of the state , * **J"JJ 
£ a nd , in order to n ^ ^ ^^ domai f nd to to* 

^ece^ary to «ell ^ aggr avated by the l««V flX £JV* 
t a*e*> and tne e faV(yar iteB. Refusing: to many, *™  " ' 
* f Christina ^nl^evances of her justly disaffected hw» 
^le to *^ n ^f£^«n»a the election of ^'^'T 
\ £ect*, the qneen ^ l»wp Palatine John Oasimir o Z*ei 

\ 3 or Charley- Xte T of Gustavus Adolprms, as her BuecesBor- J/ 

V^TL* - cxo^d in 1654 , ^^^ * iSSi 

\ ¥*£££ economy , and in 1655 obtained the «»* omof^ 

' States to revoke her alienations of crown property. *•*> n oi 

Sfttttowd with Ms plans. John Casimir, King of ^J^^U 
£ Osmund , now claimed the throne of Sweden , and oomgWJJ 1 
ffi^s to declare war against Mm (1665) After* time Buss^a, 
I \Tistria, and Denmark espoused the cause of Poland, X> u« V" nd - 

! ^cceeded in gaining possession of Jutland and ^ »f nto **££• 

! and the Peace of Rolkilde (1658) secured to him Sk&ne, Hallan^ 

' and Blekinge , but obliged him to cede the districts or , ^ 

I and Trondhjem to Norway. On a renewal of the war witn r/e« 

I mark , the Danes were aided by the Dutch, the Brandenburgers, 

I the Poles, and the Austrians , who compelled Charles to raise tne 

f siege of Copenhagen , and on his sudden death in 1662 the * e * ce 

I of Copenhagen was concluded , whereby the island of Bornhoim 

I was lost to Sweden. 

I Charles X. was succeeded by his son Charles XI., a boy of 

four years, whose guardians endeavoured to make peace with 
/ foreign enemies. By the Peace of Oliva with Poland , Branden- 

burg , and Austria in 1660 the King of Poland Anally ceded Li- 
vonia to Sweden and renounced his claim to the throne of Sweden, 
ana by the Peace of Kardis with Russia in 1661 the Swedi h con- 
quests in Esthonia and Livonia were restored to Sweden ; but 
/ little was done to remedy the internal disorders of the country. 

One of the few events worthy of record at this period was the 
' foundation of the university of Lund in 1668. Meanwhile the 

/ excesses and arrogance of the nobility the squandering of the 

/ cro^^n -re venues, and the imposition of heavy taxes threatened to 

ruin the country, and the regency even accepted subsidies from 
/ foreign countries and hired out troops to serve abroad. At the 

r**^ %*ril ™ C \*^* ass *med the reins ot government (1OT2). 
Ja ± 674 he was called upon as the ally of Trance to take part m 
t h& war against Holland, Spain , an d Germany, but the Swedish 
>y ^ as signally defeated at Pehrbellin by the Elector of Bran- 
denburg. Hereupon the Danes declared war against Sweden, 
causing: new disasters, but by the intervention of the French 


peace was again declared at Lund in 1 679. The distress occasioned 
by these defeats and popular indignation against the nobility, 
I who -were now in possession of five-sevenths of the land in Swe- 
den, and who did their ntmost to reduce the peasantry to the con- 
dition of. mere serfs, eventually served greatly to strengthen the 
ting's position. At the diet of Stockholm in 1680 , after stormy 
debates, it was determined to call the regency to account for their 
gross mismanagement of affaire , and the king was empowered to 
woke the alienations made during his minority. The king was 
told that he was not bound to consult his cabinet, but to obey the 
laws, and that he was responsible to God alone. Another diet 
(1682) entrusted the king with the sole legislative power, merely 
expressing a hope that he would graciously consult the Estates. 
Cawles was thus declared an absolute monarch , the sole right 
reserved to the diet being that of levying taxes*. The king there- 
upon exacted large payments from his former guardians and exer- 
cised hh right of revocation so rigidly that he obtained possession 
of about one-third of the landed estates in Sweden. The money 
thus acquired he employed in paying the debta of the crown, in 
re-organising his army and fleet, and for other o*efnl purposes, 
while he proceeded to amend the law and to remedy ecclesiastical 
abuses. On his death in 1697 he left his kingdom in a strong and 
prosperous condition, and highly respected among nations. 

Under Charles Xn., the son and successor of Oharles XI., this 
absolutism was fraught with disastrous consequences. Able, care- 
fully educated, energetic, and conscientious , but seU-willed and 
eccentric, Charles was called to the throne at the age of fifteen 
and at once declared major. In 1699 Denmark, Russia, and Poland 
concluded an alliance against Sweden, which led to the great 
northern war. Aided by England, Holland, »» d *£• _Duke of 
Gottorp and Hanover, Charles speedily compelled the Panes to 
conclude the Peace of Travendal (1700), defeated the K*"«*ns 
at Narva, took Curland from the Poles (1701) , »»* foro 1 f d T 60 *" 
Augustus of Saxony to make peace at Altranstadt , whereby the 

elector was obliged to renounce the Polish crown. _™ an 1 ** Uft 
Peter the Great of Russia had Rained possession of *exAolm, 
Ingermanland, and Esthonia. Instead of attempting toregjm 
these provinces, Oharles , tempted by » promise of help ™m Ma- 
zeppaf a Cossack chief, detennined to* attach *J — J?"J; 
other quarter and marched into the Ukraine, *** 7" "J^T* 
defeated by the Russians at Pultava (1709) , *?* 3°'* ™"£ ' i 
whole of hie amy. He escaped into Turkey, *£**%£ *Jffl£ 
tably >ae.iwi by the Saltan Achmed III^ a t ^ Sultan to 
money. Here -ha resided at Bender ^"^Xier had defeated 
make war against Russia ; but when the « ra,na ^ na wife f Peter, 
the Czar he w*a bribed by Katherine, the ^f^^W?i 
to allow him to escape. This exasperated onane 

Bakdbksk's Korway and Sweden. 6th Edit. 





inSE*. The «-«St^St *e*\ to 8«*«2*- At length a,^ 

owing to *«£«*« ^^ » ttC0eed ir*J l1 theutmoBtdifflenlty 

? B ^^« ilney ! OUaAe* uo* i*«*£ ^Orw.y with an armf ot 

»w SrS W *ege *« *" a ?£"2* , wh y ew he fell at the 

earVa^of *«**-•** (1718), 1™* •» * e *"ae when his fcTOunte 

minister Go** 1 "^** al>out to conclude a- favourable peace »T 

*«sai»- Brave, chivalrous , and at the Bam e time simple iu ■»*• 

"»HneH » n * irreproachable in conduct, the memory of Oharlea 

is still fondly cherished by the Swedes. The short reign of ***•]! 

tattanx. (Snv&ldatiden) -was now at an end , and we reach a period 

of gre> »ter independence (Frihetttiden ; 1719-92). 

Glasrles XII. 'was succeeded by his sister Clrika Eleonora, who 
^T**h. *l»e consent of the Estates resigned in favour of her husband 
*£»*e«riolK I. , crown-prince of Hessen-Oassel. At the same time 
I* <20;> a new constitution was framed by the Estates. Theaupreme 
Power was vested in the Estates, a priry council consisting of 

xn , «!?£« > ™ ?*■?" < ?" ee npp ° r ol »»«»hers, and a cabinet of nine 

?»e»«»b>«M« ot the privy council, three fromeaeh estate to be nom- 

tw^* * y *"f J^Wf "' The kiS^an^or! r^'as Umited to 

d&f?** n L*?? * cartl «« ^te in case of an equal* 

*e dlf* £ iSfo »«,« w ° aMne * was declared responsible to 

«k <iiot - II1 17la ?«*«« ™» conolndaj _. t j. Tjnriand upon the 

tot^ ^^* ? fBM J men Mdv ^en^*i?|owi«i Prussia, 

*• »hich Stettin and part of Pone^'ulln ceded • then with 

r °l«nd and Z»enmark: and in 170? »nu were woeo, ™"? .. 

detsi^ely caviled 'Nightcap??™ ^^eree. ^ ^*25 *t^MU 

• «itlikep«ty which „o^"^' M « w »«*sor;, or simply 'Caps , *hrie 

»«cordstnce with the eoZ^f* 6 /* 8 known as 'Hats' f****^ 

Jlth Ra » B i., which soon le 8 , / £ **• »•*••*» ^7^?^ 

*«*«, of the queen without iJ" th \ loss of Finland C* 74 *1l ?" »* 

«ottorp , • relation of the V» 88ne ' A-^olphus Frederick of HoMO- 

^ederick's eaocessor, on «£ OWn_ * w »«e of Rnssia, -was elected .m 

grater part o* Finland ^^Woa C p eaoe of Abo ; 1743) that ft. 

^derick's reign was tra».T 0llld *•* restored. The remainder ot 
The prerogatiTes of iv*? 1111 ' "^^ h« die*. In 1761. . ,_ _ 

**»» *necej««or, a.a»kpta.tiB , »xsj»!axle«. **» 

" i 

v Kmitedbythe states. .An attempt on the part ot ^ 
*f «.M him*** led to a*, connrmation o/ the «« tta 
*2£T%** a resolution tHa** a* etamp bearing «?&? 
WM SUim^essed without his consent on document?*?* 
Z fftfSKi (1^6). The court vainly attempt^ 1 

£ yd the king was *«5«y reminded that the States had 
m to depose Mm. In 1757 the 'Hate* recklessly planned in* 
to Seien Y ears* War, and after an iarnoMe campaign peace waa 
cowhded at Hambuig in 1762. Tlie 'Oapi were next in the | 

ascendant, but the party disputes of tlxis period were not con- 
ducive to national progress. ^ _^ — *. »»- 
In 1771 Adolphus was succeeded lry hi* son l*u*t*vu» m., 
who by means of a preconcerted military revolution or eoup-tfitai 
(1772) succeeded in regaining several of the most valuable prero- 
gatftes of the crown, including the sole executive power, whereby 
the government was converted from a mere republic into * Iimit ®d 
monarchy. The king used hie victory with moderation, abolished 
torture , introduced liberty of the press , promoted commerce, 
science , and art, and strengthened the army. On the <**er Hand 
he was extravagant and injudicious , and in 1788 committed tbe 
error of declaring war against Russia without the consent of the 
Estates. His officers refused to obey him , and hie difficulties 
were aggravated hy a declaration of war and invasion of s ^ ed * n 
by the Danes. Gustavus now succeeded , with the aid of the 
middle and lower classes, in effecting a farther change in tfte 
constitution (17981 which gave him the sole prerogative of malt- 
ing war and concluding peace, while the right of acquiring pri- 
vileged landed estates (frahegods) was bestowed on the peasantry. 
An armistice was concluded with Denmark, and the »* **5J£" 
cesstul hostilities with Russia led to the Peace of Warala (1 Wh 
which precluded Russia from future interference with 8™°*** 
affairs. Shortly afterwards, on the outbreak of the ****** *!" 
volution, the king proposed to intervene, together with ** u ""* 
and Austria, in favour of Louis XVI. and proceeded to levy new 
taxes, whereupon the disaffected nobles entered into a no T ™ / 
piracy against him, and in 1792 this chivalrous and en ^ lg ^^pl 
though sometimes til-advised monarch was assassinated oy p 
tain Ankarstrom. — g rv., 
His son Qustcmw Adolphus succeeded him as ^J?^mo«e<mii, 
under the regency of his uncle Dukt CkarUs of S9a \^ 0fk m 
T^J- avoided all participation in the wars of the * e * * * t her, ' and 
1800 Gustavus, in accordance with a scheme of baa * ^ition of 
in conjunction with Russia and Denmark, took U ?*JL England 
armed neutrality, but Denmark having heen ooercea * alliaBCej 
to abandon this position, and RussiahavinR diB» ol Tf5*irla*d. The 
Sweden was also obliged to yield to the demands of ^J^a. his ill- 
king's futile dreams of the restoration of absol** 1 * 1 ^ # 


1XTiU ^iciP»* ion £ ^ ^V^eortc wars led to 

indeed and disastrous *•**££ and Finland, an d to his defeat in 

tne loss of Wismar, * ome '*£;*y **»« *°T * the brink of «*»■ 
Norway (1803-8). The country ^ 8teA> ^ fomally d £ 

Estates caused g^gft^He died in Poverty at St. Oallen in 
Mm and Ma heirs («°£> elected king a* Charles XXH., and a 
1837 His uncle was ^"^^nly on tno *»***» of *"»* of 1772. 
new constitution fr^^Vrederik*** 1 ?? "^Uh Russia (1809}, to 
Peace was concluded at . and tne Ala.i\a Islands were ceded, 

which the whole of ^"Jra-©© (1810), *Uerehy Sweden recovered 
with Denmark, and witn** ^eing olO. ana chadless, Prince 

part of Pomerania. The ^^purg, 8**^tholder of N"orway, was 

Christian Augustus o1 ^** j£ B sudden d.eath in 1810 the Estates 
elected crown-prince, hut of Napoleon's generals, who was 

elected Marshal Bernadotzc, ^ e nam e »* Charles John, and em- 
adopted by Charles, a88 ^ m ® ^he crow**-.p r i nce 'g influence was 
braced the Protestant fal *^ . The lxikewarmness of Sweden 

directed to military organise * ^^ade led to a rupture with 

in maintaining the c ° ntine ^_ ita Napoleon the Swedes concluded 
France, and during the var jv ^ tne foo<ing that the crown ^ 

a treaty with the Russians *VV Sweden (1812). England and ] f 

of Norway should be f* cure * a9B urance, Charles John marched 
Prussia having gi*en the » a ™ Germany and assumed the com- 
witha Swedish *™*f ****££ arm y whieh took part in the de- 
mand of the combined northern ax y TWm«JL*rfnn«'- »-r- 

■fit- > 

man* or tne combinea ™""£" ' cl8 i3). The crown-prince's par- k % 

ciaive struggle » against W^Jj,,^ Wetant one , hut by the J 

ticipation in the war was a somow» _ _ » « . * , -^ 


Norway to Sweden, while Denmark <**•*»* po..e».ionof 
Pomerania and retained Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe.- V» 

The frequent change, which took place during thi. period in ^ 

the Conttitution of Sweden haYe already heen ™**°™*'. A } * 

Th« T>f.n^.h..i VroareM of the country wa» greatly furthered ^ 

by ttWSSS? P^CT^on (d 1534), *^™£ .# 

wrote works on the army, the navy, medicine, an d other subjects ,, 

in the mediaeval style while X*a««ntm8 Petri (d. 1575), Lauren- i5j . 

tiu8 Andrea fd 16521 ' and others translated the Bible into Swedish ^ * 

and wrote Protestant theological works in their natWe tongue. ^ 

P- Petri and his brother Olaus (d. 1552) also wrote Swedish chton- ^ M 

icIeB- Archbishop Johannes Magni was the author of a history of ^ 

th G king a in JL,atin, with a large admixture of the f ahulous ele- ^ 

jSJf 11 ** and Jhis "brother 0*at*« wrote th© often quoted l Hi8tona de ^i 

h 7t 1 ?f! Ua 3e & tontrionalihus' . An eo^ix&lly indiscriminate writer ol ^ 

J&1JZZ? a * d ~ n anthor of dramatic *nd other works, va* Man ^M 

™* S **»'«*C*- 1637). Even Gustav^x* ^iml had heeu anxiou* to x^\ 

?7?l^* thL * X>«ity of his native language, \>ut it ** «* ^ * ifl ^ ** 
tf«« Dt - *!*•* Bcholars intereated tla^mselTeainit. QwenOtos. 
^ ,n «, a talen*oa and learned prin<*o»», was a great pattonegi of 


XI. HISTOBY. lxix 

literature. She inrited foreign savants to her court (Descartes, 
Grotto*, and others), ae> ^ e11 a » n *tWe authors, including Johan 
Bweu«(d. 165^) and the versatile and distinguished Goran Lilje 
(emuiUai as Qtorge Stjemhjekn; d. 1672). At this period, too 
(1658), J<Jn Rugman first called attention to the treasures of 
Icelandic literature, and antiquarian and historical research now 
came into brogue. 8tjcnihdok, the jurist fd. 1675), and Widekindi 
(d.1678), VerdUu (d. 1682), Fertrfttf(d. 1697), Rudbeck(&. 1702), 
andPcfinjf«kioW(d. 1720), the historians, were meritorious writers 
of a limilaT tendency. Hitherto German influence had preponderated 
in Sweden, hut about the middle of the 18th cent, a preference 
began to be shown for the French style. To this school belong 
Olof t>onDaltn(d. 1763), the poet and historian, and Count Tessin 
(d. 1770), a meritorious art-collector; and among ** J** 01 ™ of 
the same period were Lagerbring, the historian (d. 1787), Jofton 
{K the philologist (d. 1780), and above all Karl von Linni {d. 
1778), the famous botanist. The 'Vitterhets Akademi, or acad- 
emy of belles-lettres', founded in 1753 was extended by «™*»- 
™HI. so as to embrace history and antiquities, and he also 
founded the Swedish Academy. To the academic school belonged 
KeUgren (d. 1795) and Leopold (d. 1829); out a ^^P ^" 
W poet, and one who repudiated all the traditions of French jaste 
was BelUnan (d. 1795)^0 singer of sweet and simp e ballads 
whose 'Fredmans Epistlar' was deemed worthy o£lg™ eTen * y 
the Academy, and whose memory i* still fondly cherished. 

The Continued Union of Horway with J? 6 ™*^ 
When 8wedeil ^^ from ^.^^ / ^ ( 5S2n£ 
wax at first remained faithful to ChmUan ££. kin 

We procured the election of ^ r ^ nc ^^ ^re-elect Ohris- 

Protestant tendencies induced the N °™* lft ** eared in Norway 
t\anll. ln 1M1 when deposed king appea ^ ^^ 

with an army, but he was treacherously arree* y^^ ^^ 
year and ended his life in captive (*ee p. *% _ e objects of the 
regained Norway and continued to P roBeonio ^ 11 ty and the Pro- 
Reformation till his deAh fi533). The ^ christian m. 
testant party in Denmark elected Ms eldest » y ^nder Lim g e 
as his successor, and the southern half of W°. BceSf which cost 
acquiesced. A rebellion nt the northern p*JT ^ n0 had headed 
Lunge his life, was q Ue iW and the archhi^g^^stian III. had 
it was obliged to quit thT' country. In 163» jjftnish province, 
promised the Danes to convert Norway into * ^erwiw partially 
and he now abolished thil^mnoil of state an* « permeated the 
kept his word. The do«f ^eTof the Reforn**£*° monasteries and 
«^ ^ ^j? £«^V*ml***L of «*£ ^ith great zeal, 
confiscation of chuich * J^^rty ^* re V"*° ent ?n& * h * * *** 

The Norwegian towns *oW?£Zd *> P«V» * 

»o w began 


c o**try to improve, while ^ * y *^^ J**»^ 

Ration of others. At the aame time *• "^mSo J* **** 
pressed by Frederick's offtciala , and he himself Tint* foUli . 
Sly The sole benefit conferred by him on Norway was t»° „ 

* -*ion of Fredrikstad near the mined town of Sarpsborg. , 4, 

d * ffls son Christian IV. (1588-1648), on the other hand, tl8lW£ 
_ t: ay Y ery frequently and was indefatigable in his reforms. &* , ^ 

JTmA to grant fiefs in future to nobles who were not aatires oi ,* 

r ^Tlv fl596), and he promulgated a Norwegian code (1604J, ^ 

No rV%ras * revised edition of the laws of 1274 translated into ^ 

**H He also published an ecolesiastieal eode (1607), and took *^ 

D * i*ic measures to exclude Jesuits from the country. At the ^ 

energy ^ army va8 imprOTedj teade wa8 favoured, the w 1 ™*- %at, 

it Kongsberg (1624) and the copper-mines of Reros (lb4DJ 


controXl^*^ r War ^itb Sweden (1611-13), during which the peas- 
the K*- 1 *^-^ their f anions victory over the Scottish auxiliaries 
antry ^f* t Ramsay at Kringlen (p. 67), and still more by those 
°/ lder SrZirtJ Yeare' War, in which Christian participated (1625- 
1fio he A. second war with Sweden (1643-45) terminated with the 
1o 29). -^ ^ jemtland and Herjedalen from Norway. 
8ev era** ^^isasters befell Norway in the reign of his son Fred- 
. #ew*^ f J.648-70). The result of the participation of Denmark: 

iiS* 1 ^*^ in the Swedi *h-Polish war was that Norway finally 
Jo ? * f o* r ****?'x#*i Idre » and Sana. During this war Halden earned ** 

for .* ***^*JT;i*« new name o£ Fredrikshald by the bravery of its de- 3l m 

/e^i^eX^ r^laeae misfortunes, however, led to a rupture witn the -M, 

e*f e *« - "^etem of government. On ascending the throne Fred- *•% 

I? u **^" -^ ^ig ned * P l «dge which placed him in the power of the l %] 

oh- 4^*** ^>«at during the ware the incompetency of the council of %^ 

ti^tyr^ - *&*e « ner «y of the king and citizens in defending Copen- J'lfa 

» a^P- ^-^a greatly raised him in the publio estimation. At a diet % ^ 

& e *l, J^^m^^er&t&s* ^ 1660 the indignation of the clergy and JW 

a ' ^^"^ ainst the nobility burst forth , and they demanded the H{J I 

Its oppressive privileges. It was next dicovered that %„' I 

jriven by the king was subversive of all liberty and \^ M \ 

e king and the lower Estates proceeded to declare the S^ \ 

, the throne hereditary, and Frederick was empowered %* ^ ; 

constitution. The result was that he declared the k ^ < 






kiag alone to be invested with soTeveiffii and absolute po^^-^^. 

to this document he succeeded prW«toly in procuring tl*^ » a^ 

tares of most of the members of th<o dLi«*. This declaration* *>-■***»*-. 

law in i66i, but was not actually promulgated till 1709^ 5fc***« 
great changes were on ihe wholo !>©n«neial to Norway *«*, 
country was at least now placed, on an o<jnality "with Dennaa^fr A;? 
the strict bureaucratic administration wia* preferable to the old 
eTils of local tyranny and indiwidna* caprice. The mnpreme 
authority now consisted of the heads of the Are government de- 
partments, presided oyer by the hing , and the feudal U>rda with 
theii local jurisdictions were Teplacod \vy crown offlciala. 

Frederick's son Christian T. (1670-99) was n< J*. un *iU5cessful 
intheSkane war against Sweden C 16T5 " T9 ^ *» AS 4 *' m «>rit 
as regards Norway was the promulgation of a code (lo87), based 
on the Danish code of 1683, and of a chnrch ritual for both coun- 
tries. The creation of the new eoxrntiea or earldoms of Laurvigand 
Tensherg, afterwards balled Jarisherg, and of the barony of Ro teil _ 
dal were unproductive of benefit to Norway. "« unjust treat- 
ment of his minister Qrifenfeld, who for a trivial offence suffered 
a cruel imprisonment for 22 years , forms a hl«* °n this ki Bg ' B 
memory. . .. __ 

Christian V. was succeeded hy hie «on Fredsrisk IV. (1699 _ 
1730), in wh»ee reign was waged the great northern war , n wMcll 
the Norwegian naval hero Peter Vessel (ennobled nna „ r the name 
of TofdenakjoWO took a prominent part. The sole gain to Den- 
mark by the Piace of Fredrikehorg (1^) ™JJ» ^J?^* 1 ** * 
hy Sweden of its immunity from Sonnd dnes. J he ^ ln ,f^ 8Da,lded 
Ms nuances, bnt often procured ^^^ ^l^SS^^^^ 

Uws so embittered the Norwegians that l^^^^J^SX 
aetuallypjopose^ an \ ^ 


™ftWsly7n7wted with Glrm7n>nritanism, ^£"^J V £^ \*\ 
utmost rigidity of church observance* /£«*« used for reviving 
wldry amusements. Among the "^M^Lent that 8. Norway 
trade in Denmark was an oppress!™ enao* country> T^e fleet, 
should draw its sole corn supplies I* 01 * * J«ilitia organised , **** 
howcm, was strengthened , an efneie nt m ^ h e «*«£- 

education promoted. A Ion* pe* co f *T°^any' ft*"** 4 itt *^* 9 
nierce and navigation, and the 'Black Company 

furtherea manufacturing industry- ^-tun the grievous «^~3r £ 
In the reign of Frederick ▼. C* 74 ^^ieience were zea^owiy 
Puritanism came to an end and *r* *** 




rated. A mining school was founded at Kongsberg , and a 
dinatical school at Ohristiania, and at Trondhjem a useful 
tiflc society was established by Qunncru*, Scheming, and 
i, a learned Dane (1760-67). The frontier between Norway 
Sweden was measured and defined (1759), facilities were 
ted to commerce , and skilled miners introduced from Ger- 
Gomplioations with Russia connected with the affairs of 
ig caused severe financial losses to Denmark and Norway, 
he increased taxation provoked a revolt at Bergen , which, 
ver, was soon quelled (1763). Notwithstanding these draw- 
ls Norway prospered under the absolute monarchy, while Den- 
languished. The king in Denmark , being separated from 
ower classes by a wealthy and influential aristocracy, was 
Le effectually to redress their grievances, and they still groan- 
ider the evils of serfdom and compulsory service. With the 
ption of Copenhagen, the towns were almost equally oppressed, 
in 1769 the whole population of Denmark did not exceed 
)00 souls. In Norway, on the other hand, the peasantry en- 
L freedom, the towns had thrown off the oppressive Hanseatio 
, and feudal jurisdictions were abolished, while complaints ^ 

ist officials were addressed to the king in person. A class of e . 

e officials had also sprung up, affording an additional element *? v/ 

curity. While the population had numbered 450,000. only in \ ^ 

, it rose to 723,000 in 1769. Within the same period the :t "y 

ber of Norwegian ships had increased from 50 to 1150. ^ ' 

peasantry had benefited greatly by the sale of the crown- - ^ e: 

es, and the trade of Norway now far surpassed that of Den- ' [ ^)- 

. At the same time frequent intercourse with England and ?&% 

- foreign countries served to expand the Norwegian mind f^tm 

to prepare the way for a period of still greater enlightenment ^tf* 

prosperity. "^ttvi 

>uring the long reign of the imbecile Christian VII. (1766- 4 ^ abg 

) his authority was wielded by his ministers. Stnunsec, his '^ia 

lan physician, was the first of these. His measures were those S^Urli 

i enlightened absolutism. He simplified judicial prooedure, J^u go- 

shed torture, excluded the laokeys of noblemen from publio T^^st 

is, deprived the aristocracy of their privileges, bestowed lib- r^U 

on the press, and husbanded the finances. The peremptory >n ^\ 

aer in which these and other reforms were introduced gave ,^°%j 

, offence, particularly as Struensee took no pains to conceal ^Qsen 

ontempt for the Danes. Christian's stepmother accordingly J^inij 

lised a conspiracy against him, and he was executed in 1772. ^dtk 

mccessor was Ove Quldbtrg, a Dane, who passed a law that *Ka&/ 

38, Norwegians, and Holsteiners alone should be eligible for ^fotm* 

;o vernment service, and resoinded Struensee's reforms (1776). \{jJ' 

T80 an attitude of armed neutrality introduced by the able **%• 

it Bernstorff gave a great impulse to the shipping trade, but ''^Mni 

XI, HJJ3TOBT. Jxxiil 

the finances of the country were rained. Xn 1784 tie Cro*n- 
prtncc Frederick assumed the conduct of affair© witli Bernstorff as 
Mb minister, whereupon a more liberal, and for Norway in partic- 
ular a more favourable era began. The corn-trade of S. Norway 

I"-""""* "> bix rears later Napoleon's bo!mm»» «»* »o»-» -™™««. . 
fleet ag»l Mt 0reilt Blitaill le / to 4 aec<m a. ***»olc on Copenhagen 
wd it. .bombardment hr ft0 Blltuh fleet which r edited .n the 
SSmV*" whole DanUh •»* Norwegian fleet to Great Britain 
(1807). Denmark, allied with France, **«»» declared war both 
HMMtftreatBritato and Sweden (18081, and »lmo"« •* *»« same 
period Christian died 

att^S herein a desperate condition. T*» e " *„ t nrin* ». 
m^ T? e 00,mfa y. »"* ^tented themaelve* wxtk «•£"««•» 

•^ie e or ntoy * "T^ •" ito — .F2X; «S£i. » "t 

ita i lilEw- f ***« mone y * e government -»r»» •SJTo-v Meanwhile 
Norway'^ ^ d ^ WWl tMf ^^^i* Presided over b, 

A 8te T n h ded ?* 'S ** "^ by *C wealth o/thl 
WehL , mde P endenco of the P eM ** E * ry A.i! war against Swe- 
den nah,l » d *» 8U0ceM of thelr countr y itt S^rtglii a proud 
»en 8e o^ 5 ' cte ** ed in the mind " of tUe ^Wle the liberality 
of thei, i Uperi0ltU5r over ^ unh »PPy Danes, "**," at iU groani n>t 
und» J 16 ,* 8 *Wened the breach with a «°J XI1 ; r *,f Norway' w a f 
ffde^ 80 ^ m - A ' Sooiet * for th * WeW<U w armly advocated" 
P»mc»U ? ^ and a Union with Sweden Sf ^ ^Jarleberg. T^ 
Dan »? y by ^ tinted Count Heanan ^® de i conciliate th« 
Nor»«.- 80venmen t made • ome Y * in attempt® - » university &t 
Chri.*,- ?V 8 for example by the foundation J°* Dao k as 166l 

*5ft?S* C18 *^ whioh had teen P ro P°r Vece^»ry funds. & 
eonclnJi" orwe 8 l "is themselves provided the" Swe den obtai Qed 
fteir em, 8 * tre »»y with the Russians in 181^. ° and at th e p e » 
°* Kiel ifo,* itB future *naexation of ^or«ray. ake the ceagion 

Fl ederick «. the Danes were com P ell . ed *? r om * heir " Ue « 1 M>c« 
to hi m * "'Weupon released the Norwegians »°"* ^liioh had sub- 

sifted f«, ^ ttnl <>n of Norway with I> enma if ( ,aolved. 

The i*? 016 than four oenturies, was thu» d f?f on to the end of 
«>e uni.rr'^tttre of Norway from the Reform"? Aa translator 
of old 2 £ ,n8 ep»t»We from that of ^^"f^ned *■ **«»»*<* 

Cd. 1596W 8 ^ l »»" » nd 8 »« M may ^"S the l*** er *" Wto *e 
bJ and -P- C. frii, (d. 1614), of whom the 

lxxiv XI. HISTORY. 

Interesting works on Norwegian tonography and natural history in 
his native dialect. A. Pederscn (d. lo74), of Bergen , was the 
author of a description of Norway and of the 'Capitulary of 
Bergen'. The historian and topographer J. Bamus (d. 1718) and 
the poet Peter Doss (d. 1708), the still popular author of Word- 
lands Trompet', were also natives of Norway, while T. Torfctus 
(d. 1719) , a famous historian of Norway, was an Icelander. By 
far the most important author of this period was Lwlvig Holberg 
of Bergen (d. 1754), the poet and historian, whose 'Peder Paars', 
Subterranean Journey of Nils Klim*, and comedies have gained 
him a European reputation. Among later poets and authors O. B, 
Tullin (d. 1765), J. H. Vessel (d. 1785). C. Fatting (d. 1791), 
E. Storm (d. 1794), T. At Stockfleth (d. 1808), J. N. Brun (d. 1816), 
J. Zctlitz(&. 1821), and C. Friman (d. 1829) are noted for the 
national character and individuality of their writings , which are 
uninfluenced by the French and German taste then prevalent in 
Denmark. This national school was partly indebted for its origin 
to the foundation of the 'Norske SelskaV at Copenhagen in 1772, 
while the 'L»rde Selskab' of Trondhjem , founded by Gunnerw, 
the naturalist (d. 1773), and Scheming, the historian (d. 1780), 
promoted scientific research. On the whole, notwithstanding 
the want of good national schools, the Norwegian literature of this 
period ranks at least as high as the Danish. 

Union of Sweden and Worway. 

After the Peace of Jonkoping in 1809 Norway was governed by 
Prince Frederick of Hessen and afterwards by Christian Frederick, 
cousin of King Frederick and heir to his throne. Christian was a 
popular prince, and even after the terms of the Peace of Kiel had 
been adjusted he made an effort to secure the sovereignty of the 
country for himself. He summoned an assembly of notables to 
Eidsvold (Feb., 1814), stated the terms of the Peace of Kiel, which 
had not yet been published, and declared that he would assert his 
claim in spite of it. The assembly denied the right of the King 
of Denmark to hand over Norway to Sweden , but also declined to 
recognise the prince's hereditary claim. They, however, appointed 
him regent until a national diet should be summoned to consider 
the state of affairs. The King of Sweden promised the Norwegians 
a liberal constitution if they would submit to his authority ; but 
his offer met with no response, the country eagerly prepared to 
assert its independence , and a temporary government was con- 
stituted. On 10th April, 1814, the representatives of the country 
met at Eidsvold , a constitution framed chiefly by K. M. Falsen 
(d. 1830) was adopted on 17th May, and on the same day Christian 
Frederick was proclaimed king. Count Wcdcl-Jarlsberg, the most 
far-seeing of the Norwegian statesmen , who had urged a union 
with Sweden, was overruled on this occasion , but his object was 

XI. HISTORY. lxxv 

soon afterwards attained. About the end of Jane ambassadors of 
the guaranteeing powers , Russia , Britain , Austria, and Prussia, 
arrived at Christiania to demand fulfilment of the Peaee of Kiel 
and to recall the regent in the name of the King of Denmark. 
After fruitless negotiations and the outbreak of a war with Swe- 
den , which was terminated by the Convention of Moss on 14th 
August, the Swedish regent temporarily recognised the new Nor- 
wegian constitution, and Christian summoned a Storthing to meet 
at Christiania in October, to which he tendered his resignation, 
and immediately afterwards set sail for Denmark. He afterwards 
reigned over Denmark as Christian VIII. (1839-48). During the 
same month the Storthing, though not without reluctance, affirmed 
the principle of union with Sweden, and several modifications were 
made in the Eidsvold constitution, and on 4th November Charles 
(XIII. of Sweden) was unanimously proclaimed king. On 10th 
November the crown-prince Charles John solemnly ratified the 
constitution at Christiania. With pardonable national pride, how- 
ever, the Norwegians still observe the 17th of May, 1814 , as the 
true date of their political regeneration. 

At first as regent, and after the death of Charles XIII. (1818) 
as King of Norway (1818-44), Charles John or Charles XIV. had a 
difficult task to perform in governing two kingdoms to which a 
few years previously he had been an entire stranger, and with 
whose languages he was imperfectly acquainted. The internal 
affairs of both countries were, moreover, in an abnormally unsettled 
condition, and their finances were well-nigh ruined, while foreign 
states looked askance at the parvenu king and his almost repub- 
lican kingdom of Norway. In 1815, however, the legislative au- 
thorities of the two kingdoms drew up a formal Act of Union, 
placing the connection of the countries on a satisfactory basis. By 
the sale of the island of Guadeloupe to England the king was 
enabled to pay part of the national debt of Sweden, and he adopted 
other wise financial measures. Among other serious difficulties 
was that of calling in the unsecured Danish banknotes still cir- 
culating in Norway, a task which occasioned heavy sacrifices, and 
at the same time a bank was founded at Trondhjem (1816). In 
1821 a new burden was imposed by the unlooked for liability of 
Norway for part of the national debt of Denmark, while the intro- 
duction of a new educational system and other reforms wSs attended 
with great expense. About this period the king displeased his 
democratic Norwegian subjects by opposing their abolition of titles 
of nobility (1821), by attempts to enlarge the prerogatives of the 
crown and to obtain for it the absolute right to veto the resolutions 
of the Storthing (1824), by appointing Swedish governors of Nor- 
way, and by yielding to what were considered the unjust demands 
of Great Britain in consequence of a fracas at Bod*. On the other 
hand, by rigid economy, sound administration, and the legalised 

author 0/ dl ; le °t- A. *■*»•»£* *„« «* !*L fd. i7 *<l£&- 
*e poet P ? 6 hi «o*t»n and ^f***till l*>P al -hite *• Torf M 

'« tie mn',,* . /wno «s historian ^^f^iod ^/Sd5rl»"»/ 

na «°»alci. ra cte*i' d a ^ di %idTiality of their ~"" B .f ^evalent » 

Denmark. „£ S^^ri Bohool was partly indebted ^fW l773t 
*« tie tonndatioiTol the «Nor»ke Selskab' «t O*^**^*— Jf 
J* "• the We Sel^ab' of Trondhjem , landed by 0*. **»* 
*• naturalist fa ±Y731 and flak****, the W^^hKtonding 

eri«T" ° f «° oA ntt£nT.cnools, the tfarweg..* literature 
««od rank, at least as high »■ * he Danish. 

-Union of Sweden and Wo*w*y. ^^ 4 b y 

.After the Peace of JonkSping in 1809No^»y^ « ^. rf( . Wcjfc , 
ince Frederick of Hessen and afterwards by <*"*^J?Z wa s . 
nam of King Frederick and heir to his throne. OT „; Kiel had 
pillar prince, and even after the terms of the Feace . °\_ of t fc e 
en adjusted ne made an effort to secure the wvereign*y « to 
mtryforhimself. He summoned an assembly of no ta. »« . 
isvold (Fe"l>. , ± 814), stated the terms of the Peace of Kiel, J"" . 
1 not yet been published, and declared that he would »? 8e " " 
m in spite off it. The assembly denied the right of *"?*"£ 
Denmark to :fa.aiid over Norway to Sweden , but also declmea w» 
>gnise the prince'i hereditary claim. They, however, appointed 
regent until a. national diet should be summoned to consider 
state of affairs. The King of Sweden promised the Norwegians 
eral cons titntion if they would submit to his authority; but 
'ffer net -vwi-flx no response, the country eagerly prepared to 
tits independence, and a temporary government was con- 
«d. On lOtb April, 1814, the representatives of the country 
t EidBVold. , a constitution framed chiefly by K. M. Fatten 
301 -was adopted on 17th May, and on the same day Christian 
•iek yrsL» proclaimed king. Count Wedel-Jarlsberff, the most 
sing 1 of *■** « Worwegian statesmen , who had urged a union 
weden, -wslb overruled on this occasion , but his object was 


1 If 




afterwards attain**- Aboo* «* mm & ot Jnne amh 

, BV ^aranteeing poirert, «u 88 ia , Britain , Ad^«, andi?? * <* 
anWei at Chriatiania to demand falfllment of the IW^ w,a » 
W 4 to recall the regent in the netme o/ ilia King of D^ Kiel 
After fraitless negotiations and «*© outbreak of a war with «***' 
den, which -was terminated hy ^no Convention of Mom on fT 6 " 
August, the Swedish regent temporarily recognifed the new jv 
wegian constitution, and Christian sommoned a Storthing to ni *~ 
atChristianiain October, to whioh ho tendered his resignatfo* 
and immediately afterwards set sail for Denmark. He after****?' 
reigned ever Denmark as Christian "VTII. (1839-48). During «? 8 
game month the Storthing, though not without reluctance, affirmed 
the principle of union with Sweden , and several modifications wer 
made in the Eidsvold constitution, and on 4th Novemher Charlef 
(XIU. of Sweden) was unanimously proclaimed Icing. On i(w 
November the crown-prince Charles John solemnly ratified the 
constitution at Chriatiania. With pardonable national pride, how- 
ever, the Norwegians still observe the 17th of May, 1814, as the 
true date of their political regeneration. 

At first as regent, and after the death of Charles XI II. (1818) 
as King of Norway (1818-44), Charles John or Charles XIV. had a 
difficult task to perform in governing two kingdoms to which a 
few years previously he had been an entire stranger, and with 
whose languages he was imperfectly acquainted. The internal 
affairs of both countries were, moreover, in an abnormally unsettled 
condition, and their finances were well-nigh rained, while foreign 
states looked askance at the parvenu king and his almost repub- 
lican kingdom of Norway. In 1815, however, the legislative au- 
thorities of the two kingdoms drew up a formal Act ef Union, 
placing the connection of the countries on a satisfactory basis. By 
the sale of the island of Guadeloupe to England the king was 
enabled to pay part of the national debt of Sweden, and he adopted 
other wise financial measures. Among other serious difficulties 
was that of calling in the unsecured Danish banknotes still cir- 
culating in Norway, a task which occasioned heavy sacrifices, and 
at the same time a bank was founded at Trondhjem (1816). In 
1821 a new burden was imposed by the unlooked for liability of 
Norway for part of the national debt of Denmark:, while the intro- 
duction of a new educational system and other reforms was attended 
with great expense. About this period the king d * g j£f *!* , ™ 
democratic Norwegian subjects by W>osing Aeir abolition of titles 
of nobility (1821)? by attempts to enlatie the P^^| atlTe ^tion! 
crown and to obtain for it the a^ol^Sht to veto the ™°™*»* 

W bv i^f m ca3tt8e< * uen <* of a fracas »* Bod 5 "a the legalised 
fcand, hy ri^d economy, sound administration, *** 


h (873 Charles »■» "* c «*« s «»«i«»«I I>y- his brother, , 1b 
Jo^V'BW^r^' e »**»we«l like hi. f.«, er .„*««« 

Sr"a^id*«^*"**'or .oi«nc», poetry, Md ™ »' 
Miltiiilly and intellectually hie. kingdom* n «™ recently ''"■ 
nditiidei. Latterly the radical sand repnHiou movement *.? 
pint! considerable ground m Norwuy, where it Jiu tee,, 4ec0ni _ 
iisie&bytstiongultTa-nstionaliBtf© ap>irft, Tttrealing lUeltltigoi, 
(DiiBYoliionof feeling against tin union with Sweden. 

In both kingdoms the field of Td.*mxm*ur* nis been moat iedo- 
Mly cultivated during tie present century. In Swbdsh there 
niited m academic and a neutral aobool, both of which , as tor 
tumple Fronien [d. 18*7), were more or leu influenced by 
French tute, while m romantic ichool -with flenuMi procliriu e , 
«lled 'PhosphorUtt' from their 'Phosphorus' periodical, wn ^J 
presented by HammartkoUl (&.. 1827} , AUerbom (d. 1865), a^d 
FalmlLod (d. 1861). Akin to the latter, but of more realistic and 
in miic national tendency, ia the ao-called 'Crotisk' school, to 
■kich belong the eminent historian E. G. OtiJer(d. 1&* 7 ), the 
jrett poet Eiotoe Ityfter (d. 1846), and the poet, and inventor of 
the Swedish system of sanitary gymnastics, P. H. Ling (d. 1839); 
An isolated position , on the other hand , is occupied by K. J. L. 
AbnqvUt(i. 1866), in author of fertile imagination, but perni- 
cious moral tendencies. To the highest class of modern Swedish 
in thorn belongs the patriotic Finn , J. L. Buneberg (d. l 877 )i °f 
whose noble and genial poetry 'FSnrllc Sttl's Signer' afford in 
admirable eiunple. Ae popnlar authoresses, though inferior to 
some of their above-mentioned contemporaries, we may mention 
Frederico Bremer (d. 1865) and Emilie Flygare-CarUn (d. *™> 
Pre-eminent among scientific men are J. J- Btneltus, U 
(4. 1848), E. Me,, the botanist [d. 1878), K. A. Afford 
taniet and statistician (d. 1859), and Sven Vfiwon, the 
zoologist and antiquarian (d. 1883). Among modern 
may oe mentioned A. M. Stramholm (fl. 1862), A. 2 
1881;), f. F. Cordon (d. 1887), S. 0. MalmitrSm, C. 1 
B. Beuterdol (church history-, d. 1870), and C. J. «! 
history)-, u) Q to this period also belong B. E. Hilde 
1884) and R. Dybcek , the antiquarians , J. E. Bid* j < 
legist (d. 1868), and C. J. BoifrSm (d. 18*56), tne pn 

In NonwiT, whose literature since 1814 has a 

distinct national individuality , and though written 
has adopted a considerable number of words an* ld *° 
>ar to the country, the poeta fl. fferoeland (d. 184&J 
haven (d. 1873) „ e0U py the foremosYrank. ° f ^n 
poets and n ,el iat8 B } em.t} tmc B} m ^ t0 A, ****£ 
£«, aud Aknmj* KJdland, the two fonne* *» F*2 
«"•* •«U-Mriteu deputation tZ beyond** J** 1 


n (d. 1829), C. Hanstten , the astronomer (d. 1873) , and 
j (d. 1869) and Ms son O. &ors, the naturalists. Eminent 
ns are A. ffisyter (d. 1864), P. A. JHtincfc (d. 1863), C. C. 
pe (d. 1861), and the still living O. Rygh, E. Sars, L. Daae, 
Storm; distinguished jurists, A. M. Schwcigaard (d. 1870), 
ndt, and T. H. Aschehoug; philologists, S. Bugge, C. R. 
J. Storm, and the lexicographer Ivar Acucn  meritorious 
>rs of national traditions, M. B. Landstad ) J. Mot (d. 1882), 
ticularly P. C. Atbjtrnttn (d. 1885), H. Steffens, the phi- 
ir and poet (d. 1845), and C, Lassen , the Sanscrit scholar 
6), were Norwegians who spent the greater part of their 
l Germany. 

tly, in the province of Art, we may mention the Norwegian 
s Tidemand (d. 1876), Ddhl y Morten MulUr, and Qudt (b. 
and the Swedish sculptors Bystrom (d. 1848), Fogelbcrg 
4), and Molin (d. 1873), but a glance at the galleries of 
)lm and Ckristiania will show that the list might easily be 

Chronological Table. 


Ynglingar Line. 
Haarfager . . . (7)860-933 

)d*ks 930 

Adelstensf ostre , *ihe 


Sraafeld . . . . (?)96i-975 

Jarl (7)975 

rggvaaon 996 

1 Svejn, Jarler . . . 1000 

raldssjra, 'the Saint' . 1015 

nutssjro 1090 

Olafeajn, 'the Good' . 1035 

SigurdsBjm Hardraade 1046 

raldssfn Kyrre . . • 1066 

OlafBsjra Barfod . . 1093 

gnnssjpn .... 1103-16 

Magnusstfn . . . 1103-22 

rorsalafarer . . . 1103-30 

Sigurd8S*n Blinde 1130-35 
KagnuBstfn Gille . 1190-36 
laraldssfn Mund . 1136-55 
raldssjn Krokryg . 1186-61 
Haraldssfn .... 1142 
Signrdss/m Herdebred 1157 
Erlingasjrn .... 1161 

UgnrdBBjrn .... 1177 

Sverressjm .... 1202 

SigardtMm .... 1204 

trdBBirn 1204 

Haakon8B*n, ( the Old' 1217 


Ragnar LodbroV* Line. 

Brie 'VII.' Sejersel . . . (d.)996 
Olaf Skftkonung 995 

Annnd (Onund) Jakob . 


Emund SI em me (7)1060 

SienkiVs Line. 

Stenkil (7)1056 

Inge I. Stenkilsson .... 1066 

Philip HallBtensBon . 
Inge HallstenB8on 

. 1111-19 

. (7)1111-28 

Sverker" » Line. 
Sverker Eolason 1132 

Eric IX. Jed vardason/ the Saint' 1150 

Karl VII., Sverkersson . . 1160 

Knnt Eriksson 1167 

Sverker Karlsaon 1195 

Erio X. Enntaaon .... 1210 
Johan Sverkersson .... 1216 
Eric XI., Eriksson Lsespe 1222 


MigiwwHaaiLoiiMimliaea*** 6 * Jgg3 

EricKagnnasgii J;5S? 

BiJkoaV., Magnusssm • • J* 9 ® 

I^nua RrikS8#n, 'Smelt' • • 1319 

Hukon VI., Magirasssta . . 1366 

OUfHaakonsstfii, 'the Young' 1381 

aa JLadaJ, 

Mwgaret, 'Valdemarsdatter' . 1387 


Brie of Pomerania .... 

Christopher of Bavaria 
Christian I. . . 

• • 

Christian II. 

Frederick I. . 
Christian m 
Frederick n.' 





Christian IV 1588 

Frederick III 1648 

Christian V. 
Frederick IV 
Christian VI* 
Frederick V.' 


Christian Vn 1766 

Frederick VI . 
Christian Frederick ! 
Charles (XHI.) 

Claries (X IV.) ionn! 

S^l,! 3 ^ : : •' 


l 8mek y 
Albert of Mecklenburg? * 




of Pomerania . . 
KzratMon, Administrator 
Christopher of Bararia . . 
Karl VIII., Knutason . . 

Christian I. . , 

Xmrl VIII., Knutsaon . . . j 
Sten Store, Administrator . j 

Svante JfllBaon ...... i 

Sten Stare the Younger . . ± 
Christian II ± 

The Vasa Line. 
Gfrustawus Vasa 1 


Brie XIV. . . . 
John III 

Sigismund . . . 
Charles IX. . . . 
Gnatavus Adolphus 
Christina .... 

Oharles XI. 

Palatinate Line. 





Charles XII 

Frederick of Hessen . . 

HoltUin Line. 
Adolphua Frederick . • 



GnataYua III JI 

Gustavus IV J2 

Charles XIII 18( 

Bernadotte Family. 


Charles XIV. • • « III 184 

Oscar I i«5 

Charles XV. . . • • • * ; Jgj 

Oscar II * 


*>d the Sajtrrsdal. 

,- „ ^#xA to 

j^ J rf 5J«e«t»4 to the Lyaefjord 

S 3 " V^O'* * .£ ^ *™ A »i»niir»i toDaleaoi Ibe B.nd.M 

' «Uw*V* ***«* sii*»i»V»id ! !!!!!"!!! 

f^W^ 1 . ,ir.^»nd to OhrlstlanU 

) tbe Ha. iul afford ill Drammen and 

 Kroeklove* an* In* Henefos . . . 

* aaltflord 

g. > St. OUrfd-Bad, 23. — Blngknlle . . 

,) Hougtund to the Hardanger Fjord 

ii tlte Rjukaofoa 

to the Jomknul. LalnofM 

i Blij ord ; to Dalo in tbe Maanelvdal . 

B to the Hardanger Fjord via Skien, 

C"' C***"" *C»n»l, and theHankelifjcld. . . . 

«**<eV«^S5w w A * end »' 

' ** o» *" \»««* to tbe Hardanger Fjord through the 

* i» »**! ,,. n \» through the HaMngdal to Lardals- 

'-S^S&SsSi--: :::::::::: 

A*"*" j((e» „ the Valderf 

^j, 6 ^ f tUf>» through the Valders to Laidalswon 

a ' *„ *« **" e ^irluen to Ftidenlorid ! '.'.'.'.'. ', 

° Via Jj, o,nd8ljora to Odnica, and thenoe by oar- 


Pm , ',S» 8 "' P1 ™' 

jt(« o1 .aitngeii in the Gndbrandadal to Marok on 

9 - ^!Ge w * D i M b) ft* HlndMter and" Jotunheiai *..'.. 

po» Sitii to U« Tafjori 

\ \ ^^Uto theStrvnavand 


fc aaa***- 


1 11. From Domau 

to tfco Gndl>i» n( 
.(Ttoitdhjem) • 

° v or the Do.ra- 

rom Aane to Bnn&alt0reu . •  

too. An»«jjere to Tmuwtt . . . . 

n Bjertciker to 0TkedalMren . 

_. From OtartstUnU to TrondWom by ft-it J to 

^LS^SSS Md *• *Wil 

^h I?' or P»rt' 

g Oplandj Tiirlat- 
ou. Several fine. 
allay to the grert 

a handsome new 

''•VS ... for e ao i p'„V ,r i er ««•».&„... 
»ilj  I \""£Z u L t ZS* r *""*'> * *°- Commiom, Jfr. UrdM 

^■f&i™!* 11 * ' aioept Sundna, to 
u -> and once or twVoo a* 

- to Ar««lrt itl 
ftsAVy to »<*», 


Christian***, with ^,800 iniab., ii»e J*r^e«i to w n 0n A 
coast of Noway and &f J*** d «nce of one or the u FO #*'*< 
ti*p, was founded W X** 1 ****** XV. 0/ X>enm«rl in i^ 6 * 
is dutifully situated on tne Ghri*tUx*%*<*i**s-*yord t a little +n " 
w. of the month of the Oiteroa, or TorriscUils-Elv. Half th^L 
ws destroyed by fire in 1892, but it has since been rebuilt 7 ' 
bM& intersect at right angles. It has an excellent harbour ' 
wMchall the coasting steamers and. others from England, Sootlai 
Germany, and Denmark touch regularly. Near the centre of t 
town, surrounded hy pleasant promenades, is the Cathedral, rebu • 
in the Gothic style after its destruction by fire in i860. It conta? 
an altar-piece (Christ at Emmaus) by Bill/ Petersen. — To the 
is a wooden bridge leading across the Otters* to the church of c 
dernm and the Hamrthei, a good point of view. 

The Enthlonb are picturesque. One of the favourite wa] 

(1 hr. theie and back) is on the Otter j&^ a rocky and partially wood 

island at the E. end of the Strand-Gade , about Bmin. from t 

hotels (ferry 6 e.). The baths (p. 2) lie to the right. The path 

a straight direction passes the Seamen's Hospital and leads roa: 

the island (40 min.), commanding beautiful views. The high* 

point of the island is the *Kikud (356 ft/), the tower on which affor 

a fine panorama. ■— On theN.W. side of the town is the Bane) 

with promenades. — On the Mandal road, on the TV. side of t) 

town , 8/ 4 j|. from the hotels, lies the pretty Cemetery, whi. 

contains the graves and monument of the Danes who fell in tJ 

naval battle of Heligoland (1864). "We may ascend to the le 

through the cemetery to BeUevue (rfmts.; band on Sun., 11. SH 

i.w). Opposite the cemetery (to the right) a path ascending t\ 

hill leads to the (20 min.) *Ravnedal, a wooded and grassy dale, < 

the (i/ 4 hi.) upper end of which is the Bavnehei, a point of vie* 

reached by wooden steps. Below are a small fountain, a pond, an 

a cottage (rfmts.; view). We descend to the W. to (Vs hr.) the Sa 

tersdal road and follow it back to the town, passing (10 min.) tl 

cemetery. —About 2V2M. to the W. of Ravnedalen rises the Orac 

mandnhtia (810 ft.). — On the right bank of the Otteraa, 2 */a M. U] 

are the 'OnwendU Baad? (a land-mark) and Oddersjaa, command 

tog a pleasing view. — Steamers ply twice daily from Chrietiansan 

up the Topdcdsfjord , the N. prolongation of the Christiansandfi 

Jjord L to Boner* and Botn, on the Topdals-Elv (there .an d bac 

2V2-3 hrs.). — A trip by boat may he taken to the (6 MO u«w 

Eo?«£? °** t iOx0fyl > ** to meteotological station 
but VS^SP^S ™J^»° Cabout WMu&n*? .ffi 


ohnrel is tie - flm-, 

Tta „»-rJ8,b,°««0 „J*» »» -■. *«., . 

nun., the «.!«,.,"» «,„ rT^wSIi ^"""" i "•«»«„ «■„ V9 *"tot8 M ,,•,*" «b Ib«, o„ «fto btgh-^,J_ 

&-A. ««■>«> *w, »**— — X «» .... „, 

«n" ^f 70 ■"* «eiBT!** w »'*, Jr!: ? ""> uppermost m^m , UHod 

Aa «*W3Md. 7 * s ob "« Pe !?*" " PrimttiTO "hotel'* On the S. ride 
(3sft *»» '.U^ „ " *»<« " »—.-••»— *. 

v*n"i d e«w a ~?r D ,*V5e5 

JitTf """"Aoii rouie t*^^aT *^»""" „ o' 

l lr »»6 r *° ^«*«*ctor on *** _« o^«w 

8 BouU 7. DR0BAK. 

the Fredrtiavcern-Pyr, to Fredrik*v<rrn y with lSOOinhab., formerly 
t small fortress. The M»llerbjerg affords a fine sea-view. We now 
steer to the N. through the Laurvlka- Fjord to — 

7 8. M. (from Krager*) Laurrik (p. 32). 

Farther on, the steamer passes the month of the Laagen to the 
E. and rounds the farrowed Hummersberg. It then crosses the 
mouth of the 8ande fjord , at the N. end of which lies the little 
town of that name (p. 32) , with sulphur and sea baths (reached 
from Ohrlstiania by train or by steamboat), skirts the TmUbergs 
Tmdc near Tmuberg (p. 32), and next reaches — 

10 S. M. ValL*, with a pasteboard-manufactory, the first station 
in the Christiania Fjord. This picturesque flord, at first 7-8 Engl. M. 
broad , and extending N. for about 46 M. , is enclosed by rocky 
banks of moderate height , wooded with birches and pines , amd 
enlivened with numerous villages, at which none of the larger 
steamers touch. We next stop at — 

8 S.M. Horten( Victoria Hotel; Ssrbye's Hotel, well spoken of), 
a town with 6800 inhab., near which is Karl-Johansvarn, the 
principal Norwegian government dockyard, with its quays and a 
brick church. Railway to Holmestrand, see p. 32. 

On the £. shore of the fjord, opposite Horten, and behind the 
island of Hjclland, lies (8 S. M.) Boss (p. 79), at which several 
of the larger steamers touch. 

The fjord now expands to a breadth of about 12 Engl. M. On the 
left opens the Drammens-Fjord (p.21). We next enter a strait narrow- 
ing to V2 M. , and about 9 M. long, which connects the outer with 
the inner Christiania Fjord. On the right lies the next station — 

8 S. M. (from Moss) Dr.erbak (Brit, consular agent, Mr. K. 0. H. 
Lehmann), a pleasant watering-place, with 2200 inhab. and numer- 
ous villas. We pass the fortified islet of Kahoimen (Oteartborg) 
and the bleak Haa-0, beyond which the inner fjord expands. To 
theN.W. now appear the porphyry ranges of the Kolsacu (1210 ft.), 
the Slcougumsaas (1140 ft.), and, farther to the W., the Vardekollc 
(p. 21). Just before reaching the NettodUmgtn, on the E. side of the 
fjord, we come in sight of Christiania, with the conspicuous palace 
on the hillside, the fortress of Akershus in the foreground, and the 
Tryvandsheide (with Frognersster, p. 19) rising in the distance : a 
beautiful picture. 

The vessel steers past several islands : on the left the Linde 
and the Hovede (with interesting strata of greenstone); on the 
right the Qrasholm and the Bleke, beyond which we obtain a fine 
glimpse of the BundeQord, with its numerous country-houses. We 
land at the BjervVc, the harbour of (4 S. M.) Christiania. 

, jOOUt >, 

««»i tithe, hill rting ° ver „ ■.»* "W ^J?' *h* JVid~Siv 

tt«iflnc<flia , hi5--bttildlngP^* T*j, its l°ftj, * ex eoJ j el)(llf| 

YireL ?\na -rtew honi a. BIO*" rt un ,e " 1> l«^ ted with trees , 

quj, including the marts of V*-.* — ve*»4ii ./^MP* ***** **• « . 
MK«U4«nmk (onHlw) »» d " StiiUth.}~ ou Trout*}. A  
»iui7 B rte w i, obtained &*>«> ^^.jW t„ * * b «> v * ™* *?,* 

Farther _„ ^ th . , Bft «e sae the litti e town of Barb, 

AsHMmnt .to,, to^ua, tbe », •» finely * 00 ^m « 
settlements and »huveB are seen on both sldf 9 " Farl 
«ftheB0un d) w the left, stands the &ang»tadK*y' 1 £ ie Oxe 
pass the i*f«tt t [at/'vT, marking tne entrance » r 
IWdlrond, „ ee ihove), and then the Linger- f , Bub i 

8 3- M. £!«, (ThilB, by the pier, we ii ap° fe *L n of 3W 
town ; Brit, liee-eonatil, Mt. A. P. Finne), * to aiBtan" 1 - 
beyond which thfl Maat i, unprotected for ■<" ia f, tHe P*"  j 

*S.Hrr H „, r C e n(r a I»>W J 5mln. **°"° jr. X-*fTJ 
•mall, ne« the Central i Brit, fiee-eonsul, * , 4*-l*» d "Lit 
tuning port with 5700 inhrt., opposite *• * felly "**5 
It contain, a ^ churcn b y 6 . Ball, a irttAw^fM ' 
and a monnment, by Mlddelthnn, to Pro'- if„--p*** 

k* -mo. mi.w tu •aSP"Sorf^w»Jjfc-»e 

tto« »tsni,„ g „ / k ™ Stow" *&* -.CJI-^S"'"' 

bride cto^ * ol «*e flo rd ^and, 8ee ' '•Wh its om!T.« f " 
^ t £* 4fe--rsta bre *°" <* 7&'.%»«- the 

%. CMatiania ami Ennrom. 

lot*jLft»te*M fin »aiilu« their jMfl*eDp»«" heT _; 
or »t Iht Imtotte-BryWiHOM- ttie Ciutom Homo (PI- D, T) 
Birrtit. m ?. iirfeoo' The cutom - haoM e«nun»Uon u 
bowd Itm iteuoer. Porte»ge from the iteamer to the hote)i ; s 
or under, Wt. lor flB4(01b». fo»Jy porters villi b" 1 *" ', 
ployed*. Ctlu (w, below) „ genermlry «««ej dot • *?T 
he seat In f«ttn one from the Jornbane-Torr, ne« W« n» 
vellen b, Ijjlih from Sweden Ounl Freirikfaftld- " r . " 
■rme it the *«- 01 Httt&Batoam-d <TJ. D, B, B)> "j" , 
BwedM is nightly eiimiwd; t™ve;jonr from TelemM' 
V«l-ftiMKa«T(fP|. B T). Portemge end «1m (news* *° lB 
OmnibuiM of the ]„,„, n oM i^ 00-™- 

BWtU. -Viotobu (Pi. h: C,D 
■ad Droniiu^nMj^j, » luce , . 
??■>'»»-, B. i. Uble d'hote 8 
Hotil (Pi. Bi c § , t Ule eorn „ , 

Kr«lB-Q»ie, well altailed it the 
ftoi' ?T.?' B - *> D - 8kr '' wllh 

"nil,™?" °' tba ToIdbod-andB 

it, St. Olsfai^ide 
. i'A-3, B. •/,-!, £ 

el. G»rai., S(,i,,, j, 
L*ga*vv % Cul-Joh, 

, o™*VW»*<E!r«2 
bj^j ''""•leortiit i Central lYical IIbi. 
™W<Hde * to (he 8. of the , s 

!; ."air?"" ss-sk ;"".«..»«yS^ 

p tt A-i ^ MM ntf'. * of o** r 

* w ^\!?dW n ,8 P ,,,B   " - 

F °» oich idditioasr 11 *" i enTironB * * ' 

« Within 
* Mdltl 

alghl (ii 
- --. durin, ii ,»■ — in o e.m. iram - . *— 

Route. 11 

finuaioM to Otearwau \»- *•" 7i» e 8 t«s»»«" *»*,«.utiiuliy situated at 

(P.19), exeunt ou the F ord by * e y iS J*^ % ahristiania J&3 

C^ioftia , the capital of Norw jr^ of *** 9054' N. l. t . '£J 

toe foot of pine-clad hills, at «»? A]cer*-E lv V « on *» e E - bank of 
and on theV bank of the ™^£?ot Oslo WT • 10 50, , nd w £, 
10°50'E.long.> The medimal "?H aa rclra»d» »£ tUe cathedral of 
taertier. It was founded by Bar "" . i,esg» e - * d and James I. of 
afterwards a station of the B «\ 8 Jf**Vere i»*f rr ii 1547 Oslo was 
St. Halyard several Norwegian »»* ln 1589- .f-. into the hands 
England married Anne of Den "**rl e ^ent its *4^. flreini624. The 
burned down by Its inhabitants w * destroy*** 1 °5 oU »dation of the 
of Swedish besiegers, and it was aga uld "VLsrafc***. and named 

same year Christian IV. of O e ,r> ortie s9 °^/V*hristiania suffered 
modem town, to the N. of the oW tor* & g c»r entirel p^. 

it after himself. In 1686, *™f ' " pulatiow 0^836; In 1885 it 
seyerely from conflagrations. The y»v ifc ^s " 
testant) ln 1856 was 32,000; » **V 160.0OO- er »ment, of the 
was 130,000 ; In 1894 it had ^cb-e* gi»n &° t , of a Umyer- 

Ohristlania Is the seat of **> **° c r P^,„ T» e t% ^°^ 
supreme law-courts , of the Storttu»g id * r »t>le- ftnd the imports 

sfty, and of a Ushop. Its trade U o«»* a^fVxxeat, «"*^* 
are timber, herring?, matches, o»«, *£ tt oa, ^W" i&aKE. 
rye, colonial products, woollen g°°j^6, *f** ve^ 1 * *" bVeweriea, 
etc. , tne former being valued at ©<%£ s ail«»f „ vro** 9 ' 
kroner The town also owns abott* *« eng 10 ^tending from 

12 Route?. CHRT8TIANTA. VnhtnHy. 

the E. end , to the Slot or palace at the W. end , a distance of 
8/4 M. Following this street from the station , we soon reach, on 
the right, the Sior Torv (PI. 0, 6 ; 'great market'), usually known 
as Torvet ('the market 1 ), adorned with a Statue of Christian IV., 
by Jacobsen (1874). On the £. side of the Tory rises — 

Vox Frelsers Kirke (PI. 16), or Church of Our Saviour, con- 
secrated in 1697, and restored by Ohateaunenf in 1849-56. The 
altar-piece is by E. Steinle of Dusseldorf , and the marble font by 
Fladager. — In the Torv-Qadc, to the N. of the Torv, is the 
Dampkjskke 0»te*ni kitchen'; PL D, G, 6), founded in 1868, 
where about 2000 persons are daily provided with dinners for 27- 
45 0. each , either carrying them home or dining at large marble 
tables in the building. The Torv-Gade leads past Ankertekkens 
Qravhmd to the Akcrs-EUo , which forms several falls higher up 
and drives several large factories. — Farther up the Carl-Johans- 
Oade, on the left, rises the — 

Storthings-Bygning (PI. 30; C, 6), or hall of the Norwegian 
Parliament, designed by Langlct, and completed in 1866. The chief 
facade, flanked with two lions in granite by Borch, looks towards 
the Eidsvolds-Plads, a handsome square planted with trees. The 
interior is shown by the 'Vagtmester* or custodian (to be found at the 
entrance from the Storthings-Gade, on the S. side; fee i/j-l kr.). 
The Storthings-Sal^ seated for 114 deputies, contains a large paint- 
ing by Oscar Wergeland, representing the first discussion of the 
Norwegian constitution (p. lxxiv); the smaller Lagthings-Sal has 
seats for 40 members. — In the Akers-Gade, to the S. of the Stor- 
thing Building, is a monument to the poet J. H. Vessel (d. 1785). 
Opposite is the new Masonic Lodge, by H. Nissen. — In the Eids- 
volds-Plads is a statue of the poet Henrik Wergeland (d. 1845), 
by Bergslien. — On the W. this Plads is adjoined by another, 
called Studenterlunden (PI. B, 6), in front of the University, where 
a military band often plays between 1 and 2 p.m. or in the even- 
ing. A new Theatre is being built here, by H. Bull. 

The University (PI. B, 6), founded by Frederick VI. of Denmark 
in 1811, has five faculties with 55 professors, who lecture gratis to 
about 1200 students. The present edifice, consisting of a large 
central building with two wings, was erected in 1841-53 by Qrosch, 
whose design was partly suggested by Schinkel of Berlin. 

The central building, in front of which a statue of the Norwegian 
jurist and politician Ant. Martin Sehweigaard (d. 1870), by Middel- 
thun, was erected in 1883, contains lecture-rooms, the Zoological 
Museum (Sun., Mon., Frid., 12-2), the Botanical Museum (Mon., 
12-2), the Zootomical Museum, the Mineralogical Cabinet (Frid., 
12-1), the Ethnographical Museum, the Physical Cabinet, and the 
Medical Collections. Handsome staircase. 

The Ethnographical HuMwn (reached by a staircase in the K.W. corner ; 
Mon. and Frid. 1-2, Sun. 12-2) contains Scandinavian cos tames, furniture, 
and implements, and in a second room a Laplander's tent, with reindeer 

'"""other x»*»>2**e Jl *-■** 

'tr»I building of (he Unlvar' 
'Vileint^' Ships (San., Mon 
a ' VagtmettM 1 , who live, m, 
r;fee 10-25 •.). 

ried with their »»r-,l M d., „, 

IS found .1 ThuBB in the Ami 
:sl»d, ne»r Ssadefjofd (p. &t). 

''). By tlie mul «> pljced 
Olpty, kuriDg probtbljlrten 
1 Mhttd by V»Elin*>»" 

'plicaeio** *° 

14 Routt 2. °HB1STIANIA. fattonal GaOery. 

the HiBMiii G*iiJ***T' * collection of about 300 ancient and 

modern paintings fo"« de,i in 1837 and belonging to government. 
Historical and critioa 1 catal <>gue by Prof. Vietridison, 1 kr. 

A. *Beandinavian pain" 1 '*. The collection i« annually extended and la 
frequently rearranged. 7° mention the moat Important works in the 
alphabetical order of their painters' name., which are attached to the 
frames. The Danish and Swedish matters, whose works are mainly in 
the B»Bi Boom, are poo'ly represented both in quantity and quality. 
Amonf the Norwegian pictures exhibited in the Soots and W»st Boohs 
may be mentioned tbe Following : — 

F. N. Arba (1831-93), *278. The Walkyrie*; 279. Asgaardsreien ('The 
Wild Ilnnt'l. — 361. A. AttxwM Co. 1834), Bummer's day on a mountain 
lake. — 341. flood* (1806-73), Moonlight on the Norwegian coast. — Harriet 
Batter, 'Cher moi'. — 233. A". Bir</Me» fb. 1827), Portrait of his father. — 
276. E. Sudan (1629-1879), Scene la Nordrosrken. — 260. F. Bee (1820-81), 
Breskfast. - Joe. BratlaHd, Sunday. - E. A. Capellm (1821-63), *267. Forest 

scene in Telemerken ; no number. Waterfall In Telemarken T. C. C. Dahl 

(178-81807), 230. Laurvik; 231. Waterfall; no number, The DyTehave at 
Copoahajfeo. — Sfow. jDoAL Portrait of his father, Prof. 1, G. C. Dahl. — 
J. F. Eetenierg 11822-70), 208. VaUe in the Sastersdal; 264. Mountain- 
scenery. — Tt,. Ptarnley (1602-12), 230. The Labrofos; 236. Grindelwald 
Glacier. — 8B1. OrAwJunii, Meileo Dock at Antwerp. — B. F. Chid* (b. 
1626), 25B. Norwegian landscape; 269. Mountain-view \ -261. OnriBtianla. 

Fjord; 262. Before the rain; 283. Scene in North Wales mu dude. 

Portrait of his father, (he artist H. F. Gude. - 280. Karl Bantm Cb. 1841), 
In captivity. — Btfirdahl, 300n. Holmestreud; SOOw. Family party; no 
nnmber. Portrait of himself. — KolilS, Salmon-fisher looking after his nets. 
- Cftr. Xraah, 338. The straggle for existence; no nnmber, On the Norway 
coast; no number, Old lady. - Morten mater (b. leog, 273. Scene on the 
Christlania Fjord; 274. Bsrdsnger Fjord. - Oerh. JfonMe (b. 1849), 806. 
A summer's day; no nnmbar. Scene an the8andviki_Elv near Chrfstiania. — 
Ludieig JfunfA* (b. 1841), -287. Coast-scene in winter- no nnmber, Aotnmn 
evening. — 299. Am. Iftelim, On tba Hardaneer Fjord. — BtUf Pctertim 
(b- 1802), 289. Portrait ofalady; 289*. Siesta 72898. Old won. an; no nnmber, 
Portrait of the Norwegian composer, Ed. Grieg. -, 308 _ . Stodntg fh. 1842), 
Scene in the Lofoden Islands. - 304. Sti-ednia (b. 1864], Genre-acene from 
Northern France. - 283. «cKen*srtf-i«re*s (1B87-931 Payment of the tithes 
at the convent. - Atop Kdemmd (1814-79}, *246. i'solltaO couple (family 
worship in a cottage); -247. Meeting of the tUwM^^^lSui sect); 
248. The dying man ; no number, Worship In a No^weJun country church. 
"" "■" i, Flemish te '" """ 

it in the Stetorsdal. — * ^fotkiold fh 1806), 602. G ir ' 
raj '302a. Funeral " f a peasant; 802s 'portrait of the 
in ; no nnmber, Portrait of the mathematician O. J. Broch 

I. Foreign Masters. Nobtb 
hlch is devoted to the Fren 
ers: 1. Fine old copy of L, 

otto: 17b. Jf. Boha, Tasse 
■n the Rhine; °177. It. Jc 
as morning; 179-. &■ BO, 

W. Leu, Waterfall in ior 

Monet, Showery weather at Etr 
rolling a cigarette. 

The second. North Boom contains me works of it. ». <•> sawn™™ 

Schools: -22. Pieter Ctaeiuent, Portriii of bjj^i *af U »»»*S» ! *" "" * 

d<r, The *J J 

•iiiiiiil T^aji .JT3£ -ff-'-' ra. "' 

SSS.V ss. A a%»!i«'"' a 

".3,5,6; X. s*" a " '""rrS,*' 

8»t,, 10-2, fte-i 5 ia the Art Indutri* 1 fU D . int«ie 
O" » Writ it th« w ^ itt th**«* 1 

™/!«.I01«.llll 11M1 b.rnF . ~__j_^ mv Bt»» r <1\ 

with f- .5 -? oh nlem l>er of » mrtrt Too •»*** V3UN - 


^^•Wwwhnng with LndicP^w*- * 
ShI^ ,,"l , ' rtD "">*» contain pMntlngB and «>ttlp****»^ *»■« 

?!.*» Wa 0f 8T «Wert, mostly presented to ** „** 
'^iflYM-.eddlng in 1883. Kino -View *£J£S 
« front of the palace rises an ■oMltttal* 7*, * 
*: Joia (Bernadottel. by Brunixtlf Berg alien, **^ 

«*«. (among them TOmo-MO Vill-ge O.wc**** jfr* 
!TCi*H? 0f •""•0. mostly P Te*«nt«d to *****% 
""^■Uw-Wddtag in 1883. Kino -View f^Ss**** 

anggtsttltptlMo rises an Eqwertiim f,,^* 
~. J< ™ (Bernadotte), by Bryn^uI/'Beivtlini, **^ ^^- „ ' 
nigjmotto 'The people's love is my reward'. -^..^ 

JSfl Bite n ,i FB modern qnarter API. A, 5) to tM>, ^^4?~ 
?™*1 Bomantiy , fter its founder, consist, of v*J^^^= 
"•"WL above the Ra«el»fcvei, is the Kicioria -*> <^ 

WlSDJrajn— * ... - XI., J^^, <■•-« tWO HH1I " « -™ 

,. »., Miree me nu»ewA»«"i — „. 

«">j?iobod« from the aea. Below «e two ™*">f ^^V 
*»**li md above them we three l»r S e tnnewi J^J^ 
flu th. StortMn^-Boildm^ tfa« ^*«™-«*^^ *^ 
tie/oltiuiM Kirke fPI. *3; O, T), * b " * 

t ^ Route*. CHWST1ASUA. A M» 

- *a-Pl*ds Mid to the F^T^r ** 6 l«*d ^ nM to *»• F *f 

^-^^orBing light. Ake»h™ I ° rd a charmi,,* ^a* <» f the ^ 
^y - fc of Sweden i n 13io v Z?t Un *uccessrully besfeged by X>nfc« 
&**J\>y **« Swede. JSS'fcS^*^ tt of d£«* In i«M-3% 

t* toi» lto P rechl «*«. We ta ' • * Prlson - The iraxrison-churclns 
«ri*Sl« ofnceof the «p.,^ . 

X Sl sW ^Sl«tet y ' *«£« b?sfl. U th « *.«£,, V«I, the remain. 
,f 1 5l5*»- . ft£J»W«X £ «>it H «, "S is > monks in itt7 and destroyed 

^V e T^ e > * oX^JS- 15 ? 0, 5, 6), or Trinity Church, 
in ***°5»euf of H amb " r °™ e ^flce with a dome, partly designed by 
Ch& e n i*e octagon, cont*?^ erecte <* in 1853-58. The interior, a 
hai^tn * ogel by bidden?* an altar -piece by Tidemand and a font 

^ y tb* Akew-O ade °^ c fj. Olafs-Kirke (PI. 14; C, 5), erected in 
18 r//******""*' *> *he il» int0 the -^Aawwi, to the right, and 
*1* J£***« r P* 8 * the Sarnie li the Utter le «^ing direot in 12 min., 
* iTet^een th6fle two r 0A ^ri? sklrke in 45 «in. to St. Hanshangen. 

^Zn-uep* cemetery, ^tr * le » ▼<* FteUert Chravlnnd (PI. B, 6), 

by tbe lower gate a** le ^ c J^ we may now viait. It may be entered 

little to the Jf. of the <+ m l** «» ^PPer. — in the Akeravei, a 

B, 4), one of the oldest ch i*' nse8 tbe <*•»** Akera Kirke (PI. 

perhaps founded by Ki Q *J£ C W inNorway, mentioned before 1160, 

Hanno in 1861. The t t ia * Kyrre, and restored by Schirmer and 

Bomaneatjue style, wi^ ^i is » basilica in the Anglo-Norman 

terior is the separation of aiB Je«. A curious arrangement in the in- 

the nave tr»n* e P* 8 > an-* *** e space in the centre of the chnroh from 

openings The 'Kirketi G ^ir \>y means of walla with portal-like 

c Wh, on the K".W. si* e *' iiv®* in the sma11 h6U8e °PP 0<liie the 

m 8t. JTo^^-hAUgen. ^ ' . . A . -v i_ 

«fe* ^ 2^P*X* °' W J^u'a Hill- (PI. A, 3, 4-, 280 fLVU 
"r w«t«» *. F *ha ^^^enade On the top is a reservoir of the 
or the fa'"''"* 9 ' *?« *<>* e , f ^ C li commands an excellent survey 

j£*W>. **5 JhTl **«> it 8 ^rf»nd». the EteWg to the left, Os- 
.^ e *tL* *he «<?*i?»4 the F^ne»»ter on «k. MB to the S.W. 

•naLinW the chief points 

n '' Jo * * aetefUl Cden t^«di*.« in the Norwegian style, 

flw.of Cftrfrtionta. OSCARSBTAH.I-. 

cmhibyB. Munthe In 1893. The lower e*i«*»» lce *° 
is wiiliiii the city tidioB of c*b-fares O*- **^i_ j,»rboar, « i 
Awrtlwji *ery fine ^iew, especially o f 'jlLroiUi  Hu 
tan Kampwi, », second reMrrolr of the " j m «rkB^ b y ' ' 
E, of the Botanic Garden (PI. E, F, -*}, " n *^-Si«» CP- 9 > 
iHMtuIt CHrden is alio within the »**T ' r 

BniWtt of Chri*****"^^ e «n.s* JF2ST ' 

Diuuunm.i... .. . . ..... lOJ ■■? ».-»»*!?* -a 71 

ff e f 0! i„ ? ' M fM »» ^e cross-"" a-i»^~ l"»^* t to the wo. 
>• -So fiV 1 '"™-""" 1 '" ' ,' «• "**?" -*" I„ ■• °"»>"° 

H8.)-?^ ,, / b "? 1 ' of W,l*» 4 .t/ a ?*;.V»* a » tloKull 

«M1«S '■■«■«»»* ?.,.„o«»" ^.» *J»49- : 7. , .. m . .«. 

~" oiotwegltn bull ,» .V' 

etoQBi-aoot oi urn on™ to.- 

StUiflttd With BUtaJl^?^^ 

8«rm, b. ti oc , by if*cft_ **  
tawtlW. from Frlfltjni?***, 
£. W« (b. 1825) troi Sj S 

f the «^*f 
Ight w^: 

'V"** , 

to (a utik ot Ufc-* to. from Majorstuenj I tfte 2< 

a so-called Sportrtuu (cafe* and beer-house;, ^^ 
visitors ^o make some stay. It commands ^ BigB 
Christiania and the fjord. At the ^l*™* rl O i» ln ^ 
ing tlie path to the Holmenaas, which J? ln *£ be d i», 
from the Peisestue (see heW). The top is re* ^ tbe 
(Ahont halfway is a path descending to the %**&** 
The prolongation of the road to the **>* ope i*< 
known as the 'Keiser Wilhelm's Vei' and ^» e ^*y * 
presence of that monarch. It runs almost all ^5**^* 
After y 2 M. a path diverges to the right to **®^tfre* °*/ 
manding a splendid view of Christiania. *f 3C/0j£,£ 
ftw«tae(ifmts.)> situated on the Beaaefff^e 1*** # 
artificial lake, and in iOmin. more we reac& , £#0 *>:£ 

at the corner of the road to.theVoxenkolle* 1 *^e* e ? th 
Pas8ingtheiuitialsO.II.W.n.cutintheroc^» t o* c 

*Frogners»ter (1380 ft.), the country- & ^ t y °* * 
T.J. He/ty* (d. 18&6)> Purchased by the ^tX^J & 
18 89. It commands a heautiful ^iew of °^SqX V *L ** { 
The restaurant C t0 tne left ) was *>uilt in *5Ll©° \\e& 
the Noiwegian style ; the seats in the uppe* * % ^i T*° 
effective. The villa (to the right) conta^ ^ o V Vi* i 

antiquities (adm. 25 *.)• T » e3f » ate also » * e fT**^ ***** 
berhuildings, chiefly from the HiaUngdal-r^******* * 

extensive from a wooden scaffolding on thetfJ^i^ -****% 
to which we ascend past the & Vre ^ tO r^t< 8 %0i %^ 
In clear weather we see the mountains O* *fr° i*e> ^t 
(Gausta, p . 28), those of the HalUnX *° V ***■& 
P- «), and the hills on the Swedi^ r^Vit *&* 
oM ™ r / tu ™iag to Christiania from tfc e ^Zv&fZ r£*&%* ' 

mS * 8 . t » 0ne » erected ^ Heftye 'by t £I **• S* ° A jK**£d*£ 
and Blr. idea l one *«»<* fading to t £* I°2?*P*f *£<•& *^t 

in ST SKi«P of ah 7 out 3 hrs, ^ ^ ^ £%*£ *, 


* ** 4J*° ^^afcaUUdjord vi& Drammen 


L»ry train i. 



«aw*rr»«m, express in i l /s hr. (f» re 8 
*»s. (fares 2 kr. 40, 1 kr. 60 0.)-, 

^toe. Second ti?J *"* 3-i **«• (feres 4 kr 20, 2 kr. 

inery, P&^tloxiS^^ ***!** class only. - The railway 

»nd Hjynefos. y between Btfken and Drammen 

from the V> «*# x> . , / ™ « 

~* views ar« -7 ******«*"■* at OMfltiania (PL B, 

-beautiful Ol^t J?* e left - To the left WG 8< ?° n 

*he white e(r*I Xa, * ia ^ 0Td and of the penin " 

,**<**, the stationr* V*** of Oscaishall and numerous 

i^ . Lysaker 9 »*^-af 0:r B Yg^ and Oscarshall (1 M.; 

Bogstadv^^^ «*e> xnouth of the Serkcddls-Elv, 

s the porpiri^L^^- *Q). 

fiffcou^ur^/a ran ee of the KoUaaa (1256 ft. ; 

massive clyfc*^* °tc. The Silurian strata are 

^rliere a dyke ^°*L of greenstone, especially near 

Sixain skirts tl* e >~»~ *lxick intersects the disinte- 

S3Ken(Harrcsc^o«^ ** src *"~ v " and » on tne right * 
nation), a beanfcii> ^U spoken of; Stcyda-Station, 

^ro~tty situated village. 

kbn to Keoo^t7 " 

^l^fo^tVS 8 »»**V5?** ^^TI> HONBPOS, 43Kil.-By 

™oon (carioin^ OI *Sf^ * «"»<* by skyds, ordered by 

^oon £*nole fr 0m 8 ^ ~«cend the J&*?*i«> ; gocm to 

> Cha »6eB J^ d ^iken to Hfnefos 15, stolkjasrre 

*ses tteSandvik*^^ ** the opp08ite di^ecti0,1, sec 

and gradually al '^ ' <* Werges to the right from the 

° i 1 ^ *° *> e left; % il as o» the bank of the stream. 
XoUaa* (see at>o *5 ***© old church of Tanum; to 

?n ^f £? *£* an * ^^^i: ^« next ascend the Isidal. 
>^^^ST-^ g-^^f we survey tne Ho.- 
S^B^ES- **iS* 1 *** Wwood. - The road is 

XZvmledai. finely X 

* r^^^^V gateway called Skartt our 
accommoda«r Ay aV t*£a~* ?^ coming from Drammen. 

^ofwhichw« n ; Xh^^ Mgh above the Holsftord, 

andvolden r*r>* , Xlo ^r *Jr** a beautiful descent to the 

not a skyda l V6c *^« & 

we ascend bv ati °^ , vT° *«* » B- * *. ^°» B. 80, D. 
is clear ; hora^«**°^f5lx 1?* carriages for hire). From 
tQKlev, 'clifr^ A ***- 4ft Pat ^ Chest in the morning, if 

^hich, to the N.W., is the 


VIK. 3. -Route. 2] 

Dronningms TJdsigt (Queen's View). Continuing- to asoend to the 
W., following the white crosses on the trees, we ti©:x-* reach th e 
(25-30 min.) * Kong ens Udsigt (King's View; 1456 f*. _»hove the 
sea, 1240 ft. above the fjord) Beautiful view, emhrecixig? the Tyrf. 
fjord with its islands, the district of Ringerike, the Jonsknut near 
Kongsberg (p. 26) , the Norefjeld (p. 42) to the N.^T. , and the 
Gwjta (p. 38) to the W. in the distance. 

. The view from the Gvrihaasr (2216 ft.; 4 M. to the »-B. of &*"™ v °Jden) 
is arid to be even "™. iS^SifgeneraUymade direct fromj Christian!., 
J»*9*i (p. 19) and 'the Strtedal, whire tolera-hle <K.avrten may be 
found at Zyw. Descent through a narrow ravine to 8«£™**?£: ^£"2"*; 
ijg to the legend the numerous islands in the StoepsQoid are •£* * be 
tones once hurled by thegiantess OGygr* or GyvO of the ^ynhaug *t 
the church of Steen fL?below)%Mch mi« 8 ilea, however, ,*»«;«**■« •»•■ 
J*J of her ownTe^ Za cWe\£>rt of their aim «hd /•» *"^J? "•  
Like the battle of therflnts against Odin and Thor in the B«W«, this 
Jgendi8 8ymb( 5 ic ^ of ^impotent wrath of the powers of oature against 
the advance of human culture: connects th« 

The road to Henefos crosses the Krogsund, which connects the 
Tyrif> rd ^ the Steen$fjord . traveller* 

. Jhe next station, 3 Kil- from Sundvolden, ^.J^S^m ll 
* the reverse direction drive on to Sundvolden v?*** ™* f™ ?* e J £ 
*■•)■ About i S^arther on, on the right, are ^^Haffdt th« 
rtBtem and f a little farther on) the tumulue of Kln * **X^ 
*«* (d. ^)/ After another t/ 4 hr. the road passes J*"*****' 
-MhK/^ iSi Anna ^ernsdatter %*ff^ J. 
wai «e wife of the pastor of the place, and in 1 * *° # { n0 SwwM ' * 
huBband wa8 m s ^ e «£ ed by gtra * gem in hetrayin* 600 Swedish 

TmJ lnt0 the hands of her countrymen. 
u K * • Renefos, see p. 24. 

im%V* *• gm » 11 lakes ^mdivand i^Jt\[\ jjeggedal, heyond 

XL? - AttheS - end of the latter ^^^*wS5^« Beyo *« 

ra!t«T. piii tbe bMe of the preClP ™tlv^o the W. N„m- 
1*4 Kil.) Jfcfce* (435 ft -x the tfain tuTn s abruptly w 

«*■ stings. a^reM** and impoa- 

. Beyond a tunnel, 240 yds. long, » *» ost ? „ «f prammen, and 
«8 •ViKwof the Drammens-Fjord, ** ^d to the left. The 
the fertile yalley of Lier is suddenly disclose a f jord> while 

wad ftom Rsfren to Drammen descends at °_ nC ®a describes a l 0ng 
the raUway passes through another tunnel a» ^ e ^ Uey of ^ 
earn towards the N., descending gradually 
and the (46 Kil.) station of that name. 

Route 3. DRAMMEN. From Christiania 

|1 rom Lier (skyds»station Bikengen) a pleasant route, with ^asi' skyds- 
ms, leads to the N., on the E. side of the valley, past the ParadU- 
r and the Enger/jeld, to the HoUfjord (p. 20). 14 Kil. Enger (well 
;n of). The road, now called * Smngstrands-Veim , famed for its 
ty, next ascends the Burdercut* and leads high above the HoUfjord to 
il.) BumUdal (p. 20). 

horn Lier the train runs towards the S., through a fertile tract, 
>l Kil.) Bragere, the E. end of Drammen (Bragemces) , and 
jes the Drammens-ElVy and the island of Mellerholm or Hoi- 
, with its timber-yards, to the Tang en and Stremse quarters, 
ie S. bank of the river. 

>3 Kil. Drammen (comp. Plan, p. 21). — The Station (*Re*tau- 
is close by the bridge. Drammen is the junction for Eougsund 
ige carriages ; p. 23) and for Laurvik and Skien (p. 32). 
lotels. In 8tr0ms0: *Ckntbal Hotel, opposite the station, entrance 
side-street, R. 2, L. Vsj B. 1, D. 2, S. i kr. 20 0.; Bbitannia, in the 
i-Gade, leading to the E. to Tangen. 

Jab with one horse, for 1 person 40 0. per drive; with two horses 
persons 60 0. — Omnibus from Bragernses-Torvet to Tangen. 
laths : Drammen* Badeanrtalt, with vapour baths, etc., opposite the 
ch at Strjefmstf; River Bath* (Strtftnbad) at Bragemaes. 
British Vice-Consul, Mr. Karl Gram. 

steamboats to Holmestrand (p. 82) daily except Sun. ; to Christian!* 
les a week ; besides jnany others. 

drammen, with 20,700 inhah., situated on both hanks of the 

nmens-Eiv, consists of Bragernas on the N. hank (rebuilt after 

lmost total destruction by Are in 1866), Stremse on the S. side 

ch suffered severely from fires in 1870 and 1880), and Tangen 

ie S.E. The situation of Drammen on the estuary of the river, 

reen lofty hills, is very picturesque. The trade of the place is 

iderable , consisting chiefly in the export of timber (annual 

e over 4,500,000 kr.), and of ^ood-pulp and paper (annual 

e over 7,000,000 kr.). The commercial fleet of Drammen is one 

Le largest in Norway (over 200 sailing-vessels and steamers). 

going vessels are berthed at the stone quays of Bragernass. 

)lose to the railway-station a Timber Bridge crosses the Dram- 

3-Elv, connecting Stramser and Bragenues, and affording a 

lant and cool promenade in hot weather. The] Brandposten (see 

v), with its two flagstan*s, is conspicuous on the hill to the 

;. The bridge leads to the Bragemaw-Torv, in which, to the 

, are the Exchange (with the Pott and Telegraph Offioes, 

.nee in the Stor-Gade) , and facing us the Raadhus and Byrei 

t-house) , with the inscription Ret og Sandhed ('justice and 

'). Ascending straight on , between the two small towers of 

wirket-Gade, we reaoh the conspicuous Bragbrkss GiruRGtt, a 

jom© Gothic brick edifice by Nordgren, built in 1866-71. It 

ins a Resurrection by Tidcmand (d. 1876), and an Angel 

'.he font by Borch. (The 'Kirketjener' lives in the one-storied 

> wooden house opposite the sacristy, to the left.) 

> the £. of Bragernffis churoh we reaoh (12-15 min.) the 
xdfostbn , one of the finest points of view near Drammen, 

to the Randsfjord. HAUG&UNI>. 3. B<***- ^ 

affording hn extensive surrey of Tangen, Stromse, and Brag*** 1 **, 
« the iai«id of Holme*, the Yalley of the Drarj»men*~£Vri and Uie 

*%L The Te,alld * of *e watchman's house is open to ** ]£ ~T?* 
The road ascends hence to the (36-40 min.) Klojikjam (W **■ * 
* sequestered lake in the midst of wood, which supplier <** ***? 
with good water. Refreshment* at the small house. A path uoe ^ 
J° the xight in 5 min. to Prinds G»c*r« Udtigt , overlooks tu * 
laerdai and the fjord. . A 

A promenade ('Oscarsstien') connects the Klopk^af* w» 
8eve ' al ^e points of view on the slopes of the •***^ 
which may also he reached direct from Bragexnaa in Bfc-*0 miu ' 
by an easy hut shadeless tig*ag road CAlbumstien'), -wVlfeWMta** 
i-he views embrace the town and :fjord, the yalley up * Hou^** 1 ^ 
etc. The finest points, Topp* n * Furtdund, and *S*-eidobtiki •*• 
marked on the plan. The last affords the best view ^^ a* valleTi 
most striking at sunset. 

iff ^?2!? er flne P° in * of view is the Storttenfjeld (1750 ft.) a w t0 the 
K. of T>rammen, also Molded from Wer (p. 21). J » 8 *" 

The Randspjobd Railway (carriages usually c k*ix e<id atDiam- 
men; best views to the right) ascends the broa* ^ al i ey of the 
I>rammens-Elv. 56 Kil. Oulshog / 64 KU. Mjendctl^^ ** uey 

0>. 25; change carriages). To the W. rises the ^o^ fc ( v 26) . 
s^oSSy l8 *' ** l * r08 ' * f ^^CS wii 

D^fSrt train turns to the £ *** con <*£ol^ to ^l tne 
fine w m t?^ lv « Beautiful scenery. Vie wsoi bo «^ geyeral 

£L cro^ 118 - 7 5 Kil. ^r«rf. Beyond 030 tta^ ^^ tae 
86 KU i S!f *• Dramniens-Klr, wWjh^ *^ the J^to/bs. 
Sank are^* 0t ' on the left bank ^^La "e. J°^ the opposite 
t^TvTl the\raterfall of the f ^'^^^Mtag from the 
A lit«e iK **• %***'• ^ ceIiery , ?Lsl*™<**^ ^?xnarkat>ly fine, 
from take ^ on is the influx of ** e f The ^*^>, descending 
*he rfsht btofreren and the Hailing** ^ GrciJ^^n reoiosses to 
Paper-mil/.^ 92 Kil. Gjethus , »°*V*'* ,al ^V^' wi £ n,T 

w £r* la *e *W *•* hence t0 „ ** tbe *• f " 

w Ki7 w£i ante > cauldrons. Z^^/'t***^ 

at *he eft* t^,,..,,,,,! function fo * ^Xtti ** e ^V*ZT e » Cp- 43 J> lies 
c *>s«* tt?°* T?™!* J Wns-£ lv fr ^T ^anS***/»*r* A bridge 
«ee p. i* e n V 0f ^^T^cl Tot &<*<>**" ^^ to the Holsfjord, 

5i **nces (pension, 1 +i%ro**& rvj%i& ifr. a.>^ 

%»$™fai"**%J%\T' to STu^^^^L, 4^cS^ii.7Ta> 
£« 0/ tie 5nar«^ ^^rtV, »** ^Voi. 

:^J.01af. Abo*t ^p»^» 


(Skirn^JUiipnninil >' "Skim 


4. From (Christiania) Hangsund to the Hardanger 
Fjord viA Kongsberg and the Rjukanfoa. 

Fbom Haugsund to the Ejukanfos. — To Kongsberg, 28 Kil., Railway 
in 1 »/» hr. (fares 1 kr. 45, 80 *.). — From Kongsberg to Tinotet, 50 or 60 Kil. 
according to route, by Cabbiaob in 10 hrs. (or drive to Bolkesjjr only, 
krltfa h»., then row acroia the Folsjsr, and walk to Tinoset, 5 hra.). — 
From Tinoset to Fageritrand, 80 Kil., Steamboat (good restaurant on board) 
in summer daily in 2*/4 hra. (fare 2 kr.) extra-trips 26 kr. for 10 pars.; 
2 kr. for each pers. more). — From Fagerstrand to \h* RJvkanfot : a drive 
of 3 hrs. to (23 Kil.) Vaaer (oariole 3 kr. 80, there and back 5 kr. 400.; 
stolkjssrre 6 kr. 40 or 8kr. 10 0.\ earr. and pair for 2-4 pers., there and 
back, 12, 16, or 18 kr., and 2kr. 18 0. more if a night is spent out). Walk 
thence of */« br. to the fall. 

Fbom -thb Bjckanfos to the Habdanqsb Fjobd. The best route, 
besides the mountain-passes mentioned at p. 29, is that indicated at p. 30 
via Ulefas, on the great Telemarken route (p. 84). The route via Ltnteim- 
Htggutol (p. 80) is less advisable. — The Distbibutio* of Time, reckoned 
from Kongsberg, would be somewhat as follows. 1st Day : Via Bolkesj* 
to Tinoset. 2nd Day: To JEroten, at the Rjukanfoa, and back to Fager- 
ttrand. 3rd Day: Via Tinotet to Hitterdal-Notodden. 4th Day. To Ufyo* 
and on to Dalen (p. 36). Those who choose the route via Ljsvheim find 
the best accommodation for the third night at Skovheim (p. 30). Or the 
traveller may drive from Tinoset to. Kirkeb* (p. 85) and proceed the same 
evening by steamer to J)alm (p. 86). . 

From Christiania to Haugsund, see pp. 20-23. The Kongsberg 
train (finest views to the left) first stops at — 

5 Kil. Vestfossen, with several factories, near the beautiful 
Ekersje or Fiskumvand (60 ft.") , bounded by lofty mountains on 
the E. side. 11 Kil. Darbo. 15 Kil. Krckling , where the slate- 
formation predominates. Farther on we obtain a fine view of the 
mountains towards the S. At (22 Kil.) SboUenborg (540 ft.) sand- 
stone appears and the country becomes sterile. The Labrofot (p. 26) 
is 3/aM. to the S.W. To the left rises the Skrimsfjeld (p. 26). The 
train approaches the Laagcn, which forms a waterfall. 

28 Kil. Kongsberg. — Hetels. Victoria, far from the station (om- 
nibus gratuitous) in the W. part of the town, on the right bank, B. 6 L. 
2 kr., B. 1 kr. 20 0., D. 2, 8. lVa kr. ; Bbitabnia, Grand Hotbl, both on 
the left bank, near the station. All three often crowded in summer. 

Carriages. To linotet via Bolkesj*: oariole for 1 pers. 15, carriage 
and pair for 2 pers. 29 kr. To BoltuJ* or Hitter dal y cariole 6 kr. 12, 
carriage and pair for 2 pers. 14 kr. 50 0. A slight lowering of the fares to 
Tinoset and thence to Kotodden (see p. 27) is contemplated. Those who 
keep the carriage in Tinoset for more than 24 hrs. pay 4 kr. extra for 
each horse per day. 

Kongsberg (490 ft.), an uninviting but not unpicturesque 

town, on the Laagen or Laugen, in the S. part of the Numedal 

(p. 40), contains 5250 inhab. (only half its former population), 

who are almost all dependent on the mines. Most of the houses 

are timber-built, but the large Church of the 18th cent, and the 

Baadhus are of stone. The town owes its origin to the Silver Mines 

in the vicinity, and was founded in 1624 in the reign of Christian IV. 

In the town axe situated the 8meltehytte t or smeiting-works, where 

specimens of the ore may be purchased , the Mynt (mint) , and a 

government Vaabenfabrik (weapon* factory), the last near the 

BOX,KESJ». Froma^^ 

ley of^Lla^en ™ W °' tte town Md *» «• 

Minks o* Kow^S 

»n 1623 *nd'ii~^ a ? 0nt 4 M - *° ««a W. of the town OW 
wr only are o* iSJ f* of the ore, seven only are now 
^SfK *™* to «S2f«^** TO (greatest depth about IMOfU 

n WhT ft * ^elow the nfS' ".JS 1 " 1 ** them fr o»> the hil&ide 
alpbu*©* of eilv*,,*® £ ther - T he veins of nrtWe BilTM»i 

fficea ?r?K n mi »e«. -- p£Jw" * llme ,rIien **** were 
thf^^*^* from^L *?* i he ****-h*r**y repays the 

^ffiSSfiZZS^ 8ettIement **""* 

*$£*" ^^^Tei a ^^ ut2 ^ ». to the W. of the mine*, 

«? X^ dbac *6hiT W?' X * ? wcended ftom Ko "^ 

-* *»?° n £ ens W »a ,? e S* follow the mining roid 

•eg and white mark*' i^ 2 ^' ^^ *he summit A pith 

to the 8. of Ko ngflber /^ *o fT hrs.) Bolkesj* Ve be!ow>. 
C below the town th "* *•*»«« «46«J. another 

* Lf«^ /0a '^ 12 *• ^rther A^l ~ Another fall of the 
UGSBBB.O to Tikosbt itwl ** ftni ' on the JLanrvik xoad. 

turesque, butron/rher ^*i> a , re two roaaB > tlie snorter 
-road via Hitterdal ' mBolk **» (now under repair), 
>&0M». We follow the m.,1 

bank of the Laagen tor^u Wcei ^^g the No medal 
Jondcd, and ascend th«LrT* &' 40 !) » tarn to the 
r ndaU-Elv. Farther 1 g * he * iao * on the ^S^t 
, f about 4 hrs. or a waJiT 6 ?° 88 *° tko loft bank - 
>0 int of the route (1825 f t \* 7 V2hrs. we reac ? 1 the 
the mountains of Telemarir ere we oh*** 1 * » magni- 
, e ld (p. 30) and the G au8 l° ?' *!* most conspicuous 
> a blunted cone. Near Bolt ^ a PP earin S from 

ailing, the foreground bein *** the landsca P e be " 
the larger JWtf* (7|q ft ^ g f onned by the JBolkesJ* 

it to Vik C*» ^m 80.. to 1 k ^ ftf CV* *J-i^?T 
and ,r«lk thence to (3»/ 2 h4 f^O 0. for 1-4 pe*s. ; 

ke8i0 the road leads thwnA 4*"*^- 1 

e right. At the W. end of the U ke u e the houses 

to the Harden get Fjord. NOTODDEN. <4 . Koutt. 27 

of Wfe, iy 4 hr.'s drive from Bolkesj*. Fine retro*;poo*. The ro^d 
descends to the Tin*-fflv, and crosses ft near the oli*i:r«l* of Grands- 
tared. About 5 min. later (l^hr.'s drive from Vile} we reach 
the high-road described below, on which a driTe of 3& min. to the 
N. brings us to Tinoset. 

b. Vii Hfppbbdal. The road at first runs towards the 8., but 
after 4 Kil. turns to the W. into the valley of the JCohhcrbervB-mv. 
To the right rises the Jonskmtt (p. 26). The Toaa grsuinally ascends 
the wooded Medheia and after 2-2y 2 ***. reaebes Jemgrubcn 
(1350ft. 5 tolerable inn), where the horses are usually rested for 
l h to. The road continues to ascend for some distance , and then 
traverses tbe plateau (1470 ft.) in numerous ^nd-alations. On 
emerging from the forest it descends into the Hittertial , com- 
manding a beautiful view : in front tbe mountains of Telemarken, 
the Himingen (3460 ft. ; V- 28) and the Hathsfjeld,, to the left the 
Hitterdala-Vand. Our road unites with that coming***™ Skien 
and skirting the E. bant of the mtterdal8~V<m<* (&-&*>). 
^ «M. (pay for 861 Hotodden (*H&tel Fwnuhe%f*i-, K. z, a. i 
**. S- Ur^wX Victor*** Worses obtainable, 

% M. distant,' near the pier of the Hitterdal ^« k J^ 
Nl^ end of *• Hitterdals-Vand. The dn.e ftom *°**5yX? 
Notodden takes 41/2 brs., in the reverse direction at least o fi nrs. 
me horses are rested here 2 hrg. - f ab0T6 th 

chii*! 7 " f<mr mediaeval Norwegian '^^r«™ -J,© and ornamen- 
tal *!' WMch « e -* 111 ?"««*• The fwk^the 12th cent" 
**» of these singular churches date as fax hack aS J ^ all ^ 
^.•oijtog, 8 o far as tbe difference of m a ws, 

To tf ° f A *glo P -Norman cnurcbes of *• •« ie jE£*. W^ choir 
J the rectangular body of tbe church is aaae i8 separated 

fc. ating in a semicircle. The broad and lofty Ver the gable! 
«JT ?! low ai * le » *y means of w00den ^ > k^o has a gabled roof 
!S °/ the nave rises a square tower , t M ^tr.Tt-head oroameata- 
ft terminates in a slender spire. The ***f°" a sh ip. The roof 
tion of these gables resembles that ot the P 10 ^ ^ turret. Round 
w the choir is lower and is surmounted by a ro ar «ade fXopi 

the *hole of the outside of the building ^ n8 * 4n bad weathei 
pwbably added as a shelter for the congreg a ^ edj ^hile the 
before or after the service ; the lower P aT * " y^e capitals of the 
upper part is open and borne by small ° ol * mn J! OJ . suitable parts f 
columns, the doors and door-frames , aTld °*& fantastic ©**ving 8) 
the edifice are embellished with elaborate a 


From Bougiund 

a-crons, iuterm -s -w  , - 

srMenoe of «L « ^ With folUge * nd flg \ r68 ; 

&, Tt>ut therl 1 ^^istcnce of the church of 

*ddJe of tW |"t> ^° ****>* thRt U was bttUt 

requiremeutR ^^5^ century. The interior 

-*>y the ias€^^ * 85 ° and hR8 l08t part of 

and the choiJ. X ? U of windows. The nave 

_-e, opposite *K*5°^ X - The key ('Neglen') is 

-tolerably lev«*i ^r^trance to the chuich. 

► the left we> i" Tl^e gaards of Bamle and 

isolated pyr ^ 0ll 8 haye a view of the flt- 

*he view Qt rox^Tn^ J 1 ** 1 mountain , sometimes 

ith guide) -Sr ^i^terdal over the Himingen 

Id (p. 27). * X^**^ **** *he Himingen, also to 

out xoad sic* 


aright rises the Kjmving- 
O} diverge* -uTV£ S ^o^axds the N., while the 
azrfMJOfthei©^* 1 ?** x ^^t. 

xnas&es of d©w ' **" stream which has forced 
several timea. J^* ^o\f overgrown with pines 
L » ^ Worses axe ^"* ***** 'Plads' Bdkken, about 
<jp. 26) joina oii* 8ted * The road from Grands- 
c« vfe reach ^ s on. tt e rignt 5 Kil. farther 

<jnew Hotel^ lax K 

«dof the Tiiisj^^^^a ^ ell fltted up ), a group 

-ST'SE 1 - ^ »^£ti? tt O, a lake about 22 Engl. 
t«^*2 C»ee ^^t^^w-steamhoats^austa' 
XSI. end. Small ^ J^. ^3 between Tinoset and 

^^bles the 8piriu *° Str - d 13 to 6 ° * ^ 

*^h the J** *****£*- ■**»** (on the right), and 
*x*on the steamer a i^^°**xi; i tt t U landscape is the 

beyond it, 23/ 4 hrs. from 

* if* **** pier, R. IV* D - 2 > 
tV* le farther on) , near the 

*** the mouth of tb.e 


ascent 4 

fa.^^?*^* the beautiful Vcstfj or d- 

- -.* W nw !°ot4 \T* To the right opens the 

(6l80fTw^ Orxx^iV ^oxnea visible on the left. 

hra * > sn» ** laW*: lx ***), the station for the 

the top, with lo^f > fo t ^t^st mountain in S. Norway 

al more to Nor^e!^ 1 ** ofil^ ****• *. ** more 5 *•* 
the 8traggi in 7i?f****« «H^** *U occupied). The view 
FTomDale to L*^*f oftg** to strangers. - We next 
4il. farther 0n ?h£ ^**> £^ Cno ini), at the foot of 

°Onxei steeper and ascends 

to the Hardanger Fjord. RJUKANFOS. 4. Route. 29 

the left side of the beautiful valley. Grand view of the Gausta, as 
we look hack. We alight at — 

4 Kil. Vaaer, oi Vaae, a small hamlet (no inn), 22 Kil. from 
Strand (a drive of 3-3 y 2 hrs.). A steep path (guide unnecessary) 
ascends hence to (% hr.) Krokan (2300 ft. ; *Inn of the Turist- 
forening, small and often full, R. 1 kr. 60, S. 2, B. 1 kr. 200.), 
about 250 paces beyond which, passing a memorial-stone to Consul 
Heftye (p. 19), we reach the point where the magnificent *Bjukanfos 
('reeking' ox 'foaming fall') bursts upon the view. The waterfall, 
formed by the copious Maan-Elv, is about 800 ft. in height. The 
scene is stupendous in the early summer, when the river is swollen 
with melted snow. The adjuncts of the fall are also very pictur- 
esque. Our point of view is 500 yds. from the fall, but it is not 
advisable to approach nearer, as some of the projecting rocks are 
not very secure. A new path descends into the valley (10 min.), 
affording a view of the fall from below. 

From the Bjukakfos to the Ha&danqeb Fjokd : two routes, one to 
Odde, another to Eidfjord; the former is preferable, but both are fatigu- 
ing and should not be attempted before July. Guide at Krokan (bargain 

To Odde, 4-6 days: — 1st Day. From Krokan a steep ascent, following 
the upper course of the Maan-Elv^by a fatiguing path, often through snow 
in the early summer, to (4 hrs.) HeWik (tolerable inn), on the MJfttand 
(3946 ft.), a lake 22 If . long and i-2»/i If . broad. To the W. rise the huge 
Raulandtfjeld (6176 ft) and the Theseggen. The lake is then crossed by 
boat, passing Mj0utranden t to (3 '/a hrs.) the W. bank, whence a path, 
rough and marshy at places, and crossing the BitdaU-Elv^ lead* in 6 hrs. 
to Raul and (Inn> tolerable), or to Berge (Inn, fair), a little farther on, both 
on the IS. bank of the TotaJtvand (2230 ft.). [We may row across the lake 
(*/s M.) from Holvik and then follow a marked, but rough and marshy 
path to Berge in 7-8 hrs. ; or we may row from Holvik to Erland$gaard 
in l-i 1 /* hr., walk to Gibe en in 2-2 1 /* hrs. by a path indicated by marks, 
cross the S. arm of the Hjisvand in l f* A /t br., and walk to Berge, passing 
the handsome gaard of GJvveland, in ca. 4 hrs.] — 2nd Day. Bow (each 
pers. 1 kr.) from Rauland or from Berge in 1 hr. to Kotthveit on the 8. 
bank) ride or drive thence in 2i/s hrs. to (14 Kil.) Janugaard i Vinje, and 
thence to (4 Kil.) Htggutily on the Haukeli road (see p. 91). [Walkers 
will find the following route more interesting: from Berge or Rauland to 
Brunelid in 2 hrs. by boat (each pers. i 1 /* kr.) ; thence a steep ascent on 
foot through the Grungedal$bygd , part of the way marshy , l*/<-2 hrs. 
(interesting view of the Grungedal from the top) ; next an abrupt descent 
of V*-*A kr. to the road mentioned at p. 38, which we reach near the 
bridge over the Grungedals-Elv ; and, lastly, along this road towards the 
W. to (V* hr.) Bui and the QrungedaU Hotel (p. 38).] From Haukeli to 
Odde (two days), see p. 39. 

To the V*taiHG8F08 ADD Eidfjord, 3-4 days, for walkers only : — 1st Day. 
From Krokan to Holvik (see above) in 4 hrs.; row thence in S'/a hrs. to 
Mjetttrand , and in 3 l /z-l hrs. more to the N. end of the lake; walk in 
7s hr. to Mogen (poor quarters; guide, Kristoffel Olsen If ogen). — 2nd Day 
(with guide to Eidfjord, 16 kr.). The path ascends to the K.W. to the 
(6 Kil.) QJuv*je> abounding in fish, passes several small tarns on the left, 
and crosses (9 Kil.) the Qjwoaa or Skvatta. It next passes three mountain- 
lakes, where the soil is boggy and the scenery desolate. The FJcldij* 
remains to the left, the Lakmtje and the large Jfordnurndtlaagen (4166 ft.) 
to the right. On the last-named is the refuge-hut Bamdhoug. belonging 
to Sylvfest H. Kvammen, a good guide. Lastly we cross the Be$$a-Blx>, a 
considerable stream which falls into the Xormandalaagen, and soon reaeh 

4, L0VHEIM. From Hougsund 

arious walk of 12-13 hrs. in all) the stone hut of Betsabu 
luarters). — 3rd Bay. Over the wild and bleak Hardanger 
5 Kil.) BcerrtuUrlen in 5-6 hrs., whence a good path leads In 
> (9 Eil.) Fali Hotel, above the V0ringt/os (p. 1(B). 

srs bound for the Hardangbb Fjord (or Skien), who wish 
j above-mentioned mountain-route, should drive hack to 
r otodden (4-5 hrs. ; p. 27) and take the steamer there 
j on week-days, once on Sun.). This vessel crosses the 
rand (10 M. long), calls at Farodden or Farvolden at its 
d then descends the 8auer-Elv 9 which expands at first 
lafjord. Beyond Aslaksborg or Aarnces the steamer enters 
r (p. 34) and soon reaches Vlefos (in all about 2 4 /2 nr8 « > 
•0 0. ; to Skien in 472 hrs., fare 3 kr. 70 a.). From Ule- 
», see pp. 34-36. 

Lowing route is less advisable. At the point where the 
. reaches the Hitterdal road (p. 28), we follow the latter, 
eft to Hitterdal, but up the valley, along the Hjardals- 
vdsvark (Inn) and the skyds-station of — 
n plnn), situated amid pretty scenery, 19 Kil. from 
Kil. from Notodden, and a little to the E. of Saulands 

vhbim to Siljobd (p. 81), about 34 Kil., a mountain-path leads 
ascending the OrvncUngtdal, watered by the Mjcella. On the 
halfway, is the HCtel JA/Jeld, the starting-point for the ascent 
i (p. 31). 

vhbim to Dale (p. 28), about 40 Kil., an interesting ronte. Car- 
La Been, in the Tudal (33 Kil.), to the new Sanatorium on the 
;a. 3280 ft.), situated above and to the N.B. of the Kovatulvand. 
. sester-path (with guide) across the spurs of the Oausta and 
gefond-Bceter to Date in fr/t-iyi hrs. 

farther on is Moseba (quarters at the Landhandler's). 
y becomes wilder and grander. We pass the Hjcerajs 

the left. 

Skovheim i Hjctrdal or Skogheim i Hjtrtdal (^Flatlantfs 
kr., B. 80 #., S. lkr.) is the starting-point for the ascent 
'egg (4890 ft.; 5-6 hrs., with guide; there and back 

which towers to the N. 

d continues to ascend. About 7 Kil. from Skovheim we 

road to Flatdal, which diverges to the S., while the Toad 

al leads to the N.W. 

ra Skovheim to Aamotsdal y 23 Kil. j thence by footpath to 
the Totakvand (p. 29), about 30 Kil., or to the MJesvand (p. 29 ; 
on via Satpelid to Vaaer (p. 29; 28 Kil.). 

tdal road crosses the watershed of the Hjaerdal and de- 

gzags, commanding beautiful views, to Flatdal, with its 

h and sprinkling of farms. It then skirts the E. bank 

iaUvand, with the Skorve field (4380 ft.) rising in the 

. Adjoining the lake is the Spaadomsnut, the falling of 

the water, according to tradition, will be the prelude to 

he world. Farther on we obtain a view of the Siljordi- 

fo the Hofdong^^r ^-'^/ord. HEOOESTOL. 4t r^^ 

▼and (386ft.), a ^x-c^-^atresqne lake 9 ©V2 M - in length, and theZJA, 
(5085 ft.), on wli^c^n^ two Frencli aeronauts descended in 187 
haying aimed in. -tl^^xr balloon firoxti JParis in 15 hours. At the 1 
end of the lake YL^s. -4^'Sie church o\f Siljord, where our road cross 
the feeder of the T*sL*cl^ and is joined by a road from Dlefos. 

22 Kil. Ko^t>»x^v«»Xden flnxO* Jaoax Oppebsen and ##*«?*, whei 
quarters may ala 1^^ ohtained. ^ „ . . 

We pass, 14, :W^m from /3UJ«ra , ^«*»Wefy#-«Wte (1290 ft.; 
splendidly sitn^-fc^^^ * +h*» watershed, where the road forks. Th 
left (S.) arm l«s«*.^± V 1 f& Kil- tfrom Kobbervolden) Kirkebe, 

station of the »**.x>_<^ ^t? «a e*«*» jaaer &' '» whlcn m *r be U8ed t 
complete the joxm^^^^* 8 ** 1 ^© road leads 1 to the right (N.W.)througl 
the Morgedal, ^**_^ -S"*' "TLro sm»H l*** e * ( 13 90ft.), to — 

16 Kil. Hen*-**^ ^ 6 -^1 &***&**>**- 9 0>°* station). It then passej 
the church of EC**^^^*! n a iid sltir*J» tl*e Oftcvand to — 

19 Kil. Oft**„ ^Z** Mog*** y where a road diverges to the S. U 
(11 Kil.) LaurcZ^^ ^^^^Vhe Baudaksvand (p. 36). —-We cross a rangt 
of hills of consi«a «=^ ^S height- Near u&amodt(2 Kil. short of Tveiten 
the road crossea -fc^^^ #1? ke-Elv* wliicl* descends from the Totakvand 
and forms a fine :T**r» -^^ ,?f!T the Hv^^*» rf ^°'» 8 /* M * to tne N - of Aamodt 

17 Kil. Tv«*i^*3 ^ aI Tveito (poor station). — Farther on is the 
house of Mulc^ -^T^*~ °fi v ftituated above the E. end of the Vinjc- 
vand. The roa«l ^^C ^* «««« and down along the N. bank of the 

cond. The roa«3. SC V,n « nr> and dtovra along the N. bank of the 

lake, passing se.-v-^^*-^» runB )**,.,„„ ^hich isJanugaard, wherearoad 
diverge, «Ko s *^^^t*TU**mo^* d g 29) We . "mg 

abruptly to the «-V^ * * on * h ®.^ °. t the N.W. endof theVinievand 

Here a Jbentfft*X ^** *<* °* ^''ed <>* ibe ^^ (4580 ft.) an d 
of the Orm-%^ c ^2^^*-^!w is obtained <■ J ""^ 

12Kil.Heg^^ _*« the S."W. The road crosses the Fin fc-liv., 

byaloftyh I id^^^2t^ fl( g 00 d 8 t»txo»> d mentioned at p 38^ 

**-*». «3. joins the ne^ * *• «~. 

^ 6 ^ 1 hl°- ^^^- 7S !* Skr.G6 0- ij2r 106 KiJ., by steamer tiS iV' 
from about the TtoJ^J>**. &ien to -**»***^ io fiV«-ii hrs. (WsT, ft y 

Since the ca*^^, ' __w~« f!^«.i *v . 

UBiun;. — —-■■». w, 4 per0. ---^— « """=«a 

audHaule^C^^^-n of the Tel^-J^-^ the , , oute via Skien 
venient »nd co«oSri?e the tourist ««»*5^ fehristiania t« JJ5 S os l con - 
yjord. The Ai»S5^^ble approach J^^o^BfSflnth J?*? 6 ?» rdan ger 
hiing spent at SS5^ ca, » soSetimeaJSf ^ollowine di^S d ** yfl ' *? 6 ni e h *« 

£ V^&lT ^ W 8t 8^ y ^*5S^ WS SSiWSSB ^ a e n a d" 
it la poaaiwe to r~£& 8te«mor *o -*?~* tl4 e eyentng of the first dii? 





Hhe Hardanger fjord. SKIEN. 

5. Route. 33 



fee second fortnight, and afterward* 15 kr. per week. — Sia-Baths, 

W. of the harbour. — British Vict- Consul, Mr. Fred. Dahm. 

lurtrifc, Laurvig, or Larvik, formerly the capital of the county 

it name, with 11,300 inhab. and the suburbs of Langestrand 

W. and Thorstrand to the £., is beautifully situated on the 

pyiksfjordy near the mouth of the Laagen. 

fkhe station lies on the quay, which the railway skirts. Pleasant 

on the long quays. The streets running inland ascend to the 

peskovy a fine beech-plantation above the highest houses on the 

lide of the town. Near the entrance are a cafe* and a music 

ion, where a band often plays in the afternoon. Among the 

t of the walks in the wood is that leading from the pavilion to 

right (N.E.) to a point commanding a fine view of the Farisvand 

e left. Another walk may be taken from the station to the E. 

<mrvik$ Kirke (fine view of the fjord), and to Hcrrgaardebakken 

all ii/s-2 tie.). 

: The train (best views to the right) crosses the Fartielv (which 

yes the Fritse Jernvctrk and several other factories), ascends 

the Farievand, and skirts its W. bank, passing through a series 

short tunnels. The scenery is a pleasant mingling of field and 

. — 169 Kil. Tjose; 182 Kil. Aaklungtn, on the small lake of 

t name (135 ft.). Then past several lakes. 188 Kil. BirkedaUn 

ft.); 191 Kil. Eidanger (Hotel), i/ 3 hi. from the station, pleas- 

tly situated amid woods on the Eidanger Fjord (railway to Brevik 

dei construction, see p. 7). 

195 Kil. Porsgrund (Stianten's Hotel; Victoria, with caff), a 

wn of 3800 inhab., lies on both banks of the Skiens-Elv, which 

escends from the Nordsjff and enters a bay of the Friersfjord H/g M* 

low the town. — We now ascend the left bank of the broad Skiens- 

lv through a smiling district with numerous farms. A tunnel is 

{traversed near — 

204 Kil. Skies. — Hotels. *Boyal Hotbl, at the corner of the 
Telemarks-Gade and the Torv-Gade, with 16 rooms (2 kr. \ D. 2 kr.) ; 
'House's Hotel, Jernbane-Torv, near the rail, station and the pier of the 
sea-going steamers, commercial, B. 2, B. 1, 8. i 1 /*, D. 2kr. ; Grand Hotel 
(landlord speaks English), at the W. end of the Telemarks-Gade, with 
view of the wharf of the Telemarken steamers. — Caft-Restauranl in the 
FestMteti'Lokalf also good warm baths P/4-lkr.; tickets opposite, at the 

Post Office, in the Kongens-Gade. 

Steamers. To Telemarken twice daily, (once on 8un.), both to Ulefos 
and Dalen and to UUfos and Hitterdal (p. 30) ; pier nearly 1/4 H. from the 
rail. stat. (cabs in waiting). — Sea-going steamers ply to Porsymnd, Langs- 
suiuf, Christiama^ and Fredriishald (once or twice a week). 
British Vice-Consul) Mr. Jas. Franklin. 

Skien (pron. Sheen), the ancient Skida, a commercial and indus- 
trial town with 9000 inhab., dates from the 14th cent., but has been 
repeatedly burned down (last in 1886) and rebuilt in a more sub- 
stantial style. Skien is the birthplace of the dramatist Henrik 
Ibsen (b. 1828). The town lies on the N. bank of the Skieiu-Elv, 
which here breaks through a rocky barrier in two falls and forms a 
Baidiub's Norway and Sweden. 6th Edit. 3 

34 Uoutt 5 

ULBFOS. Fr<m christians 

«^«S°2d lh!\ e J f nban ?- T T r > a * the harbour, are theifc»J- 
Tie broad PHnl ^ n * 80mo ^adhus y with itg arca ^ ed Tegtibll ie. 
brick building /"oV a8cends hence *> «»e new Cforeft, a Gothic 
front of thp 5v 7 I - ?' Ber 6 n » with two lofty spires. The square in 
Skien'a FeaiLr* r adorned wltn a Contain and is adjoined by 
staurant J v ^ u ' Lo ^ a h with a public library, baths, and a cafe-re- 
the wharf of fit 8 ? 66 * named <Broerne ' (bridges) ascends from near 
f°*> the two w 6 * arken 8tewners t0 the Damfoi and the Kloster- 

them formpvi aUs mention e 4 above. On a small island between 

I the »teen Jt # I* 004 the ntlnner y of 0inu9 9 founded in 1110. — On 

BratsberoOh gHev > to the S ' E - of the town » are the ruins of the 

I C fln « view h **' Whicn haB ^ ven lts name t0 the entire dlBtrict 

^Oniiu bv # ? h m £ rnin S Hght). It is reached from the rail, station in 

/ y ne Nv Skotlandsvei and a flight of wooden steps. 

