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/0 7f4.70./6 

S|C SK 9|C 

This is an authorized facsimile of the original book, and was 
produced in 1970 by microfilm-xerography by University 
Microfilms, A Xerox Company, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. 

4e 4c 4c 






.H r ^y 


• • 

'*A race, no )c«s than a nation, is prosperous in proportion to the 
iauUigence oi its women/* 

TAi criierion^for Negr0 dvilixation is the intelligenci^ purity 

and high motives of its women. 


" I will go forth 'mong men, mailed in the armor of a pure intent, 
p " Great duties are before me. and great deeds, and whether crowned or 
crowntcts when I fall, it matters not, so as Gods woric is done.*' 


Printbrs, Bindrrs and ENGRAVRRS, 


<1 • 




LU .-'. 


M« A. Majorji, M. D. 

^» ,. 




Pmntsu^ Engratkiu and BiNDsn 






The turetC way Co demonstrate our true devotion to our sisters b to 
write a volume depicting their lives, achievemenu and activities. 

The strongest proof that we appreciate the high grcHind our sisters have 
reached, consequent o( their tireless efforts (or the good o( humanity, is to 
DEDICATE this volume to their unspotted lives. 

Tuft AiiTHOa. 



Dr. M. A. Majors, xvho in this work has, in my opinion, 
givi^n tho world a book covering rich and hitherto neglected 
ground, was born in Waco, Texas, October 12, 1864, of hon- 
ored parents— Andrew and Jane Majors — who now reside in 
Austin, whither they movedi in 1860, to secure tho at that 
time best educational advantages for their children in the State; 
Waco being not then as now the Athens of Negro education, 
where is situated Paul Qumn College, a very superior school 
of high and industrial education. 

After attendance continuously and successively upon the 
public schools, West Texas College, manageil by the Freed- 
men's Aid Society; and Tillotson Institute, under the auspices 
of the A. M. Association, he was appointed assistant mailing 
clerk in the post-olKce, which position he resigned, in 1882, to 
enter Central Tennessee College, Nashville, Tenn, 

He relinquished his litemry course in October, 1883, to enter 
the Meharry Medical College, from which he graduated in 
February, 1886, with honor, being salutatorian in a class of 
ton, thus completing las professional course at twenty-one 
years of ago. 

During his school life at Nashville he conducted the depart- 
ment of penmanship for the whole college, and was conspic- 
uous as a reiK>rter for the local daily and weekly papers on all 
public occasions. 

Since graduation as a physician he has pi*acticed in differ- 
ent parts of the State of his birth, as well as for some time in 
Los Angeles, California. lie is the first to advocate the organ. 
iaAtion of the Lone Star Medica^Association, the first Negro 


medical association ever organized in America. While in Cali- 
fornia, Dr. Majors married Miss Georgia A. Green, of Texas, 
an accomplished lady, in 1889. 

Dr. Majors was a welcome associate in the medical societies 
of California, where his color was no bar to his {xirtici))ancy in 
the proceedings. He was invited to lecture on medical topics 
before the Los Angeles Medical College. 

He was also very active in the political life of the State, 
and through The Western Newsy a paper which he edited, 
secured recognition of his race on the police force, in city 
public works, and in the office of assessor and collector. Prior 
to this no Negro had ever been so employed in any of the 
departments of the city. 

Beturning to Texas, in 1890, he at once began the compila- 
tion of " Noted Negro Women." 

This merited ]*ecognition of the virtues and force of the 
noted women of the race, whose work and influence have all 
too long been unnoticed, will receive at the hands of a discrim- 
inating public the attention its imi>ortance demamls. 

Epic in subject, inspiring in effect, it is no less true in fact, 
and only a culling from the wealth of similar material supplied 
in the liVes of hundreds of others, who, though possibly less 
eminent in the public eye, are no less true, devoted, capable, 
and noble exemplars of our possibilities and queens in our 

H. T. Keeling, 
Waco, Texas* President Paul Quinn College. 


I regard a true woman as the best, the grandest of all 
God's human creatures; a being of light, immaculate in her 
chastity, a paragon in her purity and capable of ennobling 
the man of her liking. A woman's gentle spirit is an all-per- 
vading virtue, whose influence softens the spell and Tills our lifo 
niche with its calm soul fragrance. Her smile intensifies our 
joys and leads us to forget the bickerings, the sins, the hard, 
angular elbowing; in the avaricious competition of a calloused 
world and opens our eyes to the brighter, the better side of 
earth's paradise. . Foster. 

''Here are spaces of labor, wide as the world, lofty as 
heaven." A virtuous enthusiasm is always self-forgetful^ 
virtuous and hence noble. It is the only inspiration now 
vouchsafed to maa. Like Pickering, blend humility with 
learning. Like Story, ascend above the present in place and 
. time. Like Alston, regard fame only as the eternal shadow 
of excellence. Like Channing, bend in adoration before the 
right. Cultivate alike the wisdom of exiierience and the wis- 
dom of hope. Mindful of the future do not neglect the past; 
awed by the majesty of antiquity, turn not with indiffei*ence 
from the future. True wisdom looks to the ages before us, as 
well as behind us. Like the Janus of the Capitol, one front 
thoughtfully regards the past, rich with experience, with 
memories, with the priceless traditions of virtue ; the other is 
earnestly directed to the All Hail Hereafter, richer stiU with 
its transcendent hopes and unfullilled prophecies. We stand 
on the threshold of a new age, which is preparing to recognize 


fill PRKtWeK 

now influoncc8. Tho ancient itivinitioB of violonco and wrong 
are retreating to their kindred darkness. The Son of our 
moral universe is entering a new ecliptic, no longer deformed 
by those images of animal rage. Cancer, Taurus, Leo, Sagit- 
tarius, but beaming with mikl radiance of those heavenly 
signs, Faith) Hope and Charity : 

"There's a fount about to stream, 
There's a light about to beam, 
There's a warmth about to glow, 
There's a llower atK>ut to blow, 
There's a midnight blackness chsngiqg 

Into gray ; 
Heo of thought and men of action 

Clear the way. 
Aid the dawning tongue and pen ; 
Aid it, hopes of honest men 
Aid it, paper, aid it type ; 
Aid it, for the hour is ripe, 
And our earnest must not slacken 

Into play. 
Hen of thought and men of action 

Clear the way." 

In presenting this book to the public, the author has taken 
into consideration the Latin proverb, Qualitatum non Quantum. 
And in a work so promiscuous, yet tedious, we find it a pleas- 
ing task to bring into reality the object of which our highest 
hopes have at times wavered. 2sow undaunteil, with energies 
concentrated we spring uiH>n the nation this little effort, hoping 
that many firesides will be made brighter, many a father's and 
mother's darling daughter will catch the inspiration of womanly 
attainments, and bloom into beautiful and useful womanhood. 
What our intelligent women will do, to glorify our race in this 
hospital of tears, fears, doubts and dogmas depends largely our 
success as a race. The present era is teaching humanity the 
moral,- intellectual and religious worth of our women. We are 
liviBg in a classified era of goodness. Whether our leading 


women Imvo olouroil the culminating point ami out-di8tunced 
our groat men, is a subject now engaging the attention of the 
thinking and agitating world. And jubilant of what v/e see 

. around and about us, where continual changes are coming to 
view, we look forward to brighter and grander days. The 

^ efTuIgent rnys of God's glory cast their meteoric sparks upon 
our pathway as never before, and the goodness of the nations 
join our feeble efforts to rise higher and higher, day by day. A 
wholesomeness of looking upwards is the fruition of a Mighty 
Powe; actuating mankind, with the universal acknowle<igment 
of mankind that no race is making more rapid progress under 
the circumstances than ours. To our readers allow us to 
emphasize, we are not attempting to say anythmg new. For in 
the mind and heart of humanity there is nothing new. We are 
intensely concerned, when our duty prompts us to cast our 
might in defense of the race. Now that we have painstakingly 
projected this unit to the catalogue of the literary world, let 
us say to the critic, do unto others as you would have them do 
unto you, we do not claim widespread authority, nor more than 
meager attainments, and since perfection is not.the rule on this 
mundane sphere, ** no writer can be free where all have power 
to judge.'' We pursued this gentle and timid toil, not because 
we were so well fitted for the task, but because of its extreme 
necessity. Being accompanied this pleasant journey through 
the field of literature we have participated in many a joyous 
argument, striving at all times to deal as mildly with our com- 
pany as it became our better nature. Unspeakable pleasure 
and good humor have characterized all our efforts to insert, or 
cut down, as the case necessitated, and without overdrawing, or 
magnifying too much, we hope we have pleased all. 

We present this little volume to our race and friends of the 
race, with the hope that the many and varied avenues into 
which our women are Crowding may give inspiratioi^ to the 

s Pit E FACE, 

girls of present and future generations. Tliey can ^^ make their 
lires sublime.** 

We have not by any means exhausted the subjeet, but fool 
that' we have given a faroIT view to the boau^tiful land8ca{)0. 
Others no doubt less conspicuous but ))08sibly more capable 
tban^many whose biographies appear in this book, owin/^ to dis* 
advantages under which we have labored, have no lengthy 
mention, possibly do not appear upon the scene. 

The world is full of books, yet few of them appeal directly 
and i>€culiarly to the Negro race. Many books written of 
persons and things have their beginning and their ending in 
fancy, tvithout special design for tlie elevation of mind or the 
culture of literary taste and pure morals, but for entertainment 
and amusement and gratification*of sentiment without utility 
to the reader in any sense whatever. We commend these 
pages to the reading world, trusting that they will for long 
stand out in bold relief, a signification of Negro progress. 

TuK AuTuoa. 




Ai^nsnT. OcTAViA V. R.... 21D 

AM'KN. Ammrua ,..• 206 

Andkuaon. MiiM. Naomi « 8*3 

AiiNKTT, MiiH. Kt. Hkv. B. W 38 

Andkuson, Mattir £ 324 

Ayi.ku. Km.a Jonus 4 828 


AuNKTT, Anna L 148 

AUKKTT, F(X)88IK Q 43 


ANDKUfK)N, Dii. Cauuib V. 8till 324 



Ai.LKN» Lauua 827 

Booth, Mum. Urv. Qko 171 

BiUTTON. MuH. M. E '. 216 

BuowN. MihmM.K 823 

Bainkh. Alicb 336 

Bainkh. Apki 336 

..JhiYANT. Mhh. J 346 

BucKNRU. Mi88 Ella 350 

BuowNR, Maoam 840 

I^WRUB, Hauuaii Bbdowick « 840 

BowKim. Ki.noua 828 

Bkan, Coha 300 

Bazkl. Katiio Strwaiit 148 

Bai.timouk. Anna 147 

Batti.kb. BRHTnA 148 

BiiowN . IIai.i.ik Q 230 

^J^LTiMouK, Anna S 148 

IhlOWN R, ^>*RI.R»TINK 840 

Brihirn. F1.0UA Batson 02 

Brroam, Coua L : 251 

B0W8RII. HoHA D ^ . . 140 

^ Brnculry. Wilt.rt 3<t2 

., Bk881R Bradt • 827 

: BAunoM, Mary 371 

-^BCRAPT, Mahia 152 

Brooks, Mrs. Blahciib V. H • 80 

. BRiooe, MiM • 48 

Bai«i.,H«8.; 60 

zii cosTEyrs. 

Bowman, GuilltAicx.. • 88 

BcsTiLL, Mrs 129 

BccccER, Mabt Fiu2(CB8 335 


CoLK. MissMarv :I50 

Cole. Miss Paxnie 350 

Cooper, Miss Flora 351 

Cowan, Mi*sEuzaJ 851 

XorroN. Jf UA UiNowooD 251 

Coleman. Lucretia Newman 107 

Clark. Dr. Cossuella 181 

CorpiN, Fannie J.^ckson 170 

Cooper. Anna JIulia 284 

OOOKR. M ar Y V 1 05 

CAMPiiFLL, Mary A 294 

Campbell. H aydie 328 

CARTER, Bessie GiRSON 327 

Cook. Bertha B 147 

,^EEK9, Mattib E 148 

Coleman. Annik Jones 148 

Clark, Mrs. Sarrah 170 

Cook; Mrs. P 147 

CooKB, Essie Fry ^ 175 

Cooper. Ai>a A 208 

Cn.%PMAN. Katie 6 823 

CuiLDERs, LvLU Vers 346 

Cord, Mrs. Sarrah 346 

Deo ART. Jennie Jackson .• 134 

J^kAVis, Henrietta Vinton 102 

De Baptiste. Georgia M 207 

Pe Morte. Louise 113 

DcDLEY. Caroline £ , 58 

Dyer. Mrs. M J. (nbb Emma Fisher). 00 

Datis. Mrs. Louisa ^ 130 

DoroAN. Madame 148 

Dever. Miss 171 

DicKERSON . Carrie L • 341 

.X^ILI^^N, LrR. *■• 1. .•••«.. .a. •.*•••••••••• •••...•••.••••••••....•••• Ov4 

.^.DovcR. Mattib £ 317 

Do^-E. Mrs 336 

Evans, Ida B .% 827 

Evans. A . Laura 328 

Early Sarrah J. W 101 

Edwards Mrs. J. B. 333 

Eato, E. V. C».»«««»»»»»»»» ••••••••••••••••• •••..•••••••••••••... ««« 

Evans, Mrs. D. A 841 

rox. Mamie E..'^..' 125 

Flemminq, Florence a. T 300 

^JCAiRCtnLD, Annie. 827 

Fbrouson. Happy 132 

FoRTEN. Sarrah 194 

Freeman. Harriet £ 851 

Felts.Mrs. Dr. Alice 311 

FdnvR, Mrs. Addison 836 

GLorBR.MR8 P. A 851 

CONTENTS. • xia 

OhAT, Dr.Ida 241 

OiiiFFiN, Cahrib L ^ .' . 325 

GOLDBX, Dn. Carrib ^ 336 

jCUikex. 11 attib *ykJ 


OouDY, Miia. C. C ./.. r 327 

Gkaxt, Miw. Dr. G. F 123 

, Oi.ovER, Madam 270 

^j guimkk, cliarlottb fohtbn 213 

Gahrison, Nancy 841 

Oarnktt. Mr8. 11. II , 271 

GouDAN, Hester Anji 39 

GlitARD. Frances L... 45 

,^iJpiN8. Mrs. R. M 343 

G I bsoN, Mary » j 38 

Gi uiw. Prok 301 

Garner. Beulaii V 323 

G^.\RNETT, Mrs. PRor 320 

GniiM. Ida 327 

Griffin, Ida U 330 

lIiCKS, Miss Fanmib ^ 344 

Hart. Myrtle , 30i 

Hawkins, Stella 354 

Harper, Frances E.^V 23 

Hall. Annie Marib , • 180 

. Hood. Mrs. Bishop 326 

Hyers. Anna Madaii AND Emma Louis 108 

Holland. Clara Montbitu , ; 350 

Howard. J. Imooenb. 28D 

Hurlukuts, Misses • », 320 

Hyers. May C 88 

Heard, Josib D 261 

H.\YdEN, Julia ^ 333 

^ E[ammond. Mrs. Dr. Frank .^ 30.5^^ v^ 

"Henderson, M attik Allisoic 121 

Hawkins. N. Gertrude 274 

Hayden, Della Irvino 32 f^^uL\ 

> Harris. Mrs. R. B 71 

Handy. H ELLEN D ,.: 148 

Hioiiwarden. Bell JonKsoN 148 

Howard, Adelinb 280 

Howard. Joan L 289 

Hamilton, Olivia 29S 

_jIi>NBs, Sarah Gibson 138 

Jones, Dr. S. G 242 

JoiiS'SON, Mrs. A. E 210 

Jackson. M. Bell 151 

Jones. Mdmb. Sissbrbtta -^^kk ^ 

Jones, Miss Frederick A 2«3 

Jones. Anna H 147 

Jones, Gussib E. Clark 148 

Jonbs. Dr. Sophia B 148 

Johnson, Amelia E 214 

.-JouNsoN, M18SL.H ••••• 823 

jACfksoN, Addib • 322 

J0NB8. Madam JoHX 840 


xiT C0NTBST8. 


/ JonN80K. BuzA 846 

JOKE9, Mrs. C. £ U46 


Johnson. Willbtta 1 90 

King. Dovib K8 

Keckijct, Elizabeih 859 

Lewis, Edmonia ... 27 

Lewis. Lillian A 198 

"^bAMBRRT, Mrs. M. £ 335 

Lbe. SakraiiH 809 

Lanbt, LccT 825 

Lai«su. Princess « 277 

\ Lton. Mrs. Abbie Wright 00 

Lankfiird, Mrs. Clarrissa 143 

Lke. Mart £. Asn^ 311 

Lewis. Gay 148 

Lkslib. Mrs. N. A. R 242 

L^E. Miss Tbeodora •^4(1 

Tewis.Eva 330 

Morris.MartF .340 

Matloce. Miss M. E 321 

M'AHTIN, Mli*!« AlllMENTA 333 

Mosi»F.LL. Miw. N. F 120 

MoouB. Vara Lkb 828 

Mgntoomruy. Mrs. V. A 258 

McEwEN. Miss A. £ 250 

MrLF^. MissE. 842 

.3UTIIEWS. Mrs. W. B •.. 211 

Moran. Miss Ophelia 8i3 

.Uoc^<KLL, Mrs. C. \\ 179 

* McKinnby, Dr. Susan 2G9 


MrLLEN. Amanda d 827 

Mkkcuant. Amanda • 843 

MrrciiKi.L. Nellib £. Brown 170 

MorxLCY. .Miu» Eliza 40 

\ MooRB. Amelia ; 114 

^MpKiNNEV. Lena Miller. 148 

^Mitchell. Miss Sarrah 171 

— Moten. Miss Lcct £ 818 

M6ffaiu>. Mabel 830 

Majors. Georgia Grbbh 830 

\ NEWTON, Mrs. 8ADIB 820 

Kesbitt, Mrs. B. C 181 

Nauar, Ednora 244 

OWBN, 8. A 880 

Page, Mrs. Zblia R \ 60 

^Peabe, Marts 188 

rPLATT. Miss Ida ,* 835 


"IPbnn; Mrs. Anna Bbll Roodbs 75 

pROUT. Mart 178 

Pbiups. Minnie Brinklbt 825 

Prbbton. Frances £ 96 


Prrston, Mim L 100 

)(Patton. Dr. OeoroiaL 117 

Pbliiam, Mkta E ; ; 190 

PlS^MAH, Eliza 207 

"TowELL, M188 Paulinb 2 17 


PnsLPS, Miss E. N 323 

Patteiwon. Miss Ciianik 319 

Paxton, Miss Alice 343 

Powell. Mrs. Framcbs 851 

tJlAT, Charlotte E 183 

Ricks. Mrs. Martii^ Amk 804 

IIat. Florence • 170 

Us>BBRTS. Mrs. J. J 269 


UANDOLpn. Mrs. A. G 37 

RXLI.S, Mrs 182 

UouERTs, Mattib P 148 

HiCiiAiiDs, Alice • 148 

UiciiARDs. Miss 171 

UidLEY. Anna Augusta ; 301 

Uakavai/»na (Queen) 181 

Uamsky. Mihs 321 

_ UfCYKOLPs. Mifts Emma .• 348 

Heed, Mrs. IIettie 350 

Spraour. Miss Estrlla 848 

Smith. Mrs. Ella 850 

Sawxkr. Ikiiis. Ellen 351 

8!X>AN. SilknaM 327 

Sinclair. Mary DbMcLbmorb *t. 828 

Smothers, Mrs. 335 

Sheldon. Mary Prakcbs 141 

Sharps. Jennie A. :86 

Ji«»«KD. liAVlNA B , 286 

Spraoue. Mrs. Natiiakibl 104 

\ Smith. Amanda. .' 278 

Smith . Lucy Wilmot 202 

Smith, Christine 8 4 326 

Srlika Mxdam (Mart Wiluams) ; 307 

Steel, Miss Carrie 342 

Sampson, MissQ. O 800 

Shepherd, Ella P 249 

Shorter. Susife 1 148 

.^ Stu mm. Mrs. C; 207 

Smith, Margaret 202 

Stephens. Miss Maooib I ,- 87 

SiLONB. ParthrmiaR 44 

Suggs. Mrs. Esthbr 208 

Saxon, Crlia Dial HI 

Smith, Mrs. Carolikb. • 21 1 

Shadd. Mary A 112 

Sheldon, Susan 141 

SwiTZBR, Anna \ 146 

Swi TZER, Bell • , 146 


Still. Carrib y. Anderson 148 

SnnfoX8, Jai«b 148 

Terrell. MoLLiR CncRcn • Z^l\ 

^Tiit'iiMAN. Mr0. Lucv Ht}0 

Truth. SojornNRR .vr .\...v rT--184 

TiioMrdoK, Mii>8 Clarrima M • 64 

TiLOUMAX, MiM A. L 203 

TnoMrsoK. Eliza 1Ib3Chietta (\0 

PRXKR, Kate 148 

Vrpin, Maria V 100 

TiixtnMAK, Mahoarkt a 1^03 

TnoMAs. Lillian Parker 204 

TiLMAN, Katik D 337 

Taplet. Mrs Lrcr 341 

TiioMPMX. Miw Uaciiel 352 

Trapte, Mart 300 

Vaxella. Mrs. Or 820 

^ WiNSLOw. Valetta • • 237 

^^^siiiKOTON. Olivia Davidson • 53 

\VAS90M. FllANKIE E. ilARRI8 71 

Wai JCKR. Rachel L • 283 

'^Ei.Ls. Ida U 187 

We»tdrook8, Mr9. L. a 114 

Wii.fo5. Mrs. Albert 2r»0 


Wood. Ione E 237 

TViieatLet. P111LU8 17 

TV00D90N. Jemima lOl 

IVfcT XKL. Madame 28*i 

nARO. Mr*. Jo5ij>niKE i:>0 

Watpojc. GmA Lkr 148 

WiLUAMS. Mary £ 148 

White. Miss Adina E 100 

Wadkixs. Mrs. Prof .' 324 

Wn.«ox», Misses 3*22 

Weston. Miss P. B 322 

Washinoton. Miss BLANcnB *..•«••. 258 

Watson. Mrs. Minnie 840 

WgRLEs. M iss Sarraii , :^')0 

AvARwicK. M188 Bessie 350 

Washington, Esther 351 

Washinoton Fankik A ..••.351 

Withers, Mhs. Mart 820 

Washinoton, Miss Lucilla ••.....• • • • 825 

WmiERs. Mat 836 

Tatba, Mrs. J. 81LOXE 44 

TouNo. Mrs. Lizzie 840 

T6rNi«, Jkssib « 4 •••.. 846 

J^Lflinco. Mrs. Bobbrt. 846 

ZuiOA, Ajhia • 158 



" Good hciiTcn 1 what tnrrowt gloomed thtt ptrtlng dty 
Tbat called mo from nativo walks away! " 


Orait Poct€99^ OHC9t of the Uoitat Family, Friend and A$90ciatc to Lady 


iIIILLIS WIIEATLEV was a woman whose greatness of 
soul the whole world admired. Her generosity was such 
that it evaded demands and saveil the receivers the confusion of 
requests. In referring to Webster's unabridged biographical 
names, we find that she was born in Africa, 1753. Professor 
William T. Alexander, in his History of the Colored Hace in 
America, in paying tribute to Phillis Wheatleyand the colored 
race, beautifully ^lys : '* There is little doubt but when onco 
f uraished with these keys, the colored race are capable of reach* 
ing andunlocking all the doors accessible to any other people. 
We neeil not dip into the future for the law of higher inheritance 
to note examples of this truth, or even to depend entirely 
upon the present, with its increaseil facilities to this end, but 
may go back and take an instance from the dark days of 
slavery, and of one direct from Africa. Wo refer to Phillis 
Wheatley, who, tho' a " child of Africa," was, for her literary 
talent and virtue, accorded the highest distinction and honor 
both in the United States and Europe. It seems that she was 
brought over to this country in a slave vessel from Africa 
when but a little child." 

The following from her biography by Benson J. Lossing, 

u yoTSD yEono wouay, 

L.L. D.« will bo intorosting, Tho wifo of aro^pootablo citizon, of 
Boston, namoil Whoatley, went to tho bIuvo market in that city 
in 1701, to purohano a ohild-nogroAs, that Hho mi^ht roar liorto 
bo a faithful niirso in tho oUl a^o of Jkor mmtrotis. She naw 
many plump ohihiron, but ono of dolioato frame, modest 
ckMneanor and chul in nothing;; but a piooo of tlirty car|>ot 
\vrap]HHlabout hor, attn\oted hor attention, and i^[rs. WheatU^y 
took her homo in her chaise, and gave her tho name of Phillis. 
The child seemed to be about seven years of age, and exhibited 
remarkable intelligence, and apt imitative powers. Mrs. 
TTbeatley^s daughter taught the child to read and write, and 
ber progress was wonderful. She appeared to have very little 
recollection of her birthplace, but remembered seeing her 
mother pour out water before the sun at its rising. With the 
developmentof her intellectual faculties, her moral nature kept 
pace, and she was greatly loved by all who know her for her 
amiability and perfect docility. She soon attracteil the atten* 
tion of men of learning ; axul as Phillis read books with great 
avidity, they supplied her. Piety was a ruling sentiment in 
lier character, and teai*s born of gratitude and love for her mis- 
tress often moistened her eyes. As she grew to womanhood 
ber thoughts found expression thi*ough her pen, sometiiuca in 
prose, but more often in poetry, and she was an invited guest in 
the families of the rich and learned, in Boston. Her mistress 
treated her as a child and was extremely proud of her. At the age 
of about sixteen years Phillis became a member of tho *^ Old 
South Church,'* then under the charge of Dr. Sewall. It was 
about this time that she wrote the poem of which a verse 
below is an extract. Earlier than this she had written poetry, 
poems remarkable for both vigor of thought, and pathos in 
expression. Her memory in some particulars appears to have 
been extremely defective. If she composed a poem in the 
night and did not write it down, it would be gone from her 
forever in the morning. Her kind mistress gave bora light and 
writing materials at her bedside that she might lose nothing, 
and in oold weather a fire was always made in her room at 


In tho sununor of 1773 hor honlth gnvo way, and a 8oa 
voyngo wut roooininoiulod. Sho acoompanioil a son of Mr. 
Whoutloy to Knglunil, and thoro sho was ooiHlialiy recoived by 
L\ily llnntingdon, lA>rd Dartmouth anil othor {)Ooplo of dis* 
tinotion. Whilo thoro hor pooms, which had boon colloctcil 
ami dodieatod to tho Countoss of Iluntingilon, wore publishoil, 
and attracted groat attention. Tho book was cmbollisbed with 
a portrait of her, from which our picture was copied. She was 
persuaded to i*emain in London until the return of the Court, 
so as to be presented to the king, but, hearing of the declining 
hea)th of her mistress, she hastened home. That kind friend 
was soon laid in the grave, and Phillis grieved as deeply as 
any of her children, ^[r. Whoatley died soon after, and then 
his excellent daughter was laid by the side of her parents. 
Phillis was left destitute, and the sun of her earthly happiness 
went down. A highly intelligent colored man of Boston, 
nanied John Peters, ottered himself in marriage to the ]>oor 
orphan, and was accepted. lie proved utterly unworthy of 
tho excellent woman ho had weiMed, and her lot became a 
bitter one indeed. Misfortune seems to have ex]>elled her 
muse, for we have no production of hor ])en bearing a later 
date than those in her volume published in 1773, except a 
poetical epistle to General George Washington, in 1775, and a 
few scraps written about that time. Washington replied to 
her letter on the 2Sth of February, 1776. His letter was 
written at his headquarters at Cambridge : 

Miss PniLUs: Your favor of the 26ih of October did not 
reach my hands till the middle of December, time enough you 
will say to have given an answer ere this. Granted. But a 
variety of important occurrences continually interposing to 
distract the mind and withdraw the attention, I hope will 
apologize for the delay, and plead my excuse for the seeming, 
but not real neglect. I thank you most sincerely for your 
polite notice of me, in the elegant lines you enclosed, and 
however undeserving I may be of such encomium and pane- 
gyric, tho style and manner exhibit a striking proof of your 
poetical talents, in honor of which as a tribute justly due to 


joa, I would have published the poem, bad I not been appre- 
liensive thai, while I only meant to give the world this new 
instance of your genius, I might have incurreil the imputation 
of vanity. This, and nothing else, determined me not to give 
it a place in the public prints. If you shoultl ever come to 
Cambridge, or near headquarters I shall be happy to see a 
person so favored by the muses, and to whom nature has been 
•o liberal and beneficent in her dispensations. 

I am, with great rcsjKct, 
Your obedient, humble servant, 

Gkokok Washington. 
• A few years of misery shattered the golden bowl of her 
life, and in a wretched apartment, in an obscure part of Boston, 
that giftetl wife and mother, whose youth had been passed in 
ease, and even luxury, was allowed to perish alone 1 She died 
on the 5th of December, 179^« when she was about thirty-one 
years of age. The following is an extract from one of her 
poems previously referred to : 

\ " Twai mercy brought mc from my pagan land, 

^^ Taugbt my benighted soul to understand 

'^^ ^ That there's a God— that there's a Savior too. 

Once I redemption neither sought nor knew." 

•Among other noticeable features in this touching story, we 
find that the great George Washington — " first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen"— -did not 
hesitate to speak in the highest terms of the genius of this 
gifted colored woman, nor to pay her an honor which might 
well be coveteil by the greatest intellects of our land to-day. 

And Goldsmith adds : 

*' Thine, Freedom, thine the blessings pictured here. 
Thine are those charms that dazzle and endear 1 
Too blest indeed were such without alloy ; 
But, fostered e*en by Freedom, ills annoy; 
That independence Britons prize too high, 
Keeps man from man, and breaks the social tie ; 
The self-depending lordlings stand alone, 
AB claims that bind and sweeten life unknown." 

Under the caption of '* Women of the Century" Mrs. 
fiannafurd, in her illustrious work, ** Daughters of America,'' 


says of Phillis Wbcatlcy : She was one of the four illustrious 
women who dwelt in the United States previous to the United 
States century. She (Phillis) was brought from Africa to 
Boston in 17Ci. When but six years old, she wrote a volume 
of poems, which was published in London in 1773, while she 
was in that city with the son of her owner, for she was a 
slave. She was educated through the favor of her mistress^ 
and was quite proficient in the Latin language. A poem, 
which she sent to General Washington, gave her enduring 
fume. Iler life bore evidence that the colonial women, though 
some of them slaveholders, were not destitute of a lively 
interest in those the custom of the times placed wholly in their 
charge. Phillis herself is a proof that even African women, 
despised as they have been, Imve intellectual endowments, and 
/with culture and Christian attainment may rival their fairer 
sisters in the expression of high thoughts in poetic phrase.'' 

PlUai$ Wicatky Poem, Dedicated to General Washington. 

From the Boston Courani : Last week we attempted to 
offer a few remarks on the life and uncollected works of 
Phillis Wheatley, thinking thereby that the attention of our 
readei*s might once more be called to the contemplation of her 
genius and writings. If we have been successful, if we have 
succeeded in arousing even a transitory interest in her now 
waning memory^ we could ask no more. But we shall take 
advantage of it« transient as it may be, to offer to the public 
Phillis* letter . * ^em to General Washington. 

This poem was sent to General George Washington just 
after he took command of the continental army in 1775, and 
was intended to celebrate that event; by Sparks, the biographer 
of Washington ; by Williams, our best historian; in truth, by 
almost all writers of this period, this poem was supposed to be 
lost. But such was not the case. The poem was sent to the 
publisher by the old general himself, though be said otherwise 
in his letter to Phillis. 


PhiUU Wheatley to General Washington. 

Sib: I have taken the libertv to address vour ezcellencv 

• » » 

in the enclosed poem, and entreat your acceptance, though I 
am not insensible to its inaccuracies. Your being ap])ointed by 
the Grand Continental Congress to be Generalissimo of the 
armies of North America, together with the fame of your 
virtues excite sensations not easy to suppress. Your gen- 
erosity, therefore, I presume, will pardon the attempt. Wish- 
vag Toar excellency all possible success in the great cause you 
are so generously engaged in, I am your excellency's most 

obedient, humble servant. 

Pqillis Wheatlbt* 

Providence, October 26, 1775. 


Celestial cboirl cnthroDcd In realms of light, 
Oolumbia*8 sccDes of glorious toils I write. 
While freedom's cause her anxious breast alarms^ 
She flashes dreadful in refulgent arms. 
See mother Earth her offspring's fate bemoan, 
And nations gaze at scenes l)efore unknown ; 
See the bright beams of heaven's reroWing light 
InTolred in sorrows and in veil of night! 
The goddess comes, she moves divinely fair, 
Olive and laurel bind her golden hair ; 
Wherever shines this native of the skies. 
Unnumbered charms and recent graces rise. 
Muse! Bow propitious while my pen relates 
How pour her armies thr«>ugh a thousand gates ; 
As when Eolus heaven's fair face deforms, 
Enwrapped in tempest and a night of storms ; 
Astonished Ocean feels the wild uprosr. 
The refluent surges beat the resounding »hore ; 
Or thick as leaves in Autumn's golden reign. 
Such, and so many moves the warrior's train. 
In bright array they seek the work of war. 
Where high unfurled the ensign waves in air. 
Shall I to Washington their praise recite? 
Enough, though knowest them in the fields of fight 
Thee first In place and honor we demand. 
The grace and glory of thy mortal band. 
Pained for ihy Talor» for thy yirtue more. 


Hear eTery tongue tby guardian aid Implore ; 
One century scarce performed Ita destined round 
When Gallic powers Columbia's fuiy found ; 
And, so may you, whoever dares disgrace 
The land of freedom's hcayen-defcndcd race. 
Fixed are the eyes of nations on the scale. 
For in their hopes Columbia's arm prevails. 
Anon, Britannia droops the pensive head. 
While round increase the rising hills of dead. 
Ah t cruel blindness to Columbia's state. 
Lament thy thirst of boundless power too late. 
Proceed, great chief, virtue on thy side ; 
Thy every action let the goddess guide. 
A crown, a mansion, and a throne that shine 
With gold unfading, Washington, be thine. 

It will be seen that Phillis refers to America as Columbia^ 
the origin of which saying is erroneously ascribed by histo> 
rians to Dr. D wight. But the name Columbia must have been 
applied to America long before Dr. Dwight, and possibly 
before either writer lived. 

The line beginning *'When Gallic power/' etc., refers to 
the old French and Indian war, which began in 1755. 


ToiipcTrtiicc Lecturer and Authorcti. 

RANGES E. W. HARPER was born in Marvland in 

[^ 1 825 and reared there. Her early education was meagre, 
having left school at the age of fourteen. She is truly a self- 
made woman. As a lecturer she has few equals. She has also . 
contributed largely to the most prominent Afro-American jour- 
nals. Her poetical and prose writings are extensively read by 
white people as well as black and she has furnished inspiration 
to many of the young writers of the race. Of late years she has 
been prominently connected with the Woman's Christian Tern* 
Iterance Union, and has augmented the work among the women 

of her race. 

When great minds agree upon a fact which is thus made 


popular, lesser, tnimls Imre nothing more nor less to do than 
asBeoL lln. F. £. W. Ilarper, such as Mrs, Phoebe AJIaniio- 
ford hiu already briefiy ilescribed, possesses the happy faculty 
of eauilibriam upon all the prominent issues of the day. 

r, UAiu-KU, ruiuiuitLi'Ui 

Eloquent, fluent in speech, forcible in argument, versatile with 
the pen, rhythmical in poetry, logical in proso,and blessed with 
the rareness of congnniality, she becomes at once to those who 
have heard or read her thoughts a lover, a friend, yea 1 a disciple. 


Her '^ Story of the Nile '* is one of her latest achievements, and 
as our power of judging is meagre we fully and freely assent 
to its grandness. Dr. Marshall W. Taylor sa^^s : Of the Negro 
race in the United States since 1620, there have appeared bat 
/our women whose careers stand out so far, so high and so 
clearly above all others of their sex, that they can with strict 
propriety and upon well established grounds be denominated 
great. These are Phillis Wheatley, Sojourner Truth, Frances 
* Ellen Watkins Ilarper and Amanda Smith. 

Mrs. Harper, possessing superior advantages, is superior to 
any one of the four great women here mentioned in mental drill 
and versatile literary culture ; she isan erudite scholarly woman; 
she too is a reformer, an agitator, but not in the rough, or with 
any political tendency; she is polished, and may be called the 
greatest of school-made moral ph ilo6ophers yet developed among 
the women of the Negro race. It Sojourner Touth was a blind 
giant, Frances Elarper was an enlightened one. Standiiig out- 
side of the church and churchly relations, Mrs. Harper is with* 
out an equal among Negro men of her times and type of 

As early as 1445, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper began to 
figure conspicuously as a literary leader and teacher, starting 
out in her career as assistant instructress under the principal- 
ship of, now, Bishop John M. Brown. Whether she has kept 
pace with this learned prelate, we leave our readers to judge. 
Her activities then as now, in the cause of the Negro, battling 
for its education and equal rights, startle us with love and 
admiration, while our hearts go out in search of even the crumbs 
of her wonderful pioneer life. As to the world did God give 
Adam and Eve, not only to dwell upon the earth, but to be 
master over every living creature, so did he almost sponta- 
neously give to the Negro race two people, a man and a woman^ 
to stand ont beyond opposition intellectually, the man Kt. Rev. 
Bishop D. A. Payne, the woman Mrs. Frances E. Watkins 
Harper,the equals of any of our nineteenth century civilization. 

Phceba A. Hanaford, in her ^^ Daughters of America^'' 
ander the caption of ** Women Lecturers," says : 


Francis £. W. Harper is one of the most eloquent women 
lecturers in the country. As one listens to her clear, plaintive, 
melodious voice, and follows the flow of her musical speech in 
ber logical presentation of truth, ho can but bo charmed with 
her oratory and rhetoric, and forgets that she is of the race 
once enslaved in our land. She is one of the colored women 
of whom white women may bo proud, and to whom the aboli- 
tionists can point and declare that a race which could show 
lucb women never ought to have been helil in bondage. She 
lectures on temperance, equal rights, and religious themes, and 
has shown herself able in the use of the pen. 

Prof. George W. Williams, in his ^Mlistory of the Negro 
Kace in America,*' says of our subject: **She was born in 
Baltimore, Md., in 1825. She was not permitted to enjoy the 
blessings of early educational training, but in after years 
proved herself to be a woman of most remarkable intellectual 
powers. She applied herself to study, most assiduously ; and 
when she bad reached woman^s estate she was well educated. 

She developed early a fondness for poetry, which she has 
since cultivated, and some of her efforts are not without merit. 
She excels as an ess;iyist and lecturer. She has been heard 
upon many of the leading lecture platforms of the country ; 
and ber efforts to elevate ber sisters have been crowned with 
most signal success. 

A clear, strong, musical voice, capable of expressing all 
human feelings and passions, is among the most desirable 
qualities in the formation of a consummate orator. 

Her words have such a melting flow. 

And fpeak of truth so sweetly well, 
They drop like hcaTen's serenest snow, 

And all Is brightness where they fall. 

" There is a charm in delivery, a magical art, 
That thrills, like a kiss, from the lips to the hearty 
Tis the glance, the expression, the well-chosen word, 
By whose magic the depths oT the spirit are stirred— 
The smile^the mule gesture— the soul-stirring pause^ 
The eye's sweet expression, that melts while it awes— 
The lip's soft persuasion— its musical tone : 
Obi such are the charms of that eloquent one." 


A bearer might well say, as be listens to tbe obarming 
accents of ber musical voice : 

Thy sweet words drop upon tbe ear so soft, 

As rose Icsvcs on a well ; and I could listen, 

As though the Immortal melody of beaTen 

Wore wrought into one word— that word a whisper— 

That whisper all I want from all I lOTe. 


^^ work styled Satan in Society, in bis article, Wbat can 
Woman Do in tbe World ? says, as sculptors tbere are already 
several who liave aQbieved botb fame and fortune. In a foot- 
note we find tbe following tribute from bis liberal and descriptive 
pen : '^ Edmonia Lewis, a colored sculptress, not yet twenty-five 
years old, whose studio at Rome is sought by tbe cultivated and 
wealthy, and whose works- command almost fabulous prices, fur- 
nishes a remarkable instance of perseverance, not only against 
disadvantages of sex, but tbe still greater obstacles of race and 
color. Her father a Negro, and ber mother an Indian, both 
dying early, she was " raised " among tbe Chippewa Indians, 
but, through tbegenerosity of ber brother, was enabled to obtain 
a few years at school. Tlience she made ber way to Boston, 
where she landed penniless and friendless. Wandering 
abstractly through School street, she gazed in wonder and 
admiration upon the statue of Franklin, and, to use ber own 
words« '* \vas seized with the desire of making something like 
that man standing there.'' She asked a kindly looking lady 
^' what it was made of," and being informed, sought tbe studio 
of Mr. Brockett, from whom she obtained some clay, some 
modeling tools and ^* a babe's foot." In about three weeks 
she returned with a tolerable reproduction of tbe foot, which 
tbe artist commended, and lent ber *' a woman'aband." Mean- 
while she made herself a set of implements tbe exact counter- 
part of those she bad borrowed, and, being equally succes sfol 


ia modeling tho liand, she received from the artist a letter 
to a lady who gave her eight dollars. With this modest 
*^ capital" she established a studio, on the door of which a 
simple tin sign announced : ** Edmonia Lewis, Artist/* From 
chat time forward her career has been one uninterrupted 
triumph^ Ilcr latest work, *' Ilagar,'* is valued at six thousand 
dollars, and has earned a handsome revenue bv its exhibition. 

Among the great women in Daughters of America, wetind 
her classed among the women artists of their first century in 

Phceba A. Uanaford justly says Edmonia Lewis is entitled 
to be mentioned with the women artists of our first century. 
Let •• The Christian Register " tell her story : 

^ All who were present at Tremont Temple on the Monday 
evening of the presentation to Kev.Mr. McG rimes of the marble 
^roupof * Forever Free,* executed by Miss Edmonia Lewis, 
must have been deeply interested. No one, not born a subject 
to the *' Cotton King, could look upon that piece of sculpture 
without profound emotion. Tho noble figure of the man, his 
very muscles seeming to swell with gratitude; the expression 
of the right now to protect, with which he throws his arm 
aro4*.ikd his ^iiC^jJing v^'Te ; the ' Praise <le Lord ' hovering on 
their lips; the broken chain, — all so instinct with life, telling 
in the very i>oetry of stone tho stor}' of the last ten years. 
And when it is remembered who created this group, an added 
interest is given to it. Who threw so much expression into 
tho^ figures? What well-known sculptor arranged with such 
artistic grace those speaking forms? Will any one believe it 
was the small hands of a small girl that wrought the marble 
and kindled the life within it ? — a girl of dusky hue, mixed Indian 
and African, who not more than eight years ago sat down on 
the steps of the City Hall to eat the dry crackers with which 
alone her empty purse allowed her to satisfy her hunger ; but 
as she sat tbeix) and thought of her dead brother, of her home* 
less state, something caught her eye, the hunger of the 
stomach ceased^ but the hunger of the soul began. That 
quiet statue of the grand old Franklin had touched tho 


electric spark, and kindled the latent genius which was 
enshrined within her, as her own group was in the marble till 
her chisel brought it out. For weeks she haunted the spot, 
anil the State Ilouse, where she could see Washington and 
Webster. She asked questions and found that such things 
were made of clay. She got a lump of clay, shai>ed her some 
sticks, and her heart divided between art and the great 
struggle for freedom, which had just received the seal of 
Colonel Shows' blood. She wrought out, from photographs 
and her own ideal, an admirable bust of him. This made the 
name of Edmonia Lewis known in Boston. The unknown 
waif on the steps of the City Hall had, in a few short months^ 
become an object of interest to : large circle of those most 
anxious about the great problem of the development of the 
colored race in their new )>osition. 

We next hear of Edmonia in liome, where her perseverance, 
industry, genius and tiaimte made her warm friends. Miss 
Charlotte Cushman and Miss Ilosmcr took great interest in 
her. Iler studio was visited by all strangers, \vho looked upon 
the creations of this untaught niaiden as marvelous* She 
modeled there ** The Freed Woman ou First Hearing of Her 
Liberty/* (ft which it is sai<l : *^ It te!Ifi with much eloquence a 
painful sto**y.*' No one can deny that she has distinguished 
herself '.ii sculpture; no*.,|H.rlmps, in Mie highest grade, but in 
the most pleasing form. Six months ago she returned to her 
own country to sit once again on the steps of the City Hall, 
just to recall the **then,'* and to contrast it with the **now." 
'*Then," hungry, heart- weary, no plan for the future. *• Now,'* 
the hunger of the soul satisfied; freedom to do, to achieve, won 
by her own hands, friends gained ; the world to admire. 

She brought with her to this country a bust of ''our *' poet, 
said to be one of the best ever taken. It has been proposed 
by some of Longfellow's friends to have it put in marble for 
Harvard. It would be a beautiful thought that the author ol 
Hiawatha should be embalmed in stone by a descendant from 
Minnehaha. And certainly nothing can bo more appropriate 
than the presentation to Rev. Mr. GrimeSi the untiring friend 

do soTBD ysono woM^y, 

of ais race, the indomitable worker, the earnest preacher, of 
ibis rare work, " Fo\ ever Free,** unitirj grace and sentiment, 
the offspring of an enthusiastic soul, who consecrates her 
genius to truth and beauty. 

Professor George G. W, Williams in liis Ilistory of the 
Xegro Bace in America says: *' Ed monia Lewis, the Negro 
sculptress, is in herself a great prophecy of the possibilities of 
her sisters in America. Of lowly birth, left an orphan when 
quite young, nnable to obtain a liberal education, she never- 
theless determined to be somethin<:: and somebody. 

This ambitious Negro girl has won a position as an artist, a 
studio in Home, and a place in the admiration of the lovers of 
art on two continents. She has produced many meritorious 
works of art, the most noteworthy being TTatjar in the WiU 
i1crn€S9\ a group o( the jifadonna wtlh the Infant ChrtH and 
Tico Adoring AngeU ; Forever Free l JUawathaH Wotnng } a 
bust of Longftlloxc^ the Poet; a bust of John ^ro?r;i, and a 
medallion portrait of Wendell Ph!U!j}s. The 2fadonna was pur- 
chased by the Marquis of Bute, Disracli*s Lothair. 

She has been well received in Rome, and her studio has 
become an object of interest to travelers of all countries. 


Ahlc Pioneer Taicher, AMc Writer, Prc^Mcnt IP. (?. T. U. 

RS. BLANCHE V H. BROOKS, the subject of this 
^jt^^ sketch, is deserving a place in tiie galaxy of noted 
Negro women. She was born in Monroe, Michigan, where slie 
lived until thirteen years of age. 

The prejudice which forbade the girl entering the young 
ladies^ seminary with her associates in the high school only 
paved the way for her entering the world-renowned Oberlin 
college. The prejudice before mentioned induced her parents 
to send her to Oberlin, where she could procure the best 
educational facilities ; here she remained until she was grad* 



tiated in the class of '60, endearing herself to the faculty 
teachers and to her classmates. 

Though quite young at the time of the lato war, and the 
call for teachers for Freed men came, she responded to Kev. 
George Whipple: **IIere am I; send me.** Leaving home, 
f riemls, and all comforts, she 
entered u^ion her life work 
in that demoralized region, 
demoralized because of the 
effects of the late war. 

The hospi tal needed 
nurses ; the Frcedmen, — men, 
women and chiUlrcn ^needed 
teachers, not only in books, 
but in every department, and 
there she found earnest, hard 
work; when not ia the 
school-room night after night 
she could bo found by the 
cot of the sick and dying. 

So firm an advocate of 
temperance is she that 
through her influence she 
was instrumental in saving 
many from drunkards' 
graves; through her influence an opening was made for 
other young women to go to the South land. When her labor 
was no longer needed as a pioneer she returned to the North 
to re*cngage in school work. To direct young minds is a task 
for which Blanche V. IL Brooks is fitted by her natural 
endowment of taste, judgment, firmness and decision of char* 
acter, softened and modified by sweetness of temperament. 

For seventeen years she has been engaged in the public 
schools of Knoxville. Since her graduation, until the present 
time, the productions from her pen have been a source of 
entertainment and instruction. As we before mentioned, she 
is a strong advocate of the temperance cause ; for five years 

MRS. nLANcns T. n. nnooKS. 



she has held the position of president of the W. C. T. U., and 
workf earnestly/it may'seem, in season and out of season, to 
bring the wine-drinking habit into disfavor. 









Eminent Educator, 

T the close of the Civil war we lind the subject of our 
sketch in the town of Tarboro, N. C, without a 
mother^s care, her mother having in the early days of the 

war moved to the "Old 

In her incipiency she 
knew not the care of a 
mother, but had a lovingr 
grandmother to whom she 
was devoted with all the de- 
votion a child could bestow. 
Though separated for years 
by landscape, there continued 
in the mother^s breast that 
love and devotion that are 
peculiar to her sex; hence 
she returned in search of her 
lost child in 1805. Fmding 
her in vigorous health, she, 
as the shepherd doth the 
lost sheep, took her child 
upon her breast, and over 
rocky steeps and swollen 
streams, wound her way back to Virginia. As the infant 
grew she proved to be of a brilliant mind, and even when 
bnt a child exhibited great tact in the management of little 
folks around her. There being no free schools in operation 
aft that day for colored children, she was taught to spell by 





a white friend, who consented to teach her at the request of 
her mother. 

From an old Webster Spelling book she made her lirst 
start, and soon learned as far as " baker/' a great accomplish- 
ment in those days. After getting a foretaste of an education 
she then, a youn<; miss, became very anxious for an education. 
Free schools were not yet in existence, so she entered a school 
seven miles away in Nansemond county. This school was 
under the control of the Freedman's bureau, and was taught 
by a Mr. A. B. Colis, of New Jersey. The next year her 
parents moved from Nansemond county to Franklin, South 
Hampton county, Virginia, where she entered the public 

In school slio was obeilient, docde, kind and punctual. Out 
of school she was the delight of her playmates and apparently 
the life of the school. 

Early in life she was converted and joined the Baptist 
church. As a Christian she was a shining light and an ardent 
worker in the cause of Christianity. 

Years and deeds having hastened her near the verge of 
w.omanhood, she became a faithful teacher and an arJent 
worker in the Sabbath-school, to which work she became very 
much attached. 

She was secretary for Sunday-school and church clerk for 
several years. 

In 1S72 she entered the Hampton Normal and Agricultural 
institute with very limiteil means, with none to look to but a 
widowed mother. Ami just liere it is fitting to say that that 
motlicr was a mother in the truest sense. For she made great 
sacrifice to liclp her daughter tlirougii school. Lapse of years 
having brought her to the ago of womanhood, we may now 
call her Miss Irving. She being of an industrious turn of mind 
and eager to go through school, was glad to do any work 
assigned her to assist in paying school bills. During her 
school days at Hampton she stood high in the esteem of both 
her schoolmates and teachers. In her second term in scho«>l 
she made the acquaintance of Mrs. O. M. Jonet^ of PhiladeV 


phia, who gave her some financial aid, and has ever since been 
a wann and devoted friend. 

In 1S74 Miss Irving (as she was then), having a determined 
will of her own, and hearing continual ap{)eal of her i>eopld to 
^come over in Macedonia and help us/' could no longer 
resist the pitiful cry, but laid down the pursuit of her studies, 
and, with that burning zeal of a missionary, laid hold of her 
work that she had for so long desireil. By so doing she did 
much to dispel the gloom which overshadowed her {)oople, and 
financially enableil herself to resume her studies in 1875. Her 
first school-house was a little log-cabin in a section of her own 
countv known as Indian Town. 

Iler first term was marked with great success, and she filled 
the first place in the hearts of the {>eople among whom she 

There she organized a Sunday-school in which she acted as 
teacher, chorister and su{K^rintendent. So groat was tlio love 
of the |>eoplo for her that they s;iid they didn*t believe that 
the county paid her enough for the valuable services she ren- 
dered them, and as a unit came together and made up the 
deficiency as nearly as they could, for they thonjrht that cur- 
rency could not compensate for the great gooil and the bless- 
ings that she had been the means of bestowing upon them. 
Iler secoml term was taught four miles from this place, where 
it was dillicult to find a family near the school with sulHcient 
room to board a teacher (most of the houses having only one 
room). She was sent to such a house to boanl. This was too 
. much for the young teacher. The j>eople looked uj>on her as 
a jewel and would do anything to pleuso her, so she called the 
parents together and they willingly united and built another 
room, the teacher furnishing the nails. 

In 1875 8he returned to the Hampton Normal and Agricul- 
tural institute and resumed her studies. In 1877 she grad- 
uated with honor and was the winner of a $20 prize, offered to 
the best original essayist of the class. On her return homo to 
resume the work among her people, to which she felt so 
closely espoused, she was elected principal of the town public 


schooL Iloro she mot with somo competition for tiie {position, 
but energy, push and comj>etcncy always hold sway over all 
opposition when fair phiy is granted. Slic outstripped her 
rivals and fdled the position with credit three years. She was 
lookeil upon as the spiritual, educational, and political adviser 
of her neighborhood, for the coloreil people. In the church 
and Sunday-school she had no peer, for both minister and 
Sunday-school superintendent sought her advico as to the best 
means of spiritualizing the church and enlivening the Sunday- 
school. She stands in the ranks among the best educatoi^s of 
her race. Through her intluence and recommendation a great 
many youit^ men and women have gained admission into some 
of the best institutions of learning in the United States. 
Many of them she assiste^l financially while in school from 
her scanty income, which was a sacrifice, but a pleasure. 
Quite a number of them have graduated and are now fillinp^ 
honorable positions. 

As a politician she was so w*ell informeii, and could discuss 
80 intelligently the public issues of the day, that in her tow*n, 
in the campaign of 1SS4, she was styleil the "Politician's 
Oracle.-' She, as did Paul, ceased not day nor night to warn 
her people of the danger that aw*aited them. While teachinp^ 
she did not fail to ]>ractico economy, for she saved means to 
lift a heavy debt off her pro]>erty, which she mortgaged to 
secure means to finish her eilucation. 

In ISSO she married Mr. Lindsey Ilayden, an accomplished 
gentleman who w*as principal of the public school of Liberty 
(now Bedforil City), Virginia. Unfortunately for her, Mr. 
Ilaydon lived only a few months after marriage. During his 
short illness ^[r. Ilayden found in her every reipiisite of a true 
wife and ever his administering angel. After the death of her 
devoted husband, she resigned the position as first assistant 
teacher in the school in w*hich her husband had so recentlv 
been principal, and returned to Franklin to live with her 
widowed mother. Notwithstanding all hearts went out in 
sympathy for ber in her bereavement, there was a sort of 
mingled joy at bor return to her old field of labor, since it 



seemeil a matter of im;x>ssibility to fill her place as a worker 
among ber people. In the fall of ISSl she was again elected 
princi|>al of the town school, which position she held for nine 
years. As a temperance lecturer and worker in general, the 
United States can not boast of one more ardent. Slie served 
three years as president of the W. C. T. U. and the Home 
Missionary Society, organized by Mrs. Slurriage Allen, tho 
wonderful messenger of England, and for four years recording 
secretary of tho county Sunday-school union, and one year 
corresponding secretary of tho Bethany Baptist Sunday-school 

She has organized a great many temperance societies and 
hundreds have taken the pledge. She is at present ])rcsident 
of the Virginia Teachers' Temperance Union, and an active 
worker and officer of tho Virginia Teachers' Association. 

In 1890 she was elected lady principal of tho Virginia 
Normal and Collegiate Institute, which position she now 
holds. Says General S. C. Armstrong, principal of the Ilamp- 
ion Xormal and Agricultural Institute: 

•' Mrs, Delia Irving Ilayden was at Hampton school four 
years, and made her a most excellent record. Wo all here, 
teachers and friends, exi)ected a great deal of her, and have 
not been disappointeil. She married a noble young man, Mr. 
Lindscy Ilayden, who soon died— a great loss. Since her 
bereavement Mrs. Ilayden has devoteil herself nobly to her 
{People. AVe hope she nmy bo spared many years. She is 
among the famous women of her race.'' 

To THE Author of Noted Women. 

Dvar Sir: I can most heartily endorse all that Mr. W. B. 
Holland has said of the life and work of Mrs. D. I. Uayden, 
of tho Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, Petersburg, 
Virginia. She is indeed an earnest laborer for tho elevation 
of her people, as hundreds of others can testify. I was once 
ber pupil and by her taught the most useful lessons of life I 

Mrs. Hayden is a born teacher^ and her sixteen years of 


faitliful service in the school-room rightly places her among 

the Noted Women of the Colored liace. 

Mrs. a 6. Randolph. 
Hempstead, Texas. 

Says Miss Maggie I. Stevens: '^Mrs. Delia Irving Ilayden 
well deserves the name woman. I was a pupil in her school 
thirteen years ago. It was through her I gained admission 
into the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. It is to 
her (through the help of God) I owe my success in literary 
attainment. She has no peer as a quick thinker and an earnest 

James H. Johnston, A. M., president of the Virginia 
Normal and Collegiate Institute, in speaking of her work as 
connected with that institution, says : *' Since Mrs. Ilayden^s 
election as lady principal of this institution, she has exhibited 
unusual tact and ability in tiie performance of her duty, 
thereby gaining the love and esteem of the students and com- 
mcndation of the board of visitors. Aside from her special 
work, she has been exceedingly active in organizing tem()er- 
ance societies among the students and among the teachers of 
our annual summer session. As a result of her labors in this 
direction there now exists in the school a society of more than 
one hundred membera, and among the teachers a State tem- 
perance association. In our school, where once temperance 
views were unpopular, the leading students are the most active 
temperance advocates. Doubtless the teachers of the SUite 
organization, in their several localities, have disseminateit 
seed the fruit of which can only bo estimated in eternity. She 
has also been instrumental in )>lanting in our midst a branch of 
the *Mving*s Daughters," which has .done good work both ia 
the school and out. In holiday seasons she has been active in 
good work in the Sunday*school, church and among the people 
generally. She does not fail to use her pen and power of 
speech, which she i)ossesse8 in no ordinary degree, to advance 
the Master's kingdom by the promotion of temperance. 
Southampton and the State of Virginia need many more 
Delia I. Ilavdens." 


Dr. J. F.- Bryant, county superintendent of Southampton 
county, in speaking of her qualifications as a teacher, saiil : 
"Mrs. Delia I. Ilayden taught twelve (12) years in tlie public 
schools of Southampton, to tho entire satisfaction of patrons 
and school oiHcers, tho utost of tho tinte under my supervinion. 
Sho was principal of a largo graded school in this ])laco. Her 
executive capacity is of a higli order. And she manages a 
school of a hundred or more pupils with as much dexterity 
and ease as most teachers with twenty or twenty-five pupils. 
Her ambition in her chosen profession is unbounded, and she 
never tires. 

Beginning with a third grade certificate sho was enabled 
to attend the Hampton Normal and Agricultural I nstitujLo,' 
teaching one year and returning to tho school the other, 
until she graduated with distinction at that institute. She 
finally obtained a professional certificiite, the highest grade 
under the public school system, as a reward for her persever- 
ance, energy and ability." 

The foregoing statement will give our readers a faint view 
only of the wonderfully useful life that Mrs. D. I. Hayden has 
liv^ for and among her people. 

Willis B. Holland* 


W, C, T. V, Advocate 

••The jprowinjf crood of tho worhl i» Uirgely dopondcnt on tinhistorio 
acts ; and that tilings arc not so ill with you and ino a.s they ini^ht havo 
been, is half owing io the numbers who lived faithfully a hidden life." 

Oco, Eliot In MitUUcmardi* 

HAVE often felt how true this is of the wives of great men. 
^j^ The patient, unseen, devoted toiler with loving self-forget 
fulness, standing ever true at her husband's side, kindling his 
belief in himself by her pure belief about him, urging him on 
to bis highest endeavor by expecting from him his best, 
applauding bis noblest achievements and giving nerve and 
stimulus to bis success, cheerfully sharing and smoothing over 

TnRiR TRiuMPna and activities, m 

his disappointments, shielding him from the |>otty irritations of 
tlio domestic machinery, thus making it {>os8ible for him tx> 
throw his whole soul in^a the larger outer work for God and 
the race; soothing, comforting, cheering, inspiring — and then 
quietly drinking in as her reward the praise and appreciation 
Uvishcd by the world on him. 

Of no woman is all this more true than of Mrs. Bishop Ben- 
jamin W. Arnett, one of the strongest of our mothers in Israel^ 
and one whose life and example should be studied by every 
girl that stands hesitantly *' where the brook and river meet/' 
wondering with throbbing pulses what life has in store for 

Mary Louise Gordon was born near Geneva, Pa., August 
1st, 1S39. Her |)areiits, ^Villiam and Ilester Ann Gordon, 
were substantial hardworking people who had removeil from 
Virginia some years before Louise was born. In 1S45 they 
left Geneva to live in Uniontown, Pa., where they lived till 
1SG5, when they moved to Brownsville, Pa., where they still 

Little Louise was put. in school at an early a<;e, Miss Sarah 
J. Allen being her iii*st teacher, followed by Keziah Brown 
Jackson and John Bellows in private schools. Public schools 
in those days ran four months of the year, and were generally 
taught by- sui)erannuated white teachers without maps or 
charts or any of the modern furnishings which we think so 
indispensable in our day. But they managed to get through 
the three R^s and teach the little folks to ** sit up straight and 
look on the book," and I don't know but these same little folks, 
now grown up, look back with just as much pleasure on those 
"good old days'* as will our highly developed kindergartners 
with all their stick laying, and pa^^er folding, and clay mold* 
ing. The school house in which my young heroine^s ideas 
were first taught to shoot was the typical iog-bouse, 15x12, 
adorned with long benches made of slabs with four wooden 
pegs stuck in for legs. It stood on the site of the present 
A. 'M. E. Church of Uniontown and managed to attract col- 
ored children from two and three miles around. Private 

40 ivor£D ifEORO ^yo^tE^\ 

schools supplcroenteil the short terms of tho public sessions, 
serving to keep the cbiUlren out of tho streets certainly, if not 
for very extensive scholarly advancement. 

Louise at lirst attended a Presbyterian Sunday-school, 
Miss Mary Duncan being her first teacher. When a little later 
she entered the A. M. £. Sabbath-school, Mr. J. 11. Manaway 
was sui>erintendent and Mrs. Eliza Moxley, still living in Union- 
town,' her first colored Sabbath-school teacher. She was con* 
verted in 1S55 and received into the church by Rev. Solomon 
II. Thompson and into the class of Alexander ^foxlcy, one of 
the leadmg men of Uniontown in his day — long since gone 
to his reward. 

In the fall of 1S55 she went to spend some weeks with a 
married aunt living in Brownsville. Now it so happened that 
the husband of this aunt had a nephew, a promising lad, 
christened Benjamin William, but popularly dubbed Bennie 
by his numerous friends, young and old. Naturally enough 
Bennie went in the course of events to pay his dutiful respects 
to bis uncle and aunt; and there he met the interesting young 
maiden who was making a visit from Uniontown. The gal- 
lant lad of course did all in his power to keep the young 
stranger from feeling homesick, and she naturally enough felt 
grateful for the endeavor and both were pleased at the success 
of their dutiful visits to uncle and aunt. AV'ell, the course of 
true love didn't run any smoother in those days than now. 
The young |>eople parted with palpitating hearts and many 
magnetic pressures of the hand and promises of eternal 
remembrances, when the day came for Louise to return to her 
borne in Uniontown, twelve miles away. Tliey had promised 
a regular correspondence and Tuesday was the day for Ben 
to get his letters. Life rolleil on deliciously for several elysiau 
weeks. But one Tuesday no letter came; Wednesday, again 
disapiK>intment ; Thursday — misery ; Friday — despair ; Satur- 
day — rage ; and the exasi)erated boy, surcharged by his pent- 
up feelings, exploded in a bitter reproachful letter. For six 
months a long and dreary silence 1 At length Ben drove over 
to Uniontown for a Sunday service. He met Louise at 


oharch and nskcd the privilcgo of walking homo with her. 
It was granted with avorlcd eyes; and, hearts beating^ 
furiously, they walked along some distance in silence. After 
awhile the lad in a tremulous low tone inquired *^ Why didn't 
3'ou write that week ? *' "I could not, I had a felon on my finger 
and there was no one to write for me," was tlie low reply. And 
the two foolish hearts, smiling through tear9 at all iheir self, 
inflicted torture, were one again and forever. 

But the oid folks had to be approacheil I for it was in the 
good days long ago when parents were asked for their 
daughters. And the retloubtable Ben, ready enough with his 
tongue on all ordinary occasions, had a most stammering and 
trembling time of it, getting to the {K>int with the " old lady.'* 
From early morn till dewy eve ho sat. He exbausteil every 
available topic under the sun. He talked of the weather,, 
talked of the crops, the probable price of coal and the usual 
cost of ice. All of which good mother Gordon submitted to 
most serenely. At last about supper time he desperately gulped 
down a great lump in his throat and took the bull by the horns, 
plunging blindl}' right into the middle of the thing. The old 
lady smiled on him benignly, saying after a pause: "WelU 
Bennie, you may iiave Louise if you can take care of her and 
will be good to her." The ice once broken, Ben^s tongue was 
now loosed and discoursed volubly enough on his prospects anil 
hopes for their future. When father Qordon came in he said, 
reassuringly : ** Well, whatever mam says — whatever mam 
says." And so the happy young couple began to prepare for 
their union. 

But a great shadow casting its gloom clear down a life 
came athwart their path. Young Arnett was working on the 
river when ho met with an accident which cost him a limb. 
All that friendship, skill and money could devise were 
exhausted in trying to save the fatal operation. But after 
weeks of weary but heroically cheerful suffering the leg was 
amputated. Then came the test of love and the triumph of 
devotion. The stricken lover stoically released his fiancte, 
firmly saying: ^' I cannot ask yon to accept a shattered life of 


poverty and misery on my account." Louise^s own friends and 
relatives urged that she accept licr release, saying^ : ''Of course 
he can never take care of you now.'^ But the brave little 
\roman,with lips set and determined, rejoined:'* TTtV/, if he can t 
taiecare ofvie^ I can iaJce care of him?^ Accordingly on the 
25th of May, 1858, they were quietly married by Rev. Geo. 
Brown. President of Madison College at Uniontown. That 
heroic little woman could not at that time foresee the rounds 
of the ladder then hid in cloud and gloom by which tho 
resolute heart to whom she had committed her happiness and 
the arm on which she leaned would one dav mount to the 
stars and fill the gaze of his fellows by his dauntless courage, 
untiring energy, unblemished integrity and lofty purpose. 
But then, she could only trust and love and in^jylre. In those 
days to be able to meet tho rent (twelve dollars a year) 
for a moilel three-room cottage to her was wealth ; and to 
preside with wifely thrift and econoni}' over that mansion in 
union with the husband of her heart's first choice was her 
ideal of earthly bliss, and richly has she been rewarded. 

At first there was some uncertainty as to what employment 
young Arnett would settle down to. With ready pluck and 
energy he took hold of every means in reach of turning an 
honest penny. lie sold fish, sold coal, tried his hand at bar- 
bering and even steeled his conscience to torturing as a dentist. 
But Louise declared she didn^t want anv barber nor dentist 
either; she thought he could aim higher than that if he tried, 
and so the anient young husband was constrained by the 
sweet insistence of love to buckle his powers down to a course 
of study preparatory to a more intellectual calling. Meantime 
bv her skilful needle and untiring thrift Louise successfullv 
kept the wolf from tho door, till the needed preparation 
obtained, her husband was able to earn tho enormous salary 
of twenty-five dollars a month as village school-master, and I 
know the black eyes danced when the first montVs roll of bills 
was presenteil and the lips melted into a roguish smile as she 
whispered softly " Thafs right. I (old yo}$ eof " The other 
rounds were speedily gained and passed after that ; and at what- 


^ver station the ambitious toiler fonnd himself — whether the 
struggling; boat hand, the anxious student, the village teacher 
or an honored instructor at the nation's capital ; whether local 
preacher, presiding elder, or financial secretary of a great con- 
nection ; whether the eloquent speaker or the powerful worker 
in the legislative halls of his adopted State ; whether as bishop 
or as president of a theological seminary, there has ever been 
helpfully near his side a true and loving wife. 'Wherever his 
checkered life has called him to reside, her rare intelligence 
and womanly tact and, withal, her Christian worthiness and 
sincere benevolence, iiave drawn unusual esteem and apprecia- 
tion to herself and won many friends to hqr husband. She is 
in the highest sense a /ivfjhtneet for him. 

They have reared a family of children of whom any parents 
might bo proud. The eldest, Alonzo, now working at home; 
Benjamin W. Jr., ex-president of Edward Waters College, 
Jacksonville, Fla.; Henry V.^ professor of mathematics at Allen 
University, Columbia, S. C; Anna L., mu?ic teacher and pri* 
vato secretary of her father; Alphonso T and Flossie 6., 
attending school ; and Daniel A. Payne, ^'captain of the Arnett 

One can scarce resist the temptation to moralize over such 
a life for the benefit of those luckless young souls who, carried 
away with the shimmer ami tinsel of suiierficiml young dudes, 
wreck their happiness on good looks and fine clothes by mar- 
rying some fellow without puri>oscs or ambitions and with no 
higher conception of woman than as one to minister to his 
vanity and pleasures. But such a life as Mrs. Amctt's preaches 
its own scrmon« I will not add to it. 


Tawawa Chimney Comer. 
September 10, 1802. 




ScUntM, Eiluctttor, Writer, Kiwwn as Mrs. /?. K, Potter. 

^^ RS. JOSEPHINE YATES, youngest daughter of 
'orx Alexander and Parthenia Kecve-Silonc, was born in 
idol), in Mattituck, Suffolk county, New York, where her 
{larents, grandparents and great-grandparents were long and 
favorably known as imlividuals of sterling worth, morally in- 
lelleclually and physically speaking. On the maternal side 
she is a nieco of Rev. J. B. Reeve, D. D., of Philadelphia, a 
sketch of whose life appears in **ilen of ilark." 

Mrs. Silone, a woman of 
whoso noble, self-sacrificing 
life of piety from early youth 
until her latest hours volumes 
might be written, be;ran the 
work of educating her daugh- 
ter Josephine in her quiet 
Christian home, oonsecnuing 
her to the service of the Lord 
in infancy and earnestly pray 
ing that, above all else, the 
life of her child might be a 
useful one. Possessed her- 
self of a fair education, she 
well knew the value of intel- 
lectual development and 
spared no pains to surround 
her daughter with all pssible 
means of improvement ; the 
latter, now grown to woman- 
hood, delights to relate that the earliest event of which she 
has any distinct remembrance is of this sainted mother taking 
ber upon her knee and teaching her to read from the Bible by 
requiring her to call the woi*ds after her, as she pointed them 


Josephine was sent to school at an early age and had 
already been so well advanced by her mother in readings 



writing and arithmotio that she was at once able to enter one 
of the higher classes of the district school, and because of her 
eagerness and readiness to learn, soon became a favorite with 
her teachers, although the only colored pupil in the school. 
She possessed an excellent memory, good reasoning powers, 
and at the ago of nine was studying physiology and physics, 
and was well advanced in mathematics. Through the kin<l- 
ness ot a Mrs. llorton, her Sunday-school teacher, she had at 
this time access to a large and well selected library for young 
people and in all probability thus acquired an additional taste 
for literature which was, perhaps primarily, an inheritance 
from her ancestors ; however this may be, a keen ambition to 
write, coupled with a cori*es]K)nding appreciation of fii^st-class 
literature, began to assert itself at an early i>eriod. Her school- 
girl efforts s^jj^^ position were very favorably common toil 
upon by her teachers, and while yet in her ninth year she 
wrote a story which she sent to one of the prominent Xcw 
York weeklies, and although the manuscript was returned, it 
was accompanieil by a lotterof such kind encouragement and 
suggestion that it served to increase rather than diminish her 

At the age of eleven her uncle, the Rev. J* B. Reeve, believ^ 
ing that her desire for knowleilge should have better oppor- 
tunities for fulfillment than could be obtained in a district 
school, very kindly invited her to his home in Philadelphia 
that she might attend the institute conducted by Mrs. 
Fannie Jackson-Coppin. Here for the first time brought in 
contact with a large number of cultured persons of her own 
race in society, church and school she receiveil a new and 
stronger inspiration for the acquisition of knowledge. 

R;tpid progress was made during this school year. Mrs, 
Coppin, who has ever since manifested much interest in her 
welfare, still often refers to her as a brilliant example of what a 
girl may do. The following year the Rev. Dr. Reeve was 
called to "Washington to accept thechair of theology in Howard 
University and Miss Silono returned .to her home. A year 
later Mrs. Francis L. Girard, of Newport, Rhode Island, het 



maternal aunt, aw6inan well known for the moral and intel- 
lectual strength of her cbaraeter, and revered by many 
students for ber benevolence and kindness, made her a proposi- 
tion wbicb she accepted ; and in ber fourteenth year went to 
Newport, and became a resident of that beautiful *' City by 
the Sea-'* 

Uere she at once entered the highest grade of the grammar 
school and maintaining her usual scholarship, the only colored 
papil in the school at the time, she attracted the attention of 
Col. T. W. Higginson, then a citizen of Newport and a prom- 
inent member of the School Board ; of the lion. George T. 
Downing, through whose untiring efforts the doors of the 
public schools of Rhode Island were thrown open to all, witii. 
out regard to race or color ; of Thomas Coggcshall, at timt 
time chairman of the school board ; of Rev. Dr. Thayer and 
wife and other i>crsons of distinction. 

The year, following shoontere<l the Rogers High School, an 
institution whicl) takes fu^st rank among the schools of the 
land. Taking the four years courso in three, she graduated 
from this school in the class of *77, delivering the valedictory 
address, and receiving tho Norman medal for scholarship. She 
bad the honor to be the first colored graduate of tho above 
mentioned school and here, as in the other institutions which 
she attended, gained the love and admiration of herteachei^s 
by her demeanor and devotion to her studies. 

Iler instructor in science considered her his brightest pupil, 
and es^^ecially commended her for her work in chemistry, a 
study in which she was particularly interested (although, if 
the statement were not paradoxical, it might be said that she 
was particularly' interested in each study), and by doing addi- 
tional laboratory work at odd hours under tho guidance of her 
instructor, became quite an eiBcient and practical chemist. 

On graduating from tho High School she was urged to 
take a university course ; all of her own purely personal dcsii^es 
and inclinations led her that way, but from the beginning it 
had been ber purpose to fit herself for teaching and if possible 
to be— not an artisan, but an artist in tho profession ; therefore, 


after reflecting calmly upon the subject, taking the advice of 
Colonel Uigginson and other stanch friends, she decided to take 
a full course in the Khovie Island State Normal School. She was 
already well known in the capacity of an earnest student to 
the principal, Professor James C. Greenough, and found bim 
and bis able corps of teachers very willing:: to assist her to gain 
what she needed in the line of preparation for her professional 
career. In '7?, the only colored scholar in a class of twenty 
or more, she graduated with honor from the Normal School. 

While attend i4ig this institution she entered a teachers- 
examination in Newport with sixteen Anglo-saxon candidates 
and came out of it with a general average of 04 J per cent.; 
this, while not exceptionally high, was, according to oflicial 
statement, the highest average that had up to date been gained 
in that city in a teacheiV examination. 

A regulation certificate duly signeil, allowing her to teach 
in the public schools of Rhode Island, was granted her, the 
first time in the history of Rhode Island that anything of tho 
kind had occurred. 

In the fall of '79 she began her life*work as a teacher and 
ten continuous years were thus spent in an enthusiastic and 
self-sacnflcing manner. Eight of these years were spent at 
Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, Missouri, to which institution 
she was called by Professor Page soon after ho became its 
official head. He had been made acquainted with her success 
as a student through her former instructors. She was at once 
put in charge of the subject chemistry and succeeded so well 
with this and other scientilio branches assigned her, that 
eventually tho entire department of natural science was turned 
over to her. At the time of her resignation, she was professor 
of natural science in the above mentioned institution at a 
salary of one tliousand dollars per school }*ear and was at the 
time probably the only colored lady in the country holding 
such a position. During this entire period her summers were 
invariably spent in the East, where, seizing every opportunity 
afforded by teachers^ associations, summer schools and Individ* 
ual effort, she endeavored to find out the best methods of pre* 


senting the subjects which sho taughi. It was not long before 
her work as a teacher and writer became well known to the 
public, and among others, it attracted the attention of such 
well known Ciluca tors as President Mitchell, of Wilberforce, 
Booker T. Washington, of Tuskegce, and the late Miss Briggs, 
\rashington, D. C. In *8C Mr. Washington, feeling that she 
was just the one needed for the work in Tuskcgce, urged Ijcr 
to become the lady princii>al of that institution, but afler giv- 
ing the matter careful thought, she decided to remain at Lin- 
coln Institute. In ^89 she resigned her position in this institu- 
tion to become the wife of Professor W. W. Yates, principal of 
Wcndel Phillips school, of Kans«is City, ^[issouri. ^[rs. Yates 
carricil with her the love of the students, the best wishes of 
Pi^ident Page and the Board of Begents ; and all felt that in 
parting with her they were losing the services of an able and 
enthusiastic educator. 

Mrs. Yates has many warm friends among both tlie colored 
and white citizens of Kansas City, where she was well and fav- 
orably known in educational circles before her marriage. 
Previous to this event j she had on request read a paper before . 
the general section of the Kansas City Teachers' Institute, a 
highly eilucated body, consisting of a large number of white 
and coloreil teachers of the city public schools and outlying 
districts ; during the first winter of her stay in Kansas City, 
she was invited by Superintendent James C.Greenwood to read 
a paper before the Greenwootl Philosophical Club, a circle 
composed of the leading eilucators and literary lights of Kan- 
sas Citr. 

Iler doors and heart are always open to young people, for 
whom she has an intense love and sympathy, as many students 
in various States will testifv. In the midst of a round of 
social household and maternal duties she finds time to pursue 
a regular line of study and literary work ; in the latter she has 
the full sympathy of her genial husband. He is very proud 
of his wife's attainments and she feels that his searching 
criticism aids her not a little in her literary work. Since her 
marriage, in addition to the work before mentioned, she has 



taught for a ]K>rtion of the time in Lincoln High School of Kan- 
sas City, performing the work assigned her to the entire sat- 
isfaction of all parties concerned. 

