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« vnx^n AuaO. mmMm m aot« of." — CArrAiM Cuttlk. 

Vol. IX,— No. 219.] Saturday, January 7. 1854. 

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Jan. 7. 1854.] 





Tbz commeneeraent of a Nevr Tear, and of our Ninth 
Volume, imposes upon Us the pleasant duty of wishing 
■lany hmjpfj letunM of the season to all our Friends^ 
Correspondents, aod Readers^ 

Those of the ktter class* who bare so earnestly m- 
pressed upon Us the propriety and adrisabteness cif 
placing our Advertisements on the outside leaves of 
each Number, will see that their wishes have at length 
been eomplied with. We trust they will be pleased 
with this change, and receive it as a proof of our readi- 
ness to attend to every reasonable suggestion for the 
imprtyveroent of ** Notes and Quekiss.'* We can 
assure them that it is no kss our desire to do so than 
our interest. 


'* Pour qui $e donne fa peine de chereher, il yt a iou- 
f9ur» quelque trouvailk d fahre^ mime dans ce qui a ^ le 
plusvisUe" — Henry Pativ. 

I take np a work of European celebrity, and 
reflect awhile on its bibliographic peculiarities — 
which may almost pass for romance. 

It is a Set^sh work with regard to the family 
connexion of its author : it is an Irish work 
with regard to the place of his nativity. It is ian 
Eiigiish w(Mrk as to the scenes which it represents ; 
a French work as to the language in which it was 
written ; a Dutch work as to the country in 
which it came to light. It was fcNrmerly printed 
anonymously : it h^ since borne the name of its 
author. It was formerly printed for public sale : 
it has been twice printed for private circulation. 
It was formerly classed as fieti<m : it is now be« 
lieTcd to be history^ 

But we have too many enigmas in the annals 
of literature, and I must not add to the number. 
The work to which I allude is the Memoires du 
comte de Grammant par U comie Antoine Hamilton* 

The varioQS indications of a projected re-im- 
pression of the w(H'k remind me of my portefeuiUe 
aam^tamen^ and impose on me the task of a 
partial transcription of its contents. 

Of the numerous editions of the Memoires de 
Grctmmofti as recorded by Brunet, Benouard, or 
Qu^rard, or left unrecorded by those celebrated 
bibliographers, I shall describe only four ; which 
t commend U> the critical examination of future 

1. ** Memoires de la vie du comte de Grammotit; «m- 
)enant partieuHeremetit VhiHoire ameureuse de la cour 
VAnghierre, aous le re§ne de Chctrlee If, A Cologne, 
:iiex Pierre Mavteau, 1713. 13», pp. 44-428, 

"Avis du UBaAiRs. II seroit inutile de reeom* 
marnier ici la lecture des memoires qui composent ce 

. vdlume r le titre seul de Memoires du eomU de Gram^ 
wtamt r^v^lera sans doute la cuiiosit^ du public pour 
un homme qui lui est d^a si connu d'ailleurs, tant par 
la f^utatiott qu*il a s^u se fture, que par les diffibena 

^ portraits qu*en ont doiwea Mrs* de Bussi et de St» 
Evreinont, dans leurs ouvrages ; et Ton ae doute nul- 
lement qu'il ne re9<Mve, avee beaueoup de plaisis, un 
Itvre, dans lequel on lui raconte ses avantures, sur oe 
qa*il en a been whiIu raeoater Ini-meme a celul qui a. 

' pris la peiae de dresser tes m4inoires. 

'* Outre les avaatures du comte de Crrammont, ils con^ 
tiennent particulie[re]mem l*histoire amoureuse de la 
eour d*ABgleterre, sous le regne de Charles II; et» 

• comme on y d^ouvre quantity de choses* qui ont et^ 
tenues each^es jusqu'^ pr^nt, et qui font voir jusq«*a • 
quel exc^ on a port6 le dereglement dans cette cour, 

' ce B*est pas le moreeau le moins int^ressant de ees. 

** On les donne ici sur une eopie manuscrite» qu'on ea^ 
a ref ue de Paris : et on les a &it iroprimer avee le plu»~ 
d'exactitude q«*il a6t4 possible.** 

The above is the *^r:f^ edition. The miprint iij 
fictitious. It was much used by the Elxevirs, and 
by other Dutch printers. The second edition, 
with the same imprint, is dated in 1714 (Cat. de- 
Guyon de Sardiere, No. 939.). The third edition 
was printed at Rotterdam in 1716. The avis i& 
omitted in that edition, and in all the later im- 
pressions which I have seen. Its importance as ». 
history of the publication induces me to revive it^~ 
There is also an edition printed at Amsterdam in 
1717 (Cat. de Ltmy, Na 3918.); and another ai 
La Haye in 1731 (Cat de Rothelin, No. 2534 ♦> 
Brunet omits the edition of 1713. R^iouard and' 
Querai'd notice it too briefly. 

2. <* Memoires du comte de Grammoni, par monsieur 2* 
comUe Antoine HamiUon. NouveUe ecHtiomy OMgrnentee li'wi- 
diseours preliminaire miU de prose et de vers^par U mime 
ttuteur, et d'ua averfissement eontenemi quelques anecdotes- 
de la We du comte HamiUon, A Paris^ chez la veuve- 
Pissot, Quay de C(X)ti, a la croiz d*or. 1746." 12\ pp^ 
24 + 408. 

** AvsafissBM INT. Le public a fiut un accueil si/ 
favorable k ces Memoires^ que nous avons crik devoir en» 
procurer une nouvelle edition. Outre les avantures duf 
comte de Grammont, tres-piquai^es par elles-na^mesr 
ih contiennent Thtstofre amoureuse d'AngWterre sous 
le regne de Charles II. lis sont d*ailleurs ^rits d'une 
mani^re si vive et si ing^nieuse, qu*ils ne husse^cnent 
pas de plaire infiniment, quand la matiere en seroit 
moins interessante. 

** Le h^os de ces Memoires a tronv4 dans le ccnnte 
Hamilton un historien dii^ne de lui. Car on n*ignore« 
plus qu'ils sont p«rtis de la meme main a qui l*on doit 
encore d*autres ouvrages frapp^s au meme coin. 

** Nous avons enricht cette edition d*un diseours mel^ 
de prose et de veis, oik i*on exag^re la difficult^ qti'il y 
a de bien repcesenter le comte de Grammont, On re- 
connoitra facilement que ce disoours est du m^me au« 
teur que les Mimoires, et qu*il j^^XffllJM^ttiEiaji^pt^^m -^ 


[No. 21^. 

orner le firontispice. Ao reste 11 ne nous appartiect 
point d*en apprecier le m^te. Nous dirons seulenoent 
^ue des personnes d*ungout sur etdelicat leeomparent 
au Voyage de Chapdlt^ et qu*ils y trouvent les memes 
graces, le meme naturel et la mSme l^geret^ 

*< II ne nous reste plus qu'i dire un mot de M. HamiU 
ton lui-meme, auteur de ces in^moires, et du disoours 
qui les precede. 

** Antoine Hamilton dont nous parlous, ^toit de Tan- 
cienne et illustre maison de ce nom en Ecosse. II 
liaquit en Irlande. II eut pour p^re le chevalier 
GeoT^&i Hamilton, petit-fils du due d*Haniilton, qui 
fut aussi due de Ch^telleraud en Fiance. 

** Sa m^re 6toit madame Marie Butler, sceiir du due 
d^Ormond, viceroi d*Irlande, et grand maitre de la 
inaison du roi Charles. 
* ** Dans les revolutions qui arriT^rent du terns de 
Cromwel, ils suivirent le roi et le due d'Yorck son 
fr^re qui pass^rent en France. lis y anien^rent leur 
&mille. Antoine ne &isoit a peine que de naitre. 

*< Lorsque le roi fut retabli sur son trone, il ramena 
en Angleterre les jeux et la magnificence. On voit 
dans les m^moires de Grammont combien cette cour 
^toit brillante ; la curiosity y attira le comte de Gram* 
roonf. II y vit mademoiselle d'Hamilton, il ne tarda 
pas k sentir le pouvoir de ses charmes, il T^pousa 
enfin ; et c'est la tendresse qu* ^ntotae avoit pour sa 
soeur, qui Tengagea a faire plusieurs voyages en France, 
oik il etoit elev^ et ob. il a pass^ une partie de sa vie. 

*<M. Antoine Hamilton ^tant catholique, il ne put 
obtenir d*emploi en Angleterre ; et rien ne Tut capable 
d'ebranler ni sa religion, ni la fid^lite qu*il devoit a 
son roi. 

** Le roi Jaques 4tant monte sur le trone, il lui donna 
un ref^iment d'in&nterie en Irlande et le gouvemement 
de Limeric. Mais ce prince, ayant &i^ oblige de quit- 
ter ses etats le comte Hamilton repassa avec la famille 
royale en France. C'est-U et pendant le long s^jour 
qu*il y a fait, qu*il a compost les divers ouvrages qui 
lui ont acquis tant de reputation. II mourut a S. 
Germain )e 21 Avril 1720. dans de grands sentimens 
de piete, et apres avoir re9u les derniers sacremens. 
II etoit age alors d'environ 74 an^. II a merite les 
regrets de tons ceux qui avoient le bonheur de le con.* 
noitre. Ne serieux, il avoit dans Tesprit tous les 
agreroens imaginables ; mais ce qui est plus digne de 
louanges, k ces agremens, qui sont frivoles sans la 
rertu, il joignoit toutes les qualitez du coeur." 

If the above avertissement first appeared in 1746, 
which I have much reason to conclude, this is 
certainly a very important edition. The biogra- 
phicakportion of the advertisement is the found- 
ation of the later memoirs of Hamilton. In the 
Moreri of 1 759, we have it almost verbatim^ but 
taken from the (Euores du comte Antoine Hamilton, 
1749. Neither Brunet, nor Renouard, nor Qu^- 
rard notice the edition of 1746. The copy which 
I have examined has the book-plate G. III. R, 

3. ** BfemoiteM du comte de Grammont, par le C. An^ 
toine Hamilton, 1760." [De Timprimerie de Didot, 
rue Pavee, 1760.] J2». I. partie, pp. 36 + 316. II. 
jwtie, pp. 4 + 340, 

I This edition has the same avertissement as that 
of 1746. The imprint is m.dccxx. The type re- 
sembles our small pica, and the paper has the 
water-mark Auvergne 1749. At the end of the 
second part appears, De Vimprimerie de Didot^ 
rue Pavee, 1760. This must be M. Francois 
Didot of Paris. I find the same colophon in the 
Bihliographie instructive, 1763-8. v. 631. This 
▼enr neat edition has also escaped the aforesaid 
bibliographic trio ! 

4. " MemmrtM du eomte de Grammont, par monmewr 
h comte Antoine Hamilton, Nouvdle edition, augmeniit 
de notes et cTedaircissemens necessairet, par M, Horaet 
WdJpoh, Imprimee a Strawberry-Hill. 1772.** 4*. 
pp. 24 + 294. 3 portraits. 

[Dedication.] ** A madame 

** L'editeur vous consacre cette edition, com roe un 
monument de son araitie, de son admiration, et de son 
respect ; a vous, dont les graces, Tesprit, et le gout re- 
tracent au siecle present le siecle de Louis quatorze et 
les agremens de Pauteur de ces memoires.** 

Such are the inscriptions on the Strawberry- 
Hill gem. Much has been said of its brilliancy — 
and so, for the sake of novelty, I shall rather dwell 
on its flaws. 

The volume was printed at the private press of 
M. Horace Walpole at Strawberry- Hill, and the 
impression was limited to one hundred copies, of 
which thirty were sent to Paris. So much for its 
attractions — now for its flaws. In reprinting the 
dedication to madame du Defland, I had to insert 
eight accents to make decent French of it I The 
avis is a mere medley of fragments : I could not 
ask a compositor to set it up! The avertissement 
is copied, without a word of intimation to that 
effect, from the edition of 1746. The notes to 
the epitre are also copied from that edition, except 
L'abbe de Chaulieu ; and two of the notes to the 
memoirs are from the same source. The other 
notes, in the opinion of sir William Musgrave, 
are in part taken from an erroneous printed Key* 
Where are the eclaircissements f I find none ex-l 
cept a list of proper names — of which about one- 
third part is omitted ! 

In quoting Brunet, I have used the fourth edi- 
tion of the Manuel du libraire, 1842-4; in quoting 
Renouard, I refer to the avis prefixed to the 
CEuvres du comte Antoine Hamilton, 1812 ; in 
quoting Querard, to La France litteraire, 1827—39^ 
The other references are to sale cat^iloguesr. The 
titles of the books described, and the extracts, are 
given literatim, and, except as above noted, witli 
the same accentuation and punctuation. 

To revert to the question of a new edition : I 
should prefer the French text, for various reasons, 
to any English translation that could be made 
That of Abel Boyer is wretched burlesque I 

The chief requirements of a French edition 
would be, a collation of the editions of 1713 ana 
1746— the rectification of the names of person^ 

Liiyiiiz-tju uy 


Jan. 7. 1854.] 


I and places — a revision of the punctuation — and 

1 a strict conformity, as to general orthography and 
accentuation, with the DicHonnaire de VAcademie 
franqaUey as edited in 1835. The substance of 
the avis of 1713 might be stated in a preface ; and 
the avertissement of 1746, a clever composition, 
would serve as an introduction and memoir of the 
author. Those who doubt its value may consult 
the Grand dictionnaire historique^ and the J5io- 
graphie universelle. As one hundred and sixty 
pereons are noticed in the work, brevity of anno- 
tation is very desirable. It would require much 
research. The manuscript notes of sir William 
Musgrave would, however, be very serviceable — 
more so, I conceive, than the printed notes of M. 
Horace Walpole. 

As the indications of a projected re-impression 
xnajr be fallacious, I shull conclude with a word of 
advice to inexperienced collectors. Avoid the joUe 
Titian printed at Paris by F. A. Didot, par ordre 
de tnotueigneur le comte d'Artois, in 1781. It is 
the very worst specimen of editorship. Avoid also 
the London edition of 1792. The preface is a 
piratical pasticcio; the verbose notes are from 
the most accessible bo9ks ; the portraits, very un- 
equal in point of execution, I believe to be chiefly 
copies of prints — not d'apres des tableaux origi' 
naux. The most desirable editions are, 1. The 
edition of 1760; 2. That of 1772, as a curiosity; 
3. That edited by M. Renouard, Paris, 1812, 18®. 

2 vols.; 4. That edited by M. Renouard in 1812, 8«. 
with eight portraits. The latter edition forms part 
of the CEuvres du comte AiUoine Hamilton in 3 vols. 
It seldom occurs for sale. Bolton Cornet. 


The publication of this valuable semi-Saxon or 
Ji^arly English ti'eatise on the duties of monastic 
life, recently put forth by the Camden Society, 
under the editorship of the Rev. James Morton, 
is extremely acceptable, and both the Society and 
the editor deserve the cordial thanks of all who 
are interested in the history of our language. As 
one much interested in the subject, and who many 
years since entertained the design now so ably 
executed by Mr. Morton, I may perhaps be al- 
[owed to Otter a few remarks on the work itself, 
and on tlie manuscripts which contain it. Mr. 
Morton is unquestionably right in his statement 
that the Latin MS. in Magdalen College, Oxford, 
No. 67., is only an abridged translation of the 
>riginal vernacular text. Twenty-three years ago 
[ had access to the same MS. by permission of the 
Rev. Dr. Routh, the President of Magdalen Col- 
ef^e, and after reading and making extracts from 
t *, I came to the same conclusion as Mr. Morton. 

♦ At p. Yiii. of Mr. Morton's preface, for ««yer«e*' 
[eye), my extracts read "yze." 

It hardly admits, I think, of a doubt ; for even 
without the internal evidence furnished by the 
Latin copy, the age of the manuscripts containing 
the Early English text at once set aside the sup- 
position that Simon of Ghent (Bishop of Salisbury 
from 12S7 to 1315) was the original author of the 
work. The copy in Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, I have not seen, but of the three copies in 
the British Museum I feel confident that the one 
marked Cleopatra C. vi. was actually written be- 
fore Bishop Simon of Ghent had emerged from the 
nursery. This copy is not only the oldest, but 
the most curious, from the corrections and alter- 
ations made in it by a somewhat later hand, th^ 
chief of which are noticed in the printed edition. 
The collation, however, of this MS. miffhtf have 
been, with advantage, made more minuteTjr, for at 
present many readings are passed over. Thus, ai 
p. 8., for unweote the second hand has congoun; 
at p. 62., for herigen it lias preisen ; at p. 90., for 
on cheaflcy it rea£ o mu^e^ &c. The original hand 
has also some remarkable variations, which would 
cause a suspicion that this was the first draft of 
the author*s work. Thus, at p. 12., for scandlcy 
the first hand has schonde ; at p. 62., for baldeliche 
it reads bradliche ; at p. 88., for novtfor^ it has 
anonden, and the second hancl aneust ; at p. 90., for 
sunderliche it reads sunderlepes^ &c. All these, 
and many other curious variations, are not noticed 
in the printed edition. .On the fly-leaf of this 
MS. is written, in a hand of the time of Edward I., 
as follows : " Datum ahhatie et conventui de Leghe 
per Dame M, de Clare.^* The lady here referred 
to was doubtless Maud de Clare, second wife of 
Richard de Clare, Earl of Hereford and Glour 
cester, who, at the beginning of the reign of Ed- 
ward I., is known to have changed the Augus- 
tinian Canons of Leghe, in Devonshire, into an 
abbess and nuns of the same order ; and it was 
probably at the same period she bestowed this 
volume on them. The conjecture of Mr. Morton, 
that Bishop Poore, who died in 1237, might have 
been the original author of the Ancren Ttiwle^ is 
by no means improbable, and deserves farther 
inquiry. The error as to Simon of Ghent is due, 
in the first place, not to Dr. Smith, but to Richard 
James (Sir Robert Cotton's librarian), who wrote 
on the fly-leaves of all the MSS. in the Cottonian 
Library a note of their respective contents, and 
who is implicitly followed by Smith. Wanley is 
more blamable, and does not here evince his usual 
critical accuracy, but (as remarked by Mr. 
Morton) he could only have looked at a few 
pages of the work. The real fact seems to be 
that Simon of Ghent made the abridged Latin 
version of the seven books of the Riwle now pre- 
served in Magdalen College, and this supposition 
may well enough be reconciled with the words of 
Lefand, who says of him, -— 

'* Edidit inter caetera, libros septem de Vita Solitarla, > 


[No. 21», 

ad Vir^ines Tarentinas, Ditrue coltrices.** — CawnmeiU,, 

A second copr of the Latin version was formerij 
in the Cottonian collection (Yitellius £. vii.), but 
AO fragment of it has hitherto been recovered from 
*€he mass ofbumt crusts and leaves leA after the fire 
'Of 1731. I am happj, however, to add, that within 
the last few months, the manuscript marked Yitel- 
lius F. vii., containing a French translation of the 
HiwUf made in the fourteenth century (verj 
•cloeelj agreeing with the vernacular text), has 
been entirely restored, except that the top margins 
•of the leaves have been burnt at each end of the 
Tolume. This damage has, unfortunately, carried 
awaj.the original heading of the treatise, and the 
title ffiven us by Smith b copied partlj from 
James s note. This copj of the French version 
sppears to be unique, and is the more interesting 
from its having a note at the end (now half ob- 
literated hj the fire), stating that it belonged to 
£leanor de Bohun, Ducliess of Gloucester, whose 
^moito is also added, ** Pleumce. M [mt/]. en vn^ 
The personage in question was Eleanor, daughter 
of Humj^rej de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and 
wife of Thomas of Woodstock, who ended her 
v^ajs as a nun In the convent at Barking in 1399. 
Is aoj other instance known of the use of this 
vaoito ? Before I conclude these brief remarks, I 
aaay mention a JW* copy of the Aneren Rifcle, 
%rhich has escaped the notice of Bir. Morton. It 
is buried in the enormous folio manuscript of old 
En^h poetry and prose called the Vernon MS., 
in tne Bodleian Library, written in the reign of 
Richard IL, and occurs at pp. 371** — 392. In the 
table of contents prefixed to this volume it is 
entitled "The Route of Reclous;** and although 
the phraseologj is somewhat modernised, it agrees 
better with £e MS. Cleopatra C. vi. than with 
IJcro A. xiv.,^ from which Mr. Morton's edition is 
printed. This copy u not complete, some leaves 
having been cut out in the sixth book, and the 
scribe leaves off at p. 420. of the printed edition. 

It b very much to be wished that Mr. Morton 
would undertake the task of editing another vo- 
lume of legends, homiliea, and poems, of the same 
age as the Aneren RiwUj still existinr in various 
maauscripta. One of the homilies, entiUed ** Sawles 
Warde,- in the Bodley MS. 34., Cott. MS. Titus 
J>. xviii^ and Old Royal MS. 17a. xxvii., is very 
carious, and well deserves to be printed. 

F. Madbxn. 

British Museum. 


A.2>. I6JO-5L 

At a time when the question of" What is to be 
done with our vagrant children?" is occupying 
the attention of all m6n of philanthropic minds, it 
mttj be worth while to give place in your pages to 

the following order addressed by the Lord Blayor 
of London to his alderoaen in 1660-^1, which ap- 

lies, amongst other things, to that very aubiect. 

t will be seen that seme id the artifices of beg- 
gary in that day were very similar to thoae wiSi 
which we are now but too familiar. The difierenee 
oi tre ati e n t between vagrant children over and 
under nine years of age, is worthy of observatioo. 

** By TBI Matoe. 

** Foittsmuah as of late the constables of this city 
have neglected to put ia executioa the severall wliol- 
some laws for puaiibiog of vagraota, and pasaing them 
j to the places of their last abode, whereby great scandaU 
and dishonour is brought upon the goTemment of this 
I city ; These are therefore to will and require you, or 
I your deputy, forthwith to call l>efore you the several 
I constables within yonr ward, and strictly to charge 
them to put in execution the said laws, or to expect 
the penalty of forty shillings to l>e leryed upon their 
esUtea, for every vagrant that shal be found beggtog 
in their several precincts. And to the end tba said 
constatiles may not pfcCend ignor ance , what to do wttk 
the several persons which they sbal find ogend lng the 
said laws, these are further to rcqiure them, that al 
aged or Impotent persons who are not fit to work, be 
pasaed from constable to oonttable to the pariah wbert 
they dwel ; and that the conataUe In whose ward they 
are found begging, shal give a passe under his liand, 
eipresstng the place wliere he or she were teken, and 
the plaoe whither they are to be passed. And far 
ekUdrtn mtdmrjive peart 0/ age, who have no dwenimg, or 
eanmol give am aceouni of Aeir partnttt the parish where 
iheg are found are to provide for them ; and for thoee 
which shall bee found lying under tiaHs^ having no habU' 
atioH or parents (from Jive to nine gears old), are le he 
sent to the Wardrobe Hause\ to ke provided forbgthe 
corporation for the poore ; and all above nine gears of age 
are to be sent to Bridewel, And for hmw or women who 
are able to work and goe begging with youog cliildccn, 
such persons for the first time passed to the 
place of their abode as aforesaid ; and being taken 
againe, they are to be carryed to Bridewel, to be cor- 
rected according to the discretion of the govemoura. 
And for those persons that shai befemnd to hire ehUdrem^ 
or go begging with ehiUhren not euehingtthoee ekHdrem are 
to he sent to the several p ar is he s wher theg dMi smd ihe 
persons oo hiring them «9 Bridstsel, «9 he tn rree tt d amd 
pasmd awmg, or hept at werh there, eweor dim g to the jia- 
•ernow'fl dieeretiom. And for al other vagraato and 
beggars under any pretenea whataoever. to be forthwith 
sent down to Bridewd to be Imployed and corrected 
according to the statute laws of this commonwoalth* 
exoept before excepted; and the president and go- 
vemours of Bridewel are hereby desired to meet twice 
every week to see to the execution of this Precept 
And the steward of the worhehouse coMed Ae Wardrohe, is 

* I suppose this to have been the ancient building 
known by the name of The Royal, or The Tower 
RoyaU used for a time as the Queen^s Wardrobe. It 
will be seen that it was occupied in 1650 as a work* 

L'lyiuz.fcju uy 


Jam. 7. 1«54.] 


QMlhorited to receive into that houee »uch children as tare 
Qfthe etge between five and ninct a» it before specified atH 
hmitedi and the said steward is from time to time to 
acquaint the corporation for the poor, what persons are 
brought in, to the end they may bee provided for. 
Dated this four and twentyeth day of January, 1 650. 


John Bbucb. 


I send you, as a New Year's Gift for your ** N. & Q.," 
transcripts oi half-a-dozen Letters of Eminent Literary 
l^en, specimens of whose correspondence it will do 
your work no discredit to preserve. 

Yours fiothfully, 

Henry Ellis. 
British Museum, Dec 26, 1&53. 


Dean Swift to****»*». 
[MS. Addit^ Brit. Mus^ 12413. Orif,'] 


Beteaorp, Mar. Utli. 

Kiding out tbis morning to dine here with 
Mr. Grattan, I saw at hb hotise Ae poor lame boy 
tbat gives you this : he was a serrant to a plow- 
man near Lui^, and while he was following the 
plow, a dog bit him in the leg, about eleven weeks 
ago. One Mrs. Price endeavored six weeks to 
cure him, but oould not, and his Master would 
maintain him no longer. Mr. Grattan and I are 
of opnion that he may be a proper object to be 
received into Dr. Stephen's Hospital. The boy 
tells his story naturally, and Mr. Grattan and I 
toc^ pity of him. If vou find him curable, and it 
be not against the rules of the Hospital!, I hope 
jou will receive him. 

I am. Sir, 

Your most humble Servt. 


The Mev. Thomat Baker to Mr. Humphry Witmley, 
[Hart, MS. 3778, Art, 43. CVi^] 

Cambridge, Oct 16th [171B]. 
Worthy Sir, 
1 am glad to hear Mrs. ElMxh is in a oonditioii 
lo im her debts, ibr me she may be Tery easy : 
Cbo I co«ki wish for the Btke of the University 
(tlio' I am no way engaged, having taken up my 
obligation) that yom oouTd recover the Book, or at 
least could find where it is lodged, that Mr. Brook 
may know where to demand it. This, I presume, 
cn^ be done. 

, I£ yoa have met with Books printed by Gutten- 
bergv jou have made a great discovery. I thought 
fchere had been none such in the world* and b^an 
ko look upon Fuat as the first Printer. I have 

seen the Bishop of Ely*8 Catholicon (now with us), 
which, for augnt I know, may have been printed 
by Guttenberg ; for tho' it be printed at Ments, 
yet ihere is no name of the Printer, and the cha- 
racter is more rude than Fusfs TuUie*s Offices, 
whereof there are two Copies in 1465 and 1466, 
the fir^t on vellum, the other on paper. 

May I make a small enquiry, after the mentioit 
of so great a name as Guttenberg ? I remember, 
you told me, my Lord Harley had two Copies of 
&dw. the Sizth^s first Common Prayer Book. Do 
you remember whether either of them be printed 
by Grafton, the Kin^ Printer ? I have seen four 
or five Editions by Whitchurch, but never could 
meet with any by Grafton, except one in my cus- 
tody, which I shall look upon to be a ffreat Rarity, 
if it be likewise wanting to my Lord s Collection. 
It varies from all the other Copies, and is printed 
in 1548. All the rest, I think, in 1549. One 
reason of my enquiry is, because I want the Title, 
for the date is at the ecKl of the Book, and indeed 
twice ; both on the end of the Communion Office, 
and of the Litany. But I beg your pardon for so 
small an enquiry, whilst you are in (|uest of Gut- 
tenberg and Kic. Jensou. My busmess consists 
much in trifles. I am, 
Your most ob. humble- 

Tho. Baksb. 
To the worthy Mr, Wanley, at 
the Riding Hood Shop, the 
corner of Chandon and Bed- 
ford Streets, 

Cofent Garden, 


A note in Wanley's hand says, ^Mrs. Elstob 
has only paid a few small scores.** 


Extract <^ a Letter from Wm, Bichford, Esq^ t» 
. the Rev. Mr. Amory of ToMdoUy dated Dumiand^ 
March 7, 1731. 

[MS. Addit, Brit. Mvs., 4909, fbl. 358.] 

I cannot £arbear acquaintii^ you of a Tery 
curious passage in relation to Cities the Sec<Mui's 
Restoration. Sir Wm. Morrice, who was one of 
the Secretaries of State soon after, was the penon 
who chiefly transacted that affair with Monk, so 
that all the p3q>ers in order to it were seat bim, 
both from King Charles and Lord Clarendon. 
Just after the thing was finished. Lord Clareadoa 
got more than 200 of these Letters and other 
papers from Morrice mnder pretence of finishing 
his History, and which were never returned. Lord 
Somers, when he was chancellor, told Morrice*s 
Grandson that if he would file a Bill in Chancery, 
he would endeavour to get them; but young 
Morrice iuving deserted the Whig L fi ter est » was> 



[No. 21ft 

prevailed upon to let it drop. This I know to be 
fact, for I had it not only from the last-mentioned 
Gentleman, but others of that family, especially 
a son of the Secretaries. As soon as I knew this, 
I took the first opportunity of searching the study, 
and found some very curious Letters, which one 
time or other I design to publish together with 
the account of that affair. My mother being Niece 
to the Secretary, hath often heard him say that 
Charles the Second was not only very base in not 
keeping the least of the many things that he had 
promised; but by debauching the Nation, had 
rendered it fitt for that terrible fellow (meaning 
the Duke of York) to ruin us all, and then Monk 
and him would be remembred to their Infamy. 

(^To be continued,) 


On a visit this autumn with some friends to 
the picturesque village and church of Horsted- 
Keynes, Sussex, our attention was forcibly ar- 
rested by the appearance of two large pavement 
slabs, inserted in an erect position on the external 
face, of the south wall of the chancel. They 
proved to be those which once had covered and 
protected the grave of the good Archbishop 
Lei^hton, who passed the latter ^ears of his life 
in that parish, and that of Sir Ellis Leighton, his 
brother. On inquiry, it appeared that their re- 
mains had been deposited within a small chapel 
on the south side of the chancel, the burial-place 
of the Lightmaker family, of Broadhurst, in the 
parish of Horsted. The archbishop retired 
thither in 1674, and resided with his only sister, 
Saphira, widow of Mr. Edward Lightmaker. 
Broadhurst, it may be observed, is sometimes in- 
correctly mentioned by the biographers of Arch- 
bishop Leighton as a parish; it is an ancient 
mansion, the residence formerly of the Light- 
makers, and situated about a mile north of the 
Tillage of Horsted. There it was that Leighton 
made his will, in February, 1683 ; but his death 
occurred, it will be remembered, in singular ac- 
cordance with his desire oflen expressed, at an 
inn, the Bell, in Warwick Lane, London. 

The small chapel adjacent to the chancel, and 
opening into it by an arch now walled up, had for 
some time, as I believe, been used as a school- 
room; more recently, however, either through 
its becoming out of repair, or from some other 
cause, the little structure was demolished. The 
larse slabs which covered the tombs of the good 
prelate and his brother were taken up and fixed 
against the adjoining wall. The turf now covers 
the space thus thrown into the open churchyard ; 
nothing remains to mark the position of the graves, 
irhich in all probability, ere many years elapse, 

^ill be disturbed through i^iorance or heedless- 
ness, and the ashes of Leignton scattered to the 

In times when special respect has been shown 
to the tombs of worthies of bygone times, with the 
recent recollection also of what has been so well 
carried out by Mr. Maskland in regard to the 
grave of Bishop Ken, shall we not make an efibrt 
to preserve from desecration and oblivion the 
resting-place of one so eminent as Leighton for 
his learning and piety, so worthy to be held in 
honoured remembrance for his high principles and 
his consistent conduct in an evil age ? 

Albebt Way. 

ffiimv fiatti. 

Grammars, SfC. for Public Schools. — Would it 
not be desirable for some correspondents of " N. 
& Q.** to furnish information respecting grammars, 
classics, and other works which have been written 
for the various public schools ? Such information 
might be useful to book collectors; and would 
also serve to reflect credit on the schools whose 
learned masters have prepared such books. Mj 
contri^bution to the list is small : but I remember 
a valuable Greek grammar prepared by the Rev. 
— Hook, formerly head master of the College 
School at Gloucester, for the use of that establish- 
ment; as also a peculiar English grammar pre- 
pared by the Rev. R. S. Skillern, master of St. 
Mary de Crypt School, in the same place, for the 
use of that school. I also possess a copy (1640) 
of the jRomame HistoriiB Anihologia, for the use of 
Abingdon School, and Moses and Aarouj or the 
Rites and Customs of the Hebrews (1641), both 
by Thos. Godwin, though the latter was vrritten 
after he ceased to be master of the schools. 

F. H. FisHBS. 


" To captivate.^ — Moore, in his Journal, speak* 
ing of the Americans (January 9th, 1819), says : 

** They sometimes, I see, use the word captivate thus: 
* Five or six ships captivated,* * Five or six ships cap 

Originally, the words to captivate were synony- 
mous with to capture, and the expression was usee 
with reference to warlike operations. To capti- 
vate the affections was a secondary use of th< 
phrase. The word is used in the original sense ii 
many old English books. It is not used so no^ 
in the United States. UHsi>i 


BohfCs Edition of Matthew of Westminster. - 
Under the year a.d. 782, the translator informs v 
that '^Hirenes and his son Constantine becam 
emperors.** Such an emperor is not to be Ibun 

LJiyniz.t;u uy 


Jak. 1. 1854.] 



HI tlie annals of Constantinople. If Mr. Yonge, 
who shows elsewhere that he has read Gibbon, had 
referred to him on this occasion, he would pro- 
bably have found that the Empress Irene, a name 
dear to the reverencers of images, was the person 
meant. The original Latin probably gives no clue 
to the sex ; but still this empress, who is considered 
as a saint by her church, notwithstanding the 
deposition and blinding of her own son, was not a 
personage to be so easily forgotten. 

J. S. Warden. 

French Season Rhymes and Weather Rhymes. — 

** A la Saint- Antoine (17th January) 

1*68 jours croissent le repas d*un moiue.** 
«« A la Saint-Barnab^ (11th June) 

La faux au pr^." 
[• «* A la Sainte- Catherine (25th November) 

Tout bois prend racine.'* 
** Pass^ la Saint-Cldment (23rd November) 

Ne sdme plus froment.** 
<• Si Thiver va droit son chemin, 

Vous I'aurez k la Saint-Martin.'* (12th Nov.) 
*< S*i1 n*arreste tant ne quant, 

Vous Taurez k la Saint- Clement.** (2Srd Nov.) 
** Et sll trouve quelqu* encombr^e, 

Vous Taurez k la Saint- Andr^." (30th Nov.) 


Curious Epitaph in TiUingham Churchy Essex, — 

** Hie jacet Humfridus Carbo, carbone notandus 
N'on nigro, Creta sed meliora tua. 
Ciaruit in clero, nulii pietate secundus. 
Caelum vi rapuit» vi cape si poteris. 
Ob*. 27 Mar. 1624. Mi. 77." 

Wliich has been thus ingeniously paraphrased by 
I friend of mine : 

*' Here lies the body of good Humphry Cole, 
Tho* Black his name, yet spotless is his soul ; 
But yet not black tho* Carbo is the name. 
Thy chalk is scarcely whiter than his fame. 
A priest of priests, inferior was to none, 
Took Heaven by storm when here his race was run. 
TThus ends the record of this pious man ; 
<70 and do likewise, reader, if you can.*' 

N^ewport, Essex. 


Jn the curious and able article entitled " The 
Domestic Life of Edmund Burke," which appeared 
n the AihenoBum of Dec. 10th and Dec. 17tn (and 
jo which I would direct the attention of such 
•eaders of " N. & Q." as have not yet seen it), 
be writer observes : 

** There is not in existence, as far as we know, or 
la v<e a right to infer from the silence of the biographers, 

one single letter, paper, or document of any kind — 
except a mysterious fragment of one letter — relating^ 
to the domestic life of the Burkes, until lon^ after 
Edmund Burke became an illustrious and public man ; 
no letters from parents to children, from children to 
parents, from brother to brother, or brother to sister.** , 

And as Edmund Burke was the last survivor of 
the family, the inference drawn by the writer, that 
they were destroyed by him, seems, on the ground* 
which he advances, a most reasonable oae. But 
my object in writing is to call attention to a 
source from which, if any such letters exist, they 
majr yet possibly be recovered ; I mean the col- 
lections of professed collectors of autographs. 0« 
the one hand, it is scarcely to be conceived that 
the destroyer of these materials for the history of 
the Burkes, be he who he may, can have got all 
the family correspondence into his possession. Ott 
the other, it is far from improbable that in some 
of the collections to which I have alluded, some 
letters, notes, or documents may exist, treasured 
by the possessors as mere autographs ; but which 
might, if given to the world, serve to solve many 
of those mysteries which envelope the early history 
of Edmund Burke. The discovery of documents 
of such a character seems to be the special province 
of " N. & Q.," and I hope, therefore, although 
this letter has extended far beyond the limits I 
originally contemplated, you will insert it, and so 
permit me to put this Query to autograph col- 
lectors, "Have you any documents illustrative Of 
the Burkes ? ** and to add as a Note, " If so, print 
them!" N.O- 

Farranfs Anthem, — From what source did 
Farrant take the words of his well-known anthem, 
" Lord, for thy tender mercies' sake P" C. F. S* 

Ascension JDay Custom. — What is the origin of 
the custom which still obtains in St. Magnus and 
other city churches, of presenting the clergy with 
ribbons, cakes, and silk staylaces on Ascension 
Day? C.F. S. 

Sawhridge and Knighfs Numismatic Collections.. 
— In Snelling's tract on Pattern Pieces for English 
Gold and Silver Coins (1769), p. 45., it is stated, 
in the description of a gold coin of Elizabeth, that 
it is " unique, formerly in the collection of Thomas 
Sawbridge, Esq., but at present in the collection 
of Thomas Knight, Esq., who purchased the whole 
cabinet.** — Can any of your readers inform me 
who this Mr. Knight was, and whether his coUec* 
tion is still in existence ; or if it was dispersed, 
when, and in what manner ? I am not aware of 
any sale catalogue under his name. J. B. B* 

" The spire whose silent finger points to heaven.^ 
— ^I have met with, and sometimes quoted, this luiQ, 



[No. 119. 

Who is its author, and in what poem does it 
occur ? J. W. T. 


Lord Fairfax, — In tbe Peerage of Scofkmd I 
find this entry : 

** Fairfax, Baron, Charles Snowdon Fairfiir, 1^27, 
Baron Fairfax, of Cameron ; sue his grandfiither, 
Thomas, ninth baron, 1846. His lordship resides at 
Woodbume, in Maryland, United Stetca.** 

Fairfax is not a Scotch name. And I can find 
no trace of nny person of that- family taking a part 
in Scot4jh aflairs. Cameron is, I suppose, the 
parish of that name in the east of J^fe. 

I wish to ask, IsL For what services, or under 
what circumstances, the barony was created ? 

2ndly. When did the family cease to possess 
land or other property m Sc<rtland, if they ever 
lield any ? 

3rdly. Is the present peer a citizen or subject 
of the United States ? if so, is he known and ad- 
dressed as Lord Fairfax, or how ? 
. 4thly. Has he, or has any of his ancestors, since 
the recognition of the United States as a nation, 
ever used or applied for permission to exercise the 
Unctions of a peer of Scotland, e. g. in the elec- 
tion of representatire peers? 

5thly. If he be a suoject of the United States, 
^nd have taken, expressly or bj implication, the 
€>ath of citizenship (which pomtedly renounces 
allegiance to our sovereign), how is it that his 
9ame is retained on the roll of a body whose first 
duty it is to guard the throne, and whose exist- 
ence is a denial of the first proposition in the 
constitution of his country ? 

Perhaps Uneda, W. W., or some other of your 
Philadelphia correspondents, will be good enough 
to notice the third of these Queries. W. H. M» 

Tailless Cats. — A writer in the New York 
Literary World of Feb. 7, 1852, makes mention 
of a bree<l of cats destitute of tails, which are 
found in the Isle of Man. Perhaps some generous 
Manx correspondent will say whether this is a 
fkct or a Jonathan. Shtrlet Hibbsbd. 

SalieeUar. — Can any of your readers gainsay- 
that in saltcellar the cellar is a mere corruption 
of saiiere f A list of compound words of Saxon 
and French origin might be curious. H. F. B. 

Arms and Motio granted to Col, WtUiam Carlos, 
— Can any reader of " N". & Q.** give the date of 
^ grant of arms to Col. William Carlos (who 
as^sted Charles II. to conceal himself in the 
♦•Boyal Oak,** after the battle of Worcester), and 
specify the exact terms of the grant ? /w. 

Naval Atrocities. — In the article on " Wounds," 
in the E-ncye. Brit, 4th edition, published 1810, 
the author, after mentioning the necessity of a 

surgeon's being omitkras in psxmonmomg on tlw 
duKraeter of any wound, adds that ^ tbia w parti- 
cfdarly necessary on board ship, where, as soon is 
any^ man is pronounced by the surgeoD to be ■lo^ 
tallv wounded, he b forthwith, while still living 
and cotMKnons, tlurown overboard,** or words to 
this eflTeot, as I quote from memory. TliAt soch 
horrid barbarity was not practised in 1810^ it it 
needless to say ; and if it had been usnal mt anj 
previous period, SnK^Iett and otbor writers vk 
have exposed with unsparing hand all the defects 
in the naval system of their day, would have 
scarcely left this unnoticed when the/ attack 
much slighter abuses. U such a thing ever ec* 
curred, even in the worst of times, it must have 
been an isolated case. I have not met elsewhere 
with any allusion to this passage, or the atrocity 
recorded in it, and would be gkd of more infcMm* 
ation on the subject. J. & Wabdsh. 

Turlehydes. — I)uring^the great faouae in Ire* 
land in 1331, it is said that — 

** The people in Htw dialNaa met with as unex- 
pected and providential reUeC For about the 84tb 
Jime^ a prodigious number of largo soa, &h» called 
turlehydes, were brought into the bay of Dablia, ^Di 
east on dbore at the mouth of the river Dodder. 
They were from thirty to forty feet long, and so 
bulky that two tall men placed one on each side of the 
fish could not see one another.*'— Tk9 Hiwt^ry tni 
Antiquities of the City of DvbUn from the Earhei 
Accounts, by Walter Harris, 176S, p. 265. 

This account is compiled from several records d 
the time, some of which still exist. As the tern 
turlehydes is not known to Irish scholars, can anj 
of the readers of "N. & Q.** say what precise 
animal is meant by it, or give any derivation or 
reference for the term ? U- U. 


Foreign Orders — Queen of Bohemia, — It is 
well known that in some foreign Orders the 
decorations thereof are conferred upon ladies. 
Can any of your correspondents inform, me 
whether the Order of the Annunciation of Sar* 
dinia, formerly the Order of the Ducal House of 
Savoy, at any time conferred its decoraticma upon 
ladies ; and whether the Princess Elizabeth, affc^* 
wards Queen of Bohemia, ever had the decoration 
of any foreign order oonferred upon her ? In i 
portrait of her she is represented with a star oi 
badge upon the upper part of the left arm. 

S. E. G 

Pickard FamUy. — Is the Piehardj or PicQr^ 
family, a branch o^ which is located in Torksbire 
of Norman or^in ? If so, who were i^% first setder 
in England ; and also in what county are thej mofl 
numerous ? Ons or the F amii.i 


Digitized by 



Jan. 7. 1854.] 



Irish Chieftahu. — Some account of tbcfoHowing, 
JSUtoricai HeminUeences of (TBymet, (/TooUs^ 
(fKawmaghSy and other Irish Chieftains, privately 
printed, 1843, is reqtiested by John martin. 

Woburn Abbey. 

. Oemral Braddoch — Can any of jrour readers 
fomisb me witb information relative^ to tbis 
officer? His disastrous expedition against Fort 
liu Quesne, and its details, are well known ; but 
I sbould like to know sometbing more of bis pre- 
Tious bbtory. Walpole gives an anecdote or two 
of bim, ana mentions tbat be bad been Grovernw 
of Gibraltar. I Ibink too be was of Irisb extrac- 
tion. Is tbere no portrait or engraving of Brad- 
dodc in existence? Sbrvibhs. 

jBSfmir ^VLtt'M toll!) ^mftoeril* 

Lawless Courty Rochfordj^ Essex, — A most 
extraordinary custom exists, in a manor at Rocb- 
ford, in tbe tensnta bolding under wbat is called 
tbe " Lawless Court.** Tbis Court is bcld at mid- 
nigbt, by torcb-ligbt, in tbe centre. of a field, on 
tbe first Friday after tbe 2dtb Sept., and is pre- 
sided over by tbe steward of tbe manor, wbo, 
however, appoints a deputy to fulfil tbis part of 
bis duty. The tenants of the manor are obliffed 
to attend to answer to tbeir names, when called 
upon, under pain of a heavy fine, or at all events 
have some one there to respond for them. All 
tbe proceedings are carried on in a whisper, no 
one speaking above tiiat tone of voice ; tod the 
inibrmationa as to deaths, names, &c. are entered 
in a book by tbe oresident witb a piece of charcoal. 
I may add, tbe business is not commenced until 
a cock has crowed three-times, and as it is some- 
times a difficult matter to get Chanticleer to do 
Ids duty, a man is employed to crow, whose fee 
therefor is 6s. 

' Now Morant, in bis History of Essex, merely 
cursorily mentions this most snigular custom, and 
bas nothing as to its antiquity or origin ; I should 
^erefore feel mucb obliged for any information 
concerning it. Russeli* Gole. 

[Tbe singular cu sto m at RocMbrd is of uncertain 
origin : in old authors it is spoken of as belonging to 
tbe manor of Rayleigh. Tbe fbllowing account of 
«The Lawless Court," at that place, is printed bj 
Heame'from tbe Dodsworth MSS. in the Bodleian, 
vol. cxx¥. : — ^ The manor of Raylie, in Essex, bath a 
eostome court kept yearly, tbe Wednesday nezte after 
If ichaeVs day. The court is kept in the nigfat, and 
without light, but as the sk3re gives, att a Kttle hill 
without the towne, called the King's Hill, where tbe 
steward writes only with coals, and not with inke. 
And many men and mannors of greate worth hold of 
tbe same, and do suite unto this strange court, where 
tbe steward calls them with as low a Toice as possibly 
be may ; giving no notice when be goes to the hill to 

kcepe tbe same court, and be tbat attcad* aaC W 
deepely aooerced, if tbe steward will« Tbe tkW aad. 
entry of tbe same court is as fbUowetb, vis. i 
' Curia de domino rege^ 
Dicta ttMtf fejfe, 
Tciita est ibidem, 
Per ejusdem consuetudrneffl. 

Ante ortitm solis^ 
Luceat nisi polua. 
Seneschal lus solus^ 
Scriblt nisi colis. 
CTamat dam pro regv 
In coria aim kpe : 
Et qm noQ etto^ venertt 
Citius poenitebit : 
Si venerit cum lumine 
Errat in regimine. 
Et dum sine lumine 
Capti sunt in crinnne, 
Curia sine cura 
Jurata de injuria 

Tenta est die Mercurias 
prox. post festum S. Micbaelis.' ** 
Weever, who mentions this custom, says, tbait fac- 
was informed that ** this servile attendance was iaa- . 
posed, at tl>e first» upon certaine tenants of divers 
mannors hereabouts, for conspiring in this place, at 
such an unseasonable time, to raise a commotion. **} 

Motto on old Damask, — Can your correspon* 
dents furnish an explanation of the motto berewitb 
sent ? It is taken from some damask table napkins 
which were bought many years back at Brussels ; 
not at a shop in the ordinary way, but privately, 
from tbe family to whom they beloi^;ed. I presume 
tbe larger chiuracters, if put together, will indicate 
the date of tbe event-, whatever that may be, wbicb 
is referred to in the motto itself. 

Tbe motto is woven in tbe pattern of the- 
damask, and consists of the following words in 
uncials, tbe letters of unequal size, as subjoined : 

"sIonUM paCIs DatUr LoalCjE." 
tbe larger letters being iumcidulic. If tbe Zfy 
are taken as two F*s, and written thus X, it 
gives the date mdcclxui* Perhaps this can. be 
exjMned. H» 

fThe chronogram above, wbicb means • The sigasi '< 
of peace is given to the warrior,** relates to the peace 
proclaimed between England and t«'rance in tbe jrear 
17^3. This event is noticed in tbe Anmud RegiittTf 
and in most of our popular histories. Keightley says» ' 
"Tbe overtures of France for peace were readily, 
listened to ; and both parties being in earnest, the 
preliminaries were readily settled at Fontainebleau 
(Nov. Srd). In spite of the declamation of Mr. Pitt 
and his party, they were approved of by large raajori-. 
ties in both Houses of Parliament, and a treaty was 
finally signed in Paris, Feb. 18, ITe.S."" The napkins 
were probably a gift, on the occasion, to some pubfic 
functionary. For the custom of noting the date of a 
great event by chronograms, see ** N, & Q,,** VoL t., 

J^***-^ .ytized by Google 



[No. 219;; 

Explanation of the Word ^*' Miser ^ — Can any 
of your readers explain how and when miser came 
to get the meaning of an avaricious hoarding man ? 
In Spenser*s Faerie Queene, it. 1. 8., it is used in 
its nearly primary sense of " wretch :" 

« Vouchsafe to stay your steed for humble miserU sake." 

Again, Faerie Queene, ii. 3. 8. : 

** The miser threw himself, as an offall, 
Straiglit at his foot in base humility." 

In Milton's Comus^ which was written about 
^hj years after the first three books of the Faerie 
Queene^ the present signification of the word is 
complete : 

** Tou may as well spread out the unsunn*d heaps 
Of tHiser*s treasure by an out1aw*s den, 
'.And tell me it is safe, as bid one hope 
T)anger will ^nk on opportunity,** &c. 

J. D. Gabbneb. 


[The modem restricted use of the word mUer is 
subsequent to Shakspeare*8 time ; for in Part I. Kin^ 
Benry F/., Act V. Sc. 4., 

•* Decrepit miser ! base ignoble wretch I** 

'Steerens says has no relation to avarice, but simply means 
^^ miserable creature. So in the interlude of Jacob and 
Esau, 1568 : 

« But as for these misers within my fiither*s tent.*' 
Again, in Lord Stirling*8 tragedy of Crasus, 1604 : 
•* Or think'st thou me of judgement too remiss, 
A miser that in miserie remains.** 
Otway, however, in his Orphan, published in 1680, 
uses it for a covetous person : 

** Though she be dearer to my soul than rest 
To weary pilgrims, or to misers gold. 
Rather than wrong Castolio, I*d forget thee." 
So also does Pope : 

" No silver saints by dying misers given. 
Here brib*d the rage of ill-requited heaven.**] 

"i4ci> and Oalatea.^^ — Is there anj good evi- 
dence in support of the commonly received opinion 
that the words to HandeFs Acis and Galatea were 
written by Gay ? Hawkins merely states that 
tbey " are said to have been written by Mr. Gay." 
I have no copy of Burney at hand to refer to; 
but I find the same statement repeated by various 
other musical historians, without, however, any 
authority being given for it. The words in ques- 
■ tion are not to be found among' the Poems on 
several Occasions^ by Mr. John Gay, published in 
1767 by Tonson and others. Have they ever 
been included in any collective edition of his 
works? G.T. 


[In the musical catalogue of the British Museum, 
compiled by Thomas Oliphant, Esq., it is stated that 

the words to Acis and Galatea ** are said to be written, 
but apparently partly compiled, by John Gay.** Tbisr 
serenata is included among Gay*8 Poems in Dr. John- 
son's edition of the English Poets, 1790, as well as in 
Chalmers's edition of 1810, and in the complete edi- 
tion ot British Poets, Edinburgh, 1794.] 

Birm-hank, — The bank of a canal opposite to 
the towing-path is called the birm-bank. What 
is the derivation of this ? Uneda* 


[Tlie word birm'seems to have the same meaning as 
berme (Fr. berme\ which, in Fortification, denotes a 
piece of ground of three, four, or five feet in widtb» 
left between the rampart and the moat or foss, designed 
to receive the ruins of the rampart, and prevent the 
earth from filling the foss. Sometimes it is palisaded, 
and in Holland is generally planted witli quickset 

General Thomas Gage, — This officer com- 
manded at Boston at the breaking out of the 
Revolution, and served under General Braddock. 
Where can I find any details of the remainder of 
his history ? Sbbyibns. 

[An interesting biographical account of General 
Gage is given in the Georgian JEra, voL ii. p. 61, \ 



(VoLviii., pp.512. 632.) 

The story referred to is certainly a rery curiouff 
one, and I should like to know whether it is ex- 
actly as it was told by Baxter, especially as there 
seems to be reason for believing that De Foe 
(whom on other grounds one would not trust ia 
such a matter) did not take it from the work 
which he quotes. Perhaps if you can find room 
for the statement, some correspondent would be 
so good as to state whether it has the sanction of 
Baxter : 

" Mr. Baxter, in his Historical Discourse of Appa» 
ritions, writes thus : * There is now in London an un- 
derstanding, sober, pious man, oft one of my hearers, 
who has an elder brother, a gentleman of considerable 
rank, who having formerly seemed pious, of late years 
does often fall into the sin of drunkenness ; he often 
lodges long together here in his brother's house, and 
whensoever he is drunk and has slept himself sobers 
something knocks at his bed*s hetid, as if one knocked, 
on a wainscot. When they remove his bed it folio vrs 
him. Besides other loud uoises on other parts where 
he is, that all the house hears, they have often watched 
him, and kept his hands lest he should do it himsell^ 
His brother has often told it me, and brought hb wife, 
a discreet wonuin, to attest it, who avers moreover, that 
as she watched him, she has seen his shoes under the 
bed taken up, and nothing visible to touch them. The j- 
brought the man himself to me, and when we asked 

L'lyiuz.fc^u uy 


Jan. 7. 1854.] 



film how he dare sin again afler such a warning, he 
had no excuse. But being persons of quality, for some 
special reason of worldly interest I must not name 
ium.' " — De Foe*s Life of Duncan Campbell, 2nd ed. 
p. 107. 

After this story, De Foe says : 

•* Another relation of this kind was sent to Dr. 
Beaumont (whom I myself personally knew, and 
which he has inserted in his account of genii, or fa- 
miliar spirits) in a letter by an ingenious and learned 
clergyman of Wiltshire," &c. 

But he does not say that the story which be has 
already quoted as from Baxter stands just as he 
has given it, and with a reference to Baxter, in 
Beaumont's Historical, Physiological, and Theo' 
logical Treatise of Spirits, p. 182. Of course one 
does not attach any weight to De Foe's saying 
that he knew Dr. Beaumont "personally," but 
does anybody know anything of him ? Nearly 
four years ago you inserted a somewhat similar 
inquiry about this Duncan Campbell, but I be- 
lieve it lias not jet been answered. 

S. E. Maitlanp. 


(Vol. viii., p. 535.) 

From a volume of Forms of Prayer in the 
library of Sir Robert Taylor's Institution, I send 
you the following list, as supplementary to Mr. 
Lathbury's. This volume forms part of a col- 
lection of books bequeathed to the University by 
the late Robert Finch« M. A., formerly of Baliol 
College : 

A Form of Prayer for a General Fast, &c. 4to. 
London. 1762. 

In both the Morning and Evening Services of 
this Form "A Prayer for the Reformed Churches " 
is included, which is omitted in all the subsequent 
Forms. This is a copy of it : 

" A Prayer for the Reformed Churches^ 

** O God, the Father of Mercies, we present our 
Supplications unto Thee, more especially on behalf of 
our Reformed Brethren, whom, blessed be Thy Name, 
Thou hast hitlierto wonderfully supported. Make 
them perfect, strengthen, 'stablish them : that they may 
stand fast in the Liberty wherewith Christ hath made 
them free, and adorn the Doctrine of God our Saviour 
in all things. Preserve the Tranquillity of those who 
at present enjoy it : look down with compassion upon 
such as are persecuted for Righteousness* sake, and 
plead Thy cause with the oppressors of Thy people. 
3Snlighten those who are in Darkness and Error ; and 
give them Repentance to the Acknowledgment of the 
Truth : that all the Ends of the World may remember 
themselves, and be turned unto the Lord ; and we all 
may become one Flock, under the great Shepherd and 
Bbhop of our Souls, Jesus Christ, our only Mediator 
and Advocate. Amen.'* 

Form, &c. Fast. 1776. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1778. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1780. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1781. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1782. 

A Prayer to be used on Litany Days before the 
Litany, and on other days immediately before the 
Prayer for all Conditions of Men, in all Cathedral, 
Collegiate, and Parochial Churches and Chapels, 
&c., during his Majesty*s present Indisposition.. 

The following MS. note is inserted in the hand- 
writing of Mr. Finch, father of the gentleman wha 
bequeathed the collection : 

**Mrs. Finch accompanied my Father (Rev. Dr. 
Finch, Rector of St. Michael*s, Cornhill) to the Ca- 
thedral, where he had a seat for himself and his lady 
assigned him under the Dome, as Treasurer to th& 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, the- 
original patrons of the Charity Schools. Mrs. F. was 
so fortunate as to obtain a seat in the choir, and saw 
the procession from the choir gate. Myself and 
Robert saw the cavalcade (which was extremely grand, 
and continued for the space of more than three hours,^. 
both Houses of Parliament with their attendants pre- 
ceding their Majesties) from Mrs. Townsend's house 
in Fleet Street**— April 23, 1789. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the King** 

Recovery. 1789. 
Form, &c Fast. 1793. 
Form, &c. Fast. 1795. 
Form, &c. Fast. 1796. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for many signal and 

important Victories. 1797. 
Form, &c. Fast. 1798. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Victory of 

the Nile, &c. 1798. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Victory over 

the French Fleet, Aug. 1. 1798. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the safe Delivery 

of H. R. H. the Princess of Wales, and the birth of 

a Princess. 1796. 
Form, &c. Fast 1799. 
Form, &c.' Fast 1800. 
Form, &c. Fast 1801. 

Form and Tlianksgiving for the Harvest. 1801. 
Form and Thanksgiving for putting an End to the 

War. 1802. 
Form, &c. Fast 1803. 
Form, &c. Fast 1804, 
Form, &c. Fast 1805. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for Lord Nelson's 

Victory. 1805. 
Form, &c. Fast 1806. 
Form, &c. Fast 1807. 
Form, &c. Fast 1808. 
Form, &c. Fast 1809. 
Form, &c. Fast 1810. 
Form, &c. Fast 1812. 

Form, &c. Thanksgiving for the Peace. 1814. 
Form, &c. Tlianksgiving for the Peace. 1816. 

Oxford. ^<^ J 

Digitized by VjOO^IC 



[No. 219. 



There was a Qaerj some time i^o upon this 
subject, but though it is one full of interest to all 
scholars^ I have not obserred any Notes worth 
mentioning in replj. The connexion between 
these two Tans ui^es has only of late occupied the 
attention of phik£)gers ; but the more donely they 
are compared together, the more important and 
Hr more striking do the reaembUncea appear; 
and the remark of Amdd with r^ard to Greek 
literature applies equally to Latins ** that we seem 
now to have reached that point in our knowledge 
of the langui^e, at which other languages of the 
same famUy must be more largely studied, before 
we can make a fr^ti st^ in Mlyance.** But this 
■tudy, as regards the compariscm of Celtic and 
Latin, is, in England at least, in a yery iniant 
stale. Froffessor Newnuyn, in his Begal Rome, 
has drawn atten^n to the sub^t; bat his in- 
duction does not appear sufficientiy extensire to 
warrant any dectsire conclusion respecting the 
position the Celtic holds as an element of the 
Latin. Fritchard's work upon the subject is sa- 
tisfactory as far as it goes, but both these authors 
have chiefly confined themselves to a tabular view 
of Celtic and Latin words ; but it is not merely 
this we want. What is required is a critical ex- 
amination into the comparative structure and 
formal development of the two languages, and this 
is a work still to be accomplished. The later 
numbers of Bopp*3 Comparative Grammar are, I 
believe^ devoted to Uus subject, but as they have 
not been translated, they must be confined to a 
Hmtted circle of English readen, and I have not 
yet seen any reprodaction of the views therein 
contained in the philological literature of England. 

As the first step to considerations of this kind 
must be made from a large induction of words, I 
think, with your correspondent, that the pages of 
" N. & Q." might be made useful in supplying 
" links- of connexion " to supply a groundwork for 
&ture ccnnparison. I shall conclude by sug- 
gesting one or two "links" that I do not re- 
member to have seen elsewhere. 

1. Is the root of/elix to be found in the Lrish 
/ail^ fate ; the contraction of the dipth thong at 
or e being analogous to that of amahnm into 

2. Is it not probable that Avenms, if not cor- 
rupted from Hopvos, is related to iffirin, the Irish 
inferi f This derivation is at any rate more pro- 
bable than that of Grotefend, who connects the 
word with 'Ax^fww. 

3. Were the OaUi, priests of Cybele, so called 
as being connected with fire-worship ? and is the 
name at all connected with the Celtic gal, a flame ? 
The word OaUus, a Gaul, is of course the same 
M l^e Irish gal, a stranger. "t. H. T. 

GBommcAi* cmtfonTT. 
(VoL viii., p. 468.) 

Mb. Inglvbt's question might easSy be the 
foundation of a geometrical paper; but as this 
would not be a desirable contribution, I will en- 
deavour to keep clear of technicalities, in pointing 
out how the process described may give something 
near to a circle, or may not. 

When a paper figure, bent over a sira^ht line 
in it, has the two parts perfectly fitting on each 
other, the figure is symmetrical about that straight 
line, which may be called an axis of symmetry. 
Thus every diameter of a circle is an axis of 
symmetry : every regular oval has two axes of 
symmetry at right angles to each other ; every 
regular polygon of an odd number of sides has an 
axis fining each comer to the middle of the 
opposite sides : every regular polygon of an even 
number of sides has axes joining opposite comers, 
and axes joining the midges of opposite sides^ 

When a piece of paper, of any form whatsoever, 
rectilinear or curvilinear, is doubled over any 
line in it, and when all the parts of either side 
which are not covered by the other are cut away, 
the unfolded figure will of course have the creased 
line for an axis of symmetry. If another line be 
now creased, and a fold made over it, and the 
process repeated, the second Hue becomes an axis 
of symmetry, and the first perhaps ceases to be 
one. If the process be then repeated on the first 
line, this last becomes an axis, and the otiier fpro- 
bably) ceases to be an axis. If this proeess can 
be indefinitely continued, the cuttings must be- 
come smaller and smaller, for the followii^ rea- 
son. Suppose, at the outset, the boundary point 
nearest to the intersection of the axes is distant 
from that intersection by, say four inches; it is 
dear that we cannot, after any number of cuttings, 
have a part of the boundary at less than four 
inches from the intersection. For there never is, 
after any cutting, any approach to the intersection 
except what there already was on the other side of 
the axis employed, before that cutting was made. 
If then the cuttings should go on for ever, or 
practically until the pieces to be cut off are too 
small, and if this take place all round, the figure 
last obtained will be a good representation of a 
circle of four inches radius. On the suppositions, 
we must be always cutting down, at all parts of 
the boundary ; but it has been shown that we can 
never come nearer than by four inches to the 
intersection of the axes. 

But it does not follow that the process wiU go 
on for ever. We may come at last to a state m 
which both the creases are axes of symmetry at 
once ; and then the process stops. If the paper 
had at first a curvilinear boundary, propen^y 
chosen, and if the axes were placed at the proper 
angle, it would happen that we should arrive at a 

L'lyiii/.fcju uy 


Jan. 7; 1854.] 



regular earred pol jeo*, lurrn^ llie two axes for 
axes of symmetry. The process would then stop. 

I will, however, suppose that the original bound* 
ary is everywhere rectilinear. It is clear then 
that, after every cutting, the boundary is still 
rectilinear. If the ci*eases be at right angles to 
one another, the ultimate figure may be an irre- 
gular polygon, having its four Quarters alike, such 
as may be inscribed in an oval ; or It may have 
kt sides so many and so small, that the ultimate 
iq>pearanoe shall be that of an oval. But if the 
creases be not at right angles, the ultimate figure 
is a perf^ly r^ular polygon, such as can be in- 
scribed in a circle ; or its sides may be so many 
and so small that the ultimate appearance shall be 
that of a circle. 

Suppose, as in Mb. Inglebt*8 question, that 
the creases are not at right angles to each other ; 
supposinff the eye and the scissors perfeci^ the 
reaults will be as follows : 

First, suppose the angle made by the creases to 
be what the mathematicians call imcammmuurMe 
with the wh<^ revolution ; that is, suppose that 
BO repetitioii of the angle will produce an exact 
number of revolutions. Then the cutting will go 
en for ever, and the result will perpetually 
approach a drde. It is easily shown that no 
fifiiire whatsoever, except a cirele, has two axes 
of symmetry which make an angle incommensur- 
able with the whole revolution. 

Secondly, suppose the angle of the creases com- 
m^isurable with the revolution. Find out the 
smallest number of times whidi the angle must 
be rqfieated to give an exaet number of rev(^u- 
tions. If that number be even, it is the number 
of Mdes of the ultimate polygon : if that number 
be odd, it is the half of the number <^ sides of the 
ultimate polygon. 

Thus, the psper on which I write, the whole 
sheet being taken, and the creases made by join- 
ing opposite comers, happens to give the angle of 
the creases very close to three-fourteenths of a 
revolution ; so that fourteen repetitions of the 
angle is the lowest number which give an exact 
number of revolutions ; and a very few cuttings 
lead to a r^^lar polygon of fourteen sides* But 
if four-seventeenths of a revolution had been 
taken for the angle of the creases, the ultimate 
polygon would have had thirty-four sides. In an 
angle taken at hazard the chances are that the 
number of ultimate sides will be large enough to 
present a circular appearance. 

Any reader who chooses may amuse himself by 
trying results from three or more axes, whether 
an passing through one point or not. 

A. Db Mobgak. 


(Vol. viii., p. 414.) 

Some of your eorrespondents, Sia James K Tivke^is 
especially, have been very learned on this subject, and 
all have thrown new light on what I consider a very 
curious inquiry. The following document I discovered 
some years ago in the Lord Steward's Offices. Your 
readers will see its value at once ; but it may not be 
amiss to observe, that the name in its present appliea-' 
tion had its origin in the number of masterless boys 
hanging about the verge of the Court and other puUio 
plans, palaces, coal-cellars, and palace stables; ready 
with links to light coaches and chairs, and conduct^ 
and rob people on foot, through the dark streets of 
I^ndon ; nay, to follow the Court in its progresses to , 
Winds<Nr and Newmarket, Pope's «• link-boys viae" 
are the black-guard boys of the following Froclam- ^ 
ation. pETKK Cunningham. , 

At the Board of Green Obth^ 

in Windaor Castle^ 

tbb 7th day of May» 168S. 

Whbbbas of late a sort of tiotous, idle, and 
masterless boyes and rogues, commonly called the 
Black-guard, with divers other lewd and loose ^ 
fellowes, vagalxmds, vagrants, and wandering men 
and women, do usually haunt and follow the Qcxat, ^ 
to the great dishonour of the same, and as Wee 
are informed have been the oceasioB o£ the late 
dismall fires that happened in the towns of Wind- 
sor and Newmarket, and have, and frequently do 
commit divers other misdemeanours and disorders 
in such places where they resort, to the prejudice 
of His Majesty*s subjects, for the prevention of 
which evilfs aiid misdemeanours hereafler. Wee do 
hereby strictly charge and command all those so 
called the Black-guard as aforesaid, with all other 
loose, idle, masterless men, boyes, rogues, and 
wanderers, who have intruded themselves into His 
Majesty*s Court or stables, that wiO^in the space 
of twenty- four houres next after the pjublishing 
of this order, they depart, ujxm pain of imprison-' 
ment, and such other punishments as by law are - 
to be inflicted on them. 

(Signed) Obmowd. 

H. Bui.KBi.Br. 

H. BxoimcKBB. 

Rich. Mason. 

Stb. Fox. 


(Vol. viii., pp. 815. 480.) 

The Calves' Head Club existed much earlier, 
than the time when their doings were commemo-' 
rated in the Weekly Oracle (Vol. viii., p. S15.) 
of February 1, 1735^ or depicted in the print of 
1734 (Vol. viii., p. 480.). There is a pamphlet, 

L'lyuiz.t^u uy 




[No. 219. 

the second edition of which was published in 
Boittli 4to., in 1703, entitled : 

*' The Secret History of the Calves' Head Club, 
or, the Republican Unmasqu*d, wherein is fully 
shewn the Religion of the Calves- Head Heroes in 
their Anniversary Thanksgiving Songs on the Thir- 
tieth of January, by their Anthems,** &c. &c. 

"We are told in the latter part of the long titles 
page that the work was published "to demonstrate 
the restless, implacable spirit of a certain party 
«till among us," and certainly the statements 
therein, and more than all the anthems at the end, 
do show the bitterest hatred — so bitter, so intense 
and malignant, that we feel on reading it that 
there must be some exaggeration. 

The author professes to have at first been of 
opinion " that the story was purely contrived on 
purpose to render the republicans more odious 
than they deserved." Whether he was convinced 
to the contrary by ocular demonstration he does 
not tell us, but gives us information he received 
from a gentleman — 

"Who, about eight years ago, went out of meer 
curiosity to see their Club, and has since furnish*d me 
with the following papers. I was informed that it was 
kept in no fix'd hou^s, but that they removed as they 
saw convenient ; that the place they met in when he 
was with 'em was in a blind ally, about Morefields ; 
that the company wholly consisted of Independents 
aad Anabaptists (I am glad for the honour of the 
Presbyterians to set down this remark); that the 
fanous Jerry White, formerly Chaplain to Oliver 
Croniwell, who no doubt on*t cama to sanctify with 
his pious exhortations the Ribbaldry of the Day, said 
Grace; that after the table-cloth was removed, the 
anniversary anthem, as they impiously called it, was 
«ung, and a calve*s skull fill'd with wine, or other 
liquor, and then a brimmer went about to the pious 
memory of those worthy patriots that kilVd the tyrant, 
and deliver*d their country from arbitrary sway ; and 
lastly, a collection made for the mercenary scrtbler, to 
which every man contributed according to his zeal for 
the cause, or the ability of his purse. 

" I have taken care to set down what the gentleman 
told me as faithfully as my memory wou'd give me 
leave; and I am persuaded that some persons that 
frequent the Black Boy in Newgate Street, as they 
knew the author of the following lines so they knew 
this account of the Calves' Head Club to be true." 

The anthems for the years 1693, 1694, 1695, 
1696, and 1697, are given; but they are too 
long and too stupidly blasphemous and indecent 
to q^uote here. They seem rather the satires of 
malignant cavaliers than the serious productions 
of any Puritan, however politically or theolo- 
gically heretical. Edwaed Peacock. 

Bottesford Moors. 


7%e Cahtype Procesi, — T have made my first essay 
in the calotype process, following Da. Diamord's 
directions given in «* N. & Q.,** and using Turner's 
paper, as recommended by him. My success has been 
quite as great as I could expect as a novice, and sa. 
tisiies me that any defects are due to my own want of 
•kill, and not to any fault in the directions given. I 
wish, however, to ask a question as to* iodizing the 
paper. Da. Diamond says, lay the paper on the solu- 
tion ; then immediatdy remove it, and lay on the dry 
side on blotting-paper, &c. Now I find, if I remore 
immediately, the whole sheet of paper curls up into t 
roll, and is quite unmanageable; I want to knoir, 
therefore, whether there is any objection to allowing 
the paper to remain on the iodizing solution until it 
lies flat on it, so that on removal it will not curl, and 
may be easily and conveniently laid on the dry side to 
pass the glass rod over it. As soon as the paper is 
floated on the solution (I speak of Turner's) it has t 
great tendency to curl, and takes some time before tlie 
expansion of both surfaces becoming equal allows it to 
lie quite flat on the liquid. May this operation be per<- 
formed by the glass rod, without floating at all? 

Photographers, like myself, at a distance from prse* 
tical instruction, are so much obliged for plain and 
simple directions such as those given by Da. Diamohd^ 
which are the result of experience, tliat I am sure be 
will not mind being troubled with a few inquiries rela- 
tive to them. C. E. F. 

Hockin*§' Short Sketch, — Mr. Hockin is so well known 
as a thoroughly practical chemist, that it may suffice 
to call attention to the fact of his having published a 
little brochure entitled How to obtain Positive and 
Negative Pictures oh Cailodionized G/asi, and copy the 
latUr upon Paper. A Short Sketch adapted for the Tyro 
in Photoffraphy, As the question of the alkaUnity of 
the nitrate bath is one which has lately been discussed, 
we will give, as a specimen of Mr. Hockin*s book, a 
quotation, showing his opinion upon that question : 

" The sensitizing agent, nitrate of silver in crystals, 
not the ordinary fused in sticks, is nearly always con- 
fessedly adulterated ; it is thus employed : 

** The silver or nitrate bath, — Nitrate of silver five 
drachms, distilled water ten ounces ; dissolve and add 
iodized collodion two drachms. 

" Shake these well together, allow them to macerate 
twelve hours, and filter through paper. Before adding 
the nitric acid, test the liquid with a piece of blue 
litmus paper; if it remain blue after being immersed 
one minute, add one drop of dilute nitric acid *, and 
test again for a minute ; and so on, until a claret red is 
indicated on the paper. It is necessary to test the 
bath in a similar manner, frequently adding half a 
drop to a- drop of dilute acid when required. This 
precaution will prevent the fogging due to alkaUnity 
of the bath, so formidable an obstacle to young hands." 

Photographic Society's Exhibition. — The Photo- 
graphic Society opened their first Exhibition of Pho- 

♦ »* Dilute nitric acid.— Water fifky parts, nitric acid 
one part.** 

Digitized by 


Jan. 7. 1854.] 



tographs and Daguerreotypes at the Gallery of the 
Society of British Artists, in Suffolk Street, with a 
aoirSe on Tuesday evening last. Notwithstanding the 
inclemency of the weather, the rooms were crowded 
not only by members of the Society, but by many of 
the most distinguished literary and scientific men of 
the metropolis. The Queen and Prince Albert had, 
in the course of the morning, spent three hours in an 
examination of the collection ; and the opinion they 
expressed, that the exhibition was one of great interest 
and promise, from the evidence it afforded of the ex- 
traordinary advance made by the art during the past 
year, and the encouragement it held out to the belief 
that far ! greater excellence might therefore still be 
looked for in it, was a very just one, and embodied that 
given afterwards by the most competent authorities. 
We have not room this week to enter into any details, 
but can confidently recommend our readers to pay an 
early visit to Suffolk Street. 

*^Firm was their faith,'" ^c, (Vol. viii., p. 564.). 
— These lines are to be found in a poem called 
**MorwennaB Statio, hodie Morwenstow," pub- 
lished by Masters in 1846, with the title o^ Echoes 
from Old ComivaU, and written by the Vicar of 
Morwenstow. I agree with D. M. in the judg- 
ment he has announced as to their merits ; but 
hitherto they have been but little appreciated by 
the public. A time will come, however, wh^ 
• these and other compositions of the author will 
be better known and more duly valued by the 
English mind. Saxa. 

These lines were written on " the Minster of 
Morwenna," May, 1840, and appeared in the 
British Magazine under the anonymous name 
Procvl, Of the eight stanzas of which the poem 
consists, P. M. has quoted the second. The 
cecond line should be read " wise of heart,** and 
the third ^^'firrn and trusting hands." With your 
correspondent, I hope the author's name may be 
discovered. F. R. R. 

VeUunt'clettning (Vol. viii., p. 340.). — In the 
Polytechnic Institution there are specimens of old 
deeds, &c., on vellum and paper, beautifully 
cleaned and restored by Mr. George Clifford, 
5. Inner Temple Lane, Temple, London. 

J. WK. 


Wooden Tombs (Vol. viii., p. 255.), — In the 
church at Brading, Isle of Wight — 

** There are some old tombs in the communion place, 
and in Sir William Oglander*s chapel, or family burial- 
place^ which is separated from the rest of the church 
by an oak screen. The most ancient legible date of 
these monuments is 1567. Two of them have full- 
length figures in armour of solid elm wood, originally 

painted in their proper colours, and gilt, but now dis- 
figured by coats of dirty white."— Barber's Pictureiqme 
Guide to the Isle of Wight, 1850, pp. 28, 29. 

J. M»K* 


Solar Eclipse in the Year 1263 (Vol. viii., 
p. 441.). — In the Transactions of the Antiquarian 
Society of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 850., there are 
"Observations on the Norwegian Expedition 
against Scotland in the year 1263," by John 
Dillon, Esq.; and at pp. 363-4 , when speaking of 
the annular eclipse, he says : 

** Tlie eclipse above mentioned is described to have 
occurred between these two dates [29th July and 9th 
August]. Tliis being pointed out to Dr. Brewster, 
he had the curiosity to calculate the eclipse, when he 
found that there was an eclipse of the sun on 5th 
August, 1263, and which was annular at Ronaldsvo, 
in Orkney, and the middle of it was twenty-four 
minutes past one." 

These "Observations'* contain much curious 
information; but are deformed by the author 
attempting to wrest the text of the Norwegian 
writer (at p. 358. and in note I.) to suit an absurd 
crotchet of his own. Having seen that essay in 
MS., I pointed out those errors ; but instead of 
attending to my observations, he would not read 
them, and got into a passion against the friend 
who showed the MS. to me. J» M*K. 


Lines on Woman (Vol. viii., pp. 292. 350. &c.).— 
The lines on Woman are, I presume, an altered 
version of those of Barret (Mrs. Barrett Brown- 
ing ?) ; they are the finale of a short poem oa 
Woman ; the correct version is the following : 
«• Peruse the sacred volume. Him who died 
Her kiss betray'd not, nor her tongue denied"; 
While even the Apostle left Him to His doom. 
She linger'd round His cross and watch'd His tomb." 
I would copy the whole poem, but fear you 
would think it too long for insertion. Ma. L. 

[Our correspondent furnishes an addition to our 
list of parallel passages. Tlie lines quoted by W. V. 
and those now given by our present correspondent can 
never be different readings of the same poem. Besides, 
it has been already shown that the lines asked for are 
from the poem entitled Woman, by Eaton Stannard 
Barrett (see antd, pp. 350. 423.).] 

Satin (Vol. viL, p. 551.). — In a note just re- 
ceived by me from Canton, an American friend of 
mine remarks as follows : 

" When you write again to *N. & Q.' you can 
say that the word satin (Vol. vii., p. 551.), like the 
article itself, is of Chinese origin, and that other 
foreign languages, in endeavouring like the En- 
glish to imitate the Chinese sZ'tUny have approxi- 

L'lyiiiz.fc^u uy 




[No. 219. 

nUed dotdj to it, and to etch otber. Of ^it 
tke answers to tke Qaerj given io tbej^moe re- 
ferred to are a sofficient proof; Fr. s a rfn i, 
W, md€m, &c. &c.- 

I suspect that he is right, and that Ogilvie and 
Webster, whom jou quote, hare not got to the 
bottom of the word. I mar add that the notion 
of mj Canton friend receires approral from a 
Clunese scholar to whom I have shown the aboTe 
extract. W. T. M. 

. Hong Kong. 

" Quidfacies;' ^e, (Vol. viii., p.5S9.).— 
**B»airs, N. Uareduit Marquit de, a Frenchman 
well known for bis ready wit and great faeetioaaneaK. 
He wrote two plays of eoosiderable merit. Leg Ri- 
prntathm and Le SSdmdemr. He died at Spa, 1 789, 
aged 42. He ia author of the dtstieb on courtesans : 

' Quid fades, fiicies Veneris cum veneris ante ? 
Ne sedeas ! sed eas, ne pereas per eas.* * 

— Lempri^'s Utuvertal Biography, abridged from the 
larger work, London, 1808. 

€. Forbes. 

SotadeM (VoL riiL, p. 520.). — Yonr correspon- 
dent Chablbs Rbbo says that Sotades was a 
Roman poet 250 bx. ; and that to him we owe die 
line, ^ Roma tibisabito,**&c. Sotades was a native 
of <Maroneia in Thrace, or, according to others, of 
Crete; and flourbhed at Alexandria b.g. 280 
(Smith's Dictionary of Biography, Clinton, F. H., 
voL iii. p. 888.). We have a few fragments of bis 
poems, bttt none of them are palindromicaL The 
authority for his having writt^ i^t Ut I suimose, 
lCartial,£pig.ii.86. 2.: 

* Nee retro kgo Sotaden einvdam.** 

The Third Part of ^ChriOahd'' (VoL vHi., 
pp. 11. 111.). — Has the Irish Quarterly Review 
any other reason for ascribing this poem to Maginn 
than the common belief which makes him the sole 
and original Morgan Odoherty ? If not, its evi- 
dence is of little value, as, exciunve of some pieces 
under that name which have been avowed bj 
other vrriters, many of the Odoherty papers con- 
tain palpable internal evidence g£ having been 
written bv a Scotchman, or at least one v^y fa- 
miliar with Scotland, which at that time he was 
not ; even the letter accompanying the third part 
of Christabel is dated from Glasgow, and though 
this would in itself prove nothing, the circum- 
stances above mentbned, as well as Dr. Moir*s 
evidence as to the time when Maginn^s contribu- 
tions to Blaehwood commenced, seems sUt>ngly 
presumptive against his claim. Some of tbe 
earliest and most distinguished writers in Blach' 
wood are still alive, and could, no doubt, clear up 
this point at once, if so inctined. J. S. Wabsbm. 

I AltMamMtofM4iioriiy(yiA.ynSL^\(^\9^.^S^y. 
— In my last communication upon this subject I 
produced undeniafole authority to prove that the 
law did not r^ard the fractioa of a daj ; tbia, I 
diink, A. E. B. will admit. The qnei^ioa is, now, 
does the day on which a man attains his nia|ority 
commence at nx o*clodc ▲.!!., or at midnight? 
We must remember that we are dealing with a 

Question of English law ; and therefore the evi- 
ence of an English decision will, I submit, be 
stronger proof of the latter mode of reckoning than 
the only pondve proof with which A. £. B. has 
defended Ben Jonson's use of the former, vis. 

In a case tried in Michaelmas Term, 17<K 
' Chief Justice Holt said: 

**■ It has been adjudged that if one be bom the 1st of 
February at eleven at oigbt, and the last of January in 
the twenty-first year, of his age at one o*clock in the 
morning, be makes bis will of lands and dies, it is a 
good wUl, fur he was then of age.** — Ailkeki, 44^; 
Raymond, 4S0. 1096 ; 1 Siderfin, 162. 

In this case, therefore, the testator was ac- 
counted of age forty-six hours before the oomt 
pletioa of his twenty-first year. JN'ow, the law 
not regarding the fraction of a daj, the above 
case, I submit, clearly proves diat the daj, as 
r^ards the attainment of majority, began at mid- 

• Lord HcHfax and Mrs. C, Barton (V<4- vfii., 
pp. 429. 543.). — In answer to J. W. J.'s Qaer]^, I 
beg to state that. I have in my possession a codicil 
of Mrs. Conduit's will in her own hand, dated 
26th of January, 1737. This document refers to 
some theological tracts by Sir Isaac Newton« ia 
his handwriting, which I have. On referring to 
the pedigree of the Barton family, I find that 
C<Aonel Bobert Barton married Catherine Green- 
wood, whose father lived at Kotterdam* nnd was 
ancestor of Messrs. Greenwood, army agents. His 
issue were Major Newton Barton, who maxried 
Elizabeth Ekins, Mrs. Burr, and Catherine Robert 
Barton. I find no mention of Colonel Noel 
Barton. The family of Eldns had been previomsly 
connected with that of Barton, Alexander £kiiuv 
Hector of Barton Segrave, having married Jaoe 
Barton of Brigstock, The writer of this note 
will be obliged if J. W. J., or anjr corre^>ondent 
of *' N. & QV will inform hiiii if anything is 
known respecting an ivory bust of Sir Isaac 
Newton, executed by Marchand or Marcbant, 
which is siud to have been an excellent likeness. 

[The Wory bust referred to by our earreapondent 
is, we believe, in the British Mtsseum.] 

ThM fifOi Lord Byron (Vol. viii^ p. 2.). —I 
cannot but think that Ma. Haax.BiNB«a fla ea nory 
has deceived him as to the ** wicked lord ** haTJag 

L'lyiiiz.t^u uy 


Jam. 7. 1854.] 



settled ^is estates upon the marriage of bis soa ; 
lum is this to be reconciled with the often pub- 
lished statement, that the marriage of hb son Mrith 
liis cousin Juliana, daughter of the admiral, aud 
aunt of the late and present lords, was made not 
only without the consent, but in spite of the oppo- 
sition, of the old lord, and that he never forgave 
liis son in consequence ? J. S. Wabden. 

Burton FamUy (Vol. it-, pp. 22, 124.).— In 
ooaneKUMi with a Query whidi was kindly noticed 
by Mr. Algob of Sheffidd, who did not however 
communicate anything new to me, I would ask 
^fho was Samuel Burton, Esq^ formerly Sheriff of 
Derbyshire ; whose death at Sevenoaks, in Octobw, 
1750, 1 find recorded in the Obituary of the Oen^ 
demon's Magazine for that year ? I am also de- 
sirous to ascertun who was Sir Francis Cavendish 
Burton of St. Helens, whose daughter and heiress, 
Martha, married Richard Sikes, Esq., ancestor of 
the Sikes's of the Chauntry House near Newark. 
<She died since 1696. Both Samuel Burton and 
Mrs. Sikes were related to the Burtons of Kilburn, 
in the parish of Horsley, near Derby, to whom my 
ibrmer Query referred. £. H. A. 

Provost Hodgson's Translation of the Att/s of 
Catullus (Vol. viii., p. 563.). — In answer to Mb. 
CtahtillonV inquiry for the above translation, I 
heg to state that it will be found appended to an 
octavo edition of Hodgson's poem of Lacbf Jane 

In the same volume will be found, I believe 
^for I have not the work before me), some of the 
modem Latin poetry respecting which Baixio- 
^Nsis , inquires. The justly admired translation 
of Edwin and Angelina, to which the latter refers, 
•was by Hodgson*s too early lost friend Lloyd. 
!nie splendid penlameler is slightly misquoted 
hj BAiiioiiEKSia. It is not — 

** Poscimus in territ pauca, nee ilb diii.** 

*^ Poscimus m mid/* &e. 

Tbomas Ro6s«ll Potteb. 
Wymeswold, Lougfaborougfi. 

Wykotes' Brass (VoL viii., p. 494.).— I should 
iiardl;^ have supposed that any difficulty could 
exist in explaining the inscription : 
«In • on • » • ail** 
To me it appears sdf-evident that it must be — 
*• In one (God) is my all." 

H. C. C. 

JBbbyj Family of; their Portraits, 4rc. (Vol. viii., 
p. 244.). — I would refer J. B. Whitbobnb to 
Ulu Antiquities of Berkshire (so miscalled), by 
Silas Ashmole ; where, in treating of Bisham, that 
learned antiquary has given the inscriptions to 
Ahe Hoby family as existing and legible in bis time. 
It does not appear that Sir Philip Hoby, or 

Hobble, Knight, was ever of the Privy Council; 
but, in 1539, one of the Gentlemen of the Privy 
Chamber to Kii^ Henry VHL (which monarch 
eranted to him in 1546-7 the manor of Wil* 
U)ughby in Edmonton, oo. Middlesex), Sir Thomas 
Hoby, the brother, and successor in the estates of 
Sir Philip, was, in 1566, ambassador to France; 
and died at Paris July 13 in that same year (not 
1596), aged thirty-six. The coat of the Hobj^s of 
Bi^iham, as correctly given, is "Argent, within a 
border engrailed sable, three spindles, threaded vol 
fesse, gules." A grant or confirmation of this coat 
was made by Sir Edward Bysshe, Clarenceux, to 
Peregrine Hoby of Bisham, Berks, natural son of 
Sir Edward Hoby, Nov. 17, 1664. The Bisham 
family bore no crest nor motto. H. C. C 

The Keate Family (Vol. viii., pp. 293. 525.) — 
Should Ihe Query of G. B. B. not be sufficiently 
answered by the extract from Mr. Burke's Extiwt 
and Dormant Baronetcies of England relating to 
the Keate family, as I have a full pedigree of diat 
surname, I may perhaps be able, on application, 
to satisfy him with some genealogical particulars 
which are not noticed in Mr. Burke's work. 

H. C. C. 

Sir ChaHei Cotterdl (Vol, viii., p. 564.). — Sir 
Charles Cotterell, the translator of Cassandra, 
died in 1687. <See Fuller's Worthies, by Nuttall, 
vol. ii. p. 309.) *AXxthi 


Hue's Travels (Vol. viii., p. 516.).— Not having 
seen the Gardener's Chronicle, in which C. W. B: 
says the travels of Messrs. Hue and Gabet-in 
Thibet, Tartary, &c. are said to be a pure fabri- 
cation, concocted by some Parisian Utteratevr^ 1 
cannot know what degree of credit, if any, is to 
be given to such a statement, ^ All I wish to com- 
municate at present for the information of your 
Querist C. W. B. is this, that I have read an 
account and abstract of Messrs. Hue and Gabefa 
IVavels in one of tiie ablest and best conducted 
French reviews, La Revue des Deux Mondes ; m 
which not the least suspicion of fabrication is 
hinted, or the sli^test doubt expressed as to the 
genuineness of these Travels, Mr. Princep, also^ 
in his work on Thibet, Tartary, &c. quotes largely 
from Hue's Travels, ami avails himself exten- 
sively <^ the information contained in them with 
reference to Buddhism, &c. 

Should the writer in the Gardener's ChronicU 
have it in his power to prove the Travels to be a 
fabrication, he will confer a benefit on the world 
of letters by unmasking the fabricator. J- M. 


Picture at Hamptm Court Palace (Vol. viii., 
p. 538,). — In reply to 4».'b question when the 
review of the 10th Light Dragoons by King 

L^iyiuit^u uy 




|;No. 219. 

George III., after the Prince of Wales assumed 
the command of that regiment, I beg to state that 
the Prince entered the army as brevet-colonel, 
Nov. 19, 1782; that the regiment received the 
title of " The Prince of Wales's own Regiment of 
Light Dragoons" on Michaelmas Day, 1783 : that 
the regiment was stationed in the south of England 
and in the vicinity of London for many years, 
from 1790 to 1803 inclusive; and that King 
Oeorge III. repeatedly reviewed it, accompanied 
"by the queen and the royal family. That the 
ftince of Wales was appointed Colonel-command- 
ant of the corps in 1793, and succeeded Sir W. 
A. Pitt as colonel of it in July 18, 1796. That 
the regiment was reviewed on Hounslow Heath 
by the King in August, 1799 ; and the Prince of 
Wales (who commanded it in person) received 
Lis Majesty's orders to convey his ^lajesty's ap- 
probation of its excellent appearance and per- 
formance. Perhaps the picture by Sir William 
Beechey was painted in 1799, and not 1798. I 
did not find the catalogue at Hampton Court. free 
from errors, when I last visited the palace] in 
October, 1852. M. A. 

Pembroke College, Oxon. 

John Waugh (Vol, viii., pp. 271. 40a 525.). — 
Does Kableolemsis know whether John Waugh, 
son of AVaugh, Bishop of Carlisle, was married, 
and to whom? 

Farther information of the above family would 
be most acceptable, and thankfully acknowledged, 
hj George Waugh, of the family of the Waughs 
of Oulton and Lofthouse, Yorkshire. 


Daughters taking their Mother i Names (Vol.viii., 
p. 586.). — When BuRiENsis asks for instances of 
this, and mentions " Alicia, daughter of Ada," as 
an example, is he not mistaking, or following some 
one else who has mistaken, the gender of the 
parent's name ? Alicia fil, Adce would be ren- 
dered "Alice Fitz-Adam," unless there be any- 
thing in the context to determine the gender 
otherwise. J. Sansom. 

» «J Service is no Inheritance"* (Vol. viii., p. 586.).— 
This proverbial saying has evidently arisen from 
the old manorial right, under which the lord of 
the manor claimed suit and service and fealty 
l)efore admitting the heir to his inheritance, or 
the purchaser to his purchase. On which occasion, 
the party admitted to the estate, whether pur- 
chaser or heir, "fecit fidelitatem suam et solvit 
relevium;" the relief being generally a year's 
rent or service. Akow. 

^iV Christopher Wren and the young Carver 
(Vol. viii., p. 340.).— If your correspondent A. H. 
has not already appropriated the anecdote here 
alluded to, I think 1 can confidently refer him to 

any biographical notice of Grindling Gibbons — to 
whom the story of the " Sow and Pigs" relates. 
Gibbons was recommended to Sir Christopher by 
Evelyn, I think ; but not having " made a note of 
it," I am not sure that it is to be found in his 
Diary,* If there be any monograph Life of 
Gibbons, it can scarcely fail to be found there. 

M. (2) 

Souvaroff*s Despatch (Vol. viii., p. 490.).— 
Souvaroff^ doggerel despatch from Ismail, im- 
mortalised by iJyron, is, as usual, misspelt and 
mistranslated. Allow me to furnish you with what 
I have never yet seen m English, a correct version 
of it: 

** Slava Bogou, slava Vam ; 
Kr^post vziala, ee ya tarn.** 

** Glory to God, glory to You, 
The fortress is taken, and I am there.** 

Dmitri Andreef. 

Detached Church Towers (Vol. viii., p. 63.). — 
In the lists I have seen no mention is made pf the 
fine tower of West Walton Church, which stands 
at a distance of nearly twenty yards from the 
body of the church. W. B. D. 


Queen Anne's Motto (Vol. viii., p. 174.). — The 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania is in possession 
of an English coat of arms, painted on wood in 
the time of Queen Anne, having " Anna R." at 
the top, and the motto Semper eadem on the scroll 
below. It probably was in one of the Philadelphia 
court-rooms, and was taken down at the Revo- 
lution. Umbda. 


Laujyers" Bags (Vol. vii. passim), — The 
communication of Mr. Eerslet, in p. 557., al- 
though it does not support the inference which 
Coii. Landman draws, that the colour of lawyers* 
bags was changed in consequence of the unpopu- 
larity which it acquired at the trial of Queen 
Caroline, seems to show that green was at one 
time the colour of those pro^ssional pouches. 
The question still remains, when and on what 
occasion it was discontinued ; and when the pur* 
pie, and when the crimson, were introduced ? 

When I entered the profession (about fifty 
years ago), no junior barrister presumed to carry 
a bag in the Court of Chancery, unless one had 
been presented to him by a king's counsel ; who, 
when a junior was advancing in practice, took an 
opportunity of complimenting him on his increase 
of business, and giving him his own bag to^ carry 
home his papers. It was then a distinction to 
carry a bag, and a proof that a junior was rising 

[* See £velyn*s Diary, vol. ii. pp. 53, 54., edition 
1850.— Ed.] ^ I 

Digitized by VjOOQIC. 

Jak. 7. 1854.] 



in his profession. I do not know wbethcr the 
same custom prevailed in the other courts. 


In this city (Philadelphia) lawyers formerly 
carried green bags. The custom has declined of 
late years among the members of the legal pro- 
fession, and it has been taken up by journeymen 
boot and shoe makers, who thus carry their work 
to and from the workshop. A green bag is now 
the badge of a cordwainer in this city. CRS. 


Bust of Luther (Vol. viii., p. 335.); — Ma. J. G. 
Fitch asks for information respecting a bust of 
Luther, with an inscription, on the wall of a house, 
in the Dom Platz at Frankfort on the Maine. I 
have learned, through a German acquaintance, 
who has resided the greater part of his life in that 
city, that the effigy was erected to commemorate 
the event of Luther's having, during a short stay 
in Frankfort, preached near that spot ; and that 
the words surrounding the bust were his text on 
the occasion. He adds that Luther at no period 
of his life "lived for some years" at Frankfort, as 
stated by Mb. Fitch. Alfbed Smith. 

Grammar in relation to Logic (Vol. viii., 
pp. 514. 629.). — H. C. K.*8 remarks are of course 
indisputable. But it is a mistake to suppose that 
they answer my Query. In . fact, had your cor- 
respondent taken the trouble to consider the 
meaning of my Query, he could not have failed to 
perceive that the explanation I there cave of the 
function of the conjunction in logic, is the same 
as his. My Query had sole reference to grammar. 
I would also respectfully suggest that anonymous 
correspondents should not impute "superficial 
views," or any other disagreeable thing, to those 
who stand confessed, without abandoning the 
pseudonym. C. Mansfield Imqlebt. 



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TUS, materials, and PURE CHE- • 


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Instructiona given in every branch of the Art. 
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GEORGE KNIGHT ft SONS, Foster Laaev 




[No. 219. 






PRAY BR. With Firtr TlliMtr»tloii«. from 
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CHRIST. Four Books. By THOMAS k 
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Learn to Die f Sutton) - - - 

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Lifo of Ambrose Bonwteke 

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Learn to Live (Sutton) - - • 

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Holy living ' Bp. Taylor) 

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land) - - . - - 

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Coofossionsof St. Augustine 

Exposi ionofthe(}atechisra(NicholM») 

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Trinted by Thomas CtJtaa Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street. in the Parbh of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, la thn PteM ef 
it. Bride, In the City of London t and published by Owmmb Bau. of No. 188. Fleet Street. In the Parieh of St. Dnnstnn la th» Wwt, la Ihi 
Gltjr ai London. PnHkihar, at No. 186. rUet Street aforesaid.. Saturday, January 7. Itti. u^mu^^nuy ^^^i^^w ~$^i^^ 




^ VHk^n fonndf make a note of^" — Caftain Cuttlk. 

No. 220.] 

Saturday, January 14. 1854. 

€ Price Fourpence. 

I Stamped Edition, 5&. 


SToTSs:-. Page 

Oriffln'i "Fidessa," and Shakspeare*! 