^eends theSfe? ABKB1T Stbameb » which starts above the Damfos, 
1 the thre© *rl Tju *"'®^ t, > passes several factories, and reaches (Va nT 

Cerent levftia * °f L*»eid, constructed in 1861 to meet the dif- 
of ^UhteLn Nor <*5f* and the Skiens-Elv and hewn, like those 

nte *- The fn °? t 0f the I0ck * The P aMa « e of the locks tak6B 20 min " 
Th e steam l0ck ls n8ed when the water ls exceptionally high. 
**e Hopd b1jt m£\ * n ? xt passes several small islands and soon enters 
{ n l **gth ?T£a **->' the «Mef lake of TelemaTken, 28 Kil. (17 V2 M.) 
ban *« are snrrn r *? elvl ng the overflow of several other lakes. The 
* ie e| Jtran ce 4 Un 5f d b y low wooded hills. High up to the right, near 
B °nian Oatholl St ' Mika ^^h or St. Michael's cave, where 

a ^ew to the rf° if ervice » were formerly held. Farther on we have 
?* r t of the latA f ° f the ohurch-tower of Romnoas and of the N. 
****. after leavf v ® reed by the Hitterdal steamer (p. 30). In about 

VietoB i jy I* Skien we reach — 

0n both banks «? t£ ^ °' P - Sondreieris Hotel, at the pier), situated 

ma, *en lakes ^j ? -EMMfo, which descends from the great Tele- 

tootive povrer <S> ere enteM the Nordsj*. Its water affords the 

tb * pretty dw Vj ** sev *ral. mills and factories. One of the finest of 

* ith Kb *arfl« ^ r ? 8idences iB the castellated villa of Hi. Nils Aall, 

Reamer to 7r7+, fright). To the left is €he church of Holder*. — 

Uefosif*'^*" 1 ' 8ee P' 30 ' 
^structed frt ^«fiSJ a SJ n 8-P 0int of the *B"idak-Hotdsjsr Canal, 
**ereno e o/?L~?7y2? at a C0Bt of 3,000,000 kr. to overcome the 
°?*Oiiei of th« vfl* ^V*° ft between the two lakes. It follows the 
^cuJties, a8 ^"« elv »ndisl7Kil. long. The work offered special 

/°<* but iajto ^?i^ ° f the 17 lockB could not be ae ^ 01lt of *be 
2?^. The ate^«f»r 01 ? ned with the aid of <^ormous dams of ma- 
^ffa, the Urn* l£J5?*£ ta ^ e8 ^Z 4 " 3 hrs - to asoend flom Ulef oa to 
ft . rhe ^*r iS®*, Cin the reverse direction 2i/ 2 hrs.). 

Earner asce«a 8 SfiiT-^/t 11 °{ the Eidse ^> *■ B6 ft. high. The 
U<l8 tlil » beight by three locks. At the top is an arched 

*° *•**■*, 

Fjord. KIKKBB0. 

*■-% D Fr?**- lllB tat Btatl0 ° * B -*"*«i™ (Asbebrj'a Hotel, R. 
seen ^ J " 0. beyond which we teach the •Botyiu (32 ft. high ; 
*° P «»« n„ f !, )> otetcome by two locks. It takes six lock* to conn- 
*°P «/ this J lfa « *»*«*/>>• (110 ft.), * little farther on. At the 
bi gh and 70 » ° f looks *' " 8 i B* ntle d » m ot lei I*"**, 106 ft 
often f onna ft t "Ms »t Ita lowest part, the overflow at which slw 
"nail bridge. fdl t ri 8h0- The banks are beta connected by a 

fi-twn thelt^* 6 ' Jakej mlrl , „ hoor (1 o mm . dowiw.rdi) to aaeend 
ffcowa HerX?',*""* to the nppenno.tVrar.efoi lock, fto traveller 
5?1> *M follow^,'*'" »• "earner, "OM tin bridge jwt .bore the Eld.- 
» t. n PP«rB„i S" *°o4 path on the right bank, through wood, to F» -Id.) 
tl- Vie »-P<rfM JS!***' , J°<*. Mm, the end of AU walk, to the right, i. 
»c Btatre^" 1 ' *'"> a itor, e tabic alTnrdine a Ana view ot the whole (Saan- 
**■ »■**? 0Ck '- P^anger. in 0.° other direction .ho-Jd alsoTak. 

dee pened t ^, IBer now "wnda the wide rtver, whleh baa been mnoh 
♦Wefci, wo I3S°* n *• construction of the dams. The bank* are 
cro PB and n ' wiHl "*» »°^ tneT8  iatm-hons* snnonnded by 
0«*d Ci38fi » ""*• At an expansion of the rivet we see the Itmke- 
*o -t(/>, w r ; ^"""led from DlefDi in B-4 hrs.), to the S., while 
"*»** of j^£\ 3l J Hies to ibe N. On the left f>.) »•»* u «* lh * 
^ y ^ th8 ^ea^t? 0J, PM«« " blel1 ta ****¥'*> wmetlmaa tonohed 
?2f> 7 Kll £?* r - fre „i„ 10 ft by tie loch of Lund* oi flnwl- 

^5*5 ***& * 10 more by tbe ** of *"* 

Jhe Wel , ,?"*.«>_ ^ ~-,i -i r7out»i and raise the .te.mer 23 ft. 
J."' *» tZi"'£L" P HMM UmUXl 1, .n»e 

S, "•*»»•» „'"» ,.*»« "£. if the river. 

£*»"% on „ *t?«l>»""™oli tkeS. D.nh, end the .Utter, ot 

.. inl »- ^.^'ftS K. n k. **- .mi f nnn fl In thefore.ts on the 

S'^Wot,"" 'J"* i Ml.bottoO» ° a, s. l.„h, „d the .Utlorrot 

S« 50"?^™ higher end .te.,e. : to the tl.U 

hgS ,. ** tl" Pier), P le * ,„.>.» ».^"^ 

; H*rdatHK fl>0Bt- *o * 5. Route. 37 

#t K 

Mirh rj i t ^^ oecomea level for some 
time abd again a» cc **Tf **«? -~*-gp«en moM^Si??** (1 ^ r * fr°^ Eidsborg) 
affords a toe vie* ?f ^*<* **od, to OA iS w°JL t0 n tte K ' PfcrUwr Qn 
we deseendTamid *>f*£ *o tie MoAwuim-jSSg^^ S.'JIEf 11 a ? r '?S L A path 
diverges here to the *{*$ *<>JJI». Artli«^» ~ o? V£J!?fift£ °?J Cr ? M 
the brook. AUhlct ah^ljflTtt, or MU^m^ffSm m ^ a T t ^Sj A l \?*, 1 left > ln " 
dieates the way to **•??«? ^*^«v , and coW^ndK 114 cul ? r rock ^ 
1090 ft. above tiie torbia«*S strict of ^lesland ^Kre 1 • •Plendid view 
of the Libygfjeld and the ^m below, so tbkt xyl^L *' f * COn8tant eiup - 
rent of air here ascending *£ are carried back <£<£? L? iEW r thr0Wl1 
from the rock do not fall t^ „*** sweep of *£Z^oSi &£!$?• To tb « 
left, in the valley, we Bee *» ^it of KZi^ Os«tr S in fK2 bed be,ow - 
A pavilion commemorates *** tf&eir journey to the lar" f™*; X: ~~" Aiders 
tod walkers may eontifl^^gl* forest, and a:Tte:srwaSdfl d<2L R **»ejuvet. 
The path at first leads * r £? fc^ 4 ' **- w ~ '•■^^StaS^A «^T 
and crosses the Toke-Elv. ***frords good quarters. Uia li° f #*9ton± 
where the gaard of JSan<t°*!: . •, 4 kr. * p. 3f>. ,s ^o a 8kyda : 

-tahon (to Thveiten in W^^fM* F* OM >, «*o m] >leted ir, 48 ao 

a ^^^^HAJ^^J^n DriAge*, about 1 Kil f?^ CT08 *eg 

tokos* Tofce ^ by ft n *. artneT S • ^ ^ e ^i^Ditan, 

^ri e ^ reth r^o C«ee belowr) diverge, t 'J. °f*« Afl 

£^m * 72? ° ~?o ^«w«esthe^aan«d^^ Just 
beyond this point the newro»«» x*r>, **_« 4 * „„ A- UHWe ©p8 ljnw..,* 

high above the brawling ^o^^'^^B ** ™»* the ^o*L ^ 
walkers may avoid a Ion* *>«»* *>? if°°?f ±«* *teep] y £° J**-lfr 
bank. The road continue* *o a«eei.a f»ir ** 1 ®^ * *«fcft 
slope of the valley of the Tokc-Elv, afif e5 d *S ff * grand *ie£ J W - 
wlley and the precipitous freights to th<e IE. (_K*vnej Uvet w flftfc e 
It then describes a sharp eixTve, still aaeencling, while a aft °*«). 
Nasland (see above), diverges to the ri^Iit- The road i s p a *°«<i to 
in the living rock and traverses fine coniferous woods, hi J J yllew n 
the H. slope of the valley of the Rokke-Elj- At ; an op eril 5* .*P on 
*ood we ha^e a peep of the churoh of Ma to the left, « J » th e 
late, farther on we cross *he Bokke-EIv, joining the old >V? al1 
the right bank. After passing the parsonage ofMo We , ™* d <>n 
lower endot the B*rtevaru* and Berteosen l*J**>, «• 1 kr. ? fcT^fce 
90 ».), ^hicb lies on the lake, to the rfgrkt of the road. ' °", 8. 

Above the W. bank of tke Bwtevand *^***h the r. , 
mm up and do^rn, Tises the abrupt Rantcfjeia (4726 f t ). ^ ^°ad 
hankis entirely uncultivated, and rises ln J»«'^ 0< * TOc ^ ^alis 8 ti e ?* 
led with trees The road crosses the B^rrtevaand and reaefce'a 

26 Kil -Bsirte, Ae ftrat skyds-station , with a small buT^ 
hotel. ThebS-P^ « TOmB '^^ In *** S«te«dal (■eep.SJ^ 
the road here. The J**?*™ ^"^"^^^Tt^ ^4eof 
B^rfe^re^n, beyond which we enjoy a fine ^^^^Ppef^ 
of tbeBertevand. VTe ascend gradually over the B"™"^ th rou ^ 

beautiful felwoodi. T ^ J 1 ^ ^? m <*? ««• Sd1«r i , BWo « ^5 
beyond the top. Tb» w* d descends in windings and 3 oin a the ^ 

H^L^r rt ,8 M -) * 'Landhandlert' •*<£* S'&S^SS**- 

lh e ^L Cp - 3 P> wU< *> however, are not -«•***« i„ pretty poor. 

It cToate. fv ro * D d - 1 * Wh "«*• now foUow *° ^^tfc ntiroerons dips, 

ttrourt ?v U Ktt, - Eto ™* ascends, thong* *** ""j gjope of 

during thl!, c ° me " Into sight to the N., »«* *f^ monotono u8 
valley? Thf 8 '*/ *•*»»«* **"** * h S^oSd on the right 
*y a fcotSft J?* Jf 0880 * **• **«, «•**• ^^ogfit then turns 

sharply to ft^S »»"2*M* <« *° T**S0L tStiy Sr^ngcdaUva^ 
Ci590ft ^ • " nd 8O0n reaches the pretty «•"* »^ 

andai?o?^ tp8rt0f ^ route, skirting the green but *^low lake, 
Th* ^ d ? g a «»od view of the Gttrifjeld, is very picturesque. 
££.?£' Wev <*» * rough and uneven. Beyond the yejlowish- 
brown a*** ofGfuL^cU^e reach the farms of Edland or Ei- 
JMf, and faithw 0ft v ^^ ^ foaming Q*alau*-Elv and follow 

^ e „i e JVn? k of *e n*<*thvl-IX». To the left (8.), at kilomct**- 
stone yo (f rom g kle| ^ we se e the fine Fct/os descending fw» «* e 
i\r«dre ^anptfi^and in ' series of bold leaps. The route now ascends 
a monotonous valley Dft gsing * few farms , of which the two of 
Ftottihyl are the naogt'im-oort^ 11 *- About halfway between Bui **d 
Botn we p aM the new lio*»l °* Gaufccffc*. After having forced its 
way through a rocky barrier i*i * * eneB of fallB alld *«pids, the Flaat- 
hyl-Elr forms several »^£ or dee P P ool »- The largest ojf the water- 
falls (to the left, dose xo *** e *° ad } *■ the ^^ Rjukcmfos CM** 1 * 
smoking faim the heat -*>oi»* for 8urve y i ag which is the projecting 
rock near its foot. ThS l»*« ert H * 1 ls the Ebelidh^l (2290 ft.> 
Continuing *> ascend, ^« a* *•** "** ~ 

27 Kil Botnen C&90 «- iJR*/* 1 "? 11 * shooting and Ashing), 

^0 co m andto| *^ fAr m« and the last sparse crops of barley 

**d iot L°* P ^arVVex Trl ^^ **e .*«« *****, «d then the ^rrr- 

atiJS^flfcf ^«W<*"<*- This region la almost uninhabited, a 

fe wold. a,1 f^n*Pto«B *lo«e -elieying ^monotony. Near kilo- 

tod**!?** *&£%l teach » P^ n * commanding a fine "View o* the 

^ou^* ** *?£ : W-: to the lef t K^ Arf^^ n ( ^ 7 65 ft.), then JE tote- 

el >o -fc T; to *r£9A0 f *-> *° th6 wMch ri8es the JK>«*«tMa«l. 

free* 1 1 9 ***"* L 

18 i 8,i l>P al,r ^Ii-S89te«' C*^f»» co n « 8 «ng of an old wooden house 
»d a^.^^tThbur' by B.Munthe, R. f. 2 , B. 1, D. 1 */*-!*, 

to the Hardangtr Fjord. 30LDAL. 5. Route. 89 

S. 1 V2 **.), ft t the E. end of the £taot?<m<Z (3085 ft.), situated amidst 
imposing scenery, and commanding an unimpeded view of the fjeld. 
The peaks and even parts of the plateau remain covered with Bnow 
as late as August. 

The good road leads to the N.W., skirting the Staavand. After 
about 10 min. we get a glimpse of the Storefond to the right, and 
*/4 hr. farther on is a ruined bridge on the left, oyer which the 
old bridle-path led. About 2 l fa M. from Haukeli , we cross the 
Ulevaa-Elv, which descends from the N. and forms the boundary 
between the districts of Bratsberg and S«ndre Bergenhna ; to the 
right it forms several low but very broad cascades. After 1 M. more 
we reach the Vlevaavand (3095 ft ; 2 M. long), to the left, the N. 
bank of which our road skirts. We are now in the heart of a fjeld 
solitude. To the right we have a fine view of the precipitous Store 
Nup and the Storefond, and to the left Sveien ; in front rises the 
Stafmut, to the right of which are the Rekkingsnut and the Midt- 
dyr RutU, 

After a drive of 1-1 V4 nT « PV2 ^0 ^ rom Haukeli, we cross the 
Midtdyr-Elv, turn to the S., and at the foot of the Dyrnut, the E. 
part of the St afsnut, begin to ascend the pass of Dyreskard (3715 ft.; 
watershed), the top of which we reach in */2 nr - more. To the left 
is a ^arde', erected by King Oscar II. in 1879. The road now 
leads to the W. through a wilderness of snow and stones , some- 
times descending slightly. To the right is Stafsnuten, to the left 
Sveien and the narrow green 0isteinvand. To the left, below the 
road, about 97s M. from Haukeli, lies the Midtteger-Sater ; and 
on the road is the Nye Midtlceger-Sater. About 10 min. later the 
three houses of Svandalsflaaene (beer and milk in a hut on the 
road) and several small lakes appear below us to the left; in 10 min. 
more we reach the hill of Staven, and in 5 min. more begin to de- 
scend. To the right, below, lies the Tarjebudal, with the saeters of 
Tarjebudal and Nya Stel; to the W., in front of us, is the Horrehei. 
In 10 min. we cross by the Risbubro to the right bank of the Riabu- 
Aa, and then descend rapidly in huge zigzags. Near (10 min.) 
the 08tmanlid Setter we have a fine glimpse of the Rffldalsvand. 
The scenery improves. After 20 min. we cross the noisy Vasdali-Elv 
and follow its right bank, high above the stream. In front of us is 
the broad NovU-Fos, near which the road passes 10 min. later. The 
river with its numerous rapids is constantly in sight. The Reddals- 
vand again (6 min.) comes into sight, backed by the Holmenut and 
Reldalsaaten (4125 ft.). A drive of 12 min. more brings us to — 

30 Kil. (pay for 35 Kil. in the reverse direction) Reldal (*H6tel 
folded, R. lV»-2, B. 1 1/4, D. 2, S. 1 1/2 kr. ; Grytings Hotel & Skyds- 
Station, D. 1 kr. 70 0. ; Fredheton's Hotel, unpretending), near the 
N. end of the Reldalsvand. On the lake, a short distance fom the 
road, is the church, in which have been incorporated the remains 
of an old 'Stavekirke'. — Farther on we cross the Tufle-Elv and 

; 6\ SKJ0NNE. From' Kongtbtrg 

ake to (4 KU.) Horre and the Breifond Hotel; see p. 96. 
point to (28 Kil.) Seljeatad and (26 Kil.) Oddc, see 
r . By spending a night at Reldal the traveller will be 
) enjoy the Seljestad road more thoroughly. 

Kongsbergto the Hardanger Fjord through the 


8. Of the great routes (comp. pp. 31. 41, 46) leading from E. Nor- 

the Fjeld to the W. coast, this is the least attractive and is 
d except by Norwegians. The inhabitants, however, are inter* 
they have retained many of their primitive characteristics and 
A Carbiagk-Road with fast stations leads through the Nnmedal 
d in the Opdal (128 Kil.), from which driving is also practicable 
1 Kil. farther on. Beyond this the traveller must ride or walk. 
re Gunderien Vi&ujor&m of Opdal. 
ad follows the right bank of the Laagen. 
. Svenesund. We cross the Laagen and pass the church 
>n its left bank. 

. Sendre FUsbcrg, near the church of FUsberg. Farther 
ley contracts. We cross to the right bank by an iron bridge. 
I. Alstad (Inn, well spoken of). The valley is pretty 
. The gaard Fikkan or Fekjan, 6-7 Kil. from A If b tad, also 
>d accommodation, and its owner has constructed a hut for 

and anglers on the Sorkevand or Serkjevand, 10 M. to 
t the VagUkirke we cross the stream, which here forms a 

On the left bank is the new Brobakken Hotel, near the 
ion of — 

Htllt (Inn). — The road ascends and then descends again 
: Nore-Fjord or the Kravik-Fjord (868 ft"), along the bank 
; runs. To the left rises the Eids field (4940 fO. One of the 
ngs of Gaard Kravik is said to date from the 12th century. 
>posite (right) bank of the river are the old and the new 
e. The road then skirts the 0vrt Norefjord (12 Kil. long), 

farm of Scvli y and reaches — 

I. Skjemne (920 ft. ; good quarters), with several old 
Beyond Skjffnne the road crosses the Laagen and turns 

into the Opdal, The scenery becomes very picturesque. 
Is-Elv forms several waterfalls. The road ascends rapidly 
nebu fjord (1525 ft.). 

. Liverud, at the W. end of the Fennebufjord, near the 
5 of Opdal. We continue to ascend, passing several farms 
>w church of Opdal. 

. Br*8terud (2625 ft. ; fair accommodation). Quarters may 
d at Nerstebe, a little higher up. 

r/srsterud to Neraal in the Halllngdal a mountain-path leads in 1- 
t ascends past the Va$» and Hefde s&ters in 4 hrs. to (17 Kil.) 
iiartera and horses at Qunnar Aasberg's and Halvor Kjfnaas's) 

(2760 ft.). — We again cross the fjeld to the Skurdal (10 Kil. 5 
arters at Qvttormtgaard), and then another height by a road to 
) Uitadal (quarters at Jeilo and Tu/to) ; lastly past several farms 
sbten and Hol y near Neraal (p. 45). 

to the Hat danger Fjord. SKARS-SiETER. 6. BouU. 41 

For the route across the' mountain to the Hardanger. (100 Kil. ; 
three days) a gnide should he engaged lower down the valley, and 
a supply of provisions obtained. The route from the N/ersteba at 
first follows the sstex-path, and then traverses the lofty Hardanger 
Vidda (4000ft.) commanding an extensive view in every direction. 
It leads past the Skartvand to the Skars-Sater, where the Laagen 
is crossed by boat. We pass the night in the tourists' hut on the 
Laagelidbjerg, or Laagriberg (3805 ft.). 

On the second day we skirt the river, the Ojetsje, and the Store 
Nordmandssfabet, and after a walk of 10 hrs. spend the night in 
the tourists 1 hut at the meeting of the Bjereia and the Svinta. Next 
morning onr route leads us to the Nybu-Scetre (3600 ft.), on the 
Nybusjaj the first on the W. side of the fjeld (VestenfjeldskeNorge). 
Beyond this we generally follow the course of the Bjereia, which 
lower down forms the Voringsfos (p. 102), and cross patches of 
snow, brooks, and marshes. We pass Storlien, Maursat, and Garen, 
and reach the Fosli Hotel (p. 110) in time to go on to Vik the 
same day. 

7. From Christiania through the Hallingdal to 
Lrerdalsftren on the Sognefjord (Bergen). 

4 Days. As the grandeur of the scenery between Christiania and the 
Sognefjord increases as we go westwards, this route should not be chosen 
by travellers in the reverse direction. 

361 Kil. Railway to Krlderen, 122 Kil. ; express in4»/i hrs. (fares 6 kr. 
66, 4 kr. 16 *.), ordinary train in 6 1 /* hrs. (fares 6 kr., 3 kr. 75 0.). — 
Btkahxb (Restaurant on board, D. 2 kr.) from Kr*deren to titobvtt, 46 Kil., 
daily in 2'/2-3 hrs. (fare 2 kr. 60, 1 kr. 40 0.). — Road from Oulsvik to 
Lcerdalstren , 184 Kil.. a drive of 3 days. Fast skyds-tariff. For a car- 
riage and pair f calescnvogn'), for two persons, the usual fare is 100 kr. 
(sometimes less when the demand is slack), to which a fee of 5-9 kr. is 
added (comp. also p. xvi). 

The journey is best divided as follows : (1st Day) From Christiania to 
Onlsvik. (2nd) From Oulsvik to Rolfthu*. (3rd) From Rolfshus to Br*Ut*1*» 
or Hegg. (4th) Thence to Loerdolurrtn. Or spend the first night at Jfcw, the 
second at Bjeberg, and the third at Latrdaltwen. It is even possible, by 
travelling 14-18 hrs. a day, to reach Leerdalstfren in 2 days, spending the 
night at Rolfshus. As almost all the stations on this route are either 
good or tolerable, the traveller may divide his journey as best suits his 
convenience. The only stations to be avoided are Bertnce$ and Vito. 

This is the direct route from Christiania to the Sognefjord, but is 
inferior in scenery to the Valders route. The name of Hallingdal is 
applied not only to the valley itself, but to all the lateral valleys from 
which streams descend into it, that is, to the whole district bounded on 
the 1ST. and E. by Valders, on the S. by the Numedal, and on the W. by 
the Hardanger region. 

Owing to the long isolation of this district, and especially of its side- 
valleys, from the rest of the world, many of its old Norwegian charac- 
teristics have survived ; and the traveller will still meet with curious old 
buildings, carved wooden tankards and furniture, and picturesque costumes. 
The inhabitants used to be noted for their passionate disposition, which 
sometimes found vent in the terrible 'girdle duel\ in which the com- 
batants CBcelteipamder') were bound together with their belts and fought 
with their knives. The natives still have a wild dance, called the Railing- 

Route 7. NJE8. From Christiania 

or SprinffdoM, accompanied by a weird kind of music CFanitvllen*) 
ascribed to aatanic influence. The following works may be referred 
fforsk Lyrik\ Christian!* , 1874, containing 'Asgaardsrejen*, a poem 
r tlhaven , and ( Fanitnllen < *, another by Moe ; ( S*gnir fra Halllngdar 
. NieUen; and 'Norske Bygdesagn' by L. Dmte. 

from Ohristiania to Vikersund, 96 Kil., eee R. 3. A branch- 
carriages changed) runs thence to Snarum and — 

16 Kil. Kr*deren (Restaurant; *Inn t opposite the station), 

tily situated at the S. end of Lake Kr*deren (445 ft.) , near 

efflux of the Snarums-Elv. The steamboat - pier is */2 M. 

the station. The lower part of the lake is surrounded by smil- 

hills. A skyds-road runs along the N.E. bank. Beyond the 

>,h of Kredsherred or Olberg, which lies on this road, the lake 

acts to the river-like Noresund. The road crosses here and 

nues its course on the W. bank. Farther on the lake again 

ids, and the scenery becomes wilder, especially beyond Nas, 

the Nore field (4980 ft.) rises boldly above the lake on the left. 

e interesting Ascent of thb Vobsvjkld (10 hrs.) is best made from 

m the Noresund. We follow the road to the N. to (4 Kil.) Bkadttt, 

end to the left, by a steep bridle-track, to the Sandum-Sceter, which 

a fine view of Lake Kr0deren. (A night may be spent here or at the 

«<ei\ 20 min. distant.) <Onr route runs to the N. W. through wood, 

* a lofty plateau (leaving the Ramtaai on the right), with a view 

nonntains of Telemarke* and of the Mffg*4aL It then attends to 

'unthavff (4012 ft.; extensive "View). The summit of the Hore- 

%ll«d the Hegevarde (4960 ft.) , rises 6-6 Kil. to the N.W., but 

is gained by ascending it. From the Augunshang we may descend 

the £. to Tungen and Ringnan, a 'fast* station, 11 Kil. from 

nd 17 Kil. (pay for 25) from Gulsvik. From the Hegevarde we 

•.end to the N.E. through the valley of the Gulsvik-Elv to (7 hrs.), 

see below). 

'/2-3Y2 hrs. the steamer reaches — 
Tik (510 ft.; *QuUvik'$ Hotel), at the entrance to the Hal- 
comp. p. 41). The skyds-station (good quarters) is about 
)m the lake. The lower part of the valley Is rather mono- 
ad travellers arriving at Gulsvik in the afternoon lose no- 
Iriving the same day (in about 5 hrs.) to Nas (see below), 
follows the W. bank of the Hallingdals-fflv, and is nearly 
ie way. Near the church of Flaa, 11 Kil. from Gulsvik, 
•Hdtel Vih. 

Aavestrud (fair station). The road passeB several lake- 
sions of the Hallingdals-Elv, on the largest of which, 
mvand (575 ft.), upwards of 18 Kil. long, lies — 
B&rtna8. At the upper end of the lake we reach — 
Wees (*Nas Hotel & Skyds-Station ; *8verikerwT* HoUl), 
ge, with a church, the district-jail, and a number of 
the reverse direction travellers may descend the river 
Gulsvik by boat (about 3 hrs. ; 8-10 kr.). The mi- 
ls make the trip rather sensational , but there is no 
the river is moderately full.] 

to Lakk Spibilles, 10-11 hrs. (guide unnecessary). A well- 
>ath ascends to the E. to Lake Strtien (good Ashing $ quarters at 

L * raaU *<n. PADSKE. 7. Bo. 

fi°£ 0>- iV l 1 ?* » B-* tan., md by Djvridal In 3-i bis. Mn t 
** 'Wait ™om *£-* lw J "*"' at tbehMd ofLaksS] 

"■"hotom i ° elwee »N*i and Yiko the road c 

Nki and Yiko the road crosses the river. 

] resort snd pleas- 

^ e4 ^^"«e- (Boats to Frydenlnnd in the Valdere, see 

° n tie B-i'ti^ t 700 ft-i mediocre quarters), beautifully sltusted 
..*'"'« v„ * adi -«W, the valley turns to the W. 

l»SSt Ijr *>r ■/. \J° ™ V^tossB '(10-12 hit.). The path aMtndi T«ry 

aJ^^towSl'SS?' >««•»- W B row »ro» (be IWUmS ©*» ft .), 
«»UI„ Bdu wyj stocked » 10l trout, wblcb form, tbs boundary between the 
S, ^ n, -ho ns . C "L V V t ie " «.lricto, then Howl In ibont fl hrs. to ««d«, 
™ ^"Sl.Mi.*"**"' ™ a " OM "« lake by « long bridge 
de «coDd B nt f , 2 Ktl - » b c™ Bolishtu the Halliogdals-ElT, which 
?""**«. d^* ? e U »«K Halllngdal (W.; p. 44), Is Joined by the 
r *»- W 6 C1 1 ndin e from the N.W. The latter forms a One water- 
J* 10 "** the <he HemaU *y tie Hutatro, beyond whieh the road 
the i 'en>w T *"ey leads to the left, and ascend it* right bank 
ES'^WSoW* "Wonting the ffoW«**er in long windings, *od 
. ft f«om,, „ r , n P within riB" ° rthe new cnnrcb - of 8 * 1 ' w th * 
22S 6 *>« t£ M XS«* CIO ML) IMP- (1440 ft.) we 

yV'tteT ' **j I I W »«« « na th « bottom of the T,,iiB y «• 
taJ *£ .» 4(, « "• „/ f.rther on we reach — 
mi Z8?*e*th>? J*W 0i ? -r" bMV quarters). The scenery becomes 

stance. 4 Kil. farther oi 

ramowwi US tbs 
' tie (B hrt.) FotMn 

■n Mater-path uunda 
.s On Sleri/* « la* 

tie fli brt.) roM/uUfSaur, "= — 
i station of ft>M" (p- W). 
. from o n r r D »4 »t uUaktr, >^7™ 
otlho gbvsaorn (S»« • ho,e > %^jSJT 
Is, fklUM Utu the •isislsM-ssnl. '* 
ha »S of the Bel«">J ,V*JS. 

CMwItgslsl (6600 «-), "«- 4B8em 
i. from Ekre. •— «m 

[m>11 «„. «. v.-J^J;S. 

Ill, nnMilB 1»« »iJSS>,»¥" 

,, th. 1U« li «" SST— , v, 

0, .i •»• «»»» •' S5„»»* •" 
.Hot.ii r°™» " , " * ** 

7 SUNDRE. Upper 

l *d ascends rapidly and traverses the Weak and desolate 
a scene of stupendous mountain-solitude. This stage 
3 hours. 

(pay in the opposite direction for 30) Bj*berg (3320 ft; 
requented by reindeer- stalkers), the last station in 
tf al , lies in a bleak solitude at the foot of the Hemac- 
Farther on (7Kil.) we pass a column marking the boun- 
>n the 'Stift' of Christiania and that of Bergen. The 
the precipitous Kjelberg on the left and the Eldrevand 
; To the N.E. rises the Jekulegge (6280 ft.> The road, 
in Norway (3800 ft.), then descends rapidly to — 
LPay for 22 in either direction) Breist*len {Station, 
jood). Then a continuous and latterly steep descent, 
cal waterfalls, to the bridge of Berlaug on the Valders 
7-8 hrs. from Fauske). A little below the bridge is — 
ay for 15; in the opposite direction for 19)Hegg * B ° r ' 
—- FromHeggto£o?r<tatew«nC39Kil.), see pp. 54-Ob. 

The Upper Hallingdal* 

7 ? a U* the narrower sense, or main valley (^»«W«I- 
tothe W. from Viko (p. 43) to the wild »* **°J**« *°- 
ardanger Vidda ('hunting-ground'), across wbich toilsome 
pessary) lea d N.W. to the SogneQord and S.W. to the Harr 
erhaps nowhere else do we receive so overwhelming an 
»e peculiar nature of the Norwegian fjelds as here, where 
*em to loa* the ordinary character! stiea of mountains, the 
We and there on an isolated 'Nute 1 rising above the 
he monotonous plateau. The lakes swarm with excel- 
w * aest among the rocka; and the eagle pursues his 
id - At places the ground is thickly strewn for a long 
droppings of the lemming CUmam\ 'lemu* Nor ?W*ciu>, 
ejjt the wonderful migratory instinct of which is still 
^i« ta . The reindeer follow* the lemming, killing it with 
*»4 eating the stomach for the sake of the vegetable 
*a remarkably clear and fresh, though fogs and storms 
eurrence. With this district are associated some of the 
""wegian sagas, such as that of the VUland family, and 
»*n more of their ancient characteristics than those of 
»t of Norway. With the exception of the higher moun- 

scenery is neither picturesque nor imposing. 
3. Beyond the Hcslabro (p. 43) the Hallingdal 
?t bank of the Hallingdals-Elv to ELlefameen and — 
'toff. Near Nybgaarden is the old timber-huilt 
Irst mentioned in 1310 and partly demolished in 
and cLoors are finely carved. The tower of the 
'dk also contains several old carvings. 

£ ^Lal (♦Station). Near it are the handsome 

aining some relics of the older church, and two 

ie middle of last century, the Thing $iut (with 

erlor) and the Qretastue. — The road then skirts 

1=80 ft.), to the S. of which rises the Sang erf, jeld 

'sees a steep hill to the (15 Kil.) Holafjord 

HaUingdal. NERAAL. 7. Route. 45 

(1945 ft.), where it divides. The road to the left leads to the Uste- 
dal and the Hardanger, that to the right to Neraal and the Sogneflord. 

1. Routb to thb Habdangbb, (45-50 Kil. from Sundre). About 
3 Kil. from the bifurcation (18 Kil. from Sundre) lies Hammer tbten, 
whence a rough road ascends the Ustadal, passing the new Ustadal 
church, to (11 Kil.) JeUo (2675 ft. ; rustic quarters; guide to the 
Hallingskarv 3, to Kr»kjahytten 7, to Hardanger 12-14 kr.). About 
2 Kil. farther on is Tufte (8028 ft.), the highest gaard in the valley 

The huge Hallingskarv may be ascended from this point: the E. peak 
(6440 ft.) by following the course of the Bimeheia to the PrttUholtuH; the 
W. peak (6196 ft.), better, from the W. end of the Uttavcmd. View of the 
Hardanger Vidda (p. 106) not picturesque, bat very extensive. 

The route from Tufte to Maurssst (two days) passes the Smet- 
bak Setter, crosses the Ustadah-Elv by the 'Nybro' (the key of which 
must be brought by the guide), ascends the Ustaberg to the Ber* 
helletjem , passes the deserted Monsbuheia , crosses the tongue of 
land between the Legrcidsvand and the 0rterenvand, skirts the S. 
bank of the latter, and ascends the 8vaanut to the Store Krcekjavand. 
On the N. bank of this lake lies the tourist-hut of Kmkjahytten 
(4085 ft ; about 9 hrs. from Jeilo), a favourite resort of anglers, 
where the night is spent (guide, Ole Larsen Aker). — The following 
route (6-7 hrs.) is shorter. From Tufte we follow the Ustadals- 
Elv to the Ustavand (3315 ft.), cross It by boat to J&rterdalen, walk 
to the (1 hr.) 0rterenvand, cross this lake also, and walk (^2 br.) to 
the hut. Both routes have the Hallingskarv constantly in view. 

On the second day (10 hrs.) we skirt the Kraskjavand, and cross 
the river of Krakjastubben, near an old pitfall for catching reindeer. 
We then descend the HcUnebottner to' the Olafbttvand , cross the 
Kjelda to the Fiiketjem-Sater , and reach the Smytte-Sater , the 
first in Hardanger. We next cross the Leira, which descends from 
theN., to the Indste-Sctter, whence the rente to Maurscet (2445 ft.) 
and the Fosli Hotel (p. 110) is unmistakable. The imposing Har- 
danger Jekul is conspicuous the whole way. 

2. To Aubland on the Sognbpjobd (about 85 Kil.; 3 days; a 
guide should be engaged at Neraal or at the Gudbrandsgaard), a 
splendid, but fatiguing, mountain expedition. Our starting-point is 
Neraal or Nedreaal, 4 Kil. from the bifurcation above mentioned, 
and 19 Kil. from Sundre, at the N. end of the Holt fjord and near 
the Hevelfiord, The old timber-built Church of Hoi, near Neraal, 
is attended on Sundays by the peasantry in their picturesque old- 
fashioned costumes. To the W. towers the Hallingskarv (see above). 

At the W. end of the Hevelfjord lies Qaard Villand, once the 
seat of the turbulent family of that name , who lived here about 
the year 1700. Above Villand (5 Kil.) the road turns to the N. and 
leads past the Sunddalsfjord (2550 ft.) to the Gudbrandsgaard 
(2625 ft.; about 19 Kil. from Neraal; good quarters), to which 
driving is practicable. A saeter-track leads hence to the Qarlid- 

46 Route 7. OJE-SiETEB. 

^i*wS. ?* aie 8eYei&1 enters, to the farm of &»?%%* 51/. his. 

r^omtle a* I~»ttY occupied dwelling i~ Norway, 0/2 

Thea^ dmds ^ . * -^ begins here. 

me oririn J^^^P^ to the Sogn ^**™ Gt J^Zongel 
to the an^ll n ^ aMt * nt8 of «he Upper Hailing**!' ^jnounJns 

Laerdal tI COa8t > J* 8 * *» Valders was oxi£i»*liy Pf ^ 

tended by Ta^ ft °^ *» d * tMrd ***** ^^JLter-P^Va8cends 
Hi a valW ^£ ps * 0m ^pos. fFrom this point a *»*?* ? -«L#» and 

iaTs wdlrt ° ** ld «**l to the cattle-sheds of *******?&& o«? 
mA^?' Whence "enxay go on to Ose and Ulvik (p. *«>] °* r . 
E*?l ^^i 8 ^Pidly^othe^W Cgap')between tbe ^f 
where the ?* the ^"dhelU+fJcld on tne W. , crosses tbe ^>«^ 
£™£z! * d . lrecti <>n is indicated by <vardex\ and leads to the SUM* 
££%£**> *• "Ppermost sJters in tne Stctnberffdal, 4 bxs. 
5o?n f^^dsbotten, and in 1 V2 ht. more to the fte-Sseter 
*°J:; J ' wl *ere the nirfit is spent Cpoox quarters). Passing » 
^aterrali, we reach ^ e far ^ G>ranesfceri»aj*«r and the ( 3 /4 hr.) 
Qaard0strefo (g0od * ^* B ). Beyond a small lake, we next de- 
scend the formidable pass of *^e Nasbvgalder, partly by a long 
ladder, and partly by a r>ath of wioker-work borne by iron rods 
driven into the rock, to cLuxrd, N^bm. We then pass the Holtnen- 
sater and (2y 2 hr*. fro m 8 treb<9) Anally reach (H/ 4 hr.) the -Y<*«- 
tedaJ, where we eross a torrent and ascend again to Oaard g^aner- 
heim, ioamagniiicentsitttavtioxA resembling that of Stalheim(p. 124). 
Thence the path leads down tbe JS^nnerheimsffaider and along a rapid 
atream to the (2 hrs ~) Vr**ff*f0 4 * /r ' a ' nA ' tte DOat for mossing which 
[40 min.) is to be found a* &J* <>* 8tene > * ^11- *>eforo the Ia1w> is 
reached. From Vasenden. »* *** e ™ * ??oV f the lake ' t0 A******* on 
the Sognefjord, 6 Kil. more. See p. 133. 

8. From Ohri»tianl» *" U X?S **• J* 1 * en to *"»*- 
dalwm on the Sognefjord. 

Thia < , *nay be M*»o.e either via /.ofas SpiriUen or via tne 

*"4**^ Speller* *~~ te 1 " *! m °? F**™**™, **t tne 
*eamer i T 1? aid the other arrangements are inadequate for a 
«*• £ * 8m TtrVrellere. » ence *^ ™>**frequented route is by 
leiW* 1 ** of a ^ third route leads via the Mjmenr8j0 and Gtfevilt- 
hZfrQ **- «v any of tne three routes it is possible to reach 0°> ^iee day a, 1>«* J* iB v ^tter to allow four or Ave. 
theZ*?** *** trtme* tine traveller should always start betimes in 
btik**** of ^ reach hie night-quarters as early as possible, and 
he* at fce ^*?L- or, if necessary, go on to the next station. 
8 ec Uj x0 ot**> 

LAKE 8P1BILLEN. 8. BouU. 47 

a. VJA Lake Spirillem to Frydenlund. 

298 Kil. (to Lssrdalsfren 406 Kil.). Railway from Christiania to Heen, 
131 Kil., express in aVahre. (fares 7 fa. 40, 4 fa. 60*.), ordinary train in 

6 hrs. (Cares 6 kr. 85, 4 kr. 30 if A — Stxamboat from Heen to AtoiMt, 
56 Kil., daily, except Sun., in ShP/s hrs. (fares 3 or 2kr.)j or, when the 
river is low, to Ncct (Oranttm) only, in 4 f /t hrs. *, returning from Sprumor 
Kees on the following morning. Through-tiokets to 80mm are to be had at 
Ghristiania. — Road from Sjrrum to Fn/denhtnd, 51 Kil. Fast stations. 
The Drivers 1 Union of Heen (president, Br. O. Gravlimoen) lets carriages 
from Sjffrum to Lterdal for 80, 96, or 110 kr. for % 8, or 4 persons, but 
recommends previous ordering by telephone to Sjrrnm's Hotel. If the 
drive (on account of low water, see below) be begun at Granum, 5, 6, or 

7 kr. is added to the above fares •, and 10 kr. is charged for the detour 
to Lake Tyin (p. 152). Fares are usually reduced in the slack season. 

From Ghristiania to Heen, see R. 3. The time between the 
arrival of the train and the departure of the steamer is usually 
ample for early dinner at Bagndi Restaurant (belonging to the 
captain of the steamer) or at Anderson' $ Hotel, a little farther on 
(D. 1 kr.). Coffee, beer, and so on may be obtained on board. 

The steamer ascends the Bagna or AddaU-fflv, with its lake- 
like expansions. The navigable channel is indicated by buoys 
and stakes. To the left are the large farm of Scmmen and (farther 
on) Skollerud, to the right the church of Ytre Aadalen. The banks 
are hilly and covered with pines. Higher up, the stream becomes 
very rapid, and the engines are worked at fall speed. We next 
pass the pretty farm of Bergsund on the left. The mountains become 
higher and more varied in form. The course of the vessel is often 
obstructed by floating timber ( 'Tommer') . About 2 hrs. after leaving 
Heen the steamer reaches the rapid Kongstrtm, which intersects 
an old moraine, and soon enters — 

♦Lake Spirilleh (490 ft.; probably from spira, Ho flow rapidly 1 ), 
24 Kil. long, a beautiful sheet of water, surpassing theRandsfjord. 
The banks are enlivened by numerous farms, with their green pas- 
tures and scanty tilled fields, while over these rise pine-clad moun- 
tains. To the left is the Hegfjeld (3240 ft.). The chief place 
on the W. bank is Viker or Aadalen, with a church, 8 Kil. to the 
W. of which rises the Oyranfisen (3540 ft). On the E. bank lies 
the gaard of Engerodden. Passing the Bamberg (1680 ft; left), the 
steamer comes in sight of the church of — 

iWs£, or Nasmoen, at the head of the lake, with its wild moun- 
tain-background. The Bsegna enters the lake here and its mouth 
is crossed by a long wooden bridge, beneath which the steamer 
passes. To the right, just beyond the bridge, about 4 hrs. from 
Heen, is the station of Oranum, where the steamer has to stop if 
the water is low (skyds to Serum, 11 Kil.). 

To the H.W. of Vees, in the #vre Hedal, lies (22 Kil.) Ildjarnstad, with 
an interesting timber-built church (p. 27), dating from about 1200. Accord- 
ing to tradition the whole population of this valley died of the plague 
in 1349-50. When the church was afterwards discovered by a hunter, he 
found a bear installed by the altar, in proof of which a bear's skin is stiU 
shown. Similar traditions exist elsewhere in Norway and Penmark. 

; To tk« *M£; deb* * ^ >v * W^iill, 
>tain an ^° 8ir0 irtifit* **£?<* <^ er 0fl - 

m w Ti^ ^> ed8 * 00r, 5 * % to./ HI 80* 
iom Heen', is *• ****»« * of the a *£ 

v from Seftxim has recently been improved. 

river lies the gaard of Hougsrud, one of 

ifepdby tforwregians as summer-quarters). 

rtT-T orient t> ut modernized church of the 

«d where the road to the 0vre Hedal 

hovel ^ e now reac ^  Dofc *«» « Sendre 

ft the huge rocky Jfot*oH«i, the hase of 

d From the left, farther on, descends 

lery picturesque, the mountains showing 

ling quarters> To the left rises the Tron- 
\ FMfjeld. Beyond the gaard of Aor- 
i ^hich descends to the Baegna in a series 
either on is the farm of Olmhua. We then 
o the right opens the basin of Bang i Sendre 
is farms, its church, and parsonage, all on 
Hiirh up in the wood is the sanatorium 
ire reaching Fjeldheim the B»gna forms 
, which the road crosses. 
Inn D. 2 kr.) lies on the left bank of the 
'orks, the right branch leading via (D Kil.) 
reen, the left to ^rydenlund. 
blik lies amid pine-wooda, about 2000 ft. above 
™ did vie™. Its six buildings gotaa »on 
38 kr. per month, baths ex£a) ****** *£ 
r from S*nun or from (43 K.U.) U&n*a vp. ouj 
diligence from Odnnee). 

ad ascends on the B. side of the ravine of 
tide of the valley rises the pointed Hulfc- 
h is the old timber-built church of Reinlid 
vhich (i hr.) diverges to the left before the 
road is hewn out of the rock almost the 
m. of Jukam, to the right, are the remains 
(p. 26T). Good view to the left of the deep 
$r a drive of about i l / 4 hr. from Fjeldheim 
int. The road rounds a promontory and 
iew of the snow-mountains of Jotunheim, 
lorflnstinder, and other mountains round 
he road. then runs up and down, partly 

to Lcerdalsaren. BANDSFJOKD. 8. Route* 49 \ 

plough wood, and unites with the Randsfjord route about 2 M. ) 

b «fote we descend to — 1 

16 Kil. ^rydenZtmd (p. 50). 1 

*. ^i*. the Handsfjord to OdnsBi and thenee by carriage to 


490 Kil. Railway from Christiania to Randtfjord, 142 Kil. : express 

in 4*/ 4 hiB. (fares 7 kr. 40, 4kr. 60 iar.) *, ordinary train in 6-6»/t brs. (fares 

fc kr. 86, 4 kr. 20 *.). — Steamboat ("Bestaurant on board) from Rand* fjord 

to Odnces, 72 Kil., once or twice daily in &fr&h hrs. (fares 4 or 5 kr., 

2kr. 80 *.). — Road from Odnses to Lardals*rtn, 218 Kil., with fast station*. 

*or the whole distance a cariole coats about 46, a stolkjssrre for 2 pers. 

about 65 kr. The covered carriages (with two horses) offered by the Drivers 

Union (Yaldresrovtens Vognmamforening) between July 10th and Sept. 

10th are more comfortable. The fare from Odnttt to Lrerdal for 2 pers. 

is 80 kr., 3 pers. 96 kr.. 4 pers. Ill kr. \ detour to Lake Trin 10 kr. 

extra-, shorter distances 94, 40, or 46 0. per kilometre j fee 4-6 kr. Tne 

Journey takes 8-4 days. A distinct bargain ahould be made, both as to 

the fares and as to the hours of starting, halts for dining, etc — Com p. 

also p. xix. _. 

diligence twice a week between Odnses and Leerdalsswen. Fare 34 kr., 
including 44 lbs. of luggage ; overweight, which must be paid for, strictly 
limited to 44 lbs. more. When seats are engaged by 2, 3, or 4 persons of 
the same party the fares are 66, 80, or 100 kr. only. Extra-diligenoe 
(carriage with one or two horses) may be ordered for at least two persons 
at Odnses or at Lserdal tour days beforehand. In the height of the season 
the diligences are often full, and the inns where they stop are crowded. 
To secure seats it is advisable to write to Captain Larsen at RandsQord, 
to HCidier Pieder Aadnce$ at Odnees, or to HdteUer Lindstrtmi at Lserdalsfren, 
enclosing the fare ; but tickets are usually obtainable on board the ^"Jl ** 
steamer or at OdnsBS. Enquiry may also be made at the Tourist umces 
at Christiania (p. 10).— The diligence travels fast, the fares are moderate, j 

and meals and beds are kept in readiness for the passengers. In m * ^fifcl '! 

of tlie season it is, in spite of its comparative want of comfort, prereraDie 
to the skyds, where so much time is lost in changing horses as to prolong 
the journey by one or even two days. .„„_.„ 

As almost all the stations are good, the traveller may divide his 3°*™* 
in any way he pleases, but he should carefully avoid those stations wnere 
diligence-passengers spend the night (at present, going, !**•» ana *«r» 
atuen; returning, Ny$tum and Fagernaa). After arriving at Odnsss m w» 
evening it is possible to drive on to Tomleoolden in the long t^mg* *. 
Beautiful scenery almost all the way, particularly between Frydenluna»n« 
Blaaflaten (143 Kil. or 89Vs *.), which will even reward the P cde * w /^ 
The detour (one day) to Late Tyin, with the excursion to the BtonegQ W- *— " 
is highly recommended. 

Kailway from Christiania to Eandsfjord, see B,. 3. 

Bandsfjord Station (J5T6iei Berger, *ell ■**«* ^J^ffiU 
Hotel) lies on the left bank of the *and«-E^ £ j i ^^<Sw«w«. 
Randsfjord. A bridge crosses the broad rivet to Hodcianoa uva 
The pier is close to the station. a 4 A= Vto%&* 

The B*ndi<jcrd (440 ft.), 73 Kil. I<f8 Hadlkm*, «* "£ 


iisixie %?* 


AfA ** 

bounded on the E. by the fertile and T><rotxl° u *^. 

the W. and N. by Voider s and Land. The **^ a i 

to a height of 2000 ft., well cultiyated a* * !wthe *•*• *»"% 
the top, are somewhat monotonous. Being **Jt dinner * e s«r* e<x 
hies a broad river. The steamer, on wl* ie A 

Basd*x*b'b Norway and Sweden. 6th Edi** 

. 3 FRTDENLOTD. Prom Carittjanla 

1Z& . tad breakfast in returning, stops in all at ten stations. 
■^ - important of these la B»fc«M>ifc*n (l a /« Br - fromKandsfjord), 
,,^*T^le tl»« oHurch of ff<M. Farther on, to the left, ii the 
o B o>* rf**"j?'\geT***r>, near the station of Bjorneroa. To the right are 
W «***-■* < ** °f Enger (near Sond), Hot., and Sandra land. The 
j,**'** ^V-**" from Odnia) lies below the point -where the road from 
^ aW ^«<fI< '.-*<>« t^e Randsfjord. — In 4V*- 6 Vl to ' •**<« leaving 
« *%&-s Vfta"*ra»So(rf,atthepier; , HflWOdn<i.,VsM.diBt»nO, 
&»*^# ^i» ot'the steamer -journey. Travellers sleeping here or 
?£i»***-*» ottW ioavo very early neit morning in order to get the 
»*oa.n*» * »t««tt of tourists, and avoid spending the night at the 
•»« »t ***?*- » fl ll >e diligence. , . 

•*™ i*££ls> Mlowa the N. bank of the Etna-Elv, which feeds the 
Raiidrfioxd . and crosses the Dokka, an affluent on the right. 
Thriving farms and beautiful birches, but scenery rather tame. 
l7Kii.TomJ«v»la«i (^JSoUl, with large old wooden out-buildings; 
j landlord Hpoaks .English}, in the district of Not ire Land. — About 

I 7 Kil. from Tomlevolden the road crosses the Etns-Elv by the 

/ ^t w5ro - vrhich. affords a fine view of the Etnadal, and begins 

I whicTi" 1 tb " wooded Tonjoiw, with a level plateau on the summit, 

1 H «ie hi *"*"** '*»** valleys of the Etna and the Bffigna (p. 47). A 

' (p. 46) a j 1 "* t6e bridge we cross the boundary between Hadeland 

l " « oeVT v <>Ue*-a- AToont halfway between Tomlevolden and Sveen 
adu Trondhjem. 

fox 18) Sveen (new Inn) is beautifully situated 
i of the Tonsaas, The road aacends through floe 
I flV» inline piotnresque views of wooded ravines, to 

I n"«* Sasatoriiuii, a hydropathic and hotel(i980ft. ; 

'''■"STiDh "'"'/s **■*"- po'day, 116-170 kr. per month; post and 
be *«(i/oI slatio 'i wi**» telephone), a favourite summer-resort, with 
^ei geg '. "''"Is. ^Tfa e road to Breldablik and Fjeldheim (p. 48) 

W»eo to ""^ loft. 

<ie **n«( D rt * e " ch fc*»«* wooded snmmit of theTonaaas, 6-6 Kil. from 

"o*»b "id- -^ a^sw aundr , ed paceg^theieftcfthBroadisa 

ft£"*"W * a Tp%%V??**- ^ore the leO, commanding a -View of the 

^Idli^"""^ <1™ «*rlT "*T 0oded Ta »ey of Valders, with the Strande- 

r "«rfnot "■'.an** rX?Jk* n 3 an<i tie snow-capped Jotunheim MtB., 

'***» ttfSS*"*' «*« 9 .oci" i '"< ina 'e*ln tie background (p. 156} The 

afcj? A*Ab^~ ^ay^L, 48 ^ * bo « 2 M. above - 

tte iLa "^ to^*Z?^**±i; a "£ d *»»lw»el f*mtel J>t»d«ilund, much 

■"•"tchofT ?' -<*-*><»'*»*«£ o" S li eI, «I«>ten), a large village beau- 

A *vtM$*" ^~V^3*«c?r y .«"«'*' 8l °Pe helow the new rosd. On 

"*"■ to tb 7Z ^f**. Store ana (a little farther on) the 

°'^eniu nd , on a , B . taBko tu, B i«-*.J.. 

Wrltf& y *.-n.A l\J?tlv *». Vel » rune high ****** <£?•«& -**£«£" «« 

react the teauUful «tr Mde Oord (U70 ft.), » "Ufto^- W / 

long tough which the B««ia »lso Ho«b. W Ute « *f. / 

Id Kil. Vkgentm i Nordre Aurdal CH6tel Fagerruet vrith. *_ I 


"^e, at tne influx of tbe Ncts-Elv. This is a charming SI ^ t *£* 
some stay, and the names (*fair promontory' and 'fair grove' respect- 
ively) are appropriate. It is much frequented in summer by Nor- 
^egians and by English, anglers. The road through the 0stre Slidre 
wLakeBygdin(p. 155) diverges to the right at the Hotel Fagerlund. 
About 5 min. on this side of the cross-roads is a steep path aacend- 
ln g to the right to a pavilion commanding a fine vie-w of the lake. 

The Laerdal road crosses the Nat-Elv, -with its pretty cascades, \ 

and follows the bank of the Strandefjord, passing the chuxdiea © , 

Strand or 8vemut$ and (about 10 Kil. from Fagernns) Vln<**- *Aa \ 





Ulna* along bridge crosses to the opposite bank of the Stra**A.eta ^ e 
from which, by the farm of Stende, a path, leads to Vi*° *^ 
Hallingdal (p. 43). To the W. rise the snow-mount*!** 0. 

Vangamj^sen and several of the Jotanheim peaks. 

The upper part of the Strandefjord 1b called, the Grtf** 

The road gradually ascends to — 

*5 Kil. Fosheim i^Botd, with baths). Tbe lake »» 

ri *er, the Bagna The bridge, reached in 6 min. by the ro 
J° ^e left from' the hotel, is crossed by tbe routes to tic 
(ascended in 4-5 hr« • horse 4 kr.) and to th.e Fosheim «<**~v^ 
J f /r2 hrs. from Fosheim, comp. p. 43), a. ^pen^ ? 
A«im Hotel, at the S. « nd of the ^««w fc « w?on<i ' genex 
English and other anilers. _ ., _ 

. Beyond tbTSiSch of 22*en, whic* lies above the 
*W* and is not risible from it, the rivex expands into 
flora (iwS^NA Dank the road *«**;. £ 
^yUimi^ch the beautifully ^-a^^- 
J"tre Slidre (1265 ft.), which co^ands * *£*J\he 
^ narrow road diverging here to the rig** ^^e left, 

*»*>*Vol4m m Beyond the house oft** *£» d Cri ght?, 

C1 «> of the district, which stands on t*e roafl L « m 

52 Route 8. GRIND AHEIM. From ChrUHania 

private road to the right lead in 5 min. to the height crowned by 
the *H6tcl 0lken (1400 ft. ; 31/2-4 kr. per day), a favourite summer 
and health resort, generally crowded in summer. The Vmmas 
Hotel, just beyond kilometre-stone 90, is also apt to he over- filled. 
Farther on is the church of Lomen, known to have existed in 1326 
hut almost wholly modernized. 

14 Kil. Lerken (*0degaard'8 Hotel, landlord speaks English) is 

finely situated on the Slidref jord and commands a good view of the 

lake, with its numerous islands, and of the snow-clad mountains 

to the W. of it. 

The *Hvidh*fd ('white head'; 8300 ft.), a peak of the Slideraas, may 
be ascended from Veatre Slidre or L#ken in 2-2V» art. At the top is the 
new Seri/jelcTs HoUl. The view embraces the valleys of Vestre and 0stre 
Slidre, the Bitihorn, and the snow-mountains to the N. of Lake Bygdin 
and the Vinstervand. A few hundred paces farther on rises the *KvaIeh*gda, 
where an admirable survey of the whole of the Bygdin range, the Vangs- 
mjisen, and the Hallingdal mountains to the S. is enjoyed. 

The road now runs J mostly through wood, on the left bank of 

the Baegna, which about 6 Kil. beyond Laken forms a fine fall called 

the Lofo8. We then cross the Vesleaa and approach the brawling 

Ba)gna more closely. A road to the right leads to the church of 

Hurum , mentioned in a document of 1327. Our road crosses the 

Bsgna and passes the Vangsncff Hotel (right). Later we cross the 

Ala-Elv, descending from the mountains to the left. 

15 Kil. 0ilo (1475 ft. ; *R6ttl Vang), situated at the foot of the 
Hugakollen, 150 paces to the left of the road, is a resort of artists. 

The road here reaches the *Vangsmj*sen (1535 ft.), a splendid 
Alpine lake, 19 Kil. long, and follows its S. hank. It is largely 
hewn in the rock, especially beyond the promontory and along the 
steep face of the Kvamaklev. In spring and autumn the road is 
sometimes endangered by falling rocks. At the worst point it is 
protected by a roof. Grand survey of the lake. On the right rises 
the Vednis field, on the left the Qrindefjeld (see below), and op- 
posite us the Skjoldfjeld. To the N. is the Drstjafos. A little 
farther on, to the right of the road, is the Church of Vang, which 
replaces the old Stavekirke ('timber church'), purchased by Fred- 
erick William IV. of Prussia in 1844 for 320 kr. and removed to 
the Giant Mts. in Silesia. A stone in front of the church bears the 
Runic inscription : l Kosa sunir ristu stin thissi aftir Kunar bruthur 
sun' ('the sons of Gosa erected this stone to the memory of Gunar, 
their brother's son'). 

10 Kil. Grindaheim (* Hotel Fag erlid, D. 1 kr. 80*.; *Vang 
Hotel, kept by Ole For ; English spoken at both) is beautifully sit- 
uated on the Vangsmjesen, just beyond the church. To the S. rises 
the huge Qrindefjeld (5620 ft. ; ascent in about 4 hra.). 

The road continues to skirt the lake. Opposite rises the impos- 
ing N. bank of the lake, on which tower the conspicuous Skods- 
horn (5310 ft/), of which a phenomenon similar to that seen on the 
Lysefjord (p. 93) is recorded, and the Skyrifjeld (5115 ft.). About 

to iMrialmrtn. HYSTTJB 

12 Kil. bom Grindsheiin, new lk» 
W. end of toe lake, into which the « 
BsBgnaplnngaslnapictarestiaefall, - 
lies the church of &}e. The road - 
croeaee the stream and ascends to n 
tnBsmallStrandeftoj-d(1675ft.). \ ( ; 
the end of this lake la a high but in- 
considerable waterfall. The ascent 
becomes steeper and the scenery 
wilder. A few farmi are now seen 
on the sonny (N.) aide of the val- 
ley only. The rough old road fol- 
lows the S. aide of the valley. The 
new road crosses the Basgna and 

17 Kll. SkogtUd (1689 ft. ; 
•Jnn, English spoken). 

The new road passes the farms 
of Opdat, at the entrance to the 
Borndal, which ascends hence to 
the Horntind (4775 ft) , • peak 
commanding a splendid panorama 
ofthe JotunhelmMta. It then gradu- 
ally ascends along the N. slope, and 
after 3 Kil. recroises to the right 
bank of the Bngna, which forma 
several falls. AhighbatnotTolum- 
inona fall also descends from the 
Baubergtkump (4130 ft.), to the 

Beyond kiloraitre-stone 140 the 
road once more crosses the Bagna, 
and then, at a cottage, forks, the 
right branch leading to Lake Tym 
(p. 153), and the left to Lnrdal. 
To the right, as we follow the lat- 
ter, is the Steltnesi. To the left 
ilea the email Uirowtnd, above the 
S. foot-hills of which rises the 
summit of iheBorrcnesi (4140 ft). 
To the right Is the Stugunne. 

11 Ell. (pay for 17) sTyatnen 
(3260 ft.; •Knuf ItMttm'i Hotel, 
B. 1 kr. &0«., B. 1, S. 1 kr. ; Eng- 
lish spoken), originally aFjeldstne, 
ot hospice, built by government, 
situated on the banen FUUfield, 

„ tM B. *» .< » «... «— <->** B) "" *™ *' 

tempt to approach Ihem. C. — „ _ „„ „ 

a ne via" of the Jotunheim, .imi]^ £«,»( from M it.}. 

Beyond Nystuen the road reaches its hlf I. from 

on the watershed between E. and W. Norway- ■*"" "' _ diverges 

Nystuen, on this aide of the Kirkatgl-Batc*, * b f, ,, ■{ B nd rejoins 

tn 1.1, a lflft. «kl*tin,r th n ,-„„,„,_. _ . .. j (-H«n& ft. 1, BDa .V ._ 

Nystuen, on this aide of the Kirkatei-Battr, «*•■•?» -. and rejoins 
to the left Awing j. impodng Sixfcti „ d ff^^^Ale on 
the new road near Manstaen (2-2% hlB ., but *«*^™, 150 the 
account of the marshy ground). Beyond htt° nlfc '5!2 between the 
new road passes .column which n, a rke the *«^^Ljil«lw«Mt 

with the Sacfc(-P, e U n B i n g op p0Bite aBC ends "PY 1 > ™ in _ L<*ro. 
&*, (3240 ft.), and descends then fe' Mgn above Jjjjg ^ 
The more ltunrlant vegetation (btrehes »J«0 te» Kne8 
climate of the W. slope. ' Mam<V^> a -i 

17K11. (pay foi22 in the reverse ilTe ctl.»)» i,Ii '^ e 6 econd 
'ffnut tforitlum'j Hoiri, R. 11/. B J_»/^, S- 4 '« * , J ' an ecclesl- 
'Fjeldstoe' on the Fillefjeld, origin a-Uy fo» n,lea 
aatical hospice In 1300. issuing f* 010 *• 

Below Marlettien the road crosses* **>° ,J7 *-„,„, LfflidalsmBn). 
Oddtdal and passes kilometre-stoneSO C oou °* °|, e rig bt bs.nk of the 
It then descends very rapidly and ciroB»5* iKi ]_ a i, -»e Hag, Ihe 
Lsara by the Baanungbro. AtBerlavff, *° w4w ioine our louteon 
Halhngdal route, crossing the river t>V » Dn B ' 
the left (p. 44). _ Hole ^ we n spoken of). 

13 K1L (pay for 17) He W (1480 *T*- » " a pJn bende, to the S.W, 
Beyond the farm of Iimw tke «« ' TDa er bed of a lake, tU 8. 
and is nearly lml, traversing ta ^_ * (p. 55). NnmeToaB gsuii. 
enclosure of wbloh was the TtadUei*. m n ug um trie road roisket 
About 9 Kil- from Hegg and 4 B»- x * 

to £«^r dolieren. BUSUM. 

*i7fk<^^ o W > a H6tri Borpii»<Z 0» ^» * S fc -■ «. j* 0fl , 

pens. ^^ vo and the small, «-^e-W»ckeu efi ■**. «**^^ 


»-_jaw to.") «iid the small, «.«B-W»ck© ttftd ■*:* 

^**-^«t* of Borgmi* Ot&Y ** «• Inn - < ~ 
m<ia tac,-\ Ae best-preserved '^tttrekfJi""'^ !>«»»_. 
ditto. "^. ^ftott H60 or earlier, *io«8l> test ««, J*f *** ^ 4 °» eaefc 
1360 — It u. heen carefully restored by *£**o»^ *f<>, w ; ««*; 

AiH^ihi, whose property » i", and Btl < ^* < * ^o^i** « ^ 
of t*=»« M nd of hmrch with «reat acc n , J~ * *!»« o»?£? an So««I 

!t % on the lofty portal., belong, to ^r- ll»e ^ a «' «*«,£ 

°* «<m»utg of a naYe and »i«les, wi tll £**«* l»^t of i? anie04 «tfS 

,r eongigtg of a naTe an* »*■;«», witi^ fc-w -**•** of i? ~ me nt 
^*Ble\e 8 » ehoir i^th a »erni«ifoiiU T J^« W« coin™ , w, »4 ft 
^* « ft. original chnrch). ™eu t^* C*hl 8 ?£t "V^n* 

<r^° ta «B in the *alls. The n*« of ^in^oW* d «****ed ^ he,n ^ 

^MlSted solely of the mass, ctanted ln ' ***<* *l» e B " "f^own ,/ 
vJWfl tte congregation knelt devoutly lxi «« J^^^o-Ugh f£° h * h *y 
V',t .' Iwe bnilt after the Beformatiora 7? «*«*rk »«Te w 1 c, ">fr. 

r^5 n{c *^2tS these lines on St. 01 a r 8 ?Ii^*** <w - *Wo£.* w *• 
V*ho«e* J ! fTMe ohnich In the okireh-^o n *J' »«d That-?* **«•» 
S* <Ut rforda a cine to the probab le £52*£?>: The i- 0j £ *** a 
>W> '^oel'") standing between the ol<±U£ f ** e ^niid!,,™ °' °>ea 
^e C cwT<m the eame model, ia old *4t ^2T£«* **u£. J *' 

in forcing 

fcette. The 

Hto to the left, we obtain a good view of tlle^cl^£ T ::? , • ^ ^cendff 6 
SUhOa *iTa ridee the road descends in rapid. »!«.„ ?S rc ? ea from !? in « 
SSSw. » H6tel Borgund to Hus^m l^S^^^^»^VoVS:- 
13 Kll. SuBnm (1070 ft. ; *Hotel, J>. 1 fa. S0». t JandTo^° f Va h ' 

E^gUelO* The Lffira here f0Xm8 * e 8ma11 cascade of &oZrJ?** k * 
good point fox anglers, v ut *n y a 


i pomi ioi augiers. — »•, a 

Tne road goon enters another grand rapine, crossin/r th 
vcxOub rirer by the Nedre Kvammehro and Bkirting the OTerhan * *"* 
rocks close to its left bank. To the N. of tne gorge, at the b** 51 * 18 
the precipice along which the old road ran, is the gaard of Gold** ° f 
The ^ater-worn rocks show distinctly how much higher the iT* c * 
of the xivei must once hare been. At one point the old bed of S{^ 
stream "has been utilised for the passage of the road, for which -^ 
©€ a * giant cauldron' (p. 267) has been hewn away. Farther oix *** 
tlie Tight, is the picturesque Store Soknefos. » *o 

66 Bout*, 8. OM /m Brtfo<M# 

Ab booxi »a tie ,.„„ „. 1n glfM of 6""° 

etoHM the river and ,,,?*» >»«■■ or *i»n» f •*"' in teiwcfa 
ft* deposits of (be jJiT" **• **«?■■< ton*- *, sn 4 ttaveteM 
»W«p«t rftte^Si-^ (f*Il * *> ffl 'Sow* Iff*. 

4i««M to the 8.K. S* (668B "• i gaud vJ B w; «■»• u * 

BeWnd ig the small »<£ ^ «•■ » little to the left M ™ ^ 

(oo»p.n.xx,n rt.t» 7 the ancient mast- terraces are nOT °°'" 

« *™*m. B, th. J'"™' ^ <k» IMAM .nd p...» «• •>»? 
S*m ,.„;"• ;■'• • wuu, goo* yum of ft. .";;•- 

to, "."» ««"t S S """*• [ »«y tt. r.n.y «■»»• »»«4' *■ 
a £!" "°» ft. "w* i* *■»'"■ *«*—»** » h " J ' "•■"™ d ' 

9 - Pi»ffl j„ "** *' **• 

J^*.!™ ™ "» 0«abrand«d.l to Marol 
m*„ _ o»theo„- rrjord . 

Ms route is of importance tor 
US) to the W. biuI, and also 
n (B. S3). 
' oily striking part of it Is the 

J >m B. to W. The road slowly 

,: runs Isrel for eome wav, and 

fj 3000 ft. below. The transition 

" the genial temperature of the 

" it of the rond iroade by Capt. 

tj,. f, .. -r-; bob p. Of — dt lw0 "paeiiilly}. 

" nfll, «DdBdal route .*" «7~ The road. diverges to the left from 

,W,* *« wooded » nd Kri "Klei, (p. 67), croBBes the Laagon, 

thm ,  Aasoren. rji- " ^onotonouB Ottddal. 

fro*? 8 T 01 * About two J?"** follow* Ae foaming river, partly 

o ,. B J*'«ad I Bedal fn tS&tf* of tbe Wliy *" 8nelU lle rosd 

3y*S**- ffethenpM^i Ojoini rran, coming acrosi a bridge 

•ad ° ii "' *ffe Comit r ,*" e old farms of Tolfitod and Rjartutad. 

tan *«« ariDw-oappod torn. Pfox« aaXwAUlW)- The valley expands, 

£«,,?• Weu gernm out ro , e ?8 fp. A&O^etomeB visible in the dii- 

*ff»*rd (p. 68J ▼» JVorrfT* 6 I 9 Joined by the road coming- from 

«»e c h of Foove, flrstroor, « ^ettfl^^o^ei *»»« */« M. from the oU 

^(."•B of t*» old matR^ '""til J.-sf i^4l0 mi aipanded, partly wits 

0e »it ''•y- The old ornam en . *> ^rtt^^ ■*» orodform ohnroh In the 17th 

 is tie d*te o/ the orf,* °0 >_.« ^izitli Kt the beginning of the 12*n 

toMarok. LOM. 9. Route. 57 

The xoad now follow* the > S. J>ank of a lake 36 Kil. long, called 
the Fa^coml (1 135 ft. J j» its E. and tie ottavand in its W. half. 
Beyond the gaard of VbWen, about 12 iii. from Serum, a road 
diverges to the right to Lake Gjende. 

From 8*rum we may drive Dy eaviole in aoont 9 hi*, by the (18 Kil.) 
Siorviktaeter n&st the Jbtnumav*, and by the lanre group of sseters called 
(11 KU.) HtmiftHert (2300 ft. jqjarter.) to the (18X11.) Hinda^er (3160 ft. ; 
quarters). Th^ walk, chiefly following the 8joa, in 1 hr. to the JteMlt#t» 
«*<r# (p. 100), and thence to Gjendeaheim in 4 hr*. more. 

A little farther on we pass the mouth of the Tesse-Eto, which 
descends from the Tetstvand (3020 ft.), and forms several fine 
cascades. (The lowest fall may be visited in V« hr- 5 tn « highest, 
the 0xcf O9l in l 1 /*- 2 lai Ju8t heyond this stream is the gaard 
jS to f w* (tolerable quarters). Opposite, on the N. bank of the lake, 
ri8e **he SkardhB (5340 ft.). 

20 Kil. Oarmo (indifferent quarters). Farther on, theLomsklev 
conceals part of the lake, which now takes the name of Ottavand. 

Facing us rises the huge Lomsegg (p. 160), at the foot of which 
the Ba>x>ra descending from the snow-monntains of Jotunheim, 
falls into the lake. The road crosses the stream, which forms a fall 
by the bridge and carries its deposits far into the lake. Just heyond 
the bridge on an old moraine, i* the *Chureh of Irfm (1290 ft.), 
411 ol * 'Stavekirke' (p. 27), known to have existed in 1270 and 
afterwards transformed intoa cruciform structure, when the W. side 
*as lengthened and the lofty spire built. The apse is old and has 
the usual round tower. The interior, with its nave and aisles, sup- 
ported by 26 flat-hewn columns, has lost its original character through j 
the introduction of a new ceiling. A silken flag with a hand holding 1 
* rickle is said to commemorate the introduction of irrigation into 
this district, where rain is scarce. By the Pr»Btegaard is an old 
Stabbnr'. J. Beyond the church the road forks. The ^branch * the 1 
left ascends the B»verdal to »** ( iB Ml. ; p. 149). On this 
road ; *hont 1 Kil. from the fork, lies the station of — ; 

, n 15 Ka Andvord (tolerable q«*^ r9 > ~ °^ r "*£S ^he " 
follow tne S. bank of the Ottavand. On ^*^ *J^^ 6 ^ 

the regni,, 

»Wy ^iV" B ^T^f °7^ ^. »nd Parley, which hare been 
the re^T„ Pe ° Pled : Th / **% 1 immemorial, are frequently irri- 
gated^?!! ^P 8 , h ? r * from ^i-SfcyWWtO. ▼• P» 8 ** former 
•tattooLT"" °f ^ » h0Tel8 \ been rebuilt, and the ohnrch of 
SklX. l"""^' »«•• h*» J u8t ?*m of the load. 

»n old ta"^' B " <!< ' aa, * n <> oor £"?«£& on it travel thick depo*- 
ite of i ds « *<> *• W* t*»k- *£££. On the right *• T>«* the 
confluent' lle r « m »ln8 of old morain* A«r»M *"* «»e 

wStt ° f the^tir-S,,, deace» d "l* ' e itrnderA-t, with 

*"***?» "ttoraineg, bounded on .«» the ba6kg ronnd, and on the 
W <*• 147), by the Bolati» de * in 

3. POLFOSSEN. From Brtdtvangm 

•>■ y?ro'«a/3»e£rf*(6380ft.), *■« Tvarfjdd (6365 ft.), una the 

5% K *£# **0- Farther on we reoroes the Otts-Elv by a bridge 

H *^ ^J&0Tw»«1».d style. The distant snow-pas* ahead of us is 

SBOfh* S.^1; +i*'**^ i C i, »cti*re rcn t station, with rather high charges), to 

Vi** jkA*V^1t» BT,> **- Better food and quarters are afforded by the 

*>*^*^\. **!» oI xandahBim (Xnri, the landlord, la well-informed, 

«»»•*•» °*«*tr*» M a glide; private skyds 13 «. perKil.), 2KJ1. 

«A **° m***?5" xo th» Soasajjoan, agrandeipeditton, 16-ieiin. In 

B^d""in3 T a* ,flC ( nd t ; hroa B''' 0" Jto-iei-dAAt! to Bkjeldm (p. 1371. Or 
■!■£>£» be BP* nt st the (22^.26 Kil. from Mark) J/um*»«-fl«i<r. Beit dar 
the eWr&wfiMJ is ""ended to «i8 fidwajW* (4530 ft.), whence the route 
SiwfS-lf 9 '^"P'y theough the jlrturi*' to the Faobtrg-Blgi (p. 1M), 

bocora ™ DOTr -P* BBeB * ko JtorfoJWVlWrt" (left). Tne Opnaattt 
di "pa&rt. V B ' blB b&yoTii the Skridulaupen. On the right the OJ»- 
Bridge by?* a <lt' from the Sletfiykamp (6160 ft.). The Dommo 
T »"o}-s' tjfl *£?*"* w * «rosa the Otta-Elv, commands aTtewof three 
*'«re (J, ,, ^^ndradtxl to the S. (with the anow-clad TnndradaH- 
A tove J, and „^*** r °' wna ' P- 14 *)i the Brofaial to the W. (see 
"Ton»fc . " 'he rt*zz*9*ff*dal to the N. The road ascends rapidly 
 d«t»ris f'Ur'), overgrown with flra and pines, 
alley. On the left flows the Otta-Elv, which 
^trfot. We continue to follow the gorge of the 
ich the H&perbattenvand, from which Its foam- 
"■i*«5 lake contains several islands. In the back- 
em* „- to the right, on the Mil, lie the Hugcrbot- 
^*aBBing two saw-mills, we next reach the 
e '"ter thZ £ nd the * •>=« Polvand (1930ft.). Towards the end of 
lJ * <*i»e«» to the loft, commanded onthe N. by the 
^^"" wi "' the Framrutthovd and the GMHerfto. 
^-^""biftll C* GA »-f»(. ffldttV* /nn, with abont 
«"»,«;,/* s - 3° *— 1 k>., D. IV* p«m- M*M 
ftuja Eng-Iioh^ , finely sitoated amid wood, 
*** u„ c »ile«i tlie *F!oiy », which la overlooked 

--^™. Sr£?Si l S!" , f towards the K.W., wu reach 
0»?. fi£tnntf* m £2:!* 1 ' r i ft* outflow of the GUt- 
to (li-16 hit.) 
»r>e KowWoI, tkirtlng nrrt 
■"«- of ~^Kr**J"n«' Aftef reMDi "» thB 
lloth. » ""lea i, named Slori Kotmui 
Ml _ f^"^ a * >»d though the »«H»M to 
•iS Mort f™ 1 !: »*-« 'he deaerlpHon o( the 
— «■« t-ttts Sogne district (lee above). 

I! . ! t^- 


■* 1:500.000 





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V-£ ; 

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Jo8tedals 7#w ^ 

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*&$>* **&. '/'A-/: JS \< 




^uSi= ^. „„,. ,., 

Al><*-— ^»^^t 2-3 Kil. fi 
to Stry^«=^. /left), the M 
8 SU- ~~^. ^^fcjjgji bounded 

»««it«sCV , jts tiitMit"* 
**^*i. to **» 

Ff° 1r *^ 

U C««P- »*° ve > ^tt huge roc** t>f * itfni^ . 

t ol the road (3405 ».> niutjv-. ^ 

*om the W. ead of ^V^^sTa S^**". f si °« 
fce irontter-rtone; poor quarters;, a. new 1M Jg fe ^ 

inn a fiald-o»th woendfl to the Oraidaltttar between the 

SSraS^ on we reach the wa4. hed ^^ 
lack (toward* which tn$< Otto i flows) and the Atlantic, 
irts the Rtmdhorn (4900 ft > A ? ont Vi lur. beyond 
in a finger-post on the left points the way to the Jane- 
t's cauldron (p. 267), 7 ft. in diameter and 10-12 ft. - 
lies a few steps below the road. 
nbst Part op thb Boutb begins here. The traveller 
The road descends rapidly, in sharp zigzags and over 
spanning the wild torrent, to the Geiranger Fjord. Be- 
rink of the descent and Marok the distance is about 
;h in a straight line scarcely 6 Kil„ and the difference in 
sr 3000 ft. The road ranks among the grandest of its 
le sudden and tremendous plunge it takes is not sur- 
among the Alps. A superb mountain-picture presents 
yond the giant's cauldron, on crossing the 0vrt Blaa- 
the left rises the FlydaUhorn, on the right the Vindaaa- 
l the latter the Saalhorn (5830 ft.), and then the Orin- 
30 ft.). In the distance are the heights enclosing the 
>rd. Far below lies the smiling Oplaendskedal, which, 
> the overwhelming proportions of the fjeld, looks like 
park, with its winding stream and curving road. In 
!b& * ne Wed™ Blaafjeldbro. To the right, in the angle 
^Tindaashorn and the Grindalsnibba, appear two pic- 
3T faX\Bj the Tvetabefos and the Klevelfos or KvanddU- 
JxT- I&ter tne road crosses the Kvandalsbro. FourboML 
9 down to the highest part of the Gefranger basin, 
^tg^dshedal, in which lie a gaard of that name and the 
^jia right, Va n *« from the Kvandalsbro). 

-in descends rapidly to the next region of the valley, 
& r frith view, to the left, of the Flydalshorn and the 
'^ree& these, high above the gaard of Flydal, appears 
ja Hire snowy glacier with large crevasses. About 
*** j^rrjesseter the road forms a 'kmide' or knot, as it 
b *V»^ r » higher part of itself. A finger-post, 20min. 
*** *e« the way to the *FlydaUd}uv (986 ft.), where 
^rfU into an abyBS of several hundred feet. In front 

to McltoJc. GEEtANGER. 9. Route. 61 

°f tig we see the last level of the valley, with the Union Hotel and 
the chuxcli of Maiok. A little later the road passses the *H6tel 
ttdaiptera (p. 183), the view from which is similar to that from the 

Very striking, as we descend, is the increasing number of water- 
falls on every side. The largest tributaries descend on the right 
from the Vestercuudal, and nnite below the gaard Hole, 5 min. from 
the Hotel TJdsigten , where we cross the Holtbro. About 7 min. 
farther on a finger-post to the right indicates the way to the white 
cottage of Betiro (p. 183) and the Storsaterfos (p. 183). We cross 
the Kope-Bro. The fine fall of the Yesteraas-Elv, called the Klti- 
vafo9, Is reached by a path to the right (400 m. over Havet'), just 
ahove the Gjerde-Bro. 

In 1/4 hr. more we reach the Union Hotel (p. 182). The road 
crosses the Vinje-Bro and passes the copious Storfo*, beyond which 
the river hurries with all the water of the valley to the fjord. It 
then rounds the hill on which the church of Qeiranger stands, 
passes the Qeiranger Hotel, and ends at the steamboat-pier of Afarolc, 
41 Kil. from Grotli (see p. 182). 

From Grotli to the Strynsvand via Viden. 

Fkom Gbotli to Vis*** (p. 175), ea. 66 Kil. New road, opened in 1895, 
to (41 Kil.) Hjelle, at the upper end of the Strynsvand (carriage in 7-8 hrs.). 
— From Hjelle to (11 Kil.) BergUad we go either direct by small boat, or 
by steam-launch to Su*de> 3 Kil. farther on (see p. 179). — Skyds Eoad 
from Bergstad to (14 Kil.) Visncu. 

The new Stbtn Road is scarcely so wonderful a piece of engineer- 
ing as the Gelranger road (see above), but perhaps surpasses it in 
impressive scenery. We leave the Marok road a little before it 
reaches the BreidaUvand (p. 59), cross, by abridge to the left, 
the Otta, here descending from the lake, and ascend on the left 
bank of the Maaraa-Elv. In front, a little to the left, rises the 
Storelefta. About 4 Kil. from the fork of the roadB we reach the 
HeiUtuguvand (3300 ft. ; to the left), which we skirt. To the left is 
the Skridulaupbrce, beyond which opens the Maaraadal, with a » & ®*~ 
ground of glaciers and snow-fields. The toad ascends through tne 
Vatsvenddal, along the left hank of the Vatsvewd-Eto, *****? Vto 
Baudegg, to the left, and the Vatmndejjy, to the right. »f*° w ' 
the left, are two small lakes, through which flows the Vatsven<!-^ • 
Beyond — «mac- 

14 Kil. Vasvendingen y also to the left, U» ^£±!fS ChvY**- 
vandj at the W. end of which, near the IX******* ^^Tva^** 
ans-Stift and Nordre-Bergenhua-Stift the *>•* ^£^1 u* «* £ 
point (3700 a). Glaciers and fteQ tf gIl m iS3SS3u*V2i 
sides. Straight before us appears theft** 1 * J?T ex«c>x*iYt* <* the 
with tl* *«***• • A *2* V**?^^*?*****"^ 
Langevand, we cross the Videdals-Blv de** 5 ** 

EIDSVOLIX 10. Mm*. 63 

luggage (over-weig*t at***** S?SISlS!iJ|* 1|,i - mo «* Th e '"« to less in pro- 
portion for 2, 3, or 4 P**^E-i to^U**' Se » te "»»/ be secured beforehand 
by application (enclosing ; l« ejw ^jr, ^t-ogui (Hdtel Victoria, Lillehammer), 
i£. Z^witt, (Bellevue^ Hotel, ^aawmaes, p. iflfj OP ^ r . BvaMfOdt (Grand 
Hdtel, Moide), tout tickets m ay generally be obtoined the day before. 
Enquiry may 'also t>e made at tne tourist offices at Christiania (p. 10). 

Those who do not travel by diligence should carefully avoid the 
places at which it puts n P so * *£* aight (comp. p. 49). Best quarters at 
8kJ<*We9t a <l, IAstad, Lamrgaar^ Tqflemogn, Dotnaas, McUat^ Btmftottn, Or- 
meim, and AandalsfM**- — lft e scenery becomes grander as we travel 
westwards. Finest parts for walking between Stu^floten and Ormeim and 
between Flatmarh and Aandaltnmn. 

CbrUtiania, see p. 9. As the train leaves the station, we 
obtain a fine view of Christiania and the fjord to the left, and of 
the Bgeberg and the suburb of Oslo to the right. 4 Kil. Bryn 
(260 ft.) ; 11 Kil. Ororud (420 ft) ; 18 Kil. Strwnmen (485 ft.). 
The train crosses the Nit-Elv, the N/W. feeder of the 0ieren. 

21 Kil. Lillestrjermmen (366 ft.; Rail. Restaurant), junction for 
Kongsvinger and Stockholm (see p. 78). The railway from this 
point to Bids void, constructed in 1851, is the oldest in Norway. 
Scenery unattractive ; but at Frogner (406 ft.) and KUrften (545 ft.) 
we get a glimpse of blue mountains to the W. Beyond Tregstad 
(666 ft.) a gravelly region, scantily wooded. At l>al, with its pretty 
villas, the scenery improves. Two tunnels. 

68 Kil. Eidsvold (410 ft ; Sail. Restaurant; +Jernbane Hotel, 
at the station), on the right bank of the broad and clear Vormen, 
the dUoharge of Lake Mj*sen, which at N»s (p. 78) unites with 
the Glommen. Near the station is the Eifavoldbad. By the church 
18 a '-BatrtarteW in memory of Btwnk Wergeland (d. 1845), the 
P°et, and the discoverer of the spring. In the former farmhouse of 
EMtooldavatrk, about 6 Kil. to the W., the Norwegian constitution 
(gorges Ri ge s Grundlov': comp. P* l« v ) ™ adopted in 1814. 
™* building has been purchased by government and embellished 
with portraits of members of the first diet . 

At Eidsvold travellers^hT^fer ^•Jff^« ai «^^ 
^ Ufrien go on board the Stbambh-, whicj l usually ;■*«*•«« 
the arri Val of t \ e morning-train (from Eidsvold to LiUehammer in 

?; V /■*" 5 kr. 60, 3 kr. 70 0. ; Restaurant on board , D. ^ *.} 
"" V C8 Kil.) Minne (p. 64) the steamer reache* > the .lake 

•take ir£~. nnc * % ; xi.^ inTflrest lake m Norway, wmcn 

has be1 n ^SnT.i** *'?'• und^'i *• 10 ° KiL C 62 M) long > 
15Kii ?9i/ aU ^ N ° r !?l B in l a vfroadest part, and 1575 ft. deep 
new thes /2 V l r Width at fieen the districts of Gudbrands- 
daien and V/^ d * *,* extend * * et Ilfd K-, a* d **<>** of Toten and 
B *n XotofZ? emarken t0 tne N o The banks present an almost 
unbroken *Z* € t0 the W « and S \a* and pastures, studded with 
frra-Aouser^ 68 / 1 ? 11 0f neld *' *?£« constant re-appearance of the 
wme pictxTri aBd ham lets; hut tto ® oto nous. The Hunner-0rret 
is an egteerJL T 111 P er haps seem **\ ^ Lake Mjesen. 
eiaft a kind of trout pec*l** r *° 

HAMAR. from Christiania 


l °?, S "1 Btyuted- and Stigersand on the W. hanfc, 
Ontfrtl (2300 ft.). As a rule the hills enclos- 
' of r m °deme height. Opposite Stigersand i* the 
-n (.see below). On the W. bant also lies frog**' 
Teasel now steers to the N. across the lake, which 
neatest breadth, past the fertile Hdge* (** 
oad bay on the E. bank. Abont 2 hrs. after lea*i«6 
l Hamar (see below). 

ext touches at the church of Nax, opposite the 
to the N. . then, on the W. bank, at flm*"*, 
Hamar), at — .,, 

>ria, with garden, baths, and Yiew, ^ff* - 
*), the capital of Toten Fogderi, vith 140U la- 
the mouth of the Hunselv. 4 . ., OM 

<Ws, 38 KiL, carriage-road with fast •*»*«■£ 
ing ; , n connection with the steamer (provided aUeaat 
Jtthemaelves), stopping for the night at Grantwn C»re 
5 ni 6 kT ' - The road at first ascends rapidly to — 
y 1( > ft. j good station). The road traverses a neariy 
pJ?l teau » Passing Stangstuen and Lien. . - . 

^2 «. ; good quartern), situated a little to the right 
J descend to the basin of tbo Bandsftord . (p. «>. 
e * Granum and Odnau a direct road to (14U *"•> 
> the S. Heft). 

V- 00. 

• the lake gradually contracts. The steamer 
», Ringsaker (with an old church containing 

* of the 16th cent.), JBirid (with a glass- 
tuen, and about 2y 4 hrs. from Gjavik reaches 

The steamboat-pier is fnlly 1 M. from the 

he railway follows the ri^ht C w «) bank of Ae 
t€ (465 ft.). Near its efflux from the Afifwae- 
er by an iron bridge, 65 ft. high and 1180 ft. 
he E. bank of Lake Afjj&ser*, on the opposite 
3 Skreifjeld (see above). 

ft.). Fine view of the Bay of Feiring , op- 
8 Hedemarkens Amt. 97 Kil. Espen (425 ft.), 
of KorsBdegaard. 102 Kil. Tangen (640 ft.), 
name. The train ascends through a solitary 
ie small station of Stensrud, to (114 Kil.) 
then descends through a fertile district. 
:.)» on the pretty AkersviA, which the train 
nt, while the road, to the W. of it, crosses 

ft. ; *Rail. Restaurant; toilet-room ; halt 

new; • Victoria, Jernbane Hotel, near the 

tton), a town with 5100 inhab., seat of 

r of the district, and of a bishop, charm- 

to the Moldeftord. LILLEHAMMER. 10. Route. 65 

ingly situated between two bays, the Furrusfjord to the N. 
and Akersviken to the E. The latter is crossed by a long bridge. 
Hamar ('hill', 'headland') dates from 1152, when a bishopric was 
founded here by the papal nuncio Nicholas Breakspeare, an English- 
man, afterwards Pope Adrian IV. From that period probably date 
the ruins of the Cathedral (1 M. to the N.W.), once a hand- 
some edifice , of which four round arches of the nave alone are 
left. The old town was destroyed by the Swedes in 1567. The 
modern town, which dates as a municipality from 1848 only, has 
thriven greatly since the opening of the railway to Tro'ndhjem 
(p. 74). 

The main line terminates at Hamar. We change carriages 
and proceed by the narrow-gauge Gudbbandsdal Railway (from 
Hamar to Tretten). Skirting the Fumes fjord, a large N. bay of 
Lake Mj*sen, we pass the stations of (7 Kil.) Fumes and (14 Kil.) 
Brumunddalen. The line then turns inland to (18 Kil.) Veldr e, with 
a pretty view, and (27 Kil.) Tande, beyond which it again ap- 
proaches the long and narrow N. extension of Lake Mjasen. 30 Kil. 
Moelven; 34 Kil. Ring; 42 Kil. Brettum; 49 Kil. Bergseng. 

58 Kil. Lillehammer. — *Viotobia Hotbl, the skyds and diligence 

8 jfe* ion t ^e]] situated, near the bridge over the Mesna (orders should be 

aaoressed f the landlord, Sr. 0. P. Krog$ti)\ "Madame Okmsrcd, in the 

J?" a afreet, on the left? charges at both, E. l-l»/4, B. or 8. i, D. 2kr. 5 

there* 8 ***""- Tho **il w * TH,tati0n *» fBl,T 1M - from the hotels? omnibus 

at m ?***• F Fr4* en * >ei '9-> E - *ide of main street, sells silver trinkets, etc. 
° e *atG V TiceB ; carved meerschaum-pipes at Q. Lanen's, opposite side. 

I ill t^°>ftj municipal privileges since 18^27 only. It is called 

Seh^lb ( 'little hill') to distinguish it from Hamar (p. 64). 

u»afx *^Wi? er Mttna which flows throngh the town, forms several 

w. ? **W n %±/ M 'to the N.E., the finest being in the *Htl- 

v *y**l Us * /» ""Liaron', near which is the Niagara Bath House 

jascen^ » Or M" c * a gide of the Mesna bridge, with the notice- 
bo«d ^^de-street on fl^ ± ^ ^^ ^ ^ % ^ ^ ^ 

*'* ***** Me8D J j fl Ime Latinskole, to a bench on the roadside, 
COm * V**S ** e hand -ew of the lake. 

a t* *-v? ng * flne TLrinfl the Oudbrandsdal, which is watered by 

™ e A^llehammer 0°S* xX viii). The name extends, as in other 

«T? t ttj n or Lou en CJP- in Ya ney, but also to all its rami- 

• w V * ot 0nly *°- ntd (jQudbrandsdeler ; about 60,000) are 

n ^lU t * The inhabit* 11 .jjted race, among whom curious old 

^\t% do and ttgb" P or ding to Norwegian ideas the valley is 

\ ^^\ n \ BtiU 8urv i ve * ^ CC ble l* nd nas Deen laboriously reclaimed 

\ \ Y^ivated, but the *** ^tities of stones, which are often* seen 

^J W* removal of great <!** rphe syllables rud, rod , or ryd, with 

tri heaps on the road»i de ' e a e n. 6th Edit. 6 

Baedbkbr's Norway •»* 

TRETTEN. From Christiaraia 

\ rein ^ *\ Sanies bo often end, refer to the 'uprooting' of 

,X>^^<\\ T ^' °^ stones. The chief occupation of the native* 

the ajetf? % '* lx 8ummer most of them migrate with their 

v e ^**Vl^^. "^ s • The scenery is pleasing at places, but on the 

i^*> ^»o^*J^? somewhat sombre. 

t> °* tha> t * le * eft ^ ank of *^ e laagen. 66 Eil. Faaberg; 
sC& \>^y ** J^*me is on the right bank of the river, -which is 

' 12 ^11 ?-?*<*» with fast skyds-stations, ascends the Gausdal to 

© P t Ot>^L* om Lillehammer) Diserud, near which is the gaard 

\. Ar©e^"*J r of the novelist Bjflrnstjerne Bj^mson; 13 Kil. Kal- 

^ft^rlx^.* £"** el l spoken oO; 17 Kil. Xvisberg (good quarters), 

*• Pfc* <i **tiguing route of about two days leads to Gjendesheim 

***> tli«?^}* T b6 night is spent in the Oola-Saeter^ and the route 

"Hu*a OE ^ or Sanatorium (p. 67) and the DaU-Sceter (7-8 hrs.). 

*, f ncr » near the gaard Fossegaarden (620 ft.). The 

v ****8 a fall called the Hunnerfos, where Hunner- 

j **out (p. 63), are caught. The Neverfjeld (3575 ft.), 

v J sr ^ e ' w i to the E., may be ascended hence in 2 hrs. 

•™ Laagen. On the left rises the Dreshula, a pictur- 

. a© valley contracts. 

*ten (.Htfi. Losnaos, now), at the S. extremity of Lake 

\ an extension of the Laagen abounding in fish, is 

**minus of the line, which is, however, being pushed 

:en and will, perhaps, be open to that point in 1896. 

a new road (17 Kil.; omnibus in 2 hrs., fare 4 kr.) ascends 1 

inatorium (about 3400 ft.; 43 Kil. from Lillehammer ; 

e room 70-130, board 80 kr. per month ; open 15th June 

%nt walks. The Skeidkamp (3775 ft.; 1 hr.) and Prcesle- 

%.) are very fine points of view. 

ation is on the right bank ; a new bridge (opened 
ises the Laagen to the Road, on the left bank, by 
\ our journey. The small steamer on Lake Losna 

for tourists. The landlord of the H6tel Losnaos 

at the tariff given at p. 62. 

the E. bank of the lake. Attractive scenery ; 

n a view of the snow-capped peaks of the 

len (^Station), near the church of Fodvang. 

>icturesque Kiliknappen (3485 ft.), to the right 

35 ft.). Near Kirkestuen the height of an 

June, 1860, is marked on the rocks. The road 

>rupt and fissured Elstaklev and the Rott- 

: opposite. Numerous snow-ploughs (*Sne- 


d (*Station), finely Bituated. On a hill to 

church of Ringebo mentioned in 1270, but 

form church and provided with a spire in 

Uinkenberg (3080 ft.) is a fine point of 


to the MoUUfjord. BREDEVANGEN. 10. Route. 67 

From Skjesggestad a lonely path leads to (1 day) Solliden and thence 
either to the *Atneiand and by Folded to Jerkin on the Dovrefjeld (p. 71) \ 
or down the valley of the Atne-Elv to Atna (p. 75). 

The valley becomes marshy. On the right we pass the Vaal- 
houg and a bridge over the Vaala-Elv (fine view). At Steig , on 
the left, resided the 'Foged' Lars Gram, the leader of the peas- 
ants who annihilated the Scottish invaders under Col. Ramsay (see 
below). Farther on, to the left, is the gaard Huntorpt, once the 
seat of Dale Gudbrand, the powerful heathen opponent of St. Olat 
Beyond it is the gaard Hove, formerly a heathen place of sacrifice. 
Near it are several barrows ('Kaempehouge'). Good accommodation 
at the gaard of Lillehove. 

14 Kil. Liftad (* Station) , near the church of Sendre Fron, 
prettily situated. The road descends gradually to the Laagen, 
which soon becomes a mountain- torrent, and about 8 Kil. beyond 
Listad, near the gaard Solbraa , forms the fall of Harpefoi (not 
visible from the road). [A road leads over the 'Harpebro' and 
through the Skordal to the (12 Kil.) Gaalaa Sanatorium.'] Beyond 
the church of Setorp we reach — 

10 Kil. Moen (+ Station). About 2 Kil. farther on is the private 
station of Byre, with an inn. A road, diverging here to the left, 
crosses the Laagen and leads to Kvikne and the (11 Kil.) Fafor 

The scenery becomes wilder and grander. The valley turns to 
the N., and, beyond the gaard of Vik (good quarters), to the W. 
To the left, about i /o M. on this side of Klevstad, is a monument to 
Capt. Sinclair (see below). 

11 Kil. Klefitad, or Storklefstad (well spoken of), near the church 
of Kvam (870 ft.). A poor district, with stunted pines and birches; 
fields irrigated by cuttings ; cottages ('Stuer') roofed with turf. The 
large slabs of slate often seen in this district are chiefly used for 
the drying of malt. The road ascends to a height of 450 ft. above 
the Laagen. Opposite, the Sjoa falls into the Laagen. 

The Bo ad to the Sjoadal ascends to the church of ffedalen and 
(25 Kil. from Klefstad) Bjjrlstad, an interesting old gaard, the owner of 
which claims to be of royal descent. The next stations are Bntrlt and 
(24 Kil.) Serum (p. 56). 

The road now passes the large district-prison. 

16 Kil. Bredevangen (* Station), beautifully situated. The back- 
ground of the Alpine picture is formed by the Formokampen 
(4835 ft.). 

On the left is the mouth of the green and copious Otta-Elv y the 
valley of which is ascended by the road described in B. 9. On the 
right, about halfway between Bredevangen and Moen, is the steep 
hill of Kringlen, which was formerly crossed by the old road. On 
26th August, 1612, when Col. Ramsay and Capt. Sinclair with 
900 Scottish auxiliaries, who had landed a few dayB before at the 
Klongenas on the Romsdalsfjord, were trying to force their way 


^ftW°r y to Join the Swedes, tW» VSoSSS^*^- 

^ lnT *C to *«* ahoye the road, ^ bwh *^I 8 decoyed, »* 
^° 8t »U* e * 08t of the ill-fated Scot* weie f? S eeV iX ' ^ 
^? Michel,^ v °w we» put to the •«* J£ *t5 WW*, itt t 
il^ft 'SUtory of the Scottish J***g£rf.l A tahlet 

8 J*-.V*-»*«-*e5* eft > with the inscription, ^ iy .. 
W 1 ' W| commemorates the 'P~"«f confluence of the 
1 SrflT th the £?/>* (tolerahle) lies at the ^ at the footof 
*•*£"• &• 7*&»» **""» descends from ^« aeI .f all') close 
? o> *.lX*^-W.wrfl. :*I -the ^ ofrt ate,»ndmo.t 
*e " ^^bstr^L ** e churchyard of ««* 1S w * - 8 tone. . n f 

*** «e>? «• of •kUBber.terf or soap^ Ut gest of 

fy °* ov^^^Saard. We cross the m« 

>" ^^^^ard journey. # . eood cui8 ine> ^ W* 6 

tT^^* (1040 ft.; •^'Sm( 5 .4 |ltt a. 

«*-*£ X ^ e ^6es here to tlie left ■£ *2°£ V!U *«J^\l* 

^*ses a ♦Ravine of tire Laa g^ ^ a des^ds 
°^gh the rocky Carrier of R * 8 ""' iut is at the 
**I>ids and cataracts. Tne grandest poiu ^ out 

^^rxesTeroad to the right ban* oV th n^ ^ dg e 
■^a.ard. The traveller should ^al* ^ ' ^ine ^ e 
Chicle to meet him thexe. »*""£*£*. *** 
^ valley, in which cultivation ^ almost c Bul ten- 
^ *>y means of runlets. On the ngntnftes eXl the 

^* the JK-^Ien, a huge mountain-range ^ aXC 

^- ATaage. As late as July large P^et • covered 
*-«isiae. The hroad floor of the valley 
~"*Jl"y overgrown with stunted, pines. * ft the parish 
^.*Kaugenfl565 ft.; • Station) belongs w ^ e ^ 

***« (6425 ft.), rising to the ^W., affords a 
L, -the R6ndane, and Jotunheim. a8S the 

* H.aagen hy a new bridge , and 800 . Jl\ a t and 
__^-&50 ft.), which Prof. ForheB calls a . 8lD . s m0ta ine. 
ICSorway', p. 11), situated, on an an<5ieT Vt<a lside , > 
«.:rly all on the sunny side of the valley I ^ al 

». «e church, high up on the right, lies the ono 

oen (*Station, , moderate) , an 'inhahited ^ te 

plain' (Mo). CJomp. provincial Engli*» w "' 

y/ Mj^^W^ 1 * 16. Routt. 69 

vei i, a ge deposits of detritus to the gsard 
.W*' ^> deep ravine of thoUagen, with theKjelen 
i^ *&■** aftk in *!»** distance ia the ifoninp. 

itK",,* ■■* ^ \ate become* Alpine, lies U the divergence 
fR *<>-) fro*** ooii. 

*-""* -* -C,,, taken to tha Barteg-Sat,r on the 8. 
' B - ^«J vie"- of OM Sneheu. (p.Ti, I. en j„j, e d. 
f ? 3b »* f » r aB Stnefloten through »n on- 
l \ v with "■ HO»ntrErowtho/pinea, birches, 
^lley, e j pei. The uaent ie »ery gndtiil. 

h 1 * ted of the Lttfevand (1720 ft.), now 

ffl oder»te> We pug the Le$jt-Kirkt. 

M« tM>, *' Mt jls«it by the Lara-Elv to Ihe Aetwfir 
' froW» **_ a ^rossei the mounUln. Uvii,.R tn 



mber-bnilt hou 

* C ii>il from * deaerted .. u ..- m i„ c i, UB H 

%o "f^Vand (2050 ft.), which forms the 

e xjt' V j_^i».clt a.nd- the Atlantic. To the former 

e S s **o the latter the Rauma, which Aowb out 

^io» - E n- ee ,tv - »o* ^, ear the ehiwoh at Lesjtskogen,  place 

****l**>(S e * , *lt*** aaAvaH it* name. Heir the church [a — 

* **ft. <***£««** -ii spoken of)> * n m 5 Un e and ahooting 

- .«,*" *W>W^T C*H*ft5, to * too N-, may be ucended hence 

*be«„ Tt&- anrh"* U^L^.q rseebelowl. ttkea  whole div. 

JERKIN. 1L Route. 71 

1st, to Stu&ottr* (P* 196) 1 2nd, to Domaas; 3rd, to if«n«; 4 th, to St ere*, 
an&inthe wtiiii^S by train to Trondhjem. 

Domaas, *e© p. 69. The Trondhjem road diverges to the N. from 
the Qud\rciiitod&l 9 and ascends rapidly through moor and bog, "with 
stunted pines, to the Dovrefjeld, which separates Southern (Senden- 
fjeldske) from Northern Norway (Nordenfjeldske Norge). Grand view 
of the mountains , as we look hack. In about 1 hr. we reach the 
plateau. The road crosses the Fogsaae, an affluent of the Glommen. 
To the left are extensive mountain-plains, where the Driva, which 
descends to Sundal, takes its rise. 

On the Fogstuhe (5840 ft. ; ascent 5 hrs. there and back, view 
of Jotunheim, Snehsttan, and R6ndane) we observe three asters 
on the right and others to the left. To the N. rise the Hundsje and 
Skrtda Fjelds, and beyond them the Snehaetta (see below), the snow 
and glacier of whose W. basin ('Botn') are distinctly visible. 

10 Kil. (pay for 11 in this direction) Fogstuen or Fokstuen 
(3120 ft. ; *Ant. Sollcrg'a Inn, with 30 rooms and 45 beds ; rein- 
deer, wild-duck, and ptarmigan shooting to be had), in a grand but 
solitary situation, is one of the four 'Fjeldstuer', or mountain-inns, 
founded by government on the Dovrefjeld for the use of travellers 
so far back as 1 107-10. The tenants receive an annual subsidy, and 
are bound to keep the roads open in winter and to forward the mails. 
The Fokstae is now private property. The other three 'Fjeldstuer', 
Jerkin, Kongsvold, and Drivstuen, belong to the state. 

'From my inmost soul I bleMed the good king Epstein, who in 1120 
built these four Fjeldstuer on the Dovrefjeld for the benefit of wayfarers 
crossing the mountain*. (L. v. Bitch.) 

From Fogstuen the old road, now disused, crosses the lofty Hard- 
bathe {3760 ft.) direct to Toftemoen (p. 68). — L. v. Buck , who travelled 
by this route at the end of April (i.e. in winter) writes : 'The lofty pyramid 
of the Saehsetta then came in sight amidst the hase, several miles to the 
north. So rises Mont Blanc, seen from the Brevent, from its mantle of ice. 
It is not a mere mountain, but a mountain on a mountain — a great and 
sublime apparition commanding the whole of this solitude 1 . 

The monotonous road Crosses theFogsaa and passes several lakes, 
beyond which the stream is called the Folda. On the right are the 
Blaaheer. We pass the Vardesje (2985 ft.) ; to the right, farther 
on, are several saters. The road leaves the valley of the Folda and 
ascends to — 

21 Kil. Jerkin or Hjcrkin (3140 ft. ; Jerkin's Sanatorium, R. 1, 
D. l ! / 2 kr. , B. or S. 70 e*. , food so-so) , where our road joins the 
Foldal road (p. 75). Interesting walk to the (1 hr.) Jcrltinshe, the 
highest point on the old road (4105 ft. ; not recommended for 
walkers), commanding a view of the Kollen, Rondane, and Jo- 
tunheim. The only point from which the Snehaetta is visible is the 
hill to the W. of Jerkin«hflr, crowned by a *varde\ 

The Snehaetta (7630 ft. ; 'snow-hat'), the sixth in height among the moun- 
tains in Norway, is best ascended from Jerkin (12-14 hrs. there and back * 
guide 4 ! /2» horse 6 1 /* kr. i provisions necessary ; settled weather indispens- 
able). The ascent was first made by Esmark at the end of last century. 

and later ^^ ^yi^» ^VaS***^****' 
£1 grand. &<? -Tl x «»**» iied Vm^ 1 * 
soon cross * wsj***' «5** 11 ^o^ e4 ' a o« 

Kil. from J?r r>»ri^ I****?* tW #»*! 

* gorge of tU« J^o** * « tt °* «S^ «*** 

to Statcn. 

B JERK AKER. 1 1 . Route. 7 3 

19 Kil. fiw»cM*f €r **« , *» &t the S. end of the Sundalsfjord, see p. 201. 
If the traveller ***i»ses the steamboat, lie may row to (22 Kil.) Eidseren 
(p. 201) *nft. Stive tlience to Eidsvaag (p. 196). 

The to&^l <\tiits the valley of the Driva and becomes uninter- 
esting. It follows the Byna and crosses the low watershed between 
that stream and the 0rkla, which falls into the Trondhjems-Fjord 
at 0rkeda\s*ien (see below). We get a last glimpse of the Sne- 
hffitta. Beyond — 

14 Kil. Stuen, or Nystuen (good station) , the road descends 
to the 0rkla, which 1b crossed by a handsome bridge. The Qinna, 
which here unites with the 0rkla, forms a fine waterfall. Then an 
ascent to — 

11 Kil. Austbjerg or Ussbjerg (1365 ft. ; well spoken of). Still 
ascending, and traversing beautiful forest, the road skirts the deep 
•Ravine of the J&rJUa. Fine views, particularly of the snow-moun- 
tains to the S.W. 

From Austbjerg to T/wsjct, 72 Kil., a good road, with fast stations, 
through meadows and forests, with fine views, an interesting route 
from the 0rkladal to the Glommendal. It passes the church of Inset, 
runs high above the Jftrkla Ravine, crosses the foaming Naven (Nceva) by 
a copper-foundry with large chimneys, and reaches (11 Kil.) Nceverdal (poor 
quarters). The river forms many rapids. 

13 Kil. (pay for 17, but not in the reverse direction) Frengstad (indif- 
ferent). We then pass the church of Kvikne, with its substantial gaards 
(birthplace of B. Bjtfrngon, the novelist), and cross the brawling Jen-Elv. 
The road ascends high on the right bank of this stream to (14 Kil., pay 
for 17) Stem i Kvikne (praised). Soon after we cross the low watershed 
and descend to the Tennen, which flows through the Stubs* (right) and 
enters the Glommen at Tjffnsset. — 14 Kil. (pay for 17) Nytrem (good 
quarters at a pleasant gaard). The road leads across the Tjamnen to 
(10 Kil., pay for 12) Fosbakken (tolerable), where we have a fine view of the 
j&sterdal Hts. — 14 Kil. (pay for 17) Bjernsmoen i Tensed (p. 76). 

12 Kil. Bjerkaaker (1325ft. ; •Station, R. 1 kr.) lies on the water- 
shed between the 0rkla and the Gula. 

Feom Bjbbkaakbb to 0BKEDAL80BBN, 74 Kil., a road with fast stations. 
The road .passes Gaard Hoel, where a famous drinking-horn is still 
shown, presented by Christian V., out of which Charles XIV. John 
(Bernadotte), Oscar I., and Charles XV. respectively drank when on their 
way to be crowned at Trondhjem. Observe the huge birch-tree, 10 ft. 
in circumference. 14 Kil. Haaratad (730 ft.). Farther on, Gaard U/ t with 
a very old building, the carving on which is said to have been executed 
by the 'Jutuls* (giants). 14 Kil. Grut. 11 Kil. Kalstad i Meldalen , from 
which a road leads by Garberg and Foseide to Surendalsjttren (p. 201). Our 
road passes Ltfkkms Kobbei'vwrk, crosses the0rkla, and next reaches (15 Kil.) 
Aarlivold (good), whence a road to the S.W. also leads to Surendals/arren, 
while another road leads to the E. to (17 Kil.) Kraakstad and the (17 Kil., 
pay in reverse direction for 19) Bovin railway-station (p. 77). — 12 Kil. Bak, 
whence a road leads to the E. via (13 Kil., pay for lo, but not in reverse 
direction) By and (12 Kil.) Saltnmssanden to (11 Kil.) Heimdal, a railway- 
station (p. 77). — 8 Kil. 0rkedals9ren (p. 202). 

The road traverses the uninteresting Soknedal and follows the 
course of the Igla, and then that of the Stavilla, which after 
its union with the Hauka takes the name of Sokna and falls into 
the Quia at Steren. 

12 Kil. Qarli (1355 ft. ; good station) lies on a height to the left. 

From Christiania 
?^E €mq T?- € * ravine ™ th waterfalls and 

* ct» ^iu ft. J, a station on the Trond- 

.Another train l»?Jz entl «ea to a sleeping- berth • 

rs.j Trondhjem "2Ef X° r I? 6 ni & ht at < 14 ^"> 
^ *r the alow trai« * da r (*««* 36kr. 50, 28 kr. 

«=» o rde £ to secure ^«I? hMe for the express on 
E-^*P h ^^orefe^^^ & ^t d r °° m s at T/afnseet it is ad- 
-^»r»€»r only C± */» lcr - ~J. ot mealfl ape Provided for 

-- **V**t? r <^r^l£^***««* (aame charge). Sand- 

1 ta^i Pai>t of tS* arc t0 the right; thence to 

J?r 2nd V^T m **y go £ 0, Ki e * ^pecia'lly beyond 

^» , and tnere joi!V° &*vold by early train, 

ma TT - express in the afternoon 

€Te Jieros Railway (engage 
j-y a» c ^d8 through +K 

- ^ 1 5 11 * ^ettii? :^o S i* ^r, a smaU stop- 
^' 1 ^ U - ^<**Llff r4Si # tld CP- <*), to the 

C^iO ft.; z^ -^Z ^ ot TerningLm. J 
**t station in tfce*^y/-»« f . ft. Oltf'i Hotel, 

'^S^^os S.t a atFredrikstad)/the 
!*££ th! r /f lr ' tales' im Portant GrJrUset- 

^Tto L** ricie st in T Sed ** theGlommen 

^Swy^^Pletto^^e -1- of their 
** *. nriflfl ♦? i eve n lii*7, - tlxe railway. Some 

* »B* winter «,» V^aW.V' 1 ?? of ** ,M,to 

^ Wretched huts %*° or tj^ d " cnttor8 often 
****^lct, with theU nS 8 ch «*»c«i BL , ten8e c0,d ' and 

to Trondhjem. KOPPANG. 12. Route. 75 

164 Kil. Grundset (640 ft.); 171 Kil - 0xna ( 666 ft -> Before 
(184 Kil.) Aa*t<z (740 ft) the train crosses the river of that name. 

190 Kil. Eena (735 ft.; Rail. Restaurant), on the right hank of the 
Glommen, not far from the church of Aamot, near which are several 
inns. Near (204 Kil.) Stenviken (786 ft.) the train crosses the Glom- 
men by a long bridge, and now follows the E. hank (views to the left). 
214 Kil. Ophus (805 ft.). Here, and farther on, the Glommen forms 
lake-like expansions. 224 Kil. Hasten (840 ft.) ; 237 Kil. 8tai (860 ft.). 
The scenery assnmes a more mountainous character. Fine view of 
the floor of the valley, intersected by the river in many branches. 

247 Kil. Koppang(916ft.; Rail. Restaurant; ^Hansen, 2min. to 
the left of the station exit ; Jernbane Hotel , opposite the station, 
**• ^Vsj 8. i J /2 kr. > Koppang Hotel; Skyds-Station, in the village, 
10 min. distant) lies on a height above the river. To the W., rising 
above the forests, are high mountains , carpeted with yellow moss. 

The train now runs through wood, high above the Glommen, and 
crosses two bridges. Fine views towards the 8. The mountains 
Increase in height, and the valley contracts. Bjeraanasset, a small 
8topping-pi ace . 

272 Kil. Atna (1170 ft), near the mouth of the Atne-Elv, station 
for several gaardB on the opposite bank of the Glommen. 

>£. -A* excursion may be taken hence (comp. p. 97) to the W. to Sol 
TrV* **&Ato9b*o (good quarters at the gaards of Jf<JB*set y £ratndm, CW,and 

Ra T^'y *e*r the Atne-3j0. 01 e Pederaen Moen. a good guide, lives at the 
the*** * BwEnden. Imposing view of the_ chief peaks of the Hondane : 


f&toni'ero*,* rfSTOO ft.) , the Stpg/Jeld (6730 ft.) , and the Rundva$h*gda 

Jwecn/^' TheU Ve^ and the 8tul hi « ner Bo****™ OiOO ft.) may be 
fflund ^ <L ftm jgtrmnboden in the upper Atnedal, and through the Za»?- 
Aujj-Z Q *- -^ftotxl Strjafmboden a path leads across the hills to the Bjcrn- 



a^*tf , \a nuarters) and My$w-S<etcr, and through the Uladal, to 

i *^. i g °af nen in the Gudbraudadal (p. 67). — A road leads from Atne- 

LiiU \ *#* *T/ nicetterdalen (to theB. of which rises the Store Selen or 

n **e i&CJbfth * nd ^ Kil,) K rokhaug-Foldalen (see below). 
j ^5 ^,' TTAiieatiid (1250 ft.). On the opposite bank rises the 

TZ % ^Gr0ttinff bratUn ( 3820ft -)- ^ train 8kirtfl the river > wi<h 
*»} * ' -«--* 

*v *<|.y* *"!*, w VIT having been formed, according to tradition 
.5**1 the E " ?\t to divert the Glommen into the Rendal. 
& fc^^pt of a S 1 *^* d<J (1660 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant; *Steien's 
*"*ef* Kil. uu *" ,JB *ELte), at the entrance to the Foldal (see 
*K\ **»* *f t ^^firthe Glommen here. 

*4ft ^V % A bridge crO»»»f y i.i>AL to Jerkin (skyds-tariff II) offers the 

A** Vjl? feoAD thboUOH *J* ««ti»nia to the Sundal and Nordmfre. — 32 Kil. 

*>to* *PProaeh from c *Troii dane.-From(18Kil.)JTf<v»a«^n(*8tation) 

\0^\\i**^«wo/t ,ie *t»e J-fne-VamJ and the Rondane (see above). 

Mt*J* lelds to the S. *> of the Snehietta. - 17 Kil. JerMn (p. 71). 

V^' 1>5!^ iolendid ** e T«»em, Biae, andAune to theflwidaJ, see p.7'2. 

^ v« KongSvola, ^£E of the Tronfjeld (5610 ft.), a monn- 

«*» train skirts *k e n d serpentine, which may be ascended 

t*in eompoied of gat>t>*° 


toTronftjem. S T0REN. *** Soute ~ 77 

am, lop expanse* °* debris A stone to **« le f* ?V* m the 

A* Gfcmmeu md the ^ S'i°"e»d«> to *^ e 1 ?^ ndh J««'« 
*joi4. Uete^to follow the Vjfcy of the l*t*e* *° *^ el JX« 

to the S. to the Kongens Qrube fn 761. The * r -« «f th« a T 
432 Kil. Reitan (1780 ft.). On the left are several mw *ing old 

8 */o J!® low lies the ofcwch of Hov. _ ^^^ it lies a e^ 

^ Kil. Bidet (1380 ft. • Rail. Restaurant). B ^J„ here *£ J" 
per-foundry. A yery picturesque part of the line bejg nere ^he 
tnim skirts the rocks of 2>r«ilta«« 0»™ short *«*" J2^ d £*«» 
the ravine of the Dreia, which it crosses by a. lofty *»**;• JJ* the 
cuttings we distinguish first the clay - slate , a*id -■ijSTJ* l ds the 
granite and gneiss formation*. 454 Kil. Holtaaleth L y »o "0, with 
a handsome new church, prettily situated in the v * lley \ f A1 \ e Cos- 
tume of the peasantry here usually consists of a red aacKet^ leath- 
ern breeches , and a 'tophue' or peaked woollen c »p. We Uow 
descend the valley of the Oula to (463 Kil.) Langl^ e U™ ft.) a „ d 

480 Kil. Sin«aa» C575 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant) , with a bridge 
o^ertheGula. Large terraces of debris to the left mark the en- 
trance of the ForradaU On the left a fine waterfall. - 486 Kil 
"Wgen (456 ft.), prettily situated. Three short tixnnels. KotseieJ 
astoppi ng . place 499 K ii. Rogn^ r 3 00 ft.), ^i* h abridge over' 
ineuula. A little above Stfirren, to the left, is the church of E naen 

te?, uence of tae So*™'*** and the Gnla. We cross the Gula 

^!V. y + v B ~ Station ' at tne , TaXl - 8ta *ion) is charmingly situated at 
ffi ?n m° f th * Sofcria ' alon « w ^ich the DovrefSeld road ascends 
VK.ll). The beautiful rocky yalley is well cultivated at places, and 
P*my wooded. On the right, helow StOTen, a nne waterfall 

Remaining 8tatioris unimportant. 517 Kil. JZo-vin (170 ft • see 
^ 8 o p. 73). The train crosses the river, which here forms' the 
^ttlefos on the left and dashes through its narrow channel. 524 Kil 
i^ndcmo (108 ft.) ; 530 Kil. U r (80 ft.). The valley expands! 
^T? aiu mosses a tributary of the Quia twice and ascends a little 
^0 Kil. Kvaal (160 ft.). The train now descends ; view to the left' 
°f « Kil. Seberg (100 ft.). 541 Kil. Melhus C76 *t.) , with a finely 
"Jtuated new church (to the right, 1 M.Jrom the railway). Nu- 
™eroua river-terraces are passed. We now quit the Gula, which 
^rns to the N/W. and flows into the Gulosen, a bay of the 0rke- 
oaisfjord ( p . 73 : an arm of the Trondhjems-Fjord). The train turns 
^^eJl.Tf. otiA ^.Tosses the hill between the Oula ana the Nid 

«e, ^awtag nuta«ous faille W*| ^ V *J& 

0"* follow ittHft J"*^!,, W n * * 
el uxdex the »ub«1» oI ** 
.olL* 1 ^ station of — .wyj). 

- to C*** 10 ** 

9H.) -„ „ * n tfft* 1 /* On© of fit©* *3 *** 

*«»^ia to <?1 KJ10 **£ tae *-iS*Uto« *"$U» 
Cp. 63} diverge* *tl T <£fr> *** *£t ot V** " 

£6 "basin of the G l0 *?n «"S*J5*»*** J w ,8 
«*11tl X int0 Lake 0i c * ttte i* «« V^ V^^gs- 

« ^ew every ■J»» 8 f tflo<w* **,**» *£»«« A***? 
«•«- - The train no* » eft , •» » . 5 a **• £««»&- 
_ffoxrnx8 cataracts *t ^| 9 KiV #*9% or me«i 67 «&• 
■-1 - Bldkjer or «g¥«Ii. to tUetfo » e QV)W ,neVv. sfcor n««, 

*«a. ; 87Kil.S«"f£\ .Kail- "«*SSi^ ,S 2^i '*• tf ' 

*Ae S on the ^gat |;*» ^hW* 1 ** 6 

on. Tae Portress C^ a rtaT1 tB artlI,t ^ 

«.y tumi to the S.B. » A^ 06 SotaW en ' * 

^ees the S^edislx fro^er t ^^ * 
M.} Charlottenbe rp , *^ e 
 ootnolm, see B. *<- 

lania. *o Ootenbnrg by Railway. 

-4^ •*''«>- S MfcrrSo- O kr.W*.; ordinary B&.Vk^ 


c. AS 0-h *'rom ChrliliuU tu dole 
CD to MslmS) in ill/, hi., ui 01 
DertK) in 10V. hri. (fare. »kr. ! 

.-^interesting, bnl the IrmeUsr •hog Id 
. — .I 2V-«> «**"«• going on In each cue 
™ ono «*«»•' on He way if OBCW «rT. 

^'^ 1 p fi»S beautifnl 'fjotd'to cSilttanU, 
tax »s Mobs, comp. Map, p. 20.) 
_f Oslo and skirta the lase of tbe 
ttn e retrospect of the town. From 
f (.Trio islands and villa* of the Orm- 
■tu.nrl.cfjorA, passing many country- 
, a in a.»co"' is *° (iSM.) Oppegoard 
, n d,de-r*i a largo peninsula separating 
jBunaefjori'-MKil. 8*1(420 ft; 

o-ji t>y ***o 'Cairo Linie', unJntereatine. 
Crtfcil- &X>*<*»>«V ThaUnathsncroul. 