Kcading French and German with ease, she has made quite 
a study of literature of both these languages and a few years 
ago wrote a series of articles upon German literature which 
were very well rcccivcil by the press. Russian life and liter- 
ature also ]K)sscss for her a peculiar fascination ; possibly because 
of the large class of persons in Russia, which, in some resi^ccts 
like the Negro in America, is struggling for a more complete 
inilependence. Gogol, Turgenief, Tolstoi, Stepniak and other 
Russian authors setting forth the cause of the people, find in 
her an appreciative reader. 

She has a great amount of race pride and fully believes in 
the bright future of the Kegro, provided the young people for 
the next quarter-century are fully alive to the great responsi- 
bilities resting upon them.* For years she has been a close 
observer of human nature and ef the great problems of 
the age. 

As a writer, her articles are characterized by a clear, vigor- 
ous, incisive style and have embraced a wide range of thought, 
from the purely literary to the more practical social, economic 
and scientific questions now confronting us. These have 
appeared in various i>eriodicals and weeklies; under the name 
"R. K. Potter," a nam dejthfme which she selected while yet 
a student and has ever since retained. In some moods the 
poetic strain of her nature asserts itself, and several little 
gems have thus found their way into print ; among these may 
be mentioned, ** Isles of Peace," *• Royal Today," and ** The 

During the early years of her work in teaching she made 
quite a name as a lecturer and many of her friends wished her 
to give up teaching and enter the field as a lecturer, but feel- 
ing that the class room was the place where her eiTorts would 
result in the greatest good to the greatest number she did 
not make the change. Her mother used to relate that before 
her daughter could talk plaitily, when asked what she wanted 


to be when gro^Yny the answer would invariably bo *' I want to 
be a tool teacher/' 

Mrs. Yates is the mother of ono child, a little daughter, and 
in the line of special study much of her work is done with the 
hope of being better pre|)ared to wisely direct the education of 
this child. 


DramatM, Taichcr of Katurnl Science; Friend of the Poor, 

iT was in the old aristocratic city of Alexandria, Virginia^ 
that Zelia K. .Page, nee Ball, iirst saw the light of day. 
She was not a slave. She was reared by her mother, a woman 
of remarkable ingenuity and foresight, who during the dark 
days of -slavery helped many a poor bondman on his way to 
Canada. At one time whilst living with a wealthy Southern 
family in Washington Cit}', she kept concealed for one week 
in the atio six slaves waiting for the password to marcii. 
This mother, seeing and knowing the degradation and misery 
of slavery, was determined that her daughter should know 
as little of it as {possible. She having faith in the girl's future 
was deeply interested in her education. Having many friends 
in New England and knowing of the educational facilities that 
colored vouths had in that section of the countrv, she made 
up her mind to take this child to ^ew England. But the 
question was how lo pass through Baltimore and Ilarve De 
Grace alone with her child. Being intimately acquainted >vith 
the family of the celebrated Dr. Peter Parker w*ho had 
recently returned to Washington City from China, knowing 
that they intended to visit the East, she consulted them about 
the matter. Dr. Parker told her the only way she could travel 
with his family was to go as far as New York as their slave, 
she and her child. She readily consented. And thus one Sat- 
urday morning in the month of June the mother with her 
child arrived in Providence, Bhode Island. She found, after 
reaching Providence, that the educational facilities were not as- 


gooii for tbo colored youth, as those in Boston, so she tent 
Zotia to Boston to school. 

This girl possessed great dmmatic and artistic powers. 
During bor stny in the New England school she would always 
bo called upon to declaim in tho presence of visitors. She 


declaimed before the greateducators Bigelow and Green. Tbey 
said to her, " Oo on. You have talent ; improve it.** But alas, 
like many others, she had no one to depend upon but a poor 
mother for her support. Iler mother sent bof to Wilberforce 
in 1870. Sho was graduated in 1875. Sho letumed to Provi- 
dence. In 1878, June 87tb, she married Inmoa E. Page, tbe 


ficst colored j^raduate of Brown University and no\r president 
of Lincoln Institute at Jefferson City, Missouri. 

Her life has not been one of continual sunshine, and yet it 
has not been at all times the opiH>site. Having a strict moral 
principle, she could never wink at any thing that was wrong or 
seemingly wrong. Perhaps if she had been so constituted as to 
be able to close her eyes to wrong doing she might have pro- 
Tented a gooil many hanl, false and cruel statements that have 
been made about her. 

Slie is a diligent student constantly seeking to add to her 
store of knowledge some now truths from the different depart- 
ments of learning. She has written several excellent papers 
that have been read before the publio and published by 
request. Before she was twelve years 'old she had read the 
works of Scott, ^[ilton, Bante and other noted authors. 

She has been at Lincoln Institute fourteen 3'ear8, and 
during the greater part of that tune she had served either as 
matron or as teacher of natural science. Sho has been the 
means of doing much gooil in Jefferson City. She organized 
a Union Training School for the poor children, September 25, 
1891, which meets every Saturday afternoon. The value of 
the instruction which sho gives to these children will bo seen * 
in future years. I have often heard her say " O I if I was only 
rich. I do not wantmonev for mvself, but I would liko to bo 
rich in order to do some good in this world, I would build an 
institution of learning simply for the poor colored young men 
and women of my race and have them to learn everything 
that would enable them to vie with tho Anglo-Saxon race.'' 

She is a devoted Christian, and always seeking to do what 
good she can and to help others. Mrs. Pago \\'\\\ long bo 
remembered by tho students of Lincoln Institute and especially 
the poor students for her deeds of kindness to them. 



Kiluatlor, Financier and Chrlnllati Martyr. 

in tliowostorn part o( Virginia, Juno 11, 1854. 'When 
<|uito youngslio moved with her parents to the State of 01)io,and 
tlio family niatlo its homo at Oaltipolis, Ohio, and lateral Athens. 

From her earliest 
chilJliood she bad an 
intense desire for cilu- 
cation aiul by eomo 
means managed to 
remain in tho com- 
mon schools untilsho 
was nrtcun years old. 
When about fifteen, 
slio had nindo such 
progress that she was 
able to i>ass an ex- 
amination in Ohio for 
n teacher's ccrtifl- 
catc, and tntiglit ao- 
coptnbly in tho State 
for one or two terms. 

But it was in the 
South, among the 
lowly of her race, 
that she did ber life- 
work and built a 
monument in the 
licart of the people that wilt bo everL^ting. About the year 
1S74 slio went into Mississippi and began teaching, and a little 
later she was given a position in the city Bchoola of Memphis, 
* Tcnn., where she taughc till 1S78. During the summer vaca* 
tions sho would teach in Mississippi and Arkansas. It was 
tiie work among tbe ignorant bat simple country people of her 
race that she enjoyed most. In foot, she often said that tb« 



was scarcely ever so happy as when teaching in the country on 
a large cotton plantation ; where she came in daily contact 
with thoso whose burdens she could lighten. She lived in the 
hearts of the lowlv. 

Often have her friends heanl her tell how she has sat up all 
night with a sick pupil after teaching all day. At one time 
wlien a neighbor was sick with the small-pox and others seemed 
afraid to go to her relief, she volunteered her service and 
remained with the patient till she was well. 

In 1879 she resigned her i>osition in the Memphis city 
schools with a view of more thoroughl}*^ preparing herself as a 

Soon after leaving Memphis and going to her home in Lee, 
Athens county, Ohio, the great yellow fever epidemic broke 
out in Memphis. As soon as she heard of the sutTcring in 
Memphis she at once sent a telegram to the mayor of tlie city 
ofTering her services ns a 3'ellow fever nurse ; but us she herself 
had not had the disease, the health authorities refused her 
services for the i:eason that her coming would merely serve to 
"add fuel to the fire." 

Seemg that she would be of no service to the Memphis 
safferers, she decided to enter the Hampton Institute, at 
Hampton, Ya. In the fall of 1S79 she entered the senior class 
of that institution, and remained at the institution one year, 
completing the course with the highest honors and winning 
the love and confidence of all with whom she came in contact. 
General Armstrong says she was the strongest and most eill- 
cient woman ever graduated from Hampton. 

While at Hampton, Mrs. Mary Hemmenway, the millionaire 
philanthropist of Boston, visited the institution and became 
so interested in Miss Davidson that she told her that i f she 
wished to extend her education she would gladly bear her 
expenses ia one of the best schools in Vew England. Accept. 
ing this proposition the following fall Miss Davidson entered 
the State Normal School, Framingham, Mass., where she 
remained two years and graduated with the highest honors 
<rf her class. While at Framingham, as at Hampton, she won 


tho love and confidence of all with whom she came in con* 

InlSSl, just before Miss Davidson^s graduation from Fram* 
ingbam, Mr. Booker T. Washington had gone to Tuskegee, 
Ala., to found the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. 
Very soon after he arrived at Tuskegce, and seeing the field 
for work, be invited Miss Davidson to come to Tuskegee as an 
assistant teacher as soon as she finished her course. This 
position Miss Davidson accepted and very soon after cominj^^ 
was made assistant principal of the Tuskegee School. 

At the time this institution was started it owned no 
pro]>erty whatever of its own and had no resources except a 
promise of $3,000 a year from the State of Alabama to be 
used in paying teachers exclusively. Mr. Washington and 
Miss Davidson soon began to make plans for the purchase of 
a permanent location fur the institution and put up buildings 
suitable for class work and dormitories. A large farm near 
the school was found and within a few months after they came 
to Tuskegee they had made a contract for the purchase of 
this farm. ^liss Davidson threw herself with all the energy 
and zeal possible into this work. She not only went among tho 
white and colored people of Tuskegee and collected money 
from them, but went Korth, and within two or three months 
was able to collect in cash several thousand dollars among her 
numerous friends in lifassachusetts. 

While iu the North she got acquainted with such men and 
women as Rev. E. IIulc, Hon. Kobt. 0. Winthrop, Ex-Gov. 
John D. Long, Mrs. Mary Ilemmenway and William Lloyd 

Through the combined efforts of Mr. Washington and Miss 
Davidson within a few months after they came to Tuskegeo 
they had secured not only enough money to pay for the farm 
on which the school was located, but over $6,000 with which 
to erect a large buikhng. In the meantime the number of 
students was inoi*easing very fast and new buildings had to be 
provided. Miss Davidson went North for a few months each 
year, and on these trips was most successful in securing money ; 


and she bad a peculiar talont for reaching and interesting 
wealthy people. At one time sho receivcil S7,000 from two 
persons and on ono of these trips raiseil $10,000. Several 
persons who met her became not only interested in the school^ 
but so interested in her person that tliey remembered her in 
their wills« 

On August 11, 1SS6, Miss Davidson and Mr. Washington 
were married at Athens, Ohio. After their marriage, she 
still kept up her work as usual. Sho was never strong and 
much of the time was only able to keep on her feet by mere 
strength of will. Persons who saw her in Boston and other 
large cities soliciting money often wondered ho>v it was possible 
for a woman no stronger than herself to do such work. She 
never seemed to think of herself in anvthin<; sho undertook io 
do. Sometimes when sho w*ouId call on pei^ons for funds, and 
while sitting waiting for them to come to see her, she would 
fall asleei>*-being so exhausted from her efforts. After 
several months of sickness, Mrs. Washington died May 0, 
1889, leaving two bright little boys. 

It is said by those comi)etent to judge, that not one colored 
woman in this country has done so much to further Negro 
education as Mrs. Olivia Davidson Washington. The school 
at Tuskegee is her monument ; for, without her work in its 
behalf, it could not be what it is. As a result of her work, 
the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute is the largest 
institution in this country in the hands of colored people. 
It has property valued at §160,000, consisting largely of 1,400 
acres of land on which are eighteen buildings. There are 
also eighteen industries and the school has an annual 
income of $70,000 a year. There are 511 students representing 
thirteen States under thirty*fourcompetent teachers. 

On the occasion of her death Miss Mary F. Mackio, late 
lady principal of Hampton Institute (Va.), speaking of her 
life and work says: ^^She gave herself without stint, and while 
her life has not extended over many years, sho has crowded 
into it that which many of double her years will never do.'' 

Gen. J. F. B. Marshall says of her : *' Mrs. Washington. 


was in my opinion a .true Christian martyr ; giving her life, 
08 it wcro, a ransoiu for many/* 

Gon. S. 0. Armstrong snys : *^ Siio was the finest woman 
who over wont out from this school. Ilcr work for Tuskegce 
was as perfect and beautiful an offering for the CHUse of the 
Negro as ever was made.'* 

Soon after her death the Springfield liepuUlcan contained 
the following notice : " Mrs. Olivia Davidson Washington, 
wife of the principal of the Tuskegee (Ala.) Normal School, 
who dieil recently, has done much for the cause of the Negro, 
and was an example of the capacity of the proi>erly trained 
Kegro to conduct wisely and successfully large educational 
enterprises. She w*as a tcaclier in Memphis when the schools 
were broken up by the yellow fever epidemic. Afterward 
she entered the Hampton Institute, to learn its methods, and 
through the kindness of a Boston woman took a course at 
the Framingham State Normal School where she graduated 
with the honoi*s of her class. Booker T. Washington, a 
Hampton graduate, had just established the Tuskegeo Nor- 
mal School and thither Miss Davidson went as woman prin- 
cipal. To the work of establishing this school she devoted all 
her energy, ability and strength; and her early deatli is 
doubtless owing to her overwork in its behalf. She was suc- 
cessful as a teacher, and remarkably so in the wearing work 
of making appeals in the North for aid. A few years ago she 
married Mr. Washington, and her early death is not only a 
great loss to her husband and his two motherless children, 
but also to the cause of Negro education." 


ChrisiUm TVni/HrniMcc AilvociitCn Munlclnn^ TraiBurcr of M'ommi'9 Ilomt 

and i^orcf(/fi MUtnionury Society of A. M. Zion ChHtrhin America^ 

jifrlcii and the Inlcn of the Sat; TourUt^ UnguUi 

and ExiKTtcnccd Tecidicr. 

^N the ancient town of New Berne, N. C, situated at the con* 
fluenco of the beautiful sinuous Trint and historic Neose^ 
liTed E. B. and Caroline K Dudley, the former who by dent^ 



enei^ and indomitable will secured for himself a practical 
education) rarely found in one who had endured the hardships 
of slavery, and been blunted by its curses. For four years 
prior to the close of the war, he was foreman of a large tobacco 
factory at Salisbury, N. C. After the war on returning home 
he was elected on the police force. Shortly afterward he was 
elected first deputy high-sheriff; he then held {positions of city 
marshal, magistrate and later was ap})ointed postmaster of 

New Berne by the postmas- 
ter-general, which ho de- 
clined in favor of a colored 
friend who served his full 
term. He served the legishw 
ture of his State; in fact, for 
many years he was a member 
of the house. For ten years 
be was first deputy collector 
of internal revenue for east* 
ern N. C. 

In 18S3 he retired from 
public life, having accumu- 
lated suificient means to in- 
sure comfort and educate his 
children. He invested most 
of his means in real estate. 

Mrs. Dudley as a slave 
enjoyed i>eculiar advantages 
and most favorable indeed 
in those poverty days of servitude. She was taught to read 
and write in the great house, in fact her education at the 
close of the war became a mite in the great educational work 
of the Negro in the South, and indeed wo may stylo her a 
pioneer heroine who, seeing the necessity* of education, plunged 
in for duty and championed the golden rule. 

Along with the spirit of education which led her on, she 
gathered strength and added to her domestic life the qualifica* 
tions of an expert in needle work and embroidery. 



To ibis couple was born tbe subjoot of our sketch, Nov* 
vember 9, 1868. 

At tbe ago of six sbe was reading and writing, being taught 
at home by her mother. She then entered the graded school. 
After leaving the graded school she entered and completed the 
course in the State Normal under tlie instruction of the effi- 
cient and worthy professor, George II. White. (At-this writing 
ho is now solicitor for the second judicial district of North 
Carolina, the only Negro in the United States filling such a 
position.) At the age of twelve Miss Dudley entered Scotia 
Seminary at Concord, North Carolina; after graduating with 
first honors, she began teaching in her native city as second 
assistant in the graded scliool which she held for one year. 
Ilcr work thus demonstrated the necessity for her promotion 
to assistant principal, which position she held for six years, and 
for two years acted as assistant professor in tlie County Teach- 
ers' Normal Institute, which position she held until she mar- 
ried the Rt. Rev. Charles Calvin Pettey, A. M., D. D., Bishop 
of the A. M. £. Zion Church in America. Her peculiar fitness 
for teaching brought her the coveted reward she justly merited. 
At various times very many positions in academics, high 
schools and State normals have been offered her, which she 
declined, owing to her fondness for home and pleasant su^ 
round ings. For four and a half years she gratuitously gave 
her services as organist for the church of her choice. Sunday- 
schools and missionary societies have always had in her a 
stanch friend and advocate. Immediately after marriage she 
made a tour of the United States, Mexico and Continental 
Europe. We insert for our readers her own sketch of incidents 
by the way : 

<^ All is ready, at last comes the sailing day, the brass gong 
sounds and all continental passengers board the great iron-clad 
steamship—" City of Chicago." The sail^ are hoisted. The 
Stars and Stripes with King George*8 cross are unfurled to the 
breezes. A signal is given when a little tug steams up and 
pulls us from the shore. Such a waving of handkerchiefs on 
the pier. Many were the eyes bedimmed with tears. 


^Tbe pilot goes with us down to Sandy Ilook, and returns 
to Xew York City. We pass briggs, barks, vessels and steam- 
ships in tbe harbor, from every known part of this inhabited 
globe. Each in their way salute us as we pass. Oh how sad 
it was when we reached the "bar** and our pilot was lowered 
into the tug and raising liis cap bade us bon voyage across 
the deep and started back to pilot out a steamship forsome 
other line. Our first night out wo were a little too sick to enjoy 
the delicious supper prepared and served. The second day 
dawned most beautifully. The sun seemingly rose up out of 
the broad expanse of water. The day passed along, all on 
board were feeling a little seasick. 

** The very heavens seemed black with ugly clouds torn and 
tattered by the raging tempest and dasheil forward as an 
avalanche. We felt doomed to a watery grave, but lie whose 
mandates the winds and waves obey was not yet ready to 
engulf us, and waft our spirits to the Beulah land. The storm 
at last spent all its fury, and Sol's bright rays peeping over the 
eastern hills heralded the dawn mid thrones of sapphire beauti- 
fying and making more picturesque the landscape^ bidding us 
once more enjoy the sublime tranquility of a glorious day. 

" Twod^aysafter the^torm subsided,ahuge whale followed us 
for ten miles or more and then becoming angry because no one 
chanced to fall overboard, he swam away toward Greenland's 
icy peaks, spouting water as he went, ten or twenty feet high, 

"At last on the morning of the 12th day we spied land, 
shouts of praise and laughter rent the air. Wo glided along 
and at high noon were passing the reefs of Ireland. A cannon 
was fired and a cablegram sent back to America saying that 
we had passed the Point. About five o'clock in the afternoon 
we reached Queenstown, Ireland; a walled city with beauti- 
ful ganlens, terraces and overhanging festoons artistically 
arranged by " Dame Nature.*' After passing through the cus- 
tom-house, where we were searched for fire-arms, etc., we 
started out sight-seeing. We hardly planted foot on Irish soil 
when one of Kate Karney's daughters insisted on bishop's pur* 
chasing a piece of shamrock — the Irish emblem which, as she 



said, would give him good luck. After visiting all of the prom* 
inent places we traveled for several miles along the banks of 
the river Lea. Passed the tower containing the famous Shan- 
don Bells of which Father Prout so beautifully sings. At last 
Cork was reached. "We registered at the Imi>erial Hotel where 
we met not a colored face. All were white, and yet we wero 
royally entertained. Bishop preached at the French Wesleyan 
Church the following Sunday where we met a white minister 
and his wife. "We four formeil a party to visit the continent. 
^^ Among the sights and wonders of the Emerald Isle we 
have the Gianf s Causewav in the north and the famous Blar* 
ney stone. 

" * If ye kiss it they say, from that blissed day ye may kiss 
whom ye plaze wid yer blarnej*.' 

*^Next we would notice the beautiful Bantry Bay ; it has a 
miniature Brooklyn bridge spanning it. Then we see the 
charming scenes of GlengarifF and the three lakes of Killarney, 
all famous for many legends. We passed through the Gap of 
Dunloe, and upon making some inquiry our guide inXormetl us 
that the giant of Ireland, wishing to visit the giant of Scotland, 
not desiring to go fifty miles around the mountain, drew his 
sword, and with one mighty stroke cut the famous Gap of 
Dunloe, and passed onwanl. We traveled by hack and stago 
o'er the Prince of Wales route to Dublin and were followed 
by bonny Irish lassies, carrying goat's milk and brandy to 
refresh the weary traveler, for which they expected in return 
the tip of a penny, a sixi>ence or a shilling. They were very 
desirous of coming to America, the basin in which flows the 
amalgamated tide of humanity. Being weary of Ilome Hule, 
they craved the protection of the Stars and Stripes. 

^* In rural districts some of the houses are low, built of stone, 
and thatched with straw. Oft times we would find a man, his 
wife and eight or ten children living in one room, a pig under 
the table, a donkey in the corner and the chickens roosting 
o'er head ; yet all seemed to bo healthy and enjoying life. 

^^ Ireland is famous for its natural beauty. You can roam at 
will o'er hill and dale, through meadows green, and pluck the 


flowerB growing in rich profusion. One of the Irish legends 
goes that St. Patrick pra\'ed all insects and serpents from his 
domain. Our guide took us to the upper lake of Killarney, 
and where the water formed a little whirlpool ; he pointeil and 
said : '* Look and see the box containing the last serpent which 
St. Patrick cbncjuered and chained," and ho verily believed it 
too. Hurriedly leaving the Emerald Isle, wo crossed the Irish 
channel and arrivckl at IloUy Head in Wales. 

** Wales is a mountainous country, much given to mining; 
the people are kind and courteous to strangers. The Welch- 
men gave us a right royal welcome. On we go with all the 
steam velocity' of the "Flying Dutchman," until we reached 
London, which has been justly styled the center of the terres- 
trial ball, for indeed it is a great sea of stone flats and moving 

"Hero wo visit Westminster Abbey, the House of Parlia- 
ment, the British Museum, London Tower, the National Art 
Gallery, Piccadilly Art. Gallery, Hyde Park, Regent's Park, 
Crystal Palace and many places which space forbids our men- 
tioning. Wc took sacrament in the lamented Spurgcon's 
Tabernacle, also in John Wesley*8 old church. Wo were 
received by Dr. Parker, Bishop, and by his Grace, tho Lord 
Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth Palace. Bishop 
preached and lectured in most all the proininent churches 
throughout the kingdom. While in Franco wo roile across tho 
beautiful river Seine, went up tho Eiffel tower, in Paris, visited 
the tomb of Napoleon, tho Chambers of Court, tho Morgue, 
Notre Dame Cathedral, the IIipix>drome and various other 
places. Wo had to hire an interpreter. We walked into one 
restaurant and after many hard trials I made tho porter under- 
stand what I wanted by Happing my arms. Ho brought mo a 
chicken. And we enjoyed it, too. While tho porter was 
gone, Bishop looked up and spied a largo cat in one of tho 
windows. He said ^ Kitty, kitty,' and the cat said *Mieu,' 
and came to him. He said: ' Bless my soul, tho cat is the only 
thing in the house that understands a word of English/ Wo 
tbited all the prominent towns and cities in France, and then 


returned to Great Britian, spent some time, and then set sail 
for the home of the free and the land of the brave. Our voy- 
age homo was almost without incident save the passing of 
many icebergs when rearing Labrador and the shores of Green- 
land. Bishop often joked me about beii^g seasick, but during* 
the gale he received a wound which cost him just two gold 
guineas. Of course he was not ^msick. Arriving in New 
York and planting foot on American soil we started south- 
ward, spent pleasant days in the Old Dominion, which has been 
justly called the home of presidents. Passing on through tho 
Carolinas we kept on and on until we reacheil El Paso, Texas, 
then we concluded to see something of real life among tho 
Mexicans in thqir adobe houses. After visiting many promi- 
nent points and securing some Mexican relics we left Mexico 
for the Golden Gate. We traveled through southern Califor- 
nia, visiting many orchards and vineyards ; of times our iron 
horse was dashing along tlirough flelds of clover daises and 
alfalfa when we were gazing uiH>n the snow-capped i>eak8 of 
Mount Shasta.'* 

On arriving home (Xewberne, N. C, U. S.) a gmnd recep- 
tion was tendered the bishop and his lady, by the aiTablo 
banker and broker, Isaach II. Smith. After which they were 
tendered many grand receptions in all parts of the United 
States, including California and Oregon. 

Mi*s. Pettey having turneil her attention to the interests of 
tho A. M. E. Zion connection, has become a great church 
worker and bids fair to lead the women of her church on 
this line. At the last general conference held in Pittsburgh 
Pennsylvania, May, 1802, she was elected treasurer of tho 
AVoman^s Home and Foreign Missionary Society for the A. M. 
E. Zion connection, which position she now holds with great 
honor to herself and the church. 

While Mrs. Pettey is doubtless a good scholar, yet the case 
and facility which characterize her instructions in the school- 
room caused a great educator to say of her : *^ She .is a born 
teacher.'' There are many young teachers whose erudition is 
quite Bufllcient, but yet there is something wanting. Her 



education in every way apparently reaches farther, and gives 
ber the reputation that many who surpass Iier in the dassics 
never dreamed of. 

The English language has in her a champion and devotee. 
The cadence, rising and falling inQcctions of her voice, in fact 
every accent portrays a musical rhythm. While her teaching 
is limited by a few short years, many young men and women 
who have been under her instruction no doubt will come forth 
to bless the race. 


Aor€Zi«(, Eduaaor^ ir. C. T. IT. AdvocnU, Poetess, 

OLUMBI A, the capital of the Palmetto State, has been 
the home of many illustrious men. It is a beautiful city, 
finely locateil on the right bank of the Congaree. Crowning a 
•lofty hill, with broad, level streets crossing each other at right 
angles, and ornamented by a double and sometimes triple row^ 
of shade-trees — with well-kept flower-gardens in which plants 
of almost every description flourish so luxuriantly as to give it 
the name of " City of Flowers,'* Columbia seems to merit the 
praise bestowed on it by tourists as the loveliest city in the 
South — if we take natural beauty as the criterion. It is the 
seat, too, of many well-known institutions of learning ; ono of 
these, the South Carolina Universit}^ which has been the Alma 
Mater of so many men who have figured in the history of our 
country, was established as long ago as 1801. An atmosphere 
of intellectuality has always characterized the town, and it is 
not surprising that, notwithstanding its lack of enterprise and 
its general conservatism, Columbia possesses a charm suillcient 
to attract to it a population far above the average in intelligence 
and moral worth. 

In antC'Mlutn times, Columbia was the aristocratic center of 
one of the most aristocratic commonwealths of the South ; and, 
as those Southerners with the bluest of blue blood in their 
veins are almost invariably the most courteous and considerate 
in their dealings with our race, Columbia has always been noted 

TnEiR TRiu.vrirs axd activities. 


for tbo kindly feeling existing between tbe two classes of its 

Since the dawn of anew and brighter era, Columbia has been 
the homo, of many of our leading Afro- Americans. James 
Smith, who, way back in the seventies, knocked at the doors 
of West Point, and was the first colored youth to do so, was a 
native Columbian, and so were many others who have made 
their mark in different avocations of life. Among the adopted 
citizens of Columbia, for a 
time at least, were K. 11. C;un, 
who once represented South 
Carolina in the nationalcoun- 
cils, and latterly was elected 
to the bishopric of tlie A. M. 
E. Church ; the gifteil lamen- 
ted Bishop William F. I>ick- 
crson; Robert B. Elliott, than 
whom the race has proiluced 
no greater or moi*e eloquent 
statesman; FranpisL. Car- 
ilozo, at one time filling the 
honored position of secretary, 
and subsequently treasurer of 
his native State; Jonathan J. 
Wright, the first and the only 
colored man ever elevated 
to the supreme bench of 
any State ; the brilliant, cul- 
tured, genial Richaixl Theodore Greener; D. Augustus 
StraUer, of whom the corresix)ndent of a leading New 
York daily wrote: *^Ono of the ablest speeches ever made 
before a criminal court was that made by D. A. Straker, a black 
lawyer from Bermuda;'* and William Myrtenello Dart, one of 
the brainiest men the race can claim, whoso early death ended 
a career rich in promise for himself and the people with whom 
providence had identified him. 

Immediately after the smoke of the conflict which trans- 




formed three millions of slaves into citizens of the mightiest 
country on tho face of the earth had cleared away, many of 
the former bondmen came to the front in their respective 
localities. Among these was Samuel B. Thompson. IIo was 
a man of much natuml ability, and, for a time, his peoplo 
"delighted to honor him." During the Ecpublican retjime ho 
held many positions of trust and emolument. For eiglit years 
he filled tho oflice of justice of the i^eace in tho capital city, 
and for six years ho represented his native county in the State 
legislature. A newspaper, editeil by men of Cauc;isian lineage, 
said of him, several years afterward : " IIo is a colored gentle- 
man, in every essential." His wife, Eliza Ilenrictta, one of 
the- most amiable of women, was a worthy liclpmeet, and to 
this happy couple were born nine children, one of whom is the 
subject of our sketch. 

Clarissa Thompson's opportunities have always been of tho 
most excellent character. Those Northern societies who have 
done so much for the amelioration of the condition of tho 
freeilmen sent some of their noblest and best to labor in tho 
Palmetto State; and Columbia, with her usual good fortune, 
secured some of tho choicest spirits among these. Howard 
school, nameil in honor of the philanthropic General O. O. 
Howard, boasted of a fino corps of thirteen teachers. Miss 
Carrie IL Loomis, of Hartford, Conn., had charge of tho most 
advanced grade. She was a born teacher, and manifested tho 
deepest interest in her pupils. Clarissa had just completed her 
ninth year when she entered this lady's department, and sho 
has always regarded Miss Loomis as thd teacher to whom she 
is most indebted. A few years in Howard school, and then 
she is enrolled as a member of tho South Carolina State Normal 
school, of which Prof. Mortimer A. Warren, of Connellsville, 
Conn. , was principal, and Miss Loomis chief assistant. Professor 
TTarren was one of the best educatoi*s on this continent. An 
enthusiastic believer in the inductive system of teaching, ho 
founded his methods on those advocated by Pestalozzi, Froobel 
and Horace Mann. While here. Miss Thompson had tho 
privilege of attending lectures given by members of the faculty 


of the South Carolina University. The standard of this uni- 
versity was high. The board of regents had spared no pains 
to secure the services of the best talent in the country. Its 
library iias always been famous; its laboratory has always been 
considered one of the best in the United States, and its repu- 
tation, with such intellectual giants as McDuffie and Hayne, 
claiming it as their Alma Master, has always been enviable. It 
was tlto aim of tlio board to put it on a level with what it was 
in ante Mlum times, and, judging from the graduates it turned 
out — such scholars as T. McCants Stewart and the lan^enteil 
William M. Dart — their efforts did not lack much of being 
crowned with success. The normal school was, de facto^ a 
part of the university; and during the last year of their course 
the class of which Miss Thompson was a member pursueil 
some of Iheir studies in conjunction with the junior class of 
this institution. 

Immediately after graduation Miss Thompson began her 
career as first assistant in Howard scliool. Having been 
elected principal of Poplar Grove School in Abbeville, S. C, 
she resigned her position in Howard, and for fifteen months 
taught with gratifying success in A bbeville. Bishop Dickerson 
was at this time making herculean efforts to build up the school 
he loved so well — Allen University and, at his request, Miss 
Thorn i)son accepted a position there. For fifteen months she 
was preceptress in Latin, algebra, physical geography, and 
ancient and modern History. The work at Allen was very 
congenial. But there has always been latent in her heart some- 
thing of the missionary spirit, and, despite the entreaties of ber 
friends, she resigned her position, and, in February, 18S6, left 
her native home for Texas. For three years she labored in 
Jefferson, the former metropolis of the lone Star State. ** The 
people of Jefferson were as kind to me as those of Abbeville, 
and that is saying a great deal,'' she writes concerning her stay 
there. From Jefferson Miss Thompson came to Fort Worth, 
the busy, enterprising, rapidly-growing railroad center of Texas. 
The school here has the reputation of being one of the best in 
the Statet and she fills at present the position of first assistant. 


Miss Thom)>son began at an early ago to write for llie i>re8s. 
Whileascboul-girl, she wrote several essays, which were pub- 
lished in the Christian liccorder. Professor "Warrcn si>oko to 
her oQoe : " I think you will be a good writer some day, Clarissa, 
but you must not make the mistake of rushing into print too 
earlY." J3ut the •* furv " was on her. There were some thinirs 
in the social life of her people that filled her mind with fore- 
bodings. Knowing the salutary effect of a good novel, she 
determined to attempt one herself, to show up this *^ crying 
weakness." With this end in view, she wrote ** Treading the 
VTinepress,** a serial of forty chapters which ran for several 
months in the columns of the Boston Advocate."^ A brief 
extract from this novel may not be out of place here. 

Will De Yerne, the hero, says to his aunt : 

** What a poor opinion you have of your * brethren after the 
flesh,* Aunt Madeline t One would never judge from your 
words that you form * part and parcel ' of that much-abuseil 

'* Thank heaven, very few drops of that blood course through 
my veins,' ^ and Madame Do Verne gazed with much com- 
placency on her dainty white hands and tinely-moulded 

The playful look left Will's eyes. 

*^ And yet, AunVMadeline," he said, with all the earnestness 
he was master of, *' as long as those few drops remain, it would 
be well to recognize a fact many of our people are in danger of 
forgetting, viz., that just one scintilla of Negro blood, 
be the possessor thereof as white asthodriven snow, is sufHcient 
to fix your sl6X\x% forever^ as far as public opinion is concerned. 
If some of our leaders could be made to see this, perhaps 
instead of isolating themselves from the race so sorely in nee<l 
of their assistance they would come down from their eyrie and 
try to lift up the masses. We cannot hue out for ourselves a 
separate destiny. It may seem to benefit us, but it will avail 

*Itw4t begun io Uie ChrUtian lUeorder, hui, awaking to tUo fact thai 
tbe plot and deretopmcni of the story woulil scarcely bocomo an ccclcsiaiiical 
ptfcr* U was witbdrawo after tbrrc cl:aptcr» hncl l>crn puf*l>bcil. 


our children nothing. We must all rise together or fall 
together. There is no midclle ground. 

. Later on, in the same dialogue, DeVerno says: "You 
should have been born on European soil, Aunt Madeline. 
Your sentiments are entirely too aristocratic to flourish under 
the American eagle. In an institution like ours, we could not 
tolerate, for a single moment, such exclusive ideas. There we 
have, and can have, no aristocracy but the aristocracy of 
genius. The aristocracy of blood must take a back scat, for 
blue blood does not alwavs bestow brains; the aristocracv of 
wealth must follow suit, for, though money is a mighty factor 
in human progress, fortune is too notoriously blind and fickle 
for us to gauge a man^s worth by the size of his pocket-book ; 
xind that (Kculiar aristocracy of which you and 3'our friends 
are such ardent advocates— in both precept and practice — the 
aristocracy of color — should never be allowed to rear its 
serpent head among our people. The day it does, our race is 
doomed. We are fighting the self-same monster without; we 
can not afford to let it come within and live. Our social 
structure must have a different foundation. Moral character 
should be tl>e corner-stone ; mental culture one of the main 
columns. A man must be resi)ected for his worth, not for the 
color of his skin or the strength of his bank account.'' 

Thid novel has never been, and will never be, published in 
book form. Miss Thompson regards it as a girlish protest 
against what seemed to be serious dangers threatening our race. 
Iler object was not to gain " name and fame,'' but to call the at- 
tention of thinking people to these blots in our social firmament. 

Since coming to Texas, ^liss Thompson has written a tem- 
l>erance poem entitled "A Glass of Wine," which was pub- 
lished in the Texas Blade^ and was favorably received by 
the critics. Texas boasts of quite a number of race papers, 
and under the nam dej)fume of " Minnie Myrtle" Miss Thomp- 
son has contributed letters, poems, and, in one instance, a ' 
novelette called " Only a Flirtation," to several of them. 

But, while her tastes are literary, her chief desire is to 
accomplish good in her profession. ** Wo must work out our 


destiny* in a great measore, in the schoolroom/' she says. 
** Among most races, the mothers mould the character of tlio 
children ; but so many of our women have been deprived of 
theopjwrtunity to elevate themselves, and poverty compels so 
many of them to spend most of the time away from their fam- 
ilies, that a large pro|K>rtion of the children cannot receive the 
home training imi>erative for the production of ^rand men and 
noble women, with heart and head cultivatcil to the utmost. 
It mav seem a thankless task, and even the most enthusiastio 
among us ofttimes get discouraged ; but, if we will only jxirse- 
vere, •rich will the harvest be.' The elevation of our race 
depends largely on the character of the work done in the 
scbool-rooro. The teacher can, by a few well-chosen words, 
touch the very chord that will inspire 'some mute, inglorious 
Milton,' some embryo physician, financier or mechanic to 
devote himself to the vocation for which Nature has desif^ned 
him, instead of frittering away his talents on something to 
which be is entirelv unsuiteil. A teacher's influence mav make 
a life^ or it may mar it." 

Some of the members of Miss Thomi^son's family have 
attained a considerable degree of prominence in their resi>cct» 
ire localities.' Among these are her paternal cousin. Dr. 
Alonzo C. McClennan, of Charleston, S. C, and his partner,. 
Dr. John MePherson Thompson, her oldest brother, who has- 
made a fine reputation as a mathematician, as well as a physi- 
cian. Miss Thomi)son says that what little of literary ability 
she possesses she inherits from her father, while to her mother,, 
to whom she is devoted even beyond the ordinary, she owes a 
retentive memory. 

Miss Thompson's ideal of womanhood is very high, and in 

her writing she has always endeavored to bold up to 

her readers the model extolled by the great Justin J. 

• Holland, as contained in the following lines, with which we 

oonclade this sketch : 


She was my peer. 

No weakling girl, who would turrender will 

And life and reaton, with her lorlog heart. 


To bcr possessor ; no soft, cHogtog thiog 
VTLo would find breath slooe withintbe arms 
Of a strong master, and obediently 
Wait on his will in slaTish carefulness ; 
No fawning, cringing spaniel to attend 
His royal pleasure, and account herself 
KewaideU by bis pats and pretty words. 
But A souxD WOMAN, who. With Inslgbt keen. 
Had wrought a scheme of life, and measuted well 
Her womanhood ; had spread before her feet 
A fine philosophy to guide her steps : 
Had won a faith to which her life was brought 
In strict adjustment— brain and heart meanwhila 
Working in conscious harmony and rhythm 
With the great scheme of God's great unlTerse, 



Teacher and Bxttu. 

RAXKIE E. HARRIS WASSOM^ daughter of Bererly 
and R E. Harris^ was born in Monroe, Michigan, and 
while quite small her parents moved to Obcrlin, Ohio, so that 
their children might be eilucated. Having sprunpf from a 
noble ancestry of wliicb she may be proud, not many of her 
race can boast of such noble parentage. 

Her father figured very conspicuously in the underground 
railroad with Dr. Wm. Wells Brown, of Boston, and others, 
always trying to lend a helping hand to his race, while her 
mother was smart, intelligent and independent, always labor- 
ing for the gooil of her race. Mr. and Mrs. Harris believed 
that freedom was a gift from God to every man, and that all 
children should be educated alike. Thev left their beautiful 
home in Michigan, with their four children, and moved to 
Oberlin. The oldest daughter, having gone on before, was in 
school. Frankie was yet too young, but when she became of 
suitable age was entered into the city school, wberd she spent 
nine years ; after which she entered Oberiin College and spent 
four years. During this time she also studied music and fine 



arts. When through studying, although not in the best of 
health, she had a desire to go out in the world and make her 

Wo find her quite young, a mere cliild, going south to teach 
school. She had that force of purpose, and strong, determinate 
will to conquer whatever obstacles might come, and fight life's 
battle, aiming to reach the goal some day. She met with 
success, and was encouraged to go on. We next find her 

teaching in the public schools 
of Virginia. During her va- 
cation in '71, she went with 
her sister, then Miss Blanche 
V. Harris, on a visit to Knox- 
ville, Tennessee. Here they 
were both employed as prin- 
cipals of schools in Knoxville. 
Frankie £. Harris remained 
teaching in the city schools 
of Knoxville for nearly three 
years, when she received a 
letter requesting her to go to 
Mississippi to teach. Wages 
were better than in Knox- 
ville, so she concluded to 
resign and go to Mississippi. 
The board, finding out her 
reason for leaving, offered 
to raise her wages if she 
wnuld remain, but she told them it was too late; she 
had accepted the position in Mississippi, where she went 
in February, '74. Here she taught a successful terra. 
At the close, the superintendent asked Miss Harris to please 
return and teach for them the next year ; but as she had an- 
. other engageitient in June, she told him she could not come 
back. She left Mississippi Juno the 1st, and on June 10, 
1S74, was married to Col. George T. Wassom, who is one of 
Americans bright sons, and who has won for himself a lasting 



reputation. He is not only a politician, but a shrewd lawyer. 
Although quite a young man, he has filled places of honor. In 
1878 ho was apiK)inted colonel of the Fourth battalion of eastern 
North Carolina. In 1882, under Arthur^s administration, he 
was appointed postal clerk ; was also one of the delegates to 
the national convention held in Chicago which nominated 
Harrison ; and we find him again reappointed as postal clerk. 
Frankic E. Harris Wassom published her first book of 
poems in '86. She wrote a number of years for two period- 
icals, and was on the staff of the Gojdsboro Star for three 
years. After marrying, she stopi>eil her school work for a 
sliort time, but feeling she must go back into this field of labor, 
resumed her teaching, and is still teaching. During this time 
she has contributed to a number of newspapers, and since '85 
has done a great deal of work in the fine arts. In '86 she put 
on exhibition some of her cra3^on work at the North Carolina 
State Industrial Fair, and was awarded first premium. At the 
same fair ex-Senator Blair delivered the annual address, and 
Mrs. Wassom comiK>scd a song and music in honor of Senator 
Blair's coming. The piece was entitled '^ Coming to the Fair," 
and many were the compliments she received from friends and 
through the press. We quote only a few ; The jBaj)(!st CoM" 
panion said : '^ At the Educational Convention held in Kaleigb^ 
in 1886, in the Metropolitan Hall (and which was fully at* 
tended) the exercises were of a high order. Rev. J. C. PricCt 
president of the Association, delivered an able address, after 
which ex-Senator Henry W. Blair delivered a i)owerful 
address. One of the most entertaining and inspiring features 
of the evening was afforded in a song entitled * Coming to the 
Fair,' composed by Mrs. F. E. H. Wassom, who now resides 
and is teaching in Goldsboro, N. 0. ' It was a quartette, and 
. most beautifully rendered, being very appropriate for the oc< 
casion. No higher compliments need to be paid to the merits 
of this soul-stirring, highly musical composition than the. 
enthusiastic applause tendered th^ author during and after its 
rendition at the fair. The whole audience was intensely 
delighted. Senator Blair^ in honor of whoso visit it iras 


composed, evinced the keenest interest in its merits. Xo one, 
especiall}' in North Carolina, should be without this piece of 
music. Senator Blair, at the close of the exercises, requested 
Mrs. Wassom to send him a copy.'' 

Mrs. Wassom's book of poems is highly meritorious. The 
author possesses great proficiency as a poet, which is evidently 
the bent of her genius. 

The Charlotte iVV?r^, said : ** The song composed by Mrs. 
Wassom, and sung by an able quartette in his honor, was 
loudly applauded at the conclusion of each verse.'' 

We could write many such compliments from different 
periodicals, but we have taken enough of your good time. 
Mrs. Wassom is now teaching in the city graded schools of 
Kooxville, Tennessee, where siie has been for the past five or 
six years. We copy one of her poeais : 


If you wish .to be successful 
In the pathway of your life, 

Press forward ever seeking 
The burden of the strife. 

If the struggle be a fierce one 
Fight it with patience, Tim, 

The end will come before you think 
And in it you will win. 

If you struggle thus with courage 
The barriers will surely fill. 

And you'll find a way to conquer 
Be that power great or small. 

Let the maxims of your conscience 
Guide and guard you in the fight» 

And with duty as your watchword^ 
Tou will ever go aright. 

Push onward then and upward. 
Always strive to lead the van, 

*' For as fire doth prove the metal' 
So do struggles prove the man. 



Pcil(i(("l/(ic, Potica* nrid EnMayM, Lunehburn, Tlrpfntfi. 

WHE Indy n-hose name rre have chosen for our subject is a 
residcDt of Lynchburg, Virginia. She belongs to that 
younger class of women in our national life wbo are slowly, bat 

siirely,making tbeiiisclv«8 an enviable place in the literary futare. 
She is one of that class that has been fitted for the arduous 
labor our iromon must encounter in the march to success by 
years of training at home and school, coupled with a few yean 
of bitter mental experience. 


The Afro-American must inevitably attain a place in the 
world of enlightenment and civilization, and in reaching such 
a place every human being of the race must share a respon- 

It will mete itself out as the ability to do demands. In this 
respect some may do more than others. Man will doubtless 
do more than woman, yet she has a work to do in purifying 
erery sphere of our life which she alone can do. Since eman- 
cipation the women of our race have not failed to begin this 
work and that our literary, our social and our moral life has^ 
been reaping the beneficent results of her labor goes without 
saying. Madame Penn is a Kentuckian by birth, the place 
and time being Paris, Kentucky, June IS, 18C5. When very 
small she wast;\ken to Virginia and located in Lynchburg, 
where her parents William and Sophia Riiodes are respected 
and well-to-do-citizens at this writing. At the proper time our 
subject wasentered in a private school taught by Mrs. C. C.Ellis ; 
from this school she matriculated at Shaw University, Baleigh, 
North Carolina, when a mere child. She was put under the 
care of Rev. H. M. Tupper D. D.,LL. D., president of Shaw 
University, and his very estimable wife. She at once ingra- 
tiated herself in their favor, as did she in the favor of all othei^a 
in authority. As a student she enjoys the record of having 
been a brilliant one, of having always pursued her studies with 
diligence and profit. She holds a full-fledged diploma from 
the scientific department of that university. 

It was while a student at this school her friends saw in her 
eminent literary qualities and bade her put them to use in the 
betterment of mankind and the lifting up of her oppressed 
people. Her essays and poetical writings at this time gave 
every assurance that if continued with the same care and 
interest her life without the confines of Shaw would be 
decidedly a grand one and a fitting example of race possibilities. 
For two years she taught in the normal department of her 
Alma Mater and voluntarily resigned in order to return to 
Virginia and home. She afterwards taught in Chatham, Vir- 
ginia, and then in the primary department of the Lynchburg, 


Virginia, school where she is now. She ranks among the first- 
ciuss primary teachers in Virginia and is one of the three best 
salaried lady teachers in a group of eighteen or twenty belong- 
ing to the corps. It is as an essayist and poetic writer Mrs. Penn 
has been brought into national notice. In these fields of literary 
pui*suitsshe is the possessor of some considerable notice which 
is oi)ly the result of her labor. In other words, she justly 
merits all the notice she gets at the hands of her admirei-s. The 
many occasions upon which she has figured as an essayist are 
two numerous to mention, save one. At the closing exercises 
of the summer normal held at the Virginia Normal and Colle- 
giate Institute, Petersburg, Va., in lSS6,Mrs. Penn was assigned 
the duty of essayist U|K>n the occasion. The title of the essay 
for the occasion was ^^ All that outtkrsisnot oold.'' It was 
well armnged and winningly delivered in Madame^sown particu- 
lar style. It was enthusisistically received. The president, 
John Mercer Langston, LL. D., commenting on the essay, its 
delivery, etc., said that for chasteness of language, beauty of 
diction and com))osition it was one of the best he had ever 
heard. He was very elaborate in his complimentary com- 
ment, showing that under its mellifluous flow he had grown 
rapturously dizzy. 

In her poetical compositions, Mi*s. Penn has won an admir- 
able place in herpeople^s esteem. It cannot easily be erased 
nor can it soon wither. She has read original poenis on very 
many great public occasions, the last of which was the Quarto* 
Centennial Celebration of Alma Mater Shaw University. Upon 
invitation she was present December 1, 1890, and read a poem 
entitled ** Light Out of Darkness,'' entirely of her own 
thought and composition, which would have done credit to any 
one claiming poetic ability. It was fifteen verses of eight- 
line poetry portraying the A frio- American in ignorance and 
darkness and the light coming to him through the aid of 
Northern friends. 

The poem was well delivered and received at the hands of 
the president, Dr. H. M. Tup|>er, Hon. Elijah J. Shaw and 
RcT. Dr. McVicar many warm and congratulatory expressions^ 


We indulge the opinion that to insert a few stanzas of this 
poem here will be pleasing to the reader and at the same time 
tobstantiate our assertions : 


Ooce this land of light and beauty 

Was a blank, a perfect clinos, 
WitU on call to life and duty 

And no mortals crying. '* Save us I"* 
There were no radiant sunbeams 

To brighten the wanderers* way ; 
Ko beautiful silver moonbeams 

To announce the death of day. 

But G.. d. in his Divine wisdom, 

From this chaos formed the world,. 
Bid sun and moon in their season 

Each its banner of light unfurl. 
When this was fully completed 

And the ^faster about to rest, 
He remembered man secreted 

In earth embrace* without a test. 

f Thus the life of the world began 

Surrounded by riches from Goii ; 
Cursed by the wickedness of man 

Which makes its progression still hard. 
But none seem to have felt the blow 

^lore keenly than our forefathers. 
Who for two hundred years and more 

Lived the life of slaves and marlyrs. 

In poetical ecstasy she begins to line out the help which 
has come to us through our friends in the following stanzas : 

The Lord In his royal Kingdom, 

Turned a listening ear to their cries ; 
And through the wealth of Kew England 

Were their children's wants soon supplied. . 
And among the institutions 

Reared in the lieautiful Southland 
By Ood at a restitution. 

For the conflicts of the bondman. 

TaSiR TRlUMPnS AND AcnviTm. 1» 

Wm our noble Alma Mitcr 

Wbo in Ibe r%ll of '65 
Amidu bUune and croel iMticd* 

Threw kcr collie dooca opem wida 
To Africa's sons and daughters 

Who for knowledge were then alhfaaL 
The enemy scorned and foaghl ber. 
But be found ber on tbe alett. 

Year after year she has labor*d 

To reacte tbe youth of this age. 
From Ignorance's thralliDg aaTor, 

Which has darken'd Histoiy's page. 
Some are in the rural districts. 

Where tbe light has recently goset 
Where the neat and comely rustica 

Are eager, anxious for the mom 

Some are in tbe btisy city 

Where the constant and endlew Utts 
Makes the masses lose their pity 

And many fathers Toid of love. 
Some bare crossed the briny ocean. 

And are now in the heathen lands 
With tbe Gospel's fragrant odor, 

A heeling from the golden strand* 

Some have gone to fairer regions. 

Into tbe land of light and love ; 
Tbey have Joined the heavenly kgloa 

And tbe mtuical band above. 
Some of us arc still remaining, 

And we have gathered here to^iu* 
Events of tbe past explaining. 

Causing future dread to allay. 

Ood bless our faithful president. 

Who in the night of *65, 
Regardless of tbe pestilence 

Ilarken'd at once to our cries. 
And now since tbe night is over 

And the light with tbe years have coas^ 
We will be no longer rovers 

But a race with victory woa 

Farewell to you, midnight darkness. 

Farewell to you, dreams of tbe past* 
Tis nearing tbe time of harvest. 

Behold I tbe grain Is ripening fast 


Farewell to each comrade present, 

800D we may part to meet no more. 
Thoughts of to-day will be pleasant 

We*U meet on the beautiful shore." 

We also insert another of her excellent poems which has 
been published and read by several persons upon public occa- 
sions as an exemplification of Afro-American ability. It is 
entitled : 


Who can tell the bitter anguish 

Of a true and noble heart 7 
Who can quote in simple language 

Words which bid iu grief depart T 
When its dearest earthly tnasure, 

When its life, its loTe. lis all. 
lie who eTer sought its pleasure 

Prom earth to heaven is called. 

Ask the starry orbs of mir^night, 

Seek an answer in the deep, 
Ask the sun which rules the daylight. 

Ask the mighty ones who steep. 
Ask the queen who sways her millions* 

Ask the king and ask the priest, 
Ask those with ancient wisdom, 

Yea, the answer always seek. 

Alas! they send you no reply ; 

Not a word as yet they say. 
They dare not picture or f urmise 

That which in its mcm'ry lay : 
They dare not use the phrase of poets 

To describe its inmost grief ; 
They dare not censure or ignore it 

In its longings for relief. 

i$ut turn ye to a humble cot, 

To a dwelling by the sea. 
To one where gladness dwelleth not 

And where Qod seems not to be ; 
Where mists of sorrow always stay, 

Where the mighty thunders roar, 


Whore rays of promise ncTer straj 
And tbe aogels neTcr soar. 

There, in the dusky twiltght hour. 

Seek a maiden mild and fair. 
Hid within a mystic bower. 

Enrobed in dark despair ; 
Whose downcast eye and iMdlied cheek 

Arc moments of distress, 
Whose twitching brow and nerrous speech 

Are tokens of unrest. 

And while her soul is thus confined 

Witliin sorrow's dungeon cell, 
Strive to Imvo her fully define 

The grief she cannot expel. 
Why her young heart should thus repina 

O'er Joys past, but once beheld : 
When rays of hope deigned to shine 

0*er that cotUge in the dell. 

She may tell of a hnppy past. 

Of a Toico so sweet and low. 
Of a beautiful golden clasp, 

Which united soul to soul ; 
Of the gloom which wis o*er her cast. 

When the jewel was from her borne ; 
And yet she has not told the half. 

For the depth is still unknown. 

She may tell of a quiet mound 

In the city of the dead. 
Where rest from labor is found 

And strangers lightly tread. 
The secret she cannot expound, 

Of sorrows from hesTcn sped. 
Only God, who is fnost profound. 

Would dare to answer in her stead. 


** Ko Footstejys Backward^^ was the title of the class poem 
which Madame Pcnn com]>osed and read at the graduating 
exorcises of her class at Shaw. It was looked uiK>n by many 
as a very excellent effort^ some of which declare it to have 
been the effort of her life, though she was then in her ^ teens.^* 
As can be seen the writingsi, poetical and prose, of our subject 
are familiar for their rich and mellow sound. While a tinge 


of the melancholy and sad pervades them, yet the language 
employed is sq chaste, her periods so well rounded, the rhythm 
so true, the thought so pure as to attnict and please one in the 
most felicitous manner. Our subject's poems and prose writ- 
ings have appeared at various times in our papers, such being 
eagerly sought for. Expressions complimentary to her poetio 
and pedagogic ability have 'followed the publication of her 
efforts. Locally she is well known as an elocutioniHt, accom- 
pliniied and able. Her aid in this flold is very frequently culled 
for wherever she is once heard. She has done very little trav- 
eling, though very flattering requests have been made to her 
80 to do. 

December 26, 1890, she became the wife of I. Garlan 
Penn, who is an autlior^ pedagogue and editorial writer of 
national reputation. She was of very much service to her 
husband in the preparation of his great work, ^* The Afro- 
American Press and its Editors.^' But the best thought con- 
nected with this dissertation is the fact that the past career of 
this young woman can not give an accurate forecast of her 
future. She is young, ambitious and able; not content to be 
anytbinji^ less in the future than an equal of any of the litera- 
teorsof her sex. The reading Afro-American must not be 
surprised if the Madame gives a book to the world of letters 
in the near future. 


Lttfurcr, PocUtf, Advootteof Wotnan Suffrage^ Member of the W, C. T. CT., 

PrcMlOait Orithant* JIanie, 

i^^^OT in the nature of things can it be consistent for a race 
so depraved by slavery, so outraged by cruel human- 
ity, to boast of genealogy. Better it were not so for the 
oppressed in the days of such barbarism. But fortunate, 
indeed, for those it may be truly said, that were born in a free 
state, a community of Christians, a land of enlightenmenti a 
iecUon where 



" Nature, mother alike to all, 
StIU grants her blisa at labor's parnest call." 

In this respect Mrs. Naomi Anderson was truly blessed. 
Slio was born at Michigan Oity^ Indiana, March 1, 1S43; her 
parents, Elijah and Guilly Ann Bowman, wore natives of Ohio. 
Oliristian i>coplo they were and possessed of moderate means. 
Ilcr motlier hired a private teacher^ as children of color were 
not allowed to attend the public schools anywhere in tiio State, 
except in localities where 
there were enough to have a 
separate school for them- 
selves. This Avas not the case 
in Michigan City, there being 
but two families of color in 
the town. She early evinced 
a talent for versification, and 
this talent bespoke for her a 
place in the sympathetic 
hearts of people or commun- 
nity where she lived, and at 
the age of twelve she was 
admitted with the whites in 
the public schools, where she 
even amused her schoolmates 
by her poems. It was the 
heighth of her mother*s am- 
bition to have her daughters 
graduate fix>m Oberlin col- 
lege. But when Naomi was only seventeen years old the good 
Lord called her mother to rest from all earthly labors, 
and this sad occurrence changed her whole after life, for her 
father, though kind and indulgent, could not perceive the 
necessity of giving her a finished education. She was married 
at the age of twenty to Mr. William Talbert, a tonsorial artist, 
of -Valparaiso, Ind. In less than two months after marriage 
she was called back to Michigan City to watch by the bedside, 
and experience another sad bereavement, in the burial of her 



only sister, ber only brother baving died some months previ- 
ous at Jacksonville, Florida, in the Union service. Thus the 
first live years of her married life was spent in the city of her 
birth (hero also she buried her first-born boy). In 1SG8 she 
moved \vith ber husband, little boy and her father to Chicago. 
Hero she became actively engaged in the temperance work of 
the I. O. G. T., it being all the go at that time. In February, 
1S69, she spoke from the platform of the first Woman's Rights 
Convention ever held in the West at Libra Hull, Chicago, Mrs. 
Mary A, Livermoro presiding. This stand injured Mra. 
Naomi's popularity among her very peculiar people, and she 
was severely censured. But she never wavered from her princi- 
ples, and at the earliest opportunity vindicated herself in an 
article published in the Chicago TrihunCj March 6, 18G0. This 
indeed brought out her powers with the pen, proving that she 
could not onlv talk, but could write. 

In the autumn of 'CO she made a lecturing tour through 
southern Illinois, Indiana and OhiO| and sliortly after moved 
with her family to Dayton, Ohio. Here she was true to the 
cause of woman, and spoke before the convention held in that 
city in April, 1870. Ilcr pen was active and her articles on 
the fifteenth amendment to the constitution were read by many 
and solicited by many thousands. In the same year a very 
popular song appeared in the Dayton Journal from her pen. 
She moved thence to Cincinnati, Ohio. Ilero as elsewhere she 
was active as a speaker, a writer, an advocate for Woman's 
Suffrage and a worker in Christianity and tempei*ance. 

ller husband's health having failed completely, she, rest- 
less and energetic and ''true until death us do part," learned 
the bairnlressing trade, and moved with her ailUcted family 
to Portsmouth, Ohio, working diligently to support her 
family. There she organized a Children's Home« and success- 
fully managed it for four months, but finding tho county 
appropriation too scant, the work too hard with family 
responsibilities, laid it down; passed the board of examiners, 
and was employed as a teacher in the public school at the time 
of ber husband's death, which occurred in December, 1877. 


In tho spring of 1879, she moved with' her three children and 
iipfod father to Columbus, Oliio, applying herself to her trade, 
built up an excellent business ; here as elsewhere her jien was 
busy. She worked with the Murphys, and 8i)oke on a special 
occasion in front of the State capital. Ilero also she met her 
present husband, Mr. Lewis Anderson. She married this 
fortunate man at Urbana, Ohio, May 17, 1881, Ilev. Phil. 
Tolwes oiUciating. Shortly after, however, they retired to a 
farm near Columbus, Ohio. There three happy years of 
marrie<l life were 8i>ent. In the wave of Kansas fevers, they 
as many thousands succumbed to its ravage and scourge, and 
in the spring of 18Srl moved to Wichita, Kansas, where Mr. 
Anderson enjoyed a lucrative situation in the citizen's bank 
which he has held for seven years. By his christian life and 
sterling worth has influence worthy of any man. Is a member 
of the craft and enjoys the confulence of all men. 

Mrs. Anderson, on leaving for Kansas, determined to find 
where she really desired to live, then she would drive a stob 
down deep and jive there. Wichita, thou fortunate cityl 
proud ]>ossessor of her citizenship. Here she is known as a 
lecturer, poetess, and an advocate of Woman's Rights, ^he is 
a member of tho W. C. T. U. and actively engaged in every 
good and public work, afllliating with the white women as if 
she. was one of them. Because, as she says, ^' Our leaders are 
wrong in fighting and clamoring for* social equality ' and at 
the same time holding themselves aloof and claiming to be a 
separate people." She says: "We are one and the same people, 
made so by the strongest ties of nature, bone and flesh of 
every nationality of white men in this country;" that " We are 
not negroes, but Americans, because we were born here in 
America. Negroes are foreigners, we are not foreigners, 
hence not Negroes, but Amemcans, and not until wo walk side 
by side with the white people claiming no nationality save that 
of American citizens and knowing no people but Ood's people, 
will we ever get our rights." 

' The white women of Wichita organized a Children's Ilome 
and have managed the same for four years, but would not 


admit a colored child within its doors. So Mrs. Anderson 
called a council of intelligent women of color^ and they deter- 
mined then and there to organize a home of their own, which 
waa done scarcely two years ago, electing her for their presi- 
dent. They now rent a comfortable little home, have a very 
efficient matron, and receive a monthly a))propriation of $25 
from the city, and $12 a month from the county, and all arc 
jubilant at the success attending Mrs. Anderson^s ciTorts. All 
admit that to her belongs the triumph, and the financial endow- 
ment from both city and county as the fruit of her energetic 

She is soon to engage in a biography of herself, in which 
will appear her pi*oductions in poetry and prose. 
' In all of her writings concerning the American people of 
color she cbaracteriT^es them in the same category as that of 
the children of Israel. 

The following is a poem written by her at Portsmouth, 
Ohio, 1876, on the event of the United States American Cen*^ 
tennial, entitled: 


We come Id this centennial year 

And ask to be received 
Tbc praises of your brother men, ' 

The race whom you have freed. 

How different from our fathers I 

They one hundred years ago 
Were chained down in slavery ; 

No talents did they know. 

I need not tell you of their trials. 

You know how it has been : 
Forced from old Afric's clime, 

Bold gold«designing men. 

But there were Christians on this land. 

The hand of God did reign. 
Though we've groaned beneath the fetters. 

We're thankful thst we came. 



For over to our fatberlaDd 

The light of Christ was hid. 
Our fatlicrs were benighted there. 

Knew Dot what Chriatiaoi did. 

But now we hail that bleeding lamb, 

Wo 8eod our greetings high. 
We feel the power of Ood at hearty 

We know that Chriat U nigh. 

He held us as an Israel band, 

llc*s crossed us o*cr the sea 
Of RelMrllion's cruel war just past, 

And now we know we're free. 

Our Closes sleeps beneath the soil 

In yonder sister State ; 
Abraham Lincoln, it was ho 

Who first our bonds did break, 

Charles Sumner next did lead tbe ran 

Of equal rights to all ; 
Here thanks we bring to all of those 

Responding to his call. 

We come with gratitude to all 

Who lent a hand to -saTO 
Our starry banner, flaunting high, 

From floating o'er a slave. 

We*ro free to do, as all are free, 

All i''cr this mighty land, 
And wo will serve both Nation and State 

As jufttice doth command. 

Heaven's greatest blessings here. 

Education, you will find. 
Will bring our Intent talents up 

On level with mankind. 

We pledge ourselves, this July 4th 

If ever calletl in wars. 
Our sable hands will ever 

Uphold our Stripes and Start. 

Then let us give to Ood the praise 

For all that He has done— 
For giving us this land of bliat^ 

The best beneath the tun. 





ActrcM9^ Singer^ T^InsicUnu ^yrHcr of Opcrat, 

^^ AY a REYNOLDS (MRS. HEYERS) is the wife of 
,^jU?'3l ^^® noted S. B. Iloycrs and first theatrical manager 
of the United States. This worthy young woman is now before 
the public classed as the leader of her race as an actress. In 
thayear of 18S2 she left her dear old homo a mere girl, and 

the sad parting will never be 
erased from her memory; how 
her loving, noble father, after 
having tenderly impressed 
upon Ijcr inexperienced mind 
the difference between the 
outer world and home, e.v 
resscil his darling and turned 
to hide the tears. She left a 
homo indeed made cheerless 
by the death of her mother 
when but an.infant, but made 
happy by an indulgent father 
and careful stepmother; lux- 
urv and refinement were ever 
before them. We say them, 
as there were five little ones, 
^liss Reynolds has three 
beautiful and talented sisters, 
and one brother, a fine musi- 
cian. They are all well educated and fitted for ornaments 
in society, or a noble cause in public life. While attending 
school it was discovered that Miss Reynolds ]>ossessed 
a remarkable voice for singing. ^Ir. Reynolds, her father*. 
was advised to put her under training, which he accordingly 
did, sparing no means. Madam Rose Cogeshall was her first 
teacher, and after a series of terms left, after which Mr. Rey- 
nolds placed his daughter under tuition of Miss Lulu Borden, a 
^doate of the Boston conservatory, where she received good 








and carefal training ; when the term of school ended the music 
lessons ended also for that season. Miss Reynolds having the 
honor of being called a dinger by everyone at her little country 
home, Tioga, Pa., she did not seem to cafe or know the worth 
of the praises showereil upon her by old artists, but went along 
with her favorite playmates, jumping rope, playing ball, run- 
ning races and tagging after her big sisters. Her last vacation 
was in Juno, 1882, having at that time entcreil into all the 
highest branches, French being her last and favorite study. She 
was a finished bookkeeper and elocutionist as well as a singer. 
During vacation, with the permission of pa, she went to Hor- 
nellsville to visit her grandma and aunt , while there the famous 
" II vers Sisters " company were billed to give an entertain- 
ment. Ilcr heart was heavily burdened, as she had just received 
a letter from her sister Almira to return home as school com- 
menced the following Monday. Everywhere she turned she 
could see the flaming letters: ^^ Ilyers SUters.^^ It seemed to put 
a charm over her. She, how.ever, wrote to her papa pleading 
with him to let her remain to see the fii*st stage show of her 
life. Her father in his loving way answered in the afTirmative. 
She staid and met her Tate. She went and heard them warble, 
and saw them dance and beheld their magnificent costumes. 
She saw the awful funny man ** Sam Lucas,^' who could make 
himself tall or short, and every one and everything was so new 
and wonderful that it set her brain in a whirl. *'0h, if I could 
only leave the hateful old school-room and go on the stage," 
was her first thought. Mr. Hyers called on her aunt the fol- 
lowing morning. May was in the parlor playing on the piano 
and singing, '' I Am Content" The manager was startled 
with delight and asked who was singing. He was shown into the 
parlor and introduced. He declared she had the most wonderful 
contralto voice he had ever heard. Asking her if she would like 
to travel with his company she said, '^Yes sir, but pa would 
not let me." The company left and May went home with a 
new idea. Mr. Hyers corresponded with her father, gaining; 
his consent. Miss Reynolds joined the company in Cleveland, 
She gained upon the stars rapidly and is now one of the most 


brilliant in tbe profession. She was married to Mr. Hyers the 
following season at her father's home. She composed a iK>om 
on tbe late *^ Johnstown Horror,'' which is quite dramatic, and 
8he recites it with great success ; she also wrote a play for her 
coaiixiny entitled, ''Tip the Wharf Rat," and is now engaged 
in writing another play entitled the "Dreaded Witch of 
Africa.^ She thinks her profession a grand work, and when 
she secures the warm applause of every tongue she gives a 
deep-souled gratitude-filled look, and thanks her father for his 
tender training and her Creator for the talent he endowed her 


&im;cr.— ••^7llror Evening:* 

WE have seen those virtues which have, while living, 
retired from the )>ublic eye, generally transmitted 
to iK>sterity as the truest objects of admiration and praise. 
Such is the subject of our sketch, who was born in Catskill, 
X. Y., July 4, 1857. She was rearcil in the American metroj>- 
olis, educated and trained in music by Madam Messimore, a 
lady of rare musical accomplishments, who originally lived in 
England; also by Professor Reason. Her father having died 
when she was only three years oUi, true to the instincts of 
nature, where a will forcc<l by a necessity for action existed. 
Providence provided a way. She suffohiig some physical 
deformity — that of a healthy body of excellent and elegant 
physique is minus one arm — in the ))laco of this incon- 
venience God provided a rich and unparalleled voice, so at 
nine years of age she could sing from low soprano to £ above 
tbe staff. From the general concessions ami praises heralded 
abroad by )>eopIe who were intoxicated with melody such as 
they had never heard from one so young, peo}>Ie came for 
miles around to catch a marvelous and deep-reaching but dying 
note, the quintessence of melody itself. This created rare 
excitement — we say rare, because such as existed at that time 
bad never in tbe world^^ history produced such profound asser- 


lions — ^<a thrill of joy prophetic" of the possibilities of the 
colored race. The press paid prlowing tributes to her, and 
staled her the " Star of Evening." 

At the age of fifteen she suffered the misfortune of caring 
for her mother, who had become an invalid, and, true to ber 
trust, as her voice never failed her, she boreher task bravely, 
and sang to eager and anxious audiences which crowded 
her concerts. Her first concert was given October 12, 1S75, 
at Lino church, on which occasion the door receipts alone 
were $550. With the assured appreciation of this demon- 
stration she was forced on and on by the current which bad 
alreaxiy taken control of her soul and body, *' on toward her 
being^s end." She traveletl and sang to appreciable audiences 
in all the large cities of New York, through the East, South, 
Korth and West, meeting with unboundcil success everywhere. 
She grow in public favor so rapidly that her name spread all 
over the States and her talents were boasted by the millionaire 
as well as the miner, in fact such an impetus was given to her 
progress that nowhere was there a church barreil against her. 

Suffering physical deprivation in 4he absence of an arm, she 
nevertheless plied the one Ood-given hand to the organ and 
piano, with the nimbleness of the applauded disciples of 

She sang several years with the New Orleans Jubilee 
Troui>e, under the direction of Rev. Dr. W. D. Goodman, 
which traveled through the Eastern and Middle States. 

In the year of 1884 the death of her invalid mother became 
the sad re;ility which tried her melancholy spirit and dejected 
heart, but in the midst of her despair hope pointed to her a 
star. The next year she married Rev. M. J. Dyer, a very esti- 
mable man« a minister of power and concentrated ability, and 
41 distmguished member of the Louisiana Annual Conference 
21. £• Church, 



•r • • * » ^ ■ • * 


Queen of S<mg, 

LORA BATSON was born at Washington, D. C, m 
1864, Her father died from wounds received in the 
w-ar. At three years of age her mother rcmove<l with her to 
Providence, R. I. At nine years of age, as a member of the 
then famous Bethel Church choir of that city, she attracted hun- 

drcds to hear the child singer, 
Ilcr professional career 
commcnccil at thirteen years 
of ago, singing two years in 
the interest of Stoore's Col- 
lege, IIarper*s Ferry, three 
years in J. "W. Hamilton's 
Lecture Bureau for the 
People^s Church of Boston, 
one year in Bed path's Lecture 
and Lyceum Bureau, one year 
in temperance work ; and in 
1885 Manager J. G. Bergen 
secureil her services, and 
under his management Stein- 
way Hall, New York, the 
Aciulemy of Music, Phil- 
adelphia, and the largest 
music halls of the Eastern 
cities were packed to hear 
the now star, styled by 
the New A^'ork WorM the colored Jenny Lind. On 
December 18, 1887, Miss Flora Bat son and Manager J. 
6. Bergen were married at the Sumner House, New York 
City, and since their marriage Mrs. Batson-Bergen has 
sung with great success in nearly every leading city in the 
country, and probably no American singer has been more 
strongly endorsed by the press of the country. The following 
are a few of her testimonials, which are only samples of hun* 
dreds that might be given : 




The Patti of her ttLCt.^Chieago Inttr-Oaan. 

The colored Jeony lAnd,^^Xew York World, 

• The peerlese mezzo-soprano.— -Arte Tork Sun, 

The unrivaled favorite of the masses.— iVei9 York Ag€. 

A mezzo-soprano of wonderful range.— Sun FraneiMCo Examiner, 

She carried the house by storm, and five times was recalled to the foot- 
lights.— JWf« York Iltrald, 

A sparkling diamond in the golden realm of song.— Snu Jcm dlifirnian, 

Iler progress through the country has been one continuous triumph.— 
Dcnrcr Rocky Mountain Kfit$, 

All her numbers were sung withouteffori— asthe birds sing.— >J/<i&i7€(ii^) 

A voice of great range, and of remarkable depth and purity.— Z^uiiri^ 
(Ky.) Courier^ Journal, 

She will never lack for an audience in the *' City of Seven Hills.'*— i2iM- 

The sweetest voice that ever charmed a Virginia audience.— ZyncAftuf:^ 
(Ta,) Advance, 

Ilcr articulation is so perfect, her renditions seem like recitations set to 
music— ATinMA City Di$patch, 

A highly cultivated mczzo-sopraoo, of great sweetness, power and com- 
pass, and of dramatic quality.— CAaWe*fOA(^. C) Htm and Courier, 

The indescribable pathos of her voice in dramatic and pathetic selectiooi 
wrought a wondrous effect.- r^^tf Coloniit, Victoria, Brit itth Columbia, 

Though of pleasing pre^eoce, she is unaffected, almost child-like in her 
bearing ; this, with her iE\\)ndcrful ringing, captivates the heart of the listener, 
regardless of the "color lino."- d/iybrn(<ia. 

Ilor voice showed a compass of three octavos, from the purest, clcaresit 
soprano, sweet and full, to the rich round notes of the baritone register.— 
Pittsburgh Commercial Oazette, 

Flora Datson, with her wonderful voice, has a divine mission to aid is 
breaking down the stubborn walls of prejudice, which must sooner or later 
give way in our Nation's progress toward a higher civilization.— ^^^a 

She scored a complete success as a vocalist of high ability, and fully justi- 
fied the favorable criticisms of the Eastern press.- 5Uii Firanciico Kxaminer, 

The flexibility, metal and purity of her vocal organ justly entitle Flora 
Batson to the distinction of being called the colored Jenny Lind.— iVfriftui:^A 

In response to an encore she gava a selection from "il Trovatorc" in 
baritone, showing the extraordinary range of her voice,- and producing a mel- 


odj like the low tones of a pipe organ under % master's toucb.*6U/i Diego 

The press of the country, from the AtUntic to tbc Pacific, unite in crown« 
ing her the greatest singer of bcr race, and worthy to rank smoog tbe great 
•isgert of tbe world.— /Vr//anc/ Ortgonian, 

Sbe wore a cro^n. bcavily jeweled, and diomondd Oasbcd upon her hands 
and from her ears. Ilcr tinging at once established her claim of being in tho 
froat rank of star artists, and there is a greater fortune than that al ready 
accamulatcd in store for het.'^Protidenu (IL I.) Dispatch, 

She sings without affectation, and has an absolute command of her voice, 
from the highest to the lowest register. She was a surprise to every one 
present, and established a reputation that will guarantee her full houses at her 
future engagements on the Pacific Coast.— San Francidco Call, 

Her voice is rich in the qualities most valuable to a singer. Tho range is 
woDderful. It is Cleir and resonant, exceedingly flexible and pure. Her 
articulation is perfect, and sbe sings with a freedom from effort seen rarely, 
except in the most famous singers. . The tones of her voicn are powerful and 
thrilling. It is rather dramatic than emotional. Her renditions last night 
covered an extraordinary versatility and range.— JWwAri^ Ameriean, 


Oiftcd PUuiUt (ind Slnycr. 

WnE subject of tbisskctcl), Abbic Wkioht Lyox, was born 
in Stony Brook, Long Island, in tho year 1S62; When 
seven years old she was removed to Ilarlara, New York, where 
she attended school, and subsequently to New York City,where 
sbe finished a common school education. At twelve years of 
age sbe was employed as organist at tbe Melrose, St. Paul A. 
}L E. Church. Having evinced special talent for music and 
adaptability for instrumental playing she was, by special 
arrangement of her parents, placed in a condition where sbe 
could receive tbe very best training from well known instruc- 
tors. Sbe was organist for the Bethel A. M. E. Church, one of 
tbe largest and leading colored churches in New York City, for 
three and a half years. Sbe has been a successful teacher of 

She met and married tbe Bev. Ernest Lyon, a graduate of 
tbe New Orleans dnirersity, and now a prominent minister of 


tho Ix)uisiana Conforcnco Mothoilist Episcopal Church, while 
he was serving his first year as pastor of tho M. E. Church, at 
Baldwin, tho seat of Gilbert seminary, in tho year 18S3. Since 
then she has been with him, sharing in the toils ami hanlships 
which come to a minister's wife. Three lovely children have 
been tho issuo of this marriage. She has followed her husband to 
every appointment (he having held some of the most prominent 
in the city of New Orleans) and by her kind and affectionate 
disposition has made hosts of friends. 

Mrs. Lyon is a professional songstress, having been endowed 
by nature with a strong; and lovely voice. Many souls have 
been converted and led into the new life, under the influence 
of her christian songs. 

Mrs. Lyon was the accomplished organist of the New 
Orleans University singers for some years. Through that con- 
nection she became acquainted with the gentleman who became 
her husband. 

The Rev. Erkrst Ltok is now the popular pastor of St. 
Mark's M. E. Church, New York City, and Mrs. Lyon is among 
her old friends^ who rejoice in her prosperity. 

W. D. Goodman, A. M.» D. D. 



T^^ADAME FRANCES E. PRESTON, elocutionist, born 
ipJL^^ in Richmond Va., came to Detroit, Michigan, July, 
2, 1855. The school advantages were then limited in this 
city. She being the only daughter, her parents were not will* 
ing to have her leave home to go where a better education 
might be obtained. The Detroit Training School in Elocution 
and English Literature offered an opportunity that she bad Ion; 
desired and although a widow with one child and a large bnsi* 
ness, that of hair-dresser, to demand her time and attention, she 
entered this school January, 1880, at the ago of thirty*thrco 
years, taking a two years and a half course, graduating May 

« yOTKD XnaitO W03IES. 