"Pastionate Pilgrim" - - - 17 

Caps at Cambridge - - - - S7 

Xelten of Eminent Literary Men, bjr 

Sir Henry Ellii - - - - 28 

Ifewspaper Folk Lore • - - S9 

Sing James's Irish Army List of 1689-90, 

by John D' Alton- - - • ao 

IfiNOR NoTss :— Authon and Publisher* 
—Inscriptions on old Pulpits — Beoent 
Curiosities of Literature — Assuming 
Names— False Dates in Water-marlu 
Of Papers 81 

<iOBKIBS: — 

Captain Farre - - - - » 

Marriage Ceremony in the Fourteenth 

Century - - - - - 38 

Jf anuscript Catena - • - - 33 

IfiNOK QuBRiKs: — Jews and Egyptians 
_ Skin-flint - Garlic Sunday— Custom 
of the Corporation of London — Gf ne- 
ral Stokes— Rev. Philip Morant— The 
Position of Suffragan Bishops in Con- 
Tocation — Cambridge Mathematical 

8uestions — Crabbe AiSS Tilly, an 
fficer of the Cuurts at Westminster- 
Mr. Oye — Three Fleurs-de-Lys — The 
Commons of Ireland t>revious to the 
Union in 1801 — " All Holyday at Peck- 
ham"— Arthur de Vere— Master of 
the Nails— Nattochiis and Calchanti— 
•»»Nedo'theTodding" - - - 84 

3iit*OK QuBKiBS wrrii Answers : — 
Bridget Cromwell and Fleetwood — 
Cnlet 86 

SsPLIRS : — 

The Asteroids or recently discorered 

Lesser Planets, br the Rev. H. Walter 36 
Xmblematic Meanings of Precious Stoi es 

— Planets of the Months symbolised by 
Precious Stones, by W.Pinkerton - 87 

Non-recurring Diseases - - - 38 

Milton's Widow, by J. F. Marsh - - 88 

Table-turning, by J. Macray - - 89 

Celtic Etymology - - - - 40 

Thotooraphtc Corrbspondbncb : — The 
Calotype Process : curling up of Paper 
—Turner's Paper —A Practical Photo- 
graphic Query - - - - 40 

SBPZ.IBS TO MfNOR QoBRiBs !- ^'Servlce 
is no Inheritance"— Francis Browne 

— Catholic Bible Sixsiety-I^egal Cus- 
toms — Silo — Laurie on Finance — 
Darid's Mother — Aniurram— Passage 
In Sophocles— B.L.Bf.—" The For- 
lorn Hope" — Two Brothers of the 
same Christian Name — Passage in 
"Watsou- Derivation of " Mammet "— 
Ampers and— Misapplication of Terms 

— Belle Sauvage — Arms of Geneva — 
" Arabian NighU' Entertainments " — 
IRiehard I. — Lord Clarendon and the 
Tubwoman — Oaths — Double Chris- 
tian Names— Chip in Porridge— Cla- 
xence Dukedom— Prospectuses, &c. - 41 


Notes on Books^c. - - - 45 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 46 
Notices to Correspondents - -46 

Vol. IX.— No. 220. 

PRBsn»BXT.— His Grace the Duke of Norfolk. 
Gentlemen desiring to Join the Society, are 
informed that Copies of the Rules, List of 
Members (upwards of SiM), and Forms of Appli- 
cation for Admission, may be obtained from 
the Honorary Secretary. 

£ $, 
Annual Subscription - * - 10 
Composition for Life - • -50 
On and after January 1, 1854, an entrance fee 
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month will be exempt. 

hers who Join the Society daring the present 


Honorary Secretary. 
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Suffolk Street. Pall Mall, is now open { in the 
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TTJRE8, by the most celebrated French, 
Italian, and English Photographers, embrac- 
ing Views of the principal Countries and Cities 
of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A 
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOi' S Patent 
Process, One Guinea ; Three extra Copies for 





JfathematicM and Ifaturetl Phi... 
Thos. A. Hirst, of the Universities 
and Berlin. 


ChemtMtry.-.Dr. H. Debus, late Assistant in 
the Laboratory of Professor Bunsen, and Che- 
mical Lecturer in the University of Marburg. 

CloMHct and Hi$tory. ^Mr. John S. Mum- 
mery, L.C. P. 

Modem Languagetand Foreign Literature.— 
Mr. John Haas, from M. de Fellenbetg's In- 
Btttution, Hofwyl, Switzerland. 

Cfeodesu. —Mr. Richard P. Wright. 

Painting and Drawing, —ULt. Richard P. 

BnglUh^ and Junior Mathematiea. — Tit- 
derick IlifT, M. A., late Scholar of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and M.C.P. 

2>tMo.— Mr. William Singleton. 
JfiMic-Mr. William Cornwall. 
For Boyi nnder If years of age 402. per ann. 
„ from If to 16 - • 50 „ 
„ above 16 - • - 60 „ 
For frirther information see Prospectus, to 
be had of the Principal. 

The First Seariou of 1854 commences on the 
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Now ready, in Six Volumes, fop. 8vo., price 5s. 

SPEARE. In which nothing is added 
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ART. Second Edition, corrected ; with a Sup- 
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WHITTAKER ft CO., Ave-Maria Lane. 

Jnit published, to be continued Monthly. 
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LANY. A Collection of Interestina: 
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Lith(M(Taph Fac-simile. Selected from the 
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Public and Private. 

CHER, Lithographers and General Printers^ 
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** Pluck a Flower." 

A New Edition of the above excellent and 

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type, crown 8vo., and may be obtained of any 

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MILNEB ft SOWERBY, Halifkz. 

SANITY.— A Series of Photographic 
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occasional Parts, small quarto. 

S. mOHLEY, 8S. FlMt Sireet.:x t ^ 



[No. 220. 




TTie want of ftRXKHJ Sprtfif of GTMk out] Latin 
OjUMEia^ EUitpd tu the U*e of SchtwlJ^ wttJl the 
EnjifllJiK mtkle of PunctniLtion, and udler 
£af livk Eiliti>tili3i), Khb LirnE ]wen felt ; tinl it 
ti ■ matt^t yf Wiiiader tliat iiur JSftiooU •liould 
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To ipcet tliji WAQt, the*' OXVOHD Pi>CKET 
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Ttit l^iixiH ROW eouxlitj of Hboal Thirty 

_ The advAiitiLiEPt of th^a Seriet af C]ws*i& are, 
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vherc necxoary, SUMMAHlKS, CHRUXO- 
Li|G ICAL 'tA BT ,i: 3 . B [t.>U RA PH IC AL 
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L>'iyiLiz.t;u uy 


Jan. 14. 1854.] 





I am the fortunate possessor of a thin volume, 
entitled Fidessa, a CoUecHon of Sonnets^ by 
B. Griffin, reprinted 1811, from the edition of 
1596, at the Chiswick Press ; I presume, by the 
monogram at the end, by Mr. S. W. Singer. 

The title of the original edition is FidessOy more 
Chaste then Kinde, by B. Griffin, Gent, at London, 
printed by the Widdow Orwin, for Matthew 
Lownes, 1596. 

The advertisement prefixed by Mr. Singer to 
the reprint states, that the original is one of the 
rarest of those that appeared at the period in which 
it is dated ; that he is not aware of the existence 
of more than two copies, from one of which the 
reprint is taken, and that the other was in the 
curious collection of the late Mr. Malone. 

Besides the rarity of Fidessoy Mr. Singer states 
that it claims some notice from the curious reader 
on account of a very striking resemblance between 
Griffin's third sonnet, and one of Shakipeare's, in 
his 'Passionate Pilgrim (Sonnet ix.). 

I will transcribe both sonnets, taking Griffin's 
first, as it bears the earliest date. 
** Venus, and yong Adonis sitting bj her. 

Under a myrtle shade began to woo him : 
; She told the yong-ling how god Mars did trie her, 
And as he fell to her, so fell she to him. 

* Even thus,* quoth she, * the wanton god embrac'd 

And then she clasp*d Adonis in her armes. 
« Even thus,* quoth she, « the warlike god unlac*d 
As if the boy should use like loving charms. 
But he, a wayward boy, refusde her oflfer. 

And ran away, the beau tious Queene neglecting: 
Showing both folly to abuse her proffer, 
And all his sex of cowardise detecting. 
Oh 1 that I had my mistris at that bay. 
To kisse and clippe me till I ranne away ! ** 

Sonnet ui., from Ftdeua. 
** Fair ♦ Venus, with Adonis sitting by her. 
Under a myrtle shade, began to woo him ; 
She told the youngling how god Mars did try her, 
A nd as he fell to her, she fell to him. 

* Even thus,* quoth she, * the warlike god embrac'd 

And then she clipp*d Adonis in her arms : 

* Even thus,* quoth she, ' the warlike god unkie'd 

As if the boy should use like loving charms : 

* The early copies read ** Venus, with Adonis sitting 
by her ; ** the defective word was added at Dr. Farmer's 
suggestion. Had he seen a copy of Fidessa, the true 
reading might perhaps have been restored. (Not« by 
Mr. Singer.) 

* Even thus,* quoth she, ' he seised on my lips,* 
And with her lips on his did act the seizure ; 

And as she fetched breatli, away he skips. 

And would not take her meaning nor her pleasure. 

Ah ! that I had my lady at this bay. 

To kiss and clip me till I run away 1** 

Sonnet iz., from Shakspeare's Passionate Pilgrim, 

That the insertion of Griffin*s sonnet in the P<u- 
sionate Pilgrim was without Shakspeare*8 consent 
or knowledge, is in my opinion evident for many 

I have long been convinced that the Passionate 
Pilgrim was published surreptitiously ; and al- 
though it bears Shakspeare*s name, the soanets 
and ballads of which it is composed were several 
of them taken from his dramas, and added to by 
selections from the poems of his cotemporaries, 
Raleigh, Marlow, and others ; that it was a book- 
seller^ job, made up for sale by the publisher^ 
W. Jaggard. 

No one can believe that Shaks|>eare would have 
been guilty of such a gross plagiarism. Griffin*a 
Fidessa bears date 1596 : the first known edi» 
tion of the Passionate Pilgrim was printed for 
W. Jaggard, 1599. It has no dedication to any 
patron, similar to Shakspeare*8 other poems, the 
Veniis and Adonis, the Rape of Lucreccy and the 
Sonnets; and why it bears the title of the Pas* 
sionate Pilgrim no one has ascertained. 

But I am losing sight of the object I had in 
view when I took up my pen, which was, through 
the medium of " N. & Q.," to request any of its 
readers to furnish me with any particulars of 
B. Griffin, the author of Fidessa, 

Mr. Singer supposes him to have been of a 
Worcestershire family : as he addresses his ** poore 
pamphlet*' for patronage to the gentlemen of the- 
Innes of Court, he might probably have been bred 
to the law. 

Perhaps your correspondents Cuthbbbt Bedb^ 
or Mju Noaks, the Worcestershire rambler, miffht 
in their researches into vestry reffist^rs and pansb 
documents, find some notice of die family. I am 
informed there was a gentleman of tne name 
resident in our college precincts early in the 
present century, that he was learned and respected^ 
tMit very eccentric. J. M. G» 



At the congregatioB in the Senate House at 
Cambridge, Nov. 23, presided over by the Prince 
Chancellor, it was observed that the undergra- 
duates in the galleries (for want I suppose of an 
obnoxious Vice-Chancellor or Proctor upon whom 
to vent their indignation) poured it forth in yells 
and groans upon those members of the senate who 
kept on their hats or caps. The same has been 
done on several former ^f^M^ ^kJP^^W 



[No. 220. 

arises from a mistake, in ascribing to the gaucherie 
of individuals what is really the observance of a 
very ancient custom. The following extract, from 
an unpublished MS. of the middle (I think) of 
the seventeenth century, in which the custom Is 
incidentally noticed, will serve for a confirmation 
of what I say : 

** When I was regent, the whole house oP congre- 
gation joyncd together in a petition to the Earle of 
Pembroke to restore unto us the jus pileorum, the 
licence of putting on our cappes at our publicke meet- 
ings; which priviledge time and the tyrannie of our 
vicechancellours had taken from us. Amongst other 
motives, we use the solemne forme of creating a M' in 
the Acte by putting on his cappe, and that that signe 
of libertie might distinguish us which were the Regents 
from those boyes which wee were to goveme, which 
request he graciouslie granted." 

This was written by an M.A. of Oxford. At 
Cambridge we have not hitherto had such haughty 
despots in authority, to trample upon our ri^ts ; 
but we seem to be in danger of losmg out jus pile- 
orum through "the tyrannic," not of our v ice- 
Chancellors, but "of those boyes which wee are 
to governe.** A Regent M.A. of Cambridge. 

Lincoln's Inn. 


(Continued from p. 8.) 

Dr. John Ward^ Profeasor of Gresham College^ to 
Dr. Cary^ Bishop of Clonfert. 

[MS. Donat, Brit. Mus., 6226, p. 16.] 

My Lord, 

While there was any expectation of your Lord- 
ship's speedy return to England, I forbore to con- 
^atulate you on your late promotion. For though 
none of your friends could more truly rejoice at 
this news than I did, both on your own account, 
and that of the public ; yet in the number of com- 
pliments which I was sensible you must receive on 
that occasion, I chose rather to be silent for fear 
of bein<5 troublesome. But as I find it is now 
uncertain, when your affairs may permit of your 
return hither, I could not omit this opportunity 
by your good Lady to express my hearty congra- 
tulation upon the due regard shown by the Govem- 
ment to your just merit ; and shall think it an 
honour to be continued in your esteem as vltimus 

I doubt not but your Lordship has seen Mr. 
Horsley's Britannia Romcma advertised in some of 
our public Papers ; but I know not whether you 
have heard that the author died soon after he had 
finished the work, before its publication. When it 
was hoped that the credit of this book might have 
been of some service to him and his large family, 

he was suddenly and unexpectedly taken off bj 
an Apoplexy. Such is the uncertainty of all 
human affairs. That your Lordship may be \on% 

Preserved in your high station for tne good of the 
Votestant Religion, and the support of public 
liberty, are the sincere wishes of. 

My Lord, 
Your Lordship's obed' Serv*. 
John Ward. 
Gresham College, 
April 24, 1732. 


Mr, Michael Mattaire to the Earl of Oxford. 

1736, Oct. 21. Orange Street 
My Lord, 

After my most humble thanks for the continu- 
ation of Westminster Elections' you was so kind 
as to give me, I must acquit myself of my promise ; 
and therefore I herewith send your Lordship a 
copy transcrib'd exactly from the MS. given me 
by Dr. South himself of his verses upon West- 
minster School, with his name, and the year sub- 
scribed at bottom. They were indeed publishM 
among his Opera Posthuma Latina Anon. 1717, bj 
Curl, after his impudent way of dealing with dead 
authors* works ; and sometimes also with those of 
the living. 

Curl's printed copy differs from the MS. in these 
following places : 


Vers. 5. Multura. 

16. Et. 

21. ubi regnat. 

23. aemula. 

25. dirigit. 

26. nitent. 
29. studiosas. 
SO. ilia. 

S3, lumen. 


quod regnet. 

acmula, but over it ardua. 

Your Lordship by this may see how much this 
sawcy fellow has abused this learned man*s fine 
copy of verses ; and how justly he deserved the 
correction which was inflicted on him at that 

By the tenth Distich it appears that the School 
(containing then Tercentum juvenes) was managed 
by three Masters onely : and, for aught we know, 
might flourish pretty well, though it had not twice 
that number. 

Give me leave, my Lord, to subscribe toyself 
with profound respect, 

Your Honor's 

most obligM, most obedient, 
and most humble Serv*. 

M. MArrTAisE. 


Reginae fundata manu, Regina scholarum ; 
Quam Virgo extruxit, Musaq; Virgo colit. 

Li'iyiiiz-fc^u uy 


Jan. 14. 1854.] 



Inconfusa Babel, Unguis et mole superba ; 

Celsior et fama, qu^m fiiit ifla situ. 
Gentibus et Unguis late celehrata ; tacere 

De qu^ nulla potest, nee satis ulla loqui. 
Opprobria ezuperans, pariterq; encomia : Linguis 

Et tot laudari digna, quot ipsa doces. 
Hsbrsus Graecusq; uno cernuntur in Anglo ; 

Qui puer hue Anglus venerat exit Arabs. 
Tercentum hie florent juvenes : mihi mira videtur 

Tam numerosa simul, tarn quoque docta cohors. 
Sic numero bonitas, numerus bonitate relucet ; 

Ut Stellas pariter lux numerusq; decet 
Arte senes, annis pueros mirabitur hospes ; 

Dura stupet, in pueris nil puerile videns. 
Consurgit, crescitq; puer, velut Hydra sub ictu; 

Florescitq; suis ssepe rigatus aquis. 
Stat regimen tripUci fasces moderante magistro ; 

Doctaq; Musarum regna Triumvir habet. 
Scilicet has inter sedes quod regnet Apollo, 

Optime ApolUneus comprobat ille Tripos, 
Sic super invidiam sese effert aemula ; nuUis 

Invida, sed cunctis invidiosa scholia. 
Inde in septenas se digerit ordine classes; 

Dispositae, septem, quae velut Astrae, micant. 
Discit et Authores propria inter moenia natos ; 

£t generosa libros, quos legit, ipsa parit. 
Instar Araneolas Studiosa has exhibet artes ; 

Quas de visceribus texuit ipsa suis. 
Xtiterulas docet hie idem Praeceptor et Author, 

Idem discipulis Bibliotheca suis. 
Accipit hie lucem, non ultrii caecus, Homerus : 

Hue venit k Scythicis Naso reversus agris. 
Utraq; divitijs nostris Academia crescit ; 

HaBC Schola ad implendas sufficit una duas. 
Sic Fons exiguus binos excurrit in Amnes : 

Parnassi geminus sic quoque surgit Apex. 
Huic coUata igitur, quantiim ipsa Academia prantat : 

Die, precor ; Ha?c doctos accipit, Ilia facit 

Rob. South. 
Ann. Dom. 1652, 
aut 1653.- 

[MS. Harl. 7025, fols. 184, 185.] 


T^tf JSarl of Orrery to Mr,, afterwards Dr,, 
Thonuzs Birch, 

[Addit. MS., Brit Mus., 4303, Art. 147. Orfg.'} 

CaledoD, Sept. 21, 1748. 
Dear Sir, 

It either is, or seems to be, a long time since I 
heard from you. Perhaps you are writing the 
very same sentence to me ; but as the loss is on 
my side, you must give me leave to complain. 

This summer has passed away in creat idleness 
and feasting : so that I have scarce looked into a 
book of any sort. Mrs. Pilkington and Con. 
Philips, however, have not escaped me. I was 
obliged to read them to adapt myself to the con- 
versation of my neighbours, who have talked upon 
no other topic, notwithstanding the more glorious 
subjects of Peace, and Lord An8on*s voyage. The 

truth is, we are better acquainted with the stile of 
Con. and Pilky, than with the hard names and 
distant places that are mentioned in the Yoyage 
round the World. 

I have not peeped into the Anti-Lucretius : it 
is arrived at Caledon, and reserved for the longest 
evenings. Carte's voluminous History is weighing 
down one of my shelves. He likewise is postponed 
to bad weather, or a fit of the gout. Last week 
brought us the first Number of Con*s second 
volume. She goes on triumphantly, and is very 
entertaining. Her sister Pilkington is not so for- 
tunate. She has squandered away the money she 
gained by her first volume, and cannot print her 
second. But from you, I hope to hear oi bodes of 
another sort. A thin quarto named LotUhiana is 
most delicately printed, and the cuts admirably 
engraved : and yet we think the County of Louth 
the most devoid of Antiquities of any County in 
Ireland. The County of Corke is, 1 believe, in 
the press ; and I am told it will be well executed. 
I have seen the County of Waterford, and approve 
of it verpr much. These kind .of Books are owing 
to an Historical Society formed at Dublin, and of 
great use to this kingdom, which is improving in 
all Arts and Sciences very fast : tho' I own to you, 
the cheapness of French Claret is not likely to 
add much at present to the encrease of literature. 
If all true Hibernians could bring themselves to be 
of your opinion and Pindar's, the glorious memory 
of King WilUam might keep the head cool, and 
still warm the heart ; but, alas, it sets both on fire : 
and tiU these violent fits of bacchanaUan loyalty 
are banished from our ^eat tables, I doubt few 
of us shall ever rise higner in our reading than 
the Memoirs of that kind I first mentioned. 

I am, Dear Sir, and so is all my famUy, truly 


To the Rev. Mr. Thomas Birch, 

at his House in 

Norfolk Street, 


Free (Boyle). 


The following paragraph is now going the round 
of the newspapers witnout reference to the source 
of information. I copy it from the Morning 
Chronicle of Friday, December 9. 

•* £$cap€ of a Snake from a Man*s Mouth, — An ex- 
traordinary circumstance occurred a few days ago to 
Jonathan Smith, gunner*s mate, who was paid off at 
Portsmouth on the 6th of May last, from her Majesty's 
ship Hastings, 72 guns, on her return to England from 
the East Indies. He obtained six weeks* leave. On 
the expiration of that time, afVer seeing his friends at 
Chatham, he joined the Excellent, gunnery-ship at 
Portsmouth. After some time he was taken unwell. 

Liiymz-fc^u uy 




[No. 22a 

his illness increased, and he exhibited a swelling in his 
stomach and limbs. The surgeon considering that it 
arose from dropsy, he was removed into Haslar Hos- 
pital, and after much painful sufferiug, although he bad 
«rery attention paid to him by the medical officers of 
the establishment, he died. Two hours before his 
•death a living snake, nine inches in length, came out of 
his mouth, causing considerable surprise. How the 
Teptile got into his stomach is a mystery. It is sup- 
posed that the deceased must have swallowed the 
reptile when it was young, drinking water when the 
Hastings was out in India, as the ship laid for some 
time at Trincomalee, and close to a small island called 
Snake Island. The crew used very often to find snakes 
on board. The way they used to get into the ship was 
by the cable, and through the hawsers into the fore- 
castle. The deceased was forty years of age. He was 
interred in Kingston chiirchyard. His remains were 
followed to the grave by the ship's company of the 

Tbe proverbial wisdom of the serpent is here 
clearly exemplified. It has long been well known 
among sailors that rats have the sense to change 
their quarters when a vessel becomes cranky ; 
whence I believe arises the epithet " rat,** which 
is sometimes scurrilously applied to a politic man 
who removes to the opposition benches when he 
perceives symptoms of dissolution in the ministry. 
The snake, in the simple narrative above quoted, 
was evidently guided by some such prudential 
motive when he quitted the stomach of the dying 
sailor, which could not continue for any great 
length of time to afford protection and support to 
the cunning reptile. 

I have an amiable friend who habitually swallows 
with avidity the tales of sea-serpents which are 
periodically imported into this country on American 
bottoms, and I have sufficient credulity myself to 
receive, without strict examination into evidence, 
the account of the swarming of the snakes up the 
cables into a ship ; but I cannot so readily believe 
that "considerable surprise*' was caused in the 
mind of any rational oiped by the fact that a 
living snake, which had attained to the length of 
nine inches, took the very natural precaution to 
come out of a dying man*s mouth. 

How the reptile got into his stomach is a 
mystery which the newspaper writer has attempted 
to clear up, but he has not attempted to explain 
how the reptile managed to live during many 
months in so unusual a habitation as a man*s 

Some obliging correspondent of " N. & Q.** will 
perhaps have the kindness to explain this remark- 
able fact in natural history. A Londonbb. 


In last September I undertook a literary pro- 
ject, which I think could be greatly aided through 
the medium of " N. & Q.," as there are few families 
in the empire that are not connected with its de- 
tails, and who might therefore be expected to feel 
interested in them. The project I allude to is a 
publication of King Jameses Irish Army List of 
1689-90. King I must call him in reference to 
that list. Those that appear upon it were many 
his creedmen, and all bis devoted adherents. The 
list^ of which I have a copy in MS., extends over 
thirty-four pages octavo. The first tw^-are filled 
with the names of all the colonels ; the four en- 
suing are rolls of the regiments of borae ; the four 
next, of the dragoons ; and the remaining twenty- 
four record the foot: each regiment being ar- 
ranged, with the colonel, lieutenant -colonel, and 
major at head, and the captains, lieutenants, cor- 
nets or ensigns, and quarter-masters, in eolumns^ 
on each respectively. To every regiment I pro- 
posed to append notices, historic and genealogical,' 
to the extent of, perhaps, eight hundred pages or 
more, for ^ the compilation of which I have ample 
materials in my own MS. collections. These no- 
tices I propose to furnish under him of the name 
who ranks highest on the list ; and all tbe scat- 
tered officers of that name will be collected in that 
one article. 

After an especial and full notice of such officer, 
to whom the family article is attached, his parent- 
age, individual achievements, descendants, &c., 
each illustration will briefly glance at the gene- 
alogy of that family, with, if an Irish sept, its 
ancient localities; if an English or Scotch, the 
county from whence it branched, and the period 
when it settled here. 

I would next identify each family, so illustrated, 
with its attainders and forfeitures in 1641 ; 

With the great Assembly of (Confederate Ca- 
tholics at Kilkenny in 1646 ; 

With the persons denounced by name in Crom- 
welFs ordinance of 1652, " for settling Ireland ;** 

With the declaration of royal gratitude to the 
Irish exiles who served King Charles II. "in parts 
beyond the seas," as contained in the Act of Ex* 
pUmation of 1665 ; 

With (if space allowable) those advanced by 
James II. to civil offices, as sheriffs, &c., or mem- 
bers of his new corporations ; 

With those who represented Irish counties or 
boroughs in the Parliament of Dublin in 1689 ; 

With the several outlawries and confiscations of 
1691, &c.; 

With the claims that were subsequently (in 
1703) preferred as charges on these forfeitures, 
and how far allowed or dismissed ; 

And, lastly, as far as attainable, their achieve- 
ments in the glorious engagements of the Spanish 
and French Brigades : nr\cs\( 

Jan. 14. 1854.] 



All statements throughout being verified by 

Already have I compiled and arranged the ma- 
terials for illustrating the eight regiments of horse 
upon this roll, viz. Tjrconners, Galmoy's, Sars- 
field's, Abercorn's, Luttrell's, Sutherland's, Par- 
ker* s, and Purcell's ; a portion of the work in 
which, according to my plan, the illustrations will 
be appropriated to the families of — 

Aylmer. Lawless. Prendergast 

Barn e wall. Luttrell. Purcel. 

Butler. Matthews. Redmond. 

Callaghan. McDonnell. Rice. 

Cusack. M'Namara. Roche. 

De Courcy. Meara, Sarsfield. 

Dempsey. Morris. Sheldon. 

Everard. Nagle. Synnott. 

Gernon. O'Sullivan. Talbot. 

Hamilton. O'Kelly. &c. &c. 

Kearney. Plunket. 

And this section (about 100 pages) is open to 
inspection on appointment. 

IThe above is but a tithe of the surnames whose 
genealogical illustrations I propose to furnish. 
The succeeding portions of the work, comprising 
six regiments of Dragoons, and upwards of fifty 
of Foot, will offer for notice, besides numerous 
septs of the O's and Mac's, the Anglo-Irish names 























Cum multis aliis. 

My inquiry touching Lord Dover, who heads 
the List, nas heretofore elicited much curious in- 
formation ; and I confide that all who can afford 
literary assistance to the undertaking, by let- 
ters, inspection of documents, or otherwise, will 
promptly communicate on the subject. 

John D'Alton. 

48. Summer Hill, Dublin. 

Minnx finXti. 

Authors and Publishers. — As "N. &Q." is, 
I believe, much read by booksellers as well as 
authors, would not both parties find great advan- 
tage by the latter advertising in vour pages the 
completion and wished- for publication of any work 
on which they may have been engaged ? Pub- 
lishers, in this way, might hear of works which 

they would be glad to bring before the public, and 
authors be spared much unnecessary and often 
useless trouble and correspondence. Authors, I 
know, may feel some delicacy in coming before the 
world in this manner be/ore publication, although 
after that rubicon is passed, their names and pro- 
ductions are blazoned on all the winds ; but as a 
previous announcement in "N. & Q." may be 
made anonymouslyy as respects the name of the 
writer, although not of course as regards the nature 
of his work, there seems no just reason why honor- 
able and beneficial arrangements may not be made 
in this way as well as by any other. To me this 
plan seems to offer some advantages, and I throw 
out the hint for the consideration of all whom it 
may concern.* Axpua. 

Inscriptions on old Pulpits. — **N. & Q." has 

fiven many kinds of inscriptions, from those on 
'onts and Door-heads down to those on Watch- 
papers ; perhaps, therefore, it may not be without 
Its use or interest to make a beginning for a list 
of inscriptions on old pulpits. The first inscrip- 
tion I quote is from Richard Baxter's pulpit^ of 
which 1 have given a full description in vol. v., 
p. 363. : 

1. Kidderminster. Baxter's pulpit (now pre- 
served in the vestry of the Unitarian Chapel). 
On the panels of the pulpit : 


On the front of the preacher's desk : 

** rRAISB . THE . LOU>," 

Round the sounding-board : 




At the back of the pulpit : 

"ANNO. 1621." 

2. Suckley, Worcestershire ; round the sound- 
ing-board (apparently of very old date) : 


3. Broadwas, Worcestershire ; on the panels : 

" WILLIAM . NOXON . AND . ROGER . PRINCE . C . W . 1632." 

Round the sounding-board, the same text as at 
Suckley. Cuthbbet Bedb, B.A. 

Recent Curiosities of Literature. — Thackeray, 
in the second number of The Newcomes, describes 
an old lady*s death as being caused from her head 
having been cut with a bed-room candle, N. P. 
Willis, in his Health Trip to the Tropics, speaks 

[♦ Any assistance which we can afford in carrying 
out this suggestion, which we may remark comes from 
one who has had practical experience on the subject^ 
we shall be most happy to render. — Ed.] ^ 



[No. 220. 

of being waited on by a Carib, who had " no beard 
except a long moustache.** Professor Spalding, 
of St. Andrew's, in his History of English Litera- 
iure^ says that the sonnets of Wordsworth " have 
a perfection hardly to be surpassed.'* And J. 
Stanyan Bigg (the "new poet**), in the December 
number of Hogg*s Instructor, exclaims : 

^*The winter storms come rushing round the wall, 
Xiike him who at Jerusalem shriek*d out * Wo !*'* 


Assuming Names, — Last Term, in the Court of 
Exchequer, application was made by counsel to 
add a surname to the name of an attorney on the 
roll; he having been left property with a wish 
expressed that he should take the surname in 
addition to his own, which he had done, but not 
by royal license. The court granted the applica- 
tion. (^Law TimeSf vol. xxii. p. 123.) Anon. 

False Dates in Water-marks of Papers, — Lately, 
in cutting up some paper for photographic pur- 
poses, I found in one and the same quire two 
sheets without any mark, two of the date 1851, 
sine bearing the date 1853, and the remaining 
eleven were 1854. I can imagine a case might 
occur in which the authenticity of a document 
might be much questioned were it dated 1853, 
when the paper would be presumed not to have 
been made until a year afterwards. I think this 
is worth making a note of not only by lawyers, 
but those interested in historical documents. 

H. W. D. 

Jan. 2, 1854. 


I send you a Note and a Query respecting the 
same person. Many years since, I passed a few 
days in one of the wildest spots in the south of 
England — Hawkley, in the neighbourhood of Sel- 
l)oume. On a visit to the church of Emshott or 
Empshot, I heard that the screen had been pre- 
sented by a Captain Farre, whose memory was in 
some way connected with the days of the republic ; 
and on farther inquiry tradition, it appeared, had 
come to the conclusion that Farre had been one 
of the regicides who had retired into the neigh- 
bourhood, and lived and died there in a sort of 
concealment. I found out, also, the house in which 
lie had lived : a pretty modest cottage, in which 
a small farmer resided. I was struck, on ap- 
proaching it, by the beauty of the brick-work of 
the little porch, which appeared to have been an 
addition to the original building. On entering 
the cottage, I found that the kitchen and bed-room 
only were occupied by the family ; the one room, 
^hich had been the sitting-room, being used as a 

granary. The ceiling of this room was ponderous, 
wirh a deep rich sunken panelling. The little 
porch-entrance and the ceiling of this room were 
so out of character with the cottage, and indeed 
with all around, that I caused search to be made 
in the Kegisters of the parish to see if I could 
find some trace of this Captain Farre ; and I now 
send you the result. There was no regicide of 
that name ; but Col. Fhaer was one of those to 
whom the warrant for the execution of Charles 
was addressed : and he certainly was not one of 
the twenty-nine subsequently tried for the high 
treason as it was called. What became of him I 
know not. Whether he reappeared here as Capt 
Farre, or who Capt. Farre was, I shall leave to 
the speculation of the better informed. There 
were many Farrs and Phaers out in the great 
Kevolution, and the name is sometimes spelt one 
way, sometimes the other. Empshot, under Nore 
Hill or Noah Hill, was certainly an excellent place 
for concealment. The neighbourhood was, and is, 
as White said, ** famous for its oaks, and infamous 
for its roads." 

Extraeta from the Parish Registers, 
" Captaine Farre of Nore, when our church was 
repaired, gave the new silke cushion and pullpit cloath, 
which was first used on Christmas Day, Anno JDomiai 

** 1 683, Feb. 5. Anne Baker, kinswoman of CajO. 
Farre, was buried, and that very day the moone was 
new, and the snow thawed ; and the frost broke, which 
had lasted from Nov. 26, 1683, to that day, which is 
10 weeks. The ponds were frozen 2 feet, and that little 
water which was, was not sweet ; the very grave wbereia 
she was buried in the church was froze almost 2 feet 
oyer, and our cattel were in a bad case, and we fared 
worse : and, just in our extremity, God had pitty oo 
us, and sent a gracious raine and thaw. She was 
buried in linneu ; and paid SOs, to the poore, and 6s, Sd, 
for being buried in the church." 

** 1685, April 1. Mrs. Farre was buried in linnen, 
and p* 50*. to the poore." 

**1694. John, son of Mr. John Palmer and Eliza- 
beth his wife, was born Tuesday, May the 1st, and 
baptized at home May the 11th; y* Captaine died 
Thursday last, y* day before." 

** An Account of the Briefe for the Relief of the French 
Protestants, read May 16th, at Newton, 1686. 

At Noare in Newton, 

Capt, Mr, Robert Farre gave 1 lib. for himself, and 
his kinswoman Mrs. Elizabeth Farre. 

■ His man Roger 
His maid Anna 

- 6dr 

** Gathered towards the relief of the French Pro- 
testants, May 11, 1688 : 

Captain Far and Mrs. Elizabeth Far, 5»." 


Digitized by 


Jan. 14. 1854.] 




Will some one of your correspondents (learned 
in such matters) refer me to a work treating of 
the marriage ceremony as performed in this 
country dunng the fourteenth century, in order 
to the explanation of the following passages, which 
refer to an event in English history — the mar- 
riage of Edward I.'s daughter with the Count of 
Holland ? The king's writ to the Bishop of Lon- 
don speaks of the marriage as about to be cele- 
brated on the day after the Epiphany, upon which 
day (as shown by the Wardrobe Account) the ring 
was put on ; but it was on the next day (the 8th) 
that the princess " despons fuit," as shown by the 
«ame account. 

In Rymer s Fcedera, vol. i. p. 850., will be found 
a writ directed to the Bishop of London (and 
others) as follows : 

<'Quia inter Comitem Holandiae et Elizabetham, 
filiam nostram carissimam, matrimonium hac proxima 
die Lunse, in erastino Epiphanice, apud Gyppesivlcum 
solempnizari proponimus, Domino concedente," &c. 

In the Household Book of King Edward I. for 
the same year (Add. MS. 7965.) will be found 
the following entries, p. 6. : 

** Oblat p*tieipat, — Terco die Januar in oblat pti- 
cipatis ad Missam celebratam ad magnu altare ecclia 
priorat* bi Pet in Gippewico die Nupciar Alienore de 
Burgo vij. 

**Pro Comiietsa Holland. — Eodem die (vij Januar) 
in denar tarn positis sup libru qin jactatis Iter homines 
cireumstantes ad hostium in introitu ecclie Magne Pri- 
oratus predci ubi comes HoUandie sub .... vit Dnam 
JElizabeiham filiam Regii cu antdo auri. .... Ixt. 

'* Fratrlbus predicatoribus de Gippewico p . . . . sua 
nnius diet videltz viij diet Januar quo die Dna ElizO' 
hethJiUa R, despons fuit, i^ M. de Cauford, xiiJ5. iiiji/.*' 



About four years ago I purchased, at the sale 
of the museum of Mr. Georffe Bell of Whitehaven, 
a folio vellum MS. in Latin, written apparently 
in the fourteenth century : containing a Catena, 
or a series of notes on the Epistles to the Romans 
and Corinthians, selected from the Fathers of the 
Church, viz. Origines, Ambrosius, Gregorius, Jp- 
ronimus, Augustinus, Cassianus, Beda, Lambertus, 
Lanfrancus, Anselmus, and Ivo Carnotensis. As 
many of those authors were English, I infer that 
the volume was compiled in England for some 
English monastery. 

The beginning of each chapter is noted on the 
margin, but there is no division into verses. The 
sentences, or short paragraphs of the text, are 
written in vermillion, and the comments upon them 

in black : those comments are generally taken from 
one, but often from two or three authors; the names 
of each being stated. There are large handsome 
capitals at the beginning of each book, and the 
initials to the paragraphs are distinguished by a 
spot of red, but there are no illuminations. Two 
leaves have been cut out at the beginning of the 
volume ; a few at two or three places throughout 
the volume, and at the end, by some former pos- 
sessor. As the style of binding is very uncom- 
mon, I will describe it. It was bound in oak 
boards of half an inch thick; the sheets were 
sewed on thongs of white leather, similar to what 
cart harness is stitched with. Instead of the 
thongs being brought over the back edges of the 
boards (as in modern binding), they are inserted 
into mortices in the edges of the boards, and then 
laced through holes, and secured with glue and 
wedges. The boards were covered first with al- 
lumed leather, and over that seal-skin luith the hair 
on. The board at the beginning of the book had 
four feet, placed near the corners, of nearly an 
inch in height, half an inch in diameter at the 
base, and about a quarter of an inch at the point* 
Each was cast in one piece, with a circular base of 
about an inch and a quarter in diameter, and rising^ 
towards the centre ; and they were each fastened 
on by three pins or nails. The board at the end 
of the book was ornamented with four circular 
brass plates about the size of a halfpenny, placed 
near the corners ; having in the centre of each a 
stud, the head of which represented a prominent 
close flower of four petals. And in the centre of 
the board, there had been a stud or button, on 
which to fasten the strap from the other board to 
keep the book shut. Only one stud and one foot 
remained; but the places where the others had 
been were easily seen. I presume that the volume 
was meant to lie on a lectern or reading-desk^ 
resting on its feet; and when opened out, the 
other board rested on its studs, as both were worn 
smooth with use. 

The binding being loose, and the cover torn ta 
shreds (part of which was held on by the stud), 
I got the book rebound as nearly as possible in 
the same manner as the first, only substituting 
Russia leather for the unsightly seal-skin ; and the 
remaining stud and foot afibrded patterns, from 
which oSiers were cast to supply the places of 
those deficient. 

Nothing is known of the history of this volume, 
except that it was purchased by Mr. Bell from 
Alexander Campbell, a bookseller in Carlisle. I 
am inclined to think, that it had belonged to some 
monastery in Cumberland ; and the seal-skin cover 
would seem to indicate Calder Abbey (which is 
near the coasty where seals might be caught) as its 
original owner. 

Can any of your correspondents inform me, from 
the marks which I have given, whether this is a 

uiyiiiz.fc;u uy ■ 




[No. 220. 

copy of some known work or an original com- 
pilation? And if the former, state where the 
original MS. is preserved ; and \i printed^ the par- 
ticulars of the edition P 

If my MS. can be ascertained to have formerly 
belonged to any library or individual, I shall be 
glad to learn any particulars of its history. 

J. M* IL. 


Jews and Egyptians, — Has any writer ever 
started the idea that the early colonisers of some of 
the Grecian states, who are commonly stated to 
have been Egyptians, may have been, in fact,, 
Jews ? It seems to me that a good deal might be 
said in favour of this hypothesis, for the following 
reasons, amongst others : 

1. The Egyptian tradition preserved by Heca- 
tSBUS, and quoted from him by Diodorus, that 
Danaus ana Cadmus were leaders of minor 
branches of the great emigration, of which the 
main body depart^ under the guidance of Moses. 

2. The near coincidence in point of time, as far- 
as can be traced, of the appearance of Danaus, 
Cadmus, and Cecrops, in Greece, with the Jewish 

3. The letter, preserved by Josephus, of Areus, 
king of Sparta, to the high-priest of the Jews, 
claiming a common descent with the latter from 
Abraham, and proposing an alliance. It is difficult 
to explain this claim on any other supposition than 
that Areus had heard of the tradition mentioned 
by Diodorus, and, as he and his people traced 
their descent from Danaus through Hercules, 
they consequently regarded themselves as sprung 
from a common stock with the Hebrews. 

I throw out this theory for the consideration 
of others, having myself neither leisure nor oppor- 
tunity for pushing the subject any farther ; but 
still I think that a distinguished statesman and 
novelist, who amused the world some years f^ 
by endeavouring to trace most of the eminent 
men of modem times to a Jewish origin, might, 
with at least as much reason, claim most of the 
glories of ancient Greece for his favourite people. 

J. S. Wabbem. 

Skin' flint — Is the word skin-flints a miserly or 
niggardly person, of English or forei«rn derivation ? 
and where is the earliest instance of the term to 
be met with ? J. W. 

Garlic Sunday, — The last Sunday of summer 
has been heretofore a day of great importance with 
the Irish, as upon it they first tried the new po- 
tato, and formed an opinion as to the prospects 
of the future harvest. The day was always called, 
in the west in particular, " Garlic Sunday," per- . 

haps a corruption of Garland Sunday. Can any 

one ^ive the origin of this term, and say when 

first it was introduced ? U. U. 

Custom of the Corporation of London, — In the 
evidence of Mr. Bennoch, given before the Royal 
Commissioners for inquiring into the corporation 
of the city of London, he stated that there is, 
amongst other pavments, one of 133/. ^'for cloth 
to the great ministers of state," the city being 
bound by an old charter to give a certain amount 
of cloth annually to them. He subsequently 
states that this custom is supposed to be connected 
with the encouragement of the wool manufacture 
in its early history; and that four and a half 
yards of the finest black cloth that the country 
can produce are annually sent to the First Secre- 
tary of State, the Second Secretary of State, the 
Lord Chancellor, the Chamberlain of the House- 
hold, the Vice-Chancellor of the Household, the 
Treasurer of the Household, the Lord Steward, 
the Controller,' the Lord Chief Justice of the 
Queen's Bench, the Lord Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas, the Chief Baron of the £xche- 

2uer, the Master of the Kolls, the Becorder of 
london, the Attorney-General, the Solicitor- 
General, and the Common Sergeant. 

Can any of the readers of *' N. & Q." give a 
more particular account of this custom ? 


Oeneral Stokes. — Can any of your readers give 
me any information respecting the parentage of 
General Stokes ? In the historical table of re- 
markable events in the Jamaica Almanack for 
1847 it says: "General Stokes, with 1600 men 
from Nevis, arrived and settled near Port Mo- 
rant, anno Domini 1655." And in Bryan Ed- 
wards* work on Jamaica and the West Indies, 
mention is made of General Stokes in the follow- 
ing words : 

" In the month of December, 1655, General Stokes, 
with 1600 men fi-om Nevis, arrived in Jamaica, and 
settled near Port Morant. The family of the Morants 
of Vere (in Jamaica) are the lineal descendants of 
General Stokes, who took the name of Morant from 
the port at which he landed. General Stokes was 
governor of Nevis ; and on his arrival in Jamaica was 
appointed one of the high commissioners for the 

H. H. M. 

Rev, Philip Morant, — I shall be obliged by 
any information respecting the lineage of the 
Rev. Philip Morant, who wrote a History of 
the County of Essex; and whether he was an 
ancestor of the Morants of Brockenhurst Park, 
Hants. He was born at St. Saviour's, in the 
Isle of Jersey, Oct. 6, 1700; entered, 1717, Pem- 
broke College, Oxford. He was presented to 

L>iymz.t?u uy 


Jan. 14. 1854.] 



the following benefices in the county of Essex, 
viz. Sliallow, Bowells, Bromfield, Chicknal, Imeley, 
St. Mary's, Colchester, Wickham Bishops, and to 
Oldham in 1745. He died Nov. 25, 1770; and 
his only daughter married Thomas Astle, Esq., 
F.R.S. and F. A.S. He was son of Stephen Morant. 
If any of the sons or daughters of that eminent 
antiquary Thomas Astle will give me any inform- 
ation relative to the pedigree of Philip Morant^ 
M.A., they will greatly oblige me. H. H. M. 


lite Position of Suffragan Bishops in Convo' 
cation. — In Chambenayne's Mc^tub BritannicB 
Notitia, or The Present State of Oreat Britain, 
1729, p. 73., it is said : 

** All suffragan bishops and deans, archdeacons, 
prebendaries, rectors, and vicars, have privileges, some 
by themselves, others by proxy or by representatives, 
to sit and vote iu the lower house of convocation.'* 

Is there authority for this statement as regards 
suffragan bishops ? There is no writ or mandate 
that I have seen for their appearance. 

W. Fbasbr. 


Cambridge Mathematical Questions, — Can any 
of your readers inform me whether the University 
of Cambridge puts forth, by authority, a collection 
of all the questions proposed to candidates for the 
B. A. degree ? 

^ If not, how can one obtain access to the ques- 
tions which have been asked during the last forty 
or fifty years ? Iota. 

Crahbe MSS. — In some second-hand book 
catalogue the following is inserted, viz., — 

"1353. Crahbe (Rev. Gea, Poet), Poems, Prayers, 
Essays, Sermons, portions of Plays, &c., 5 vol*, etUirdy 
autography together with a Catalogue of Plants, and Ex' 
tracts from the second Volume of the Transactions of the 
Linnean Society^ 1 795 {this volume only contains a few 
Autograph Verses in pencil at the end). An Autograph 
letter of 4 pages to the Dean of Lincoln, dated Trow- 
bridge, March 31, 1815. A curious Anonytnous letter 
from * Prisctan * to Mr. Murray, elated Dec. 8th, 1833, 
on the Orthography of the name of the Birthplace of 
the Poet, and which the writer observed in the View of 
the Town of Aldeburgh in the frontispiece to the Prospectus 
Mr, M. has just issued, 8fv. , interspersed with some par- 
traits and scraps, in 6 vols, 4to. and 8vo„ dated from 
1779 to 1823,81 8«." 

This is a note underneath : 

" Tlie following portion of a Prayer, evidently al- 
luding to his troubles, occurs in one of the volumes 
bearing date. Dec. 31, 1779 : * A thousand years, most 
adored Creator, are in thy Sight as one Day. So con- 
tract in my Sij^ht my Calamities ! The Year of Sorrow 
and Care, of Poverty and Disgrace, of Disappointment 
and wrong, is now passing on to join the Eternal. 

Now, O Lord ! let, I beseech thee, my Afflictions and 
Prayers be remembered; my Faults and Follies be 
forgotten.* « O ! Thou who art the Fountoin of Hap- 
piness, give me better Submission to thy Decrees, 
better Disposition to correct my flattering Hopes, 
better Courage to bear up under my State of Op- 
pression,' ** &c. 

Can any of the readers of " N. & Q.** tell me 
who possesses thb ? I should very much like to 
know. H. T. BoBABT. 


Tilly, an Officer of the Courts at Westminster, 
— What oflSce did one Tilly hold in one of the' 
Courts at Westminster, circa 8 William III. ? 
Was he Warden of the Fleet ? What were his 
connexions by birth and by marriage ? Was he 
dispossessed ? and if so, why P J. K. 

Mr, Gye, — Who was Mr. Guye, or Gye, who 
had chambers in the Temple circa 8 Wm. III. ? 

J. K. 

Three Fleurs-de-Lys, — Some of your heraldic 
contributors may perhaps be able to say whether 
there is any instance of an English coat of arma 
with three fleurs-de-lys in a line (horizontal), in 
the upper part of the shield ? Such are said to 
occur in coats of arms of French origin, as in that 
of the celebrated Du Guesclin, and perhaps in 
English coats in the form of a triangle. But 
query whether, in any instance, in a horizontal 
line ? Devon lENsis^ 

The Commons of Ireland previous to the Union 
in 1801. — I have understood there was a work 
which contained either the memoirs or sketches 
of the political characters of all the members of 
the last " Commons of Ireland ; " and I have heard 
it was written by a Rev. Dr. Scott of, I believe, 
Trinity College, Dublin. Can any reader of 
" N, & Q." inform me if there be such a work f 
and if there be a biographical account of the 
author to be met with ? C. H. D. 

" AU Holy day at Peckham,'* — Can any of your 
correspondents inform me what is the origin of 
the phrase " All holyday at Peckham P " * 


Arthur de Vere. — What was the after history 
of Arthur (Philipson) de Vere, son of John, Earl 
of Oxford, and hero of Sir Walter Scott's novel 

[* Probably some of our correspondents may know 
the origin of this phrase ; and as many of them, perhaps, 
are not acquainted with its meaning among the slang 
literati, we may as well enlighten them with a quo- 
tation from the Lexicon BakUronicum et Maearonicum 
of Master Jon Bee: ** Peckham, going to dinner. 
* All holiday at Peckham,^ no appetite. PeckisK hun- 
gry."— Ed.] 

L'lyiuz.fcju uy ' 




[No. 220. 

Anne of Oeierstein f Was Sir Walter Scott justi- 
fied in saying, " the manners and beauty of Anne 
of Geierstein attracted as much admiration at the 
English Court as formerly in the Swiss Chalet ?" 


Master of the Nails.— It appears from the His- 
torical Register, January, 1717, "Mr. Hill was 
:appointed Master of all the Nails at Chatham 
Dock." Can any of your readers favour me by 
-stating the nature of the above office ? W. D. H. 

Nattochiis and Calchanti, — A few days since an 
4mcient charter was laid before me containing a 
-grant of lands in the county of JTorfolk, of the 
date 1333 (temp. Edw. II.), in which the follow- 
ing words are made use of : 

** Cu' omnib; g»nis t natthocouks adjacentib; " &c. 

In a later portion of the grant this word is spelt 
natthociis, rrobably some of your learned readers 
can throw some light on what is meant by the 
words granis et nattochiis as being appurtenant to 
marsh lands. 

In a grant I have also now before me of Queen 
Elizabeth — 

** Decimas, calchanti, liquor, mineral, metal,'* &c. 

are given to the grantee for a term of twenty-one 
years : probably your readers can also enlighten 
my ignorance of the term calchanti; the other 
words are obvious. If any authorities are to be 
met with, probably in the answers to these queries 
your correspondents will have the goodness to 
cite them. F. S. A. 

" Ned o' the Todding^ — May I beg, through 
the medium of your excellent publication, to ask 
if any of your correspondents can inform me in 
which of our English authors I may find some 
lines headed " Ned o' the Todding ? " W. T. 

Bridget Cromwell and Fleetwood, — Can jrou 
inform me whether Bridget, daughter of Oliver 
Cromwell, who was first married in 1651 to Ireton, 
Lord Deputy of Ireland (and had by him a large 
family), and secondly, to General Fleetwood, had 
any family by the latter ? 

And, if so, what were the Christian names of 
the children (Fleetwood) ? 

A New Subscriber op 1854. 

[Noble, in his Memoirs of ike House of CromweU, 
vol. ii. p. 369., says, <* It is most probable that Fleet- 
wood had issue by his second wife Bridget, especially 
as he mentions that she was in an increasing way in 
several of his letters, written in 1654 and 1655. It is 
highly probable Mr. Charles Fleetwood, who was 
buried at Stoke Newington, May 14, 1676, was his 
son by the Protector's daughter, as perhaps was Ellen 

Fleetwood, burled in the same place in a velvet coflfin, 
July 23, 1731 ; if so, she must have been, at tbe time 
of her death, upwards of seventy years of age.**J 

Cvlet, — In my bills from Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, there is a charge of sixpence every term for 
cidet What is this r B. R. I. 

[In old time there was a collection made every year 
for the doctors, masters, and beadles, and this was 
called coUecta or cultt : the latter word is now used for 
a' customary fee paid to the beadles. *' I suppose," 
says Hearne, <'that when this was gathered for the 
doctors and masters it was only for such doctors and 
masters as taught and read to scholars, of which sort 
there was a vast number in old time, and such a col- 
lection was therefore made, that they might proceed 
with the more alacrity, and that their dignity might 
be better supported." — Appendix to Hist, Rob. de Aces- 



(Vol. vii., p. 211. ; Vol. viii., p. 601.) 

QuiBSTOR has asked me a question to which I 
will not refuse a reply. If he thinks that the 
breaking up of a planetary world is a mere fancy, 
he may consult Sir John Herschers Astronomy , 
§ 434., in Lardner's series, ed. 1833, in which the 
supposition was treated as doubtful, and farther 
discoveries were declared requisite for its con- 
firmation ; and Professor Mitchell's Discoveries 
of Modern Astronomy, Lond. 1850, pp. 163 — 171., 
where such discoveries are detailed, and the pro- 
gress of the proof is narrated and explained. It 
may be briefly stated as follows : — ^In the last cen- 
tury, Professor Bode discovered the construction 
of a regular series of numbers, in coincidence 
with which the distances of all the known planets 
from the sun had been arranged by their Creator, 
saving one exception. Calling the earth's solar 
distance 10, the next numbers in the series are 
16, 28, 52. The distances answering to 16 and 
52, on this scale, are respectively occupied by the 
planets Mars and Jupiter ; but the position of 28 
seemed unoccupied. It was not likely that the 
Creator should have left the methodical order of 
his work incomplete. A few patient observers 
agreed, therefore, to divide amongst themselves 
that part of the heavens which a planet revolving 
at the vacant distance mi^ht be expected to tra- 
verse ; and that each should keep up a continuous 
examination of the portion assigned to him. And 
the result was the discovery by Piazzi, in 1801, 
of a planet revolving at the expected solar dis- 
tance, but so minute that the elder Herschel com- 
puted its diameter to be no more than 163 miles. 
The discovery of a second by Olbers, in the fol- 

LJiyiuz.t;u uy 


Jan. 14. 1854.] 



lowing year, led him to conjecture and suggest 
tliat these were fragments of a whole, which, at its 
first creation, had occupied the vacant position, 
with a magnitude not disproportionate to that 
assigned to the other planets. Since then there 
have been, and continue to be, discoveries of more 
and more such fragmental planets, all moving at 
«olar distances so close upon that numbered 28, 
as to pass each other almost, as has been said, 
within peril ; but in orbits which seem capriciously 
elevated and depressed, when referred to the 
planes assigned for the course of the regular 
planets ; so that, to most minds capable of appre- 
ciating these facts, it will seem that 01ber*8 con- 
jecture has been marvellously cohfirmed. 

As to the theological conjecture appended to 
it in my previous communication, about which 
Qu.£ST0B particularly questions me, I can only 
say, that if he deems it rash or wrong, I have no 
right to throw the blame of it on any other man*8 
fihoulders, as I am not aware of its having been 
hazarded by any one else. But I hope he will 
agree with me, that if there has been a disruption 
-of a planetary world, it cannot have arisen from 
any mistake or deficiency in the Creator's work 
or foresight, but should be respectfully regarded 
as the result of some moral cause. 

Henbt Waltbe. 


(Vol. viii., p. 539.). — planets op the 


(Vol. iv., pp. 23. 164.). 

The Poles have a fanciful belief that each 
month of the year is under the influence of a 
precious stone, which influence has a correspond- 
ing effect on the destiny of a person born during 
the respective month. Consequently, it is cus- 
tomary, among friends and lovers, on birth-days, 
to make reciprocal presents of trinkets orna- 
mented with the natal stones. The stones and 
tiieir influences, corresponding with each month, 
are supposed to be as follows : 

January - - Garnet Constancy and fidelity. 

February - Amethyst. Sincerity. 

March - - Bloodstone. Courage. Presence of 


April- - - Diamond. Innocence. 

May . - . Emerald. Success in love. 

June - - - Agate. Health and long life. 

July - . . Cornelian. Contented mind. 

August - - Sardonyx. Conjugal felicity. 

September - Chrysolite. Antidote against madness. 

October - - Opal. Hope. 

November - Topaz. Fidelity. 

December - Turquoise. Prosperity. 

The Rabbinical writers describe a system of 
onomancy, according to the third branch of the 
Cabala, termed Notaricon^ in conjunction with 

lithomancy. Twelve anagrams of the name of 
God were engraved on twelve precious stones, by 
which, with reference to their change of hue or 
brilliancy, the cabalist was enabled to foretel 
future events. Those twelve stones, thus en- 
graved, were also supposed to have a mystical 
power over, and a prophetical relation to, the 
twelve si^ns of the Zodiac, and twelve angels or 
good spirits, in the following order : 
Anagrams, Stonet, Signs. . Angels. 

mn^ Ruby. Aries. MulchedieL 

inn> Topaz.' Taurus. Asmodel. . 

nni> Carbuncle. Gemini. Ambriel. 

'inin Emerald. Cancer. Muriel. 

n>in Sapphire. Leo. Verchel. 

Vnn Diamond. Virgo. HumatieL 

>fin^ Jacinth. Libra. Zuriel. 

nriM Agate. Scorpio. Barbiel. 

>f|)n Amethyst Sagittarius. Adnachiel. 

^pl^n Beryl. Capricornus. Humiel. 

iTHI Onyx. Aquarius. Gabriel. 

nvn Jasper. Pisces. , Barchiel. 

These stones had also reference to the twelve 
tribes of Israel, twelve parts of the human body, 
twelve plants, twelve birds, twelve minerals, 
twelve hierarchies of devils, &c. &c. usque ad 

It is evident that all this absurd nonsense was 
founded on the twelve precious stones in the 
breast-plate of the High Priest (Expdus xxviii. 
15.: see aJso Numbers xxvii. 28., and 1 Samuel 
xxviii. 6.). I may add that in the glorious de- 
scription of the Holy City, in Revelation xxi., the 
mystical number twelve is agjun connected with 
precious stones. 

In the SympaOiia Septem MetaUorum ac Septem . 
Selectorum Lapidum ad Planetas, bv the^ noted 
Peter Arlensis de Scudalupis, the following are 
the stones and metals which are recorded as 
sympathising with what the ancients termed the 
seven planets (I translate the original words) : 

Saturn - Turquoise. Lead. 

Jupiter - Cornelian. Tin. 

Mars - - Emerald. Iron. 

Sun - - Diamond. Gold. 

Venus- - Amethyst. Copper. 

Mercury - Loadstone. Quicksilver. 

Moon - - Cbrystal. Silver. 

N. D. inquires in what works he will find the 
emblematical meanings of precious stones de- 
scribed. For a great deal of curious, but obso- 
lete and useless, reading on the mystical and 
occult properties of precious stones, I may refer 
him to the following works: — Les Amours et 
noveaux JEschanges &s Pierres PrecieuseSf Paris, 
1576 ; Curiositez inouyes sur la Sculpture TaUs'- 
manique, Paris, 1637 ; Occulta Naturce Miracvla^ 
Antwerp, 1567; Speculum Lapidi, Aug. Vind., 
1523 ; Zes CEuvres de Jean Betotf Rouen, 1569. 


L-'iyiLi^t;u uy 




[No. 220. 

HON-sEdrsBma disbasbs. 
(Vol.viii., p.616.) 

To gire a full and satisfactorT answer to the 
questions here proposed would involve so much 
professional and physiological detail, as would be 
unsuited to the coaracter of such a publication as 
" N. & Q." I will therefore content myself with 
short categorical replies, agreeable to the present 
state of our knowlcKl^e of these mjsteries of the 
animal economy. It is true as a general rule that 
the infectious diseases, particulany the exanthe- 
mata, or those attended by eruption — the measles 
for example — occur but once. But there are 
exceptional cases, and the most virulent of these 
non-recurrent diseases, such even as small-pox, 
are sometimes taken a second time, and are then 
sometimes, though by no means always, fatal. 

^ Why all the mammalia (for, be it observed, these 
diseases are not confined to the human race) are 
subject to these accidents, or why the animid 
economy should be subject to such a turmoil at 
all, or, being so subject, why the susceptibility to 
the recurrence of the morbid action should exist, 
or be revived in some and not in others ; and 
why in the majority of persons it should be ex- 
tinguished at once and for ever, remain amongst 
the arcana of Nature, to which, as yet, the physi- 
ology of all the Hunters, and the animal chemistry 
of all the Liebigs, give no solution. 

Those persons who take note of the able, and 
in general highly instructive, reports of the Re- 
gbtrar of Public Health, will observe that the 
word zymotic b now frequently used to signify 
the introduction into the body of some morbific 
poisons, — such as prevail in the atmosphere, or 
are thrown off by diseased bodies, or generated in 
the unwholesome congregation of a crowded popu- 
lation, which are supposed to act like yeast in a 
beer vat, exciting ferments in the constitution, in 
the case of the infectious diseases, similar to those 
which gave them birth. But this explains no- 
thing, and only shifts the difficulty and changes 
the terms, and is no better than a modification of 
the opinions of our forefathers, who attributed all 
such disorders to a fermentation of the supposed 
" humours " of the body. The essence of these 
changes in the animal economy, like other phe- 
nomena of the living principle, remain, and perhaps 
ever will remain, an unfathomable mystery. It 
is our business to investigate, as much as in our 

e)wer, and by a slow and cautious induction, the 
ws by which they are governed. 
Non-recurrence, or immunity from any future 
seizure in a person who has had an infectious 
disease, seems derivable from some invisible and 
unknown impression* made on the constitution. 

* This word is used for want of a better, to signify 
some unknown change. 

There is good reason to suppose that this im- 
pression may vary in degree m different indivi- 
duals, and in the same individual at different 
times; and thence some practical inferences are 
to be drawn which have not yet been well ad- 
vanced into popular view, but to which I cannot 
advert unless some reader of " N. & Q.'* put the 
question. M. (2) 


(Vol. viii., p. 594. &c.) 

Gabuchtthb*s apologies to Mb. Huohbs are 
due, not so much for neglecting his commnnica- 
tions as for misquoting them. We all owe an 
apology to your readers for keeping up so perti- 
naciously a subject of which I fear they will b^n 
to be tired. 

Mb. Hughbs has not stated that Richard Min- 
shull of Chester, son of Richard Minshnll, the 
writer of the letter of May 8, 1656, was bom in 
1641. What Mb. HfiOHBS did state (Vol. viiL, 
p. 200.) was, that Mrs. Milton*s brother, Richard 
Mlnshull of Wistaston, was baptized on April 7 
in that year ; and the statement is quite correct, 
as I can vouch, from havine examined the bap- 
tismal register. Richard MmshuU of Chester was 
aged forty or forty-one at the date of his father's 
letter, as shown below ; but even if he had been 
aged only fifteen, as supposed by Gablichithb, I 
do not see that there is anything in the language 
of the letter to call for observation. He had con- 
veyed to his father a communication from Randle 
Holmes, and the father writes in answer, — "Deare 
and loveing sonne, my love and best respects to 
you and to my daughter [Gablichithb may read 
dau|;hter-in-law if he likes, but I see no necessity 
for It], tendered w*** trust of y' health. I have 
reaceived Mr. Alderman Holmes his letter, to- 
gether with y", wherin I understand that you 
desire to know what I can say concerning our 
coming out of MinshuU House ;** axkd he proceeds 
to give the information asked for. 

Gablichithb, in his former communication, 
confounds Randle the great-grandfather with 
Randle the great-grandson, and in bis present 
one he confounds Richard MinshuU of Chester, 
the uncle, with Richard MinshuU of Wistaston, 
the nephew. I agree with Gablichithb that 
" he, Richard, the writer of the said letter, must 
be fairly presumed to have been married jit the 
date of such letter," which he addresses to his 
"Deare and loveing sonne;'* but what of that? 
Whom he married, your readers are informed at 
p. 595. He died in the year following his letter, 
at the ripe age of eighty-six. 

The misquotations noticed above would, if not 
pointed out, lead to inextricable confUsion of 
facts; and I am compelled therefore again to 

I uy '^^-^ "^^-/^ x^/ 


Jan. 14. 1854.] 



trouble joa. In order, if possible, to set the 
matter at rest, I will put together in the form of 
a pedigree, compressed so as to be fit for insertion 
in your columns, the material facts which have 
been the subject of so much discussion ; but, be- 
fore doing so, permit me a word of protest against 
some of the communications alluded to, which are 
scarcely fair to " N. & Q." ^ 

A correspondent (VoL vii., p. 596.) asks for in- 
formation as to Milton's widow, and Mb. Hughes 
(Vol. viii., p. 12.) refers him to a volume in which 
will be found the information asked for, and gives 
a brief outline of the facts there stated. On this 
Gablichithb (Vol. viii., p. 134.), misquoting Mb. 
HuoHBS, calls his attention to Mr. Hunter's letter, 
which, if Gablichithb had availed himself of the 
reference furnished to him, he would have found 
duly noticed. A second correspondent, Mb. Sib- 
OBB, whose literary services render me unwilling 
to find fault with him (YoLviiL, p. 471.), heading 
his article with five references, of which not one 

is correct, suggests as new evidence the very do- 
cuments to which Mb. Hughes had furnished a 
reference ; and a third, T. P. L. (quoting an ano- 
nymous pamphlet), jumps at once to the con- 
clusion that "there can be little doubt ** the 
author derived his information from an authentic 
source, "and, if so, it seems pretty clear" — that 
all the evidence supplied by heralds* visitations, 
wills, and title-deeds is to be discarded as idle 
fiction. Such objections as these, and the replies 
which they have rendered necessary, are, with 
the exception of the valuable contribution of 
Mb. Abthub Paget, the staple of the contribu- 
tions which have filled so much of your valuable 

I conclude with my promised pedigree, the 
authorities for which are the Cheshire Visitation of 
1663-4, and the Lancashire Visitation of 1664-5, 
confirmed hj the letter to Handle Holmes, and 
the legal documents published by the Chetham 
Society : 

John Mynihull, fourth and youngest son of John MynihuU of Mynshull, married the daughter 
and co.heireM of Robert Co(q>er of Wistatton, and founded the £unily lulMequently settled 
there, at stated in his great-grandson's letter. 

Handle Mynshull of Wistaston married the daughter of Rawlinson of Crewe, as sUted in his grandson's letter. 

Thomas Mynshull of Wistaston married Dorothy Goldsmith of Nantwich, as stated in his soi 

Richard Mynshull of Wistaston married Elisabeth, daughter or Nicholas Goldsmith of Bosworth, 
in ca Leic. (who was probably maternal aunt or great-aunt to the John Goldsmith men- 
tioned in Dr. Paget's will). He was the writer of the letters in 1656, and died in 1657. aged 
eighty-six. He had two daughters and three sons, viz. — 

Randle Mynshull of Wistaston married 
Ann Boot, and had seven children, of 
whom it will be necessary to mention 
three only, vis. — 

Thomas MynshuU, the apothecary cf 
Manchester, mentioned in Thomas 
Paget's will, aged fiftv-one in 1664, 
had five sons and four daughters. 

Richard Mynshull, alderman of Chester, 
to whom his father wrote the letter or 
May 3, 1656, aged forty-seven in 166S. 

Bkhard Mynshull, bapHnd April 7, 
1641. On June 4, 1680, he executed 
a bond, by the description of Richard 
MynshuU of Wistaston, firame-work 
knitter, to Elizabeth Milton of theeity 
of London, widow, who, though not 
sUted to be his sister, was evidently 
a near relative, as appears from the 
contents of the bond. 


John Mynshuh appears to 
have resided in Mianchester, 
where he was buried. May 18, 
17S0, and administration was 
granted at Cheshire to Elis- 
abeth Milton of Nantwich, 
widow, his lawfUl sister and 
next of kin. 

Elisabeth, baptised December SO, 16S8, married 
Milton in 1664, is described as of London in the 
bond flrom her brother, on the occasion of her 
purchase of an estate at Brindley in Cheshire ; is 
described as of Nantwich in three legal documents 
fVom 1713 to 17S5; by the same description, ad- 
ministered to her brother John in 1720, and made 
her will on August 22, 1727, which was proved on 
October 10 in the same year. 

J. F. Marsh. 


(Vol. viii., pp. 57. 398.) 

One of the most distinguished men of science 
in France, M. Chevreul, the editor (late or 
present) of the Annates de Chimie, &c., has com- 
menced a series of articles in the Journal des 
Savants on the subject of the divining-rod, the 
exploring pendulum, table-tuming, &c., his inten- 
tion being to investigate scientifically the pheno- 
mena presented in these instances. Having 
formerly written much on the occult sciences, 
and being a veteran in experimental science, 
M. Chevreul was generally deemed better quali- 
fied than most men living to throw light on the 

intervention of a principle whose influence he 
thinks he has proved by his own proper experi- 
ence. It will be better to quote his own lan- 

" Ce principe concerne 1e diveloppement en nous d*une 
action musculaire qui tCest pas le produU d*une vofoniS, 
mais le ristdtat d*une pensee qui se porte sur un phSno- 
mine du monde exterieur sans prSoccupntion de faction 
musculaire indispensable cL la manifestation du phenomine. 
Get ^nonce sera d^velopp^ lorsque nous rappliquerons 
k Texplication des faits observes par nous, et deviendra 
parfaitement clair, nous Tesperons, lorsque le lecteur 
verra qu'il est i'expression precise de ces memes faits," 

A farther quotation (if it should not prove too 
long for**N. & Q.") from M.Chevreurs prelimi- 



[No. -22a 

nary remarks will be thought interesting by many 
persons : 

** En definitive, nous esp^rons montrer d*une mani^re 
precise comment des gens d*esprit, sous Tinfluence de 
Vamour du mervellleux, si naturel a Thomme, fran- 
chissent la limite du connu, du fini, et, d^s lors, com- 
ment, ne sentant pas le besoin de soumettre a un 
examen r^fl^chi I'opinion nouvelle qui leur arrive sous 
le cachet du mervellleux et du surnaturel, ils adoptent 
soudainement ce qui, ^tudi^ froidement, rentrerait dans 
le domaine des faits aux causes desquels il est donne 
d Thomme de remonter. £xiste-t-il une preuve plus 
forte de Tamour de Thomme pour le merveilleux, que 
l*accueil fait de nos jours aux tables tournantes? 
Nous ne le pensons pas. Plus d'un esprit fort, qui 
accuse ses p^res de credulity en rejetant leurs traditions 
religieuses contemporains de Louis XIV., ont repouss6 
comme impossible un traite de chimere. Ce fait con- 
firme ce que nous avons dit de la credulity a propos de 
YEssai sur la Magie d'Eusebe Salverte, car si Tesprit 
fort qui repousse la r^v^lation ne s'appuie pas sur la 
metbode scientifique propre 4 discerner Terreur de la 
veritd, Tincertain du fait d^montr^, il sera sans cesse 
expos^ k adopter comme vraies les opinions les plus 
bizarres, les plus erron^es, ou du rooins les plus con- 

The two articles hitherto published by M. 
Chevreul in the Journal des Savants for the months 
of October and November, extend only to the first- 
mentioned subject of these inquiries, the divining- 
rod. The world will probably wait with some 
impatience to learn the final views of so eminent 
a scientific man. J. Macbat. 



(Vol.viii., pp.229.551.) 

Your correspondent is a very Ant«us. He has 
fallen again upon uim, and he rises up from it to 
defend the Heapian pronunciation with renewed 
vigour. But I cannot admit that he has proved 
the pedigree of humble from the Gaelic. 

But, even if uim were the root of a Sanscrit 
word, and not itself a derivative, still the many 
stages through which the derivation undoubtedly 
passes, without any need of reference to the 
Gaelic, are quite enough to establish the exist- 
ence and continuance of an aspirate, until we 
arrive at the French; and it has already been 
proved, that many words which lose the aspirate 
in French do not lose it in English. The pro- 
gress from the Sanscrit is very clear : 

Sanscrit, Kshama, 

Pracrit, Khama, 

Old Greek, Xd/xa ; whence x^M^ X<^/*«f«> X^«- 

Latin, Humus, humilis, 

Italian, Umile; because there is in Italian no 
initial aspirate. 

French, ^Humble; because in words of Latin 
origin the French almost always omit the aspirate. 

English, * Humble, 
And here it may be observed, that humilis never 
had, except in the Vulgate and in ecclesiastical 
writers, the metaphorically Christian sense to which 
its derivatives in modern tongues are generallj 
confined, and to which I believe the Gaelic umhd 
to be strictly confined. But the original words 
for humble are iosal and iriosal, cognate with the 
Irish iosal and iriseal, and the Cymric isel ; and 
the olden and more established words for the 
earth are, both in Gaelic and Irish, talamh and 
lar, cognate with the Cymric Uawr. 

All these facts lead to a reasonable suspicion 
that mm, umhal, and umhailteas (an evident na- 
turalisation of a Latin word) are all derived from 
Latin at a comparatively recent date, as certainly 
as umile, humilde, *hwnble, and ^humble are, and ia 
the same Christian sense. The omission of an 
aspirate in the Gaelic word is then easily ac- 
counted for, without supposing it not to exist in 
other languages, and for this very simple reason, 
that no Gaelic word commences with h. There 
are some Celtic roots undoubtedly in the Latin 
language. It would be difficult, for example, to 
derive mcenia, munire, gladius, vir, and virago from 
any other origin, but much the larger number of 
words, in which the two languages resemble each 
other, are either adoptions from the Latin or de- 
rivatives from one common source, e.g. mathair 
and mother, brathair and brother, as well as the 
Latin mater and /rater, from the Sanscrit mairi 
and bhratri, &c., as all comparative philologists 
are well aware. Would your correspondents call 
it the ^JEbrew language, because a Gael calls it, as 
he must do, Eabrach f E. C. H. 


TTie Calotype Process: curling up of Paper. — I am 
happy in having the opportunity of replying to your 
correspondent C. E. F. (Vol. ix., p. 16.), because, with 
himself, I have found great annoyance from the curling 
up of some specimens of paper. In the papers recently 
sold as Turner's, I find this much increased upon his 
original make, so much so that, until I resorted to the 
follovring mode, I spoiled several sheets intended for 
negatives, by staining the back of the paper, and which 
thereby gave a difference of intensity when developed 
after exposure in the camera. 

I have provided myself with some very thick extra 
white blotting-paper (procured of Sandford). This 
being thoroughly damped, and placed between two 
pieces of slate, remains so for many weeks. If the 
paper intended to be used is properly interleaved be- 
tween this damp blotting-paper, and allowed to remain 
there twelve hours at least before it is to be iodized, it 
will be found to work most easily. It should be barely 
as damp as paper which is intended to be printed on. 

LJiyiiiz-tJU uy 


Jan. 14. 1854.] 



This arrangement will be found exceedingly useful for 
damping evenly cardboard and printed positives when 
they are intended to be mounted, so as^to ensure their 
perfect flatness. 

It is quite immaterial whether the paper is floated 
on a solution or applied with a glass rod. If a very 
few sheets are to be manipulated upon, then, for eco- 
nomy, the glass rod is preferable ; but if several, the 
floating has the advantage, because it ensures the most 
even application. I sent you a short paragraph 
(Vol. ix., p. 32.) showing how we may be deceived 
in water-marks upon paper ; and when we are suppos- 
ing ourselves to be using a paper of a particular date, 
in fact we are not doing so. 

I would also caution your photographic correspon- 
dents from being deceived in the quality of a paper by 
the exceeding high gloss which is given it by extra 
hot-pressing. This is very pleasing to the eye, and 
would be a great advantage if the paper were to remain 
dry ; but in the various washings and soakings which 
it undergoes in the several processes before the per- 
fect picture is formed, the artificial surface is entirely 
removed, and it is only upon a paper of a natural firm 
and even make that favourable results will be procured. 

H. W. Diamond. 

Turner's Paper, — There is great difficulty in pro- 
curing good paper of Turner's make ; he having lately 
undertaken a contract for Government in making 
paper for the new stamps, the manufacture of paper 
for photographic purposes has been to him of little 
importance. In fact, this observation, of the little im- 
portance of photographic compared to other papers, 
applies to all our great paper-makers, who have it in 
their power to make a suitable article. Mr. Towgood 
of St. Neots has been induced to manufacture a batch 
expressly for photography ; but we regret to say that, 
although it is admirably adapted for albumenizing and 
printing positives, it is not favourable for iodizing, 
less so than his original make for ordinary purposes. 
All manufacturers, in order to please the eye, use 
bleaching materials, which deteriorate the paper che- 
mically. They should be thoroughly impressed with 
the truth, that colour is of little consequence. A bad' 
coloured paper is of no importance ; it is the extraneous 
substances in the paper itself which do the mischief. 


A Practical Photographic Query, •— I have never had 
a practical lesson on photography. I have worked it 
out as far as I could myself and I have derived much 
information in reading the pages of ** N. & Q.," so that 
now I consider myself (although we are all apt to 
flatter ourselves) an average good manipulator. Inde- 
pendently of the information you have afforded me, I 
have read all the works upon photography which I 
could procure ; and as the most extensive one is that 
by Mr. Robert Hunt, I went to the Exhibition of the 
Photographic Society just opened, thinking I might 
there see his works, and gain that information from 
an inspection of them which I desired. My disap- 
pointment was great on finding that Mr. Hunt does 
not exhibit, nor have I been able to see any of his 
specimens elsewhere. May I ask if Mr. Hunt ever 

attempts anything practically, or is it to the theory of 
photography alone that he directs his attention ? 

I begin to fear, unless he lets a little of each go 
hand-in-hand, that he will mislead some of us ama> 
teurs, although I am quite sure unintentionally ; for 
personally I much respect him, having a high opinion of 
his scientific attainments. 

A Reader of all Books on Photografht. 

^^ Service is no Inheritance** (Vol. viii., p. 587. ; 
Vol. ix., p. 20.).— P. C. S. S. confesses that be is 
vulgar enough to take great delight in Swift*s 
Directions to Servants, a taste which he had once 
the good fortune of hearing avowed by no less a 
man than Sir W. Scott himself. G. M. T., who 
(Vol. viii., p. 587.) quotes the Waverley Novels for 
the use of the phrase " Service is no inheritance,'* 
will therefore scarcely be surprised to find that it 
occurs frequently in Swift's Directions, and es- 
pecially in those to the " Housemaid," chap. x. 
{qujod vide), P. C. S. S. 

Francis Browne (Vol. viii., p. 639.). — It is not 
stated in the general pedigrees when or where he 
died, whether single or married. His sister Eliza- 
beth died unmarried, Nov. 27, 1662 ; and his elder 
brother, Sir Henry Browne of Kiddington, in 
1689. A reference to their wills, if proved, might 
afibrd some information if he, Francis, survived 
either of these dates. The will of Sir Henry 
Knollys, of Grove Place, Hants, the grandfather, 
might be referred to with the same view, and 
the respective registers of Kiddington and Grove 
Place. G. 

Catholic Bible Society (Vol. viii., p. 494.). — 
Mb. Cotton will find some account of this So- 
ciety (the only one I know of) in Bishop Milner's 
Supplementary Memoirs of the English Catholics^ 
published in the year 1820, p. 239. It published 
a stereotype edition of the New Testament with- 
out the usual distinction of verses, and very few 
notes. The whole scheme was severely reprobated 
by Dr. Milner, on grounds stated by him in the 
Appendix to the Memoirs, p. 302. The Society 
soon expired, and no tracts or reports were, I 
believe, ever published by it. The correspondence 
between Mr. Charles Butler and Mr. Blair will 
be found in tJie Gentleman* s Magazine for the year 
1814. S. 

Fitzroy Street. 

Legal Customs (Vol. ix., p. 20.).— The custom^ 
related by your correspondent Causidicus, of a 
Chancery barrister receiving his first bag from 
one of the king*s counsel, reminds me that there 
are many other legal practices, both obsolete and 
extant, which it would be curious and entertain- 

L^iyinz-fc^u uy 




[No. 22a 

ing to collect in your pages, as illustratiTe of the 
habits of our forefathers, and the changes that 
time has produced. I recognise many among 
your coadjutors who are well able to contribute, 
either from tradition or personal experience, 
something that is worth recording, and thus by 
their mutual communications to form a collection 
that would be both interesting and useful. Let 
me commence the heap by depositing the first 

1. My father has informed me that in his early 
years it was the universal practice for lawyers to 
attend the theatre on the last day of term. This 
was at a period when those who went into the 
boxes always wore swords. 

2. It was formerly (within fifty years) the cus- 
tom for every barrister in the Court of Chancery 
to receive from the usher, or some other officer of 
the court, as many buns as he made motions on 
the last day of Term, and to give a shiUin<j for 
each bun. Edward Foss. 

iS'i7o (Vol. viii., p. 639.). — The word silo is de- 
rived from the Celtic siol, grain, and omA, a cave ; 
siolomh, pronounced sheeloo^ a ** grain cave." 
Underground excavations have been discovered 
in various parts of Europe, and it is probable that 
they were really used for storing grain, and not 
for habitations, as many have supposed. 

Fbas. Cbosslet. 

I have no doubt but that Me. Strong's Query 
respecting silos will meet with many satbfactory 
answers; but in the mean time I remark that 
the Arab subterranean granaries, often used by 
the French as temporary prisons for refractory 
soldiers, are termed by them silos or silhos. 

G. H. K, 

Laurie on Finance (Vol. viii., p. 491.). — 

" A Treatise on Finance, under which the General 
Interests of the British Empire are illustrated, com- 
prising a Project for their Improvement, together with 
a new scheme for liquidating the National Debt," by 
David Laurie, 8vo., London, 1815. 


Davids Mother (Vol. viii., p. 539.). — The fol- 
lowing comment on this point is taken from vol. i. 
p. 203. of the Rev. Gilbert Burrington*s Arrange- 
ment of the Genealogies of the Old Testament and 
Apocrypha^ Lond. 1836, a learned and elaborate 
work : 

** In 2 Sam. xvii. 25., Abigail is said to be the 
daughter of Nahash, and sister to Zeruiah, Joab's 
mother; but in 1 Chron. ii. 16., both Zeruiah and 
Abigail are said to be the daughters of Jesse ; we must 
conclude, therefore, with Cappell, either that the name 
B^n^, Nahash, in 2 Sam. xvii. 25., is a corruption of 
^, Jesse, which is the reading of the Aldine and 
Complutensian editions, and of a considerable number 

of MSS. of the LXX in this place; or that Jesse bad 
two names, as Jonathan io hit Targum on Ruth iv. 22. 
informs us ; or that Nahash is not the name of the 
father, but of the mother of Abigail, as Trenaellius and 
Junius imagine; or, lastly, with Grotius, we must be 
compelled to suppose that Abigail, mentioned as the 
sister of Zeruiah in 2 Sam., was a different person from 
Abigail the sister of Zeruiah, mentioned in 1 Chron., 
which appears most improbable.** 


Anagram (Vol. vii., p. 546.). — Some years 
since I purchased, at a book-stall in Colore, a 
duodecimo (I think it was a copy of Milton s De- 
fensio)y on a fly-leaf of which was the date 1653, 
and in the neat Italian hand of the period the 
following anagram. The book had probably be- 
longed to one of the English exiles who accom- 
panied Charles II. in his banishment. I have 
never met with it in any collection of anagrams 
hitherto published. Perhaps some of your nu- 
merous readers may have been more fortunate, 
and can give some account of it. 
** Carolus Stuartus, Anglice, Scotise, et Hibemise Rex, 
Aula, statu, regno exueris, ac bostili arte necaberis." 

John o' the Fokd. 

Passage in Sophocles (Vol. viii., pp. 73. 478. 631.). 
— Your correspondent M. b quite right in trans- 
lating ir^<rciy fareSy and referring it not to e«bs, 
but to the person whom the Deity has infatuated ; 
and he is equally right in explaining o^xywrrw 
Xpopovfor a very short time, np£rcr€L, the old read- 
ing restored by Herman, is probably right ; but it 
must still be referred to tne same person : lUe 
vero versatur, &c. Mb. Buckton explains f, 
which is the relative to poWf to signify icheriy and 
translates jSouAc^ctcu as if it were equivalent with 
fio6\tTai. Tby povv $ j8ovA.ei5€Teu is the mental power 
with which he (d ]8\o<^0€ls, not Beby) deliberates, 
"Atij is, as M. properly explains it, not destruction^ 
but infatuaiiony mental delusion; that judicial blind' 
ness which leads a man to his ruin, not the ruin 
itself. It is a leading idea in the Homeric theo- 
logy (II. xix. 88., XXIV. 480., &c.). 

Though the idea in the Antigone closely re- 
sembles that which is cited in the Sdiolia, it seems 
more than probable that the original source df 
both passages is derived from some much earlier 
author than a cotemporary of Sophocles. As to 
the line given in Boswell, it is not an Iambic 
verse, nor even Greek. It was probably made 
out of the Latin by some one who would try his 
hand, with little knowledge either of the metre or 
the language. Ma. Bockton says, that to trans- 
late 6\iyotrrov very short, is not to translate agree- 
ably to the admonition of the old scholiast. &ow, 
the words of the scholiast are ohlt oxiyov, not even 
a Utde, that is, a very little: so oM Tvr0^y ovS* 

Jan. 14. 1854.] 



^flu^v, o65^ futfwBa^ and many forms of the same 
kind. E. C. H. 

B. L. M. (Vol. viii., p. 585.).— The letters 
B. L. M., in the subscription of Italian correspond- 
ence, stand for bacio le mani (I kiss your hands), 
a form nearly equivalent to '' your most obedient 
servant.** In the present instance the inflection 
baciando (kissing) is intended. W. S. B. 

" The Forlorn Hope'' (Vol. viii., pp. 411. 569.). 
— For centuries the "forlorn hope was called, 
and is still called by the Germans, Verlome Posten; 
by the French, Enfans perdus ; by the Poles and 
other Slavonians, Stracoim poczta : meaning, in 
each of those three languages, a detachment of 
troops, to which the commander of an army assigns 
such a perilous jjost, that he entertains no hope 
of ever rescuing it, or rather gives up all hope of 
its salvation. In detaching these men, he is con- 
scious of the fate that awaits them ; but he sacri- 
fices them to save the rest of his army, i, e, he 
sacrifices a part for the safety of the whole. In 
short, he has no other intention, no other thought 
in so doing, than that which the adjective /orfom 
conveys. Thus, for instance, in Spain, a detach- 
ment of 600 students volunteered to become a 
forlorn hope^ in order to defend the passage of a 
bridge at Burgos, to give time to an Anglo- 
Spanish corps (which was thrown into disorder, 
and closely pursued by a French corps of 18,000 
men) to rally. The students all, to the last man, 
perished ; but the object was attained. 

It much grieves me thus to sap the foundation 
of the idle speculation upon a word the late Dr. 
Graves indulged in, and which Mr. W. R. Wilde 
inserted in Xh^Dvblin Quarterly Journal of Medical 
Science for February, 1849; but, on the other 
hand, I rejoice to have had the opportunity of 
endeavouring to destroy the very erroneous sup- 
position, that Lord Byron had fallen into an error 
m his beautiful line : 

" The full of hope, misnamed forlorn,** 

What the late Dr. Graves meant by haupt or 
hope, for head, I am at a loss to conceive. Haupt, 
in German, it is true, means head ; but in speak- 
ing of a small body of men, marching at the head 
of an army, no German would ever say Haupt, 
but Spitze, As to hope (another word for head) 
I know not from what language he took it ; cer- 
tainly not frbm the Saxon, for in that tongue head 
was called hea/od, hefed, or heafd; whilst hope was 
called hopa, not hope, C. S. (An Old Soldier.) 

Oak Cottage, Coniston, Lancashire. 

Two Brothers of the same Christian Name 
(Vol. viii., p. 338.). — I have recently met with 
another instance of this peculiarity, cfohn Upton, 
of Trelaske, Cornwall, an ancestor of the Uptons 
of Ingsmire Hall, Westmoreland, had two sons, 

living in 1450, to both of whom he gave the 
Christian name of John. The elder of these 
alike-named brothers is stated by Burke, in his 
History of the Landed Gentry, to have been the 
father of the learned Dr. Nicholas Upton, canon 
of Salisbury and Wells, and afterwards of St. 
Paul's, one of the earliest known of our authors 
on heraldic subjects. The desire of the elder Up- 
ton to perpetuate his own Christian name may 
in some way account for this curious eccen- 
tricity. T. Hughes. 

Passage in Watson (Vol. viii., p. 587.). — Your 
correspondent G. asks, whence Bishop Watson 
took the passage : 

" Scire ubi aliquid invenire posses, ea demum maxima 
pars eruditionis est.** 

In the account of conference between Spalato 
and Bishop Overall, preserved in Gutch*s CoUe<> 
tanea Curiosa, and printed in the Anglo-Catholic 
Library, Cosin*s Works, vol. iv. p. 470., the same 
sentiment is thus expressed : 

"By keeping Bishop OveralVs library, he (Cosin) 
began to learn, * Quanta pars eruditionis erat bonos 
nosse auctores;' which tras the saying of Joseph 

Can any of your correspondents trace the words 
in the writings of Scaliger ? J. Sansom. 

Derivation of " Mammef' (Vol. viii., p. 515.). 
— It may help to throw light on this question to 
note that Wiclif's translation of 2 Cor. vi. 16. 
reads thus : " What consent to the temple of God 
with matometisf' Calf hill, in his Answer to 
Martiall (ed. Parker Soc, p. 31.), has the follow- 
ing sentence : 

" Gregory, therefore, if he had lived but awhile 
longer ; and had seen the least part of all the miseries 
which all the world hath felt since, only for mainte- 
nance of those mawmots ; he would, and well might, 
have cursed himself, for leaving behind him so lewd a 
And at p. 175. this, — 

** That Jesabel Irene, which was so bewitched with 
superstition, that all order, all honesty, all law of na- 
ture broken, she cared not what she did, so she might 
have her mawmots.^ 

See also the editor's note on the use of the word 
in this last passage. In Dorsetshire, among the 
common people, me word mammet is in frequent 
use to designate a puppet^ a doll, an odd figure, 
a scarecrow. J* ^' ^' 

Ampers and, ^ or ^ (Vol. viii., p. 1^3.). -- 
Ampers 5% or Empessy Sf, as it is sometimes called 
in this country, means et per se Sf; that is to say, 
A- is a character by itself, or sui generis, represent- 
ing not a letter but a word. It was formerly an- 

L>iyiiiz-fc?u uy 




[No. 220. 

nexed to the alphabet in primers and spelling- 

The figure ^ appears to be the two Greek 
letters c and r connected, and spelling the Latin 
word etf meaning and. Unbda. 


Misapplication of Terms (Vol. viii., p. 537.)- — 
The apparent lapsus noticed by your correspondent 
J. W. Thomas, while it remincb one that — 

" Learned men, 
Now and then,** &c., 

is not so indefensible as many instances that are 
to be met with. 

I have been accustomed to teach my boys that 
legend (k lego^ to read) is not strictly to be con- 
fined to the ordinary translation of its derivative, 
since the Latin admits of several readings, and 
among them, by the usage of Flautus, to hearken ; 
whence our English substantive takes equal license 
to admit of a relation = a narrative^ viz. '* a thing 
to be heard ; ** and in this sense by custom has re- 
ferred to many a gossip*s tale. 

Having thus ventured to defend the use of fc- 
gend by your correspondent (Vol. v., p. 196.), I 
submit to the illuminating power of your pages 
the following novel use of a word I have met with 
in the course of reading this morning, and shall be 

g'atified if some of your correspondents (better 
recians than myself) can turn their critical 
bulFs-eye on it with equal advantage to its em- 

In the poems of Bishop Corbet, edited by Oc- 
tavius Gilchrist, F.S.A., 4th edition, 1807, an edi- 
torial note at p. 195. informs us that John Bust, 
living in 1611, "seems to have been a worthy 
prototype of the Nattus of Antiquity.*' CPersitts^ 
lii. 31.) 

Our humorous friend in the farce, who was 
•* 'prentice and predecessor " to his coadjutor the 
']>othecarv whom he succeeded, is the only sole- 
cism at aU parallel, that immediately occurs to 



P.S. — It would not be any ill-service to our 
language to pull up the stockings of the tight- 
laced occasionally, though I have here rushed in 
to the rescue. 

Belle Sauoc^e (Vol. viH., pp. 388. 523.). — Mr. 
Bum, in his Catcdogue of the Beaufoy Cabinet of 
Tokens presented to the Corporation of London, 
just published, after giving the various derivations 
proposed, says that a deed, enrolled on the Claus 
Eoll of 1453, puts the matter beyond doubt : 

*' By that deed, dated at London, February 5, 
31 Hen. VI., John Frensh, eldest son of John Frensh, 
late citizen and goldsmith of London, confirmed to 
Joan Frensh, widow, his mother — ' Totiun ten' sive 

hospicium cum suis pertin* vocat' Savagesynne, alias 
vocat* le Belle on the Hope ; * all that tenement or inm 
with its appurtenances, called Savage's Inn, otherwise 
called the Bell on the Hoop, in the parish of St. 
Bridget in Fleet Street, London, to have and to hold 
the same for term of her life, without impeachment of 
waste. The lease to Isabella Savage must therefore 
have been anterior in date ; and the sign in the olden 
day was the Bell • On the Hoop* implied the ivy- 
bush, fashioned, as was the custom, as a garland.**—- 
P. 137. 


Arms of Geneva (Vol. viii., p. 563.).— Berry's 
Encyclopedia and Robson's British Herald give 
the following : 

** Per pale or and gules, on the dexter side a demi- 
imperial eagle crowned, or, divided palewise and fixed 
to the impided line : on the sinister side a key in pale 
argent, the wards in chief, and turned to the sinister ; 
the shield surmounted with a marquis*s coronet.** 

Boyer, in his Theatre of Honour^ gives — 

" Party per pale argent and gules, in the first a 
demi-eagle displayed sable, cut by the line of partition 
and crowned, beaked, and membered of the second. 

" In the second a key in pale argent, the wards 


Bury, Lancashire. 

^^ Arabian Nights* Entertainments'** (Vol. viii., 
p. 147.). — There is a much stranger omission in 
these tales than any Mb. Robson nas mentioned. 
From one end of the work to the other (in 
G^land's version at least) the name of 0{>ium is 
never to be found; and although narcotics are 
frequently spoken of, it is always in the form of 
powder they are administered, which shows that 
that substance cannot be intended ; yet opium is, 
unlike tobacco or coffee, a genuine Eastern pro- 
duct, and has been known from the earliest period 
in those regions. J. S. Wabdek. 

Richard I. (Vol. viii., p. 72.). — I presume that 
the Richard L of the " Tablet " is the " Richard, 
King of England,** who figures in the Roman Ca- 
lendar on the 7th February, but who, if he ever 
existed, was not even monarch of any of the petty 
kingdoms of the Heptarchy, much less of all Eng- 
land. However, not to go farther with a subject 
which might lead to polemical controversy, surely 
Mb. Lucas is aware that a new series of kings 
began to be reckoned from the Conquest^ and that 
three Edwards, who had much more right to be 
styled kings of England than Richard could have 

Eossibly had, are not counted in the number of 
ings of that name ; the reason was, I believe, 
that these princes, although the paramount rulers 
of the country, styled themselves much more fre- 
quently Kings of the West Saxons than Kings of 
England, ^ J. S. Wabdbn. 

Digitized by v^3 -^^ ^^'^ ^ ^ 

Jan. 14. 1854.] 



Lord Clarendon and the Tvbwoman (Vol. vii., 
p. 211.). — I regret having omitted ** when found, 
to make a note of," the number of Chambers* 
Edinburgh Journal in which I met with the anec- 
dote referred to about Sir Thomas Aylesbury, 
which is given at considerable length ; and having 
lent my set of " Chambers " to a friend at a dis- 
tance, I cannot at present furnish the reference 
required; but L. will find it in one of the volumes 
between 1838 and 1842 inclusive. I do not re- 
collect that the periodical writer gave his authority 
for the tale, but while it may very possibly be 
true as regards the wife of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, 
it is evident that his daughter, a wealthy heiress, 
could never have been in such a position ; and it 
is not recorded that Lord Clarendon had any other 
wife. J. S. Warden. 

Oaths (Vol. viii., p. 605.). —Archbishop Whit- 
gifh, in a sermon before Queen Elizabeth, thus 
addresses her : 

•* As all your predecessors were at this coronatinn, so 
you also were sworn before all the nobility and bishops 
then present, and in the presence of God, and in His 
stead to him that anointed you, * to maintain the 
church lands and the rights belonging to it;* and this 
testified openly at the Holy Altar, by laying your hands 
on the Bible then lying upon it, (See Walton's Lives, 
Zouch'sed., p.243.)" 

I quote from the editor's introduction to Spel- 
man's History of Sacrilege, p. 75., no doubt cor- 
rectly cited. H. P. 

Double ChHstian Names (Vol. y\\, jpassirn), — 
The earliest instances of these among British sub- 
jects that I have met with, are in the families of 
James, seventh Earl, and Charles, eighth Earl, of 
Derby, both of whom married foreigners ; the 
second son of the former by Charlotte de la Tre- 
mouille, born 24th February, 1635, and named 
Henry Frederick after his grand-uncle, the stadt- 
holder, is perhaps the earliest instance to be found. 

J. S. Wabden. 

Chip in Porridge (Vol. i., p. 382. ; Vol. viii., 
p. 208.). — The aubjomed extract from a news- 
paper report (Nov. 1806) of a speech of Mr. 
Byng\«, at the Middlesex election, clearly in- 
dicates the meaning of the pbrase : 

** It has been said, that I have played the game of 
Mr. Mellish. I have, however, done nothing towards 
his success. I have rendered him neither service nor 
disservice." [" No, nor to anybody else,'* said a person 
on the hustings; "you are a mere chip in porridge,^*] 

W. R. D. S. 

Clarence Dukedom (Vol. viii., p. 565.). — - W. T. 
M. will find a very interesting paper on this sub- 
ject, by Dr. Donaldson, in ihe Journal of the Bury 
ArchcBological Society, G. 

Prospectuses (Vol. viii., p. 562.). — I have seen 
a very curious volume of prospectuses of works 
contemplated and proposed, but which have never 
appeared, and wherein may be found much in- 
teresting matter on all departments of litera- 
ture. A collection of this description would not 
only be useful, but should be preserved. A list 
of contemplated publications during the last half 
century, collected from such sources, would not 
be misplaced in **N. & Q.," if an occasional 
column could be devoted to the subject. G. 