JOT. «"**^*' d arf ; r l? n '- SIE*™,™ 1, 

^scw'cs'* *"■* B«V»*9 taw j. 9W. 

* jirioaltar 4 ' school. 39 Kll. Veitftj. 
Ji iTsea.-ljs.thingPl*™. The train nw 
lttitR the -plcturasque Wojjoufui, the 
f ffleU*. 

,j«i» ant 

Heirta**'* ffofjf; Man Z/atei,- Brit. 

W^fUfWtBjfsrfefc^^a. Tbe convention of 14th Aug., 
^foW'Ha. S»- SmW*»*%»« between Sweden and Norway, w M 

,l . *«*,A cO* c ^tt^*t,«iW,to«Mcliabrld e8 cro«e S . Opposite 
•jA,^** ^ttu^^rtotel 1» » n ° ld «*W«bTMd, with tomb- 

**■"-» ol t ,*5'!** Blr '*° n , l ii«, Baade, OnM. The train moUM 
et° n |vMf*»U»* < p«*Sr&Mrfk a tunnel. 

,w»- k«»WSL »i>4¥r,TEt ( toiminl; , 0'jien' 1 jrot«I,motethan 

♦** »£S >SS«KS lM»«rt. lit. on theChristi- 

i lfc.*^VC-^V^^« ftb.».< t rd a iCp.74),th 6 n ; ost 

80 Route 14. SARPSBORG. From Christiania 

town owes its importance to its timber-trade with Germany, Holland, 
France, etc. The busiest quarter is the Forstad, on the W. bank 
of the river, with the railway - station , a large new church, a 
theatre, and the 'Forlystelsehus Valhalla', a popular place of 
amusement. The old town on the left bank was founded by King 
Frederick II. in 1570, and was onoe strongly fortified. A steam- 
ferry plies between these two parts of the town. 

On the Torsekile (Kile^b&j'), 7 Kil. to theE. of Fredrikstad, andBKil. 
to theS. of Sannesund, lies Torsekile or Hundtbunden, a pleasant sea-bathing 
place. About 10 Kil. to the W. of Fredrikstad is the Hank* Kytttanatorium 
(three hotels and numerous villas : pension 120 kr. per month), which has daily 
steamboat-communication with Christiania (6 hrs.) and Fredrikstad (1 hr.). 

Beyond Fredrikstad we pass on the left some curiously worn 
rocks'. Pleasant views of the broad river. The train crosses an arm 
of the Glommen, The banks are covered with saw-mills, timber- 
yards, and brick-fields. 103 Kil. Gredker. The train quits the 
Glommen. 106 Kil. Sannesund, station for the S. port of Sarps- 
borg, with the quay of the Fredrikshald steamers. 

109 Kil. Sarpsborg (Rail. Restaurant; *Aarsland'8 Hotel; Chris- 
tiansen's Hotel, R. 2 kr.), a small town with 2900 inhab., on the 
left bank of the Glommen, was founded in 1840 on the site of an 
ancient town destroyed in 1567. To the N. of the town the river 
forms the lake of Olengshelen, and to the S.E. the huge *SarpsfOB. 
A few hours suffice to visit the fail. From the station we either 
follow the road through the town, or turn immediately to the left, 
and then to the right, by a path which rejoins the road. The road 
then leads under the railway and with it crosses the fall by a 
Suspension Bridge (see below). The finest point of view is a rocky 
projection to which we descend in a few minutes to the right on 
this side of the bridge. The huge volume of water, 116 ft. in width, 
falls from a height of 74 ft. The scene is most impressive in May 
and June. Numerous saw-mills and factories (of cellulose or wood- 
fibre, etc.) utilize the water-power. On the left bank there is a 
channel ('Tammerrende') for the descent of the sawn wood. The 
rather shaky gallery adjoining it (reached by turning to the right 
beyond the bridge) affords another superb view of the fall. In the 
winter of 1702 a portion of the right bank, 2000 ft. long and 1300 ft. 
broad, on which lay a large farm-house, having been gradually un- 
dermined by the water, fell into the river with all its inmates and 
cattle. — From Sarpsborg to Ski, see p. 79. 

The train now crosses the Glommen by a lofty bridge , borne 
by the four pillars of the suspension-bridge above mentioned, and 
overlooking the Sarpsfos to the right. 119 Kil. Skjebcrg (128 ft.), 
in a marshy hollow; 131 Kil. Berg (230 ft.). Woods and patches 
of arable land ('Smaa-Lene') alternate with marshes and meadows. 
Farther on the train reaches the Jdefjord, and affords a view of 
the Brate. Several tunnels. The train passes between the fjord 
on the right and a rocky height on the left. It then skirts tbe 

to Qottnburg. 

14. Route. 81 

grounds of the ViHa Rar*^ ^~pi A. ^ ; "visitaw admitted), and crosses 
the TutedaU'Elv. ^ k - * * 

137 Kil. fxedxtiuftu 

Kirkestreede, R. 2 kr. lO 

the station, well spoken, oi 
Steamers to StrSm* ~ 

Christiania y see p. ti. . 

The ascent of the £f 
including the excursion 

Fredrikthald, au 
a Are in 1826, is 
Tistedal8~Ek>, whiclj 
centres ef the timb^ 
of Sweden. On tho 
fortress of Fredrik9 9lmm 
the hank of the fjo:e<l^ 

Fredrikshaid o 
habitants repelled 
sequence of which 
for Fredrikshaid, 
sten. The Swedes 

1716, and were o 

of the brothers P*c£ 
besieged Fredriksl*. 
at the back of the 
the siege. 

A walk on th^ 
Fredrikssten and 
the harbour is th^s 
simple monument 

We follow P. IC,. 
of the fortress, art^ 
('V. Port' in the a.:**^? 
4; 365 ft.; admis^^^ 
precipitously on t*^ 
from the reigns o>^ 
1808). Thegarria_ 
best point of view ^ 
staff and some guns 
A good view is al 8 <> 
which should be a^sl*- 
( 4 0. Port'), where to 
forts of Ot?erojcrp, 
left. Where the *<> 
to the right lead!** 
reach a wooden gat;< 
the Monument of Ofi^ 
Baxdskbbs Hoi"w 

' .^„ - JSStXBASK Hotbl (PL a? C, $), at 

►VEiHoTS^. icedaily (fare 1'/* or 1 kr.)j to 

onee o*" x _T^«i, Mr. & w ' ^fedde. 

£*. vic«'j5S^o ** d back) takes about Vft hr., 

-*Jbsstei* irftT Co***- 7kr >» 

Vein » -^ 1 1,200 inhab., rebuilt after 

— -»-^*. town ^ eX situated on both banks of the 

^^^^XLTeaq.**** 1 ^ **xo Idefjord. It is one of the 

^*-ixe « n *^^ -p^orway and the adjoining parts 

*ffl.c of ^T-^rnanded by the once important 

S. i* *• JVx»d <> f the ve * ltay merchants line 

. -tJio "bravery with which the in- 

******* * t£*e Swedes in 1668-60, in con- 

B,tt»© lc ^ ^^oliaiiged its old name of Balden 

orick- **A& founded the fortress of Fredriks- 

-^ 1661 -*| > ^ ^JI. again attacked the town in 

— .«* Ck a ^u.1 chiefly owing to the gallantry 

X» J isac 6O&0: jeV > J^^«Men. In 1718 OharlesXU. 

^-:»d H**** 3 ^rtje "but was shot in the trenches 

i:t4 a 0a** s I^Vjie, ^ ut was 8not * n * ne trenches 
bk secoixd ** p e ' c ., whereupon his army raised 

s ou 


^« 4} affords a fine view of the 

^bour C :P l- 4 lietofSaug0(p.82). Adjoining 

*.« wooded- *» ^oxveti PI. C, D, 3), where a 

^xket - V XaG Z tlie gallantry of the brothers 

imemo** te * 

de to the E., cross the outer wall 

^wnsen'* a * oad in 8 " 10 min ' to the £ ate 

^end a *>* a *f *!*« *Fbbdeikssten (PI. E, 3, 
c:ed Fl* TX fL'fr±0 fortress crowns a rock rising 
free). ^r 1 dft tes in its present form chiefly 
sides, B-Jt^fd.. 1766) and Christian VII. (d. 
adericlt "▼- *- f&vr companies of infantry. The 
insists °** tte ri (PJ. 11 5 E, 4), with a Hag- 
gle Brathcta^ ^ left beyond the Yest-Port. 
^□mediately ^e Klokketaarnet, the way to 
^**»tained. "^^iigli the fortress to the E. gate 
- -^ * J ass ^? 1 S ^3. -9^e observe the once important 
BS.andf' d Gvldenleve. we turn tn *>,« 

divides ^^ e 

m _ Gyldenleve, we turn to the 
gt^ain turn to the left (the road 

xa. + n«ra a-n-d t0 the Tistedal), and soon 
« the to 7\ ^te Commandant Par*; and to 

Xeading al ^T ect ed in 1860 on the spot where 

^nd Sweden- "• 

82 Route 14. DALSLANDS CANAL. From Christiania 

that monarch fell in 1718. It consists of a cast-iron pyramid -with 
an inscription by Tegntfr, to the effect that the hero, 'alike in 
fortune and misfortune, was the master of hja fate r and, unable to 
flinch, could but fall at his post*. 

'His fall wu destined to a barren strand, 

4 A petty fortress, and a dubious hand; 

'He left the name at which the world grew pale, 

4 To point a moral or adorn a tale 1 . (Sam. Johnson.) 

If time is limited we return by the same route. 

Leaving the park by the S.W. exit (eomp. PL F, 4), we reach 
the Tistedal road a little below the bifurcation mentioned above, 
and descend in 6-8 min. to a broader road leading from Fredriks- 
hald to Id. We turn to the left and after 5 min. diverge to the 
right. (A finger-post on the left shows the way to the Skonning- 
fos.') After 9 min. (not to the left over the Skonningfbs bridge, 
which affords a view up the valley to the villa of Wein, but) straight 
on, ascending gradually by the road on the left bank for tyjhr., and 
crossing the bridge to the left to Tistedalen. We then ascend to 
(10 min.) the high-lying yellow country-house of Wein (pron. 
'Vane'), which commands a view of the Femsjer (p. 83) and of the 
Tistedal, extending to Fredrikshald. We retrace our steps nearly 
to (8 min.) the church of Tistedalen, and keeping to the right, de- 
scend on the left bank of the river to (35-40 min.) the Skonnrng- 
fos bridge, from which 20 min. more bring us to Peder Kblbfern- 
8 en's Park (PI. D, E, 2). 

Time permitting, the traveller may take the ferry (10 *.) to the 
Sanger and walk through a narrow valley to the other side of the 
island. Fine view of the fjord with the Brat* and the Swedish coast 

To the W. of Fredrikshald lie the beautiful park and villa of 
Red (PI. A, 2), the former open to the public (view). 

Fbom Fbjedsikshalp to Chbistiania by Sea, steamer daily, except 
Mori., in 7 l /s-H hrs. (fare 4 x /a or 3 kr.). The passage from the Idefjord 
through the Svinesund into the wide Single Fjord is picturesque. For 
the rest of the route, see p. 84, 

The Steamboat to Wbnbbsbobo by the DaUlands Canal (about 100 Kil. 
or 100 M. ; thrice weekly, in 2 days), is seldom used now that the railway 
is available; but travellers who desire to see a little of the Swedish canal 
system may choose this route from Ed to Sunnana. 

The DaUlands Canal was constructed in 1863-68 by Ml* Eriaton (d. 
1870; brother of the 'caloric' engineer John Ericsson), at a cost of lty* mil- 
lion kr. Its locks and sluices are among the most remarkable in Sweden. 
Scenery pleasing, though not grand. 

We take the train from Fredrikshald to (52 Kit.) Ed (see below), 
whence a branch-line conveys us to (3 Kil.) the 'Lastplats' Lee, or Strandy 
on the W. bank of the Stora Lee (SwO ft.), a narrow lake 06 Kil. long. 
We now embark in the canal-steamer, which first steers to the W. into 
the Foxen, as the N. end of the Stora Lee is called, and then turns to 
the S.E. to Tranbils-Kyria and the Lennaris/or* , a waterfall which it 
passes by means of three locks. It here enters Leel&ngen (305 ft.), a lake 
50 Kil. long. Near Qustafsfors, a place on the E. bank halfway down the 
lake, another canal diverges to the Vettra and 0$tra Silen lakes, to which 
a steamboat usually plies weekly. At the S.E. end of Leel&ngen we pass 
through the two locks of Btngtf or* (Gfatgifvareg&rden), where the steamers 


r 4 



'J a 














U> Qoienbnrg. M ° N - *** Route. 83 

ifl the opposite direction e*c*d **« **f n d* • ***<* ?* **wWroh6Ua 
ChQP, * Sooth reach) the steamer deace * z ye ,£»»%*£ 

the traveller may walk) to — ^^-re * bc ?* , ^e* 

(7>A hri. from Strand), prettily situatea. **« ****y, a /f ne 

point of view. ^.^ -* % o» *^ e *• b*^, 

We now enter the Laxen-SjQ (240 **•'' grOJWHfo. J** of which lies 
Balder mils, a country-houae with chama"*e «J i**§na^*lfl« a more JocJw, 
the last of whieh is at ^o«Hn«*olw, defloe»a w **n (155 ft J, a narrow 

lake with wooded hanks, at the 8.B. end <» " the nt Te * eh — 

♦Hafverud f/»»;, the most striking go rfnt^ °«e c An j ^ ^ ^^ 
soil on one tank and the rocks on the other reou "»« ^t almost impossible 
to construct a canal adjoining the river here, f™ 8 * *; conceived and exe- 
cuted the hold plan of throwing an aqueduct (iw it. long and 13 ft. wide) 
over the waterfall itself. The scenery at wis point it also pleasing. 
While the vessel descends the locks, the passenger may ascend to a small 
belvedere on the left (E.) hank. _ 

Below Hafverud are the two 'hojjar' of Ofre and <flr«*r* Moln. Two 
locks descend thence to the UpperudhOIJa, beyond which the steamer tra- 
verses the ffJerteruds-Svnd and the Svattfjord. Lastly it descends through 
the largest of all the locks to KOpmannabro on Lake Wenern (156 ft.), and 
steers along the W. hank of that lake (about 3»/2 hrs. more) to — 

Wenersborg (9V2hrs. from Billingsfors). Thence to Gotenburg, see E. 41. 

On leaving Fredrikshald we have a view of the pretty Tiatedal, 
with its waterfalls, mills, factories, and country-houses. The train 
quits the valley by a short tunnel at (141 Kil.) Tistedalen, and 
runs along an ancient moraine resembling an embankment. 

At (140 Kil.) Femsjeen we obtain a beautiful view of the lake 
of that name (275 ft.), 6V2 Kil. long, which is connected with the 
large Aspern £340 ft.), the Aremarki-Sje, the BdemarU-Sje, and 
the 0rje-8j0 by canals constructed for the timber traffic. A small 
steamboat plies thrice weekly from Tistedalen to Skullerud (a 
pleasant trip, though seldom made). 

The fortress of Fredrikssten is visible to the W. for a short 
time. Several tunnels. Glimpse, to the right, of part of the fjord 
of Fredrikshald. Beyond (150 Kil.) Aspedammen, to the left, we 
get a glimpse of the 0r$je. Large timber-yards are passed near 
(159 Kil.) Prcestehakke, beyond which we enter a thickly wooded 
district. 167 Kil. Kornss (475 ft.) is the last Norwegian station. 

The line crosses the Swedish frontier. The district, almost 
uninhabited, is marked by the traces of forest conflagrations. At 
(178 Kil.) Mon (Rail. Restaurant), the first station in Sweden, the 
custom - house examination takes place (comp. p. 282). Beyond 
Mon the train traverses a bleak heath, surrounded by barren hills. 
185 Kil. Bokedalen. 

189 Kil. 2d (*Ra& Restaurant, D. li/g kr.), prettily situated 
above the Store Lee. By the station is a small monument to Nils 
Ericeson, the engineer (p. 82). A few paces farther on we obtain 
a fine view of the lake. Branch-line to (3 Kil.) Lee, the terminus 
of the steamers on the Dalslands Canal (p. 28). 

The district beyond Ed abounds in marshes. Scenery monoton- 


84 Route 14. STROMSTAD. From ChrimtUzrtia 

ous. 207 Kil. Backefors. Beyond a tunnel we pass tlie IFickloersjd 
on the right. 217 Kil. Dalskog. Farther on, to the left, we come 
in view of Lake Wenern and the small chalybeate baths of JRcatfofc. 

233 Kil. Melierud, junction of the Gothenburg and Fa .ln.Ti Bail- 
way (R. 53) and of a line to (3 Kil.) Sunnana on Lake "Wenern. — 
From MeUerud to (124 Kil.) — 

357 Kil. Qotenburg, see RR. 41, 53. 

15. From Christiania to Gotenburg by Sea. 

325 Kil. (201 M.). Steamboats, (a) Direct several times a week, fa 
13-15 hrs., steering outside the island-belt , where the sea is apt to be 
rough. — (b) Indirect several times a week, in 34-30 hrs., steering within 
the island-belt ('indenskjrers', Swed. Hnomskars'). Chief intermediate sta- 
tions : Strdmstad (whence local boats ply daily to Fredrik»hal<i^ , Grebbestad, 
FJellbackct) Lysekil, and Marttrand. The quick steamer 'GOteborg* perform* 
the voyage by day in 13 hrs., leaving Christiania on Tues., ITrid., A Son. 
(Gtotenburg on Mon., Wed., & Sat.), and calling at Slrtfmstad, Lysekil, and 
Marttrand (fare 16 or 12 kr. ; return-fare 24 or 18 kr.). 

The larger steamers, after passing Horten and Tensbefg: on the 
right and Fredrikstad on the left, leave the beautiful Fjord of 
Christiania and stand out to sea; and little or nothing is seen of 
the coast until they reach Gotenburg. The smaller coasting 
steamers, after leaving the Fjord, thread their way through the 
Swedish island-belt ('skaTgard'). The climate here is said to be 
unusually healthy, the sea-bathing places are much frequented, 
and the water is much Salter and purer than in the recesses of 
the long Norwegian fjords. The inhabitants are chiefly fishermen, 
sometimes wealthy, and are descendants of the ancient vikings, 
who have left representations of their exploits in the ' Heller fstnin- 
gar 1 still to be seen in the parish of Tanum near Orebbestadj at 
Brastad near Lysekil, and elsewhere. At many points on the 
coast there are remains of ancient castles, tombs, stone chambers 
('▼alar'), and monuments ('bautaBtenar'), so that this region fBo- 
husldnj is justly regarded as a cradle of northern sagas. The cod, 
herring, lobster, and oyster fisheries are the most important. 
Windmills crown almost every height. The thousands of islands 
through which the steamer passes are little more than bare rocks. 

The *Chbi8tiania Fjob.i> down to Moss is described in B. i. 
Below Jlfbss the fjord widens, and the scenery becomes less in- 
teresting. At the mouth of the fjord we steer to the B. into the 
P* c ture Sqne rjford f fredrikstad (see p. 79). We then pass the 
Bar, 0n the *^*t and tlie Singeleer on the left, and enter the 
a ba Svi ** e8und i the boundary between Norway and Sweden, on 
the t ° f w * icb foe IdefJorcTi lies rredritahaia, commanded by 
howl?** 68 * of ftednusster* C»ee p. 81). The Gotenburg steamers, 
direct ' do n0t C *U ** FrecLrlkstad or at Frednkshald , but steer 
"0 - 

Bt *****t»d (Qaatgifocvreff&rd ; Stads-Hotel; British ^i<y&-«Huju\, 

tofoteaWri/. LYSEKIL. j 

& <f ; T t+inaere*)' tne fl *»t Swedish station, a fovo 
placed. ^4 q ; « ft,ld and 8ea baths), at the efflux 
fr onlt,w 8Won*roatn. The badpyttja ('bath-mud') is 
d> etown * *xi ^ e environs are numerous caverns and i 
0*WW>r>, forrwed partly by water and partly by 
Strops 1% a great dep6t of oysters and lobsters. 

jP**& Btxomst&d the vessel steers through the m 
«tf»*i Hfefcfc* the Nordkostera Dubbelfyr Outhouse) 
********* 8.E. through the Kosier fjord. Near Or 
\>«N^f^a. of Qrcby, with numerous tombstones. 
WT\ii£ ^ aT iah of Tanum are a great many 'Helleristn 
^W next station is ^jellbaeka, with 800 inhab. 
™fc Swedish anchovy-trade , curiously situated at 
I0 ^. In this rock is the Rammelklava or I>jefvul$kl 
<&e!t, near the top of which several large stones a] 
^o the W. are the Vdderoar and the Vaderbodtfyr. "• 
the Sotefjord, with its dangerous sunken rocks (<blin< 
°y the waves of the Skager - Rack. On the peninsu" 
to the left are the Ashing- villages and bathing-pl 
Grafverna^ and Thngen. We next pass the Hallo 
Afalmo. Steering S.E. through the islands, we next 
Hysekil (*H6tel Bergfalk ; Stora Badhuset) ; Britisli 
 l£r. W- P. Thorburn), a favourite watering-place (1 

\ wttbi pleasant villas , on the long peninsula of Stan^ 

with the Bokenas forms the Gtdlmarafjord, extendi! 
/ Though Lysekil lacks shade it has become even more 

' Ma*Bfr an d\ Good bathing. Sailing-boats 1 kr. per h< i 

Beyond Lysekil some of the coasting steamers t . 
course ('inre vagen'), through the Svanesund and 
islands of Orust and Tjorn and the mainland. 

Uddevalla (Uddcvalla Hotel; Cramer's Hotel; H< ! 

town with 7600 inhab., prettily situated on the Byfjo : 

Oxnered, see p. 268). The Kalgardsberg is the best ] : 

The Kapellbackar (200 ft.) , hills of shell-marl , to i 

interesting. Near the town are the baths of Oustafsbe ; 

Farther on, some of the steamers touch at Stenun • 

excursion hence to the lake of Hallungeri), Ljungsh 

small watering-places. Most of the steamers, howe i 

outer course fytre vagen'). They steer to the W. , p j 

backsktt on the left, touching at the Oaso on the i 

several prosperous skippers reside, at Orundsund on I 

at Oullholmen on the Hermano, to the right. We pasi i 

and the Karringo with their lighthouses and sight 1 i 

and the church of Mollosund, on the island of Oru? 

are covered with Klipfisk (p. 226). The larger steal : 

through the Kirkesund , the smaller through the i 

Among the frequent lighthouses and beacons we 

BO" 1 

™S , tte tern, >» ft. ■* r -± l Jr*'>- ft ii 

MMBtrand endGotenhiiTg. hioliti. *' 

the mouth of the Gota-EiA * ^ w C e „ 

Goten&urp, lee p. !l&3. 



nd to s*»^» n f r by Sea ; ; ; ; ; 

ord - - '\ 

~ o: rd, and Saudefjord . . . 

gjuldalsvand to Odde on 


Vt** 5 






16. From Cnristla.Tx 
The Sta^ang^ x 

a. The LyaeCj 

b, The Sainl^^ ~ , ^r^i **f 1 
e. The San^^5>ja. ^ 1S * J 

17. From Stava.*Ct^ fi ° rd 
the HarcLuxKr^*^ by 

18. From Stav*^? ^ord • ^y 

19. TheHarda^t^^^to^f r ^ . . . 4A4 
a. Westenx*^* ^ old ^ord, to the Maurangei Fjord 101 

Excursion. J^*^&BXX8?** J J±*c**t otthe Yolgeton* . . 1CK 
b : Central f^**** S^*~Vjox<l, to tide on the E. . .10. 

Excursion. ^^^aUgf*, Tardtena*, and Eide .... 1CB, MM 
c The S***^***** Jo*** 1 ^ . ^ 

Excursions «? ^^^ «1 • * * - " Atu 

d.- The Ei^JF^^^, Odde - _ . 1W 

Excursions ;Sp *^.^ . ._ ^iffrord 11U ' 11 

Excursions X>^^:«C; V»* * ^ • — 

20. Bergen . ^*>Si ttl** * " 

21. FromBer^^.^^ — . - • ',jge» to Eide on the Har- 

SogneQorclL • ^ : ^ "» or \>Y £** m - .* 

From Tre**]L ^ - - ~a a. i»d tforheimsund . . . . 

FromVoaeT-gF^:*-^ ' " *»<*!»** ?k*A Handal to Kaardal in the 

22. TheSogne^i ^ € enihro^ ^ 

a. Wester:** ^i?*^<i * . -nalholm, at the mouth of 
theF te ^^^ €ne V jo rd, *° f 

tS o5!a*** g ^fte*trandsfcar to Ha/slo and 

over . - M t^<iid*brce to Lunde on the 
- over *tne J^^gfoeasanddaltoS^rgnessand 
*z>r through ,^«nflC© n ' Aurlandgfjord and 
^lm to Oud^ nft 

From Fjufe.* 
Solvorn "** 

From Fjte^ 
Kj0n« 8 g * 

b s Uxom ^ 

N»roQ ^^" 

From Sog^^f^ 
From Aurl^, 

c. FiomB 
From Aml>x^. 
d> AardalejTf 
From Marin 
From SkjotV 
From Maritj 
From the l£r 
on the ^ 
dalsbree to 









nm to 

~*o Solvorn * ix i tb e I«*rdal 





o Tfrajia** 1 - ^^d-^angen to Laerdalssren 
m or from c * 1 * . 

Sogndai - r /jord. Jostedal .... 135 
and Ilry&t* 3 *,* lg6 

dfldal 137 


n to Sogn^f* dl «, 
to the M^^fff Ii 

io we w- te ^nJ 

^n to the •'^^^gtedalsbro; to Loen or Olden 

^*al over fb-*Jr*n-m. Faaberg over the Joste- 
F^ord, andfro^ ^ ^ 

^redung * atry 



Route Page 

23. Jotunheim 139 

a. From Aardal on the Sognefjord to Vetti. Vettisfos 141 

b. From Vetti to Tvindehoug and Eidsbugaren . . 143 

c. From Vetti through the Utladal, Gravdal, and 
Leirdal to Rejshjem 144 

d. From Skjolden to Fortun and Turtegr* 146 

e. From Andvord to Rerjshjem.- The Galdhapig . . 148 

f. From Rerjshjem over the Sognefjeld to Turtegra . 160 

g. From Skogstad or Nystuen to Lake Tyin and 
Eidsbugaren 152 

h. From Fagernaes to Ranfjordheim , and up Lake 

Bygdin to Eidsbugaren 154 

From Nyboden to Lake Gjende 156 

i. From Eidsbugaren to the Gjendebod on Lake 

• Gjende 167 

k. From the Gjendebod to Rerjshjem 160 

1. From Eidsbugaren through the Melkedal to 

Skogadalsbffen , and over the Eeiser to Turtegre 163 

24. From Bergen to Aalesund, and Molde by Sea ... 165 

From V olden 166 

25. From Vadheim on the Sognefjord overland to Aalesund 

and Molde 167 

a From the Sognefjord to the Nordfjoxd 168 

Dalsfjord. Viksvand. F*rde#ord 168, 169 

From Mo to Grpning 170 

From Klagegg to Aamot, and over the Jostedalflbrse to 

Olden or to Fjserland 172 

b. TheNordfJord 173 

FromNordfjordeid'to VoldW .'.*.: .* 174 

Oldendal. Loendal. Stryusdal 176-179 

c. From the Nordfjord to Aalesund and Molde. S#nd- 

9 more/ Geiranger Fjord. Storfjord 180 

F*rom Grodaas to the J0rund fjord 181 

From Hellesylt to the Strynsvand 182 

From Sylte over the Stegafjeld to the Ro medal ... 184 
From Hellesylt through the Norangsdal and down 

the JorundQord to Aalesund 186 

From Aalesund to 0rstenvik and the j0rundQord . . 189 

26. Molde and the Moldefjord 190 

a. Excursion -to the Romsdal 192 

b." Excursion to the Eikisdal 196 

27. From Molde to Trondhjem : — a. Sea Voyage ... 199 

b. Overland, by Battenfjordsaren and Ohristiansund, 

or by Angvik and.0rkedal direct to Trondhjem 201 

The Sundalsfjord (Nordmjarre) 201 

28. Trondhjem and its Fjord 202 

From Trondhjem to Namsos by Stenkjaer, Snaasen- 

vand, and Fiskumfoa 208 

16. Erom Chtv.**.-^ i ansa ntl to Stavsnger by 

Tns dltUnee from G^»__- „ _„j i» ottcially i"Wd at 33 

errtly longer. The *». »Sj* el " J *"«Ve™ **?°S ™" -I 1 -™? '" : *?' 
nautical milts (8.H.. * -- ^^£?* _5 -*.» 

fsa K3rS«bps: 3E.5Ssi 

l1oul B rl 70 ?C»p IJ n <L J «*j(r„,, 1. JleriaaiL and neat * 

The 9D3lnL U tiLaT^ ,J " & «T.^. OO — *. ■»«. 1 call ll many unim 

statioa., ^SiVS****^ " o* ""> i"tae.Ung formation. 

"atari or*"! *^W*»^ *J rf » "red "r ri™7wnU^£4 

einanu' 'into Uk^'^^* 3 ^^^ l»nl», the OphmrHfolt, in i 

engaged in enLtle-rk_*-*»^ ;y fOBM • llltle world ol ils 

wllhiu own P eeuH-V?*»»— _ B»6» W"i»l ec, J 

tSSSff£iS^T £^^*%' --«•*•* 

Cftri«£a*naniJ " *"* *" The 4rst steamboat - gUttoi 

py,bM.j— ' ^-^^ p . 2- — 

5 S.M. Kandai ,- *mtel S B ritlBn -, ifr. T 

Andorsm,!, the *o**X- 1 ^*' fc » «nd***»' '* '%!« in Noiwiy, with 3800 inha 
con,i»ting of «an < t^ : ^«»^ lim oBt *°„j X'"" tn . 8nd "tnated pertly 
rocky islands. Tbi^^^^* jtfai«v*T» *"«;ieven. — A pleasant eicnreii 
may be taken np £■*_ **-^.;wHotxr *■* «< r a»» tiaiJ " Eio, wlli<!n f » llB into 1 

fjord here, viS the ,= >*-,», lev of **"* iTryg''^ *° *«* (100 Kil.l ne 
AoMral* TwiiHot^ti KllO &" lam C 1150 ft -' W bed, i En 8li«i 
spoken, pen*, froi^ ^^ -^jV Sanatcr***y\ jjogavand, where there is goot 
shooting and troot— .-JE* *"•*« kr.), OI * 

Beyond M»nd«.j_ ^^^ : *»ing! joH of the ^ntfoi«-£io and tie 

conspicuous lightb. J^**~ «* P»«» t 1 *^, ,„a*>* HI * , ( fi>Imerl '' L ' ni ' and " n «<. 
Engl. Sou, Dntcr*. .£*■»«=» on c*p<* J*£<5 ft. in height. This cape is the 
southernmost poir*.,; _" = '""- Nt<**6), iA n mainland, and time 1650 hag 
been marked by a l»,J**" *he Norwe* 1 * eaJ ij e at in Norway). The part of 
Norway to the E. »* ^-^-^a-Ugtyt <.*£!!,.« 0»pe Lindeanesto theprom- 
ontor, ot Sttdt [p. ^ line d»wn « ^^^^ or sieafitldtkt 
*Tj.*tet»W. *^5*«) i. f££*%Zr ^.In2i/ 2 hra.m rewereaoh-. 

8SM. T UIQna . Tff»^rt*^sSl7 British rice-consul, A/,. P. 
f.SundO, » small « *-- Ja,Me " *,* ±0OO inhsb., near the mouth of 
»iJ0rfronninginla.a i ^J^-T0 rt wlt ,° „- ramifications, into the eastern- 
most of which falls tlVT in three 1 °^5„, — The steamboat now steers 
towards the H-, P»aa la ^ , ^ vChtbouie of Utter, and then the 
month o(theftddc/^ Q *_*ig the »«*V t . Steaming np the FtcBtefford, 
we neit call at (2'/ a l*/ 0n 

90 Route 16. EKERSUND. From ChrUtiansand 

6 S.M. Flekkefjord (Wahl's Hotel; British vice-consul, Mr. J. 
P. M. Eyde\ a prettily situated seaport, with 1580 inhab. and a 
good harbour. To the S.E. lies (10 Kil.} Fedde (p. 3), on the fjord 
of that name, to which the Kvinesdal descends from the N.E. ; 
and to the N. runs the Siredal, with the Siredalsvand (120 ft.), the 
outlet of which falls into the Lundevand, to theN.W. of the Flekke- 
fjord. Issuing from the Lundevand, the 8ira empties itself into 
the sea in a cascade. 

Rcegefjord (not always called at) is the station for Sogndal. In 
3^2 hrs. from Flekkefjord we reach — 

8 S. M. Ekersund. — SAi.rsasx'8 Hotel , 6-7 min. from the pier 
and 4 min. from the railway-station ; Xsdbkxn , in the market near the 
station, English spoken. — British vice-consul, Mr. 0. M. Puntervold. 

Ekersund or Egcrsund, a town with 2900 inhab. and a porcelain 
factory, lies in a rocky region, at the S. end of Jcederen, the flat 
coast-district extending to Stavanger, which affords good fishing 
and shooting. A fine survey of the environs is obtained from the 
rocky hill marked by a pole on the top, reached in 25 min. by a 
narrow street opposite the railway -station, and an ascent to the 
right past the cemetery and a farm-house. 

The Railway from Ekersund to Stavanger (76 Kil., in 2 1 /2* 
3*/4 hrs.; fares 4 kr., 2kr. 48 ».), which traverses this coast-plain, 
is unattractive, but in bad weather will be preferred by many trav- 
ellers to the steamboat. The chief stations are : (38 Kil.) Ncerbe 
(Restaurant), Sandnas (61 Kil.), prettily situated at the 8. end of 
the Stavanger Fjord, and (76 Kil.) Stavanger. 

The Stbamboat on leaving Ekersund passes the Eker*, a large 
island with a lofty iron lighthouse. The coast here is unprotected 
by islands, and the sea is often rough. The steamer affords a distant 
view of the flat and dreary coast, enlivened with a few churches 
and the lighthouses of Obrestad and Feiesten. To the N. of the 
latter, and about 12 Kil. from Stavanger by road, is the church of 
Sole, adjoining which are the ruins of the old church, said to date 
from the 12th cent., and now fitted up as a dwelling by Hr. Ben- 
netter , a Norwegian artist. We steer past the Flatholm Fyr and 
the mouth of the Haf$ fjord, where HaraldHaarfager(p. 98) gained 
a decisive naval victory in 872, which gave him the sovereignty of 
the whole country, and released him from a vow , taken ten years 
previously, not to cut his hair until he should be king of all Nor- 
way. A little farther on, the vessel turns to the E., passes the 
Tungenas, a promontory with a lighthouse, and (4 hrs. from Eker- 
sund) reaches — 

15 S.M. Stavanger. — Hotels: *Grand H6tel, Valbjerg-Gade, corner 
of the Nedre Holme Gade (PI. O, 2), R. 8 kr., good cuisine; Jbspkksen's 
Hotel, Provstebakken 2, corner of the Kirke-Gade (PI. C, 2), commercial ; 
Phoenix, on the Skagen (English spoken) ; Olsen's Hotel, Olafakfeven 9 
(PI. 0, 8)', O. Larseks Ekkjs's Private Hotel, Nordb0-Gade 4, near the 
steamboat- quay, small. — Confectioner ft Oafe, June^ Kongs-Gade 87, near 

to Stavanger. STAVANGER. 16. Route. 91 

the park. — Sba Baths at the Stantuteiien (PI. F, 2), to the E. of the town* 
— Wash Baths in Jorenholmen. 

Carriage* at Heilan&t, Hetlands-Gadei Pt&tenen'*, Lokkeveien, etc. 
Carr. with one hone, 1-4 per a., 1, li/«, or 2 kr., two horses 2 1 /* kr. per hr. 

Shops* Goldsmith: MelMrem, Nedre Holme-Gad© 23. Furrier: Oh 
Jensen, Kirke-Gade 44. Fishing-tackle : /. Rasmutsen A Racine, 0stervaag ; 
Wood-carving, embroidery, etc. : Stavanger Hutflidtf or ening, Kirke-Gade 20. 

Post and Tblbgbaph Office, 0Vre Holme Gade (PI. C, 2). — Banks : 
Nor fee Bank, opposite the cathedral) Btavamger Privatbank, near the 
Grand Hotel. 

British Vick-Con8Ul, Mr. Lars BermUen, who will also change English 
money. Amewcan Consular Agent, Mr. Chr. F. Fakk. 

Stavanger, capital of the 'Amf of that name, with 24,000 
inhab., prettily situated on a branch of the Bukkenfjord, or Sta- 
vanger Fjord, li the commercial centre of the Byfylke, the district 
enclosing the fjord, and is also one of the oldest towns in Norway. 
It dates from the 8th or 9th century, hut as it has suffered fre- 
quently from fires it now presents quite a modern appearance. Alex. 
L. Kjelland, the poet (b. 1849), a native of the town, has been 
burgomaster of Stavanger since 1892. About 500 vessels, including 
50 steamers, with 4460 sailors, belong to the port. Fish is the chief 
export, particularly herrings, anchovies, and mackerel. Stavanger 
is the first port of call for the steamers from Newcastle, Hull, 
Rotterdam, and Hamburg. 

The quay of the large steamers (PI. B, 1) is at the mouth of 
the harbour of Vaagen, which runs far inland, on the N.W. tide 
of the peninsula of Holmen. That of the fjord steamers is on the 
N.E. side of Holmen (Ryfylke-Bryggen ; PI. 0, 1). The main street 
of the Holmen quarter is the Kirke-Gade, which, passing the Val- 
bjergtdarn (PI. 0, 2; fine view from the top), leads in 6 min. to the 
cathedral. Opposite is the town-hall with the Brandvagt (PI. G, 3), 
where the key of the church is procured. 

The * Oathbdbal (PI. C, 3), the most interesting building in 
Stavanger, and the finest church in Norway after the cathedral of 
Trondhjem, was founded by Bishop Beinald, an English prelate, 
at the end of the 11th cent, and dedicated to St. Swithin (Suetonius, 
Bishop of Winchester, d. 862). In 1272 it was burned down, but 
was soon afterwards rebuilt in the Gothic style. After the Reform* 
ation it was sadly disfigured, but since 1866 it has been restored 
by the architect Yon der Lippe of Bergen. The nave is separated 
from the aisles by massive pillars, five on each side, in the peculiar 
northern Romanesque style, which evidently belong to the original 
edifice. The choir, which adjoins the nave without the intervention 
of a transept, terminates in a square form, and has a very effective 
E. window. Its rich Gothic style points to a date considerably sub- 
sequent to the fire of 1272. The choir is flanked with four towers, 
two at the E. end, and two Tery small ories at the W. end. The 
aisles and the S. side of the choir are entered by remarkably fine 
portals. Pulpit of 1658 and Gothic font in the interior. 

To the S, is the Kongsgaard (PI. C, 3), with its old chapel 

92 JLouU 16. LYSEFJORD. fircttrsfon* 

(Munbekhke; undergoing restoration), once the residence of tbe 
bishop, who was transferred to Cbristiansand in 1685, now the 
Latinskolt. — To the E., by the Bredevand, is a small Park (Pi. 

C, 3), adjoined by the Kongs-Qade, a favourite promenade skirting 
the lake. — To the S., beyond the railway, are the Theatre , and the 
new Museum (PL C, 4), containing antiquities, natural history 
specimens, and the town picture-gallery. — The 8t. Petrikirke (Pi. 

D, 2) was built by Von der Lippe in 1863-65. — The Peders-Qade 
nearly i/ s M. long, leads to the docks by the 8pilderhaug(V\.V y 2)! 

Fine Vrsws from the Vaalandshaug (330 ft ; with a tower), 1 M. 
from the Bredevand (past the museum, then to the left), and from 
the VUenkaug (460 ft.), i/ 2 M. farther on, both to the S. of the 
town ; also from the town-park of Bjergated, 20 min. to the N. W. 
of the town. The park is reached by the L*kkevei (PI. B, 3, 2), 
and the Bjergtedsvei (Pi. A, 1), or by boat from the steamboat- 
quay in 10 min. (20 *.). To the left of the entrance to the park 
is a hospital for infections diseases (if occupied, the park is closed). 

An excursion may betaken to 8oU y a village on tbe coast of Jsederen' 
12 Kil. to the S.W. (p. 90). We may then return by Malde, to the N. of" 
Sole, along the Hafefjord fp. 90). 

The Stavanger Fjord. 

The Bukkenfford or Stavanger Fjord is a broad basin to the X. of 
Stavanger, studded with numerous islands, and has ramifications indenting 
the land in every direction, some of them with smiling shores, others 
enclosed by precipitous cliffs. The lower part of the slopes is generally 
cultivated, while snow-fjelds appear in the background. The only inhabited 
places are the islands and the deposits of debris at the foot of the cliffs. 
The scenery is little inferior to the finest on the Hardanger Fjord. 

a. The Lysefjord. 

Steamboat twice weekly (Wed. A Sun.) in July and August to Lyte- 
btmdm at the E. end of the fjord; there and back in 9-10 hrs. On three 
days a week all the year round the steamer calls at Htgtfjord and ±\Fo$*and 
(2 hrs.), at the entrance to the fjord. On these days a rowing-boat may 
be taken from Hgrgsfjord or from Fospand to Lypebunden, returning next 
day (with two rowers 15-90 kr.), but this is fatiguing and not recommended. 

Hegsfjord or Hele (tolerable quarters), to which we may also 
drive from rail. stat. Sandnss (24 Kil., in 3-4 hrs.), lies on the Hele- 
fiord, nearly opposite the month of the Lysefjord, on which lies 
FoM$and, near, the chnrch of Qjett. A large moraine here led Es- 
mark, tbe Norwegian savant, about the year 1821, to the conjecture 
that the whole country was once covered with glaciers. 

The "Lysefjord, the grandest fjord on the S.W. coast of Norway 
is an arm of the sea, 500-2000 yds. broad, 37 Kil. long, and at 
places 1400 ft. deep, and enclosed by precipitous cliffs rising to a 
height of 3300 ft. The fjord is almost uninhabited. Opposite HeUs- 
lid lies the island of Holmen. About 20 min. later the steamer 
comes in sight of a curious rock high up on the N. bank. At the 
head of the fjord (21/a hrs. by steamer from Fossand), among huge 
rocks, lies the station of Lysebunden (two beds of the Stavanger 


w th 
k fl, 

' |K 




i, . 

!^ ; - 
V. • 


,« BKERSUND. From CMmlt «umi 

90 Rout* Jo- 

„ o * JUU.^ C V«W. Ho** ; B^ h T580 ife */ 
t>b.J»- * _«.*«!? situated seaport, """ /- «n a »l>. *nd» 

the sea in a cascade. 

Ragcf Jord (not always called at) is the station for Sogndal. In 
31/2 hrs. from Flekkef jord we reach — 

8 8. M. Ekersund. - SAxvasKiTs How , 6-1 'min. frqjn the pier 
and 4 min. from the railway-station : Jjbdbwbn, in the m«ket near the 
station, English spoken. — British vice-consul, Mr. «/. *r. runterwxa.^ 

Ekersund or Jfyeraimd, a town with 2900 inhab. and a porcelain 
factory, lies in a rocky region, at the S. end of Jaderen, the flat 
coast-district extending to Stavanger, which affords good fishing 
and shooting. A fine survey of the environs is obtained from the 
rocky hill marked by a pole on the top, reached in 25 min. by a 
narrow street opposite the railway - station, and an ascent to the 
right past the cemetery and a farm-house. 

The Railway pbom Ekersund to Stavangbb (76 Kil., in 2Y2- 
3V4 hrs.; fares 4 kr., 2kr. 48 *.), which traverses this coast-plain, 
is unattractive, but in bad weather will be preferred by many trav- 
ellers to the steamboat. The chief stations are: (38 Kil.) Nairb* 
Ih *2? urant )» Sandnaa (61 Kil.), prettily situated at the S. end of 
* e Btovanger Fjord, and (76 Kil.) Stavanger. 
I ? T J* e Stbamboat on leaving Ekersund passes the Ekere, a large 
bv • 1 ^ Uh a lafty iron ^gtthonse. The coast here is unprotected 
y islands, and the sea is often rough. The steamer affords a distant 
a * w ° f th <* flat and dreary coast, enlivened with a few churches 
latt ttgftthouses of Obreatad and FeiesUn. To the N. of the 

Sot 9 -f- nd ab<mt 12 Kil - from Stavanger by road, is the church of 
fror^' ♦tr JO / ning wMcb are tne TJlins of tne old church, said to date 
net+L " th cent » and now fitted U P aB a dwelling by Hr. Ben- 

th« ' a ^o^wegian artist. We steer past the Flatholm Fyr and 
a A *?¥*? th ° f ^e Hafa fjord, where Harald Haarfager (p. 98) gained 
the if 1 e Xlayal victory in 872, which gave him the sovereignty of 
nrZ«HS V 5 countr y> »nd released him from a vow, taken ten years 

C A r n0t t0 Cnt Mb hair until he Bnould * e kin S of a11 Nor - 
7V *L" little farther on, the vessel turns to the E., passes the 

m*Z!2??** €B * 9 a P rom °ntory with a lighthouse, and (4hrs. from Eker- 
sandj reaches 

or * ££ ' **" stavanger. — Hotels : *Grand H8tel, Valbjerg-Gha-de, corner 
11**!*^ -«e<lre Holme Gade (PI. 0, 2), R. 3 kr.. good cuisine; Jiss*EBaEw*8 
?„'* r» ^^ov-atebakken 2, corner of the Xirke-Gade (PI. 0, 2), commercial , 
S r. \ on ^ tIle Skagen (English spoken)* Omen's Hotel, Olafsfefeven 9 
, *- *-!» a ^» °- Lahsens Enke's Private Hotel. Nordb0-Gade 4, near the 
leamhoat-quay, small. — Confectioner * Oafe, June, Kongs-Gade 37, near 

w «Sa*J* ***** Hett r*5i o* »isiw53Jto , 

Wood'carving, embroidery, etc : **S£2f &°**?ll^*EL 

a^jTf' Qpp0,lte thC eaU *° ar ^ — ^no will at* 

Grand Hotel. „ nw-^f»"^* 9 j? jcfefe*. 

British V IC *-Coh8Ul, Jfr. ****** *m£. <***'*£* n*m« 
money. Amtocav Oomuiab Ao*WJ, j»£ ^ «b»« name 

Aovoiayer, capital of Hie ^ U ^ H * tlie «•**« 

iab., prettily situated on * l>Ta **L7 1 *5 o/ til© W 


romper, capital of A© "%, o* **» e J 
inhab., prettily situated on * l>raa «t*« o/ t* 10 -- 
rayer fjord, it the commercial cen* ^^ rfdeat toi 

enclosing the fjeatd, and is also ° ne - l *»* ** ** h * 
It dates from the 8tk ox 9tb century , ^ modern app 
quentty rrem fires it r*owpresentsqni*« » / the 1 

t ir^«__, .,.. . ... rt 4QiQ\ a i**** v -5OO res 

port. JP 

* ^ Aji J mac 
anchovies, J*» /rom N , 

L. Kjellamd, Hie poet (d. 1849V* ^ o0 t 500 res 

hurgomaster of Stavanger since ***»»• ~ A t ha 

50 steamers, with 4450 Bailors, ^*° n f * * 

export, particularly herrings, * nc *°J Zr?eT0 

is the first port of call for the steal" 

Rotterdam, and Hamburg. rp , « 1 J ** ** 

The quay of the large steamers ^' in j m nd, on 
the harbour of Vaagen, which runs rar rf gtea 

of the peninsula of Holmen. That of tn« J j j a 
N.E. side of Holmen(Byfylko*Brygge» ? ^hich, pa 
oftheHolmen quarter Is the Kirke-tfaae, ^ dg j 
Verytdarn (PI. C, 2; fine view from *"? Jr5£ Brands 
cathedral. Opposite is the town-hall ****"" 

where the key of the churoh is procured. inteT esti 
The*0ATiaDBAL(Pl.O, 3), the niostm er tJ 

Stavanger, and the finest church in *° T 7V ld A n & 
Trondhjem, was founded by Btihop E e% ?7*a t 8vfM 
at the end of the ilth cent, and dedicated * "' n 
Bishop of Winchester, d. 802). In 1272 «*»■ Aft 
was soon afterwards rebuilt in the Gothic **}£' hB/f 
ation it was sadly disfigured, but since * w S, he B »< 
by the architect Von der Lippe of Bergen- *** lde , 
^^e aisles by massive pillars, fire on •**£,»£ 
™* hem ^ m «««liie •**•» whtth evidently 1>^ |, 
edifice. The choir, which adjoins the ns^ewi*^ 4 

5? w ^r pt V te ' mina ^ to a square form, *?? *t>* 
E. window. Its rich Gothic stvlenoint* to * &* te A ^* 

1 To tfc* s .I 18 ? and Gothic font in *** i** 


To the s" i theT * nd GoiMe fon ^ *«! 





from Stavanger. 

tourists' club at the 
towering above the \ 
nomenon. is sometiixv 
immediately aftei it; 
spray, flashes horiai 
across. The noiae _ 
of cavern in the f a.«i 
and inaccessible ^ 

From Lysebuul^ 
The Frafiord^ ; 
twice in alternate 
There is a good 

HJ,e«:EJtfFJOBD. 1 

«1 «r the tjord on the S. side, ; 

a gleam of light, h 

tl»e fj<* d > disappe 

"believed to procee< 

at least 2000 ft. ab 

"by ropes from the 

Sietersdal, very fatig 

^^ of the Heleflord is < 

'fclie B-&- ^^.« steamer), is also w 


b. Tli 

Steamboats, o**< 
the others from tan 
5V» hrs. (fare 2 kr* 
a week a steamer t 
stations, affords a V 
Sandeid steamers 

On leaving 
left, bnt it is g 
Vadse. On the 
with snowy peak. 
Tou. Between th 
which the Bjerh* 

From Ton a go 
on which, we may 
thence over the l^-j 
road down the Stor~ m 
Bergeland the HJa^*^ 

The steamer vi & 
Fogne on the rig>^^J 
across an open _ 
of the Atlantic'to 
row strait betw e^ 
strands fiord to Jfc^i 
month of the Sam«i 

The steamers 
call at Fiskaaen, 
Aardal, near th& 
0vre Tyadalsvanct 
Bergeland, 8 KiL, 
ancient glaciers. 
Fisterfjord to the 
and Teach Hjelmclc* 
has its name from. s 

We next enter 

^*"^eks t*^ 

-rf^— 'l»fjord, and Saudefjor 

fc.nd*^ oirA V-.-i starting from the quay 

iR.ol> e *^^« -ply M ttBle « * week, 

itJe ?B***3S T\* ©iMVihrs. (fare 31 

V to 0****** to uching at a great mai 

-}» * J»l^ e » _— attractive route (als< 

r ^ ut i«S>. 

M J** 1 *^' t a glimpse of the 0] 

nge* ^ e . *>y the lslandB - 0n th 

ihut o --ble tbe mountains of 1 

, are ^ 8l nce . In an hour we pa 

the diS* 3, jjjjerrheimstyaifteny a 

places op^ 8 it *elf into the fjor 

>^daf^* ^^^^a^tVe 
***dleaji* ^aJ**** ,£* near Bergeland, 

J[y be********* ^t the Ta^ on th 

sIiysteerB ^'^jtAdeberget on the 

*d Jutebom Zgr&r *>*<*» w ^ere we , 

^ the St** v f- gtj owners; thence tl 

left, to «d. t* 10 BjeruBi and ac: 

_it island *rrit& Ba Dflmer * r eBortj n 

^•"-on*, a ** v0l *^e the *Wd* to Jals. 

^^^-^ord an<* I? afterwards enter the 

^^ing: at T °Ji e jZarddUfjord to A< 

steer «P «„r^ ^°» wh *ch descei 

x*th of tbe f£* lakes. (Thence t. 

other, * m *2^baerre the extensive 
& above. J J^ttix the fjord again 
Steaming «* eI1 the mainland an 

^re pass *><** ^riUage amidst orcl 
aT , a P*f ***** & a bill near the chui 
helmet bJ»P- with its wild and j 

JJoute 16. SAUIXB. 

^ ^rhat resembling the Lysefjorcl, »i*d caI1 at Tytlandnto, or Tet- 
•^^^vifc on a hay of its S. bank, ana at Fitf<fc on its U. bank. 
^^•-.otii \he head of the Hjflsenfjord » rough and fatiguing path crosses 

■^LTo^Wina in two days to ValU in tbe wtewdai (p. 0). 
* S£ e tnrnh\gto the mouth of the Qord., we next steer N. to Knuts- 
^xjd then enter the mountainous Er fjord, where we call ttHaa- 
dL&osen, and thence direct our course to the W. to JasUa. 
&**>le* or Jelse (Inn), which the direct steamers from Stavanger 
ill in 3-4 hrs., and the indirect coasters in 5-10 hrs., is a oon- 
t»d1c tillage, with a church. Most of the steamers touch here 
exchange passengers for different destinations. 
The vessel next steams up the SandftQord, which gradually nar- 
and is enclosed by lofty rocks, with several waterfalls. The 
afterwards expands a little. In iy 2 hr. from Jalser we reach — 
and (*Kaarbu6, R. 1, B. 11/4, S. lVakr. ; ^BasmuasenJ, at the 
h of the Logen, which forms the pretty Sandsfos 5 min. above 
Ulage. Route to the Suldalsvand, and thence to Horxe and 
, see p. 95. 

le Sandsfjord now divides into the Hylsfjord to the N.B. and 
mdefjord to the N. 

ice a week the steamer enters the *HyUfjord, at the grand 
>f which lies the station of Hylen. Fine waterfalls descend 
be cliffs. 

JiK H ^it n ^ to Yf affe on th e Suldalsvand, iy 2 -2 hra. by a good 
J J *i?f n iS g l he wild **WW, and crossing the *ffpU»kar, where 
fa splendid view of the lake below (comp? p. 96). 

f /a-2 hrs. from Sand the steamer reaches the head of the 
ord, at which lie 

*%° r s *? de and Saudesjeen (* Rabbet Inn), pleasantly 
, favourite resorts from Stavanger. Walks to the S.W. to 
W&vandal; to the N.E. to (2 hrs.) Birkelandsdalen , with 
d*w1'' *? E -» alon S the floid. to (35 min.) Indre 8aude y 

tn 1? fT° nr ? h and a ▼*«* of the 80ndenaa-Fos, and thence 
frit t bndge across the stream descending from the 
& Zi ero forms the Hollands f os. 

£**c?£J? a * < 2FVZ THB Slettbdal to 8wwbstad, IV* day (road 
foe "i^J£" ^5*\*« *»d provisions indispensable. — As f ar aa the 
* o/'^S > 5Sf rf .^ 4ar ''«K»VV>*, see above. About 35 min. farther on 
ft* P^JJTfl^'^ T o the right rises the snow-clad Skavle Nut. 
'*? uZL l?£££*^ 5 ^low, to the right, flows the Star JSlv. Several 
«>;?*</ X* JJE^/J*** on the Saudeflord. About halfway up we 
+(jl**& «, *»*!»****** * nd *» 2I /* hj8 * fr0,tt 8 »*de, arrive at the 
'<$» fcfTr- £>eisk.n«~«2~ r °cky landscape. As we once more descend we 
4 a vio*« SSS* 1 ^e^ of the Stors Lid-Vand, with the 3uMaI«- 
r $ **<M. w^**-.-^ *** of Aarthon, a green oasis, with houses, fields, 
W> ^*/» iama^^S 1 * amidst a dreary chaos of rocks. 
*a^. *a*n«i **5»om Saude, vre pass the night (clean bed, with 
£*m alie - o^-^ oefl*. at the house of ChrUu* Aar***). — The 
M*^*r- x* *» aM^""""^***^ to the 1*., and leads through a monotonous 
,*** Jh.«al*NS^^**°^* eaters and waterfalls. After 6 hrs. from 
«_ ±t*» a ^—1^^ to Seljestad , the path "begins to ascend, and 
^^^jarospect of the snow-draped Kirlte Nut and the 

<JP- 98) i 
■» fl ponda 
»ch (10 

,ildal «vd 0^« d >* o ?; v » *W«l ** fit, **?3»e °* 

heie being ftte *<»*" * *e ou „ f Boih^Vall* *f-.*i***f ^ 

nded and yfltotot rte the *»*>* * * V> <-* 

to the N. To the B> * . m er'8 * e * £v it 8 oe * .*.-<»*? 12. 

ek C«nd at othex tW** l£ ** e >* *° 8 *$T *** % S*Z 

ish spoken ; *«,» ****&*, *l£ •»* £* ^25 **' 
d post-office ; W4U Ljo«'« BO \** & ot » 9 fl>® 
Mel affords a ft™ view of « e t»« ,eV»» t fyi»* 

j in the background , lies »* ^a* 1 * «»*» lt **i -w» t6t ~ 

e beginning of the road to B - *  x^ i ,"L* et * -o* 66 ® 6 

oad ascends t he WM ^ ♦**»* ,o«* + *»£»* £* *** 
l grand gorge % ^^^ ^ A v«*.fl>** & •** - iut©* 6 * to tu a« o* 
t places** ?« \*£J £•**£>* V 1° 68 *e **%?#>?»* 

*»<•* e 

stars: Bl^sr^s-^ -^ 

»^^s^t p ^- e9 *% i »r^k^ i4 ' 

s« » •h.-^sa^*' 




to Odd*. SEI-JESTAD. 17. Ro 

Wgertiheia. Looking back, we see tlie Bredfond or Breifon 
ing above the Rsldalsvand *o tlie SM£. At the top of 
(3415 ft.}, 5-6 Kil. from HIomtxt^, the road remains tolerab 
for some distance and crosses <st dreary solitude with, several 
We soon obtain a view of th.e snowy Folgefond £p. 402J- T 
gradually descends the GoxsrvAaasjaxie, and the **Vibw incre 
magnificence. I?ar below as Xies tiie narrow Gorsooten, 
by steep hills, with the som"br « Gorsvand, at tlie lower end <w 
is a waterfall. Beyond the wide valley of Odde, t* 
long snow-fields of the Folgefond as a background to the h 
of the grandest and most characteristic mountain-scenes 
way. The old bridle-path and the streamlet which low* 
becomes the Hedtten-Elv are s«seii from time to time by the 
the Gorsvingane. At the lower end of the Gorsvand (281 
a kind of rocky gateway, wliere the view 'becomes nnin 
Thence we proceed in zigzags, past Svaageth and the Hed$\ 
to the green plateau on whicfca lies — _ , _. 

21 Kil. (fromHorre; pay *or25: 28 Kil. from B^ldalJ 
•tad (204O ft. ; Seljestad's Sot el, R. iy 4 , B. 1 */«, S. * **'> 
sen s> Those who have a day *o spare may pay » visit to a 
reindeer, pastured a few hoars from here, belongfinfif *° ™ T 
The road, proceeds across the plateau and crosses tne 
which forms a waterfall, about 6 Kil. from Seljestad. A pr 
roek a few paces to the left of the road, beyond the ^"«£ * 
stone 'ftaOdde', affords an attractive view of the Meatt ^T\ 
Toad now descends in curves. A footpath leads to x j\ 
point marked hy an iron signal, from which we ^t^thrau* 
viev* of the wild and wooded gorge of nteljestadj ti^ e *» 7~ ?* 
the load threads its way. Lower down the road °*° g^ortl 
bank of the stream (continuous picturesque ▼ te ^ s il throui 
the next bridge a narrow road descends to the 1**5 im ^ 
to the gaard of Jeeedal and on to Fjare (p. 99>* J3* Abo* 
beyond the oridge asoe nds to the gaard of &%* * o1X the 1 
farther on the road passes below the *E 8 pelandsf?fl ^^t is 
the *Lotefo 9 , on the right. On an eminence to **** 
From tMs point to Odde is a drive of <2 hr»- 
26 ML Odde (p. 106). 

18. From Stavanger to Berfif *^— ^isan 

Som' station to station. -; Fao~n S~x2^ ^aV^C^t^u«« - 
steamers ply weekly, ten being largo v es «1^^ f* ot ^«e** 8 *S. »n4 £« 
Hamburg, while five smaller steamers i^**e*2* 2rf«*!ff£j P*° ce * a 
only. The larger boats touch at <5roj>«**2* ^£?c1> *2£r&°'¥ 
some of them at ffauffetund only, S©v^^ ^rVi*<* ^t>a* ewxd 
Bergen, either passing between the B^ri^JL^^ - **^ Z%°* 7 

latter and the Tytnae**. The onter lal^^J^J** a* e 
Baedeker^ Korway and Sweden. ^t^f ^J^**" 

° ute IS. KOPERVIK. From Staomnger 

JSJ? h 5*S*|r- ^Tl*e voyage by th.e direct steamers takes 10-12 hra.^ 
P 99) *=*^s., most of them taking the interesting course v\i 

d k w:t*.<i»X^ voyage by all these steamers is in smooth water, 

" b y island e» ^ except for a sliort distance between Stavanger and 

f > &nd t>efc-w^^^ii. Hangesund and Langevaag. As the fine scenery 

& *d*nger :F\f«:ar«I (R. 19.) does not begin till the Her/* and the Ter* 

°*ched 9 th.e tx-aveller loses little by going thus far at night. 

anger, see je»- 90. The vessel steers N.W. ; on the left are 
e "tyr an ci- ZZ\cngence8-J?h/r on the Randeberg ; to the right 
4vaaoj& -fclie Mosterar, the Klostere with the ruined JJlsten- 
ind Jbeyo^*-*^- ** * ne R enT * eSJ0r ana " other islands. Before en- 
3 0DerL JE£'*M£cZ c e**fJ 0T( t'i we observe on the left the lofty light- 
ly *T*?£&&'r*'& 3J0 i and *° ***e N.W. the lighthouse of Falnas 

) ^W& ^**>&s on the left the small seaport (1200 inhab.) 
'*'' _, ^trith. its lighthouse, at the S. end of the Karme. 

a ^Lr ^»*^ TS the Jr<z«-m*tmcZ. The first station at which 
3r I *° Vn^^s usually stop is Eerrcsvik, on the Bukken*. 
r Ste *"JS~iJ^* ^ r bobber-oik (Mad. Petersen 8 Inn), with 860 
K °^°^^xr^» J0r ' a lar S e aild populous island, is the chief 

th.& ^^^xm-^—^ ^** 7 ' Tlie lsla »d is nearly flat, and partly 
L e ^ x ° jrr ^V» jsx^* s chiefly of moor, marsh, and poor pasture- 
1>tx* c °i <a.^^*itate of trees. It contains numerous bar- 
; alx^ **^,-*.^!--^ 1 * 069 ' ©specially near the N. end, some of 
.iexi* ***i ^rfitl^ aWe reli cs- The climate, cool in summer, 
VieU*^ a -^iH* €r ' 1S exceptionally healthy, the average 
 Vrxi^ iT V,xV *^ PJ? tlM >™«ri. —About 16 Kil. to the W. 
K^n^ " JZo *** ^ an ? so . litar y «l»nd of tto,W, with a 
b « li«** ^^^^^^^^ anally abound. 
a lier*** 1 *^ ^ K ^ K y ° n ^ Ko P e ^k, ^ the old church 
.* « ^^Jf******? T^ ic ^' and le «ing towards it, is an old 

' i£ry** ^o** **£ «id? ^" COn " t<> an end. — Farther 
* tftf^ **£&**' ' * the end of the Karmsund, 

O< V ff^^'T^^I^^' ° rand ****** ov Karm- 
* X *^o+****% /, *? i Dfl nV°^ icn rises the braids haug, 

58 !o^^/ ^ot rises the ffaralds-St^tU y an obelisk of 
**?£? *^i ?* 0i *£ %«n, 89Uare P edeflt *l» around which 
fc - *;sft. *:£; **f "^ ^^^nting the districts into which 

' a jLiT ^ ***+* d M m >m }*" erected in 1872 > on the thon- 
^r^ 1 ^ ^*^E a ^ 0us ^^y CP. 90). — A road 

Hau^^^^ 0,, r rit^ 11 Un P rotected P art of t*e coast, 
?**f ^^^^ 0t0 *%5?* Pa88 in al>0,lt an ft0u ^ Neai the 
1" whi^^ i^ J^/nff^o^r^en, where some of the steamers 

his ***** 

- J 

loBwS**- LERVIK. 

at Tjetnagel, on the mSSfi ^*°/r Bteame «* *c i 
meli, opposite. mainla *<*, others at Langevaag, on i i 

v. ftu?!L lf0 * eer *^S? 0n the **"**■*, boasts of a chu 
7 a a J^J 5 ^* 11011 ("&-1000), the oldest in Norway. 
«i th Ii ? nrIk ^-^W* tf&W, where passengers to s 
m&L-viwto (g ee below) change steamers, lies at the S. e 
Stord*, one of the largest of the islands at the entrance to 
danger. The wooded Halscn*, to the E., contains remains o 
dictme monastery, founded prohably in 1164, and several 
— 0° m P- annexed Map. . 

.«a w* .v 8 'J? f L «*vik opens the Aalfjorci 9 witn tne village* « 
nJ J?**^ To ih * E - »» the Bkonevikifjor*, on which a etc* 
.v.j.^» *? #i*n/Jord y a 8. arm of tne Skonevikaf jord , Ilea * 
S2S^ tot S^> 8 Kil - from Sandeid (p. 95), and visited 6 timeB _ 
steamer. Several steamers call at Bine, at tne head of the & 
w ?i7 ce *^ m ountain-path leads direct to Seljestad (p. 97), a vers 
walk o rii-12 hrs. (about 60 Kil.)- *„ ; 

. „fT* wardB fr0m th * SkoneviksQord runs tne JLakrefjord ( d !f 4 i 
fJZSt onl ^» wltn the stations Aakre and Cat tne nead of th© **« i 
if?* 1 garters at Markhttut**). From ^jeeire a narrow road* * . 
£1 £ n f: nor «e vehicles, crosses the mounteins, amidst impo^**l; 
™/Mf*itad (tolerable quarters * in tne neighbourkood are eg t£ 
^PttticsQldronB , i p. 267) and Vintertw* y in 6-7 hrs. to <\&*k 
"Mai < on the road to Odde (v. 97; carriage from rMeere to 0<* 
& '/» hw.). Comp. the Map, p. 102. 

Beyond Lends: the direct steamer travexses the Beinf**^ 
then the Kloster fjord, named after the monastery on &* 
IBM. Sunde, on the E. side ot the ETuisncea fjord, ot 

insula of Husnces. 

Hereren {Inn, well spoken of), a small island oppo^* 
where passengers for the Hardanger sometimes change bo** 1 
from Stavanger, 43/ 4 nr8 . from Bergen). 

The scenery now becomes more interesting ; the mo^ 
higher and less barren ; on every side the eye is met ~* 
fusion of rocks, islands, promontories, a.n<l wooded hills , 
with bright-looking hamlets nestling in sheltered creek 

3 8M* (from Sunde) Terpen (Olacr*** Zv*r%) 7 a little 
village near the N. coast of the fjor«l, 1b a.n important st 
steamers rnnning thence weekly to Bergen, three int 
danger, and one to Stavanger. Travellers have often to c 
here. Beautiful scenery . to the W. tne large lBl * I1 f °J 0] 
to the B. appears the huee Bnow-mantle ot the *^ J «®* 
The district of Nord-J&orland begins here. The ste 

*™ « . i« GOD0BUND. 

100 Route lo. 

, ,, r A L.« f .nd a narrow Btxait between the mainland and 
ta'S^^SaiA attractive to artists, anglers, and others. The 
theTysnttsa anw . fc lieB on the Tygna>s0j a t the N. end of 

«£££ ^c£ S3E-* COiMW. Inn, pens. 8 i/ r 4 to, with 
JIS on a amaAl island to the N. of the Tysnassa, recom- 
mended fox a stay. T"he Bjemefjord is next traversed. To the N. 
lies Osc or Oaaren (p. 1^0). The steamer passes the Lepse (to the 
right) and steers through the narrow Krogene (/windings') and the 
Korsflord. To the right is the Lysefjord, with the charming island 
of Lyaee, the property of the widow of the famous violinist Ole Bull 
(pleasant day's excursion from Bergen, viaNestun and Fane, p. 120), 
and the mined LysMoster (dating from 1146) on its E. bank. The 
steamer then rounds the peninsula of Korsnces. Later, on the left, 
is the lighthouse of Marstenfyr, rising almost directly from the sea. 
Then Bukken, an islet between the mainland and the 8artor*f; and 
next, on the left, the mountainous Asfc#(p. 119). Bergen comes 
in sight when the steamer rounds Kvarven, the N. spur of the 
Lyderhorn (p. 119). 

17 S.M. (from Haugsund; 11 from Ter») Bergen, see p. 112. 

19. The Hardanger Fjord. 

From St av anger to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord the overland route 
already described (R. 17) is the most interesting. Or we may go direct 
by Steamboat, twice weekly (Sun. and Thurs.) in 22 hrs. (fore 15 kr.). 
Passengers by the Thurs. steamer change at Herm into the steamer from 
Bergen to Odde. Another alternative is afforded once a week by the 
Bergensk-Nordenfjelske Touristakib. 

From Bergen to the Hardanger Fjord: Steamboats to Eide almost daily 
in 9i/a-15 hrs. (fare 8 kr. 60 0.)i to Odde in 12*/s-19Vs hrs. (fare iOVt kr.). 

From Bergen vid Vottevangen (railway) to .Etoe, see B. 21. 

From Telemarken vid Haukeli and Reldal to Odde, see B. 5. 

The *Sardanger Fjord is the best-known of the Norwegian 
fjords, and the beauty of Its scenery has been celebrated from very 
early times. Wergeland calls it l det under4ejlige Hardanger\ the 
'wondrous-beautiful'. It certainly presents a most characteristic 
example of peculiarly Norwegian scenery, with the barren ice-clad 
f jelds, the broad surface of the fjord, and the narrow strip of fertile 
a nd thickly - peopled land between them. To other attractions 
m «8t be added two of the finest waterfalls in Norway, or indeed 
* n Europe, both easily accessible to good walkers. Yet it cannot 
be denied that the Hardanger has formidable rivals in beauty in 
8 °me of the N. fjords which have recently grown in favour with trav- 
elers, such as the Borland sflord (p. 128), the Nordflord (p. 176), 
*"<* the J*rundfjord fp. 1S8> — The people f'Barceng**') and 
J*f fr national characteristic* ^iU interest many travelled. The 
J nd al crowns and gold and sil™r trinkets (such as the Salje, or 
*V*9ja, a kind of brooch or ba« We ) a *e curious and the embroidery, 
^^erlids (Slumretcepper), a.nd carpets (Tcepi>er) manufactured in 
tni * district are much bouS* 1 * after - The costumes »*« onl y seen t0 

bosend a ^ 

a n „d*y morning bef ^ 
women wear ***« ^fo*tt* e8 ?r ied b o*« <>; *" w£? ilyi > 

to H«d»»S«* J&- *° inCreMe *• •«£*^2L? , «<' 
»lfli tlie g**-»«* » **-**«j 8t «n«s 

toteiesttng. «_,<,« follows the oo ttt ._^ * *»e ai S( 

Oar Aescrxp **" ^bicli, However, _»** *»*► 

h*.i«ad s«f^*a »i~ r ^!& te8 ,* c «<»'t** «* t ** e Sard 

difleient «l*» ■*£„. O »«tto»l miles Cco^^** ** <Uff erea d 

At tke ent J*^*r H»rd«Dger, lie on t|^-*B^. ""^ «4 e 
W euue to the ^f.Vaftions *»*» Cltf* *^°»* f 

d0e At Terpen *£ ^^e,. ~*Z£*l£*r ^ ****U 
into the Stor-Buna, m-inla^ W®*» tt ** ^ * 

■*■"* !2£L?5i a—***,"* ?»&*» "2 e •£< 

SUNDAL. Hardanger 

Jth lofty cliffs, stretches one of its arms up to the 

*ad Folgefond (not visible from the fiord). The 
a is — J 

il (*mtd Sundal), the starting-point for a visit to 
<Hts beautiful glacier, the Bondhusbra (on horse- 
3dges, 1 pers. 12, 2 pers. 15 kr.). Near Sundal is 
"thus, with its pretty 'Rogstue' (p. 18). 
1 ascends the valley of Sundal , enclosed by high 
ie left bank of the stream, crossing remains of Old 
e (2-2y 2 hrs.) Bondhuavand , a small lake from 
ks fall several cascades. A boat belonging to the 
ist Club conveys us to the other end (rowed by the 
oni g " n< H 1 kr. 60 *.), and on the way we enjoy 
the ^^tousbrse, which descends from the Folge- 
he SeUnut and the Bonddalmut. The adjoining 
id till the middle of July. From the lake to the 

ondhusvand a path constructed by the German 
iin in *^90 ascends to the Folgefond. It crosses the 

*k ™* ^ y a new Drid S e an <* ascends rapidly be- 
boulders of an old moraine. In about 2 hrs. we 
immer-Sater (about 2300 ft. ; where the night may 
tson Olsen Sundal, the owner, is one of the best 
liience by a g 0O d path, passing at one point over 
lih £ I \ COlnfortable for riding, in 2 his. more to the 
?f UIt of the huge Tolgefond ('fond', afield of 
anvd ? ? ,ateau about 36 JM. long and 6-15 Kil. 
whici 8t * nct P© afe or summit. This enormous mass 
ossed B . en ^ 8 offshoots down the valleys in all direc- 
ts ar Without difficulty. At the rock called Botten- 
a abo Q + y °^ e( * to sledgres and trot up the gradual 
he rJ*! 3 ilTS ' to the *°P f^426 ft.) , where we oh- 
[ Yt T S a *ngei Vidda. On the JE. side the Folgefond 
?ers o e U8ual descent, however, to Tohheim (p. 106), 
particni ^ pers * ***' ^ pers. 12 kr. ; also leindeer- 
for e*n Iy difflcnlt »' Dut t2 »® descent by the Buar- 
^herVif 1611 * 564 mountaineers only (jp. 108). But 
th *a J? e * ravel i«r will be repaid by an excnrsion 
)w Jand h * nd bacJc - T±Le wliole excursion from 
d 0n the 2jT ° an be ma de in aJt>out 7 hts. 
afi, «ndal ini/^ oll€n or Em arm of the Mauranger 
ld **>* cross* ' 4 hr,J 50 ^O. * *>ridle-path ascends 
*" (5370 ft ) U > Passing: the lrat in the Urtbotn 
°khei m r p *i\ flJJ nd afterwards descending rapidly to 
V 2 * r O ^ % guide * CtotsolkatllL Ojeide;ipeis.8, 
ffiac ier and ^ 8 fr om Sundal , travelleis may ride to 
**oss the snow in sleighs (jl&> W> 32*.). 

K —,. o»**„i «>■»"£££ V»-=i ,!?«"•.» 

V-oar. >» "^ .ifc » n " .._•.. Knrf. Ch. a^.. > — . 

long". '» *° c„ r «ifc *? „ lt sh; Engl- Ch. >,* , 

frequented ?* ncb e8°? T c *,,".sImO> on «* * «***5* 
the *»»!J 

be «»*£"„ 

». on the rtF"> """ " H e»<"""; ,,,cl 'V>-*;"«», ,„ 
■"" W "^,aen once a »eek. »*„ e s *•>» *»S T* e ^ W,f V 
a t J5W*te wf * e "„" he W. aide, ?** " c * of (L ^er , fti 

, • fc 1 

SM, IS- ETDE- ""*•*« 

vono. HoAeimmnd the «e»me* toucies at — 

«£. , came. »*oi», .ttte P i«l p»» mi ' -t..t«i„tb, iy .Ttl,.--.'nn. •vih-annBtmdV tt KU. long, it ice head 

S-« Islesmei on Sun evenine or reached by boat from »!Iens« in 
£S.rnS np ob the hill.lde' beyond the Xm* U »•«■ hu» giant. 
„n CJ«>tee,tydV). called Dnnrlra (Oygr, 'giantess ), from the Iradl- 

,.,  flue point of view, i3 lira, there and back). From Urn inter 
,tn ascend. tottoWrtWUwd (iflTOftJ, and then defend, a l.Ule 
Kil 1 ffednaitra, al the M I end of tie BamSeor»vand (ItHOft.; said 
Sd good SSSS. We MlCtti , toUW couMe ° f '£" ri ™ ijsu ' n * 
the r*sr*»™««tofflEil.) Oawd Sv/lda! (lOTO ft.}. From tola point 
i road to (B Kil.) Gnmmlad, at the W end of the Vangitand, and 
i via t-iland to Bottm (p. 131). 

aon after leaving flfatense the steamer comrnande a view, to 
eft, of tte beautiful Indre Samlet* - Fjord. Some boats cross 
jord to fferand, on the S. side of the bold SamUhovd or .Sam- 
'■e (2060 ft.); others steer past the month of the Fiksensnnd 
wiito and to Aalvik, on the N. bank, near which is the pictur- 
a McUianfot, and thence direct to Eide [see below). — The 
lers from Herand double the Samlehovd and, passing fid Kil.) 
» and Hesthammtr (previously touching at Utne once a week, 
■e'ow), enter the — 

avtnfjord. At the mouth of this somewhat monotonous fjord, 

j «?*"*> rises He Oxen (4120 ft.), which may be ascended from 

j/ v ' Ei(io '< 6nB ™ew, especially of the Sarfjord on the S. and 

*" »onnt«iiis on the E. — At the H.end of the Gravenfjord, 

j 8 ° 8 "oannel contracts, lies — 

/, ft d *"" ( m Maland', Hotel, a large house </ 4 M. from the 

', S^ ' * »rS. i*/ 2 , I>. 2, pens, fj-okt., good cuisine; Vaon- 

0, ti e „' ""rtfioron, less pretending; Bngi. CA. July wid 

/' os ««pj B .''*'estplace on the Hard anger Fjord, being the station 

*»d prettily situated. A beautiful wait may be 

■swvangea road upstream to the Qravtntvand 

>^«» to the right. K early bel twi, „ 
™ or «>*» W6 ™ e h the highist point «. — - 

™« J^Vt W ™ a ^' , ^''"t™m^r n t°°iewV l S'e 

*_*£*»« tasM*! from which ft, D*ff*r/o« falli 

«* «i *a» c jtalm^yrfii, ani to the a.B. the majeatte 

*•>.''-': ~-£?" *»»« d [ltn ,lto (tV«ar.) i)raWi, vary jleep 

*»*»"-y *>*"*<»„, a,™ more picturesqu, , particularly at 

" €±0 Kil., par fo' 82). * splendid walk (1-6 nrs.). 
ne (atolkjierre S kr.) ]■ inconvenient. 
"mer From Bide w* fnllnw the To»e- 
» ( P . 128), ' 

** ^OX-TBVS. 19 Sout 

fteftrmatw " ,d £?2!SW«*' , » So"« e i°? «>« WJ1, about i/, j,, h .,„ 

IVom Etd* to V o» X"* > see p. 123 . c *riole fii/. .♦„ 

8h. } ti.o*0i»*»**- IW » Per-. l£ 3 per*. 16,4 J& 18 

P 2 S.M. ■Dt» e .(*- r ** n ^ ■boauttfaUy situated on the S 7,, 
«to Wk of fl»^n*»jje lie. a ehady valley. The Jfa5& r ! 

fiord. - a**" 181 *° * he ^tdfjord, see p. 109. *"***' ' ' 
The Odde steamer steers past the iraard of 7W»... 

shovr tk»t &i» *!<»* i» of the nature of a h„J« 7? 
the snow-clad TTolgefond and the centr.f Norwa^o* ' 
wbi«* it **«»«** * ij"*, particularly ZT, m"u  
torrents, alluvial deposits have formed fertile patches fn. 
cherries and apples thrive luxuriantly, especially ne . r 1' 
H. parts of the fjord, where it U never frozen oVer n! 
therefore comparatively well peopled, and ft.'-. * ' 

his fjord lies to the contrast betwL the smiut ££? 
wild fjeld towering above them. — The first stL««„ ° 
Orin.0 r*** on a fertile spot on the W bank V 
f to the hill of Hangsnas, 20 min. to the S ' etc 1 ! 

Opposite Grimo opens the charming' »-<-'„ .. , 
rowing-boat), with the «„*,, and the &**££ ( 
A lofty road, with fine views , leads from the chnrch 
past the promontory of Krosnass, to Lofthus fa walk «f 
P 3S.M.(fromBade;5fromOlvik)l^fthi«^ 
i, i . B. 1. S. 1, D. 2 kr. ; .8ft,, WfiiL-, p™ 8 < *»* i 


fnto two arms, which rf^"*^**? arge *> *«f JS2"*^^S,' B wbm 

and consequently has an W^Ja o» the $«"£. » »»d "defend 
Good mcranUto-wjakerj may mw an d *"" interesting, l. ut fatiguing 

to the Bolgefond, skirt the f^**"? o** e » 

_-«t the Tothtimmat to Tokheim «»» v ___ itfK-..,.,. -_.. ..-_■ 

to the left of the road, 3-4 Kll. *°»» »~ first the »**"• f through 

'/*-*/} hr. to the ioteran*. tar ^Sdiis. TM^W Otherwise 
I^otefos t Mtte . By the fall are » eTer *', £"*,»» a curious 
which we ,| e thi Bepelandsfos opposite »» 

this dig, eM io n Hardly repays. SeljMtadCP-"')' adnve , * 

This excursion may he «» n ^ ued „ t the «*«•*» to one day 

nearly 2 A ra . more from the Lotefos, l>u* 

there 8 „ d back is ra ther fatiguing. Rt ,„ dA i. ob. Gjbbjhs on tub 
„ ( 3 J- Across mb ^ombfohd *° ^ W .16 UtO, ^exy latign- 

*j>«er in «»«» reverse direction L»ee ^ ^ ^ ^^ an4 wv ^ 
/^- Jv» mia* Sw*"™"" 01 ' , « »»d not without risk in 
t°°V, atoe>T> «-*»* fatiguing at P**°*"* -provisions had hotter he 
L^WT ^rttide (B k *- 0I m ° r ?L *£ , r§Kil) Tvs«edal(j>. 106). 
, VOd ci« - "Wo tow from Odd© w *- ^ oeautiful retto- 
S?Zaoe on foot through ^ocA,*^' f.,*(i|,w 

lrftchen under the rocks. This is ^he *i«he 8 t point rt „ , 
about 1850 ft. above the fjord. The path next fiZl i* * 
trgl ana O Reaches the gaatd of Vl^***^™* 11 ** * 

On the left the Jfoy eii/o« descends from the l*oa C lin£t „ 
right Is the Varfndenfos, the discharge of the RiniredaJsv, 
below). ^ e CTOB » *^e Vctlevand ('small lake'} *>y boat in 
minutes, a.xid in 8min. more watt over an <Eid% or isthmus 
picturesque and exquisitely cleat Ri-ngedalsvcind (about i 
above the sea), with the huge EinscBtfjelct on the S. ff< 
embark in another boat. (A high mud sometimes prevail* 
while the fjord below is calm, in which case the night mt 
spent at the inn, or the excursion abandoned. It is desirable to 
on © or more rowers besides the guide*, fee 1 kr. each, overch 
n ot unknown,) The lake is 6 Kil. long, and we row to its u 
e nd in 1 */a^« 5 ahout halfway the Folgef ond becomes visible be 
u g, and farther on, the picturesque Tyssestrenge fall from a 
500 ft. high. The *SkjfBgsjedalsfos, a superb waterfall 525 ft. b 
^ ft \e88 imposing hut more picturesque than the Veringsfos (p. 1: 
\xs. summer the volume of water is sometimes scanty, but when 
6 t\ow is melting (^lomtid.*) and after heavy rain the effect i 8 Y 
grand. The ascent from the landing-place to the foot of the f a 
leads across 'Ur\ 

(5). Ascent of M^falsskardene (about 3950 ft.), to t ne e. 
Odde, 6 hrs., with guide Q& kr.}; the top commands a fine pan< 
rama of -Che Ringed alsvand, Sfinrfjord, and tfolgefond . 


BntAim from Kide to V?*, dally in 2 nrs. (fare 8 *?X iVvlnm Vi£ 
w eek via TJtne in 4 nrs.) ; to OTW* in 3-4 bra. (fare 3 kr. 10 *, »om viK 
to T31vik 1 kr. 80 *.)* alio from l/tn* (p. 106) twice a week to Ulvik via 
Vik m 2V«-3 hrs. 

The Eidfjora, the easternmost branch of the Hardange *JJord, 
is enclosed hy precipitous rocks. The steamer calls vften ™X + t* 
at Biug*en, Djenne, and Vallavik. Beyond the * u3 "*?' ™* J?a 
gaard of Bu (which the .Bwrwi behind it deprives of ^A!™,^® 
whole winter), the Ose fjord diverges to the left (p- ** > d 
steamer passes its mouth- On the right towers the fl *°^ ^j alB l 
At the mouth of the valley running inland hetween the » o 

Qeld and the BuZZenut lies Erdal , with a saw-miU aTld ^ TT ahle 
houses, where moraines and ancient water-line* a J£ ft ^ tfacvn 
On theN. side of the fjo-rd rises the ice-gi Tt 0n€n (6l»° *J'^ e one 
■as rises the almost entirely hare ^n dewed Bet^ eel * ftteW aen 
and Vindaxel opens the Simodal (called ^ t 0Bly t>y *°J? ftf tf(p.ii1 
ahove which peers the snowy plateau oftb^ Mar&a*9 ef nsFos, a **' 
6S.M. (fromEide)Vik i Eidfiotd. — Xotdi . *V***°* ,*«<*», w 
timber-built house, close to the quay, kept i> y the t> r0 tb e * 9 


*5&£ ^^ 7 *5\ Sl ~ OI>AI ;- Splendid walk to the K» *° 

A^A\U2f ^l"* 11 **- *> «* lde3l /2 fe; predion* f^-i?**** 
^«««% -**» ^P of the fjeld opposite tlie StoifSS T***V 

£i «ao«^» ^*»ut 3 Kil. long, where the steamerWis^****** 
t\jm time* * ^^*3* only, but It Is generally most conrenW? o* 
TuatitVr lowing— l>oat from Vik (6 Kil., in 1 hr.} Near the lan^* to 
^tafttatta g*>K*6L of Sad, situated on an ancient moraine. T Q **£"- 
^.iiomt\ifeVfe«Ld. of this hay stretches the Aasdal, in which w***e 
s txtimz taftttted rock about 380 ft. in height, and to th^ H ** 
txrna t\i^ *&imodal. a road ascends the latter to the gaar^ ^?. 
Mekus, whertfe tAie valley is so narrow that the towering- rocks ^|* of 
may he. seen through the Ljor ('smoke -hole'), and to (fi J?°>e 
Thveit ^good. quarters, R. 80, B. 80, S. 80 *.), the highest «**S**0 
the -valley. The path now leads on the right bank of the to> * a 
to the (6 ISM.') head of the valley, 'which terminates abruptly * e nt 
lofty rock, over which falls the Rembtsddlsfos, while to the ij? a 
seen the *8kyk)cfo9, a grand waterfall nearly %000 ft. high is 
of which is a single leap of over 700 ft. — We may next asc e n? art 
the Rtmbesdolsvand, to the margin of which a glacier of the J9 *° 
danger J#kul (6540 ft.) descends. ^ ar " 

a m. 2l Ms excursion is better made from Posli (p. 110; guide He«s«-.~- 
5? w'J *° Tveit 5-8 bra.). The route crosses the marshy plateau tnZ??*!' 
the It&aUvctot which it leaves on the right, then ascends hetw«*IT Ic* 
Tetle fthau^T' toe rfriit s fiae view) and tie Store Izhang foT2?V£ e 
to the topVSi^inKaot 3940 ft.), wMeh affords a W a^ew ° ^ 
upper adg e of ^ Sombre Sinwdal and of the massive HardanSl ?Ui h ? 
The strain™ "£ idtoe from the icy crags of the latter faH^* 1 ^ * 
lUmbesgg** Jj^SE* W? »nd the fekykjedalsvand on the S «° th l 
the P«*a wi iit*« A flrtt Tsnow-fleld, then bare rocks poH 8 £ed bv 57?°* 
action, a4Vo^rS%lSit of the top of the RembesdalXs 0*/ ^^ 
the Simodai^LS/il the left, hut we continue to descend ft£^K A ? 

Swkfi "WtTST A* «£ «V liff *"<*»**« *~ ?n?o Ihenatow 
Skylyedal i f0 LVooi»*we have a magnificent **View of thpiawv? W 

foa, the ^ t , Fr ? m **/ £****» 650 ft. high, is directly o^osite us y U«" 

ft 5^"M&f5r *jsvat sr on - ^ ( ~^ 

Ins te*5 d J ^ '"Aiiag to tlie ?' W - from tne ver ge of the Skykiedal 
OTSe ^S^SS'orow the fjeld to the tf.E. p Jsing the Sk^SSSS 

^Mri* to *C veit ' T e **1sv»» d j and tnence reach Meh «fl via the Rembesdala- 
fos th* e RemI>e * JdcU »-* hrs - t0 the expedition. *«mDesttaJs 

km ^"T at**** down the Eidf J OTd « d turn to the right 

mnL! f °wfl ord ' ** ° n the rf*** near tte entrance , is a fall 

7S2^ | -* i0, S O jL" 1^ v ^ Ooded hill > called °^ Be P ir **es the 
snmK ^^"^^om i* 8 W * aTm ' the selling Vlviksfjord , into 
umore Osenfjord ix ^ |re s oon come in sight of the farms of Ulvi,k 
wwcfi we steer.  — T_a *h* head <rf t^e fjord. 
tMc fy dugtered ronx»^ 

112 .Route 19. ULVIK. 

3 S.M. Ulvik. — Hotels. •BBAiosNiEs, B. 17«, B. or S. 1, D. i ler. 
80*., frequented by English travellers; ""Vestrheim's, largely occupied by- 
summer boarders, B. 174, B. l 1 /^ S. l ! /4, D. 2 far. ; •Ulvik's. adjoining, 
new; *8ponhbims Hotbl (Mr*. WUhehnten's), on the hill (p. 105), V< ****- 
from the pier. — English Church Service in July and August. 

TJlvik-Brakenas, beautifully situated, is one of the most attrac- 
tive places on the Hardanger Fjord. Brakences , with its church, 
behind which there is a fine waterfall, is the chief cluster of houses 
among the hamlets and farms at the head of the fjord , which are 
collectively known as Ulvik. 

Pleasant *Walk along the shore to the E. to Hagestad and Lekve, 
an ancient 'Kongsgaard', or royal domain , and thence across the 
hill to the Osefjord (1 hr.). At a group of huts here a boat may 
be hired for the trip to Ose (4 Kil.; 1 hr.). Another walk may be 
taken to the Solsivand, 1 hr. to the N. of Lekve. 

The *Head of the Osefjord (where the steamers do not touch), 
enclosed by huge mountains, is worthy of a visit (take provisions). 
We may either hire a boat for the trip at the place just mentioned, 
or row all the way from Ulvik (14 Kil.; 2*/2-3 hrs.). In the latter 
case we get a view of the fine fall of the Degerdate-Elv on the 
right, descending to the fjord between the Onen (p. 109) and the 
Balonefjeld. At the head of the fjord lies Ost (tolerable bed, but 
poor food, at Lars Ose's). From this point the wild *Osedal runs 
inland, between the Krosfjaren and Nipahegd on the E. and the 
Vasfjceren on the W. 

A toilsome walk of 10-12 hrs. (guide at Ose) may be taken up the 
Osedal, which narrows to a ravine, to the Otuoeter, and thence, between 
the Otetkavl and Voss«$kavl on the right and the Oangdalskavl on the left, 
to the Opscetsceter (0790 ft.), at the head of the Bundal (p. 122). Then 
across the Qravehals (3710 ft.) to Kaardal in the Flaamsdal (p. 133). 

The ascent of the Vaafjaeren (5350 ft.) takes 12-16 hrs. from Lekve, 
there an 4 back. Ole Hakestad of Lekve is a good guide (6-8 kr.). The 
fatigue is lessened by sleeping at the sseter on the Solsivand on the pre- 
vious night. Splendid view from the top. — From the Solsivand to Ele- 
ven* and the Opaeetseeter in the Bundal (p. 122) 10-12 hrs. 

Fbok Ulvik to Eide, see p. 104. — The Espelandsvand, 7 Kil. to the 
N.W. of Ulvik (a walk of li/s hr.), abounds in fish. 

20. Bergen. 

Arrival. The large British steamers are berthed by the Toldbod, on 
the S. side of the harbour*, the Ghristiania steamers by Bradbcmten, on 
the N. side; and the steamers from Hamburg, Aalesund, Molde, Trond- 
hjem, etc. by Foettningtbryggen adjoining. The Hardanger boats lie at the 
Holbergs-Almenning; the Sogne and Nordfjord boats by the Nykirke. Porter 
('Barer') to the hotels, V2-I kr. — Travellers leaving Bergen by steamboat 
should ascertain in good time where the vessel starts from. As to berths, 
see p. xvii. Most of the offices are in the Strand-Gade; branch-office ot 
the Bergen Co, at Bradbsenken. — The Railway Station (PI. 1\ p. 120) is 
in the S. part of the town, near the Lille Lungegaardsvand. 

Hotels. *Holdt'b (PI. c), a large building between the Enge and Torve- 
Almenning, with garden-terrace and baths, best rooms in the newer wings, 
R. 27a, B. 1 kr. 60 *., D. 2V«-3 kr. ; Nobge (PI. n), between the S. end 
of the Torve-Almenning and the public park, R. from 2V 2 , B. 1, D. 27«-3 kr., 
good cuisine. — *Noedstjkbnbn (PI. d), Raadstue-Plads, R. 2, D. 27s kr.) 

[ h. 
:d by 


ises , 
are j 

ve, ! 

lie ! 

ay ; 





BERGEN. 20. Routt* 

•Hotel Bekgen (PI. a), Strand-Glide, to the E. of the Nykirke, B. ! 
S. 1, D. 2 kr. 5 *Smeby. Strand- Gade, opposite the Hotel Bergen, pati 
almost exclusively by the English, R., B., or 8. i l /i kr. each; Skand 
(PI. b), in the Flads called 'Klosteret\ B. 2»/», B. 1*/*, 8. l'/t kr. - 
•ions. FruBteen, Tor vet 8; Fru Mailer, Bngen45; ^ima Simomen, 
veien 99; Frt* Blehr, Olaf-Kyrres-Gade, beside the Roman Catholic c 
Agnes Akselsen, Olaf-Kyrres-Gade 81 ; H. Folkedal, Bruns-Gade 5 •, Frk. 1 

Restaurants. Grand Cafe", new, opposite the Hotel Norge; *< 
Raadstue-Plads, opposite the central fire-station*, *Fl&ien"s (p. 118), 
should telephone beforehand, no spirituous liquors and the beer-bai 
on Sat. at 5. p.m. ; BeUevue, see p. 119. — Cafes also at *Heldfs Ho\ 
the Norge Hotel. — Confectioners. Michelun, Olaf-Kyrres-Gade, coi 
the Starvhus-Gade, by the park} Mathilde Hansen, Torve-Almennin 

t pers. 

1. 50 

2. 26 

2 pers.f3 pers. 

2. 25 '2785 

2. 35 

3. 40 


Cabs, by the Exchange (trunk 20 *.) 

With one horse, per hour. 
With two horses, per hour 
Per drive in the town . . 
Per drive in the suburbs . 

Carriages for excursions at MUnter's, Engen 22, near Holdt's 
cariole 2, carriage with one horse 8, with two horses 4 kr. per h 
Omnibus from Torvet through Strand- Gad en to Toldboden and vie 
every lOmin. ; 10*. 

Boats (Fl«t)\ across the harbour 10-20 *., according to distar 
Torvet to Toldboden, 20, Nykirke to Feestnings-Bryggen, 10 *.), for 
persons 10-13 0. each. — A service of Electrio Ferry Boats plie 
the harbour to and from several stations. 

Post Office, Raadstae-Plads, 8 a.m. to 7.30 p.m. ; on Sun. 8-9 < 
Telegraph Office (PI. 2), behind the Exchange (p. 115), 6.40 a.m. to f 

Shops. Bummer, Strand-Gade 57, Norwegian antiquities, mode 
ornaments, and pictures; Brandt, Strand-Gade, corner of the 0str 
menning, furs, one of the largest shops of the kind in Norway 
Tourist Bazaar, 8trand-Gade 2 (books, photographs, wood-earvinf 
filigree- work, furs, etc)} Milne Grieg, in the Torv, Ashing -ta 
travelling requisites; Sundt A Co., Strand-Gade, tailors for 1* 
gentlemen. — Chemist : Monrad Krohn (English spoken) , Stra 
Bvane-Apotheket, Strand-Gade 4. — Cigars and Tobacco : Beime 
Smaastrand-Gade 3; Tharbjem Bars, Olaf-Kyrres-Gade. — Wine 
Goods ('Hermetik'), and Biscuits: C. Kretpeliens Enke, Strand 
/. E. Mowinckcl, Strand-Gade 28 (cigars also). — Spirits and Li 
the shops belonging to the company (Brotndevins- Samlag) whi 
polises the trade, devoting all profit over 5 per cent to charj 
public works. — Haik - Dresser : Andreas Pettersen, Olaf-Kyrre 
B. Holmberg, Walkendorfs-Gade 6. 

Banks. Herges Bank, Bergen* Credit-Bank, Privatbank, all in 

Goods Agents. Ellerhusen A Lund, Lille Altonagaarden, Sti 

Baths. Warm, in the Sygehus (PI. 3), V« kr. Sea-Baths at 
(PI. 8), to the N.W. of Bergenhus Feestning; for gentlemen 7 
o'clock; for ladies 10-2 o'clock. 

Theatre, performances thrice weekly. — Music in the Pa 
Wed., AFrid., 12.30-1.30; also 8-10 p.m. in summer in fine wei 
10 jr.). 

Consuls. British, Mr. Albert Gran, corner of Torvet and 8 
American, Mr.F.G.Gade, Smaastrand-Gade ; vice-consul, Mr. , 

English Church Service in summer in the i Gamle Musce 
house, on the N. side of the Lille Lungegaardsvand, near th 
5 min. from Holdt's Hotel. 

Tourist Offices. T. Bennet, Torve-Al menning 18; Beyer, S 1 
(see above); Th. Cook & Son, Torve-Almenning No. 21b. 
Tubist Foreningen, Torvet 6. 

Bergen (N. lat. 60°23'J, one of the oldest and most j 
towns in Norway, with 53,600 inhab., lies on a hill) 

Bajbdkbkr's Norway and Sweden. 6th Edit. I 

BERGEN. Situation 


A B _ Ae donfheN.t)ytlxe V aa gen »niihe Byfj 0r<i 

.,« votv^vo-e . „_j .„a on the S.W. by the J* > o*, 

****£*«*« ^^S Zl four monnWM, 1300-210O>*C 
*• 1**& ^-f£frt$oTl £tb.^te 2^« (820 ft.} **• in 

^.l.,^ , r a t^a3O0ft0 with the VamffaardsfieU to tBe *«S., 
tui ^ deT ^TvB count seven, and tlie armorial bearings of jT'J 
** **? 6 Stamen Mils (formerly seven balls). Tie cli m °,f «?« 
to*» also °f ~™ d ~ nd humi d, resembling that of the W. «££*» u 
e% eeedi»giy of winter aie usually slight andof short durartL ° f 

S60tt t n ^nmeter%eiy taxely falling Telow 15-20» Fair., £i ""' 
^^^tofluiB 72 inches (in tlie Nordfjord about 3 6 ?„* **! 
average i»* A onlvV The mean temperature of th» *,v , ' At 
^^ahUO^al, 41"), and «u5 tfMy B^JggjfJ- 
SJf ^ng to the mildness of tlxe climate the ve ge <U n ? n t& 
enlons is unusually rich, flowers are abundant, whU e £» »• 
* *♦ rltien fairly well. 

The general aspect of the town is modern. The quarters ad 
ioim^ & harbour, which is entirely enclosed by l arge *^ *" 
^gfaxdeO, alone retain a characteristic medieval appeara Dce 
khe town extends round Ae ipacioiii harbour , called rZ'n 
stretches over the rocky heights at the base of th e FlaifjelZnd 
over the peninsula of Wordmiea, which separates the Case! from 
the Jtoddefjord (to the S.), and is now spreading to f fc ! q £ 
towards the ££«« and *9tor« Lungcgcutrdsvand. A£ an t " J™. a,Jfl -» 
are roofed with red tiles, which present a picturesoW 68 

The older houses only aTe timber-built, and usually r» apDe , arance - 
The streets are called 'Gader', the lanes and pasL ^ white. 
'Smitten, and these are intersected at right angi ea ? es ?? m e' or 
spaces called 'Almenninge', designed chiefly to preventfiT 1 ° pen 

ces called 'Aimenninge', aesignea cniefly to prevPT»7*i7 pen 
ing of conflagrations. Notwithstanding this precautio n spread " 
been repeatedly destroyed by fire, as for example inivrg* has 
disaster of which year is described by Peter Dassfp i ' ™. V- ' the 
poems. A conduit now supplies the town with water frn^o ln tnreo 
(p. 119), thus diminishing the danger. irom ^artediket 

rri> a -i-nliaTiif A Tit a nfPai><ran aa WaII go Aa.. _« . . 

The inhabitants of Bergen, as well as those of th* *,* . ^ 

(Nordhorland, Sendhorland, and VossJ, are mora ^ • distri <* 

those of other parts of Norway, and are noted fo* #* J* 010118 than 

and light-heartedness, which burstforth in song J* ? r SOc **Wlity 

English and German are much spoken by the bett J° ° Cca8i <>ns, 

Bergen (from Bjm-gvin, 'naatnreamonff tl> A *« e *»er-educated. 

*W ?* f ?$r% in T afe " ^?ieX oV?he^T*^0 was founded bv 

<i^*y of 


•1 battle (  iMmcrt. "^,! 

-^"«**T^iZe nJao applied 
l«^s« WW "SJTflT and western Horway-, i 
!!*"»»» Wfi&J ?*S«£d in It. At length, tti 
^'"""C Ihey ■"■«« ItMM^fflj OP; 


.g 'KllpHsfc 

*?n fib an nlned «t 20, the imports at 30 jnUHon J 
SKSLnSm. yards are the largest fn Norway i Qeorge, 
Seljori, B lin««**g flj,*Ww»«rf at Laksevag, 
SSJS. F«r*.«d at Solbeimpvk™. 

The main street is the 8tbant>-Gam, running parallel with the 
harbour and containing the principal shops and offlcoa. fi ts w 
prolongation leads to theNordn«BB; aeep. 117.5 

At the B. end of the Strand-Gadelies the Torvt.-Almehnihg ^^ 
the adjoining Toby, -which together form a long * FUd " j rQn "ing S. 
from the E. end of the harbour, and separating * ne 2okl T of th <> 
town from the new quarter bnilt afnce the Are ° f V s , ,," *Ms 
new quartet ate the principal modem holdings, m °?5™* "« 
BHkV p. »1 built b y Solh e r K ), and , Y D«*"- " ft? ^Wg 

fS.) end Of the Torve-Almenning i, lS („ tut f ^ w nc\Ued $ 
thejrealdentofthoflrst SorwegUn Stor^^ +*%, 'theN.oi: tv 
contention with Sweden in 1M4 (.conip. b lx *l»> j jU du'tg ffol(, e . 
noint. in front of the Exchange, rises a amW ?X .net. historic 

Ate 20. B3KGBN- ^P^e*. 

«+ixTe, especially oo tt «^. , 
der of modem Danish Uter^ d of the har^o^x^ ** Of 
). — Fiom the Torv, at foe **^ & flghermen ^La**^!^^ 68 * 

rightly painted warehouses. ^ught to ^Bergen fey the 
>om') for unloading the _ T.^ygge, formerly ^eHaDseatic 

) ior umoauiug w»« — ^^- V |rge, loru«?** y ^HeHaDB6ati«» 
nin theirsmacks. The Tyd^eW « > flre of l 7()2 ««^ 

assumed its present form ai Bremenj ;Lut>ecfc, and other 
e clerks of the merchants ox 4 ea iousy *>?*^een the rival 
the League, who, owing to we re sixteen different 

were , forbidden to > marry- Finn egaarden Dramshusen, 
wonting from the Torv^ d<jn , happen, A?*^ 

Leppen Ravelsgaarden, Bo* 9 ^ Holrrtedels, Jacobs 

contained the old Exchange), ana d Gu idsko *Zra* 

Enkernin^Breds^u* J. %*K?W was *&££ 
ard was presided over hy a £> e > owne rs. Each merchant 
, or offices, belonging to ^JS^eO *«deiit here 
erk and one or more servants ^ *» j 10 _2 and 4 . 7 on * 

'Hanseatic luteum in the Finnegaara i y ^ gQOd .^ of fc ^ ^ 
5-7; adm. lkr. ; catalogue 1 kr V* Tipction of furniture, weapons 

ere fitted up, and contains a .. co * f tne latest Hanseatic period' 
guishing apparatus, etc., ** oBU *. on the First Firf>o* is an outer 
ftODND-Fi.ooa were the warehouses, « r wi t h nifl dining-room 
ding to the 4 Stave%or office of ^ T ^oa ire the l Klaven\ or rooms 
oom behind ; and on the Sbcowd **f w * f nre or light in the main 
lerks and servants. — as the u f t g t ^0tstuen , ) for the inmates of 
was forbidden, a common joom * *"H ne vegetable gardens. The 
i was erected a little behind it, » e »* 8ur vive. One of them has 
of only a few of these common rooms o 

tored in the T>ramshus. theN., rises the Maxim-. 

re the gaards ofTydskebryggen, to ,m , enlarged in 

rfth its t^o t^ers erected in tbe^ German church 

i, and used by the Hanseatic me f""*" tlie6 hoiT Gothic. The 

08 to 1766. The na,e is Bo»»neso^oe, f the ^ ^ ^The 

:ely carved pulpit and the altar aa* to theharhour 

• old fortress of BwgenhM,^ lt0<ae 

iffshall (swim- daily, 8-0, except " » Valkendorfa n . *^i 
*oidier who attends visitors Va **;> „, *w,^? \ ot tlle 
W* tower CP1. 14), originally bml^ *J H » al«m Haakonaen, 
arf &x Kosenbsite in 1666, and restored in 1848, consists in 
t*r *owex S , of which that on tbe N. »*• sum modern. 
Cfl* *»~il* into the wall. ^4 8^1^^ ^ Un " 

% a ttempt of the English fleet *°_^*' T " *** *>*tch fleet 
Ua so««l»* refuge in the hartxmx. The intenw 0l tne 
8«tT »rsenal(«n e eMmii.y-pieces, old flags etc). The gal- 
lic ^o*» a.*fords an admiiahle aijvey of the fcart> 0UI ^ 
U irx<* ***i» tower is the Kongshall, of the 13th cent., with 

BERGBK. so RouU 


almtatalrj*!' now being restored. Al>0 ^ fortrew of to 
Ztattrf ancient Sverreibon,. **er- 

Qs *rtT . *'«<> of the harbour V ™»een it ma the Puddefj 
tta,«ta»U»fir«ajUM projects far into the B eaO> at„, aeep. JW 
On uw , nmTQ it Tines Fort Fre<iefii*6^, now ^ flte . watch (entr^ L« 
inthe E. corner; fine view). A new road leads on tie S.W. sid 
oftheton, the Obiervatory , and ™ e Boapital (Fl. L) to the end 
of the peninsula, where a promenade loo« H f &T oat to sea. 

On theN. aide of the large 'Plain' Called Ew0 bn is the houae 
oftheBwg«iArtTJnioii(X«n<'/ ,0, '< n ">o, PI. K), with a collection 
of modern pictures, changed from time to time , «nd the email 
Municipal Putwt GalfcryOdm. Sun.12-4, Wed. & Frid. 1 1-2; 26 e .). 
The latter collection .luntairu work! by Bodotn, B^ef^trg, «„, S**"* 
Ovi*. iY"or<J«i&<rn, etc Among older works may be noted- '>■> iSSJuL.?^" 
Ko.lW 4.R. tfiw, De.1 EO for an Entombment, No. 179- «'-*"«•. The 
inhabitants of Bnsen purchasing their freedom from «»«* "J""™"- 

In the, to tbeS.W.ofEngen, is the ^"'"'Per- 
formances in which do not usually begin nntil the end ox ^J"™ 1 *". 
By the LiiU Lvngcgaardivand, in the quarter "*****£" *Yj. *^""« 
np since the Are of 1856, is the Railway Station ^ ' t J g at J*' 
N. of it is the small Park, where a band plays daily e» t? - 

Son., and to the S. is the tasteful Roman Catholic tw j^ fl u - ^ 
AUototheS. of thesUtion, on the ^yrfna.fcowf. ""iVian and nat- 

H-uiewm, completed in 1866, containing * n ^i**.ji ii-i; Son 
oral history collections. Adm. onMon., Wed., * r * "' '' 

11-30 to 1.30: at other timei 25 e. n , h „ rs . 1 Sat.. 'J-l) and 

, t On the Oro nd Floor are .be Libeam {, T ? a ^itb "'"i'V,* 01 "' 
£« collection of NOME AHTIWjmiS »£_ *> Dtr *^rl«i. .', " n 

bj toronne, 60 *.), chiefly from W i, «ffl> ?S-„ „J™ 

tte right, Wo caned church - portal I* i-it*< w ^' h /, "J B 

"gall and picture,, . fine e]L%ie. £*>» f'i"!.! ft* 

«th cent., laokBrds^porcelaiu, f ur nit *t i*" 1 '^liS? 1 

canoBittes. — The KiTOHit Hhtokt Coilictio" >-", n ,eB' "' Bor **Klan 
catalogue 35 ».} eomprlse* a very comolete tet o' **„**-> 
«»>, .„j „..;„. _i.,. „,..,_». -Vhuge whale, e ^ be conspicuous 

museum «*\tiinB with * loft » 

■*■"«' <" «■ «™, a large Uothio brick P, „iter. , , „ 

tower, erected in 1890-93 h oax nltn , D y H B *^l B identi«l Matter, 
To (he E. of the museum i» an attt» ctlve J* *»** ' £™**t*M- 

through which we may vm to ^ -HyS**** the 9- Blde of the 
grounds recently laid out , ,1^ flne vie 1 " 8 - ,- a b* nd B0 »«ti m « 
■-■'- ■--■-:.■ "-I- w»» eI „f thepMit, c „ . 

fflf.'T*'; Th « aaTfloV* *» , eVB -Ai-m***n IN o, 

In "hid, stands the covered naart , nr 'pa*»** ' 

10. BBBOEN. JJ-fc|U 

fishery Company (Wed, & Sat ^^-13 andtlk e Public Li- 
and 5^> 7, Nea ;*o figures to S^T*** " *■"* " 
a. •**!•«• A tail monument ^i^^ — » 
tfce ^or^egianB who feU in the f^^Va/^tie oilbeAlr* 
1S0S). Several streets here deriv^ their mines from the 
, oi live German guilds, of Shomas/ ere Skinnere, Baqtrt, 
and Bartakjarerc, who were under Ha/weatic protection. 
otheE. is the Cathedral (St. Olafi Vaaffsbunden^i.e.'&t 
he harbour'), originally a monastery-church, erected in 
It in 1537, and restored in 1870. It consists of a nave 
only. Fine Gothic window and portal in the lower story 
, — The Vestlandskb KuNSTrNDirerai-MusEUM, Asyl- 
1. 15; adm. on Sun., Mon., Wed., and Frid.,il-2 and 
i Tues., Thurs., and Sat. 25 *.~), is a collection of art- 
ject8 of the 15-18th cent., including furniture, wood- 
land silver work, porcelain, Norwegian carpets, netted 
ornaments, copper and tin utensils, clothing, etc. 
<rom the upper end of the Vitterslevs-Almenning (see 
1 ascends in windings (accompanied by nights of steps 
towards the E., passing the reservoir, to the (20 min.) 
road halfway up (ahout 400 ft.) the side of the Flei- 
). By morning light particularly the Fjeldvei affords 
iew of the town lying at our feet, with, the Vaagen and 
the hills of Lyderhorn and Damsgaardsfjeld, the sea 
o the distance, the Aske, and a host of rocky islets. The 
s marked by a white flagstaff at a bend in the road 
hedral (about 7 min. to the S.E. of the point where we 
jeldvei, and whence the road to the Fleien ascends). 
\ Fjeldvei farther to the S.E., we may either proceed 
) Bellevue Restaurant and thence descend to Kalve- 
may descend in windings to the Pleielsestiftelse on 
tioned below (15-20 min. ; those who approach the 
this side ascend to the left just opposite the 'Brand- 

e hospital). The whole walk takeB 1-1 1/ 2 hr. From 

we may ascend in about 1 hr. by the road, whose 
above noted , to the top of the hill , marked bv the 
ron vane called *FUien (825 ft.), whence the View 
live, but less picturesque than from the F1*»1«Wai 
good Restaurant (p. 113). 'jeiavei. 

ing to the S E. and returning to the town by the Pleielfleati* 
* enjoying the view from the flagstaff above the cattcdr^l^V 
towards the v thus obtaining a fine surwof th*«r°v 
Krhich we then descend by a new road thr^&s&Su^ 
n ** ' » la J*« lunatic aaylum. Thence we retuS io the * tTw£l£ 
Mt theSverreaborg andtheMari*kirke(p.il6). WsSwi* 
*, and enjoy views of the sea and of the mountains ^K!7«? 
by the Fl 0i points the way to the 8.K. to Bte2lSi 8 " 
e a path descends to the Isdal and 8vartediket ^^ftg)*" 

/'°« « ',? oj.ri.4 £ ^S**"* «^*- '*«»■ which ™„, 

'PtUi 1 

r**J*«*i!!i* J&feKjS'^iwae, ... , _ 

£!?*> »4i:? d Merging £ ".?» the Store Lungeg.^rdsv.n, 

« ■"* ^'ileZ? *» torn anotb* Ieft 5 min - ^O" 1 tlle Pleielwsrtifte 

*<*»! ***«* "9 Ie,d » '■> fte V°' d Ie * dB to the left *° *■" Caft-R eau 

daitJ**; (o * « lakewlence i» '**'• in which, 1 M. farther o n 

">esi * Mc***" 5E - tow ers Tn**™ is "applied with water. G, s 

^Ira-'^edf^Teaqne^orgs u ' Wk «n. About «/a hr. farther on fa j 

t6e do- 6 * <t>»? fltreamlet leaijr" The path ascending the right ba nt 

Wl a^^ttt **> bj-which weal, Tia «« farm of A<w**ad to (*/. hr.} « 

"■ " * ■' " ""am to Bergen. Or we may contim 

id, and either follow its S. aloi 

i hr.) the town, w take one i 

a hr. from Floen or Me-Ilendalen 

W (to tlio W. of *aa theatre) b 

 p.m. lO *J a«rOM ths PtM, 

.hipt.TiildinK-y»rf« "^ *■* dock 

led or to the K- along the fjord 
t ^ ee F . 1*5 amd below) ead lo th 

- p. ii*> andbWUtaSlta 
station the route leaaa pail th. 
,&, wliiol> Mc fi" ] ' '" winding, 

1C h is a. flnf ircl^r . 


1 by while p< 

""•uS - — ««-^- 

yuteSl. GARNvES. From Bergen 

— Roads from Vossevangen to Fide, 30 Kil., and from Vosse- 

o Gudvangen, 48 Kil., with fast skyds-stations. 

Railway (station, seep. 112; views mostly to the left) 

hrough a short tunnel and crosses the Store Strain . — 

lolheimsviken, the industrial S. suburb of Bergen (p. 115), 

the bay of that name at the foot of Lavstakken (see above). 

i several small lakes. — 5 Kil. Fj*ganger, with villas , on 

iau8vand, with its charming islets. Near the station, on the 

the left, is the villa of the German consul. About Va hr. 

to the 8., not seen from the station, is the beautiful estate of 

. belonging to Mr. Gade, the American consul, where an old 

rke' from Fortun (p. 146) has been re-erected and restored. 

i admitted to the grounds ; *View of the Nordaasvand from 

lion above the church.) NearFantoftis the Cafe Birkelund. 

1. Hop. The train ascends to (9 Kil.) Kestun or Ned&ttun 

Rail. Restaurant), near the skyds-station of Midtun, where 

9 quarried. The high level of the line affords a fine view 

\ N e stuns van d to the slopes of Ulriken. 

at drive to the S. to the (8 Kil.) church of Fane, whence the 

about 980 ft. ; fine view) may be ascended, and back past the 

nd and via Birkeland (11 Kil.). 

ch-railway runs from Vestun to (20 Kil.) Os or 0*9ren(Nil*en't 
jpoken of v *Blvig i s Hotel), on the Futefjord (p. 100). Excursions 
de hence to Hatviken, the Ufaenvand, Lyiekloster, etc. A local 
as to Bergen from Os. 

rin crosses the fle8tun-Elv by a high bridge (views right 

turns to the N.E. into the pretty Langedal , aBcends 

reads two tunnels-, and crosses the river twice more. 

dalj a little to the S. of the Orimenvand. Two tunnels. 

Haukelands- Vand we reach (18 Kil.) Haukeland (265 ft.), 

i, the highest point on the line. In descending thence 

the brawling stream which issues from the lake. 

Arne (65 ft.), with a church, at the S. end of the 

i narrow branch of the Serfjord. 

ferneefl (65 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant), on the Sorfjord. Op- 

the church of Haus on the Ostere, a Urge island which 

ierfjord on the N. and remains in view till we reach 

The engineering of the line on the S. bank of the S*r- 

interesting. Eleven short tunnels between Garnas and 


engereid(47ft.; M. Trengereid's Inn). The Oulfjtld 

tensive panorama) may be ascended hence (5 hrs., 

t ; landlord acts as guide, 4 kr.). 

d leads from Trengereid (fast stations), passing between 
I Kraaen (2145 ft.), to (11 Kil.) Aadland (•/*»), on the bay 
the K. end of the Sammanger Fjord. Row to Tjersse, and 
Norheimsund, see p. 108. 

winds the promontory, which separates the S. from 

le Sorfjord and culminates in the Hanenip (2440 ft.) 

p (2475 ft.). Ten tunnels. Across the fjord, here 


i 1 

only 560 ycls. broad, we still see the BteTO 

Zreh of Brt^ik. Above it to**™ tt,e «s^»-^V''« ' 

fin the pretty W.fmeu-0 a new school has r>««« i. « p C 2945 fi 

and drives » la'Be nnU lower down. Ige I'igi 

51X11. Varied (47 ft. i Boll, fertourw^-). F 
longest penetrating the Hatlaptirti. " e "> t 

69 Kil- SUmghtUt. The train le-ves tn e S«n-fjord , cro« BB 
SaUvaaff, skirts the W . bank of the latter, » nd aBCendll (he ™ « 
$„. To the right rise steep cliffs. "•*£. 

66 Kil- J>afa, from which a short line of rails runs to Jab 8 
Urge cloth- factory. — Nine mote tunnels, one of them the \o n 2 ** 
(1410 ydsO en the line ; charming views of the fjord between th?* 8 
The train now reaches the S. bank o£ the RoUtadt-Fjard. Se - 

About 20 Kil. to the N. of this point is tbe plcturenque Exingdal, tfi 

D °8ergeri Bteamer. The finest part i» above Flatetcal. K»rtber up y by 
•^ses to E.vanger> Vdm, Vinje, and the Arnetjord. Qn&r'ero poor. "*<< 
^78 Kil- B*llt»d(27ft.; .Inn), attheE. end of the fjoid, en ) 
u rocky Kills, in ilslted several times weekly by Bergen stean, ers 
^Ignt tunnels. The train ascends the left bank of the Pomc-^,,' 
M p.ieb. foxmi several rapids, and then skirts the S. bank of the' 
■gf,mgerva.rtd. On the N. bank lies Fadnai, at the entrance to the 
£ e id»l (p - 127). 

88 Kil. Xvang.r (47 ft.; Afon**n'« HoUl, well spoken of), M 
the head of the lake. The -village with its church lies on the oppo- 
site fcanlt of the Vosae-Elv, -which here enters the Evangervaryd. 
T o the S. towers the Mylclethneitvet (3740 it.), » c !° dad s *°™ 
granger in 2-9 tars, (extensive view, guide, Jaeo6 A. manger). 

The train follows the left bank of theVosse-Elv, with its occa- 
aional lake-lite reaches, crosses it, and passes through the nfty- 
e eeond and last tunnel to (99 Kil.) Batten, situated at*** efflux of 
the \osse-Elv from the picturesque Vo*0sua»d(l«ft.). as"*"*"- 
B ion-htidge crosses the river to -Liland'i Hotel (Engl 1 *? . s ^? . / 
— The train skirts the N. bank of the Vangsvand. On' tne o. sioe 
-we observe the long crest of Graaaiden (4270 ft.), ^ lth lta 1M8e 
patches of snow. 

108 Kil. Tetl. - Railway Station to tbe V7. of *• *""* 6 > » "" 



■- IVtkr. — To the E. of tbe _ 

bjlheeliurch,B.a,B. lx/i, S. l'/«, p.3h Pi . opposite, j 

^J " ' . '"' i Kp -i oppo="°' < tbe "VP", ,, 

of the Village, "faiths . ^ D ,.„ .... 

qulrtcrl maybe Obtained in induing- ho uao«, Infl.. jj by 
Cln'tk Bmia >- *>■ -" 

S*, on the side n e3ct ± 
fcOfno. at iSie tsilway-station; also telej,™"' 
31, V, «.). »Uone 

From Btrt"* 
TOSS- gide 

'« 81. VOBS- r ig e id. 

,,J *«offlM e Btone CT "!^o^ 

0. SKJffllYET. 

flAft the Ru*witt««  — ^ and ascends its left *>»** J 
( *Sw«o4A tTa©*„ ** **«iii£ ,em*; 1um-*°? m t& * 

*■£&. and cxos^eB ih6 i^L, of **** 

;*ft *** ««»-»*■ tie iondV rfjgm* 

LmW of aMAy jponde. The upper V*** B into 
suddenly, un^L tike road descends in **^??*l*»« *<* 
Ind piettffesqiM* valley Hanked with iD ?£ «P^^!L 
the ififtjewcfo* descendfl in two halres, tI1 ^**Xi 
rr^e io»d CTos&es a bridge between tn ® ^a** **" •* 
«oon P»« e8 tlM5 SUjerven Hotel. Rich Ye gl *<?****<*** V 

^asheim'* Hotel, a little farther on, *V.-^^««*^ ft ^T 
filiated at the ** . end of the beautiful *^ e x**** 1 ^ 
a flue y\v* of the entire lake an* o* x _ (p. *** 
f#i50 ft.) to the S.W. To the S. the O** 5 -^o^t, ** a 
The ioad skirta the E. bank of the * alte !* T ^ !>©* or- 
to the left, ia tlie GrovefM-Krfce, » n0l ^lf*io** ea 
road, or rathe* oridle-path, to Ulvifei *** 99^. ^ %a - 
to the left (from Seim 17 KLil., pay f ° r JleX* ** e 
catrted along wooden riadncts or k»*» «-,s W««* 
mediately oye*hanging the lake. ^Te ^*^ oC ¥.y 
lower end of the GxavenLsvantd, tra^«** e * 
8 K1L Eide ( B ee p. 1Q4T). 

™^~ — — ~ """ "™ ^™*™" """" ... 

Feoh Vossbvangkn »o ChmTAHa BN "^ 

C« ),n 2'- ?• 1 ^ 2 -)» a 4Tlte of about 6 lirs- tb , 

The finest point on tbia route it the top of * *J 
best advantage by afternoon S To enjoy «"f_; 
can !••» to <*«a.vangen the ean£ evening- T?V?f I 
Voss Wl about noon should, .w the nig*»* »* tU £ ' 

The road ascends gxadSaUy and. *»»•?• * 
iwndarcond Oi» tlxe Uft. 2 Kil. ftom Vossc 
of ii»nj*e.m (p. i.^ A ^ woode a. »»o. «f »' 

of Dvtotad C pa8t ^vjV p c ^ ea an ot.Ker xoa-d. 
m ain road at X vi ad^T Tuotte Z^r»e««* 
g a»id of Lane, ^!> «* ^ ixw« o\ose 
?ue left the iW^c>„ Xe £V£t»»A» froxa tl 
1 sawmill. TheCa a 7^ 2K^ *^ 6 Vo88 
of the two latea. *°«*. ^« ft a * C rClAO 

rook». Aboat ^i j^ ^^e? et • e T^ itide 

4 $4 BouUZl. 

aB wn ich the load ia carried by the As- 
4fitttresque fall , ^*°* ^cexid a few paces to see the foil, using 
flaMe Bro C 435 ft;**? father up, the road returns to the right 
rttion). About 4 *.!*• t mosses two copious streamlets de- 

e * *ik of the stream. ** on the left. The second of these, about 
Ending from side-* fW^rkadalt-Elv, along which a path leads 
^ e M from Vinje, * **£ Sognef jord (10-12 hrs.; p. 127> The 
V% Aannot to Vik ° n 

vi tiev expands. . ^ *e»*r»xidexL (965 ft. , F*tfe'4 Bo*c£ well 
^* ?0 Kil ViflJ x tTt sitw^tion, not far from the Vinje- KUrke. 