19, 1SS2, standing second among a large number of graduates, 
the majority being young women wiih much better schooling 
to start with. A jKBitiou was secured her by the teacher Mrs. 
Edna Chaffee Xoble, to travel with the Donivan Famous Tena- 
esseeans. The secretary, of the school accomjianied ber to 
Ddaware to complete the arrangement, so interested was the 


teacher in ber pupil that ia this new life she might be eucccss- 
fnl. After irareling one year with them she returned borne 
and was appointed a teacher in the school from which she 
graduated, which position she still fills when at home. 

In '84 she traveled through eastern Virginia, giving programs 
alono. In October, '88, she went to Augusta, Ga., accompanied 
by her daughter, L, F. Preston, to open a Baptist school for 


girls. The school opened in January with one teacher. Madame 
Preston with her daughter, traveling and giving programs, to 
raise means to support the schoot| was called from this field of 
labor by tho illness of her mother. 

In July, 1890, Dr. Derrick of New York appointed her as 
agent to assist in raising funds for the foreign missionary board, 
and in April, 1891, a position on the W. C. T. U. lecture bureau 
was secured her, this being the first literature ever placed upon 
their bureau. 

Mrs. Frances Preston i^ prepared to make engagements 
with lecture associations, lyceums, clubs, churches, or other 
societies, for evenings of dramatic and humorous recitations. 

Additional interest arises from the fact that she is a 
colored lady, who was formerly a slave. She has educated her- 
self, and has been fitted for her present work by a thorough 
course of study in the Detroit Training School of Elocution 
and English Literature, under the jKrsonal instruction of the 
well-known reader and teacher, Mrs. Edna Chaffee Noble. 


The debut of Mrs. Frances Preston, at Abstract HaU, possessed peculiar 
interest, from the fact that she Is tho first colored lady in this city to essaj 
public readings. Slic is to be congratulated on winning a very emphatic 
success. 8hc has a melodious voice of excellent range and ficiibility, enunci- 
ates with agreeable clearness, and manifests feeling and appreciation in selec- 
tions, grave and guy. A novel feature of the programme was the introduc- 
tory Bible reading ; it was excellent. The miscellaneous selections were 
appropriate, and admirably rendered.— ZVfrtnV Free Preu, 

Insufficient space made it impossible, yesterday morning, to speak of 
Mrs. Preston's debut, except in a general way. There Is to be said specially: 
** The Black Regiment " ami " Howard at AtlanU" were capitally rendered. 
Perhaps the best road selection (certainly the one which awakened the heart, 
iest response of an interested and appreciative audience) was Champney'i 
quaint, half humorous, half pathetic dialect poem, descriptive of how the 
trusty little negro boy, " Persimmons," rescued his baby protege from the 
perils of the flood. It Is a favorite selection with Detroit readers, but we have 
heard none who could read it so well as Mrs. Preston. The hall was crowded 
and the lady's reading desk was heaped high with cboiot doral tribates.— 
lUt and Tribuns. 


A large ADd select audience greeted Mrs, Preston, at Abstract Hall, on 
Monday eTening. Mrs. Preston is a pupil of Mrs. Edna Cbailco Noble, and 
possesses elocutionary talent of no small order. Tbe principal cbarm of ber 
readings Is ber naturalness and grace of manner. All tbe selections were 
listened to wltb mucb interest, but ber renditions of "Aunt Phillis' Quest," 
*' Persimmons takes cab ob de Baby," and " How be saved St. Micbacrs," 
were undoubtedly ber most successful efforts. In connection witb tbis article 
it may be appropriate to state tbat Mrs. Preston was a slave in the doutbcm 
States during tbe days of bondage. Sbe Is about tbirty-five years of age, 
and is a widow.— ^rcry Saturday. 

Airs. Preston is certainly a very dne reader. Her reading, entirely devofd 
of rant, is simple and impressive.— ^mif/«A:^. Ohio, Daily Rcgiiter, 

Tbere was a large audience present at tbe First Baptist cburcb, on 
Wednesday evening, to bear Mrs. Frances Preston, tbe noted colored elocu- 
tionist, wbo gave one of ber celebrated entertainments for tbe benefit of tbat 
cburcb. Wben ber recitations were over no one seemed ioclined to go, but 
applauded and asked for more. Mrs. Preston bas aricb contralto voice, over 
wbicb sbe bas perfect control. Sbe bas a fine stage, presence, and wbatever 
tbe cbaracter of ber selection— patbetic. sentimental or bumorous— sbe por- 
trays eacb witb equal skill, and is one of tbe most finisbed readers before tbe 
public— 7^ Caret, Ntwport Nete$, Va, 

The citizens of Lansing were bigbly entertained by tbe reading of Mrs. 
Preston, tbe well known elocutionist of Detroit. Tbe selections were w«U 
received and elicited mucb applause. Her rendition of bumorous selections 
was admirable. ** How be saved St. Micbaers" was read in sucb a manner 
tbat the vast audience was bdd spell-bound until its conclu'dion. But the 
crowning event of tbe evening was tbe reading of " Tbe Black Regiment,'* 
wben the marvelous voice of tbe elocutionist was shown to its best advan- 
tage. Sbe bas won tbe hearts of tbe people at Lansing.— £an«i/t^ llepubliean. 

Rev. F. B.'Cressey, editor of the Center, tbe organ of tbe prohibition 
party of Michigan, writes as follows : Mrs. Frances Preston, Detroit. 
Respected Madam : Permit me, all unsolicited by yourself, to express my 
high appreciation of tbe readings and recitations which I recently beard 
you give. I must say tbat for distinctness of enunciation and naturalness and 
beauty of expression you have powers which will surely obtain for you a 
wide patronage. You have my best wishes and cordial commendation. 
With kind regards, Frank B. Crbsset. 

Mrs Preston read before the inmates of St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum, in 
Detroit, on Decoration Day. Tbe Michigan Catholie, in a column article, 
says of the Scripture reading : " Mrs. Preston opened by reading from tbo 
Bible St. Paul's defense before King Agrippa, and listening to tbo eloquence 
thus depicted* one wondered he had not read tbat particular passage of tbe 
Holy Scripture with more frequency and enthusiasm." Of her rendition of 
"Persimmons Takes Care of the Baby,** the same paper says: "In tbis 
pleoe Un. Preston had an opportunity for display of her marked and varied 


elocutionarx power, and held ber audience in a state between tears and 
laughter." Mrs. Preston's daughter, Miss Lillie, assisted her mother oa this 
occasion, and speaking of her singing the Michigan Catholiettj9i **Hiss 
LiUie has a remarkably sweet Toice, showing good progress in cultiTatioo." 

Powhataa Boatty, for many years connected with the theatres of Cin- 
cinnati, says : " Mrs. Preston is a pleasant reader, and tborouirhly understands 
the principles of elocution. Ilcr gestures are graceful and full of expression- 
At times one is forcibly reminded of that eminent actress, Clara Morria. Hei 
modulation is excellent, and in the lower and middle rei^ister of her toicc 
she bos not an equal. • • • I hava heard all of the great readers, and sc 
far as my Judgment goes I would place ber in the front ranks. Bhehasa 
Toico full of pathos, and at times her audience are melted to tears, and at 
other times are conrulsed with laughter. 

U. W. Thompson, represcntatire in the Michigan Legislature, from the 
Delta district, says : "I bsTo listened with pleasure and profit to the read- 
ings of Mrs. Frances Preston, and do hereby recommend her to any who may 
desire her service in that direction.-* 

D. Augustus Straker, the eminent lawyer, formerly of Columbus, 8. C. 
at present one of the most successful lawyers of Detroit, writes : ** Mrs. F. 
Preston. Dear Madam: It giTes me pleasure to testify to your merit as an 
elocutionist. I hare listened to your renditions in public and in priTvte, aod 
regard them of the most exalted stj le and of profound conception. It is only 
by such speaking as you gire to f l«e Ideas of others that the hearer can fully 
understand and enjoy the depths of soul of our poets and other writers. 

Respectfully yours, D. A. Straseb." 

W. Irving Babcook, State senator from the Ninth district of Michigan. 
says : "It gives me great pleasure to say that Mrs. Frances Preston is as 
elocutionist of commendable ability and training. Her recitations are partic- 
ularly pleasing.** 

The Spring VaUey Journal says of Mrs. Preston : *' She la the grcatetf 
elocutionist of her race.'* 

The Now York Olobe, speaking of an entertalnoriont given by Mn 
Preston, closes in these words : " One evening with ^Irs. Preston will add 
more intellectuality to our children than many books, and wa advise oar 
readers to let no opportunity pass that will do so much for the little folks.** 

Mrs. Preston attracts the greatest Interest wherever she goes, not only hj 
her wonderful talent, but from the fact that she has been a slave and has hid 
innumerable difflculties to overcome in the vocation she has chosen and for 
which she Is so admirably tited.^^Newport News Chmmereial. 

OuiciNMATi, O., January 11, 1887. 

^Irs. Frances Preston, elocutionist and teacher in Mrs. Noble's traioinit 

school in Detroit, is well known to ms, I having been her pastor two yean is 

Detroit, Mich. During that time I have heard recitations both in the chorck 

of which she is a member and among the whits people of the dtj. She alu 


100 yoTKD ynoRO wovsy. 

^relwo progmnmola tliUcllyat tbo Union Dkiillit churcb.At wblcb sbo 
ncdTcd k perfect otkiIod. The uoWarul rerdic( here, enierialDcd bjr critics 
uid noD-crilin, Is tbat the li "equaled bj few uid excelled b; none," m >bo 
U at borne equally in aoj part which the cstoy*, pathetic, liuicorous or dra. 
uwtlc. I cheerfully giTe tbla exprcMlon brcmiic 1 feelthelady lsnr>rtliyof it 
Wm. a. Buiicit, Pallor VdIod BaplUl Cburcb, 

The Springfield, O., Jiejx/U/Mx, Id aollclng ao eDtcrtalament fWcD ia 
tbat cily by lira. Preatoa and bcr daughter, after pajing highest coiuplU 
mcDia to Mrr. PrcttoD, lays: "Oao of tbo most attraclWe features of Iho 
ercning '• cDlertalameiit was Ibe '.Esthetic Gestures,' and ' Lyre Jlovement,' 
by ytim Lillie Preston, daughter of the elocutionist. Ilcr gestures expressing' 
pmfouDd in^iet, anguish, suppticstion nod letnorw, by turn, were so naturalt 
M almost to cause a person to feel as If bo were witnessing a dire disaster ov 
CftUmlty. Miss Prcttoa has rcmsrlcablo control over her auJIcDCD as ber per* 
formance was somctbiDg cotUcly now to toany." 

Urt. FranccB Preston's reputation li not confined to bcr boma — DotrolV-^ 
but ts becoming amiloanh—SprinsfidiHOhio) tUpuUitan. 


rii<vi(lire mid fiiiiioindnfst. 

a BE is tbo only nmt liret piintoniitnist of hor raco on tho 
stngc. Horn in Detroit, MIcii. Atlcnilod tlio public 
Mbool, stuUictl music at tlio Dotroic Conservatory of ^[iinic, nt 
tho same tiintj taking 
tho junior courso in tho 
school of cloctition, 
and finishing n thorough 
ciiurso of catisthouics, 
which thoroughly pre. 
pared licr for tlio work 
of pnntominust. Has 
travclcil for four years 
with her motlier. Uor 
; early death disrobes the 

Negro raco of one of 
its brightest meteors, 
and tbo world of an 
MiH ltldrod:cxtta r. rnKSTOX. actrCBS. 

Troty has tliupoet suitl "Death loves a shining mark." 




Teacher^ Lecturer, W. C. T. IT. Advocate. 

ARAII JANE, the youngest daughter of Thomas and 
Jemima Woodson, was born Nov. 15, lS25,near the city 
of Cbillicothe, Ohio, where she passed the happy days of early 
childhood. In the year of 1820 the family removed to Jackson 
county, Ohio. ]}oing deprived of the privilege of attendinj; 
school with the white chil- 

MS At < 

■ ^ - • 



,% ♦ 

. I . .. ■ 

e . A 
■ ••• 

■ ' ' ■J 

J. i 

f • 

dren, a select school, furnished 
with the best teachers, was 
provided for colored children 
by their parents. The sub- 
ject of this sketch attended 
this school with other mem- 
bers of the family from the 
fourth vear of her a^e until 
her nfteenth year, and in 
that perioil derived all her 
early advantages, Iler par- 
ents were zealous and con- 
sistent Christians and she 
was continually brought un- 
der the best religious influ- 
ences. At the age of four- 
teen she professcil religion 
and joined the A. ^[. E. 
Church in the year 1840, at 
Berlin, Ohio. 

Very early in life she showed a disposition to learn what- 
ever came within her reach. At the age of three she could 
sing all the hymns used at family worship. At Ave she could 
commit large iK>rtions of the Bible to memory. As the years 
rolled by she longed for better educational privileges and 
after attending an academy in Athens county, Ohio, she 
attended Oberlin College, and graduated therefrom in the 
year 1866, and immediately entered upon the duties of a 

\ k 



teacher. She was first principal teacher of the public 
school of Ganesville, Ohio. In the year 1859 she w*as called 
to Wilberforce University, being the first colored graduate 
erer employed by its trustees to teach in company with white 

She was afterward principal of the colored public school 
of Xenia, Ohio, until the war subsided. Then she went south 
and held a very im|K>rtant position as principal of one of the 
largest colored schools in North Carolina. Thus for more than 
thirty-six years she has been an efiicient instructor of the 
young, a leader in the church and Sabbath-school and the 
reforms of the day. In 1887 she entered the field as a public 
lecturer and is now in the service of the two national societies 
in the temperance work. 

She was married to Rev. J. W. Earl^ in the year 18G8, 
Sept 24. 


ElocuilonUU Dramatic Reader and Tragedienne 

TT^TLE subject of this sketch, Miss Henrietta Vinton Davis, 
was born in the city of Baltimore, 3Id. Iler father 
Mansfield Vinton Davis, was a distinguished musician, and 
from him she inherited a natural taste for music. He died 
within a few days after her birth, leaving a young and beauti- 
ful widow and the subject of this sketch. In the course of a 
few years her mother contracted a second marriage with 
Captain George A. Ilackett, who, through the period of a long 
and eventful life, was the recognized leader of the colored 
people of Baltimore. He was a man of ample means and 
generous heart, and gave to his stepdaughter all the advantages 
which such conditions allow. He, like her own father, died 
while she was young. Her mother, a year after the death 
of Mr. Hackett, removed to and became a permanent resident 
of the city of Washington, D. C. Miss Davis here had the 
advantages of admirable schools, and, having a natural fond- 
nesi lor booksi soon made rapid progress in her studies, and. 



by her studious habits and genial manners, became at once a 

favorite with the teacher, Miss Mary Bozeman, who was the 

first person to suggest that her little pupil give her attention 

to the study of elocution. At the early ago of fifteen she 

passed the necessary examination 4ind was awarded the position 

as teacher in one of the public schools of her native State. 

While holding this position she attracted the attention of the 

Board of Education of the State of Louisiana, who tendered 

her a higher ]K>sition to 

teacli, whicli she accepted. 

She remained there some 

time, until called home by 

the illness of her mother. 

Miss Davis leff- Louisiana 

amidst the regrets of many 

friends. She also bore the 

certificate of the Board of 

Education testifying to 'the 

efficiency and ability with 

which she had discharged 

her arduous duties. 

Miss Davis, in 1878, en- 
tered the ofiice of recorder of 
deeds at Washington as copy- 
ist, where she remained until 
1884, when she resigned to 
follow her chosen profession. 
It was while holding this i>osi- 
tion that she decided to carry 
out a long-cherished desire to study for the dramatic stage. She 
had in the meantime, by a wide and thorough study of the best 
masters in classic and dramatic literature, laid the foundation 
for a promising career. Miss Davis became the pupil of Miss 
Marguerite £. Saxton, a lady of undisputed ability and a most 
conscientious teacher — ^a lady who knows no one by his 
color. Under the tuition and guidance of this lady she made 
her debut on April 25, 1883, at Washington, before a large and 

RSimrBTTA vnrroK datxs. 



critical audience. She was introduced by the Hon. Frederick 
Douglass, who takes a deep interest in her success. On this, 
her first appearance, her success was instantaneous^ and she 
received a veritable ovation. A few weeks after her first 
appearance she made a tour of the principal cities of New 
England, under the management of Messrs. James M. Trotter 
and Wm. II. Dupree, of Boston, Mass. 

At Boston, Hartford, New Haven, Providence and the 
many other places they visited, she was received with every 
mark of approt:al by both press and public. 

In April, 1884, Mr. Thomas T. Symmons became her man- 
ager. Mr. Symmons is one of the few gentlemen of our race 
who possesses the ability and spirit of enterprise calculated to 
secure success. He formed a dramatic and concert company 
to support bis star, and by novel and liberal advertising 
brought her to the notice of new audiences. At Buffalo, N. Y., 
she received most flattering newspaper notices, and was the 
recipient of much social attention. Again, at Pittsburg, Pa., 
and in fact wherever she has been, her genial manners and 
modest demeanor have attracted to her many friends and 
admirers, who have vied with each other in doing honor to a 
lady of whom the race may well feel proud. Miss Davis re* 
cently made a tour of the State of Florida, under the able man- 
agement of that public-spirited and dignified lover of his race, 
Hon. M. M. Lewey, editor of the Florida ScniineL Miss Davis 
was greeted everywhere by large and enthusiastic audiences. 

Miss Davis is the pioneer of her race in the legitimate 
drama, and by her success has been the means of stimulating 
and encouraging others to emulate her example. Miss Davis 
has received many testimonials of appreciation. Presents of 
all descriptions have been showered upon her. While she has 
many imitators, she has no superiors. 


WAsmKOTOK, D. C.» November 18, 1888. 
0€fUlem$m: I hsre maoy times been called opoD to bear testimony to the 
remarkable talents of Miss Henrietta Vinton Daris, and I always do so with 
pkarare. In my Judgment she U one of the best dramatic readers in the 

Tnsin TRiuMPua and activities. u .> 

country^^ADd tho best colored reader that crer camo before th« Americ^a 
people. Iler personal appearance It atrongly In her (aror. 8be inatancljr 
comnmndt attention and sympalby; and wben ber deep, flue. voice U heanl. 
ber audience at onco giro tbemselTes up to tbo pleasure of bearing ber. X 
quite sure you will make no mistake in baring ber read for you. 

Respectfully yours, Frederick Douo.Ljki 

• • 

First Episcopal Disrnicr. A. M. E. CuaRCO, 
DUhop II, Af, Turner, i>. D„ PrtHding. 

Atlanta, Qa., January 21, 1801. 
Tbis is to certify tbat Miss Henrietta Vinton Daris bas been known to me 
since cbildbood. Sbe is in all respects a lady of tbo first grade, spotless in 
cbaracter, polisbed in manners, educated and finisbed iii ber profession. As 
a dramatic reader sbe bas no superiors and sbould be encouraged by mil ^who 
favor tbe elevation of our race. I commend ber senrioes to all ministers of 

tbe Gospel, to tbe public In general. H. M. Turscr. 


Aknapolis. Md., January 21, 1891. 
Miss Henrietta Vinton Davis, tbe celebrated tragedienne and dramatic 
reader, entertained tbe people of tbe A. M. £. Cburcb January 10 and 20. 
1801. Tbo audience was largo tbe first nigbt, and tbe bouse was crowded the 
second nigbt. Iler magnetic style, forcible, dramatic and eloquent voice 
cbarmcd every one present. Sbe magnetized and electrified tbe audience 
witb deligbt, wbo loudly applauded eacb recital. Miss Davis is a first-lass 
entertainer, a lady of cbaracter, ability and great talent : an artist who pre- 
sents living pictures. Sbe is a great belp to tbe ministers in raising money 
for cburobes. Her terms are easy, ber work laborious. May God bless ber. 

Yours respectfully, I. F. Aldridok. 

• • 

Miss Henrietta Vinton Davis, tbe tragedienne, is personally known to me. 
and in my opinion is tbe finest representative of tbat class of colored profes. 
•ionals in America. Her presence is graceful, ber voice rich and fleKible. 
and sbe impresses her audience at once witb tbo fact tbat sbe is a bom actress^ 
Sbe delights tbe most critical and convinces tbo most obdurate sceptic. The 
brethren and churches will do well to give ber tbe warmest reception, as she 
is a lover of God's Zion, and is always willing to belp it first, and herself last. 

W. Bisnop JoffKsox, 
Prof. Mathematics. Wayland Seminary, and Pastor Second Baptist Church. 

Washington, D. C, February 22. 1801. 

A Plbasino Ektertainmbht.^A delightful entertainment was given in 
Touro Chapel last evening by Miss Henrietta V. Davis, in dramatic recitals. 
Miss Davis is the first of ber race to attempt Shakespearean delineations. But 
ber efforts last evening prove ber power and skill in elocutionary art. Miss 
Davis excels in dramatic recitals, and especially in tragic paru. If it is po^ 
sibls to discriminate in the selections of last evening, perhaps the potion 


loeoe from " Romeo and Juliet" was most ably rcDclcrcd. She is certainly 
worthy of the many eocomiums of praise she has receired.— JTe/r/io/-^ Daily 

Miss Daris has received thorough instnictioD, as her recitations showed 
marked talent. Asa public reader sho ts a success. — Albany (N, T.) Daily 
Press and Knickerbocker, 

The entertainment given at Waite's Ilall last evenipg was ono of high 
merit. The audience was appreciative and liberal in its applause. ^Uss 
Davis, who is a quadroon, has a graceful presence and a powerful and well* 
trained voice, and her renditions showed not only careful study, but an ex* 
ccUent appreciation of the various authors. Several selections were given 
from Shakespeare, including Portia'a speech aud the poison scene from 
"Romeo and Juliet;" in the latter selection especially marked dramatic power 
being displayed. The vivacious rendering of ** Awfully Lovely Philosophy/* 
*' The Jiners." and " Dancing at Flat Creek Quarters " proved that Miss Davis 
eould also read comic selections, with success, and two encores testified to the 
enjoyment of her auditors.— iWif Bedford Etcning Standard, 

Her recital last evening of selections from Shakespeare's plnf a, especially 
"Cleopatra's Dying Speech," parts of " Romeo and Juliet," and the epilogue 
in " As You Like It" were received with warm expressions of pleasure. Iler 
clear enunciation and full, low*pitched voico helped to her success.— iVVt^ 
York Sun. 

As a dramatic reader Miss Davis has considerable talent, and the selections 
were finely interpreted. The death scene of " Romeo and Juliet " in costume 
brought out powers as an actress of no mean order ; that and Schiller*a 
"Battle" were well rendered.— JVVio London Telegram. 

A really remarkable entertainment was that given in Association llall on 
Friday night by Frederick Douglass' protege. Miss Henrietta Vinton Davis. 
Hiss Davis is a singuUrly beautiful woman, little more than a brunette, cer* 
taioly no darker than a Spanish or Italian lady in hue, with big, lustrously 
expressive eyes and a mouth moldetl upon Adelaide Neilson's, She has a 
• rldi» flexible and eHective voice which she well knows how to manage, and 
' ber use of the English language is not only excellent, but exemplary. She is 
sot only San elocutionist, but an actress of very decided force, as she demon* 
stra'ed in selections from "Romeo and Juliet," particularly the potion scene, 
m piece of work we have rarely seen excelled. We could not help thinking 
what a magnificent Cleopatra she would make to a competont Anthony. Her 
reading of *' ^lary. Queen of Scots" was also very fine and elicited much 
applause*— 5ti/M/ay Truth, Buffalo, N, F. 

The late entertainment uiuler the auspices of Zton Church, and managed 
bj Lieutenant Trotter, with the eminent tragedienne. Miss Henrietta Vinton 
Davis, was a grand dramatic success. It is said that Adelaide Neilson was 
tbe only true Juliet, but the rendition of the balcony and potion scene by Miss 
DaTia cauaed tbe audience to think that Neilson had risen, " phosnix-like, from 


her ashes." 8ho held the audience In amazement with her animated acting, 
graceful movements and correct pronunciation, forcing the acknowledgment 
of her groat ability. She is very graceful in movement and will bcyoad & 
doubt ilnd her proper rank of fame in the histrionic world. She made a l.ASt- 
ing impression in " Qrier Rose," by Boyensen, and surpassed even herself ia 
tho comical rendition of the *' Jincrs." Truly may it bo said that the colored 
Americans have at last a true representative on the stage, whose fame in time 
will become anlversal.— r/ttf Commercial OazeUe, Cincinnati. 

The select readings by Mist Henrietta Vinton Davis, at Unity Hall, were 
finely rendered, showing her to be ai| elocutionist of genuine merit. Her 
modesty' ana gracefulness were especially noticeable, and her ways on the 
platform exceptionally pleasing. Her selections included '* How Ho Saved 
8t. Michael/' by Mary A. P. Stansbury ; ** The Battle," by Schiller, and ^lark 
Twain's <' How Tom Sawyer Got bis Fence Whitewashed." SclcctioDs f rom 
" Lady Macbeth " and ** Romeo and Juliet " were also given, the renditions 
being in several respects equal to Mrs. Scott-Siddons' interpretations of the 
characters involved. In fact liliss Davis' reading reminds me very of tea of 
Mrs, Scott-Siddons.— J/arZ/cmtJirM/ttii^iVi^ 

Tho testimonials show that the pulpit and press unite in 
endorsing Miss Davis as the most talented * laiiy before the 
public. . 

In recounting the trit^mphs of Miss Davis as aro presonta^ 
tivo of tho school of tragedy we find it a pleasing task to give 
utterance to words commensurate to our feelings. Ilaving 
heard the so-called best of tho dominant race ( Mrs. Prescott ), 
and having also listened to Miss Davis, we fail to see which is 
superior, or wherein. Her voice is the ideal, her statae is 
matchless, her eyes are charming and can almost read the 
thoughts of other people. 

Her representations, dialects, gestures, poses are indeed 
perfection. She instructs not only her audience, but the au* 
thors of all her selections. Her own peculiar ideas have made 
her a teacher in gesticulation, and the wonderful management 
of her voice, eyes, yea, mute gestures, make her the compeer of 
Miss Coutlioui, of Boston, Any one who has met her, conversed 
with her or listened to her in the role of drama could not but 
agree with us in our assertions. Hard study and close application 
to the art has made many grand artists, some great, really ^{>o<2. 
Nature makes Miss Davis what other things have made others. 
She is natural, easy and graceful. Yon laugh or feel sad at 



her will, as she takes her audience up with her. She is des- 
tined to be the brightest star in the zenith of our tragical 


VocaltsUt PUinUtM and Actrc9$cs. 

N every human being God, the crcutar of all, hides a pre- 
cious gem, as the costliest diamond is extracted from 
under the rough-edged stone, the most delicate mosses are 
taught to grow at the bottom of the deepest cannon. While in 
the former the diamond for long remains worthless in the 
hands of the cobbler, yet when the master of fine arts manip- 
ulates this ap|xirently rude stone its value increases a hundred- 
fold ratio toward completion. In the latter the most delicate 
mosses, admired, only by the disciplined eye or the tireless 
searcher after the hidden treasures, blooms out into a philoso* 
pher and argues with us to the extent of agreeing. 

But the radiance and intellectual charm which in these two 
human beings God had hidden was not to remain so very 
long. For at very early ages the necessity arose of placing 
them in the full and promising attitude where they might bo 
polisheil to shine in the realm of music and song. When once 
in training the advancement was so rapid and so inspiring that 
the celebrated Professor Hugo Sank, whose name betrays his 
Bationality, took them on and on from the degree of good to 
superlative best. Unfortunately a change had to be made for 
their instruction, but with the ability Miadame Josephine 
D^Ormy possessed, and most especially as a celebrity in operas, 
they were instructed in Italian and. German, which, in fact, was 
necessary to be conversant and to know in order to meet the 
public expectations everywhere ; they pursued nobly and 
became quite proficient in each, and in fact they give Madam 
D*Ormy the praise for faith in them to learn, for the patience 
which was nursed by the faith. It was not long to wait for 
the reality. 



^Ir. Trotter in bis literary feast entitled musio and some 
highly musical people says : ** To Madam D'Ormy the Misses 
Ilyers owe most of their success to-day. For she it was vrho 
taught them that beautiful enunciation, and sweetness of 
intonation, that now are so noticeable in their singing of Italian 
and other music/' 

After finishing their training under Mrs. D*Ormy they 
retired seemingly from the public g;ize ; being quite youn^, 
and there being no reason f-or a rush. 

Finally at the Metroi)olitan Theatre in Sacramento, Cal^ 
April 22, 1867, they made their debut before an audience of 
eight hundi*cd i>eople. Success, which met them and cro^rned 
them there, has foHoweil them and has ever been, a character* 
istic symbol of their genius, their repeated triumphs the lesson 
of nature to the world. 

Since 1S80, when the pai>er8 teemed with notices, aj^ents 
of books were excited in their enthusiasm concerning '* ]\lQsio 
and Some Highly Musical People," an illustrated book by one 
of our first autobiographers, Mr. James M. Trotter, which 
leaped up into the thousands, and people were anxious about 
its sale, from the mere fact of it demonstrating to the world 
what education was doing for the colored people in that distinct 
sphere. Ilyers Sisters, w*ho form a part and add to its readin«^ 
matter rich deeds of musical accomplishments, have traveled 
around the world, sang before the crowned heads of Europe 
and become a house word in the musical circles of the United 
States, are again presenteil toour readers, notably fulfilling their 
mission,having demolished thednctrineof incajxicity and delight- 
ed the world w*ith their musicai chants. For them let it be said : 
''All places a temple, and all seasons summer." Ko time 
in their musical history have they failed to smg to crowdeil, 
eager and anxious lovers of their art, reaching their numbers 
in the high and low register with the facility and ease of 
skilled musicians. Their harmony and cadence are true to 
nature, but having become lost in the depth and sweetness of 
their rival voices traine<l to the finish, one would conclude that 
H'ature had overstepped her bounds and borrowed the symphony 


of heaven. Let what has been saiil bv masters do our biiUling. 
That great and grand play entitled " Uncle Tom's Cabin has 
more nearly mimicked nature and actual long ago ])icturc of sla- 
very days, when Topsy and her twin are treated with their true, 
comical,yet sublime |K>wers. For more than one season they held 
the boards of all the Northern, Eastern and Western cities, play- 
ing to crowded houses. They have demonstrated beyond the 
shadow of a doubt what culture, refinement, backed by instruc* 
lion of the best type, can be do for the Negro race under 
similar influences. Born in California, reared, eilucated in her 
schools, and clotheil and protected by her inalienable rights 
and stringent yet equal laws, they show no trait of a low, 
despised race, save the color of their skin and the texture of 
their hair. '* Goil save the mark.'' 

Dallas, Tex., August 20, 1892. 

To a top-heavy house the McCabo & Voung^s genume 
darkey minstrels g:ive a tirstclass performance last night. 
There is no counterfeit about these ebony-hued artists. They 
are simon-pure. There is not a man in the company who is 
not a good singer, and as for dancing, "go way, dar chilunV* 
The specialty work w«is excellent, and provoked continuous 
peals of laughter. The Ilyers sisters, whose names are almost 
world-wide, made their first ap|>earanco bofore a Dallas audi- 
ence and sustained the reputations which they have won as 
possessors of peerless voices. 

Th^ matinee to-day is largely attended and tonight the 
minstrels will hold down the boards of the Dallas Opera 
House for the last time this season. — Dallas News. 

Dallas, Tkx — Dallas Opera- IIousb. 
It cannot be said that good minstrelsy is not appreciated in 
Dallas. The opinion seemed fully warranted by the large and 
enthusiastic audience that gathered at the opera-house last night 
to see McCabe and Young and their supix^rt of ebony artists. 
Special mention is due Harry Singleton for his rendition of a 
Soldier and a Man, and Will Roberts for his pleasing rendition 
of Paoline. The witticisms of Billy Young, Johnny Young and 


Ed Cay woro recoivoil with deserving plaudits.- The event of the 
evening was the ap|>earanee for the tirst time in Dallas of the 
celebrated Ilyera sistei*3. They are vocalists of exceptional 
ability. They have highly cultured voices o/ bell-liko tone 
and faultless intonations. The show was (irst-class and will 
be repeated at matinee and to-night.*— />a^4 New$. 


Teacher and SiindajfSchool Worker, 

MONG the eilucatora the race has proiluced, the subject 
^1^ of this sketch deserves a high place. Few teachers 
have met with greater success. The faculty of imparting 
knowledge seems innate with her. Graduating from the South 
Carolina State Normal School, in May, 1877, she began, in 
November of the same year, to teach in Howard school, long 
a leading institution of Columbia, S. C. Iler abilities soon 
placed her among the foremost instructors of that seminary of 
learning. She proved herself a born teacher— excellent in 
instructing and excellent in governing. Some Northern visi- 
tors, greatly interested in the advancement of the colored 
people, once remarked after a visit to her class-room : ** What 
a flne disciplinarian Miss Dial isl" On the eve of her ma^ 
riage to Professor T. A. Saxon, of Allen University, in Decem- 
ber, 1S90, she tendered her resignation, but at the urgent 
request of the board she was induced to reconsider this action 
and continue to fill the position she had filled for so long and 
with such uninterrupted success until the close of the term, in 
June, 1891. 

Mrs. Saxon is also a scholar of no mean rank. She com- 
pleted the Chautauqua course in 1883, and has since won 
several of the seals offered to the graduates of this course who 
pursue and master some special branch of study after gradua- 
tion. She is a great Sunday-school worker, and has been from 
girlhood a most acceptable teacher in the welUknown Bethel 
A. M. £• Sunday-school. . She is a groat lover of her race— 


\riib a high conception of its capabilities and resplendent hopes 
for its future. Like the lamenteil Bishop William F. Dickerson, 
8he believes that ** twenty-five years ago the colored people 
vrere babes; to-day they are children ; twenty -five years from 
now, despite the pitfalls about them and the prejudices they 
have to contend with, they will be approaching the full stature 
i>t manhood." Long may she live to do good to humanity, 
and to help lift her race to that high plane which she believes 
God intends them to occupy. 


Lecturer and Editor. 

ISIIOP PAYXE, in his recollections of seventy years, in 
referring to bis travels in the West, says, among other 
things: **I also had the pleasure of hearing that extraordinary 
young woman, Miss Alary A. Shadd, editor of the Provincial 
J^reeman^ of Western Canada, in two lectures on the condition 
and prospects of the colored people in Canada. Ucr power did 
not consist in eloquence, but in her familiarity with facts, her 
knowletige of men, and her fine power of discrimination. Her 
energy and perseverance, as well as her ability to suITer in the 
cause she es|K>used, entitled her to rank among the reformers 
of the time. She went alone into Canada West in the fall of 1851, 
an<l travele<l it from Toronto to Sandwich, sometimes on foot, 
maintaining herself by teaching school. The following spring 
she published a i)amphlet entitled *' Notes on Canada West,'' and 
in about one year from the day she landed in Canada she had 
nearly established the weekly sheet before mentioned of which 
for more than one year she was the sole editor, at the same 
time acting as traveling agent and financier. Her editorials 
comiKired well with those of the sterner sex, some of whom 
she often excelled. Indeed I could mention at least two col- 
ored editors whose editorials were far beneath hers. This 
leads me to note that at the close of 1850 it fell under my 
observation that there were but three newspapers among the 


colored people of the United States : The Itam^s Horny pub* 
lished in Philadelphia, and edited and Ofrned by Thomas Van 
Eensselaer ; the Christian ITeraldj of the A. M. E. Church, 
published in Pittsburg, Pa., and edited by Rev. A, H. Green; 
the JVorth Star^ published in Rochester, Xew York, and edited 
by Frederick Douglass, a fugitive slave, but bom to distin* 
guisb himself as one of the master minds of the nineteenth 
century. Thirty-six years have produced immense changes 
and progress in colored journals and journalism.'' 


Cfirhtlan MarlyTf ElocuUonhU MisBionary and Financier. 

T\T;riRGINIA has the boast of being the birthplace of 
Vv presidents, heroes and heroines innumerable. Let 
this sulUco; our subject was born in Norfolk, 1S33, and suHer- 
ing educational inconveniences, nevertheless born of free |)iir- 
ents, found no race restrictions in Massachusetts, hence made 
Boston her home in 1S53. Possessing suiRcient courage to 
master the higher sciences, she at once attracted the attention 
of all who came in her wav. *^ None knew her but to love 
her,'^ and in the possession of that intellectual radiance which 
brightened with cfFulgency all her companions, she, governed 
by such an angelic soul, portrayed a marvelously kind and 
genial spirit, which endeared and held all friends. 

Nature, kind alike to all who will do, dare, or die, con* 
tributcd to her makeup a sound, well-formetl botly, volumin- 
ous voice, and elocutionary i>owers wonderful and puzzling to 
describe. She has contributed dignity to her art and planted 
both boily and name among the loving friends of Nc^v 
Orleans, Louisiana. 18C2, Williams History of the Negro Eace 
in America, says . ** She began a most remarkable career as a 
public speaker and reader ( an elocutionist by nature, she added 
the refinement to the art, and with her handsome presence, 
engaging manners and richly toneil voice she took high rank 
in her profession. Just as she was attracting public attention 


to her genius, she learned of the destitution that was 
\^asting the colored orphans of New Orleans. Thither she 
hastened in the spirit of Christian love, and there she labored 
with an intelligence and zeal wluch made her a heroine among 
her people. In 1SG7, she raised suiBcient funds to build an 
asylum for the colored orphans of New Orleans. But just 
then the vellow fever overtook her in her work of mcrcv, and 
she fell a victim to the deadly foe, 1S67, October 10, saying so 
touchingly, * I belong to Goil, our Father,* as she expired. 
Although cut off in the morning of her useful life she is of 
blessed memory among those for whose improvement and 
elevation she gave the strength of a brilliant mind and the 
warmth of a genuine Christian heart.'* 

/ . I 


IT. C. 7. CT. Advocate^ Tcaclicr and Lecturer, 

S Tennessee has long been noted for its beautiful hills 
r^^ and mountain sceneries, I imagine that somewhere 
among the forests of Tipton county, in the year of 1859, was 
bom the j^erson of whom I shall attempt to write a few things. 
Mrs. TTestbrook^s parents, Ilichard and Amelia Moore, were 
both slaves, but her mother was free born and when a child 
was kidnapped by the slave traders, carried away from her 
parents, and ever afterward remained a slave until the emanci* 
pation of slaves. Her father is a mulatto, and is also closely 
related to the old Georgia Cherokee Indians. Mrs. Westbrook^s 
father, being a great lover of knowleilge, could not be satisfied 
after the emancipation untd he had succeeded, through the aid 
of his brother Edward Ilarris, in obtaining one of Oberlin's 
best scholars as a tutor for his two children, Laura and Vara Lee, 
the baby. Under the tutorship of Miss Rachel Alexander — for 
this was the name of the lady who consented to leave home 
and friends and even dared to come South when brave men 
would tremble to think of such a thing at that time — ^Mrs. 
Westbrooky after five years of hard study, made herself a good 




scholar in tho primary branches. There being a great demand 
for to;ichers in the South at this time« Mrs. Westbrook, who 
was greatly in advance of many of her race, though only 
eleven years old, was called upon to go and impart to her suf- 
fering sisters and brethren the light which she had already 
received. She had already received that great v/isdom which 
Cometh down from above, which makes us wise unto salvation, 
and being lilled with a gi*eat missionary spirit, she readily 
accepted the call. She, after 
laboring with her people two 
years, felt her inability to 
execute the work as it should 
be, and to meet tho demand 
of the future she made ap- , 
plication and entered the 
Central Tennessee College 
in 1872. Under the father- 
ly care of Dr. J. Braden 
and his noble corps of teach- 
ers, after four years of hard 
toil and undaunted courage, 
she completed tho normal 
course of that institution 
in the ycaj' of 1870, during 
which time she had proven 
herself an enthusiastic and 
studious young lady, full 
of moral courage and 
Christian piety, which won for her the esteem or her teachers 
and schoolmates. Her teachers, seeing she was capable of 
doing much good for her people, urged her not to stop with 
the normal course, but to continue her studios until she would 
have finished the regular classical course, which victory she did 
achieve in the year of 1880, graduating with a class of foar, 
she being the only female. Mrs. TVestbrook was honored by 
her Ahna Mater in the year of 1885 with the degree of A. M^ 
which degree she heartily deserved. Mrs. Westbrook continued 



ll« 2iOTED yKGIiO WOAfSy. 


to teach during vacation until sho had completed her course 
of study, and by this means, with the assistance of her parents, 
sho was enabled to continue in school. Her education being 
finished, she entered fully into the work of teaching. On tho 
Fourth of July in the year of 1880, she was married to a class- 
mate of hers, Kev. C. P. Westbrook, of Aberdeen, Miss. After 
teaching in Tennesseo a short time, they were urged by the 
president of the college, Dr. J. Braden, to take charge of two 
schools in Texas. Airs. Westbrook, being full of tho missionary 
zeal, quickly answered to the call, and in December of ISSO 
the^' arrived at Victoria, Texas, where Mrs. Westbrook took 
charge of the Victoria city school, as principal, while her hus- 
band assumed the principalship of tho Goliad city school, 
which was afterward known as . the Jones' Male and Female 

Mr. West brook's school having increased so rapidly at 
Goliad, Mrs. Westbrook was com]>eIled to give up being prin- 
cipal at Victoria to assist her husband. After teaching in the 
Jones' Institute for four years, Mrs. Westbrook came with her 
husband to Waco, where she entered actively in the W. II. 
Mission work for two years teaching a mission school in which 
much good was done, during which time she was appointed 
• corresj)onding secretary of W. II. Mission Society of tho West 
Texas conference, which position she still holds, and has trav- 
eled quite extensively throughout the bounds of tho West 
Texas conference of tho M. £. church and lectured in the 
interest of the W.U. Mission cause. In 18SS, Mi*s. Westbrook 
went as a delegate to the W. II. Mission convention which 
convened in Boston, Mass. Mrs. Westbrook has labored in the 
public school work as teacher for twenty years. She has taught 
twelve years in the Texas public schools and is now engaged 
in the public school of the city of Waco, where she has taught 
for four years. She has been instrumental in doing a great 
amount of good among her people and sho hopes in tho future 
to be able to do a much greater work for them. 

She is known as a tireless and aggressive woman in main- 
taining the rights of her race. She has many times been 


honored in conspicuons instances and undor vory flattcriDg^ 
circumstances owing to her undaunted courage. 

She has served at various times upon the examining board 
of the twenty-second senatorial district for Texas, examining* 
colored young men and lady applicivnts for State scholarships 
at Prairie View State Normal Institute. She has distinguished 
herself as a member of the Woman*s Christian Temperance 
Union, traveling through various Southern States lecturing*, 
electrifying and inspiring our youths, and teaching temper- 
ance and Christianity. Her motive to do gooil far surpasses 
her vanity, except when her race is attacked, then, manlike, 
she with the pen strikes back, and even goes beyond her 
loyalty to servo, but makes lasting impressions upon those 
who are so unfortunate to get within her range. She is a firm 
believer in the time, the pure, and the beautiful. 

Her daily life is characteristic of her essays and lectures. 
The hardshii^s and obstacles which we daily encounter are no 
strangers to Mrs. Westbrook. She is yet in the blooming 
morn of life, with many of us, who will exert our energies to 
keep along by her side. 


PhUMtclmi and Surfjotn, A Mchnrry Onulunlc, Afrlcnn Missionary, 

UST as the cruel canon had ceased its roaring and the 
smoke of the powder had begun to subside, there was 
►rn in Grundy county, Tennessee, two little girls, April 15, 
18G4. One, too pure for this world, was immediately trans- 
planted in the Eilen above ; the other, less ethereal, was left to 
battle with the storms of life, and was given the name of 
Georgia E. Lee Patton. 

Shortly after this the mother heard of the glad tidings of 
freedom and moved to Coffee, the adjoining county, which 
Georgia still calls home. 

Like most Negroes the mother was sent away from her 
taskmaster who had grown rich from others* toil, with noth- 
ing, and being a widow with a very large family depending 




upon her, she had to struggle hard against the merciless hand 
of poverty. But by diligence, working early in the morning 
and lato at night, she managed to provide for them and send 
thein to the few months school that was occasionally taught. 
Ton may know that educational advantages were meager 
when you are told that Georgia attended every school, yet at 
the ago of 'ftev^nteen had gone only twenty-six months. 

Tne child's clothing consisted of scanty underwear and a 

cotton dress, the tliread of was spun at night 
by a good mother after a 
hard day's work, walking 
two or three miles to and 
f ron) tho place of labor. 

These garments were 
made clean by tho same 
dear bands on Saturday 
night, whilo the child, 
with perfect peace of mind, 
too young to think of hard- 
ships, slept the sleep of tho 

Too )KX)r to afford a tin 
bucket, a tin can which had 
been used for fruit was m«ade 
to servo this purpose by holes 
being made and a string put 
through them for a handle. 
If Georgia had even bread 
and meat u> put in this she tuggeil off to school as happy 
98 a brown thrush with her undisturbed nestlings ; not a 
care, not a sorrow, only one ambition«-to be at the head of 
the class at close of school; that meant a perfect lesson, for the 
children valued the few days for improvement. 

Being the youngest of the family she was the favorite 
with them all, and the mother would not allow her to engage 
in washing and spinning, as the older sisters did. Being a 




child of nature, loving tho sirect songs of the birds, the fresh 
air^ the fragrant clover blooms and the blue vault above, she 
turned to the field where she learned to plow before the 
shoulders were above the plow's handles. 

The child was so dolit^rhted with the new work she easilv 
persuailed her mother to allow her to continue. Even to-day 
she will not hesitate to go from the school-room or tho bed- 
side of the sick to tho plow's handle. 

At the nge of sixteen, death claimeil her strongest earthly 
tie (her mother), leaving her alone in this cold, dark world. 
Life was indeed gloomy, only one hope found in this world : 
^' I will never leave nor forsake thee.'' At last she took up life 
alone, and you who have had kind mothers to love know her 

Georgia now moved to tlie home of her oldest sister. She 
had longed for an education, n6w that she must light tho war 
of life alone she felt the need of it the more. In the mind 
plans were being devised by which this might be attained. 

The following year she thought she had at hist come to 
the right plan, th<at of going out to live with a family. The 
work was easy because through it she thought she could see 
the way to college. Another sister objecting to this plan it 
was soon abandoned. She again entered public school, but 
with that craving still, to go off to college. The knowledge 
gained at the public school only sharpened this already 
indwelling aspiration for something higher than public 

The way seemed entirely hedged up. It was a sore 
temptation to the ambitious girl to see her only hopes thu.<( 
swallowed, and she began sighing. 

How often we close our eyes to blessings that are for us 
and stand weeping for what we havCy if we will but look up 
and claim it for our own. 

Her sister secured some money and gave her five dollars ; 
the same day her earthly possessions were collected, placed in 
a small wooden trunk and in a few days she was off for Nash* 
ville. After purchasing the ticket and a hack secured only 



two dollars and fifty cents was lett A strange city, strange 
people, books to buy and board to pay, yet she was happy. 
IIow could she be otherwise? Since God had done so much 
for her could she believe He had brought her here to suiTer? 

We should always feel thankful for to-day's blessing, not 
sighing for the one wo fear wo may not got to-morrow, thus 
losing the bliss of the present. 

She believed the good president would give her work after 
be knew her, .as she had written him about it. That was not 
God's way. See how providential I At the depot she met a 
long-lost brother who was married and living in Nashville, 
and went to his house. The board was thus settled for the 
year. The other two sisters sent her seven dollars and since 
there was only four months sho made this buy the necessary 
books and pay the tuition, except the last month, which she 
paid during vacation. 

Though the brother lived more than two miles from the 
college, in spite of the condition of the weather sho was in her 
place in the chapel at the tap of the fii*st bell. 

February 6, 1S82, will over be a memorable day to her. 
When in the classes, tho students laughed at her mistakes and 
perhaps awkward manners. 

Tho city had no claims now for the country girl, because 
her heart had been wounded tho first thing after entering a 
class, by tho students laughing at her mistakes. 

At the close of school the first day sho left with a heavy 
heart, wishing she had never come, but feeling that since sho 
bad, it must bo emlurcd and make the best of it, and sho 
resolved that they should never have occasion to laugh again. 
Possibly they realizeil her resolution, when in a few weeks she 
was promoted to a more advanced class. 

She had that in her make-up which every one must have if 
he succeeds — a determination not to gi/e up because the igno* 
rant acts provoke a smile on others' faces and some more cruel 
may even poke fun. This only made her more diligent. 

In May, when tho term closed, sho wont to Kentucky and 
secared a small school. This enabled her to attend school a 


fow months the next session. Since then she has paid her 
way mostly by teaching. 

She has completed the senior normal course. As a teacher 

[ she has filled tier place well; being a natural lover^of the work 

\ she has always gone into it with the whole hand and heart, 

making hard places easy. She was a good, obedient student, 

and such generally are successful as teachers. They who 

control themselves can control others. 

Several times has she been called to places where women 
were not wanted because the patrons had gotten the idea that 
the children could not be controlled by her or she was unfit 
for teaching. 

Her work made false these statements and redeemed the 
credit of woman as teacher, governess. In each case she was 
asked to return, and olTered increased salary. 

Not satisfied with her ability for usefulness, after finishing 
I the literary course, she has turned her attention to a profes- 
jj sion and has now graduated from the medical course of 
i< Meharry medical de|)artment of the same school. 

•* Freely you have received, freely give." Since God has 
so freely given her this opportunity for mental and spiritual 
development she should freely give it to others and to those 
who need it most. It is not hard to decide who these are 
who most need this gift. A little knowledge of the condition 
of the world will at once show it to be the inhabitants of 

So she intends to take this as an offering to the poor 
heathens in Africa that she may help hasten the day when 
'* Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hand unto God.'' 

Preparations are now being made for life's work on that 
dark continent. 


Tcadtcft SUnographcr and Editor. 

T^ATTIE ALLISON HENDERSON, a typical little 
^j^^ Southern woman, was born in the little mountain 
town of Frankfort, Ala., Dec. 24, 1868. She was an orphan at 



.••-. ji'.-»«,„^ 


•^. ;•> 

• ** 


fire years of age, and of a family of four brothers and a sister 
is the only living member. Falling into the hands of a foster 
mother who *' ruled with a ro<l of iron,^' the subject of this 
sketch experienced many of the bitters that really seem to 
belong to the lives of most orphans. Her struggle for an 
education is somewhat wonderful. At the tender age of thir- 
teen she was com|)elled to do. as an old Southerner would put 
it| •* a woman's work." 

** Many a time," says she, 
"have I been on m v feet from 
five o'clock in the morning 
till midnight. Tt was, 'Mat- 
tie, do this,* *go there,' * get 
that,' until I often prayed 
that rest, in the shape of 
dcAth, would relieve my 
tired little boily." 

Time for study at homo 
was limited, and thus it hap 
pened that she was known to 
give strict attention during 
class time. InJune,lSS3,she 
graduated from Le Moyne 
Normal Institute, Memphis, 
Tenn., with the . first class 
honor, and composed, also, 
the class poem. After teach- 
ing the following year in her 
Alma Mater, she resolved to begin a classical course at Fisk 
University, Nashville, Tenn, having spent one year there. For 
lack of means she was caused to abandon the idea, and again 
she began life in the school rooms of Arkansas and Tennessee 
district schools, finally drifting back to the institution where 
her first work as pupil and teacher begun. Tiring of teaching, 
and heartbroken over the loss, by death, of two friends, Miss 
Henderson resigned her position in the Le Moyne Institute 
and went to Cincinnati, Ohio, for a change and to learn ston- 



y ^^ 

t' - 







ograpby, in wbioh she comploted ber course in tbe spring; 
of 1892. 

At an early age sbe gave signs of literary talent, and her 
contributions to tbe little weekly school-paper were much 
commented u|>on b}' her fellow-students. Tbe first newspaper 
article from bcr pen was publisbed in tbe Marion^ (Ark.) 
Ilvadlhjht, Tbis article was publisbed in full and most favor- 
ably commented upon in the editorial columns of the 
Avalanche^ then a leading democratic paper of Memphis 
and the South. This would have been a world of encourage- 
ment to most young scribblers; but Miss Henderson, at that 
time, saw little in Negro journalism to encourage her, and 
although from time to time acting as correspondent and occa* 
sionally contributing an article to diftorent papers, under 
assumed names, dropped out of tbe literary world until she 
suddenly appcai*s in Kansas City as one* of tbo two editors of 
The Future SfafVy a weekly iwipor, devoted to tbe interests of 
tbo Negroes of tbo State of Missouri, wbcro she manages every 
department of that paper with tbe ability of a man. Iler con- 
tributions under tbe nr?/^ (fejflnme of ** Aunt Alice.\ ** Jack 
Ilastings," "Mary Allison'' and "Aunt Sarah " have made 
lasting impressions in the hearts of her readers. Her writings 
are fast winning for ber a place among tbe writers of her race, 
and ber exceptional powers of conversation make her many 
friends. . 


PUinUU VocalUt. 

_MONG tbe gifted singers and pianists of the race, Mr. 
J^^ Trotter delights to honor Mrs. Grant in bis book 
entitled, Music and Some Highly Musical People. He says : 
" Sbe was formerly the efficient organist of tbe North Russell 
Street Church, and has been regarded as a most pleasing 
vocalist, possessing a very pure, sweet soprano voice. She 
was for some time a pupil of tbe New England Con* 
aorvatory of Music, and on more than one occasion was 



chosen to represent at its quarterly concerts before large 
and cultivated audiences in Music Hall the svstem taught 
and fine progress made by the attendants of that institution/' 
On such occasions her naivete^ her graceful, handsome stage 
appearance, and expressive rendering, with voice of bird-like 
purity, of some of the best cavatina music, always elicited the 
most enthusiastic plaudits and recalls. The writer was 
present on one of these occasions, fortunately, and remembers 
with much satisfaction the delight ho felt, not only in hearing 
this lady^s melodious voice himself, but in witnessing its 
charming effect on the audience of nearly four thousand 
people, representing generally '* Boston's best culture." 

Her reception really amounted to on ovation. The event 
was a most remarkable one, and exhibiting as it so fully did 
the power of art to scatter all the prejudices of race or caste, 
was most instructive and reassuring. 

Of her appearance at one of the concerts just mentioned, 
the Boston Globe thus spoke : 

* * * Miss Smith, a fine-looking young ladjr, acliieTed a like success in all 
her numbers and in fine pretence on the stage, and in her simple, unobtrusire 
manner, winning the sympathic s of the audience. 

And the Boston Journal said : 

An Immense audience, in spite of the storm and the wretched condition of 
the streets, assembled in 3Iusic Hall yesterday evening to listen to the quar- 
terly concert of the New England Conservator)' of Music. TIio spacious hall ' 
was packed in every part. The most marked success during the evening was 
that won by Miss Oeorgina Smith, who has a fine soprano voice, and who 
tang in a manner which could but receive the warmei^t plaudits. 

Miss Smith was a member of the chorus com|>osed of 
selected singers that sang at the memorable ^' International 
Peace Jubilee Concert,'' and although still quite young, has 
bad an ezperienco as a vocalist of which she may well be 





^T^IIE accompanying cut 18 a most perfect likeness of Mamie 
^^ Eloiso Fox, who was born in Cliillicothe, Ross county, 
Ohk), April 10, 1871. Both of her parente are Virginians 
anil ex-slaves. 

Miss Fox is of short stature, somewhat stout« and very 
muscular; she has large, 
brown eyes that look straight 
and squarely into those of 
the i^crson with whom she is 
conversing; her high forehead 
betokens the intelligence that 
she certainly possesses. Her 
features in general are well- 
defined and intelligent. 

In disposition, the young 
lady is lovable, kind and 
affectionate, having a great 
fondness for children and 
animals ; she is noble, upright 
and true^ in the highest sense 
of the word; having never 
been known to betray any 
, confidence placed in her, she 
has a multitude of confi* 
ding friends. Being highly 
conscientious, Miss Fox will support the right, never for once 
condescending to anything that tends to degrade ; it is this 
conscientiousness that makes her so dutiful in home circles, so 
faithful a church member, so radical a total abstainer, and so 
true a friend ; she truly says of herself that '^ she is as uncom- 
promising as General Grant was when he demanded General 
Lee's unconditional surrender." Althongh firm and immuta* 
ble in her convictions of the right, Miss Fox is by no means 
bigoted, always endeavoring to make a practical application of 
the fact that *^ discretion is the better part of valor," 

MAMis B. rox. 


m yoTED yEGiio wome.w 

In June, 1891, Miss Fox graduated from the Cbillicoihe 
high school, having taken the Latin course. While in the 
high school she gave especial attention to literature, in 
consequence of which her natumi literary inclinations were 
rapidly and profitably develo|>ed. She is an excellent writer 
both of prose and verse, being aided in the latter by her vivid 
imagination. At the age of nine she began to write vei*ses, 
and has been doing so ever since ; indeed, for one so young, she 
has written some commendable i>oems. The lines which 
Alexander Pope applied to himself are equally applicable to 
Miss Fox : 

A8 yet a child, and all unknown to fame, 
I lUped in numbers, for the numbers came. 

Once a gentleman asked Miss Fox, *^ What is love ? '' To 
which she replied, ** Wait a few days and I shall answer your 
question ''* One day, about a week thereafter, while in school 
the young poet wrote on the fly-leaf of her astronomy : 

What is loTc T A higher passion 

Emanating from the heart ; 
Tis a spark of sacred impulse 

Which o word or look can start 
To a flame of heightened pleasure. 

Only tho9C who love can know 
now the pulse and heart are quickened 

When the Arcs of true lofc glow. 

After submitting i\iQ answer to the gentleman he told her 
she could not have written so concise and definite an answer 
had she not been inspired with love, whereupon she amended it 
by adding these lines : 

Not experience has led mo 

To the thoughts expressed above. 
For I never waste a moment 

On that airy subject, lore. 

Miss Fox contributes poems to RtngxooocCs Journal^ for 
which she has written some very beautiful ones, among them 
being *^ Sunset in Ohio," *^ Ignis Amoris," "Time's Pages," 
^ Aatumn " and some others. 


Aside from her literary qualifications Miss Fox is an ardent 
lover of music, reading it at sight. Her chief ambition, how- 
ever, is to study medicine in order to become a physician and 
surgeon. Although shp is not yet able to enter ui>on her 
medical studies, yet she possesses flie energy ami ]>erseverance 
that will win for her success. 

As an ardent advocate of the temi)erance cause Miss Fax 
is unexcelled ; she drinks neither malt, vinous nor spirituous 
liquors. At a recent reception she attended Miss Fox was tho 
onlf/ one present who did not partake of wina Iler friends 
often try to ])ei*suade her to drink cider, but she absolutely 
refuses. When asked her reasons for being so extreme in her 
temperance views, she says: '^Read Komans xiv. 13-23; 
1st Corinthians viii., 1-13.'' When a girl of soventeen she 
wrote the following ()oem on 


There i8 a great and awful foe. 
That blights tho humau racOt 

It plunges men in deep despair, 
In sorrow and disgrace. 

That ovll is iDtemperance<— 

The Moloch of to-day. 
Upon its altars of distress, 

Millions of victims lay. 

Their hopes are gone, their conscleooes 

Ate dulled by sin and vice ; 
Satan has promised " more beyond,** 

And Tirtuo is tho price. 

Cannot intemperance be o'erthrown t 

]^Iust it forver stand I 
Why does this blasting, withering curse 

Extend throughout the land T 

Let us do all within our power 
To brenk the wine-cup's spell. 

And try to keep our men and boje 
From going down to ImIL 

XOTKD SEono \YoyrE2f. 


What it A rainbow T ' Tis a blcDdiog 

Of chromatic rays of lii;bl, 
Scot by tiny, aparklinj^ rnindrops, 

WbeD the sun it sbioing bright. 

' Tis the scTCD tones of music 

Meiamorphoscd for I be eye, 
Sound converted into color 
By tbe God of canh and sky. 

'Tis the emblem of his promise, 
* Tis the arch of Heaven's gate, 
Where the angels stand and beckon, 
Where our loved ones watch and wait* 


When eighty-eight its speedy Hight bad taken. 

And eighty*nine had dawnctl upon the earth, 
With sunshine and with shadovvs which awaken 

Alternate feelings both of sighs and mirth, 
Phcebus. whose smiles shone at the dawn of morning. 

As eve drew on, conccaleil them with a veil 
Of darkness, as if lie would give us warning 

Of shadows, which the night is wont to trail. 
But why should Pha^bus hide his face from mortals T 

Do not his rays both warm and cheer the hearts 
Of men, when, as it were, the heavenly portals 

Are closed T What happiness the sun imparts I 
But such is life :— with all its rain and sadness, 

Sun»hine and smiles incessantly sre sent ; 
The Being Omnipresent looks in gladness. 

When grief midLes adamantine hearts relent. 
Jamtart 1, 1889. 

Miss Fox has written a number of fine essays, some of which 
will ere long be given to the public ; she also thinks of having her 
verses published in book form. Being a great church and Sun* 
day-school worker, and secretary of the latter, she is kept very 
busy. She has a brother to whom she is very devoted. 



£»iii»iciit Writer. 

NUMBER of years ago at tbo closing exercises of a 
^j^ grammar school in the city of Philadelphia, a young* 
j;irl read an essay on Injluencc. This pai>er was so unusually 
interesting and gave such promise for future power that Bishop 
Tanner, who was in the audience, procured ic for the C/tri^tutti 
litvordvry and invited the young writer to furnish more mate- 
rial for the columns of that journal. Thus modestly stepped 
into the literary world one who was destineil to take hi^h 
place among Afro-American writers, and who to-day, as 
Mrs. X. F. Mossell, is one of the leading women of a strug- 
gling race, whoso brightest hope is that it can bring forth just 
such women. 

Mi*8. ^lossell, nee Bustill, was born in Philadelphia of 
parents who were Philadelphians on both sides for several 
generations. Her parents were raised in the faith of the 
Society of Friends, and at a later date joineil the Old School 
Presbyterian Church. It will thus be seen that Mrs. Mossell 
couUl hardly have escaped having those strong traits of char- 
acter and that inclination to studious habits which distinguish 
her, if the law of hereiUty counts for anything. TiVhile still of 
tender age, death deprived her of a mother^s care, and she and 
an older sister were boarded with friends until her twelfth 
year, when the sisters returneil to their father's house, there to 
remain until thev left it for homes of their own. The elder 
sister marrieil Rev. "Wm. D. Robertson, now^ pastor of the 
Witherspoon Presbyterian Church, at Princeton, X. J. The 
distinguisheil subject of this sketch became the wife of Dr. X. 
F. Mossell, of LockiK>rt, now one of the leading physicians of 
Philadelphia, and one of the strongest and most progressive 
thinkers of the Anglo- African race. 

The first ten receptive, impressionable years make the form 
and character of a lifetime, and those early years of Mrs. Mos- 
sell gave the keynote to all her future years. Deprived of the 
many influences that cling around a home life and a mother's 



care, the two little girls threw themselves into the company of 
books for their happiness. They both became omnivorous 
readers, and Mrs. MosscU has told me that often when her fund 
of books ran low, she wouUl devour the encycIo])a3dia or study 
the pages of a dictionary. Thus was laid the foundation of that 
store of general information and that fluency of language which 
have enabled Mrs. Mossell to achieve her present excellence. 

After completing a course in the Iloberts Yaux Grammar 
School, Mrs. Mossell taught school for seven years, a part oi 
the time in Camden and later on in Frankfort. During all this 
time she kept up literary work, contributing a number of 
))oems, sketches, etc., to the Recorder. Iler marriage put an 
enil to the school teaching, and for a time after it she ceased 
active literary work ; but later on, she returned with redoubled 
vi<;or to her first love, and for a number of vears contributed 
articles of special character to the leading journals of Philadel- 
phia. She has edited at different times the woman's depart- 
ments of the New York Age^ Echo and Indianapolis Worlds 
and has assisted in the editorship of the Lincoln Alumni Mag* 
azine. Iler contributions to the A. M..E. licciew and other 
standard Negro journals would make, if collected, a volume of 
considerable size. 

With so much that is calculated to attract the admiration 
of the public, the real woman can only be appreciated by one 
who sees her in her home life. Perfectly devoted to her 
husband's interests, and adopting herself to the increasing cares 
of his rapidly widening practice, Mrs. Mossell yet finds time to 
do her si^ecial work, and to surround her two interesting little 
daughters with the watchful care of a mother's love. The 
Mossell home is always open to those in need of encourage- 
ment and aid, and many a straggling student can testify to 
the beauty of its hospitality. Mrs. Mossell is intensely inter- 
ested in anything that contributes to race progress. She has 
acted as agent and canvasser to several race publications, and 
has a well-stocked library of Negro literature of her own. She 
has in view a collection of her own writings and in actual 
preparation of work of value to the race. 


When some future historian writes the history of the 
American Kegro, it must be allowed that the Negro wo- 
man di<l a noble share in the race development, and when be 
calls over the roll of noble dames the name of Gertrude 
Mossell must be high on the list. Olxvk. 

We append the following as a sample of her merit as a 
writer and thinker: 


It has been my intention for some time to prepare a paper 
on the above subject, — the editorial : Have we no Clara 
Bartons in our Race, that appeared in the last issue of Our 
Women and Children, led me to feel that my choice v^xj^s 
felicitous. All other races have each in its history had noble 
women to rise from their ranks and stretch forth the hand 
opening the way for multitudes to follow, in good works of 
heroism, charity and benevolence. From the times of Joan of 
Arc down to Clara Barton of the present day, each race and 
era has been blessed in this respect — according to its needs. 
Shall we alone fail to find loving hearts, willing bands, and 
high inspiration in our midst? Do not fear that such will 
be the case. l)r. Crummel, in his beautiful tribute to '' the 
Black Woman of the South," has shown what our women were 
capable of even during the debasing influences of slavery. Shall 
we not, in the light of great privileges and hence greater duties, 
prove worthy of still greater eulogy ? We shall stand in the 
limits of this paper to glean here and there from what has 
already been accomplished, and encounige with counsel still 
greater effort in this most blessed and desirable work. Unfor- 
tunately I am not a traveler, so have but a limited field of 
observation to glean from, and do not know of any collected 
facts on this subject. Philadelphia, my birthplace and present 
home« has been blessed to some extent. The opening of public 
schools to the children of color was accomplished largely 
through the labors of Mrs. Mary M. Jennings and her daughter 
Cordelia, now Mrs. Atweli, of New York. Mrs. Kails, of the 
A. M. K Church, a woman of strong physique, noble in her 
api^earanoe, with great love for humanity, established the 


Sarah Allen Mission IIousc. Boxes of clothing and books, 
food for the sick and such articles of use and instruction wore 
collected and distributed. One summer a number of asred 
persons were taken care of in a pleasant country dwelling. A 
mission school of fifty pupils was carricil on for several years, 
and a Christmas dinner to 500 aged i)oor is now among tho 
permanent work of the Mission. A faith homo for the aged 
was started at a later date by Mrs. Ralls for tho care of 
the aged and infirm ; it has some score of inmates, and has 
been very successful. Begun without a dollar and carried 
on with no income, its daily needs are met by the prayerful 
efforts of this God-fearing woman who collects from any source 
whatsoever what may be freely given for the supi>ort of the 
institution according to her faith and works it has been done 
unto her, no day has found a lack of the necessaries or many 
of the luxuries and nourishments needful for the life and com- 
fort of the inmates. Mrs. Fanny Jackson Coppin, the great 
educ;itor of the young of our race, has established, by persist- 
ent, persevering effort an industrial school that is daily prov- 
ing itself of great value in the uplifting of the race. She has 
also partially secured the means to found a boarding house for 
pupils from a distance. 

The first Sabb;ith -school in New York City on good 
authority wUs established by a colored woman named Ilappy 
Ferguson (bow appropriate the name and tho work). The fact is 
established in two publications. History of Sabbath-schools of 
New York by W. A. Chandler, and the Tribute to the Negro 
after the statement of the fact in his history. Says Mr. Chandler: 
^God bless the dusky hands that broke here an alabaster box, 
the perfume of which still lingers about the great metropolis." 
Hope some day our white friends of this hour in their great 
memorial meetings will take cognizance of this fact, and that 
the women of our race shall erect some monument or cenotaph 
to the memory of this noble woman. Amanda Smith, the 
African missionary; Sojourner Truth, the abolitionist, did good 
xrofu in their day and generation. Mrs. Mary Barbosa, 
daughter of oor late consul to Liberia; the Rev. Henry High* 


land Garnet, D. D., established a mission for native girls in the 
West-Coast of Africa. A hospital fund is being secured by 
Mrs. Roberts, the widow of ex- President Roberts, of Liberia^ 
to found a mission hospital at Liberia^ 

An orphanage for children has lately been secured by tlic 
earnest elTorts of noble Afro-American women in the South- 
west. The noble work being done by Miss Ilallie Quinn 
Brown all show that working and waiting will bring about 
the desired result. AH over this land different classes of the 
*< submerged tenth" call for our aid and assistance. It does 
not need education, influence, wealth or power, although all 
of these may be of value. Mother Margaret, the orphans' 
friend of New Orleans, was ;ji poor woman, yet she saveil 
thousands from sin and misery. General Booth, of the Salva- 
tion Army, was not a millionaire, Jerry Mc. Auliffes Mission 
started in poverty, so it is not wealth tiiat is the prime neces* 
sity, but a brave, loving heart, good health and persevering 
energy. Dr. T. G Steward wrote several years ago in tho 
Christian Recorder a thoughtful paper on Our Women's Work 
and Place in the Church iu the Present and Future. Women 
gave largely in their means, their time and their energy, but in 
an unsystematic way. lie pleaded for their organization a 
larger recognition, and why not? Why not when two-thirds 
of the membei*$ of a church are women, and the means con- 
tributed by them swell the exchequer ? Why not give them 
oflicial credit for their effort ? Why not learn a lesson from 
our sister church of the Catholic faith and establish an order 
having special work and costume, so they may not meet with 
obstacles while traveling about in tho performance of the 
duties of the order? There are many ways in which two or 
three women may " lend a hand " in the work of reform. The 
ice water, flower, Chrismas card. Shut in Society, Working 
Girls' Union and dozens of other works come to our remem- 
brance. Let us think on these things, and, like the i>eople of 
the ancient town of Berea, have a mind to work and our duty 
will find U8 out. 

Mb8. JS. F. Mo88BLL| in Ringwoooffs JumaU 



Through ih€ SpecUMcUs of Jennie Jackson Dellart^ Ou: Famoui Soprano of 

the Original Fittk Jubilee Singcrn, 


'IIE name of Jenny Jackson is one that for many years 
has been familiar in the homes of this country and 
Europe. For nineteen ycara she traveled from countr}' to 
country with that famous band of Jubilee Singers, for the pur* 
pose of raising means to establish a i>ermanent seat of learning 
for their race, in the land whore they had so recently felt the 
lash of the master's whip, and where morally they are still 
enslaved by ignorance and crime. Gen. Clinton B. Fisk, in 
charge of the Freedman's Bureau in the Kentucky and Tenn- 
essee district, joined hands with the American Mission Asso- 
ciation to establish a school at Nashville. Through his per- 
sonal efforts the hospital barracks, formerly used by the Union 
Army, were secured, the purchase being made without it being 
known for what purpose they were going to be used. In 1866 
the school was established and named Fisk University in honor 
of the man who did so much to make its establishment a cer- 
tainty. To this Jennie Jackson came in 186S to take advantage 
of the opportunity offered for an educ^ition, an opportunity 
heretofore denied her. In 1871 a crisis in the management of 
the school was reached, when it was found that the resources 
were inadequate to the demand, and the* funds must be 
increased or the school must bo moved to Atlanta. Flow to 
increase the funds, was a {>erplexing problem, but one that was 
happily solved by Prof. Geo. L. White, instructor of music iu 
the University. With him originated the idea of taking a 
band of singers from the school to the North and by singing in 
churches and halls raise the required sum of money. How 
well this plan succeeded is well known. In eight months they 
sent home $20,000, and when the company disbanded they had 
helped the University to the extent of over 8150,000. 

Their aim being accomplished^ the members of this great 
band of singers (there were ten of the originals) scattered here 


and there, eaob (with one exception) a living monument of 
love and devotion to race elevation. One, his work being fin* 
ishcd, has fallen asleep. Jenny Jackson is now the wife of 
Andrew J. Dellart, and resides on Walnut Uills, Cincinnati, 
O. Her devotion to her race is well worthy of imitation. 
While with the company she sent to the University for the 
education of poor students over two thousand dollars, collected 
from friends made in her travels, besides educating two girls 
out of her own private funds. Many valuable coins, stones 
and other curios have been contributed by her to the Univcr- 
sity's cabinets, while to her, also, its famous autograph album 
is largely due. 

Thinking that something from this woman of such a won* 
dcrful experience might be of interest to the readers of 
" Ringwood,'' I, one cold, rainy day, not long since, donned 
my wrai>s and venture<l over to her home. I found her in her 
cosy little dining-room, where burned a cheerful grate-fire, 
which, together with a very warm welcome, caused me to 
soon forget the cold stormy weather through which I had 
come. After making me comfortable in a large armchair and 
poking the fire a little she seateil herself and — *^ So you want 
me to talk to yout All right, what shall I talk about?" 
*• About yourself/* " About myself ? Why, my dear, there is 
nothing to say about myself that's worth saying.*' "Well, tell 
me something about the Fisk Jubilee Singers." " Very well, 
ril just get my scraivbooks and photographs, they may inter- 
est you more than I can." She brought out two large scmp- 
books and a large box of photographs and placed them on the 
table by my side. 

The two scrap-books I found filled with newspaper clip- 
pings, programmes, lettera, invitation cards, etc., and the box 
contained photographs of the singers, of friends connected with 
the school, of distinguished i>ersons of this and foreign coun- 
tries, of the school, of halls, churches and hotels. These, 
together with the many little reminiscences which they called 
forth from the madam, made a story that reads almost like a 
romance. That these enkanoipated slaves should have gone forth 


over the civilized world, the guests of the crowned heads of 
Europe, and returned with $150,000, with which to build an 
educational institution for the elevation of their race, seems 
little short of a marvel. 

The story of their travels has been so often told, that it is 
no doubt familiar to the readers of this journal. A few clip- 
pings will, perhaps, still bo of interest. 

Mr. Bcecher, one of their earliest and stnnchest friends, in 
an address delivered in ISSG, says : ''I think there never was 
such a phenomenon as the building of Fisk University. We 
talk about castles in the air. That is the only castle that ever I 
knew to be built by singing, from foundation to top. That is a 
castle in the air worth having. They sang through our coun- 
tr}% and it is one of the things that T cherish with pride that 
. thev took their start from Plvmouth Church lecture room. 
Oh 1 those days after the war 1 Jfy brother Tom wrote to me 
that this Jubilee band were trying to sing their way to the 
East and see if they could not raise a little money, and urgo<l 
me to look after them. They called on me. I said, ^ I do not 
know whether the folks will bear it or not, but come around 
Friday night, at the prayer meeting, and I will give you a 
chance.' Friday night they sat there, and after the service 
concluded I said to the people : ^ There is a band of singers 
her*, every one of whom has been bai>tized in slavery, and they 
are c^^ming to the East to see if they can raise some little funds 
for their education and their elevation, and now I wish you 
would bear tiiem sing a few pieces.' I called them upon the 
platform. There were about eleven hundred people there. 
The Jubilee band began to sing. It was still as death. They 
sang two pieces, tears were trickling from a great many eyes. 
They sang again and the audience burst forth into a perfect 
enthusiasm of applause, and when they had sung four or five 
pieces my people rose up in a mass and said : * These folks 
must sing in the church.' I had them sing on Sunday morn- 
ing, and on Wednesday night the church was crowded and 
crammed, and from that they went on, conquering and to con- 
quer. They sang up and down our own country ; they sang 


here ; tbey sang in the presence of the royal family ; they 
sang in Paris; they sang in Berlin; they sang before the 
Emperor William, and when they came back they had earned 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars for the Fisk University/' 


The great Plymouth preacher as an '* End l^Ian " is tho 
heading of an article in tho New York Jlerald^ which says.— 
Tho Plvmouth Varieties. — 

Mr, Henry Ward Beccher, the eminent divine of Brooklyn, 
our sister city, is a man remarkable for many things. Ilis great 
aim and chief object in life is never to bo like anybody else. 
This achievet], and ho is perfectly satisfied unto himself and 
his very peculiar congregation, or, as the irreverent term them, 
his *^ audience.'' But never before in his life has Mr. Beecher 
essayed to appear as a manager of Negro minstrels or as an 
*^ end man," as was apparent from the nature of the perform- 
ances last evening at Plymouth church. A '' Jubilee Singers' 
Concert," to bo given by a band of nine Negroes, male and 
female, had been largely adi^ertised among the faithful. Con* 
sequently, last ovening, to answer this call u^K>n the pious and 
meek and lowly congregation of Zion, about twenty-five bun* 
dred persons had assembled in Plymouth church, composed 
about equally of ladies and gentlemen. The Negroes went 
through a very monotonous minstrel performance. *^Go 
Down, Moses,'' "Roil, Jordan, Roll," "The Old Folks at 
Home," " Home, Sweet Homo" and other Negro melodies were 
sung just as they would bo sung in a concert hall, and tho 
behavior of tho audience was just as it would bo in a Negro 
minstrel hall, etc. etc. This same pai)er, two years later 
(1873), in speaking of a concert given by them, says: " Tho 
programme was mainly made up of those fervent and musical 
liymns that exactly refiect the enthusiastic, even ecstatic 
nature of the colored people, and which, having become 
wrought into their being during servitude, still holds sway 
over their feelings. The worthiness of their enterprise, though 
great, will have much less to do with filling the hall than the 
pleasing naturo of the previous concerts.*' 


The Rev. Newman Ilall, after writing a very minute descrip 
lion of a breakfast party f^iven to the singers by Mr. Gladstone, 
makes this apology : 

'^To English readers I should apologize for writing in this 
way. My description would bo severely criticiseil as giving 
prominence to trifling courtesies, which, with us, are matters 
of course. No one here pretending to social refinement would 
make the least distinction between the guests he might meet 
merely on the ground of color, and no one. would hesitate on 
that account to invite to his house anvonn otherwise suitable. 
I am told there still exists in the United States some remnant 
of the old prejudice. This may be found, no doubt, among 
iu)me of the ignorant and vulgar of our own land, and so also it 
would not be fair to infer that such prejudice is general in 
America, because exhibiteil by some low-bred, unrefined and 
narrow souls. I fancy some of these were at Surrey Chapel 
the other Sunday morning when the Jubilee singers did me 
.the honor of taking a little luncheon with some of my friends 
of Rowland Iliirs parsonage. Some Americans had come to 
take ray hand and I asked them to join us. Uut when they 
entered the house, and saw our Negro friends sitting down to 
table, side by side with some English ladies, they lookcil sur- 
prised, stood awhile at the door, and then walke<l away down 
the street. I wish they had been present yesterday to see 
Mrs. Gladstone and her daughters, and noble lonls and ladies 
present, taking their Negro friends by the hand, placing them 
chairs, sitting at their sides, pouring out their tea, etc., and 
conversing with them in a manner utterly free from r»ny 
approach either of pride or condescension, but exactly as if they 
bad been white people in their own rank of life.'' — liitujwood 


ARAH EMILY GIBSON, daughter of Daniel and Mary 
Gibson, was bom in Alexandria, Ya., April 13, 1845. 
Iler father, a man of unusual strength of intellect and will, was 

TUEIU TniUJ^rPlIS and activities. 130 

8olf*rcIiant and well-road in, at least, the English literature of 
the day ; and her mother, a quiet and practical Avoman, gentle, 
iirm and ctlicient. She was Uie third of eleven cliiUlren. Of 
these only four survive, Mrs. Josephine Ward, of Walnut HilU ; 
Mrs. Tx>uisa Davis, of New York, and Samuel Gibson, a youn^j 
lawyer of Troy, Now York. Soon after the birth of SanUiher 
parents, wishing to give their children better educational advan- 
tages, came to Cincinnati in 1S40. Ilcr first schooling was 
obUiined in a pay school, taught by a Mrs. Ilallam» afterward 
Mre. Curbin, a white lady well remembereil by old Cincin- 
natians. Tlie free schools furnished the rest of her etlucation, 
her principal instructors bemg Mrs.Corbin and Peter II. Clark. 
She began her career as a te«acher, at Newtown, Ohio, in ISGO. 
After leaving there became governess in a family near Oxford, 
O., then taught a private school at her own home until 
appointed to a position by the Cincinnati school boanl in 
September, 1863. Two years later she was united in matrimony 
to M. P. II. Jones, younger son of Rev. Samnel Jones, one of 
the pioneer Baptist ministers of tho State of Ohio. At that 
time Mr. Jones was clerk of the colored school board, and 
was a gentleman of fine literary attainments, a pleasant and 
intoUoctual conversationalist and possessor of a wonderful 
memory. Although he was her senior by twenty years tho 
marriage was a congenial one. Three children were the result 
of the union, two dying in infancy ami one — Joseph Lawrence, 
surviving. This young man is as talented as one would natur- 
ally suppose tho son of such parents would be. lie graduated 
from Gaines school in, aftd is to-day one of tho rising young 
men of Cincinnati. 