^^Iput a spoke in his wheel" (Vol. viii., pp. 464. 
522. 576.). — This phrase must have had its origin 
in the days in which the vehicles used in this 
country had wheels of solid wood without spokes. 
Wheels so constructed I have seen in the west of 
England, in Ireland, and in France. A recent 
traveller in Moldo-Wallachia relates that the 
people of the country go from place to place 
mounted on horses, buffaloes, or oxen ; but among 
the Boyards it is " fashionable " to make use of 
a vehicle which holds a position in the scale of 
conveyances a little above a wheelbarrow and a 
little below a dung-cart. It is poised on four 
wheels of solid wood of two feet diameter, which 
are more or less rounded by means of an axe. A 
vehicle used in the cultivation of the land on the 
slopes of the skirts of Dartmoor in Devonshire, 
has three wheels of solid wood; it resembles a 
huge wheelbarrow, with two wheels behind, and 
one in front of it, and has two long handles like 
the handles of a plough, projecting behind for the 
purpose of guidmg it. It is known as " the old 
three- wheeled But." As the horse is attached to 
the vehicle by chains only, and he has no power 
to hold it back when going down hill, the driver 
is provided with a piece of wood, " a spoke," which 
is of the shape of the wooden pin used for rolling 
paste, for the purpose of " dragging *' the front 
wheel of the vehicle. This he effects by thrusting 
the spoke into one of the three round holes made 
in the solid wheel for that purpose. The operation 
of " putting a spoke in a wheel by way of impe- 
diment" may be seen in daily use on the three- 
wheeled carts used by railway navvies, and on the 
tram waggons with four wheels used in collieries 
to convey coals from the pit*s mouth. N. W. S. 


Every lover of Goldsmith — and who ever read one 
page of bis delightful writings without admiring the 
author, and loving the man — 

** . . . . for shortness call Noll, 
Who wrote like an angel, but talk'd like poor Poll ? **— 

must be grateful to Mr. Murray for commencing his 
New Series of the British Classics with the H^orks of 



[N"o. 220. 

OUver Goldsmith, edited by Peter Cunningham, F.S. A. 
The Series is intended to be distinguished by skilful 
editorship, beautiful and legible type, fine paper, eom- 
pactness of bulk, and economy of price. Accordingly, 
these handsome library Tolumes will be published at 
7«. Sd. each. If Mr. Murray has shoim good tact in 
choosing Goldsmith for his first author, be has shown 
equal judgment in selecting Mr. Cunningham for bis 
editor. Our ralued correspondent, it b well known, 
and will be proved to the world when he gives us his 
new edition of Johnson's Livtt of the Poett (which by 
the bye is to be included in this Series of Murray's 
British Ciassiet), has long devoted himself to the his- 
tory of the lives and writings of the poets of the past 
century. But in the present instance Mr. Cunning- 
ham lias had peculiar advantages. Besides his own 
collections for an edition of Goldsmith, he has had the 
firee and unrestricted use of the collections formed for 
the same purpose by Mr. Forster and Mr. Corney : 
a liberality on the part of those gentlemen which de- 
serves the recognition of all true lovers of literature. 
With such aid as this, and his own industry and ability 
to boot, it is little wonder that Mr. Cunningham has 
been able to produce under Mr. Murray's auspices the 
best, handsomest, and cheapest edition of Goldsmith 
which has ever issued firom the press. 

Of all the critics of Mr. Dod's Peerage, Baronetage, 
amd Knightage of Great Britain and Irdand, Mr. Dod 
is himself at once the most judicious and unsparing ; 
and the consequence is, that every year he reproduces 
his admirable compendium with some additional fea- 
ture of value and interest. For instance, in the volume 
for 1854, which has just been issued, we find, among 
many other improvements, that, at a very considerable 
cost, the attempt made in 1852 to ascertain and record 
the birthplace of every person who is the possessor, or 
the next heir, of any title of honour, has been renewed 
and extended with such success, that many hundred 
additional birthplaces are now recorded ; and the un- 
known remnant has become unimportant. These 
statements are perfectly new and original, acquired 
firom the highest sources in each individual case, and 
wholly unprecedented in the production of peerage- 



CoMPANioir TO TBI ALMANAC All published. 

Isaac Taylor's Physical Theory op anothbr Lipb. 

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Lbttbrs by Catholicus on Sir Robt. Peel*s Tamworth Address. 

Lond. 1841. 
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1. Folio. 
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1682. 8to. 

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Sintitti Xa CorreiefjpoiilfeiiU. 

We are compelled to postpone until next week several Notbs o!f 
Books and Noticbs to Cobrrspondbnts. 

Xf Mr. Krrslakb will send ike extract from kis cataiogue wkiek 
illustra/et tke corrupted passage in Childe Harold, " Thy waters 
wasted them," &c., we will give it insertion in our columns. 
J. W. T. Thanks. Your hint shall not be lost sight of, 
B. R. (Dublin). Erastianism is so called from Erastus^ a 
German heretic of tke sixteenth cemturp. {See, far farmer par- 
ticulars^ Book's Church Dictionary, s. v.) 

A Prieot. We do not Hke to insert tkis inquiry without beii^ 
able to give our readers a specific reference to some paper con- 
taining tke advertisement ; will ke enable us to do sot 

A. B. (Glasgow). This Correspondent appears to have fallen 
into an error; on reference ke wiUfind ether not washed ia re- 
commended ( vol. vi., p. 277.) ; indlg, ifke varnishes his pictures 
with amber varnish (Vol. rii., p. .^62.) previous to tke applirmtiOm 
of the black vamisk, wkiek skould be black lacquer and not Bnms- 
wick black, tken ke will succeed. Courtesy demands a reply ; 
but we must beg a more car^l reading of our recommemdmUons, 
wkiek will save kirn muck disappointmenL 

Photo-Inquirbr. Restoring Old Collodion. — TAe question 
was asked in a late Number, Mr. Crookes being a practical ms 
well as scientific pkotograpker, we kope to receive a solution of tke 

Indbx to Voluxb tub Eiorth. — Tkis is in a very fortoen-d 
state, and will be ready for delivery witk No. 221. on Saturday 

** Notbs and Qubribs,** Vols, f . to t1!., price Three Ouhfeas 
and a Half,— Copies are being made up and may be kmd Ay order, 

** Notbs and Qubribs ** is published at noon on Friday, so tkmt 
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and deliver them to tkeir Subscribers on tke Saturday* 

Lfiyiuz-t^u uy 


Jan. 14. 1854.] 



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L>iyiiiz.t;u uy '^i^j* ■^^^ %_/ pt ix^ 



[No. 220. 



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Th« Pablieationi for the year I85I-S were : 

Edited by J. Y. AKERMAN, Esq., Sec. S.A. 


fh>Tn a MS. in the Cottonian Library by 


English and Latin Dictionary of Words in 
Use during the Fifteenth Centunr, compiled 
chiefly from the Promptorium Parrulorum. 
By ALBERT WAY. Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
ToL IL (M to R.) iyow ready.) 
Books for 1852-3. 


taining, 1. Expenses of John of Brabant, 
1292-3 ; «. Household Accounts of Princess 
Elizabeth, I&51-2 ; 3. Requeste and Suite of a 
True-hearted Englishman, by W. Cholmeley, 
I.'»3; 4. Discovery of the Jesuits' College at 
Clerkenwell, 1627-8 » 6. Trelawny Papers ; 
6. Autobiography of Dr. William Ta«wrell.— 
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A Selection fh>m the Correspondence of the 
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to the year 1639. From the Origlnali in the 
possession of Sir Harry Yemey.Bart. To be 
edited by JOHN BRUCE, ESQ., Tie*. S.A. 

Tnr r "^ — "" T«"^— ^ - »-_„...- -_ ty^g 

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PAUL'S : a Description of the Manors belong- 
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BLONDE OF OXFORD, by Philippe de 
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Roman de Brut. 

Communications from Gentlemen desirous 
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WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary. 
25. Parliament Street, Westminster. 



1. Restorstion of King Ed- 
ward IV. 

5. Kyng Johan, by Bishop 

8. Deposition of Richard II. 
4. Plumnton Correspondence. 
& Anecdotes and Traditions. 

6. Political Sonsrs. 

7. Hayward's Annals of Eli- 

«. Ecclesiastical Documents. 

9. Norden's Description of 


10. Warkworth's Chronicle. 

11. Kemp's Nine Diiies Won- 


12. The Egerton Paners. 

13. Chronica Jocelini de Brake- 


14. Irish Narratives, 1641 and 

15. Rlshanger's Chronicle. 

16. Poems of Walter Mapes. 

17. Travels of Nicander Nu- 


18. Three Metrical Romances. 

19. Diary of Dr. John Dee. 

20. Apology for the Lollards. 

21. Rutland Papers. 

22. Diary of Bishop Cartwrieht. 

23. Letters of Eminent Lite- 

rary Men. 

24. Proceedings against Dame 

Alice Kyteler. 

25. Promptorium Parvulomm: 

Tom. I. 
88. Suppression of the Monas- 

27. Leycester Correspondence. 

28. French Chronicle of Lon- 


29. Polydore Vergil. 

30. The Thornton Romances. 

31. Vemey 's Notes of the Long 


32. Autobiography of Sir John 


33. Correspondence of James 

Duke of Perth. 

34. Liber de AntiquisLesibns. 

35. The Chronicle of Calais. 

38. Polydore Vergil's History, 

37. Italian Relation of Eng- 


38. Church of Middleham. 

39. The Camden Miscellany, 

Vol. I. 

40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton. 

41. Diary of Walter Yonge, 


42. Diaryof Henry Machyn. 

43. Visitation of Huntingdon- 


44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth. 
4iV. Twysden on the Govern- 
ment of England. 

46. Letters of Elizabeth and 

James VT. 

47. Chronicon Petroburgense. 

48. Queen Jane and Queen 

49. Bury Wills ind Inventories. 

50. Mapes de Nugis Curialium. 

51. Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guyl- 


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Library and MSS. of the late SIARL of 

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ISr^Hi, jinil fol3iiK'(n«' Dajin. the I[nT>o»t^<it 
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EAUL of MACARTNEY, A en lriaK9;i4ijr '.» 
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of Jtlslmii Attinrhury j State Fa|>en< of ^i 
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Cataloflcnet may now be had of MESSRS. 
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City of London, Publieher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.- Saturday, January 1 4. 1854. «•».»•«« 

L'lyui/.fcju uy 




*■ "WHea found, make a note of." — Captaik Cuttli. 

No. 221.] 

Saturday, January 21. 1854. 

f With Index, price 10<f- 
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SfoTKs: — 


A Plea for the City- Churchei, hy the 

Rev. R. Hooper - - - - 51 

'Echo Poetry - - - - - 51 

Ambicruity in Public Writing - -51 
ACaroloftheKinn - - - 53 

fiir W. Scott and Sir W. Napier - - 53 

IfuroR NoTu !— Sism of Rain— Commu- 
nications with Iceland— Starvation, an 
Americanism— Strange Epitaphs - 53 

<2cKaiM; — 

Buonaparte*s Abdication - - - 5i 

Death Wamin^rs in Ancient Families - 55 
iThe Scarlet Regimentals of the English 

Army - - - - - 55 

3ffiifOR QuKRivi : — Berkhampstead Re- 
cords — ** The secunde personne of the 
Trinetee " — St. John's, Oxford, and 
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*'en va-t-en guerre"— Prelate quoted 
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The Duke of Buckingham— Cliarles 
'Watson — Early (German) coloured 
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••JLuke's Iron Crown" — "Horam 
coram Dago" - - - - 57 

Slaprixs ; — 

Hobr Family, by Lord Braybrooke - 58 

Poetical Tavern Sisms - - - 58 

Translation fVom Sheridan, &c. - - 69 

Florins and the Royal Arms - - 59 
Chronograms, by the Rev. "W. Sparrow 

Simpson - - - - - 60 

Oaths, by James F. Ferguson - - 61 

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[No. 221. 

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lei-h fltShcrbomF. 1. »Ai>t)«ir« Mnr^*r^ 
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tihts^Max y^hlesiiSLrer'p ^Aunt^ijfifriini ^ 

KiiUltrrninet+T 'with. A Flntpl^ f Cm 
Iin prCKViaTnen N, IKKi, S. TJ|e TOKaiWof] 
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Sit ri>Bfitiiritine Phiji'pi fltml ^ir WiTlii^jn Vid» 
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BKkham E^r:^'tt F=n., Wtn. GiiiTlltier E-*i^ 
jj, /;--.-. ^■■-, .■- T -i^-'.^^.C: E.. Mr. 8^ 

NICHOLS & SONS, 26. Parliament^ Street. 


Jan. 21. 1854.] 





When a bachelor is foand wandering about, he 
cares not whither, your fair readers (for doubtless 
such a "dealer in curioMties" as you are has 
many of that sex who, however unjustly, have the 
credit of the " curious " bump) will naturally ex- 
claim " he must be in love," or *' something hor- 
rible has happened to him.** Let us, however, 
disappoint them by assuring* l^em we shall keep 
our own counsel. If the ibrmer be the cause, 
green lanes and meandering streams would suit 
his case better than Gracechurch Street, London, 
with the thermometer &ve or six degrees below 
freezing point, and the snow (I) the colour and 
consistency of chocolate. Such a situation, how- 
ever, was oiurs, when our friend the Incumbent of 
Holy Trinity, Minories, accosted us. He was 
going to his church ; would we accompany him ? 
We would have gone to Xew Zealand with him, if 
he had asked us, at that moment. The locale of 
the Minories was nearly as unknown to us as the 
aforesaid flourishing colony. On entering the 
church (which will not repay an architecture 
zealot), while our friend was extracting a burial 
register, our eye fell on an old monument or two. 
There was a goodly Sir John Pelham, who had 
been cruelly cut down by the hand of death in 
1580, looking gravely at his sweet spouse, a dame 
of the noble house of Bletsoe. Behind him is 
kneeling his little son and heir Oliver, whom, as 
the inscription informs us, "Death enforced to 
follow fast " his papaj as he died in 1584. 

And there was a stately monument of the first 
Lord Dartmouth, a magnanimous hero, and Master 
of the Ordnance to Charles H. and his renegade 
brother. We were informed that a gentleman in 
the vestry had come for the certificate of the 
burial of Viscount Lewisham, who died some 
thirty years ago ; that the Legge family were all 
buried here ; that after having dignified the aris- 
tocratic parish of St. George, BLanover Square, 
and the salons of May Fair, during life, they were 
content to lie quietly in the Minories I Does not 
the high blood of the " city merchant " of the 
present day, of the " gentleman " of the Stock 
Exchange, curdle at the thought? Yes, there lie 
many a noble heart, many a once beautiful face ; 
but we must now-a-days, forsooth, forget the 

I City as soon as we have made our money in its 

[ dirty alleys. To lie there after death ! poob, the 
thought is absurd. (Thanks to Lord Palmerston, 

' we have no option now.) 

Well, we were then asked by the worthy In- 
cumbent, " Would you not like to see my head ? " 

'Did he take us for a Lavater or a Spurzheim ? 

, However, we were not left in suspense long, for 

out of the muniment closet was produced a tin 
box ; we thought of Reading biscuits, but we were 
undeceived shortly. Taken out carefully' and 
gently, was produced a human head ! No mere 
skull, but a perfect human head I Alas I its 
wearer had lost it in an untimely hour. Start 
not, fair reader! we often lose our heads and 
hearts too, but not, we hope, in the mode our poor 
friend did. It was clear a choice had been given 
to him, but it was a Hobson*s choice. He had 
been axed whether he would or no ! He had been 
decapitated! We were told that now ghasi^y 
head had once been filled with many an anxious, 
and perhaps happy, thought. It had had right 
royal ideas. It was said to be the head of Henry 
Grey, Duke of Su^lk, the father of the sweet 
Lady Jane Grey. We could muse and moralise ; 
but Captain Cuttle cuts us short, ** When founds 
make a Note of it." We found it then there, Sir j 
will you make the Note ? The good captain doe* 
not like to be prolix. Has his esteemed old re- 
lative, Sylvanus Urban (many happy new years to- 
him !), made the note before ? 

We came away, shall we say better in mind ? 
Yes, said we, a walk in the City may be as in-- 
structive, and as good a cure for melancholy,- as- 
the charming coimtry. An old city church can 
tell its tale, and a good one too. We thought of 
those quaint old monuments, handed down fh>m 
older churches 'tis true, but still over the slum- 
bering ashes of our forefathers; and when the 
thought of the destroying hand that hung over 
them arose amid many associations, the Bard of 
Avon's fearful monumental denunciation came to 
our aid : 

" Blest be the man that spares these stones. 
And curst be he that moves these bones." 

St. Stephen's, Westminster. 


" A Dialogue between a Glutton and Echo^ 

Gl. My belly I do deifie. 

Echo. Fie. 

Gl. Who curbs his appetite's a fool. 

Echo, Ah fool 1 

Gl. I do not like this abstinence. 

Echo, Hence. 

Gl My joy 's a feast, my wish is wine. 

Echo. Swine ! 

GL We epicures are bappie truly. 

Echo, You lie. 

Gl, Who's that which giveth me the lie ? 

Echo, I. 

Gl What ? Echo, thou that mock'st a voice ? 

Echo. A voice. ^->. » 

^^ May I not, Echo, eat fl^,||L?oy LaOOglC 



[No. 221. 

Gl Wiirt hurt me if I drink too much ? 

Echo, Much. 

Gl Thou mook'st me, Nymph ; 1*11 not believe it. 

Echo, Believe*t 

Gl, Dott thou condemn then what I do ? 

EeKo, I do. 

GL I grant it doth exhaust the purse. 

Echo, Worse. 

GL Is*t this which dulls the sharpest wit ? 

Echo. Best wit. 

GL l8*t this which brings infirmities ? 

Echo, It is. 

GL Whither wiirt bring my soul ? canst tell ? 

Echo. Then. 

GL Dost thou no gluttons virtuous know? 

Echo, No. 

GL Wouldst have me temperate till I die ? 

Echo. I. 

GL Shall I therein finde ease and pleasure ? 

Echo, Yea sure. 

GL But is *t a thing which profit brings? 

Echo, It brings. 

GL To minde or bodie ? or to both? 

Echo. To both. ' 

GL Will it my life on earth prolong ? 

Echo. O long ! 

GL Will it make me vigorous until death? I 

Echo. Till death. 

GL Wiirt bring me to eternall blisse ? 

Echo. Yes. 

GL Then, sweetest Temperance, III love thee. 

Echo. I love thee. 

GL Then, swinish Gluttonie, TU leave thee. 

Echo. I'll leave thee. 

GL 1*11 be a belly-god no more. 

Echo, No more. 

GL If all be true which thou dost tell. 
They who fare sparingly fare well. 

Echo. Farewell. 

" S. J.*' 
** Hygiatticon : or the right Course of preserving Life 
and Health unto extream old Age : together with 
^ soundnesse and integritie of the Senses, Judge- 
ment, and Memorie. Written in Latine by 
Leonard Lessius, and now done into English. 
24mo. Cambridge, 1634.** 

I send the above poem, and title of the work it 
is copied from, in the hope it may interest those 
of your correspondents who have lately been 
turning their attention to this style of composi- 
tion. H. B. 



In Brenan*8 Composition and Punctuation^ pub- 
lished by Wilson, Koyal Exchange, he strongly 
condemns the one and the other^ as used for the 
former and (he latter^ or the first and the last. 
The understood rule is, that the one refers to the 
nearest or latter person or thing mentioned, and 
(he other to the farthest or former ; and if that 

were strictly adhered to, no objection could be 
raised. But I have found, from careful observation 
for two or three years past, that some of our 
standard writers reverse tne rule, and use the one 
for theformert and the other for the latter^ by 
which I have often been completely puzzled to 
know what they meant in cases of importance. 
Now, since there is not the slightest cnance of 
unanimity here, I think the author is right in con- 
demning their referential usage altogether. A 
French grammarian savs, ** Ce qui n*est pas clair 
n*est pas Frangais;** but though Frencn is far 
from having no ambiguities, he showed that he 
fully appreciated what ought to be the proudest 
boast of any language, clearness. There is a 
notable want of it on the marble tablet under the 
portico of St. Paul*s, Covent Garden, which says : 

** The church of this parish having been destroyed 
by fire on the 17th day of September, a.d. 1795, was 
rebuilt, and opened for divine service on the 1st day of 
August, ▲.D. 1798.'* 

The writer, no doubt, congratulated himself on 
avoiding the then common error, in similar cases, 
of " This church having,** &c. ; for that asserted, 
that the very building we were looking at was 
burned down ! But m eschewing one manifest 
blunder, he fell into ambiguity and inconclusive- 
ness equally reprehensible. For, as it never was 
imperative that a parish church should be always 
confined to a particular spot, we are left in doubt 
as to where tne former one stood ; nor, indeed, 
are we told whether the present building is the 
parish church. Better thus: "The church of 
this parish, which stood on the present site^ having,** 

Even with this change another seems necessary, 
for we should then be virtually informed, as we 
are now, that the church was rebuilt., and opened 
for divine service, t;t one day ! * Such is the care 
requisite, when attempting comprehensive brevity, 
for the simplest historical record intended to go 
down to posterity. It is no answer to say, that 
every one apprehends what the inscription means, 
for that would sanction all kinds of obscurity and 
blunders. When Paddy tells us of wooden panes 
of glass and mile-stones ; of dividing a thing into 
three halves ; of backing a carriage straight for- 
wards, or of a dismal solitude where nothing 
could be heard but silence, we all perfectly under- 
stand what he means, while we lau^h at his un- 
conscious union of sheer impossibilities. Clabus. 

* The following arrangement, wliich only slightly 
alters the text, corrects the main defects : ** The church 
of this parish, which stood on the present site, was de- 
stroyed by fire on [date] ; and, having been rebuilt, 
was opened for divine service on [date].** 

Digitized by 





Jan. 21. 1854.] 




According to one legend, the three sons of Noah 
-were raised from the dead to represent all mankind at 
Sethlehem. According to another, they slept a deep 
sleep in a cavern on Ararat until Messias was bom, and 
then^an angel aroused and showed them The Southern 
Cross, then first created to be the beacon of their way. 
When the starry signal had fulBlled its office it went 
on, journeying towards the south, until it reached its 
place to bend above The Peaceful Sea in memorial of 
the Child Jesu. 

Three ancient men, in Bethlehem*s cave, 

With awful wonder stand : 
A Voice had call'd them from their grave 
In some far Eastern land I 

They lived : they trod the former earth. 

When the old waters swelPd : — 
The ark, that womb of second birth. 

Their house and lineage held I 


Pale Japhet bows the knee with gold ; 

Brieht ^hem sweet incense brin^ : 
And Ham — the myrrh his fingers hold— 

Lo I the Three Orient Kings I 

Types of the total earth, they haird 
The signal's starry frame : — 

Shuddering with second life, they quaiFd 
At the Child Jesu*s name ! 

Then slow the patriarchs turn'd and trod. 

And this their parting sigh — 
•* Our eyes have seen the living God, 

And now, once more to die !** 

H. OP M. 


Some short time ago there appeared in Tke 
Times certain letters relative to a song of Sir 
Walter Scott in disparagement of Fox, said to have 
been sung at the dinner given in Edinburgh on 
the acquittal of Viscount Melville. In one letter, 
signed **W. Napier," it is asserted, on the au- 
thority of a lady, that Scott sang the song, which 
gave great offence to the Whig party at the time. 

Now, I must take the libertv of declaring thb 
assertion to be incorrect, I had the honour of 
knowing pretty intimateljr Sir Walter from the 
year 1817 down to the period of his departure for 
the Continent. I have been present at many con- 
vivial meetings with him, and conversed with him 
times without number, and he has repeatedly de- 
clared that, although fond of music, he could not 
sing from his boyhood, and could not even hum a 

tune so as to be intelligible to a listener. The 
idea, therefore, of his making such a public ex- 
hibition of himself as to sing at a public meeting, 

ut in the next place the cotemporary evidence 
on the subject is conclusive. An account of the 
dinner was published in the Courant newspaper, 
and it is there stated ** that one song was sung, 
the poetry of which was said to come from the 
muse of Uhe last lay,' and was sung with ad- 
mirable effect by the proprietor of the Ballantune 

It is perhaps unnecessary to explain that the 
singer was the late John Ballantyne, and I have 
my doubts if the song referred to in the contro- 
versy was the one sung upon the opcasion. This, 
however, is merely a speculation arising from the 
fact, that this was a song not included in Sir 
Walter Scott's works, which upon the very highest 
authority I have been informed was sung there, 
but of which Lord Ellenborough, and not Charles 
Fox, was the hero. It is entitled " Justice Law," 
and is highly laudatory of the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. It has been printed in the Supplement 
to the Court of Session Garland^ p. 10., and the 
concluding verse is as follows : 

" Then here's to the prelate of wisdom and fame, 
Tho* true Fresbyteriaiit we'U drink to his name ; 
Long, long may he live to teach prejudice awe, 
And since Melville*s got justice, the devil take law.** 

Again I repeat this conjecture may be erroneous ; 
but that Sir Walter never sung any song at all 
at the meeting is, I think, beyond dispute. J. M. 

Sign of Rain. — Not far from Weobley, co, 
Hereford, is a hish hill, on the top of which is a 
clump of trees called " Ladylift Clump," and thus 
named in the Ordnance map : it is a proverbial 
expression in the surrounding neighbourhood, that 
when this clump is obscured with clouds, wet 
weather soon follows ; connected with which, many 
years since I met with the following lines, which 
may prove interesting to manj of your readers : 

« When Ladie Lifk 
Puts on her shift, 
Shee feares a downright raine ; 
But when she doffs it, you will finde 
The raine is o*er, and still the winde. 
And Phoebus shine againe.** 

What is the origin of this name having been given 
to the said clump of trees ? J. B. Whitboene, 

Communications with Iceland, — In the summer 
of 1 851 1 directed attention to the communications 
with Iceland. I am just informed that the Danish 
government will send a war steamer twice next 
summer to the Faroe Islands and to Iceland, 

uiyi iiz-tju uy '«wj» 'K-.f ^''-^ ^\ ^ "^ 



[No. 221. 

oaUing at Leith both ways for passengers. The 
times of sailing will probably oe announced to- 
wards spring in the public prints. This oppor- 
tunity of visiting that strange and remarkable 
island in so advantageous a manner is worthy of 
notice, as desirable modes of getting there very 
rsrdy occur. 

Hie observing traveller, in addition to the 
wonders of nature, ^ould not fail to note there 
ibe social and physical condition, and diseases of 
tiie inhabitants. He will there find still lingering, 
fostered by dirt, bad food, and a squalid way of 
livins, the true leprosy (in Icelandic, spetalskd) 
which previdled throughout Europe in the Middle 
Ages; and which now survives only there, in Nor- 
way, and in some secluded districts in central and 
Bouthem Europe. He will also note the remark- 
4kble exemption of the Icelanders from pulmonary 
consumption; a fact which seems extraordinary, 
oonsjdering the extreme dampness, inclemency, 
aad variability of the climate. But the con- 
sumptive tendency is always found to cease north 
«f A certain parallel of latitude. 

Wm. E. C. Nouksr. 

S. Burwood Place, Hyde Park. 

StarvatioTit an AmericamsnL — Strange as it maj 
appear, it is nevertheless quite true that this 
word, now unhappily so common on every tongue, 
as representing tne condition of so many of the 
sons and dau^ters of the sister lauds of Great 
Britain and Ireland, is not to be found in our own 
English dictionaries ; neither in Todd*s Johnson, 
published in 1826, nor in Richardson*s, published 
ten years later, nor in Smart's — Walker remo- 
delled — published about the same time as Ri- 
chardson's. It is Webster who has the credit of 
importing it from his country into this ; and in a 
•upplement issued a few years ago, Mr. Smart 
adopted it as " a triciai word, but in very common, 
and at present good use." 

What a lesson might Mr. Ti'ench read us, t^at 
k riiould be so I 

Our <dder poets, to the time of liryden, used 
the eompound ^ hunger-starved.*' We now say, 
starved with cold. Chaucer speaks of Christ as 
" He that star/ for our redemption^" of Creseide 
"which well nigh star/ for feare ;*^ Spenser, of 
arms "which doe men in bale to sterve." (See 
Starve in Richardson.) In the Pardoneres Tale, 
V. 12799: 

<* Ye (yea), iterve he shall, and that in lesse while 
Than thou wilt gon a pas not but a mile ; 
This'j9otfoi> is so stroag and violent." 

And again, v. 12822 : 

'* It happed him 
To take the botelle there tbe poison was, 
And dronke ; and gave his felau drinke also, 
For which anone they stervtu bothe two.'* 

Mr. Tyrwhit explains, "to die, to perish;" and 
the general meaning of the word was, " to die, or 
cause to die, to perish, to destroy." Q^ 

Strange Epitaphs, — The following combined 
" bull " and epitaph may amuse your readers. I 
copied it in April, 185Q, whilst on an excursion 
to explore the gigantic tumuH of New Grange, 
Dowtn, &c. 

Passing through the village of MonknewtewOi 
about four miles from Drogheda, I ent^!^ a 
burial-ground surrounding the ivy-dad ruins of a 
chapel. In the midst of a group of dozen or more 
tombstones, some very old, all bearing the name 
of "Kelly," was a modern upright slab, well 
executed, inscribed, — 

" Erected by Patrick Kelly, 

Of the Town of Drogheda, Mariner, 

In Memory of his Posterity.*' 

" Also the above Pat&ick Ksllt« 

Who departed this Life the 12th August, 1844, 

Aged 60 years. 

Requiescat in Pace.^ 

I gave a copy of l^is to a friend residing at 
Llanbeblig, Carnarvonshire, who forwarded me the 
annexed from a tombstone in the parish church- 
yard there : 

** Of such is the Kingdom of H€avcn. 

Here lie the Remains of Thomas Chambbhs, 

Dancing Master ; 

Whose genteel address and assiduity 

in Teaching, 

Recommended him to all that had the 

Pleasure of his acquaintance. 

He died June IS, 1765, 

Aged SI.- 

R. H. B. 



A gentleman living in the neighbourhood of 
London bought a tame ^ye or six years ago at 
Wilkinson*s, an old established upholsterer on 
Ludgate Hill. 

In a ccmcealed part of the leg of the table he 
found a brass plate, on which was the foUowmg 
inscription : 

<* Le Cinq d*Avril, dix-huit cent quatorze, Napoleon 
Buonaparte signa son abdication sur cette table dans 
le cabinet de travail du Roi, le 2me apr^s la chambre i 
coucber, k Fontainebleau.** 

The peofde at Wilkinson*s could give no account 
of the table : they said it had been a long time in 
the shop ; they did not remember of whom it had 

Ljiyuiz.fc?u uy 


Jan, 21. 1854.] 



been bought, and were surprised when the brass 
plate was pointed out to them. 

The table is a round one, and rather pretty 
looking, about two feet and a half in diameter, 
and supported on one leg. It does not look like 
a table used for writing, but rather resembles a 
lady's work-table. The wood with which it is 
veneered has • something the appearance of beef 

Wilkinson's shop does not now exist : he used 
to deal in curiosities, and was employed as an 

The gentleman who bou^t this table is de- 
sirous of ascertaining at what time the table still 
shown at Fontainebl«au, as that on which the ab- 
dication was signed, was first -exhibited : whether 
immediately after the restoration of the Bourbons, 
or later, in consequence of a demand for shows of 
that sort ? Whether it is a fact that the Bourbons 
turned out the imperial furniture from Fontaine- 
bleau and other palaces after their return ? 

The date, " cinq d'AvrH," is wrong ; the abdi- 
cation was signed on the 4th. This error, how- 
ever, leads one to suspect Uiat the table Is genuine : 
as any one preparing a sham table would have 
been careful in referring to printed documents. 
From the tenor of the inscription, we may infer 
that it is the work of a Boyalist. 

The Marshals present with Napoleon when he 
signed his abdication were Ney, Oudinot, and 
L^evre ; and perhaps Caulinoourt. A Cantab. 

University Club. 


I marvel much that none of your contributors in 
this line have touched upon a very interesting 
branch of legendary family folk lore, namely, the 
supernatural appearances, aad other circumstances 
of a ghostly nature, that are said to invariably pre- 
cede a death in many time4Lonoared families of the 
united kingdoms. 

We have all heard of the mysterious " White 
Ladye," that heralds the approach of death, or 
dire calamity, to the royal house of Hohenzollern. 
In like manner, the apparition of two gigantic 
owls upon the battlements of Wardour is said to 
give sad warning to the noble race of Arundel. 
The ancient Catholic family of Middleton have 
the same fatal announcement made to them by 
the spectral visitation of a Benedictine nun; 
while a Cheshire house of note, I believe that of 
Brereton, are (n'epared for the last sad hour by 
the appearance of lar^e trunks of trees floating in 
a lake in the immediate vicinity of their family 
mansion. To two families of venerable antiquity, 
and both, if I remember right, of the county of 
Lancashire, the approaching death of a relative is 
made known in one case by loud and continued 

knockings at the hall door at the solemn hour of 
midnight ; and in the othei*, by strains of wild 
and unearthly music floating in the air. 

The " Banshee," well known in Ireland, and in 
the highlands of Scotland, is, I believe, attached 
exclusively to families of Celtic origin, and is 
never heard of below the Grampian range ; al- 
though the ancient border house of Rirkpatrick 
of Closeburn (of Celtic blood by die way) is said 
to be attended by a familiar of this kind. 

Again, many old manor-houses are known to 
have been haunted by a friendly, good-natured 
sprite, ycelpt a " Brownie," whose constant care 
it was to save the household domestics as much 
trouble as possible, by doing all their dru<]^ery 
for them during the silent hours of repose. Who 
has not heard, for instance, q£ the '*Boy of 
Hilton ? '* Of this kindly race, I have no doubt, 
many interesting anecdotes might be rescued from 
the dost of time and oblivion, and preserved for 
us in the pages of " N. & Q." 

I hope that the hints I have ventured to throw 
out may induce some of ^our talented contH« 
btttors to follow up the sul^ect. 

JoflK O* THX F4»D. 



When was the English soldier first dressed in 
red ? It has been said the yeomen of the guard 
(mdgo Beef-eaters) were the company which ori- 
gin^ly wore that coloured uniform ; but, seventy 
years before they were established, viz. tem^. 
Henry V^ it appears the military uniform of his 
army was red : 

** Rex vestit suos rtibro, et parat transire in Nor- 
man\MLXA,**'~-.jirehmolog, Soc, uttOf^mar,, Lond^ vol. xxi. 
p. 292. 

Wilfiam III. not only preferred that colour, but 
he thou^t it degradmg to the dignity of his 
soldiers uiat the colour should be adopted for the 
dress of any inferior class of persons ; and there is 
an order now extant, signed by Henry, sixth Duke 
of Norfolk, as Earl Marshal, dated De^. 20, 1698, 

** Forbidding any persons to use for their Uveriei scar- 
let or red cloth, or stuff; except his Majesty's servants 
and jfuards, and those belonging to the royal fiunilj 
or foreign ministers.** 

William rV., who had as much of true old 
English feeling as any monarch who ever swayed 
the English sceptre, ordered scarlet to be the 
universal colour of our Light Dragoons ; but two 
or three years afterwards he' was prevailed upon, 
from some fancy of those about him, to return to 
the blue again. Still, it is well known that dress- 
ing our Light Dragoons in the colour prevailing 



[No. 221. 

with other nations has led to serious mbtakes in 
time of action. A. 

Serihampstead Records. — Where are the re- 
cords of the now extinct corporation of Great 
Berkhampstead, co. Herts, incorporated 1618? 
And when did it cease to exercise corporate rights, 
and why? J.K. 

" 7%« secunde personne of the Trtnetee" 
(Volviii., p. 131.).— What does the "old En- 
glish Homily" mean by "a womanne who was the 
fiecunde personne of the Trinetee ? " J. P. S. 

StJohn^s, Oxford, and Emmanuel, Cambridge, — 
Can jour readers give me any information re- 
specting Thomas Collis, B.A., of St. John*s Col- 
lege, Oxford, ordained priest by Richard (Rey- 
nolds), Bishop of Lincoln, at Buckden, 29th May, 
1743 ? What church preferment did he hold, 
where did he die, and where was he buried ? 

Also of John Clendon, B.D., Fellow of Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, who was presented to 
the vicarage of Brompton*Regis, Somerset, by 
his College, in or about the year 1752 ? His cor- 
respondence with the Fellows of Emmanuel is 
amusing, as giving an insight into the every-day 
life of Cambridge a century ago. You shall have 
a letter or two ere long as a specimen. 

Thomas Collis. 


" Malbrouffh s*en va-t-en guerre** — Some years 
ago, at a book-stall in Paris, I met with a work in 
one volume, being a dissertation in French on the 
origin and early history of the once popular song, 
**^Malbrough s en va-t-en guerre." It seemed to 
contain much information of a curious and inte- 
resting character; and the author*s name, if I 
remember rightly, is Blanchard. I have since 
made several attempts to discover the title of the 
book, with the view of procuring a copy of it, but 
without success. Can any of your readers assist 
me in this matter ? Henby H. Bbeen. 

St. Lucia.* 

PrehUe quoted in Procopius, — In the 25th 
note (a), chap, xl., of Gibbon's Decline and Fall, 
there is a quotation from Procopius. Can any of 
your readers conjecture who is meant by the 
** learned prelate now deceased,*' who was fond of 
quoting the said passage. 2. 

The Alihenistic Order of Freemasons, — Can 
any of your readers, masonic or otherwise, inform 
me what is meant by this order of Freemasons ? 
The work of Henry O'Brien on the Round Towers 
of Ireland is dedicated to them, and in his preface 
they are much eulogised. H. W. D. 

Saying respecting Ancient History, — In Nie* 
buhr's Lectures on Ancient History, voL i. p. 355., 
I find — 

** An ingenious man once said, < It is thought that at 
length people will come to read ancient history as if 
it had really happened,' a remark which is really excel- 

Who was this "ingenious man" ? J. P. 

An Apology for not speaking the Truth, — Can any 
of your correspondents kindly inform me where, 
the German song can be found from which the 
following lines are taken ? 

« When first on earth the truth was bom. 
She crept into a hunting-horn ; 
The hunter came, the horn was blown. 
But where truth went, was never known.** 


Sir John Morant, — In the fourth volume of 
Sir John Froissart's Chronicles, and in the tenth 
and other chapters, he mentions the name of a 
Sir John Morant, Knight, or Sir John of Chatel 
Morant, who lived in 1390-6. How can I find 
out hi§ pedigree? or whether he is an ancestor 
of the Hampshire family of Morants, or of the 
Rev. Philip Morant ? H. H. M. 


Portrait of Plowden, — Is any portrait of Ed- 
mund Plowden the lawyer known to exist ? and if 
so, where ? p. p. p. 

Temperature of 'Cathedrals, — Can any of your 
readers favour me with a report from observation 
of the greatest and least heights of the thermo- 
meter in the course of a year, in one of our large 
cathedrals ? 

I am informed that Professor Phillips, in a 
geological work, has stated that the highest and 
lowest temperatures in York Minster occur about 
five weeks after the solstices ; but it does not ap^^ 
pear that the altitudes are named. T. 

Dr, Eleazar Duncon, — Dr. Eleazar Duncon. 
was of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, D.D., anno 
1633, Rector of Houghton Regis same year. Chap- 
lain to King Charles I., Prebendary of Durham. 
He is supposed to have died during the interregr 
num. Can any of your correspondents say when 
or where ? D. D, 

The Duke of Buckingham. — Do the books of the 
Honorable Society of the Middle Temple disclose 
any particulars relating to a " scandalous letter,'* 
believed to have been written by "a Templar'* 
to George Villiers, the -Great Duke of Bucking- 
ham, in 1626, the year before his grace was assas- 
sinated by Felton ; which letter was found by a 
servant of the inn in a Temple drinking-pof, by 

Liiyiiiz-fc^u uy 


Jan. 21. 1854.] 



whom it was handed over to the thea treasurer of 
the Society, Nicholas Hide, Esq. ? and was the 
author of such scandalous letter ever discovered 
and prosecuted ? Cbstbiensis. 

Charles Watson, — Can any of your readers give 
me any account of Charles Watson, of Hertford 
College, Oxford, author of poems, and Charles the 
Firsts a tragedy ? 

I believe a short memoir of this author was 
to have appeared in Blackwood's Magazine (the 
second volume, I think) ; it was never published, 
however. A. Z. 

' Early (Oerman) coloured Engravings. — I have 
six old coloured engravings, which I suppose to 
be part of a series, as they are numbered re- 
spectively 1, 2. 4. 11, 12, 14. They are mounted 
on panels ; and on the back of each is a piece 
of vellum, on which some descriptive verses 
in old German have been written. The ink re- 
tains its blackness ; but dirt, mildew, and ill usage 
have rendered neai-ly all the inscriptions illegible, 
and greatly damaged the pictures ; yet, through 
the laborious colouring and the stains, good draw- 
ing and expression are visible. Perhaps a brief 
description may enable some of your readers to 
tell me whether they are known. 

Nos. 1. and 11. are so nearlv obliterated, that I 
will not attempt to describe them. No. 2. seems 
to be St. George attacking the dragon. The in- 
scription is : 

'* Hier merke Sohn gar schnell und bald, 
Von grausam schwartzen Thier im Wald." 

No. 4. A stag and a unicorn : 

** Man ist von Nothin dass ihr wiszt, 
Im Wald ein Hirsch und Eikborn ist.** 

No. 12. An old man with win^ and a younger 
wearing a crown and sword. They are on the 
top of a mountain overlooking the sea. The sun 
is m the left comer, and the moon and stars on the 
right. The perspective is very good. Inscription 

No. 14. The same persons, and a king on his 
throne. The elder in the background ; the 
younger looking into the king*s mouth, which is 
opened to preternatural wideness : 

** Sohn in dein Abwesen war ich tod, 
Und mein Leben in grosser Noth ; 
Aber in dein Beysein thue ich leben, 
Dein Widerkunfil mir Freudt thut geben." 

The inscription is long, but of the rest only a 
word here and there is legible. Any information 
on this subject will oblige, H. 

Minav eftuerterf Wtb 9lnj«ttfrrf. 

History of M. Oujle.— Johnson, in his Life of 
Pope, says of the Memoirs of Scrihlerus : 

** The design cannot boast of much orifrinaVity : for, 
besides its general resemblance to Don Quixote^ thete 
will be found in it particular imitations of the History 
of M. Oufle,** 

What is the History of M. Oufle f L. M. 

[ The History of the Religious Extravagancies of Mon* 
sieur Oufle is a remarkable book, written by the Abb6 
Bordelon, and first published, we believe, at Amster- 
dam, in 2 vols., 1710. The Paris edition of 1754, in 
2 vols., entitled VlUstoire des Imaginations Extrava' 
pontes de Monsieur Oufle, is the best, as it contains some 
curious illustrations. From the title-page we learn 
that the work was " Occasioned by the author having 
read books treating of magic, the black art, demoniacs, 
conjurors, witches, hobgoblins, incubuses, succubuses, 
and the diabolical Sabbath ; of elves, fairies, wanton 
spirits, geniuses, spectres, and ghosts ; of dreams, the 
philosopher*s stone, judicial astrology, horoscopes, 
talismans, lucky and unlucky days, eclipses, comets, 
and all sorts of apparitions, divinations, charms, en- 
chantments, and other superstitious practices; with 
notes containing a multitude of quotations out of those 
books which have either caused such extravagant ima- 
ginations, or may serve to cure them.*' If any of our 
readers should feel inclined to collect what we may 
term ** A Diabolical Library,** he has only to consult 
vol. i. ch. iii. for a catalogue of the principal books in 
Mons. OufIe*s study, which is the most curious list of 
the black art we have ever seen. An English trans- 
lation of these JReligious Extravagancies was published 
in 1711.] 

Lyson£ MSS, — Is the present repository of 
the MS. notes, used by Messrs. Lysons in editing 
their great work, the Magna Britannia, known ? 


[The topographical collections made by the Rev, 
Daniel Lysons for the Magna Britannia and the En» 
virons of London, making sixty-four volumes, are in 
the British Museum, Add. MSS. 9408—9471. They 
were presented by that gentleman.] 

^^ Luke's Iron Crown*^ (Goldsmith's Traveller^ 
last line but two). To whom does this refer, and 
what are the particulars ? P. J. (A Subscriber). 

[This Query is best answered by the following note 
from Mr. P. Cunningham*s new edition of Goldsmith ; 

** When Tom Davies, at the request of Granger, 
asked Goldsmith about this line. Goldsmith referred 
him for an explanation of * Luke*s iron crown* to a 
book called Geographic Curieuse; and added, that by 
< Damiens* bed of steel * he meant the rack. See 
Granger's Letters, 8vo., 1805, p. 52. 

** George and Luke Dosa were two brothers who 
headed an unsuccessful revolt against the Hungarian 
nobles at the opening of the sixteenth century : and 
George (not Luke) underwent the torture of the red* 



[No. 221. 

hot iron ciovBy m m poniihneiie Ibr «Bo<rni^ himself 
.to be proclaimed King of Hungary (1513) by the 
wbeltious peflBantv (see Bw^raphie Ukivmttfkf xi. 
604. ). The tw» brotbecs ftetonged to one of Ae MttiTe 
xaees of Transylvania eaUed Saecldersr or Zecklers 
(FonterV GM^mi^ i. 3d5^ edit* 1854X'} 

^Jfforam coram Dago,^ — In the first YoEame 
of LavengrOy p. 89. : 

** Fi'om the river a chorus plaintive, wild, the words 
•f irfaidi sce» in memory's ear t« soond like * Hitram 
eeeam Dagvw*** 

I bsve somewhere read a 8ong» the chorus or 
refVain of which contained these three words. 
Can any of joar readers es^lun ? 2. 

[(Xur eoneapoodent is thinking of tbe soag ** Amo^ 
amee," by O^Keefe, whiefe will be ibuad in Thr Un^ 
mr9td Sm§9tVt Tfrf. i. p» 53^ and oHief eolleelionK. 
We ioigeiA tbe ehorua : 

•• Rorum coranr. 
Sunt diveram^ 
Harum scamm 
TiEg rag, merry derry, perriwig and hat-band', 
Hic hoc horum genitivo \ ^ 


(Vol. IX., p. 19.> 

Man^r Teflr» have passed away s«ce I went otcf 
Bisham Abbey ; bnt I was then informed that any 
family portraits belonging to the old House had 
been taken away by the widow of Sir John Hoby 
Mill, Baronet, who sold the property to Mr. George 
Yansittart in 1780, or shortly afterwards. I am 
not aware that there are any engraved portraits 
of the Hobysy excepting those mentioned by your 
eorre!^ndent Ma. Whitborkb, which form part 
of the series of HolbeinV SeadSf published in 
1792 by John Chamberlaine, from the ordinal 
drawings still in the royal collection. In the 
meagre account of the persons represented in that 
wore. Lady Hoby is described as " Elizabeth, one 
of the Ibur daughters of Sir Antony Cooke, of 
Gidea Hall, Essex,** and widow of Sir Thomas 
Hoby, who died in 1566, at Paris, whilst on an 
embassy there. The la<^ remarried Jo^ Lord 
Rosself, eldest son of Francis, second Eanrl of 
Bedford, whom she also survived, and deceaauig 
S3rd of July, 1584, was buried in Bishaoa Church, 
ia which rae had erected a d)apel containing 
splendid monuments to commemorate her husbands 
and herself. Tbe inscriptions will be found in 
Ashmole's Berkshire, vol. h. p» 464., and in Wot- 
ton*s Baronetage, vol. iv. p. 504., where the Hoby 
crest is given as follows ; ** Gn a chapeau gules 
turned up ermine, a wolf regreant argent.** The 

armorial bearings are described very minutely la 
Edward Steele's Account of Bi^am Church, 
Gough MSS., vol. xxiv., Bodleian, which contains 
some other notices of the parish. Bsatbbookb; 

FosTiCAi. TAvmsm flioara*. 

(VoL vUi., pp. 242. 452. 626^.) 

I send two specimens ^om thk neighbourhood^ 
which ma^, perhaps, be worth inserting in your 

The first is from a public-house on the Basing* 
stok^ road, about two miles from thw town. The 
sign-board exhibits on one side '^the Kvdjr 
e^tes ** of a grenadier in full uniform, hokHng in 
his hand a foaming pot of ale, on whidi he gazes 
apparently with much complacency and satis^faetioiK 
On the other side are these linea : 
" This is the Whitley Grenadier, 

A noted house for fiunous beer. 

My friend, if you should chance to call. 

Beware and get not drunk withal ; 

Let moderation be your guide, 

It answers well whene'er *ti» try'd. 

Then use but net abuse strong beer, 

And don*t forget tbe Grenadier.** 

The next specimen, besides being of a higher 
class, has somewhat of an historical interest. In 
a secluded part of the Oxfordshire hills, at a place 
called Collins*s End, situated between Hardwick 
House and Gormg Heath, is a neat little rustic 
inn, having fbr its sign a well-execnted portrait of 
Charles I. There is a tradition that this unfor- 
tunate monarch, while residing as a prisoner at 
Caversham, rode one day, attended by an escort, 
into this part of the country, and hearing that 
there was- a bowlb^-green at this inn, frequented 
by tbe ne^hbouring gentry, struck down to tW 
houses and endeavour^ to- forget hki sorrows Seht 
awhile ui a gasK^ at bowls. Thia eircvinatance ia 
attoded to in the following lines, whicfa are wnttok 
beneath the sign-board : 

•» Stop, traveller, stop ; in yonder peaceful glade^ 
His favourite game ttie royal martyr play'd ; 
Here, strippM of honours, children, freedom, rank. 
Drank from the bowl, and bowPd ^ wb«t be drank ; 
Sought in a cheerful glass bis cares to drown^ . 
And changed his guinea, ere he lost his crown.*' 

The sign, which seems to be a copy from Van- 
dyke, though much faded f^om exposure to the 
weather, evidently displays an amount of artialie 
skill that is not usually to be found among common 
sign-painters. I once made some inquiries about 
it of the people of the house, but the only inform- 
ation they could give me was that they believed it 
to have been painted in Lond6n. G. T. 


L/iyiii^t;u uy 




Jan. 21. 1854.] 




(Vol. yiE, p. 56«.> 

I earniot fbnrisli Ba]:.£ioi.en818 with fbe trans- 
lation from Sharn^ he requires, but I am ac- 
qtwunted wrth that from (rotdsmrth. It b to be 
Kumd somewhere in Valpy^s Classical Joumci, 
As that work is in forty volumes^ and not at hand, 
I am no* able to give a more precise reference. 
I recollect, however, a few of the lines at the 
•* Incola deserti, gressus refer, aCqne precanti 
Si» Biihi noctivagae dux, bone amiee, vis ; 
IKrige qui lampas solatia luce benigna 
I^raebet, et hospitif raunera grata %nt, 
Soltis enim tnstisque puer deserta per agro» 

MgtQ membra trahens deficiente pede, 
Qu^ spatiis circum immensis porrecta, patescunt 
Me visa augeri progrecBente, loca." 
«* Ulterius ne perge," sencx, "jam mitte vagari, 
Teque iterum noetis, eredeve, amice, dolis : 
Luce trahit species certa in di«erimina fati. 
Ah nimium nescis quo malefida trahat ! 
Hie inopi domus, hie requies datur usque vagan^i, 

Parvaque quantumvis dona, libente manu. 
Ergo verte pedes, caliginis imminet hora, 

Sume libens quidquid porvnla cella tenet . , ." 
No doubt there is a copy of the Classical Journal 
io tte Bodleian ; and if HALLiouiNsift ean give me 
volume and page, I m turn shall be much obliged 

: Htpatia. 

to him. 

The lines to which your correspondent Baluo- 
unniffrefiers — ^ 

" Conscia ni dextram dextera preasa premaf 

are a translation of the song in Sheridan's Duenna^ 
Act I. Sc. 2., beginning — 

« I ne*er could any lustre see," &e. 
They were done by MarmAduke Lawson, of St. 
John's College, CambrkJge, for the Pitt Scholar- 
ship in 1814, for which he was successful : 
•* PbyUidts cflTugiunt nos lamina. IMbia suntow 
Pulcra licet, nobis baud ea ptiicra micant. 
Nectar erat Idbiis, dum spes erat ista t^endi, 

Spes pent, isque simul, qui erat ante, decor. 
Votis me Galatea petit. Caret arte puella, 

Parque rosis tenero vernat in ore color : 
Sed nihil ista juvant. Forsan tamen ista juvabunt. 

Si jaceant, victa marte, mbore genas : ' 
Pura manus motltsque ihirt. Neque credere possum. 

Ut sit rera fides, ista premenda mihi est 
Nee bene credit amor (nam res est plena tirooris>^ 

Conscia ni dextram dextera pressa premat. 
Ecce movet pectus suspiria. Pectora nostris 

Ista legenda oeuHs, si metis urat amor. 
Bt, nostri modo cura memor nostrique ealoris 
Tangat earn, facere id mm pndor ullus erit.** 

JarV!ll*nJw Jl^^ ^^^i "^ '^ ^" ^^ ?"^^y • ^^«^y"*« ^^»^o.rse, edit. 1(59^, p. 121. 

got at. The Other translation I am not acquamted f London, 8vo., 1745, 2nd edit., then Clarenceu* 

B. King of Arms, and afterwards Garter. 



The placfng of the ny^al armir in fofir separate 
shields m the form of a cross first occurred npoB 
the medals struck upon the natirity of Eang 
Charles II., anno I630; and adopted tipon the 
reverse of the coins for the ilr^ time in \%^% 
upon the issue of what was then termed the im- 
proved milled coin, where the arms are so placed,^ 
having the star of the Garter in the centre; the 
crowns intersecting the legend, and two crowns 
interlaced in each quarter. Ttie shields, as l^re 
mtar^alled, are each surmounted by a crown; 
having in the top and bottom shield France and 
England quarterly, Ireland ou the dexter side 
(which is the second place), Mid ob the sinkter 
Scotland.* But on the milled money which IW- 
lowed, France and England being borne separately, 
that of France, which had been constantly borne 
in the first quarter singly until James I., and after^ 
wards in the first place quarterly with England, 
ra placed in the bottom shield or fburth qwter» 
Mr. Leake, in his Historical Accowit of Er^isi 
Money % after remarking that this irregular bear^ 
mg first appeared upon the nativity medals of 
Chaises II. in 1690, where the shi^ds are plaeed 
in^ thiff manner, adds, that thb waa no doubt 
originally owing to the ignorance of the graver, 
wha knew no other way to- place the arms circu- 
larfy- than fblfowing each other, Hke the titles, 
unless^ (as I have heard, says be) that the arms of 
each kingdom might fall under the respective title 
in the legend; and this wittj conceit has ever 
since prevailed upon the coin, except in some of 
King William and Queen Mary*s money, where the 
arms are rightly marshalled m one shield. Thai 
this was owing to the ignorance of the workman, 
and not with any design to alter the disposition^ 
of the arms, is evident from the arms upon the? 
■ great seal, where France is borne quarterly witk 
; England, in the first and fourth quarters, as it wa» 
likewise used upon all other occasions, until the 
alteration occasioned by the uni<»i with Scetlnd 
in 1707. 

In reference ta the arrangemoit ecmsequeni 
upon the union with Scotland, he observes that^ 
how proper soever the impaling the arms of the 
two kmgdoms was in other respects, it appeared 
with great impropriety upon the naoney. The four 
escocheons in cross had hitherto been marshalled 
in their circular order from the k/t, whereby 
the dexter escocheon was the fourth; accord- 
ing to which order the united arms, being quar^ 
tered first and fourth, would have fallen together? 
therefore they were placed at the top and bottom. 




[No. 22L 

which indeed was right : but then France by the 
same rule was then in the third place, and Ireland 
in the second ; unless to reconcile it we make a 
rule contrary to all rule, to take sinister first and 
dexter second. 

In the^ coinage of King George I., the re- 
presentation of the armorial bearings in four 
separate shields, as upon the milled money of 
Kmg Charles II., was continued. In the upper- 
most escocheon, England impaling Scotland ; the 
dexter the arms of his Majesty*s electoral domi- 
nions; sinister France; and in the bottom one 
Ireland, all crowned with the imperial crown of 
Great Britain. The marshalling of the four esco- 
cheons in this manner might and ought to have 
been objected to by the heralds (has it been 
brought under their cognizance ?), because it ap- 
pears by many instances, as well as upon coins and 
medals of the emperors and several princes of the 
empire, that arms marshalled in this circular form 
are blazoned, not in the circular order, but from 
the dexter and sinister alternately ; and thus the 
emperor at that time bore eleven escocheons round 
the imperial eagle. In like manner, upon the 
money of Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick, we 
see the crest with a circle of eleven escocheons in 
the same order. The same order is observed in 
marshalling the escocheons of the seven provinces 
of Holland; and there is a coin of theFmperor 
Ferdinand, another of Gulick, and a third of 
Erick, Bishop of Osnaburgh, with four escocheons 
in cross, and four sceptres exactly resembling the 
English coins. That it was not altered therefore 
at that time, the mistake being so evident, can be 
attributed only to the length of time the error 
had prevailed ; so hard is it to correct an error in 
the first instance whereby the arms of his Majesty's 
German dominions, which occupy the fourth quar- 
ter in the royal arms, do in fact upon the money 
occupy the second place; a mistake however so 
apj)arent, as well by the bearing upon other oc- 
casions as by the arms of Ireland, which be- 
fore occupied the same escocheon, that nothing 
was meant thereby to the dishonour of the other 
arms ; but that being now established, it is the 
English method of so marshalling arms in cross or 
in circle, or rather that they have no certain 

Until the union with Scotland, the dexter was 
the fourth escocheon ; from that time the bottom 
one was fourth; now the dexter was again the 
fourth. Such is the force of precedent in per- 
petuating error, that the practice has prevailed 
even to the present time : and it may be inferred, 
that fancy and effect are studied by the engraver 
before propriety. No valid reason can be ad- 
vanced for placing the arms in separate shields 
after their declared union under one imperial 
crown* J. 

- CHB0N0GBA1I8. 

(Vol.viii.,p.351. &c.) 

The banks of the Khine furnish abundant ex- 
amples of this literary pleasantry: chronograms 
are as thick as blackberries. I send you a dozen, 
gathered during a recent tour. Each one was 
transcribed by myself. 

1. Cologne Cathedral, 1722 ; on a beam in a 
chapel, on the south side of the choir : 

«pIa VIrgInIs MarIjb soDaLItas akmos s^CV- 
LarI rekoVat." 

2. Poppelsdorf Church, near Bonn. 1812 : 
"paroChIaLIs teMpLI rVIkIs jbDIfICabar.- ; 

3. Bonn ; on the base of a crucifix outside the 
minster, on the north side. 1711 : 



In Corpors Vrstro. 
1 Cor. 6." 

4. Bonn ; within the minster. 1770 : 



6, Aix-la-Chapelle ; on the baptbtery. 1660: 


paroChIaLb DIVI johaknIs 

6. Aix-la-Chapelle. — St. Michael; front of west 
gallery. 1821: 

"sVM pIa CIVItatIs 
LIbbraLItate RENO Vat a DeCorata.** 

7. Aix-la-Chapelle, under the above. 1852 : 

« eCCe 



8. Konigswinter ; on the base of a crucifix at 
the northern end of the village. 1726 : 

«Ik VnIVs VerI aC Ix 

CarnatI DbI honoreM 


Joannes Petrus Mumrer bt 

Maria Gengers Conjuges 

2 da Septembris." 

9. Konigswinter; over the principal door of the 
church. 1828: 

^'Bs 1st seInbs MenCher WohnUng sonDbsc bIk 

ubrrLIChes haUsz Unsbrbs gottes, i. b. o. kbb. 

BR. 29. c. v. I," 

10. Konigswinter ; under the last. 1778 : 
"VkI sanCtIssIMo Deo, patrI atqVb 

FiLIo spIrItVIqVb sanCto.** 

L'iyui/.t;u uy 


Jan. 21. 1854.] 



11. Eonigswinter; under the last. 1779: 

*<srIooii sVb MaX. frIDerICo konIosegg an- 
tIstIts CoLonIensI pIe gVjbermamte.'' 

12. Coblenz. — S. Castor ; round the arch of the 
west door. 1765 : 

«« DIro MarIa IVngfraV reIw 
Las CobLenz aubefohLen seIn.** 

Of these, Nos, 9, 10. and 11. are incised on one 
stone, the letters indicating the chronogram being 
rubricated capitals ; but in No. 10. the second I 
in " filio," and the first I in " spirituique," though 
capitals, are not in red. I shall be much obliged 
to any of your correspondents who can supply a 
complete or corrected copy of the following chro- 
nogram, from the Kreutzberg, near Bonn. The 
height at which it was placed, and its defectire 
colour, prevented me from deciphering the whole ; 
nor do I vouch for the correctness of the subjoined 
portion : 

«sCaLa IesV pk 


CLeMente AVaYsfo 

CoLonIensI pIe 

Some parts of this inscription might be conjec- 
turally supplied ; but I prefer presenting it as I 
was able to transcribe it. The staircase in question 
was erected by the Elector Clement Augustus, in 
or about 1725, in imitation of the Scala Santa at 
Kome. (See Murray*s Handbook,^ 

W. Spabbow SiMPson. 


(Vol. viii., pp. 364. 471.) 

In Primate Colton's Metropolitan Visitation of 
the Diocese of Derry^ a.d. 1397, edited by the 
Kev. William Reeves, D.D., it is stated, at p. 44., 
that several persons therein mentioned took their 
oath "tactis sacrosanctis Evangeliis ;** and in a 
note Dr. Reeves says that — 

** Until the arrival of the English the custom of swear- 
ing on the holy evangelists was unknown to the Irish, 
who resorted instead to croziers, bells, and other sacred 
reliquaries, to give solemnity to their declarations. 
Even when the Gospels were used, it was not uncom- 
mon to introduce some other object to render the oath 
doubly binding. Thus in a monition directed by 
Primate Prene to O'Neill, he requires him to be sworn 
* tactis sacrosanctis Dei evangeliis ad ea, et super Ba- 
culum Jesu in ecclesia cathedral! Sanctas Trinitatis 
Dublin.* {Reg. Prene, fol. 117.)" 

The following lines upon the subject in ques- 
tion will be found in the Bed Book of the Irish 
Exchequer : 

'* Qui jurat super librum tria facit. 

" Primo quasi diceret omnia que scripta sunt in hoc 
libro nunquam mihi perficiant neque lex nova neque 
vetus si mencior in hoc juramento. 

** Secundo apponit manum super librum quasi di- 
ceret numquam bona opera que feci michi proficiant 
ante iaciem Jeshu Christi nisi veritatem dicam quaudo 
per manus significentur opera. 

**Tercio et ultimo osculatur librum quasi diceret 
numquam oraciones neque preces quas dixi per os 
meum michi ad salutem anime valeant si falsitatem 
dicam in hoc juramento michi apposito.** 

Judging by the character of the handwriting, 
I would say that the above-mentioned lines were 
written not later than the time of Edward I. ; and 
as many of the vellum leaves of this book have 
been sadly disfigured, as well by the pressure of 
lips as by tincture of galls, I am inclined to think 
that official oaths were formerly taken in the 
Court of Exchequer of Ireland by presenting the 
book when opened to the person about to be 
sworn in the manner at this day used (as we are 
informed by Honore de Mareville) in the Eccle- 
siastical Court at Guernsey. 

It appears by an entry in one of the Order 
Books of the Exchequer, deposited in the Exche- 
quer Record Office, Four Courts, Dublin, that in 
James I.*s time the oath of allegiance was taken 
upon bended knee. The entry to which I refer is 
in the following words : 

"Easter Term^ Wednesday, 22nd April, 1618.— 
Memorandum : This day at first sitting of the court, the 
lord threasurer, vice threasurer, and all the barons being 
present on the bench, the lord chauncellor came hither 
and presented before them Thomas Hibbotts, esq., with 
his Majesty's letters patents of the office of chauncellor 
of this court to him graunted, to hold and execute the 
said office during his naturall life, which being read 
the said lord chauncellor first ministred unto him the 
oath of the King's supremacy, which hee tooke kneel- 
ing on his knee, and presently after ministred unto 
him the oath ordayned for the said officer, as the same 
is contayned of record in the redd booke of this court; 
all which being donn the said lord chauncellor placed 
him on the bench on the right hand of the lord threa- 
surer, and then departed thb court.*' 

James F. Ferguson. 


Splitting Paper for Photographic Purposes* — If the 
real and practical mode of effecting this were disclosed, 
it would be (in many cases) a valuable aid to the 
photographer. I have had many negative calotypes 
ruined by red stains on the back (but not affecting the 
impressed side of the paper) ; which, could the paper 

Liiyniz-fc^u uy 




£No. 221. 

have been split, would in all probability have been 
available, and printed welt 

I was sorry to see in " N. & Q," (Vol. viiL, p. 604.) 
an article under this head which went ihe round of 
the papers several months ago. Anything more im- 
practicable and ridiculously absurd than the directions 
there given can hardly be imagined : ** eylmders of 
amber !** or ** cylinders o^metaMh amalgam 1 1^ ** excited 
in the usual manner,** &c. I presume •hctrietd excita- 
tion is intended. Though, how cylinders of metci. are 
to receive electrical excitation, and to have sufficient 
attractive power over a sheet of paper as to rend it 
asunder, would be a problem which I believe even a 
Faraday could not solve : neither would excited glass 
Cylinders eflT^ the object any better; or if they could, 
it would be erecting a wheel to break a fly upon. 

The whole proposition must originally have been a 
hoax : in fact, we live in a day when the masses of the 
people are eauly induced to believe that eketricity can 
do everything. 

Another, and far more feasible plan has been pro- 
posed (" N. & Q.,** Vol, viii., p. 41 S.), vis. to paste the 
pi4>er to be split between two pieces of calico or linen ; 
and when perfectly dry, part them. One half, it is 
si^d, will adhere to eadi piece of the linen, and may 
afterwards be obtwned or set free from the linen by 

I have tried this widi partial, but not satisfiwtory 
success. It will be remembered that the re9wUt ai the 
fme proeeas were some years ago exhibited before a 
scientifc company (I think at the Rojral Institution), 
when a page of the Loudon IHuatraied News was first 
exhibited in its usual condition, printed on both sides ; 
and was then taken to an adjcmiing apartment, and in 
a short time (perhaps a quarter of an hour) re-exhibited 
to the company split into two laminae, each being per- 
feet Neither the patting plan, nor the electrioid gam- 
mon, could have effected this. I hope some of your 
feeders (they are a legion) wiM confer on photogra- 
phers the fevonr of inforaning 4^bem of ^lis art. 


Curling of Iodized Paper, — The difficulty which 
your correspondent C. £• F. has met with, in iodiziiig 
paper according to Da. Diamokd's valuable and simple 
process, may be easily obviated. 

I experieneed the same anno3Mnce of '* curling up ** 
till it was suggested to me to damp the paper pre- 
viously to floating it. I have nnce idways adopted 
this expedient, and find it answer perfectly. The 
method I. employ lor damping it is to leave it for a 
few hours previously to using it upon the bricks in my 
cellar : and I have no doubt but that, if C. £. F. will 
try the same plan, he will be equally satisfied with the 
result. W. F. W. 

How the Glass Rod is vsed. — Would you be kind 
enough to inform me how paper is prepared or excited 
with the glass rod in the calotype process? Is the 
solndon first poured on the paper, and then equally 
diffused over it with the rod ? Dvthus. 

[The manner in which the glass rod b io be used 
for exciting or develc^ing is very simple, although 
not easily described. The iterator must provide him- 

self with some pieces of thin board, somewhat larger 
than the paper intended to be used ; on one of these 
two or three folds of blotting-paper are to be laid, and 
on these t1>e paper intended to be excited, and which is 
to be kept steady by pins at the top and bottom right- 
hand corners, and the forefinger of the left hand. The 
operator, having ready in a small measure about thirty 
drops of the exciting fluid, takes the glass rod in his 
right hand, moves it steadily over the paper from the 
right hand to the left, where he keeps it, while with 
the left hand he poors the exciting fluid over the side of 
the glass rod, and moving this to and fro once or twice 
to secure an equal portion of the exciting fluid along 
the whole length of the rod ; he then moves the rod 
from left to right and back again, until he has ascer- 
tained that the whole surfece is covered, taking care 
that none of the exciting fluid runs over the side of 
the paper, as it is then apt to discolour the back of it. 
When the whole surfiuje has been thoroughly wetted, 
the superfluous fluid is to be blotted oflT with a piece 
of new blotting-paper.] 

30itplM to §Siixutt Ukuexiti. 

Wooden Tombs and Effigies (Vol. viii., p. 604.). 
— In addition to that mentioned by J. £. J., there 
is 8 wooden chest in the centre of the chancel of 
Burford Church, in the county of Salop, with a 
figure in plated armour on the top; the head 
resting on a helmet supported by two angels, and 
at the feet a lion crowned. An ornament of oak 
leaves runs round the chest, at the ed^e. T^ 
effi^ is supposed to represent one of the Com- 
wafi family, the ancient, but now extinct, barons 
of Burford. As I am preparing, with a view to 
publication, a history of this very ancient iknuly, 
with an account of the curious and interesting 
monuments in Burford and other churches, I 
should esteem it a favour if any of your corre- 
spondents could furnish me with authentic in- 
formation relative to any members of the family, 
or of any memorials of them in other churches 
than those of Worcestershire and Shropshire. 

J. B. Whitborns. 

Epiiaph OA Pc^xtitm (YoL viii., p. 537.). — Haiv 
wood's Alwgud Eiomntes, aj>. 15S0, Hen. YIIL, 
p. 22.: 

** Edward Bovington was bom at Bumham, and wm 
buried in the chapel. Some member of the College 
made these lines on him : 

*■ Uuom caput tres linguas habet, 
(Res mira 1) Bovingtonus.* ** 

This member must have seen Politian*s epitaph. 


Defo^s Quotation from Baxter on Apparitioiu 
(Vol. ix., p. 12.). — 'Die story copied by Da. Matt- 
land from Defoe*8 Life of Duncan Campbell^ is 
to be found nearly word for word in pp. 60, 6 L of 

Digitized by 



Jan. 21. 1854.] 



The Certainty of the Worlds of Spirks fyUy evinced 
Jty the unquestionable Histories of AfparitUms^ ^c, 
bj Bichard Baxter, London, 1691. I can trace 
no mention of the Dr. Beaiuncmt, author of the 
Treatise of Spirits, unless he be the "eminent 
apothecary in Henrietta Street, Coyent Garden,** 
stated by Nichols (Literary Anecdotes^ voL ix. 
p. 239.) to be the father of Mr. Beaununit, Begis- 
trar of the Bqyal Humane Society. 'AA^e^. 


Barrels Regiment (Vol.viii., p. 620.). — If the 
song referring to Barrel's regiment was written 
about 1747, it was not original, but a parody or 
adaptation of on^ in The Devil to Pay, performed 
as a ballad opera in 1731 ; and which still main- 
tains its place, if not on the stage, in recent edi- 
tions of the '* acting drama.** I have not an old 
edition of the play, but quote from a collection 
of songs called The Nightingalej London, 1738, 
p. 232. : 

" He that has the best wife, 

She's the plague of his life ; 
But for her that will soold and wHl ^uarrd, 

Let him cut her off short, 

Of her meat and ber sporty 
And ten times a day hoop her banrel, brave boys, 

And ten times a day hoop her band.** 

May I append a Query to my reply ? Was The 
Nightingale puhliBhed with a frontispiece? My 
copy is mutilated, but has belonged to some per- 
son who valued it much more highly than I do, as 
he has neatly repaired and replaced torn leaves 
and noted deficiencies. Prefixed is a mounted 
engraving of a bird in the act of singing, whidk, 
if intended for a nightingale, is really curious ; as 
it is of the size and shape of a pheasant, with cor- 
vine legs and beak, and a waUle round the eye 
like that of a barb pigeon. The book is " printed 
and sold by J. Osbom,** and shows that the post 
assigned to lum in The Dtmdad was not wane 
tiian he deserved. H. B. C. 

Garrick Club. 

[Our correspondent seems to have the veritable 
original engraving; the nightingale or pheasant, or 
whatever it may be, is mounted on a branch over a 
stream near to three houses, and a village on its banks 
Is seen in the distance.] 

Sneezing (VoL viii., pp. 866. 624.).— To iJie 
irery interesting illustrations given by Mr. Francis 
Scott of the ancient superstitions associated with 
sternutation, I should like to add one not less 
curious than any which he has eiven. It is re- 
corded in Xenoj^faon's Anabasis^ lib. iiL cap. 2. 

At the council of Greek generals, held after the 
death of Cyrus, Xenophon rose and made a speech. 
He set before his comrades the treadiery of their 
kte associate Ariseus; the serious difficulties 
attendant upon the position of the Gbi^eks ; and the 

necessity for immediate and vigorous action. Just 
as he had alluded to the probability of a severe con- 
flict, and had invoked Vae aid of the gods, one of 
the company sneezed. He paused for a moment 
in his harangue, and every one raesent did reve- 
rence (irpoa€ic6rqirap) to Jupiter. The circumstance 
seemed to give new spirit and fortitude to the 
whole assembly; and when Xenophon resumed, 
he said, " Even now, my comrades, while we were 
talking of safety, Zeus the saviour has sent us an 
omen; and I think it would become us to ofler to 
the god a sacrifice of thanksgiving for our pre- 
servation.** He then, in the manner of a modem 
chairman at Exeter E[all, invited all of that opinion 
to hold up their hands. This appeal having met 
a unanimous reiponse, ihey all made their vows, 
sung the pasan, imd the orator proceeded with hb 

The adoration of the god, or the use of some 
auspicious words*or religious formulary, appears to 
have been designed to avert any evil which might 
possibly be pcnrtended by the omen. It seems by 
no means certain that it was always regarded as 
tkTonrable. Xenopltoii, in the case referred to, 
contrived very adroitly to turn the incident to 
eood aecount, and to interpret it as a sign of the 
divine favour. The form ic one of the sentences 
I have translated — 

^'Eircl T^ e-tfTiifiias ^ft&y Xcytfrrafy ouwbs rov 

affords a little illostration of the benedicticm in 
current use among the Giweks on snch occasions, 
"^T^vmcopy J. G. p. 

Does *' Wurm^^ in modem Crermau, ever mean 
Serpent/ (Voi. viiL, pp. 465. 624.), — F. W. J. is 
quite right as regains his interpretation of tho 
word J^^trm, used by Schiller in his WaUensteiM 
in the passage spoken by Butler. 

Wtirm is not used in Grerman to mean a ser- 
pent. Serpents {Schlangsn) are vertebrata, and 
are therelbre not confounded with Wiirmer by the 
Germans. The language of the people frames 
pixrverbs, not the laii^age of science. The Ger- 
mans apply the word Wurm to express pity or 
contempt. The mother says to her sick chUd^ 
^'Armes WurmchenV^ simplifying poor, suflering, 
little creature. Man to man, in order to express 
contempt, will say ^'Elender Wurm I ^^ meaning 
miserable wretch; an application arising out w 
the contemplation of the helpless state and in- 
fierior constroction of tiiis division of the animal 
kingdom. The German proverb corresponds to 
UieBnglidi. C. B. d*0. 

L9ngfeMow's Reaper and the FLoioers (Vol. viii., 
p. 583^ — This chu^e of plagiarism, I think, ii 
not a substantial one. To compare Death to a 
reaper, and children to flowers, is a very general 
idea, and majr be thought by tbousands, and ex- 

L/iyiuz-tJU uy 




[No. 221. 

pressed in nearly the same words which Long- 
fellow, and before him Luisa Reichardt, have 
used. The first line of the two respective poems 
are certainly word for word the same, but tiiat is 
all ; although the tendency of both poems is the 
same. Longfellow's poem is much superior to 
that of L. Reichardt ; for, while the former has a 
beautiful clothing, colouring, and harmony, the 
latter is very crude, poor, and defective. Long- 
fellow's long residence in Grermany has indeed 
rendered him very susceptible to the form and 
spirit of Grerman poetry, and hence there exist in 
his i>oems frequently affinities as to general forms 
and ideas : still, affinities arising from such causes 
cannot justly be termed plagiarism, much less the 
accidental choice of a very widely existent, natural 
thought. When Byron wrote his opening line to 
The Bride o/Abydos, he did not probably think 

** Konnst du das Land wo die Citronen bliihen ? " 

Byron was not a German scholar; and as the 
opening line is the only analogy between the two 
poems, we may justly believe it natural for any 
one who has lived in southern lands, to ask sucn 
a question. The charge of plagiarism, I think, 
ought to rest upon grounds which evince an actual 
copying. C. B. d'O. 

Charge of Plagiarism against Paley (Vol. viii., 
p. 589.). — As a personal friend of the gentleman 
who, under the name of Yebitas, brought, about 
iiVQ years ago, a charge of plagiarism against 
Paley, I feel called upon to say a few words to 
Fiat Just. 

Truth cannot be refuted ; and F. J. may look 
at the translation of the old Dutch book of Nieu- 
wentyt's, which he will find in the British Mu- 
seum library, the same place where Vbbitas made 
the discovery while examining the works of some 
continental metaphysicians : and Fiat Just, will 
then no doubt regret having made the rash and 
illogical observation, ** that the accusation be re- 
futed, or the culprit consigned to that contempt,** 
&c. The character of Veritas as man, moralist, 
and scholar, does not deserve so unjust and rash 
a remark. 

The Dutch book, as well as the translation, are 
very scarce. Five and six copies of the latter 
could only be found at the time of the discoveir 
in London. C. B. d'O. 

Tin (Vol. viii., p. 5930. — The suggestions of 
your correspondent S. G. C. are ingenious re- 
specting the etymology of Cassiteros, but a slight 
examination will show they are erroneous. The 
Cassi was only one of the many tribes inhabiting 
Britain in the time of CsBsar, and it is by no 
means probable that it was able to confer its name 
upon the entire country, to the exclusion of all 
the rest; such as the Iceni, the Trinobanti, the 

Coritani, the Belgse, and various others too nume- 
rous to mention. We must bear in mind that the 
Phoenicians gave the name of Cassiterides to the 
British Isles ; and that in naming places they in- 
variably called them after some known or sup- 
posed quality possessed by them, or from some 
natural appearance which first arrested their 
notice : and such was the case in this instance. 
We learn that it was the common belief in ancient 
times, that the islands to the west of Europe were 
shrouded in almost perpetual gloom and darkness : 
hence the British Isles were called Cassiterides, 
from Ceas, pronounced Kass^ i. e. gloom, dark- 
ness, obscurity ; and tir^ i. e. lands, plural Ceasi^ 
terides, 1. e. '* the islands of darkness.'* And the 
tin which- the Phoenicians procured from them 
received the appropriate name of Cassiteros, t. e» 
the metal from the islands of darkness. 

Fbas. Cbosslbt. 

John Waugh (Vol. viii., pp. 271. 400. 525.; 
Vol. ix., p. 20.).— The Rev. tfohn Waugh was of 
Broomsgrove, Worcester, and died unmarried and 
intestate. Letters of administration of his estate 
in the province of York were granted Oct. 28, 
1777, to his five sisters and co-heiresses, Judith, 
Isabella, Elizabeth, Marv, and Margaret, spinsters, 
who all were living at Carlisle ; and were unmar- 
ried in August, 1792. Wm. Dubbant Coopbb. 

Rev, Joshua Brooks (Vol. viii., p. 639.). — 
Blackwood s Bdinbur^h Magazine for March, 1821, 
contains a paper entitled a " Brief Sketch of the 
Rev. Josiah Streamlet.*' Under this sobriouet^ a 
few incidents in the life of the Rev. Joshua 
Brooks are related, which may interest C. (1). 

G. D. B. 

Hour-glass Stand (Vol. viii., p. 454.). — There 
is an hour-glass stand attached to the pulpit of 
Nassington Church, Korthants. Kassingt^n is 
about SIX miles from the town of Oundle. 

G. R. M. 

There is an hour-glass stand in Bishampton 
Church, Worcestershire. Cuthbbbt^Bedb, B.A. 

Teeth Superstition (Vol. viii., p. 382.). — Mj 
wife, who is a Yorkshire woman, tells me that, 
whenever she lost a tooth as a child, her nurse 
used to exhort her to keep her tongue away from 
the cavitv, and then she would have a golden 
tooth. She speaks of it as a superstition with 
which she has always been familiar. Oxomiensis. 


Do^'whipping Day in HuU (Vol. viii., p. 409.). 
— This custom obtains, or used to do, in York on 
St. Luke's Day, Oct. 18, which is there known by 
the name of " Whip-dog Day." Drake considera 
the origin of it uncertain ; and though he is of 
opinion that it is a very old custom, he does not 


Jan. 21. 1854.] 



agree with those who date it as far back as the 

In the History of York, vol. i. p. 306., respecting 
the author of which a Quer/ has appeared in 
" N. & Q. ," Vol. viii., p. 125., the traditional ac- 
count of its origin is given : 

*' That in times of Popery, a priest celebrating mass at 
the festival in some church in York, unfortunately 
dropped the pix after consecration, which was snatched 
up suddenly and swallowed by a dog that lay under 
the table. The profanation of this high mystery occa- 
sioned the death of the dog ; and a persecution began, 
and has since continued on this day (St. Luke*s), to be 
severely carried on against all the species in the city.*' 

A very curious whipping custom prevails at 
lieicester, known by the name of "Whipping 
Toms," on the afternoon of Shrove Tuesday. It is 
thus described in Hone*s Year Book, p. 539. : 

** In this space (the Newark) several (I think three) 
men called « Whipping Toms,* each being armed with 
a large waggon whip, and attended by another man 
carrying a bell, claim the right of flogging every per- 
son whom they can catch while their attendant bell- 
man can keep ringing his bell.*' 

Perhaps some one of your correspondents will 
be able to afibrd an origin for this odd usa^c. 

E. W. Elliot. 
fi Clifton. 

A Spanish lady now resident in England, a mem- 
ber of the Latin Church, mentioned to me, some 
months since, a custom prevailing in her native land 
similar to that in Hull described by Me. Eichabd- 
80N. It arose on this wise : Once upon a time, on 
a high festival of the Church, when there was an 
exposition of the blessed Sacrament, a dog rushed 
into the church when the altar was unguarded, and 
carried off the Host. This deed of the sacrilegious 
animal filled the Spaniards with such horror, that 
ever after, on the anniversary of that day, all 
dogs were beaten and stoned that showed them- 
selves in the streets. Edwabd Peacock. 

Bottesford Moors. 

Mousehunt fVol. viii., jjp.Sie. 606.). — I think 
the inquiry relative to this animal may be satis- 
factorily answered by the following quotation from 
a very excellent and learned wort, entitled A 
Natural History of British and Foreign Quadru' 
peds, containing many Original Observations and 
Anecdotes, by James H. lennell, 8vo., London, 

** The Beech Marten is the Martet foina of modern 
zoologists, the Martes Fagorum of Ray, the Martes 
Saxorum of Klein, the Mustela Maries of Linnaeus, and 
the Mustela foina of Gmelin. Its English synonymes 
are not less numerous ; for, besides Beech Marten, it 
is called Stone Marten, Martern, Marteron, Martlett, 
and Mousehunt, The last name I insert on the authority 
of Henley, the dramatic commentator, who says it is 

the animal to which * charming Willie Sbakspeare * thus 
alludes in Borneo and Juliet : 

. * Capulet, 1 have watch*d ere now 

All night 

Lady Capulet, Ay, you have been a mouse-hunt in 
your time.* — Act IV. Sc. 4. 

** In Knight*s Pictorial Edition of Romeo and Juliet 
(1839), this and many other terms equally requiring 
explanation are left quite unelucidated ; though one 
picture of the said mouse-hunt would doubtless have 
been more assistant to the professed object of the work 
than the two unnecessary pictures it contains of certain 
winged monstrosities called Cupids."— P. 106. 

Mr. Fennell goes on to state, that the Beech 
Marten (alias Mousehunt) inhabits the woods and 
forests of most parts of Europe, seldom quitting 
them except in its nocturnal excursions ; and he 
adds that — 

** The Beech Marten does sometimes, in the Highlands 
of Scotland, where it is common, and called Tuggin, 
take to killing lambs, and makes sad havoc. Luckily, 
however, it is nearly exterminated in the south of that 
country. In Selkirkshire, it has been observed to de- 
scend to the shore at night time to feed upon moHusks, 
particularly upon the large Basket Mussel (Mytilus 
modiolus). But the ordinary prey of both this and the 
Pine Marten appears to be hares, rabbits, squirrels, 
moles, rats, mice ; game birds ; turkeys, pigeons, and 
other domestic poultry, and also the wild singing 
birds."— P. 109. 

In the above work Mr. Fennell has given many 
other interesting zoological elucidations of Shf^- 
speare, and of various other ancient poets. 

Gr. Tennyson. 

Kick mans worth. 

St. PauTs School Library (Vol. viii., p. 641.). — 
A catalogue of the library was privately printed 
in 1836, 8vo. It is nominally under the care of 
the captain of the school, who, having his own 
duties to attend to, cannot be expected to pay 
much attention to it : this readily accounts for the 
disorder said to prevail. 

It is believed to contain the copy of Vegetius 
de re militari, the perusal of which by Marl- 
borough, when a pupil at the school, imbued him 
with that love for military science he in after-life 
so successfully cultivated. 

It would be a good deed on the part of the 
wealthy company, the trustees of Colet's noble 
foundation, to enlarge the library and pay a salary 
to a librarian ; it might thus become a useful 
appendage to the school, and under certain regu- 
lations be made accessible to the vicinity. W. A. 

German Tree (Vol. viii., p. 619.). — In answer 
to the inquiry of Zeus, who wishes to be informed 
whether this custom was known in England pre- 
vious to 1836, 1 beg to refer him to Coleridge's 
Friend^ second landing-place, essay iii. (vol. ii. 



[No. 221. 

p. 249.), entitled ** Christmas witbm doors in the 
north of Germany.** The passage (apparently 
from Coleridge's jottrnal) is dated ** Ratzeburg, 
1799.** It is, I think, also extracted in Knights 
Half 'hours with the hestAuOiors. Coleridge went to 
Grermany in 1798 (Biog. Lit.^ toI. i. {>. 211. note) ; 
but I imagine the passage I refer to did not appear 
^ 1818, when The Friend was puUishea in 
three Tolnmes (Biog, Lit, vol. ii. p. 420.). As 
the bo<^ is so common, I do not think it worth 
while to copy out the account. Zbus has by this 
time, I hope, had a Christmas Yggdrasil m his 
Olympus. Ebtz. 

Derivation of the Word " Caah ** (VoL yiii., 
p. 386.). — May not the word cash be connected 
with the Chinese coin bearing that name, which 
Mr. Martin, in his work on Cmna (vol. L p» 176.X 
describes as being — 

".The smallest coin in the world, there being about 
ICXX) to 1500 (cash) in a dollar, t. «. one-fifth to ooe^ 
seventh of a fiirthing.** 

If I am not mistaken, the coin in qnestion is 
perforated in the centre to permit numbers of 
the pieces being strung toother, payments beine 
made in so many strings of cash. W. W. E. T. 

66. Warwick Square, Belgravia. 


2%« Poetical Works of John Dryden, edited by Robert 
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revised and carefully annotated edition of the English 
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_L BRANGEB, No. LXXXili., ftr JA- 


1. Census ofGreat Britain, 1861. 
. St. Alfonso de Liffoori's Theory of Tmtl^ 

5. T he l ^ench Polpit and the Conrt of 

4. Bishop Kaye on tiie Conndl of NIesMU 

6. Alison's Bu'type fVom the Fall of Napoleon.. 
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7. Notices of New Books, Pamphlets, ftc 
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Ca^e><, \% 10., mid ■!! iTtiiiLlmi. Ditto, ia SUvtn 
Ca^?'», Hy fi, and i g-uliiciis. RuticrJLitrljever, with 
Chnmi^iikclcr Bal&iicc, Guld. XT, SS, laid 19 
guin^'tti, Betiuetl'i PotliiflChryni'iTieler.^jold, 
SOL'uiuuM t Silver, if* (niinena. Everr Watch 
ski I fill I y I'S- Ami n ihcI , timed ► «nfi it* pe rftirmsDce 
guarnntteil, Bajtimei^ri. s^tJf^^^iuni 4!. Ther- 
mCi 1 1 "L-" f fH fV'irri \M. i^ajcii. 

BENNETT, Watch, Cloek, and Instrument 
Maker to tlie Royal Obserratqrjr, the Board of 

Ordnance, the Admiraltjr, and t 


JJL QtnLT is the warmest, the lifd^ft, 
and the most elennt Covering for the Bra, 
the Couch, or the Carriage ; and for In^cU, 
its conribrt cannot be too highly appreciated. 
It is made hi Three Varieties, of which a large 
Assortment oan be aeen at thehr EsUblish- 
ment. List of Prices of the above, together 
with the Catalogue of Bedsteads, sent nee br 

HEAL ft SON, Bedstead and Beddhur Mann- 
fkcturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road. 



[No. 221. 

Foonded A.D. 184S. 


J. Hunt, Esq. 
E. LncM, Eiq. 
J. Lys Seager. Efq. 
J. B. White, Esq 
J. Carter Wood, 

I, Esq. 

M $.d. 


£ ».d. 

- 1 U 4 


- 1 10 8 

- 1 18 8 



- 1 18 6 




-8 8 1 

T. 8. Cocks, Jun. Esq. 

G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, £ 
W. Freeman^ 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Qoodhart, Esq. 


W.Whftteler.Esq., Q.C. t Oeorte Drew, Esq. i 

T. Orissell, Esq. 

Fftysieian WUliam Rich. Basham, M.D. 

fani^v.— Messrs. Cocks. Biddulph, andCOn 
Charing Cross. 


POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the pajrment at interest, 
according to the condiUonsdetaUedin the Pro- 

Specimens of Ttates of Premium for Assuring 
lOOL. with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Proflti :- 





Now reoity, lirTft ifia. Rff,, ^worid Editton, 
with mateHut 9a<iit]r>nK. INLITT^fTKIA]. IN- 
VESTMRNT anil EMlGItATIOX: l«-1iitr a 
nteTiea, oad on the (General iViiuHvIci of 
LaniJ lFii,'«4tm*i:vt,e!i:eiTiiTliflftl Ifl tka CtK^r? of 
Freehnid tjind ?tietcLlt!i, Bui Id ins* CoiniiiiT:i;es, 
fta, Willi a Mnihemstlcftl AifpendLx; oxi Cuori- 
pDutid roU'irrt and Life Aiiura&co. Bi' AR- 
TnUB fiCRATCTILEV, M, A*, A^tmry to 
the We>tcm Life A^iiirojice Society ^ J* Parlia- 


Stibacrxbe d Capital, ONE M ILLIpy, 


The Security of a Subscribed Capital of ONE 

Exemption of the Assured from all Liability. 

Premiums affording particular advantages to 
Young Lives. 

Participating and Non-Participating Pre- 

In the former EIGHTY PER CENT, or 
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INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud. 

At the General Meeting, on the Slst May 
last, A BONUS was declared of nearly Two 
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or at the rate of from THIRTY to upwards of 
SIXTY per cent, on the Premiums paid. 

POLICIES share in the Profits, even if ONE 
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TheDirectors meet on Thursdays at 1 o'Clock. 

Assurances may be efiiected by applying on any 
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Office of the Society, where prospectuses and 

YYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at aU the Mio- 

y\. tocraphic Establishments.— The superiority of this preparation Is now nni-versalljr ae- 
knowleagea. Testtmonials from the best Photographers and principal sdentiflc men of the day, 
warrant the assertion, that hitherto no preparation has oeen discovered which produce* 
uniformly such perfect pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases 
where a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in aeparate 
Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to any Climate. Full instmetioos 
for use. 

CAtmeiv.— Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHABD W. 
THOMAS. Chemist, 10. PaU MaU, to counterfeit whteh is ftlony . 

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. 

The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label bearing this Signaturs 
and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMI^, 10. PALL MALL, Manufacturer of Pme 
Photogratdiio Chemicals t and may be procured of all respectable Chemists, in Pots at l«., Zt.. 
and s«. 6d. each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS, <7. St. Paul's Churchyard { and MESSRS. 
BARCLAY ft CO., wrFarringdon Stieet. Wholesale Agents. 

Established 1806. 

Trustees and Directors, 
Tim Ttiirlit ITon. T^.rd Nofthwk'k- 
Mnior-Gcn. (.'l-krirk!! RichnM Ptix. 
Sir Rklinnl D. Kini;, Burt, 
Sir Lrljtiiit' Earlt.' Welbj, Bitrt- 
Tlit lluii. ArttiurKliiuairaTltl*P. 
FrtilerSck l=li|uirE> Ea^r 
Hciit^ B. OgU]ruJ]Etlȣiq. 
The Kev. JainM RhcnnaD* 
The Htfv. l^ano Stjeucerr 
WHiiani Ueiiir}' St-une, Ei i, 
&c. SiC. lie. 
Managing Director, —John A. Beaumont, Esq. 

The Rates of Premium charged by the 
County Fire Office are upon the lowest scale 
consbtent with security to the insured. 

When a Policy has existed for a period of 
seven years, a return of 15 per cent., or one- 
fourth the amount of Premiums paid during 
that period, is declared upon such policy. 

The returns paid to the present time amount 
to nearly 100,0002. 

, AU losses are settled with promptitude and 






_ STREET. OPrrClAKS and riTlIjO- 
vite (lElpntlon td tlitjr Stwk of ST E H J-^O- 
SCOPE^ urall KIndi, lyaA In vArtoui M^EtHiOs; 
%\soy ti-i t1iiL<;f NF«r iiil ExtRTnlvf Aisortinimt 
of i^TKHFOSCOPIC Plf^TURE!^ for the 
same^ in D,^OUERREOTYPE. od PAfUR, 
TtTlES on Gr>AS^. tncludiuif Vie« i of 
Lontlun, Faria, tli<s Hhiii^, Wlnilwr, &;e- These 
PieliirM, for miutilciivtfs nf DetflJl and T.Mith 
in trirc H^prcseutaLLJon of Naturai Qtjuct^i, are 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet 
Street, London. 

••» " Familiar Explanation of the Pheno- 
mena" sent on Application. 

all other requisite infbrmation can be obtained. 

TUS, materials, and PURE CHE- 

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated CaUIogue, 
containing Description and Price of the best 
forms of Cameras andother Apparatus. Voight- 
lander and Son's Lenses fat Portraits and 
Views, together with the various Materials, 
and pure Chemical Preparations required in 
practising the Photofrraphic Art. Forwarded 
nee on receipt of Six Postage Stamps. 

Instructions given in every branch of the Art. 

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and 
other Photographic Specimens. 


DION.- j. B. HOCKIN ft CO.. Chemists, 
no. Strand, have, by an improved mode of 
Iodizing, succeeded m producing a Collodion 
equal, they mav say superior, in senaitiwoett 
and density of Negative, to anv other hitherto 
published ; without dlminishmg the keeping 
'ies and appreciation of lialf tint for 

which th( 

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the re- 
quirements for the practice of Photogruhy. 
Instruction in the Art. ^^ 


HOCKIN. Price U., per Post, Is. Id. 

ft CO.'S Iodized Collodion, fbr obtaining 
bantaneous Views, and Portraits in fhwi 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, fbr delieaey 

of detail rival the choicest Daf ' 

specimens of which may be seen i 

at their £«ta- 

Also every description of Apparattu, Che- 
micals, ftc. ftc. used in this beautifU Art.— 
113. and 111. Newgate Street. 

RAS. -ottewtll's REGISTERED 
is superior to every other form of Camera, 
for the Photographic Tourist, from its capa- 
bility of Elongation or Contraction to any 
Focal Adjustment, its Portability, and its 
adaptation for taking either Views or Por- 
traits.— The Trade supplied. 

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tri- 
pod Stands, Printing Frames, ftc, may be ob- 
tained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte 
Terrace, Bamsbury Road, Islington. 

New Inventions, Models, ftc, made to order 
or from Drawings. 



Xjl PARATUS for 4Z.4s., containing an 
Expan^ng Camera, with warranted Double 
Achromatic Adjusting Lenses, a Portable 
Stand, Pressure Frame, Levelling Staad, and 
Baths, complete. 

PORTRAIT LENSES of double Achro- 
matic combination, from IJ. 12«. 6(f. 

justment, from 25*. 

A GUIDE to the Practice of this interesting 
Art, Is., by post free. Is. 6d. 

French Polished MAHOGANY STEIREO- 
SC0PE8, from lOs. 6d. A large assortment of 
in Daguerreotype, Calotype, or Albumen, tX 
equally low prices. 


BeautiAilly finished ACHROMATIC MI- 
CRO SCOPE, with all the latest improvementa 
and apparatus, complete from 32. I&s., at 

C. BAKER'S. Optical and Mathematical In- 
strument Warehouse, 144. High Holbom (op- 
posite Day ft Martin's). 

'rinted by Thomas Cxj^aa Saxw. of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Fta 
SI JBrido, in the City of London i and published by Gboroc Bul, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parlfh of St. Donttaa ia tht Weat. 
GityofLondon,PaSUeher,atNo.ld6.FlMt8tre«taforesaid^Satuxday,JanQarySl.lU4: w«*« wi* tff»*. 

Pariah of 

L'lyuiz.t^u uy 






^ vnien found, make a note of." — • Captain Cuttle. 

No. 222.] 

Saturday, January 28. 1854. 

C Price Fourpence. 

I Stamped EdUion, Qd, 


"NoTHs : — Page 

Fropheti : Francis Dobbs, by Henry H. 

Breen - - - - - 71 

Sir TValter Scott and his Quotations 

from Himself - - - - 7S 

Thiomas Campbell - - - - 73 

Folk Loub : — Legends of the Co. Clare 

— Slow-wonn Superstition - - 73 
The Vellum-bound Junius, by Sir T. 