,\*i ofi in a P le * sa !i 1 e course of the stream, through a ravine, 

*V o} %L road ascends ^^eimsvand (970 ft. 5 abounding in Ash ; 

ls^endof^%.2kr, B.' i kr. 40, S. 1 kr. 50*.; 

t° ^^s Hot€i, *•*'--)* and skirts its N.W. bank. Above the 

♦^Ch Seiv. ** ^J^osite bank tower mountains of grey 'Lab- 

^^* flA iuis of the °Jj; oUT ious picture. To the S. rises the Mai- 

*°° i rock P* esel iS?f* "I - By the church of Opheim, prettily sit- 

* ad °L^^ C^^ftorn Yinje, are two hotels (Opheim* s Hotel, 

ua ^i u B. i 1 /*' S V -JLvana the road crosses the watershed be- 
B - ^^^°^S^^ Sognetlord. On the right the 

SE& then, t^e M^g^ d l e8C ends to the Sognefjord, and ascend 

of the N ** r0 *?~£ aWve the stream, to the - 

in aenrve, . S Hotel (1125 ft.), from Vinje 14, from Gudvangen 

12 Kil. , we n-managed hotel, built of timber and lighted by 

• Tni* J»r^e ana ^ besides baths, verandahs, balconies, etc., and 

electricity, c ? nt S*? fl evingen and to Gudvangen (25*.). B,- from 2, A. . V«, 

* Wapioiie o J° 8 1 3 ii Va krf ir. ^Ift. PaSSSJ tke landlord, speaks EngUsV 

*i/i£ ^Ibi^'to "enquire as to rooms beforehand by telephone from Voss 

qJ^^^SS S Sot a skyds-station. but vehicles are always to be had. 
C ^io/^^^^ V angen2\r. 4, atoAjierre 3 kr. 6 *.* to Voss, see p.m. 

Th~ hotel is situated at the top of the Stalheimsklev, a P*ecipi- 
^« jv^k about 800 ft. high, forming the head of the Naerodal, 
^cwlsce xi as to the E. to Gudvangen. The **Yiew hence of the deep 
^Somlbre JV^rodal and the huge mountains enclosing it, especially 
*ftemoox* light, is considered one of the jjrandeBt in »orway. 
*£e lex** *** tie commanding Jbrdalsnut (3620 ft. ; p. 132), on 
*irfi* *ltt& the Kaldafjeld and Aaxci (see above), all of light- 
( E.3Lt>n*>4lo* 9 rockoi felspath. In the distance the background 
9 ^raTlezy ±& formed by the hill from which the Kilefos near 
4 ^en descends (p. 132). We also enjoy a fine view, looking to 

of" -fcla^ broad valley towards Opheim. The river descending 
[ f oX rme the Stalheimsfos, which, however, does not come in 
' +,-i -we descend into the N®r»dal (p. 132). 
lX1 ^if^;^ s - ir « & -to thelJ.W. of tlie hotel is the «<alAeim«m*«, past which 
e **** „,«*» -Cowards tne N. From Brmhke, the first gaa T d in this 

+r* exiled -ftr^ 

QiWu C«- walk of >* ***>. i 55; i 

to ft* uKUtoev of * tl V* c "^ixt ytflZe no time f WX!/* 
tot %ooA *«a1^™*^ a feo*J<* lo^e ** «Jfted. 

B pena a u\^ o^ l">ar<l a» c 0ring 

i Comp. p. xvii. tIie Ola ^ « 

to **), tne longest of all g* jaMen W , 
cm MO from Sognefest j deep at e^ eg 

Wtn, and is nearly *<%» en trance, *«c es . j 
fjords, it ia nuattractive at i^ ction of ^ * e * tt , 
worn smooth., partly l>y ™ nC e covered t r a *es, 
enornrous glaciers ^hicn n iitil th e f r* who 

scenery improves as we go ■**' > ^ging ab^^fd end 
long narrow arms, with Dan **i At th e j, Pt v at j 
from which waterfalls desce ™"' ieTB cov G * ea <te of 
of the fjord appear the g* a the $ ^rig the 
JostedalsbrcB ('Brae', glacier;, tg Qf •» Is tie 

Europe (350 sq. M.). I* oth ^ing W* e fiord 
present a smiling character, ^fA^ Jr* *ith Ii 
and waving cornfields, and * tu **t? a ^ pleasa; 
the grandeur of its mountains *?*J£**» the8og 
the Hardanger, hut its general £«*** fg gev * 
monotonous, while its southern ^^y^estiona? 
palm for its softer scenery and its splendid w&teTJ 
The climate of the W. SognefjOTd, as f ar ag th 
great ramifications hegin, is the same as th&t of th< 
mny and mild in winter and damp and cool in bv 
in Norway ig the rapid decrease of the rainfall from 
(Z ?«X ** Sogtiefjord. At Sognefest, a * the e ntr 
1 fiordf^fi *%***"* winfa" *« about 80 inches, o 

1 thW^rms^ ** 

tries, ashort and t resen >bles that of inland 

^ater. in winter *K m8Ummer being sncceeded by 

The inhahita4^ erer > **e arms are only V* 
the placid NojWJ? ^ So 9m 9 er ) - ,, r ^ w region^ 

126 Route 22. VADHEIM. Sogncfjord. 

The following description generally follows ike order of the 
stations touched at by the Nordre Bergenhusamts steamers, but 
their route varies on different trips. The distances of the chief 
stations from each other are given in Norwegian sea-miles (comp. 
p. vi). 

a. The W. Sogneijord, to Balholm at the mouth of the 


Steamboat from Bergen to Balholm 6 times a week in 10V2-13 1 /* hra. 
(fare 10 kr. 10 £.)•, to Vadheim only, 8-10V2 hrs. (7 kr. 70 0. ; to Leerdal, 
12 kr. 90 0.). From Vadheim to Balholm, 3 kr. 20 0. 

Bergen, see p. 112. The voyage to the mouth of the Sognefjord 
is of little interest. It carries us through the 'Skjserga&rd' fringing 
the district of Nord-Horland , which with Send-Horland (p. 99) 
formed the ancient Herdafylke. The low and generally bare hills 
in the foreground have been worn down by the glaciers of the ice 
period *, in the distance rises a higher chain. 

The first stations Alverstrem and Lygren are rarely touched at. 
More important is Skjcerjehavn, at the N. end of the Sande. Then 
Eivindvik or Evenvik, on the small QuUnfjord, the ancient meeting- 
place of the Oulathing (p. xlviii). 

At the mouth of the Sognefjord lie the Sulen-0er, the *Sol- 
undare' of Frithjof s Saga, a group of islands with hills rising to 
1830 ft. (about 5 Kil. to the left of the steamboat). 

On the mainland, to the right, lies the station of Sognefest or 
Sygnefest, to the E. of which rises the Stanglandsfjeld. 

On the N. bank we observe the Lihcst (2275 ft.). On the same 
bank are the stations of Be fjord or Lervik and, beyond the pro- 
montory of Varholm, Ladvik, or Lavik, the chief place in theW. Sogn. 

On the S. bank lie Brakke, on the small Risefjord, and Traded 
or Tredal, on the Eike fjord, at which the steamers call alternately 
with the stations on the N. bank just named. 

The scenery improves. The mountains become higher. We 
enter the pleasant Vadheims fjord on the N. bank and call at - — 

19 S.M. (from Bergen) Vadheim (Vadheim Hotel, R. 1 kr. 60, 
B. 1 kr. 40, S. 1 kr. 40 *.), situated at the mouth of two valleys, 
through one of which (W.) runs the overland route to the Molde- 
fjord (R. 26). The verandah of the inn overlooks the fjord. To the 
W. is a waterfall with a factory adjacent, above which rises the 

On the S. side of the fjord, opposite the Yadheimsfjord, opens 
the Fuglscetfjord, with the station of Bjordal, called at once weekly. 

On the N. bank lies the pleasant village of Kirkebe, with its 
church on a high rock, near the mouth of the Hejangerfjord, past 
which we steer. Then Maaren, prettily situated, with a waterfall. 
Next, Ncese or Nesse. 

On the S. bank lie Ortnevik and Sylvarnas or Selvamcts; then 

ft* o, the Ar^S^Lx; uBuaUy ^JS? ^*-bac 

**»* 1V% lO^^X"" 1 * TtE"! with Te*!?* <* 3000 

U^W^^e** *>**P occasional «^e -tf *' 

call 4 K^amw oi* *** N. hank once wftefcfy. rAejr a 
the S., to\Mi4 & -pTODaontory at the month f tbe Bm&n 
irhere w* oWrre a 4 Gilje 7 and other B&lm0n~a a hi ng appJ 
o S.K. ^ik ot ViUsjerren {+Hop8tock) i lying in a fe 
a t the mouth of two valleys, the iWfl/ on the W. and 
ofltheia.^ with, its branch the Seljedal. Snow-mounta 
background-, to theE. rises Rambaeren (p. 130). The c 
of Hoperstad and Hove y the former a 'stave^^e' (p 
beginning of the 13th cent. (restored in 1891), axe in 

^rom Vile we may drive inland about 8 Kil. in one of t; i 

directions, in order to cross one of the mountain-passes (abom < 

to fitaOketm (p. 124; the last part of the route passing th i 

ftviguing but interesting) ; or to Vinje i Vossestranden (p. J \ 

d nv© the last 11 Kil. from Aarmot on war ds, and past the M* ' 

oj to Gtattraa in the Exingdal (p. 12j . ^th guide), or, si 

**«ft«<m (night - quarters at Jac. Lars en's), thence proceed t 

over the field to (about 10 Kil.) Aarhu» % Teidalen, whence a i 

descends the Teidal to Fadnces on the Evangervand (p. 121). 

The Sognefjord here turns at a right angle to the N. i 

tance, ©yen from Vik, we observe the VetlefjordsbraB (p 
passage to Balholm takes about 8/ 4 ^ q u oux right lie; 
on a promontory where the fjord again turns towards 1 
W. bank being the supposed scene of Frithjof s Saga, 
by Tegntfr, Vangsnas is said to have been Frithjof s Fi i 

2 S.M. Balholm. — Hotels, *k V iknb*» Horn, neai > 

with a good bath-house on the lake, freouented by Englis [ 

•Hotkl Balestrand' a few yards farther on a charges at botl 
A. 40 0., B. li/ 4 , D.4, S. IV*, P e ns. about 4 kr. — **£ aU . 


at the hotels at moderate rates. — English Church Service ii 
Kvikne's Hotel (church to be erected). 

Balholm, the chief place on the fertile and highl; 

Baltstownd, beautifully situated to the S. of the mouth 

Esaeflord, is adapted as a residence for those in search 

'pleasant and well-made road, overlooking- the fjord, le 

hotels to a (i/ 2 M.) mound, with a large hirch-tree an< 

a modern 'Bautasten', pointing it out as the tomh of J 

the Frithjof s Saga. The road goes on, shaded at places 

past the villas of the painters A. Norman and Hans Pa 

at (1 hr.) the farm of Fletfe, situated among trees on 

the fjord. 

A pleasant row may be taken on the +E89*p OTd 
which is surrounded by a noble series of mountains : i 
Toten (4610 ft. ; ascended in 8 hrs.), then the f 1 "™* 1 * 
by the sharp ridge of Kjeipen from the snow-©** 4 * <*itia* 

''ally — b^ 7"-. ) 





Baxdbkbs's Woi 

SoeWfl"* 1 - 

, f into thR ** ^r j-—..—, ra ™«* d&cend, » litei*> 
to m the lt»Km«X ^ B DmIT^'. obtrf" 6 ' 

:u«i 1 1. » a. if if .?"* """^ .1 ini »» 

l»mtl,.,l.ei«, •i* «»• SejMZe G """ C ''^1,,„ 

in n. »to. Si Jx ""•*■» i»«" »» * «*JJT J„ 
J.A*,. lfh '!'' , '«- Otth..e ik.upperonll-1 
.11.. Ira iS! 1 ""™* P»M 1. tom.d- of .ooumnl" 
frequently he» r ^ "»«> wok. The ro« of too ' 

*"»a serosa ttie XmdeOar ^ ^J, !si| 
«•*»! duel ^"o*^ X^*** 1 ' except Sun-, *« » /» 

ISO Routed. SOGNDAI*. S*0**«/2ro«-< 

KB. The Balholm and Gudvangen 9t ^^l i ^\sL^^^^ t ^ 
intermediate stations mentioned below. The detail* a* l ar ^ ^ e ^ 
landsfjord (pp. 131, 133) nave more reference to the course o«" «*«* ^ 
Bergen steamers between Balholm and Lserdal Q>. 134). *>g e 

Balholm, see p. «7, The first station of the Lssrdaul s*oaj. 
. is Vangsnats (p. 127). The steamer skirts the S. bant ©f *^ ij «*s 
above which rise imposing mountains. To tfce N. is the *2&***/<?*iV 
from which a waterfall descends. > 

On the S. bank id the station of Fed/oa or Fejos (with & c li o**M 
whence, through the Gutia idol , we may ascend tl*e ltatm^ 
(5260 ft.), affording a grand Tie* of the Jostedatslwr® and tfee ^T 
(those who do not care to mount so high may go as far as ^J r 
Kongahjwi or the Kongsvand, 2-3 hrs.), and the Fre8vik*br& £p. fsfy * 
2t/ 2 s.M. (from Balholm) Lekanger or JLeikanger (J. Ol 9en ^ 
** ot *lJ lies on the Sjestrand, the fertile N. bank of the fjord. j» 
*he W. lies the gaard Husebt, with a lofty t Bantasten'. To the E, 
°f the steamboat-quay are the residence of the 'Amtmand', the par- 
f °!^ et a,td *he church ; farther on is the gaard of Henjum, wfth 

Stne' (wooden house) of the 17th century. 
th V2 S.M. Hermai*0V8erk (Knudseris Hotel) lies at the mouth of 
ti ** en J** m*dal, through which a day's excursion may be taken to 
tfl e N. to tlie OunvordbrcB (6150 ft>). 

The steamer to Gftidvangen steers direct for the mouth of the 
*U!-Jandsrfojrd (p. 131). — The Laerdai steamers first enter thenar- 
°* IVore/yorcl to the E. On the left are the gaards of Ltmden 
Jd Slindc (boat-station sometimes touched at). On the right is 
tnreite, on a fertile hill, commanded by the mountain of that 
*&e (2570 ftS). On 15th June, 1184, Magnus Erlingssen was 
feated *l«*I slain here in a naval battle by King Sverre. To the 
y ' is tlie clmroh of Olmhttm. — Rounding the peninsula of Nord- 
i, a sjpnx* °f tne Skriken (see below), we enter the Sognd&lsfjord, 
i smili 11 ^ a ' 11 ^ well-cultivated banks. On the left lies the gaard 
'arcUxl (touched at on the return from Sogndal), at the mouth 
[G j0-*&&<rst& Z>al or 0f*te Dal. On the right rises the Storhoug- 
rj±<Z&& ft-> To the left ls the e* aard SUdje or tfta<j(Irm), with 
living: orchards. 

S JVfT. &€>&3Ml*L pDantelaea'* Hotel ; skyds-station at the gaard 

" consisting of the numerous gaards of Sogndalskirke, Hofa- 

aV*oI ^o^»^ fl ¥M, is charmingly situated on an old moraine 

^ ^eliicb *ke SogncUxls-Elv has forced a passage , and amidst 

^ ^cr&lk on the bank of the river to the Waterfall , witb 

J^T and then to the S. to the pretty new church, a Bautaaten 

Wnicn bes»Ae Runic inscription : *0*a/V feonunpr saa ut 

7XiV*<* tnessa {i.e. 'King Olaf looked from between tkese 

fr* \*?& i*iay then follow the road to Stedje (see above), witb 

ft***"*- FRE8V1K. 

rtUn*o»t *»•• not ^?«»«J "*»•» ,"*P««»tf «l£ *» ^ A fc 

III V*» ' " **1»»X<I. » 

3 8.M. VnmJ^rf T *?L Cp. 134), o* *° s4 *«a.t« 

hi«). Rne yi^^L'^to^ZiSe**, ~** 

rising »t>OTe it T^f* * ck on ^? aZabrce oi 
and OalMm i»r\^^L *W Tt»*.l »•»* •*>«■©»» **» 

L*rdal st^me^r 18 , to Oudvangen *»a twic 
promontories ofh^ >•***»« Fresvilt, steer to 
fnormouerayine »K tfcJ !^* and0ofcm<** into tlie 
3000-4000 ft. l,i^ 01 i A VaKil.broad, witlx preci 
are rarely via**^' toXr ***ng.the slopes of M«**«* 
h*ve teen e*e c t-a ™2? %lke l**e- ^* * * ew sf 
or are Pwohed vf v ull ^ ial deposits O* **'' 
ible rock. Fro»» 1^** *W*6 the lake oti *ome *I 


*$**- **- **°**te. 1 

t^"** are the gaards JBetnre and JSj/W^-^w « 

frte* d^- dvan 6©») * he xoad recr osses to «wT; ^Ff rthet 

— "••L£°-^*»ioles of visitors to the 'Kiev* *lVLf£ nni "*? a * 
*' le »**«•• The road ascends the 'Kiev' i^LLtal^* ** ei 
1?£ *£»-«* tto ascent of which takes ne*r? y ^^n/^ 
^Swa* X^ft are the •tol^b« and the ^JStllhJin^fos' £* 
^iTw^^xfalls. At the top of the pass C l 12S *8^S. & 
!TtetAl» ~&***U*e*m HoUl and en J°y * superb view free p. 124? 
ThsW***' Aurlamdsfjord, which stretches to the S.E. from tie 
wmffnwri off Beiteln Cp- 131 )> is visited twice a week by the steamer 
tettM 811 *° La5rdal * To the left i high np on the steep E. 
dank we oheexve the gaards Horken and Nedberge^ and in a ravine 
Kappadal. To -fclie right, on the hill, are the Stegeacetre, with two 
waterfalls near. The steamer sometimes calls at ZJnderdal, finely 
situated, with a church, whence we may ascend by the Melhus -Setter 
to the Steganaase ('ugly' or 'terrible nose' ; 5660 ft.), the highest 
peak of the Syrdalsfjeld. — Farther on, to the right, rises the long 
Flenje-Eg0,wlth. its highest peaks, that of Jelben, to the N., and the 
Flcnjanaase (4840 ft.)- The fjord widens. On the left open several 
teep ravines, first the Skjerdal, with the gaard of that name, then 
the small Voldedal and the Vasbygd, the chief place in which is — 
4S.M. (fromFresvik orGudvangen) Anrland or Aurlandsvangen 
[*Bruris Inri) y with its small stone church, the usual terminus of 
the steamers. — The Aurlands-Elv abounds in nsh; 6 Kil. up its 
valley lies the Vaabygdvand. (To the Hallingdal, see pp. 46-44.) 
The Blaatkavl (8615 ft.), to the N.E. of Aurland, may be ascended in 
6hrs., with guide. Magnificent view, K. W. of ihe JoatedalsbruB, K.E. of 
the Horunger and Jotunheim, S. of the Hardanger Vidden. 

At the head of the fjord, about 7 Kil. from Aurland, lies Fret- 
heim (touched at once weekly j reached by rowing-boat on other 
days) at the mouth of the Flaamadal* with a fine girdle of moun- 
tains, 3 Kil. from which is the church of Flaam. 

Beyond the church the brid,e-path ■*^~*| ^^TASS^^w. 
a 'Kiev* m windings to a higher part of lb© va "f Ik iviral other «Kleve 1 
then pass the fine Riondefos on the right. We afcend^ "^ o™*^ e ^ 
traverse the Berakvamsgjel, a narrow ravine, pass thega* rdoT ™£g>J£4 
reach that of Kaardai the highest to ***£%% [IraOft) t? the %£.' 
comp. Map, p. 100). — Thence over the €fra X ^Jl^kam 12-14 hrs. in all, 
*U,U 0X79O h.) and through the Bonds* to ^SSSSS^^ S^^^i 
see p. 122* or from the Opfl«tet0le via ^°^f t hence over the watershed 
?J? £ C Btoftofvand and the Braone Soster, *»&/£•". from Frethehn. 
to the SoUivand and on to Vhik (p. 112), 18-» 2> rS day8) . i 8t Day : steep 

— ~5?°* ^ BtAND TO T*njum in thb ^^*?? s ha*l, 'snow-drift'-, 2815 ft.-, 
J* 501 * °* ab »ut 4000 ft. between the BlaasteavlJLBKi**^ and the H0iakartnut 

™ C ?2* e £ *" fl J tti - fro » Anrland; fine view) on J£a nMn ip* on the right, to 
2? *5?J L * * nd afterwards passing the lofty £^|*- J fl£f«r and ascend the 
^ - ?" i 5*"ftL© h "-)- - 2nd Day: to the fj*f*£ far as the Horunger, 
SST^yl*-^?* «), commandin/ a fine %*f w /rough aeeter-path then 
dSfLZS.*^ £««*aiss with the fcroldelifjeld. £ Zaw .* a | from which 

r^f.^? 11 *° tbe <? hw.) church of *Wwm "* £_ ro ad. 
icprrfaz,^.^ (j,. 134) is ; 1Q Kil distant by the hig» r 

134 Routt 22, LiERDALS0REN. Sogne fjord. 

e. From B&lhelm or flrom Oudvangen to Lardalsewe*. 

Steaubb from Balholm to Zcerdataaran via Gradvangen, daily except 
San. in 7 hrs. ; via Sogndal (p. 180), three tines a week in 541 hrs. * or 
direct in 3 hrs. once a week (fare 4 kr.). — From Oudvangen to Lcerdals- 
eren, daily, except Sun. in 3 1 /* hra. (fare 4 kr.). 

From Balholm and from Oudvangen to the mouth of the Aur- 
landsfjoid, see p. 131 . — The steamer rounds the Saganm, the base 
of the HoHen, and sometimes calls at the substantial gaard of — 

Yire Freningen. On a green plateau, about 400 ft. higher, 

stands the school, attended by the children of this scattered district. 

From Ytre Frtfningen the +Bkjan (5560 ft.) may be ascended in 6-7 hrs. 
(rather steep) : admirable view of the Sognefjord, the Jostedalsbrse, the Hor- 
unger, the Jotunheim Mts., the Hallingdal, and Voss. The fjord itself is best 
seen from the brink of the Lernegg, which descends 5000ft. almost perpendic- 
ularly to the K. — An easier ascent is from the Vindedal(&e6 belowj poor quart- 
ers), reached from Laerdaletfren by small boat. The heft plan is to sleep at 
the Vindedals-Sceter, l l / 9 hr. above the Vindedal and 2-3 hrs. from the top. 

To the N. towers the Storhougfjeld (p. 130). "We next pass 
Indre Freningen and the promontory of Refncestangen, a spur of the 
Hausafjeld, behind which rises the Lemcgg(see above). We either 
steer direct to Laerdalseren, or first to the N* to — 

5 S.M. (from Sogndal) Amble (*Husum J 8 Inn), charmingly sit- 
uated on the crater-shaped Amblebugt. A pleasant road leads hence, 
passing the Amblegaard (the owner of which, Hr. Heiberg, has a 
collection of relics relating to the large Norwegian family of that 
name), and skirting the fjord, to (2 Kil.) Kaupanger, beautifully 
situated. The small 'Stavekirke', with 20 pillars in the nave and 
4 in the rectangular choir, seems to have been built about 1200 ; 
it was unsuccessfully restored in 1862. Fine elms and ashes. 

Fbom Amble to Sogndal (13 Kil.). Beyond Eaupanger the road be- 
gins to ascend; superb view looking back on the Sognefjord, particularly 
of the precipices of the snow-clad Blejan (see above). The road leads through 
pine-forest t© the top of the hill, and then descends past several large 
farms (each with a '8 tab bur 1 and belfry) to (7 Kil.) Bide (a poor station). 
A road skirting the Eidsfjord, with a fine view of the avalanche-furrowed 
slope of the Storhaugfjeld towards the S., leads hence to (6 Kil.) Loftes- 
n<p«, a substantial farm-house opposite Sogndal, to which we cross by 
boat. — To row direct from Eide to Sogndal (6 Kil.) takes 1 hr. (boat with 
two rowers 1 kr. 8 0.). Herrings are largely caught in theEidsfjord. The 
water in this bay is almost fresh on the surface, but Salter below. 

To the S. rises the Blejan (see above) ; to the W., farther distant, 
the Fresviksbrae (p. 131), On the left opens the Aardalsfjord (p. 136). 
Opposite the headland of Fodnas, on the right, between .the Leraegg 
and the long QUpsfleld) descends the Vindedal, with the Store. 
Graanase in the background. The fjord, now called Lardah fjord, is 
bounded on the left by the Vetanaase and, farther to the £., the 
Heganaase (4900 ft). We pass the gaards of Haugme, on the 
right, at the mouth of the Etjcrdal, and land at — 

7 S.M. (from Balholm ; 3 from Amble) Lserdals^rren. — Pier 
1 Kil. from the hotels (oarr. 50 0. each pars. $ with luggage 60 0.). — *Luu>- 
8tb0m'b Hotel, two houses with 80 beds in all, B. from l l /«, A. l fa B. t l /a, 
D. 2, S. li/t kru *LABDAL80KEN'g Hotbl, less pretending, R. 1 kr. 40 *., 
B. iy«, S. 1V«, D. 2 kr.} English spoken at both. 

Sogntfjotd. AARDAL. 22. Route. 135 

Sstds-Stavon. — Post Office beyond the hotels, to the right. — 
Telegbaph Office at the upper end of the village. — English Ghubch 
Service at Lcerdalsfren's Hotel in summer. 

Lardalseren , generally shortened to Lardal, the terminus of 

the Yalders and Hallingdal routes (RR. $, 7), lies on a broad and 

marshy plain at the mouth of the Lara , enclosed by bare rocky 

mountains. View limited. Towards the £. we observe at the end 

of the Oftxdal, on the left, the Haugnaase (5250 ft.), and on the 

right the Freibottenfjeld. The village with its 800 inhab., has a 

doctor, a chemist, and a few tolerable shops. The church, a 

curious - looking modern timber edifice, with a group of houses 

around it, lies several hundred yards farther inland. 

Pleasant Walk of '/* br. along the bank to the winter pier (used 
when the fjord is frozen), and thence to Baugene at the mouth of the 
Eijerdal (see p. 134). 

d. The Aardalifjord sjmL Lysterfjord. 

Stbambb from Lserdalstfren to Aardal twiee weekly, in U/t-2 hvs. (fare 
1 kr. 6O0.)i to Skjolden at the head of the Lysterfjord 3 times weekly, in 
5-7Vahrs. (fare 3kr. 20 *.)•» to Marifjueren only» in 34>/«hrs. (fare 2 kr.). 

From Laerdalseren to Fodnces, see p. 134. After rounding the 
promontory we obtain , to the left , a view of the Lysterfjord (see 
below), with the Haugmaelen ; in the background is the Jostedals- 
br® (p. 137). To the S.W. towers the Blejan (p. 134). 

The entrance of the Aardalsfjord is somewhat monotonous. 
On the N. bank rise the Bodlenakken and then the Brandhovd, 
between which lie the Ytre and Indre Oferdal (see below). On 
the wooded S. bank is the station of Nadviken or Vikedal. We 
next obtain a view of the Sceheimsdal to the N., and a little later 
we see the superb girdle of mountains around — 

Aardal or Aardalstangen (Inn , B. 1 kr.). The little village 
with its pretty church lies on an old coast-line (p. xxxi), and on 
deposits from the mountains on the right, at the mouth of the Aar- 
dals-glv, which issues from the neighbouring Aardalsvand. Opposite, 
to the S. , rises the snow-clad SUHtfjtld or Middagshaugen (4435 ft.). 
Aardal is the starting-point for a visit to the Yettisfos (1 day ; p. 142), 

Returning from Aardal , the steamer calls when required at 
Oferdal , the station for the valleys of Indre (E.) and Tire (W.) 
Oferdal , which lie between the Brcendhovd and the Bodlenakken, 
We then round the wild precipice of the Bodlenakken and enter 
the *Lysterfjord, the N.E. arm of the Sognefjord , 40 Kil. in 
length, where the wildest scenery is combined with the most 
smiling. Owing to the numerous glacier-streams falling into it, the 
water of the fjord near the surface is fresh and of a milky colour. 
On the W. side rises the precipitous Haugmcdtn (4135 ft.), which 
may be ascended nearly the whole way on horseback. In 2*/4 hrs. 
from Aardal the steamer reaches — 

4 S.M. Solvora (*Hotel Solvorn ; guide, Joh. Hawen Vigdal, 
speaks English), a skyds-station, finely situated on a bay in the W. 

Lojrctal8*re*v _ «t«H6i.,» tei /l! sammer - ^ „»„w the terniin 

m outvt»iM. View Mmifcf 5^'b we oUBerje »t th, 

right the ftclioHwiS/^i ^^" a *f h C I«r8O0i..b.b, 
v5„»nT a ch«»™>< t •*/&««* Tie vUfa£e w1 *^. *„« Tl»e chur< 

SuUUwng 8 * »ff d * &»" W«5Me 4*°f 8 i group of h 

Eyetd»l (we p. 43 4 )f ozen >» ">d thence to B<***9 

5-7t/,hre. (far? f»f°' < 2» \* "»e head of »» ^Vi** 3-*V» »"••• (f»*e I 

From L»rdaW« 1° l ~° *» ri Q* ren ° i 34. After rounds 

promontory we J£ ♦f^* <M > 8ee £ieV of the LysterQori 

below), with th e „'"' to * he left, * fttcround is the Jo 8te 

»» (P 137). To? h ri n ^ len ; in *\ e meSCP- * 34 > 

The entrap of fh^i iTf^r* ^ * ome^hat mo„ otoi 
On theN. banv _,* TC A »*4«l«0 ora *^ ^ +>,*»ra the Brnnj 
between w^™!^ >*o*"^"**JKx™*^ 

the wooded S. \>^. xtr e and Indre Uiera» * ^ *rj. 

nezt obtain a Vie^fl ** e ■**» ot " **<*<*"***" °$ 7%* 
we Bee the .*£*? °? *** S^heimsdal to the INT. , and a httl e 

Aardal or ^ "i 1 ?. e of mountains around — - 
withitspretty eK v^S^C^^^ B - 1 hr. )- The little vil 
deposits from th«> lie * on an old coast-line Qp. xxx iJ, an, 

dals-Wv, which i!L m011 ? taill s on the right, at the mouth of the , 
to the S., rises th« • ?* OBa the neighbouring Aartlalsvand. 0^ p0i 
Aardalisthegtax** noy "~<**&8leHeff*l<i> ox XfidHctgshaupen (4435 1 

Returning fw^S-pointforaviaitto the Vettis/os(l day ; p 1 
Ofefdal, the s+^V? 1 ^^al , the steamer calls vrhen req U i re< 
Oftrdal, which f?° u *<>t the valleys of *n,<*rc C E ) and ^Ire f 
We then rounct «;** between the B**ceTKi*ovrf and the Bodtenald 
the ^lyitnqord I ^^ d precipice of the Bodlenakken a^ti ei 

length, where «* ^« K.B. aim of the Sognefjord 40 Kn 
smiliug. Owinfi. V 1 ^ wildest sceuety i» comMned jwth the B 


w-nwontaina MOtfifl theVeite- 

ad horn Mn«™ JK 

10 bra. by 

Pj'wlind, B68 p. 139. 

^^*. t > "ppo"ifc« Solyon, in . charming situation, 
j.<*;O f " iteimer calls when required), with its large 
e ^_^»- -***" e 'l ani the oldest -SU'eWrW in Norway, 
^S<2* ^**fheUth cent. (>©>« p. 27). The construction 
e, ^,-»*^^» i the chwrohx are specially interesting. The 
pfLf "lowtedin 1722. To the left towers the huge 

*£?**& *£>» * e E * ^^k » "bout i/ s hr. after leaiing 
*^^/& a** 10 - of **"**•« JTrokoi, famed for its orchards 

5 ?*V e w» eliei ttt when required). To the N.W. ap- 

£*•- * grtotthe Jostedalabrw; to the right of it is 

p »**/*7*i » 'tottaeN.are the hlUsof theKiondai(p. 138> 

' l '\e t7 'f *]f***C HoteI M'M'War.fn $> a^d.-Stalion, at the 
S v «^ V^< 4 K*."), prettily situated on the Gaupn(/5ori, 
°*^**5^' V te *' riBitto the Josfsdai (p. 138). Bean- 
V*:3r ^*£tf. a P w *° e o1 ^ church of Joranger, which 

*" '*£"v5- ri)V at a6 " we a Pproach. The church commands 
^'t***? «**«*• 1 J° ld al,a «»e Felgurosfos(p.l37). To 
** «*^ ^^x ^ (^ min.) iB the gaard of Hundthammer, 

, ^»y for 33; * drive of 4-6 bra. ; 
I passes Ibe but of the Mold en 

I , wi th ita 
idfFrei " 

e Eafilwand , where the rc*d to 
md twerso a pine-wood, tfI Dr a.- 
)lt»l»I»l"* *° * h !h™ . Ba TO»d the 
gfaut point, «>4 then deeeen^, ^ 

*t r< tonriM i the ™-*^A. a,| 

P. i9°- 

Sogne fjord. SKJOU** 1 *- 22. R outt 137 

The upper part of the LysterfJ ** ** grand and pictur* fl „ 
The steamer passes Nats, on the le«*. «* on the right the WoT 6 ' 
Fdgumsfos, which descends from * fl TJf 1 ?7 *> *he N. of the £ g 

sift, Then — 


men — f^ v 

2 S.M. rw«n Qlnr*, ^rell spo^er^ o ** ?»«mliigly situated. Adi* 
it is the old stone chnrch of **^JuS£- £ flne Portal. Ja ~ 

From. Djersen we may ascend ***•*«_ -. saeteM ^ * hridle-track ».. . 

to the gaaird JHfsa, the highest In *%J2KEtof P^X* a stee P «Hmb !^ 

ihe BKThow Vidde (2600 ft.> to the ^Jf*^ tE^'JS 611 to the W th °® r 

the 7^«»T passing the J*tss*red**~* * lattertL gh X' to th « fleM-££§ h 

of 4TW« ana Z**r*V4****. From «** /* and 1 J& at * Ie **» aero* a^hS* 

descends abruptly to the Ot^ergssJ^y »* * leads to the K. to «i£f 

Orator? In the Jo*te*<*Z <p. ±38), a,t>oi*« '' Kil. from D/0fgen »«jrt 

v*alk of 9-10 hrs. s guide necessary)- ™gaing 

¥iom Dtfsen the steamer goes on io tn e nead of the Ly8ter q 0Td 

and touches at — *jkw«*'« r 

1 S.M. Skjolden d-Thorgtir ?^™? ' *f». ahoye the pier; car- 
riages meet the steamer), finely a 1 *^*™ "* tn ® souths of the Fortnn- 
da\ (p. 146) and MerhLereidsdal. ** " «e starting-point for an ex- 
cursion to the Fortam-Aal and to ** e ™; 8 ° f **e Horunger (p. 147 

et seq.). Fishing in the ^o^P^I^^out^^!^ 68 * 8 of the hotel . 
The sombre K0xk~exd»dal extends »bout 20 Kil. to the X. and contains 

the farms of Bkole, JBolstf* i^^^t^^T ^^r^^' ***■* 
these are several a«te*s * «»•. jg^SjS Tthfi^Mw*^^*/ 4he *■**»*«■ 
and the Dahmr-Scster to the rxght , tlien ""JW^Msr < ne » T tne Fo «««- 
S«ter on our Map, p- ISA), where f ^ r * c ™ mm °*»tion is obtained at Ole 
Bolstatfs, and the •|&«€f €.I*-f **«% f^thS^h #Ef , S tain 8cenery ' Henc * 
we may go to the W. over the ^J£%%!ffi f ***~^ »*<* F*9*r*al 
to the giard Faabenf Cp- *;»> *Veilcier TnW^w? d * y ^^^ ° p to 
the N. across the snow-fields iSfl^ c \t r f J2JT the TVaaaadals Kirke and 
toe Tundradals Kirfce to C f2^ a f « *& *««*"*r on the Liavand and 

thence on to MorH: a.»d l?olf o« (p. 59). 

Fxlobc M:-a.»i j?JjBBB1T to thb Jostbdal. 

The *Jostadal, !«*«> almost all the Norwegian valleys, is a rocky rift 
rapine J in^eiiidat ofavajt plateau of snow and ice, the W. paV^f 

and are often brolceij «jj» ^ th d ^ T^swMch « JaaS 

Wis descend ; and aW marking the different *onea of ^e TaSlv y 

bounded by rocky J » ' a ^ a yg there and back, and, in spite of th£ fc& ,"* 
This excursion ^** m £/j*f-*sbr<* (P- i39), is Scarcely worth tie w£* 
and beauty of the % jostedalsbris (best from the KLronda*5 la T a^t; 
Even the passage of » e _ Faflt ^ y d#.S|«« on , u i8 uaixal to ^££ *, 
disappoint «pectatto« rney ^a^e a 

cariole for the ^ bol ^ e J p . 136. The road leads past the precipitous 
Marttfmren, ^ ^ of the Qaupnefjord to C3 Kil.) K«ne?d tt 
slopes on the , ^W. ^« ^ ted als-Elv y opposite the church of Q av ine. 
the mouth of the *^ the Raubergsholten (2675 ft.). ^ 

Above Gaupne 

SPJBitLE. Sognefjord. 

a ds on the right bank: of the turbulent and muddy 
t ^tt\ of the valley ia well cultivated. Tlie road 
^ e .*J d bosses, tlie J£v<*me-Elv. The high and 
^lcii nanh the road all tlie way to Leirmo begin 
^ ^6 nse* the Leirmohow<J. After crossing tlie Fon- 
^fto to the right to tlie serge of Hav&ada. To the 
^ ltl peahs of the Aabjamnactse (5270 ft.} From the 
wt tal\» the Ryfo*. We booh reach the first of the 
^fc© ihe 3osteda\, named after the hamlet of I*irmo, 
e ^ eft - O^*™- L-errmo we may ^isit the *Ti*fW*erg- 
^ m length, the longest glacier in Norway.) We cross 
^^s&ergdoU-Elv. To the right towers tlie Kolnaast. 
&* until it covers the whole floor of the valley. 
pO lies on an old moraine (*Mo'). The road soon 
galled the Haugaasgjel, in wMch are the falls of 
^ continues through the deep and imposing basin 
_ ^*«° oocuniedby a lake. To the left rises the Bompe- 
*^y ft-h ai *<l in front of us is the Vangsen (see below). 
3*^*1 W* of *ir*«»i Teigen, &en y and MyUemyr, the road 
rf **^p, t»*woweT part of the valley, with the large gaard 
r*g*t, and enters the small basin of Fossen and 

* -*v*^ A another gorge, with a bridge leading to Ormberg 
^ A <5» tn <* basin of — 

* r * e J^i 0l?erty s P eTlefirei i good quarters). Beyond 
^ -—*? fvft r ° f ^^i witn the waterfall of that name, 
Z^^2 fT^ teUhT(Z on tne left ' B «yo«d Sperle a steep 
e of th ^ Mca i8 wooded at the top, and past the 
o " 1 ut-V 1 "* na *&& which opens on the right. We then 
*\e* pr3! ^ aBin containing the church of Jostedal 
Jc& oh S * U the 900 ^ na ^*ants of the valley. 
^t:* ^V* * Ve tlie Bakfcefo*, which descends from the 
0^ ]?* xt the J9r vr « Gaard. We then reach another 
tfn xne right the QjdUdBia forms three fine water- 
^rtV^T^* impose VatHNien (5710 ft.), with a 
^ .® lo pe, ^Mch ma Y De visited from Jostedal 
*^een the v a n evR o* V* nddal and Qfeitadal , which 
^ ^|*e ngbt, i a **" p yiamidal Myrharn, rising from 

^0&*v* oehlnd V*<>* d * a « & a «* of Gjerd** we cross 
^ag ftona the ' Ba ^a, vhich is flanked on the right 
****?*« (4260 if* ? rof *f ofi «* lef * b * VelleiaiW«» and 
^^V^ rce - Com Vv-' and *h*» *»• 

2^ ^ondaj, ovJJ^rive^ ^oalsbwb to Lobw , or to Oldhw 

^ d (p. 176\ ^5* Tub *<?* gratd but trying route. (Guide, 

* & th * &*o£, 15 Ws * *J£ ', P0**« i0 ,^Je Bleep at 

» ? <* 8 be^ d «, lt^ A early next m^ina. From B.r„,«<, 

{torn the v ll *e fc if i^ A ^ Hauge»tt$et, between the Tvrer- 
£-tf!g a *dsbr«fe * ° ^e fi T* r Vke4 >>y l h« 1««* 'varde'* in the 
^^r»ter). The P * *&$ 1**%X& gi aci6P BOW oe «in»« la i a*. 

6* iJ 

S5r»to» fc ■"?„«■» l S->*' a " 1 ^ ""*•» '" "» ot worth «h 

guide, 'ho, how6^' *&»,!,« 08Po *i* n *'* n< iB X.«r» iar 
|i»n Tourist SodeiJ- l» ' li«* >* e *>a«k, wbicli may 1> 

Uvingf'"-° r{ -" a '* ler ' tV - °«*oen Krcbon a,,,! 

dv the i , 

*"  Muvnd in tjfa <-. oTiame, I 

I>*U>, i lMd B l"wEere *^ B J*I^ ' 

s«i i Jen mo t«*««««-" t <">« u » 

.e toy M«^ 

CSV?"' V» js.*-* 11 

te 23. J OTUNHElM. I*™- 

lg h the P***** part of Norway consists of a vast table- 

lg occasion iy XntQ roundeA gummits , an d descending 

t the maxgi » ^ t po8Beggeg three district8 wit h the Alpine 

^ liS 1184 mountain-ranges. One of these dis- 

1 ¥* W Iil Td in Troms* Amt (p. 236), the second 

re ^'Jt iff d tne ^ird is the region hounded hy the 

011 J** <T'.!2 d tlle Plateaux of Valders and the Gud- 

° n «S?w f^.9 10 NE - ™ 8 last wa8 explored for the 

"L J//l^ > v 1820 a ^d named by Mm Jotunfjeldene, or 

Mountains ^ ut ig nQw erally known a s Jotunheim, 

en ton by later « Jotunologists' , chiefly Norwegian stu- 

remrmscenceof the 'frost |iants' in the Edda. 

*/L +^a , 0tunll eim (called Tinder, JPigge, Home, and 

'.^^toaded summits are JEteer) are all over 5900 ft., 

• U 5T^ f«°J 6550 ft -> while the Galdhepig (p. 149) and 

'^fciwir^ exceed 8200 ft. in height. The Swiss Alps 

'* ™ ntBlanc > 15,784 ft.), hut are surpassed hy 

TrrT 0lIntain8 in abruptness. The plateaux between 

e f£fS*n 8tentiTGl y covered with snow, the snow-line here 

t ooov f t p n Switzerland 8850 ft.). Huge glaciers 

suaaiierbeing called Huller, 'holes') descend from these 

mow. The amphitheatre -like mountain-basins which 

requeues, enclosed hy pre cipi tons sides rising to 1600 ft. 

? known U jBotner. The valleys lie, with a few excep- 

the iorest-zone, and are therefore much less picturesque 

>f the Alp 8 . One of their peculiarities is that they rarely 

i a pass, bot culminate in a nearly level 'Band', with a 

kC if 'i passage from one side to the other is some- 

Ightly marked, that the waters of the uppermost lake 

both directions. 

mheim inns are inferior to those on the more fre- 

fces, but thanks to the spirit and enterprise of the Nor- 

tt-Fbreninff Cp.^xi) fairly good quarters are obtainable at 

resorts, either in the refuge-huts erected by that society 

tailed 'hotels' (mountain inns of the simplest character), 

provisions* ( € Uermetisk>), beer, and wine are generally 

•lie beds, as a rule, are fair and broad enough for two 

eessary. Most of the travellers are Norwegians, and 

consist of two or three ladies travelling alone. It is 

to arrive ».* the sleeping-place too late in the evening, 

re traveller xnay^ have to put up with very inferior ac- 

JVTernl>^xr» °^ t ft ^ rA T Ti 1 iy i « t -. F orenin«, recognisable by 

on, h *^^^*?S f !'l 1Xtla L right to bed * at the tourist- 

**' y J^<Hn»iv 1.L? y , kr ' 25 *•> The other 

correspondingly W and the day's expenditure 
ides) » eed not exceed 3i/ 2 -4y 2 kr. 

O er- ; 


a , JOTUNHEIM. 23. Route. 14 

— *^*»dine alpeoio^ accommodation may also be had at most 

iV ^pvc**** ra-lao -!^TT^i J3** 1 0T Sel )> which contain at least one livii 
tt« Bk**e*».* *«* al«^«i«W-roOJX»- The i»fcfcxier or Falceger are still simpli 
*S^ mA °S«» ?*SSSifw^* <*r 'JHVkkarle') are generally good-natured ai 
™ ^°wl»«5^So\»r ^7T re«*l« tte traveller with 'Fladbr*d\ milk, cheei 
^^Wble ***€£?** W, lSr/^^5«ter Life at p. 70. ' 

and brute*-- ^J^!? rema l„irda l>y «»e traveller is similar to that used 1 
The E<*T**r**wx re S2*i -lioold if possible be even more durable, as ] 
Aipiae maira^eers, £° *^irpplying deficiencies and will often have 
f£i!i ? ave :n4> *TOortnM V *^.i, marshes, and walk for hours over ve 
™« , torr «» *^ * Wade iliroos x?ii i)# Hcavy lu gg age 8 hould be left behin 
IjA'^y ^^otind ( ft t7r* 5 V-Jl Comp. p. «ii. 

"i aBl P eiP8 tte move****?;*** obliging, but generaUy speak Norwegii 
n«it, atTXX>a:a »re active »*^ r with those of Switzerland or the Easte: 
ai *m^ a: **^ scarcely o** * t>er day, but the charges for the different e 
»*£<*'• he "**»**»I fee 19 * *X: £****• The guide is not bound to carry mo 

than q%**~^ Siven i» «j5S Xt**-) of ^HW* a** even thi » he ****** u 
wf m. i w «naejr'-po U nd3 <2* ±mt», therefore, the traveller must engage 
lESEP** »"«»- lj™ joiigej ± l^tbSrdB of a guide's fee. No charge is ma. 
for «*» w *o -a^^^Stti^efl J^l>o ,, i^^JB»« TOCM » though very useful for steep 
«LS! wtttrn-Jooney. * — *VT iKoa-^ay, and good ones cannot be procun 
thTTw ' are » o e *:» f*vo« r *TT otbef hand, Ick-axes CImfxJ) and stout rop 
HSS^P- *>- Jrili/ 0» ^/^e chief stations of the Turist-Forening. 
TW £? "ow- X»roVldea «** «T«iiide should, as a rule, on leaving one 

tie ^,° Wfe^S * iOX ££*»Z ***** 7B *"***> Mk t0 be 8h ° WD * 

Way w°L the fl *"^r*S^^^S«^ »_^ ^ryeAter ascents, moat of the excursions mj 
be J2 ** e ^^ceSfion of ***JTJ T l** re P aid for a hor8c **• services of i 
atLS* 6 * 011 *^™«T|£?i£ I» ^ tott* » aU8t be P aid for separately; if he is 
full-grJw n *tt ^«J^S^taol« de a*> *^ ^ ceive8 the 8ame fee as a guide. 

Tiia / iT*** ^' V °«e n jfa*» -. clay*) includes the Finbst Points i 
Jotaaheim !!r^« 4our ( ^x* oo tbe SogneQord to FeM (p. 142), hal 

3S*i- «'^»2-***fa over t?e"Sr7o^;^^14" 
one L- tZZF**'* 1 *****"* *S. u »te«r«, one day; via the B<**rtt« 

♦a jo«/* "~'' r V^«»^-m r p . l^^,// - may *> e reached a day earlier by tl 
ifi^iS?- «»5 ^^^ W,(p.l67),twodays; excu 

ff f X V ^ ^ ^ i& tlie ^tirtegr* may be reached from fltf ofcfa 

^tuenCp. 5»p, ^. ^^ ^^ Jirs., via FoWt/n (p. 146). 

on the Sognefjo^r<e^ ^ D a ! 37I *** ftiptions are calculated for good walker 

Distances in *.:»=*_ ,_, ^f.\ "l^ng ^ e * * talking in Jotunheim is much mo: 

JV 8l T ld ^ c bo ^^«S ii l0 mi»I **?1«rowin| to the want of paths. Amp' 

tt£r£ g iA a f>, ,1XI ^^^* ^rS?H^ fiio^ed. -A standard rule of NorwegS 

travel is that lio^»^ ^« iSSSaC f % <>o**ible. 
in good time, on «^%J ff^ptfore * f ^ OIM, 

a ftomA. 0o ^»«fjord to Vetti. Vettisfoa. 

m " v J" 1 ^^*^ Ott t». • , i i/» hr. by rowing-boat? H/ 4 hr. b 

o^i? Tettt abo^L-fi e hrs., ***' 7 / \to* rest on £oot » the path being almoc 

**»Tvoie on Xxorae*^^^^ qt » OJfc foO*V|ord steamers to Aardal are not time 

«>o ^>aA tor nOAxi S ^ ^ § the Sog»^ a t Aardal are unpretending, this rout 

J ery convemeulYy- ^ «c^d the quar* 6 *.^^* 11 ^ onl y t0 those wh © are goin 

i» a, \\U\e u^^o^^^o-fti^ble It >* r ^XAKi»6 **» circuit of the Horunger, bu 

on to 3o\unli^». o»- ^ ao intend. fY M f ob only. 

W&\? xepaya ^^a^*o« to tbe Vett*» ^^ ilafd(rfi . 1 . |w Qn tU rf . 

VETTISFOS . Jotur&ebn- 

^e observe the gaaxd Ffcrcicl^ -to the (1/4 hr.) Aax- 
^ above the sea), a lake 1-4 Kill, long, surrounded "by 
^ deep ravines. A boat a.ncL rowers are always ready 
^r season to carry passengers *o tire tipper end of the 
^ pera. 80 *., 2 pers. 1 Itr. 3!2, 3 pers. lkr. 62#.)- 
gee the Stegaffeld, with, the precipice of Opstegenc 
beyond lies the Fosdal with, the Eldegaard, to 
^th ascends past a waterf all . Farther on, high up 
the LetUatter; then the> Afid,T*ces?iamer, with the 
, left rises the Bottnju<vlca,mby with its huge precip- 
^t are the 'Plads' or clearing of Ojeithus and the 
^^ to the left, the NoncLctl y 'with, several farms and 

40n rounding the Raxulnaes we see — 
^e N.E. end o£ the late, where we land. Bargaining 
' **g horse or vehicle. Guide to Vetti unnecessary. 
** to Fobtu* ^-10 hra. ^ with guide, 4 kr.). A bridle- 
^ 3f.W. through tlie Partial or Zsctnffedal, passing tike ^af« 
UO the lftnw*-««*«r, whence a path leads through the 

the Berdal, where 
- good guide for the 
beautiful peaks, the 

>*.) ana o^^'^r w»w.» n.j, two oeautimi peaks, tue 
|r * latter easy- ^neTiice *© the gaarrd of FuglnHg (1W05 ft.) 
f»^.lv stee* deeceat (whence probably the name of c Fug- 

** Farna* t0 GjeUe C7 Kil.) ascends the right (W.) 
>t& in 1/4 h*. ^ see on the right the mouth of the 

*' ~ ga» Td of ^v C1 It fpoor ^»rters). About 6 Kil. 
***fLd ciosses the TJtla, and ends at GjeUe, 2 Kil. 

t b« /id bri*^** 1 P>est on foot for the suitably 

* ^ rf iJLT. WK11,lon «- The path 
*h<* lefti crones the river, and reaches the gaard 

^f* w*** ? r/ 868 a \ 0theX bridge C c Johannebro, 

3> Vi **jLfte* 30-40 min. we reach the *Afda.Ufo* 
r °?*~ "tetV to^tog- The ravine endsT-i ' 

& n Jfj0K^*\&** we feaYe a ™ w of **• Glads' below 

"Sfe** 5S1 waterfalls to * be left ^- 

ifcaO **>*•■> Aa*»dandki8»©n Thomas «ood K uldes\ 
ClO&-^(g»\te unnecessary) l e »d 8 benwT »;7^ 

f feS^** * h6igllt ne " th6 W1 ^m^ian d* 

tf * -tf^ ^ ^.nk. — Those -who l».ve 3-4 h J. ^!f " g * 

?. SKOGADALSB0EN. Jd***** 

i tbe Koldedalstind, to the left the Fledtedalft^- 
md rapidly towards the Upper KoldedabvaxA oT ," 
I follow the whitewashed 'varder' to the 8., aJODg^ 
, to the JLower Koldedalsvand. We cross the Vm*}& 
d of this lake, 2 hrs. from Smaaget, and glrirt thefc. 
;e and river to the upper end of Lake Tyin. Hence along 
f Lake Tyin to Tyinsholmen (p. 154), 2 hrs. from tne 
> Tvindehougen or Eidsbugaren (p. 154). 

tti through tlie TJtladal, Gravdal, and Leirdftl to 


from Qaard Vetti to SkogadaUbeen (6-7 hrs.). T *H?j£° 

r ascend tlie Slcogadalsnaasi in the afternoon. — »j. w l' 

stolen to Sletna^n (8-9 hrs.). — 3rd Day. To Rejshjem (6-7 nrs.J. 

ti £p. 1421 to tlie Fleskedals-Scetre, 2y 2 hrs., see p. l^ 3 - 
^ends the green Friken (4630 ft.), following the 'Var- 

Ls after 3/* ***- » and then skirt8 tne slo P e ni 8 n above 
affording a superb *View of the Hortinger, whose sharp 

above a vast expanse of snow : to the left the Skaga- 

[sing above tlie Midtmaradal, then the Styggedalstind, 

ess of the group, descending into the Maradal, with the 

3nra<ialBbrae Op. 165). To the S., in the prolongation of 

-we see trie Blejan and the FresYiksfjeld (p. 131); to 
^ jSt^rlsiiaastind ; to the E., the sharp pyramid of the 
- t;o tlie N., tlie mountains of the Skogadal and Utladal. 
'more we see below us, to the left, on the other side 
r ^ *X*e Vormelid Sceters, the starting-point of the first 
tlie Store Skagastelstind (route from Gj»rtvasb^en, see 
front of us are Skogadalsbeen and the Guridals-Saeters 
lie i> atn descends rapidly through fatiguing underwood 
/ 4 lir.) a small birch-wood. In 10 min. more the lonely 
^.s oti the right, with an immense mass of c Ur', fallen 

slopes, At the E. end of the Uradal rises tlie Uranaas- 
&}. We cross the Uradela by a small bridge ('Klop'). 
atlns are now concealed by numerous abrupt 'noses'. We 
*r a cattle-track ( 'KoraaV) through sparse bircb-wood at 
*lie Urabjerg, cross a bridge, and (i/ 2 ^r.) reacb — 

^TEES*? f 2916ft '? m ClubHut\ consisting of two saters, 
'"T Thf- • 8u mmer(from 24th June till tbe beginning of 
t of the ^ a ° exceUent Btarting-point for excursions in 

» the s«teraii ^v^?™* 111 ^ *° ** e **•**• T ** d *™* 

'enffe may a L v B e .7 * tc *1?* «r«»d monntain-view. —From 

a-a-as«tf S? ««■*.» i»* *« ^. 

Jotunhchn. MURAN B^' rER - 23. R oute | 4& 

states* (4265 ft.), and in 3 hrs. more tbe ^^n'aSce^i^ "•>• About 500 „ 
Wer we reach the base of the pea*, ^SSLtfcToL* 8lo P« of iaowi'V 
partly over rock, and lastly by abroad <5 ™ il *° «*• au,*^* rao ^ and 

Fe continue our journey throng** *™ utladal. Horses m . v K 
obtained at Skogadalsheen to carry ™ to * point beyond mL 
(lb.; no saddles). We pass a bridge, crossed by the path * th* 
Keiserfp. 165), follow the E. Dan * ** ™ ^tU paiS8 abandoned 
Mouff-Sater, and (»/« hr.) reac* **£ S B l l Uen€le of *e Store*** 
Vetk Vtln. The latter descends on *^f *t ™ m the F<f ^ f'lit«*n 
Urtadcrf, and forms several falls over tile > rocky barrier of the TutL } 
hong. The Store Utla, along ^hie* * n ® 8 *eep P»* ascends hf." 
forced Us passage through therocfc.» fJJSftOft? tJ° n ^ it8 ch annel far 
teVm. On the left rises the HUlerK** IP™ **•). Fine view behind ,,« 
of theStyggedalstinder with the *^*;S?£ a »J«»- Grand scenery 

fenext reach a higher region ©*» fStore Utladal and fl i/A, * 

from Skogadalshtfen) the »«»•■*!£ fth. * J to J erab 'e quarters 
if open"), on the opposite O****) *S^ SLk? ? Ver ( bri W Grand 
view of the Styggedalstinder to the W . ^irke to the N.E. , an d the 

BHNUiUttiid to the E. (>he rOU * tht t?h* *** Rauddal to *« 
Gjendehod. follows the left bank^l me utla , 8ee p. 160.) 

We now follow the 1ST. hank of the WO B the S. side we observe 
theSkogadalsnaasi,the secondMeWO"»njd: then a large waterfall 
descending from the Raiiddalsmnno u>. it>UJ, adjoining which on 
the N. rise the Rauddals tinder. Nearly opposite the Rauddal is the 
atone hut of Stor JEfcxMe*^**, used oy reindeer-stalkers. In ascend- 
ing we look hack at intervals to *ee the impressive view of the 
Horunger. The valley now takes the name of Oravdalen. We next 
have to wade (host near the Tltla) through the Sand^Elv, descend- 
ing on the left from the S jortmngshrw, an offshoot of the Smerstab- 
biL above which towers the curiously shaped Storebjern (p. 151). 

The path ascends and the flora becomes Alpine. We at length 
come to?he stone refuge-hut on * he * e f van d (4930 ft.), 5-6 hrs. 
from Skogadalshsen, where the routes from the Graydal, from the 
Leirdal, from the Vi«a»l^aiid torn the Hygvageirp 162) converge. 
T« the E towers the ennonsly shaped Kirke (7070 ft. ; difficult to 

^ Vn «!• 5r S the Tvcerbottenhorn (about 6890 ft.). 

The r »nte tbro^ga ^ ^ irkeg iup, between the Kirke on tbe rlsht £Sa 
and Mcends throng* *£%** left, to the KirkeVotme, a series of tarnsfVa^f 
the ^*rbottenbor« ^» as to the E. into the Upper Vitdal. O^S 
lag these, it then *Jf with » great glacier. The route, wMoh cannot h! 
Statas? ^SS^ ^* ^i^daUmynnet with that coming fromta^U** 

(P * l n } ' a • « « tb e I-elrdaJ, we skirt the imposing Ymesf jtld Cr> l aoa 
Pescending the ^ curioug -i oking SkLtind C7B85 It^U «& 

only one of li Jf^rt-stahhrse and several of the Smerstabtind** to 

tongues f^**^^ riBOB ^ Storc6 *"«»<* CT306 ft.) . In ^ to . 

the N. of the Store ^ reaC h the sater of — 

from the Leirvann ^ nd Sweden 6th Edit iQ 

Jotunheim. TTJRTEGRO-S^^ 11 *^ 23. Routt. 1 47 

XMndredaUkirke (8690 ft.). The last 8«e t49 *>*.t?** S£ - w ****««<fal ( Knn A .„ 
«**»*, ltei > about 2b Ktl above ^\ST acrow ^ ^ Po^inta *- 

(8-10 irs J 1 or we may ascend to the &Z*STt*f££ iR d S roa » it, nasHS" 
W. ride of the Tundredalahirke, in &-3 **' a ° ■?* ^t^-Saeter fr/fij^ the 

A good bridle-patn, leading to «*** *" ~ * etwe «* the skyda- 
station and the chnrcb, ascends the , |. * or *«*niraWe>. in wi * d 
ing8 with retroBpectB of the Jo^^S* tbTtoSK £*•■"« is' 

over in •/« * r - l*e pat* ascends th**^*^ ferti *e Bergsdal, t£L 
tag the ga*xd of Berge C1085 ft.> £° «^ ew ^ f *** fall* f X 
ft»kip-*it>, which flows *™^*^m%^* c ™« Oe stream 

by a picturesque wooden bridge and. ****** * e ff *ae gaard otS^dT 
In^min. we reach the second terrace of the valley. The Bath 
mm np and down, affording, at the «^ or /*i, a view of th« 
foaming Optunsfos. Here hegins *^2!™ c * tee P **cent of % hr 
passing the Htatre. ^t the top *** °7*^ the Z> £ 

Dyrhaugatind. To tlie right, V2 nr : Jl r«" * Ka » l8 ™ Simogal- 
fos, part which a path leads to tne .*. n8 *? dn -S»ter8 (p. 148) 
crossing the Ely. The main route remains on 1 the right bank, passes 
below the sater of GJeBsingcrh, crosses me stream descending from 
the Skagastelsbotn, which forms several nne falls ( TurtcgrtfossencL 
and reaches (about 3hrs. from FortunJ the two -- 

Tuxtegwr-tetre C^OO **• ? /nn ' H* 4°' B - or S. 80, D. 1 kr. 
30 0.; horses usually, guides always obtainable), the best head- 
quarters for mountaineering in the Horunger region. The Horunger 
form the grandest gronp of mountains in Jotnnheim, with precipitous 
slopes and needle-like neaha, from which glaciers descend in all 
directions (comp. the adjoining Map and the remarks on p. 130). 
About VtM. beyond the inn the path forks, the left branch ascend- 
ing rapidly to the Sognefjeld C^ s ^ em ^P- *51), the right leading 
to Helgedal and the Keiseren Pass (p. 166). 

One of the finest points of view, and in any case the most easily 
^uSSfe isthe r*Oaoars&oug (3730 ft.), a few paces to the right of the 
accession, is me y~*l ^^^ i/ a hr. above Turtegr*. At th«T ton is • 

P **5 *° .^ifi S?^Uit of King Oscar lichen Crown Prince* 
!"?&) ffiXembraces the F^araak (p. 15i}; then the Helgeda!; 
in iSoa 1 he ▼J ew l e ^ route to the Keiseren Pass; farther to the rient 
through wMcb le *^ **s * y g^edalstinder ; nearer, the three huge sSSa. 
a ?i ^J^ttMaradalatSd, riaing over the eitensive Maradalsbr^t; 
stflstinaer; the M *"**t:T* «the Dyrhaugstinder; to the rieht of the** V^ 
^J^Ih^MSaStKi^Cfl^^^ AnstabotUnd not wUnSi?. 1 ** 

gtiU more ex ^"£T%ee ahove), which may be ascended in Mi/iVjJ 
the^W. of Gjesjinge»J^ dl> tlie best general survey of the HwfiS" 
(guide 2 ^^^^Sa^SS. Soleitlnd on the W. to tie Stysgedalati^ 

on the E. tt «a «*»* wild **Bkagaat«l8botn should on no a-c^unt 

A visit to the S^^-hick 6-6 hrs. % guide 2 kr.)- Tne roTLte pir^s 
he omitte* (there a»<* Mtmtre (right), crosses the stream twice, and ascends 
Sear Sa two mw~"^*S£a. *^ e D 7A»;gatt«der on the W. and the lot- 
through the valley £f *^? The floor of the Skagast*lshotn i 8 coveredbv 
^ B (64UftO on the ^- 1Q# * »y 




*«**«».*• «lde Bt gal? l«W> »•; Am kept by Ole Hal VOft 
and kno* 8 ™* «=■ o-wi-nfer; *£? ° the Jotnnlieiin, wno speaks £„ ' 
oftea fa.X\ _ -tel!L tIl0, '? , *ffM 7 , but does no* now act ,/3' 

house oiw »<*- m. x. — -fc^l««i. ; "a" 1 /! «»«« does not now ant « g ^-~ 

ascent of tbe, ^A^S^S^ and * **« beat •t«rtli^ 1 «to52 
resort of tb€* ^o^^^^awl other flne excizrsioxis. Jt is a /ay i>w 

bridge over *1^ :^**P an **>* a stay of some duration. BytheQnn 
Mant-caTit^rox* s -» Jl* 8 > abont i75 yds. above tlie hotel, are Be/**! 

6 The foUo^i^ » _">e latest being about iO fit. in diameter 
Andvo** T°»d ^«>^ 5 * Peasant wait of 1-2 iours. We follow ti« 
made an isl**x*a. T> y JLf min ' t and <> ross tl,e *>**<*£r e *° * T °cky fiiJi 
a fine view o* Xfc^i \T e ^o branches of the Basvra and commandi n* 
crosses tlieixo© t; -*if J ' em and t*e Galdhoer. -A small foot- bridge 
leads to ***** !«*:€»* «f ri gAt bank, on which a pleasant meadow- pa £ h 
group o* fa *ma -w? rou S fl * Potation of alders to &krmdai y K 

roay then asc en ^ J~**er e the Glaama descends in four falls. We 
in ^0nain. iaor<6 *^ V tlx e broad track on the left bank of the Glaama 

The Afto^^r^. <* the gaard Engum, at the top of the fall. 
^4-16 hrs) lu* s ft-« * ™ Galdhswo £8-9 hm. 5 tbare and back, 
Ike nig** *^oxii a ^? u «**tly been accomplished by Norwegian ladies. 
~ raahytfee. — -^ **^ «t^y»± -* j.i._ t»___i ««4- n i *vr_ hatter i n *i._ 

idessno^w _ 

r yfe follow -tji^^SL Okiei T ) forlthose who care to use them. 

Mo*mJ el ^Poard ^^verdal road (p. 160} for Vs ^m and at the 

Stwl, *&**> *na.y aati ^ Sce » d to the left to ( lVs ** r *) the Xaubcrg*- 

Ve nexta Bcen€l xso be reached by a direct footpath in Ufa ^ 

j^ (6240 ft.), ^r^i^« S.W. to (1 hr.) the barren and stony Qaldea- 

xnore v/e reacb. «T the brid *e-path, however, avoids. In ll/ ghr 

email glacier-i al ^*^ ^Wftra and the 6[/uvt;and (about 6230 ft.) a ' 

n ot dear, hut offc^i T 1 ^ the <*jwrva*aytte (twenty beds, good and 

ot Xj*Wm OBOO *5^ U) - Above *« t^ form of a bay rise the cliffs 

juit of Vialdb%^ 1 &0 . t% J* We now obtain our ilrst view of the s am „ 

tl*e ^cilhauato*> t.!E^ n * nd ^© Sveilnaasi, its darJt rocky sp^ ^^ 

above the Yaa^ ^r^^ &°cto*uupig 9 lookins; almost black astheyrig e 

6rcB. Oroaaijv^ % ^ aBBe °f snow and above tbe Styggebra <n Vetijuv- 

***"* "~ J tract, we reach the Varde(6S%f t \ 

and take *U~1 ** r - more t0 cr <>S8 the 

covered ^wit>^ ■» *^ of the crevasses.) We next ascend a ridge of ro c t 
to the (V* ix* O^ae atones. Lastly we mount a toilsome snowy a,^ 
coffee, port, * J Summit, where stands a shelter-but, shocked with 

The * % <3*^J|^ champagne. 

Tnountaiu i^. ?^i«pig(8400ft.; accent on first syllable), the loftiest 

liar ittOfti^w^ ^0ivray> is the highest peak of tbe Ymesfjeld, ape cu - 

le78 of tU^r^platdau with pieoipitons sides, enclosed by the val- 

mountalTiB ZT'^ira Visa, and B»vra, and connected with the other 

* Jomnheim by the H»gvagel CP- l62) only * BeB Wes 

SO Boul* S3. ELVE-S.&TER. Joiunftefm. 

e Galdhe-pig there are few peaks rising stove its vast bos of 

The Via* uobrKu the almost equally lofty Glitteriind (p. 163) and 
a Rdndans to the E. ; the whale of Jotunheim to the 8. ) the Bnmrr- 
ibttuder, I he Horfinger. the Sognefjord, the Jostedilsbre, mud the Nord- 
ird mountafn-chain to the W. ; lastly the Snehsstta gronp to the B. No 
labited valleys *» visible. — Descent to SpUtritulm, we p. 188; to 
a Etoi-aaUr, see below. 

The Lomieff (6886ft.), to the H. of Hsjshjem, may be ascended via 
i turd Mtiin (p. 118) on horseback in 5-6 lirt. Imposing view of the 
ittsrtind and Galdlntpig, and of the SmjrrstabbreBplgge and the Fansraak 
the 8.W. The view of the valley Is very picturesque. 

The Tiew from the Hestbraplfge 16086 ft.) reveals the Jotuahelm 
ige In longer array than that from the Lomsagg. Biding practicable part of 
i way. The latter part of the ascent over snow and lee Is nearly level. 

From Bajshjem through the Vladal or the Leirdal to Late Ojtsdt, 
i pp. 163-181. 

f. From S«jsbjem over the Bognefjeld to Tnttegr*. 

1st Day. To the Btmrtmt-BaUr, a walk of 7 his. i driving prectic- 
le to (8 Ktl.) the F,hi- Hater , a third of the way. — 2nd Day. With 
Ide, to Turltare^ 0-10 lira. Stout shoes are required for the upper 
■verdal (p. IS). The guide must be brought from Eajshjem. Horse 
1 guide from Bajjnjem to Fortun (p. 116) via Turtegrn, 30 kr. 

Rsjithjtm, see p. 147. A carriage-road ascends through the 
rverdtd(oi Beverdai), on the right bank of the stream, to(4'/iKil.) 
tverdals Kirks. On the W. side of the valley is BaMtcbtrg, with 
:ge farm -buildings amid smiling corn-fields . The road, partly 
wn in the rock, ascends steeply through the grand gorge of Oal- 
rne, with its overhanging cliffs. Farther on the ravine expands 
a pleasant basin, with the gaards of Hortcn, where grain and 
tatoea are cultivated. To the left, above ns, are the ends of the 
iciers on the N. side of the Geldhapig. About 2 Kil. from the 
;vardal church the road crosses the Ltira, which fails into the 
ivra a little lower down, and then follows the valley of the 
ter, passing the esters of Iluittn and Flekken. 

Just before reaching the bridge, the route to Tnrtegw (narrow 
rt- track) turns to the left into the LsirdeJ. After following the 
;ht bank of the Lelra for 1 Ell. more, it reaches the bridge below 
a large farm of Elve-SBetor (good accommodation), situated on the 
posite side of the river and surrounded by tilled Holds and pas- 
res. This has recently become a favourite starting-point for the 
:ent of the Galdhepig (via the MyUngt-Sater to the Gjuvvashytte, 
th guide, 3i/j-4 hrs.). 

Beyond the Elve-Sater a poor bridle-path ascends the valley, 
>ve the left bank of the Leira. To the left are the slopes of the 
ire QJuvbra and the Store Orovhra. A rickety bridge, leading to 
: LcirdalfSater, is passed on our left. To the right, fully an 
it from the Elve-Saiter, are the two Litatre. On the left descends 
s Il/totf facing ns is Lofltt (p- ^™)i .with its extensive glaciers; 

*&* " nd f*to »*««^SE»*„ generally cohered with *»•*» 
*S»« *!*»*» *»-^«^i»« ***«> Z*4werUj<*tn, with. t f* «*» 

JonW" «»e»d. rrfi.,0 path skirts the S.E. baniT^* 1 
P .follo ,, /?At.» e> * ,cr ~*'- " > ^ • " Zt**ate-n.-J8<m**r., crosses a bri «J° f tt 
* ilW 4 '' We *^ eln »- ««>llow Abe N. slope of the v «kV? 

B» fl .i,e B« T,<5 '*"*'**'»»*'* Z »* C ' C3040 f*0, to the W. V ey * 
, kr tW uthe^W _ «»:■=»- -«a of the lake we »t length * e ^ "*hl 



J rL SI**" S *s*t«c C^*^*^**^ **-D, two houses with go ^ 

Jt^ffio •-> *"-^*«^ tolerable food C»- 60*0- ^ 1U*, 
lpJ» J?8^»- * ft *** r ^«»*ving Baevertun the route, ,. 

7 " .uit ^ . . nomnwxKs^o «- 7-> n _7._..» where the.E»_ 

^1>oo^,v a Do*«»'«'».«*Z».»- < > or Dom»f«>, where f»«*> *ke 
«el4 et° ,9< t«cAo ft -«•"***». -fc^e BsTre, flows mndergro^ n *^'»*a, 
i** 1 * 1 ™**' 1 ***- through the monotonousT^y «U ^ 

JS»«» *«**«*' *° ***• *•» .re two other wsterfaU *£«,« 

tS«t*»*%reWw aaceadtothe Xe r* to » highe, £*U of 
^W' 8 ' . (l|»**0 ^e ruined stone h«t of i&o, 6o ««ion 

,^«*/*25**- ' I ^e wooden flg«x«* a **' cn tte ^**ee fo, 

^*-££25V**» *•* » without* Co ^ ** OTro 

V«** " h0 ^ J-* le * blgb e.t point « 

" '% *$£** >e «Tf.«<S boundary o?£-«? 

Boule 93. VASENDEN. Jotimhtlm: 

eleft lies the Rnaikjeldvand, the first of tbe large likes, with 
) the plateau la strewn. About '/a far. from the summit of the 
U a curious larde called the ' Xammerherrt' , a high mess of 
vith a pointed stone on the top. Farther on, to the left, it the 
sire Frailateineond, with its numerous bays, which we skirt 
lout 2 bra. In the distance, to the E,, beside the Smmstab- 
r, rises the Kirke (p. 145), to the S.E. theTJranaaatind (p. 155). 
(laeiers descending from the Fanaraak (6690 ft.) almost join 
nestesteinvand on the 8. Later the ronte descends to the Herre- 
, crossing Its discharge by the wooden Jlervaibntl ('Bntl', 
e; 4306 ft.). The Smaratabtinder now disappear from the 
ipect. — The route rounds the W. bnttresa of the Fanaraak 
lescends to the QJuwand (4116ft.). To the right, In the 
ice, lies the broad back of the Jostedalsbrai. In front rises 
'hole range of the HorS-nger, Including the Riingatlnder, the 
augstlnder, and the Skagasteistinder. The best point of Tiew 
) •Otcanhoug (p. 147), a slight eminence to the left of the 
l 3 /a-2 bra, from the Hervasbrui. 
'e now deenend by a good path to (Vs hr.) Turiegre (p. 147), 
ed after a walk of about 10 hrs. from Bssvertun. 

torn Skogstad oi Hyatuen to lake Tyin and Eidsbugaren. 
lie diilance from Skogjtad to VbiMdui, on Lake Tyin, ii 11 Kil. 
for IT); from Systuen It la 10 Ell. (pay for 18). The excursion 
e via Ttiiutihimvm tn the dip of lie SHatfg, and hank via BiOi/msar™ 
VtniAoimm, takea 3-10 hrs. The boat should b« orisred to meet us 
insliolmen, so as to avoid the rough walk along the bank to Tvinde- 
n. Those who are making the tour sketched ai p. 141 pass the night 
Isbugaren. Others may so on from Veaenden the same aventag. 
he road to Lake Tyin, diverging from the Yaldnra road be- 
i Skogstad and Nystutn (p. 53), crosses the foaming Bjur- 
descendlng from the left near the Opdals-Saler (2940 ft.), 
iscenda steadily along the slope of the 8telm»ii (to the right 
'■aubergalcamp, p. 53) to — 

asenden (*H6Ul Framnat, R. 1 kr. 26, B. 50, S. 60 a.; Jo- 
el Hotel, unpretending), situated close to the S. end of Lake 
i 6 Kil, from the parting of the ways. Fine distant view, over 
ike, of the steep Uranasstiud and other peaks, 
ake Tyin (3536 ft.) is 14 Kil. long, l-2>/s Kil. broad, and 
ices over 300 ft. deep. Its banks, like those of the other Jo- 
jim lakeB, are uniuhabited, except by a few 'Ftekaile' (p. 141) 
immer. The masses of snow in the hollows, often reaching 
to the water's edge , enhance the appearance of desolate 
Iness. — The row serosa the lake train Vasenden to Trinde- 
en(fori,2,3personBwithlrower2kr.40, 2kr,80, 3kr.20e.i 
2 rowers 3 kr. 60, 4 kr. 40, 5 kr. 20 0.) takes at least 2 hrs. , 
■team-lannch may begin to run In 1896. The Melkedalstinder 
ne prominent to the right of the Uranaastlnd as we proceed. 

Jotttnkctm. VIEW FROM SKINEQGEN. 28. Route. 153 

.*• ' 

154 Route 23. EIDSBUGAREN. Jotvrikekn* 

To the left we Bee the large W. bay, whence the Aarctola issues ; 
farther on are the Koldedal and Koldedalstind (see below). 

Tvindehongtn, a club-hut of the Turist-Forening, where travel- 
lers bound for the Skinegg disembark, is one of the chief stations 
of the Jotunheim guides (Andert K. J#rated]recommended).*— 
About 3 Kil. farther on, at the N.E. end of the lake, lie the chalets 
of Tyinsholmen, with the new Trudvang Hotel (Gudbrand Anderson), 
whence a broad road leads over the 'Eid' (isthmus) to (4 Kil.) Eids- 
bugaren (see below). The path along the bank of the lake from 
Tvindehougen to Tyinsholmen is marshy and crosses several brooks. 

j * The*8kin6gg(4800ft.)isascendedfromTvindehougeninlV2nr. 

• * (also in the same time from Eidsbugaren). The way can scarcely be 

\ ; missed, though there is no path. From the hut we go at first to- 

» , wards the N., in a line almost parallel with the bank of the lake. 

1 4 Beyond the first brook we turn towards the hill, and then ascend 

on the left bank of the second brook. A 'stone man' on the ridge, 
near the brook, which we cross at this point (40 min.), serves as a 
guide. Similar piles of stones farther on also indicate the way, 
which crosses some patches of snow and passes to the right of a 
small lake. The best point of view is the N. peak, to the left ; the 
S. peaks, though higher (6146 ft. and 6266 ft.), lie too far back. 
View (see p. 158). To the S. we survey part of Lake Tyin (not Tvinde- 
hougen) and the whole of the Fill efj eld, with the Stugun/we near Nystuen 
and the majestic Suletind (6810 ft.). Of more absorbing interest are the 
mountains to the W. and N., where the Breikvamseggen, the Gjeldedalstlnder 
(7080 ft.) and Koldedalstinder (see above; Falketind, St*lsnaastind), with 
their vast mantles of snow, and farther distant the Horunger (beginning 
with the Skagastrfstind on the left, and ending with the Styggedalatind 
to the right : p. 148), rise in succession. Next to these are the Fleske- 
dalstinder, the Langeskavl, the TJranaastind (p. 156), with a huge glaeier 
on its S. side, the Melkedalstinder, the Sjugultind, and other peaks. To 
the N. rise the mountains on the U.W. side of Lake Gjende, and still more 

Irominent are the Sletmarkh*. Galdebergstind, and Thorflnatinder on 
ake Bygdin. Of that lake itself the W. end only is visible. 

Eidsbugaren is plainly seen during the whole descent, which 
takes about 1 hr. Towards the foot we have to cross several arms 
of a copious stream descending from the lakes on the 'Eid' between 
Lake Tyin and Lake Bygdin. [In ascending from Eidsbugaren we 
steer direct towards the N. peak, avoiding the soft snow-patches 
as much as possible.] 

The 'hotel' of Eidsbugaren (kept by Ole Rejshjem , p. 149), 
at the W. end of Lake Bygdin (p. 166), contains a number of beds, 
but is now hardly adequate to the increasing stream of tourists. 
The fare and accommodation are very fair (R. 1 kr., D. 1 kr. 
30 *.). It is the starting-point for several magnificent excursions, 
which, however, can be equally well made from Tvindehougen or 

The Koldedalstind or Falketind (6700 ft.), to the N.W. of Lake Tyin, 
ascended in 1830 by Prof. Keilhau and Chr. Boeck, and the first of the Jo- 
tunheim mountains ever climbed, is ascended in 8-10 hrs. (guide 4 kr.). 

Jotunheim. ROGNE. 23. Route. 155 

We ascend the valley of the Kold«d*la (p. 144) to the foot of the Falke- 
tind, and climb to the top, most of the way over glaciers. — The dangerous 
descent to the Koldedal should be avoided $ better return by the same 

♦Excursion to the Store Mdkedakumd , tee p. 164. — Through the 
Koldedal to the FlukedaU-Boetre and VeUi, see pp. 144, 143. From Tvinde- 
hougen we row obliquely across the lake (1, 2, or 3 pers., with 1 rower, 
80 *., 1 kr., or 1 kr. 20 *.). 

The Asoxht of, there and back, takes half-a-day 
(guide necessary, 2 kr.). We ascend the course of the Mtlkcdsla (p. 164), 
and at the top of the hill, instead of turning to the right into theMelke- 
dal, enter a side-valley to the left, where we keep as far as possible to 
the right. The bare summit of Langeakavlen (oll5 ft.) towers above 
masses of snow. The view embraces the mountains seen to the W. of 
the Skin egg, to which we are now nearer, and also the whole of Lake 
Bygdin as far as the Bitihorn. 

The Asosnt of thb Ubahaabtimd from Eidsbugaren takes 6-7 hrs., 
or a whole day there and back (guide necessary, 4 kr.). We follow the 
route to the Langeskavl, which after a time we leave to the W. in order 
to ascend the extensive Uranatubrte. We eross that glacier to the Bra- 
tkar, whence we look down into the 8kogadal to the W. (p. 166). Lastly 
an ascent on the X. side of about 800 ft. more to the summit of the *XTra- 
naaatind (7016 ft.), the highest E. point of the Uranaate, which is always 
free from snow. The extensive view vies with that from the Oaldhsrpig 
(p. 160). Towards the W. the Uranaastind deseends precipitously into the 
Uradal (p. 144). To the E. it sends forth two glaciers, the TJranaasbras, 
already mentioned, and the Melkedaltbrce, the E. arm of which descends 
into the Melkedal (p. 164), while the K. arm, divided by the Melkedalt- 
pigge and furrowed with crevasses, descends partly into the Melkedal, and 
partly into the Skogadal (p. 166). 

h. From FagernsBt to Haufjordsheim, and up Lake Bygdin 

to Eidabugaren. 

Two days. 1st Day. Drive to (46 Kil.) Beito, the last skvds-station 
(fast) ; walk to Raufjordihrim in 3»/* hrs. — 2nd Day. Ascend the Bitihorn 
early, 3-4 hrs. there and back ; row up Lake Bygdin to Btdsbugaren in 
6-8 hrs. This approach to the Jotunheim is apt to be tedious owing to 
the long and sometimes windy passage of Lake Bygdin, but the placing 
of a steam-launch on that lake would overcome this objection. 

Fagcrnas, see p. 51. — The road, which diverges to the right 
from the Valders route at the Fagerlund Hotel, ascends the valley of 
the 08tre-Slidre-Elvi running a little way from the left bank of the 
stream. Nearly level at first, it rapidly ascends through wood. To 
the left, below, lies the Salbo-Fjord, with several gaards high above 
it, and snow-mountains in the distance. We pass, on the right, the 
loftily situated church of Skrutvold oi SkrantvaaL Below us, farther 
on, is the Voldbo-Fjord, at the N. end of which is the church of Voldbo. 

17 Kil. Bogne (*Inn, often full in summer) lies a little beyond 
the church of that name. To theE. rise the Millene mountains, the 
W. slope of which is the tfiangenslwi, a splendid point of view 

(ascent 3-3i/ 2 hrs. ; guide 1 kr. 60 *.). 

From Bogne across the Slidreaat to Fotheim (22 Kil.), by a good road, 
see p. 51. 

The read crosses the Vindc-Elv. It next skirts the Haggefjord, 
at the S. end of which lies the *Hagencf8 Hotel, and then ascends 
steeply to Hagge, with its old 'Stavekirke' (p. 27), existing at 

23. RAUFJORT>SHETM. Jotunhttm. 

rly as 1337, bat largely rebuilt. About 11 Kit. from 

ass the gaud of Northorp. To the left, farther on, are 

•d and the Merttafjord, connected by a river with each 

ith the HtdaUfiord. 

Skammestcln. Farther on, to the left, are the Hedals- 

kediatigtn. Fine view of the lake, with the Sleltcfjtld, 

and Bitthom (see below). 

Seito (3378 ft; */nn, plain), the latt skyde-station. 

the national 'Springrinas', aeoompanled by the 'Norske 
Mtmettmes be witnessed here. 

i toRauflordsheim^'/ahra. ; guide 2i/ s kr.; comp.Map, 
> to theN.W., at first nearly level, and afterwards ascends 
I (1 hr.) the top of the hill la a marshy plateau enclosed 
n, to the W. the Mugnatind, and to the N. the BUthom 

which rises precipitously on the E. side. In 1 hr. more 
i Bmwhult'Sater. [By making a digression of 2-3 his., 
e, we may now ascend the Bitiborn direct, via theliiti- 
[3460 ft.), bat the ascent is easier from the Baufjord.] 
:ends steeply fo*26min. more. ExtenaiTe view towards 
se to us, on the left, rises the Bitiborn. We now 
rards the N., skirting the base of precipitous rocks 
i across marshy ground and round the Bltihom, and 
) the refuge-hut on the Ranljord called — 
Jheim (JTnut Lekkcn'a Inn, small, with tinned meats, 
, wine, etc. ; guide to Hestvolden i'/j, Nyboden 2, 
i 4, Besae-Sietre 4'/a, Eidsbugaren 6 kr.). The water 
ord, an arm of Lake Bygdin, is strongly Impregnated 
inging red the stones on its bank (whence the name : 
, meaning 'red'). 

[ of th B •Bitttu.rn flBflOft] from Banfjordshcim takes 3-i hrs., 
k (guide not indispensable). We ascend the W. slope the 
leping irell to the left of several swamp! at the beginning. 

" 'Reb\ 0T ground covered with underwood {juniper, dwarf- 
willows), and tte soft (oil peculiar to the Norwegian mono- 
another hour it aseenda steep rooks. Kagniilceut view of 
*]j>l na landscape to the W., »nd of the vast plateau to the 
' "veral pe»"s » na >"«• "*«*- 

■rvoEDsM.ji to EmsBuOABBK by boat In 8 hrs. (for 
is with #-rt> » werB 8 kt - 40 *■ > 10 ta - > i% k '- ; *° Ny - 
'lT a , r 40, 5 kr. 20 e.). There is a prospect 
ncn'J, 7 "Placed here in 1895. From the Ranfjoxd a 
aad. in ^ P iieByB»in(34b4ft0, the largest of the 
Tot, *° * , *' ^ »l»ut 25 Kil. In length from E. to W., 
i K ^i***' 100ft. deep. 

InF MrU * ta.i1 B i ™ * 1 " 1Be Bt6eP Sl ° pe8 ,STB * t,eltd " 

.. !*> fc. -»■<* _S tank iil<rwo> and less pictuiesque. 
"•^''V^f- navigation «>1 the lake imfMitWe. To 

*nd bridged th 8 e^****^ *""«• *5? 

The bo.t ,„ ^ «» Tn * «,,„„. ,„,, r „„ rt ., oinb to™,., „ , 

ae epl61.) Ab ^sj^ JNr, fc fc On tli« righ.^e am ob«„ . 
..oltbentteBl^O^H. M „ „„ ,. the 'I'.i.,,,- „SS? ' 
,. IK. „** ,.* , , «„„. ^,^,,« ( .. M..J „,,««£ 

'toonJd b e 
. (p. 1&9J, two roar 


a« bank, _ 

a. called GjKHicimKt i 

„bJ.ct»* <iM LultB Gjenda (From the gvartdalauilg we miy*L, 
beiov tsph without iilBcuUy.} Wo now dwcend to the*., 
s " ,r & li '']rt Bt firs' t*P ,dl y over lo«s« stones (emotion neeeaj 

QSwiB-h «** ^^ next pae „ tho Lanfl6t £„ lB . E l,, 

r " y **<h,i 0B L » ka from which teJle the aal<UbtT0*r°*. <* 
S * <**• » >M » M , it™ »o oh.«rre to the right ».^e WM 

158 Route 23. 




the Skinegg (p. 154). Looking back , we observe the three peaks 
of the Sletmarkpig (p. 167). The lake owes its milky colour here 
to the MeVked*la, a genuine glacier-brook. After a row of 6-8 hrs. 
in all, we reach Eidsbugaren (p. 164). 

i. From Eidsbugaren to Ojendeboden on Lake Gjende. 

From Eidsbugaren to Ojendeboden., 4-5 hrs. ; guide (hardly neces- 
sary) 2 kr. 40 *., horse 4 kr. (A still finer route is that already described, 
from Nyboden through the ThorJin$dal, p. 157.) After arriving at Gjende- 
boden we may ascend the Memurutunge the same day and return by boat 
from Memuruboden. 

Eidsbugaren, see p. 154. We follow the N. bank of Lake Byg- 
din, cross (t/t hr.) the rapid Melkedela (see above) by a narrow 
wooden bridge, and skirt the lake to (1 hr.) the month of the 
Heistakka or O/4 hr. farther) the month of the Tolorma, which 
point may also be reached by boat (with one rower, for 1, 2, 
3 persons, 80 •., 1 kr., or 1 kr. 20 0.). Grand view, looking back, 
of the snow-mountains to the W. (comp, pp. 154, 155). 

Paths ascend the left bank of the Hoistakka and the right bank 
of the Tolorma, skirting the W. and E. sides of the hill of Hsistak- 
kene and then nniting. To the E. rises the Qaldcbcrgstind (6785 ft). 
We then ascend the Oxdalehe, crossing (IV2 hr.) * brook which 
descends thence. To the left rises the Qr0nneberg (4210 ft.), at 
the foot of which lies the Ormtnebergstjern (4110 ft.), traversed 
by the Heistakka. Farther on we have the Sjuguletind (7040 ft.) 
on the left, and to the right the huge Sletmarkpig (7070 ft), from 
which the Sletmarkbra descends to the N. into the Vesle Aadal. 
The route ascends rapidly to the plateau between the Qjtiihs 
(4790 ft) and the Bundtom (4870 ft.), skirting the W. side of a 
small lake, and descends abruptly to the N.E. into the Vesle Aadal. 

Fairly experienced mountain-climbers should combine the ascent of 
the Gjendetvnge fp. 159), bounding the valley on the W., with this route 
(a digression of V/t-2 hrs.)- About 1/4 hr. after crossing the above-men- 
tioned plateau, we bend to the left and ascend to the N. over the debris 
on the steep slope of the Tungepigge, opposite the glacier of the Sletmark- 

8ig. Another hour, on the W. side of the Tungepigge, brings us to the 
rst summit of the Gjendetunge, falling precipitously to Lake Gjende. 
The descent leads to the Store Aadal (p. 150). 

The route to the Vesle Aadal follows the course of the stream 
down to Lake Gjende. Here we turn to the N. and cross by a 
bridge to — 

Gjendoboden (20 beds ; good wine; fixed tariff; B. 70, D. 1 kr. 30, 
S. 70 *.), a tourists' hut at the entrance to the Store Aadal, and at 
the foot of the precipices of the Memurutunge. This is the centre 
par excellence of the Jotunheim tourist traffic. The post -office 
delivers letters here. Guide, Ole J. Stcinom. — Boat to Memuru- 
boden with 1 rower for 1, 2, or 3 pers., 2 kr., 2 kT. 40, 3 kr. 20 ». , 
with 2 rowers 3 kr. 60, 4 kr. , ± ir * 80 e. ; to GJendesheim with i 
rower 3 kr. 20, 4kr., 5kr. 20, ^ th * wwenB kr., 6 kr. 80*., or 
(also for 4 pers.) 8 kr. A second rower is always advisable. 


480ft. deep »tpU<.<*0 ft , 
tributary of the I^*^ oxienrt- *"*• long, l-i'/ 3 KI1. broad, ar 
Alpine character tlia**"^** u.n «-om W. to E., where the tfjoa, 

by abrupt mountain ** **»*,"» * from **- *t present* a itiU moi 
'Soliide', and tfa_ » Oflv. T 8d;ln - °» both sides It 1» enclose 
(7030ft.), on th. e «T Jtw.™ * the B<-*n*, £7085 «.), on the S. « 
not seen from Qj 6 -0*. 7^tAwi*«.„rf (JT&SO ft.) and cWtdoIip 
Store Atdal. Th e| . ***«>» ort * 8 * ldo '» ar «* * ll *» hiarliest. Theie peaks a 
landing or walk!.,, **«a Jr* n t *>ut beeomo -visible »s we ascend t! 
thewaterisgrean **»*- *** places on fcnes banks of the lake vhc 
fed by iBTeral 'w{i5 B j>^,Ji* 1 J r ^stance is j»r»o*io»ble. The colour 
impossible for a,»v Sla *»lly when seen from a. height. The \»k< 
in the middle or JJ" t*>— /^"-torrents. Storms often make boat 
The A™.,. _ *b« ■. «ea,*w „ d tno m". wind aometlmea 4W 
 twc E. and. W. at the ss me y 

«■ tnkeB »r><> ~~ 

1 ntodan B hi 

make the v< 
I ^(d»Dgeroni 

re ^ai*e*l foT 
I en mount r* 

I lamsrutuni 

rteA on the "V 
and XT. by 1 

le Knntahala 
the deep Syi 
inc the P°*Z 
hicth is the S 
,Mvan<l will 
eN- the Hi»! 
noh*. Inst* 

*m the Memnrnttiagili, eo " In-... 
,„ the bridge to the w °?»lO« n d,, 
n the N. fox- about '/, hr'.' 01 »o w Jj 

hal-tind CTBBO ft.), 0r, tni * **** "" 
is not dlfflenJt for upBr^" by H , 

*>**., to Berg. 
a the right hi 

.... the <_;.-*» J. 
>saea the bro 

following tar 

Kaaddal begd 


anbri_ _ 

e), to the left 

SO Route 23. GJENDBSHEIM. Jutunkeim. 

e Sjnenlidni on the right, and between mam tie Sletmarkpif (p. 1B7) 
,th a gr"« .oii.6ttlie.lre of gluten. It take, about IV. hr. if. cross the 
and", from nub a mnte leads to the W. runnd the Svartdalnegg to 
aLangvand ud the Store JUdal (around of 10-13 hrs. from the Gjende 

arda the Store Utli 

ilptoa with whl 
scenery again b- 
jf the Ctladal a 
bjflrn (p. UB), from which 

iked by the Rsadaalatinder 

i the N ud the Hoiked als tind (p. 160) on the 8. The red fraud') 

.w descends on the S. aide of the Brand waterfall of the Randdals-EIv to 
e(S<«-« miatat, about •/, hr. above the Harm- Bwtir ; thence to 

The 'Row down Lake Gjende to Gjendecsen (3-4 hrs.) requires 
le weather (fares, p. 168). Soon after starting we obtain a view 
the S. of the Svartdal [p. 157), at the entrance of which lies the 
ttle-shed of Vaageboden. To tho N. rise the elopes of the Mc- 
urntunge (p. 159). About halfway down the lake, at the mouth 
the Memvrudal, from which issues the muddy Mcmuni-FZv, 
oseed by a bridge, Is the club-hut of Xemuraboden. Towards the 
.E. the Beshe la conspicuous during the greater part of the trip, 
id more to the E. the Veslefjeld descends abruptly to the take. 

From Memuruboden or from Gjendeboden an interesting and easy 
scler-pais, with which the ascent of the HiilitUfuhr (p. 163) or one of 

\tttntulut (11 Hr*.| p. 182). nc ' ea ' """" e mur 

From the E. end of the lake, named Qjtndeoten, issues the Sjoa. 
ii the N. hank here lies the club-hut of Hjondoaheim (fixed tariff), 
good starting-point for the ascent of the Veslefjeld and the Beeegg 
-8 hrs., there and back ; guide advisable), and for that of the 
ishe (8-9 hrs., with guide). Guide, Ktmd StnrtUmnulen. 

A good bridle-path leads to theN. in lhr. to thaBesin, on the N. 
ink of which lie the Ba oi BciieSatre. The route to the Veslefjeld 
Hows the S. bank. Guided by varder, we ascend to the Betvand 
■026 ft. ; 340 ft. deep), where the huge Beehe becomes conspicuous, 
scending to the left, in iVs-2 hrs. more we reaoh the summit of 
lo barren and stony Veslefjeld (6676 ft.). The view embraces the 
hole of the dark-green Lake Gjende, with the Roldedalstinder and 
alsnaastitid to the S.W., and above all the enormous Beshe 
lite near. — - We may now follow, towards theW., the narrowing 
est of the "Veslefjeld, separating the Besvand from Lake Gjende, 
hich lies 1200 ft. lower, and terminating in the •Beaegg, a curious 
dge or arete, descending precipitously to Lake Gjende. 

Travellers with steady heads may descend to the Bid separating the 

iwever, to retorn to tbe Bea-Steters, or to descend direct to tJjeudeaheim, 

The ascent of the "Best* (7686 ft. ; 8-9 hrs., there and back) 

uncidee with that of theVeslef'eld as far as the Betvund ; we thou 

1 _.«« embraces *--»_ ^*-« 

.■» tiaMBiriB the 



ycu" ™ , mat Of U»« J#e* — - - ^^_ 

1000 et. 

S*t«" *"_ , v . W ,ow ifdl tie U.I5. to Valder: 
3^ loop** 

** *»ftm Ojai&a'bod.on *o X 

<*■**• *° f i? - tta M c <* , "j,^ the Ulad»l«t>«, 
HD *«-r P-» ce "i* e loftbuik of the Slorfawt 

««"5f;j w «• »f r <*• ffi V 1 l"-- * 
'"»* « to »• «uJ"e|"»*an W" "5^-f 

»*"Sa»A »?8>t(p.i 5 ?>e p. is 3 ?;  

162 Route 23. 



the imposing VladalUinder (7606 ft. ; easy ascent, splendid 'view). 

Walkers will And the passage of the Semmelaa^ which descends 

from the 8emmelhul glacier, unpleasant after rain. (The Semmel- 

hul is also crossed by a route into the Visdal, no less unpleasant, 

but much grander.) Our path now ascends rapidly on the E. (right) 

side of the wild Hellerfoa, the discharge of the Hellertjarn, and 

reaches the top of the hill in V2 hr. (2 hrs. from Gjendeboden). 

Behind us is a superb view of the Sletmarkpig and Svartdalspig. 

We traverse a weird wilderness , strewn with glacier -boulders, 

skirt the HeUertjam (4300 ft.) in a N.W. direction, and then turn 

to the right into the insignificant valley which leads to the N., and 

afterwards more to the £., to the Uladalsband. The steeper ascent 

soon begins (2 l /% hrs. from Gjendeboden), and riders must dismount. 
Fkom the Helleetjjbbn to the Leiedal and B/pjshjek. 34 hrs. longer 
than our present route, is much less toilsome (guide, not indispensable, 
to Ytterdals-8reter 5 kr. 60 0. ; horse to R0jshjem, with side-saddle if re- 
quired, 8-10 kr.). From the Hellertjsern we follow the main track, reach 
the Langvand, or Langvatn (4630 ft.), and skirt its X. bank (17s hr.). On 
the right rise the Uladalstinder ; to the S. Skardalteggen (7215 ft.). At 
the W. end of the lake we ascend past the two HegvageH/cerne to the 
H*gvagel ('Vagge\ a Lapp word, signifying 'mountain-valley'; 5430 ft.), the 
highest point of the route, which commands a grand view of the Horunger 
to the S.W. The path then descends to the Leirvand (p. 145). 

A steep ascent of */2 nr - brings us to the first of the four 5. Via- 
dal Lakes (about 5180 ft.). This and the second lie to our left, the 
third to our right, and the fourth to our left. The route, extremely 
toilsome here, keeps to the right below the slopes of the Semmel- 
tind (7480 ft. ; easily ascended from the N. side ; 'Semmel', » female 
reindeer). After another hour it reaches the Uladalsband (5760 ft.), 
its highest point, where it joins the route across the Semmel Gla- 
cier. We now descend to the two N. Vladal Lakes (5170 ft.). To 
the right rises the Heilstuguhe (7910 ft. ; ascent not difficult ; splen- 
did view of the Ymesfjeld, p. 159). Following the B. bank of this 
lake over most trying 'Ur', we at length reach (2 hrs., or from 
Gjendeboden 6 hrs.) Uladatemynnet, the junction of the Uladal with 
the Visdal. Splendid view up and down the latter valley. To the 
left towers the Eirke. Route to the Leirvand, see p. 145. 

The route down the *Visdal (to Spiterstulen lifo-l hrs. more) 
follows the right (£.) bank of the Visa , at first traversing soft 
turf, a pleasant contrast to the 'Ur'. After 1 hr. we wade across the 
HeiUtuguaa, descending from the Hcilstugubrce. The crossing is 
easy in the early morning only : later in the day we ascend a little 
in order to cross by a bridge (whence Spiterstulen is 1 hr. dis- 
tant). Shortly before reaching the sseter, we observe to the left, 
through the Bukkehul, the Sveilnaasbrae and the Styggebra (p. 149), 
two glaciers with magnificent icefalls, especially the latter. 

Spiterstulen (about 3710 ft.)> the highest saeter in the Visdal, 
commanded by the Skauthe (6676 '*0 0I * the E., affords plain 
quarters for 20 persons and good food at moderate charges. 

Jotunheim. QOKRASKARD. 23. Route. 163 

*»_ T22L A /f8I 4 © (generally obtainable at Spiterstnlen), we may ascend 

^ndfrOmnf^ ft ->» the *««■**«** (p " 18 ^> «»d one of the Memuru- 

tosteadof i aJcing the direct route to R0jshjem, it is imich preferable 

to ascend the Qaldli*pi* (p. 149) fromSpiterstulen (4y a bra. ; guide 6 kr. 

for Ipen., e*^ addi l pers. 2kr.). The route, so long as it remains on 

the roc**, ia eood a nd even on the glaciers offers few difficulties to 

Alpine cUmhe *5 ii crosses the Visa by a bridge */« kr- *o the 8. of 

SpiiersiaJen, aa I en dtf on the N. side of the SveUnacubrce, and traverses 

the three peat- f tJho JBveilnaaii. Splendid retrospects of the Visdal 

mountains. 9 

Fro** S piters tulen to R*jshjem about 5 hrs. more (guide not 
indispensably We so° n r© aCn the limit of birches (about 
3600 ft.) aria e fi/ hr.) a rocky ^J™ 1 thr ongh vhich the Visa has 
forced a p a8ft J--i I n aI10tner V2 **• we come to a pine-wood, 
with pictured? « trees (*F uruer )> most °f them quite bare on the 
N. side. fTt« Hmit of pines is here about 3280 ft. above the 
sea-level.V ^ b ve ns, to the left, is an offshoot of the Sty gge - 
brffl. ^Ve C* oV*/a & r tne Skauta 'Elv, which forms a waterfall 
above, by » l-i«« hridge. To the S. we perceive the Uladals- 
tinder (^ 4 22J 1 T^d the tffswe*" (7315 ft A On the other side 
of the VlL 4 , A.* Nedre J3ulheims-S<Her (3190 ft.)» opposite which 

^e Glitra- 1 , - 1 to the Visa. 

From si* 1S *\iLi or the Nedre Sulheims-S set er the ascent of the 
GU tort£ d &^?£ 1 tU ** 8 " 10 hrfl > ther « »«d back: (g^Ae and i ce -a*e 
aeeessaryj; W38oft-J w* - * 

1116 RfriaKiAm route continues to follow the E. bank of the 
Visa « In k»JZ nf douht observe the small varder. We ctogg ^ 
.***»■ th Tlmiugjela, and the (?o*ra. The Visa is .tow to ^ 
^itsdee^i^el *** we follow the margin of its ra^ A 
P*fc & 8cendiir^ the right for a few hundred P*«* leada to the 
*"ly ^^vis^tls^re (2060 ft.; quartet for the ni ght oV 
tain ^ le » hest at the 0vttb0-8<zttt\ 

J.I1A A_« _ _ 4Iv»,a ./.tot rt# <rj 

, Zo *« ^£! d > *** next reach the 8merlid-8<**er~% the o*«/o, to ^rkk 
CP- 57; 1* ft*- Thence across the lake and P» p 

Bel day) * -flrnifi cent Ascent to 

^shjeT tH « V *8dal S*tex8 begins the ** »^ Visa. The iattva 
descendTV Bklrtill g the profound Ravine ^^ich has now become 
a wad d* * 'Vriirht The sater-p***' n t 1 V2 ^V 6 * ^* the 
^P^Zf* v^f rapidly, and to -Jfta «> *e left. 

***** ? e *> we cross the curious ^ 
' Ge P. US. 

166 Boute24. 


From Bergen 

In V4 At. we pass , on the left , the fine Skautefoa, formed by 
the confluence of the Helgedals-Elv and the Styggedals-Elv. The 
path then crosses the 8teindals-Elv , usually not difficult, and leads 
through the wide valley past the Helgedals-Sater, to the — 

Turtegre-Sater (p. 147), 4^2 nrs. from Skogadalsbften. 

24. From Bergen to Aalesund and Holde by Sea. 

42 S.M. (168 Engl. M.) to Aalesund, 51 8.M. 004 Engl. M.) to Mold*. 
These are the distances as officially reckoned, but they are greatly in- 
creased by the sinuosities of bays and straits through which the steamers 
thread their course. The distances given in this route in Norwegian 
nautical or sea-miles are those from station to station. 

Steamees ply almost daily to Aalesund in 15-18 hrs. (fares 16 kr. 80, 
10 kr. 50/9.), to Mold* in 19-22 hrs. (fares 20 kr. 40 *., 12 kr. 75 *.). Some 
of the steamers touch &t Aalesund only, going thence direct to Christiansund 
and Trondhjem; others call at Aalesund and also at Moldeen; others again 
at Florten, Moldgen, Aalesund, and Molde; and only a few touch at the 
minor intermediate stations. 

Bergen, see p. 112. To the mouth of the Sognefjord, see p. 126. 
The PoUetind (1740 ft.) here rises on the island of Indre Sulen. 

To the N. of the Sognefjord the Bteamer skirts the district of 
Sendfjord, which with that of Nordfjord (p. 174) formed the an- 
cient Firdafylke. The steamer steers between the islands of Ytre 
and Indre Sulen. The scenery increases in interest, and the moun- 
tain-forms show more variety. Farther on we pass the Dalsfjord 
(p. 169). To the W. lie the Vare and the lofty island of Alden 
(1550 ft.), known as the 'Norskc Hest\ which pastures upwards of 
1000 sheep. The vessel next usually passes to the W. of the high 
Atlee (2283 ft.), and steers across the Stangfjord, passing the 
promontory of Stavnces and the Stav fjord, the entrance to the Fer- 
defjord (p. 170). The lighthouse of Stabbensfyr stands on a solitary 
cliff to the W. 

20 S.M. Flor*en (Olaen'8 Hotel) is a station of some Importance, 
being touched at by most of the steamers. The little town is the 
commercial centre of the NordaU, Eilce, and HedaU fjords. 

A local steamer usually plies once weekly from Flor/pen up the small 
Eike/jord to the station of that name, whence we may ascend towards 
the N. to the great glacier-region of the Kjeipen (4460 ft; recently ex- 
plored by Mr. Wm. C. Slingsby), the snowy heights of which are visible 
from the fjord. 

The steamer plying from Bergen to the Nordfjord also steers from 
Florien to Moldjren by a route similar to that described below, but calls at 
more stations. It enters the Qulenfjord , which opens to the E. of Bre- 
manger, and calls at Kjeltencea. From Kjelkenies we may row to Rise 
(quarters) and walk thence by a ^Ud path to the N.W. of the Kjeipen 
(see above) to the Aalfotenfjord CP» ^ D )* 

We steer to the N. To the left lie the islands of Skorpten and 
Aralden; then the Frej-0, on "which lies Kalvaag or Kallevaag, a 
station of the Nordfjord steamers (p. 174). With the passage of 
the Frej fjord, as the strait between the mainland and the large 
island of Bremanger is called, "beg* 118 one of the finest pans of the 


P^hV' 11 s , ,>..=. -iir *. iTnrnolen, between Rmm -^i 

*C,»",i *=-=^-S^' oronea tl. mootl .f a,. 1 ^ ana 

is>*;!»^<»« : »ii"»-=', ««> i>»ei win mi. ut» t r,, b «t» 

Jp+'Hh*" CSvmd.'. InnJ, on til., *"'"- 

rt tte ° eS j tfce ora*».i^s=M.iana, ana then across the ba^. ta H t 
. VwP* , B itO »aTca«^ past the islands Bs™«n * of «i, 
'"'•<,.1.= a-.,1„. of a Bos«li.lli' »o n ««< « 
l'^'thBliiB*^ .ST*. Gttnni-vct, tl»e tutelary sai^tepy 
» e0 . ln «ri» oC «-fc»saaltI»wr»a , ronna wMct w e u e *^of 1 


V %'i"l*' VD ~ long>.ai-i3 KM- »" > *, d i">-«t5, t ! «« 
'jCJa* «»1T a irtge rlsht Hand ■"«! • lo °«««- l 

•^O,0«'»»K.-E.- aria. %T."5 the B**>W°r- H-Xxq^ <> 
*>—: " ** ->•"- la otter. Tory »»«»■ „,. „_„ **■ B ' 

W 'WPOalt* the Seljaa', "2-*^roSe25«> a«a 

fine Beree" a J^" e (f 4 He li "' 

-A, by Volden, SS£ , *' <3»rriN 

wain. ' ino JL tia» -^S . t, Thou ao»»: ■»*■« i «« 

si*"-' •* 

168 Boute24. SAND0. 

InduUaUr on the DaU fjord (good quarters). Opposite lies Dale (p. 168). 
From Indselsseter by water to V olden about 14 Ifcil. 

The bay to the N.E. of Stadtland iB called Vanelvagabet, ad- 
joining which on the S.E. iB the VanelvBfjord (p. 167). The 
steamer passes the Sands , in -which is the DoUtenshul , a cavern 
about 200 ft. above the sea-level , and the large islands Qw&ke 
and Hatcidland) and sometimes calls at Hereen, to the N. of the 
Gursk*, at Volden (p. 190), and &t0rstcnvik (p. 190). In 6-9 hrs. 
from Mold* we reach — 

15 S.M. Aalesund, see p. 189. 

Beyond Aalesund we have a grand *View of the Sffndmftre 
Alps (p. 181) to the right. Farther on we pass the Lcpse, with the 
Renstadhul, on the left. A view of the mountains to the N. of the 
Romsdal is now disclosed, the most conspicuous being the Skaala 
(p. 196). Finally we enjoy a panorama of the whole Romsdalsfjord. 
from Aalesund to Molde the large steamers take 3Va-4 hrs., the 
local steamers much longer , as they touch at many small stations. 

* ?! 9 S.M. Molde i see p. 191. — Thence to Christiansund and 

{ j Trondhjem, see p. 199. 




25. From Vadheim on the SogneQord overland 
to Aalesund and Molde. 

I This route ('Overlandsvei') is far preferable to the sea- voyage 

i in R 24, as it carries the traveller through some of the grandest 

scenery in Norway , which is chiefly to he sought for in the upper 

ramifications of the fjords. The route traverses the districts of the 

I Stndfjord, the Nordfjord , and &*ndm*re , where the fjord and 

fjeld scenery, in the two last more particularly, is strikingly 

I i beautiful. The first part of the route, as far as Ferde, is the least 

x [, interesting ; the Sendfjord Bteamex may be taken thither, but offers 

no advantage except a slight saving of time. The finest points are 

the E. recesses and valleys of the Nordfjord, the Oldendal, the 

Loendal, and the StrynsdcU (pp. 176-180), the Geiranger Fjord 

(p. 183), and the Jerundfjord (p. 188). 

The traffic on the 'Overlandsvei* is very great, as the huge Joste- 
dalsbrss (p. 125)prevents any other road between the Sognefjord and the 
Nordfjord. — The attention of walkers and riders may, however, be 
directed to the route from Skjolden over the Sogmfjeld to R#jshjem 
(pp. 116, 160) and thence via Orotli to Match (R. 9). The passage from the 
Jostedal to the valleys of the Nordfjord is attended by many inconveniences. 
. ' c| The Travelling Plan must partly depend on the steamboat-arrange- 

I f ments , which should therefore be carefully studied in the time-tables. 

The journey may be accomplished in 5 days , but only by omitting the 
Nordfjord valleys, which are among the finest points. About &-10 days 
should if possible be devoted to it : 2 days from Vadheim to the Nord- 
fjord (good quarters at Sand*, Ferde, Nedre Vasenden.Skti, Eggt, and Bed)\ 
8-4 days on the Nordfjord (good quarters at Utviken, Faleide, Vimou, Loin, 
and Older en)-, 2-3 days for the rest of the journey (good quarters at 
I tt Orodacu, Marok, Sjehott, and FssffMss, or, if we go from Hellesylt to 

the J/nrandfjord and Aalesund, at FtbeMadhougen, J&je, and i&rttenvik). 
The prices of the hotels have an upward tendency. 


170 SouU25. F0RDW 

•"*• from Vadiam 

on the peaty SkUbredsvani, whence TO i 

£ the Kvamsheat and the LUUhett (29 8 tTw/£f ft^T* 
"ith snow hptwAon t« A i«.«. A-. ^, °o ft) to the N.E. of it, 

** the iSe W ft' J at , be f tAese ™ nnteins «e reflected 

llK-n V We *M n . paSS S6reraI P Ieas ant fi-aards. 

D * clean aSommoVi *Vv * l^*? *"**■* (unpretending 
^n^^yS™^ 1 ^)^^ high above tie S. end of the Xaty*- 

aft er theVi 1 * a ° ng J th ?™\ Uy W ' bank of wMch our road skirts, 
Passes tL * een t p * 169 ^ has diyer & e d to the left. Onr road 

la *e, an? "**?■ of ^petend and Hafstad, at the N. end of the 

the vaiw l?v ! its M S he8t P° int ( ab<mt 1150 *.), commanding 

C*o the 1?V n!# e and the mountains at the head of the Angedal 

road d es p ,i Ferdefjoid a small triangle only is seen. The 

ffaard an^ir '« * places ascending again, past the Baiters of Prceste- 

Farthej. ™ .Jr and » and skirting the Solheimsheia (1265 ft.). 

descent ' 5 a fine view of the ffal ^rand8fo8 on the right, it 

Wilc h Je ? * V 0n arrivin S in the valley, our route joins a road 

wi u'ch th v left t0 the Bteamer -pier on the Ferdefiord, of 

the cou^T "?^.t r ay onl y ls ▼*»***«• We turn to the right and ascend 

it *-!? °* tfte hroad Jelsttr-Elv to (about 1 Kil.) — 
A fe w nv * ^ 1Q the °PPOsite direction for 14) + Hafstad' 8 Hotel. 
hank ofi^ 111 - er a lon S Drid S e on the left crosses to the right 
S -> e ach 1 fifr 40^ Here > on the Tiglit ' is ^fcwteen'a HbteZ (R., B., 
teIe granjf «,**' landlord speaks English). Then, on the left, the 
**rde rp~ £ ce J and, on a moraine-hill to the right, the church of 
tf- theV %~1 • ^o nd smiling valley is enclosed by high hills: on the 
on the S w  Ufc « 5 f * 0, on the E. the Viefjeld (see below), and 
th e distw + *S oIielln 8heia (see above). Farde is the capital of 
of tb e jx** VL. OI * md fJ°rcl„ The horses bred here and on other parts 
race' tk * *?* saia. to belong to the original Norwegian 'tf ord 
*v °n th e w J?if«? 1 ? 0at -I>^er is about 20 min. walk down the river. 
5* e villaffp frntZfEZ ' , into ^hich the Jtflster-Elv falls about l»/2 Kil. "below 
1 ~ 1, /2 hr I * K«Sf r 5 lios *hrioe weekly; to Naustdalen on the N. bank in 
T ' *° FIor * e a (p- 166) in 5hrs. 

(4l00°f^° *i' E ^ Oe^O opens the Angedal, with the Sandfield 
Th * JVo V an ^? K**I>*:/'Jelde (4190 ft.) rising in the background. 
y alley ( *# ord roa( l, T^liicli we follow, ascends the well cultivated 
Shards °£ * ne Ulster— ^ilv on its left bank and passes numerous 
rises *k ^ ine Yie ^ of the l>road Brelandsfos. On the opposite hank 
FcmurO? Vie fi tld (221 ft.). About 6 Kil. from Eerrde the long 
a smJyi e & ro ca rries us across the lower end of the Movatten (76 ft.), 
skirts Ju "* a * ce trough -v^liich the Jelster-Elv flows. The road then 
8. 5 a J^e 2*. bank of this lake, at the foot of the Viefjeld. On the 
is th G ^ e seyer al gaards. At the head of the lake, on the right, 
seen ££** cultural school ('Xandbrugsskole') of Afo, beyond which is 
the 1? e fine Huldrefc>&- Beautiful pine-wood. About 5 Kil. from 

Th^Undebro a road, eli^erges to the right to Holsen. 
*° thext^oa,*! to Holsen Cno afeyds) crosses the J>lster-Elv and leads a little 
**• of the Aa$envc*T*<* and along the "N". *banlc of the HoUenvand 

**• Route. 171 

drarcb of jaTals** about 9 JCil. — The m^ 

^ past the j£*^ *«r«, to tJhe gZZfffj ". oa > 

<WT?^Sto. of i*>«*«2<*"» ^e road l e*Ss aVtW^ 5 ?£ *°* 

u&«AJwtaS» l£2r<* on the right, to the &**ne sands star, t nd 2" **• ^ft 
MMmiV»i^¥^.«»w). descends to 

Bea\it.\in\ ^r^xiery. The green wooded valley is backed by fi e M« 
totheE. mv^l >* JB. The rapid stream affords trout-Ashing. 

ldUl.-BK^Axe Vasenden C*meUen'sJ&otel 9 JR., B., orS. 1 fa. eilcl0 
lie* at the 'W . OT *a of the Jtflstervand, out of which the Jel*ter-Elv 
HwBin a ft ftl \ eB of rapids (seen from the bridge close to the station) 
The> pretty *J*lBtervana (670 ft.) * 23 Kil. long f rom g^* 
tofl.E., i a -traversed several times daily by a small steamer (2 hrs., 
faie % fcjc."} , o^med hy the innkeeper at Skei. Both banks are 
studded -wltn gaards, most of them on the 'Solside', or N. aide. 
The lake contains excellent tront. The road on the N. bank skirts 
the base of the Jygrafjeld^ passes the gaards ofSviddal at the mouth 
of the little .Berysdal, and leads through the fertile Aalhusbygd, 
Trith the clmrcli of Aalhus or Jelster. 

On the S. 8 ide of the lake, called 'Nordside' by the natives 
because facing the N., rise the SanddaZs/jeld, the Klana, the 
Ofktn^ and the Saddegg. Above these peep at intervals the Qrove- 
hra and the Jostedalsbr®. By the gaards of MykUbostad are several 

To The e w* l8 lt the B. base of the Bj*rscBtfield (3314 ft.), which 
the road skirts * lies the skyds-station of Aardal or Otdal. Farther 

° ni ofthf^ called the KJ«sn«sfJord (10 Kil. 

W* Wv ^ Sllt 2^?ine-«een Gto^r of Lundt. To the N. of 
&lilZ£ZS*l S^MCpi C5610 ft.), and to the S. the 

& £5 C £** rter| » a-t totb), ^^Sorwe' ma ^ cross the Jostedalabrte to the 

^'te^T"^^' theK - to 8tard " (p - 172) - 

£t ft ? k e a d of the ^T^Andewen and T. GabrieUen, 
«k»lCHOtee SWi^lVrf Oh. Serr. in Aug.). Skei to 

*., B., ox B. 1 te 40 V fences «e ^ays to be hid. 

not * A y a B - Bta tton, but c 3 Notdfj^rd : one by the Bredheim*- 
Tt»o loutea lead hence to the Noxfl«° r j 

A^. at » ^-yds-xoad hy »»» . *L2^ 1M The ^mentioned toad 
40 "Kn.-). Both routes aie pxcturesque. ^ e i g>nd _ 

*»s tK^aei.antage that ««PJ^^^^« S »^ ,,llly - 
en «i*l« to** to UtTlken^hiohM genera^ ^^ gkel ^ ioad 

^B-o* Sxbi to Sanmwb (TO KUJ. JrtgterTa nd and the 

ewsses a hill , the watershed between » b - 


From Vadheim 


, 172 Bwte 25. 

Bredheimsvand , and passes the small F&gUvand and Skredevand. 

un t ne right is the Fosheimsfos, descending from the Bj*rga. 

I At the S. end of the Bolscetvand, a little more than 3 Kil. from 

J ?*<*, the road divides. The branch to the left leads past the W. 

Dank of the Bolsatvand to the Bredheimsvand , that to the right 

J*ee below) leads past the E. bank to Egge. Taking the former 

| 0a <i, we descend by the Stor-Elv, throngli picturesque, hilly scen- 

ery a nd cross the stream on this side of and beyond the little 

^Uvand. On the W. the Skjorta ('shirt' ; 5663 ft.) is conspic- 

, u °os. Later, on the right is the precipice of Kupenaava, with its 

; 8t °ny debris. 

9 Kil. Fetdt i Bredheim (fast station, poor) lies near the Ferde- 
fjord, the S. bay of the *Bredheimsvand, Breimsvand, or Breums- 
™ nd (207 ft. ; 896 ft. deep), a grand and sombre Alpine lake, 
*oontl6Kil. long, enclosed by imposing mountains. The road 
enas here, by a lofty old moraine. From this point we go on by 
^wing-boat ('boat-skyds', Tariff C). On the left rises the rocky 
"Xjorta, with the Gamledalsfos ; on the right is the precipice of the 
vvcnskenipa (4770 ft.). Beyond the Myklandsdal (left) and the 
vrdal (right) the view becomes more open. To the N. , in the hack- 
sronnd, rises the Dunegg (3650 ft.). Farther on we skirt the rocks 
J* «*e right, while the Skarstenfjeld rises to the left. Then the 
*«*fctf, on the left, with several gaards. NearingKed, we pass the 
r*outh of the VaatedaU-Elv, and see four offshoots of the Jostedals- 
° r * at the head of the Bredheimsdal. We leave the boat at — 
v . *2Kil. Xted or Re {Hdtel Gordon, English landlord; Hdtel 
Victoria, opposite), which lies picturesquely on the E. hank of the 
r edheimsv3.n.d, near the church of Bredheim. 
fn 4^ road leaULs from Bed up the fertile Bredheimsdal to Moldettad 
, * , « 172 5 about 5 Kil.), on the road to Utviken. 

The lower part of the Bredheimsvand is less interesting. We 

n <>w drive on the E. bank to (6 Kil.) Vasenden, the 'end of the 

Wa *er', and cross the 'Eid' or isthmus (256 ft.), through a pretty 

hooded valley, passing the Eidsfos, to (6 Kil.) — 

• 12 K^il. &a.ndene, on the Oloppenfjord (p. 176), a station of 

the Nordfjord steamers (to Faleide 3V 2 -4 hrs.). 