Mrs. Jones taught in Mt. Healthy two years, Columbus, O., 
three years, and is now employed on Walnut Uills, where she 
has been for sixteen years. She is well known as a careful and 
conscientious instructor. Her first literary venture was in 
1SG2, when she assisted J. P. Sampson, editor of Tlie Colored 
Citizen^ writing articles on various subjects. She has con- 
tributed to the Chri$iian Reetnrdery and later she wrote 
regularly for the Indianapolis Worlds edited by the Bagby 


brothers. Sho is in constant demand by the different churches, 

literary societies, etc., to give readings and is seldom known to 

refuse. In 1SS3 sho wrote a lecture which she delivered before 

large audiences in Dayton, Zanesville, Cincinnati, TValnut 

Hills and other places in the State, but was forced to retire 

from the lecture field because it interfered with her school 

duties. She was appointed a lady manager of the Col. Orphan 

Asylum in 1SS4 and hohls the position at present. In early 

life she became a member of the Union Baptist Church, which 

position sho holds tonlay. She is not only a '^ church member," 

but one of the truest and best christians I have ever known. 

Her faith is in right living rather than in church creeds, and 

sho looks forward to the time when all men shall believe in 

^ one Lord, one faith and one baptism." She is the only one I 

ever knew who always urges something in favor of the erring, 

whether friend or foe, and who tries to see only the good in 

everyone. Her religion is broad enough to cover with the 

mantle of charity every sinner in the land. She enjoys a good 

sermon whether delivered by one denomination or another, and 

is one of the most faithful of friends. Mr. Jones, whose health 

had been gradually failing for a number of years, gave up 

entirely' in 1SS6. From that time until his death, wliich 

occurred Oct. 3, 1891, he was an invalid. For seven months he 

iras bedfast, but was nursed with a tendet patience that never 

even flagged for an instant. He bore his afQiction through 

those long weary months with christian fortitude, and died in 

the triumphs of faith. 

Mrs. Jones is one of the noblest of noble wo{nen. With 
discouragements of all kinds, she has kept on her way, a tender 
mother, a loving wife, a consistent christian and a faithful 
friend. Pure in heart, mind and conversation she has yet been 
mbunderstood by man\* and has at times been the target for 
some evil minds, who would dare sully the brightness of the 
stars. But by those who know and appreciate her womanly 
qualities, she is dearly loved, and they all join in saying—* 

** May she live long and prosper.'' 



Y^I^-'O the readers of *' Ringwood '* will be given a series ot 
T||^ biographical sketches of A fro- American women who 
have done or are doing something to lift themselves and their 
race to a higher moral and intellectual plane. This . will be 
done that the readers of this journal may not only become 
acquainted with what the women of the race are doing, but 
by their successes and achievements in the battle of life may 
be inspired to do even greater things, for Longfellow tells us : 

Lives of great men all remind ua 

We cao make our liTet sublime, 
And depHrtiDg, IcaTe behiod us 

Kootprinit on the tiindt of time. 

It requires a number of flowers woven together to make a 
garland. It is the more brilliant and fragrant flowers of the 
garland, however, that attract attention. But sometimes we find 
under a leaf or peeping between petals, an humble little flower, 
and with careful touch we coax it from its hiding place and 
find that its tiny i>etals, delicate tints and sweet perfume add 
^new beauty to our garland. To the list of women who will 
constitute the Ringwood garland, I send the name of Sister 
^lary. I send it not on account of any very brilliant achieve* 
mentsof hers, but as a souvenir to her many friends, who knew 
and loved her for her affectionate and sympathetic disposition 
and helpful and self-sacrificing spirit. To those who knew her 
not, I send it as an example of one who *' learned the luxury of 
doing good.** One of those to whom the Savior will say — ^ I 
was a Imngered, and ye gave me meat : I was thirsty, and ye 
gave me drink : I was a stranger, and ye took me in : naked, 
and ye clothed me : I was sick, and ye visted me : I was in 
prison, and ye came unto me.'* 

I^fary Frances was the second of ten children of the Rev. 
Wallace and Mrs. Susan Sheldon. She was born in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, March 31, 1836. She was a delicate child and 
early became subject to severe sick headaches. This affliction 
followed her through life, but she was a most patient sufferer. 
She early developed such traits of character as not only 


endeared her to her mother, father, sisters and brothers, but to 
a very large circle of friends. While yet young, she shared 
Trith ber mother the responsibilities of the care of the very 
large family. To her the father learned to look for assistance 
in entertaining the many who came to partake of his hospital- 
ity, and it was to " Sister Mary*' the children would come for 
sympathy and help. She learned dressmaking and was soon 
self-supporting. At about the age of twenty-four she was 
married to James Buckner. Two children, a boy and a girl, 
were the fruit of this union. The boy died in infancy ; her 
daughter still lives. After her marriage she continued to fol- 
low the dressmaking business, and being a very skillful one 
she was always kept busy. Many times when help was hard 
to find and work was pressing, she would sow all night, and 
yet she was never so busy but what she could find time to go 
and minister to the sick. Often she has taken me with her on 
some errand of mercy, to see some poor one sick or in distress, 
and she never left them without doing something for their 
comfort ami cheer. Strangers came to hen and on hearing 
the story of their misfortunes she would take them in and give 
them shelter and food. No one was ever turned from her 
door hungry or emptyhanded. I have known her to give 
and cheerfully too, the last cent of money she had to one 
in distress. There ai*e many persons in this and other cities 
who remember with grateful hearts this woman who took 
them in^ strangers though they were, and encouraged and 
helped them. Then there are many who when sick miss her 
g^entle soothing touch, miss the nightly visits she would make 
them ; when all the world seemed wrapped ii? forgetful slum* 
ber, she would come and minister to their wants, comfort and 
cheer them. Many miss the sympathy that she so freely gave 
to the sorrowing or distressed. Her life was one of unceasing 
toil, toiling for others, thinking always of the happiness and 
comfort of others, always forgetting self. She wore her life 
away, and one night, the 22nd of May, 1888, the Master sent 
a hasty summons and her soul took its flight. 

A. E. W.y Oincinnati, O, in liingiooocTs Journal. 



USIE ISABELLA was the eldest-born child to Whitten 

S. and Clarissa Lankford. She was born at Terra 

Iluuto, Indiana, January 4, 1859. 

Her mother died wiion she was but fourteen, leaving her 
as the one who must care for and comfort a bereaved husband 
with Ave motherless little ones. She was attend ing'Wilbei^ 
force University when her mother died. 

Ilcr father married soon afterward, and she went to 
Rockville, Indiana, where she was a successful teacher two 
years. Her third term as a teacher was spent at Kichmond, 
Indiana — her home at that time — from which place she was 

Soon after the death of her mother, the family moved to 
Baltimore, Maryland, where her father was |>astor of Bethel 
A. M. E. Churdi. A little incident occurred which no doubt 
helped shape her future course. One evening near sunset a 
minister called to see her father. He had every look of a 
traveler ; dusty, weary, hungry, almost forlorn. However, he 
was soon made presentable, and in the meantime Susie had 
spread a refreshing meal. He enjoyed it very much« he said 
when he had finished ; and pronounced the biscuit excellent 
(ho had managed to consume eleven, though they were not 
very large). The young housekeeper was delighted that her 
father's guest~a stranger to her— had been made so wel- 

The minister was a professor of theology, and resided 
with his family near Xenia, Ohio. Chief among his friends 
there was a bachelor professor, to whom — as soon as they 
had welcomed each other— he related the little incident in 
Bethel parsonage, and recommended at once the little ^\t\ 
who could make such good biscuit as a suitable companion^r 
a wife. Soon after this the second marriage of her father took 
place, and what with a new wife and fashionable hired girl, it 
was plainly seen that Susie was not needed; so she was 
allowed to return to Wilberforoe, whore, in spite of herself 


8be must como in contact daily with this bachelor profcssori 
and he taugljt her all about the verb " love " and ** to bo *' 
loved. They were married in 1S78, by this same professor and 
minister who had enjoyed her hospitality so long ago— Dr. T. 
n. Jackson — assisted by Dr. B. F. Leo. It was many years 
afterward e'er Susie knew anything of this revelation, when 
the doctor mentioned it in her presence, in general conversa- 
tion with Prof. Priolcau and wife, at their residence. Early 
in life sho was inclined to write. She wrote a |>oem on the 
death of her mother, at the ago of fourteen years, which was 
highly complimented. For many years she wrote occasional 
papers for the Chrhtian Recorder^ and is at present con- 
tributor to the news column of the same. Sho is possessed of 
a missionary spirit, and aids willingly any enterprise that has 
for its object the bettering of humanity. 


Believing that much good can and will be derived from 
this amiable little book, we have askeil the author's i)ermission 
to republish a part of it in her column, ** Plain talk to girls." 

The crown and glory of man is woman, filling his^ very 
being with joy inexpressible. 

Woman, beautiful being, grandest creation of earth, bright- 
est star in Heaven I 

Nothing is more lovely than a good woman; nothing more 
loathsome, more detestable than a vile woman. 

The woman who lives a pure life, a Christian here and dies 
the Christian's death, is queen of earth and Heaven ; but what 
shall be the portion of the thousand and more women who 
live and die in degradation and sin? Surely they will dwell in 
the lowest depths of utter darkness, where the sun of right- 
eousness does not shine and where the wicked forever reap 
that they have sown. 

Women occupy positions no other creatures can occupy — 
no others wield so great an influence' for good or evil ; how 
necessary tbea that we have good women, pure, undefilcd, 


pious, yoa everything combined to make them fit for the end 
of their creation. 

Who does not admire a beautiful woman I I do not mean 
beautiful because her face, form or general appeanincc^ may bo 
fascinating or comely — but beautiful in thought, kind words, 
loving deeds, amiable in disposition, patient in everything, an 
example worthy of imitation. 

Hands that are ever ready to assist the needy are beauti- 
ful hands, though they be rough from work or wrinkled with 

The diamonds that sparkle in eyes of noble Christian 
women are far more precious than those which deck the 
crowns of royalties, or glisten on the throats of gaily dressed 
ladies of fashion. 

The pearly tears, shed on account of a fallen woman, an 
orphan child, an outraged or discouraged comrade, are more 
precious than rubies, they are but the outwanl sign of an 
inward sympathy, tender and true. 

Those are lovely feet that go on errands of mercy to the 
hut of a i>oor widow, the haunts of poverty, even though they 
have only a cup of cold water to convey to the parched lips of 
some one slowly but surely dying. 

Very much good is daily accomplished by other true 
women, who on account of some bodily afHiction are not able 
to visit the sick, poor or distressed, but who prepare at home 
some little relish to tempt the api>etite, some garment that, 
will shut out the biting blasts of winter, perhaps a letter 
whose encouraging words may save some one from despair — 
for often timely words are the means of causing those who are 
cast down and those wiio resolve to go to the bad, to look up 
and see that life is not all shadows. 

If ever the human heart needs sympathy and encourage- 
ment it is when crushed with sorrow, or heavv on account of 
a downfall, for when a woman (or man either) starts on the 
down grade very many are ready to give her a push, she is 
already conscious of her guilt, the sin gnaws continually, she 
feels to be an outcast, and if no kind spirit administers words 


of advice, sbe plunges hopelessly into the dark chasm beneath 
ber, a ruined woman. But we thank God there are many 
noble women who are in Ilis hanils the instrument of doing 
much gooil for this class of individuals by their timely words, 
and for other needy ones whom they may not bo able to visit 
in person, but to whom they send blessings by their children, 
not only benefiting the needy, but instilling within the bosoms 
of their children a spirit of true benevolence. 

In all ages women have been leaders in good enterprises. 
Every truly great man owes his success in life to Uie careful 
training of his devout mother, who led him in the way of true 

AVe si>eak of the nobleness of women of every age, of every 
clime— for every age and clime has produced noble women, 
grand^ good wonun — but, the women of this busy, ever ad vane* 
ing age who shall claim our special attention are our women, 
the Negro women of America, the Heroines of African Method- 

As far back as 1759 (more than a century ago) we find 
women leading in the cause of Christ, for the first black per- 
son baptized by John Wesley at Wordsworth, England, Nov. 
30, 1750, was a Christian woman, and that same woman became 
the first black class leader in West India Isle. 

In this, our beloved America, where the chains of slavery 
have long since been broken, where we can serve God north, 
east, south and west and fear no evil, two classes composed of 
Negroes were organized in ]76G. Methodist class north by 
Fhillip Embry, consisting of five members — a woman in the 
midst ; Methodist class south by Hobert Strawbridge, consist- 
ing of twelve members. One was a woman, Anna Switzer, 
who lived in a family of white Christians whose name she 
bore. They afterward moved to Brownsville, Penn., where 
'iXxss Bell Switzer, a descendant, taught in the Negro Sabbath- 
school. One of her bright-e3'ed boys — whose first teacher she 
was — was Poor Ben, who labored and ascended the ladder of 
true Christian progress, round by round, and is to-day before 
yoa one of the greatest of all men, black or white, of the cen* 


tury in which be lives. Bishop, leader, brother, friend, beloved 
by all on account of his pleasing manner, and yet, Bishop 
Benjamin W. Arnett owes all his true greatness, all bis sue* 
cess in life to his dear mother, who led him in the right way. 
She lived to see her boy a noble, Christian man, then quietly 
fell asleep in Jesus. 

When Bisliop Wm. Paul Quinn went to the then far West 
to organize a church in St. Louis, Mo., he stop|>cd at the homo 
of one of our pioneer mothers, Mrs. Anna Baltimore. Sho 
was over the friend of ministers, and showed the true courage 
of a brave woman by standing between the bishop and a cruel 
mob. Ever was sho a faithful worker in the African Method- 
ist Episcopal church, and God spared het to see a general 
conference in that place. 

Phiilis Wheatley was born in Africa and brought to Bos- 
ton, Alass., in 17C1. Though a slave she was allowed to 
improve her talent, and became a noted poetess. **She 
addressed a poem*to the Earl of Dartmouth, who received it 
very kindly,'' also some complimentary verses to General 
Washington in 1776, during the War of the American Bevolu- 
tion. Like many other good women, she married a worthless 
man, and at last died in )K>verty. Sho has gone to the home 
of the soul where all is bliss, and in her beautiful compositions 
yet lives on earth. 

Mary E. Ashe Lee, Lucretia Newman Coleman. Bertha B. 
Cook, Fannie Jackson Coppin, Josephine Silone Yates, Ida B. 
Wells, Josie D. Heard, Anna II. Jones, A. J. Cooper and 
^lury E. Cimrcii are but a few of the composers and poetesses 
of our times of whom we are proud, and very proud also are 
we that we have a Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, poetess and 
teacher, who was the first woman connected with the Union 
Seminary Sc1k>o1, Columbus, Ohio, out of which grew our 
beloved Wilberforce. 

We are proud of our women. Little as has been written 
concerning them, they are walking in all life's avenues success- 
fully, daring and doing what the women of other varieties of 
the human race dare and do. 


Listen to the strains of sweet music as thev flow from the 
li|)s of Nellie £• Brown, Madame Selika, Harriet E. Freeman, 
Jennie Jackson, Lena Miller, Madam Dpngan, ^[attie E, 
Checks, Jennie Robinson Siewart, Cora Lee Watson, Anna 8. 
Baltimore, Essie Fry Cook, Anna Jones Coleman, Ilyera 
Sisters, and many others, and tell me, is any sound sweeter? 

Hear the meloily produced by Ernestine Clarke Nesbit^ Gay 
Lewis. Dertha C. Cook, Hellen D. Handy (who so lately lillcd 
your courts with sweet music, but wlioso musical nn;,'ers are 
now still and cold in death), Mattie F, Itobcrts, Katie Stewart 
Bazel, Dertha Battles, Alice Richards, Gussie E. Clarke Jones^ 
Mary E. Church, Dovie King, Anna L. Arnott, Ella Slteplierd, 
and a number of others ; listen, I say, as they ring sweet music 
from the piano, organ or violin, anil tell me, is it not charm- 

There was a time when we could not boast of women 
physicians and surgeons, but now we have S. B. Jones, Carrie 
y. Anderson Still, Consuello Clark, and others skilled in this 

Gaze upon the beautiful marble statue chiseled by the 
skilled hand of Eilmonia Lewis, or behold a life*like portrait 
of your departed friend penciled by the artistic fingers of 
Mattie F. Roberts, and you behold wot*k done by our women 
that will compare favorably with that done by women of other 
race varieties. 

Sit in rapture and amazement at the feet of Hallie Quinn 
Brown, as in queen-like nmnner she i)orsonates every phase of 
life, and there acknowledge in woman an elocutionist who has 
few equals and fewer still superiors. 

Visit stores managed and controlled by women like Kate 
Turner, Bell Johnson High warden, and Mary E. Williams, and 
be convmced that women can carry on business as successfully 
as men ; indeed, we neeil not go North for examples of business 
women, for I believe the South is ahead. I remember reading 
in the Southern lieview of April, 1890, published in this city, 
of a little mulatto woman, Jane Simmons, of Milledgeville, 
QtUf w.ho is said to be the first woman in the South to become 


a butcher by profession. She can kill, clean and cut up more- 
hogs in a day than any man in the country. 

We have women also said to bo successful lawvcrs, who 
can plead at the bar as earnestly and successfully as men. 

The name of Amanda Smith has long been sung as a great 
benefactor, teacher and preacher, wlio, like ^[i*s. Mossell, ^frs. 
Dishop Campbell, and others, has a missionary spirit, laboring- 
that those who sit in darkness may receive the light of this 
blessed g08}>el day. 

Who- shall estimate the M*orth of the band of faithful 
women who are teachera in our Sabbath-schools, day-schools, 
high schools, seminaries, colleges, and universities? All over 
this broad, free land of ours, wherever there is a hamlet, town 
or city, we find these earnest, faithful workers. Toil oxa^ 
noble band, yours is the greatest of missions given to women 
(save the sacred mission given to mothers) however humble or 
obscure. Scsik I. Shorter, m Rhujxcood^s JournaL 


WHEN revolutionary ideas shake society, and the con* 
dition of afTaii*s in church or state calls for leaders, 
the ilemand is usually met. This is no whim of the mind, but 
a fact which history will establish beyond the shadow of a 
doubt. lie who reads history with the eye of the philosopher 
will readily see the hand of Providence in the historic devel- 
opment of the race. This fact is very patent in the life of 
the one of whom we now proceed to give a brief pen pic* 
ture. Hosa D. Bowser {ncc Dixon) was born in Amelia 
county, Virginia. When she was but a child her parents 
moved to the city of Richmond, Va. Early in life her thirst 
for knowleilge was great, hence as soon as an opi^ortunity for 
attending school offered itself, she availed herself of it, 
entered school and began at once. She enjoyed her school 
life very much, and made rapid progress in her studies, and 
soon won the affection and esteem of her instructors and fellow 
pupils. Her design in acquiring a good education was to 


qualify herself for usefulness in a higher degree. She recog- 
nized the fact that much woukl depend upon the foundation 
laid in this the formative period of life, therefore she regarded 
it her duty to have a definite aim, to select for herself a 
vocation. The importance of this was seen from the sim- 
ple and evident fact that the usefulness of every person 
depends wholly upon his own labors. This idea led the 
subject of our sketch onward, and as each new obstacle was 
surmounted she saw her fond object nearer her grasp, until 
finally, as a reward for her diligent labor, she had the gratifi- 
cation of gaining her coveted object, and the satisfaction of 
knowing that it was a recompense for her masterly exertion 
in the pursuit of knowledge. She pursued the course of study 
laid down in the various grades and finally graduated with 
distinction from the Normal School. Mrs. Bowser^s makeup 
fitted her for work of teaching, therefore she began to teach 
soon after she got through with her course of study. If we are 
to decide from her work and the success attending her efforts, 
we are forced to conclude that she is a born teacher. She 
has in herself the element of a true teacher. That element is 
sympathy, a sympathy not merely intellectual in its nature, 
but a sympathy which flows from a community of life. This 
shows itself that she endeavors to help her pupils to become 
something in the world. This very effort u[>on her part has 
done much to enshrine her name in the hearts of hundreds of 
pupils whom she has taught. If the life she so nobly lives be 
lived again in souls she has moulded, it will be to her a monu- 
ment more enduring than any art can devise. She taught 
school for seven successive years, and then was married 
to James II. Bowser, Esq., a scholarly gentleman, and a 
man of most upright Christian character. Mrs. Bowser^s 
married life was brief, but it was full of pleasure and happi- 
ness ; and this was true because of the fact that she carried 
into this new relationship the same devotion and noble charac- 
teristics that she had exhibited all through her career. 

Since the death of her husband, Mrs. Bowser has taught 
nine years jn our public schools and has done her work in the . 


sam^ acceptable manner as in former years. Mrs. Bowser 
also taught very acceptably in a Summer Normal Institute, 
several summers ago, at Lynchburg, Ya. Her course has bcea 
different from that of many of our young people who graduate 
from the schools. She gives herself to study and thus endeav* 
ors to advance in knowledge and to acquaint herself with the 
most improved metliods of imparting information to others. 
Mrs. Bowser not only writes well, but she speaks with an ease 
and freedom of which many a man who regards himself some- 
thing of a speaker would be proud. We would not close this 
sketch without calling attention to the fact that Mrs. Bowser 
became a Sunday-school scholar very early in life and soon 
saw the need of a poi*sonal Savior. She accepted Christ in tho 
days of her youth, and began at once to make herself useful- 
She is found in all good work, whether it is the Church, 
Sunday-school, Y. M. C. A., or Missionary Society. The 
success which has come to Mi*s. Bowser is largely due to this, 
that she recognizes the fact that the changes of earth are con- 
stantly occurring and they depend altogether upon the power 
that one has to do good or evil I She is strong in mind, in 
heart and in life, and day by day she is impressing the people 
with this fact. Mrs. Bowser is serving the second year as 
president of the Richmond Normal School Alumni and also of 
the Virginia Teachers^ Association which meets at the V. X. & 
C. I. Petersburg, Ya., in July. She is president of the Woman^s . 
Educational Convention of Richmond, Ya. 

Diu Jos. E. Jones, tn JUnffUHHMTs Journal. 
RiouKOMD, Ya. 



fzTV^UE subject of our sketch was bom February 24^ 1864, 
YJiT in Xenia, Ohio. She early convinced her parents, as 
well as all who came in her way that, no matter how well she 
might become fitted for other things, music burned its 
meliifluous incense upon her heart. Indeed, the appellation of 



Jackson's singing girl was applied to her even before she could 
walk. The whole trend of her genius was given up to the 
fate which seemed to devour her, and hence, as early as. eleven 
years of age she became a member of the Second Baptist 

Church choir, of Spring- 
field, Ohio, and there for 
a number of years demon- 
strated that, in the realm 
of song, the recipient of 
such a marvelous voice was 
worthy of the gift. 

In 18S0, she joined the 
Anthony Musical Concert 
Company, and traveled 
with them one year as the 
soloist. Soon after she was 
summoned to contract for 
the season of ISOO and 
1S91, to travel in the above 
capacity with the Kash- 
ville Students. Her press 
notices have been showered 
in profusion upon her. 
She is thoroughly awake 
to the necessity of com|)etency in her art, and is working with 
all the energy of her soul to rank among the greatest of our 
closing century. 

U. BELL JACK80:(. 


< V 

.cS } 

AKIA BECRAFT was among the pioneer colored 
'^'JU^ Catholics of America, a brilliant light. Her relig- 
ious devotion and wonderful intelligence, as well as piety and 
refinement, marked for her a footprint ** upon the sands of 
time," a paragraph in the history of her race. 

She was bom, 1805— attended school in Washington, 1812, 
and later attended the school taught by Mrs. Billings until 


1820, when she, restless to do good for the race, opened a 
school and achieved marvelous success. In 1827 she was given 
new duties, more becoming the high place to which she had by 
dint and push elevateil herself. Her beauty and high char- 
acter inspired Father Yanlomen, the erudite priest, who trans- 
ferred her to a larger house opposite the convent where she 
opened a boarding and day school for colored girls, which she 
conducted for four or more years. Later, she became a sister 
of a convent at Baltimore, where she was noted as a high 
teacher. Iler name as a sister of Providence was Sister 
Aloyn. f*,'_, \ i.-^'- ^-i> 


African Queen. 

" A more odious spirit, liccnliou^, blood-thirsty, and cruel, never inhnbited 
the form of womao/' says Mrs. IIale» " and yet she is deserving a place along, 
side of the great women of tho world; for she, in understanding and ability, 
stepped far beyond her countrymen, and tho circumstances under which she 

^'INGA was bom in Matamba, in Africa, in 1592. Her 
father was what the European travelers and writers 
chose to term a king. What state or elevation could be 
assumed by a chief of Negroes and cannibals, it would be diffi- 
cult to define ; but, at all events, he was the principal person- 
age of his tribe. Nothing can be said about a throne where a 
bench or chair was a rare and inappreciable luxury. Zinga 
manifested a craft and management by which she soon got the 
better of her brothers; and upon tho death of her father, 
investing herself with the sacred character of priestess, became 
the leading spnng of the people. At that time the Portugese 
and Dutch were attempting a rival influence on the coast of 
Africa, for commei^cial purposes; religious difficulties became 
involved in this rivalship ; there were no doubt many mission- 
aries of high and pure motives , while others, forgetting their 
message of peace, served to exacerbate the opposition among 
Christians. Zinga had the good sense to appreciate the advan- 
tages she could derive from the Christians; she visited the 


Portugese settlement, ingratiated herself with the Governor, 
and was baptlzett. With their aid slie soon made herself pre- 
dominant among all the tribes of the neighborhood ; and as 
soon as she had destroyed all whom she might have feared, she 
abjured her new faith and returned to her idols. For some 
time she lived feared and respected among her own people ; 
but )>erpetrating acts of dosiK>tic cruelty too terrible for detail, 
she soon became wearied of reigning over a race of trembling 
savages. Uer intercourse with the Portugese had taught her 
the advantages of civilization, and her own sagacity perceived 
tbat the introduction of Christianity could alone improve her 
nation. She sent for priests, and again became a nominal 
member of the Christian church. She was now sixtv-flve 
years old, and determined to remain faithful to the injunctions 
of the missionaries. Her example was followeil by those who 
surrounded her; and had she lived, the si^irit of the gospel 
might have temi>ered this savage race, but a sudden illness put 
an end to her existence in 1C63. 

Uer courage and vigor were remarkable ; she was naturally 
formed for government, and her native capacity' and energy 
would, in a different countr}*' and with suiUible education, have 
made a great queen ; while her extreme hardness of heart must 
liave rendered her hateful and repulsive as a woman , still, she 
exhibited better dispositions than any king of her race had 
ever done, and she was the first of her tribe who made any 
attempt to adopt Christianity. Had she been born and brought 
up under its blessed light, bow different would have been her 
character and her destinvl When such instances of the 
capacity of the colored race are brought before us, we should 
be awid^ened to the importance of sending the gospel and the 
means of instruction to the wretched millions of women and 
children in Africa. 

TUiClR Till UM PUS AND AClIViriES, 1^3 


77ic Vitmoxm Songnirw (77i« *^ Black ^*t^all**). 

TBT is very diflicuU for the historian to say a few words of 
^ ono that bos so nearly reached perfection in the art of 
music and song, hence, the danger of saying too little, when 
so much fitting and appropriate shouUl be said, but as Mr. 
Trotter's Music and Some Highly Musical People, also her com* 
plete biography, are at our command, we take the liberty of 
plucking such as wo hoi>e may not prove bunlensome to our 
readers. As they will see further along in this sketch that 
the press, critics and music lovers have gone into ecstasies, 
captivated and completely captured when even prompted by a 
spirit of curiosity to hear the African nightingale, the peer of 
Patti, Nilsson, Jenny Lind or Paro<li, 

She was not of vanity,, nevertheless a child of nature, a lus 
a icrgo controlleil her being and taught her the true lessons of 
sublimity. Notwithstanding she knew the power of her 
voice, and the perfection of her attitude to command throug^h 
curiosity, because of her formidable color, she heeded her 
inmost natural feelings and stood fair with all mankind. 

She was better known as the *' Black -Swan*^ in both 
America and Europe. Iler Ciireer in song and music having' 
almost annihilated her Elizabeth Taylor Greenlield cognomen. 
<'She was born of slave parents, in Natchez, Miss., in the 
year 1809. When but a year old she was brought to Phila- 
delphia by an exemplary Quaker lady by whom she was care- 
fully reared. Between these two persons there ever existed 
the warm affection that is felt by mother and daughter. In 
the year 1844 this good lady died. In her will, the subject of 
this sketch was remembered by a substantial legacy. The 
will was contested however, and she never received the 
bequest. Iler family name was Taylor; but, in honor of her 
benefactress and guardian, she took the latter^s name — Green- 
field. Previous to the death of this lady, Elizabeth had 
become distinguished in the limitetl circle in which she was 
known for her remarkable powers of voioe. Its tender tbriU- 

156 yoTKD ysano womkx, 

ing tones often light.encd tbo weight of ago in ono who was 
beloved by her as a mother.'' 

By indomitable will she surmounted dilliculties almost invin- 
cible. At first she taught herself crude accompaniments to her 
songs, and intuitively perceiving the agreement or disagree- 
ment of them, improvised and repealed until there was heard 
floating upon the aii* a very * lovely song of one that had a 
pleasant voice, and could play well upon a guitar.' 

"There dwelt in the neighborhood of Mrs. Greenfield a 
physician, humane and courteous; capable too, of distinguish- 
ing and appreciating merit and genius under whatever |)reju- 
dices and disadvantages they were presented. His daughter, 
herself an amateur in the science of harmonious sounds, heard 
of £lizabeth';s ]ieculiar structure of mind. Miss Price invited 
her to her house. She listened with delighted surprise to her 
songs. She offered to accompany her ujion the guitar. This 
vras a coneurrence of circumstances which formed the era of 
her life. Her pulses quickened as she stood and watched the 
fair Anglo-Saxon fingers of her young patroness run over the 
key-board of a full toned pianaforte, eliciting sweet, sad, 
sacred, sole^in sounds. Emotion well-nigh overcame her; but 
the gentle Icftdouragement of her fair young friend dissipated 
her fears and increased her confidence. She sang ; and before 
slie had finished she was surroundeil bv the astonished inmates 
of the house, who, attracted by the remarkable compass and 
sweetness of iier voice, stealthily entered the room, and now, 
uni>erceived, stood gathered behind her. The applause which 
followed the first trial, before this small, but intelligent aud- 
ience, gratified as much as embarrassed her, from tho unex- 
pected and sudden surprise. She not only received an invita- 
tion to repeat hor visit, but Miss Price, for a reasonable com- 
pensation, undertook her instruction in tho first rudiments of 
ifiusic. Tbo progress of genius is not like that of common 
niinds. It is needless to say that her improvement was very 

'^But the lessons above mentioned were taken quite 
privately and without, at first, tho knowledge of her guardian. 

riiKni ruiUMPus a\d activitiks. 157 

Elizabeth was rnpidly acquiring an acqimintnnco with music% 
when some ono maliciousl)vinforined Mrs. GrccnlicUl, with the 
expectation of seeing an injunction laid u}>on the pupiPs 
eiTorts. The old lady sent for Elizabeth, who came trem- 
blingly into her presence, expecting to be reprimanded for lier 
pursuit of an art forbidden by the Friends' discipline. 
* Elizabeth,' said she, Ms it true that thee is learning music 
and can phiy upon the guitar ? ' ' It is true,' was her reply* 
*Go get thy guitar and let |no hear thee sing/ Elizabeth did 
so; and when she had concluded her song, she was astonished 
to hear the kind hidy say: ^Elizabeth, whatever thee wants 
thee shall have.' From that time her guardian was the 
patroness of her earnest efforts for skill and knowledge in 
musical science. She began to receive invitations to entertain 
private parties by the exhibition of the gift which the God of 
nature had bestowed." 

Upon the death of her patroness, in conse<iuence of the con- 
tested will she found he)*solf thrown upon her own resources 
for a maintenance. Kememboring some friends in the 
western part of Now York, she resolved to visit them. 

While crossing Lake Seneca, en route to Buffalo, there came 
sweet!}' stealing u]K)n the senses of the p;issenger8 of the 
steamer her rich, full, round, clear voice, unman*eil by any 
flaw. The lady passengers, esixjcially the noble Mrs. General 
P., feeling that tlie power and sweetness of her voice deservetl 
attention, urged her to sing again, and were not satisfied until 
live or six more songs were given to them. Defore reaching* 
their destined ))ort she had made many friends. The philan- 
thro])ic Mrs. General P. became her friend and patroness. She 
at once invited Elizabeth to her splendid mansion in UulTalo, 
anil, learning her simple story, promptly advised her to devote 
herself entirely to the science of music. During her visit a 
private party was given by this lady, to which all the elite of 
the city were invited. Elizabeth acquitted herself so admirably 
that two days after a card of invitation to her through the 
public press, sigrted by the prominent gentlemen of Buffalo, 
requested lior to give a series of conoortt. 

158 SOTKD yEGRO WO}/Ey, 

In October, 185 1« sho sang before tlie Buffalo Musical Asso- 
ciation, and ber performances were received with marks of 
approbation from the best musical talent in the city. That 
established ber reputation as a songstress. *'Givo the ^ Black 
Swan/'' said they, 'the cultivation and ex])cricnce of the fair 
Swede or Mile. Parodi, and she will rank favorably with those 
popular singers who have carried the nation into captivity by 
their rare muKical abilitioK. Iler voice han a full, round Hound 
and is of immense compass and depth. Sho strikes every note 
in a clear and well-defined manner, and reaches the highest 
cai)acity of the human voice with wonderful ease and appar* 
ently an entire want of exertion. Beginning with G in the 
bass clef, she runs up the scale to £ in the treble clef, and 
gives each note its full power and tone. She commences at 
the highest note and runs down the scale with the same ease 
that she strikes any other lower note. The fact that sho 
accomplishes this with no apparent exertion is surprising, and 
fixes at once the marvelous strength of her vocal organs. Her 
voice is wholly natural, and, as might be expecteii, lacks the 
training and exquisite cultivation that belongs to the skillful 
Italian singer. But the voice is there, and, as a famous maestro 
once said, *It takes a hundred tilings to make a complete 
singer, of which a gooil voice is ninety-nine.' If this be so, 
Miss Greenfield is on the verge of excellence, and it remains 
for the public to decide whether she shall have the means to 
pursue her studies." 

**To several gentlemen in Buffalo belongs the credit of 
having first brought out Miss Greenfield in the concert room. 
The Buffalo papers took the matter in hand and assured the 
public they bad much to expect from a concert from this 
vocalist* The deep interest her first public efforts elicited 
from tbem gave occasion to the following certificate : 

V DurrALO. Oct. 80, 1851. 

Mm. H. £. Howard. 

Dear Sir: At your suggeitluo, for the purpose of eoabliog Miss Eliza* 
beth T. Greenlield to sbow to lier Pbiladtlpkia f rieada ibe popularity sbe bas 
acquired ia Uila city, I cbecrfully certify aa follows: 


The concert got up for her was unsolicited on her part and cniirelr the 
result of admiration of her vocal powers by n number of our most respectable 
citizens, who had heard her at the resideoco of General Potter, with whose 
family she had become somewhat familiar. The concert was attended by an 
audience not second in point of numbers to any given here before, except 
by Jennie Lind. and not second to any in point of respectability and fashion. 
The performance of Miss GreeuOeld was received with great applause, 
and the expression since, among our citizens generally, is a strong desire to 
hear her again. 

UespectfuUy yours, etc., 

G. Ukkp Wimo.h. 

Kochestor next oxtetuloil nn invitation fur hor to visit that 
city, which wo copy : 

The undersigned having heard of the musical ability of Mif s Greenfield, 
of the city of Bullalo, and being desirous of having her sing in Rochester^ 
request that she will give a public concert in this city at an early day, and 
feel confident that it will afford a satisfactory entertainment to our citizens. 

(Signed by a large number of the most respected citizens in Rochester.) 

RociiESTEK, December C, 1S51. 

This evening in Corinthian Hall, the anticipated entertain- 
ment is to be presented to our music-Ioving citizens. Curiosity 
will lead many to attend, to whom the performance of a colorv J 
prima-donna is a phenomenon at once wonderful and rare. 
Miss Grecntield has receiveii from all wiio have heard her the 
name of being a vocalist of extraordinary power. 

Speaking of her concert in Rochester, The JSxjnrss says : 

On ^londay, Parodl, in all her splendor, sustained by Patti and Strakoscb, 
sang at Corinthian Hull to half a house. Last night Miss Greendeld sang at 
the same place to a crowded houso of tho respectable, cultivated and f a5hion* 
able people of the city. Jenny Lind has never diawn a better house, as to 
character, than that which liitened with evident satisfaction to the unheralded 
and almost unknown African Nightin£ale. Curiosity did something for her, 
but not all. 8ho has merit, very great merit ; and with cultivation (instruc* 
tion) she will rank among the very first vocalists of tho age. She has a voice 
of great sweetness and power, with a wider range from tho lowest to the 
highest notes, than we have ever listened to ; flexibility is not wanting, and 
her control of it is beyond example for a now and untaught vocalist. Her 
performance was received with marked approbation and applause from those 
who knew what to applaud. 

Another city pper says: 

Much has been said and written of this personage sinoo the was intro* 
dttced to the public at a musical prodigy* All sons of surmisea and conjee* 


tures have been iDdolgcd in rcspcctiDC the clum put forth o( her merit, and 
genenilljr the irapressioQ secmeil to prevail tbnt tho novelty of 'color' and 
Idle cariosity accounted more for the excit.mcnt raised tban her musical 
powers. Well, she has Tisited our place, and given our citizens an opportu- 
nity of Judging for themselves. We arc ignorant o( music and unqualitied to 
criticise. But a large audience was in attendance at Uingucbcr>; Hull L-u»t 
erening. Among those present were our musical amateurs, aud we heard but 
one expression in regard to tho new vocalist, and that w:i.5 wonder and aston- 
ishment at tho extraordinary power and compass of her voice ; and tho ease 
with which she passed from the hichcst to tbc lowest notes seemed without 
effort. Uer first notes of "AVhcrc are now the hopes?" startled tho whole 
audience, and the interchange of glances succeeded bythur.dirs of applause 
at the end of the drit verse showed tbat her success wa^ complete. She was 
loudly encored, and in response sing the baritone, " When stars arc in tho 
quiet tky,** which took down the whole house. 

We haTc neither time nor spaco to foil 3 w her through her different 
pieces. Suffice it to say, tbat there never was a concert given in this town 
which appeared to give more general satisfaction, and every person wo met on 
learing the hall expressed their entire approbation of her performance. No 
higher compliment could be paid to tho "Swan," than tho enthusi.istic 
applause which successfully greeted her appearance, and the encore which 
followed her several pieces. 

There was a very general expression among tho audience that the sable 
Tocalist should give another concert, and at the earnest solicitation of several 
of our citizens. Colonel Wocd, her gentlemanly manager, has consentctl to 
give another entertainment to-morrow evening, when the '* Dlack Swan " will 
giTc a new programme, consisting of some of Jenny Lind's most popular 

The concert on Thursilay evening was what in other cases would havo 
been called a triumph. Tbe house was full, the audience a fashionable onq, 
the applause decided, and the impressioA made by tbe singer highly favorable. 
We can safely say that Miis Greenticld possesses a voice of remarkable 
qualities ; singular for its power, softness and depth. She has applied herself 
with praiseworthy perseverance and assiduity to the cultivation of her extra- 
ordinary powers, and has attained great proficiency in the art which is 
evidently the bent of her genius. By her own energy and unassisted, she has 
made herself mistress of the harp, guitar and piano. We are informed that 
the proceeds of the entenainment this evening aro to be wholly appropriated 
to the completion of her musical education In Paris under the world-famed 
QarcU. We predict for Miss Greenfield a successful and brilliant future. 

The Kocbestcr Amencan says : 

Corinthian Hall contained a large and fashionable audience on tho occa- 
lion of the concert by this new candidate for popular faTor on Thursday ctc* 
ning. We haTe never seen an audience more curiously expectant than this 
WIS for tbe dtbui of this new rocslist. Hardly bad bcr first notes fallen upon 


tbeir ears, however, before their wonder and Mtonishment were manifest in 
an interchange of glances and words of approval ; and the hearty applause 
that responded to tho first verse she s;ing was good evidence of the satisfac- 
tion she afforded. The aria, " O native scenes 1 *' was loudly encorctl ; and in 
response she gave the pretty ballad, " When Stars are In the Quiet Sky. " 

Tlio Buffjilo Commercial AdvcrtUcrstiys: 

Miss Greenfield is about twenty-dve years of a^e, and has received what 
musical education she has in the city of Philadelphia ; she is, however, emi- 
nently self-taught, possessini; fine taste and a nice appreciation, with a voice 
of wonilerful compass, clearness and flexibility. She renders the compod- 
tions of some of the best masters in a style which would be perfectly satisfac- 
tory to tho authors themselves. Iler low, or properly ba$$ notes, are wonder^ 
ful, especially for a female voice ; and in the$e she far excels any singing we 
have ever heard. 

We learn that this singer (soon to become celebrated, we opine) will' give 
a concert in this city on Thursday next. There is no doubt that the noveltj 
of hearing a colored woman perform the most ditllcuU music with extraordi- 
nary ability will give ^chi to tho concert. All representations unite in 
ascribing to 3[Iss Grei*nfield the most extraordinary talents, and a power and 
sweetness of vocalization that are really unsurpassed. 

Tlio I>(u7f/ State Ileghta^ Albany, Jan., 19, 1852, said : 

TiiR ••Black Swan's •* Conckkt.— Miss Greenfield made her debut in this 
city on Saturday evening, before a largo and brilliant audience, in the lecture 
room of the Young Men*s Association. The concert was a comp!etc triumph 
for her ; won, too, from a discriminating auditory not likely to be caught 
with chaff, and none too willing to suffer admiration to get the better of prej- 
udice. Her singing more than met the expectations of her hearers, and 
elicited the heartiest applauso and frequent encores. She posscssis a truly 
wonderful voice ; and considering the poverty of her advantages, she uses it 
with surprising taste and cfTect. In sweetness, power, coinpnssand fiexibil* 
ity, it nearly equals any of the foreign rocalists who have visited our country ; 
audit needs only the training nnd etlucation theirs have received to outstrip 
them all. 

The compass of her marvellous voice embraces twenty-seven notes, reach- 
ing from the sonorous bass of a baritone to a few notes above even Jenny 
Lind's highest. The defects which the critic cannotfail to detect in her sing- 
ing are not from want of voice, or power of lung, but want of training alone. 
If her present tour proves successful, as it now bids fair to, she will put hcr> 
self under tho charge of the best masters of singing in Europe ; and with her 
enthusksm and perseverance, which belong \o genius, she cannot fail to ulti- 
mately triumph over all obstacles, and even conquer the prejudice of color- 
perhaps tho most formidable one in her path. 

She plays with ability upon the piano, harp and guitar. In her deport* 
meat the bears herself well, and, we are told, converses with much intelli- 


gence. We noticed among the audience GoTcrnor Ilunt and familj, both 
Houses of the Legialaiure, State ofQcers and a large number of our leading 
citizens. All came away astonished and delighted. 

A Nevr York paper says : 

Miss Greenfield's Sccgino.— We yesterday had the pleasure of hear* 
ing the singer who Is advertised In our columns as the *' Black Swan/' She is 
a person of lady-like manners, elegant form, and not unplcasing, though 
decidedly African features. Of her manrellous powers she owes none to any 
tincture of European blood, llcr voice is truly wonderful, both in its com- 
pass and truth. A more correct intonation, so far as our cor cnn decide, there 
could not be. She strikes every note on the exact centre, with unhesitating 

decision She is a nondescript, an original. We cannot think any com* 

mon destiny awaits her. 

The Eccnhuj Transcrqyt^ Boston, Fob. 4, 1S52, said: 

Miss Greenfield, the " Black Swan," made her dtbut before a Boston 
audience last evening at the Melodeon. In consequence of tuc price of the 
tickets being' put &t a dollar, the house was not over two-thirds full. She 
was well received, and most vociferously applauded and encored in every 
piece. She sings with great ease, and apparently without any cdort. Her 
pronunciation is very correct, and her intonation excellent. Ilcr voice has a 
wonderful compass and In many notes is remarkably sweet in tone. 

From The DqihJ Capital City Factj Columbus, Ohio, 
March 3, 1S&2 : 

Last evening proved that the "Black Swan*' was all that the Journals 

.•ay of her; and Miss Greenfield stands confessedly before the Columbus 

world a swan of excellence. She is indeed a rcmarkuble swan. Although 

colored as dark as Ethiopa, she utters notes as pure as if uttered in the words 

of the Adriatic 

From The Milwaukee Sentitu^l^ April, 1852 : 

What shall we say? That we were delighted and surprised? All who 
were present know that from their own feelings. We can only say that wo 
have never heard a voice like hers— oae that with such ease and with such 
Absence of all effort, could range from the highest to the lowest notes. 

Said a Rochester (N. Y.) paper of May 6, 1852 : 

The magnificent quality of her voice, its great power, llcxibility, and com- 
pass, her self-taught genius, energy and persovcrence, combine to render Miss 
Greenfield an object of uncommon interest to musicians. We have been spell- 
bound by the ravishing tones of Patti.Sontag, Malibrsn and Grisi; we have heard 
the wondrous warblingsof the nightingale, and we have listened with delight to 
the sweet pielodies of the fair daughter of Erin, but we hesitate not to assert 
llial, with one year's tuition from the world-famed Eminuel Garcia, Hits 


Qrcenfleld would not only compAro farorably with nnr of ^e diaUofuished 
artists aboTo oamcd, but incomparably excel them all. 

Tho Globe, Toronto, May 12-15, 1852, said : 

Anyone who went to the concert of MIsn Greenfield on Thursday last 
expecting to find that he had been deceired by the puffs of the American 
press, must have found himself most agreeably disappointed. . . . 

After he [the pianist] had retired, there was a general hush of expecta- 
tion to see the entrance of the vocalist of the ercning; and presently there 
appeared a lady of a decidedly dark color, rather inclined to an embonpoint 
and with African formation of face. Shc^advanccd calmly to the front of the 
platform, and courtesied very gracefully to \he audience. There was a 
moment of pause and the assembly anxiously listened to the first notc^. 
They were quite sulhcient. Tho amazing power of the Toice. the Hexibility 
and the ease of execution, took the hearers by surprise; and the singer was 
hardly allowed to finish the Terse, ere she was greeted with a most enthus-l- 
astic applause, which continued for some time. The higher passages of the 
air were given with clearness and fullne^, indicating a soprano voice of ^t€tkt 
power. The song was encored and Miss Qreenflcld came back, took her seat 
at the piano, and began, to the astonishment of the audience a different air 
in a deep and very clear bass or baritone voice, which she maintained 
throughout, without any very great appearance of effort or without her 
breaking. She can in fact go as low as Lablache or as high as Jenny Llnd— > 
a power of voice perfectly astonishing. It is said she can strike thirtyone 
full clear notes; and we could readily believe it. 

From a Brattleborrough (Vt.) paper, June 23, 1852 : 

The " Black Swan," or Miss Elizabeth Oreenfield. sang in Mr. Fisk's 
beautiful new hall on Wednesday evening last to a large and intelligent 

We had seen frequent notices in our exchanges, and were already pre- 
possessed in favor of tho abilities and life purposes of our sable sister; but, 
after all, we must say that our expectations of her success aie greater thaa 
before we had heard her sing and conversed with her in her own private 
room. She it not pretty, but plain. . . .Still she is gifted with a beauty of 
•oul which makes her countenance agreeable in conversation, and in singing, 
especially when her social nature la called into activity, there is a grace and 
beauty in her manner which toon make those unaccustomed to her race for- 
get all but the melody. . . . 

Nature has done more for Mist Greenfield than any musical prodigy we 
have met, and art has marred her execution less. 

But the limits of this book are auch aa to preclude my 
giving all or even a hundredth part of the testimonials and 
critieisms pertaining to the singing of this wonderful Negro 
woman, that filled choice spaces in the American newspapers 
during her captivating career in the United States. 


Doubtless our readers arc buoyant as well as entlmsetl over 
what they have already read. The few excerpts in com- 
mendation of her abilities are simply fair words of praise as 
compared to others too lengthy to publish here. 

After singing in nearly all the free States, she resolved to 
carry out her long entertained purpose of visiting Europe, in 
order to perfect herself in the technique of her art. learning 
of her intentions, the citizens of BulTulo, N. Y., uniteil in ten- 
dering her a grand testimonial and benefit concert. The invi- 
tation was couched in terms most flattering, and signed by 
many of the most distinguislied residents. 

The concert took place on March 7, 1853, and was in all 
respects a grand success. 

Leaving Buffalo, she went to New York, where, after sing- 
ing before an audience of four thousand persons, she received 
the following complimentary note: 

New York. April 2, 1853. 
lliss Elizadetii T. Grkenfiei.d. 

yfadimi Dy tbc suggestion of many enthusiastic admirers of your 
talent, I have betn induced to address you on the subject of another and 
second concert, prior to your departure for Europe. Your advent musical in 
Ootham has not been idly heralded among the true lovers of song, and 
admirers of exalted genius, of which your unprecedented success on ^ednes* 
day evening must have sulBcicntly convinced you ; while all are eloquent in 
the commendation of your superior powers and engaging method. 

Confiding, madam, in your reported magnanimity and generosity to 
oblige, I will divest myself of tedious circumlocution, and fervently exhort 
•yon to make a second exhibition of your nkill, which, there can bo no doubt, 
will be highly saccesiful to you, and as interesting to your admirers. 

Thb Pudlic. 

. Miss Greenfield embarked from New York in a IJritish 
steamer for England, April 6, 1853, and arrived in Liver- 
pool the ICtli of April, 1S53; rested over the Sabbath, 
and proceeded Monday morning to London, in which metrop* 
olis she became safely domiciled on the evening of the same 
day. But painful trials awaited her from a quarter the most 
unexpected. The individual with whom she had drawn up 
the contract for this musical tour was unfaithful to his 
promises, and she found herself abandoned without money 
and without friends in a strange country. 


She had been told Lonl Shaftesbury was one of the great, 
good men of England, and she resolved to call upon him 
in person, and intreat an interview. His Lonlship imme- 
diately granted her request, listened patiently to her 
history, and directly gave her a letter of introduction to bis 

It may perhaps bo considered a providential concurrence 
that ^[rs. Harriet, Bccchor Stowe was in London this same 
time with Miss GreenfiekL We notice in her ** Sunnv Memo- 
ries," under the date of May 6th, the following remarks : * A 
good many calls this morning. Among others came Miss 
Greenfield, the so-callc<l " Black Swan/' She appears to be 
a gentle, amiable, and interesting young person. She has a 
most astonishing voice. 0. sat down to the piano, and played 
while she sang. Her voice runs through a compass of three 
octaves and a fourth. This is four notes more than 
Malibran^s. She sings a most magniilcent tenor, with 
such a breadth and volume of sound that, with vour back 
turned, you could not imagine it to be a woman. While she 
was there, Mrs. S. 0. Hall, of the *' Irish Sketches,'* was 
announceil. I told her of Miss Greenfield, and she took great 
interest in her, and requested her to. sing something for her 
C. played the acconjpaniment, and she sang ^^ Old Folks at 
Home,*' first in a soprano voice, and then in a tenor or barL 
tone. Mrs. Hall was amazed and delighted, and entered at 
once into her cause. She said she would call with roe, and 
present her to Sir George Smart, who is at the head of the 
Queen's musical establishment, and, of course, the acknowl* 
edged leader of London musical judgment. « 

** In the course of the day I had a note from Mrs. Hall, say- 
ing that, as Sir George Smart was about leaving town, she 
had not waiteil for me, but bad taken Miss Greenfield to him 
herself. She writes that she was really astonished and 
charmed at the w*onderful weight, compass and power of her 
voice. Ho was also as well pleased with the mind in her 
singing, and her quickness in doing and catching all that he 
told her. Should she have a publio opportunity to perform, he 


offered to bear ber rehearse beforehand. Mrs. Hall says: 
**This is a great deal for him, whose hours are all marked 
with gold/' 

Again Mrs. Stowe says : " To-day the Duchess of Suther- 
land called with the Duchess of Argyle. Miss Greenlield hap- 
pened to be present and I begged leave to present her, giving 
a slight sketch of her history. I was pleased with the kind 
and easy affability with which the Duchess of Sutherland con- 
versed with her. and betraying by no inflection of voice, and 
nothing in ber air or manner, the great lady talking with the 
poor girl. She askeil all her questions with as much delicacy, 
and made her request to hear her sing with as much consid* 
eration and politeness as if she had been addressing any one 
in her own circle. She seemed much pleased with her singing 
and remarkeil that she should be happy to give her an oppor- 
tunity of performing in Staffonl House as soon as she should 
be a little relieved of a heavy cold which seemed to oppress 
ber at present. This, of course, will be decisive of her favor 
in London. The Duchess is to let us know when the arrange- 
ment is completed. 

" I never so fully realized," continues Mrs. Stowe, *• that 
there really is no natural prejudice against color in the human 
mind. Miss Greenfield is a dark mulattress, of a pleasing and 
gentle face, though by no means handsome. She is short and 
thickset, with a chest of great amplitude, as one would think 
on hearing her tenor. I have never seen in any of the persons 
to whom I have presented her the least indications of sup- 
pressed surprise or disgust, any more than we should exhibit on 
the reception of a dark-complexioned Spaniard or Portuguese. 
** Miss Greenfield bears her success with much quietness and 
good sense. 

** Iler Grace, the Duchess of Sutherland, afterward became 
ber ever unfailing supjiorter and adviser. 

*^ The piano-forte which previously had been furnished Miss 
Greenfield to practice upon was taken from her. The Duchess 
of Sutherland, upon learning thefact, immediately directed her 
(o select one from Broad wood's. 


Wo cannot refrain from quoting Mrs. Stowe*s description 
of tbo concert, after dinner, at the Stafford House: 

The concert room was the briUlAnt and picturesque hall I have before 
ilcscrilHMl to you. It lookeil moro picture-like and dreamy than ever. The 
piano was on the Qat stairway Just below the broad central landing. It was a 
grand piano, standing end outward and perfectly banked up among hot>house 
flowcri, so that only its gilded top was risible. Sir George Smart presided. 
The . choicest of the diU were there, ladies In demi-toilet and bonneted. 
Misa Qreenficld stood among the singers on the staircase and ezciteda pathetic 
murmur among the audieace. She is not handsome, but looked Tery welL 
She has a pleasing dark fare, wore a black velvet headdress and white Coroe 
lian ear rings, a black moire-antique silk made high in the neck with white 
lace falling sleeres and white gloves. A certain gentleness of manner and 
self-possession, the result of the universal kindness shown her, sat well upon 
her. Chevalier Bunccn, the Prussian ambassador, sat by me. He looked at 
her with much interest. "Are the race often as good looking? " he said. I 
said : *' She is not handsome com|)ared with many, though I confess she looks 
uncommonly well to-day/* The singing was beautiful. Six of the most culti- 
vated glee singers of London sang among other things, " Spring's Delights 
are now Returning, " and " Wliere the Hoc sucks, there lurk I.** The Duchess 
said, '* These glees are peculiarly Bnglish.*' 

Miss Grccnlieid^s turn for singing now came, and there was 
profound attention. Iler voice, with its keen, searching tire, 
its ])cnetrating vibrant quality, its itmbre as the Fi*onch have 
it, cut its way like a Damascus blade to the heart. She sang 
tlie ballad, **01d Folks at Home," giving one verse in the 
sopm no, and another in the tenor voice. As she stood partially 
concealed by the piano, Chevalier Bunsen thought that the 
tenor part was performed by one of the gentlemen. He was 
perfectly astonished when he discovereil that it was by her. 
This was rapturously encored. Between the parts, Sir George 
took her to the piano and tried her voice by skips, striking 
notes here and there at random, without connection, from D 
in alto to A first space in bass clef. She followed with uner- 
ring precision, striking the sound nearly at the same instant his 
finger touclied the key. This brought out a burst of applause. 

Lord Sliaftesbury was there. He came and spoke to us 
after the concert. Speaking of Miss Greenfield, be said : 

I consider the use of these halls for the encouragement of an outcast nee 
a consecration. This is the true use of wealth and spleador, when they are 
employed to raise up and eneourafe the despised and forgotten. 


Tuesday, May 31, 1S53. 
Miss GreenlieUrs first publio morning concert took place at 
the Qucen*8 Concert rooms, Hanover square. She came out 
under the immediate patrona^ of her Grace, the Duchess of 
Sutherland ; her Grace, the Duchess of Norfolk, and the £arl 
and Countess of Sliaftesbury. It commenced at three o'clock 
and terminated at five. 

The London Morning FostsvLys: 

A large assemblage of fashionable and tUstinguishcd personages asscm* 
bled by inTitation at Stailord IIouso to bear anil decide upon the merits of a 
phenomenon in the musical world, ^liss Elizabeth Greenfield, better known 
in America as the " Black Swan." under which sobriquet she Is also about to 
be presented to the British public. This lady is said to possess a Toice 
embracing the extraordinary compass of nearly three octares, and her perfor- 
mmncet on this occasion elicited the unmistakable eridence of gratification 

The London Times said : 

Mils Oreenfield sings, ** I know that my Redeemer lireth," with as much 
patboe, power and effect, as does the " Swedish Nightingale," Jenny Lind. 

Again, the London Obsercet remarks : 

Her Toice was at once declared to be one of extraordinary compass. Both 
ber high and low notes were heard with wonder by the assembled amateurs, 
and ber car was pronounced to be excellent. 

Th^Tjoxkiiow Adoertiserj of June ICth, contained the follow* 
in^ comments : 

A concert was given at Exeter Hall last evening by Miss Greenfield, the 
American vocalist, better known in this country under the sobriquet of the 
** Black Swan." Apart from the natural gifts with which thb lady is endowed, 
the great musical skill which she has acquired, both as a singer and an instru* 
mentalist, is a convincing argument against the assertion so often made, that 
the Negro race is incapable of Intellectual culture of a high standard. Her 
▼oice is a contralto, of great clearness and mellow tone in the upper register, 
and full, resonant and powerful in the lower, though slightly masculine in its 
timbre. It Is peculiarly effective in ballad songs of the pathetic cast, several 
of which 3Iiss Greenfield sang last night in a very expressive manner. She 
was encored in two, "The Cradle Song," a simple melody by Wallace, and 
*' Home. Sweet Home," which she gave in an exceedingly pleasing manner. 
The programme of the concert was bountifully drawn up, for in addition to 
the attractions of the ** Black Swan," there was a host of first-rate artists. 
Herr Brandt, a German artist with a remarkably sweet voice, sang Professor 
Loogfellow'a *' Slave's Dream," set to very beautiful music by Hatton, in a 


way that ellcitod warm applause. Miss Ro«iiia Bcntlej, a faoUsia by Luts» 
Tcry brilliantly, and afterward assiateil by Miss Kate Lorder (who, UowcTerp 
must DOW be known as Mrs, Heury Thompson), in a grand duet for two piano- 
fortes, by Osborne. M. Valadares executed a curious Indian air, " Hilli Mill I 
Puniah/' on the TioUn, and Mr. Henry Distin, a solo on the sax^tuba. The 
band was admirable, and performed a couple of overtures in the best manner. 
Altogether, the concert, which we understand was Qiade under the distin- 
guished patronage of the Duchess of Sutherland, was highly successful, and 
went oH to the perfect gratification of a numerous and fashionaable audience. 

In July, she gave two grand concerts in the Town Hall ia 
Brighton, under the patronage of her Grace, the Duchess of 
Sutherland ; her Grace, the Duchess of Norfolk ; her Grace, 
the Duchess of Beaufort ; her Grace, the'Duchess of Argyle ; 
the Most Noble, the Marchioness of Ailesbury ; the Most No- 
ble, the Marchioness of Kildare, the Most Noble, the Marquis 
of Lansdowne; the Earl and Countess of Shaftesbury; tlio 
Earl of Carlisle; the Countess of Jersey; the Countess of 
Granville, the Countess of Wilton; the Viscountess Palmers- 
ton ; the Lady Constance Grosvenor, and Mrs. Harriet Beecher 

VocaUsis.—UisB K T. Greenfield (the "Black Swan'^, 
Madame Taccani, Countess Tasca, Mr, Emanuel Roberts 
(Queen's Concerts). 

Inatrumenialists.'^YaMiO'toTUh soloists, Miss Rosina Bentlev 
(pupil of Miss Kate Lorder) ; violin, M. de Valadares (pupil of 
the Conservatoire, Paris) ; accompanist, Mon. Edouard Henri ; 
conductor, Mr. F. Theseus Stevens. 

She gave a series of concerts at the Rotunda, in Dublin, 

In October, 1853, we find her again at the Beaumont Insti- 
tution, Beaumont Square, Mile End, London, at Mr. Cotton^s 
concert, 8upi>orted by Miss Poole, the Misses Alpine, Miss 
AUeyne^ Mr. Augustus Braham, Mr, Suchet Champion, Mr. 
Charles Cotton, the German Glee Union, and the East Indian 
violinist, M. de Valadares ; conductor, Herr Ganz. 

These testimonials are a few of the one thousand at our 
command, but since it is '^iie desire of the author to please as 
well as to portray y wo must close this sketch here. The music 


people of both continents have been startled irith wonder and 
amazement time and time again, when confronted by the 
proofs of indwelling genius which seems to be inherent in the 
Negro race. 

White, the violinist, had pleaseil two continents with his 
violin, Blind Tom had done as much with his piano, Elizabeth ' 
Taylor Greenfield; the wonderful musical nightingale, with her 
voice, drew unto hertiie kings, queens and nobility of the Old 
as well as the New Continent. 

Her return from London to America was attended with 
flattering ceremonies and grand circumstances. Iler trip 
resulted in much benefit, intrinsical as well as artistical, adding 
decided edai to her professional reputation. 


Tonndctofa Coltcgc, Tctichcr, Lecturer ^ Writer^ Qroit Scholar. 

fROR GEO, W. WILLIAMS, in his "History of the 
Negro Race in America," says : Fanny M. Jackson, at 
present Mrs, Fanny Jackson Coppin, was born in the District 
of Columbia, in 1837. TItough left an orphan when quite a 
child, Mrs. Sarrah Clark, her aunt, took charge of her and gave 
h<;r a first*class education. She prosecuted the gentlemen's 
course in Oberlin College, and graduated with honors. 

Deeply impressed with the need of eilacated teachers for 
the schools of her race, she accepted a position at once in the 
Institute for colored youth at Philadelphia, Pa. And here 
for many years she has taught with eminent success, and 
exerted u pure and womanly influence upon all the students 
that have come into her classes. Without doubt she is the 
most thoroughly competent and successful of the colored 
women teachers of her time. 

Her example of race pride, industry, enthusiasm and 
nobility of character will remain the inheritance and inspira- 
tion of the pupils of the school she helped make the pride of 
the colored people of Pennsylvania, 


Says lihgwoofTs Journal: 

Mrs. Fannie Jackson Coppin has probably attained more 
fame as a teacher than any of the noble A fro- American 
women of the age. There are many whose work has 
been as noble in conscientious efforts as hers, but few and 
probably none have been as conspicuous as hers, nor as 
long. The opportunities that presented themselrcs to her in 
her early life were presented to but few Afro- American women 
forty years ago. That she gras|)ed them has been made evi- 
dent by her pre-eminent life of highest usefulness. If the 
capability of. Afro- American women to govern were questioned, 
her wonderful achievements as the principal of the Youtb^s 
Academy of Philadelphia would establish it beyond question. 
Mrs. Coppin's fame has been won by her success in a colored 
school. There are others, probably not so extensively known, 
but whose success as teachers in white schools has been quite 
as effective in establishing the ability of Afro-American 
women. Miss Richards, of Detroit, Mich.; Mrs. Rev. George 
Booth, ncc McGKn, formerly of New Haven, Ct.; Miss Sarah 
Mitchell and Miss Dever, of Cleveland. Ohio, have done effect* 
ual work in the establishment of our ability. 

Their accumulative work has given Afro-American women 
an enviable reputation with the educatora of the country. The 
primary work of these ladies was attended with the greatest 
difficulties. They met race prejudice, and successfully van- 
quished it, at least to so large a degree that in the cities in 
which they teach no Afro- American woman is denied a position 
as teacher on account of her race connection. 

The exquisite qualities of these five women have justly 
won them the affectionate regards of the race. 

Savs The Colored Afnerican : 

The Woman^s League. — Its Qcarterlt Meeting a Grand 
Success in Every Way. — An Ovation to JIrs. Fannie 
Jackson Coppuc by Her Many Admirers.— A Pen Picture. 

The quarterly meeting of the Ciolored Woman's League, 
held last Monday evening in the Fifteenth Street Presbyterian 


Churchy was largely attended by membops and friends of the 
organization, which promises to be a great power for good. 
After the transaction of business tlie 8i>eaker of the evening 
was introduced by the president, Mrs. John F. Cook, who 
reminded us that Mrs. Coppin is a TVashingtonian by birth, 
8poke in glowing terms of her worth and achievements, and 
recalled the fact that at Oberlin, where she graduated with 
high honors, she was a classmate of the present president of 
Wellesley College* 

Mrs. Coppin, whose integrity of heart, purity of life, vigor 
of faculties and extent of attainments are acknowledged by 
all, was warmly greeted by the audience, whom she promised 
to address in an informal manYier. 

Mrs. Coppin^s stature is commanding, her face strong, but 
kindly in expression, her manner pleasing but dignified. With- 
out manuscript the speaker proceeded to pay a beautiful 
tribute to the women of past generations whose many deeds 
of heroism, though not recorded, are nevertheless facts of 
unwritten history. By the thoughtlessness and unreasonable- 
ness of those who ignore the services of these women pioneers, 
many of whom worked early and late to buy the babes they 
bore in their arms, a great injustice has been done, for these 
noble souls fought their part of the battle successfully and 

The necessity of building up a strong character was earnestly 
and eloquently urged upon us. The invincible quality of char- 
acter, said the si>e;iker, is the prerequisite of a race striving to 
progress and prosper. Teachers play an important part in 
solving the problem. First-class pupils are possible only when 
we have first-class teachers, who are the great soul artists in 
the school-room, the makers of men and women. The gradu- 
ates of Howard University have done great service, and have 
been powers for good all over the country. The father of the 
Black Prince, wiien urged to send assistance to his son who 
was bard pressed in battle, refused to do so and insisted that 
he should win his spurs. Like the Black Prince we are sore- 
pressed in the battle of Ufe« but our Heavenly Father insists 



thai we win our own spurs. What we do for ourselves is chat 
which ennobles and enlarges. 

Ml^n have their part to perform, for they mu^t see to it 
that the fifteenth amendment has its face-value. The rig;ht 
of petition is a powerful weapon of defense. Lawlessness, 
insubordination and hatred are the bloody angle of our race 

According to Mrs. Coppin, the Colored Woman's League is 
not a sudden outcropping of a wild idea. Fifteen years ago 
she, herself, and others, were earnestly inquiring how oar 
battle should be fought, and were advocating organization. 
Mrs. Coppin then proceeded to a rhetorical annihilation of 
young writers who give gratuitous advice to their elders, 
making sweeping statements concerning what was not, bat 
should have been done in the past, and fancy they are origina* 
ting plans which are older than the youthful enthusiasts them- 

Many of our young women, tenderly reared and carefully 
educated, who go down South as teachei*s, succumb to the hard- 
ships and privations to which they are not accustomed. We 
cannot make martyrs of all the young women who may acquire 
an etlucation. Mrs. Coppin then related how a beautiful youug 
woman of her acquaintance taught in the South, where ber 
health was destroyed by the long walks she was obliged to 
take in all sorts of weather, and the bad fare to which she ^as 
not accustomed. At the expiration of two years she returned 
home and died. ** I once visited an organization of white 
women who were seated in a magnificent building of their own, 
when a petition to commute the sentence of a murderess was 
brought to them, and they were requested to sign it. They 
were terror-stricken that they should be asked to sign such a 
petition.'' *' But," said Mrs. Coppin, ** I thought of the beau- 
tiful young woman who was obliged to go South, because she 
could find no employment at home and I asked myself if these 
women were wholly guiltless of her murder. 1 then asked 
myself why we have not an organization of our own. A 
hundred men oan lift a tog together very eaaily, but when 


only a fevr take hold at a time very little is accoinplished. So 
no one of us can promise to find employment for our young 
vromen, but when we combine our forces it becomes an easv 

** First, a buildin;; must be secured, and it must be as large 
as ])ossibIe. Then classes must be formed in art, needle-work, 
book-keeping, dress-making, Latin, Gorman, French, millinery, 
cooking, in short instructions must be given in every trade 
and avocation in wliich women may engage/^ 

Mrs. Coppin laid great stress upon the necessity and 
importance of paying 8)>ecial attention to the household 
department. Our girls must bo taught how to cook on 
rational and scientific principles; they must be instructed in 
housekeeping, so that their houses may be economically 
managed and tastefully arranged. 

Cooking has been lifted far above the station it formerlv 
occupied and is now considered a dignified avocation. Learned 
professors are engaged to instruct cooking classes. They show 
the human stomach, explain its organization and lecture on 
chemistry and hygiene as it relates to food. Women must 
learn bow to cook to suit men, who are such artists in all that 
pertains to eating. Mrs. Coppin assured us that a good cook 
could eventually convert a democrat into a republican and 
an atheist into a Christian by tickling their palates with tooth* 
some dishes. 

Wo need statistics and statisticians, who shall record what 
we do. We need facts to answer arguments of those who 
underrate us. We possess much talent and genius of which 
wo arc not aware. A young woman who is a successful com- 
poser of music, but who is buried in obscurity, recently came 
to Mrs. Coppin's notice, and there are doubtless others equally 
talented of whom we have not beard. We must know what 
strength we possess. The proposal to uniform Roman slaves 
was once rejected because, said a philosopher, they would 
thus learn their numbers and know their strength. When 
people are conscious of possessing strength, they rapidly grow 
stronger. The Colored Woman's League .will thus supply a 


long-felt want in gathering and disseminating statistics. M 
Coppin reminded us that there had been many abortive 
attempts at organization which has ended in wind^declama.- 
tions and inflammatory speeches. 

After imploring women who have the leisure to devote 
themselves earnestly to the work in hand, and encouraging 
the League on what had already been accomplished, Mrs. 
Ooppin concluded her address. 


3fu«lolan, Talented Contralto Singer, 

^TT^JllS favored young lady was born in Indianai)oIis, Ind., in 


1S68. At quite an early age she manifested an unusual 
talent for music and most especially that instrument that so 
beautifully adorns the parlor and whose tones remove the 
greedy gloom from so many hospitable homes, viz. the piano- 

Iler parents, thoughtful of her future, very highly respected 
that wish upi)ermost in her heart and without Iiesitancy pro- 
cured both piano as well as teacher worthy of the name, and 
started her on toward the high mark she has reache<l. In 
ISSl Essie was placed under the instruction of that distin- 
guished teacher, Prof. Frank N. Scotland he, becoming so 
charmed by her matchless range of voice, advised her to sing 
contralto ; this she did for four years, convincing as well as 
establishing an enviable reputation as a c«')ntraUist. 

Later Mr. Scott organized a troupe of singcra, and ofTcrcd 
Miss Cooke the greatest inducements to travel, which she 
accepted, and soon the F. N. Scott iNmAxuN^s became 
quite famous. Weary of travel and the footlights, as well as 
tbe seas of faces, she retired from the stage until ISSS, when 
she joined Milton A. Boyer's Troupe, traveling all over the West. 
But 80 unprepared did she feel herself for life's duties, that she 
oould no longer restrain the principles within and her eagerness 


176 JfOTED XEOm W03fEA\ 

of adrancing to a Bnieh, tbat she agaia retired in ISOO and 
was placed under tlio tutelage of Prof. Gill, of Cliica<;o. 
Tbera sbe made lueb progress in niusio and song tlmt 
she elicited the greatest plaudits from botU press and 

On returning to Indinn- 
apolis tlio iiristocralio 
cliurclics of the white rcico 
olTorcd her S[)ccial induce- 
ments for her services as 
soloist in their ciioirs, but, 
[owing to the dismay engen- 
dered by feelings of hav- 
ing to decide whicti con- 
gregation fllio would Bcrvo, 
she did the next best thin^; 
and went ogain on the 
Ria;;o, singing with the 
Fisli Jubilees. 

At this writing JUiss 
Cooke is pursuing the 
higher rudiments of musio 
in Philadelphia, under the 
instruction of Prof. Goul- 
EMiK ruT co«»B. d(j2CP^ of Germany. 

Though young, with only a portion nf her latent genius at 
work portraying the sagacity and enulition of many twice her 
age, we shall watch ber career with much interest, fully believ- 
ing tbat when all the dormant energies of tliis heart, mind and 
soul are let in motion, great will the outcome be. 


MELLIE E. BROWN MITOnELL, of Dover, New Hamp- 
shire, who in a very few years bos, by the great beauty 
of ber voice, and tbe exbibitioo of many ooble qualities of 


heart and mind, won a name of which- she and all of her 
admiring friends may justly be proud. 

To Miss Caroline Brockett our subject is indebted the 
admonition which hasi i later years made her famous. Then 
at quite an early age the rhythm of nature, as much as the 
musiciil notes which ivached her ear, convinced her youthful 
mind of dearest loiu\ fondest but not impatient clesire to startle 
the music-loving world with a correctness of the human voice, 
and demonstrate that untmmmeled opportunities could for her, 
as for Patti, Parodi and Jennie Liml, make her at last appreci- 
ative and much admired, if not famous. 

She sailed out upon the broad billows of life with hoiste<l 
s;iilsand banners unfurled, having inscribed thereui)on Excelsior. 

Slie 8;iys : *^ My motto is * Excelsior.' I am resolved to give 
myself up wholly to the study of music, and endeavor, in spite 
of obstacles, to become an accomplisheil artist.'' It may be 
observed that none but tliose actuated by the most noble 
motives, and wlio give utterance to such inspiring wonis as 
these, do become *^accomplishe<l artisU." 

The following have reference to Miss Brown's appearance 
in Boston during the musical season 187^: 

Said The Boston Traveler^ April, IGth : 

Miss XcIIic £. Brown liiis for some moiitlis been tho leading soprano at 
Oraco Churcb, at IlavorhiU, Mass., vrliich pssltl m she has fiUed with eminent 
acceptance, and with marked exhibition of artistic powers/' 

At another time above named \M\\yQV said : 

Miss Drown possesses a rcry flue roicu of exceUeat culture, and gave with 
much taste sereral solos. Noticeably good was her rendering of Torrey's 
* *La Prima Vera." In ali hor selections she exhibited excellent style and 

The OlofpCi March 31st, said : . 

'hiina KoUie E. Brown showed a particularly well-modulated roice, 
trained study and appreciative method, which served her well in the pleasant 
rendering given by her to gracefully and unaffeetedly. 

The same paper, after alluding to her rendition of *' Del 
Oriel Regino," said : 

This lady is fortunate in her exceedingly sweet and well«traioed voice, 
which, in conjunction with her fine personal appearance and stage "^fp^n, 
rendered her reception unusually enthusiastic* 



Speaking of an cntortainmont given at Parker Memorial 
Hall| a musical writer said : 

Miss BrowD bat a charming Toiceand sings with intelligent expression 
and good taste. Two of her songs /* Beautiful Erin ** and *' Bonnie Dundee, " 
were rendered with great sweetness.*' 

Tlie Boston AilcertUety March 3181, said : 

She has an exceptionally pure Toice which has been caref ullj trained. 