Metcalfe 74 

Minor Notes:— The Scotch Grievance 

— Walpole and Macaulay — Russian 
"Justice" — False Dates in Water- 
marks of Paper - - - - 74 

'QosRiEs: — 

Mr. P. Cunninsrbame, by J. Macray - 75 
IVas Shakspeare descended from a 

Landed Proprietor ? by J. O. HaUiwell 75 
Minor Queriss : — " To try and get " — 
Fleet Prison — Colonel St. Leeer — 
i^ords' Descents— Reverend Robert 
Hall — " Lydia, or Conversion " — Per- 
sonal Descriptions — " One while I 

think," &c Xord Bacon— Society for 

-burning, the Dead— Cui Bono — The 
Stock Bom— Lady Harington — De- 
scendants of Sir M.Hale— A Query 
for tiie City Commission— Cross-legged 
Monumental Figures — Muffins and 
Crumpets - - - - - 76 

Minor Qukribs with Answers : — 
*' Behemoth " — '* Deus ex Machini " — 
"Wheelbarrows- Persons alluded to by ^^ 
Hooker 77 

•JIbpi.ies: — 

Longfellow's Originality, by Wm. Mat- 
thews - - , - ".,"'' 

Queen Elizabeth and Queen Anne's 
Motto - , - - „ - - 78 

3ooks burnt by the Common Hangman 78 

Stone Pulpits _, - j ^ - „ / 79 

Antiquity of Fire-irons, by Wm. Mat- 
thews, &c. - - - - - 80 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem, by Wm. 
Winthrop - ,-,,.- „^-, ^,' ^ 

Grammars. &c., for Public Schools, by 
Mackenzie Walcott,M. A., &c.- „- 81 

Derivation of Mawmet — Come, by J.W. 
Thomas - - - " ., " ^' 

The Gosling Family, by Honor^ de Mare- 
ville- - - - - - 82 

Photooraphtc Corrbspondbncb I—Tent 
for Collodion Purposes— Multiplying 
Negatives and CoUodion on Paper — 
Photographic Copies of Ancient Manu- 
;jcripts —Fox Talbot's Patents — Anti- 
quarian Photographic Society - - 83 

Replies to Minor Queries : — " Finn 
was their faith," &c. — Attainment of 
3faJority — Three Fleurs-de-Iiis — 
Newspaper Folk Lore — Nattochiis 
.and Calchanti— Marriage Ceremony 
in the Fourteenth Century — Clarence 
— " The spire whose silent finger," &c. 
—Henry Earl of Wotton —Tenth (or 
the Prince of Wales's Own) Regiment 
of (Light) Dragoons, &c.- - - 83 

MiscBXXANBons : — 

Notes on Books, &c. - - - 90 

Books and Odd Volnmes wanted - 90 

Notices to Correspondent! - - 91 

Vol. IX.— No. 222. 

TURES, by the most celebrated French, 
Italian, and English Photographers, embrac- 
ing Views of the principal Countries and Cities 
of Furope, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A 
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent 
Process, One Guinea ; Tliree extra Copies for 


CPECTACLES. — Every De- 

O scription of SPECTACLES and EYE- 
GLASSES for the Assistance of Vision, adapted 
by means of Smee's Optometer : that being 
the only correct method of determining the 
exact focus of the Lenses required, and of pre- 
venting injury to the sight by the use of im- 
proper Glasses. 

BLAND & LONG. Opticians, 153. Fleet 
Street, London. 



M EVENINGS, by means of ST ATHAM'S 
Chemical Cabinets and Portable Laboratories, 
6s. 6d., 78. 6d., \0s.6d., 21s., M».M., 42s., 63s., 
and upwards. Book of Experiments, 6d. "Il- 
lustrated Descriptive Catalogue" forwarded 
Free for Stamp. 

WILLIAM E. STATHAM, Operative Che- 
mist, 29 c. Rotherfield Street, Islington, 
London, and of Chemists and Opticians 

QUILT is the warmest, the lightest, 
and the most elegant Covering for the Bed, 
the Couch, or the Carriage ; and for Invalids, 
its comfort cannot be too highly appreciated. 
It is made in Three Varieties, of which a large 
Assortment can be seen at their Establish- 
ment. List of Prices of the above, together 
witli the Catalogue of Bedsteads, sent Free by 

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Beddim; Manu- 
facturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road. 


STEADS, sent free by post. It contains de- 
signs and prices of upwards of ONE HUN- 
DRED different Bedsteads, in iron, brass, 
japanned wood, polished birch, mahogany, 
rosewood, and walnut-tree woods; also of 
every description of Bedding, Blankets, and 

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manu- 
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N(who is in the possession- of Indices to 

many of the early Public Records whereby his 
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to undertake searches among the Public Re- 
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The Bishop of Lincoln's LENT LECTURES. 
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Lord Bishop of Lincoln. 

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REPENTANCE : its Necessity, 

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" A very admirable work." — Guardian. 

163. Piccadilly. 

No. CLXXXVIL, is published THIS 

Contents : 

II. HUMliULDT'S Ci>SMOb — fllDE* 
ni. Mlr^sKlNS IN rOLYNiiSIA. 


VI. c/t>Tnr:N^s TBATELa among 

'[■[[]■: i.^Pi'S. 
Vn. M[';.McM:JiS itl KING .mSEPH. 
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A. & C. BLACK, Edinburgh. 
H0ULS^|[,^1?:,9^EMAN, L^^n.^ 



[No. 222. 


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** The book contains avast amount of euriong 
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** This is a work of great practical useftxlness. 
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i_riyiLi/-fc;u uy 


Jan. 28. 1854.] 




prophets: fbakcis dobbs. 

Among the characters introduced to the readers 
of " N. & Q.," under the name of prophets, there 
are few that deserve so distinguisbed a place as 
Mr. Francis Dobbs. Not only has he a claim to 
that title, in the derisive sense in which it is ap- 
plied to all modem enthusiasts, but also on the 
higher grounds of political sagacity and practical 
Tfisdom. Some men have exhibited this double 
character successively, and at different periods of 
their lives ; but none have displayed it in such 
happy union as Mr. Dobbs. Indeed*, in that re- 
spect, he is perhaps one of the most striking 
instances on record of what is called the *' duality 
of the human mind.'* 

The information I am able to furnish respecting 
this remarkable man, is derived from a pamphlet, 

5ubli:«hed "by authority" (probably himself), by 
. Jones, Dublin, 1800, and entitled. Memoirs of 
Francis Dobbsj Esq, ; also Otnuine Reports of his 
Speeches in Parliament on the Subject of an. Union, 
and his Prediction of the Second Coming of the 
Messiah, with Extracts from his Poem on the 

' Mr. Dobbs was bom on April 27, 1750 ; and 
was the younger son of the Rev. Richard Dobbs, 
who was the younger brother of Arthur Dobbs of 
Casile Dobbs, co. Antrim, formerly Grovernor of 
North Carolina. His ancestor, an officer in the 
army, came from England in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ; and by a marriase with the great- , 
granddaughter of Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, ^t the 
estate of Castle Dobbs, with other estates in the 
CO. Antrim. His great-grandfather was Mayor of 
Carrickfergus at the time King William landed, 
and was the first subject in Ireland that paid him 

Mr, Dobbs devoted himself for some years to 
literary pursuits. In 1768 he purchased an en- 
rigncy in the 63rd Regiment, m which he con-- 
tinued till 1773. Having sold his commission, he 
turned his attention to the study of the law, and 
was called to the bar. He then married Miss 
Stewart of Ballantroy, in the county of Antrim, 
the daughter of a gentleman of considerable pro- 
perty, niece of Snr Hugh Hill, and descended from 
the Bute family. He afterwards joined the 
Volunteers under Lord Cbarlemont, was appointed 
Major to the Southern Battalion, and acted as 
exercising officer at the great reviews held at 
Belfast in 1780, 1781, and 1782. He took an 
active part, in conjunction with Lord Charlemont, 
Mr. Grattan, Mr. Flood, and others, in the poli- 
tical agitation of that period ; was the mover of an 
address to the Kmg, approving of ^e proceedings 

of the Irish Parliament, and was a member of the 
deputation appointed to present it to his Majesty^ 
on which occasion he refused the honour of a baro- 
netcy. At a later period, the Earl of Charlemont 
brought him into the Irish Parliament; and it 
was while occupying a seat in that assembly, 
that he delivered the '' Speeches ** already re- 
ferred to. 

Mr. Dobbs*s Speech on the Legislative Union is 
one of the most remarkable ever pronounced then 
or since, on that fertile to^. He descanta in 
forceful language on the evils, real or imaginary, 
likely to arise from that measure ; and points out, 
with a striking minuteness of detail, some of the 
consequences which have actually resulted there- 
from. Indeed, the repealers of a subsequent 
period did little more than borrow Mr. DoDbs*8 
language ; nor were they able, after thirty years* 
experience of the practical working of the union, 
to add a single new grievance to the catalogue of 
those so eloquently expatiated upon by him m th& 
year 1800. As, however, we have to deal with 
Mr. Dobbs chiefly as a religious prophet, I shall 
confine my extracts from his speeches to the illus- 
tration of his character in that capacitv. 

The speech on the Legislative Union was de- 
livered on February 5, 1800. On June 7 follow- 
ing (the Bill having been carried in the mean 
time), Mr. lUbbs pronounced in the Irish Par- 
liament a speech in which he predicted the second 
coming of the Messiah. This speech, the most 
extraordinary that was ever made in a legislative 
assembly, presents a singular contrast to the 
sagacity which characterises his political perform- 
ances. A few short extracts will show the change 
that had come over his prophetic vision : 

** Sir, from the conduct pursued by administration 
during this Session, and the means that were known to 
be in their power, it was not very difficult to foresee 
that this Bill must reach that chair. It was not very 
difficult to foresee that it should fall to your lot to 
pronounce the painful words, < That this bill do pass.* 
Awful indeed would those words be to me, did I con-^ 
sider myself living in ordinary times : but feeling as I 
do that we are not living in ordinary times — feellng^ 
as I do that we are living in the most momentous and 
eventful period of the world— feeling as I do that a 
new and better order of things is about to arise, and 
that Ireland, in that new order of things, is to be highly 
distinguished indeed — this bill hath no terrors for me. 

*' Sir, I did intend to have gone at some length into 
history, and the sacred predictions ; but n I purpose, 
in a very few months, to give to the public a work in 
which I shall fully express my opinion as to the vast 
design of this terrestrial creation, I shall for the pre- 
sent confine myself to such passages as will support 
three positions: — The first is, the certainty of the 
second advent of the Messiah ; the next, the signs of 
the dmes of his coming, and the manner of it ; and the 
last, that Ireland is to have the glorious pre-eminence 
of being the first kingdom that will receive him,*' 

L>iyniz-fc?u uy 




[No. 222, 

After dwelling at some length on his first two 
positions, he thus proceeds : 

« I come noir, Sir, to the most interesting part of 
what I have to say ; it is to point out my reasons for 
thinking this is the distinguished country in which the 
Messiah is now to appear. The stone that is to be 
cut out of the mountain without hands, is to fall on the 
feet of the image, and to break the whole image to 
pieces. Now, that would not be true, if Christ and 
bis army was to appear in any country that is a part 
of the image; therefore, all the countries that were 
comprised in tlie Babylonish and Assyrian empire, in 
the Medo- Persian empire, in the Greek empire, and 
in the Roman empire, are positively excluded. There 
is another light thrown on this question by a passage 
in the 41st chapter of Isaiah : * I have raised up one 
from the north, and he shall come ; from the rising of 
the sun shall he call upon my name, and he shall come 
upon princes as upon mortar, and as the potter treadeth 
clay.' This is manifestly the Messiah ; and we are 
therefore to look for a country north of Judea, where 
the prophecy was given. The New World is out of 
the question, being nowhere a subject of prophecy ; 
and as the image is excluded, it can only be in the Rus- 
sian empire, or in the kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden, 
or Ireland. 

" The army that follows the Messiah, we are told, 
amounts to 144,000; and there are a few passages in 
the Revelation of St. John, that denote the place 
where they are to be assembled. One fl| * I saw them 
harping with their harps.* Another, * I saw them stand- 
ing on a sea of glass, having the harps of God.* 
Another is, * That they were clothed in fine linen, 
white and clean.* Another is, ' And he gathered them 
together in a place, in the Hebrew tongue, called 
Armageddon.* Now, what respects the harp and the 
fine linen, peculiarly applies to Ireland ; and not at all 
to Russia, t)enmark, or Sweden. The sea of glass I think 
roust be an island. And I believe the word Armaged- 
don in the Hebrew tongue, and Ardmah or Armagh 
in the Irish, mean the same thing. At all events, 
there is great similitude in their sounds ; and St. 
Patrick thought proper to make the city of Ardmagh, 
which is the old name, the seat of the church govern- 
ment of Ireland. But besides these sacred passages of 
Scripture, there are some very particular circumstances 
attending Ireland. She has never had her share in 
worldly prosperity, and has only since 1782 begun to 
rise ; and I know no instance in history of any nation 
beginning to prosper, without arriving at a summit of 
some kind, before it became again depressed. The four 
great empires rose progressively west of each other ; 
and Great Britain' made the last toe of the image, being 
the last conquest the Romans made in the west. Now, 
Ireland lies directly west of it, and is therefore in 
exactly the same progressive line, and it never was any 
part of the image, nor did the Roman arms ever pene- 
trate here. The arms of Ireland is the harp of David, 
with an angel in its front. The crown of Ireland is 
the apostolic crown. Tradition has long spoken of it as 
a land of saints ; and if what I expect happens, that 
prediction will be fulfilled. But what I rely on more 
than all, is our miraculous exemption from all of the 

serpent and venomous tribe of reptiles. This appears 
to me in the highest degree emblematic, that Satan, 
the Great Serpent, is here to receive bis first deadly 

I had an idea of sending you some extractii from 
Mr. Dobbs's poem on The Millennium^ but I fear I 
have already trespassed too far on your valuable 
space. Henby H. Bbbev. 

St. Lucia. 


Your correspondent A. J. Dunkin (Vol. viiL, 
p. 622.) asks who was the author of the couplet,— 

'* Oh !• for a blast of that dread born. 
On Fontarabian echoes borne." 

In reply to which Query you refer him to the 
juvenile efforts of Frank Osbaldiston in the de- 
lightful novel of Rob Roy, 

You might have referred him likewise to a cor- 
responding passage in the sixth canto of Marmion, 
sec. xxxiii., from which the accomplished poet and 
novelist repeated inadvertently his own verses : 

** O for a blast of that dread horn, 
On Fontarabian echoes borne. 

That to King Charles did come,*' &c. 

I say " inadvertently " from my own knowledge. 
A few months after the well-known occurrence at 
a public dinner in Edinburgh, when Sir W. Scott 
openly declared himself the author of the Waverley 
Novels, the writer of these lines wfis staying at 
Abbotsford on a visit. On one occasion, when 
walking with Sir Walter about his grounds, I led 
the conversation to his late revelations ; and while 
expressing some wonder at the length of time 
during which the secret of the authorship had 
been kept, I ventured to say that I for one had 
never felt the smallest doubt upon the matter, but 
that the intrinsic evidence of these several works^ 
acknowledged and unacknowledged, had long ago 
convinced me that they were written by one and 
the same author. Among other points I quoted 
the very lines in question from the elegy on the 
death of the Black Prince in Rob Roy^ which I 
reminded Sir Walter might also be found in the 
sixth canto of Marmion. " Ah ! indeed," he re- 
plied, with his natural expression of comic gravity, 
" that was very careless of me I I did not think I 
should have committed such a blunder I " 

We kept up the like strain of conversation 
during the whole ramble, with a good deal ot 
harmless pleasantry. In the course of our walk 
Sir Walter stopped at a particular point, and 
leaning on his staff like his own *' Antiquary," he 
pointed out some ancient earth-works, whose un- 
dulating surface indicated the traces of a Homan 
or Pictbh encampment. " There," said he, " you 

L^iyiuz-fc^u Oy 


Jan. 28. 1854.] 



will perceive the remains of a very good camp." 
" Yes, Sir," said I, in the words of Lovel, ** I do 
see something like a ditch indistinctly marked^* 
Sir Walter burst into a heartj fit of laughter, 
saying, *^ Ay, my friends do call it the Kaim of 

I trust your readers will forgive me for record- 
ing these trivialities ; but Mb. Dunkim^s Query 
recalled them to my mind so forcibly after the 
lapse of many years, that I venture to obtrude 
them upon your notice. 

Before I conclude this paper, I may be per- 
mitted to make reference to a series of letters 
addressed to Richard Heber, Esq., M.P., by Mr. 
Adolphus, son of the historian of the reign of 
George III. In the conversation referred to. Sir 
Walter Scott mentioned these letters in terms of 
high approbation, — terms not undeserved; for 
a more elegant, ingenious, and convincing piece of 
literary criticism never issued from the press. 

At that time I had not seen it ; but in reference 
to the passage in question, the coincidence of 
which in the poem and the romance has not es- 
caped the critic's acuteness, Mr. Adolphus makes 
the following remarks : 

<* A refined speculator might perhaps conceive that 
so glaring a repetition could not be the effect of inad- 
vertence, but that the novelist, induced by some tran- 
sient whim or caprice, had intentionally appropriated 
the verses of his great cotemporary. I cannot, how- 
ever, imagine any motive for such a proceeding, more 
especially as it must appear somewhat unhandsome to 
take possession of another man's lines for the mere 
purpose of exhibiting them in a ridiculous light. Nor 
does it seem to me at all unlikely that the author of 
Marmionf supposing him to be also the author of Rob 
jRoyt should have unconsciously repeated himself in this 
instance, for we find him more than once apologising 
in his avowed works for having, in the haste of com- 
position, snatched up expressions, and even whole lines, 
of other writers.** 

The anecdote above recorded proves the justice 
and refinement of the critic's speculation. 



In a small 8vo. volume before me, entitled The 
History of the Stage : in which is included the 
Theatrical Characters of the most celebrated Actors 
who have adorned the Theatre^ ^"c* ; with the The^ 
atrical Life of Mr. CoUy Cibber (Lond. 1742), I 
notice a very remarkable similarity of thought and 
expression between its author and the late Thomas 
Campbell. The dramatic author writes thus : 

'* But with whatever strength of nature we see the 
poet show at once the philosopher and the hero, yet 
the image of the actor's excellence will still be imper- 
fect to you, unless language could put colours into 
words to paint the voice with* 

" The most that a Vandyke can arrive at is to make 
his portraits of great persons seem to think ; a Shak- 
speare goes farther yet, and tells you what his picture 
thought ; a Betterton steps beyond them both, and 
calls them from the grave to breathe and be themselves 
again, in feature, speech, and motion. When the skiU 
ful actor shows you all these powers at once united, 
and gratifies at once your eye, your ear, your under- 
standing, — to conceive the pleasure arising from such 
harmony you must have been present at it ; *tis not to 
be told you." 

Now compare this passage with the following 
lines from Mr. Campbeirs " Valedictory Stanzas 
to J. P. Kemble, Esq.," composed for a public 
meeting held June, 1817: 

** His was the spell o*er hearts 

Which only acting lends, 
The youngest of the Sister Arts, 

Where all their beauty blends : 
For ill can Poetry express 

Full many a tone of thought sublime ; 
And Painting, mute and motionless, 

Steals but a glance of time. 
But by the mighty actor brought. 

Illusion's perfect triumphs come,— 
Verse ceases to be airy thought. 

And Sculpture to be dumb.'* 



Legends of the Co, Clare (Vol. viii., p. 436.). — 
The Lake of Inchiquin, one legend of which has 
been already published in " ^ & Q.," is said to 
have been once a populous and flourishing city, 
and still on a calm night you may see the towers 
and spires gleaming through the clear wave. But 
for some dreadful and unabsolved crime, a holy 
man of those days whelmed all beneath the deep 
waters. The " dark spirit '* of its king, who ruled 
also over the surrounding country, resides in a 
cavern in one of the hills which border the lake, 
and once every seven years at midnight he issuea 
forth monnted on his white charger, and nrg^B 
him at full speed over hill and crag, until he has 
completed the circuit of the lake ; and thus he is 
to continue, till the silver hoofs of his steed are 
worn out, when the curse will be removed, and the 
city reappear in all its splendour. The cave ex- 
tends nearly a mile under the hill ; the entrance is 
low and gloomy, but the roof rises to a consider- 
able height for about half the distance, and then 
sinks down to a narrow passage, which leads into 
a somewhat lower division of the cave. The 
darkness, and the numbers of bats which flap their 
wings in the face of the explorer, and whirl round 
his taper, fail not to impress him with a sensation 
of awe. Tbancis Robert Davies. 

Slow-worm Superstition (Vol. viii., pp. 33. 479.). 
— I believe that the superstition alluded to is 

L'lyiiiz.fc^u uy 




[No. 222. 

not confined to one country, nor to one species of 
reptile. I remember to have heard some country- 
men in Cornwall, who had killed an adder, say 
that it would not cease to writhe until the son had 
gone down. Like many other so-called super- 
stitions, it is probably founded on a close obserra- 
tion of a natural phenomenon ; and I feel quite 
sure that I have seen in print, although I cannot 
now call to mind where, that it is to be accounted 
for by the fact, that in these cold-blooded animals 
the nervous irritability does not cease until checked 
or destroyed by the chillinci; dews of evening. 

HoNOBB DB Mabbvuxe. 


(Vol. v., pp. 303. 333. 607. ; Vol. viii., p. 8.) 

I have no doubt that it will be satisfactory to 
some of your readers to know that I have in my 
possesion a copy, "vellum bound in gilt," of 
Junius, printed for Henry Sampson Woodfall, 
1772, 2 vols. This copy has been in the family 
library for about sixty years. There are no 
marks by which it can be traced to its original 
owner. I imagine it must have been purchased 
by my grandfather. Sir Thomas Metcalfe, after his 
arrival from India about 1788 ; this is, however, 
merely a conjecture, in default of ^y more pro- 
bable theory. Of the authenticity of this copy I 
have no doubt ; I mean that it is now in the same 
condition as when it was first issued by the book- 
seller. The binding is evidently of an old date, 
the gilding is peculiar, and the books correspond 
exactly with the orders of Junius as given to 
Woodfall in Note No. 47., Dec, 1771, and although 
neatly bcmndy are, as Woodfall mentions in No. 64., 
not highly finished. Are there many copies of 
diis edition, or may I congratulate myself upon 
possessing the one ordered by Junius? It is 
quite possible that my grandfather possessed this 
copy some years before his return from India; and 
I may mention that I also have a great many 
political pamphlets and satires, chiefly in poetry, 
(^different dates, from 1760 to 1780, such as Ca- 
tiline** Conspiracff; The Diahaiiad; Ditto^ with 
additions, dedicated to the worst man in the king- 
dom (Rigby), and containing allusions to all the 
most cetebrated characters of Junius ; The Se- 
TiatorSy La Feie Chany^iire, and many miscellanies. 
These, however, are perhaps well known. I have 
also a pamphlet containing an alleged unpublished 
canto of the Faerie Queene of Spenser, and a great 
manv religious tracts from 1580 to 1700. Some 
of the political poems are published by Almon. 
Among other curious stray sheets, is a list of all 
the gentlemen and officers who fell in the cause 
of Charles I., and Mr. Richard Brown appears 
amongst the number. I hope to communicate 
more fully upcm some future occasion, and must 

conclude with an allusion to the claims of Francis 
as the author of Junius. Strong as the proofi 
may be in his favour in England, I believe tnat in 
India there is testimony no less important ; and I 
have been informed, by one who spoke with some 
authority, that the letters of Francis upon record 
in this country bear no resemblance whcUever to 
those of Junius. This assertion, however^ is far 
too vague to satisfy any of your readers. I hope 
some day to be able to confirm it by examj^es. 
The India House might furnish the private cor- 
respondence between Francis and Hasthigs, whicli 
would be extremely interesting. 

T. Mbtcalfs. 

The Scotch Grievance. — Can the demand of 
Scotchmen, with respect to the usage of the royal 
arms, be justified by the laws of Heraldry ? I 
think not. They require that when the royal 
arms are used in Scotland, the Scotch bearings 
should be placed in the first quarter. Surely it is 
against all rules that the armorial bearings, either 
of a person or of a nation, should be changeable 
according to the place where they are used. The 
arms of the United Kingdom and of the sovereign 
are, first and fourth, England ; second, Scotland ; 
third, Ireland. The Scotch have therefore the 
option of using these, or else the arms of Scotland 
singly 1 but to shift the quarterings according to 
locality, seems repugnant to the principles of the 
science. Queen Anne and George L bore, in the 
first quarter, England impaling Scotland : is it to 
be supposed that, for Scotch purposes, they bore 
Scotland impaling England? Can any cmn be 
produced, from the accession of James Vl. to the 
English throne, on which the royal arms are found 
with Scotland in the first quarter and England in 
the second ? 


Walpole and Macaulay, — That well-known and 
beautiful conception of the New Zealander in some 
future age sitting on the ruins of Westminster 
Bridge, and looking where London stood, may 
have been first suggested by a thought in one of 
Walpole's lively letters to Sir H. Mann : 

'* At last some etirioos native of Lima will visit 
London, and give a sketch of the ruins of Westooinster 
and St Pavrs.** 


Bussian " Justice.'' — Euler, in his 102nd letter 
to a German princess, says : 

<* Formerly there was no word in the Russian lan- 
guage to express what we call jusiict. This was cer- 
tainly a very great defect, as the idea of justice is o£ 
very great importance in a great number of onr jndg- 

L-'iyiii^t;u uy 



Jah. 28. 1854.] 



xnenU and reasonlnj^s, and as it is scarcely possible to 
think of the thing itself without a term expressive of 
it. They have, accordingly, supplied this defect by in- 
troducing into that language a word which conveys the 
l^otion of justice." 

This letter is dated 14th February, 1761. Statm 
7iomini8 umbra f An answer is not needed to this 
Query. But can nothing be done to rescue from 
destruction the previous analytical treasures of 
Euler, now entombed in the archives of St. Pe- 
tersburgh ? T. J. Buckton. 


False Dates in Water-marks of Paper. — Your 
correspondent H. W. D. (Vol. ix., p. 32.) on the 
subject of the water-mark in paper, is, perhaps, 
not aware that, within the last few years, the will 
of a lady was set aside by the heir-at-law, her 
brother, on account of the water- mark, she having 
imprudently, as it was surmised, made a fairer 
copy of her will on paper of a later date. The 
case will be in the recollection of the parties em- 
ployed in the neighbourhood of the Prerogative 
Court. L. 



Can any of your correspondents communicate 
information respecting a Mr. P. Cunningharae, who 
was employed in the Heralds* Office in the years 
1768-69, and who appears to have left hissituation 
there in order to enter the church ? Mr. Cun- 
ninghame, from a MS. volume of his letters now 
before me, had friends and correspondents of the 
names of Towne, Dehane, Welsh, Cockell, Bawd- 
wen, Wainman, Haggard, Hammond, Neve, Ga- 
thorne, Innes, Connor, &c., and relations of his 
own name resided at Deal. One of his letters is 
addressed to his cousin, Captain George Cun- 
ninghame. General Maijoribanks' regiment, in 
garrison at Tournay, Flanders. 

Two gentlemen of the names of Bigknd and 
Heard (probably Sir Isaac Heard, who died a few 
years since at a very advanced age) were his su- 
periors in the Heralds* Office at the time of his 
being there. A former possessor of this MS. vo- 
lume has written in it as follows ; and so warm a 
tribute of praise from a distinguished scholar and 
late member of this university, has induced me to 
send you his remarks, and to make the inquiry 
. suggested by them. 

** I esteem myself fortunate in having purchased this 
volume of letters, which I met with in the shop of 
Mr. Robins, bookseller, at Winchester, in January, 
1808. They do credit to the head and the heart of 
the author. He seems to have been a man whose 
imagination was lively, and whose mind was capacious, 
as well as comprehensive. His remarks on diflferent 

subjects betray reading and reflection. His mental 
powers, naturally vigorous, he appears to have culti- 
vated and improved by as much reading as his employ- 
ments and his agitation of mind would allow. 1 wish 
that he had committed to this volume some specimens 
of his poetry, as it would have been more than me- 
chanical, or partaking of common-place, for he writes 
in a style at once vigorous, lively, and elegant, and 
gives proofs of a correct taste. He had a manly spirit 
of independence, a generous principle of benevolence, 
and a prevailing habit of piety. The first of these 
qualifications did not in him (as it is too frequently apt 
to do) overleap the bounds of prudence, or the still, 
more binding ties of duty, as is exemplified in the ex- 
cellent letters to his father, and Mr. Dehane. It is to 
be hoped .that he entered into that profession from 
which he was so long and so perversely excluded ; a 
profession suited to his genius and inclination, which 
would open an ample field for his benevolence, and 
which would receive additional lustre from the example 
of sO much virtue and so much industry exerted in the 
cause of truth. It is to be hoped that he gained that 
competence and retirement to which the wishes of the, 
interested reader must follow him, regretting that he 
knows not more of a man, who, from those amiable 
dispositions and those eminent talents, pourtrayed in 
this correspondence, would indeed — 

* Allure to brighter worlds, and lead the way.* 

R. F." 

J. Macbat. 


Me. Knight has on two occasions, the latter iir 
his Stratford Shakspeare iust published, called at- 
tention to what he concludes is an oversight of 
mine in not drawing any conclusion from a deed 
in which certain lands are mentioned as ** hereto- 
fore the inheritance of William Shakspeare, Gent., 
deceased." These words are supposed by Mb. 
Knight to imply that the lands in question came 
to Shakspeare by descent, as heir-at-law of his 
father. This opinion appeared to me to be some- 
what a hasty one: believing that no conclusion, 
whatever is to be drawn from the phrase as there 
used, and relying on the ordinary definition of tn- 
keritance in the old works on law, I did not he^- 
tate, gome time since, to declare a conviction that 
the lands bo mentioned Wiiio bought hj Shak- 
speare himself. As tlje qucHtion is of some im- 
portance in the inquiry respecting the position of 
the poet's ancestry, perhaps one of j^wr lecal 
reader I would kindly decide which of ua is in ttic 
right. I possess an useful colltfction of old law^ 
books, but iberc are few subjects in which carforj 
so easily committed by improfe^aional i ^ ** 

the present instancei however^ if .' 
to be rel led upon^ i t eeems t'^ l t i i Ii i 1 1 1 
inheritance \iSk^ applied^ to u- ^^^T^ 

* Diyiu.^ujr ..oogle 



[No. 222. 

M every fee simple or fee taile that a man hath bj 
his purchase." (See The Interpreter, 1637.) 

J. O. Haujweix. 

Sliturr €ElufrM. 

" To try and get*^ — The word and is often used 
instead of to after the verb to try : thus, in Moore's 
Journal (June 7, 1819), " Went to the theatre to 
try and get a dress.** What is the origin of this 
erroneous mode of expression ? Umbda. 


Fleet Prison, — Where can a list of the officers 
of the Fleet Prison, especially the under officers, 
and more especially the tipstaffs, a.d. 1696, and 
shortly previously and subsequently, be seen f 

Colonel St. Leger. — Where can I find an ac- 
count of the celebrated Colonel St L^er, the 
friend and associate of George IV. when Prince of 
Wales? In what year did he die? What age 
was he when his picture, now in Hampton Court., 
was painted by Gainsborough ? W. P. M. 


Lordi Descents, — Is a MS. collection of Lords* 
Descents, by Thomas Maisterson, Esq., made about 
the year 1705, now extant ? T. P. L. 

Beverend Robert flo^. — Who was Robert 
Hall, a preacher of some celebrity in the time of 
James n.? P. P. P. 

^^LydiOy or Conversion.** — Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me who is the author of the follow- 
ing excellent drama, published nearly twenty years 
since : — Lydia^ or Conversion ; a Sacred Vrama, 
inscribed to the Jews by a Clergyman of the Church 
of England: London, 8vo., 1835, published hy 
Kivingtons, and Hatchard & Son ? A. Z. 

Personal Descriptions. — Is Sir Walter Scott*8 
description of Saladin taken from any ancient 
writer, or is it a fancy sketch ? If the latter, I 
think he has fallen into error by describing in 
Saladin the features of a civilised Arab, rather 
than the very peculiar and unmistakeable charac- 
teristics of the Koordish race. 

In a novel now publishing in Ainswor&Cs Maga- 
zine, styled the " Days of Margaret of Parma," 
the celebrated Duke of Alva is described as a 
very tall man. I have never seen a portrait or 
read a description of his person, but had formed 
a very different idea of it from the circumstance 
that Count Tilly, who was certainly a short man, 
was said to be a striking counterpart of him in 
face, figure, and dress, a resemblance which added 
not a little to the terror and aversion with which 

Tilly was regarded by the Protestants of Ger- 
many. Can any of your correspondents refer me 
to a description of iJva? J. S. Waedbk. 

« One while Ithink^** ^c— Whence are the fol- 
lowing lines : 

** One while I think, and then I am in pain. 
To thiok, bow to unthink that thought again. ** 

AV. M. M. 

Lord Bacon. — Has the very discreditable at- 
tack made on the moral character of the great 
Lord Chancellor Bacon, by his cotemporary Sir 
Simon D*Ewes, and related by Heame the his- 
torian at the end of his Life and Reign of King 
Richard II., been investigated, and either esta- 
blished or disproved by later historians ? 


Society for burning the Dead. — Wanted in- 
formation as to the "Society for bumin/; the 
Dead,** which existed a few years ago in London. 
A reference to any reports or papers of them 
would oblige D. L. 

Cm Bono. — What is the true rendering of the 
Latin phrase Cat Bono f Most text-books say it 
means " For what good ? ** or, " What use was 
it ? ** But Francis Newman, in p. 316. of Hebrew 
Monarchy, says it means " who gained by (the 
crime)," and quotes Cicero pro Mtlone^ xii. § 32^ 
in favour of his meaning. T. B. 


The Stock Horn. — Can any of your readers or 
friends tell me where I can see a specimen of the 
musical instrument called the "Stock Horn?" 
Or any musical instrument of primitive form, 
similar to that which Wilkie has represented in a 
subject from the "Gentle Shepherd,** entitled 
" Roger and Jenny.** It seems to be a kind oC 
hautboy, or oboe, and oflen appears in musical 
devices of the last century, especially by Scotch 
printers. J. Gordon Smith. 

LatUf Harington. — Can any of your readers 
give the pedigree of the late Lady Harington, 
mother of the lamented Principal of Brasenose 
Coll. Oxford ? The writer of this, who was dis- 
tantly related to her, recollects, though very 
young, being struck with her beauty when he saw 
her in 1787. One of her brothers died in India; 
and another was curate of the lower churck in 
Guildford in 1806; he was probably Thomas 
Philpot, of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, M.A. in 1798. 
Her mother was daughter or granddaughter of 
the celebrated mathematician Abraham de Moivre, 
and had a sister, or aunt, housekeeper of Windsor 
Castle. Her mother, the writer believes, was re- 
lated to the Gomms, a branch of the family de- 
scended from Eustache de St. Pierre| Amat. 

Liiyiiiz-tJU uy 


Jan- 28. 1854.] 



Descendants of Sir M, Hale. — Are there any of 
Clie descendants of Sir Matthew Hale, the famous 
judge of the seventeenth centurj, living either in 
England or Ireland ? W. A. 

A Query for the City Commission. — In the 
JLondon Gazette of January 23, 1684-5,* we read 
tliat King Charles II. sent to the Lord Mayor, in 
a. silver box sealed up with his majesty's seal, the 
xeceipts of the several cements used by the pa- 
tentees for making sea-water fresh; as also the 
jreceipt of their metallic composition and ingre- 
dients, certified under the hand of the Hon. Robert 
3Boyle, to be kept so sealed up by the present and 
jsucceeding lord mayors, lest a secret of so great 
importance to the public might come to be lost, if 
lodged only in the knowledge of a few persons 
iliercin concerned. 

It is to be hoped that the commissioners who 

are now engaged in investigating the affairs of 

i llie Corporation of London, will not fail in making 

inquiry of the present Lord Mayor after this silver 

box, committed so carefully to City preservation. 


Cross'legged Monumental Figures, — Are any 

i Instances of the cross-legged figures, so common 

^ in England, to be seen in the churches of France, 

Italy, or Spain ? and if so, where may engravings 

of them be found ? J. "1. 

Muffins and Crumpets. — Can any of your 

readers tell me the origin of the names " mufiins 

and crumpets," and by whom and when intro- 

; duced at the English breakfast- table ? 

^ Old Fogib, 


*' Behemoth,*'' — Does any one know a book called 

Behemoth^ an Epitome of the Civil Wars from 

^•1640 to 1660? C.W.B. 

[Tliis was the last work written by the celebrated 
li' Thomas Hobbes of Malmsbury. "This history is in 
^t dialogue,'* remarks Bishop Warburton, " and full of 
, ft paradoxes, like all Hobbes* other writings. Morephi- 
„.;1osophical, political — or anything rather than historical ; 
:.yet full of shrewd observations." The editions are, 
ft. 1679, 8vo.; 'l680, 12mo. ; 1682, 8va] 

^; ^^ Deus ex Machind.'' — From what author is 
lj:the phrase '* Deus ex machine '* taken? and what 
i'Was its original application ? T. R. 

i^^ Dublin. 

t^ [** Deus ex machinA ** was originally a Greek pro- 
^^verb, and used to denote any extraordinary, unex- 
f* pected, or improbable event. It arose from the cus- 
! ''^lom or stage- trickery of the ancient tragedians, who, 
to produce uncommon effect on the audience, intro- 
luced a deity on special occasions : — ^'Evl ruf vopo- 

96^ay ical irapaKiycov, " it is spoken of marvellous and 
surprising occurrences,*' as the German commentator, 
F. Smeider, thus explains the words of the passage in 
which the adage is to be found, viz. Lucian's Hermo- 
timua, sub finem. The words are, rh rStv rpaytpi&v 
rovTOj Qehs ix fivixayris ^iri<pav(ts. To this custom Ho- 
race alludes in his Ars Poetica, 1. 191. : 

« Nee Deus intersit, nbi dignus vindice nodus 

Confl Gesneri Thetaurus, in Machine.] 

Wheelbarrows. — Who invented the wheel- 
barrow ? It is ascribed to Pascal. Alpha. 

[Fosbroke seems to have investigated the origin of 
this useful article. He says, '* Notwithstanding Mont- 
faucon, it is not certain that the ancients were ac- 
quainted with the wheelbarrow. Hyginus, indeed, 
mentions a single-wheeled carriage, but it may apply 
to a vehicle of conveyance. Some modern writers 
ascribe the invention to Pascal, the famous geometer. 
The one-wheeled carriage alluded to was, perhaps, the 
Pabo of Isidore. As to the invention by Pascal, we 
find berewe, a barrow, rendered by Lye, a versatile ve- 
hicle; but if more than the hand-barrow had been 
meant, the addition of wheel would perhaps have been 
made to the world.** — Encychp<Bdia of Antiquities^ 
vol. i. p. 349.] 

Persons alluded to by Hooher. — Who was the 
ancient philosopher to whom Hooker alludes in 
Eccles. Polity^ b. ni. ch. xi. (iii.) ? and the Puritan 
champion of the Church Service, cited b. v. 
ch. xxvii. (1.) ? Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

[The ancient philosopher is Philemon : see the 
passage quoted by the Rev. John Keble, edit Hooker, 
1 836, vol. i. p. 496., from Fragm. Incert.., xliii., ed. Cler. 
The Puritan champion is Edward Dering : see his 
work against Harding, entitled A Sparing Restraint of 
many lavish Untruths, ^c, 4to. 1568.] 



(Vol. viii., p. 583.) 

J. C. B. has noticed " the similarity of thought, 
and even sometimes of expression,'* between " The 
Reaper and the Flowers * of this popular writer, 
and a song by Luise Reichardt. But a far more 
extraordinary similarity than this exists between 
Mr. Longfellow*s translation of a certain Anglo- 
Saxon metrical fragment, entitled " The Grave ** 
(Tegg's edit, in London Domestic Library^ p. 283.) 
and the literal translation of the same piece by 
the Rev. J. J. Conybeare, transcribed by Sharon 
Turner in Hist. Ang. Sax.^ 8vo. edit. 1823, vol. iii. 
p. 326. With the exception of a few verbal 
alterations, indeed, which render the fact of the 
plagj^rism the more glaring, the two translations 
are identical. I place a few of the opening and 



[No. 222, 

concluding lines of each side by side, and would 
ask if the American poet has the slightest claim to 
the authorship of that yersion, to which he has 
affixed the sanction of his name. 

Conyheare^s TrandaHom, 

** For thee was a bouse built 
Ere tbou wert born. 
For thee was a mould shapen 
£re thou of mother oamest. 
" Who shall ever open 
For thee the door 
And seek thee, 
* For soon thou becomest lomthlj* 

And hateful to look upon.** 

Longfellow* s translation, 

** For thee was a house built 
Ere thou wast born. 
For thee was a mould meant 
Ere tbou of mother camest. 

** Who will ever open 
The door for thee 
And descend after thee. 
For soon thou art loathsome, 
And hateful to see." 

Wm. Matthews. 


(VoL viii; pp. 174. 255. 440.) 

I was not aware that the Qoery at page 174. 
was not fullj answered by me in page 255., but 
the following may be more satisfactory. 

.Camden, in his Life of Queen ElicabeUi (^Annals 
of Queen JEUzaheih, p. 32.), says her first and 
chiefest care was for tne most constant defence of 
the Protestant religion as established by the au- 
thority of parliament. " Her second care to hold 
an even cpurse in her whole life and in all her 
actions, whereupon she took for her motto (1559), 
Semper eadem (Always the same)." 

In his Remaine (p. 347. 4to. 1637), Camden 
says,' ''Queen Elizabeth upon occasions used so 
many heroical devices as would require a volume : 
but most commonly a sive without a motte for 
her words Fufeo, Taceo, and Semper eadem^ which 
she as truly and constantly performed." 

Sandford is silent as to her motto. 

Leake says this motto, Semper eadem, was only 
a personal motto ; as queen, the old motto, Dieu et 
mon Droit, was used, and is so given in Segar's 
Honour, Military and Civil, dedicated to her ma- 
jesty in 1602, and which is also on her tomb. In 
some churches where there are arms put up to 
her memory, it is probable the motto Semper 
eadem may sometimes have been seen as being a 
personal motto to distinguish it from her brothers. 
Queen Anne, before the union with Scotland, bore 

the same arms, crest, and supporters as her falher 
King James FT., but discontinued the use of the 
old motto, Dieu et mon Droit, and instead thereof 
used Semper eadem. The motto ascribed to Queen 
Elizabeth she took for the same reason to express 
her constancy ; but this, which was personal as to 
Queen Elizabeth, was then made the motto of the 
royal achievement, and seems the first instance 
of discontinuing the old motto of Dieu et mon 
Droit, from the first assumption of it by Ejog 
Edward m. ; for as to the different ones attri- 
buted to Queen Mary, Queen Elizabedi, and 
King James I., they were personal only. 

line motto is indeed no part of the arms but 
personal, and therefore is frequently varied ac- 
cording to the fancy of the bearer ; nevertlielesB, 
when particular mottoes have been taken to per- 
petuate the memory of great events, either in 
families or kingdoms, and have been established 
by long usage, such should be esteemed as fkmilj 
or national mottoes, and it is honourable to con- 
tinue them. 

In 1702 (Gazette, 'No, 3874) Queen Anne com- 
manded the Earl Marshal to signify her pleasure 
that wheresoever her royal arms were to be used 
with a motto, that of Semper eadem should he 
used; and upK)n the union with Scotland in 1707, 
hf her order in council it was ordered to be con- 

King George I., upon his accession, thought 
proper to discontinue it, and restored the old 
motto, Dieu et mon Droit. Q. 


(Vol. viii., pp. 272. 346.) 

The Histoires of Theodore Agrippa d*Aubigne 
were condemned, by an arrSt of the parliament of 
Paris, to be burnt by the common hangman. The 
charge against the works was, that D' Aubigne had 
spoken too freely of princes ; and it may be added, 
too freely also of the Jesuits, which was probably 
the greatest crime. D' Aubigne said upon the oc- 
casion, that he could not be offended at the treat- 
ment given to his book, after having seen the Holy 
Bible ignominiously hanged upon a gibbet (for 
thus some fiery zealots u^ the Bible which they 
had taken from the Huguenots, to show their pious 
hatred to all translations of that book into their 
native tongue), and fourscore thousand innocent 
persons massacred without provocation. 

The Histoire of James Augustus de Thoa (a 
Roman Catholic, though a moderate one) met 
with the same fate at Rome that D^Aubigne's had 
at Paris, and it was even debated in council 
whether the like sentence should not pass against 
it in France. D*Aubign^ however, spoke stitmgly 
in its favour, affirming that no Frenchman had 
ever before given m^jah evident proofs of solid 

Jan. 28. 1854.] 



judgment atid steady applicfttion, qualities not 
generally allowed to be the characteristic of the 
nation. (Scott's Life of Theodore Agrippa d^Au" 
higne, p. 419.) 

In 1762 the Etn^ie of Jean Jacques Rousseau 
was burnt at Geneva by the common hangman. 
Le Conirat Socicd had soon afterwards the same 
fate. (Biographie UmverseUe^ article ** J. J. Rous- 

On June 17th, 1553, nearly the whole of the 
edition of the De Christianismi Restiiutione of 
Serretus, which had been seized at Lyons, was 
cast into the flames, and Serretus burnt in effigy 
at Yienne in Dauphin^. (Biographie UhtverseUef 
art. " Servetus.'*) 

In 1538 the English Bible, printed by Grafton 
ftt Paris, was (with the exception of a few copies) 
burnt by ihe order of the Inquisition. During 
the reign of Henry VIII. (observes Mr. D'ls- 
raeli in Amenities of Literature, vol. iii. p. 358.), 
Idle Bishop of Durham had all the unsold copies 
of Tindal's Testament bought up at Antwerp and 
burnt. In this age of unsettled opinions, botb 
Roman Catholic and Protestant books were burnt. 
In I3ie reign of Edward VI. Roman Catholic works 
fed the flames. 

** All red-lettered illuminmted volunaes were chopped 
in pieces with hatchets, and burned as superstitious. 
The works of Peter Lombard, Duns Seotus, and 
Thomas Aquinas, earried on biers, were tumbled into 
bonfires. In the reign of Mary pyramids of Protestant 
volumes were burnt. AH the Bibles in Englbh, and 
all the commentators upon the Bible in the vernacular 
idiom (which we are told from their number seemed 
almost infinite), were cast into the flames at the 
market-place, Ozfinrd." — D'Isradi*s Amenities «f 2>Ve- 
ratvre, voL u. pp. 164, 165. 

In Strype's Memorials (3rd part, 2nd ed., p. 
130.) is a proclamation of Ailip and Mary, " that 
whoever finds books of heresy and sedition, and 
does not forthwith hum the same, shall be executed 
for a rebel"^ 

The Stf^ioners' Company (who were granted 
a charter of incorporation during the reign of 
Philip and Mary) had power to seize, take away, 
and burn books whidi they deemed obnoxious to 
the state or to thdr own interests. 

** When Elizabeth was upon the throne, political 
pamphlets fed the flames, and libels in the reign of 
James L and his son.** — D*Israeli*s Curiosities of La" 
terature, " Licensers of the Press." 

** In the first year of the reign of King William III., 
A.D. 1698* a gmnd a/utO'da^f^ was per£:>raied by the 
University of Oxford on certain political works. 
Baxter's Holy Comnumwecdth was amongst those con- 
demned to the flames.** — D*l8raeli*s Amenities of 
Literature, vol. ilL p. 325. 

Periiaps some correspondent of " N. & Q." may 
fumti^ other instaiiees of books burnt. L. A. 


(Vol. viii., p. 562.) 

To Mb. Kerslet*s list I ean add, from my own 
county, St. John the Evan^list, Cirencester, 
used ; SS. Peter and Paul, Northleach, used ; 
Staunton, All Saints, in the Hundred of St. 
Briavell's, Dean Forest, not used. 

The last has a curious double arrangement in 
two storeys, like a modem reading-desk and pul- 
pit, projecting west from the nortb side o£ ^be 
chancel arch, or rather {if I recollect rightly, for 
I to<^ no notes on visiting the ehurch) of the 
west tower ardi, and to bodi which there is 
access from the newel leading to ike ancient rood- 

To the above mi^t be added those of Coombe, 
Oxon; Frampton, Dorset; and Trinity Church, 
Coventry: and if any other than those in churches, 
the angular one in the entrance court in Magda- 
l^ie College, Oxford, from which, formerly, the 
University Sermon used to be preached on the 
festival of St. John the Baptist, when the court 
was strewed with rushes for the occasion (vide 
Glossary of Architecture, in verb,); that in the 
re&ctory of Tinteme Abbey, Monmouthshire; 
and the well-known exquisite specimen of the 
later First Pointed period, occupying a similar 
locdity in the Abbey of BeauUeu, Himts, so ela- 
borately illustrated by Mr. Carter la Weale's 
Quarterly Papers. JteooKXSOSPX. 

A collection of English examples alone would 
make a long list. ]Besides the well-known one 
(a.d. 1480) in the outer court of Magdalene C<^ 
lege, Oxford, the following are noted in the last 
edition of the Oxford Glossary, viz. : — Beaulieu, 
Hants (a. d. 1260) ; Beverley ; Chester ; Abbey 
Garden, Shrewsbury: these are in refectories of 
monasteries. In churdies — «t Cirencester; 
Coombe, Oxon (cbrca a. d. 1870) ; Framptoa^ 
Dorset (circa A.». 1450); Trinity Churdb, Co- 
ventry (circa A.©. 1470) : the latter appears from 
the cut to be stone. 

In the second edition of the Glossary is also 
St. Peter's, Oxon (circa 1400). 

Devonshire abounds in good samples : see 
TraxLS. of Exeter Architectured Society, voL i^ at 
table of plates, and the engraved plates of three 
very rich specimens, viz. Harberton, Chittlehamp- 
ton, North Molton, each of which is encircled by 
canopied niches with statues. 

At North Petherton, in Somersetshire, is a 
curious grotesque human figure of stone, crouched 
on the floor, supporting the pulpit (which is of 
wood, as I think) upon his shoulders, Atlas-like. 

J. J. A* 


Mb. Kebsi^bt desires a list of ancient stone pul- 
pits. I can give him il?j9,/^l5?'^vMj<WW>t 



[No. 222. 

describe their positions, nor certify which of them 
are still used: — Bedfordshire, St. Paul's, Bed- 
ford; Cheshire, Nantwich ; Cornwall, Egloshayle ; 
Devonshire, Chittlehampton, Harberton, Totnes, 
South Wooton ; Dorsetshire, Frampton ; Glou- 
cestershire, North Cerney, Cirencester, Cold Ash- 
ton, Northleach, Pitchcomb, Winchcomb, Glou- 
cester Cathedral; Hampshire, Beaulieu Abbey 
(fine Early Decorated), Shorwell, Isle of Wight ; 
Oxfordshire, Coombe (1395), Oxford, Magdalene 
College (1480), Oxford, St. Peter's; Somerset- 
shire, Chedder, Kew Stoke, Nailsea, Stogumber, 
Wrington; Sussex, Clymping; Warwickshire, 
Coventry, Trinity Church; Worcestershire,. Wor- 
cester Cathedral. C. B. M. 

The Glossary of Architecture supplies the fol- 
lowing examples: — Beaulieu, Hampshire, c. 1260 
(plate 166.), in the refectory; Combe, Oxford- 
shire, c. 1370 (plate 166.); Magdalene College, 
Oxford, c. 1480 (plate 166.), in the outer court ; 
Frampton, Dorset, c. 1450 (plate 167.); Holy 
Trinity, Coventry, c. 1500 (plate 167.), restored 
by Mr. Rickman. 

Are, or were, the pulpits in the refectories of 
the monasteries of Beverley, Shrewsbury, and 
Chester, referred to in the Glossary sub voc. Pul- 
pit, of stone ? W. Spaeeow Simpson. 

There are ancient stone pulpits still existing at 
Beaulieu Abbey Church, now in use, a.d. 1260 ; 
Wells Cathedral, in the nave, a.d. 1547; Magdalene 
College, Oxford, a.d. 1480, in the south-east angle 
of the first court, formerly used at the Univer- 
sity Sermon on St. John Baptist's Day; Combe 
Church, Oxon., Perp. style : Frampton Church, 
Dorset, a.d. 1450; Trinity Church, Coventry, 
A.D. 1500. Mackenzi£ Walcott, M.A. 

To the list may be added that of Holy Trinity 
Church, Coventry, which is a very fine specimen, 
and furnished with bracket for the book. It ad- 
joins the south aisle piers, and is in use. 

G. E. T. S. R. N. 


(Vol. viii., p. 587.) 

The invention of these domestic instruments, 
called " tongs, fireshovels, and prongs " by Sir 
T. Browne, dates from a very early period. The 
"shovel" is the A.-S, fyr-sceojl. Lye refers to 
" the fire-sholve " of the sixteenth century, which 
he tells us was " made like a grate to sift the sea- 
cole with," exactly as we see it constructed now. 
(See Gage's Hengrave^ p. 23.) The " poker" (see 
Du Cange, v. Titionarium) is mentioned by Johan. 
de Janu^ in the thirteenth century. It had 
formerly two massive prongs, and was commonly 
called the " fire-fork." There is a poker of this 
description, temp. Hen. VIII., in Windsor Castle, 

which is figured in Britton's Archit, Antiq,<i vol. ii. 
p. 99. (See also Strutt's Horda Angelcyrm^ vol. ii. 
pp. 62. 64., and Fosbrooke's EncycAntiq.^ pp.264. 
305. 340.) The " tongs," A.-S. fyr-tang (see Du 
Cange, v. Temdea^ Tenales^ Tenecula), with which 
Swift mischievously directs us to stir the fire " if 
the poker be out of the way," are of the remotest 
antiquity. They are frequently spoken of in the 
sacred records, as by Isaiah, vi. 6. ; and we all 
know to what purpose a similar weapon was ap- 
plied by holy St. Dunstan. In. fact, they are 
doubtless coeval with fires themselves. The word 
" tongs " is the old Icelandic, Norrsena, or Doosk- 
tunga, taung^ pi. idngir, the Dan. tang^ Scot, and 
Belg. tajigs, taings^ Belg. tanghe, Alem. zanga^ 
Germ, zange, Gall. tenaiUe, Ital. tenaglia, &c. The 
most ancient of the mytho-cosmogonic poems of 
the elder Edda attribute to this implement an 
origin no less than divine; for in the Vdlo^spa^ 
St. vii., it is stated that when the mighty OBsir 
assembled on Idavollr to regulate the courses of 
the stars, to take counsel for the erection of tem- 
ples and palaces, and to build furnaces, amongst 
other tools, by them also then fabricated, tdngir 
scdpo, ** they made tongs," for the use and delecta- 
tion of the volundr a jdr% or skilful blacksmith 
(the Weyland smith of " Kenilworlh ") and care- 
ful housewife of future days. Wm. Matthews. 

Aliquis will perhaps find his question satis- 
factorily answered by a visit to Goodrich Court, 
Herefordshire, where the late Sir Samuel Meyrick, 
with the industry and exactness which distinguished 
that indefatigable antiquary, had arranged a series 
of rooms illustrative of the domestic habits of the 
twelflh, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, 
and seventeenth centuries. 

It is so long ago since I saw these rooms (and 
then but very cursorily), that I will not undertake 
to say the series was complete from the twelfth 
inclusive ; and when, recently, last there, the 
family were at home, and nothing but the armoury 
shown ; but from the evident care taken of that 
unrivalled and magnificent collection by the present 
proprietor, the series of appropriate furniture, 
each genuine specimens of the period they repre- 
sent, IS doubtless preserved intact, though I un- 
derstood that the chambers had been since fitted 
up more consistently with the requirements of the 
nmeteenth century. Bbookthobpe. 


(Vol. vii., p. 407.) 

R. L. P. asks «* What members of the British 
language were present, when, in 1546, the English 
commander Upton attacked and defeated the 
famous corsair Dragut at Tarschien, in Malta ?".^ 

Jan. 28. 1854.] 



In answer to tbe above question I would beg to 
remark, tbat in September, 1536, Jobn d'Omedes 
ascended the Maltese throne on the decease of 
Didier de Saint Jaille ; and his reign continued 
seventeen years, t. e, to 1553. In looking through 
several histories of the order, I am unable to 
find any mention made of a Turkish descent on 
the island in 1546. Had such an occurrence taken 
place, it doubtless would have been recorded ; but 
as it is not, it would have been impossible for the 
Commander Upton to have distinguished himself 
in any such conflict as your correspondent sup- 

R. L. P. then asks, " What members of it were 
present (that is, the British language) when the 
Chevalier Repton, Grand Prior of England in 
1551, was killed, after signally defeating the Turks 
in another attack on the island ?" 

With all due deference I would beg to state, 
that there was not in July, 1551, when Dragut 
made an attack on Malta, any English knight of 
the name of Repton ; and it can be satisfactorily 
shown by the following extract, that at the period 
referred to by R. L. P., Nicholas Upton was Grand 
Prior of England, and was not " killed" after sig- 
nally defeating the Turks, but died from the effects 
of a coup de soleil: 

** L*isola del Gozzo fu presa da Sinam Bassa, a per- 
suaslone di Dragutte, 11 1551, essendosi renduto a 
discrezione F. Galaziano de Sesse Aragonese» Govema- 
tore, che vi rimase schiavo. Ma poco dopo 11 Cavaliere 
F. Pietro d*01ivares, la ristauro da danni patiti e vi 
richiamo nuove famigUe a ripopolarla. Sinam, prima 
di andare al Gozzo, fece una discesa in Malta, ma fu 
rispinto da Cavaliere : nella quale azione pel moUo caldo 
soffertOy mori NicolaB Vpton^ Gran Priore cT Inghilterra.^* 
— Vide Codice Dip,, vol. ii. p. 57S. ; as also Vertot*s 
Hhtory of the Order^ vol. iv. p. 144., date July, 1551. 

That Sir Nicholas Upton was Grand Prior of 
England in 1551, is sufficiently shown in the above 
extract ; and that he was Commander of Repton, 
or Ripston, will be as readily seen by the follow- 
ing lines translated from the Latin, and to be 
found in a book of manuscripts of the years 1547, 
1548, 1549, now in the Record Office. (Vide Lib. 
Bull. M. M. F. J. Homedes.) 

" On the 15th November, 1547, Nicholas Upton was 
appointed by the Grand Master Omedes Commander 
of Ripston in the language of England. And on the 
5th of November, 1548, he was exalted to the dignity 
of TurcopoUer, in place of the knight Russell de- 

I am unable to inform R. L. P. what English 
knights were present in Malta in 1551 ; but enough 
has already appeared in " N. & Q." to show that 
thejr were few in number, and poor as regards 
their worldly effects. The Reformation had de- 
stroyed the British language, and caused the ruin 
of its members. The first severe blow against the 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem was given by 
Henry VIIL, and the last by Queen Elizabeth in 
the first year of her reign. (Vide " N. & Q.," 
Vol. viii., pp. 189. 193.) William Winthbop. 
La Valetta, Malta. 

(Vol. ix., p. 8.) 

St. Mary's College, VTinchester (publisher, 
D. Nutt). — Novum F'lorilegium Poeticum; Car' 
mitia qtuedam elegantissima ; De Diis et Heroihus 
poeticis lihellus ; Homeri Hias (Heyne) et 
OdyssecB; Interpretatio PoikUes Istorias; Ovidii 
Fastiy librivi.; TioiKiXti laropia; Selectee Historic^ 
ex Ccesare^ Justino et Floro ; Notes on the DiateS" 
saron, by the Rev. Frederic Wickham, now Second 
Master ; Grcecce Grammatices Rudimenta, by Bi- 
shop Wordsworth, late Second Master ; Greek 
and Latin Delectus, by the Rev. H. C. Adams, late 
Commoner Tutor. 

Of Eton books there were in use the Latin and 
Greek Grammars ; Pindar's Olympian and Pythian 
Odes ; Scriptores Greed et Romani, A complete 
list of Eton and Westminster school-books will be 
found in the London Catalogue, which enrols Vid(B 
de Arte Poeticd; Trapp's Prcelectiones Poetica^ 
and the Rise, S(*c. of Poetry and Fine Arts in An" 
dent Rome, as Winchester school-books. 

In 1512, Winchester and Eton had a common 
grammar. Hugh Lloyd, D.C.L., Head Master, 
A.i>. 1580 — 1602, wrote Dictata and Phrases Elc' 

fantiores for the use of the school. William 
[orman, M.A., Head Master of Winchester, 
1495—1502, and Eton, 1489—1495, wrote Vul- 
garia puerorum. 

Hugh Robinson, D.D., Head Master, wrote 
Prayers and Latin Phrases for the school. It is 
almost superfluous to name Bishop Ken's Manuxd 
for Winchester ScTiolars, edited by Dr. Moberly, 
the present excellent Head Master, some years 
since. Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

In pursuance of the hint of Mb. P. H. Fisheb, 
I will describe an old school-book in my possession, 
which is bound up with Godwyn's Romance His' 
torice Anthologia, It contains, l.Preces ; 2. Gram ' 
maticalia qtuedam; 3. Rhetorica brevis, and was 
printed at Oxford in 1616 by Joseph Barnes. 
Though there is nothing in the title-page to in- 
dicate that it was for the use of Winchester Col- 
lege, this suflSciently appears from the " Thanks- 
giving for William of Wiccham " in the grace after 
dinner, and also from the insertion of William of 
Wykeham's arms before the Rhetorica hrevis. It 
bears abundant marks of having been used in the 
school, and contains, on the blank pages with 
which it was furnished, several MS. Wykehamical 
memoranda, some of them well known, and others « 

LiiyiiiitJU uy 




[No. 222. 

perhaps, the exercises of the ori^al owner. All 
are in Latin^ except the following yerses, which I 
transcribe : 

'* On Queene Anne, Queenewftke Seoit, 

March with his winds hath strooke a cedar tall, 
And morning April weeps the cedar's fall/ 
And May intends noe flowers her month th«ll hring» 
Since sbee must lose the flower of all the spring ; 
Thus March's winds have caused April showers, 
And yet sad May must lose her flower of flowers." 



(VdLTiii., pp. 468, 515.) 

That the word mawmet b a drnvation fhun the 
name of Mahomet, is rendered exceedingly pro- 
bate by two circumstances taken in connexion : 
its having been in common use to signify an idol, 
in the age immediately following that of the Cru- 
sades ; and the fact, tliat in the public opinion and 
phraseology of that time, a Saracen and an idolater 
were synonymous. In the aietrical romaaoes of 
the tlurteenth and fourte^ith centuries, Maho- 
metanism b described as " hedienesse,** and Sara* 
cens as "paynims," "heathens,** and ** folks of 
the heathen law.** The objects of their faitii and 
worship were mipposed to be Mahomet, Jafuber, 
Apollo, Pluto, and Termagaant. Thna, in the 
Tomance of Richard Ccemt de Lum : 

** They slowe every SarcByn* 
And toke the temple of Apolyn."— X^ 4031^. 
' *• That we our God Mahoun fersake.*'_L. 4395. 

" And made ther her (their) sacryfyse. 
To Mahoun, and to Jupiter.** —L. 4423. 

** But to Termagaunt and Mahoun, 
They cryede fasft, and to Plotoun.**— L. 6421-2. 
Weber's Metrical JRomaneu, toL ii. 

Hie editor says : 

« There is no doubt that odr vomanoe existed before 
file year 1300» as it is referred to in the Chronideg of 
Robert de Gloucetier and Robert de Brtrnner-^YiA, I 
Introd., p. xItL 

In the same poem, the word mawmdtei is used 
to signify idok : 

« Sarasynes before hym eame. 
And asked off hym Crystendame. 
Ther wer erystend, as I find. 
More than fourty thowiynd. 
Kyrkes they made off Crystene Ume, 
And her (their) Mawmettet lete down drawe.** 

L. 5829— 44. 

In WidiTs translation of the New Testament 
also, the word occurs in the same sense : f?iaw- 
fMtis^ idoUsy and faUe goddis being used indiffer- 

ently where idola or simtdaera are employed in 
the Latin Yulgate : thus — 

<* Fie ghe fro worschipyng of tnawmetie,^ 

1 Cor. X. 14. 
** My litel sones kepe ye you fro mawmetis," 

I John V. 21. 

And in Acts riL 41., the golden calf is designated 
by the same word, in the singular number : 

" And the! maden a calf in tho dales, and oflBriden a 
sacrifice to the mmwmet.** 

In the first line of the quotation last given 
from Richard Cceur de lAon^ your correspondent 
H. T. G. will find an early instance of the word 
came; whether early enovgh^^l cannot say. In 
WicliTs version, cam^ came^ and camen are the 
usual expressions answering to" ^* came** in our 
translation. If above five hundred and fifty years* 
possession does not give a word a good title to 
Its place in our language, without a conformity 
to Anglo-Saxon usage, vie number of words that 
must fall under the same imputation of novelty 
and *' violent infringement*' is very great indeed. 



(Vo1.tL, p.510.) 

OxB or THB FioGK asks for informatioii re- 
lative to the antiquity ni the name and family of 
Gosling. Hie Norman name of Gosselin is evi- 
dendy the same as that of Jocelyn, the tendency 
of the Korman dialect beins to substitute a hard 
g for they or soft g, as gatnSe far jambe, guerbe for 
eerbe. As a famify name it is far from tmcommon 
m Normandy, and many of your antiquarian 
readers may recognise it as the name of a pub- 
lisher at Caen of works <m the antiquities of that 
province. A family of the name of Gosselin has 
been established fi many o^ituries in the island 
of Guernsey. William Goceljrn was one of those 
sworn i^n the inquest as to uie services, customi^ 
and lib^ies of the n^and, and the Jaws establidied 
by Kinff John, which inquest was confirmed by 
J^ing Henry III. in the year 1248. In the year 
1331 an extent of the crown revenues, &c. was 
made by order of Edward IH., and in this docu- 
ment tne name of Richard Gosselin appears as 
one of the jury of the parish of St. Peter-Port. 

A genealogy of the Guernsey family of Grosselin 
is to be found in the appendix to Berry^s history 
of that island, and it is tnere stated that — 

*< The first on record in Jersey is Robert Gosselin, 
who greatly assisted in rescuing the castle of Moot 
Oreueil from the French in the reign of Edward IIL. 
ana was, for his gallant services, not only appointed 
governor of the c^e by that monarch, but presented 
with the arms since feip?ft,fel;^hit/^ipfe O^K^Gules, a 

Jak. 28. 1854.] 



dieTTon between three eresoents ernune), as appears by 
the original grant under the great seal of £ngland, 
supposed to be upon record in the Tower of London, 
cr among the archiTes at Winchester. This Robert 
Gosselin some time after settled in Guernsey, where 
he married Magdelaine, daughter of William Mal- 
travers, his majesty's lieutenant in that island.** 

On referring to Btirke's Armoty^ I find tJiat 
families of the name of Gosselin, Gosling, and 
Gooseling all bear arms similur to those described 
above, or but slightly differii^, which affords a 
strong presumption tnat they are all descended 
from tb^ Mune stock. The arms of Gotsdin (^ 
Normandy are quite different. 




IbU^ CdlodioH Pitrpo$es, — Some time 3go, I saw 
ki *< N. & Q." a slight notice of a tent ior the collodion 
process : I think it is called " Francis* Collodion 
TenC* Would you, or some of your photographic 
correspondents, oblige me by giving a short description 
of this tent, or any other form, so that I may be able to 
operate with collodion in the open air? 

I am of an opinion, with a portable tent, so that we 
eould expose paper in a damp state, the process might 
be done nearly as quick as collodion. All that need 
be done for a paper negative, would be to expose and 
develop ; it can be fixed at home. But after being 
deteloped, it shovld be well washed «id dried. 

James O. Culxbt. 

Multiplying Negatives and CoUodionon Paper. — As 
I am desirous of printing a large quantity of copies of 
a glass negative in my possession, I shall be <^liged by 
any hints as to the best method of multiplying such 
negative, so as to guard against an accident from 

I ihould abo feel obliged for any faints upon the 
use of eoUodion applied to ghun, paper intervening ; 
so that the paper may be afterwards removed from the 
^lass, and used as a negative. I have heard of much 
success in this way, but am at a loss to know the best 
mode of operation. M. N. S. 

Photographic Copies of Ancient Manuscripts, — Might 
not photography be well employed in making fac- 
similes of valuable, rare, and especially of unique 
ancient manuscripts ? If copies of such manuscripts 
could he multiplied at a moderate price, there are 
many proprietors of libraries would be glad to enrich 
them by what, for all purposes of reference, would 
answer equally well with the originals. A. 

[This subject, which has already been touched upon 
in our columns, has not yet received the attention it 
deserves. We have now before us a photographic 
copy of a folio page of a MS. of the fourteenth or 
fifteenth century, on which are inscribed a number of 
charters; and, although the copy is reduced so as to 
be bat about 2 inches hi^ and 1^ broad, it is perfectly 

legible ; and the whole of the contractions are as dis- 
tinct as if the original vellum was before us.] 

Fox Talbot*s Pkrfefrfs.— Would the Editor of « N. & 
Q.** have the kindness to inform A. B. whether a pho- 
tograph (portrait), taken from a black cutting made by 
an amateur, and inserted in a published work, would 
infringe on Mr. F. Talbot's patent? Also, whether 
collodion portraits come within his patent, as it was 
understood it could only apply to the paper process? 
(The cutting would be taken on albumenised .paper«) 

A. B. would also be glad to know where Towgood 
of St. Neof s positive paper can be procured, and the 
price? A. B. 

Mr. Fox Talbot having thrown open the whole of 
his patents, — with the exception of the taking of por- 
traits for sale, on which it is understood that gentle- 
man claims a royalty which may, in some cases, be 
considered a prohibition, — I should be glad to know 
under which of Mr. Talbot*s patents such royalty can 
be enforced, and when the patent in question expires? ; 

H. H. 

Antiquarian Photographic Society, — We believe that 
most of the difficulties which have stood in the way of 
the organisation of this Society have at length been 
got over ; and that we shall, in ^e course of a week or 
two, be enabled to state frdl particulars of its rule^ 
arrangements, &e. Our readers are aware that its 
main ol](|eet is the interchange of photographs among 
the members; each contributing as many copies of his 
own work as there are members of the Society, and 
receiving in exchange as many different photographs. 
Thus, if the Society is limited to twenty-five or fifty 
members, each member will have to fiimi^ twenty-five 
or fifty copies, as the case may be, of the photograph 
he presents to the Society ; and, in return, will receive 
one photograph from each of his fellow members. The 
difficulty, or rather trouble of printing, must neces- 
sarily limit the number of members ; and as a conse- 
quence wilt, we doubt not, lead to the formation of 
many similar associations. 

^tplM ttt Minat ^mvitt. 

** Firm wag their fcM" SfT. (Vd. vui., p. 564. ; 
Vol. ix., p. 17.). — I am utterly unable to account 
for the reserve shown by Saxa in withholding the 
name of Robert Stephen Hawker, Vicar of Mor- 
wenstow, author of the beautiful volume of poems 
entitled Echoes from Old CornwaU : especially aa 
the author*s name appears on the title-page, and 
Saxa appears so desirous that his merits should 
be better known to the world. *AXt€^. 


Attainment of Majority (Vol. ix., p. IS.). — I 
cannot, in courtesy, omit to notice Mb. RussBii 
Goiib's obliging efi<»rts to assist the inTestigation of 
this subject. I must, however, refer him to die 
first paragraph of my last communication (VoL viiL, 
p. 541.), on the reperusal of which he will find 



[No, 222. 

tbat what he states to be " the question " has not 
been at any time questioned. He has apparently 
mistaken mj meaning, and imagines that " about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century" means 
1704 (that being the date of the case cited by him). 

I beg to assure him that I intended the expres- 
sion, " beginning of the seventeenth century," to 
be understood in the ordinary acceptation. 

A. E. B. 


Three Fleurs-de-Lis (Vol. ix., p. 35.). — I have 
by me a MS. Biographical History of the English 
Episcopate, complete from the foundation of every 
See, with the armorial bearings of the several 
bishops : the whole I have collected from the best 
sources. I find among these, in the arms of Tril- 
leck of Hereford, three fleurs-de-lis in chief; Stil- 
linfffleet of Worcester, Coverdale of Exeter, North 
of Winchester, three fleurs-de-lis, two in chief 
and one in base ; Stretton of LichBeld, three fleurs- 
de-lis in bend. Mackenzie Walcott, M. A. 

Sir John Egles^ who was knighted by King 
James II. in the last year of his reign, and was 
Lord Mayor of London in 1688, bore : Argent, a 
fess engrailed, and in chief three fleurs-de-lis sable. 

The family of France^ now; represented by 
James France, Esq., of Bostock Hall, co. Cheshire, 
bear : Argent, on a mount in base a hurst proper, 
a chief wavy azure, charged with three fleurs-de- 
lis or. (The last are probably armes parlantes,) 

Halford of Wistow bears : Argent, a greyhound 
passant sable, on a chief azure, three fleurs-de-lis 
or. Lewis Evans. 

Devoniensis is informed, that the family of 
Saunders bear the following coat of arms: viz. 
Argent, three fleurs-de-lis sable, on a chief of the 
second three fleurs-de-lis of the first. Also, that 
the families of Chesterfield, Warwyke, Kempton, 
&c., bear : Three fleurs-de-lis in a line (horizon- 
tal) in the upper part of the shield. See Glovers' 
Ordinan/j augmented and improved in Berry's 
Encyclopcedia Heraldica, vol. i. H. C. C. 

Newspaper Folk Lore (Vol. ix., p. 29.). — 
Although (apparently unknown to Londoneb) the 
correspondent of The Times^ under "Naval In- 
telligence," in December last, with his usual accu- 
racy, glanced at the " snake lore " merely to laugh 
at the fable, I have written to a gallant cousin of 
mine, now serving as a naval officer at Portsmouth, 
and subjoin his reply to my letter; it will, I 
think, amply suffice to disabuse a Londoneb's, or 
his friend's, mind of any impression of credence to 
be attached to it, as regards the snake : 

" H.M.S. Excellent. — Jonathan Smith, gunner's 
mate of the Hastings, joined this ship from the 
Hastings in July ; went on two months' leave, 
T>ut came back in August very ill, and was imme- 

diately sent to the hospital for general dropsy, of 
which he shortly after died, and he was buried 
in Kingston churchyard, being followed to the 
grave by a part of the ship's company of the 

" Shortly before his death a worm, not a snake^ 
came from him. It was nine inches in length; 
but though of such formidable dimensions, such 
things are common enough in the East Indies, 
where this man must have swallowed it, when 
very small, in water. They seldom are the cause 
of death, and, in the present instance, had nothing 
whatever to do with it. The story of the snake 
got into some of the papers, but was afterwards 
contradicted in several." 

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

Nattochiis and Calchanti (Vol. ix., p. 36.). — 
Your correspondent F. S. A. asks what " cum 
g'nis et nattochiis" means, in a charter of the date 
of Edward II. At that time nattes signified 
reeds, and possibly withies : and the words quoted 
I believe to mean, " with all grass and reeds (or 
reed-beds)." He also inquires what is meant, in 
a deed of grant of the time of Queen Elizabeth, by 
a grant of " decimas calchanti," &c. ? It signifies 
"tithes ways," &c. The original law Latin for 
the modern phrase " all ways," &c., was calceata^ 
signifying " raised ways." 

This word has (at different periods) been 
written, cdceata^ calcata, calcea, calchioj chaucee^ 
and chausse ; all of them, however, meaning the 
same thing. John Thbupp. 

11. York Gate. 

Marriage Ceremony in the Fourteenth Century 
(Vol. ix., p. 33.). — If R. C. will refer to Palmer's 
OriginesLiturgiccB (Rivington,1845, vol. ii. p. 214.), 
he will find that the first part of the matrimonial 
office was " anciently termed the espousals^ which 
took place some time before the actual celebration 
of marriage." Palmer explains : 

"The espousals consisted in a mutual promise of 
marriage, which was made by the man and woman 
before the bishop or presbyter, and several witnesses. 
After which, the articles of agreement of marriage 
(called tabula mcUrimoniales), which are mentioned by 
Augustln, were signed by both persons. After this, 
the man delivered to the woman the ring and other gifts g 
an action which was termed subarrhation. In the latter 
ages the espousals have always been performed at the 
same time as the office of matrimony, both in the 
western and eastern churches; and it has long beeit 
customary for the ring to be delivered to the woman 
aj^er the contract has been made, which has always been 
in the actual office of matrimony.** 

Wheatly also speaks of the ring as a " token of 
spousage.^^ He tell us that — 

" In the old manual for the use of Salisbury, before 
the minister proceeds to the marriage, he is directed to 

Jan. 28. 1854.] 



ask the woman's dowry, viz. the tokens of spousage : and 
hy these tokens of spousage are to be understood rings, or 
money, or some other things to he given to the woman 1^ 
the man; which said giving is called suharration (i.e. 
wedding or covenanting), especially when it is done by 
the giving of a ring,^' — A Rational Illustration of the 
Book of Common Prayer, §-c. (Tegg, 1845), p. 408. 

Perhaps the word suharration may suggest to 
B. C. a clue, by which he can mend his extract ? 

J. Saksom. 

Clarence (Vol. viii., p. 6^6,^). — I made no note 
of it at the time, but I remember to have read, I 
think in some newspaper biography of William IV., 
that the title of Clarence belonged to the Plan- 
tagenets in right of some of their foreign alliances, 
and that it was derived from the town of Chia- 
renza, or Clarence, in the Morea. As many of the 
crusaders acquired titles of honour from places in 
the Byzantine empire, this account may be correct. 
Lionel Plantagenet's acquisition of the honour of 
Clare by his marriage with Elizabeth de Burgh, 
may have induced his father Edward III. to re- 
vive the dormant title of Clarence in his favour. 



" The spire whose silent finger^^ ^c, (Vol. ix., 
p. 9.).- 

" And O I ye swelling hills and spacious plains I 
Besprent from shore to shore with steeple-towVs, 
And spires whose silent Jinger points to heav*n,** 

Wordsworth, Excursion, vi. 17. 

Coleridge uses the same idea in his Friend^ 
No. xiv. p. 223. : 

*<An instinctive taste teaches men to build their 
churches in flat countries with spire-steeples ; which, 
as they cannot be referred to any other object, point 
as with silent finger to the sky and stars ; and some- 
times, when they reflect the brazen light of a rich 
though rainy sunset, appear like a pyramid of flame 
burning heavenward." 

F.R.M., M.A. 

The following lines conclude a pretty little 
poem of Rogers's, entitled A Wish, They furnish 
at any rate a parallel passage to, if not the correct 
version of, the above : 

«* The village church, among the trees, 

Where first our marriage vows were given. 
With merry peals shall swell the breeze. 
And point with taper spire to heaven.** 


Henry Earl of Wotton (Vol. viii., pp. 173. 
281. 563.). — In reply to the editors of the 
Navorscher I have to state — 

1. That neither of the Lords Stanhope mentioned 
died childless, the letters s.p, being a misprint for 
17. p, (vita patris) ; Henry having died during the 
lifetime of his father: and it was ^*in regard 

that he did not live to enjoy his father's honours " 
that his widow was afterwards advanced to the 
dignity of Countess of Chesterfield. ^ 

2. it was Charles Stanhope's nephew (of the 
half-blood), Charles Henry van der Kerckhove, 
who took the name of Wotton. The insertion of 
the word "thereupon" between "who" and "took," 
on p. 281., would have made the sentence less 

3. Philip, first Earl of Chesterfield, had, besides 
Henry Lord Stanhope, two daughters and ten 
sons. These were — John, who died a student at 
Oxford; Ferdinando, M.P. for Tamworth, 1640, 
killed at Bridgeford, Notts, 1643 ; Philip, killed 
in defence of his father's house, which was a gar- 
rison for the king, 1645 ; Arthur, youngest son, 
M. P. for Nottingham in the parliament of 
Charles II., from whom descended the fifth earl ; 
Charles, died sj), 1645 ; Edward, William, Tho- 
mas, Michael, George, died young. 

The earldom descended in a right line for three 
generations to the issue of Henry, Lord Stanhope, 
viz. Philip, his son, second earl ; Philip, third earl, 
his grandson ; and Philip, fourth earl, his great- 

The Alexander Stanhope mentioned by the 
editors of the Navorscher was the only son of 
Philip, first Earl of Chesterfield, by his second 
marriage. His mother was Anne, daughter of 
Sir John Pakington, of Westwood, co. Worcester, 
ancestor of the present baronet, late Secretary of 
State for the Colonies. Broctuna. 

Bury, Lancashire. 

Tenth (or the Prince of Waleis Own) Regiment 
of (Light) Dragoons (Vol. viii., p. 538.; Vol; ix., 
p. 19.). — The monarcji of this realm reviewing a 
regiment, of which the heir apparent was not only 
Colonel, but took the command, and directed all 
the military evolutions on the occasion, was such 
a particular event as to merit being commemo- 
rated by the splendid picture at Hampton Court 
Palace. Your correspondent *., who desires to be 
informed on what particular day that review took 
place, will find that it was on Thursday, Aug. 15, 
1799. In the daily paper. The True Briton, of 
Aug. 16, 1799, he will find some details, of which 
the following is an abridgment : 

« The Prince of Wales's regiment (the 10th Light 
Dragoons) was yesterday reviewed by his Majesty on 
Winkfield Plain. The troops practised their man- 
oeuvres through Cranbourne Woods, &c. ^ His Royal 
Highness gave the word of command to his regiment, 
and wore in his military helmet * an oak bough.* The 
Prince of Wales gave an entertainment afterwards to 
the officers at the Bush Inn, at Staines." 

The general officers in attendance upon his 
Majesty, and represented in the picture, were the 
Commander-in-Chief, Field-Marshal H. R. H. the 

Digitized by 




[Na 222. 

Dnke of York, K.G. and K.B^ Colonel 2nd Foot 
Guards ; Lieut.-Gren. and Adjutani-Gren. Sir Wm. 
Fawcett, K. B^ 3rd Dragoon Guardi ; Lieut.- 
€ren. David Dundas, Quarter-master- General, 
7th Light Dragoons; Major-Gen. Goldsworthy, 
First Equerry, 1st Bojal Dragoons. Nabbo. 

Lewis and SewM Families (Vol. viii^ pp. 388. 
521.).— -C. H. F. will find M. G. Lewis's ances- 
tors, his family mausoleum, the tomb of his ma- 
ternal grandfather, &c., incidentally mentioned in 
" M. G. Lewis's Negro Life in the West Indies," 
No. 16. of Murray's Home and Colonial Librarjfy 
1845. The pedigrees of the Shedden and Lush- 
ington family would probably afford him some 
information upon the subject of his Query. 

The Bi^ht Hon. Sir Thos. SewelFs second wife 
was a Miss Sibthorp, daughter of Coningsby 
Sibthorp of Canwick, Lincolnshire. By her he 
had one child, which died young. The Rev. 
George Sewell, William Luther Sewell, Robert 
SeweTl, Attorney- General of Jamaica, and Lieut.- 
CoL Thomas Bailey Heath Sewell, were sons of 
the Right Hon. Sir Thos. Sewell by his first wife. 
Thomas Bermingham Daly Henry Sewell, son of 
the above Lieut-Col. Thomas Bailey Heath Sewell, 
died March 20, 1852, set. seventy-eight; and was 
buried in Harold's Cross Cemetery, near Dublin. 
Two daughters, the Duchess de Melfort, and Mrs. 
Richards, wife of the Rev. Solomon Rit^ards, still 
survive him. (See Burke's Commoners^ Supple' 
ment, name Cole of Marazion ; and Burke's Die, 
of Peerage and Baronetage^ 1845, title Wbst- 
MBATH.) W. R. D. S. 

Blue Bell and Blue Anchor (Vol. viii., p. 388.). 
— Your correspondent BK. inquires the origin of 
the sign-boards of the " Blue Bell" and the "Blue 
Anchor?" I have always understood that the 
sign of the Bell, painted blue, was intended as a 
substitute for the little Scotch fiower bearing the 
name of the blue-bell, I believe it is either the 
blue flower of the flax, or that of the wild blue 
hyacinth, which in shape much resembles a bell. 
It was probably much easier to draw the metallic 
figure than the flower, and hence its use by the 
primitive village artists. As to the *' Blue Anchor," 
the anchor is the well-known symbol of Hope, 
and blue her emblematic colour. Hence this 
adiqitation is leas a solecism than that of Uie bell 
fcr the hyacinth. W. W. E. T. 

66. Warwick Square, Belgravia. 

Sir Anthony Wingfield : Ashmans (Vol. viii., 
pp. 299. 376.). — The portrait of Sir Anthony 
Wingfield, " with the hand on the girdle," was, a 
few years ago, in the collection of Dawson Turner, 
Esq., at Yarmouth. A private etching of it was 
made by Mrs. Turner. The original was rescued 
firom among the Letheringham pictures at Ash- 

mans, where they i^pear to have been sadly n^- 
«The late Robert Rede, Esq., whose father, 
Thomas Rede, purchased of Sir Edwin Ri<^ 
Bart., in 1805, the manor of Rose Hall and Ash- 
mans, erected upon that estate the mansion called 
Ashmans, The place is not styled Ashmans Park^ 
nor does its extent warrant such a designation. 

This property, on the death of Mr. Robert 
Rede in 1822, passed to the late Rev. Robert 
Rede Cooper, who assumed the surname of Rede'; 
and on his death, without male issue, the estate 
devolved upon his four daughters, Louisa Char- 
lotte, wife of Frands Fowke, Esq. ; Anne Cooper, 
wife of Robert Orford Buckley, Esq. ; Mary Anne 
Sarah Bransby, wife of Charles Henry Tottenham, 
Esq. ; and Miss Madeline Kaunton Leman Rede. 
The property has not been sold. Its most in- 
terestmg antiquarian feature is the old house 
called Rose (or more properly Roos) Hall, whiek 
belonged successively to the Colly, Suckling, Ridi, 
and finally the Rede, families. 

The pictures which remained at Ashmans iresee 
removed from thence within the last year; but 
whether any of those from the Letheringham gal- 
lery were among them, I know not. S. W. Rzz. 


Derivation of theWord ''CeW (Vol. viii., pp.344. 
651.)i--Job xix. 24. In the Cologne (Ely) edi- 
tion of the Vulgate, 1679, the word is Celt In 
Maresehal's Bible (Ludg. 1525), the word m the 
text is Celte, but the marginal note is " al' Certe,"* 
In the Louvain (or Widen's) Bible ^Antw., apud 
Viduam et Hseredes Joannis Stelsii, 1572, cum 
riv.), the word in the text is Certe. This latter 
eing an authorised edition of the Vulgate, it 
seems probable that Celte, or Celt^ must have 
been an error. R* !• R* 

The Belgian of the Russians (VoLviii., p. 582.). 
— Your correspondent J. S. A. has mentioneML 
under the above head the worship of ^ gods," na 
he cdls their pictures or images, by the Russians. 
I am sure he will find no such name or meaning 
ffiven to them by the RusSians in their writing! t 
far an account of what they really believe and tewdk 
I would refer him to MouravieflTs -ETw/ory of ike 
Russian Church; The Catechism of the Russian 
Church Translated; Harmony of their Doctrine 
with that of the English Church ; all translated by 
Mr. Blackmore, late Chaplain to the Russian Com- 
pany. G. W. 

French Translation of the ** London Gazette'* 
(Vol. vi., p. 223.). — A correspondent describes a 
French edition of the London Oazette^ which he 
had met with of the date of May 6, 1703 ; and 
considering it as a curiosity, he wishes some reader 
would give an account of it. It has occurred to 
me to meet with a similar publication, which ap- 


Digitized by 



Jan. 28. 1854.] 



peared twenty years antecedent to the time above 
specified. It is entitled La Ocusette de Landre*^ 
puhliee avec Privilege^ depuis le Jeudi 11, jutqiiau 
Lundi 15, Mai, 1682 (viem style). No. 1621. It 
gives a very circumstantial detail of the loss of 
the " Gloucester" frigate, near the month of , the 
Hnmber, in the night of Friday, May 5, 1682, 
when she was conveying the Duke of x ork (post- 
quam James II.) to Scotland. Sir John Berry, 
who commanded the vessel, mani^ed to remove 
the duke to another ship ; but the Earl of Rox- 
burgh, Lord O'Brien, the Laird of Hopetoun, 
Sir Joseph Douglas^ Mr. Hyde (L<M:d Claren- 
don's brother), several of the duke's servants, and 
about 130 seamen, were lost in the ** Gloucester.** 
The pilot was either deficient in skill, or obstinate^ 
and was to be brought to trial,* 

With regard to the reaBon of publishing a French 
version of the Gazette, might it not be judged ex- 
pedient (as the French was then spoken in every 
Court in Europe, and the English language almost 
unknown out of the British dominions) to publish 
this translation in French for foreign circulation ? 
It is to be remarked that the copy I have met 
with is styled privileged f D. N. 

" Posdmui in vita^* ^c. (Vol. ix., p. 19.). — 
Allow roe to correct a double error in this line into 
which Mb. Fottsb has fallen, liiough he has im- 
proved upon the line of Baluolensis. The true 
reading of it is — 

« Poscimtift in vitam pauca» nee i«to dlu." 

In vHam (for fife) is better Latin than "in viUt ;'* 
and ista is more appropriate than ** ilia,** in refer- 
ence to things spoken unfavourably of. 

C. DbulPbthb. 

Piehard Family (Vol. ix., p. 10.).— The Pickard 
family are not from Normandy, but from Piccardy. 
Doubtless, many a Le Norman, Le Grascoi^, and 
Le Piccard settled in ihia ^country during the 
Flantagenet connexion with those provinces. JP. P. 

^^ Man proposes^ tut God disposes^* (Vol. viii., 
p. 411. 552.). — Piers Ploughman's Vision, quoted 
»y your correspondent Mb. Thomas, proves that 
the above saying was used prior to the time of 
Thomas k Kempis ; but in adding that it did not 
originate with the author of the De ImitaHonej 
your eorrespomdent overlooked the view which 
sttrtbates that wonderful work to John Gerson, a 
Benedkttne Monk, between the yean 1220 and 
1240; and afterwards Ahbat of the monastery of 

[* It will be remembered that Pepjs accompanied 
the Duke of york on this cxcursioD to Scotland, and 
was fortunately on board his own yacht when the 
« Gloucester" was wrecked* His graphic account of 
the disaster will be found in the Correspondence at 
the end of his Diary, — Ed.] 


St. Stephen. (Vide De ImiL curd Joh. Hrebiita^ 
1847, rrsefat., viii. et seq.) 

Can any of your correspondents give other early 
quotations from the De Imiiatione t The search 
afler any such seems to have been much over- 
locked in determining the date of that work. 


Lincoln's Inn. 

General Whitehcke rVol. viii., p. 621.). — In 
reply to G. L. S., I well remember this unfortu- 
nate officer residing at Clifton, near Bristol, u^ 
to about the year 1826 ; but as I then removed 
to a distant part of the kingdom, I cannot say 
where liie rest of his life was spent. Although 1 
was then but young, the lapse of Years has not 
effaced fVom my memory the mdandioly gloom of 
his countenance. If the information G. L. S. is 
seekinff should be of importance, I cannot but 
think he may obtain it on the traces which have 
been given him. To which I may add, that up 
to a late period a son of the General, who was 
brou^t up to the church, held a living near Mal- 
ton, Yorkshire ; indeed, I believe he still holds it. 

D. N.^s information, that General Whitelocke 
fixed his residence in Somersetshire, may probably 
be correct; but it has occurred to me as just 
possible that CliftOA was the place pointed to, in- 
asmuch as it is a vulgar error, almost universal^ 
that Bristol (of which Clifton may now be said to 
be merelv the west end) is in Somersetshire; 
whereas the fact is, that the greater part of that 
city, and the whole of Clifton, are on the Glouces- 
tershire tide of the Avon, there the boundary 
between the two coonties. 

I ma^ mention, that in a late number of Taifs 
Magaznie (?), there was a tale, half fiction and 
half fact, but evidently meant to appear the latter^ 
in which the narrator states that he was in the 
ranks in General Whitelocke's army ; and in that 
fetal affair, in which he was engaged, the soldiers 
found that the flints had been removed from all 
the muAets, so as to prevent their returning the 
enemy^s fire ! And this by order of their GeneraL 
Is not this a f^esh invention ? If so, it is a cruel 
one ! M. H. B. 

Non-jurors' Motto (Vol. viii., p. 621.),—" Cetera 
quisnescit** is from Ovid, Amorum, lib. i., Elegia v. 
V. 25. W. J. Bebuhard Smith. 


•* The Red Cow " Sign, near Marlborough 
(Vol. viii., p. 569.). — Being informed that Crom- 
well's old carriages, with the " Red Cow*] on them, 
were some years ago to be seen as curiosities at 
Mantoii near Marlborough; Cromwell being a 
descendant of a Williams from Glamorgan, and 
the cow bein^ the coat of arms of Cowbridge ; and 
the signs of mns in that county being frequently 

LJiyuiz-tJU uy 




[No- 222. 

named " The Red Cow ;" — ^will any of your readers 
oblige with some account of the origin of '* The 
Red Cow" as a sign ; and what fami^ has now a 
claim to such as the family arms ? Gltwtstdd. 

Emblematic Meanings of Precious Stones (VoL 
▼ill., p. 539.; Vol. be., p. 37.).— To the list of 
works on the mystical and occult properties of 
precious stones given by Mb. W. Pinkkrton, 
allow me to add the foUowii^g, in which the means 
of judging of their commercial value, and their 
medicinal properties, are chiefly treated of: 

" Le Parfaict loaillier, ov Histoire des Pierreries : 
OT sont amplement descrites, leur naissance, juste prix, 
moyen de les cognoistre, et se garder des contrefaites, 
Faeultei medicinales, et proprietez curieuses. Com- 
post par Anselme Boece de Boot, &c. : Lyon, 1644, 
12mo., pp. 788.** 

William Bates. 


Calves^'head Clvb (Vol. viii., p. 480. ; Vol. ix., 
p. 15.). — A correspondent of the Cambridge 
Chronicle of Dec. 31 says, that in the churchyard 
of Soham, Cambridgeshire, there is " a monster- 
tomb surrounded by a lofty iron railing,*^ with the 
following inscription in letters of a large size : 

** Robert D'Atk, Esquire, died April, 1770. Also 
Mart, Wife of Robert D*Aye, Esquire, Daughter of 
William Russell, Esquire, of Fordham Abbey, and 
Elizabeth his Wife, who was the only surviving 
Daughter of 

Henry Cromwell, 

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Son of 

Oliver Cromwell, 

Protector ; died November 5, 1765, aged 73 years." 

After stating that in the same tomb lie the 
bodies of the daughter of D'Aye, and his wife 
(ob. 1779), their grandson (1803), and great- 
grandson (1792), the writer adds that there is a 
tradition in Soham that, during the lifetime of 
Mrs. D*Aye, out of respect to the doings of Oliver 
Cromwell, on the anniversary of King Charles's 
martyrdom, a ca\f*s head besmeared unth blood 
was hoisted on a pole in front of the cot of the 
husband. F. J. F. Gaktillon. 

Burial in an erect Posture (Vol. viii., pp. 5. 59. 
^33. 630.) ; JStdenspiegel (Vol. vii., p. 357., &c.). — 
The Grerman rogue Eulenspiegel (or Howleglass, 
as Coplande renders it), of whose adventures **N. 
& Q.* has had several notices, is another example 
of upright burial, as the following passage, trans- 
lated by Roscoe, shows : 

''Howleglass was buried in the year 1S50, and his 
latter end was almost as odd and as eccentric as hb 
life. For, as they were lowering him again ifito the 
grave, one of the ropes supporting the feet gave way, 
and left the coflSn in an upright position, so that 
Howleglass was still upon his legs. Those who were 

present then said : * Come, let us leave him as he is, 
for as he was like nobody else when he was alive, he is 
resolved to be as queer now he is dead.* " 

Accordingly, they left Howleglass bolt upright, 
as he had fallen ; and placing a stone over his 
head, on which was cut the figure of an owl with 
a looking-glass under his claws, the device of his 
name, they inscribed round it the following lines : 


^ Here lies Howleglass, buried low. 
His body is in the ground ; 
We warn the passenger that so 
He move not this stone's bound. 
In the year of Our Lord mcccl.*' 

His tomb, which was remaining thirty years ago, 
and may be now, is undpr a large lime-tree at 
MoUen, near Lubeck. 

In Roscoe*s German Novelists^ vol.!. p. 141. et 
seq., there are references to several editions in 
various languages of the adventures of Thyll 
Eulenspiegel. J. R. M., A.M. 

Biting the Thumb (Vol. vi., pp. 149. 281. 616.). 
— The lower orders m Normandy and Britanny, 
and probably in other parts of France, when wish- 
ing to express the utmost contempt for a person, 
place the front teeth of the upper jaw between 
the nail and flesh of the thumb, the nail being 
turned inwards : and then, disengaging the thumb 
with a sudden jerk, exclaim, *^ I don*t care that 
for you,*' or words of similar import. Is not this 
the action alluded to by Shakspeare and other 
writers, as "biting the thumb?" 

HoMOBE DE Mabbyuxb. 


Table-turning and Table'talking in Ancient 
Times (Vol. ix., p. 39.). — I have received from 
a correspondent m Berlin the subjoined transla- 
tion of an article which was published in the Neue 
Preussische Zeitung of January 10 : 

** We have been informed that Professor Ranke has 
found out a passage in Ammianus Marcellinus by which 
it is unquestionably proved that table-turning was 
known in the east of the Roman Empire. 

" The table-turners of those days were summoned as 
sorcerers before the Council, and the passage referred 
to appears to have been transcribed from the Protocol. 
The whole ceremony (modus movendi hie fuit) is very 
precisely described, and is similar to what we have so 
often witnessed within the last month ; only that the 
table-turners, instead of sitting round the table, danced 
round it. The table-oracle likewise answered in verse, 
and showed a decided preference for hexameters. 
Being asked * Who should be the next emperor?' the 
table answered • Theod.* In consequence of this reply, 
the government caused a certain Theodorus to be put 
to death. Theodosius, however, became emperor. 

" The table oracle, in common with other oracles^ 
had a dangerous equivocal tendency." 

Jan. 28. 1854.] 



I learn from my correspondent, that the pas- 
sage in Ammianus Marcellinus, though brought 
into notice by Professor Ranke, was discovered by 
I^fessor August at this place (Cheltenham). I 
am unable to verify the following reference : see 
Ammianus Marcelhnus, Rerum Oestarum^ lib.xxix. 
(p. 177., Bipont. edit.), and lb. lib. xxxi. (p. 285.) 