From: Skbi to Utviken (40 Kil.> To the Bohatvand (31/4 Kil.) 
see above - The road ascends on the E. bank of the small lake 
*nd crosses at hill to the Stardal, at the head of which appears the 
C7A? Joa *^ Aa - l8braj - Beyond the former skyds-station of Klagegg 
y ~* ft - > ^ Jcfcil. from Skei) the road divides, the left branch leading 
to -Egge, tae right to Aamot in the Stardal. 
rfx-^rj®™- -^i ageg 6 the road in the Stabdal ascends past the gaarda of 

aevf^ff*^ -*«~ <, «- conveyances always on hand), the starting-point of 

aSvS&fi: -f***^ *'. Peder K ' # a » nl °*t rope necessary) : — (i) Overthe Oldentk** 

^0? ^f So»^ a to^Sto^yi (P - ±TT) l 6hTa ' <* *° the foot ??tSe 
mot %*M**G±er 3 4 to tne Skar , and a very steep and fatiguing descent of 

,. B 

to Mold t. EGGE. 25. Route. 173 

2 more). This interesting excursion, which is often made by ladies, is not 
difficult in good weather. — (2) To the Langedal, 10 hrs. (3 on the glacier, 
not difficult), where quarters are to he had at Nordrt Noes; thence to 
Solvorn (p. 186). — (8) Over the Befringskar to Lunde (p. 171) and Fjeer- 
land (14 hrs.; p. 129). 

The road to Egge tarns to the left into the narrow Vaatedal, 
flanked with high mountains , and descends the valley. On the 
right rises the Hcegheimsfjeld, on the left the Svcnskenipa (p. 172). 
The road crosses to the right hank. The valley expands. On the right 
towers the conical Eggcnibba (5250 ft.) , which may be ascended 
from Egge (6-7 hrs. ; bridle-path to the Eggesster, halfway). 

9 Eil. ig%* i Vaatedalen (558 ft.; *Hotcl Qermania, R. 1 kr. 
to 1 kr. 40, D. 2, B. or S. 1 kr. 50 0.; the landlord, G. Kristensen, 
speaks English). 

"We now skirt the E. side of the Bergemsvand (470 ft). On the 
left rises the Raadfjeld, on the right the Vora. Beyond the gaards of 
Bergem the road crosses a brook issuing from the Sanddalsvand 
on the right and divides : to the left it descends to Red (11 Kil. 
from Egge ; p. 172) ; to the right it ascends to — 

Moldestad (about 7 Kil. from Egge), where another road comes 
up from Red on the left, and whence a road leads to the E. to 
Fosheim and Myklebostad. Beautiful retrospect of the Eggenibba. 

To Fosheim 5 Kil., and thence past the Sanddalsvand to Myklebostad 
nearly 4 Kil. more. From Fosheim a fine glacier pass leads past the 
Store Ceciliekrona to Olden (p. 176). From Myklebostad we may ascend 
the Bnenipa (6063 ft.). 

The road to Utviken now crosses a high hill which separates the 
Bredheimsvand from the In vik fjord, and first ascends and then 
descends so steeply that walking is faster than driving (from Molde- 
stad to Utviken 3!/ a -4 hrs.). Good walkers will therefore probably 
prefer to walk from Moldestad to Utviken (or the reverse) and to hire 
a vehicle for their luggage only. In the reverse direction the walk 
must be continued to Egge, as Moldestad is not a station. 

The road ascends between the Skavlevagge on the right and 
the Fattefjeld on the left As we ascend , a view to the right is 
gradually disclosed of the vast snow - expanses of the Gjetenyk 
(5823 ft.). At the top of the ascent we reach a plateau of moor 
(2074 ft.), where the road undulates considerably, passing numer- 
ous boggy ponds and glacier-blocks. To the S.W. we have a final 
retrospect of the SkarstenQeld (p. 172) , with its sharply defined 
outline. On the N. margin of the plateau we at last come in sight 
of the Invik fjord far below, commanded on the N. by the Lau- 
dalstinder, the Storhorn with its large glacier, and the Hornindals- 
rokken. The descent is rapid at first and afterwards in gradual 
windings, which the walker may avoid by easily- followed short- 
cuts. The 8tor'Elv 1 which descends in numerous falls on the 
right, turns several mills at Utviken. 

26 Kil. (from Egge, 19 from Moldestad) Verio i Utviken (p. 175), 
whence a ferry-boat plies to Faleide twice daily. 


LoMidn 12 ^i», o>" OWen tPp - .We 'mrlud route, (ram 

C„, e *«* «« from Uolde in the wav » b ?IV ^ t„™> 166 167 
■?» ££f£,f~™ Bergen to «o^«. <«^^J^2£ 

*"*, al «5^ ~ ■*-07> - We nmt call at Haug> or Hau* in the S»b 
a "t, ox^-C^ '^^ tie N. bant; at -Z>awift«i, in a pretty bsy of tno o. 
"* at _E>«-^* "**M residence of the poet Clans Fiim&nn (A. lBi °J' 
"/"(>(«&»- ^^**«ten or Dombesten. Splendid view to the S. of the 

Eia«^°*^ now forks into the. lafjord to the S.B. (p. 110 a . nd 
'M<iat^ * d t0 HwN.B., wbere tie steamer touches at Starheim, 
Vov>n -»-^ > * W»*'dii, and (5*/ 2 hrs. from Molde) — 
cz « « JiO^deid f *P. BoaMft* Enke'a Hotel ; Eindnti Bottl; Aalawl > 

ot- ^^^^otel;. — From Nordfjordeid a road ascends the valley 
^aa*-^-^ 2V"ord (7 Kil. ; fast skyds-tariff), on the HoraindaUvand, 
e> -i^T^feical continuation of tne Bidsfjord, and 184ft. higher, 
: «. _J^ ^-ojth extends to 13 10 ft. below the sea-level. Its lofty 

t/__^~"^^ -partly wooded. From Nor a steamer plies thiice weekly 
-pet^r^*- ^» Qrodaaa fp. 181> 

I» D»I ^^ "Nobdfjohiulid to Voldbm (p. 190), 46 Kil., a roai (tut «*J*J- 

*^. ^^ *£° 1<ft lesda to sl " nstd al lp. nt), and that to 'the righj , to 

■- ~^c^ ^-? y ^ipj nT. °Th "road ProaseB* ^e P M?(lSoft°) and de SMoi raploly 

™-» *- , p»y for i8) tba Blow station of Sendn Birlunial, on the !**• 

25. Routt. I / 

*Jh** the laufljga. , the 8.W. bay of 
*5**fe ^th aseeuds the laur&ri uj 
l*.**"^ -way «" m »T "'ond the Teldu 
."iim^T^ ~«j ud glacier view, in which 
t;> *-**, guide). We aeseena to Indrs 
c» i ^fc„ tho DaUfiord, su urn of the 
^^^- about 14 K.U. 
^-^^-*5Sid»fjor«l, the steamer rounds 
^_^*^ars the lafjoxd. Beyond the 
~j£^*^*-lfotcftord, wheie the Bteamei 
i^q *"Jord wo see the *0kimiaU- 
•a^ «*riE and the Gjcgnalundbm 
*"**_^ ■?**« Veai>« andj0jf«.0fc, en da(. 
fe^_i*-siQ lea-ring the Aalfotefjocd 
»*<* fe 'r i »9' (4075 ft.), with the eol. 
5* ^liere is called the Hnndviks- 
: '^^^ : 2jefjoTii J which cuta deep into 
«-»^ ** (quarters at the post-office"), 
*?»,* at the S. end of the fjord. 
"w-i^JT^n, opens the SkjardnJ, a g rsn d 
^«- X*T. 0,it mncn trouble the V«m|m 
»* 1K?We*Hiig glacier-walks from th , 

^-V.** 1 «»/? and the chnroh of Gim- 
Lj^^'ch of Glopptn on the E. bank 

,^T*«I,R., B-, orS. 1 kr. each; a»t 
JJ Res), charmingly aitaated at the 
iv ^alk» and good troot-fl shW neat 
j^itnavand, aeep. 172. 

tV *' osUed Ut & ord - The Ml* are 

J 11 tarnjB. Farther on we ba»e a T ) ew 

S ,°*e Cecilienkrona , Grytereidanib). 

• "ank, and Rand, on the N. bank. 

' -nnnia, kept by Landhandler Loan, 

«■*%<• i°" ,/•#"' B "'<"n,.~, - -,- . , 

J*«" W»' «> "S, B - * *«. 80 .0. °» "» S / "■? (3'A »~. 

*»* "to '•»"«» lM 

176 BouttSB. V18VJES. From Vodheim 

FaJoide ('Tenden'e Hotel, three houses; B. 1 kt. 20, B. or S. 
eaoh 1 kr. 40 »., D. 2, pens. 4kr. ; landlord speaks English; several 
good guides), in admirable centre for eicursions, but often crowded 
lQ summer. 

Eipdbsiohb. To the E., by the new road (p. 181), to the gaud Btaniitad 
and up to the gaard of Lmgaaltr (aboot BOO ft.), on the lake of (hat 
name, abounding in Bah. Or from Bvarvestad we may follow the level 
road to Stryn (see below). Bow to Indvtkm, and walk thence into it,* 
Prcatidal (p. 1Y51 oi attend the Bteritcnfjtld (p. 170; 4-5 

rid (p. 116; 1-5 trj.i notable 
the Ophtimifjsld (eee below). 
it, and Stryn (noting that the 

Visit the jr.wl jlKkwallcH! of Loot, Oldt.., ... 
ale urn-launch mentioned at p. 175 calls at Tlansa 

At Faleide the fjord is superb. Beyond It towers the castellated 
Aarheimtfidd (2018 ft.), at the foot of which opens the Btryntdal. 
At the mouth of this valley lies the a teambo at- station — 

Viinasa (*JTCW Central, kept by Peter Teuden, also a skyds- 
etation, E., B., or 8. lkr. 10 ». each; *Visna> Hotel, both at the pier J, 
on the road about 9 Kil. from Faleide Til Lundt and Toning (Hot. 
Wllg ; oariole 1 kr. 52, stolkjierro 2 kt. 30 ».). It is tbe starting- 
point for the Strynsdal and the Videdal (pp. 179, 180). 

In the distance, a little to the right of the A&rhelmeijeld, are 
the Skaala (6360 ft ; 'bowl'), with Its glacier-basin, and the San- 
denib (p. 178); nearer rises the Anflemafjeld (see below), which 
separates the Loendal from the Oldendal. To the right, behind the 
AuflemBfjeld, appears later the Melhelmsnib (p. 178). To the S. 
we look np the Oldendal, with the Store Ceciliekrona (p. 177) on 
the W. and the Ravnefjeldsbrsi on the E. On the N. bank rises the 
Opheimsfjeld, a splendid point of view (ascent from the gaard Sake, 
2 bra.). We next call (1 hr. from Faleide) at — 

Loen, or Loeren (Hotel Victoria, It. or B. 1 kr. each, D. 2, S. 
l-l'/si pens, from 4 kr., English spoken; HUel Aitximdra, two largo 
houses with a good reputation ; Engl. Ch. Serv, in July* Aug.), with 
a small church, at tbe month of the Loendal (p. 178], bounded on 
the N. by the Lafjeld and on the S. by the Auflcmtfjeld (5090 ft). 
This ia a capital centre for excursions. The boat of the Alexandra 
Hotel owns tbe fishing in the Loendals-Elv (comp. p. xxv). 

Lastly, returning alittle, westeerto tbeS. into the bay of Olden. 
To the S. towers the Store Geciliekrona (p. 177). 

Olden, or Olderen (* I'ri'i HoUl, a large new house, R, B., or S. 
1 kr. each, D. 2, pens. 3 kr. ; English spoken), reached in '/jhr. 
from Loen, liee at the mouth of the beautiful Oldendal, and Is another 
good centre for excursions. 

Ixcureiona to the Oldendal, Loendal, and Btrynsdal. 
The three valleys Oldendal, Loendal, and Btryntdal, to the S.E. and 
E. of the In.ikfjord, eitend into the heart of the Norwegian Raid, and 
to the Joatedalibrs (p. 171). Each of these valleys ii occupied by a lake, 
1MB Eil. lone, formed by an ancient moraine (Bid), which separate* 
it from the fjord. All three lakes, but eipecially those In the Oldendal 
and Loendal , are enclosed by hues precipice! rising to 5000 ft., over 
which tower peaks to a height of 1000-1500 ft. more. From th«e descend 

._ _ ti on the Owl . 

u> except tor the tinier. 
md Halaeia Ifuri of Oldan, 
^tflatt (p. ITS), ind SriiUiffer 

t?^ [there and back, 8-lOhra.). 

^^Sde (5 Kil., a pleaaint walk of 

MiinT} the milky stream, which 

X>aat the W. aide of the pretty 

v-auid (130 ft.}, » lake atretching 

*-*ely 1 Kil. broad, enclosed by 

^Ix 'Victoria* (lt/jkr., there and 

^trty on the three lakea, makei 

*iJ£— "boat to the head of the lake 

rtf'-Vi'l'V' ( t *-'*t\ kr - and takes 2 hra. 

^ ''g, we see the gaard of Sandmts^ 
fj^*aine with the gaard of Btnnai, 
,r; Ct *«Tje«. -Waterfalls on ever; aide, 
^^•sipices of the Store Cteiliehrona 
ty^e 6 kr.)- To the left > * y the Bf ^e 
^5*aAjen», Strang and G/errfe. To the 
**"V the Syntnib, but Hearing 8nnde, 
* ^e right the Orytereidsnib (5616 ft.) 

"***s, xhe strait of *8tmde has been 

ffQ streams descending on the left from 
QiiTdtaxcle (6420 "0 » nd the »«i«i(6 
OMlk are the gaarda of Svnde. A atrong 
, MTOwr •«*»■ 0n romnding the sombre 
a Obtain a magnificent •'View of the 9. 
.a. a little. The MalieToldBbr*,, 
«* M P ffl t to descend to the head of the 
lt ei«, seenift w wa terfal!a, and at ita 

, tB AoTwAH, ™ At lke end Qf the 

Bflfc-W * nd t i On the left 1. the preci- 

178 RouU25. LOENDAL. FromVadkeim 

these the great glacier of that name. At the head of the valley is 
the beautiful Malkcvoldsbrct, imbedded between the Kattenak and 
the Middagmib. To the right of the glacier is the pretty twin fall 
of the VaaUfos, The road trends to the left, crosses the stream, 
and ascends the Brigsdal or Briktdal to (1 hr. from Rustften) — 

Oaard Brigsdal (490 ft. ; refreshments). 

A footpath on the right hank of the BtigsdaU-Elv ascends to 

the (20 min.) Water fall of that stream, and to a higher zone of the 

valley, where we obtain a striking view of the "Brigsdalsbrss, the 

blue ice-waves of which tower above birch and alder woods. Our 

route leads through the wood to (*/4 hr.) the foot of the glacier 

(1000 ft.), an offshoot of the Jostedalsbra , containing a superb 

ice-cavern, from which the stream issues. Another glacier, from 

which waterfalls and occasionally blocks of ice descend, is seen 

high up to the S. 

The Brigdalibrse it itself impaasable, but good climbers, with an able 
guide, may ascend by its side to a height of 5600 ft., pass round a rocky 
height to the McelktvoldsbrcB to the 6., and climb down along the E. side 
of the latter to the gaard Brigtdal. 

2. **Excubsion to the Lobndal (7 hrs. , there and back). 
Previous enquiry should be made as to the condition of the path 
on the Kjendaissand (comp. p. 179). After much wet weather, the 
expedition should be abandoned. 

Loen^ see p. 176. The road to the Loenvand (stolkjaerre 1 kr. ; 
a pleasant walk) ascends on the right bank of the torrent. We fol- 
low the main road, which trends to the right. The landscape, with 
its trees, shrubs, and green meadows, looks like a park. Above it 
tower great mountains, partly snow-clad. The road crosses the 
stream coming down from the Fosdal on the left. The Loendals-Elv 
forms the Haugfos, a fall of horseshoe shape. In 25 min. from 
Loen if driving, in 3/ 4 hr. if on foot, we reach — 

Vas6nden, at the N. end of the "Loenvand, an Alpine lake in 
the grandest style, 12 Kil. long. It is traversed by the poor steam- 
launch 'Lodelen' (IV2 kr -> return-fare 2*/ 2 kr.), which takes 1 hr. 
to reach the head of the lake. A rowing-boat (there and back blfalu., 
with two rowers; a third seldom required) takes about twice as long. 

Soon after starting we are in full view of the whole lake. On 
the left, above the gaard of Sonde, rises the Sandcnib (5425 ftA 
on the right are the Auflemsfjeld and the MtUiciminib (5428 ft. J. 
From all the mountains, especially from the Ravnefield (6575 ft.) 
on the right, descend large glaciers, all, however, ending high 
above the lake. At the Brtngsnas^Sater^ on the left, a lofty water- 
fall descends from the Skaalebra (p. 179). On the W. side of 
the lake is the huge Hellesaterbra, terminating abruptly at a height 
of about 3900 ft., from which ice-avalancheB fall in hot weather, 
first over a sheer precipice of 300 ft., and then in a stream spread- 
ing out like a fan and almost reaching the lake. When there are 
no avalanches about ten waterfalls pour over the precipice. On the 

to Moldt. BASIN OF 1MBSDAL. 25. Routt. 1 79 

£. bank are the gaard of Hogrcnding and a waterfall coming from 
the Osttndalsbrce. The W. bank is uninhabited. On the E. rises 
the Kvctrnhusfjcld (5700 ft.), with the gaard of Redi at its foot. 
To the W. is the serrated Ravnefjeld (6575 ft.), the base of which 
we skirt towards the S. On the left we look up the Medal, with 
the gaard of that name, backed by the Skaalfjeld with the Skaalbra. 
From the gaard of Bjefdal we may visit the BudaU-Sceter and the ad- 
jacent BedaUbrce (lVs-2 hrs.). Sleeping at the fleeter, we may ascend the 
Lodalskaupe (6790 ft.; 8-10 hrs. ; p. 139), bringing a guide from Loen ; or 
cross the Skoal/bid, where a hat of the Tourists' Society was opened in 
UB86, to Qfdmg in the £rdal (p. 181). 

The lake contracts to a strait. In front of ub towers the Nont- 
nib, rising sheer to the overwhelming height of over 6000 ft. To 
the right, in front of it, opens the Kvandal or Natdal, with its 
glacier, adjoining which is the Utigardsfot, a waterfall 2000 ft. 
high, descending from the glaciers of the Ravnefjeld. Passing 
through a bend of the lake, we enter the impressive *Baiin of Nsbs- 
dal, bounded by the Ravnefjeld on the W., the Nonsnib on the 
S., and the B^dalaf Jeld on the E. Between the last two peep the 
Kronebra and the Kjcndalakrona (5995 ft.). The grandeur of the 
scenery here is unequalled In S. Norway. On the alluvial land at 
the mouth of the KvandaU-Elv, the outflow of the Kvandalsbrs, 
lie the turf-roofed gaards of Nctsdal. At the landing-place, at the 
mouth of the stream, is a cottage where refreshments may be ob- 
tained. The steam-launch waits here about 3 hrs. 

A tolerable path, leading first over marshy ground, ascends the 
valley via the KjendaUsand. (In wet weather this route is impas- 
sable ; the long and highly uncomfortable route round the base of the 
W. mountain should be absolutely avoided.) After about % hr. sud- 
denly appears the *Kjendalsbr8B, on which waterfalls descend from 
the right. In */s hr. more, crossing part of the glacier-stream on 
stepping-stones, we reach the glacier. The stream issues from a 
magnificent vault of blue ice. It is dangerous to walk on the glacier, 

or even to go too near it on account of the falling stones. 

From Noeadal (tolerable quarters at Jacob NaxdaTi) across the Joste- 
dalibrce to the Jostedal, a grand expedition of about 15 hrs. (comp. p. 138). 
Guides, Jacob and Simon frcesdaL 

3. **A Visrr to thb Stbynsdax and the Vidbdal may be made 
in one day (as far as the Yide-Sster) from Visnaes (10-11 hrs.} 
provisions should be taken). This route will be of considerable 
importance when the new road is completed (pp. 61, 60), as it 
then will form, in connection with the road from Ghrotli to Marok, 
the most striking route from the Nordfjord to the Geiranger Fjord. 

Visnas, see p. 176. The road (cariole to Sunde 1 kr. 87, stol- 
kjaerre 2 kr. 81 0. ; driving necessary for passengers from Faleide 
to catch the steam-launch) crosses the Stryns-Elv and follows its N. 
bank to Ytre Eide, the church of Nedstryn, and the gaards of Qjer- 
ven and 0vrt Eidc. On the other bank of the foaming torrent stands 


178 BouUS5. 


Prom Vadhtim 

these the great glacier of that name. At fclie head of the valley is 
the beautiful Mcelkevoldtbra, imbedded bet-ween the Kattcnak ana 
the M iddagtnib. To the right of the glaciar is the pretty twin tail 
of the VaaUfot. The road trends to the left, crosses the stream, 
and ascends the Brigtdal or Briktdal to (1 tu. from BustoenJ 
Oaard Brigsdal (490 ft. ; refreshments). fe 

A footpath on the right bank of the Brig>dat»-Elv •«««•* 
the (20 min.) WatttfiOl of that stream, and to a higher zone of toe 
'jUey, where we obtain a striking view of the •Brig* •»«*«£ 
Mue ice-waves of which tower above M ' ch » n *t« f ^ Icier 
route leads through the wood to (V 4 1«0 the f 00 1 ; or the glacxe 

1000 ft.), ,n offifhoot of the '"^^ > ££^j£%L 
ice-cavem, from which the stream issues. Another glacier, 
which waterfalls and occasionally blocks of ice descend, 
wgk up to the S. 

Tg" ,«o the MmUctmULAfCt to tte 

or tte J.tter to the gaard Brigtdal. d baok ). 

p 2. -ExcOKSION TO THE ^f^l^^on « ^ 

• Pleasant walk} ascends on the n^t*"* °* ^-landscape, with 

W the main road, which trend, to the right. The ^m* P ^ u 

** t»es, shrubs, and green meadows, looks like . • P« b Ae 

^er groat mountains, partly ^w-cUd- T te ro Qalg _ ElT 

«feam coming down from A^, "^' *£ 35 min. from 
*>«ns the Ha**gfo; a fall of horseshoe shape, in -0 

*"»* if drl^togf in 3/4 h«- « ^^t^Tan Alpine lake in 
.. Vntnden., »t the N. end of the •*»"«■* » £* p00r B team- 

From all *nV mountains/especially from the ^^^'^^W 
on She rfi£*, de.cend'large glaciers, aU, ^f^'aTo^ta^- 
abovethe lake. At the Brengsna^Ur, on ^th » left, » lofty water 
fall descends from the Skaalebra) (p. 179). On the W. side 01 
the lake it^fcLe Imge HMcaterbra, terminating abruptly at a height 
of about 3000 ft., from which ice-avalanches fall in hot weather, 
Intow » sH^eer precipice of 300 ft., and then in a stream spread- 
ing outf like » fan and almost reaching the lake. When there are 
no .valanches about ten waterfalls pour over the precipice. Onthe 


fl.*»nk«eth*=»^^ The W. bank i 8 „*f^ a ^terfall com, n 
^ttiSST ^*« S. On «* left iS*£ *■* tie base of^ 

-e »nnwiMt^^^P» ™ "; ~ „ aez * ^e look n« *i» V» 0I ^iicl 

tPToiftQwi  ,, ■» B — ^r* of Bjerdal we may Wo,-* **, 7 „ * '"W *he 8kn„ti 
.JKBH&EF^^Mhn.). Sleeping ^*t£%f£***«"- and &? 
O'W »T^O «^.J 8-10 hrs. ; p. 139), brfi^^i? * I? *W wocEd a*" 
£0* * e *w*y*«*caT„ where a hat of the Ta^fstf^ flnffii de from W.^I 
gg to fir«d«^ i^ the Erdal (p. 181). a ** nata Society Was ^^ or 

The lake oo^fcracts to a strait. In front of us towers fh „ 

»ib, ***% a^ieei *o the overwhelming height of oyer 6000* *T 

t fce *3 w i ""^ fifont of it, opens the JZTvcmdal or Needed ^*V . ° 

Racier, ad4o£***o. e ^icfc is tfc e Vtigardsfos, a waterfall 20nn i te 

* ig h, desccra^*]*,* from the glaciers of thie Ravnefjeld p*/. 

fttonfi* *£"**> o* *h e lake, we enter the impressive *Ba*ui ofw Dg 

^ T^*^ ^ y the BaTaefleld on the W. , the Nonsnib ori T^ 

Bo a *il ^ dd| W4 on the E. Between the last two peel tht 

Kron eb** ««** the Kfrndalakrona (6096 ft.)- The grandeur of th« 

acetvetV *»» xa unequalled in S. Norway. On the alluvial land at 

^ e u>0atn, of the Kvandato-Elv, the outflow of the Kvandalsbra* 

l* e *1 ^p\\r XO ° f ed « aarda of **<***<*• At the landing-pUce, at the 
^ow* x *** e »*ieam, 1b a cottage where refreshments may be ob- 
tained* Tixe Bteam-launch waits here ahout 3 hrs. 

A tolerable path, leading first over marshy ground, ascends the 
galley ▼» the Kjendalssand. (In wet weather this route is impas- j 

0*t>l© i ^e long and highly uncomfortable route round the base of the I 

*qf. mountain should be absolutely avoided.) After about a / 4 hr. sud- j 

&evto spears the *JQendalshr»> on which waterfalls descend from 
the Tight. i n y 2 nii m0 re, crossing part of the glacier-stream on I 

eteppiitg-Btone8, we reach the glacier. The stream issues from a * 

j&ag&incent vault of blue ice. It is dangerous to walk on the glacier, j 

oi even to go too near it on account of the falling stones. j 

*toua Ueesdal ftolerable quarters at Jacob ITatodaP*) across the Josfe- ' 

daUbrm to the Jostedal a grand expedition of about 15 hrs. (coinp. p. 138). ; 

Guides, Jacob and Simon JSV**<*1. ! 

3. •♦AVisttto thb Stbynsdax aot thb Vidbdal may he made 

ilk one day (as far as the Vide-S*ter) from Visnajs (10-11 hrs, 

piovi»ions should be taken). This route will be of Mnndmble 

importance when the new road is completed L (pp.61, ^Mit 

then will form, in connection with the road from ^^ £ Iteok, 

tbe most striking route from the Nord«ord to the Geirange^r Fjord. 

Vian«., W ep g 176. Tne road (cario^e «to^£*y™^ 

^ajtie 2 kr. 81 0. ; driving necessary to ^a«a ngers i 

Z catch the steam-launch) ^^SXtrttoU^ of ° J ^' 
h*nk to Ytre Eidc, the church of Nedstryn, and the ga stands 

Sand 0*re Eidi On the other bank of the foaming^orrent 

n.^^ ^ 25. Route. 181 

to JdoMe. **^**^± r» A^ & * 

, ,,. a~**r field f ft^»— ^ ni ^vUh great ^ideri, forming * 

/HI25 ft.) and the «J^<^ e u^S*^* ** ">•» * \rawt& of Merit or Grm/w, cross 

£ *£to the g»~ d of 2!?*^5^ **^2o >*»*»- % ***«• garters). Thence, 

5** ^toT^-^ - !?*"* ^^^e^foot of t*e fissured glacier (2316 ft.). 
kW^SSftom the Gre f^ : *^fct^ * 1 *?«? over tne Jostedalsbrie to the Lo- 
'^^179), » nd . A p " t A *^*^^ ****£• .To**** (p. 179), takes 8-10 hrs., 
**^^~TSSffS\> •^feff Cfrox~ Gredung, 13 kr.). - Over the 

c . I»* ^""^W^a to jLaletund and Kolde. 

joad fwB» *J lira.) is «*»%?''** «bb to &eH**pU with fast stations. The 
entire journey }^ br- ft G^o^^^ performed without change of horses, 

Litb » rest °/ w 10 **}* — * ^■^■^^s. Stbamee from Hellesylt to Marok in 

4iLw. (ft* 6 4 T40 -^»**!!* , *«* V**^^^*** from Ufarok to 4/* AoJt in AWs-R brs 

!&?»*• t ^rc26Bia.> ^Ji^V«-H lire. Cfare 4kr. &0.).-*&tlSL 

t f ?!?.n to Fe«<**? -hr. (*are> s*2:**x faat stations. - Steamboat from vSE 

guide-book M *ee p. ^ 

6 map by »*** d of S-octr^ ~\ —, *«W). For 

At * e f!*tn Visnaaa r ~f *«*, about 52 Kil. from f .i ftM , , 
and 7 »•**$., •ftozag ^ * 76 ), **e road ascends ^ Cp * 176 ^ 
i^to***"** «o*a S^*" retrospects, through ^ wind - 
ihe wood, °* a dis a^o^*** 1 ** mountains to the 1 vk ? gs in 
point of *?f* aid* ot^r BOOft - al ><>™ **esea. S5 n ? e *W«wt 

quent xie*» °* Wa ai 8 C the Holme^feld to the Vrtl ^^ *»- 

iaXtt.(S^[ l 0T ^ ^ Faleide, 23 from Visn* s ) jr- , 

dala^nd. Jf • ™*T ™w from Kj^s to Orodaas, b nt **<?"*»- 
quiclLet. The Mlly load ekirts the Jake and rounds the j? Vlng U 
6 Kil. (pay f ot 8) Grodaa«, or Gredes C*&<*™isaker> a ZTft 
l-H/2, B.1-1V4,D.1 1 /2A S.l-2, pension 4V2kr., E„ g i4^ »• 
*Rafie<voWs Hotel, ^ell spoken of) is charmingly situated at tlTi? 5 
end of the ffornindatwand, a lake aDonndingr in fish and enclosed h 
wooded hills, 0ll ^hich a steamboat plies several times a week (&J 
also p. 474). ^ little t0 the N. is the church of ITornindal. To \j£ 

182 Route 25. HELLESYLT. From Vadkeim 

pass of Xviven (2795 ft.) and past the Kvivdals-Badr*, whore it joins a 
path from Oterdal on the Hornindalsrand, to (5 hrs.) Aaicteato, on the 
road from Bjerke to Ffrde on the J&stefjord (p. 188). 

A finer but longer route is the passage of the Hjortttkar to Unrated 
(7-8 hrs.)- This route ascends the Hjortdal (see below) to the HjoridaU- 
Sastei; leads through the BlaabrcBdal and along the glacier to the pass 
between the Lauedalstindtr and the snow-clad Btorhom (5184 ft.), and 
descends the Zatwdoi, passing the LauedaU- Soetre , to Rerstad, on the 
Kaidvatn and Bjerke road (p. 188). 

The steep road ascends the Hornindal, passing several pleasant 
gaards, the Denefos, and the entrance to the Hjortdal, The valley 
expands farther up, and is flanked with snow-clad mountains. On 
the right rises the huge Oulckop ; in front of it the Seeljetctterhom 
(2210 ft.), below which opens the Knudsdal; then the Muldvorhom 
(2700 ft.) ; to the left, the Brcekegg (4320 ft.) and LUledalsegg. 

9Kil. (pay for 11, but not in the reverse direction) JndreJHau- 
gen or Hougen, a poor station. The intelligent station-master acts 
as a guide to Hornindalsrokken, etc. A cariole may he hired here 
to (20 Kii.) Fibelstad- Hougen (p. 187). — Farther on we have a 
view, up a side -valley to the left, of the almost inaccessible- 
looking Hornindalsrokken (5015 ft. ; ascent from Hougen 10 hrs., 
driving practicable for 2 hrs. ; extensive view). We then cross the 
boundary of Serodmere to the Romedalsaimt. 

6 Eil. KjeUtadli. Travellers on their way N. do not usually 
stop here ; those from the N. change horses here and pass Indre 
Hougen without stopping. The new road avoids the hill to the left 
on which the station formerly lay. 

Grand scenery again. To the left opens the glacier-valley of 
Kjelttad ; to the right the Rerhutdal, with the pointed Rerhuenibba. 
We descend to Tronstad (1130 ft.), a little to the N. of which, by 
Tryggestad, the Nebbedal (p. 186) opens to the left. Fine view of 
the Fibelstadnibba. 

The road descends on the left bank of the SundaU-Elv, the val- 
ley of which soon contracts to a deep ravine. To the left opens the 
MuUkreddal. Splendid view of the Sunelvsfjord and its mountains. 
The road crosses the stream, which enters the lake in the form of 
a waterfall, passes the church of Sunelven, and reaches — 

13 Eil. Hellesylt (* Grand ffitcl, R., B., or S. each iy 2 , D. 2kr. } 
cuisine not particularly good ; Tryggestad § Stadheims Hotel, fair ; 
Engl. Gh. Serv. in July & Aug.), grandly situated at the head of 
the *Sunelvsfjord, an arm of the Storfjord, on which large steamers 
from Aalesund ply four times weekly. Bowing-boat from Helle- 
sylt to Marok in 3-4 hrs. (21 Kii. ; with 2 rowers 4 4 /j, with three 

7 kr.). — Vehicles usually await the arrival of the steamers. 

From Hkllbstlt to thh Sthtksvakd, 23 Kii. We drive up the valley 
to the S.E., passing the fine waterfalls (8 Kii.) Dtmefog and Frejttfot, to 
Bj&r&al and VoldscBter (quarters). Thence a bad footpath leads by the ffvrt 
Flo-SaeUr (quarters if need be) and the Nedre Flo-Sceter to Flo, on the 
Strynsvand (p. 180). We have to row over the two northernmost of the 
three lakes we pass •, enquiry should be made at Nordbakke or Flo and a 
man hired to row. The carriage-road is to be continued to Flo. 

-~ MAROK. S3. Routt. 183 

»*"'' ■**<>*■ *>? yVfc and tbewaterfalls(p. 182)aswestesm 

rt «,o< 'NV  E " Bide of the fjord towers the Nokkentb 

W* „„» .a _ i'We we observe the gasrd of LJ«m, whence 

•ClNTw ****V rt^*e*»&ofc*«- (about 2000 ft.l ana the 

1 «iJW*^**J*' ^ath of the **Geir»ng«r Fjord, into which 
U , fl t \ i4 ttB V* £0* **» ■pictnresqne cliffs rod Its numerous water- 

"!!t" 1, * 1 ^i* l;iVe "Nokkeneb; on the slope to the left the gaurd 
w *niit 1 b***''*W* 1 OI *> *° th " ri 8 ht ' "° tne 8"^ of SjIMoit 
|41». " J. ¥*-***lL^beTp and the mountains of the Liadalmibba 
oI f \wiel B*£*^* fcel <««*"ffi> [*W0 ft.); the Grautfiom (4425 ft.) 
*oba«K * fti <^h* *jord now contract!. On the N. side Me seen 

.pmBt' _< or Syw Settre ('seven sisters'), falling o' 
^^■iisftoaf"!*-** into the fjord. Seven fills may be counted at 
* ftVsa\« tAWl only below. High np on the slope near them 
^eiB^ w \, t cs _ a Ab0Tfl them riaes (be QjeUfjitftfHi 

**I- t»«* i>L*tk« on is the G^H/onAw (4800 ft). From a 

rtAtt 1M. *tt W* emerge" the Aatw**«ybs ot G*ttfb>, adjoin- 

P ott«» ® • " -»e.Td of Skaggeflaa (1840 ft.). An Immense nnm- 

*"i *W<* W -water*"- 118 descend from the cliffs in early summer, 

i?ei °* * 1 * , ' 1 J , *i,*iii 4ry «p in August. Some of them shower down In 

int m»°' ibelr existence only by the streak of white foam 

a-oia?) t>' ,« ; others leap from overhanging cliffs in veil-like 

O o the t , t0 p S of the cliffs are clooded, the waterfalls seem 

form- ^' ~, rt from the sky. Curious profiles on the rocks to the 

to come »«* theBe t he Profterfoi (pulpit). Opposite, to the left, Is 

tight; •*•* , f0 , Also to the left Is the gaard of Grand*, overtopped 

tne ^* u **!vi r «'(49iift.> AswenearMarokweobtalnasuperbvlew 

r*y' hBifl *7 r i olGeiranger. High np on the right is the snow-elad 

f the 1>»bi tbe Bighorn and the FlydalEBora. At the head of 

-laeior f°** t 20 Kll. from Hellesylt, lies — 

-efH'" - " 

lB vJklsW* a*" 1 groin T.65, 11.80 {csrr. and pair for (wo pern. 22.60, 
vi«w* ^ £'*,*»" P*™- n-BOJiM FWm 13.90, Mkr. (39, «B0,M.6O)i 

« *' l * fi ',, , small hamlet nestling round the head of the fjord 
'"'"i? moraine, commanded by a small church. Above it opens 
on an old fcM(n of Q 8ilangBTi through which ascends the 

the "°^ s . n grow (pp. 61, 60). This is a good centre tor eicnr- 
••Jto** ° trl TeHe' should spend at least half-a-day here in order 
aio"'- " fl(It put of the Orotli rosd (best on foot). 

184 Route 25. SYLTE. From Vadheim 

The Grotli road is less striking when ascended than descended, but 
the traveller who ascends sees the waterfalls to better advantage. The 
largest of these is the Storfoe, in which all the tributaries of the river 
unite. Just above this lies the Union Hotel. Above the seeond bridge 
of the road ('Gjerde-Bro'), on this side of the stone 400 m. over Havet', 
a path diverges to the left to the KUivafot, a fall of the Vesteraas-Elv. 
About l 1 /* M. beyond the third bridge ('Kope-Bro*), and V« M. beyond 
the stone ( 209 m over Havet', a guide-post points to the left towards the 
Storsasterfos. In 10 min. more we reach the small white inn of Retiro, 
where the view down the valley to the Skjseringsdalsbra (p. 69) is dis- 
closed. A steep ascent of Vg hr. leads hence to the Btortceterfoe, behind 
which runs a goat-path. The road ascends, crossing the 'Hole Bro' at 
the Holefoe, to the H6tel Udtigten, which commands the finest view of the 
Geiranger valley. A little farther on, beyond the stone '900 m. over 
Havet\ a finger-post indicates the way to the right to FlydaUdjuvet, a 
point of view about 4 Kil. from Marok, where travellers pressed for time 
usually turn. — The whole walk to the Djupvashytte (p. 60) takes 4 hrs. 
(in the reverse direction 3 hrs.). From the hut a mountain-path, from 
Grotli a road leads to Stryn (p. 59). 

The *v'esteraa»dal , the 3*. approach to the Geiranger basin, between 
the Laushorn and the Grindalshorn, also deserves a visit. We follow the 
above-mentioned path passing the Siorgceterfot to (172-2 hrs. from Karok) 
the Storeceter (2132 ft.). Splendid view. — We may then ascend the valley 
to the Vetteraas- Barter and mount the Kaldtoubakker to the S. end of a 
small lake, from which we may visit the Vestereuubrcs to the left. Then 
either to the E. and down the Sletdal to the Kaldhusdal, or to the N. down 
the Herded to the HerdaUvand (1618 ft.) and Relling i Norddal (see below). 

From the gaard of Grande (p. 183) a steep bridle-path ascends (*/«-! hr>) 
the Eidsdetlefjeld, widening into a road beyond the top of the hill, and 
leading past the gaard of Indre Eide and the Eidsvand, abounding in fish, 
to Ytredal (see below ; 12 Eil. from Indre Eide) : a splendid walk of about 
6 hrs., with grand views looking back on the Geiranger Fjord, and fine 
mountain-scenery. (Guide unnecessary.) 

Another fine excursion is that to Skagge/laa (p. 183; ca. 5 hrs.). We 
row in 1 hr. to the Bkaggejtaanettet, whence the path ascends. Splendid 
view at the top. 

The steamer returns from Marok to the Sunelvsfjord, generally 
calling again at Hellesyft before steering towards the N. Of the 
huge mountains flanking the fjord the chief are the Aakerncesfjdd 
(5043 ft.) on the W., projecting far into the fjord, and the Non$- 
fjeld and Snuhorn on the E. On the E. side are several gaards and 
a few waterfalls. 

From the Sunelvsf jord, the entrance to which is marked by the 
Okmcts on the W. and theSkrenak on the E., most of the steamers 
tnrn to the E. into the Korddalsfjord, the innermost arm of the 
Storfjord (p. 186). On the N. hank He the gaards of Li and 
Overaa. On the S. bank is the rock called St. Olafs Snushorn, 
The first station (2 hrs. from Hellesylt) Is — 

Ytredal, at the month of the valley of that name. (Route to the 
Geiranger Fjord, see above.) The next station is Belling, with the 
NorddaUkirke, whence the wild Torvteisa (5995 ft.), a grand point 
of view, may be ascended in 5 hrs. 

Sylte (Qunnar Qrenningseter's Inn, good; Deving), with the 
church of Muri, lies on the N. bank. A curious vein of light 
quartz in a rock here is called St. Olafs Slange or Syltormen. To 
the E. rises the Heggurdalstind. 


Peer orer the b» Su " wnB0 Lofty « 

— t^Tffl m T.«' l aBrd °( JMiJ 1 ^ ~ e — u, (he Eoowa'l. ''\"J.^ 

5-ff<3 W „nd F,w e ,"J**t^t>g the <* Si-^^^'sTofdal. Onee * 
*<-">k It toDchp, ,,' v **-3i ** tJ.» a«»» l tbf P wtty » ,iia Laupo« 

V> ' 

186 Route 25. 


From Vadkcitn 


N.E. rises the Snaufleld (2880 ft.), and to the S., over the Gaus- 
naes, peer the hills on the opposite hank of the fjord. A brook enter- 
ing the fjord here separates Sjaholt from the chnrch of 0rskog. 

Pleasant walk on the Aalesnnd road, to the W., with a view of the 
fjord. After about 1 M. we observe on the bank below a ''Laktiarp* 
(called 'Gilge' in the Sogn district), or apparatus for catching salmon, 
with white boards to attract the fish. 

Road to Aalesund, 88 Kil. (a drive of 5-6 hrs.). Stations (13 Kil.) 
Flaaie or Flote and (13 Kil.) Redtcet (slow; better therefore engage vehicle 
all the way from Sjjffholt to Aaleaund). 

The Steambr to Aalestjnd takes 2-3 hrs. more. It touches at 
the small wooded Langshibw, in a bay between the mainland and 
the Oksen#. The narrowest part of this bay is crossed by the road to 
Aalesund mentioned above. We then steer to the S. across the fjord, 
here for a short distance called Nordfjord, and then Storfjord* In 
the wider sense the latter name embraces the whole fjord as far as 
Sylte (p. 184). We steer round the Aurmcts to — 

Aure or Sekkelven (quarters at Mart. Vifc's, the Landhandler) on 
the Sekkelvs fjord, prettily situated amidst grand scenery. Steering 
in, we see the Hammersattinder rising above Aure on the left; to 
the right of them is the pointed Stremshom (3240 ft.) ; then the 
Brunstctdhorn, the Ojeithorn y the Vellesctterhorn (4750 ft.), and the 
Ringdatetind, some of them flecked with snow. 

The following is a beautiful day's 'Excursion. As Aure and the 

other places are slow stations, a vehicle for the whole trip should be 

engaged at Aure. From Aure we drive to the E. to (U Kil.) Sjtvik (p. 186); 

then S. through the Eamstaddal to the (12 Kil.) Nysater (quarters), on the 

lake of that name (1245 ft.), whence the titekar (3940 ft. ; fine view) is easily 

ascended. We next cross a hill to the VelUdal , in which Drotninghaug, 

its highest gaard, is 6 Kil. from Nysseter. Magnificent view, in de- 

S f C ^r £> of the snow-mountains above mentioned. Then past the gaard 

«* *v £» wher « the valley bends to the U., to (13 Kil.) Strtmmegjcerdtt. 

« the 8. end of the Sfrkkelvstjord, whence, if preferred, a rowing-boat 

may be taken to (6 Kil.) Aure. ' 

fJA*n the W ' 8ide of the Sakkelvsfjord towers the Skopshom 
af*h ftm ^' Then y on the Storfjord, comes Tusvik, omitted by gome 
~~£l ate **nerB. We now steer due W., past the mouth of the J*- 
™ndfjord(p. ±88), etc., in ia/ 4 hi. to AaU$*nd; see p. 189. 

J **V*n>J£ J[ BX ' £ '* a * L '* TB3LOVQK THB NORA.NG8DAX AND BY THB 

*o the jvr 4** jj*> A^tBBUXny* — Instead of the direct steamer voyage 
%£y °e fo]Joire£ ^ Q«*™*m»» t?i~~a «» a feU n «rin<r hiirlilv attractive route 

one ofth ee _ __ 

J *° d > is n?ff ^ie"^, ioh^ Tlie route through the Norangadal, being 


UND. — I] _ _ 

Csam«~H/ OJJ °n£d £. ^eirangor Fjord, the following highly attractive route 

me h ^" r??*n Hellesylt. 3kyds from Hellesylt to (24 Kil.) J0U 

t2in*^* l y taken through*, ca. 3 hrs.). Stkambb thence to AcOe- 

M>~ SLstl^es a. week in 3>/*-4 hrs. (via 8aJb*-0rstenvik in i- 


*h>mjTif***X*lL 1 *»e passengers of the great tourist steamers make by 

to *• Ar-S llG **-%r^*a&ntly crowded. JOA mi _ ,_„. A 

'Plnklea ' a ^S ^^P* OVyfirgrertad, seep. 18^. The road to 0le tains 

WjM S*>tMt ***** ^K ^cends the Webbede!, a pleaBant green valley 

Ja icji es T J a s ,^*^rcliea, Aescxihed by Magdalene Thoresen in her 

' u * *X*^ ^Uost dismal place in winter, endangered by aya- 

*^$ht rises the Tryggestadnakken, separated by the 

to Molde. 




Jiich , 
on, J 

, «° *; 



SeriMddl from the abrupt K'*** 4 ^!*, „_ - , ^ - - 1 
of rhevalleythe whole w»y. F «*** A-o tha N - W **C*% 
glaoler-girt Keitsw (see below)- rf , ***,:*V , -■>«,+„ 

tinder (see below). . - « ; JB«e« . ^^ '* « B if * er "an d 

iOKil.Fibel.twl-Holgen^l 5 * "" V_ ^*fcS?«^- 

situated on the watershed between ■->- ■**■"., 

rundfjord, is a good centre for nOO* 1 

=f- ----- of the "K^iteff (WW ft- . 

Idea, P. 0. Ringrtal »n d J 


wild o 

i. (with guide)- t' 


t, lt.i. 

(^ orf the jji 


. _... _ _... icwlld Hoi 

B. tide of the lake, down the Tvne-El" 
past the Twtfei to Bjerke (p. 18S). 

At Ftbelstad-Hougen begins tte "°l*n»,j -—ma 

grandest and wildest valleys in Norway- T*^ n ™' °"e of (ftfl 
attractive. The road leads through a Weak d a j e *££ P"" i« un- 
four lakes, between which the brook sometimes diaan * * eTleB of 
poor nature on their banks are bnilt Into the rooks for shell"' f The 
avalanches (the remains of which are -visible all summer) andt """ 
falls. Beyond the second lake the road crosses to the right Bid '"*~f 
the valley. The valley contracts. The scenery is wildest by the 
perpendicular black cliff of *8taven (over 4900 ft.), at the fourth 
lake. The road crosses to the left bank. 

The valley expands. The abrupt sides of the valley are re- 
placed by separate peaks. To the right, behind us, above the inter- 
vening hills, towers Slmiven (6286 ft.). Before us Biicrpsaivelj- 
appear: (left) Kietpm. the prolongation of Staven; (right) the 
Smetikrtdtindtr (5240 ft.), at the foot of which lies SkyMad, the 
highest gaard in the valley, where the road crosses to the right 
bank; (left) the Middagihorn (4363ft.)-, (right) Slope* (see below), 
the appearance of which varies from different points. 

iiKll. (pay for 19)0i e (•Union Hot* J, similar in all respects to 
the Onion Hotel at Marok p. 183, and belonging to the same com- 
pany; Pltfnfi, unpretendii/ 1/oM.ftoiQthesteamhoat-pier), at the 
E. end of the Nortmgtfirv,* itxrot 1 M. to the S., on the left bank 
of the river, is *k7&J£ (*■ I 1 /* « ^ » A B. 1'/**-, 
well spoken of; &&_ "Jj #°* \u My * Ang.). On both sides 
of the valleyand fjord „**. S „ B lnB mountains : Slogen (see below), 
not visible from 0ie l* n *« iK»P, the Miadagshom ; ft«* on the right 
the Kiotow  t& - * * " m(15Q0ft.> 

ut-S; wjsr ^wtsr^ J&sj 

PederHaugw. ■■. c - 81i ^?™'»- 


ia often prefer 

mBfcylaUd faSB 

|ok.v aaft atou 

the o x~^.*=> «*„»«» "„a ei*, ,;" j .o4 « "f 

ul »"i""=S-* «*»„«■* * no »" #„ L, J i "** 

hWLe. AALESUND. 26. Route. 189 

j&mhuh tlietf- 5 d . F<Mtor or ^^ on ^e W. side. Between 
11m tiriUms vf© o^ain a final survey of the Jarundfjord in its 
(g^Vngth. Qft ££•)» "baclted l>y the distant Hornindalsrokken. 
1fciiatft W 4tte^«, past the large island of Sulsen, into the 
Sulefiotd, ftom which the Vartdalsfjord diverges to the S. The 
w#toi 3errx B i 10IIi again appears to the left, above Lynge. On 
foe ^f, aieie of the Sulefjord. lies the island of Hareidland, 
mththe duuroh of Hareid and hills rising t 2360 ft. To tlie N. 
appeals the Qode , with a lighthouse , separated from Hareidland 
bv the unprotected Bredaund; then the island of Hcssen, with the 
pointed Sutekertop; and farther to the N. the Pafcfer*, with a light- 
house, where there is a cavern 120 ft. high on the S/W. Bide (the 
SjonpM). Passing the SUwoaag^ the bare rocks of which are used 
for drying fiLsh ('Klipflsk'), we reach, in 33/ 4 _4 hrs. from 0ie, — 
AaleBUnd. — Hotels. *Sohibu>bojp , s Hotkz, (8ch. on the Plan, p. 190), 

V# M. from tlxe pier, B. lVa-2, A V*, B. or 8. li/« kr. 5 S ££ KDI £*^ IIB <M. 
«*.), Stor-Qade, farther from the harbour, H. IV2 B. 1 kr. 30jf-t />. 2i/tkr., 
S. i kr. 40 0. — Baths on the Asp*. — Post Office, Notenees-Gade, 350 yds. 
beyond Schieldrop's Hotel v Telegraph Office 8tor-G ftde ' 

^ofesund, a husy trading town with 8l00 inhab., lies on the 
Nerve (E.) and the Asp0 (W.), two islands on the outer fringe of 
the 'Skjargaard', a favourable situation to which it owes its rapid 
rise. It was only in 1824 that it came into notice as a harbour, and 
only in 1848 that it heeame a town. Aalesund i» the 60mi ttercial 
eentre of the whole region of the Storfjord (v 178), » nd for ttte cod- 
fisheries of the W. 'hanks', particularly the famous 'FiskepUds' 
Storeggen, the yield of which is 6-6 million kr. p er ann ^ Qttl - The 
harbour, which opens towards the N.W lies between the two is- 
lands and is protected by Skandsen, a peninsula of the Nerv*, on 
one side, and by a pier on the other. The narrowest part of this 
strait, the Aaletund, from which the town take* its » ame > V* Cro »»ed 
by a bridge connecting the two parts of the town- ° n th f N*rve 
('indom Sundet') are the custom-house the inns, etc, and on the 
Asp* Odom Sundet') are the church and the school; .On l the E. 
side of the N*rv0 quarter is a pretty Pari with a pavilion (rfmts.) 
and Tiews of the distant peaks of Sendmlre A more extensive view 
is obtained from the *AaUsund*axla C509 ft' 1 1 * r • *?« ♦£ *??• 
We leave the park by its back (NO Lte and ^ llo ^J)l w . e11 : 
kept path, which skirts the base of tni Sjy MU, nTfL??° 
a cemetery, and leads to (4 min.) the $ +•*". J ravine a 
Here we ascend the steps to the right and follow *^ e " A i "~~~ ^ 
little to the S. of the Sj*holt road g. igl 6 KU- ^re^E" 1 *' 

lttotf ^cariole 2, gig 3, can. and pair fiwl JN®* X ^.ndv 
HroU Gangr ("Rolf the Gan ger >), th! co^ro* of£« rt «£?U Utt , 
The Steamboat Teaffic of Aalesund u ™„.ider»£j£* an d the S*nd- 
steameys of the Bergen and Trondhjem Hue f ^ 166, 9Q°lr tiroes weekly) 
m*re 8 teamen, to Sunehen and Qitomg* (p n Cp & SK* !£ U £»d * e *°»"«tai 
to the Jtrund/Md (p. 189? thrice weekly)^ Jd t o ^ /€ * 

*^_ V " *>e*-weenlhe0rstenfjord .ndthsFoldm- 

,-* : * -»»^»- ** ™** v ol.. en Q 0r d. Boote to the Jarundijord, 


fc Itingly ] 

""^viie "»* tt,V^lr*5q"S .-From 

^T^^viow n* .^oitlf ""thr^oUMt****!- We ascend 

f MeeTd'th 

' .ei-Mi,! SoJooidns (4708 ft. i usoended by 
^j___ ta " " 

"*" «*.-»»»«• -— jf it w* the •Bmwii'oJ — ■-»-- -. -j p or ,- lfa j 

or yirSi Fi«>r«^*"*" i e0 <liil "VliJ^T' _*^e ascend the StamfolnHd, at tta top of 

SS3S HaK^X to«Cor« »«. TC D i «"> Kolaartlid behind —  »■- " ' «' 

- 188). Lastly, row to Saibg, BK 

' trie 1SJ2J th e lofty KlwdoJtrii^fgSi JM, a 

1.^*1 ~ '"""' 

v-r. „_» a no qmn e . n -o»» the Stontlal to (BKil.) Sore Sfandal 

 >« **« ™*d «,;„■■ »- lee). .... 

„,,„( aoina to.*, _="«■ th» i„n, _ , 

Boviv vlt> Am (1 

f ***i* PMt.tagi.rd Onotd, at the 0«0. 
l *0. where the MrnndfitwA MM. noma in 

*» fflhnked by the ftMtatrl (4018 ft.) and 
-J - *M -dm-MiAon* (1496 ft.) and S.w**™ 
i i«~?.' Ve '-al curds. Bj the gurd Euttad, in 

6- ler s *«J^^iVT= tariff B.*» •*ei^S>l B * direction for 20) fitt. (iood """op). 

id Aalesnnd tta steamer 

°"«" "'^ri-vjj'wi^ - U»e 


26. Molde and the Moldefjord. The Eomsdal. 

The Eikiidal. 

Akbival. The large coasting steamers do not lay to at the pier of 
Molde, and passengers are landed either in a rowing-boat (10-13 0. each pers.) 
or in the steam-launches of the two leading hotels (95-60 #., inol. luggage). 
The fjord-steamers land at the bridge by the Torv, 

Hotels at Molde (often overcrowded in the season) : *Gband H3tbl, 
finely situated at the E. end of the town, B. 2-2'/2 kr., L. 25 *., B. l»/2, 
D. 2i/s, 8. !*/« kr.; English spoken. This hotel keeps a steamer for excur- 

tue Aieiauunt, wiuiuui view, J*., r>., or o. a, u. x'/2 &r. — wnen me 
hotels are full , decent quarters may be had in private houses (1 kr.). — 
Baths at the two large hotels. Primitive sea-baths by the Alexandra 
Hotel (20 0. ; towel 7 0.). — Post & Telegraph Offices (see Plan). — 
British Vicb-Conbul, Mr. P. P. Ddhl. — English Church Service in sum- 
mer at the parish church. 

Steamers to Bergen and to Trondhjetn , each about 11 times a week, 
to AaUtund 17 times (inch the Bergen steamers) ; to places on the Molde- 
fjord, see pp. 192, 196. — Careful enquiry should be made as to the hours 
and places of departure. 

Molde, a thriving little town of 1700 inhab., and a great summer 
resort, is pleasantly situated on the N. bank of the Moldefjord, at 
the foot of green slopes backed by higher hills. Thus sheltered from 
the N. and W. storms, the vegetation is surprisingly luxuriant, 
though Molde is nearly 3° of latitude to the N. of St. Petersburg. 
Roses abound, and some of the houses are overgrown with honey- 
suckle. Mingling with the pine and the birch are seen horse- 
chestnuts, limes, ashes, and cherry-trees. — The Church contains a 
picture by Axel Ender. representing the Women at the Sepulchre. 

The great attraction of Molde is the noble surrey it commands 
of the wide expanse of the fjord and the long chain of mountains 
to the S. and S.E., with their rooky peaks and snow-flecked sides. 
The most picturesque point of view is the "BaknsBshoug (260 ft.), 
a hill laid out in promenades to the N.W. of the town (near Consul 
DdhVsHave, a pretty private garden), to which we may ascend from 
the Alexandra Hotel in V^r., or from the Grand H6tel by the upper 
road, passing the church, in 20 minutes. At the top is a pavilion, 
with a mountain indicator. In the foreground lies the town, at the 
foot of green hills, beyond which stretches the beautiful fjord, 
broken by the long islands of Gjerto, Saetere, and Faar*. 

Between Consul Dahl's Have and the Raeknaeshaug a bridle-path, 
indicated by a finger-post *til Varden' and by a second 6 min. farther 
on (where we turn to the right), ascends past a refreshment -stall 
with a flagstaff to the (1 hr.) top of the *Moldehei (1350 ft.), with 
a refuge-hut (not always open) and a huge vane. The extensive 
view embraces the whole of the l^oldefjord with the mountains 
enclosing it: towards the S., on the Tight, is the conspicuous 
Laupare (p. 186); to the left of it rg J5.), rising above the coast- 
hills, are the Trold tinder (p. 19 A the Romsdalshorn, and the 
Vengetinder; in the distance, mor e to the left(E.), the Skjorta in 

192 Routt 26. VESTNjBS. Moldcfjord. 

the Eiklsdal (p. 197); to the W. a glimpse of the open sea, of 
which more is Been from another height, to the N. of the ref age- 
hut, marked with a pointed varde. (See annexed Panorama; a 
larger is to he had at DabTs book-shop at Molde, price 1^2 tr 

A charming drive may he taken, towards the E., through the 
fine avenue on which the Grand H6tel is situated, to the *Fanc- 
strand or Fannestrand, where the rich vegetation of Molde is seen 
to advantage. The road is shaded with birches, ashes, maples, 
larches, and other trees, and is flanked with pleasant gaards, villas, 
and gardens (among which is Consul Johnson's Buen Retiro). All 
the way we enjoy a fine view, towards the S., of the fjord and the 
distant mountains. At Aare and Ejkrem, 4*/2 Kil. f rom Molde, the 

road becomes less frequented; StrandeQp. 196)is4 1 /2KU-** rt h er on - 
To the K.E. of Molde rises the Tusten (2285 ft. ; 3 hrs. ■■> guide ad- 
visable). We go to the E. end of the town, cross the brook, and ascend 
its bank, past a few houses and through sparse wood. The barren Tusten 
forms the background of the valley. After */< br. the valley divides \ we 
keep to the right, and OA hr.) cross a bridge, beyond which we follow 
a path through thin wood straight towards the top. The dead and dying 
pines, with their silver-grey trunks, on the (1^4 hr.) upper margin of the 
wood, are very picturesque. Thence to the top about 20 min. more. Alpine 
flora. Very extensive view, embracing the fjord and the mountains to 
the N., E., and S., and the vast Atlantic to the W. 

a. Excursion to the Bomadal. 

Steamboat from Molde to AandalincB* (or Net*) about 14 times a 
week, in 27«-5 hrs. (fare 2 kr.). — Road from Nces to the Romsdal. Pleas- 
ant to walk from Nees to (27 Kil.) Flat-mark and to drive back (or even 
to 0f*m«tm, 88 Kil. ; hut better in this case drive both ways). It is scarcely 
feasible to visit the Romsdal from Molde and to return to Molde in one 
day. Better, after seeing Molde, leave it altogether for Uses or some other 
station in the Romsdal. 

Instead of taking the direct steamer to Hses, we may go by another 
(p. 196) to Alfarna* or to Latreim, drive or walk to Thorvik, and row 
across to Uses (comp. p. 197). 

The vessel steers to the S., affording a fine view of the mountains, 
backed by the Lanpare(p. 185) at the head of the Tresfjord, to (1 hr.) 
Vestnees {Hotel Stanley, R. li/ 2 » D. 2, S. lV2*rO> on the W. side 
of the entrance to the Tresfjord, a deep bay set in wooded, hills and 
bare rocky peaks. The road to Sjeholt begins here (p. 186). A steamer 
ascends the Tresfjord, twice a week, to Viken and Sylte (whence a 
road up the KarseimsdallezHs to Vagsvik on the Storfjord, 17 Kil.; 
p. 185), and down by Dougstad and Legernas or Leikamcts. 

We steer to the E., past Gjermundnces, and enter the Romsdals- 
fjord. To the left the island of Sakken, on which lies Vested (called at 
twice weekly). Fine view up the Langfjord, with the Skaala on its 
N.W. bank (p. 196). On the right the populous Vaagestrand, with 
its white church high up, and the station Rcestadbygd. To the £. 
towers the wooded Oksen (2674 ft.); to the right of it, in the 
distance, appear the Romsdal Mts., notable among which are the 
furrowed Vengetinder. Some of the steamers enter a small bay at 




s** °*°f**sl\ ban * ri»e th« r ?? t0 the R^venf/ord ft. 1971 

*^ e *ou th I?**! at W 4^4 by. two hills. Several of the 
J*^ T e 8 *eer n e / er «le ^^d timber church, situated at 
^*Za% """Mall** th * momh 5 ^ a ° ked by sn ™-™>™t*in*. 

i£? k ! n * ^oSS *■ disci* ?&**»• A fine yiew of the Sm*r- 

?' g^er, J ??*«•-: the y!!f d * ««> »-, and, to the S. f of the 

*»°«ble th e hew 6 ^dalgh® * etinder > the Kalskraaijeld, with 

**r ***u«**i£;! of ^ose of i? 11 - These mountains average nearly 
"T. n»ian+— J T aaB *. — - n»_^ . W*]*., -«^ w M ^«.i. n j 


tm tke S * °'5P 8itnA *ed aH?^ C^ e 

of S ndal *n»a .f tranc e to *r at *»na * nt0 the Romsdalsfjord, is less 
^ * cue vfn.__ .» at whi c | l — ^** *> - J - 1  1 **' , » * Ka «**■»«■*♦* »♦•««« 

Roksdal Hotel, a 
no view from either. 
Conveyances await the steam- 

of the Seetnes field (3900 ft.), 


5, cotJ??** ***** ^+1 to the right leads past the houses 
*o j^*" ***dy ter 2 .Z*^5 izi 8 , ^i?^ rifle-range. These lieon an ancient 

'J!*> °* the ^o^* *i*e ?*** rie^r of the Isterdal. We may cross 

To*T>A* 8te *meT * ai *o a <>Wt a nd proceed via the gaard of Soffge 

AJ b S**Z%£ 8e * O* 4V 2 M. from Veblungsnas (p. 194). 

^*S^r%£ ***V* ~°£f_ of tbe Rauma and 8teers 

*t*tit 9 «**?»*** <X ^*k^\Ye e Sr **«*»«« charges. - Hotel' Hol- 
v 1 » at Veij e Gj-aJ?^ ** Hot**"* 

1Un **— **** - Diligence to Lillehammer, 

The nearest telegraph- 

To t^e 

or jv<es, the chief approach to 

The nearest height 

also called Nasaxlen. 

T \*r\\t of the Naeaaxel we look 

Bomsdalshorn, and Trold- 

*«* Khf^i^Xl^Sx ^y^& U Z?£ T ib* l8t6Tdal *nd towards the 
,. J**£Lf^^j^^*? these ^lloV *Bd*^ Blaatind , to the N. 

ail*^**^:*^ the W^MSt in * be disUnce, the Juratind 

- «*S&* 

' a ad op 



k ^V ^Stiffane to « jjdit 

1.94. — To the Isterdal, as far 
gtegafjeld (p. 186). — Row to 






194 Route -6. ROMSDAL. Moldefjord. 

2fto«ri*(p.l9fr ; boat-akyds; 3 hrs there and back), »**»**£ ^^e 
a fine noint of view above the Gjerswtvatn. — The e* "* 81 ®" * ©refer 

mSSJ^rm -a7al-o be made &*^]£^^&'£j3Hr* 

the fatiguing walk from 8 ten through the Grtfvdal. JfoJ h £°*f e 7t W lce » 

from fliffWft to i^* (P- 19J wbet.ce we , go on *r«*«£^ Vowera 

week) or emaU boat to Ne*U (a tiring row of M h». * witu tare* 

12 kr. 40 0. •, better with four 16 kr. 40 0.). frozen over 

Several steamers go on from *»■ up **•**#'* J^^J? a road on 

in winter) to Sten, at the mouth of the £^** ^^J^JflKH-* 

the bank of the fjord also leads from Hft* (6 ML). Bey*™ *» en Seated 

the church of 2T«n. To the U. rise* the Ktrketag (^ "& ^aeKeiabove 

outline of which is so conspicuous in the view from ™^*S e Vw^m 

Molde. - From Hen a road leads up the ^^™*£? ieend «ie 

and ifo»-ftol (S^brs.-, tolerable quarters), wheiioe w ^"^ t £^ Gr *v- 

/«ra«nd (5125 ft. % 7-8 hrs. to the top * splendid view). 7 * rom "*« to 

j dal we may descend the Hornedal by a *f ter-path, ™* j^^qq ft.) on 

the right, between the UffUhouo on the 8. » d *? *"iJS&.3fto ik**« 

the N. , to TorAt«, near the Eirisf j ord Church, and (i ^^fS^Sv . Hana 

! in the Eikisdal (about 8 hrs. in all from Sten* guide necessary, 

Mostu commended; see also p. 197). . * the 

l The *Bomsdal, or valley of the Bawna (p. 69), ib one oi 

most famous in Norway. The road from N»s descends » «*©; « 
! bank of the river and (2 Kil.) unites with that ^m Veblim JJH» 

! (p. 193 ; 3 Kil. distant). It then ascends on the right hank 01 * 

stream, through park-like scenery (alders, tocnW ' Q ". 1 eS 4 L™Tff aB 
with high mountains. On an eminence to the right, 6 &u. rrom jl . 
is the new Sdtel Holgcnvs, the owner of which (Ole * a ™ IM t £ 
j provides for conveyances to or from the steamer. J*™ 6 ^ w ?vu 

the left, is the gaard of Aak, now the residence of Mr. n. u. wu ^ 
t the well-known tobacco-manufacturer of Bristol. To the ngnx, 

i yond the stream, opens the Itterdal, with its pe**» ^ S ™5 ^L* on 

Bispen ( 'the Bishop') and SeOrene ('the Sisters* ; 3096 ft.) , a f* ° 
the E Kongen ('the King'; 6310 ft.). A little *"*« ™' *£ 
r diverging to the right leads across the Rauma to « ogg « ^~*_ 

P. 193). On our road lie the gaards of Hole and v ^*Va *ide of 
i ; vhich is the gaard Fiva , in a grove of birches. On the x>- « „ 

the valley, scarcely visible from the road, is the picturesque * 
"nd (5960 ft.), adjoining which and dominating &* la ?«S 
I ^ers the huge ♦Eomsdalshorn (4965 ft.), usually known a* x*^ . ft 

: „_ . T he Ascent of thb Romsdalshork (one day), first in* a fter snow. 

S?i Ve2 T difficult, though rather dangerous, and it ifl imposM' wc %q tbe 

Descend the Vengedal (here practicable for driving) , a J* " f Grytten 
are r ° m * he W ' 8ide - ^^tMas Boggemaen and Erik ^ ord iYnot quite 80 
difn!: **imended as guides. — The ascent of the Vbnobtind jf ^ one of 

*he2?lt. _ The Mj*l N ir, which Mr. Wm. C. Blings^y * eSC ?} isfceat scaled 
frojJ'^epest mountains in Europe, is extremely difftcnit. ** 

7L J ndre D**** ( e<*>* quarters), a drive of 8hT8. from ^^l^^tp^.pin- 
*a CJ °A the IT. side of the valley rise the ^ old ^^A2tol«et% or 
thf**S0OiO*.} Part of the crest i* Y^n as 'BjrudeW^^ 

«« CJ ***«W ^* iB ' Tie h '^est pealc m& 5 he ^ cend ^^ 1>y O. Hall 
in 1 1P* visible between N fflg and ^alc: (dlfaoul*? ,sc ?„ma At one 
M*cT^.). ^T 110 road leads cIose b X *^« toMBtog. Ba ~~U 'is carried 
^J?» inueli exposed to avalanches ivi winter, » e _*r 1>aIi tment. 
Q ^h r th© broad bed of the river l>y means of an em» 

ORMEIM. 26. Route. 1 95 

*<* d ~ f «^^ C^36 ft.; plain but good station) lies on an 
ii«« to<^ ^^ ♦*? "^ alle y ia widejc n «®, i*» floor marshy. The 
•tgS^-^V-teA ***° remainfl of avalanches. 
atf* xter ** £**fc]»t» * Mirth0 and 2V*en«, and, on the opposite 

.W*^ y 1 r^*f ctT1 '**»yew, 4Jfio*, and Remmcm. Below Rem- 
^e^^^^^V-?** * -waterfall, and near the gaard of Monge, 

8ide ° tfft<&* **!£e^**i*l*ul Mongefosy descending from the Jtfon- 
m6 A ft \eft» ** J5 ~V> ^*>o^re this, not visible from the road, rises the 

OH** , . af\ %%T ZjLXfo £*/%. ^Whir.h ift AHP.AT1<1ai1 tVAm TPla+marV TKo 

{fS8$ ^rf+S*^ **0» ^hich is ascended from Flatmark. The 

^tooafiel* 0?^* **«> ^ere 2000-3000 ft. high. Splendid view of 
* oiW ^ &*& **** ^emUtind (5770 ft.) behind us. The road 


*id&& B &** ^3**^ Tea <l * neir wa Y through a chaos of rocks formi 
^tweB**** 11 * **«* landslip. Beyond the church of Kors t which li 

tte^ et ^ 0lC * &<** a^d is not visible from it, we reach — 
H-**\a cft^ e ^— •«' T ^ C C station, good and reasonable), in a fertile and 

y*fc&- *t l5* e vaUe y- °PPosite rises Skiriaxlen (3745 ft.). 
Ling "8* 1 * ° • *\ ^ ue y though less grand. On each side are wa^i 
Scene*? **\ ^eir might in dry seasons : on the left the Styggt 
f We ah otl * ° defoSy Skogefoa-, on the right the Dentefos, To the 

S., *»? £ so as 

fo^df 08 ' n tn.eit»» rises the Middagshoug. The Rauma is here 
c abo^ e g0 as to form a kind of lake. The road now ascends 
gained- *Jj? ^e right is the *V«rmo/bs, leaping nearly 1000 ft. 
tapidly* i side, majestic after rain and spring thaws. Best view 
from *k e vy knoll opposite the fall, on the right bank of the Rauma. 
from * ^°. < 5r q jjneim (* 'Station; view of the Varmofos from the back 
li ^'.g beautifully situated high above the Rauma. To the S. 
r indo*s>i ^k itg peak siorfatten (5940 ft. j ascent past the 


the A* l y % BIB . • two-thirds ridable; horse 4, guide 4 kr.). 
YjermOiOS eisa to Reitan on the Eikisdalsvand, see p. 199. 




the D t \ e i w overhanging rocks, where we have a fine view of the 
*° * 8 ^ hear its roar. The rocky sides of the gully have been worn 
fall and n ^^ cau i^ rons ('Jaettegryder' j comp. p. 267). 

* rom rsioiri8t 8 to the Romsdal from Veblungsnas or Aandalsnaes 
"^ X °^rn at Onneim or even at Flatmark, but the upper part of 
usually ^ a j g0 ver y fl ne About 4 kil. above Ormeim we come to 
^ e vail y indicating the way to the *Slcttafos. "We alight, cross 
flngel-P a ^ ove the fall, and ascend to the right by a rough path 

ie DTI ©. ^ Qyo^aTianTiir rnplra whftrfl wa havfl a flnft view of thfi 

its I 
*«.— a *gj into uv*/^ v ««.»~* v — «. ^ v ~w»» vo .^~^» , _„— r . ^. ,->,.,. 
^y the w» ^^^ ^g a a b 0ve the Rauma, which, often lost to view, 
The I0 * era ^ tributaries, chief of which is the Ulvaa on the 
ieceW& 8 d . gc h a rge of the Ulvedalsvand. We ascend the once 
light, f^Z^ukv ('bears' cliff) in windings. 

d * ead n Kil (pay for 41 ) 8tll « flftaten (2060ft.; 'Station, R. 1 1/2, B. 1, 
* in i"? is the first place in the Gudbrandsdal. Fine view from 

the heig B * " fllia ten a mountain-path leads N. to the Eikisdal y see p. 199. 
■ptota *5J BD p AM FJOKi> (p. 184), towards the W. : first by a road up the 
To this TttngefCB ter (quarters), at the E. end of the Ulvedalsvand ; 

jjlvaa to w> f . eld an a down the Mukluh-Elv to the gaard Muldal (quar- 

then across *» 

Elr> SVAAO. Moldtford. 

Bon** W- _—  *he »*Q^rf^ 

,._.£ed Mlh ""T^-. -^S^**"" «i« IlaJ^iL made at Stoeflaaten. 

1 *nrtM» n»*^,«**TinW- P. i\^**»«a»»t«, by th a #».«<«>■ In a days 

«%-.«» =*-lV%* pb -> *o ?£? from TJeWe 0nW .rd.) or 8i« 1M « 

_ tut » ( * a £7 J T— ^^ iaC*»t *«t»x?n"^r*<''. « '"e entrance of th. Biktrf.l. 

d „.d l«e ,„ tof*. — -w e b ^™ r,y steamer, or the reverie. Three 

— --,— Ifc o* ?£=!* J**** the land-route: - 1st Day, to 

"•^■»***" ( r *ra So -W««(; walk or drive to enraai; 

\jsr*~$jp*jsi£3 "_, ---'■"■- 

"*" -— -xtOK Mot S. Ji ri *> Hurriedly fr. one day. 

_ ..-„„- _»** (p- labfi *o Notth (70 Kil.) is attractive 

) mft»r« wt,r ?^« *")- W an * between Tjelde and EidBTiag. 

P, Ki\. Strand-e W^^aaia C3590%/^ lrt the *'*"fl , "« t . bounded on 

■he 3 by the lot*"? ^V»x» 0,:i it; a N J> 80 called from tie 'akaala' or 

i3 Kil. -Efde l**> *■ ^^ the N" re J, -where a route to Christiaujiind 

'■p. 'JOO) diverge * -ho-wi the 1st . The fiord ends at the chnrch of 

• mwSlf i- lM 5 Won/ 6 «' the valley. 
An^vfir aS±S *<> **»- e rt 6l».t to*i tie ">ad forts: to the left to 
thrSwhthe OarVV».<**-*= , » raM, oto n * he Eitisdal. The Utter read leads 
the grand Sksala, on the riglx t r< M ' B hooded district, overlooked by 
Otvand and tlxe e*»- &ia of °»»*W CT a *' oa8iT1 B the Slor-Eiu, we page tie 
•ritbltagssrd^ and- tnB s Men,„ * a-nd. farther on the Sjeriatervand, 
betutitai riow o« the Langfj u /»«. Then a steep descent, with a 
'**«. TJelde, oTTjdU, * rt *-*idt QeB now-p e akatotheS. 

, In 2i/ a br B -. ***e Ltmgfjord, whence we may 
oid, and tUei ^ " T he r°»d leads E„ pretty 1 

 ""i..r i.^ot.- ,» ,.,!„. „ ... e *» d^T~ The ™«d leads E., pretty high 
"*«. majMratan/nr 9 S - ^S- cen ds, infull view of the Skjorta 
re -Oord' »=»_«-;-»-=, ^^fi" ' "■ $ua ZZ^ pass seversl substantial gaards. 
e "J-»allc *o th. n. an * aV^-^p's floteij Ilea at the E. end of 
"f°«ra ^-a.x»^ «„,!„„. «Al»«v *°w tide covered with sea-weed. 
Wt^SrTE^iSr^rS?** in C10 min .io theN.). Steamhoat- 

!« -o*^^* Vt^r t p f ^- c ' o ^--^ u wta c«..> 

•J^Via— .^j— _^* lu flt irta «. * be Tiltireid to Eidierm on the Sua- 

' ^e*i^»»* - wlere th „ „ * f1o»^ 

ht n_ w — ^i^^ s Ter y hill 0v eli a > ""d passes the parsonage of 
it ,_^ *=* *lieSfcjo r( y > " w 'ith * B JernaonipentpartofMsyonth. 
(1 > -*^^-«»e B the t«-„ 0lx *h« , ** r atty views of the EirUfjordoa 
lil ""^^T" e **f * it end ****«. ft CP- **0- Abc,nt * Kil - from 

*- ^^*"Om Eidevi.^ 8 "-, *"*r* ° f Bo PP< (steamboat-station), and 

a *> Ar«!? ftredvik we row to (4 Kil.) — 
*'* CP- 197). 

«,, 5 "xi «5* "■ *«x<,h 'S~x4 s« M .«'%ir^»*aV* 

* m „... not rtsible F-„„Z P*. ^"hich tow™ *w!^ g^iL- 

*"•«. l" 1 A lr„„"' £« XXX„„otonoU.. *^2«-e 

* I*] „„ ,^ £? bl> ** Cx»ee bel.wl. T-? ^V. ^*4»*-x 

mown,.' • ".xially r-alled *l»e Ar^"*^-* ^ ~ 7*^ 

19 BouttSO- ^ ^ "AND. KUfciJw. 

». "Sltoto;"^ J^jo-M.a ** » h =«?"S*;,f n ? "»'« tan, ,,, 

00*. KEIT-AN. ». »„,„. 199 

a. «*«*„*■ *"■« ( 8 o«i ;?"*»? "«*>«.■».,,„ 

k (iU^ tt, i ^ilcUdal, near the motatla of the ^ur a -p,„ »„ the 
6 mlo- "*". i£ » reputed a good K«i^O a "d 0p, SQafi rf t DeQI . 

B enlw tonI , ^Vtven l>y » » m<al stream tnat aiwWa ( below 
"„ »e»»), "irVf^ai. oto tlie A Ura i. , ..fZ*". 1 """™. 

«*°."*?he iield 1- r»a. er Bteep,'; did. £ 'j 

» Held-, ford brooii 
p until within »/* -"■• i 
, Xtuejtaaten Cp- 1«J), 

87 From M-olde to Tron.dbjna 

aaaealtftn™ ^sw.ajtaB toarleta. now , BfcJ( 

ft. Br Baa. 

QH HT ,„.»o« dally la a*»«"^ 12 n ™- < 1S *'■ "0, a* an 

29SB ki«"" ia .H,t C Xn«" Jt^alA nta rt la the ^ 80 a.). P „. 

seaeo™ HU|)J ..* to Carietlansund tn tlie nl e bt. — $"£ '" order to n t 

„v"r U> B y*5S toacli at Molofi on thot* way It., but „ a , e B «6e n 

ptaatoaate" Soon after starting we eteef .""""' °n'r 

,1. J«'""^J,ni»10 «0, - ' "enaiand, ■»! la!™, ?,. ' " 
-»l*Srl»«0 mile right. L,,,., ;,,'S»P".« 

the Julm "r;nn;tt(iWO "0. "» ' headland, and later th* on tbe 
letti^'JSraWKO S>0»rl.kt. Le.Tla, ,,.'!!« P.n.Wd.1 

'»"• S^ma^eal.teanerandbyatoaal,and,2 ™»»ett.d 
"N* M °S?, id. tt-til It teath.. Ctrle,,.,^™ 1 <™ to «,, 

BodfleW ™ ""jTsorfanar., and a little Ln,, ™l«» ft.), ,.. 

fjp. WW)- i0 r" ri(B t ate aotetal gaarda at the bare of V' nd i file 
a aHPitli "™ JU.> «»• •">» <" the •»».„,, ™»««er, 


Route 27. 

(a white building") o 
land (right) and th© 

Gen g a £. ?*A French. 
Bntiah Vice-cons 

portant fish-mart ' 
enclose the harbour 
and the hotels ; In&*^ 
church and fine wo 
ing-places for the 
launches ply betwe 
the street to the xi& 
promenades and a 
Vagttaarn is also 
has been erected at? 
cave known as the 
distant, is the islao- 

Looai Stkaur&b 
oni To Molde and 
fcSL'iee below. 

Beyond Christ^ 




l *a* 5-x. 

8t6e Ue t 


* *£P** 

strip* Z* Hf & 

25 > b 


n *MT^** 


t^ 1 **^ tie US* 

^ra t ^ 



the o 

i * 





»• V) 


^Sff* tore f^l^S^m 



ess - — - *^» afeSfctfe 

POMO S """"J* » »»»«»,■ art,"' ' a *? K («i'0 

From iu ,, *'>H 6 »">»»f.«- W"™»~" ™— — " 

gW-JaSy „**« *S»<V) a-** P 4 "-1 '" a 



History. TRONDHJEM. 28. Route. 203 

knive\ etc., at L. Hansen's. Strand-Gade 35, next door toBruun; good and 
cheap at the depdt of the VTugthua* (house of correction), Kongens-Gade 86 
(on the way to lhlen). — Ornaments, copies in repousse and chased work 
of the figures in the cathedral, etc., at H. MtllerU, Dronningens-Gade 16, 
corner of the Nordre - Gade. — Booksellers (photographs, maps, etc.): 
A. Brim, Kongens-Gade, corner of Uordre-Gade, opposite the post-office: 
A. Holbcek JBrikstn, Strand-Gade 17; H, Moe> Munke-Gade 44. 

Trondhjem, or Throndhjem (pron. Tronjem), German Drontheim, 
with 30,000 inhab. , situated on a peninsula formed by the Trond- 
hjems-Fjord and the river Nid, is the northernmost of the larger 
European towns, being situated in 63°30' N. lat., the same latitude 
as the S. coast of Iceland. In summer the climate is like that of 
the S. of England, in winter like that of Dresden. The river is 
rarely frozen over, the fjord never. Hence the rich vegetation. Many 
of the townspeople are wealthy , and they have long been noted 
for their kindly disposition. The district is called Trsndelagen, its 
inhabitants Trender. To the E., S., and 8.W. rise picturesque 
heights: E. the Blasevoldbakke, terminating in the spur of 
Ladchammeren ; S. and S.'W. the Steribjerg. 

History. Down to the middle of the 16th cent, the name of the 
town was Nidarot ('month of the river Kid' ; Aa, Aar, signifying 'river 1 , 
and 0«, 'estuary') or Kaupangtr i Trdndhjem ('merchant-town in Trond- 
hjenT). Like TJpsala in Sweden. Trondhjem, the 'strength and heart 
of the country', is the cradle of the kingdom of Norway , and it was 
here, on Brataren, that the Norwegian kings were elected and crowned. 
Here, too, met the famous J&rething. So early as 996 Olaf Tvyggvason 
founded a palace, and a church which he dedicated to St. Clement. St. 
Olaf, who is regarded as the founder of the town (1016), revived the 
plans of Olaf Tryggvason, which had been neglected after his death, and 
after the death of 'the saint' at the battle of Stiklestad (1030) a new im- 
pulse was given to building enterprise. For his remains were brought 
to Trondhjem and buried there, but afterwards transferred to a reliquary 
and placed on the high-altar of St. Clement * Church, where they attracted 
hosts of pilgrims. The St. Olaf cult gradually made Trondhjem one of 
the largest and richest towns in Norway, and gave rise to the erection of 
the cathedra] and no fewer than fourteen other churches and five mon- 
asteries. At a later period terrible havoc was caused by civil wars, pest- 
ilence , sieges, and fires: and the pilgrimages, so profitable to the town, 
were pnt an end to by the Reformation. The reliquary of the saint was 
removed by sacrilegious hands from the altar in the octagon of the cathe- 
dral-choir, and his remains were buried in some unknown spot; and 
most of the churches and monasteries were swept away. In 1796 the 
population numbered 7500, in 1815 not above 10,000, in 1833 about 12,900, 
and in 1875 it reached 22,500. The railway which connects it with 0ster- 
sund, Sundsvall, and Stockholm has made Trondhjem the port for part of 
northern Sweden. 

The Streets are widely built (100-120 ft.) in order to diminish 
the danger of fire, and generally intersect each other at right 
angles. Most of the houses are of timber. The streets running 
from N. to S. command views of the beautiful fjord with the island 
of Munkholm. The chief are, beginning on the E. side, parallel 
with the river, the Kjebmands-Gade, the large warehouses in 
which are supported by piles sank in the river ; then the Sendre 
Gade, the Nordre Gade, the Munke-Gade, and the Prmdscns-Qadc. 
Parallel with the harbour, beginning on the N., are the Fjord- 


204 Routed. TBONDHJEM. 

Oade, the Strand- Qad*A\eDronninge™' Q «^0 sir t (*<>* * is * e ) 
the Vc^re (now Erling Skatees) Gade, a** * u 

^* » 8man\ the ***•*•• Be > oud " U film** T°' dw *ft 
cb »rch v ectt «on 2f tie ^unka-Gade riaeft tfce w» T ke origin 

^.*lt * 8l *<* i««» ^ten the E. part ^« "**£; •i**" 1 £ 
W^WT^^^jrW-rfMrt onwards lay in TOln8 ' ri *„tffld« the,b 

the <*oi,  «»w *1 ^.^ octagonal apse are no* comP' 

Cathedral. TRONDHJEM. 28, Routt. 205 

storation of the remainder will probably take several more decades, 
but will doubtless be accomplished, as the Norwegians are justly 
proud of this great national monument, and as funds are provided 
by the state, by the Trondhjem Savings Bank, and by private sub- 
scription (about 100,000 kr. per annum). 

The Imtsbxob is open to the public 12-1 Vs and 6-7>/t o'clock . on Sun- 
days l-l 1 /* only (donation to funds expected); at other times to ticket- 
holders. (Tickets are sold by the booksellers mentioned at p. 208: 1-2 pers. 
2 kr., 8-8 pers. 4 kr.) 

A door to the left of the N. Portal (PI. K ; opposite the Munke-Gade) 
admits us to the Choib (PI. B), the restoration of which was completed 
in 1891. It is partitioned off from the Transept (PI. C ; now in restoration) 
and is at present used for the Sunday services. The white marble columns 
contrast beautifully with the greyish-blue of the aaponite walls. The 
octagonal Apse (PI. A) is particularly rich, and the effect is enhanced by 
stained-glass windows and a marble figure of Christ (above the apsidal 


Ground Plajk of the Cathedral: Romanesque parts black, Gothic 

parts shaded. 

arch). The silver reliquary of St. Olaf once preserved here, 225 lbs. in 
weight, was removed to Copenhagen at the time of the Reformation. From 
the ambulatory a side-door leads to St. Olaf* Spring (PI. o), which prob- 
ably determined the site of the church. On the opposite side of the apse 
U the Romanesque Chapteb House (PL £)• We may also visit the Nave 
(PI. D), the restoration of which was begun some years before that of 
the transept. The rich 8. portal of the choir is known as the Kongeind- 
aangen, ox king's entrance. 

In the 11th and 12th centuries the cathedral was the burial-place of 
the kings, and several were afterwards crowned here. By the consti- 
tution of Norway (1814) the kings must be crowned here, and this was 
done in the case of Charles XIV. John (Bernadotte) in 1818, Otcar I. in 
1844, Charles XV. in 1860, and Oscar II. in 1873. — Important works on 
the cathedral have been published by P. A. Munch, Schirmer (Norwegian), 
and Minutoli (German). 

To the S. of tbe cathedral is the Churchyard, many of the graves 
in which , in Norwegian fashion, are adorned with fresh flowers 
every Saturday. Adjacent is the Marine Arsenal, on the site of the 
old Kongs Oaard (PI. 1) and of the residence of the archbishops, 
containing an interesting collection of Norwegian weapons (apply 
to the sentinel). 


f Science fdet kgl. norske Videnskabers Selskab)^ 
merly Vestre) Gade 47, founded in 1760, once 
g, Suhm, Gunnerus, and other learned men 
>. It possesses a library of 70,000 vols., large 
actions, and antiquities from Trondhjems-Stift 
& Wed., 12-1.30; at other times, fee). The 
rf the 14th cent, was brought from Hoitaalen in 
ith the aid of the W. wall of the church of Aalen. 
ards the East we may cross the upper bridge 
Bybro, E. of the cathedral) to the suburb of 
ence, by a path to the left, ascend to (V4 hr.) 
istiansten (236 ft.), which was erected in the 
e fire-station, marked by a flagstaff, affords a 
f the town and environs, especially by morning 
e Blasevoldbakke (368 ft.) the view is more 
•e is no point which commands a complete sur- 
rough the suburb of Baklandct, where we ob- 
i-works and a shipbuilding-yard, we may go 
icross the Meraker railway (p. 207), to (i/2 hr.) 
ammer', headland). 

bst the town was formerly enclosed by forti- 
site rises the modern Ihlenskirke (PI. 6), built 
stone. Beyond is the suburb of Ihlen (10 min. 
ith a Rom. Cath. church and hospital (PI. 4). 
large timber-yards and some new pleasure- 
view of Trondhjem , with the winding Nid in 
! hills to the E., and the extensive fjord, is ob- 
reien, a new road ascending the slope of the 
p. 202; evening light best). On the Stenbjerg 
The blunted summit, near which another road 
»wned with a castle of King Sverre (Sverresborg). 
t, a pleasure-resort at Ihlen, on the left, a road 
On the slope of the hill we observe several old 
xi), 528 ft. and 580 ft. above the sea -level, 
with similar lines on the mountains on the E. 
The higher we ascend the finer becomes the 
looking back towards Trondhjem and the fjord 
itains on the Swedish frontier. Beyond Ghram- 
the church of Ihlen), where we pass through a 
tie E. disappears. Before us, in 10 min. more, 
Iraakallen (1840 ft.), to which two paths ascend 
min. from Gramskaret, leading by Tungtn and 
i other 10 min. farther on, passing Temptrvold 
m. The top (21/2-3 hrs. from the Tory of Trond- 
sommands an extensive survey of fjord and fjeld, 
low-mountains on the Swedish frontier. 

Excursions. TRONDHJEM. 28. Route. 207 

A bad path, almost impassable after rain, diverge* from the road to the 
right, y*M. beyond Tempervold, leads round the QJeit/Jeld y mostly through 
underwood and afterwards overlooking the fjord, and then descends past 
the old coastlines and the rifle-range ( l &kytterhtueP) to Ihlen. 

The Trollavei, running to the N. from Ihlen, and affording fine 
views of the fjord, leads to (6 Kil.) the iron-foundry of Trollabruk. 

In the fjord, ahout IV2 Kil. to the N. of the town, lies the 
fortified island of Xunkholmen (by boat in 20 min. ; with one 
rower for one pers. 1, two pers. I1/2 tr« ; w i*h two rowers iV2 or 
2 kr. ; bargain advisable ; admission free ; a soldier acts as guide). 
This 'Monks' Island* was once the site of a Benedictine monastery, 
founded in 1028, of which the lower part of a round tower is the 
only relic. Count Peter Oriffenfeld (P. Schumacher), the minister 
of Christian V., was confined in a cell here from 1680 to 1698. 
The island is described by Victor Hugo in his 'Han d'Islande'. 
Beautiful view from the walls of the fortress. Old guns, gun-car- 
riages, etc. Small lighthouse. 

The Excursion to the two falls of the !Nid near the gaard of Zeren, 
about 8 Kil. to the 8. of Trondhjem, is best made by driving (cariole 5, one- 
horse earr. for 2 pers. 8, caleehe 13, landau 14 kr. ; */ 2 -lkr. extra for every 
hour beyond four). The road traverses the suburb of Ihlen and follows 
the left bank of the river. Or we may go by train to Selsboek (6 Kil.), 
where the slow trains stop, and walk thence to the falls Of* hr.). The 
lower or Lille Lsrfos is 76 ft. high. Good view of it from the veranda 
of the +Fo**utue* Regkntrxmt, in the early-Norwegian style. Well-kept paths 
lead to .the foot of the Lille Lerfos and to the upper or Store Lerfos 
(100 ft. high), whieh is broken by a mass of rock about halfway across. 

An ExouftftiOHf 90 the Salbo-8j0 takes two days. 1st Day, by rail- 
way to Bt&mdal (p. 78), and walk thence to Tiifm, or drive (skyds-etatioa 
at the railway-station of Heimdal) to Br*Utm (17 Kil.. pay for 21), both 
situated at the W. end of the Bstlbo-Bj* or Belbu-Sje (526 ft.), a fine 
sheet of water, 29. Kil. long, on which a small steamboat plies five 
time* weekly in summer. On the 8.E. bank of the lake, near the church 
ot &bUn), and by the mouth of the Hid which descends from the Tydal, 
lie Marienborg and the Scelbo Sanatorium (landlord speaks English; good 
shooting near), where we spend the night. — 2nd Day, row (7 Kil.) or drive 
(16 Kil.) to Setaa* on the N. bank, and drive by (7 Kil.) Fuglem and 
(12 Kil.) Viken to (12 Kil.) HomtneMk on the Meraker railway (see below). 

For fuller details about the excursions from Trondhjem , see the 
'Reiseh&ndbog over Trondhjem & de to Trondbjemske Amter\ by Carl Schulz. 

From Trondhjem to Storlien (Ostersund, Stockholm). 

106 Kil. Eailwat ( Merakerbane) in &U hrs. ; two train* daily (fares 
6kr. 81. 3kr. 48 *.). To Hommelvik in l s /4-2 hrs., several trains (fares 
1 kr. 28, 70 *.). 

The train crosses the Nedre ElYehavn and the fjord by a long 
bridge. To the right lies the suburb of Baklandet ; then, on the 
left, the church of Lade. Beyond (3 Kil.) Leangen is the lunatic 
asylum of Rotvold, on the left. We now skirt the fjord, here call- 
ed the Strinden fjord , and, farther on, the Stjerdals fjord. 7 Kil. 
Ranheim ; 15 Kil. Malviken. 

13 Kil. Hommelviken (small inn), with a brisk trade in timber. 
(Road to the Salbo-Sj#, see above. Fine view from the hill about 
1 hr. inland.) Short tunnel. 

LEV ANGER. From Trondhjem 

* ******* Baoutt of the Stjerdals-Elv, which a bridge 

^^yaa-Bt;«.t;-ioTi. of Sandferhus. The line now nins 

^^?a ^J?** ^a-xaL-koftheSlderdals-Elv. 42 Kil. fleore, 

°^ I rra » 'which descends from the N.E.; 57 Kil. 

_ Ouctaacn C^Q ft.), ^^ere we cross the Reinaa. A 

^ c°^sia,€>xa.>>le ascent, and across the Stjerdals- 

:/<8 M.) Heraker (722 ft.), a thriving and prettily sit- 

-^**! k* e - * as * station in Norway. Beautiful view 

- , . ax ^* a ** old copper-mine. — The line ascends 

*^ ne * becomes lonely, the vegetation scanty. The 

^2 a11 ot ^er snow-mountains of Sweden appear in 

-^e cross ti^e Swedish frontier, 1825 ft. above the 

£&rlie* C.1&1& ft.; Rail. Restaurant; see p. 339), the 
<£; *** e ™ beyond which is Swedish (R. 56). Central 
ty ^* CV* xv iiiJ ±s followed from here. 


^^***» b y st ^»*JeBr, flnaasenvand, and Fiskumf os , to 


31 B^y^* 1 * to aienlcjar nine times weekly in 6-10 hrs. 

• ^ rm ^ *~ ZZ's^t/L^' Boab from Stenkjeer to (13 Kil.) Svnde 

&&** -~-m.«9« _^vT« /^? °** the Snaasenvand from Sunde to Seem or 

i.fcV^T"^** ^^CSJ? «?»^ l/ * ** x " a - Cfare 2~kr. 10 *~). — Boad from Sem 
41 - * •*ii? i ®R5? *o ITcimto* 71 Kil. (fast station*). 

_ _, ^, - -Inepol?? *° -l*«m*©* 71 Kil. (fast station*). 

T ?^r *•*-. - n +i[^* - » *he distances are great and the steamers 

t!**^^-«»** » from £1 * ***«* four days at least, especially if the 

^,-c»*e ev^aig^,. to gtenkjaer is preferred to the steamer. 

^**.fuUf?Sr ^ s * 1 » a trip to the N. Note also that the 

f* ^^isit trt +S. af i® r *he middle of July. Those who content 

~ Jav an* t^ e Trondhjems-Pjord may go from 8tenkj«r 

21()V ay Possibly even catch the steamer at Rtfd- 

^zs** ste ?** ^©tween the Tuttere, with the ruins of the 
^ <z. '^^* Jb« V ^ mainland (FrostcnL to the E. to Hoim- 
<>* ^&*°*%ut% ?° r * *° tke N.W. to Lesinften. It then re- 
£-ZZ^ <>"* i Ei~j\ Sr» alienee it steers N. to the large ttter* 
,HL *s*** ?.W ™ .ff^f^nden here is sometimes touched at. 
?^T>^^^er8 to rS^if land are extensive mines of pyrites. 
l ?£t^^%mtdt^¥l * rs - ftom Trondhjem) ~ 
tn ^4l^1?imil^ *'' A**rienborjsdui, both good), 

.*■»-- ^~*Zlr as devastated /z* "om Levanger through the V*rdal, 
r **fV-^ forcing their wa.v , a ^» 1893, and again in 1894, by huge 

f^^:* - ' -»-»© 50 gaards destrcJi 1 *./* 0111 tne limestone strata below the 
ra Ir ■+?■ i^e place of which^ e " is * tbis way was the skyds-station 
*p -*> ^istuen (good sta.tic^?'® J^** taken by Skjtrvold. — 11 Kil. 
?. s ^ j^^Z- Swedish atatSoiT -%i 22 Kil. (pay for 33) SkaUtugan (good 
11 V* -xr^L^40 ( i980 ft ->> ctosa'tK- r °m this point we may walk (with 
\IZ^ &*^~£> * n Encampment o?*5 l «Hte by boat, and ascend the Fjeld 
J^-y ~* s ' •^ ,a l>2>9i to be found here in summer. 


to Namsos. STENKJiBR. 28. Route. 209 

The Lapps, here unspoiled by intercourse with strangers, migrate from 
time to time , but are generally to be found within £-4 bra. from Skals- 
tugan. Gloves and veils should be taken to keep off the mosquitoes. 

From Levanger to Stenkjcei the steamer takes 4-6 hrs. more. 
Stenkjar, see below. 

The Road from Levanger to Stenkj»r (about 50 Kil. ; fast 
skyds), passing through beautiful scenery, is preferable to the 
steamer. It leads at first to the E. to — 

12 Kil. Vcerdalwren, on the left bank of the Vardala-Elv, here 
crossed by a bridge. [About 4 Kil. inland, on the N. side of the 
devastated Yaerdal (see p. 208), lie the gaard of Stiklestad and the 
church of Va>rdal y built in memory of the battle of 29th July, 1030, 
in which St. Olaf was slain (p. xlv).] 

From Va&rdalseren our road leads to the N. past the church of Sal- 
berg (8 Kil.) and forks : to the right to Reskje (good quarters) and 
Stenkjar (30 Kil,), to the left via Strermmen to Stenkj»r (34 Kil.). 
The latter branch is the finer route. It ascends the Bohbakker, at 
the top of which, not far from the gaard J&vre Bol, we admire the 
view of the peninsula of Indereen and the island of Yttewen, of 
the Borgen fjord to the right and the Yttere fjord to the left. We 
descend, pass the Amtmand's gaard of Sund, and cross a bridge 
over the strait between the two fjords to Stremmen (7 Kil. from 
Salberg; good quarters at the Landhandler's, P. Aas). The road then 
leads to the left to (2 Kil.) the new church and the station of — 

17 Kil. Gaxhaug (good quarters). The hill on which the old 
church stands is a line point of view. Those who do not require 
to change horses at Saxhaug drive straight on from Stwromen (thus 
saving 4 Kil.). Well cultivated country. Road hilly. Beyond — 

(11 Kil.) Kors we join the road coming from R*skje on the right 

11 Kil. StenkjsBr (Thorbj0rnsen J 8 Hotel; Langli Hotel), with 
1900tnhab., prettily situated at the mouth of the By-Elv, which 
descends from the Snaasenvand and is here crossed by a bridge. 

Fxom Btbhkjjeb to Naksos (p. 316), 86 Kil. (fest stations): 10 Kil. 
(pay for 17) 0stvik (good quarters), on the Hjellebotn, the inmost hay of 
the Beitstaafjord. Then across the watershed (300 ft.) to the Nam sen fjord. 
15 Kil. Elden (290 ft.). —18 Kil. Redhammer; 16 Kil. Bangsund (22 Kil. from 
Namsos by water) ; 11 Kil. Spiltam. From Spillum 3 KiL more to the 
Slremhylla Ferry ; thence we row across the fjord (4 Kil.) or drive (8 Kil.) 
to Namsos. 

The road to the Snaasenvand ascends on the right bank of the 
By-Elv, which forms a fall by the gaard of By, and then passes the 
Reinsvandj the Fossumvand, and a number of farms. 

11 Kil. Sunde (good quarters) lies at the S.W. end of the Snaa- 
senvand (78 ft. j 46 Kil. long), a beautiful sheet of water enclosed 
by wooded and rocky hills. On the N. bank runs a road with poor 
stations. "We prefer the steamboat (p. 208 ; if available), the pier 
of which is at the gaard Nestvolden, beyond the bridge, and which 
carries us in 4V2 hrs. to — 

Sem or Seem (good quarters). — Thence by a beautiful, but 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 6th Edit. 14 

210 RouU28. FISKOMPOS. 

hilly road (fast skyds-tariff), round the £. end of the lake and 
across the Snaascnhtia (807 ft.), to the valley of the Sanddsla, 
which forms the line Formofo$, 20 min. to the right of the road 
(reached by a path). We descend on the left bank of the stream 
and skirt the £. slope of the Gjeitfjdd (2680 ft.). 

28 Kil. (pay for 33) Homo (good quarters) lies on the left 
bank of the Sanddtfla, to the right of the road. We now leave the 
stream, which descends in windings to the Namsen-Elv, and reach 
the latter river abont 5 Kil. from Homo. We cross it by a ferry, 
and on its right bank, 3 Kil. farther on, we reach the Namsos and 
Fisknm road, abont 272 Kil. to the £. of Vie (see below). We fol- 
low this road to the E., past the church of Grong, to — 

16 Kil. FoMland (197 ft.). We next ascend the marshy hill of 
Spendmyren, descend and cross the mouth of the Gartlandi-Elv, and 
again ascend to the slope of the Aurstadfjeld (1356 ft), passing 
the gaards of Gartland and Aurstad, where we enjoy a view of 
striking beauty. We now descend to the farm - buildings (good 
quarters) on the Fiskumfos, a fall of the Namsen-Elv, 106 ft. in 
height and of great volume '(not unlike the Rhine Fall at Schaff- 
hausen), but apt to dwindle towards August. The windows of the 
house afford a good view of the fall. A flight of steps made by the 
Tourists' Club descends to the foot of it. — About 1 Kil. farther 
on is the station Fiskem or Fiskum (good quarters). 

From Fiskum to Namsos, down the wooded and well-peopled 
Namtdal (about 8000 inhab.), a long day's journey (9-10 his., ex- 
cluding stoppages). Scenery fine at places. 

17 Kil. Fouland, and thence to (8V2 Kil.) the end of the road 
coming from the Snaasenvand, see above. 

11 Kil. (from Fossland) Vie, a great resort of English anglers, 
the Namsen-Elv being considered the best salmon-river in Europe. 
The fishings are let. Nearly 1 Kil. farther on is the gaard of Ler (good 
quarters) at the foot of the Holoklump (1370 ft.). The road skirts 
the river and the base of the Span field (1560 ft), and passes the 
old church of Rauem. 

17 Kil. Haugum, in Rawmslctten, a tolerably well peopled 


About 2 Kil. to the E. of Haugnm a poit-road diverges to the N., passing 
Fla$net (good quarters) and skirting the B. bank of the Eidttxtnd, to 
(11 Kil.) Qalgtffn and (11 Kil.) Uarkvtd; then past the church of BtiknuM 
to (17 Kil.) Floaty and down the Rosendals-Elv to (17 Kil.) Kongtmo, at the 
head of the inner Foldenfjord (p. 216). 

The road traverses the marshy Tramyr. 

11 Kil. Hun, near the church of Skage. We then skirt the left 
bank of the Reinbjer-Elv , cross it near its influx into the Nam- 
sen-Elv, and follow the latter, at the foot of the Aalberg field to — 

16 Kil. Namsos (p. 216). 


Route Page 

General Remarks 211 

29. From Trondhjem to Bod* 215 

The Foldenfjord, Bindalsfjord, and Velfjord 216-218 

The Dunderfandfldal, BeierendaL Saltdal, and Junkersdal 219,220 
The Holandsfjord (8vartisen, Fondalftbrse) 221 

Excursions from Bod* : the Beierenfjord, Saltenfjord, 

and Skjerstadtjord, Sulitelma, and Landegode . 222-224 

30. The Lofoten Islands 224 

Veateraalen 223 

31. From Bod* to Troms* 229 

The FoIdenQord, Ofotenfjord, and Skjoxnenfjord . . .229,230 

From Haalflnse* to the Rostavand 232 

From Maalsnses to Srreien and to the Balsfjord . . . 232 

32. From Troms* to the North Gape 235 

The Ulfajord 235 

Excursions in the Lyngen District 236 

The Altearjord 237 

33. From the North Cape to Yade* 241 

34. Syd-Yaranger 246 

35. From the AltenQord to Karasjok 246 

36. From the Altenfjoxd to Haparanda in Sweden . . . 247 

Communication with the Nordland is maintained by the steamers 
of the united companies Bergenske $ Nordenfjeldske Dampskibs- 
Selshab (p. xvii). The Mail Steamers ply throughout the year, 
leaving Trondhjem once weekly for Yads* (Line I) and twice 
weekly for Hammetfest and the North Gape (Lines II & III). 
Besides these boats the Tottbist Steamers ply twice weekly from 
about the middle of June to the end of July. During the height 
of the season there are thus five opportunities weekly of starting 
from Trondhjem for the North Gape. The steamers ' Vesteraalen' 
and 'Sirhts' (p. 216) also ply once a week from Trondhjem to Bod*, 
Svolv«r, Troms*, and Hammerfest ; and the Lofoten Islands and 
Hammerfest are also served by a line plying from Bergen to Trond- 
hjem, Lofoten, Yesteraalen, and Senjen. Besides all these, several 
British vessels, carrying tourists only , start at least once weekly 
from London, Hull, Leith y etc., for the North Gape (see pp. xiii, xiv ; 
or enquire of Messrs. T. Oook and Son) ; also several German from 
Hamburg and Bremen, and Danish from Stettin. 

The course of the Tourist Stbahbrs (see time-tables issued 
by the agents mentioned at p. xvii) is usually as follows : — Dep. 
Trondhjem Mon. and Wed. at 9 p.m.; arr. at Torghattenfo. 217) 
Tues. and Thurs. at 1 p.m.; arr. at Hcnningsvcer Wed. and Frid, 
at 10 a.m.; then a Bplendid voyage through the Lofoten Islands; 


ft" «£$*■ 

'Is-^**''-- - " 

? aovra the i£,**«; «.?■ ***^5" feu , 

,». the «»„,,' "'*<■' ^gSXuS 

es tne marsh. 71. 



Remains 211 

Q&. ^xom XVondhjem to Bod0 . . • 215 

Tli© ^"oidenftord, Bin&alsfjord, and VeJfjord . . . m .216-218 
The JL>ra n«jexlan&B&>l 1 Beierendal, S&ltdal, and Junkersdal 219 220 
The -HoJ«n»«l8fjora (8vaYtiae]&, JFon\dal»brae) ^l 

ExanrmioMitL from Bod* : the Beierenfjord, Saltenfjord, 

and /SAcjoKs^adtjoid, Sulitelma, and Landegode , 222-224 

30. The Lofoten Islands 224 

V«*ewM».x«*» 223 

31. From &o<3Lj&r to Troms* 229 

The Fol^ienQord, Ofotenflord, and Skjomenfjord . . .229,230 

From M" anees to tlie Rostavand 232 

Prom M && ] nee0 to S*reien and to the Balafjord ... 232 

32. From Trorras0 to the North Cape 235 

The TJlfaij^^^a 235 

Excursi.o^a.ia i n * tn" e Lyngen District 236 

TheAJIt^n^^^ord , 237 

33. From £l*e H^orth. Cape to Vade* 241 

34. Byd-Tatr«ax^«er 245 

35. from «*« -Aatenf jord to Kaiasjok 246 

36. From t»h*=> -Aatenfjord to Haparanda in Sweden . . . 247 

Oommtit«icBa,«eio'n with the Nordland Is maintained by the steamers 

of tide united. <^o TO panies Bergenake $ Nordenfjeldske Dampskibs- 

Selnkdb (p. *^rl/i~> _ The Mail Steamers ply thronghont the year, 

leading TteticTfatj^xn once weekly for Vads* (Line I) and twice 

weekly foi ^sL-m^nerfest and the North Cape (Lines II & III). 

Besides these loo a.ts the Tottbist Stbambbs ply twice weekly from 

about the mld^Te of June to the end of July. Dnring the height 

of the seasoTi -fcli^re are thus five opportunities weekly of starting 

ftomTWttdhlein for the North Cape. The steamers * Vesteraalen 1 

jcnd 'SirHia' Qp. ^15) also ply once a week from Trondhjem to Bode, 

avolvttt, Ttomsflr, and Hammerfest ; and the Lofoten Islands and 

-jiatumetfeat aTe also served by a line plying from Bergen to Trond- 

^em, Lofoten, Vesteraalen, and Senjen. Besides all these, several 

Bbthsh vessels, carrying tourists only , start at least once weekly 

f toift London, Hull, Leith, etc., for the North Cape (see pp. xui, xiv ; 

or en<\*Vre of Messrs. T. Cook and Son) ; also several German from 

Hamburg and Bremen, and Danish from Stettin. 

the ©o\oree of the Tourist Stbambrs (se e time-tables issued 

w the agents mentioned at p. xvii) is usually aB m(m9 : -- Dep 

rjtondhiem Mo d We d. at 9 p.m.; Mr. M Torghatten (?- £<) 

rjues. and Thurs at 1 p.m.; arr. at Benmn 9 ^ v<xf W ed. and *rid, 

»tlOa. m . ; t^Vsplendid voyage through the Lofo ten »«*■> 



r. at Tro 


ands of 

240) is 

>e on Sa-fc — 

>d; arr. 



1 to th 


they ar 


The Far 
X)kr. C^-J 
ttionj <^^ , 
ard'sfe*? ' 
wued" f^^T 
r. Ludv^ * 

or tabl © 
ihe roy ** 
days *^ 

oaers ** 
ace IT"*^ 

a, sot 
lany ' 
e loi*. 
f on "* 
e eim 
3. o*r 
ie P 


>har— ^^^ 

norx>:la.;n-t> . 

early on Thurs. and Sat.; tlie Fugle is passed about 

Hammnerfett Frid. and Sun. at 8 a.m.; the sea-fowl 

^/w* are passed in the afternoon, and the North Cape 

lied in the evening. Retnrn-voyage: Dep. North 

A Jfon. mornings ; arr. in the evening at the Lyngen- 
a * r( 2£ZZ on * m ' ana Tues. mornings, at Svartisen 
X>. 221) on Mon and Wed. afternoons, and at Trond- 
tX id Thurs. aboot noon . The whole trip from Trond- 

"** ° a |L a ^,^ * tKT18 teke * less than 9 days by the 

'- ^/,tw^ + l amers are comfortably fitted up. 
orally crowded, as they afford the easiest and «n«^ 
^ sights of the Nordland - a^* A ™f ?^T 
is apt to pall. *" an<l > ***d the life on board, as 

■* <*« Tourist Stbaubrs f r\-w *>» — . -■_ 

2[~rtfr * n a «tate-room co»tI*S^r* ole v °yage,inchidingfood, 

^fie, ™«* a berth i n &* f££I " £- *° position and accoml 
^2<JeA in the fare. Si^iV ttSSS? 1 ?? f 20 kr ' <**■ 4 *" 6 <*>- 
l^Jooa of *ke voyage, ijo JiS 5^» hut not return-tickets, 

^er' cbair8 for tlle voyage(^/; k ^ e P«« at Trondhjem let 

^mrf»^/ ,,M *- Thence to +*Tl XT° aayB t0 ^Www, and 

'^Vjhe -^ole ^ovf^^ ^ %*»* and 
aKe» about 17 days, t y ge tTom Trondhjem to 

— ^ talte* a^ont 17 days T« y ? ge tTom Trondhjem to 

*^~* ii & mi Oo** P . the «o UIle and J ^y th * »«il- 

^^ftfoitfcCape and axe ther^^^**** 4 ^ 1 "*') return 
■^^e steamers of Line t T ** coav «rient as the 
^er^sund (p. 241), ^ith«™+ W * ver ' ™**Uy steer 
* ^e scenery beyond the No^? Pr0a * hing the Nopth 
^''^ tlle V ^e io^*^ ^*" comparatively 
X.f est. - The mail- stea ^°* * e commended to tourists 
» etein point of equi plD ?? * a * e b «t little inferior to 
^ont stoppages of one rr» ^^^nussariat, and as 
^©tiing excursions ou shore a*? ^ ays> they «*▼« «nie 
»^»lts are made at the least i^7 the same tim «, some 
^t^rn-voyages after the end ^T r ? tlnff P oint8 » <*pe- 
^ & cargoes of herring som«« ^ wJhen the loading 
^ -peyond the advertised tUr!! meS delays the steamer 
jri . tbe mail-steamers are ^1 , °" 

-,_.JL«* rlQfiiffif ^,?? ^rf* (78 «-»- f.*,,P er Norwegian sea- 


Troin*** Cp- 233), atr ttammerfest (p. 238). Tliese should be ad 
ecipient , 'Passagex- {name of steamer), Z>amp8kibakontor (j 
. Ttie captain, mates, and post-office officials generally speak 1 

3 draw hack to the Nordland voyage is the difficulty of { 

.As til ere is scarcely an uninteresting point on the 

and as it is always day in the height of summer, th> 

» naturally anxious to see everything : hut all who ^ 

>ver- fatigue and nervous exhaustion should sleep for i 

i, After midnight and an hour or two after dinner. 

srths in the general cahin require to he vacated by I 

who desire to sleep in comfort should secure a berth 

. STES-j-^ss-^sfc-ssEa Essays 

;]>e bertn will not l>e rese *▼£«- tte gene ral cabin. 

tlx is rarely ^^^^he lsl and-belt ('indenal 
y the whole voyage " J^SJES, ('Lodser'), m well as tl 
clcnees i» rare. x tw ^blteing and well informed 

ftfalnf always toeing on du *£- iR^enbaade' (p. 2l< 

TtoX S^SS^^* -t"' the Norwegian co Mt w 

to intertj * «£« f light and * b *£ e * Alpine tourist wlll 

s, fogrs, **•£ 'Country. Eve ^* n ce» Pe 5\T > tri 

.ecixliar to **£ °^£ estimate **»**", coaS t of Alas kaj off< 

here in *ry* n « *„ gitfca, along *J?5_ ary tourist (s« e Bae , 

/J*/ *«d V *^S3Sn %»^ of ^"ihe animal Wngdon 

7* analogy wvth "jJiww'* <?« M *«** : "*f With cod, hemng B) 8kat 

3 ^ ££xtJi <»r ^* r * rf *T^o S ea *«* ,n l B Tlfcins leaping from the 

-'«* iftf,£y *ion»«*«- T£ f t! l" 11 ^ ocean are seen (best fto 

«° r ^ itf«r ^nals 6-1 f^H of **«> °,^T in every directioi 
rfl sn- ^^ei deadens themselves i & ^^ 

>oi** a J*^Zm**V al8 F° IS certain P^W are very Iemarl 

s of ***«» J^iy vW » le ' -^* diving P oW mo re for the little 

tles are ^♦^^ZLijMming »T*y f»tno*n» Everywhere the air i 

.,- v«*K>»« **?!, aW*> * rl ^f- n .Wthey l^?:,, fir prey by the skua , 



ftoat striking * ce ^ n fot *tend« from the Arctic Circle 

b, ^0} to t*e ^' <* n j^^rf, (B. 30} «nd the 8. end 

(Udingen) , -wW r ° Q tt l p end0Ufl mountains and gk- 

*een close to the Bea. ^ ma jestic beauty is the island 

the Arctic Ocean beyOt^ Troms*, by the Fugle (p- 235) 

^pcnfjord (p. 236). Beyond Bammerfest the scenery 

e ^eie and desolate. At the North Cape Europe tennin- 

t^e Arctic regions begi n __ The best points for pas- 

the i mail-steamers to break their journey are: Bode, »r 

* *• Saltenfjord (p. 222 fnter esting ** "gh-water ontf) 

& CP-^3); &Wr or />i<7«rm«kn, for an excur- 

r^ofoten Islandifni) M7 M81 • Tro™*, for the Ulfs- 

£ssj* d Aft S£2i-^ * *■ — * of 

£oJ"* d " *« Ml the larger places; and elsewhe^ery 

W^> „ t0 be g obtalned at t"?^^ 

Co ^C ft Ch a *° locally called hotels', JJ^J *^5S 

J ^Sj* 1 ** ordinary hotels , except that the traveller 

«£f Ve *Oto** **«, snow, and the ▼egetatton In tte wy 
e«t^ ^ 6d ' «nd after the middle of August *«j»f£ 
I***©- **« sn„. " !, **„ ^ nn .eT 1b. of coutse, d«pM«w» 

a**V TlTl u ' and after the miauie 01 ^u 6 — — x t 

*t£ e *, w".*«— <* the Journey to, of «««• *7£S 

^«5^*r^? ic « "ay cause disappointment at «y«^ 

io ^ * ^siMe only within the Arctic Oiiole(66 SI W J, 


**« .*»•*/ rtm«. 

Jtor tin la** *"•■ 




Whole I ceutre | g$» 

^' iflt June/ 3th June 
??«> May/20th May 

8nd July 
22nd - 

iOtli July 
24th - 
28th - 


12th J«iy 
25th - 
2»th - 
1st Aug, 

"jc*^^ *£ he tourist-steamers na^e three or four oppor- 
* * ^r^acvf ^dnight sun, once at tbe Vaagsfjord beyond 
i ^ ^4oV» again off tlie Fngl« Cp- 235 )> ** ain fr0m 
cCL**^ ctin and a fourth time on leaving the Lyn8°tt- 
^^ii 2? n of the FugW. Passengere by the mail-boats 
bi,? 6 ^orth Cape only, as it is shut out by islands 
> dL* v,ew of i4 m »T *> e obtained from Tyve* 
c, hrT 11 *° 12tl1 Jul y» froxn tbe Ltfbsaas near Bod* 
l jr er °~ e ^ei, be remembered tbat a perfectly clear 
i s Vtf T ere tllai * in lower latitudes, and tbat tbe 
^pe ct ; y , apt to fee veiled in cloud and mist. Tbe 
CXe has been described by Carlyle, BayaTd 

BEIAN. 29. Route. 215 

Taylor, and many others, while Tegnir's lines are remarkable for 

their simplicity : — 

MidnaiUiolm p& bergen salt 
Blodrtfd till ait ek&da; 
Det var ej dag, det var ej natt % 
Det vdgde emellan bada. 

The midnight sun on the mountain lay 
And blood-red wu its hue; 
It was not night it was not day, 
But wavered twixt the two. 

The Maps in this Handbook (four sections, the places where they join 
being indicated by corresponding marks ; see p. iz>* though of small scale 
(1 : 1,500,000), show the usual courses of the steamboats and will probably 
suffice for most travellers. Fulness of detail has been subordinated to 
clearness. The eourse ot the mail-steamers is indicated by , that 

of the tourist-steamers by — .— .— . Several other interesting routes are 
marked --------- As mentioned at p. xzvi, the best of the larger maps is 

Camn%ermeyerU Reisetart over det nordltge merge (scale 1 : 800,000 ; price 4 kr.). 
Travellers by mail-steamer should provide themselves with the latest 
issue of the CommunteaUoner. 

The Dittancee between the principal stations are given as usual in 
Norwegian sea-miles (see p. vi). 

29. From Trondhjem to Bod*. 

76 ft. M. (about 310 Engl. M.). The actual eourse of the steamers is, 
however, much longer, varying according to the number of stations called 
at (42 in all). The Mail Stkamkes take 13-15 hrs. to reach Namtot (fare 
12 kr. 40 0.) ; 42-44 and on some voyages 48-52 hrs. to reach Bod* (fare 
90 kr. 40*.). The express-steamers 'Vbstbbaals*' and 'Sibics' touching 
at R/tfrvik, Brsrntf, and Sandnssssren , reach Bode in 29 hrs. The Toubist 
Boats, which do not touch at Bod* on their N. voyage, go to Henningt- 
veer (p. 227) in about S5 hrs. 

The mail -steamers leave Trondhjem at noon, the tourist- 
steamers in the evening. The voyage through the outer Trondhjems- 
Fjord and along the coast beyond it is at first comparatively un- 
interesting. The first stations are Redbjergct , with the rained 
nunnery of Rein, on the N. bank of the fjord, and — 

7 S.M. Beian (p. 200), where travellers from the S. may join 
the northward-bound steamers without going to Trondhjem. Beian 
lies at the end of the flat peninsula of Brland, with its numerous 
farms, on the S.E. side of which stretches the 8kjernfjord. Near 
Beiau is the gaard &steraal, the scene of one of Ibsen's dramas. 

The vessel now steers to the N. On the left is the large red 
lighthouse known as Kjeungen ('the goat'); on the right Btretches 
the large peninsula of Fottn, formed by the sea and the long fjord 
of Trondhjem. To the W. are the islands of Stor-Fosen and the 

5 S.M. Valdenund. The Nordlandsjagtt, with their lofty bows, 
and rigged with a single square- sail ('Raaseil') and a topsail 
( ( SkvsBTsegr or 'TopsegV), are frequently seen here on their way 
to the 'Tydskebrygge' or German Quay at Bergen, deeply laden with 
dried fish. But these craft are gradually being superseded by steamers. 

3 S.M. Stoktund. To the N. are four caverns , the largest of 


„, ™ooa- ctv 

v 6 »* u ' . -*ha*" 


■.. ass »»■%?■.*»";? V  


f**0N0. 29. Routt. 217 

be JZalogaland of early Norwegian 
be promontory of Kunnen (p. 221) 
Ju .tm*&omBr, 1 xW. e .b e iow],pli MU p,h 
,* «„a BeiUtai, our Sindal^Vatiaat. 
•UK TAoitn/Jord, a hn Rfl mouattln-eleft 
'Acto'ii'- from whtaii the traveller may 
no in Hi" S<"*i*tnlal, sod In Xotjitn 
: d*r«- Tfie aiceat from G»*rfl Thiiadil 
le of tie mouataiii there is the tnmblt- 

«,,■/ , more Yaried in form. To the N., 
I,]** - — c -v" »•.-•■» * an. dv BtesmeJ"), soon appears the island 
*V ( to tb* H**^ha Mat of the family of that name, with its carious 
5*** teaf'market-bat'; 824 ft.), which roaem- 
^.the j t nesea _ 4j>i, e mail-steamhoat stations near- 
Xbout ly on TeqnBB t the mail-steamers also) tonch 
f m\ „ nich Btr0Dfl . boots are advisable) aacenda 

l 4ti lw to IS min.} the 'Hoi- („ AIM, 

•4* V * **«■ ^«S ™T^7 ft. .*o« the sea ttUAl 
W*P B. entrance, W he re large »«•&*' ** '^6 ?' 

5»4 ***, the middle 204 ft, total leng' endicelir, «nd loot at 

/**.^1«. «. »•>•« »«•'■ '""'S' 5,2.11... Tbo ««. of «,. 