The Tran«crtpt April 16th, said : 
A soprano of good voice and cultlTation. 

The Journal^ June 13, 1S7^, said: 

A. talcntetl Tocalist, with a weU-cuUirateii Toico of a remarkably fine 
quality. 8be pleased Tory greatly in sereral selections. 

Said The Poiff, Nov. 13tli : 

An artist of exceptional merit, possessing a roico of rare compass, 
flexibility and sweetness. In the solo, " Land of My Birth/' by Operti, she 
receiTcd enthusiastic applause. 

Mr. Trotter says: '* ^liss Brown has sung in quite a number of tho largo 
towns and cities of .Maisachusctts, in which State she is scarcely Tcss a favor- 
ite than in New Hampshire. She has appeared in company at concerts with 
some of the most eminent artists of tho country (such as, for instance, Prof. 
Bugene Thayer, J. F. Uudolphson, ilyron W. Whitney, Iklrs. Julia Houston 
West, Mrs. IL M. Smith, and others), and always with fine success. In her 
own city and State she enjo^'s a popularity uncqualod by any other canta- 
trioe» her beautiful roicc and many excellent traits of character winning 
her the warmest esteem of all. The people of Dorer are very proud of her, 
and greatly delighted that one of their number is received with such marks 
of enthusiastic faror in other States. Tho Dover people always readily 
lecall these triumphs, and proudly speak of her as ' our prima donna."* 


i^mf unit Pioneer Tcuchcr, 

ISS MAKY PROUT is celebi-ated as one of our earl; 
ji^ teachers in Baltimore. She was beloved for her 
piety and religious devotion. Bishop Paine says she was born 
in ISOOf and was still living in 18S2. She was a prominent 
member of Betheli and was considered one of its shining 

riiKia Tiituitrns axd activitiks. m 


JlflMluiKirK ChrMUin Murl^r. 
T^RS. REV. C. "W. MOSSELL takes a prominent 
_£Sj^\_ pltico in tlie history of our raco as a during 
iiiissioDiiry giaotoss. Sheisgono from lier labors to ren'urd. 
Her work still lives. Her monument lives in tbo licarla of all 
' Iliiytinns. Liko tlio great Rock of Agea, bor memory lowers 
in the mind of those to whom she carried the missionnrr light. 
Tiio brcj4(l which she cost 
upon those West India 
waters are being gatliered 
by the grand A. M. E. 
Churcli, after many days. 
IIci* eulogy ex|>rcsscd by 
Hon. J no. M. r^ingston, is 
so splendid in rhetoric, so 
touching with love and a 
sacrifice of life, that we can 
find no wonls fitting with 
which to npproaoh its sub- 
limity and tnUh. 

Slio laid her life 'ipon 
the missionary alUir that 
the truth might be known 
concerning Jesus. She 
licld a light to guido the 

wanderer, and left a foot- "i«- c w. ucmelu 

print as an emblem, announcing the birth of a Christian era 
' utmn the West India Isles. In her death our sainted brother 
lost a noble, true and sublime helpmate. Rev. 0. W. Mosscll, 
us others, mourns the death of a saint, for she was a Christian. 


JSininenl Tairhcr. 

T^ISnOP DANIEL A. PAYNE, in the footnotes of his 
Jl^ " Reootlections of Seventy Years," says : " Rev. C. B. 
Itay is the father of three daughters now living, of whom he 


has great reason to rejoice, because they have been well edu- 
cated in the homestead as well as in the^ublic schools of Now 

Their sound and wholesome education has been manifest 
to all acquainted with them, both in the school-room and in 
the social circle. All their lives, since the attainment of 
mature womanhood, have been S])ent in the traming of chil- 
dren — than which neither man nor woman can be more hon- 
orably employed. Miss Florence, second in age, has always 
distinguished herself by her studious habits, and made com- 
mendable progress in German literature. I c«in truly say it 
\ra8 a real and a soliil enjoyment to spend an evening in the 
hospitable and refined home of this sainted man. He has 
left behind him a sweet, noble-hearted widow, and three inter- 
esting daughters, whom we have reason to believe and to 
hope will honor his memory as they have adorned his life." 


Pioneer Tmchcr of Watthington, JD. C. 

^RS. ANNIE MARIA HALL ranks among the pio- 
neer teachers of the Negro nice. Having conducted 
successfully a school lirst started on Capitol Hill, she moved 
after ten years to a more commodious structure, and continued 
her labors until finally she moved to a house still standing on E. 
Street, North, between Eleventh and Twelfth, West, and there 
taught many years. Prof. G. Williams in his history says of 

•* She was a colored woman from Prince Georges' county, 
Maryland, and had a respectable education which she obtained 
at school with white children in Alexandria. Her husband 
died early, leaving her with children to support, and she 
betook herself to the work of a teacher, which she loved and 
in which for not less than twenty-five years she met with uni- 
form success. Her schools were all quite large, and the many 
who remember her as their teacher speak of her with ^ery 
great respect.'' 



Writer, MHnicUtn, 

T^RS, EARNESTINE C. NESBITT (/i<?<? Clark), daugh- 
^^l^L ^®** ^^ Prof. Peter 11. Olark, is a sweet and scient i fie 
singer, as well as a talented pianist and instructress. Mrs. Xes- 
bitt has the distinguishing honor of being eilitress of the Motiikbs 
CoRNKR in Ringwood's, Journal of Fashion, an illustrated magii- 
zine, really edited and published by the women of the Negro 
race; the most brilliant attempt and most successful literary 
journal of the present day displaying the genius of our 


Ph y^Ma n , 3/ii«lcln n. 

R. CONSUELLO CLARK is a sweet singer and 
pianist. Quite early in life she inculcated the ideas of 
SifHilta slfnilibus atrantur^ and nothing, not even the musical 
gift i>ossesscd by her which would have in many overthrown 
any apparently foreign desire to be anything else, yet man had 
not only set the example in the classics, ho had said, ^^Come, 
follow," and thus in the profosdions* as few have made their 
advent, Miss Clark, feeling that fruits ripened to an abundant 
harvest, but for her sex thoiH) wore no footprints of discovery, 
felt it her duty to explore those untrodden solitudfs and 
gather those rich fruits and bring them as votive offerings 
to the profession. She is a gifted scholar, a practical as well as 
theoretical physician, a close student and stands out in bold 
relief reflecting credit on the profession of medicine and show- 
ing the capacity of women to follow in the occult avenues of 
thought, science and tine arts wherein men lead. 


Queen of Madagastcar, 

^HE Queen of Madagascar, Ranavalona III^ who is a 

dignified, sensible woman, mounted the throne and was 

crowned in 1883, succeeding her aunt, Queen Ranavalona IL, 


being chosen by her predecessor to sacceed her, but was also 
formerly elected to the olUce. 

According to tho custom of the country, the queen on her 
Accesiioa married Sanuilalariron<J, the prime minister of the 


Icingdom, who bad also been the husband of the lost quean. 
The present queen has always been eager to forward tho 
development of the people. She has embraced Ohristianity for 
herself and made it the State religion. The Hovas are a good 


fighting race, and their experience in repelling the recent 
French invasion has developed them greatly in a military fvay. 

Their civilization, also, has been advanced in spite of the 
war, during the past few years under the wise administration 
of the present queen. The queen has a council of advisers, but 
the royal will is supreme in every case. 

The French minister, resident in Madagascar, has advised 
his government to confer the decoration of the Legion of Honor 
on the queen, reganling her friendship worthy of the gift. — 
The Biographical Jieview. 


First I'cachcr at Fortress Monroe^ AboUtionM, Christian Worker. 

F tiie many teachers employed to train the colored 
youths of the Southland, Mary S. Peako has merited 
the highest encomiums from the lii>s of an orator, the praise 
from the \icn. The immortal Mrs. nannaford says, in her 
Daughti'rs of America : 

The Amerlcin Tract Society has issued a Httlc volume aa a descrred 
tribute to one Christian womun— a free colored wooiau, whose father was a 
white man, ^lary 8. Pcake, who was the first teacher at Portress Monroe. 
After long years of silent and, as many felt, unrighteous ignoring of the 
question of slavery, the American Tract Society at last gave the medml of 
praise to Christian effort without regard to race or color. 


•Tiidf/c, Practices in the Suitranc Court of the District of Columbia — Oiftcd 
Scholar-^First Litdy Lttwyer of Washington, 

NDER the extensively treated subject, Women Lawyers, 
in Dauffhtcrs of America^ by Mrs. Phooba A. Ilanna* 
fordyis found this glowing tribute to our own Charlotte £. 

In the city of Washington, where a few years ago colored women wers 
bought aiHl sold under sanction of law» a woman of African descent has been 
admitted to practice at the bar of the Supreme Court of the District of 


ColumbU. Miss Charlotte E. Raj, who has the honor of being the firat ladj 
lAiryer in Washington, is a graduate of the Law College of Howard Univer- 
sity, and is said to be a dusky mulatto, possessing quite an intelligent eounte- 
She doubtless has also a fine mind and deserves success. 

Her special endowments make her one of the best lawyers 
on corporations in the country ; her eloquence is commendable 
for her sex in the court-room, and her legal advice is authori- 


JkhnlUlonisU Anti-SUivcry Aoitator, Writer, Lecturer and Race C7inmp(on. 

URING the close of the 18th century a Negro girl became 

as much by blood as by circumstances an adapted 
daughter of genius and fame, but it remained for the 19th cen- 
tury, with its civilizing influences, to apply the finishing touch 
to make her what indeed and in truth she was, a woman and 
very forcibly so a rare specimen of the female kind. Though 
black and disfigured by force of circumstances and surroundings, 
yet within a capacious breast beat a heart which had a place 
for every unfortunate being, a head which contained a brain 
full of thought and grand knowledge characteristic of the oddity 
of her name. 

Her life was all her name implies, and if nothing more could 
be said, her distinction is already gained, but does Sojourner 
Truth claim greatness? We think so, but for the thrilling 
appeals of this grand woman in many a public hall throughout 
the North and East we doubt not that a sad condition of affairs 
would to-day be the lot of every Southern Negro. Her work 
as an antblavery giantess commends itself, and fastens us in 
praise of her with bands of steel. 

On one occasion Hon. Frederick Douglass waxs making a 
public address to 5,000 people, in which be made some dis- 
paraging remarks concerning the Negro's condition in America, 
in this fashion : 

^ We are doomed to go down, doomed to extinction, etc. '' 
Sojonrner Truth, then a very old lady, hobbled up the aisle 


tow^ard the speaker, shouting: **Stop, Frederick; stop, Frederick, 
don't say that, does God tivQ t He is not dead, neither has 
He gone off on a journey.'' 


Mrs. Harriet H. Robinson, in her book entitled, *^The 
Woman Suffrage Movement," does not hesitate to give our sub- 
ject justice, for she says, In speaking of the Anti-slavery society 
which met in Worcester, Mass., Oct. 23 and 24, 1850: '* Rep- 
resenta,tive men and women were present from the different 
States, among whom were the following conspicuous speakers: 
Wendell Phillips, William Lloyd Garrison, CO. Burleigh, 
W. U. Channing, Stephen S. Foster, Abby Kelly Foster, 
Lucretia Mott, Sojourner Truth " and many others whose names 
are too numerous for mention in this brief sketch. 

Mr. Fairbanks, in his book entitled '* How the War was Pre- 
pared," says of Sojourner Truth : ** We were standing in the 
great East room, when she came walking in, and approaching 
the marshal said : '* I want to see President Lincoln." *^ Well, 
the President is busy, I think, and you can't see him now." 
** Yes, I must see him. If he knew I was here, he'd come 
down and see me." Finally the marshal went to the President's 
room with a statement of the case, when the President 
said : ^^ I guarantee she is Sojourner Truth. Bring her up here." 

And here she came, and we just approached near enough 
to catch the glimpses, and hear the words of greeting: ^^ So- 
jouner Truth, how glad I am io see yauj*^ The President bought 
her book; then handing him her photograph she said : **It's 
got a black face, but a white back, and Pd like one of yours 
with a green hack.^^ 

That was too good. The President laughed heartily; then 
putting his fingers into his vest pocket, and handing her a ten- 
dollar billy said : ^* There is my face with a green back." 

Note: For further information conoerning Sojourner 
Truth read in another place in this book Sojourner Truth, 
Amander Smith and Franpes E. W. Harper compared. 



A Rcturtxcil Libcrlan Minnionary, 

TS^RS. JENNIE E. SIIARPE, who has been in Western 
^^ tr\. Africa since 18S3 as a teacher sent out by the Boston 
lk>ar(l of Control of Liberia College, and is now in St. Louis, 
gives some interesting facts with regard to the civilization of 
African tribes. 

** There is no country in the world," said she, •* more misrep- 
resented than Western Africa. The situation there is thoroughly 
misunderstood. From the accounts in books one would be led 
to suppose that the natives were very ignorant and degraded. 
This is far from the fact. While the tribes are largely illiterate, 
they are usually bright and capable of a high degree of culti- 
vation. There is one tribe in the interior of which I wish 
particularly to siieak — the tribe of Mandingos, nearly all of 
whom, by the way, are Mohammedans. They are very skillful 
in the working of brass, gold and iron. Three young girls of 
this tribe were sent to me to attend mv school in Liberia. Thcv 
came in their savage state, clothed onl^^ in a string of beads, 
but had the culture and acuteness of children of good families 
in this country. By this I mean that they were disi)osed to 
gentleness and reiinement and were capable of learning ra|)idly. 
The Veys are another tribe of considerable culture. They have 
a written monos3*lIabic language, the only written language of 
Interior Africa. 

**It is just here the missionary societies make a mistake. 
They think that all Africans are ignoramuses, and that therefore 
ignoramuses are good enough to send to teach them ; while the 
fact is the natives are astute and it requires a good deal of tact 
to reach them. The missionary societies have so far done 
comparatively little gooil. Their emissiiries seem to go at their 
work in a half-hearted sort of way and present the most unlovely 
side of the cause to which they expect to make converts. 

*' But there is an important field to work and I think it must 
be reached through Liberia. Liberia has already done more 
than aU the foreign missionaries together to civilize the tribes 


of Interior and We3tern Africa^ and if good scliools were 
established and good teachers trained in the African Hepublic, 
there is no limit to the possibilities in the direction of civilization. 
I think that Africa must be civilized through the descendants of 
Africa. Let the best educated of the race in this country there 
seek a field for their labors. The resources of the African 
republic are vast and awaiting development. Schools, 
chui*ches and colleges are awaiting founding and support. 
The work is a grand one. I believe that Xiiberia can bo made 
a beacon light to illuminate Africa. 

** To be sure, those who emigrate from hero to Liberia must 
be pi*oparod to endure hardship, as the first settlers did here, 
but there are no obstacles which cannot easily be surmounted. 
Tliey must not take woi*ds of disgusted, hizy colonists, nor yet 
squeamish missionaries, but go with a purpose and judge for 
themselves. I have no patience with those who fight over the 
race problem liere. Let the descendants of Africa raise them- 
selves by culture and they cannot fail to command respect. 
There is a field for their best energies in Liberia.*^ 

Mrs. Shar|>e is in the country to recu^ierate lost health and 
ivi tends returning to her labors among her race in Liberia in 
about six months. In the meantime she will enlighten Ameri- 
cans on the condition of the civilization problem there, and try 
to arouse a sentiment in favor of her views. 


pT would in our judgment, should we attempt to s;iy over 
C^ every good thing that has been said of Miss Wells, indeed 
lill a volume, consisting of the grand and noble experiences as 
well as tlio hardships through which she has passcil in the 
South. Since *' there is a tide in the affairs of men which, taken 
at the flood, leads on to fortune." Miss Wells' position and 
responsibility actuated and prompted by the highest motives to 
be a benefactress to her race, were very similar to that of Fred- 
erick Douglass, when it is taken into consideration that distino- 


m aiul fume are tbe rcBuU of the cfforis put forth, and tbo 
uiiier iQwbicb she braved the tide. Her forcible pen, her 
Dstic oddness, bai-e disarmed the disputing Soutli as to 
jineo'i ability and set up a Bi£n-]>ost jwrtraying their iwwer 
ith the pen, wbere tbo tombstone* of doubt bad so long re- 
UDed. A symbol of Negro genius becomes the proud boast 
Southern contemporaries. 

She nas bom in Holly Springs, Mississippi, wbere was 
_ offered her the best educa- 

tional advantages. At quite 
an early age the dreams and 
ospiralioiisof heryoutbwere 
placed at a disitd vantage, 
owing to tiio early death of 
her parents and the assump- 
tion of uncxjKctcd responsi- 
bilities — that of not only 
caring for number one, but 
for hor fivo brothers and 
sisters. To say that sho dis- 
charged her new duties as 
two-fold-guard iun, as not 
only sister but parent, was 
quite enough to inspire her 
young life, as indeetl for 
this alone she is a heroine, 
but what a world of good- 
' ness the harmony of that 

HIU IDA U. WKLU. , , , .i, . ... 

useful ami sacnricing life 
ortells. "We believe that Miss Wctls possesses the greatest 
ore for woman in bor realm, and chooses her profession 
or no other reason than helping to improro our status in 
oamalism. Felicia Hemans to her is the portrayal of male 
nockcry, the Amazons aro pictures of horror. She is teaching 
he nation that tubbme lesson of modetty unchanged even at 
J)e severest tesL 
For several years she was editress of the Memphis J^tm 


Speech^ a paper which for news nnil circulation was the pride 
of the cultured Ne^^roes of Tennessee. 

Many Negro newspapers have been honored by her and 
more liberally patronized consequent of her ready articles 
touching the many phases of Negro progress. Among them 
the New York Aye, the Indianapolis Worlds Oate City PresSy 
the Detroit Plaindealer^ Little Rock Sun^ the A. M. £. Church 
lieviewy the Memphis Watchman^ have all spoken editorially 
touching her ability. Our subject possesses that, dignrfied 
pluck, which Webster fails to define, and being protected by 
the respect which man endeavors to possess for woman she 
has been able to touch as well as treat at length articles upon 
which our man editors have shown the greatest reluctance. In 
this respect Miss Wells left locality out of the question, and 
wrote what was wanting, naming persons, places, things. 

Uaving by her tireless efforts for the good of the Negro 
race been *Mead on to fortune '' after braving the tide (not of 
adversity) for so many well-s|>ent years in Memphis where she 
was a noted teacher, she contrived to do what she knew would 
be perilous. Looking danger full in the face she wrote a series 
of articles which for forco arc seldom equaled upon the out- 
rages perpetrated upon the Negro, read the proof und started 
for New York City, her then future home. These treats to 
loyal lovers of liberty came out and started a wave of 
indignation, and for the wrongs done the Negro the gap 
which of late had become narrowed by Southern cupidity 
and deceit grew spontaneously into a broad abyss, and so 
terrible was the spark set to inflame and engender activity on 
the part of the Negro that the State of Tennessee suffered 
severely from the shock. 

Previous to going to New York she in person visited Okla- 
homa, as she had so long read of it as a haven of rest free 
from depredations upon the Negro, and after si>ending a few 
days there learning all that she could of the Territory she 
painted the dwarf State in its proper colorings. Thousands 
of persons who had resolved upon what they should do, the 
following year, at once relaxed the feelings of departure, and 


Asoned OS Hamlet, '^ Better to bear the ills we have than fly 
» those we know not of.'* Later, as we have already stated, 
cring to outra^^es and depredations Miss Wells *^took up arms 
iginst a seat of trouble," that by opposing might endthem. 

She is now a dtot/onne of New York by adoption. As 
^rmerly with her Southern friends she remains to-<Iay, only a 
afficicnt distance which, being the metropolis city and State, 
mds enchantment around the world. Her readers remain the 
ime, only the magnetic force of her pen enjoys a broader 
K>i)e. Before her audience was a multitude. Now it is the 
ation. Ten thousand minds flv out to her in their adoration and 
raise. Ten thousand hearts throb with exaltation in witness- 
ag her triumphs. The New York Age is ix>ssibly made better by 
eason of Miss Wells* association on the staff, for those who 
now Mr. Fortune credit him with being one of our greatest 
Ben, and great men adopt only such means as will improve 
nd make sure their success. 

Miss Ida B. Wells continues as heretofore to dignify her* 
elf, her calling and prove the wonderful depth of her powers 
i conception of right. She concedes to the fact that a certain 
lass of American citizens are Negroes, but because of that 
l&ct it does not necessitate that such a class should be made a 
^side show" at the World's Fair. Her paper before the 
iterati of Boston was forcible, logical and full of meaning ; 
pet calm as a summer's stream, and wonderfully sublime. She 
lemoDstrated the fact that it is adverse to the thought and 
leeling of the Negroes of the South to bo set apart on the 
occasion of the World's Fair, and womanly denied the attach* 
fient of her name to the World's Columbian Jubilee Day Cir* 
^lar. The Negro of tiie South, as well as the Negro of the 
Korth, has in her a champion for their cause. 

This world indeed would be very queer if all could judge 
ilike. Some capable writers differ in opinions, just as men differ 
in politics. The Freeman mildly expresses it when it says that 
the editorial below is *4Iow some women reason:" 

Miss Willetta Johnson, of Boston, secretary of the ^* Colored 
Jubilee Day " committee, is ** all put out " at Miss Ida B. Wells, 


bccaiiso she had head enough not to indorse the ** Jubilee 
Day/' and without writing her down a "horrid old thing!" 
for the simple reason that Miss Wells is young and comely she 
says sevcral.little spiteful things, which reminds us, laughingly, 
how some women i*eason. Addressing our good brother of 
the Boston Courant^ she drops such )>earls as these, referring 
directly to Miss Wells. 

I dcsico to express my surprise that one of our own people should ooi 
appreciate the great benefit to the colored race if the World'-a Fair maoajro- 
ment will but accord them the honor of a day's recognition. 

• **•••••• 

In a dignlQcd and comprchenslTc way seek to mark an epoch in the hia- 
ioiy of the colored race that shall 'go down with the other great and worthy 
results of the Fair 

Why Miss VVolis in particular should attack this committee, which la 
Just as legally constituted as any committee, and .the people of Massachusetts 
who have rallied round and supported her in her hour of sorrow and need U 
strange to say the least. 

The first two ** pearls " may speak for themselves, and of 
the last we have no apprehension that Miss Wells took 
umbrage at the inoffensive^* committee" or cared a straw 
whether it was legally constituted or not, but at the foolish 
block-headed thing it seemed anxious to persuade the. nice to 
do. But the most womanly retort of the whole pronuncia- 
mento, and quite inexcusable, if not coarse, is the reference to 
what ** Massachusetts '' had done for Miss Wells ''in her hour 
of sorrow and need." Wo don*t suppose that this gooii lady 
speaks for the colored people of Massachusetts^ when she thus 
holds forth, but if she does so much the worse for Massa- 
duusotts. Only very womanly women, and "queer" men 
reason like that Because Massachusetts, in a burst of race 
fealty and enthusiasm, chose to honor herself by honoring 
this plucky little race lady from the South, wMiat then did it 
follow, that in the act of becoming the guest of the " Old Bay 
State," and its soulful hospitality, she gave up her right to 
opinion on matters affecting her people}-— 77U^ Freetiutf^ 

ft NOTKD IfEOnO WOMh^y. 


EDITOR Freemak : 

Accept my ci>ognitu1atioD»OD the editorial in current Fireeman a|]^alD8t tho 
LInv American Jubilee Daj at the World's Fair. It is in the nature of things 
bai we cannot always agree on matters affecting race interest, but this is 
06(11 which every self-respecting person, it seems to me. can agree. I am 
aorechan gratified to find tho Freeman in line. The Afro- American press is 
k gradually growing power and rightly ufcd it will at last win tho race's 
ictory. Respectfully, Ida B. Wklls. 

New York, Feb. 15. 

Among those who are doing lasting and beneficial work for 
;he race, the name of Miss Ida B. Wells is entitled to high con- 
ideration. Born to the end of the liigh calling to elevate and 
lefend her race from internal and outside adversaries, her life 
las been markeil by a steadiness of aim and consistency of 
mdearors which seldom fail to attract the attention of pos- 
lerity, to say tlie least. Whether in the schoolrootn, behind 
lier pen or befoi*e the public, her blows have been as nails 
Iriren in sure places. For years the press and teacher^s desk 
lave been her native field, until routed by tho enemy, >vho 
little thought that though successful in driving this heroine 
from her sectional stronghohLs they were conducting her foot- 
steps to higher vantage jrrounds. — T/tc Christian Uecovdcr. 

The action of the ^lemphis (Tenn.) Commercial^ in using 
errosslr insulting language toward the brilliant and self-sacri- 
Scing Miss Ida B. Wells, is indeed reprehensive and deserving 
>f the severest censure. 

The article does more to show up the coai*senes8 and vuU 
prity in the editor that it does in reality injure Miss Wells. 
Ko p;entleman would be guilty of such language, and it is to be 
regretted that a newspaper of the standing of the Commercial 
ihould be disgraced by such a person as the one who occupies 
the editorial chair. Southern spite and hatred are exercised 
open the innocent and the defenseless. 

Miss Wells need feel in no wise embarrasse<l or cast down. 
That God who has shielded and protected her thus far will 
itand by her to the end. 


In the meantime our people owe it to themselves to aid this 
young lady by doin^ all in their power to strengthen her 
in her mission, that the Amerioan {leople may be aroused to the 
enormity of lynch^aw and its kindred ends. — liichmond 

Miss Ida B. Wells has been invited by the Moral Educa* 
tional Association to read a pai^er before the Ladies* Physio* 
logical Institute, at Boston, Mass,, Jan. 26, 1803. 

From an editorial from, the pen of Dr. II. T. Johnson con- 
cerning the Philadelphia Conference, we clip the following 
tribute to Miss Ida B. \YeIls : 

Among tbo most promiiicot visitors to the CoDfcrence were Bishops B. F. 
Lcc, Turner, Qrant and Ward; General Officers Embry, Coppin, Green, 
Armstrong, Jolinson, (editor) ; Drs. 8caton, Sampson, Morgao, Uannab, and 
Editor Ida B. Wells. But few made spcecbes. Those worthy of note were 
Bishop Lee. who said some wise witty things; Bishop Grant, who liftetl the 
confcrcnou out of its boots, to spoak elegantly; Bishop Turner, who wiis 
himself, and at his best; Dr. Emory, embrionically dull and dndl. buttvho 
woke things upas he warmed in process; Dr. Green, the leonine disputant and 
tripoil spokesman of the Souihtrn Recorder, Dr. Coppin made some happy 
hits on the raco question, the climax of which #as capped by the dauntless 
but exiled **Iola,'* whose unique and inimitable speech won the conference, 
and so cxcitetl sympathy in her behalf that It were well for her Memphlan 
adversaries that they were in their . distant safety in the lower regions of the 
Mis8ib^ippl Valley. 

While our book is in the press, Miss Wells sojourns among 
the good and patriotic people of Scotland. At the solicitation 
of friends to outraged humanity, she has crossed the Atlantic 
to atfiliate with them, to confer as to the best plans to be laid, 
to reach some conclusion in the attempt of setting forth a 
remedy for the evils practiced by one class, and adopt methoils 
to lift our people out of many of the shameful conditions con* 
sequent of two hundt*ed and fifty years of sei*fdom. Tiie 
Constitution provides certain amendments, fostereil by the 
chivalry of the republican party, but the rights that these 
amendments set forth have not been protected nor subserved 
for the frood of those of our race who live in the South. We 
truly hope that the desired end and aims of this conference 
may be duly met It will be the noble response to a people 


yet grateful, whose hearts and minds are ever prayerful for 
deliverance, and an epsigu forever reminding all future gener- 
ations that there still lives a just God, a generous people, who 
will lift up an appealing and grateful race. God is guiding 
Miss W^ells. 


TJ^ISS SARAII FORTEX, another one of our brainy 
^^X^^ women, is deserving especial mention here, from 
the fact that her conspicuous eiTorts to reform the depraved 
sentiment of the countrv concerning the human tie was not in 
vain. She addressetl the following lines to the White Anti* 
slavery Women's Convention, soliciting their co-operation : 

Wc arc thy sisters, Qoti has truly said, 

That of one blood all nations Ho has made. 

O Christian woman! in a Christian land. 

Canst thou. unbluMiin^, read thb great command; 

Suffer tho wrongs which wring our inmost heart 

To draw one throb of pity on thy part; 

Our skins may differ, but from theo wc claim 

A sister's privilege and a sister's name. 

After this, the whites and tho free Negroes met in the same 
conventions, and mutually exchanged their opinions, and 
together ever afterwanl dealt their terrific blows at the foun- 
dation of Americans disgt*ace,and,as we all gladly realize, drove 
the dreaded monster from this virgin land. 


Agitator and Author, 

RS. NATHANIEL SPRAGUE, daughter of Hon. 
Frederick Douglass, who resides in Washington, 
C.,^s one who has done very much to ameliorate the 
Negroes condition in this country, a woman of purpose, an 
exponent for the equal rights, a restless agitator for the cause 
of humanity. 


Mi's. Spraguo is at present engaged in writing a book set- 
ting forth tlio deeds of the Negro women of the present 
century. She is an able writer, and the world may expect 
from her caustic pen a priceless addition to Negro literature. 


Ipv^NOWN extensively, and es]>eeially for literary and 
XjS^ journalistic fame, as Grace Ermine, was born in Bowl- 
ing Green, Kentucky, in those dark days when the gloom of 
terror pervaded our virgin country, and laid desolate and bare 
the hopeful hearts of a much depraved people. Her eilucation 
has fitted her especially for the art of teaching* but indeed, 
aside from the genius so necess;iry for school work which she 
])osscsscs to no moderate degree, she has taken quite a step 
since ISSG, when first she made her initiatory bow to the read- 
ing world, to the front ranks of journalism. 

She is bordering on sublimity as a Christian, and is devoted 
to Christian charity and temperance. Any one that is fortu- 
nate enough to see the inner life of Miss Cook at once becomes 
"a loyal lover** with humanity. . 

Of her writings to the Negro press, many and varied have 
been her articles, shedding therefrom a gleam of light where- 
over found. Biogmphers delight to honor, as well indeed they 
might, some of her sayings ; and feel elated when once inspired 
by her elegance and ease, her sparkling thoughts, her erudi- 
tion. Whatever post she has been called to fill in her eventful 
life, the position has fully participated in the honor with her; 
for with her, as with Josephine, a Napoleon could not fail. Mar- 
velous indeed is it when we take into consideration the fact that 
such women are indeed living realities, after only a few years 
isolation from slavery and only a few years of freedom to will 
and to act, now to think. But, as we believe in a God, we are 
mindful of the prayers commingled with tears, which then 
was the only comfort to the mothers and fathers of the now 
men and women, and wo doubt not to-day the sorrows of 
thraldom will bo fully compensated, for, when we hear such 


»apcrs before conventions, read such ai*ticles as Miss Cook 
contributes to the press, our confidence in Jeiiovab reaches its 
loman limit. , 

These papers have had a wide sweep. In August, 1SS7, 
llobile citizens turned out on the occasion of the National 
Baptist Convention to hear this able scholar and writer upon 
;he theme of " Woman^s Work in the Denomination." 

At other times and on similar occasions she has discussed 
mbjects and read {mpers with the grace characterizing her 
talent and power : 

"Female eilucation," " Is juvenile literature demanded on 
the part of colored children?'' ** Woman a potent factor in 
public reform." 

Among the articles she has written for the press, none 
leem to have won for her more hearts and minds than *' Noth* 
ing but Leaves." 

Indeed her life would comprise a history, if on journalism 
alone the historian might dwell. For the Ainerican Ba2)t(st 
and the South Carolina Tribune have for years been the battle- 
ground upon which she has crossed swords with our man 
editors, in fact she may be styled the equal of many of our 
boasted editors. 

As an educator she seems to have ado|)ted her own ideas, 
instructing with the pen those who unfortunately do not 
come under her direct tutelage. This mode of life lifts one up 
gradually into the channel of reflecting the goodness of 
others, to the extent that they become so charged with the 
absorbed reflection that the rays of light shines out impar* 
tially to all. A journal styleil Our Women and Children^ 
published in Louisville, has participated largely in her writ- 
ings, and what the future holds in store for this talented unit 
of Woman Fame dejKjnds largely upon her own progressive 
efforts in the behalf of her race. To become great depends 
upon the ease of losing sight of self to accomplish good for 

ruant trivupus and actiyitiss, 

WHATEVER is bigli and onnobling in Iminan bcin^fs 
largely de|>cnds upon their oiiportunities in early 
lifo, transDtittcd through years of restless anxiety to become 
what was most forcibly reflected upon their young minds. . 
Soiuo {>cople aro born great, some bocoino great through 
years of active but patient toil, others have it thrust upon them. 

From early life, dealing 
with resi>onsibiliticB, the 
spirit of usefulness seized 
n|)on Mrs. Coleman, and 
guided by thounslmdowcil 
Christian lives of herj>ai* 
ents, who died while she 
was quite young,eTer kept 
the precepts uppermost in 
her mind which were to 
characterize her daily life. 
Di*eg(len, Ontario, is the 
city of her birth.and being 
early associated with the 
intelligence of the place, 
she as others felt the spirit 
on her to go through col- 

I 01 1. I IT I.Urill£TIA MCVrUAN COLlUtAH. 

l<'ge. She attended Law- 
rence University, finishing the scientillo course. Ilcr ex- 
|ierience as a teacher is theresilizationof someof her youthful 
hopes. Ilcr exjierieQce as clerk adds to her grace and dignity, 
and most especially hor relation as secretary and accountant 
for the financial department of tlio A. AI. E. church, where she 
allowed the pureness and beauty of an inner life, blessing and 
brightening the onco unhallowed girls of Xashvillo. 

During her connection with the linanciat de|)artmeDt of 
the A. M. E. church, Mrs. Ooleman contributed spicy philo- 
sophical literature to many Negro journals of the country, 

98 yoTED ysono womex, 

Jwars portraying the usual fascination for saying tilings ia 
ler ovrn wav. 

She bas written many valuable poetic lines. Indeeil the 
uUIime is the counterpart of her adorable easy life. Many 
ndeeil are the comments from the press and its editors. Her 
loetio effusions reach such a depth of thought and meaning 
rhich at once establishes her claim to the title which critics 
lave been liberal in bestowing. 



M5S LILLIAN A. LEWIS ranks among the literary 
leaders of Boston. Those who iuive read her arti- 
cles ia the Boston AdviKak have long ago attributed to her the 
;itlo she so justly claims {Bi:rt hlcw). The above named 
|)apcr reflects very great creilit on Xegro journalism, and much 
»f its power and potency is duo to the unceasing efforts and 
Brell applied tone she has given it. Iler association with the 
foremost men and women of the race has, coupled with her 
indomitable will, brought her in touch with the reading world. 
Her articles, teeming with brightness, characterizing the 
productions of tlio grand and great thinkers, have caused 
thousands to misjudge her race, identity and age. Her pen, 
u the sword, is ever drawn in defense of her race, and those 
who have had the 'honor of crossing weapons with her gener* 
allv retire from the combat feeling that thev have been vi;;:or. 
oosl}* fought. A journalistic career, though brief, is full of 
honor and deserved merit. What awaits her in the future 
none can say. The historian records the past and present ; a 
speculation is therefore beyond the limit of our imagination; 
but if Miss Lewis continues in the path she has learned to 
tread so well, grand indeed must be the landscape from the 
iofty summit of her goal. 

Among the host of women writers of the Negro race we 
coaUl not conscientiously conclude this chapter without men* 
tioaiDg Miss Georgia Mabel De Baptiste, who inherits her 


journoliBtic tosto, nn<l wbo, liko tlio vrortliy oqvs mcntiotictl, is 
tlcstineU to shine oa a fuU-gron-n meteor upon our cultureil 
rcaliiii Miss Kntic D. Clia[>nian, Miss Alice E. McEirca, Miss 
Lucy Wilmot Smith, Miss lone R Wood, Miss Lavinia I). 
SncctI, Miss Mury E. Brittun, Miss MetA E. Pcllinm, Mrs. A. 
E. Johnson, Mrs. M. E. lAm- 
bcrt, Mrs. Fnink Griinko, Mids 
Atlina Wliitc, iMrs. Siisio I. 
Sliortcr, Mrs. B. F. Leo are nil 
tlcscrring joitrn.ili8tio Ii;;l)t3, 
bri};htonin;; tlicirscvcntl homes 
Willi that bccoiiiing intcUcctu- 
ality, proriiig tlie fathomless 
cai^icity tlint startles the rcail- 
ing worlil which woman jms- 
sosses to a rcmarkulilo ilugrcc. 
It is no wonder tliat n race 
progi'ciiscs in spite of its obsta- 
cles wticn it is remembered that 
such women bedeck tlio bright 
escutcheon of our editorial 
prow. The efforts of these 
l)roHght to bear for the fur- 
theranco of the Negro cause 

in a VC17 few ya.™ of nclivily "'" ■■"•"■" '*"•• 

has told wonderfully for tlio groat accomplishments within tlie * 
possibility of the Negro mco. Encli ns well as all seems forced 
upon the arena, there to piny well her jiart, not honor«cckiiig, 
but inspired by the mandates of Dutt. 


CiinmUir and Writer. 
Augustus A. and Maria V. Turpin was born July 31, 
1S61. A daughter whose marriage name is Mrs. Joseph- 
ine Tuqtin Washington, vho was destined to shine even in the 
great State of ber birth. The Bute of YiT;ginia has long been 


io land of the froo and the homo of the brave, and where 
hicational facilities were fostered, and especially by the eru* 
kion of the Jf egro race. 

Goochland county was honorcil by her nativity and made 
rominent by her praise. Soon after moving to Kiciunond she 
iatriculateil to the Bichmond Institute, having already passed 
trough the all important high school. Having a stren<;thened 
elief in her power to master the classics, not satisfied with 
diploma from the limitetl course taken in the Kiciunond 

Institute, she matriculated at 
Howard Univcr&itv, finishing 
the college course in 1SS6, 

The tendency women have 
at the present day is to show 
the men of the race that it 
neither necessitates a broken- 
down, worn-out boily, nor a 
fond and fictitious supply of 
ajo to pose as a sample of 
learning. Our women gener- 
ally pass through the college 
curriculum in the same len^rth 
of time as their male class* 
mates, and we have verv few 
instances to demonstrate that 
woman presumes too much in 
er attempts to master the sciences. Mrs. Dr. Washington has 
ot only been honored by a position in Howard University ; 
toward University has been honored by her, not only as a 
racher, but as a pupil, for even as the latter her association 
nd demeanor serveil as a blessing to all -who were fortunate 
be her friend in the institution. 

As a teacher she has so favorably arrayed herself for the 
fork, and so ably availed herself with what is expected of a 
eacher, that her usefulness has a wide range, and her services 
ttve for a goodly number of years been sought by the presi- 
lents of our Southern colleges* Uer efforts to advance Selma 



University are rccognizoil, and the good she aecomplished 
while connected therewith is being felt. 

She i)ossesses a special penchant for writings as indeed her 
literary career, both as a scholar and newspaper correspondonty 
has demonstrated to the world the power of thought when 
produced fix>ni the pen of such a talente<l woman. Many, and 
indeed varied, are the periodicals she has promoted by her 
lofty thought and able articles. Newspapers that have the 
support of the best writers are the ones most eagerly sought, 
and most readily patronized, hence the magnetic force of her 
pen found a host of avenues (newspaper columns) open wherein 
the mce agitations and momentous questions were duly met by 
the readiness of her genius. Her will has been to answer back 
whenever the lover of Southern pride attacked the unfortunate 
race with which she claims identity — thus when Annie Porter, 
w^ith concentrated infamy, threw down the sacred altars of 
Negro greatness, and playeil her hostile hand of treachery, in 
Miss Turpin (which then was her name) she more than met 
her match. The calumny occurrcil in the Imlqycndent — tho 
dignified reproof of 3i[iss Turpin in the New York Freeman. 
All of the prominent Negro newspa))ei*s have stood by her in 
her bold assertions, and applauded her achievements, have 
shared her joys and are made happy by her accomplishments. 

She is the author of many high and ennobling subjects 
Trhich have engaged the attention of the many eager and anx- 
ious searchers after truth, but our space dictates brevity. Dr. 
8. II. IL Washington^ of Birmingham, Ala., took MissTurpin*s 
hand in marriage, thereby stamping the seal of success for all 
his future life. 

The woman, great as she is, her intellect is greater. God 
is demonstrating through such women as Mrs. Dr. Washington 
some aseful lessons, is writing upon the wall of Time that 
which requires no interpretation, words which stand out as in 
blocks of fire« famous for simplicity, and ail who see may 





ISS LUCr WILMOT SMITH is a native of Lexington, 
Ky., and from Prof. I. Garland Penn's sketcli wo 
»Lru some facts (which time and space are not to be considered), 
s to ber worthiness among the leading Negro women of 
Lmerica. She was bom Nov. 16, ISCl. Iler mother, Mrs. 
Iar£^ret iSmilh, the very embodiment of ambition, exerted 
icrsclf arduously and unselfishly to place every advantage for 
dncation in her way, she being her sole support. 

We learr that she began 
teaching in 1S77, serving under 
the Lexington, Ky., school 
board, and in 16S7 graduated 
from the normal department 
of the State Univei*sitv. She 
was for a long time private 
secretary to Dr. William J. 
Simmons, by whose aid she was 
introduced to the world of 
thinkers and writers in news- 
paper life. 

In every department of life 
she has officiated; whether 
as scholar, teacher, society 
worker, she has proven be- 
yond the shadow of a doubt the 
competency of the female to 
bo trusted with responsibilities. 
She is now a member of the State University faculty. 
She is a new8pa])er contemporary and has shown her pecu- 
liar fitness for her art in the demonstration of controlling 
special columns in Our Women and Children^ one of the 
best magazines published by the Negro race. She has served 
on the staff of the Bajytht Journal \\xk fact her newspaper 
career since 1S84, though short, has been one full of rare exper- 
iences, and eliciting praise from the pens of the best writers of 





tbo country. Mrs. N. F. Mossoli says : ^ Miss Smith writes 
compactly, is acute, clean and crisp in lier acquirements and has 
good descriptive powers.'^ *' Her styl^ is transparent, lucid, and 
in many respects few of her race can surpass her." 

Her success proves the sco))e of her versatility and talent. 


Editor of MuMicttl jVc«jtcn{;cr, MubIoU Writer, Talented VttcalUt. 

'JTp^UE subject of this brief sketch first saw the light of day 
yjj in Washington City, District of Columbia. Her 
parents for uprightness and honesty have no peers in the 
race, Henry H. and Margaret A. Tilghnmn have always 
been the centre around which reveled the good and gay citi- 
zens of the national capital. In 1S71 she finished the normal 
department at Howanl University and thereafter taught 
fourteen years in the public schools of her native city. Her 
knowledge of instruction at once asserted itself, and made for 
her the reputation she justly won and merits. 

Her musical as well as vocal talent has at all times won 
for her the greatest pmise both from public and press. 

She sang through New York State, at all times meeting 
the public expectations, delighting and captivating all who 
heard her with her melod}' in fact in 18S1, the New York 
press styled her " The Queen of Song.*' In this same year 
she filled an engagement as leader of the Saengerfest, at Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, and two years later she was advised to travel, 
acting as the leading sopmnist in the Washington Harmonic 
Musical Concert Troui>e. 

Her musical qualifications make her a marvel. Being a 
graduate from the renowned Boston Conservatory of Music, 
makes her less the foe and more the friend of critics, as for 
them their work becomes an easy as well as a pleasing task. 
She is a race lover and is restless in new adventures for the 
development of her people. 

Her Queen Esther Cantata, a musical concert played under 
her management, is regarded by all by far the greatest musi- 


al effort ever carried to perfection in Montgomery, Alabama. 
9er instructions to the many young ladies of the race guaran- 
ces to us the realization of many accomplished pianists and 
lingers in the South. 

At Montgomery she published the Mmkal Alesscugcr, On 
tearing the above named city by reason of her ability she was 
nvitoil and accepte«I the duties of the musical department of 
Howe Institute, New Iberia, Louisiana. After one year of 
liard work she resigned her position and took up residence in 
Washington City, her home, where she, through God, is work- 
ing in the field of music, teaching and editing the Musical 


Local and Corrf«i)o»iJoit EfVUor of Tlic Freeman, 

Tv ILLI AN PARKER THOMAS, correspondent editor of 
I Vc > the Freeman^ is a striking illustration of the triumph 
of |>erseverance over obstacles incidental to the experience of 
all who, unaided and alone, have hewn for themselves a place 
on lifers rocky and untoward highway. Associated with her 
earliest remembnince has been an inspiration, now* inviting, 
anon abating, to some time write her name among tlie galaxy 
of those whose sublime mission it had been to preserve for the 
etlification and pleasure of coming generations the elevated and 
instructive in literature and thought. As if to test the valiility 
and strength of this dominant aspiration, her lot was cast in a 
portion of the then new Northwest, where the chimes resonant 
from the halls of culture and art vied with the weird haloo of 
the untutored aboriginee. The members of her own race 
being few, the impetus afforded by association for rivalry 
played no part in developing her precocious talent. As best 
she knew and could, she builded. She *^ shunned delights, and 
lived laborious days " of application and study. The schools 
of Wisconsin, excellent and notably celebrated, offered superior 
facilities for her eager and inquiring mind. The School Lyceum 
bad in her one of its most ardent devotees, as did the higher 
branches of the curriculum of the schools. Her bow to the 

Tusrn TRiVMPna and Acrivinics. sos 

public 08 a writer hef^n with a strong, logical protest against 
tho action of the United States Supremo Court, declaring tho 
Civil Rights bill unconstitutional. Hor protest apiwarcd in 
the loading dailies of tho Stato, and was tho recipient of wide- 
spread and favorable cominont. The succession of events, 
sinco that time, touching the interest o( her race have beea 


fhe animus to many and varied dissertations on this important 
theme. Coming to Indianapolis in 1885, she soon attracted tho 
attention of the literatiof thelloosiercapital, and wasaccorded 
that honest recognition due her sterling intellectual gifts and 
tastes. Her fame as a chaste and polished reader is far from 
being of the common *' school-bouse elocutionary " order, and 
ha» long since ceased to be merely local. She has filled her 

e06 2^0T£D sua HO WOMh\\\ 

present responsible position upon the FreemanyihQ race's greatest 
journalistic effort, for 8ometiun<; over a year, and has filled it 
fully and exceptionally, not through favoritism or the chance of . 
circumstances, but because her superior and exceptional quali* 
ficationsand merit, pure merit, have enabled her to do so, she 
being the only lady of her race in this section holding a position 
of such journalistic iin}x>rtance. The special features of the 
Freeman^ such as " Race Gleanings," " Church," " Stage" and 
** Friendlv Reminders," are to becreilited solely to herdiscrimi- 
nating compilation and original creation. Iler ** Friendly 
Reminders," as given each week to the Frcetnati^s thousands 
of readers, are solely and originally the children of her own 
thought sind creation, and are worthy in many instances to be 
ranked with Tupper's Proverbial Philosophy. It may be said 
in a general way of this talented and growing race woman 
that tvhat she has become to be, what she may yet become 
to be, if all signs do not fail and opportunit}' is not 
suddenly cut off, is and will be due solely or mainly to her 
own indomitable intellectualitv and determination. She is a 
credit to her race, an ornament to her sex. The mantle of 
mental achievement, that belongs so properl}' to her was neither 
an accident nor a bequest, but one of her own weaving, with a 
filling thread of energy in warj^ and woof. She says : 

** We believe that what should most interest women is woman; 
despite the glaring indication that her chief consideration, as 
well as chief glorilication, is man. Woman's condition today, 
as compared with her condition in no far remote time, stands 
out in contra distinction in favor of the present. But even 
now she is environed with untoward odds which operate in 
many instances to stultify her aspiration or palsy her effort, 
and vet a number suthcient to wield telling influence have in 
the last few decades invaded, as one lord of creation has 
termed it, the ranks of the arts, sciences and industries, and 
iuive flung into the burning pile which is fast consuming the 
yokes of individuals and nations that theoretic weakling, t. d., 
that woman is incapable of mastering economics outside the 
domestic realm. The loom, spinning wheel and quilting frames 


have been exchanged for tlie desk, the ledger, the brush and 
palette, the caligraph and the camera ; churn, milkstool, soap 
kettle and lye hopper have each and all been relegated to dust- 
covered obscurity, whence they ai'e only brought to do 
service as a corner-stone upon which some muse shall build his 
lore of ''ye olden time,^' and yet woman has not abandoned the 
duties incumbent upon her as wife and mother, nor waived her 
claim to the coronet which bears the inscription ' Queen of 
home/ but has resolved the routine of household duties, which 
to our grandmothers were veriest meniality and which were 
often the bane of a cheerless existence, into a systematized series 
of domestic functions of which she is the proud promoter. If 
tlie broadening out of woman^s mind by the leaven of science, 
philosophy and art bore no other beneiicence than the per- 
meating of this earthly shrine, the home, with the aroma of 
culture and refinement and inculcating in the breast of the 
inmates of that home love for the good and the beautiful, the 
seeker after such knowledge had builded well. Nature 
mellows the heart, while the development of the mind creates a 
NViudow through which the erstwhile mentivl captive may behold 
and appreciate the beauties of nature. But iu this, a day of 
great possibilities, the feminine heart yearns for broader paths 
wherein to walk, an intellectual highway whei*eon all nations 
or sex may walk abreast. This granted, the son and daaighter 
go hand in hand to the halls of learning and on common 
gi*ound prepare for the arena of life and for the time when,should 
fickle fortune, whose mandate barrs no creed or sex, decree 
the undoing of their success, they have won alike a safeguard 
against wreck or ruin as a resultof helplessness.'' 


7?\ M0N6 the women who have made for themselves names 
J2^vj^ as writers and pioneer teachers, Mrs. C. C. Stumm 
ranks very high. She was bom in Kentucky, is the daughter 
of Thomas and Eliza Penman, and the accomplished wife of 
Dr. Stumm, an able minister of Philadelphia. At qaito an 


early age she matriculated at Berea College, where she pro* 
cured a fair amount of learning, but by courage and thirst for 
knowledge she has studied her way to the top. Her exper- 
ience as a teacher, as well as her reputation, has been won, not 
only in the public school-room, but in academies both in Texas 
and Kentucky. As a journalist her efTorts have been f rouglit 
with success. Her writings and editorial work cover manv 
different States. In Boston the Iluh and Advocate^ in 
Kentucky the Bowling Green WaMivian^ each have found in 
her a ready exponent and versatile writer. ^ 

She is at present a resident of Philadelphia, w* hero she is 
engaged in journalistic agency for the Xaiional Monitoi^ 
published at Brooklyn, X. Y., and Our Wotnen and Children 
jonrnaly published at Louisville, Ky. 



WHE subject of this sketch was born at Snow Hill, N. 0. 
Nov. 11, 18C3, and is the daughter of George Wash- 
ington and Esther Suggs. At the ago of three years she removed 
with her parents to Wilson, N. C, where she early began to 
attend school and continued therein regularly until she was 13 
years old. Iler principal during these years was the now distin- 
guished Dr. J. C. Price, presiilent of Livingstone College, At 
this age she entered the St. Augustine Normal and Industrial 
Institute, at Raleigh, N. C, under the presidency of Dr. 
Smedes and under the tutelage of such teachers as the now 
eminent teacher, essayist and speaker, Mi*s. Anna J. Cooper, 
A. M.. Washington, D. 0. After spending three years 
here, she spent one year at Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C. 
After this she spent one year at St. Mary's Academv, Baltimore, 

' Mrs. Moore professed religion when only eleven years old 
and joined the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church at 
Wilson, N. C. 

TiiEin TnivMPua and activities. 


In tiio fall of 1879 the then young principal of Wilson 
Academy, Prof Edward Moore, Ph. D., now of Livingstone 
College, met her. He bad just graduated Jrom Lincoln Uni- 
versity, and was recognized as a thorough scholar and brilliant 
young man. During that year-relations began|to grow between 
them, which finally terminated in their marriage Nov. 14, 
1881, which has proven a very happy and fortunate union. 

At school she was apt in 
all her studies, but from very 
early life she had a peculiar 
taste, aptness and fondness 
for drawing, which she has in 
later life cultivated, until she 
is now able to execute most 
excellent oil paintings, especi- 
ally portraits. In her parlor 
can be seen life-size pictures 
of Dr. J. 0. Price, Collector 
of Customs, John C. Dancy, 
Bishop C. R. Harris, and Mrs. 
Anna J. Cooper, which would 
do credit to manv of our best 
artists. Her work in water 
colors and other forms of the 
painter^s art does her great 

In 1883 she was elected one 
of the teachers of the preparatory department of Livingston 
College. She held this place till the increasing duties of the 
family made it necessary for her to resign in 1885. She is 
the mother of four interesting children and is always happy in 
instructing them, andmarking out their pathway in life. 

Mrs. Moore is of medium height, of a lively disposition, 
genial nature and beautiful face. Hers is asocial nature, high- 
minded and ambitious. She always makes it pleasant for her 
friends. She delights to entertain, and is known for her cha^ 
acteristic hospitality. 







RS. A. E. JOUXSON, we learn, was born in Mar^'land 
\xr^ • in 1859. Her education was obtained in Montreal, 
Canada, but for the reason that she might be of use to her race as 
an educator, she moved to Baltimore in 1S74, whore she has 
since resided. Uer marriage with Dr. Harvey Johnson , an 
eminent divine, took place in 1877. 

A fine sketch of her 
appears in tho A/r(hAma^ 
ican /^/'t'^iT. 

She began writing po- 
etry at quite an early age, 
but publisliad little till 
after her marriage. Since 
then she has written much 
for various reviews, and 
other miscelhinies. In 1SS7 
she launched upon the 
uncertain waves of journ- 
alism the Jot/^ an eight- 
page monthly, containing 
original poems and mat- 
ters litemry, in fact a sym- 
posium of stor)es, etc., by 
the best cultivated brain of 
the race. 

Ilcr. writings are varied; 
she having a clear con- 
ception of what a poet 
means, she is reserved in her compositions, and so deep is her 
thought that her productions ward off the minnows in search 
for those who inhabit deep water. Iler powers of imagination 
are so forcible that for every true disciple of her muses there 
is painted by the fairy a rare picture. 


MU8 A. B. JUUN80N. 


F.mUicnt WrHer. 

\JX&. W. E. MATUEWS (Victoria E«i*le) was born at 
Fort Valloy, Georgia, May 27, 18CI. 

Those cruel days of sorvitudo for our subject sererctl the 
parental tie, and by renson of cruelty and outra£o perpetrated 
in those dark days caused many an unfortunate to seek refuge 
in the far North. Mrs. Caroline Smith, for that was her 
motlicr's nnme, after repeated 
Attempts to flee, finally sue- 
cecdcil, making Kcw York 
her home. 

After a scries of years, 
she returned and found liv- 
ing four of her children, our 
subject being one of the mitn- 
bcr, whom sho freed legally 
from the clutches of the law, 
and took them finally to 
Now York, where sho might 
c<lucato the little ones com- 
mitted to her care. 

llcr opi^iirtunitics at Hrsi 
proving to be not so smooth 
as anticipated, hence she was 

forcctl to work for main- xiw. w. it.)»AriitWB. 

tonanco. Possessing all of 

the characteristics of a truo disciple, sho labored and studieil 
arduously to make her way in tho world. Such is the life of 
the mother; what of the daughter whose life engages the 
attention of the literary world % 

By perseverance Mrs. Mathews has written her way intotlie 
hearts of America's beat enlightened citizens. The wonderful 
fascination she has for the subjects her extensive writings 
embrace place her tunong the highest Araerican female writers 
of the age. 

aia liOTED 2iE0R0 WOMES. 

More than a scoro of leading pcrioiUculs, daily and weekly 
under the management of both white and Negro editors' 
clemand the magnetic pulsation that her articles seem to give. 
For instance, she has been in demand on the following: The 
2^ew York Times^ Ilcrahly Mail and Express, Sunday Met- 
cury^ the Earth and the Phonograjyhic World ; meanwiule 
acting as correspondent to the yaiional Leader^ Detroit 
JPlaindtaler txn^ the Southern Christian Recorder, Her articles 
contributed to the A. M. E. Churcli licoiew have proven the 
force of her liierary genius. The following leading Negro 
weeklies have always found her a ready exponent : The Bos- 
ton Adrthutte, Washington IJee, Richmond Planet, Cathofto 
Ttibune, Cleveland Gazette^ New Vork 6V/;4/', New York Aye, 
and the New York KntvrjtrUe. Sho is as busy as a bee, for it 
has become an establisheil fact that [Mrs. Mathews* greatest 
pleasure is in the constant pursuit of her literary and journal- 
istic duties. 

Her high literary attainments abundantly fit her for 
achieving marvelous success in literature; her peculiar fascina- 
tion for stories have added much to her grand attainments, as 
her /oof j?r I nts can be seen in the Waver/ y Magazine the New 
York ir<t'i7y, the Family Story Paper antl Rtnyicood Journal 
iif Pa^hion, 

Iler many literary achievements go to prove that merit is 
the watchword for the world. Of course the city wherein the 
most of her life has been spent, where she has proven herself 
a worthy scholar, meritorious in every way, and worthy of the 
reliance placeil in her, natumlly oiTered her the greatest 
inducements for her turn of mind. She is a success. The 
Negro race should be proud and more courageous in their 
boast of their greatest minds. 

The Woman^s National Press Association finds m her a 
worthy member, a giantess, the equal of any of her sex or soci- 
ety, and places the Negro race, from a literary standpoint, 
where it justly belongs in story writing and literature in general. 
She is not only a novelist and press correst>ondent, she is 
an author of a series of text books and school literature. 

TiiEin Tiuoyrrits axd activities. 2w 

Ilcr wide 8co|>o with tho pen proves the assurance of ber 
versatility and talent, and demonstrates, as well as proves, the 
philosophy of industry, that he who would accumulate must 


Educiitor, LhxguUi, WrHcr, 

^T is indeed a pleasure to reconl the doeils and usefulness of 
one who, by her dint and push, has made her name known 
to the literary world. She was born in Philadelphia, of hon- 
ored parents, whoso jjenealogy may bo traceil many genera- 
tions ; in fact, a grancl-daughtcr of that venerahU^ Mr. Korten, 
of llcvolutionary fame, who was for many years the friend and 
adviser of America's great poet, John Greenleaf Whittier, 
though Mr. Forten was many years his senior. As soon as 
^[iss Forten could conceive of the idea of what an education 
consisted, and the use of it, she determined to go wl)ei*e the 
very best training was to be gotten, hence she went to Salem, 
Mass., entered a school in wliich she, after graduation, taught 
for a number of years. Remarkable to say tliat in her depart- 
ment there was not a colored child, and she experienceil no 
insinuations of disrespect on the part of the white chiUlren who 
were committed to her care. Iler genius forced o|>en higher 
avenues of learning year after year, and served as a convincing 
argument that the women of color with equal chances could 
do what white women couUl do. After teaching a number of 
years in ^Tass;ichusetts, the call was made for volunteers to go 
Si)uth and carry the intellectual light to the boys and girls; 
tho women and men of tOHlay. Miss Forten then, as now, 
being one of the best eilucateii persons of the i*ace, made her 
way to Port Royal, South Carolina, where she gave to the newly 
freedmen two of the busiest yeara of her young life te:ichtng, 
working in church and Sabbath-school, and as forcibly as i>os* 
sible did she delineate upon their duties to their Ood, their 
fellow-men and themselves. The XIIL, XIV. and XY. amend- 
ments to the Constitution found tho Xegro as void of unde^ 

214 h^OTED yjiOUO WOMEN. 

Standing then, as the sudden issuance of the emancipation proc- 
lamation found them almost incapable of tiie faith, to compre- 
hend their deliverance. Mucli had to be accomplished, schools 
and school-houses had to be erected, and, true to every instinct 
of the genius she possessed, she returned to New England and 
became correspondent for the Xew England Freed man^s Aid 
Society. This position was the responsive cord to the "even 
tenor of her wav.'' She had been South, studied the Negro's 
rude conditions, taught their children, labored with them and 
knew their wants. Go<l really ]>laced her there. Miss Forten is 
an erudite scholar, a forcible writer, and, withal, a woman of 
extraordinary powers who would do honor to any race. At 
the solicitation of the poet Whittier, she corresponded with him 
during her stay South, also while sojourning there she wrote an 
article entitled **Life on the South Sea Isles,'- which occurred 
in the Atlantic 2Ion(h?f/, a journal that needs no praise. 

At the suggestion of Colonel Iligginson, her knowledge of 
the French language was brought to the severest test in the 
translation of a book (written in the French language) into 
English, copyrighted by Erckmon and Chatrian, and publishecl 
in Scribner's Magazine^ for which she was long a correspond- 
ent. Unlike very many women writers, ^liss Forten enjoyeil 
the reputation of being a costly correspondent in that a work- 
man was worthy of his hire. She has contributed largely of 
her talents and time to invigorate andmake interesting many of 
our newspai)ers, and all who have come in for a share of such 
of her favors ha\^e shown it in their journalistic success. Her 
association with such minds as AVhittier and Longfellow has 
been inspiring in effect, and given her an insight very keen to 
appreciate the true, the beautiful ; for this rare enjoyment, she 
has been caused to feel and know the difference between the 
esalted and the humble, and as compared with the literary 
work of the exalted, she claims to have done very little ; but 
those who know her best freely assent in crowning her ivith 
the laurels she has so beautifully won. 

After leaving Boston, she came South to Washington, D. 
C.| where she spent a number of years in the cause of educa* 

ruEiR Tniuifpus and AvnviiiE^i. 215 

lion. The high school was her workshop, and the material 
turned out year after year during her activities there proved 
most wonderfully her fitness as a teacher — a leader — and it is 
the boast of the whites in Massachusetts, as well as the Negroes 
in Washington, D. C, that Charlotte Forten was their teacher. 
Here this lady met Rev. Dr. Grimke, and surrendered her life- 
work, leaning uiK>n him, who became the mainstay of her 
eventful life. He is a husband, a model for men ; she a wife, 
an example of purity and chastity; a teacher of Christian 
pioty ; yea, a copy for our girls, who can make for themselves 
a record. 


Munickxn and Writer, 

';i|^ HE subject of our sketch is the accomplished daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. Oeo. F. Bragg. She was born in the 
Old Dominion, in the city of Petersburg, and so circumstanced 
that she could enjoy the advantages of becoming a musician, 
at quite an early ago. Proficiency indeed seems to be her second 
nature. Her force of character and magical art seem to go 
hand in hand, and altogether fit her for the highest realms 
of music and song. She }>osscsses every feature of the high 
art. Her compositions are full of her soul, portraying in 
every line the uppermost tenor of her soul. 

She has won the meed of praise from the pai>ers of Virginia 
and in an article on music, which api>eared in the A. M. E. 
Review^ she seems to have concentrated all her genius, as, 
indeed, her friends far and wide paid such glowing compliments 
that she has more than ever conHned her talents and time to 
music. She is assistant editor of the Musical Messenger, of 
which Miss A. L. Tilghman is its accomplished editor. Mrs. 
Adams is the author of * Old Stanford Church,* which she, for 
the friendship existing between her family and Hon. John 
Mercer I^ngston's, together with her high regard and concept 
tion of his rare abilitv« dedicated to him. 



Prof. I. Garland Penn, in bis Afro-American Press, savs: 
She is a woman of indomitsible will, and a writer of superior 
>ility. Tiie Messenger^ with Mrs. Adams' aid, will be a pai)er 
! commanding influence in Afro American journalism." 


n^HE subject of our sketch is an ardent student of meUw 
r|J physics and a firm believer in phrenology, and had her 
lirenological character written out by Prof. O. S. Fowler. He 
escribes her predominant characteristic as ''ambitious to do 

her level best." lie speaks of 
her as "thorou^rhlv conscien- 
tious, and actuated by the higli- 
est possible sense of right and 
duty ; as frugal and industrious^ 
adapted to business." 

llercareef as a writer began 
with an address prepared for 
lier school exhibition. 

Her next article was a race 
appeal, which ap|>eared in the 
Cincinnati Conwiercial. 

Mrs. Amelia £• Johnson savs 
of her: *'She has an excellent 
talent for comparing, explain- 
ing, ex|>ounding and criticis- 
Dg, and bias ma<le no small stir among the city officials and 
nhers for their unjust discriminations against worthy citizens." 
(Te say of her as others ; many and varieil have been her treatises 
911 tbe race question. She is one of the leading women writers 
c»f tbe South. I^ate than a dozen Negro journals have been 
forced onward toward the high mark, owing to the quality of 
her contribntions. All L uisville, (Ky.) is alive to the fact that 
within its borders there is one plucky woman and she is our 
UA. Her educational work in Ix>uisville speaks for itself*. 




The citizens join in one unanimus voice in accrediting her with 
all the estimable qualifications of a noteil lady, a useful and 
tireless worker and a model of our latter dav civilization. 


Eminent PUtniH and ArtisU 

^^Tk^IIE subject of this sketch was bom in the city of Oak- 
XJj land, county of Alameda, June 27, 1872, and is the only 
daughter of the late William W« Powell and Josephine Powell, 
old and respected residents 

.1 ^ '. 




k < 


- \n 



of the city of Oakland. She 

was educated in tiie public 

schools of Oakland and 

always stood very high in her 

Htudics. She graduated from 

the grammar school, and was 

promoted to the high school, 

where she remained one year, 

when she was taken out bv her 

])arents to pursue her studies 

in nmsic and painting. Miss 

Powell has been studying 

rnusic and the piano for seven 

vears under the best masters 

of the profession, and among 

her most prominent teachers 

was the late Prof. McDougall, 

who took an extra interest in 

her progress in that particular 

study, and to his teaching 

she owes the most of her success as a brilliant performer upon 

the piano and her knowledge of music, both vocal and instru- 

mental. Although Miss Powell is well advanceil in the musical 

profession, being one of the most brilliant performers aiK>n the 

piano that wo have in the city of Oakland, either white or 

colored, she still pursues her studies in music, and has for her 

t * 

» .■ 





iQstractor Miss De Gomez, lately of the Conservatory of Music 
at Berlin, Germany. She has also pursued her studies in paint* 
ing for five years, having a natural gift and taste for the pro- 
fession. Thougli she has never had a great deal of teaching in 
that protession from the great mastera of the art, yet she has 
produced some as fine paintings as those who )iave ranked as 
prominent artists in the great studios of Europe and America. 
Miss Powell had several paintings on exhibition at the Mechan- 
ics^ Institute fair in 1S90 in this city, which received great 
praise from tbo committee of award and those who admireil 
works of art amongst the thousands that visited the pavilion 
during the season. They were the first paintings ever before 
exhibiteil by a colored artist in this SUite at any of the art exhi* 
bitions, and streak well for the pujsh and energy exhibited by 
the young lady in showing the capabilities of the race in the 
arts and sciences. 

Miss Powell resides with her mother, Mrs. Josephine Powell, 
'at 57d Sixteenth street, corner of Jefferson, in the city of Oak- 
land, who owns a handsome cottage of six rooms, of modern 
build and improvements. The family consists of three — the 
mother and her son and daughter, Mr. William Powell and 
Miss Pauline Powell, who are bright examples for emulation, 
as far as refinement, love of mother and home are concerned. 
Thev are a blessing; to their widowed mother. 

Head what the San Francisco Ktamhier stiys of her perform- 

MifiS Powcn gave a beautiful piano solo, after which Miss AY inslow gave 
a recitatioo aod another exhibition of Dclsarto movements. The very excellent 
work done by the Misses Powell and Wiuslow has been one of the most aitrac* 
tiTc features of the assembly. 3Iiss Pauline Powell was born and educated 
in Oakland. She has been making music a special study, and has given 
fereral recitals in San Francisco with great satisfuction to her friends. She 
interpre:aclaftsical music with Anc taste and exquisite finish. She hns made 
a most happy success here by her refined and cultured performances, and all 
Chautauquans and their friends have generally bestowed their congratulations 
upon her, and prophesy for her a brilliant future as a pianist. 

Another brilliant testimonial of her talents : 

Miss Paulino Powell's piano performances were from memory. brilHant in 
tsacoiioQ aad perfect in harmony. Her '*Fantasie Impromptu, aliarp 


minor/' by Chopin, and " Rondo Drilliante,'* by Webcr» w«re played in a 
masterly ttylo, and eroked continued applause.-^P. O. Review. 

I^Iiss Powell. was born in Oakland, Cal., and at a natlye daughter reflects 
credit on the golden State. 6he has a natural genius for music, and interprets 
the classic music of the great masters with eridences of thorough instructioa 
and mrc natural genius. She invariably plays without her notes and entirely 
from memory, which is high proof of her talent.— 5ti a Franciico Call. 



(VYom TueHlay*s Daily,) 
The grand entertainment Saturday erening as per program was held At 
the ^L £. Church, and really overreachcil the ezcclloncy of the merits claimed 
for it. Dr. Uirst presiding. At the conclusion of a few preliminary remarks 
by the Doctor, Miss Powell, who has won our hearts, was announced, and 
gate a '* Rondo from ^lendclssohn," the brilliant elocution of which could not 
be well ezcolled.— P. 0. lUfitw. 


Author of Tt^c Hougc of Dondagc. 

CTAVIA VICTORIA ROGERS, wife of tho Rer. A. 

E. P. Albert, D. D., was born in Oglothori>e, Macoa 
county, 6a.,of slave parentage, December 24,1853, and was 
educated at Atlanta University, in that State. She and Dr. 
Albert first met at Montezuma, 6a., where they taught school 
together, in 1873, and on October 21, 1874, they wereuniteil 
in holy wedlock. Tliey bad an only daughter, who survives 
her mother. She united with the African Methodist Epis- 
copal Church under the preaching of Bishop II. M. Turner, at 
Oglethor|)e, Ga., and was converted and united with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, under the pastorage of the Rev. 
Marcus Dole, at Union CJ)ni>el, New Orleans, in 1873. Her 
own husband baptized her at Ilpuma, I.«a., in 1878, during the 
first year of his ministry. She w*as an angel of mercy whose 
loving spirit will long be cherished by all who knew her but 
to love her. Now she rests from her labors, and her good 
works do follow ben Peace to her precious memory! 

The Compilkb. 



The foUovring pages, giving the result of conversations and 
other information gathered, digested, and written by Mrs. 
Octavia V. Rogers, deceased wife of the Rev. A. E. P. Albert, 
A. M., D. D., first ap|>eared in the columns of the «S(>?/Mi(7cv^^ 
em Christian A'hocate^ some months after her death, as a 
serial story, under the name of The Home of Bdndagc. It 
was received with such enthusiasm and appreciation that no 
sooner was the story concluded than letters poured in upon 
the editor from all directions urging him to put it in book 
form, so as to preserve it as a memorial of the author, as well 
as for its intrinsic value as a history of Xegro slavery in the 
Southern States, of its overthrow, and of the mighty and far- 
reaching results derived therefrom. 

No specialliterary merit is claimed for the work. No 
special effort was made in that direction ; but as a panoramic 
exhibition of slave-life, emancipation, and the subsequent re- 
suits, the story herein given, with all the facts brought out, as 
each one speaks for himself and in his own way, is most inter- 
esting and life-like. 

The conversations herein given arc not imaginary, but 
actual, and given as they actually occurred. No one can read 
these pages without realizing the fact that ^Uruth is often 
stranger than fiction." As such wo present it to the public as 
an unpretentious contribution to an epoch in American history 
that will more and more rivet the attention of the civilized 
world as the years roll around. 

An only daughter unites with the writer in sending out 
these pages penned by a precious and devoted mother and 
wife, whose angelic spirit is constantly seen herein, and whose 
subtile and holy influence seem to continue to guide and pro- 
tect both in the path over which they since have had to travel 
without the presence and cheer of her inspiring countenance. 

To her sacred memory these pages, the result of her efforts,. 
are affectionately inscribed. 

EDrroRiAL Rooms A. E. P. A ldert. 

6outhv€»t€rn Christian Advocate. Laura T. F. AlbekT. 

Ksw ORUUk]ct,LA.,KoTembcr 15, 1890. 


tilk introduction to hbr book, coming a8 it does from one of^ 
America's greatest cburcumen, we could not 

refrain inserting it. 

Tho story of slavery nover has been and never will be fully 
told. In tho last letter tliat John Wesley ever wrote, addressed 
to Wilberforce, the great abolitionist, and dated February 24^ 
1701, and this only six days before his tireless hand was quieted 
in death, he wrote these words: "I see not how you can go 
through your glorious enterprise in opposing that execrable 
villainy (slavery and the slave trade), which is the* scandal 
of religion, of England, and of human nature. Unless God has 
raised you up for this very thing you will bo worn out by the 
opposition of men and devils ; but. if God be for you, who can 
be against you? Are all of them together stronger than God } 
O, * be not weary in well-doing.' Go on in the name of God, 
and the power of his might, till even American slavery, the 
vilest that ever saw the sun, shall vanish away before it." 

It is because American slavery was *^ the vilest that ever saw 
the sun" that it is, and will remain forever, impossible to ade. 
quately portray its unspeakable horrors, its heart-breaking 
sorrows, its fathomless miseries of hoi>cless grief, its intolerablo 
shames, and its heaven-defying and outnigeous brutalities. 

But while it remains true that tho story can never be com- 
plctcly told, it is wiso and well that tho task should bo 
attempted and in part performed; and this for. tho reason that 
there aro some who presume that this slavery, ** the vilest that 
over saw the sun," has been, and is still, of divine api>ointment ; 
in short, that from first to last it was a divino institution. It is 
well to remind all such i^eoplo that tho Almighty Ruler of tho 
universe is not an. accessory, either before or after the fact, to 
such crimes as were involved in slavery. Let no guilty man, 
let no descendant of such man, attempt to excuse the sin and 
shame of slave-holding on the ground of its providential char* 
acter. The truth is that slavery is the product of human greed 
and lust and oppression, and not of God's ordering. 

Then it is well to write about slaverv that the American 


people may know from what depths of disgrace and infamy 


they rose when, giikled by the hand of God, they broke every 
yoke and let the oppressed go free. Finally, it is well to tell, 
though only in part, the story of slavery, so that every man, 
woman and child of the once enslaved race may know the ex- 
ceeding mercy of Goil that has delivered them from the hope- 
less and helpless despair that might have been their portion if 
the Lonl God Omnipotent had not come forth to smite in divine 
and righteous wrath the proud oppressor, and bring his long- 
suffering ])eop1o out of their worse than Egyptian bondage. 

This volume, t>enncd by a hand that now rests in the quiei 
of the tomb, is a contribution to the sum total of the story that 
can never be entirely told. 

In her young girlhooil the author had known the accursed 
system, and she knew the joy of deliverance. 'W'^ith a deep, 
{Kithetic tenderness she loved her race ; she would gladly have 
dieil for their enlightenment and salvation. But she has gone 
to her reward, leaving behind her the precious legacy of a sweet 
Christian influence that can only How forth from a pure and 
consecrated life. 

May this volume go forth to cheer and comfort and inspire 
to high and holy deeds all who shall read its pages ! 


BesTox, Mass., Nov. 15, 1800. 

To more fully demonstrate her i)owers as a writer, and to 
prove the worth of her contribution to Negro literature we 
insert the following : 



Suklux— Heiga of terror— DUck Inws—UccoustructloD— Colored men to 
coostitutiooAl COOT cotioQt and State le^^isUturcs— LieutenanuOoTerDor 
Dunn — Ilooest Antoiuc Dubuclet — Negro problem — What ibo race 
hat accomplished since the war— Emigration and colonization. 

If the Kuklux treateil the missionaries in that manner you 
must not imagine that they left the colored people and their 
children nnbarmed. Thousands of colored men and women 
throughout the South were in like manner whipped and shot 

THEIR rnivurus and acti ririEs. 223 

down liko clogs, in the fields ami in tlicii* cabins. Tho recital 
of some of tho exi>orioncos of thoso days is enough to chill 
your blood and raise your hair on ends. The horrors of those 
days can scarcely be imagined by those who know nothing^ 
about it. Why, madam, you ought to hare been down hero 
in ISCS. That was the year in which Grant and Colfax ran 
for president and vice-president, against Seymour and Blair. 
A |)erfect reign of terror existeil all over the South ; and tho 
colored |)eoplo who attempteil to vote were shot down like 
dogs everywhere. There was such a reign of terrorism in 
many States of the South that the Congress of the United 
States rcfuseil to count tho bloody electoral votes of several of 
the Southern States. Two years before that, in July, ISCC, 
there was a constitutional convention in New Orleans, to 
frame a constitution whereby the State of I^uisiana might be 
rcconstructeil and re-admitted into the Union. On the SOtli 
day of that month, I believe it was, a fearful riot was insti- 
tuted by thoso fire-eaters, and tho result was that the streets 
of Xew Orleans were fioodeil with Negro blooil. Hundreds of 
them were killed without any knowleilgo of tho murderous 
intentions of their enemies. They lay dead on every sti*eet 
and in the gutter, and were taken out and buried in trenches 
by the c;irt-lo;id in all the cemeteries. The children at school 
were also the object of the same murderous spirit. When we 
sent our children to school in the morning wo had no idea that 
we should see them return home alive in the evening. 

** Big white boys and half-gi*own men used toi^elt them with 
stones and run them down with open knives, both to and from 
school. Sometimes they came homo bruised, stabbeit, beaten 
half to death and sometimes quite dead. Aly own son himself 
was often thus beaten. lie has on his forehead tonlav a scar 
over his right eyo which sadly tells the story of his trying ex- 
perience in thoso days in his efforts to get an education. I 
was wounded in tho war, trying to get my freoilom, and he 
over tho eye, trying to get an education. So we both 
call our scars marks of honor. In addition to theso means to 
keep the Negro in tho same servile condition, I was about to 


forget to tell you of the * black laws,' which were adopted in 
nearly all of the Southern States under President Andrew 
Johnson^s plan of reconstruction. They adopted laws with 
reference to contracts, to the movement of Negro laborersi 
etc., such as would have made the condition of the freed 
Iscffro worse than when he had a master before the war. 
But, in the words of General Garfield upon the death of Prcsi* 
dent Lincoln, * God reigns, and the government at Washington 
still lives.'' It did live, and, notwithstanding Andrew John- 
son, it lived under the divine supervision which would 
not and did not allow the Southern Slates to reconstruct upon 
any such dishonorable, unjust plan to the two hundred thou- 
sand Xegi'o so1diei*s who offered their lives upon the altar for 
the perpetuation of the Union and the freedom of their 
country. And the whole matter was repudiated by Congress, 
and the States were reconstructed upon the plan of equal 
rights to every citizen, of whatever race or previous condition. 
It was then declared that, whereas the stars on our national 
flag had been the property of only the white race and the 
stripes for only the colored, now the stars should forever be 
the common property of both, and that the stripes should only 
be given to those that deserved them. 