John T. Graves. 


ne Bell Savage (Vol. vii., p. 523.). — Mb. 
Jambs Edmbston is correct in rejecting the 
modern acceptation of the sign of the well-known 
inn on Ludgate Hill, as being La Belle Sauvage. 
Its proper name is " The Bell Savage,** the ^11 
being its sign, and Savage the name of its pro- 
prietor. But he is wrong in supposing that 
*' Bell ** in this case was the abbreviation of the 
name Isabella, and that the inn "was originally 
kept by one Isabella Savage." In a deed enrolled 
on the Close Roll of 1453, it is described as 
"Savage's Ynne, alias Le Belle on the Hope.*' 
The bell, as in many other ancient signs, was 
placed within a hoop. (See the OenUemaiCs Ma^ 
gazine for November last, p. 487.) N. 

Door-head Inscriptions (Vol. viii., p. 652.).— 
About the year 1825, I remember an old house 
known by the whimsical name of " Wise-in-Time,'* 
at Stoke-Bishop, near Bristol ; over the front door 
of which there was the following inscription, 
carved on a stone tablet : 

** Ut corpus animo, 
Sic Domus corporL** 
The house had the reputation of being haunted. 
I cannot say whether it b still in existence. 

M. H. R. 

Over the door of a house in Alnwick, in the 
street called Bondgate : 

** That which your father 

of old hath purchased and left 

you to possess, do you dearly 

bold to shofT his worthiness. 

M. W. 1714." 

Funeral Customs in the Middle Ages (Vol. vi., 
p. 433.). — In answer to your correspondent Mb. 
Pbacock, as to whether a monument was usually 
erected over the burial-place of the heart, &c. P it 
is mentioned in Miss Strickland*s Life of Queen 
Mary Stuart, that — 

^ An elephant marble pillar was erected by Mary as 
a tribute of her aflection, to mark the spot where the 
heart of Francis II. was deposited in Orleans Cathe- 

L. B. M. 

Oreek Epigram (VoL viii., p. 622.). — The epi- 
gram, or rather epigrams, desired by your corre- 
spondent G. £. Fbbbb are most probably those 

which stand as the twelfth and thirteenth in the 
ninth division of the Anthologia Palatina (vol. ii. 
p. 61., ed. Tauchnitz). Their subjects are iden- 
tical with that quoted by you, which stands as the 
eleventh in the same collection. The two best 
lines of Epigram XIII. are — 

** *Av/f>a Tif \iir6yviop virip vdroio Xixavrf^s 

P. J. F. Gantilloit 

Mackey's ''Theory of the Earth'' (VoL viii 
pp. 468. 565.).— 

"Died, on Saturday se'night. at Doughty's Hospi- 
tal in this city, Samson Arnold Mackey, aged seventy- 
eight years. Tlie deceased was born at Haddiscoe, 
and was a natural son of Captain Samson Arnold of 
Lowestoft. He has been long known to many of the 
scientiBc persons of Norwich, and was remarkable for 
the originality of his views upon the very abstruse sub- 
ject of mythological astronomy, in wliich he exhibited 
great sagacity, and mainuined his opinions with extra- 
ordinary pertinacity. He received but a moderate 
education ; was put apprentice to a shoemaker at the 
age of eleven, served his time, and for many years after- 
wards was in the militia. He did not again seUle in 
Norwich until 1811, when he hired the attic storey ot 
a small house in St. Paul's, where he followed his 
business and pursued his favourite studies. About 
1822 he published his first part of Mythological Astro- 
nomy, and gave lectures to a select few upon the science 
in general. In 1 825 he published his Theory of the 
Earth, and several pamphlets upon the antiquity of the 
Hindoos. His room, in which he worked, took his 
meals, slept, and gave his lectures, was a strange 
exhibition of leather, shoes, wax, victuals, sketches of 
sphinxes, xodiaos planispheres ; together with orreries 
of his own making, geological maps and drawings, illus- 
trative of the Egyptian and Hindoo Mytholo<iries» 
He traced all the geological changes to the different 
inolinations of the earth's axis to the plane of its orbit, 
and was fully persuaded that about 420,000 years 
ago, according to his theory, when the poles of the 
earth were last in that position, the geological pheno- 
mena now witnessed were produced. From his sin- 
gular habits, he was of course looked upon with wonder 
by his poor neighbours, and those better informed were 
inclined to annoy him as to hb religious opinions. He 
had a hard struggle of late years to obtain subsistence, 
and his kind friend and patron the late Mr. Money- 
ment procured for him the asylum in which he died. 
He held opinions widely different to most men ; but it 
must not be forgotten that, humble as he was, his 
scientific acquirements gained him private interviews 
with the late Duke of Sussex, the Duke of Somerset* 
and many learned men in the metropolis." 

The above b taken from the Norwich Mercury 
of August 12, 1843. . Tbivet Axlcock. 


"flbmo Unius Libri'' (Vol. viii., p. 569.).— D'Ig. 
raeli devotes a chapter, m the second series of his 



[No. 222. 

Cwiosities of Literaburey to " The Man of One 
Book." He says : 

** A predilection for lome great author, among the 
Tast number irbieh mutt transiently occupy our atten- 
tion, seems to be the happiest preservative for our 
taste .... He who has long been intimate with one 
great author will alwaya be found a formidable anta- 
gonist. .... The old Latin proverb reminds us of 
this fiict. Cove mb homine tmtiM lihri^ Be cautious of the 
man of one book.** 

and he proceeds to remark, that *'eTerj great 
writer appears to have a predilection for some 
fkvourite author," and iUostrates it by examples. 


Muffs worn by OenOemen (VoL viii., p. 353.).— 
In the amusing quarrel between Goldsmith's old 
friend and his cousin in St. James's Park, "Cousin 
Jeffrey,** says Miss, " I knew we should have the 
e^res of the Park upon ns, with your great wig so 
frizzled and yet so beggarly.*' " I oould,** adds 
Mr. Jeffrey, ** hare patiently borne a crttiiosm on 
all the rest of my equipage ; but I had always a 
peculiar yeneration for my muff.** (Essays, p. 263., 
edit. 1819.) Mackenzib Walcott, M.A. 


If, as we believe, the first and greatest qualifieations 
for an editor of Shakspeare be love for his author and 
a thorough appreciation of his beauties, Mr. Charles 
Knight may well come forward once more in that 
character. And, as he well observes, the foet of his 
having laboured for many years in producing a body of 
Commentary on Shakspeare, so that be was, out of the 
necessity of its plan, compelled not to miss any point, 
or dur over any difficulty, renders him not the less 
fitted for the preparation of an edition which is intended 
to be « The People's Shakspeare." The first volume 
of this edition, which he cidls The Stratford Shakspeare, 
is now before us. It comprises the ** Facts eonnected 
with the Lifo and Writings Of Shakspeare,** and the 
« Notice of Original Editkms," and a most vahtable 
shilling's worth it is. And there can be little doubt 
that, if Mr. Knight realises his intentions of suiting the 
present work to the wants of tiie many, by his endea- 
vours, without any elaborate criticism, to unravel the 
difficulties of a plot, to penetrate the subtlety of a cha- 
racter, and to .show the principle upon which the artist 
worked, the present will be the crowning labour 
of his many praisewortiiy endeavours to place a good 
edition of the works of our great dramatist within the 
reach of all 

•* Who speak thie tongue 
That Shakspeare spake.** 

We cannot better show the utility and interest of 
3^ Autop-aph MUetOany ; a CoUecHon of Autograph 
Letters, bOertsting DocwmaUt^ |pc., uUcted from the 

British Museum, and other sources PubKe and Rrivate, 
than by stating the contents of the 6rst number, which 
certainly contains admirable lithographic fae-similes of 
— I. Queen Elisabeth's Letter to the House of Com- 
mons in answer to their Petition respecting her 
Marriage; 11. Letter from Catherine de Medici; 
III. Wren's Report on the Design for the Summit of 
the City Monuaaent ; IV. Letter from Rubens on the 
Defeat of the English at Rochellel Their executiou is 
certainly most creditable to the artist, Mr. F. Nether- 

Books RECKrvso. — The Works of Joseph Addison, 
nfith Notes by Dr. Richard ffurd, Bishop of Worcester, 
in Four Volumes, with Engravings, Vol, I, This is the 
first of a new, cheap, and well-printed edition of HunTs 
Addison, and forms one of Mr. Bohn's new series of 
British Classics. — The Russians of the Souths by 
Shirley Brooks, the 53rd Part of Longman's Traveller's 
Library, is a very lively and amusing little volume. It 
would have beeu read with interest at any time, but 
is especially deserving of attention at the preseot 




or SiE Walter Scott's Novbls, without the Nofc^, Constable** 
Miniature Edition: Anne of Geterstetn, Betrothed, Castle 
Dangerous, Count Robert of Paris, Fair Maid of Perth, HirIh 
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Surgeon's Daughter, and ralisman. 

Companion to thb Almanac. Ail published. 

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Particu1«r« of Priee, ftc. of the following Books to be teiil 
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bueton*8 excrepta hikeoolvmiica. 
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Wanted by Prickard, Roberts, |r Co., Booksellers, Cliester. 

Watbrlry Novels. Miniature edition. 18mo. Published by 

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Wanted by Mr. Douglas, 16. Russell Square, London. 

LJiyiuz-fc^u uy 


Jan. 28. 1854.] 



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now need make no farther allusiim than to warn f^entlemen 
whose inquiries for books through '* N. & Q." may be answered 
not to part with their money until they receive the books -^ 
umJess thry are dealmg with well-known and respeaable book' 

Sckiitator, who writes touching The Kilkenny Cats, is rC' 
ferred to our 2nd Vol., p. Tl . 

D. D. J. The fragment of MSL forwarded by our Corresponm 
deni is a portion qf a Latin Commentary on St. Luke. 

Our Eighth Volomr is now bound and ready for delivery, 
price iOs. 6d., cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Vo- 
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is desirable. 

*' Notes and Queries *' is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night* s parcels 
and deliver Ihem to iheir Subsorihen on the Saiwrday. 




In the Press. 

ENGLAND. Price 18«. 

Onteni lo Qoaa^ete Sets can be «d^«ssed to the 
PubHaherTT. C. NEWBT, 80. Welbeck 
Street, Gaveadkh Square, Losdon. 

HJI.— Only a Sadtad vmmibtg of Copies of 
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to xive th«ir orders as early as poasiUe. 

'* Carefully coimAed from our earliest re- 
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of the wri tm« of (he old Clmmidera, miracles, 
-visions, &c., from the time of Gildas; richly 
illustrated with notes, which throw a clear, 
and in many instances a new light on what 
would otherwise be difficult and obscure pas- 
nges.** — Thomas Miller, History of the Anglo- 
Setxonsy p. 88. 

WM-ks by the aame Anthor. 

BERTHA ; or, The POPE and 











This Day, fbolscap octavo, Ss. 6d. cloth, the 

LORD BUCKHURST ; with Critical Notes 
and Biographical Memoirs. 

The First Volume of the New and Anno- 
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London : ROBERT COCKS ft CO., 

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PUOTOGR APHY.— Eediietion 
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Pii ['L-rstJitid (^ifiniiariMin with ihel'rfcn hitliurto 
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«»« Positive Papers, English and Foreign. 


1 DION.- J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists. 
289. Strand, have, by an improved mode of 
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Instruction in the Art. 


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New Inventions, Models, &c.,made to order 
or from Drawings. 

Celtic Literature^ WeUh IHctionaries, Bretom 



Offers for SaJe: 

1. Zeuss, Grammatica Celtica, S vols. 8vo.« 
pp. 1166, a valuable and learned Celtic Poly- 
glott, ils. C1863. 

, 2. Pughe's Welsh-English Dictionary, « vols, 
impl. 8vo. (best edition), cloth, 22. 8s. C 1832. 

. 3. Walter's English-Welsh Dictionary,! vols, 
impl. 8vo. roublished at 31. 3s.), cloth, the com- 
panion to Pughe, only 18s. 

4. Barzaz>Breix, Chants de la Bretafne, 
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Music, 8s. C18t6. 

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6. Spurrell's Welsh-English and English- 
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7. The Cambro-Briton, 3 vols. 8vo., half-bd., 
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8. Lhuvd's ArchsBologia Britannica, folio, 
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9. The Myvyrian Archaiolosr of Wales, 
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92. 9s. [1801-7. 

\* 8. QnarlteH's Cataloirae. 
oontainlnr upwards of 
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ral Xilteratiire, Books of 
Prints, Heraldry, dtc.. ie 
Just putillslied, price 6d. * 

Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised 
and corrected. Dedicated by Special Fer- 
mission to 



Til- ■■'.-.' . ■ ■ \ : : , . . :. li, 

MIL^Ea:,, \y !'., (>'<isi i.:\-:. r^.. ~. ^ The 

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wiifJ n. Conflifle Ststksi or CiupiTtr«». by J. B* 
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Her AUJe^tr. itn^, neat, in nKirOffiHi ctoHi, 
pHiT 2*MF. Tn bfi hud of Mr. J. B. BAL^, SI. 
Ifolj^well Btrt^et, MillbEiiilc. Weftralnjlflr. <m 
the mt^iitt of il Poit-offlee Otdi-r fot tliac 
«Tiirnitit : iin'Mry ofiitfr, of theprlnc-Ipai Book- 
HEjUer* flUii MuiLt! WaitTio'useSt 

'*A great advance on the worVs we have 
hitherto had, connected with our Chnrch and 
Cathedral Service."— Times. 

" A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly nn- • 
equalled in this country."— Literanf Ocuette^ 

** One of the best collections of tunes which 
we have yet seen. Well merits the distin- 
guished patronage under which it appears.** — 
Musical World. 

** A collection of Psalms and Hymns, togeth^ 
with a system of Chanting of a very superior 
character to any which liasliitherto appeared.** 

London t GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 

Also, lately published, 


formed at the Chapel Royal St. James, price Is. 

C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street. 

Printed by Thomas Cia.aK Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 6. New Street Square, in the FMisi& of 
St. Bride, in the Citv of London t and published by Qboro* BBx.b. of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Pariah of St. Dnnstaa in the Weit, la the 
Oitr of London, Pnbliaher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.— Saturday, January 88. 1864. 

L'lymz.fc^u uy 




** "WHeii fonndy make a note oC** — Caftaih Cuttlk. 

No, 223.] 

Satubdat, February 4. 1854, 

f Price Fourpence. 

i Stamped Edition, £<r. 



Paee Bolton Corner 96 

Party Similes of the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury : — No. 1 . " Foxes and Fire- 
brandB." No. 2. " The Trojan Horse " 96 

Dutch East India Company. — Slavery 
in England, by James Graves - - 98 

Original Royal Letters to the Grand 
Masters of Malta, by Wm. Winthxop 99 

Enareans - - - - - 101 

lIiifoR NoTKs:— Russia and Turkey— 
Social Effiects of the severe Weather, 
Jan. 3 and 4, 1854 — Star of Bethlehem 
— Origrin of the Word " Cant " — Epi- 
gram on Four Lawyers - - 103 


-Contributors to "Knight's Quarterly 

Magazine" - - - - 108 

The Stationers' Company and Al- 
manack - - - - - 104 

Minor Qukrifs : — John Bunyan — 
Tragedy by Mary Leapor —Repairing 
old Prints —Arch-priest in the Dio- 
cese of Exeter^ Medal in honour of 
the Chevalier de St. George — Robert 
Bloet — Sir J. Wallace and Mr. 
Browne — Robert Dudley, Earl of 
Leicester— Abbott Families— Author- 
Bhip of a Ballad — Elias Petley — Ca- 
naletto's Views round London — A 
Monster found at Maidstone — Page - 104 

Minor Qoiribs with Answers : — . 
The Fish " RuiBns '* —Origin of the 
Word Etiquette - Henri Quatre — 
** He that complies against hia will," 
&c., and •' To kick the backet " — St. 
Nicholas Cole Abbey - - - 106 

ItlPLIBS : -. 

Trench on Proverbs, by the Rev. M. 

Margoliouth - - - - 107 

Inscriptions on Bells - - - 109 

Arms of Geneva - - - - 110 


tiplying Negatives — Towgood's Pa- 
per—Adulteration of Nitrate of SU- 
ver 110 

^uriftM TO MfT*ow iiffKn^n s-^PAxioire 
of CIcFro — MnloT Antiri- _ Cnthtilic 

Tumbu and EfHirltu^ Taiiifflu CA.e:s — 
WfirvUla — Grccrt Eye» — Cjiriic — 
^ Epittiphlufn Liuei^tim " ^ Ojrftud 
-Comnii'-mFinitEaii Prnittt — " Imj] " — 
F^lsB ipplllnii fi-om i^Dund — '" Good 
wine Hfieiii nn bush ^' —Three Fleurs- 
dt-T.yB — Portrait i^f I'lowcicn ~Kt. 
Stcpn«Tl[^4 Dsy an d Mr. Rtlcy'a " Hri.To- 
ciflTi'^^Ueftth WaroiIiieB lo Andunt 
Famnim ^ " Tise ac^uubdc Pcnu^ue 
ilk ihe Trinitie '^ - - - - 111 

JilrscsxxANBOus : — 

Kotes on Books, &c. - - - 114 

Books and Odd Yolumes wanted - 115 
Idoticet to Correspondents - - 116 

YoL. IX No. 223. 


now open at the Gallery of the Society of 
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Morning from 10 a.m. to half-past 4 p.m., and 
in the Evening from 7 to 10 p.m. Admission Is. 
Catalogue 6d. 


TURES, by the most celebrated French, 
Italian, and English Photographers, embrac- 
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of Kurope, is now OPEN. Admission ed. A 
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent 
Process, One Quiuea ; Three extra Copies for 


On Sale, a very beautifUl Collection of 

B. QUARITCH, 16. Castle Street, Leicester 
•«« B. Ou's Catalogue of 2000 Rare, Valu- 
able, and Curious Books, just published, price 



A. EVENINGS, by means of ST ATHAM'S 
Chemical Cabinets and Portable Laboratories, 
5s. 6d., 7s. ed., \08.6d., 21s., 31s. 6</., 42s., 63s., 
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WILLIAM E. STATHAM, Operative Che- 
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^'EADS, sent firee by poet. It contains de- 
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DRED ditferent Bedsteads, in iron, brass, 
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HEAL ft SON, Bedstead and Bedding Mann- 
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W H. K 

f y • AGENT s 

RIAN (who is in tl 



„^.^^, ^^ .. .„ the possession of Indices to 

many of the early Public Records whereby his 
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Authors and Gentlemen enzased in Antiqua- 
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to undertake searches among the Public Re- 
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Wills, or other Depositories of a similar Na- 

tive, in any Branch of Literature, Histonr, 
Topogn4>hy, Genealogy, or the like, and in 
which he has had conuderable experience. 


Just published, in cloth 8vo., lOs. 6d. 

an Attempt to investigate the Causes of Lon- 
gevity, and the best Means of attaining a 
Healthful Old Age. By BAUNARI) VAN 
OVEN, M.D., Fellow of the Royal Medical 
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*' Old and young, the healthy and the in* 
valid, may alike obtain useful and practical 
hints from Dr. Von Oven's book ; hu advice 
and observations are marked by much experi- 
ence and good sense." — Literary Qcuette. 

JOHN CHURCHILL, Princes Street, Soho. 

Just published, price Is., 

REFORM. — An Account of the Present 
lorable State of the ECCLESIASTICAL 
COURTS of RECORD, with Proposals for 
their Complete Reformation. By W. DOWN- 
ING BRtrCE, Esq., Lincoln's Inn, Barrister- 
at-Law, Fellow or the Society of Antiquaries, 

HENRY ADAMS. 9. Parliament Street, and 
W. ARPTHORP, 22. BLihopsgate Street. 


In One handsome Volume, poet Svo., doth, 
price 9s. 


X CHRONOLOGY t or. Historical and 
Statistical Kegister, from the Birth of Christ to 
the Present Time. Fifth Edidon, revised and 

London : WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 
85. Queen Street, Cheapside. 

No. CLXXXVn., is published THIS 



VI. CiV^ I hM.5i travels amot^q 


JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 

ALL WORKS published under 
PLETE, unless they bear the Imprint of 
BLACK, Edinbuigh. 


SCOTT'S POETRY, including the Copyright 
Poem of the LORD OF THE ISLES, 6 Eu« 
gravings, cloth, gilt edges, 5s. 

A. ft C. BLACK, Edinburgh. 

L'lymz.t^u uy 




[No. 223. 

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BERTHA ; or, The POPE and 










i_;iyiiiz.t;u uy '"^i^-j '%^^ %_/ 


Feb. 4. 1854.] 





** Drffdan may be proiptrhf eotuielered om the father of 
EngUsh criticism, cu the writer who fret taught us to 
determine upon principks the merit of composition,** — 
Samuel Johnson. 

No one of the early prose testimonies to the 
genius of Shakspere has been more admired than 
that which bears the signature of John Drjden. 
I must transcribe it, accessible as it is elsewhere, 
for the sake of its juxtaposition with a less-known 
metrical specimen of the same nature. 

** He [Shakspere] was the man who of all modern, 
and perhaps ancient poets, had the largest and most 
comprehensive souL All the images of nature were 
still present to him, and he drew them not laboriously, 
but luckily : when he describes any thing, you more 
than see it, you feel it too. Those who accuse him to 
have wanted learning, give him the greater com* 
mendation : he was naturally learned ; he needed not 
the spectacles of books to read nature ; he looked ^n- 
wards, and found her there. I cannot say he is every 
where alike ; were he so, I should do him injury to 
compare him with the greatest of mankind. He is 
many times flat, insipid ; his comic wit degenerating 
into clenches, his serious swelling into bombast. But 
he is always great when some great occasion is pre- 
sented to him : no man can say he ever had a fit sub- 
ject for his wit, and did not then raise himself as high 
above the rest of poets, 

' Quautttm leiita solent inter vibuma cupressi,* '* 
John Drtdkk, Of dramatiek poetic, an essay. 

London, 1668. 4to. p. 47. 

The metrical specimen shall now take its place. 

Though printed somewhat later than the other, it 

has a much better chance of being accepted as a 

rarity in literature. 

Prologue to luuus Cjbsar. 

<* In country beauties as we often see 
Something that takes in their simplicity. 
Yet while they charm they know not they are fair. 
And take without their spreading of the snare — 
Such artless beauty lies in Shakespear*s wit ; 
*Twas well in spite of him whate'er he writ. 
His excellencies came, and were not sought. 
His words like casual atoms made a thought ; 
Drew up themselves in rank and file, and writ. 
He wondering how the devil it were, such wit. 
Thus, like the drunken tinker in his play. 
He grew a prince, and never knew which way. 
He did not know what trope or figure meant, 
But to persuade is to be eloquent ; . 
So in this Ctesar which this day you see, 
Tully ne'er spoke as he makes Anthony. 
Those then that tax his learning are to blame. 
He knew the thing, but did not know the name ; 
Great Johnson did that ignorance adore. 
And though he envied much, admir*d him more. 

The fiiultless Johnson equally writ well ; 
Shakespear made fiiults^but then did more ezeeL 
One close at guard like some old fencer lay, 
T'other more open, but he sbew'd more play. 
In imitation Jf^nson's wit was shown. 
Heaven made his men, but Shakespear made his own. 
Wise JohnsotCs talent in observing lay. 
But others* follies still made up his play. 
He drew the like in each elaborate line, 
But Shakespear like a master did design. 
'Johnson with skill dissected human kind. 
And show'd their faults, that they their faults might 

find ; 
But then, as all anatomists must do, 
He to the meanest of mankind did go. 
And took from gibbets such as be would show. 
Both are so great, that he must boldly dare 
Who both of them does judge, and both compare ; 
If amongst poets one more bold there be. 
The man that dare attempt in either way, is be.** 
Covent Garden drolery, London, 1672. 8*> p. 9. 

A short historical comment on the above ex- 
tracts is all that must be expected. The rest shall 
be left to the critical discernment of those persona 
who may be attract,ed by the heading of this Note 
— Dry den on Shakspere, 

When Johnson wrote his preface to Shakspere, 
he quoted the ^first of the above extracts to prove 
that the plays were once admired without the aid 
of comment. This was written in 1765. In 176^ 
Garrick placed the same extract at the head of his 
collection of undeniable prose- testimonies to the 
genius of Shakspere. Johnson afterwards pro- 
nounced it to be "a perpetual model of enco- 
miastic criticism;" and Malone quoted it as an 
admirable character of Shakspere. Now, admir^ 
able as it is, I doubt if it can be considered as 
expressive of the deliberate opinion of Dryden, 
The essayist himself, in his epistolary address to 
lord Buckhurst, gives a caution on that point. 
He observes, " All I have said is problematical.** 
In short, the essay 0/ dramatich poene is in the 
form of a dialogue — and a dialogue is " a chace- 
of wit kept up on both sides." 

I proceed to the second extract. — Who wrote 
the Prologue to Julius Cmsar f To what master- 
hand are we to ascribe this twofold specimen of 
psychologic portraiture ? Take up the dramatic 
histories of Langbaine and vBaker ; take up the 
Theatrical register of the reverend Charles Burney ; 
take up the voluminous Some account of the 
reverend John Genest ; examine the mass of com- 
mendatory verses in the twenty-one-volume edi- 
tions of Shakspere ; examine also the commenda- 
tory verses in the nine-volume edition of Ben. 
Jonson. Here is the result : Langbaine calls 
attention to the prologue in question as an exceU 
lent prologue^ and Genest repeats what had been 
said one hundred and forty years before by 
Langbaine. There is n^t ,the^ sl^t^tjimt ^n 
its authorship* O 



[No. 223. 

I must therefore leave the stronghold of facts, 
and advance into the field of conjecture. / ascribe 
the prologue to John Dryden, 

It appears by the list of plays altered from 
Shakspere, as drawn up by Steevens and Reed, 
that Julius C(Bsar had been altered by sir William 
D*Avenant and Dryden jointly, and acted at the 
Theatre-royal in Drury-lane. It would therefore 
seem probable that one of those poets wrote the 
prologue on that occasion. Nevertheless, it does 
not appear in the works of either poet. 

The Worhs of sir William D'Avenant were 
edited by Mr. Herrinpntnan, with the sanction of 
lady D*Avenant, in 1673 ; and its exclusion so 
far decides the question. 

The non-appearance of it in the Poems of 
Dryden, as published by Mr. Tonson in 1701, is 
no disproof of the claim which I advocate. The 
volume contains only twenty prologues and epi- 
logues — but Dryden wrote twice that number! 

I shall now produce some circumstantial evi- 
dence in favour of Dryden. It is derived from an 
examination of the volume entitled Covent Garden 
drolery. This small volume contains twenty-two 
prologues or epilogues, and more than fifty songs 
— all anonymous, but said to be written by the 
refinedest wits of the a^. We have, 1 . A prologue 
and epilogue to the maiden queen of Dryden — 
not those 'printed in 1668 ; 2. A prologue and 
epilogue to the ParsorCs wedding of Thomas Killi- 
grew ; 3. A prologue and epilogue to the Mar^ 
riage a la mode of Dryden — printed with the 
play in 1673 ; 4. The prologue to Julius C^3Ab ; 
5. A prologue to th'e Wit, without money of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher — printed in the Poems of 
Dryden, 1701 ; 6. A prologue to the Pilgrim of 
Fletcher — ^not that printed in 1700. These pieces 
occupy the first twelve pages of the volume. It 
cannot be requisite to give any further account of 
its contents. 

I waive the question of internal evidence ; but 
have no misgiving, on that score, as to the opinion 
which may henceforth prevail on the validity of 
the claim now advanced in favour of Dryden. 

Sir Walter Scott observes, with reference to 
the essay Of dramatick poesie^ " The contrast of 
Ben. Jonson and Shakspere is peculiarly and 
strikingly felicitous." • He could have said no less 
— whatever he might have said as to its author- 
ship — had he seen the Prologue to Julius Ccesar. 

Bolton Cobnet. 



(^Continued from Vol. viii., p. 488.) 

The following works I omitted to mention in 
my last Note from want of room. The first 

is by that amiable Nimrod, John Bale, Bisbop of 
Ossory : 

•* Yet a Course at the Romyshe Foxe, &e. Com- 
pyled by Joban Harrison. Zurich. 1543. 4 to.** 

The four following are by William Turner, 
M.D., who also wrote under au assumed name : 

" The Huntyng of the Romishe Foxe, &c. By 
William Wraughton. Basil. 1543." 

*• The Rescuynge of the Romishe Foxe, &c. Win- 
chester. 1545. 8vo." 

" The Huntyng of the Romyshe Wolfe. 8ro. 
1554 (?).•» 

" The Huntyng of the Foxe and Wolfe, &c. 8vo." 

The next is the most important work, and I 
give the title in full : 

** The Hunting of the Romish Fox, and the Quench- 
ing of Sectarian Firebrandt, Being a Specimen of 
Popery and Separation. Collected by the Honourable 
Sir James Ware, Knight, out of the Memorials of 
Eminent Men, both in Church and State: A. B. 
Cranmer, A. B. Usher, A. B. Parker, Sir Henry 
Sidney, A. B. Abbot, Lord Cecil, A. B. Laud, and 
others. And now published for the Public Good. By 
Robert Ware, Gent. Dublin. 1683. 12mo. pp. 248.'- 

The work concludes with this paragraph : 

" Now he that hath given us all our hearts, gire 
unto His Majesties subjects of these nations an hecart of 
unity t to quash division and separation ; of obedience, to 
quench the fury of rebellious firebrands : and a heart 
of constancy to the Reformed Church of England, the 
better to expel Popery, and to confound dissentioo. 

The last work, with reference to the first simile 
of my note, which I shall mention, is that by 
Zephaniah Smith, one of the leaders of the En- 
glish Antinomians : 

" Tlie Doome of Heretiques ; or a Discovery of 
Subtle Foxes who wer tyed Tayle to Tayle, and crept 
into the Church to doe Mischiefe, &c. Lond. 1648."* 

* The titles of these hooks remind one of " a merry 
disport," which formerly took place in the hall of the 
Inner Temple. ** At the conclusion of the ceremony, 
a huntsman came into the hall bearing a fox, a purse- 
net, and a cat, both bound at the end of a staff, attended 
by nine or ten couples of hounds with the blowing of 
hunting-horns. Then were the fox and cat set upon 
and killed by the dogs beneath the fire, to the no small 
pleasure of the spectators." One of the masque-names 
in this ceremony was ** Sir Morgan Mumchance, of 
Much Monkery, in the county of Mad Popery.** 

In Ane Compendious Bohe of Godly and Spiritual 
Songs, Edinburgh, 1621, printed from an old copy, are 
the following lines, seemingly referring to some such 
pageant : 

** Tlie Hunter is Christ that hunts in haist. 
The Hunds are Peter and Pawle, 
The Paip is the Fox, Rome is the Rox 
That rubbis us on the gall." 
Sec Honeys Fear-Book, p. 1513. >r^ t 

Feb. 4. 1854.] 



With regard to the second simile, see — 

" Tlie Trojan Horse, or the Presbyterian Govern- 
ment Unbowelled. London. 1646. 4to. By Henry 
Parker of Lincoln's Inn." 

" Comprehension and Toleration Considered, in a 
Sermon on Gal. ii. 5. By Dr. South.'* 

*< Remarks on a Bill of Comprehension. London. 
1684. By Dr. Hickes." 

" The New Distemper, or The Dissenters* Usual 
Pleas for Comprehension, Toleration, and the Re- 
nouncing the Covenant, Considered and Discussed. 
Non Quis sed Quid. London. 1680. 12mo. Second 
[Edition. Pp. 184. (With a figurative frontispiece, 
representing the <£cclesia AngUcana.') ** 

The first edition was published in 1675. Thomas 
Tomkins, Fellow of All Souls' College, was the 
author ; but the two editions are anonymous. 

As to the Service Book, see the curious work 
of George Lightbodie : 

" Against the Apple of the Left Eye of Antichrist ; 
or The Masse- Booke of Lurking Darknesse (TAe 
Liturgy), making Way for the Apple of the Right 
£ye of Antichrist, the Compleate Masse- Booke of 
Palpable Darknesse. London. 1638. 8vo.** 

Baylie*s Parallel (before referred to) was a 
popular work ; it was first printed London, 1641, 
in 4to. ; and reprinted 1641, 1642, 1646, 1661. 

As to "High Church " and " Low Church," see 
an article in the Edinburgh Review for last Oc- 
tober, on "Church Parties," and the following 
•works : 

" The True Character of a Churchman, showing the 
False Pretences to that Name. By Dr. West.** (No 
date. 1702?) Answered by Sacheverell in "The 
Character of a Low Churchman. 4to. 1702.** "Low 
Churchmen vindicated from the Charge of being no 

The symbolism of the brute creation is copiously 
employed in Holy Scripture and in ancient writings, and 
furnishes a magazine of arms in all disputes and party 
controversies. Thus, the strange sculptures on mt«e- 
rereSf &c. are ascribed to contests between the secular 
and regular clergy ; and thus Dryden, in his polemical 
poem of The Hind and the Panther, made these two 
animals symbolise respectively the Church of Rome 
and the Church of England, while the Independents, 
Calvinists, Quakers, Anabaptists, and other sects are 
characterised as wolves, bears, boars, foxes — all that is 
odious and horrible in the brute creation. 

*• A Jesuit has collected An Alphabetical Catalogue of 
the Names of Beasts bg which the Fathers cJiaracterised 
the Heretics. It may be found in Erotemata de malis 
ac bonis Libris, p. 93., 4to., 1653, of Father Raynaud. 
This list of brutes and insects, an^ng which are a 
variety of serpents, is accompanied by the names of the 
heretics designated.'* (See the chapter in D'Israeli's 
Curios, Lit, on " Literary Controversy,*' where many 
other instances of this kind of complimentary epithets 
are given, especially from the writings of Luther, 
Calvin, and Beza.) 

Churchmen. London. 1706. 8vo, By John Hand- 
cock, D.D., Rector of St. Margaret's, Lothbury." 

"Inquiry into the Duty of a Low Churchman. 
London. 1711. 8vo.*' (By James Peirce, a Noncon- 
formist divine, largely quoted in The Scourge : where 
he is spoken of as " A gentleman of figure, of the most 
apostolical moderation, of the most Christian temper, 
and is esteemed as the Evangelical Doctor of the Pres- 
byterians in this kingdom," &e. — P. 342.) 

He also wrote : 

" The Loyalty, Integrity, and Ingenuity of High 
Churchmen and Dissenters, and their respective 
Writers, Compared. London. 1719. 8vo.** 

See also the following periodical, which Lowndes 
thus describes : 

« The Lidependent Whig, From Jan. 20, 1719-20, 
to Jan. 4, 1721. 53 Numbers. London. Written by 
Gordon and Trenchard in order to oppose the High 
Church Party; 1732-5, 12mo., 2 vols. ; 1753, 12mo., 
4 vols.'* 

Will some correspondent kindly furnish me 
with the date, author's name, &c., of the pam- 
phlet entitled Merciftd Judgments of High Church 
Triumphant on Offending Clergymen and others in 
the Reign of Charles Lf* 

I omitted Wordsworth's lines in my first note : 

" High and Low, 
Watchwords of party, on all tongues are rife ; 

As if a Church, though sprung from heaven, must 
To opposites and fierce extremes her life ; ^- 

Not to the golden mean and quiet flow 
Of truths, that soften hatred, temper strife.*' 

Wordsworth, and most Anglican writers down 
to Dr. Hook, are ever extolling the Golden Mean 
and the moderation of the Church of England. A 
fine old writer of the same Church (Dr. Joseph 
Beaumont) seems to think that this love of the 
Mean can be carried too far : 

« And witty too in self-delusion, we 
Against highstreined piety can plead. 
Gravely pretending that extremity 
Is Vice's clime ; that by the Catholick creed 
Of all the world it is acknowledged that 
The temperate mean is always Virtue*s seat. ' 
Hence comes the race of mongrel goodness ; hence 
Faint tepidiiess usurpeth fervour's name ; 
Hence will the earth-born meteor needs commence. 
In his gay glaring robes, sydereal flame ; 
Hence foolish man, if moderately evil, 
Dreams he's a saint because he's not a devil.** 
Psyche, cant. xxi. 4, 5. 

[♦ We are enabled to give the remainder of the title 
and the date: — ** Together with the Lord Falkland*s 
Speech in Parliament, 1640, relating to that subject : 
London, printed for Ben. Bragg, at the Black Raven 
in Paternoster Row. i7l5L^^"Ei)^ ^^"-"5'" 



[No. 228. 

Cf. Bishop Taylor's Zi/e of ChrUt^ part i. 
sect. ▼. 9. Jabltzbebo. 

Nov. 28, 1853. 

P.S. — ^Not having the fear of Sir Roger Twisden 
or Mb. Thomas Comjs before my eyes, I ad- 
Tisedly made what the latter gentleman is pleased 
to term a "loose statement" (Vol* viii'i P- 631.), 
when I spoke of the Church of England separating 
from Rome. As to the Romanists " conforming ** 
for the first twelve (or as some have it nineteen) 
years of £lizabeth*s reign, the less said about that 
the better for both parties, and especially for the 
dominant party.* 

Mb. Ck>LLis*s dogmatic assertions, that the Ro- 
man Catholics " conformed " for the twelve years, 
and that Popes Paul IV. and Pius IV. offered to 
confirm the Book of Common Prayer if ^Elizabeth 
would acknowledge the papal supremacy, are evi- 
dently borrowed, word for word, from Dr. Words- 
worth's "f Theophilus Anelicanust cap. vii. p. 219. A 
careful examination of the evidence adduced in 
■support of the latter assertion, shows it to be of 
the most flimsy description, and refers it to its 

* See the authorities given by Mr. Palmer, Church 
of Ckri9t^ 3rd ed., Lond. 1842, pp. 347 — 349. ; and 
Mr. Percival Oa the Roman Schism : see also Tierney's 
Dodd, tols. ii. and iii. 

A full and impartial history of the *• conformity ** of 
Roman Catholics and Puritans during the penal laws 
is much wanting, especially of the former during the 
first twelve years of £lizabeth. With the Editor's per- 
mission I shall probably send in a few notes on the 
latter subject, with a list of the works for and against 
outward conformity, which was published during that 
period. (See Bp. £arle*s character of " A Church 
Papist," Microcosmography, Bliss's edition, p. 29.) 

f It is painful to see party spirit lead aside so 
learned and estimable a man as Dr. Wordsworth, and 
induce him to convert a ridiculous report into a grave 
and indisputable matter of fact. The more we know, 
the greater is our reverence for accuracy, truthfulness, 
and candour ; and the older we growr in years and 
wisdom, the more we estimate that glorious motto — 
Audi alteram partem. 

What are our ordinary histories of the Reformation 
from Burnet to Cobbett but so many caricatures? 
Would that there were more Maitlands in the English 
Church, and more Pascals and Pugins in the Roman ! 

Let me take this occasion to recommend to the 
particular attention of all candid inquirers a little 
brochure, by the noble-minded writer last named, en- 
titled An. Earnest Address on the Establishment of the 
Hierarchy f by A. Welby Pugin : Lond. Dolman, 1851. 
And let me here inquire whether this lamented writer 
completed his New View of an Old Subject ; art the 
English Schism impartiatty Considered^ which he adver- 
tised as in preparation ? 

I should mention, perhaps, that Sir Roger Twisden's 
book was reprinted in 1847 : I have, however, met 
with the original edition only. 

true basis, viz. hearsay : the reasoning and infer- 
ences which prop the evidence are equally flimsy. 

Fuller, speaking of this report, says that it 
originated with "some who love to feign what 
they cannot find, that they may never appear to 
be at a loss." (CA. Ht«/., b. ix. 69.) 

As the question at issue is one of great his- 
torical importance, I am prepared, if caUed on, to 
give a summary of the case in all its bearings; 
for the present I content myself with giving the 
following references : 

** Sir Roger Twisden*s Historical Vindication of the 
Church of England in point of Schism, as it stands 
separated from the Roman. Lond. 1675.** — P. 175. 

•<Bp. Andrewes* Tortura Torti. Lond. 1609." — 
P. 142. 

« Parallel Torti et Tortoris."— P. 241. 

" Abp. Bramhall ag. Bp. Chal." — Ch. iL (vol ii. 
p. 85., Oxf.ed.) 

•* Sir E. Cook*s Speech and Charge at Norwich 
Assixes. 1607.** 

** Babington upon Numbers. Lond. 1615." — Ch.viL 
§ 2. p. 35. 

** Servi Fidelis subdito infideli Responsis, apud 
Johannem Dayum. Lond. 1573.'* (In reply to 
Saunders* De VisibUi Monarchia.) 

**Camd. Annal. an. 1560. Lond. 1639.**— Pt. i. 
pp. 47. 49. 

(See also Heylin, 303.; Burnet, ii. 387.; 
Strype, Annal ch. xix.; Tierney's Dodd, ii. 147.) 

The letter which the pontifl' did address to 
Elizabeth is given in Fuller, ix. 68., and Dodd, 
ii. app. xlvii. p. cccxxi. 

N. B,— In the P. S. to my last note, " N. & (J.," 
VoL »iM., p. 156., was a misprint for VoL v. 


Having come across an old Daily Post of Thurs- 
day, August 4, 1720, I send you the following 
cuttings from it, which perhaps you may think 
worth insertbn : 

** Hague, August 9. 

« It was on the 5th that the first of our East-India 
ships appear*d off of the Texel, four of the ships came 
to an anchor that evening, nine others kept out at sea 
till day-light, and came up with the flood the next 
morning, and four more came in this afternoon ; but 
as they belong to the Chambers of Zealand, and other 
towns, its thought they will stand away for the Maese. 
This fleet is very rich, and including the single ship 
which arriv*d about a fortnight since, and one still ex- 
pected, are valu^ at near seven millions of guilders 
prime cost in the Indies, not reckoning the freight or 
value at the sale, which may be suppos*d to make 
treble that sum.** 

" We have an account from Flanders, that two ships 
more are come in to Ostend for the new East India 

Pub. 4. 1854.] 



Company there ; it is said, these ships touch no where 
«rter they quit the coast of Malabar till they come 
upon the coast of Guinea, where they put in for fresh 
water ; and as for those which come from China, they 
'water on the bank of the Island of Ceylon, and again 
on the east shore of Madagascar; but that none of 
them touch either at the Cape de bon Esperance, or 
at St. Helena, not caring to venture falling into the 
hands of any of the Dutch or other nations trading to 
the east. These ships they say are exceedingly rich, 
and the captains confirm the account of the treaty 
which one of their former captains made with the 
Great Mogul, for the settling a factory on his do- 
minions, and that with very advantageous conditions; 
what the particulars may be we yet know not.** 

** Went away the 22d of July last, from the bouse 
of William Webb in Limehouse Hole, a negro man, 
about twenty years old, call'd Dick, yellow complec- 
tion, wool hair, about five foot six inches high, having 
on his right breast the word Ha&e burnt. Whoever 
brings him to the said Mr. Webb's shall have half a 
guinea reward, and reasonable charges." 

James Grates. 



(^Continued from Vol. viii., p. 558.) 

I am now enabled to forward, according to my 
promise, literal translations, so far as they could 
be made, of three more letters, which were 
written in the Latin language, and addressed by 
Henry VIIL to the Grand Masters of Malta. The 
first two were directed to Philip de Villiers L*Isle 
Adam, and the last to his successor Pierino Du- 
pont, an Italian knight, who, from his very ad- 
vanced age, and consequent infirmity, was little 
disposed to accept of the high dignity which his 
brethren of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem 
had unanimously conferred upon him. The life 
of Dupont was spared "long enough," not only for 
him to take an active part m the expedition which 
Charles Y. sent against Tunis at bis suggestion, 
to reinstate Muley Hassan on the throne of that 
kingdom, but also to see his knights return to the 
convent covered with glory, and galleys Ixulen 
with plunder. 

No. IV. Fol.eth. 

Henry by the Grace of God, King of England and 
France, Defender of the Faith, and Lord of 
Irelandi, to our Reverend Father in Christ, 
Dominus F. de Villiers L*Isle Adam, our most 
dear friend — Greeting: 

For a long period of time. Master Peter Vanes, of 
Luca, has been serving as private secretary ; and 
as we have always found nis service loving and 
faithful, we not only love him from our heart, 
and hold him dear, but we are also extremely de- 

sirous of his interest and advancement. As he 
has declared to us that his most ardent wish is by 
our influence and favour to be in some way in- 
vested with honour in his own country, we have 
most willingly promised to do for him in this mat- 
ter whatever lay in our power ; and we trust that 
from the good offices which your most worthy 
Reverence has always received from us, this our 
desire with regard to promoting the aforesaid 
Master Peter will be furthered, and the more 
readily on this account, because what we beg for 
may be granted without injury to any one. Since, 
then, a certain Dominus Livius, concerning whom 
your Reverend Lordship will be more fully in- 
formed by our same Secretary, is in possession of 
a Priory in the Collegiate Church of SS. Johji 
and Riparata in the city of Zkco, we most earnestly 
desire that the said Livius, through your Reverend 
Lordship*s intercession, may resign the said Priorj 
and Collegiate Church to our said Latin Secretary,* 
on this condition, however, that your Reverend 
Lordship, as a special favour to us, will provide 
the said Dominus Livius with a Commandery of 
equal or of greater value. We therefore most 
earnestly entreat that you will have a care of this 
matter, so that we may obtain the object of our 
wishes ; and we shall be greatly indebted to your 
Reverend Lordship, to whom, when occasion oners, 
we will make a return for the twofold favour, in a 
matter of like- or of greater moment. 
May all happiness attend you. 
From our palace of Greenwich, 
13th day of January, 1526, 

Your good friend, 

Henry Rex. 

No. V. Fol. 9th. 

Henry by the Grace of God, King of England and 
France, Defender of the Faith, and Lord of 
Ireland, to our Reverend Father in Christ, 
Dominus F. de Villiers L*Isle Adam, our most 
dear friend — Greeting : 

Although, by many proofs, we have oflen before 
been convinced that your Reverend Lordship, 
and your venerable Brethren, after the loss of 
Rhodes, have had nothing more to heart than that 
by your actions you might deserve most highly of 
the Christian republic, and that you might some- 
times give proof of this by your deeds, that you 
have zealously sought for some convenient spot 
where you might at length fix your abode ; never- 
theless, what we have lately learnt from the let- 
ters of your Reverend Lordship, and from the 
conversation and prudent discourse of your vener- 
able Brother De Dentirville has caused us the 
greatest joy; and although, with regard to the 
recovery of Rhodes, complete success has not an- 
swered your intentions, nevertheless we think that 
this your Order of Jerusalem has always wished 
to seek after whatever it has judged might in any 



[No. 223. 

manner tend to tbe propagation of the Catholic 
Faith and the tranquillity of the Christian Re- 
public. But that his Imperial Majesty has granted 
to your Order the island of Malta^ Gozo, and 
Tripoli, we cannot but rejoice ; places which, as we 
hear, are most strongly fortified by nature, and 
most excellently adapted for repelling the attacks 
of the Infidels, should have now come into your 
hands, where your Order can assemble in all 
safety, recover its strength, and settle and con- 
firm its position.* And we wish to convince you 

♦ H. M. Henry VIII. was certainly labouring under 
an error, when supposing that the islands of Malta and 
Gozo " were strongly fortified by nature, and excel- 
lently adapted for repelling tbe attacks of the infidels ;'* 
as in truth nature had done nothing for their defence, 
unless it be in furnishing an abundance of soft stone 
with its yellow tinge, of which all their fortifications 
are built. 

When L*Isle Adam landed at Malta in October, 
1530, it was with the rank of a monarch ; and when, 
in company with the authorities of the island, "he 
appeared before its capital, and swore to protect its 
inhabitants, the gates of the old city were opened, and 
he was admitted with the knights; the Maltese de- 
claring to them their fealty, without prejudice to the 
interests of Charles V., to whom they had heretofore 
been subject** Never, since the establishment of the 
Order, had the affairs of the Hospitallers appeared 
more desperate than at this period. For the loss of 
Rhodes, so famed in its history, so prized for its sin- 
gular fertility, and rich and varied fruits; an island 
which, as De Lamartine so beautifully expressed it, 
appeared to rise ** like a bouquet of verdure out of the 
bosom of the sea,** with its groves of orange trees, its 
sycamores and palms ; what had L*Isle Adam received 
in return, but an arid Afirican rock, without palaces or 
dwellings, without fortifications or inland streams, and 
which, were it not for its harbours, would have been 
as difficult to hold as it would have been unworthy of 
his acceptance. (Yertot.) 

A person who has never been at Malta can, by read- 
ing its history, hardly picture to himself the change 
which the island underwent for the better, under the 
long and happy rule of the Order of St. John. Look 
whither one will, at this day, he sees some of the most 
perfect fortresses in the world, — fortifications which it 
took millions of money to erect ; and two hundred and 
fifty years of continual toil and labour, before the work* 
on them was finished. As a ship of war now enters 
the great harbour, she passes immediately under the 
splendid castles of St. Elmo, Ricasoli, and St. Angelo. 
Going to her anchorage, she "comes to** under some 
one of the extensive fortifications of the Borgo, La 
Sangle, Burmola, Cotonera, and La Yalelta. In all 
directions, and at all times, she is entirely commanded 
by a line of walls, which are bristling with cannon 
above her. Should the more humble merchantman be 
entering the small port of Marsamuscetto, to perform 
her quarantine, she also is sailing under St. Elmo and 
Florianna on the one side, and forts Tign^ and Manoel 
on the other ; from the cannon of which there is no 

that fresh increase is daily made to the affection 
with which we have always cherished this Order 
of Jerusalem, inasmuch as we perceive that your 
actions have been directed to a good and upright 
end, both because these undertakings of your 
Reverend Lordship, and of your venerable Bre- 
thren, are approved by us as highly beneficial and 
profitable ; and because we trust that your favour 
and protection will ever be ready to assist our 
nation, if there be any need ; nor shall we on our 
part be ever wanting in any friendly office which 
we can perform towards preserving and protect- 
ing your Order, as your Reverend Lordship will 
gather more at length of our well afifected mind 
towards you from Dominus Dentirville, the bearer 
of these presents. 

May all happiness attend you. 

From our Palace at Hampton Court, 
The 22nd day of November, 1530, 
Your good friend, 

Henbt Hex.. 
No. VL 

Henry by the Grace of God, King of England and 
France, Defender of the Faith, and Lord of 
Ireland, to our Reverend Father in Christ,. 
Don Pierino de Ponte, Grand Master of Jeru- 

Our most dear friend — Greeting : 
We had conceived so great a hope and opinion 
of the probity, integrity, and prudence of your 
predecessor, that, from his care and vigilance, we 
securely trusted that the business and afiairs of 
this your Order, which hitherto has always wont 
to be of no slight assistance to our most Holy 
Faith, and to the Christian name, would as far 
as was needful have been amended and settled 
most quietly and effectually with God and his 
Holy Keligion. From the love then and afiection 
which we have hitherto shown in no ordinary 
manner to your Order, for the sake of tbe pro- 
pagation of the Christian Faith, we were not a 
little grieved at the death of your predecessor, 
because we very much feared that serious loss 
would in consequence be entailed on that Religion. 
But since, both from your letters and from the 
discourse of others, we now hear that your vener- 
able Brethren agreed by their unanimous voice 
and consent to choose your Reverence as the 

escape. But besides these numerous fortifications, the 
whole coast of the island is protected by forts and bat- 
teries, towers and redoubts. We name those of the 
Red Tower, the Melleha, St. Paul, St. Julien, Marsa 
Sirocco, and St Thomas ; only to show how thoroughly 
the knights had guarded their convent, and how totally 
different the protection of the Maltese was under their 
rule, from what it was when they first landed ; and 
found them with their inconsiderable fort, with one 
cannon and two falconets, which, as Boisgelin has men- 
tioned, was their only defence. 

Feb. 4. 1854.] 



person to whom the care and government of so 
weighty an office should be intrusted, considering 
this dignity to be especially worthy of you and 
your spirit of Religion, we cannot but sincerely 
be glad ; and rejoice especially if, by your eminent 
virtues, it shall be effected that only such matters 
shall be undertaken, and presided over by the 
strength and counsels of the Order of Jerusalem, 
as are most in accordance with the True Religion 
of Christ our Redeemer, and best adapted to the 
propagation of his doctrine and Faith. And if 
you shall seriously apply your mind to this, as 
you are especially bound to, we shall by no means 
repent of the favours which we have bestowed 
neither seldom nor secretly upon this your Order, 
nay rather this object shall be attained that you 
shall have no reason to think that you have been 
foiled in that your confidence, and in our protec- 
tion and the guardianship which we extend over 
your concerns through reverence for the Almighty 
God. And we shall not find that this guardian- 
ship and protection of your Order, assumed by us, 
has been borne for so long a period by us without 
any fruit. 

'ITiose things which the Reverend Prior of our 
Kingdom, and the person who brought your Re- 
verend Lordship*s letter to us, have listened to 
i¥ith attention and kindness, and returned an 
answer to, as we doubt not will be intimated by 
them to your Reverend Lordship. 

May all happiness attend you. 

From our Palace at Westminster, 
The 17th day of November, 1534. 
Hemst Rex. 

From the date and superscription of the above 
truly Catholic letter, it will be seen that it was 
•written about the period of the Reformation in 
^England, and addressed to the Grand Master of an 
Order, which for four centuries had been at all 
times engaged in Paynim war ; and won for itself 
among the Catholic powers of Europe, by its many 
noble and daring acnievements, the style and title 
of being the "bulwark of the Christian faith." 
Bound as the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem 
•were in all ages to pay a perfect obedience to the 
Roman Pontiffs, it is not surprising that this should 
be the last letter which we have found filed away 
in the archives of their Order, bearing the auto- 
graph of Henry VIII. William Winthbop. 

La Valetta, Malta. 


When Psarameticus turned back the conquering 
Scythians from their contemplated invasion of 
Egypt, some stragglers of the rear-guard plun- 
idered the temple of Venus Urania at Ascalon. 
The goddess punished this sacrilege by inflicting 

on the Scythian nation the "female disease.'* 
Herodotus, from whom we learn this, says : 

** The Scythians themselves confess that their coun- 
trytflen suffer this malady in consequence of the above 
crime ; their condition also may be seen by those who 
visit Scythia, where they are called Enareae." — 6eloe*s 
Translation, vol. i. p. 113., ed. 8vo. 

And again, vol.ii. p. 261., Hippocrates says : 

** There are likewise among the Scythians, persons 
who come into the world as eunuchs, and do all the 
work of women; they are called Enarseans, or wo- 
manish,** &o. 

It would occupy too much space to detail here all 
the speculations to which this passage has given 
rise ; sufficient for us be the fact, that in Scythia 
there were men who dressed as, and associated 
with, the women ; that they were considered as 
victims of an offended female deity ; and yet, 
strange dintradiction ! they were revered as 
prophets or diviners, and even acquired wealth by 
their predictions, &c. (See Universal History^ 
XX. p. 15., ed. 8vo.) 

The curse still hangs over the descendants of 
the Scythians. Reineggo found the " female dis- 
ease " among the Nogay Tatars, who call persons 
so afliicted "Choss." In 1797-8, Count Fotocki 
saw one of them. The Turks apply the same 
term to men wanting a beard. (See Klaproth's 
Georgia and Caucasus^ p. 160., ed. 4to.) From 
the Turkish use of the word " choss," we may infer 
that Enareans existed in the cradle of then: race, 
and that the meaning only had suffered a slight 
modification on their descent from the Altai. De 
Pauw, in his Recherche* sur Us Americains, without 
quoting any authority, says there are men in Mo- 
gulistan, who dress as women, but are obliged to 
wear a man*8 turban. 

It must be interesting to the ethnologist to 
find this curse extending into the New World, 
and actually now existing amongst Dr. Latham*s 
American mongolidce. It would be doubly in- 
teresting could we trace its course from ancient 
Scythia to the Atlantic coast. In this attempt, 
however, we have not been successful, a few 
isolated facts only presenting themselves as pro- 
bably descending from the same source. The re- 
lations of traveUers in Eastern Asia offer nothing 
of the sort among the Tungusi, Yakuti, &c. The 
two Mahometans (a.d. 833, thereabout), speaking 
of Chinese depravity, assert that it is somehow 
connected with the worship of their idols, &c. 
(Harris* Collection^ p. 443., ed. fol.) Saner men- 
tions boys dressed as females, and performing all 
the domestic duties in common with the women, 
among the Kodiaks ; and crossing to the American 
coast, found the same practised by the inhabitants 
of Oonalashka (ed. 4to., pp. 160. 176.). More 
accurate observation might probably detect its 
existence amongst intermediate tribes, but want 

Lfiyiuz-fc^u uy 




[No. 2§3. 

of information obliges us here to jump at once 
over the whole range of the Rocky Mountains, 
and then we find Enareanism (if I may so term it) 
extending from Canada to Florida inclusive, Imd 
thence at intervals to the Straits of Magellan. 

Most of the earlier visitors to America have 
noticed the numerous hermaphrodites everywhere 
met with. De Pauw (who, I believe, never was 
in America) devotes a whole chapter to the sub- 
ject in his Recherches sur les Americains, in which 
he talks a ^eat deal of nonsense. It assisted 
his hypothesis, that everything American, in the 
animal and vegetable kingdoms, was inferior to 
their synonymes in the Old World. 

The calm and more philosophical observation of 
subsequent travellers, however, soon discovered 
that the so-called hermaphrodites were men in 
female attire, associating with the women, and 
partaking of all their labours and o^upations. 
t4re Hennepin had already mentionea the cir- 
cumstance (Amstel. ed. in 12mo., p. 219.), but 
he seems to nave had no idea of the practice being 
in any way connected with religion. Charlevoix 
went a step farther, for speaking of those he met 
with among the Illinois, he says : 

** On a pr^teadu que cet usage venait de je ne sais 
^uel principe de la religion, mais cette religion avait, 
oomme bien d*autres, prit sa naissance dans la corruption 
du coeur,*' &c 

Here he stopped, not caring to inform himself as 
to the real origin of the usage. Lafitau says these 
so-called hermaphrodites were numerous in Loui- 
siana, Florida, Yucatan, and amongst the Sioux, 
Illinois, &c. ; and goes on, — 

** II y a de jeunes gens qui prennent l*habit de fbmme 
4u*ils gardent toute leur tie, et qui se croyent ho- 
norez de s*abaisser a toutes leurs occupations ; ils ne 
Se marient jamais, ils assistent 4 tou« les exercises oh 
la religion semble avoir part, et cette profession de vie 
extraordinaire les &it passer pour des gens d*un ordre 
sup^rieur et au*dessu8 du commun des hommes,** &c. 

Are not these, he asks, the same people as those 
Asiatic worshippers of Cybele ? or those who, ac- 
cording to Julius Firmicus, consecrated them- 
selves, the one to the Phrygian goddess, the others 
to Venus Urania? — priests who dressetl as women, 
Ike. (See Mceurs des Sauvages americains^ vol. i. 
p. 52,, ed. 4to., Paris, 1724.) He farther tells us 
that Yasco Nunez de Balbao met many of them, 
and in the fury of his religious zeal had them torn 
to pieces by dogs. Was this in Darien ? I be- 
lieve neither Heckewelder, Adair, Colden, nor 
J. Dunn Hunter, mention this subject, though 
they must all have been aware of the existence of 
Enareans in some one or more of the tribes with 
which they were acquainted ; and I do not re- 
member havinff ever met with mention of them 
among the Indian nations of New England, and 
Tanner testifies to their existence amongst the 

Chepewa and Ottawa nations, by whom they are 
called A-go-kwa. Catlin met with them among 
the Sioux, and gives a sketch of a dance in honour 
of the I-coo-coo, as they call them. Southey 
speaks of them among the Guayacuru under the 
name of "Cudinas," and so does Von Martins. 
Captain Fitzroy, quoting; the Jesuit Falkner, says 
the Pata^onian wizards (query priests) are dressed 
in female attire : they are chosen for the office 
when young, preference being given to boys 
evincing a feminine disposition. 

Lafitau's conjecture as to the connexion between 
these American Enareans and the worshippers of 
Venus Urania, seems to receive some confirmation 
from our next evidence, viz. in Major Long^s 
ExpedUion to St Peter's River, some of these 
people were met with, and inquiry being made 
concerning them, it was ascertained that — 

*' The Indians believe the moon is the residence of a 
hostile female deity, and should she appear to them in 
their dreams, it is an injunction to become Cihapdi, 
and they immediately assume feminine attire.** — Vol. i. 
p. 216. 

Farther it is stated, that two of these people whom 
they found among the Sauks, though generally 
held in contempt, were pitied by many — 
** As labouring under an unfortunate destiny tb«t 
they caanot avoid, being supposed to be impelled to 
this course by a vision from the fiemale ^Irit that 
resides in the moon,** &c. — Vol. i. p« 227. 

Venus Urania is placed among the Scythian 
deities by Herodotus, under the name "Artim- 
pasa.** We are, for obvious reasons, at liberty to 
conjecture that the adoption of her worship, and 
the development of ^the female disease, may 
have been contemporaneous, or nearly so. It 
were needless entering on a long story to show the 
connexion between Venus and the moon, which 
was styled Urania, Juno, Jana, Diana, Venus, &c. 
Should it be conceded that the American itfon- 
goUd<B broueht with them this curse of Scythia, 
the date of Sieir emigration will be approximated, 
since it must have taken place subsequently to 
the affair of Ascalon, or between 400 or 500 
years b.c. 

The adoption of female attire by the priesthood, 
however, was not confined to the worshippers of 
Venus Urania ; it was widely spread throughout 
Heathendom; so widely that, as we learn from 
Tacitus, the priests of the Naharvali (in modern 
Denmark) officiated in the dress of women. Like 
many other heathenish customs and costumes, 
traces of this have descended to our own times ; 
such, for example, may have been the exchange 
of dresses on New Year's Eve, &c. : see Drake's 
Shakspeare and his Times, vol. i. p. 124., ed. 4to. 
And what else is the effeminate costume of the 
clergy in many parts of Europe, the girded 
waist, and the petticoat-like cassock, but a re- 
Li iyuiz.t;u uy 'v—* ■v„-'' 'v_>'Vt Iv^ 

Feb. 4. 1854.] 



lique of the ancient priestl j predilection for female 
attire ? A. C. M. 

ffiimv fiatti. 

Russia and Turkey, — The following paragraph 
from an old newspaper reads with a strange signi- 
ficance at the present time : 

** The last advices from Leghorn describe the genius 
of discord still prevailing in the unfortunate city of 
Constantinople, the people clamouring against their 
rulers, and the janissaries ripe for insurrection, in con- 
sequence of the backfvardness of the Porte to commence 
hostilities with Russia." — English Chronicle, or Uni' 
versed Evening Post, February 6th to 8 th, 1783. 

J. Locke. 

Social Effects of the severe Weather, Jan, 3 
and 4, 1854. — The daily and local newspapers 
have detailed many public incidents of the severe 
weather of the commencement of 1854: such as 
snow ten yards deep; roads blocked up; mails 
delayed ; the streets of the metropolis, for a time, 
impassible ; omnibuses witii four horses ; Hansom 
cabs driven tandem, &c. The effects of the storms 
of snow, socially, were not the least curious. In 
the neighbourhood of Manchester seventy persons 
were expected at an evening party, one only 
arrived. At another house one hundred guests 
were expected, nine only arrived. Many other 
readers of your valuable paper have, no doubt, 
made similar notes, and will probably forward 
them. RoBBBT Rawlinson. 

Star of Bethlehem. — Lord Nugent, in his Lands, 
Classical and Sacred, vol. ii. p. 18., says : 

** The spot shown as the place of the Nativity, and 
that of the manger, both of which are in a crypt or 
subterraneous chapel under the church of St. Katlierine, 
are in the hands of the Roman Catholicks. The former 
is marked by this simple inscription on a silver star 
set in the pavement : 

< Hie de Virgine Maria Jesus Christus natus est**' 

The Emperor of the French, as representative 
of the Latm Church, first raised the question of 
the sacred places, now likely to involve the Pent- 
archy of Europe in a quasi civil war, by attempt- 
ing, through the authority of the Snltan of Turkey, 
to restore the above inscription, which had been 
defaced, as is supposed, by the Greek Christians ; 
and thereby encountering the opposition of the 
Emperor of the Russias, who claims to represent 
the Eastern Church. T. J. Bxtckton. 


Origin of the Word " Cant:* — From the Mer- 
curius Publicus of Feb. 28, 1661, Edinburgh : 

" Mr, Alexander Cant, son to Mr. Andrew Cant 
(who in his discourse De Exeommunicato trucidando 
maintained that all refusers of the Covenant ought to 

be excommunicated, and that all so excommunicated 
might lawfully be killed), was lately deposed by the 
Synod for divers seditious and impudent passages in 
his sermons at several places, as at the pulpit of 
Banchry ; * That whoever would own or make use of 
a service-book, king, nobleman, or minister, the curse 
of God should be upon him.* 

*• In his Grace after Meat, he praid for those phana- 
ticques and seditious ministers (who are now secured) 
in these words, * Tlie Lord pity and deliver the precious 
prisoners who are now suffering for the truth, and close 
up the mouths of the Edomites, who are now rejoicing ; ' 
with several other articles too long to recite.'* 

From these two Cants (Andrew and Alexander) 
all seditious praying and preaching in Scotland is 
called "Cantmg." J.B. 

Epigram on Four Lawyers, — It used to be 
said that four lawyers were wont to go down from 
Lincoln's Inn and the Temple in one hackney 
coach for one shilling. The following epigram 
records the economical practice : 

** Causidici curru felices quatuor uno 
Quoque die repetunt limina nota *fori.' 
Quanta sodalitium praestabit commoda ! cui non 
Contigerint socii cogitur ire pedes." 

See Poemata Anglorum Latino, p. 446. Lemma^ 
" Defendit numeraa.** — Jwo. J. W. Fabbeb. 



I shall feel exceedingly obliged if yon or any of 
your correspondents will inform me who were the 
writers in Knights Quarterly Magazine, bearing 
the following fictitious signatures: — 1. Marma- 
duke Yillars ; 2. Davenant Cecil ; 3. Tristram 
Merton ; 4. Irvine Montagu ; 6, Gerard Mont- 
gomery ; 6. Henry Baldwm ; 7. Joseph Haller ; 
S.Peter Ellis; 9. Paterson Aymer; 10. Eustace 
Heron; 11. Edward Haselfoot; 12. William 
Payne ; 13. Archibald Frazer ; 14. Hamilton 
Murray ; 15. Charles Pendragon; 16. Lewis 
Willoughby ; 17. John Tell ; 18. Edmund Bruce ; 
19. Reginald Holyoake; 20. Richard Mills; 21. 
Oliyer Medley ; 22. Peregrine Courtenay ; 23. 
Vyvyan Joyeuse ; 24. Martin LoveU ; 25. Martin 
Danvers Heaviside. 

I fear I have given you so long a list as to deter 
you from replying to my inquiry ; but if you can- 
not spare time or space to answer me fully, I have 
numbered the writers in such a way as that you 
may be induced to give the numbers without the 
names, except you think that many of your readers 
would be glad to ^ave the information given to 
them which I ask of you. 

Tristram Merton is T. B. Macaulay, who wrote 
several sketches and five ballads in the Magazine ; 

LJiyiuz-fc^u uy 




[No. 223. 

indeed, it was in it that bis fine English ballads 
first appeared. 

Peregrine Cotirtenay was the late Winthrop 
Mackworth Praed, who was, I believe, its editor. 

Henry Nelson Coleridi^e and John Mo ul tire 
were also contributors, but under what signatures 
they wrote I cannot tell. 

KniglWs Quarterly Magazine never extended 
beyond three volumes, and it is now a rather 
scarce book. Any light you can throw upon this 
subject will have an interest for most people, and 
will be duly appreciated by E. H. 



Having recently had occasion to consult the 
Lansdown MSS., No. 905., a volume containing 
documents formerly belonging to Mr. Umfreville, 
1 observed the following : 

*< Ordinances, constitutions, rules, and articles made 
by the Court of Star Chamber relating to Printers and 
Printing, Jan. 23, anno 28 Eliz.** 

Appended to these ordinances, &c. is a statement 
^m which I have made the following extracts : 
« Viii® Januarii, 1583. 

<* Bookes yeilded into the hands and disposition of 
the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Mysterie 
of the Stationers of London for the releife of y« poore 
of y* saide companie according to the discretion of the 
Master, Wardens, and Assistants, or the more parte of 

«« Mr. Barker, her Ma"" printer, hath yeilded unto 
the saide disposition and purpose these bookes follow- 
ing: viz. 

** The first and second volume of Homelies. 

" The whole sUtutes at large, w*** y« pamble as they 
■axe now extant. 

•« The Paraphrasis of Erasmus upon y« Epistles and 
Gospells appoynted to be readd in Churches. 

" Articles of Religion agreed upon 1562 for y* 

♦* The Several Injunctions and Articles to be en- 
quired of through y* whole Real me. 

«* The Profitt and Benefite of the tvro most vendible 
volumes of the New Testament in English, commonlie 
called Mr. Cheekes* translation : that is, in the volume 
^Iled Octavo^ w*'* Annotacions as they be now : and 
Ln the volume called Decimo Sexto of the same trans- 
lation w*^out notes, in the Brevier English letter only. 

*' Provided that Mr. Barker himselfe print the sayde 
Testaments at the lovrest value by the direction of the 
Master and Wardens of the Company of Stationers for 
the tyme being. Provided alwaye that Mr. Barker 
do reteyn some small number of these for diverse ser- 
vices in her Ma**«* Courtes or . . . . [MS. illegible] 
and lastlye that nothing that he* yeildeth unto by 
meanes aforesaide be preiudiciall to her Ma"*' highe 
prerogative, or to any that shall succeed in the office 
of her Ma"«- printer." 

The other printers named are, Mr. Totell, Mr. 
Watkins, Mr. John Daye, Mr. Newberye, and 
Henrie Denham. 

I wish to raise a Query upon the following : 

** Mr. Watkins, now Wardein, hath yeilded to the 
disposcion and purpose aforesaide this that foUoweth : 

" The Broad Almanack ; that is to say, the same to 
be printed on one syde of a sheete, to be sett on walls 
as usuallie it hath ben?.*' 

Query 1. Is this Broad Almanack the original 
of the present Stationere" Almanack f 

2. When was this Broad Almanack first issued ? 

3. When were sheet almanacks, printed on one 
side of a sheet, first published ? B. H. C. 

P. S. — The books enumerated in this MS., 
under the other printers* names, are some of them 
very curious, and others almost unknown at the 
present time. 

fSiinax <SiVLtxiti. 

John Banyan, — The following advertisement is 
copied from the Mercurius Re/or matiis of June 11, 
1690, vol. ii. No. 27. : 

** Mr. John Bunyan, Author of the IHlgrinCa Pro- 
ffress, and many other excellent Books, that have found 
great Acceptance, hath left behind him Ten Manu- 
scripts prepared by himself for the Press before bis 
Death : His Widow is desired to print them (with 
some other of his Works, which have been already 
printed, but are at present not to be had), which will 
make together a Book of lOs. in sheets, in Fol. All 
persons who desire so great and good a Work should 
be performed with speed, are desired to send in 5«. for 
their first Payment to Dorman Newman, at the King's 
Arms in the Poultrey, London : Who is empower*d to 
give Receipts for the same." 

Can any of your readers say whether sucli a 
publication as that which is here proposed ever 
took place : that is, a publication of " ten manu- 
scripts," of which none had been previously 
printed ? S. R. Maitlakp. 


Tragedy by Mary Zeapor. -^In the second 
volume of Poems by Mary Leapor, 8vo., 1751, 
there is an unfinished tragedy, begun by the 
authoress a short time before her death. Can 
you give me the name of this drama (if it has 
any), and names of the dramatis persona f A. Z* 

Repairing old Prints, — N. J. A. will feel 
thankful to any one who will give him directions 
for the cleaning and repairing of old prints, or 
refer him to any book where he can obtain such 
information. He wishes especially to learn how 
to detach them from old ana worn-out mountincrs. 

N.J. A- 

Digitized by 


Feb. 4. 1854.] 



Arch-priest in the Diocese of Exeter, — I am 
informed that there is, in the diocese of Exeter, a 
dignitary who is called the Arch-priest, and that 
he has the privilege of wearing lawn sleeves (that 
IS of course, properly, of wearing a lawn alb), and 
also precedence m all cases next after the Bishop. 

Can any of your Devonian readers give addi- 
tional particulars of his office or his duties ? They 
would be useful and interesting. W. Fbases. 


Medal in honottr of the Chevalier de St. George. 
— It appears that Prince James (styled the Che- 
valier de St. George) served in several campaigns 
in the Low Countries under the Marquis de Torcy. 
On one occasion, when the hostile armies were 
encamped on the banks of the Scarpe, medals 
were struck, and distributed among the English, 
bearing, besides a bust of the prince, an inscription 
relating to his bravery on a former occasion. Are 
any of these now in existence ? They would pro- 
bably be met with in those families whose an- 
cestors served under Marlborough. A. S. 

Robert Bloet. — Can you certify me whether it 
is received as an undoubted historical fact that 
"Robertus, comes Moritoniensis," William the 
Conqueror's uterine brother, was identical with 
Robert Bloet, afterwards Chancellor and Bishop 
of Lincoln? J. Saksom. 

Sir J. Wallace and Mr. Broume, — I inclose an 
extract from The English Chronicle or Universal 
Evening Post, February 6th to February 8th, 1783. 
Can any of your learned correspondents state the 
result of the fracas between Mr. Browne and Sir 
J. Wallace ? 

** Yesterday about one o*cIock, Sir J s W e 

and Lieutenant B e, accidentally meeting in Par- 
liament Street, near the Admiralty Gate, Mr. B e, 

the moment he saw Sir J s, took a stick which a 

gentleman he was in company with held in his hand, 

and, after a few words passing, struck Sir J s, and 

gave him a dreadful wound in the forehead ; they closed, 
and Sir J s, who had no weapon, made the best de- 
fence possible, but being a weaker man than his anta- 
gonist, was overpowered. Mr. B e, at parting, told 

Sir J s, if he had anything to say to him, he would 

be found at the Salopian Coffee House. An account of 
this transaction being communicated to Sir Sampson 
Wright, he sent Mr. Bond after Mr. B e , who found 
him at the Admiralty, and delivered the magistrate's 
compliments, at the same time requesting to see him 

in Bow Street. Mr. B e promised to wait upon Sir 

Sampson, but afterwards finding that no warrant had 
issued, did not think it incumbent on him to comply, 
and so went about his avocations. 

" Sir J s*s situation after the fracas very much 

excited the compassion of the populace ; they beheld 
that veteran bleeding on the streets, who had so often 
gloriously fought the battles of his country! The 
above account is as accurate as we could learn ; but 

should there be any trivial misstatement, we shall be 
happy in correcting it, through the means of any of our 
readers who were present on the spot. 

" Sir James Wallace has not only given signal proofs 
of his bravery as a naval officer, but particularly in a 
duel with another marine officer, Mr. Perkins, whom 
he fought at Cape Fran9ois ; each taking hold of the 
end of a handkerchief, fired, and although the balls 
went through both their bodies, neither of the wounds 
proved mortal ! The friars at Cape Fran9ois, with 
great humanity, took charge of them till they were 
cured of their wounds." 

J. Locke. 


Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. — I should be 
glad if any of your correspondents would refer 
me to an authentic account of the death of Robert 
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Queen Elizabeth's 
favourite. He is said by some to have been ac" 
cidentally poisoned by his wife; by others pur- 
posely, by some of his adherents. This affair, 
though clouded in mystery, appears not to have 
been particularly inquired into. Likewise let me 
ask, on what authority is Stanfield Hall, Norfolk 
(the scene of a recent tragedy), described as the 
birthplace of Amy Robsart, the unfortunate first 
wife of this same nobleman ? A. S. 

Abbott Families. — Samuel Abbott, of Sudbury, 
in the county of Suffolk, gentleman, lived about 
1670. Can any of your genealogical contributors 
inform me if he was in any way connected with the 
familv of Archbishop Abbott, or otherwise eluci- 
date his parentage ? It may probably be interesting 
to persons of the same name to be acquainted that 
the pears worn by many of the Abbot family are 
merely a corruption of the ancient inkhorns of 
the Abbots of Northamptonshire, and impaled in 
Netherheyford churchyard, same county, on the 
tomb of Sir Walt. Mauntele, knight, and his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Abbot, Esq., 1487, 
viz. a chev. between three inkhorns. The resem- 
blance between pears and inkhorns doubtless 
occasioned the error. I believe the ancient bottles 
of Harebottle were similarly corrupted into icicles. 

J. T. Abbott. 


. Authorship of a Ballad. — In the Manchester 
Guardian of Jan. 7, the author of a stanza, writ- 
ten on the execution of Thos. Syddale, is desired ; 
as also the remainder of the ballad. From what 
quarter is either of these more likely to be ob- 
tained than from " N. & Q. ? " 

P. J. F. Gamtiixow. 

Elias Petley. — What is known of the life or 
works of Elias Petley, priest, who dedicated to 
Archbishop Laud his translation of the English 
Liturgy into Greek. The book was published at 
the press of Thomas Cotes, for Richard Whitaker, 

Digitized by 




[No. 223. 

at tiie Eing^s Arms, St Faurs chnrcfajard, in 
1638. Is it remarkable for rarity or merit ? 

J. O. B. 

Canaletto^s Views round London. — Antonio 
Canaletto, the painter of Venice, the destruction 
of one of whose most powerful works has been of 
late the subject of so much agitation, was here 
amongst us m this city one hundred years since ; 
as seen by his proposal in one of the journals of 

** Signior Canaletto gives notice that he has painted 
Chelsea College, Ranelagh House, and the River 
Thames ; which, if any gentleman, or others, are pleased 
to &vour him with seeing the same, he will attend at 
his lodgings at Mr. Vtggans, in Silver Street, Golden 
Square, firom fifteen days from this day, July 31, from 
8 to 1, and from 3 to 6 at night, each daj.** 

Here is that able artistes offer in his own terms, if, 
not his own words. 

I haye to inquire, are these pictures left here to 
the knowledge of your readers ? did he, in short, 
find buyers as well as admirers ? or, if not, did he 
return to Venice with those (no doubt) vividlj 
pictured recollections of our localities under his 
arm ? Gondoi^a. 

A Monster found cU Maidstone, — InEiIbume*8 
Survey of Kent^ 4to. 1659, under ^ Maidstone,** is 
the following passage : 

** Wat Tiler, that idol of clownes, and famous rebell 
in the time of King Richard the Second, was of this 
town; and in the year 1206 about this town was a 
monster found stricken with lightning, with a bead 
like an asse, a belly like a man, and all other parts far 
different from any known creature, but not approach- 
able nigh unto, by reason of the stench thereof." 

No mention of this is made by Lambarde in his 
Perambtdation of Kent. Has this been traditional, 
or whence is Kilburne*s authority? And what 
explanation can be offered of the account ? 


Page. — What is the deriyation of this word? 
In the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities^ 
edited by Dr. W. Smith, 1st edit., p. 679., it is 
said to be from the Greek irouSayoryiy, padagogus. 
But in an edition of Tacitus, with notes by Box- 
horn (Amsterdam, 1662), it is curiously identified 
with the word boy, and traced to an eastern 
source thus: — Persian, bagoa; "Pohsh, pokoigo; 
Old German, Pagie, B<^t -^^> ^^^ *^e Welsh, 
bachgen ; French, page ; English, boy ; and Greek, 

Some of your correspondents may be able to 
inform me which is correct. B. H. C. 

llie Fish " Ruffins."* — In Spenser's :Faerie 
Queene we read (book ly. canto 11.), amoDg the 
riyer guests that attended the nuptials of Thames 
and Medway came " Yar, soft washing !N'orwitch 
walls ; " and farther on, that he brought with him 
a present of fish for the banquet called ruffmsy 
"whose like none else could show." Was this 
description of fish peculiar to the Tare ? and is 
there any record of its haying been esteemed a 
delicacy in Elizabeth's reign ? A. S. 

[This seems to be the fish noticed by Izaak Waltoa, 
called the Ruffk, or Fbpe, «a fish," says be, "that is 
not known in some rivers. He is much like the perch 
for his shape, and taken to be better than the perdi, 
but will grow to be bigger than a gudgeon. He is an 
excellent fish, no fish that swims is of a pleasanter taste, 
and he is also excellent to enter a young angler, for 
he is a greedy biter." In the Faerie Queene, book l 
canto ir., Spenser speaks of 

*< His ruffin raiment all was stain*d with blood 
Which he had spilt, and all to rags yrent.** 

To these lines Mr. Todd has added a note, which gives 
a clue to the meaning of the word. He says, <* Mr. 
Church here observes, that ruffin is reddish, from the 
Latin rufus. I suspect, however, that the poet did 
not intend to specify the colour of the dress, but rather 
to give a very characterlstical expression even to the 
raiment of Wrath. Ruffin, so spelt, denoted a swash- 
buckler, or, as we should say, a bully : see Minshea's 
Guide into Tongues, Besides, I find in My Ladies' 
Looking- GUtsse, by Bamabe Rich, 4to. 1616, p. 21., a 
passage which may serve to strengthen my application 
of ruffin, in this sense, to garment : •« The yoog 
woman, that as well in her behaviour, as in the manner 
of her apparell, is most ruffian like, is accounted the 
most gallant wench.** Now, it appears, that the rug, 
or pope, is not only, as Walton says, ** a greedy biter,* 
but is extremely voracious in its disposition, and will 
devour a minnow nearly as big as itself. Its average 
length is firom six to seven inches.] 

Origin of the Word Etiquette. —Whs^i is the 
original meaning of the word etiquette f and how 
did it acquire that secondary meaning which it 
bears in English ? S. C. G. 

[Etiquette, from the Fr. Etiquette, Sp. etiqueta, a 
ticket; delivered not only, as Cotgrave says, for the 
benefit and advantage of him that receives it, but also 
entitling to place, to rank ; and thus applied to the 
ceremonious observance of rank or place ; to ceremony. 
Webster adds, " From the original sense of the word, 
it may be inferred that it was formerly the custom to 
deliver cards containing orders for regulating cere- 
monies on public occasions."] 

Henri Quatre. — What was the title of Henry IV. 
(of Nayarre) to the crown of France ? or in what 
way was he related to his predecessor ? If any 

/lyitized by 



Feb. 4. 1854.] 



one would be kind enough to answer these he 
would greatlj oblige W. W. H. 

rOur correspondent will find his Query briefly and 
satisfactorily answered by Henault, in his Ahreg^ 
de VHtstoire de France, p. 476. His words are : 
** Henri IV. roi de Navarre, n^ a Pau, le 13 D6cera- 
bre, 1553, et ayant droit k la couronne, comme de- 
scendant de Robert, Comte de Clermont, qui 4toit fils 
de St. Louis, et qui avoit 4pous6 l*h^riti^re de Bourbon, 
J paryient en 1589.** The lineal descent of Henri 
from this Count Robert may be seen in L*Art de 
verifier les Daiet, vol. vi. p. ^09., in a table entitled 
'* G^n^logie des Yalois et des Bourbon ; St. Louis IX., 
Roi de France."] 

" He that complies agcunst his wiU^^ ^c, ; and 
" To kick the bucket.'' — Oblige T. C. by giving 
the correct reading of the familiar couplet, which 
he apprehends is looselj quoted when expressed — 

** Convince a man against his will,** &c. 

** Persuade a man against his will,** &c. 

Also by stating the name of the author. 

Likewise bj giving the origin of the phrase 
*' To kick the bucket^ as i^lied to the death of 
a person. 

[The desired quotation is from Butler's Hudibrai, 
part III. canto iiu 1. 547-8. : 

** He that complies against his will. 
Is of his own opinion still." 

As to the origin of the phrase *< To kick the bucket," 
the tradition among the slang fraternity is, that " One 
Bolsover having hung himself to a beam while stand- 
ing on the bottom of a pail, or bucket, kicked the vessel 
away in order to pry into futurity, and it was all up 
with him from that moment — Finis/** Our Querist 
will find a very humorous illustration of its use (too 
long to quote) in an article on •* Anglo- German Dic- 
tionaries," contributed by De Quincy to the London 
Magazine for April, 1823, p. 442.] 

St. Nicholas Cole Abbey. — There is a church 
in the city of London called St. Nicholas Cole 
Abbey : what is the origin of the name or deriva- 

[This Query seems to have baffled old Stowe. 
He says, ** Towards the west end of Knight Rider 
Street is the parish church of St. Nicolas Cold Abby, 
a comely church, somewhat ancient, as appeareth by 
the ways raised thereabout ; so that men are forced to 
descend into the body of the church. It hath been 
called of many Golden Ahby^ of some Gold (or Cold) 
Bey, and so hath the most ancient writing. But I 
could never learn the cause why it should be so called, 
and therefore I will let it pass. Perhaps as standing 
in a coW place, as Cold Harbour, and such like." For 
communications on the much-disputed etymology of 
Cold Harbour, see " N. & Q.," Vol. i., p. 60. ; Vol. ii., 
pp. 159. 34a ; and Vol. vi., p. 455.] 


(Vol. viii., pp. 387. 519. 641.) 

The courteous spirit which generally distin- 
guishes the communications of your correspon- 
dents, renders the " N. & Q." the most agreeable 
magazine, or, as you have it, " medium of inter- 
communication for literary men,** &c. I was so 
much pleased with the general animus which 
characterised the strictures on my proposed 
translation of Fs. cxxvii. 2., that I was almost 
disposed to cede to my critics, from sheer good- 
will towards them. But the elder D'Israeli speaks 
of such a thing "as an affair of literary conscience," 
which consideration prescribes my yielding in the 
present instance ; but I trust that our motto will 
always be, ** May our difference of opinion never 
alter our inter-communications ! ** 

I must however, at the outset, qualify an ex- 
pression I made use of, which seems to have in- 
curred the censure of all your four correspondents 
OB the subject ; I mean the sentence, " The trans- 
lation of the authorised version of that sacred 
affirmation is unintelligible.** It seems to be per- 
fectly intelligible to Messrs. Buckton, Jebb, 
Waltbb, and S. D. I qualify, therefore, the 
assertion. I mean to say, that tbe translation of 
the authorised version of that sacred affirmation 
was, and is, considered unintelligible to many in- 
telligent biblical critics and expositors ; amongst 
whom I may name Luther, Mendelsohn, Heng- 
stenberg, Zunz, and many others whose names 
will transpire in the sequel. 

Having made that concession, I may now pro- 
ceed with the replying to my Querists, or rather 
Critics. Mb. Buckton is entitled to my first con- 
sideration, not only because you placed him at the 
head of the department of that question, but also 
because of the peculiar mode in which he treated 
the subject. My replies shall be seriatim. 

1. Luther was not the first who trandated 
K^ VX^'h fn^ p " Denn seinen Freunden cibt 
er es schlafend.*' A far greater Hebraist wan 
Luther, who flourished about two hundred years 
before the great Grerman Reformer came into 
note, put the same construction on that sacred 
affirmation. Rabbi Abraham Hacohen of Zante, 
who paraphrased the whole Hebrew Psalter into 
modern metrical Hebrew verse (which, according 
to a P.S., was completed in 1326), interprets the 
sentence in question thus : 

: fi^n vh in:tD in:e^i nn*^ 

** For surely God shall gite food 

To His beloved, and his sleep shall not be withheld 
from hire.** 

2. It is more than problematical whether the 
eminent translator, Mendelsohn, was influenced by 

/lyitized by 




[No. 223 

Luther*8 error (?), or by his own superior know- 
ledge of the sacred tongue. 

3. I do not think that the phrase, " the proper 
Jewish notion of gain," was either called for or 
relevant to the subject. 

4. The reign of James I. was by no means as 
distinguished for Hebrew scholarship as were the 
immediate previous reigns. Indeed it would ap- 
pear that the knowledge of the sacred languages 
was at a very low ebb in this country during the 
agitating period of the Reformation, so much so 
that even the unaccountable Henry VIII. was 
forced to exclaim, "Vehementer dolere nostra- 
tium Theologorum sortem sanctissime linguae 
scientia carentium, et linguarum doctrinam fuisse 
intermissam.** (Hody^ p. 466.) 

When Coverdale made his version of the Bible 
he was not only aided by Tindale, but also by 
the celebrated Hebrew, of the Hebrews, Emanuel 
Tremellius, who was then professor of the sacred 
tongue in the University of Cambridge, where 
that English Reformer was educated ; and Cover- 
dale translated the latter part of Fs. cxxvii. 2. as 
follows : " For look, to whom it pleaseth Him, He 
giveth it in sleep.'* 

When the translation was revised, during the 
rei^ of James I., the most accomplished Anglo- 
Hebraist was, by some caprice of jealousy, forced 
to leave this country ; I mean Hugh Broughton. 
He communicated many renderings to the re- 
visers, some of which they thoughtlessly rejected, 
and others, to use Broughton*s own phrase, "they 
thrust into the margin." A perusal of Brough- 
ton's works * gives one an accurate notion of the 
proceedings of the revisers of the previous ver- 

♦ Liglitfoot, wlio edited 6roughton*s works in 1662, 
entitled them as follows : — « The Works of the great 
Albionen Divine, renowned in many Nations for rare 
Skill in Salem*s and Athens' Tongues, and familiar 
acquaintance with all Rabbinical Learning," &c. 

Ben Jonson has managed to introduce Broughton 
into some of his plays. In his Vclpone^ when the 
" Fox " delivers a medical lecture, to tlie great amuse- 
ment of Politic and Peregrine, the former remarks, 

*< Is not his language rare?" 
To which the latter replies, 

•* But Alchemy, 
I never heard the like, or Broughton*s books." 

In the Alchemist, *« Face " is made thus to speak of a 
female companion : 

" Y are very right, Sir, she is a most rare scholar. 
And is gone mad with studying Broughton*s works ; 
If you but name a word touching the Hebrew, 
She falls into her fit, and will discourse 
So learnedly of genealogies, 
As you would run mad too to hear her, Sir.** 

<See also The History of the Jeics in Great Britain, 
vol i. pp. 305, &c.) 

5. Coverdale*8 translation is not ** ungrammt- 
tical** as far as the Hebrew language is concerned, 
notwithstanding that it was rejected in the re^ 
of James I. DH?, " bread,** is evidently the ac- 
cusative noun to the transitive verb \TW ** He shall 
give.** Nor is it " false,** for the same noun, url% 
" bread,** is no doubt the antecedent to which the 
word it refers. 

6. Mendelsohn does not omit the ii in his He- 
brew comment; and I am therefore unwarrantably 
charged with supplying it " unauthorisedlj.** I 
should like to see Mb. Bdcktom*s translation of 
that comment. If any doubt remained upon Mi. 
B.*s mind as to the intended meaning of tne word 
)npn^ used by Mendelsohn, his Crerman version 
might have removed such a doubt, as the little word 
es, " it,** indicates pretty clearly what Mendelsohn 
meant by IH^H^ So that, instead of proving Men- 
delsohn " at variance with himself,'* he is proved 
most satisfactorily to have been in perfect harmonj 
with himself. 

7. Mendelsohn does not omit the important word 
p ; and if Mb. B. will refer once more to his copy of 
Mendelsohn (we arc both using the same edition), 
he will find two different interpretations proposed 
for the word p, viz. thus and rightly, I myself 
prefer the latter rendering. The word occurs 
about twenty times in the Hebrew Bible, and in 
the great majority of instances rightly or certaiid^ 
is the only correct rendering. Both Mendelsohn 
and Zunz omit to translate it in their Grerman 
versions, simply because the sentence is more 
idiomatic, in the German language, without it 
than with it. 

8.^ I perfectly agree with Mb. B. " that no 
version has yet had so large an amount of learn- 
ing bestowed on it as the English one." But 
Mb. B. will candidly acknowledge that the largest 
amount was- bestowed on it since the revision of 
the authorised version closed. Lowth, Newcombe, 
Home, Horsley, Lee, &c. wrote since, and they 
boldly called in question many of the renderings 
in the authorised version. 

Let me not be mistaken ; I do most sincerely 
consider our version superior to all others, but it 
is not for this reason faultless. 

In reply to Mb. Jebb^s temperate strictures, I 
would most respectively submit — 

1. That considerable examination leads me to 
take just the reverse view to that of Burkius, 
that K^t^ cannot be looked upon as antithetical 
to surgere, sedere, dolornm. With all my search- 
ings I failed to discover an analogous antithesis. 
I shall be truly thankful to Mb. Jebb for a case 
in point. Moreover, Psalms iii. and iv., to which 
Dr. French and Mr. Skinner refer, prove to my 
mind that not sleep is the gift, but sustenance and 
other blessings bestowed upon the Psalmist whilst 
asleep. I cannot help observing that due reflec- 
tion makes me look upon the expression, " So He 

Digitized by 



Feb. 4. 1854.] 



giveth His beloved sleep," as an extraordinarj 

2. Ms. Jebb challenges tbe showing strictly 
analogous instances of ellipses. He acknowledges 
that there are very numerous ellipses even in the 
Songs of Degrees themselves, but they are of a 
very different nature. I might fill the whole of 
this Number with examples, which the most scru- 
pulous critic would be obliged to acknowledge as 
being strictly analogous to the passage under re- 
view ; but such a thing you would not allow. Two 
instances, however, you will not object to ; they 
will prove a host for Me. Jebb*s purpose, inas- 
much as one has the very word T\^^ elliptically, 
and the other the transitive verb \TW minus an 
accusative noun. Would Messbs. Buckton, Jebb, 
Wai^teb, and S. D. kindly translate, for the bene- 
fit of those who are interested in the question, the 
following two passages ? 

Ptalm xc. 5. 

haiah xlL 2. 

The Rev. Henry Walter will see that some of 
his observations have been anticipitated and al- 
ready replied to. It remains, however, for me to 
assure him that I never dreamt that any one would 
suppose that I considered tj^fij^ anything else but 
a noun, minus the 1 preposition. The reason why 
I translated the word "whilst he [the beloved] 
is asleep," was because I thought the expression 
more idiomatic. 

S. D. attempts to prove nothing; I am exempt 
therefore from disproving anything as far as he is 

Before I take leave of this lengthy and some- 
what elaborate disquisition, let me give my ex- 
planation of the scope of the Psalm in dispute, 
which, I venture to imagine, will commend itself, 
even to those who differ from me, as the most 

This Psalm, as well as the other thirteen en- 
titled "A Song of Degrees,*' was composed for 
the singing on the road by those Israelites who 
went up to Jerusalem to keep the three grand 
festivals, to beguile their tedious journey, and 
also to soothe the dejected spirits of those who 
felt disheartened at having left their homes, their 
farms, and families without guardians. Ps. cxxvii. 
is of a soothing character, composed probably by 

In the first two verses God's watchfulness and 
care over His beloved are held up to the view of 
the pilgrims, who are impressed with the truth 
that no one, "by takins thought, can add one 
cubit to his stature." The best exposition which 
I can give of those two verses I have learned from 
our Saviour's " Sermon on the Mount" (Matt. vi. 

25-33.). The third and following verses, as well 
as the next Psalm, are exegetical or illustrative. 
To whom do you attribute the gift of children ? 
Is it not admitted on all hands to be " an heritage 
of the Lord ?" No one can procure that blessing 
by personal anxiety and care: God alone can con- 
fer the gift. Well, then, the same God who gives 
you the heritage of children will also grant you all 
other blessings which are good for you, provided 
you act the part of " His beloved," and depend 
upon Him without wavering. 

The above is a hasty, but I trust an intelligible, 
view of the scope of the Psalm. 

Moses Maegoliouth. 

Wybunbury, Nantwich. 

inscriptions on bells. 
(Vol. viiL, p. 448.) 

The inscription on one of the bells of Great 
Milton Church, Oxon. (as given by Mb. Simpson 
in " N. & Q."), has a better and rhyming form 

In Meivod Church, Montgomeryshire, a bell 
(the "great" bell, I think) has the inscription — 

** I to the church the living call. 
And to the grave do summon all.*' 

The same also is found on the great bell of the 
interesting church (formerly cathedral) of Llan- 
badarn Fawr, Cardiganshire. E. Dteb Gbeen. 

Nantcribba Hall. 

I beg to forward the following inscription on 
one of the bells in the tower of St. Nicholas 
Church, Sidmouth. I have not met with it else- 
where ; and you may, perhaps, consider it worthy 
of being added to those given by Cuthbebt Bedb 
and J. L. Sisson : 

<( ^ Est michi collatum 

Iho btud nomen amatum.** 

There is no date, but the characters may indicate 
the commencement of the fifteenth century as the 
period when the bell was cast. G. J. B. Gordon. 

At Lapley in Staffordshire : 

** I will sound and resound to thee, O Lord, 
To call thy people to thy word." 

G. E. T. S. R. N. 

Pray add the following savoury inscriptions to 
your next list of bell-mottoes. The first disgraces 
the belfry of St. Paul's, Bedford ; the second, that 
of St. Mary's, Islington : 

** At proper times my voice I*U raise. 

And sound to my tuhacribers* praise T* 
<* At proper times our voices we will raise, 
lu sounding to our benefactors* praise 1" 
The similarity between these two inscriptions 
favours the supposition that the ancient bell- 



CNo. 223. 

founders, like some modem enterprising firms, 
kept a poet on the establishment, e,g. 

** Thine iDcomparable oil, MacasMr ! ** 


A friend informs me, that on a bell in Durham 
Cathedral these lines occur : 

<* To call the folk to Church in time, 

I chime. 
When mirth and pleasure's on the wing, 

I ring. 
And when the body leares the soul, 

J. L. S. 


(Vol. viii., p. 563.) 

Your correspondent who desires the blazon of 
the arms of tne " town of Greneva," had better 
have ^>ecified to which of the two bearings assigned 
to that name he refers. 

One of these, which I saw on the official seal 
affixed to the passport of a friend of mine lately 
returned from that place, is an instance of the 
obsolete practice of aimidiation ; and is the more 
singular, because only the dexter one of the shields 
thus impaled undergoes curtailment. 