.««-3; « » »•>"> =" ; ■"» ™2»° «». t.™ B h 

t*«*4 ,«. = «.. ; i.i. ajjjd »£*.„„. „,, „u,, ..-.«. 
('»™'5*'«d*MS&. T.. ™»i» "Jr. JJffiSta. „„ u 

4 r»ij*»3«tten «» N.15- «• "• <?».'", ,£. M.nd, i«n, 

»r»^"*'^ s ^" ? ^'^ •° d "" ' 

mud, «ns*^_ ., M of the clergyman 

station ot -^ r Gutvlk) Br«ao,, the real., telegra-p! 

r 4 f«^^pott.Bce totl«ll.hon»en. A« f^ii.„, Ikuij 
'.1'TsKdl „eonen.oon«eet.otherr..B „,. On «„ 

»*.*<« »~l". B 5' r ,„d 1. o,u.Lly '»" e „ d ,,i..nd »«"■'■ «- 
«■» <*J*«~* d jJ ,ie ».ppH«» °/l. T .t~""'"*fS~« 
■MneoftcOOO- "!!■■= atesontDy"' fl3B ery station,, 

"'•'"■"bTwI.1-, H"»' W *;',,°W 'S'""',"*,""- 

»J °°'V„*,° »S«.i"»'' b >;! ,l "" e ' 

218 Route 29. THJ0T0. From Trondhjem 

Fbom Bb0h* a visit may be paid to the grand Velfjord, on which a local 
steamer plies twice weekly from Kvale (p. 217), touching at Rare, Eidet-Sceter- 
land (at the entrance to the Bkillebotn, where excellent marble is quarried), 
N<xvtma$, and Hegge (good quarters at the landhandler's), near the church 
of Ntstvik. — From one of the innermost branches of the Velfjord. or 
Store Bjmrga as it is here called, ascends the Tidingdal, suddenly rising, 
>/4 hr. from its month, in a terrace of 460 ft., over which falls the Tiding- 
dalifoi in a single leap. — From the Velfjord to the N. diverge the deep 
and wild OJtt fjord and the Stor/Jord. 

All the steamboats pass the mouth of the Velfjord, on the S. 
side of which rises the huge Mosaksele, and on the N. the pictur- 
esque Heiholmttinder with the Andalshatt. To the W. lies the large 
island of Vagen, rising to 2300 ft, on which is Bars. The mail- 
steamers either call at Rot* or steer between the Hewn* and the main- 
land to Forvik. The tourist-steamers pass between the islands of 
Vagen and Havn*, in full view of the imposing Seven Sisters (see 
below). To the £. towers the conspicuous Finlcnafjcld (4330 ft.). On 
the right is the Ifoto, a red rock, where some of the steamers call. 

6 S.M. Thj*t* (Jergenaerti Hotel), a small island, formerly the 
property of Haarek of Thjste, a well-known character in early Nor- 
wegian history) lies at the mouth of the beautiful Vef$enfjord y which 
runs inland to the E. of the island of Alston, and is entered twice 
weekly by the mail-steamers. The banks of the inner fjord are finely 
wooded. The steamer steers into the narrow S.E. bay, called Veften- 
bunden, and stops at Mosjeen (Mosjfen's Hotel ; Mr. H. P. Dahl, 
British vice-consul), a little town with 1150 inhab. and the large 
steam-saw-mills of HaUenetn, Drevjebruget, and others. 

From Mosjjtren a good road leads to the Tustervand and to Stornes on 
the Rssvand (1475 ft.), which ranks next to Lake Mjjersen in point of area. 
From Stornes we may ascend the Brarekanke and the KjeringUnd (6800 ft.), 
on the W. side of the lake, and then follow the course of the Jfrsaa, the 
discharge of the Tustervand and R/ersvand, towards the N. to Bstcuunren 
on the Ranenfjord (p. 219). About halfway thither a digression may be 
made to the E., up the Bjuraa, for the sake of ascending the imposing 0x- 
Hnder (about 6660 ft.) ; but these peaks are better reached from B*»aa*ren 
and through the Leertkardal. 

The tourist-steamers and some of the mail-boats traverse the 
'Skjargaard' to the W. of the Thj*t* and the large island of Alston 
(pop. 1500), on which rise the finely shaped hills called the *8yr 
8«stre ('seven sisters'; 2630-3280 ft.). Six hills only are dis- 
tinguishable, but one of them has a double crest. The highest of 
the sisters is the Digertind. At the S. end of the island is the 
church of Alstahoug, where Peter Da»$ (p. lxxiv), author of 'Nordlands 
Trompetf, a description of Norway in verse, was pastor in 1689- 
1708. On the Haugnas, near the church, is the so-called Kongs- 
grav ('king's grave'). The mail-steamers call at Ssvik (Jensen's 
Hotel; local steamer to Lovunden and Threnen, see p. 220), also, 
on the N. side of the island, at SandncevBen (Sanneseen's Hotel ; 
N. Str*m Jakobsen's Hotel), near which are the old church of 
Stamnae and the district-prison. From Sandnssseen we may ascend 
the N. peak of the Seven Sisters, passing (6 Kil.) the gaard of Botnet. 

»>* ^ENFJOBD. S9 . Boule m 

M8«toi«KfOL xiTii*^ *e co 0rgeg o/ the steams 

*&**h ^ e8 / a< * on°2nd Wy y Thai; SL^'sT* 

eider-da l * obbcrdal on the island of X^ft^cn, with hatcheries of 
for the * T ^ e ^ >lldS ^^ tneir ne8ts in nookB artificially made 
eggs ma U ?° Se% ** 8 they are tlien very tame » a number of the 
eider-do* ^wi without frightening the birds away; and the 

On tiT U ^ ey * eave * n *^ e neBts iB afterwards collected, 
-which is • rigllt ' t0 ttte N - E - of Kobbeidal, opens the Banenflord, 
_ xp-me " ^ 8 ited by several of the mail-steamers, though the tourist- 
J* .. *?,«© not enter it. This fjord, anciently Radund, is famous 
? " ^mber, of which almost all the boats, houses, and coffins 
between this point and Vadss are made. The 'Ranenbaade' have high 
D0W8 and sterns, not unlike the Venetian gondolas ; they are con- 
sidered typical national craft, and are often used as pleasure-boats. 
The steamboat-stations in the Ranenfjord are Hemnas (Saras 
Nielsen's Hotel), with a new church and a group of huts for the 
use of church-goers from a distance arriving over-night, and Mo 
(Meyer's Hotel), at the mouth of the Dunderlands-Elv, which carries 
on a considerable trade with Sweden. , v 

_ Prom Mo we may visit several Stalactite Cav^bnh (*Dryp3tensliuiier J^ 
the magrotU on the Lanffvand, near Hammerna* (11 MI.) I the ^"'j ™£ 
OaavdBJ^maa, and opposite to it another by Qaavd ^^£*%j££$t 
valley of the IL«dva»-Blv. An excursion may also be made to the Scending 
Svawisw (p. 221) by rowing to the end of the Langvand a * d * c ?£enct 
the vaJJey to the K. a* far as ZUktjernmo. A glacier-pass crosses »ne 
to the end of the JfelfJord (p. 221). 4 n arm 

Another excursion iff to the Svartovand, a lake into wmcn 

Of the 8r&rti8en Glacier def ce ?f fl :. ^ lll#i ^. Mwir ^ rA . d v »uey of Dunder- 
/rr« *** vv f Mo extend* the interesting oroaa v»"«j * 1 «otwi- 

near Z^ rd *^?Jt-girt Urtvand. Farther to the W. i« «* ^ 
ffesr it IB the fft^V- itfi gg from tlx& earth. Wear uu» 

Aich drfvea in«lf fl ,^f to ^ and an interesting BawM. with l an ^ « i8 
vf\fA*fW-r«» < thieves f ro ^ rll J r e the rushing of tHe subUrranean^ w «• d 
^<nt of »ir through **» w "f the same kind is tHe ^^"^"x^oW. 

Z>dbrc. ST m ? ^V tbe central pomt of the Dunawwm ^ 

^ fflJun J««ldsMM»»»» itntion^), we may visit tfce ^ 0, ™?£" 7 a*ce»a. the 

-*„?X^^2^^«»££^ From stor -*°" 








220 Route 29. HESTMANP0. From Trondhjem 

(16-17 hrs.), on which few people are ever met. The) route leads either 
through the Bjeeldaadal (following the telegraph-wires), or through the 
Oubbelaadaly Randal, and Leneedal, which last forms the upper end of 
the Saltdal. Below the junction of the Saltdal and Junker tdal lies Oaard 
Berghulnaa ; thence to Aknindingen and Rognan, see p. 224. — From Berg- 
hulnses we go E. to the Junkeredale-Qaard, in the Junkeradal (14 Kil. ; good 
quarters). The bridle-path to it leads through the Junker tdal*-Ur, one of 
the grandest rocky ravines in Norway, formed by the KJernfjeld to the E. 
and the Solvaagfjeld to the W. (4-5000 ft high). Farther up, the valley is 
called Qraddis, and is traversed by a bridle-path to Sweden, much fre- 
quented in winter, and provided with several l F.ieldstuer\ Many Lapp settle- 
ments are to be met with on the heights in the Dunderlandsdal and Saltdal. 

2 S.M. (from Kobberdal) Vigholmen (Olsen's Hotel), charmingly 
situated, about 6 Kil. to the N. E. of the mouth of the Ranenfjord. 
After their digression into the Ranenfjord the mail-steamers here 
rejoin the course of the tourist-steamers. We now steer between 
the islands of Huglen, Hanncese, and Tombe (2720 ft. high"). To 
the E. are seen the S.W. spurs of the Svartisen, and to theW. the 
singularly shaped islands of Lovunden and Threnen (Tkrenstdvene). 
Lovunden, upwards of 2000 ft. high, is still 30 Kil., and the four 
islands of Threnen, equally lofty, are 45 Kil. distant; hut both 
seem quite near in clear weather. These islands are the haunt of 
dense flocks of loons or divers ( l Lundefugle\ Mormon arcticus), 
whose eggs, about 3*/3 in. long and 2 in. across, are esteemed in the 
Nordland. They make their nests in clefts of the rocks difficult of 
access, which are annually plundered, and the young birds are also 
captured and pickled. 

The abruptness of Lovunden, the top of which appears to overhang 
the water, has given rise to the saying — 

'&«.' hvordan han luder den gamle LovundP 
('See how it overhangs, the ancient Lovund\) 
Another saying is — 
l Hestemanden tute, Lovunden lute, og Threnen er lasngere vte. % 
('The Hestmand blows his horn, the Lovund overhangs, and the 
Thren lies farther out.') 
These two remarkable islands may be visited by the local steamer 
leaving Stvik (p. 318) every Sat. morning and returning on Mon. morning. 
Several intermediate stations. 

The Arctic Circle (66° 32' 30"), the crossing of which is usually 
announced by several cannon-shots, passes through the islands of 
Threnen and a little to the S. of the Hestmand*. We steer through 
the Stcg fjord, the strait between the Lure } with its pyramidal hill 
(2110 ft.), on the left, and Alderen on the right. A little later we 
sight the *Heitmand« (1750 ft.), perhaps the most interesting is- 
land in this archipelago, resembling a 'horseman' with a long 
cloak falling over his horse. The Mil may be ascended without a 
guide. The view embraces the whole surrounding archipelago, and 
the long Svartisen to the E. — To the right is a peninsula of the 
mainland, projecting far into the sea. 

6 S.M. Indre Kvar0, a lonely place, from which we may visit 
the Melfjord, the Lura, Lovunden, Threnen, and the Hestmand. 
Dominating the landscape for many miles, on our right, rises 

while numerous glaoieis descend '*? R**^* U \!L* ^S^^^tpfJ*' 
1 S.M. «A. On the xight the ^^"ETS* %>^ • «* 2? 
the Melfjord, with grand mountains. ^J^d* "&™* *^J T 

16 Kil. broad, coveting a plateau »■» itfti*^* V e ^V ^W*fc * 
whiahpsotradeafewpeakaorknoUaL ^.^ *o *^^ MJ *0^^ ^W^fta- 

2 SJ*. JM# ( fr red island'"), obi ^ 

to ascend), a hill resembling a lion *°^T/>W*> ^tl^^^GT 7 ^ P o* — » 
right open the TjoflsrsOord and the S* a *Ll£h ^^IfT +&****£ r 9 'J 
the R9nmgiffar& and ifolemda/jord, ^^ M *^«#" "^ ^o « ^ 

ofSvartisen. ^ e r* •■*«* * **** hl **eh e 

On their return- voyage the tourist -flte**^ fV ,^jr//»,^ c^ *■*«-&« 

and land passenger* between the gaardd o* *he*> cC *° CS^^r? Jr *** 

path, leading through several brooks, mnB fjie gen*^* >w* jSr°**ttdM*. 

margin of the F<md*lsbr», an arm of Svartfi** 5 ** the & >-M^*^ ; **- Jr* 1 
however, ia grander from the steamboat. * atlT yey o*2%e^*eii* * Ae 2ov** d 
tind (2135 ft.), which is said to afford the t>e*t * urv * °*&y** *hZg+S3l* 

Passing the Omnew on the right, ^© steeT to ^^^ tis ^. **<*«**: 

3 S.M. Grume, a smiling island, wfciok commau^ ** t£ e ^ 
ing view of Svartisen. We next pass the month of tJx ^ j^ Q8t 8fe ^ 
which cuts deep into the mainland, and steer through a *x«f lo9n fiord y 
between the Mele on the left and the Skjerpa on the *i*>£* row at **it 
the headland of Knnnen. Far to the N. we obtain ou r ^fjr* to . w »rds 
at the- Lofoten Islands. — The mail-steamer next sorbet*™? * pse 
at Omoi and AiA. mes stops 

The promontory of "Knnnen or Rotknceet (1998 ft.)^ the N.W 
spur of the Svartisen plateau, forms the boundary between Helgo- 
land and Salten, and has a climatic and geographic Importance like 
Stadtland in the SendmeTe (p. 167). At this point there i 8 a'Havs- 
eie 1 ('sea-glimpse'), or opening in the island-belt, through which 
we get a view of the open sea and sometimes feel its motion. To 
the W. the Stetfyr is in sight, to the N. appears the F ul«*, and in 
the distance the Landegode (p. 224). 

The Tourist Steamers now leave the mainland and steer across 
he Vestfjord to the Lofoten Islands (see p. 224). 

The Mail Sthambbs pass, on the left, the &ugl*i *lie Fleina, 
and the Arneer, and on the right the church of Gtfd e8lc fx*xl and the 
large island of Sandhorn, with a mountain 3295 ft. higli (beyond 
which lies the Beierenfjord, p. 222). We then cross the month of 
the Saltenfjord (p. 222), at the E. end of which, * n cle , a:r leather, 
we observe the snow-fields of the Sulitelma (p. 223), » nd soon Teach 
the curious rocky harbour of — 

12 S.M. Bod* (Qrand ffdtel, R. from 1, & IV2 * T * 5 •*> Hansen's 
Hotel, unpretending; British vice-consul, Mr. V- * q^S* /*}' ** 
N. lat. 67° 17', a busy and increasing place, ^ itH ™oO x^m,., 
seat of the Amtmand or provincial governor. ^ toOIlff \** e la r & e 
modern buildings are still a few of the old cottages with their 


MiXEREX*^ J ORD . ExctsrsU"** 

I j2o**** 29 * wooden enuron in tne Gothic style ^ j£J?" 

- A^ v *Vassengexe \>y t*L© mail-steamers, *™* * r^fc/ 
fe of ^^Xe&o- ^ete,mfiy land an A ascend t"ith «*!*») ** e *l a J 
ited- » ^o^Va pole, x Kt. to *»*., *Ylf& comir**** a 
>p s^«*** ^a.^fr n Islands to the W., of the sno^f Blwmj^B- 
"i » *i ^ %^o*> *f r p . ^i*}, adjoining the Sulite\m*^ ic ^* BTlot 
Le*o* ^V^^i* 1 ^ *h«»-i °fthe »«rrsvatnstinoei to the B.B., and 
jeld or . -wi«0 «. '■^riihtno Srartiaen, to the 8. (Midnight sun, see 
tself T?*i_ < il» otr **-\ a.r ^ eir > tlwngli. less extensive, is obtained from 
* ^Tm <J±- ****^. *° ihe S - °* ***«* town-, and the view from the 
Ev i i'a» & *** 1: r 4.310^0, ^ lirs. to the N. of Bod*, is also said to 
£ m«J£* O^^sts ^riUhe interested in the erratic blocks of syenite 
hTftnl G^o^H a. *<>c* formation of slate. — Pleasant excursion to 

the C© KLH-. 3 _a. d ^othe&.n-., passing an interesting post-glacial shell- 
Aioad *^/V ^rO tbe *°J*~9<*<zr<* 9 ^eith a church and a parsonage, at 
deposit, to i_ '^XaiXiP** 3™ 1 travelling as a refugee under the name 
^hich Loai^ «^ teTUi ^jl 0tl ^ ls voyage to the North Cape in 1796. 

of Miiller, ^V m y»oM Bor>*. Numerous excision* on i/nrt ™.v h« 

^hich Loa*- «^ teTia i" i r J 011 ™ s voyage to the North Cape in 1796. 

of M" 1 **^^,:^* *SK«S? w,,^"? 010118 excursions on land may be 

S»^ Je someof the mo8 t 5M^Ei2S5^ 
inerouow ^^^-r-BBBKWOBD. The 1a««i - 

(!) T^^f^ereand hack in 6 h\f ^* m *L SaU ? n ' * Ues ** the 
Beierenfj <>*<*- ^ crossing tne mouth <S A on a Tne *- (** 2 p.m.) and 
Sat. (5 p- x^'J-jStx+idhorn, the 8tea me r^i, Saltenfjord and passing 
the island o^ *~L a., »** a* Sand»*ce« ^^ a ?* **«*H«n«i and J2*«mbi 
on the ^"i? ^r©^ ord > a narrow inW £ ° rn CP- 221). We now 
enter the :3B ^T.^3.ix«, beyond Kjellino \ flanked *>Y imposing moun- 
tains, c *^!^^***** Tlie la »t station iL S? lte aarr0 ™*t part at the 
gaard of &&&*zXr*1^ we may row to ©Vn ^ Crt, * fc - 

™. ^. ^- -X?**-*Zl -&o&0 thrice V^ A ^l> Sitjtm>o«,.~ 

t jie S. end o# **T **** ffo*. «£ y , l«on. A Thura. at fi «^ 





through which an enormODi mass of wstei 
daily, forming a tremendous cataract, known 
jacli tide pours in or out of the fjord. The  
re is 6-6 ft. only, bnt when it increases toil 
s, the scene is most imposing. Vessels r 
i daring an hour or so at high or at low tidec 
ies its departure from Bod# accordingly. 
S point of view is */* **r. ''° m Str-erm (qa&rtei 
idler). A column here commemorates the * 
1873. The scene is most effective when 
the fjord. The ascent of the B^ravatmti 
[a recommended. 

cipal place on the Skjerstadfjord is Skjtri 
be Afiavter/yord. Opposite, to the W., is tl 
h an ancient burial-place- The steamer ft 

r«u«i. About 6-6 Kil- farther on is *» 

rwnglomewte, a formation which *lso a 


B tartlD«-P o: * nt IO „," d on tl»*t nuwmtrfa 
,„ tie "OWJJSr ".'"Si, ««.. ru<« (J .1 

j surrounding 
railway "ina 

here ~ *"" ^« ft « 

D <J ofthBLMgy, 

,^,£f?""«fe '""* 

•* ^ottte 29. 


> and. -tfeexioe extends to the S.E. into the Leurodal 
A a- " ay e foi-TT^" _=» "^"^^untaixi. \& covered with enormous masses of snow, 
th ri? lni «& t/K -^ ^"- -tiie glaciers to descend 6U0-700 ft. below the snow-line. 
*th 0h »<*Ja^ ^^a-3itelma group on the N. is the Ohnajalos (5380 ft.) 
Fro 6 Seg *9ht^^^£^~ ,m ** i **** an<I tlae ZsinorJa&kna. About 50 Kil. to the K.E. 
HQtori- Pa &ej^x^ ^^ (6990 ft. J* tJ*e highest mountain in Sweden, 

seed i e a Q.r» "^v« may- also ascend the Bapitvari (2171 ft. \ 2 hrs.), 

of *l p *he :SS^^-» "^~iew or tlio I/angvand and the Sulitelma; or we may 
eeu 5? 6 Su ^^~^^^ Xaatti Jot* to ttie C^ 3 /* **»•) £«»»»tf«w»r, a lake at the 8. 
naij a " aad -*=-S ™* a > wliicli we eJtirt to the (2»/« hrs.) height (2780 ft.) 
'•^ " ^V^^* e IteurodUxl. View of the Sulitelma, Sala-Jaekna, and 

th enc» -° ^fc^^av— **-*-e here clMe to tlie Swedish border j to Qvickjocle, 
Otn p. x **~ *- ^* ^tf^ return to IFafirerli via the tourist-hut on the Vcubetn- 
] ffn ftri ^^-<i Xle Saltdal, and take the steamer from Rognan. 
/"o^tsl^-^-^j^* th e steamer steers into the S. arm of the fjord to — 
oxj t f ***"^ ^*f^~~~ station > *3b£jt qixatrters), its last station, where it 
ti*h+  M -^^^-^r^J Xk0Te ' ^Offnan lies at the end of the Skjeretad- 
a jS* *>»-:r^. i^ «>ank f t2ie SaltdaU-Elv. SaltdaLs-Kirkc stands 

?°°»t^» -*"*^^*«^ato^ Ilay drive up tlie> Saltdal via Sundby, Almindingen, 
J*i«a.~_~5"-™^^fc:^ iZT??* (fair quarters; tinned provisions), whence we 
I e ^- J-T"^^ ^^^« ±JT » Be ierendal CP- 5219) in one day (horse 10, guide 
£ * <i ~*^:»r^ : s tfanen Cp- 2±»> Xmx two days (hor»e24, guide 6kr.). 

**^^ = ^ w/ r0ltt JBodier *° tl10 island of Landegode, 12 Kil. 

^x>sl Ie dajr (tlxejre ana l>ack). We row across in 
us*»*rH ndlail<i ne *r tliegaardsof Jrvio-and/5fandtnp\ 
a.a the "*&******<* C2320 ft. ; with gnide; 2-2V 2 

±r> *S rand view, to the J*., of the whole chain of 
' ° tiie E. the Sulitelma,, to the S. the Hestmand 

Tlie Lofoten Xalaads. 

^ed 8 ^!? wVf-^S^^? -**«**V«» (P. 230) *y different 

<*r*rt* h Aofi *? ***** 'Communicationer'. Line I follow* 

c takea ui I bv A 9 S./V ai V d 5£ en croseea to (5-6 hrs.) Stx>Jw>r 

^d^n«rand i^SIL* .f*?*^^ in hrs. more. - Line II 

rTO^fBoS to tSS*? M 5 e ^ fle P»™*tely (p. 229). - Line III, 

5T«*«*~««V, and' ^o?J^i- f±U^£l1f* J abtm Ti\ B T imga9 ^ 

ces , JKtwrer, and. .»>*» if ?»■• f *om Bod0)j thence via 

section with the T^±£t>*° t f' 4l ?**' % en *» 8 hrs. more. — 

JL,ofotbk Stbsamkr for «5°.^I leave SvolvsBr as follows. 

aTxxo. Vcero ; returni^ b^' *^T ** -»«/*<ad, JTitfsfJord, Bund, 

- 3 _ Dttorning. — Qn IkTon ^?*^ saxn e route and reaching 

AMBB leaves Svolveer ^V.* SJSS 1 "^?.?** and Tha»- ni « nt a 

J9K~a%™& novae*, BtlnlgZ" t?* ****er*tad } Stok^artnces, 
*^^U^r8 ^^t^^^'tlS ^ *^jf headland of Kunnen 

ro ormng, returning f roni -r^SSSj^ ^^^ **»"•*, wtich U 

■» on "Wed. morning and 


boat a w«k Jn tbe Lofoten Islands is 

aotrlers ana tolerable fare are to be ol 

in JSTvolBtEr, Kabelvaair, and DiaermtOt. 

to do a good deal of walking on ro 

oore. aaniinr. TM vessels of the 

iO*ord other opportunities of visiting 
<ek- Jn tbe '. 
ad tolerable 
r, .Kaeeirajerc 
.- — _ good deal • 
naj hours and meal-times, not scooroing 
the departures of the steamers and the 
P- 31S% 

rostfjord, which is entirely unprnte 
Ees the Lofoten and Vesteraaleii Islsn 
•Drist-stesmers traverse it from end t 
l steam across it. In both cases we en 
[god chain of the Lofoten Islands (<L 
ofotenj in their fnll extent. The 1 
forenoon. Weird, tut less imposing, 
pales the moon into insignificance. 
y weather or a sndden tempest. Bot 
s Wotted ont by mist or rain the pi 
one of the flne.t .ights in the Koto 
te -Lofoten I-lnvrtda forms a wide en 
t. ?."„*,, which ■»•»•' *^»4S!, 
BO Kil. to the S.-W. into «»• *"" 
,» liheoed to a backbone, ^p.,,;. 
- ,h. tail at *« »• "itarj.^S.i! 
,, that no opening i» *?"" s B „ a '; 

as**? iJ'Sf.nSTT.^-^ '~ *> 

" ll * 5 t«h trSn.^.»a. of roolyisle. 
.srsed with "*°" * a( , they are ot 
ftom I?«V.Sa*/nSr-, 'Van..'), ■•■ 
ing-hanh. C S"!"!, Most of the 

lng-»«l»f •" C *" "" often rislns i 
J pointed in ""PJi^e a cratoi-llk, 
, Of theil P«»Mj.t5a. Soft., 

e Xati. «»J" „eeia moss, wtUk 
„ clotbod with <.J«= tll er. ltd. 
lamp w«»^™ • .? .hound, whet, 1. 
utrMur. C TSfSJei. ,e»er.l tho.s.r. 
1., lie close to *<">f jahee of com, 
oorttair. rf«" ' Si , 1. *»••—». 1 
thi. hiKh •»»""**„ the d.mpn... , 
,eget.«o» owing „„ .„ d ot 

•* ""WSi X'y" «',°«.».»«d, 

,r^-.«»drrefw..s"»»«sA-.-:. u ' 

„.^ a=d Swedou. 

M SO. MOSKE N ^S0. **- 

^gn 1 ). The »?»» ^ii'V 7<Pflk') and sinker CJ«» r h6ir li ae .rt^i 
with artificial » inn ° w f Lt as they can low©*" *JV even i J 16 

ge sums of money to tt« »»"» Either merely opened Cop- 

6 fish are carried a^'&ely open C'KUpfiak', from "SPEX 1 to 

Mid cleaned, or sph ' ^f^cks to dry. They ar ^™ n coll< *t- 

n) and spread out on Jf^en covers, known ** *%. or are 

e'aps under small roundwoo Wooden frames ('H)elder'). 

to tail and *«« <J{ ®"e "cut open and the backbones removed, 

•aught .after >4th April are £ a fn ^ ordin ary way, they 

died ^«j5£^tf (dried fish) is the generic name. 
RundfUV or StoMjk • ^ called *Laberdan\ The heads 

I without otter P^pwano <nsh-guano\ On some 

$5 Vands^thfcod^eads are boiled with Wweed ('Tarre') 

* fodder CL0pning*) for the cattle. 
be supposed , it is not easy for the multitude which flocks 
g fishery to find accommodation. Most of the fishermen sleep 
y huts ('Rorboder*) erected for them. In the middle is the 

'.©mrur'), where they cook their t Sllpam0lja , and 'Okjysta\ 
crew is called a 'Lag% who choose their own. 'Hovedsmand* 

sherxnen go N. to Finmarken for the 'Vaarflske' (*snmmer 

* eSerwS^iS 7 ° ften atten ded with great loss of life. 

*he te o^ n g bo a ?i > aL g ^ 11 . P ' re ? d «ring it impossible to return 

*si Z i° n P g en J°g" e Tav rX o? J2" 15 En eL m! across the Tart- 

ffeknivV into the L^o^^? occasions the men often 

of the keels are %v«T f ****** craft to enable them to 

are even provided with handles ('Stropped) 

"Westernmost of ti, fl 1 

1 which lies AfLZ lar « e * Lofoten Islands is the 
e « on tine lIl7^ B8 ^ r±th its cnnrch, a station of 
d is called LofotnJtt thG local Reamers. Tie S. 
Kkenatrem, a ' st ron ' Pa8t which runs the famou » 
fthertotheS is th • _ CUr *ent often dangerous to 
1 Peonage • "and** * ° f ^oakmg then the For*, 
, er in thia direct! «^ e flat and populous island of 
*« «ea-bi rds » hairnt^l* #komva>r, with the last 
l f^ots, _ XetZ? 1 *** *ryherne y populated chiefly 

thew* ^ a4 *> o n W M l8 v the ton******, ^ich 
«»e Jr , e of the i*i * ie the stations of Sund 

no * untZ?"** CVw! nd i8 *** church of *7ofe- 
t0 ^ on^ eil «y e^l e " ereek, 3 , * n^al trap 

' the FUv a Sain. nter **e niirow hay at high 

*«*. on ***** is tfce *r 

* suaall iaT f a P*tr*r*n> separating it 
."***»* at the S. end of which 

SVOLT.EK. 30. J 

nboat-station of Salatatt, baoked by the 
5. of tlie huge headland of Vrebjerget, am 
Hotel) are also steamboat-stations. Amo: 
sjige' the beautiful JBimmtltinder are cone] 
it-eteamere fjp. 221) steer direct to the I 
preen the VestTiagw and the aJstvaaga, tl 
lands. On the S.W. point of the latterlle 
Hotel), with a guano-factory , a etation 
of the chief centres of the fishery tnffli 
aval officer who superintends it. Above 1 
178 ft.1 Off the island lie the rocfcy la! 
and Fiatra.-, »U excellent n.hing-gioun 
0stvaa-T*» are the next stations, Mopes 

7oZf T-mgvwrf- Haul, B. si-^, 

CS, the largest fl.hlng-statlon en 

funded at the beginning of the <J£*£ 
slonary of CtonO. "J ~* • »JJ ,«n.r, 

™ srh^o^siie fl ,r s «iyir, ,. « 

t T .»g», •»«- J^".,~» £o.t-.t.»en ., 
he mo.t "»P OI "* 1 "oltl>s Lofoten end 
the •«»** 1 "K-P°J"* 1 „_e n,ul, Mr. H. J 

t Caborrt 1 ®°y ""i„ is -rfeible from the 
the midnigh*' »™ "J* S y„lv«. an a 

l}. „ „„iT»»esTS9r andente 

7» _ ZTjt r*t l*vr*0i>ce «■, ~ They then B l 

i i^°..«^rth"» ii r~ 

»° ,S. of -"bleb ie *»= u „, fjord. . W 
[e of tse a" pieasa"* V 5 jrotell. Th 

* V •°„"jSe "iittV) rl.lntT l»1e, 


tod i** 1 

228 Route 30. DIGERMULKOLLEN. 

About 31/2 hrs. from Henningsvaer the tourist-vessels pass 
the islet Hane (station) on the left and enter the *Baftsund, 
the grandest of the Lofoten straits , separating the 0stvaag0 from 
the Hind*. Steering to the S., we pass between huge mountains fur- 
rowed with ravines and covered with large expanses of snow. On 
the E. are the Brubrektvnder ; on the W. the Nilsvigtinder , the 
Faldfleld, and the Svartsundtinder. The scene is grandest at L»lc- 
sund, where at the head of the **Troldfjord tower the snowy Tr old- 
tinder in several peaks. In fine weather the tourist-steamers enter 
the Troldfjord, which is enclosed by almost perpendicular rocks 
with snow-filled gorges. Looking back, we obtain another magnificent 
view of the Raftsund. To the W. rise the lofty Korsncestind and 
Rerhoptind. The passage takes about an hour in all. 

A very interesting excursion (4 hrs. there and back) may be made 
from Digermnlen (see below) by rowing to the Troldfjord and then ascending 
on foot to the Troldvand, a mountain-lake almost always frozen (about 
800 ft.), above which the Troldtinder rise almost sheer for 3200 ft. 

At the S. end of the Raftsund lies the island of Store Molla 
(p. 227), and on the E. side of it, at the S.W. end of the Hind*, 
is Digcrmulen, a station of the local steamers, consisting of the 
house of the Landhandler Normann ('Hotel') and a few fishermen's 
huts. Behind it rises *Digermulkollen (1150 ft.), which affords 
perhaps the most superb view in the whole Nordland, and was -visited 
by Emp. William II. in 1889. Ascent Vfe hr.; at the top are a bel- 
vedere and a refuge-hut. (From this point a great Panorama was 
taken by the painters Jos. Krieger and Adalb. Heine in 1887.) We 
also obtain a beautiful survey of the Raftsund, on the E. side of 
which, in the foreground, rises the Sneetind, connected with the 
Digermulkoll, to the left of which are the distant hills of the Lange 
and the other Raftsund Mts. To the S.W. we overlook the whole of 
the Vestfjord with the open sea beyond it, and to the E. we see the 
mountains on the mainland. — An even more comprehensive view 
is obtained from the Sneetind (about 2300 ft.), ascended by an easy 
path from Digermulkollen in 1 hr. ; descent to the shore l^hr. 

The local Vesteraalen steamer from Svolvser (p. 227) also traverses 
the Raftsund twice a week. From Melbo (see above) it steers once a week 
to the N.W. to Stent i Be on the Lang*, an island with numerous fjords 
peninsulas, and isthmuses, which forms the chief part of the W. Vester- 
aalen group and together with the Skogse contains five parishes ('Fjerd- 
inger*). The vessel then steers back to — 

Stokmarhnoes , on the Ullvtf, and through the narrow Bevesund to 
Kvitnaes on the Hind£. Thence to the N. between the Langer and the Hind* to 
Sortland. The M^sadel (see above) is visible the whole way.i Grand scenery 
with attractive foreground. 

At Sortland (Ellingson's Hotel), on the Sortlandwnd, we may land and 
wait for the boat returning next day. Meanwhile we may row (in a 
^exring") across the Sund to visit the 'Eiderholme' or hatcheries of the 
eider-ducks (p. 219). 

Next station — 

Skjoldehavn on the And* (p. 231) , the least interesting of the Vester- 
aalen Islands. From its extensive swamps, on which the 'Multebcer 1 abounds 
rise abrupt hills to a height of 1970 ft. The last stationjtowards the N* 
















F 0*- 1):BNPJO R». 31. Route. 229 

«wM* 1 "!^i l ' t *' iS to«y D °™ 1i ^ e '"•"Word, lies ^tw, on the 
SrtSw'"^^ 1 ^ ««2S? £ ^o-»««, " (he K, end of the 

KS,**, ^*.«3. «*» promoDtoty of Digermnlen, pass 

»*>i « * **** * ri 6ht, and the 0»ifiord, cutting 

,„?.»>„, .» *~ Mt - » a *" <"» o. -» - = 

&w" *SSTx-» ASB8CTl to H "" ,dhl,n about 2 V* *»■) 

f^o **■ **"*!» to Tromse. 

1 that of the  

m Bod» 


to flm 



. 10-12 h 


amisr b 

eada W. 

from tbe harbour 

iC M 

anart" 6 ** ""Y'atid farther V, „ ..- 

■**J Qiot Z-anct^ode (p. 224). 

** ga lies to the S. of the Foldenfjord, the en- 

tbe 18»" ~~'v re g» n4 - Tte lowet P alt o( th e mountains has 

 nn > of "*** j! .moolri by glacier-aetlon, while their summits 

» n beef *° ^ .etttAei Uke tnB A '8 QilleB of Mont Blanc. The 

° „oitrt eA * D -tit-ulst [sketched by Prof. Forbes in his 'Norway') 

« 8 nrtdtin d ^° I 1 " es dnot crater. At the head of the Foldenfjord 

t \ tbe fort" °' m0 un»ins , one of which, the TroWlfnd (first 

1,13 v "' e ro """" ---moles the Matterhorn. 

1 Vard/Hdm and Btrfeutm branches, 

plies from lli.dB In 10-12 hours. 

;i {un the Lrmeifjurd, to the K. of 

;r S at the I.andnandler'a), and Sgbtit 

bvik lo rutin on the Baitenfjord, 

3»rfolden the Lttrfjord diverges to 

srge tbe Ttnkefjord, with its pro- 

■.eteikfjord. These fjords are almost 

aOiuuttd, a very narrow 
through the green water, 
■v,n ■brtW' u *n^t> The mail-steamers of Line I swe 
tn r 9. *■ ttTVMlflOTrf to Henniaginar (bob p. 227). a»™> 
t raU« a,;I0IS between the flijfhwf, on the W., and the Skot$- 
" i ine A P*^ « (.Kridff on the E-, steer to the E. into the 
«<£*• *"£ teen the mainland on the 8. and the Er^i* (8Ug*n) 
'clflO»<" , f -j .too at — 

JW"? 1 , n d atop 
on I 18 

ttAttSTAJ). From Bode 

^z>£/j0. They then steer round the Engele, with the station 
xid the church o£ jStegen, and cross the mouth of the 

'ford to 

tvik, on the JzZczmmerje , on which towers the pointed 

^^^ Fartlier on is the ab rapt Tilthorn, first ascended hy 

^^&^- Then throixgrh the 0xsund, between the Lunde 

xx*er«r, and out into the Vestfjord. in fall view of the 

„. chain (p. 2^5}. 

^oZvcer, see jp. 2t2T. 

-floats of Line H now steer hack (E.) to the mainland. 

^z&h0 i Hammer, on a. many-armed peninsula. 

^-^r»««, at the entrance of the Tysfjord, on which a local 

*° A TV 6 f5 , *^ r - The chief arms of the Tysflord are the 

aanid the Botrifjord £&=. tending to within 12 Kil. of the 

i^ r > v tlie <*ri*™Z/yc>ri2 , the Munfjord, and the pictur- 

^rf, »^Meh rises the IfedtiiU. 

^the ^ 4th t^d "th e ™*«^°Qordaroute leads hy M^ 

^^ another ±^ «? °* the seven Sagvande, to Temmernas 

* '(exceUent q n S2™i °~ **• Nordfoldenfjord (p. 2»). - 

-m*="e an excurajT.^ i? ^-i_ w .£* m »y ascend the huge Kraak- 

b J£^a7tett£?££ff Si%5 tfc » 6 «>> » 4 TO. Sagvaad (the boat 

p T om Kraalcino to T^ the magnificent primaeval forest on 

-foxi* lower Satcv«.T*i? rDan ^ e:iril8es on the Sagfjord (17 Kil.) we 

%^ route crosses Si % , Ke a«" the fjord is a waterfall 50 ft. 

S a-gfiord, the stea.:m*J?i * turesque Dragteid from Drap on the 

v- 6 ) . uoat - 8 * a- ti ons nearest which are Boge and 

_-fc>xanched SincLgr wK* ^ 1 * 017 fiituated on a Peninsula 
^-m^- «» mainland hy th« VyfV* cl1 is here separated from the 

¥Zr&- of L0dingen exten^^* 1 *^- 

.*ion of the Vestfjord <£**?= ***** large Ofotenfjord, the geolo- 

^ ^«3te»pe», is fertile but S?^ r *wice a week). The S. shore, 

<= ».o^ a quarters) on the "N" S ,*" tame. The steamboat touches 

^ja.d then steers 8.B. to * vZ^J* 1 * » «•* the entrance to the bay 

^.e to Gelhvara in Sweden or %* < »» (terminus of a railway 

^ quarters at Mosling^j^^i I>- 34lj, and to Fagernces on the 

v xn , r? . receS8e « » f>a.**«fl?. & ra «»dest scenery on this fjord 

SS?^? 1 ^ at p «eerSeM V?* **" 5 easily ascended) and the 
1?* V253 a « r * Ceood qaar*?^ 8 **c Skjomenfjord, at the 

which is S/321 ?' is ° n tiy^^-^Mnes of Won^ll (88 KIL). 
Meiers. ^ OTO6 ^», b «ck2d e b lT"J l * m of the Skjomenfjord, 

stage is le 8 8 interest ^"«- (*o the W.), with 

through the Ttells^ZSP- ^« steer past the E. aide 

f/ *2 ' o « ^**icK afterwards expands 

"** ? ^^*«*^SJ~» *>oth on the Hind*. 

fft?^°^iw lnrt Hotel; H6UI Nord- 

v ^ »tv<1 prosperous place. 

""I i* 'lilts. -«•■*»•« «=-» -m.«"> i,!,> ",k.t»«' 
'"E«' l «fcS« C SM8 ' 7 «•*-;>, 1.11 ol* 1 ™" 

V>°^?*\ -w*-*-"*»- a- la-r««» «l*,w M -J«*s,, 'O 

*«"££ iSi-Tr-ar Jk .tin «o»^, , n,l «»"a 
fort- .C.o111^ -. t»xiel. T«.,?«e. ,> 4 ,27*,,„ 

the E- 
ngast n-»T 


outh of 

I coloni ^* 

hom se"^ 

The ^jo 

.fa leads «* 
a Iho hug* 



*««, lud< j 
™ (P- 231). 
fto* TBI J£ 

» rwim gu (de. 

■,, e "" r i'ri,; n ,; 

f eB Oopd f a* 

* *■=»..«,. 

«"«E2«.. «..».,.,.._ "■"W- 

«>e -r^ 011 tt» e l^mw. T?t? "M romMlnm 1h sight t' 

*4i e ? ^°<»» , ***ld diB * b ««y trail „i-ce exporting Urge qi 


it places. ^ e P ** 8 \e^°^h a JiKto-uoou on the 

.ng stream, and a * r*«th reaci a kind ofbtitin, 

rising on the B-, ° ^ifiin^ tie Lapp .Eiicain$- 

f ew Lapp families *^?m tie £ we(M]l diskrio* of 

ccupy several *Parie IJoattefc'or 'Gammer'. The 

shaped hut, formed of stone, small tree stems, 

clt, with a round opening at tie top for ^ ex u 

uimission of light. Each hut always has its Are, 

i pot or kettle. The hearth is called 'aran', and. 

beside it 'boasso 1 . The family and the servants 

of the fire. These Lapps possess a herd of 4000- 

ich graze on the adjoining hills. Of these a few 

ted to show to visitors. While this is being done 

r-boots ('Skal-Komager', or 'Skaller'), spoons 

nd other articles for sale. The peculiar crackling 

)ofs reminds one of the sound produced by an 

The reindeer are caught by a kind of lasso 

horns. They are milked twice a week only. 

r gamy milk, one of the Lapp's chief articles of 

Lth water before use. 'The milk is strong and 

>een beaten up with eggs' (Scheffers Lapponica, 

made of it is chiefly reserved for winter use. — 

•om the Tromsdal we obtain a beautiful view of 

een hills and the snow-mountains of the Kval* 

ngvadse (p. 235) beyond. 

XX) ft.), a mosa-clad rocky hill, rising from the sea 
the S. side of the entrance to the Tromsdal , it an 
w (about 2*/s hrs. to the top, a stiff walk). The path 
omsdal route to the right, a few minutes from Stor- 
tiouses. It soon becomes steep, and ends halfway up, 
end over meadows and loose stones, and partly over 

with the frontier-treaty of 7fh/18th Oct., 1751, the 
ntitled to migrate to the Norwegian coast in summer. 
<apps to Sweden in winter. These migrations leaa 

with the permanent inhabitants. The number of 
■stimated at 18,000, of whom 1700 are still nomadic., 
ontain 12,000 more. The powerful race which once 
La has thus dwindled to 30,000 souls. The Lapps 
Y with Norwegians and Finns. In Norway they are 
while the Finns are named Kvoner, from the 'Ian' 
. From the fact that the dog alone has a genuine 
'), while the other domestic animals have names 
ish origin, it has been concluded that the Lapps 
e of hunters , who adopted the nomadic life within 
3n this theory the reindeer, now the mainstay of the 
object of the chase only. 

irons works on the Lapps may be mentioned: Mil- 
her Laplanders', 1842 x Everest's 'Journey through 
.', 1829; O. v. Diib$n't 'Om Lappland och Lapparne\ 
iWs 'En Sommer i Finmarken', Kristiania, 1871; 
hologie og Lappiske Eventyr\ Kristiania, 1871; 
ver min Missionsreise i Finmarken\ I860; /. FaM'l 

F< YincenV* 'Norsk, Lapp, and Finn*, 1886. 

ULFSFJORD. 32. Route. 235 

snow. The top is marked by a large iron vane. Passengers by the tourist- 
ships may generally row across to Storstennees early in the morning, 
climb the Fljrifjeld, and descend direct (though no path) to the Lapp 
camp, which they reach about noon. 

The Tromstind (4065 ft.; guide from Tromsst 4 kr.) may be ascended from 
the Lapp camp in 3-4 hours. We walk to the (1 hr.) head of the valley, 
which ends in a great basin like those in the Pyrenees; then ascend the 
steep slope to the left, at first over turf and afterwards over snow (snow- 
spectacles desirable). Herds of reindeer sometimes graze here. Before reach- 
ing the crest of the hill we have to scale a very steep snow-field. The final 
ascent, over snow and detritus, is easier. The top, marked by a varde, 
commands the magnificent scenery of the Ulfsfjord and the glacier-chain 
on the Lyngenfjord ; to the W. stretches the Arctic Ocean beyond Troms* 
and the Kvaltr. On the E. side the mountain falls almost sheer to a neck 
of land between the Ulfifjord and the BaU/Jord (Ramfjord). 

32. From Troms* to the North Cape. 

46 S.M. The steamer Vkstebaalen (p. 211) takes 13 hrs. from Troms* 
to Hemunerfest; Mail Steamboat to Hammer/est in 16-18 hrs., to the r 2VbrM 
Caip* in 6 hrs. more (comp. pp. 211, 212). — The Toubibt Stsambbs leave 
Troms0 in the afternoon, reach the Fugle about midnight and Sammer/ut 
the following day, and are off the North Cape in the evening. 

The steamer steers N. through the Tromsftsund, and N.E. 
through the GreUund. To the left lies the mountainous Ringvadser 
(with a glacier and a lake formed by a moraine); then the Reins, 
at the S."W. end of which lies Finkrohen. The steamers some- 
times pass through the Langfjord, between the Ringvads* and 
the Rein*. On the mainland, opposite Flnroken, towers the Vlfs- 
Und (3280 ft.), posted like a sentinel at the mouth of the •Ulfs- 
fjord, which here opens to the S., running inland for 50 Kll., and 
parallel with the Lyngenfjord. "We obtain , in passing, a superb 
view of the snowy and ice-girt mountains of the Lyngen peninsula 
|, the Jagervandstinder (4920-6580 ft.) with the Goattagaise 
140 ft.), and to the right of them the Fornastind (5660 ft.). 

On the Ulfsfjord a steamer from Troms* piles once weekly. At 
Ojevil (good quarters at Hr. Gjsever's) the steamer enters the inlet of 
Kjo*en> enclosed by huge glacier-covered mountains. From Kjosen, the 
terminus, a road crosses an l Ei<T or isthmus to (*U kr.) Lyngen (p. 286). 
— The steamer does not enter the 8. part of the Ulfsfjord, which is named 
the S*r fjord, and is connected with the main fjord by the narrow strait 
of Btremmen, so called from its strong current. 

The next station of the mail-steamers is the little island of 
(8 S.M.) KarUe, beyond which the Fuglesund to the left leads be- 
tween the Vanne and the Arne out to the open Arctic Ocean. The 
tourist-steamboats usually reach this point about 10 p.m. and steer 
a little way down the Sund to await the **Midnight Sun, which, 
to those who have the rare fortune to see it unclouded , presents a 
glorious spectacle. Across the blue, yellow, and silver shimmering 
sea appears in the foreground the rocky Fugl* (2572 ft.), the sharp 
outline of which recalls Capri; to the left of it in the background, 
just above the horizon, hangs the red and gold disk of the sun. This 
beautiful scene is even more impressive than the view from the 
North Oape. At times, however, fog or the storms of the Arctic 

* ^^ *= ** ut the scene The mil ■, *°"' Tr °"' 8 *' 

red Willi B*j[ .** — .*»»5 ,',' 6«»™ilj- . 
in weight) ^- # ^0-20 ft; « n(i eTe , 

f mors tb**^ -^i*T * wilL! e * F I 

TbB wtat*? ^Z-T»& •" 1 T n K8nflot_, „„. . 

l I Ja and* i *** i v *» ra "» « a . tk *°*»Klii? f" "holly o«- 

<** °..«»?".o »v t f»». ""j, 1 "'" 4 •» &,« ^i rt >» 

to Me North Cape. ALTENFJOBD. 33. Route. 237 

lh.°}?-!L W ' *° tte mounWn-h«in eneloied bv the SMKmrra («1» <*->> 
i. . T™""*"*"- (*bout 4100 ft.). »nd the ArHitrf (ebout 36O0 ft.). - Thu 
S. am' e ™"lon (OT Dne d „ : .„„„ ft, Bid (300 ft.) 10 (4 Kil.) Jgg»- 

AwiMndel, and welk up thst **U«J (»**" 

mating old nnnim, 10 the •J''* M , , *" , ; 
on the Fornaittoi »nd the "w™f""1„ 
TUB following toor tikes VI* *»y: ril " £ 
MM (primitive quuten); -«* %Jff, 

r defending from too mein P ,,t *J™ 'j ao 
From the Ljnejdil we m»y •If* ™°. „. u 
., or tnlk to the S. to the gLc.eri of » 

-te«oer go« on to the 8. to BKM»* «J "g 

1 the buk of the Slorfjord, ae me J 

!""• •taw*?"' ft.«m.u»o n ,-!,««•*""«*.«■ 

»&»": " .L" s • f "•? or t <*. »w«'i.v to fl, *„ . »i>u 

■*• »•«!** of *■ •» °* '""■"•-WW r""iw» M ..i *> ° iei 

Tb. j.!*»U .i"« (too Ik" «"*' ■>«.10= ia l ,„„, ,l«.m«- 

WbicI Tt> e _ OD oortim.n — 

t*iii- _-« Q -*i C*F 1""I»* J^„ atifirnHU n*! 

H^MMEBFEST. From Tromse 

^ ^ ~ «r«ttv »t>o*, with a church. Then to Strmnsna* 

rpin e-1>^^^^e P we y mSy Visit Kaafjord* Kobberv«r* % a small 

rfjord- ^^^^ -—- j^,.-^ T.-nnM for 'whale* •, good quarters), 

cop l^** ^^^_ **^*„«^7»V' «*« salmon-river ^Mw-jK*. Of scientific 

M of ^^S* ^^«S£-itaUT i™?Se lltenfjord, particularly near 
^; v »«ri-=«lS«mW^ high. Important fairs are held here on 
6 th l «^T  f *f?iSicir La| P 9 flock in their curious sledge-boato. 

S°£S ^»^~ ~ -» *l«s£ better , a**d game (sometimes as many as 
ld 3r •„ A^^*^?^ they exchange for fish, flour, and groceries. 
kg reiaAc^^icii w ^ ±882-83 had a station at Bossekop 

rmiganl> -^-^ .^-^3- T,l 
a&tional ^_ *=£~* =m ~^i± to K<*re**J oJb &>nd to ^oparanda in Sweden, seeR. 34. 

the Alt&:«»^^* -^ e mail-boat s teen to the N., towards the moun- 

0ksfjc*:*'^^~ -— ^-hich are the stations of Basvik and Gooafcopen. 

S^ra o^*- -mjX- a8 the Stjem' ' and tfetfand, lying to the right, 

nd as ~"*^ ^^* ^s3- character oommoa in Finmarken. In Seiland 

table- "*-**t5i%^^ r ft, 5 > with its unexplored glaciers. Numer- 

Jadlri d^^^^^txto the island. Between Seiland and the cu- 

cut d.^^^^i a**&- of H<x<*J&r*i which rises abruptly on the W. 

hape«*- -*"^^-^ on the E. side, we steer towards the harbour of 

graoVt^^^^^ri-^ entering it, w© look to the right into the strait 

fest. iX^^^^^-^^ting Seilaraol from the KvalB, on which Ham- 

mcr ^ ^.^p:^ ^,-aroxttontory of the JKlvale narrows the strait to 

t ^ across whi ©h the reindeer herds are made to 
^ pastures in Seiland. 
_^__ rj^romse) Hammerfeat (H6ttl Nordpolcn; Jensen's 
J^T^ -v-ice-consul, A*>. G*. Robertson), founded in 1787, 
*>i t2l60inhab. , is the northernmost town in the 
" N. lat., 23° 4:6' 26" JE. long.). The town is 
ilt. The Grflrnnervolds-Gade skirts the harbour, 
-tli. church and the telegraph-office. To the S. is 
x of the town , with the Protestant church, the 
& schools, all rebuilt since the great fire of July 
-oaerfest is arery lively place in summer, when the 

*?8?h Nov M to y 23?^*t J,iIy - fOonversely, the sun 
* ~ a *&*& Jan. ; but the electric light 

^ a ** m 2 vtjf- * rtlx ° x *<> theN. and E., Russian 
S°^rlS.i Q i' fleetfl ajre *Jso dispatched from 


^ Wing Went and"^?^^^ <«** P Uce ' 
tion of the Gr«n nerv i d « #V-~, »meii . 

ur , then to the W to r20 • ? leads t0 the N ' W * 

^.^ we may also row diiJktY P 1111 -^ the promontory of 

, se (disused, of course V« f^ 011 * ***<> steamer. At the 

er . A conspicuous little ^ mme O, with the dwel- 

tte, crowned with a jeloh« ? ^^ of g^iiite, called 

8 oe xn bronze, has also been 

Time permitting, «, . «» ," .hooia " ~ t v*" Ae . v>" ,. Wi ana « 

Sid, the wires ««. ""^.j^ The J7T: i> " I°S v >eo. Here we to: 

pond, » nd "*"i "hr i **eigb' -" uerc - t>r - ""^- '»~tijc arotxca 
to le (t and •«** 'ne l£ M»e fi obtain a 

««p M""* . f B M S>Ml^2^ of the W., 

Kraze j 
paiuia oi 

v _— — —  — — - 

240 Route 32. NORTH CAPE. 

which lies Fruholmen, with the northernmost lighthouse in Nor- 
way (71° 40- 

3 S.M. Have , in a hay on the Have , with a church , a pastor, 
and a Landhandler. To the left rises a pointed hill called the 
Sukkertop ('sngar-loaf ). The mail-steamers of Line I here enter 
the Maassund and touch at Moosb, with its church, parsonage, and 
landhandler's house, before proceeding to the Magerosund (p. 241). 
The tourist-steamers, however, and also the mail-steamers of Lines 
II and III steer to the N., between the Hjclmse, on the left, and the 
Maas0, on the right. At the N. end of the Hjelms* is a 'bird- 
mountain', the haunt of countless sea-fowl, with the fantastically 
shaped Hjelmsetorcn. — The Gjewetrtop soon comes in sight to 
the E. In front of it is the next mail-steamer station — 

2 S.M. Gjcavar, on an island. To the N. rise the *8tappene 
(stappi, old Norsk for 'column'), four pointed rocky islandB covered 
with dense flocks of gulls, auks, and other sea-fowl. When scared 
by a cannon-shot a number of the birds rise in dense snow-like 
clouds, uttering peculiar cries. Other birds take to the water, but 
great numbers remain sitting on the ledges of the rock. To the 
right opens the Tue fjord, cutting deep into the Magerar. The steamer 
then rounds the long and low Kmvshjctr- or Kniv&jcel-Oddc , on 
which a steamer struok during a fog in 1881, projecting beyond the 
Cape, and soon (17 S.M. from Hammerfest) sights the North Cape, 
which presents a majestic appearance although of moderate height. 

The **North Cape (968 ft.; 71° 10' 40" N. lat., 26° 39" E. 
long.), named Kneskances by the early geographer Schoning, a 
dark-grey slate-rock , furrowed with deep clefts , rising abruptly 
from the sea, is regarded as the northernmost point of Europe, 
though the Nordkyn (p. 242) is the most N. continental point. 
Travellers land in the Hornvik, on the N.E. side of the Cape. Up 
the green mossy slope, which is swampy, stony, and steep at places, 
the Steamboat Co. has constructed a path, and provided it with a 
rope fastened to iron stanchions for the benefit of bad walkers. 
(Stout shoes for the ascent and wraps for the summit are very ad- 
visable.) We take about 50min. to reach the top of the plateau, 
where a wire, very acceptable in foggy weather, leads in 20 min. 
more to the extreme point. By a granite column commemorating 
the visit of King Oscar II. in 1873 and a beacon recording that of 
Emperor William II. in 1891, travellers await the hour of mid- 
night, usually quaffing champagne (10 kr. per bottle) purveyed by 
the watchman who lives in the Hornvik in summer. The view 
embraces the open sea to the W., N., and E. ; to the S.W. we see 
the Hjelme and the Rolfs*; to the E., in the distance, the Nordkyn; 
to the S. the plateau of the Magere, with its patches of snow, 
ponds, and scanty vegetation. 

'The northern sun, creeping at midnight at the distance of five dia- 
meters along the horizon, and the immeasurable ocean in apparent con- 
tact with the skies, form the grand outlines in the sublime picture pre- 

PORS ANGER FJORD. 33. Route. 241 

seated to the astonished spectator. The incessant cares and pursuits of 
anxious mortals are recollected as a dream ; the various forms and ener- 
gies of animated nature are forgotten; the earth is contemplated only 
in its elements, and as constituting a part of the solar system . — Acerbi, 
'Travels to the North Cape\ London, 1802. 

'And then uprose before me, 

Upon the water's edge, 

The huge and haggard shape 

Of that unknown North Cape, 

Whose form is like a wedge'. Longfellow. 

To the £. of the North Gape is an excellent fishing-ground (comp. p. 22ft), 
where passengers are usually indulged with an hour or two of hand-line 
fishing from the deck of the steamer, the sailors gladly assisting novices. 

33. From the North Cape to Vads*. 

The direct distance from the North Gape to Vads* is about 45 S.M., 
hut the course of the steamer, dipping deeply into numerous fjords, is at 
least 100 8.M. long. The mail-steamers take 62-70 hours. They start 
for the return on the second day after their arrival at Vads/9. . 

Beyond the North Gape the sole attraction of the voyage con- 
sists in the ntter bleakness and solemnity of the scene. Both main- 
land and islands now consist of vast and monotonous plateaux, 
called Nceringe, rising to 1000-2000 ft., and generally unrelieved 
by valleys. The steamboat traverses long fjords without coming in 
sight of a boat, a human habitation, or even a bush, for half a day 
at a time. At the heads of these fjords, on the other hand, we fre- 
quently find smiling little colonies, surrounded with a few bushes 
and trees. 

From the Maastf (p. 240) the mail-steamers steer to the E. 
through the Magtresund, between the large Mag ere, the N. end of 
which is the North Gape, and the mainland. On the Magere are 
the stations of Honningsvaag and (6 S.M. from Maas#) Kjelvik, with 
a church and Landhandler's house. 

Beyond Ejelvik the steamer passes the Porsangernces, glitter- 
ing with white quartz, and enters the Porsanger Fjord, about 
120 Kil. long and 20 Eil. broad, into which numerous streams fall 
at its S. end. In July and August the 'Sei' (saithe, Gadus virens), 
a flsh of the cod species, is largely caught here in nets, each of 
which requires 30-40 men and 6-8 boats to manage it. The proxim- 
ity of a shoal is indicated by the black and ruffled look of the water 
and the attendant flock of thousands of sea-gulls. The Sei enters the 
fjord in pursuit of the 'Lodde' (Otmerw arcticus, a kind of smelt), 
which resorts to the shore to spawn. 

5 S.M. (from Kjelvik) Repvaag, near the Tamse, a fiat island 
with extensive moors, where the 'Multebsr' (cloud-berry , Rubus 
chamamorus) grows in abundance. 

5 S.M. Kistrand, with church, pastor, doctor, and telegraph- 

On the E. side of the Porsanger Fjord is the peninsula of Spirit- 
Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 6th Edit. 16 

242 &ouU33. NORDKYN. From the North Cape 

Njarga, at the N. end of which is the headland of *8v»rhoItklubbeii, 
an almost sheer rock of clay-slate, about 1000 ft. in height, a re- 
sort of millions of sea-fowl. The owner of the headland is the Land- 
handler of Svar holt, which lies in a small bay to the E. of which 
he and his family aie the sole inhabitants. He derives a good in- 
come from the sea-fowls' eggs; and the dead birds are used as fod- 
der, being buried for a time, and afterwards packed in casks. 
The mail-steamers now steer S. into the Laxefjord, and call at -— 
o S.M. Lebesby, on the E. hank, a prettily situated place, with 
t orm ' Bll0p ' etc * Num eious ooast-lines are observed (p. xxxi), up 
2 ~° ft. high, and generally in pairs, one above the other. 
Keturning from Lebesby the steamer passes the mouth of the 
aidsfjord, at the head of which lies the narrow Bopseid, separating 
" worn the Hopsfjord. We next round the Drottviinartag, a pro- 
montory between the Laxefjord and the small KjeUefjord. At the 
*a of the promontory rises the Store Finkirke, a huge rock, formerly 
thIT by the La PP 8 i and in the Kjsllefjord, a little beyond it, is 
b «e j^uie Finkirke. The vertical strata of sandstone here are lite 
8 y *• , At th e head of the fjord we reach — . 

h ./S.M. Kj0llefi ord an < A nnexkirke' of Lebeshy, with several 
flo^ 68 and <Ga mmer' (see p. 234). The shore and the bottom of the 
trZl ti e covered with boulders. An old coast-level is distinctly 
'o U n^if °S ^ he right * leaving the Kjsllefjord the vessel steers 
2 su S f t devcp ff C^ed wall') to the station of — > > 

Xjaron'r Sk ^ nin 9htrg, and along the bold cliffs of the Corga*- 
ia *d WST 011- Chor e asl 0> a large peninsula connected with the main- 
is the v ^ narr ^ W isth *nus of Hopseid. TheN. end of the peninsula 
*°Bti^I?*ri£ OT Xinnerodden^, in 71° 6' N. lat., the northern- 
's W^ ° mai nland of Europe. Two hold mountains on 
a «0Hfa4 1 2 6 i? r,wrd tlle entrance to a basin, in which lies Sandvctr , 
int ° enorm^ eriI l an,,s h,lt - T »* masses of ojiartzose rock, broken 
**&*. are?h ! sl ^ l>a y *ave a very imposing effect. Next, on the 
CUri <>Q8 rort^ axid of Smmrbringa and the flat Sletnces, with a 
- The nfl w * farmat ion called 'Btsfcopcn' (the bishop). 
fac *ory f « C 8t *tiorx is (6 S.M.) Mehavn, with the train-oil manu- 
,* ie *teamZ V€nd ^°S^»- Then (3 S.M.) Oamvik. Passing Omgang 
i en S*A, and f ? W enter8 tn © Iwge Tanafiord , about 70 Kil. in 
/° the W 1 Bkl *ta *lx« E. bank, with its variegated quartzose rocks. 
**efj0Td *rL° no !><>""** ^© see across the narrow Hopseid into the 
en *°*inatin Mile* oti the E. side of the fjord increase in height, 
r*' ia #io*L? n *** & sStangencesfjeld (2315 ft.) To the W., farther 
{* n 9fjord Uler *"> **- peninsula separating the Tanafjord from the 
0y e Gujiif 11 ^ to "*^**-« s - rises the Algas- Varre ('holy monntain 1 ), 
6S jir 1( "*°Wra . AVe call at (2 S.M.) Finkongkjeitm and at — 
5 ac *ory* ;%»!«* C^app f<We, 'valley'), ^here there is a guano- 
8 Point hes J -^TC^^&m, and even potatoes are seen here. From 
1 ^ e lookL -*^- ;ag> * ne ^c*trc and j0Wre Tanafjord, and the Lee- 

to Vadse. VARD0. 33. Route. 243 

botten, a bay to the S.E. — The water is too shallow to admit of 
the steamer going on to Ouldholmen (p. 244). 

The steamer turns and steers down the Tanafjord, skirts the 
Tanahorn (866 ft.), at the N. end of the peninsula of Rago-Njarga, 
and steers to the £. to (7 S.M.) Berlcvaag, (5 S.M.) Makur, and 
(4 SMjSyltefjord (Lap? Orddo-Vuodnd), with a 'Fugleberg'Cbird- 
hilV) of sea-galls and auks. — The scenery becomes more and more 
dreary, and the shore lower (400-500 ft.), while fog and many 
stretches of snow intensify the gloom. This whole peninsula is 
named the Varjag-Njarga, and is separated from the Rago-Njarga 
by the Kongsfjord. 

1 S.M. Havningberg , with neat houses , a lofty wooden pier, 
and even a garden containing grass. To the left, at a height of 
20-40 ft., lies the former coast-line, above which run the telegraph- 
wires. To the W. is the projecting headland of Harbaken. Near 
Hayningberg is the cavern of Ovnen ('oven'), nearly 100 ft. in depth. 

3 S.M. Yard* (Cornelius LunSs Hotel; British vice-consul, Mr. 
R. 8. Hohnboe), a town of 2200 inhab., lies on an island which is 
separated from the mainland by the Bussesund. The town has two 
harbours, the larger and deeper being on the N. side, protected by 
a large breakwater, and the other on the S. side. The neat houses 
are roofed with turf, and their little gardens grow a few vegetables. 
To the W. of the town is the fortress of Vardehus, founded about 
1310, and now of no importance (garrison of 16 men only). To this 
fortress, however, Norway was indebted for her acquisition of Pin- 
marken. Inscriptions here commemorate the visits of Christian IV., 
King of Denmark and Norway, in 1599, and Oscar II., King of 
Sweden and Norway, in 1873. To the E. of the town rises the 
timber-built Church. In the vicinity are numerous 'Hjelder' for 
drying nsh, and on the mainland opposite are four Train OilBoUeries 
and two Guano- Factories. 

If time permit, we ascend the (20 min.) Vardefjeld (102 ft.), a 
rocky hill behind the church, overlooking the town and island, the 
Domen (535 ft.) to the S. E., the open sea to the E. , and the district 
of Syd-Yaranger to the S., with the adjoining Russian territory. 

The astronomer Pater Max Hell of Selmecz in Hungary observed the 
transit of Venus across the sun from the isthmus between the two har- 
bours in 1768-69. The church-register still contains a note written by him 
on 22nd June, 1769. — The climate here is mild, so that sheep spend the 
winter in the open air : but violent storms are frequent in winter (max- 
imum cold 5° Fahr.)- Comp. p. xxxvii. 

The voyage from Varda to Vadsa takes S 1 /^!^ hours. "V7e 
steer past the islands of Rene and Home, with their 'Eider-Var* 
and 'Dun-Vaer', where eider-down and feathers are gathered and 
numerous ermines are found. Then to the S., sometimes calling at 
Kiberg. The shore continues exceedingly barren. In the interior 
rise the Ruyttotjock and Beljek. We pass the S. side of the Vadse, 
on which the town of that name formerly lay. 


10 S.M. 
j-consul ^ 

on. chalk- «- 
rad'. Tfc» * 
altty of ^~^* 
et»lpeciM_ 3- ^ 

i elder' fo^r 
1 pl Q m-t*r-^ 

» hill t e» 
tore of i^ 


Feom V*- 3 
weekly »*=> 
>ln2y,-£* , 
■.) and th*^ 1 
Id be rant* ^ 
Itnrivll * 
, vehlclu ** 

 on Frio. 

The local. *? .^-^ 

anger Fj^-r ^ r 
'orten>na& -r fp. * 
ie ascend. &,*? 
Syborgt*.** ^" 
the drive ti*>-^,c 

... Tta bo»*S:»t)ie'- '«sS,"« , ""Oft" 4 

,,.,idrt™<- ^ t «h» ».,J»!). ', ,!'"*>•..„ ' 

IBonaku. -Jj.ixlrf — "«»' ,'*"«>,.*•■>- 

„,, 11» ther *f f'jtold i«I« 0d , "• i**»=.< S»»- 

Buldholm^*", to takau,?;^ «»Jd i, ^Ve* 

34. Byd- 1 

m by the mm* I 

The district to the 8. of the 1 
of dispute between Norway and 
length defined by the convention 
1884. This region abounds In tin: 
landet', the land of planks or ral 

The local steamer conveys □ 
8. from Tads» to Bugfrntes (good 
the month of the Bugsfjord, v. 
the W. side of the fjord rises tl 
the E. the Bratfjcte (1336 ft.} 
the tan lis of which are almost I 
of the bare Sltogere, touch at E 
Bsgfiord. which farther on brat 

At Kirltentu, on the promon 
eh arch and parsonage of Byd-Tw 
Farther np the tjoiA (5Kil.")li« 
™"? M1 *'* >t the month of t 
■team """' the ™na B ter, of 

&••">, weather p«fa 

BoH^efg- 8omB *-ft Ki \ 

bank of the p*"^ »«« tw ° 
reside the a** 11 ! in a Bo» el1 
that they » •^tappi C'fJ 

*" Ka - Jou* B *v consists ° r 

C40K11.) jtf-.°* tk * d w *J J 
scenery of ^^nifcg 6 £«M*jL| 

%,> * 

i<*. ;*»t» 1 ^eo dB - The ju-S* * route *J T «W«v 
.nlo*'^ i«» Ieftb snktor*<i;,ii e ffa.~ - TOo 

36. From the Altenfjord to Haparanda in Sweden. 

About 706 Kil. (438 Engl. M.), a fatiguing journey of 11-13 days. From 
Alton to Kautokeino 4 days, thence to Muoniovara 3-4 days, and from 
Muoniovara to Haparanda 4-6 days. This route has been trodden by L. v. 
Buck, Acerbi, Martins, Bravais, Oscar Schmidt, and other scholars and 
naturalists, but has no attraction except for purposes of science or of sport. 
The best time is between the middle of August and the middle of Sep- 
tember. Earlier the mosauitoes are insufferable; later the days draw in 
and snow begins to fall. The traveller's passport must be visi by a Russian 
ambassador or consul (a consul at Hammerfest). 

From Altbn to Kautokeino, about 140 Kil. by the route across 
the mountains to the "W. of the Alten-Elv, or 155 Kil. if we follow 
that river. We prefer the first of these routes , and engage guide 
and horses for the whole journey to Karesuando. Four 'Fjeldstuer 1 
afford shelter, but provisions must be taken. The highest part of 
the vast fjeld which the route traverses is the Nuppivarre (2730 ft. ; 
*varre 7 the Lapp, 'vara' the Finnish for mountain). The stations 
are : 36 Kil. Gargiastuc (360 ft.); 20 Kil. Suolovuobme or Solovom 
(1300 ft.) ; 26 Kil. Piggejavre (1110 ft.) ; 62 Kil. Kautokeino. From 
Solovom geologists may visit the deposits of coal on the Akso-Javre. 

The longer route, following the Alten-Elv (Alatajokki), crosses 
the Beskadosfjeld to the Ladnijaur e and Mast (810 ft.), in order 
to avoid the Sautzofosse, the rapids in the lower part of the river. 
On the upper part, where there is little stream, we row up to — 

Kautokeino (866 ft. ; good quarters at the Landhandler's, or at 
the Lensmand's, who is obliging and well informed), a settlement 
of Lapps and a few Finns, most of whom are absent in summer, 
with a church and parsonage. The sides of the village-well are 
coated with ice below. A few birches, but no pines. The name 
Kautokeino ('highest of the way') has been explained as marking 
the highest point on the way from the Arctic Ocean to the Baltic Sea. 

From Kautokeino to Karesuando (about 100 Kil. or 62 Engl. 
M.), two days. We either ride or row up the Alten-Elv to (14 Kil.) 
Mortas. Thence to Syvajdrvi in Finland (Russia) , 65 Kil. more. 
The frontier , which we cross 11 Kil. before reaching this place, 
is formed by the watershed (about 1850 ft.) between the Arctic 
Ocean and the Gulf of Bothnia. A ride of 28 Kil. more, present- 
ing little interest, brings us to — 

Karesuando (1060 ft.; Inn), the first village in Sweden, with a 
church. The Muonio-Elf is here 400 ft. wide. Barley is cultivated. 

From Karesuando to Nedre Muoniovara (about 100 Kil. or 
62 Engl. M.), in one day by boat down the Muonio-Elf, the bound- 
ary between Sweden and Finland. The trip is very interesting, 
and the passage of the rapids is free from danger. It is usual to 
hire a boat and rowers as far as Muonioniska ('beginning of the 
Muonio') on the Finland side, or to Muoniovara (good quarters 
at Fostrum's) on the Swedish side ; but a fresh boat may be en- 
gaged at each station: 20 Kil. Kuttaintn; 20 Kil. Palajokko ; 

248 Route 36. OFVER-TORNeA. 

30 Eil. Ketkisuando, 12 Kil. below -which are seen the first pines ; 
20 Kil. 6 fore Muonioniska; 10 Kil. Muoniovara (760 ft.), prettily 
situated, with corn-fields. An interesting description of the sal- 
mon-spearing in the Mnonio by torch-light is given by L. v. Buch. 

From Muoniovara to Haparanda (365 Kil. or 226 Engl. M.), 
also by boat, first on the Muonio, and then on the Tornea-Elf. The 
rushing of the Muoniokoski, a cataract upwards of 2 Kil. long, is 
audible at Muoniovara, V4 nr * distant. The descent is very exciting. 
The foaming river careers wildly through a narrow gully and over 
sunken rocks. At one place, near together, are two falls, each about 
6 ft. high, between which the stream has to be crossed in order to 
reach another narrow channel where the descent is less sudden. 

The boat from Muoniovara to Ruskola is manned by three boat- 
men, holds two passengers only, and costs about 80 kr. Besides the 
cataracts just mentioned, we descend a series of other rapids. The 
whole voyage (about 280 Kil.) takes 2 1 /2~3 days. Good quarters at 
Kihlangi, Kengis Bruk (iron-works), Pello, and Ruskola. 

Between the Kexisvara station and that of Kengis Bruk, 1 hr. 
below it, the large Muonio-Elf falls into the Torne-Elf, which de- 
scends from the Ttimea-Trash (65 Kil. long; 1130 ft. above the 
sea), to the E. of the Ofotenfjord. Observe the interesting costumes 
of the natives at Pello (265 ft). At the Kittti, a hill here, ended a 
degree of longitude measured by Maunertuis in 1736. 

About 3 Kil. below Ruskola lies Ofver-Tornea, near which, on 
the Finland side , rises the Avaeaxa (p. 342). — From 5fver-Toi- 
nea, where it is usual to land, to Haparanda, see p. 342. 


Route Page 

37. Malmo and Southern Skane 250 

From Malmo to Trelleborg and Klagstorp and to Ystad. 
Bornholm 251. — Cimrishamn 252. — From Malmo to 
Genarp; to Engelholxn. Landskrona 252. 

38. From Malmo to Nassjo (and Stockholm) 263 

From Land to Trelleborg 254. — From Hessleholm to 
Christianstad and 851vesborg 255. — From Wislanda to 
Halmstad; to Karlshamn and Karlskrona 256., 

39. From Alfresta to Karlskrona and Kalmar. Oland . . 256 
From Oskarshamn to Nassjo 258 

40. From (Copenhagen) Helsingborg to Gotenhurg . . . 269 

From Helslngborg to Hessleholm. Kallen 200. — From 
Halmstad to Nassjo 261. — From Warberg to Boras 261. 

41. Gotenbnrg 262 

42. From Gotenbnrg to Wenersborg. Lake "Wenern. 
Western G5ta Canal 266 

From Oxnered to Uddevalla 268. — From Wenersborg to 
Herrljnnga 269. — The Einnekulle 270. 

43. From Gotenbnrg to Katrlneholm (and Stockholm) . 271 

From Herrljnnga to Boras. From Stenstorp to Hjo and 
to Lidkoping 272. — From 8kofde to Karlsborg; from 
Moholm to Mariestad 272. 

44. From Nassjo to Jonkoping and Falkoping 273 

The Taberg. Husqvarna 274. 

45. From Jonkoping to Stockholm by Lake Wettera and 

the Eastern G5ta Canal 274 

46. From NassjS to Stockholm 278 

From Mjolby to Motala and Hallsberg 278. — The Kinda 
Canal 279. — From Norsholm to Westervik ; to P&lsboda 280. 

47. From Charlottenberg to Laxi (and Stockholm) ... 282 

The Fryken Lakes 238. 

48. Stockholm 285 

I. Staden and Blddarholmen 290. — II. The Northern Quar- 
ters 295. — III. The National Museum 300. — IV. Soder- 
malm 306. — V. Kangsholmen 306. 

49. Environs of Stockholm 309 

50. From Stockholm to Upsala 317 

51. The Island of Gotland 322 

52. From Stockholm to "Westerns and Orebro 326 

From Tillberga to Sala and Krylbo 326. — The Stroms- 
holms-Canal 327. — From FrdVi to Ludvika 323. 

53. From Kolback to Flen, Nykoping, and Oxelosnnd . 329 

54. From Gotenburg to Falun. Lake Siljan 331 

From DaglSsen to Filipstad. Klarelf 331. 

56. From Upsala to Gefle 334 

From Orbyhua to Dannemora 834. — From Gefle to Falun 
and Orsa 335. — From Mora to Christinehamn 336. 

56. From Stockholm viaUpsala to Ostersund and Trondhjem 336 

67. The Swedish Norrland 339 

a. From Brack e to Lulea via Wannas 339. — b. To Ha- 
paranda by steamboat 340. 

16, 17 

^K^V ^ISi^Bk ABBML^hi ^kfl^^ft CL^afcaSBiBllsfc^fciaSMSk CLjBAaft 1 .A 


Arrival. The Steamboats from Copenhagen, Lubeck, and Stralsund 
land at the same quay, at the 8. end of which is the Nya Tuilhus (PI. 7; 
B, 2), or custom-house, where luggage is examined. A few paces thence, 
to the left, is the Railway Station (Stfdra Stambana, R. 38); porter 
('Barare') 25-50 o. — The traveller should entrust his luggage to ft 
railway-porter (20 6.) at the station and at once buy the latest number 
of 'SverYges Kommunikationer' (10 6.). Steamboats also ply to Stockholm, 
Gotenburg, etc.; others touch here on their way to London, Amsterdam, 
Bordeaux, etc. 

Hotels (both with restaurants). "Kkaiceb'b Hotel, Stor-Torg (PI. 
B, 2), R. 1-4, D. 1V2-2V2 kr. ; *H6til Hobn (formerly Spea) y opposite the 
railway-station, similar charges. 

Cafes. Baude, Hamn-Gatan ; Brown, Sdder-Gatan ; also in the Blott- 
park (see below), .a favourite resort. 

Post Offiee, Oster-Gatan 15. — Telegraph Offioe, Norra Vall-Gatan 54. 
— Tramways from the harbour to the Stor-Torg, and thence to the S. and 
E. — British Vice-Consul. Mr. Theodore Flensburg. — U.S. Consular Agent. 
Mr. Peter M. Flensburg. 

Sea Baths on the N. side of the harbour (PI. B, 1). 

Malmo, a thriving seaport, the capital of the fertile province 
of Skane, with 50,500 inhab., lies on the Sound, opposite Copen- 
hagen (16 Engl. M. distant), in a flat and uninteresting district. 
Besides its brisk trade it possesses a number of manufactories (of 
gloves, cotton, tobacco, etc.). In the middle ages Malmo was the 
chief trading town on the Sound, owing its prosperity mainly to the 
herring-fishery, which attracted merchants from all parts of the 
Baltic. It is mentioned for the first time in 1259, hut it lay at that 
time in the Westervang, now the suburb of Sodervarn, while the 
site of the modern town was then occupied by the fishing-village 
of Svalperup. During the chequered reign of Christian II. of Den- 
mark (1513-23) Malmo embraced the cause of that monarch, headed 
by the spirited burgomaster Jurgen Koch, builder of the interesting 
'Kockumska Hus' in the Frans Suells Gata. The modern prosperity 
of the town dates from the end of the 18th cent., when Frans Sucll, 
a merchant, caused the harbour to be constructed. 

The Harbour is on the N. side of the town. Crossing the bridge 
beside the Custom House (PI. 7 ; B, 2), we follow the street straight 
on to the S. to the Stor-Torg ('great market'), at the N.E. angle 
of which are the R&dhus (right) and the governor's residence (left). 
A bronze statue of Charles X. is to be erected here in 1896. 

The *Radhus (PI. 8 ; B, 2), or town-hall , a handsome edifice 
in the Netherlandish Renaissance style, was built in 1546 and 
entirely restored in 1864-69. The facades are in brick, and the co- 
pings and five figures in. niches. on the roof in sandstone. Hand- 
some oriel-window in the centre. The handsome Knutssal in the 
interior was the council-chamber of the once powerful KnutsgiLle 
('Guild of Canute'). The Landstingssal is also noteworthy; it con- 
tains a collection of portraits of ancient royal personages and a 
painting by Cederstrom : Magnus Stenbock at Malmo in 1709. 
- to aha Ti andthiifding t - Ee t iden iff (PI. 9), re&idence of the gov- 




"Wagner AD<?b 

ernor of tlie province, is the toom 
18th Sept., 1872, when on his wn.v 

Passing between these buildi*^ 
(PI. 5; B, 2), founded in 1319 «* 
Gothic brick-built church. The* 
completed. — The old Tyska] 
0, 2) has been entirely rebuilt, 
Kyrka. — By the Gustaf Adolfs "X> 
Roman Catholic Church (PI. 4 ; B ^ 
(PI. B, 3). — At Rorsjo, the E. 
Kyrka (PI . 10 ; 0, 3), the EUmerx 
ary school, with a small muB&xa^ 

At the W. end of the towix 
fortress dating in its present 
interesting. It is now a pris*^ 
third husband, was imprisonec^ 
in which he was confined is no 
1578, in the chateau of Drags 
and the town are the pleasant. 
Oscars Park (cafe*, with concexr 

Railway pbom Malmo to 
2 kr. 55, 1 kr. 65 6.). — 19 

33 Kll. Trelleborg (Stada^J 
and several factories, is th_^ 
below), and Trelleborg railw 

About 4 M. to the W. of 
the two ancient little towns of 
herring-fishery and the 'Fair c* j? 
in 1631, and their total popiv"?. 
churches are interesting. 

37. Route. 

^**iol* CJliarles XV. died 

c k .fVora -A-ix-la-OAapelle 

* W© r&8Lclx the Petri Kyb 

restored in 1847-53, a A 

trer Jxsl& only recently be< 

a or German church (PL ( 

■» j£ a -r»rf>-w r known as the Care 


Railway pbom Malmo -^ 

2 kr. 80, 2 kr. 25 o.> T*^ 

of Skane, with its extensive 

white churches, and han<l BCk 

Oxit; 16 Kll. Skabcrsjo, ^ 

some mansion of Torup 

Trelleborg (p. 254). 29 

the S. extremity of Sw 

51 Kil. Marsvinsholm; 5& 

63 Ki\. Yitad (Hdtefc 

consul Mr. H. NiUton), 

with 8000 inhabitants. 

hagen, and Gotenbutg,p 

Tbe ateamer ply™£ °^ - 

(every evening ■^J.JR?*- 
(230 sq. M. % 36,000 i^ab.^ 
B.B. of the Swedish main* — 

/TO -*, 3^1 to the S.E., is tl 

* C^ 1 ' -Uril the shady Cemetet 

* * *^jT lo^n, are the St. Pau 
rtet of *°|* r ™ c, 3), orelemenl 

-i,aro^« f,,c i- e ^ Technical iSchoo 

- ana*^ ^ 8C pi.a,2,3) 

the ^ J 5r£e\*7 and architectnral 

f roxxx ^ -f Queen Mary Stuarl 

- :Boi**^^f 3V78, but the dunge< 

V^re x** * Be died on 14th Apr 

all^^ "***L***d. Between the casl 

m \rx ^**%, of t^ e Slottpark or JKw 

j^* C4BKil.,in3V 4 hrs.;fa] 

- ^ \r* oia town wlih 2500 Mui 
t^M^^s of the Lund, Svedala (V 

torm destroyed S- / 0r the 
£ about loS ed J? e,I, ^boui 



traverses tte Ltf]- ' /tr8- 
«3 , l>eautifnj gro ,e P^nce 

- - - — «Tm. of wSftS /i . iw - 

^*- &™"*"*"> taction f 'f * 5 and " 

- to the 

, junction fo r n,,,*, aa and 
^ - ^Atirup,. 44 ifS^'P, near 

OJ*c*rtot*«*»Jund. ' R V d *9ard; 

X* s y seaport and manuf' f *? sh Vice - 
^ amew *o Stockholm ui ** towiJ * 
^^ s to StettAn,Lubeck , a n?^ °<W 

^3 H^. rro m Y 8t ad). It'yV^jM. to tft 


oute 37. CIMBRISHAMN. 

L in the f»naous manufactories of Copenhagen. The steamer lauds 
™ iSR it ^ n the w - coast. The island is rocky and moun- 
ine hill jailed Rytterhndgten and the JSehodal in the interior are 
/ V * Sl i" Z*l , ween Svaneke and Allinge on the N.B. coast are the 
5.L ««»«»»«rtaa«<, Helliffdomsklippeme, Gaaserenden, Vaade 
lorre Ovn. On the N. side the island terminates in the promontory 
e»-en, near which li es the ruin of Hammershuus (Blanch's Hotel). 

.way pbomMalmc to Cimbrishamn viaTombltlla (96Kil., 
hrs. ; fares 6 kr. 95, 3 kr. 50 6.). 15 Kil. Staffanstorp, 
i for Lund and Trelleborg (see p. 254) ; 24 Kil. Dolby, with 
hurch ; 35 Kil. Vcberod, near which is the RomelckUnt, the 
point in S. Skane. At (42 Kil.) Oveds Klostcr, is the ch&- 
the same name, on the Wombsjo, one of the finest private 
Sweden. At (53 Kil.) Sofdeborg there is also a fine chateau. 
U. Tomelilla (Jem vags Hotel) is the junction for Ystad and 

11. Cimbrishamn or SimrishamnfBdtelSvea), a small seaport 
inhabitants. In the neighbourhood is the Olimmingehus, 
J old baronial castle ; and a little to the N. is the flshing- 
t Kivik, with an interesting monument of the bronze age, 
p tu red stones at the sides. 

ew Railway prom Malmo to Gbnabp stops among other 
it Bara, near the chateau of Torup (p. 251), and at Klagt- 
the chateau of Hyby. — Near Qenarp is the handsome 
tateau of Hackeberga, 2 M. from which is the Romeleklint 

I almo to Bixi/bsholm and thence to Astobp and Engbl- 
Cil., railway in 23/ 4 -3y 2 hrs. (f areg 5 kr. 36, 3 kr. 5 6.} 
is of importance to tourists only on account of the express- 
leave Afalmo on the arrival of the Stralsund steamer and 
Engelholm with the expresses thence to Gotenburg and 
(KB. 40, 14). —bX&Arififi 10 Kil. Lemma; 16 Kil. 
K *l. 8tafvie ; 22 Kil. Furulund. — $4 Kil. Kjcflinpe is 
f or the lino to Trelleborg, Lund, and Landskrona (see 

Kekornatorp is the junction fox the lines to HelsingbW; 
a » d Eslotf- 

£ e *e ] ine3 aeparate at C6 Kil.) B»lVe6 e ?oa The other atatioM 
f\ - LandJkrona (*Sta*s - Hotel)?* 9 *: fortified port with 
*»* a caatle, completed in 1543, now nsld Is * storebouw 
^ambostt to Copenhagen, once or SrtaadaUy. ****** t0 
tr P and &%lt<**l*°lm, see p. 258. 7 

c °*ator:e» to Eslof, 15 Kil. Csee p. 255) 
Wo/> 4.0 Kil. AcefeoW ; 49 Kil. ' KhottU. - The 
Oversea time coal-field extending f IO mHeUi^ or S on 
°nd Qvidinge on the E. 5 

LUND. 38. Route. 253 

59 KA1. BilleshoZ*'*** with coal-mines. Branch to Bjuf on the 
Helsingboig and. kst*> T P line. 

94 KU. Attotp i* * n important junction: for Helsingborg, see 
p. 260; lor Kattarp a-"* 1 *! Hoganas, see p. 260 ; for Markaryd and for 
Hessleholm (p. 255). — 101 Kil. Spannarp. — 108 Kil. Engelholm 
(p. 261). 

38. Prom Malm 6 to Hassjo (and Stockholm). 

268 Kil. (167 Engl. M.). Sodba Stambanan. Express (1st June to 1st 
Sept.) in 5, quick train in 7 hrs. (fares 22 kr. 80, 16 kr. 10 6.) ; ordinary 
train in 10 hrs. (fares 14 kr. 10, 9 kr. 40 6\). The mixed trains (blandade 
t&ger) are suitable for short distances only. — Each carriage contains a 
notice as to stoppages for refreshments. 

[Fbom Halh6 to Stockholm. 618 Kil. (383 H.) ; express in 12»/4, quick 
train in 15-16 hrs. (fares 52 kr. 55, 37 kr. 10, 28 kr. 40 6.)} ordinary train 
in 38 hrs. (fares 32 kr. 45, 21 kr. 65 6.). Sleeping-berth, 1st cl. 5 kr., 2nd 
el. 3 kr., in addition to the fare, irrespective of the distance. — Those who 
wish to avoid so long a railway journey may take the train to JOnkdping 
and the steamer thence by Lake Wettem and the OSta Canal to Stockholm 
(comp. p. 274).] 

The train skirts the Sound, crosses the Segeh near (5 Kil.) 
Arlof, and then the Hojea. Near (9 Kil.) Akarp is the agricultural 
school (Landbruksinstitut) of Alnarp. Fertile country. Close to 
Lund are several large hospitals. 

17 Kil. Lund. — Hotels. Centkal Hotel, Stora Kungs-Gatan 4, near 
the cathedral, R. and 8. only; Stadshuset, Stor-Torg; Skandinavie & 
Jkbnvags-Hotel. — Booksellers: Lindttett, Stor-Torg; Qleerup , Stora 
Sodra-Gatan, by the market; see Plan of town, p. 249. 

Lundj once called Londinum Oothorum or Metropolis Daniae, 
an ancient town with 16,500 inhab. , was the largest town in 
Scandinavia until the middle of the 15th century. In its palmy 
days Lund was the seat of a famous bishopric, and is said to have 
had 21 churches. At the present day it has a dull, rustic appear- 
ance, especially during the university vacations. — From the Rail- 
way Station (PI. A, 2) we walk in a few minutes to the centre of 
the town, where the cathedral and the university are situated. On 
the way we pass the house of the poet Esaias Tegnir (PI. A, B, 3 ; 
pron. Tengnare ; b. 1782, d. 1846), who lived here in 1813-26 and 
wrote his Frithjof, Gerda, and other works. The house contains a 
few memorials of the poet. 

The *Oathkdbal (PI. B, 3), one of the finest churches in Scan- 
dinavia, was consecrated by Archbishop Eskil (p. 330) in 1145. It 
is a pure Romanesque edifice , with two towers and a semicircular 
apse, and has been judiciously restored. The exterior, especially 
of the choir, is elaborately adorned in a manner that recalls the 
Middle Rhenish style of the 12th cent., and probably dates from 
the period after the fire of 1172. Observe in particular the choir, 
with round-arched frieze borne by columns in the first story, blind 

arcades in the window-story, and above these an open colonnade. 

The Interior (generally open in the forenoon; entrance on the S.E. 

side; 'klockaW, or sacristan, Lilla Kungs-Gatan 2), although only 210 ft. 



rf* - 

.1 ° n 

toNassjo. HESSLEHOLM. 38. Route. 255 

received the homage of the Swedish province of Skane. A monu- 
ment records the victory of Charles XI. over the Danes in 1676. 
At (26 Kil.) Ortofta, where a pretty chateau Is seen to the left, 
we cross the Loddea. 

34 Kil. Ealdf (Jernvags-Hotel; Nilssoris), with 1400 inhab., 
is the junction for lines to Landskrona and HeUingborg (p. 252) 
and to Ystad (p. 251). 

44 Kil. Stehag, amidst pretty beech-woods , a little beyond 
which the Ringsjo (184 ft.) lies on the right. The lake is sur- 
rounded by handsome private residences , including the former 
Bob jo Convent (not visible from the railway). 54 Kil. H6>, whence 
a branch-line goes to (13 Kil.) Horby. To the N. of the station 
rises the basaltic AnnekUf. Near (68 Kil.) Sosdala is the church 
of Mallby, where Otto Lindblad, the composer, was once sacristan. 

83 Kil. Hesaieholm (Bern's Hotel, with rail, restaurant; Nya 
Hotel, R. 2kr.), an increasing place. To the W. lies LakeFHnj a (1&0 ft). 

From HtttXtholm to HeUingborg, see p. 260; to VittojH, uninteresting. 

Fkom He8sleholm to Chkistianstad, 30 Kil., railway in iVfhr. (fares 
2 kr. 10, 1 kr. 5 6.). Unimportant stations. From Karpalund, the last, a 
branch-line diverges to (35 Kil.) the seaport of Ahus , whence spirits are 
largely exported. 

30 Kil. OhrUtianatad (Stadshtuet; Frimurarehuset), a town with 9700 
inhab., and seat of the Sktinsta Hofr&U (appeal-oourt of Skane), established 
in the Kronhu*, was founded by Christian IV. of Denmark in 1614. It 
lies on a peninsula formed by the H tig eh. The Church was erected in 1617. 
— A narrow-gauge railway runs hence to Kablshamn (p. 366) via Becka- 
$kog, station for the estate of that name (3 H. to theN.), situated between 
the OppmannatjS and the Ifitijify once a Bernardino monastery, now crown- 
property (often visited and sung by Charles XV.) ; and Sdhetborg, a sea- 
port with a ruined castle and several distilleries. 

Dreary moor. 92 Kil. Balingslof, 102 Kil. R&stveda, 113 Kil. 
Ousby, 125 Kil. KilUbcrg. 

Before crossing the boundary between Skane and Smaland (so 
called from the 'small patches of arable land 1 with which it is sprin- 
kled), we enter a dreary and interminable Skog, a favourite theme 
in popular Swedish song. This region consists of moor, swamp, 
forest, lakes, hills, rocks, and debris intermingled in ohaotio con- 
fusion and extending with few interruptions all the way to Hapa- 
randa. This chaos was formed by the action of the ice with which 
the whole peninsula was once covered. The stones and rocks, worn 
and rounded by glaoier-action, are generally clothed with a thin 
carpet of mossy vegetation. The forest (skog, from aftuppa, 'shadow', 
as contrasted with lund, 'pleasant grove') consists of pines and 
deciduous trees in the S. parts of this region, but in the N. the 
sombre fir-tree alone survives. The engineering of the railway 
presented great difficulties here. Embankments, cuttings, and 
bridges are very numerous. On each side lie long ramparts built 
up of loose stones. At places, however, we pass fields and pastures 
with herds of cattle. A few churches with detached belfries (klock- 
stapel), and red cottages, roofed with green turf, are also seen at 

256 Route 38. ALFVESTA. 

intervals. Manufactories are occasionally passed, and mills flank 
most of the rivers. 

Between (134 Eil.) Elmhult, the first station in Smaland , and 
(150 Kil.) Liatorp lies Rashult, the birthplace of Linnceus (13th May, 
1707). His father was joint-pastor of this parish, but removed the 
following year to Stenbrohult in the vicinity. Nearing Djbbruk, 
we seeRashult on the right, with an obelisk erected toLinnseus in 
1866. Fine views of the long Mockeln-Sjo (446 ft.), farther on. 

163 Kil. Wislanda. 

Fbom Wislavda to Halmstad (p. 261) 115 Eil., railway in about6hrs. 
The chief station on the route is Bolmen, on the lake (465 ft.) of that 
name, 10 M. long and 6 M. broad, from which the Lagaa (p. 26t) issues. 
In the lake is the long island of Bolms/J, once the seat of the heathen 
kings of Finveden, as W. Smaland is called, containing curious tombstones. 

Fbom Wislanda to Karlshamn, 78 Kil., railway in 3»/4-4Y« hrs. (fares 
5 kr. 50, 3 kr. 55 5.). Karlshamn (Stadthutet), a town with 7200 inhab., 
lies at the mouth of the Me&, in the pretty district of BleHnge. — From 
Karlshamn to the W. to SOlvesbory and Chriitianttad, see p. 255; to the 
£. to Ronneby, with chalybeate baths in a pretty district, and Karltkrona 
(p. 267) 70 Kil. 

182 Kil. Alfvesta (*RaiL Restaurant, with rooms), where a long 
stoppage is usually made, is prettily situated at the N. end of Lake 
Saltn (470 ft.). On the right is the old church of Aringsas with 
its belfry and curious Runic stones. — To Karlskrona and Kalmar, 
see below. 

194 Kil. Moheda. Then Lamhult (with the Gronskulle, 387 ft., 
on the left), Stockaryd, Safsjo (junction for Hvetlanda), Sands jo, 
and Grim8torp. Countless lakes. 

268 Kil. Nassjo (1020 ft. ; *Rail. Restaurant; *H6tel Wiberg ; 
Hdtel Svenssori) , junction for Jbnkbping (p. 273) } Oakarshamn 
(p. 258), and Halmstad (p. 261). 

From Nassjo to Stockholm, see p. 278. 

39. From Alfvesta to Karlskrona and Kalmar. 

From Alfvesta to Wexid, 18 Kil., in «/ 4 hr. (fares 1 kr. 90 o., 65 6.) ; from 
Wexid to Karltkrona, 114 Kil., in 4V2-57*hrs. (8 kr.65, 4 kr. 30 6.). — From 
Emmaboda to Kalmar, 57 Kil., in 23/4 hrs. (4 kr. 30, 2 kr. 16 6.). 

Alfvesta, see above. This line traverses a wooded district, 
enlivened here and there with the cottage of a settler, with its 
patch of pasture and its peculiar fence of oblique stakes, common 
in Norway and Sweden and also among the Alps. 

8 Kil. Gemla, with several manufactories. 13 Kil. Rappe, on 
the Helgasjo (on which a steamer plies), at the point whence it falls 
into the Bergqvarasjb. To the S. of the station, close to the latter 
lake, is the estate of Bergqvara, with a picturesque ruined castle. 

18 Kil. Wexid (*Nya Hotel; Qdstgifvartgard), the capital of 
the Kronobergs-Lan, dating as a town from 1342, now with 6200 
inhab., rebuilt on a more spacious plan since the fires of 1830 and 
1840, lies at the N. end of the Wexib-Sjo. The Cathedral, built 

• KALMAR. 39. Route. 257 

about 1300 and dedicated to St. Siegfrid (d. about 1030), the 
apostle of this region, has been unskilfully restored. The Sma- 
lands Museum, in the Forn-Sal ('Hall of Antiquities 1 ) not far 
from the station , contains a collection of antiquities, a library, 
a cabinet of coins, and a bust of Linnaeus (p. 256), who went from 
Wexio to the university of Lund. On a hill to the E. of the town, 
and connected with it by an avenue, lies the episcopal residence 
of Ostrabo, once occupied by Tegntfr, the poet (p. 253), who died 
here on 2nd Nov., 1846. He is buried in the cemetery to the W. 
of the town, by the S.W. wall, where his grave is shaded by a 
canopy of maples. 

Pleasant Excursion from Wexid to (5 Kil.) Evedal, with its mineral 
spring, and (3 Ell. farther on) the royal chateau of Kronoberg on the Helga$jO 
(o86ft.), now occupied by the governor of the district. On an island in the 
lake are the fine ruins of the once strong castle of Kronoberg (which has 
given its name to the Kronobergs-Lan), shaded with beeches. 

The train now traverses an interminable forest, relieved with 
many lakes and several glass-works. — 57 Kil. Emmaboda, junc- 
tion for Nybro and Kalmar, see below. -• — At Thorskors the train 
quits the mainland and crosses several bridges and islands to — 

114 Kil. KaxlMkron*(Storkdllaren; FrimHrarehuskallaren ; Brit, 
vice-consul, Mr. A. Palander), the headquarters of the Swedish navy, 
with 21,500 inhab., founded in 1680, situated on several islands. 

From Emmaboda (see above) to Kalmar. — 27 Kil. Nybro, 
whence a branch-line diverges to the iron-works of Safsjostrom. 
41 Kil. Trekanten. The train now reaches a more smiling coast- 
landscape, where birches, oaks, and beeches appear. In the dis- 
tance is the island of Oland (p. 258). 

57 Kil. Kalmar (Witts Hotel; Central Hotel; Svanfeldt's Hotel; 
Restaurant in the theatre, opp. Central Hotel; Brit, vice-consul, 
Mr. C. O. Soderbergh), a very ancient town with 12,000 inhab., lies 
partly on the mainland and partly on two islands in the Kalmar- 
8und y which separates the coast from the island of Oland. In 1397 
Kalmar, which used to be called l rikets nyckeV (the key of the 
kingdom), witnessed the conclusion of the Kalmar Union (p. lvii), 
by which the three Scandinavian kingdoms were united for a cen- 
tury and a quarter. Gustavus Adolphus came to Kalmar in 1620 
to escort his bride, princess Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, to 
Stookholm, where their marriage was to take place. 

The railway-statioi i?on the S. side of the Qvarnhohn, the is- 
land on which the ,?/ «*rt of the town lies. In the middle of 
this quarter rises «5 ** . P j It designed by Nic. Tesain the elder 
and built of «£** •OrtiXSf Oland in i860-**. 

The chief obiZ**** the ***£ ^ old castle of *JTalmamahu 8 , 

the •Mtt.whj^ trMk the .^enty-fo Ur rieges. ™c Ooldeu 

I(f 1 

» «. swal»l. .oll„ s „ Mj 'V lain ooo„'»'> *> 

5koI6j,, ^vitto » iinep atk ^"« «>© «ufctT S -"W of(f , laet 
mrolie. o* -iSr«.c«l/ »nd If "»»* — ■"><««. „,-"<««,. 

317), im«i. **i«> famous *- to ties" 1 , i, 

celheboundsry betw ee S °lnj. „ ' "* tta 

i K1m«- -s^e *=»y =«.' "o e Over.^fStQolt. 

I ina'^*-**. t» eI "" foe 

Mini,- t,^ «■ ,*•**" Tj 

■ising »|,r«P«y »* tc« 

to prow , ■*""!<.« 

 (»ia i.«ll<i°">-'y "" CT> * Sj£ **»«„ 

*■ asoi*"* 

HELSINGBORG. 40. Route. 259 

127 Kil. Bksjd (Stadshus ; Jcrnvags-Hotel), a town with 3100 In- 
hab., near which is a curious Skurugata, a ravine 125 ft. deep, 
20 ft. wide, and nearly 2 M. long, penetrating a rocky hill. 

148 Kil. N&88J5, see p. 256. 

40. From (Copenhagen) Helsingborg to Gotenburg. 

Besides the railway between Copenhagen and Ootenburg described 
below, Steakebs ply daily in summer. The direct steamers take 14-20 hrs., 
the 'Halland' steamers , starting in the morning from the corner of the 
Havne-Gade and the Xyhavn at Copenhagen, touch at Landskrona (p. 252), 
HeUingborg, ffaknstad, and Warberg, and reach Gotenburg about noon 
of next day. — The Kattegat, through which we steer, forms the mouth 
of the Baltic. On an average there are 24 days when the current runs 
out from the Baltic for every 10 days when the tide sets in. These cur- 
rents and the gales which often visit the Kattegat are apt to be un- 
pleasant even in summer. In fine weather, however, the voyage is an 
agreeable one. The finest part of it is the passage through the mouth 
of the Sound, between HelringOr, with Kronborg (p. 963), and Helringborg. 
Farther on, the promontory of Kvllen (p. 260) is conspicuous. The vessel then 
loses sight of the Swedish coast. Before entering the l skaV or island-belt 
of Gotenburg, we observe on the left the islet of Nedingen y with two towers 
and beacon-light. Entrance to Gotenburg, see p. 81, and Xap, p. 256. 

Railway from Helsinoborg to Gotenburg (Wesllusfbanan), 243 Kil., 
in 6V4-1174 hrs. •, express-fares 18 kr. 25, 14 kr. 65, 9 kr. 90 0. •, ordinary 
fares 17 kr. 5, 12 kr. 80, 8 kr. 55 6. 

Railway from Copenhagen to Helsingor, in 2 hrs., and steamer 
thence to Helsingborg (custom-house examination), in 20min. , see 
R. 59. 

HelsingbOTg. —Hotels. *H6tbl d'Anolbterbb, in the Torg-, *Moll- 
bbbg, alao in the Torg, with good restaurant, R. from 1V» kr.; •Conti- 
nental, Muvthb; all near the harbour, with restaurants and cafe's. — 
Railway Station on the 8. side, not far from the quay. — British Vice- 
Consul, Mr. Carl Westrvp. 

Helringborg, a thriving town with 21,400 inhab. and a new 
harbour, lies on the Oresund or Sound, which is here only about 
2*/2 M. wide, opposite Helsingor and the Kronborg (p. 863). 

Near Helsingborg, and 125 ft. above it, is the tower of* Karnan, 
rising in five stories to a height of 101 ft. (each side 51 ft. broad, 
walls 15 ft. thick). The *Vibw hence is the finest on the Sound 
(comp. Map, p. 24o). Opposite lies Helsingor, with the Kronborg ; 
to the S. is the island of Hven (p. 363), to the N. rises the pro- 
montory of Kullen. The 'VaktmSstare', who , however, is usually 
in the tower, lives at No. 46 Langvinkels-Gatan, the long street 
ascending the hill to the N. of the tower (reached by turning to the 
left at the head of the Torg and taking the first side-street to the 
right; adm. 10 o., a party 50 6.). 

In a side -valley at the N. end of the town, through which the 
Engelholm road ascends ('Helsovagen'), lies the mineral spring of 
Helsan, with pleasant grounds (concert in the afternoon). Adjacent 
on the S. is the pretty Oresunds Park, which may also be reached 
direct from KSrnan by a N. side-street of the Langvinkels-Gata. 


260 Route 40. ENGELHOLM. From Helsingborg 

A road to the N. leads in a few minutes to the good Sea Baths. 
To the right is the long viaduct of the Gotenburg railway. On the 
coast, 6 Eil. to the N., is the royal chateau of 8ofkro, and beyond 
it Kulla Ounnarstorp , the Gothic chateau of Count Wachtmeister. 

From Helsingborg to E*l8f, see p. 256. 

From Helsingborg to Hksslkholm, 77Kil., express in 2 1 /*, ordinary 
train in S hours. The line intersects the coal-field mentioned at p. 252. 
3 Kil. RamlBsa, where the Eslttf line diverges (p. 255). 5Kil. Ramldsabrunn, 
a small mineral bath. — 24 Kil. litorp (p. 253). — 35 Kil. Klippan, with 
a large paper-mill, is the junction for a branch-line via the domain of 
JBerrevadskloster to SkaraUd and R0ttanga y the pretty neighbourhood of 
whteh attracts many visitors. To the N. of Klippan is the little town 
of Aby, and farther off are the estates of Tomarp and Bjersg&rd. — 77 Kil. 
HcstleTiolm, see p. 255. 

The Gotenburg Railway ascends by means of a long viaduct, 
soon losing sight of the Sound. The fertile but monotonous plain 
is bounded on the E. by the Soderas range. To the W. rises the 
Kullen. 9 Kil .Odakra. — 14 Kil. Kattarp, where our line is crossed 
by that from Astorp (p. 253) to Hoganas. 

From Kattabp to Hoganas, 15 Kil., railway in */« hr. (stations un- 
important). — Hdgan&t (Schweitz's Hotel ; Hoganas Hotel), with coal-mines 
ana a well-known pottery, is the starting-point for a visit to the Pro- 
montory of Kullen, which projects boldly into the Kattegat towards the 
N.W., like a huge finger, separating it from the Skeldervik, From Ho- 
ganas the road leads by (5 Kil.) Krappervp, with a chateau and park, 
and the fishing-village of (7 Kil. farther on) MGlle (Restaurant), which 
may also be reached by the afternoon steamer from Helsingborg. To the 
lighthouse (Kullafyr) at the extremity of Kullen is 3 Kil. more. The 
best point of view is the B&rektdle. a height ascended from the Kockenhvt 
(which is about 4 Kil. from Krapperup) or from Mdile. Farther to the K. 
rises the highest point of the promontory (615 ft.), less easily reached. 

18 Kil. Bogle; 21 Kil. Wegeholm. We then cross the Wegea, 
which separates Malmohus-Ldn from Christianstads-Ldn, and tra- 
verse a wooded district. 

27 Kil. Engelholm (Hdtel Thar), a place of 2100 inhab., with 
fishery and corn- trade, lies on the Bonne- A, which the train 
crosses, and is also the station for the Landskrona line (p. 252). 
30 Kil. Engelholmshamn , on the Skeldervik. To the left is the 
fishing village of Skepparkroken. To the right in the distance 
rises the long range of the HaUandsas. 

35 Kil. Bark&kra ; 39 Kil. Forslof. Wooded heights alternate 
with arable land. Now and then we get a glimpse of the sea. We 
ascend the HaUandsas in curves to (45 Kil.) Orefvie, with a view 
of the sea and the Kullen. We then descend the valley of the Sin- 
arp, which gradually expands , and are carried by an embankment 
77ft. high to(52Kil.)the station of Bastad, which lies about 3 Kil. 
from the village and bathing-resort of that name. 

The train enters the province of Holland, crosses the Stensa, 
and traverses a level tract. 59 Kil. Skottorp, near the estates of 
Nya Skottorp (where the line crosses the Smedjea) and Oamla Skot- 
torp , where Charles XI. wedded the Danish princess Ulrika Eleo- 
nora in 1680. — 63 Kil. Wallberga ; 68 Kil. I^holm y an old town 

thertreamo 1 d £»* .»£  ( >£*l. L ''riil. eWe^ woerewecro.. 

« ™- *tTgo« , ? l » ot^V, '*■ ». AtU II. creed. 
the Mt of » B J a :* tl 'nHon,-8 eca j, with 12,800 inhib., 

church and »"- °V *l, r« ^ province of JJ.ll.nd, with an eld 

at the mouth ° r T <., ^ tee N. fc-»ne of toe Balmatadtbuet, 

bridge. Famous »» „,, -l lf ,**rcji tie railway tuwi by .n iron 

Front HalnUltwl » Xj>*Z„*y. 

Sperling, wit. . modern chf^o/n,*^, aeSt ate of the baron. £»«££"„, 

" , , ( . factories- , 9 s Kil. iTerfC > eo r a aandy De (p . 3731. — ' 6B ne . r Vopno. 

the estate of the family*" '*li, d nine-* °irio,Kii. GuUbrondrforP, 

m,i,, of . modi, *°*-^«« th. «"""if i=S« »»'Ei> 
the .aireo, .Mel, ,?' CS, . to»» a*'"" V.W""S„».«« «' 

itadJmS. ill jA »< ,„„„. -'„ °\,„, to »" »„ 

"• "■• «"«■■ „V .m.H i*f VjXT. •" »"".? $** "' 4 

iron-mine.. ifieP* . . .52 ****-, ait^ee e W eI * 

166 Kil. tej- eS I era **> .0 fc1 \ town o( fl f ..^h we 

 uu nil. ^» ■* 1 r y. ° ^ w" e f 

aVj J>>. vi.»« "^e Jf * < 

wttniarnee, t* ^ ' „«:»■'»' Sr**"to « 

262 Route SI. GOTENBURG. Hotels. 

yond (183 Kil .) Backa the line reaches the WendeUo-Fjord and crowea 
the Lbftah. 191 Kil. frtlUs&s; 197 Kil. Asa, on the large Kunga- 
backa Fjord. The valle y s which intersect the barren cliffs are fertile 
and well cultivated. On a peninsula to the left stands the old man- 
sion of Tjoloholtn. We ascend a valley, past the large villages of 
Torpa and Tom, where we observe a fine beech-grove, and cross the 
plain otDufvehedm to (207 Kil.) Fjar&$. To theE., above ns, lies 
the mountain - lake of Lygner, from the inundations of which the 
plain is protected by an old moraine (Fjar&s Bracha). On the lake 
lies Gasevadholm, the estate of the Barons of SilfverskjBld. We 
next cross the Rolfsa, tlie discharge of Lake Lygner. 215 Kil. 
Kungsbacka, a little town which gives its name to a large fjord. 
220 Kil. Anneberg,- 226 Kil. Lin dome. Then across a marshy plain, 
and over the MolndaUh, to (236 Kil.) Molndal, a town with cotton 
and weaving factories, and Almedal, another busy manufacturing 
place. Lastly we recrosstlie Molndals&by alow viaduct 660 yds. long. 
243 Kil. Gotenburg. 

41. Gotenburg. 

Arrival. The large sea-going steamers land at the Stora Bommens ■&***? 

(Pi. F, 2), the canal-steamers at the Lttla Bommeni BTamn(Pl. G, 1), »°"* 

at some distance from the hotels. Oomp. Bvtrigu Kommuni^ationer^vra»^ 

under c G6teborg* a complete Met is given of the steamers sailing 'Norrut, 

Osterut, 86dernt, and Vesterut'. Hotel-omnibuses («/4-l kr.) and cabs (ace 

below) meet the steamers. The Stockholm Railway Station (PI. H, 1, *J * B 

close to the hotels, so that it is hardly necessary to take the omnihue. 

Theatation of the £ erg slags Bana (PI. H, 1* RR. 42. 64) is a H** 1 ** 1 *** 1 *?* ?ri 

_ Hotels. *Giund HdiKi, Haolcnd & G6ta KIllarb (PI »»H, 2), In the 

"flora Hamn-Oata, two separate houses, B.., L.. & A. from 2, T>. 1 74-0 * r -» 

*H6t*l Eooebs (formerly ChrUtiania; Pi. b, H2), Drottning-Torget 4, 

yith lift, electric lighting, and restaurant, R. from i 1 /* kr., B.^ 7 B *?M. * r" 

jeuner H/ 3 , D. 2-3 kr. — Royal (PI. c, H, 2), Drottning-Gatan 67* *£5TfcL 

d'Anqlbtbbbb, nearest the station (hdtel garni). — Hotel Kuso Kabx (P^ «i 

H< 2), Kopmana-Gatan 64, and Hotel Kahl XV. {Dtn Femtonde ; PI. f, » *h 

Sill-Gatan 50, both near tlie station and unpretending. 

R«atatifanffl. A* *>1A "hotels S *JWm*i«<....l.i... Bn^ 

fectioner, Ku n g fl ./?2 t i« 63. . 

Pn . Tifl Gotenbu^ f^oJB»»iN« Ststrm, wnich has given rise to 10 mnoj 

controversy, has h^lo. operation here for many years and has worked well. 

It is at Jeas\ certain t ^*S'^ nkenne8a *** aimilahea greatly oflrte years. 

r^u y8tem ^sahV introduced at Stoclcnolm in October, 1877, f n<f ?< 
tem oJ « e sa,d to h2v5T heen beneficial. The leading features of the sys- 
n!S of J icen *i*e «- VktU**' of »o»-lic©nBing, are Skt a company U em- 
powered to buj'i ' °i,i^ icenees and existing rights and to open a limit** 
number ^«ho% U for J*" ** ,e of * ure *" d una%er?te i *V™*K ih % S ?L 
Jiied managers J?*_ATlcl» H» ve no interest whatever in the sale ol the 
«P r ts. Tbf oomLS? * wtoltrti ia nnder the Bup^vUion of «*• »«*°i" 
pality, after d** pany *«*7*«5re*t at the rate of Bn^SJt the capital ex- 
Ponded, hand8^ oti ?« *^?Tole of the ^rplue profttfS the civic authori- 
*-, thus affo^/J^^^tial relief to fhe r^te-payers! ••» to 80me •*" 

















taut throwing tha bwfej*, S^feS^J^ 1 ^ ■^? g "*** poor »jm ft* »»» » 
lm,er*ilv* W$/. to' -- 0» '"•^"^r- ^**S3* J»*M-^?^ **' ''" Pe " 2 " r ' 

(PI. B, 6); past the Thentte «•» *-*»-— ^ vw.s.tiac&T**** ?Sr3tuaV-0«M to *«"* 

ffl.H 1) end on to OMUwm-t. ^ ^uo throo*" tl10 B ""^ 

itrfiNd. Fete in each cue 10 o. ^lso 

HwtMii to OtrbHanM (see T^t_ .„ 
tar, -,toi««l», BOB, ***L^« P-^l-™'. 
(B-ii), etc., .eeS«ri»«X"-»™*fc» =^5^?^^- 
rw iTi. wiw 'i.Tir.l. Jfta Fin-_y^_ > 3) *° 

bith.'iaW*'"-"*. stori* ta™««»_> ■**" i^°S 

bmb«.ui» »tiW«<™». "««^. ~»* 
tai-SBK., 'VwmUd ltr. - X*.^f^-*«. • 

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Bnmki t Money Ohen tare. Hi^odmni 
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Stockholm iii some rwpeot*. '«=^ c ^ «>»»** »» extensiTe phin on the I 
banko:tthebro«d<Wta-Eir. fc ^^»«*» ft>*- from "* """"'l. Md W 
excellent harbour, whiehi^ ^-"~«t=».oi»-* \,loet ed with *«. The town . 
founded in 1619, on tie in.^.* *e- -*^_ ^ e %y *> a«» M ™ AdolnW by Dn , 
uHta. (induing the w^i_^^_-«l^*» ^* «Aa*r, OUtftaj W J, J£™ 
with them their national »^*-^.fcy ^ooD» tr " c % **«. and 3 
NomeronaawtBmeni.ndG^ W*J*-= °' ^e also Mnongftaflrat colon. .' 
The tat great ^ta W^^x-»» «%e«» m» g%ea nT,,™ 
continental blockade (ISft^, ^*« ^^T^bich U Crf Z Sf f? 
p6t of theEngliah trade ^V^fe ^~ ^£f*H oflhmpe, fiM" 
of export are lion-ore, It^^^" 3 ^*^ "**, «*«., »nS ««,!.-? Macle! 

.m,. i> 1891) »* »»• ^~«,Tii_wiai t™i..., „ n "l? 2 """"s- 

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ar6 , la dn«tt, being ^il* ^ ™* K"els B , Th i ch 

lb, ,„.l».»-«"'«» «* V J fc V, town, .b.„ «, uiai „ m l8Bto) 

264 Route 41. GOTENBURG. Muuum. 

from the railway-stations and the steamboat-quay, is the Gusta*- 
Adolfs-Toeg (PI. G, 2), on the N. side of which rises the B5rs 
(PL 14), or Exchange, erected in 1849 , with twelve columns in 
front. Adjacent is the Guard House. To the W. of it is the Rad- 
hvs (PI. 24), or Town Hall, designed by Nic. Tessin, and built in 
1670, but much altered since. Behind it is the German Christina- 
Kyrka (PI. 8). In the centre of the Torg is a Statue of Oustavus 
Adolphu8 (PL 16), the founder of Gotenburg, by Fogelberg, This 
was the second statue cast at Munich from the same model. The first 
was wrecked on its way from Hamburg to Gotenburg, and was re- 
covered by sailors of Heligoland, who claimed so exorbitant salvage 
that the Gotenburgers refused to pay it, and ordered the statue to 
be executed anew (1854). The original statue is now at Bremen. 
By the Gustaf-Adolfs-Torg is the junction of the Stora-Hamn- 
Kanal and the Ostra-Hamn-Kanal, the two chief canals in the town. 
The former is flanked with the handsome quays called the Norra 
and the Stora Sodra Hamn-Qata. — In the S.E. angle formed by 
these canals lies the small Brunns-Park (PI. 15 ; G, 2). On the 
E. side of this park is the Furstenberg Picture Gallery (chiefly 
French paintings), to which visitors are usually admitted on present- 
ing their cards. 

At Norra Hamn- Gat an 12, in the building of the old East 
India Company, is Gdteborgs Museum (PI. 20 ; G, 2), a collection 
of pictures, natural history specimens, historical relics, objects of 
art, and industrial products (adm. on week-days 11-3, Sundays, 
12-3 ; free on Wed. & Sun. ; at other times 25 6.). 

The Natural Histobt Collection includes admirable specimens of 
the fauna of Scandinavia, notably a fine eland (Elg) and a whale. Also 
a collection of plaster-masks of distinguished men and notorious crimi- 
nals. — The Pictures (Taftor) are exhibited in the new building in the 
rear: THdemand, Bear-hunters, Rustic visitors; Qude y Landscape; Mdller, 
The Sognefiord ;/)' linker, Waiting-room, Dressing-room; Hellqvut^ Louis XI. j 
Forsberg, Rope-dancers; Birger, Artists* breakfast at Paris; Cederstrdm, 
Salvation Army; JAljtfort , Heath-cocks ; Krdjer, Hessalina; Hagborg % 
Churchyard at Tourville. The marble works include : Cupid and Psyche, 
by Fogelberg and Moling Skittle-player, by BVrJeson; and Odin, by Fogelberg. 

A few paces to the W of the Museum is the harbour, with the 
Stora Bommens Hamn (PI. F, 2), whence the sea-going and the 
coasting steamers usually start. Near this is the Post Office (PI. 23), 
opposite the Custom House. On a hill to the right stands ike School 
of Navigation (PI. 21 ; G, 1). A little farther on are the Prison and 
;he Lilla Bommens Hamn (PI. G, 1), the landing-place of the Swed- 
ish canal-steamers. 

To the S. of the Stora Hamn Canal, near the harbour, is the 
Landshofdings-Rcsidens (PI. 26 ; F, 2), or residence of the governor 
)f the district. We then follow the Stora Badhus-Gata and ascend to 
-he left by a flight of stone 6teps to the top of the Stora Otter-Hal^ 
eberg (PI. F, 2), a rock which commands the town and harbour: 
;o the S., on another hill, is seen the Artillery Station (PI, 12), 

"J 1,3), ^rt-«» W* ^. Im » ' *o«?»"«* 

of tie MM SoB 4. St. J, »'. "•^fiS"*^' 

4 the 

e .«l*Ht»»'- *$**£. S.«-f.»v «^;2^c. 




•flenor 11 

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',uti'- 1 

J I »X>-C*'/ 25K1I- Tfoi. TW" 6t ot tft 
&.!■»*• £"»»? -woodg, <*■£«!• °1 

,lti> AC 

I'kJ J* fill 

to Wenertiorg. TROLLHATTAN. 42. Route. 267 

manufactories, which use the motive power afforded by the falls 
(estimated at 225,000 horse-power), and of workmen's houses. The 
*FalU of TroUhattan, six in number, besides several cataracts and 
rapids distributed over a distance of 1600 yds., are in all 108 ft. 
in height. Neither the falls nor their environs can be called pictur- 
esque, and their effect is diminished by the islands in the middle 
of the stream ; but the enormous volume of water makes the spec- 
tacle very imposing. The interest of this spot is greatly enhanced 
by the skilfully constructed looks and sluices on the left side of the 
river, which afford a waterway between Gotenburg and Lake 
Wenern (comp. p. 271). 

We follow the broad road from the station, and(V4hr.) cross the 
N. entrance to the canal by the bridge to the right beyond the 
Grand H6tel ; then, by the Bro-Wakt, follow the broad path to the 
right, past a saw-mill, and across two small islands, to the Speko. 
From this point we have a view of the Guild Falls, 23 ft. in height, 
divided by the wooded island of Guild. — We then return to the Bro- 
Wakt and follow it towards the S., and beyond the next bridge de- 
scend to the right to a 8aw-milL with a large stock of timber. We 
pass to the right through the yard of this mill, which lies on the 
island of dna (see direction 'till Wattenfallen'), and cross a small 
swaying bridge to the island of Toppo (25 d. ; two persons only may 
cross at a time). A platform and two galleries passed on the left 
before we reach the bridge, and the island of Toppo itself afford the 
best views of the ** Toppo Fall, 42 ft. high, the grandest of the 
series. The island of Toppo separates the Toppo Fall from the Tjuf 
Fall ('thief fall') on the W. side. The lower gallery projects over 
the principal fall, and affords an admirable view of its seething and 
foaming waters, while several other falls descend at our feet from 
the mill. — A private bridge (25 b\) crosses from the island of 6na 
to the OuUo (scarcely worth visiting), whence another bridge crosses 
to the right bank, on the N. slope of which lies the Villa Stromsberg. 

We return to the left bank and walk to the Gothic brick church 
on a hill. We then turn to the right to an Iron Bridge across the 
river, constructed in 1889, which affords the finest general *View of 
the Toppo Fall. The stone arch which connects the iron bridge 
with the left bank crosses Polhem's Lock, planned by the engineer 
Polhem at the beginning of last century, but left unfinished in 
1755. Following a path from this point for a few paces, we reach 
the Kungsgrotta, one half of a 'giants' cauldron', bearing the 
names of many visitors. 'Jattegrytar', or 'giants' cauldrons, which 
are of frequent occurrence in Norway and Sweden, have probably 
been formed by the erosive action of stones whirled round by 
eddies in the beds of former rivers, like the similar phenomena 
in the ' Glacier- Gar4a n » at Lucerne. The rocky hill by the grotto 
commands a fine vi e ^ f the river, which here forms a third fall, the 
Stampestroms-Fall, o ~ high, below which the river expands into 

to Wenersborg. WENERSBORG. 42. Route. 269 

If the train from Oxnered to Wenersborg (4 Kil.) does not suit, 
we may take a carriage. Rail and road both cross the Wcusbotten, 
a small bay of Lake Wenern. 