*' Under this new plan of reconstruction many colored men 
entered the constitutional conventions of every Southern 
Sute ; and in the subsequent organization of the new State 
governments colored men took their seats in both branches of 
the State governments, in both Houses of Congress, and in all 
the several branches of the municipal, parochial, State and 
national governments. It is true that many of them were not 
]>repared for such a radical and instantaneous transition. 
' But I tell you, madam, it was simply wonderful to see how 
. well they did. And, although in the midst of prejudice and 
partisan clamor a great deal of the most withering criticisms 
hdve been spent upon the ignorance, venality and corruption 
of the Xegro carpet-bag reconstruction governments inaugu- 
rated by our people, I believe time will yet vindicate them» 
and their achievements will stand out in the coming years as 


one of the mArvcU of the ages. Who of all the officers of any 
State government can compare with the unassuming, dignified 
and manly Oscar J. Dunn, Louisiana's first Negro lieutenant* 
governor, or with Antoine Dubuclet, her honest and clean* 
lianded treasurer for twelve years? His successor, £. A. 
Burke, a white man, representing the virtue and intelligence 
of our Miigher civilization,' is to-day a fugitive from the State 
for having robbed that same ti*easury of nearly a million dol- 
lars. Alabama has had her Vincent, Tennessee her Polk, Mis* 
sissippi her Hemingway; Kentucky, Maryland, and nearly 
ovory one of tiio Southern Slates have had their absconiling 
State treasurers, with hundreds of thousands of dollars of the 
))eopIe's money unaccounted for, since the overthrow of the 
Negro governments of the South. Such is the contrast that I 
like to ofTer to those jKople who are constantly denouncing 
the Negro governments of reconstruction times in the South. 

" If our people did so well when only a few years removed 
from the house of bondage, wherein they were not permitted to 
learn to read and write under penalty of death, or sometliing 
next to it, what may we not exi>ect of them with the advances 
they have since made and are making 1" 

''I declai*c, colonel, I would not miss this interview I have 
had with you for a great deal. I was so young when the war 
broke out that I had no personal knowledge of many of the 
things that you have told mo, and I assure you that you have 
interested me with their recital. I understand that you occu- 
pied several very imiK)rtaut |K>sitionsin State affairs during the 
perioil of ' Negro supremacy,' as the white people call it, and I 
know you must have made some valuable observations growing 
out of the downfall of those governments and the condition and 
tendencies of things since. Tell me just what you think of our 
future in this country, anyway. Tell me whether we are pro* 
grossing or retrograding, and whether you think it is necessary 
for us to emigrate to Africa, or to be colonized somewhere, or 
what ? " 

*^ Well, madam, t must confess that some of your questions 
are extremely hard to answer. Indeed, some of them are to* 

2*0 XOTED SKono wojisy. 

day puzzling some of the profounilest philosophers and thinkers 
in this country ; and I doubt very much whether I could assume 
to answer them dogmatically. One thing, however, I can tell 
you, without fear of successful contradiction, and that is that 
no people similarly situated have ever made the progress in 
every department of life that our people have made since the 
world began. Why, just think of it I Twenty -seven years ago 
we did not own a foot of land, not a cottage in this wilderness; 
not a house, not a church, not a school-house, not even a name. 
Wc had no marriage tie, not a legal family — nothing but the 
public highways, closely guarded by black laws and vagrancy 
laws, upon which to stand. But to-day we have two millions 
of our children in school, we have about eighteen thousand 
colored professors and teachers, twenty thousand young men 
and women in schools of higher grade, two hundred news- 
papers, over two million members in the Methodist and Baptist 
cburches alone, and we own over three hundred million dollars' 
worth of property in this Southern country. Over a million 
and a half of our people can now read and write. We 
are crowding the bar, the pulpit and all the trades, and every 
avenue of civilized life, and doing credit to the age in which 
we live. 

** I tell you, madam, I am not much disturbed about our 
future. True, I cannot and do not pretend to be able to solve 
the Negro problem, as it is called, because I do not know that 
there is really such a problem. To my mind, it is all a matter 
of condition and national and constitutional authority. Get the 
conditions ri^ht and my faith is that the natural functions, 
security to 'life, liberty and happiness,' will follow. My advice 
to my people is : * Save your earnings, get homes, educate your 
children, build up character, obey the laws of your country', 
serve God, protest against injustice like manly and reasonable 
men, exercise every constitutional right every time you may 
lawfully and peacefully do so, and leave results with God, and 
every thing will come out right sooner or later.' I have no 
faith in any general emigration or colonization scheme for our 
people. The thing is impracticable and undesirable. This is 


the most beautiful and desirable country that the sun shines 
upon, and I am not in favor of leaving it for any place but 
heaven, and that when uiy heavenly father calls, and not before. 
Of coui'se, in localities where inhumanities are visited u)>on our 
people to such an extent that they cannot live there in peace 
and security I would advise them to remove to more agreeable 
sections of the country ; but never would I advise them to leave 
the United States. Another thing : I do not think we ought 
to ever want to get into any territory to ourselves, with the 
white people all to one side of us or around us. That^s the 
way tliey got the Indians, you remember, and we know too 
well what became of them. 

'* My plan is for us to stay right in this country with the white 
people, and to bo so scattered in and among them that they 
canH hurt one of us without hurting some of their own number. 
That's my plan, and that is one of my reasons why I am in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. God's plan seems to be to 
pattern this country after heaven. He is bringing here all 
nations, kindreds and tongues of people, and mixing them into 
one homogeneous whole ; and I do not believe we should seek 
to frustrate His plan by any vain attempts to colonize ourselves 
in any corner to ourselves." 

With this the colonel left, expressing himself delighted with 
his visit, as I am sure I was. 

Between Mrs. Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and Mrs. 
Albert's " House of Bondage " there is a most beautiful con. 
trast ; the former dignifies the Negro as a fugitive and asserts 
his rights to be a fugitive ; the latter shows up the unrelenting 
patience of the Negro and his unrivaled faith in the Giver of all 
good. Again, the former is scenic, presenting a most beautiful 
as well as lasting, yet touching landscape ; while the latter U 
just what its title identifies—** The House of Bondage." 



Tlie Dtack Puttl of Ilcr Riice. 

^ilE subject of tliifi Bkotcli was born in Providence, R. I. 
When quite a wee ciiild she proved beyond the 
sbadoir of a doubt her fitness for the stage as a race rcprcscn* 
tative, and has among otiier things maintained her ground, 
never weakening and giving down, but nourishing a faith fib 
onljr for the righteous, which has led her gently into the pleas- 
ant and ]>eAceful pallis of success. Some say that greatness is 
sometimes thrust upon us; 
others, more liheral, say 
tlint it is inborn; others 
argue that it is acquired. 
Wo say tliat this is an 
instance wlioro chissical 
musical ability reigned up- 
permost, controlling and 
directing tlio possessor 
OS the mainspring of 
all her infantile life; but 
on t>ccoming cognizant 
of this state of affairs, 
she was advised by good 
Xorthcm friends to turn 
I ' y ^*'' "'^'o'* attention to 

1 j^ the pui-suit for which her 

^*^ ■ •!• • ■- ■ -^ ^ heart and mind thirsted. 

Hence, ufier a few weeks with the classic masters, the whole 
Xegro race was a|ip1auded for tlio advent of one among us, 
and sufficiently black to claim our identity, that was des- 
tined to move the world in tears. Year after year our subject 
has won new conquests, and in only a short season she is termed 
the Black Patti. Is this an instance of acquired greatness, 
thrusted greatness or inborn greatness 1 Wo loth to say in- 
born or thrust. For every ocbiovoment mode by our race that 
seems to attraot the attention of the world we are caused to 
feel that were it not for God's interveation, etc., eto. When 


I^egroos aro smart, as a rule^a characteristic spirit seems to 
predominate in them when very small* Her career, while 
brief, is nevertlieless full of bright successes. We append be- 
low a few press comments : 

At the concert given by the World't'Falr Colored Concert Company at 
New York, Fobnmry 13th, Mmc. Sissirctta Jones ia said to have surpassed all 
former appearances. Among the boxholdors were Judge and ^Irs. Andrews, 
Colonel and lull's. IngcrsoU, Mrs. Jcannetto M. Thurber, Mr. and Mrs. Ilcnry 
Yillard, Wallace C. Andrews, Mr. Morris Reno and Miss Reno, Daniel Bacoo 
and R. W. Q. Welling. Three rows of seats In the center aisle were occupied 
by a concert party from a fashionable girls' school, and there were mud d ana 
of fame in attendance who Join with us in sentiment.— 2^ Fiteman, 


Tuesday afternoon, February 14th, Mme. Sissirctta Jones sang at the resT 
denco of Judge Andrews, on Fifth avenue, Now York» before a party of 
thirty Indies, among whom were Mrs. Hicks Lord, Mrs. C. Fields, Mrs. Van- 
dcrbilt, ^Irs. Stevens and Mrs. Astor, at whose house Mme. Jones will sing 
next week. Tlio Chief Justice of India, who was present, presented the 
singer with a valentine, which, wlien opened, contained a check for $1,000. 
Slie also received a solid silver basket fllleil with choice (lowers. The ladies 
pronounced the singing superior to Patti's, and then sat down to lunch with 
Mme. Jones. Mr. Charles Anderson was a guest on this occasion. The pro- 
gram was*a valentine souvenir printed on satin, and will be treasured bj all 
as a memento. 

Tfuir Singing^SeUka tht Best^Madame Jonc$a *• Great Singir.** 

WAsnnvoTON, D. C. 

Of Mme. Selika the world has spoken, and in her favor. Time nor rivals 
can wrest from her laurels so richly won ; but she Is not the Selika of yester- 
day, and the fact is most apparent when she sings with anotlicr whose share 
to public favors is deserving because it is compensating. Selika Is a finished 
artist who appeals to the technical society lights particularly, but they cannot 
support any flrst-class concert for the reason they are too few. In the rendi- 
tion of the staccato notes Mme. Selika has not been excelled, eren by Patti, 
and her shading is so smooth and eren that you cannot but commend it. Mrs. 
Jones Is a great 8ing««r. She Is not the •* greatest singer In the world,** nor is 
the a black, blue or green Pattl. She Is In no sense a Pattl. If ^Irs Jones 
would remember that Mrs. Qrcenfltld, the Black Swan, made for herself a 
name without the need of styling herself the Black Jenny Lind, then she 
will know that she can succeed to at great an eminence without having to 
ihara the success with a white woman who would feel dishonored in wearing 
the Utle the White Black Swaa. Afro-Americaiis aeod lo impress their chii* 


€iren that their race develops geniuses and heroes whose deeds can bo emu- 
lated and perpetuated with iTerlasting profit, thus declaring our patriotism. 
We need more race pridul Our public men and women must exhibit it. 
Mme. Jones is a great singer; Mme. Selika is the greatest colored singor. 
Tou hear Mme. Jones with pleasure ; you hear Mme. Selika with profit.— /• 
£. Bruct (Bruu Grit), • 

Mme. Sissiretta Jones* singing at the exposition at Pituburg, Pa., sared 
Ihe expoeition management from bankruptcy. 




J^ TRAVELER passing: by a country farm bouse a few 
jl^>^ miles from Chatham, Canada, a few years ago, might, 
have seen a little girl of eight or nine summers, mounted upon 
a colt without bridle or girth, hair given to the winds to be 
tossed, dashing up a lane to the pasture. There he would have 
seen her dismount and hastily perform the duties of dairy* 
maid, first calling each cow by name, and inquiring the health 
of each or making some playful remark. The milking finished, 
she now goes through the program that absorbs her whole 
attention, having risen before any other one of the household, 
so that she could not be seen. She jumps upon a stum]) or log 
and delivers an address to the audience of cows, sheep, birds, 
etc. Neither knowing nor caring what she says, she goes 
through her harangue, earnestly emphasizing by arm gesture, 
and occasionally by a stamp of the foot. She has a separate 
speech for the larger animals, and special addresses to the 
lambs, ducklings and any other juvenile auditors that happen 
to be near. Having exhausted her vocabulary, she begins a 
conversation in .the language of the horse, cow, sheep, goose, 
rooster, or bird, until each is imitated; then, bidding adieu to 
her pet auditors, she remounts her prancing steed and canters 
back to the house. This is her daily morning program. She 
supposed all along that her secret was locked in her own breast. 
IStxt a farm hand saw her one morn by chance, himself unob- 
served, and 'twas a secret no longer. Nor did she realize her 
^^ridicalons capers,'* as she has called it since, until she had grown 


to youDfi womanhood. Who can say but that propitious Fate 
had hor then in drill in order to develop the powers of her 
soul, so that she might make a portion of mankind happier by 
tho instruction and amuBement she should furnish. "Who iras 
this little girll" ask you. The subject of ibis sketch — ^[iss 
Ilallio Q. Brown. 

Ilalliu Quinn Brown is a native of Pittsburg, Pa. When 
she was quite small ber parents moveil toa farm near Chatham, 
Canada, Ontario Wost. At an enrly age, in the year ISOS, she 
was sent to Wilberforoo College, Ohio, to obtain an education 
tho country schoolsof Can- 
ada could not give, and 
where her jxtrents subse- 
quently removed anil now 
reside, at Ilotnewood Cot- 
tage. She completed the 
classical scicntitlc course in 
1873, with the degree of B. 
S. in n class of six. One of 
her classmateR is tlio wife 
of Kev. Dr. B. F. Lee, ex 
president of Wilberforce, 
and .'io\v[lSS^]cditorof the 
Christian lierorthr; whilo 
another, I'rof. S. T. Mit- 
inMiiALLiBquiMKniiowH. oliell,A.M.,ha8beoneleclcii 

president of Wilberforce. 
Realizing that a great field of labor lay in tiie South, Miss 
Brown, with true missionary spirit, left her pleasant home and 
fi-iends to devote herself to the noble work which she bad 
chosen. Ilor first school was on a plaDtation in South Caro- 
lina, where she endured the rough life as best she could, and 
taught a large number of children gathered from neighboring- 
plantations. Sbo also taught a class of aged people, and by 
this moans gave to many the blessed privilege of reading tho 
Bible. She next took charge of a school on Sonora plantatioa 
in Mississippi, where she found the effort to elevate the minds 


of the people much hindered by their use of tobacco and 
whisky — twin vices. 

But as she is an indefatigable worker she accomplished 
mucb^ and at this place, as at all others where she is known, 
her influence for the better was felt. Her phmtation school 
bad no windows, but was well ventilated — too much so, in fact, 
for daylight could be seen from all sides, with no particular 
regularity, and the rain beat in fiercely. Not being successful 
in getting the authorities to fix the building — ^hcd^ we should 
have said — she secureil the willing service of two of her larger 
bovs. She mounted one mule and the two bovs another, and 
thus they rode to the gin-mill. They got cotton seed, returned, 
mixed it with earth, which formed a plastic mortar, and with 
her own hands she {xisted up the chinks, and ever after smiled 
at the unavailing attacks of wind and weather. 

Ilerfameas an instructor spread, and her services wc^re 
secured as teacher at Yazoo citv. On account of the unsettled 
State of affairs in 1S74-5, she was compelled to return North. 
Thus the South lost one of its most valuable missionaries, 
iliss Brown next taught in Dayton, Ohio for four years. Owing 
to ill health she gave up teaching. She was persuaded to 
travel for her Ahna Mata\ "NVilberforce, and starteil on a lec- 
turing tour, concluding at Hampton School, Virginia, where 
she was received with very great welcome. At the '* Soldiers* 
Home " she was cordially greeted and kindly cared for by the 
sister of Dr. Shipman. After taking a course in elocution she 
traveled again, having much gi*eater success, and receiving 
favorable criticisms from the press. For several years she has 
traveled with " The "Wilberforce Grand Concert Company,^' an 
organization for the benefit of Wilber force College. She has 
read before hundreds of audiences and tens of thousands 
of people, and has received nothing but the highest praise 


Miss Brown may be thought to gesticulate too frequently in 
some of her didactic selections ; but right here is shown that 
she discards the rigid rules of the books and follows nature, for 


sbo possesses an ardent temi)erainent, and nearly every sentence 
she utters in private conversation is made emphatic or impres- 
sive by a gesture or variation of the facial expression. 

Miss Drown {K)ssesses a voice of ** wonderful magnetism and 
groat compass/' At times she thrills by its intensity ; at tinuM 
it is mellow and soothing. SIio seems to have |K'rfect control 
of the muscles of Iier throat and can varv her voice as* sue- 
cessfuUy as a mocking bini. 

But we measure things largely by results. As a public 
reader Miss Brown delights, enthuses her audiences. In her 
humorous selections she often causes **wavo after wavo of 
laughter '* to roll over her audience. 

In her {Kithetic pieces she often moves her audience to 

In her didactic recitations she holds the listener spell-bound 
as she points out to him the shoals and quicksands or directs 
him to paths of right and truth. 

But tlie public press si^eaks and it has a right to be heard. 

The greatest compliment ever paid to Miss Brown, at least 
the one she doubtless appreciates the most, was receivetl under 
the following circumstances. While at Appleton, "Wis.^ she 
recited, among other selections, " IIow He Saveil St. Michael's." 
After the concert a lady came forward, requesting to be intro- 
duced to the elocutionist. The Bev. F« S. Stein then intro- 
duced to Miss Brown Mi*s. Dr. Stansbury, the author of *'IIow 
lie Saved St. Michael's.'* Madam Stansbury grasped the hand 
of the elocutionist and exclaimed : '*Miss Brown, I have never 
heard that piece so rendered before." This, notwithstanding 
a famous reader a few weeks before, had given the same selec- 
tion there, and advertiseil by announcing that sbo would 
render Mrs. Stansbury's famous poem. Miss Brown was con- 
fused. She did not even know the lady lived in the State, and 
did not dream of her presence in the house, hence she was 
taken completely by surprise, nor would she have attempted to 
give it had she heard of the presence of the authoress. The 
compliment was all the more appreciated because every elocu- 
tionist who Visits that section renders **8t. Michaers." 




Miss H. Q. Brown, the tlocuMonUt, ranks as ooe c f tho finest in the 
country.— i>ai/y Ncwb, Urbana, O. 

The select reading of ^liss H. Q. Brown is done to perfection. 8ho baa 
an excellent roice ami has good control of it. She makes every piece sound as 
if ft were the author speaking, and in many of them doubtless she excels the 
<Nae she imitates. — Xfogo, Jlf, 

Mif s Hallic Q. Brown, a general favorite at Island Park, rendered in her 
inimiuble style. *' The Creed of the Bells.*' A prolonged encoro followed.— 
Island Park *' A$»€mbly,** 

Tier style is pure and correct ; her selections excellent. Tho '* Fifty Miles 
an Hour'* made one thrill, it was so very imprcsiiive.— Long Branch (X. J.) , 

Miss Brown displayetl remarkable powers of pathos and dramatic elocu- 
tion. • • • • Her excellent dramatic talent was displayed to 
tiie best advantage in the selection entitled, *' Tho Sioux Chiefs Daughter." 
The audience was the largest ever gathere<l at a public entertainment in that 
place.— Newport (R. I.) 2s<w$. 

The readings of Miss H. Q. Brown confer a histrionic glow upon the 
oolorcd race. She is the superior of nine out of ten elocutionists before the 
. public. Her description of " The Bells " is a masterpiece of elocutionary art 
'Which will withstand the severest and most cultivated cridcism. Her prolong- 
miion of the tones of the bells is a wonderful representation of the poet's lines. 
Miss Brown's selections were all of a dilBcult order and exhibited great versa- 
tility and ability to reach in most of them a still better execution.— 2><ii7y 
Republican, Emporia, Ean. 

Of the recitations of ^liss Hallie Q. Brown too much cannot be said. As 
m reader she is the peer of any professional in the land.— Richmond (Ind.) 

Miss Brown in her elocution is unquestionably brilliant. Her "Fifty 
Miles an Hour," descriptive of Mrs. Garfield's ride to Washington when her 
busba&d was shot, was given with that generous touch of womanly feeling 
llkat made it tho gem of the entertainment.— Miami Jlclmct, Piqua, O. 

Most excellent was the dramatic leading of Miss Hallie Q. Brown, a grad- 
ate of Wilberforce College, and evidently a lady of much intelligence. 
• • • • Miss Brown is also at home in humorous pieces. The 
description of how a woman Joined the Masons was received with almost 
^ntinuous shouts of laughter, the members of that ancient and honorable 
order apparently appreciating it keenly.— Marion Tinu$ (la.). 

Miss Hallie Q. Brown has but few equals as an elocutionist. She has a 
sweet, flexible voice. Her enunciation is distinct, her manner graceful and 
her gesticulations eminently appropriate to the character of her selections. 
Some of her humorous selections caused wave after wave of laughter to roU 
9fer the audience and were most heartily encored.— Rod Oak (la.) Erprtu. 


Tbo recitatioDs and readings of Mlu Hallie Q. Drown were simply 
superb. Tbo magnetism , eloquence and wonderful compass of Toice, as devel- 
oped in "Uncle DanTsPra'ar/' ••Farewell, Brother Watkins/ and ''Aunt 
Jemima's Courtship/* might be equaled but could ncTer be surpassed .-^Ridi* 
mond (Ind . ) Indtpendeni, 

Tho readings of Miss Ilallio Brown were grand.— Urbana (0.) DenuKraU 

The clocutionnry cntertainmcot given by Miss Ilallic Q. Brown, a gradiu 
ato of Wilbcrforce, was worth doul)!e the price of admission. She has a 
wonderful voice, and a culture to mutch it. An c<Uicatctl and much-traveled 
gentleman who has listened to all the most noted elocutionists in this country 
and Kuropo was sn cntliusiastic over Miss Brown*s rendition of the ** Church 
DcUs/' that he declared ho never saw or heard it equaled ; that her manner, 
voice and gesture were all superior to anything lie hnd ever listened to or 
hoped to hear.— Uichmond (Ind.) Paladium. 

^liss Brown is quite tail, has auburn hair, a keen eye, a voice C'f remark- 
able compass and feature^ of great mobility. Iler selections were as follows : 
••The Last Hymn," •The Love Letter." •'How lie Saved St. Michacrs' 
—a thrilUug story In vcr^e relating how this famous Charleston (S. C.) church 
was s;ivcd from Arc by tho daring act of a slave. ** Jemima's Courtship/* 
•' Curfew Must Not Riug To-night/*— in which she exhibited intense dram- 
atic power. "Ameriky's Conversion/* "Uncle Daniers Vision.** ••The Little 
Hatchet.** and •'The Crcetls of the Bells.** Miss Brown stands by far above 
the readers we are accustomed to hear.— Washington (D. C.) Adtocate. 

Several of our prominent citizens were present who were greatly delighted 
with the skillful and accomplished manner with which MIs^ Brown rendered 
tho varied styles of elocution. — New Ilaven (Conn ) Paladium. 

Miss Ilallio Q. Brown, elocutionist of the Wilberforco Concert Company, 
has the distinguished honor of being the teacher in tho department of elocution 
at the 2i[onona Lake Assembly, and is meeting with great success.— Corres- 
pondence— Cleveland Gazette, 

^ • • • ^liea Ilallic Q. Brown was decidedly entertaining in 
her ciTorts in elocution. She "brought down the hou:ro " on various occasions 
and had to respond repeatedly to the spontaneous calls of the vast audience.— 
•• Monona Lake Assembly,** Madison (Wis.) Daily Democrat, 

Miss Brown is so well known in Xenia that one need not go into d4.tail in 
praise of tho good snd even perfoi mance of this talented lady ; she will make 
friends for herself wherever she goes. — TorehUght, Xenia (0.). 

Miss Ilallie Q. Brown, the elocutionist, who has always been a great 
favorite with Xenia audiences, was cheered to the echo, and in some of her 
picci'S was really interrupted by tho continuous applause. She certainly 
excels in her character delineations and varied modulations of tone, three- 
fourths of the elocutionists on the stage.— 2>a% Gazette, Xenia (0.). 

But the crowning feature of the company is tho elocutionist. Miss Hallie 
Q. Brown. Nothing finer in elocution has been heard in this city, with no 
exception or reservation in favor of other eminent elocutionists, who hare 
appeared in this dty. She ia capable of toaching every chord of emoikHi, 


equallj effecUte In pathos aod humor. Tho IntoDationt of hor voice are n% 
exquisite as those of an eolian harp, aod as melodious as music itself, aud ia 
dr^Duitic fenror and power of dramatic expression Miss Brown is inimitable. 
What for instance can be more melodious and touching than her recitation of 
the " Church Bells/* or what more genuinely humorous than the recitation of 
the original piece called ** The Apple?** Miss Brown cannot fail of establish- 
lug for herself a national reputation at no distant day.— /ilirpf/A/iV/i/i. Xenia(0.). 

MUs Hallie Q. Brown, the elocutionist with the company, was loudly 
applauded. Many credit Miss Brown with being one of the best elocutionists 
before the public. — Indianapolis Timts. 

Miu Brown, the elocutionist, is a phenomenon, and de^rves tho highest 
praise. She is a talenteii lady and deserves all the encomiums that she 
TeceiTes.-*The Dailif Sun. Vinccnnes (Ind.). 

The select reailing of MIas IlulUe Q. Brown was very fine. From grave 
to gay, from tragic to comic, with a great variation of themes and humors, 
ebe seemed to succeed in all, and her renderings were the spice of tho night's 
performance. — Monitor, Marion (III.). 

We must say the capacity of Miss Hallie Q. Brown to entertain an audi* 
eace is wonderful.— TW-Gn/n^y lUportcr. Qosport (Ind.). 

>Iis8 Brown's recitals will compare favorable with many of the female 
•locntictolsts who are classed with Mrs. Scott*SiddoQsand others of lessor note. 
— Yinetiities Daily Commireial. 


Educittor and Writer, 

RS. SNEED claims a very high place among the 

^5^^ literary women of tho race. For many years she has 

tthowD the trend of her genius as a writer, and though she is 
quite young, many a topic engaging the public mind has been 
treated at length with an erudite pen from her storehouse of 
thought. Ilappy indeed are they who live in the sunshine of 
Fate. Many Negro journalists have boasted of her favorsi 
realizing the gopd of her articles gracing their columns. Her 
writing possesses that smoothness, clearness and fearlessness so 
often said of the great writers. 

It is easily predicted that, should she live long, the race will 
be blessed with one other such woman writer as Mrs. Harperi 
one other such Christian as Mrs. Early, one other such cbival- 
roos woman as Sojourner Truth. 



EducaU/r'and irrlfcr. 

nsS lOKE E. AVOOB ranks to^ay amonf; tbe fore- 
„^^X. n'iosi of our women ; first, from the standpoint of 
acknowlMlged intellectual ability to Trrite ; second; as an earn- 
est educator and ruce ad- 
vocate. Not yet in tbo 
zenith of womanhoml, but 
in tUo ascendency, slio is 
unceremoniously climbing 
itsruggcdlieiglitswitb tbe 
will of a Trojan. For ber, 
as for others, God has des- 
tined to shine in tbe bright 
arena of American lioro- 
inos, and she feels the spirit 
on her to quietly and noise- 
lessly move unobserved in- 
to boi' place. Miss Wood 
does not make much noise, 
but howbeit she is heard in 
tbe press. The force of ber 
gcniu8,liko the great power 
wheel of movinf machin- 

. cry, is ever asserting itself io»% k. wood. 

and keeping aliro and up- 
permost in tbe minds of those who think tbe great topics 
agitating the Negro mind. 


/^\UR race possesses many young ladies of ability who 
\^;y would prove powerful factors in demonstrating the pos- 
sibilities of the race, if they would onlyexert tbcmselres and 
apply their energies. Not seeming to realize our need of tbe 
highest intellectual advancomeat, they pass throngh tbe soft 

'f, •• 

t . 



green m^oirs and flowing pathways of life, with no apparent 
aim. But, when we see a young girl, just budding into 
womanhood, in the face of many obstacles, making for herself 
a name that honors her and exalts the race, it is a pleasure to 
record her achievements. Such a one is the subject of this 

•^ ■ V . - ' . • , » . -i 

['.. ^ ,* 

• < \'' 


- ■ ,.^ 

♦ . • » 

jr. ^ ' ' t * ' '' - . 


« « 



sketch, Miss Yaletta Winslow. She was born in Chicago, III., 
January 25, 1871, and is the eldest of three sisters, daugh* 
tcrs of Elisha and Emma Winslow. She resided in Iier native 
city almost fourteen years, about half of which time she at- 
tended the public schools. Ilcr father having taken up his 
residence in California, early in November, 1884, she, in com- 


pany with lier mother and sisters, departed for the far West, 
arriving in Oakland, Cah, on the ninili day of November. In 
tlii8 beautiful city, the Atliens of the Pacific Coast, where the 
very best educational facilities are free to all, the family took 
up its residence. She began her 8cho<il career there in Janu* 
ary , 1885. She made excellent progress and attended regularly 
until February 14, 1890, when, owing to failing health, she 
was CQm|>elled to discontinue her studies. The possessor of 
commendable ambition, but, unfortunately, not of a robust con- 
stitution, she undertook too many studies, and the result was 
impaired health. ITowever, she was able to complete her 
junior year in the High School, and did so very creditably. 
Miss Winslow had a s|>eoial taste for elocution, and to this 
study she devoted much of her spare time while attending 

Ilcr teacher was Mrs. Carro True Boardman, one of the 
leading elocutionists of the Pacific Coast. After a short, but 
much necde<l and beneficial rest, she began studying again by 
taking up Delsarte and elocution as a si^ecialty, and the pro- 
gress she made was truly phenomenal. Possessed of a kind 
and generous nature, she gave unstintedly of her time and tal- 
ento to every worthy cause, and, as a consequence, was a 
general favorite. 

On the 16th of May, 1891, she was publicly presented with 
a handsome lace pin by the Maisonic fraternity. The pin con- 
sisted of two pendants, a cross and the square and compass, 
significant of the best motives and resolves in the Masonic 
world, — a suggestive token of appreciation of her kind and 
generous qualities. In July, 1892, Miss Winslow filled a 
special engagement with the Chautauqua Assembly at Pacific 
Grove. And when we inform the reader that this Assembly 
is composed of some of the ablest men and brightest women on 
the Coast, that its entire membership is refined and of exalted 
tone, the importance of such an engagement is plainly evident. 
The following extracts from leading daily papers give an 
excellent impression of the talent and artistic ability possessed 
by Miss Winslow: 


Hiss Valetta L. Wlnslow, in all her public performances here, has shown 

OAoat remarkable power, especially ai a Delsirtist. cirryiog her audiences 

\>y storm, iler facial expressions wore a constant surprise, expressive of tho 

▼aHous pasiioas and emotions of the soul, while every morement was grace 

mjid beauty. She has made, without a doubt, a fine record at this assembly, 

mxkd bar future will be watched with increasing Interest by the host of Chau- 

tAuquans and the friends in attendance on these unusually attractive exercises. 

It is to be hoped that she will be engaged for assembly next year.^Ci^r. San 

JoH Mercury, July 7, 1S02, 

Hiss WinsloVs recitation, *'Aux Italicns," was gracefully rendered and 
^ell received. Her portrayal of tho didrrcnt pns^ions and emotions that oft- 
times rack we poor mortals sore were true to tho letter, particularly revenge, 
pain, abject fear, and entreaty. The lady is the personlllcntion of grace and 
ease, lithe aa a panther and willowy us a reed.— Pa^#/e Gro^e Review, July 
9, tS02. 

Then camo the most pleasing event of the afternoon— Hins Valetta 
Winslow in Tableaux d'Art. She ir.ivo forty*nino different expressions, 
such a^ anger, horror, bash fulness, ridicule, etc., with appropriate gestures. 
The gifted young lady created great enthusiasm. Tho various expressions 
were to the life, and her gestures were full of charming grace and appropri- 
mtenets. She was recalled, and recited "Sister and I,'* with powerful expres* 
•ion and gesture.— Sun Francfseo Call, Aug, 4, 2802, 

Among Miss Winslow's personal letters none ore more 
higiily prized than the two following: 

^ Miss Valetta L. Winslow, as Delsartist and elocutionist, 
was engaged for the Pacilic Grove Chautauqua AssembW in 
July, 1S92. Her work was artistic, and gave great satisfac- 
tion. As a Delsartist her movements were most graceful, and 
her delineations of the various emotions of tlie soul full of 
force and artistic power. I cheerfullv commend her and her 
work." A. C. hiRST, D. D., 

Prcsiilmt Pnvtjic Orovc Assembly, 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 4, 1S92. 

^ I have bad the extreme pleasure of hearing Miss Valetta 
Winslow as an elocutionist, and witnessed her rendition of the 
Delsarte system. I can conscientiously say that she surpasses 
any person in her line that I have met. I can cheerfully rec- 
ommend her as an A No. 1 artist, both as a Delsartist and elo- 
cutionist.** A. WALTERS, D. D., 

Bishop A. 3L K Zion Church. 
Sax Fjiancisoo, Cau, February 16, 1893. 

Tusm TRicvpna and acuvjtjss. sh 

In conoluf^ing this eketob, we appreciate the ability of the 
ne^rspnper critics and the fine paru of the men whose testi- 
mony is herein rcconlctl. When talented journalists and abla 
dirincs of the dominant race nse such glowing language to 
express their Appreciation of a young colored lady's ability 
comment is unnooessary. 


WlIEoccompanying portrait is of Dr. Ida Gray, the only 
A fro- American lady dentist. Miss Gray resides in 
Cincinnati, and was one of the vory many who received 
their oducntionnl start in Gaines ili^li School. On leaving 
this school she onturvd the 
dental department of the 
University of Hichignn, 
from which she grnduntcil 
in 1800. On returning to 
her home she oi>enctl a 
very cozy ofllco on 0th 
street, and lins in these 
two years built up a Inrgo 
practice, having as many 
white 08 coloretl (mtients. 

Miss Gray is a very 
refined lady, of whom 
the editor of the Phnct 
snys; " Ilor blushing, 
winning way makes you 
feel like finding an extra ^ 
tooth any way to allow dk, idaomav. 

her to pull." 

As a result of strict attention to business and the thorough- 
ness of her work she is kept constantly busy. Cincinnatiaos 
are proud of their Afro-Amarioan lady dentist, and she in 
every respeot proves herself worthy of their oonGdenoe and 
admiration. — In BingwootPt Journal. 

«« jrOTED NBOnO WOitEN, 


Virginians First Woman Physician, 

ARAH G. JOXES, M. D., tho first woman to bo licensed 
to practice medicine in Virginia, is a daughter of George 
AV. l}oyd, tho leading colored contractor and builder of this 
city. She was born in Albemarle county, Va., and e<luoated 
in the public schools of Richmond, being graduated in 1883. 
She then taught in the schools of this city for five years. In 
ISSS Miss Boyd was married to M. I}. Jones, who, at that time, 
was also a teacher, but now is G. W. A. Secretary of the True 
Reformers. Mrs. Jones entered Howard Medical College, 
Washington, D. C, in 1890, and was graduated this year with 
the degree of M. D. She ap{>eared before the State Medical 
Examining Board with eighty-four others and received a certifi- 
cate, which entitles her to secure a license to practice her 
profession. Mrs. Jones received over 00 per cent, on the 
examination in surgery. Out of the class of eighty-five twenty- 
one white graduates, representing several colleges, failed to 
pass. Dr. Jones and her husband are representatives of the 
best society of colored people in the State, and are well-to-do 
people. When a school teacher she was known as one of the 
brightest young colored women in the city. She will practice 
among her race. 


PlantsU Mnsic 2*cachcr. 

'HE biography of of Mrs. Leslie would necessitate a 
lengthy, but pleasing account of her busy life even in 
the realm of music. It is not our purpose to make the least 
attempt to say half that might be said in her favor. 

For many years she has figured very conspicuously among 
the very best musicians of the race, in fact her field of useful- 
ness takes in a wide scope of country not only many of the 
Southern States, but Indian Territory. She is now located %t 
Corpus Cbristi, Texas, where she has started a musical conser- 
Tatory wherein our ladies may pursue to completion the lyrio 


art. For many years tlioso of our race that were musically in- 
clined were almost comi>oUeil to leave the State, travel over a 
wide stretch of country anil nnilor gi-cat expenses, in order to 
BO til tliomsclvcs siiftur liio diBnilvantiij-o of absence from the 
liome circle. Mrs. Leslie linally conclmlcii tliat Corpus Cliristi 
vvonlil 1)0 a good tiold fur her activities, it being ilie homo of 
her brother, I'rof. Colo that orudito scholar from tlio classic 
llalla of Valo College, and honoc moved there from Muscogee 
Iniliiin Territory 18D2. Siuoo there Iicr practical life bas 
added much to tlie social 
status of our race, and in 
molding public sentiuieat 
from the 8tanJ|>oiiit of 
music. Wordsseem indeed 
verydull when wo attempt 
to give the sli^litest hint 
of the good she has ac- 
complished. Wliat Prof. 
Cole is, {13 a scholar, she 
is. as a mustciai). It has 
always Irecn the dispooi- 
tion of this talented lady to 
excel in music, and those 
who have been under her 
IKiiniitalving instruction, or 
those wlio have had the 
pleasure of giving them- 
selves up to listen to the plaintive notes under her mellifluous 
execution, join in the universal verdict that the spell o'er cast 
is not only delightful, but entrancing. 

lilusic indeed thougli termed easy of aocomplisbment, and 
considered not a task, is really one of the finest arts which if 
ncciiiired becomes for the scholar one of the divinest arts, and 
made more noticeable in proportion to the complication of it. 
It has long been sorely abused especially wben we consider 
the rude appelation applied to us as a musical race — Musical in 
the rough. Why not musical in the Bnel 


'• t 

Mrs. I^slie is demonstrating: wonderfuilv anil well in a 
I^eculiar section of country, what our women can do in tlie art 
and science of music. SbQ is not only talented as a reader and 
performer of her art, but is a comix)ser of some prominence. 
Her fort however lies in the imparting to her pupil with ease» 
what she does and knows. 

Aside from music, she is scholarly, gifted with force of 
character and the iinpress of her genius leaves the germ of 
ambition wherever it is stampeil. 

Hence the nice, which has proiluced other great minds to 
shine forth proclaiming progress in various walks of. life may 
feel prouu of Mrs. Leslie who along with many more of her 
sex. is doing what she can to explode the doctrine of infenor 
f/H/#/V and the ap|iellation, musfcaf race hi Ihc rough. Much is 
accomplished with bard labor, and nothing without. With 
oar subject as with all who succeed it is labor omnia vincd. 



Wins talentcil lady was born in Ronton, of high and well- 
known parents, in fact, the Ilo^vards possess a much 
envieil family lineage, as indeed it reaches far down many gen- 
erations. She is a cousin to Miss J. Imogene Ilowanl, who is 
hononnl with the distinction of being a huly member of tiie 
Xew York WorUl's Fair committee. Miss Nahar was educa. 
ted in the public schools of Boston, and linished in the Fort 
Edwards Collegiate Institute, and soon thereafter spent a sea- 
son at Boucicault^s Madison Dramatic School, where she, on 
account of her genius, as well as being a favorite aspirant for 
stage honors, was not allowed to {my the customary $10 as an 
entrance fee. 

Prior to finishing; her education at Fort Edwards Institute, 
on account of her adaptability for reading, a class aspiring for 
elocntionar}* honors was placed under her charge. So well 
did she discharge her duties under that weight of responsibility 

77/^//; TnivmHi8 and activities. 


that two of bcr pupils carried off two of tlio prizes offereil at 
the end of the school year. 

Since her ihbut she has not been idle by any means, but to 
the contrary, as her record will show. Thus it will prove to 
the youth of our race that nothing is accomplished without 
great labor. And those young ladies who desire to be known* 
which is to be admireii, will look upon this record with Longfel- 
low's Psalm of Life u)K>n their pure lips; they can ** make their 
lives sublime*' only to the 
extent of the sacrifice thev 
make in the world of pleasure, 
ami strive with all their 
might to shine in the world 
of grand human accomplish* 

She has given sixty-eight 
readings in Boston. Her 
initial bow was made Nov. 
10, 18SC, and Nov. 2, 1887, 
she gave her iirst ])ress con- 
cert in the famous Chickering 
Hull, being the second promi- 
nent woman of her race to 
api>ear behind its footlights. 
At two different times she 
has api>eareil before 6,000 
people in her native city. 

In 1890. Nov. 17, she read 
before 5,000 people in the 

Academy of Music, Philadelphia, with the famous Marine band» 
from Washington. She has read in ten concerts in the British 
Provinces, read in thirty-one States, 300 cities and at over 80O 
concerts. Out of this vast number she has been her own man- 
ager. Indeed, she has so far exceeded the ex|>ectation of many 
of her compeers as a manager that she is awakening to tho 
fact that she can not only manage for herself but for others. 
This new career dawned in her busy life with all its sweet 



anil bitter vicissituiles on the 6th ami 7th of February, 

On the 27th and 2Sth of February she gave a cantata for 
children, at Bethel A. M. E. Church, in Chicago, and had 
packed houses each night. On the 7th and 8ih of March she 
managed for Mme. Sisseretta Jones (otiierwiso known by the 
music lovers of this country as The Black Patti), and packed 
Zion Church (Sew York city) those two nights. 

MISS nauak's recital. 

The Chicago Aj}jH'al says: ''A fair house greeteil Miss Ed. 
norah Xahar, of Boston, at Bethel Wednesday evening, to 
listen to a very pleasing program. Miss Nahar, from point of 
grace on the stage, has very few equals, and to gaze U|H>n some 
of her beautiful iK>ses was alone worth the price of admission. 
MissKahar showeil to best advantage in the < Sioux Chiefs 
Daughter/ and in her numerous selections she made a decided 
hit. The support of Miss Theodora Lee was very commendable. 
Miss Lee has a very sweet voice, and in her rendition of * Snow* 
flakes * would have done credit to a professional. Miss Ger- 
trade Washington, as accompanist^ displaying her usual skill.'* 

The Indianapolis Freeman says: ^' Miss Ednorah Nahar, the 
reader, is an assistant teacher of clocuiiou at Fort Edward 
Collegiate Institute.^ 


Misd Nahar's all star aggregation renders excellent pro* 
gramm^ to packed houses at Bethel Church Monday and 
Tuesday evenings. The ** Black Patti" concerts at Bethel 
Church were great successes, both artistically and Unancially. 
They reflect credit on the i>crform6rs, and especially on Miss 
Ednorah, who conceived the idea and brought it to successful 
issue. No entertainments ever given in Bethel Church have 
ever drawn such large audiences of Chicago's most intelligent 
and refined people. 


Hits EdnoraKsbar is a reader of talent. Her gestures are easj, grace- 
fill, a^ to the point. While her stage presence would do credit to aoany a 
prafesaional actress.— BM(ai» Daily AdMrtimr. 


Her general style is good* hermanner pleasing, added to this she is most 
fortunate in the possession of a voice which is a manrel of sweetness and puritx 
of tone.— Bfft^^n Evening leveller, 

i^Iiss Nahar's rendition of the " Chariot Race,*' from *' Ben Hur ** was a 
rcyelatioD, and too much can not be said in praise of it With aclear resonant 
voice, full of fire and dramatic action the electrified her hearers and held 
them spell-bound to the cod. She has a fine voice, and an earnest and 
expressive face. — The Boston PiM, 

Mi6s Nauar in her description of the " Chariot Race," from *' Ben liar'* 
showed a notable dramatic skill— Am^a Evening Traneeript. 

MissNAiiARhtis won for herself the title of ''Boston's fAvorite elocu* 

Her art is no art, but nature itself. She is both elocutionist, and 
actress.— JVe/r;H>rf (/?. /.) Daily yuri. 

Miss Ednora Narar, in her dramntio reading the "Sioux Chief's 
Daughter/* mndo a strong hit, and her two bxcorb pieces showed a versatilitx 
rarely "seen.— Z/ti///lrw<i\r. D.) Morning UeraUL 

As a dramatic render Miss Nauar has few equals. Of her readings ws 
can say nothing but words of praise. — St, John (iV. /?.) Giobf. 

Miss Naiiar as an elocutionist, Is superb. Her voice i^ well modulated, 
her enunciation is very clear and distinct, and she possesses perfect control 
over her vocal organs. Her recitation of the " Organ Builder" and " The 
Pilot's Story," were pathetic, while the curse scene of "Leah, the Forsaken,** 
was apiece of stage work hartl to be beaten. Miss Nahar*s humorous pieces 
took the house by storm. " Aunt Jomimah*s Courtship ** and " The Lord's 
of Creation " were charming, wliilc the rich Irish brogue she brought out in 
her rendition, "Low Back Car*' was perfection itself.— ZViii9i/2< DttUg 
Htgifter {Dem,) 

Miss Nauar is an elocutionist of rare ability and power. Her diction Is 
clear and her gestures full of grace. Her selections are the best. It Is not 
saying too much of her to say, she reminds one very much in her stage 
movement and easy manner of Mojcska.— G^fMfMfraro 2<forth Sht^re, 

Mirts Naiiar's appearance here was a success in every particular. She made 
herself a favorite in her .Irst piece. *' The Pilot's Story,** and the enthusiasm 
kept up during the entire readings. Her manner is decidedly easy and grace* 
ful ou the stage. In the curse scene from " Leah " she not only sustained her 
reputation as a clear reader, but gave evidence of considerable histrionic 
power.— JrrtjA. Cor, of New York Age. 

Miss Ednora Nahar received a great amount of applause, and her 
rendition of the curse scene from " Leah, the Forsaken" was ss fine a bit of 
acting as we have 9ooia.^0hariotte Chronicle, 

Miss Nauar, of Boston, was particularly greeted to the echo, in her 
almost perfect rendition of dramatle selections.— iVprfoM; Evening Tekgram. 


*' Auxltalknt*' by MiasNxiiAR, was interpretod with a newer aod subtile 
mcsQing than erer before, it was pathetic, tender, loving, Arefull, fenrid and 
dramatic, each following in place with a sequence that only comes with 
^oius.—T^ Philadflphia Weekly Sentinel, 

Miss Nahar is prepossessing in appearance, graceful in movement, and 
confident in bearing.' She p^sesses decided dramatic powers has a fine 
▼oice, strong, pufe, llezible and quite voluminous. ~C7((eo^^M{ (0.) Oazette. 

In " A.UX Itiliens,** Miss Nahar displayed original conception as well as 
extraordinary powers of execution, she has command of her voice, and her 
r«Qditions are more like interpretations than recitations*—^. AouU Advance, 

Miss Edmoaah ^anAit, as an elocutionist is superb.— r^d Daily Record, 
Columbia, C. S. , 

Tha honors of the evening were properly awarded MissNauau, who is a 
f rf«t favorite in St. John. Her '* Chariot Race** from" Ben Ilur " was a mas- 
terpiece of itirring power, while in Cleopatra in Egyptian costume she 
brought out fully ihh tremendous passion of that poem— iDiiiV.v Telegraph, St, 
John, N. B. 

In the " Chariot Race " and " Cleopatra" an ele;;ant Egyptian costume 
afforded every opportunity for displaying to the best her wonderful abili. 
MeM.'^ihe Daily Sun, St. John, N. B. 

Her voice one. always remembers with pleasure. It is said the charm of 
Booth's voice rciQains with one who has heard him, this is not much to say of 
Miss TiAUML-^CineinnaU Enterprise, 

Miss Xajiar is a talented lady whose *' Sioux Chief's daughter " given in 
Indian costume was finely rendered, while the "Chariot Rico'* from Wal. 
mce*s *' Ben IIuf '* was a revelation.— Ario Tark Afail and Express, 

- At the Hyperion Theatre about 1000 people attended the concert given by 
the Dixwell Ave. Church, besides the Tale Banjo anl Apollo Club, Miss 
MAiiARof QoHon, a highly gifted elocutionist wis received with great 
applause.— /A^Pa^^'fi 'I ^n, New Hivcn, Conn: 

Miss Nahar is a reader of wonderful talent, very graceful and expressive; 
her selections are particularly refined* — Philadelphia Advance, 

Her gestures are easy and graceful and she posses^se rare gifts and 
powers as an elocutionist.— />i/r^iii (y. C^ Daily Sun. 

Miss Nauar is undoubtedly a genius, to equal her would be a task for 
many whose reputation is broader. " Aux Italiens '* and the Curse scene 
from " Leah the Forsaken " were wonderful.— iZri^i^A (y. C) Cfironicle, 

Miss Nahar captivated the audience with her vivacity, aod the *' Char* 
iol Race" brought d>irn the house.— /7ir</br(< (Oann,) Telegram'Record 

Miss Narar's dramatic readings were splendid and drew forth hearty 
applause.— iV/rvit F^ree Press, 

'* Aux Italiens** was magnificently rendered, but the climax was In the 
Oerden scene from ** Mary Stuart.*' In the character of 3Iary Stuart it is not 

Tnsm TRiuupns and activitibs, i48 

too much to say her conception would hnTe done credit to Charlotte 
Cu8hman» Jauncschek or lUsbtori.— Artr/N?rl, R, /. Dait^ yews. 


Shctsagcnius.— Ex-8kci(BTarv Noblb. 

She has power and the sacred fire of genius, and onght soon to be at the 
top as an aotrcaa.— Dion Bouccicault. 

She lias power, force, talent and genius and should forsake the platform 
for tho singe— John Boylk O'Riblly. 

She has gircn fire readings at the Soldier's Home and has successfully 
entertained the theatre full of old soldiers. I consider her a reader of rare 
talent.— P. WooonN, Governor Soldier's Home, Hampton, Va. 

She is the finest I have ever heard.— Fredbricb I>ouoi.ass. 

Her *' Chariot Race** from Ben Hur was magnificently rendered.— Cou 


Miaa Naaar has plenty of talent.- MoDJBaKA. 


Emlnait Teacher^ Sint/cr, Pianist. 

NE of the most talented women of the race is Miss Ella 
F. Shepbard of Fisk Jubilee fame, wbo for u number of 
years traveled tbrougb the United Sta^tes, Euroi)e and otber 
foreign countries delighting with her company of singers the 
many thousands who flocked to hear them and even until now 
say lasting words of praise of them. 

She is an intellectual model of most genial nature, ambit- 
ious; yea one, who has lived laborious days, and shunned de- 
ligbtSi that she mi^ht do educational service for her race. For 
a number of years she served as lady principal of Prairie View 
Normal Institute of Texas, and resigned to recruit the Ofd 
Jubilee Troupe. Uer qualilications as a musician, if the ^^ Attest 
servive," may beconsidered a criterion, are par excellence. Those 
who have sat under the mellifluous music of her voice, have ex- 
pressed their inspired admiration, with their greatest earnestness. 

The greater portion of her useful life has been spent in the 
South where the greatest battles with ignorance have to be 
fought, as a teacher she has always been equal to the emer- 
gency and superior to the general rule. Wherever she has 
taught the whites as well as those of her race have become 
her faithful and lasting friends. Later in life she has filled 


very dignified x>08itions as professor in some of our leading 
instiLnlioDs of learning. 

Her race affiliations are not contracted to a few teachers 
and ministers, but tbe broad field of Iter active life has brought 
lier in social touch with tbe leading spirits of our Idth century 
civilization. Her worth cannot be estimated in words, she has 
lived in deeds, not tbe extended life of many, boivever, bat tbe 
tireless activity of this noble heroine tell. 


Emiulrt iiiul EiUI)>r. 

riSS McEWEN is Olio of the best essayists of tbe South. 

' As a writer she is possessed with that grace and ease 

that is BO noticeable among the great writers. She bos, for a 
numberof years, assisted her father in tbe publication of a very 


able Baptist journal, and with both tongue and pen helped to 
make it a very newsy as well as flourishing newspaper. She is 
quite young, yet her abihty with the pen gives her notoriety 
envied by many twice her ago. A remarkable, a useful and 
■ illaslrions life, full of good deeds and grand acoomplishmenu 
in behalf of her race, beckon ber on. 

Timm rnruiipiis axd activities. an 


PlanUt and TeacliCT. 

TC^RS. BURGAN is a graUnate from one of the leading 

_^:^j/^consorvatorioB of musioof America. She was etiuca- 

tcil in itio pablic schools of Detroit, Mich., and at quite an early 

age showed the qualifioatioDsforTrbicb her father, grandfather, 

and, in fact, her whole 

family for three op more 

generations back, hare 

been famoiis-lhatof music. 

Ilcr father for many 

years was leader of the 

best orchestra of her 

native city. 

For a number of years 

she taught niiisio in the 

Texas Dlind Asylum for 

colored youtli; in fact, 

she was the first lady that 

was honored with a posi> 

uu. CORA L. nuuoAK. 'ion in the Institute. Later 

she was ajipointed to a 

]>roinincnt position as tcncber in the Paul Quinn CoUe^, by the 

affabk Dr. I. M. Burgan, wlio in 18S9 made her thd mate 

for his useful career. 

Mrs. Burgan is pleasing, courteous — in fact destined to be a 
grand and useful woman to her race. 

A$ a Jburiuillnt. 
TiN journalism, as in every other calling, women arc occupy* 
^ ing a very conspicuous place. We recoircil on our 
exchange table last week R'm'jamo<ra Afro-American Journal 
of Ftuhion,^\ii»i by Mrs. Julia Ring\Tooil Coston, of Clore- 
lood, Ohio. It is a beaatiful twelve-page joomal, and the only 


publication of its kind on the market. Every colored woman 
in America should read xt.-^Lynchburg Counselor. 

Mrs. Coston says : 

^ The vibrations of our silent sufTering are not inefifeotive. 

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They touch and communicate. They awaken interest and 
kindle sympathies which arouse public consciousness and bid 
it to pity and revolt against the injustice of the oppression. 
They touch the keyboard of our human mind and oonvey 

rnsrR triumpus and activities. 253 

through the nerve keys the sympathies of the intelligent, 
humane and Christian public a knowledge of our grievances 
in all parts of this broad land, which will at some time, we 
believe, not distant, secure to our children the protection of 
the Church and State. The cruelty of the treatment of Afri- 
can women in the South touched this keyboard in eighteen 
hundred and fifty-six. Our mothers had suffered long in hope- 
less endurance. But at last the keys moved and a Lincolaic 
voice spoke and they received the protection of the State. 
Through this board Lincoln Spoke to the Church and State. 
Bv the editorials upon our barbarous treatment in the South 
and injustice of our treatment in the North we acknowledge 
an earnest desire for a humane South and Christian North. It 
will increase in potency, and secure for Afro-American women 
and children all the blessings of this great country." 

As to women writers, ami what she thinks, let the following 
speak for itself : 


They have a place in all our hearts ; the men adore them, 
and the women love them, yet they are e^ontially feminine. 
They know naught of woman's rights and universal 
suffrage ; they are not troubled with the affairs of Sute, nor 
are they agents of reform. They are women, adorable women, 
into whose minds has crept no vicious longing for publicity, 
no hunger to unsurp the sphere of men. 

Wtmld it not be well to make such women models for our 
girls ? Would it not be well to consider a little what arc the 
deepest, truest, highest rights of womankind I Would it not 
be well to look ahead a bit and ponder, what sort of a world 
will it be when femininity shall be extinct? 

Women have so many rights that are truly theirs, so many 
opportunities for influence upon the great world, that they 
may stop and consider, not how to obtain more, but how to 
make the best use of what already is theirs. 

There pertains to true womanhood a sanctity and a punty 
without which the world must suffer. Politicians, lawyers and 


financiers can all be recruited from tlie ranks of men, but 
where are we to find the softening, relinin^ iniluences of life if 
our women cease to be such ? 

No one who comes in contact with homes that are Imppy 
and attractive can doubt the influence of her who is their 
inspiration. A truly feminine woman, one who is thoroughly in 
sympathy with great and noble thoughts, has a power so pene« 
trating that our girls have need of careful training if they are 
to learn to w»old it well. 

Every true man has stored away in his heart an ideal 
woman such as would require all the strength and power of 
the real individual to realize. Surely the sphere can not be 
low or limited that possesses such iK>ssibiIities, and surely the 
hip^hest, most inalienable right must be that of realizing them. 

Not for one moment is it meant to speak a light or dispar- 
aging wonl of that noble army of women who, finding 
themselves thrown on their own resources, have bravely taken 
up the burden and borne it through the thick of the fight. To 
these be all honor acconled. 

It is not the silent army of workers who do harm, but the 
ostentatious seekers after notoriety. Tiiero is no good reason 
why a woman should cease to be feminine because she is 
compelled to work, but it too often hap{>ens that the girls who 
are forced to earn their own living become embued with a 
spirit of bravado. 

Gallantry belongs to all strong, vigorous men ; their natural 
impulse is to protect and help the struggling woman? But 
^hat is to be done with an unsexed creature, a thing neither man 
nor woman ? In every situation in life, at home surrounded by 
luxury, or in the world struggling for preference, a woman's 
womanhood is her surest, strongest shield. 

Recently there has ap))eared in the world of letters a 
certain class of women writers who have thrown off the veil of 
modesty, and who, in the name of reform, pose as martyrs, 
sacrificing themselves to a great work. To all such would-be 
missionaries it may be admissible to hint that the loss of one 
ehaste womanly woman does more harm than any number of 


novols can ever do good. Also, it might bo suggosted that, 
inasmuch as books are read, not by a limited class only, but by 
a largo public, thoro is danger that more minds become polluted 
than purified by their influence. 

Only an utter lack of femininity could make it possible for a 
woman to stand before the world and proclaim its vice. The 
harm her example may do to the young and ignorant aspirants 
for literary honors is only paralleled by the cause she has 
given mankind to hold her womanhood in light esteem. 

As to the wortliiness of RingiooocPa Jourtuxly of which Mrs. 
Ooston is the editress, we insert a few of the many'comments 
from persons and presses : 

Walnut Hills, O., Kaich 1, 1892. 
Mas. CosTOM. 

Dtar Madam: I am mucb ploatod with '* Rlo/^wood/' and wish it a bcarij 
success. Such a Jouniai should be sustained bj our people throughout the 

Wo havo among us hero and there women and men of considerable liicrarj 

ability Andstorlinff moral worlh. of whom wo may bo proud, who havoliltbcrto 

led lives of such seclusion that they are not known beyond the locality in which 

they resldo by name» yet whose Inllucnco has been wielded for good, and who 

ould not bo encouraged to remain in obscurity. 

I can ima.i^ino what a great undortAkIng yours is ; but Qod is always pn 
the side of the right, and *' perseverance commands success." 

Enclosed ploaso dnd my yearly subscription. Hoping that I sliall soon be 
in condition to send a short paper for the Joftmal, and bidding you God-speed 
in your noblo work, I am, and hope to remain, yours for improvement, 

Sabah O. Jotf es, 86 Ciiapel street. 

Ringwood^B Afro* American Journal of Fashion, ^Ited by MrH. Julia Ring- 
wood Coston. Cleveland, 0., the only illustrated Journal of colored ladies in 
the world. Besides the latest Parisian fashions of ladies' gowns, etc., it con- 
tains biographical sketches of prominent ladies of the race and of promising 
young misses., edited by the Mrs. M. 0. Church Terrel, Washington. D. C, 
with the following departments: " Plain Talk to our Girls.** edited by Mrs. 
Prof. J. P. Shorter. Wilbcrforce University ; " Art Department," edited by 
Miss Adina White, Cincinnati, 0.: " Mother's Comer,'* edited byMrs. £. C. 
Kesbit, Cincinnati, O.; '* Literary Depattment,*' by Mrs M. E. Lambert, Detroit, 
Mich.; ** Home Department,'.* by Miss 8. Mitchell, Cleveland, 0. 

The current Issue oif Ringi$ood^9 Ladiot' Magazine contains two very able 
articles from the pen of Mrs. fiamestine Clark Nesbit and Miss AdIna Wliite**-* 
Bidimond Pianti. 




631 Pa&k Rott. New York. May 22» 1892. 
Editiicm Rinowood*8 Journal. 

Ikar Madam: Through the kindness of some one. I have lately received 
a Siinple copy of Jiingieood'$ Journal for April. I bin lUlightaJ vrith it, and 
•^Dcercly wi^ you positive and permanent success in establishing it. It is so 
pura. so womanly — positively agreeable in its every feature as reading for 
private home, instruction and guidonce. Please find enclosed (f 1 .25) one dollar 
and twenty-fire cents for yearly subscription, beginning with the May number 
Again wishing yoli every success, I am, very sincerely yours. 

Victoria Earlb. 


Dear Madam: Through the kindness of Miss Mitchell I am made the 
happy recipient of your most satisfactory publication. Many of my patrons 
have expressed themselves concerning its value, iu novelty and its force, 
sMid the belief engendered by such vehemence causes me to assure you of a 
subscription list in Waco. 

Though your project be new and youthful as to age. you may freely dis- 
pel the delusion of failure, when taking into consideration the able associates 
at your commind. Words, notwithstanding taking their poetical regularity, 
seem very dull when I attempt to say gooil of that which to me seems liest— > 
JHnffirood'M Afrom American Journal of Fashion possessing a multitude of 
boastful features is before me in fact a reality . Pure, yet simple, characteriz. 
ingthe sublime force of education, of woman' prosperity, and portraying 
ataying qualities in the field of journalism. 

Respectfully, M. A. Majors, M. D. 

June 29, 1802. 

Rin good's A fro- American tA>i/r/)aZ^/(i«At<>n has made its appearance 
in this city. It is a likely Journal, edited by Julia Riugwood Coston. of 
Cleveland, Ohio, a colored woman of more than ordinary literary' ability. 
The illustrations are numerous and well executed. The many departments, 
especially those for boys and girls, are well edited by educateil colored women 
Its success is assured.— Philadelphia Recorder, 

A new fashion Journal published in Cleveland, Ohio, is one that is sure to 
attract attention, as it is a well-conducted and bright bit of work. It is espe- 
cially designed to be an Afro*American magazine, and is edited in its differ* 
ent departments by colored women, but the pleasing fashion articles, instruc- 
tive talks with girls and mothers, and witty all-around parogrophs and inter* 
eating love stories make Ringwood's Magazine a welcome addition to any home, 
whether ita occupants be black or white.— Philadelphia Tima, 

The KoTember number of Ringwood's Afro-American Journal of Fashion, 
needle-work, reading, etc.. is a handsome appearing work and reflects credit 
upon the publisher, Mrs. W. H. Coston. of this city. It contains much infor 
nuOlOD of Interest to the colored people of the city — -Oleyeland World, 

Ringwood's Afro-American Journal of Fashion, published by Mrs. W. H. 
GoatOB, of Clcreland* Ohio, has reached our office. In appearaacs it la a 



typographical beauty and its matter it nicely compiled nod interspersed 
with cuts dear to the femiDinc beart. It Is the first publication of the 
kind, and should have the support of the Afro-Ainerican women of the land, 
as it is published by an Afro-American woman, and fully represents them ** as 
tliey arc intelligent, virtuous and beautiful." Rates #1.25 per year.— The 
State Journal, Philadelphia. Pa. 

liingteood's Afro- American Journal of Fashion, published in Clcreland. 
Ohio, is deserving first recognition by the race among our papers. We say 
this because of the poruliarmakoAip of this J'>urns1, The Ring teoo(r$ Journal 
is a combination of literary taste and modern fasliioo, and pre-eminently 
accepted in the families and homes of the most cultured and refined of Amer- 

The Journal it editecl by Julia Ringwood Coston, Cleveland. Ohio ; osso* 
ciaie editors are : l^Iiu Sarah Mitcliotl, of the same place ; Miss Adina E. 
White, Cincinnati ; Mrs. 8. I. Shorter, Wilberforce: Mrs E. C. Nesbit. Cln- 
cinnstl ; Mrs. M. E. Lambert, Detroit ; Mrs. Bishop D. F. Lee. Philadelphia, 
and Mrs. hi. C. Tcrrill, Washington, D. C. The ladies arc managing their 
respective departments with ability and literary tact. The illustration and 
(nshion department in the current number for June is admirably arranged, 
and shows very conclusively that A fro- American Journalism is advancing. 
Thisis the only magazine of the kind published in the world by our ladies, 
and for this reason alone it is suggestive of high appreciation that none can 
show more heartily than the race which these ladles so eminently represent.— 
Florida Sentinel. 

Port au PRiifCB, IIatti, W. L, June U, ISOH. 
Mrs. JoLiA RiNowooD Coston, 

Publisher and proprietor Ringieood'e Journal, Cleveland, Ohio : 
Dear Madam : The sample copy of your Journal, so kindly sent by yoo, 
has been received. 

I pcnised it with great interest, and noted with pleasure the peculiar 
characteristics of its engravings. 

Strange as the fact may seem to yoU it will be the first Journal of fashion 
issued in Ilayti, and I am proud that the introduction be mode by a lady of 
our race, for none other should have the precedence in a country of independ* 
.^t blacks. 

Wishing my subscription to be entered at once I could not wait for it to 
appear here, but if possible It can be transferred later. I send you a <lnift of 
f 1.60 (one dollar and fifty cents), the additional twenty-five cents to prepaj 

Praying that all success may attend your efforts, I remain, dear madam. 
Yours sincerely, 

Theodora Hollt, Bishop of Haytl, W. L 

Oak St., CniLLicoms, O., May 10, 1809. 
Ikar Mn, OoeUn: JLrtfj succeeding Issoe of your Journal makes 
advanced Improvementa on precodlRg oumbert. It Is an ezoeUeni periodical 


sod ODa tbU eveij colored fainilj ought to patronlxe. Mr*. SUoner** "Tftlks 
wtth Oirla" Ut Terjr practical and lilgbl; u»ful ; ihe U a Iru4 iwuian Id lUo 
UghMt Mnw of tbe word, 

I am four* imly, 

SIamie E. Fox. 
COLCMDCB, IsD.. itaj i, 1803. 
Mks. Costox —De<'rFritnd: I prize j'our journal very much. I bitre 
nail it tliTougli and Iblok 1 ihnli read It asmin, for It* conlctits arc Dot oolr 
(ood but srcal. I certaialjr did cujoj rradlog lu Jlay Ood bless your eftort 
and crovn jou trlili aucceu. I will do all I can for you. Tlierc aro a great 
many jrouog la<liei Id tbU citj tUit I trust iriU become aa Interoitcd Id your 
journal aa I am. If ao I ttDow ibey will ncrcr be witliout It. You liavo nj 
praycra Uirongh Ufa a* ono who prizes your cfforta hlgbly. 
Youra reapcctf ally, 

L. JonKaoN. 


_^Jl%.ERY akd miss BLANCHE WASmNGTON, for 
imisicanil song, ar« first among ibe lovers of their nrt. Worthy- 
mentioB of this trio will be fouml elsewhere in this volume. 

Indeed, a hbtory could be written iMi-trnying the musical accora. 
' ptishments of our womea,dwelliD{!; alone in the realms of classic 
lythm, cadence and harmony. Sufiico it ; these stand out in 
bold relief, proofs of our progress and mile stones along the 
intellectnal highvray of Negro aocompUshments. 



Author^ Mr9, Lincoln^ $ Dressmaker^ Imchcr of Sewing at Wilbcrforcc 

Uni versify* 

T^NYONE who has met Mrs. Kcckloy, convcrsetl with, or 
j[^^ read her book entitled " Behind the Scenes,-' cannot 
but exclaim, She is a good, grand, yea, a great woman. With 
a life so crowded with interesting incidents, it is no wonder 
that at the muses' dictation she has drawn the i>en pictures and 
shelved them in a bound volume. Her most delightful narra- 
tive begins in ISOS, and teems with soul-stirring, melancholic 
accounts, with just enough wit and humor to beautify and 
sweeten the whole stor^* from beginning to end. Though 
apparently advanced in years, she still i)ossesse8 remarkable 
personal charms, and, though she was educateii in the school 
of experience, she is no less a teacher of maxims and under- 
lying principles which f^ to make up character. With her 
array of ready words at the command of her doctrine, she 
argues with elegance and force, and gently convinces you iu 
her persuasive manner. 

She was born in Virginia, a slave, and notwithstanding- 
opi>ortunity, coupled with fate, said (lee for your freedonu she 
could not bear tlie idea of being ti*acked by hounds or placcil 
under arrest as a fugitive. While young she was taken to St. 
Louis, Mo., and from thence to Washington, in ISOO, where slio 
distinguished herself as a fitter and finisher of ladies' attire. 
Indeed, her successful art won for her the admiration of tho 
ladies of tho White House, and later she became ^Irs. Lincoln^s, 
Mrs. Sewanl's and Mrs. JcfTerson Davis' dressmaker. Bevond 
this, she was beloved by Mrs. Lincoln for her unswerving prin- 
ciples. After the death of Mr. Lincoln, Mrs. Lincoln found in 
her the sym|)atbizing friend, and, indeed, relied very much on 
Mrs. Keckley for advice and counsel. When Jefferson Davis 
.was captured in disguise, Mrs. Keckley was taken before a 
notary and sworn that the dress found upon him was Mrs. 
Davis' dress, and that she was the maker of it. 

For many years our subject has been a firm friend of Wil- 
berlorce University, and having been endowed with a goodly 

«60 ^'OTED yEGIiO WOJJh\\. 

number of Mr. Lincoln's rolics, she anticipated their bestowal 
to that institution, but on tbo account of delay on the part of 
the educational board of that school, her patience became 
exhausted, and she parted from them for a considerable sum, 
and they are now on exhibition at Libby (Prison) Museum, 
Chicago, 111. She to-day wears a gold watch chain which Mr. 
Lincoln prized very dearly, and which Mrs. Lincoln gave to her. 
Following is a list of the relics : 


Comb and brush used by the president, during bis entire administration. 
*' Stock" (black silk" worn by the IHvsident prior to his administration. 

One white kid glore, that the President wore at the last inaugural ball. 
One pocket-handkerchief taken from hl^ pocket after his assassination. 

One watch case of the President. One nut cracker that he used at his 
private table. 

Piece of dress goods worn by Mrs. Lincoln at the lust Inaugural ball, and 
made by myself. Xeck trimmings worn by Mrs. Lincoln. 

Piece of dress worn by Mrs. Lincoln the night of the assassination.* One 
pair of rubber overshoes worn by the President during his entire term. 

One bonnet worn by 'Mrs. Lincoln the night of the assassination. One 
black velvet circular worn by Mrs. Lincoln the night of the assassination and 
bespattered with the blood of the President. 

One china candle-stick, held by Tad Lincoln while his father delivered a 
speech from the north window of the White Ilouse, the Tuesday night after 
the fall of nichmond. 

One box containing three pieces of hair. One piece cut from his head, 
while he lay in state, the morning of the day that his body was conveyed to 
Illinois. The other piece was cut from the head at the tomb. 

One white kid glove worn by ^Irs. Lincoln. One piece of the carpet that 
was on the floor of the room that he was laid out in. 

One box. This box contained a large wreath that was sent from (I think) 
some association In Philadelphia through the care of Mrs. James II. Vine, 
YTillard Ilotcl, which was placed on the carpet when it was taken from the 
"White House. This box has the address still on it. 

One gold watch chain, the property of the President, ^nd given to mc by 

lira. Lincoln. 

EuzADETn Kecklet. 


Mrs. Eeckley is at present instructor of the art of sewing 
at Wilberforce University, and is quite conspicuous in the Lib- 
eral Arts building at the World's Fair with her figures, posing 
a» specimens of the work done by her pupils. 


There can be seen on oxiiibition both plain and fancy dress- 
making, the liandivrork of her instruction. 

The AumoB. 

RS. JOSIE D. (ilENDERSOX) HEARD was bom in 

Salisbury, Xorili Carolina, October 11, ISGl. Iler 
parents, Lafuvettc antl Annlo II. Henderson, though slaves, 
were nominally free, being |>ermittcd to hire their time and 
live in another city, Charlotte, Xortli Carolina, 

At an early age Josephine 
tlisplayeil her literary tastes 
and aptness to perform on 
.ilmost any nuisicnl instru- 
ment. As early as live years 
of ago she conld read, and 
was a source of general com- 
fort to the aged neighbors, 
delighting to reail the scnp- 
tnrcs to tliein. 

She received her education 
in the schools at Charlotte, 
and having passed through 
them with credit, nras sent to 
the Scotia Seminary at Con- 
cord, Xurth Carolina, spend- ; 
ing several years there. Iler 
desire was to reach even a 
higher plane, and she was 

next sent to Bethany Insti- utu. jmik d. ukard. 

tute,New York, passing with 

honors from its walls. She oommenood teaching in the State 
which gave her birth ; then in the State of South Carolina, at 
Uaysvillo, Orangeburg, and finally in TeDDe8see,at CoTington, 
near Memphis. 

ses NOTED yEQiio )yoMEy, 

In October, 1881. she became acquainte<l with the Rev. W. 
H. Heard, (now Presiding Elder of the Lancaster District, 
Philadelphia Conference) who was then in the U. S. R. Mail 
service, and they were happily uniteil in the bonds of matri- 
monv in the vear 1SS2. 

Mrs. Heard evinced a fondness for poetry, and during her 

school days contributeil to several leading evangelical perioili- 

cals. After her marriage she was encouraged by the Ri, Rev. 

Benjamin Tucker Tanner, Rt. Rev. B. W. Arnett, and many 

other friends to givo more time to it. At their solicitations 

she has ventured to bring to ligiit these verses. She has some 

miisical talent, having composeil and written a piece of music 

which was played at the New Orleans Exposition, and which 

elicited much comment from the democratic press of the 


W. II. II. 

In giving our subject introiluction to the public, Bishop 
Benj. Tucker Tanner says that he somewhat iniluenced the 
publication of " Mornino Glories," and gives the writer real 
pleasure, which is enhanced by the thought that he gladly 
accepted the invitation to write the introihiction. 

For quit« a quarter of a century, he has had much to do 
with the literary life of the i)eople with whom he is especially 
identified ; as that life manifesteil itself in the proiluctiou of 
pa))ers,of monthly or quarterly magazines, of pamphlets and of 
books. He rejoices in the great pn^gress maile, both in 
quantity 4ind quality. When he may be said to have begun 
his public literary career, in 18GS, there were scarcely more than 
two or three papers published by colored men. There are now 
quite as many hundred. Of magazines, there was none; now 
there are four. Of pamplets, upon very rare occasions, one 
was now and then issued. Now they appear as do the leaves 
of autumn. And the same is true of books. A quarter of a 
century ago a colored author was indeed a rara avh. Not so 
now, however; such individuals are fairly numerous. 

What is true of the colored literature of the country, as to 
qoantityi is equally true as to quality. On this score the most 


rapid ailvancoment has also been made, innphmt ftcholarship 
CKcrtjichcre appeariny upon t/ie pages offered the 2^ublU\ 

Oil tho line of Poetry, wo as a people, give suilicient evi- 
dence to show that the Muse is indeed no res)K^cter of |>er$<ms. 
Tiiat ho is equally an admirer of shade ; and although at times 
compelled in his approaches to us, to walk in unbeaten paths^ 
yet he condescendingly comes, and inspires a music as sweet as 
is the wild honey of unkept hives. If any doubt, let him read, 
^' MoRN'iNo Gloriks,'^ to which these lines are to serve as an 
introduction, lu rigid vei*sitication, the lines herein given, 
mav hero and there come short, but for brightness of imagina- 
tion, for readiness of expression, and now and then for delicate- 
ness of touch, they are genuinely )K)cticaI ; clearly evincing a 
talent of no mean order. 

Wo would wish that '* MorninoGix>ries" might be received 
in the houses of our millions; showmg thereby the party of 
tho second part among us stands ready to support the party 
of tho Qrst \)art in all that tends to redeem the gooil name oi 
the Il;\ce. 


The Product of Ilcr FeriiU Brain, 

There's a damson IjinjT. »lccptDg In the land, 
lie shaU soon awake, and with avenging band. 
In an all unlookod for hour, 
Uo wtU rite in mighty power ; 
What dastard can his righteous rage withstand? 

£*cr since the chains were riven at a strol^c, 
Fi'er since tho dawn of Frceilom's morning broke, 
He has groaned, but scarcely uttcretl. 
While his patient tongue ne'r muttered. 
Though in agony he bore the galling yoke. 

0, what cruelty aud torture has he felt T 
Could his tears, the heart of his oppressor melt I 
In his gore they bathed their hands, 
Organized and lawless bands*- ■ 
And tho innocent was left in blood to welt. 

The mighty Qod of Nations doth not sleep, 
His piorcing eye Its faithful watch doth keep. 


And well nigb hfs mercj'a spent, 
To the ungodly lent : 
" They haTc sowed the wind, the whirlwind thej 
•hall reap," 

From Ilia nostrils i5guc8 now the angry smoke, 
.'* And asunder burst the all-oppressire yoke ; 

When the prejudicial heel 
8ball be lifted, wo shall feel, 
That the hellish spell surrounding us Is broke. 

The mills are grinding slowly, slowly on» 
And till the rcry chaff Itself is gone ; 
Our cries for Justice louder. 
Till oppression's ground to powder— 
Go«i speed the day of retribution on t 

Fkir Columbia's fiUby garments are all stained ; 
In her courts is blinded justice rudely chained ; 
The black Samson is awaking. 
And the fetters 6ercely breaking ; 
By his mighty arm his righu shall be obtained I 

"they are coming." 

Another of Ikr •• Morning Qloriti.'* 

They are coming, coming slowly— 

They are coming, surely, surely — 

In each avenue you hear the steady tread. 

From the depths of foul oppression, 

Comes a swathy-hued procession » 

And victory perchei on their banners' head 

They are coming, comiog slowly— 

They are comiog ; yes, the lowly. 

Mo Ibnftcr writhing in their servile bands. 

From the rice fields and plantation 

Comes a factor of the nation, 

And threatening, like Banquo's ghost, it stands. 

They are coming, coming proudly— 

They are crying, crying loudly : 

O, for Justice from the rulers of the land I 

And that Justice will be given. 

For the mighty God of heaven 

Holds the balances of power in his hand. 


Prayers have risen, f Iseo, riscD, 
From the cotton fields and prison ; 
Tliough the overseer stood with lash In hand* 
Groaned the ovcrburdoocd heart ; 
Not a tear-drop dared to start- 
But the Slaves' petition reached the glorj-land* 

They are coming, they are coming. 