The correct blazon, I believe, would be: Or, 
an eagle double-headed, displayed sable, dimidi- 
ated, and impaling gu. a key in pale argent, the 
wards in chief, and turned to toe sinister; the 
shield surmountod with a nmrquis* coronet. 

The blazon of the sinister half I owe to £d- 
mondson, who seems, however, not at all to have 
understood the dexter, and gives a clumsy descrip- 
tion of it little worth transcribing. He, and the 
JDictionnaire de Blazon^ assign these arms to the 
Republic of Geneva. 

The other bearing would, in English, be bla- 
zoned, Checquy of nme pieces, or and azure : and 
in French, Cvnq points d^or^ iquipoUes a quatre 
eTazur, This is assigned by iNisbett to the 
Seigneurie of Geneva, and is quartered by the 
King of Sardinia in token of the claims over the 
Genevese town and territory, which, as Duke of 
Savoy, he has never resigned. 

With r^ard to the former shield, I may just 
remark, that the dimidiated coat is merely that of 
the German empire. How or why Greneva ob- 
tmned it, I should be very glad to be informed ; 
since it appears to appertain to the present inde- 
pendent Republic, and not to the former seignorial 

Let me also add, that the plate in the Diction- 
naire gives the field of this half as argent. Mr. 
Willement, in his Regal Heraldry ^ under the arms 
of Richard II.*s consort, also thus describes and 
represents the imperial field ; and Nisbett alludes 

to it as such in one place, though in his fbrmil 
blazon he gives it as or. 

Nothing, in an heraldic point of riew, would be 
more interesting than a '* Kesal Heraldr j of Eu- 
rope,** with a commentary explaining the historical 
origin and combinations of the varioiis beanngs. 
Should this small contribution towards audi s 
compilation tend to call the attention of any able 
antiquary to the general subject, or to elidt 
information upon this particular question, the 
writer who now ofiers so insignificant an iten 
would feel peculiarly gratified. L. C. D. 


Mmltiffying Negaiives, — In reply to M. N. & 
(Vol. ix., p. 83.) I would suggest the following mode 
of multiplying negatives on glass, which I bave every 
reason to believe would be perfectly successful : — 
First, varnish the negative to be copied by means of 
Da. Diamond's solution of amber in chloroform ; theo 
attach to each angle, with any convenient varnish, a 
small piece of writing-paper. Prepare a similar plate 
of glass with collodion, and drain off all superfluous 
nitrate of silver, by standing it for a minute or so oa 
edge upon a piece of blotting-paper. Lay it flat upoa 
a board, collodion side upwards, and the negative pre- 
pared above upon it, collodion side downwards. Ex- 
pose the whole to daylight fur a single second, or to 
gas-light for about a minute, and develope as usual. 
The result will be a tmntmitted posttttte, but with re- 
versed sides ; and from this, when varnished and treated 
as the original negative, any number of oegatires auni- 
lar to the first may be produced. 

The paper at the angles is to prevent the <A$ohite 
contact and consequent injury by the solution of ni- 
trate of silver ; and, for the same reason, it is advisable 
not to attempt to print until the primary negative is 
varnished, as, with all mie's care, sometimes the nitrate 
will come in contact and produce spots, if the varnish- 
ing has been omitted. Should the negative become 
moistened, it should be at once washed with a gentle 
stream of water and dried. 

I have repeatedly performed the operation above 
described so far as the production of the positive, and 
so perfect is the impression that I see no reason why 
the second negative should be at all distinguishable 
from the originaL 

I am, indeed, at present engaged upon a giwuhr 
attempt ; but there are several other difficulties in my 
way : I, however, entertain no doubts of perfect suc- 
cess. Geo. Shadbou. 

Tawgood's Paper, — A. B. (Vol. ix., p. 83. ) can pur- 
chase Towgood*s paper of Mr. Sandford, who frequently 
advertises in " N. & Q.** With regard to his other Query, 
I think there can be no doubt of his being at liberty 
to publish a photographic copy of a portrait, Mr. Fox 
Talbot having reserved only the right to paper copies 
of A phoiographie portrait. Collodion portraits are not 
patent, but the /Miper proofs from collodion negatives 
are. Gxa SuAnaoLi. 

Digitized by 



Feb. 4. 1854.] 



AduHeration of Nitrate of Silver, — Will any of your 
chemical readers tell me how I am to know if nitrate 
of silver is pure, and how to detect the adulteration? 
Jf 90 with nitrate of potash, how ? One writer on 
photography recommends the fused, as then the excess 
of nitric acid is got rid of. Another says the fused 
nitrate is nearly always adulterated. I fear you have 
more querists than respondents. I have looked care- 
fully for a reply to some former Queries respecting 
Ma. CaooKKs^s restoration of old collodion, but at 
present they have failed in appearance. 

The Readkr of PHOioGiu.rHic Wo&ks. 

fBitlfliti to Minax 4SLuexieiL 

Passage of Cicero (Vol. viii., p. 640.). — Is the 
following what Sbmi-Tonb wants ? 

** Mira est enim quaedam natura vocis ; cujus qui- 
dem, e tribus omnino sonis, inflexo, acuto, gravi, tanta sit, 
et tam suavls varietas perfecta in cantibus.** — Orator, 
cap. 17. 

B. H. C. 

Major Andri (VoL viii., pp. 174.604.). — The late 
Mrs. Mills of Norwich (nee Andr^) was not the 
sister of Major Andr^ ; she was the only daughter 
of Mr. John Andre of Offenbach, near Frankfort 
on the Maine, in Germany ; where he established 
more than eighty years ago a prosperous concern 
as a printer of music, and was moreover an emi- 
nent composer : this establishment is now in the 
bands of his grandson. Mr. John Andre was not 
the brother of the Major, but a second or third 
cousin. Mrs. Mills used to say, that she remem- 
bered seeing the Major at her father's house as a 
visitor, when she was a very small child. He 
began his career in London in the commercial 
line; and, after he entered the army, was sent 
by the English ministry to Hesse-Cassel to con- 
duct to America a corps of Hessian hirelings to 
dragoon the revolted Americans into obedience : 
it was on this occasion that he paid the above- 
mentioned visit to Offenbach. 

Having frequently read the portion of English 
bistory containing the narrative of the trans- 
actions in which Major Andre was so actively 
engaged, and for which he suffered, I have often 
asked myself whether he was altogether blameless 
in that questionable affair. Teivet Allcock. 


P.S. — This account was furnished to me by 
Mr. E. Mills, husband of the late Mrs. Mills. 

Catholic Bible Society (Vol. ix., p. 41.).— Be- 
sides the account of this society in Bishop Milner*8 
Supplementary Memoirs of the English Catholics, 
many papers on the same will be found in the 
Tolames of the Orthodox Journal from 1813, when 
the Society was formed, to 1819. In this last 
volume, p. 9., Bishop Milner wrote a long letter, 

containing a comparison of the brief notes in the 
stereotyped edition of the above Society with the 
notes of Bbhop Challoner, from whose hands he 
mentions having received a copy of his latest edi- 
tion of both Testaments in 1777. It should be 
mentioned that most of the papers in the Orthodox 
Journal alluded to were written by Bishop Milner 
under various signatures, which the present writer, 
with all who knew him well, could always recog- 
nise. That eminent prelate thus sums up the fate 
of the sole publication of the so-called Catholic 
Bible Society : 

<*Its stereotype Testament was proved to 

abound in gross errors ; hardly a copy of it could be 
sold ; and, in the end, the plates far continuing it have 
been of late presented by an illustrious personage, into 
whose bands tliey fell, to one of our prelates [this was 
Bishop CoUingridge], who will immediately employ 
the cart-load of them for a good purpose, as they were 
intended to be, by diq>osing of them to some pewterer, 
who will convert them into numerous useful culinary 
implements, gas-pipes, and other pipes." 

F. C. H. 

Cassiterides (Voh ix., p. 64.). — Kassiteros; the 
ancient Indian Sanscrit word Kastira, Of the dis- 
puted passage in Herodotus respecting the Cas- 
siterides, the interpretation* of Bennell, in his 
Geographical System of Herodotus ; of Maurice, 
in his Indian Antiquities, voL vi. ; and of Heeren, in 
his Historical Researches ; is much more satisfac- 
tory than that offered by your correspondent 
S. G. C, although supported by the French acade- 
micians (Inscript, xxxvi. 66.) 

The advocates for a Celtic origin of the name 
of these islands are perhaps not aware that — 
** Through the intercourse which the Phcenicians, by 
means of their ketones in the Persian Gulph, main- 
tained with the east coast of India, the Sanscrit word 
KastirOf expressing a most useful product of farther 
India, and still existing among the old Aramaic idioms 
in the Arabian word Kasdir, became known to the 
Greeks even before Albion and the British Cassiterides 
had been visited." — See Humboldt's Cosmos, "Prin- 
cipal Epochs in the History of the Physical Contem- 
plation of the Universe," notes. 


Wooden Tombs and Effigies (Vol. ix., p. 62.).— 
There are two fine recumbent figures of a Lord 
Neville and bis wife in Brancepeth Church, four 
miles south-west of Durham. They are carved in 
wood. A view of them is given in Billing's An* 
Hqaities of Durham, J. H. B. 

Tailless Cats (VoLix., p. 10.). — In my visits 
to the Isle of Man, I have frequently met with 

• His want of information in this matter can only 
be referred to the jealousy of the Phoenicians depriving 
the Greeks, as afterwardis the Romans of ocular ob- 
servation. ^^ J 

Digitized by VjOO^IC 



[No. 223. 

specimens of the tailless cats referred to by your 
correspondent Shirley Hibberd. In the pure 
breed there is not the slightest vestige of a tail, 
and in the case of any intermixture with the 
species possessing the usual caudal appendage, the 
tail of tneir offspring, like the witch's " sark," as 
recorded by honest Tam o' Shanter, 

*• In longitude is sorely scanty/* 

In fact, it terminates abruptly at the length of a 
few inches, as if amputated, having altogether a 
very ludicrous appearance. '^ r . — -.- 


G. Tatlok. 

The breed of cats without tails is well known in 
the Isle of Man, and accounted by the people of the 
island one of its chief curiosities. These cats are 
sought after by strangers : the natives call them 
" Kumpies," or " Rumpv Cats." Their hind legs 
are rather longer than those of cats with tails, and 

five them a somewhat rabbit-like aspect, which 
as given rise to the odd fancy that they are the 
descendants of a cross between a rabbit and cat. 
They are good mousers. When a perfectly tail- 
less cat is crossed with an ordinary-tailed indi- 
vidual, the progeny exhibit all intermediate states 
between tail and no tail. Edward Forbes. 

WarviUe (Vol. viii., p. 516.). — 

«* Jacque Pierre Brissot was born on the 14th Jan., 
1754, in the village of Ouarville, near Chartres.*' — 
Penny CycJo, 

If your correspondent is a French scholar, he 
will perceive that WarviUe is, as nearly as pos- 
sible, the proper pronunciation of the name of this 
village, but that Brissot being merely the son of a 
poor pastrycook, nad no right whatever to the name, 
which doubtless he bore merely as a distinction from 
some other Brissot. It may interest your Ame- 
rican friend to know, that he married Felicite 
Dupont, a young lady of good family at Boulogne. 
A relation of my own, who was veiy intimate with 
her before her marriage, has often described her 
to me as being of a very modest, retiring, religious 
disposition, very clever with her pencil, and as 
having received a first-rate education from mas- 
ters in Paris. These gifts, natural and acquired, 
made her a remarkable young person, amidst the 
crowd of frivolous idlers who at that time formed 
"good society," not only in Paris, but even in 

{>rovincial towns, of which Boulogne was not the 
east gay. Perhaps he knows already that she 
<]juickly followed her husband to the scaffold. Her 
sister (I believe the only one) married a Parisian 
gentleman named Aublay, and died at a great 
age about ten years ago. N. J. A. 

TTjs not a distinct letter in the French alpha- 
bet ; it is simply double i?, and is pronounced like 
t?, as in Wissant, Wimireux, Wimille, villages be- 

tween Calais and Boulogne, and Wassy in Cham- 
pagne. W. R. D. S. 

Cheen Eyes (Vol. viii., p. 407.). — The follow- 
ing are quotations in favour of green eyes, in ad- 
dition to Mr. H. Temple's : 

** An eagle, madam. 
Hath not so green, so quick, so fair an eye." 

Romeo and Juliet, Act III. So. 5. 

And Dante, in Purgatory, canto xxxi., likens 
Beatrice's eyes to emeralds : 

** Disser : fa che le viste non risparmi : 
Posto t* avem dinanzi agli smeraldi, 
Ond* Amor gia ti trasse le sue armi." 

" Spare not thy vision. We have stationed thee 
Before the emeralds*, whence Love, erewhilc^ 
Hath drawn his weapons on thee." 

Cary's Translation. 

I think short-sightedness is an infirmity more 
common among men of letters, authors, &c., than 
any other class ; indeed, one is inclined to think 
it is no rare accompaniment of talent. A few ce- 
lebrated names occur to me who suffered weakness 
of distinct vision to see but the better near. I 
am sure your correspondents could add many to the 
list. I mark them down at random : — Niebuhr, 
Thomas Moore, Marie Antoinette, Gustavus 
Adolphus, Herrick the poet. Dr. Johnson, Mar- 
garet Fuller, Ossoli, Thiers, Quevedo. These are 
but a few, but I will not lengthen the list at 
present. M a S. 

Came (Vol. viii., p.468.).— H. T. G. will find 
this word to be as old as our language. Piers 
Ploughman writes : 

«« A cat 
Cam whan hym liked." 

Vision, 1. 298. 

" A lovely lady 
Cam doun from a castel." 

Chaucer : 

lb, 1. 466. 

Gower : 

« Till that he came to Thebes." 

Cant. T. 1. 985. 

" Thus (er he wiste) into a dale 
He came." 

Cotif. Am. b. i. fol. 9. p. 2. col. 1. 

" Epitaphium Lucretia " (Vol. viii., p. 563.). — 
Allow me to send an answer to the Query of Bai.- 
LioLENsis, and to state that in that rather scarce 
little book, Epigrammata et PoemaHa Vetera^ he 
will find at page 68. that ''Epitaphium LucreUse" 
is ascribed to Modestus, perhaps the same person 
who wrote a work de re mUitari. The version 

* Beatrice's eyes. 
Digitized by VjOO^IC 

Feb. 4. 1854.] 



there given difiers slightly from that of Baxlio- 
LENSis, and has two more Hues ; it is as follows : 

** Cum foderet ferro castum Lucretia pectus, 
Sanguinis et torrens egereretur, ait : 

Procedant testes me non favisse tyranno. 
Ante virum sanguis, spiritus ante deos. 

Quam recte hi testes pro me post fata loquentur, 
Alter apud manes, alter apud superos/' 

Perhaps the following translation may not be un- 
acceptable : 

«« When thro' her breast the steel Lucretia thrust, 
She said, while forth th* ensanguinM torrent gush*d ; 
' From me that no consent the tyrant knew. 
To my spouse my blood, to heaven my soul shall 

show ; 
And thus in death these witnesses shall prove, 
My innocence, to shades below, and Powers above.* " 


Oxford Commemoration Squih, 1849 (Vol. viii., 
p. 584.).— Quoted incorrectly. The heading stands 
thus : 

« LiBEETT I Equality I Fraternity 1" 

After the name of " Wrightson'' add "(Queen's);" 
It the foot of the bill " Floreat Lyceum." I 

i Ly< 
W. P. Stoker. 

and at 1 

quote from a copy before me. 

Olney, Bucks. 

"//Tip" (Vol. viii., p. 623.). — Perhaps as amus- 
ing a use of the word imp as can be found any- 
where occurs in old Bacon, in his " Pathway unto 
Prayer" (see Early Writings^ Parker Society, 
p. 187.) : 

** Let us pray for the preservation of the King*s 
most excellent Majesty, and for the prosperous success 
of bis entirely beloved son Edward our Prince, that 
most angelic impJ" 


False Spellings from Sound (Vol. vi., p. 29.). — 
The observations of Me. WATiiEN deserve to be 
enlarged by numerous examples, and to be, to a 
certain extent, corrected. He has not brought 
clearly into view two distinct classes of " false 
spelling" under which the greater part of such 
mistakes may be arranged. One class arose solely 
from erroneous pronunciation ; the second from 
intentional alteration. I will explain my meaning 
by two examples, both which are, I believe, in 
Mb. Waylbn's list. 

The French expression dent de lion stands for a 
certain plant, and some of the properties of that 
plant originated the name. When an Englishman 
calls the same plant Dandylion, the sound has not 
given birth " to a new idea " in his mind. Surely, 
he pronounces badly three French words of which 
he may know the meaning, or he may not. But 
when the same Englishman, or any other, orders 
sparrow-grass for dinner, these two words contain 

" a new idea," introduced purposely : either he, or 
some predecessor, reasoned thus — there is no 
meaning in asparagus; sparrow -grass must be 
the right word because it makes sense. The name 
of a well-known place in London illustrates both 
these changes : Convent Garden becomes Covent 
Garden by mispronunciation ; it becomes Common 
Garden by intentional change. 

Mistakes of the first class are not worth record- 
ing ; those of the second fall under this general 
principle : words are purposely exchanged for 
others of a similar sound, because the latter are 
supposed to recover a lost meaning. 

I have by me several examples which I will 
send you if you think the subject worth pursuing. 

J. O. B. 


" Good wine needs no husli " (Vol. viii., p. 607.). 
— The custom of hanging out bushes of ivy, 
boughs of trees, or bunches of flowers, at private 
houses, as a sign that good cheer may te had 
within, still prevails in the city of Gloucester at 
the fair held at Michaelmas, called Barton Fair, 
from the locality ; and at the three " mops," or 
hiring fairs, on the three Mondays following, to 
indicate that ale, beer, cider, &c. are there sold, 
on the strength (I believe) of an ancient privilege 
enjoyed by the inhabitants of that street to sell 
liquors, without the usual license, during the fair. 


Three Fleurs'de-Lys (Vol. ix., p. 35.). — In 
reply to the Query of Devonibnsis, I would say 
that many families of his own county bore fleurs- 
de-lys in their coat armour, in the forms of two 
and one, and on a bend; also that the heraldic 
writers, Robson and Burke, assign a coat to the 
family of Baker charged with three fleurs- de-lys 
on a fesse. The Devon family of Velland bore. 
Sable, a fesse argent, in chief three fleurs-de-lys of 
the last ; but whether these bearings were ever 
placed fesse-wise, or, as your querist terms it, in a 
horizontal line, I am not sure. J. D. S. 

If Devoniensis will look at the arms of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, he will there find the thiee 
fleurs-de-lys in a line in the upper part of the 
shield. A. B. 


Portrdit of Plowden (Vol. ix., p. 56.). — A por- 
trait of Plowden (said to have been taken from 
his monument in the Temple Church) is prefixed 
to the English edition of his Reports, published in 
1761. J. G. 


St. Stephen's Day and Mr. Riley's " Hoveden '* 
(Vol. viii., p. 637.). --The statement of this feasi 
being observed prior to Christmas must have 

L'lyiuz.fc^u uy 




[No. 223. 

arisen firom the trandator not being conyenant 
with the technical terms of the Eccletitutical Co' 
lendoTy in which, as the mater festiyals are cele- 
brated with Octaves, other feasts falling daring 
the Octave are said to be under (injrd) the 
greater solemnitj. Thus, if Mb. Wabdbh will 
consult the Orcb RecUandi Officii Divini for 1834» 
he will see that next Sunday, the 8th inst., stands 
^ Dom in£ Oct.,** t. e. of the Epiphany, and that 
the same occurs on other days during the jear. 

May I point out an erratum in a Query inserted 
some time since (not yet replied to), regarding a 
small casUe near Kinssgate, Thanet, the name of 
which is printed Aix Kuodhim; it should be Arx 
Buochim. A. O. H. 


Death Wdmings in Ancient Families (YoL ix., 
p. 55.). — A brief notice of these occurrences, with 
references to works where farther details may be 
met with, would form a very remarkable record 
of events which tend to support one*s belief in 
^e truth of the remark of Hamlet : 
" There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, 

Than are dreamt of in our philosophy.** 

A drummer is stated to be heard in C 

Castle, the residence of the Earl and Countess of 
A., ** going about the house playing his drum, 
whenever there is a death impending in the 
family." This warning is asserted to have been 
given shortly before the decease of the Earl^s first 
wife, and preceded the death of the next Countess 
about five or six months. Mrs. Crowe, in her 
Night Side of Nature, observes hereupon : 

** I have heard that a paper was found in her (the 
Countes8*s) desk after her death, declaring her convic- 
tion that the drum was for her.** 

Whenever a little old woman visits a lady of the 
family of G. of R., at the time of her confinement, 
when the nurse is absent, and strokes down the 
clothes, the patient (says Mrs. Crowe), *^ never 
does any good, and dies.* Another legend is, that 
a single swan is always seen on a particular lake 
dose to the mansion of another family before a 
death. Then, Lord Littleton's dove is a well- 
known incident. And the lady above quoted 
speaks of many curious warnings of death by the 
appearance of birds, as well as of a spectral black 
dog, which visited a particular family in ^mwall 
immediately before the death of any of its mem- 
bers. Having made this Note of a few more 
cases of death warnings, I will end with a Query 
in the words of Mrs. Crowe, who, after detailing 
the black dog apparition, asks : ** if this pheno- 
menon is the origin of the French phrase bete 
noire, to express an annoyance, or an augury of 
evil ? " Jas. J. Scott. 


•* The Seeunde Personne ofthe TVtmtte* (VoLix., 
p. 56.). — I think it is Hobart Seymour who 
speaks of some Italians of the present da^ as con- 
siderinff the Three Persons of the Trinity to be 
the Father, the Virgin, and the Son. J. P. 0. 


Mr. Wright*! varied antiquarian acqairenaents, and 
his UBtiring leal, are too well known to require recog- 
nition from ua. We may therefore content ourselves with 
directing attention to his Waudermgt of am. Antiquary, 
chiefly upon the Traces ofthe Romans in Britain, which 
has just been published, and of which the greater part 
has appeared in a series of papers under the same title 
in the Gentieman's Magazine. It is inteuded to fur- 
nish, in a popular form, a few archaeological truths 
which may foster a love of our national antiquities 
among those who are less likely to be attracted- by dry 
dissertations: and its gossiping character and pretty 
woodcuts are well calculated to promote this object. 

This endeavour to make the study of antiquities 
popular, naturally calls our attention to a small and 
very agreeable volume on the subject of what Brand 
designated Popular Antiquities, We refer to the last 
volume of Bohn's Illustrated Library. It is from the 
pen of Mary Howitt, and is entitled the Pictorial 
Calendar of the Seasons, exhibiting the Pleasures, Pur- 
suits, and Characteristics of Country Life for every 
Month of the Fear, and embodying the whole of Aikin*s 
Calendar of Nature. It is embellished with upwards 
of one hundred engravings on wood ; and what the 
authoress says of its compilation, viz. that it was ** like 
a walk through a rich summer garden,*' describes 
pretty accurately the feelings of the reader. But, as 
we must find some fault, where is the Index ? 

We have received from Birmingham a work most 
creditable to all concerned in its production, and which 
will be found of interest to such of our readers as 
devote their attention to county or family history. It 
is entitled A History of the HoUes of Aston, Baronets, 
with a Description of the Family Mansion, Aston Hallt 
Warwicksliire, by Alfred Davidson, with Illustrations 
from Drawings by Allan E. Everitt; and whether we 
regard the care with which Mr. Davidson has executed 
the literary portion of the work, the artistic skill of 
the draughtsman, or the manner in which the publisher 
has brought it out, we may safely pronounce it a 
volume well deserring the attention of topographers 
generally, and of Warwickshire topographers in espeeial. 

Books Reciivkd. — Folious Appearances; A Com- 
sideration on our Ways of lettering Books. Few lovers 
of old books and good binding will begrudge half a 

florin for this quaint opuscule Indications of Instinct^ 

by T. Lindley Kemp, the new number of the TVa- 
veUer's Library, is an interesting supplement to Dr. 
Kemp*s former contribution to the same series, The 
Natural History of Creation. — We record, for the in- 
formation of our meteorological friends, the receipt of 
a Daily Weather Journal for the Year 1855, kept at Is- 
lington by Mr. Simpson. /'-^ t 

Feb. 4. 1854.] 





Tm BflTABLiaamMT or thb Turks in BuBors. Bj Lord John 

or Sir Walter Scott*s Novels, withoat the Votn, Conitable's 
Miniature Edition: Anne of Geierstein. Betrotked, Castle 
Dangerous, Count Robert of Paris, Fair Maid of Perth, Higli- 
land Widow, Red Gauntlet, St. Ronan's Well, Woodstodt, 
Surgeon's Daughter, and Taliaman. 

*«* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, emrriage free, 
to be sent to Ma. Bell, Publisher of •*NOTBS AND 
QURR1BS.** 186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, Ac. of the following Books to be sent 
direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose 
names and addresses are given for that purpose : 

The Acts and Monitmsmts op Johr Foxi. Vol. I. Edited 

by Rev. S. Cattley. Seeley and Burnside. 
VoiTAiRs's WosKS. Vol. L Translated by Sm<4lett. FrandcHn, 

London, 1761. 
EccLBsioLooisT. Vol. V. In Numbers or unbound. 

Wanted by E. Hailstone, Horton Hall, Bradford, Yorkshire. 

Penny Ctclopadia, from Part C VIL indiusiTe, to the end. 

Wanted by Rev. F. N. MilU, 11 . Cnnningham Place, St. John's 

Birch's Gallery op Anttquitirs. Parts I. and II. 
Burton's Bxcrrpta HisaooLYPHiCA. 
Wilkinson's Matbbia Hibroglyphica. 

Wanted by Prichard, Roberts, jr Co., Booksellers, Chester. 

Genuine and iBfPAETiAL Mbmoirs op tbe Lipe and Charac- 
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family. Mr. Eyre, to prevent the Public lM>ing imposed on by 
any errofeous or partial accounts to the prejudice of this un- 
fortunate gentleman. London : printed for the Proprietor, and 
sold by B. Cole. 1746. 

Wanted by Mr. Douglas, 16. Russell Square, London. 

CoL. Chartrris or Cbartrbs. — Ossr Corre s fomdent who im- 
quires for particulars respecting this monster qf depraottat it 
rrferred to Pope's Works. edU. 1736, ttoL U. p. 84. qf the Ethic 
Raistles. Also to the foUotting works: The History of CoL 
Francis Charteris from his Birth to his present Catastrophe is 
Newgate, 4lo. 1730; Memoirs of the Life and Actions of CoL 

Cli s, %90. 1730 ; Life of Col. Don Francisco, with a wood-cui 

portrait qf CoL Charteris or Ckartres, 8vo. 

N. On tike ** Su»*s rays putting out the fire^** see VoL tU.. 
pp. 285. 349. 439. 

R. V. T. An excellent tract may be had for a few pence om 
The History of Pews, a paper read b^re the Cambridge Camden 
Society, 1841 : see also** VI, k. <^," VoL iiL, p. 5&, and Vol. vUL, 
p. 127. 

C. K. P. (Bishop's Stortford). We candidfy admit that your 
results upon waged paper are much like our own, for no certainty 
has at present attended our endeavours. If the paper is made 
sensitive, then it behaves exactly eu yours has done ; and %f,follow- 
ing other formuLe, we use a less sensitive paper, then the exposure 
is so long and tedious that we are not anxious to pursue PhotO' 
grap^ in so** slow a phase." Why not adopt and abide hy the 
simpltetty qf the calotype process as given in a late Number ? In 
the writer's possession we have seen nearly a hundred consecutive 
negatives without a failure. 

W. S. P. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne). Filtered rain-water is far 
the best to use in making your iodized paper. The appearances 
which you describe in all probability depend upon the different 
sheets resting too firmly upon one another, so that the water has 
not free and even cuxess to the whole sheet. 

H. J. (Norwich). Turner's paper is now quite a precarious 
article ; a specimen which has come to us qf his recent make is 
full qf spots, and the negative useless. TuwgootCs is admirable for 
positives, but it does not appear to do weUfor i 'dixing. We hope 
to be soon able to se^ something cheering to Photographers upon 
a good paper f 

Errata. — Mr. P. H. Fisher wishes to correct an error in his 
article on ''The Court-house at Painswick," Vol. viii., p. .'596., 
col. 2., for ** The lodge, an old wooden house," read ** stone 
house." Also in his article in Vol. ix., p. 8., col. 2., for ** Rev. 
— Hook," read *• Rev. — Stock." 

** Notbs and Qubribs " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
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Just published, in 8vo., price Is. 


X De Primis Episcopis. 8. Petri Alexan- 
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Illustrata 'PH212, in qua Ecclesia Rornana 
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J. i \ In I , F. TleTiediEt, T L R, Bt ^hsjft, J. Bk*- 
it!,. I \i7\rf\, r p. Chill p. p. D^latVBfl, IX H* 
Dc>tH5% R. K Fkzmlliam, W^ Ftkfila, SJMj^ca 
Glovpr. lioTiri Ik-ra, E. ITarriicm, irpTmi^ 
J. K. ITitlrin, Crt,t>ifn'nc njiv|-i^ W, II.1I^tn«, 
W I V *■ , G . F . Klal] mnrk , E . T^mid^ O, T^ttss« 
a: !■ r Lee. a, l.efller. E. J. T>ode?» W. rt- 

M l•1|l,^^^ B. NelHon, O. A. Oabi^rav, l^it 
Pi M - Pmi-Jl'ka. T tenry PhU ^ I j»». F. PlMSW* 

E, ' :Niin.iMTi, Frtiiik lEnm&T, O.K. Rffliii^ 
E, i . ^' S . J^l iin.i Rte ve«, J. T«TnpteEcnu F* Wi^ 
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Oty of London, Publiiher, at No. 1 W. Tlect Street aforeaald.- Saturday, February 4. 19M. 



M "Wlieii found, make a note of." — Caftain CaxTLi. 

No. 224.] 

Satubdat, February 11. 1854. 

C Price Fourpence. 

I Stamped Edition, 5^. 


ZToTU : — 


Elimiiuite, by C. Mansfield Iiiffleb7 - 119 
Cnmmer'g Bible - > - - 119 

Sovereigns Dining and Sapping in 

PubliS - ^I - - - 180 

Parallel Ideas firom Poets, by Norris 

Deck 121 

The great Alphabetic Psalm, and the 

Songs of Decrees, by T. J. Buckton - 121 

^iNOR Noras : — Inscription on a 
Orave-stone in Whittlebury Church- 

yard. Northamptonshire — Epitaph 
on Sir Henry St. Qeorge — Newton 
and Milton — Eternal Life — Inscrip- 

tions in Books— Churdiiirs Qrave 


Coit>nation stone - - - • I2S 

Old Mereworth Castle, Kent - - 12« 

If iNOB QoBRiBs : _ " I conld not love 
thee, dear, so much"— Leicester as 
Banger of Snowden — Crabb of Tels- 
ford — Tolling the BeU while the 
Congregation is leaving Church — 
O'Brien of Thosmond — Order of St. 
David of Wales — Warple-way — 
Fnrlet — Liveries, Bed and Scarlet — 
Dr. Bragge — Cliaancy, or Cluincy — 
Plaster (SUts— lUc^o— Dogs in Monn- 
mental Brasses - • - - 125 


Marquis of Oranby — " Memorials 
of English AfTairsr Ac — Standing 
■when the Lord's Prayer is read— 
Hypocrisy, &c. - - - - 127 

** Consilium Novem Delectomm Cardi- 

nalium," Ac., by B. B. Woodward - 127 

John Bunyan, by Qeorge Oflfor - - 129 

The Asteroids, Sic, by J. Wm. Harris - 189 

X^ips at Cambridge, by C.H.Cooper - 130 
Bussia, Turkey, and the Black Sea, by 

JohnMacray - - - - 132 
Srigh Dutch and Low Dutch, by Pro- 
fessor Ooedes de GrUter - - 132 

JPbotogbapbtc Corrbsponsxkcb :_The 
Calotype on the Sea-shore - - 134 

XIbplibs to Minor Qobbics ; —Ned o* 
the Todding— Hour-glasses and In- 
scriptions on Old Pulpits — Table- 
turning— "Firm was their faith"— 
^The Wilbraham Cheuhire MS. — 
Sfousehunt— Begging the Question 

— Termination ^* -by " — German 
^ree — Celtic Etymology — Recent 
'Curiosities of Literature- D. O. M. 

— Dr. John Taylor— Lines attributed 
to Hudibras— '* Corporations have no 
Souls," ftc. — Lord Mayor of London 
St Privy Councillor— Booty's Case — 
•*Sat dto, si sat bene"— CelUc and 
lAtin Languages — Brydone the Tour- 
ist's Birth-place - . . - 135 

■^MmcMUJLnwovu : — 

19'otes on Books, fte. - - - 138 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 138 
Kotioes to Correspondents - - 139 

Tou IX.— No. 224. 



J\. EVENINGS,bymeansofSTATHAM'8 
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Free for Stamp. 

WILLIAM E. !:TATHAM, Operative Che- 
mist, 29 c. Rotherfleld Street, Islington, 
London, and of Chemists and Opticians 

now open at the Gallery of the Society of 
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Morning from 10 a.m. to half-past 4 p.m., and 
in the Evening from 7 to 10 p.m. Admission Is. 
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Statistical Herister, from the Birth of Christ to 
the Present Tune. Fifth Edition, revised and 

London : WILLIAM TEGG ft CO., 
85. Queen Street, Cheapside. . 

This Day, 8vo., price Ss. 


., OXFORD PROFESSORS : a Reply to 
certain Objections against the Report of the 
Queen's Commiasioners. By HENRY HAL- 
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London : JOHN W. PARKER ft SON, 
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This Day, 8vo., 2«. 6d. 

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St. Peter, and St. Paul. By FBEDEBICK 
DBNISON MAUBICE, M.A., Chaplain of 
Lincoln's Inn. 

London : JOHN W. PABKEB ft SON, West 

Now ready. No. VL, 2s. 6d., published 

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A. ft C. BLACK, Edinburgh. 

L'lyuiz.t^u uy 




[No. 224. 





H Their itrle ia dinple ; the Mntoioei are 

*'''^^' ■' ■'! r ' .' ,',".',' .""• ; ".'. !a 

tllt» TFli'U till tJie wa.ll Cwn tarmy »L>*h.j^ rt ItM* 

It moBt eonwrni them to Itiio*, _ 

"actiI", ifK? ranee or thow£hi JM oot htih 
vid dimciilt, bo I l«vel mid IMF fur trie wjiy- 
fludiis man to ftilltiw. It u <iUlMf «tidt^Tit that 
tEc ftuthur* mind vw ■ble ai»i cultiv^itcd; 
yet E» * teichtr ts> ineii of low f-fttkw, tie 
mAkc^g tiodiMplny ofeii^nttCTuju artfniumt nt- 

♦' lu th« itilement* uf L"lnriat]i>ii Un;lni-te» 
the nrality of Mr. Bk-llcaW*' ''•'l'-^ ^^ ^ 'I 
M^kh>ii. Tliere u m»;np;th "i"l ;'■*■';,■" TS 
sad. a Ufe In hta mi^iilion of iJit t'tii'i r-Mtiiror 
tlifl Ooii*], vhieh Bhrtw tlmt lie B[Hi>ke fmin i be 
hcjirt. ind tlvat, like the Apptle of ot4. ho 
fwuld i*y^— 'IbeUeTCUid ibcttfore have I 

^*iui niTeetiDimtenegft t™ la no tea* mu^pi- 
euou« I thy y fthdwn in the jremlii:. C""i^»'' "*• 
klna-hff&ried. tooe of ci^ry Siirinijn jji tne 
bofllt. There ii no ncoSdina, no PLtfixntv of 
lunmiwe. no iTrftatlon of manner Ah tii Mum. 
At Wte iune ilmfi tb^aro to no ov€f-fltfbiiied 
SadflineMn not affectation of ; imt 
KbeT« li A cctiiirieiote, ierfcin eonoerini ah rut 
the neeolUt i^tit ami t^mptsititJiiB of tht- [ t.ole 
KOiuiilttea ta hii chiu^, ^d t tetriv .l.rlre 
nnd drtermlned effort for thdr siilvntiM]!. — 

•♦ Sfanple, inteUiglble, and affectionate." - 
Chvrch and State Gazette. 

Very rtirring and practical." — ChriUian 


iTl (late RODWELL). 46. NEW BOND 

raRBlT. hare )iMt l«Md^TWONEW 

iTAliObUES, oontbtioK of MMCBLLA- 


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•*.... TheaermonB are manly and earnest 
in their resolution to look the truth in the face, 
and to enforce it against a prejudiced renstance 
ff whfiAthe writer evidentTy knows but too 
much I and they show, moreoTer, a true con- 
Mp^n of th^ tone by which that reaistance ia 
to be met. " — ScoUuK Episcopal Joumai. 


REV. ALFRED OATTY, M.A., Vicax of Ee- 
clesfleld. Second Edition. ISmo., cloth, 8s. 

IZmo., 85., cloth. 

" We aay willingly of these Swroons, what 
we can seldom wy of sermons pubbshed at the 
reauest of parishioners, that they ivftity the 
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seemed to those who listened to and admired 
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:h taken with 

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Notes and Queries. 


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ST. PAUL. ^ 

m. N ATION AL MUSIC. „^,„^„^_„ 


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•• Tlie book contains a vast amount of curious 
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REMARKS on that Part of the 

REV. J. KING'S PAMPHLET, entitled 
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" N. & Q.** has from time to time done much 
good service by holding up to reprobation modern 
and growing cormpdons of the English language. 
I trust that its columns may be open to cme more 
attempt to rescue from abuse tne word which 
stands at the head of Uiis article. 

Its signification, whether sought from Latin 
usage and etymology, or from the works of English 
mathematicians, is "to turn out of doors," "to 
oust," or, as we say in the midland counties, " to 
get shut of." In French it may be rendered as 
well by 86 dkfaire as by ^iminer. Within the 
last seven or dght years, however, this valuable 
spml of dead Latinity. has been strangdy per- 
verted, and, through tne ignorance or carelessness 
of writers, it has bidden fair to take to itself two 
significatioBs utterly distinct from its derivation, 
viz. to " elicit," and to " evaluate." The former 
signification, if less vicious, is more commonly 
used than the latter. I append examples of both 
from three of the most elegant writers of the day. 
In the third extract the word under consideration 
is used in the latter sense ; in the other extracts it 
carries the former. 

Lectures on the Philofophtecd Tendencies of the 
^g^t by J. D. Morrell, London, 1848, p. 41. : 

** Had the men of ancient times, when they peopled 
the universe with deities, a deeper perception of the 
religious element in the mind, than had Newton, when 
having eliminated the great law of the natural creation, 
his enraptured soul burst forth into the infinite and 
adored ? " 

I take one more illustration (among many 
others) from pp. 145, 146. of this work : 

*« It would not be strictly speaking correct to call 
them philosophical methods, because a philosophical 
method only exists when any tendency works itself 
clear, and gives rise to a formal, connected, and logical 
system of rules, by which we are to proceed in the 
elimination of truth.** 

The Eclipse of Faith, by Professor Rogers, 
I/ondon, 1852, p. 392. : 

^ ** They are now at college, and have imbibed in 
different degrees that curious theory which professedly 
recognises Cliristianity (as consigned to the New Tes- 
tament) as a truly divine revelation, yet asserts that it 
is intermingled with a large amount of error and ab- 
surdity, and tells each man to eliminate the divine 
« element * for himself. According to this theory, the 
problem of eliciting revealed truth may be said to be 
indetermioate, the value of the unknown varies through 

all degrees of magnitude; it is equal to any things 
equal to every thing, equal to nothing, equal to in- 

Theological Essays, by F. D. MaUFroe, CiUi* 
bridge, 1853, p. 89. : 

** Let us look, therefore, courageously at the popular 
dogma, that there are certain great ideas floating in 
the vast ocean of trsditions which the old world ex- 
hibits to us, that the gospel appropriated some of 
these, and that we are to detect them and dimmaie 
them from its own traditions." 

But for the fact that such writers hare given 
the weight of their names to so unparalleled » 
blunder, it would seem almost childish to occupy 
the columns of a literary periodical with exposing^ 
it. It is, however, somewhat singular tnat it 
should be principally men of classical attwnmenis 
who perpetrate it. In my under-graduate days at 
Cambridge, the proneness of " classical men " to 
commit the blunder in question was proverbial. 

In conclusion, then, let it be remembered that 
the word " eliminate " obtained general currency 
from the circumstance of its being originally ad- 
mitted into mathematical works. In such worka 
elimination signifies the process of causing a 
function to disappear from an equation, the 'so- 
lution of which would be embarrassed by its pre- 
sence there. In other writings the word *^ elimi- 
nation " has but one correct signification, viz. *' the 
extrusion of that which is superfluous or irrele- 
vant.** As an example of this legitimate use of the 
word, I will quote from Sir William Hamilton's 
accurate, witty, and learned article on " Logic," 
published in the Edinburgh Review^ April, 1833 : 

" The preparatory step of the discussion was, there- 
fore, an elimination of these less precise and appropriate 
significations, which, as they could at best only afford 
a remote genus and difference, were wholly incompe- 
tent for the purpose of a definition.** 

C. Mansheld Ingleby. 



Queries which I have heard at various time* 
lead me to think that a Note on this interesting 
volume may be acceptable to many readers who 
possess or have access to it; and especially to 
those whose copies may be (as too many are) 
imperfect at the beginning and end. Under this 
impression I send you an extract from the late 
Mr. Lea Wilson's catalogue of his unrivalled Col- 
lection of English Bibles. As very few copies of 
this curious and beautiful work were printed, and 
not one, I believe, has been sold, it is probable 
that few of your readers are aware of the criteria 
which that gentleman's ingenuity and industry 
have furnished for. distinguishing between the 



[No. 224. 

viriotii editions wbivli are known under the title 
of The Qreat Bibie, or CrcmmerU BihU. He 
begins bis description of the edition of Aprils 
1539, thus: 

** Af this Toluine is commonly eslled the First Edi- 
tion of Cnuimer*s or the Great Bible, I elsas it with 
the Six following; although in fiiet the Arehbishop 
had nothing whatever to do with either the translation 
or publication. It was put forth entirely by Thomas 
Lord Cromwell, vide Herbert's Amf, p. 1 550. voL iii.» 
who employed Coverdale to revise the existing trans- 
lations, llie first wherein Cranmer took any part is 
the Urge folio of April 1540, the text of which differs 
fW>m this edition materially. Tlie pages of this volume 
and of the four next following b^in and end alike ; 
and the general appearance of the whole five is so very 
similar that at first sight, one may be mistaken for 
another by those ignorant of the fsct that they are all 
separate and distinct impressions: the whole of the 
titles, of which there are five in each Book, and every 
leaf of kalendar, prologue, text, and tables being en- 
tirely recomposed, and varying throughout in ortho- 
graphy, &o. The desire to make perfect copies out of 
several imperfect, has also caused extreme confusion, by 
uniting portions of different editions without due re- 
gard to their identity. Tliese remarks apply equally 
to the editions of Nov. 1 540. and Nov. 1 54 1 , of which, 
in like manner, each pfge begins and ends with the 
same words. Although the distinctive marks are 
very numerous, yet being chiefly typographical orna- 
ments or arrangement, it is impossible to give here suf- 
ficient guides to ensure the integrity of each volume.** 
— Page 12. 

On the next page but one b added : 

** The following; lines of the forty-first chapter of Job 
differ in composition in all the seven volumes, and for 
the purpose of distinguishing the edition I have given 
ihem to each." 

No, 1. April, 1539. 

xak ii ia oruc H, that U ahle 
to latere htm hp. * CtS.^a it ahU 
to ittanlrehrfarr me? <dr|tDf)0 
I h^th setif me anpt^ing afore 
faanlre, that i mape retnarlre 
(tmagapne? innt topiiflciT hit:: 

No. 2. AprU, 1540. 

Ne^ man uT in ciuell, 9* ii ahle 
to latere \i\ hp. * CRS^a ii ahle 
to citalre brfare me? ^x \\o^fi 
bath oeueii me aiip tOunff a^ 
fore \)itit^ p* i mave retoar^ 
lie i)tm asapne? 9111 thpttj^eit 

No, 3. July, 1540. 

N^ man H it\ cruelly p* ii ahle 
to stere f)pm bp. ^fo^o ii 
ahir to iiA tre before me ? <^ 
ttDl)o I)atb griirn me anp 
thpn^e afarebanlre» tbat i 
mape rctoarUe f)tm aflapiie? 

No. A. 3fdy, 1541. 

Nd man H in cmell, ffyd it Iba* 
(le to irtprre bpm bp. ^mfho ^ 
\^U to iltanoejbelore me? <^r 
ttDl^o ]^a4 gene me anp t^tng 
aloretian)ie» t^ i mape xu 
foatlre tomagapne? Witl^pn' 

No, 5. Deeemher, 1541. 

N^wiiiio cruel» tM ii tAXt 
to iftprre bvm bp. * CTbo ii 
liable to tftantr brtore me? Ot 
t U3]^o |)atbe in)uen me aupe 
^pnge afore Qan^e, t^t i 
mape retoarlre Iftsm agapne? 

No. 6. November, 1640. 

^ man it ia vcutU tfiat it lAIe ta tftpr 

l^pm bp. *ra^o it able to iftanbe bei^ 

fore me ? <^r | tofio l^at^ getten me anp 

tf^pnge aCore Iftanfte, t|iat i mape rf« 

No. 7. November, 1541. 

•BT^ man it ia cnieP t^at it faiAle ta 
m\ ittprre fapm bp. * rafio ii biAIe to 



ittanbe before me? Or t^l^a ^ii^ up* 
uen me anp t()png afore ^anlre, ^at 
i mape remarbe 9pm agapne ? ml 

I believe the foregoing to be an exact copy of 
Mr. Wilson*s catalogue, but, of course, I cannot 
be responsible for the accuracy of his transcripts. 
Perhaps none but those who were admitted to his 
library ever hail an opportunity of comparing; to- 

S ether all those editions ; and nobody would haTe 
one it with more care and fidelity than himself. 



In some observations which I made upon two 
or three pictures in Hampton Court Palace, in 
Vol. viii., p. 538 , 1 specified two worthy of noU^ 
on the above subject, and which are the first 
instances of such ceremony I have met with. It 
has been supposed to have been a foreign custom, 
but I do not find any traces of it upon record.* 

[* The custom was observed at a much earlier 
period; for we find that King Edward II. and hb 
queen Isabella of France kept their court at West* 
minster during the Whiuunlide festival of 1317 : and 
on one occasion, as they were dining in jnMie in the 
great banqueting-hall, a woman in a mask entered on 
horseback, and riding up to the royal table, delivered 
a letter to King Edvrard, who, imagining that it con- 
tained some pleasant conceit or elegant compliment, 
ordered it to k>e opened and read aloud for the amuse- 
ment of his courtiers ; but, to hi^ great mortification, 
it was a cutting satire on his unkingly propensities, 
setting forth in no measured terms aU the oalamitica 


Feb. 11. 1854.] 



One can easily imagine that the fastueux Louis 
Xiy. would have no objection to such display, 
and that his mistresses, as well as <][ueen, would 
be of the party, when we read, that in the royal 
progresses two of the former were scandalously 
paraded in the same carrii^e with his queen. To 
this immoral exhibition, indeed, public opinion 
seemed to give no check, as we read, that *' les 
peuples accouraient * pour voir,* disaient-ils, * les 
trois reines,* " wherever they appeared together. 
Of these three queens^ the true one was Marie- 
Th^r^se: the two others were La Marquise de 
Montespan and Mme. de la Valli^re. But to re- 
turn to my subject. I find by the London Gazette^ 
No. 6091. of Sept. 4, 1722, that Geo. L, in his 
progress to the west of England, supped in public 
at the Bishop's (Dr. Eichard Willis) palace at 
Salisbury on Wednesday, Aug. 29, 1722 ; and 
slept there that night. 

The papers of the period of George IL say : 

"Tliere was such a resort to Hampton Court on 
Sunday, July 14, 1728, to see their Majesties dine, 
that the rail surrounding the table broke ; and causing 
some to fall, made a terrible scramble for hats, &c., at 
-which their Majesties laughed heartily.** 

And, — 

*' On Thursday, the 25th of the same month, it is 
stated, the concourse to see their Majesties dine in 
public at Hampton Court was exceedingly great. A 
^ng of robbers (the swell-mob of that day?) had 
mixed themselves among the nobility and gentry; 
several gold watches being lost, besides the ladies* 
gown tails and laced lappets cut off in number.** 

And again : 

** On Sunday, 15th September, 1728, their Majesties 
dined together in public at Windsor (as they will con- 
tinue to do every Sunday and Thunday during their 
stay there), when all tlie country people, whether in or 
out of mourning, were permitted to see them.** 

Besides those three occasions of George II. and 
Queen Caroline dining in public, we have another 
recorded attended with some peculiar circum- 
stances, as mentioned in the London Oazette, 
No. 7623. of Tuesday, Aug. 2, 1737 : 

** The Slst ult. being Sunday, their Majesties, the 
Prince and Princess of Wales, and the Princesses Amelia 
and Caroline, went to chapel at Hampton Court, and 
heard a sermon preached by the Rev. Dr. Blomer. 
Their Majesties, and the rest of the royal family, dined 
afterwards in public as usual before a great number of 

which his misgovemment had brought upon England. 
The woman was immediately taken into custody, and 
confessed that she had been employed by a certain 
knight. The knight boldly acknowledged what he 
had done, and said, ** That, supposing the King would 
read the letter in private, he took that method of ap- 
prising him of the complaints of his subjects.** — Strick- 
land's Queens of England, vol. L p. 487. « Ed.] 

spectators. About seven o*clock that evening, the 
Princess of Wales was taken with some slight symptoms 
of approaching labour, and was removed to St. James's ; 
where, a little after eleven, she was delivered of a 

This was the Princess Au^sta, who was married 
to the Prince of Brunswick WolfenbiitteL *• 



Longfellow and Tennyson : 

<* And like a lily on a river floating. 
She floats upon the river of his thoughts.** 

Spanish Student, Act II. Sc S. 

** Now folds the lily all her sweetness up» 
And slips into the bosom of the lake ; 
So fold thyself, my dearest, thou, and slip 
Into my bosom and be lost in me.** 

Princess, Part viL 
Wordsworth and Keble : 

^ A book, upon whose leaves some chosen plants 
By his own hand disposed with nicest care. 
In undecaying beauty were preserved ; — 
Mute register, to him, of time and places 
And various fluctuations in the breast; 
To her, a monument of faithful love 
Conquered, and in tranquillity retained 1 ** 

Excursion, Book vL 

'< Like flower-leaves in a precious volume stor*d^ 
To solace and relieve 
Some heart too weary of the restless world.** 
^ Christian Year : Prayers to be used at Sea^ 

Moore and Keble : 

'« Now by those stars that glance 
0*er Heaven's still expanse, 
Weave we our mirthful dance. 
Daughters of Zea I ** 

Evenings in Greece^ 

** Beneath the moonlight sky, 
The festal warblings flow*d. 
Where maidens to the Queen of Heaven 
Wove the gay dance." 
Christian Year : Eighth Sunday after Trinity. 

NoBBis Deck* 


^ In attempting to discover a reason for the di-' 
vision of Psalm cxix. into twenty- two portions of 
eight verses each, instead of seven or ten, the more 
favourite numbers of the Hebrew, I have thought 
that, as the whole Psalm is chiefly laudatory of the 
Thorah, or Law of Moses, and was written alpha- 
betically for the instruction mainly of the younger 
people, to be by them committed to memory, a 




didactic reison might exist for making m ike 
total number of 176 ▼erses, peculiar to this Psalm. 
Adyerting then to the necessity, for the purposes 
<Kf Jewish worship, of ascertaining the periods of 
the new moons, to adjust the year therepy, I find 
that a mean lunation, as determined by the latest 
authorities, is Tery nearly 39*5306 days r29d. I2h. 
44m.); and as the Jewish months were lunar, six 
of these would amount to 177d. 4h. 24m., being 
somewhat more than one over the number of 
verses in this Psalm. As lunations, from ob- 
servation, vary from 29d. 7h. d2m. to 29d. 18h. 
50m., the above was a very close approximation 
to the half-year. The other half of the year would 
vary a whole lunation ( Veadar) betwixt the or- 
dinary and the intercalary year.* This was, at 
least, the best possible combination of twenty-two 
letters for such purpose. This Psalm might then 
have answered some of the purposes of an almanac. 
It is a very important one in fixing the Hebrew 
metres, the initial letter being the same for every 
eight verses in succession. 

The words at the commencement of Psalms cxx. 
to cxxxiv., rendered " Song of Degrees," appear 
to me to signify rather " song of eucents" in re- 
ference to the Jewish practice of ascending to the 
house-top to watch and pray, as well as to sleep. 
If it be assumed that these fifteen Psalms were ap- 
propriated for domestic use on the Jew retiring, 
by ascending the ladder or stairs, to the upper 
part or top of the house (Ps. cxxxii. 3.), the 
meaning of several passages will be better appre- 
hended, I conceive, than by supposing that they 
were composed solely for temple use, or, as Eich- 
horn thinks, to be sung on a journey. Standing 
on the house-top, the praying Jew, like David ana 
Solomon, would have in view heaven and earth 
(cxxi. 2., cxxiii. 1.), the sun and moon (cxxi. 6.), 
the surrounding hills (cxxL 1.) and mountains 
^cxxv. 2.), the gates and city of Jerusalem 
(cxxii. 2. 3. 7.), Mount Zion (cxxv. 1.), the watch- 
men on the walls (cxxvii. 1., oxxx. 6.), his wife 
and children at home (cxxviii. 3., cxxxL ^.), the 
mower bringing in his sheaves, compared with the 
grass on the house-tops (oxxix. 6—80. allaubjects 
especially noted in these fifteen Psalms. The 
number eight api)ears to be a favourite one in 
these, as well as in Psalm cxix., but there is no 
reason to believe that such number refers to the 
octave in music. It may refer, however, to the 
number of stairs or steps of ascent. I am not 
aware that the above views have been previously 
taken, which is my reason for calling attention to 
this interevting and well-debated subject. 


* Their shortest ordinary year consisted of 35S, and 
its half of 176} days. The Mahometan ordinary half- 
year consists of 177 days. The calendar months of 
both Jews and Mahometans consist of 29 and 30 days. 

iHinur ^otfiT. 

InseriptUnk ou a Qrat)§^4iima i* WkitiMwtry 

« In Memory of John Heath, he dy*d Deo»> y* 17% 
1767. Aged 27 year& 
While Time doth run from Sin depart ; 
Let none e*er shan Deatb*s piercing dart ; 
For read and look, and you will see 
A wondrous change was wrought on m«. 
For while I lived m joj and mirth 
Grim Death came in and stop*t my breath: 
For I was single in the rooming light» 
By noon was marri*d« and was dead at nighi,** 

H. T. Wakb. 

Epitaph on Sir Henry St, Oeorge^ Garter 
Principal King of Englishmen Tsic in MS.], from 
a MS. in the Office of Arms, London (see Bal- 
lard MSS., vol. xxix.) : 

** Here lie a knight, a king, a saint, 
Who lived by tilt and tournament. 
His namesake, George, the dragon slew, 
But, give the herald king his due. 
He could disarm ten thousand men. 
And give them arms and shields again. 
But now the mighty sire is dead, 
Reposing here his hoary head ; 
Let this he sacred to the mem'ry 
Of Knight St. George and of King Henry." 


Newton and Milton, — Has it been observed 
that Sir Isaac Newton*s dying words, so often 
quoted, — 

** I am but as a child gathering pebbles on the sea- 
shore, while the great ocean of truth still lies undisco- 
vered before me.*' 

are merely an adaptation of a passage in Paradise 
Regained^ book iy. : 

** Deep versed in books and shallow in himself 
Crude or intoxicate, collecting toys 
And trifles for choice matters, worth a sponge, 
As thUdrtn gathtring pebbks on the shore." 


Eternal Life. — In the Mishna (Beracboth, 
ch. is, s. 5.) the doctrine of a future eternal state 
is clearly set forth in a passage which is rendered 
by De Sola and Eaphall : 

** But since the Epicureans perversely taught, then 
is bttt one state of ezistenoe, it was direefted that mas 
should close their benedictions with the form [Bleated 
be the Lord God of Israel] from eternity to etermty." 

A like explicit declaration of inch future state 
occurs again in the JtftsAfia (Sanhedrin, ch. xi. a. 1.). 



Inscriptions •'« Boohs. —"The following are taken 
literatim from the margins of an old Uadc^letter 

Lfiyiiiz.fc;u uy 


Feb. 11. 1854.] 



Bible, trom the numerous errors we may sup- 
pose they were copied from dictation by a person 
unacquainted with Latin. 

^ Quanto doctiores Unto te gesa» submiseias.*' 

« Forasmuch as y« art y« better learned, 
By so much y» must carry thy self more lowly.* 

** Si deus est animus nobis ut carmina dieunt. 
Sic tibi pricipus (bus?) sit pura mente colendus.** 

** Seing y* God is, as y* poets say, 
A liveing soul, lets worship him alway." 

*' Tempora (e ?) felici multa (i ?) numerantur amici. 
Cum fortuna perit nulus amicus erit** 

«* In time of prosperity friends will be plenty. 
In time of adversity not one among twenty." 

On the title-page, " John Threlkeld's Book : " 
** Hujus in dominum cupius (as?) cognescere libri, 
Supra prospiscias, nomen habebis ibi.** 

*' Whose booke I am if you would know, 
I will to you in letters show.** 

On the other side : 

•* Thomas Threlkeld is my name, and for to write . . 
. . ing ashaitfe, 
And if my pen had bene any better, I would have 
mended it erery letter." 

This last example closely resembles some others 
^yen in a late JNumber of " N. & Q." J. K. G. 

ChurchiWs Grave. — It is not perhaps generally 
"known, that the author of The Rosciaa was buried 
in the churchyard of St. Mary, Doyer. On a 
small moss-coyered head-stone is the following 
inscription : 


Here lie the remains of the celebrated 

C. Churchill." 

" Life to the last ei\joy*d. 
Here Churchill lies. 


The notice is sufficiently brief; no date, exoept 
l3ie year, nor age being recorded. The biogra- 
phers inform ns, that he died at Boulogne of a 
feyer, while on a yisit to Wilkes.^ 

The cemetery where his remaini are deposited 
it in the centre almost of Doyer ; and has recently 
beeA closed for the purposes of sepulture, with 
tiie exception of iunuy yaultA. Adjoining it b a 
4siDall retired burial-place, containing at &e most 
bat two or three grayes, and originuly beloDgiag 
to the Tayenors. Here is the tomb of Captain 
Samuel Tayenor, an officer of OomweU, and, 
during fait ascendancy, one of the governors of 
Deal Castle. Tayenor was a man wttinguished 
fw his eonrage, integrity, and piety* J«. ramT. 


comoMATioir itonb.' 

A few years ago the following tradition was re- 
lated to me by a friend, and I should be slad if 
any of your correspondents can inform me whether 
it is current in any part of Great Britain or Ire- 
land, and whether there are any grounds for it. 
As it is connected with one of our most interest- 
ing national relics, the coronation stone, it may 
not proye beneath notice ; and I here giye it in 
full, shielding myself with the Last Minstrers 
excuse : 

** 1 know not how the truth may be. 
But I tell the tale as *twas told to me.** 

I must allow that its extreme yagueness, if not 
improbability, hardly warrants an inquiry; but 
haying fsalea in obtaining any satisfactory proofii 
among my own friends, as a last resource I apply 
myself to the columns of your well-known and 
useful joumaL 

When Jacob awoke afler his wonderful dream, 
as related in Grenesis (chap, xxyiii.), he said, 
'* Surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it 
not;*' and he was afraid, and said, **How dreadful 
is this place. This is none other but the house 
of God ; and this ia the gate of heayc^.** ^ He 
"took the atone that he had put for his pillow 
and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the 
t<^ of it. And Jacob yowea a vow, saying, If* 
Grod will be with me, and will keep me in this 
way that I go, and will giye me bread to eat and 
raiment to put on, so toat I come again to my 
father's house in peace, then shall the Lord be my 
God : and this stone, which I have set for a pillar, 
shall be God's house ; and of all that Thou shalt 
give me I will surely give the tenth unto Thee." 

That stone (so runs the le^nd) is supposed to 
have been taken away from Bethel by tne House 
of Joseph, when they destroyed the city and its 
inhabitants (Judges i.); and a tradition, that who* 
soever possessed that stone would be especially 
Uessed, and be king or chief, was current among ' 
the Jews ; the stone itself being guarded by them 
with jealous care. 

On the first destruction of Jerusalem, some of 
the royal family of Judah are supposed to have 
escaped, and to have gone in search of an asylum 
beyond the sea, taking this precious stone with 
them. Their resting-place was Ireland, where 
they ibanded a kingdom. Many centuries after- 
wards, a brother of the king descended fh>m these 
exiles, named Fergus^ went, with his brother's 
permission, to found a kingdom in Scotland. He 
said, however, he would not go without the sacred 
stone. This his brother refused to give him ; but 
Fergus stole it, and established a kingdom in 
Scotland. His descendants became kings of all 
Scotland, gnd were crowned sitting on that stone, 

Digitized by 




[No. 224. 

which was taken away bj Edward I., and is now 
in Westminster Abbey. 

These are the outlines of this tradition. My 
object now is to ask whether any of your corre- 
spondents can inform me, first, Whether the Jews 
had, or have, any like superstition concerning 
JacoVs pillar; and whether the royal family of 
Judah possessed such a stone among their trea- 
sures? Secondly, Whether any Jews are sup- 
posed to have settled in Ireland at so early a 
period ; and whether (that being the case) there 
are now, or were once, proofs of uieir having done 
80, either in the Irish language or in any of the 
ancient laws, customs, buildings, &c of the coun- 
try ? Thirdly, Whether the Scotch believe that 
stone to have come from Ireland; and whether 
that belief in the owner of it being king exbted 
in Scotland ? and, lastly. Can any of your corre- 
spondents, learned in geology, inform me whether 
the like kind of stone is to be met with in any 
part of the British Isles f or whether, as the le- 
send runs, a similar kind of stone is found in the 
Arabian plains? The story has interested me 
greatly ; and if I could gain any enlightenment 
on the subject, I should be much obliged for it. 
An Indian Subscbibbb, 

[Several of our bntorians, as Matthew of West- 
minster, Hector Boethius, Robert of Gloucester, the 
poet Harding, &c., have noticed this singular, legend ; 
but we believe the Rabbinical writers (as suggested by 
our Indian correspondent) have never been consulted 
respecting it. Sandford, in his valuable History of the 
Coronation of James 11. (fol., 1687, p. 39. )> has given, 
some dates and names which will probably assist our 
correspondents in elucidating the origin of thb far- 
filmed relic. He says, "Jacob's stone, or The Fatal 
Marble Stone, is an oblong square, about twenty-two 
inches long, thirteen inches broad, and eleven inches 
deep, of a bluish steel-like colour, mixed with some 
veins of red ; whereof history relates that it is the 
stone whereon the patriarch Jacob is said to have lain 
his head in the plain of Luza. That it was brought 
to Brigantia in the kingdom of Gallacia in Spain, in 
which place Gathal, King of Scots, sat on it as his 
throne. Thence it was brought into Ireland by Simon 
Brech, first King of Scots, about 700 years before 
Christ's time, and from thence into Scotland, by King 
Fergus, about 330 years before Christ. In the year 
850 it was placed in the abbey of Scone in the sherif- 
dom of Perth by King Kenneth, who caused it to be 
inclosed in a wooden chair (now called Sl Edward's 
Chair), and this prophetical distich engraven on it : 

' Ni fiiUat Fatum, Scoti hunc quocunque locatum 
Inveniunt lapidem, regnare tenentur ibidem.* 
*■ If Fates go right, where'er this stone is found, 
The Scots shall monarchs of that realm be crown'd.' 

Which is the more remarkable by being fulfilled in the 
person of James I. of England." Calmet, however, 
states that the Mahometans profiess to have this relic 
in theb custody. He says, ** The Mahometans think 
that Jacob's stone was conveyed to the Temple of Jeru- 

salem, and is still preserved in the mosque there, where 
the Temple formerly stood. They call it Al-saJkra, or 
the stone of unction. The Cadi Gemaleddin, son of 
Valle], writes, that passing through Jerusalem, in his 
way to Egypt, he saw Christian priests carrying glass 
phials full of wine over the Sakra^ near which the 
Mussulmen bad built their temple, which, for this 
reason, they call the Temple of the Stone. The wine 
which the Christian priests set upon the stone was no 
doubt designed for the celebration of mass there.^J 


Among your subscribers there are doubtless 
many couectors of topographical drawings and en- 
gravings. I shall feel specially obliged if any of 
them could find in their collections a view of old 
Mereworth Castle (as it stood prior to the com- 
paratively modem erection of Lord Westmore- 
land), and furnish me with a long desiderated 
description of it. Local tradition represents it as 
having been a baronial castle rising from the 
middle of a small lake, like that of Leeds, though 
of smaller dimensions, with the parish church at- 
tached. I should rather conjecture it to have 
been an ancient moated manor-house, magnified^ 
in the course of tradition, into a baronial castle 
and lake. 

Whatever the old buildine was, it was pulled 
down by John, seventh Ean of Westmomand, 
during the first half of the last century. Had it 
been of the character of Leeds CasUe, as the re- 
presentative of a long line of baronial ancestry, he 
would hardly have levelled such a structure, with 
all its inspinng associations, merely for the purpose 
of gratifying his passion forPalladian architecture 
by the erection of the present mansion. 

The ancient building seems to have been the 
residence of the knightljr family of De Mereworth 
during the twelfth, thirteenth, and^ part of the 
fourteenth centuries, and from that time, till near 
the end of Elizabeth's reign, it ceased to be a 
family residence; for, after passinff through va- 
rious hands (none of whom were likely to have 
resided there), it descended in 1415 to Joan, wife 
of the Lord Burgavenny, sister and coheir to the 
Earl of ArundeL The Burgavennys of that da? 
resided always at their castle of Birling, whi<» 
circumstance would intimate that it was a grander 
and more baronial residence than Mereworth 
Castle (for ihey had come into possession of both 
estates very nearly at the same period); and 
afterwards Mereworth by settlement psissed to 
Sir Thomas Fane of Baidsell, in marriage with 
Mary, daughter and sole heiress of Henry Lord 
Burgavenny, and ** jure suo** Baroness Despenoer, 
in 1574. From that time till its dismantling in 
the last century, Mereworth Castle was agam a 
familv residence, the seat of the Earls of West- 
moreland ; Francis, eldest son of said Sir Thomas 

Digitized by 



3Feb. 11. 1854.] 



Fane and Mary Baroness Despencer, having been 
advanced to that earldom. As the seat of a 
noble family for more than a century and a half, 
it is hardly likely that no view should have been 
taken of it ; I have searched, however, in vain for 
It in Harris, Buck, and other published collections. 

It would be a matter of special interest to many 
l)esides myself, to obtain some information re- 
43pecting it 

John, seventh earl, the builder of the present 
Falladlan mansion, died in 1762, when the earldom 
passed to a distant cousin, and the barony of De- 
spencer was called out of abeyance in favour of 
Sir Francis Dashwood, the son and representative 
of Mary, sister and eldest co-heir of John, seventh 
£arl of Westmoreland, and heir to his estates. 
On his ddbth «./?., Sir Thomas Stapleton, sole 
heir to the Barony of Despencer (as lineal de- 
scendant and heir of Catherine, the younger sister 
and co-heir of the said John, seventh earl), suc- 
ceeded to the estate ; and from him it has lineally 
descended to Mary, Viscountess Falmouth, and 
"jure suo" Baroness Despencer, the present 
representative of the family. At Mereworth 
Castle itself, where the Viscount and Viscountess 
Falmouth reside, there is no view of the old 
l)uilding ; but it is very possible that some drawing 
or engraving of it may exist in some of the resi- 
dences of the Earls of Westmoreland subsequent 
to the seventh earl, or at the seat of the Dash- 
woods, or in the British Museum. 

I trouble you with this Query, in the hope that. 
Among your numerous readers, some one may be 
placed in a position to give us information on the 
subject. In doing so they would greatly oblige 


" I could not love thee, dear, so muchy — Where 
are the following lines to be found ? what is the 
context ? 

« I could not love thee, dear, so much, 
Loved I not honour more." 


Leicester as Ranger of Snowden, — In the reign 
of Queen Elizabe^, Leicester was made Kanger 
of Snowden Forest, and using violent means to 
extort unjust taxes from the people, under cover 
of this appointment, he was opposed and resisted 
by eight Welsh gentlemen, under the leadership 
of Sir Kichard Bulkeley, of Baron Hill, in Angle- 
sey. Among these was a Madryn of Madryn, a 
Hugh ap Eichard of Cefnllanfair, a Griffith of 
Cefn Amlwch, &c. These patriotic gentlemen 
met with imprisonment in the Tower of London 
as their only recompense ; and there are extant 
poems by .Guttyn, Peris, and other bards, ad- 
dressed to them on the subject. I should be 

obliged to any of your correspondents to give me 
any farther information on this subject, or refer- 
ence to documents which bear upon it. 

Elffin ap Gwtddko. 

Crdbh of Telsford. — Any information respect- 
ing the settlement of the family of Crabb, or 
Crabbe, at Telsford, county of Somerset, together 
with the names of the present representatives of 
that family, would be most thankfully receive 
through the medium of your valuable pages, or in 
any other way, by Onb of the Namb. 

Tolling the Bell while the Congregation is leav' 
ing Church, — Can you inform me why this is 
done at Richmond Church ; and whether the cus- 
tom is adopted in any other ? * J. H. M. 

O'Brien of Thosmond. — In the Calendar of 
Inquisitions post mortem, there appears one taken 
on the death of Alicia, wife of Nicholas Thos- 
mound, in the second year of King Henry IV. 
The estates were in &>merset8hire. From the 
appearance of this name, I suspect it is not an 
English one ; but rather an old form of spelling 
the name of the province of Tothmound or Tho- 
mond (South Munster), Ireland; and that this 
Nicholas was an 0*Brien, who called himself from 
his family*8 principality, for it was not uncommon 
in England formerly to take names from estates. 
Perhaps some of your correspondents having ac- 
cess to the Inquisition would ascertain more on 
the subject, and give it to the public. The name 
of Nicholas O'Brien occurs in the Irish rolls of 
Chancery about that very period. A. B. 

Order of St, David of Wales, — In the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth there was an order of knight- 
hood— the Order of St. David of Wales. When 
was that Order created ? Who was the first 
knight ? Who was the last knight ? What pre- 
late was the chaplain to the Order ? Why was it 
dissolved? Why is it not revived again? We 
have several Welsh peers, noblemen, knights ; four 
bishops, men of science and learning, Welshmen. 
I hope the good Queen Victoria will revive this 
ancient order of knighthood, and the Prince of 
Wales be created the first knight. The emblem, 
of Wales is a red dragon. 

Can any of your readers give an account of this 
ancient order ? Some years ago there were several 
letters in The Times, and other papers, respect- 
ing it and the Welsh motto. Wales should have 
its knight as well as Ireland, Scotland, and Eng- 
land. W. 

Warple'Wai/. — The manor of Richmond, in 
Surrey, has been the property of the crown for 
many hundred years, I may say from time imme- 

[* This custom is observed in many of the London 
churches. — Ed.] 



[No. 224. 


mortal : and in all the old records and plans, the 
green roads are called " warple-wajs.** Some of 
the old plans are marked *' worple way,** some 
" warple way.** Can any of your readers tell me 
the derivation and meanmg of the word, and refer 
me to an authority ? Wif . Smttub. 

PurUt, — Nelson, and the subsequent historians 
of Islington, relate a manrellous story on die 
authority of Ptiriet de Mir. NaL x. c. tr. : 

** And as to the same heaTings, or trembUmenis de 
ierre, it is sayde, y* in a eertaine fielde neare unto j* 
parish church of Islingtoun, in like manner, did take 
place a wondrous commotion in uarious partes, y* 
earthe swellinge, and tuminge uppe euerv side towards 
y* midst of y* sayde fielde ; and, by tradycion of this, 
it -is obserued y* one Richard de Clouesley lay buryed 
in or neare y* place, and y* his bodie being restles, on 
'• score of some sinne by him peraduenture committed, 
tid shewe or seeme to signifye y* religious obseruance 
should there take place, to quiet his departed spirit ; 
whereupon eertaine exorcisers, if wee may so term y*, 
did at dede of night, nothing lotbe, using diTers diuine 
exercises at torohe light, set at rest y* unrulie spirit of 
f* sayde Glouesley, and y* earthe did returoe aneare 
to its pristine shape, neuermore commotion proocdehig 
tbereiVom to this day, and this I know of a veris oar* 
taintie,*'— Nelson*s laUngton, 4tO. 1811, p. 305^or 8to. 
1823, p. 293. 

The spelling of this extract seems at least as 
old as the time of Cloudesley*s death (1517), al- 
though it ifould appear to be a translation ; and 
though the exorcism is apparently spdcen of as 
having taken place long before the time of the 
writer. From these and other circumstances, I 
am led to suspect that Nelson was the victim of 
a cruel hoax, particularly as I am unable to find 
any such book as Purlet de Mir, Nat in the 
British Museum. 

Query, Does any such book exist ; and if so, 
where ? Fkideswidb. 


Liveries^ Red and Scarlet. — In a provincial 
paper, I noticed a paragraph dating the origin of 
wearing red coats in fox-hunting from a mandate 
of Henry II., who it appears made fox-hunting a 
royal sport, and gave to all distributors of foxes 
the scarlet uniform of the royal household : this 
also would involve another question as regards 
the origin of scarlet being the colour of the royal 
livery. Can any of your sporting or antiauanan 
correspondents give me any authority ror the 
former, and any mformation about the fatter ? 


Dr. Bragge. — I shall be much obliged to any 
of your correspondents who will give me inform- 
ation respecting Dr. Bragge, who flourished about 
the year 1756. Who was he ? Where did he get 
his degree ? Who were his chief dupes P Where 

did he live? He appears, from various inscrip- 
tions round an engraved portrait, to have been a 
great duping dealer in pictures. £. H. 

Chaancyt or Chancy. — Any reference to works 
containing biographical notices of Charles Chauncy, 
or Chancy, M. A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, circa 1620, will oblige J. Y. 

Plaster Casts. — Rubt would be thankful for t 
good receipt for bronzing plaster casts, 

^^2/ic«pa.** — In the prophecy r^arding the 
birth of John the Baptist (Luke L 15.) the angel 

** Kol efytfr icai cUctpm otf im w^*' 

This is in the authorised version (I quote firom 
the original 1611 edit.) rightly render^ : 
** And shal drinke neither wioe nor strong drinke." 

Now, in the Oolden Legend^ fol. cxL (Wjnkyn 
de Wonle*8 edition, London, 1516) is thb account : 

« For he ^al be grete, and of grete meryfee tefore 
our Lord; he shall not drinke wyoe, ne tyder^ ne 
thynge wherof he myght be dronken." 

I need hardly remind your readers that onCicc^ 
was often used by the LXX translators for an 
intoxicating liquor, as distinguished from wine, 
viz. Levit. x. 9., Numbers vi. 3., &c., and in about 
nine places ; but I do not remember " syder" as 
the ** thynge wherof he myffhte be dronken.** Can 
any of your philologicid oriends call to mind a 
similar version? I do not want to be told the 
derivation of trticepa, for that is obvious ; nor do I 
lack information as to the inebriating qualities (^ 
'* syder,'* for, alas ! an intimate acquaintance with 
Devonshire has often brought before m;^ notice 
persons "dronken** with oiat exhilarating be- 
verage. RlGHAKD HOOPBB. 

St. Stephen*s, Westminster. 

Dogs in MonumefUal Brasses. — Is there any 
symbolical meaning conveyed in the dc^s whk^ 
are so often introduced at the feet of ladles in 
brasses, and dogs and lions at the feet of knights? 
One fact is worthy of notice, that while the omis- 
sion of the dog is frequent in the brasses of ladies 
(e. g. in that of Lady Camoys, 1424, at Trotton, 
Sussex, and Joan, Lady Cobham, 13:20, Oobham, 
Kent, and several others), the lion or dog, as the 
ease may be, of the knight is scarcely ever lefl 
out ; indeed, I have only been able to nad two or 
three instances. But again, in brasses later tiiaa 
1460, the dogs and Hons are seldom, if ever, found 
either in the brasses of knights or ladies. Can 
you afibrd me any information on these points ? 

B. H. Alfobb. 

Tonbridge, Kent. 

Di g i t i iiGc l by 


^FbB. 11. 1854.] 



Marquis of Granhy, — In a late number of 
Chanibers* 8 Journal it is stated that there are eigh- 
teen taTems in London bearing the sign of the 
llf arquis of Granby. How did this sign become 
80 popular; and which marquis was it whose 
popularity gained him immortality ; and when 
liTcd he ? J. M. Whabton. 

[This sign is intended as a compliment to John 
Mann^^ commonly called Marqub of Oramhf, eldest 
son of John, third Ihike of Rutland, who appears to haye 
been a good« blaff>brave soldier — active, generous, 
eaiefiil of his men, and bdored by them. Mr. Peter 
Cunningham (fftrndbeek, p. S98., edit» 1850) informs 
us, that ** Granby spent many an happy hour at the 
Hercules Pillars public-house, Piccadilly, where Squire 
Western put bis horses up, when in pursuit of Tom 
Jones.* He died, much regretted, on October 19, 1770, 
without succeeding to the dukedom. 

** What conquests now will Britain boast, 
Or where display her banners ? 
Alas ! in Granby she has lost 

True courage and good MANNaas." 

His popularity is ^own by the ^sequent occurrence of 
his portrait as a s^n-board for public-houses, even of 
late years $ a ftct which at once tealtiies in ferour of 
his personal qualities, and indicates the low state of 
our military fiune during the latter half of the last 

" Memorials qfJSr^ish Affairs^ Jrc— Can you 
inform me who was the autnor of a folio volume 
entitled — 

** Memorials of the English Afl&irs ; or an Historical 
Account of what passed from the beginning of the 
Beign of King Charles I. to Kin^ Charles II. his 
faappy < Restauration ; * containing ^e Public Trans- 
actions, Civil and Military, together with the Private 
Consultations and Secrets of the Cabinet. London : 
printed for Nathanael Conder, at the Sign of the 
I^Mlcock in the Poultry, near the Church, mdclxxxxi.*' 

I have never seen any other copy than the one 
in my possession. L. R. 

[This work is by Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke. The 
edition of 166S, possessed by our correspondent, was 
published by Arthur, £ari of Anglcsea, who took con- 
aiderable liberties with tbe manuscript. The best 
edition, containing tbe passages cancelled by the Earl, 
is that of 1739, fol. <* This work," says Bishop War- 
burton, *< that has been so much cried up, is a meagre 
diary, wrote by a poor-spirited, self-interested, and 
eelf-conceited lawyer of eminenoe» but fUll of facts.** 
At p. 378. (edit. 168S) occurs the following entry: — 
*' From the council (k state* Cromwell and his son 
Ireton went home with Whitelocke to supper, where 
ibey were very cheerful, and seemed estremely well- 
pleased ; they discoursed together till twelve o'clock 
at night, and told many wonderful observations of 
God*s providence in tbe aflbirs of the war, and in the 
buainess of the army*^ coming to London, and seising 

tbe members of the house, in all which were miracu- 
lous passages**' To this sentence in the copy now be- 
fore us, some sturdy royalist has added the following 
MS. note : — ** Whitelocke reports this of himself, as 
being well pleased with it ; and the success of their 
villany they accounted God*s providence !'*] 

StamUti^ when the Lord's Prayer is read. — Oh 
Sunday, January 8, the second lesson for morning 
service is the sixth chapter of St. Matthew, ih 
which occurs the Lord's Prayer. When the offi" 
ciatin^ clergyman began to read the ninth verse, 
in ti^ich the prayer commences, the congregation 
at Bristol Cathedral rose, and remained standif^ 
till its conclusion. Is this custom observed in other 
places ? and (if there is to be a change of position) 
why do the congregation standy and not kneel, tht 
usual posture of prayer in the Church of England? 


[The custom, we believe, is observed in the majority 
of churches. The reason for standing rather thaA 
kneeling seems to be, that when the Lord*s Prayer 
comes in the course of the lessons it is only read his- 
torically, as a part of a narrative, which indicates that 
the whole sacred narrative should be treated, as it was 
anciently, with the Hke reverence. The rubric sayfe 
nothing about sitting; standing and kneeling beiAg 
the only postures expressly recbgaiied. In the curious 
engraving of the interior of a ehuicb, prefixed t# 
Bishop Sparrow^s RaH&nede tqnen <fte Book ^ ComiMm 
Pruytr^ 1661, there is not a seat of any kind to be see0» 
pews not having become at this time a general ap* 
pendage to churches; probably a few chairs or benches 
were required for the aged or infirm. The only in^ 
timation of the sitting posture in our present Common 
Prayer- Book occurs in the rubric, epjoining the people 
to stand when the Gospel is read, which Wheatly tells 
us was first inserted in the Scotch Common Prayeri 
Book. See «« N. & Q.," Vol. ii., pp. 246. 347.] 

Hypocrisy, ^c, — Can you inform me with whom 
originated the following saying: "Hypocrisy ll 
the homage which vice renders to virtue" f 


[The saying originated with the Duke de la Roche- 
foucault, and occurs in his Moral Maxims, No. 233.] 



(VoLviii., p.54.) 

The ITote of your correspondent IToTus upon 
this Consilium ought to have been answered 
before ; but as none of your contributors who can 
speak as *' having authority " have undertaken to 
do so, I beg to oner to your readers the following 
statements and extracts, collected when my sur- 
prise at Uie assertions of Novus was quite fresh. 



[No, 224 

The first point on which Novus requires cor- 
rection is, the name of the pontiff to whom the 
ConsUium purports to be addressed. Novus says 
Julius III., but the date of this document is un- 
questionably not later than the be^i^inning of 1538, 
tor Sleidan tells us that editions of it were printed 
At Rome, at Cologne, at Strasburg, and at another 
place, in the course of the year 1538 ; and in the 
title it is distinctly stated to have been presented 
to Paul III., who was pope in that year, whilst 
Julius III. was not elected till 1550. 

When Novus says that this Consiiium^^^ has just 
been once more quoted, for the fiftieth time, 
perhaps, within the present generation, as a ge- 
nuine document, and as proceeding from adherents 
x)f the Church of Rome,*' he falls short of the fact. 
For everi/ writer of the least mark, or likelihood, 
whose subject has led him that way, has Quoted it : 
thus, e.g., Ranke, who in his great work on The 
Popes and the Papacy, book iL § 2., refers to it as 
Indicative of no dishonourable design on the part 
of the supreme pontiff. 

Amongst the writers of the time when the Con' 
Mlium is said to have been drawn up, who regarded 
it as genuine, we may mention Luther, who, soon 
iifter it found its way into Germany, published a 
translation, with one of his biting caricatures pre- 
fixed; and Sturm, who prefaced his translation 
with a letter to the cardinals to whom it was as- 
<Mribed, for which reason alone his edition was put 
in the " Index," no other edition being similarly 
honoured ; and this sufiSciently refutes a statement 
of Schelhorn, in his letter to Cardinal Quirinus, 
upon which much reliance has been placed by 
those whom Novus would regard as sharers of his 

The appearance of the editions at Cologne and 
Strasburg in 1538, testifies to the speed with 
which the Consilium reached Grermany. Sleidan 
asserts that, when it was published there, some 
fancied it to be fictitious, and intended to ridicule 
both the Pope and the Reformation ; but others, 
that it was a device of the Pope to gain credit for 
not being hostile to the correction of certain con- 
fessed abuses. In the next year, on July 16th, 
Aleander wrote to Cochlaeus thus : 

** Multa haberem scribere de RepublicA, sed mail 
custodes estis renim arcanarum, — Consiliis Cardinalium 
promulgatis, cum invectiva Sturmii, manibus hominum 
teritur, antequam vel auctoribus edita, vel executioni 
fuerit demandata." 

Which passage might be regarded as decisiye of 
the question of genuineness, since Aleander was 
one of the Cardinales delecti whose names are ap- 
pended to the Consilium, 

That Le Plat should insert a copy in his Monw 
ment ad Hist, Condi, Trident, potius illustr, sped., 
may, perhaps, be considered an unsatisfactory ar- 
gument ; and the same will certainly be thought 

of the use of it by Sarpi. But Pallavicini is a 
witness not obnoxious to objections which apply 
to them, and he says : 

** It happened by Divine Providence, that this Cbn- 
ailium was publbhed, since it showed what were in fact 
the deepest wounds in the discipline of the Church, as- 
certained with great diligence, and exposed with the 
utmost freedom by men of incomparable zeal and know- 
ledge. And these were neither falsity of dogmas, nor 
corruption of the Scriptures, nor wickedness of laws, 
nor politic craft beneath the garb of humility, nor im- 
pure vices, as the Lutherans asserted ; but too great 
indulgence towards violations and abrogations of the 
laws, which Luther far more licentiousl3r^abrogated," 
&c. — Vide book iv. ch. v., at the end. 

But Ranke*s note upon a casual reference to 
this document in book i. ch. ii. § 2. of his History 
of the Papacy, completely disposes of the question 
of its genuineness, and therefore of its " serious- 
ness " (to use one of Novus' phrases), when taken 
in conjunction with what has gone before. 

«* Consilium, Sfc; printed more than once even at the 
time, and important as pointing out the evil, so far 
as it lay in the administration of discipline, precisely 
and without reserve. Long after it had been printed; 
the MS, remained incorporated with the MSS. of the 

Were it not that the assertion of Novus Is so 
roundly made, and in a form that is sure to adhere 
in the memories of readers sufficiently interested 
in the subject to notice his communication, it 
would have been enough to quote from one of the 
works he refers to, as containing copies of the 
Consilium, to expose the origin of his error ; and 
this, now that I have shown it to be an error, I 
crave your permission to do. This, then, is what 
Brown says in his Appendix ad FascicuL Her, 
Expetend. et Fugiend. (commonly cited as Fasdcul, 
voLii,), ed. 1690, pp. 230, 231. : 

*< Saepius excusum est Consilium sequens, cum alibi, 
tum hie Londini, a. d. 1609, ex bibliothecd With. 
Crashavii, qui in Epistola dedicatoria ad Rev"°'°^ I>. 
Tobiam Matthzeum Archiep. Eboracen. citat qua?dam 
^ Commentariis Espencaei in Tit. cap. i. ad hoc Con- 
silium ab omni fraudis et fictionis suspicione liberandum ; 
qwui preesensisset Crashavius fore aliquando ut pro re, 
omnino fieta et falsa censeretur ; cum id in novissimts 
Conciliorum editionibus desiderari, et astute sup- 
pressum esse viderat, ut est in admonitione sua ad 
Lectorem. Sed longe aliter res habebit ; euo enim se 
sorex protSdit indieio ; et Cochkeus ipse (qui neeciit pro 
nobis mentiri, quantumvis in causd suA parum pr^bus 
aliquando), hujusee ConaUii fidem ah omni lobe impro* 
bitatie vindicavit et asneruit in historic su& de Actis et 
Scriptis Lutheri, ad annum 1539, fol. 312. &c. edi- 
tionis Colonien. 1568. editum est prasterea, hoc idem 
Consilium, Parisiis, public^ authoritate, una cum 
Guliel. Durandi tractatu de modo Generalis CoDcilii 
celebrandi ; Libello Clamengii de corrupto Ecclesiae 
statu ; Libello Cardinalis de Alliaco, de emendaUone 

Feb. 11. 1854.] 



Eeclesiie ; et Gentian! Herveti oratione de reparand& 
£eclesia8tic& discipline (qu» omnia, ezcepto primo, 
buic appendici inserentur), a.d. 1671. In hac no8tr& 
editione sequimur virum doctissimum et pium Her- 
inannum Conringium; adhibitis inultis aliii exem* 
plaribus, que omni& simul in hoc uno leges. ViiC 
auiem^ Lector, aliquid penitiut de hoe Consilio retcire 9 
adisis [tic] P. Paubtm Vergerium (invisum aliis sed cba* 
rum nobis nomen), illiusque annotationes, in Catalogum 
haereticorum consule, fo1.251. tomi primi illius operum 
Tubings editi, a.d. 1563, in 4to., et siquid noveris de 
reliquorum tomorum editione, nos Anglos fac, qusso, 
certiores. [It would seem that the need of your 
^ N. & Q***. was felt long before any one thought of 
supplying it.] Audi Tero, interea, vel lege^ Hermannum 

And this is what that ** learned and godly ** man 

" Libellus ipse Cardinalu Capuani [Nicholas Schom* 
berg], ut creditur, cura ad amicum-in Germaniam 
missus, mox anno 1539, et populari nostr& et su& est 
liogu^ per Lutherum et Sturmium editus. Eundem 
pott vulgavit, cum acri ad Papam Paulum IF, (qui olim 
fuerat auctomm) prsefatione, Petrut Paulut Vergeriut^ 
postquam Frotestantium partibus accessisset.'* 

I will not add to the length of this Note byanj 
farther quotations ; but I am bound to say that if 
those I have given do not satisfy Novus, he may 
expect to be overwhelmed by confirmations of 
them. B. B. Woodwabd. 

Bungay, Suffulk, 

johh buntan. 

(Vol. ix., p. 104.) 

A highly respected correspondent, Da. S. R. 
Maitland, has seen an advertisement in the Mer- 
curius Reformatwt of June 11, 1690, announcing 
the intention of Bun van's widow to publish ten ma- 
nuscripts which her husband had lefl prepared for 
the press, together with some of his printed treatises 
which had become scarce. He inquires whether 
such a publication took place. In reply I bep: leave 
to state that they were published in a small folio, 
containing "ten [and two fragments] of his excel- 
lent manuscripts, and ten of his choice books for- 
merly printed.*' The volume bears the title of 
" The Works of that eminent Servant of Christ 
Mr. John Bunyan, late Minister of the Gospel 
and Pastor of the Congregation at Bedford. The 
first volume. London, by Wm. Marshall, 1692.'' 
It has the portrait b^ Sturt, and an impression 
from the original curious copper-plate inscribed, 
** A Mapp, showing^ the order and causes of Sal- 
vation and Damnation." In addition to the Mer' 
curius^ John Dunton and others noticed, in terms 
of warm approval, the intended publication, which 
became extensively patronised, but has now be- 
come very scarce. 

To the lovers of Bunyan it is peculiarly inter« 
esting, being accompanied by a tract cdled *' The 
Struggler," written by one of his affectionate and 
intimate friends, the Rev. C. Doe, containing a 
list of Bunyan's works, with the time when each 
of them was published, some personal character- 
istic anecdotes, and thirty reasons why all decided 
Christians should read and circulate these invalu* 
able treatises. A copy presented to me by mT 
worthy friend the late Mr. Creasy of Sleaforo, 
which is in remarkably fine condition, has on the 
title to the Index a printed dedication to Sir John 
Hartop of Newington, the patron and friend of 
Dr. Watts. This volume was to have been fol» 
lowed by a second, to complete Bunyan's works, 
but difficulties arose as to the copyright of the 
more popular pieces, which prevented its publi* 
cation. The original prospectus is preserved in 
the Britbh Museum, which, with ''The Struff* 
gler** and a new index to the whole of these truly 
excellent treatises, is reprinted in my edition of 
Bunyan's whole works for the first time collected 
and published, with his Life, in three volumes im- 
perial 8vo., illustrated with fac-similes of aU the 
old woodcuts and many elegant steel plates. 

Gbobgb Offos* 



(Vol. ix., p. 36.) 

It is certiunly an uncomfortable idea to snp« 
pose that the asteroids are the firagments of a former 
world, perhaps accompanied wiUi satellites which 
have been scattered either by internal convulsion 
or external violence. By looking into the con- 
stitution and powers contained within our own 
earth, we know that the means are not wanting 
to rend us asunder under the combined efiects of 
volcanic action, intense heat, and water, meeting 
deep withui the substance of the earth under great 

However, there is much to be said agunst the 
theory of Olbers, notwithstanding its plausibility« 
The distance between the internu asteroid Florae 
and the external one Hygeia, exceeds ninety mil« 
lions of miles; or nearly the distance between the 
earth and the sun. The force which could shatter 
a world into fragments, and drive them asunder 
to such an extent, must indeed be tremendous. 

Mr. Hind has drawn attention to the singular 
fact, that the asteroids '' appear to separate the 
planets of small mass from the greater bodies of 
the system, the planets which rotate on their axes 
in about the same time as our earth from those 
which are whirled round in less than half that 
time, though of ten times the diameter of the 
earth ; and," he continues, '' it may yet be found 
that these small bodies, so far from being portions 



[No. S24. 

•f tlie wreck of a plraet, were created in their 
present state for some wise piirpoee> whidi the 
p rogress of astronomy in fatore ages may even- 
tuafl/ imfUd.** 

One thing I think is oertson, thai no dkmptioa 
of a world belonging to our system oould take 
place wkhoat produoinff scmie perceptible eflfect 
vpon every other memoer of the system. The 
sinffle centre of attraction being suddenly difinsed 
and spread abroad into many smaller ones, at 
variable distances, most produce a sudden sway 
and iteration of position m all the odier planets, 
and, to a certain extent, derange their reroeotiye 
economies. From this some striking cnanges 
would necessarfly arise, such as in the length of 
their respectiTe periods of revolution, the amount 
of light and hei^ and other physical condittona. 
Certun geological phenomena should be found to 
Qoiifirm such a change, if these suppositions be 

As fitr as the theoloffical part of the question is 
ooncemed, it is, I shocUd thmk, opposed to Olbera* 
theory. Hmnan intelleot can swody oonceive 
the necessity for the utter breaking up of a globe, 
even for the most grievous amount of sin. A 
more merdfnl dispensation was granted to our 
earth in the deluge ; and the Power which removed 
all but eight lives from the earth could have 
equally removed the eight also, without destroy- 
ing the integrity of ^e g^obe. It is as easy, and 
far more reasonable I think, to suppose, that the 
same Power which gave to Saturn a satellite nearly 

Snal in size to l£irs, should throw a cluster of 
nute plan^oids into the space which, acoordinff 
to Bodes* empirical law, should have been devoted 
to one planet of larger dimensions. 

Whilst addressing you on astronomical subjects, 
I would beg leave to offar a few remarks upon 
Satom, which I have not observed in any work 
on astronomy which I have yet consulted. This 
planet, with its satellites, appear to exhibit a dose 
resemblance to the solar system, just as if it were 
a model of it. 

Besides his rin^ Saturn is attended by eight 
satellites, so far as is at present known. The names 
oi the satellites in their otdet from the body oi 
the planet, are : 1. Mimas, 2. Euceladus, 8. Tethys, 
4. Dione, 5. Rhea, 6. Titan, 7. Hyperion, 8. Ja- 
petus. If we place them in a list m their order, 
and overagainst eadi place the names of the planets 
in their order from the sun, obtain parallelisms 
will appear : 

1. Mimas - - - 1. Mercury. 

2. Euceladus . - 2. Venus. 
8. Tethys - - - 3. Earth. 

4. Dione - - - 4. Mars. 

5. Rhea - - - 5. Asteroida. 

6. Titan . - - 6. Jupiter. 

7. Hyperion • -7. Saturn. 

8. Jap«tua - - - 8. Uranus. 

The relative magnitudes and relative posUioai 
of these bodies oonrespond in many points, I b^ 
lieve, so far as is at present known. Titan, like 
Jumter, is the largest of his system ; bdng but 
litue less in sise &an the primary ^anet Mm. 
The next in magnitude is Japetus. Khea is sup- 
posed to be of considerable size. The fom* inner 
ones are smaller than the others. Sir William 
Herschell considered that Tethys was larger than 
Euceladus, and Euceladus larger than Mimas. 
Dione and Hyperion have not yet been well esti- 
mated. These dimensions, if correct, correspond 
in many points with those of the pluiets. Tlie 
first three satellites rev<dve in orbits of less diac 
meter than that of our moon. The orbit of Dione^ 
the fourth satellite, is almost precisely at the same 
dbtance from its primary as the moon is from the 
earth. As if to carry out the parallelism to ^e 
utmost, the zodiacal Ught of the sun has ottea 
been compared to tihe rmg of Saturn. 

One remark it would appear arises out of tiiese 
observations, yiz. that the laws of attraction and 
ffravitation seem to require, for the proper regu* 
lation of the whole system, that where a number of 
bodies of various sizes revolve round one common 
centre, the larger body should revolve at a cer- 
tain relative custanoe fVom that centre. Thus 
Titan^ like a huge pendulum, seems to sway and 
muntain tiie regularitjr of the minor system, just 
as Jupiter may be imagined to do in the great one. 

I must not intrude too far cm your valuable 
space, but there remain some interesting points 
for discussion in the Satumian system. 

Jomt William Harris. 



(Vol. ix., p. 27.) 

The extract from an unpublished MS. ^ven by 
A Regbnt M.A. or Cambridge refers to the year 
1620, as will appear from the following passages 
in Anthony k Wood's Hut. and Antiq. tf cTmo. qf 

** 1614. — In the latter end of the last and beginning 
of this year, a spirit of sedition (as I may so call It) 
possessed certain of the Regent Masters against the 
Viceehanc. and Doctors, l^e chief and only matter 
that excited them to it was their sitting like boys, bare- 
headed, in the ConTOcation-House, at the usual assem- 
blies there, which was not, as 'twas thought, so fit, that 
the Professors of the Faculty of Arts (on which the 
University was founded) should, all things considered, 
do it. The most forward person among them, named 
Henry Wightwicke, of Gloucester Hall, having had 
some intimation of a statute which enabled them to be 
covered with their caps, and disoovtring alto some- 
thing in the large west window of St. Mary*s Church, 
where pictures of Regents and non- Regents were tit- 
ting covered in assemblies before the Chancellor, olapt 

:Feb. 11. 1854.] 



on his cap, and spared not to excite his brethren to 
vindicate that custom, now in a manner foi^tten; 
and, having got over one of the Regents to be more 
zealous in the matter than himself, procured the hands 
of most, if not all, of them to be set to a petition (in 
order to be sent to the Chancellor of the University), 
for the effecting and bringing about the matter. But 
the Vicecbancell(»', Dr. Singleton, having had timely 
notice of the design, sends a full relation of the matter 
to the Chancellor; whereupon answer was returned, 
that he should deal therein as he should think fit. 
IVightwicke, therefore, being called into question for 
endeavouring to subvert the honour and government 
of the University, whereby he ran himself into peijury 
(he having before taken an oath to keep and maintain 
the rites, customs, and privileges of the University), 
was banished, and his pwty, who bad proved fiilse to 
him, severely ebeekt by the Chancellor. 