86 Kil. Wenersborg (*Stadshu8 y with restaurant; ffitel WSex ; 
Kasan, a popular garden), a town with 5600inhab., at the S. end 
of Lake Wenern, lies on the N. end of an island bounded on the W. 
by the Wassbotten, on the S. by the Karlsgraf, and on the E. by 
the Gota-Elf (see below). Warned by frequent fires, the town now 
consists of unusually wide streets. 

On the left bank of the Gota-Elf, to the S.E. of Wenersborg, 
rise the steep and wooded HaUeberg (485 ft.) and the Hunntberg 
(490 ft.), both with lakes and moors on their plateaux and pretty 
views from their slopes. The HaUeberg is best ascended by the road 
from Lilleskog (see below). On the Hunneberg are numerous elks. 

Fxom WsHutsBOBO to Hskkljunqa, 66 Kil., railway in 8 hra. (fares 
3 kr., 1 kr. 60 6.). The train crosses a cataract of the Gota-Elf, passes 
between the Halleberg and the Hunneberg, and reaches (10 Kil.) Lilleskog, 
prettily situated. To the left lies the Dettern, a bay of Lake Wenern. 
From (87 Kil.) Hakantorp a branch-line diverges to (28 Kil.) Lidkdping (V/ t hr.; 
see p. 270). 66 Kil. Berrtjunga, see below. 

From Wenersborg by Steamboat on Lake Wenern and the 
W. Gdta Canal to Xarlsborg on Lake Wettern. 

Steamboat in the direction of Stockholm 5 times weekly (once by Lid- 
kdping, Kinneknlle, and Mariestad): to Motala (p. 276) in 20-24 hrs. (fares 
16 kr. 50, 13 kr. 75 6., with separate cabin; ll kr., with berth in the 
saloon ; to Stockholm in 46-51 hrs. ; fares 25, 21. 16 kr.). The W. Gdta 
Canal (i.e. W. of Lake Wettern) is very inferior in scenery to the E. 
Gdta Canal. Host travellers will visit the latter only, as the voyage all 
the way from Gotenbnrg to Stockholm (53-70 hrs. •, 30, 26, 20 kr.) is apt 
to be tedious. 

Othxb Stxamkbs oh Lake Wknkbn: the Dalsland boat, see p. 82; 
also from Wkkkbsbobq to Lidkdpina, Kinnekvlle y and Mariestad twice weekly, 
going on once to Karlstad (p. 2830 and once to ChrisUnehamn (p. 283). — 
From LiDXdPiMO to Kinnekulle, Marietta* , Gkristinehamn. and Karlstad 
five times a week. Between Kinneknlle and Sunnana (p. Si) three times 
weekly (in 4 hrs.). 

Lake Wenern (Swed. Wenern, or 'the Wener'), an immense 
sheet of water (100 Engl. M. long ; 60 M. wide between Amal and 
Mariestad; about 2290 sq. M. in area ; 145ft. above the sea-level), 
where storms sometimes impede navigation, forms an inland sea 
into which fall most of the rivers of Wester- Gotland, Dalsland, 
and Wermland, including the Klar-Elf, from Werml and, one of the 
largest rivers in Scandinavia. These rivers, which expand at places 
into long lakes, traverse vast tracts of forest, affording excellent 
routes for the transport of timber to the lake. The Qota-Elf is the 
only efflux of the lake. The Gota- Canal connects Lake Wenern 
with Lake Wettern. 

The S. part of LaV e Wenern, which the canal-steamers traverse, 
is not very attractive Rooking back, we obtain a pleasing view of 
the Halleberg and tK 'Hunneberg (see above). The quick boats run 
in 7 hrs. toSjotorp^ ^ be re the Gota-Canal begins (p. 271). About 

270 Routt 42. LIDKOPING. From Wenersborg 

halfway, on the Kollandso, an island surrounded by rocky islets, 
rises the well - preserved mediaeval chateau of Ltcko, with several 
towers, now government property. 

By Lecko, to the 8., opens the bay of Kinru Viken, which the 
canal-boats enter twice weekly (besides several others). The first 
station, 6 hoars' steam from Wenersborg, is — 

Lidkdping (*H6tel Lidkoping ; *Svea), the oldest town on Lake 

Wenern, with 5000 inhab. , situated at the month of the Lida. The 

town has been burned down several times, and, with its church, has 

been entirely rebuilt since 1849. 

Besides the canal-boats and other steamers above mentioned (p. 269), 
which connect Lidkoping with theKinnekulle five times weekly, the '•Kinne- 
kulle'', a local steamboat, plies between these two points four times a week. 
— Railway by H&kantorp to Wenersborg, see p. 269 ; by Bkara to Marie- 
stad or to Stenstorp, see p. 272. 

On the E. side of the Kinne Vik rises the *Kinnekulle (pron. 
'chin'), a long isolated range, extending 9 M. from N. to S., and 
4 M. from E. to W., one of the most interesting hill-regions in 
Sweden, both geologically and in point of scenery. It rises in several 
steps or terraces corresponding to geological periods ; granite , the 
lowest of these, is followed by sandstone , alum-slate , limestone, 
clay-slate, and lastly by trap, which, has been upheaved in a liquid 
state through these other formations. With its valleys and woods, 
its abrupt cliffs ('klefvor'), its rich vegetation, and its numerous 
farms and pastures, the Kinnekulle forms quite a little world of 
its own. 

One hour after leaving Lidkoping the canal -boat reaches the 
station of Kinnekulle-HeUekis. (The other steamers ply in the same 
time to the station of Kinnekulle-Raback.') The Hellekis station is 
Y2 M. from the old manor of Hellekis, with its beautiful park, now 
the property of a company. (The mansion contains the offices , a 
post-office, and a geological collection.) The RabSck station W4M. 
S. of Hellekis) is 1V4 M. from Baron Klingspor's estate of Raback, 
with its charming park, to which, visitors are kindly admitted. — 
Near Hellekis, Raback, and Hons titer, formerly a baronial manor, a 
little to the N. (near the railway- station of Goss'ater, see below), 
aie several large quarries. 

From Hellekis a road leads in i/ 2 hr. (from Raback in 20 min.) to 
the *H6tel Kinnekulle, which consists of several separate buildings 
and affords a fine view (R. from l 1 /^ kr.). Pleasant walk of Vi nr * 
to the Afdrfceftfef (which is also i/ 4 hr. from Raback). The ascent 
of the Hogkulle (919 ft. above the sea, 774 ft. above the lake), the 
highest point of the Kinnekulle, takes 1-1 Vi hr* (extensive view ; 
belvedere, 90 ft. high, on the top). 

The Hdtel Kinnekulle is li/s M. from rail. stat. Gdssater (p. 272). 
Carriage, if required, must be ordered at the hotel beforehand. 

In2hrs. more the canal-steamer reaches KtoiwUUifStadshotel), 
a town of 3200 inhab., founded by Charles IX. at the mouth of the 
Tida about the year 1600, and so named in honour of his queen, a 

to KarUborg. G6TA CANAL. 42. Route. 271 

princess of the Palatinate. (Terminus of branch-lines from Mo- 
holm and Skara, p. 272.) 

Passing the island Thorso, we steam in 2 hrs. more to Sjotorp, 

where the western branch of the Gdta Canal begins. 

The natural depression which intersects 8. Sweden from the Skager- 
Back to the Baltic, and which includes the great Wener, Wetter, and 
Malar Lakes, gave rise at an early period to the [idea of connecting the 
two seas by means of a canal. The question was first mooted by Bishop 
Brask of Linkoping (1516) and afterwards by Guataf Vaaa and Charles IX. 
The work was at length begun by Svedenborg waHPolhem under Charles XII. 
(1716), and carried on by Winham (1763). These engineers attempted to 
construct locks to enable vessels to pass the Trollhatta Falls (comp. p. 287), 
but a great bulwark they had built to protect their works was destroyed 
by floating timber in 1755. Nothing more was done till 1793, when a 
company was formed for the construction of the 'old looks 1 of Trollhatta 
(p. 268). The £. prolongation of the canal is chiefly due to Daniel Thun- 
oerg and Baron v. Platen. The latter (d. 1829) set on foot the Gdta Canal 
Company (1810) and lived to see the completion of the greater part of the 
work. The whole route from Gotenburg to Mem on the Baltic (240 M. ; 
canal 56 M. only, 10 ft. deep) was opened in 1832. There axe 58 locks in 
all, four being used for the regulation of the water in the canal. About 
3000 vessels pass through the canal annually. 

From Lake Wenem to Lake Wiken the canal mounts 155 ft. 
more by means of twenty locks (9 near Sjotorp, 2 on the way to 
Norrqvarn, 9 at Hajstorp). To Toreboda, where the canal is crossed 
by the Gotenbnrg and Stockholm Railway , the Bteamer plies in 
5 hours. Nearing Vassbacken, the next station, we observe the 
estate of Fimmerata on the right. Beyond V assbacken, on the right, 
a memorial stone marks the highest point of the Gota Canal (300 ft.) 
above the sea-level. We then steam at the same level to Lake Wiken, 
which we enter through a lock. In the distance, at the S. end of 
the lake, lies the manor of Byholm. At the Forevik station a lock 
leads into the Bottensjo, on the S.W. side of which rises the Waberg, 
recently fortified. Rbdesund (an hour's steam from Forsvik), beau- 
tifully situated on a peninsula between the Bottensjo and Lake 
Wettern, is the station for Karlsborg (Meander's Hotel), a fortress 
founded in 1820, and the terminus of the branch-line to Skofde 
(p. 272). The passage across the latter lake to Wadstena or to Mo- 
tala takes 2 hrs. more (see p. 276). 

43. From Gotenbnrg to Katrineholm (and Stockholm). 

458 Eil. Express at night in 12 hrs., by day in 14 y 2 hrs. (fares 88 kr. 
95, 27 kr. 50, 18 kr. 35 6.). Sleeping-berth, 1st cl. 5 kr., 2nd cl. 3 kr. extra. 
The slow trains (fares 24 kr. 5, 16 kr. 5 6.) take two days. — Those who 
wish to see Lake Wettern take the train from Falkdping to JOnktiping, and 
the steamboat thence to Motala (p. 276). 

Qotcnburg, see p. 262. To Olskrohen, at which few trains stop, 
see p. 266. The line turns to the right into the valley of the Safvea 
and crosses it several times. 9 Kil. Partilled ; 15 Kil. Jonsered, 
on the Aspen-Sjo, with cotton-factories. 20 Kil. Lerum. 27 Kil. 
Floda, at the W. end of the Flodasjo, In the neighbourhood is a well- 
known School of Handicrafts, founded* by Abrahamson (director, 

»«isim.) rw**~ "^""""Wo. »■'-'<■ i7$ 

the 'Sbioem.SiS (227 ft.-_ *#. *» „, „,. i e ft a view of 

272 £aU*"9 ohut^ ** J i of 10 "20 »i»«*?Stoto of Nerifc*. - 

^e D«ri d U > «» tteilft 18 ,.' 118 centre °^» t SSfstaholm. 
and tie oil! ffle Ja *e 8 of U>«« ^ , tte e ' te *^ "££••), » ad N3,ftar ' 
324 *?, t* u of SjoholZ Z\ ^Z Unar Oh**"* _-, 

•*^*?a5** *° J6 ***P*»* and ^^ 6 ?S?W>, 

till* *"**&. T* - Soe * , * r > r *ame at flrgt. **» -**■ x 1-jL win of 
rtS^*". ^ofe™ 1 - » ow be «*»« to descend *« **\ e £* Ia1 
mi !: ^*^ right tZ 70ft - beI °^ »nd affords* *erf«**» ® ** * tfi). 

W tte ^4*1* °£ 8erve S^^van.* with its ^~V*^*rteW* 4 
™" 8 9T«m, __,. "«e tie Wisin irso in Lake Weitem _ -A- l^* tle J7 «iU> 

tat* T"< *iere » Wisinerso in Lake Wettern . -A- "■**"& VoW 
i^ e »«ends Z X e are sti11 2 °<>ft. above the X»^«». tYl6 

"f tt« L. a,e iwfton?^- — K««lw*y Station.. The Obi**" Sxi ;„ iM> 1 

Sctrf""' b fl* i* J° «>« W- of the town ; th e 
- flwoS Sl »SAJr!l Bew H»»« to Huaqv«m» and 

jHF" ta Se ft*!?' »fiP«*«« "»• station , Lo 

n° 8f *' of fti " """y otaufaotnring town with 20 
»^L h,n »inrf/.Z en, or and of an appeal-court C * 
Jr^Mtcoi 8 ,; ! ltn «*ed between ioJte W«ttem ant 

of «i«i>™ e *"6oo*^? • — »f» iX, r":?' Station.. The 0*K*»»1 ~ *"~ the 

and LycK »(* - -a-r» t\xft t0 ^ 

>«y of #h by a canal. Tlie streets are _ ^ 
u ^ty DMn, itu *«on is enhanced bytheman^, 
♦7 nk8 J8. In J? 8nades extend & - from the railway— 
6 new ^!! Centre of tlio S- J? ax* ot these grouir- - 
Basd «*i*' s v la *°vcrksfr***, ***** a handsome *Y> 
^^ayand Sweden- eth Edit. 

.,,0 *°,*° 

*t*w*i»°** - , nrtvr * * 

.».«'*?»•' B'°»&^ ° 

U» ',«""* "iV-BO It. Ml 

846 ft. .«» « „, J b , 
Tle.tol,**"" 4 

276 Route 45. WADSTENA. From Jonkoping 

aisles, and choir are still traceable. The W. wall, like that of the 
choir, contained a large window with rosettes and divided by 


Hastholmen is a station on the Bkahoh-lihb fbom 6di8h6o to Fo- 
oklsta (p. 278), the first part of which is unimportant for tourists. The 
next station towards Fogelsta is (l 1 /* M.) Alvastra (p. 375), whence we 
may ascend to Hjeuan, the summit of the Omberg, and then descend via" 
Hoje to the next station (3 M. from Hastholmen) Omberg. — Then follow 
(5 M.) F4/torJw»<fa, Borgham*) and other small stations. 16 M. Wadstena, 
see below. 22 l /s M. Fogelsta. 

From Hastholmen the steamer crosses the lake to (l 1 ^ hr.) Hjo 
(p. 272), on the W. bank, and then returns to the E. bank. At 
RodgafvtU Port the lake attains its greatest depth (410 ft.). 
We pass the curious rocks known as Munken or Qrakarlen ('the 
monk', 'grey man 1 ), Predikstolen ('the pulpit'), and Jungfrun ('the 
virgin'). Farther on are seen the Westra Waggar and Af ultafcraerna; 
then Borghamn^ with large quarries. The steamer rounds a pro- 
montory and reaches (3 hrs. from Hjo) — 

Wadstena (Hdtel BeUevue, near the harbour), a station of the 
railway mentioned above. The town, of which lace has long 
been the staple product, with 2200 inhab., owes its origin to a 
monastery of St. Birgitta, consecrated in 1383, suppressed in 1595, 
and now a lunatio asylum. The *Monasteby Chtjbch (the 'klockare' 
lives near), erected in 1395-1424, called the Blakyrka from the 
colour of its stone and by way of contrast to the brick Rodkyrka, 
is worthy of a visit. It contains a monument to Duke Magnus, 
son of Gustayus Yasa, and others of interest. The floor is paved 
with tombstones. The sacristy contains the remains of St. Bridget 
and her daughter St. Katarina in a reliquary. A peculiarity of the 
church is that the choir is at the W. end. 

A fine example of a Swedish castle of the 16th cent, is *Slott 
Wadstena (usually known as Wetttrsborg'), close to the lake and 
the harbour (the old moat), which was erected by Gustayus Yasa. 
The interior is now a storehouse. Finely vaulted chapel. Exten- 
sive view from the tower. — In 1 hx. more the steamer touches at — 

M6tala (Stadshw; Hdtel Bergstrom; Htttl Nilson; baths by 
the harbour), a town with 2700 inhab. (a station on the Mjolby and 
Hallsberg Railway, p. 278), on the Warvik, at the efflux of the 
Motala from Lake Wettern. The E. Gota Canal (Ostgdta Linie) 
begins here, its level being regulated by a lock. 

To the N. (16 Kil.) are the chalybeate springs of Medevi, to which a 
steamboat plies (going on to Askersund, p. 278). 

From Motala to Stockholm by the S. Gota Canal. 

Stkamkr eight times weekly in 23-27 hrs. (fares 12 1 /*, 10 krj. The 
'E. Got* Line' is the finest part of the canal, especially the part between 
Berg and Northolm. From Noroholm we may go on by train ; but as it 
is troublesome to change conveyances, and the trains rarely suit, it is 
preferable to remain on board all the way to Stockholm. In this case the 
traveller will he rewarded by the scenery from Sfiderkoping onwards, 
even on a clear summer night. 

to Stockholm. SODEBKOPING. 45. Route. 277 

Motala, see p. 276. (Level of the lake 290 ft.) — Passengers 
intending to stop at Motala had hotter go on hy steam-launch 
('Ingslup') to Motala Verkatad (Verkstadens Hotel) and spend the 
night there. We may then visit this great engine-factory, founded 
in 1822, the property of a company, employing 1200 hands. (Visitors 
usually admitted.) The motive power is the water of the canal 
37 ft. higher. We may also visit the little cemetery with the tomb 
of Platen (p. 271), on the N. side of the canal to Motala. 

Immediately beyond Motala Verkstad are the Ave Locks of Bo~ 
renshult, through which the steamer descends to Lake Borcn, 60 ft. 
lower. As this operation takes an hour , passengers have plenty of 
time to walk from Motala to Borenshalt (fine scenery). 

Lake Boren (240 ft.), 9 M. long, the water of which is at first 
beautifully clear, is next traversed by the steamer. On the S. bank 
is the estate of Vlfasa. At the E. end (2 hrs. from Motala) the 
steamer reaches Borensberg-Hutbyfjol, where the finest part of the 
canal-voyage begins. Fifteen locks. The Motalastrom flows on the 
left. From the canal, which meanders at a considerable height, 
we overlook a rich and smiling landscape, with the estates of 
Brunneby, Ljung, and others. The steamer glides along at half- 
speed in order to avoid damaging the banks of the canal with its 
wash. In 3-4 hrs. more we reach — 

Berg, an inn (carriages to Linkoping, 12 Kil. ; better order be- 
forehand if desired) near the W. end of Lake Boxen (108 ft.), 17 M. 
long and 6 M. broad, of which it commands a fine view. As the 
steamer takes 2-3 hrs. to descend through the locks to Lake Boxen, 
passengers have time to visit the Wreta Klosterkyrka , which once 
belonged to a Cistercian nunnery of the l'2th century. 

We now steam at full speed down Lake Roxen, enjoying a view of 
its pretty banks. On the N. side is the ruin of Stjemarp, once a castle 
of the Douglas family. In 3*/2-4 hrs. after leaving Berg we reach — 

Horsholm (p. 279), at the E. end of Lake Roxen, a station of the 
Ostra Stambana , by whioh line , train suiting , we may continue 
our journey to Stockholm. The Motala and the Gota Oanal issue 
from Lake Roxen here, the former descending N. to Lake Olan. 

Beyond Norsholm the canal is uninteresting. The steamer 
descends three locks to the narrow lake of Asplangen, 3 M. long, 
and beyond it the four locks of KatUborg and two at Mariehof, 
and in 4^ hrs. more reaches — 

Sdderkdping (Stads-Eottl ; 1800 inhab.). Near it is St. Bagn- 
hilcCs Kalla, with a hydropathic. The scenery improves. Above the 
canal, on the N. side, rises the Bamundershall. 

Beyond Soderkopi n g two more locks ; then (3 M.) the last lock, 
the 74th, at Mem, o n gl&tbdken, a long and narrow bay of the Bal- 
tic. To the right, f ar ther on, we observe the Stegeborg, once a 
royal castle; then, the left, the residence of Qottenvik. The 
steamer soon reach^ *jje open Baltic. 

278 Route 46. LINKOPING. From Kas^o 

Steering partly through the monotonous 'skarg&rd' 01 island 
belt, partly in the open sea, we next reach (5 hrs.) Oxelotund, the 
terminus of the Nykoping branch - railway (p. 330), and in 6V2- 
6 hrs. more Sodertelge (p. 281). To the S. of SSdertelge (15 Kil.) 
lies the chateau of Horningsholm , on the Morko. — The steamer 
next passes through the short Sodertelge Canal (p. 281), connecting 
the Baltic with Lake Malaren , on which we steam rapidly to (2- 
3 hrs.) Stockholm, the approach to which is strikingly picturesque. 

46. From flassjd to Stockholm. 

360 KiL Sodba. Stajcbava to Katrtn*holm; Vxstba Stambana to Stock- 
holm. Express in 7«/4, fast train in 9 hrs. (fares 29 kr. 75 6., 21 kr., 14 kr.). 
Ordinary trains not all through-trains (18 kr. 40, 12 kr. 25 5.). 

Nassjo, see p. 256. — The scenery as far as Boxholm retains 
the characteristics of Smaland. Between Gripenberg and Sommen 
lies Holaveden, a hilly and wooded district separating Smaland from 
Ostergotland. The fertile Plain of Wadstena, around Skeninge, 
Wadstena , and Link&ping , contains the oldest towns in Sweden, 
many chateaux, and large factories. 

12 Kil. Solberga; 18 Kil. Flisby; 24 Kil. Aneby, on the lake 
of that name. The train follows the course of the Svarta, which 
forms a series of lakes. 

36 Kil. Frinnaryd, on Lake Ralangen (530 ft.), with its 'float- 
ing island*. 42 Kil. Gripenberg, with the large estate of that name ; 
further to the S. lies Traneryd. 52 Kil. Tranas ; 64 Kil. Sommen, 
on Lake Sommen f480 ft.), on which a steamer plies. « — The train 
crosses the Svarta, which here forms several falls, the boundary 
between Smaland and Ostergotland, Near Rockebro we skirt the 
Jtf . bay of the Sommen. 

73 Kil. Boxholm, with iron-works. 78 Kil. Stralsnas. The train 
descends. — 89 Kil. Mjblby (*Inn, at the station), with large mills. 

From Mjolbt to Hallbbebo, 96 Kil., railway in 4-5Vs hrs. (fares 
5 kr. 5, 3 kr. 40 8.). — 9 Kil. Bkmimge (Stads-Hotel) , with 1400 inhab., 
once an important place. 16 Kil. FogeUta, whence a branch-line diverges 
to ffd$tholmen and QduMg (42 Kil., in 3 hrs.; comp. p. 276). — 27 Kil. 
Motala, whence a short branch-line leads to Motala Verkstad (p. 276). 
41 Kil. KarUby; 48 Kil. DtgerOn; 54 Kil. Oodeg&rd; 06 Kil. Marisdam. 
From (79 Kil.) Lerbdek a branch-line runs in GO min. to (14 Kil.) A»ker$und 
(Stadskallaren). alown of 1600 inhab. on Lake Wettern (steamer to Motala, 
p. 274). 86 Kil. Asbvo; 96 Kil. ffalltberg, see p. 273. 

95 Kil. Sya; 99 KiL Mantorp. Near CI 09 Kil.) Bankeberg is 
the agricultural school of Haddorp. Fertile country, dotted with 

121 Kil. Linkdping. — Hotels. *8toba Hotel, Stor-Torg -, Linde- 
bebg, Kungs-Gatan ; Jebnvags-Hotel, Central Hotel, at the station. 

Carriages at Johcmsen's. To the locks of Berg and the Wreta Convent 
(p. 268), U Kil. 

Steamboat to Soderkoping and Stockholm, once a week. 

Linkoping, the capital of 6stergotland , with 13,000 Inhab., 
residence of the 'Landshofding' and the bishop, lies on the W. 

oonnected with the S. l(fcll . eB l>i . 
ln 1598 the RomO» tlj Slgi ,_, 

Ohtflei at the «tSn pe6 air 
ccted at Limping ixi l6 0<> 
spot now marked by ^ oK" 1 ^ 
the Gwnp&Wh 1»» fc^e U» 
sominemorates the "b^ tt \e. 

The *Do«itrk (L ^ T>eg»* 
the l&th cent '' iB Rotuaoe^ 
llt6I p»rti, while the choif^l 
(U judidonsl; restored 
till 1886. Neit to the c»' V 
church in Sweden C320ftT.\J*. 
soma pillars on each 8* d '*'i 
[d. 1S74> » »ntch xnaBtef 
nice P&00 OQbUft.^) of *"• 
pHce 1" occupied hy a wT^ 
Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
{ (he 14th cent. Qxt e of C 
8. portal, are now n-ixilt in i 
gatcophsgua and tecumbeli 
are modem. The y et j,|. r (j 
The Irf"wUfor* am (,'„ ffe X 
cent.), aleo known ao St. Lr* 
a self-taught peasant »rtis' '« 
Sweden. The Lihrary coi 
MSS., coins, and antlqnft 
time* apply to the librari* 
who ow a8 a g00 i collection < ' 
w now the Etwt Goiter Jfi 
had : recently D86n teatoted 
1 ™0<wdj/ , o« n ' n (with b 
trance in t he Droltning-Q aw 


e eot ed b T fifteen look., g* , 
^^mS Link»piit B « 

"•Wilem.igSKil. 67*.,^ 
* c ««o r ,,,wir.g-brid K ^£ <i -* 

""''ay., snd »!«, a Bt ^« 

280 Route 46. NORRKOPING. From Nfosjo 

Feom Noesholm to Webtbbvik, 118 Kil., railway in 5 hrs. (fares 8kr. 
85, 5 kr. 45 15.). Stations of little interest. 

42 Kil. Atvidaberg (Hotel), with a modern church and Copper Mines, 
a visit to which takes one day. The mine is entered by a small steam- 
car called a 'Hund'. The Mormoregrufoa ('grandmothers mine'), to the 
W. of Atvidaberg, is 1365 ft deep. The most important mine is at Bertoo 
(1250 ft. deep), to the K. of Atvidaberg. 

We next traverse the pretty district oi Tjtut. 51 Kil. Forsasirdm; 
58 Kil. Ftderum (fine view from the station); 67 Kil. Nelhammar; 71 Kil. 
StorejO (fine view of the lake of that name) ; 82 Kil. Ofverum, with the 
foundry of an English company. 

118 Kil. Westervik (Stadshu*), an old town with 6600 inhab., at the 
entrance to the Oamlebyvik, with large shipbuilding yards, was repeatedly 
destroyed during the wars between the Danes and Swedes. Near the town 
is the ruined castle of St&keholtn. — Westervik is about 60 Engl. M. 
from Wisby on the island of Gotland (steamer). 

From Westervik via Ankarerwn to Hultefred (70 Kil.), see p. 258. 

Feom Nobsholm to PIlbboda , 85 Kil., narrow-gauge railway in 4- 
4 1 /* hrs. (fares 6 kr., 4 kr.). Intermediate stations unimportant. The train 
skirts the W. bank of Lake Olan to (27 Kil.) Finepong, with a cannon- 
foundry and a large chateau and park. — 79 Kil. Bvennevad, at the W. end 
of Lake Bottom. — Mltboda, see p. 273. 

At (154 Kil.) Okna the train reaches Lake Olan (70 ft.), which 
it skirts to (159 £11.) Eksund. Here it crosses the Motalaatrom, 
the outlet of Lake Wettern (p. 274). 162 Kil. Fiskeby. 

168 Kil. Horrkdping. — Hotels. *Centeal Hotel, with cafe'; 
Stoba Hotel, with cafe, Grand Hotel, with cafe\ both in Karl Johans- 
Torg; Bellevtje, Skeppsbron; Hotel dd Nokd. 

Pleasure Resort, BtrOmtholmen, with restaurant (frequent concerts). 

Norrkoping, a busy trading and manufacturing town with 34,000 
inhab., owes its importance to its situation at the head of the long 
Bravik, into which falls the navigable Motalastrom, and to the water- 
power afforded by the river, which flows through the whole town 
and drives numerous factories. An interesting walk may be taken 
along the upper part of the river, where the water dashes over 
rocks, turns a number of wheels, dives into factory buildings, and 
emerges again as lively as ever. We may also cross the principal 
Bridges, the stone Bergsbro, constructed in 1774 ; the Jernbro, or 
iron bridge, of 1832 ; the Oscar-Fredriksbro, adjoining the Karl- 
Johans-Torg (1837); and the iron Spangbro, or foot-bridge (1862). 
Between the Bergsbro and the Jernbro are the Brtiksholm and the 
Laxholm, islands also connected with the town by bridges. Visi- 
tors are admitted to some of the factories. — On the lower part of 
the river, where it becomes sedate and navigable, there are also 
several large factories, chiefly of cloth, worsted, and cotton goods. 
Oamla Varfvet ('the old wharf) and Motala Varfvet, to the E. of 
the town, are considerable ship-building yards. 

Although of ancient origin, the town has now quite a modern 
look owing to the frequent fires from which it has suffered. The 
finest buildings are in or near the Karl-Johans-Torg, where the 
post-office , the town-hall , and the theatre are situated. It is 
adorned with a Statue of Charles XIV. John (Beinadotte) , by 
Schwanthaler, erected in 1846. The Arbetare-Foreningena-Hus, 

to Stockholm. 


containing a large hall and «• -ZZ^^erbeia- 

80 also is the Hogre EUme***<** r * € * 

a hill to the S.W. of the ******- w iil *>«* » r *f 

The Steamboat to 9tocltl*ol*** bt , » f J"£ i ?.JF« 

The vessels (daily) usually ply "zJrm* alr6C P«.i * is 
Malaren on arriving. In the revejj oH>*» Canal "> 
to travellers intending to *»*» *** 
Lake Wettern. „r£* KJ^-O -* 6 U *1 

Beyond Norrkoping and C* ixl height, call 
wooded plateau , about 400 ^' t ^een Soderma 
once dreaded frontier-regiox* ^ ear OVarda&x i 
land, infested with robbera- A Xty *o(179Kil. 

tunnel and then ascends g'^^V^Jfc^ JVdcken t» y 
ther on it crosses the hays °^ J^\ gimonetorg* 
ments. Another tunnel. 1% «■>. 206 Kil. 
lies the lake of Flaten (%0° **'^ 
uninteresting. ^ ^ _^~cl0*- n< ? tl > T 1 *^** 

216 Kil. Xatrineholm 0***?^ ^t^mbana £p^ 
tion of the Sodra and the W©**^ j£l&** oT V.\ T****- 
the estates of Stora Djulo »***%- e ^hil»taa at 
works, specimens from *fcicb..J*r ^ioturesque ^^ 

The train next traverses *J*T«» l** e * ' *, lo **. 
its great forests and its numet^ ^eP^nofiJ 1 ^^ 

the saying that 'when the <> 0l v£*x*«*'- ^ H 1 *- 

water he overlooked SSderrn-* 
many chateaux of the Swedi*** 




46. Bo***- 2E 

a grand edillc 
,mmar school), 

-many to the tr 

"txtifulview of I 

tej. isrecommei 

from Uoraboli 

"fcxraAn tmere 
blmarden , 
id andftste: 
**»8es throu 

***ns of emb 
J- On the : 
l *Wjd. See 

«taurant), j; 
^J. Near ii 
^rble- polls] 

^; v e g^en ria 
y land from 
a «a. We j 
^kn, with 

many chateaux of the Swedes** ~"^ song, «** *W^^*> 
chateau of Sten/wrromxr fam^ ^il**** 1 ** *?* ** ^^ >^/w 
Wommeln) Injunction for «£* ^Bt^^^^^^^^S^^^naren 
- 254 Kit SjxifreftoJm, wit* *gf t „ SV"V%£* ^-^^^ 86 / p - 3: 
resort of the Stookholmers. & e ?T\,*,T& cnU *l* **xlL^ ^'j?J* YOm 
The scenery heyond this poira* x * f-rsio** **** b ^ W^ - ^ xl - */"»fe* 
(^.t«(.RaWestaurant)an e^^ o^ tbecro^^,^ ^om(284Ki 
of TuUgarn, the summer reside^ ^j^icwhe^^--^^ to the chfce 

and to Trosa, a small town or* «**L a Or ***£?% *>^ ^ r?° 6 ° f Swede 
Sbdertelge and Stockholm. BejCff ^il- *2J?*?^>^^ Reamer plies 
J?Vt*s<t*fWsjo and Lake Sillen. *£* 0l»^^fv C ^^i^^OD l ^? ic t are ^ 1 

314KU. fiattsfcoy, from w*i<>* * *tJ VinMh *^*^ X *^ L™V £""• 
the town of BodeWge fSearf^f^OOO s£«^ » ^L f i° C l Kil 
of a hay of Lake Malaren , **** e »l** y St °°* V^ **^* ?! th « S \ eB 
hydropathic, and many villa* °* ^ . . ^^L old _ c ^ urc * , 

Stockholm several times daily- _* <*>**¥£? ^ ^***». Steamer \ 

The train crosses the 8dder****faal*T *«* ^^ V**^ _, 

bridge. This canal connects *»^ J^^f * °i*%i^ S^T ^ 
a hay of the Baltic, thus ^S^^^SA ^^^^^iSfft 
Tumfta, with the large paptf-*£f£*£* 1>eyo^ti A^i^ ^*ll ,a ? l] 
336 Kil. HtiAtov* ; 342 KU. ^^^ me ^ ***«?£ X S l^ 

Tunnel; 346 Kil. Liljeholmen- & t>y me **Ma ^ is the iVyfto^ 

The train crosses the M*W° ** ^ ^ „ . , 

^n emhankmen 

282 Soul 

e 47 - A.BVIKA. From ChatloUmherg 

(300 ydg \ 

kolm; to ihi?*\ le *t i ft *v« Malar, with the Reimertholm and L©/- 

*«» tfe <>7rf x^' * t*« B^«- mannfact0Ty of Ta ?i°o- J We 1 then 

nDd * SffdeZff ra **<**iL *** th *> u & a tunnel, 458 yds. long, 

*bay fthi? lmt ° thl^l'ny: of the Malar. The train then crosses 

fv 2M) me !* ke >*nd. *£J?Jia,Tia on which the city lies, hy a bridge 

ft VfiP' £% ente *> t^ft i^iasome Central Station of Stockholm 

KJaiJS^ fr ^ *£** • 616 Kil - from Malm5 ' 458 m 

W>VTQm(CAr£&&danu* and) Charlottenberg to Lax& 

ftf/w/ Stockholm)* 

Railway from Chxrija 

(bj Norwegian rail way ^ ^^ 

dish railway foence to ^^Yg^ - , 

27 hr*. respectively Cfa^-^^Si'iTcosti 5'lcr. Cist class) or 8kr. (2nd class) extra. 
sleeping-carriage C«ofw-*a«*£ iaarS C2G3 Kil..) in 57s-7Vi hrs. (fares 17.30, 12.20, 
— From Charlottenbeir^ ^.15 kr.). 

8.15 kr., or 14.25, 10- « *- p ^.- fc ^ ar lottenl>ergr to Laxa (Nor&wstrarBtantoana) tra- 
Tne railway froxo- ^~^\Z province wbex-e lakes and forests abound, and 
V at*m tha Wernila»* * ^>*ea. This region has recently been opened up 
l?X\n irW andotto«»*V ^T and canals. Tlie Wermland is famons as the 
? **™Vof rail^^f^Xa <*«/<"• , and its praises hare been stmg by 
by a networK oi x ^ w •*** Wermlaii<*sv%*<*. The traveller who wishes to 
birthplace f, /JLnt**?^* fl should make an excursion from Kil to IVy*- 
Jry*«H ^ Ms "rf^a.cj-fe^^, (see p. 283). Another digression may be made 

f^m a 0hHXeS^^ *^ w C 143 Kil O CfharloUenberg, see R. 13. 

From Chris*!*-"***" ^.g. (+Rail. Restaurant, D> li/ 2 kr. ; Bertha Lyderis 
At Charlott©t>^^r first Swedish station, passengers to or from 
Jemvagi-E oUl ^'' *^ct3rrl»g e8 - Lnggage entering Sweden undergoes a 
Stockholm chang® \xxination here ; in. the reverse direction it is 
custom -house e ^" a L^a,Tii»- It seems odd that these two little king- 
examined at Q^j^^x one sovereign, should have different customs- 
doms united >tt1 ?^" e:R aniination is little more than nominal, 
tariffs tnong^ *» ottenberg , the train passes the By-Sjo (270 ft.) 
BeV ond astops at (14 Kil.) Arnot on the Jfci^an-Sjd. Ex- 

°» the Tig**' ^^^retty scenery. 25 Kil. Ottebol. 
tensive* ^ ioW l«lk«t (&6telArtttoa, m Swndberg; +Rail. Restaurant), with 
34iCi^- A:lC 7* T , t . e ttilyflitnatedon the Qlafsfjord, here called the 
1500 ix*******' \idtM. ie connected with Lake Wenern by the Seffle 
fi l 9 a ft&^^.?L X!ek Gt to Wenersborg once weekly,- also several others.) 
>£*<*/_ C Itretch of water fills the ancient bed of the Glommen, 
' ^^^e fell * n *° Lake Wenflrn , &«* now tarns to the W. at 
_ eeI Tcomp. 'p- 78). Daring the melting of the snow, 
^Xie water of the Glommen still finds its way into its old 

In the vicinity is Arvika Helaobrunn ('health spring 1 ). 
«d f49 Kil.) #<kw»c *e cross the large and picturesque 
>-8jo (180 ft.) by a viaduct, 710 yds, long , ana p«u 
tunnel of 900 yds. Impressive forest-scenery. 56 Kil 

[ ° l*xa. KARLSTAD, 17. Sou 

Brwi»65 r( , ; 66 Kil. Boia; 77 KU. Fagtrb. The train or 
job j^ the discharge of the Fryken Lakes, by an irt 
*™ 7ds. long and 63 ft. high , resting on iron pillars anc 
ST '"inflations securely laid in soft alluvial soil. B« 
Mag the train r^hes — 

.™ J" 1 - Kl (352 ft.i Jcrnvdgi-Hottt), Junction of the G 
fn . ■?* rai! *">y (R. 53), and of a short branch-line t 
ID fflin.), at the 8. end of the Nedrt " * -n Lake (195 ft/ 
thief T ™L5r j ' k ** m »' Frjk.tod a pleaaan nion may be tat: 

"Sw^f" t ,' k - <*#•, Jftllm, ft*r.»t»l i 

at tfi. V*ifl ta oonneotlon with the from Kit, la IV 

Top fc i " ldo 'tbehtgh8«tofthe]a*«, In hi»., returning n i 
Sw^M?* 1 '' • «"*T»W»11. long, 1« on- -* •>■■ — " - i 

SiJtoT' d "'"« e £ Ton,by " 4 b " k 
™« 52ft ^. uto,y °* 8weden ™ d ot ° 18 *" 

Jg. Kil. «ta«. Then — 
fcJSL ' K » rUt » d f««*i-.flM«I, R. * B. 3'/ 2 
of flViV,""* •' Bo,( - R«»<<M«ran(.J, the capital ofWermland, i 
eson i inh * b -> entirely rebuilt after a Are in July, 186f 
T the J lXa,kteioaaiBTin 9*aUao, at the influx into Li 
"treat* i f r ~ Et f, which descends from the Norwegian i 
"■enadfi P att,a with trees j handsome buildings and t 
inanv n »v St e«nboaU to Wenetsborg and Lidk5ping ( 

(p. 2691 tr ^ a "on skirt" the H. bant of the vast J 

,oa 8 bride- ^oh, h° werec i little is seen,- and pai 

•**3itj) S? B «n,) 9eT er»l embankments, which prove 

i«io*<**t7 128 KM. TOss; IMK1L (tour 

" °- ' ^Sq « ) cjrirtinehamn fJarT-"*™-** 

"*, a 6,, o* * I »t the infl « ot tnM ri,OT int0 

IP- WDJ .7* > *«*3 „ert». Steamers to Wen eriborg 

)fi S ^? w »d*»3 « efl ?«tbe«- Baiiway to Mora, see ) 

/•^. ft/ - jLfl **M* - V«5fi»»*W» the railway skirt 

J? *V*»Jt2 ***? ^^W"N. toWilWfcan 
* fi? taW V K ' >-V*780 K») *«rt&; 191 KU. 

Key to the Flan of Stockholm. 

Akademier (Academies): 

1. Akad. for de fria konsterna 

(Academy of Arts) . . . . D, 4 

2. Landbruks - akademi (Agri- 

cultural Academy) . . . . D, 3 

3. Musikaliska akademi (Aca- 

demy of Music) F, 3 

5. Archives (Biks-Arkivet) . . D, 5 

6. Badinrattningar (Baths) 

B, 5; D, 4* F, 4 
Baneg&rdar (Railway - Sta- 
tions C, 3, 4; E, 7 

Banker (Banks) : 

7. Rlksbanken (National Bank) F, 5 

8. SkandinaviskaKredit-Aktie- 

bolag (Scandinavian Joint 
Stock Bank) E, 5 

9. Stockholms Enskilda Ban- 

ken (Private Bank) . . . . E, 5 

4. Stockholms Intecknings Ga- 

ranti Aktiebolag D, 4 

10. Barnbordshuset (Lying-in 

Hospital) . . B, 1 5 A, 4; D, 2 

Drottning-Gatan B, 1 

Biblioteket, Riks (National 

Library) E, 1 

Bildttoder (Monuments) : 

Berzelius (Berzelii Park) . E, 3 

Birger Jarl D, 5 

Charles XII E, 3 

Charles XIII E, 3 

Charles XIV. John .... E, 6 

Ericsson 0, 4 

Gustavus Adolphus .... E, 4 

Gustavus III E, F, 4 

Gustavus Vasa D, 5 

^Linnaeus E, 1 

Oxens1jerna(intheRiddarhuS)D, 5 
Scheele E, 1 

11. Biologiska Museum (Bio- 

logical Museum) I, 4 

Birger Jarl's Bazar . . . . E, 2 

12. Borsen (Exchange) E, 5 

13. Northern Museum . . . . C, 2 

14. Flottans forr&dshus (Marine 

Arsenal) G, 5 

15. Frfmurarelogen (Freema- 
sons' Lodge) F, 3 

16. Wallinska Skolan (Gram- 

mar School) D, 5 

17. Gymnastiska Institutet . . D, 3 
Hasselbacken 1,4 

18. Hofratt, kongl. Svea (Court 

of Appeal) D, 5 

Industri -Palatset (Palace 
of Industry) G, 1 

19. Konstforeningen (Art Union) E, 3 

Kyrkor (Churches) : 

Adolf Fredriks kyrkan . C, 1, 3 

20. Blasieholms kyrkan .... F, 3 

21. Engelska kyrkan (English 

Church) B, 2 

22. Finska kyrkan (Finnish 

Church) , . . , E, 5 

Gustaf Adolfs kyrkan . . . H, 1 
Hedvik Eleonora kyrkan . F, 2 

23. Jakobs kyrkan ...... E, 3 

Johannis kyrkan D, 1 

Karl Johans kyrkan . . . . G, 4 
Katarina kyrkan F, 7 

24. Katolska kyrkan (Rom. 

Cath. Church) D, 3 

Klara kyrkan D, 3 

Maria kyrkan E, 6, 7 

25. Riddarholms kyrkan . . . D, 5 
Skeppsholms kyrkan, see 

Karl Johans kyrkan. 

27. Storkyrkan E, 4, 5 

28. Tyska kyrkan (German 

Church) E, 5 

Ulrika Eleonoras kyrkan 
(Kungsholms kyrka) . • « B, 4 

29. Mosebacken F, 6 

Myntet, kongl. (Royal Mint) B, 4 

National Museum F, 4 

Observatory B, 1 

30. Ofverstatth&llarehuset 

(Governor's House) . . . E, 4, 5 

81. Palats, Arfprinsens .... D, 4 

Panorama H, 3 

32. Poliskammaren (PoliceOf flee) D, 4 

33. Posthuset (Post Office) . . D, 4 

34. Rtdhuset (Town Hall). . D,4, 5 

35. Rlddarhuset D,5 

36. Riksdagshuset (House of 

Parliament) D, 5 

37. Sallskapet (a club) .... E, 3 
Serafimer Lasarettet 

(Hospital) B, C, 4 

Skansen . 1, 4 

38. Slojdskolan (Industrial 

School) D, 3 

Slottet, kongl. (Royal Palace) E, 4 

39. Synagogan (Synagogue) . . E, 3 

Teatrar (Theatres): 

40. Kongl. Stora Teatern . . E, 8, 4 

41. - Dramatiska Teatern E, 3 

42. Nya Teatern F, 3 

Djurg&rds Teatern .... I, 3 

45. Sodra Teatern F, 6 

Tekniska Skolan, see Slojd- 

46. Tekniska Hogskolan .... B, 1 

47. Telegrafen E, F, 4 

Vetenskaps Akademi (Aca- 
demy of Science) . . • C, 1, 2 


48. Stockholm. 

Antral. Travellers arriving at Stockholm by railway (except the few 
who travel by the Stockholm, Bimbo, and Norrtelje line, or the Stock- 
holm and Djursholm line, p. 811) alight at the Central Station (.Central 
Bcmoarden; PI. G, 3, 4), situated in the N. quarter, about 7 minutes' walk 
from the Norrbro (p. 2e0). Omnibuses from the principal hotels meet each 
train (fare 75 5.). Cab with one horse for 1-3 pers. 1 kr. 25 6., 8-4 pers. 
1 kr. 50 5. ; each trunk 20 5., for three or more 50 6. (at night, 11-6 o'clock, 
one fare and a half). Jfyrier fstadsbud'), for each package to or from cab 
or omnibus 10 6. ; to one of the hotels 25-80 6. An Interpreter, recognisable 
by his official cap, meets the trains and gives information to strangers 
(no fee). — Those who arrive by the lake-route from Gotenburg, or by a 
coasting steamer from the 6., land at the Riddabholm Quay (PI. D, 5), 
on the W. side of the Biddarholm ; the usual landing-place for travellers 
from the N. or E. is the Skbppsbbo (PI. E, F, 4, 5) or Blajbiiholms-Hamnbn 
(PI. E, F, 4). Cab-fare as above; no hotel-omnibuses on the quays. For 
the steamers 'norrrut', *s6derrut\ 'dsterrut', and fc vesterrut\ see Kom. 

Hotels. *Gband Hotel (PI. a; E,F,8), Blasieholms-Hamnen, with a 
fine view of the Palace and the busy quays and harbour (table d'hote 
4 kr.); H6txl Rydbkbg (PI. b; D,E, 4), Gustaf-Adolfs-Torget , facing the 
Norrbro; both comfortable and well -managed houses (English spoken); 
charges (rather higher at the former): B. from 2-3 kr., A. 35-50, L. 70 3., 
B. 1-2 kr., other mealspaid for in the restaurant as received. — Hotel Con- 
tinental, Vasa-Gatan 22, opposite the central station, with good restaurant, 
B., L., 6 A. from 27 2 , B. 1, de*j. 2, D. 2-3, pens. 10 kr.; Kuxra Karl (PI. c; 
D, 3), at the S. end of Brunkebergs-Torget, not far from the Norrbro, R. 
from l>/< kr., L. 25, A. 35, B. 50 o.$ Hakbubgeb Bobs, Jakobs-Gatan 6, 
behind the Rydberg, well spoken of, with ^Restaurant; Rung Kabls Annex, 
Reg e" rings- Gat an 13, R. .from i l /t kr. ; Hotel Gibhania, Gustaf- Adolf s- 
Torg 10; Kanan, KlaraOstra Kyrko-Gatan; H5tel de Sitbdb, Drottning- 
Gatan 43. — In the Norra Smedje-Gata (PI. D, 8), at the back of the Ryd- 
berg, quiet, but central: HStels Gustaf Vaba, de Fbanoe, Stbttin, 
Viotobia, and Sxandia, etc., all unpretending, but tolerable. — In the 
Staden or old town: Ostebgotland , Salviigr&nd 3, near the Hynt-Torg 
(PI. E, 4), with restaurant, well spoken of. — Private Hotels (without 
restaurants): Bbllevde (PI. d; E, 3), Gustaf-Adolfs-Tore 12, R. from 2 kr., 
L. 6 A. 25, B. or S. 75 6. - 2kr.; Rosenbad, Akademiegrand 8, near the Bodbod- 
Torg (PI. D, 4). — Pensions : *Bblfbagb's Hotbl & Pension, Vasa-Gatan, 
B. 2, D. 1V*i B. »/«, pens. 5-6 kr. ; "Johns, Birger-Jarls-Gatan 7; Froken 
Andbbsbn, Vasa-Gatan 1 (3rd floor) •, Fru Petebson, Drottning-Gatan 80 B ; 
English. French, and German spoken in all. 

Restaurants (de*jeuner 9-12, dinner 2-6 o'cl.). *Orand H6tel and *Bydberg 
(see above) ] both with elegant cafe's ; Theatre Restaurant, in the new Opera 
House (p. 265) ; Cafe Riche, Btrger Jarls-Gatan 4, near the Beraelii Park ; 
Phoenix, Drottnlng-Gatan 71 C. adjoining the Northern Museum (p. 296); 
*E6tel du Nord, Lilla Tradg&rds-Gatan, by the Dramatiska Teater, with 
cafe"; "Hamburger Bors (see above); Hotel Ostergtftland (see above), noted 
for its Swedish cuisine ; Restaurant du Bud, in the building of the 'elevator 1 
Maria- Hissen (p. 806); Cafe" -Restaurant Anglais, Stureplanl, near the 
Linne* Park) Bern's Sa longer (table d'hote with music in summer, i»/4 kr.), 
much frequented; Blanch's Cafe' (p. 236), D. 27s kr.; Strdmsborg, see p. 294; 
Pelikan Kdllaren, Bruunsbacken , opposite the Katarina-Hiasen (p. 308); 
at the Palace of Industry, Os term aim, at Earlavagen (PI. G, 1 ; p. 300). — 
In the Djurgard (p. 810) : *Hasselbacken (music in the afternoon ; D. 3 kr.), 
with garden where visitors may dine in the open air; *Djurgard*brunn, at 
the Brunnsvik (steam-launch No. 4, Bee p. 287). 

At these restaurants the charges vary greatly. Breakfast or supper 
usually costs lV*-2kr., and dinner 2kr. or more. For the 'Brdnnvinsbord'' 
or 'SmdrgasborcT (side-table with bread-and-butter, salt meats, fish, and 
relishes, with ( brannvin' and liqueurs 'ad libitum'), which Swedish gentle- 
men ana even ladies freely patronise before sitting down to table, an ad- 
ditional charge of 30-50 5. is made. Persons unused to this institution are 

Hers (FatlmdMan) eiptcl i 
>mp. p. uiii. 

J>i •AVmmJjWIst, Jakobs-C 
l for Spanish wines), both ii 
bove the Slrompartarre (PI. 

at of the hotels and reatai 

3lMj ' 

n™™^,-. — Jp. 290i muaie atmidday Ud in the even- 

ing)-, SIrOmpnrfe" - ' , see, p. jotf (moslc ^ loe evening. miie a society). 
The Strttnio wo (?'- Ll . i i p. 294) ud the cafes in the Djurglrd (p. 3(0) 
we also favourite rfGtts. 

At mutt of the restaurants mi safes visitors deposit their hats, over- 
coats, and umbrellas in  room provided fur the purpose. The attendants 
[fee 10 6.) are wonderfully quick in recognising visitors and in restoring 

Oonfesttonera tCandiiorirr , generally with Dam-Cafi, or ladles' tafe). 
Berg, RegeringB-aatin 14, Sture-Qatan 13; TOnublad, Stureplan 3. 

Oabe. Drive, l-2pers. Ikr.; S-4pers. lkr.2Go.i tor one honr 1 kr. 26 
or ikr. GO o., for ench'/ihr. more 60 or TBS.i at night, 11-6, afire aid 
a half) small parcels free; trunk 30 5., for more than two GOG. — For a 
drive to the Djurgiro ana other placet in the environs 2-2'/i kr. for the 
first hour, and 1-1'/, kr. for each additional '/, hr. — Cab Standi near the 

Tramways (3parvttgur). In the smaller ears passengers deposit their 

boards and lamps of the Hing Una cars are green, on other lines red. 

1. Biso Lisa (fare 106), every 6 rein, in each direction. From Slauto 
(PI. E.F.6) by the Steppitro to the XorrWo (PI. £.4), then (to the right) 
by Sorl din Toifla Tors, Jforrmalnu T*ift (I'l, E, 3 : change csrriages for 
the Djurg.rd) and Btogw Jarli-Galan to the Bimltt&rt (PI. E. 1, whence 
a branch diverges to the right through the Sture-Gata to the Karlavigen), 
then to the left to KoitaavTori (PI. D 1), past the Adolf Frcdrtti-Kgrka 
(PI. C, 1,2), through the Vaia-Valau, and across the Faiabro back to Sluucn. 

2. DjonoIiD Lull (fare 10 0) , connacted with the King tin*, every 
.___. f„ llma j m , nmj (pi. E ^ 2,3) to the DJargird (terminus op- 

acken in the AUatdma-Srttnd-, Pi. H, 1,6,4). 

' - .in.) fan 10 8.), runs to the W. 
to the M- Bala ; and from Eunet- 

- . . .ma (PI- C, 1) runs to the N. by 

ja Bndhus-Gata, passing near the railway station of Jforrtull (10 i).), 

and thence to SlallmOilarig&rd {p. 313), the entrance of the park of Saga 
(p. 312) and the JVWa Ktrltghriu, (fare 10-15 6.). 

6. The SfiBSKKttn Stiih liuo.i, ttarting from the Uonumett nf 
C\at\u XIV. John (PI. £, 6), ascends the Bemi-Oata (PI. D-B, 7), cor- 
responding with the horse-tramway at the Bagvalds-Gitan (PI. E, 8), to the 
SnlaOota (PI. H, T; fare 10 o.l. 

Steamboats. The steamboats which ply from Stockholm in every 

the city so complicated, that the traveller is apt at first to be bewildered. 

rig" K^mmuSlksflone^'and' also the m ™of the B envir'ons°™nd''be care- 
ful to ascertain the >tarting-point of the vessel. Fur the larger sea-going 
vessels the principal quays are Sesfp<iuoi, on the E. side of Staden (PI. F, 
4, 5), and Bit s naoL US-Hans in (PL E, F, 4), adjoining the Grand Hotel 
and the Museum. For the smaller sea-going and coasting steamers the start- 
ing-point is the RiDDiauotMs Qoit on the W. side of that Island, which 
lies to the W. of Sudan, whence most of (he Malar steamers and those 

3. The KoHOHnoLxt 

8 i 

from the fltuta/- Adolfi- 

Tors (PI. 


Oaim to a. BrUu-Qata 



4. The Tiotrass-Gi 

8Uam Launch,,. aTOCKHOTJI. 

K'rr;: r$rWS2£ ^lBi^£K 1 

i.t iteunere often go to the bm**" £„™ and *■ J-f.^J?" 5 
o S«fi (p. 336) boll! from Skeppf"'" Bl*s±*».^^_^ K 

p. SOBiBTory lfrlB mit.) are «£ **J** d j to AliOr,. 
1. From the «Mw«Mt« <***- _ ,*rn. F, ti, 6) to 

3. From tlieft ™ (pj "5f *i 

Srthd (PL H,I, 4, "8. fa-^JS. 

>«■ (16 6.) iDd Si ■««»*»,»„*»■ '- 

n.irons of Block! „_ "»S *«S^ »v 

Bnriga fl"wnm«a«o(ioner (ii»'' e l r o„/«/»l) *-*«aiT 

ili suD-bMitnga 'Mdlann' »» d ,_- S12J, nUoat *-^ * 

BUotdi Eailw»y to B>tw»Ao**™ >S~ tlie Engelt... -**C* _ 
>» the HumUgiri at the corner » To rgelj "Pe,^**,-* 

vji 8-11, 1-6, ud 7-9 o'clock — 9 ^Sn^*'? ,, 5S^S* - S"~. 

-on 2, klwM open, - Al„> a e>ver£* \reX£*>*f Aft .**- ^> 
Bunk!. a«rt„ M JM**an* ft* 1 - „ Ti >?' , '/"° i 'n* -&-, 

JlfaMW (PI. B) SlortjrkobrinKcn »od forelg^* -*^*<: 

Li]|» Nv-GstM 2T, etc. Clreul*"- "'sAicardB- ""* » =*tor*** 
....... ...... .. _ — w ■'°i* n ' i ^^. ''^ 

nin £-<i 

Bbopi. Filling 

Galas 16; J. MtXnvn, Beridsre 
Gloves: ^». SchnHdt, Anenall 
J'. P. Jftf tar, Freda-Gatan 21. - 

The Swediih Magazine of In 
^~J.Kvingltriid B llrd*.GMi.il2A 




Ohlaf Sight.. National M a »°S^*d, , fbJtoi 

Stockhohn, the capital o* «*« ^!"Sw°^S W °< lm ' *" Bl 
government and the supreme °°^£t S i„fl'^' ^**^ ^68,3001* 
lie. In 59- 20' 34" N. lat. , »* *£%J?££ m € '** Z "**' «5(arer 
»n arm of the Baltic <8alt*J°** J _r foT four or fl-«^ «*^celleut ha 
liable, however, to be frozen °"^ ,_ n d B on » —-.-i^* :ttfc ontaa in-* 
The situation of the city o» *f i* lm i,a. in -atai^***, «* on 
hills, surrounded by wate* »£*,„*«* ther^SL'?*** WryX 
is highly picturesque. Stookb* 1 ^ £ een M ™=»*[*» We, 
'Venice of the North', and *»* * *£**!««■ can *^*« «5 with M 
or Genera; bnt no sue* ^^g^g f-St-S^^JV* 
idea of the place. It* most B *VforeiM ift?** *v I ? SC| 
immediate proximity to prim»*** * „f BoIthr^S* ^J^, J*** 
to this day there la hardly » * r rf, e Norrmallr* ***» 1 d "' ' 
hare, indeed, been effected i% * «! Park wa. g ** -» ~ lB »proveii 

the town; the site of the Bet« e ' connected ****»_ N ' ^oart 
and the Blasilholm has long ** ^.rsholm , th-^*"*"**-*? a "iHen 
bnt in the Sodermalm, the *£-** it is *> fton a B ^T ^l? tte m »inf 
Kastellholm the bare granite Jro<5«- ****. -^"^eppsholm 

midst of th » < 

great fires In 1 

middle of the 
to 60 J00. In 1 
171,706, and I .___ ^__ 

Staden, or the old town, on ***,?«**> of ' Vor *>*-L* : **. ""' uuu ' 
laren, is connected with the N- **£c 4i oor[l Pl^-'^*> ,: ***th of 
(p. 290) and the Vaiabro (PI- ^L- *^J*"«n> *^5?» by t 
with the S. suburb of Swfermfl" 7 ^ -obort" V*.-^*- ~J to i 
CPl.E,6 iP .308). TheN. and »; es e« th« J* ^V*» e »'' 
the great Baiiway BrWjc, wki<**» fcoJ*»* * et *e«,^^» **0 co 
darfjdrdc and the island of Bid**"*' **-  t ,-?*ms 

Bauuii'i Norway mj Swe dei»- 


290 Route 48 STOCKHOLM. Royal 


The best survey of the singularly picturesque Bite of Stockholm 
and of its busy harbour-traffic is obtained from the *JTorrbro (PI. 
E, 4), a handsome bridge of seven granite arches, completed in 
1797, spanning the short river which forms the chief efflux of Lake 
Malaren, and connecting the Norrmalm and Staden. Part of it stands 
on the E. side of the small HelgearuUholm, the old buildings in 
which have been removed to provide a site for new edifices for the 
National Diet and the National Bank. On the E. side of the bridge 
is the Stromparterrc (cafe*, see p. 286 ; steam-launches to the Djur- 
gard, see p. 287), to which two nights of steps descend. 

'Hur praktigt speglar ei den strdmmen af 
Torn, hjeltestoder, slott och s&ngartempel, 
Och aftonrodnan ofVer Riddarholmen, 
Der Sveriges ara sofver under marmorP (TscwiB). 
'Tower, heroes' statues, palace, muses* fane 
Stand nobly mirrored in the stream beneath, 
While bathed in evening-red glows Biddarholm, 
Where, beneath marble, Sweden's glory sleeps*. 

From the S.E. end of the bridge the 8kepp$bro ('ship -quay' or 
'bridge'), a broad quay, constructed of granite like all the others at 
Stockholm, extends round the E. side of Staden, where most of the 
sea-going steamers, as well as numerous steam-launches, are berth- 
ed. Approaching Staden from the N., we observe on the right the 
Mynt-Torg and the old Mint, with its facade of four columns, now 
occupied by public offices. (The Mynt-Gata leads thence to the Rid- 
darhus-Torg, p. 293.) 

At the S.E. end of the Norrbro, on the N. end of the island of 
Staden, rises the *Boyal Palace (PI. E, 4), begun on the site of an 
earlier edifice by Nicodemus Tessin, a Swedish architect, in 1697, 
in the Italian Renaissance style. The work was interrupted by the 
wars of Charles XII., but was completed by Count Karl Oust. Tes- 
sin> son of the first architect, Harlemann, and Cronstedt in 1760. 
This spacious edifice, consisting of ground-floor, entresol, and two 
upper stories, forms a rectangle 136 yds. by 127 yds., and enoloses 
a court nearly square in shape. The N. and S. facades are adjoined 
by four lower wings, extending E. and W., so that the N. facade 
is double the length of the central building. The N.W. portal, 
facing the bridge, has a handsome approach, constructed in 1824-34, 
and called Lejonbaeken from the bronze lions, cast in 1704, which 
adorn it. On the S. W. side of the palace are two detached buildings 
forming a small semicircular outer court, one of them being the 
chief Quard House. On theN.E. side, between the projecting wings, 
is a small garden called Log&rden or 'lynx-yard', which is said to 
derive its name from a small menagerie once kept here. The central 
quadrangle, entered by the N.W., S.W., and S.E. portals, is open 
to the public. The N.E. portal, from which a private flight of 
steps descends to the Logard, affords a fine view of the harbour. 

Palaee. STOCKHOLM. *6- Bit 

The private apartment* »I8 shown dally In summer, < 
aosenee of the royal family, while the pnblle room* (1 
vamntai) may be yUited at any time. The roonw on eac 
Uunrn by » Afferent attendant (ooUmAttoM ; fee 1 kr. t. 
P.J^.T""'""- B»tSA»o« is In the W. wtag, by the Qu 
J™ 1 «» sentinel, we torn to the left to the gateway and asc< 
*h. B ~ !rc "e, with new ceiling -paintings by Prtf. Jul. Xronl 
™ fUlqi of Sweden, with the Landing of Charles XIV. 
a?. ... ,*' Md 0"« II. receiving the doctor's degree, on the 
™, f'"" leading 10 the third story are Anrora and the Fw 
" d n k *«>P. theWardian Angel, Si by Kronberg. 
.„ "° lhe Sscohd Flooi, to the right, are the somptoona state- 
P«.7° S tbe 'W M i LUM -TtolK, once oeonnied by Charles : 
A™ "F 01 ^ 11 "he Hft Guard Soloon, embellished with arms, 
hl*t I *" t ^ le t a r a f en H Room, with ceiling-paintings illnetre 
■"story of AIe,ander the Great by Jaapui Fcmqutt (1700) and 
vSOSfh we ™ tfl ' ">" »** *»!■>«■, with allegorical ceiltog-p; 
m „.*i witt reference to the yooth of Charles Ml, sever. 
™«*1«, ma a valuable silver candelabrum of the time of Chi 
deer.™, j**?' toln0 Otwid Caller*, B2 yds. long and T'/i yds. v 

ttuLY I """ l,16t - ^ ul ^Vato«ngs also by Wet. TM 

SfeAJ pCjMtaSl,frSlSwfcto.tSsiwrtto. 1 
painting, „ B hy IUUln „„;„ of lns „,,, na i ( o( u, e mlil oe 

»„,„.'" f '««t Floob of the tame wing contains (on the right oi 
| h"ki'i',°iV h V talre » s '0 ««> M "» Council Boomi, the StrapMi* 
"»d tb* £iT »* Seraphim Order, the highest in Sweden, fonnc 
^MeMntTu *' o» Imperial Hall, whore the ceremony of < 
s *m™«™ '"'."eOaambers takes plaee. — On the left (of those as 

the gorgeous ac 
1 1 costly aatres 
h emeralds, tat 

ord carried by 

392 Route 48. STOCKHOLM. Storkyrka. 

The S.E. facade of the Palace, with its colonnade, looks towards 
the Slottsbaokb, or Palace Hill (PI. E, 4), a handsome Plats de- 
scending to the Skeppsbro. The Slottsbacke is adorned with an 
Obelisk, 100 ft. high, erected in 1799 by Gustavus IV. in memory 
of the loyalty of the citizens during the war against Russia in 1788- 
90, while the nobility were hostile to their sovereign (p. lxvii). At 
the foot of the Slottsbacke, on the Skeppsbro, rises the, finely exe- 
cuted "Monument of GustavuB HI. (PI. E, F, 4), by J. T. Sergei, a 
Swedish sculptor, erected in 1808 by subscription in honour of that 
chivalric monarch. The rudder on which the statue of the King 
leans is an allusion to his naval victories. Fine view of the har- 
bour and the Skeppsholm. 

The Governor's Howe (Ofvcrstathallare-Huset ; PI. 30; E, 4, 5), 
on the S.E. side of the Slottsbacke, with its handsome little court, 
was erected by Nicod. Tessin (p. 290), to whom it originally be- 

At the S.W. end of the Slottsbacke rises the Storkyrka (Great 
Church, or Church of St. Nicholas; PI. 27, E 5), which, according 
to a modern inscription, was founded by Jarl Birger in 1264, and 
rebuilt and provided with the unpleasing tower (184 ft. high) in 
1726-43. The church was thoroughly restored in 1892. In the interior, 
which consists of a nave with double aisles, is a rich reredos from 
Augsburg (beginning of 17th cent.), in silver, ivory, and ebony, with 
18 scenes from the Passion. Observe also a brass candelabrum with 
seven branches, of the 14th cent. ; two huge pictures ('Last Judg- 
ment' and 'Descent from the Cross') by Ehrenstrahl (d. 1698); several 
ancient tombstones ; and the rich silver vessels. (The Klockare or 
sacristan lives at Svartman-Gatan 222 ; fee l/g-1 hr.) 

A short street leads to the S. from the Slottsbacke to the Stor- 
Tono {Great Market; PI. E, 5), the central and highest point of 
the old town, bounded on the N.W. by the Exchange (PI. 12; 
business-hour 1 p.m.). In this market-place several tragic scenes 
have been enacted. In 1280 Magnus Ladulas caused three members 
of his own family to be executed. In 1437 Erik Puke and in 1605 
the royal counsellor Bjelke were beheaded here. The saddest event 
in the annals of the city, known as the Stockholm Blood Bath, took 
place in the Scor-Torg on 10th and 11th November, 1520, when 
Christian II. of Denmark caused a great number of his opponents 
to be executed here in the vain hope of consolidating his power in 
Sweden (p. lix). 

Numerous steep lanes, called Brinkat and Grander, intersected 
by cross-streets, descend from the Stor-Torg to the Skeppsbro to 
the E., and to the Westerlang-Gata and the Stota Ny-Gata to the 
W., forming the headquarters of the humbler tradesmen, whose 
characteristics are not without interest. 

In the Svartman-Gata, to the S.E. of the Stor-Torg, rises the 

^ *«-«** Ti* 1 - ^8; -E5, ST), corrected in 1( 
tyutoKyr**, or German &**£*» ^ lanS since & a X€ > in l^ 
and restored after Rascadorf* ^j^ pxdpit and ali;ar were pi 
tower contains a set of cUme^* T^l* cent. 

"by German merchant* in tli«* _* to t fc e 8to<r<z JV±s— <?aXa wh ; 

We now descend to tlie t> - ^ - _ At the S.JE5 _ «r*<l of the 

to the N.W. to the Riddarhtxe— -*- f^ a:t *>our marked* - t>i ia v 

lies the Kobnhamns-Torg C* ccrr ~J7*rfi: to Soderm&l u^ . ' J 

which is Slussen, the bridge -m^ CpJ>' ^ 7 » 

to Maria-Hissen by steam-la-"^ 11 ^*j» rg to trie 

to the right from the Kornha-rr* 1 !*^ -gj y 5), over^ 

K6tt-To*g ('meat-market'; ^ lm ZZ& <yf Sodermalx*^ _ 

These quays command fine ^^ & TL C> r« monks' r>rt_^~ 

Kott-Torg we reach the itftz*** ' J^v 

scene of the busiest market^**** *L "bounded t> ^_ 

The Riddabhus-Tobg pE* 1 - ??£ iJ'Btatuaof «»^*--**<eRiada 
the Town Hall, is adorned ^^ted i* 1 17r 3 "fc^?^^*! V 
signed by VArchevique, and « ^ - ^jbe day w**€*^ ^" "fcle g^ 
bility on the 250th anniversary zL^tXY from ***.«=* -w*?*e kin* 
Stockholm and delivered his J^^oT** JBtotnancl "X^to-"*-^ ^Uiah vi 
13th July, 1756, Count Brahe, -p**_ £a r ^5^^^^ J' 
were brought to the scaffold **/£? O, M*»Jjl ^Cf? ^c* *~| " 
constitution. On 10th June, *P£~ ttxe Budden <j^*X v«„ p 
lynched by the populace, alarm* 5 ** Z r>oi» oned b X *^5* ^*;h ^l*® 1 
prince, and believing he had t>^** *\ . Fl. 35 C5*^ £ * 

. *T**«*^ i ^ 7i v' ~^w Marsha] 

The BiddarhUB (Knights' *?° iG&i- 1 * b V «^T S-* 

sandstone structure, designed- a *L£ »l ^^fl***^ *^*«i a bri 
and others, is adorned with allege* *ne fl*?;.**^^* ^-^? * fa 
on the facade. In a large rooi** a ** ^a o^ 1 ™*-^ VS" ln8cr 
bearings of all the Swedish n*"** 1 ,i i** in ? h,| %i^tW;! ,i the « 
stroke, the Chamber of Nobles *** * portraits o^ ^[^ Xll « s *y J 

room on the ground-floor coat*!*** £ t Count 1,^ ^X^ ^ t0 18( 
the nobility from 1627 to 1865, a ^I\r£**** t ymia *X Jr*X>^ the m «8l 
blamed for the failure of the ***a%n *>** "*** *J^ S??J?A wl 
beheaded in 1743. Adm^seep.^T^ ^ 110 r^O^^^^ 174*4* 

son, was erected in 1890 to the ^^t of **f J,l ^*^^^# ? e » * y J * ] 

Adjacent, on the opposite «*f£^ ^W^« C^^>^«™a(p.l 
leads to the Vasa Bridge, rises w*v** Vi? \X^ " ^A ^? nd ' 1 
the paiace of Count Bonde , the x *'xi<& 1 ° ^^ * ^t*T 5 D ' 5 J > 

town-hall in 1731. The large Oo* 1 . ^^* V 4 erted * 

thenaty at different periods. rfd^ * 8 %c* ^'w™ ^e- 

From the Riddarhus-Torg ° ^ . ^ ^Holmsv-fc^ ^^ 

^> ^ J?^CH.25), 

RrBDABHOLMCPLD^^andthe*^ &»>** I^J^&c^ 1 ^ ' tc 

its conspicuous perforated spire ° *t* &* V^?> Jr* 

formerly a church of the Franoia***; a ^ &T ?^L^^ ^^^V "* K "; Xl 
burial-place of the Swedish king* »££ I>^ lne ^^ J^>xi^f es . b ^ 

disfigured by Renaissance add!** ** " ^^^^InglsGo- 

6 ' *^> has not 1 

294 Route 45. STOCKHOLM. Riddarholtris Kyrka. 

performed here since 1807, except in the case of royal funerals. The 

principal entrance is at the W. end. (Adm., see p. 288.) 

The walls of the church are blazoned with the armorial bearings of the 
deceased knights of the Seraphim Order (p. 291 ; including those of the 
German Emperors William I. and Frederick III.)) and the pavement is 
formed of tombstones. Flanking the high-altar are the Monuments of Kings 
Magnus Ladul&s (d. 1320) and Charles VIII. (d. 1470), erected in the reign 
of John III. (16th cent.). On the right (S.) is the Burial Chapel of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus (Gustavianska Grafkoret), constructed in 1633 according to 
the king's order issued in 1629 before his departure for Germany. Since 
1832, the 200th anniversary of the monarch's death (at the battle of Lutzen, 
6th Nov., 1632), his remains have reposed in a green marble sarcophagus, 
executed in Italy by order of Gustavus III. for the reception of the body 
of his father Adolphus Frederick, but unused till 1832, when the remains 
of Gustavus Adolphus were transferred to it by Charles XIV. John. It 
bears the simple inscription: Gustavus Adolf us Magnus. In front of the 
sarcophagus are placed the king's banner, borne at Lutzen, the royal 
Swedish banner, and a flag presented by Oscar II. in 1888, bearing the 
names of the regiments of the yellow brigade which distinguished itself 
at Lutzen, Between the windows of the chapel are placed German, Rus- 
sian, and other flags as trophies of the king's victories. In the vault 
below are interred Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg (d. 1656), the queen of 
Gustavus Adolphus; kings Adolphus Frederick (d. 1771), Gustavus III. (d. 
1792), Gustavus IV. (d. 1887; p. lxvi), and Charles XIII. (d. 1818). with 
their queens, and other members of the Holstein-Gottorp family. — On the 
opposite (N.) side of the church is the Carolinian Chapel (Karolinska Graf- 

koreth constructed in 1686-1743. It contains the sarcophagus .of Charles XII. 

-' ------ --- wUt 

] Fred- 

. 1742), 

sister of Charles XII. Between the windows are trophies of Polish, Dan- 
ish, and Russian flags. In the vault below are interred Charles X. Gus- 
tavus (d. 1660), Charles XI. (d. 1697), and their queens, and several princes 
of the Vasa family. — Adjoining the Chapel of Gustavus, on the S. side 
of the choir, is the Bernadotte Chapel (Bernadotteska Grafkoret), built from 
a design by Prof. Scholander in 1868-60. A massive sarcophagus of por- 
phyry here contains the remains of Charles XIV. John fd. 1844). The vault 
contains the coffin of his queen Desideria (d. I860), and those of Oscar I. 
(d. 1869) and his queen Josephine, of Charles XV. (d. 1872), and other princes. 
In the aisles of the church are the burial-vaults of Count Lejonhufvud^ 
with numerous Russian flags; Counts Wachtmeister and von Fersen, also with 
Russian flags -, Count Torstensson, with a marble bust of Marshal Lennart 
Torstensson (d. 1661), with numerous German and other flags ; Count Va- 
saborg, with German flags ; Marshal Banir (in the centre of the S. aisle, 
visible through a pointed doorway), with the armour and a large portrait 
of the marshal (d. at Halberstadt, 1641) and many German flags. 

On the Biddarholm are also situated the Riksdag shus or Hall of 
the Diet (PI. 36 ; D, 5) ; the Svea Hofratt or Appeal Court (PI. 18), 
occupied by the royal family in 1697-1754, and lately enlarged; 
the Riks-Arkiv (PI, 5 ; p. 288), and other publio buildings. 

In the centre of the island rises the *8t&tue of Birger Jarl in 
bronze, designed by Fogelberg, and erected by the citizens in 1854. 
— The Railway Bridge (p. 282), crossing the Riddarholm, has a 
foot-way on theN.E. side, leading to the islet of 8trdm8borg (PL D, 
4; restaurant), and to the swimming-school. 

KungHrSdgarcU STOCKHOLM. 48. Route. 2 


At the N. end of the Norrbro (p. 290) lies the Gubtaf-Adol 
Tobo (PI. E, 4), in which rises a lofty pedestal of Swedish gran 
and marble hearing an equestrian Statue of Gustavus Adolphus, 
bronze, designed by VArchevlque in 1777 , and erected in 17$ 
The pedestal is adorned with bronze reliefs of the Swedish gener; 
Torstensson, Wrangel, Bane*r, and Kdnigsmark. On 6th Nov. , t 
anniversary of the great king's death (p. 294), the citizens crov 
round the monument , singing national songs and the lines cot 
posed by Gustavus himself before the battle of Lutzen ('Forfar 
ej du lilla hop', 'fear not, thou little band*). 

On the W. side of the Gustaf-Adolfs-Torg rises the Palace < 
Prince Eugene, the heir to the throne (PI. 31 ; D, 4), erected i 
1783-93. — The Stora Teater ('Great Theatre'; PI. 40, E, 3, 4 
p. 288), erected in 1775-82 by Gustavus III., who was an enthusiast! 
patron of the national poetry, has been pulled down, and a new build 
ing is being erected on its site (Cafe*-Restaurant in the E. part, se 
p. 287). It was in this theatre, at a masked ball on 16-1 6th March 
1792, that Gustavus III. was assassinated by Gapt. Ankarotrom. 

To the N., opposite, is the Jacobs- Kyrka (PI. 23; E, 3), where 
Marshal Gustaf Horn is interred (d. 1659). The interior was ef- 
fectively restored in 1893. 

The adjoining promenades of the Kunqsteadgabd ('King's 
Garden'; PI. E, 3) are adorned with statues of two Swedish mon- 
archs and a handsome fountain. Near the quay rises the *8tatue 
of Charles XII., by Molin, surrounded with four mortars captured 
by that king, after whom this part of the plats is called Karl den 
Tolftes Torg. The Fountain in the centre of the grounds, also by 
Molin, is embellished with allegorical bronze statues ('Aegir and 
his daughters visiting the river-god', an allusion to the situation of 
Stockholm between lake and sea). To the right, on the E. side of 
the grounds, rises the Dramatiska Teater (PI. 41, E 3; p. 288), 
erected in 1842. A little to the N. of the fountain rises the Statue 
of Charles XIII., erected by Charles XIV. John to his adoptive 
father, designed by Prof. Oothe, and cast at Paris. The fine lions 
at the foot of the monument are by Fogelberg. — To the N.W. of 
the statue is the huilding of the *Konstf6rcning (PI. 19, E 3; ex- 
hibition, see p. 288), with Blanch's Cafe (p. 286) on the ground-floor. 
Adjacent, Hamn-Gatan 20, are Blanch's Picture Rooms. — To the N. 
is the Svca Hall, in the Moorish style (concerts and variety-theatre 
in the evening). The Bihliotheks-Gata leads hence to the Humle- 
gard (p. 299). — To the right, near the Panopticon (p. 288), lies 
the Bbrzblh Park (PI. E, 3), with a Statue of Berzelius (d. 1848), 
the chemist, by Qvarnstrom, and Bern's Salongcr (p. 286). — To 
the S. of the Berzelii Park is the Warendorfs-Gata, with the Syna- 
gogue (PI. 39 ; E, 3), by Prof. Scholander, erected in 1870. 

296 Route 48. STOCKHOLM. Klara Kyrhz. 

To the N.E. of the park, the dstermalm quarter of the city has 
sprung up within the last 10-15 years, and contains some of the 
most tasteful modern buildings in Stockholm, e.g. in the Birger 
Jarls-Gata, at the beginning of the Sture-Gata, and in the busy 
Stureplan (PI. E, 2). At the Ostermalms-Torg are the Hedvig Eleo- 
nora Kyrka and the ArtUleri-Qard (PI. F, 2) with an historical 
museum of artillery and small arms (adm., see p. 288). To the S. 
are the Royal Stables, built in 1893. — In July the Guards' Bat' 
racks (PI. G, H, 2) are adjoined by a Training Camp, containing 
about 1200 infantry and artillerymen (visitors admitted). — This 
quarter is bounded on the S. by the Ladugardslandsvik, a bay along 
which runs the Strandvagen (PI. F, G, H, 3), leading to the Djur- 
g&rd (p. 309). 

From the Gustaf-Adolfs-Torg (p. 294) diverges to the W. the 
busy Freds-Qata y at the end of which, on the right, is the Akademi 
for de fria Konsterna (PI. 1 ; D, 4), founded in 1735 for the edu- 
cation of painters, sculptors, and architects, and now being rebuilt. 
— Near it is the Post Office (PI. 33 ; D, 4> 

From the Gustaf-Adolfs-Torg and the Freds-Gata run several 
other important streets, chief of which are the Drottning-Qata and 
the Regirings-Qata. Between these streets lies the Brunkeberga- 
Torg (PI. D , 3) , on the site of a sand-hill now removed. In the 
Malmskillnads-Gata, to the N., is the lofty Telephone Tower (10,000 
connections). Here also is the Central Gymnastic Institutional* 17 ; 
D, 3), founded in 1813 by P. H. Ling (d. 1839). 

Between the Drottning-Gata and the Railway Station rises the 
Klara-Kyrka (PI. D, 3), erected in 1751-53 after the destruction 
by fire of an earlier church founded in 1285, and lately well 
restored. It contains sculptures by Sergei. ('Klock&re', Klara 
Vestra Kyrko-Gatan 14 A.) In the adjoining churchyard reposes the 
poet Bellman (d. 1785 ; p. 310). To the S. of the railway station 
a statue, by J. Borjeson, was erected in 1893 to Nils Ericsson (p. 268). 

At No. 36, Master-Samuels-Gata, a side-street of the Drottning- 
Gata, is the Geological Museum (PI. 38, D 3 } adm., p. 288), 
containing specimens of the various Swedish rock-formations and 
building-materials (porphyry, granite, gabbro, etc.). In the same 
building is the Polytechnic (Tekniska Skolan; p. 288). — The Tunnel- 
Gata, another side-street of the Drottning-Gata farther on, commun- 
icates by a tunnel (adm. 2 6.) at its E. end with the David Ba- 
gares-Gata and the Humlegard (p. 299). 

In the Drottning-Gata, about 7 min. to the N.W. of the Klara- 
Kyrka, is the ^Northern Museum (PI. 13 ; G, 2), an interesting 
collection of Scandinavian curiosities, founded by Dr. Arthur 
Hazelius in 1873, and greatly extended since. The collections are 
deposited in several different houses, pending the completion of 
the new building (p. 310). The attendants are women in the cost- 
ume of Darlecarlia. Illustrated catalogue. (Adm., p. 288.) 

1 room <*° *ff /VgUw*' ®, W * n 

etc), from Dm""* *™J ™" »i» „« ft 

i„(o*i. - v. WO*. wood.' rf, *« 

*e»pon>, tooli, Htrf»*' Y- *» P 

tU ,d.».i..0lD..».»«-O'«* 

298 Route 48. STOCKHOLM. Northern 

glasses; Runic staves; ancient Swedish copper money, and a 'Fra*' or 
leathern sack to carry it on journeys. — We return to Boom XIII., and next 
enter Room* XXII. and XXIII, , containing ecclesiastical objects ; pictures ; 
a pulpit from Ronnebp; mass-vestments; altar-furniture; censers, etc. 

Second Floob. — Room I. Sedan-chairs, perambulator of Charles XV., 
harness, saddles. — Room II. Embroidery, lace, children's dresses, dolls. 
— Room III. Rich costumes of the 17th and 18th cent.; 'Brudstubb' 
(bridal petticoat) of 1700, and Qustavus III.'s Swedish national costume. 
Figures of the 'cursor* and the janitor of Upsala University. — Room IV. 
Objects used in the Jewish ritual; patents of nobility, orders. — Room V. 
Musical instruments. — Rooms VI. and VII. Uniforms and arms of the 
15-18th cent.; portrait -figure of Charles XII. — Room VIII. Equipments 
for wolf and bear hunting. — Room IX. Instruments of torture ; objects 
illustrating superstitions. — RoomX. Fire-extinguishing apparatus; objects 
connected with the postal and customs services. — We return through 
Boom II. to Roomt XI-XIII.. containing portraits and relics of Swedish 
and Danish kings and celebrities (Linnaeus, Berzeliu*, Ttgntr, Thorvaldten^ 
HQckert, etc.). — A flight of steps descends hence to Drottning-Gatan No. 77 
(see below). 

Thibd Floob. Room* I-IV. Objects from Dalecarlia or Dalarne. In I. a 
K By-kladd* (parish register), or staff inscribed with the names of 100 land- 
owners in the village of Farnas and its public accounts down to 1857. 
Cowherd's horns, etc. In II. Bunic Calendar. Boom from B&ttwik, with a 
group representing 'the little girl's last resting-place' after the picture by 
Amalia Lindegren. In III. Groups of peasants from Mora and Orsa; locks, 
arms \ birch-bark cradles, in which infants are carried to baptism. In IV* 
Costumes from Dalecarlia; domestic objects. — Room V. Articles from 
Upland. — Rooms VI. and VII. Objects from Westmanland, SVdermanland, 
and Nerike. — Room VIII. Objects from Wermland. 

We now return to the second floor and descend by the staircase men- 
tioned above to the — 

Norwegian Collbction, which occupies twelve rooms on the 
second floor of Drottning-Gatan 77. 

Room* I-IV. Fragments of buildings and rustic furniture, carved boards 
and posts, bedsteads, cabinets, and chairs; blocks of wood with human 
teeth driven into them, used as a charm against toothache. — Room V. 
Travelling requisites, sledges, harness, saddles, stirrups, a fine bedstead 
from the Bomsdal, old tapestry. In the glass-cases at the windows are 
riding-whips, basket-work, and two l Bud»tikkor* (wooden cases for official 
messages, which the peasantry of each parish were bound to carry to the 
boundary of the next parish). — Room VI. Drinking- vessels, a 'HSgsate' 
(i.e. a bench used as the seat of honour). — Room VII. Drinking-vessels, 
small carved household utensils, and pictures (girl from Telemarken, man 
and woman from the Numedal, group from the Hitterdal, a Lapp woman 
and child). Movable frames containing figures in Norwegian costume. 
Carved mangle-boards. — Room VIII. Ornaments and weapons, embroidery, 
handsome old belts from the Ssetersdal (p. 4) ; powder-horns of the 16-18th 
cent.; old halberds, spears, and other weapons. — Room IX. Musical 
instruments; Norwegian 'Primstave' (calendar-staves) and rustic furniture ; 
in the glass-cases, snuff-horns and snuff-boxes. — Room X. Objects from 
Iceland. — Room XI. Domestic utensils from Norway; scythes, sickles, 
looms, etc. — Room XII. Norwegian furniture ; cabinets, carved cupboards, 
chests, etc. 

A supplementary section has been established on the first floor 
of Drottning-Gatan 88. 

Room I. Objects connected with seafaring : canoes, galleons, votive ships 
from churches, hatchets, grapnels, ship's lanterns, and cables- — Room II. 
Rococo objects: observe in particular a suite of furniture for the royal 
palace, covered with tapestry, said to date from the first half of the loth 
cent, (probably of Stockholm workmanship). — .Room III. Renaissance 
objects, including a collection of relics from German guilds. — Room IV. 

Museum. STOCKHOLM. 48. Route. 

N. Frisian room In 17th cent, style, reconstructed by H. 8auermann,d 
of the Flensburg mnieam, after a model at Hallig Hooge on the w 
of Sleavig; also a collection of wood-carvings of the 16-18th cei 
a Dutch loom introduced by Jonas AUslrtmsr in 1720, probably tt 
used in Sweden. — We return through Boom IV. to Room V. Woo< 
mediaeval, and of first half of 16th century. — Rooms VI- VIII. Pharmac 
collection ; in Boom VI. retorts, distilling apparatus, and other lab< 
vessels; in Boom VII. apothecary's utensils and memorials of the 8 1 
apothecary K. W. BchssU (p. 300); in the centre an alchemist's furns 

a receptacle for poisons; also several tastefully executed German 

tplete apothecary's she 
of the palace in Drottningholm. 

eases. In Boom VIII. a complete apothecary's shop, from the 'Ap< 

In the Korstrands-Gata, diverging to the S.W., rises the < 
English Church (PI. 21 ; B, 2). 

On the right side of the Drottning-Gata, nearly oppos: 
Rdrstrands-Gata, is the Academy of B&eno6 (Wctcnskaps-Akc 
PI. 4, C, 1, 2), founded by Swedish savants in 1739, and en 
by government in 1741. The first director was Karl v. 
(Linnceus; 1707-78), the celebrated botanist. The acades 
numbers 175 members, of whom 75 are foreigners. The b 
contains the valuable and interesting *Natural History Col 
the property of the state (adm., p. 288). 

To the E. of the Academy rises the Adolf- Fredriks 
(PI. C, 1, 2), designed by Adclcrantz, erected in 1768-74. 
tains an altar-piece (Resurrection) in plaster, by Sergei 
monument, with sculptures by Sergei, to Descartes (d. a< 
holm, 1650), the famous French mathematician and phil 
whose remains were removed to Paris in 1661. Sergei is I 
the churchyard. — Farther to the N.E. is the new Gothic J 
Kyrka (PL D, 1), by Carl Moller. 

In the Drottning-Gata, on the left, a little beyond the 
of Science, is the Technical High-School (TekniskaHogskola 
B 1), designed by Prof. Scholander, and erected in 1863 ; * 
is connected the Bcrgskola or School of Mining. Library ai 
tlons open Mon. and Thurs. 12-2. On a height at the < 
Drottning-Gata rises the Observatory(Pl.B, 1), erected in 
commanding a fine view of the city ('vaktmastare' 25 5.). 
N.W. of this point is the new quarter of Wasastaden (see M 

The Humlegard (PI. E, 1), a park laid out in the 1 
has recently been entirely remodelled by Director Medii 
Gardener of Stockholm, and transformed into a beautil 
pleasure - ground , with flower-beds and tropical pla 
rises the Biks - Bibliotek or National Library (adm 
designed by Dahl, and erected in 1870-76, containing 
300,000 printed books and 8000 MSS. Among its treas 
mentioned the Oigas Librorum, consisting of 300 large] 
of the 9-1 3th cent., the Codex Aureus, a Latin transl 
Gospels in golden letters on red and white parchment, 
Bible with notes by Luther (1529), all three taken by 
in the Thirty Years' War, the first two from Prague, i 

302 Route 48. STOCKHOLM. National 

next 13 large cases contain French, Dutch, German, and Swedish 
porcelain, pottery from the Lower Rhine, and Wedgwood ware. 
The intervening smaller cases contain porcelain from MelBsen 
(Dresden), Vienna, Berlin, Capo di Monte (Naples), the Hague, 
Amsterdam, Niederweiler , Frankenthal , Nymphenburg , Marie- 
berg (p. 309; 1769-88), Derby, Copenhagen, St. Petersburg, 
Sevres (pate tendre), etc. 

Boom n. Chinese and Japanese porcelain, including a speci- 
ally fine collection of the Japanese Chrysanthemum-Peony por- 
celain, so called after its flower-patterns, and of Japanese 'craquele*' 
(with glazing purposely cracked), lacquered vases, and vessels 
with European patterns (Swedish coats-of-arms). 

Room in. The Collection of Soulptures (catalogue 50 o.) begins 
here. This room contains Aotiqubs, chiefly busts of the Roman 
imperial epoch (66. Bust of Apollodoroe, an Athenian, with a 
Greek inscription) ; 45. Colossal bust of Venus. The gem of the 
collection is in the centre : *1 • Sleeping Endymion, in Parian marble, 
excavated in Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli in 1783, and purchased by 
Gustavus III. Handsome candelabra, magnificent large marble vase. 

Room IV. Antique terracottas, glasses, and bronzes. 

Room V. The principal Antiqubs are exhibited here. They 
are all in the style of the Roman empire, and many are marred by 
restoration. Nos. 3-12. Apollo Citharcsdus and the Nine Muses ; 
2. Athena; 201-221. Greek tombstones; 228-236. Roman tomb- 
stones. In the centre : *107. Fountain, with an interesting relief 
relating to Romulus and Remus ; 179. Handsome Rhyton (drink- 
ing-horn) in marble. 

Room VI. , a hall containing Egyptian, Assyrian, ancient Greek, 
and other Casts. Fine view from the windows here and in the 
following rooms. 

Room VII. Casts of works of decorative art. 

Room VTU. Modben Swbdish Sctjlpturbs. 

X os. 367-872. Johan Tobias Sergei (1740-1814 : founder of the Swedish 
school of sculpture) : *367. Faun ; *359. Psyche and Cupid, his master-piece ; 
362. Colossal bust of Gustavus III. (to whose court the sculptor was in- 
vited). 373-376. Erik Gusto/ Gdthe (1779-1838): 377-389. Johan Niklas By- 
strton (1783-1848; a pupil of Sergei); 390, 391, 396, 396. Bengt Brland 
Fogelberg (1786-1864); 397. Carl Gusto/ Qvarnstrtfm (1810-67); 769. Frtihjo/ 
Kjeltberg (1836-86); 398401. Johan Peter Molin (1814-73) i several worka by 
J. BOrjeton (b. 1836). No. 403. Hylas, by Bitten Sen., a Dane; 404. Magda- 
len, by Ant. Fovelli of Florence (d. 1662); 604. Copy by A. Gille of a 
colossal bust of Alexander von Humboldt by David <P Angers ; 402. Marble 
bust of J. Ericsson (p. 311), by Kneeland, an American; 710. Marble bust 
of Nordenskjbld (p. 307), and bronze bust of A. Fryxell, the historian, by 
W. Runeberg, a Finlander; marble bust of P. H. Ling, the founder of a 
well-known system of gymnastics (p. 296), by H. Michelton. 

Room IX., a small apartment containing casts and models by 
Sergei and other Swedish sculptors. 

Small Rooms X, XII., containing small objects in wood, bone, 
iron, etc 

Museum. STOCKHOLM. 48. Route. 301 

here are arrow-heads, axes, earthen vessels, and amber beads. The classi- 
fied objects in the wall-cabinets and in one of the cases have been found 
mostly in Sk&ne. The remaining cases contain objects, partly from ancient 
tombs, found in other districts of Sweden. Among these are flint-implements, 
fine battle-axes, the contents of tombs with the bones of domestic animals, 
and characteristic objects in slate from the northernmost districts of Swe- 
den. Boom I. also contains several models of tombs. 

Boom III. Objects or thk Bbohzb Period CBront&ldem'h when the 
inhabitants of 8weden came for the first time into contact with the more 
civilised natives of Asia and S. Europe. Among the most noticeable are 
a shield (No. 1) and an Italic bronze vessel with embossed ornamentation 
(found in Sk&ne), gold cups and gold bracelets, a dagger 021) found in 
West Gotland, other handsome daggers, swords, battle-axes, and vessels 
with rich ornament. 

Objects of the Ibon Aoe (* Jem&ldtm % ; oomp. p. xli). The earliest 
of these show traces of Celtic influence \ a later group has been affected 
by Boman provincial culture, while more recent objects are akin to 
the Frankish and Alemannio antiquities of W. Germany of the period 
during and after the migrations. In the same room is the rich collection 
from the Island of Gotland, embracing a period of over a thousand years. 
We begin with No. 1. "So. 2 shows Boman influence; No. 4 illustrates 
the period of migration ; beside it are the contents of a tomb, including 
an Indian shell ; some of the brooches are highly characteristic. The col- 
lection of silver ornaments (No. 6) from this island is also very rich. — 
Boom III. also contains objects of the earlier iron age found on the main- 
land of Sweden, including four of Boman origin (large bronze vase with 
inscription, statuettes, glass drinking-horn, etc.), superb neck-rings with 
filigree ornamentation (7 c), and many other gold ornaments. Observe 
also the valuable relics from the tombs of Vendel, where several warriors 
were found interred in their ships (comp. p. 923). 

Boom IV. Objects ok the latkb Ibon Aon, from the mainland of Sweden. 
We note here the objects found at the Bjorko in Lake Malaren, where 
the oldest Christian burial-place in Sweden was re-discovered , and the 
valuable collection of silver ornaments. Also copies of a rock in Soder- 
manland, with Bunic inscription and a design from the Siegfried Saga, 
and of a large Bunic stone near Bok in Ostergotland , with the longest 
Bunic inscription that has been preserved. 

Next, lie Medieval Collection C Mefcltiden' ) : objects of the 11th 
to the beginning of the 16th cent. 

Boom V. Ornaments, church -furniture, and vestments of the 14th, 
15th. and beginning of 16th cent., including a treasure buried at Dune in 
the 14th cent. (No. 9, in the two cases in the centre, in front of the win- 
dow), and a votive figure in wood (1489) of St. George from the Storkyrka 
at Stockholm. 

The Royal Cabinet of Coins (director, Dr. B. Hildebrand) occupies an 
adjoining room (to the N.E.). Swedish medals are exposed to view in 
glass-cases, but the coins are kept in presses, and are shown by special 
permission only. 

Beturning to the vestibule from Boom V., we turn to the left to visit 
Booms VI. and VII., which contain objects of the Modern Period CNyart 
tiden') in five sections : 1523-1611, 1611-1654, 1654-1718, 1718-1809. and 1809 
to the present time. Some of the objects here are of great value. 

We now return to the staircase, pass the 'Gaxderobe', ascend 
the white marble stairs to the — 

FIRST FLOOR, and by a door on the left enter the — 

Ceramic Collection, in two rooms, containing 4760 specimens. 

Room I. To the left of the entrance is a large Moorish-Spanish 
vase ; in the first cabinet articles of similar origin, and majolica from 
TJrbino and other Italian manufactories, chiefly purchased by Nicod. 
Tessin the Younger in Italy at the end of the 17th century. The 

304 Route 48. STOCKHOLM. National 

from above and three of the six adjoining cabinets. The other three 

cabinets belong to the Modern Schools (see p. 306). 

Saloox. Right side: 133. Leandro Bassano, Festival of Cleopatra; 
83. Carlo Dolei, Magdalen; Unknown Masters, 759, Still-life, 761. Lassa- 
rone , 7S6. Christ crowned with thorns. Left side : 11. Oaravaggio (?), Ju- 
dith. — 1st CABiNST(a): 214. Early Umbrian Master, The Magi*, 84. Carle 
Dolci, Christ at the house of Simon the Pharisee. — 2nd Cabinet (h): 
Four sketches by Tiepolo, one (188) for a composition in the Cappella 
Colleoni, in the Cathedral of Bergamo. 

n. A room beyond the Italian saloon chiefly contains Gb&maw 
and Early Dutch Pictuhbs (Ty$ke och Ncderldndske Mfitlare). 

IT os. 260, 261. B. Denner, Portraits of an old man and old woman; 
507, 506. Jan Massy s, Venus, Amorous old man (1566); 257. L. Cra- 
nach Jun., Charles V. and John Frederick of Saxony hunting; 870. Jan 
Brueghel, Market (1609); 1060. L. Oranaeh Ben., Lucretia (1528). — 430. 
Fr. Floris (Fr. ds Vriendt), Sea-gods; 466. Gillie d'Houdssoeter, Orpheus; 
1371. Ant. Mor (?), Portrait (early work, 1538); 1073. B. Baldung Orient?), 

III. We next reach the Netherlandish School, in a saloon 
lighted from above and five cabinets. 

Saloov. Entrance-wall: 596. Rubens (school-piece) , The four fathers 
of the church; 606. Rubens (?), Esther and Ahasuerus (a sketch); *607. 
Rubens, The daughters of Cecrops fin ding Erich thonius (a sketch) ; 696. Rubens, 
Susanna in the hath (school-piece) ; *606. Rubens, Samson slaying the lion (a 
sketch); *404. Van Dyck, St. Jerome (an early work); *599. *600. Rubens, 
Sacrifice to Fertility, and a Bacchante, copied by Bubens in 1601-8 from 
Titian's famous works at Borne, now at Madrid; 581, •562. Rembrandt, 
Old man and woman (1655); 585. Rembrandt, Portrait of the preacher 
J. Uitenbogaert (about 1633); 1349. Rembrandt, St. Peter (1632). — **578. 
Rembrandt, The conspiracy of the Batavians under Claudius Civilis against 
the Romans, painted in 1662 for the Town Hall of Amsterdam, and the 
master's largest work after the Night Watch at Amsterdam, although 
only the centre of a composition five times the size. — 517. P. Moreelee, 
Portrait; 462. Unknown, Cottage among trees; 616. Jacob van Ruysdael, 
Forest-path ; **584. Rembrandt, 'Portrait of his cook' (1651) ; *583. Rembrandt, 
His sister (?; 1632); 1429. F. Bo I, Lute-player; 500. P. Lastman, Sacrifice to 
Juno; *U20. Judith Leyster (pupil of Frans Hals), Flute-player; 512. O. Metsu, 
The smithy, a decorative picture of his early period ; *637. Snyders, Still-life ; 
488. Jordaens, Adoration of the Shepherds (1618); *483. Fyt, Dead game 
(1661); *1159. Jordaens, King Candaules tempting Gyges; 420. Unknown 
Artist, Labourers in the vineyard; 639. P. de Vos, Stag-hunt; *306. 
J. d'Arlhois, Large wooded Flemish landscape ; 486. K. du Jardin, Portrait 
of H. van Huteren (1674) ; 534. Moeyaert, Preaching of John the Baptist 
(1631); 353. P. Soutman, The Evangelists; 1099. J. Brueghel, Flower-pot; 
409. Unknown Flemish Master, Portrait of a woman; 689. C. de Vos, Card- 
players; 601. Rubens, The Graces. 

I. Cabinet: 423. B. Fabritius, Family at table (1650); *418. 0. van 
den Eeekhout, Satyr and peasant; 442. J. van Qoyen, Halt by a farm; 588. 
Moeyaert, The angel leaving Tobias ; *676. Rembrandt, St. Anastasius in 
his cell (1631); *4l8. J. van Qoyen, Dordrecht (1656); P. de Hooch, *473. 
Woman by a cradle, *471. The letter; 539. Th. de Keyser (?), Family 
portraits; 672, 673. W. van de Velds, Small sea-pieces; 1886. P. Oedde, 
Domestic scene; 1412, 1413. J. LMtichuyt, Portraits. 

II. Oabihst: 810. C. Bega, Musio-lesson (1663); 366. R. Brakenburgh, 
Dance (1699); 548, 649, 564. A. v. Ostade, Small portraits; *1117. Unknown, 
Old woman reading (1668) ; *550. A. v. Ostade, Peasants amusing themselves 

t their door (1660). — A. v. Ostade, 551. Advocate at his study-table (1664) ; 

X Interior (1643). 721, 722, 1143, 1153. J. Wynants, Landscapes; 1325. 

Cuyp, Resurrection; 682. B. de Vlieger, Oak-wood; O. Dou, 893. Mag- 

III. nam*} "T its early worWi _«*".. «T?»j ■^a^S*-*-. lla B4 . 

i «. »<?'»i« i 

GeIvib-Sal, containing taaj ° 

»_t*: *S5Si2S '*; 

The OfflLiBt - li'jitt 


ot81 i'w™ »di*-. 

Abrahams Sacrifice, at  163g) „,a ee »eial valuable studies. 

"""w. n'.i*S;ft.^«« K ™°"*' ™  '«»■»"*« «— 

shore and • nab 1 -"* - - <a-»., Woman 

s«ioo»ffl-* an- ■;■ f"5««. 

skating; 88*- J. ■' tnll-leng*- 

ffimimifS KB MS' 

S'fl'r SsSS 

of Charles XII. ii -ft, »J n M . 

>»«al «.&&?, 

J. Pan', Portrait 

pcrifj «•>>•> I * r *:e !rt itHB) i •Btfl. 

T P«ni«-t-ll »■ "la he bathers-, S28 

cuduk m. 

JWH ^ -- 

The sp* " v.*"** 16 *^ l **e N.W. fajade of the Mn B __. 

with tte«^^r_j H * C'b^It-duelli^-), »„ »d m i™ b J***«*», an, 
brome, the m»8 tel *r™ *t J. p. MoUn, the Swedish sortf " «*>op in 
It TepTOBooW one 01 th 0B6 a e «dly oJd Scandinavian duoig , r C'859j 
the combatants were bound together with theii twits an " »niob 
out their buttle with theii inives. Tha fonr reliefs on th e a ft ">s-i>t 
irlth their Runic Ing-jntioni from the Bdd», represent f h ( " le *t*l, 
and the resnJi of tho h.t c *°»e 

qurtlor'. ('Snfi.^'^rf*- ' % ' W»*»i Y unHi In tIle nova -™ p °" m! 

'«l„. ». »•" °„„,. JJ! 
A *M4ff» ^ Bee ' 3B > *,.„ SkePP"l»° lnl wlA the „ .. 

"• «S. "i" ">• a !""> ~"?S. ..««» » 8 ™, oo, ° 



-*-^** d \» e Pretty o1«-k -«_ 

^»**' » *° *he right, a good 

Btadegt i lea 

- *-*$£& £*£**3%Z «T**» CH. E, F, 6 } 

^ * **V2£e S5den nali r lla ^el ls **»b by means of a 

***?*. *» ^ e >triano? C»**t4o,!* e brid S e * u <* an 

-*^£ef*> «**** "by o *^* o*^? f the SSdermalm 

0**Z> ooft*™© of a ZJ r^<*** x" x . c ^arles XIV. John 

**£ garter of th*^*^ *^l\ 1854 ' Ti * kin * 

► ^iww site, ^^, oali ^ sl * al - 

** %* ^^'Q'otan^ st*JP} Win S the n *tural 

**»* 2r mentioned beiLi* **%!*£*?*• formerf y *W the 

^ff^eleft from S^> ^^Btreet'). The great 

^ *^3»)- 0n **e «*?* offc^ in 188 3, which 
■*°i*U » ff0TdB <*** fi*^**^ l 6d ermalmC116ft.; 

* Vatflall Bteam-Unric^^tsiK^^ *» Stockholm and 
^^trfldirigs of th Q to^ es **x A^li^ened with ships, 
-*** e rro the right lies t^rS: *** +t Erections. The most 
c*- ^Lrd and tocky h*i*£Pdii* ft *** ^^^ *** the Na ~ 
5*>?fl has sP ecia * A^SH** 5 toYi? 88 ^ * acked b y the 
-* -<+ e \ n «, leads f roril 5£» at eii ** 6 left stretches Lake 

V a %?l *> 7 )' 0U A * W^ rent kours.- An iron 
.^*g Jia the gaiden of jl^* * %t«l^ rm of **• Hissen to the 

[ Jg? marks the sp^t ^> -^**n (Pi. 29 ; F, 6). 
& 9 Mo* * 520 ^^W'^^pleted in 1670 and 
-&*** * n ^4 e victims of the SStock- 

4 the bridges oroaai * ** is 8urrounded »y a 

- t ^an 8 - Gata joi ^» tT^ 15 *0 Ska 

l** x rooks; steam^l,** 1 ^ « s ;r *ennalm, near the point 

kJ^* * 'Maria-Hiss** ^5^ 2 ***- Malar-Strand (formed 

*^r A tor, with a e^-V^l* ^v °JJ* the Kornhamns-Torg, 

v. KU^-q.q **^xaxit affording a fine view. 

1 and 2, see p. 3^ ■** O^ 

*» ** darh °**, *£S£*S*P* ^ e ^ n CB, A, 3, 4). - Stkah 

**.^ Nj^ 1 * half past each hour, starting 
w *llinska Skola (Pi. 16 } D, 6)! 

^e Btddarhohn 



Kuagsholmm. STOCKHOLM , 48. Route. 309 

Kungtholnun , the W. suburb of Stockholm, offers Utile, to 
Attract the ordinary tourist, but contains several large medical 
institutions. The more southerly of the two tramway-tines follows 
the Hajkdtvbbkabe-Gata, in which, close to the NyaKungsholmsbro 
(PI. C, 4), stand the Scrafimtr-LazartU (to the right), founded in 
1752, and (left) the Karolinska Mediko - KirurgUka Inttitut, or 
national college for the practical training of physicians, erected in 
1811. Beyond the Royal Mini (1.) and the Vlrika EUonora-Kyrka 
(r. ; with an altar-piece by Westin) is a large Lying-in Hospital 
(PL 10; A, 4), and a little farther on, also to the left, is the Military 
Hospital (Qamuom-Sjukhusct ; PI. A, 4). In the matter of hospitals 
and care for the sick Stockholm takes a high place among the cap- 
itals of Europe. 

The 8. tramway ends at the Pil-Qata (PI. A, 4), and the "$. tramway 
at the Eriks-Qata, the third cross-street to the right farther on. By fol- 
lowing the Handtverkare-Gata <for about */< M. beyond the first of these, 
we reach two more hospitals , at the beginning of the Drottoinghohns- 
vagen. The next cross-street is the Mariebergs-Oata, which we follow to 
the left, skirting the fence of the Konradtberg Asylum and crossing the 
Rftlambsvagen to (10-12 min.) a footpath, leading to a hill a little to the 
E. of the Barracks of the Military Tram, where we obtain an admirable 
view of Stockholm and Lake Malaren. — Hear the shore lies the former 
porcelain-factory of Marieberg y not far from which is a pier of the steam 

49. Environs of Stockholm. 

The long arm of the Baltic which receives the waters of the Malar 
at Stockholm is usually called Baltajon, by way of contrast to the Malar. 
This inlet is a 'sMrgard* or archipelago of countless islands . rocks, and 
cliffs, separated by waterways in all directions. The direet distance from 
Stockholm to the outermost rocks is about 00 KO. (37*/* M.). The rocky 
banks of this inlet are higher and more picturesque than those of Lake 
Malaren, and are enlivened with many villas. 

Lake Malaren (2 ft. above the Baltic), which extends inland from 
Stockholm for a distance of 190 Kil. (81 M.), and may be described as a 
fresh-water 'skarg&rd', contains over 1300 islands (W, 'AoJmor'). On its 
banks and its islands may be counted about 200 chateaux and mansions 
and 106 villages. 

Among the finest excursions from Stockholm are those to the Djur- 
gard, Qustafsbcrg, Waxholm, Drottningholm, and Gripiholm. Steam- 
ers, etc., see Bverigea Kommunikationer (and comp. pp. 286, 287). 

DjuboIbden. — Tramway every 10 mln. from the Norrmakn$-Torg 
(PI. E, 8) via Btran*+&gm; from Slu*$en y over the Jfotrbro (cars chang- 
ed at the Norrmalms • Torg) , see p. 286. Stbak Launches, pleasanter, 
every 10 min. from the piers mentioned at p. 287. For the return-journey 
the launches starting from Alk&rret (PI. H, 4) are the most convenient. 

The *Djurg&rd, a delightful park, of which Stockholm is justly 
proud, with fine old oaks, pleasant villas, and beautiful walks in 
every direction, occupies an island 2 Iff. long and about 8 /«M. broad. 
It was laid out by Gustavus 111. and Charles XIV. John , having 
originally been a deer-park, as its name imports. On the W. side 

S HANSEN. Environs 

j* * ieS -Z> -**«*V&rcI*-iS«a«*€», the only suburb of Stockholm 
+ *$ •^ob* entirely ouilt of timber, with the Jernv&g 

^^4T), * x ***e E. end of the Strandvagen (p. 29b). On the 

! *^peuia,tBly to the S. of this bridge rises the handsome 

- \0>, °* t>x * Northern Museum (in progress ; p. 296). To 

?V*^fck° ^^fV&i^s&rtmtasTjiAc, which bounds the island on 

i*y- fonoratna (p. 288). Beyond the museum roads lead 

^Zt* fiosendal (p. 311) and to the Djurgards-Teatcr and 

> ^<J jd we **m (Pi. 11 ; I, 4). The well-arranged collections 

^\ c d^ ?d> an Interesting survey of the life of the Scandinavian 

^ % 0,ff° -pitted their natural surroundings (adm., see p. 288). 

; ^a^-w^* C^« H, 4), a small P&rfs planted with trees, where 

^Ifc^^J^Bland, is Hammer's Villa, which formerly belonged 

X9&X*0 sculptor, containing an art-collection. To the 

' * ^theT on, is Hasselbacken (p. 286), the largest and 

*Vi0 ^^ at aurants , with, grounds affording fine views and 

V * *A ('Bellmans Eken'J under which Bellman (see "below) 

' 0,1* ° f his charming songs. Near this is a statue of the 

eoi&^rfyBtTom. Farther on are the popular resorts Circus ^ 

. A* - tgillsalongtr (or Tvooli, p. 288; fine view from the 

. " XW* a garden), and Nov Ma. 

'* °^«*r p* rt of tne Djnrgard stands a *Bronze Bust of 
9 &-\LlUrr* an &' 1740, d * 1795 )» the « reat improvisatore 
fc**5* J ** tk i* 1 and P°P ular of Swedish poets 0>y Bystrom, 
&*°£L§^ On 26th July ('Bellmansdagen*) crowds of the 
t ±&/&J' gamble here to recite his poetry and extol his 
hirers *» tQ tne S. is a peninsula called the Frisena-Park, 
__ A litti ^- eV 7 9| a very popular resort on Sunday alter- 
ing fLn0 /^singing and dancing; refreshments, hut no 
9 tixnai0T *- aDO ut 1 M. from Hasselbacken, is Manilla, 
farther ^ plind and the deaf and dumb (shown Thurs- 

yTnm for mmn iH*i M» ho* man ilia, har talar man illa\ 
1 • 'h&r &&* ' 

cal wite> a rr^eatre and from Hasselbacken paths lead 

the DjtzT& t fre> 'Open-air Mnseom' founded in 1891 by 

men, w}t& ,x»i^e exhibition affording an admirable 

'£??Z£r»* * e * ttlXe8 SSL Ufe of S ^dinavia in ancient 
the n*trt** ' -m rT% , see p. 288). 

271 *****&** fT d . *V i* 1 the old-Norwegian style. T^h- rr ^ 
><r«nce£L£r<** *f-««l and the N. districts of &«^?,? *™»* 



e *2^»o^° ***» quaint tombs. Then, on tb« St\ a «»e«rt 
Si^^r**** ^iTe left of which rises tte ^a«?a 5lS?^ U m 

r °***« 

'»• Route. 

young J to 
Mora (p. 3 
(p. 3Si). 

iuu OB SSf^ft W ' B ' asc1 ' tM Pens containing 

the ftiwlhr **!«»•' «,*«, ^ W J™ |I"d«d/n6 ipMimBu, oMhe ,.™b7,ck 
hare), BhMMtU, c „« owls, T^-eTous*, wood.p[g- e0 as , otters, osprey. 
hawks, Won., "JjStponi t?^ 1 P£™W»- P "' 

Beyond the **T5jfttol» «S p4lli leid ' t0 ' oe **»*rt]ik, a lower 

the V. «e the 1M«* "2,5. '*< *•*<« «W«e. U"> Mufcr *\(, and the 
'Jfnlmaare', c<,lll ^ B B ,hT» 5 S?* 16 * i f a0 ' t ?' eIa minerals. 

as we emit the wood, the llAwAm, 
martin <rf the wood are the enclosures 
rwior' (dwarf horses from Gotland), jln 
ure of the laat Includes a milk ud ch 
direction of the Tivoll, ire the Bodgtr 

a fine view. Below the hill are a number of Dug Xomeli, containing two 
Jemtland dog*, etc. Passing toast, we reach the old BoilnOinuya , an 
erection of the iBth tent, brought from Helsinglnod and costtUJu 
objects uiad in the CBlabration of 'Jul' fYule, Christmas). The FFoie? 
Awl Pond, with tbe islet of 'Offerbolm', contains two curious boats of 
the K.: — the 'Ekstock', made out of a single tree-trunk, and the 'ForsbSf 
for i hooting rapids. 

The villa of TruruuLi, on the road to Kosenda), contains part 
of the Norihttn Museum (p. 296; adm., p. 288). 

Fibbt Pi.oon: Memorials and views of old Stockholm. — Second 
Fic-ob: Model* of Danish and M. German farm-bouses, cnrtosilics from 
Greenland; room fitted op as the stud; of the Swedish engineer Cop!, 
J. Ericwm (d. leSBi brother of the engineer of the new Trollhitta and 
Dalsland Canals), who sallied in New York in 1839. In England Cant. 
Ericsson is best known as one of the improvers (in 1851) of tbe screw- 
propeller (indented in England by Dr. Shorter In 1809, and improved 
by B. Woodcraft and F. P. Smith) and as the inventor of the calorie en- 
gine. In 1881 he was the builder of tbe flrst 'Monitor-. 

On the N. aide of the Djmglrd is Eosendal, a royal villa built 
by Charles XIV. John, with orangeries and hot-booses. Id front of 
the villa stands a huge Porphyry Vote, 81/s ft. high and 11 Ma ft. in 
diameter. To the W. of Rosendal is the garden of the Tradgarda- 
Forening, or horticultural society, which will Interest some trav- 

H*.a* and UlbikhDaL. — Tuhwit to the entrance of tbe Raga 
and to the Xya Kirkcg&rdm, see p. 388. 

Sibih LaUNonu. 1. Frum ChurUi ill.-i Slalui (Pi. E, 3) twice daily, 
past the 8. side of the Djurgard and the —   - 


312 Route 49. ULRIKSDAL. Environs 

* (li/ 4 hr., fare 70 6.) ana Nytotp (2 hr*., fare 70 o.)- — 2. From Stall- 

m&xtareg&rden by Eraftriket to Haga (12 min., fare 15 0.) and Ulriktdalt 

- Allee (37 min., fare 20 6.) half-hourly. — & From fyailmSUtareg&rden to 

I Haga (12 min., fare 25 6.) and through the strait of Alkistan to Ulriksdal 

(40 min., fare 35 6.), 7-9 times daily. 

; Railway «po WaHtahamn (from the Central Station). -A branch-line 

(8 Kil., in 25 min.; fares 90, 20 0.) runs to WSriahamnm, on the Lilla 

W&rtan, the new harbour of Stockholm; intermediate stations Karlbtrg 

(p. 817), Norrtvll, Stallm&staregarden-AJbaao, and Vggleviktkdllan. Norton 

lies to the 8. of the park of Haga (see below) \ at Albctno the -line crosses 

' the Stockholm and Djnrsholm and Stockholm and Bimbo railways 

1 (p. 922). — Another line goes to Jerfva, which lies to the W. of Ulriksdal 

(see below). 

Carriage to Ulriksdal and back 6-8 kr. 

The NorrtulU-Gatq (comp. PI. B, 1), the N. prolongation of the 

1 Drottning-Gata, beyond the Observatory (p. 299), leads to the inn 

of Stallmastaregarden, a steamboat and railway station at the W. en- 
trance of the royal park of Btlltvue, and at the S. end of the bay of 

' Brunnsvikcn, 

1 Bearing to the left, we soon reach (6-8 min.) the entrance to 

the park of Haga, on the right, whence we reach the chateau in 
Y4 hr. (near which is the pier of the steam-lannches). — The royal 
chateau of Haga, an unpretending and rather neglected building, 

j with a charming park, on the W. bank of the pretty BrunnBvik, 

wag built by Gustavus III. in 1786-88, and was his favo.urite 

1 residence. Higher up in the wood are the foundations of * much 

grander building begun by the same king, but never completed. 

! The Kya Kyrkog&rden, or new cemetery, a little beyond the gate of 

J the Haga Park, contains some handsome monuments. On the high-road, 

1/2 M. farther on, is the Crematorium. — The old Solna-Kyrka, to the 8.W. 
of the new cemetery, has a tower built of blocks of granite, the found- 
ation of which is said to date from pagan days. 

1 At the N. end of the Brunnsvik, about 2 M. from the Stall- 

mastaregarden, and l 1 /* M. from Haga, lies Nedre Jerfva (a few 
; hundred paces to the £. of rail. stat. Jerfva), usually known as 

Ulriksdals AllSe (station of the steam-launches). A fine avenue, 
flanked with villas , leads hence to the N. in */* hr. to the royal 
chateau of Ulriksdal, on the Edsvik. This was erected at the end 
of the 17th cent, by General Jacob de la Gardie, and afterwards 
came into the possession of Prince Ulrik, a son of Charles XI. 
I It iB partly furnished with old furniture from the collections of 

I Charles XV. In the park is the VlriksdaU - Kyrka , erected by 

! Scholander in 1865 in the Dutch Renaissance style. 

From Stockholm to Djubsholx, 10 Kil., railway in summer ten times 
J daily in >/s hr. (fare 40 o., there and back 606.). The train starts at the 

. Oitra Station, y 2 M. to the K. of the Humlegard (comp. Fl. D, E, 1), 

J passes Albano (see above) and the (I1/4 M.) Experimental Station of the Acad- 

ia emy of Agriculture, stops at Fretcati and Alkistan, and parts company at 

, the Stocksnnd (p. 311) with the line to Rimbo (p. 322). The last intermediate 

I station is M&rby. — Djursholm (*3trandberg"s Butawant, with view) is a 

, colony of villas that has sprung up on a manor of this name and extends 

i along the hilly shore of the Stora Wartan. It is now also connected with 

Stockholm by an Electric Railway (p. 287) and by Stbameb (starting from 
the Karl den Tolftes Torgj IV2 hr.). 

CM. Sti?™"-*- ~ s ^AJCBorJf- <»■ »>«"■ 3 

*o*~*«i'y« *,, j™-"»o« <JO, Ire. •l.i.rfrt,,, 

right «<» , 4 „ £*■ b„ ™ yiwM ,»dll«" ■«••» » a. m, p. 

tbe left 1^ t} °"; n] »nd. W*-« Jw,3r.a« »» d tn8 M*fl- On 01 
!"•»"> re.k, i V**« ii»*tS. „ we enter ' '""m *«•• " 

•S™S ™'»eJ P °"U h « o»l7 .ppro»el> «° E 

tie 1 

Waiholin »ii 


nd of the Rindo in tl 

in tbeeolidiDck. The 

*a " - '"hi-V "«it, -^oniy ai >pr»*OJt to Stockholm navigat 

J£*??*£S* to *4» °£SSmi«ihiw *" lhe ****** 

along A, 8 ** flO'S 1 '^ SLrl a*- Tolft-Tw, (PI. e,3 

«cod S r0Untl ^a^x^'ef? 

»' «"» t> aae J * S>edi sh ^ Ba ggen „rj^rd m takes its ,™W» 
_°» « na Tal hero, who died in 1077 mT?* fr < 

with n^ * "Prisoj, 

right „ ; orVUcI. tho paft 'S-rHtenponeu^^b,, 

"'Min its enjoy a eonoidewWe reputation d, hl "ei 

, Tha Stockholm (C»«Bt.v m.'» M*taa, pj ^*'«.»ta < 

^■thert "alaro, with a hotel and nnmerouB 

M •^ A . >K1I. to the S. of SaltAjobade,,, ^ffviu, 

ui U>e tan train. _ Tha A? > •"■•, starting J" tie afternoon after tk-Tl* *t 
*>l\ce or twice daily) taJ! * ect steamar- fatai-tine froin B1 «iioolu, a > 1 **'*-ti 
IciiiiniFO, iklrtj the pi-oS '° the rignt oppoelte OM S. "tnonj, ***^„ 
*uJuiiri.<i lit the 8. ="S nio, 7 or Kttnr*na"»> , ano outers th,"* <»r 1 

"""' K ,r»»-n ifiy*" ««~t 'f. ,™ s c {*.'»»»« 


»J*- . noes*" 


of Stockholm. QBIPSHOLM. tu. Urmtt. 315 

escaped from hie pnrao. e '_ B len" ln B his hst behind Mm. We next 
enter a strait, 8 M. Iota. R between the AfuniS (light) and the main- 
land. On the latter i B ^ e CD ateau of aittrthaf, and on the ialand 
the ehnreh of Brtero. 'X'be inland of Kaggciotm, with a chateau 
bniltDyFteld-Marshal^ aB g terminates the broader arm of the lake, 
notch ie connected by t^ c narrow straits only with the Soarn B)ork- 
flfird. The lake Hnands here into a broad basin. A little to the 
N. is the B)wko, th.e, ancient Birka, on which a granite cross was 
ereetadinl83*inro.eijai oty of g t Ansgnr, who first preached Christi- 
anity here in 829. ¥" author to the «" iB theAdeisS, snd nearer lie the 
Ktiro snd the Eldo. T . ...*- nce is tb.oWad, with the castle of 
M.lsU.,(n S16). O, ^.iS. mainland with the ehn.oh of 
EnM™., in front o t " S= ."" "" ' „1 islets. W. now steer to th. 
S., and .Met the <5_7™ "*«S on the W. bank of which, not 
rl.lbl. from th, »>£-"E*?"£™V. ^ta» Vu. r.o.h.d 

tiding, of th. 4et5°'"',;s*or.»"»  "£",„ ,i„ „..,.„. of «20 

(p. 9.99.). On the & ,. ' . ff.i* •»"•"> "' "**»' "? 