From away in tangled swamp. 

Where the slimy reptile hid its poisonous head ; 

Through the long night and tlie day 

They have heanl the blood liounds' bey, 

While tlie morass furnished them an humble bcd« 

They are coming, rising, rising, . 

And their progress is surprising. 

By their briwny muscles earning their daily bread; 

Though their wages be a pittance. 

Still each week a small remittance. 

Builds a shelter for the weary, toiling head. 

They are coming* they are coming- 
Listen ! You will hear the humming 
Of the thousands that are falling into line 
There are Doctors, Lawyers, Preachers; 
There are Sculptors, Poets. Teachers— 
^Icn and women, who with honor yet shall shine. 

They are coming, coming boldly. 

Though the Nation greets them coldly; 

They arc coming from the hillside and the plain. 

With their scars they tell the story 

Of the canebrakcs wet and gory. 

Where their brothers* bones lie bleaching with the slaUL 

They are coming, coming singing. 

Their Tlianksgiving hymn is ringing. 

For the clouds are slowly breaking now away. 

And there comes a brighter dawning— 

It is liberty's fair morning. 

They are coming surely, coming, clear the way. 

Yes, they come, their stepping's steady, 

And their power is felt already | 

€k>d has heard the lowly cry of the oppressed; 

And beneath his mighty f rowa. 

Every wrong shall crumble down, 

When the HglU shall triamph and the world be blesir 

2(6 IfOTED liEGltO WO^IEN, 

Newburvport, Mass., March 24, 1S90. 
My Dear FrUml : 

Our mutual friend, Mi*s« Iligginson, has written mo cnclos- 
. ing a poem which gives me credit for much moro than I 
deserve, but for which I thank theo. It is a pleasant gift to 
express, as theo can, thy thoughts in verso among thy friends 
and acquaintances. In this way poetry is its own great reward 
•*it blesses and is blest. 

I am very glad to givo tho " token " asked for in thy littlo 
poem, by signing my name, with every good wish from thy 
aged friend; 

John G. ^VnITTIER. 


PiiiLADELPHiA, Pa., April 3d, ISOO. 

I now assume tho pleasantest duty of my life, that of 
acknowleilging tho cordial receipt of your most inestimable 
favor of recent date. 

. Cogniz;int of tho weight of years you bear, I will not bur- 
den you with a long letter, whilo my heart out of its fullness 
dictates to me faster than my iingei*s are able to trace ; but my 
joy \sf{ill; my gratitude ^inboumUd. 

I should certainly havo congratulated myself upon being so 
fortunate as to have obtained even your name from thine own 
band, u hikr^ such as theo wrote me, freighted with rich advice 
and kindly recognition, is priceless. 

GofI lims Thccy and may thy passage to tho land of tho 
blest be upon a calm sea, with zephyi*s laden with the perfume 
of thy noble life's deeds to waft thy spirit's bark onwaixl, and 
over Jordan. Gratefully Thine, 

JosiE D. Heard. 

Office of the CnRisriAK Beoorder, ) 
Philadelphia, April 2nd, 1890. f 

To Mrs. Josie D. Heard : 

' i>tY7r Madam — Learning that you are about to publish in 

book form the poetic writings which from time to time you 


Ihive contributed to the CAnstlanUvcordet and other journals, 
and others which have not appeared in print, I write to con- 
gratulate you, and to say that as *' Snow Bound," *'^[aud Mid- 
ler," ^* Evangeline" and ^* Miles Standish are now recited in the 
public schools, so in the {uturemay be '*To Whittier^' and 
•* Retrospect." 

Already one of your ]K)ems has been selected from the 
ChrStttuni liccimlcv by an Afro-American youth to be reail in a 
Pennsylvania school, whose teacher and a majority of whose 
pupils are white. I am 

Very Res|Kctful|y Youi's, 

B. F. Lee. 

Ckomwkix Houses, London, Apnl 15, IbDO. 
Mrs. Joste D. Ilituul : 

I thank you and answer you that we appreciate most deeply 
the expression of your sympathy in our great alUiction. 

Very Tnily Yours, 

Robert T. Lincoln. 

To MlnUtcr anil Mrs, Lincoln^ ou thcilaUh of their $on A. Lincoln* 

At o'er the lovctl one now in grief ye bendoth, 
A Nation bows with thee, its sorrow lendeth, 

That yo. crief-strickcn sliouUrs not weep alonc^ 
Above the shrouded form of tliy dear one. 

But, as wo shed with thco our silent tears. 
For hiiA who bore himself beyond his years, 

Hope bids us cease and banisheth our pain. 
And pleads your loss, his souVs eternal gain* 

The reaper cuts the grain and lovely flowers, 
Transplants them in a fairer land than ours. 

The path to heaven rendered thus more plain, 
Weep not, press on, ye all shall meet again. 

He nobly livetl nor feared the shad*wy vale. 

Defied the while horse with it's rider pale ; 
Tl)c grave no terror hath, and death no ating, 

For htm who fully trusts in Christ the King. 


Sirs. Heard^s knowlcclgo is extensive and various, but true 
to the first principles of her nature, it is poetry that she seeks 
in history, scenery, character aud religious belief poetry that 
£^ides all her studies, governs all her thoughtSi colors all her 
imaginations and conversation. 


Lecturer^ EductUor, PhUanthropltt, 

^wT^lIEY who know this grand woman, are always eager la 
Tjj emphasize the fact, by relating some of her acts of char- 
ity, reiterating some of her grand sayings, or dwelling at length 
upon her activity in behalf of the oppressed. During the naany 
lung years of her eventful life, she has never lagged, to pause, 
or loiter, something remained to be done, as she could ' see 
clearly, and possibly better backed by her enthusiasm, and 
reinforced by the strength of her indomitable will. 

When Liberia declared her independence President Roberts 
became one of her active statesmen, later its President, and 
through the co^>peration of this great woman, the Republio 
grew and flourished as the green Bay tree. 

Mrs. Roberts is the only Negro woman that has dined with 
President and Mrs. Cleveland at the White House. During 
her stay in Washington, the Hon. ex-Minister of Liberia, John 
H. Smythe, took an active interest in this deserving woman, 
and her honors, as well the introduction to the President and 
Mrs. Cleveland is due this race man, of whom the citizens of 
the District of Columbia are proud. 

She came to America soliciting funds for the erection of a 
building to be used as a hospital for Liberian and American 
seamen, at Monrovia in Liberia, as a memorial to her husband 
ex-President Roberts. 

With Longfellow » Mra. Roberts reasons, when be says : 

" No endcaTor U in Tain ; 
lu reward U in the doing, 
And the rapture of pursuing 
li the priz<'.'* 


She will more than likely build her hospital, the result of 
an earnest, fruitful life, and the happy result of a patient 
endeavor to make lasting her husband^s name among his 
bemoaning countrymen. 


Member of DrooMipi College ofPliarmacy. 

TiN the professions, possibly no Negro woman has distin* 
^ guished herself more than has Dr. Susan McKinney« of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., who takes a leading part in the medical life 
of that city. She is strictly a race woman, and most fully por* 
trays that becoming interest in her philantrophic spirit to help 
the poor. She is the most successful practitioner of medicine 
of her sex and race in the United States. 

Located as she is, and capable as she must be, her practice 
is not confined to the lowly of any particular nationality, but 
among all classes and conditions — the high, the low, the rich 
and the poor. Her splendid achievements are answers to the 
questions and doubts of the many who question through pride, 
and who doubt with curiosity. She is a fulUdcilgcd, high-toned 
lady physician, worthy of the mission of doing good, because 
in this special Hold she can serve the greatest number of her 
fellow sufferers. She is being blessed with some of the goods 
of this world as she is blessing others in her daily life. 

Woman is proving to man that Goil re no res^>ector of i>er- 
sons, and is taking her place in all the leading movements u]>oii 
which the progress of the age depends, and is refuting the doc 
trine of incapacity, and is rapidly approaching the summit of 
intellectual equality. The old time ideas of Negro unfitness 
has become worn threadbare, being so continuously lashed by 
the waves of sentiment concerning their intellectual growtli 
upon the turbulent sea of endeavor, and the once depravcil 
opinion has become a new-born popular issue subserving the 
qualifications of all, regardless of race. 

The women are actually entering every avenue of learning 
reflecting credit not only in the forum, the pulpit, the press^ 


but are adding dignity in tho university chairSi where alone 
sage once sat, and man}' lead in the classics, the professions 
-wherein once they were not allowed to follow. 

Dr. McKinney, by the force of her genius, the calinness of 
her life and beauty of her character, has sot tho seal of high 
accomplishments upon tho pages of history, leading in a Held 
of usefulness, where many of our young, capablo women aro 
sure to follow. She is a woriliv member of the Brooklyn Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, which honor ^' was not attained by sudden 


Leading Dressmaker of Dostoru 

TTv^OII energy, pluck and patience, no Negro woman is tho 
jji^ equal to this talented industrious woman. Her busi* 
ness for many yeai*s has given employment to more than a 
score of women, who througl) the instruction, attained under 
her service, have made for themselves marks in the world. 
Her fortune is not the only special proof of her success in the 
art of dressmaking and fitting, but the pei*sistency as well as 
the high-toned patronage fi\>m the best ladies in Boston and 
vicinity, as much demonstrate her merit, as other of her quali- 
fications. Every year she goes to Paris for her styles. 

Tiie field of industry is broadening for tho girls of tho 
present and future generations, most especially sowing 
schools are being established all over this civilized country, 
and the sex feel less keenly the necessity of book incul- 
cation and more the demand of the spirit of the age, fiot 
onhj to knoWj but to know hoio to do sewing, painting, sketch- 
ing, telegraphy, stenography, etc., are all coming into customi 
as in these the women monopolize. The ait of dressmaUing as 
Madam Glover represents it, holds up very grand inducements 
for the generations of girls growing up in our race. Knowing 
haw^ attention to business systematically arranged, and a care- 
ful investment of her means, has brought in return the success 
she has accomplished. 



Early Educator, 

J TEW YOKK CITY biis long poscil as the place where so 
many men and women of African descent first incul- 
Ctitcd a spirit of growing out of the conditions nuule noticeable 
by tlic disgrace of slavery, which destroyed the senses of refine- 
nient and carried nothing but gloom and for>iodings in its tRiin. 
Dr. Henry Hyland Gamett, Prof. Charles L. Reason, Bishop 
D. A. Payne, and a host of the leading lights of our literary 
and social firmament, first caught the gleam of inspiration and 
started their educational careers, which bare so splendidly 
refuted the arguments that the Negro could not learn Greek 
and Hebrew. It was here that this talented lady answered 
the call to teach. History records the wonderful accomplish- 
ments of her efforts to lift up her fellow men. The wave of 
education she sat in motion is flowing on. That night school, 
the work of her heart and brain as it was fortv or fiftv rears 
ago, is now possesseil with that enthusiasm she injected into it, 
only with increasing yesira it has kept pace with the progress 
of events, conducive to gnindor accomplishments in an age of 
better educational appliances and facilities, conducted by that 
noble and scholarly Miss J. Imogenc Howard, who for a number 
of. years has been one of the leading educators of Xew York 

Mrs. Garnett was not only a teacher, she was wife and 
motlier — wife of a great man whom the great men of the worUl 
have delighted to honor, a minister to a foreign ]K>wer, a patriot 
and philanthrophist — a mother of a great woman, Mary Bur- 
bosa« an educator, philanthropist and missionary, who, follow, 
ing in the footstei>s of her father, died while engaged in the 
missionary work in the Dark Continent. 

The triumphs and activities of this grand woman is the early 
fulfilment of the highest hopes of those philanthropic person- 
ages, William Lloyd Garrison, Charles Sumner, Henr^^ Wilson, 
Wendell Phillips, Mr. Lovejoy, Mr. Parker, and a host of heroes 
who have ever watched the race with very much interest. If 


the history of the past, portraying tho rise and fall of empires, 
the establishment of empires and kingdoms, republics and 
XDonosterieSi can serve as an incentive to the young to be ever 
alert to the changes consequent of the progress made in tho, 
enlightened world during the educational centuries, surely the 
epochs in biography can be stepping-stones upon which the 
aspiring man and womanhood of a defenceless race can find 
sure footing. 

Mrs, Garnett, exemplary in her life and character, is ^n 
example of our genius and worth as a race when placed in no 
indifTerent position to the conditions which surrounded her 
x-oung life and the facilities for encouragement which kept pace 
with her manifold achievements. 

During the i^ar she toiled early and late. 

MRS. E. V. C. EATO. 

Eminent Teacher, 

WIIE subject of this short sketch has by her tact made 
for herself a name among tho leading educators of 
New York City. The inherent principles of her art chrystal- 
izing for years in her busy life give her the ease and readiness 
of imparting that which she knows to her pupils, and for a 
considerable time have served as a convincing argument that 
separate schools for the races was not a necessity, and her 
special fitness, as well as the fitness of other colored lady 
teachers, has done more to bring about the educational reform, 
and bridge the chasm of restriction and social life which has 
so long made blameful the system of education in Now York, 
than any thmg else. All credit is duo these noble heroines of 
our race. They have not contented themselves with meagre 
possibilities, but have entered the higher halls of learning and 
taken degrees of pedagogy. 

The writer has met quite a number of the young ladies 
who have profited by her teachings, her life and character, 
and be knows for a fact, that a lively recollection is cherished 


in thoir minds and hearts for tbis good woman wboso labors 
sbow forcibly in tbese cbaracicrs, and clearly demonstrate the 
quality of seed sown, principles inculcated, tbe inestimable 
value of the good work she has done for her race. This is an 
instance in the life of the Negro race in a great metropolis 
where merited recognition equalizes the chances for their re* 
demption from ignomnce and the quagmires of prophetic 
chaos. Mrs Henry Highland Garnett, Miss J.Imogcne Howard 
and others, possibly not so prominent in the public eye, have 
dignified the situation and enabled in every possible way the 
high ground of scholary attainment, which has inspired many 
young men and women of our land. Mrs. Eato reflects a credit 
on the race that is so apparent in our literary and social life, 
which reminds us forcibly of our progress. 



ISS JONES mnks among the leading educators of the 
^•Cj^}^ race. She is a grduate from the classic halls of the 
famous Michigan University, Ann Arbor Michigan. And has 
since done very telling work for our race as teacher in the 
northern as well as the soutliern college. She is at present 
lady principal of Paul Quinn college, Waco, Texas. Her special 
fitness commends her to the higher educational work among 
ouri>eople, and the above named school has under her watchful 
care and tutelage, made very great advances in the right 

She is amiable, most agreeable in mannorSi and a capable 
counselor on topics of advanced studies. 

Her prominence as well as intellectual ability, entitles her 
to many pages whereon might be forcibly drawn the illustrious 
career of one so worthy. We, knowing, Miss Jones* love for 
obscurity feel somewhat reluctant in making the fore-going 
statementi yet by a sense of right we have thus risked our judg- 




* • I* 

'/ • • 

*■ ' m. 



EmXncnl Sln{jcr, 

MOXG iho celebrated singers of the Negro race, jS'ealo 
Gertrude Hawkins takes her place along by the side 
of all. It is not our purpose to give especial space to those 
who are actively engaged before the public, for in their realm 
they are seen and judged, with better satisfaction than from 

an open book. We therefore 
will not give our subject a 
lengthy mention. 

Mrs. Chira C. Iloflnian, 
president Women's Christian 
Union for the State of Mis- 
oouri, says of her : 

^^Miss Neale Hawkins is 
one of the finest vocalists I 
have ever listened to. In 
compass, flexibility, sweet- 
ness, pathos and power, her 
voice is unexcelled. 

While high culture has 
developed and perfected her 
voice, it has not detracted an 
atom of the mellow richness 
so characteristic of the Afro- 
American vocalist. 

Miss Hawkins is a prohib- 
itionist, has perfect articula- 
tion, and will be a drawing card in any assembly. She will 
Bing prohibition into hearts whether they will or no." 

For quite a number of years, Miss Hawkins has been 
singing to delighteil audiences, in fact she has been the support 
for the famous Jinglers of California, which under the 
musical direction of Prof. Ed. F. Morris, has reached that 
point in their art that makes them one of the leading musical 
troups before the American footlights. 



f J 



Indeed to ivrite of Miss Hawkins and her capabilities as a 
singer, would be incomplete without the mere mention of Mr. 
£d. F. Morris who has taught her step by step, to her present 
advanced position in the realm of song. 

We append below a few testimonials : 


" Miss Coroella Hawkiot bat a mnrvelous roioe. It surpasMt in richness 

of tone many prima dona's of intcr-national fame. 

8bc is OS much at home in the role of a singer, es the mocking l^ird in hia 

own nstivo orange grove/* 



^ The concert given by the Jingler Concert Company in tho 
Victoria last night was musically a great success. Probably 
ownig to the inclement weather there was rather a thin atten- 
dance, but what the audience lacked in numbers they amply 
made up for in appreciation. The programme was full of 
choicQ selections and was supplemented by nearly as many 
encores. The comic part of the entertainment was inimitably 
rendered. The solos were uniformly good, and the impromptu 
rendition of " Wav Down on the Swanee River,'* in answer to 
a rather unceremonious call from one of the gods was delight- 
ful. The quartette work was good and left nothing to be 
wisheil for. Several character pieces were fairly done 
although this is quite evidently not the company's forte. Tho 
audience was sent home in excellent humor after listening to 
an excellent chorus entitled * Good Night.' " 

'* The Jinglers gave a concert in tho ^f. E. church in tho 
lecture course and had a line audience. I have heard in my 
life some very line female voices, but it seems to me Miss 
Ilawkins has tho sweetest voice I ever listened to. The Jing- 
lers will be welome any time, especially Miss Ilawkins." 

*'The Jingler concert company gave their first entertam- 
menl to a very fair audience in the Union church last night. 
The audience was very enthusiastic and the performers were 
recalled many times. The fine soprano voice of Miss Hawkins, 



the deep bass of Mr. Wallay and the magnificent tenor of Mr. 
Conley. are such as are but seldom heard. Their selections 
are varied, being Negro melodies, topical selections and |)opu- 
lar songs of the day. For an evenings' pleasure they excel 
any company that has ever visited our town. They sing in Mo- 
desto to-night, giving a return engagement in the Union 
church to-morrow night." 

*'0n Saturday evening last Cole's Colored Jingleis appeared 
at Yan^s Opera House before a fair sized audience. The 
house should have been packed full of people, and we wish it 
bad been, for there has not been a musical combination here 
for years that deserves the patronage of the people more fully 
than does the Jinglers. The performance was complete in 
^very respect, and all who heard them on Saturday evening 
trere more than pleased— they were charmed. The voices 
blended so nicely and the songs were so well selected 
and sung that the audience was kept busy applauding and the 
applause was always cheerfully responded to. Miss C.Haw- 
Icins has a soprano voice of remarkable sweetness and Miss 
Ohinn is a fine alto. Mr. Walley, the lion basso, is all that is 
claimed of him and George L. Conley is a good tenor, while 
Mr, B. Dozier does his part fully as a baritone. The company 
i$, by far, the best of the kind that has appeared here since the 
old Tennessee Jubilee Singers. That remarkable organization 
contained Henry Hunley, the grand basso, and Miss Reynor, 
one of the best altos we ever heard. The Jinglers will appear 
again tomorrow evening and if you have not heard them you 
bad better go for you will be pleased." 


**It was an evening of music and harmony last night at Louis^ 
opera house, and a first class peformance certainly merited 
a better attendance than it received, those present certainly 
enjoyed a treat. **Tbe Jinglers" is the name adopted by 
this company of colored vocal artists, and no concert company 
on the road has made a greater hit. There are six voices, and 


each one is excellent. George L, Conley, the tenor, G. TV. 
Wallay,'tbo base, and B. Dozier, the baritone, are exceptionally 
good. Miss Hawkins lias a soprano voice of singular svrcet- 
ness and purity — as she demonstrated in ber rendition of ^*Tho 
IIuntsman*s Horn" and ** The Suwance River'' — while Miss 
Chinn possesses a cultivated contralto. The entire program 
was good and there was hardly a number but received an en- 
core, the male quartet especially carrying off the honors of the 
evening. The last three numbers — ^*' Dars a Jubilee,'* " Don't 
Feel No Way Tired" and "Good Night "— fairly enraptured 
the audience. E. F. Morris is an excellent pianist and was 
down for several piano selections, but labored under the draw- 
back of having a miserable instrument before him. The piano 
used last night possibly harmonizes with a pair of cymbals and 
a bass drum, but is hardly up to the mark for a concert. 
Those who have heard Miss Hawkins sing and Mr. Morris per- 
form, will not fail to agree that for ber under her instructor a 
bright future awaits her." ; r 



'Y'\ AI5SU was one of the most talented women of her 
JM^jr co^mtry, and that is saying very much in favor of her 
sex. She is the daughter of Boyer, King of the Bassas, an 
African tribe. She was taken from her people when only 
eight years old and educated in one of the best universities in 
England, where she distinguished her race and elevated the 
sentiment concerning the capabilities of the African, from the 
standpoint of incapacity to her high intellectual achievement, 
then and there and forever. 

Many of her English friends, eager to have her remain in 
their land of civilization, offered her special inducements; ia 
fact, such opportunities whereby she could have further digni- 
fied her race ; but on failing to charm her imaginations for 
future pomp and power among them, they even misrepresented 
her native country. Despite thene entreaties, she determined 


to utilize her education in the training of her own people in 
Bassa Land. 

After her residence of fourteen years in England, at the 
age of 22 years, she returned to her people, bearing the beacon 
light of Christianity into a dark and benighted land. In order 
that she might become favored, and later secure the coveted 
influence among her }>eople, she adopted her native costume, 
which was next to nuditv. It was tbrousrh these means that 
she Christianized a number of her brothers and her subjects, 
after five years of activity, spreading the Christian religion 
among her people, she died in the full triumph of faith, beloved 
and reverenced by all her people. 


MlMnhnariit Authnrt MlnMcr, 

WHAT is the place of Amanda Smith in American his- 
tory ? lias she any place there i Mrs. Smith is an 
historic character. The biography of great women, and especi- 
ally great women of the Xegro race, would be sadly deficient 
without her. 

Of this race in the Uniteil States, since 1C20, there have 
appeared hui four women whose career stands out so far, so 
high, and so clearly above all others of their sex that they 
can with strict propriety and upon well established grounds be 
denominated (/reat. These are Phillis Wheatley, Sojourner 
Truth, Frances Ellen TVatkins Ilarper and Amanda Smith. 

More than a score of Negro women have arisen to the 
beigths of fame which leaped beyond the bounds of the States 
in which they have resided. Nor is there a single State in 
car country, North or South, but that could )>oint to Negro 
women, a score or so in number, who are zealous of good 
works, endowed with a noble spirit and a love of race/ sex 
and self which is truly praiseworthy and distinguishing. 
Indeed, in every city, village, or country neighborhood, a 
leading Negro woman, who is a full match for its best and 
leading Negro man, can be found. 



"Were this Otherwise, it would present a strong incentive 
for melancholy^ and offer some feeble extenuation to the vague 
and morbid dream of redemption fmm race of degradation by 
race blending through blood mingling in unnatural and uncon- 
genial aipalgamation* 

If there is a graduation from good to greater in the ordinary 
walks of female life among the Negroes, who does not feel bis 
bosom heave with just and excusable prid^ when he reflects 
that among them are also those women who must be 
mentioned in the superlative, not only great,. and greater, but 
greatest? Is there not substantial reason to hope that all may 
Arise, when we behold one woman, then another, and another 
ascend from conditions the lowliest to a place freely ascribed 
as among the highest and the greatest ? 

This ascent from a depth was made by Phillis Wheatley, 
Sojourner Truth, Frances Harper, and Amanda Suiith. ^ 

But if thcHO women occupy a place superlatively great as 
con) pared to all other Negro women of mo<Iem times, we 
would asc:ertain how they stand compared to each other. For 
it is by this comparison that we shall be able to determine ' 
which, or whether, either is greater than the other, and wherein. 

To begin with, Phillis Wheatley and Sojourner Truth were 
both Africans of unmixed blood. Phillis Wheatley was an ; 
African of su|)erior tribal relations by birth. Crosses in blood j 
are sometimes found in Africa; for many traders, if no othei*s, ! 
have a ** country wife *' or so while sojourning in that country. ' 
But Phillis was a child of pure Negro parentage. Mrs. Harper 
and Mrs. Smith were mixed in the proiK>rtion of about one part 
Caucasian to three parts African ; hence, whatever be their 
claim to greatness and goodness, their racial basis for the claim 
is African. 

Now let us compare them. 

Mrs. Wheatley was the morning star of Negro genius, being 
to women what Benjamin Banneker was to Negro men, the 
first of her line. 

Her advantages were few, and her opportunities to learn 
limited. But such as they were she improved them, and 


secured fame as a poetess of rare pathos and beauty. Her 
claims as a poetess are attested by the few specimens of her 
Terses xrhich remain, and the claim is universally accorded 
to her. 

An unfortunate marriage, with other disadvantages, may 
have interfered with the attainment of still greater renown 
but as it is, Mrs. Wheatley stands peerless among American 
Negro women for poetic genius. 

Sojourner Truth was a revolutionist and a reformer, with 
great political acumen in the rough. She was in her times the 
peer of Frederick Douglass, being to Negro women what ho 
was to men. Aye, in her steadfast love to God, loyalty to the ' 
interest of all, but unyielding and undeviating fidelity, prefer- 
ence and zeal for her own i*ace, she was more than his peer. 

She illustrates the capability of the race to rise by its own 

unaided efforts, and take a commanding and abiding place 

among those eminent for deeds worthy of commemoration. 

\ We have heard somewhere that the bust of Sojourner Truth 

; adorns a place in the British Museum. 

A slave bom and reared, a fugitive among strangei*s, but 
not friendless there. Auntie Sojourner Truth has no equal in , 
the display of natural leadership and inborn mental equii>oisel.i 
among the four great women with whom we class her. 

Mrs. Ilarper, i>osfessing superior advantages, is superior to 
any one of the four great women here mentioned in mental 
drill and versatile literary culture. She is an erudite, scholarly 
woman. She, too, is a reformer, an agitator, but not in the 
rough, or with any political tendencies. 

She is polished, and may be called the greatest of school- 
made moral philosophers yet developed among the women of 
the Negro race. If Sojourner Truth was a blind giant Frances 
Harper was an enlightened one. What she is Sojourner, with 
her chances, would have been ; but what Sojourner was, with 
no better opportunities, Mrs. Harper would never have been. 

Standing outside of the Church and Churchly relations Mrs. 
Harper is without an equal among Negro men of her times and 
type of thought. To find a literary equal for her wo must 


look either in the Negro miDistry or amoDg men ivho were 
trained for it.* 

Mrs. Smith, in connection with the others, except Mrs. 
Harper, came up through the enthrallments of slavery and the 
culture of Christian faith. She is not, then, the indomitable 
ag^itator that Mrs. Harper is, nor the indomitable revolutionist 
that Sojourner Truth was, nor yet the brilliant p^cnius that 
Phillis Whcatly was. But she matches them all in this : she is 
a Christian of the highest type yet produced among women of 
her race, and as asim{>le, confiding child of God has no superior 
amonff women of anv race — and may we modestlvsav it i — nor 
among women of any time. 

She is an evangel of the Christian powers of her race, and 
an evangel of that good will from God to. men which is the 
burden of her speeches. As a demonstration of the possibilities 
of the Negro woman — and if the woman, then also the man — 
to grasp and liold a place among those who have attained the 
highest heights of Christian faith and {)erfect self-consecration 
to the service of Go<l and man Amanda Smith stands without 
a rival. 

Without the genius of Mrs. .TVheatlej% the daring of 
Sojourner Truth, the logic of Mrs. Har^^er, Mrs. Smith has a 
greatness born not of self nor of mind, but of soul culture by 
contact with God. Herein is she great, the equal of either, and 
greater than any. Among men of our race and times none 
equal Mra. Smith as exemplifiers of the power of grace to save, 
expand and use man as an instrumentality of salvation to the 
human race. 

She is in these particulars, then, as wo have frequently said 
not only the greatest Negro woman, but the greatest of the 
race in these times. 

Let Negro women study well her character and imitate it 
Let them read well her struggles up from sin and Satan to God^ 
and use the same means if they, too, would rise like her in His 
likeness and image. 

• Mra. Harper 10 « member of tbe UnlUurUo Church In Philadelphia, and •tandthlgk 
In tt« 1 learn.* AUTuoii. 


What grace has wrou<;bt in her it has wrought for our 
exampley that like her in the use of means at hand so like her 
we afterwards might be useful in the Master^s hands. 

As an enlightened, thoroughly consecrated Christian evan- 
gelist among Negro women Mrs. Amanda Smith takes the first 

place in American history. 

Marsoall W. Taylob, D.D. 


lee Dealer. 

ADAM WETZEL, of St Johns, New Brunswick, is an 
(=^jt^^ example of what a woman may achieve in the 
world, when energy and genius are not wanting. 

Some years ago, an enterprise was started by Mr. and Mrs. 
Wetzel, which up to her husband's death, had not placed them 
in any indifferent relation to poverty, for to be sure their ice 
plant was not in a prosperous condition, but has been brought 
to its present magnitude through her energies, and business 
capability. Today she employs a hundred men, does her house- 
hold duties, has the care and responsibility of a large family, 
and bv virtue of her strict attention to her business, she has 
crushed out the competitors, who predicted her failure, and 
poses as a monopolist in St Johns and vicinity. 

Woman has a most formidable foe to antagonize at every 
turn, and that foe is man. Wliea we see such women forging 
their way successfully, despite the obstacles engendered by her 
sex, she is worth forty men in business, war, {>olitics, bar and 
pulpit, she should be admitted on this portrayal of hoi! worth, 
to vote, to do whatever men have a right to do. Mrs. Wetzel 
was left in an almost destitute conditionon the death of her 
husband, but the power which was circumscribed in the domain 
of home, now had, exercise in their business, the result of which 
has been stated 

Man will, when woman forces him to, concede to her the 
rights she demands. The wanting quality in woman, is yet 
too noticeable, to materially effect any anticipated reforms 

rnsiR TRrojiPiis asd Acrirrrisa. s^ 

Tritb the deep underlying principles of equality of the sexes, 
in the govomroont and various lormsof buainoss. 

Mrs. Wetzel is not only a Buccess as a woman, but a Negro 
woman. She orders, men obey. Letotfaen follow her exam- 


Eminent Vacalltt, DUUngutthtd Tcnther. 

^\ MONO tlio intellectual citizens of Cleveland, Oiiio, most 
2^^ especially those engaged in teaching music and song. 
Miss Walker takes a liigli place. Pier fame has grown out 
of the local ephoro, and become national in both, her missioo as 
teacher as well as that of a pleasing vocalist. For a number 
of years the citizens of 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois 
have been captivated by 
the exquisite melody of 
her voice, and the great 
encouragements she has re> 
coivcd (in the frequent dis- 
plays of her talents) from 
the press, the public, and 
critics everywhere she lins 
been called to play, her 
inspiration has quickened 
Iicr energies to moro vig- 
orously pursue the art of 
Voice culluro. 

She has a most excellent 


soprano voice, with pleas- 
ing intonations, and marvcloiisly can she command it. She is one 
of the few noted sineers who iwrform without effort. She is a 
talented teacher in the public schools of Cleveland, Ohio, who, 
in spite of obstacles on account of race, has unbidden, entered 
the beaten track of imparting as well as reflecting a noble 
character on the white, as well as the Negro children who are 



committed to her charge. If education is the key by which 
aroused intellect may enter all the i^epository of treasure, and 
take for itself available knowledge,' she has the happy faculty 
of giving that key to the dominant race. Thix>ugh no favor of 
friends does she enjoy the position she occupies along with the 
great educators of this great city, but by energy and perse- 
verance backed by a determination to obliterate caste and race 
restrictions by proving the merit of her brain, and the versatile 
range of her brilliant faculties to serve as a convincing argu- 
ment in behalf of the women of the Negro race hasshe become 
80 very noble in the estimation of the leading citizens of 
Cleveland. She is a tireless worker, and keenly feels the 
necessity of setting a high example for those of her sex, and 
csi)ecially her race. Miss Walker is of fair complexion, ele- 
gant form; pleasing stage appearance, a lively conversationalist, 
and withal an aggressive race agitator. She has a most Hat- 
tering hope for the race, contending tiiat concentrated race 
effort to rise high in the scale to cope with other nations is the 
only wanting link in our condition. She is a pleasing vocalist, 
but a most -worthy teacher. 


Author of a Voice from (7ic South. 

BS. IDOOPER'S book has been received with sur- 
^|ij^^ prising consideration by the press throughout the 
country, and she is in daily receipt of clippings from quarters 
wb6re least expected. As is well known, she is the widow of 
an Episcopal clergyman, and at present a teacher in our High 
8chooU She was grdduated from Oberlin in '84, and was a 
class-mate of Mrs. Mary Church-Terrell Her first attempt in 
literature is undoubtc<lIy gratifying, both to her and her friends^ 
as the following criticisms show : 

'Sevf York Ipdc^ndent: *^It is an open secret that the 
author of this volume is Mrs, A. J. Cooper. She puts a voice 
in her book of which she says modestly that it is only*— 

** An infant crying in the night, 
And with no language hut a crj," 


but it is a piercing and clinging cry which it is impossible to 
hear not to understand — which it is impossible to shake off. 
She writes with strong but controlled passion, on a basis of 
strong facts.** 

V\\\\?iAQ\^\\\vL Public Ledger*. ^' There is sound sense in this 
author^s argument, and what is certainly rare in controversial 
literature, an unblemished good humor. Mrs. Cooper 
disdains to make use of weapons the notice of a culti- 
vated and high-minded womanhood. The book commends 
itself to the attention of all interested in a fair discussion of a 
question of the day.'* 

C\i\ct\go Inter-Occan: "It is not often that the question 
here raised has been discussed more candidly, more earnestly 
and intelligently, and in better spirit than in the volume before 
us. The argument is keen, seldom the least shade of vindict- 
iveness, and yet so pointed and honest as to be convincing for 
its justice. She claims that the best ho{)e8 of the race rest 
upon the higher education of black women. That* only as the 
woman is educated and lifted np and refined and the home 
made pure, will the black man advance to an honored 

Boston Transcrljyt: "Doubtless this black woman of 
^Tawawa Chimney Corner,* Anna Julia Coo|)er, makes an 
intimate exposition of . qualities of her people which whites 
are so slow to appreciate. Indeed, the very fact of her 
criticism in excellent English and in welcome style, and phrase, 
is a manifest of ability and cultivation of those she repre* 

Public Opinion: "This volume posseses a fresh attract- 
ion, because it comes from the eager heart and mind of a 
< Black Woman of the South,* as the author terms herself. 
All the order of the great race to which the writer belongs 
])leads for a hearing for the women of her own color. She 
lays down boldly, clearly and strikingly the great law that a 
race will finally be what it's women are. Alongside of this 
she puts what she claims is a fact that the new movement to 
lift the black race into intelligence and spiritual life, compara* 


lively little place bos been found for tbe young girls. Young 
men are every wbore being pushed on and aided by societies 
and friends in the struggle to get an education. I3ut young 
women are left almost wholly unaided, and very few are as 
yet able to complete courses of study. The book is written 
in a very judicious and elevated way. The pages are disfigured 
by no extravagant ill-judged utterances, but a dignified and 
womanly air pervades the whole. We commend the volume 
to all who wish to keep in touch with the Negro problem. A 
portiait of Anna J. Cooper, whom we take to be the author, 
forms a frontispiece of the volume.'^ 

Detroit Plaindealer : " There has been no book on the 
race question that has been more cogently and forcibly written 
by either white or black authors. The book is not only a 
credit to the genius of the race, but to woman whose place 
and sphere in life men have so long dictated.'' 

The Kingslcy (Iowa) Times: *• One of the most readable 
books on the race question of the South bears the above title. 
It is written by Mra. A. J. Cooper, of Washington, D. C, a 
colored lady with the bram of a Susan B. Anthony, a George 
Eliot, or Frances Willard. The volume is attracting wide 
attention, owing to its being worthy of careful perusal and 
because of its originality and groat literary strength. It is a 
neat, cloth bound book, retailing for $1.25, but to anyone 
interested in this race question it is worth many times its cost. 
For sale by the author or at all book-stores. The Times editor 
never has seen a stronger picture of the true conditions of 
affairs in the South than the one coming from this colored lady." 
Judge Tourgee: **The habit of a lifetime has made the 
Bystander's pencil almost infallible in its indication of verbal 
inaccuracy, which is, after all, the very highest test of literary 
merit. The word which exactly fills the place where it is used 
— ^neither too large nor too small for the service assigned, or to 
the thought it is commissioned to convey — ^is to literary work- 
manship what the perfect note is to music. It may be slurred 
a little—often is — without constituting actual fault, as the rush 
of some great movement may even hide or excuse a fal.<(o note 


now and tben^ but only precision can give the feeling of finish 
which attests tlio genuine literary artist. Rarely has the 
unsparing pencil {lassed so lightly over the pages of a book of 
essays as it did over the pages of this * Voice from the South.' 
Its ))erusal would be a new sensation to many a white-souled 
Christian woman of the ^su|ierior race,' who, when she had 
)>erused its bright pages from cover to cover, would be forced 
to admit that though she had encountered many a sharp tlirust 
she had not received one awkward or ill-tempered blow.'* 

Mr. Tourgee's criticisni of Mrs. Cooper's book, " A Voice 
from the South," possesses great interest for us, because we 
know him to be both free from prejudice and capable of judging 
literary excellence. He declares that few women writers have 
shown a ^daintier wit, and few works give promise of a purer 
literary art." ** The deft but stinging satire, the keen but not 
illtom(>ercd wit, but the tasteful self-restraint," says Mr. 
Tourgce, "shows the author to be a cultured laily." Accord* 
ing to our critic, "the white-souled Christian women of the 
superior race who peruse its bright pages from cover to cover 
will be forced to admit that, though they encountered many a 
sharp thrust, they received no awkward, no ill-tem|)ereil blow." 
While Mr. Tourgee deprecates a little parade of quotation he 
p]x>nounces ^^ the abundant use of second-hand material to be 
the fashion of the times," and dulls the edge of criticism by 
acknowledging that *'the borrowed matter is always good, 
aptly used, in the main, shows breadth of reading, keenobservo. 
tion and thorough gooil taste in selection." Mr. Tourgcc 
consider it neither surprising nor discreditable to the 
colored people of the United States that they have made so 
few contributions to literature. The reason is cogently ami 
succinctly stated as follows : ^^ The best scion grafted on the 
strongest stock requires some period of growth before it pro- 
duces fruit, and a race by law barred from the fields of litera- 
ture for two centuries need at least the lifetime of a generation 
in which to produce literary work. The wonder is, not that it 
came so late, but that it came so soon and is of such simple^ 
genuine quality. 

A'urKD tiKQltO WVMlt'y 



ISS IIATTIE GItEEN is one of tlio lady teachers of 
^!^5J^ Cleveland, Ohio, who has through lier own efforts 
unaided won for herself a name la Ohio. Her educalional 
opportunities have 'been the best, as her talents show. She 
with others, by action has refuted the fallacy of race incom- 
petency, in passing tlierij-id rxnminntionsof the scliool Ixuird 

l'^*'' H,) 

« UATTiri DllEUt 

of Clerelaad. She is beloved by a host of persons, who admire 
pluck and energy, principles which if well forcilicd will bring 
success to the door of every one. These women command tho 
attention and respect of the races whose children they 
instruct withoutfavor. Their performance ofduty actuated by 
a sense of right has won for themselves the merited recognition 
tliey deserve, and guarantees to tbem long tenure. 



Emhicnt Educator; Ajtpohitol on the irorliTf Fair Doardof Lady Manntjcn. 

J^ SKETCH of a remarkably clever Afro- American woman 
jn4j^ who has carved a niche for herself in the world of fame: 
The appointment of Miss J. Imogene Howard as a member of 
the Lady Managers of the World's Fair for the State of New 
York has met with general approval. 

Miss Howard is a graduate of the Girls' High Normal 
School of Boston and was the first of her.race ta jin^duate from 
that institution. She came to New York shortly after and 
was appointed on the staff of teachers of Colored Grammar 
School No. 4. ' She also received the degree of Master of Arts 
from the College of the City of New York in 1879, and for 
some years taught day school, and was appointed as principal 
of tiio colored night school, only resigning her i>ost upon the 
solicitations of her friends, lest the constant strain on her men- 
tal ability and physical strength impair her health. Supt. 
Jasper, it is said, remarked that the school gave the most flut- 
tering results under her management. 

Miss Howard is the daughter of Joan L. Howard, of New 
York city and Edwin F. Howard of Boston. 

Her brother. Dr. E C. Howard, who is an able and largo 
practioner of Philadelphia was a graduate of Harvard College 
and her sister. Miss Adeline Howard is the principal of the 
school in the Wormly building, Washington, D. C. 

Miss Howard has just received the degree of Master of 
Pedagogy of the University of the City of New York, and is 
a fit representative of the Eilucational Committee. 

Miss Howanl attended the meeting on Tuesday at the 
State Capitol, in the Assembly parlors, and in executive session 
they elected oDlcers as follows: President. Mrs. Erastus Com- 
ing, Albany; first vice-president, Mrs. E. V. H. Waddington, 
New York ; second vice-president, Mrs. J. S. T. Stranahan, 
Brooklyn; secretary. Miss Lesslie Pell Clarke, Springfield 
Centre ; treasurer, Mrs. Frances Todd Patterson, Westfield. 


An executive committee was also chosen^ consisting of 
Mrs. Dean Sage, Mrs. Frederick P. Bellamy, Miss Annie 
Soosevelt, Miss Caroline £. Dennis and Mrs. Andrew G. White. 

In the evening the education committee — Mrs. White, 
Mrs. Bellamy, Mrs. Stranahan, Miss Patterson and Miss Imo- 
gene Howard — met with the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction and Professor Dewey of the State Library, in 
reference to the educational exhibit. 

Among the associates on the board were Mrs. II. Walter 
Webb, wife of the vice president Xew York Central Railroad; 
Mrs. Fred P. Bellamy, sister to the author of ^^ Looking Back* 
ward," and Mrs. Andrew G* White of Cornell College. The 
ladies are to meet Mrs. Potter Palmer on her return from 
Europe next week. They were entertained at tiie palatial 
residences of Mrs. Dean Sage and Mrs. Erastus Coming. Miss 
Howard is flooded with letters of congratulation from her 
many friends. 


''One of the most refreshing and sensible appointments made 
in this State for many a day occurred when Miss Imogene 
Howard was placeil as a member of the Board of Lady Man- 
agers of the exiiibits of the State of New York for the World's 
Columbian Exposition. The honor came unsolicited and was 
due greatly to the representation of Mr. and Mrs. James C. 
Matthews and Mr. and Mrs. Wm. E. Gross. Miss Howard 
attended the meeting of the Board in tlie Assembly Parlors 
of the State Capitol on Tuesday, and stopped with the rest of 
the Boanl at the Kenmore Hotel, Albany. The appointment 
is the adequate recognition of the race in the State, and is fit- 
ting in that Miss Howard ranks with the brainiest and most 
capable of our women; she is able to measure arms with the 
cleverest of the opposite race, havicg just been made Master of 
Peilagogy, and winning a scholarship from the University of 
the City of New York. She has a record worthy of a good 
teacher of many years experience, which would make her a 
credit to any people." 


'^Miss Imogene Howard is the first and only colored woman 
in the Empire State appointed to a managership in the World's 
Columbian Exposition. She is a worthy representative of her 
race in the great World^s Fair, and colored people throughout 
the land may rest assured that in her hands the progress and 
ever increasing prosperity of the Kegroes of America will be 
shown to all the world to the hest ]x>ssible advantage. 

*^ Miss Iloward is one of the most tlioroughly intelligent and 
energetic of her people. From Iier earliest childhood she felt 
that her mission in life was to better the condition of the colored 
people, and in so doing she has found her life work. and her 
pleasure. She has taught and watched and advised, and now that 
she has very justly been given an official opi>ortunity to illustrate 
the advancement achieved she feels that she has her reward. 

** She feels that her people, who have made such grand 
strides in intelligence, industry and importance during the past 
decade, are entitled to recognition in Chicago's great Fair, and 
it is her intention that those of New York at least shall refute 
the charge that has often been made, that the race is at a 
standstill, or is retrograding. No one knows the coloreil people 
of New York better. No one is better able to bring out their 
strong points, and the prospects now are that in the New York 
exhibit the corner devoted to the colored people will be one of 
the most interesting features." 


Miss Howard was born in Boston, and lived there until she 
was 17 years of age. She acquired her studious habits under 
Boston influences, and in this instance they did not lead to a 
life devoted only to Brown or Kendrik Isben. First sho 
attended the Boston grammar and high schools, from which 
she graduated with high honors. She then became a student 
in the Girl's High and Normal School. Sho was graduated 
creditably in 1868, and was the first colored graduate of that 
high class institution. In the same year she came to New 
York and entered the employ of the New York Board of 
Education as a teacher in Grammar School No. 81, in West 


17th street, where she has since remained, teaching the 
colored children. 

Upon the resignation of Mrs. H. H. Garnetr, she became 
principal of the high school, held in that scliool house, and 
she held that position for eight years. In spite of her arduous 
duties as principal and instructor, she found time to attend the 
Saturday sessions for teacliers in the Normal College, and 
received the de^^ree of A. M. This year she compIete<l a three 
year's course at' the University of the City of New York School 
of Pedagogy.- f>he was the only colored woman of her class, 
but in the 6tass! of last year the Misses F. T. and II. C. Ray, and 
Miss Mary Eato received a like degree. 

Since beginning her educational labors m School No. 81 
Miss Howard has been a keen observer of her charges, and 
there is no one who can better testify to the increaseii intellig- 
ence of the colored children since the War of the Rebellion. 
She is a bright and interesting talker and expresses her thoughts 
with a forceful ness that carries conviction to the hearer. 

** There is,'' says she, ** no more interesting school in the 
world than ours. One must attend it day after day and year 
after year, as I have, to bo as interested as I have become. 
We have much to contend with that others have not. Most 
of our children are of poor parentage. Many of them are the 
children of very ignorant parents, and home influences are not 
always what they should be, but in spite of all these obstacles, 
I think it will be impossible to And a lot of children who 
exhibit more actual aptitude and acuteness. Their little Intel* 
lects often seem to have been sharpened by even their short 
contact with an unsympathetic world, and as long as we are 
able to direct this precocity into the proper channels they will 

become goo^ and useful men and women. 



^ They are all willing to learn. Many of them find their 
only home recreation in their study, and their advancement is 
often almost marvelous. 

^ We were fonnerly known as Colored Oram mar School 


No. 81, but by a law passeil a few years ago this distinction of 
colored was removed. It was right that it should be, for it was 
unkind, and not in accord with our American institutions — we 
are surely all American born — that these children should be 
made to feel, even in their school life, that they are of a class 
apart. The colored schools are now all numbered in regular, 
consecutive order with the others. They are open to children 
of all colors and nationalities , and this is as it should be. 

"We now have three hundred and fifty boys and girls. 
Of course there are more girls than boys. The percentage of 
girls is larger, I think, in all public schools. The boys are more 
often forced by necessity to go to work at an early age, and 
our most effective labor is, therefore, among the girls. The 
question as to whether the most good can be accomplished for 
our own people by educating the girls or the boys is one I need 
not discuss. The influence of one educated woman is certainly 
very great ; but we try to educate both sexes. 

" Our percenUige of truancy is, I think, less than that in the 
average white school of equal size, and that in face of the fact 
that many of our pupils come from distant parts of town. 


** My own class ranges in numbers from twenty-five to forty. 
I have one pupil who comes from 07th street, another from 44th 
street and the North river, and another from the Bowling Green, 
and these are seldom or never late or absent. 

^ There is more higher education now among the colored 
people than ever before, but in too many instances the children 
have to give up when they get what they can in the grammar 
schools and go to work. 

*^ Their field of labor is, alas I very much restricted ; but it 
is getting broader, and I look forward to the day when anr 
thing and everything will be open to the capable colored man 
or woman. 

** Of my own boys many have done exceedingly welL T^o 
are electricians^ and have become quite famous. William C. 
Oreen^ also one of my boyi^ is stenographer for Postmaster 


Cornelius Van Cott. Some of them are in the publio and private 
banking houses as messengers. One is private messenger to 
Archibald Rogers, and many are to be found in positions of 
trust in brokers' offices and big business houses. They get 
better employment now-a-days than ever before, and wo hope 
for better things yet." 

Miss Howard was appointed to tlie Exhibition management 
on June S^and her selection was announced at a meeting held 
in Albany ovk June 7. She will serve on the Committee on 
Education, her particular branch of the exhibit bein^ woman's 
part in the education of New York State. She expects to intro- 
duce educators in the work, particularly those who are engaged 
among the colored people. 



O write a sketch of the life of Mrs. Mary A. Campbell^ 
the widow of Bishop Jabcz P. Campbell, is the work 
that lies before me this beautiful Spring morning, April, 1803. 
No more delightful duty will ever devolve upon me. I only fear 
that I shall fail to satisfy myself or the friends of this beloved 
one in this attempted effort. 

Mary A Campbell was born in Philadelphia, January, 1817. 
She was reared and trained in Christian duty and the domestic 
virtues by a loved mother. For many years a resident of the 
southern section of the Quaker City. She met and married m 
early life Joseph Shire. By this marriage she had four chil- 
dren. A widow at a later date, in good circumstances, beauti- 
ful in form and feature, with the attributes of a lovable wife, 
she entered a second time into the holy estate of matrimony. 
As the beloved wife of Bishop Jabez Pitt Campbell, her 
personality and its virtues won her world-wide fame. Mrs. 
Campbell is about the standard of her sex in height, with a 
soft brown skin, to which age only adds greater charms. Her 
hair has long been a silver crown, bound with a black velvet 



band, in the lovely style of our grandmothers. The one lovely 
oharm that strikes every friend of Mrs. Campbell, both old 
and new, is her smile. Oh, the beauty and sweetness of it ! 
The compelling love that lingers in it! Truly it is *^ a smile 
that is a benediction*" '* To know her is a liberal education." 
It is one of the greatest blessings I have kixown in life to have 
had the friendship^ of this noble woman for a quarter of acen- 
tury. Iler lifp is that of a devoted Christian ; her hospitality 
is generosity personified ; her home life teaches the youn^ 
around her to love the home, make it the center of every noble 
effort for oneself and others; beautifully furnished, comforta- 
ble, neat, refined in all its belongings. Uer husband's and her 
son's children have growQ up in it to a pure and noble man- 
hood and womanhood. A tender mother, a loving wife, an 
ever faithful friend, living close to her Savior, her good deeds 
and charities have been manifoUl. 

The Colored Old Folks' Home at West Philadelphia, Wil- 
borforco University, the Jabez Pitt Campbell College and the 
Women's Mite Missionary Society have been the largest recip* 
ients of her bounty ; but no needy cause or worthy sufferer 
has ever gone empty from her door. ** What have I done, my 
child, that I should appear among the distinguished women of 
the race % " was the question asked by her in all sincere humility. 
My answer, from a heart overflowing in grateful remembrance 
of hundreds of noble deeds, was . **Not what have you done, 
but what. have you not done, in every line of effort that would 
make one of the sex and race distinguished % " And so I have 
tried to tell, in a few feeble words, the story of this helpful 
life — to set before your readers the noble, inspiring example of 
this lovely woman. 

Intelligent, educated, aspiring beyond most of her day and 
generation ; loved^ not only by her equals but almost idolized 
by the young and by the humble in station. When I hear 
of her illness I hasten to her side, fearing it may be for the 
last time. The years of her life have passed the three score 
years and ten limit, but the prayer in many hearts is, '*Lord, 
spare thy servant yet a little longer," 

aw soTSD ysoRO woxsir. 

Suob a character in life is valuable beyond human words to 
express, and ia death will continue, because of noble deeds, to 
lire on and on, by its beneficent example strengthening and 
guiding into higher life future generationn. 

Mas. N. F. M088BLL. 


^I^HE name of Amelia Allen is dear to the home and 
t|7 hearts of all Salina Kansas. She is an answer in the 
affirmative to the hopes of the race, and the early f ulGUmont of 

the prophecy that the girls of the Negro race with equal 
chances could demonstrate their worth not only in the class 
room bdt io lifeoa well. 


Earnestness, n'hioh is indioatire of strong Farao of char- 
acter, together witb her many acqairoments, make possible 
the many accomplishments and achievements of a useful, 
actirelife. With just enougholtstaclostocaU forth herforce 
and ability to overcome tliem, these will in all probability stir 
other latent energies not yet awalcooed in her young life, and 
show fourth the qualiSoations characteristic of the many lofty 
oxpectatioos of those who admire hor real worth. 


LangwiyeTeatiitratid WrUer. 
J^ MONG the host of young ladies who are doing some- 
j^>^ thing in an intollectual sense for the cause of the race, 
we may be reasonably exultant with the triumph and actiiities 
of this talented young woman. 

Her intellectual worth 
fur exoeU her opportuni- 
ties, if what a person has 
done is the criterion. Miss 
Dcbabtiste is quite young, 
but already we soe signs of 
her labor sparkling with 
the brightest rays of hope. 
She lias started right. 
Naturally possessing a 
thirst for language, she has 
shown her . adaptability 
by force of her mental 
capacity to learn it, and as 
well impart it with ease. 

For a considerable time „„^,^ „ D«..*nT.«.. 

she has been assistant 

teacher in languages at Ijnoola Institute under the able 
management of Prof. lamaa £. Page at Jeffecsoa City, 


S^o 18 a newspaper correspondent, and writes very able 
articles upon all the topics i)crtaining to the race question. Being 
clear in her style, forcible and |)ointed, she will in time cope 
with the leading writers of her sex. 

She is the daughter of Rev. Debabtistc, of ministerial prom- 
inence, who is also a writer upon all our social as well as 
economic questions. She rightly inherits her talents with the 
pen, her logic in debate, and reflects brilliantly her capabilities 
to achieve much for herself, her race and prove a lasting honor 
to her noble parents. 


Lecturer^ Taichcr and Poctc4$> 

ADA A. COOPEK, was born in Brooklyn on February 6, 
18G1. I am the daughter of Rev. A. II. Newton, of the 
Js^ew Jersey Conference of the A. M. E. Church, and Olivia 
Hamilton, who was the daughter of Robert Hamilton, who was 
known through New York as a singer, and who was connected 
with the Anglo- African. At the age of five I was sent to school. 
I knew how to read at that early age; just when I learned I 
don^t know, but it seems to me that I have always known. At 
the age of seven my mother died, leaving me in the care of my 
grandma. From childhood I was pronounced exceedingly 
smart ; in fact, smart beyond my years. At ten years old I 
had read the Pilgrim's Progress, Swiss Family Robinson 
and Robinson Cruesoe; and at fourteen I had read David 
Copperfield, and could repeat lots of verses from different 
poets. At eighteen I had read Paradise Lost and Pope's Essay 
on Man. I have never read either since, yet passages from 
both are still fresh in my mind, and I am now thirty-one. I 
was always peculiar as a child ; I wouhl take part in no childish 
sport, not even to playing with dolls that the girl so much 
delights in. I was always impressed with the idea that I had 
something to do in the world, somethmg to live for, although I 
knew not what it was. At eleven years of age I met with an 
acoident which gave me the hip^joint disease. I was thus un* 


ablo to walk for nearly tiro years. At thirteen I again went 
to school, and during that year I wrote a story which I showed 
to my teaolier. She took it and read it ; after which she told 
me that if I persevered I would in time be able to write some, 
thing that would astonisli the world. This oi>ened ray mind to 
some extent, and I determined to become a writer. At fifteen 
I left my northern home to go and live with my father, who 
was then in Little Rock, Ark. Although so young, I took the 
whole journey, a distance of more than 1,300 miles, by myself. 
Shortly after I reached Little Rock my father married a girl 
as young almost as myself. I was then, of course, left much to 
myself, and during one of my lonely hours I sat down and 
wrote a story which I called the *' Bride of Death,^' and laid it 
away to use at some time. When I was seventeen my father 
removed to Raleigh, N. C, where I w«is sent to Shaw Uni- 
versity. After I had been in the school a few months my 
teacher discovered that I was a very fine reader, hence I was 
given all the reading classes to teach, and thus socurcii my 
schooling free. I went to the school a part of three years, and 
during that time I bad but three dresses, A few months after 
I had been in Riileigh I met W. R. Harris, who was at that 
time a teacher in one of tlie city schools. He paid marked 
attention to me, and 1 soon learned to love him. Our love was 
kept a secret for upwards of a year; but when it finally became 
known to my father he sent me to Now Berne away tromProf. 
Harris, because he concluded that I could not love and study 
too. While in New Berne mourning for my lover, I had pub- 
lished the story I had written at fifteen, and continued to write 
other stories that soon became the rage throughout the State. 
I was also there chosen to read the Emancipation poem on 
Emancipation Day. I had no dress in which to appear before 
the public, so I borrowed one, but composed the poem that I 
read. I know that, if I could not dress, I had brain, and I was 
fully determined to use it. After a time I went back to school, 
and again I met my lover, and we determined that we would 
wed, let all oppose who would. He was then a professor in 
St. Augustine Institute, and was studying to become an Epis- 


copal minister, so I promised to wait until he had completed 
his course and then be his at all hazards. My father was 
bitterly opposed to my union with him, on account of his creed. 
I left school at twenty and went with my father north. There 
an event happened which I shall never forget. l^Iy home to 
me was not a pleasant place, and I was sickly, and had been 
from birth. A doctor had given me laudanum to use to allay 
my pains. One day, as I was about to use it as he had directed, 
a thought occurred to me that, as I was sick and seemed to be 
in everybody's way, I would end my life, it seemed no good to 
me. Even my lover seemed to desert me, as I had not heard 
from him in months. So I poured out a spoonful and started 
with it to my mouth, but before I could get it there the spoon 
was knocked from my hand, and the bottle fell to the Qoor 
shivered into bits. I determined then to live and live for some- 
thing. What my work in life was to be I had not yet 
determined, but I know that something lay before me 
which I must accomplish e'er death came to me. After so 
long a time I returned south to teach, and again met my old love 
whom I found as true as steel. I had had a groat many olTors 
of marriage, for I was a prctt}' girl, being a rosy brown, with 
black eyes and straight, black hair ; but none of them were 
accepted by me, for my heart was given away. While I was 
teaching in Uaywood, Chatham Co., an event happened to me 
wbicli is worth chronicling. I was sick, and having to seek 
for a doctor, I went to one known as Dr. Budd, who was said 
to be the best in the county. On arriving at the house, which 
sat back in the yard, as do the majority of southern country 
homes, I met a woman coming down the path and asked her 
if the Doctor was at home. Ker reply was, "Yes; he is in 
the back yard ; go there and see him.'' I answered her, ^^ I do 
not go in back yards to see doctors," and went straight to the 
front door and rang the bell. The woman went to the side 
gate and said to me : " You may ring all day, and nobody will 
come." Then she called over the fence to her servant and said : 
^ Kitty, oh Kitty — tell the doctor there is a nigger woman out 
here who desires to see him,'' 


Well, I have been called a plucky woman ; in fact, am said 
to be manish. It stood me in hand that day. I only waited 
to reply just long enoup^h to see what Kitty would say. She 
said to the doctor, after a moment's pause : '* Doctor, there is a 
lady out front who desires to see you.'' Then I spoke and 
said: '* The servant is a lady, hence she knows one when she 
sees her. The mistress never has been one and never will be 
one, and hence she don't know one when she sees her." 

'* Do you insult me in my own house," asked she. 

'^ I care not whose house it is," said L ** You're no lady, I 
tell vou." 

*^ Get out of here t " said she. 

*• I'll not," said I, " until I get ready." 

About that time the doctor came up. 

" You insulted my wife," he said. 

"Your wife insulted me." 

" Well, get out of my yard." 

"I'll not until I get read>." 

"Til hit you with this stick 1" he said, grabbing a cane 
that lay on the |)orch. 

"You do," I said, "and whatever law there is in Carolina 
for the black woman I'll get it. There is not much, but PU 
get what there is." 

Whereu|K>n he threw down the stick and said : 

" I'll put you out, any how." 

" You may do that," said I, "for I am on your premises." 

He then took me by the arm and led me out of the 

I had to have a parting shot, and so I said to him : 

" If I were a man, I'd flght you ; but as I am a sick woman, 
I tell you that you are a brute, and your wife is no lady." 

When this affair became generally known throughout Hay- 
wood the majority of the colored people thought that I had 
committed an unpardonable sin in si>eaking in this manner to 
Dr. and Mrs. Budd ; but a few of the best men of the place 
— Prof. S. O. Atkins and others— went to the doctor and his 
wife about the matter. They declared that they knew not 



\rbo I was, and desired the matter hushed up. They thought 
that I was one of the townspeople trying to put on airs. 

Shortly after this I went to R. and was married to my 
heart's choice, Prof. W. R. Harris, who had become an Epis- 
copal minister. We were married in May, 18S5. He was 
made a priest in June, and died the following January. Hence 
I was a bride and a widow in one year. After his death I 
taught in Washington graded school for three years. During 
that time I was the editor of the woman's column of a little 
paper called T/te Outlook. A Sunday school teacher, which I 
have been since I was fifteen, I wrote for papers and interested 
myself in all charitable undertakings. 

At the end of three years a great sorrow came to me, 
which so affected me that it gave me congestion of the brain. 
'I resigned and went to Philadelphia to the Woman^s Hospital. 
After remaining there a while the doctors told me that I would 
have to undergo an operation, which was very dangerous, but 
which was my only hope of life. I prayed then, and I made 
a vow to Almighty Ood that if ho would spare my life I would 
devote it to his service, doing all I could for the sick, the 
afflicted and the poor. He answered my prayer, and I set to 
work as soon as I left tlio hospital. I first went to Maryland 
to teach, and staid there eight months among the poople,wbom 
I aided in every possible way. Of my experiences there I will 
not stop to tell, as it would make this sketch too long. But 
they were many and varied. 

After leaving Maryland I engaged with a Western publish- 
ing bouse to become a traveling agent. I entered into the 
work, traveling from Trenton, N. J., to Easton, Pa., where I 
found myself sick, unable to gain an agent, and not a dollar in 
the world. For a while I was nonplussed. I finally decided 
to go to the Methodist minister and ask his aid. This I did, 
and he said to rac : 

'^I will aid you by allowing you to help yourself. Can you 

*• Yes," said I. 

<*Can you recite t" 


" Yes, sir." 

** And you can lecture t " 

'< I have never tried to lecture," 8ai«l I, ^' but I suppose I 

'* You shall try to-morrow night," said he, *' in my church." 

This was Saturday. True to bis word, on Sunday night he 
gave mo tbe stand and I lectured. Well, it was a success. 
Then this good brother. wht>se name was F. F. Smith, said to 


'^ Now, to-morrow night you may sing and recite ; and never 
be it said hereafter that you, with the brain that you possess, 
are left without a dollar. Start out in the lecture field, and 
let this book business alone." 

I did as be advised, and traveled as a lecturer from then on, 
receiving favorable comments from tbe press and from such 
men as Bishops Turner, Lee, Dr. Coppin, and others. I lec- 
tured and visited the sick until I reached Winchester, Va., 
where I remained five months, working as a missionary in the 
Free Will Baptist Church. I accomplished much good in that 
community, and there decided that my life work was to be 
that of a missionary. I therefore hastened to New Jersey, 
joined the conference, and became a missionary, or evangelist, 
in the A. M. E. church. I felt that my work lay in visiting the 
prisons and places of ill repute. This I did in God^s name, 
traveling from place to place, lecturing and preaching, until 
I again found myself in Kaleigh, N. C. I arrived there just 
in time to attend the Southern Exposition, and to make a 
speech before the N. C. I. A. on the exposition grounds, which 
was said to excel any made by the men, although Gov. Pinch- 
back and Congressman Che;itham were among the speakers. 
This speech was made on the 5th day of November, 1891, and 
on the 18th of November I met Rev. A. B. Cooper, a promis- 
ing young minister of the A. M. E. church, and married him 
on the 13th day of. January, just three days before I had ended 
seven years of widowhood. 

So you see my life has been a romantic and an eventful one« 
1 would tell you many things more of my life and adventures 


in the South were it not that it would make iliis too long. I 
am now engaged in writing a book of poeiDH, which I i>urpose 
to finish in '03. Ai>a A. Cooper. 

Washikotom, X. C. 


Ubcrhtn lit rot lie. 

TT MONO the few Xugro women of Liberia whose fame as 
jp^ phiknlhroi>ist8 and race agitators is not circumscribcii, 
hut hot become universal in both England and America, Mri. 


Bioks enjoys a promineot place. For many ycnrs tier volod and 
pen have ohampioned the caui:e of Liberin. Her prosperity hai 


largely depended on the unabating efTorts of her loyal citizens, 
and, regardless of sex, her leading women have figurcil very 
conspicuously in the accomplishment of every success she has 

Mrs. Ricks is a personal friend and correspondent of Q.aeen 
Victoria, and this social attachment h<as been the cause of con- 
stnnt interchange Of mementoes. Very recently Mrs. Ricks 
presented Queen Victoria with a ** crazy-patch" quilt, which 
for boauty and exceptional merit, as well as the high apprecia- 
tion of the gift, and her high regard for Mrs. Ricks, the Queen 
has placed it among the exhibits of the British Dominion in the 
World's Fair, at Chicago. Mrs. Ricks ranks among the leading 
women of her time and place, and justly merits this grand and 
ennobling recognition from the grandest ruler on the Eastern 
Continent. Her rare worth is all the more emphasized when 
taking into consideration the fact that her prominence asserts 
itself at home, and among the leading spirits of Liberia. Her 
]K>wer is felt. She has made herself an exponent of the pro* 
gress' of the people on the Dark Continent by energy and 
push, coupled with the other exemplary qualifications which 
are Qod-given. 


Race LcitiXcr. 

^^y^UE remarkable signs of the times setting forth the prog- 
ress of the race, based U|>on facts, and figures, are 
prophetic of what the race may accomplish in the world. With 
every facility to thoroughly fit and prepare the Negro to take 
his place along with the other great races, no one of us can 
grow discouraged over our possibilities. 

Mrs. Hammond is a convincing unit of our progress, and 
demonstrates the fallacy of all doubts which have dawned upon 
the vision of the skeptics of her section. She is a forcible 
writer, a strong advocate, an active scholar in the cause of 
Negro progress— not easdy discouraged, possessing very much 
pbysioal force, strong and striking qualities capable to lead. 


Her docUioa and discretion are very stroogly marked. 
Her ritality bespeaks forlU a long and active career in the 
OMue of baman prosperitj. 


Alderson, West Virginia, being ber home, she is so situated 
as to meet and explode the doctrinos of incapacity, bo often 
the ignorant conception of the Southerners regarding bur intel' 
leotnal progress. 




Singer of Frctich mid Italiat^ Operas. 

HE world has hoard Madam Selika and has been 
delighted with her singing. The press everywhere 
has 8{)okon in very high praise of the wonderful range of her 
sweet voice » the masters in music have found new beauties in 
their songs when sung by her, and in no compromising terms 
have placed her where she rightly belongs, second to none of her 


time. Parody nicknaming is a peculiar popularity m which 
many of her profession seem to have distinguished themselvesi 
but Selika needs no gilding. 

She has played as Selika and her successes demonstrate 
that Selika is quite as convenient a name as she could have. 
We may diverge from the general rule, in treating of distin- 
guished women who have figured so very conspicuously as she^ 
and say that there really is something in a name^ and that 


name she has, by the cultivation of her voice, dignified and 
made quite as prominent as the many adopted by persons not near 
her equal. She has, by study and unceasing practice in the 
foreign languages, prepared herself so artistically in the realm 
of song as to acquit herself far beyond the exi>ectations of the 
many thousands who have flocked to hear her. 

Indeed she is so well known, and the sentiment is so general 
as to her excellency in her art, that she requires no additional 

She continues to raise the scale of our intellectual possibil- 
ities and demonstrate before the world that the Negro can not 
only sing jubilee songs, and ballads, but they can enter all the 
repository of music and song, and discriminate between the let- 
tered and unlettered o])eras, yea, can sing the French and 
Italian as well as the English operas. 

Madam Solika has been on the stage seventeen years, during 
which time she has traveled five years in Europe, has sung 
before the Czar of Russia, and her many triumphs abroad have 
won for her such fame as no other Negro woman of our time 
can boast. By special invitation she has sung for President 
Hayes, and on more than a dozen occasions where thronged 
thousands of the lovers of her sweet intonation, she has been 
universally pronounced *' the greatest colored singer of the 

We append below a brief extract from T/ie Colored Amcri- 
early on the event of her expected appearance before a Wash- 
ington audience : 


<< Despite the awful inclemency of the weather, hundreds 
came to hear the greatest colored singer of the globe last 
Wednesday night. Postponed until Monday night, May 8th. 
Everybody will be there. Tickets for Wednesday night good 
on Monday night. 

««The concert to be given Wednesday night would, with- 
out doubt, have drawn the largest gathering ever assembled in 
the Metropolitan Ohuroh on M street northwest The talent 
and programme were the finest, combining in one the magnificent 


soprano, Madame Selika ; the peerless little Lotta, the renowned 
tenor and instrumentalist, Prof. Laurence, and the famous bar- 
itone. Prof. Veiosko. But iEolus and Jupiter Pluvius took 
a hand in the matter with disastrous results. These old and 
antiquated gentlemen, who never wore white shirts and laun- 
dried colLirs and bad no such musical artist to please their tym* 
pani with musical strains, concluded and did give us a combi- 
nation of wind and water that made all shiver in their boots. 

*' The many people who bravely faced the rainstorm on List 
Wednesday night showed the appreciation in which Madam 
Selika, Profs. Laurence and Yelosko and Little Lotta are held 
by the Washington people. The concert was postponed until 
Monday night, May 8, ISO:), to accommodate the many who 
did not come out Wednesday night. Everybody will be there 
at 8 p. m. sharp. The managers of the concert have decided 
that all tickets issued for Wednesday night will be p^ood on 
Monday night. The managers have also arranged *A Parlor 
Match' with Mr. iEolns and Mr. Jupiter Pluvius, «and they will 
take 'A Ni^ht Off ' ' Down On the Bowery,' and will not be 
here to interfere with *The Crust of Society.' " 

ller rightful position as an accomplished singer is by the 
side of Jenny Lind, Parodi, Nilsson, Patti and Elizabeth Tay- 
lor Greenfield. When other aspirants for such honors from 
the public pulpit and press startle the world with their 
matchless voices* as Selika has, shall shine upon our musical 
horizon and have dignified as well their names, they, as she. 
will be doing much to compensate for the evil practices of 
some who feel honored in passing a mimetic name* ** There all 
the honor lies." 


A Noble Mather and Race Dovtfactor. 

RS. SARAH LEE, the mother of Bishop B. F. Lee, was 
one of a family of nine children — seven girls and two 
^ys, and was bom in the year 1818, in Cumberland county, 
N. J. She was the daughter of Benjamin and Phebe Gould, 
and oomes of an old family, tracing from one generation to 


another, in regular succession, to the first settlers of Now 
Jersey, ranking with Sir George Carteret and John Fenwick, 
ami other English Quakers who secured that part of the Siato 
from William Penn. Sarah is fifth in generation. Her father 
possessed a small farm and large tract of woodland, and did an 
extensive business in the booi^pole traile. There being so 
many more girls than boys, Sarah was often called into service 
out of doors as well as in the house ; and in such rural pursuits 
and activities her early life was spent. 

The educational facilities of the country were those of the 
earlier ages, and the three R's were taught in tho'w inter 
months, and by this Sarah acquired a common school educa- 
tion. She was always fond of books and study, and was con- 
sidered both handsome and accomplished. At the age of 
twenty*one she was married to Abel Lee, who was also one of a 
large family and native of the same State. They settled in 
life and purchased a small farm, and had six children, three 
girls and three boys, born to them. But, alas I when the 
eldest bad only attained the age of thirteen years the hand of 
death took away the fond husband and loving father, and left 
the children orphans and Sarah a widow. She has never fully 
aroused from that stolid grief ; but with a set purpose and firm 
will she turned her face to the world to defend and take care 
of her children and sustain the honor of her husband. His 
promises of debts on the place she'would pay, and though the 
law of New Jersey would not claim such she did pay to the last 
dollar; and she bad a home secure for her children and herself 
in her declining years. 

As she began to have a little leisure in life her love of read- 
ing increased ; she sought the strongest minds and information 
from the best authors in literature* 

Of her children she has lived to see them all grow up to 
honorable man and womanhood : the girls and one son, the 
bishop, to marry ; two sons still remain at home with her; 
one of them, who had become a smart farmer worth several 
thousand dollars, is afflicted with blindness, upon whom she 
waits now with tenderest care. 



A great lesson of life is taught by this woman having;: lived 

— that in working out the every day aflairs we are laying 

foundations deep and strong ; that at home, and unobserved, 

we are sending minds to search for the'beautifuU the great and 

good, and verifying the saying that thoughts spoken in the 

bedchamber are re(>eAted on the housetops, and that honor, 

strength and perseverance will bring forth a never*failing 

haiTcst*; so surely as it is sivid, what a man sows shall he also 


Mrs. a lice S. Felts, 

6 Emerson st., New Bedford, Mass. 



ARY E. LEE, wife of Hishop B. F. Lee, was bom in 

rU^jL. Mobile, Ala. In tins sunny clime she spent the 
earliest days of her cliildhood. 

In about 1858 her parents moved to Wilberforce. Ohio, and 
there on a farm, near the college, the days of her youth were 
spent. She attended Wilberforce University and graduated in 
1873, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Science, and composed 
the ^^ Class Ode." Previous to the completion of her course 
she had two years' experience as a teacher in Mobile, Ala., and 
was quite a successful teacher. 

At an early age she showetl great talent for writing. Poetry 
seemed to be her specialty, for there was somethmg in the 
natural surroundings of Wilberforce which harmonized with 
her nature, and inspired her thoughts. 

On Dec. 30, 1873, she was married to Rev., now Bishop, B. F. 
I^e, then a professor at Wilberforce, and during his pres- 
idency of eight years her influence was greatly felt by the 

For many years she has from time to time contributed 
poetry and prose to The ChriBtian Recorder^ and also to the 
A. M. K Rtmew and other journals, and is at present editor 


of *^The King's Daughters'' department of Ringwood^B 

She has written many short poems, and several lengthy 
ones, such as ** Tawawa," and ^^ Af merica." Although still 
young, she has seen much sorrow, having lost by death both 
father and mother, with two brothers and five sisters since her 
marriage^ and having been the mother of nine children, three 
of them have been carried to the better land, so that now, but 
for a number of nieces and nephews, she would be quite alone 
in the world ; yet she is of a cheerful and pleasant tempera- 
ment, treating every one she meets with affability, and all wlio 
come to her home are met with a generous welcome and made 
to feel at ease during their stay. As a wife and mother, she 
is very devoted and careful, overseeing the management of her 
house, and, to some extent, the education of her children and . 
controlling every department with a skill that brings success. 

As has been said, during the eight years that her husband 
was president at Wilberforce University, she was a great help 
to him in caring for the students and helping them with their 
studies ; there are many young women, and men as well, who 
owe to her, and they do not fail to recognize it, a debt of 
gratitude for the instruction and sympathy they have received 
while students, at that university. 

Her reading has been extensive and varied, her book stands 
abounding only in the classics of both prose and poems, but 
also of the latest and most wide-awake authors, so that she 
continually revels in a wealth of literature equaled by few of 
her race. 


These aro a set of random facts, gathered from the great 
central lights of the subject, and flung, as it were, on the skies, 
to be viewed as our telescopic visions, early fulfillment of our 
highest hopes, a forcible index to our progress, a conclusivo 
pledge to redeem ourselves from the thraldom of inferiority 
and incapacity. Twenty-seven years of freedom and education 
has not only made us men and women worthy of honor and 
trust, but we have become features of help and inaintenatice 
in every avenue of the world^s progress. Not far removed 
from our former condition, it is not difficult to prove the great 
loss of a nation that for more than 250 years in holding one* 
fourth of its populiottion in abject slavery, when facts and 
figures speak so very eloquently for us to-day. But, *^ w e are 


Mrs. Josie D. Heard's prophecy (in "Morning Glories**) is 
already here, and more than fulhlled in Mrs. Frances £. W. 
IIarpor*8 ** lola ; or. Shadows Uplifted/* as well as in Miss 
Anna J. Cooper's "A Voice From the South;** Mrs. Octavia 
y. R. Albert's ^^House of Bondage,** all of which forcibly 
show their capability as aufJiors. 

The poems from the pens of Phillis Wheatley, Mrs, Josie 
D. Heard, Mrs. Harper, Mrs. Charlotte Forten Grimke, liliss 
Mamie E. Fox, herein, are strong as proofs of Holy Writ, and 
^move Mrs. Heard*8 prophecy far from vain imaginings. 

Tub AirrHOB. 





pN the beauty, the fuUness and inspiration of his soul the poet 
^ Milton has said that woman is Ood^s latest and best gift 
to man. And if it is incumbent upon the lesser gift to teach 
humanity, it must bo a t>yo*fold duty of woman that splendid 
gift of divinity. It is an acknowledged fact that a moral, 
intellectual and a religious foundation is necessary for our 
success in life. That is, truth should be the basis of human action. 
It is said that the first impression the human mind receives is 
the most lasting. Who teaches the first principles 7 Who 
gives the mind the first turn, a start and a thou^^ht ? Woman. 
Education, moans to lead out, draw out, sot forth,~and in those 
countries where woman's influence as an educator is recognized 
there you iind civilization most advanced, piet}' most sincere, 
morality most progressive and knowledge most extensive. 