** At length Wightwieke's friends, laying open to hta 
the danger that he would run himself into, if he should 
not seek restauratioa and submit, did, after his peevish 
aod rash humour bad been much courted to it, put up 
a petition (subscribed in his behalf by the Bishop of 
Xiondon and Sir John Bennett) to the Chancellor of 
the University for his restauration, which being with 
much ado granted, but with this condition, that he 
make an humble recantation in the Convocation, sent 
to bis Vieeehaneellor what should be done in the 
matter, and among other things thus : — * For the 
manner of his submission and recognition which he 
is to make, I will not take upon me to direct, but 
leave yt wholy unto your wisdomes, as well for manner 
as for the niatter ; only thus much generally I will in- 
timate unto you, that the affront and offbnce com- 
mitted by Whittwicke in the Congpregation House by 
his late insolent carriage there was very great and 
notorious, and that offence afterwards seconded and 
redoubled by another as ill or worse than the former, 
In his seditious practizing and procuring a multitude of 
handes, thereby thinking to justifie and nuuntain his 
fi>rmer errors, and his proud and insolent disobedience 
and contempt. I hold yt therefore very requisite that 
his submission and recognition, both of the one fault 
and of the other, should be as publique and as humble 
as possibly with conveniencye may bee. Which being 
thus openly done, as I hope yt will bee a good example 
to others, to deter them from committing the like of- 
fence hereafter, so I do also wishe this his puni^ment 
may be only cu/ correeiianem et non ad destructionem* 

<* This being the effect of the Chancellor's mind, 
Wightwicke was summoned to appear to make his 
submission in the next Convocation, which being held 
2S June this year, he placed himself in the middle of 
St. Mary's chancel, and spoke with an audible voice as 
followeth : 

** * Ornatissime Domine Procancellarie, vosque Do- 
mini Doctores pientissimi, quotquot me vel bannien- 
dum vel bannitionem meam ratam esse voluistis ut 
vobis omnibus et singulis innotescat discupio : me 
Henricum Whitwicke pileum coram Domino Vice- 
eancellario Thoma Singleton capiti baud ita pridem 
imposuisse, quod nemini Magistrorum in Congrega- 
tione vel Convoeatione [in presentia Domini Vicecan- 
ceUarii ant Doctoris alicujus] lioere &teor. Scitote 

quaeso praeterei, me supradictum Henricum & sen- 
tentia Domini Vicecancellarii ad venerabilem Domum 
Congregationis provocasse, quod nee licitum neo 
honestum esse in causa perturbationis pacts freiU oon- 
oedo. Scitote denique me solum, manus Academi- 
corum egregii merentium Theologia BaccaUureonim 
et in Anibtis Blagistroram in hac corona astantium 
C<dlegiatim et Aulatim cursitando reseripto appo- 
nendas curasse, in quibus omnibus Pr»feetis [summe] 
displicuisse, in pacem alnue hujus Academias et ia dig- 
nissimum nostrum Procancellarium deliqiusse, param 
nolenti animo confiteor, et sanctitates vestras humitlinid 
imploro, ut quae vel temer^ et inoonsnlto, vel Tolenter 
et scienter feci, ea, ut deceat homines, condonentur. 
* Hsimicns Wiohtwickx.' 

Which submission or recognition being ended, he 
was restored to his former state, and so forthwith re- 
assumed his place. But this person, who was lately 
beneficed at Kingerbury in Lincolnshire, could never 
be convinced, when he became Master of Pembroke 
College, ferty-six years after this time, that he made 
any submission at all, but carried the business on and 
effected it against all the University ; as to his young 
acquaintance that came often to visit him and he tiiem 
(for he delighted in boyish company), he would, after 
a pedantical way, boast, supposing perhaps that, having 
been so many years before acted, no person could re- 
member it ; but record will rise up and justify mattera 
when names and fiunilies are quite extirpated and for- 
gotten among men. Pray see more of thb cap-business 
m the year 1620.** 

« 16da — In the beginning of MiehaelmeB Term feL 
lowing, the eap-business, mentioned an. 1614, was re- 
newed again : for some disrelishment of the former 
transactions remaining behind, the Regent Masteca 
met together several times for the effecting their de- 
signs. At length, after much ado, they drew up a 
petition subscribed by fifty-three of the senior Masters 
for this year, and presented it to one whom they knew 
would not be violent against them, as Dr. Singleton 
was before. The beginning of it runs thus : 

" < Reverendissimo Viro Domino Dootori Prideauz 
omatissimo higus Academia» Viceoan. dignias, &c 

« * Multa jamjttdum suat (reverendissiaie Viceean- 
eeUarie) qum ab antiquis hujus AcademiaB institutis 
salubriter profecta, nala taiulem consuetudb, et in 
pejus potens aat abrogavit penitus aut pessime comi- 
j^t, Ae.' 

" Among those that subscribed to it were these fol- 
lowing, that afterwards became persons of note, vis. 
Gilbert Sheldon, Alexand. Gill, jun., and Anthony 
Farndon, of Trinity Coll. ; Pet. H^lin of Magd. 
Coll. [Robert Newlin of C. C. C, &c.]. The chief 
solicitor of the business was Rous Clopton of Corpus 
Ch. Coll., a restless, busy person, and one afterwards 
as much noted for his infemy as any of the former for 
th«r learning or place. This petition, I say, being 
presented to Dr. Prideaux the Vieeehaneellor, and he 
considering well their several reasons for their sitting 
covered (one of which was that they were Judges in 
Congregations and Convocations), sent it to the Chan- 
cellor to have his consent, who also, after he had con- 
sidered of it, wrote a letter to the Vioechancellor, to 



[No. 224. 

be communicated to the Convocation : the chief con- 
tents of which are these : 

** < After my Tery harty commendations, I doe take 
thb manner of proceeding by the Regent Masters (for 
their sitting covered at Congregations and Convo- 
cations) in soe good part, that although I might well 
take some time to advise before I give answer, espe- 
cially when I consider how long that custom haUi con- 
tinued, how much it hath been questioned, and that 
upon a long debate it hath been withstood by so grave 
and wise a Counsellor of State as your late Chancellor, 
my immediate predecessor ; yet, when I weigh their 
undoubted right, their discreet and orderly proceedings 
to seek it, not to take it, the chief, if not the only, 
cause why it was formerly denied ; the good congruity 
this doth beare, not with Cambridge alone (though 
that were motive enough), but all other places, it 
being no where seen that those that are admitted 
Judges are required to sit bare-headed ; I cannot 
choose but commend and thus farre yield to theire 
request as to referre it to the Convocation House. I 
hope no man can have cause to think that I have not 
the power to continew this custom as well as some 
others of my predecessors, if I had a mind to strive ; 
nor that I seek after their applause in yielding them 
that now, which hath been so long kept from them, 
but the respect I have to their due, to the decency of 
the place, and honour of the University, which I can- 
not conceive to bee anyway diminished, but rather in- 
creased, by their sitting covered, are the only reasons 
that have moved me, and carried me to so quick a 
resolution, wherewith you may acquaint the Convoca- 
tion House with this also, that what they shall con- 
clude I shall willingly agree to. And soe I doe very 
hartely take leave, and rest 

Your assured loving ft-iend, 


Baynard*s Castle, 
this 4 of December, 1620.' 

Which letter being publickly read in a Convocation 
held 20 Dec., it was then agreed upon by the consent 
of all there present, that all Masters of what condition 
soever might put on their caps in Congregations and 
Convocations, yet with these conditions : That in the 
said assemblies the said Masters should use only square 
caps, and not sit bare, or without cap. And if any 
were found faulty in these matters, or that they should 
bring their hats in the said Assemblies, they should 
not only lose their suflrages for that time, but be 
punished as the Vicechancellor should think fit. 
I^astly, it was decreed, under the said conditions and 
no otherwise, that in the next Congregation in the 
beginning of Hilary Term, and so for ever after, all 
Masters, of what condition soever, whether Regents or 
not Regents, should, in Congregations and Convoca- 
tions, put on and use square caps. 

<* All that shall be said more of this matter is, that 
the loss of using caps arose from the negligence of the 
Masters, who, to avoid the pains of bringing their caps 
with them, would sit bare-headed ; which being used 
by some, was at length followed by all, and so at length 
became a custom.** 

It would seem, from Lord Pembroke*g letter, 

that the right of the senate of this universitj to 
wear dieir caps had not been questioned. 




(Vol. ix., p. 103.) 

Statements and complaints haye often been made 
respecting the imperfect knowledge possessed by 
English nayigators of the shores and coasts of the 
Black Sea, and of the great danger thence arising 
to ships and fleets from England, which would 
thus seem to be without the charts necessary for 
their guidance. The Chiardtan newspaper reite- 
rates these complaints in its number for Jan. 11. 
This deficiency of charts, howeyer, ought not to 
exist, and probably does not; since, no doubt, 
the English and French Goyernments would take 
care to supply them at the nresent time. As 
respects England, Dr. E. D. Clarke, in his well- 
known Travels in Russia^ jro. (see yol. i. 4th edit., 
8yo., London, 1816, Preface, p. x.), states that he 
brought — 

*< Certain documents with him from Odessa, at the 
hazard of his life, and deposited within a British 

These documents, we are led naturally to infer, 
were charts ; for he adds : 

** They may serve to facilitate the navigation of the 
Russian coasts of the Black Sea, if ever the welfiu^ of 
Great Britain should demand the presence of her fleets 
in that part of the world.*' 

Happening to meet with this passage, in con- 
sulting Dr. Clarke's Travels^ at the beginning of 
December, when the Fleets of Great Britain and 
France were on the point of entering the Black 
Sea, and having read in many quarters fears ex- 
pressed for the fleets from the want of charts, I 
yentured to copy out the passage relating to these 
remarkable documents, and sent it to Lord Aber- 
deen ; in case, from the alleged poverty of charts 
in the Admiralty Catalogues (see The Ouardian^ 
Jan. 11.), Dr. Clarke's ** documents" should have 
fallen out of sight, and were forgotten. No notice, 
however, was taken of my communication ; fron& 
which I concluded that it was wholly valueless. 

John Macbat. 



(Vol. viii., pp. 478. 601.) 

If " IT. & Q." were the publication in which 
questions were cursorily settled, the answer of 
JAMES Spence Habbt (p. 478.) might suffice 
with regard to the Query of S. 0. P. (p. 413.) ; 
but your correspondent £. C. H., who i 

FEJ5. 11. 1854.] 



to know sometbing about the matter, wishes for 
Crerman eyidence. 

Should jour cOTrespondents James S. Habbt 
and £. C. H. be acquainted (and I doubt not but 
thej are) with the song, in which a German in- 
quires "What is his native land?*' and having 
called oyer some of the principalities, as Prussia, 
Suabia, Bavaria, Fomerania, Westphalia, Swit- 
zerland, Tyrol, he cries disdainfully, " No ! no ! 
no ! m^ fatherland must be ^eater :'* at last, 
despairing, he asks to name him that land, and 
is answered, ** Wherever the German tongue is 
heard:** — should James S. Habbt and E. C. H. 
recollect these words, they will conceive that such 
a people must have several tribes, and each tribe 
their peculiar dialect, founded on prescribed rules, 
and to which individually equal justice is due. 

The dialects of the Deutsche Sprache, the 
German language, are the Ober Deutsche and 
Nieder Deutsche, Uppw Grerman and Low Crer- 
man : from the former dialect has, in course of 
time, proceeded the Hoch Deutsche Sprache, the 
High German language, now used exclusively as 

the book language by the more educated classes 
throughout (^rmany. 

The principal dialects of the Ober Deutsche 
are the following : 

1. The Allemanic, spoken in Switzerland and 
the l^per Rhine. 

2. The Suabian, spoken in the countries be* 
tween the Black Forest and the River Lech. 

3. The Bavarian, spoken in the South of Ba» 
varia and Austria, 

4. The Franconian, spoken in the North of 
Bavaria, Hessen, and the Middle Rhine. 

6. The Upper Saxon or Misnian, spoken in the 
plains of Saxony and Thiiringia. 

These dialects differ from each other, and parti* 
cularly from the High German language, with 
regard to their elements. 

The Ober Deutsche dialects differ from each 
other by the introduction of peculiar vowels. 

The Nieder Deutsche is distinguished from the 
Ober Deutsche by the shifting of consonants;,: 


































































to buy. 














































I have introduced here, as a dialect of the 
Nieder Deutsche, the Dutch =HolIlindisch, the 
language spoken by the people of the Neder- 
landen ^ Niederlande =: Netherlands. 

The Nieder Deutsche dialect is also spoken in 
Westphalia, and along the river Weser, &c. 

All these dialects have also their own words, or- 
at least their peculiar meaning of words, as well 
as particular modes of expression, and these are to 
be considered as provincialisms. 

Pbofessob Goedbs db GbUteb. 

Digitized by 




[Na 224. 


Da. Mansxix baying forwarded to me lor publication 
tbe accompanying account of his mode of operation, I 
faaTe much pleasure in laying it before tbe readers of 
** N. & Q. ; '* because my friend Da. Manssll u not 
only so fortunate in his results, but is one of the most 
careful and correct manipulators in our art. The pro- 
portions which he recommends, and his mode of ope- 
rating, are, it will be seen, somewhat different from 
those hitherto published. In writing to me he says : 
** I make a point of making a short note in the evening 
of the day's experiments, a plan involving very little 
trouble, but of great service as a reference." If all 
photographers would adopt this simple plan, how much 
good would result ! Da. M. complains to me of the 
constant variation he has found m collodion; (with 
your permission, I will in your pages furnish him, and 
all your readers, with some plain directions on this 
point) ; and he has given me some excellent observ- 
ations on the '* fashionable " waxed-paper process, in 
which he has not met with such good results as he had 
anticipated; altfaough ^ith much experience which 
nuxy some day turn to good account. Da. Mansxll 
concludes with an observation in which I entirely con- 
cur, viz. ** That the calotype process is by far the most 
useful; and I find the pictures it gives have better 
effect than the wax ones, which always to me appear 
flat, even when they are not g^vdly." 

H. W. Diamond. 

77te Calotype on the Sea-shore, — The great quan- 
tity of blue light reflected from the sea renders calo- 
typing in iu vicinity much more difficult than in the 
eountry ; the more distant the object, the greater depth 
has the blue veil which floats over it, and as a conse- 
f uenee of this disproportion, if time enough is given 
in the camera to bring out the foreground, the sky be- 
eomes red, and the distance obscured. After constant 
failures with papers iodized in the usual manner, I 
made a number of experiments to obtain a paper that 
would stand the camera long enough to satisfy the 
required conditions, and the result was the fidlowing 
method, which gives an intensity of blacks and half- 
tones, with a solidity and uniform depth over large 
portions of sky, greater than I have seen produced by 
any other process. Since I adopted it, in the autumn 
of 1852, I have scarcely had a failure, and this success 
induces me to recommend it to those who> like myself 
work in highly actinising localities. 

The object of the following plan is to impregnate 
the paper evenly with a strong body of iodide of silver. 
I prefer iodizing by the single process, and lor this 
purpose use a strong solution of iodide of silver, as the 
paper when finished ought to have, as nearly as pos- 
aible, the colour of pure iodide of silver. 

Take 100 grains of nitrate of silver, and 100 grains 
of iodide of potassium *, dissolve each in two ounces of 

[* Having lately prepared this solution according 
to the formula given by Da. Diamond (Vol. viii., 
p. 597.)» in which it required 650 grains to dissolve 
the 60-grain precipitate, we were inclined to think our 
correspondent had formed a wrong calculation, as the 
difflerence appeared so little for a solution more than 

distilled water, pour tbe iodide solution into the nitrate 
of silver, wash the precipitate in three distilled waters^ 
pour off* tbe fluid, and dusolve it in a solution of iodide 
of potassium, about 680 grains are required, making 
the whole up to four ounces. 

Having cut the paper somewhat larger tban tbe 
picture, turn up the edges so as to form a dish, and. 
placing it on a board, pour into it the iodide solution 
abundantly, guiding it equally over the surfiwe with a 
camel-hair pencil ; continue to wave it to and firo for 
five minutes, then pour off* the surplus, which serves 
over and over again, and after dripping the paper, lay 
it to dry on a round sur&ce^ so that it dries equally 
fast all over ; when almost dry it is well to give it a 
sight of the fire, to finish off those parts which remain 
wet longest, but not more than/iwt to surfkee dry it. 

Immerse it in common rain-water, often changing it, 
and in about twenty minutes all the iodide of potash 
is removed. To aseertain thia, take up some of the 
fast water in a glass, and add to it a few drops of tt 
strong solution of bichloride of mercury in alcohol, the 
least trace of hydriodate of potash is detected by a pre* 
cipitate of iodide of mercury. A solution of nitrate of 
silver is no test whatever unless distilled water u used, 
as ordinary water almost invariably contains muriates. 
The sooner the washing is over the better. Fin up 
the paper to drip, and finish drying before a slow fire, 
turning it. If hung up to dry by a corner, the parts 
longest wet are always weaker than those that dry first. 
When dry pass a nearly cold iron over the back, to 
smooth it ; if well made it has a fine primrose colour, 
and is perfectly even by transmitted light. 

To excite the paper, take distilled water two drachms, 
drop into it four drops (not minims) of saturated so- 
lution of gallic acid, and eight drops (not minims) of 
tbe aceto.nitrate solution; mix. Always dilute the 
gallic acid by drqsping it into the water before the 
aceto-nitrate ; gallate of silver is less really formed, 
and the paper keeps longer in hot weather. If the 
temperature is under sixty degrees, use five drops of 
gallic acid, and ten of aceto-nitrate ; if above seventy 
degrees, use only three drops of gallic aeid, and seven 
of aceto-nitrate. The aceto-nitrate solution consists of 
nitrate of silver fifty grains, glacial acetic aeid two 
drachms, distilled water one ounce. 

Having pinned the paper by two adjacent comers 
to a deal board, the eighth of an inch smaller on each 
side than it is, to prevent tbe ■oluti<ms getting to the 
back, lay on the gallo-nitrate abundantly with a soft 
cotton brush (made by wedging a portion of fine oottwi 
into a cork) ; and keep the solution from pooling, bj 
using the brush with a very light hand. In about two 
minutes the paper has imbibed it evenly, and lies dead ; 
blot it up, aiid allow it to dry in a box, or place it at 
once in the paper-holder. For fear of stains on the 

one-third stronger. We found upon aeomrately follow- 
ing Dr. Manssll*s instructions, that it required 734 
grains of iodide of potassium to effect a solution, whilst 
we have at the same time dissolved tbe quantity recom- 
mended by Da. Diamond with 598 grains. This little 
experiment is a useful lesson to our correspondents,.' 
exhibiting as it does the constantly varying strength of 
supposed pure chemicals. — - £d. ** N. & Q.*'J 

/lyitized by 


Feb. 11. 1854.] 



hack, it 18 better to place on the board a clean sheet of 
ordinary paper for erery (ncture. It is very important 
to have the glass, in which the gallo-nitrate is made, 
^hemiQaBy clean; every time it is used, it should be 
washed with strong nitric acidj and then with distilled 

To develop : — Pin the paper on the board as before ; 
rapidly brush over it a solution of gallo-nitrate, as 
used to excite. As soon as the picture appears, in 
about a minute, pour on a saturated solution of gallic 
acid abundantly, and keep it from pooling with the 
brush, using it with a very light band. In about ten 
minutes the picture is fully developed. If very slow 
in coming out, a few drops of pure aceto-nitrate brushed 
over the surface will rapidly bring out the picture ; 
but this is seldom required, and it will sometimes 
brown the whites. It is better, as soon as the gallic 
acid has been applied, to put the picture away Arom 
the light of the candle in a box or drawer, there to 
develop quietly, watching its progress every three or 
four minutes ; the surface is to be refreshed by a few 
light touches of the brush, adding more gallic acid if 
necessary. Many good negatives are spoiled by over- 
fidgetting in this part oi the process. When the pic- 
ture is ftilly out, wash, &c. as usual ; the iodide of 
silver is rapidly removed by a saturated solution of 
byposulphite of soda, which acts much less on the 
weaker blacks than it does if diluted. 

If the picture will not develop, from too short ex- 
posure In the camera, a solution of pyrogallio acid, as 
Da. DiAMOKD recommends, afUr the gtdlic acid has 
done its utmost, greatly increases the strength of the 
blacks : it slightly reddens the whites, but not in the 
aame ratio that it deepens the blacks. 

After the first wash with gallo-nitrate, it is essential 
to develop these strongly iodized papers with gallic 
acid only : the half-and-half mixture of aceto-nitrate 
and gallic acid, which works well with weaker papers, 
turns these red. 

The paper I use is Whatman's 1849. Turner's 
paper, Chafibrd Mills, if two or three years old, an- 
swers equally welL M. L. Mansell, A.B. M.D. 

Guernsey, Jan. 30, 1854. 

Ned o' the Todding (Vol. ix., p. 36.). — In an- 
swer to the inquiry of W . T., I beg to say that he 
will find the thrilling narrative of poor Ned of 
the Toddin in Southe/s EsprieUds Letters from 
England^ vol. 11. p. 42. ; but X am not aware of any 
lines with the above heading, by which I presume 
W. T. to be in search of some poetical rendering 
of the tale. F.C.H. 

Hour-glasses and Inscriptions on old Pulpits 
(Vol. ix., pp. 81. 64.). — In St. Edmnnd*s Church, 
South Burhngham, stands an degant pulpit of the 
fif);eenth centuij, painted red and blue, and re- 
lieved with gilding. On it there still remains an 
old hour-glass, though sueh appendages were not 
introduced till some centuries probably afler the 

erection of this pulpit. The Allowing legend goef 
round the upper part of this pulpit, in the old 
Englkh character : 

** Inter natos muliernm non sorrexit mi^r Johanne 


Tabk-iuming (Vol. ix., pf). 39. 88.). — I hare 
not Ammianus Marcellinus within reach, but, if I 
am not mirtaken, after tlie table had been got into 
motion, the oracle was actually given by means oC 
a rinff. This being held over, suspended by a 
thread, oscillated or leaped from one to another of 
the letters of the alphabet which were engraved oa 
the edge of the table, or that which covered it. 
The passage would not occupy many lines, and I 
tlunk that many readers of " N. & Q." would bo 
interested if some one of its learned correspondents 
would furnish a copy of it, with a close English 
translation. N. B. 

''Firm was their faUk'' (Vol. ix., p. 17.).— 
Grateful as I am to all who think well enough of 
my verses to discuss them in " N. & Q.," yet I 
cannot permit them to be incorrectly quoted or 
wrongly revised. If, as P. R. R. allies, I had 
written in the thhrd line of the stanza quoted— 
*^with.;^ and trusting hands*'.— then I should 
have repeated the same epithet {firm) twice in 
three lines. Whereas I wrote, as a reference to 
Echoes from Old Comwtdl^ p. 58., will establish, 
stem, R. S. Hawmk. 

The Wilbraham Cheshire MS. (VoL viiL, 
pp. 270. 303.). — With regard to this highly curious 
MS.,1 am mabledto state that it is sdll preserved 
ai Delamere House, the seat of George FortescuA 
Wilbraham, Esq., by whom it has been conttnoed 
down to the present time. Mr. Wilbraham has 
answered this Query himself, but from some acei- 
dent his reply did not appear in the pages of 
" N. & Q." I therefore, having recently seen the 
MS., take this opportunity of assuring your 
querist of its existence. 

W. J. Bebnhabd Smith. 


Mbusehunt (Vol. viii., pp. 516. 606. ; Vol. ix., 
p. 65.). — This animal is well known by this name 
in Norfolk, where the marten is very rare, if not 
entirely unknown. The Norfolk mousehunt, or 
mousehunter, is the Mustela vulgaris, (Vide Forby'fl 
Vocab, of East Anglia, vol. ii. p. 222., who errs, 
however, in calling it the stoat, out says that it is 
the '* smallest animal of the weasel tribe, and 
pursues the smallest prey.'*) It would be of much 
use, both to naturalists and others, if our zoological 
worics would ffive the popular provincial names of 
animals and birds; collectors might then moro^ 
easily procure specimens from labourers, &c. I 
have formed a fist of Norfolk names for birds. 

LiiyiiiAfc^u uy 




[No. 224. 

which shaU appear in « N. & Q." if desired. The 
Norfolk Mtutelida in order of size are the "/wff- 
cat,** or weasel ; the stoat, or carre ; the mouse* 
hunt, mousehunter, or lobster. A popular notion 
of ffamekeepers is, that pollcats add a new lobe to 
their livers everj year of their lives ; but the dis- 
gusting smell of the animal prevents examining 
this pomt by dissection. £. G. R. 

If FennelFs Natural History of Quadrupeds be 
correctly auoted, as it is stated to be ** a very ex- 
cellent and learned work/* Mr. Fennell must have 
been a better naturalist than geographer, for he 
says of the beech marten : 

" In Selkirkshire it has been observed to descend to 
the shore at night time to feed upon moUusks, particu- 
larly upon the large basket mussiel (Mytifm modioiusy* 

Selkirkshire, as you well know, is an inland 
county, nowhere approaching the sea bv many 
miles : I would fain hope, for Mr. FennelFs sake, 
that Selkirkshire is either a misprint or a misquo- 
tation. J. Ss. 

Begging the Question (Vol. viii., p. 640.).— This 
18 a common logical faMsLCj, petitio principii ; and 
the first known use of the phrase is to foe found in 
Aristotle, rh iw ipx^i airuffBai (^Topics^ b. YUI. ch. xiii., 
Bohn's edidon), where the five ways of '' begging 
the question,** as also the contraries thereof, are set 
forth. In the Prior Analytics (b. n. ch. xvi.) he 
gives one instance from mathematicians •— 

''who fancy that they describe parallel lines, for 
they deceive themselves by assuming such things as 
they cannot demonstrate unless they are parallel. 
Hence it occurs to those who thus syllogise to say that 
each thing is, if it is; and thus everything will be 
known throu|^ itself which is imposnble." 



Termination ^^-hy*" (Vol. yiii., p. 105.). — On 
going over an alphabetical Ibt of places from A 
to G, I obtained these results : 

Lincoln - . • - - - • €5 
licicester -•-••- SI 

York 24 

Northampton • . . • • 9 
Cumberland ..... 7 

Norfolk 6 

Westmoreland ..... 3 
Lancashire ..... 2 

Derby .2 

Nottingham - .... 2 

Sussex ----.- I 

Total ... 142 

Results of a similar character were obtained in 
reference to 'thorp^ 'trop, •thrup^ or 'drop ; Lin- 
coln again heading the list, but closely followed 
by Norfolk, then Leicester, Notts, &c. B. H. C. 

German Tree (Vol. viii., p. 619. ; Vol. ix., 
p. 65.). — Ebtx hsis mistaken my Query owing to 
its vagueness. When I said, *'Is this the first 
notice of a German tree in England ? ** I meant, 
" Is this the first notice of a German-tree- in- Eng- 
land ? '* and not " Is this the first notice-in-Eng- 
land of a German-tree P ** as Ebtx understood it 


CelHc Etymology (Vol. ix., p. 40.). — If the h 
must be *'exhasperated** (as Matthews used to 
say) in words adopted into the English language, 
how does it happen that we never hear it in Aokt, 
honour^ heir^ honesty and humour f Will £. C. H. 
be so kind as to inform me on this point ? With 
regard to the word humble^ in support of the k 
being silent, I have seen it stated m a dictionary, 
but by whom I cannot call to mind, in a list of 
words nearly spelled alike, and whose sound is 
the same : 

'* Humble, low, submissive.** 

** Umblbs, the entrails of a deer.** 

Hence the point of the sarcasm ** He will be made 
to eat humble pie ;*' and it serves in this instance 
to show that the h is silent when the word is pro- 
perly pronounced. 

The two words isiol and irisiol, properly uirisioi, 
which E. C. H. has stated to be the original Celdc 
words signifying humble, have quite a different 
meaning : for isiol is quietly, silently, without 
noise; and uirisiol means, sneaking, cringing, 
crawling, terms which could not be applied with- 
out injustice to a really humble honest person. 
The Iberno-Fhoenician umal bears in itself evi* 
dence that it is not borrowed from any other 
language, for the two syllables are intelligible 
apart from each other; and the word can be at 
once reduced to its root fim, to which the Sanscrit 
word hshama, as given by £. C. H., bears no re- 
semblance whatever. Fbas. Cbosslbt. 

Recent Curiosities of Literature (Vol. ix., p. 31.). 
—Your correspondent Ma. Cuthbbbt Bbde has 
done well in directing Mr. Thackeray's attention 
to the error of substituting " candle** for " candle- 
stick,** at p. 47. of The Newcomes ; but it appears 
that the author discovered the error, and made a 
clumsy effort to rectify it ; for he elsewhere gives 
us to understand, that she died of a wound in her 
temple, occasioned by coming into contact with 
the stone stairs. See H. Newcome*s letter. 

The following curiosity of literature lately ap* 
peared in the London papers, in a biographical 
notice of the late Viscount Beresford, which la 
inserted in the NavcU and Military Oazette of 
January 14, 1854 : 

" Of honorary badges he had, first, A cross depen- 
dent firom seven clasps : this indicated his having 
been present in eleven battles during the Peninsular 
War. His name was unaccountably omitted in the 

L-'iyiLi/-fc?u uy 


Fer 11. 1854.] 



return of those present at Ciudad Rodrigo. When 
Her Majesty gracefully extended the honorary dis- 
tinctions to all the survivors of the great war, Lord 
JBeresford received the Penin$uldr medal, with two 
clasps, for Egypt and Ciudad Rodrigo." 

The expression should have been "the silver 
medal," not "Peninsular;" as, among the names 
or battles engraved on the clasps attached to the 
silver war-medals, granted in 1849, will be found 
the words "Martinique," " Fort Detroit," "Cha- 
teauguay," " Chrystler's Farm," and " Egypt." 


X). O. M. (Vol. iii., p. 173.). — I am surprised 
that there should be the least doubt that the 
above are the initials of " Daiur omnibus mori.^ 

R. W. D. 

Dr. John Taylor (Vol. viii., p. 299.). — There 
are several errors in the communication of S. R. 
He states that " Dr. John Taylor was buried at 
Kirkstead, Lancashire, where nis tomb is distin- 
guished by the following simple inscription." 

1. Kirkstead is in Lincolnshire. 

2. Dr. John Taylor lies interred in the burial- 
ground attached to the Presbyterian Chapel at 
Chowbent, near Bolton, in Lancashire. 

3. The inscription on the tombstone Is as 
follows : 

" Here is interred the Rev. John Taylor, D.D., of 
VTarrington, formerly of Norwich, who died March 5, 
1761, aged 66.** 

4. The inscription given by S. R. is on a slab in 
the chapel at Chowbent. I may add that this 
inscription was drawn up by Dr. Enfield. 

Thomas Bakeb. 

Lines aUrihuted to Hudihras (Vol. i., p. 211.). — 

*< For he that fights and runs away, 
May live to fight another day.*' 

Jn so far as I can understand from the various 
articles in " N. & Q." regarding the above quo- 
tation, it is to be found in the Musarum Delicia, 
12mo., 1656. There is a copy of this volume now 
lying before me, the title-page of which runs thus : 

** Musarum Deliciae, or the Muses* Recreation ; con- 
taining severall pieces of Poetique Wit. The second 
edition, by S» J. M. and Ja. S. London : Printed by 
J. G. for Henry Herringman, and are to be sold at his 
Shop, at the Signe of the Anchor in the New Ex- 
change, 1656." 

This copy seems to have at one time belonged 
to Longmans, as it is described in the Bib, An. 
Poetica^ having the signatures of " Orator Henly," 
** Ritson," and " J. Park." I have read this vo- 
lume over carefully twice, and I must confess my 
inabilitj to find any such two lines as the above 
noted, there. As I do not think Mr. Cunningham, 

in his Handbook of London^ or Dr. RucBAiTLTy 
would mislead any one, I am afnud my copj, 
being a second edition, may be incomplete ; and as 
I certainlj did not get the volume for noQdng^ 
will either of these gentlemen, or any other of the 
readers of" N. & Q./* who have seen other editionS| 
let me know thb P 

There is a question asked by Mblavioit re* 
garding the enHre quotation, which I have not jet 
seen answered, which is,^- 

*< For he that fights and runs away. 
May live to fight another day ; 
But he that is in battle slain, 
Ckn never hope to fight again.** 

Are these last two lines in the Musarum Deliciee t 
or are these four lines to be found anywhere ia 
conjunction ? If this could be found, it would in 
my opinion settle the question. S. Wmson, 

" Corporations have no Souls^ ffv, (Vol. viii.^ 
p. 587.). — In Poynder's Literary Extracts^ under 
the title "Corporations," there occurs the follow- 
ing passage : 

** Lord Chancellor Thurlow said that corporations 
have neither bodies to be punished, nor souls to be 
condemned ; they therefore do as they like.** 

There are also two long extracts, one from Cow^ 
per*s Tash^ book iv., and the other from the Life 
of Wilberforce, vol. ii., Appendix, bearing on the 
same subject. Abgh. Weib* 

Lord Mayor of London a Privy Councillor 
(Vol. iv. passim). — Mr. Serjeant Merewether, 
Town Clerk to the Corporation of London, in his 
examination before the City Corporation Com- 
mission, said that it had been the practice from 
time immemorial, to summon the Lord Mayor of 
London to the first Privy Council held after the 
demise of the crown. (The Standard^ Jan. 13, 
1854, p. i. col. 5.) L. Habtlt, 

Booty'' s Case (Vol. iii., p. 170.). — A story re- 
sembling that of " Old Booty " is to be found in 
St. Gregory the Great's Dialogues^ iii. 30., where 
it is related that a hermit saw Theodoric thrown 
into the crater of Lipari by two of hb victims, 
Pope John and Symmachus. J. C. B. 

" Sat cito, si sat bene'' (Vol. vii., p. 594.). — St. 
Jerome (Ep. Ixvi. § 9., ed. Vallars) quotes this afl 
a maxim of Cato*s. J. C. R« 

Celtic and Latin Lai _ 
Allow me to suggest to 

!r«*(Vol.ix., p. 14.).— 
' H. T. that the word 

Oallus^ a Gaul, Is not, of course, the same as the 
Irish Oaly a stranger. Js it not rather the Latin 
form of Oaoithil (pronounced Gael or Oaul)^ the 
generic appellation of our Erse population ? In 
Welsh it is Owydyl, to this day their term for an 
Irishman. ^^ ^ 

Digitized by VjOO^IC 



[No. 224. 

OaoU^ strai^;er, is used in Erie to denote a 
fbreign settler, e.g. the Earl of Caithness is Mot* 
phear (pronounoed Morar) OaoQ^ the Strang 
flreat man; bein^ lord of a oomer of the land in- 
labited by a foreiffn raoe. 

Galloway, on w other hand, takes its name 
from the Uael, being possessed by a colony of that 
people from Kintyre, &c^ who long retained the 
Bame of the wild Scots * of Galloway, to distinguish 
them from the Brets or British inhabitants of the 
rest of the border. Fbangis Johm Scott, M. A. 

Holy Trinity, Tewkesbury. 

Brydone- Ike Tourisfs Birth-place (Vol. vii., 
p. 108.). — According to Chambers s Lives of ScotS' 
men^ vol. i. p. 384., 1882, Brydone was the son of 
a clergyman in the neighbourhood of Dumbarton, 
where he was bom in the year 1741. When he 
came to England, he was engaged as travelling 
preceptor by Mr. Beckford, to whom his Tour 
through Sicify and Malta is addressed. In a copy 
of this work, now before me, I find the following 
remarks written in pencil : 

« These travels are written in a very plausible style, 
but little dependence is to be placed upon their veracity. 
Brydone nerer was on the summit of ^tna, although 
he describes the prospect from it in such glowing 

It is right to add, that the writer of these re- 
marks was long a resident in Italy, and in constant 
habits of intercourse with the most distinguished 
scholars of that country. J. ALlcbat. 




The second volume of Murray's British Cosies, 
which is also the second of Mr. Cunningham*8 edition 
of TA« Works of Oliver Goldsmith, fully justifies all we 
said in commendation of its predecessor. It contains 
Goldsmith*s Enquiry into the State of Polite Literature 
in Europe, and his admirable series of letters, entitled 
The Citizen of the World, Mr. Cunningham tells us 
tiiat ** he has been careful to mark all Goldsmith*s own 
Botes with his name;** his predecessors having in 
some instances adopted them as their own, and in 
others omitted them altogether, although they are at 
times curiously illustrative of the text. We are glad 
to see that Mr. Murray announces a new edition, re- 
vised and greatly enlarged, of Mr. Foster's valuable 
Life of Goldsmith, uniform with the present collection 
of Goldsmith's writings. 

Memorials of the Canynges Family and their Times ; 
WesOmry College^ RedcUffis Church, and Chatterton, by 
George Pryee, is the somewhat abbreviated title of a 
goodly octavo volume, on which Mr. Pryce has bestowed 

. * Scot or. Scott is applied only to the men of Gaelic 
extraction in our old records. 

great induatfy and r assa rcb , and by whidi he hopes ft» 
dear away the mists of error which have overduidowed 
the story of the Canynges fiunily during the Middle 
Ages, and to show their connexion with the erection 
or restoration of Westbury College and RedeUff* 
Church. As Mr. Pryce has some few inedited memo- 
randa relating to Chatterton, he has done well to in- 
corporate them in a volume dedicated in some measuie 
to the history of Bristol's •• Merchant Prince.** 

Ih>etieal Works of Henry Howmrd, Bari of Smrrey^ 
Minor Contem^peraneous Poets, and ThomoM SaekoUk, 
Lord Buekhurst, edited by Robert Bell, forms tiie 
second volume of Parker's Annotated Edition of the 
British Poets, Availing himself, very properly, of the 
labours of his predecessors, Mr. Bell has given us very 
agreeable and valuable memoirs of Surrey and Buck- 
hurst ;^ and we have no doubt that this cheap edition 
of their works will be the means of putting them into 
the hands of many readers to whom they were before 
almost entirely unknown. 

The Library Committee of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, having had under their consideration the stale 
of the engraved portraits in. the possession of the So- 
ciety, consulted one of the Fellows, Mr. W. Smith, as 
to the best mode of arrangement. That gentleman, 
having gone through the collection, adviaed that in 
future the Society should chiefly direct its attention to 
the formation of a series of engraved Portraits of the 
Fellows, and with great liberality presented about 
one hundred and fifty such portraits as his contribu- 
tion towards such collection. Mr. Smith's notion is 
certainly a very happy one : and we mention that and 
his very handsome donation, in hopes of thereby ren- 
dering as good service to the Society's Collection of 
Portraits, as we are glad to learn has been rendered 
to their matchless Series of Proclamations by our 
occasional notices of them. 


ToRRBNS OM Wagbs AMD ConBiNATioNi. Longmans. 1834. 

*«* Letters, stating particulars and loweit price, carriame firee, 
to be sent to Mr. Bbll, Publisher of ** NOTBS AND 
QURRIBS.'* 186. Fleet Street. 

Partienlart of Price, ftc. of the following Books to be seirt 
direct to the gentlonen by whom they are required, and whose 
names and addresses are given for that purpose : 

Tes BamsH Prbsbrvb, etched by S. Howitt. Printo, 2. The 
Badger, and 6. The Stag. 

Wanted by Afr. James Pascoe, Solicitor, Pensance. 

An Aocoumt or m Ministbrs, &c., who were Ejected or 
Silenced after the Restoration in 1660, by or before the Act for 
Uniformity. Second Edition. Vol. 1. Br Edmoad CaJamr. 
DD. 171». 
Blombpibld's Norfolk. 

Wanted by John Nurse Chadwick, Solicitor, Khig*s Lynn, 


Wanted by (7. J. D., Post Office, Stourbridge, Worcestershire. 

Tin HiVB, having the Fhrst Edition of Vol. I. 

Wanted by Fred, DinsSale, Btq.,.LsamingtOB. 

Liiyuiz-feju uy 


FssB. 11. 1854.] 




1835, 1836, 1844, and 1845. 

Shbbjdan'h (Thos.) Lkcturbs oif thb Art of Rbaoimo. 8vo. 
Ix>nd. 1781. 

Bi.ACKBR'8 (Col. Val.) Memoirs of thr Opbratioms or thb Bri- 
tish Army in India during thb Habratta War op 1817, 1818, 
and 1819. 4to. Lond. 1821. Also, by the same, a Map of 
Hindostan, from his own mrrey. 

Parker's (Capt Robert) Mbmoirs op thb most rbmabkablb 
Military transactions from. 1683 to 1718. 8to. Lond. 1747. 

'Wanted hj Rev. B, H. Blacker » 11. Pembroke Road, Dublin. 



Phillip's Lipb op Smith (the Geologist). 

HiascHBR's Sympathies op thb Comtinbnt, translated by Coxe. 

J. H. Parker. 18ft3. 
8tm H. NicoLAB*8 Edition op Walton and Cotton's Anolbr. 
^Windsor Castle, by Ainsworth. The original edition, 8to. 

with Plates. 

Wanted by Mr* Hay ward. Bookseller, Bath. 

'Wordsworth's Poetical Works. 6 Vols. 12mo. Moxon. 

Vol. L Morocco. (The missing Tolame was lent to a 

student at Cambridge by C. B. W. in 1844.) 
Ros cob's Italian Kotelist. Second EfUtion. 4 Vols. 12mo. 

Vol. III. 
First or Early Edition of Thb Christian World Unmasked, 

by John Berridge. 
JoHNT Bbrridob's Workb. 8to. Simpkin & Co. 
Geo. Sandys' Paraphrase op the Psalms. Small Edition. 
Poems by Georob Withers. Separate or Collected. 
Drayton's Poems. 12mo. Edition. 
Walton's Lives. Tonson or Dodsley. 1- Vol. Edition. 
Paxtom's Magazine op Botany. Nos. 169. and 179. Orr ft Co. 

Wanted by Mr. Hiscoke, Bookseller, Richmond, Surrey. 

Thb Acts and Monuments op John Foxe. Vol. I. Edited 

by Rev. S. Cattley. Seelej.and Burnside. 
Voltairs's Works. Vol. I. Translated by Sm<41ett. Francklin, 

London, 1761. 
EccLBsioLooisT. Vol. V. In Numbers or unbound. 

.Wanted by E. Hailstone, Horton Hall, Bradford, Yorkshire. 

Forstbr's Perennial Calendar and Companion to the Al- 
manack. 8to. London, 1824. 

W^anted by J. 6., care of Messrs. Ponsonby, Booksellers, 
Grafton Street, Dublin. 

fiatitti ta Correilyoii^aiU. 

J. D. (Cnieltenbam). Tke 
Roman de Brut, wkiek was 
M. Le Rowt de Uncy ds 1896. 

to i» Wae^ 
nmder dff edilor$k^ qf 

B. O. The paginal r^ereneet ore amihed 4a tke extracU firam 
Mr. Buckley's translation of JRsckylm* ; k^ frokably tke or^imai 
teat would solve tke Query. 

R. Tke print qf a biskop burnt in Smil^fietd eOMmot be ideuH' 
fied without a sight qf tke engraving. 

G. D. For tke origin of Plough Monday, see Brmdy^s Clarfe 
Calendaria, vol. L pp. 160—162. ; and BrawTs Popular Antiqui^ 
ties, vol. i. pp. 805-508. ( Bokn's edition). 

A Communication from Dr. Diamond on Ote mam^facture ^ 
collodion, and also a very Httere^ing one from Mr. J. Maxwell 
Lytb, in our next Number. 

Anomtmous Photooraphio Correspondent. We kave givem 
in former Numbers admirable formulte for printing posmves. 
Mr. Pollock's mode on albumenised paper produces beamUfal 
resultSt as does also tke more simple one recommended by Dr. 
Diamond. In one qf our earliest PkoUtgrapkic communications 
an iodized form was given wkich may be used by feeble or arU^ 
ficial light, and which is highly useful. 

A. R. (Bombay). Iodide qf silver should not be dried for pho* 
tographie purposes qfter it is formed j therefore you must rest 
contented to approach the nearest you can to the requisite quantity 
by car^fkU manipulation. A note appended to our vhotograpl^ 
article in this Number stfffldent^ t»dicates how often we must 
depend upon our own judgment, and how difficult it is to reduce 
Photography to eeact taws when the substances used are so con^ 
stantly varying. 

T. M. The samj^ sent qf Whatman's writing-paper iodizes 
most beautifully. It hoe always been tke case that paper made 
for ordinary purposes is qften muck belter than tkat made for 
Pkotograpf^ atone. 

Our Eighth Volume is now bound and ready for delivery^ 
price 10s. 6rf., clotk, boards. A few sets qf tke wkole Eight Vo- 
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** Notes and Queries *' is pubUsked at noon on Friday, so tkat 
tke Country Booksellers may receive Copies in tkat night's parcels^ 
and deliver them to their Subscribers on tke Saturday. 



to the Arrival of St. Aurastine, a. d. S96. 
Second Edition. FOst^vo. iPrioe As. cloth. 

** A work of great utility to general readers." 
^Morning Post. 

** The author has collected with mueh in- 
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throw light on his subject."— Qwardian. 

** Not unworthy the attention of our clerical 
Ariends." — iTetes and Queries, ii. 488. 

S4. Paternoster Bow, and of all Booksellers. 


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MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
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many of the earlr ruhik Kimv: '. 
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Authnrt find Gcntleineu eiUL'RjEfil in j\< 
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to ubdertitke sett^chen (irnoik^ tiie Ful. 
cot^i^ MSS, in lh« BrftUh Mme^Tu. 
WU1&, or other rkporitaii*:* uf o »Siriii 
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T(in*i^it [■ H y ■ i" ' I'"" ' ' ""T ■' . ■>'- *^^f' ' ' I- >■■ , 
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Digitized by VjOOQlt 



[No. 224. 



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K*!,, tsf W 3ncli«ls?fi. ae., M.F.^ thjt father &f 
1^1 r KiJmuiid Berry Godfrey . fijjkhfd in IfiSa. 

Honj'woud EvEdentTn, camuiled nrerimuh' it* 
I *m. tillted by a W . reen fltltl, E*n. 

Thp I]M?Bcem]giiiti of ilsry Uauywdod at hsi 
[h'ath in isafo, 

MnrriAfe Bettlcmenta of th? Htmywoods. 

Fc^diffTves (if the fttmilitM of Ardien or Arderac, 
Arund'?]! of AynhOf BabinfrtoiL, B«itt^ Bv- 
ley, Bi;»ffpi, Brownii^ BnrtDO of Gorvn&r, 
Cfurbp. Clerks. Cliaton, Closiv Dabrite- 
t!uurt, I^nJcynft or Dak^yqa, D*Oyfy» Ihtw^ 
FitEAInn, Vltarberbert,- Fmuetlt, Ffeesiiir' 
hai^^ Gi IIh H&nimDnii, HnrlsLkecidCT, Ue- 
rea-ire, llarst, Hnm-wood, Hodilow, B<aibs2l 
Hordu, lIudLler. tilny^ Kirby, Kyijuenlcf, 
MJtrtilie, MarsUin, MeyutlJ, Nejrrcs ftlrtr^ 
rirnp, ricimi r, Ptjthi[Ji orPctMpy, PjdheffiTii 
Fitthrurd, Puic or IH: ta Poli;, pj^iau^ Vii- 
Cf>T5i>t Tamb. TheitoHi TrepoM. Tnnafj sd 
Kirkicathaiu, Uffard^ Walenuci. W»j£cm.iuitl 

Tilt Ui^i^cfilasrlcs of more tliiin ninety fkniiiffri 
ot lStix!ktoij-iinEin-Tep9i by Wm. D'Oarl* 
BflvJpy, Eitq., r.S.A. 

fleyuk'hritl Memorials of the EnglUh %% Bnac^ 
and Capn, 

Many oTitfmD.1 ClisirtO'jrv, perioral WIUl mmA 
¥i\ii^va\ Certiflcitei. 

Survey, tumn, PhillEj ninl Mitt, of lb* M«iiQ(ni 
pfCrusyii Ic- Loudrirn, IjinnJulpli, IJ^htdtiT- 
rtmt, Porpehdn- ".rid Tyntqpj la C&mwmll i 
AylefeibL'itrusnd Whytfuril^ipa. Uevuiii Ewirruc 
Ciiiji-tt-nayn CO. Dorstt t Mudtbrfi and^ Hlntcnit 
^^'"r>»t CrAlrcr. fiqd Sti>l(e Couirry , «>. SotiicrBet i 
l^i'iic-i'jM, cii, f^ifllJord i ami Cortoti, co, 

Survey of the Marshes of the Medwmy. temp. 
Henry VHI. ^^ 

A Description of Cleveland, addressed to Sir 
Thomas Chaloner, temp. James I. 

A Catalogue of the Monumental Braaeee. an- 
cient Monuments, and Painted Olaiw yyi"^" g 
in the Churdies of Bedftoxlshiro. with all 
Names and Dates. 

Catalogue of Sepulchral Monuments in Suf- 
folk, throughout the hundreds of Babenrh. 
Blackbourn. Blvthing, Bonnere and Clay- 
don, Carlford, Colnies, Cosford, Hartismere. 
Hozne, Town of Ipswich, Hundreds of Lack- 
ford uid I^oes. $y the late D. £. Davy, £aq., 
oftTfford. **— ^» 

Published by J. B. NICHOLS ft SONS, t&. 
Parliament Street, Westminster ; where may 
be obtained, on nmUcation, a Ailler abstract 
of the contents of tnese volumes, and ^y* of 
ttie "Collectanea Topomuahiea et Q«ni * 
gica," now complete in Eignt Yolumea. 

L-ziyiii^tJU uy 


Feb. IB. 1854.] 





More tlian one pen luui ^xmsidered titles, iledi- 
eationa, and imprints worth a Kote, and as there 
are still gleanings in their track, I take the liberty 
ef sending you a few of the latter ; some froiki my 
comoMm-plaee book, others from the fbuntain- 
keads on my own shcd^es, but all drawn at random, 
Without much regard to classification or chrono- 
kjflcal amuigement. 

The horrors (^ the Star Chunber and the Ec- 
clesiastical Courts produced many extraordinary 
imprints, particularly to those seditious bodes of 
the Puritans, better known as the MarprelaU 
J^amUif; works which were printed by ambulatory 
presses, and circulated by unseen hands, now under 
the walls of Archiepiscopal Lambeth, and presto t 
^wfaen the spy would lay his hands upon them) 
sprite-like, Martin re-appeared in the provinces ! 
This game at hide and seek between the brare old 
19'onoonformists and the Churdi, went on for 
jears without detection : but the readers of ^ N. 
& Q^ do not require from me the history of the 
IJiirprelate Faction, so well told already in the 
Jfiseeliames of Literature and ebewhere; the 
animui of these towards the hierarchy will be 
sufficiently exhibited for my purpose in a few of 
liieir imprints. An Almond for a Parrot^ for 
example, purports to be — 

«* Imprynted at a place not fane from a place ; by 
the Assignes of Signior Some-body, and are to be soulde 
at his sboppe in Trouble- Knave Street." 

Again, Oh read ouer D. John Bridges^ for it is u 
worthy work, is 

** Printed ouer sea, in £ur(^>e, within two forlongs 
of a Bouncing Priest, at the Cost and Charges of 
Martin Marprelate, Gent, 1589.** 

The Return of the renowned Ccmaliero PasquHl 
has the following extraordinary imprint : 

** If my breath be so bote that I bume my mouthe, 
I suppose I was printed by Pepper Allie, 1589.** 

The original " Marprelate ** was John Penri, 
who at last fell into the hands of his enemies, and 
was executed under circumstances of great bar- 
barity in £lizabeth*s reign. *' Martin Junior,** 
however, sprung up, and The Counter' Cuffe to 
him is — 

« Printed between the Skye and the Grounde, wythin 
a Myle of an Oake, and not many Fields off from the 
unpriuileged Presse of the Ass-ignes of Martin Junior, 

The Yirulency of this thec^ogical warfare died 
away in James's reign, but only to be renewed with 
equal rancour ia t£at of Cfaadei, when Marpre- 

latism was again called into aetiTity hj Ae liigW* 
church freaks of Archbishop Laud. F&r Bore«di$f . 
or a Northeme Discoverie by way of Diahgme 'be* 
tweem, Jamie and Willie^ is an exam;^ of tlies* 
later attacks upon the orerbearing of the mitre^. 
and aiSardi the imprint — 

** Amidst the Babylonians. Printed by Margery 
Marprelate, in Thwack- Coat Lane, at the Sigat of the 
Crab-Tree Cudgell, without any privilege of Hie 
Cater-Caps, 1641.*' 

Others of this stamp will occtuT to your r^eaders i 
this time the Puritans had the best of the struggle, 
and ceased not to push their advantage until wej 
brought their enemy to the block. 

When the liberty of the press was imperfectl/ 
understood, the political satirist had to tread 
warily ; consequently we find that class of writers 
protecting themselves by jocular or patriotic im- 
prints. A satirical pamphlet upon toe late Sick^ 
Commons is ** Printed in the Happie Year 1641." 
A Letter from Nobody in the City to Nobody in the 
Country is " Printed by Somebody, 1679." Some-- 
body's Answer is ** Printed for Anybody." These 
were likely of such a tendency as would have ren- 
dered both author and printer amenable to some*: 
body, say Judge Jeffries. During the administra- 
tion of Sir Robert .Walpole, there were many 
skirmishing satirists supported by both ministry 
and people, such as James Miller, whose pamphlet, 
contra, Are these things so f is " Printed for the 
perusal of all Lovers of their Country, 1740." 
This was answered by the ministers* champion, 
James Dance, alias Love, in Yes, they are / alike 
addressed to the " Lovers of their Country.** 
What of That ? was the next of the series, being 
Miller's reply, who intimated this time that it was 
" Printed, and to be had of all True Hearts and 
Sound Bottoms.** 

When there was a movement for an augmenta- 
tion of the poor stipends of the Scots CUergy in 
1750, there came out a pamphlet under the title of 
The Presbyterian Clergy seasonably detected, 1751, 
which exceeds in scurrility, if possible, the famouSi 
or infamous, Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence Dis' 
played; both author and printer, however, had so, 
much sense as to remain in the background, and 
the thing purported to be "Printed for Mess- 
John in Fleet Street.** Under the title of The 
Comical History of the Marriage betwixt Hep- 
tarchus and Fergusia^ 1706 *, the Scots figured tne 
union of the Lord Heptarchus, or England, with 
the independent^ but coerced, damsel Fergusia, or 
Scotland; the discontented church of the latter 

* G, Chalmers ascribed this to one «* Balantyne.**' 
In Lockhart*s Memoirs^ Lond. 1714, Mr. John Balan- 
tyne, the minister of Lanark, is noticed as the most 
uncompronaising opponent of the Union. I shall 
therefore assign the Comical History to him until I find 
a better claimant 

Digitized by 




[No. 225. 

finding that the former broke faith with her, could 
not help giving way to occasional murmurings, 
and these K>und vent in (among others) a poetical 
Presbyterian tract, entitled Melancholy Sonnets, or 
FerguMM Complaint upon Heptarchus, in which 
the author reduced to rhyme the aforesaid Co- 
mical History, adding thereto all the evils this ill- 
starred union had entailed upon the land after 
thirty- five years' experience. This curious pro- 
duction was " Printed at Elguze ? for Pedaneous, 
find sold by Circumfcraneous, below the Zenith, 
1741." * Charles IL, when crowned at Scone, 
took the solemn league and covenant ; but not 
finding it convenient to carry out that part of his 
coronation oath, lefl the Presbyterians at the 
Restoration in the hands of their enemies. To 
mark their sense of this breach of faith, there was 
published a little book f describing the inaugura- 
tion of the young profligate, which expressively 
purports to be " Printed at Edinburgh in the Year 
of Covenant-breaking." The Scots folk had such 
a horror of anything of a deistical tendency, that 
John Goldie had to publish his Essays, or an At' 
tempt to distinguish true from false Religion (popu- 
pularly called "Goldie's Bible"), at Glas^w, 
" Printed for the Author, and sold by him at Kil- 
marnock, 1779;** neither printer nor bookseller 
would, apparently, be identified with the unclean 
thing. Both churchmen and dissenters convey 
their exultations, or denouncements, upon political 
changes, through the medium of imprints; and 
your correspondents who have been discussing 
that matter, will see in some of these that the 
** Good Old Cause ** may be " all round the com- 
pass,** as Captain Cuttle would say, depending 
wholly upon the party spectacles through which 
you view it. Legal Fundamental Liberty, in an 
epistle from Selburne to Lentbal, is " Reprinted 
in the Year of Hypocritical and Abominable Dis- 
simulation, 1649 ; ** on the other hand. The Little 
Bible of that militant soldier Captain Butler is 
"Printed in the First Year of England*s Liberty, 
1649.** The Last Will and Testament of Sir John 
Presbyter is "Printed in the Year of Jubilee, 
1647.** A New Meeting of Ghosts at Tyburn, in 
which Oliver, Bradshaw, and Peters figure, ex- 
hibits its royal tendency, being " Printed in the 
Year of the Rebellious Phanatick*s Downfall, 
1660.** "Printed at N., with Licence,'* is the 
cautious imprint of a republication of Doleman's 

♦ This resembles in its doggrel style Scotland's 
Glory and her Shame, and A Poem on the Burgess Oath, 
Can any of your correspondents, familiar with Scottish 
typographical curiosities, tell me who was the author, 
or authors, of these ? 

t A Phcenix, or the Solemn League and Covenant^ 8fc„ 
12mo. pp. 168, with a frontispiece representing Charles 
burning the book of the Solemn League and Covenant, 
above the flames from which hovers a phoenix. 

Conference in 1681. A proper Project to Startie 
Fools is " Printed in a Land where Seirs cry*d 
up, and Zeal*s cry'd down, 1699.*' The Impartial 
Accountatit, wherein it is demonstratively made 
hnoicn hoio to pay the National Debt, and that unth' 
out a New Tax, or any Inconveniency to the People, 
is " Printed for a Proper Person,'* and, I may add, 
can be had of a certain person, if Mr. Gladstone 
will come down with an adequate consideration 
for the secret ! These accountants are all mys- 
terious, — you would think they were plotting to 
empty the treasury rather than to fill it ; another 
says his Essay upon National Credit is " Printed 
by A. R. in Bond's Stables ! ** Thomas Scott, the 
English minister at Utrecht, published, among 
other oddities. Vox Ccelis ; or Newesfrom Heaven, 
being Imaginary Conversations there between 
Henry VIll, (!), Edward VI,, Prince Henrie, and 
others, "Printed in Elysium, 1624." Edward 
Raban, an Englishman, who set up a press in the 
far north, published an edition of Ladjr Culros* 
Oodlie Dreams, and finding that no title com- 
manded such respect among the canny Scots as 
that of Laird, announced the book to be "Im- 
printed at Aberdene, by E. R., Laird of Letters, 
1644.** The Instructive Library, containing a list 
of apocryphal books, and a satire upon some theo- 
logical authors of that day, is " Printed for the 
Man in the Moon, 1710.** The Oxford Sermon 
Versified, by Jacob Gingle, Esq., is " Printed by 
Tim. Atkins at Dr. Sacheverell's Head, near St. 
Paul's, 1729." "Printed, and to be had at the 
Pamphlett Shops of London and Westminster,** 
was a common way of circulating productions of 
questionable morals or loyalty. The Chapmen, or 
Flying- Stationers, had many curious dodges of 
this kind to give a relish to their literary wares : 
The Secret History of Queen Elizabeth and the 
Earl of Essex derived additional interest in the 
eyes of their country customers by its being 
" Printed at Cologne for Will- with- the- Wisp, at 
the Sign of the Moon in the Ecliptic, 1767.*' The 
Poems of that hard-headed Jacobite, Alexander 
Robertson of Struan, are " Printed at Edinbur^ 
for Charles Alexander, and sold at his house in 
Geddes Close, where Subscribers may call for their 
Copies, circa 1750.** ♦ The New Dialogues of the 
Dead are " Printed for D. Y., at the foot of Par- 
nassus Hill, 1684.** Professor Tenant's poem of 
Papistry Stormed imitates the old typographers, 
it being " Iinprentit at Edinbrogh be Oliver and 
Boyd, anno 1827.** A rare old book is Goddard's 

* I have not met with the name of such a bookseller 
elsewhere, and would like to hear the hbtory of this 
book ; it was again published with the addition of 
The Martial Achievements of the Robertsons of Struan, 
and in imitation of the original is printed at Edinburgh 
by and for Alexander Robertson, in Morison*a Close, 
where subscribers may call for their copies (1785 ?)• 

L^iyuiz-fc^u uy 


Feb. 18. 1854.] 



Mastiffs Whelpey " Imprinted amongst the Anti- 
podes, and are to be sou Id where they are to be 
bought." Another, by the same author, is a Sa^ 
tirical Dialogue^ " Imprinted in the Low Coun- 
treyes for all such Gentlemen as are not altogether 
idle, nor yet well occupyed." These were both, I 
believe, libels upon the fair sex. John Stewart, 
otherwise Walking Stewart, was in the habit of 
dating his extraordinary publications ''In the 
year of Man's Retrospective Knowledge, by As- 
tronomical Calculation, 5000 ; " " In the 7000 year 
of Astronomical History in the Chinese Tables;" 
and " In the Fifth Year of Intellectual Existence." 
" Mulberry Hill, Printed at Crazy Castle," is an 
imprint of J. H. Stevenson. The Button Makers' 
•Tests, by Geo. King of St. James', is " Printed for 
Henry Frederick, near St. James* Square;" a 
coarse squib upon royalty. One Fisher entitled 
Lis play Thou shalt not Steal; the School of Ingra- 
titude. Thinking the managers of Drury Lane 
Lad communicated his perlormance, under the 
latter name, to Keynolds the dramatist, and then 
rejected it, he published it thus : " Printed for the 
curious and literary — shall we say P Coincidence ! 
refused by the Managers, and made use of in the 
Farce of * Good Living,' " published by Reynolds 
in 1797. Harlequin Premier, as it is daily acted, 
is a hit at the ministry of the period, " Printed at 
Brentafordia, Capital of Barataria, and sold by all 
the Booksellers in the Province, 1769." " Printed 
Merrily, and may be read Unhappily, betwixt 
Hawke and Buzzard, 1641," is the satisfactory 
imprint of The Downefall of temporising Poets, 
unlicensed Printers, upstart Booksellers, tooting 
Mercuries, and bawling Hawkers, Books have 
sometimes been published for behoof of particular 
individuals ; old Daniel Rogers, in his Matrimo' 
nicd Honovr, announces ** A Part of the Impression 
to be vended for the use and benefit of £d. Min- 
sheu, Gent., 1650." How full of interest is the 
following, '* Printed at Sheffield by James Mont- 
gomery, in the Hart's Head, 1795!" A poor 
man, by name J. R. Adam, meeting with reverses, 
enlisted, and afler serving abroad for a period, 
returned but to exchange the barrack-room for 
the Glasgow Lunatic Asylum. Possessing a 
poetical vein, he indulged it here in soothing his 
own and his companions' misery, by circulating his 
verses on detached scraps, printed by himself. 
These on his enlargement he collected together, 
and pave to the world in 1845, under the title of 
the Gartnavel Minstrel, a neat little square vo- 
lume of 104 pages, exceedingly well executed, and 
bearing the imprint " Glasgow, composed, printed, 
and published by J. R. Adam;" under any circum- 
stances a most creditable specimen, but under those 
I have described "a rara avis in literature and art." 
The list might be spun out, but I fear I have 
exceeded limits already with my dry subject. 

J. O. 


In the west of Clare, for many miles the country 
seems to consist of nothing but fields of grey lime- 
stone fiflgs, which gives it an appearance of the 
greatest desolation : Cromwell is reported to have 
said of it, " that there was neither wood in it to 
hang a man, nor water to drown him, nor earth 
to bury him ! " The soil is not, however, by any 
means as barren as it looks ; and the following 
legend is related of the way in which an ancestor 
of one of the most extensive landed proprietors in 
the county obtained his estates. 

'Twas on a dismal evening in the depth of 
winter, that one of Cromwell's officers was passing 
through this part of the country ; his courage and 
gallantry in the "good cause had obtained for 
him a large grant of land in Clare, and he was now 
on his journey to it. Picturing to himself a land 
flowing with milk and honey, his disappointment 
may therefore be imagined when, at the close of a 
weary day's journey, he found himself bewildered 
amid such a scene of desolation. From the in- 
quiries he had made at the last inhabited place 
he had passed, he was led to conclude that he 
could not be far distant from the "land of pro- 
mise," where he might turn his sword into a prun* 
ing-hook, and rest from all his toils and dangers. 
Could this be the place of which his imagination 
had formed so fair a vision ? Hours had elapsed 
since he had seen a human being ; and, as the soli- 
tude added to the dismal appearance of the road, 
bitterly did the veteran curse the folly that had 
enticed him into the land of bogs and " Papistrie." 
Troublous therefore as the times were, the tramp 
of an approaching steed sent a thrill of pleasure 
through the heart of the Puritan. The rider soon 
joined him, and as he seemed peaceably disposed, 
they entered into conversation ; and the stranger 
soon became acquainted with the old soldier's 
errand, and the disappointment he had experi- 
enced. Artfully taking advantage of the occasion, 
the stranger, who professed an acquaintance with 
the country, used every means to aggravate the 
disgust of his fellow-traveller, till the heart of the 
Cromwellian, already half overcome by fatigue 
and hunger, sank within him ; and at last he 
agreed that the land should be transferred to the 
stranger for a butt of Claret and the horse on 
which he rode. As soon as this important matter 
was settled, the stranger conducted his new friend 
to a house of entertainment in a neighbouring ham- 
let, whose ruins are still called the Claret House 
of K . A plentiful, though coarse, entertain- 
ment soon smoked on the board ; and as the eye 
of the Puritan wandered over the " creature com- 
forts," his heart rose, and he forgot his disappoint- 
ment and his fatigue. It is even said that he 
dispensed with nearly ten of the twenty minutes 
which he usually bestowed on the benediction; 




bat be this as it may, ere he retired to his couch 
— "vino ciboque gravatus" — the articles were 
signed^ and the courteous stranger became pos- 
1 of one of the finest estates in the county I 



In the introduction to a work entitled A Col- 
Action of Coats of Arms home by the Nobility and 
Gentry of the County of Gloucester^ London, 
J. Good, 159. New Bond Street, 1792, and which 
I belieye was written by Sir George Nayler, it is 
asserted that — 

** Armes parhmtes, or canting arms, were not common 
tUl the commencement of the serenteenth century, 
iriien they prevailed under the auspices of King 

Now doubtless they were more common in the 
seventeenth century, but I am of opinion that 
there are many instances of theip centuries pre- 
vious to the reign of King James ; as, for example, 
in a roll of arms of the time of Edward II. 
(a.i>. 1308-14), published hy Sir Harris Nicolas 
from a manuscript in the British Museum, there 
are the following : 

" Sire Peres Corbet, d'or, k un corbyn de sable. 

Sire Johan !e Fauconer, d'argent, a Wi faueouns de 

Sire Johan Heroun, d*azare, I iii herouns d*argent. 

Sire Richard de Cokfeld, d*azure, a nne crois e 
iiii eohs d*or. 

Sire Richard de Barlingfaam, de goules, k iii ours 
(Amwv) d*argent. 

Si^e Johan de Swyneford, d'argent, a un cfaeveroua 
di sables k iii testes de cemgUrs (sminet* heads) d'or." 

Sire Ammon de Lucy bore three luces ; Sire 
William Bernak a fers between three barnacles, 
&c. There are many other examples in the same 
work, but as I think I have made my communica- 
tion quite long enough, I forbear giving them. 


jSeUeridge, — The story of the author who was 
diargedbv his puUisher for seUeridge^ and thought 
it for^ setting his books^ whereas it was storing 
tliem in a cellar, is given by Thomas Moore in his 
JMir^r, lately i>ublished, upon the authority of 
Golmdge. It is to be found, much better told, 
in Coleridge*8 Biograpkia Idteraria* . Umsba. 
: Phihiddphia. 

- Tombs of Bishops, — The following bishops, 
whose bodies were interred elsewhere, had or have 
tombs in the several cathedrals in which their 
hearts were buried: — William de Longchamp, 

William de Kilkenny, Cardinfll Lovds de Luxon- 
bourg, at Ely ; Peter de Aqui Blanca» at Aqua- 
blanca, in Savoy ; Thomas Cantilupe, at Ashridge, 
Bucks (Hereford) ; Ethelmar ( Wmton), at Win- 
chester ; Thomas Savage (York), at Macclesfield; 
Robert Stichellea (Durham), at Durham. 


Lines on visiting the Portico of Beaai Nash's 
Palace, Bath. — 

And here he Iiv*d, and here he reiga'd^ 
And hither oft shall strangers stray ; 

To muse with joy on native worth, 
And mourn those pleasures fled for aye. 

Alas ! that he, whose days were spent 

In catering for the public weal. 
Should, in the eventide of life. 

Be destin*d sad distress to feel. 

An ever open heart and hand. 

With ear ne'er closed to sorrow's tale. 
Exalts the man, and o*er his faults 
Draws the impenetrable veil. 

L. M. Thorrtoh. 

Acrostic iu Ash Church, Kent, — The foUowmg 
acrostic is from a brass in Ash Church, Kent, u 
is perhaps curious only from the fact of its being 
unusual to inscribe this kind of verse on sepul- 
chral monuments. The capital letters at the 
commencement of each line are given as in the 
original : 

<< c-4 John Brooke of the parish of Ashe 

O Only he is nowe gone. 

EZj His days are past, his corps is layd 

^ Now under this marble stone. 

bd Brookstrete he was the honor oC 

p5 Robd now it is of name, 

O Only because he had no sede 

Q Or children to have the same ; 

^ KoowiDg that all must passe away, 

t4 Even when God will, none can denay. 

" He passed to God in the yere of Grace 
One thousand fyve hundredth flower score and two 

it was. 
The sixteenthe daye of January, I tell now playne» 
The five-and -twentieth yere of Elisabeth rayne." 

Fras. Bkbht. 


A Hint to Publishers, -^ThQ present period is 
remarkable for its numerous reprints of our poets 
and standard writers. However excellent these 
may be, there is oiten a great drawback, viz. that 
one must purchase an author's entire works, and 
cannot get a favourite poem or treatise separatdy. 

What I would suggest is, that a separate title- 
page be prefixed to every poem or treatise in an 

L'lyuiz.t^u uy 


Ebb. 18. 1854.] 



author's works, and that they be sold collectivdy 
or separately at the purchaser's option. Thus few 
would encumber themselves with the entire works 
pf Dry den, but many would gladly purchase some 
of his poems if they could be had separately. 

These r^narks are still more applicable to 
encyclopsddias. The Encycl, MetropoL was a step 
in the right direction ; and henceforth we may 
bope to have each article sold separately in octavo 
-volumes. Is there no chance, amid all these re- 

frints, of our seeing Hey wood, Crashaw, Southwell, 
[abington, Daniel, or Drummond of Hawthorn- 
den ? Mabiconda. 

•' Uhlcmd, the German Poet, — Mr. Mitchell, in 
his speech at New York, is said to have stated that 
Uhland, the German poet, had become an exile, 
and was now in Ohio. This is a mistake ; for 
XJhland is now living in his native Wiirtemberg, 
and is reported in the papers to have quite recent^ 
declined a civic honour proposed to oe conferred 
QD him by the King of Prussia at the suggestion 
of Baron Humboldt. J. M. 

* Oxford. 

: VirgUian Inscription for an Infant School. — 

** . . Auditae voces, vagitus et ingens, 
Infantumque animas flentes, in limine primo.** 

^n. VI. 426. 




The Historical Society of Pennsylvania having 
requested me to edit certain MSo., I should be 
very much indebted to any one for information, 
either through your columns, or addressed to me 
directly, concerning the following persons' or their 

Edward Shippen, son of William, born in York- 
shire, near Pontefract or Wakefield, as supposed, 
2639 ; emigrated to Boston 1670, was a nftember 
of the Ancient and Honourable Artillery Com- 
pany, afterwards turned Quaker, was poUicly 
i?vhipt for his faith (see Thomas Story's Joumai^ 
quoted in Southey's Common-Place BooK)^ re- 
Dtoved to Philadelphia, elected Speaker 1695, first 
laayor 1701, Ac, died 1712. His son's family 
Bible entries (now in possession of Colonel Jno. 
Hare Powel) say that his (the son's) relations in 
England were his "uncle William's children," 
viz. Robert Shippen, Doctor of Divinity; Wil- 
liam Shippen, Doctor of Laws and a parliament 
man ; Edward, a physician ; John, a Spanish mer- 

• The uncle William thus mentioned is conjec- 
tured to have been the Beetor of Stockport, and 
the "parliament man" to have been his son. 

" downrifiht Shippen " (Lord Mahon's Hist. Eng.^ 
three vou.) — a conjecture strengthened by an- 
other mem., "John, son of the Rector of St. 
Mary's parish, Stockport, was baptized July 5, 
A.D. 1678." 

Edward Shippen's daughter, Margaret, married 
John Jekyll, collector of the port of Boston, said 
to have ue&n. a younger brother of Sir Joseph ; 
and a descendant, daughter of Chief Justice 
Shippen, married Generid Benedict Arnold, then 
a distinguished officer in the American army. 

Mr. Shippen lived in great style (Watson's 
Annals^ &c,% and among his descendants were, 
and are, many persons of consequence and dis* 

Besides information as to Mr. Shippen*s an- 
cestors, I should be glad to learn something of 
his kinsfolk, and of the Jekyll and Arnold 
branches. Sabine's {Loyaliats) account of the 
latter is imperfect, and perhaps not very just. 

John White, * Chief Justice Shippen, whilst a 
law student in London, writes, 1748-50, as ^ough 
Mr. White was socially a man of dignified position. 
He was a man of large fortune ; his sister married 
San. Swif%, who emigrated to this state. His 
portrait, by Reynolds, represents a gentleman 
past middle age, whose costume and appearance 
are those of a person of refined and elegant edu- 
cation. His letters were destroyed by fire some 
yewrs since. The China and silver ware, which 
belonged to him, have the following arms : ^Oules, 
a border sable, charged with seven or eight es- 
toiles gold ; on a canton ermines a lion rampant 
sable. Crest, a bird, either a storic, a heron, or 
an ostrich." The copy inclosed is taken from the 
arms on the china ; but our Heralds' College (i. e, 
an intelligent engraver, who gave me the foregoing 
description) says, that on the silver the crest is 

*• o af.n-»»lr /»Ir»oo " Tinrka "RAT.r«w ' 

• a stork close.' 

Thos. Balch. 


From tune to tnne various productions, many, 
valuable, others the reverse, have issued from the 
press in parts or numbers ; some have been com- 
pleted, while others have only reached a few num- 
bers. It would be desirable to ascertain what works . 
have been finished,, and what have not. I have 
therefore transmitted a note as to several that 
have fallen in my way, and should be happy for 
any information about them : 

" 1. John Bull Magazine, 8vo., London, 1824. Of 
this I possess four numbcra. A friend of mhie 
bM aW the four numbers, and, like myself ^ 
attaches great value to them, from the ability 
of many of the articles. One article, entitled 
" Instructions to Missionaries," is equal to any 
thing from th€} pen of T. Hood. May it not 
have been written by hino ? ^-^ ^^ "^^ * '*- 



[No. 225. 

2. Portraits of the Worthies of Westminster Hall, 

with their Autographs* being Fac-Similes of 
Original Sketches found in the Note- Book of 
a Briefless Barrister. London : Thomas and 
William Boone, 480. Strand. Small 8to. 

Part I. Price Twenty Shillings. Twenty 
Sketches (very clever). 

3. Dictionary of Terms employed by the French 

in Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Ac, by 
Shirley Palmer, M. D. 8vo., 1834. Bir- 
mingham : Barlow. London : Longman & 
Co. Two Parts. Stops at the letter H. 

4. Quarterly Biographical Magazine, No. I., May, 

1838. 8vo. London : Hunt & Hart 

5. Complete Illustrations of the British Fresh -water 

Fishes. London: W. Wood. 8vo. Three 

6. New and Compendious History of the County of 

Warwick, &c. By William Smith, F.R.S.A. 
4to. Birmingham : W. Evans. London : 
J. T. Hinton, 4. Warwick Square. 1829. 
Ten Numbers, to be completed in Twelve. 
On my copy there is written, ** Never finished." 
Is this the ease ? 

7. Fishes of Ceylon. By John Whitchurch Ben- 

net, Esq., F.H.S. London : Longman & Co. 
1828. 4to. Two Numbers. A Guinea each. 


**Hovd Maet o/Zoe^"— Will you kindly give 
me a translation of the above, which is in the 
comer of an old Dutch panel painting in the 
style of Ostade and Teniers, jun., in my posses- 
aion f Bbabimg. 

Hand in Church (Vol. viii., p. 454.). — ^What is 
the hand projecting under chancel arch, Brighton 
old church? A. C. 

Egger Moths. ^'Wh&t is the derivation of the 
word "egger/* as applied to several species of 
moths f MouHTJOT. 

The Yorhshire Dales (VoL ii., p. 220.).— Is the 
Guide to the above by J. H. Dixon published P 

R. W. D. 

CisSy Cisslsj ffc. — Can any of your readers give 
me any authority for a written usage of these 
words, or any one of them: ciss^ siss^ cissle or 
cizzle f They are often heard, but I have never 
seen them written, nor can I find them in any dic- 
tionary. A. 

Inn Signs, ^c— Can any reader of " N. & Q." 
supply information respecting inn and other signs ; 
or refer to any printed books, or accessible MSS., 
relating to the subject? Axphxgb. 

Smiths and Robinsons. — Could any of your 
correspondents inform me what are the arms of 

Miles Smith, Bishop of Gloucester, those of the 
Smiths of Willoughby, those of the Smiths of 
Crudely, in Lancashire, and those of the Robinsons 
of the North Riding of Yorkshire? Also, in 
what church, and in what year, did Lady Eliza* 
beth Robinson, otherwise known as Betty of the 
Boith, serve the office of churchwarden ? 

John H. R. Smith, Jun. 

Coin of Carausius. — A brass coin has lately 
come into my possession, bearing <m. the obverse 
the head and inscription : 

"imp. caratsius. p. p. avg." 

And on the reverse, a female figure, with spear 
and a branch : 

"PAX. AUG. 8. p. MLXXl.** 

I believe it to have been struck by Carausius, an 
usurper of the end of the third century, and my 
Query is as to the meaning of the letters MLXzr. 
Some friends assert them to be the Roman nu- 
merals, making the year 1071, and conclude it to 
have been struck at that date. C. G. 


Verelst the Painter. — Can any of your readers 
inform me who was Jo. Verelst ? I have in my 
possession a picture bearing the signature, with 
the addition of P. 1714. The celebrated artists of 
that name mentioned in the Dictionary of Painters 
cannot be the same. Cslcebna^ 

Latin Treatise on whipping School-boys. — 
What is the name of a modem Latin author, who 
has written a treatise on the antiquity of the prac* 
tice of whipping school-boys ? The work is alluded 
to in the History of the Plagellants, p. 134., edit. 
1777, but the author's name is not given. 



Whitewashing in Churches. — Can any of your 
correspondents inform me at what period, and 
about what year it became the custom to cover 
over with whitewash the many beautiful works of 
art, both in stone and wood, which have of late* 
years been brought to light in our cathedrals and 
churches in the course of renovation ? K. 

Surname '* Kynoch.^ — Can any of your corre- 
spondents supply any heraldic or genealogical in* 
formation regarding this name, a few families ot 
which are to be found in Moray and Aberdeen 
shires. North BritaUi ? J» 

Dates of published Worhs. — Is it possible to 
ascertain the exact time of publication of any 
book, for instance in the year 1724, either at Sta*. 
tioners* Hall or elsewhere ? D. 

Saw'dust Recipe. — There is a recipe existing 
somewhere for converting si^»4^t.iijitp palatable 

Feb. 18. 1854.] 



human food. Can 70a tell me what it is, or where 
it is to be found? G.D. 

JBranks, or Gossips' Bridles, — Walton Church 
contains one of those strange instruments with 
which our ancestors used to punish those dames who 
were too free with the use of their tongues. They 
were called hanks [branks], or gossips* bridles, 
'and were intended to inclose the head, being 
fastened behind by a padlock, and having at- 
tached to it a small piece of iron which literally 
"" held the tongue." Thus accoutred, the unhappy 
culprit was marched through the village till she 
^ave unequivocal signs of repentance and humi- 
liation. Can any one give some account of this 
x;urious instrument ? Geobgb Hodges. 


[Fosbroke says that ** the brank is a sugar-loaf cap 
made of iron hooping, with a cross at top, and a flat 
-piece projecting inwards to lie upon the tongue. It 
was put upon the head of scolds, padlocked behind, 
3nd a string annexed, by which a man led them 
through the towns." (See also Brand's Popular An- 
tiquities, vol. ill. p. 108., Bohn*s edition.) Engravings 
t>f them will be found in Plot*s History of Staffordshire, 
p. 389., and in Brand's History of Newcastle, vol. ii. 
p. 192. In the Historical Description of the Tower of 
London, p. 54., edit. 1774, occurs the following libel- 
lous squib on the fair sex : ** Among the curiosities of 
the Tower is a collar of torment, which, say your con- 
ductors, used formerly to be put about the women's 
neck that cuckolded their husbands, or scolded them 
when they came home late ; but that custom is left off 
now-a-days, to prevent quarrelling for collars, there 
not being smiths enough to make them, as most mar- 
xied men are sure to want them at one time or an- 
other." Waldron, in his Description of the Isle of Man, 
p. 80., thus notices this instrument of punishment : **1 
know nothing in the Manx statutes or punishments in 
particular but this, which is, that if any person be 
convicted of uttering a scandalous report, and cannot 
make good the assertion, instead of being fined or im- 
prisoned, they are sentenced to stand in the market- 
place, on a sort of scaffold erected for that purpose, 
with their tongue in a noose made of leather, which 
they call a bridle, and having been exposed to the view 
of the people for some time, on the taking off this 
machine, they are obliged to say three times, * Tongue, 
thou hast lyed.' "] 

Not caring a Fig for anything, — What is the 
origin of this expression ? J. H. Chateau. 


{[Nares informs us that the real origin of this ex- 
pression may be found in Stevens and Pineda*s Dic- 
tionaries under Higa ; and, in fact, the same phrase 
and allusion pervaded all modern Europe : as, Far le 
fiehe, Ital. ; Faire la figtte, Fr. ; Die Feigen weisen. 
Germ. ; De vyghe setten, Dutch. (See Du Cauge, in 

Ficha,) Johnson says, <* To fig, in Spanish, higas dart 
is to insult by putting the thumb between the fore and 
middle finger. From this Spanish custom we yet say 
in contempt, A fig for you,** To this explanation Mr. 
Douce has added the following note : ** Dr. Johnson 
has properly explained this phrase ; but it should be 
added, that it is of Italian origin. When the Milanese 
revolted against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa» 
they placed the Empress his wife upon a mule with 
her head towards the tail, and ignominiously expelled 
her their city. Frederick afterwards besieged and 
took the place, and compelled every one of his pri* 
soners, on pain of death, to take with his teeth a fig 
from the posteriors of a mule. The party was at the 
same time obliged to repeat to the executioner the 
words Ecco lafica. From this circumstance /ar lafica 
became a term of derision, and was adopted by other 
nations. The French say likewise, faire la figite,**"] 

B, C, F. — Can you give me any information 
respecting the famous B. C. Y. row, as it was 
called, which occurred about fifly years ago ? A 
newspaper was started expressly to explain the 
meaning of the letters, which said it was " Beware 
of the Catholic Yoke;" but it was wrong. 


[Tliese ** No- Popery" hieroglyphics first appeared 
in the reign of Charles II. during the debates on the 
Exclusion Bill, and were chalked over all parts of 
Whitehall and the Houses of Parliament. O B. C. Y. 
was then the inscription, which meant, " O Beware of 
Catholic York." On their re-appearance in 1 809 tho 
Y. was much taller than the B. C. ; but the use and 
meaning at thb time of these initials still remains a 

Earl Nugenfs Poems, — T would be much 
obliged for any information relating to the poems 
written by Robert, afterwards Earl Nugent, be- 
tween the years 1720 and 1780. It is supposed 
that they were first published in some periodical^ 
and afterwards appeared in a collected form. 

James F. Febguson. 


[A volume of his poems was published anonymously 
by Dodsley, and entitled Odes and Epistles; containing 
an Ode on his own Conversion from Popery : London, 
1739, 8vo., 2nd edit. There are also other pieces by 
him in Dodsley*s Collection, and the New Foundling 
Hospital for Wit He also published Faith, a Poem ; 
a strange attempt to overturn the Epicurean doctrine 
by that of the Trinity ; and Verses to the Queen ; with 
a New Year's Gift of Irish Manufocture, 1775, 4to.] 

Huntbach MSS, — Can you tell me where the 
Huntbach MSS. now lie ? Shaw, in his History 
of Staffordshire, drew largely from them. Uksus. 

[Dr. Wilkes's Collections, with those of Fielde, 
Huntbach, Loxdale, and Shaw, as also the engraved 
plates and drawings, published and unpublished, rela- 
tive to the History of Staffordshire, were, in the year 
1820, in the possession of William Clamper, F.S.A., 
Deritend House, Birmingham.] 

L^iyitized by VjOO^IC 



tlfe. ««^ 

fibfy LoafMmey.^ln Br. Whitftker*s What'' 
\ p. 149.» mention is made of holy loaf money, 
hat is meant bj this ? T. I. W . 

[This seems to be some eoelesiastioal due psyable on 
Hlaf-foass, or LoaCdaass, oommonljr called Liaminaa- 
Dajr (Angiist Ist). See JSomoer and Jaaius. It was 
oaUed Loaf or Bread-mass, heeauw it was a day of 
eUation of grain* or of bread made of new wheat ; and 
was abo t^ holiday of St. Peter ad Vinciik, whea 
Peter-pence were paid. Du Cange likewise meatioos 
the Fonts bemedictui, and that money was given by the 
recipients of it on the following oecaston : — <* Since the 
cs»oebumens," says be, *' before baptism could neither 
ipartake of the Divine Myhenea, nor consequently of 
the Eucharist, a loaf was consecrated and given to them 
b)r the priest, whereby they were prepared for receiving 
the body of Christ.''] 

St* i^t&y«, BrutoL — Can yon Inform me when 
^e Church of St. Philip, Bristol, was made paro- 
diial, and ib what year the Priory of Benedictiiies, 
mentioned by William de Worcester in connexion 
with this church, was dissolved, and when founded F 


. [Neither Dugdale nor Tanner could discover any 
notices of this priory, except the traditionary account 
preserved in William of Worcester, p. 210. -. ** — 
juxta Cimiterium et Eedestam Saacti Philtppi, ubi 
quondam ecdesia rel^osomm et Prioratus scituatur.** 
It was probably a cell to the Tewkesbury monastery ; 
and the historians of Bristol state, that the exact time 
when it became parochial is not known ; bat it was 
very early, being mentioned in Gaunt*s deeds before 
the year 1 200 ; and, like St. James's, became a parish 
church through the accession of inhabitants.] 

Foreign UiwoersiHes. — Is there any history of 
Ae University of Bologna? or wfaiere can be 
found any account of the foundation and oonsti- 
tadon of the foreign universities in general ? 

J. C. H. B. 

[Our correspondent will find some account of the 
foreign universities, especially of Bologna, in the 
valuable article ** Universities,** Bneydeptadia Britan- 
moo, vol. xxt, with numerous references to other works 
containing notices of them. Consult also ** A Dts- 
eovrse not altogether vnprofitable nor vnpleasant for 
such as are desirous to know the Situation and Cus- 
tomes of Forraine Cities wi^out trauelling to see 
them : containing a Discovrse of all those Citties 
which doe flourish at thu Day priuiledged Vniuer- 
sities. By Samuel Lewkenor. London, 1594, 4to.'*] 



(VoLix., p. 55.) 

The remarks of John o* thb Fobd of Malta 
deserve to be followed up by all your correspon- 
dents who, at least, admit the possibility of ** com- 

mnicaitioiM with the unseen world.** In order td 
facilitate the acquisition of the reqmkite anovini 
of facts, I beg to a^trise John o* the Fobd, and 
your other correspondents and readers generally, 
that a Society was founded about a year ago, and 
is now in existence, composed of members of the 
University of Cambridge ; the obiects of which 
will be best gleaned from the following extract 
from the Prospectus : 

** The interest and importance of a serious and earned 
inquiry into the nature of the j^enomeaa which are 
vaguely called * supernatural,* will scarcely be ques* 
tioned. Many persons believe that all such apparently 
mysterious occurrences are due, either to purely natun^ 
causes, or to delusions of the mind or senses, or to 
wilful deception. But there are many others wh<K 
believe it possible that the beings of the unseen worh^ 
may manifest themselves to us in extraordinary ways; 
and also are unable otherwise to explain many fiicts, tiie 
evidence for which cannot be impeached. Both parties 
have obviously a common interest in wishing eases of 
supposed * supernatural * agency to be thoroughly sifted. 
.... The main impediment to investigations of this 
kind is the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient number 
of clear and well«attested cases. Many of the stories 
current in tradition, or scattered up and down in books, 
may be exactly true; others must be purely fictitious ; 
others again, probably the greater number, consist of a 
mixture of ttuth and falsehood. But it is idle te 
examine the significance of an alleged &ct of this 
nature, until the trustworthiness, and also the extent 
of the evidence iot it, are ascertained. Impressed with 
this conviction, some members of the University of 
Cambridge are anxious, if possible, to form an exten* 
save collection of authenticated cases of supposed 'super- 
natural' agency .... From all those who may be 
inclined to aid them, they request written communi- 
cations^ with full details <^ persons, times, and places." 

The Prospectus closes witii the foUowii^ classi- 
fication of pnenomena : 

** L Appearances of Angels. (I.) Good. (2.) EviL 
— II. Spectral appearances of — (1.) The beholder 
himself (e.g. * Fetches' or 'Doubles*). (2.) Other 
men, recognised or not. (i.) Before their death {€,§, 
'second sigbt.') (a.) To one person, (b.) To sevend 
persons. (iL) At the moment of their death, (a.) 
To one person, (b.) To several persons. 1. In tint 
same place. 2. In several places, i. Simultaneously, 
ii. Successively, (iii.) After their death. In conr 
aexion with — (a. ) Particular places, remarkable Ibr-^ 
1. Good deeds. 2. Evil deeds, (b.) Particular timef 
(e. g, on tlie anniversary of any event, or at fixed sea- 
sons).' (c) Particular events (e. g, before calamity or 
death), (d.) Particular persons (eg, haunted nmr^ 
derers). — III. * Shapes* falling under neither of the 
former classes. (1.) Recurrent. In connexion with — 
(i.) Particular families (e, g. the ' Batwhee*). (ii.) 
Particular places («. g. the * Mawth Dog*). («. ) Oei 
casional. (i. ) Visions signtfying events, past, p r e s ent , 
or future, (a.) By actual representation (e. g, * aeoond 
sight'), (b.) By symbol, (ii.) Visions i>fa fantas- 
tical nature. — IV. Dreams remarkable for comct- 

Feb. 18. 1854.] 



denoes. (1.) la their ooeurrenee. (i.) To the tame 
peMon severml times, (ii. ) In the same fimn to aeverml 
person!. (a.) Simultaneously, (b.) Successively. 
(2.) With facts, (i.) Past (a.) Previously un. 
known, (b.) Formerly known, but foi^otten. (iL) 
Present, bat unknown, (iii.) Future. — V. Feelings. 
A definite consciousness of a fact. (1.) Past: an 
impression that an event has happened. (2.) Present : 
sympathy 4kii a person suffering or acting at a dis- 
tance. (3.) Future : presentiment — VI. Physical 
effects. (1.) Sounds, (i.) With the use of ordinary 
means (e. ^. ringing of bells> (ii.) Without the u«b of 
any apparent means (e. g. voices). (2.) Impressions 
of touch («. g, breatbings on the person). 

"Every narrative of 'supernatural* agency which 
may be communicated, will be rendered &r more in- 
structive if accompanied by any particulars as to the 
^observer's natural temperament (e. g. sanguine, nervous, 
&c.), constitution (e. g, subject to fever, somnambulism, 
&c.), and st&te at tlie time (e.^. excited in mind or 
body, &c.)." 

As I have no authority to give names, I can do 
no more than say that, though not a member of 
the Society, I shiOl be happy to receive oommuni- 
cations and forward them to the secretary. 

C. Mahsfibld In«lbbt. 


[ The Night Side of Nature would seem to indicate 
that its ingenious, yet sober and judicious, authoress 
had forestalled the *' Folk-lore'* investigations of the 
projected Cambridge Society. Probably some of its 
members will not rest satisfied wiA a simple collection 
of phenomena relating to communications with the un- 
seen world, but will exclaim with Hamlet — 

*< Thou com'st in such a questionable shape^ 
That I will speak to thee 1** 

and will endeavour to ascertain the phih$opky of those 
communications, as Newton did with the recorded data 
and phenometm of the mechanical or material nniverse. 
Whether the transcripts of some of the voluminous 
unpublished writings of Dionysius Andreas Freher, 
deposited in the British Mnsevra (Add. MSS. 5767 — 
5792.), will assist the inquirer in bs investigations, we 
cannot confidently state: but in them he will find 
continual references to what Jacob Bohme terms ** the 
eternal and astral magic, or the laws, powers and 
properties of the great Universal Will-Spirit of the two 
co-eternal worlds of darkness and light, and of this 
third or temporary principle." Freher was Hie prin- 
cipal illustrator of the writings of the celebrated Jacob 
Bohme, now exctting so much interest among the 
German literati; and, if we may credit William Law, 
it was from the principles of this remarkable man that 
Sir Isaac Newton derived his theory of fundamental 
powers. (See « N. & Q.,*' Vol. viii., p. 247.) But on 
this and other matters we may doubtless expect to be 
well informed by Sir David Brewster, in his new " Me- 
moir of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac 
Newton.** According to Law, the two-fold spiritual 
universe stands as near, and in a similar relation to this 
material mixed worid, of darkness and light, evil and 

good, death and life, or rather the latter to thie formaiv 
as water does to the gases of which it is essentially ( 
pounded. -^£d.] 


(Vol. ix^ p. 54.) 

Until your correspondent Q. designated the 
word starvation as " an Americanism," I never had 
the least suspicion that it was obtained from that 
source. On the contrary, I remember to have 
heard some thirty or forty years ago, that it was 
first employed by Harry Dundas, the first Viscount 
Melville, who might have spoken with a bro^e, 
but whose despatches were in good intelligible 
Englbh. I once asked his son, the second Vis- 
count, whose correctness must be fresh in the re^ 
collection of many of your readers, if the above 
report was true, and he seemed to think that his 
father had coined the word, and that it immediately 
got into general circulation. My impression is, 
that it was already current during the great 
scarcity at the end of the liist, and the commence* 
ment of this century ; but the dictionary makers, 
those **wfao toil at the lower empioynsents -c^ 
life,** as old Sam Johnson termed it, are not apt 
to be alert in seizing on fresh words, and " starr* 
ation ** has shared in the general n^leet. 

If you permit me I will, however, afibrd them 
my humble aid, by transcribing some omitted 
words which I fina noted in a little WaikerV 
Dictionary^ printed in 1830, and which has beeii 
my companion in many pilgrimage through miaoj 
distant lands. Many of them may by &ts time 
have found their way even into dictionaries, but I 
copy them as I find them. 




Compete (verb). 


Cupel (jtee test). 

Stationery (writing mate- 


Mister (form of address). 



Growl (substantive). 

Avadavat (School for Scan- 




Jungle. • 

Celt (formed of touch- 





Curry (substantive)* 



Resile (verb). 













N. L. Mblvuxe. 

However ** strange it may appear, it is never- 
theless quite true,'* that this word, ^^Starvatian 

L>iyiiiz.fc;u uy 




[No. 225, 

(from the verb), state of perishing from cold or 
hunger/* is to be found, and thus defined, in **An 
Appendix to Dr. Johnson^s English Dictionary," 
published along with the latter, by William Maver, 
m 2 vols. 8vo., Glasgow, 1809, now forty-five years 
ago. In his preface to this Appendix he says : 

" In the compilation the editor is principally in- 
debted to Mr. Mason, whose labours in supplying the 
^deficiencies of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary have so much 
• enriched the vocabulary of our language, that every 
-purcliaser of the quarto edition should avail Iiimself of 
a copy of Mr. Mason*s Supplement.** 

Whether or not Mr. Maver drew the word 
"starvation" from Mr. Mason's Supplement, I 

' cannot sav ; but from old date in the west of 
Scotland it has been, and is still, popufarly and 
extensively used in the exact senses given to it by 
Mr. Maver as above. I think it much more likely 

xto be of Scottish than of American origin, and 
that Mr, Webster may have picked it up from 
some of our natives in this country. 

I may add, that in early life I often spoke with 
Mr. Maver, who wns a most intelligent literary 
mnn. In 1809 he followed the business of a book- 
^ler in Glasgow, but from some cause was not 
fortunate, and afterwards followed that of a book 
auctioneer, and may be dead fully thirty years 
ago. His edition of, and Appendix to, Johnson 
were justly esteemed ; the latter ** containing se- 
veral thousand words omitted by Dr. Johnson, 
and such as have been introduced by good writers 
since his time," with " the pronunciation accord- 
ing to the present practice of the best orators and 
orthoepists " of the whole language. G. N. 

This word was first introduced into the English 
language by Mr. Dundas, in a debate in the House 
of Commons on American affairs, in 1775. From 
it he obtained the nick-name of "Starvation 
Dundas." (Vide the Correspondence between Ho^ 
race Walpole and MasonyWoX. ii. pp. 177. 310. 396., 
edition 185 1 .) The word is of irregular formation, 
the root starve being Old English, while the ter- 
mination 'Otion is Latin. E. G. K. 