K a sroiak to fh. ^ »"» "' tn« ■»' „d hon.e. and th. ehnr.b- 

t™. .f Untlaj. '•"""■"■ "/(Wpabsln. 

d ^^'^^.sr.^'^„r:d-r..h. 

Malar A, ,1 *»»*««, with it. (onl »* ""i™, oocnpi.d b, a 
oaSS'ofl. 5" ">« " '"• ««■ «»«■ "" Stdftoo th. grtf«n in 
S.™rS'n°"*' »»*('tb.g.iMn', " "T°t£ <,' King Albert. 
Th.^„ 1 l ' , «ng.J to .l^powerfn' »>»f §637), woo. ttb. 
same time . MUe was bnllt by fc7tssf<»*" VaM ^ a, ^ Joftw, 

X hft "»«>»«> «■• nronlaten. » "g£ ,„r rebellion, »., 
kept a prl. ™ ""idemn.d » d.sth by »« *S »«1 *»•■». depoaea 
Brfc 1. loos'" «... "' a? »«*« "f J Zooroo !»•»•■ o"««»=a 
her. frorn Jji> kept Una, aft,, be bad JS-SU «" "i,". k " 
ofS5J,rS,„ 71 to 1W». it a later period CJ.'^dow ■J"1«X . r n, »nd.(p.lf.u). Hnd-vrfg B leonora, "^eta™ 8 III. resid ed 
here. TaV?- 1715), and lata, the merry «?"f " ., in sewnl oth „ 

«r.t tin,,"* o.o,. d son." of hi. dr.m.a to be P" ,„ons W**!... 

signed hi B n ^athMaroh, 1809 thennpopo 1 ""^ 

~ B «>- J - - - '- «"- -astla _ onon (the 'Boar a^ 

»>-"'" aaal-sHaa, 

I la tool. TtrorS' C con taiaa t*,* 

nka Chwlsa of S °"f,, t iaie s ■». one ta «,_ 
with old """'» l e P*crftt»«"' gB oU»o Fioos. 

316 Route 49, STRENGNAS. 

Ve$i\buU, with Remittance ceiling of IMS. To the left of this is the 
round Saloon of Oustavui III., with portraits of that king (by Roslin) and 
his contemporaries, and a fine view. This is adjoined by the Rooms of 
the Queen, in the 'Gustavian' (or Louis XVI.) style: among the portraits 
are several by A. Pesne. Farther on is the Throne Room, recently refitted 
in the Vasa style. Passing through the Princess Room*, tastefully decorated 
in the 'Gustavian' style and containing youthful portraits of Marie Antoi- 
nette and her sisters, we reach the Room* of the King, which served as 
the state-prison of Oustavus IV. in 1800. The Bedroom contains an old 
ceiling, a painted frieze, and the state-bed of Charles XI.) the Council 
Room has a wooden ceiling, a fine cabinet, and a portrait of Gustavus 
Vasa (c. 1668); in the Audience Room are portraits of all the Swedish 
rulers from Gustavus Vasa (d. 1660) to Osear I. (d. 1869). — Third Floos. 
Theatre of Omtavus III., occupying the place of the old private chapel 
and left entirely unchanged. Adjacent is the equipment of a room from 
the Great Theatre of Stockholm (p. 295$ now destroyed), where it was 
known as ( Gustavus JU/s Study'. To the left of this point, in another 
tower, is a cage-like room, wrongly named the Prison of Erie XIV. By 
the lately restored Guard Room we reach the Orfffin Tower, with the arm- 
oury. A picturesque hut inconvenient staircase descends hence direct to 
the inner court. 

The Collection op Pobtbaits, founded in the 17th cent, and now in 
process of re-arrangement, contains portraits of almost all the prominent 
Swedes from 1800 to 1800. There are about 1900 pictures in all. 

A walk round the castle is recommended. 

About 41/2 M. to the W. of Marlefred are the large cannon- 
foundry of Aker and the gunpowder-mills of Racksta. 

STBBNGNA8. — Stkamees, about 4 times daily, from the Malarehamn 
(PI. D, E, 6), also a few from the Biddarholm, in 87a-4 hrs. > fare 2'/» or 
li/s kr. 

Beyond the Gripsholms-Vik (p. 315) opens the broad pay of 
Prettfjarden^ hounded on the W. by the Selao, the largest island 
in Lake Malaren. On the Selao are the large estate and chateau of 
Mdlsaker and the church of Ytter~Selo. After having passed through 
the narrow strait between the Selao and the mainland we observe 
on the right the small Tynnelso, with an old chateau, and then 
Tostero, opposite the S. end of which lies — 

BtrengnJU (Hotel), a town with 1700 inhab., half of which has 
been rebuilt since a fire in 1871. Strengnas became an episcopal 
see in 11291 , and in 1523 witnessed the election of Gustavus Vasa 
to the throne of Sweden. The handsome Gothic • Cathedral, con- 
secrated in 1291, has been repeatedly injured by fire and restored. 
The disproportionate thickness of the columns is accounted for by 
the fact that the walls were considerably lowered In 1551. Ob- 
serve the monuments of Sten Sture the Elder (d. 1504), Charles IX. 
d. 1609), his two wives, and his natural son Karlsson Gyllenhjelm 
d. 1650 ; with the fetters worn by him when a captive in Poland), 
Admiral Stenbock (d. 1717, in captivity at Copenhagen), and several 
antiquities. — The old episcopal mansion built by Bishop Conrad 
Rogge, with picturesque gables and turrets, now a school -house, 
contains the room in which the election of Gustavus Vasa took place. 
The Episcopal Library contains valuable collections, MSS., and coins. 



50. From Stockholm to Upaala. 

Upsala is best visited from Stockholm; and it is pleasant to go by 

fares 4 kr., 2 kr. 66 5.; 

iT~ 7V* *S JS* 1 2 V' J 5 6 * «' «*™-tictets, available foi two days, at 
a fare and a half; no first class). 

The train starts from the Central Station (p. 285) and skirts the 
Rorstrandsvik, at the end of which, to the right, are the Atlas Rail- 
^ ay 4 £^ r r iage Work8 and the Porcelain factory of Ror strand, founded 
in 1727 (wares curious in form and bright in colouring). The first 
stopping-place is Xarlberg, with a large Chateau, erected hy Karls- 
son Gyllenhjelm (p. 316) at the beginning of the 17th cent; and 
converted into a military school in 1792. The park contains a 
monument to Major von Dobeln, a Swedish officer who fell at Leip- 
sic in 1813. — Farther on, the line to Wartahamnen (p. 312) diverges 
to the right , and the line to Westerns to the left (R. 52). To the 
right is the church of Solna (p. 312). — 7 Kil. Jerfoa, 20 min. from 
the chateau of Ulriksdal (p. 312). Farther on we observe Edsberg 
on the right, at the N. end of the Edsvik, and Sollentunaholm on 
the Norrvik (with the church of Sollentuna to the left). 19 Kil. 
Rotebro; 24 Kil. Wasby. 

32 Kil. Eosersberg, the station for the *Chateau of Rosbrsbbrg 
(Rosenbergs Slott), with its beautiful park, II/2 M. to the W., on a 
bay of Lake Malaren, and not visible from the train. The chateau 
contains a number of pictures and sculptures and a library of 7000 
vols., a catalogue of which was written by Charles XIII. himself. 
Pleasant excursion from Stockholm to Rosersberg by the Sigtuna 
steamer (see below j the Upsala steamer does not touch here). 

37 Kil. Mdrsta, whence a road leads to the E. to Sigtuna (8 Kil. ; 
it turns to the left after 3 Kil. and afterwards crosses the Qarnsvik; 
Sigtuna, see p. 318). 49 Kil. Knifsta; 59 Kil. Bergsbrunna. We 
now obtain a fine view of the P^* 11 of Upsala (Upsala -Slatten), 
the cradle of Swedish ctilture, with the churches of Danmark and 

muff* j*-*' M m fJHWUIWWWJ-;. J.l»« »»»» B.vwww •• 

«>* 1 v * *?*<**' building erected in 1T70. It was here tha 

the newly elected kuu*t *»e J? to observe the laws of the country, and 
they then received a^* mvT ot f allegiance from the 'lagmfo', or judges, in 
thenameof thepeopil 0^ tl > of ** e | that God mig ht grant the king a long 
life, with the resell y^o Plfhe a good king*. After each ceremony of 
the kind the narfe of *^* '**? Jas inscribed Sn one of the stones. 

The train «* a 5u£' Jfg&iS an affluent of the Fyrisa, and soon 
enters the hige et^tfce &*$$ in.) Uptala (p. 319). 

90 Kil Stbam&m^ ^ i« ftit*a Atartine daily at 9 a.m. 

from Wddwloto^^ ^e **S £ j* XitCKt, leaving the Mi- 

318 Route 50. SIGTUNA. From Stockholm 

Though much longer, the voyage to Up&ala by steamer 1b more 
interesting than the railway journey. The first part of it has al- 
ready been described (p. 312). We steer to the right into an arm 
of the Malar which separates the Kerao from the mainland. By 
the Nockeby Bridge we see the palace of Drottningholm on the left 
(p. 312). This arm of the lake resembles a river, the left bank of 
which is formed by the Lofb farther on. On the right , opposite 
the N. end of the latter, lies the estate of Heaaelby, After steering 
through a group of islands, we enter another broader expanse. On 
the left is the island of Svartajo, with a dilapidated chateau, once 
a monastery. On the right lies the estate of Riddersvik on the main- 
land. To the left opens the Nasfjard. We now steer to the N. into a 
part of the lake called Qorvdln, where, on the right, lies the estate 
of Qorvaln, and on the left that of Lennartmas. 

About 2 hrs. from Stockholm we reach the narrow strait of Staket, 
an island in which, called Almare-Stdk, contains fragments of the 
ancient castle of that name , which was taken by Sten Sture the 
Younger from the rebellious Bishop Gu&taf Trolle of Upsala and 
destroyed in 1517. 

Farther on we pass the island of Munkholm on the left, beyond 
which is the entrance to an arm of the lake called Skarfven. On 
the right lies the estate of Runsa. In a bay to the right, but not 
visible from the steamer, is the chateau of Rosersberg (p. 317), at 
which the Sigtuna steamer only calls. 

In a bay to the right we observe the picturesque chateau of 
Steninge, once the property of Marshal von Fersen, who was murdered 
by the populace at Stockholm in 1812 (p. 293). The park contains 
a monument to his memory. We now enter the Sigtuna-Fjdrd, in 
which, to the right, at the entrance to the long Qarnsvik, a creek 
running inland to the N., lies — 

Sigtuna (Inn), prettily situated, once one of the largest 
and finest towns in Sweden, but now containing 550 inhab. only. 
It was founded at the beginning of the 11th cent, by King Olaf 
Erikson, and was destroyed by the Esthonians in 1187. The ruins 
of the churches of St. Peter, St. Lawrence , St. Olaf, and St. Ni- 
cholas bear witness to the ancient importance of the place. — To 
Marsta, 11 Kil., seep. 317. 

Our vessel steers to the N.W. through the narrow arm of the lake, 
which expands at places. On the left is Signildsberg, the site of a 
still more ancient town of Sigtuna (For-Sigtuna or Forn-Sigtuna), 
the scene of the saga of Hagbart and Signe. On the same bank lies 
Hatundholm , with the church of Hatuna, where dukes Erik and 
Waldemai took their brother King Birger prisoner in 1306 and 
compelled him to grant them extensive privileges. A few years 
later Birger revenged himself by inviting them to Nykoping, where 
he caused them to be thrown into prison and starved to death , an 
act of barbarity which cost him his throne (comp. p. liii). 

to Vptala. SKOKLOSTER. 50. Route. 319 

Beyond the Erikssund, the lake expands into the Skofjdrd, on 
the left side of which rises the — 

Skokloster (properly Shogkloater, 'forest monastery'; station), a 
large chateau , square in form, enclosing a court in the interior, 
with four towers at the corners roofed with copper. It occupies 
the site of a Dominican, afterwards Cistercian, monastery, sup- 
pressed by Gustavus Vasa, and presented by Gustavus Adolphus to 
Marshal Herman Wrangel, whose son Charles Gustavus Wrangel 
erected the chateau in the style of that of Aschaffenburg in Ger- 
many and filled it with treasures captured during the Thirty Years* 
War. After his death it passed into the possession of Count Brahe, 
his son-in-law, to whose family it still belongs. 

The Interior, still unfinished, forms a kind of museum of art and 
antiquities. The handsome Vestibulb is borne by eight Ionic columns 
of white marble, presented by Queen Christina. The Kungbbai. has a 
richly decorated stuoco ceiling. The staircases and vestibules are em- 
bellished with numerous portraits, pictures by Ehrerutrahl and others, and 
rich tapestry. Among the portraits is one of Gustavus Adolphus, with 
Heidelberg In the background, painted six weeks before his death. — 
The Lxbbabt contains 80,000 vols, and many M8S. — Observe also the 
Armoury with 1200 guns of various kinds ; also swords, daggers, and bows, 
the sword of Ziska , the famous Hussite leader, the sword used by the 
executioner at the 'Blood-bath of Linkdping' (p. 269), and the (shield of 
Enrp. Charles V., attributed to Benvenuio Csltotf, and captured at Prague 

The park of the chateau contains a monument to Count Magnus 
Brahe (d. 1844), a friend of King Charles XIV. John. The Gothic 
Skokyrka, formerly the church of the monastery, restored in the 
17th cent, by Marshal Herman Wrangel, contains the burial-vault 
of the Marshal and a pulpit captured at Oliva, near Dantsic, in the 
Thirty Years' "War. [We may row from Skokloster in about an hour 
to Alsike, and drive thence to (7 Kil.) Enifsta railway-station 
(p. 317).] 

Beyond Skokloster we steer through the Stafsund into the 
Ekoln. On the right are the church of Alsike and the estate of 
Krusenbcrg. Then, on the left, the churches of Aktr, Dolby, and 
Naa. At the N.E. end of the Ekoln, at the mouth of the small 
Fyriih, lie Kungtharrm, where the kings of Upsala once kept their 
fleet, and FloUund, The steamer ascends the Fyrisa to Upsala in 
about Va hr. more. Q n the I©** > nearly halfway up, is the agri- 
cultural school of Xjn nfl of Upsala we see nothing till quite close 
to the town. 

X# ftanraata, ^ifig'** phosnix, both in Westra Agatan ; in .sum- 

mer *F#*rW/nL v rill** *Z* Wuhan-), by the station, and *fl<rdnv- 

***%**" f'*-* \SSJL Wetter ('hole of a beehive 

mer '"****/ q> w ai ^e% ~ Julian 

par fS7 e <K3 4 1*% wkn*" tia^^estudents 'Flustret' Chole ot a Deem 

- Wait Fort^S MfT, **£y ^*.tion'), with music in the evening. 

320 Route 50. UPSALA. Cathedral. 

Booksellers. Akademitka Bokhandeln y Dombro; LundeqvitUka Bok- 
handelny Drottning-Gatan and Ostra Agatan. 

Cab (Mare) from the station or the pier into the town for 1 pera. 60, 
for 2 pers. 75 o. 

Upsala ('the lofty halls'), a famous university- town, and resi- 
dence of the archbishop, the 'landshofding', and other officials, with 
21,000 inhab., lies in a fertile plain on both banks of the Fyrisa, 
which is crossed by five bridges. The modern part of the town lies on 
the flat E. bank, while the older quarters are on the sloping "W. 
hank. The extension of the town is in process (see Plan). Upsala 
was formerly called Ostra- Aros (p. 327), and formed the commercial 
town and harbour of the kings of Sweden when they resided at 
Gamla Upsala. In 1276 the archiepiscopal see, founded a century 
earlier, was transferred from Gamla Upsala to the present town, 
while the kings chose Stockholm as their residence. Like Trondhjem 
in Norway, Upsala is the historical centre of Sweden. It was also 
once the great stronghold of paganism, memorials of which abound 
in the tombs and monuments around it; and it was here that 
Christianity encountered the stoutest opposition. The chief modern 
centre of attraction is the university. 

The 'Cathedral (PI. C, 3), situated on a height rising above the 
Fyrisa, erected in 1260-1435, consists of a nave, aisles flanked 
with chapels, a transept, a choir, and a retro-choir. In its plan and 
its strict Gothic style the church resembles the French cathedrals, 
its architect having been Etienne de Bonneuil, 'tailleur de pierre', 
one of the assistant-builders of Notre Dame at Paris, who was 
doubtless employed through the influence of Swedish students at 
the university of Paris. The contract was concluded at Paris on 
8th Sept., 1287. The restoration of the edifice, towards which 
government, the city, and private individuals contributed about 
1 million kr. , was completed in 1883-93 from the designs of 

The Intebiob ('klockaW at the adjoining 'Domtrapphus* ; fee V«-l kr.), 
120 yds. long, 45 yds. broad, and 106 ft. high, rests on 24 pillars. The new 
decoration is by JAnde, the stained-glass windows by Galhnander. The 
pulpit was designed by Tetrin (p. 290). The large organ and triplicate 
Gothic altar are modern, from the designs of Zetterwall. One of the candel- 
abra (ljuskronor), in silver, weighs 52 1 /* lbs. To the N. of the altar is the 
silver-gilt sarcophagus of King Ere IX. , the patron-saint of Sweden, who 
was killed here in 1160 by the Danes. 

The Chapels of the Ambulatory, as well as those of the aisles, have 
been fitted tip as bnrial-chapels since the Reformation. The capitals of 
the columns should be noticed. At the back of the choir is the *Bobial 
Chapel of Gustavus Vasa ('Gustavianska Koret'j d. 1660), with modern 
stained glass by Way , containing the king's recumbent figure, between 
those of Catherine. o/Lauenbnrg &n& Maj'garetha Lejonhufvud, his first two 
wives, and also the separate tomb of his third wife, Karin Stenbock. On 
the walls are two large -and five small frescoes by Bandberg (1837), depict- 
ing scenes from Vasa's life, and the words of his last address to the 
Estates in 1660. — The Chapkl op Katabua Jagbllowoa contains the 
marble Monument of John III. (d. 1562), which was executed in Italy, but 
wrecked on the voyage from Leghorn to Sweden, and taken to Dantsic, 
where it remained till reclaimed by Gustavus III. in 1785. — The other 

University. UPSALA. 50. Route. 321 

chapels around the ehoir belong to the illustrious families of Sture, Brake, 
J7oro, Oxeiutjerna, Ba*4r, Sky tie y Stenbock, Dohna, and De Geer. — The 
monument of Linnaeus, in the Banir Chapel, in the N. aisle, consists of 
a pyramid of porphyry, with a bronze medallion by Sergei, and the in- 
scription: 'CtoroJo a Limmi Boianicontm Principi Amid ei IHsoipuli, 1798*. 

The Sacristy contains cariosities and precious relics, gold and silver 
vessels, vestments, etc. 

We now walk round the outside of the church to see the choir 
and the grand side-portals. To the N. of the cathedral is the Eriks 
Kalla(V\. 25), or Spring of St. Eric, which bursts forth on the spot 
where the saint was killed. 

To the W. of the cathedral is a eft all square with a statue (by 
Bdrjeson) of Oeijer the Poet, the singer of the ancient pagan glories 
of TJpsala. On the E. side of this square stands the Gwtavianum (PI. 
7 ; B, 3), the oldest of the present buildings of the university, founded 
by Gustavus Adolphus and containing the Zoological Institute. 
On the W. side rises the new University Building (PI. 31 ; D, 3, 4), 
erected in 1877-86. In the vestibule are Juno and the young 
Hercules by Bystrom. The University, founded by Sten Sture the 
Elder in 1477, and richly endowed by Gustavus Adolphus, has over 
50 professors, as many lecturers and tutors, and about 1800 students. 

Each student is bound to attach himself to one of the thirteen 'nations', 
each of which, like the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, has its own 
buildings, presided over by curators, inspectors, and a committee of man- 
agement. The members are divided into seniores, juniores, and recentiores. 
Duelling, to which severe penalties were attached by a law of 1682, is now 
unknown. One of the chief 'national' recreations is quartet-singing. 

To the S. of the cathedral is the Trefaldighets-Kyrka (PI. 30; 
B, 0, 4), or Bondfeyrfca ('church of the Trinity', or 'of the peasants*), 
older than the cathedral , hut uninteresting. Farther on is a pro- 
menade called Odins Lund (PL 21 ; B, 4), with an obelisk in 
memory of Gustavus Adolphus. Beyond it we reach the — 

Carolina Rediviva (PI. 2; B, 4), a handsome building (with 
fine view from the steps) completed in 1841, containing the Library 
of the university. (Admission in term-time on week-days, 10.30 to 
1.30; In vacation, 1st June tol5thSept., onTues. and Frid., 11-1; 
on other week-days usually at the same hours on application to the 

librarian or an 'amanuensis'.) 

The Library contains over 250,000 printed books and 10,000 MSS. Its 
chief treasure is the famous * Codex Argenieut, a translation of the four 
Gospels into Moaso-Gothic by Bishop Ulphilas, dating from the second half 
of the 4th century, written on 187 leave* of parchment in gold and silver 
letters on a reddish ground. This precious MS., captured at Prague in 
1648, waa presented by Queen Christina to Vossius. her librarian, and 
was purchased from him *or 400 crowns by De la jGnurdie, the chancellor 
of the university. It is to this work of Ulphilas that we are almost ex- 
clusively indebted for our knowledge of the ancient Gothic language, 
which stands nearly in the same relation to the Germanic languages as 
Sanskrit to the whole Aryan family. 

In the Carolina Park (PI. B, 4) are a Monument of Charles XIV. 
John, by Fogelberg, and numerous Runic stones. To the 8.W. of 
the park rises the Chemical Laboratory (PI. B, 4), with the Physical 

Baedbkbb's Norway and Sweden. 6th Edit. 21 

1 Anatomieunv 
8 CarvlinaBtdtnru 
S Onvristorbau. . 
kJDombrow . . . 


7 GuMtarUnajHi . . 
gJtlanuUbron, . . 

9 Jfnttnnv . . 
tD Je rnrOffs r u FtA 
11 JibaUs fbrd+botaniska, 


Kalians lni« en: 

12 OOtAorgt . 

l&Ostgtta, . . 

liSmMcmAs . 

IB Stockholm* . 

16 Upland* . . 

YlVtKtffOUu. . 

18 VertauoHaLiv 
MTecLSlottrparit, . 
ZOJfybroru .... 
21 oa&nshnuL . . . 


■BiGkanla. stadfln 

Z4 Stnrinartum/ . 

Z&SkjtteuKumj . 

VJ SloUskBUatv . 

UStufohu . . 

19 Tdegrafau . 

to TnfaLcLkarftw 










c=3 Hya. ataiUdelpr 


w afc«t«iwr, «« r«U»t«f»««">>' *W« «'*«*** ^*^*» f&si^tJ* 

under iratoi. There «*e »« f lt » surface i 8 «*<£:*« *£J?*" f A 
0/ mention, \rttt * l«« e ^iicfc p«»* » *«* Cf «2?^ •**£2X r 
(mvrar at W««fcJ, faoua ,^ W ^ be Urge.* of «^*»*£ ~"<*^T 
'eoto-mines o* Gotla»* )' „ gtream* in the is7«» d . "f, f?*»*«- 

i!Lh- IVS* . The f ** ^£w»«f *" «* al^ett"° ^"»<f 
thirsty limeMxme soil, © T ^ e ju forth from one of the <landborg*r' 
tli ere, towever, a 6"j>*i**£ *oT» * mfll-irheel. T ks limestone roek» 
in sufnciexH; volume **>JL grottoes. The greater part of the ial*nd 
are pierced witK nut*®? ^' | The climate ia mild, tree* fljui* 
is fertile andL well etil^S^ are luxuriantly clothed with M£ 
and the veneretMe ^«^5r lft ohieny engaged in •*£**^<j«*- 
The popula*ioix f5l '°£?;*e (here called <rW) and sheep of 
ertOMeOl**. W *°*a£aWedto™^^ 
land, both highly prized ; »^ ^ other resources of ^^ V« 

ing and ^-^t^J^* *• Separable from *£&), ^ 

^ ~ ^&»J? *£** is inseparable from **£,}, ^ 

The Histo^ of <*££ f sacrifice' (*om £, T^ %£. w •££ 
capital, tHe t«* oi e!>t ** la * n tfieN.W. coast. Th et °^ it8 ^**£U* 
at the foot of t-H© K**^*'. emporium of the Baltic * ^^ ^>e** 
prosperity a.s t^e g* e *Z*te established in the J * a*e*^ff* e K 
£osi&m on t;*^^*** *£I* and the Baltic. *W*g lti decl^ ^ 

came a facto^ry <>f tk* ^ Europe had their *ep*ff ® d °*® °^_oti* 
the principatl ^^tfoT** ** *: rf half of the council ^ nal/»^2W< 
the &erman 8 5w^ d ^Z*>»»iii. The intern*^ ctt~* «£\, 
superior ;»**fi3U ^&t from the fact t^^ ££~^ 

were erect**^ * save** 1 %il»tioB from Ne» c *lied ^ » ^ 
time Code. 0/ > w«l^, *?!«« in low German, * ^ **^_:^w**a 

Seclude ^* itl ite palmy day^ '*** 

Och *^ tf id with twenty-P^iXve* 

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w£>* *• * lurches' otSt - VTOtten 

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11 j.«*«t °V^1 «»Til«nD. Jl_ :*tii •t«a*V l8 i T1 m in the Roman- 

common. " «" e 3. ?ortaL —d»ed *«whe« m that 01 

fPl. 11). ™* * ^.ttatewatiBg o* ** Sie Romanesaue, partly i» 
L Petbap» A* fTo, dsPS*** *» *? fiddle of the lBth cen- 

the Gothic »tyle, pW"^" 1 ^ ^o ro** 81 ,„Hed a brilliant car- 
tury. tothehani'^^^e.* °2£ldem.r, tat hi. ehip *a» 
of ea«hof *Mo*, •^SJSrtSa «* *T^St»e «*■ *«P«»* <* the sea 
Tmncle. The* g«*\T e ™*TftiU to iH^piotureaque. It U weU 
wrecked, »nd *e? »!?**** •"!, i» ^ e, £,e*g*owV oof (tine *ieV). 

nea*the K „i 8 oat. ^XS^^ *' '^ ^ ~* *" 
-worth -while to a»e eB< \r , j. rpl- l3 - ) ' 

The «fc,££j f St. «**"*<* M t »ken through the N. gate 

Han. fpi TA ate tt«W»*J»»«- w ©ir »*£, rig** » f »> 1) and the 

5r» l^S ("• P ' 6 ^'*t. ^^' a rt who «H in the b.ttl« 

- 2 ^4S,'» 

326 RotUe 52. ENK6PING. From Stockholm 

ExounaxoMs. Pleasant drive ex sail of 1 bx. to the promontory 
ot*Bofklmt(i60tL), to ike 8. of Wisby. Walkers follow the high- 
road from the 8. gate (PL 0, 6), take the first turning to the right 
beyond the stone erected in memory of the visit of Oscar II., and 
soon reach the Villa Fridhcm, the property of the royal family, with 
grounds open to the public. The Hogklint affords a fine view, 
particularly in the direction of Wisby, Steps ascend on the W. 
side of the rock to a small pasture (Qetsv&tan) and a cavern. 

Gotland possesses a narrow-gauge Railway, opened in 1879} from 
Wisby to ffetnsty 55KU., in 3hrs. (fares 3kr. 30, 2kr.20d.). The station 
at Wisby is on the S. side of the town (PI. B, fi). — IB Kil. Bardlingbo; 
21 Kil. Roma, with an old Cistercian convent, partly rebuilt in later cen- 
turies i 27 Kil. Bjsrges; 32 Kil. ButU; 40 Kil. Bttlhtm; 46 Kil. 8t&ngo y with 
an interesting old church j 56 Kil, JBetnte. 

A Dbivb bound tbs Island Is more interesting than a trip by the 
railway. We first go to the N., passing the church and grotto of Lumme- 
lund, to F&rintnd. the station of the French and English fleets during the 
war with Russia in 1866. Then follow the E. coast to Rute; Blite, near 
which are KyUtf and the curious rocks called the 8tenj&Uar*ot Stone 
Giants; ThonbHi'g, with an interesting round intrenchment, 1600 yde. in 
circumference \ Ronehamn, to the E. of rail. stat. Hemse ; and Hoburgt Re/M- 
udden , the 8, end of the island. The S. part of the island is treeless, but 
the curious promontory of JEtoburg, near As/iuddtfn, with its lighthouse and 
cavern CHoburgsgnbbetfs SangkammXre', bedroom of the old man of Ho- 
burg) will repay a visit. From Refsudden we return to Wisby by Kliate- 
hamn y a village on the coast, 90 Kil. to the S. of Wisby, visited by sea-bathers 
in summer (diligence and steamboat to Wisby). From Klintehama we 
may visit the picturesque KarUOur. This excursion also affords a good 
opportunity of seeing the handsome Gothic churches of the island, most of 
them dating from the 13th cent., about 90 in number. Their large isolated 
towers, known as 'Kasteller', appear to have been used in ancient times at 
placet of refuge and are therefore probably older than the churches them- 
selves. See 'Gotland's Konsthistoria' by Bruniu*. 

52. From Stockholm to Westerns and Orebro. 

217 Kil. Railway fWestmanlands-Jernvag'). Express in 7-7 '/^ ordinary 
train in 13-14 hrs. (fares 11 kr. 66, 7 kr. 80 5.). 

The train starts from the Central Station (p. 285} It skirts the 
Rdrrtrandsvik, passing the factories of Atlas and Rdrrtnmd (p. 317), 
on the right, and the chateau of Karlberg (p. 317), on the left, 
beyond which the branches to Wartahamnen (p. 312) and Upsala 
.317) diverge on the right. 6 Kil. Sundbyberg, 11 Kil. Spanga, 
7 Kil. Jakobsberg. We then cross the narrow strait of Staked at 
the entrance of the Upsala arm of the Malar (p. 318), and traverse 
the island otStakeso by means of a tunnel. Another bridge carries 
us to (28 Kil.) Kungsangen. 36 Kil. Bro. Beyond (47 Kil.) B&lsta 
we cross the narrow Ekolmndsvik. 56 Kil. EkoUund, 64 Kil. OriUby. 

74 Kil. Enkdping (8tada- Hotel ) 1 a small town near Lake Ma- 
laren, on which a steamer plies to Stockholm. Large market- 
gardens. 82 Kil. Lundby, 88 Kil, Ortesta, 95 Kil. Tortuna. 

101 Kil. Tillberg*, junction of three lines : one to the N. goes 
to Hedensberg, Kansta, Tama, and Sola (28 Kil.; p< 336); another to 
theW. toSkultuna,Svana,J*amna«(28Kil.; Stromsholms-Oanal, see 


'oOfrtro. 3TR6M8HOLIIS— 041J fA 

°"1«"),, Kortano, Ins«>Lk„_ * *""■ **> 

yaluable lion-mines), irarroruftaaa C e 8 )?a?< B %ftni A«a- , 

"i K1L <«* (Antral loul; .2* « Orei„ '»• S »). 
^"iiVKaflow; , atownof 8o00inh<n.T>. Z*? 1 W «t~i. / HSui v,^ 
S*"JW ffaU a™ ctt. »o«.ti*°*7'»'"W., «S" 
™'*™).U~»n.k.yi!th.MlI., ' ,»""• <*»! ..I „Xd 
™>'P1m«. Ho foTOtt„ d.«n Mat, " *" ™» a r.,y ,„„„. 
»«•, oat.1 ol .blob »„ , h , . W »fc, r j, 5 J?J" .'f '"•" ™" »« 
A" ft"""" '""!<»' '» »«d„. *""•• ■*■> "-"Mad tt. 

""•a altered "J ^ "h TS. J™»~i"<»a U «7<, .«.r»„d. 

loo ,a.. '„,, as ."aTSL? 8 J°- 60 - " " * £* °°' M ° "K? 

u ubm ta ihTi„„; id ^' Md baa a tower 309 ft. higb 

The'itd" ™ ' uonul - «' Upaij'i '"~ " ' 

aoakaofae'EwL L 'J» fV of I2 .00° V0,B - 0M *« iB « the T.n.aoie 
Thirty Tears' W„ 7Bnc a, carried off by OxenBtJema In the 

farftoVlb.'i'e.S ' b " S ' W -»fthe moa" •' <«• ""Of. (WlS, not 
■«.r»«.""°«i? v *"> OH ».«•, —J ' ">■■"■ ■"•"."•H. 

... r is s«™ »«■""" " b,,m ' "* " "" " "" " 

•a- and !ff**. » «,»> "taVa «•« »' «»• Th. anonm- 
12i m ^ "ao «iL arOTO * ,0 i ho lm dally la 6-7 hra. 

sf£!i.Sx> L i3oi>»"£? »b«. a.. '""' ■«"" ";■ 
■i..r?»Xfei.S-. jr °?^<aii"'»»» l ;".°'" dB ' k "- 


1Kb tbe JITorrfyiirBm to 

„,» tbroufch '""> =■?**» « d thresh 1 
ve then P*- *,^ m»J leave Ihe steamer. Mar 

'-li«B ITe4re and <Vr* Madden , m camt 

or st WiV*6o, and next reneh lag l»r«e 

follow the. lakes or it«« ^/pm and 

cs at Wealan/ori, VddnSt, and Fayti;ta. 

a boundary of Ihe province ofDalirae 
lake ia tnat of BBira Barken (329 It.), 
ierbSrka (with church and parfo»»ge). 
a Barken <Si8 ft.), with JVorrimu and 

»nv«— — . Koping (Jeravagt-Uotel; K3- 

gfl. « unkt i'^: w , I i of 3900 inhab., on the Kopinffta, which 
IbteU, » Q old , the vicinity, i» the junction of a branch- 
to the Malar > . iD ,portant iron-worka to (34 Kil.) WJm- 
ining PW* l £jJStf»*» ltan * Steamboat from KBping- to Stock- 

»tty- lunction of the Nykoptng, Flen, and Eskil- Watokog, J 

„e (P- 3li9 )- ,fiottl ltt ; Oaatgifoaregard), once a Famous 
Kil. Arbog* I ^ ofa At0 oga gata', says an old proverb), but 
town ('gamma IiB9 on tilo Arboyah from wnlcJk the 

, h 4800 inb»b. o ,329). The church, with its lofty spire, 
re Canal diverge* ^e Cl0SB attributed to BemDralldt . _1 
a DaBcent <"• d ily i„ J une and July, at other seasons 
" t0 Stockholm u " 

»W« rt - Rrt .fc, l78Kil. FelHnjM&ro, 187 Kil. VUenaUr. 

Ki l. Judtri °*", ioo of wiimportont mineral line to Ludvita. 

1 * t ft . *"• "liver and lead mini of ffttfii- 

"" v Snpfrro (junction for B&nehammar, 

£?, 1 " < Hote W "ea in the midst of im- 

""?/* jj on * "*>« croeaee the El] »nd Palno 

JJS - n ne "ly parallel to Ludrika. 81a- 

? n . jwiMM, see p ' f n06 * fl D vlta-BruJ( a branch-line goes 
BroaHa. ^"^elj situated little mining: town of tforo, 

, and tbe P iotu „„,*» > nd miTle »- (Thence to Karlskoga, 

Ued with ir°n- wor 

J83 ) /l» 6r<? » oW » OMrtroJ Hole!,- Jtmvagt-Hottl), 

• Kil 6rebro f "T to -v»ns ln Sweden, capital of the 'Lin' of 
the most » W SS| t fJ»** , i? - ? in * flat I0 fn° n <"» *• Svarta, 
me with l & »*7Vfift > No few * r than flft e« n *•*■ «' »» e 
a fceHJ<In»a*' , ( fl the destinies of the coantty freqnently de- 

LAKB ' a ^^i.MARE. 5S>* Route. S^g 

oided, at Oretwro. Ms was tho l** r thplaee of En^elorekt E** , 
hrektsson, the famous S^edisU^g atriot (comp . p . i vt l> The a££ el : 
nows through the toro fc«m "W. <*> E., and the lmii<Uonie l£*r«* 
ning-Gata intersects it from 1*. to s The town has a ▼«*ymod* f " 
appearance, having h©en almost entirely rebuilt &fter a great * 
in i864. To its anetent pe*io«l, Kowerer, belongs the Teno*^ 8 
-Sidtt with its few round tower* , situated on an island in the fit ,e 
and now occupied by government ofnees, and the Ch**reh y pJj*' 
restored. In the Stora Torg xa the modem Stadshns y in the <W?J y 
style, in front of which riseB a Statue ofEngelbreht by Qvariist*o 
erected in 1865. Among other handsome buildings are the TfcevJ?' 
the Kungutuga ('king's house'), one of the oldest and qnai^Z e ; 
timber buildings of Sweden, ana the Allmcnvt+a. Ldroverk r 
Karolinska Skolan), with its email museum. In front of the l at i° * 
an Obelisk has been erected in memory of the Swedish refo^^T * 
Olaus and Laurenttas Petri £p. lxli). Walks to Skeback, on i, ak * 8 
Hjelmare, and Adolfsberg, a small watering-place to the s. 
stopping-place of the slow trains. *' ' 

Steamboat from Orebro four times a week througlx the Orebro Can^i 
(opened in 1888) to Lake Hjelmare nQft. ,75 Kil. long, 10-15 Kil. broTd) 
through the Hjelmare Canal (N.*) to the Arbogad. (p- 82SB>, down this river 
to the Malar, which i\ reaches at Kungsor (see below> , and then down 
this lake to Stockholm. — Another steamer plies thrice weekly between 
Orebro and SkogUorp , at the E. end of the lake. (Thence by rail to 
Eskilstuna in 1 \a hr.) The scenery of Lake Hjelmare is tame. Its pike 
and crayfish Cgaddor% 'kraftor') are much esteemed. A monument on the 
BogetbrekUholm, in the W. part of the lake, marks the spot where Engel- 
brekt was assassinated by Mans Bengtson in 1*36. A ^little to the E. of 
the entrance to the canal is Stora Svndby, the chateau of Count Platen, 
erected by Robinson in the Bngligh-Romanesque style 




i kr. 35, 90 o^. 

-.*. WW, «/V V.J. 

53. From Kolback and Walsfcogf to Flen, Nykoping, 

aad <>3C^ 681l ^; i591ind 132 Kil. (fare. 8 kr. 
5 6k, AI 4 W A Y i n 7 " 9 hT9 *' fr ? 1aa K olback to <gj» ??^es8kr.40, 5kr. 40 6 , 
&,ok^86o.)i fromWalskogto Oxelosundi^^* 1 - £~\ ourse of theStrdma- 
.,*»«, tee p. 8». The train follow* t^ecoux^ ^^ ^ 

bolras Canal to fiffrtaiaoim (p. 327), »* * to J£ crosses the Qt>ick- 
^orgfasund, skirts the shore of the m * inl £^ ' Rekarne, junction of 
«*nd to the station of that name, *o *^*- oa ^ KuMaSr fat the 



^>uiu of the Arbogaa, see p. 3'2»J, •»«* 
tne ^stances from Walskog. <> or ^fcilsttinoa, near its 

29 Kil. IftoraftaHa, on the ThorshaUaa -g^Ustuna , to wlxicb 
influx into the Malar, was once the port t ^ e con8t ructiox* of 

however a direct waterway waft aff ° r ^® st reain. 
locks (1856-60) avoiding the falls of tne » 

0*U ^^gg« «g« ,&a,tis L ^aBo^ f ^^ 
w&. *>^> \Lfti *?** 11 ' 000 nvnaJt>. , charmingly situateo w> 
& ^*W\, fa °*T **» na *»» *o St. Eeltil, an Englishman, to*k- 
• * 4ttW*A. ^ ^* apostle of Onxietianity in Sddeix**W 
rf^Ja ******** k®* 11 ****** oy the ne&then populace at Strang 
*— 2\#wi *f * ete ™ *»*«»*©*. He resigned, hia prelacy a few 
tr^VnA^ de*^ retired, to tne Bernairdine monastery of CWr- 
^ f ot»**^ f^ A <T d * e lx * * *S* - A Bernardino monastery, 
^ \rr«^ oef th e l*^, 0611 ^ ^*b converted into a royal chateau 
**£ he** ** I i* 15<i7 &nd ****ed. down in 1680. In 1604 the 
e^ \nk1**L+ w©* e e ftWblis ^Bd here , and in 1669 municipal 
*** i ~^ af I/)jite neA on **• to-wn. Since then it has become 
v*** ^©te ^faeturiBRpUoe, chiefly for iron and steel waxea. 
^zl A fxt ***** n € the Gfamla Stad on the E. hank, and the Nya 
^° c o^ iB *J a nA tf* e Xart Quatafs 8tad on the W. bank. 
*I*^ ^yi«t^» t factories are the JTarJ Ottstafestads Qevars- 
* the g re * rV on&fcMlandin the river, founded in 1814 ; 

°^f g^ n " ft fli $r»om« Wot**, opposite ; and the Tunafors 
iVs Foundry a -oporto, to the S. of the town. Damascened 
and Folisftfrf * t ke famous steel -works in the Fristad. The 
« specially °7 rt « a collection of the products of the place, 
i flJk/ioI rOO* a .Ii*«na ten time* weekly to Stockholm, by Thort- 
H School, W Kil gt mn» To theN . E . of Kakiletwaa is (12 Kil.) the 

"*£**!!?*£. ^ i6 i'«lace of Axel Oxenstjerna (d. 1664). Adjacent 
* 52T ih« ^ tfri ^ on L» ke Malaren. 

ge esute of ^'^5 jc^- H&W * ta ' 61 Kil - belief or anas, 68 Kil. 
il. SkogstorP* * 

n of the WeBtra Stamhana (p. 281 ; for 

1. *Ie* ji** ct% 

a ). ' -. j£\\. Bettna, 103 Kil. Wrena, 111 Kil. 

t. jy ad hr o j fund, & U in tihe district of Sddermanland 

116 ir-i Z' ar8 Vis l ates - 
with if Atim^S^rtf Ho*«l» KadhwafcaWaren;, with 6500 
il iX^l^^iJXg {?S~ jf^pingsh, which drains several lakes 
the r» *lT of tfX %sf?«* d * a **y of tne Baltic, is the cap- 
alls £ /he & ta ^ A n& is frequently mentioned in the early 

rmain t0 d*-- 1- ***^ w^** faU of tlie rivei here driv <* the 
the^ Jrtry- ^i^» a laT 6 e engine - factory. — The 
Mtka?** *^ j£ e*6amers touch at Nykoping several 

<* Nof r g ^1. Oxclo8und, with a good harbour, 

Stla-ihol***- "between Qetenburg, Jonk oping, and 

5*naK ete»* x f£T&)' 
onth. (tee V' 


54. From Gotenbnrg to Falun. 

478 Kil. Railway CBergslagernas Jemv&gar'*), express daily in 15 hrt. 
(flares 31 kr. 10, 17 kr. 66 6.) ; ordinary train* take two dan. This rail- 
way, which traverses the provinces of Dalsland, Wermland, westmanland, 
aha Dalecarlia (Dalarne) and connects the rich mining district CBergs- 
lager % ) of Wermland with the great S.W. port of Sweden, offers few 
attractions to the tourist. _ 

From Ootenburg to Oxncred (82 Kil.), junction of the Weners- 
borg-Uddevalla line, see pp. 266-268. To the right are the Halle- 
berg and the Hunneberg (p. 269). — The line inns N., by (97 Kil.) 
Frandefor*, (106 Kil.) BrcOanda, and (114 Kil.) Erifrtad, to — 

123 Kil. Medlerut (Rail. Restaurant; *H6Ul MelUrud, close by) ; 
junction of the Sunnana-Fredrflcshald line (p. 84), 

From lt*J»nand (8 Kil. from Mellerudj train in 8 mm.) the steamer 
'Kinnekulle' (Restaurant on board) plies 4-5 times weekly across Lake 
Wenern to Hellekit and to (3hrs.) Rab&k, on the Kinnekulle (p. 370: fares 
4, 3i/«. 3 kr.). - 

131 Kil. Kopmannabro, where we cross the Dalsland* Canal 
(p. 821 which here issues from Lake Wenern. — 144 Kil. Anims- 
hog; 155 Kil. Tossc ; 164 Kil. Amal, a little town of 2700 inhab. ; 
view of the lake to the right. 

Near (181 KiL) 8effle, the train crosses the canal of that name, 
which connects the By-Elf, and through it the extensive Glafsfjord, 
with Lake Wenern. The line then thread* its way among the 
numerous lakes of South Wermland. 189 Kil. Wtrmlandsbro ; 200 Kil. 
Segmon; 210 Kil. drums; 221 Kil. Edsvalla. 

232 Kil. Kil (p. 283), junction of the Nordwestra Stambana 
(R. 46), and of a short branch-line to Frykstad. 

24o Kil. Deje, with a saw-mill and a waterfall, on the Klar-Elf % 
which we cross by a handsome bridge. A steamer plies thence to 
Vddtholm (see below), via Munkfor* and Rantater, the birthplace 
of the poet Geijer. — 254 Kil. Molnbacka; 264 Kil. Molkom; 
271 Kil. Lindfors; 279 Kil. Oeijersdal. 

293 Kil. Daglosen, at the S. end of Lake Daglosen (415 ft.). 

Branch-Low in 20 min. to (8 Kil.) Filipstad (Stadt-Hotel), also a station 
on the branch-line from Christinehamn (p. 283), pleasantly situated at the 
N. end of Lake Dagltoen. Finest view from the HaUaberg. Numerous iron- 
mines. On the edge of the lake, behind the town, is the tomb of John 
Ericsson (p. 911). with a monument. — Railway (72 Kil., in 5 hrs.) from 
Filipstad to TTddenolm (see above) and Edeb&ck on the Klar-Blf, with exten- 
sive iron-works. The 'Uddeholms Actie-Bolag', which possesses numerous 
iron-works and estates, is one of the greatest companies in Sweden. 

A journey up the valley of the Klar-Elf brings us to the most solitary 
district in Wermland and finally to the range of imposing mountains that 
separate Sweden from Norway. On the borders is the ftnskog ('Finn 
wood'), inhabited by the Finns transplanted hither by Charles IX., who 
still retain their old manners and costumes. — Beyond the frontier the 
scene becomes more and more desolate, especially in the neighbourhood 
of Lake FUtmnd (p. 276), where the Klar-lUf, first known as the F&mwdi-Slf 
and then as the Trysail, takes its rise. 

304 Kil. Herrhult, where our line crosses the branch-line from 

Christinehamn to Persberg and Filipstad (p. 283). — 315 Kil. Loka, 

with a healing spring ; 326 Kil. Qrythyttehed (junction for Kortfors. 

(2 Route 54. FALUN. 

283); 334 Kil. HtUtfon; 341 Kil. Sikfon; 352 Kil. Bredsjo, 
with iron- works. Numerous lakes. 

At (372Ki\.) Stalldalm theBergslagernas line crosses the Frovi- 

idvika line (p. 328), and the two lines ran parallel from this 

Int to (384 Kil.) Hbrhen, (392 Kil.) Qrdngeaberg, with important 

i-mines , (399 Kil.) Klenshyttan, and Ludvika. Between the 

es Norra Horken and Sodra Hbrkcn the construction of the rail- 

iB interesting. Near Grangesberg we cross the boundary be- 

sn Westmanland and Dalarne. 

08 Kil. Ludvika (*Jemvag8~Hotel), on Lake Wessman (500 ft.), 
inected by a branch-line (18 Kil.) with Smedjebacken, on the 
\sholms Canal (p. 328). 

7 Kil. Qtasberg; 426 Kil. Rdmen, on the lake of that name ; 
11. Skrticka. 

') Kil. Borlange (Jemvdgs-Hotel), junction of a branch -line 
bo fp. 333). 

45d Kil.) Domnarfvet (Inn) a lofty bridge carries the train 

) DaUElf, which here forms a waterfall. The water-power 

I by the Bessemer steel-works here, belonging to the Stora 

ergs Bergslag at Falun (p. 333), is brought from the 

i tunnel 330 yds. long. — 461 Kil. Ornda lies at theS.W. 

ike Runn (365 ft.), on which a steamboat plies. 

and the banks of the Runnsjo are classic soil in Swedish history. 

'fan, at the S.E. end of the lake, is the barn (kungtlada) in 

was V asa, when a fugitive, disguised as a Dalkarl, once thrashed 

nds he was enabled bjBarbro Siigsdotier to elude his pursuers, 

r husband Arendt Peruon was about to betray him. His bed 

aemorials are shown here in the Kungskammare, from the 

/hich Barbro let him down by a long towel. 

Falun (Stads-Hotel, in the market-place ; Nya Hotel / 

the capital of Dalecarlia (Swed. Dalarne, 'the valleys'), 

nhab., famed for its copper-mines, lies between lakes 

Tiaken, on both banks of a small stream, and not far 

xnajo. The town has grown out of a group of separate 

names of which still survive. On the £. bank of the 

tanfora, LiUarfvet , Ofvra and Yttra Aaen, Slaggen, 

on the W. bank Pteattdgten^ Gamla Herrghrden % and 

principal buildings are the Kristina-Kyrka in the 

Kopparberga-Kyrka, with its green copper roof, the 

mnasium, and the Magasinhus, which contains a 

nerals. The Villa at LiUarfvet and Manhem to the 

\re popular resorts. 

S.W. the whole country looks burned up by the 

te from the Roatkogar ('roasting hills') round the 

>ke blackens wood and tarnishes metals exposed 

it it is believed to ward off epidemics. The fumes 

iol in the mine itself are still more preservative. 

)f a young man named Mats Israclsson, who haft 

\ines 49 years before, was recovered in so good 

J?** 1 ^ 8n " rAN ' 5 '- **. 1 

betio» ***edi»*e>ly Identifled h , 

Tha lm awim or flxo«*^5**ad. ^ old wt " 

has been'known to Wtotar M-***f t-W^SswrtS^wKS *° ***«• 
largar Am now (about «**> t*r>^-^a „ 15574 The HaYi * nal *'u»Aiiolii 

quarti lit toaslderiblr ln>tofc_™ •>,. -rield *>l 
01 .liver wera produced. T^"^^? * JlSOl 3 
wkoraintb«T««rlB18tlier6'w«-s s . t»*op°Ietort a 

* b0 yiSmpS 9 T i «n?t^*^Tr>^™J.Ttt* 

prnvided will mlneri »tlir efir ^. »^ ot ice lent I 
aud wll* • miner (lit*-*) i£*> ***-*fcS<*«»-J^ t t 
gu-shota to i «HM> 'ha fjo^™ a e»ide ffe, 

mmni of a lift. The groarta^ **w> Tito Ash, 
Inadequate. The axpedlllo^ *» virywS.I, 

to Faluu will hardly like to "*■** SZS* be c! 

jrvrarWe, where the »,„, ,_<»***« It. A -pisir 
9 «aeltod. 

'BotU^e', w^**>»i|M, »« I« ne d _ _. ,„„,,„ 

(37K1I., in iy_, .~«>.3d2. — Thence by tie ',S.'i; nn »2S ?*?*■ 
3»tm, L«w*<«^ *V*. , fo«» 2 kr. 45, 1 k*. 70 jjZh^T, *° 
luge »nd noely^?*, *»» we orow the J>»l-Elf, i» tt/ S, / J? 'I?* 
of Jyutmoiteefe, ^t-^uteiiwn-wcaka of Z>omnarfoet\ rte .i. an "™ 
and <?«,«*«/. *a ¥ * 1 "here the Wester and Cater D.l-EIf ,-"„ 

At Insjon, ' 

the Oster Dsl-ft-J^, the li« le Uke "t that name, through which flows 
(Q'/a hra. ; fare, ^> » -we U»e one of the Lake Siljan steamers to Mora 
fare ; back wttK V" ***■ 70 or 1 kt. 26 5. ; back the same day for single 
the Osier Dal^-j?-** a ' forl j 1 i g ht,4kc, 1 kr. 90 «.)■ Wo first steer up 
S. bayofLakei sT!** to f l/anr.) KftMnA ("Jnn}, on the OtUrvtlt, tfa* 
itvi,o re f Be *-"Vja„ OnSundaymorniiieT B wehaveagoodopportun- 
fc^laa^^g the peculiar costumes of the nati ¥e9l wr io flock t 

n.,oiHiuii«n.d. b ^nd water from all quartets. The Karingberg, lu ui 
•LakeBtt, ^■"«» 6Itenfl iveTiew i 2M. to the E. rises the Tibblcber. 
enclosed by ^ ^-** (540 ft ), 'Dalarne'e &«*' C the e J e of Dalecarlia 
of its inteie.B^*^tly sloping and partially wooded banks, owes mu t 
many of ttuj,**^ the inhabitants of its bank*, who have preserve 
owing to th e * primitive characteristics. They are generally poo 
selvea by a,*?**.* gu .bdiviaion of the land, to" 1 . the V •"** !VTfJ? 
*■**«« watches, fella, furniture, grmdatones, and otta 

W t M. ^ Moad, i» °* &***■ \. *"* « Best view from the stone 
»^ ' k* *V*U (i»n). ^S??5.pS«t drive to- . 

bridge »?%£**, Ae n «^* ^^y-station, a Baltic port ^ith 
98 ^^^d »««• T**«l^ 7sLambo»te to Gene, etc) -_ 

li4K> l -?o » thiMng^f* > **"!Hl and manufacturing ; place, 
Hotel; S^inlab., is *« ^^* rtlt ?or Ae tim** »ad metal 
„Hh ^OOC ^££i,, ,al £***•* T^V^tam*. The town k.. 
™\4ed W °f3f*»l>^u** to,,< '' ^ J«t Are of 1869, ifMch 

tv« *«Mn«-^l»«e wLJwn, ^ tke S.B. _ Uw »y t* *•/» h*., through 

the WM»£^?0«-2r?i JifaS:, r.uw.y «.*■/.!»., through 

>, Si Mi.. 


* i **fl-ora 111,1 1* "go 

■he silver m .y be see "-_; ',& '"" *« '"'o **<«<< onth^. 1 ^ 

££* *J>' ^*<«Z 7,m*U i«m-worka. 226 VilT 

A«lwm»of, , »o TW* jflWllttthe mine* of ** %u K1L jj^ba. t^ 
*oiks, connectoiW * We 6t0M ^ #<>«■♦•«*. ^ ^ ifofc^^ 

to GeteWJ. *»-J > ^ Mf> of IfcW*^**' ron8 to SSdtrt^mn 
tot ^« BtafU **<*"* a **°££tf,e valley of the L Jw . 
r Sa^ £mwwL — Out li»e » W ? B The rirer form. » cW 

Ortf 5 (406 ft.) i 363 Kil.Karsjo, °» ^ Tefcj 6. 

8m i Um» ply ob the O«oo£ of a aorthe n> *£^88Qraf 

&, .W a Bteamer *U«» » 

H«Wf«««, «* P- J^J^^i (440 ft) and the H^a of a lake 

(387 KU.) ToUo«« «* ^ KU.Bam.j8, 446 J* 1 ' ^m. 8ita- 
of tk(t«»»l ! "»"> Soeneiy wild and wooded. — £«ke Aldtrn 
lakes of 4«M»«r- be aistrict of MedeVpa*' ° de d and hilly. 

?& ft an ex^on of fl» Itf ««,*. Country «<»* 

( iw n. J, *» « * #>a jj. passengers 

-ijSSw MssrisStf fits 

$'the pio^nce of JemUand- „ (94 6 ft.), part 

516 Kil. SWicfce, at the »• en * °f ""»  B «/«* wM Ci B g». 
w JS *Tt«£S carried W «*"*"»*• U «•*?& MO ««- 
W 626 Kil. «ta/Ve; 639 ^ bJ 1 ? ^H"* 1 us the medical 
,, Jaid, at th? H. ead of the ** «*«*, ag^fr. <M). - 
Silgrimages to the tomh of »t uiat at - tl0B dW eIB v 

g7i Kil. Brvnflo. _ ,„-- *-, , afi o ft aV)<>ve » 

D The Hue Ae*t teaches the £* Hfcj^^ £SV*» contrast 
flea> amidBt heautiftrt scenery, »* **»**», ^ »»* V 
Babdekeb-5 Sorway ahd Sweden. MU IS,^ ** 

(g Route M 

corn -fleWs. In *he foreground lies the island 
nel y wliktbeyett^^ stance the ^atrk OviksffeU and .4rwktUan 
p fyo«o-, and ^ **^^er several «leamer§ ply oa the lake, touching 
«* below). I* ia1 * 1 J^iiig^ kei1 C Bee l>elow), Ytteran (see balow}, 
t Berg, OftteiBund, ** 

rfie6», ** d otheT ^ V(*&rand ***** » landlord speaks English, 

586 Ki\. ^ite^^^^eU-So*^, with restaurant; NyaEoUl), the 

ftncb, and (torn*** »*^£ JemUand and the seat of the 'Landbof- 

Mtel of Ae J^^S* , * as founded in 1786 and has grown rap- 

**> wits 5«K) *»f*~*^f tbe railway. It Is pleasantly situated on 

?* since the openw*.* opposite the lofty island of JVM, with 

Jb ** nk rf * e Ia W * bridge, 1420 ft. long, and has broad 

ioh 1* iB oomoect tAr-l>«* lt benses. Oi FxSso, near the bridge, 

«ets » nd gay ***^ *o <** memory of Ostmadm, the eon of <kid- 

nds » Rtmlc Btoa ? The ftTtt bridge. The church on this island, 

; tli« builder of y» is ^e of the oldest In N. Sweden. Tbe 

h w* 11 * *° ft * eir heflvedere of the Swedish Tourists 1 Union 

rchy* 1 * and A * *Vie^ s of ^ ke lako > ^Ith the enow-clad moun- 

«!**& beautiful . -ta y of 3-4 hrs. at ostersnnd suffices. 

Tto *»* W * """" v N »* nk of th * 8*°**** and crosses the Sem»&. 

The tf * e 8klrtB iw^AoT lCil ) Jrro * om <**> Hne crosses tbe Ifuiafc- 

i£i 1«NF.— ^ tL Td m^T region. Skirting the S. bank of 

Dreary wooded •» a 8tor t distance, we next reach — 

vMdsfi (995 *"' The train follows the course of the Faz-Slfe, 

7g £11. mUm ^AM ***» the Atsenejd (970 ft.). It crosses 

t eonneots the H»* j^) Ttter&n , the little Qvama beyond 

merS beyond^* and the Seffiloa at Gttcmder, neat its inflnx 

KilO 2Vansf<W7 ««d C^* 4 iaL ) Jtfttttmac. Ail these riTers and 

he Od**fi> * e £*«rs1o an extensive inland water-system, upon 

form ** ta *** Affording pleasant trips . 656 Kil. MorsUl has 

steamboats ply, am 

torVim. ^^x huge amber-yards, where the Bjerp- 

a Kil- V €9 P!?X Mk ri045 ftO- — The train crosses theHjerp* 

inters Lake ^Z> f the #*<******€*•*& to (678 KiL) Under- 

9n f0 Vs * e ******** *^ 11*80 ft.) ^to (692 Kil.) Ire 

and skirts the J* g ^g© of Aresfeatan (4830 ft.; 'hump of 

jtestatt**"*^ a v ^e asce»ued hence in about 4 hrs., by 

This beigbtj'w -^osts; splendid view of the surround- 

proTided witb JP" 

* and numerous i» uiountain-solitnde , rarely enMrened 
now enter » are . t some distance from the line are a few 
an habitation*- fL^»te resembles that of N. Siberia. Huge 
^ttlements. T& e r_ B idiuge, and long roofs to protect the line 
onfchs standi*** ** ^ e difncnlties of the route in winter, 
ilanohes, i* 6 *^ t>^st starting-point for the TSnnfors. 

Kll. W^r^. abO^ to tbe atation-mastw. WedSve ia i»/« !«. 
Bxcureion . w telcgTfcrosa the lake by boat with two rowers in 

*lf on the *«*' 

SOr/CBWrEA. 67. Route. 335 

foM, pwewn* ' «>>out ion ft vU_i** a falL divided, into two anna »T"*»*- 
'Bearf Rock', if ^%7|K , P\ M '**» and 40 ft. broad. Wtta b 3r the 

724 ML /^AE^O 1 o^ tiie lake of tliat name (172* -. 
735Ka.I^rorHl8lOft.), <m the Ena-Elf. Oaantry mostly SL*); 
^dmaTBliy,^ lofty mountains in the Daekgronnd. — 74* °* ed 
«t«1i«i(19«)ft.; ^a« .Reatcturttnt, halt for dinner; Sanator* *"• 
the last station in Sweden, Is a cold and desolate spot, withse» m }» 
a trace of vegetation. C^age* changed. The Norwegian I?*** 1 * 
(854K&)TrondAjem(106K:il. from Storlien) is described at p. 3^° 

56. The Swedish Non-land. 

^wtSweaian'SowHLAHp^ tfcough visited of late yeaw bv 
Swedlah travellers and a few from other countries, is aomewha* ma » y 
the track, of the ordinary ^™f*»t. y^ M i nformati<m i* to the roVu.° nt o( 
in thla dii^ct s^y he obtained fr^ ^ itoerftaA TorcHst Club £ B x •*»., 
holm Cp. ^ which will on re q ^ est forward itfl own little 'GnJ&^SJ*- 
beat point from which Jo view the midnight sun is Oelliwara t%: J*e 
(p. 841), reached from iMlei in 8 lira. 5 but this interesting spectacl/**"^' 
seen from many other pofaats. ' e ls also 

a. Bailway front Br&eke to Z.vle4 via Wajanaa. 

j^J^S mitt 8 hra, (f«ea 81 k». 80, 2L kr. 20 6.). The night is ap61|t ^ 

Brackc, see p. 337. — The railway, finally opened in A*g. 

1894, ran* through extensive pine-forest* and crosses numerous 

large risers descending impetuously toward* the »ea and affording 

fine salmon- Ashing. — 80 Xil. M+gt&nd* liea on the navigable 

IndaU-Elf, which the railway cros&ea by means of a bridge, 700 ft. 

in length. We skirt the left hank to (93 Kil.) Biapgfoden, whence 

we may descend by steamboat to Sundsvall (see below), the voyage 

heing thrice interrupted hy waterfalls, wMch must be passed on foot. 

.J B J w fv B V mda orBiapgarden a visit (taking f*™**}^"^)™*? *> e 
paid to the Magunda Sdttnar % the bed of a lake, 16 H. long, drained by 
the bursting of its banka in 1% TOe waterfall *>*** f *™ »»**• the 
ft«mAi> HAd nf *k- «r:^~». ^„V V, \ ..i^ w«« ««..*»% than altered its count. 

tnc Bursting of its banka in 1707 The waterfall ■£/*•« f""V "*»™ *ne 

fanner bed of the Ba*unda-Eif whieb l»as *i»<» «"» *"?»* **s eourae. 

tti Kil. L^e (faS'jT'SS junction for a hranch-lxne to 

(10 Kil.) the prosperons Wn of 8oUefte& Oppelbarg ^ Hotel , good), 

on the InpermanWfrteamhoats), ^^ n * t0 ri % ^i^n 5 S^" 
tUul rWer in Sweden. Fro m Solleftea a railway (^^' * n ^ W » 
«fe 15, 4kr. 10 6.) runs *> &rn6«a^ (p. 340), traYeramg a 
niafcnT»an« A -~-j ^«v *.*<«r. mills. 

I**^" *•»•». with tuberous ^Xton o«r the imposing 
The m«iuliBe * bridge, 800_ «• wn«. j^^*,, c f£^ • 

AngMmaa-Ell »t Fortmo. _ From (??^Sfc — The <*<£-JEl£ £ 
brweh-iine diverges to (29 Kil.) *»5? P, ^S5 Tl t f303 KU.) JVyafeer. 

. t 3*2 Kil. W5«w« CJeniyag* - Hotel ;^-.° of Ulnei (pm 34™ 
atnrted oa the Pm*-®/; 26 Kil. to 'W.rL^wtMMl. ^ 

About 6Va M. from WSnnSs is the Xas «XZ WindO-Elf- — Between 
At' 077 Kil.) Wn<fcj„ we cross the Wtnae*- , 

340 Route 57. UMBA. The Swedish 

(453 Kil.) Baatutradt and (487 Kil.) Jbrn the SkeUefle-Elf is 
crossed ; at (518 Kil.) Myrhedan the Bytkt-Elf; at (583 Kil.) Alf$- 
byen the Pite-Elfi md. at (621 Kil.) Hednoret the Lulc-Elf. 

629 Kil. Boden (*Gastgifvaregard) is the junction for the Lulea 
and Gelliwara railway (p. 341), which our train follows to Lulea. 
This line, huilt by a British company, has recently been purchased 
by the Swedish government. — 665 Kil. Lulea, see p. 341. 

b. By Steamboat to Haparanda. 

A steamer leaves Stockholm (Skeppsbro) almost daily, for Lule& 
(40-52 brs. •, 35 kr., 29 kr. 50 o.) and Haparanda (about 60 hrs. ; 40, S3 kr.). 
— Return-tickets 10 per cent less. 

The first important place to the N. of Gefle is (70 Kil.) — 

Sdderhamn (Soderhamri'a Hotel ; Hdtel Frank), a seaport with 
10,400 inhab. and considerable exports of iron and timber, prettily 
situated at the N. end of the Sbdcrfjard, and almost entirely rebuilt 
since the fires of I860 and 1876. The fore-port, Stugtundet, is 
about 2^2 M. from the town. — Railway to Kilafors % see p. 337. 

Hudiksvall (Stads-Hotel; Hdtel Helsingland), the next steam- 
boat-station, about 60 Kil. to the N. of SSderhamn, a town with iron- 
works, saw-mills, and 4800 inhab., is connected by a short branch- 
line with Forma, whence a steamboat plies to several stations on 
the Norra and Sodra Dellen lakes (Delsbo, p. 337). From Hudiks- 
vall a branch-railway runs to Nasviken (p: 337). 

ftandsvall (*H6tel Knaust; Stadshus; Hdtel DaUtn), hand- 
somely rebuilt in stone after the destructive fire of 1891, is one 
of the chief trading towns in the Norrland, with 12,400 inhab. and 

large saw-mills on the picturesque Alnosund and the island of Alno. 
From 8uhj>bvall to Tobpshamkab (A*gr«, Osteriund), 67 Kil., railway 
in 3 brs. (fares 8 kr., 2 kr.). From (12 Kit) Wattjom a short branch 
diverges to the iron -works and saw-mills of Mat/or*, on the Ljunga-Elf. 
Then Jfedansjd, Kdrfsta, and Wiskan. 57 Kil. Torpshammar, see p. 337. 

Herndsand {Hdtel Norrland ; Hdtel Bafvern), capital of the Lan 
of Westernorrland, a seaport with saw-mills, etc., and 5800 inhab,, 
lies to the S. of the broad estuary of the Angerman-Elf (well- 
equipped steamers). It is the seat of a bishop and of the 'lands- 
hofding'. Railway to Solleftea, see p. 339. 

The Haparanda steamer next passes Ornskoldsvik, a small sea- 
port to the N\ of the hwngo-Fyr ; then the Skags-Fyr and Nor d- 
maling, and reaches (175 Kil. from Hern5sand) — 

Umea (Hdtel Forsbcrg; StadskaUare) , the capital of Wester- 
bottena Lan, with 3000 inhab., at the mouth of the Ume-Elf. 
Vessels of heavy tonnage cannot ascend the estuary beyond Holm- 
sund* The steamers go as far as Djupvik. *— To the N. of Umea 
the steamboat passes the lighthouses of Holmd,- Qadd, and FjMtr- 
dgg, and next touches at Ratan, a busy little port, and Skelleftea 
(Rallare), with 1000 inhab. and a handsome domed church. Then, 
(175 Kil. from Umea) — 

Pitea (Inn), with 2600 inhab., and, 70 Kil. farther on, — 

Norrland. LOLEA. £7. Route. 341 

Lulek(*8tad8-Hotel, with cafe), with 8600 inhab., the capital of 
Norrbotten Lan, and seat of the 'landshofding'. 

Fbom LulbI to Gklliwaba, 206 KIL, railway (one train daily) in 8 hrs. 
(lares 10 kx. 70, 7 kr. 15 o.l. — The chief intermediate station! are 
(36 Kil.) Bode* (p. 340) and (114 Kil.) Murjek, 18-20 Kil. to the 8.W. of 
which is Storbacken (see below). — OelUwara pGrand H6tel) is noted 
for its productive iron-mines (Mahnberget), which are worked by a com- 
pany whose headquarters are at Lulea. The hill of OeUiwara Dundret 
(2425 ft. above sea-level \ 1256 ft. above the lake at its foot), ascended in 
2 hrs.. affords a view of the midnight sun from June 6th to July 10th, 
as well as an otherwise fine panorama (refuge-hut on the top). 

Fbom LuleI to Qviokjocjc, about 310 Kil., a journey of 4 days, costing 
about 130 kr. there and back (for rowing-boats: each rower 10-12 6. per 
kilometre: ask for tariff at Lulei). — 1st Day. By rail to Bode* (see above), 
thence drive in l l /i hr. to Heden y and take the steamer to Nt&rt Bde/ore 
(good hotel). — 2nd Day. Walk to Ovre Bdefort,. viewing the impressive 
rapids of the Lule-Elf on the way ; then by rowing-boat (steamboat-service 
suspended in 1804) in 8-4 hrs. to Storbacken (good quarters); and drive In 
7*8 hrs. via KotkaU (good quarters) to (58 Kil.) Jookmock (good inn), with 
its church and parsonage, near a superb fall of the Lule. — 3rd Day. 
Walk or drive by the new road to Slatkam on the Purki-Jawr; row across 
the latter, and after a short stage on foot, row across the Bkalka-Jaur 
(988 ft.) to the island of BJorkholm (good station). — 4th Day. Bow to 
TJomotU, and up the TJ&motis-Jawr to (6 hrs.) Njwni (good station); walk 
in V* nr * t° th* e& d of the Bag gat- Jaw; row in 5 hrs. to — 

Qvickjock (*Ga$tgi/9aregard), or Kinkkjokk, a picturesque spot 906 ft. 
above the sea, in about 67* N. latitude, whence the midnight sun is vis- 
ible as long as from Bods' (see table, t>. 214). The village, which owes 
its foundation in the 17th cent, to a silver-mine once worked here, con- 
sists of half-a-doaen red timber-built houses and a church, and commands 
a fine view to the W. of the Lapland hills surrounding the Tara valley. 
The summit of the Bnjarak (242o ft. ; easily ascended in 2 hrs.) commands 
an extensive view, and is an excellent point for seeing the midnight sun. 
— The journey hence to Bod* requires 3-4 days on foot, fatiguing and 
involving the fording of various brooks and rivers. The use of 'bandskor' 
on the feet is recommended. A guide (the brothers Holmbom of Njunjes, 
30 kr.) and provisions are necessary. — 1st Day. Rowing-boat on the 
Tara, and then walk through wood to Njunjee (clean quarters) in about 
6 hrs. \ then walk to the Taratb" and cross it by rowing-boat to the Tara 
Hut (very primitive), in about 5 hrs. — 2nd Day. Walk through the 
Lappland Alps and over the fjeld to the (10 hrs.) Varveke Hut (still more 
primitive). — 3rd Day. Walk to the Pitki-Jaur and through the Leurodal 
to the Lommi-Jaur and Furulund (p. 262), in about 10 hrs. 

Fbom Jockhock to the Falls of Njommelsaska. This excursion 
takes nearly three days (guide, about 10 kr., and food necessary). — 1st Day. 
Walk or drive to the Vaiki-Jaur in 1 hr.; cross by boat in 20min. ; walk 
in 4-4 1 /* hrs. to Ligga (poor hut with no beds, but good milk and coffee), 
crossing a small lake on the way. (A boy should be sent on the previous 
day, either from Jockmoek or from Vaikijaur, to see that the boat is 
on the S. side of the lake. Otherwise the traveller will have to walk 
round its marshy bank to the opposite side, a wearisome digression of 
about 2 hrs.) — 2nd Day. From Ligga a walk of 4-5 hrs., through forest, to 
the *Njommelsaska Falls (950 ft.), formed by the Btora Lute as it issues 
from the Btora LuU-Jaur. The height of the actual fall is not more 
than 40 ft., but the stupendous cataracts above and below it descend 
about 250 ft. in all, and, with the wild and trackless forest on every 
side, present a most impressive scene. We return the same evening to 
Ligga, and thence on the third day to Jockmoek. 

The next steamboat-station is He&er~Kalix(*Ga8tgifvaregard), 
finely situated at the month of the great Kalix-Elf, which a little 
higher up forms several grand cataracts, navigable for good boats 


tl boatmen* 
'ard')isthe * 
' from — 
mda (Hotel) 
of the Torra«- 
riving plae^ 
sa-going sfc^* 
tnda, whent< 
.— TheT 


ight's t& 
f the To 

plying *=** 
. — At 

d rocks. 
3ne vie* 
id to 26 
f the m*-^ 
tills; bTJ-*- 
ter to tl»-^ 
?he earl* 
th the 

W9A als<* 
d MaitJP 

x. in 8/4 Kr. **«n«fc a r (*Inn), reached 

noitheniirjioBt -t-*^ 

/% 1200 ILil. CT A.r\ ^** in Sweden > on the 

T.*b 1200 ix\lx«a> -™&«T. M.) from Stock- 

_ jrs stop at €lxe» >-V^a i** ^wch, good schools, 

^r*reellerB dii^^ *^5 of Salmis, 8 Kil. he- 

_^—X5lf forms t;*^ >>cw» town oy 'stolkarra' 

— ^L-ocliy of ^PinTa^^ ^^^ary between Sweden 

^/i. > «i which' the first town 

-3x€* p'cSp^ ^^^O^ti- 1 ^?^ * nd back 26-30 hw., 
^1.5 ¥u2u^£? *:* ^ **<>*« the w.ell-oultivated 
&i3, which,' iB X! *. ^iXo * ^2^ t0 <i? Kil.) JBi**o*«, 

engi we „ 

river m»y t>~ Jc^t^^ W r 8, »*f> (21 Kil.) fefafcoia, 

engi we • IxRSr^^I^a ^ x * about ** nour «- The 
^L «*. 2^?J? available from Kukkola 

***>U2* ' croas the broad a" 4 

<-»/* hr.) tb« ^tcltlr ^ol? 1 ^' or088 &* *>«>ad and 
Xx& . valley of t>w!P^5>* :fir2 and ascend over smooth 
***«, whea ti^T ??w;A fMin (870 ft.), which 
w *. sun's diejfc \ ^m^^jElf and the hills enclosing 

«a*^^ ed **ol!?***^*L*?"*i racts man F visitors, the 
t «/tf*«4KEfH* ^?P*^4« **atinctly higher than the 

*** hy ^c^n^^*^^^^^ *a«a Q n the Tome-Elf about 

* t**.^. VS*^ entrie» made by famous 
T^<7 tandem^ ^ o6 **eneh savant (1681), who 

^ ~ i?- 1694 » *>y **»««« in 1732, 
***** Pkilifipi in 1796. 



58. Copenhagen and its Environs 343 

59. From Copenhagen to Helsing#r and Helsingborg . . 361 

60. From Copenhagen to Hamburg, by the Danish Islands 

and Slesvig 364 

From Eoskilde toGjedser-, toAarhus via Kallundborg 366. 

61. From Odense to Svendborg, Langeland, Laaland 

Falster, and Mffen 367 

From Ringe to Faaborg. .Taasinge, 367. — From Svend- 
borg via Langeland to Masnedsund, 863. 

62. From Fredericia to Frederikshavn. Jutland .... 369 

From Skanderborg to Silkeborg, 870. — From Aarhus to 
Eyomgaard and to Hon, 870. — Friisenborg. Manager, 371. 
From Frederikshavn to Gotenburg. Skagen, 372. 

63. From Aalborg on the Limfiord to Thisted and via 

Viborg to Langaa 372 

Klitmjarller, 378. — From 8 truer to Lunderskov, 378. 

57. Copenhagen and its Environs. 

Arrival. By Steameb. Steamers from British and German ports, 
Stockholm, and Finland land at the Toldbold (PL 44; M, 4); those from 
Danish ports, Gotenburg, and Christiania at the Kvsesthusbro (PI. If, 5) ; 
and those from Malmo, Landskrona, and Helsingborg, at the corner of the 
Havne-Gade and Nyhavn (PI. L, 6). Porter ('Drager') for carrying a trunk 
to the custom-house and thence to a cab 30-500. \ for luggage over 56 lbs. 
more in proportion. — Br Railway. Luggage booked through to Copen- 
hagen from abroad is reclaimed at the custom-house. Porter for carrying 
a trunk to a cab 25-30 0. — Gab Tabiff, see p. 344. — Steamboat: Offices : 
Forenede Dampsktbuelskab (to Newcastle, London, Hull, Stettin, Kiel, 
Gotenburg, Christiania), Quaesthus-Gade 9, at the S.E. corner of the 
St. Annee-Plads (PI. L, M, 6): C. K. Hanten (to Hull, Leith, Stettin), Told- 
bodvei 5 and Havne-Gade 35 ; B. Frit* (to Stralsund), Amalie-Gade 31 
(PI. L, 5); A. Atpegren"* Bfterfolger (Swedish vessels to Liibeck and Goten- 
burg), Amalie-Gade 43. 

Hotels. Angletshre (PI. a; K, 6), Kongens Nytorv 34, in the centre 
of the town, with cafe'-restaurant, high charges; *Phosnix (Pl. b; L, 5), 
Bred-Gade 37 \ Kongen [af Danmaj&k (PL c; K, 6), at the corner of the 
Holmens-Canal and the Niels- Juels-Gade, with cafe* and restaurant ; charges 
at these: R. from 2 kr., L. 70, A. 50 *., B. 1, D. 3 kr. *H6tbl Dagmar 
(PI. 50; H. 7), at tiie corner of the Jernbane-Gade and the Halmtorv, R., 
L.. & A. from 2, B. 1, D. 3 kr., with cafeVrestaurant, D. from 2 p.m. 
2V2 kr., beer on draught; National (PI. N; H, 7), Jernbane-Gade 9, R., 
L., & A. 1V2-4, D. 3 kr near the station; Central Hotel (PI. d.; H, 7), 
Raadhuspladsen 16, commercial; Tottenbees, Kongens Nytorv, R. from 
IV2 kr.; SKANDiNAviajr (pl. f; K, 5), Gothers-Gade 4, near. the Kongens 
Nytorv ; KjjefBBNHAv^ J*,, h ; H, 7), Jernbane-Gade 7, near the station ; Tee 
Hjobtbb, Vester-GadaTpi H, 6); Thune, Hovedvagts-Gade 2, corner of 
Kongens Nytorv, we |t t* rt0 fcen of. — Near the Hartour: Gband Hotel 

kongens myrorv, \^ e ii * -jokexi ot. — if ear tne uaroour: ubabw hotsl 
(PI. g; L,'6), corner "** fP e Holbergs-Gade and the Peder Skrams-Gade, R. 

&e»t*uranU. ^ t f ra ngais, Bredgade 37 ; Hdtel <T Angleterre (see 

344 Route 58. COPENHAGEN. Tramways. 

p. 343) ; Langelinies Pavilion, Lange Linie ; Hdtel Dagmav (p. 343) -, National, 
opposite the rail, station; Theater- Cafe", at the Royal Theatre. 

Oafes and Confectioners. (Gap of tea or coffee 30-26 0. , chocolate 
85 0. ; also beer, milk, eggs, and 'BmOrrebrwd; or sandwiches). *H6tel 
d'Angleterre, see p.. 343; * Theater-Cafe', see above; * Vienna Cafe*, at the 
Hotel Kongen af Danmark, see above; *A Porta , Kongens Nytorv 17, 
newspapers and ladies* rooms •, Schueani A A Porta, Store Kj0bmager- Gade 18 5 
"Cafe Berntna, corner of Vimmelskaftet and Badstuestrtede. Andersen"* 
Jordbcei'kjailder, for strawberries and cream (Jordbeer med Fl0de, 50 0.\ 
Amagertorv 27. 

Oaba (1-4 pers.). Per drive within the city (including the station, 
harbour, and Christianshavn) 70 0., beyond the boundary 30 0. more. Per 
hour Ctimevis') i l fa kr. ; beyond the city 2 kr. •, each 1/4 &*• more 40 jar. 

— Double fare from midnight to 6 a.m. — Trunk 150., small articles free. 

Tramways (Sporveie; oars, Spervogne). The following are the most 
important lines for visitors: 1. Fbom the Kongens Nftokv (p. 846 % PI. 
K, 5, 6): a. Via Bred-Gade and the Esplanade to the Tri angel (PI. I, 1); 

— b. Via the Store Kongens-Gade to the Triangel (see above), and via 
Strandveien to the Slukefter; — c. Via the Gothers-Gade and the suburb 
of Nerrebro to the N/airrebro station on the railway to Helsing0r and 
Klampenborg ; — d. Via Holm ens-Canal, past the palace of Christiansborg, 
and across the Raadhusplads, to the Tivoli and the palace of Frederiksberg ; 

— e. Omnibus via the J&ster-Gade and Vimmelskaftet to the Tivoli, and 
thence (tramway) to Frederiksberg. — 2. a Fkom the Hojbboplads (PI. l.K, 6) 
past the Thorwaldsen Museum and via the Storm-Gade (PI. I, 7), Isted- 
Gade (PI. G, B, 8, 9), and Ny-Carlsbergvei (PI. D. 9), to the Vestre Kirke- 
gaard. — 3. Faou thb Halmtorv (PI. H, 7): a. Via the Farimags-Gade to 
the Triangel (see above); — b. Via the Ladegaardsvei and Falconer- All ee 
to Frederiksberg. — 4. Fbom the Tivoli : a. Via the Vestervold-Gade, past 

Christiansborg, and across the harbour to Christianshavn (PI. L, 8); 

b. Via the Gamle Kongevei and Smalle-Gade, and through the Vesterbro- 
Gade and the Allee to Frederiksberg. — 5. From St. Aun^e-Plads (Pi. L 5) 
via the Bred-Gade, Dronningens Tveer-Gade, Kronprinsesse-Gade, Sjgiv- 
Gade, etc., to Tagensvei (comp. PI. I, H, G. 4, 3). — 6. Fbom the Gammkltorv 
by the N0rre-Gade, Venders-Gade, and Farimags-Gade to the Solvtorv 
(PI. I 4). 

Electric Launches across the Peblingese and Sortedamss* from the 
corner of Gyldenl0ves-Gade, near the Klampenborg Station, to J^sterbro- 
Gade, near Trianglen (10 0.). 

Baths. Turkish Bathe, Tordenskjolds-Gade 10 (PI. K, L, 6; warm bath 
75 0., Turkish 1 kr. 80 0.). — Sea Baths at the Strandvei {KtbenhavnTs 
Bade- A Svtrmme-Etablissement), at Klampenborg (p. 361), etc. 

Post Office (PI. 31; I, 6), Store Kj0bmager-Gade 33; open 8 a.m. to 9 
p.m.t Sun. 8-9 a.m., 12-2 and 5-7 p.m.; poste restante to the right. Post- 
age for a letter within Denmark 8 0., within the town 4 0., to England 
200. — Telegraph Office, in the same building, entrance from the Valken- 

Shops. Beautiful copies of Thobwaldsen's Sodlptdkes at the Royal 
Porcelain Factory, Amagertorv 10; Bing, Amagertorv 8; Brix, Ny«Gade 2 

— Tebbacottas (statuettes, etc.): Ipsens Enke, Bred-Gade 33. — Photographs * 
Tryde, 0ster-Gade 1; BchHchSeruU, Vimmelskaftet 48; Balmonsen, Holberga- 
Gade 2; TTr*in % s Bookshop (see below). — Danish Gloves, good and not 

expensive : in the shops in the 0ster-Gade and Kj0bmager-Gade. 

Antiquities : Verdier, 0ster-Gade4; Petersen, Frederiksberg-Gade 34; Bosnia 
Raadhusstrsede 2. •' , 

Booksellers. G. 0. Ursin*s Efterfolger (J. Holm), Kj0bmager-Gade 8 • 
HOst, Gothers-Gade 49; Lehmann A Stage, Klareboderne 3; With, Prior bv 
the Sound Tower (p. 368), etc. ? * 

Honey-Ohangers. Privatbanken, Kongens Nytorv 28 and Ny-Gade 7 • 
Landsmandsbanken, Holmens Kanal 12. ' 

Theatre*. Royal Theatre (PI. 41. K6; p. 3*T), from 1st Sept. to 
2k 8 !Jf a y» S o0d acting and ballet. Ordinary charges (sometimes increased 
50-100 per cent) : front stalls 37s, second stalls 2*/ 4 , pit 2, dress-circle 3 kr 



! 1 

"^.QEN. as. Route. 345 

t»?*e-0».il« 10. — mn-Ttoitr (PL 9; 

' (PI. BO, H,7),, etc. 

>S°-TO *., p^grimme 10 #.), oatalde 

^llwij-slaliun, is s luge .nd very 

1^"5, flrc-works, etc. The pflrfarmiuicM 
g .*- *■ P.m. The concert. feJMflell concert 

* „ clueee) end »boqt 11 p.m. — The 

" ^fcpMlle lha Tl70li, tht Arma Th,*tr4 

™ J« Vtritii In lie Jeanne- Bade (elnM- 

 **»e Semmtrlttt, snd other «M. Id the 

• v&r- "'—'-""■ - 

-ss. - »s::r»w<"s. Kiss; ^ri»«.*^ 

"1S:!™™^*»-" - « ■•"»■»•"- - "°- - 

<"" i™. IMl " Lily 11-8, in »!°1« ,™ dB ,'Vi?.m. 

«£*™.«.1», «°K lit.. 10-11 thrill" » "■'•.'' °„„ 

tmiw "ho" 11-2, «Klio«-»om Ift*, «lW*a I™" 

Mwl, «°»"' ,' , 28.* Jo'T *" a* 13 Aujmt. 

23rd Inne v ( t 

jfiB.ralooKol * ( m (p. B52), from 1st Jon. lo Dun au*-, 

l,3i from 1 n6 t» Met Ang., Sun- 12 "?>„ we ,?r/o 

Col eel"" (P. j»»J, J"™;'." Ill 13-2. week-d*Y«. escept Mon., 10-13, 

G»de, modem i mpUtiMon maae a °*»" th6 

SSaft" asaffsAssnT! 

346 Route 58, COPENHAGEN. History. 

^Thorwaldten Museum (p. 348), from 1st May, to 30th Sept., Sun. 11-2, Tnea., 
Wed., and Frid. .11-3, free;, other days 11-8, 60 0. \ in winter, Wed. 
12-3, free; sticks and umbrellas 5 0. for each person. 

Zoological Garden (p. 356), daily, 40 0. 

Zoological Museum (p. 353), Sun. and Wed. 12-2; 50 *. 

Principal Sights. Fruekirke (p. 353) ; Thorwaldsen Museum (p. 348); 

Ny-Carlsberg's Glyptothek (p. 356); Palace of Rosenborg (p. 354); National 

Museum (p. 352) ; view from one of the towers mentioned at pp. 348, 353; 

an evening at the Tivoli (p. 345); Dyrehave (p. 361), and, if possible, an 

excursion to Helsingjffr (p. 363). 

Copenhagen, Dan. Kjebenhavn or Kebenhavn ('merchants' har- 
bour'), the capital of the kingdom of Denmark and the residence 
of the king, with 376,700 inhab.; including the suburbs, lies in 
55°4(K 42". N. lat. t on both sides of the Kallebodatrand, a narrow 
and deep strait of the Sound which separates Zealand from the 
small island of Amager. This strait forms the excellent Harbour, 
to which the city was indebted for its early prosperity in trade. 
The commercial harbour is separated from the war-harbour ('Orlogs- 
havn') by a barrier acioss the Kallebod strand. Anew free harbour, 
to the N. of the citadel, is rapidly approaching completion. Copen- 
hagen, the only fortress in Denmark, is protected by advanced works 
both on the land side and on the side next the sea. Several of the 
art and science collections of Copenhagen are of the highest rank. 

Copenhagen was founded in the 12th cent, by Axel, Bishop of Roes- 
kilde, on the site of a fishing-village mentioned as early as 1043 (whence 
its original name Axelhua), and increased so rapidly through its trade that 
King Christopher the Bavarian made it his capital and residence in 1443. 
Christian IV. (1588-1648 ; p. lxx), the most popular of the Banish kings, 
renowned not only as a warrior, but also as a wise ruler and a patron 
of industry and commerce, of science and art, greatly extended the town, 
chiefly by founding the ChrUtianshavn quarter on the island of Amager. 
In his reign the Palace of Rosenborg, architecturally the most interest- 
ing building in the city, was built, as well as the once strong fortifications, 
which successfully defied Charles X. of Sweden in 1658 and 1659, and the 
united British, Dutch, and Swedish fleets 'in 1700. The development of the 
city was powerfully influenced by the so-called Royal Law of 1665, by 
which the Danish people and clergy, jealous of the power of the nobility, 
conferred absolute sovereignty upon King Frederick III. (1648-70; p. lxx). 
Thenceforward Copenhagen became more and more distinctly the material 
and intellectual centre of the nation. The city suffered severely at the be- 
ginning of this century from the naval battle of 2nd April, 1801, and from 
the bombardment of the city and capture of the fleet by the British, 
2nd-5th Sept., 1807. The occasion of the former was the alliance concluded 
by Denmark with Sweden and Russia, of the latter the necessity of pre- 
venting the Danish fleet from falling into the hands of the French. Copen- 
hagen is now the centre of the whole trade of Denmark and imports and 
exports more than all the rest of the kingdom put together. The staple 
exports are butter, cattle, grain, leather, wool, train-oil, etc. The industries 
(porcelain, machinery, beer, paper) are less developed. 

Near the centre of the old or inner city lies the Kongens Nytorv 

(king's new market, PI. K, L, 5, 6), a large -irregular space, from 

which thirteen streets radiate, the"busiest being the 0$ter-Qadc(with. 

handsome shops, and its continuation the Amagertorv and Vimmels- 

kafi), the Qothers-Qade, Store Kongens-Qadc y Bred- Gade (p. 856), 

Nyhavn, and Tordenskjolds-Gade. In the centre rises the Equestrian 

Statue of Christian V. (d. 1699), cast in lead, and popularly called 

Ckatlotltnborg. COPENHAGEN. 36. Bouts. 347 

'Beaten' (the horeo). On the E. side is the palace or Chaxlotten- 
■»*», the sett of the Royal Academy of Art (PI. 20 ; L, 6) since 1754 ; 
the hill of the meeting! contains portraits and busts. Behind the 
-Academy i, the new Art Ball (' Kunstudttillinyibygning' ; entered 
from the fiyhsvn), in which the Royal Picture Gallery (Kongelige 
M'ltri-Suolliig; PI. 19, L 6), has been temporarily plaoed, pending 
the completion of the new Art Museum (p. 354). As, however, the 
building Is used tot annual exhibitions of art from 1st March to 
31st July, tho royal gallery lBthenremoved. Hence frequent changes 
in the arrangement of the pictures. Adm., see p. 345; Danish 
catalogue 26 e. (hung up in eaeh room). 

The Copenhagen Gallery, which now contains about 460 works by 
old master, end tt, 6 r „t by modern painters, ranks high among collections 
or the second elu,. The Dutch tUsiua o( the 17th cent, are best 

»f tHe collection, 'such' as CarorofmV. Gamblers (No. Jfl), the Meeting of 8S. 
Joachim and 4n na Dr FIHpp<n° L>Pg> (No. 183), MmUma't Pleta (No. 301). 
■™ d "w portrait of Lorenio Cibo (Mo. 306) by /•nrm^untoc. — The only 
eiamplea of the HaBr-i xTsraaw^HDiSH ■unu doaerring >pacial notice 
sELi"™* 11 "J* 1 "** by iM«* float* (No. 83) and an Injured and duutaifnl 
7?-H ?■ ~~ *ho G.nuiN School ia represented by two good eiamples of 
~ , **' ' OB 'Itjudl of Perie (TO) and Vcnos and Cupfi (69). - Among 
JS ftSE "* r ' the FtHDM Bohool are two by flusau, the Jndgment 

Tie Do™ »« th ° """hS, P ° rl "' it °' Ki,theH 1 ™ li ™ <™- _ 

. names. Rembrandt is illustrated by the Jesus at 
„„ admirable portraits (373, 37a)-, and nearly all his 
',. 67. Oo" (88, 89), rWrtr (384, 285), both Se tFsd 
,.., /- ., -. Jaitiaet (173, 1741, floe, rtinc* (103. 104), Bol (AT, IB, 

4 t ^" m (96-100)/ are 'well represented; and among 

fl i (30, 5?-*r. fig, 0uW „(, (80). j/aciMrJ (117. 118), J«S. 

«£.%: S& !&%£*• Ft " ac * r mh "*" man cn9) " 

Amoag tb^^l), »n« *»i" iMKM the Danish are of course the raoat prn- 

?>JE"1 " " a are of »er» high merit: Abildtaard (d. 

W»l . naa- B07, foBh'c. W. *«fer*»sr»-, chief 

of the _ ^ 631-Mi), the genre - painters (F. 

''ant , (4B3-i9B)i the landscape- painters J- r. 

**"« fawfasnf (731.733). tbn »» rin t t|3,"w5V 

i- J* :», {748-719). and 6. y««m«n» SgfcjSV. 

B.Ba aoeK.anUalBandlaodBc^P™ 1 * 83 "** 1 !! 

S/i »' portraits (697, BBS)) J- w - *""*** s 

CS*-T ,d portraits (763.766). . „, 

*■"•»»_.. the *ey-J Theatre (PI. 41 ; K. «* * *££ 

to »«3S3f*-* " right and left of the Bn ti-°<^ VI fj^v^, 
"•*-"»■ oi * t V *?jStl5t*, flo(*cr„(1684-175«, ^.ffi^^tl, 

lm »*S5SS Nor^-y, bnt J . professor In Oop^» OB W* 
\V *tt*wT th is the founder of D.tttsh oomedy - ^sSTjjsjmW"** 
IJ^S, inottet C "p B nl»^n professor (1820 - &0) . lB D 
SI6 * t e at dMnlMiat . 

0. SSij. cSSS'W 

mi m'i' 

Bout* S* 

» rf ** " 

Notion*"- 1 



on Soman* Ioie * 

G»4b », 

and w>B itself l***^*. in, I 

i B rtW.noot V9*'„dor „ 

ffie fc TIL, the *?"„ *«8 

by Bissen, eiecte** "Wiaj" 

a e ntea of StieDg*' J J 
eseentedby BisseW^, *J M '£n 
portal of the palace; »*»<*e jj 

«» ft *-E. D '«JVJ-««3E£SS 

Thorwaldsen Museum. COPENHAGEN. 58. Route. 349 

a quadriga, in bronze, designed by Thorwaldsen and executed by 
Bissen. The other three sides of the building are adorned with a 
series of scenes in plaster, representing the reception of the great 
master at Copenhagen on his return in 1838 after eighteen years 1 
absence. Entrance (adm., seep. 346) by the small door opposite 
the palace. — The Museum contains not only a very extensive 
collection of the works (originals in marble, plaster models, designs ; 
catalogue 45 *.) of the greatest artist of the North, but also his grave, 
which occupies the inner quadrangle. 

Albbbt or Bkbtkl Tbobwau>bbk was bora on 19th November, 1770. His 
father, an Icelander, who claimed descent from the ancient kings of his na- 
tive island, settled at Copenhagen as a ship's carpenter and carver of figure- 
heads, so that the boy was familiar from his earliest days with some of 
the tools of his future profession, and acquired freedom of touch by first 
approaching his work on its practical side. He entered the Academy of 
Art at the age of eleven, and in 1798 gained the grand prise, which required 
him to study in Italy. He did not set sail, however, till 1796, employing 
the three intervening years in producing busts and reliefs. He arrived at 
Rome on 8th March, 1797, and entered upon a long period of obscure and 
patient labour, during which even his friends began to feel doubtful of 
his gifts. Borne, robbed of most of her treasures of art after the Peace 
of Tolentino, could scarcely be called the most fitting school for the student 
of sculpture ; but Thorwaldsen persevered, studying the works of Carstens, 
copying antique busts , and lending an attentive ear to the advice of his 
distinguished countryman, Zoega, the archaeologist. The first model of 
his statue of Jason, prepared in clay, as he could not afford to buy plaster 
of Paris, broke in pieces , and the second failed to find a purchaser. He 
was at last on the point of returning to Copenhagen, when he received 
from Thomas Mope, the wealthy English banker, an order for its repro- 
duction in marble (1803). The tide had now turned , and thenceforward 
his career was happy and prosperous. He remained in Borne, and did 
not revisit his native country till 1819 , when he had become the most 
famous sculptor in Europe. This latter part of Thorwaldsen's first resid- 
ence in. Borne, 1808-1819, was undoubtedly the most important period in 
his career. It was then that he mastered the grounds on which antique 
sculpture may still serve as a model to the modern artist. He was no 
mere imitator of the antique, like so many of his predecessors: his very 
soul was imbued with its spirit. Like Winckelmann, he seemed to possess 
an intuitive knowledge of the laws of Greek art while still almost a 
stranger to its products. He gave back to statuary the dignified repose 
which the exaggerated unrest of rococo sculpture had destroyed , and at 
the same time skilfully avoided the risk of Insipidity. He restored the 
degraded art of relief to its pristine purity, rejecting all pictorial elements, 
with the result; that what was lost in perspective and realism was more 
than compensated for by pure ideality. He distinguished with unerring 
judgment between antique ideals that had a merely temporary value, or 
for the embodiment of which we now lack strength and insight , and 
those that possessed true immortality. Love-scenes, in particular, formed 
one of his favourite themes, and he strove to realise in sculpture the images 
of the Anacreontic muse. Plastic Oenre y if the expression is allowable, was 
specially enriched by the quaint fancy of his works. His genius was char- 
acterised : by marvellous facility of production and by a power of utilising 
even momentary observations for the purposes of his art. Numerous anec- 
dotes are told of the speed of his modelling and of the tact with which 
he induced his living models to assume unconsciously the attitudes he 
desired. Masterpiece followed masterpiece in uninterrupted succession dur- 
ing the whole of this period. His finest statues were Bacchus. Ganymede 
(1805), Pwhe (1809). Adonit (1806), the Shepherd Boy (1817), Mercury (1818), 
and the Graces (1819). The Procession of Alexander, executed by order n* 
Napoleon for the decoration of theQuirinal in 1811, is the greatest of 

I) Route 58. 

COPENHAGEN. Thorwaldsen Museum. 

reliefs, and in no other work has Thorwaldsen made a closer approx- 
tion to Greek art. The relief* of Day and Night (1815) and the Seasons 
probably the most widely known of all modern sculptures. The 
ptor's skill in depicting the youthful god of love did not desert him 
i in his old age. The Ages of Lote (1824) so delighted the Pope, when 
ting the sculptor's studio, and so absorbed him in contemplation, that 
forgot to bestow on the master the customary apostolic benediction. 
His visit to Copenhagen formed an important epoch in Thorwaldsen's 
jer. Thenceforth he devoted himself chiefly to Christian themes, chiefly 
the decoration of the Fruekirke; but these works, beautiful and digni- 
as they are, lack the fire of his youthful productions. He was now 
►gnised as the first of living sculptors , and was in request for al- 
tt every important monument erected in Europe ; but his strength did 
lie in portraiture, where the difficulties of modern costume proved 
ost insurmountable. His studio was thronged by pupils of almost 
ry nation. He produced in all about 600 works, but many of the latest 
practically school-pieces and lack the direct impress of his personal 

In 1820 he returned to Rome, where he remained nineteen years more. 
1838 he abandoned the active practice of his profession and returned 
)enmark to epend the evening of his life, revisiting Rome, however, 
842. On 20th March, 1844, he died suddenly while attending the 
itre at Copenhagen. 

Ground Floor. From the entrance we proceed straight through the 
■idor and turn to the left into the Vestibule. (The dates indicate 

the time' when the 
works were modelled, 
whereas their execu- 
tion in marble often 
took place much later 
and was partly carried 
out by Thorwaldsen's 
pupils.) No. 128. Elec- 
tor Maximilian I. of 
Bavaria (modelled 1838 
-84 ; bronze at Munich) ; 
to the left, 128. Ponia- 
towski (1807; designed 
for Warsaw), these two 
being colossal eques- 
trian statutes; 142-145. 
Monument of Pius VII. 
(1824-81-, Rome). 

Cokkidoe. To the 
left and right of the 
entrance from the ves- 
tibule: 66, 66. Carya- 
tides from the corona- 
g tion-room at Chris- 

XI- »■ ! XH. 
























XX. 42. 




XIX. 41. 



XVI. 38. 

XV. 37. 

XIV. 36. 

XIII. 36. 



Entrance Hall. 

XXI. Ground Floor. 

22-42. First Floor. 

d tiansborg(1813); to the 
C left, 119. Dying lion, 

S guarding the French 
fleur-de-lys (1819; Lu- 
cerne). Then farther on, 
to the right: 575-678. 
The Evangelists, reliefs 
in marble (1833) ; 59-70. 
n the Baptist preaching, from the pediment of the Fruekirke (1821-22; 
53); 162. Thorwaldsen leaning on a statue of Hope. — We now retrace 
steps, glancing at the tomb-reliefs on the pillars between the win- 
rs , and enter the cabinets adjoining the corridor on this side. 
Cabinet I. *40, *42. Ganymede (1805 And 1816). — Cab. II. *27. Cupid 
Pflyehe (1804); *426. The Ages of Love (1824); 430. Cupid reviving 


IVdrtional Muttum. 

antiques, O- 
are from »i» 
•floor, cont»i"K 
» Wed., i-1--' 

bridges, i 
the Danii 
g a conrp*-' 

hi8 lttnratT-y ^ 
tments, and. l*is 
elics, easts, 

™* Cab. 42 his unfinished 
■^^^J 3 *> *>y BUtm. 
v »y Tliorwaldsen's pupils, 

^~°^oie^V* 1 W • of tte Christianaborg, 
fc ^^VnrincGT" V^?^ CP1. 33; I, 7), once a 

^Td. *** Collect*©** of a P ani8h and Ethno " 

t« Ye-awangeT^eTit^w^V 11 ^ 1 ^ 1168 - The museum 

^=« x»issi° n > Bee *> *Va rC** 5 * 1 ^ n probably not be 

^"** * m ***0- the entrance is in the 

*D£Nia>*^ Ti:C &rof. Nyer**g> g^T ^writo?;, founded in 
Initiati^*^ ^i- «2. ^ 2*om«e*» -^f*?* 1 ^^ hetween 1816 and 
the car« Jf*^-*: *h e 4 lie ctioxx o^^VJ* 1 1S 66-69 *y Worsooe 

chief departx^ ^Jj.-*^' 5. Mutter and Dr. £T. 

. ^ tn thoi r PM-.V. ** - the Prehistoric (stone, 

Bions), and the IZfef one 


ere ar^ 
Iron p©- 

age3 ^ 
iction i-^ 
f by t£*-^ 
he his«^ 

objects ^ 

the 4 KJ 

nound 3- 

t, are 


most e^ 
and fro 
5 their- ^ 
tes, etc 

odern ti me ^**i"-^Wi, 

of the ftuest of - 2*"** *° 1660). — The pre- 

e Bo?*** 

ratae. ^^ 

»rlnd8ens *= ^ 

valuable 2^f- ' 

-^eeiim at s ^ -i*** Uindin existence, being 
j. of early e^^^^oX^ r 30m ^4 ^ ln _ 

contains, ^\>oxr^^A OX1 ' especially in Scandi- 

^r*moddi Use ^ o^ c »° 00 *» n^ber, include 

*ies, suell s> ta , r kitchen-middens', as the 

3. 5 weapoix B .^JS "~* eftue > etc., found on the 

3. 5 1 coins a^a. V" 0lr **aments, some of which 

i-ptions; eto. ^^a of Roman origin ; gold 

^ e in B **o^^**£**, founded in 1849, is also 

,-<iJ» lu ^e axx«i * -k Co **tains objects from non- 

°^I^° 8tUl ^ea tl)arou8 European nations 

etmna ***a I^a^^ arlike and P eaceful artB » 
__ T _^ ** *re especially well repre- 

: 0i*ruscan > 0*^£ x <*Tri T iEs contains Egyptian, 
contain *nd Roman antiquities, of 

r^^ 1». ^r^* Be? rw-J? OTAL Collection of Coins 

^iiose lay Vg- ^4^V^^° specimens, and the Royal 

• ei^brai^r* -«»»* V? ^ith upwards of 80,000 plates, 

Palais. -.* a «ti a S lresen ted to Christian II. by the 

- r^tf ***** fe Wel1 represented. 

'^r^ZS ' n^^^^UBstrade leads to the N. W. 

"^ " * K ^ *n<i i d market'; PI. H, 1, 6). 

athePri^^^^^orviB th ^ ^ 

YTO Y°tUe ^S+£J£S?^?T* H^L^Llireiected Yy 
*?< &£*l>i ^^^° 8 ^tf ^ the tymUm^are the word. 

* ^li a -K ^ST-ns : l Med Lov skal man Land 
*he land'). A new town-hall 

in 1806 
lich the JO- 
*with la^ 


?ot *•*■** ^^^ENHAGBN. 58. Route. 353 

Vs being b^* t/itli^»lc^ torv fr- 356). The busy Ny-Qade, and 
beyond it tfce v »M****f * nd the G^-Qadc. lead hence to the 
KoiiseMTity* *^^). one of the W«kei* thoroughfares in the 

city (com?. P/ fottnUi n „ A „ 

Passing t^ e jfeirk* \ the Ga "«noltorv we soon reach the Pro- 
testant *vonr *T%! n 7? (/Church of Our Lady? ; PI. 8, H, 1, 6), the 
metropolitan ^Jj; 11 *- Denmark, a simple but impressive struc- 
ture built by £*• * i ? n *en in the go*called Greek Renaissance style, 
replacing one ^»<» *** destroyed in 1807. 

On the right and left of the- entrance are Btatues of Moses and David, 
by Bium and Jerichou^ pupils of Thorwaldaen. The tympanum contains 
a group of John the Baptist preaching in the wilderness, in marble (1822) ; 
over the entrance, Christ's Entry into Jerusalem, a bas-relief (1840), both 
by Thorwaldtt*' 

Interior (adm., p. 345). The sole ornament consists of exquisite 'Marble 
Statuary, designed and partly executed by Thovwaldsen (1821-27): a Risen 
Christ and the Twelve Apostles, over lifesise ; a Kneeling Angel of strik- 
ing beauty, holding a shell as a font; relief of the Bearing of the Cross 
(1839), over the altar $ in the two chapels, reliefs of the Baptism and Last 
8upper (1820); above the alms -basin, by the entrance, Guardian Angel 
(1838) and Charity (1810). St. Paul (who is substituted for Judas), with 
the sword, entirely executed by the great master himself, is probably the 
finest of the apostles; SS. John, James, Matthew, and the pensive Thomas 
are next in excellence. 

The *View from the gallery of the tower (236 steps) is similar to that 
from the Bound Tower (see below). The sacristan (to be found in the 
tower, 9-11 o'cl.) lives at Studiestrsede 27 (adm. 25 0.\ for 4-12 pers. 1 kr.>. 

In the Frue-Plads, to the N. of the church, are monuments to 

the naturalist Schouw (d. 1852), the theologian H. N. Claussen 

d. 1877), the philologist Madvig (d. 1886), the composer Weyse 

d. 1842), Bishop Mynster (d. 1854), and Bishop Martens en {^. 1884). 

The N. side of the square is bounded by the University (PI. 45 ; 
H, I, 6), founded by Christian I. in 1479, re-organised in 1788, 
burned down in 1807, and rebuilt (by Mailing) in 1831-36 (1600- 
2000 students ; 75 professors). In the vestibule, beside the stair- 
case, Apollo and Minerva, in marble, by Bissen; above, frescoes by 
Hansen (porter in the sunk-floor). — In the N.E. angle is the Uni- 
versity Library (Pi. 46 ; 1, 6), with 200,000 vols, and 4000 MSS., 
comprising many early Persian and Indian (reading-room open 
11-3). — Behind the University is the extensive Zoological Mu- 
seum (Pi. 47; H, 6), containing a separate department for whales 
(entrance in the Krystal-Gade j adm., p. 346). — The adjacent Ger- 
man Church of St. Peter (PL 13 ; H, 6) contains a few paintings 
and sepulchral chapels (sacristan, St Peters-Gade 9). 

The Krystal-Gade leads hence to the N.E. to the Church of ti* 
Trinity (PI. 16), ^ ita Bound Tower (detrunde Taarn,. PL 36, 
I, 5; adm., p , *; 45) 116 ft M h buiU a8 we ll as the church iteetf 
in the reign !l f ™ * . Vc j «™™««<ling an admirable 'View 
of the citr a !, CllriStian IV *I an , d fTtdish coast in the distance. 
The tower ^ d env *ona **<* of the Swedish cau8eway4 To the s . 
of the chi/* tended W * broad spiral ox ^ ^ 1781 . and 

b^*** 11 ls * monument to the V°f 23 

* V * Norway a»d Sweden. 6th Edit- 




86). — The "bin s^yc iStore Kjabmaffcr-^ « ^ 

leads hence to ^*k<e> S.E. to the A.»». ***^» ' —■««■- 

b lb«V. the ^>Yoad Neiia.mTro».r.-^ > ' Bet * orv ' 
ipjing the ai-fc-a of the old ro^ttaoiTi^ 1 ** »nd esraBTom- 
Ae '««kbb Boiiwim', »«»»*»«■' * nd commonly 
inten. Ii» t.lke l»«t8"0ld-Oa.a.ft J* tlle old Wwn *">m 
. 0/ -_ * B the entrance to the 

Mm (PI ii*» ^ ^-» ^)> * ** Ilt >VI»l« "»-! 

i.b«ft'rf»«»-.»IV.ln«04, «2* »»«oll..B.nU„. n ,. 
bid. the *»* B*"' 8 ' f"" e » le&7» Peailne,lttlDtlB8 ">«l 

KOdiirt **» *»»** taateoitfae a^"^ monaralu, who fltted 

?i f to ""■«« main snutlcinc 

!?: "i (14*8-1648), II. From 

" 1IB penetrsled £--—  

* hut -V* '^^ l 3-3''_ Tim! J*" l> - I/JMV11WV, 

f ira^i — S y € SS »«. the u^SSSS 

dating a.*^"^-*** i™ iattaii V. (16TD-B9), is a 

■"J "°^ *»»^W V 1 Ii! i . p,PeB 6iat ^*-i-i^** m «  Bw » rtw-irag). — 

fl^s" * V*» *" «&? *«?** ■" - """"" y,a ' d 

; ;'™,J o«i«»" *»„ *"«•» « t ~°"f>«B-».«(Pl.I,K, 
aHyls*"*; *s*^** resort » *re B e ' 1"» afterwards altered 

Aste. J X-^*^ *t,V*d the tj JL ***"»-i* e ' * P^ion for mineral wa- 

,.ld-Q»'i ; r»^* "*»» = ™"o.MJ, 1 on the R. .He 

rHar»» ^^ tlre"W. ' "re anthor (d. 1875), [by 

„ldbaa«*°y. *2 05465 1 "JS 1 «.^,* te " d ' d - Q,d * stands the 
v m.U gt<»-^rf^»«< a fejrfcr., S0 l~i *? 8e aaBtatneoftheDanl 8 h 
' ><.f •?£2>»>"' G «»c,™' *^««." *> •"■■»■ The tVnUrtl 
, and ^^w^-T^ome,. ^ Or £" "djoin the observatory, 
rjaeent » «*» •** "' »>>« ^ **■ 7*3 »»"'«■ pleasant 

Uranee » -,, „» as* Ar( Af.*. "^d-Gad. and the Qothers- 

rtotbelj-^^^illcott^cl ^, CPl. U)i8JJ . wkHerecee( , 
leslgn ol ^t,*- as >» Sc >» Probably be completed In 

i!™'"" 1 " l l>tx.r ea and the flnt floor the 

Moltke Gallery. COPENHAGEN. 68. Route. 355 

royal picture-gallery (p. 347). — Adjacent is the new building of 
ike Polytechnic School (PI. 32; 1,4), an institution founded in 1829. 
In the direction of the railway-station lies the small totted 
Park (PI. 0, H, 5, 6), with statues of 0r*tcd, the naturalised. 1851), 
by Jerichau, the Maid of Orleans, by Chapu, and twelve bronze 
copies of famous antique statues, all presented by Mr. G. Jacobsen 
(p. 356). Outside the park is a bronze group, by Gain, of a lion 
and a lioness attacking a wild-boar. — The Halmtorv and the S.W. 
quartets, see p. 366. 

The Aristocratic Quarter of Copenhagen, to the N.E. of the 
Kongens Nytorr, consists of theBred-Qade (PI. L, 5, 4), from which 
the St. Annae- Plods runs down to the harbour, and the Amalic- 

At No. 2 Dronningens Tv»r-Gade, corner of the Bred-Gad e, is 

the *Picture Gallery of Count Moltke (PI. 26, L 5; adm., p. 345), 

consisting of about 150 works by Dutch painters of the 17th cent. 

and other Netherlandish masters, some of them very valuable. 

No. 8. Rubens, Half-length of a monk : 13-16. David Tmitrs % four genuine 
works (dated 1646, 1666, 1667, and 1674); 82. Rembrandt, Portrait of an 
old woman (about 1666) \ 66-09. Jac. van Ruptdael, four late works, two 
of them large (fine compositions with waterfalls and rapids); 60, 61. 
M. Hobbema, Wooded Dutch landscapes, luminous in colouring and bold 
in style; 98. Paul Potter, Cattle gracing (1652); several genuine works 
by Phil. Wouverman, the finest being No. 89, The Stable. — As in the 
case of the royal gallery, most of these pictures were collected by Morcll, 
an art-dealer, about the middle of the 18th century. 

Farther on, to the left, is the Frederiks-Kirke (PI. L, 4, 5), 
begun in 1749-67, and completed in 1878-94 at the cost of Hr. 
Tietgen, a wealthy banker. The handsome dome, internally 141 ft., 
externally 263 ft. in height, is a conspicuous object in the city 
when seen from the environs. Adjacent, in the Bred-Gade, is the 
Russian Alex. New$ky- Chapel , with gilded domes. 

In the Bred-Gade are the Surgeons' Hall, the Roman Catholic 
Chapel (PI. 11), and the large Frederiks-Hospital (PI. 4; L, 4). — 
The N. W. corner of the inner town is formed by a series of streets 
('Nyboder') of one-storied houses, erected under Christian IV. for 
sailors of the navy, extended in the reign of Christian VII., and 
of late partly altered. In this quarter are the Church of St. Paul 
(PI. 12j L, 4) and the Academy for Naval Cadets (PI. 37; L, 4). 
An adjacent monument commemorates Admiral Suenson (d. 1887), 
who commanded the Danish fleet in 1864. 

The Amaxie-Gadb (PI. L, 5, M, 4) is broken by the octagonal Fre- 
deriks-Pladd, which is embellished with an equestrian * Monument 
of Frederick V. (d. 1766) in bronze, erected in 1771 by the Asiatic 
Trading Company, and designed by Saly, a French sculptor. The 
four uniform rococo buildings enclosing the Plads together form 
the Amalieborg (PI. L , M , 5) , which is now occupied by the 
King, the Crown Prince, and the minister of the exterior. 

The Amalie-Gade issues on the Esplanade (PI. C, M,4), to the 


■>«»K,-C„ Ib , 


Athans: nr 
J 51h cent.; 
tram Athens . 
in relief, br< 

033, 108J 
IfU Uoi 

358 Route 58. COPENHAGEN. Ny-CarUbtty 

Athens by Lord Elgin (5th cent.). Under glass, *1037. Head of Hermes 
'(Mercury), with traces of colouring, recalling the Hermes by Praxiteles 
at Olympia (4th cent.): 1014, 1045a. Attic leoythi, or funeral vases, of 
the 4th cent.; 1088, 1039. Heads of athletes, from Athens (4th cent); 
1071, 1072. Heads of athletes, of Roman workmanship; * 1089a. Bronae 
statue of Hercules (4th cent.) ; 1073. Head of a girl, in a type of the Second 
Attic School, of Roman execution ; 1061a. Hellenistic portrait of a youth, 
from the Villa Borghese ; 1062b. Head of a dying Hellenistic prince; *1068. 
Head of a youth in a flat hat. In the centre of the room : 1056a, Torso 
of a satyr, an original Hellenistic work ; no number. Marble statue of a 
woman (Peloponnesian ; 5th cent.), recalling figures at Olympia. — The frieze 
of this room, by Jericho*, represents the marriage of Alexander and 

Room IV, with the great frieze by H. E. Freund ('Ragnarok', twilight 
of the gods), representing the decline of the Northern Olympus, the orig- 
inal of which was destroyed with the Christiansborg (p. 348), copied for 
this room by St. Binding. 1045. Head of a woman, from a tomb-relief at 
Tarentum (end of 5th cent. B.C.). 1063. Statue of a woman, with a cloak over 
her head (Aura veliflcans?), Greek type of middle of 5th cent., probably 
for the summit of a tympanum, Roman in execution. By the wall on the 
right, in the centre, *Hera ('Juno Pronuba*), a colossal statue from the 
Villa Borghese (Rome). 1063. Statue of a Triton (Hellenistic), ornament of 
a Roman fountain. 1064a. Statue of Dionysoa; 1053. Torso of Silenus, 
Hellenistic. "1079. Colossal head of Athene Promachos; 1061. Colossal 
head of a youth, from Tarsus, a decorative work, of Alexander's time or 
the beginning of the Hellenistic period. 1051b. Cupid bending his bow; 
no number, Hercules at the court of Omphale. *8tatue of Anaereon, after 
an Attic original of the best period of the 5th cent., from the Villa Borghese 
(Rome). 1223. Statue of Demeter (Ceres). Without number: Statue of a 
satyr, supposed to be the Periboitos, the famous satyr of Praxiteles, from 
the Villa Borghese (Rome). 1050. Statue of Hercules, from Tivoli. 1042,1043. 
Attie tomb-reliefs (4th cent). — In the centre of the room : 1048. Artemis 
(?), 1049. Amazon (?), two female torsos* expressive of great animation. 

On each side of the entrance to the next room are copies in marble 
of Thorwaldseri's Caryatides destroyed with the Ohristiansborg. 

Room V. 1060. Colossal head of -a woman with a mural crown, from 
Smyrna, probably the goddess of that city. 1073e. Head of a dancer; no 
number, Head of a satyr, with distended cheeks ; 1077, 1077a. Hermes of 
Dionysos (?) ; Statue of Leda ; 1291. Frieze with Hercules ; 1099. Colossal head 
of Dionysos; 1052. Statue of Paris or of Ganymede; 1073b. Female head 
(Athena Lemnia?) ; 1073c. Colossal head of Apollo ; 1063a. Statue of iEscula- 
pius ; 1066. Statue of Apollo Citharoedus ; 1097. Colossal head of Apollo ; 
1059a. Statue of Hercules ; no numbers, Two heads of Hercules ; 1059b. 
Statue of one of the Dioscuri; 1074. Head of iEsculapius; 1047. Statue of 
a youth, recumbent, a Greek original. — Room VI (semicircular). Bust 
of the King of Denmark ; seated figures of the Empress-Dowager Maria of 
Russia (Princess Dagmar of Denmark), by Jean Gautherin, and of the 
Princess of Wales (Princess Alexandra of Denmark) , by Chapu. In this 
room also are: 1068. Group with iEsculapius (who is represented without 
a beard, contrary to the usual custom) i 1073d. Head of Aphrodite ; *10G9a. 
Boy with fruit; 1060. Attic tomb-relief (4th cent.). The frieze, representing 
the Valhalla, is an original by St. Binding. 

Roox Yin. Gallery of Portrait Busts. Most of the works here are 
of Roman execution, but the following are Greek: 1078. Head of a woman, 
in a slightly archaistic style, recalling Peloponnesian types ; 1098. So-called 
Sappho; 1102. A poet; 1104. Epicurus; 1082. An orator; 1061b. Head of 
one of the Diadochi (successors of Alexander the Great), from Orete> 
with the little horns marking Urn as the 'New Dionysos'; no number, 
Sophocles. — Most of the Roman works are unusually fine examples, 
admirably illustrating the progress of the art of portraiture at Rome. 
They are chronologically arranged (except that the busts of the Julian 
period are in R. IX). 1226. Head of a man, in travertine, probably the 
earliest Roman portrait known; 1227. Tomb-relief of Gains Septumius, 

iwi'iiu; aa-i™ ' 

Ooidlinll/. 1 

period, of the 
the Btmscan. 

■om Vnlei 

presenting a ■>««« «i cnari„t, ,„7 h ™ ""■« 
TerraaotU pedimeut-gronp, reprtLnu bOT "aei,, 
cippns and cinerary easket, wdh mttih^Lit ' om ^l 
oan colomn, from Orrieto. "*"■"" mllefi, f, on 

Room IX, with  frine by J^itf..^ ,„ . 
and a coloured cast of the frieee ft 
Komu Senlpturea: 122id Ki.niui 
'1334. of Gain, Fui„li]j 

»th™. - Sarcophagi : Sim Dfon/,' 
1290. Myth ofltaMyasffrQmBWoD), 

of AngiBtnij 134S. Agripptm (he Elc 
Agrippma the Yonnger, diuj-hlernf ft 
tog; -1243. LiTim ^ft of jV^tair 1 
IMA. SUfUlaj 1360. Drumil Hw Toub 

1263? Domltil 

lojts froi 

A^phitoteTand'Mar^ no'oumber"Arl 

flghtlug tm the Delphie trip,,* (fr n m ^ v'm™U t "' °/ Hwwie.mdlioJ!; 

Victor!.^ the^rl^^f*! period! Snthe^rW 293 ' StSfti 
room i 1819. «To.aIc of EoroT.'' Jw, £"«?*3P"»'U- - la" fha «!^2 
, a copy of the va. e ta ZToiae^S J5, XJ 11 ' °"*Hl ▼£» ff"jS 
abides tf UlTSlffl •^^fWSWwi 2 lh ^««™ 

36fr Routt 58. COPENHAGEN. 

observe No. 1210 (under glaM), the original colouring and gilding of which 
are in excellent preservation. 1218. Sarcophagus from Vulei, with relief 
(3rd cent. B. 0.). 1306. Bronte casket , found at Prseneste, with battle- 
scenes engraved on the lid (3rd cent. B.O.). 

Cabhwt XI. Small terracottas (groups, small figures, heads) from Ta- 
nagra, Asia Minor, and Tarentum. 

Cabinet XII. Chiefly small antique works of art; busts; fragments. 

Cabinet XIII. 79$. Ah Cane (Spaniard, 17th eentO, Wooden statuette 
of a monk | three bas-reliefs in marble, by Mtoo da Fissile; 780* Mary, 
Jesus, and St. John; 794. St. Jerome; 796. John the Baptist. Unfinished 
bust of Alexander Farnese, in marble. 

Cabinet XIV. Antiquities from Palmyra, statues, busts, heads, altars 
(also a mammy from Syria), of the 2nd and 3rd cent. A.D., the most com- 
plete collection of the kind in existence, very important for the study of 
costume, ornament, epigraphy, etc. (Catalogue by J>. £Hmonsen, 1888.) 

Cabinet XV. Egyptian Antiquities. Tombstones of the PrimeevaL, 
Middle, and New . Monarchies, down to the Christian period, arranged 
chronologically. Also: 42. Belief-head of Seti I. (19th Dyn.); 60. Belief- 
head of Bamee* III. (20th Dyn.) ; five painted portraits from mummy-eases 
(from the Graf collection). In the cabinet: Painted plaster heads from 
mummy-cases of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods; bronze statuettes of 
Egyptian deities. Orssco- Egyptian terracotta statuettes. Two granite 
sphinxes of Hadrian's period. 

Boom XVI contains modern French Sculptures, forming a collection 
quite unequalled for completeness anywhere out of France. 447. CMr6m€ y 
Anscreon ; Paul Dubois, 424. Faith, *42D. Eve (two examples), *421. Caritas ; 
480. S. Falguiere, Ophelia (a portrait of Mme. Christine Nilsson); *411. 
Lelaplanche, Music; 774. Aizelin, Mignon; "433. Gamthtrin, Paradise Lost; 
789. Salmso*, Yarn- winder; 886. Barrios, The child Mosart; 877. Falguiire, 
Eve; *412. Delaplanchs, Maternal