England, for instance, one of the grandest, noblest, and 
most influential nations on the globe, is onl}* great because 
she recognized the powerful influence of the intellectual force 
of woman as an educator. There, too, our own country keeps 
pace to the music of mental improvement by conferring upon 
woman the rare privilege of instructing the youth. Go to the 
public schools — the celestial arch upon which our government 
rests — who constitute the majority of our teachers? Women, 
for the people know that woman by her neatness, her accuracy, 
her patience, her faithfulness and her zeal, can most deeply 
impress the aspiring student, than man by his vigorous enforo 
ments. Napoleon once asked Madam DeStael what was the 
best thing he could do to elevate France. She replied ^* instruct 
the mothers/' That very expression was the essence of true 
greatness, the very archstoneupon which the greatest proepority 
of the greatest nations rest 



People have often wondered why the Indian does not 
become oivilizeil, though the government tloes more for him 
• than anv other nation docs for its wards, ami vet ho still "sees 
Goil in the wind'' and seeks the happy hunting ground as his 
final resting-place. I say that people still wonder; the solution 
of that question is easy, beaiuse in the dark ages and savage 
nations woman is not recognized as a partner, as an equal, as a 
consoler, as an instructor, but as a servant, as a slave. Thev 
haven't learned that '* where woman is most respecteil, man is 
most elevated," and it is a fact that no nation kindred or 
tongue, can become i>owerful or great until their women are 
.nstructeil in the high principles of morality and truth. For, 
when once her heart is ligiited up with those high principles it 
shines forth with the intensitv of a meridian brilliancy. In no 
department in which woman has been placeil has she disgraced 
the position. Which is forcibly illustrated by Miss Sweet, the 
agent who handles millions of dollars of pension money and is 
always found correct in her accounts. The energetic Lock- 
wood's pleas are commended by the bar. Elizabeth Fry and 
Mrs. Vancolt's words sink as deep into the heart of the erring 
and fallen as their stern brothers. Ellen Foster, Susan B. 
Anthony and Sojourner Truth are as eloquent on the platform 
as most of the bearded sex. and I know that Frances Xightin- 
gale and Clara Rarton, those •' angels of mercy " Whittier calls 
them, have done as much to lessen the sorrow, to cheer the 
faint and lift up the fallen, as their more elevated brethren. 
Woman's influence as an cilucator may be likened unto the 
rays of the sun, which come quietly, silently ui>on the realms 
of nature. The clearer woman is of her knowledge of her 
duty, of her relation, of !»er reivonsibility so more . i>owerful 
will her influence be as an educator and as an elevator of 
suffering humanity, Then I would say that the " cbiefest '* 
duty of the age, of the pulpit, of the school, of the statesman 
and of the press is to bond all their energies in assisting woman 
as an educator. 

Miss Lucy £. Motkk, of Washington, D. C, is an able 
woinan. She has a broad knowledge of. men of letters, she 


has traveled abroad and took in store the great and wonderful 
experiences of a diplomat; she took the classic or gentlcmen*s 
course in Oberlin college and graduated with high honors. 

At the annual session of the American Association of 
Educators of Coloreil Youths, she elicited the following com- 
ment : 

*^ The program of the Association embraced many valuable 
papei*s by the most experienced teachers of colored youth. 
One of the most interesting occasions of the entire session was 
when the beautiful and talented Miss Lucy E. Moten, of 
Washington, D. C, delivered an address on the Theory and 
Practice of Teaching. — C/trUt inn Recorder, 

Miss Lucy E. Moten, principal of tlie Miner normal school 
of the 7th and 8th divisions, is one of the most popular and 
highly educ;\ted teachers in the United States. She has 
recently been made one of the vice-presidents of the educa- 
tional conference which meets in Chicago during the time of 
the World's Fair. It is conceded by those best posted on 
educational affairs that the explanation of the art of teaching 
by Miss Moten is equal to an}' of either race in this country. 
Iler appointment is a tribute in her deserving ability. — The 
Colored American. 

Miss Moten occupies a very high place among the great 
eilueators of the age. Her work in the school room portrays 
the success to which our race has atUiined, and marks the 
highest nitch in the art of teaching. She is mentally tbo peer 
of her sex, and is working for the race an enviable name by 
the side of the leaders of her art. 

MtssKs Rachki. and 1a>i7Isa Albxandrr are worthv scholars 
and teachers of renown. 

Miss Cuanib Pattbrson, of Washington, D. C, is a gradu* 
ate from the classic halls of Oberlin, and takes front rank 
among our leading educators. Iltsr experience as a teacher is 
long, varied and full of rare experiences. As a cultivated 
woman her usefulness has added much to the culture and 
refinement of the raoe* 



Mka. Mary Witiikrs, also emerged from the classic halls of 
Oberlin, and stands very high in the art of teaching. 

Mrs. Dr.Yanklla, of To[>eka, Kansas, is one of the promi- 
nent female eilucators of thn West. 







MRS. riior. OAllNKTT, 
LouUviiU, Ay. 

Mrs. Sadib Nbwton, of St. Louis, Mo., is another classic 
graduate from Oberlin, who has done much in the educational 
cause for the race. 

Misses Hurlburts, teachers and elocutionists of Trenton, 
JNew Jersey, are entitled to our notice because of their literary 
labors and real worth in the cause of education. 


Miss Mattie A. fleKDRiwoN graduate of Lemoyno Inatitutc, 
more recently of Cincinnati BusincBs College, now editor of the 
Future SlaU of Kansas City, Mo., ranks very high as a teacher 
having completed her course At Lemoyne Inst, graduating at the 
head of her class, she vras olTered a position in her alma mattf 
which she accepted, giving in every way entire satisfaction to 
all concerned. 

Mies Rauset, of Pliiladelphia, ranks amoDg (he grawl edu- 
cators of the race in the Quaker City. 


First and foremost among the leading scholars of the Kesro 
race from the South, stands Mrs. Mollie Church Terrell. tShe 
entered Oberlin at quite an early age, and prosecuted , the 
studies in the gentlemen's course, graduated with honors, and 
WAS tendered a [Msition in the Olwrlin faculty. She has 
traveled abroad, studied tiie tiead languages in their native 
liaunts, in fact bec:ime n disciple under the instruction of the 
very best foreign instructors. Her field for usefulness is very 
extensive. To say the least Mrs. Terrell is a very grand young 
woman, destined to do some migiity net, that will place higher 
value upon the integrity and character of the race, and cause a 
general change of opinion oonoeming our fidelity, and loyalty. 
The School Board of Washington, D. 0., immediately after 
her European travels tendered her a rery high pontion in the 
High School. 


Mus Add[b Jaoksok, of Baltimore, claims space for her 
name wherever the subject of Negro education is given consid- 

The Misses Wilsoxs, teachers of distinction of Indianapolis, 
Indiana, are Dientioned here because of their worthiness aa 

Tbe Misses Howards, of Philadelphia, are classed very tiif{h 
in literature and the arts and sciences. 

Kev. Kebshaw of tbe A. M. £. Church in a letter to the 
, Christian Uecorder concerning Edward 'Waters College noted 
tlie following: 

At the clnss room Ko. 1, we found Miss P. B.. Weston 
controling and leading on the primary divi8ion;in class room 
No. 2, Miss M. E. Brown, one of Edward Waters' first grad- 
uates is teacher. The trustees made no mistake in electing her 
to take charge of the intermediate deportment. 'Wefoundher 

OFOUJt PltOaUESS. i23 

tlriUing lierclnss in that part of hygiene that relates to strong 
th-iiik. Masterly and convincing was her instmction to her 
class " wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging ; whosoever is 
deceived thereby is not wise." 

Miss L. }>l. Johnson presides orer the musical department, 
and there is where * get along ' is the order of the day. After 
heai-ing her I aaitl, " Lord it is good to he here." 

In room No. 3, Miss K. N. Phelps is holding the crayon in 
front of the Normal de]iartmcnt,at the time of our risit to a 
class in Uniteil States History. The particular subject was 
the treason of Arnold. Misa E. N. Pheljts issurely mistress of 
the position which she occupies. 

Dr. GBonoiA E. L. Pattom bade farewell to her many 
friends, Saturday, Feb. Hth, and started for New York, wliere 
she expects to meet Miss £. Millard, who will assist her in 
making the last arrangements for her long journey. The ship 
in which she is to embark for Liberia, her future field of Uhor 


<)UtcIc and ready, and this trait sho injects into bcr pupils. She 
possesses more than usual poiror, and propels bcr clitldron 
seemingly along. Iler fitness as an instructor bas also won for 
her the position of assistant suiiorvisor of the colored schools. 

AuoHO the noted people of Kansas, Mrs. Prof. Wadkins, of 
Topeka, takes high rank ns an educator, scholar and mce 
' agitator. 

Db. Cabbie Y. Still Akdbosok, of Philadelphia, daugliter 
of the great Still, of undorground railroad fame, is ablo as a 
scholar, teacher, leotorer and oliampion raco advocate. 

Miss Mattir E. ANOLRsuif, principal female seminary, 
Frankfort, Ky., ranks very high as a teacher and disciplinarian. 
Mrs. Sarah G. Jones of Cincinnati says of her : " Miss Anderson 
bas labored faithfully for years in Kentucky and has assisted 
mach in cloratisg the educational interests of our peoplo in the 
locality where she resides. Such influonco as shs exerts can- 
not, however, be confined to a narrow limit, but asserts itseU 
positively in every direction for good.'' 


OcR Fkkale Teacheio wlio liavo distinguished themselves 
ai-o many, almost inniiniorahlo in Tact, a tiresome count, but 
Among them we shall simply name a few. 

Miss Lrcr Lanet of Georgia, stands preeminently ahead of 
those of our southern ladies. The Christian Secorder, says of 

Odo of tho most rcmftrlublo and uiccctsrul icomcD, It UUa Lucf Laoej 
l>rlDcli»lo( tlMltajnrsMormaland loduslriil Scbool. AuguiU, Ok. TbU 
school la DOW uadcr the auspices of tbe Presb.vtcrian cbntcb, but like most 
of tbcirtclioola Id iko South, U open t« overyoM wbo cornea And compllca 
vitbihcrulca. Mlts Lnoc; monnget thta large Mhool whlcb ba* sd eoroll- 
mcDt of 330 acholnra wUUauch an ability and bualocaatact at would do credit 
t<> Doy iDBtllullonin llioland. 8bfl is ■ model (or liei nunerau* pupils la 
cveryihiog ibsl Ibo word Impllct, 

Mrs. Minhib L. Fqilups nee BBiifELBT, of Houston, Texas, 
Tanks among the greatest modero moldors of clay, antl teachers 
of the paper folding art. She enjoys a lucrative salary in the 
Austin puhlio schools, and it's a very easy task to single out 
the little fellows who are under her immediate care. She is 

«• OTUEli KXfAfl'LAllS 

as medical missionary, will sail about tho 10th of April, ^7o 
ask for her a prosporous joui-noy and that bor work may bo a 
blessing to many. 

Miu. LvCY Tiiuiiuan's work foi' tlio causo of Tompcraiico 
among tho race ia so rcrv well known tliat wo shall 
not necessarily cmplinsizo for her. Tiio American 
{icoplo know licr ns Miss r.ucy Sinti>3on. ^[rs. Ciiristino Slioo- 
craft Smith says of her, " She has lecturctl extensively in Illinois. 
Indiana, Kentucky and A[ichigiin as a woman of note, 
distinguishetl for hor tireless advocacy for the Toraperance 
causc.shc is worthy a pLico in yonrlxrak." 

Mrs. B. W. Arkkt, Mrs. Susio I. Shorter, Mrs. Tanner, 
Mrs. Uisbop Campbell, Mrs. Bisliop Hood and indeed u host of 
female gi^ints nro worthy of oxtensivo mention in tliis oliapter, 
but let the above servo as a hint to those so careless as to bo 
doubtful. Through these, God is working out tho plan of 
rcdemptiou for mankind. Others will oatch a gleam of the 
bright spark they hold aloft and succeed thcue womanly 
patriots until wine is proron to be a mookor, and strong drink 
forbidden in our christian hind. 


M18S Annie Fairciiild is another primary teacher of note. 
She is worUo'^'^o mead of praise \v lion we consider that prompt 
attention is given to her grades to the extent that column after 
column ascends each year and in no Instance has she let her 
little lambs ilivergo fi*om the i>ath of duty, that of learning or 
losing a grade. 

Mrs. Laura nee AVatson of Nashville^ Mrs. Bessie 
Carter /u'd Gibson, Mrs. CO. Goudy,Mi*s. Bessie Brady Ballad, 
and a host of Xashvillians rank very high as teachers es|)ecially 
in the primary art of teaching. 

Nashville, Tenn., being the Athens of the South the habit of 
striving to excel has grown in the teachers until now par 
excellence is tiie rule. 

A Georgia pa])er says : Miss Selena M. Sloan, proprietress 
of Edward Watei*s Seminary, in Tallahassee, Fla., is a living^ 
example of the excellence of Georgia teachers. She is a charm- 
ing young woman, and is an inspiration to any girl with whom 
she comes in contact. Georgia cherishes a remarkable prido 
in her, and she deserves the esteem of everyone. 

liliss Ida Ginns is an able teacher, a graduate from Oberlin 
College and a classic student. She is principal of the Preiura- 
tory Department of the University at Tallahassee, Florida. 

Miss Ida Belle Evans a graduate of the academic, scientific 
and collegiate departments of the Central Tennessee College is 
a teacher with an excellent i*ecord. She has taught three years 
in the Prairie View State Normal institute of Texas, having 
resigned she returned to Nashville, Tenn., and entered iier 
Alma !Mater, and resumed the position as pupil and teacher 
in the college, taking in 1891 thedegreeof A. B. from the classic 
department. ^liss Evans is destined to bo heard from, not 
only as a scholar but a singer, a |>oetess and a mathematician. 
She has traveled through the North with the Tennessee singers 
' and has been richly endowed with press comments. 

Mrs. Amanda S. ^Ivllkn, nee PekbTi is among our talented 
teachers of the South. 


MtSA Vara Leg Moore is a classio graduato of Central 
Tennessee College who has taught unceasingly in Texas, Waco 
and Ft. Worth for six years, llccently she has been appointed 
Lady Principal of the Central Alabama Academy at Hunts- 
yille, Ala., under the auspices of the Freed man's Aid Society. 

Miss Hallie Q. Brown ranks among the leading teachers 
of the race, at present acting as lady Principal of Tuskegeo 
University. Her sketch is given elsewhere. 

Mrs. Frankie E. Harris AVassosi is making lier name not 
only as an instructor of the future man and woman, but that 
of a poetess, she ranks high among the alumni of Oberlin. 

Miss Clarissa M. Thompson is a disciplinarian whose sketch 
is given in another part of our book. 

Miss' A. L. Evans, wo may justly say is entitled to bo 
styled a teacher. Having for some years taught in the capital 
city of Texas, and feeling her inability to give value for value, 
she went to Oberlin College in 18S8, remaining until 1800^ 
finishing in one of its departments. 

Miss Elnora Bowers, a classic graduate of Fisk University^ 
located at Galveston, Texiis, is a very cillcient scholar and able 
teacher. All Texas is proud of her. 

Mrs. Ella Ayler, 7k^ Jones, of Macon, 6a. is a graduate of 
Fisk University and is gifted for generosity and sincerity among 
not only her pupils, but all others who come in her way. She 
has for many years taught in the Lone Star State ; Dallas, 
Waco and Huntsville being the fortunate cities that can boast 
of her sojourn as teacher. 

Mrs. Mary Sinclar, nee Le J^IoLemare, is classed among 
the finest musicians of Tennessee. Kot only was she a most 
pleasing musical performer, but a composer of songs and music. 
She is the author of many notable pieces of music that have 
found their way into the recognition of the great writers. She 
is widely known as a musician of a very high order, and many 
surprises has she given when bringing into full view of her 
audience her dark skin. 


Mrs. IIaydbkCaupbell, MCtf Bekculet, is a satire Texan. 
For 6oine years past slio liaa resided in St. Louis, Mo. Three or 
more years ago shodistinguisliod liorsolf by actually going 
before tlio soliool boanl ot St. Louis, as nn aiiplicant for tlio 
position as principal or instructress for the kindergarten de< 
portmont. Iloro alio was confronted with the task of making the 
highest aTorago, and leaping the obstacle of white applicants, 
who for so many years have stood in tho Tray. 8be, with 


courage undaunted, went into the examination and, totbe &u^ 
prise of the board of examiners, the white appUcanU ond the 
city of St. Louis, she captured the department with the highest 
average percentage ever made in St. Louis, for that work. 
Mrs. Campbell is a tireless worker, and it is never too cold, too 
wet, for her to do a charitable act. The people of St. Louis love 
ber. She fa an ez-Btudeot of Oberiin, a scholar but not a 


Among the host of teachers in the public school service of 
Cleveland, Ohio, we delight to mention several ladies of our 
beloved race, who are making for themselves a comfortable 
living, teaching not only colored children, but white as well. 
Since this is a demonstrable fact, we must lav down the excuse 
so often made, and say, the way is open, enter while you may. 
JUerit before examining boards is the watch-word. 

Misses Sarah L. Mitchell, Rachel Walker, Hattie Green, Ida 
Deaver, Cora Bean and ^[ary Ti'apiK), have met boldly the 
requirements and pursue their pleasing tasks to the satisfaction 
of all. 

Mrs. Florence A. T. Flemming, nee Hayes, is a graduatij 
from the normal department of Central Tennessee College, who 
has achieved some distinction in the Quincy (III.) public schools 
as a teacher and efficient disciplinarian. Prior to her going 
North Dr; William Wells Brown, in his book "The Risinir 
Sun,*' gave almost a chapter to Mrs. Fleming, ii^e Hayes, who 
was brutally beaten by a white coward, who, if a man, was not 
manly. This was in the seventies, when colored teachers were 
an ex))eriment in the South, and many there were who entered 
npon this pioneer mission. Among these was the subject of 
this shorl sketch. 

Mes. I. Garland Penn is a gifted teacher, whoso sketch 
appears in another part of this book. 

Miss Grace G. Sampson is among the brainiest young 
women of the race. As a scholar she is without a peer. Slie 
is the first and only woman who has secured a first-grade cer- 
tificate from the Dallas City public school board. Having 
been reared in Chicago she has enjoyed exceptional advantages 
for education. After graduating from the high school of her 
native city she came to Texas and accepted a position as 
teacher in the Paul Quinn College. Thence she took the first* 
grade examination and got the highest average per cent, ever 
made in Corsicana, Texas, where she taught one year. Prof. 
Eealing» now president of Paul Quinn College, Waco, Texas, 
hearing of the rigidness of the Dallas board of examinerst 

OF ovn pnoojiKss. 331 

took the examination in ISSSand passed it withavery high mark, 
as the boast had been made by the whites that ^'a nigger could not 
get sufficient average." Thus Prof. Kealing exploded the doc- 
trine of incapacity, being the first Negro to pass the board. 
The remark \ras m;ide afterward that ^ no Xegro woman 
could get a first-grade certificate in Dallas.^ This remark was 
grating on Miss Sampson^s oar, hence in 1SS9 she went to Dal- 
las and applied for a first-grade certificate, to the utter surprise 
of the board. She was examined and awarded the covetetl 
certificate, and thus put an end to the doubts and dogmas of 
Negro inferiority. She is at present teaching in the city 
schools of the great and future metropolis, Chicago. 

We have thus sketche<l a few of the great, grand and gooil 
teachers of the race. This subject could be carried to infinity, as 
they are legion. The work is telling on the present genera- 
tion, and who can doubt the harvest, if they reap as they have 

Among the musicians of the race we mention Mrs. E. C. 
NEsorr , nee CUirk, as |)eerless, while Miss Gibbs, of consenra. 
tory fame, now at the head of the first and oniy Afro- American 
Conservatory of Music in the United States, foundctl by the 
late and lamented Dr. William J. Simmons, at Cane Springs, 
Ivy., is an accomplished musician, mistress of both key and 
stringed instruments, and none her equaL She is the daughter 
of Judge Gibbs, of Little Rock. 

^Iiss MvBTLG Hart is among the noted female musicians of 
the race, and the pride and boast of Indiana)K>lis, Ind. 

Mrs. Cora L. Hvbokv^vcc Moore, of Detroit, Mich., now of 
Oakland, Cal., sister to Prof. A. J. Moore, like him is a 
pianist, a graduate in the musical art and a most pleasing per- 
former, an ex-musical teacher in the Texas Blind, Deaf and 
Dumb Asvlum. 

Miss Anna Auoitsta Ridlky is a musician, and at present is 
teacher of music in the Tennessee State Deaf, Dumb and Bh'nd 
Asylum. Miss Ridley is yet quite young. She is destined to 
become excellent in the pianoforte art. 



2I1SI Willy Bekchlet, of Oborlin, is one of the best known 
organists perhaps in the world. For many years she has 
played for the original Fisk Jubilee Singers, who have sung 
themselves into the hearts of many nations and traveled around 
the world. She has played before the crowned heads of the 
Eastern world, besides delighted the audiences of their many 





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thousands of concerts in the United States by lier harmony and 
cadence. She being a good orp:anist is, almost of necessity, a 
pianist ; yes, a pianist most difficult to surpass, not to be criti- 
cised, never to be frowned upon. Miss Benchley, now residing 
in St. Louis, acousin to Mrs. Haydee Campbell, of kindergarten 
fame, is a Texan lady, and has for years been proving that 
locality is nothing when the mind is made up and the oppor. 
tanities are not wanting. 


Mrs. J. E. Edwards, of Washington, D. Cm now of Galves- 
ton, has enjoyed superior advantages for learning music, being 
the adopted daughter of Right Rev. RiohardCain, D.D., whose 
heart and mind were fixed on the bringing out of the talents of 
the Negro. She is a scholar in piano music, both a composer 
and a pleasing |)erformer. 

Of the many great literary women of the race Mrs. Harper, 
being the oldest, ripe with theory, practice and experience 
shines alone. Mrs. Coppin, with her rich opportunities for 
showing her storcd-up knowledge, most especially in the field 
of pedagogy, takes rank by the side of the former ; while Mrs. 
J. Silono Yates, being the youngest of the three, in her special 
field of science, takes the front rank and seems to distance all 
of her sex, when ago is considered. Where then shall we place 
Mrs. Anna J. Cooper! For readiness of speech, for disciplina- 
rian qualities, for her analytical foundation upon which her 
principles of instruction are .built, forces us to say that she is 
equal to all. For depth and solidity, firmness and conserva. 
tivism, Mrs. Zelia R. Page takes her place among the galaxy 
of bright intellectual stars ; so also does Mrs. hlanch Y. II. 
Brooks. While Mrs. Mollie Church Terrill, being the youngest 
of all, stands in no indifferent relation to the eldest. 

As martyrs for the cause of education, the untimely death 
of Mrs. Olivia Davidson Washington, Miss Arimenta Martin 
Airs. Octavia V. R. Alberts, Miss Louise Mortie and Miss Julia 
liayden, all thrill our minds with sorrow and regret. As 
Mr. Lincoln beautifully said of his comrades who had fallen on 
the battle field, so may we say : 

. " Their swords are rust, 
Their bodies dust, 
Their souls are with the saints 
I trust." 

Uow young, yet how noble in heart and mind, with purpose 
fixed and bent upon doing what others had done for them ; but 
sometimes we overshoot the mark and bring unwelcome grief 
and sorrow upon ourselves. They, in the morning of their lives^ 


bad just begun tbe earthly, beavenly, task, and scarcely bad 
they learned their duty well ere the summons came to pay the 
debt which all must pay. 

ATe have this comfort, that their deeds still live. The 
asylums founded, orphans homes buildeil, tlie enlargement of 
our universities, are works of their hands and hearts. 

Our Temperance Union women are many ; and, indeed, that 
subject alone would All a volume doubly the size of our book, 
hence we restrict ourselves to the mention of a few who rank 
with anv and all in everv land of civilization. 

Mrs. Abbie TTri^^ht Lvon is not onlv a sin^r but a Christ- 
ian temperance woman. Mrs. Naomi Anderson is among the 
noted females who took the lecture platform in the palmy days 
when Mrs. Mary A. Livermoro and Sojourner Truth stood, in 
their gigantic independence, battling for woman's rights. In 
ISCOshe spoke from the platform in Chicago with the leader of 
the movement, Mrs. Livermore, and traveled through the States 
of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio advocating that cause; but in 
recent years Mrs. Anderson has become famous as a temperance 
advocate,and is Jilso engaged in the foundingof orphan homes for 
the ix)orof the race. TTe may justly stylo Mrs. L. A. AVoslbrooks 
a tireless, energetic advocate of the* temperance cause. Many 
years of her life have been spent in organizing temperance 
b;inds among the race in the Southern States. Perhaps no lady 
is more widely known for work in this cause, most esi>ecially in 
Texas, than Mrs. L. A. ^restbrooks, A.M. She is president of 
the Woman*s Home Mission work for the yi, E. Church in 
Texas. TVhilo the Caucassian race is proud of Miss Frances E. 
TTillard, who is in every way a pure genuine type of tireless 
Christian devotion, we, seemingly the unfortunates of earthy 
delight to honor the name of Mi-s. S. J. W. Early, the peer of 
any human advocate for the Christian temperance cause. 
AVhile Mrs. Early has not met with the encouragement that 
Miss AVillard has, yet, with no meager idea of Christian tem. 
perance devotion characterizing the race with which she is 
identified — she labors among the illiterate — has accomplished 
a two-fold result — ^that of educating and christianizing. She 


has been in tlie lecture field for more than two decades, we 
believe, and in the cilacational work more than forty years. 
Iler opiK>rtunitic8 for education have been the best. After 
receiving the honors from the classic halls of Oberlin, she 

became the first coloi^ed teacher in Wilberforce Universitv. 


Hero she sowed the seeds of the temperance c;iuse, which have 
brouf^ht forth fruit a hundred fold. She is beloved bv many 
thousands of her race. The presidents of Fisk University 
Central Tennessee College, and Roger Williams University 
delight to be honored by a yearly visit of this talented female 
lecturer. As an intellectual woman, Mrs, Early ranks fairly 
with our very best educators ; but being more than an educator 
we place her in her resi^ective two-fold sphere. Living up to 
her teaching, she has all her life enjoyed the very best of" 
health. We rememl>er when a school boy, at Central Tennessee 
College, hearing her say that she had not suflfered an unwell 
day in all her active life. 

Mus. M. £. Lamubkt, of Detroit, Michigan, is one of the 
leading spirits of her city in all the higher social and intelleci- 
ual activities among the race. She was born in Toronto, 
Canada, where she enjoyed the very best cilucational facilities, 
preparatory to the place she occupies among the grand people 
of our time. She is a poetess, as well as a contributor to the 
leading magazines. For a number of years she has been a 
special corresjwndent to the Monitor^ Plalmlcalcr^ and takes 
a leading part in all the life and prosperity of St. Matthew^s 
Episcopal church. Her poems teem wiih that beauty, re- 
inforced by her high rhetorical faculties, convincing by her 
logic, and betraying very deep imaginative powers. 

Miss Frankiu Bucknek, an accomplished organist and 
pianist, received her training at Detroit. She has been 
praised by the papers of Madison, Wis.; was at one time pian- 
ist to a large singing society ; and is a contralto vocalist. 

Miss Ida Platt ranks among the finest female pianists of 
the Negro race. In fact, to say that she is brilliant in per^ 
forming is putting it mildly. 


MiS8 Mat Witoers emerged from the classic halls of 
Oberlin, and stands very high in the art of pedagogy. 

Mrs. Dr. Vanella, of Topeka, Kansas, is one of our 
prominent female educators. 

Miss Eva Leivis, of 19 Grant street, Cambridge, is employed 
by the Mass. Inland Fish Commission under the Civil Service. 

Chicago has an Afro-American woman physician, Mrs. Dr. 
Carrie Golden. 

Mrs. Addison Foster, of Philadelphia, Pa., will manage 
the undertaking business, formerly owned and managed by 
her husband, recently deceased. 

Mrs, Dove of Keokuk, Iowa, wife of Rev. Dove is a lee. 
turer, author, and tireless agitator. .Sne has compiled her 
deceased husband*s sermons into book form, and is now travel- 
ing through the South lecturing and selling the work of her 
hands. This is indeed noble, a splendid lesson full with rare 
instruction to our girls. 

Mrs. Georgia Green Majors has done something in the 
educational cause for her race. Having attended Oberlin Col- 
lege and Fisk University, thereby preparing herself for life's 
duties, she returned to Texas and for seven years has labored . 
earnestly in her public schools. She has been favorably 
endoi'sed by such educational men as State Supt. Carlisle, 
Professors Hand, Gambrell, George Hunter Smith, Esq., and 
Hon. George Clark. She ranks with the best primary teachers 
of the State in which she lives. 

Miss Ida K Griffin, Mabel MofTard, Birdie Williams, Adei 
and Alice Baines and S. A. Owens are energetic teachers, and 
are doing much in the cause of Negro education in the South. 

Mrs. Smotiifjis is one very good and noble woman who for 
many years has taught school and lectured throughout Texas 
and other Southern States. She is a W. 0. T. U. woman, and 
one of the brightest stars in the Baptist cause. 





'* Tbe hours arc flying. 
^ Each ono some treasure takes, 
Each one some blossom breaks 
And leaTes it dying." 

T is the May-time of the whole world, dear girls, and it is 
also the May-time of your lives. 

Do you realize as you go carelessly on through life that yo 
arc now at the most critical period of your lives i" 

It is, alas, too true. You who have been watched and 
guarded from harm from babyhood will now be brought into 
contact with vice, sailing under the garb of virtue; sin robed 
in the most alluring forms; imssion under the guise of love. 
All of these iniluenccs will be brought to bear upon your 
impassionable natures, and unless you are on your guard you 
wilPnot cross the boundary line and gain the crown of bright 
womanhood without having stained your dainty robes. 

' While there are hundreds of girls belonging to the Afro- 
American race who are models of virtue, industry and intelli- 
gence, there are thousands who are living aimless, unhappy 
lives, never heeding the truth of the following sentiments : 

" Life is a leaf of paper wbite, 
Whereon each one of us may write, 
And then comes night." 

Among the evils that tend to destroy your lives are novel 
reading, bad associates and love of finery. 

I maintain that the reading of an impure book is more 
injurious to one's moral health than an hour's conversation 
ui>on an immoral subject, for in such a book, as nowhere else, 
you will find wrong painted so as to resemble right. I do not 
condemn the reading of a good story, far from it ; indeed, much 
good hath often been wrought by the pen of the novelist. A 
book written in vindication of truth, such as ** Uncle Tom*s 
-Cabin,*' "Bricks Without Straw" and "Ben Hur,*» or to 
inculcate a good moral, as "A Oolden Gossip," ^The 

838 OTUtilt hShMPLARS 

Homo at Greylock/' together with the bright, helpful stories 
found in such magazines as the Centuvy^ Scnbna^ Zadics* 
Home Jounuilj and the A. 21. E. lieview^ furnish reading of 
the best sort and contain nothing hurtfid, but too much can- 
not be said against promiscuous novel reading. 

The mind that revels constantly in the pages of Bertha 
Clav and Laura Jean Libbv's sensational romances will, in 
time, become a weak, flabby affair unfitted to contend with 
the stem realities of life. 

Some one has said, *' A man is no better than his thoughts ; '^ 
so, dear girls, you must be careful of your reading, for low 
reading will surely introduce low thoughts into your minds, and 
low thoughts will lead to deeds of a similar nature. 

You have the opportunity of storing j^our mind with the 
best literature of the age* Books, at American prices, are in 
the reach of all. 

Dickens pleading in his inimitable style for the poor of 
England ; Beade, on his tour through the British prisons ; 
Goldsmith, Byron, Lowell, all look down at you from their 
lonely shelves and sigh as you hasten past them to procure the 
latest edition of the New York Weekly or the Saturdai/ NtyhL 

If you had only yourselves to consider,— but think of it, if 
God spares your lives, in a few years the majority of you will 
become mothers, and \x\ion you rest the destiny of your chil- 

Is there a single line in all the trashy novels that you have 
read that will help you to train a soul for all eternity 7 

Bat some of you say, you do not make a practice of read- 
ing novels, you only read occasionally, and that is all right 
you think. Well, it would be if all were like yon, but remem- 
ber that there are many girls around you, who, like the drunk- 
ard, are always crying for more, and I would cite you to that 
passage of the Bible which reads, *^ If meat maketh my brother 
to offend," etc. If you are strong enough to take only an 
occasional draught, then you are strong enough to give it up 
altogether for the sake of those around you. Here is an 
opportunity to influence say a dozen girts to renounce the 


reading; of impure books. Will you do itt You can if you 

I inysolf owe much to the influence of other girls in the 
halcyon clays of girlhood. You cannot begin too soon to mus- 
ter your forces and find out how many advocates you have for 
pure, healthy litemture. 

'* Let us, theo, be up and doing.** 

We have all heard the old adages, ** Evil communications 
corrupt good manners/' and **Tell me the com|)any you keep 
and I will tell you what you are./* 

Evil associates will bring you nothing but heartaches and 

Xow by evil associates, I am not speaking especially of 
those who are outciists of society, pariahs who have chosen to 
live in sin. I take it for granted that none of you have such 
girls for your associates. But of all those with whom you are 
brought in contact at home, school, church or anywhere, whom 
you know in your soul are not suitable persons for you to be 
with, let not lively conversation, wealthy apjHKirancc, beauty 
or any other attraction cause you to make intimate of unworthy 
persons. There is a pretty safe test of such persons ; feeling 
their own inferiority, they will invariably flatter you. Beware I 
Many an innocent girlhood has been blightecl by flr.ttcry. 

As one has said, *'If we watch our friends our enemies will 
have no |K)wer to harm us." 

Another person to avoid is the person who tries to create 
strife between you and your best earthly friend, your mother. 
Out of all the women in the world Goil in His infinite wisilom 
has chosen your mother as the guardian of your young life. 
Bo sui*e that you give her all the love and respect that are 
due her. 

It seems to me that the saddest sight in the world is 
the estrangement of mother and daughter. Remember that 
in the majority of cases it is the daughter's place to submit, not 
the mother^s. 

To you who have associates who are not what they profess 
to be comes the opportunity to do them good, by refusing to 


associate with them Any monger unless they act as they shouhi. 
Convert them if i>ossi bio to your own plan of thought and 
then enlist their friendship and services in behalf of others. 

Let this thought inspire you. If the majority of our girls 
are pure, earnest-hearted women, what a grand race we shall 
become I Our children shall sing our praises to their little 

You have also the opportunity of helping the young men 
to lead noble lives. You stand in your dainty fresh girlhood 
before their eyes, and your smile h more potent with them 
than all the counsel of their fathers. In vourslim brown hand 
lies ** the balance of power." How will you use it? If you will 
refuse to associate with all young men of immoral character, 
there would be a decided reformation among them and you 
will infinitely better your own future happiness. 

There are girls who do not read anything, and who do not 
associate with evil companions, but are almost insane on the sub- 
ject of dress. Dear girls, the sooner you give up the unequal 
struggle in the race for dress and display supremacy, the hap- 
pier you will be* 

It is said *' that the love of money is the root of all eviV^ 
but with many girls it is the love of dress. Not to be desired 
in the height of fashion is the greatest cui'sc in their category. 

Poverty is no disgi*ace, if you are not able to afford a dress 
for Easter, for every new picnic or excui'sion, don't try to do 
it any way. Be sensible, girls, dress according to your means 
and you will win more real friends than by any other means. 


Mrs. Lizzie Young, a colored woman of Jacksonville, Fla., 
has established quite a draying business in that city. She owns 
three drays, and employs from twenty to thirty more when 
occasion requires. She pays each drayman $1.50 a day, calling 
fourteen loads a day's work. At present she is employed in 
hauling away the sand from the excavation on the government 
lot| and 80 far has sold every particle of the sand dug out. Mrs. 


Younjj knows by face and name ovory drayman in bor employ. 
But dmying is not her only business. For six montiis every 
year this enterprising young woman runs an extensive wood 
yard at North SpringHeld, and four or five teams are kept busy 
delivering wood. She sells, besides, many hundreds of dollars 
worth of pork every year, and does a good trade rn poultry and 
eggs. — TonfjuehL 

The first ballot ever cast by a woman in the State of Missis- 
sippi was that of Mrs. Lucy Tapley, a colored woman. 

The silk quilt presented to Queen Victoria by Mrs. Ricks, 
of Liberia, will be exhibited at the World's Fair. 

Miss Carrie L. Dickeraon, of San Francisco, has been 
appointed to a Federal position after a rigid examination. 

Mi's. D. A. Evans, of- Columbus, Ohio, is an exceptional 
lady, exceptional in her ambition and in the successful prosecu* 
tion of a profitable business. She is a successful builder and 
fire insurance agent. Iler success offers encouragement to 
other Afro-American ladies to enter other useful employments 
besides those of the home and school-room. Society and the 
ap])arcnt fixtures of position have made them the cnly places 
suitable for the employment of ladies. But in this aggressive 
ago of competition the environment disqualifies a large num- 
ber of women for domestic and educational service. Yet they 
are dependent upon themselves for a livelihood and have to 
bestir themselves in acquiring a living. We who are mothers 
should try to direct the attention of our daughters to the 
avenues in which an honorable livelihood may be gained. As 
the scope of their knowledge of the industrial world is enlarged 
they are made more self-reliant and capable of caring for them- 
selves and assuming the responsibilities of matured years. The 
success of this Afro-American woman suggests that others may 
be successful in similar pursuits. — Mr$. Julia liingwood Costotu 

Nancy Garrison, an Afro- American living at Holly Springs, 
Miss., has the longest hair, probably, of any woman in tho 
world. She is about sixty years old. Her bair she wears in 


three plaits. Tho side plaits just touch the floor, while the 
tbiixl plait drags two feet nine inches on the floor and measures 
eight feet in length. It is a silver sable in color, and she wea'i*s it 
coiled up on her head. 

Miss E. O. Miles, who sailed to Europe lately, writes that 
she has the pleasure of ranking in the best London society, 
where no American caste and prejudice dare to exist. She has 
been invitetl to the best public places, most \>o))ular churches, 
sang in a hall, was a guest and ate at the tables with membera 
of the royal family, and there was no hint of discrimination. 
She adds, that on a visit with a company of Grecian and 
London ladies to the Women's Christian Association she was 
escorted to one of the large branch associations on Regent 
street, one of the most popular thoroughfares. There, to her 
surprise, she was introduced to one of the principal secretaries 
of the department, a Miss Gardner, who is an educated Afri* 
can young lad}^ doing business with much grace and aptitude, 
speaking the English and many other languages with great 
fluencv and ease. 


The most notable colored woman in Georgia to-day is Miss 
Carrie Steele. She is now about fifty years of age, and is a 
bright mulatto. For many years she was stewardess of tho 
Central Railroad at Macon and later held the same iK>sition in 
Atlanta, receiving therefor $100 a month. It was while there 
that she became impressed with the necessity of ^oing some- 
thing to take care of colored orphans. She daily saw them 
rushed off to the penitentiary for trivial oiTenses. She took 
several orphans under the shelter of her house, and from this 
developed the idea of having an. orphan asylum entirely for 
colored children. She undertook the collection of funds herself, 
and was so successful that the whites insisted that she should 
finish np the work, and thus have the entire credit of the under- 
taking. The resnlt is a building worth $20,000 on a site worth 
$10,000, all paid for and nnder Negro management. She has, 
in the prosecution of this work, had to address the City Council^ 


to juggle with legislative oommittees and to appear before large 
white congregations, calling* for aid. Every request she made 
was favorably answered, and she was freely trusted in the 
handling of the monej' and completion of the work. — Chlcaf/o 
Inter Ocean, 

Mrs. Amanda Merchant, the amiable wife of Eev. £. WT. 
Merchant, of Lawrence, one of the gifted daughters of Missouri, 
is president of the Woman^s Baptist Ilomo and Foreis^ Mission 
Convention of Kansas. She is a lady of exceUer4» .qualities and 
high aspirations. In the district convention Mrs. II. M. Goins. 
of Fort Scott, Kansas, presides over a grand, intelligent IxkIv 
of ladies, second to none in the West. Iler able, dignified, im- 
partial caste is unimpeachable and without a peer in the cate- 
gory of feminine parliamentarians. She is president of the 
\Voman*s Ilome and Foreign Mission Convention under Central 
Baptist Association. Mrs. M. C, the president of the AVoman^s 
Home and Foreign Mission Convention, an auxiliary to the 
North western Baptist Association, is a woman of broad ideas* 
intensely Christian in motive, full of zeal and oratorical ability* 
She is the Queen Esther of her tribe, and is doing great service 
as organizer. Mrs. M. E. Merchant is noted for her eloquence 
and push, and is said to be the Laura M. Sohnson of Kansas in 
the mission field. Miss Ophelia Moran, of Frankfort, heads the 
list as an elocutionist. During the past two years the women 
of Kansas have raised more than $1,300 for mission work. 


^N New Bicbmond, Ohio, a town about twenty miles above 
Cincinnati, there was, a few years ago, much opposition 
shown by the whites to the mixing of the schools. Finally a 
settlement was made in court in favor of mixed schools. Since 
that time a number of young Afro- Americans have attendeii 
the high schooli but for some reason none have ever graduated. 
Now, howeveri a young lady. Miss Alice Paxton, has shown a 
determination to do so that must indeed be trying to the 


patienco of the school management. For some lime she had 
been put off with promises, althougii having p;issed her exam- 
inations. At the end of this school 3'eai* Miss Paxton would 
be put off no longer. So the scliool decided to have no com- 
,mencement exercises this year. Miss Paxton was given her 
diploma and the other members decided to take another year 
in school and come out when there would be no *^ nigger *^ grad- 

The Afro-American citizens, not to be outdone, secured the 
largest hall in the town, sent to Cincinnati and secureii one of 
Cincinnati's best vocal quartettes, and on Friday evening, April 
22d, Miss Paxton read her graduating essay before one of tlie 
largest mixed audiences ever assembled in New Kichmond. 
She received an ovation, and was the recipient of many beauti- 
ful flowers. The musical programme, which was well rendered, 
met with hearty applause. Many white citizens, who have 
outgrown the prejudice that still clings to their more ignorant 
townsmen, helped to meet the expcases of the affair and 
attendeil the exercises with their families. 

By the way, Miss Paxton is not only a very bright young 
lady intellectually, and quite a musician, but is not afraid to 
use her hands. I have among my souvenirs a horseshoe made 
by the young lady. Iler father is a blacksmith, and she likes 
to spend an occasional hour or two in the shop with him. — A* 
E. W. in lilngxcooiTut JoutnaL 

Miss Fannie IIicks, artist and teacher of drawing in the 
University, at Louisville, has applied for space at the World's 
Fair, in which to exhibit work of the pupils of the Univei*sity. 

loLA Lerot, or SflADows Upufted. — By Frances E. W. 
Harper (Philadelphia: Garrigus Bros., No. 60S Arch street). 
Perhaps no woman, white or coloreii, has during the last 
decade labored more earnestly and effectively for the upbuild* 
ing of the colored race than Mrs. Harper. She has written 
half a dozen volumes, either one of which would be creditable 
if it had emanated from the brain of the most cultureil white 
woman. But her book^ do not measure her influence for good. 

OF UR pnocnRss. ais 

Sinco the doso of the war sho has boon a constant laborer 
among the colored people of the South. Her favored work 
has been among the colored women of the South, discnssin*^ 
temperancei education, home purity, industry, morality ; and 
helping them to breakaway from the thoughts and customs 
and methods instilled into them during the ages of slavery* 
Ko field has a riper harvest of good to be gathered than in the 
upbuilding of the colored man's home in the South. She 
knows every intricacy of the condition of the raco f ivcil from 
bondage. The volume before us, " lola Leroy/' as effectually 
discusses caste prejudices on account of color as " Uncle Tom^s 
Cabin'' |)ortrayeil the iniquities of the inhuman institution. 
The plot, though simple, is clear, dean, and delightfully inter- 
woven with facts and incidents of the war of thrilling interest. 
The story is beautiful in its symmetry, its pictures and char- 
acters never ovenlrawn, and its lessons so pathetic and impres- 
sive as"to move the coldest reader into symixithy. Xo story 
of the war is more profoundly interesting as a story, and cer- 
tainly no writing will be more likely to exert a helpful influence 
in cultivating public opinion to a more humane and Christian 
standard. The black race has its faults, and a multitude of 
them grow directly out of its training during all the genera- 
tions of the past. But it is well to stop and remember that as 
a race the black man now has a score of merit. Ilail he been 
white, Indian or Asiatic when his case was pending in the 
South, thousands of homes and villages of the South would 
have been the scene of bloodshed and crime. lie knew the 
situation, and yet the wives and daughters of his enslavers 
were safe under his protection. It is a wonder that Xegro 
chivalry, as displayed during that period, has not oftener been 
acknowledged by the people of the South. But read ^ Ida 
Leroy." It is a remarkable book.— CA/mjro InUT Ocean. 

Mme. Flora Batson has taken permanent residence in Chi* 

Mme. Lizzie Pugh Dugan scoreil a success in Cincinnati, as 
she does every where.^/wrfiaw<i/H>/iV Freeman. 


A number of ladies of tho two Kansas cities met last week 
at tbe Lincoln Iligh School, Kansas City, Mo., and formed an 
auxiliary league, which has for its object the bettering of the 
condition of young women. — Freeman. 

Miss Kachel L. Walker, of Cleveland, appeared with great 
success at the Indianapolis Musical Festival. — Ind!anaj}oUs 



Lulu Vcre Childcrs. who is studying in tho Oberlin Conser- 
vatory of Music, is considered its best contralto. — IndianapoUa 

THE KINOES daughtkhs. 

The King's Daughters gave a delightful entertainment at 
Grace Presbyterian Cluu'cli Wetlnesduy night. The program, 
which was varied and interesting, was enjoyed by a large 

Tho *' Workero for tho King '• was organized in IS71 by 
Mesdames John Jones, J. Bryant, Jessie Young, 0. E. Jones. 
There are now fifty members. The oiHcera are as follows : 

Mrs. Sarah Curd, president. 

Mrs. Ilobert Young, vice-president. 

^liss C. E. Jones, second vice-president. 

Miss Theodora Lee, secretary. 

Miss Eliza Johnson, treasurer. 

Tho object of the organization is to do good, and many arc 
the wants of tho poor and needy which have been relieved 
during tho past year. — Chieatjo Appeal. 

Mi^s. Minnie Watson, a lady of I^uisville, Ky., is a gi*adu- 
ato of tho Clark school for embalming. She is tho youngest 
female graduate in tho world. She graduated in February, '92, 
in a class of forty.five, three colored and forty-two male stu* 
dents. Mrs. Watson took tlie first honor. She is a great assist- 
ance to her husband, Wm. Watson, who is running an under, 
taking establishment at 312 Xinth street. Tins littlo lady 
xnado her husband, who is a graduate himself, open his eyos 
with amazement when she embalmed a man who died with the 
dropsy, a caso that all undertaken dread to handle. — Frceinan. 


OF OUR PJiOOiWSa. 847 

Sarah J. EarlsTi of TonnosscOi addrcsscil tho congress on 
tbo organized efforts of Afro-American women in tho South to 
improve their condition. Siie could not present all of her 
ideas on account of tiio lateness of the hour. Briefly, she 


*^ In this age of derclopment and advancement, of multi- 
plied methods and opi>ortunities, all the forces which have 
been accumulating for centuries past seem to be centered into 
one grand effort to raise mankind to that degree of intel- 
lectual and moral excellence which a wise and beneCcent 
Creator designed that we should enjoy. No class of persons 
are exempt from this great impulse. Tho most remote, as 
well as tho most obscure, the most relined as well as the most 
unlettered) seom to have felt the touch of an unseen i)ower 
which caused them to arouse, and to have heai*i] a mysterious 
voice calling them to ascend higiier in tho sc;ile of being and 
bask in tho light of tho eternal. It is not a strange coincidence, 
then, that in this )>eriod of restlessness and activity the women 
of all hinds should simultaneously and at once see the necessity 
of taking a more exalted |>osition and seeking a more effective 
way of ascending to the same plane and of assuming tho more 
responsible duties of life with that of her favored brother. 

Step by step, as tho dark cloud of ignorance and supersti- 
tion is dispelled by tho penetrating light of eternal truth, men 
begin to think, and thought brings i*esolution, and resolution 
changes thocondition of men and leads them into a happier and 
brighter existence, so have tho gi*eat revolutions of tho ago 
affected tho condition of tho A fro- Americans of tho State 
and brought them into a more prominent and more hoi>crul 
relation to tho world. Afro-Amei'ican hearts aro inspii*ed with 
all tho ambitions which swell tho breast, and have pushed 
forward in tho lino of pi*ogress their equal advantages ; they 
will take an equally prominent part in every movement which 
has for its purpose tho advancement of a higher and better 

Mrs. Earloy was followed by Ilallie Q. Brown, who enter- 
tained the audience with Afro-American dialect songs and 


an interesting discussion of the position of the Afro-American 
in modern civilization. 

Mrs. Coppin was called upon for some remarks, but sho 
declined on account of the lateness of the hour, except that 
sho regretted the fact that more attention had not been 
given to the pajKjrs upon the kindergartens. Then sho 
requested the privilege of introducing her friend, Mi's. 
Ellen Watkins Ilarper, as it would be the only opportunity 
of securing her attention. Mrs. Ilarper entertained her 
admirers in a few well-selected words on tho wav the Afro- 
American girl has improved her opportunities of education, 
and how she devoted herself to the spreading of God's word. 

The Washington Pllipt is an able exponent of the progress 
of the colored race, and includes in its sheets many items 
indicative of the aspirations and achievements of its women. 
This representative of the woman's side of life is perhaps due 
to the fact that tho editor js Mrs. R. Douglass Sprague, a 
daugter of the Hon. Frederick Douglass. In tho last issue are 
these items of interest : 

Mohango Corpassa, the African girl who has been one of 
the students at tho Howard As^'lum, Brooklyn, N. Y.. has 
been sent to NorthGeld Seminary to prepare for missionary 
work in Africa. 

Miss Estella I. Sprague, grand-daughter of the lion. 
Frederick Douglass, has volunteered her services gratis for one 
year to the Agricultural and Industrial High School at 
Gloucester, Ya. She is a graduate of one of the best cookitig 
schools in Washington. 

Miss Emma Reynolds, sister of the Rev. G. Reynolds, 
formerly of Chicago, graduated from the Provident Hospital 
as a trained nurse, and will enter the medical college of the 
Northwestern University in Detroit. She is the first colored 
that has entered the institution. 


Miss Celestink O. Browne, of Jamestown^ New York 
possesses fine iibility as a pianist. SIio is thus mentioned by the 
Follo^ of Boston, in the number for December, 187G : 

8ho is a fine pianist, Tory brUliant And sliowj as soloist aoU accompa- 

Again, the same journal in the number for February. ISTT, 
said of Miss Browne : 

A pianist of great merit, llcr nAturnl abilities have been weU trained. 
8bo has a clear toucb, and plays wilb a great deal of expression. 

For more than two seasons she was an honored meml>er of 
tlio Ilyera Sisters Concert Troupe. 

In his able contribution to the Negro literature of this 19th 
century, Mr. J. M. Trotter pays some very high compliments to 
our race in music^ some of which I take the liberty of api>end- 
ing. He says: ;, ^V^ \ 

Madame Browne was long regarded as tie finest rocalitt of her race in 
this country, wldlo only a few of the other raoo could etiual her. Although 
DOW no longer young, she still sings artistically and Iteautifully, Ilcr reper- 
toire comprises the gems of the standard opersi ; and these she has sung and 
does now sing, in a stylo that would reflect hoiior on Ihuso far more preteo* 
tious Uinn herself. 

Out of compliment to her singing. Miss Sarrah Seilgwick 
Bowers, "The Colored Nightingale,'' is rather conservative as 
well as natural. 

The Datlfj Pennsy!vanian^ in speaking of her vocal 
triumphs of May 3, 1856, says : 

AVe have never been called upon to record a more brilliant and instanta* 
neous success than has thus far attended this talented young aspirant to 
musical honors. From obscurity she has risen. to popularity. She has not 
been through the regular routine of adrancement, but, as it were, in a momcot, 
endowed by nature with the wonderful power of song, she delighted the circle 
in which she moved, and is now enchanting the public. Last evening the haU 
was thronged at an early hour. In every song she was unanimously encored. 

'* Miss Bowers now lives quietly at her home in Phiiadel* 
phia,*' writes Mr. Trotter, ** singing in public only on special 

Miss Mart F. Morris performs upon the piano-forte with 
fine skill and taste, and is a vocalist of excellent powers. She 
has pursued her musical studies in the Cleveland Convent, thd 


te«achers of which enjoy a high reputation ; and also under 
Professo.* Alfred Arthur, one of the iinest instructors of Cleve- 
land ; Mid under these very auspices, opportunities and musical 
advantages we also add the name of Miss Annie IlendersoUi 
who is a very pleasing vocalist. 

Miss Clara MoMTiExn Holland, the daughter of the cele- 
brated guitar virtuoso, Justin Holland, gives evi«Unco of 
fulfilled prophecy by ^Ir. Trotter of her musical powei's, and 
specially on the piano-forte. 

Mrs. Ann S. Baltimore is an accomplished pianist, and 
possesses, besides, a melodious voice. She has been favorably 
noted by the press, and enjoys the happy faculty of pleasing 
all who hear her. Her life before the public is long and 
varied. She stands along with the great women o| this age. 

Miss Mary and Fannie Colk, members omt^^Mozart 
Circle, are distinguished for the beauty of their voices. 

Miss Sarah "Werles has a voice which is much appreciated, 
and under her fingers the cabinet organ itself seems to sing. ^ 

For public musical occasions wo shall not fail to mention 
Miss Ella Smith and Ella Buckner, who have delighted thou- 
sands of Cincinnati's music-loving citizens at various times. 

In this connection, and under the head of music, wo call 
your attention to the fact that, owing to the World's Fair 
being held at Chicago, many of our leading and, in fact, most 
celebrated singers are taking up a permanent residence there ; 
hence, to give a long list of Chicago's musical talent, I trust, 
will not be ex|>ected here — as elsewhere in this book is a 
sketch of Mrs. Flora Botson Bergen, the Hyer Sisters, ct at 

Miss Bessie Warwick, soprano and brilliant pianist, was 
formerly a pupil of Prof. Baumback, of Chicago. ^ 

Mrs. Hettie Reed possesses a contralto voice of remarkable 
beauty, purity and sweetness. She was one of the principal 
singers of tho Chicago Colored Musical Society, and has been 
highly complimented by tho critics of Illinois and Wisconsin. 




OF OUR PR0ORE88. 851 

M188 EuzA J. CowAK, educated in Chicago^ a member of 
the Olivet Church choir, is a very sweet singer. 

Hiss Flora Cooper has a voice of such great depth that it 
really may be styled baritone. She was educated in Chicago, 
and is a teacher in one of the public schools of that city. 

Mrs. Esther Washington (nee Miss £. Fry) is a finished 
performer on the organ and piano-forte. Siie is a graduate in 
thorough-bass and harmony from Warren's Conservatory of 

Mrs. Frances A. Pqwell is the leading soprano of the Oli- 
vet Baptist Church choir. She was educated at Buffalo, New 
York, and her superior }>ower8 as a vocalist have been made 
the occasion of very flattering testimonials by the press of 
Chicago, and of the States of Illinois and Wisconsin. 

Mrs. Harriett E. Freeman, an excellent mezzo-soprano^ 
leading the singing of Quinn Chapel choir, has been showered 
with press notes and compliments. She was educated at New 
Bedford, Mass. 

Miis. P. A. OiA>vER {ncc WniTKiiocsE) and Mrs. Hester 
Jeffreys (nee Wuiteuouse) inherited their rich vocal talent 
from their mother, who in her earliest youth and even to mid- 
dle life delighted and pleased, with music and song, her host of 
friends and admirera. The daughters are not at all lacking in 
this sublime feature. When and wherever they have appeared 
before the public they are received and applauded after the 
fashion of all gi*eat singers. Mr. Trotter says of them : *' They 
possess voices of rare natural beauty, considerably cultivatecL 
These sisters, had they so chosen, could have long since become 
public singers of much prominence; since their rich vocal gifts 
are supplemented by a fine knowledge of music, to which aro 
added, also, very graceful, winning manners." 

Miss Fannib A. Wasuinoton 'has for some time afforded 
much pleasure to public audiences as a contralto singer. 

Mrs. Ellbn Sawybb sings soprano most beautifully. Her 
voice, says a noted author^ ** is quite elastic, of great range^ 


and strong and clear in the upper register." Slio has become 
a favorite of music lov^jrs, and encore after encore is the rule 
on occasions that bring her before the public. 

2I18S Hachel Thompsox is an erudite scholar in music and 
8ings soprano with the clearness of the nightingale. 

Mrs. Phkde Reddick possesses a ringing soprano voice and 
has done much toward choir-directing and soul-stirring with 
her vocal accomplishments. 


OtKT Obstacle* Under which Xntlonn go Down — Unajnnl in the Starts He 
OuUJitUtncc^ Other Enslaved Xatlons — JUs Chart for Ouldancc, 

\ OD hath made of one blood all nations of men, and the 
P human family finds a common origin in the one man, 
tho original creation of Almighty God, but the flight of cenlur- 
ies has so diversified the original man that there stands to-day 
five distinct and separate races, peculiar in color, different in 
physical features, to represent tho one creation. One phase of 
this great family, dark in complexion, unsymmetrical in form 
made so by manner of life and climatic influence, is called the 

This race for centuries slumbered in ignorance and super- 
stition amid the burning sands and tangled wilds of their 
African home, until designing men led many captive from 
their sunny clime and doomed them to a life of hopeless servi- 
tude. In the so-called 'Mand of the free and homo of the 
brave " for more than two centuries they toiled without tho 
hope of recompense, until the just wrath of an angry God is 
kindled against their masters, and amid the fatricidal strife 
that deluged this country with blood, the voice of God speaks 
through tho sainted Lincoln and four million bondsmen are 
freed from the withering curse of slavery. 

The newly enfranchised African, grateful for the tardy 
justice done him, amid the smoke of battle and rattle of mus- 
ketry fought 80 valiently for the flag that had wronged him 


that tho song of tho poet and tho page of the historian elo- 
quently proclaim his deeds of heroism. During all the subse- 
quent years of freedom no other race since the beginning of 
time has had so much to overcome as the Negro. lie measures 
arms with a race having centuries of civiUzation behind it 
while he has centuries of barb.irism. , 

lie starts this unequal contest without learning, without 
money; ho encounters tho formidable opposition of deeply 
routed prejudice; every avenue of advancement is closed 
against him; the gates leading to every lucrative employment 
are shut, and against the merciless oppression of an inimical 
South no law protects him. Against these weighty impetli- 
ments and formidable barriers, what race could move onward ? 
What race could exhibit such patient en<lurance amid persecu- 
tion and wrong except that race, that prophetic race, of which 
it is promised in tho Cook of Truth that she shall stretcli forth 
her black hand unto God, 

In order to fuliill tho glowing woi*ds of this prophecy, tho 
Negro must bo iH)ssessed of two essential elements of success^ 
namely : Belief in God and confidence in himself. That race 
that trusts in the Almighty will be exhalted^ for though he 
must overturn tho foundation of every government, God will 
make his own to triumph. 

" And this sio-curscd guilty Uoion 
Shall he shaken to its hose. 
Till it learns that simple Justice 
Is the right of any race." 

Tosucceeo, the Negro must believe \n his own possibilities 
and take pride in his own capabilities. lie who believes he 
cannot do will not do. The Negro has not yet done much to 
make him renowned in the world's history, but his capabilities 
of greatness, which the near future must develop, will cause 
his name to bo written in the unperishable records of time. 
Every nation must love its own. IIow the Irish look with 
pleasure to that Emerald Isle, lying like an oasis upon the 
trackless deep ; bow the Italian strikes his harp and sings of 
his historic land, the home of art and song; how the English- 


man points with pride to tho long line of illustrious ancestors 
that have graccil his country's history in peace and war. Tho 
Negro has no such history, but let him believe in and boast 
of a future, bright with promise. Oh Ethiopia 1 may thy 
future be bright and hopeful, as thy past has been dark and 
hopeless, for already we see coming up from the schools and 
colleges of the land the young of this race girding on their 
armor and preparing for the conflict with odds and opposition, 
and we believe that they shall succeed in planting the banner 
of Ethiopia on thedizzy heights of distinction. 

The future African shall At himself to move with this pro- 
gressive age; he shall chisel from the rugged stone the angelic 
forms of beauty ; he shall charm the listening world with the 
fervor of his song and tlie eloquence of his sj>eech ; he shall 
man the ships of commerce and bring them back laden with 
the wares of many climes, and in the fields of literature he 
shall move on to take his place among the foremost of the 
world. Should he fail in this, ho shall disappoint our fondest 
expectations, and varying the speech of the eloquent Lyman 
Beecher, *^ May God hide from me the day when the failure 
of my people shall begin." Ob, thou beloved race, bound 
together by the ties of common interests and brotherhood, live 
forever, one and undivided t Stella Hawkins. 

CiMOiNNATi, Ohio. 


Iir DK. U. T. DILLON. 

^Iv^IIE word "socialism" was coined in England in 1835, 
v|j and the definition of this often misunderstood word, as 
given by all of its sturdy defenders, tends the recognition on 
the part of the strong the rights of the weak. 

Glancing along the pages of history, the world has ever 
been slow to realize that the weak had any rights which de- 
manded recognition on their part. 

In the early forms of government slavery, according to the 
views of Dunoyer, flourished as the industrial and agricultural 



OF ovn rnooREss. 355 

interests of a nation increased. While their services were 
consiiiored indisi)ensable to the comniei*cial wealth of the 
country, the inlluence of slavery was, and always will be, 
de<;radingand dcmomli^inf; in its effects upon master and slave 
alike. Hume very justly observes *• that tlic severe, I may say 
barbarous, mannei*sof the ancients were due in large degree to 
the practice of domestic slavery, by which every man of rank 
was rendered a petty tyrant, and educated amidst the flattery, 
submissioa and low debasement of his slaves.'* 

As Christianity ad vance<I, civilization took higher forms and 
society became organizeil, we find serfdom taking the place of 

The datum of the transitbn from the i>osition of a serf to a 
free individual, with all the rights of citizenship), is one of the 
obscure i>oints of modem history. 

The. change was evidently gradual and due, acconling to 
Adam Smith, to political and economic reasons. As serfdom 
became more and more an institution of the past among ad- 
vanced countries wo find history repeating itself in the slavo 
trade of the colonies, and with less just cause than in the slavery 
of tlie middle nges. But the same baneful influence of this |>er- 
nicious system is exercised and the same triumph of right is felt 
and seen. 

To Denmark belongs the honor of being the first European 
nation to abolish slavery; ne:?t England, and gradually the 
. other European powers followed suit. 

In reading the history of these nations we find that as free- 
dom from tlie bonds of slavery and serfdom, freedom of religious 
thought and individual liberty was allowed and encouraged in 
the same proportion did that nation flourish and prosper. The 
old tower of public good, u{>on the walls of which were en- 
graved the laws of subordination to the society in wLlcb one 
lived and one common property, began to totter and fall. The 
family became to be recognized as the social unit upon which 
the safety of the government rested. Private property with 
private enjoyment was the last of those three periods which 
marked the ownership of lands and found expression in tkie 


eigbteentb century. Tlio end of the eip;hteenth century marked 
also an important epoch in the liistory of England as regarvls 
the siiare which the poor working classes had in the industrial 
era which had just begun to dawn. At that time the English 
worker ** had no fixed interest in the soil ; he h«id no voice in 
either local or national government. The right even of com- 
bination was denied him till 1S24." It was at this perioil, 
under the influence of Robert Owen, that the term ^'socialismV 
which has since been so misinterpreted and abused, originated. 
The philanthropy of this man cannot but be appreciated by 
those who have read of the suiTerings of the lower chisses in 
that country, and while his doctrine flamed and lighted the 
dark places of misery and degradation and then suddenly 
seemed to go out, good, which was lasting in its efTocts, was 
the result of his efforts, in spite of them having been regarded 
by some as Quixotic. The truths which he attempted to un- 
fold to the world are just and true — recognition on the i>art of 
the strong the rights of the weak. 

But what does all this hasty review of the past signify to 
us as a people ? Much. We have been in slavery as were some 
of the nations mentioned ; and in some sections of this fair land 
of America, the historic homo of the brave, the land of the free, 
are in a condition which, in its tyranny and misery, resembles 
the serfdom of the middle ages. 

Again, our present condition resembles the condition of the 
working classes of Great Britain before that wave of socialism 
passed over her. True, we are not exactly denied voice in 
** local or national government," but our voice is often silent 
because of the fraud and chicanery of a supposed superior race. 
But all these things should not discourage us. If, after centuries 
of civilization, a nation like the English could so trample upon 
the rights of her own flesh and blood as late as 1S24, what may 
we not hope for the Afro- American t Let us not grieve too 
much over our present trials, but look back and see what other 
races have come through, work steadily onward, living in bright 
anticipation of a glorious future, which, if we do not live to 
lealize, our children may. 


Weak and poor races of other ages have pleaded for recog^i- 
tiou on the part of stronger ones, for individual liberty, for 
rights withheld ; and tonlay the same cry is heard from the 

Xi»t as a black man or woman do we plead that our rights 
shall be recognized, but as man to man, woman to woman, 
irrespective of color or previous condition. We do not clamor 
for any special privileges because of our color, but simply for 
those which are given to those of fairer skin. Treat us as citi- 
zens, with all the rights and privileges embcxiied in this word, 
and lot us work out our own destiny. That the rights which 
are now (lenied will eventually bo ours, because they are right, 
cannot bo doubted. 

It matters not how firmly evil may bo intrenched behind 
the massivo walls of wealth and prejudico, the great sea of 
right and time will surely sap the foundation and conquer in 
the end. 

Tho truth is, many of our white enemies and friends do not 
realize what we are doing, mentally, physically and moi*ally as 
a race. And while we have much to do in the future, we can 
congratulate ourselves upon the past. The mixed schools ia 
the North are doing much toward opening the eyes of our 
white friends as to the Negro's intellectual cap;icity, while tho 
opposition in the South is teaching htm how to de]>end upon 

If one will but refer to past history, there is no need for 
discouragement about the Negro's future. 

The weaker races of every ago have had to suffer indigni- 
ties at tho handi of tho stronger ; but eventually, through 
industry and perseverance, they rose above the obstacles and 
conquered ; and wo will do likewise. 

We shall not, however, do as tho Nihilist in Russia, or the 
Irish in Ireland ; nuher let our pons be pur swords, our brains 
our dynamite, and with firm oonfidonco in the Hand which 
guides the affairs of nations abide our time. — ChrUtiath £^ 
cordcr, Jum 30^ 1892. 


The Voodoo Propiiecv is uiuloubtciHy tho product of a fer- 
tile brain^ yet Mr. Maui'ice Thompson, poetically speaking, 
puts tho wrong lens to his telescope and sees the scattered effu- 
sions of his own gifted soul, and as many random thoughts, 
the delusioh of an alarmist. Ilis iK)em for vindictiveness and 
promised retribution may be ever so fitting, yet for boldness 
and uncouth coloring the Negro is not so much of a strike-back, 
get-even- wit h-you race, as he pictures him to be. In fact, it is 
out of tune and makes a terrible discord in our harmonious 
feeling, so much so that wo havo placed ourselves under tiio 
buixlen of such a responsibility as to procure from the pen of 
one of our most talented verse writei's an answer; in the 
accomplishment of which we place the race in their proper 
modes and tenses. "The Voodoo Prophecy" will have been 
very badly used up when two such women as Mrs. A. J.Cooper 
and Mi's. Frances £. W. Harper have pounced upon it with 
their peerless pens. The former in her philosophical prose; 
the latter in her rhythmical poetry. It is an oft' asserted 
remark that " God holds the destinies of nations in his hands,'' 
and it is not always the uppermost thought in the Negro's 
mind to do some "awful thing.'' He docs not think that way. 
He neither prays for " God to speed the day of retribution on." 
lie means to " tote fair" with the world. 

We take special pleasure in the placing of the Voodoo 
Prophecy on our pages that it may meet its fate in Mrs. 
IIari)er'8 answer. The prophecy tl>e emanation from tho 
encephalon of an alarmist, the answer simply a mild vindica- 
tioQ of a quiet, peaceable people of humble habitation. 


I am the prophet of the Jusky race, 

The poet of wiM Africa. Behold 

The midoight vUioo brooding io my face 1 

Come Dear mo. 

And hear me, 
While from my llpi the words of Fate are told. 


A black and torriblo memory masters me ; ^ 
The sbodow and tbo subilaace of deep wroog. 
You koow the post, hoar now what is to be. 

From tbo midnight land. 

Over 8oa and sand, 
From the green Jungle bear my Voodoo song: 

A tropic beat is in my bubbling veins. 
Quintessence of all savagery is mine, 
Tbo lust of ages ripens in my veins. 

And bums 

And yearns ■' 
Like venom -sap within a noxious vine. 

Was I a heathen ? Ay, I was^am still 

A fetich worsbtppcr ; but I was free 

To loiter or to wander at my will ; 

To leap and dance, . 
To hurl my lanoe, 

And breathe the air of savage lilierly. 

You drew mo to a higher life, you say ; 
Ah, drove me with the lash of slavery I 
And-I unmindful? £vory cursed day 

Of pain 

And chain 
£loars like a torrent in my memory. 

You make my manhood whole with equal rigbrs I 
Poor, empty word% I Dream you I honor them— 
I who have stood of Freedom's wildest heights ? 

My Africa, 

I see tlie day 
When nono dare touch thy garment's lowest henL 

You cannot make me love you with your whino 
Of flne repentance. Veil your pallid face 
In presence of the shame that mantles mine. 


At command 
Of tbo black prophet of the ^¥ogro race I 

I bate you, and I live to nurse my bate. 
Remembering when you plied tbo slaver's trade 
Iq my dear land. . . . How patieAUy I wait 

Tbe day. 

Not far away, 
Wbea all your pride shall shrivel up and fade. 


Yea, all your whiteness darkens under mo I 
Darke'ned and bejaundlccd, and your blood 
Take in dread humors from my sayagery* 


You will 
Lapse into mine and seal my masterhood. 

Your teed of Abel, proud of your descent. 
And arrogant, because your cheeks are fair. 
Within my loins an inky curse is pent, 

To flood 

Your blood. 
And stain your skin and crisp your golden hair* 

As you haTo done by mc so will I do 

By all the generations of your race ; 

Your snowy limbs, your blood's patrician bltie« 

Shall be 

Tainted by me ; 
And I will set my seal upon your face I 

Yea, I will dash my blackness down your veins. 
And through your nerves my scnsuousness I'll fling ;. 
Your lips, your eyes, shall bear the rusty stains 

Of Congo kisses. 

While shrieks and hisses 
8hall blend into tho savagQ songs I ting t 

Your temples will I break, your fountains fill, 

Your cities raze, your fields to deserts turn ; 

lly heathen fires sluiU shine on every hill, 

And wild beasts roam 
Where stands your homo ; 

ETcn the wind your hated dust shall spurn. 

I will absorb your very life in me, 

And mold you to the shape of my desire ; 

Back through the cycles of all cruelty* 

I will swing you. 

And wring you. 
And roast you in my passion's hottest fire. 

You, North and South; you. East and West^ 
Shall drink the cup your fathers gave to me ; 
My back still bums, I bare my bleeding breasti 

I set my face, 
. ^ My limbe I brace. 

To make the long, strong fight for masteiy. 


Hj serpent fetich lolls its withered Jip, 

And bears its shining fangs at thought of this; 

I scarce can hold the monster in my grip, 

80 strong is he» 

So eagerly 
He leaps to meet my precious prophecies. 

Hark for the coming of my countless host ; 
Watch for my banner orer land and sea ; 
The ancient power of vengeance is not lost! 

liO, on the sky 

The fire clouds fly, 
And strangely moans the windy, weltering sea. 



From the peaceful heights of a higher life 
I heard your maddening cry of strife ; 
It quivered with anguish, wrath and pain, 
Like a demon struggling with his chdn. 

A chain of evil, heavy and strong, 
Rusted with ages of fearful wrong. 
Encrusted with blood and burning tears. 
The chain I had worn and dragged for years. 

It clasped my llmlw, but it bound your heart. 
And formed of your life a fearful part ; 
Tou sowed the wind, but could not control 
The tempest wild of a guilty soul. 

You saw me stand with my broken chain 
Forged in the furnace of fiery pain. 
You saw my children around me stand 
Lovingly clasping my unbound hand. 

But you remembered my blood and tears 
'^lid the weary wasting flight of years. 
You thought of the rice swamps, lone and dank. 
When my heart In hopless anguish sank. 

You thought of your fields with harvest white. 
Where I toiled in paiu from mom till night ; 
You thought of the days you bought and add 
The children I loved, for paltiy gokl. 


You thought of our shrieks that rc^nt the air«* 
Our moans of aoguish and deep despair; 
With chattering teeth ond paling facc» 
You thought of your nation's deep disgrace. 

You wove from your fears a fearful fate 
To spring from your seeds of scorn and hate 
You Imagined the saddest, wildest thing, 
That time, with reveogea fierce, could bring 

The cry you thought from a Voodoo breast 
Was the echo of your sours unrest ; 
When thoughts too sod for fruitless tears 
Loomed like the ghosts of avenging years. 

Oh, prophet of evil, could not your voice 
In our new hopes and freedom rejoice? 
'Mid the light which streams around our way 

Was there naught to see but an evil day 7 


Nothing but vengcnncc. wrath and hate. 
And the serpent coils of an evil fate— 
A fate that shall crush and drag you down; 
A doom that shall press like an iron crown? 

A fate that shall crisp and curl your hair 

And darken your faces now so fair. 

And send through your veins like a poisoned flood 

The hated stream of the Xegro*s blood? 

A fat's to madden the lieart and brain 
You^ peopled with phantoms of dread and pain, 
And f incies wild of your daughter's shriek 
With Congo kisses upon her check? 

Beyond the mist of your gloomy fears, 
I see the promise of brighter years. 
Through the dark I seo their golden hem 
And my heart gives out its glad amen. 

The banner of Christ was your sacred trust, 
But you trailed that banner in the duct, 
And mockingly told us Amid our pain 
The hand of your Qod had forged our chain. 

We stumbled and groped thtough the dreary night 
Till our lingers touched Qod's robe of light ; 
And we knew He heard, from his lofty throne. 
Our saddest cries and faintest moan. 



The cross you have covered with sio and thame. 
^ye*^ bear aloft Id ChriBl's holy Dame. 
Ob, never again may its folds be furled 
While sorrow and sin enshroud our world I 

Ood, to whose fiogert thrills each heart beat. 
Has not sent us to walk with aimless feet. 
To cower and crouch, with bated breath 
From margins of life to shores of death. 

nigher and better than hate for hate, 
Like the scorpion fangs that desolate, 
Is the hopQ of tt brighter, fairer morn 
And a peace and a love that shall yet'be born; 

Wlieu the Negro shall hold an honored place. 
The friend and helper of every race; 
His mission to build and not destroy. 
And gladden the world with love and Joy. 


In Florida, to-day, the roses blow. 

And breath of orange blossoms fills the air 
In bloomiog thickets, by a brook I know, 
The mocking-bird is pouring forth his rare 

Rich song, thrilliog the charmed listener's heart. 
In deeper woods the fair, pink lily grows ; 

Pale as the wind-fiower she driops apart. 
Or, glowing with the blushes of the rose. 

From the dark pool she lifts her lovely head, 
A radiant presence 'mid the woodlund gloom, 

While, smiling on her from their mossy bed, 
Sweet purple violets in beauty bloom. 

'Mid their dark, shining leaves msgnolias gleam. 
White as the snows that o'er our fields extend,. 

Ana oleander trees above a stream, 
O'erladen with their rosy blossoms bend. 

O'er hedge, and bank, and bush, the jasmine flings 
Its graceful, golden leaves, with lavish hand 

To boughs of ancient oaks the gray moss clings. 
Its long, weird tresses by the toft bicezo fanned. 


How sirect to linger in the shaded bowers ! 

now sweet to catch gleams of the blue 1 
To dream away the softly-glidiog houni. 

As on the fragrant, llower-sowo earth we lie t 
Alas, it may not bo I Our lot is cast 

In bleaker dimes. 'Neath sadder skies we stray- 
Still haunteil by bright visions of the Past. 

Sweet, sw^t to be in Florida to>day t 

CuAHunrfi F. Qrimxb* 
llABcn, 1993. 

On the tleath of tho liev. Geo. WbitfieUl Pbillis Wbeatlejr 

TUou, moon hast seen and all the stars of light, 
llow he hast wrestled with his Qod by night. 
lie prayed that grace in every heart might dwell ; 
He longcil to see America excel ; 
He charged its youth that every grace divino 
Should with full lustre in their conduct fhine. 
That Savior which his soul at first receive 
The greatest gift that even a God can givo 
He freely offered to the numerous throng 
That on his lips with listening pleasure hung. 
••Take him, yc wretched, for your only good, ^ 
Take him, ye starving sinners, for your food ; 
Ye thirsty come to this life-giving stream. 
Ye preachers take him for your Joyful theme ; 
Take him, my dear Americans/* he said ; 
•* Bo your complaints on his kind bosom laid ; 
Take him, ye Africans, he longs for you ; 
Impartial Savior is this title due ; 
Washed in the fountains of redeeming blood» 
You shall bo sons and priests to God." 
But thouich, trrested by the hand of death, 
Whitfield no more exerts his laboring breath, 
Yet let us view him in the eternal skies/ 
Let every heart to his bright vision riso ; 
While the tomb safe retains its sacred trust* 
TIU life divine reanimates his dust.-- 



The (dst-flying jcftrs-aro as Icatcs of a book. 
On which all mankinil is permitted to look ; 
Some pogc9 arc written with JmUcIous care. 
While others arc blotted that btit here and there 
Can we dlscera wonts ; other p:)ges arc blank. 
Left so by those men whoso superior rank 
Could boost of no docils done to benefit men. 
Anil surcly^uo reconl had they to leave, then I 
Some leaves have been torn from this p(>ndcrous book. 
By persons ashamed for their brethren to look 
On records of lives that were useless to carih. 
And only to sorrow and trouble gave birth. . 
But how arc our pages ? Well-writtt n and clean ? 
Or so filled with blots scarce a word can be seen ? 
Have wo left blank pages, and are oil our deeds T 
Unworthy the sight of creation who read^ 7 
Do traces of pages completely torn out 
* Betray lives enveloped in shame and in doubt T 
If such bo our records, make haste to amend, 
Lest wo to Plutonian darkness descend ; 
But rather let all of our pages bo clean, 
And worthy by Ood and mankind to be seen. 

Hamib E,Foz. 
CHiLLicoTnB» O., Jan. 5, 1809. 





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