The word may perhaps be originally American ; 
but if the followmg anecdote be correct, it was 
introduced into this country long before Webster 
compiled his Dictionary : 

** The word starvation was first introduced into the 
English language by Mr. Dundas, in a speech in 1775 
on an American debate, and hence applied to him as a 
nickname, * Starvation Dundas.* * I shall not,' said he, 
* wait for the advent of starvation from Edinl)urgh to 
settle my judgment.' " — Lettersmof Horace Walpole and 
Mason, vol. ii. p. 396, 

J.R.M., M.A. 

Throughout this part of the country, "starved" 
always refers to cold, never to hunger. To express 
the latter the word " hungered " is always used : 

thus, many were "like to have been hungered" in 
the late severe weather and hard times. This is 
clearly the scriptural phrase " an hungred." To 
"starve" is to perish; and it is a common ex- 
pression in the south, " I am quite perished with 
cold ;" which answers to our northern one, "I am 
quite starved." H. T. G. 


I cannot ascertain the period of the adoption of 
the unhappily common word " starvation " in our 
language, but it is much older than your corre- 
spondent Q. supposes^ It occurs in the HoUiad: 

*• 'Tis but to fire another Sykes, to plan 
Some new starvation scheme for Hindostan.** 



(Vol. viii., p. 617.) 

R. W. Cabtbb gives an account of folk lore in 
reference to Osmotherley, and expresses a desire 
to know if his statement is authentic. I have en- 
deavoured to make myself ac(}uainted with York- 
shire folk lore, and beg to mform Mb. Cabteb 
that his statement approaches as near the truth as 
possible. In my early days I frequently had re- 
cited to me, by a respectable farmer who had been 
educated on the borders of Roseberry Tand who 
obtained it from the rustics of the neighbour- 
hood), a poetical legend, in which all the parti- 
culars of this curious tradition are embodied. It 
is as follows : 

** In Cleveland's vale a village stands. 
Though no great prospect it commands ; 
As pleasantly for situation 
As any village in the nation* 
Great Ay ton it is call'd by name ; 
But though I am no man of fame, 
Yet do not take me for a fool, 
Because I live near to this town ; 
But let us take a walk and see 
This noted hill call'd Roseberry, 
Compos'd of many a craggcd stone. 
Resembling all one solid cone. 
Which, monumental-like, have stood 
Ever since the days of Noah's flood. 
Here cockles .... petrified, 
As by the curious have been tried. 
Have oft been found upon its top, 
'Tis thought the Deluge had cast up. 
'Tis mountains high (you may see that). 
Though not compar'd with Ararat. 
Yet oft at sea it doth appear, 
To ships that northern climates steer, 
A land-mark, when the weather \ 
If many ships at sea there be, 
A charming prospect then you'll sec ; 
Don't think I fib, when this you're reading. 
They look like sheep on mountains feeding. 


steer, > 
r's clear. J 

Liiyiiiz-fc^u uy 


Feb. 18. 1854.] 




Then turn your eyes on the other hand. 
As pleasing views you may command. 
For thirty miles or more, they say. 
The country round you may survey, 
"When the air *8 serene and clear the day. 
There is a cave near to its top. 
Vulgarly call'd the Cobbler's Shop, 
By Nature form'd out of the rock, 
And able to withstand a shock. 
On the north side there is a well, 
Relating which this Fame doth tell 
Prince Oswy had his nativity 
Computed by astrology. 
That he unnatural death should die. 
His mother to this well did fly 
To save him from sad destiny ; 
But one day sleeping in the shade. 
Supposing all secure was made, 
Lo 1 sorrow soon gave place to joy ; 
This well sprung up and drown'd the boy." 

It is confidently stated, in the neighbourhood 
of Osmotherlej and Roseberry, that Prince Oswy 
and bis mother were both interred at Osmotberley, 
from whence comes the name of the place, Os-by- 
liis- mother-lay, or Osmotherley. Thomas Gill. 



(Vol. ix., p. 51.) 

As another and historically -interesting specimen 
of echo poetry, perhaps the readers of " N. & Q." 
may not dislike to see preserved in your pages the 
following translation from the French. The ori- 
pnal publication, it is said, exposed the bookseller, 
Palm of Nuremberg, to trial by court-martial. He 
was sentenced to be shot at Braunau in 1807 — a 
severe retribution for a few lines of echo poetry. 
It is entitled 

" Bonaparte and the Echo. 

Hon, Alone, I am in this sequestered spot not over- 

Echo, Heard! 

Bon, 'Sdeatb I Who answers me ? What being is there 

Echo, I. 

Bon, Now I gu?ss 1 To report my accents Echo has 
made her task. 

Echo, Ask. 

Bon, Knowest thou whether London will henceforth 
continue to resist ? 

Echo, Resist. 

Bon, Whether Vienna and other Courts will oppose 
me always ? 

Echo, Always. 

Bon, O, Heaven I what must I expect after so many 
reverses ? 

EcJuK Reverses. 

Bon, What? should I, like a coward vile, to com- 
pound be reduced ? 

Echo, Reduced. 

Bon, After so many bright exploits be forced to resti* 
tution ? 

Echo, Restitution. 

Bon, Restitution of what I*ve got by true heroic feats 
and martial address ? 

Echo, Yes. 

Bon, What will be the fate of so much toil and trouble? 

EcIm, Trouble. 

Bon, What will become of my people, already too un- 
happy ? 

Echo, Happy. 

Bon, What should I then be, that I think myself im« 
mortal ? 

Echo, Mortal, 

Bon, The whole world is filled with the glory of my 
name, you know. 

Echo, No^ 

Bon, Formerly its fame struck this vast globe with 

Echo, Error. 

Bon, Sad Echo, begone ! I grow infuriate 1 I die ! 

Echo, Die!" 

It may be added that Napoleon himself (Voice 
from St, Helena^ vol. i. p. 432.), when asked about 
the execution of Palm, said : 

^ All that I recollect is, that Palm was arrested by 
order of Davoust, I believe, tried, condemned, and 
shot, for having, while the country was in possession of 
the French and under military occupation, not only 
excited rebellion amongst the inhabitants, and urged 
them to rise and massacre the soldiers, but also at- 
tempted to instigate the soldiers themselves to refuse 
obedience to their orders, and to mutiny against their 
generals, / heUeve that he met with a fair trial." 

Jas. J. Scott. 



(Vol. ix., p. 15.) 

In a curious old pamphlet of twenty- three pages, 
entitled Everyhody*8 jBusiness is ifohody's Busi^ 
ness answered Paragraph hy Paragraph^ by a 
Committee of Women-Servants and Footmen; 
London, printed by T. Read for the author, and 
sold by the booksellers of London, and . , . price 
one penny (without date), the following passage 

** The next great Abuse among us is, that under the 
Notion of cleaning our Shoes, above ten Thousand 
Wicked, Idle, Pil^ring Vagrants are permitted to 
stroll about our City and Suburbs. These are called 
the Black' Guard, who Black your Honour's Shoes, and 
incorporate themselves under the Title of the Worship* 
fal Company ofjapanners. But the Subject is so low 
that it becomes disagreeable even to myself; give me 
leave therefore to propose a Way to clear the streets 
of those Vermin, and to substitute as many honest 
and industrious persons in their stead, who are now 
starving for want of bread, while these execrable vil- 

L-'iyiii^t;u uy 




XSfb. 225. 

Imlin. live (though in Rags and MistinMt) yet in ^enty 
and Luiury.** 

" A( 7%e next Abuse you tee tt, Black your 
dioes, your Honour, eaud the Japaoners eHek in kit 
Stomach. We thaU not take i^wm us to anttter for thete 
pitiful Serubtf but in hit own wordt ; the Subject is so 
low, that it becomes disag reea ble even to us, at it dtet 
even to himself, and he may clear the Streets of these 
Vermin in what Manner he pUatee if the Law wiU yive 
him leave, for we are in no want of themg we are better 
provided for qlready in that respect by our Mattert and 


The A>llowing linel hf Cbiriet, Earl of Dorset 
and Middlesex (the writer of the famous old song 
** To all you ladies now at land**), are au instance 
of the application of tkia terrai to the turbulent 
link-boys, against whom the proclamation quoted 
by Mil, CuNNiNQQAM was directed. Their date is 
probably a short time before that of the procla- 
mation : 

** Belinda*s sparkling wit and eyes. 

United cast so fierce a light, 
As quickly flashes, quickly dies ; 

Wounds not the heart, but burns the sight. 
Love is all gentleness. Love is all joy ; 

Sweet are his looks, and soft his pace : 
ffer Cupid is a Uack-guard boy. 

That runt hit link full in yourfatce," 

F. E. E. 


(Vol. vln., pp. 464. 624. ; Vol. ix., p. 63.) 

^ I believe Mb. Keightuet is perfectly right in 
his conjecture, so far as Schiller is concerned. 
TTttrm, without any prefix, had the sense of ser- 
pent in German. Adelung says it was used for 
all animals without feet who'move on their bellies, 
serpents amon^ the rest. Schiller does not seem 
to nave had Snakspeare in his thoo^ts, but the 
proverb quoted by Adehing : 

« Auch das friedliebste Wurmchen beitzt, wenn man 
es treten wiU.** 

In this proverb there is evidently an allusion to the 
serpent, as if of the same nature with the. worm ; 
which^ as we know,1 neither stings nor bite* the 
foot which treads on it. Shakspeare therefore 
says "will turn,*' making a distinction, which 
Schiller does not make. Li the translation (Cole- 
ridge evidently had Shakspeare in his recollection ; 
but he has not lost Schiller's idea, which gives the 
worm a serpent*s ^ng. Vermo is applied both by 
Dante and Ariosto to the Devil, as the "great 

«* I* mi presi 

Al pel del vermo reo, che 1 mondo fora.** 

Inferno, C. xxxv. 

** Che al gran vermo inferaal mette la briglia.** 
Orlandt fUrioso, C. xi.y. at. 84. 

E. C. H. 

With deference to C. B. d*0., I consider that 
Wurm is used, in poetry at least, to designate any 
individual of the tribe of reptiles. In the Kampf 
mit dem Drackenj the rebuke of tiie ^ Master** is 
thus conveyed : 

«< Du btst ein Gott dem Volke worden, 
Du kommst ein Feind xuriick dem Orden, 
Und einen schlimmern fVurm gebar. 
Dein Herz, als deiser Drache war. 
Die ScJdange die das Herz vergiftet. 
Die Zwietracht und Verderben stiftet !" 

The monster which had yielded to the prowess 
of the disobedient son of the "Order** is elsewhere 
called "der TTttrm:** 

" Hier hausete der Wurm und lag, 
Den Raub erspiihend Nacht und Tsg ; ^ 

while the " counterfeit presentment** of it — ** Alles 
bUd ich nach genau'^ — is delineated in the foUoir- 
ing lines : 

** In eine Schlange endigt sich, 
Des Riickens ungeheure Lange 
Halb Wurm erschien, halb Molch und Drache.** 

The word in question is in this passage applic- 
able perhaps to the serpent section, but we have 
seen that it. is used to denote the entire living 
animal. A. L. 

Middle Temple. 


(Vol. ix., p. 75.) 

I am inclined to think that Mb. Haluwell has 
been misled by his old law-books, for u^n looking 
at the principal authorities upon this point, I 
cannot nnd any such interpretation of the term 
inheritance as that quoted by him from CowelL 
The words "the inheritance/* in the passage 
" heretofore the inheritance of William Shakspeare, 
Gent, deceased,** would most certainly appear to 
imply that Shakspeare inherited the lands as heir- 
at-law to some one. But, however, it must not 
be concluded upon this alone that the poet's 
father was a landed proprietor, as the inheritance 
could proceed from any other ancestor to whom 
Shakspeare was by law heir. 

Blackstone, in his Comine$itarieSj has the follow- 

<* Descent, or hereditary succession, is the titk 
whereby a man on the death of his ancestor acquires 
his estate by right of representation, as his heir-at-law. 
An heir, therefore, is he upon whom the law casts the 
estate immediately on the death of the ancestor : and 
an estate, so descending to the heir, is in Law called the 
inheritance,** — Vol. ii. p. 201. 

Feb. 18* 1854.] 




** Purchase, perquintio, taken in its largest and most 
^tensive sense, is thus defined by Littleton ; the pos- 
session of lan^ and tenements which a man hath hj 
his own act or agreement, and not by descent from any 
€^ his ancestors or kindred. In this sense it is contra- 
distinguished from acquisition by right of blood, and 
includes every other method of coming to an estate, 
hmtmenly ikat ly imheriitmee : whereki tiie title is vested 
in a person, not by his own act or agreement, but by 
the single operation of law." — Vol. u, p. 241. 

Thus it is clear the possession of an estate by 
Inheritance b created only by a person being heir 
to it ; and the mere purchase of tt, though it vests 
the fee simple in him, can but make him the (U8ign 
and not the heir. The nomination (as it would be 
in the case of a purchase) of an heir to succeed to 
€he inheritance, has no place in the English law ; 
tiie maxim being ^ Solus Deus hseredem facere 
potest, non homo ; " and all other persons, whom a 
tenant in fee simple may please to appoint as his 
successors, are not his heirs but his assigns. (See 
WiRicmu on the Lcno of Real Property,) 

Russell Gole. 

M«. HALLTWiOiL is perfectly ngbt in his opinion 
as to the expression ^ heretofore the inkeritance of 
William Shakq>eare.*' All that that ex{n:«ssioii in 
a deed means is, that Shakspeare was the absolute 
owner of the estate, so that he eould sdl, ^nt, or 
derite it ; and in case be did not do so, it would 
descend to his heir-at-law. The term has no re- 
ference to the mode by which the estate came to 
Shakspeare, but only to the nature of the estate 
he had in the prcmerty. And as a man may be- 
oome possessed of such an estate in land by gift, 
purchase, devise, adverse possession, &c., as well 
as by descent from some one else, the mere fact 
that a man has such an estate affords no inference 
whatever as to the mode in which he became pos- 
sessed of it. The autlMmties on the subject are 
Xiittleton, section ix., and Co. Litt., p. 16. (&)» &c. 
A case is there mentioned so long ago as the 
6 Bdw. m., where, in an action of waste, the 
plaintiff alleged that the defendant held *< de hsere- 
ditate sul^** and it was ruled that, albeit the plain- 
tiff had purchased the reversion, the allegation 
was sufficient. 

In very ancient deeds the word is very com- 
monly used where it cannot mean an estate that 
has descended to an heir, but must mean an estate 
that ma^ descend to an heir. Thus, in a grant I 
have (without date, and therefore probably before 
A.D. 1300), Robert de Boltone grants land to 
John, the son of Geoffrey, to be held by the said 
John and his heurs *' in feodo et hsereditate in per- 
petuum." This plnnly shows that hcareditas is 
here used as equivalent to ^ fee simple." I have 
idso sundry other equally ancient deeds, by which 
lands were granted to be hdd "jure hsereditaris," 

or " fiber^ quiet^ kttredUari^, et in pace.** Kow 
these expressions plainly indicate, not that tb^ 
land has descended to the party as heir, but that 
it is granted to him so absolutely that it may de- 
scend to his heir ; in other words, that an estate of 
inheritance, and not merely £or life or for years, is 
granted by the deed. S. G. C. 

Me. Haluwbll's exposition of the term "in- 
heritance,** quoted from the Shakspeare deed, is 
substantially correct, and there can be no question 
but that the sentence " heretofore the inheritance 
of William Shakspeare, Gent, deceased,** was in- 
troduced in such deed, umply to show that Shak- 
speare was formerly the absolute owner in fee 
simple of the premises comprised therein, and not 
to indicate that he had acquired them by deacenti 
either as heir of his father or mother, although he 
might have done so. As Ma. Haluwjbll appears 
to attach some importance to the word "pur- 
chase,** as used by Cowell in his definition of the 
term " inheritance,** the following explanation of 
the word " purchase ** may not prove unacceptable 
to him. 

Purchase — " Acquisitum, perquisitum, pur- 
chasium** — signifies the huying ox acquisition of 
lands and tenements, with money^ or by taking 
them by deed or agreement, and wd hy descent or 
herediiary ryght, (Lit xii. ; Reg. Orie., 143.) la 
Law a mem is said to come in by pur<mase when he 
acquires lands by legal conveyance, and he hath a 
lawful estate ; and a purchase is always intended 
by title, either from some consideration or by gift 
(for a gifl is in Law a purchase), whereas d^ent 
from an ancestor cometh of course by act of law; 
also all contracts are comprehended under this 
word purchase. (Coke on Xt^tfeftm, zviii., "Doc- 
Ux and Student,** c. 24.) Purchase, in opposiUoa 
to descent, is taken largely : if an estate comes to 
a man from his ancestors without writing, that is 
a descent; but where a person takes an estate 
from an ancestor or others, by deed, will, or^f^i, 
and not us heir-at-law^ that is a purchase. This 
explanation might be extended, but it is not ne- 
cessary to carry it ferther for the purpose of Mr. 
Halliwell*s inquiry. Chaslbcotx. 

The word '* inheritance *' was used for here^ta- 
ment, the former being merely the French form, 
the latter the Latin. Littleton (§ 9.) says : 

** £t est ascavoir que cest parol (enheritance) nest 
pas tant solement entendus lou home ad terres ou tene- 
mentes per discent de heritage, mes auxi chescun fee 
simple ou taile que home ad per son purchase puit 
estre dit enheritance, pur ceo que ses heires luy pur- 
ront enheriter. Car en briefe de droit qne home por* 
tera de terre, que luit de son purchase demesne, le 
briefe dira : Quam damat esse jus et hereditamentum 
suum. Et issint serra dit en divers auters briefes, que 
home ou feme portera de son purchase demesne, come 
il appiert per le Register.** ^<^ t 

.,y,„..uoy Google 



[No. 225, 

The word is still in use, and signifies what is 
capable of being inherited. H. P. 

Lincoln's Inu. 

(Vol. ix., p. 10.) 

Your correspondent W. H. M. has called my 
attention to his Note, and requested me to answer 
the third of his Queries. 

The present rightful heir to the barony of Fair- 
fax, should he wish to claim it, is a citizen of the 
United States, and a resident in the State of Vir- 
ginia. He is addressed, as any other American 
gentleman would be, Mr., when personally spoken 
to, and as an Esquire in correspondence. 

A friend of mme. Captain W ., has thus kindly 
answered the other Queries of W. H. M. : 

1. Sir Thomas Fairfax of Denton in Yorkshire 
was employed in several diplomatic affairs by 
Queen Elizabeth, and particularly in negotiations 
with James VI. of Scotland. By Charles I. he 
was created a peer of Scotland, his patent having 
been dated at Whitehall on Oct. 18, a.b. 1627. 

2. The family of Fairfax never possessed pro- 
perty, or land, in Scotland, and had no connexion 
with that country beyond their peerage. Many 
English gentlemen were created peers of Scotland 
by the Stuart kings, although unconnected with 
the nation by descent or property. I may cite 
the following instances : — The old Yorkshire 
House of Constable of Burton received a peerage 
in the person of Sir Henry Constable of Burton 
and Halsham; by paten t>, dated Nov. 14, 1620, Sir 
Henry was created Viscount Dunbar and Lord 
Constable. Sir Walter Aston of Tixal in Staf- 
fordshire, Bart., was created Baron Aston of For- 
far by Charles I., Nov. 28, 1627. And, lastly. Sir 
Thomas Osborne of Kineton, Bart, was created by 
Charles II., Feb. 2, 1673, Viscount Dumblane. 

3. Answered. 

4. William Fairfax, fourth son of Henry Fair- 
fax of Tolston, CO. York, second son of Henry, 
fourth Lord Fairfax, settled in New England in 
America, and was agent for his cousin Thomas, 
sixth lord, and had the entire management of his 
estates in Virginia. His third and only surviving 
son, Bryan Fairfax, was in holy orders, and re- 
sided in the United States. On the death of 
Robert, seventh Lord Fairfax, July 15, 1793, this 
Bryan went to England and preferred his claim to 
the peerage, which was determined in his favour 
by the House of Lords. He then returned to 
America. Bryan Fairfax married a Miss Eli- 
zabeth Cary, and had several children. (Vide 
Douglas, and Burke*s Peerage.^ 

There are several English families who possess 
Scottish peerages, but they are derived from Scot- 
tish ancestors, as Talmash, Badclyffe, Eyre, &c. 

Perhaps the writer may be permitted to inform 
your correspondent W. H. M. that the term '^sub- 
ject** is more commonly and correctly applied to 
a person who owes allegiance to a crowned head, 
and " citizen ** to one who is born^and lives under 
a republican form of government. ^W. W. 


1. Thomas, first Lord Fairfax (descended from 
a family asserted to have been seated at Towcester, 
CO. Northampton, at the time of the Norman inva« 
sion and subsequently of note in Yorkshire), ac* 
companied the Earl of Essex into France, temp. 
Eliz., and was knighted by him in the camp be- 
fore Rouen. He was created a peer of Scotland, 
4th May, 1627 ; but why of Scotland, or for what 
services, I know not. 

2. I cannot discover that the family ever pos- 
sessed lands in Scotland. They were formerly 
owners of Denton Castle, co. York (which they 
sold to the family of Ibbetson, Barts.), and after- 
wards of Leeds Castle, Kent. 

3. Precise information on this point is looked 
for from some transatlantic correspondent 

4. The claim of the Rev. Bryan, eighth Lord 
Fairfax, was admitted by the House of Lords, 
6th May, 1800 (H. L, Journals). He was, I pre- 
sume, born before the acknowledgment of inde* 

5. The title seems to be erroneously retained in 
the Peerages, as the gentleman now styled Lord 
Fairfax cannot, it is apprehended, be a natural- 
born subject of the British Crown, or capable of 
inheriting the dignity. It seems, therefore, that 
the peerage, if not extinct, awaits another claimant. 
As a direct authority, I may refer to the case of 
the Scottish earldom of Newburgh, in the suc- 
cession to which the next heir (the Prince Gusti* 
niani), being an alien, was passed over as a legal 
nonentity. (See BiddeU on Scottish Peerages, 
p. 720.^ There is another case not very easily 
reconcilable with the last, viz. that of the Earl of 
Athlone, who, though a natural-born subject of the 
Prince of Orange, was on 10th March, 1795, per- 
mitted to take his seat in the House of Lords in 
Ireland (Journals H, L. /.). Perhaps some cor- 
respondent will explain this case. H. G. 


Mr. Lyte on CoUodton, — Wlien I had the pleasure 
of meeting you in London, I promised that I would 
write to you from this place, and give you a detailed 
account of my method of making the collodion, of 
which I left a sample with you ; but since then I have 
been making a series of experiments, with a vieir, first, 
to simplifying my present formulae, and next, to pro- 
duce two collodions, one of great sensibility, the other 
of rather slower action, but producing better half- 
tones. I have also been considering the subject of 

LJiyiiiZ-tJU uy 


Feb. 18. 1854.] 



printing, and the best methods of producing those 
beautiful black tints which are so much prized ; and I 
think that, although the processes formerly given all 
of them produce this effect with tolerable certainty, 
yet many operators, in common with myself, have met 
with the most provoking failures on this head, where 
they felt the most certain of good results. 

I do not pretend to make a collodion which is 
different in its ingredients from that compounded by 
<>thers. The only thing is that I am anxious to de- 
fine the best proportions for making it, and to give a 
formula which even the most unpractised operator may 
work by. First, to produce the collodion I always use 
the soluble paper prepared according to the method 
indicated by Mr. Crookes, and to which I adverted in 
-'N. &Q.," Vol. viii., p. 252. Take of colourless 
nitric acid of 1*50, and sulphuric acid of 1 *60, equal 
quantities by measure, and mix them ; then plunge into 
the mixture as much of the best Swedish filtering 
paper (Papier Joseph is also very good) as the liquid 
will cover ; it roust be placed in it a single piece at a 
time. Cover the basin, and let it remain a night, or 
at least some hours. Then pour off the liquid, and 
wash the paper till its washings cease to taste the least 
acid, or to redden litmus paper. Then dry it. Of 
this paper I take 1 80 grains to one pint of ether, and 
having placed them together, I add alcohol drop by 
drop, till the ether begins to dissolve the paper, which 
will be denoted by the paper becoming quite trans- 
parent. I have rather increased the quantity of paper 
to be added, as the after treatment rather thins the 
collodion. This, when shaken up and completely dis- 
solved, forms the collodion. To sensitize I use two 
preparations, one prepared with potassium, the other 
with ammonium compounds; and, contrary to what 
many operators find the case, I find that the potassium 
gives the most rapid results. To prepare the po- 
tassium sensitizer, I take two bottles of, we will sup- 
pose, 6 oz. each ; into one of these I put about half an 
ounce of iodide of potassium in fine powder, and into 
the other an equal quautity of bromide of potassium, 
also pounded; we will call these No. 1. and No. 2. 
I fill the bottle No. ] . with absolute alcohol, taking 
great care that there is no oxide of amyle in it, as that 
seriously interferes with the action of the collodion. 
After leaving the alcohol in No. 1. for two hours, or 
thereabouts, constantly shaking it, let it settle, and 
when quite clear decant it off" into No. 2., where leave 
it again, with constant shaking, for two hours, and 
when settled decant the clear liquid into a third bottle 
for use. The oxide of amyle may be detected by 
taking a portion of the alcohol l>etween the palms of 
the hands, and rubbing them together, till the alcohol 
evaporates, af^er which, should oxide of amyle be 
present, it will easily be detected by its smell, which 
is not unlike that exhaled by a diseased potato. Of 
the liquid prepared, take one part to add to every three 
parts of collodion. The next, or ammonium sensitizer, 
is made as follows. Take 

collodion, as before. I feel certain that on a strict 
adherence to the correct proportion depends all the 
success of photography ; and as we find in the kindred 
process of the daguerreotype, that if we add too much 
or too little of the bromine sensitizer, we make the 
plate less sensitive, so in this process. When making* 
the first of these sensitizers, I always in each case let 
the solution attain a temperature of about 60** before 
decanting, so as to attain a perfectly equable compound 
on all occasions. 

In the second, or ammonium sensitizer, the solution- 
may be assisted by a moderate heat, and when again 
cooled, may advantageously be filtered to separate any 
sediment which may exist ; but neither of these liquids 
should ever be exposed to greait cold. 

I dissolve in my bath of nitrate of silver as much 
freshly precipitated bromide of silver as it will take up.^ 
Next, as to the printing of positives to obtain black 
tints, the only condition necessary to produce this re- 
sult is having an acid nitrate bath ; whether the posi- 
tive be printed on albumen paper, or common salted, 
paper, the result will always be the same. I have 
tried various acids in the bath, viz; nitric, sulphuric, 
tartaric, and acetic, and prefer the latter, as being the 
most manageable, and having a high equivalent. The 
paper I now constantly use is common salted paper* 
prepared as follows. Take 

Chloride of barium - - • 180 grs. 

Chloride of ammon. - - - 100 grs. 

Chloride of potassium - - - 140 grs. 

Water - - - - - 10 oz. 

Mix, and pour into a dish and lay the paper on the 
liquid, wetting only one side ; when it has lain there 
for about five minutes if French paper has been used, 
if English paper till it ceases to curl and falls flat on 
the liquid, let it be hung up by a bent pin to dry. 
These salts are better than those generally recom- 
mended, as they do not form such deliquescent salts 
when decomposed as the chloride of sodium does, and 
for this reason I should have even avoided the chloride 
of ammonium, only that it so much assists the tints ; 
however, in company with the other salts, the nitrate 
of ammon. formed does not much take up the atmo- 
spheric moisture, and I have never found it stain an 
even unvarnished negative. To sensitize this paper 

Absolute alcohol 
Iodide of ammon. 
Bromide of ammon. 

- 10 oz. 

- 100 grs* 

- 25 grs. 

Mix, and when dissolved, take one part to three of 

Nitrate of silver 
Acetic acid, glacial 
Water - 

500 grs. 
2 drs. 
5 oz. 

Mix, and lay the paper on this solution for not less: 
than five minutes, and if English paper, double that 
time. The hyposulphite to be used may be a very 
strong solution of twenty to twenty-five per cent., and 
this mode of treatment will always be found to produce 
fine tints. After some time it will be found that the 
nitrate bath will lose its acidity, and a drachm of acetic 
acid may be again added, when the prints begin to 
take a red tone: this will again restore the blacks. 
Lastly, the bath may of itself get too weak, and then 
it will be best to place it on one side, and recover the 
silver by any of the usual methods, and make a new 
bath. One word about the addition of the bromide of 



[No. 22a. 

nlver to the double iodide» as recommended by Dr. 
Diamond. I tried this, aud feel most confident that it 
produces no difference; as soon as the bromide of 
silver comes in contact with the iodide of potasuum, 
double decomposition ensues, and iodide of silver is 
formed. Indeed, farther, this very double decompo- 
sitioa, or a similar one, is the ba»s of a patent I have 
just taken for at the same time refining sUver and ma- 
nufiicturing iodide of potassium ; a process by which I 
much hope the enormous present price of iodide of 
potassium will be much lowered. F. Maxwku. Lttx. 
Hotel de I'Europe, 
i Pau, Basses Pyr6n6es. 

• P^S. — Since writing the former part of this letter, I 
see in La Lumiire a paper on the subject of printing 
positives, in part of which the addition of nitric acid is 
recommended to the bath ; but as my experiments have 
been quite independent of theirs, and my process one 
of a different nature, I still send it to you. When I 
bare an opportunity, I will send a couple of specimens 
of ray workmanship. I had prepared some for the 
Exhibition, but could not get them off in thne. I may 
add that the developing agent I use is the same in 
every way as that I have b^ore indicated through the 
medium of your pages ; but where formic acid cannot 
be got, the best developer is made as follows : 

Pyrogallic acid - - - - 27 grs. 

Aeetic acid - - - « - 6 drs. 

Water -. -. -. - - 9 ox. 

On Sensitive CoUddion, — As I have lately received 
many requests from friends upon the subject of the 
most sensitive colk>dion, I am induced to send you a 
fJBw words upon it. 

. Since my former communication, I believe a greater 
oertainty ii manufificture has been attained, whereby 
the operator may more safely rely upon uniformity of 

I have not only tried every purchasable collodion, 
but my experiments have been innumerable, especially 
in respect to the ammoniated salts, and I may, I thinl^ 
safely affirm that all preparations containing ammonia 
OBI^t to be rejected. Often, certainly* great rapidity 
of a^ioQ is obtained; but. that collodion which acted 
so wdl on one day may, pn the following, become 
comparatively useless, firom the change which appears 
so firequently to take place in the ammoniacal com- 
pounds. That blaclLening and fogging, of which so 
much has been said, I much think is one of the results 
of ammonia ; but not having, in my own manipula- 
tions, met with the d^culty, I have little peisooal 
experieaoe upon the subject. 

The more simple a collodion is the better ; and. the 
fbUowing, from its little varying and active qualities, I 
brieve to be equal to any now in use. 

A great deal has also been said upon the preparation 
of the simple coUodion, and that some mmples, however 
good eqtparemAft never sensitize in a satisfactory ma&- 
oer. I have not experienced this difficulty myself, or 
any appreciable variation. 

The eollodion made from the Swedi^ iltering 
paper» or the papier Joseph, is preferable, from the 
mvcfa. greater care with wluch it is used. 

If slips of either of these papers be carefully and 
completely immersed for four hours in a mixture of an 
equal part (by weight) of strong nitric acid or nitrous 
acid (the aqua fortis of commerce ) and strong sulphuric 
acid, then perfeetly washed, so as to get entirdy rid of 
the acids, the result will be an entirely soluble mate* 
rial. About 100 grains of dry paper to a pint (twenty 
ounces) of ether will form a collodion of the desired 
consistence for photographic purposes. If too thick, it 
may be reduced by pure ether or alcohoL However 
carefully this soluble paper or the gun cotton is pre- 
pared, it is liable to decompose even when kept with 
care. I would therefore advise it to be mixed with 
the ether soon after preparation, as the simple coUodioa 
keeps exceedingly well. Excellent simple collodion is 
to be procured now at the reasonable price of eight 
shillings the pint, which will to many be mate sato* 
factory than trusting to their own operations. 

To make the sensitizing Fbtid, — Put into a clean 
stoppered bottle, holding more than the quantity re- 
quired so as to allow of free shaking* six drachms of 
iodide of potassium and one drachm of bromide of 
potassium; wet them with one drachm of distilled 
water first, then pour into the bottle ten ounces of 
spirits of wine (not alcohol) ; shake frequently until 
dissolved. After some hours, if the solution has not 
taken place, add a few more drops of water, the salts 
being highly soluble in water, though sparingly so in 
rectified spirits ; but care must be taken not to sidd too 
much, as it prevents the subsequent adhesion of the coU 
lodion film to the glass. 

A drachm and a half to two drachms, according to 
the degree of intensity desired, added to the ounce of 
the above collodion, which should have remained a few 
days to settle before sensitizing, I find to act most sa*^ 
tisfactorily ; in fine weather it is instantaneous, being, 
after a good shake, fit for immediate use. If the sensi- 
tive collodion soon assumes a reddish colour, it is im- 
proved by the addition of one or two drops of a satu- 
rated solution of cyanide of potassium ; but great care 
must be used, as this salt is very active. 


Portrait of Alva (Vol. ix., p. 76.). — Here is 
a fine portrait of the Duke of Alra in the Royal 
Mnseam at Amsterdam, by D. Barendz (No. 14. 
in the Catalogue of 1848) ; and Mb. Wabdbw wiU 
find a spirited etchin^of him, decorated with the 
Order of the Golden Fleece, in the Historia Bd^ 
gica of Meteranus (folio, 1597), at p. 63. The 
Tatter portrait is very Quixotic in aspect at the 
first glance, but the expression becomes more 
Satanic as liie eye rests on it. Lancastbibhsis. 

Lord Mayor of London not a Privy Councillor 
(Vol. iv. jHissim ; Vol. ix., p. 137.). — L. Hastily 
a little misstates Mr. Serjeant Merewcther's evi- 
dence. The learned serjeant onlj said that ^ he 
believed *' the fact was so. But he was un- 
doubtedly mistaken, probablr from confouBdiiif . 

Feb. 18. 1854.] 



the Privy Council (at which the Lord Mayor 
never appeared) with a meeting of other persons 
(nobility, gentry, and others), who assemble on 
the same occasion in a different room, and to 
which meeting (altogether distinct from the Privy 
Council) the Lord Mayor is always summoned, as 
are the sherifi&, aldermen, and a number of other 
notabilities, not privy councillors. This matter is 
conclusively explained in Vol. iv., p. 284. ; but if 
more particular evidence be required, it will be 
found in the London Gazette of the 20th June, 
1837, where the names of the privy councillors 
are given in one list to the number of eighty- three, 
and in another list the names of the persons at- 
tending the meeting to the number of above 150, 
amongst whom are the lord mayor, sheriffs, under- 
sheriffs, aldermen, common Serjeants, city solicitor, 
&c. As " N. & Q.** has repoduced the mistake. 
It is proper that it should also reproduce the ex- 
plansCtion. C. 

New Zealander and Westminster Bridge (Vol. ix., 
p. 74.). — Before I saw the thought in Walpole's 
letter to Sir H. Mann, quoted in " N. & Q.,** I 
ventured to suppose that Mrs. Barbauld*s noble 
poem. Eighteen Hundred and Eleven, might have 
fiftiggested Mr. Macaulay's well-known passage. 
Hie following extracts describe the wanderings of 
those who — 

** With duteous zeal, their pilgrimage shall take. 
From the blue mountains on Ontario's lake, 
With fond adoring steps to press the sod, 
' By statesmen, sages, poets, heroes, trod.** 

*< Pensive and thoughtful shall the wanderers greet 
Each splendid square, and still untrodden street ; 
Or of some crumbling turret^ mined by time. 
The broken stairs with perilous step shall climb, 
' Thence stretch their view the wide horizon round. 
By scattered hamlets trace its ancient bound. 
And choked no more with fleets, fair^Thames survey, 

- Through reeds and sedge pursue his idle way. 

Oft shall the strangers turn their eager feet, 

The; rich remains of ancient art to greet, 
. The pictured walls with critic eye. eiplore^ 

And Reynolds be what Raphael was before. 

On spotis lirom every clime their eyes shall gaze, 
t Egyptian granites and the Etruscan vase ; 

And when, .*midst fallen London, they survey 

The stone where Alexander's ashes lay, 
. Shall own with humble pride the lesson just. 

By Time's slow finger written in the dust." 


Cranwells, near Bath. 

The beautiful conception of the New Zealander 
at some future period visiting England, and giving 
a sketch of the ruins of London, noticed in *^ K. & 
Q." as having been su^ested to Macaulay by a 
passage in one of WaIpol?s letters to Sir H. Mann, 
will be found more broadly ex|Mressed in Kirke 

White*s Poem on Time. Talking of the triumphf 
of Oblivion, he says : 

" Meanwhile the Arts, in second in&ncy. 
Rise in some dbtant clime; and then, perchance. 
Some bold adventurer, fill'd with golden dreams^ 
Steering his bark through trackless solitudes. 
Where, to his wandering thoughts, no daring prow 
Had ever plough'd before, — espies the clifis 
Of fallen Albion. To the land unknown 
He journeys joyful ; and perhaps descries 
Some vestige of her ancient stateliness : 
Then he with' vain conjecture fills his mind 
Of the unheard-of race, which had arrived 
At science in that solitary nook. 
Far from the civil world ; and sagely sighs. 
And moralises on the state of man.** 

This hardly reads like a borrowed idea; and I 
should lean to a belief that it was not. Kirke 
White*s Poems and Letters are but too little read. 

: J. S. 


Cui Bono (VoL ix., p. 76.). — Reference to a 
dictionary would have settled this. According ta 
Freund, ^* Cui bono fuit = Zu welchem Zwed^ 
or Wozu war es gut ? " That is, To what purpose ? 
or, For whose good ? CABNAnOr 

The syntax of this common phrase, with the 
ellipses supplied, is, •* Cui homini fuerit bono ne- 
gotio?" To what person will it be an advantage? 
Literally, or more freely rendered. Who will be 
the gainer by it ? It was (see Ascon. in Cicer. 
pro MUone, c. xii.) the usual query of Luciuff 
Cassius, the Roman judge, implying^ that the 
person benefiting by any crime was implicated 
therein. (Consiut Facciolati's Diet, in voce Bo- 
NUM.) Hk., 

The correct rendering of this phrase is un- 
doubtedly that given by F. Newman, " For the be- 
nefit of whom ?** but it is generally used in such a 
manner as to make it ind^erent whether that, or 
the corrupted signification "For what good ?" was 
intended by the writer making use of it. The 
latter is, however, the idea generally conveyed to 
the mind, and in this sense it is used by the best 
writers. Thus,c. ^.r 

**The question *cui bomo,'' to what practical end 
and advantage do your researches tend ? is one,*' &o.— > 
HerschePs DUcoune on Nat, Philosophy, p. 10. 



Barrels Regiment (Vol. viii., p. 620. ; Vol. ix^ 
PJ.63.).— I am obliged to H. B. C. for his atten- 
tion to my Quenr, though it does not jjuite answer 
my purpose, which was to learn the circumstances 
which occasioned a (urint in my possession, en- 
titled "The Old Scourge returned to Barrels.'* 
Bi represents a regiment, the body of each sol-. 



[No. 225. 

dier being in the form of a barrel, drawn up 
within view of Edinburgh Castle. A soldier is 
tied up to the halberts in order to be flogged ; 
the drummer intercedes : ** Col., he behaved well 
at Culloden.** An officer also intercedes : *' Pray 
Col. forgive him, he's a good man." The Col. s 
reply is, " Flog the villain, ye rascal." Under the 
prmt — "And ten times a day whip the Barrels." 
I want to know who this flogging Col. was ; and 
anything more about him which gained for him 
the unenviable title of Old Scourge. E. H. 

Sir MaUhew Hale (Vol. ix., p. 77.).— From 
Sir Matthew Hale, who was born at Alderley, de- 
scends the present family of Hale of Alderley, co. 
Gloucestershire. The eldest son of the head of 
the family represents West Gloucestershire in par- 
liament. The Estcourts of Estcourt, co. Glouces- 
tershire, are, I believe, also connexions of the 
fkmily of Hale. Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

The descendants of Sir Matthew Hale still live 
ftt Alderley, near Wotton Underedge, in Glouces- 
tershire. I believe a Mr. Blagdon married the 
heiress of Hale, and took her name. The late 
Bobert Blagdon Hale, Esq., married Lady Theo- 
dosia Bourke, daughter of the late Lord Mayo, 
and had two sons. Kobert, the eldest, andpresent 
possessor of Alderley, married a Miss Holford. 
Matthew, a clergyman, also married ; who appears 
by the Clergy List to be Archdeacon of Adelaide, 
8k)uth Australia. Mr. John Hale, of Gloucester, 
is their uncle, and has a family. 

Julia. B. Bockett. 

Southcote Lodge. 

The Hales of Alderley in Gloucestershire claim 
descent from Sir Matthew Hale, born and buried 
there. (See Atkins, p. 107. ; Rudder, p. 218. ; and 
Bigland, p. 30.) When Mr. Hale of Alderley was 
High Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1826, the judge 
then on circuit made a complimentary allusion to 
it in court. The descent is in the female line, 
and the name was assumed in 1784. 


Scotch Grievance (Vol. ix., p. 74.).— The Scot- 
tish coins of James VL, Charles I., William, 
have on the reverse a shield, bearing 1. and 4. 
Scotland; 2. France and England quarterly; 
3. Lrish harp. Edw. Hawkins. 

Under this head A Descendant of Scottish 
Kings asks: '*Can any coin be produced, from 
the accession of James VI. to the English throne, 
on which the royal arms are found, with Scotland 
in the first quarter, and England in the second P" 

Will you kindly inform your querist, that in my 
collection I have several such coins, viz. a shilling 
of Charles L ; a mark of Charles IL, date 1669 ; a 
'--ty-shilling piece of WilHam HI., date 1697 : 

on each Scotland is ^rst and third. I shall be 
most hf^py to submit these to your inspection, or 
send them for the satbfaction of your correspon- 
dent. F. J. WULLIAMS. 
24. Mark Lane. 

*^ Merciful Judgments of High Church,'^ ffc, 
(Vol. ix., p. 97.). — The author of this tract, ac- 
cording to the Bodleian Catalogue, was Matthew 
Tindal. 'AAic^r. 


Robert Dudley^ Earl of Leicester (Vol. ir., 
p. 105.). — I can refer A. S. to Camden^s History 
of Elizabeth, where, under the year 1588, it is re- 

** Neither was the publick joy anything abated by 
Leicester's death, who about this time, namely, on the 
4th day of September, died of a continuall fever upoa 
the way as he went towards Killingworth.** 

I can abo refer him to Sir William Dugdale*s 
Baronage of England, vol. ii. p. 222., where I 
find it stated that he — 

** Dcsign*d to retire unto his castle at Kenllworth. 
But being on his journey thitherwards, at Corubury 
Park in Com. Oxen., he died upon the fourth of Sep- 
tember, an. 1588, of a feaver, as *twas said, and was 
buried at Warwick, where he bath a noble monument** 

But neither in the above writers, nor in anj 
more recent account of hb life, have I seen his 
death ascribed to poison. The ground on which 
Stanfield Hall has been regarded as the birth- 

5 lace of Amy Robsart is, that her parents Sur 
bhn and Lady Elizabeth Robsart resided at 
Stanfield Hall in 1546, according to Blomefield in 
his History of Norfolk, though where he resided 
at his daughter*s birth does not appear. 'AAtcvr. 

Fleet Prison (Vol.ix., p. 76.). — A list of tbe 
wardens will be found in Burn's History of Fleet 
Marriages, 2nd edit., 1834. Occasional notices of 
the under officers will also there be met with, and 
a list of wardens* and jailors* fees. S* 

The Commons of Ireland previous to the Unum 
in 1801 (Vol. ix., p. 35.). — Allow me to inform 
C H. D. that I have in my possession a copy 
(with MS. notes) of Sketches of Irish Political 
Characters of the present DoVy shounng the Parts 
they respectively take on the Question of the Union, 
what Places they hold, their Characters as Speakers, 
ffc, 8vo. pp. 312, London, 1799. Is this the 
book he wants ? I know nothing of its author, 
nor of the Rev. Dr. Scott. Auhba. 

'' Les Lettres Juives'' (Vol.viii., p. 541.).— The 
author of Les Lettres Juives was Jean Baptiste de 
Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, one of the most prolific 
and amusing write^^,9f]th^^eig^teenU^ 

Feb. 18. 1854.] 



His principal works are, Histoire de F Esprit Hu- 
tnain^ Let Lettres JuiveSj Les Lettres Chinoises^ 
Xes Lettres Cabalistiques, and his Philosophie du 
tons Sens. Perhaps your correspondent may be 
interested to learn that a reply to the Lettres 
Juives was published in 1739, La Haje, three 
-vols, in twelve, by Aubert de la Chenaye Des- 
Bois, under the title of Correspondence historique, 
philosophique et critique, pour servir de rSponse 
auz Lettres Juives. Henbt H. Bbeen. 


Sir PhilipWentworih (Vol. vii., p. 42. ; Vol. viii., 
p. 104. 184.). — In Wright's Essex^ vol. i. p. 645., 
jir Philip Wentworth is said to have married 
Mary, daughter of John, Lord Clifford. I do not 
recollect that Wright cites authority. I know he 
has more than one error respecting the Gonsles, 
who are in the same pedigree. Amon. 

General Eraser (Vol. viii., p. 586.). — Simon 
Fraser, Lieut.-Colonel, 24th Regiment, and Bri- 
gadier-General, was second in command under 
Burgoyne when he advanced from Canada to New 
York with 7000 men in 1777. He fell at Still- 
water, a short time before the surrender of Bur- 
goyne at Saratoga. He was struck by a shot from 
a tree, as he was advancing at the head of his 
troops; and died of his wound October 7, 1777. 
Ho was buried, as he had desired, in tlie redoubt 
on the field, in the front of the American army 
commanded b^ General Gates. During his in- 
terment, the incessant cannonade of the enemy 
covered with dust the chaplain and the officers 
who assisted in performing the last duties to his 
remains, they being within view of the greatest 
part of both armies. An impression long pre- < r 
vailed among the officers of Burgoyne's army, that 
if Fraser had lived, the issue of the campaign, and 
of the whole war, would have been very different 
from what it was. Burgoyne is said to have shed 
tears at his death. General Eraser's regiment had 
been employed under Wolfe in ascending the 
Heights of Abraham, Sept. 12, 1759 ; where, both 
before and after the fall of Wolfe, the Highlanders 
rendered very efficient service. His regiment was 
also engaged with three others under Murray at 
the battle of Quebec in 1760. Some incidental 
mention of General Fraser will be found in Can- 
non's History of the Z\st Regiment^ published by 
Furnivall, 30. Whitehall ; but I am not aware of 
any memoirs or life of him having been published. 

J. C. B. 

Namby-Pamby (Vol. viii., pp. 318. 390.).— 
Henry Carey, the author of Chrononhotonthohgos^ 
and of The Dragoness of Wantley^ wrote also a 
work called Namby'Pamby, in burlesque of Ani- 
brose Phillips's style of poetry ; and the title of it 
was probably intended to trifle with that poet's 
name. Mr. Macaulay, in his Essay on Addison and 

his Writings, speaks of Ambrose Phillips, who wat 
a great adulator of Addison, as — 

** A middling poet, whose verses introduced a spe* 
cies of composition which has been called after his 
name, Namby-Pamby,'* 

D. W. S. 

The Word ''Miser'' (Vol. ix., p. 12.).— Cf. the 
use of the word miserable in the sense of miserly^ 
mentioned amongst other Devonianisms at Vol. vii., 
p. 544. And see Trench's remarks on this word 
(Study of Words, p. 38. of 2nd edit.). H. T. G. 


The Eorlorn Hope (Vol. viii., p. 569.), t. e. the 
advanced guard This explains what has al- 
ways been to me a puzzling expression in Gur- 
nall's Christian in Complete Armour (p. 8. of 
Tcgg's 8vo. edit., 1845) : 

*< The fearful are in the forlorn of those that march 
for hell." 

See Rev. xxi. 8., where "the fearful and unbe- 
lieving" stand at the head of the list of those who 
" shall have their part in the lake which bumeth 
with fire and brimstone." H. T. G. 


The true origin and meaning o^ forlorn hope 
has no doubt been fully explained in " N. & Q.," 
Vol. viii., p. 569. Richardson's Dictionary does 
not countenance this view, but his example proves 
it conclusively. He only gives one quotation, 
from North's Plutarch; and as it stands in the 
dictionary, it is not easy to comprehend the pas- 
sage entirely. On comparing it, however, with 
the corresponding passage in Langhorne (Valpy's 
edition, vol. iii. p. 97.), and again with Pompei's 
Italian version (vol. iii. p. 49.), I have no doubt 
that, by the term forlorn hope, North implied 
merely an advanced party ; for as he is describing 
a pitched battle and not a siege, a modern forlorn 
hope would be strangely out of place. 

Is enfans perdus the idiomatic French equiva- 
lent, or is it only dictionary-French ? And what 
is the German or the Italian expression ? 

R. Cast Babnabd. 


Thornton Abbey (Vol. viii., p. 469.). — In the 
Archaological Journal, vol. ii. p. 357., may be 
found not only an historical and architectural 
account of this building, but several views ; with 
architectural details of mouldings, &c. H. T. G. 


" Quid facies,'' Src. (Vol. viii., p. 539.; Vol.ix., 
p. 18.). — In a curious work written by the Rev. 
John Warner, D.D., called Metronariston, these 
lines (as printed in Vol. ix., p. 18.) are quoted, 
and stated to be — 

** A punning Epigram on Scylla at a type of Luttp 
cited by Barnes." 

Digitized by VjOO^IC 



[No. 225. 

I liave not the MetranarUton with me, and there- 
fore cannot refer to the page. D. W. S. 

Christ' Cross-Bow (VoL iii., pp. 330, 465.; 
Vol. viii., p. 18.). — Quarles (^JEmil u. 12.) gives 
a passage from St. Au^stine commencing, — 
** Christ's cross is the Christ-cross of all our oi^- 
piness,** but he gires no exact reference. 

Wordsworth speaks of 

*< A look or modon of intelligeiiee 
From in&nt eonning of the Christ-crossbow.** 
Exeurs, viii. p. 305. 

These lines sugeest the Query, Is this term for 
the alf^abet st^ in use ? and, if so, in what parts 
of the country P Exbionnach. 

Sir Walter Scott^ and his Quotations /rom himself 
(Vol.ix., p. 72.). — I beg to submit to you the 
fi>Uowing characteristic similarity of expression, 
occurring in one of the poems uid one of the 
Rovds of Sir Walter Scott. I am not aware 
whellier attention has been drawn to it in the 
letters of Mr. Addphus and Mr. Heber, as I have 
not the work at hand to consult : 

" His grasp, as hard as glove of mail, 
Forced the red blood-drop from the nail." 

^okeby. Canto i. Stan. 15. 

«He wrung the Earl's hand with such frantic 
earnestness, that his grasp forced the blood to start 
under the nail,** — Le^nd of Montrose. 

N. L. T. 

Nightingale and Thorn (Vol. viii., p. 527.). — 
Add 1 Gang's Night Thoughts^ Night First, vers. 

« Grief's sharpest thorn hard pressing on my breast, 
I strive with wakeful melody to cheer 
The sullen gloom, sweet Philomel ! like thee. 
And call the stars to listen — every star 
Is deaf to mine, enamour*d of thy lay.** 

H. T. G. 

Female Parish Clerhs (Vol. viii^ p. 474.). — 
Within the last half-century, a Mrs. Sheldon dis- 
charo^ed the duties of this post at the parish church 
of Wheatley, five miles from Oxford, and near 
Cuddesdon, the residence of the Bbhop of Oxford. 
This clerkship was previously filled by her hus- 
band; but, upon nis demise, she became his 
successor. It is not a week since that I saw a 
relation who was an eye-witness of this fact. 

Perot M. Hart. 


Hour-glass Stand (VoL ix., p. 64.). — There is 
an hour-glass stand of very quaintly wrought 
iron, painted in various colourSi attached to the 
pulpit at Binfield, Berks. J^ R. M., M. A. 


The Rev. Edward TrcOlope, F.S.A.* wu^ eoe- 
eeivkig that an illustrated work, comprising apeeimais 
of the anna, armour, jewellery, furniture, vases, ^bc, 
diaocrrered at Pompeii and Uerculaneum, might be 
acceptaMe to those numerous readers to whom the 
magnificent volumes, published by the Neapolitan 
government, are inaccessible, has just issued a quarto 
volume under the title of Illustrations of Ancient Art^ 
selected /mm Objects discovered at Pompdi and Hercu- 
lameum. The various materials which he has selected 
firom the Museo Borhonico^ and other works, and a large 
number of his own sketches, have been carefully clas- 
sified ; and we think few will turn from an examin- 
ation of the forty>five plates of Mr. Trollope's admir- 
able outliuest without admiring the good taste with 
which the various subjects have been selected, and 
acknowledging the light which they throw upon the 
social condition, the manners, customs, and domestic 
life, of the Roman people. 

As the great Duke of Marlborough confessed that 
he acquired his knowledge of his country's annals in 
the historical plays of Shakspeare, so we believe there 
are many who find it convenient and agreeable to 
study them in Miss Strickland's Lives of the Q^/eens 
of England, To all such it will be welcome news that 
the first and second volumes of a new and cheaper 
edition, and which comprise the lives of all our female 
sovereigns, from Matilda of Flanders to the unfor- 
tunate Anne Boleyn, are now ready ; and will be 
followed month by month by the remaining six. At 
the close of the work, we may take an opportunity of 
examining the causes of the great popularity whidi it 
has attained. 

Mr. M. A Lower has just published a small volume 
sof antiquarian gossip, under the title of Contributicns 
to Literature, Historical, Antiquarian, and Metrical, in 
which he discourses pleasantly on Local Nomenclature, 
the Battle of Hastings, the Iron Works of the South- 
East of England, the South Downs, Genealogy, and 
many kindred subjects; and tries his hand, by no 
means unsuccessfully, at some metrical versions of old 
Sussex legends. Several of the papers have already 
appeared in print, but they serve to make up a volume 
which will give the lover of popular antiquities an 
evening's pleasant reading. 

We beg to call the attention of our readers to the 
opportunity whi^ will be afforded them on Wed- 
nesday next oi hearing Mr. Layard lecture on his 
recent Discoveries at Nineveh. As they will see by the 
advertisement in our present Number* Mr. Layard has 
imdertaken to do so for the purpose of contributing to 
the schools and other parochial charities of the poor 
but densely populated district of St. Thomas, Stepney. 

Books RxcxiVed. — Manteli's Geological Excursions 
round the Isk of Wight, ^c. This reprint of one of the 
many valuable contributions to geological knowledge 
by the late lamented Dr. Mantel), forms the new vo-. 
lume of Bohn's Scientific Library. — Retrospective Re- 
view. No. VL, containing intere^Ing articles on Dray- 
ton, Lambarde, Penn, Leland, and other writers of 
note in English literature. — Dr. Lardner's Musevm of 

Feb. 18. 1854.] 



Sdenee and Art, besides a farther portkm of the in- 
^jmrjf •*The Planets, are they inhabited Worlds?" 
contains essays on latitudes and longitudes, lunar in- 
fluences, and meteoric stones and shooting stars. — 
GMhuC* Rwme^ with Variorvm Notet, Vol. II. In a 
notice prefixed to the present vcdume, which is one of 
Mr. Bohn*a scries of British Classics, the publisher, 
after describing the advantages of the present edition 
as to print, paper, editing, &c., observes : ** The pub- 
lisher of the unmutilated edition of Humboldt's 
Cosmos hopes he has placed himself beyond the sus- 
picion of mutilating Gibbon." 



Tomams om Waobs and Combinations. Longmani. 1884. 
*«* Letters, stating particulars and lowott price, carriage fifee, 

to be soMt to Ms. Bsix, PuWUher of •* MOTBS AND 

QURRIBS.** 186. Fleet Street. 

Farticalan of Price, Ac. of the following Books to be sent 
direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose 
names and addresses are gtren for that purpose : 

Wilkinson's Amoibnt Egypt. Vols. IV. and V. 

Baxter's Flowering Plants. Plain or coloured. 

Evelyn's Diary. 5 Vols. Sro. 

Pbpyb's Diary. 5 Vols. 8to. 

Tbanbactioms of Geographical Sogisty. Parts or Volumes. 

LdPB OP Bishop Ken, by Anderdon. 

FxaciTAL's Roman Schism. 

Wanted by Simmt ^ Son, Booksellers, Bath. 

One or two Plans of the Harbour of Cronstadt, showing the 
Mole, Man-of-war's Mole, Fortress, Fortress of Cronslott 
opposite, as well as all the Fortresses that are erected in the 
Sballowt defending the Approach, &c. 

Wanted by H. E. Boieley, 9. Old Broad Street. 

Bible Prints, either Line Engraring, Mezzotint, or Wood, and 
~ either with or without Letter-press, for the purpose of binding 

with a 4to. Edition of " Matthew Henry's Commenury on the 


Wanted by John Garland, Solicitor, Dorchester. 

Tbb BarnsH Prssbrvb, etched by S. Howitt. Prints, 2. The 
Badger, aiki 6. The Stag. 

Wanted by Mr. Jamet Pa$coe, Solicitor, Penzance. 

An Account op the Ministbes, ftc, who were Ejected or 

Silenced after the Restoration in 1660, by or before the Act for 

Uniformity. Second Edition. Vol. I. By Edmund Calamy, 

D.D. 1713. 

Wanted by John Nmrte Chadwiek, SoUcitor, Kfaig's Lynn, 


SAiomBs* HisTOBT or Shbmstonb, in Stapporobhibb. 
W«nted by C. J. D., Post Office, Stourbridge, Worcestershire. 

The HnrE, baring the First Edition of Vol. L 

Wanted by Fred, DinsdaU, Esq., 'Leamington. 

DcTBLiN UNiYBRsrrr Calendars and Examination Papers for 
1835, 1836, 1844, and 1845. 

Sheridan's (Thos.) Lbctubbs on the Art op Rbadino. 8ro. 
Lond. 1781. 

Blackrr*S (CM. Val.) Memoirs op the Operations op the Bri- 
tish Army in India during thb Mahratta War op 1817, 1818, 
and 1819. 4to. Lond. 1821. Also, by the same, a Map of 
Hindostan, from his own surrey. 

Parker's (Capt Robert) Memoirs op thb most remarkable 
MiUTAET Tbansactions flrom 1683 to 1718. 8to. Lond. 1747. 

Wanted by Rev, B, H, Blacker, II. Pembroke Road, Doblia. 

Alustbb's Pababioma Chess OPENnras. 

Russell's Elements op Paintino witm Cbatonb. 1772. 

Phillip's Lips op Smith (the Geologist). 

HiR8CRtR*8 Sympathies op the Continent, translated by C<dce. 

J. U. Parker. 18W. 
Sib H. Nicolas's Edition op Walton and Cotton's Anoleb. 
Windsor Castle, by Ainsworth. TIm original oditioo. 6po. 

with Plates. 

Wanted by Mr. Hayward, Bookseller, Bath. 

Wobdswobth's Poetical Wobks. 6 Vols. ISaio. Moxoiu 

Vol. L Morocca (The missing Yolume was lent to b 

student at Cambridse by C. B. W. In 1844.) 
RoiicoE's Italian Notbust. Secoad Edition. 4 Vols. t9mo. 

Vol. III. 
First or Early Edition of The Chbistian Wobld Unmaskbd, 

by John Bcrridge. 
John Berriogb's Works. 8to. Simpkin & Co. 
Geo. Sandys* Paraphrase op the Psalms. Small w^M^iHt 
Poems bt George Withebs. Separate or Collected. 
Dbayton's Poems. Iteno. Edition. 
Walton's Lives. Tonton or Dodsley. I- Vol. Edition. 
Paxton's Magaeine op Botany. Nos. 169. and 179. Orr ft Co. 
Wanted by Mr. Hiteake, Bookseller, RichnuMKl, Sorrey. 

fi0Utti ta Ccrtretff tfiOrenU. 

J. B. WRrreoRNE. Wkere tkall we addre$$ a letter to OH 
Correspondent f 

OXPORD Jbu D*E8PRrr. We hope ne*i week to lay before our 
Ojtford friends a reprint qf a clever }&i d'esprit, whidk amused 
ike University someflve'and-tkirty years since. 

B. H. C. WiU this Correspondent, who statfs (p. 136.) tkat ke 
has found tke termination •ojr in Susses, be good enoa^ to siate 
tke place to wkick ke refers t 

C. C. Tke ballad of '< Fair Rosamond** is printed in Percy's 
Reliques, m tke Pictorial Book of British Ballads, and many 
other places j but tke tines quoted by our Correspondents 

'* With that she dash'd her on the moutb. 
And dyed a double wound " — 
do not occur in it. 

T. 4^. Biographical notices cf tke autkor of Drunken Bamaby 
will be found in Ckalmers* and Rose*s Dictionaries. Tke best 
account qf Richard Bratkwaii is that by Joseph Haslewood, pre- 
fixed to his edition of Bamabse Itinerarium.— >GMnMi2 htu been 
noticed in our Sixth Volume, pp. 414. 544. 

W. Frasbb. Bishop Atterburu's portrait, drawn by KneKer, 
and engraved by Fertue, is pr^edto vol. i. of the Bishop's Ser- 
mons and Discourses, edit. 1735. The portrait is an oval medal' 
Hon ; face round, nose prominent, urith large eye-brows, double 
chin, and a high expansive forehead, features regular and pleasant, 
and indicative qf intel/ece. He is drawn in his episcopal habit, 
with a full-dreu curled wigs beneath are his arms, su rmo unted 
by the mitre. 

I. R. R. T%e song " the golden days qf good Queen Bess f '* 
will be found in The British Orpheus, a Selection of Songs and 
Airs, p. 274., with the music. 

Trbnch on PaovBRBS. We cannot possiUy find space for amy 
farther discussion of the translation ofrs. cxxvii. 2. 

Blombpield'm Norfolk. — Gentlemen who possess a oopv qf this 
work will be kind enougk to write to Jokn Nurse Ckadwick, 
Solicitor, King's Lunn, Norfolk, stating tke fad, witk tkeir names 
and addresses, by letter, post paid. 

Professor Hunt's Letter shall appear next week. We eon 
well understand how a gentleman, who labours so assiduously in 
his scientific iuvestigations, can have little time and feel little a 
ety to produce merefy pretty pictures. We are glad that the qua 
was asked (we are sure only in a friendly spirit); and our photo- 
graphic readers will be as glad to hear that an en'arged edition qf 
Prqflessor Hunt's Researches on Light may soon be expected. 

C. E. F., Four Photographic Readbbs, attd other Corre- 
spondents, shall receive due attention next week. 

Our Eighth Voldmb is now bound and ready for delivery^ 
price lOs. 6d., ctotk, boards. A few sets qf tke wkole Eight Vo- 
lumes are being made up, price it. 4«.~fbr these early application- 
is desirable. 

** Notes and Qubbibs " is published ntnoon on Friday, so thai- 
tke Country Booksellers may receive Copies in tkat nigkt's parcels, 
asstdOivertkem $9 tkeir Subscribers on tke Saturday. 

L>'iyiiiz.t;u uy '^..-_j» '^^-^ "*^'P^ "^ '*^ 



[No. 225. 

Inrtituted 1810. 


Tlie 3CAJX OF F1t'F::MTrMS a^i^Ytti Yxy 
Ulli Office will be fuoiiil <it A ¥tfy tnrHterate 
ehmcurr^ but ml iha mv^ma time ciuHe AiJ4^'j<,iAte 
lo ihr H*k inciiirrwi. 

IMiUlt-TEPTIIS, m m ^T teat, nf the 

wHv% u>i| wgMf bt ftppli«d to fiicrcafc ths ium 

to Um Tcdnctlon ftnd nltimale extlncilua of 
(Vi,t«ra Frfemlimui 

OiSCfi-THtRD of ilii Pri?Tnliltn on Thhiw- 
uioe* of taat^ ka* ttr^nrflt. fur the wtii^l^; timn 
of llfb, rnur T^fflnln 44 a Oi^lit upon tli« TuStcy, 
to be JmM off •* UOAlfw|»li;|jc!G i ar the JJirL -tori 
Vltl teait iUOM uf 1^. Ami Uii'TiirilSH o:i the 

for t'n? irKolff term of Ufc, When they li«ve 

ll;Cr|Uini'>il Hti ArJctiiiatf^ VaEuL-. 
S£CUKI rv. - Thii*G wh-fcffiJcE InsurtiTtce* 

Tlllt thb Cuinliiiny^ Aru ]m:]te[:tcil hy lU Sub- 

Mffbcd Cii3?kif df 7'A«M>f., of wlddk luiirly 

l4l1,Dniir. Is Inir^tfd, trotli tha rJjk LnetLTH^ bj 

Mrmbtn DTSIuLuhl S<HtIetl£i. 
Th« •itlirocton' Aii&iidftl e^ndlEilun ctf the 

CoriniiAiiy,CKcluftW ett the Sub«:rfbed Jind Xn- 

TCfled Caftllal^ will be Ken bj the i^lUiwioc 

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On the 31st October, 185^ the inmi 
Anured, iacloding Boniu added, 
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The Premium Fund to more than « 800,000 

And the Annual Income from the 
tame fouree, to .... lOOjOOO 
Inturanoet, without participation in Frofltt, 

may be effiscted at reduced rates. 



PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas 

L «<:!»*- IV A LMAIXE i CO , Li, Cr.ho 
Sflimre U'^tibH^Hud a.d. X'f^i'K :■ ■■' • '•c- 

TbB p^cuthir a'l^^mtiUtffEa of ih-j;.^ i.-, = ei 
are b&ii (tmcrih^l in iha fijlloiriii^ (>rufo:j4i'iiLal 
todtlnuiDlaUfijfCK'l by thf makriiyoftrie fj.-Ad- 
iitjl mnriclma^ tf thi? a^i? : — *' Wm, the niirl-r- 
■IgniKi rrt^mltfei'J of thu* nrnair^nl tt''"'' ■ =n, 
JiHviiMl canfiiUy dxniiilneii ihe rt'^vi^i i' o- 
ibftea inaiiuffl.i:tii'ei;l by ME'*SH'^. I • ' [/- 
MiilNlE^Jb OX, ha1.^e tfreat [jleajntre in i , «s 
teitSmony ti> thuilr tnetita and ccitMiliH-'ti . It 
apiwarx to hm I miKSiii tilE t n pf ud uce i ii i t - . its 
of tht S[W\t siie pai»cH«iiia ti rlelK^r m er 

tmiCn. mare Hwtk toneh, m m«fc eiiiril i a- 
romment, white the eltijattet of ihelr con*i f uc- 
ihin re:ndcrf them u htind^iome DrnauH'nt for 
tbu Ubrao% Taii4nir,<jtdt!iwlnii-pwm. [Skniitl) 
,T. L. AN=iF. Bi^iieJllet, IT^ R- BUhop. J. Itliv- 
Itu J. BriisiiK T.F. Chipp* f. DclftVAijlL C. H. 
TJ^tby, E. F. PitfwLlliam^ VV, Fordi?, S'c .hen 
tfluvfr. TTtrtrl ili:«, E. IJftiTt*CJii, if. F- M i^itf, 
J. L. IlAtton, CutheHne rtajes., W. TT, It lies, 
W.Kub?. Q^F. Kkttinafk, E. l<and, rj.l.i .?;a, 
A1cmp4«;t J^e, A. T^effler. E.J, i^fl?r, W. H. 
Mtnitp>mery. 9. NuljicJFr, G. A, O^burnt, Ji Un 
PjtTryt'l- Fancifkii, ni-nrvFhUllps^F. Prjieijar, 
3E. F* Rlmbiult.Frmik Afjmer, O.H. Kmlwtll, 
E^ IliM^kel.T^iirn Kl'^vm, J, Ttmpieton, F. We- 
bcPt II. Wtitr.ftt/r. 11. w rial It," -fet;* 

D*ALMAIN£ & CO.. SO. Soho Square. Lists 
and Designs Oratis. 


STEADS, sent firee by post. It contains de* 
•i^s and prices of upwards of ONE HUN- 
DRED diiferent Bedsteads, in iron, brass, 
Japanned wood, polished birch, mahogany, 
rosewood, and walnut-tree woods; also of 
erery description of Bedding, Blankets, and 

HEAL * SON, Bedstead and Beddinc Manu- 
facturers, 190. Tottenham Court Road. 

Founded A.D. 184S. 


T. 8. Codcf, Jon. Esq. 

O. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. ETaas, Esq. 
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T. Orbsell, Esq. 
J. Hunt, Esa7 
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E. Lucas, Esq. 
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J. B. White, zSh 
J. Carter Wood, Eeq. 

F. Fuller, Esq. 


W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C. i Oeorge Drew, Esq. t 


Ph»$iekm — William Rich. Baaham. M.D. 

Banters.— Messrs. Cocks. Biddnlph, aadCoM 

Charing CroM. 


POLICIES effected In thU Office do not be- 
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according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 

lens of Rates of Premium for Asraring 



a Share 

in three-fourths 

of the 




' 1 14 
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- ; 

M ». 

t 10 
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Ki->w niLdy, tirlfie lOn. €f/., Secfind Erlttton, 
wlili male rid 1 addHtonfl, INDU^TlttAL IN- 
VI--I3T3IKNT snrl KMIGK VTl »N : :■ r^a 
CltM'It:^. an*) un the ftcneral rrim > of 

Lau'I Invi:^tiiit!iit, L<^i[4?Ti[t|b]in4>J in tilt' L. of 
FrH;holclT.anil>^iiiiiit:ti.Gfl, Building L'tin-! ■ es, 
JkC- VVItliA KIwtheinAlical Apfx^mllx '•'■• ' m- 
ponnd lnter.giit untl T.tfe AtFurance. J'. iR- 
Tlltm UCUATCllLEy, M.A.. Acliii^ty to 
the VVeitcm Life AiiUrftQce Ji«ittri 3- I'^arlia- 
m(;r]it Siitet, Loudonii 

— OTT E W I r, r, i itO HCi AN S M n lu- 

ftw t.irr, 3*, Jt 25. CivarMttc Tf rr.nv', r.iU- |. .ii ian 
R< L <\, I Jl i nsjton . OTTE W ILL S > I . . ■ i , red 
Dc^'irilc BoJy FaTelinj C.nncrJ, it.4 ,l i •■. c I for 
IjS"ril-*dJlt** itt iVn-troiti, inaT 1* l'±d • ^" A. 
R(iSSi, Fciilhentoii<! Bu]ttlJiv;i„ llolbor!- 'he 
Fh ':i^r4[»i]ic Initkntioi], Bend BtrcLl nd 
at It]]? Manufacture UF a^xivu, wlierC tv- -Ic- 
scripEiini 4>f Canii;r3ii», S lidci, and Tritiu-i:! ictay 
be hdd. The Trnde itiiipikcl. 

* CO.'S Iodized Collodion, fbr obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
of detail rival the chorccst Daguerreotypes, 
specimens of which may be seen at their Esta- 

Also every description of Apparatus, Clie- 
micals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art.— 
1S3. and Itl. Newgate Street. 

pALOTYPE PAPER prepared 

\J by Dr. Diamond's Process, it. per Quire. 
Albnmenised ditto, la. ditto. Canson's Nega- 
tive Paper for Mons. Le Gray's Process : — 
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sitive, available for Three Weeks, 13s., size 17} 
by lU, demy folio. Specimens of either Papers 
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Fcap. 8V0., Ss., elottu 

THOMAS a BECKET, and other 

**Mr. Scott is A true poet.** — iTofes ami 

** He knows well where Ue the springs of the 
highest poetic inspiration." — Criiie. 

** A Tolnme of great abilUy.** — Gmardiam, 


f f Broad Sanctuary, opposite Westminster 

Abbey This Hospit^ was instituted in tiK 

year 1719, and is the oldest hospital in Eng^irt 
supported by voluntary contributions. The 
hi^ prices of nrovisions and coals have mate- 
rially increased the current expenditure, and a 
sum of not less than 8001. is required to meet 
the payment of the tradesmen's bills to Chriit- 
mas last. 16,000 persons are relieved anna 
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and day fbr the reception of cat _ 

and urgent disease. The Committee earaestlf 
entreat the aid of the benevolent at the pitaol 

DonaUons and subscriptions will he thaak- 
fblly received by MEdSR<). BOUVBRIR k 
CO., 11. Hay market; MESSRS. HOARS k 
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F. G. WILSON. SecsreCaiy. 



. . _ AGENT ami LEGAL A NT t QUA- 
RT i If 4w1k) 1« In th« mifePOndon of Indict* &■' 
msiny (tf the early Publiii? Hi-c-inls vherdttr Jm 
In-Linriea nT^areallyfarlHtated) besi toin^jcm 
Au;]LC!r« iinti Gentlemen fnzaired in AmtvfB>- 
rit.-i i>r TJti,:r3iTif FiiTfuHt^ th4t h« i« iirep»*l 
to iinJL'rtuke Beanehe* nmoHfi tba PnbUs R*- 
coi h, MS:^. in the BrUi^h JifiiMrUTn, A&ekn^ 
W.'i<i, ur (itllici* lUcpcMitanua nf % limilarNs- 
tu.e. 3n nnjr Branch of LiterntlHT. HliCaiT, 
TofhMrraiihy, G^rrealr^sry^ or the iiJte^ and m 
whli^h Eie hn« had cunjidcrable aicp^rkner. 





KVTGnT & SQN^' II!ui«tratt>«J Catolorw* 
coutninici? Dejcri^i^tjrtn and Priw of t^ %H(t 
foriiij nrCixni«!r!ii sridfjiher Apjiftrttirs. Vc^^b^ 
land?r tintl StHi's Lensen ror tlorirafcs Kod 
Viewsi^ tofiethfr with the varWai Mittertali, 
an:] pure Chemical Pm)ara.Uiini rrf|uiTcd in 
practijjlniT the l*hnt{MrTftphi.e Art, Forwaided! 
free t^n ri^L^Eipt oftiSi: rostt^jE Stannpr^ 
liutmctiniit lEiven in evurir brAiicn of ttie Art- 
An efttfiislii-t! CtflltrlSun »f Sicrt^jpooipiic aad 
Other Ph0ij-rap!ii- S;.cc;x:xuZ^ 



X DION.-J.B. HOCKIN ft CO.. ChamiBls. 
289. Strand, have, bv an improved mode of 
Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodloa 
equal, they may say superior, in eensltiveBese 
and density of Negative, to any other hichetto 
published ; without diminishmg the keeping 
properties and appreciation of half-tint for 
which their manufacture has been retfcwHid. 

Apparatus, pure Claemicals, and all the re- 
quirements for the practice of Photosraphy. 
Instruction in the Art. 


HOCKIN. Price Is., per Pott, l«.S<i. 

Printed by Thomas CLAaa Sbaw, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. fi. New Street Square, In the Flarldft of 
Si, Bride, in the City of London ; and published by Gcoaos Bbli., of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Donstaa In th« W«et, fa the 
City of London, PohUdMr, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid,- Saturday, February 18. 18S4. 

L'lymz.t^u uy 




> "Wlien found, make a note oi;** 

-Caftain Cuttlb. 

No. 226.] 

Saturday, February 25. 1854. 

f Price Fourpence. 

I Stamped EdiUoa, S^ 


^om:— Page 

I^ezends and SnperttitioiM respectins 

Oxford Jen d'E>prit 
Ansarcyi in Mount Lebanon 
Frimen of the Reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, by the Rer. T. Latlibui 


- 169 


- 170 

JliNOR NoTu : — Objective and Sub- 
jective— Lucy Walters, the Duke of 
AConmouth'a Mother— General Hay- 
Dau*« ConMO — ** Isolated " _ Office 
of Sexton held by One Family — Sen- 
tentious Despatches — Keprintj sug- 
gested 170 

<iOBIlIBS : — 

Picture! from Lord Yane*s Collection - 171 
Burial-place of Thnntan, Archbishop 
of York, by George Fox - - 17t 

Minor Qvbriks : — Admiral Hopson 

— "Three cats sat," &c.— Herbert's 
*• Church Porch"— Ancient Tenure 
of lAnds— Dramatic Works— Devreux 
Bowly — **Corruptio optlmi." &c.— 
Lamenther— Sheriff of Somersetshire 
in 176ft— Edward Brerewood— Eliza- 
beth Seymour— Lonqf el low— Fresick 
find Freswick — Has Execution by 
llaneing been survived ? — Maps of 
JXiblin — " The Lounger's Common- 

flace Book *' — Mount Mill, and the 
ortiflcations of London —** Forms of 
Public Meetings" - - - 172 

Jf iNOR QoRRiss wrra Answers : ~ 
Queen Elizabeth and the Bins — 
Lives of English Bishops : Bishop 
Dumet— Eden Pedigree and Arms — 
The Gentleman's Calling — Obi and 
Sols — Fystens or Fifteenths - - 175 

'Bxpi.iies !— 

Hardman's Account of Waterloo - 176 

Dates of Births and Deaths of the Pre- 
tenders - - - - - 177 

•• Could we with ink," Ac, by J. W. 
Thomas - - - - - 179 

Mackey's Theory of the Earth, by J. 
Dawson, &c. - - - - 179 

Do Conjunctions join Propositions only ? 
by G.Boole - - - - 180 

■Bolert Bloet, by Edward Foes - - 181 

Pbotooraphtc Corrsspondrncr : — A 
Hint to the Photographic Society — 
Test for Nitrate of Sliver — Professor 
Hunt's Photographic Studies— Woxed- 

m Pictures — The Donble Iodide 
ion— Dr. Mansell's Process - 181 

24.rT.rE4 TO Mijfoa QcrEiiirfi : — Bnona- 
purtQ'B Abcl4c&LU>n ^ IJunon rainlljr 

— DrBlfiai-c by Mnciiinery — %'atto- 
CibHi and iLlalchiusli -r. " C>IIC W title J 
tlhink/' A:p. — " ii|iSrcs 'whl«e t(l^?Dt 
"jlnger iHnlnti to biHiiinMl ' ''* — Df- FllCR- 
E4tr Dutictiii — ^'MarTinpi? im biicN A 
TSlYiblc n>ut" ^ Cmrahriilne Matlrsj- 
malkfil Quohtluiiji- lii^fer^iblE; Hrj^ 
cnllne f^Ainn— Tke Man In tba 
Ifjotin — Anriiaf HlcfijiiT!., Kin; df tiie 
Bomans ^ llTOtKc" wttJi tht tama 
ChiUiU-a Nuinp_ Arch'prk^t La tlie 
mo«K of E^xeter^ ad. * - - 183 

](rscBi.xjLi«Bovs : — 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 187 
A' otiees to Correspondents - - 187 

Vol. IX.— No. 226. 

General and Special, as afforded at the 
H04J1^ of the DEPARTMENT of 
HOUSE, PaU MaU, London. The School 
consists of 



Art Superintendent : — 

The ^i^RlTi ti ■:, — :■' :■. -.v i 1 1 com m k xCE 
on i»: uTMAlit'U, y.u\\ ervd 3l9t iif Jul/ , and 
thi: l< t^ei ate for tliat nrrick], 

I. The Cou?2ief of initrucEjOfl are inttuded 
to i''ai]iArL nyjitrmatloilliy a hnawl'tMl^ of the 
8cii-iihj1c prin^riplei of Art. especially iti its 
relpiiirci t',1 tne Ui^ful purpotct of llfif. A 
limitis' mpplji'iti'iii nf tUa^ prindplcf i§ de- 
mt.iMtrnE? I ifjth ihevlcwDf nnppariTiEJ^njrtents 
to enter iifWin tin' fuEnre pnucucK of thi; J>tco- 

raiivf ArSii in MaTmfAciorie* and tVarkiHiops, 
Mii^itcrj, Ih-pfBt'e-rat ar »kfttetl work- 


aiTie tJ'ne, injitractJon H nffoi^led 

to : ' . . < y n I E!i,l Fie to purme ihc^e »tu liles 
wi- • I •■iici" to a pTV|3arat3oii fitr any 

sp( i;.. I'll of IndiiatO'. H[>retnt ro^irses 

art" LLiT'iiii^i'-ii: jii mitlBr iti tT>in pei'Mini ta be- 
Cor:rii.' >] iialcra of Brlioulf of A' t, mid to pniible 
Scli"ul]jiiiutt<'rt O' l^it n i4:]iial mml utti^r ^h!K>ls 
to tLMi^!i Bk'mttiCELry Druwhii; u i LiArt of 
geii'. riiL Education cuiicufrctitly wLlh WfiiLng. 
i. 'i'hu. Ijscturei anil t!>juriej i^f JustruuLion 
artJ iL* i'dUuws t — 


A. FiPce-liIir! d , *• 1 : ' . . ■ . ■ 1 r- men t:ilT Mccija- 

ntc^l !3j'Ewin(£^ I'ra.'tic'ni tSvotTL'Tfy JUid 
FempectSvc, I'nlutins In OiL Tttnfjiira, 
«ivl W&tifr O'lomn. Mud^^lMu:;. The 
Cta«^» i'nr Drnwlnnv Fiilntiiig, uud Mo- 
dutlFfiirJiiclucir thi^ i- Entire fhirn the An- 
tLiiuc KTkit the Life : uiid ArcUtk Ana- 
Unnv . 1 jMi; t nrvt, f ^iiclLimr Kttii Fmc t ice, 
j(i ihc MuniilEiit it'ifl Even in JE, Fife 4/. 

the BftuluM MeadMaittrt Mr,Burc]]<t ; 

AdiJifLitii9, Mtfi'Ti. lierniiiat WuJ;sh, 
(Jcttb>\ Wlllw, niid IInFi'icofilt. 

B. Th? Ei'^c-nJiiN; Intttru^tEim l» limited to od- 

vnneed rjtmwiiVT, Fiilnthijf. Hiitl Model- 
ling, ineJudluL" tbc f Lure. Fee ^h 


C. Practical Construction, including Architec- 

ture, Buildiuif, and the vari- us p<ocesMS 
of Plastic Decoration, Furniture, and 
Metal Working. Lectures, Teaching and 
Pra* tiee. Morning and Evening. Fee 4/. 
Evening Course only. Fee il. for Blaie 
Students only. Superintendent, Profes- 
sor Semper. 

D. Mechanical and Machine Drawing, Class 

Lectures with Evening Teaching and 
Morning Practice. For Male Students 
only. Fee 22. Superintendent, Mr. W. 

E. Surface Decoration, as applied to Woven 

Fabrics of all kinds. Lace, Paper Hfing- 
lngi,&c. Lectuiei), TcHching and Prac- 
tice, Morning and Evening. Fee 42 An 
Afternoon Class for Females only. Fee 
2/. An Evening Class for Male Stu- 
dents only. Fee 22. Superintendent, Mr. 
Octavius Hudson. 

F. Po c> lain Painting, daily Teaching and 

Practice fur Male and Fe ale Students, 
Fee 4 . Sup. rintendentri, Mr. Simpson 
and Mr. Uudsuu. 

Q. Wood EngraTing. Leetnree, dafly Teach- 
inff and Practice for Female Studentv 
only, lee 42. Superintendents, Mr. 
Thompson and Miss Waterhouse. 

H. Lithography, Chalk, Pen, and Colonr. 
Daily Teaching and Practice for Female 
Students only. Fee 42. Superintendents, 
Mr. Brookes and Miss Channon. 


On the Forms and Colours of the Animal and 
VegcUble Kingdoms, by Profes«>r E. Forbes • 
on the Human Form, by Mr. J. Marshalll 
?.?-9-^^,' ?5 »*»« History of OmamenUl 
Art, by Mr. Womnm, tte, Arimfa g^ ^yn to eadi 
Lecture, 6d. ^^ 

S, TliB Initrriction fir the general Studonti 
Is ca r r Eed oti dai ly , t xc«irt cin Snturday*. 

4. StiuEtiiti tnnj iTiatririilttt fur a period of 
thit?j' year* ti|M>ti jnytn; Sn/, in nne wum mt *d- 
Im En-ir. fir thfec litiiiunl pn r mtTi t* gif 10/, 'Th^y 
mtv L-nittleil tu Httcud ah thr P^MJc mmd CioMt 
Let'Eurci^ the neiicral askd Uiclinlctl C-ounea.tu 
reeiL J ve pcnooal lojiruietiun, ftod £a practice in 
thi- >^''?]o»l at all tlnici ; tliejr liate aUo maxst 
to 1 1 > L- M men m and Llbtar)'. At itp end of iJus 
Se-^'^inii they may jmis nu ExAiiiii].ationt AJid 
hnw iht priTiF(rj:c c?if comiivting fur flchoUr- 
shh'.^. vuurj'inj^fTcvm lot tu »»f. a year In value^ 

li. ' .iii:t].t,l<]nal !^i[]4l«:Qt9. are At liberty to at- 
teiiii ■ ijily tiw iiaTticulBT Coursen fur wLit:h Uvey^ 
enCvT. niid hnvc juJni^ssiuii to the Miisuu£u,4 Lt^ 
brarv . iMid FEibllc IjMt urta. 

f, \ Vf.Ki^S rim SClTOOT^MASTER3 
ANii m I IL THACllF.IIS will lne*.| mr^^tr 
Wii.rjv*^Liiy tiTvd ^■^idFlJ■^ 'I'^i'Sidfiy and Thuri- 
da •. 1 - J- ^,',fs^i, ft|]d tjii S^aiu rdAjrs. Ttc, %tt 
Su ' : ; ' t bf thtr TmiiaiTk^ teaching, and 
El r'titructldn^ Mr., Burchct ; As« 

sis- -^lef, 

LtuQse, KeuiiDgton, onMsaday 
anil T ■lii-.'-liij-. 

7. A Itv^fUttrrirtheStTideiiti' itttvndMiiD» >■ 
keirt, iin.^1 iriftjf t* canmUtd by Pan:pt« acw-l 

Sl'l'r>!JN"r.-^ imjuiinir tlirtiti»:li tlip (JeTkirrlX 
Co 1 1 ist- , i ^ aT n? . < irt wer S I n.'<t, Sliiie riDtcntli^n r, 
M - \i'|.iii:i A'-ri^^iiht. Vii-N^GAUD and Mb^ 

Fees : — Advanced Classes, 27. and 42. t £Ie> 
mentary Class, 20s. ; Evening Class, I0». 

A Class also meets at Gore House, Kenslngo 
ton, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. 

nexion with the Department, are now esta- 
blished in the following places. Open every 
EveningCexcept Saturday; firom 7 to 9*30. En- 
trance Tee, 2s. Admission, is. and Si. per 
month. The instmetion comprises Practical 
Geometry and Perspective, Free-hand and Me- 
chanical Drawing, and Jillementary Colour : — 

h ?E!EMlflcS<f(«, rrientii street, 

t. >,oTi[i Luisdcni Huh fltrret, Cumdaa 

,*!. Fiiinburyt WllUani StrfCtt Wilinle«ii3ll 
S<]U[i rO. 

4, ^'ii'iJitniJiuicr, Mccbfiiilca' Imtltute, OT^at 
Sn.iLti StrCL't. 

Ur Jit, ThyiTifn, ChBrtcrhoH"*, Qcmwell SItotU 

♦>. UoittierliitliatOrMniniiT ^trool. 

y, St* M*rtiira-i&-iJi^-Fli;M«» LuDg Acre. 

At 1. and 2. Schools there are Female Clasaef . 
Application for admission to be made at the 
Offices in each locality. 

For farther information, apply at Marlbo« 
rough House, Pall Mall. 

HENRY COLE, \ Joint 
LYON PLAYFAIR,; Scorttariei. 
L7iyiiiz.t;u uy '^^^^^ •^^^ '\_/^;x e^.^ 



[No. 226. 


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The Vicar of Morwenstow, among the beautiful 
poems to be found in his Echoes from Old Com- 
wallf has one entitled **A Legend of the Hive :** it 
commences — 

** Behold those winged images ! 

Bound for their evening bowers ; 
They are the nation of the bees, 

Born from the breath of flowers : 
Strange people are they ; a mystic race 
In life, and food, and dwelling-place i" 

As another poet has sung : 

' *< His quidam signis, atque haec exempla secutx. 

Esse Apibus partem Divinm mentis et haustus 
^therios diiere.*' 

Mr. Hawker's Legend is to this effect : A Cornish 
woman, one summer, finding her bees refused to 
leave their ** cloistered home," and " ceased to 
play around the cottage flowers," concealed a 
portion of the Holy Eucharist which she dbtained 
at church : 

*• She bore it to her distant liom^ 
She laid it by the hive 
To lure the wanderers forth to roamn, 
That so her store might tbriye ; — 
*Twa8 a wild wish, a thought unblest. 
Some evil legend of the West. 
«« But lo ! at morning-tide'a sign. 
For wondering eyes to trace. 
They found above that Bread, a shrine 

Rear*d by the harmless race ! 
They brought their walls from bud and flower, 
They built bright roof and beamy tower ! 
** Was it a dream ? or did they hear 
Float from those golden cells 
A sound, as of some psaltery near. 

Or soft and silvery bells ? 
A low sweet psalm, that griev'd within 
In mournful memory of ^e sin 1'* 

The following passage from Howell's Parley of 
BecutSy Lond. 1660, furnishes a similar legend of 
the piety of bees. Bee speaks : 

** Know, Sir, that we have also a religion as well as 
so exact a government among us here ; our hummings 
you speak of are as so many hymns to the Great God 
of l>7ature ; and ther is a miraculous example in Cmsa- 
rius Cistemiensis, how som of the Holy Eucharist 
being let fall in a medow by a priest, as he was re- 
turning from visiting a sick body, a swarm of bees 
being hard by took It up, and in a solemn kind of 
procession carried It to their hive, and there erected 
an altar of the purest wax for It, where It was found 
in tbat form, and untouched." — P. 144. 

Jt is remarkable that, in the Septuaffint version 
of X^ov. vi. 8., the bee is introduced after the ant, 

and reference is made to r^v ipyaalav &s ctiAv^iv 
iroturou I ipyas. cr^u. St. Ambrose translates it ope^ 
raiionem venerabilem ; St. Jerome, opus castwn ; 
Castalio, avgustum opus; Bochart prefers opus 
pretiosumy out mirdbUe,* 

Pliny has much to say about bees. I skall give 
an extract or two in the Old English of Philemon 
HoUand : 

" Bees naturally are many times sick ; and that do 
they shew most evidently : a man shall see it in them 
by their heavie looks and by their unlustines to their 
businesse : ye shall marke how some will bring forth 
others that be sicke and diseased into the warme sunne, 
and be readie to minister unto them and give them 
meat. Nay, ye shall have them to carie forth their ' 
dead, and to accompanie the corps full decently, as in a 
solemne fiinerall. If it cbaunce that the king be dead 
of some pestilent maladie, the commons and subjects 
mourne, take thought, and grieve with heavie cheere 
and sad countenance : idle they be, and take no joy ta 
do any thing : they gather in no provision : they march 
not forth : onely with a certain doleful humming they 
gath^ round about bis corps, and will not away. 

*^Then requisite it is and necessarie to sever and 
part the multitude, and so to take away the bodie from 
them : otherwise they would keepe a looking at the 
breathlesse carcasse, and never go from it, but still 
mone and mourne without end. And even then als» • 
they had need be cherished and comforted with good 
victuals, otherwise they would pine away and die with 
hunger.** — Lib. xi. cap. xviii. 

" We bury our dead with great solemnity ; at the* 
king's death there is a generall mourning and fasting, 
with a cessation from labour, and we use to go about 
his body with a sad murmur for many dales. When 
we arc sick we have attendants appointed us, and the 
symptoms when we be sick are infallible, according ta 
the honest, plain poet : 

* If bees be sick (for all that live must die). 
That may be known by signes most certainly ; 
Their bodies are discoloured, and their face 
Looks wan, which shows that death comes on apace* . 
They carry forth their dead, and do lament. 
Hanging o' th' dore, or in their hives are pent.' ** 

HimeU, p. 1S8. 

Of bees especially the proverb holds good, that 
** Truth is stranger than fiction.** The (Hscoveriea 
of Huber, Swammerdam, Reaumur, Latreille, 
Bonnet, and other moderns, read mare Hke a 
fairy-tale than anything else, and yet the subject 
is far from being exhausted. At the same time 
modem naturalists have substantiated the accu- 
racy of the ancients in many statements which 
were considered ridiculous fi^les. The ancients 

* The bee is praised for her pious labours in the 
oflSces of the Roman Church, **as the unconscious 
contributor of the substance of her paschal light.** 
** Alitur eiiim liquantibus ceris, quas in substantiam 
prctiosie hujus lampadis Mater Apis eduxit." -— Office 
of Hdy Saturday, l> ,y , ,,^^,j uy ^^^ %^ -c i v! 



[No. 226. 

anticipated us so far as even to have used glass 
hiveSj for the purpose of observing the wonderful 
proceedings of this winged nation. Bochart, 
quoting an old writer, says : 

** Fecit ill is Aristoteles Alveare Viireum, ut intro- 
spiceret, qua ratione ad opus te accingerent. Sed ab- 
nuerunt quidquam operari, donee interiora vitri luto 
oblevisset.** — Hierozoicon, Load. 1663, folio. Part u. 
p. 514. 



The following jeu (Tesprit appeared at Oxford 
in 1819: printed, not published, but laid simul- 
taneously on the tables of all the Common Rooms. 
No author's name was attached to it then, and 
therefore no attempt is now made to supply this 
deficiency by conjecture. Since the attention of 
the discerning; public has lately ^been directed 
towards the University of Oxford, probably with 
. the expectation of finding some faults in Jier 
system of education, it is possible that some of 
those who are engaged or interested in that in- 
quiry may be amused and instructed by the 
good sense, humour, logic, and Latinity of this 


** Acerrimis vestrum omnium judiciis permittitur 
conspectus, sive syllabus, libri breviter edendi, et e 
Frelo Acadcmico, si Dlis, t. e. Delegatis, placet, pro- 
dituri: in quo rauUa dictu et notatu dignissima a 
tenebris et tineis vindicantur ; multa ad hujusce loci 
instituta et disciplinam pertinentia agitantur ; plurima 
quae Acadenrii^e famam et dignitate:n spectant fuse 
admodum et libere tractantur et explicantur. Sub- 
jiciuntur operis illustrandi ergo capitum quorundam 

* *£«e Aths ipxcifi^cOa,* 

1. ^Ifredi magni somnium de Sociis omnibus Aca- 
demicis ad Episcopatum promovendls : 

* With suppliant smiles they bend the head, 

• While distant mitres to their eyes are spread.' 


Opus egreglum perutilc perjucundum ex membranis 
vetustissimis detritis tertlum rescriptis, solertid plus 
quam Angelo-Maiana, nuperrime rcdintegratum. 

2. Devorguillce, Balliolensibus semper carissimae, 
pudicitia laborans vindicatur. 

3. Contra Kilnerum et Mertonenses disputatur, 
Pythagoram Cantabrigian nunquam docuisse : 

* At1iai9aXjj.4voi if^Fi/SeVt ttoikIKoi? 
'E^oiraTeSvTi ftvOot,* — Find, 

4. Wiccamici publicis examinationibus Uberi, sibi et 
rcipublicae nocentes. 

5. Magdalenenses semper sdificaturientcs nihil 
agunt : 

« Implentur vcteris Bacchi.' — Virff, 

6. Orielenstbus, ingenio, ut ipsi aiunt, exundantibus, 
Aula B. M. V. malevolc denegatur : 

* Barbara Celarent Darii.* — Ars Logiea, 

7. De reditibus annuls Decani et Canonicornm 
iBdis Christi, sive de libris Canonicis. 

8. Quasstiones duae : An Alumni ^dis Christi JKre 
fiant Canonic! ? An Alumni ^dis Christi re-veri 
fiant Canonici? 

9. Respondetur serenissimae Archiducissae de Ol- 
denburg quaerenti : 

< What do the Fellows of AU-Souls do ? ' 

10. E Collegio ^nei Nasi Icgati Stamfordiam 
missi Nasum ilium celeberrimum, Collegii iwtirvfiof^ 
solemni pomp& Oxoniam asportant. 

] 1. Nummt ad ornandam fociem occidentalem Col- 
legii Lincolniensis erogati unde comparati fuerint ? 

... * Lucri bonus est odor ex re 
Qualibet.* — Juv, 

1 2. Sote. •— The original heading of tbis chapter 
was altered in a later edition, and therefore is not re- 
printed here. 

13. £x Societatibus casteris ejectos Aula S. Albani 
pessimo exemplo ad se recipit : 

* Facilis descensus Averni.' — Virg, 

14. De Golgotha et de Golgothitis. 

1 5. Praslectores an Praelectiones numero sint plures. 

16. Viro venerabili S. T. P. R. praclegente pecuaia 
a clientibus sordide admodum exigitur. 

17. Magistri in Venerabili domo Convocationis 
nccessario adsistentes more Attico rh rpuo€o\op reci* 
pcre de1>ent. 

18. De Academicorum in Venerabili domo Convo- 
cationis sedentium podicibus igneo quodam vapore 
calefaciendis : 

* Placetne vobis Magistri?* — 6 id Ftce-Ctm.^ 

19. De viris clarissimis Bibliothecae Bodleianae Cu- 

< Scene II. — Enter Quince the Carpenter, Snug 
the Joiner, Bottom the Weaver, Flute the 
Bellows-mender, Snout the Tinker, and Starve^ 
ling the Tailor. 

Quince, Is all our company complete ? * 


20. De matulis in Bibliothec^ studentibus copiosius 
suppeditandis : 

• *A/tdf yi^p fiv ottp-nrtdffiis airii' 
Hapd ffoi KptfiiiatTu iyy^f ^^ "^ov vdrraXovJ 


21. De Bibliothecario et ejus adjutoribus. 

' Captain. What are you about, Dick ? 
Dick, Nothing, Sir. 

Captain, Thomas, what are you doing? 
Thomas, Helping Dick, Sir.* 

22. Examinantur Examinatores.* 

23. Cuinam eo